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Full text of "The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology"





COLLECTION 

OF 

William Schaus 

© 

PRESENTED 
TO THE 

National Museum 

MCMV 



:v -Mt ■ ■ ■ A -apwfy 



:.f 



^' 



/ 



THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY, 



INCLUDING 



ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, and GEOLOGY. 



(nErNG A CONTINUATION OP Tllli 'ANNALS ' COMBINED WITH LOUDON AND 
CHARLKSWOUTIl's ' MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY.') 



CONDUCTED BY 

WILLIAM CARRUTHERS, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 
ARTHUR E. SHIPLEY, M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S., F.Z.S., 

AND 

WILLIAM FRANCIS, F.L.S. 



VOL. X.— EIGHTH SERIES. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS. 

SOLD BY SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT, AND CO., LD. ; 

BAILLIERE, PARIS : HODGES, FIGGIS, AND CO., DUBLIN : 

AND ASHER, BERLIN. 

1912. 



"Omnes res creatse sunt divinse sapientise et potential testes, divitise felicitatis 
humanse : — ex barum usu bonitas Creatoris ; ex pulchritudine sapientia Domini ; 
ex ceconomia in conservatione, proportione, renovatione, iwtentia niajestatis 
elucet. Earuni itaque indagatio ab boniinibus sibi relictis semper restiniata ; 
a. vere eruditis et sapientibus seinjjer exculta; male doctis et barbaris semper 
inimica fuit." — Linn^us. 

" Quel que soit le principe de la vie animale, il ne faut qu'ouvrir les yeux pour 
voir qu'elle est le ebef-d'ceuvre de la Toute-puissance, et le but auquel se rappor- 
tent toutes ses operations." — Bruckneu, Theorie du Systeme Animal, Leyden, 
1767. 

Tbe sylvan powers 

Obey our summons ; from tbeir deepest dells 

The Dryads come, and throw their garlands wild 

And odorous branches at our feet ; the Nymphs 

That press with nimble step the mountain-thyme 

And purple heath-flower come not empty-handed, 

But scatter round ten thousand forms minute 

Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock 

Or rifted oak or cavern deep : the Naiads too 

Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face 

They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush 

That drinks the rippling tide : the frozen poles, 

Where peril waits the bold adventurer's tread, 

The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, 

All, all to us unlock their secret stores 

And pay their cheerful tribute. 

J. Taylor, Norwich, 1818. 




CONTENTS OF VOL. X. 

[EIGHTH SERIES.] 



NUMBER 55. 

Page 

I. Descriptions of new Species of Pyralidce of the Subfamily 
Pyraustince. By Sir George F. Hampson, Bart., F.Z.S., &c 1 

II. Descriptions and Records of Bees, — XLV. By T. D. A. 
CocKERELL, University of Colorado 21 

III. Preliminary Descriptions of Eleven new Crinoids belonging 
to the Families Hiweronu'tridce, Mariametridce, and Colobometridce, 
discovered bv the ' Siboga' in the Dutch East Indies. By Austin 

H. Clark \ 31 

IV. Mammals from the Ja River, Camerouns. By Oldfield 
Thomas 41 

V. Small Mammals from South America. By Oldfield Thomas. 44 

VI. Notes on Fossorial Hvmenoptera. — XI. By Rowland 

E. Turner, F.Z.S., F.E.S. . . ." 48 

VII. Descriptions of new Harvest-men of the Family Phalango- 
didce. By Stanley Hirst. (Plate I.) 63 

\'III. Hersilia {Clatisidium) vancouverensis. By Kathleen 
Haddon. (Plate 11.) 84 

IX. Descriptions of Ethiopian Rhynchota (Heteroptera). By 
W, L. Distant 87 

X. A Discussion of the General Classification of the Pelecypoda. 
By M. Colley March, M.Sc, Geological Department, Manchester 
University. (Plate HI.) 91 

XI. Notes from the Gatty Mai'ine Laboratory, St. Andrews. — 
No. XXXIII. By Prof. M'Intosh, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., &c. 
(Plates IV. & V.) 117 

XII. A new Elephant Shrew from the Island of Zanzibar. By 
Guy Dollman 130 



iv CONTENTS. 

Pago 

XIII. On a new Palm-Civet from Timor. By Ernst ScnwARz. ]31 

XIV. On a Terrestrial Amphipod from Kew Gardens. By W. T. 
Calman, D.Sc 132 

XV. Descriptions of Three new African CicWid Fislies of tiie 
Genus Tilapia, preserved in the British Museum. By G. A. 
BOULENGER, F.R.S 138 

XVI. Descriptions of new African Batrachians preserved in the 
British Museum. By G. A. Boulenger, F.K.S 140 

XVII. A Revision of the Asilidce of Australasia. By Gertrude 
RiCARDO 142 

Neiv Books: — A Revision of the Ichneumonidce, based on the 
Collection in the British Museum (Natural History), with 
Descriptions of new Genera and Species. Part I. Tribes 
Ophionides and Metopiides. By Claude Morley, F.Z.S., 
F.E.S. — Records of the Indian Museum. (A Journal of Indian 
Zoology.) Vol. iv. no. x. Annotated Catalogue of Oriental 
Culicidce. Supplement. By E. Brunetti ] 60, 161 

Proceedings of the Geological Society 161, 162 

Editorial Note 164 



NUMBER 56. 

XVIII. Report on the Annelida Polychaeta collected in the North 
Sea and adjacent parts by the Scotch Fishery Board Vessel 
' Goldseeker.'- — Parti. Amphhiotnidce to SigalionidtB. By William 
Small, M.A., B.Sc, Gatty Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews. 
(Plate VI.) 165 

XIX. Descriptions of new Batrachians from the Andes of South 
America, preserved in the British Museum. By G. A. Boulenger, 
r.R.S 185 

XX. New or little-known Ethiopian Hemiptera. By E. Ber- 

GROTH, C.M.Z.S 191 

XXI. Lyqutorrhina ttrichi, a new Mvcetophilid from Trinidad. 

By F. W. Edwards, B.A., F.E.S ' 203 

XXII. A new Vespertilionine Bat from Angola. By Oldfikld 
Thomas 204 

XXIII. On a Species of Nymphon from the North Pacific. By 
Flora M. Scott, M.A., University College, Dundee. (Plate VII.) 206 

XXIV. A Revision of the South-American Siluroid Fishes of the 
Genus Corydorus, with a List of the Specimens in the British 
Museum (Natural History). By C. Tate Regan, M. A 209 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 

XXV. Some Considerations in regard to tlie Classification of the 
Order Tliysanoptera. By Richard S. Bagnall, F.L.S., F.E.S., 
Hope Department of Zoology, University Museum, Oxford 220 

XXVI. Entomological Notes from the Loudon School of Tropical 
Medicine. — No. IV. Blood-sucking Uiptera from Port Darwin, 
Australia. By Sophia L. M. Summers, M.A., B.Sc, Carnegie 
Student of Aberdeen University 222 

XXVII. Two new Species of Nasua. By Oldfield Thomas . . 228 

XXVIII. Description of a new Desert-Lark from the Centi-al 
Western Sahara. By Ebnst HARTERr 23Q, 

XXIX. New Species of Ileterocera from Costa Rica. — XVII. 

By W. ScHAUs, F.Z.S 2.31 

XXX. A new Species of Tah(mus from German E.ist Africa, in 

the British Museum (Natural History). By Ernest E. Austen . . 240 

XXXI. On a new Species of Oliyoneuria {Ephemerida) from 
British East Africa. By Rev. A. E. Eaton 243 

XXXII. Some new Species of Ipiclce and Platypodidce in the 
British Museum. By Lt.-Col. Winn Sampson, E.E.S 245 

XXXIII. On new Species of llisteridce and Notices of others. 

By G. Lewis, E.L.S 250 

XXXIV. Notes on Guiana Birds. By Lord Brabourne, F.Z.S., 
IVI.B.O.U., and Charles Chubb, F.Z.S. , M.B.O.U., Zoological 
Department, British Museum 261 

XXXV. Description of a new Cichlid Fish from the Lower 
Niger. By G. A. Boulenger, F.Z.S 263 

New Book : — Memoirs of tlie Department of Agriculture in India. 
Entomological Series. Vol. IV. No. 1. Eri Silk. By H. 
Maxwell-Leproy and C. C. Ghosh, Agricultural Research 
Institute, Pusa ib. 

A Review of South-Afi-ican L md-MoUusca belonging to the Family 
Zonitidcc, by Lt.-Col. H. H. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S. &c. ; 
Errata in Dr. Arnbiick-Christie-Liude's paper in the ' Annals ' 
for June 1912 264 

NUMBER 57. 

XXXVI. The Classification of the Blenuioid Fishes. By C. Tate 
Regan, M.A 265 

XXXVII. Two new West-African Mammals. By Oldfield 
Thomas 280 

XXXVIII. Self-evisceration in the Asteroidea. By Nathaniel 
Colgan, M.R.LA 282 

XXXIX. New Species of Heterocera from Costa Rica. — XVII. 

By W. Schaus, F.Z.S 286 



Yl CONTENTS. 

Pag© 
XL. Descriptions and Eecords of Bees. — XLVI. By T. D. A. 
CocKERELL, tlniversity of Colorado 311 

XLI. Three new Species of Neotropical Coccinellidce. By GtJY 
A. K. Marshall 320 

XLII. Description of Two new Eels from West Africa, belonging 
to a new Genus and Family. By C. Tate Began, M.A 323 

XLIII. Notes on Malay Tigers, with Description of a new Form 
from Bali. By Ernst Schwarz 324 

XLIV. Descriptions of some new Burmese Species of Ruteline 
Ooleoptera belonging to the Genus Anomala. By Gilbert J. 
Arrow 327 

XLV. On the Stromatoporoids and Eozoon. By R. Kirkpatbick. 
(Plates VIII. & IX.) 341 

XLVI. The Anatomy and Classification of the Teleostoan Fishes 
of the Order Lyomeri, By C. Tate Regan, M.A 347 

XLVII. A Revision of the Asilidce of Australasia. By Gertrude 
Ricabdo 3-50 

NUMBER 58. 

XLVIII. Notes on Fossorial Hymenoptera. — X. By Rowland 
E. Turner, F.Z.S., F.E.S 361 

XLIX. The Osteology and Classification of the Teleostean Fishes 
of the Order Apodes. By C. Tate Regan, M.A 377 

L. A Revision of the South-American Characid Fishes of the 
Genera Chalceus, Pyrrhnlina, Cojyeina, and Pogonocharax. By 
C. Tate Regan, ISI.A 387 

LI. On a Collection of Small Mammals from the Tsin-ling 
Mountains, Central China, presented by Mr. G. Feuwick Owen to 
the National Museum. By Oldpield Thomas 395 

LII. New Bats and Rodents from S. America. By Oldfield 
Thomas "■ 403 

LIII. New Laud and Freshwater Shells collected by Dr. J, 
Elbert in the Malay Archipelago. By Dr. F. Haas, Frankf urt-a.-M. 412 

LIV. Descriptions of new Reptiles from the Andes of South 
America preserved in the British Museum. By G. A. Boulenger, 
F.R.S 420 

LV. A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Fauna of Bromeli- 
acecB. By Hugh Scott, M.A. (Cantab.), F.L.S., F.E.S. , Curator in 
Entomology in the University of Cambridge. Including Descriptions 
of new Insects by W. L. Distant, F.E.S., and the late R. Shel- 
FOBD, M.A., F.L.S. (Plate X.) 424 

LVI. Descriptions of some new Homoptera. By W. L. Distant. 438 

LVII. On the Structure of Stromatoporoids and of Uozooti. By 
R. Kirkpatbick. (Plates XL & XII.) '. 446 

New Book : — Recent Foreign and Colonial Natural History 

Periodicals 460 



CONTENTS. Vll 

NUMBER 59. 

Page 

LVIII. Notes on the Apides (Hymenoptera) in the Collection of 
the British Museum, with Descriptions of new Species. By 
Gkoffrey Meade- Waldo, M.A 461 

LIX. Observations on living Gorjronias (Gorrjonia vemicosa) 
occurrino- in the English Channel. liy J. Stuart Thomson, Ph.D., 
F.L.S., F.R.S.E., Lecturer and Senior Demonstrator in Zoology, 
Victoria University of Manchester 479 

LX. Descriptions and Records of Bees.— XLVIl. By T. D. A. 
CocKEKELL, University of Colorado 484- 

LXl. A Revision of the Pceciliid Fishes of the Genera Rivulus, 
Pterolebias, and Cynolebias. By C. Tate Regan, M.A 494 

LXII. New Species of Heteroceva from Costa Rica. — XVIII. 
By W. ScHAUS, F.Z.S 5U9 

LXIII. Notes on Fossorial Hymenoptera. — XI. Bv Rowland 
E. Turner, F.Z.S., F.E.S '. \ 63.S 

LXIV. Brief Diagnoses of Eight new Petnlia, with a List of the 
known forms of the Genus. By Knud Andersen 546 

LXV. On Specimens of Cephalodisaits nigrescens supposed to have 
been dredged in 1841 or 1842. By W. G. Ridewood 550 

Netc Books : — Recent Foreign and Colonial Natural History 
Periodicals. — Records of the Western Australian Museum and 
Art Gallery. Edited by the Director, Bernard H. Wood- 
ward. Vol. I. Part 2. — Distribution and Origin of Life in 
America. By Robert Francis Scharff, Ph.D., B.Sc. 55-5, 556 



NUMBER 60. 

LXVI. Descriptions of new Species of PyralidcB of the Subfamily 
Pyraustmce. By Sir George F. Hampson, Bart., F.Z.S., &c 657 

LXVU. On some Reptilian Lower Jaws. By D. M. S. Watson, 
M.Sc 573 

LXVHL Two new Races of Mongoose. By Oldfield Thomas. 588 

LXIX. On new Mammals from the Islands of the Johore Archi- 
pelago, South China Sea. By Herbert C. Robinson, C.M.Z.S. , . 689 

LXX. Eight new Fishes from Baluchistan. By Dr. Erich 
Zugmayer, of the Zoological Museum, Munich 595 

LXXI. Apherusa jurinei (M.-Edw.). By Alfred 0. Walker, 
F.L.S., F.Z.S ; 600 

LXXII. Descriptions of Two new Fishes from the Nile System. 
By G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S 601 

LXXIII. Rhynchotal Notes. By W. L. Distant 602 



VI 11 CONTEXTS. 

Page 
LXXIV. Descriptions of new African Agaristldcs in the British 
Mu3eum. Bj Sir George F. Hampson, Bart 609 

LXXV. Two new Mongooses from Somaliland. By R. E. Drake- 
Brockman, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.Z.S 612 

LXXVI. On the Development of the Pectoral Girdle in the 
Pipefish {Syngnathus actis). By T. P. Buist, JNI.A., B.Sc, Gatty 
Marine Laboratory, University of St. Andrews. (Plate XIII.) .... G13 

LXXVII. Notes on some New Zealand Pselaphidce in the British 
Museum, with Descriptions of new Species of the Genus Sagola. By 
Major T. Broun, F.E.S 621 

LXXVIII. The Anatomy and Classification of the Teleostean 
Fishes of the Order Discocephali. By 0. Tate Regan, M.A 634 

LXXIX. The Canstiides, a Family of Bervcomorphous Fishes. 
By 0. Tate Regan, M.A .' 637 

LXXX. New Centronycteris and Ctenomys from S. America. By 
Oldfield Thomas 638 

LXXXI. A new C?/no^<erMs from Borneo. By Knud Andersen. 640 

LXXXII. vSexnal Differences in the Poeciliid Fishes of the Genus 
CynoUbias. By C. Tate Regan, M.A 641 

Index 643 



PLATES LN VOL. X. 



Plate L New Harvest-men of the family Phalangodidse. 

II. Ilersilia (Clausidium) vaucouverensis, K. Haddo7i. 

III, Classification of the Pelecypoda. 

IV. White Porpoise. 

V. Eteone depressa and Dasybranchus caducus. 

VI. Annelida Polychaeta from the North Sea. 

VII. Nymphon pixellte, F. M. Scott. 

' > Stromatoporoids and Eozoou. 

X. Fauna of Bromeliacese. 
■ [ Stromatoporoids and Eozoon. 
XIII. Pectoral girdle in the Pipefish. 



Vol. 10. 



EIGHTH SBRIBS. 



No. 55. 

n 



THE ANNALS 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY, 

INCLUDINa 

ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, and GEOLOGY. 







COin>UCTBD BI 



WILLIAM CARRUTHERS, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 
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AND 

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THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATPRAL HISTORY 

[RIQHTH SERIES.] 



" perlitoraspargite museum, 

Nniadt'S, et circiun vitreos considite fontes : 
Vollice virfjineo tcneros h'lc carpite floros: 
Floribus et pictura. dirse. replefe canistrum. 
At voa, o Nymphse Craterides, ite sub undaa ; 
Ite, recurvato variata corallia trunco 
Vcllite mus(?09is e rupiljus, ft railii conchas 
Ferte, De* pelagi, et pingui conchylia sueoo." 

If.Parfhenii. Giaiinetlasi, Eel. l„ 



No. 55. JULY 1912. 



I. — Descriptions of new Species of Pyralidae of the SubfamiJy 
Pyraustinae. By Sir George F. Hampson, Bart., F.Z.S. 
&c. 

[Coutiimed from vol. ix. p. 633.] 

(4 a) Goniorhynchus lasyguialis, sp. n. 

Fore tibia? of male tufted with long liair on inner side_, the 
first joint of tarsus curved and fringed with long hair on 
inner side ; fore wing with slight depressed grooves in cell. 

(^ . Read, thorax, and abdomen reddish brown ; pectus, 
base of legs, and ventral surface of abdomen whitish. Fore 
wing glossy ocbreous brown suffused with fuscous ; traces of 
a dark antemedial line ; an obscure dark discoidal spot ; 
postmedial line dark, ratlier strongly dentate, excurved from 
costa to vein 4, then oblique ; a terminal series of black 
points; cilia greyish ochreous at base followed hy.a,-^ne 
dark line. Hind wing brown with a cupreQuiJj6|^-* a ter- 
minal series of black points ; cilia greyisli^^i^ms at base 
followed by a dark line ; the underside greyer, an obs^^ure 
discoidal spot and indistinct maculate postmedial line defined 
by greyisb on outer side. 

Hub. Paraguay, Sapucay (Fo^/er), 1 cJ type. £'.r/;. 28 mm 
Ann. (& Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. x. 1 



2 fSir G. F. Ilampson on neio 

{7 a) Goniorhynclms octosema, sp. n. 

(J . Head and tliorax yellow ; palpi black, white at base ; 
lower part of frons black ; shoulders with brown stripes ; 
tibire with blackish bands at extremities ; abdomen yellow, 
a black band on third segment, the terminal segments tinged 
with red-brown, the anal tuft black above and with a black 
bar before it below. Fore wing golden yellow ; the costal 
area black-brown from near base to end of cell, expanding 
into a triangular antemedial patch, a small round spot iu 
upper part of middle of cell and confluent with a figure-of- 
eight-shaped discoidal patch, its centre slightly tinged with 
grey ; antemedial line fine, brown, from cell to inner margin; 
postmedial line brown, excurved below costa and between 
veins 5 and 2, then retracted to below the discoidal patch 
and sinuous to inner margin ; a terminal black-brown line 
expanding somewhat at apex ; cilia black-brown with a fine 
pale line at base. Hind wing golden yellow ; a brown dis- 
coidal point ; postmedial line brown, bent outwards between 
veins 5 and 2, tlien retracted to below end of cell and oblique 
to above tornus ; a terminal black-brown line except towards 
tornus; cilia black-brown with fine white lines at base and 
middle. 

Hab. Singapore (Ridletj), I (J type. Ej:p. 22 mm. 

(7 b) Goniorhynclms marginaUs, sp. n. 

? . Head and thorax yellowish tinged with brown ; palpi 
black-brown, white at base ; frons and antennse black- 
brown ; fore tibiae black-brown ; abdomen yellowish white 
with pair of dorsal brown points on second segment. Fore 
wing pale yellow, the costal area suffused with brown, the 
terminal area deep cupreous brown, widening towards costa ; 
a small brown spot at middle of cell conjoined to the costal 
area and with a faint line from it to inner margin ; a trian- 
gular blown discoidal patch conjoined to the costal area ; 
postmedial line indistinct, nearly straight from costa to 
vein 2, then retracted to just below angle of cell and erect to 
inner margin. Hind wing pale yellow ; a slight discoidal 
point ; postmedial line indistinct, excurved between veins 5 
and 2 ; a terminal cupreous-brown band narrowing to a 
point at tornus. 

Hab. Peru, La Merced {Watkins &; Tomlinsoyi), 1 ? type. 
Exp. 24 mm. 

(1 a) Piletosoma holoplKEolis, sp. n. 
AntennaR of male thickened by a ridge of scales at base ; 



Sjjecies of PyraliJa). ;> 

liind tibipe fringed with very long hair above, with a tuft of 
long hair from base below followed by a thick fringe of hair, 
the medial spurs absent, the terminal outer spur very long, 
the first joint of tarsus fiiuged with very long hair below. 

Head, tliorax, and abdomen dark brown ; pectus and base 
of legs whitish ; ventral surface of abdomen white, fuscous 
towards extremity, the anal tuft and claspers Avhite below, 
genital tufts ochreous white. Wings uniform dark brown 
tinged with purplish, a slight pale line at base of cilia. 

Hab. SfNGAPORE {Ridle>/), 1 (J , 1 ? type; Borneo, 
Sandakan (Pryer), 2 ? . J'Jxp. 28 mm. 

(3 a) Botyodes hrachytorna, sp. n. 

Hind wing of male with the termen indented at submedian 
fold, the torual area contorted and thickly clothed with rough 
hair above and below. 

$ . Head and thorax orange-yellow ; pnlpiwith black points 
at sides of joints ; antennse ringed with black towards base ; 
tegulje, shoulders, and patagia with black spots ; fore coxae 
with black spots^ tl>e femora and tibiae at extremities with 
black bands, the fore tarsi ringed with black ; abdomen 
yellow, the second segment with subdorsal black spots, the 
terminal segments with silvery rings and the anal tuft silvery, 
the ventral surface dark brown at extremity. ForR wing 
yellow ; a subbasal black spot below costa : small antemedial 
black spots below costa and cell and above inner margin ; a 
silvery discoidal bar defined by brown; the terminal area 
red-brown with a leaden gloss and defined on inner side by 
a dark brown line which is sinuous to vein 4, then angled 
inwards to the discoidal bar and again sinuous to inner 
margin ; a dark brown subterminal shade, a terminal series 
of black stria3, and fine pale line at base of cilia. Hind wing 
j'cllow, the terminal aiea broadly I'ed-brown with a silvery 
leaden gloss and defined on inner side by a dark brown line; 
a dark subterminal shade and black terminal line. 

? . Hind wing witliout the silvery gloss on termen and at 
tornuSj the terminal line broken up into black strise, a dark 
line near base of cilia. 

Hah. Br. N. Guinea, Ekeikei (Pratt), 3 J, 1 ? type, 
Mt. Kebea {Pratt), \ S ,^ ? , Mafalu {Pratt), 1 ? . Exjj. 
30-3,2 mm. 

(4 c) Sylcpta monoleuca, sp. n. 

Antennai of male with the tooth on basal joint large, 
the shaft thickened just beyond it ; fore wing on underside 

1* 



4 Sir G. F. Hampson on new 

Avith fringes of scales and hair at upper and lower angles 
of cell. 

(S . Head and thorax black-brown, the antenna? whitish 
towards tips, the tarsi whitish ; abdomen fuscous black, the 
ventral surface white. Fore wing uniform black-brown with 
a cupreous tinge. Hind Aving black-brown with a cupreous 
tinge ; a rather quadrate white spot beyond lower angle of cell. 

Hab. Dutch N. Guinea, Fak-fak [Pratt) , 1 S type. 
Exp. 28 mm. 

(12 a) Sylepta microspilalis, sp. n. 

(^ . Head, thorax, and abdomen ochreous tinged witli 
brown; palpi white at base ; pectus and ventral surface of 
abdomen white. Fore wing ochreous tinged with brown, 
the costal and terminal areas rather darker ; two dark 
antemedial points in cell and one below the cell with an 
oblique line from it to inner margin ; a small yellowisli 
discoidal lunule defined by fuscous ; postmedial line dai'k, 
minutely dentate and oblique from costa to vein 2, then 
retracted to below angle of cell and oblique to inner margin 
Avith a dark point at submedian fold ; cilia fuscous. Hind 
wing pale ochreous, the apical area tinged Avith fuscous ; a 
slight postmedial line bent outwards and minutely dentate 
between veins 5 and 2. 

Hab. SiNGAPOiiE (Ridley), 2 S type. Exp. 24 mm. 

(18 a) Sylepta albirivalis, sp. n. 

$ , Head, thorax, and abdomen cupreous brown, the vertex 
of head Avhitish ; abdomen Avith slight whitish segmental 
lines ; palpi at base, pectus, legs, and ventral surface of 
abdomen Avhite. Fore wing cupreous brown ; an indistinct 
oblique Avhitish antemedial line slightly defined on outer side 
by fuscous ; a small white spot in middle of cell and discoidal 
bar defined by fuscous ; a postmedial white line arising below 
costa, its outer edge very slightly waved to vein 5, where it is 
very slightly bent outwards, at vein 2 bent inwards tobeloAv 
end of cell, then slightly excurved. Hind Aving cupreous 
broAvn ; a slight whitish discoidal Innule defined by fuscous ; 
postmedial line white faintly defined on inner side by fuscous, 
very slightly bent outwards at A'cin 5, at vein 2 bent iuAA'ards 
and almost obsolete to below end of cell, then oblique to 
above toruus ; cilia Avhitish with a dark line through them ; 
the underside greyer. 

Hab. Dutch N. Guinea, Kapaur {Duherty), 1 $ type. 
Exp. 28 mm. 



Species o/'PyralicUe. 5 

(20 c) Sylepta parvipimcta, sp. n. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen fuscous brown with a grcyisli 
tinge ; palpi black, white at base ; pectus, legs, and ventral 
surface of abdomen white, the Tore tibite with blackish band. 
Fore wing fuscous brown with a cupreous gloss ; anteniedial 
line indistinct, whitish defined on outer side by blackish, 
somewhat oblique from costato submedian fold ; small block 
spots at middle of cell and on discoccllulars, the latter with 
faint whitish marks before and beyond it ; postmedial line 
w hitish defined on inner side by blackish, forming a tridentate 
white mark from below costa to veiu 5, then excurved to 
vein 2, then bent inwards to below base of cell and more 
distinct and excurved to inner niargiu. Hind wing fuscous 
brown with a cupreous gloss ; a blackish discoidal spot ; 
postmedial line whitish defined on inner side by blackish, 
beut outwards between veins 5 and 2, then inwards to below 
angle of cell and oblique to above tornus ; cilia with a fine 
whitish line at base and whitish tips ; the underside whitish 
with the terminal area suffused with fuscous, the discoidal 
luuule and postmedial line more distinct. 

Hub. Sierra Leone {Clements), 1 (J type ; Gold Coast, 
Kumasi {W liiteside) , 1 ? . Edp. 24-26 mm. 

(22 fl) Sylepta leucographalis, sp. u. 

c? . Head and thorax fuscous mixed with greyish ; palpi 
black, greyish at base and tips; pectus and legs whitish, the 
fore tibiae fuscous at extremities ; abdomen with the basal 
half grey with fuscous lines, the terminal half fuscous with 
grey segmental lines, the ventral surface whitish. Fore wing 
fuscous brown suffused with purple ; an antemedial white spot 
in cell and whitish band from cell to inner margin ; quadrate 
black spots in middle of cell and on discoccllulars with a 
quadrate white spot between them and smaller spot below the 
cell ; postmedial line fuscous, incurved and with quadrifid 
yellowish white patch beyond it from costa to vein 5, bent 
outwards and slightly defined by white between veins 5 and 2, 
then retracted to lower angle of cell and excurved to inner 
margin, with yellowish white spot beyond it in submedian 
intei'space and small spot above inner margin ; cilia yellowish 
white from vein 3 to tornus. Hind wing yellowish white ; 
some diffused fuscous below base of cell ; an oblique fuscous 
band from upper angle of cell to above tornus ; a small dark 
lunule beyond the cell ; the terminal area fuscous sufl'used 
with purple, a postmedial line between veins 5 and 2 slightly 



6 Sir G. F. Hampson on new 

defined by whitish on outer side and retracted at vein 2 ; cilia 
white at submedian interspace. 

Hab. Bali (Doherty), 1 S type. E.i-p. 30 mm. 

(32 b) Sylepta iumidipes, sp. n. 

Mid femora of male greatly dilated. 

(^ . Head, thorax, and abdomen white tinged with ochreous, 
the vertex of head, tegulse, and patagia with some brown ; 
fore tibire with fuscous band; abdomen with blackish bands 
on second and penultimate segments and subdorsal streaks 
on anal segment. Fore wing white tinged with ochreous ; a 
curved black subbasal line from costa to vein 1, followed by 
a blackish shade from below costa to inner margin; a strong 
curved black-brown antemedial line, conjoined at median, 
nervure to an oblique bar in middle of cell ; a pale discoidal 
bar on a black-brown patch extending to costa ; postmedial 
line strong, black-brown, incurved irom costa to vein 5, ex- 
curved to vein 2, then bent inwards to the lower edge of the 
discoidal patch and oblique to inner margin near the ante- 
medial line; a terminal black-brown band, broad and with 
curved inner edge from costa to vein 4, then narrow to 
vein 2 and expanding into a large patch on tornal area 
confluent with the curve of postmedial line ; cilia brownish 
with a v\hite line at base and whitish patch above tornus. 
Hiud wing white tinged with ochreous ; a black discoidal 
spot with oblique line from it to above inner margin tow^ards 
tornus ; postmedial line blackish, bent outwards between 
veins 5 and 2 where it terminates ; a blackish terminal line 
expanding into patches at apex and in submedian interspace ; 
cilia with a slight brownish line through them. 

Ab. 1. Head and thorax yellower with much more black- 
brown ; abdomen yellower banded dorsally with black-brown 
and almost wholly black-brown towards extremity ; wings 
yellower with the dark areas more extensive and tinged with 
purple ; fore wing with the whole terminal area dark except 
a bar from costa and small spot below vein 2 ; hind wing 
with the whole terminal area dark except a slight pale line 
beyond the postmedial line towards costa and the excurved 
medial part. 

Hab. SiEHiiA Leone {Clements), 2 cJ type ; Gold Coast, 
Kuraasi {Whiteside), 1 c? ; S. Nigeria, Sapele [Sampson), 
2 S ' J^'U>- 26-28 mm. 

(35 a) Sylepta ndcrodontalis, sp. n. 
cJ . Pale grey-brown : pectus, legs, and ventral surface o£ 



Species of Pyralidaj. 7 

abdomen whitish, the fringe of hair on hind tibiae red-brown 
on inner side. Fore wing with faint pale point in cell and 
spot below it before the veiy indistinct antemedial line ; 
a small pale spot in cud of cell before tlie slight dark discoidal 
Innule with pale centre ; postmcdial line indistinct, dark, 
slightly bent ontwards between veins 5 and 3 with two small 
dentate white marks before it, then retracted to below end of 
cell and erect to inner margin ; the costa pale befoi'c and just 
beyond it. Hind wing with indistinct dark discoidal spot 
followed by a faint pale bar before the postmcdial line, which 
is very indistinct and diffused, forming a spot beyond lower 
angle ol: cell, then retracted to lower angle and oblique to 
inner margin beyond middle ; cilia with brown line near base 
and whitish tips ; the underside whitish. 

? . Fore wing rather browner ; the point in cell and spot 
below it more distinct ; no spot before the discoidal lunule, 
the lower extremity of which is connected with three small 
dentate pale marks in sinus of postmcdial line, costa not pale ; 
hind wing with the pale spot beyond the cell more distinct, 
the postmcdial line exeurved at median nervules, not forming 
a spot. 

Hub. Venezuela, 1 ^ ; Fii. Guiana, Cayenne [Schaus), 
1 (^ type, Maroni R. [Schaus), type $ in Coll. Schaus. 
Exp., ^ 30, ? 28 mm. These may possibly be different 
species. 

(38 a) Syhpta leucinalis, sp. n. 

$ . Head whitish suffused with cupreous brown ; palpi 
with blackish bands at extremities of ffrstand second joints ; 
thorax white slightly tinged with brown, the teguke with 
fuscous patches at middle j the fore tibiie with blackish band ; 
abdomen white with dorsal black band on third segment, the 
terminal segments slightly tinged with brown. Fore wing- 
white slightly irrorated with brown ; a black point at base of 
costa, slight subbasal striga from costa and point above inner 
margin ; antemedial line slight, dark, excurved from below 
costa to inner margin ; small dark annuli in and below middle 
of cell ; an oblique black discoidal bar with Avhite point in its 
upper part and some brown suffusion below it ; postmcdial 
line double, dentate, oblique from costa to vein 3, at vein 2 
bent inwards to below end of cell and angled outwards above 
vein 1, the area beyond it suffused with brown from apex to 
vein 4 and towards tornus; a terminal series of blackish 
strise ; cilia with dark line through them and dark points at 
tips. Hind wing white slightly irrorated witli brown ; two 



8 Sir G. r. Hampson on new 

sliglit dark discoidal points and brownish shades below and 
beyond end of cell ; postmedial line double^ dentate, with a 
dark spot on the inner line at discal fold, incurved at sub- 
median fold ; the apex with brown patch ; a terminal series 
of blackish strire and a brown line tlirough the cilia. 
Hah. E. Peru, Pozuzo, 2 ? type. Exp. 30 mm. 

(40 fl) ^Sylejpta desmialis, sp. n. 

Hind tibise o£ male with very thick tufts of hair on upper 
side. 

c^ . Fuscous ; palpi at base, pectus, and ventral surface of 
abdomen white; legs black and white. Pore wing with sub- 
basal hyaline point in cell ; quadrate antemedial spots in cell, 
the hitter with a sitiiikir spot below it; a lunulate mark just 
beyond the cell comi)osed of five almost conjoined spots 
between veins 3 and 8, the two middle ones larger. Hind 
wing with oblique dark medial line ending above tornus ; a 
quadraj;e discoidal hyaline spot with a short dark line on its 
outer edge ; cilia of both wings with a fine white line at 
base. 

Hub. S. Nigeria, Lagos {Boag), ] 6, Sapele (F. W. 
Samjjson), 3 ^ type. Exp. 24 mm. 

(40 c) Sylepta melanomma, sp. n. 

$ . Head and thorax ochreous white mixed with dark 
brown ; palpi white with blackish bands at middle and 
extremity ; pectus and legs ochieous white, the fore tibise 
with fuscous band at extiemity; abdomen ochreous white 
banded with brown, the terminal segment with blackish 
patch, the ventral surface white. Pore wing ochreous 
white ; somewhat oblique blackish subbasal and antemedial 
bands, the latter confluent with a spot on its outer side 
below the cell ; somewhat quadrate blackish spots in end 
• of cell and on discocellulars, confluent on median nervure, 
and a band from loMcr angle of cell to inner margin ; the 
terminal area broadly blackish with a cupreous gloss, an 
ochreous-white postmedial bar on it from costa to vein 6 ; 
cilia whitish. Hind wing ochreous white ; a faint diffused 
dark subbasal band ; a blackii^h discoidal spot ; a dark post- 
medial band, oblique to vein 3, then bent inwards to lower 
angle of cell and oblique to above tornus ; terminal area 
blackish with a cupreous gloss, joined at vein 2 hy a spur 
from postmedial band and with an ochreous-white sub- 



species of Pyralidto. 9 

terminal band on it from vein 4 to near tornus ; cilia wliite 
at base, dark at tips. 

Had. S. NiGEiiiA,, lleslia {Hwnfrey), 2 ? type. Exj/. 
2G-28 mm. 

(44 a) Sylepta a-yhcraspis, sp. u. 

? . Head, thorax, and abdomen fulvous yellow tinged 
Avitli red-brown; palpi wliitish at base ; pectus and ventral 
surface of abdomen white. Fore wing orange-yellow, the 
costa tinged with fulvous, a broad teiminal red-brown band ; 
an indistinct curved brown anteraedial line ; a small brown 
spot in middle of cell and larger discoidal S])ot ; postmedial 
line brown, strong and obliquely incurved from costa to the 
terminal band at vein 5, at vein 2 retracted to below end of 
cell and erect to inner margin. Iliud wing orange-yellow 
with a broad brown terminal band ; an oblique brown 
discoidal striga ; postmedial line brown, rather strong, ex- 
curvcd between veins 5 and 2 ; the underside with the 
terminal band narrower. 

Hab. Natal, Durban {Innes), 2 ? type. E.rp. 32-34 mm. 

(50 b) Sylepta holophccalis, sp. n. 

(J. Head, thorax, and abdomen dark reddish brown; 
palpi white at bases, black towards tips ; pectus, greater part 
of legs, and ventral surface of abdomen whitish; genital 
tufts ochreous. Fore wing brown with a cupreous gloss ; 
traces of a dark anteniedial line, a slight dark discoidal 
luiiule ; an indistinct dark postmedial line slightly bent 
outwards between veins 5 and 2, then retracted to lower 
angle of cell and erect to inner margin. Hind wing brown 
with a cupreous gloss ; a faint dark postmedial line, slightly 
excurved between veins 5 and 2, then retracted to lower 
angle of cell and oblique to tornus. 

Hub. Paraguay, ISapucay {Foster), 1 cJ type. E.ip. 
28 mm. 

(oOc) Sylepta semilugens, sp. n. 

(? . Head, thorax, and abdomen fulvous yellow ; palpi 
whitish at base ; pectus and legs whitish, the tore femora at 
extremity and tibiae above brownish. Fore wing with the 
basal area fulvous yellow with subbasal black spot on inner 
margin ; a medial pale yellow band with the costal area 
fulvous and a slight brownish point in middle of cell; the 
terminal half pale brownish with faint dark discoidal bar 



10 Sir G. F. Ilampson on new 

and some yellowish on costa beyond middle. Hind wing 
with the basal half pale yellow, the terminal half pale 
brownish. Underside of fore wing with slight fuscous 
discoidal spot and diffused brownish postmedial band, bent 
inwards below vein 2 ; hind wing with slight black subbasal 
spot in upper part of cell and diffused brownish postmedial 
band. 

Hab. W. Africa, Cameroons [Sjostedi), 1 ($ type. Exp. 
42 mm. 

(50 d) Sylepta acridentalis , sp. n. 

(^ . Yellow ; pectus, legs, and ventral surface of abdomen 
whitish ; fore tibia3 banded with brown, mid tibiae streaked 
Avith brown. Fore wing with curved, somewhat waved and 
diffused antemedial line from subcostal nervure to inner 
margin ; a dark point in middle of cell and discoidal lunule ; 
postmedial line strongly and rather irregularly dentate, 
oblique, bent outwards between veins 5 and 2 and with 
diffused dentate band across its sinus. Hind wing with 
oblique diffused somewhat dentate baud from costa beyond 
middle to tornus, towards which it narrows and with dentate 
line beyond it between veins 5 and 2 ; the apical part of 
costal area suffused with brown. 

Hab. S.W. New Guinea, Kapaur (Doherty), 1 (^ type. 
E.rp. 32 mm. 

(51 c) Sylepta retractalis, sp. n. 

$ . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale yellow, the neck with 
fulvous ring, the abdomen with faint fulvous-yellow segmental 
bands ; palpi white at base, fulvous at tips ; pectus, legs, and 
ventral surface of abdomen white, the fore tibise yellowish. 
Fore wing pale yellow^, the costa and veins tinged with 
fulvous ; antemedial line fuscous, oblique ; a fuscous dis- 
coidal bar ; postmedial line fuscous, slightly bent outwards 
between veins 5 and 2, then retracted to lower angle of 
cell, and oblique to inner margin near antemedial line ; a 
fuscous terminal line and a fine line through the cilia which 
are whitish at tips. Hind wing pale yellow ; a fuscous 
discoidal spot ; postmedial line fuscous, bent outwards 
between veins 5 and 2, then retracted to lowxr angle of 
cell and oblique to above tornus ; a fuscous terminal line 
and a line through the cilia which are whitish at tips. 

Hab. Gold Coast, Kumasi {Whiteside), 2 J type. Exj). 
21 mm. 



S2)ecies of VyraWdx. 11 

(52 «) Sylepta heliochroa, sp. n. 

cJ . Head, thorax, and abdomen veiy pale yellow ; pectus, 
legjs, and ventral surfiice of abdomen vbite, the fore legs 
faintly tinged "with brown. Fore wing very pale yellow, 
the costa whitish, the termen with faint dark shade expanding 
at apex. Hind wing very pale yellow. 

? . Abdomen dorsally fulvous except at base ; fore wing 
without trace of the terminal shade. 

Hab. Br. N, Guinea, Dinawa (Pratt), 2 c?, 2 ? type. 
E.rp. SO mm. 

(52 i) Si/Iepia tetrathyralis, sp. n. 

^. Head, thorax, and abdomen orange-yellow; palpi 
with the third joint black ; maxillary palpi black above ; 
pectus and ventral surface of abdomen whitish. Fore wing 
orange-yellow, the medial area sufi'uscd with fulvous except 
the costal area and inner margin ; the costal edge black ; 
a hyaline spot from middle of cell to above vein 1 connected 
with a hyaline point beyond it in cell ; a yellow point at 
upper angle of cell and a hyaline spot beyond, lower angle 
between veins 5 and 2 ; an indistinct dili'used waved sub- 
terminal line, incurved from vein 6 to below 5. Hind wing 
orange-yellow ; some fulvous suffusion on basal inner area ; 
a small dark brown mark on median nervure near base 
followed by a hyaline patch from middle of cell to submedian 
fold, then a fulvous- brown patch extending to beyond cell 
with a hyaline spot on it beyond lo\Aer angle, somewhat 
constricted at middle ; an indistinct, rather diffused, waved 
fulvous snbterminal line. 

Hub. S.W. New Guinica, Kapaur [Doherty), 1 r^ type. 
Exp. 26 mm. 

(59 a) Sylepta attenualis, sp. n. 

Head and thorax pale ochreous tinged with brown ; ab- 
domen pale ochreous dorsally tinged with brown and with 
paired subdorsal black points on third segment, in male very 
elongate and attenuated ; Avings thinly scaled. Fore wing 
elongate and produced at apex ; pale ochreous irrorated with 
brown especially on costal area to postmedial line ; a subbasal 
black spot on inner margin ; an oblique sinuous fuscous aute- 
medial line ; a black point in middle of cell and discoidal bar ; 
postmedial line fuscous, bent outwards below veins 5 and 2, 
then retracted to below angle of cell and oblique to inner 
margin ; a punctiform black terminal line ; cilia whitish 



12 Sii' G. F. Ilanipson on new 

tinged with fuscous. Hind wing pale oclireous irrorated 
with hrown especially on disk ; a slight fuscous discoidal 
bar ; postmedial line fuscous, bent outwards between veins 5 
and 2, then retracted and oblique to above tornus ; a fine 
black terminal line, reduced to points in female ; cilia whitish 
with a slight fuscous line near base. 

Hnb. Bk. E. Africa, Lagari (Befiou), 1 ^ type, Ndimu 
{Bettun), 1 ? , Uganda Ky. Mile 478 [Betton), 1 ? , E. Quaso 
[Bet ton), 1 c?, 1 ? • Exji., S 40, ? 3i mm. 

(60 «) Sf/Iepta (/laucalis, sp. r\. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen grey-brown tinged with olive ; 
palpi fuscous, white at base ; pectus, legs, and ventral surface 
of abdomen whitish ; fore tibiaj and tarsi banded with fuscous. 
Foj'e wing grey-brown tinged with olive ; a slight waved dark 
antemedial line ; an indistinct dark point in middle of cell and 
discoidal lunule ; postmedial line minutely dentate, bent out- 
wards between veins 6 and 2, then retracted to below angle of 
cell ; a sligiit dark terminal line and line at base of cilia. Hind 
wing grey-brown tinged Mith olive ; a slight oblique dark 
discoidal striga ; postmedial line bent outwards and minutely 
dentate between veins 5 and 2, then retracted to lower angle 
of cell and sinuous to tornus; a fine dark terminal line and 
line at base of cilia. 

Hab. Venezuela, Palma Sol, 1 J ; Paraguay, Sapucay 
(Foster), 14 J , 1 ? type. Exp. 28-30 mm. 

(70 a) Sylepta glaucosia, sp. n. 
Sathria cejjhalis, Uruce, Biol. Centr.-Aiu., Ilet. ii. p. 242 (part.). 

Head, thorax, and abdomen fulvous brown mixed with 
whitish, the last with the medial segments darker and with 
slight white segmental lines, the ventral surface white. Fore 
wing pale glaucous grey, the costa white with a fulvous 
streak below it ; a fuscous subbasal shade from cell to inner 
margin followed by a whitish band ; a quadrate semihyaline 
white spot just beyond the discocellulars. Hind wing pale 
glaucous grey with the basal area semihyaline white ; cilia 
Avhite. 

Hab. Mexico, Presidio {Forrei'),l ? ; Guatemala, Zapote 
(Chairipion), 1 (^ , Godman-Salvin Coll. ; Panama, La Chorrera 
[Dotby-Tijler), 1 S type. Exp. 28-32 mm. 



(71 a) Sylepta diacymalis, sp. n. 
irosa, Druce, Biol. Centr.-Am., Het. ii. \ 

Head, thorax, and abdomen oclireous yellow mixed with 



Ejncorsia butyrosa, Druce, Biol. Centr.-Am., Het. ii. p. 212 (part.), nee 
Biitl. 



Species of VyviiVidx. 13 

wliite ; palpi black, Avliitc in front except at tips ; shoulders 
with black bars with some fulvous above; fore tibite banded 
with black. Fore wing white tinged with ochreous yellow 
and faintly irrorated with grey, the costa pure white, except 
at base Avhicli is fulvous ; a faint oblique grey anteniedial 
line; a slight white discoidal striga ; postmedial line in- 
distinct, grey, oblique from vein 8 to diseal fold, bent 
outwards from vein 5 to below 3, then retracted to below 
angle of cell and oblique and sinuous to inner margin. 
Hind wing white faintly tinged with ochreous and irrorated 
with grey ; a faint grey discoidal striga; postmedial lino 
indistinct, grey, bent outwards between veins 5 and 2, then 
retracted to below end of cell and again exeurved. 

Hab. MEi'ico, Cuernavaca (H. H.Smith), 1 (^ type; Gua- 
temala, San Geronimo {Champion) , 1 $ , Guatemala City 
(Rodrjf/iiez), 1 ? ; Costa Rica, Candelaria Mts. {Under woud), 

1 S > Ii'azu {Rogers), 1 S; Panama, Chiriqui {Chamjnon), 

2 ? , Godman-Salvin Coll. Exjj. 40-48 ram. 

(73 a) Si/Iepia pheeophlebalis, sp. n. 

^. White; palpi, tegulae, and pi'othorax tinged with 
orange ; fore tibise and tarsi tinged with fuscous. Fore 
wing with rather diffused brown streaks on the veins, stronger 
on subcostal and median nervures and veins 8^ 7, 4, 1. Hind 
Ming with faint brown streaks on median nervure and veins 5 
to 1. Underside of fore wing with the costal area and termeu 
tinged with fuscous, a slight discoidal bar ; hind wing with 
the ternien narrowly fuscous. 

Hab. Peru, Ptio Colorado {IVatkins db TomUnson), 1 ^ 
type. Exp. 34 mm. 

(75 b) Sylepta atrisquamaiis, sp. n. 

? . Head, thorax, and abdomen yellowish white; palpi witli 
black band at base of second joint and stieak above ; frons 
with black bar above ; fore legs black in front except the tart-i. 
Fore wing yellowish white ; small spots formed of aggregated 
black scales beyond low-er angle of cell below veins .5, 4, 3. 
Hind wing yellowish white \y\i\x an irroration of large black 
scales in, beyond, and below end of cell. 

Hab. Germ. E. Athica, Bueni {Neave), 1 ? tvpc. Exp. 
32 mm. 



(76 b) Sijlepta brunnescen.^, sp. n. 
<-icolcdis, Druce, Biol. Centr.-Ani., llet. ii 

? . Head, thorax, and abdomen pale reddish brown ; pal])i 



Hedi/Iepta terricolalis, Druce, Biol. Centr.-Ani., llet. ii. p. 269 (part.), 
nee Miischl. 



14 Sir G. F. Ilampsoii on new 

brown, wliitish at base ; pectus, mid and bind legs, and 
ventral surface of abdomen wliite. Fore wing pale reddisb 
brown, the inner lialE rather paler ; traces of a sinuous 
antemedial line; a faint dark spot in middle of cell and 
discoidal lunule ; postmedial line indistinct, slightly curved 
from costa to vein 2, then retracted to lower angle of cell 
and again excurved ; a fine pale line at base of cilia followed 
by a dark line. Hind wing pale reddish brown, the basal 
and inner areas whitish ; a slight dark discoidal bar ; post- 
medial line indistinct, dark, slightly sinuous fi"om costa to 
vein 2, then obsolete ; a fine pale line at base of cilia followed 
by a dark line ; the underside with the postmedial line slightly 
bent inwards at vein 2 and continued to inner margin. 

Hab. Mexico, Vera Cruz, Atoyac {H. H. Smith), 1 ? , 
Godman-Salvin Coll. ; Brazil, Rio Janeiro, 1 ? type. Exp. 
30 mm. 

(86 a) Sylepta prorogata, sp. n. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen creamy white ; palpi with 
blackish bands at extremities of first, and second joints ; 
tegulse brownish at base; fore tibiae with fuscous band; 
abdomen with subdorsal fuscous points on second segment, 
faint brownish segmental lines, subdorsal black points on 
penultimate segment and bar on terminal segment, the 
extremity tinged with orange. Fore wing ochveous white ; 
basal blackish spots on costa and below cell; a subbasal 
black striga from costa and point below the cell, with fuscous 
points beyond them in and below the cell ; antemedial line 
blackish with spot at costa, oblique to median nervure; two 
sinuous bars at middle of call and two at discocellulars ; the 
veins beyond the cell streaked with blackish ; postmedial line 
slightly waved, angled outwards at vein 5, oblique to vein 2, 
then excurved, a curved waved line arising from it at vein 5 
and joining it again at vein 2 ; a curved waved subterminal 
line from costa to vein 2 and patch further from termen in 
submedian interspace ; a slightly waved terminal line; cilia 
black at tips. Hind wing ochreous white ; two black strice 
at discocellulars ; an oblique medial line from cell to vein 1 
and an oblique line from lower angle bent inwards to inner 
margin above tornus ; postmedial line angled outwards at 
veins 6 and 5, then oblique to above tornus, an irregularly 
waved line beyond it from costa to vein 2 ; a subterminal 
line from costa to vein 2, slightly excurved at middle ; a 
terminal line; cilia yellow at base and with black line 
through them. 

Hab. Surinam^ Paramaribo [EUacombe), 1 S type ; 13r. 



Species of Pyialidii}. 15 

GuiAXA, Rockstonc {Rodwaij), 1 ,^ , 1 ? ; Brazil, Amazons, 
Para, 1 ? . Exp. 22-24. mm. 

(86 c) Sylepta polycymalis, sp. n. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen pale yellow; palpi with black 
spot at end of second joint ; f'rons with black spot above ; 
te.2:nl?e with two brown spots, patagia with three spots ; fore 
and mid femora at extremity and fore tibire at extremity with 
black bands ; abdomen with dorsal brown bands. Fore \\'\\\<^ 
pale yellow ; two black points on base of costal area followecl 
by a cnrved line, then a series of black points; an obliqne 
slightly waved antemedial line, followed by a brown annulus 
from costa to median nervure and another below the cell ; a 
brown bar from costa to lower angle of cell ; a Avaved post- 
medial line bent outwards between veins 6 and 2, then retracted 
to below angle of cell and oblique to inner margin and with 
a waved line across its sinus between veins 6 and 2, and an 
oblique bar from it at vein 2 to tornus ; a waved subterminal 
line from costa to vein 5 connected with termen by a brown 
patch between veins 6 and 5, some subterminal points on 
inner half; a strong blackish terminal line; cilia with a 
blackish line through them. Hind wing pale yellow ; a 
rather diffused sinuous subbasal line from subcostal nervure 
to inner margin ; an oblique discoidal bar and oblique line 
from lower angle of cell to tornus ; a waved postmedial line 
bent outwards between veins 5 and 2, then oblique to above 
tornus, with an irregularly waved line on its inner side from 
costa to vein 2 ; a waved subterminal line from costa to 
vein 2; a strong blackish terminal line expanding into a 
slight patch at apex ; a brown line through the cilia. 

Hub. Br. E. Africa, Machakos {Cruivshay), 1 ^ type; 
Uganda, Gondokora {Rey nes- Coles) , 1 $ ; Br. C. Africa, 
Zomba (Johnston), 1 ? ; Gazaland, Chirinda Forest [Mar- 
shall), 1 S ', Natal, Victoria district (Gooch), 1 $, Durban 
[Leigh), 1 cJ . Ectp. 26 mm. 

(88 c) Sylepta strigicincta, sp. n. 

?. Head and thorax orange-yellow; palpi red-brown 
towards tips ; fore and mid legs suffused with red-brown; 
abdomen clothed with white scales, the base brown, the 
extremity fulvous yellow. Fore wing orange-yellow ; sli"ht 
subbasal brownish spots in cell and above inner margin ; the 
costa brownisJi to the excurved dark antemedial line, Avhich 
is incurved and obsolescent at vein 1 ; a black discoidal 
lunule ; postmedial line formed of small fuscous spots in the 



IG Sir G. F. IIamp?on on new 

interspaces, arising below costa, incurved at vein 7, excurve:! 
to vein 2, then l)ent invvards ; a series of dark striae just 
before termen ; cilia fuscous. Hind win;^ orange-yellow ; a 
black discoidal spot ; postniedial line rather diffused, fuscous, 
excurved between veins 5 and 2 and slightly below submedian 
fold; a series of dark striae just before termen; cilia 
fuscous. 

Hub. Ecuador^ Quevedo, 1 ? type. Exp. 31 mm. 

{92 a) Si/Iepta sticiigramma, sji. n. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen orange ; pal{)i with black 
bands; basal joint of antennae with black point in front; 
vertex of head with black point ; fore tibiae and tarsi banded 
black and white ; abdomen with two doi^al black bands with 
Avhite bands before them towards extremity. Fore wing 
orange ; obliquely placed subbasal black spots on costa and 
inner margin ; antemedial black spots at costa, below cell, 
and inner margin, the costal spot nearer the base ; a black 
discoidal bar ; a postniedial series of black points, slightly 
excurved below vein 7 and bent outwards between veins 5 
and 2, ending with a more prominent spot in submedian 
fold nearer the base ; cilia black with a metallic gloss at tips. 
Hind wing orange; a postniedial })unctiforra black line, 
slightly bent outwards between veins 5 and 2, then retracted 
and with more prominent spot in submedian fold; cilia 
black at base, silvery grey at tips. 

Hab. Bahamas, Nassau [Bonhote] , \ ^ , \ '^ type; Cuba, 
Santiago {Schaus), 1 c? . Exp., $ 26, ? 24- mm. 

(92 cV) Sylepta orthogramma, sp. n. 

(J. Head, thorax, and abdomen orange; tegulae with 
medial black spot ; fore tibiae whitish with blackish baud at 
extremity ; hind tarsi slightly ringed with blackish towards 
extremity ; abdomen with subdorsal blackish spots on second 
segment, the terminal half dorsally suffused with fuscous and 
with two white bands, the ventral surface Avhitish. Fore 
■wing orange ; an oblique black almost basal line ; a strong- 
black antemedial line, oblique from costa to submedian fold; 
a point in middle of cell and discoidal spot ; a strong 
black postmedial line, oblique below discal fold and with 
cupreous -brown suffusion beyond it between veins 6 and 4, 
diffused at termen to apex ; a black terminal line ; cilia 
fuscous at tips. Hind wing orange ; a slight blackish dis- 
coidal striga ; postniedial line fuscous, oblique from costa to 



Species of VyvaVn]iX>. 17 

suhniedian fold towards termcu ; a black terminal line; eilia 
tinn^ed with fuscous at tips. 

Had. Cuba, Santiago [Schaus), 1 (^ type. E:vp. 30 mm. 

(93 a) Sylepta planeflava^ sp. n. 

? . Headj thorax, and abdomen yellow, the last with tlie 
base white ; fore tibise with fuscons band at extremity, the 
tarsi ringed with fuscous towards extremity ; pectus aud 
ventral surface of abdomen whitish. Fore wing yellow with 
A'cry faint traces of deeper yellow antemedial line, discoidal 
bar, and postmedial line oblique below discal fold. Hind 
wing rather paler yellow. 

Hab. Br. N. Guinea, Mafalu {Pratt), 1 ? type. Exp. 
34 mm. 

(93 U) Sylepta holochralis, sp. n. 

? . Uniform orange-yellow; palpi with black spot on first 
joint ; mid femora at extremity and base of tibiae black. 
Hab. Br. E. Africa, Tanga, 1 ? type. Exp. 32 mm. 

(100 fl) Sylepta methyalinalis, sp. n. 

^. Head and thorax black-browti, the vertex of head 
"whitish ; palpi banded with whitish ; antennae ringed black 
and white; thorax with some leaden-grey scales ; pectus and 
legs white, the fore femora and tibiae with black bands at 
extremities, the mid tibiae brown above ; abdomen brown, 
with white band on second segment and white rings on 
medial segments, the ventral surface white. Fore wing- 
cupreous brown ; the costal area fulvous yellow to post- 
medial line ; a sinuous dark antemedial line defined by white 
marks on each side with a small quadrate white spot beyond 
it in cell ; a quadrate hyaline white patch in end of cell ; a 
slight pale discoidal striga ; postmedial line excurved between 
veins 5 and 2, then retracted to lower angle of cell and 
angled outwards on vein 2, with trifid hyaline patch beyond 
it from costa to vein 5, two spots before it between veins 6 
and 5, a patch in its sinus and a patch beyond it extending 
to termen above tornus^ two spots beyond it above and 
below^ vein 2 and one before it in submedian intei'space ; a 
dark terminal line ; cilia chequered Avhite and brown. 
]lind wing seiniliyaline white ; the base with slight blackish 
marks; a blackish discoidal annulus ; a fine postmedial line 
excurved to near termen between veins 5 and 2, then re- 
tracted and interrupted to near tornus ; a black-brown apical 
Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. x. 2 



18 Sir G. F. Hampson 07i neio 

patch extending to vein 4 and a spot below vein 2 ; a fine 
terminal line ; cilia white, chequered with black towards 
apex. 

Hab. Br. Guiana, Potaro R. [Kaye], 1 ^ type. Exp. 
30 mm. 

(109 a) Sylepta achromalis, sp. n. 

? . Pale brownish ochreous ; palpi fuscous above ; thorax 
tinged with fulvous ; fore tibife fuscous at extremities ; pectus, 
mid and hind legs, and ventral surface of abdomen white ; 
"wings uniform glossy ochreous ; fore wing with faint dark 
point in middle of cell and discoidal lunule. 

Hab. S. Leone [Clements) , 1 $ type ; Nigeria, Sapele 
{Samjyson), 1 ? ; CAMEROONs('Sy'os/e^/), 1 ? . Exp. 24 mm. 

(Ilia) Sylepta disticta, sp. n. 

(J , Head, thorax, and abdomen fuscous brown with a 
slight purplish-grey gloss ; palpi with the basal joint white ; 
pectus and ventral surface of abdomen except at extremity 
whitish. Fore wing fuscous brown with a purplish-grey 
gloss ; small white postmedial spots above and below vein 7 ; 
a punctiform white line at base of cilia. Hind wing fuscous 
brown with a cupreous gloss ; a fine white line at base of 
cilia. 

Hab. Dutch N. Guinea, Fak-fak {Pratt), 1 S type. 
Exp. 32 mm. 

Genus Syngropia, nov. 

Type, S. stictica. 

Palpi upturned, the second joint reaching to middle of 
frons and moderately scaled, the third short, naked ; frons 
rounded ; antennae of male ciliated. Fore wing with veins 3 
and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from below upper angle ; 
7 from angle, straight and well separated from 8, 9, which 
are stalked ; 10 approximated to 8, 9 towards base. Hind 
wing with vein 3 from angle of cell; 4, 5 strongly stalked ; 
6, 7 from upper angle ; 8 anastomosing with 7. 

Syngrojna stictica, sp. n. 

Notarchn cechmisnlis, Druce, Biol. Centr.-Am., Het. ii. p. 248 (uec 
Wlk.). 

Head and thorax yellowish white ; fore tibise with blackish 
band at extremity ; abdomen yellowish white suffused with 
fulvous except at base and extremity and with subdorsal 
black spots on second segment. Fore wing yellowish white ; 



Species of PyviiVidse. 19 

ol)liqnely placed subdorsal blackish spots below costa and 
above inner margin ; an anteraedial ])ar from below costa to 
median nervure and a bar above inner margin; postmedial 
line blackishj forming slight spots at veins, excurved between 
veins 6 and 3, then incurved ; terminal blackish spots above 
veins 6 and 3. Hind wing semihyaline yellowish white ; an 
oblique blackish postmedial bar between veins 6 and 3 and 
an oblique line from vein 2 to tornus ; terminal blackish 
spots at apex and vein 3. 

Hab. Guatemala, San Geronirao (Champion), 1 (^, 1 ? 
type, Godman-Salviu Coll. Kxj)., ^ 22, ? 26 mm. 



(1 a) Lygropia ph(eocraspia, sp. u. 

Hind wing of male with a tuft of long hair from base of 
inner margin on underside. 

(J . Head and shoulders cupreous fuscous ; antennae pale 
oclireous ; tufts of hair on neck and thorax ochreous ; pectus 
and legs ochreous white, the tibi?e and tarsi suffused with 
fuscous; abdomen ochreous suffused with fuscous. Fore 
wing ochreous, the costa fuscous, nari'owly on postmedial 
area, the terminal area fuscous black, its inner edge slightly 
waved and bent inwards at vein 2 ; a faint blackish ante- 
medial line, oblique to just below the cell ; a black annulus 
in middle of cell and an oblique discoidal lunule defined by 
black and connected by streaks at middle and lower extremity 
"with the black postmedial line which is incurved at discal 
fold, excurved and minutely waved between veins 5 and 2, 
then bent iuwards on vein 2 and with a spot below it ; cilia 
whitish, chequered with blackish at apex and at veins 5 
to 2. Hind wing ochreous white ; a black discoidal spot ; 
postmedial line blackish, with a spot at discal fold, excurved 
and minutely wavjd between veins 5 and 2, then bent 
inwards and with a spot below vein 2 ; the terminal area 
blackish with some ochreous on terraen at middle ; cilia 
whitish with a blackish line near base from apex to vein 2. 

Hah. AV. Colombia, San Antonio [Palmer), 1 ^ type. 
Exp. 28 mm. 

{Q a) Lygropia pogonodes., sp. n. 

Hind wing of male with a large tuft of black hair on tornal 
half of inner margin on upperside. 

o. Head, thorax, and abdomen orange-yellow. Fore 
wing orange-yellow ; a small round black discoidal spot ; 
terminal area faintly clouded with fuscous. Hind wing 

2* 



20 On new Species of PyralicItB. 

oranjj;e-yellow, tlie terminal area faintly clouded with fuscous 
to vein 2 ; the tuft of hair on inner margin deep black, 

? . Hind wing without the tuft of black hair on inner 
margin. 

Hah. N. Nigeria, Baro [Macfie), 1 ^ type; Transvaal, 
White R. (Cooke), 1 ? . Exp. 30 mm. 

(6 b) Lygropia heliosalis, sp. n. 

Mid tibiee of male dilated, with a fold enclosing a tuft 
of long hair. 

cJ . Deep orange ; fore tibiae blackish at extremity. 
Fore wing with the costa blackish towards apex, the cilia 
black except at tornus. Hind wing with the termen slightly 
tinged with black at apex, the cilia black except at tornus. 

Hab. Argentina, Gran Chaco, Florenzia {IVagnev), 1 S 
type. Exp. 20 mm. 

(6 c) Lygropia flavivialis, s^. n. 

($ . Brown ; palpi in front^ sides of frons, vertex of head, 
pectus, greater part of legs, and ventral surface of abdomen 
yellow. Fore wing with oblique yellow medial band broad 
at costa, narrowing to inner margin. Hind wing with broad 
yellow band from middle of costa to middle of termen, widest 
at costa and termen ; cilia yellow with a brown line through 
them. 

Hab. Brazil, Sao Paulo (D. Jones), 1 ^ type. Exp. 24 
mm. 

(6r/) Lygrop\a chrysozonalis, sp. n. 

^ . Head, thorax, and abdomen black-brown with a pur- 
plish gloss ; palpi with white patches at base and in front of 
second joint, the third joint Avhite ; frons with white patches 
at sides and orange band above and between antennse ; neck 
Avith orange ring ; fore tiluse with white band ; tarsi white 
except at extremity ; ventral surface of abdomen white. 
Fore wing black-brown with a purplish gloss ; a very broad 
oblique orange band from middle of costa, towards which it 
expands, to terminal third of inner margin. Hind wing 
black-browm with a purplish gloss ; a large wedge-shaped 
orange patch on costa from middle to just before termen 
extending to just below vein 4 ; a fine white line at base of 
cilia. 

Hab. Peru (P. O. Simons), 1 (^ type. Exjy. 24 mm. 

[To be continued.] 



Descriptions and Records of Bees. 21 



ir. — Descriptions and Records of Bees. — XLV. 
By T. D. A. CocKERELL, University of Colorado. 

Bonibus lateralis wilmattce, subsp. n. 

Worker. — Hair of head black or with a little pale ou 
front ; hair of thorax very pale yellow^ with a broad blaek 
baud between wings ; hair of abdomen pale yellow on first 
dorsal segment, middle half of second^ and a small elongate 
triangle of yellow (sometimes nearly obsolete) ou middle of 
third ; the apex of the little triangle points towards the 
second segment, the yellow of which is eniarginate in the 
middle. Compared with a worker lateralis from Costa Rica 
(Bruner) our insect averages distinctly smaller (length 
about 13 mm.) ; the yellow hair is paler and includes the 
anterior and posterior parts of thorax above ; the ocelli are 
distinctly smaller, and the malar space is perhaps a trifle 
shorter. The brownish wings are the same. 

Hah. Antigua, Guatemala (type locality), six {W. P. 
Cockerell) ;■ Guatemala City, Guatemala, four {W. P. 
Cocker ell) . 

The original B. lateralis, Sm., was described from the 
mountains of Guatemala, at a higher altitude than the 
localities of loilmattce. I think it is probable that the 
difference is only racial, the form from the higher altitudes 
being more melanic. It is the Guatemala City form in which 
the yellow triangle ou the third segment is evanescent. 

Psithyrus guatemalensis , sp. n. 

^ . — Length about 17 mm.; anterior wing 11^. 

Black, with the elongate obconieal abdomen ; malar space 
broader than long ; antennae black, the flagellum rather 
thick, its joints not in the least arcuate ; hair of head long 
and black, a little pale on lower part of front, that on top of 
head behind ocelli entii-ely very pale oehreous, but that ou 
cheeks black ; hair of thorax long and loose, very pale 
oehreous, a moderate amount of black on posterior middle 
of mesothorax and middle of scutellum, hair of hind part of 
pleura (especially a tuft beneath wings) and of metathorax 
black; tcgulaj with a rufous spot posteriorly. Wings dusky, 
strongly reddish. Legs with black hair, that on inner side 
of tarsi dark red except at base ; hind tibiae slender, convex ; 
hind basitarsi hardly as broad as tibiae. Abdomen shining, 
with abundant black hair, but a large pale oehreous tuft at 



22 Mr. T. D. A. Cockeiell — Descrijotions and 

each side of first segment, and small yellowish-white tufts on 
sides of segments 3 to 5. 

Distinguished from the North-American species by the 
colours of the pubescence ; also as follows : — Compared with 
P. tricolor', Franklin, it is rather less robust, and the hair of 
the abdomen is considerably shorter ; the wings are much 
redder; malar space shorter (its length perhaps a trifle 
greater than width of mandibles at base, but in tricolor m\xc\\ 
greater) ; mandibles much more slender; third antennal 
joint shorter ; hair of hind tibise and basitarsi very much 
shorter, mostly not longer than half diameter of leg. (The 
male of the European P. quadricolor, Lep., has even shorter 
hair on hind basitarsus, but long hair on the tibia. The male 
of the European P. campestris (Panz.) has the hair on hind 
tibia and tarsus practically as in P. guatemalensis.) 

Hub. Guatemala City, Guatemala {W. P. Cockerell). 

The first Psithyrus from Central America. 

Anthophora usticauda, sp. n. 

$ . — Length about 10| mm. 

Black; tarsi reddis'.i at apex ; eyes green ; antennae black ; 
clypeus with a rather broad, subapical, transverse, yellow 
band, interrupted in middle ; labrum densely and strongly 
punctured, yellow except narrow apical margin and a large 
spot at each ujiper corner ; mandibles with a large more or 
less bilobcd yellow mark ; malar space almost obsolete ; hair 
of face and cheeks white, stained with ochreous on front ; 
hair of vertex long and black (not going so far forward as 
anterior ocellus), of occiput ochreous; hair of thorax above 
n;ixed pale fulvous and black, at sides and behind a livelier 
fulvous, without black, but on lower part of pleura white ; 
tcgulse rufo-piceous. Wings smoky, nervures black; ante- 
lior femora and trochanters with long white hair behind. 
Hair on outer side of legs fulvous (that of hind tibiae abun- 
dant, shining), but brush on end of hind basitarsus black ; 
hair on inner side of middle and hind tibiae and basitarsi 
black ; spurs ferruginous. Abdomen ornamented with 
appressed, scale-like, rufo-piceous pile, with black hairs inter- 
mixed ; the rufo-fulvous parts include rather narrow apical 
margin of first segment, broader margin of second, most of 
third except a narrow longitudinal median band and a large 
basal area on eacli side, fourth except a median stripe and 
a little space at extreme sides, fifth (the colour paler) except 
a large black median triangle; beneath, the abdomen has 
white hair. 



Records of Bees. 23 

Hab, Antigua, Guatemala (type locality), four {W. P. 
Cockerell) ; Amatitlau, Guatemala, one, Feb. 5, 1912 {W. P. 
Cocker el I). 

The third abdominal segment may be T\'ithout evident dark 
basal areas. This is a very red member of the subgenus 
Micranthophora, and is closely related to the Mexican Antho- 
2)hora squammulosa, Dours, differing by the absence of any 
border of dark hair to the abdominal segments, the black 
hair of vertex not mixed ^vith white, the smoky wings, &c. 

Coelioxys sanguinosus, sp. n. 

$ . — Length about 11 mm. 

Black, with the teguire and legs very bright ferruginous ; 
venter of abdomen also red, as well as first dorsal segment 
(except middle of apical margin narrowly), and sides of 
second and third more or less, the red extending suttusedly 
and obscurely over a good part of second ; mandibles stout, 
red, with black apex ; lateral margins of labrum broadly 
red ; eyes purplish^ their hair very short ; sides of face and 
region about antennae with pure white hair ; clypeus finely 
hairy, but not enough to hide the finely rugose gently 
convex surface, the lower margin straight and entire; an- 
tennae entirely black ; vertex with large punctures ; cheeks 
densely covered with white hair ; thorax with the usual hair- 
bands and spots, the dorsal ones creamy; mesothorax 
shining, with very large, not very dense punctures ; scutellum 
with large punctures, closely placed, but a small smooth 
space in the middle ; middle of hind margin of scutellum 
with a small but conspicuous shining triangular tooth ; 
axillar spines straight, rather long, with large punctures. 
Wings dusky toward apex, a fuliginous purplish streak in 
upper part of marginal cell ; recurrent nervures joining 
second s.m. equally distant from base and apex. Hair on 
inner side of tarsi shining light yellowish. Abdomen with 
very narrow, entire, pure white hair-bands ; first dorsal 
segment with scattered strong punctures ; second to fifth 
rather well punctured basally, but beyond that smooth and 
with few punctures except at sides ; last dorsal with small 
punctures and a feeble keel, the apex rather thick and very 
obtuse ; last ventral prolonged some distance beyond last 
dorsal, broad and spoon-shaped, margined with very short 
dark hair, neither notched at sides nor with a terminal 
appendage; penultimate ventral segment only moderately 
produced, sparsely punctured. 

Hab. Gualan, Guatemala i^W. P. Cockerell). 



24 Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell — Descriptions and 

111 my table iu ' Psyche/ October 1905, this runs to C. tex- 
ana, Cresson, which, however, has the middle and liind tarsi 
black, and differs in other ways. The shape of the last 
dorsal segment resembles that of C. comstockii, Cress., but 
there is a slight median nodule in the middle of the apical 
truncation ; in other characters the insect is quite unlike 
comstockii. In Schrottky's table of Brazilian species it 
runs to C. ignava, Sm., which has a quite different apex of 
abdomen. 

Xenoglossa assimilis (Smith). 

Quirigua, Guatemala; two males at flowers of Ipomoea 
sidcefulia, Choisy, Feb. 12 and 20 {W. P. Cockerell). 

Tliis is Melissodes assimilis, Smith ; it is a Xenoglossa 
related to X. pridnosa, Say. The maxillary palpi are five- 
jointed, the fifth joint very short. 

Agapostemon proscriptus J sp. n. 

$ . — Bright green, with the size and general appearance 
of A. radiatus, Say, but differing as follows : — Base of meta- 
thorax coarsely rugose, without Avell-defined ridges; broad 
basal bands of white hair on abdominal segments 2 to 4 
more conspicuous ; knees (broadly), tibite, and tarsi ferru- 
ginous ; hair on inner side of hind tarsi orange-fulvous ; 
second s.m. very broad, broader than high. The mandibles 
are light yellow basally and rufous apically ; the labrum is 
dark reddish. 

Hab. Guatemala City, Guatemala, two {tV. P. Cockerell). 

Beseinbles the little-known A. pulcher, Smith, but the 
wings are distinctly dusky (somewhat yellowish), and the 
femora are black except at apex. Both specimens have 
gathered bright orange pollen. 

Me.gacMle ze.nnenice, sp. n. 

$ . — Length about 12 mm. 

Black, rather long and parallel-sided, general appearance 
much like M. lenticula, Vachal ; head broad ; eyes purplish ; 
clypeus short and broad, closely punctured, with a rudi- 
mentary median ridge, the lower margin gently concave, with 
a median tubercle ; mandibles broad, black, the two apical 
teeth distinct, the long inner cutting-edge without distinct 
teeth ; supraclypeal area shining, convex, with scattered 
distinct punctures ; hair of face creamy white, mixed with 
black, long black hairs from each side directed toward 



Records of Bees. 25 

middle of clypcus ; hair of vertex black, of clieeks white ; 
antennse black, ordinary ; mesothorax dullish, finely punc- 
tured, quite closely except posterior middle, with sparse 
short black hair, and a little pale in front ; scutellum with 
conspicuous black hair ; scutello-mesothoracic suture with a 
narrow band of dense pale orange tomcntum ; postscutcUum 
and metathorax with creamy white hair ; pleura with white 
hair below, but a tuft of black just below wings, contrasting 
with the dense creamy hair bordering tubercles ; teguhe 
piceous. Wings dusky translucent, darker apically, espe- 
cially beyond end of marginal cell ; nervures black. Legs 
black, with mostly whitish hair, that on inner side of tarsi 
and inner side of middle tibise orange-ferruginous ; spurs 
yellowish white ; claws simple ; hind basitarsi broad and 
fiat ; abdomen of the parallel-sided type, above dense black, 
very finely punctured, with very short black hair, some pale 
hair on first segment, and very tine pale (yellowish) pruinosity 
on sixth, also extremely narrow apical yellowish hair-bands 
on the segments, only at sides on first ; ventral scopa very 
bright orange-ferruginous, with some black at sides of third 
and following segments, black on last segment except at 
base. 

Hah. Quirigua, Guatemala, at flowers of Zexmenia vir- 
Ijulta, Klatt {IV. P. Cockerell, 42). 

Keiated to M. mexicana, Cress., and M. zapoteca, Cress. 
From me.iicana it is known by the largely black hair on face 
and the larger size ; from zapottca also by the size and the 
colours of the ventral scopa. I was a little in doubt whether 
to refer it to M, zapotecu, but after carefully reading 
Cresson^s description 1 believe it must be distinct. 

Megachile tuxtla, Cresson. 

Male from Guatemala City (W. P. Cockerell) ; female 
from Antigua, Guatemala [W. P. Cockerell). 

The female has not been described j it is like the male 
except in the usual sexual characters ; clypeus with black 
hair, but sides of face with Avliite; ventral scopa pale ferru- 
ginous, becoming white basally, black on apical segment ; 
abdomen broad, shovel-shaped ; hair on inner side of tarsi 
very bright orange-ferruginous ; hind basitarsi only mode- 
rately broadened. In Friese's table of females of the 
Mexican region (' Das Tierreich,^ 28 Lief.) it runs nearest to 
M. mexicana, Cress. 

At Antigua my wife also took a female M. chri/sophila, 
Ckll. 



26 Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell — Descriptions and 

MegacMle montezuma, Cresson. 
Quirigua, Guatemala, one female {W. P. Cockerell). 

Megachile aurant'qiennis, sp. n. 

? . — Length about 8 mm. ; anterior wing 7. 

Black, short and broad, the antennae, mandibles, and legs 
black, spurs dark ; head large ; mandibles broad, of the 
quadrideutate type, but the teeth little developed ; clypeus 
convex, shining, densely punctured, at sides, sparsely in 
middle, the lower margin broadly and quite deeply emar- 
ginate, with a median tubercle ; mouth-parts rather short ; 
cheeks about half as wide as eye ; front, vertex, and cheeks 
very densely punctured, with largely appressed shining 
ochreous pubescence, only moderately dense; a little band 
of the same shining hair extends down anterior orbits, but 
is overlapped by black hair ; mesothorax densely covered 
with appressed shining ochreous (golden-brown) hair, 
tubercles densely tufted with pale hair, and a tuft of fulvous 
hair behind the wings ; pleura strongly punctured ; tegulse 
ferruginous, with a basal tuft of short black hair. Wings 
orange-ferruginous, with ferruginous nervures and unusually 
large stigma ; apical field brownish hyaline, not orange, the 
apex of marginal cell and beyond fuscous. Hair on inner 
side of tarsi red ; hind basitarsus broad and flat. Abdomen 
short and broad, fourth and fifth segments with broad dense 
apical bands of golden-ochreous hair, and sixth covered with 
the same ; ventral scopa pale golden-ochreous, without 
black, at base (second segment) with a large V-shaped band 
of yellowish-white hair. 

^ . — Length about 6 ram. 

Similar to the female, except in the usual sexual cha- 
racters and those now given ; clypeus not emarginate, almost 
without ])unctures in middle ; sides of face with consjncuous 
pale golden-ochreous hair, not overlapped with black ; an- 
tennai long, ordinary ; base of metathorax with a median 
groove ; tegulse rufo-piceous. Wings dusky ferruginous 
instead of clear orange. Anterior legs simple; no coxal 
spines. First abdominal segment fringed with ochreous hair ; 
end of abdomen with two short, sharp, black spines, far apart. 

Hub. Quirigua, Guatemala, one of each sex, at flowers of 
plant no. 15, Feb. 11, 1912 {JV. P. Cockerell). The male is 
the type. 

Allied to the Mexican M. bidentis, Ckll., but easily sepa- 
rated by the hair on the mesothorax and the colour of the 



Records of Bees. 27 

wings. In Friese's table (' Das Tierrcich ') the female runs 
nearest to M. Candida, Sm., which is mueh larger and alto- 
gether different, or perhaps equally well to the vieinity of 
M. zaputeca and piilineri, which are even more different^ if 
that is possible. The male runs nearest to M. bidens and 
ixixtla, much larger species. It is worth while to note that 
the species of Meyachile which I described in 189G from 
tropical Mexico are placed in ' Das Tierreich ' among the 
species of the United States, and are quite erroneously stated 
to come from Utah and New Mexico. I make the male of 
M. aurantipennis the type, because the separation from the 
allied bidentis is necessarily based on a comparison of males, 
only this sex of bidentis being known. By some strange 
error, the original description of bidentis states that the 
insect is a female ; it is, in fact, a male. In male bidentis 
the fifth and sixth abdominal segments are densely covered 
with golden-ochreous hair, and the apex has a pair of short 
triangular teeth or tubercles; in male aurantipennis the fifth 
is largely dark (the surface showing) at base and the end is 
bispinose. Male bidentis has the wings coloured like female 
aurantipemris ; male aurantipennis has them much browner, 
the orange being mixed with fuscous. It is possible, perhaps, 
that the female described under aurantipennis really belongs 
to bidentis, but considering the circumstances of capture this 
is unlikely. No doubt the females of the two will be found 
to be very much alike, the male aurantipennis having diverged 
fiom the common type. Another very close relative is the 
Brazilian M. microsnnia, Ckll. In this (male) the tuft of 
hair on upper part of sides of metathorax is black and the 
wings ai-e not reddened. The apex of the abdomen is nearly 
as in aurantipennis. 

Megachile {Oligotropus) gualanensis, sp. n. 

$ . — Length 8-9^ mm. 

Parallel-sided, black (including antennse, mandibles, and 
legs), with white hair, on clypeus with long coarse black 
hairs intermixed, and the same (hardly so conspicuous) on 
scutellum and hindmost part of mesothorax ; ventral scopa 
white, on last segment black with some pale at sides ; the 
four teeth on apical margin of clypeus rather poorly developed 
and variable ; tegulse piceous at base, testaceous outwardly. 
AVings greyish hyaline, nervures piceous. Abdomen with 
narrow white hair-bands. 

(J. — Length 7-8 mm. 



28 Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell — Descriptions and 

Anterior legs simple ; sixth abdominal segment feebly 
bitubercnlate, the tubercles very close together. 

Hub. Gualan, Guatemala, five females, eight males ( W. P. 
Cockerell, 1). The female is the type. 

In Friese's table the female runs to 31. zaptlana and 
M. abacula, the male runs to M. abacula and M. blpartita. 
M. gualanensis is, in fact, very close to M. zaptlana, Cress., 
but the female has less black hair on head and the wings are 
not fuliginous on apical costal margin. Otherwise Cresson^s 
description of zaptlana practically agrees. M. abacula, 
Cress.j differs at once by the fulvo-ochraceous hair on 
abdomen. Among the United States species, M. (jualanensls 
stands nearest to M. subexilis, Ckll. The male flagellum is 
proportionately shorter in gualanensis than in subexilis, and 
in the female the distance from the top of the eye to the 
occipital margin is much less in (/ualane?isls iha.n in subexilis. 

Mellssodes raphaelis, Cockerell. 

Quirigua, Guatemala (JV. P. Cockerell). One female at 
yellow composite, less robust than types. Six normal males 
(one at flower no. 7 ; two, Feb. 11, at flower no 15; one, 
Feb. 12, at Ipoma-a sulcefolia, Choisy) ; one male with fulvous 
hair on head and thorax above, the only dark hairs a few on 
scutellum; eight variously intermediate males (three, Feb. 11, 
at flower no. 15 ; one, Feb. 12, at Ipomcea sldcefolia). 

In spite of the great variation all are evidently one species. 
The lighter-haired male is easily distinguished from M. floris, 
Ckll., by the deep notch on each side of yellow of clypeus, 
black hair on outer side of hind tibiae, and colours of 
abdomen. 

Mellssodes tepaneca aschenhorniana, subsp, n. 

cJ . — Differs from M. tepaneca, Cresson, by having the 
fifth abdominal segment with pale hair like the fourth, 
though the sixth has it black ; second segment with black 
hair between the basal and median band (it is ochreous in 
tepaneca); median band of second segment narrower ; hair 
on hind tarsi shorter ; Avings more dusky. It is very like 
M. masuca, Ckll., from Texas, but smaller, with the second 
abdominal segment between tlie bands more closely punc- 
tured and the eyes difi'erently coloured (light green). The 
middle and hind tibiae at apex and their tarsi are ferrugi- 
nous ; labrum, large spot on mandibles, and clypeus yellow, 
the last with the usual spots, but the yellow not notched ; 



Records of Bees. 29 

fla2:e11nm black above, clcai' ferrns;inous benoatli ; ten^ulne 
brigbt t'erruginous. The type lias the hair of thorax above 
briojht orange-fulvous, and that of abdomeu all (except the 
black) warm reddish ; the other specimen has the hair of 
thorax above pale oclireous and the median bands on second 
and followino; abdominal segments white. The hind margins 
of the abdominal segments are broadly more or less pallid. 
The middle of the raesothorax is shining, with rather sparse 
strong punctures. 

Ha'K Gualan, Guatemala (W. P. Cockerell). Two at 
flowers of Vernonia aschenhorniana, Schauer. 

I treat this as a subspecies of M. tepaneca, on account 
of the geographical proximity of that insect, but by the 
characters it is actually closer to the Texan M. masuca. 

Exomalopsis pulchella^ Ci'esson. 

Quirigua, Guatemala {JV. P. Cockerell). Two females ; 
one has the hair behind ocelli pale ochreous, the other 
(from flowers of Zexmenia virgulta, Klatt) has hair behind 
ocelli and on scutellum black, and the stigma and nervures 
bright ferruginous. 

Thygater cocJcerelli (Crawford). 

Quirigna, Guatemala (JV. P. Cockerell). One female, at 
flowers of no. 420. 

Thxjgater nigravillosa (Crawford). 

Qnirigua, Guatemala {W. P. Cockerell). Two males, 
Feb. 20, at flowers of Ipomcea sidafoUa. Choisy. 

Leptergatis armata (Smith). 

Quirigna, Guatemala {W. P. Cockerell). Twenty females 
(mostly Feb. 20), four males (two, Feb. 20; one, Feb. 12; 
one at flowers of Zexmenia virgulta). 

It is almost impossible to separate the females of this 
from Leptergatis toluca {Melissodes tolncn, Cresson), but the 
males are easily separated by the hind legs. 

Leptergatis toluca (Cresson). 

Gualan, Guatemala [TV. P. Cockerell). One male, Feb. 15, 
at flowers of Cordia alba, E. & S, 



30 Descriptions and Records of Bees 

Tetrapedia mayarum^ sp. n. 

$ . — Length nearly 10 ram. 

Black, with the labrum (except a median basal reddish 
spot), patch at base of mandibles, and broad lower corners of 
clypeus pellucid whitish ; hind tarsi clear ferruginous, with 
their hair entirely orange-ferruginous ; an obscure round red 
spot on inner side of hind tibiae near apex ; hair of head and 
thorax scanty, black above, silvery-white on cheeks, sides of 
face, and lower parts of pleura and metathorax ; head 
shining ; clypeus with strong punctures, dense in middle of 
sides ; front with extremely fine punctures and an oblique 
groove on each side ; sides of occiput with a sharp elevated 
margin ; antennse dark, the scape with a light yellowish-red 
spot at base, flagellum red beneath ; mesothorax and scu- 
tellum dull, with a granular appearance; base of metathorax 
punctured ; tubercles with short dark brown hair ; tegulse 
shining black. Wings dark fuliginous, a little paler apically, 
nervures fuscous, stigma amber-colour ; second s.m. con- 
siderably narrowed above, receiving first r. n. about halfway 
between middle and apex. Legs black (except as stated 
above), small joints of tarsi obscure reddish ; posterior apex 
of hind tibiEe broadly and thickly covered with red hair like 
that on tarsus ; anteriorly the hind tibia has some white 
hair near end ; anterior and middle legs with the hair black, 
partly red on tarsi ; anterior tibiae smooth and shining on 
outer side ; anterior basitarsi broad and thick ; middle basi- 
tarsi broad and flat, truncate at apex, with an obtuse lobe on 
inner apical corner ; hind coxa3 and trochanters simple ; 
hind basitarsi very broad and flat, with a triangular process 
on inner margin a little before middle ; spurs dark, simple. 
Abdomen smooth and shining, dorsally without markings ; 
apical segment triangular, ending in a pencil of hair ; fourth 
ventral with an undulate margin and its base broadly 
yellowish white ; sixth ventral triangularly produced. 

$ . — Length about 11 mm. 

Similar to the male, except for the usual sexual characters ; 
mandibles ferruginous; labrum black, with a red spot on 
each side, and fringed with copper-red hairs ; face entirely 
black ; clypeus well punctured ; scape suffusedly red at 
base ; scutellum somewhat bigibbous ; claw-joints all red ; 
hind tarsi only obscure reddish, except apically ; spurs 
simple ; hind femora with a red patch near apex ; hind tibiae 
behind with a curious patch of pure white material near 
apex, among the black hairs, the same on each side, entangled 
in pure white very long-plumose hairs ; on inner side of 



On neio Crinoids from the Dutch East Indies. 81 

liiiid tibire the liair is red apically ; hind basitarsi with hair 
black on outer side and behind, on inner side and the broad 
apical brush red, in front of basal part broadly white ; fifth 
dorsal abdominal segment with a large eream-coloured spot 
on each side. 

Hab. Quirigua, Guatemala [W. P. Cockerell). One of 
each sex. 

Related to T. bunchosice, Friese, but in the female the 
third central segment is like the second (not opaque and 
strongly punctured), while in the male the clypeus has less 
pale colour, and there are other differences. There are 
several more or less related species in South America, none 
having the same structure in detail as T. mayarum. 

T. bombitarsis, Vachal, must belong to this group, and, if 
so, is not allied to T. maura, as Vachal states. The groups 
containing maura and bunchosice differ in the spurs and other- 
wise, and are only superficially similar. 

Named after the Mayas, who built temples and made 
remarkable sculptured monuments at Quirigua. The male 
is the type. 

At flowers of Pontederia cordata, L., at Quirigua, Feb. 11, 
1912, Mrs. Cockerell took females of Tetrapedia calcarata, 
Cress., and T. nicest a, Cress. 



III. — Preliminary Descriptions of Eleven neio Crinoids 
belonging to the Families Himerometridaj, Mariametrida?, 
ojid Colobometridse, discovered hy the ' Siboga ' in the 
Dutch East Indies. By Austin H. Claek. 

The new unstalked crinoids described below will be con- 
sidered in greater detail and figured in the memoir covering 
the comatulids in the ' Siboga ' reports ; as the very extensive 
collection brought back by the ' {Siboga ' will require a large 
amount of study, especially as regards the data bearing on 
the geographical distribution of these animals and on allied 
problems, it has seemed advisable to publish descriptions of 
the new forms discovered in advance of the final report. 

Family Himerometridae. 

Amphimetra propinqua, sp. n. 

This species is most closely related to A. producta, but it 
differs from that form in its longer and more slender cirri, 
which are composed of much longer segments. 



32 IMr. A. H. Clark on nero Crinonis 

The cirri are VIII-XIII, 24-36 (usually 30-33), 26 mm. 
to 32 mm. (usually about 30 mm.) long; they are very 
slender, and taper gradually in the proximal third, being 
especially slender from that point onward ; all the cirrus 
segments are approximately subequal in length, about twice 
as long as broad at the ends, though those in the distal third 
of the cirrus are slightly carinate, which makes them appear 
slightly shorter, and those in tiie proximal half are slightl}'- 
longer, with slightly expanded ends; in the outermost seg- 
ments there is a slight indication of dorsal tubercles. 

The arms vary from ten to thirteen in number, and are 
from DO mm. to 120 mm. long. 

Ti/pe Locality. ' Siboga' Station No. 318 ; north-east of the 
east end of Java ; 88 metres. 

Family Mariametridae. 
Sehnemetra fenuicirra, sp. n. 

This new form is closely related to 8. Jinschii^ from- 
which it differs in the structure of its cirri, which are 
longer and more slender, and are composed of more elongated 
segments. 

The cirri are from 55 mm. to 70 mm. long, and are com- 
posed of 69-78 segments, of which the distal are nearly or 
quite as long as broad, instead of twice as broad as long or 
even broader as in S. finschii^ and the more proximal are 
about twice as long as broad instead of slightly, when at all, 
longer than broad as in S. finschii. 

Pj is 11 mm. long and is composed of twenty or twenty- 
one segments, of which the first is short, the following 
gradually increasing in length and becoming about as long as 
broad on the fifth or sixth and twice as long as broad distally ; 
Pais 12 mm. long, with twenty-two segments, and resembles 
P] ; P3 is 10 mm. long, with eighteen segments, and resembles 
P2; P4 is 7*5 mm. long, with thirteen segments, and tapers 
more in its distal portion than P3 ; P5 is 7 mm. long, with 
thirteen segments, and is slightly more slender than P4, 
especially distally ; the distal pinnules are 8 mm. long, with 
seventeen segments. 

Type Locality. ' Siboga ' Station No. 320 ; north of the 
east end of Java ; 82 metres. 

Mariametra temiipeSy sp. n. 

The centrodorsal resembles that of the other species of the 
genus ; the dorsal pole is slightly convex, finel}^ tubercular, 
i mm. in diameter. 



from the Dutch East Indies. 33 

The cirri are XXVI, 24-29, 22 mm. long : the first seg- 
ment is short, the second is about twice as broad as the 
median length, the third is slightly longer than broad to half 
again as long as broad, and the sixth to the eighth are about 
three times as long as their median diameter; the followiti"- 
gradually decrease in length, so that the last ten or elev(Mi 
are about as long as the distal diameter or only very slightly 
longer ; the cirri are exceedingly slender ; the longer proximal 
segments have slightly prominent ends; slight subterminal 
dorsal spines are found on the eleventh and following. 

Tlie arms are about fifteen in number and about 45 mm. 
long ; together with the division series they resemble those 
of the other species of the genus. The lateral ornamentation 
on the ossicles of the IBr series is confined to the lateral 
third of the dorsal surface ; distal ly it gradually narrows, 
disappearing at the base of Pi ; it consists of very numerous 
small blunt spines, more or less coalescent, which exhibit a 
tendency to become arranged in horizontal rows. 

Type Locality. ' Siboga ' Station No. 294 ; off the south 
coast of Timor ; 73 metres. 

Mariametra tuherculata, sp. n. 

This species is nearest to M, delicatissima ; but in that 
form the lateral ornamentation of the division series is merely 
a slight roughening. 

The centrodorsal is large, thick discoidal, the dorsal pole 
slightly convex, 2 mm. in diameter ; the cirrus sockets are 
arranged in two closely crowded and irregularly alternating 
rows. 

The cirri are XXI, 25-27, 20 mm. long; they are long 
and rather slender with a slight distal taper : the first seg- 
ment is short, the second slightly longer, the tiiird nearly as 
long as broad, the fourth slightly longer than broad ; after 
the tenth the segments slowly decrease in length, so that the 
last four or five before the penultimate are about as long as 
broad to about one-third longer than broad ; the outer eleven 
or twelve have a slight distal dorsal carination, whicli is low 
and rises very gradually from the dorsal surface, but ends 
rather abruptly distally. 

The radials are con.cealed in the median line, and are only 
slightly visible in the interradial angles ; the \\j\\ are very 
siiort, almost oblong, five or six times as broad as long; the 
axillaries are very sliort, nearly or quite three times as broad 
as long ; the IIBr and IlIBr series are 2, the latter developed 
externally ; the sides of the division series are in close 

Ann. ik Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. VoL x. 3 



34 Mf. A. H. Clark oji new Crinoids 

apposition and are sharply flattened laterally ; the proximal 
edge of the IBr^ is everted and slightly scalloped ; the 
anterior edges of the axillary are slightly everted, but 
smooth ; the lateral third of these two ossicles taken to- 
gether bear a dozen or a dozen and a half prominent well 
rounded and entirely separated tubercles, some of which may 
be laterally elongated ; the sides of the ossicles of the IIBr 
series are similarly, though not so extensively, modified, 
this modification being bordered interiorly by a more or less 
marked prominent beaded ridge or row of tubercles, which, 
however, may be absent. 

The type specimen has about twenty-six arms, which are 
75 mm. long. 

Til jie Locality. ^ Siboga' Station No. 51 ; southern portion 
of Molo Strait J 69-91 metres. 

Diclirometra tenuicirra, sp. n. 

In all the details of its general structure this species agrees 
•with D. flagellata^ but it is sharply separated from that form 
by the curious character of its cirri, which are long and 
slender, with elongate, though spinous, distal segments. 

The centrodorsal is low hemispherical, with very sloping- 
sides ; the dorsal pole is slightly convex, flat, or very 
slightly concave, 1*5 mm. to 2 mm. in diameter ; the cirrus 
sockets are arranged in two or in two and a partial third 
marginal rows. 

The cirri (in the type) are XXVIIT, 25-28, 20 mm. to 
25 mm. long, slender and delicate : the first segment is very 
short, the second is twice as broad as long, the third is 
slightly broader than long, the fourth is half again to twice 
as long as the median diameter, and the fifth is from two to 
two and one-half times as long as broad ; the following to 
the ninth, tenth, or eleventh (the latter usually a faintly 
marked transition segment) are similar, but those following 
are slightly shorter, about half again as long as broad ; the 
tenth, eleventh or twelfth, and following bear prominent 
triangular median spines ; the earlier of these spines occur 
about in the centre of the dorsal line of the segments; their 
anterior (distal) margin stands out verticallj^ and is from one- 
third to one-half as long as the recumbent side ; the hypo- 
thenuse from the apex of the spine to the proximal base is 
usually straight, but there may be a slight tubercle where it 
merges with the dorsal surface of the segment ; sometimes 
it is more or less concave, leading from the dorsal spine to a 
smaller blunt proximal tubercle ; the spines change but 
little distally ; their bases become shorter and their apices 



from the Dutch East Indies. 35 

consequently sliarper ; the long-er earlier segments have 
slightly enlarged distal ends ; tiiis character persists to the 
end of the cirrus, but is less marked on the spinous distal 
segments. 

The division series and the arms resemble those of 
I), -flagellata, but are much more slender and delicate ; the 
division series and first brachials may be well separated or in 
lateral contact ; they are usually not quite in apposition, 
though possessing straight lateral edges which are slightly 
swollen, suggesting the lateral processes seen on the proxi- 
mal ossicles of the species of Stephanometra, though their 
outer maro-in is straiirht instead of convex. The character- 
istic rugose arm-structure and the low though prominent 
synarthrial tubercles of D.^a^e/^ato are reflected in a delicate 
and modified form. 

Type Locality. ' Siboga ' Station No. 320; north of the 
eastern end of Java ; 82 metres. 

Family Colobometridse. 
Cyllometi'a gracilis, sp. n. 

This new species is related to C. manca, but differs 
markedly in its longer and more slender cirri, which are com- 
posed of longer segments. 

The centrodorsal is discoidal, the dorsal pole flat or slightly 
concave, 2 mm. in diameter ; the cirrus sockets are arranged 
in one and a partial second marginal row. 

The cirri are (in the type) XXIII, 25-30 (usually nearer 
the latter), 21 mm. long : the first segment is short, the 
second is about twice as long, from one-third to one-half 
again as broad as long, the third is slightly longer than 
broad, the fourth and fifth progressively increase in length, 
and the sixth to the ninth or tenth are the longest, about 
twice as long as their proximal diameter ; the following 
segments gradually decrease in length, so that the last 
twelve before the penultimate are subequal, slightly longer 
than broad ; as a whole the cirri are long and unusually 
slender ; owing to the crowded condition of the cirri on the 
centrodorsal the first segment is sharply flattened laterally 
against the first segments of the cirri on either side ; the 
disfal dorsal edge of the fourth and following segments is 
slightly swollen, this after the seventh becoming a trio of 
dorsal spines, a central, larger, and two smaller, lateral ; 
the central spine projects more dorsally than do tlie other 
two, but does not extend so far distally ; all are very small ; 
on the last twelve or fifteen segments before the penultimate 

3* 



36 Mr. A. II. Clark on new Crinoids 

the lateral spines disappear and the median becomes slightly 
more prominent, occurring as a small single submedian 
tubercle directed obliquely forward ; all the dorsal processes 
are small and inconspicuous. 

The arms are from twenty-five to thirty in number, and 
about 50 mm. in length ; IIIBr series are always present on 
some or all of the rays. 

Type Locality. 'Siboga^ Station No. 49 a ; Sapeh Strait, 
between Sumbava and Komodo, Sunda Islands ; 69 metres. 

Decametra mylitta^ sp. n. 

This new form is nearest to D. mollis from Kurrachi,but 
the cirri are slightly stouter, the majority of the segments 
being twice as broad as long or even somewhat broader in- 
stead of only slightly broader tlian long as in TJ. mollis, and 
the proximal pinnules, while of about the same proportions, 
are relatively longer and stouter and are composed of some- 
what shorter segments. 

The centrodorsal is. discoidal, the flat dorsal pole being 
1*5 mm. in diameter; the cirrus sockets are arranged in two 
closely crowded alternating marginal rows. 

The cirri are XIX, 20-23, 10 mm. or 11 mm. long: the 
cirrus segments are subequal in length and all short ; the 
first is very short, the second slightly longer, the third and 
following about twice as broad as long or slightly broader ; 
the last three before the penultimate increase slightly in 
length, so that the antepenultimate is about one-third broader 
than long ; the earlier segments have the dorsal surface 
swollen and distally truncated, so that the dorsal profile of 
the cirrus is serrate ; after the first three segments the dorsal 
profile becomes straighter, making a considerable angle with 
the longitudinal axis of the cirrus, and the distal edge be- 
comes straight, forming a very finely spinous trausverse 
ridge, which, however, is not raised above the general 
surface of the segments ; this transverse ridge becomes 
gradually more and more marked, at the same time moving 
more and more toward the centre of the dorsal surface ; on 
the ninth segment it becomes median and begins to acquire 
a slightly concave profile, and after the fourteenth it resolves 
itself into two prominent, entirely distinct, tubercles situated 
side by side, the distance between their two apices being 
about equal to the distance from either apex to the outer 
edge of the segment ; distally these two tubercles gradually 
approach each other, and gradually move nearer the proximal 
margin of the segments ; on the fourth segment before the 



from the Dutch East Indies. 37 

penuhiniiite the two tubercles fuse into a single transversely 
elongate tubercle, whicli gradually becomes less and less 
elongate and on the antepenultimate appears as a single 
small rounded tubercle situated near the proximal margin of 
the segment; when the cirri are viewed from the side no 
distinct dorsal })rocesses are seen (though the dorsal profile 
is serrate) until the distal half, when the tubercles appear as 
low blunt dorsal spines. 

Pi is small and weak, 5 mm. long, with fourteen segments, 
tapering with moderate rapidity in the proximal half and 
becoming very slender distally ; the first segment is short, 
the following gradually increasing in length and becoming 
about as long as broad on the fourth or filth, and about 
twice as long as broad distally ; the pinnule is slightly 
prismatic ; Pj is 9 mm. long, witii seventeen segments, not 
greatly larger than P^ basally, but tapering evenly from the 
base to the tip and therefore appearing stouter; the first two 
segments are slightly broader than those following, and are 
much broader than long ; the third segment is slightly broader 
than long, the fourth is slightly longer than broad, and the 
following are about half again as long as broad, becoming 
twice as long as broad terminally ; the pinnule is rounded 
prismatic ; the fourth and following segments have slightly 
produced and spinous distal edges, this character gradually 
increasing in extent distally and being most marked along 
the prismatic ridge ; P3 is 6 mm. long, with fourteen seg- 
ments, and is similar to P3 except in size; P4 is 5 mm. long, 
with thirteen segments, and resembles P3; P5 is 4*5 mm. 
long, with fourteen segments, and resembles P4, but the 
component segments are proportionately shorter ; Pg is 4 mm. 
long with fifteen segments, and resembles P5 ; the following 
pinnules are similar to Pg; the distal pinnules are very 
slender, 7 mm. long, with twenty-one segments, of which the 
outer are about twice as long as broad. 

The ten arms are 75 mm. long. 
- Type Locality. ' Siboga ' Station No. 99; anchorage off 
North Ubian, between Borneo and Mindanao; 16-23 metres. 

Prometra Icevipinna, sp. n. 

The centrodorsal is discoidgil, with a broad flat circular 
dorsal pole 2 mm. in diameter; the cirrus sockets are 
arranged in a single closely crowded marginal row. 

The cirri are XIV, 18-23, 13 mm. long : the first seg- 
ment is very short, the following gradually increasing in 
leiifftb and after the tenth or eleventh becoming about as 



38 Mr. A. H. C'avk on new Crinoids 

broad as long ; the first segment has the distal dorsal edge 
produced ; on the second and third this becomes a strong 
transverse ridge, which gradually moves anteriorly, becoming 
median on the eighth and following, and appearing as a 
minute median spine in lateral view ; this ridge shows no 
tendency to resolve itself into paired spines or tubercles, nor 
does it narrow appreciably on the outer segments, appearing 
as a broad transverse ridge on the antepenultimate; the 
opposing spine is small, slender, median, erect, in height 
equal to about one-quarter of tlie lateral diameter of the 
penultimate segment. 

The arms, which resemble those of the other small species 
of the genus, are 40 mm. long. 

Pi is 5*5 mm. long, with fourteen or fifteen segments, 
moderately slender and somewhat stiffened ; the first segment 
is short, the following gradually increasing in length, so that 
the fifth is about as long as broad and the outer very 
slightly longer than broad ; from the third segment outward 
the pinnule is rather strongly prismatic^ with a prominent 
rounded ridge running along the centre of the outer 
surface ; P2 is t)'5 mm. long, with seventeen segments, 
resembling Pj, but slightly more slender basally and tapering 
more evenly to the tip, and not so strongly prismatic ; P3 is 
4"5 mm. long, with fourteen segments, similar to the pre- 
ceding, but proportionately smaller, and more slender distally ; 
P4 is 3*5 mm. long, with thirteen segments, small and 
slender, with the outer segments twice as long as broad ; P5 
is similar, 3 mm. long, with eleven or twelve segments ; 
Pg resembles Pg ; the distal pinnules are very slender, 7 mm. 
long, with from twenty to twenty-two segments ; the outer 
edges of the segments of the earlier pinnules are perfectly 
smooth. 

Type Locality. Saleyer (north of Flores). 

Prometra minima, sp. n. 

The centrodorsal is thin discoidal, with a flat finely papillose 
dorsal pole 1 mm. in diameter. 

The cirri are X, 10-12, 3 mm. to 4 mm. long : the first 
segment is short, the following gradually increasing in 
length, so that the fifth or sixth and following are about as 
long as broad ; the second and following have a finely serrate 
transverse ridge, which becomes median after the fourth or 
fifth ; this transverse ridge is low and very narrow, appearing 
as a very minute sharp spine in lateral view ; on the second, 
third, and fourth segments the lateral angles of this ridge 



from the Dutch East Indies. 39 

project beyond the profile of tlie cirrus as seen in dorsal view, 
but beyond the fourth segment the ridge becomes narrower, 
beyond the sixth dividing more or less completely into two 
transversely oblong sharp ridges or small sharp spines ; the 
antepenultimate segment possesses a single dorsal spine ; 
the opposing spine is much larger than the preceding dorsal 
processes. 

The radials are just visible beyond the centrodorsal ; the 
IBri are very short, about four times as broad as long, the 
proximal and distal edges parallel, the lateral edges slightly 
convergent ; there are slight rounded ventrolateral pro- 
jections ; the axillaries are broadly pentagonal, half again as 
broad as long, with slight rounded ventrolateral processes 
resembling those on the IBr^ ; the synarthrial tubercles are 
moderately developed. 

The ten arms are very slender, 35 mm. to 40 mm. long, 
and resemble those of the other species of the genus ; there 
is a faintly indicated rounded median carination on the lower 
oblong brachials. 

Pi is 2 mm. long, with eight or nine segments, nearly as 
stout basally as Pg? but tapering more rapidly and becoming 
slender and delicate distally; the first segment is short, the 
following gradually increasing in length and becoming 
slightly longer than broad on the third and about twice as 
long as broad distally ; the distal edges of the outer seg- 
ments are slightly spinous ; Pg is 3 mm. long, stitf and 
spine-like, though slender, tapering slowly and evenly from 
the base to the tip, with eight or nine segments, of which 
the first is twice as broad as long, the second is nearly as 
long as broad, the third is nearly twice as long as broad, and 
the remainder are about three times as long as broad ; the 
pinnule is rather strongly prismatic, and the distal edges of 
the third and following segments bear long and prominent 
spines on the prismatic angles ; P3 is 2 mm. long, with eight 
segments, of which the distal are considerably elongated, 
small and slender, slightly stiffened ; P^ is 1-25 mm. long, 
very delicate, and not stiffened, with nine segments, of which 
the distal are much elongated ; Pg is similar, but slightly 
shorter; the distal pinnules are 2-5 mm. long, with thirteen 
segments, of which the second and third are strongly carinate 
and the outer are very greatly elongated. 

Type Locality. ' Siboga ' Station No. 117 ; entrance to 
Kwandang Bay, Celebes; 80 metres. 

Prometra parva, sp. n. 
The cirri are XIV, 14-15, 5'5 mm. long, and resemble 



40 On new Crinoids from the Dutch East Indies. 

those of P. minima ; the sixth or seventh and following 
segments are about as long as broad. 

The ten arms are 40 mm. long; the lower discoidal 
brachials are smooth, but those following have rather strongly 
everted distal ends. 

Pi is 2'3 mm. long, with eleven segments ; it tapers rather 
rapidly in the first four segments, more gradually from tliat 
point onward ; the first segment is short, the second slightly 
longer, the third slightly broader than long, the fourth 
sligiitly longer than broad, the fifth and following about 
twice as long as broad ; P3 is from 3'5 mm. to 4'5 mm. long, 
with eleven segments, evenly tapering, much larger and 
stouter than the other pinnules, though not greatly enlarged ; 
the first segment is short, the second half again as 
broad as long, the third slightly broader than long, the 
following gradually increasing to the seventh, which, with 
the following, is twice as long as broad ; the pinnule is rather 
strongly prismatic and the fourth and following segments 
have their distal edges produced on the prismatic angles into 
prominent short stout spines, which increase in prominence 
distally ; Pg is 1'5 mm. long, with eight segments, of which 
the distal are elongated, small and weak ; P4 is slightly 
smaller than Pg ; the distal pinnules are exceedingly slender, 
4 mm. to 4*5 mm. long, with thirteen segments, of which the 
second and third are slightly carinate and the outer are 
greatly elongated. 

Type Locality. ' Siboga ' Station No. 315 ; anchorage off 
Sailus Besar, Paternoster Islands ; up to 36 metres. 

Oligometra maryinata, sp. n. 

This new species is most closely related to 0. adeonce. 

The dorsal pole of the centrodorsal is papillose. 

Tlie cirri are XV, 15-16, 7 mm. long : the first segment 
is short, the following gradually increasing in length, so that 
the fourth, fifth or sixth, and following are about as long as 
broad ; the third and following segments have a strong 
transverse ridge near the proximal dorsal margin ; this 
ridge is prominent and high with a finely serrate crest; it 
lies about one-third of the distance between the proximal and 
distal margins of the segments ; in the proximal half or 
three-quarters of the cirri the distal dorsal edge of the seg- 
ments is more or less everted, so that there is the same 
bidentate appearance characteristic of the cirri of 0. adeonce ; 
on the earlier segments this eversion may be nearly as high 
as the transverse ridge, but it soon decreases in height and 



On Mammals from the Ja River, Cameroons. 4L 

disappears entirely in the outer half or quarter of the cirri ; 
the smaller cirri are quite without it. 

The ten arms are 30 mm. long ; the proximal arm structure is 
the same as that of 0. adeona; ; the ossicles of the I Br series 
and the first two brachials are broad and are in lateral contact 
through produced and fiange-like ventrolateral borders, the 
outer edges of which are parallel to the longitudinal axes of 
the segments which bear them. 

Pj is 5 mm. long, with nine segments, rather slender but 
considerably stiffened, recalling Pg in the more delicate 
varieties o£ Sleplmnometra vwnacantha ; the first segment is 
about one-third broader than long, the second half again as 
long as the proximal width, slightly trapezoidal, the third 
about three times as long as its proximal diameter, the fourth 
to the sixth slightly longer, the following rapidly diminishing 
to the small terminal segment; the second to the fourth 
segments are slightly constricted centrally ; P2 is 4 mm. long, 
with nine segments, similar to Pi, but very slightly stouter 
and with slightly shorter segments ; P3 is 2*5 mm. to 3 mm. 
long, with eight segments, more slender and less stitfened 
than the preceding; P4 is 2 mm. long, small, slender, and 
weak, with eight or nine segments; the next two pinnules 
are similar to P^; the following gradually become elongated, 
the distal pinnules being from 4*5 mm. to 5 mm. in length, 
with thirteen segments, of which most are from two to three 
times as long as broad and very slender. 

Type Locality. ' Siboga'' Station No. 305; mid-channel of 
Solor Strait, off Kampong Menanga ; 113 metres. 



IV. — Mammals from the Ja River, Cameroons. 
]iy Oldfield Thomas. 

(Publislied by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Kerivoula cuprosa, sp. n. 

A small speckled brown species with short incisors. 

(Size decidedly less than in the related species K. a:rosa 
and lanosa. Fur soft and fine (hairs of back 6-6'5 mm. in 
length), extending on to the forearm, thinly along the pollex 
and terminal part of the third digit, and down the upper side 
of the legs on to the feet; proximal part of interfemoral 
thinly hau-ed, naked distally, tiie hinder margin with a 



42 Mr. 0. Tliomfis on 

number of fine hairs not forming a fringe ; under surface of 
legs and interfemoral nearly naked. General colour above 
dark bistre-brown, the tips of many of the hairs conspicuously 
contrasted silvery buff, those on the forearms, rump, and 
hind limbs more ochraceous buff; under surface duller 
brown, the bases of the hairs dark slaty, the tips of some of 
the hairs whitish. 

Ears of medium length, anterior border strongly convex, 
posterior with a sharp concavity just below the tip. Tragus 
long, curved outwards, its base with a small lobule exter- 
nally succeeded above by an emargination. 

Upper incisors unusually short, their enamel-covered 
portion but little longer than the projecting part of their 
root, the inner one bicuspid, its posterior cusp as thick as and 
half the height of the anterior. Outer incisor also bicuspid, 
owing to its basal ledge being raised up postero-iiiteriially as 
a second cusp half the height of the maiu cusp. Middle 
premolar about two-thirds the height and area of the anterior 
one. Outer lower incisors tricuspid, the outer cusps half as 
large as the median one. Middle lower premolar rather 
smaller tlian the subequal first and last. 

Dimensions of the type (the starred measurements taken in 
the flesh by the collector) : — 

Forearm 32 mm. 

Head and body *4.5 ; tail *45 ; ear *13'5 ; tragus on 
inner edge 5*5 ; thiid finger, metacarpal 31, first phalanx 15 ; 
lower leg and foot (c. u.) 21. 

Front of upper canine to back of m^ 5*1 ; front of lower 
canine to back of m^ 5'5. 

Bab. Bitye, Ja River, S.E. Cameroons. 2000'. 

I'l/pe. Adult male. Original number 564. Collected 17th 
October, 1911, by Mr. G. L. Bates. 

This well-marked species resembles K. cerosa in colour, 
but is much smaller, the forearm of that animal being 37 mm. 
in length. By the characters used in Dobson's synopsis it 
comes nearest to K. lanosa, but differs both by size and 
colour, and, as from every other, by its peculiarly short and 
deeply bicuspidate upper incisors. At Bitye ]\Ir. Bates also 
obtained the little K. muscilla and an additional specimen of 
K. smithii, described by me in 1880. The latter is slightly 
larger than K. ciqyrosa and has practically unicuspid outer 
lower incisors. 

Colomys hicolor, sp. n. 

Larger and darker coloured than C. gosJingi. 

Size decidedly greater than in C. goslingi^ as shown by 



Mammals from the Ja Ricer, Cameroons. A'd 

skull-dimensions. Coloration similarly conspicuously bicolor, 
but the line of demarcation slightly lower, so that the dark 
colour encroaches a little on tlie forearms, instead of these 
being wholly in the white area. General colour above 
between cinnamon and bistre, the back more heavily black- 
ened than in gosVmgi. White patch at outer base of ear 
smaller than in (joslingi. Arms and hands white except for 
a narrow extension of the dorsal colour downwards from the 
shoulder to the middle of the forearms. Feet greyish tlesh- 
colour. Tail blackish above, whitish below, the ditference 
not conspicuous. Mammoe apparently 2 — 1 = 6. 

Skull simih'^r in all essentials to that of G. goslingi^ but 
larger throughout. Nasals longer. Interorbital region nar- 
rower, its edges more rounded. Biain-case longer and 
higher. Palatal foramina with the peculiar expansion on the 
septum, previously described, so developed as to touch, on 
one side, the outer wall of the foramen, and so isolate com- 
pletely its posterior end. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 

Head and body 143 mm. ; tail 175; hind foot 39 ; ear 21. 

Skull : greaiest length 36 ; condylo-incisive length 32*t) ; 
nasals 14:"2 ; interorbital breadth 4*5 ; breadth of brain-case 
15"2 ; palatilar length 16'7; diastema 10*2 ; palatal foramina 
7*3 X 3*2 ; upper molar series (worn down and contracted) 5"2. 

Hah. Bitye, Ja Kiver, S.W. Cameroons (West Congo 
drainage area). Alt. 2000'. 

Type. Old female. Original number 569. Collected 23rd 
October, 1911, by Mr. G. L. Bates. 

The smaller species, C. goslingi, Thos. & Wrought., was 
found on the Welle Hiver, so that the genus is evidently 
widely distributed in the Congo area. 

Epimys cetay Thos. 

Mr. G. L. Bates has sent from Bitye some further 
examples of this distinct little species, and these show that 
the type had by no means attained its full size, especially as 
regards its skull. The following measurements of a fully 
adult female are therefore worthy of record : — 

Head and body 93 mm. ; tail 120; hind foot 18 ; ear 14"5, 

Skull: greatest length 26 ; condylo-incisive length 24*2; 

zygomatic breadth 13*5 ; nasals 8*7 ; interorbital breadth 4*5; 

breadth of brain-case 12*3; palatilar length 11*6; diastema 

7*6; palatal foramina 5*2; upper molar series 4*3. 



4.4: Mr. 0. Thomas on 



V. — Small Mammals from South America. 
By Oldp^ield Thomas. 

(Published b}' permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Leontoc^hus mi'das egens, subsp. n. 

General characters of true Guianan midas, bui back more 
strongly suffused with dark buffy, generally througiiout, and 
in all cases across tlie shoulders. Black o£ the head less 
deep and less continued down on to the back, tiie grizzled 
buflfy of the back going further forward on the nape. Hands, 
instead of being wholly " ochraceous " or " ochraceous buff," 
only of this colour on the outer half of the wrist, the meta- 
carpus and digits being decidedly lighter coloured, " buff " 
or " cream-buff." Feet also rather lighter than in midas, 
though the difference is less conspicuous. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 

Head and body 229 mm. ; tail 384 ; bind foot 65 ; ear 40. 

Skull : greatest length 49' 5. 

Uab. Obidos, Lower Amazons. 

Tt/pe. Adult female. B.M. no. 12. 5. 11. 5. Original 
number 58. Collected 15th February, 1912, by Fraulein 
Dr. E. Snetlilage ; presented by the Goeldi Museum, Para. 
Five specimens examined. 

This Amazonian form of the common yellow-handed 
marmoset is closely similar to the typical Guianan animal, 
but may be distinguished by the paler colour of its hands, a 
difference verified on five examples of egensas compared with 
ten of midas. Curiously enough, two specimens from the 
Moon Mountains, the nearest locality in Guiana to Obidos, 
have hands of an even darker tone than those of British 
Guiana, and resemble in this respect one from Cayenne which 
1 have always considered to represent Geoffroy^s rujimanus. 

Fells pardinoides emerifa, subsp. n. 

General characters of F. pardinoides, including size, tlie 
backward direction of the nape-hairs, and the general colora- 
tion. But the feet, both fore and hind, instead of being- 
blackened below, as is usual in the majority of cats, are not 
or scarcely darker below than above, where they are of a 
uniform " clay-colour " ; the heel alone is blackisii, as in the 
allied forms. White ear-patches larger than in pardinoides 



small Mammals from South America. 45 

aiul p. andina. Black miclial stripes strongly marked in the 
two males, narrow and discontinuous in the female. 

Skull on the whole with a rather less swollen brain-case 
than in true jm^'dinoides and in F. p. andina. Postorbital 
processes directed rather more outwards, less slanted back- 
wards. Bullae smaller than in pardinoides, only one of the 
four specimens having them as large as in the type of 
andina, which in turn has them smaller than in S. -Brazilian 
j)ardinoides. Teeth about as in parditioides, smaller than in 
a7idina. 

Dimensions of the type (an adult female) : — 

Head and body 480 mm. ; tail 330 ; hind foot 98. 

Skull: greatest length 85; condylo-basal length 81*3; 
zygomatic breadth 5*5 ; interorbital breadth 14*2 ; breadth of 
brain-case 40; palatal length 31; front of canine to back 
of p*^ 23'3 ; length of;/ on outer edge 9 (lO'l in (J ). 

-Hab. Northern Venezuela. Type from the " Montes de la 
Culata," Mcrida (alt. 3000 m.); another specimen (melanistic) 
from Tachira. 

Ti/pe. Adult female. B.M. no. 5. 7. 5. 3. Collected 
.14th April, 1904, by S. Briceiio. Two males and another 
female also in collection. 

The pale colour of the hairy part of the palms and soles of 
this cat is an unusual character, and I have considered the 
possibility of its having been artificially produced by the 
limbs having been dipped in some preservative. But there 
are four specimens, collected at considerable intervals of time, 
all with their feet similarly coloured, so that so uniform an 
alteration seems unlikely. In any case, however, on account 
of the skull-characters described above and its comparatively 
large ear-patches, the Merida wild cat would be subspecifi- 
cally separable from its allies elsewhere. 

The Orisons of Chili and Argentina, 

In 1907 * I showed that the name vittatus, which had 
been commonly used as a *' blanket-name^' for Grisons from 
all parts of South America, was based on a specimen from 
Surinam, and was therefore no doubt applicable to one of the 
larger forms of the genus, like G. allamandi and others, and 
I then gave the specific name of furax to the "Furao " of 
S. Brazil and the Argentine, which is not only smaller than 
the members of the vittatus group, but is distinguished by 
having no inner cusp on the lower carnassial tooth. 

* Aun. k Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) xx. p. 103 (1907). 



46 Mr. O. Thomas on 

Further consideration induces me to think that this latter 
character might be made the basis of a siibg-eneric division of 
Grison^ and that the species without the cusp should form a 
special subgenus, which might be called Grisonella and have 
G.furax as its type. 

In Chili, instead of tliere being only one form of Grison 
present, it now appears there are two, a larger and a smaller, 
the former inhabiting Central Chili and the latter South 
Chili, whence three specimens have been sent to the British 
Museum by Messrs. Bullock and Saldanha. The question 
therefore arises as to which of these animals should bear the 
specific names cuja and quiqui given to members of this 
genus by Molina, and also that of " var. chilensis " assigned 
by Nehring* in rather a casual way to a skull from " Chili." 

The specimens received from vS. Chili (Temnco) are marked 
as being called " Cuya " by the natives; and since Molina 
said his " Mustela cuja " was of the size of a ferret, which 
suits the Temuco Grison very well and the large Central 
Chili one not at all, I propose to identify the cuja as being 
this animal, whose name would therefore be Grison {Grison- 
ella) cuja, Mol. 

And further, Molina's Hfusfela quiqui can hardly be other- 
wise than the same animal, for it is said to be a weasel 
("donnola"j about 13 inches in length from nose to base 
of tail, and while a female G. cuja measures 13 and a male 
15 inches in length, the Central (Jhili species attains not less 
than 17 inches in the female and up to 2J: in the male f- 

Nehring's chilensis is unquestionably a female of the small 
species (basilar length of skull 58 mm.). 

A male skull of this species is 70 mm. in condylo- basal 
length, and a female 61"5. 

All three Chilian names being therefore applicable to the 
smaller species of S. Chili, the question arises as to what the 
name of the larger Central Chili species should be. 

Careful comparison, however, shows tliat this animal 
cannot be distinguished from the Argentine " Huron/' which 
has been hitherto considered the same as the Brazilian 
G ■ furax. 

But the latter is a much more buffy-coloured animal than 

* Zool. Jahrh. Syst. i. p. 189 (1886). 

f Not knowiDg: that a small species of Grison occurred in S. Chili, 
Burmeister (' La Plata,' iii. p. 160) supposed that the Quiqui was the 
young- of the ordinary " Huron." But Molina gave a general account 
of its habits, evidently knowing the species well, while as to the number 
of its teeth the frequent loss of p^ and Wo makes specimens with only 
twenty-eight teeth by no means rare. 



small Mammals from South America. Al 

that inhabiting Chili and the Aro;entiiie, to which therefore 
a special subspecific name might be given. 
I would propose to call it 

Grison furax meliniis^ subsp. n. 

Size as in O. furax, considerably larger than in G. cuja. 

General colour dark greyish, the light ends to the hairs 
nearly white instead of" being buflfy as m furax ] light frontal 
band cream-buff, this being " buff" or deeper '\\\ furax. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in flesh) : — 

Head and body 475 mm. ; tail 180 ; hind foot 60. 

Skull : condylo-basal length 80'5 ; zygomatic breadth 46*. 

An Older male from tho same locality measures 83*5 in 
condylo-basal length and one from Mar del Plata, Argentine, 
84-6. 

Ilah. Chili, between about 30° and 36° S. lat., and Argen- 
tina from Tucuman to Chubut. Type from Quillota, near 
Valparaiso. 

Ti/pe. Adult male. B.M. no. L 6. 8. 1. Original num- 
ber 191. Collected 5th April, 1901, and presented by John 
A. WolflFsohn, Esq. 

The Museum is indebted to Mr. WolfFsohn for four skins 
and six skulls of this animal. 

A Second Specimen of Glironia venusta. 

Through the kindness of Dr. K. Kraepelin, of the Hamburg 
Museum, the British Museum has been allowed to acquire by 
exchange an example of Glironia from Yungas, Bolivia, 
which had been in the Hamburg Museum for some years, 
having been purchased from Rolle in 1897. 

The specimen is an immature male in spirit, and by its 
help I am enabled to correct some inaccuracies in my original 
account of Glironia f and to add some further information 
about it. 

The spirit-specimen shows that the tail is more distichous 
than appeared on the skin and that the middle line of the 
underside, instead of being naked only for its terminal three 
inches, is very thinly hairy from close to the base and 
becomes practically naked about halfway along. 

In the skull some at least of the unusual lowness is due to 
the deteriorated condition of the type, the form of the brain- 

* Other measurements given by Nehring', /. c. p. 209. 
t Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. («) ix. p. 239 (1912). 



48 ]\Ir. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Hymenoptera, 

case in the fresh specimen not being materially different from 
that in Marmosa. 

The tooth-characters are all as described in the type, and it 
may be noted in addition that the upper milk-secator is 
narrower than in Marmosa, and has its inner lobe further 
back, the tip of the lobe being behind the level of the ante- 
rior main cusp, while it is in front o£ it in Marmosa. 

Allowing for the difference in age, I can see no reason to 
suppose tiiat the Yungas specimen is specifically distinct 
from that from Pozuzo. 



VI. — Motes on Fossorial Hym.enoptera. — TX. 
By Rowland E. Turner, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

On some new Sjjecies from the Australian and Austro- 
Malayan Regions. 

Family Thynnidae. 

Agriomyia cornuticollis, sp. n. 

2 . Mgra ; pygidio flagelloque testaceo-brunneis, calcariis pallidis ; 
pronoto subconcavo, angulis auticis tuberculatis, posticis spina 
erecta armatis. 
Long. 8 mm. 

Head very thin and almost flat, more than half as broad 
again as long, rounded at the posterior angles, more than 
twice as broad as the thorax. Pronotum broader anteriorly 
than long, narrowed posteriorly, slightly concave, strongly 
raised and tuberculate at the anterior angles, armed with an 
erect acute tubercle on each side close to the posterior 
angles, the posterior margin arched, the angles acute. 
Scutellum narrow ; median segment shorter than the pro- 
notum, broadened posteriorly and obliquely sloped. Shining, 
the head finely aciculate, thorax and abdomen with a few 
fine scattered punctures. First dorsal segment broadly 
depressed at the apex, the raised basal portion broadly and 
rather shallowly emarginate at the apex. Second dorsal 
segment with five well-defined transverse carina9, including 
the raised apical margin ; pygidium lanceolate. Ventral 
seo-ments more strongly punctured, the fifth closely and 
coarsely punctured. 

Hab. Hermannsburg, Central Australia {H. J. Hillier). 

This female is easily distinguished by the peculiar form of 
the pronotum. 



^Ir. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenoptera. 4 9 

Geuus Thynnotukneria, Roliw. 

AHolothynnus, Tiu'n. Wystman's Gen. Insect, cv. p. 39 (1910). 
Tnnierel/a, Roliw. Ent. News, xxi. p. 349 (1910). 
Thi/nnoturneria, Rohw. Ent. News, xxi. p. 474 (1910). 
Eiirohiveria, Turn. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) \ii. (1911). 

I am by no means sure that the name ^dEolothynnus 
sliould not be used for this genus. Ashraead in describiiijif 
tlie genus Aioluthynmis took an undescribed species for the 
type. In my work on the Thynnidse I accepted Ashmead's 
genus, but treated the species as a nomen 7iudum. 
Mr. Rohwer^ on the other hand, hokls that the description 
of the genus covers the species also; but I cannot agree 
with this opinion, as Ashmcad evidently did not intend the 
description for a specific one, and a description to be 
recognized shonld be at least intended by the author for a 
description of a species. In some parallel cases Ashmcad has 
actually marked the species name as MS. Unfortunately 
A. cerceroides, Sm., selected by me as the type of the genus, 
does not appear to belong to the same genus as Ashmead's 
type. Yet if Ashmead's specific name is treated as a nomen 
nudum, A . cerceroides must be treated as the type of the 
genus. It is bad enough to have to recognize the very 
insufficient descriptions of some authors as valid, but if we 
are also to accept what were never intended for descriptions 
things would be still worse. For the present, pending some 
decision on the subject, I am using Rohwer's name, but do 
not consider that it can stand. The whole confusion is due 
to a want of editing in Ashmead^'s paper, as no editor should 
publish a description of a geuus with an undescribed species 
taken for the type. 

Thynnottirneria trimaculata, sp. n. 

S . Niger ; femoribus, tibiis segmentisque abdomiualibus sexto 
septimoque rufo-ferrugineis ; clypeo apice lateribusque, pronoto 
marginibus, mesonoto macula elongata, scutello macula, post- 
scutello, segmentis dorsalibus 1-5 fascia curvata utrinque 
maculaque bilobata mediali, segmentisque ventralibus 2-5 
macula utrinque pallide flavis ; alis byalinis, veuis uigris, 
stigmate testaceo. 
Long. 9 mm. 

Clypeus strongly convex, longer than the greatest breadth, 
truncate at the apex, with a low and rather indistinct 
longitudinal carina near the apex. Interantennal pro- 
minence not well defined ; antennae shorter than the thorax 
without the median segment, the flagellum of about even 

Ann. d; Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. x. 4 



50 Mr. H. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenoptera. 

thickness throughout. Head and thorax finely and closely 
punctured^ the abdomen more sparsely punctured, pubescence 
greyish and short. Pronotum broadly emarginate on the 
anterior margin ; scutellum moderately convex ; median 
segment steeply sloped posteriorly, but not truncate. Abdo- 
men narrow, the segments strongly constricted at the base ; 
sixth ventral segment with a spine on each side at the apical 
angles ; hypopygium ending in three long slender spines, 
the median spine nearly twice as long as the lateral ones. 
Second abscissa o£ the radius longer than the third by about 
one-quarter ; first recurrent nervure received by the second 
cubital cell a little beyond two-thirds from the base, second 
received by the third cubital cell at about one-tenth from 
the base ; the division of the first cubital cell by the branch 
nervure represented by a scar only, 

Hab. Hermannsburg, Central Australia [H. J. Hillier). 

Thynnoturneria centralis, sp. n. 

6 . Niger ; mandibulis basi, clypeo lateribus, maculis duabus supra 
antennas, pronoto marginibus, postscutello, mesopleuris macula 
antics, segmento mediano macula apicali utrinque, segmentis 
dorsalibus 1-4 macula obliqua utrinque pallide flavis ; mesouoto, 
scutello, mesopleuris segmentisque abdominalibus 5-7 rufo- 
ferrugineis ; pedibus fusco-ferrugineis, flavo-variegatis ; alis 
hyalinis, venia fuscis, stigmate fcrrugineo. 

Long. 9 mm, 

Clypeus convex, as long as the greatest breadth, truncate 
at the apex, connected by a narrow carina with the inter- 
antennal prominence, which is not strongly raised. Head 
thin, finely and closely punctured ; antennce as long as the 
thorax without the median segment, of even thickness 
throughout. Anterior margin of the pronotum straight, 
not emarginate. Thorax and abdomen more sparsely punc- 
tured than the head, the sides of the scutellum smooth 
and shining. Scutellum rather broadly truncate at the 
apex, with a depressed transverse line at the base. Median 
segment rather short, sloped posteriorly, not truncate. 
Abdominal segments narrower than the thorax, strongly con- 
stricted at the base ; a short spine on each side at the apical 
angles of the sixth ventral segment; hypopygium with three 
spines, the apical one much longer than the lateral, which 
are short and slight. Second abscissa of the radius longer 
than the third; first recurrent nervure received at three- 
fifths from the base of the second cubital cell, second at 
one-sixth from the base of the third cubital cell. 

Hab. Hermannsburg, Central Australia {H. J. Hillier^. 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial ITynienoptera. 51 

Zaspilothijnnus biroi, Turn. 

T/ti/miHs biroi, Turn. Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung. p. 117 (1910). J. 
Zaspilothi/nnus biroi, Turn. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) vii. p. 302 
(1911). c^. 

Subsp. pratti, subsp. n. 

(^ . Differs from the typical form in the narrower hypo- 
pyginra, and in the greater development of the yellow 
markings. 

Hab. Facfac, S.W. New Guinea. Ex coll. Perkins. 
The typical form is from N.E. New Guinea. The female 
is still unknown. 

Family Psammocharidse (olim Pompilida) . 

Pseudagenia Camilla, Turn. 

Pseudagenia Camilla, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 312 (1908). $ . 

This is the Australian representative of P. nasuta, Sm. 
It differs from the typical form from Celebes in the greater 
distance between the eyes on the vertex and in the lesser 
length of the third cubital cell on the radial nervure. 

Pseudagenia faustina, sp. n. 

5 . Nigra ; antenuis aurantiacis ; tibiis tarsisque anterioribus 
f ulvis ; alis hyalinis, fusco bivittatis. 

S ? Niger ; gracilis ; auteunis aurantiacis, apice infuscatis ; tibiis 

, tarsisque anterioribus fulvis ; clypeo apice oculorumque margino 
interiore angustissime flavis ; alia hyalinis fusco leviter bi- 
vittatis. 

Long., $(5,9 mm. 

? . Clypeus broadly rounded at the apex. Antennae 
longer than the head, thorax, and median segment combined ; 
the second joint of the flagellum as long as the first and 
third combined. Eyes separated on the vertex by a distance 
nearly equal to the length of the second joint of the 
flagellum ; the posterior ocelli more than half as far again 
from the eyes as from each other. Front finely rugulose; 
vertex, thorax, and median segment opaque ; abdomen 
slightly shining. Posterior margin of the pronotum with a 
distinct angle in the middle ; median segment slender_, fully 
half as long again as broad, with a wide but shallow groove 
from base to apex, the sides of the groove slightly raised 
and forming low carinse, the sides of the segment sloping. 
First abdominal segment petiolate, the petiole occupying the 
basal third of the segment, the apical two-thirds gradually 

4* 



52 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenoptera. 

widened, the apex half as broad as the apex of the second 
segment. Sixth segment triangular, pubescent. Second 
abscissa of the radius a little longer than the third, which is 
twice as long as the first, the third transverse cubital 
nervure curved outward. First recurrent nervure received 
at two-thirds from the base of the second cubital cell, second 
close to the middle of the third cubital cell. Cubital 
nervure reaching about halfway from the third cubital cell 
to the margin of the wing ; submedian cell a little longer 
than the median ; cubitus of hind wing originating beyond 
the transverse median nervure. 

The fuscous band on the basal nervure is irregular, the 
second fuscous band occupies the basal half of the radial 
cell, the second and third cubital cells, reaching into the 
discoidal cell. Posterior tibiaa smooth ; tarsal ungues with 
one small tooth near the middle, the pul villus rather small, 
shorter than the ungues. 

Hab. Mackay, Queensland; November. Ex coll. Turner. 

The probable male of this species has the clypeus broadly 
subtruncate at the apex ; the antennae stouter and rather 
shorter than in the female, but still longer than the head, 
thorax, and median segment combined, the second joint of 
the flagellum scarcely longer than the third ; the eyes 
separated on the vertex by a distance equal to the length of 
the second joint of the flagellum plus half the length of the 
third joint ; the median segment flatter than in the female, 
the median groove narrow and only on the basal half; the 
basal segment of the abdomen slender, less than half as wide 
at the apex as the second segment. The third abscissa of 
the radius is a little longer than the second; the first 
recurrent nervure is received close to the middle of the 
second cubital cell, the second before one-third from the 
base of the third cubital cell. The sixth ventral segment 
has the lateral margins elevated, most strongly at the 
base, and a well-defined median carina. The calcaria 
are whitish. The fuscous fasciae of the fore wings are less 
extensive than in the female. It is with much doubt that I 
associate the sexes in this species, there being considerable 
differences in the neuration and sculpture. 

Pseudagenia claudia, sp. n. 

2 . Nigra ; opaca ; alls f usco leviter bivittatis ; scapo subtus fusco- 

testaceo ; tarsis anticis fusco-brunneis. 
Long. 7 mm. 

$ . Clypeus broadly subtruncate at the apex, more than 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial IJymenoptera. 53 

twice as broad as the greatest length. Anteunse about as 
long as the liead, thorax, and median segment combined^ the 
second joint of the flagcllum as long as the first and third 
combined ; the frontal prominence at the base of the 
antennae very slightly developed. Eyes separated on the 
vertex by a distance equal to the length of the second joint 
of the tiagellum plus two-thirds of the third joint ; the 
ocelli in an equilateral triangle, the posterior pair much 
further from the eyes than from each other. Pronotum 
very widely arched posteriorly, without an angle in the 
middle. Median segment slightly convex, with a median 
groove from the base, becoming less distinct towards the 
apeXj broader at the base than long, narrower at the apex, 
more opaque than the thorax and with a little short whitish 
pubescence at the angles. Petiole of the first abdominal 
segment very short, occupying less than oue-quarter of the 
total length of the segment, which is no longer than the 
second segment ; sixth dorsal segment punctured sparsely at 
the base, smooth and narrowly rounded at the apex ; the 
abdomen opaque and slightly pruinose. Second abscissa of 
the radius distinctly shorter than the third, scarcely longer 
than the second transverse cubital nervure ; first recurrent 
nervure received a little before the middle of the second 
cubital cell, second before one-quarter from the base of the 
third cubital cell. Submedian cell a little longer than the 
median ; cubitus of the hind wing originating just beyond 
the transverse median nervure. Cubitus of the fore wing 
reaching beyond the third cubital cell, more than halfway 
to the outer margin of the wing. An irregular fuscous band 
along the basal nervure, another filling the second cubital 
cell and extending to the base of the radial and apex of the 
discoidal cell. 

Hab. Mackay, Queensland [Turner) ; March and April. 
2 ? ?. 

Pseudagenia fabia, sp. n. 

5 . Nigra, obscure viridescens ; alls subhyalinis, iridescentibus, 

fusco-bivittatis, fascia basali angusta, apicali lata. 
Long. 6 mm. 

$ . Clypeus short, about three times as broad as long, 
broadly truncate at the apex. Antennae about as long as 
the head, thorax, and median segment combined ; the second 
joint of the flagellum as long as the first and third combined. 
Eyes separated on the vertex by a distance about equal to 
the combined length of the first and second joints of the 



54 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenoplera. 

flagellum ; the front without tubercles above the base of the 
scape. Pronotura broadly arched posteriorly, without an 
angle in the middle. Median segment a little longer than 
the breadth at the base, a little narrowed towards the apex, 
convex, the median sulcus obsolete at the base, faintly 
indicated towards the apex. First abdominal segment 
gradually widened from the base, without a distinct petiole, 
no longer than the second. Second abscissa of the radius 
shorter than the third, first transverse cubital strongly 
oblique, second straight, third curved outward in the middle 
and as long as the third abscissa of the radius. First re- 
current nervure received before the middle of the second 
cubital cell, second beyond the middle of the third cubital 
cell. Submedian cell a little longer than the median ; 
cubitus of the hind wing originating far beyond the trans- 
verse median nervure. Cubitus of the fore wing reaching 
about halfway from the third cubital cell to the margin of 
the wing. The fuscous band along the basal nervure is 
regular but not broad ; the second fuscous band is of almost 
even breadth, extending from the base of the stigma to the 
apex of the radial cell and reaching the lower margin of the 
wing. The whole insect is subopaque and glossed with dull 
bluish green. 

Hab. Kuranda, Queensland (Turne?^) ; November. 

Allied to P. una, Turn. 

Family Crabronidae. 

Subfamily Peiipbsedonin^. 

Psenulus (?) scutellatus, sp. n. 

5 . Nigra, nitida ; mandibulis basi, scapo, seutello fascia apicali, 
postscutello, pedibus anticis et intermediis, tibiisque posticis 
basi flavis ; tegulis fusco-testaceis ; alis hyalinis, venis nigris. 

Long. 8 mm. 

Clypeus covered with shining white pubescence, the apex 
almost truncate. An elevated carina between the antennae, 
joining a low arched carina below the base of the antennae ; 
a distinct groove reaching from the anterior ocellus to the 
base of the interantennal carina. Flagellum thickened 
gradually towards the apex, the second joint as long as the 
first and third combined. Posterior ocelli a little further 
from the eyes than from each other. Pronotum distinctly 
raised ; the mesonotum very minutely punctured ; a trans- 
verse, deeply punctured groove at the base of the scutellum. 
Median segment finely punctured and pubescent on the 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial IJi/menojUera. 55 

sides, a striated transverse groove at the base and a median 
groove from the base to the apex. Abdomen shining, 
petiolate ; the basal three-fifths of the first segment linear, 
the apical two-fifths gradnally broadened and slightly swollen, 
the whole basal segment about twice as long as the posterior 
femur. Third abscissa of the radius nearly twice as long as 
the second, but a little shorter than the first; the first 
recurrent nervure received by the second cubital cell at 
about one-seventh from the base ; the second received by 
the third cubital cell close to the base, almost interstitial 
with the second transverse cubital nervure. Cubitus of 
the hind wing originating beyond the transverse median 
nervure. 

Hab. Cairns, Q. {R. C. L. Perkins). 

lielated to P. interstitialis, Cam., which occurs in the 
same locality, but the colour is very different, and the 
position of the recurrent nervures is also different. Neither 
species is very nearly related to true Psenulus. 

AUSTROSTIGMUS, gcu. n. 

Somewhat intermediate between Stigmus and Harpacto- 
philus ; from the former of which it difl^ers in having the 
abdomen subsessile, not petiolate, in the smaller stigma, the 
longer and narrower first cubital cell ; from the latter in the 
slenderer build, in the distinct transverse, angulated pro- 
notum, the longer front with distinct carinse along the inner 
margins of the eyes, and the recurrent nervure which is 
received considerably before the apex of the first cubital 
cell. 

Type of the genus A. queenslandensis, Turn. 

Austrostigmus queenslandensis, Turn. 

Stiymus qiieenslamlensis, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lcndou, p. 457 (1908). 

Austrostigmus reticulatus, sp. n. 

J . T^iger ; antennie ochraceis ; mandibulis, scapo subtus pedi- 
busque fiavis ; tegulis testaceis ; alls hyaliuis, iridesceutibus, 
venis testaceis ; mesonoto reticulato. 

Long. 4 mm. 

^ . Eyes distinctly divergent towards the clypeus, se- 
parated at the base of the autenuce by a distance equal to 
about twice the length of the scape ; clypeus narrowly 
produced in the middle and subemarginate on the apical 
maririn, with a median carina from the base. Flagcllum 



50 Mr. E. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenoptera. 

aljout twice as long as the scape. A narrow groove with a 
marginal carina along both the inner and outer margins of 
the eyes ; the front opaque^ with a median carina almost 
reaching the anterior ocellus, the region round the ocelli and 
the vertex reticulate. Posterior ocelli a little further from 
the eyes than from each other. Pronotum transverse, 
sharply produced outwards and forwards at the anterior 
angles ; mesonotum and the upper half of the mesopleurse 
coarsely reticulate; scutellum sparsely punctured, with a 
transverse row of deep closely set punctures a little before 
the apex ; median segment strongly margined, with two 
longitudinal carinse near the middle from the base to the 
apex and two oblique carinas on each side, the space between 
the carinse obliquely striated, the posterior truncation of 
the segment abrupt and transversely rugulose. Abdomen 
subsessile, smooth and shining. Second cubital cell subtri- 
angular, almost pointed on the radial nervure ; recurrent 
nervure received at about five-sixths from the base of the 
first cubital cell. Cubitus of the hind wing interstitial with 
the transverse median nervure. Radial cell of the fore wing 
lanceolate. 

Hub. Cairns District, Queensland [F. P. Dodd). 

Easily distinguished from queens/ anden sis by the broader 
face and the coarse sculpture of the mesonotum. 

This genus is connected with Harpactophihis by H. tri- 
color, Turn,, which has the slender form and the transverse 
j)ronotum of the present genus ; and with Spilomena by 
S. aust rails, Turn. 

Subfamily Sphecinjs. 
Sphex darwiniensis , sp. n. 

2 . Nigra, maudibulis basi, scapo, tegulis, abdomine 'pedibusque 
ferrugiiieis ; capito thoraceque albido-jjilosis ; alis basi flavo- 
hyalinis, apice late iufuscatis. 

Loug, 20 mm. 

Clypeus truncate at the apex ; second joint of the 
flagellum half as loug again as the third. Postscutellum 
without a sulcus or tubercles ; scutellum with a shallow 
median furrow. Median segment with about twelve trans- 
verse carinse, those near the base and apex lower and 
indistinct in the middle. First joint of the anterior tarsi 
with seven spines on the outer side. Petiole about as long 
as the third joint of the flagellum. Third abscissa of the 
radius shorter than the first. The pubescence on the head 



]\Ir. Jx. E. Turner on Fossor'ud Ilijmeno^^tera. 57 

aud tliorax is short and rather sparse ; the dorsulum and 
. scutcllum bare, smooth and shining ; the pleurae indistinctly 
striated. 

Huh. Port Darwin {F. P. Dodd), Ex coll. Peikins. 

This is very near S. rur/ifer, Kohl, of whidi it may prove 

to be a local form. It ditiers, however, in the colour of tlio 

legs and wings and also in the number of strife on the 

median segment. I have not seen typical specimens of 

Subfamily Bembecin^, 
Bembex latifasciata, sp. n. 

S . Flavo-ochraceus ; flagello supra fusco, infra testaceo ; vertice, 
mesonoto lineis tribus, hnea median a apicem baud attiiigeute, 
scutello basi, segnicnto mediano basi, segmento dorsali primo 
apico et macula parva utrinque, 2-6 basi et apiee, basi bilobatis 
septimoque basi nigris ; alls hyalinis, veuis basi testaceis, apice 
fuscis. 

Long. 15 mm. 

$. Labrum not grooved, elypeus strongly convex; front 
distinctly carinated between the antennae. Apical joint of 
the flagellum no longer than the penultimate, rather strongly 
curved and truncate at the apex; joints 9-11 excavated 
beneath, the eighth joint with a small sjjine beneath. Eyes 
almost parallel on tlie inner margin. Anterior and inter- 
mediate femora not dentate ; anterior tarsi not dilated, with 
seven spines on the outer maigin of the basal joint ; basal 
joint of intermediate tarsi not dilated. First ventral seg- 
ment with a stout, blunt tubercle at the base, second with 
a compressed prominent tubercle, sixth unarmed ; seventh 
dorsal segment broadly rounded, shallowly subemarginate at 
the apex. 

$ . Sixth dorsal segment very narrowly rounded at the 
apex, black, with a yellow spot on each side ; second 
ventral segment rather closely punctured over the whole 
surface. 

Hah. N.W. Australia, Strelley River and Roeburne. 

Subfamily Nyssoninje. 

Gorytes perkinsi, sp. n. 

5 . Nigra ; clypeo, fronte sub antennis scapoque flavis ; flagello, 
pronoto, scutello, postscutello, segmento raediauo macula basali 
utriuque, segmentis abdominalibus primo sextoque, dorsalibus 
tertio, quarto (basi excepta) quintoque, pedibusque aurantiacis ; 
alia flavo-hyalinis, apice leviter infumatis. 
Lone:. 22 mm. 



58 Mr. F. E. Turner on Foi>sorud Ilymenopteva. 

Clypeus widely emarginate at the apex ; eyes distinctly 
converging towards the clypeus. Anteanse slightly thickened 
towards the apex ; the scape short, the second joint of the 
flagellura as long as the third and fourth combined. Front 
clothed with short fulvous-brown pubescence, sliglitly con- 
cave, with a distinct median sulcus reaching the anterior 
ocellus. Posterior oceUi a little further from each other 
than from the eyes. Thorax stout, opaque, sparsely punc- 
tured ; the triangular area at the base of the median 
segment well defined, smooth and shining, with a deep 
median sulcus. Tibiae stout, spinose ; pulvilli rather large ; 
basal joint of anterior tarsi with five long spines. Abdomen 
stout, sti'ongly narrowed to the extremities, a little longer 
than the head, thorax, and median segment combined, opaque, 
the ventral surface slightly shining and sparsely punctured. 
Pygidial area gradually narrowed from the base and rather 
broadly rounded at the apex. Both recurrent nervures 
received by the second cubital cell, the first before one- 
quarter from the base, the second at about one-sixth from 
the apex, the cubital nervure sharply bent upAvard from the 
junction of the first recurrent nervure to the base of the 
second cubital cell ; first abscissa of the radius about equal 
in length to the third, and four times as long as the second ; 
first transverse cubital nervure abruptly bent outwards very 
near the cubital nervure, and branching inward at the bend, 
the branch at first clearly defined and then continued as a 
faint scar to the base of the stigma. 

The median segment is striated on the sides near the apex 
and marked with dull ochraceous. 

Hub. Cairns, Queensland [F. P.Dodd). Ex coll. Perkins. 

This fine species is allied to G. ciliatus, Handl. In colour 
it resembles species of the genus Abispa, and is as large as 
small specimens of that genus. 

Genus Clytemnestra, Spin. 

I agree with Ashmead in considering that this genus is 
sufficiently distinct from Gorytes. Though almost entirely 
American, the following Australian species should be in- 
cluded : — 

1. C. duboulayi, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 496 (1908) {Gorytes d.). 

2. C. scmgtdnolenhis, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 497 (1908) {Gorytes s.). 

3. C. lucidulus, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 498 (1908) {Gorytes l). 

These species, however, differ from typical Clytemnestra 
and approach Miscuthyris, Sm., in having the first recurrent 



Mr. J{. E. Tinner on Fossor'ial IJymenoptera. 59 

ncrvnre received before the apex of the first cubital cell. 
C. sanguinolentus also has the posterior tibiae serrate near 
the apex, but not so strongly as in Miscothyris. 

Subfamily Sericopiiohinje. 
Zoyphium doddi, sp. n. 

c? . Minutus, niger ; clypeo, mandibulis, scapo pedibusque flavig ; 

flagcllo tegulisque testaceis ; alls hyalinis, venis testaceis, 

stignjale fusco. 
Long. 4 mm. 

Mandibles strongly notched beneath ; clypeus very broadly 
rounded at the apex, short. Inner margins o£ the eyes 
parallel. Antenna? inserted low down on the sides of the 
clypeus, nearly as far from each other as from the eyes, 
short, thickened towards the apex, the apical joint pointed. 
Front broad, covered with delicate golden pubescence ; 
posterior ocelli far apart, more than twice as far from each 
other as from the eyes. Head and thorax opaque ; a deeply 
punctured transverse groove at the base of the scutellum ; 
median segment truncate posteriorly, the dorsal surface with 
indistinct oblique striae at the base ; depressed on the 
median line, with a rather strong carina in the depression ; 
the surface of the truncation with several more distinct 
oblique strise. Abdomen shining, closely and minutely 
punctured, the hypopygium produced into a spine at the 
apex. First recurrent uervure received by the first cubital 
cell a little beyond three-quartei's fi'om the base, second 
received by the second cubital cell at two-thirds from the 
base. Third cubital cell about half as long on the radial 
nervure as the first ; the second pointed on tbe radial 
nervure, longer than the third on the cubital nervure. 

Hab. Cairns, Queensland {F.P.Dodd). Ex coll. Perkins. 

$ . Unknown, 

In colour this species recalls Z. frontale, Turn., described 
from a female, but in that species there are only two cubital 
cells. So far as I can see, the antennae in the male are only 
twelve-jointed. This is the case in Z. ruforiigrum, Turn., 
though the figure (P. Z. S, 1908, p, 495) shows only eleven 
joints, an obscure division in the club being omitted. 
Z. erythrosoma, Turn., and Sericuphorus viridis, Sm., show 
a similar structure, but in the latter species the club is 
truncate at the extremity and very thick, not pointed. 
The reduction in the number of joints seems to be due 
to the fusion of two joints in the club. In S. viridis the 



GO Mr. E. E. Turner on Fossorial Ihjmenoptera. 

fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh joints of the flagellum are 
flattened beneath and more or less produced into spines as 
in some species of Bembex \ but the antennre of the male of 
^. relucens, Sm., reseml)le those of Zoijphium. The males 
of Sphodrotes, Kohl, show no such antenna! peculiarities 
and, as I have previously pointed out, that genus is near 
Acanthostetkus, Sm., and cannot be placed ver}'^ near Seri- 
cophorus and Zoyphium. The males of Sericophorus appear 
to be much rarer in collections than the females ; and only 
one species of the genus, S. relucens, Sm., has a wide range, 
occurring from Cape York to Adelaide, and at least as far 
west as Hermannsburg in Central Australia. 

Zoyphium dipteroides, Turn. 

Sericophorus dipteroides, Turn. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) xix. p. 275 
(1907). ?. 

Zoypliium funehris, Turn. 
Sericophorus funehris, Turn. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) xix. p. 276 

(1907). ^: 

These two species have no appendiculate cell, and therefore 
cannot be retained in Sericophorus. How far this distinction 
will prove to be of generic value is doubtful, as it places the 
very closely allied <S. bicolor, Sm., and.^. erythrosoma, Turn., 
in different genera. None of the species of Zoyphium 
described by me have the tooth on each 'side of the second 
(first) dorsal segment mentioned by Kohl in his description 
of the genus. 

Subfamily Cbabroninje. 
Dasypructus expectatus^ sp. n. 

5 . Nigra, opaca ; mandibulis basi scapoque liavis ; pronoto in 
medio interrupto, callis humeralibus, segmento abdominali se- 
cundo macula miniita utrinque, tertio quarfcoque fascia angusta 
basali utrinque, quintoque macula mediana nigra, aurantiacis ; 
tibiis tarsisque testaceo-brunneis ; alis hyaliuis, venis nigris. 

Long. 10 mm. 

Clypeus covered with short silvery pile, the anterior 
margin produced in the middle into two short blunt teeth. 
Eyes separated from each other at the nearest point on the 
front by a distance equal to about two-thirds of the length 
of the scape ; ocelli in a very broad triangle, the posterior 
pair a little nearer to each other than to the eyes, and about 
half as far again from the posterior margin of the head as 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fosso7-ial ITymenoptera. Gl 

from each otlier. Head large and l)road, thinly covered 
u ith short pale fulvous pubescence, the cheeks broad and 
covered with silvery pubescence above the base of the 
mandibles. Pronotum depressed in the middle ; the cordate 
space at the base of the median segment coarsely obliquely 
striated at the base, coarsely reticulate at the apex, with a 
deep median sulcus. Abdomen opacjue; the basal segment 
a little longer than the posterior femur, the basal two-fifths 
forming a narrow petiole, the apical portion gradually 
widened ; the fifth segment clothed with short, pale, fulvous 
pubescence. Transverse cubital nervure received close to 
the middle of the radial cell ; recurrent nervure received 
beyond two-thirds from the base of the cubital cell. Sides 
of the median segment with very fine vertical strise. 
Hub. Sydney {R. C. L. Perkins) ; June 1904. 

Dasyjjroctus muiri, sp. n. 

$. Nigra; mandibulis basi, scapo, tibiis apice, tarsisque basi 
flavis ; pronoto, tegulis macula basali, scutello macula oblitpia 
utrinque, mesopleuris maculis duabus jiarvis, segmeutisque 
dorsalibus 2-4 macula transversa basali flavo-ochraceis ; alls 
hyalinis, cellula radiali margine costali infuscata. 

Long. 9 mm. 

Opaque ; clypeus, front, and cheeks clothed with sliver 
pubescence. Clypeus w^th a low median carina, produced 
into two small blunt teeth on the middle of the apical margin. 
Front rather deeply hollowed, with an arched carina above, 
the eyes at the nearest point separated by a distance equal 
to about one-third of the length of the scape. Head large, 
the posterior ocelli a little further from the eyes than from 
each other, and half as far again from the posterior margin 
of the head as from each other. A short depression alono- 
the inner margin of the eyes before the summit. Second 
joint of the flagellum about twice as long as the first and 
almost half as long again as the third. Enclosed area at 
the base of the median segment finely obliquely striated 
punctured between the stripe, and divided by a median sulcus 
which is continued to the apex of the segment, the sides 
finely obliquely striated. First abdominal segment about 
one-quarter longer than the posterior femur, the narrow 
petiole almost as long as the gradually broadened apical 
portion. Transverse cubital nervure received close to the 
middle of the radial cell ; recurrent nervure received beyond 
two-thirds from the base of the cubital cell. 

Hab. Amboina [F. Muir). Ex coll. Perkins. 



62 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenoptera. 

Very near D. expectatus, but the eyes are nearer together 
on the front and the first abdominal segment distinctly 
longer. There are also small colour differences, especially 
on the legs. 

Dasyproctus burnettianus, sp. n. 

5 . Nigra, mandibulis, seapo, flagello articulis duobus basalibns, 
pronoto, callis humeralibus, mesopleuris macula parva, scutello, 
petiolo macula parva utrinque, segmentis dorsalibus 2-4 fascia 
interrupta basali, feraoribus subtus, tibiis tarsisque flavo- 
ochraceis ; segmentis dorsalibus quinto soxtoque totis quartoque 
apice testaceis ; alis sordide hyalinis. 

Long. 9 mm. 

Eyes separated on the front by a distance equal to fully 
half the length of the scape ; second joint of the flagellum 
a little longer than the third and less than twice as long as 
the first ; the front deeply hollowed^ the antennae inserted 
nearer to the eyes than to each other ; a narrow groove on 
the inner margin of the eyes near the summit. Head very 
large ; ocelli placed in a very broad triangle, the posterior 
pair nearly as far from the eyes as from each other, and 
more than half as far again from the posterior margin of the 
head as from each other. A deeply punctured transverse 
groove at the base of the postscutellum and another at the 
base of the median segment ; the enclosed triangular area at 
the base of the median segment finely obliquely striated and 
divided by a sulcus which is continued to the apex of the 
segment. First abdominal segment nearly half as long 
again as the posterior femur, the narrow petiole occupying 
a little more than half the length of the segment ; apical 
segment very narrow, the sides almost parallel. Transverse 
cubital nervure received a little before the middle of the 
radial cell, recurrent nervure received a little beyond two- 
thirds from the base of the cubital cell. 

Hab. Bundaberg, Queensland {R. C. L. Perhins). 

Differs from D. expectatus in the longer petiole as well as 
in colour and in the proportion of the joints of the tlagellum, 
I do not think that this is the female of D. conator^ Turn., 
though it is just possible. 

Dasyproctus agilis, Sm. 

Crabro (Rhopalum) agilis, Sm. Proc. Linn. Soc, Zool. iii, p. 18 
(1858). $; Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 528 (1908). 



On neio Harvest-men of the FamiJij Phaliingodiclee. 0,'^ 

Dasyproctus conator, Turn. 
Crahro {Ithopalum) conator, Turn. Proc. Zoul. Soc. p. 52G (1908). J. 

Dasyproctus idoneus, Turu. 
Crahro (Rhopalum) idoneus, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 527 (1908). 

Crahro (Crossocerus) prosopoides, Turn. 
Crabro prosopoides, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 528 (1908). (^ 5 • 

The following Australian species are closely allied to the 
European Crabro vagus, Liun., and may be placed in the 
subgenus Solenius, though differing in the sculpture and the 
absence of constrictions between the abdominal segments 
from C. interruptus, Lep., the type of the subgenus : — • 

1. Crahro {Solenius) trideniatus, Sm. Trans. Ent. Soc. London, p. 250 

(18U8). $. 

2. Crabro (Solenius) cinctus, Turn. Proc. Zool, Soc. p. 531 (1908). $ . 

3. Crahro {Solenius) bivittatus, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 534 (1908). 5 • 

4. Crabro (Solenius) conglobatus. Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 533 (1908). 

5. Crabro (Solenius) tas7nanicus, Sni. Cat. H^'m. B.M. iv. p. 425 

(1856). 9. 

6. Crabro (Solenius) mackayeytsis, Turu. Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 532 

(1908). $. 

7. Crabro (Solenius) ordinarius, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 532 (1908), 

8. Crabro (Solenius) neglectus, Sm. Trans. Ent. Soc. London, p. 249 

(1868). 

In ordinarius, conglobatus, and bivittatus the mandibles are 
tridentate at the apex, as is usual in Solenius, not bidentate 
as stated erroneously in the original description. 



VII. — Descriptions of neu: Harvest-men of the Family 
Phalrtugodidie. By Stanley Hiest. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 
[Plate I.] 

Key to the Genera o/Phalangodidse tohich are represented 
in the British Museum Collection. 

a. Eyes placed on a single tubercle. 

a'. A long median thorn present on the 
ocular tubercle. 



64 Mr. S. Hirst on new Harvest-men 

a-. Transverse grooves of scutum well 
defined and four in number. 
Thorn of ocular tubercle not fur- 
nished with granules or processes, 
fl^. Patella of palp quite unarmed. 

a^. Palp of moderate length Pseudohiantes, Hirst. 

b^. Palp very long, especially its 

femur and patella Pardhiantes, gen . nov. 

b^. Patella of palp armed with long 

spines. 

«\ Femur of palp armed below with 

several long spines. Femora 

of first and second legs quite 

unarmed Epedanns, Tliorell. 

b^. Femur of palp armed both above 
and below with processes of 
moderate length. Femora of 
first and second legs armed 

with short processes Plistobumis, Poc. 

i'. Transverse grooves five when distinct. 

Central thorn of ocular tubercle 

nearly always furnished either with 

granules or processes. 

a^. Femur of palp strongly compressed 

laterally Baramitt, gen. nov. 

b^. Femur of palp at most only slightly 

compressed laterally Sitalces, Simon, and 

b^. Ocular tubercle without a long central yPodoctis, Thorell. 
thorn. 
a'. Abdominal part of scutum provided 
with a low but conspicuous tumu- 
lus in the middle Vima, gen. nov. 

b~. Abdominal part of scutum without 
tumulus. 
a'^. Fourth leg of both sexes quite 

unarmed Phalanyodes, Tellkampf. 

b*. Fourth leg of male furnished veu- 
trally with stronger spiuules than 
is the case in the female and 
■with a conspicuous process (or 
processes ?) on each side near 
the distaf end of the tibiae (see 

PI. I. fig. 1 fl) Zabno.ris, Sor. 

b. Eves not placed on a single tubercle, but 

"widely separated from one another and 

either sessile or each placed on a very 

slight tumulus. 

, a^. Femur of palp armed below with a 

single spine or without any ventral 

spines. Femur of first leg unarmed. 

No thorn between the eyes Hinzuanws, Karsch, and 

b^. Femur of palp armed below either \_Lacurbs, Stir, 

with long spines or long processes. 
Femur of first leg usually armed with 
long spines. A thorn often present 
midway between the eyes. 



of the Familij PhalaiigcditUe. G^ 

a'". Femora of posterior legs straight 

and unarmed Ilxilonius, KarscL. 

/;'". Femora of posterior legs curved and 

armed ventrally with processes . . Holozoster, Loman. 

Zalmoxis austetni.t, sp. n. (PI. I. figs. 1, 1 a.) 

cJ . Body. — Tlie shape of the body of this new species is 
very like tliat of Z. rohusta, Sor., as figured hy Sorensen, the 
eephalotlioracic part of it being much narrower tiian and not 
nearly so high as the abdominal part. 

Scutum longer than the patella + the tibia of the fourth 
leg. It has five transverse grooves; the first otie, which is 
well defined and procurved, forms the boutidary between the 
cephalothoracic and abdominal parts of the scutum ; the 
other grooves are not so distinct, the one between the first 
and second areas of the abdominal part being faint. First 
abdominal area large, but its length (when measured along 
the median line) is very much less than that of the cephalo- 
thoracic part. Except for three or four rather inconspicuous 
granules on each side of the anterior margin and for one or 
two lateral granules, the surface of the cephalothoracic part 
is quite smooth. Numerous granules are present on the first 
abdominal area and a rather narrow transverse band of them 
is present on each of the three following areas ; the granules 
of which these bauds are composed are not very regularly 
arranged, but they are usually about two deep. The last 
abdominal area has fewer granules on its surface than the 
other areas, and for the greater part of its width they are 
arranged in a single series only ; like those of the penultimate 
area, they are sharply pointed and directed backwards. 
There is also a longitudinal series of granules on each side of 
the scutum. Ocular tubercle situated near the anterior 
margin. It is elongated transversely, being considerably 
wider than long, and has no large processes of any kind on 
its surface, but is furnished with a number of granules^ 
which are not arranged in a regular manner. 

Free dorsal segments. — The two anterior of the free dorsal 
segments each have a single transverse series of granules, 
similar to that on the last area (posteiior margin) of the 
scutum ; on the third free segment the granules are more 
numerous and less regular in arrangement and are mostly 
ranged about two deep. The fourth free dorsal segment has 
numerous granules and they are not arranged in series. 

Ventral surface. — Fourth coxa very much wider than the 
others. There are a number of distinct granules on the 
ventral surface of the first coxa, but only obsolete granules 

Ann. cfc Moff. zY. Ili'st. Ser. 8. Vol. x. 5 



66 Mr. S. Hirst on new Harvest-men 

are to be seen on the other coxse. A transverse series of 
minute granules is present on each of the sternites. On each 
side of the first sternite there is a slioht ridge which com- 
mences at tlie spiracle and runs forward for some distance. 

ClieJicera. — Proximal spnment short and quite smooth. 
Second segment moderately stout ; dorsally it has only two 
or three obsolete granules, which carry hairs. 

Pulp not very long. There are two or three very little 
granules on the dorsal surface of the trochanter, and a 
conical granule and two processes, one of which is long, are 
situated on its lower surface. Femur aruied with a single 
long spine on its inner side near the distal end ; ventrally it 
lias three spines (and also a little tooth-like process), the two 
spines near its proximal end being much tlie longest. 
Patella with a long spine on the inner side. Tibia much 
higher and .wider than tfie other segments of the palp ; it has 
three spines on each side, the distal one of the outer side 
being short. Tarsus with two long spines on each side and 
also with a very short distal spine on each side. 

Legs short ; the fourth is tlie longest and stoutest (when 
they are arranged according to length, their order is as 
follows : 4, 2, 3, 1). The denticles on the ventral surface of 
the femur of the fourth leg, especially those near the distal 
end, are larger than those of the rest of its surface. Tibia 
of fourtli leg stoutest nearest the distal end ; besides the 
denticles on its surface, it has a sharply pointed ventral 
process on each side near tlie distal end, the outer one being 
long. Number of tarsal segments 3, 7, 5, 6. Claws of poste- 
rior legs smooth. 

Colour blackish brown. Appendages dark brown, but the 
coxse of the legs are pale above and the tarsi of all the legs, 
except those of the second pair, are rather pale also. 

Measurements in mm. — Length of body -I'l, of scutum 3"25. 

Material. — Two specimens from New l?ritain (Neu Poni- 
mern) ; one of which is an adult male and has tlie penis 
extruded. These specimens were collected by Prof. Willey 
in the year 1897. 

Remarks. — This new species resembles Z. pj/gmcea, Sor., in 
having its ocular tubercle placed much nearer to the anterior 
margin than to the first transverse groove. The shape and 
granulation of the body are, apparently, quite different to 
what they are in Z. pygnuca, however. 

Genus Vim A, no v. 
Cephalothoracic part of scutum only slightly convex. 
Ocular tubercle low and transverse and much wider than 



of the Family Phalanoodidjo. 07 

long ; on eacli side of its u|)per surface a minute and rather 
inconspicuous granule is present. Abdominal part of scutum 
i'urnished with a low whitish rounded eminence in the middle, 
of its surface. Palp armed with spines of the usual Phalan- 
gogid type. [For their number and arrangement, see the 
specific description.] Fourth coxa not so very much broader 
than the third, instead of being very much broader than it, 
as in the Gonyleptidjie. 

Vima insignis, sp. n. (PL I. fig. 2.) 

Dorsal surface. Scutum. — Both ce])halothoracic and abdo- 
minal parts slightly convex ; transverse grooves ill defined, 
except the one wliich forms the boundary between the two 
[)rincipal parts of the scutum and that which is placed just 
in front of its posterior margin. [For the structure of tiie 
ocular tubercle, see the generic description.] A low rounded 
eminejice, which is sometimes circular, sometimes oval in. 
shape, is situated in the middle of the abdominal part of the 
scutum. Otherwise the scutum is almost smooth, for it has 
only a few very minute and inconspicuous granules on its 
surface, those of the transverse row, which occurs near the 
posterior margin, being perhaps the most distinct. Free 
dorsal seijments each with a transverse row of minute and in- 
conspicuous granules. 

Ventral surface. — First coxa with a process in front, and 
with a transverse series of rather large granules on its 
anterior margin below, the outer ones being the largest. A 
transverse series of obsolete granules is usually present on 
the surface of each of the remaining coxse and a few granules 
are also present on the sternites. 

Chelicera. — On the inner side of the dorsal surface of the 
proximal segment two minute granules are present, and two 
or three little granules, which are slightly more distinct, also 
occur on the outer side. Second segment furnished vvitli 
several granules on the inner side of its upper surface, but 
with one or two exceptions they are quite obsolete. 

Palp armed with long spines. Trochanter with only two 
minute granules below. Femur arnii d with an apical spine 
on its inner side, and with a ventral row of four spines, the 
two proximal ones being much larger than the other two. 
Patella with a single spine on its inner side. Tibia with 
two spines on its inner side, and sometimes it has also an 
additional little denticle distally ; on its outer side there are 
three spines and also a minute proximal denticle. Tarsus 
with two spines on each side and a short apical spine on the 

5* 



G8 Mr. S. Hirst on new Harvest-men 

inner side also; tlie apical spine on the outer side is eitlier 
quite obsolete or absent. 

Legs lon^. Tlieir femora are furnished with very minute 
granules ; femur of tirst leg without any processes. Patelite 
of posterior legs with two or three minute granules at tiie 
distal end above. Apparently there is no scopula on tlie 
tarsi of the posterior legs and their claws are without teeth. 
Tarsal segments 7, ?, 7, 7. 

Colour. — Body and appendages brown; the eminence in 
the centre of the abdominal part of the scutum is white ; 
segments of scutum also seemingly faintly outlined in white. 
Patellaj and the distal ends of the femora and of the tibiae of 
the legs blackish. 

Measurements in mm. — Length of trunk 2*5, of first leg 
16-25, of second (?), of third 21, of fourth 31. 

Material. — Four specimens collected by Rose Lloyd in the 
Higher Potaro River District, British Guiana. 

lhalo7uus quadriguttatus , sp. n. (PI. I. figs. 3, 3 a.) 

Scutxtm convex, and it is a little shorter than the tibia of 
the third leg. There are three pairs of thorns on its surface. 
Those of the first pair are long and they are situated at about 
a third of the length of the scutum from its anterior margin. 
They are followed at a short distance by the thorns of the 
second pair, which are quite short. The thorns of the third 
pair are long ; they are placed at some distance in front of 
the posterior margin and are separated from it by a trans- 
verse groove. Some distance in front of this last pair of tiiorns 
there is a pair of little granules and then a transverse series 
of about four granules. A similar series is also present on 
the last area of the scutum. [I think that the first pair of 
thorns is placed on a part of the surface of the scutum 
corresponding to the hinder half of the cephalothoracic part, 
and that the second pair belongs to the first abdominal area ; 
the last pair of thorns belongs, without doubt, to the fourth 
abdominal area of the scutum. Owing to the absence of all 
of the transverse grooves, except the last one, it is difficult 
to be certain about this, however.] The distance which 
separates the eyes from one another is about twice that which 
separates them from the lateral margin. Each eye is placed 
on a very slight elevation and a little arch-like structure, 
carrying a little pointed granule on its dorsal surface, joins 
each of these two elevations to the anterior margin of the 
scutum. 



of the Fam'ili) Phalangodida'. GD 

A transverse series of little granules is present on each o£ 
the anterior free dorsal segments, but they are only distinct 
on the first one, the granules on the others being obsolete. 

Ventral surface. — There are a number of granules and some 
rather long conical processes on the ventral surface of the 
first coxa. The second coxa has a transverse row of little 
granules and also some scattered obsolete granules. A 
number of obsolete granules also occur on the posterior coxte, 
but the sfernites have not any granules. 

CJielicera, — Proximal segment quite short (for its shape, 
see fig. 3). It has a single long pointed process on the inner 
side below and two long processes on the outer side. There 
are also one or two conical granules on the dorsal surface. 
Second segment fairly large and swollen ; on its upper 
surface tiiere are about seven tooth-like processes, and a 
large tooth-like process and a granule are present below. 

Palp. — On the upper surface of the coxa of the palp there 
is a large curved process. Tiie trochanter has a little pointed 
granule above ; and it has a long spine and a little tooth-like 
process below, the former equalling the longest spine of the 
ventral surface of the femur in length. Two or three little 
granules occur on the upper surface of the femur and a rather 
long curved process is also present at its proximal end ; 
below, this segment has 4-5 spines and processes, three of 
them being long and one or two quite short; a little spine is 
also present on the inner side near the distal end. Patella 
armed with two inner and one outer spine; there is also a 
little granule on its dorsal surface. Tibia and tarsus shaped 
much as in Epedanus^hxxi not very wide. Tibia with three 
inner and two very long outer spines. Tarsus with two 
spines on each side. 

Legs long. A couple of conical processes and a granule 
are present on the ventral surface of the trochanter of the 
first leg. Femur of first leg unarmed, but it is furnished 
with numerous minute granules. A very long process is 
placed on the anterior surface of the trochanter of the second 
leg, and there are a few little granules at the proximal of the 
femur of this leg. Coxa of fourth leg with a rather long 
conical tubercle or process on its upper surface. Scopula 
very dense on the last two segments of the posterior tarsi ; 
claws of posterior legs smooth. Number of tarsal segments 
4, 10, 5, 5 ; the proximal segment of the tarsus of the second 
leg is long. 

Colour (faded ?) pale yellow-brown ; there are two iri- 
descent golden spots on each side of the up[)er surface of the 



70 Mr. S. Hirst on new Ilarvcst-men 

trunk, one spot being placed immediately in front of tlie 
other ; the thorns of the scutum are not darker than its 
surface. 

Measurements in mm. — Length of trunk 3*75, of scutum 
3-25, of fourth leer 25. 

Material. — A single male specimen from Batjan [Dr. W. 
K'dkentlial). 

Ibalonrus kuehentliali, sp. n. 

Very closely allied to 7. quadriguttatns, sp, n.,but differin^r 
in the following details of structure and coloration : — 

Scutum armed with two pairs of long thorns, which 
correspond to the first and third pairs of /. guadriguttatus, 
but the second pair of very short thorns, which are present 
in that species, are absent in /. kiiekenthali. A little granule 
is placed midway between the eyes. A pair of little granules 
is present on the part of the scutum which apparently corre- 
sponds to the first abdominal area and there are three trans- 
veise series, each of four little granules, on the parts of the 
scutum apparently corresponding to the second, third, and 
fifth (last) abdominal areas of the scutum. As in 7. qnadri- 
quttatus oidy the last transverse groove is distinct. 

Ventral surface. — The granules on coxae 2—4 are more 
numerous and more distinct in this species than is the case 
in I. (jnadriguttatus. 

Cheh'cera and palp precisely similar in structure to those 
of /. quad rig uttatus. The femur of the first leg is more 
coarsely granular than in that species. Number of tarsal 
segments 4, 12, 6, 5. 

Colour. — Body pale brown, but its spines are very dark 
brown. There are no golden spots on the dorsal surface. 
Chelicera slightly infuscated ; the palp pale; legs rather 
dark brownish. 

Measurements in mm. — Length of trunk 3"75, of scutum 
3"5, of fourth leg 26. 

Material. — A single male example from Batjan, collected 
by Dr. W. Kiikentlial. 

Remarks. — The body and legs of this species are darker 
in tint (browner) than is the case in /. quadrig uttatus, and 
there are no golden spots on the scutum ; moreover, the four 
thorns are much darker than the surface of the scutum. 
Besides this difference in coloration there are the slight 
strttctural differences noted above. 

The most striking feature of these two new species of 
Ibalvnius is the absence of the thorn which is usually present 



of the Familij PliulaiigodkUo. 71 

between the ej'es in this genus, but Dr. J. C. C. Loman ^ 
lias already commented upon two female specimens of 
Ihalonius which did not possess this thorn. 

Podoctis taprohanicus, sp. n. (PI. I. fig. 4.) 

Dorsal surface strongly convex. Scutum about as long as 
the metatarsus of the third leg, slightly longer than the 
patella + the tibia of the third leg, and a little shorter than 
the patella + the tibia of the fourth. Transverse grooves 
five in number, the first two meeting one another in the 
mesial line. A pair of long and shar^ily ])oiiited thorns, 
which are stout at the base, are situated near the middle 
of the fourth abdominal area. On each side of the anterior 
margin of the scutum a ridge supporting a row of six conical 
granules is present, and this ridge is joined to the ocular 
tubercle by a distinct arch, formed by two fused graimles. 
A tooth-like projection is placed on each side of the scutum, 
close to the lateral margin and some distance behind the 
anterior margin. Numerous very fine granules, each carry- 
ing a short hair, also occur on the surface. Towards the 
middle of the hinder part of the cephalothoracic area there is 
a pair of slight elevations on which granules similar to those 
on the rest of the surface are present, one or two of them 
being slightly enlarged, however ; one or two slightly en- 
larged granules are also present laterally in this part of the 
scutum. Besides the minute granules, each of the •abdominal 
areas of the scutum, except the fourth, has a few larger 
granules, which are arranged in a single transverse row. 
Ocular tubercle placed slightly nearer the anteiior margin of 
the cephalothoracic area than to the posterior margin. It is 
very wide at the base ; in the middle there is the usual thorn ; 
it has a very stout and wide base, which is rounded poste- 
riorly, but almost vertical in front; tiie thorn which springs 
from this tubercular base is straight and fairly long, and as 
is usual in the genus Pot/oc^iV, it is directed forwardly. Each 
of the two eyes is situated on the side of a small lateral 
tumulus on the ocular tubercle. Except anteriorly, where it 
is quite smooth, its surface is furnished with numerous 
minute granules. Several slightly larger granules can be 
distinguished, one of them being placed in the middle of the 
upper surface of the basal portion of the spine and one or two 
others on each side of it ; on each side of the spine itself a 
slightly enlarged granule is also present. Free dorsal seg- 
ments 1-3 each furnished with a transverse row of enlarged 

* 'Nova Guinea; vol. v. p. 4 (19CG}. 



72 Mr. S. Hirst on neio Harvest-men 

granules, those in the middle of the row beiiig slightly larger 
than the others and conical in shape. Fourth dorsal segment 
without any especially large granules. 

Ventral surface. — Coxaj with a number of distinct granules, 
and each sternite has a single transverse row of granules. 

Cheh'cera. — First segment rather short ; on its dorsal 
surface there is a little granule, and ventrally on the outer 
side this segment has 2-3 conical granules, which are situated 
at the proximal end. There are 6-7 long conical granules 
or tubercles on the upper surface of the second segment 
and they occupy its entire length, but are not very reguhir 
in arrangement; two or three of them are larger than the 
others. 

Palp stout. Two conical granules, placed close together, 
are present on the dorsal surface of the coxa. Trochanter 
ventrally with two sharply pointed projections, the anterior 
one being comparatively long. Femur with an apical spine 
on its inner side ; ventrally it has a small denticle at the 
proximal end and also three long spines, which are situated 
at equal distances from one another. Proximal end of 
patella narrowed ; this segment has two long inner spines, 
and on the outer side it has a sharp little denticle and a 
moderately long spine. Tibia with three spines on each side, 
the middle one being the longest in both cases; on the outer 
side there is also a minute apical denticle. Tarsus about as 
long as the tibiti, and furnished with two spines on each side, 
those of the proximal pair being the longest. 

Legs 2, 4, 3, 1. With the exception of those of the first 
pair, which are very much shorter than the others, they are 
fairly long. Second leg a little longer than tlie fourth. A 
rather long upwardly directed process is placed on the dorsal 
surface of the fourth coxa and a much smaller, but very 
similar, process occurs on the coxa of the second leg. Tro- 
chanter of first leg with several granules below, two or tliree 
of them being fairly large and conical in shape. Only very 
minute and inconspicuous granules are present on the dorsal 
surface of the femur of the first leg, but it has a longitudinal 
series of spines below, four of which are long, and these long 
spines alternate with short ones, the latter being five in 
number, including the two very short ones at the distal end 
of the row. There are four granules on the lower surface of 
the trochanter of the second leg, three of them being fairly 
large and conical. Tarsal segments 4, 8 or 11, 5, .5 ; 
the tarsus of one of the 1-egs of the second pair has eight 
segments, but that of the one on the other side has eleven, so 



of the Family Plialangodida?. 73 

tliat possibly one o£ them is abnormal. Claws of posteriur 
le^s unarmed. 

Colour. — Body ratlier dark brown above; on each side of 
the abdominal part of the scutnm there is a pair of little 
yellow spots, one spot being placed in front of the other ; the 
anterior one is situated on the hinder margin of the first 
abdominal area, and the other on the second abdominal area. 
Legs brownish ; the femora, tibiae, and metatarsi of the 
posterior legs are furnished with minute dark spots; the 
extreme distal end of the metatarsi and the entire length of 
the tarsi of all the kgs are pale. 

Measurements in mm. — Length of trunk 5'25, of scutum 
4, of second leg (from base of femur) 18, of fourth leo" 
16-2o. 

Material. — A single specimen from Punduloya, Ceylon ; 
collected by Mr. E. E. Green. 

liemarls. — This species resemtjles P. pictuliis, Poc, (from 
Kandy?) in not having any spines on the upper surface of 
the femur of the first leg, but is larger in size and also differs 
in coloration, in the position aiul structure of its ocular 
tubercle, armature of scutum, &c. 

Podoctis willeyi, sp. n. (PI. T. figs. 5, 5 a.) 

Dorsal surface strongly convex. Scutum longer than tlie 
tibia of the third leg, but not so long as the tibia of the 
fourth. Only four transverse grooves are visible on its 
surface in the adult, and the second and third 'o£ them are 
sometimes indistinct ; the transverse groove which is normally 
present between the cephalothoracic and abdominal parts 
of the scutum is indistinct or absent ; in young examples all 
tive triinsverse grooves can be distinguished, the one between 
the cephalothoracic and abdominal parts being quite distinct. 
The first apparent area, therefore, consists of the cephalo- 
thoracic part + the first abdominal area of the scutum, and 
is very large, its length exceeding that of the rest of the 
scutum. Two pairs of long thorns are present on the scutum ; 
the first pair is situated some distance in front of the first 
transverse groove, and these thorns are a little shorter and 
are situated a little further apart than those of the hinder 
pair ; the latter are placed on the penultimate abdominal 
area. Near the anterior margin on each side there is a 
ridge, but the granules which are situated on it are quite 
small in size ; it is joined to the ocular tubercle by an arch- 
like structure, exactly as in P. taprobanicus^ sp. n., and a 



71 Mr. S. Iliist on ncic Ilarvesl-men 

iiiiiuite granule is situated on the middle of this arcli. 
Numerous minute granules, bearing short iiairs, are present 
on the surface and on the bases of the large thorns. A 
transverse series of larger granules is present just in front of 
the first distinct transverse groove, and a similar row is 
present on each of the following areas of the scutum, with 
the exception of the penultimate one. Ocular tubercle situated 
at quite a short distance from the anterior margin ; it is 
wider than that of P. taprobauicus, its widtli being about 
half the length of the scutum, and is low laterally; in the 
middle there is the usual long thorn, the base of which is 
very wide, but not nearly so stout as the base of the central 
thorn of the ocular tubercle of P. ta.jyrohanicus. Each of the 
free dorsal segments has a transverse row of granules similar 
to those which are present on the abdominal segments of the 
scutum. 

Ventral surface im'w\%\\<?x[ with numerous minute granules; 
a number of lar2;er conical granules occur on the coxa of the 
first leg, and other granules which are not so large or distinct 
are present on the coxa of the second. 

Chelicera. — Proximal segment of chelicera rather long, but 
not slender ; its length is about equal to that of the second 
segment (not including the finger) ; on the inner side it has 
three ratlier long tooth-like processes and also one or two 
granules ; on its outer side there is a series of six long pro- 
cesses (including the apical one, which is not so strong or so 
well defined as the others). Second segment considerably 
stouter than the first ; a little process is present below on its 
inner side near the proximal end ; dorsally this segment is 
furnished with a number of minute denticles and also with 
four larger tooth-like tubercles, of which the largest one is 
placed near the point of attachment of the movable finger 
and is sometimes divided into two points at iis apex. Both 
the fingers have four teeth on their edge, three of which are 
placed near the apical end of each finger, and the remaining 
tooth, which is y^vy large in the case of the movable finger, 
is placed midway between these three distal teeth and the 
proximal end of the finger. 

ISioie. — This description is based on the chelicera of a 
specimen which I believe to be a fully adult male. The 
clielicerse of the other specimens are very different in appear- 
ance, the proximal segment being considerably shorter and 
armed with fewer lateral processes. I think that these 
differences are not due to sex in this particular instance, but 
merely to immaturity. The dentition of the fingers is the 
same in these specimens as in the adult one. 



of ilia Familij Phalaiigodldio. 75 

Palp slender, its coxa is armed above vvitii a rather loiio- 
curved process. Trochanter ventrally witli a rather long- 
process and a short tooth-like process. Femur armed below 
with three spines, which are practically equal in length ; the 
spine which is usually })resent in tiiis genus on the inner 
side of the femur near the a])ical end is absent in this species, 
liasal portion of spines of patelhij tibia, and tarsus very inucli 
shorter than they are in P. pic(uh(s, Poc, P. taprobuuicus, 
sp. n., &c., and tlie terminal part is generally very long and 
slender. There are two spines on the inner side of the 
])atella, the one near the proximal end being much shorter 
than the other; on the outer side there is a single long spine. 
Three spines occur on the inner side of the tibia, but the one 
which is placed nearest the proximal end is much shorter 
than the other two ; this segment has two very long spines 
on its outer side, and their bases are comparatively long for 
this species, especially that of the proximal spine. Tarsus 
not quite so strongly flattened ventrally as is usually the case 
in the genus Podoctis; it has two fine spines or bristles and 
three shorter bristles on its inner side, and there are two long- 
fine spines or bristles on its outer side. On the upper surface 
of the femur of the pal|) there are several granules, two pro- 
cesses or granules, which are situated close to the proximal 
end of the segment on its inner side, being more conspicuous 
than the others. One or two inconspicuous granules are 
sometimes also present on the upper surface of the patella 
and tibia. 

Legs 2, 4:, 3, 1. First leg very short, the others rather 
long. On the dorsal surface of the coxa of the fourth leg 
there is a large u[)wardly directed process, resembling that 
which is present in the same position in P. taprobanicus^ 
sp. n., and the coxa of the second leg has a very similar 
process, but it is much smaller. Ventral surface of tiochanter 
of first leg furnished with 3-4 fairly large conical processes, 
each of them bearing a fairly long seta. Femur of first leg- 
with only two or three obsolete granules on its upper surface; 
below it has a longitudinal series of three conical processes, 
the first one of which is placed close to the proximal end of 
the segment ; each of them bears a seta, and they are smaller 
than the processes of the ventral surface of the troclianter. 
Tarsal segments 6, 12-14, 5, 5. Claws of posterior legs 
apparently without any teeth. 

Colour. — Trunk and appendages rather dark brown, but 
the trochanter of the first leg and the pioximal end of its 
femur are quite pale ; the lil^ia of the first leg has a pale 
ring, and the femora, tibia?, and metatarsi of the other legs 



76 Mr. S. Hirst on new Harvest-men 

{ire each marked near tlie distal end with a pale ring, but the 
ring of the femur of the second may he indistinct or absent ; 
the extreme distal end of the metatarsi and the entire length 
of the tarsi of all the legs excejjt the second pair are pale. 

Measurements in mm. — Length of trunk of largest specimen 
4*25, of scutum 3*5. (A smaller specimen lias the scutum 
2*75 mm. long and tlie fourth leg 15"5 mm. in length.) 

Material. — Four examples collected by Prof. Arthur 
Willey in New Britain (now known as Neu-Pommern) in 
the year 1897. I think that one of these specimens is au 
adult male. 

Genus Baramia, nov. 

The shape of the femur of tlie palp is the distinguisliing 
feature of this new genus, which otherwise closely resembles 
Fodoctis, Tlior,, in structure. 

Baramia vorax, sp. n. (Ph I. figs. 6, 6 a, 6 h.) 

Dorsal surface convex. Scutum about as long as the tibia 
of the third leg, considerably shorter than the tibia of tlie 
fourth and slightly less tiian half the length of that of the 
second. Transverse grooves five in number. There are 
seven conspicuous thorns on the surface (not including the 
three which are present on the ocular tubercle). Tlie first 
pair of thorns is situated in the middle of the second abdo- 
minal area, and they are of considerable length. Those of 
the second pair are a little longer than those of the first, and 
they are placed in the middle of the fourth abdominal area of 
the scutum. There are three thorns on the fifth abdominal 
area, a long one being present in the middle and a compara- 
tively short one on each side of it. A number of granules, 
each of which is furnished with a tiny hair, are also present 
on the surface of the scutum. On each side, near the ante- 
rior margin, there is a series of about six granules, the two 
outer ones being the largest ; this series is joined to the 
ocular tubercle by a little arch-like structure, on the summit 
of which there is a little granule. The remaining granules of 
the cephalothoracic part are not distributed in a very regular 
manner, but those on the abdominal part of the scutum, 
although not numerous, are arranged in transverse series; 
the series on the last abdominal area is composed of more 
numerous granules than the others, however. There is also 
a longitudinal series of granules on each side of the scutum. 
The ocular tubercle presents much resemblance to that of the 
species of Podoctis. It is situated quite close to the anterior 



of (lie Family Phalangoclklre. 77 

margin of the scutum, and is not very low, but is elono;atcd 
transversely, its width being about equal to the length of 
the cephalothoracic part of the scutum. The central thorn is 
inclined forwards and it is very long, its length considerably 
exceeding that of the longest of the thorns of the abdominal 
part of the scutum. Immediately to the inner side of each 
eye there is a fairly long thorn, but these lateral thorns are 
very much shorter than the central one. A number of 
granules similar to those on the surface of the scutum are 
also present on the ocular tubercle; several of them are 
placed on the base of the central thorn, and two very slightly 
larger ones are situated on the posterior surface of the slender 
portion of the thorn. 

Free dorsal segments 1-3 each with a transverse series of 
little granules ; the fourtii free dorsal segment is furnished 
with rather numerous granules. 

Ventral surface. — Numerous granules are present on the 
coxje of the legs, and there is a transverse series of little 
granules on each of tiie ventral segments. 

Chelicera. — Proximal segment long and comparatively 
slender ; there are a number of granules on its upper surface, 
most of them being quite minute, but two or three larger 
pointed granules occur on each side of the upper surface ; 
ventrally this segment has three or four little granules on its 
inner side and a longitudinal series of 5-6 elongated granules 
(or processes) on its outer side. The second segment is 
considerably stouter than the slender proximal segment and 
has seven processes, nearly all of which are long and acute, 
on its dorsal surface ; it has also two conical processes (or 
granules) on the iimer side below. 

Palp. — Trochanter provided below with a longitudinal 
series of four processes. Femur compressed laterally and 
highest at the proximal end, its height gradually diminishing 
towards the distal end, which is almost cylindrical; on its 
dorsal surface this segment has only a series of minute 
granules, each with a tine hair, but there is a well-developed 
spine near the distal end on the inner side ; below the femur 
is armed with a longitudinal series of eight spines. Patella 
with two inner and an outer spine. Tibia and tarsus dis- 
tinctly flattened below, much as in Epedanus &c. There are 
three spines on each side of the tibia, the two distal ones on 
the outer side being very long ; two tooth-like granules are 
present on the upper surface of this segment. The tarsus 
has two spines on each side, the proximal one of the outer 
side being very long. 

Lpgs 2, 4, 3, 1. First leg very much shorter than the 



78 ]\Ir. S. Hirst on new ITarvest-men 

others and tlie second leg much the longest. A little granule 
is present on the dorsal surface of the trochanter of the first 
leg, and this segment has two rather long setiferous processes 
or spines (and also two or three granules) on its lower 
surface. Femur of first leg armed with spines both above 
and below. Tarsal segments 3, 4, 5, ?. C-laws of posterior 
legs unarmed. 

Colour (faded) rather pale, but the dorsal surface is marked 
Avith darker specks and little patches. Femora, tibias, and 
the proximal end of the metatarsi of the legs conspicuously 
variegated with pale and dark bands. 

Measiiremenis in vim. — Length of trunk 2*5, of scutum 2"25. 

Material. — A single adult male from the Baram River, 
collected by Dr. W. Kiikenthal. 

Epedanus orientalis^ sp. n. (PI. I. figs. 7, la.) 

Scutum very slightly longer than the tibia of the second 
leg and as long as the patella -H the tibia of the fourth. It has 
four transverse grooves, the first being strongly procnrved. 
The cephalothoracic ]oart is large, its length being a little 
greater than that of the abdominal part ; it has the three 
usual tooth-like processes on the anterior margin. Several 
little granules occur on each side near the anterior margin. 
There is a pair of fairly long thorns on the second of the 
abdominal areas of the scutum, and a lateral tooth-like 
process is sometimes present on each side of the last division. 
The greater part of the surface of the scutum is smooth, but 
a longitudinal series of minute granules runs down each side 
of it and the last area has a transverse series of minute 
granules; in one specimen the central granule of this trans- 
verse series is slightly larger than the others. Ocular tubercle 
situated practically in the middle of the cephalothoracic part 
of the scutum ; the thorn is shorter than the transverse width 
of the tubercle. 

Each of the first three of the free dorsal segments has a 
transverse series of granules, and sometimes the central 
granule is larger than the others. The last free dorsal 
segment is devoid of granulation. 

Ventral surface. — A number of granules are present on the 
surface of the coxa of the first leg, most of them being very 
large and conical and arranged in a single transverse row. 
The second coxa has a transverse series of obsolete granules. 
There are not any distinct granules on the remaining coxffi 
nor on the sternites. 

Chelicera. — Proximal segment long and almost cylindrical 



of the Famil// Plialaiigodi.l.'v. 70 

for the p;reater part of its len<i-th, but its apical end is dilated. 
A number of conical granules and [)roce.sses are })resent: 
on its dorsal surface, and there are also two or three conical 
granules on the inner side below ; one of the processes on the 
outer side of the dorsal surface and one of the two which are 
present on the dorsal surface of the enlarged distal part of 
the segment are considerably longer than the others. 
Second segment greatly swollen and furnished with several 
tooth-like processes and granules on its dorsal surface, two 
or three of them being bilid apically ; this segment has alsj 
a single tooth-like process below. 

Palp with the segments normal in shape and armed with 
long spines. Trochanter with a tooth-like granule and a 
long pointed process on its dorsal surface ; ventrally this 
segment has a long pointed process and sometimes also a 
little granule. Femur with two or three longitudinal series 
of granules above ; on its lower surface it has a row of six 
spines, the distal one being placed at some distance from the 
others; there are also two spines on the inner side of the 
femur at its distal end. Patella armed with two inner and 
one outer spine. Tibia with three inner and four outer 
spines. Tarsus with three spines on each side. 

Legs. — Trochanters of anterior legs furnished with one or 
two granules below. Femur of first leg unarmed ; femur of 
fourth leg almost straiglit. The number of tarsal segments 
is as follows : — 8-9, 19, 7, 8. The claws of the posterior 
legs are unarmed. 

Colour. — Dorsal surface dark brownish and usually marked 
with blackish reticulate markings. With the exception of 
the first one the sternites also are rather dark brownish ; but 
the first sternite and the coxaj are much paler in colour. 
Proximal segment of chelicera rather extensively darkened 
and the second segment has dark reticulate markings on the 
sides. Proximal segments of palp extensively infuscatcd, 
but the distal segments are either quite pale or only slightly 
darkened here and there. Legs brownisli, but they become 
paler distaliy, and the distal ends of their metatarsi and the 
entire length of the tarsi are whitish. 

Measurements in mm. — Length of trunk ?i'15, of scutum 3, 
of fourth leg (from base of femur) 13' 75. 

Material. — Three male specimens, collected by Capt. S. S. 
Flower at Ciiantaboon, iSiam. 

Epedamis siamensis, sp. n. (PI. I. fig. 8.) 
Scutum a little shorter than the tibia of the second leg and 
considerably shorter than the patella + the tibia of the 



so ]\rr. S. Hirst on new Ilarvest-men 

fourth. The transverse grooves are four in number. On 
each side of the cejjhalotlioracic part there is a semitrans- 
parent swelling similar to that which is present in the same 
position in the species of Psevdohimites. A pair of thorns 
are placed on the abdominal part, and they are of practically 
the same size and are situated in the same position as those 
of E. orientalis, sp. n. The lateral tooth-like processes 
which are sometimes present on the last abdominal area of 
the scutum of 111. ori'entah's apparently do not occur in the 
species now under discussion. There is a longitudinal series 
of very minute granules on each side of the scutum, and a 
transverse series of very minute granules is present on its 
last abdominal area. With the exception of those just 
mentioned there are very few granules on the surface of the 
scutum ; but a few additional isolated ones are present on the 
abdominal part. 

Ocular tubercle situated some distance in front of the 
middle of the cephalothoracic part. Its thorn is shorter than 
the transverse width of the tubercle. 

The first two of the/n'<? dorsal segments each have a trans- 
verse series of very minute granules, and a quite obsolete 
transverse series may also be present on the third, but there 
are no granules on the fourth. 

Ventral surface. — The first coxa has a transverse row of 
granules, but there are no distinct granules on the other 
coxfB nor are there any on the sternites. 

Chelicera. — ^. Proximal spgment very much shorter than 
and quite differently shaped to that of E. orientaHs] it has 
only minute granules on its dorsal surface. Second segment 
swollen ; its upper surface is furnished with several granules 
and also with a process bearing three or four little points or 
granules at the end. This process is placed close to the base 
of the immovable finger. 

$ . Second segment of chelicera of female specimen not 
swollen, and the process which is situated on its upper surface 
near the base of the immovable finger is poorly developed ; 
the shape and armature of the fingers are also different to 
what they are in the male. 

Palp. — Trochanter of palp furnished with two or three 
conical granules above, and with another slightly larger one 
below. There is a longitudinal series of conical granules on 
the upper surface of the femur, and a series of four or five 
similar granules is also present towards the inner side of the 
ventral surface. The femur has also two spines on its inner 
side at the distal end and a row of five spines on the outer 
side of its ventral surface, the two of them which are placed 



of the Familij Plialangodidge. 81 

nearest the proximal end of the segment being the longest, 
whilst the distal one is the shortest. PatelUi, tibia, and 
tarsus armed with the same number of spines as in E. 
orientalis. 

Legs. — Femur of first leg unarmed ; femur of fourth almost 
straight. Number of tarsal segments 8-9, 22-24, 9, 10. 
Claws of the posterior legs each armed with a single large 
tooth. 

Colour. — Body and appendages pale yellowish brown, but 
the distal ends of the metatarsi and the whole length of the 
tarsi are whitish. 

Aleasurements in mm. — Length of trunk 3'75, of scutum .3, 
of fourth leg (from base of femur) 16"5. 

Material. — A specimen of each sex from Chantaboon, 
Siam {Capt. S. S. Flower). The male has its very long 
penis fully extruded and the tip of the ovipositor of the 
female is visible when the genital operculum is lifted up. 

Remarks. — Like E. orientalis, sp. n., this species has a 
pair of thorns on the second abdominal area of the scutum, 
but it can easily be distinguished from that species by the 
presence of the swollen area on each side of the cephalo- 
thoracic part of the scutum, by the shortness and difference 
in shape of the proximal segment of the chelicera, by the 
greater number of tarsal segments, &c. It is also mucl) 
paler (yellower) than E. orientalis. 

Bote. — Dr. C. Fr. Roewer gives the shortness of the 
median spine as compared with the transverse width of the 
ocular tubercle as one of the characters distinguishing his two 
new genera {Epedanellus and Takaoia) from Epedanus. 
This character does not seem to be of much importance. In 
Eseudobiantes japonicus, Hirst, a species which has an ocular 
tubercle of the same type as the species of Epedanus, this 
thorn may be either distinctly longer or slightly shorter than 
the transverse width of the tubercle. In Epedanus orientalis, 
sp. n., it is shorter than the width of the tubercle, and yet 
this species is in all other respects quite a normal member of 
the genus Epedanus. 

The shape of the proximal segment of the chelicera is 
another character employed by Dr. Roewer to distinguish the 
two new genera mentioned above, but the shape of this seg- 
ment is very different in closely allied species of Epedanus 
(for instance, in the two new species described above), and 
this is also the case in the genus Phalangodes. I do not 
think myself that this character is of generic value. 

Ann. (k i[ag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. x. 6 



82 'My. S. Hirst on neiv TIarvest-men 

Genus Parabiantes, nov. 

Scutum with four well-defined transverse grooves. Ocular 
tubercle elongated transversely, but not very wide ; the thorn 
which is situated in the middle of it is exceedingly long, its 
length being about twice the transverse width of the tubercle. 
Palp very long, the femur and the slender part of the 
patella being especially Ions; ; only the tibia and tarsus of this 
appendage are armed with spines. Femur of first leg 
unarmed. 

The ocular tubercle of this genus is built on the same plan 
as that of Epedanus, Pseudohiantes, &c., but the palp closely 
resembles that of the species which were formerly referred to 
the Hinzuanidfie. 

Parahiantes longipalpis, sp. n. (PI. I. figs. 9, 9 a.) 

Scutum as long as the patella + the tibia of the first leg and 
shorter than the tibia of the fourth. It has four well-defined 
transverse grooves, the one which separates the ceplialo- 
thoracic part from the abdominal part being the deepest. 
Cephalothoracic part convex and fairly large, its length being 
equal to the united lengths of the first three abdominal areas 
of the scutum. First abdominal area longer than any of the 
other abdominal areas, but its length is less than that of the 
second and third taken together. There are a few granules on 
either side of the anterior margin, and a longitudinal series of 
granules is present on each side of the scutum ; otiierwise 
its surface is quite smooth. It has no processes or spines 
except the one which is present in the middle of the ocular 
tubercle. Ocular tubercle situated slightly in advance of the 
middle of the cephalothoracic part of the scutum [for the 
details of its structure, see the generic description]. 

Fr{;e dorsal segments quite smooth, granules being entirely 
absent. 

Ventral surface. — Each of the coxce of the legs has a single 
series of granules, but that on the fourth is obsolete [absent 
on one side]. Sternites quite smooth, 

Chelicera. — Proximal segment elongated ; it is subcylin- 
drical for part of its length, but becomes gradually stouter 
towards the distal end ; there are two or three granules on 
its dorsal surface near the proximal end and one or two obso- 
lete granules near the distal end. Second segment fairly 
stout and with seveial granules on its dorsal surface. 

Palp very long and only its tibia and tarsus are armed 
with spines. Its femur is extremely long, its length equalling 



of the Family PhalangoJidio. 83 

that of the body, and is slender and cylindrical, but the distal 
end is a little stouter than the rest of the segment ; except 
for a little conical granule, which is situated on the ventral 
surface near the proximal end, the femur is quite unarmed. 
Patella very long; it is unarmed and is slender and cylin- 
drical almost throughout its length, only the extreme distal 
end being enlarged. Tibia and tarsus fiiirly stout ; they are 
bent in such a manner that the spines of the one segment 
work against those of the other, as in Hinzuanius &c. Tibia 
provided with three inner spines, all oL' which are long, the 
one which is placed nearest to the distal end being the 
shortest ; on its outer side it has six spines, some of which 
are long and others short. Tarsus with three inner spines 
and four or five outer spines ; tliis segment has also a number 
of sharply pointed denticles in the middle of its lower 
surface. 

Legs 2, 4, 3, 1 ; the trochanters of the anterior legs each 
have a little granule on their upper surface and three granules 
on their lower surface ; all the other segments of the legs 
are quite smooth and without either granules or spines. 
Tarsal segments 11-12, 30-32, 11, 11-13. Claws of the 
posterior legs unarmed. 

Colour. — Body and appendages dark brown, but the tibia 
and tarsus of the palp are pale brown and the distal ends of 
the metatarsi and the entire length of the tarsi of the legs 
are quite pale. 

Measurements in mm. — Length of trunk 7, of scutum 5'5, 
of first leg (from base of femur) 20*25, of second 37, of 
third 26*5, of fourth 34'5, of femur of palp 7, of patella of 
palp 4" 7 5. 

Material. — A single adult example of the female sex, 
collected by Dr. W. Kiikenthal. No exact locality is given 
for this specimen, but it is probably either from Borneo or 
Halmaheira. 

Hinzuanius lyarvulas, Hirst. 

Hinzuanius parvulus, Hirst, Trans. Liun. Soc. xiv. p. 393 (1911). 

The palp of this curious little species resembles that of 
Acudorsum alhhnanum, Loman, very closely in structure, the 
armature of the femur and the shape of the patella being very 
similar in these two species and somewhat different to what 
they are in the other species of Hinzuanius which I have 
had the opportunity of examining. In //. iiarvulus the 
tarsus of the palp is quite as dark as the tibia and there is 

6* 



84 Miss Katlileen HiuLlon on 

no process on tlie abJoniinal part of tlie scutum ; for fui-tliov 
characters of this species, see tlie original description. I am 
inclined to think that Acudorsum is a synonym of Ilinzuaniut. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

Fiff. I. Zalmoxis austerns, s\). n. Outer view of palp. 

Fig. 1 n. Ditto. Fourth leg of male, outer view. 

Fig. 2. Vima insignis, gen. et sp. n. Palp, outer view. 

Fig. 3. Ibalonius quadriguttatiis, sp. n. Uhelicera, outer view. 

Fig. 3 a. Ditto. Palp, inner view. 

Fig. 4. Podoctis taprohanicus, sp. n. Anterior end of body and proximal 

part of tirst leg, from the side. 
Firj. 5. Podoctis wiUeyi., sp. n. Chelicera of male, outer view. 
Fig. 6 a. Ditto. Trochanter and femur of first leg, from the side. 
Fig. 6. Barnmia vorax\ gen. et sp. n. Palp and anterior end of body, 

from the side. 
Fig. 6«. Ditto. Chelicera, outer view. 

Fig. 6 h. Ditto. Trochanter and femur of first leg, from the side. 
Fig. 7. Epedanus orientalis, sp. n. Chelicera of male, outer view. 
Fig. 7 a. Ditto. Palp, outer view. 

Fig. 8. Epedamts sinmensis, sp. n. Chelicera of male, outer view. 
Fig. 9. Parabia7ites longipalpis, gen. et sp. n. Anterior view of ocular 

tubercle. 
Fig. 9 (I. Ditto. Palp, outer view. 



VIII. — Her.iiUa {Clausidinm) rmncouverensis. 
By Kathleen Haddon. 

[Plate IL] 

Hersilia (Clausidium) vancouverensis, sp. n. 

In the summer of 1911 Mr. F, A. Potts, of Trinity Hall, 
Cambridge, collected a large number of specimens of 
Callianassa pugettensis from a stretch of sandy beach at 
Hammond Bay, near Nanaimo, Vancouver Island. A small 
copepod occurred in vast numbers in the gill-chambers and 
also all over the body of many of the Callianassa, conspicuous 
on account of the bright red colour of the egg-sacs. They 
alternated betvreen a state of quiescence, during which they 
were attached to the surface of the host, and rapid jerky 
movements, made when disturbed. The tiny male was 
attached to the tail of the female in almost every case. 

On liis return home Mr. Potts gave me the copepod for 
identification, and I found that it belonged to the genus 
Hei'siha, 



llcr.silhi ((Jliiusidiuin) vaiicuuverciisi.-?. 85 

Apparently only one species, Hersilia (Clausidium) apodi- 
forinis (Philippi), has been recorded, and it occurs in the 
Adriatic and Mediterranean. Dr. Cerruti, of tlie Zoological 
Station at Naples, very kindly sent some parasitic copepods 
fi'om Callianassa subterranea which tally with the published 
descriptions of Hersilia apodiforniis. 

On comparin*;' tliis species with the one from Vancouver 
[slandj, I concluded that the latter presented diH'erences 
which entailed the formation of anew species ; 1 have hence 
named it Hersilia Vancouver ensis. 

The genus Hersilia may be distinguished from the other 
genera comprising the family liersiliida? by the following 
points* : — 

Hersilia. — The mandible consists of two accessory pieces 

besides the tooth (PI. II. figs. 2 k 2 a). 
Giardella. — The mandible resembles the above, but the 

maxillipeds of the male have the distal joint in the 

form of a long curved claw. 
Hersiliodes. — The mandible consists of three accessory 

pieces besides the tootli. 



Specific characters of Hersilia (Clausidium) apodiformis 

{Philijjpi). 

Female. — Length T35 mm. 
Carapace practically covering abdomen. 
Abdomen rather slender. 

Antennules depressed, few hairs on anterior margin. 
Mandibles bearing a tooth with serrated edges and no 
hairs (fig. 2 a) . 

No gap between maxillipeds and first thoracic legs. 
Fifth thoracic leg slendei-, no fine hairs (fig. 3 a). 
Infects Callianassa subterranea. 
Hab. The Adriatic and Mediterranean. 

Specific characters of Hersilia (Clausidium) vancouverensis, 
sp. n. (PI. II. fig. 1.) 

Female. — Length 1*6 mm. 

Carapace only reaches to last thoracic joint. 

Abdomen long and broad. 

* E. Cami, 1888. 



SG On Hersllia (Clausidlum) vancouverensis. 

Antennules bent upwai'dsj numerous hairs on upper edge. 

Maudibles bearing a tooth with smooth edges aud having 
a row of hairs (PI. 11. fig. 2). 

Considerable gap between maxilhpeds aud first thoracic 
legs. 

Fifth thoracic leg broad, with a few fine hairs (fig. 3). 

Infects Callianassa pugettensis. 

Hah. Near Nanaimo, Vancouver Island. 

The other appendages of the females of the two species are 
similar. 

The males of the two species are alike, except that the 
antennules are bent as in their respective females and the 
Vancouver Island form is slightly larger than the one from 
Naples. 

Literature. 

1839. Hersilid apodiformis, Pliilippi. " Eiuige zoologisclie Notizeu." 

Archiv fur Naturgesch. Tafel iv. figs. 9-11, p. 128. 

1840. Hersilin apodiformis, Philippi. H. Milne-Edwards, Hist. Nat. 

des Crustaces, tome iii. pi. xxxvii. fig. 23, p. 417. 
1866. Ilersilia apodiformis, V\i\\\])\)i. C. Heller, " Carcinolog. Beitr. zur 
Fauna der adriat. Meeres." Verhandl. zool.-bot. Gesellsch. 
Wien, P)d. xvi. p. 750. 

1874. C/ausidiian testndo, Kossmann. " Ueber Claiisidium .... &c." 

Verhandl. phys.-med. Ges. n, F. Bd. vii. Taf. vi. 

1875. Ilersilia apodiformis, Philippi. Glaus, " Neue Beitriige z. Kennt. 

par. Gop." Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zool. Bd. xxv. 1, Taf. xxii. 
1888. Hersilia apodiformis, Philippi. Ganu, " Les Copepodes mai'ins 
du Boul. (1 ) iii." Bull. Sc. de la Fr. et de la Belg. iii. ser. 1, 
t. xix. p. 406. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE II. 

Lettering, 

«?? = antennule ; rtn' = antenna; ^=lower lip; wi = mandible; mx= 
maxillule ; m.i' = niaxilla ; j??.?;^— maxilliped ; ^ = tooth of mandible; 
/eZ= telson ; f7i'-M'' = thoracic legs 1-5. 

Fig. 1. Hersilia vancouverensis, sp. n. Female, with diminutive male 

attached to the lower part of the abdomen. 
Fig. 2. Mandible of Hersilia vancouverensis. 
Fig. 2 a. Mandible of Hersilia apodiformis (Philippi). 
Fig. 3. Fifth thoracic leg of Hersilia vancouvereyisis. 
Fig. 3 a. Fifth thoracic leg of Hersilia apodiformis. 



{hi Etltiopian Rhyncliota {lleteroplero). 87 



]X. — Descriptions of Ethiopian Rhijnchota {IJeteroptem). 
By W. L. Distant. 

Pentatomidse. 

Plataspis angolensis, sp. n. 

Above ochraceous, much suffused and punctured with black, 
on the scuteilum the punctures and suffusions obscurely 
resemble three discal lonoitudinal fasciae : head somewhat 
sparsely blackly punctate^ a central black spot on disk and 
two basal longitudinal spots behind it, the anterior margin 
centrally subtiuncate, obliquely rounded on each side to eyes; 
pronotum more thickly punctate, the basal area more suffused 
with black, on anterior area two black-margined transverse 
spots; outside the basal angles of scuteilum a distinct basal 
orange-yellow spot ; scuteilum less blackly marked and 
punctured on the lateral areas and between the pseudo- 
longitudinal fascite on disk ; the sternum is subviolaceously 
opaque ; head beneath and sternal margins ochraceous with 
scattered black punctures ; legs, rostrum, and abdomen be- 
neath brighter and darker ochraceous ; central fascia to 
sternum and abdomen, narrow segmental abdominal margins, 
and a transverse waved fascia to basal segment, black. 

Of the size and shape of P. Iwrvathi, Hagl., but the an- 
terior margin of the head not centrally sinuous, but evenly 
continuous. 

Long. 10 ; hit. 9^ mm. 

Bub. Angola (Brit. Mus.). 

Mi/rochea inermis, sp. n. 

Pale ochraceous; head with the margins of the lateral 
lobes (narrowly) and the margins of the central lobe (broadly) 
black ; pronotum with four longitudinal black fascise composed 
of confluent black punctures, two similar longitudinal black 
fascia to scuteilum; corium, excluding lateral marginal area, 
thickly, sometimes almost confluently blackly punctate; 
membrane greyish brown ; head beneath with a large black 
spot on each side of base of rostrum, and some black spots at 
base; pro- and mesonota centrally and sublaterally black; 
abdomen beneath with a central segmental series of Jarge 
transverse black spots and with two longitudinal series ot 
black punctures on each lateral area; legs ochraceous; a 
subapical aunulation and apices to femora, the anterior tibia^, 



88 Mr. W. L. Distant on 

bases and apices of intermediate and posterior tibise^ and the 
tarsi, black ; rostrum about reaching tlie posterior coxse, with 
its apex black; body oval, somewhat elongate ; head rounded 
anteriorly, the margins moderately laminate and recurved, 
the lateral lobes a little longer than the central lobe, their 
apices contiguous; antennae black, with the apices of the 
joints more or less ochraceous ; second joint a little longer 
than third, fifth longest ; head, pronotum, and scutellum dis- 
tinctly, somewhat sparsely punctate, corium thickly punctate; 
lateral margins of the pronotum nearly obliquely straight, 
moderately laminately recurved ; connexivum exposed from 
near middle o£ corium, orange-yellow, with black lines at the 
incisures. 

Long. 12 mm.; exp. pronot. angl. 6 mm. 

Hub. Uganda ; between Jinja and Busia or Mbwago's, 
E. Busoga {S. A. Neave, Brit. Mus.). 

This species in sliape and genei-al markings is closely allied 
to il/. distincta, Schout., from which it structurally differs 
by the lateral angles of the pronotum being subangularly 
rounded and not acutely produced as in M. distincta, the 
pronotal lateral margins are more obliquely straiglit and less 
sinuate, the colour-markings are much darker, but the pattern 
is indicated in Schouteden's species. 

Caura t/alana, sp. n. 

Body above black with a slight olivaceous tint; narrow 
lateral margins to head and a spot at apex of central lobe, 
lateral margins of pronotum, a spot at base of lateral margins 
to corium, connexivum, and body beneath, stramineous; apex 
of scutellum obscurely ochraceous ; three spots in transverse 
series on each side of pro-, meso-, and metasterna, a central 
longitudinal double series of transverse spots, spiracles and 
transverse spots attached to them, a more rounded spot 
between them (two on second segment) to abdomen, bright 
bluish green ; coxpe and trochanters stramineous ; legs, 
rostrum, and antennae bluish black ; second joint of antennae 
distinctly shorter than the third, remaining joints mutilated 
in type ; pronotum thickly punctate, with a slight central 
longitudinal ridge, the lateral posterior angles rounded, non- 
prominent ; scutellum transversely wrinkled and thickly 
punctate; corium finely punctate; membrane opaque; 
rostrum reaching the posterior coxa3. 

Long. 13 mm. ; exp. pronot. angl. 8^ mm. 

Hab. Brit. E. Africa, Yala River, S. edge of Kakumga 
Forest, 4800-5300 feet (S. A. Neave, Biit. Mus.). 



Ethiopian Rhynchota [Heteroptera). 89 

Allied to C. intermedia, Dist., and C.ovata, Karscli, but 
differing from both in having the third joint of the antennae 
distinctly longer than the second. 

Damarius hicolor, sp. n. 

Indigo-blue ; head, three spots at apex of scutellum, legs, 
basal abdominal spine, rostrum excluding apex, a central 
segmental series of spots, apex of abdomen beneath, and first 
and second joints of antennae, sanguineous ; antenna3 with 
the first joint not reaching the apex of head, remaining joints 
almost subequal in length ; head sparingly punctate, the 
lateral lobes more or less transversely striate, eyes black j 
pronotum thickly, somewhat coarsely punctate, about twice 
as broad as long, the lateral margins sinuate, the posterior 
angles subprominent ; scutellum from beyond basal area 
centrally longitudinally slightly raised and levigate, on each 
side of which the punctures are thicker and more confluent ; 
corium smooth, opaque ; membrane shining black, the apical 
margin greyish white; rostrum about reaching the posterior 
coxfe; ventral spine reaching the intermediate coxai. 

Long. 16 mm.; exp. pronot. angl. 6^ ram. 

Hah. Uganda ; Mabira (C C. Gowdey^ Brit. Mus.). 

A larger and broader species than V. splendidulus, Fabr., 
the lateral margins of the pronotum considerably less sinuate; 
colour-markings very distinct. 

Gonopsis neavei, sp. n. 

Black ; scutellum, meso- and metasterna, abdomen beneath, 
and posterior suffusions to prosternum pale testaceous, some- 
times wholly testaceous ; more than basal half of lateral 
margin to corium, and the connexivum, ochraceous; legs, 
a broad central longitudinal fascia, and apex o£ abdomen 
beneath, and small spots near spiracles, black; membrane 
obscure greyish; rostrum either ochraceous suffused with 
black, or black with ochraceous annulations ; a blackish spot 
between anterior and intermediate coxae ; body very elongate ; 
antennae black, second joint reaching apex of head, fifth joint 
slightly longer than fourth and with its apex somewhat 
obscure castaneous ; head with the lateral lobes long, porrect, 
coarsely punctate, their apices acute but well separated from 
each other ; pronotum with the lateral angles lougly, acutely, 
transversely produced, before which the surface is obliquely 
depressed to head and the lateral margins serrate, the 
posterior half rugulose ; scutellum a little shorter than head 



1^0 On Ethiopian RJiynchota [Ileteropterd) . 

and prouotum together, transversely wrinkled and sparsely 
punctate, more thickly so on the posterior half; coriuiu 
thickly punctate ; membrane only slightly passing the basal 
margin of the posterior abdominal segment ; rostrum reaching 
the anterior coxse ; head beneath ochraceous, with the lateral 
lobes black; apices of the prosternal lateral spines black; 
sternum more or less distinctly punctate. 

Long. 17^ mm. ; exp. pronot. angl. 10 mm. 

Hah. Uganda, Eastern Albale Dist., S. of Mt. Elgon, 
3700-3900 feet [S. A. Neave, Brit. Mus.). 

Allied to G. maura, Dist. : pronotal lateral angles longer 
and more acute; apex of scatellum less rounded and subacute ; 
antenna? black, not ochraceous; apices of the lateral lobes to 
the head more acute, porrect, and more widely separated. 



Keduviidae. 
Cleontes ugandensis, sp. n. 

Ochraceous ; head, antenna?, rostrum, legs, basal and 
apical areas of abdomen beneath connected by two longi- 
tudinal series of spots, anterior lobe of pronotum, apical half 
and interior lateral area of membrane, inner margin of corium, 
apical area of connexivum both above and beneath, sublateral 
fascia to sternum, and the area between intermediate and 
posterior coxse, black ; coxae, trochanters, apices of inter- 
mediate femora, two broad annulations to posterior femora, 
and nearly basal half and apex of posterior tibise, ochraceous ; 
head laterally longly pilose; pronotum posteriorly longly and 
broadly produced, completely concealing the scutellum, its 
apex truncate; abdomen broadly ampliate, the connexivum 
somewhat strongly recurved, its margins strongly sinuate, its 
apex truncate. 

Long. 17^-18 mm. ; lafc. pronot. angl. 4^ mm. 

Hab. Uganda ; between Jinga and Busia, E. Busoga 
{8. A. Neave, Brit. Mus.) ; Mabira (C. C. Gowdey^ Brit. 
Mus.). 

Allied to C. genitus, Dist., but a much larger species ; 
pronotum more posteriorly produced, with its apex trun- 
cate, not rounded ; connexivum more produced, its apex 
obliquely truncate and its apical area black ; colour-differences 
distinct. 



On the General Classification of the Peltcijpoda. Dl 



X. — A Discussion of the General Classification of the 
Pelecypoda. By M. Colley March, M.Sc, Geological 
Department, Manchester University. 

[Plate III.] 

The Pelecypoda, like all other animals possessing skeletons, 
can be classified from the standpoint of their hard or soft 
parts. The ideal method, where both are taken into con- 
sideration, is only available to the palaeontologist when the 
soft parts leave some trace on the hard. 

In the case of the Lamellibranchs, the modern classifi- 
cations are based on the gills or the teeth. Dall, writing in 
support of a general hinge classification, said, that as the 
gills leave no impression on the shell, a gill classification 
mast necessarily exclnde all fossil forms, and so do away 
with the possibility of forming a phylogeuetic classification. 

It might also be argued that the evolution of gills is not 
of sufficient taxonomic importance for the division of orders 
and suborders. It is generally acceded that the pelecypod 
gill is homogenetic, being evolved from a type in which 
there was a iiiain rachis giving off hollow and partially 
flattened leaflets. This type is held to have been developed 
in the earliest Pelecypoda, The object of specialization in 
gills and gill-chambers is twofold, to secure the maximum 
respiratory surface and a separation of the incoming and 
outgoing currents. These ends have been secured in the 
Pelecypoda by specialization along one line only, that is by 
elongation of the leaflets and the upgrowth of the free ends. 
The junction of these upturned ends has procured the 
division of the respiratory chamber. Kidewood has shown 
that in the connections between the opposite sides of the 
leaflets ciliary junctions preceded organic. 

These stages in gill development, then, are of great 
interest as showing the evolution of the gill, but are useless 
taxonomically, for they were followed by all lines diverging 
from the common ancestal stock. They form only trans- 
verse divisions across the general classification and can no 
more be used to subdivide the group than can the articulation 
of the femur with two or three bones of the pelvis in the 
Ichthyosauria and Plesiosauria be taken as breaking those 
groups up into orders and suborders. 

Moreover, in general evolution the gills are singularly 
nnaffected by any change in environment or habit such as 



92 Mr. M. C. Marcli on the 

leads to the development of new species or genera. Their 
broad ehanges must be looked upon as being purely intrinsic 
and as common to the whole group as such. 

On the other hand^ the primitive Pelecypod ancestor is 
conceived to have been hingeless. The evolution of the 
liinges must therefore have taken place entirely within the 
group. Its development was due to the necessity for securing 
rapid and accurate closing of the shell, as was pointed out 
by Dall. Such an end might be assured in many ways not 
of necessity related to each other, as the hinge has no 
ancestral form common to the whole group. So that the 
development of the hinge apparatus should be of taxonomic 
value, as similarity of development would show a close 
relationship between subdivisions, and not merely a common 
membership in the group. The fact that the variations are 
extrinsic leads to the occurrence of heterogeneric homoeo- 
morphy, but such cases should be distinguishable by the 
study of ontogeny and phylogeny. 

Modern Classifications based on the Hinge. 

A. Neumkyer. 

Neumeyer was the first, after Martini, to classify the Pelecypoda on 
the characters of the hioge ; he recog-oized six orders, founded on distinct 
teeth characters. 

1. Crypfoclonta. Including forms without teeth or with folds which 

involved the whole thickness of the valve and which were often 
continuous with the radial ribs. 

2. Taxodonta. Including forms where, in the simplest cases, the teeth 

were perpendicular to the hinge-line, but which might become 
more or less oblique peripherally. 

3. Heterodonta. Including the most highly specialized of the Lamelli- 

branchs in which the teeth were distinguishable into cardinals and 
laterals. 

4. ScJiizodonta. Including those forms which possess one bifurcated 

tooth in the left valve, fitting into two divergent lamellae in the 
right valve. 

5. Vesmodonta. Including forms very similar to the Heterodonta in 

anatomy, but with an internal ligament, and teeth not homo- 
logons. 

6. Dysodonta. Containing those Heteromyarians and Monomyarians 

that have partially or totally reduced teeth. 

B. Fischer. 

Fischer added a seventh order to Neumeyer's six : — 

lsodo7ita, included by Neumeyer in the Desmodonta, contains those 
forms which have their teeth sj'mnietrically arranged about an 
internal ligament. 



General Clatsfjicalion of the Peleci/podd. 9!^ 

C. Grobben. 

Grobben used the hinge in conjunction with other anatomical 
characters as the basis of his classihcatiou. lie recognized three sub- 
classes : — 

1. Protobi-anchia, equivalent to the Protobranchia of Pelsoneer. 

2. Denmodoida, equivalent to Neumeyer's order of that name. 

3. Ambonodonta : (1) Eutaxodonta (Arcid;e). 

(2) Ileterodonta {seiuu Neunieyer). 

(3) Schizodonta {sensu Neunieyer). 

(4) Auisomyariaus [sensu Lamarck). 

D. Dall. 

Dall's orders are three in number : Prionodesmacea, Teleodesmacea, 
and Anomalodesmacea. 

The Prionodesmacea ^xe described as having hing-es which " are the 
product of evolution applied to the development of (among other things) 
teeth to the hinge-niai-gin, or of amorphous teeth " (14, p. 452). This, 
as an isolated quotation, might seem to show that he considered the 
transverse direction of the Prionodesmacean teeth to be secondavv. 
Quotations from his earlier paper of 1889 will, however, show that in 
his conception this transverse direction of the teeth was primary. 

1. (13, p. 452.) "Attention has been already called to the fact that 

there can be but three fundamental types of hinge ; which may be 
called anodont, prionodout, and orthodont, the latter term being 
used to indicate the forms in which the cardinal margin has 
become longitudinal!}' plicate." 

2. (13, p. 447.) There are three fundamental types of hinge : — 

(1) The simple edentulous margin. [Anodont.] 

(2) The hinge in which the teeth are developed transverse to the 

cardinal margin. [Pricnodont.] 

(3) The hinge in which the direction of the teeth is parallel to 

the margin. [Orthodont.] 

I am disposed to think that the time relations of the different hinges 
are those of the order in which I have cited them. 

The Teleodesmacea include those forms in which the prionodont and 
orthodont types are combined, the latter being superimposed on tlie 
former either by a fusion of the transverse teeth or by tlie subsequent 
development of longitudinal teeth. 

The Anomalodesmacea contain those Pelecypoda in which the dorsal 
margin is without a distinct hinge-plate, the armature of the hinge 
being " feeble, often obsolete, or absent." 

Ball's three orders, therefore, were made for those Lamellibranchs 
which have teeth — 

(1 ) transverse to the hinge-margin ; 

(2) parallel to the hinge-margin ; 

(3) so degenerate as to show no definite afHnity to the other two 

orders. 



04 iMr. M. C. Marcli on the 

The last worker on the hinge from a taxonomic point of 
view was Bernard. His main work on the subject is found 
in four papers in the Bull, de la Soc. Geol. de P'rance, two in 
the ' Coraptes Rendus/ and one in the Ann. des Sci. Nat., 
Zool. This last paper was the first half of a synopsis of his 
work, and summed up his views on the Taxodonts and 
Anisomyarians [Dysodonta^ Bernard], and included a sketcli 
of the relationships of the modern and Palaeozoic forms. 
He died the year of the publication of this first part, and 
the second part is not recorded as having been published, 
although he frequently refers to it in the first part. Con- 
sequently he was unable to publish a classification, although 
the bulk of the material for it was already published, and he 
never gave his final views on the relationships of the Taxo- 
donts and Anisomyarians [Dysodonta, Bernard] to the 
Heterodonts. For this reason it is necessary to give a short 
summary of his work, which leads to the adoption of a 
classification which, although agreeing largely with DalFs 
in general grouping, yet differs from it fundamentally in the 
bases of the classes. 

Bernard's main work was confirmed by Munier-Chalmas, 
and, with the exception of one minor point, by Fischer. 

The most important points of Bernard's work are : — 

1. The tracing of the ontop;enetic development of the 

taxodont teeth in the Taxodonta proper and also 
in the Anisomyarians. 

2. The tracing of the origin of the taxodont dentition. 

(This was in part done also by Dall, though he did 
not grasp the bearing of his work.) 

3. The discovery of the existence of an embryonic 

" dentition '■* in the Taxodonta equivalent to that 
fovind in some Heterodonts. 

4. The tracing of the development of the heterodont 

hinsie. 



The Development of Plewodont [ Taxodont and Dysodont^ 

Teeth. 

The taxodont dentition was taken by workers previous to 
Bernard to differ essentially from the heterodont (Teleo- 
desmecean, Dall) hinge, in having the teeth developed in a 
direction essentially perpendicalar to the hinge-line instead 
o{ parallel to it. Bernard clearly demonstrated that in the 
prodissoconch stages, and sometimes continuing into disso- 
conch stages, there is an embryonic " dentition " consisting 



General Classification of the Pelecypoda. 



95 



of alternating ridges and folds, called by liini " crcnulations." 
This band is separated into anterior and posterior portions 
by the primary liganicntal pit. In Ostren, howcvcr_, the 
anterior row is wanting, and tlie iigamental pit lies at the 
anterior edge of the shell. Subsequent to the development 
of the crenulations the true teeth make their appearance. 
These arise, not perpendicular to the hinge-line but as long 
ridges parallel to it. Tiiey may retain this position throagli- 
out life, as in CucuUea crassalina. Usually, however, the 
interior end becomes sharply curved and the external part 
atrophies, leaving the usual taxodont teeth (figs. 1, 2, and .'5j. 



Fig. I 




Young CiiaiUea crn^xrttina, showing the recurving of the primitive 
hiniellte to form taxodont teeth. (After Bernard.) 

Iji = primary Iigamental teeth. 

The great importance of this is twofold : — 

Firsthj. It refutes the theory that the early embryonic 
dentition seen in certain Heterodonts, and which 
arises perpendicular to the hinge-line, represents an 
early taxodont condition, and for that reason necessi- 
tates the descent of the Heterodonts from Taxo- 
donts as seen in modern forms. 

Secondhj. It does away with the radical difference between 
the heterodont and taxodont teeth. 



77^6 Origin of the Pleurodont Dentition. 

Amongst the Anisomyarians (figs. 4 & 5) the teeth show 
a still earlier stage than in the Nuculidre and their allies. 
Here they rise before the development of the cardinal plateau 
as lateral folds alternating with the external ribs. These 
internal ribs may occur where the outer test is smooth. In 
forms where the test thickens Ki'catlv a transition can be 



9:5 



Mr. :\r. C. March on the 



traced from a period when these internal ribs alternate 
with the external ribs, and a time when they are entirely- 
independent of them. The cardinal plateau is a subsequent 
development to the first-formed teeth and arises on them. 



Fio'. 2. 




Development of Pectunculus obovatiis. (After Bernard.) 

1 & 2, right valve ; 3-7, left valve. Li = primary ligamental pit ; 
C = baud of crenulations. 

Where these first-formed teeth remain as internal ribs they 
are called " dysodont/^ when they are developed on the 
plateau, or take their place on it, they become true taxodont 
teeth, and as such become capable of growth into the usual 



I 



General Classijication of the Pelecypoda. 



97 



taxodont form. Dall noticed tlio same origin for the 
Auisoinyariau teeth ; but he read it as excluding them 
from any coauectiou with the Taxodoiita, whose teeth he 

Fi"-. 3. 





Young stages oi Area. (After Bernard.) 
C = baud of crenulations; Li = primary ligauiental pit; L=;ligaineat. 



A nr 



L_^ 



Fig. 4. 
L.9 



p nr 




pn 



Avicula microptera (after Bernard^, showing the dysodont teeth, wliicli 
anteriorly show a tendency to produce cardinals. 

conceived as arising perpendicular to the hinge-line. Con- 
firming the fact that the dysodont stage precedes tiie taxo- 
dont, Bernard cites the case of the development of those young 
Ann. (I; Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. x. 7 



98 



Mr. M. 0. Marcli on the 



Arcidffi wliicli grow slowly and have a thin test. Here the 
transition between dysodont and'taxodont teeth is clearly 
The Monomyarians develop rudimentary dysodont 



seen. 



Fie:. 5. 



PIT 



AH 




Tecten varius, showing the first dysodont teeth. (Alter Bernard. 
Fio-. 6. 




Plicatula rmnosa, showing the development of I, II, and III. 
(After Bernard.) 

teeth, which show extraordinary variation. Bernard con- 
cludes from these facts that they are degenerate. 

An important fact brought out by Bernard is the order of 



General Classification of the Felecypoda. 99 

development of teeth in the Taxodonta. The later teeth in 
the Taxodonta appear veutrally except : — 

(a) la the case of the Pectunculid;o, where the third tooth 
iu the left valve appears dorsally to the first and 
second teeth. This may possibly be a case of de- 
generation^ Bernard, however, does not suggest 
this(3, p. 61). (Fig. 6.) 

(Z») In Nucula (3, p. 166) two teeth appear dorsally, which 
Bernard takes as being developed in their normal 
order. He comments, however, on their irregularity. 
In the case of the Monomyarians the irregularity iu 
the development of the dysodont teeth is taken by 
him as postulating degeneration, so that these dorsal 
teeth might possii)ly be degenerate. In both these 
cases the other teeth develop ventrally, 

(c) In the Pectinidae and Spoudylidae, and also in MytUus^ 
the teeth develop dorsally, 

So far the points established by Bernard are : — 

(1) Til at the Taxodonta [i. e. Prionodesmacea— Naiadacea) 

have an embryonic dentition which is also seen iu 
some Heterodonta (i.e. Teleodesmacea + Anomalo- 
desmacea + Naiadacea) . 

(2) That the true taxodont dentition develops parallel to 

the hinge and that its position perpendicular to the 
cardinal line is due to rotation. 

(3) That the dysodont dentition of the Anisoinyarians is 

an early stage in the development of the taxodont 
and is originally formed from internal ribs, alter- 
nating with external ribs when these are present. 

The Development of the Heterodont Dentition. 

The last great point brought out by Bernard is the 
development of the heterodont teeth. These may or may 
not show the embryonic crenulations. In either case the 
true teeth are developed on a common plan. 

The teeth, lateral or cardinal, are developed from laminse 
running parallel to the edge of the cardinal plateau. Those 
of the right valve lie ventral to those of the left valve. They 
are numbered I, II, III, IV, V, VI, from ventral to dorsal, 
those of the left valve being denoted by the even numbers, 
and those of the right valve by the odd numbers. As before, 
there are two sets of these teeth, one lying anterior, and 
the other postei'ior, to the ligament-pit. 

7* 



100 



Mr. M. C. March on the 



Anterior to tlie ligament : — 

LA I, LA TU, LA V, for the riolit valve. 
LA II, LA IV, LA VI, for the left valve. 

Posterior to tlie ligament : — 

LP I, LP III, LP V, for the right valve. 
LP II, LP IV, LP VI, for the left valve. 

The posterior ends of these lamelloe bend round so as to 
He more or less perpendicular to the hinge-line, and may 
become differentiated from the anterior part. The posterior 
portions form ihe cardinals, the anterior jiortions form the 
lateral teeth or remain as unditfercntiated lamellae. The 
posterior himellai are unaltered except in the case of Condylo- 
cardia (fig. 7) . The anterior cardinals may become bifurcated 
forming anterior portions. 



rig. 7. 



CAZ 




f.P3 



VoKh/hcardia crassicosta (after Bernard), showing the occuiTeuce of 
posterior cardinals. 

1. Left valve. 2. Pight valve. 



The reduction of the heterodont hinge to a scheme, and 
the cursory comparison of that scheme with the actual adult 
heterodont hinge, makes the conception seem too simple to 
be really possible. It is only by carefully follov\'ing out 
Bernard^s papers, and by the comparison of his descriptions 
of the adult shells with the actual specimens that it becomes 
clear that the hinges do develop on that plan. In actual 
practice Y appears rarely, ami YI very rarely. 



General Glasdjicatlon of the Pelecijpoda. 101 

LP = ljiUu-al posterior liunella. 
IjA=lateral anterior lamella, 
CA = anterior cardinal. 

rt = anterior portion of an anterior cardinal. 

/»= posterior portion of an anterior cardinal. 

Left valve. Iti<jht valve. 



I.P VI ligt. LA VI 

A. LP IV ligt. LA IV 
LP II ligt. LA II 

LP VI ligt. CA6 LA VI 

B. LP IV ligt. CA4 LA IV 
LP II ligt. CA2 LA II 

LP VI ligt. £/; Qa LA VI 

C. LP IV ligt. 46 4^ LA IV 
LP II list. 2h -la LA II 



LAV ligt. LP V 
LAJj^ ligt. LP III 
LAI ligt. LP I 

LA V CA 5 ligt. LP V 
LA III CA.S ligt. LP III 
LAI CAT ligt. LPI 

LAV b_a_ 5_^ligt. LP V 
LA III 3 a 3 h ligt. LP III 
LAI CAl ligt. LPI 



Diagrams showing the relation of the teeth 
according to Bernard. 

A. Stage showing primary lamellae only. 

B. Stage showing development of anterior cardinals and laterals. 

C. Stage showing bifurcation of the anterior cardinals. 

Bernard provisionally divided the Heterodonta into two 
classes. He did not hold these classes to be strictly natural 
ones, but he made them for the sake of convenience. 

Subdivisions of the Heterodonta. 

A. The Cyrina type, where the CA.I is present, and CA II 

is divided into 2 a and 2 b. 

B. The iyMciwa type, where the first cardinal is undeveloped 

and the second cardinal is consequently simple. 

Families in Bernard's Orders and Suborders. 

Heterodonta. 

Pliodonta. 

MactridfC : 3Iactra, Schizodesma, Lutraria,. Merope, 

Schizotha?rus, Eastonia, Kaeta. 
Scrobicularidcc: Cumingia, Semele, Scrobicularia. 



102 Mr. M. C. March on the 

Meeodesmatidoi : Paphia ( = Mesodesma), Anapa. 

Cardiliida : Cardilia. 

Anatinidcs: Anatina, Thracia. 

Cuspidariidce : Cuspidaria. 

Cyrenidee: Corbicula, Ipliigeuia, Cyrena, Sphseriuni, 

Cyrenoida, Velonta. 
Rangidce : Rangia. 
Venerid(e : Cytherea, Venus, Tapes, Circe, Macrocallista, 

Doshia, Glaucomya. 
Cyprinidm : Cyprina, Pygocardia, Cypvicardia, Corallio- 

phaga. 
Isocardiidce : Isocardia, Modiolaria. 
PetricoUdce : Petricola. 

Erycinidce : Lascea, Kellya, Bornea, ScaccLia, Montacuta. 
KeUiellidce : Lutetia, Kelliella. 
Chmnidce : Cliania, Echinochama, Gyi'opleura, Monopleura, 

Capratina. 
Rudlstce : Valletia, Radiolites. 
DiceratidcP : Diceras, Heterodiceras. 

Oligodonta. 

Lticinidce : Lucina, Fimbria, Diplodonta, Axiuus, Felania, 

Ungulina. 
Astartidce : Astarte. 
Condylocardiidce : Condylocardia. 
Cardiidce : Cardium, Hemicardium, Pterocardiuni, Pro- 

sodacna. 
Donacidce : Donax. 

Corbulidce : Corbula, Mya, Splienia, Tugonia. 
Tellinid(e : Telliua. 
Solenidce. 
Paneopeidce. 
Phvladidce : Pholas. 
Dreissensidis : Dreissensia. 
* Triyoiiiidce ; Trigonia. 

Pleurodonta. 

Taxodonta. 

Nucvlidce : Nucula._ 
Arcidce : Area, Cucullea. 
Pectunculidce : Pectunculus. 
Ledidce : Leda, Yoldia, Malletia. 

Dysodonta. 

Mytilidce : Mytilus, Modiola, Modiolaria, Creuella, Litho- 

domiis, llochstetteria. 
Aviculidce-. Avicula. 
Pectinidce : Pecten, lama. 
Syoiidylidce : Spondj'lus, Plicatula. 
Anumiida : Placunanomia. 
Ostreidte : Ostrea. 

* Possibly may belong to the Pliodonta. 



General Classification of the Pelecypoda. 103 

Bernard's Classification. 

Bernard's discovery of the discontinuity of the embryonic 
and adult dentitions of the Taxodonta, and his working out 
of the development of the definitive teeth, overthrew the 
hypothesis that the crenulations observable in certain Hete- 
rodonta postulated the descent of the latter from the former. 
On the other hand, lie regarded the Heterodonta as being 
derived from an early taxodont {i. e. dysodont) ancestry by 
tiie specialization of the lateral lamellae — that is to say, he 
considered these lamellae to be homologous in both groups, 
for he says : — 

"Pour comparer la charniere des Heterodontes a celle des 
Taxodontes, il sera necessaire de s'adresser, non pas aux 
formes adultes mais aux formes embryoniques . . , Une dent 
des Taxodontes sera homologue non pas a I'une quelconque 
des dents Heterodontes adultes mais a Pune de leurslamelles 
primitives qui se recourbent . . . pourra donner uaissance, 
suivant les cas a 1, 2, ou 3 dents definitives/' 

In his work Bernard clearly states that the Taxodonta 
and Anisomyaria form one group, the latter showing clearly 
the evolution of taxodont teeth from internal ribs. This is 
also shown by the Areas in the former group. The Aniso- 
myaria show the beginning of the taxodont dentition, but 
not its full development. The Mouomyarian dentition he 
shows to be degenerate — indeed, Ostrea never passes through 
a taxodont stage. The absence of a well-developed taxodont 
stage may of course be due either to want of phylogenetic 
development or to a similar degeneration. Into this point 
Bernard does not go. The evidence of the Monorayaria and 
the specialized habit of the Anisomyaria generally point to 
its non-development being due to degeneration. That this 
loss of later specialization threw more and more work on 
to earlier stages is shown by Ostrea, which, never passing 
through a taxodont stage, has embryonic crenulations 
persisting late. 

As the Taxodonta and Anisomyaria are included in one 
order, that order cannot very well be called Taxodonta. A 
name which seems suitable is Pleurodouta, as it refers to the 
definite proof of the evolution of the taxodont teeth from 
internal ribs. As to the names of the two suborders, Taxo- 
donta is ])erfectly suitable ; but the name Anisomyaria cannot 
very well stand, as it seems to show an order in a general 
classification based on the considerations of the hinge, 
divided off because of its muscular characters. For the 



104 



Mr. M. C. Marcli on the 



teeth of this suborder Bernard retains the name dysodont, 
therefore it might he called the Dysodonta. 

The second order Bernard called Heterodonta. Its two 
main subdivisions he based on the fact that in one type 
cardinal 1 is not differentiated from lamella 1, and therefore 

Fio:. 8. 




LPn 



LAR 




Development oi Lucina neglecta. (After Bernard.) 



cardinal 2 is undivided. In the other type cardinal 1 is 
present and cardinal 2 is divided. These two suborders 
might perhaps be called Pliodonta and Oligodonta (figs. 8 
&9)j in reference to their diagnostic characters. The former 
suborder is again divided into four classes : — 

1. Containing those forms which are typical of the sub- 

order (figs. 10& 11). 

2. Containing those forms in which CA I is either quite 

undeveloped or not strongly developed (fig. 12). 

3. Containing those forms in which the ligament is either 

entirely or nearly internal and where CA 1 is un- 
developed (figs. 13 & 14). 

4. Containing Chama and its allies (fig. 15). 



General Classijication of the Pelecypoda. 



105 



There are two apparent objections to Bernard's con- 
clusions. The first is Noettling's (17, p. 87), who, in criti- 
cizing Bernard's statement that the dorsal primary laraellaj 
of the Heterodonta appear later than the ventral ones, 
says : — " The view that the dorsal primary lamellffi are older 
than the ventral ones is . . . supported by the fact that the 
Bivalves grow in a ventral direction — in other words, the 
ventral portions of a bivalve shell are younger than the 



Fig. 9. 



LMl 




LP I 



LAI 




LAir 



dorsal ones ; it would be certainly strange if the opposite 
took place with regard to the hinge, where the ventral part^ 
would be the older and the dorsal parts the younger ones — 
tiiat is to say, the hinge would grow just in the opposite 
direction to the remainder of the shell." This certainly 
would be strange, but Dr. Noettling overlooks three facts : — 
Firstly. That, as is shown by the growth-lines, the teeth 
are formed entirely by secondary thickening which may take 
place at any point. 



106 



Mr. M. C. March on the 



Secondly. The growth-lines in tlie umbonal region of the 
shell show that the earliest formed part of the plateau is 
due to internal thickening. The first growth-line bends 
down, then up, cutting the edge of the young shell. If the 
plateau were formed by downgrowth of the external part the 
growth-lines would run towards the umbonal region as they 
do in the underpart of the plateau. If, then, as seems 
probable from the structure of the shell, the plateau is due 
to secondary thickening, it cannot be possible to speak of 
teeth as being dorsal or ventral with regard to each other 



Fig. 10. 




LAET 



LAI 



3b I 
Development of Cytherea deshayesiana. (After Bernard.) 




when they are formed by thickenings on its upper surface. 
They can only be more or less internal or external with 
regard to each other. 

Thirdly. According to Bernard^s hypothesis, the lamellae 
are derived from radial internal ribs, which, except for inter- 
calation (which only occurs in later shell-development), 
remain constant in number and normally develop simul- 
taneously. Such ribs cannot be regarded as dorsal or ventral 
with regard to each other. 



General Classification of the Pelecypoda. 107 

Fi^. 11. 



LAH 




LAI 




LAn 



LP in 




LAH 



A Lcevicardiiim with reduced teeth. 



108 



Mr. M. 0. March on the 
Fig. 13. 




LPn 



LAI 
Development of Madra solida, (After JSeruard.) 

Fig. 14. 





L\at 



Lutraria. 



General Classijicallon of the Pehcypoda. 



109 



Those ribs would then be developed which were of greatest 
importance to the shell — they might be those nearest to the 
hiiiffc-line or those furthest from it. 

The second apparent objection is the alteration of a ventral 
snccession in the Taxodonta and some Dysodonta to a dorsal 
one in the remaining Dysodonta and all the Heterodonta if, 
as seems probable, they have a common origin. This objec- 
tion has already been partially answered, where it was stated 
that those ribs which were most important would develop 
first. The change in order of development, then, may merely 
mean a change in the relative importance of the upper and 
lower ribs. This may reasonably be accounted for on the 

Fio-. 15. 



LPI 




LPI 



Left. Right. 

Chdtnn l(ixarii.«:. (After Beruard.) 



firmly established principle that those parts of an organism 
most highly developed in the adult tend to appear first in 
ontogeny. In the early shells, the Palseoconchs, the shells 
were thin and would be likely to break under the strain of 
the ligament. The most external, that is the uppermost ribs, 
which are more than mere valleys between the external ribs, 
and, moreover, need not be associated with external ribs, 
would be extremely likely to be useful as helping to 
strengthen that part of the shell. Being more developed 
they would appear sooner than the less important ventral 
ones. After the appearance of the cardinal plateau, or even 
after the general thickening of the shell, this use would be 
subordinated to the use of guiding the shell to ensure rapid 
and accurate closing. This would be better accomplished 
by ventral ribs, which would then develop first. 

Noettling reasons from diagrams 12, numbers 2 and 3 (see 
text-fig. 10), of Bernard's work on Heterodonts, that lamella 
III, which is shown as curved round, is more differentiated 



110 



Mr. M. C. Marcli on the 





• e3 
03 a; 




03 






c3 


CD 

o 




0) o 




;:, 


oj 

O 
OS 


OS 


1 




2 






"% 


o 

O 


S 


s 


oi 


o 


ce 




H 


Fh 


<!l 


.3> 


ci 


c3 


■13 

oe 


o 


03 







w 



Kl Ph 



o 2 " o ^ o o 

>r^ o t-. o 



C3 "S . ^ 

^ "TS ^^ ^ 

o y c o 



OJ 



H.= 



^ 




^ !> (B aj a- 5 =? 

S <J r4 i^ OJ *5l C 



P* <i 



CO 



a; « 3 oi 



8i -^ se 






^ s S 2 



CQ 



S 



6 P 



General Classification of the Pelecypoda. 



Ill 









-s 

^ 



n 

CO 



CO 



H 





oS 


!fi 


ni 




-*-' 


'Ti 




cS 


o 




o 


c 


-o 


c 


t! 


„ o 


o 




O 


-nri 


a 




c 


O 

OJ 




t-3 




















HQ 




P 






o o 



c -^ 



>.^.S o) '^ o =" <u aJ 



-'? So 1^^ 



PL, 



'a .a S.S 









Js .; ai 



SB 



■d :^ -s t3 -S t3 ^ ^ •-:3 •- OJ -i::; -s 



m _g 



-*^ "2 -^^ >^t! cS •-< ^ "S -^ — — •• 



O 

o 
o 

2 
o 






112 Mr. M. 0. March on the 

than lamella I, which is merely a straight ridge. Surely 
here he is confusing the appearance of teeth and lamellfe. 
The curving of III is the first stage in the development of 
3 a and 3 b. Lamella I might appear before lamella III, and 
yet CA 3 be developed before ]. Indeed, CA 1 may never 
develop. Also the early appearance of I causes II in the left 
valve to appear more or less curved, and this enjoins the 
same fate on III in the right valve. As a matter of fact, 
this reading of these diagrams supports the assumed change 
in order of development by showing that, although the first 
lamella to develop is the most internal, yet the earliest 
formed teeth appear more externally. 

Order I. PLEURODONTA. 

Pelecypoda in which the prodissoconch stage always shows 
an embryonic dentition in the form of crenulations, which 
may or may not continue into the dissoconch stage. The 
true teeth normally develop as lateral folds at the periphery. 
The cases in which they do not may be taken as due to 
acceleration in development. The succession of teeth is 
normally from external (dorsal) to internal (ventral). The 
cardinal plateau develops after the first-formed teeth, which 
mayor may not be traceable from internal ribs. The teeth 
when developing before the plateau are dysodont, when 
developing on the plateau they are taxodont. The teeth 
tend to become curved, so as to lie perpendicular to the 
hinge-line internally. Peripherally they tend to atrophy. 

Suborder A. Dysodont a. 

Pleurodonta in which the teeth definitely arise as continua- 
tions of internal ribs. They are reduced in number and may 
become taxodont in nature or degenerate. The succession 
may be external (dorsal). 

Suborder B. Taxodont a. 

Pleurodonta in which the origin of teeth from internal 
ribs is normally not evident. The teeth are numerous and 
become perpendicular to the hinge-line. The succession is 
internal (ventral), except where not more than two teeth 
arise externally (dorsally). 



General Classification of the Pelecypoda. 113 

Order 11. HETERODONTA. 

Pelecypoda in which the prodissoconch normally shon^s 
no embryonic crenulations. The teeth develop from lateral 
lamelhe. The succession is external (dorsal). The first- 
formed lamella is in the right valve. Each valve contains 
lamelloe in front of and behind the ligament. The anterior 
lamelhe may develop posteriorly into cardinal teeth and 
anteriorly into lateral teeth. Posterior cardinals are deve- 
loped in one case oidy. 

Division A. Pliodonta. 

Heterodonta in which CA 1 is developed and CA 2 is 
subdivided into anterior and posterior portions. 

Division P. O l i g o d o n r a. 

Heterodonta in which CA 1 does not develop and CA 2 
remains undivided. 

Conclusion. 

The comparison and contrasts between these three classifi- 
cations stand out clearly. To Nenmeyer, the first to really 
tackle the problem of the hinge as a basis for classification, 
is due the honour of having divided the hinges into types. 
Three only of these divisions survive, two of these only as of 
subordinal value (Taxodonta and Dysodonta), the third 
(Heterodonta) as an order; but to him is due the general 
basis for such a classification. Dall kept these tj^pes of 
Neumeyer's, but reduced them to the rank of divisions in 
his orders. He created three new orders, founding them, as 
did Nenmeyer, on the characters of the adult shell, and, as 
was shown by Bernard^s later work, erroneously. Bernard^s 
work was essentially that of an eml)ryologist. His two 
orders and their suborders were founded on the study of 
individual development. Having worked out the main 
lines of his classification in this way, he compared it with 
Neumeyer's work on the Palaeoconchs of the Palaeozoic 
period, and found that the results of his work were borne 
out by these earlier researches. 

Neither of these workers claimed that his work was ideal 
phylogenetically ; each fully realized the importance of the 
consideration of other organs in tracing out the relationships 
of members of the group, 

Ann. (ii Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vvl. x. 8 



114 Mr. M. 0. Marcli on the 

Neumeyer's seven orders bear no distinct relationship to 
the orders established by those who followed the differentia- 
tion of the gills. Ball's first order, Prionodesmacea^ corre- 
sponds to the Protobranchia and Eleuthcrobranchia of 
Ridewood, except that Ostrea and Pinna are removed by the 
latter, on account ot'their gills, into the Synaptorhabda, which 
is equivalent to the Anomalodesmacea and Teleodesmacea of 
Dall, with the exception of the above-mentioned families. 

Bernard's Pleurodonta inckides the members of the Proto- 
branchia and Eleutherorhabda, together with the Ostreid;e 
and the Pinnidse placed in it, and without the Cardiniidie 
and Trigoniidse. His Heterodonta agrees with the Synapto- 
rhabda with these two families removed and the Trigoniidae 
and Cardiniidse added. 

Grobben's classification appears to be untenable for three 
reasons : — 

A. He separates the Desraodonta from the Heterodonta, 

placing them in a different order, although they are 
essentially similar in both the gills and the hinge. 

B. He separates the Arcidse from the other Taxodouta, 

placing them in the same order as the Heterodonta, 
although they differ in development and history. 

C. In spite of the same difficulty, he places the Aniso- 

myarians with the Heterodonta. 

As Ball's orders have been shown to have been founded 
on a misconception of the value of the teeth, the only 
important comparisons are between Bernard's and Ridewood's 
classifications. 

One of the differences between these classifications is 
the inclusion in the first of Bernard's orders of the first two 
of Ridewood's orders. Bernard's reasons for putting the 
Taxodonta and Dysodonta together are : — 

1. They have a similar prodissoconch M'ith embryonic 

crenulations. 

2. The early dissoconch stages are similar in regard to the 

development of the teeth and cardinal plateau. 

The differences in their later development justifies their 
separation into suborders. 

Ridewood's reason for separating them is that the gills 
in one case are simple protobranchs and in the other they 
are recurved. Ridewood himself derives the filibranch type 



General Classification of ihe Pelecypoda. 115 

from the protobraiiclij so that the difference is merely one of 
degree of development, while Bernard's comparisons imply 
a relationship of origin and development for the prodisso- 
conch and early dissoconch stages. The reasons for the 
association of these two sections of the Pelecypoda seem to 
be stronger than the reason for their separation. 

Of course it can be urged against Bernard's order that 
in the Pectinidse, Spondylidie, and Plicatulidse the order of 
development of the teeth is towards the exterior (i. e. the 
dorsal side), but a foreshadowing of this may be seen in the 
Nuculidse and Pectunculidae. 

The separation of Ostrea and Pinna from Avicula on 
account of the gills is opposed to the results of the researches 
of Jackson on the Aviculidie and their allies, and of Bernard 
on the development of the hinge and the general characters 
of the shell. 

The inclusion of the Trigonacea in the Hetei'odonta, 
which is another difference, as the Heterodonta are practi- 
cally equivalent to the Synaptorhabda, is another point of 
difference. This position of this family resolves itself into 
the question of whether the teeth or the gills are taken as 
being the more important for classification. The arguments 
on this point were given at the beginning of this paper, 

A third and more important point of difference is th^ 
inclusion by Ridewood of the Arcidfe with the Trigoniidie 
and Mytilidse in the subgroup Mytilacea. This arrangement 
is opposed to the results of both phylogeny and ontogeny. 
The types of hinge which these families possess were distinct 
at any rate in Ordovician times. 

In general basis Bernard's classification is sounder than 
Ridewood's, because it is possible to include in it fossil 
forms and also because it is not based on the degree of 
development of a common character. Where the two 
disagree in detail Bernard's views are supported by other 
workers and by phylogeny and ontogeny. Moreover, 
Bernard's conclusions are the result of the detailed study of 
ontogeny. 

Literature. 

( i) Bareande, J. ' Systeme Sihirien du centre de la Bobeme,' vol. \i. 

Acephales. 1882. 
(2) Bernard, F. " Premiere note sur la developpement et la morplio- 

logie de la coquille cliez les Lamellibranches (Heterodoutes)," 

Bull. See. geol. de France, (3) t. xxiii. 1895, p. 104. 

(5) . " Deuxieireuote&c. (Taxodontes)," ib. t. xxiv. p. 412. 1893. 

(4) . "Ti-oisieme note &c. (Auisomvahes),'' ib. t. xxiv. p. 412. 

1896. 

8^- 



116 On the General Classification of the Pelecypoda. 

{5) Bernard, F. "Quatrieiue note Ac," Bull. Soc. geol. de France, 
(3) t. XXV. p. 5ri9. 

(6) . "Eecherches snr la coquille des Lamellibranclies," Ann. des 

Sci. nat., Zool. t. viii. p. 1. 1898. 

(7) . " Etudes comparatives sur la coquille des Lamellibranclies : 

Condylocardia &c.," Journ. de Concli. 1898, no. ?>. 

(8) . " £tudes &c. : Les Genres Philohn/a et Jlochstetterin,'''' ib, 

no. 1. 1897. 

(9) . " Anatomie de Chlamydoconclia orcutti," Ann. Sci. nat., Zool. 

t.i. 1897. 

(10) . "Sur la prodissoconque &c.," C. R. Acad. So. t. cxxiv. 

1897. 
(i i) . "Sur le developpement des dents &c.," ib. t. cxxv. 1897. 

(12) . ' Elements de Pal(5ontologie.' 1895. 

( 1 3) Ball, W. H. " On the Hinge of Pelecypoda and its Bevelopment," 

Amer. Journ. Sci. (3) vol. xxxviii. 1889. 

(14.) . " Contributions to the Tertiary Fauna of Florida. — Part HI. 

A new Classification of the Pelecvpoda," Trans. Wagn. Free Inst, 
of Sci. Philadelphia. 189-5. 

(15) Fischer, II. "Resume des travaux de M. F. Bernard sur le 

d{5veloppenient de la coquille des Pelecypodes," Journ. de Conch, 
no. 4, xlv. 1897. 

(16) Jackson, R. T. " Phylogeny of the Pelecvpoda: the Aviculidte 

and their Allies," INIem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. vol. iv. 1890. 

(17) NoETTLiNG, F. "Notes on the Morphology of the Pelecypoda," 

Pal. Ind. new series, vol. i. 1889. 

(18) Pelseneer, p. 'Contributions a la etude des Lamellibranclies.' 

1891. 

(19) Ridewood, W. G. " On the Structure of the Gills of the Lamelli- 

brauchia," Phil. Trans. B, vol. cxcv. p. 147. 1903. 

(20) Woodward, B. B. " On a proposed new Classification of the 

Pelecypoda," Nat. Sci. vol. viii. no. 50, p. 239. 1896. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE III. 

A. 1. Left valve of MfTjfrj'.r. 
2. Right „ 

B. 1 . Left valve of Mactra. 
2. Right „ 

C. 1. Left valve of iiic^wa. 
2. Right „ 

D. 1. Left valve of Pecten. 
2. Right „ „ 

E. 1. Left valve of Pectttnculus. 
2. Right „ 

LA = auterior lamella. 
IjP= posterior lamella. 
1, 2 ff, 2 b, &c. = cardinal teeth. 

A = anterior dysodont tooth. 
P = posterior dysodont tooth. 



Notes from the Gatlrj Marine Lahoratonj. 117 



Xr. — Notes from the Gatty Marine Laboratory , St. Andrews. 
—No. XXXIII. By Prof. M'Intosh, M.D., LL.U., 
F.R.S., &c. 

[Plates IV. & v.] 

1. On a White Porpoise. 

2. On tlie Spawning of the Hake {Merlaccius merluccius, L.). 

3. On Eteone depressa, Mgrn., var., a Species not hitherto found in 

Britain. 

4. On Nereis zonafa, Mgrn., in Britain. 

5. On the British C(q)itellid(P (Hahlininthidce). 

6. Oji the Capitellida; procured by H.M.S. ' Porcupine.' 

1. On a White Porpoise. 

For nearly a fortnight amateur fisliermen who used the 
hand-lines at night were surprised to see about the beginning 
of August a whitish porpoise, or, as some thought, a Beluga^ 
disporting itself in St. Andrews Bay, and it was also ob- 
served by the salmon fishermen early in the morning. It 
was never in compau}'^ with its neighbours, but was always 
solitary. On the morning of the 10th August it was 
entangled in the salmon stake-nets off Kinkell Ness, about 
two miles from St. Andrews. When brought to the 
Laboratory it was found to be a j'oung female measuring 
34 inches in length (PI, IV.) and was of a dull yellowish 
white all over like that of Beluga, though when care- 
fully examined a faint longitudinal band occurred along 
the upper lateral region on each side. In front of the eye, 
again, a curved band of a blackish hue passed from the 
vertex forward, made a bold sweep forward, and then curved 
backward to the angle of the moulh. The shape of the 
entire patch was somewhat crescentic, the dark pigment 
being toned off at the margin. The eyes had the normal 
pigment, and thus differed from those of an albino. 

Tiiough it is rare to find any noteworthy change in the 
blackish pigment of the dorsum of the porpoise, variations 
occasionally occur in the hue of the latero-ventral and the 
ventral surface in the form of pale or greyish pigment or 
dull streaks. Again, in a foetal porpoise about 6 inches in 
length (18th November, 1911) the anterior region of the 
head, the vertex to a line with the perpendicular from the 
anterior base of the flipper was dark, and the entire dorso- 
lateral region to the tail was of a dull grey hue. The under 
surface and the ventro-lateral regions were pale. The 
flipjiers, dorsal fin, and the caudal Hukes were blackish, the 
pigment on the latter being densest ventrally. In another 



118 Prof. M'liitosli's Notes from the 

foetus between 16 and 17 inches in lenjjtli (6tli February) 
the pigment outlined in the early example had become of a 
deep black hue — fading at the edges to the pale tint oE the 
ventro-lateral region. Thus in the white form traces of 
embryonic hues have been retained. 

Variations in colour are known in other Cetaceans, such 
as the iiumpback whales, schools of which have the belly 
nearly white, others with a marbled under surface, and a 
third series with the bellies entirely dark *. Similar 
variations are noted by the old authors, by Prof. Collett t and 
Mr. Lillie %, amongst the rorquals {Balanoptera musculus, 
B. sibbaldii, and B. borealis). In remarking on three 
variations — viz., dark and two lighter-coloured phases — 
Mr. Lydekker § is inclined to think these are not due to 
race but to age. So far as observed, however, the common 
cetaceans of Britain do not appear to lend much support to 
this A'iew, or to the statement that the dark-tailed rorquals 
specially feed on herrings and pilchards and the lighter- 
coloured forms on crustaceans. 

2. 071 the Spawming of the Hake (Meiluccius merluccius, L.). 

The hake is by no means a common fish on the eastern 
shores of Scotland, indeed Parnell || states that " it is seldom 
met with on the east coast of Scotland. About two years 
ago, a single specimen was taken in a stake-net at Mussel- 
burgh and sent to the Edinburgh market, where it. appeared 
to be unknown." Couch ^, again, thought it one of the 
commonest fishes round the British Islands, though this 
refers chiefly to the southern shores, and that its spawning- 
season ''is the early months of the year, although this is 
liable to variation, as, indeed, is the case with most fishes, so 
that in the cold season of 1837 the spawning of hakes was 
not accomplished until August." Day adds nothing to the 
knowledge of its spawning. Kingsley and Conn allude to 
the egg from the American coast and give a figure. 
M'Intosh and Masterman '^'^ observe "that Dr. Raff'aele, at 
Naples, " mentions that ripe specimens occur in January," 
and they appear to continue till May ff. " In British waters 
the spawning-period seems to extend from January to July 
inclusive, Mr. Cunningham having found one perfectly ripe 

* Morch, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1911, part iii. p. 663. 

t Ihid. 1886, pp. 209-251. 

X Ihid. 1910, p. 783. § Ibid. 1911, p. 424. 

II ' Fishes of the Forth,' p. 351 (1837). 

If ' Fishes of the Brit. Islands,' vol. iii. pp. 99 & 100. 
** ' British Marine Food-Fishes,' p. 274 (1897). 

tt ' Le uovo galleggianti, &c.' p. 37 (1888), Taf. 1. figs. 28, 29, and Taf. 3. 
iig. 1 (larva). 



Gattij Marine Laboratory^ St. Andreivs. ]\0 

oil Jiil}^ 6th at Plymouth, 'Svhilc Mr. Holt procured 
another with nearly ripe ovaries at the eud of June 
off the west of Ireland." Prof. Herdman, again, found 
spawning hake south of the Isle of Man on April 5th. In 
Scandinavia the spawning-season is in the middle of July, 
though the authors appear to attach weight to the statement 
of the fishermen that there is only a single small bank of 
sand and shingle in the Cattegat where the hake spawns *. 

Eaffaele described the newly hatched larva and Mr. Holt 
the young from 1| to 1^ inches, whilst, lately, an able 
Danish observer, Dr. Johs Schmidt f, from his unique 
opportunities in the Danish research steamer ' Thor,^ has 
been able to fill in the post-larval stages from 4<^ mm., and 
the young to 31 mm., and thus complete the life-history. 
Amongst the marked features distinguishing the post-larval 
hake between 7 and 15 mm. are the plump form of the body, 
the occurrence of three post-anal pigment bars, the last only 
on the tail itself and not on the caudal fin, and the less 
elongated pelvic fins — when contrasted with the lings and 
torsk, while the older stages are marbled (Schmidt). 

No spawning hake having been procured in the trawling 
expeditions of former years or since in Scottish waters, it 
was interesting that on the 4th July, 1911, a female hake 
30 inches long was caught in the salmon stake-nets off the 
East Rocks, St. Andrews, the fish having apparently been 
swimming freely in the water. Its ovaries were well- 
developed and portions were ripe, the transparent eggs with 
a clear oil-globule readily issuing from the reproductive 
aperture and floating freely in a vessel of sea- water. The 
eggs measured about '8915 mm., and the oil-globules "2286 
mm. These eggs are somewhat less than those described by 
Raffaele from southern examples. The hake would thus 
appear to agree with the cod m having its spawning-period 
prolonged over a week or two. 

3. On Eteone depressa, Myrn.X, var., a Species not 
hitherto found in Britain. 

An Eteone collected at Scarborough by Dr. Irving and 
Mr. Arnold Watson during an excursion of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union Marine Biology Committee appears to 
differ from any hitherto found in Britain, and I am indebted 

* ' Scaiid. Fishes,' Fries, Ekstrom, and Sundevall, 2ud edit. (Smitt). 
1893, pp. 518 & 519. 

t ' Meddelelser fra Kommiss. Havunder?,' Kiobeuhavn, 1907, Serie 
Fiskeri, Bd. ii. pp. 4-7, pi. v. figs. 1-13. 

t Nordiska llafs- Auiiul. p. 103, tab. xv. f. 36 ; Annul. Poljch. p. 149. 



120 Prof. M'Intosli's Notes from the 

to Mr. Arnold Watson for the opportunity of describing it 
and for his notes and sketches of it Avhen alive. 

The annelid was found between tide-marks^ and when alive 
was whitish or cream-coloured, but in sea-water with 2i per 
cent, of formalin it passed through lemon-yellow to a dark 
brown, the tinls being darker in some parts than in others, 
whilst a few points remained cream-coloured. 

The head (PI. V. fig. 1) is somewhat conical, with a 
smoothly rounded anterior iDorder, from the sides of which 
spring the four subulate tentacles which taper distally and 
are nearly equal in length. Behind these the snout is con- 
stricted, then gradually widens till near the posterior border, 
when a slight constriction again occurs, thus giving a 
characteristic outline to the prostomium, the posterior border 
of which is carried backward in the middle line. Just in 
front of the central point is a minute boss, the presence of 
which at once attracted Mr. Watson's attention, and which, 
though in a diflerent position, simulates the unpaired 
tentacle of Eulalia. On each side and a little in front of the 
boss is a comparatively small eye, quite distinct at first, but 
which gradually faded in the preservative fluid, as, indeed, 
happens to other species of the genus. The peristomium bears 
two tentacular cirri of similar shape to the tentacles and 
scarcely longer. 

The body is about 3^ inches long and about ^^o of an inch 
wide (Watson) in life, and it is flattened both dorsally and 
ventrally, the latter surface being distinguished by a broad 
median de})ressed band and a short lateral area in each 
segment. On the dorsum, again, a similar effect is produced 
by the slight elevations at the outer border of each 
segment, though the median section is slightly convex 
and of the colour formerly mentioned. It tapers a 
little toward the snout, and much more gradually 
toward the tail, which ends in two lobate or spathulate 
cirri (PL V, fig. 2). The segments throughout are well- 
marked, and in the preservative fluid (2^ per cent, formalin 
in sea-water and then alcohol) a curious increase of the 
pigment has occurred, with pale segment-junctions. The 
dorsal and the ventral cirri are dark like the ventral surface, 
but the setigerous processes remain pale; such of course, 
though interesting, is the effect of the preservative fluid, and 
must not be confounded with its original pallor. 

The feet form an even series along each side, the typical 
foot (PI. V. fig. 3) having dorsally an ovate-rotundate 
lamella, which varies a little in the posterior region — that is, 
becomes more elongate and therefore more conical. The 



Gaily Marine Labor alory^ Sf. Andrews. 121 

cirrophore supporting it anteriorly is short and broad, the 
base of the cirrus being constricted in the posterior segments 
as it approaches it, whereas in the anterior segments the low 
broad cone formed by the cirrus shows this less prominently. 
The distal extremity forms a blunt cone. This cirrus, as in 
one or two other species of the genus, is proportionally large 
in a lateral view of the foot, its cirropliore occupying about 
half the vertical diameter of the foot, and it extends distally 
much beyond the other divisions. The setigerous process is 
bluntly conical, the tip being double, with a bite in the 
middle, and the bristle-tuft is supported by a pale spine, the 
tip of which does not project beyond the surface, though it 
almost touches it. The bristles (PI. V. figs. 4 & 5) are 
translucent, with a distal curvature of the shaft, and form a 
broad fan anteriorly, with the convexity of the shaft directed 
upward. The terminal piece is {)erhaps slightly longer than 
'\\\ Eteone jncta, ?i\\([ forms a translucent tapering serrated 
blade. The shaft is dilated at its termination above the 
curvature, and carries a long tapering spur, the point of 
which curves toward the serrated or upper border of the 
terminal blade ; and on the same side (that is, with the 
serrated edge of the blade to the left) is a shorter spur and 
a series of diminishing serrations on the free edge below it. 
The bristle thus differs from that of Eteone picta, especially 
in the proportionally longer hook at the end of the shaft 
and the more coarsely spinous edge below the base of the 
larger process. In E. picta the large hook is shorter, 
stronger, and more boldly curved, and the lateral hook 
smaller. In E. «?r/2ca the great hook is likewise shorter and 
stouter. In E. lent'iyera the comparatively small though 
stout main hook is only a little larger than the secondary. 
In E. spetshergensis the secondary hook is long and sharp 
and runs parallel to the larger hook, which is more or less 
straight. In the posterior region of the body both spines 
are well developed, and some have a tendency to curve at 
the tip. In E. pusilla the disproportion between the two 
hooks or spines is great, the smaller, however, being slender 
and sharp. In some small spines abut on the larger toward 
the doisal edge of the terminal blade — that is, the side 
opposite the serrated edge, 'i'he blade, moreover, is perhaps 
more distinctly bellied inferiorly. 

The ventral cirrus anteriorly has the shape of a truncated 
cone, the tip of which projects beyond the setigerous lobe. 
In the posterior third this cirrus diminishes in bulk and its 
tip is nearly in a line with the setigerous process, its ventral 
outline presenting a swelling or hump, apparently an indica- 



122 Prof. M'lutosli's Notes from the 

tion of its approach to the fused cirrophore. Toward tlie tip 
of the tail, again_, hoth the setigerous lobe and the ventral 
cirrus have diminished in bulk, the latter especially being 
longer and more slender, and its tip often projects beyond 
that of the setigerous lobe, the bristles in which are fewer 
and shorter. 

This form generally resembles Eteone depressa, Malmgren, 
and especially in the structure of the feet and bristles, but 
it differs in the presence of the " boss " or rudimentary 
tentacle at the posterior border of the prostomium. If the 
various authors who have examined it, however, had only 
seen spirit-preparations, it is possible that it may have been 
overlooked. Hitherto it has been found, amongst other 
places, at Bellsund, Spitzbergen, Greenland, Nova Zembla, 
and the Murman Sea. In his brief note on the species 
Theel * states that the head differs from Malmgren's outline, 
and he gives a corrected figure. Fauvel f; another able 
investigator of the Annelids, considers that this species may 
be identical with Etione spetsberyensis, Malmgren, but, as 
indicated in the preceding remarks, there are reasons for 
kee^Ding them separate. 

4. On Nereis zonata, Mgrn., in Britain. 

Nereis zonata, Malmgren, is a form which, though not 
uncommon in northern waters, as in the cruise of the 
' Valorous,^ appears to be rare in Britain. 

Malmgren received it from Greenland and Spitzbergen. 
and Marenzeller and others from North European and 
North Asiatic regions. The head resembles that of Ntreis 
pelagica in regard to general shape, but the eyes are some- 
what larger and the tentacles and tentacular cirri are longer 
and more slender. A dark band of pigment runs in the line 
of the eyes, and a band of white passes forward between 
them. The body has a distinctive coloration, viz. a pale 
reddish-brown hue in spirit, though Malmgren adds yellowish 
or bluish to the reddish brown. The arctic examples from 
the ' Valorous '' were distinctly banded transversely, a feature 
very evident in young specimens. It is terminated poste- 
riorly by slightly longer cirri than in N. pelagica, though 
much reliance need not be put on this feature. The maxillae 
of the proboscis have the same number of teeth, those of 
N. pelagica perhaps being usually more distinct, and the tip, 

* Annel. N. Zemble, p. 32, pi. ii. figs. 19 & 20. ^ 
t Annel. Canipague Arctic[ue de I'JU? (Due D'Orleans), p. 27, pi. i. 
fig. (J (lOil). 



Gaiiy Marine Laboraton/, St. Audreios. 123 

if anything, is more slender. The paragnathi generally are 
finer than in N. peUiijica, and I. is absent in the present 
examples and in those proenred by the ' Valoious ' in Green- 
land, and at most is represented by a single horny point, as 
in IMarenzeller's specimens. The groups in II. are some- 
M'hat smaller individually, and apparently less numerous than 
in N. pelagica. 111. forms a longer transverse band of more 
minute denticles, and group IV. is composed o£ more acute 
paragnathi in a double curve, the inner formed of smaller 
denticles. V. is absent, as in N. pelagica, and VI. forms a 
group of smaller denticles than in N. pelayica on the eleva- 
tions at each side. This group is very variable in N. pela- 
gica, occasionally only a single large denticle being present 
on each side, and in all cases the paragnathi are larger. 
YII. and VIII. form the basal row in extrusion, and no 
groups differ from the homologous parts in A^ pelayica more 
than these. VII. shows the two largest paragnathi in the 
series constituting a basal band in extrusion, and which 
(band) differs from that of iV. pelagica in the isolation of the 
larger distal and the minuteness of the proximal denticles. 
In N. pelagica the large distal paragnathi are much more 
numerous and less regularly arranged, and the proximal 
smaller denticles are likewise in greater numbers. Side by 
side the contrast between the two is noteworthy. 

In glancing along the feet of the two forms the rounded 
and blunt condition of the tips of the processes in N. pela- 
gica distinguish it, for in N. zonata the lobes are much more 
acute, and Malmgren^s figures originally indicated this clearly. 
The examples were procured in Lanibay Deep, Irish Sea, 
and I have to thank Mr. Southern for the opportunity of 
examining them. 

Nereis zonata, Malmgren, var. persica, Fauvel, occurs in 
the Persian Gulf, and has lately been carefully described by 
Prof. Fauvel^ both in the ordinary and epitokous conditions. 
The author also states that he considers Nereis procera of 
Ehlers to be the same species, and so with Nereis pulsatoria 
of Grube. He concludes that Heteronereis grandijolia $ , 
INlalmgren [Heteronereis assitnilis, Rathke), is the epitokous 
condition of Nereis zonata, N zonata appears to have a 
very wide distribution both ofi" the Atlantic and Pacific 
shores. 

The epitokous forms of Nereis pelagica are distinguished 
from those of N. zonata by the coloration, the latter having 

* Arcbiv. Zool. Exper. vol. xlvi. p. 382, pis. xix. & xx, (April 1911). 



124 Prof. M'Intosh's Notes from the 

light transverse bands 'o'liich are not present in the former, 
and the paragnathi of groups I. and VI. In A^. jtelayica the 
lobes of the feet are evenly rounded, whilst in iV. zonata 
they are triangular and run out to a broad point. Ditlevsen *, 
who has recently written on the subject, further notes that in 
N. felagica the short terminal processes of the bristles are 
shorter and more curved than in N. zonata. The author 
disagrees with Michaelsen's view that Heleronereis arctica of 
CErsted is the female epitokous form of N. zonata, and 
therefore thinks that the title N. zonata should stand. 
JNIoreover, whilst iV.joe^a^ica is generally a littoral species, 
N. zonata is procured by the dredge. 

5. On the British Capitellidae (Halelminthidse). 

No notice of these occurs under the " Annelides '^ of 
Dr. Johnston's ' Catalogue of Worms in the British Museum/ 
but, following ClitelHo in the Order Scoloces, under the 
littoral family of the Tribe Lumbricina, is a species termed 
Valla ciliata, which refers to Cajritella capitata, and, indeed, 
the author in a footnote states that De Quatrefages would 
place the genus probably amongst the Ariciidas in the errant 
Annelids. In this arrangement Dr. Johnston probably 
followed Grube in his ' Familien der Anneliden' Q851). 
De Quatrefages, again (1865), placed the Capitellida; 
between the Maldanidse (his Clymeniens) and the Areni- 
colidse — as a group of uncertain position ; his three chief 
genera being Co2}itella, Notomasfus, and Dasybranchus. 
Without going further into detail, the monumental work 
of Dr. Hugo Eisig, published in 1887, cleared up all 
ambiguities, and placed the group on a satisfactory basis in 
respect to structure, physiology, systematic position, and 
distribution. In text as well as in plates the high standard 
of this treatise is an honour to the Zoological Station of 
Naples and to the author. 

Only three species of this family — viz., Notomastus lateri- 
ceus, Sars, Capifella caintata, Fabr.^ and Dasyhranchus — occur 
in Britain. The former [Notomastus latericevs) is widely 
distributed from Shetland to the Ciiannel Islands, whilst 
abroad it is almost cosmopolitan. Its bright red colour 
makes it a conspicuous feature on the \^'est Sands at 
St. Andrews after storms, and it is by no means a minute 
form, for it ranges from 6-10 inches in length. The 
head consists of two rings and is conical and sharp-pointed, 

* ' Danuiaili-Eksped. Giunlauds,' 1906-8, T3d. v. p. 419. pi. xxviii. fig. 6, 
pi. XXX. figs. 18 & '2-2 (1912). 



Gatty Marine Laboratory ^ St. Andreios. 125 

aiicl it can be retracted so as to leave only the marf>-in of the 
buccal segment in front. At its base on each side are two 
groups of brownish grains marking the nuchal organs. The 
second or buccal segment is biannulate, devoid of bristles, 
and the mouth opens on its ventral surface as a proportion- 
ally large aperture. The body is a little tapered in front 
of the larger anterior region, remaining of nearly equal 
diameter for a considerable distance, and then tapering 
gradually to the tail, which ends in a slightly upturned vent 
with two papillae beneath. 

The anterior region comprehends the buccal and eleven 
bristled segments, each of which is two-ringed and more or 
less tessellated on the surface. The succeeding region 
differs in appearance, having, as a rule, longer segments 
with prominent tori for the hooks. Each segment anteriorly 
shows a double median dorsal elevation and two long lateral 
ridges which pass to the ventral surface. Posteriorly, again, 
the four tori are more nearly equal in size and more widely 
separated, two being dorsal and two ventro-lateral iu 
position, the two median elevations of the dorsum having 
disappeared; and tow^ard the tip of the tail the four 
prominent tori give the body a quadrangular aspect on 
section. The anterior segments have a deep transverse 
furrow which divides them into two halves. Laterally this 
furrow bends backward at each bristle-tuft — making, as it 
were, a small setigerous process, — the bristles issuing quite at 
its posterior border. The two upper tufts of bristles are 
wholly dorsal, and thus those of opposite sides approach 
each other more nearly than the ventral. The bristles have 
simple straight shafts, which begin to taper at the slight 
bend marking the commencement of the somewhat narrow 
wing. Though the tip is acute yet the Avhole bristle is 
elastic and strong. De St. Joseph states that their bases 
rest on a large gland. 

At the twelfth bristled segment a double process carrying 
hooks appears in the mid-dorsal line, and this continues to 
the twentieth segment of the region without much change. 
Thereafter the two processes have a tendency to disappear, 
so that at the thirtieth segment no trace occurs, the arrange- 
ment resolving itself posteriorly into a dorsal and a ventral 
pair of tori, the forn)er rounded and short, the latter more 
elongated. The tori of this (second) region are furnished 
with minute elongated hooks, having a slender shaft 
narrowed at its commencement and again toward the neck, 
the tip ending in a sharp main fang, whilst, in lateral view, 
the crown has two spikes above it. 



126 Prof. M'Intosh's Notes from the 

The differences in the muscular and other tissues of the 
anterior and posterior regions sufficiently explain the fact 
that, as a rule, only the anterior region is tossed on shore 
by storms. 

In the first segment of the second region, and in the 
following six to eleven, are the openings for the issue of the 
genital elements on papillae on the ventral surface. 

The second species, Capitella capitata^ Fabr., has a similar 
distribution round the British shores to the foregoing, and 
is likewise almost cosmopolitan. Its length is from 3-5 
inches, and the anterior region has nine or ten segments. 
The head is an elongated cone with two minute lateral 
papillae (nuchal organs). The mouth opens as a puckered 
orifice on the ventral surface of the peristomial segment. 
Tlie body increases in breadth from the snout backward to the 
sixth or seventh, and then slightly diminishes to the four- 
teenth, behind which the body is somewhat narrower, though 
this distinction is often obliterated. It diminishes posteriorly 
and ends in a button-shaped process often with a dimple in 
the centre ; but reproduction of this region is so common 
that it is seldom a complete example is procured. The body 
is rounded anteriorly, and when preserved has a tendency to 
a quadrangular condition posteriorly, the ventral surface 
being flattened and generally grooved anteriorly, the groove 
in the larger examples being specially marked at the eighth 
and ninth segments. On the lateral region of the body at the 
junction of the seventh bristled segment with that following 
in tlie female is a vertically elongated papilla with a deep 
fissure (genital opening) in its centre. On the ventral 
surface of the ninth bristled segment is the depression at the 
end of the furrow leading into the aperture. 

The copulatory apparatus in the male (ninth and tenth 
segments) has four bundles of strong spines — a pair to each 
segment. About the middle of the ninth segment, and 
apparently immediately in front of the papilla, is the anterior 
series of ten spines, five on each side, the outer being the 
smaller. The concavity of the curve of each spine, like the 
point of the hook at its tip, is directed outward and backward, 
the convexity looking toward the convexity of the adjoining- 
series. A space occurs between them and the jjosterior pair, 
the points of which are directed forward, and just appear, 
under pressure, at the edge of the ciliated sexual aperture. 
These spines are four in number, the two inner being larger 
than the outer, and they are directed forward and inward. 

The anterior region (behind the peristomium) consists of 



Gatfy Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews. 127 

seven segments, each almost symmetrically divided by four 
rows of golden bristles with a double curve and winged tips. 
At the ninth segment hooks take the place of the bristles, 
and the winged forms have two minute spines above the 
main fang in lateral view, and this arrangement continues 
to the posterior end, though the caudal hooks are smaller. 

Fragments apparently of the anterior third of a form near 
Dasybranchus were dredged by Dr. Gwyn JeftVeys in 80-100 
fathoms in muddy sand in St. Magnus Bay, Shetland, in 
1867. In what seems to be an anterior fragment the 
ventral ridges for the hooks extend round the edges of the 
flattened body to the dorsal surface, where they cease. No 
hooks could be found dorsally, and therein it differs from 
Dasybrajichus. The dorsal surface is rounded and lobed, 
and the walls are so attenuate that in certain fragments the 
muddy contents and the orange hue of the gut-wall shine 
through. The ventral surface possesses thick walls and is 
flattened in front, with a median ridge, which is absent from 
the posterior fragments, which are only ridged transversely. 
The hooks are minute, have a very short main fang with two 
teeth above it (in lateral view). The ventral longitudinal 
muscles are greatly developed. 

6. Or/, the Ca^iteWidx pro cured by H.M.S. 'Porcupine.' 

Dasybranchus caducus, Grube ? Dredged in the * Por- 
cupine ' Expedition of 1870, in the Bay of Tunis. Some of 
the fragments are about 4 inches in length and 6-8 mm. in 
diameter. It is distinctly tapered anteriorly, gradually 
enlarges toward the middle, and again probably tapers 
posteriorly, but as the specimen is incomplete this is 
conjectural. 

The head forms a short, blunt cone, which, in the pre- 
paration, is partly withdrawn into the peristoraial segment, 
which is marked dorsaliy by a somewhat regular series of 
longitudinal strise over an eminence. Ventrally the proboscis 
is extruded as a short cylinder Avith a corrugated and 
slightly glistening surface. In the preparation the peri- 
stomial segment forms a blunt cone, and, besides the 
eminence, a diff"erentiation of the longitudinal stria3 a little 
in front of the middle dorsaliy and the presence of a 
transverse depression may indicate a sensory organ. Whilst 
this segment is undivided ventrally, a deep furrow dorsaliy 
cuts oft' a posterior belt. Such may be an indication of the 
arrangement of the succeeding rings. The segment following 



.128 Prof. Mlntosli's Notes from the 

the foregoing has the type of the thirteen which constitute 
the region, viz. is two-ringed, the middle sulcus having a 
broad papilla on each side dorsally directed backward, and 
bearing a tuft of bristles (PL V. fig. 8), which have a long, 
slightly curved shaft ending in a finely tapered tip with 
wings. 

The hooks occupy a ventro-lateral position not far removed 
from the dorsal arch, and thus in a ventral view they escape 
notice. They occupy a similar position with regard to the 
median sulcus of the segment, viz. project on a flattened 
papilla or process behind it. Each hook (PL V. fig. 9) has 
a slightly curved shaft tapered a little inferiorly, gradually 
enlarging to the commencement of the wing, then narrowing 
to the throat, from which the main fang comes off at a little 
more than a right angle, and with two teeth on the crown 
above. Tlie wings are fairly broad, and are rounded distally 
beyond the fang. 

Behind the last bristle-bundle a change in the segments 
is inaugurated, for whilst tliey remain 2-ringed the dorsal 
papilla for the bristles disappears, and a lateral groove is 
gradually formed dorsally a little below the line of the 
bristles, this groove being rendered more distinct by a 
prominent papilla which marks the second ring of the 
segment laterally, and indicates the line of hooks below it. 
The mid-ventral line now presents a groove which continues 
for fully an inch backward. Instead of the bristles dorsally 
a line of hooks — indicated at first by a slight inflection of 
the median groove of the segment — takes their place. 
Ventrally a long band of hooks is present on each side, and 
by-and-by meet in the middle line, so that this region of 
the body is mainly concerned with movements in the tunnel 
in the mud or sand. 

About the sixtieth armed segment the rows of hooks have 
arranged themselves on a long pad on each side dorsally, 
separated in the middle line by a considerable interval ; 
whilst on the ventral surface the rows appear to meet in the 
middle line, so that a continuous series stretches from side 
to side, a slight inflection of the line in front and behind in 
the centre indicating the seat of separation in front. 

Behind the foregoing region (sixtieth foot) the body in 
the preparation undergoes considerable dilatation dorsally, 
and the ventral line of hooks ends on each side latei'ally in 
a pale elevated ridge which terminates abruptly superiorly, 
a pale striated region occurring between it and the com- 
mencement of the dorsal rows, which are still separated by 
a considerable interval. They are recognized by the opaque 
elevation in front and behind. 



Oatty Marine Laboratory, St. A)idrews. 129 

Moreover, in every segment in the more posterior region 
an aperture exists about the upper end of the ventral row of 
hooks, and out of this a small branchia projects. Some are 
included until pressure is made on the body, and then they 
are distinct. These apertures are at a higher level, for 
instance, than those of the ' Challenger' form, Station 233 B, 
which are at each edge of the flattened ventral surface and 
liave an elongated glandular fillet above them. The position 
of the branchise thus corresponds with the description and 
figure of Olaparede"^ from specimens procured at Port 
Vendres. 

In the intestine of the middle region are many ovoid 
masses of mud as in Ch(stopterus. These consisted for the 
most part of very fine amorphous mud of a pale brown colour, 
with a few sand-particles, a few minute fragments of sponge-? 
spicules, but very few traces of softer tissue. 

The specimen appeared to be a female with small ova iu 
the perivisceral cavity. 

In an example from Concarneau, De St. Joseph f found 
the branchiae covered with Rhabdostyla arenicolcB, Fabre 
Domergue. 

A fragment of the middle region of what appears to be a 
Dasybranchus was dredged in the * Porcupine ' Expedition 
of 1870, off Cape Sagres, in 45 fathoms. The hooks agree 
with those of JJ. caducus, 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate IV. 

Photograph of the white porpoise by A. W. Brown. 

Plate V.J 

Fig. 1. Enlarged view of the head and anterior region of Eteone depressa, 

Malmgren, from the dorsum. 
Fig. 2. Similar view of the tip of the tail after preservation, supplemented 

by a sketch by Mr. Arnold Watson, 
Fig. 3. Lateral view of a foot from the anterior third of the body. 

X about 60 diam. 
Fig. 4. Bristle of the same species after preservation. X Zeiss oc. 2, 

obj. F. 
Fig. 5. Another bristle turned so as to show the serrations at the tip of 

the shaft, x Zeiss oc. 4, obj. C. 



* Glanures Zoot. p. 56, pi. viii. fig. 8. 
t Ann. So. Nat. 8^ s6r. v. p. 391. 

X I have to thank the Carnegie Trust for artistic aid with this 
Plate. 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist, Ser. 8, Vol, x. 9 



130 On a neiv Elephant Shrew from Zmizihar. 

Fig. 6, Head and anterior region of Dasybranchus cadiicus, Grube, the 
prostomium being withdrawn. Enlarged under a lens. 

Fig. 7. Segments from the middle of the body of the foregoing showing 
the branchiae. Similarly enlarged. 

Fig. 8. Bristle from the anterior region of the same. X Zeiss oc. 2, 
obj. D. 

Fig. 9. Hook of the foregoing, x Zeiss oc. 4, obj. F. 



XII. — A nexc Elephant Shrew frovi the Inland of Zanzibar. 
By Guy Dollman. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Rhynchocyon adersi, sp. n. 

Closely allied to Rhynchocyon pttersi, Boc.^ but con- 
siderably darker in colour, especially ou tlie anterior part of 
the body. 

Size of body much as in petersi. General colour of upper 
surface conspicuously different from tUnt oi peterai ; snout 
rufous, the colour deepening- on the sides of the face and 
forehead to a maroon tint. Crest on head deep chocolate- 
maroon, this colour extending back down the mid line to join 
with the black of the hind-quarters; shoulders and anterior 
portion of flanks dark maroon. Hind-quarters and posterior 
back deep black, the black wash extending considerably 
further forwards on the flanks than in petersi, giving the 
whole animal a much darker and moie sombre appearance. 
Backs of hands and ieet rufous orange ; metatarsal area 
tinted with dark brownish black. Ventral surface of body 
darker than in petersi, the general rufous tint deeper and 
less orange. Tail similar in length but witii a much shorter 
white area at the tip, measuring only some 48 mm. in length, 
while in the type specimen of petersi this wliite area is fully 
60 mm. long. General colour of dorsal surface of tail rufous 
orange, considerably darker than in petersi and without such 
a well-marked dark dorsal line on the basal portion. 

Skull like that o'i petersi in general form. 

Dimensions of the type (measured from dry skin): — 

Head and body 300 mm.; tail 240; hind foot 72*; 
ear 26. 

Skull : greatest length 69 ; basal length 59 ; zygomatic 
breadth 86'6 ; palatal length 35*5 ; width of palate (inside 
«<') 12*2 ; length of maxillary tootii-row, from front of first 
jnemolar to back of last m.olar, 23*2. 
* Approximate. 



On a neio l\dm- Civet from Timor. 131 

Hab. Island of Zanzibar. 

Type. Old male. B.M. no. 12. 1. 6. 1. Collected and 
pre.'sented to the British Museum by Mr. W. M. Aders. 

In addition to tiie type Mr. Aders sent home another 
individual of this interesting insectivore, quite simihir iii 
colour and general proportions. 

Through the kindness of Dr. A. F. de Seabra, of the 
Museu Bocage, I have been able to compare tliese Zanzibar 
individuals with tlie type specimen of Bocage's petersi. It 
was at once apparent that the true petersi agreed, not witli 
the island specimens, but with those from the mainland ; and 
examination of the label and hi><tory of the sppcimen showed 
that it originally came from East Africa, Zanzibar being- 
used in the original description for the wiiole district and not 
for the island. It thus becomes necessary to give a name 
to tlie island s{)ecies, which I am pleased to call after thg 
collector and donor, j\lr. Aders. 



XIII. — On a neio Palm-Civet from Timor. 
By Ernst Schwarz. 

This new Paradoxurus is closely allied to P, hermapliroditus 
sambonus, which is connected by it with the other Malay 
representatives of the genus. 1 have narned it in honoijr of 
its discoverer, Mr. C. B. Ilaniel, 

Paradoxurus her maphrodiius hanieli, subsp., n. 

Nearly allied to P. her maphrodiius sumbanus, but dis- 
tinguished from it by its superior size, shorter aud softer fur, 
and different colour. 

Fur moderately long, very rich and soft. 

Colour (of type). Back light olive-brown, with a distinct 
black line down the middle of the back, and on each side of 
it a row of black spots. (Hairs of back brownish gi'ey at 
base, then sfrawy yellow with black tip.) Crown, ears, 
muzzle, cheeks, limbs, and tail, e:!$:cept its basal fourth, black. 
Nape strongly suffused with grey, markedly contrasted with 
the colour ot the back ; sides of neck with a strong suffusion 
of creamy buff. Face-markings exactly as in P. h. sumbanus, 
{Shoulders and thighs indistinctly spotted. Underside of 
body brownish buff. 

In some specimens the hairs of the back have a more pale 
or more golden^yellow sabterminal band, thus producing a 



132 Dr. W. T. Caiman on a Terrestrial 

more greyish or a more golden -yellow oeneral effect. The 
dorgal lines tend to disappear in some individuals. 

Skull much as in F. h. sumhanus but much larger. Zygo- 
matic arches very wide and intertemporal constriction 
well-marked, but short as in that form. Nasals U-shaped, 
very broad. Bullaj small, much smaller than in sumhanus, 
inflated between carotic canal and foramen lacerum posterius. 
Sagittal crest in males very high. 

Teeth similar to those of P. h. sumhamis but a little larger. 
P4 with a well-developed anterior tubercle (parastyle) and 
narrow postero-internal ledge. 

Type. Zoological Museum, Munich ; original no. 90 ; skin 
and skeleton o£ old male. Collected by C. B. Haniel on 
August 5th, 1911. 

Type locality. Baung, Amarassie, Timor. 
Specimens examined. Ten from various localities : OEu, 
Baung, Noimina ; all in Timor. 

Dimensions of the type (taken on the flat skin) : — 
Head and body 590 mm. ; tail (without hairs) 450. 
Skull : basilar length 96 ; condylo-basilar length 100 ; 
greatest breadth 65'3 ; mastoid breadth 87 ; nasals 24 x 11'2 ; 
intertemporal constriction 12'1 ; width of brain-case 37"5 ; 
palatilar length 44 ; palate, greatest breadth (including teeth) 
37 ; least breadth (between canines and incisors) 11 ; breadth 
of rostrum across roots of canines 20*5 ; foramina incisiva 5 ; 
front oi Py to back of m^ 33; p^, length on outer edge 8'4, 
breadth 7, greatest diameter 9"7. 

The Timor Palm-Civet is readily distinguished by the 
greyish hue on the neck and the black head. From P. h. 
sumhanus it differs in the characters indicated above ; 
P. h. setosus of Ceram is larger, more yellowish in coloration, 
and has much larger bullse and more complex teeth. 



XIV. — On a Terrestrial Ampht'pod from Kew Gardens. 
By \V. T. Calman, D.Sc. 

(Tiiblished by permission of tlie Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Specimens of the Amphipod described below liave been sent 
to the Natural History Museum by Mr. A. W. Hill, Assistant 
Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. They were 
found in the "Tropical Pits," and about a dozen specimens, 
including adults of botli sexes, have been collected at various 
times. 



Amphipod from Kein Gardens. 133 

TorrestriQl species of Anipliipoda belongiiif^ to the familv 
TalitridfB are known from various parts of the world, and 
liave been found in hothouses in Europe, but not hitherto, so 
far as I know, in this country. 

Since the reference of the species to tlie genus Talitrus 
depends upon the characters of the males, it may be worth 
while to note that the sex of these was definitely ascertained 
by observation of the genital pajiilJae on the last thoracic 
somite. 

Tah'trus hortulanus, sp. n. 

Adult male. — Total length 8 mm. 

Length of head along dorsal edge less than that of first two 
free somites together. First co.val plate rather broadly 
rounded below; fifth more than half as long again as fourth, 
its anterior lobe truncated below. First three abdominal 
pleural plates with posterior corners pointed and slightly 
produced, J^i/es round, of moderate size. 

Antenmdes extending well beyond middle of last segment 
of antennal peduncle ; tirst three segments increasing succes- 
sively in length ; fiagellum of seven or eight segments besides 
a minute terminal one. 

Antennce: peduncle equal or nearly so to the length of 
head and first two free somites together ; flagellum half as 
long again, 

MaxUlipeds : outer plates with distal edge directed obliquely 
inwards and broadly rounded (not bluntly pointed as in 
2\ sylvatlcus) ; palp with a minute fourth segment, obscurely 
defined. 

First gnatho pods ', carpus about 2^ times as long as wide 
and ^ longer than propodus ; propodus more than three times 
as long as wide, hardly narrowed distally, 2^ times as long 
as dactylus. 

Second gnathopods very long and slender ; basis distinctly 
shorter than three following segments together ; merus with 
lower margin evenly rounded, without projecting lobe or area 
of shagreened cuticle ; carpus nearly twice as long as merus, 
five times as long as its width in the middle, with a small 
shagreened lobe close to distal end of lower edge; propodus 
a little longer than carpus, about five times as long as wide, 
with articulation of dactylus at about one-Hfth of its length 
from distal end. 

PercEopods of tirst and second pairs subequal in length ; 
third pair a little longer than second, basis ovate, with hind 
margin gently convex ; fifth pair longer than fourth, basis 



134 i)i-. W. T. Caiman on a Tetresirtat 

nearly as broad as long, hind margin with low atid widely 
spaced serrations^ 

Pleopods: all three pairs biramous, with the rami not 
distinctly segmented. Peduncle of the first pair about six 
times as long as broad, with a |)air of coupling-spines on 
inner edge j exopod half as long as the peduncle, endopod 
a little more, each bearing a few feathered setge. Peduncle 
of second pair as long as that o£ the first^ but much stouter, 
its width about one-fonrth of its length, bearing a pair 
of coupling-spines ; rami slightly shorter and stouter than 
those of first pair* Peduncle of third pair two-thirds as long 
as that of second and about three times as long as wide, 
with a single coupling-spine and set^e on outer and inner 
edges ; rami short and broad, the endopod half as long as the 
peduncle, the exopod a little less. 

Uropods: last pair more than half aa long as telson, with 
a spine on each segment. 

Tehon curved dorsally, with an apical pair of long spines 
on either side of a short median fissure. 
Adult female.' — Total length 9*5 mm. 

Hardly differing in general characters from the male; 
peduncle of antennae slightly but distinctly more slender ; 
second gnathopod with propodus slightly stouter, a little more 
than four times as long as wide. 

One specimen carried six eggs in the brood-cavity. 
, Ronarhs, — Among the accepted species of the genus 
Talitrus (Stebbing, ' Tierreich,' Gammaridea, 1906, p. 524) 
the form here desoibed will find its place, on account of the 
relative length of the antennules, near T. sylvaticufi, Haswell 
(New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania), and T.cd/uaudi, 
Chevreux (Seychelles, Madagascar, and hothouses in France). 
From T. sylvaticuSj as recentl^y redescribcd by Sayce (Proc. R.. 
Soc. Victoria, xxii, 1909, p. 30), and as represented by two 
specimens in the British Museum, it is separated by the form 
of the basis of the third perseopod, which, in the species 
named, is characteristically narrowed below, with the hind 
margin straight or slightly concave. T. alhiaudi\ as described 
by Chevreux (Mem. Snc, zool. France, 1901, p. 389), has 
the telson remarkably large and spinous. The most im- 
portant distinctive characters of the new form, however, are 
those of the second gnathopod, which in both the species 
named is much shorter and stouter, with the propodus not 
more than three times as long as wide, and with a projecting 
shagreened lobe on the under side of both merus and carpus. 
There are other characters, such as the rehtive length of the 



Amphipod from Keio Gardens. 135 

aiiteiinse and the form of the outer pUites of the maxilHpeds, 
which help to confirm the distinctness of the Kew species 
from botii the otliers. 

At the same time it should be noted that comparison of the 
earlier accounts of Talitrus si/Ivaticiis ^ives the impression 
that this species is more than usually variable, or else that 
more than one species has been included under that name. 
HaswelFs earlier figures (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. iv. 1879, 
pi. vii. fig. 1) show the second gnathopods as very slender, 
with the propodus four times as long as wide in the male. 
In the later figure by llaswell (op. cit. x. 1885, pi. x. fig. 1), 
as in those given by Thomson (Proc. li. Soc. Tasmania, 1892 
(189.3), pi. iv.) and by Sayce, the proportions are very 
different. 

A still more puzzling discrepancy exists between published 
accounts of the ])leopo(Js. Thomson {t. c. p. 61) states that 
he failed to find any trace of the third pair. Sayce [t. c. 
p. .32) confirms this : " no vestige of a third pair is to be 
found." Chevreux [f. c. p. 392). on the other hand, de- 
scribing specimens of T. sylvaticus sent to him by Prof. 
Chilton, states that the pleo])ods of the third pair * resemble 
those of the. first two pairs in being biramous, althouoh they 
are of smaller size. In two specimens from Port Jackson, 
2-eceived from the Australian Museum many years ago as 
T. sylvaticus, I find the third pleopods to be represented by 
small vestiges much like those figured by Chevreux in the 
case of T. allaaudi. These vestiges are so small and, from 
their position, so hard to see, that they may possibly have 
been overlooked both by Thomson and by Sayce. It is 
hardly possible, however, that Chevreux can have been 
deceived on tliis point, to which he gave special attention in 
comparing the species with T. alluaudi. 

Mr. A. O. Walker, who has been good enough to examine 
specimens of the Kew Talitrus for me, has called my attention 
to the resemblance of its elongated second gnatliopods to 
those figured by Spence Bate in Talorchestia (?) africana 
(Cat. Amphip. Brit. Mus, 1862, p. 15, pi. ii. fig. 6). The 
resemblance is considerable, and since the holotype is a 
female, it is quite j)0ssible that Bates's species really belongs 
to the genus Talitrus. Even in its present mutilated and 
fragile condition, however, the specimen shows some cliarocters 
which forbid its association with the Kew species. The 

* M. Chevreux writes " uropodes de la troisieuie paire," but from the 
context it is quite clear that he is referring to the pleopods. 



136 Dr. W. T. Caiman on a Terrestrial 

dorsal outline of the head is shorter than that of the first free 
somite; the anterior lobe of the fifth coxal plate is more 
rounded below ; the basis of the last pair of legs has a 
different outline, with the hinder margin less convex and 
more strongly serrated ; the outer plate of the maxillipeds is 
bluntly pointed and the terminal segment of the palp is 
larger and sharply defined ; the merus of the second gnatho- 
pods has a prominent lobe on the under side, and the carpus 
is, at all events, much less slender than in the species here 
described. 

The genus Talitroides was proposed by Bonnier (in 
Willem, Ann. Soc. ent. Belgique, xlii. 1898, p. 208) for an 
unnamed species found in a conservatory at Ghent. To this 
species Stebbing afterwards gave the name T. bonnieri 

Fig. 1. 




TaUirvs horfulanvs, sp. n. Adult male, X 10. 

(' Tierreich,' Gammaridea, 1906, p. 527). It has not, I 
think, been pointed out that Bonniei's description contains 
nothing inconsistent with the supposition that he had before 
him specimens of Talitrus alluaudi. 

So far as I know, the only other species of terrestrial 
Amphipod recorded as found living under artificial conditions 
in Europe is Orchestia senni, recently described by Menzel 
(Rev. Suisse Zool. xix. 1911, p. 438, figs. 4-9) from the 
botanic garden at Basel. As only the female is described, 
the species may possibly be referable to Talitrus, and may 
even not differ very greatly from T. alluaudi -, it is certainly 
distinct from the species described here. 



Amphtpod from Kew Gardens. 



137 



Fiff. 2. 




Fig. 3. 




Fig. 5. 



Fig. 4. 





Fig. 6. 



Fig. 7. 




Fig. 2. — Talitrus hortulanus c?. First gnathopod. 

Fig. 3. — Ditto. Second gnathopod. 

Pig, 4, — Ditto. Basis of third perseopod. 

Fig. 6. — Ditto. Fifth peraeopod. 

Fig. 6. — Ditto. Third uropod. 

Fig. 7._Ditto. Telson. 



138 Mr. G. A. Boulenger on 



XV. — Descriptions of Three new African Cichlid Fishes of 
the Genus Tilapia, 'preserved in the British Museum. By 
G. A. BOULENGEE, F.R.S. 

(Published bj permisaion of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Tilapia kafuensis. 

Depth of body 2j times in total length, length of head 3 
times. Head 1§ times as long as broad ; snout rounded, 
with straight upper profile, slightly broader tiian long, a 
little shorter than postocular part of head ; eye 5^ times in 
length of iiead, § interorbital width, a little less tlian prge- 
orbital depth ; mouth rather large, | width o£ head, extending 
to between nostril and eye ; teeth in 8 series, 110 in outer 
series of upper jaw; 4 series of scales on the cheek, width of 
scaly part a little greater than diameter of eye. Gill-rakers 
moderate, 25 on lower part of anterior arch. Dorsal XVII 13 ; 
last spine longest, | length of head ; longest soft ray | length 
of head. Anal III 11 ; third spine not quite ^ length of 
head. Pectoral slightly longer than head, reaching vertical 
of orio-in of anal. Ventral reaching between vent and 
anal. Caudal rounded. Caudal peduncle as long as deep. 
Scales cycloid, 33 ^ ; lateral lines ~^^. Dark brown above, 
whitish beneath ; a black opercular spot and three ill-defined 
black spots on the side below upper lateral line; soft dorsal 
and anal fins with round light spots between the rays. 

Total length 360 mm. 

A single specimen from the Kafue Iliver, N.W. Rhodesia, 
presented by Mr. T. Codrington. 

Distinguished from T. mossamhica by the presence of four 
series of scales on the cheek and more numerous gill-rakers. 

Tilapia eduardiana. 

Depth of body equal to length of head, 2| to 2| times in 
total length. Head nearly twice as long as broad ; snout 
rounded, with straight or convex upper profile, much broader 
than long (U to VI), i to 3 postocular part cf head; eye 3^ 
to 3r? times in length of head, 1^- to 1^ times in interorbital 
width, much longer than prajorbital depth; mouth moderate, 
3 to § width of head, extending to between nostril and eye ; 
teeth in 3 series, 66 to 88 in outer series of upper jaw ; 2 or 
3 series of scales on the cheek, width of scaly part l to | 
diameter of eye. Gill-rakers short, 20 to 23 on lower part 



new African CicMid Fishes. 139 

of anterior avclu Dorsal XVI-XVII 11-13; spines sub- 
equal from tlie fifth or sixth, 5 to not quite | length of head ; 
longest soft rays -5 to § length of iiead. Anal III 9-10; 
tliird spine longer than longest dorsal, ^ or a little more than 
^ length of head. Pectoral 1 to l^V times as long as head, 
reaching beyond vertical of origin of anal. Ventral reaching 
vent or origin of anal. Caudal truncate. Caudal peduncle 
as long as deep. Scales 31-32 ^^^ ; lateral lines '^^i^. Dark 
brown above, with or without very indistinct darker cross- 
bars, yellowish beneath ; a black opercular spot ; fins brown 
or blackish, uniform or with oblique streaks on the soft dorsal. 

Total length 180 mm. 

Several specimens from the south-eastern slope of 
Mt. Euwenzori, altitude 3200 feet, collected by Mr. R. B. 
Woosnam on the Ruwenzori Expedition. I had first referred 
this fish to TiJapia nilotica, from which it differs in the longer 
caudal peduncle, the truncate caudal fin, and the longer anal 
spines. 

Tilapia macrochir. 

Depih of body If to 2\ times in total length, length of 
head 3 times. Head If to If times as long as broad ; upper 
profile descending in a strong curve, often very abrupt in 
front ; snout rounded, sometimes with concave upper profile, 
a little broader than long, shorter than postocular part of 
head; eye 4 to 5i times in length of head, | to ^^ inter- 
orbital width, equal to or a little less than prseorbital depth ; 
mouth rather small, ^ to | width of head, extending to be- 
tween nostril and eye ; teeth in 5 to 8 series, 70 to 100 in 
outer series of upper jaw ; 2 or 3 series of scales on the 
cheek, width of scaly part not greater than diameter of eye. 
Gill-rakers moderate, 11 to 25 on lower part of anterior arch. 
Dorsal XVI (rarely XV) 12-13 ; last spine longest, \ to § 
length of head ; longest soft ray | to 1 length of head. 
Anal III 9-10 ; third spine ^ to ^ length of head. Pectoral 
1^ to 1^ (1^ in young) length of head, reaching beyond 
vertical of origin of anal. Ventral reaching vent or anal. 
Caudal truncate or slightly emarginate. Caudal peduncle 
deeper than long. Scales cycloid, 29-Bl ^^g; lateral lines 
^^. Olive-brown above, golden-yellow beneath, sometimes 
with rather indistinct darker longitudinal streaks following 
the series of scales ; a blackish opercular spot ; head and 
anterior part of body usually with small brown or blackish 
spots ; young with 7 to 10 narrower vertical dark bars ; 



I'lO Mr. G. A. Boulenger on 

dorsal fin with more or less dark and light longitudinal 
streaks. 

Total length 340 mm. 

Several specimens from the Victoria Falls, Zambesi, 
presented by Mr. T. Codrington, and from Lake Bangvvelu, 
presented by Mr. F. H. Melland. 

Nearly allied to T. andersonii, Casteln. ; distinguished by 
the longer pectoral tin. 



XVI. — DescriiJtions of new African Batrachians preserved 
in the British Museum. By G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Pyxicephalus macrotympanum. 

Vomerine teeth in two oblique series between the choanse, 
close to the inner borders of the latter. Head feebly depressed, 
much broader than long; snout rounded, as long as tlie orbit : 
canthus rostralis obtuse, loreal region concave ; nostril a little 
nearer the eye than the end of the snout ; interorbital space 
nearly as broad as the upper eyelid ; tympanum distinct, 
larger than the eye. Fingers extremely short, blunt, first 
and second equal ; toes short, blunt, half webbed ; sub- 
articular tubercles small ; a large, compressed, very pro- 
minent but not sharp-edged inner metatarsal tubercle, its 
length equalling that of the inner toe. Tarso-metatarsal 
articulation reaching the tympanum ; tibia two-fifths the 
length of head and body. Skin smooth. Pale greyish 
brown above, with dark brown dots, and a dark brown band 
extending from the end of the snout, through the nostril and 
eye, to the groin, where it breaks up into spots, and expanding 
into a large blotch below the eye and on the temple ; a brown 
line borders the upper lip ; lower lip with large brown 
blotches ; lower parts white, with a few brown dots on the 
throat. 

From snout to vent 55 mm. 

A single female specimen from Gallaland, west of the 
Juba River, from the collection of Dr. Donaldson Smith. 
Had been referred to Rana [PyxicephoXus) ornata, Peters, 
in P. Z. S. 1895, p. 540 ; differs from that species in the 
broader head with more rounded snout and broader inter- 
orbital region, and in the larger tympanum. 



new African Batrachians. 141 

Phrynohatrachus francisci. 

Tongue with a conical papilla in the midtlle. Habit 
rancid. Head moderate ; snout short, rounded, projecting, 
without canthus ; interorbital space as broad as the upper 
eyelid ; tympanum feebly distinct, about half the diameter 
ot" the eye. First finger not extending- quite so far as second ; 
toes two-thirds webbed ; tips of fingers and toes obtusely 
pointed; subarticular tubercles small; two small, rounded 
metatarsal tubercles and a small conical tubercle in the 
middle of the tarsus. Tibio-tarsal articulation reaching the 
end of the snout ; tibia half the length of head and body. 
Head and back with small smooth warts and short glandular 
ridges, limbs and lower parts smooth. Brown above, with a 
dark brown band between the eyes, two pairs of large dark 
brown spots on the back, separated by an interrupted yellow 
vertebral line, and dark cross-bars on the limbs; white 
beneath. 

From snout to vent 15 mm. 

A single specimen from the Zaria Province of Northern 
Nigeria, presented by Mr. A. C. Francis. 

Hylamhates verrucosus. 

Vomerine teeth in two oblique series between the choanse. 
Head a little broader than long ; snout rounded, as long as 
the diameter of the eye ; canthus rostralis rounded ; inter- 
orbital space as broad as the upper eyelid ; tympanum 
distinct, half the diameter of the eye. Fingers moderate, 
free j toes barely one-fourth webbed ; disks rather large, as 
large as the tympanum ; inner metatarsal tubercle small, 
oval, not compressed. The tibio-tarsal articulation reaches 
between the shoulder and the eye ; tibia two-fifths length of 
head and body. Skin with small smooth warts above, 
granulate on the belly and under the thighs. Dark purplish 
brown above and beneath ; axil and groin with a large 
orange spot; thighs and lower surface of tibia and tarsus 
barred black and orange. 

From snout to vent 58 mm. 

A single female specimen from the Mabira Forest^ Chagwe, 
Uganda, presented by Dr. C. Christy. 

Hylamhates christyi. 

Vomerine teeth in two small groups just behind the level 
of the choance. Head much broader than long ; snout 
rounded, as long as the diameter of the eye ; canthus rostralis 



1^2 Miss G. RIcardo — A Revision of 

obtuse; interorbital space as broad as tlie upper eyelid; 
tympanum distinct, three-fourths the diameter of the eye. 
Fingers ratlier short, with a rudiment of web; toes half 
webbed ; disks rather large, but much smaller than the 
tympanum ; inner metatarsal tubercle large, compressed, 
about two-thirds the length of the inner toe. The tibio- 
taisal articulation reaches the eye; tibia nearly half length 
of head and body. Skin smooth above ; a fine glandular 
fold running from the eye downwards to the middle of the 
side. Purplish brown above, with rather indistinct dark 
cross-bands on the limbs ; glandular lateral fold and a 
transverse line above the vent yellowish, dark-edged beneath ; 
two or three dark brown ocellar spots edged with yellowish 
on the lumbar region ; lower parts white. 

From snout to vent 53 mm. 

A single female specimen from the Mabira Forest, Chagwe, 
Uganda, presented by Dr. C. Chrisfy. 



XVII. — A Revision of the Asilidae of Australasia. 
By Gertrude Ricardo. 

[Continued frcm vol. ix, p. 594.] 

Deromyia, Philippi. 

Verh. zool.-bot. Ge.'<. Wien, xv. p. 705 (1865). 

Dioymites, Loew, Berlin, ent. Zeitschr. x. p. 21 nota (1866). 

This genus has been as yet confined to the American 
continent, but the species described below appears to belong 
to the genus, which is distinguished by the closed fourth 
posterior cell of wing before it reaches the margin, by the 
absence of a style to antennae, by the comparatively long 
first two joints of antennae, and by the wide head. The face 
has no tubercle and the moustache is almost confined to the 
oral opening. My new genus Neosaropogon is distinguished 
from it by the fourth posterior cell of wing being open or 
only narrower at border. 

Deromyia australis, sp. n. 

Type (?) and two other females from Stannary Hills, 
N. Queensland, circa 3000 feet {Dr. T. L. Bancroft), 1909. 

An Asilus-\ook\n.g species, with hyaline wings, blackish 
abdomen, reddish-yellow antennae and legs. 

Length of type 18 mm., others 16 mm. 



the Asilidaj of Australasia. 143 

Head wider than thorax. 

Face covered with pale golden tomentum, Hat, raised at 
oral opening almost as a tubercle, on which the pale yellow 
bristles forming the moustache are })laced. Palpi reddish 
yellow, with loug pale yellow hairs. Proboscis long. Beard 
white. Antenn(B reddish yellow : the first two joints with 
thick black hairs; the second slightly the longest; the third 
club-shaped, hardly longer than the first two joints together. 
Fo?'e//eoc? darker than face, with six long black bristles on 
the ocelligerous tubercle. Hind part of head with bristle- 
like yellow hairs. Thorax greenish grey, with greyish-yellow 
tomentum, with three black bristles above the transverse 
suture at sides and numerous ones beyond ; breast-sides 
paler in colour ; prothorax well developed ; scutelium armed 
with two black bristles. Abdomen blackish, with narrow 
dull reddish posterior borders to segments ; sides of dorsum 
yellowish, grey tomentum on anterior borders and at sides 
of segments ; pubescence very scanty, short, yellowish ; 
ovipositor prominent below. 

Leffs reddish yellow ; hind tarsi and apices of tibise black ; 
femora devoid of bristles, tibiaj and tarsi with strong yellow 
ones. Wings hyaline, greyish at apex ; veins brown, the 
small transverse rein situated just beyond the middle of 
discal cell ; the first posterior cell slightly narrower at border, 
the fourth closed far from border; anal cell very much 
narrowed at border, but open. 

Saropogon, Loew. 
Linn. Ent. ii. p. 439 (1847). 

For species from New Zealand see Hutton, Trans. New 
Zealand Inst, xxxiii. p. 18 (1900), et p. 195 (1901). 

The species as yet recorded from the Australasian Region 
are confined to Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand, 
viz. : — 

Saropogon sergius, Walker, List Dipt. ii. p. 347 \_Dasypogon] (1849), et 

vi. Suppl. 2, p. 477 \B(mjpoyoii\ (1854) ; Kertesz, Cat. Dipt. p. 73 

\_Lasiopoyon^ (1909). — Daaypcx/onfestinans, cJ ? Wallier, Dipt. Saund. 

i. p. 92 (1851), et List Dipt. vi. Suppl. 2, p. 405 (1854). 
Saropogon viduus, Wallver, List Dipt. ii. p. 354 et vi. Suppl. 2, p. 483 

\_l)asypoyon'] (1849) ; Hutton, Trans. New Zealand Inst, xxxiii. p. 19 

(1901). 
Saropogon discus. Walker, List Dipt. ii. p. 358 (1849), et vi. Suppl. 2, 

p. 483 S^Dui^ypoyori] (1854) ; Hutton, Trans. New Zealand Inst, xxxiii. 

p. 19 (1901). — Saropoyon hudsoni, Hutton, /. c. p. 20. 
Saropogon suavis. Walker, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, n. ser. iv. p. 327 

[^Dasypogoii] (1857) ; Kertesz, Cat. Dipt. p. 132 [IJasi/jioyon^ (1857), 

— Dasypoyo/i yamaras, Walker, List Dipt. ii. p. 346 (1849), et vi. 

Suppl. 2, p. 486 (1854) ; Kertesz, Cat. Dipt. p. 73 \_Lasiopoyon^ (1909). 



144 Mis3 G. Ricardo — A Revision of 

Saropogon linibinervis, Macquart, Dipt, Exot. Suppl. 5, p. 71 [^Dasypogori] 
(1855) ; Bigot, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (5) viii. p. 222 (1898). 

Saropogon antipodus, Scliiner, Novara Reise, Dipt. p. 166 (1868) ; Hutton, 
Trans. New Zealand Inst, xxxiii. p, 20 (1901). 

Saropogon serairufus, Bigot, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (5) viii. p. 414 (1878). 

Saropogon chatliamensis, Hutton, Trans. New Zealand Inst, xxxiii. p. 20 
(1901). 

Saropogon clarkii, Hutton, /. c. p. 19. 

Saropogon extenuatus, Hutton, /. c. p. 21. 

Saropogon fugiens, Hutton, /. c. p. 20. 

Saropogon fascipes, Hutton, /. c. xxxiv. p. 195 (1901). 

Saropogon proximus, Hutton, I. c. xxxiii. p. 19 (1901). 

Note. — Saropogon apliidus, Wlk., from unknown locality. Type appears 
to be lost. 

Saropogon sergius, Walker. 
Dasypogon festinans, S , Walker. 

Type ( S ) from New South Wales (presented by Haslar 
Hospital), in bad preservation, 

A reddish species, with reddish-yellow legs and antennae. 

Length 15 ram. 

Face covered with golden-yellow tomentum. Moustache 
of pale yellow bristles. Palpi ferruginous, with yellowish 
hairs. Antenna reddish yellow ; the first two joints with 
yellowish hairs and bristles, the third about one and a half 
times as long as the first two joints together. Forehead 
blackish, a broad black stripe extending to base of antennae. 
Hind part of head with a thick fringe of yellow bristly 
hairs. Thorax (denuded) reddish brown, with black stripes. 
Scutellum reddish brown. Abdomen reddish brown, the first 
segment black ; two black lateral stripes begin on the 
second and extend to posterior border of third segment. 
Genital organs prominent. Underside reddish yellow, 
shining. Legs reddish yellow. Wings (broken) ; Walker 
describes them as ^' colourless, with a slight tawny tinge on 
the fore part ; wing ribs and veins black " ; the small trans- 
verse vein beyond the middle of discal cell ; the transverse 
vein closing the discal cell joins the fourth vein just below 
the fork. 

Dasypogon festinans, a vaale type from unknown locality, 
is identical with this type. 

From the description of Dasypogon nitidus, Macq., from 
Tasmania, it is possibly the same species as this. 

Saropogon viduus, Walker. 

Type ( ? ) and others from New Zealand. 

A* wholly black species, with clear wings, clouded at apex. 



the Asilidte of Australasia. 145 

Length 1.2-14 mm. 

Face black, covered with grey tomentum. Moustache o£ 
long black bristles. Palpi black, with black hairs. Aa- 
fennee with many black hairs on the fii'st two joints ; the third 
joint bare, not much longer than the first two joints together. 
Forehead with black hairs. Thorax brownish black, with 
grey tomentose stripes ; sides and breast black, with grey 
tomentum, which is more silvery white on the sides of 
breast. ScuteUum with some grey tomentum. Abdomen 
black, somewhat shining, small silvery white spots appear on 
the sides usually from the second segment onwards. Legs 
black, with black bristles and hairs. Wings large, veins 
brown, apex tinged brown, small transverse vein beyond the 
middle ot" discal cell. 

The co-type of Saropogon clarkii in Brit. Mus. Coll. is 
almost identical with the above type and specimens, also 
from New Zealand ; the only difference apparent is the 
position of the small transverse vein of loing, which in 
Hutton's co-type is at or bdoiv the middle of discal cell and. 
is clouded with brown, fore border tinged brown, not ex- 
tending beyond the first submarginal cell. Abdomen more 
blue-black, with the white tomentose spots at side more 
apparent. 

Saropogon discus, Walker. 
Saropogon hiidso?ii, Iluttou. 

Type ( ? ) and another from New Zealand, and a co-type 
of Saropogon hudsoni. 

A black robust species with a broad black abdomeii, red at 
apex. Legs red, tarsi blackish. Wings clear. 

Length 12 mm. 

Face covered with pale yellowish tomentum. Moustache 
of pale yellow bristles. Palpi black, with pale hairs. An- 
tenncB black, the first two joints with black hairs and bristles, 
the third joint nearly once and a half as long as the first 
two joints together, the usual style present. Forehead 
blackish, with some long black hairs at sides. Hind part of 
head with black bristly hairs. Thorax blackish, with some 
tawny tomentum and indistinct black stripes ; sides and 
breast with greyish tomentum. ScuteUum black, covered 
with tawny tomentum. Abdomen black, sides and apex bright 
testaceous, the fifth and sixth segments being so on their 
posterior borders, and the last two segments entirely so. 
Underside reddish yellow. Legs reddish yellow ; the tarsi 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. x. 10 



146 Miss G. E-icardo — A Revision of 

black; coxae blackish, with grey tomen turn. Wingshyal'me, 
very faintly greyish at apex ; A^eins brown ; small transverse 
vein just iDeyond the middle of discal cell ; anal cell very 
narrow at border. 

The co-type of Saropogon hudsoni, presented to the 
British Museum by the late Capt. F. W, Hutton, is identical 
with the Walker type. He records his species from ISIount 
Peel, Nelson. 

Saropogon suavis, Walker, 
Dasypogon gnmaras, Walker. 

Type (cJ) from Australia. 

A small, slender^ reddish species, with a general resem- 
blance to a Leptogaster species. 

Length 11 mm. 

Face covered with golden-yellow tomentum. Moustache 
of pale yellow bristles. Palpi ferruginous, with yellowish 
hairs. Antennce (third joint destroyed) ; Walker describes 
them as " tawny, the third joint nearly linear, black above.''^ 
Forehead blackish, covered with some golden-yellow tomen- 
tum. Thorax (denuded) reddish. Scutelhim similar. Ab- 
domen wholly reddish, slender. Legs reddish, middle and 
posterior femora and apices of posterior tibise black. Wings 
tinged yellow, veins brown, fourth posterior cell slightly 
narrowed at opening, the small transverse vein just beyond 
the middle of discal cell. 

Though the third joint of antennce is wanting, there is 
little doubt this species is a true Saropogon. 

Dasypogon gamaras, a male type from unknown region, is 
identical, but a little larger, measuring 14 mm., and stouter; 
there is a tinge of black on the second and third segments 
of abdomen. 

Dasypogon analis, Macq., Dipt. Exot. Suppl. 4, p. 369 
(1849). — Type seen by me in Paris Museum may possibly 
be identical with this species. Head of type is gone. A 
small species wdth yellow abdomen. Wings clear, tinged 
yellow and slightly clouded on cross-veins ; all posterior 
cells open. In Walker^s types none of the black markings 
mentioned by Macquart are present. 

Saropogon limhinervis, Macquart. 

This species is placed in this genus by Bigot, who had 
Macquart's type before him. 



the x\sill(la' of Australasiti. 1-17 

It is described as black, the fifth segment of abdomen 
testaceous. Leffs black. Wings with veins shaded brown. 
Length 6 lines. ? . 

Saropogon antipodus, Schiner. 

Described as brown-red. Face golden yellow. Anfennce 
black-brown. Thorax with golden-yellow stripe and spots, 
scutellum and breast-sides golden vellow. Abdomen ^hmm" 
reddish, the first two segments partly black. Legs bright 
rusty yellow, femora with black stripe, tarsi brownish. 
Wings tinged very pale brownish yellow, with brown veins ; 
the second posterior cell very narrow at base, the fourth 
narrowed a little at opening. 

Length 6 lines. 

Auckland. One female. 

Saropogon semirufus, Bigot. 

From Australia. 

A species described as red and black. Face with a shining 
black stripe. Abdomen blackish, red at sides and apex. 
Antenna fawn-coloured. Wings pale brown. 

Length 12 mm. 

Saropogon clarkll, Hutton. 

Co-type (c?) in Brit. Mus. Coll., presented by Capt. F. W. 
Hutton, from New Zealand. 

A large black species. Face brownish, with whitish-grey 
tomentum. JNIoustache black, composed of stout bristles. 
Forehead with bristly black hairs. Thorax with two grey 
tomentose narrow stripes ; shoulders grey tomentose and 
scutellum the same. Abdomen blue-black, shining ; genital 
organs black, with black pubescence. Legs wholly black. 
Wings hyaline, tinged brown on the fore border at base and 
where the second vein has its origin, 

Leugtli 16 mm. 

Saropogon fugiens, Hutton. 

Co-type ( c? ) presented by Capt. F. W. Hutton, from New 
Zealand ; males and females from same locality [Hudson, 
Cochrane) . 

A blue-black species with golden tomentum on face, on 
sides and dorsum of thorax, and on scutellum.. Legs reddish, 
the femora blackish above; tibiae black at apices, largely so 

10^ 



148 Miss G. Ricardo — A Revision of 

on the posterior pair. Wings hyaline or clouded brown^ 
small transverse vein just beyond the middle of discal cell. 
Abdomen blue-black, shining ; in some of the specimens a 
reddish line at sides is visible ; genital organs in male black, 
with black pubescence ; in female a circlet of spines at apex 
of abdomen. 

Length of co-type 12 mm. 

AcNEPHALUMj Macquart. 
Dipt. Exot. i. (2) p. 167 (1838). 

One species is recorded from Australia. 

A. punctipenne , Macq. Suppl. 5, p. 71 (1854), unknown to 
me. The type of -^. coon. Walker, from unknown locality, 
is not to be found in the Brit. Mus. Coll. 

MicRosTYLUM, Macquart. 
Dipt. Exot. i. (2) p. 142 (1838). 

One species, M. testaceum, Macq. [Dasypogonl Suppl. 1, 
p. 188 (1844), is recorded from Australia. IJnknown to me, 
and not in the Paris Museum. 

It is described as testaceous ; the abdomen black, apex 
testaceous. Ler/s black, the femora testaceous. Wings 
yellow, the fourth posterior cell closed. 

Length 12 lines. 

Ptiellus, Walker. 

Dipt. Saund. i. p. 110(1851). 

This genus was formed for one species. 

Phellus glaucus, Walker. 

Dipt. Saund. i. p. 110, pi. iv. fig. 6 (1851) ; id., List Dipt. vi. Suppl. 2, 
p. 503 (1854) J Froggatt, Australian Insects, p. 300, pi. xxviii. fig. 12 
(1907). 

Type ( ? ) and another from West Australia. Two males 
from Swan River, W. Australia. Froggatt states that it is 
found in the interior of W. Australia. 

This genus is not identical with Phoneus, Macq., or 
Obelophorus, Schiner, as suggested by this latter author, but 
is prohably nearly related to the latter genus peculiar to 
Chili, from which it is distinguished by the short stout 
prolongation on the middle tibite. The face is covered with 
hairs, i\\Q forehead broad, the ovipositor of female long, the 
abdomen hairy, the antennee with a long third joint. The 



the As'iVidsd of Australasia. HO 

wing with an appendix and the first posterior cell narrowed 
at opening, the fourth and anal cell closed. The legs are 
stout and hairy, more especially the hind tarsi and apex of 
hind tibiae : the curious prolongation of middle tibiae is 
short, armed with very stont short spines on outer border, 
and on inner border with thick hairs. 

CoDULA, Macquart. 
Dipt. Exot. Suppl. 4, p. 374 (1849). 

This genus, formed by the author for C. limbipennis from 
New South Wales, is allied to his genus Brachyrrhopola, to 
which his second species of Codula belongs, but it is at once 
distinguished by the absence of the curved spine on fore 
tibiae, the moustache is composed of fewer hairs and con- 
fined, to the oral opening, and the abdomen is stouter and 
shorter. With Macquart's second species and one placed 
by Bigot in this genus transferred to Brachyrrhopola, only 
Macquart's typical species and one nearly allied to it remain 
in the genus. 

Codula limbipeiiuis, Macq., Dipt. Exot, Suppl. 4, p. 374, pi. vii. fig. 2 
Codula vespiformis, Thorns., Eiigen. Resa, Diptera, p. 464 (1869). 

Codula limbipennis , Macquart. 

Type c? seen in Paris Museum by me, from E. Australia. 
A species with a stout club-shaped abdomen, black and 
yellow in colouring. Wings deep brown on fore border. 

Face black, covered with bright yellow tomentum, leaving 
a black stripe in the middle. Moustache composed of five 
or six long yellow bristly hairs. Paljn black, with black 
pubescence. Anlenna long, the third joint twice as long as 
the first two together, yellow. Thorax black with dull 
yellowish tomentum, two bright orange spots above the 
shoulders. Abdomen black, with bright orange tomentum 
beginning from the posterior border of the third segment, 
the fourth entirely black in the centre, the other segments 
wholly covered with the bright orange tomentum ; under- 
side black, with two orange-coloured segmentations only. 
Legs black, knees and hind tibiae yellow. Wings clear, deep 
brown on the fore border, extending through both basal 
cells, then in a straight line to the apex, bordered by the 
third vein, not extending beyond its first forked branch. 
Macquart^s description is as follows : — 
Thorax black. Abdomen red. Legs black ; tibiae red. 



loO Miss G. Ricardo — A Revision of 

Wings brown on external border. Length 5 lines ^. 
Palpi with black hairs. Beard black. Face with yellow 
tomeutum : a black denuded space under the antenuse ; 
moustache black. Forehead black. Antennae fawn-coloured, 
the third joint brown at apex. Thorax dull with some grey 
tomentura, the shoulder spot fawn-coloured ; sides shining. 
Abdomen : the first, second, and anterior border of third 
segment black, the remainder bright fawn-coloured; the 
fourth with a large blackish transverse dorsal spot, the 
seventli very small, black ; underside wholly shining black. 
Femora fawn-coloured at apices ; anterior and intermediate 
tibiae black, at base fa^vn-coloured ; posterior pair fawi;- 
coloured. Anterior and intermediate tarsi black, posterior 
pair fawn-coloured. Wings hyaline, with a wide brown fore 
border; base of the second sul)marginal cell very narrow. 
From east coast of New South Wales. 

Codula vespiformis, Thomson. 

One male from Burpengarv, Queensland, in Brit. j\Ius. 
Coll. 

Thomson described his type, a male from Sydney, as 
related to C limhipennls, Macquart, but easily distinguished 
by the colour of abdomen. 

Face golden yellow with a short black median stripe, 
raised at oral opening, which is covered by the moustaclie 
composed of yellow bristles. ^?i^e»«<e reddish \ellow; the 
tliird joint long cylindrical, notched on upper border, no 
style apparent. Forehead black, shining, with some grey 
and black hairs. Thorax black, with golden yellow tomen- 
tose spots on prothorax, shoulders, and two spots on lower 
border the same colour ; one stout fulvous spine-like bristle 
at side of thorax above base of wing. Scute/lum black, with 
liorizontal golden-yellow tomentose stripes. Abdomen club- 
shaped, black, reddish golden tomentose on posterior border 
of second segment as a narrow band, a similar but wider 
band on posterior border of third segment, a very narrow 
one on posterior border of fourth, and fifth and sixth wholly 
reddish golden except at the sides ; underside wholly black ; 
on sides of first segment appears a small black bristle. Leffs 
reddish yellow ; femora with exception of apices black, apices 
of fore tibiae and the tarsi fuscous. Wings hyaline, fore 
border deep brown, reaching the discal cell and almost 
filling up the basal cells, on apical half it does not extend 
beyond the third vein ; all cells open, the fourth posterior 
and anal cells narrowed at border. 
Length of specimen 15 mm. 



the AsiliJte of Australasia. 151 

Bathypogon, Loew, 
Progr. Realscliule, Meseritz, 1851, p. 13 (1851). 

This genus was formed by Loew for his species B. asiU- 
formis from Australia, and Schiner added B. brachypterus, 
Maoq., besides other species from Chili. 

The genus belongs to the group of Dasj/pogonincB with no 
spine on fore tibiae and is distinguished by the rather short 
wings with the fourth posterior cell closed and the first 
widely open, the vein closing the fourth posterior cell is 
nearly on a line with the one closing the discal cell; the 
face has a distinct tubercle, with the moustache reaching the 
antennae, which have a style-like bristle on the end of the 
third joint. It appears to be distinguished from Stenopogon 
by the broader face. 

The statement in Schiner's table that the wings in this 
genus in proportion are long and narrow, is somewhat mis- 
leading, so far as concerns its relationship to the other 
Australian genera of Dasypogoninee, from which it is clearly 
distinguished by the rather short narrow wings, often not 
reaching far beyond half the length of the abdomen. 

The following described and one new species, all from 
Australia, now belong to this genus. 

The differences between some of the species are very small 
and probably with the advent of fresh material some will 
hardly be maintained as distinct. 

Batliypogon brachypterus, Macq., Dipt. Exot. i. (2) p. 160, pi. iii. fig. 3 

[Dai^ypofjon'] (1838); id., Suppl. ii. p. 50 [Dasypogon'] (1847); 

Rond. Nuov. Arsn. Sci. Nat. Bologna, (3) ii. p. 105 [Astylmn] 

(1850).—Proctacanthus postica, Walker, List Dipt. vii. Suppl. 3, 

p. 655 (1855). 
Bathygogon aoris. Walker, List Dipt. ii. p. 321 IDasypogon] \Xipho- 

cerus'] (1849), et vi. Suppl. 2, p. 480 [Dasj/pogon] (1854) ; Kertesz, 

Cat. Dipt. p. 100 [Anc'/lorrkpickus] [1909].— Bat/igj^ogon asili- 
formis, Loew, Progr. Realscliule, Meseritz, 1851, 31 (1851). ? Asilus 

nwtillatus, Walker, List Dipt. vii. Suppl. 3, p. 739 (1855). 
Bathypogon pedanus, Walker, List Dipt. ii. p. 320 \ Basypodon'] (1S49), 

et vi. Suppl. 2, p. 481 [Dasypogon'] (1854) ; iCertesz, Cat. Dipt. 

p. 102 lAncylorrhynchns] (1909). 
Batliypogon testaceovittatus, ]\Lacq., Dipt. Exot. Suppl. v. p. 70, pi. ij- 

fig. 1 [Dcmipogon] (1855) ; Bigot, Ann. Soc. Eutom. France, (5) viii, 

p. 221 (IStS). 
Bathypogon maculipes. Bigot, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, (5) viii. p. 433 

(1878). 
Bathypogon nigrinus, sp. n. 

1. Tibife reddish 2. 

Tibiaj black 3. 

2. Femora red and black ; bristles on legs and 

thorax chiefly white ' brachypterus, Macq. 



152 Miss G. Ricaido — A Revision of 

Femora red and black ; bristles on legs and 
thorax chiefly black _ nigrimis, sp. n. 

Femora black ;' bristles on legs white, on thorax 

black j}ed(mm,^\Y[i. 

3. Bristles on legs and thorax chiefly white .... aoris, Wlk. 

Bathypogon hrachypterus, INIacquart. 
Proctacanthus postica, Walker. 

This species is erroneously placed in Kertesz's catalogue 
under Astylwn, a genus formed by Rondani for a species 
from Venezuela with no terminal bristle or style to the third 
joint of anteunse. 

Type ( ? ) from New S. Wales seen by me in Paris 
Museum, 12.4. 11. 

In Brit. Mus. Coll.: type of Proctacanthus postica, Walker, 
from Melbourne (Mr. Baby's coll.), a female from New S. 
Wales (Saunders coll.), and another from ]Macl\ay, Queens- 
land (G. Turner) (1894). In Mr. French's coll. a female 
from Victoria. 

Macquart's description is as follows : — 

Black. Abdomen ashy grey below. Femora and tibiae 
red below. 

Length 8 lines. ? . 

Face and forehead yellowish grey ; moustache reaching to 
the base of antennse, yellowish white ; the upper hairs black. 
Beard and hairs of palpi white. Hind part of head with 
yellow hairs. Antennye black. Thorax black; stripes on side 
and scutellum with grey tomentum. Abdomen black, with 
scattered small yellow hairs ; sides and belly ashy grey. 
Legs : femora and tibiae red ; with a black stripe above, 
which is wider on the posterior ones ; posterior legs black ; 
tarsi black, with yellow hairs, which are also present on the 
tibiae. Wings rather short, slightly yellowish ; brownish at 
the apex ; the fourth posterior cell closed, with a very 
oblique posterior vein, the posterior vein of fork of third 
vein longer than the anterior one. 

New South Wales. 

The antennce have a short terminal style. Moustache 
black above, then yellow. In the specimens before me there 
are no black hairs on upper part of moustache. The small 
cross-vein of wing is situated slightly beyond the middle of 
the discal cell. 

Length of specimens 18-20 mm. 

Walker's type is probably a specimen of this species; the 
type is in very bad preservation. 



the Asllidce of Australasia. 15."5 



Bathypogon aorls, Walker. 

Hathypogon asiUformis, I/oew. 
? Asilus midiltatus, Walker. 

Type female from Adelaide (Ent. Club), other females and 
males from Mackay, Queensland (G. Turner) (1891), and 
Burpengary, Queensland [Dr. T. L. Bancroft), 1U04. 

Distinguished from Bathypogon brachypterus by the 
M'hoUy blackish femora, and by the blackish tibise, bristles 
on legs chiefly yellowish, the small cross-vein of iving is 
situated about the middle of the discal cell. 

Two of the females and one male from Queensland have 
the femora largely reddish as in B. brachypterus, but the 
tibise remain blackish ; perhaps eventually the two species 
may be merged in one. 

Length 17-26 mm. 

The type of Asilus mulillatus, Walker, from Australia, 
abdomen missing, is evidently a species of this genus, 
apparently similar to B. aoris, with the exception of the 
small cross-vein of wing, which is distinctly below the 
middle of the discal cell. 

Loew suggested that his species B. asiliformis might be 
identical with Dasypogon plumbeus, Fabr. (Ent. Syst. iv. 
p. 382; id. Syst. Antl. p. 165 ; Wiedem. Ausszweifl. Ins. i. 
p. 413 \_Asilus)^ ; see Kertesz's Cat. for further refs.), but that 
the description of this last is too poor to serve for recognition 
of the species, and further concluded Dasypogon boebius, 
Walker (List Dipt. ii. p. 333), placed in the same group as 
Dasypogon plumbeus by Walker, might be identical ; this last 
type is apparently destroyed, not being in the Brit. Mus. 
Coll. From Loew^s description his species is evidently 
identical with B. aoris. The Fabrician and W^alker species 
might well be deleted from list. 

Bathypogon pedanus, Walker. 

Type ( ? ) and another from Swan River, W. Australia 
(Ent. Club). 

Distinguished from B. brachypterus by the AvhoUy black 
femora, and from B. aoris by the pale reddish tibiae ; the 
posterior pair are darker. Thorax black, with very distinct 
whitish-grey sides ; shoulders red. 

Length 18 mm. 

Bathypogon testaceovittatus, Macq., said by him to be 



154 ^Jiss G. Ricarclo — A Revision of 

allied to Bailujpogon aons, Walker, was placed by Bigot in 
tliis genus, probably correctly, judging from the figure of 
iviiig given by Macqiiart ; it is described by him as having 
the sides oi thorax and abdomen testaceous. If the figure of 
the wing is correct this species is distinguished by the 
rounded angle of the anterior branch of the fourth vein 
emitted from the discal cell. 

Bathypogon maculipes, Bigot, from Australia, measuring 
22 mm., is described as having tlie anterior and intermediate 
femora black, but reddish in the middle, and the posterior 
pair with an elongated reddish spot. The anterior tibiae 
with a similar smaller reddish spot, the bristles of tibije 
whitish. 

Neither of these species is known to me. 

Bathypogon nigrinus, sp. n. 

Type ( S ) and a series of males and one female from 
Burpengary, S. Queensland [Dr. T. L. Bancroft). 

A. species very similar to B. brachypterus, Macq., but 
distinguished by the black (not yellow) bristles on the legs 
(yellow bristles are only present on the fore tarsi) and by 
the paler indistinct red of the fore tibise, which are covered 
with short white pubescence, and by the first two joints of 
antenncE being red, nt)t black. 

Length 16-18 mm. 

Face reddish, with some little grey tomentum, at the sides 
of the face and below the antenniB appearing grey, being 
covered with a silvery white and grey tomentum ; the 
tubercle large, taking up most of the face ; moustache 
reaching its whole length, formed of strong black bristles, 
with a few white ones below. Palpi black, with yellowish- 
white hairs. Beard white. Antenna black ; the first two 
joints red, with yellowish-white long hairs; the first joint 
twice the length of the second, the third broad, with a style- 
like ending. Forehead black, with yellowish- grey tomentum, 
which is silvery- white above antennae ; pubescence of black 
hairs, at vertex very stout, black, spine-like bristles; round 
head white hairs. Thorax brownish, with two median 
and side black stripes, posteriorly covered with silvery- 
grey tomentum, which also covers the sides. Scutellum 
black, bordered with same-coloured tomentum and with 
black bristles. Sides of thorax with long black bristles. 
Abdomen black, covered with short white hairs and* with 
black bristles at the segmentations ; sides covered with grey 



the Asilida3 of Australasia. 155 

tomentura ; inidei'side 1)lackish. Legs armed witli bristles, 
■\vliicli are black, on the fore tarsi some yellow ones ; coxie 
red, with white tomentum and long white hairs and one 
black bristle below ; femora black above, with white pubes- 
cence, below red, with long white hairs ; tibiae yellowish red 
on the outside, black ou the inside, with white pubescence ; 
underside of fore tarsi with yellow pubescence ; tarsi reddish, 
covered with white pubescence. JVings hyaline, brownish 
at apex and on posterior border; the small transverse vein 
oblique, about the middle of the discal cell ; the fourth 
posterior cell and the anal closed ; the transverse veins 
closing the discal and fourth posterior cell are not quite in 
a straight line. Halteres reddish yellow. 



StenopogoNj Loew. 
Linn. Ent. ii. p. 453 (1847). 

The genus is distinguished by the very narroAv/ace, with 
a keel-shaped tubercle, the face becoming narrower still at 
antennae, the moustache reaching nearly to the antennse. 
Wings with the first posterior cell more or less narrower at 
border, the fourth closed or open. In the Australian species 
the front posterior cell is hardly narrower at border. 

The following species are recorded from Australia : — 

Stenopogon elongatiis, Macq., Dipt. Exot. Siippl. 1, p. 194, pi. vii. fig. 6 
(lS44), et Suppl. 2, p. 50 [ Das;/pof/on'j (1846). — DasypcHjoyiJlavifacies, 
Macq., I. c. Snppl. 4, p. 368, pi. vi. fifi-. 6 (1849). Dasi/jioqon digentia, 
cJ, WalL-er, List Dipt. pt. ii. p. 316 (1819), et part vi. Suppl. 2, 
p. 480 (1854); Kertesz, Cat. Dipt. p. 101 [Ancijlorrhynclms'] (1909). 
Dasypngon lanatus, 9> Walker, I.e. p. 317, et part vi. Suppl. 2, 
p. 486 (1854) ; Kertesz, I. c. [A7tci/Iorrhi/nchns] (1909). Dasypoqon 
thaJpiiis, c?, Walker, I. c. p. 317, et part vi. Suppl. 2, p. 481 ("1854) ; 
Kertesz, /. c. [^Ancylorrhynchns] (1909). Dasypogon agave, Walker, 
/. c. p. 317, et pt. vi. Suppl. 2, p. 480 (1854). Sienopoqonfratertms, 
Bigot, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (5) viii. p. 421 (1878). 

Stenopogon iiicoteles, S, Walker, List Dipt. pt. ii. p. 320 ('1849), et 
pt. vi. Suppl. 2, p. 481 \_Dasy2)ogo7{] (1854); Kertesz, Cat. Dipt. 
p. 102 \_A7icijlon-kynchus] (1909). 

Stenojjogon elongatus, Macq. 

Dasypogon finvi fades, 5 , Macq. 
Dasypogon digentia, cS , Walker. 
Daspogon lanatus, $ , Walker. 
Dasypogo7i tludpius, J , Walker. 
Dasypogon agave, J , Walker. 
Stenopogon fratermis. Bigot. 



158 Miss G. Ricaido — A Revision of 

Macquart's types both seen by me in Paris Museum, 
12. 4. 11. S. elongatus, S ?j fi'om New South Wales; 
D. flavifacies, a female (not a male) from Tasmania. 

In Brit. Mus. Coll. :— 

Type ol: D. digenlia, a male from New South Wales. 
Haslar Hospital. 

Type of D. lanatus, a male from Van Diemen's Land 
(/. Brijnce). 

Type of D. thalpius, a male from Perth, W. Australia 
(G. Clift07i). 

Type of D. agave, a male from Swan River, W. Australia. 

Also a series of males and females from S. Australia, Tas- 
mania, Queensland, and W. Australia. 

Macquart's description is as follows: — 

Elongated, black. Abdomen narrow, the apex testaceous. 
Moustache golden. Antennse black. Legs testaceous. 

Length 9 lines. ^ ? . 

Palpi black, with black hairs. Face black ; moustache 
and beard golden yellow, the first reaching the antennae. 
Forehead black, with black bairs. Antennae black ; the first 
joint a little elongated, with black hairs below. Thorax 
black, with black hairs ; sides with greyish-yellow tomentum 
and whitish hairs. Abdomen narrow, 6 lines long, black, 
with whitish tomentum and long whitish hairs below ; genital 
organs a little swollen, testaceous; the anterior half of the 
last two segments testaceous. Legs with black bristles and 
whitish hairs ; anterior femora black, testaceous at the apex, 
posterior ones black, the posterior half below testaceous ; 
tibiae black at apex ; anterior tibiae with no spines ; tarsi 
black. Wings clear, a little yellowish ; apex slightly 
brownish. 

From New South Wales. Coll. M. Fairmaire and M. Bigot. 
One specimen in the coll. of Marquis Spinola comes from 
Sydney Island, Oceania. 

Macquart further remarks, in the second Supplement, that 
the species which appears common in Tasmania affords him 
several subforms. One female differs from the type by the 
entire black abdomen, ovipositor, and femora ; another has 
the femora entirely testaceous ; in the males the abdomen is 
black and the genital organs blackish testaceous. 

These remarks are fully borne out by an examination of 
W^alker's type and others in the Brit. Mus. Coll. D. digentia 
has the abdomen entirely black. In some specimens the 
testaceous colouring, if present, is confined to the last seg- 
ment. The bristles on the legs are often fulvous instead of 



tJie Aii'dldije of Australasia. 157 

black or partly so. Macqiiart^s type of D.flavifacies has the 
abdomen and femora entirely black. 

Length of specimens, males from 17-23 mm., females 
from 20-25 mm. 

Stenopogon fratermis from the description is no doubt the 
same as S. eloagatus. 

Stenopogon nicoteles, Walker. 

Type ((^) from Swan River, West Australia [Dr. Richard- 
son). 

A small black species allied to >S'. ehmgatus, but the 
moustache is silvery white below, with black hairs above. 
Face black, covered with silvery-white tomentum. Thorax 
black, with grey tomentose stripes. Abdomen black, covered 
with brownish tomentum. Legs blaci<, the tibiae pale 
reddish yellow, the posterior pair almost wholly blackish ; 
bristles on legs pale yellow. Wings hyaline ; small trans- 
verse vein below the middle of discal cell. 



Length 14^ mm. 



PsiLOzoNA, gen. nov. 



Formed for two species from Queensland. 

Blue-black shining species. Fore and middle tibiae and 
tarsi fringed with hairs, the tarsi broad. Wings with the 
fourth and anal cells closed, the veins closing the fourtii 
posterior and discal cell almost parallel. Face shining, 
broad, somew hat raised above oral opening ; the moustache 
composed of strong bristles, not confined to the oral opening, 
but not extending up the face: the forehead broad, shining, 
with hairs at sides. Head broader than it is high, excised 
in centre. Fore tibiae have no curved spine. Antennae with 
a distinct style. 

Psilozona albitarsis, sp. n. 

One male type and two females (type 1903) from Towns- 
vilie, Queensland (F. P. Dodd), 1904 and 1903. 

A blue-black species, with brownish ivings. The male with 
white-haired fore tarsi and tiie base and apex of abdomen 
white-haired. Female with abdomen bare, long, and pointed 
at apex, the fore tibise with black hairs. 

Length, $ 17, ? 23 mm. 

S. Face black, shining, with whitish tomentum at the 



15S Miss G. Ricardo — A Revision of 

sides. IMoustaclie composed of numerous strong black 
bristles, with some yellowish ones below, not extending to 
the sides, which have soft whitish pubescence. Palpi black, 
clothed with coarse, white/ fairly long hairs, and with some 
stout black bristles at the apices. Proboscis slightly longer. 
Beard of thick white pubescence. Antennce black, the third 
joint reddish yellow, the first two joints with black hairs, 
the third bare, with a distinct style, longer than the first two 
joints together and broader. Forehead black, with grey 
pubescence. Hind part of head with whitish hairs. Thorax 
black, with spare greyish pubescence on the dorsum ; the 
shoulders covered with ashy-grey tomentum ; two stripes of 
grey tomentum apparent ; sides whitish, with white pubes- 
cence ; breast-sides black, with a broad horizontal whitish 
stripe and white pubescence; one long black bristle on side 
of thorax beyond the transverse suture and three shorter 
ones below on the breast-sides just above the suture. Scu- 
tellum black, with long whitish pubescence. Abdomen 
bluish, shining, the first three segments with whitish pubes- 
cence, fourth and fifth with very short, cliieHy black pubes- 
cence, sixth and seventh with bristly yellowish hairs ; anus 
with similar hairs ; sides of abdomen with white hairs, except 
on the fourth and fifth segments, where it is short and black. 
Legs black, slender, the middle and anterior tibise and tarsi 
with thick fringes of black hairs, replaced on the fore tarsi 
by white hairs, which cover the tarsi on upper sides and are 
very noticeable. Hind tibise and tarsi armed with some 
short black bristles. Wiyigs hyaline, brown on basal half, 
extending to the apex of first basal cell, and to the base of 
the discal cell, filling most of the anal cell, leaving the 
axillary to be almost hyaline ; veins brown, the fourth poste- 
rior and anal cell closed, the transverse veins closing discal 
and fourth posterior cells almost parallel, the fourth at base 
not pedunculated, the small transverse vein situated beyond 
the middle of discal cell. 

Female similar. Abdomen longer and pointed, the pubes- 
cence mvich less and shorter, white on the first two segments, 
then black; the first segment is blackish, the next three 
purplish, the remaining ones blue, metallic, shining ; sides 
with short white hairs, intermixed with black on the first 
three segments, then black and shorter. Legs : the pubes- 
cence is wholly black. Face with the sides more widely 
covered with light tomentum, which is golden yellow ; the 
liairs on first two joints of antennce are yellow below, the 
hairs on palpi yellowish. Wrings more wholly brown, only 



tlie Asiildse of Australasia. 159 

the apex and centres of fourth and fifth cells and axillary 
lobe being hyaline. 

Psilozona nigritarsis, sp. n. 

Three males from Towusville^ Queensland [F. P. Dodd), 
1903. 

A species very similar to P. albitai'sis, but distinguished 
by the pale loinys, the absence of white hairs on the fore 
tarsi, and by the presence oifuur black bristles on the breast- 
side just above the transverse siiture in the type only. The 
moustache has more yellow hairs and fewer black bristles, 
the colouring on sides oi face is golden yellow; the hairs on 
palpi, on lower part of the first two antennal joints, com- 
posing the beard, and round head are yellowish. Thorax 
not quite so pubescent. Abdomen with whitish pubescence 
only at base and a little short, scattered, white pubescence on 
the apex. The pubescence on fore legs less thick. 

Length 18 mm. 

Damalis, Fabr. 

Syst. Antl. p. 147 (1805). 

Only one species is recorded from Australia : — 

Damalis fuscipennis, Macq., Dipt. Exot. Suppl. 1, p. 22.2 
(1844). 

This must be nearly allied to Damalis pandens, Walker, 
Proc. Linn. Soc. London, iv. p. 104 [Discocephalal (1860), 
from Celebes, the type in the Brit. Mus. Coll. ; but that of 
Damalis lugens, Wlk., from New Guinea, is not to be found. 

Doleschall recorded one species, Damalis enjtlirophtliulimis, 
from Amboina. 

Ancylorrhynchus, Latreille. 

Fam. Regu. Anim. p. 490 (1825), 

Xiphocera, Macq., buites a Biiffou, i. p. 279 (1834). 

See Kertesz, Cat. Dipt. p. 100, for other syuonyms. 

This genus has not been recorded from Australia itself. 
All the Walker species placed in it in Kertesz's Cat. belong to 
other genera ; v. d. Wulp records one species from the Island 
of Waigou, X. complacita, and Doleschall one from iVmboina, 
X. rufithorax. 



IGO Bihliograpliical Notices. 

Heteropogon^ Loevv. 

Linn. Ent. ii. p. 488 (1847). 

Dasypogon boebius, Walker, is recorded from Australia. 
The type is not to be found in the Brit. Mus. Coll. It 
probably does not belong to this genus, in Trhich it is placed 
in Kertesz's Cat. ; but, as stated above, Loew suggests it 
may be a Bathypogon species. 

The following Walker species from unknown localities 
also placed here by Kertesz do not belong to this genus, 
having curved spines on fore tibiae, and the fourth posterior 
cell is closed, in line with the transverse vein closing discal 
cell ; they appear to belong to a genus near Deromyia : — 
cegon, animetus, cerretanus, copreus, silanus, politus. Generi- 
cally similar are ca7'vilius under OUgopogon in Kertesz's Cat., 
and volcatius under Isopogon; they do not appear to be 
from Australia. 

Dusypogon fossius, Walker, from unknown locality, is 
exactly similar to specimens labelled the same from S. Africa, 
and is evidently a South-African species; it has spines on 
the fore tibia3. 

[To be continued.] 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

A Revision of the Ichneumonidae, based on the Collection in the 
British Museum {Natural Histonj), ivith Descriptions of new 
Genera and Species. Part I. Tribes Ophionides and Metop>iides. 
By Claude Morley, P.Z.S., F.E.S. London : Printed by Order 
of the Trustees of the British Museum. 8vo. 1912. Pp. xi, 88. 
Coloured plate. 

Little was done to elucidate the collection of Ichneumon idse in the 
British Museum since it was arranged by Frederick Smith in 1860 
until Mr. Morley recently took up the work, and the pi-csent small 
volume is published as a first instalment. It includes a list, gene- 
rally with comments and often with full descriptions, of 198 species 
of Ophionides and 33 Metopiides, and 5 genera and about 70 species 
are described as new. The coloured plate is an admirably enlarged 
diagram of the common and widely distributed Ophion hitcus, L., 
illustrating its structure and neuration. W. F. K. 



Geological Society, IGl 



liecords of the Indian Museum. {^A Journcd of Indian Zoology.) 
Vol. iv. no. X. Issued March 30th, 1912. Annotated Catalogue 
of Oriental Culicidas. Supplement. By E. Brunetti. Calcutta, 
i912. Pp. 403-51G. 

Mr. Beunetti's " Annotated Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae" was 
]>ublished in 1907 in the ' Kecords of the Indian Museum,' i. 
])[). 247-377 ; and a vast amount of fresh material has now accumu- 
lated, which is exhaustively discussed and criticized in the present 
Supplement. The " Additions to the List of Literature " (pp. 411- 
413) alone contain 57 items, many of these being works of primary 
importance. It is impossible for us to do more here than direct the 
attention of dipterists to this most important publication. 

W. F. K. 



PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

May 1st, 1912.— Dr. Aubrey Strahan, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The following communication was read : — 

' Insect-Remains from the Midland and South-Eastern Coal- 
fields.' By Herbert Bolton, F.R.S.E., F.G.S., Director of the 
Bristol Museum. 

The writer describes a series of three insect-wings obtained by 
Dr. L. Moysey, F.G.S., from the Shipley Clay-pit near Ilkeston 
(Derbyshire), and a blattoid wing, and three fragments from the 
borings of the Kent Coal Concessions Company, Ltd., in East Kent. 

The first series of insect-wings occur in greyish-brown ironstone 
nodules, which lie in bands in a yellow clay about 30 or 40 feet 
below the Top Hard Coal. 

The East Kent insect-remains occur in core shales, the horizon 
of which is not yet determined. 

The wings obtained by Dr. Moysey are not referable to any 
known families. Three new families are formed to contain them, 
one of which is nearly related to the Dictyoneuridae with some 
suggestion of the family Heliolidae. A second new family is allied 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. x. 11 



162 Geological Society. 

to the Heliolidae, and the third new family to the Homoiopteridac, 
or, as the writer believes, near to the Lithomantidse. 

The East Kent insect-remains contain one wing, referable to the 
genus Soomylacris (EUohlattina), a species of which is already 
known from the Forest of Dean Coalfield. 

The finding of two species of the same genus in coalfields so 
widely separated as those of the Forest of Dean and East Kent is 
not without interest, in view of the generally-accepted belief in the 
former continuity of the Coal Measures across the South of England. 



June 5th, 1912.— Prof. W. W. Watts, Sc.D., LL.D., F.E.S., 
Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following communications were read: — 

1, ' The Further Evidence of Borings as to the Range of the 
South-Eastern Coalfield and of the Palseozoic Floor, and as to the 
Thickness of the Overlying Strata.' By Hon. Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins, M.A., D.Sc, F.K.S., F.S.A., F.G.S. 

In this paper the Author gives an outline of the history of the 
experimental borings made in order to verify Godwin-Austen's theory 
concerning ' the Axis of Artois,' which led to the discovery of the 
South-Eastern Coalfield. The first of these was at Netherfield(1872- 
75) near Battle (Sussex). Here the borehole, ending in Oxford 
Clay at a depth of 1905 feet below the surface, showed that 
the Palaeozoic floor is buried under so great a thickness of rock 
that it was advisable to look farther north for a site for further 
experiments. The second boring (1886-92), under the Shakespeare 
Cliff, Dover, on the site of the Channel Tunnel works, resulted in 
the discovery of the Coal Measures belonging to the Pennant or 
Middle Series of the Bristol and South Wales Coalfields, at a depth 
of 1100 feet below O.D. This aff'ords a practical basis for further 
exploration. The extension of the coalfield to a distance of 
8 miles north of Dover was proved by the boring (1897-99) at 
Ropersole, where the same Pennant Series occurred at 1180 feet 
below O.D., and its extension in the intervening area about 5 miles 
to the west of Dover by a boring under the direction of M. Breton 
at Ellinge (1901-1902), where the coalfield was struck at 1286 feet 
below O.D. 

In these three borings the strata of the Coal Measures are 
practically horizontal, a fact which, in the opinion of the Author, 
implies that they form the bottom of a syncline with its long axis 
passing from Dover in a north-westerly direction parallel to the 
scarp of the North Downs. 

The boring at Brabourne (1897-98), under the direction of 
Mr. Brady and the late Mr. Etheridge, gave the next fixed point in 
the enquiry. It established the fact that, at the base of the North 
Downs, the Palaeozoic floor consists of highly inclined strata (in the 
opinion of the Author, of Devonian age) at 1789 feet below O.D. 



Geological Society. 163 

These are covered by Dolomitic Conglomerate and Triassic marls, the 
section being identical with that of the Mendij) Hills in Somerset. 
It therefore marks the position in Kent of the Pembroko-Mendip 
anticline which forms the southern boundary of the Coalfields of 
Bristol and of South Wales. It follows that the south-western 
boundary of the South-Eastern Coalfield is to be looked for at a 
suflicient distance east of Brabourne to allow of the presence of 
the Carboniferous Limestone and Millstone Grit, as shown approxi- 
mately on the map. 

These results, laid by the Author before the Royal Coal Commission 
in 1903, led to further experiments under his direction. The first 
of these, at Waldershare (1904-1907), proved the existence of the 
Coal Measures at 10G9 feet below O.D., in two distinct groups, the 
upper belonging to the Pennant Series as before with an average 
dip of 10°, and the lower with an average dip of 20°, belonging to 
the Lower Group of Coal Measures of Somerset, Gloucestci', and 
South Wales. The second at Predville (1905-1907), 3 miles north- 
east of Waldershare, reached the Palaeozoic floor at 1109^ feet, 
and entered the same lower series of valuable coal-seams, dipping 
at an angle of 17° (Journ. Roy. Soe. Arts, vol. Iv, 1907, pp. 456- 
57). Further experiments have been carried on north and east 
of Dover, but their results are not yet available for scientific 
purposes. Thus a valuable coalfield has been proved over a large 
area, wich its eastern and western boundaries as yet undetermined, 
as shown on the map. 

Two further experimental borings to the north and west, carried 
out under the Author's direction in 1910-11, led to most unexpected 
results. Hitherto the Coal Measures were either horizontal, or 
dipping in the normal fasliion without signs of faulting, and there 
was every reason to believe that the Coal-Measure trough would be 
struck, on the first site, at Chilham, about 3 miles south-west of 
Canterbury. Instead, however, of Coal Measures, Upper Silurian 
shales with Monof/rapUis friodon formed the Palaeozoic floor at 
1072 feet below O.D. In the second, at Bobbing near Sittingbourne, 
hard Silurian grits and shales occurred at 1070 feet below O.U. In 
both borings the Silurian rocks are nearly vertical, and bear marks 
of crushing The northern boundary of the South-Eastern Coalfield 
is therefore to be sought in the district between Fredville and 
Chilham, and probably nearer to the former locality than to the 
latter. 

The Silurian portion of the buried Palaeozoic floor is then traced 
westwards through Ciiffo, on the Thames below Gravesend, to Ware 
in Hertfordshire, and northwards through Essex to Harwich, Sutton, 
and Culford (Bury St. Edmunds). To the south of this the Devonian 
rocks occupy the area of London, and extend as far as the district 
of Croydon. 

The varying thickness of the overlying rocks is also dealt with, 
and details are given of three sections, at Ropersole, Chilham, and 
Bobbing, in the hope that they may be useful to other explorers. 



164 Miscellaneous. 



2. ' Shelly Clay dredged from the Dogger Bauk.' By John 
Walker Stather, F.G.S. 

The Dogger Bank fishermen frequently get in their nets a tough 
peaty material, which they call ' mooring.' In a paper published 
in the ' Essex Naturalist,' April and July, 1909, this ' moorlog ' 
was described by Mr. H. Whitehead and Mr. II. H. Goodchild, with 
a report on the plant-remains by Mr. Clement Held, F.R.S., and 
Mrs. Eleanor Held. 

In looking over some recently dredged ' mooring ' brought in by 
a Hull trawler, the Author noticed that, adhering to the specimens 
of ' moorlog,' was a dark silty clay, full of marine shells. These 
specimens of ' moorlog,' with the associated shelly clay, Avere 
dredged in lat. 55° 24' K., and long. 3° 10' E., at a depth of 
20 ffithoms. 

A collection of these shells was submitted to Mr. Clement Keid, 
who stated that they are all assignable to very shallow-water species, 
and probably flourished just beneath low-water level. This and 
other evidence seems to show that the ' moorlog' in this part of 
the North Sea rests upon a bed of shelly silt, and the shells in the 
silt together with the ' moorlog ' point to great changes of level in 
the North Sea Basin. 



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XVIII. — Report on tlie Annelida Polychceta collected ■in the 
North Sea and adjacent parts hy the Scotch Fishery Board 
Vessel * Goldseeker.' — Part I. Ampliinomicla3 to SigaIionida3. 
By William Small, M.A., B.Sc, Gatty Marine Labora- 
tory, St. Andrews. 

[Plate VI.]. 

The families included in the followinj^ report are Amplii- 
nomidise, Apliroditidae, Polynoidse, and Sigalionidse. 

The Amphinomidfe are but sparsely represented by a single 
species, while the Aphroditidte show representatives of two 
genera out of the three that are accounted British. The 
Polynoidse are represented by nineteen species, ai\d the 
Sigalionidpo by four. 

The distribution of several species has been extended. 
Aphrodita echidna, de Quatrefages, and Evarne atlantica, 
]\l'Intosh, are recorded for the first time from the Nortli Sea 
(Moray Y\]:i\\),\\\\\\Q Euphrosynehorealts^ ffirstedt, Eacranta 
villosa, Malmgren, and Antimi'e elcf^/ans, Thee), are new to 
British waters, if under that term be included tiie Faroe 
Channel. Canon Norman (1890, p. 345), discussing the 
limits of the British Marine Area and the Report of the 
Committee appointed by the British Association in 1887 to 
define these limits (Brit. Assoc. Rep. 1888, p. 95), gives as 
his opinion that the fauna of the "cold area" or Faroe 
Channel is arctic in character, and should therefore not be 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. x. 12 



166 Mr. W. Small on Annelida PoJychcBta • 

regarded as Biitisli. The British Association Committee 
defined the British Marine Area as consisting of a shallow- 
water district bounded by the 100-fathom line and a British 
Atlantic-slope district, or deep-water district, extending off 
our western and nortliern shores from the 100-fathom line to 
tlie 1000-fathom line, ?'. e. to the boundary of the continental 
plateau. This arrangement includes the "cold area" or 
Faroe Channel in British waters. Canon Nortnan\s recom- 
mendation to exclude this part from the British Marine Area 
seems based on natural grounds. It is well known that 
many forms occur on the ridge between the Faroe and 
Slietland Islands which are not found in adjacent and deeper 
waters or to tlie soutli. 

In the present Report, tlie Faroe Channel will be found to 
have yielded annelids, e. g. Eunoa tritohi, M'Intosh, and 
Euplirosyne horealis, QCrstedt, wliich are not recorded from 
the North Sea. Thesi". forms may tiierefore be regarded as 
arctic, and, if so, should be excluded from the British marine 
fauna. 

Lists of synonyms have not been given. They can be 
got from Professor M'Intosh's mo)iograph (1900) under the 
heads of the various species, and they occupy a considerable 
amount of space. 

I have to thank Prof. D^Arcy W. Thompson for his courtesy 
in handing over the collection for examination and for pro- 
viding a list of stations. I have also had the advantage of a 
typical series of slides of each group from Prof. M'Intosh's 
collection. 

Family Amphinomidap. 

Subfamily Euphrostnin^. 

Genus EuPHROSYNE, Savigny, 1820. 

Eitphrosyne horeaUs, CErstedt, 1843. 

Two specimens of this form were dredged along with 
Eunoa tritoni, MT., Nephthys cceca, O. F. M., and SerpuHds 
in the Faroe Channel in 545-788 m. during the month of 
June. These are the sole representatives of tlie genus 
Eitphrosyne and of the family Amphinomida?. Their scarcity 
is not surprising, for these forms prefer a littoral liabitat. Of 
the two species of Eitphrosyne obtained by the ' Challenger ' 
Expedition, one, E. capensis, Kinbcrg, was found between 
tide-marks, and the other, E. horealis, in 85 fathoms. The 
present species would appear to have a preference for deeper 
water. 



from the North Sea and adjacent parts. 167 

The strikingly characteristic appearance of E. horealis is 
due to the projection of the di:)rsal bristles beyond the 
branchiae. The latter are clearly 2- or 3-lobed, and none of 
them show the quadripartite condition in the mid-dorsal line 
mentioned by M'Intosh (1885, p. 6). 

One of the specimens is mature, the body-cavity containing 
numerous ova. Diatoms were found in the alimentary 
canal. 



Family Aphroditidze. 

Genus Aphrodita, Linnseus, 1735. 

Aphrodita aculeata, Linn., 1765. 

Nine specimens of this annelid were dredged in Loch Aber 
at a depth of 148 m. They are small in size, the largest 
being little more than 30 mm. long. None of the specimens 
is ripe. The gut-contents consisted of diatoms, minute algae, 
fragments of various minerals and of echinoderm spines, 
spoiige-spicules, fragments of crustaceans, and bristles ot" 
other annelids. 

Aphrodita echidna, de Quatref ages ?, 1865. 

One small specimen, 6 mm. long, occurred in a haul taken 
in 21 fathoms 3 miles west of Tarbet Ness (Moray Firth). 
The number of segments is only about 20. 

M'Intosh (1885, p. 36) records A. echidna from the Strait 
of Magellan on two occasions. De Quatrefages (1865, p. 197) 
gives its habitat as South America. Treadwell (1903, 
p. 1157) found it in over 200 fathoms in Hawaii. The 
]n-esent record is the jfirst from the North Sea., and shows the 
distribution of this annelid to be cosmopolitan. It has, 
however, yet to be recorded from the western seas of Britain. 

Treadwell remarks that the ventral set£e are gradually 
narrowed from the base to the tip, which he notes as pro- 
truding beyond the pilose patch, as in the bristle of Iphiove 
spinosa, Kinberg. In the present specimen the pilose patch 
projects beyond the tip of the bristle, and is itself drawn out 
into a fine curved point. The delicate colourless dorsal seta3 
described by Treadwell are not present. The dorsal felt has 
much debris entangled in it, but the elytra are quite free from 
any deposit. 

A parasitic Lo.vosoma occurred on the dorsum. 

12* 



168 Mr. W. Small on Annelida Polijcliceta 

Genus LjiTMATONiCE, Kinberg, 1854. 
LcBtmatonice JiUcornis, Kinberg, 1865. 

This species has been found on the western shores of tlie 
British Isles and on the eastern coasts of Nortli America. It 
lias been shown to inhabit tiie Faroe Chatniel and to extend 
along tlie coasts of Norway, and it has been recorded from 
Guernsey. All the localities from which the present speci- 
mens have been taken are to the north of the Siietland 
Islands. L. filicornis has therefore still to be recorded from 
the North Sea south o£ the Pentiand Firth. 

In no example is the number of segments more than 30. 
Marenzeller (1902, p. 5) gives as the number 32, " with 3 
smaller ones." 

The palpi are in every case much longer than the median 
tentacle. In no case are the palpi and median tentacle equal, 
as Kinberg asserted. The palpi in many cases extend to the 
tip of the extruded proboscis. They taper gently and regu- 
larly to a point, except for a dilated portion near the tip. 
They are clearly spinose, the sharp spines becoming smaller 
near the tip of the organ. 

Many oi the present examples are small, from 5 mm. 
upwards iti length, and these have sometimes pale bristles 
and spines. The smallest forms were taken in May, and 
were probably spawned in the previous season, most likely 
during late autumn or winter. One specimen, taken in 
September, had ova. 

Family Polynoidae. 

Genus Lepidonotus, Leach, 1816, char, emend. 
M'lntosh, 1900. 

Lepidonottis squamatus, Linnaeus, 1766. 

This annelid was found in company with Aphrodita acii- 
leata, Lagiscafloccosa, Savigny, Halosydna gelatinosa, M. Sars, 
Gattyana cirrosa, Pallas, Evarne impar, Johnston, Nephthyds, 
Glycerids, Terebellids, Glycinde nordmanni^ Mgrn., and 
other annelids at different times. It is commonly distributed 
around these shores, and it extends from between tide-marks 
to deeper water than that from which any of the present 
specimens have been dredged. 

The average length of the specimens is 2^ mm., and the 
segments number 25. 

Professor M'Intosh (1000, p. 279) says it is probable that 



from the North Sea and adjacent jiarts. 1()9 

the spawning-period is in June and July ; yet none of tlio 
specimens captured in July are ripe, nor are there any youn<;- 
forms in the collection, though several examples were taken 
in August. 

Of the other British species of this genus, L. clava, Mon- 
tagu, no examples were found. 

Genus Gattyana {Nycliia, Mcilmgren, 1865), 
M'IntJsh, 1897. 

Gattyana cirrosa^ Pallas, 1760. 

Fauvel points out (191 1, p. 9) that the Lepidonotus scahra 
of ffirstedt, which M'Intosh includes as a synonym of 
Gattyana cirrosa, is the same species as Eunoa nodosa, Sars 
— as Prof. M'Intosh said many years previously, — and should 
therefore be omitted from the list of synonyms of Gattyana 
cirrosa and included among those of Eunoa nodosa. 

The total haul of the species is four specimens, the largest 
of which is 25 mm. long. Two of the specimens measure 
only 4 mm. in length, and these were taken in December and 
in shallower water than the other and larger specimens. 

The seticerous se<2:ments are 31-36 in number. The 
scales are of the British type, showing none of the charac- 
teristics of the more northern forms. Tiieir surface is covered 
with minute spines and the cilia are prominent. 

According to Malmgren and Theel (1879, p. 7), G. cirrosa 
attains its largest development and occurs most frequently in 
arctic waters. M'Intosh mentions a form 47 mm. long from 
St. Andrews. Ditlevson (1911, p. 412, Nychia cirrosa) has 
recorded this annelid from Danmarks liavn and iStornibugt, 
but he gives no measurements. 

Genus Eunoa, Malmgren, 1865. 
Eunoa nodosa, Sars^ 1860. 

The representation of this species is very small, for only 
two fragments were found at Station 16 (62° N., 6° 12' W.) 
at a depth of 120 m. This state of affairs is only to be 
expected ; Eunoa nodosa occurs off these shores only rarely 
and in deep water. 

The fragments measure a little over 20 mm. each in length, 
one of them being an anterior, the other a posterior part of 
the annelid. Several scales are present, and these correspond 
to the descriptions of them. They are tough, reniform in 
outline, and decorated with at least nine larger tubercles, 
several of which are spinose at the tips. 



170 Mr. W. Small on Annelida PolijcJicBla 

The dorsal and ventral bristles have been fully described, 
Fauvel (1911, p. 8) says there is little difference in length 
between the dorsal and ventral bristles when allowance is 
made for the place of origin of the dorsal bristles, but in the 
present cases the ventral bristles project far enough beyond 
the dorsal to emphasize their greater length. The relatively 
shorter dorsal bristles of Eunoa nodosa serve to distinguish 
that species from Eunoa cerstedti, Malmgren. 

Of the different anterior appendages oidy one of the palps 
is present. It shows six rows of papillai^ conical in sha])e 
and bent over at the tips, in preservation. According to 
M'Intosh, these papillas become larger towards the extremity 
of the palp. Any increase in size in the distal papilla3 as 
com{)ared with the proximal is very small, and is negligible 
in the present specimen. 

Eunoa tritoni, M'Intosh, 1898. 

The complete specimens of this species measure 20 and 
30 mm. long respectively, but several fragments indicate 
much larger forms. The largest fragment is 14 mm. broad 
with the setas, and 25 mm. long. 

The head (PI. VI. fig. 1) is broader than long, and is 
deeply incised anteriorly in the middle line. The lateral 
eminences each end in two small peaks, and bear the large 
eyes, which are four in number and situated laterally. The 
median tentacle is absent; the lateral tentacles taper rapidly 
to a point, and for the proximal two-thirds of their length 
are covered with cilia closely resembling those of the tenta- 
cular cirri. The palps are large and are provided with rows 
of very small clavate or conical papillas; they are almost 
twice as long as the lateral tentacles. The tentacular cirri 
are thickly covered with long cilia which are knobbed at the 
tips. Tliere is a slight expansion of the cirrus below its 
filiform tip. 

The dorsal markings correspond to those of E. nodosa^ with 
the exc( p;ion of the papillae, which are tbund in E. nodosa 
internal to the scale-bearing tubercles. These are absent iu 
Eunoa ir'itoni. 

The scales are reniform in outline and have a thick fringe 
of cilia on the outer edge. Inside this fringe is a set of 
elongated tubercles divided at the tips, and along the poste- 
rior border and easily seen by the naked eye are several 
capstan-shaped tubercles. The latter are alwaj's more than 
six ill number, but are never so numerous as the corresponding 
structures in Eunoa nodosa. 



from the North Sea and adjacent parts. 171 

According- to Professor M'Intosh (1900, p. 297) tlie cilia 
along the outer edge of tlie scale end in probe-points, the 
niajority of which are shown in his text-Hgure to havo 
pointed tips. In the present specimens the free ends of tlie 
cilia show rather a blunted or rounded condition. The 
surface of the scale is covered with small tubercles. 

'i'he bristles are of two types only. The dorsal setse are 
long, end bluntly, and are spinous for nearly their complete 
length. The ventral setae are graceful ; the nuked terminal 
region is large and hooked, and is tapered gradually until it 
curves to a tine point. The ventral line of this region is 
slightly convex, differing thus from the same part of the 
ventral bristle of E. nodosa. The bristles of the first foot 
partake of the same characters as the bristles of the succeeding 
segments, the ventral being relatively more slender. 

One of the posterior dorsal cirri of one specimen has a 
bifid tip, which condition is no doubt an abnormality. 

This species seems to be found only in deep and cold 
water. All records of it so far confine it to the Faroe 
Channel. 

Genus LagisCA, Malmgren, 1865. 
Lagisca floccosa^ Savigny, 1820. 

This annelid is obtainable at all points off British shores, 
and in some parts is very common. In the present collec- 
tion fragments are more numerous than complete specimens. 
Nevertheless it is easily possible to establish the fact that, 
of the total number of complete specimens and fragments, 
GO per cent, are of the variety mentioned by M'lntosh 
(1900, p. 302). The characteristic serving- to distinguish the 
variety from the normal specimen of L.^occosa is the con- 
dition of the tip of the dorsal bristle. Ordinarily the dorsal 
bristle has a sharply pointed tip; the variety shows a blunted 
and shortened tip. In several of the examples a form of 
dorsal bristle intermediate between that of the normal and 
that of the variety occurs. The tip of the bristle is in this 
case not so elongated as in the normal form or so blunted as 
in the variety. Its shape is quite distinct from that men- 
tioned by M'lntosh and figured (1900, p. 302, pi. xxxviii. 
fig. 3) by him from a specimen obtained by the ' Porcupine ' 
Expedition (18G9-70). 

It is unfortunate that none of the specimens or fragments 
possess a single scale. It may have been possible to correlate 
variation in the dorsal bristles with variation in the shape, 
number of tubercles, or coloration of the scales. 



172 Mr. W. Small on Annelida PolyclicBta 

Among the present examples there is a considerable 
diversity of colour. Several forms are almost black in 
jieneral appearance, while others are of a pale pink colour. 
These differences occur indiscriminately amons^ normal 
forms and examples of the variety, and are probably due to 
the length of time the annelid has been in the preserving 
fluid (formalin). 

Though it is conjectured that the breeding-season of 
L.floccosa is in the winter, none of the specimens taken in 
November have ova. The "parasitic granular growth '' 
mentioned by M'Intosh is always present, especially on tiie 
dorsal bristles. 

Lagisca elisahethce, M'Intosh, 1900. 

Of this species only one anterior fragment, 7 mm. long, 
occurred. It was taken in the same haul as Eunoa nodosa. 
It has hitherto been recorded only from St. Andrews. 

Tiie markings of the head described by M'Intosh (1900, 
p. 303) are not found in their entirety in the specimen. 
The pale band occurring posteriorly and defined by the collar 
is absent, while the median band of the same shade is 
indistinct. The median tentacle is of the same length as the 
dorsal tentacular cirrus and has a filiform tip and cilia, long 
and clavate, like those of the tentacular cirri. Its base is 
expanded and fits closely between the lateral peaked parts of 
the head. The palps are sparsely supplied with minute 
papillae and have massive bases and elongated filiform tips. 
In the present specimen the tentacular cirri are relatively 
larger than they are shown to be in the drawing of the head 
of this species in Prof. M*Intosh's monograph (1900, pi. xxvii. 
tig. 3). The same remark applies to the tips of the cirri, 
lateral tentacles, and palps. 

The markings on the dorsum of the fragment are indis- 
tinguishable. 

When, however, the feet, cirri, and setae are examined, 
there can be no hesitation in identifying the specimen as a 
fragment of Lagisca elisahethw, M'l. The dorsal cirri have 
two kinds of cilia, the shorter and proximally placed, and the 
larger with expanded tips. The dorsal setae occur in a mass, 
are pale and slightly curved, while the ventral have fairly 
long shafts with characteristic terminations. 

The present form corresponds to the Lagisca elisahethce of 
M'Intosh (1900, p. 303) and to the Polynoe aspera of Hansen, 
described by Theel (1879, p. 10). It differs from both in the 
condition of the palps. These, in the form from St. Andrews, 



from the North Sea and adjacent parts. 173 

have "a dense series of minute papillai with enLarged tips." 
The palps of Th^el's more northern form are quite naked, 
while those of the present form, from more northern waters 
also, have only a few papilla3. Unfortunately no scales are 
present. 

A larger supply of material would have made it possible to 
determine whether Polynoii asper'a and Lagisca elisahethe 
were identical. It may well be that they are the same form, 
for the points of difference between them are small and com- 
paratively unimportant. 

Genus ACANTIIICOLEPIS, Norman, MS. [Dasijlepis, Mgrn., 

18G7). 

Acanthi'colepis asperrima, Sars, 18G0. 

The occurrence of this annelid in the collection considerably 
extends its habitat. It has hitherto been found in British 
waters only in the Firth of Clyde; the present examples are 
all from the area to the north of the Shetland Islands. Tiiis 
uncommon annelid inhabits both our shallower waters and 
the deeper and colder seas of the north. It is common in 
the Norwegian fiords. 

The complete specimens measure respectively 28 mm. and 
20 mm. in length. All the scales have been lost and none 
of the forms has a complete set of head-appendages. Obser- 
vation shows that the palps are covered for their whole length 
by papillse arranged lengthwise in at least four I'ows. 
M'Intosh (1900, p. 312) remarks that the palps are only 
partly papillose, being mostly smooth. The pnpillse are 
conical in shape and bent over at the tips. 

The bristles, especially the ventral, are reminiscent of 
Eunoa tritoni. The animal is a striking one, and its appear- 
ance justifies its specific name. 

Genus Hakmothoe (Kinberg, 1857), char, emend. M'Intosh, 

1900. 

Harmothoe imhricata, Linn., 1767. 

Of this common form only two examples were found on 
the same day at adjacent points in Shetland. The larger is 
only 20 mm. in length. It is remarkable that so ubiquitous 
an annelid should be so sparsely represented in the present 
collection. 

The contents of the gut consisted of diatoms, fragments of 
silica and other minerals, sponge-spicules, foraminifera, sj)ines 



174 Mr. W. Small on A^inelida PoJychcBta 

of small echinoderms, bristles of Nephthys cceca, and remnants 
of other annelids. 

liarmothoe antilopis, M'Intosh, 1876. 

Only two fragments, each about 13 mm. long, were obtained ; 
one is an anterior, the other a posterior part of the annelid. 
Tiiis form ranges over a wide area, but always occurs in 
small numbers. Usually no more than a single specimen is 
taken in any one haul. 

Identification of the fragments was not easy because of the 
bad state of preservation of the material. The anterior 
fragment is devoid of head-appendages. Tiie posterior pair 
of eyes is visible from the dorsum, and the peaks of the head 
are rounded in front. Tiie seta^, however, are those of 
//. antilopi's, and the scales, a few of which are present on 
the posterior fragment, correspond to description. 

Neither of the fragments has ova, though they were taken 
during the supposed spawning-season of the species. 

Uarmothoe (^Polynoe) setosissima, Savigny, 1820. 

This species seems to be an especially irritable one, for no 
complete specimens are present. One of the largest frag- 
ments is 33 mm. long. The species is both a littoral and a 
deep-water form. 

Brown is the characteristic colour of the annelid, and it is 
found not only on the dorsum but on the tentacles &c. Tiie 
dorsal cirri are also occasionally coloured brown. The close- 
set silky bristles give the animal a characteristic appearance. 

Genus EvAKNE, Malmgren, 1865. 

Evarne impar^ Johnstone, 1839. 

The smallest examples of this species were taken in 
December. The complete specimens measure 8 mm. in 
length. None of them are ripe, though smaller examples 
(6 mm.) have been found with ova at the same time of the 
year. 

Malmgren (1865, p. 71) mentions 35 as the number of 
segments, and !St. Joseph (1888, p. 162, liarmothoe impar) 
gives 38, including the buccal and anal segments. Tiie 
number seems to be very variable. 

While the head agrees generally with the published 
descrijjtions of it, the peaks of the lateral eminences are more 
prominent, the palps are larger and taper more gradually, 



from the North Sea and adjacent parts. 175 

the lateral tentacles have move massive bases, and the filiform 
tips of the cirri and tentacles are longer than shown in 
M'Intosh's figure of the head of E. impar (1900, pi. xxvii. 
fig. 13). The papilliB of the palps are so minute as to 
require a careful search. No scales are present. 
All the examples are of the typical British form. 

Evarne impar, Johnst., var. 

A nearly complete specimen of 25 segments and of IG mm. 
length aTid 6 mm. breadth from tip to tip of the setae was 
taken in 35 fath. off Tod Head. It is evidently a variety of 
E. impar. It is a softer and smaller form, and shows on the 
dorsum none of the characteristic brown markings. The 
dorsum is pink in colour. The shape of the body is similar 
to that of E. impar. All the scales have been lost. 

The head is slightly broader in proportion to its length 
than that of E. imi^ar. There are no eyes. The lateral 
eminences are broader in front, but the peaks are the same in 
both forms. The median tentacle has the same massive 
base, brown colour, and filiform tip, though there is no 
apparent dilatation below the tip. In other points, as, for 
example, the lateral tentacles, the palps, and their papilUe, 
both forms agree. The tentacular cirri are absent. 

Compared with the breadth of the body, the length of the 
bristles of the variety is less than that of the same structures 
in Evarne impar^ while the dorsal bristles of the variety are 
larger in comparison with the ventral than in the normal 
specimens. 

In shape the dorsal bristles (PI. VI. fig. 2) resemble those of 
Evarne lergueJensis, M'Intosh (1885, p. 97, pi. vi. a, fig. 12), 
though they are less curved and less attenuated towards the 
tip. The tip is longer and more pointed than that of E. im- 
par, but the transverse rows of spines and the lateral spines 
are similar. The tip is most like that of E. hergnelensis, 
or, again, it may be said to be intermediate in shape between 
that of ^. impar and that of E. atlantica, JMTiitosli. 

The superior ventral bristles resemble those of E. impar. 
The median and inferior ventral bristles are more numerous 
and show either no secondary process or only a small trace 
of it, recalling thus the ventral bristle of E. atlantica. 

Many varieties of E. impar have been described. The 
present one is probably akin to that mentioned by MTntosli 
(1900, p. 357) as piocured by the 'Porcupine^ in 1870. 
Specimens without eyes have likewise been obtained. 



176 Mr. W. Small on Annelica Polycliceta 

Evarne Johnstont, M'lntosh, 1876. 

This species lias previously been obtained only from tlie 
Atlantic Ocean to the west of Ireland. Tlie present record is 
the first of it from the seas to the north of the Shetlands, 
where it was obtained in 362 m. The haul consists of one 
fragment of a few anterior segments. M'lntosh gives the 
lenoth of his examples as 9 mm. 

The dorsum shows a distinctive deep brown colour and the 
proboscis is characteristically titited. Contrary to the usual 
condition, it is not extruded. The body, however, is 
ruptured. 

The eyes are moderately large and of a brown colour ; only 
the posterior pair is visible from above. 

No scales are present. The bristles are characteristic and 
are alone sufficient to identify the annelid. 

The prt sent example may be a variety, for the eyes are 
not the " minute black points" described by M'lntosh (1900, 
p. 359). At the same time his figure of the head of E.jolin- 
stoni (1900, pi. xxvii. fig. 7) shows the eyes large enough to 
be those of tlie present specimen and too large for his 
description of them. 

Evarne atlantica, M'lntosh, 1897. 

An anterior fragment of this annelid, which was first 
brought to light by the Royal Irish Academy's Expedition 
(1896), was taken in 21 fathoms in the Moray Firtli in the 
same haul which yielded Aphrodlta echidna. 

Both pairs of eyes are very conspicuous from the dorsum. 
Brown and pink are the characteristic tints of the dorsal 
region. The scale-bearing tubercles and the lateral borders 
of the segments which do not bear scales are outlined in dark 
brown. Internal to these markings there are, on each 
segment, patches of a paler brown colour, and along the mid- 
dorsal line bars of dark brown on a band of pink, which 
passes along the whole lengtli of the fragment, mark the 
])Osterior border of each segment. The dorsal coloration thus 
difters from that of the original specimen (M'lntosh, 1900, 
p. 363). The feet and ventral surface are pink in colour 
and the bristles are pale yellow. 

The scales, which are unknown, cannot be described 
because of their com])lete absence. Prof. ]\l'Intosh thinks 
that they approach those of E. normayii. 



from the North Sea and adjacent parts. 177 

Genus Antintoe, Kliiberg, 1857. 
Antiuoe sarsij Malmgren, 1805. 

Only one anterior fragment of 6 mm. length was taken. 
It occurred in the same haul as Evarne johnstom. Furtiier 
investigation may prove some kind of a relationship to exist 
between the two forms. They have occurred together in 
different collections. 

Theel (1879, p. 18) gives Antinoe sarsi (Klnherg), Malm- 
gren (excluding Malmgren's " nondum adult " form from 
Spitsbergen), as a synonym of his Polynoe badia, which is, 
however, more likely to be the same form as Antinoe elegans 
(below). 

Antinoe elegans, Theel, 1879. 

Th^el (1879, pp. 20-22, pi. i. figs. 13-16) instituted the 
genus Bylgia and the species elegans for one annelid procured 
in the Sea of Kara at a depth of 34 m. Levinsen (1883, 
p. 88) mentions this form [Bylgia elegans). No further 
records of it have been found. 

Tiie present examples are a single specimen from 61° 27"' N., 
1° 47' W., and one complete specimen and several fragments 
from 60° 36' N., 4° 46' W., at depths of 1240 m. and 1030 m. 
respectively. It is worthy of note that in both hauls Eunoa 
tj'itoni, M'l., was included. 

Th^el characterized the genus Bylgia thus : — " Lobus 
cephalicus antice in prominentias non productus. Antenna3 
e parte anteriore lobi ceplialici productse. Tentaculum nullum. 
Elytra paria 15, totum doi'sum tegentia, in segmentis 
setigeris, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9 ... . 23, 26, 29, 32." 

Unfortunately no elytra are in situ, but it is easy to 
establish the fact that Theel's numbers of the elytra-bearing 
segments correspond exactly to those of the present specimens. 
The broadest part of the body is from the middle of its 
length forward to the seventh segment. The anterior seg- 
ments decrease little in breadth ; the posterior half of the 
bod^' tapers distinctly towards the last segment. According 
to Theel the body is everywhere of the same breadth ; that 
may be so in large specimens. The setigerous segments 
number 37. 

Th(5el''s specimen measured 59 mm. without and 74 mm. 
with the proboscis. The complete specimen of the present 
collection measures only 46 mm. 'n\ length, and none of the 
fragments indicate a form as large as 59 mm. 

Only one of the specimens — and that a doubtful Antinoe 



178 Mr. W. Small o?z Annelida Polychceta 

eJegans, because of its small number of segments (16), lack of 
setce, and bad preservation — shows tlie violet-brown colour ot 
the dorsum, the deep violet-over-grey of the proboscis, and 
the violet palps mentioned in the original description. The 
majority of the examples are brown-coloured on the dorsum, 
resembling Tlnjel's Polynoe badia (1879, p. 18). Tlie ventral 
surface and the feet are a uniform grey-white and the bristles 
are golden yellow. 

Th^el regarded the genus Bylgia as diverging from other 
polynoids after the manner of Kinberg's family Iphionea, 
because of the absence of a median tentacle, but as being- 
removed from the genus Tphione because of important anato- 
mical differences. Examination of the present specimens 
would seem to show that Theel's Bylgia is very closely 
related to the other polynoids and that his diagnosis of the 
genus is a mistaken one. 

The head is as broad as it is long, the greatest breadth 
being in front of the transverse middle line. It is divided by 
a median incision, which narrows posteriorly and passes 
backwards a little beyond the level of the anterior pair of 
eyes. There are thus the usual two lateral eminences, and 
these are pear-shaped and produced anteriorly into two very 
distinct peaks which are not produced forward into the an- 
tennas. These peaks were not observed byTh^el. Levinsen 
(1883, pp. 38, 195) has apparently not examined the annelid; 
at any rate, he mentions the absence of projecting peaks as a 
diagnostic characteristic of Bylgia elegans. All the present 
examples having heads, five in number, show the condition 
described above. The anterior eyes are the larger and are 
well removed from the front of the head and placed near its 
lateral border on the highest parts of the eminences. The 
posterior eyes are more closely set together than the anterior 
and are situated near the nuchal border of the head. The 
space between the peaks is tilled with the massive rounded 
base of the median tentacle. This base is present in every 
specimen, but no example of the tentacle. Having their 
origin below the peaks are the two lateral tentacles. These 
have a strong basal portion, are conical in shape, and uni- 
formly tapered to a point. Theel avers that their bases are 
partly united to form one, but in the present examples the 
base of the median tentacle is interposed. The palps are 
remarkably large — larger than Thdel's drawing indicates — 
and are supplied with minute papilla3 which escaped Theel's 
observation. They have no filiform prolongation of the tip. 
The tentacular cirri have all been lost. Tiie head resembles 



from the North Sea and adjacent parts. 179 

on the wliole that of Polyyioe hadia ; indeed, the two forms 
are closely united in many points. 

The proboscis has nine terminal papillge on either side — 
the same number and of the same shape as in Lepidonotus. 
The four teeth alternate, are sharply pointed, and have a plain 
bitijig-edge supported by a ridge. 

Thtlel remarks that the feet and bristles of Bylgia elegans 
resemble those of Antinoe [Polynoe) sarsi and the dorsal 
bristles those of Melcenis loveni, Malmgren. The ventral 
bristles are whip-like, being slender and drawn out into a 
long fine tip. The lower part of this bristle is decorated witli 
spines, which are shield-shaped, point steeply upwards, and 
are arranged in longitudinal rows. Above these, clothing 
the tip of the bristle, is an investment of very fine hair-like 
spines, and below them, where the bristle is thickest, the 
spines are smaller and more closely set together. As figured 
by Theel, other ventral bristles are terminated in a slender 
and slightly bent-over tip, but none of these were observed. 
The transverse rows of spines of the dorsal bristles are 
closely set together ; the tip is small and pointed, but not 
acutely. 

The elytra are glabrous and the outer and posterior edge 
has minute ciliform papillpe, as in Polynoe badia. 

It will now be apparent that Tlidel's diagnosis of the genus 
ByJyia is wrong, in that it supposes the absence of anterior 
peaks on the cephalic lobe and of a tentacle (median), and 
the forward production of the anterior part of the head to 
form the antennre or lateral tentacles. 

When all points have been considered, it seems best to 
refer Bylgia elegans to the genus Antinoe. The resemblances 
between the present form and Antinoe spp. are numerous and 
cover practically all the features of generic importance. 

Th^el himself remarked that, in aspect, structure of the 
feet, bristles, and number of scales, his Bylgia elegans closely 
resembled Antinoe (^Polynoe) sarsi. The numbers of seti- 
gerous segments in the two forms are nearly alike ; the 
structure of the head, disposition of the eyes and median 
tentacle, the condition of the palps and proboscideal papillae 
correspond. The resemblance between the setoe, especially 
the ventral, is striking. While due consideration has been 
given to the opinions of different authors, e. g. Hansen (1882, 
p. 1) and Harvey Gibson (1886, p. 342), regarding the value 
of setal characters in specific or generic separation of forms 
(c/. M'Intosh, 1874, p. 371), it is impossible from the struc- 
ture of the setoe alone to place Antinoe elegans in any known 



180 Mr. W. Small on Annelida Polychceta 

species of Antinoe or in the genus Ilarmothoe or Polynoe 
so long as Antinoe remains a genus apart from Ilarmothoe, 
however closely the former may approach the latter. 

While Theel's description of Polijnoe hadia and varieties 
(1879, pp. 18-20) may apply to these forms, it is curious 
that the inferior ventral bristle which is diagnostic ol Antinoe 
elegans and is figured by Theel (1879, pi. i. fig. 16) is present 
in every specimen. Again, a certain aspect of the superior 
ventral bristle resembles Thdel's figure of a ventral bristle of 
a young specimen of Polynoe badia, one of whose synonyms 
is given by Theel as Antinoe sarsi. 

It is most probable that Theel's Polynoe hadia and Dylgia 
elegans are one and the same form. Again, researches into 
the differences in structure between young, intermediatCj and 
adult forms may alone be conclusive. 

Genus Malmgrenia, M'Intosh, 1876. 
Malmgrenia castanea, M'l., 1876- 

Three very small fragments of this annelid were taken in 
the same haul as contained the fragments of Evarne joknstoni 
and Antinoe sarsi. M. castanea has been recorded from all 
round these shores. 

The head appears to be broader in front than behind and the 
anterior eyes are more widely separated from each other than 
usual. Stress cannot be laid on these points because of the 
scarcity of material, but it is remarkable that the only two 
anterior fragments present these appearances. 

Genus Halosydna, Kinberg, 1857. 
Halosydna gelatinosa, M. Sars, 1860. 

The only complete specimen is a comparatively small one 
of 20 mm. in length. One specimen has no eyes; in another 
the pairs of eyes are so close together as to toucli. The 
enlargement of the median tentacle below the filiform tip is 
prominent, and the same remark holds for the tentacular cirri, 
which are almost as long as the median tentacles. A semi- 
lunar membrane extends from the first body-segment forward 
over part of the head. The palps are massive and trans- 
versely striated. 

St. Joseph (1888, p. 155) gives the number of segments 
of a //. gelafinosa as 45. The number in the present example 
is only 17. 



from the North Sea and adjacent parts. 181 

A vipe specimen was taken in December. The repro- 
ductive elements are contained within a membrane, as noted 
by St. Joseph and represented by Chtparele (1870) in 
Hermadion fragile. A ripe male occurs in a haul taken in 
April. The alimentary canal contains remnants o£ suiall 
crustaceans and other organic ddbris. 

Genus PoLYNOii, Savigny, 1820. 
Polynoe scolopendrina, Sav., 1820, 

One fragment of 12 segments was taken in 120 m. afc 
Station 16 in the same haul as contained Eunoa nodosa and 
Lac/ i sea elisabethce. 

The eyes are large and the anterior and posterior pairs are 
very close together. Their proximity is probably due to 
antero-posterior shrinkage of the head, which thus appears 
broader than long., The present example belongs to the 
smaller southern type, but is not of the variety of hrevipalpa 
of St. Joseph (1888, p, 183). 

More examples of P. scolopendrina may be found when 
terebellid &c. tubes are examined. 

Genus EUCEANTA, Malmgren, 1865. 
Eucranta villosa, Mgrn., 1865. 

This species is represented by one fragment of 16 segments 
in a fair state of preservation. It was dredged at 61° o9' N., 
4° 45' W., at a depth of 620 m. 

It was tirst discovered and named by Malmgren (1865, 
pp. 79-80, pi. X. figs. 9-9 0^). It has been recorded within 
recent years by Dillevson (1911, p. 416, Harmothoe villosi) 
from 76° 35' N., 18° 26' W., at a depth of 150 m. Fauvel 
makes no mention of this species in his Report on the 
PolycliEet Annelids of the Campagne iirctique de 1907 (Due 
d'Orleans). The species seems to be confined to northern 
waters. It was obtained in Barents Sea (between Spitz-. 
bergen and Nova Zembla) by the Austro-Hungarian North 
Pole Expedition, 1872-1874 (Marenzeller, 1877), but the 
Dutch ^William Barents' Expedition of 1878-1879 failed 
to find it in the same locality (d^ Urban, 1880, p, 253), 
Hansen (1882, p. 44, Polynoe villosa) records it fVom the 
southern liniit of the " cold area " (off Christiansund) in 
763 m. on a clay bottom. It was found only once in the 
three summers of the Norwegian Expedition, 1876-1878, 
It is, like Acanthicolepis asperrima, characteristic of the 
Norwegian fiords. 

Ann. & Mag. N, Hist, Ser. 8. Vol. x. 13 



1S2 Mr. W. Small on Annelida Folychceta 

The head-parts are unfortunately incomplete. The rela- 
tion between the length and breadth of the head in the 
present specimen corresponds to Malmgren's drawing. The 
eyes are large ; the anterior pair are placed well back on the 
head and close to its lateral edge, and are larger than the 
posterior pair, which are placed laterally in front of tlie 
nuchal border of the head. The tentacles are wanting. 
Th^el (1879, p. 23) has completed the descriptions of Malm- 
gren and Sars (1873, p. 4) by describing the median tentacle. 
The one tentacular cirrus and the palps agree entirely with 
the published descriptions. 

No scales and no dorsal cirri are present. The tubercle 
which, according to Malmgren, takes the place of the dorsal 
cirrus on the segments which do not bear scales is not 
apparent. The ventral cirrus is sparingly supplied with 
short clavate cilia. 

Ditlevson, whose material consisted of a fragment of 9 
segments, bases the identification of his specimen on the 
appearance of the bristles, and remarks that his examination 
of the biistles shows them to agree exactly with the descrip- 
tion and figures of Malmgren. 

The spines on the dorsal bristles of the present example 
are more prominent than shown by Malmgren's drawing, 
and the dorsal bristles themselves, especially the superior, are 
more curved. Malmgren's artist likewise has not given 
sufficient prominence to the spines of the superior and infe- 
rior ventral bristles, nor does the drawing of the inferior 
ventral bristle show that the spines increase in length and 
prominence towards the apex of the bristle. 

The dorsal biistles (tweltth foot) are gracefully curved 
(PI. VI. fig. 3) ; the s])ines become larger towards the tip 
and attain their maximum size a short distance from it. The 
transverse rows of spines almost pass across the complete 
breadth of the bristle, recalling the condition in Evarne 
iinpar. Indeed, the dorsal bristle of Eucranta villosa closely 
resembles that of Evarne impar but for the tip, which in 
Eucranta is rounded and blunt. The bristles are covered 
with a brown granular mass. The inferior dorsal set« are 
more curved and slender and have longer spines than the 
superior. 

The bifid condition of the tip of the superior vential bristle 
(fig. 4) is not common ; it occurs in Eupolynoe occidentalis, 
MTnlosh, and in Eupolynoe anticostiensis^ MTntosh, both of 
which are Canadian forms. The bristle itself is slender and 
tapers gracefully. The lateral spines are large and slightly 
recurved and are almost equalled in length by the transverse 



from the North Sea and adjacent parts. 183 

rows of spines. The latter are also recurved. The spines 
decrease in number and size towards the tip, and the bitid 
portion of the bristle is entirely naked. This part is slightly 
swollen immediately below the bifurcation. 

The inferior ventral bristles (fig. 5) are more massive than 
the superior. Their outline recalls the hastate bristles of 
Aricia. The spines are confined to the thicker lower portion 
of the bristle, leaving a large smooth tip the edges of which 
are not so straight and uniformly converging as shown by 
Malmgren, 

Trautzsch (1889, pp. 139 & 143) gives as references to 
Ilarmotho'e villosa, Levinsen (1883, pp. 36, 193) and Malra^ 
gren (1865, pp. 79-80), and to Eucranta villosa, Malmgren 
(1865, pp. 79-80). The references to Malmgren are identical, 
while Levinsen, as Trautzsch remarks, does not mention the 
genus Eucranta, but refers to what is undoubtedly the same 
form as Harmothoe villosa, and himself gives the same 
reference to Malmgren. Yet Trautzsch mentions the two 
names, H. villosa and E. villosa, in places apart in the text 
and in a table of dredgings as if they were distinct species. 
His drawing of a ventral bristle of //. villosa (L889, pi. vii, 
fig. 16) does not resemble either Malmgren's original drawing 
of a ventral bristle of Eucranta villosa or the appearance of 
the same in the fragment of the annelid under discussion, 

Family Sigalionidae. 

Genus Sthenelais, Kinberg, 1857. 

Sthenelais boa (Johnston, 1833), Kinberg, 1857, 

One incomplete specimen of 17 mm. length was dredged 
from a depth of 5 fath. in Quey Firth, Shetland. 

It is remarkable that the representation of this form, 
which ranges from Norway along the western shores of 
Europe to South Africa, should be so small. The specimen 
presents no points of difference from the typical British form 
except in coloration. The head is not of a crimson hue nor 
are the few scales present on the dorsum marked with grey 
or brown. 

Sthenelais zetlandica, Mcintosh, 1876. 

Two small fragments, one anterior, the other posterior, 
were found in Shetland waters, 

The head is injured, and therefore its structure cannot be 

13* 



184 On Annelida Poly chcela from the North Sea. 

described. M'Intosh's specimens were similarly deficient 
(1900, p. 414). 

The palps appear to be long, slender, and tapering, like 
those of Stheiielais limicola, Elders. The posterior end o£ 
the annelid is slender and has apparently two caudal cirri. 

An examination of the complete head will determine 
whether this form shall remain in the genus Sthenelais. 

Sthenelais limicola, Ehlers, 1864. 

One specimen was taken along with numerous examples of 
OpModromus flexuosus, Delia Cliiaje, in 56° 48' N., 1° 19' E., 
in 94 m. It is a deep-water form, ranging from 30 to over 
400 fathoms, and is never found between tide-marks. 

The body is small and incom))lete. All the scales have 
been lost, and the head is in a bad state of preservation. 

Sthenelais Jeffrey sit, M'Intosh, 1876. 

Specimens of this annelid were taken from the seas to the 
north of the Shetland Islands. It has been recorded only 
from the Atlantic Ocean to the west of Ireland, and has still 
to be found in the North Sea. It would seem to prefer a 
deep-water habitat. 

The largest of the specimens (incomplete) are about 35 mm. 
in leno-th. The body is long and narrow, and tapers gently 
towards the posterior end. No eyes are visible in any of tlie 
specimens. The proboscis has ten irregularly conical terminal 
papillae dorsal ly and ventral ly. 

Bibliography. 

Claparede. 1870. Siippl. aux Annel. de Naples. 

DiTLEVSON. 1911. ' Annelids from the Danmark Expedition (1906- 

08 j.' Copenhagen. 
D'Urban. 1880. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., Octoher 1880. 
Fauvel. 1911. Campagne Arctique de 1907 (Due d'Orleans) : " Anne- 

lides Polychetes." 
Hansen. 188ii. ' Norske Nordhavs-Expedition, 187G-78.' Vol. vii 

Annelida. Christiania. 
Harvey Gibson. 1886. L. M. B. C. Report, No. 1. Proceedings Lit. 

and Phil. Soc. Liverpool, vol. xl., Appendix. 
Levinsen. 1883. " Systematisk-geografisk Oversigt over de nordiske 

Animlata, Gephyrea, Chajtognathi, og Balanoglossi," Vidensk. 

Meddel. i'ra den Natiirh. Foren. i Kjohenhavn, 1882-83. 
Malmgben. 1865. ' Nordiska Hafs-Annulater.' Stockholm. 
Marenzrlleu. 1877. ' Die Coeleuteraten, Echinodermen, und Wiirmen 

der k.-k. osterreichisch-ungaiischen Nordpol Expedition.' 
. 1902. ' Siidjapanische Annel.' iii. Wien. 



On neto Batrachians from the Ancles. 185 

M'Intosh. 1874. Traus. Zool. Soc. vol. ix. part vii. "Ou British 

Annelida." 
. 1885. ' Challenger ' Reports, Zoology, vol. xii. " Annelida 

PolvchfBta." 
. 1900. 'Monograph of British Annelida.— Part 11. Polyclifeta.' 

l\av Society. 
Norm AX." 1890. " Ann, k Mag. Nat. Hist., JNlay 1890. 
DE Q.UATREFAGKS. ISGo. ' Histoire des Anueles,' vol. i. 
Saks, G. O. 1873, Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. xix. " Bidrag til Kuusdab 

om Christianiafjordens Fauna. — III. Annelida.'' (From MSS, of 

M. Sars.) 
St. Joseph. 1888. Anuales des Sciences Naturelles, ser, vii. t. 5. 
TuEKL. 1879. " Anneiides Polychetes des Mer.s de la Nouvelle- 

Zerable,'' Svenska Vet.-Akad. Ilandl., Band xvi. No. 3. Stockholm, 
Trautzsch. 1880. Archiv f. Naturg. 55. " Ziir Kenntnis der Poly- 

noiden von Spitzbergen." 
Tkeadwell. 1903. Bulletin of the U.S. Fish Commission, vol. xxiii. 

part 3. " PulychiBtous Annelids of the Hawaiian Islands." 

EXPI.ANATION OF PLATE VI. 

Firj. 1. Head oi Eunoa fritoni, M'Intosh. Enlarged. 

Fi(j. 2. Tip of dorsal bristle of Evanie impar, Johust., var. Zeiss obj. D, 

oc. 2. 
Fifi. 3. Mid dorsal bristle of Eueranta villosa, Mgrn. Zeiss obj. D, oc. 2, 
Fig. 4. Superior ventral bristle of ditto. Zeiss obj. D, oc. 2. 
Fig. 5. Inferior ventral bristle of ditto. Zeiss obj. F, oc. 2. 



XIX. — Descriptions of neio Batrachians from the Andes 
of South America., preserved in the British Museum. &y 
G. A. BOULENGEE, F.R.S. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Ht^la melanopleura. 

Tongue ciiculav, entire and slightly free behind. Vomerine 
teeth in two groups or short transverse series between the 
rather large choanse. Head moderate, broader than long ; 
snout short, rounded, as long as the orbit ; canthus rostralis 
obtuse, loreal region oblique, concave ; nostril equally distant 
from the eye and from tlie tip of the snout ; interorbital 
space as broad as the upper eyelid; tympanum distinct, two- 
thirds the diameter of the eye. Fingers one-fourth webbed, 
disks smaller tiian the tympanum ; male with a projecting 
rudiment of poUex ; toes three-fourtlis webbed ; suburticular 
tubercles moderately prominent; a feeble tarsal fold. The 
tibio-tarsal articulation reaches between the eye and the tip 



laa Mr. G. A. Boulenger oit 

o£ the snout ; tibia half the length of head and body. Skin 
Smooth, belly and lower surface of thighs granulate. 
Greyish or reddish brown above, sides blackish; the back 
may be spotted or dotted witli brown, the sides dotted with 
white; upper lip white ; limbs with irregular dark cross- 
bands ; lower parts dirty white, sometimes speckled with 
dark brown. Male with a subgular vocal sac. 

From snout to vent 50 mm. 

Several specimens from Huancabamba, E. Peru, above 
3000 feet, from the collection of Mr. E. Boettger. 

Phyllomedusa Ion's. 

Tongue cordiform, sliglitly nicked behind. Vomerine 
teeth in two small groups between the choanee. Snout as 
long as the orbit, vertically truncate at the end; canthus 
rostralis obtuse, loreal region oblique ; eyes directed obliquely 
forwards; interorbital space broader than the upper eyelid ; 
tympanum half the diameter of the eye. Fingers with a 
slight rudiment of web, first shorter than second ; toes webbed 
at the base, first and second equal ; disks of fingers as large 
as the tympanum, of toes a little smaller; subarticular 
tubercles moderately prominent ; inner metatarsal tubercle 
small, elliptic. The tibio-tarsal articulation reaches the tip 
of the snout ; tibia ^ the length of head and body. Skin 
smooth, granulate on the belly and under the thighs ; paro- 
toids feebly developed; heel with a small triangular dermal 
appendage. Lilac above (In spirit) with a few dark dots ; 
humerus, four inner fingers, tliigh, except a narrow lilac 
streak, inner toes, and lower parts yellow. 

From snout to vent 46 mm. 

A single specimen from El Topo, E,. Pastaza, E. Ecuador, 
4200 feet, from the collection of Mr. M. G. Palmer. 

Bitfo leptoscelis. 

Crown with bony ridges, including a parietal obliquely 
directed inwards ; snout truncate, sliglitly projecting; loreal 
region nearly vertical, concave ; interorbital space broader 
than the upper eyelid ; tympanum very distinct, three-fourths 
the diameter of the eye. Fingers rather long and slender, 
obtuse, first longer than second ; toes barely half webbed, 
obtuse, with single subarticular tubercles ; two small meta- 
tarsal tubercles ; no tarsal fold. Tarso-metatarsal articulation 
reaching far beyond the tip of the snout; tibia half the 
length of head and body. Upper parts with small conical 



ncio Ualracliians from the Andes. 187 

tubercles, more crowded and spinose on the sides ; jxirotoids 
very prominent, subtriangular, two-thirds tlie length of the 
head. Uniform pale brown above, the parotoids darker ; 
yellowish beneath, belly dotted with brown. 

From snout to vent 55 mm. 

A single specimen from Santo Doming'o, Carabaya, S.E. 
Peru, G500 feet, from the collection of the late Mr. (>.. 
Ockenden. 

Hylodes ockendenL 

Tongue oval, entire or indistinctly nicked behind. Vomerine 
teeth in two oblique oval groups just behind the level of the 
choana^. Snout rounded, as long as the orbit, with moderately 
strong, curved canthus and very oblique, concave loieal 
region ; nostril near the tip of the snout; interorbital space 
liardly as broad as the upper eyelid ; tympanum very indis- 
tinct, not half the diameter of the eye. Fingers and toes 
moderate, the tips dilated into large, broad disks; first finger 
not extending as far as second ; scarcely a rudiment of web 
between the toes ; subarticular tubercles well developed but 
small ; a small, oval inner metatarsal tubercle. The tibio- 
tarsal articulation reaches the anterior border of the eye, or 
between the eye and the nostril ; tibia half the length of iiead 
and body. Skin smooth. Pale pinkish brown above, with 
small scattered black spots, with or without a large brown 
blotch, or three brov/u blotches on the back ; a narrow light 
vertebral line may be present ; a dark bar between the eyes, 
and an oblique black streak in front of and behind the eye; 
two or three oblique brown bars on the tibia ; lower parts 
white. 

From snout to vent 34 mm. 

Three specimens from La Union, Rio Huacamayo, Cara- 
baya, S.E. Peru, 2000 feet, from the collection of the late 
Mr. G. Ockenden. 

Hylodes ventrimarmoratus. 

Tongue large, subcircular, entire. Vomerine teeth in two 
oblique oval groups behind the level of the choanfe. Snout 
rounded, as long as the orbit, with very feeble, curved 
canthus and very oblique, concave loreal region ; nostril 
near the tip of the snout ; interorbital space as broad as the 
upper eyelid ; tympanum very indistinct, not half the 
diameter of the eye. Fingers and toes moderate, the tips 
dilated into large, broad disks ; first finger not extending as 
far as second ; toes free; subarticular tubercles small, feebly 



188 Mr. G. A. Boulenger on 

prominent ; a small, oval inner metatarsal tubercle. The 
tibio-tarsal articulation reaches the eye ; tibia half the length 
of head and body. Upper parts rugose with small wartSj 
lower parts smooth. Grey above, with blackish symmetrical 
markings, forming a large Xon the back, and a subtriangular 
blotch between the eyes ; upper lip with dark bars radiating 
from the eye ; limbs with dark cross-bands, the front of the 
thighs with black and white bars, the back of the thighs black, 
with or without large white spots ; throat and lower surface 
of thighs yellowish, belly and flanks white with large black 
spots and marblings. 

Total length 37 mm. 

A single adidt specimen from Chanchamayo, E. Peru, 
2600 feet, from the collection of Mr. C. SchuidvC, and an 
adult and two very young from El Topo, R. Pastazn, 
E. Ecuador, 4200 feet, from the collection of Mr. M. G. 
Palmers 

Hylodes tccniaius. 

Tongue oval, nicked behind. Vomerine teeth in two 
oblique oval groups behind the level of the choana3. Snout 
rounded, as long as orbit, with strong, nearly straight canthus 
and oblique, concave loreal region j nostril near the tip of the 
snout; interorbital space as broad as the upper eyelid; 
tympanum distinct, one-thi]*d the diameter of the eye. 
Fingers and toes rather short, the tips dilated into large, 
broad disks ; first finger not extending as far as second ; a 
slight rudiment of web between the toes ; subarticular 
tubercles well developed ; a small oval inner and a very small 
rounded outer metatarsal tubercle. The tibio-tarsal articu- 
lation reaches the tip of the snout ; tibia nearly two-thirds 
the length of head and body. Skin smooth, the belly very 
indistinctly granulate. Brown above, darker on the sides ; 
a blackish, light-edged streak on each side of the back, from 
the eye to above the groin, gradually converging towards its 
fellow; a dark brown streak, with a fine median light line, 
from the tip of the snout to the sacral region ; a dark streak 
from the upper eyelid to the scapular region ; a canthal 
streak and two bars below the eye blackish ; limbs with 
oblique dark cross-bauds, heel whitish ; white beneath, throat 
speckled with brown. 

From snout to vent 27 mm. 

A single specimen from Noananoa, Rio San Juan, Choco, 
S.W. Colombiaj from the collection of Mr. M. G. Palmer. 



new Balracluans from the Andes. 189 

Hylodes jJalmeri. 

Tongue oval, nicked behind. Vomerine teetli in two feebl.e 
oblique groups behind the level of the choante. Snout 
rounded, as long as orbit, with moderately strong, nearly- 
straight canthus and oblique, concave loreal region ; nostril 
near the tip of the snout ; interorbital space as broad as the 
upper eyelid; tympanum distinct, one-third diameter of eye. 
Fingers and toes moderate, fhe tips dilated into large, broad 
disks ; first finger not extending as far as second ; toes quite 
free ; subarticular tubercles well-developed but small ; a 
small, oval inner and a very small, rounded outer metatarsal 
tubercle. The tiblo-tarsal articulation reaches between tlie 
eye and the tip of the snout ; tibia three-fifths the length of 
head and body. Skin smooth, belly feebly granulate. 
Greyish olive above, with small dark brown dots and a 
A-shaped dark marking on the anterior part of the back ; 
upper lip with dark vertical bars ; a dark streak below the 
canthus rostralis; limbs with dark cross-bands; lower parts 
dirty white, throat marbled with grey, belly with grey 
vermiculations. 

Two specimens from Pueblo Ixico, Choco, S.W. Colombia, 
5200 feet, from the collection of Mr. M. G. Palmer. 

JHylodes margaritifer. 

Tongue oval, indistinctly nicked behind. Vomerine teeth 
in two small rounded groups behind the level of the choanaj. 
Snout truncate, very prominent, as long as orbit, with strong, 
curved canthus and oblique, concave loreal region; nostril 
near the tip of the snout; interorbital space broader than the 
upper eyelid ; tympanum distinct, one-fourth diameter of 
eye. Fingers and toes moderate, the tips dilated into large 
disks, those of the fingers broader and truricate ; first finger 
considerably shorter than second ; toes quite free ; sub- 
articular tubercles moderate ; two feebly prominent meta- 
tarsal tubercles, inner oval, outer round. The tibio-tarsal 
articulation reaches between the eye and the tip of the 
snout ; tibia three-fifths the length of head and body. Skin 
smooth, with scattered tubercles, which are subconical on 
the head and back, and larger, white, pearl-like on the throat 
and belly ; a larger, conical tubercle on the upper eyelid and 
another on the heel. Yellowish above and beneath, above 
with dark brown symmetrical markings and the tubercles 
crimson. 

From snout to vent 15 mm. 

Two specimens from El Topo, R. Pastaza, E. Ecuador, 
4200 feet, from the collection of Mr. M. G. Palmer. 



190 On new Batrachians from the Andes. 

Edalorliina nasuta. 

. Vomerine teeth in two feeble oblique series behind the 
level of the choanje. Head much depressed ; snout pointed, 
ending in a pointed dermal appendage which is at least half 
as long as the eye, canthus rostralis strong ; loreal region 
very oblique, concave ; nostril nearer end of snout than eye ; 
interorbital space as broad as tlie upper eyelid ; tympanum 
very indistinct, smaller than tl'ie eye. First and second 
fingers equal ; toes with a slight rudiment of web ; sub- 
articular tubercles strong; two small metatarsal tubercles. 
The tibio-tarsal articulation reaches the shoulder or the 
tympanum. Upper eyelid with conical tubercles ; a strong 
fold behind the eye, descending obliquely to the middle of 
the side; a curved ridge between the eyes and a )^ -shaped 
one on the scapular region. Grey or pale brown above, with 
darker markings ; a broad black band behind the eye, 
expanding into a large black blotch covering the side of the 
belly and the pubic region ; lumbar region orange, with a 
large oval black spot; throat and middle of belly white; 
lower surface of limbs marbled black and white. 

From snout to vent 38 ram. 

Three specimens from Huancabamba, E. Peru, above 
3000 feet, from the collection of Mr. E. Boettger. 

Hylixalus chocoensis. 

Very closely allied to II, hocagii, Espada, but tympanum 
scarcely distinct and hind limbs longer, the tibio-tarsal 
articulation reaching the tip of the snout and the tibia 
measuring a little more than half the length of head and 
body. Blackish grey above, with a rather indistinct grey 
streak along each side of the back and a fine grey vertebral 
line ; upper lip with a row of small white spots ; a white 
spot on the upper surface of the arm, near its base ; a black 
bar across the thigh and another across the tibia ; lower 
parts white, with a few blackish spots or marblings. 

From snout to vent 2Q mm. 

A single specimen from Noananoa, Kio San Juan, Choco, 
S.W. Colombia, about 100 feet, from the collection of Mr. M. 
G. Palmer. 

Hylixalus collaris. 

Tongue entire or indistinctly nicked. Head as in H. hocagii, 
but tympanum very indistinct or quite hidden. First and 
second fingers equal ; toes half webbed, the web produced as 



On neio or litlh-hnoion Ethiopian Ilemiptera. 191 

n narrow fringe to the terminal disks ; two metatarsal 
tubercles. The tibio-tarsal articulation reaches the eye ; 
tibia half length of head and body, or less. Dark grey to 
blackish brown above, with more or less distinct darker 
symmetrical markings on the back and cross-bands on the 
limbs ; a light streak sometimes present on the side, ending 
in the groin ; lower parts yellowish white, with a dark brown 
bar across the throat, or entirely dark brown or blackish. 

From snout to vent 35 mm. 

Several specimens from Merida, 5200 feet, and Rio 
Albireggas, 11,300 feet, Venezuela, from the collection of 
Mr. S. Bricefio. 



XX. — Ne^o or little-hnown Ethiopian Ilemiptera. 
By E, Bekgroth, C.M.Z.S. 

The Entomological Research Committee of tiie British 
Colonial Office having submitted to me for examination a 
numberof Heteropterous Hemiptera sent in by theCommittee's 
collectors from various parts of Africa, I have found among 
them some new or insufficiently known species, which are 
described or commented upon in this paper. 

Fam. Coptosomatidae. 
Ceratocoris dama, sp. n. 

Late ovatus, valde convexus, niger, supra versicoloriter caerulco- et 
aurichalceo- et cupreo-resplendens, maculis callosis parvis irregu- 
laribus flavis remote conspersus, capite stibtus flavo, fascia intra- 
oculari basali intus angustata et abbreviata, escavatione an- 
tennali ac cornubus maris uigris, dimidio exteriio horum dense 
contluenter fiavo-variegato, pectore cinereo, opaco, lateribus pro- 
pleurarum late subnitidulis, f usco- et flavo-variegatis, vitta media 
angusta curvata anteriore propleurarum nitida fusca ; mesosterno 
medio nitido, nigro, acetabulia omnibus flavis, limbo lato ventris 
intra spiracula extenso flavo, in segmentis quattuor mediis macu- 
1am majusculam subquadratam nigram inter spiracula et latera 
includente, spiraculis, linea transversa impressa pone haec mar- 
gineque ipso laterali ventris nigris, hoc ad apicem segmentorum 
interrupto, segmento ultimo ventrali medio flavo. Caput breve 
et latissimum, apici pronoti a^que latum, medio declive, longitu- 
dine sua media fere triple et dimidio latius, supra sat remote 
punctulatum, subtus subteve, pro articulo prime antennarum 
recipiendo late excavatum, superne praeter maculas parvas con- 
spersas vitta mox intra marginem externum jugorum secundum 



102 Dr. E. Bei'grotli on neio or 

marginem internum cornuum maris ultra medium eornm con- 
tinuata et maculis tribus transversis majusculis basalibus flavis 
(una inter ocellos, una utrinque extra eos) signatum, jugis liueam 
inter angulos anticos oculorum fictam baud attingentibus, oculis 
minusculis parum prominulis rufis, ocellis ab oculis quam inter 
se triple longius remotis ; rostro flavo-testaceo, articulo tertio 
basin versus et quarto apicem versus nigrescentibus, articulis 
duobus primis antennarum flavis, primo angulum anticum oculi 
attingente, secundo primo nounihil breviore, apicem versus nigri- 
cante (ceteri articuli desunt). Tronotum medio capita medio 
plus quam duplo et dimidio longius et hoc quarta parte latius, 
longitudino sua media duabus tertiis partibus latius, apice quam 
ad humeros paullo augustius, sat dense punctulatum et proeterea 
latera versus transversim rugosurn, maculis callulosis flavis quam 
in scutello minoribus et reniotioribus, sed prope latera majoribus 
et magis condensatis, macula transversa irregular! apicali media 
ot macula rotundata pone banc etiam majoribus, margine apicali 
biangulato-siuuato, medio pone spatium iuterocellare recto, deinde 
usque ad angulos apicales late oblique truncato, marginibus late- 
ralibus anticis fortius rotundatis, valde declivibus, marginibus 
lateralibus posticis anticis paullo longioribus, angulis basalibus 
rotundatis sed baud deletis, margine basali levissime sinuato. 
Scutellum sat dense punctulatum, ad basin maculis duabus 
callosis flavis majoribus prope angulos basales pronoti notatum, 
abdomine paullo latius, margine inferiore flavo, utrinque anguste 
nigro-marginato. Pectus in partibus opacis remote vermiculato- 
striolatum et remote minutissime nigro-puuctulatum, mesosterno 
medio transversim strigoso. Corium, maculis callosis flavis 
exceptis, dense fortiter punctatum. Abdomen subtus sub- 
alutaceum, vis punctulatum, modice dense argenteo-sericeum, 

Fiff. 1. 




pilositate e latere inspecta multo magis perspicua, spiraculis 
magnis, a lateribus quam a margine postico segmentorum magis 
remotis, suturis ventralibus latera non attingentibus. Pedes 
flavi, femoribus maculis parvis fuscis adspersis et apice inferius 
fusco-notatis, subtus molliter albo-pilosis, apicem versus sulcatis 
et inferius subcristatis, tibiis albo-setulosis, supra in dimidio 
basali infuscatis. 

Long., (S 14 mm., cum corn, capit. 20 mm. 

Mas : Caput {vide fig. 1) utrinque in cornu longum deplanatum 



Utllc-kiicwa Ethiopian llemipUra. 193 

horizonfale apice leviter reflcxum prolongatum, his cornubus 
proiioto medio suba?que loiigis, subparallelis, late distantibus, 
extus iionnihil pone apiccm in lobum acntum triangularem re- 
flexum dilutatis, margine iuterno coruuuin reflexo ; jiiga com- 
ninnitcr tiiaiigularitcr producta, apice angulum obtusiusculum 
formantia; scutellum apice e postice visum obtiisangulariter 
sinuatum ; operculum fovese intralateralis segmeuti sexti ven- 
tralis oblique transversum, dense brevissime fusco-tomentosum, 
margine ejus antico subrecto, postico rotundato ; segmentum 
genitale ultimo veutrali medio longius, nigrum, margine labiali 
quinque-sinuato, sinubus tribus mediia obsolete disjunctis, sub- 
confluentibus, margine apicali subrecto, angulis apicalibus rotun- 
datis, appendice magna media deplanata medium segmenti 
attingente, liava. 

SOUTHEEN NiGEEIA : Akwete (/. J. Simpson). 

A species extremely lemarkable by the structure of the 
head, which is broader and (apart from the horns) \ery much 
shorter tlian in the five other known species of the genus. 

» Fam. PentatomidaB. 

Euryaspis marshalli, sp. n. 

Dilutissime testacea, pronoto, scutello corioque albidis, supra parce 
irregulariter nigro-punctata, partes has nigras exhibeus : capitis 
vittulam iuferiorem anteocularem supra tuberculum antennitbrum, 
marginem lattralem, orbitam oculorum, margines dimidii basalis 
tyli vittasque tres basales, mediam brevem, laterales intra ocellos 
currentes et hos longe superantes, antice oblique extrorsum 
vergentes et marginem lateralem attingeufes, pronoti marginem 
apicalem, lineam punctatam utriuquc circum areas cicatricales 
maculamque minusculam partem posticam barum linearum tan- 
gentem, scutelli foveam rotundam ad angulos basales maculam- 
que irregularem anteajjicalem, segmentorum connexivi fasciam 
latam basalem angulosque imos apicales, segmentorum ventris 
maculas majusculam ad angulos basales et minutam ad angulos 
apicales spiraculaque cum annulo ea cingente ; pronotum inter 
angulos laterales maculis quinque diffusis subconfluentibus saepe 
minus distinctis in seriem transversam ordinatis notatum ; seg- 
menta dorsi abdominis medio late ferrugineo- vel fusco-fasciata ; 
segmentum genitale maris medio et lobi geuitales basales late- 
ralesque feminse fusco-maculata ; rostrum et antennae testacea, 
annulo harum angusto apicali articuli primi secundique, annulo 
angusto basali articuli secundi tertiique, dimidio apicali articuli 
tertii, parte plus quam dimidia apicali articuli quarti parteque 
lata media articuli quiuti nigris ; pedes testacei, apice tarsorum 
fusco ; membrana et alas vitrea. Caput subaeque longum ac 
latum ( cJ ) aut longitudine paullo latins ( $ ), ante sinum ante- 
ocularem profundum parallelum, apice late rotundatum, oculia 



194 Dr. E. Bergrotli on neiv or 

magais, eminentibus, vertice oculo uno circiter duplo latiore, 
rostro basin segmeuti tertii ventris subattingeute, articulo secundo 
tertio breviore, antenuis crassiusculis, articulo secundo tertio 
multo breviore, hoc efc quarto seque longis, quinto quarto paullo 
longiore, Pronotum lateribus rectum ( c? ) vel levissime sub- 
rotundatum ( 5 ). Scutellum corio paullo longius, punctura ante 
medium prope latera in maculam oblongam stepe coacervata. 
Pleurae parce irregulariter nigro-puuctulatai, area evaporativa 
metapleura? in mesopleuram late usque ad angulum ejus late- 
ralem anticum extensa. Corium margine apicali leniter rotun- 
datum, puuctura ad angulum apicalem plus minusve confluente. 
Connexivum crebre concoloriter punctulatum, angulis apicalibus 
segmentorum leniter prominulis. Venter medio loevi excepto 
parce subtiliter concoloriter punctulatus, segmento genital! maris 
apice arcuato-sinuato. 
Long., S 9 mm., $ 11 mm. 

Nyasaland {Dr. B. Davey). 

A strikingly distinct species^ more allied to E. signoreti, 
Stal, from Senegal, than to any other described form. 

Named after Mr. Guy A. K. Marshall, whose fi^e years' 
investigations of mimicry and warning colours in South- 
African insects (Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1902, pp. 287-584, 
with 15 plates) have so considerably increased our knowledge 
of this subject. 

Fam. Coreidse. 
Plectropoda cruciata, Dall. 

Uganda (C. C. Gowdey). 

The East-African specimens differ from the typical West- 
African form in being darker, with the corium and clavus 
uniformly fuscous ; the structural characters are identical. 

Fam. Pyrrhocoridae. 

CencBUs gowdey i, sp. n, 

Obion go-ovalis, rufescenti-testaceus, capite, margine laterali pro- 
tboracis epipleuraque corii rufis, margine basali superiore capitis, 
impressione fere tota aream elevatam pronoti circumscribente 
(solum lateribus postice breviter rufo-interrupta), limbo basali 
scutelli, vitta lata brevi basali clavi pectoreque nigris, membraua 
sordide rufo-testacea, abdomine fulvo, bucculis, margine apicali 
pronoti et prosterni inter oculos, limbo postico pleuraram acetabu- 
lisque eburneis, pedibus fuscis, femoribus (basi excepta) rufis. 
Caput vertice alutaceum et ibidem linea impressa longitudinali 
prseditum, rostro fusco, medium segment! secundi ventris attin- 
geute, articulo prime antennarum fusco, capite paullo longiore, 



litile-hnown Ethiopian Ilemiptera. 195 

apicem versus incrassato, prope basin intus breviter sotnloso, 
S'jcundo primo distinctc breviore, nigro (articuli ultimi desunt). 
Coriiim et clavus fusco-punctulata, punctis partis basalis exocorii 
ill vittara angustam coiigestis, limbo exteriio corii rufo-punctato. 
Femora antica subtus in margine anteriore dimidii apicalis 
denticulis diiobus armata. 
Long., 5 , 12 mm. 

Uganda: Masaka [G. C. Goiodey). 

Allied to C.carnife.v, Fabr., but iinich larger and differently 
coloured. 

Fam. Myodochidae. 
LeiJiceus simpsoni, ^^. n. 

Oblongus, angustus, snbnitidus, niger, vena cubitali corii post 
medium macula minuta oblongula subcallosa lutea et vena radiali 
nonnihil ante apicem maculis talibus duabus minus distiiictis 
uotatis, membrana fusca, venis pallesceutibus, antennis, rostro 
pedibusque piceis, tibiis et tarsis obscure sordide testaceis. 
Caput paullo transversum, crebre minute punctulatum, margine 
basali lajve, rostro coxas posticas subattiugente, articulo primo 
antennarum plus quam dimidio apicem capitis superante, secundo 
primo sesqui longiore, tertio primo parum longiore (art. quartu$ 
deest). Pronotum longitudine tertia parte latins, latitudine 
apicali dimidio longius et apice quara basi duplo angustius, usque 
ad margines laterales hand explauatos ante medium leviter rotun- 
datos transversim nonnihil convexum, sat fortiter baud dense 
punctatum, ante medium area transversa laevi medio punctis 
longitudinaliter interrupta prseditum. Scutellum et pleurae sat 
dense punctata. Hemelytra apicem abdominis attingentia, clavo 
regulariter triseriatim percurrenter punctate, corio modice dense 
punctulato, vena transversa venas tres exteriores membrante 
conjungente interdum incompleta. Abdomen subtus baud nisi 
quam subtilissime punctulatum. Femora antica inermia. Arti- 
cuius primus tarsorum posticorum duobus ultimis unitis vix 
magis quam dimidio longior. 

Long., c5' , 6 mm. 

Southern Nigeria : Badagvi (J. J. Simpson). 
A narrow species, very distinct in several chaiacters from 
the hitherto known African forms. 

Fam. ReduviidaB. 
Sub fam. Zelin^. 
Rliinocoris niliduluSj Fabr. 
A specimen from Uganda, found by Mr. Gowdey, differs 



196 Dr. E. Bergrotli on nevj or 

from the typical West-African form by liaving tlie middle 
and hind femora broadly annulated witli red immediately 
before the apex. It shows no structural differences. 

Rhinocoris neavei, sp. n. 

Oclireo-testaceuR, corio ferrugineo-testaceo, pedibus rufo-castaneis, 
capita cum antenuis rostroque, lobo antico marginibusque laterali- 
bus posticis pronoti, scutello, macula denudata propleuraj et 
mesopleura), fascia basali segmentorum connexivi supra et subtus, 
suturis et macula transversa denudata intralaterali segmentorum 
ventris, coxis, annulo lato medio femoruui, tibiis apicem versus, 
tarsis, segmento genitali feminse maculaque oblonga laterali 
segment! genitalis maris nigris, parte anteoculari superiore 
capitis, prouoto, medio scutelli, pectore (densissime), ventre 
(limbo laterali excepto) corioque ocbreo-sericeis. Caput erecte 
albo-pilosum, gula prceterea dense minute albo-squamidosa ; rostro 
glabro, articulo primo secundo pauUo breviore, articulo primo 
autenuarum pronoto paullo longiore, secundo primo triple 
breviore, Pronotum teve, angulis apicalibus oblique truncatulis, 
lateralibns leviter prominulis, late rotundatis, lobo antico postice 
alte subconice bituberculato, pube sericea antice densissima, 
medio in vittas fasciasque congesta, postice deficiente, pube lobi 
* postici minus densa. Hemelytra apicem abdominis leviter ( $ ) 
aut sat longe ( c? ) snperantia, membrana fusco-aenea. Seg- 
mentum genitale maris apice medio in lobulum nigricautem 
obtusum sed lateribus acute denticulatum productum, stylis geni- 
talibus gracilibus, apicem versus baud incrassatis. 

Long., d l7-5-]9mm., $ 22 mm. 

Nyasaland : Lower Shire Valley, near Cliikawa, 600 ^eet, 
and N.W. shore of Lake Nyasa, between Florence Bay and 
Karonga, 1650 feet {S. A. 'js'eave). 

Allied to Rh. erylhrocnemis^ Germ., but larger and quite 
differently coloured on the under side, with more elevated 
tubercles on the anterior pronotal lobe and the male genital 
6e<> ment differently constructed. The colour is quite constant. 

FJionoJihes tricolor, sp. n. 

Jluber, lurido-testaceo-tomentosus, antennis (basi excepta), rostro, 
lobo antico pronoti, scutello, pectore (excepta parte posteriore 
propleurae), maculis duabus transversis apicalibus late distantibus 
gegmentorum ventris (sexto excepto), segmento genitali pedibns- 
que nigris, membrana cserulea. Antennae validiusculte, articulo 
primo capite paullulo breviore, secundo primo angiistiore et triple 
l)reviore, tertio incrassato (saltern in mare), primo tertia parte 
breviore. Pronotum fortius convexo-declive, lobo postico antico 
triple longiore, medio longitudinaliter anguste canaliculate. 



little-known Ethiopian Ilemi'ptera. 197 

Hemelytra apicera abdominis paullura superaiitia, corio (limbo 
laterali cxcepto) dense et crasso reticulato. 
LoQg., cf , 16 mm, 

Uganda: Sanga Masaka (C. C. Goiodey). 

A large species, easily recognized from all others. 

PJionolihes himaculatus, Dist. 

Distant has omitted the principal character of this species : 
tlie non-reticulated corium, which has a single oblique trans- 
verse vein in the mesocoriam. Tlie antennaj are broken in 
the female specimen before me; in the male the third joint 
is incrassated (as in Ph. tricolor, Bergr.), and I suppose that 
this is a secondary male sexual character. 

Of this species I have also seen a brachypterous specimen 
in which the hemelytra are convergent, only twice tlie length 
of the scutellum, and with the membiane quite rudimentary. 

Nyasaland: between Mlanji and Zomba, 2000-3000 feet 
(8. A. Neave) ; N.E. RHODESIA: Fort Jameson, 3800 feet 
{S.A. Neave). 

Subfam. Redwiin^. 

Edocla 2'>rcecoXj sp. n. 

Forma aptera : Nigra, parce anguste albo-squamulosa, apice spina) 
lateralis lobi postici pronoti spinseque scutellaris, macula trans- 
versa laterali-apicali segmentorum conuexivi supra et subtus 
maculisque dorsi abdominis in series duas approxiraatas longitu- 
dinales ordinatis luteis, squamulis dorsi abdominis hie efc illic, 
praesertim in segmento secundo, densioribus et aurescentibua, 
capite et thorace granulatis. Caput ante oculos fortiter declive, 
jugis inter antennas in processus duos contiguos apice brevissime 
liberos porrectis, ocellis nuUis, articulo primo antennarum parti 
postoculari capitis cum oculo subseque longo, secundo primo fere 
duplo longiore, ssepe pallescente, rostro parce breviter albo- 
setuloso. Pronotum abdomine plus quam duplo angustius, 
angulis apicalibus rotundatis, lobo autico valde convexo, inermi 
sed praesertim postice fortiter sculpto, lobo postico antico multo 
breviore et humiliore sed paullulo latiore, spinis duabus discoid- 
alibus et utrinque spina laterali oblique sursura et paullo retror- 
sum directa armato. Scutellum apice spina valida suberecta apice 
recurva armatura. Rudimeuta hemelytrorum basin abdominis 
attingentia, subtriangularia, apice truncata. Abdomen late 
ovale, segmentis ventralibus latera versus concretis, secundo 
basin versus carinato, sexto ( $ ) medio duobus proecedentibus 
unitis longiore, medio transversim plicato-elevato, segmentis 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol x. 14 



198 Dr. E. Bergrotli 07i new or 

genitalibus nigro-setulosis. Pedes picei, fossa spongiosa tibiaruin 
anteriorum minus qiiam trientem apicalem occupante. 

Long., $ , 11-5-13 mm. 

Forma alata ignota. 

Nyasaland : S.E. shore of Lake Nyasa, between Fort 
Maguire and Fort Johnston {S. A. Nenve) ; N.E. RHODESIA : 
between Fort Jameson and Lundazi, 4000 feet {S. A. Nenve). 

Allied to E. hishisignaia, Stal, but smaller and differently 
coloured, with the first antennal joint shorter. 

EdocJa pilosula, Dist. 

Abdomen ad angulos apicales segmentorum, ultimo excepto, spina 
armatum, his spinis in segmento prime validis, in segmentis 
sequentibus longitudine sensim decrescentibua. 

Forma aptera ( ? ) : Lobus po9ticus pronoti antico duplo brevior et 
multo humilior. Mesonotum lateribus spinula erecta parva, 
metanotum ibidem spinula erecta majore armatum. Hemelytra 
et alee nulla. 

Long. 6-7 mm. 

Nyasaland : Lower Shire Valley, near Chikawa, 600 feet 
{S. A. Neave) . 

Distant has omitted the principal cliaracter of the species, 
the spinous abdominal margin, by which it differs from all 
other species of the genus. Mr. Champion has kindly 
examined tlie type, and informs me that the abdomen is 
spinous also in the winged form. 

Su bf a m . Petalocsisin^is. 

Petalochiriis pugil, sp. n. 

Elongato-ovatus, parce pilosus, capite superiore, pronoto scutelloque 
ochraceis, bemelytris fuscis, connexivo fusco-nigro, capitis macalis 
duabus oblongis anterioribus postice confluentibus, irapz'essione 
transversa interoculari, vitta retrorsum angustata inter ocellos et 
basin lateribusque postocularibus, pronoti vitta media antice 
abbreviata sublateralique subcurvata lobi autici ac vitta media 
angusta antice abbreviata, maculis quattuor antemedianis (exte- 
rioribus minoribus) basique anteriore spinas lateralis lobi postici, 
scutelli disco spinaque laterali nigris, maculis numerosis hem- 
elytrorum squalide albidis, macula transversa obliqua apicem 
mesocorii occupante fuliginosa, fascia vel macula transA^ersa 
prope basin segmentorum connexivi (in segmentis duobus ultimis 
feminae solum ad marginem lateralem disriiictis) fulva, maculis 
duabus denudatis horum segmentorum, altera ante, altera mox 
pone medium sita, nigris, spinis angulorum apicalium seg- 
mentorum piceis, apice late pallide flavidis ; subtus cum rostro 



little-known Ethiopian Hemiptera. 199 

luger, proeter pilos suberectos pubescentia aflpressa auro-sericea 
hand densa prnesertim latera versus indutus, bucculis, spinis pro- 
sternalibus, vittis tribus anterioribus (externis postice plerumque 
conjunctis) et macula postica mesopleurarum, vitta sublaterali 
metapleurarum, limbo acetabulorum omnium, vitta angusta {6 ) 
vel latiuscula irregulari e maculis composita ( 5 ) veutris, maculis 
oblongis lateralibus hujus prope basin segmentorum positis spira- 
culisque ocbraceis ; anfcennfe et pedes testacea vel fusco-testacea, 
articulo secundo illarum apice nigro, coxis nigris, apice cum 
troclianteribus ocbraceis, tibiis anticis fusco- et testaceo-varie- 
gatis. Caput inerme, tjdo basi inter antennas latiuscule tumido, 
sed baud cariuato-elevato, oculis fortiter prominulis, sed magni- 
tudine mediocribus, spatio intoroculari superiore oculo fere duplo 
latioi'e, spatio inter bucculas et oculos diametro horum maximo 
(e latere viso) subseque lougo, rostro piloso, articulo primo an- 
teunarum capito nonnibil longiore, secundo primo | longiore. 
Pronotum linea longitudinali media impressa prteditum, lobo 
antico inermi, utrinque carinis tribus obtusis obliquis instructo, 
angulis apicalibus extus levissime obtuse prominulis, angulis 
lateralibus lobi postici spina valida acuta sursum et extrorsum 
directa armatis. Scutellum paullo pone medium laterum spina 
brevi vel tuberculo spiuiformi et apice spina longa suberecta 
leviter curvata armatum, postscutello etiam in spinam semi- 
erectam producto. Metasternum e margine postico paullo ultra 
medium levissime carinatum. Hemelytra basin ( $ ) vel medium 
( c? ) segmenti ultimi dorsalis paullum superantia. Abdomen ad 
angulos apicales segmentorum, ultimo excepto, spina semierecta 
armatum, ventre transversim strigoso, inter spiracula et mar- 
ginem lateralem carina instructura, liac carina pone segmentum 
tertium vel quartum evaaescente, sutura inter segmenta duo 
prima crenato-carinulata. Pedes breviusculi, femoribus anticis 
apicem capitis vix attingentibus, in dimidio basali paullo latiori- 
bus, basin versus leviter curvatis, fovea apicali superiore pro 
tarsis recipiendis tibiarum anticarum lata, longitudine sua solum 
duplo angustiore, fossa spongiosa tibiarum anticarum lata, tarsis 
duplo breviore, femoribus posticis medium segmenti quinti ($) 
vel basin segmenti sexti {6) veutris attingentibus. 

Long., (S 13 mm., $ 17'5 mm. 

Mas : tibiae anticaB intus modice, extus fortius rotundato-dilatatse ; 
venter medio per segmenta quinque prima carinatus ; segmentum 
genitale primum elongato-triangulare, medium sccundi baud 
attingens ; styli genitales depressiusculi, nigri, apicem versus 
sensim angustati. 

Femina : tibioe antica? intus modice, extus valde rotundato-dilatatse, 
parte dilatata interiore apicem versus sensim fortius angustata ; 
venter medio per segmenta duo prima carinatus. 

Nyasaland: Chiromo, 400 feet, and Ruo Valley, 1000- 
2000 feet {S. A. Neave). 

Very similar and closely allied to P. vittiventris, Bergr., 

14^ 



200 Dr. E. Bergroth on new or 

but tlie head and pronotum ave differently coloured and 
scarcely sericeous, the base of the tyliis between the aii- 
tenufe is broader, not carinate, the eyes are smaller, the ante- 
rior pronotal lobe is much more distinctly sculptured, the 
posterior lobe less depressed, the metasternum is more shortly 
and less distinctly carinate, the legs are shorter and not 
annulated, the fore femora broader in their basal half, the 
fore tibiae much more dilated, particularly on the inner 
side, and the dilated part is differently shaped, their superior 
apical fovea (for the reception of the tarsi) is much broader, 
their spongy pit shorter and broader, the female venter is 
carinated only on the two ba^al segments, the first male 
genital segment is much more elongate, and the male genital 
styles are black. 

In P. vittiventris the upper interocular space is only one- 
third broader than an eye, the distance between the eyes and 
the bucculee is distinctly shorter than the greatest diameter 
of the eye (seen from the side) ; the two denudated spots of 
the coiniexival segments are more or less pale, and therefore 
much less conspicuous than in jmgil ; the fore femora pass 
the apex of the head by one-third their length or more, and 
are not or scarcely broader in their basal half ; the upper 
apical impression of the fore tibice is very narrow, their 
spongy pit narrow and only one-third shorter than the tarsi ; 
the hind femora reach the apex of the abdomen ; the venter 
is carinated in both sexes from its base to the apex of the 
fifth segment ; the first male genital segment is equilaterally 
subtriangular, and the genital styles are luteous. 

P. vittiventris, Bergr., and pugiJ, Bergr., form a distinct 
section of the genus, intermediate in a way between the 
typical Petalochiri and the subgenus Flatychiria, H.-iSch. 

Tragelaphodes bergrotJd, Bredd. 

Mas : Begmentum ultimum dorsale abdominis penultimo duplo et 
dimidio longius, basi quam apioe fere quinquies latius, margiuibus 
lateralibus rectis, apicem versus sinuatis, spiuis apicalibus longi- 
usculis, retrorsum porrectis ; segmentum genitale e supero visum 
ultra latera segmeuti dorsalis ultimi late prominens, duplicatum, 
primo supra partem intermediam secimdi usque ad medium ejus 
rotundato-producto, secundo apice medio subrecto, solum latera 
versus leviter rotundato, stjlis genitalibus oblongo-triangularibus, 
apice late truncatis et per totam latitudinem contiguis. 

Femina : segmentum ultimum dorsale abdominis penultimo subseque 
longum, basi quam apice late truncato duplo latius, margiuibus 
lateralibus leviter rotundatis, spinis apicalibus brevibus. 



little-known Ethiopian Hemiptera. 201 

Nyasaland: S.E. sliore of Lake Nyasa, between Forfc 
]\Iaguire and Fort Johnston; Oliiromo, 400 feet; between 
Fort Mangoche and Chikala Boma, about -1000 feet [S. A. 
JSeave). 

This species was originally described from a single specimen 
from Dar-es-Salaam. 

Tlie two known species of the curious genus Tragelaphodes, 
Bergr., are possibly always apterous; at least, no winged 
specimen has yet turned up. 

Fam. Nabidae. 

Beduviolus coriwipenm's, sp. n. 

Oblongus, testaceus, capite subfcus at lateribus vifctaque ejus lata 
superiore ac vitta lata postice angiistata sciitelli nigris, parte 
superiore anteantennali capitis, prouoto, hemelytris, pectore 
abdomineque fusco-variegatis. Caput breviuscule testaceo-pilo- 
suru, pills panels lougis erectis intermixtis, rostro et antennis 
etiam pilosulis, articulo primo harum spatio inter basiu ejus et 
ocellum subaeque longo, infuscato, mox ante apicem nigrum 
auniilo testaceo siguato, articulo secundo primo circiter dimidio 
longiore, capiti et etiam pronoto sine collari aeque longo, testaceo, 
mox ante apicem annulo nigro notato, articubs duobus ultimis 
infuscatis, tertio secundo subaeque longo, basi et apice testaceo, 
quarto tertio pauUo breviore. Prouotum (formse macropterce) 
, longitudine saltem quinta parte latins, breviter erecte pilosulum, 
vitta angusta percurrente fusca notatum, collari prseterea utrinque 
vittis duabus fuscis signato, lobo antico lateribus fusco-nigro, 
disco ejus medio infuscato vel lituris obliquis fuscis plus minusve 
confiuen tibus notato, lobo postico fere horizontali, concoloriter 
punctato, maculis fuscis transversim quadrisubscriatis signato. 
iScutellum parce erecte pilosum. Mesosternum medio nigrum. 
Acetabula posteriora subimpicta. Sulcus orificialis oblique 
retrorsum directus, leniter curvatus. Area evaporativa meta- 
pleuram totam occupans, margine antico et postico bujus parallelis. 
Hemelytra apicem abdominis aliquantum superantia, corio et 
clavo fasciolis numerosis fuscis signatis, subadpresse testaceo- 
pilosis, margine costali corii basin versus densius et longius 
fimbriate ; membrana testacea, venis fuscis praedita et inter has 
proesertim basin versus dense conflnenter fusco-variegata, cellulis 
tribus basalibus basi late confluentibus, venis duabus eas sepa- 
rantibus nempe ante medium cellularum subito abruptis. Alte 
apicem abdominis paullum superantes, cinereo-infumatae. Abdo- 
men pronoto pauUulo latins, subtus testaceo-sericeum, segmentis 
connexivi postice fuscis, margine eorum lateral! pone medium 
nigro, ventre fusco, margine laterali (angulis apicalibus seg- 
mentorum exceptis), spiraculis vittisque duabus angustis irregu- 
laribus utrinque intra haec testaceis, maculis denudatis nigris 



202 On new or Uttle-hioivn FAhiopian Ilemijitera. 

intralateralibus in segmento primo et tribxis ultimis utrinque una, 
in segmentis secundo efc tertio utrinque tribus, quarum duabus ad 
marginem basalem sitis, macula segmenti sexti longe pone medium 
ad ipsum marginem lateralem posita, segmento primo ad latera 
segmento secundo et metapleurse subseque longo(hamo copulatorio 
maris infra delineato). Pedes testacei, pilosi, femoribus annulis 
compluribus fuscis interdum interruptis cinctis, anticis pronoto 
pauUulo longioribus et latitudine sua subbasali fere quadruplo 
longioribus, tibiis anterioribus annulis tribus fuscis (paullo pone 
basin, medio apiceque) notatis, lenissime curvatis, subtus minute 
spinulosis, tibiis posticis paullo pone basin et apice annulo fusco- 
nigro et inter hos annulis compluribus dilute fuscis ornatis, apice 
articulorum tarsorum omnium fusco, articulis duobus ultimis 
tarsorum posticorum jeque longis. 
Long., S 8-8"5 mm., $ 9 mm. ; cum hemelytr., (5 9-9*5 mm., 
$ 10 mm. 

Nyasaland : between Mlanji and Zomba, 2000-3000 feet 
{8. A. Neave). 

Belongs to the subgenus Aptus, and is allied to R. Iwtteyi- 
tothis, Rent., but it is scarcely " ohXongo-ovatus " ; the pro- 
notum is broader, its posterior lobe almost horizontal, not 
" convexo-declivis," and without the sublateral fuscous 



Fig. 2. 






Left copulatory hook of Hednviolus corixipennis, Bergr., seen from the 
outside (a), from below (6), and obliquely from the inside (c). 

vitta; the hemelytra are considerably longer and the legs 
differently coloured, with the second joint of the hind tarsi 
longer; there are also some colour-differences in tlie antennae 
and other parts of the body. The markings of the hemelytra 
remind one of the genus Corixa. 

To this species belong the specimens recorded from 
Kilimandjaro by Poppius (in Sjostedt, Kiliman.-Meru Exp. 
xii. p. 59) under the name R. hottentottiis , Kent. 



Mr. F. W. Edwards oti Lygistorrhina urichi. 203 

N.T5. — The copulatoiy hooks of the male give very good 
specific characters in this genus, and many of them liave 
been floured by Reuter in various papers and by Champion 
in the ' Biologia Centiali-Americana.'' They are often fairly 
well visible from the side of the abdomen; but in some 
species, as in the above-described corixlpennis, t^hey are of a 
rather complicated structure and must be detached from the 
body (which can be easily done without injuring the abdo- 
men) and examined from different sides. 



XXT. — Lygistorrhina urichi, a new MijcetopTi Hid from 
Trinidad. By F. W. Edwards, B.A., F.E.S. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

The writer has received for examination from Mr. H. Scott, 
of Cambridge, a small series of a very peculiar and interesting 
]\Iycetophilid, described below. The species is undoubtedly 
congeneric with Williston's Proholceus singularis from 
St. Vincent, but, for reasons which will appear, the writer 
does not consider that Proholceus can be retained as a distinct 
genus from Skuse's Lygistorrhina. The latter was described 
(in the female sex only) as possessing three ocelli, the median 
one being minute. In Proholceus (described from males 
only) the ocelli were described as apparently absent, the 
remaining characters of P. singularis being almost exactly 
like those of L. insignis. Fortunately in Mr. Scott^s series 
both sexes are represented, and a careful examination showed 
that while in the male ocelli seem to be absent, in tlie female 
a pair of large ones is present in the same position as in 
Lygistori'hiua. The loss of the ocelli in the male is no doubt 
due to the much greater development of the eyes, which are 
quite twice the size of those of the female. The chief 
(supposed) distinction between these two genera is thus 
proved to be non-existent, and Proholceus therefore becomes 
a synonym of Lygistorrhina. There are, however, some 
slight differences which can hardly be considered of generic 
value: (I) In L. urichi the median ocellus is apparently 
wanting ; (2) in the two West-Indian species the mediastinal 
vein (sc) reaches thecosta, while in the Australian L. insignis 
it does not ; (3) Lygistorrhina has two small spurs to the 
middle tibia?, Proholceus only one. 



204 Mr. 0. Thomas on a new 

LygistorrTiina urichi *, sp. n. 

S . Bead (including anteniife) black, antennae scarcely- 
longer than head; proboscis brownish. Thorax uniformly 
shining black. Abdomea very long and thin, swollen 
apically ; black, with well-maiked yellow apical bands on 
the first five segments. Legs : front coxae witli the base 
fuscous, the apex and trochanters yellowish ; mid and hind 
coxje and trochanters shining black; fore and mid femora 
and tibise yellowisli ; hind femora swollen, yellow, with tiie 
apical two-fifths black; hind libiee yellow, apical fifth black, 
swollen on the apical half, a close-set row of stiff hairs along 
the whole of the upper surface ; fore and mid tarsi brownish 
black, hind tarsi black, appearing thickened through being 
clothed with short very dense hair. Wings almost hyaline ; 
a distinct brown blotch at the apex, darker in colour towards 
the costa; venation exactly as figured by Willistou for 
P. singularis. Ilalteres yellow. 

Length 5-6 mm. 

$ . Resembles the male, but the eyes are much smaller 
and the front much bioader ; abdomen much shorter and 
rather stouter, and the yellow bands less distinct ; apical 
half or rather more of hind femora brownish black. 

Length 3*5 mm. 

Hah. Trinidad. " Swept by F. W. Urich and Hugh 
Scott from grass, bushes, &c., on either side of a small stream 
below a waterfall at Diego Martin, 22. iii. 1912, between 8 
and 10.30 A.M. The day was sunny, but the flies were swept 
from shady places." (Note by H. Scott.) Number of 
specimens, 7 j" , 1 ? . 

Type presented to the British Museum by Mr. H. Scott. 



XXII. — A neio Vesper tilionine Bat from Angola. 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

(PuUished by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

A FEW years ago, by the kindness of the authorities of the 
Lisbon Museum, the British Museum obtained an example of 
a peculiar Vespertilionine bat which had been received from 
Angola, and whose systematic position seemed by no means 
readily determinable. 

* Named, by request of Mr. Scott, in honour of F. W. Urich, Govern- 
ment Entomoloo-ist in Trinidad. 



Vespertilionine Bat from Angola. 205 

I have now been able to make a careful study of tliis 
specimen, and have come to the conclusion that it represents 
a new genus, which may be called 

CiSTUGO, gen. nov. (VespertiUonidce) . 

Allied to Myotis, but with differently proportioned teeth 
and with glands in tiie wings. 

Skull essentially as in Myotis, but the brain-case not 
specially vaulted and the muzzle rather less ))inched in laterally. 

Dental formula as in Myotis. 

Incisiors of the same essential structure as in Myotis, but 
shorter. Canines similar. Small premolars subequal, 
minute, not half as large as the incisors, short, stumpy, 
quite without the similarity to a minute canine shown at least 
by the anterior one in Myotis, their tips barely rising to the 
level of the cingulum of the canine, the two closely pressed 
together and just filling the space between the canine and the 
large premolar. Large premolar with an unusually well- 
developed antero-internal cusp, as high as the large irnier 
cusp of the molars. Lower incisors as in Myotis; canines 
proportionally short, barely rising as high as the posterior 
premolar; premolars all with their antero-posterior less than 
their transverse diameter, the two small ones closely crowded 
together between the canine and posterior premolar. 

General external characters as in the smaller species of 
Myotis. Tragus of medium length, differing from that of 
most species of Myotis by being broader slightly above its 
base than at the base, its inner and outer edges both slightly 
convex. 

Wings with peculiar thickened glands in them on the 
outer side of the forearms distally ; tliree present on the left 
side and two on the right in the single specimen, but the 
situation of the third one is perceptible in the right wing, so 
that the normal number is probably three ; the glands them- 
selves about 3-3*5 mm. in length by 1-1*5 in breadth, more 
sharply outlined than the corresponding glands in Pizonyx; 
also situated closer to the forearm than in that genus, less in 
the centre of the wing. 

Type:- 

Cistugo seabrce, sp. n. 

General appeal ance that of a Pipistrellus, say P. kuhlii, 
to which there is a considerable resemblance in size and 
colour. Ears of average size, their anterior margin convex 
at base, then nearly straight to the tip, which is narrowly 



206 Miss F. M. Scott on a Species of 

rounded; outer edge angularly concave above, convex below. 
Tragus pointed, its inner and outer edges both slightly con- 
vex, a rounded lobe at its outer base. Wings from the base 
of the toes. No post-calcareal lobule. Tip of tail projecting. 
General colour dull diab, the bases of the hairs everywhere 
slaty, the tips above drab, below whitish. Membranes 
brown, with whitish edges, the light-coloured reticulations 
conspicuous. 

Skull and teeth as described above. 

Dimensions of the type (measured on the spirit-specimen) : — 

Forearm o2*5 mm. 

Head and body 40 mm.; tail 40 ; ear 12 ; tragus on inner 
edge 5 ; third finger, metacarpal 31'5, first phalanx 10'7, 
second phalanx 9'7 ; lower leg and foot (c. u.) 18*2. 

Skull : greatest length lo'2 ; basi-sinual length lO'l ; 
breadth of brain-case 6"6; front of canine to back of m^ 4*6. 

JHah. Mossamedes. 

Type. Adult female. B.M. no. 6. 1. 3. 3. Presented by 
the Lisbon Museum. 

This interesting little bat, which I have named in honour 
of Senhor A. F. de Seabra, C.M.Z.S., of the Lisbon Museum, 
is distinguishable from Myotis by the presence of glands in 
its wings, by the reduced proportions of its anterior premolars, 
and the large antero-internal cusp on ji/. Its general appear- 
ance is rather that of a Pipistrellus than a Myotis. 



XXIII. — On a Species o/'Nymphon/ro?n the JSorth Pacijic. 
By Flora M. Scott, M.A., University College, Dundee. 

[Plate VII.] 

The genus Nymphon, and indeed all the Nymphonldse, are 
of rare occurrence in the Pacific. The total number of 
Pycnogonida recorded there is not yet very large, and the 
JS^ymplions included are relatively very few. From the 
South Pacific two deep-water forms were brought home by 
the ' Challenger,' viz. JSymijhoa longicollum^ Hoek, and 
Nymphon procerum, Hoek. Ortmann describes one well- 
defined species, Nymphon japonicum, from Japan; and from 
the China Sea a more doubtful one, Ny?nphon longiceps, has 
been described by Grube. Two are recorded from Australia — 
]S. longicowa, Hoek, and N. cequicliyitatum, Hasvvell. If we 
then exclude those found from the Straits of Magellan south- 



Nymplion from the North Pacific. 207 

•wards, wliicli are, more strictly speaking, Antarctic or 
Subantarctic, the species of Nynrphon from the Pacific are 
six in number. 

It is tlierefore of interest tliat another slionld be added to 
tliis short list; more esf)ecially as it comes from a region — 
tlie west coast o£ North America — where, though many 
genera of Pycnogonida have been found, no single Nymphon 
has been recorded. 

Nymphon pixelJce, sp. n. (PI. VII.) 

About ten specimens were collected by Miss H. L. M. 
Pixell, B.Sc, at Departure Bay, Vancouver Island, in the 
summer of 1911. In life, its colour is salmon-pink. 

The hody is slender, with well-developed, widely separate, 
lateral processes. Segmentation is distinct, and from the 
middle of each segment springs the lateral process (fig. 1). 

The head and proboscis are equal in length to trunk. The 
neck is slender, cylindrical, expanded in front and marked 
by a slight median groove. The ocidar tubercle (figs. 2 & 3) 
is very high and conical, slightly depressed anteriorly, 
directed slightly backwards; near the base are four well- 
developed lenses. Beneath it ventrally on neck are developed 
body-processes from which the ovigerous legs arise (fig. 6). 

The proboscis is cylindrical and very slightly shorter than 
the cephalic segment. Distinctly articulated with the last 
body-segment and directed slightly upwards is the abdomen 
(fig. 2). 

The length of the body is 8 mm., and of the trunk alone 
4 mm. 

The chelifers are slender, with the hand longer than the 
scape, and slightly curved. The chelee are long and narrow 
(fig. 10). The palm is about equal in length to the fingers. 
The immovable finger bears an even row of very powerful 
curved teeth. The movable finger is likewise armed 
with teeth, which are double the number of those of the 
immovable finger, and are straight and lanceolate. Seta3 are 
few and scattered. 

The palps have the normal five joints and are slender; 
except on the fourth and fifth joints, setse are almost absent. 
The first joint is very short ; the others are in the proportion 
of 14 : 15 : 11 : 11 (fig. 9). 

The ovigers are ten-jointed, and arise, as aforesaid, from 
two processes in the ventral surface of the neck. The first 
three joints are short and stout, with no setse; together they 



208 On a Nymplion from the North Pacijic. 

are less tlian tlie length of the fourth joint. The proportion 
of this and the remaining joints is as 

7-5 : 8-5 : 3-16 : 1-5 : -88 : '75. 

The fifth joint is more slender than the fourth, and is 
markedly swollen at the distal extremity ; and on the swelling 
are numerous hairs. The sixth joint is straight, with 
few setse. The next four joints, in addition to scattered 
setae, bear an even row of toothed spines numbering about 
18, 12, 14, 13. The claw is powerful, with 15-17 small 
tetth on its inner edge (figs. 2, 7, and 8). 

The leys are very long, attaining a length of 83 mm. 
Tooether the first and third coxse are shorter than the second. 
The proportion of the remaining joints is as follows: — 
16 : 20 : 29 : 6-5 : 2-8. 

The setse increase in number disfally, the last three joints 
being closely covered. In addition there is on the inner 
surface of each an even row of lanceolate larger setaj (fig. 5). 
The claw is powerful and one-tliird the length of tiie pro- 
podus. Accessory claws are well developed. The relative 
lengths of claw and accessory claws (in the same terms as 
above leg measurements) are as '92 : "25 (fig. A). 

In one specimen only were egg-masses seen : the eggs are 
very small (tig. 11). 

In a large genus like Nymplion, where species are in the 
main characterized by differences in the relative size, or in 
the degree of development, of the several parts, or where one 
])art may be enlarged and another diminished with little 
apparent order or connection, there is very little ground for 
assumption as to the actual kinship between one species and 
another. Among our Atlantic species, it is perhaps N. longi- 
tarse that this new species most resembles in general pro- 
portions both of limbs and body. On the other hand, 
the slender and graceful chelae and chelifers more closely 
resemble those, for instance, of A'^. macrum, from which, liow- 
ever, this species is easily distinguished by other characters, 
such as those of the neck, the palp, the length of the tarsus, 
and the form of the ocular tubercle. In its assemblage of 
characters the present species could not, 1 think, be mistaken 
for any species yet described. 

Co-types of the species have been presented by MissPixell 
to the British Museum (Natural History). 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIL 
Fig. 1. Nyi7iphon pixellce ; ^oxsii\ y'mw . 
Fig. 2. Profile view. 
Fig. 3. Ocular tubercle. 
Fig. 4. Terminal joints of leg. 



A Revision of the Genus CovyJoras. 209 

Fiff. 5. Spines on terminal joints of leg-. 

JFig. 6. Dorsal view ; walkinpf-legs removed. 

Fiff. 7. Terminal joints of ovigerous leg. 

Fi(/. 8. Spine of oviger. 

Fiff. 9. Palp. 

FiQ. 10. Chela. 

Fiff. 11. Oviger with egg-mass. 



XXIV. — A Revision of the South- American Siluroid Fishes 
of the Genus Corydoras, loitha List of the Specimens in the 
British Museum [Natural History). By 0. Tate IIegan, 
M.A. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

The Callichtbyid fishes with the occipital process extendinf^ 
to the plate at the base of the dorsal fin-spine may be divided 
into two genera — Corydoras, Lacep., 1803, with 6 to 8 soft 
rays in the dorsal and the base of tiie fin about equal to its 
distance from the adipose fin_, and Brochis, Cope, 1871, with 
9 to 11 soft rays in the dorsal fin, which is more extended, its 
base considerably more than its distance from the adipose 
fin. In his recent list of Neotropical fishes Eigenmann 
recognizes the genus Osteogaster, C'ope, including therein two 
species which have the humeral shields somewhat larger than 
usual. One of these is a Corydoras, viz. C. eques, Steind,, 
which is closely related to C. nattereri and still more closely 
to C. macrosfeus, described below as new; the other is of a 
very different type, and sliould, in my opinion, be placed in 
the genus Brochis ; it is B. .tj)lendens, Casteln. 

There are so many species of Corydoras unrepresented in 
the British Museum collection and of uncertain position that 
I find it difficult to make a satisfactory key to the species. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

I. Interorbital width -| the length of head or less ; snout more than ^ 

the length of head. 

Scutes in upper lateral series 23 1. treitlii. 

Scutes in upper lateral series 26 or 27 2. kronei, 

II. Interorbital width | the length of head or more. 

A. A series of spots along the side and a second series on the back. 

1. Diameter of eye 6 or 7 in length of head. . 3. micracanthus. 

2. Diameter of eye 4 or 5 in length of head. 

Head Sf in tlie length 4. microcephcdm. 

Head 3j to Z\ in the length 5, paleatus. 

3. Diameter of eye 3|^ in length of head .... G. yarbei. 



J 



210 Mr. C. T. Regan— ^ Revision 

B. Spots smaller and more numerous. 

1. Operculum \ as broad as deep 7. agassizli, 

2. Operculum more than \ as broad as deep. 

a. Dorsal spine shorter than longest soft rays. 

8-13. multimacu/ahis, julii, elegans, trilineatus, 
punctatus, rainmndi, 

b. Dorsal spine rarely a little shorter than first soft ray. 

Dorsal spine longer than head 14. ai-mntns. 

Dorsal spine a little shorter than head lo. poh/stictus. 

Dorsal spine as loug as head 16. melcmistius. 

0. A black arrow-shaped spot at base of caudal fin. 

17. hastatns. 

D. Dark undulating longitudinal stripes 18. undulutus. 

E. A dark lateral band ; fins immaculate. 

1. Depth of suborbital not more than its distance from upper lip. 
a. Depth of body 3|- to 3^ in the length . . 19. melanutcenia. 
h. Depth of body 2^ to 3 in the length. 

Snout not shorter than postorbital part of head ; 

edge of dorsal fin somewhat convex 20. ceneits. 

Snout shorter than postorbital part of head ; edge 

of dorsal fin straight 21. nattereri. 

2. Depth of suborbital twice its distance from the upper lip. 

22. macrosteus. 

3. Suborbital extending from eye to upper lip. 

23. egiies. 

1. Corydoras treltlii, 
Steind. Anz. Akad. Wien, 1906, p. 478. 

Depth of body equal to or a little more than length of 
head, which is 2\ to 3 in the length. Snout 11- to 1\, 
diameter of eye 4^ to 5, iiiterorbital width 3 to 3| in the 
lengtli of head. Barbels reaching gill-opening. Dorsal I 8 ; 
adipose fin preceded by 4 or 5 median scutes. Anal I 7. 
Pectoral spine a little shorter than that of dorsal. Scutes 23/21. 
Brownish above, yellowish below ; a dark grey lateral stripe ; 
caudal usually with dark upper and lower margins, rarely 
with a few spots on the middle rays. 

R. Parnaliyba. 

Total length 66 mm. 

2. Corydoras kronel. 

Ribeiro, A Lavoura, xi. no. 5, 1907, p. 189, fig. ; Steind. Anz. Akad. 

Wien,1910, p. 61. 
Corydoras eigenmanni, R. von Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paulist. i. 1907, 

p. 35. 

Depth of body about equal to length of head, 3^ to 4 in 



of the Genus Covydora^. 211 

the lenoth. Snout more than ^ tlie length of head ; cliametei* 
of eye 6 in length of head, interorbital width o. Suborbital 
narrow; barbel nearly reaching gill-opening; males with 
bristles on sides of snout. Dorsal I 7—8 ; spine about | 
length of head ; soft rays decreasing from first, the fourth or 
fifth as long as spine ; base equal to or less than distance 
from adipose fin. Anal I G-7. Pectoral spine extending a 
little beyond base of pelvics. Scutes 26-27/22-23 ; humeral 
shields wide apart, each separated by 2 scutes from base of 
pelvic fin. Dark blotches at bases of dorsal and adipose fins 
alternate and are connected with a series of blotches on tlie 
side, which may unite to form a band ; head spotted or 
reticulated ; dorsal and caudal with series of spots on rays ; 
lower fins with or without spots. 

1-4 (co-types of C. eige7i- Near Saatos. R. von Ihering'. 

manni). 45-60 mm. 

3. Corydoras micracoMthus, sp. n. 

Depth of body 3 to 3^ in the length, length of head 4. 
Diameter of eye 6 or 7 in length of iiead ; snout as long as 
postorbital part of head or interorbital width. Suborbital 
narrow; barbels nearly or quite reaching gill-opening. 
Dorsal I 8 ; spine ^ the length of head ; fin small, rounded, 
its base less than its distance from adipose fin, which is 
preceded by 1 or 2 median scutes. Anal I 6. Pectoral 
spine not reaching base of pelvic fin. Scutes 25/22; humeral 
shields widely separated below, each separated by 2 scutes 
from base of pelvic fin. Yellow, with a series of 3 to 6 dark 
brownish or purplish spots along the side and a second series 
on the back ; dorsal dusky anteriorly, sometimes with spots 
on rays ; caudal barred ; lower fins immaculate. 

1-8 (types). 35-50 mm. Salta, Argentina. Borolli. 

9-10. „ „ Steinbach. 

4. Corydoras microcephalus, sp. n. 

Depth of body 3 in the length, length of head 3f . Snout 
as long as or a little longer than postorbital part of iiead ; 
diameter of eye 4^ in the length of head, interorbital width 2-|. 
Suborbital narrow ; barbel nearly reaching gill-opening. 
Dorsal I 6-7 ; spine | to | the length of head ; first and 
second rays longest, the edge of fin slightly convex ; base 
about equal to distance from adipose fin, which is preceded 
by 1 or 2 median scutes. Anal I 6. Pectoral spine ex- 
tending to base of pelvics. Scutes 22-23/20 ; humeral shields 



212 Mr. C. T. Regan— A Revision 

not in contact below, eacli separated by 1^ scutes from base 
of pelvic fin. A lateral series of 4 or 5 dark oblong spots, 
the tliird below the adipose fin ; a similar series of spots on 
the back ; dorsal dusky anteriorly and usually with spots on 
the rays ; caudal usually barred with series of spots ; lower 
fins immaculate or anal sometimes with a spot. 

1-4 (types). 50 mm. La Plata. Doria. 

5. Corydoras paleafu.t. 

Callichthys paleatus, Jenvns, Zool. ' Bea^^le,' Fish. p. 11.3 (1842). 
Corydoras marmoratus, Steind. Denkschr, Akad. Wieii, 1879, p. 26, 

pi. V. fig. 1. 
Corydoras paleatus, Eigenm. & Eigenm. Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. i. 1890, 

p. 471. 
? Corydoras aurofrenatus, Eif?enm. & Kennedy, Proc. Acad. Philad. 

1903, p. 507; Eigenm. & Ward, Ann, Carnegie Mus. iv. 1907, 

pi. xxxviii. fig. 4. 
Corydoras ehrhardti, Steind. Anz. Akad. Wieu, 1910, p. 60. 
? Corydoras meridionalis, R. von Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paulist. viii. 1911, 

p. 381. 
? Corydoras nattereri triseriatns, von Ihering, t. c. p. 386, 
? Corydoras Jlaveolus, von Ihering, t. c. p. 387. 

Depth of body 2| to 3 in tbe length, length of head 3^ to 
3^. Snout as long as or a little longer than postorbifal part 
of head ; diameter of eye 4 to 5 in the length of head, inter- 
orbital width 2 to 25. Suborbital narrow ; barbel rarely 
reaching gill-opening. Dorsal I 7-8 ; spine § to as long as 
head ; soft rays decreasing from first, which is longer than 
spine ; base nearly equal to distance from adipose tin, which 
is preceded by 2 or 3 median scutes. Anal I 6. Pectoral 
spine extending to or beyond base of pelvics. Scutes 22— 
24/20-22 ; humeral shields not in contact below, each sepa- 
rated from base of pelvic fin by one scute. Three oblong 
dark spots along middle of side, respectively below the dorsal 
and adipose fins and on the caudal peduncle, connected with 
less detinite spots on the back ; both series of spots may 
unite to form longitudinal bands ; dorsal dusky anteriorly 
and with spots on the rays ; caudal barred ; lower fins each 
with a single spot ; sometimes some or all the fins immaculate. 

La Plata; Rio Grande do Sul ; Sta. Catharina. 

1 (one of the types). 35 mm. Cambridge Mus. 

2-3. 70 mm. Buenos Ayres. White. 

4-6. 60 mm. Parana. Salmin. 

7-9. 25 mm. R. Grande do Sul. von Ihering. 

10-11. Dried. Cordova. 

12 (co-type of C. ehrhardti). Joinville. Steindachner. 



of the 6-'e/i«s CoryJoras. 213 

6. Corydoras garhei. 

R. von Iheriug, Rev. Mii9. Paulist. viii. 1910, p. 383 (1911). 

Depth of body 2| in the leno-th, leiig-th of Iiead 3. Snout 
2 in lengtii of head, iiiteroi-bit;il width a little moi-e than 2, 
diameter of eye 3|-. Barbels reaching gill-opening, Dorsal 
spine shorter than that of pectoral ; base of dorsal longer 
than distance from adipose fin, which is preceded by 1 or 2 
median scutes. A series of 5 spots along the side and 4 
along the back; dorsal blackish anteriorly ; caudal with 4 
cross-bars. 

Length 50 mm. 

K,io San Francisco, 

7. Corijdoras agas.'it'zii. 

? Corydoras umbiacus, Cope, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1871, p. 280. 
Corydoras ayassizii, Steind. Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien, Ixxiv. 1877, p. 138, 

pi. xii. fig. 2. 
? Cortfdoras jmnctatus, Eigenm. & Eigenm. Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. i. 

1890, p. 472. 

Depth of body 2i to 2^ in the length, length of head 3|-. 
Snout nearly \ length of head; diameter of eye 4 in length 
of head, interorbitai width 2. Suborbital narrow, separated 
by a broad naked space from upper lip ; barbels reaching 
gill-opening ; operculum twice as deep as broad. Dorsal I 7 ; 
spine I length of head ; soft rays decreasing from first, which 
is longer than spine ; edge of fin slightly concave ; base equal 
to distance from adipose fin, which is preceded by 3 median 
scutes. Anal I G-7. Pectoral spine extending beyond base 
of pelvics. Scutes 23/21 ; humeral shields not in contact 
below, each separated by one scute from base of pelvic fin. 
Sides with small brown spots; a yellowish lateral band 
bearing 3 longitudinal series of spots ; dorsal blackish ante- 
riorly and with series of spots on the rays ; caudal barred with 
series of spots; anal spotted ; pelvics sjnd anal immaculate, 

Amazon. 

Total length 60 mm, 

1. 25 rum, R. Jurua. Bach, 

This specimen is too small for description, but shows the 
characteristic deep snout and narrow operculum. 

8. Corydoras mxdlimaculalus. 
Steind. Anz. Akad. Wien, 1907, p. 291. 

Depth of body 2| to more than 2^ in the length, length of 
Ann. tt' Mag. N. Hist, Ser. 8. Vol. x. 15 



214 Mr. C. T. Regan— J Bevision 

head 3. Snout 1| to nearly 2 in the length of head, diameter 
of eye 5, interorbital width 2. Barbels reachincr gill-opening. 
Dorsal I 8 ; height of fin 1| to l^ in depth of body ; base 
equal to distance from adipose fin, which is preceded by 2 
median scutes. Anal I 6. Scutes 22/20. Head, body, and 
fins with numerous small dark spots. 

Rio Preto, Bahia. 

Total length 44 ram. 

9. Corydoras julil. 
Steind. Anz. Akad. Wien, 1906, p. 480. 

Depth of body 2^ to 2§ in the length, length of head 3 to 31. 
Snout 2 in length of head, diameter of eye 4, interorbital width 
2. Barbels not reaching gill-opening. Dorsal I 8 ; spine a 
little shorter than that of pectoral, which is as long as head ; 
3 median scutes before adipose fin. Anal I 6. Scutes 21/20. 
Head, upper | of liody, dorsal and caudal fins with numerous 
small dark spots, those on the caudal forming 7 to 10 trans- 
verse series. A lateral series of hirger spots and a large 
black spot on upper part of dorsal fin. 

R. Paraliim. 

Total length 52 mm. 

10. Corydoras elegans. 

Steind. Sitzungsb. Akad.Wien, Ixxiv. 1876, p. 471; Eigenni. & Eigenm, 
Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. i. 1890, p. 469. 

Depth of body 2| in the length, length of head 3^ to 4. 
Snout as long as or a little longer than postorbital part of 
head ; diameter of eye ?>\ to 3^ in the length of head, inter- 
orbital width 2. Suborbital narrow ; barbel extending to 
gill-opening; breadth of operculum more than ^ its depth. 
Dorsal 1 7 ; spine as long as or a little shorter than head ; 
rays decreasing from first or second, which are longer than 
spine ; free edge straight or slightly convex ; base about 
equal to distance from adipose fin, which is preceded by 2 or 
3 median scutes. Anal I 6. Pectoral spine as long as head, 
extending beyond base of pelvics. Scutes 22-23/20 ; humeral 
shields not in contact, each separated by 1 or 1^ scutes from 
base of pelvic fin. Yellowish; 3 series of brownish spots 
along middle of side ; above them a brown band tapering 
posteriorly and a narrow band on each side of back ; dorsal 
blackish superiorly ; other tins immaculate. 

Amazon (Cudajas and 'J'effe). 

1-6. 40-50 mm. Cudajas. Mus. Comp. Zool. 



of the Genus Cory doras. 215 

11. Corydoras trilineatas. 

Cope, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1871, p. 281, pi. vi. fig. 2. 
? Corydoras acutus, Cope, I. c. 

Very closely related to C. elegans, but with a larger eye, 
its diameter \ the length of head in a specimen of 49 mm. 
A yellowish lateral band with brownish margin above and 
below and blackish median line; dorsal rays blackish supe- 
riorly ; caudal barred; anal spotted. 

Ambyiacu H. 

According to Eigenmaini this species is the same as 0. 
agassizii, but it has the shorter snout and broader operculurn 
of C. elegans. 

12. Corydoras punctatus. 

Cataphractus puiidatus, Bloch, Ausl, Fisch. pi. ccclxxvii. fig. 2 (1794). 

A species resembling C. elegans and C. trilineatus in form 
and in coloration, tlie dorsal fin blackish superiorly and some 
spots along the middle of the side; caudal barred. 

Surinam. 

13. Corydoras raimxmdi. 
Stemd. Anz. Akad. Wien, 1907, p. 84. 

Depth of body 3 to 4 in the lengthy length of head d>\ to 3|-. 
Diameter of eye 5 to 6 in the length of head, interorbital 
width 2, length of snout 2. Dorsal I 8. Anal I 6. Pectoral 
fin usually a little shorter than head. Scutes 23-25/22-23. 
3 longitudinal series of greyish-violet spots on the body ; 
a blackish band across middle of dorsal fin ; caudal with 
cross-bars, 

fiio Parnahyba near Victoria, 

14. Corydoras arm at us. 

CaUichthys armatus, Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 230, fig. 
? Corydoras amphihelus, Cope, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1871, p. 282. 

Depth of body 2^ to 2^ in the length, length of head 3|. 
Snout a little longer than eye, the diameter of Avhich is Zl in 
the length of head ; interorbital width 2. Suborbital narrow, 
its depth less than ^ diameter of eye ; barbel not reaching 
gill-opening. Dorsal I 7-8 ; spine as long as depth of body 
below it ; soft rays decreasing from first, which is a little 
shorter tlian spine; base equal to or a little more than 
distance from adipose fin, which is preceded by 4 or 5 
median scutes. Anal I 6-7. Pectoral spine as long as or 

15* 



21G ]\Ir. C. T. R>>gan— .1 llcvmon 

longer tlian head, extending to or beyond middle of pelvics. 
Scutes 22-23/20 ; humeral shields not in contact below, each 
separated by one scute from base of pelvic fin. Sides with 
small dark spots, strongest anteriorly, and foiming longitu- 
dinal series above and below the lateral line ; traces of spots 
on dorsal rays; other fins immaculate. 
K. Amazon. 

1-2 (types). 60 mm. Xebevos. Higgins. 

3-4. 55 mm. Huallagas. ,, 

5-8. 30-35 mm. R. Jurua. Bach. 

According to Cope's description C. ampliihelus seems to 
difi'er from G. armatus only in the barred caudal fin. 

15. Cori/doras 2^olystictus, f^\). r\. 

Depth of body 2} to 2^ in the lengthy length of head 3^ to 
3^. Snout strongly decurved, a little longer than diameter 
of eye, which is 3 in the length of head; interorbital width 2. 
Suborbital narrow ; barbel nearly reaching gill-opening. 
Dorsal I 7; spine nearly as long as head; soft rays de- 
creasing from first, which is as long as or a little longer than 
spine ; base more than distance from adipose fin, which is 
preceded by 2 median scutes. Anal I 6. Pectoral spine as 
long as head, extending to middle of pelvics. Scutes 21- 
22/19-20. Longitudinal series of small dark spots on sides 
of body and on rays of dorsal fin ; other fins immaculate. 

1-2 (types). 35 mm. Descalvados, Matto Grosso. Teruetz. 

16. Corydoras melamstius, sp. n. 

Callichthys punctatus (non Bloclij, Giinth. Cat. Fisli. v. p. 229 (1864). 

Depth of body 2i in the length, length of head 3^. 
Snout nearly ^ length of head ; diameter of eye 3^ in tiie 
length of head, interorbital width 2 to 2^. Suborbital 
narrow, its depth about ^ diameter of eye ; barbel not 
reaching gill-opening. Dorsal I 7 ; spine as long as head ; 
soft rays decreasing from first, which is as long as spine ; 
base a little more than distance from adiitose fin, which is 
preceded by 4 median scutes. Anal 1 6. Pectoral spine as 
long as or longer than head, extending to or beyond middle 
of pelvics. Scutes 21-23/19-20; humeral shields not in 
contact below, each separated by one scute from base of 
pelvic fin. 3 or 4 series of small dark spots on side; dorsal 
fin blackish, the colour extending on to the back below it ; 
other fins pale, immaculate. 
1-2 (types). 50 mm, Essequibo. Ehrbarilt. 



vf the Genus Corydoras. 217 

17. Corydoras hastaius. 

Eio-enm. & Eigenm. Proc. Calif. Acad. (2) i. 1888, p. 160, and Occ. 
Pap. Calif. Acad. i. 1890, p. 474. 

Depth of body 2| in the length, lena;th of head 3^. Diam- 
eter of eye 3^ in length of head and 2 in interorbital widtli. 
Barbels not extending beyond eye. Dorsal I 7-8 ; spino 
nearly as long as head. Anal 7—8. Pectoral spine a li^tlo 
longer than dorsal spine. Scutes 22/20 ; humeral shields 
not in contact below. Light brown; a jet-black lateral baud 
ending at base of caudal in a large arrow-shaped sp(jt, 
bordered posteriorly with white and again with a narrow 
blackish margin ; minute black points on body and fins. 

Amazon at Villa Bella, 

Corydoras australis, Eigenm. & Ward (Ann. Carnegie 
Mus. iv. 1907, j). 123), from Paraguay, is said to be very 
closely related to hastatus, and perhaps identical with it ; it 
has the same caudal spot, but the lateral band is represented 
by an indistinct dusky line. 

18. Corydoras undulatus, sp. n. 

Corydoras 7}iicrops (non Eigenm. & Kennedy), Eigenm. & Ward, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus. iv. 1907, p. 123, pi. xxxviii. figs. 2, 3. 

Depth of body 2^ to 2^ in the length, length of head 3| to 
4. Diameter of eye 5 to 6 in length of head, interorbital 
width Ih to If. Snout nearly as long as postorbital part of 
head ; prseorbital narrow ; barbel nearly or quite reaching 
gill-opening. Occipital plate a little longer than broad. 
Dorsal I 7-8 ; .'^pine | length of head ; second and third soft 
rays longest, fifth as long as spine ; base of fin longer than 
distance from adipose, which is preceded by 3 or 4 median 
scutes. Anal 1 7. Caudal deejdy emargiuate. Pectoral 
spine extending to base of pelvics. Scutes ^^ ; humeral 
shields not in contact below, on each side separated by a 
single scute from base of pelvics. Yellowish, with dark 
purplish spots tending to run together, forming undulating- 
longitudinal bands ; fins with or without series of spots. 

La Plata. 

1 (type). 55 mm. La Plata. Wolterstorff. 

2-3. 35 mm. „ Arnold. 

19. Corydoras melanotCBnia, sp. n. 

Depth of body 3j to 3g- in the length, length of head S^- 
to 3|. Diameter of eye 5^ in the length of head, interorbital 



218 Mr. C. T. Regan— ^ Revision 

width 2| to 2\. Snout ^ the length of head ; suborbital a 
little narrower than diameter of eye ; barbel nearly or quite 
reaching gill-opening. Dorsal I 7 ; spine about f length of 
head ; 8 or 4 rays longer than spine ; edge of fin slightly 
convex; base nearly equal to distance from adipose fin, 
which is preceded by 3 or 4 median scutes. Anal I 6. Pec- 
toral spine extending to base of pelvic. Scutes ^; humeral 
shields widely separated below, and each separated by one 
scute from base of pelvic fin. Brownish above, yellowish 
below ; a broad blackish lateral band ; fins immaculate. 
Colombia. 

1-2 (types). 50 mm. Honda. Leigh ton. 

From C. ceneus of the same size they differ in the more 
elongate form, smaller head, longer snout, narrower inter- 
orbital region, and more numerous scutes^ 

20. Corydoras ceneus. 

Iloplosoma ceneum, Gill, Ann. Lye. N. York, vi. 1858, p. 40.3. 
Corydoras 7mcrops, Eigenm. & Kennedy, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1903, 

p. 606. 
? Corydoras venezuelanus, R. von Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paulist. viii. 1911, 

p. 385. 

Depth of body 2^ to 3 in the length, length of head 3;^ to 
3§. Diameter of eye 5 to 6 in length of head, interorbital 
width 2. Snout as long as or longer than postorbital part of 
head ; suborbital not very narrow, in the adult its depth 
about equals the diameter of eye or its distance from upper 
lip ; barbels usually extending to gill-opening. Dorsal I 7-8 ; 
spine § to § the length of head ; first or second soft rays 
longest, 2 to 6 rays longer tlian spine, free edge slightly 
convex; base about equal to distance from adipose fin, 
which is preceded by 3 to 5 median scutes. Anal I 6-7. 
Ckudal deeply emarginate. Pectoral spine extending to or 
beyond base of pelvics. Scutes ^^^ ; humeral shields not in 
contact below, on each side separated by a single scute from 
base of pelvic fins. Brownish above, yellowish below ; a 
blacki.sh lateral band broadening anteriorly into a blotch, 
which may join others on occiput and at base of dorsal fin ; 
fins immaculate. 

Trinidad to La Plata. 



1-3. 


70 mm. 


Granada. 


Higgins. 


4-5. 


50-60 mm. 


Trinidad. 


Guppy. 


6-8. 


40 mm. 


>> 


Hart. 


9. 


60 mm. 


Urucum, ]Matto Grosso. 


Borelli. 


10-11. 


40-50 mm. 


Caraudasinlio, Matte Grosso. 


Jj 


12. 


70 mm. 


Sara, Bolivia, 


Steinbach. 



of (he G^cnM5 Corydoras. 219 



21. Corydoras nattereri. 

Steiud. SitziiDgsb. Akad. Wieu, Ixxiv. 1877, p. 143, pi. xi. fig. 1. 
Corydoras juquice, II. vou Iheriug, Rev. Mus. Paulist. i. 1907, p. 37. 

Depth of body 2f to 3 in the length, length of head 3^^ to 
3^. Diameter of eye 3^ to 4 in the length of head, inter- 
orbital width 2t to 2|. Snout blunt^ shorter than postorbital 
part of head ; suborbital narrow, less than diameter of eye ; 
biirbels just reaciiing gill-opening. Occipital plate longer 
than broad. Dorsal I 7 ; spine | to 4 the length of head ; 
free edge of fin straight, the rays decreashig from the first ; 
1, '2, or 3 longer than spine ; base about equal to distance 
from adipose fin, which is preceded by 2 to 4 median scutes. 
Anal I 5-7. Caudal deeply emarginate. Pectoral spine 
reaching anterior part or middle of pelvics. Scutes goi^i » 
humeral shields not in contact below, on each side separated 
by one scute from base of pelvics, A dark lateral band 
broadening forwards ; a dark spot below anterior part of 
dorsal fin ; fins immaculate. 

Eastern Brazil. 

1-2. 50-55 mm. Rio Janeiro. R. von Ihering. 

3-4 (co-types of C, juquice). R. Juquia, S. Paulo. „ 

50-55 mm. 



22. Corydoras macrosteuSj sp. n. 

Depth of body 2% to 3 in the length, length of head 3;^ to 
3i. Diameter of eye 6 in length of head, interorbital width 2. 
Snout ^ the length of head or less ; suborbital deep, 1^ the 
diameter of eye and twice its distance from the upper lip ; 
barbels reaching gill-opening. Occipital plate longer than 
broad ; process with concave edges. Dorsal I 7 ; spine ^ 
the length of head or less ; fin rounded, with 5 or G rays 
longer than spine ; base less than distance from adipose fin, 
which is preceded by 3 or 4 median scutes. Anal I 6. 
Caudal emarginate. Pectoral spine reaching base of pelvics. 
Scutes 2iii2) humeral shields not in contact, on each side 
separated by one scute from base of pelvic fins. Biownisii 
above, yellowish below ; a broad dark lateral band tapering 
backwards; fins dusky. 

San Paulo, Brazil. 

1-4 (types). 60 mm. Rio Piracicaba, Sau Paulo. R. von Ihering. 



220 Mr. n. S. Bagnall on the Classification 

23i Gory dor as eques. 
Steind. SitzungslD. Akad. Wien, Ixxiv. 1877, p. 140, pi. xii. fig. 3, 

Deptli of body 2^ in tlie length, length of head 3^. Diam- 
eter of eye 4 in length of head, interorbital width 2^. Snout 
as long as postorbital part of head ; suborbital very deep, 
reaching upper lip j barbel reachhig gill-opening. Dorsal I 7 ; 
spine nearly as long as head ; free edge of fin convex, with 2 
rays longer than spine 5 3 median scutes before adipose fin. 
Anal I 7. Caudal emarginate. Pectoral spine reaching 
middle of pelvics. Scutes ^^^ ; humeral shields large, 
reaching base of pelvics and meeting below. Brownish 
above, yellowish below, with a broad blackish lateral band 
tapering backwards ; fins immaculate. 

Amazons (Teffd and Cudajas). 



XXV. — Some Considerations in regard to the Classification 
of the Order Thysanoptera. By RiCHARD S. BagNALL, 
i\L.S., F.E.S., Hope Department of Zoology, University 
Museum, Oxford. 

Since my papers on the Urothripida? were published *, I 
have come to the conclusion tliat in retaining that family as 
a family of the suborder Tubulifera unnecessary difficulties 
will be created. I have already shown that whereas Uro- 
thrips superficially resembles the Tubulifera very closely, it 
really differs from true Tubulifera more strongly in its 
structure than do the members of the suborder Terebrantia ; 
or, in other words, the two suborders Tubulifera and Tere- 
brantia are more closely related to each other than Urothrips 
to either. 1 am now convinced that the only course one can 
reasonably take is to erect a new suborder for the reception 
of the family Urotlnipidse, for which I propose the name 

POLYSTIGMATA, 

suggested by the character that appears to me to be of the 
greatest taxonomic value. 

It will be well to briefly diagnose the three suborders. 

« Ar.nales Musei Natioiialis Hungarici, 1909, vii. pp. 125-136, pi. iii., 
it Mem. 1" Congres Intcmalioiial d'Eiitoniologie, 1910, pp. 283-288. 



\ 



of the Order Thysanopttra. 221 

Older THYSANOPTERA. 

t. Eleven pairs of stiymata present ; hind pair of coxes most undely 
separated; palpi shuile-jointed. (Species bearing a close general 
resemblance to the Tubulifera ; rcelli and wings absent ; autennfe 
7-jointed, joints broad and strongly characteristic ; spiracular 
openings large and protected externally by specialized dorso- 
lateral papilla; ; ninth abdominal segment elongated, longer than 
the preceding j intermediate terminal hairs obsolete.) 

Suborder Polystigmata, mihi. 
Containing the family Urothripidce, Bagnall. 

ll. Not more than four pairs of stigmata present ; intermediate pair of 
coxce most widely separated ; palpi never less than 2-jointed. 

1. Female without an ovipositor ; last abdominal segment tubular in 

both sexes (ninth abdominal segment not exceptionally elongated, 
and intermediate terminal hairs present ; antennre composed of 
eight more or less strongly elongated and slender joints*, certain 
of which bear one or more sense-conesj. Lower and upper 
wings, when present, similar in structure, with only one median 
longitudinal vein, which is only partially developed, sometimes 
obsolete, and never reaches the tip of wing. 

Suborder Tubulifera, Haliday. 
Containing the diagnosed families Phloeothrijndce, Haliday, and 
IdolothripidcB, Bagnall. 

2. Female with a saw-like ovipositor ; last abdominal segment 

usually conical, that of male unlike the females and usually 
bluntly rounded. Fore wing with at least one longitudinal 
vein reaching from base to tip of wing. (The structure of the 
wings, palpi, antennte, and ovipositor affords good characters for 
tabulating the families.) Suborder Terebrantia, Haliday. 

Containing the diagnosed families Molothripidce, Haliday, and 
Thripida, Haliday. 

When Uzel monograplied the Tliysanoptera in 1895 tlie 
ultra- European species were unworked. Since then the 
North-American forms liave received a good deal of attention, 
whilst material from tropical and subtropical regions is 
being received and dealt with. As a natural consequence, 
highly specialized forms and groups of species that cannot 
be regarded as members of the previously diagnosed families 
have been discovered, though the tendency with workers in 
the order has been to regard the three families Phloeo- 
thripidse, 7Eolothripida3, and Thripidce as fixed and to fit 
new and specialized genera into one or the other. To 
eliminate difficulties as far as possible, I think it very 
desirable to make certain divisions and subdivisions to 
receive certain genera and groups, but shall be able to write 
more on this matter when I have had the opportunity of 

* A few species possess 7-jointed antennae, undoubtedly derived by tho 
fusion of the seventh and eighth joints. 



222 ]\Iiss S. L. M. Summers on Blood-suclcing 

working out certain anomalous material now in my 
possession. 

In the meantime I would recommend that the following- 
specialized genera be regarded as the types ot distinct divisions^ 
which we may, for the moment, regard as families : — 

Terebrantia. 

Heterothrips, Hood (nee Buffa) (Thripid-^), on account of the 
structure and segmentation of the antennae, the character of the 
sensoria, and the tarsal appendages. IlRTEROXHRipiDiE, mihi. 

PanchcBtothrips, Bagnall (Thripid^), on account of the structure of 
the head, the abdomen, last abdominal segment and ovipositor in female, 
and venation of fore wings. Panch^tothripid^, mihi, 

Ceratothrips, Reuter, chiefly on account of the G-jointed antenn;e, 
which possess only a single-jointed style, the reduction in the antennal 
joints not being caused by fusion. Ceratothripidje, mihi. 

TUBULIFERA. 

Ecacanthothrips, Bagnall (Phlceothripid^), chiefly on account of the 
specialized antennal sense-cones congregated (in the form of numerous 
fin"-ers) on the third antennal joint. Ecacanthothripid-:^, mihi. 



XXVI. — Entomological Notes from the London School of 
Tropical Medicine. — No. IV. Bloodsucking Dlptera from 
Port Darwin, Australia. By SoPHiA L. M. SUMMERS, 
M.A., B.Sc, Carnegie Student of Aberdeen University. 

Dr. C. L. StrANGMAN lias recently presented to the School 
a collection of blood-sucking flies collected by himself in 
Port Darwin and its neighbourhood, in the northern territory 
of the Government of South Australia. It includes eighteen 
species, and as very little seems to be known of the blood- 
sucking Diptera of this part of the world, it seems advisable 
in describing several of the new forms to put the names of 
all the species on record. All the identifications have been 
confirmed from the collections in the British Museum 
(Natural History) and may therefore be regarded as 
authentic. 

I take this opportunity of renewing my acknowledgments 
to Messrs. E. E. Austen and F. W. Edwards for their 
kindness in giving me access to the collections in their 
charge. 



Diptera from Port Darwin, Australia. 223 

Family Culicidae. 

Subfamily Culicinje. 

Section CULICINI. 

1. Toiniorhynchus hrevicellulus , Theob. 

This species exhibits a considerable range of variety in 
colour. 

2. Mansonioides um'formis (Theob.). 
3» Stegomyia fasciata, Fabr. 

4. Ochlerotaius vigilax (Skuse). 

These four species appear to be common. 

5. Mucidus alter nans, Westwood. 

Section Anophelini. 

6. Anopheles {MyzorTiynchxis) hancroftii^ Giles* 

Appears to be common. 

I leave the name, as these specimens are not in the best 
condition, but for my own part I am convinced there is no 
difference between this species and A, barhirostris, V. de 
Wulp. The spots in the fringe are not merely variable in 
this and other species of the subgenus^ but also they depend 
to some extent on the angle from which the light is 
reflected. 

7. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) annulipes, Walker. 

This specimen has been compared with tiiose in the 
British Museum (Nat. Hist.) and differs only in having 
scales on all the abdominal terga. Scales are extremely 
scanty on the first tergum, slightly more numerous on the 
second, still more numerous on the third, and fairly abundant 
on all the rest. If the artificial classification of Theobald 
were adopted this specimen would be included in the 
" genus " Neocellia. There seems good reason to suppose 
that in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus, using the term in a wide 
sense, to include all the forms catalogued by Tiieobald under 
Nyssorhynchics, Neocellia, and Cellia, the amount of tiie 
scaling on the abdomen is often a fluctuating and inconstant 
character. 



224 Miss S. L. M. Summers on Bloodsucking 

Family Tabanidae. 
Subfamily Tabaninm. 

8. Tahanus hrevioitta, Walker. 

9. Tahanus seru^^ Walker. 

10. Tahanus cinerascens, King. 

Tliese tlnee species seem to be common. 

11. I'ahanus sp. prox. serus, Walker. 

Three females which have been stewed in their own juice, 
and are consequently too much discoloured for description, 
resemble T. serus very closely, but differ : (1) the antennae are 
entirely black, while in T. serus only tiie tips are black; 
(2) the front is much narrower and the frontal callus is of 
quite a different shape. 

12. Tahanus elesleein, sp. n. 

13. Tahanus haduis, sp. n. 

14. Tahanus anellosus, sp. n. 

Subfamily Panqoninm. 

15. Silvius strangmani, sp. n. 

16. Silvius mansonij sp. n. 

17. Silvius alcocki, sp. n. 

Family Muscidje. 
Subfamily Stomoxein^, 

18. Lyperosia exigua, Meijere. 

This seems to be the first record of any species of Lyperosia 
from Australia. According to Dr. Strangman, it is known 
locally as the buffalo-fly. 

Diagnoses of the New Species. 
Tahanus elesteem, sp. n. 

Smallish species, length 12 mm. 

Two females. 

Face and palps hoary, covered with long white hairs; jml/is 
a little more than half the length of the prohoscis, which is 
black and rather slender for a Tahanus. 



Diptera from Port Darwin, Australia. 225 

Antennce dark rusty brown, the first two segments covered 
with short black bristles; basal angle of the third well 
pronounced. 

Front wide, maximum breadth one-sixth that of the head, 
sides slightly convergent anteriorly, grey with some sparse 
hairs. Frontal callus in two parts, namely a large tumid 
shiny plug filling the whole front just above the antennas, 
and a short somewhat ill-defined streak above. Eyes quite 
bare. 

The denuded scutum is dark rusty brown inclining to 
black; scutellum reddish brown. 

Legs: first pair black, except the proximal two-thirds of 
the tibire, which are reddish brown ; the other two pairs are 
reddish yellow, except the tarsi and tip of the tibife, which are 
dark brown. 

Wings hyaline, with a long dark brown spot at the distal 
end of the first longitudinal vein ; the root of the veins is 
light brown, the rest dark brown. The upper branch of the 
third longitudinal vein is angulated, a short blind brancii 
running inwards from the an<j,le. Halteres reddish biown. 

Th.fi abdomen (which is badly rubbed) appears dorsally to be 
seven-striped — three light stripes alternating with four black ; 
the middle stripe, which is whitisli, is strikingly distinct, the 
two dorso-lateral liglit stripes are not so distinct. 

Tahanus badius, sp. n. 

Also a smallish species, length 11 mm. 

Four females. 

I'ace grey, with long white hairs ; ^j»«/y;s about nine-tenths 
tlie length of the j)roboscis, light brown frosted with white; 
proboscis black, rather slender for a Tabanus. 

Antennce brown, black at the tip ; first two segments with 
stout black hairs. 

Front uniformly narrow (sides parallel), about one-ninth 
the breadth of the head, dirty yellow with numerous short 
black hairs. Frontal calhis shiny black, racquet-shaped 
with the handle slender and not always well defined. Eyes 
quite bare. 

Scutum and scutellum black, with a greyish dust and 
scattered golden and black hairs. 

Legs: first pair black, except the proximal half to two- 
thirds of tibiffi which are reddish brown ; second and third 
pairs reddish brown, tarsi black. 

\Vi?ig.<t hyaline, with a long very light brown spot at tho 
distal end of the lirst longitudinal vein ; veins dark brown, 
Halteres reddish brown. 



22G Miss S. L. M. Summers on Blood-suchiny 

Abdomen reddish brown ; distal segments darker, witli 
scattered hairs, of whicli many are black and a few golden. 

This species can be readily distinguished from T. elesteem 
by the parallel-sided and much narrower front, by the shape 
of the frontal callus, by tlie very much longer palps, and by 
the nearly uniformly coloured abdomen. 

Tabanus anellosus, sp. n. 

Small species, length 9 mm. 

Five females. 

Face grey, witli long white hairs. Palps reddish yellow, 
slender, about two-thirds tlie lengtli of the proboscisj which 
is black and remarkably slender. 

Antennce reddish brown, the rings of the third segment 
black, and the basal tooth acuminate. 

Front uniformly narrow, one-ninth the breadth of the head, 
dirty yellow; frontal callus elongate triangular, shiny black. 
Eyes quite bare. 

Scutum and scutellum black, with grey dust and scattered 
hairs, black and a few golden. 

Legs : femora and tarsi of all the legs black ; tibise of the 
first pair black with red base, tibiae of the second and third 
pairs reddish brown with black tip. 

Wings hyaline, with a long brown mark at the distal end 
of the first longitudinal vein. Ilalteres dark brown. 

Abdomen : the first three segments of a reddish-brown 
colour, the second having a small black median triangle ; 
the remaining segments black. At the hinder edge of each 
segment is a row of golden hairs, which on the black segments 
form distinct fine cross-bands. 

Silvius mansoni, sp. n. 

Length 11'6-13 mm. 

Four females. 

Face grey, with long white or yellowish-white hairs ; palps 
a little more than three-quarters the length of the proboscis, 
extremely slender, reddisli brown with black abruptly truncate 
tip ; proboscis black, long and slender. 

Antennm reddish brown, third segment broadly triangular 
at base and then becoming very slender. 

Front wide, about one-sixth the width of head, slightly 
convergent anteriorly, dirty yellow. Frontal callus shiny 
black, divided into two parts — the upper elongate triangular, 
almost racquet-shaped, prolonged to the ocelli which are very 
distinct ; the lower a large shiny black plug. Eyes quite 
ba,re. 



Diptera from Port Dartot'n, Australia. 227 

Scutum nnd seutellum black dusted with grey, with curved 
golden hairs. 

Legs reddish browti, tarsi dark brown. Spines on the 
hind tibioe small but conspicuous in a specimen cleared and 
mounted in Canada balsam. Spurs on the middle tibiaj long 
and stout. 

Wings hyaline, with a long pale yellow spot at the distal 
end of the first longitudinal vein, subcostal vein very pale 
yellow ; other veins dark brown. Ilalteres reddish brown. 

Abdomen reddish brown, with black and golden hairs ; the 
last two or three segments dark brown or black. 

I have much pleasure in naming this species after 
Sir Patrick Manson, G.C.M.G., F.R.S., &c. 

Silvius alcocki, sp. n. 

Small species, length 9 mm. 

Two females. 

^ace grey, with long grey hairs ; palps \ig\it brown, slender, 
about two-thirds the length of the proboscis, which is black, 
long, and slender. 

Antennce black ; third segment with a distinct Tabanus- 
like basal angle. 

Front uniformly wide, about one-sixth the breadth of the 
head, grey. Frontal callus a rather narrow stripe, neither 
prominent nor shiny, squarely dilated above the root of the 
antennse and somewhat triangularly dilated higher up. 
Ocelli distinct but not prominent. Ei/es quite bare. 

Scutum (denuded) with three dark brown stripes, of which 
the median one is the broadest ; seutellum black. 

Legs black, the tibiae and tarsi of the second pair perhaps 
not quite so dark as other parts ; spurs on the hind tibitB 
strong and conspicuous, reddish brown. 

Wings hyaline, with a very dark brown, almost black, 
spot at the distal end of the first longitudinal vein. Halteres 
very dark brown. 

Abdomen reddish brown to warm sepia, the anterior 
segments lighter than the others. The extreme hind margin 
of every segment is lighter and is clad with whitish hairs, so 
that the whole abdomen appears narrowly cross-banded. 

Silvius strangmani, sp. n. 

Small species, length 9 mm. 

Two females. 

Face dark grey, with dark grey hairs. Palps very slender, 
about two-thirds the length of the proboscis, truncate tips, 
reddish brown. Proboscis black, long and slender. 



228 Mr. 0. Thomas on 

Antennoi reddish brown; tliird segment broadly triangulav 
at the base. 

Front uniformly wide, ab jufc one-sixth the breadth of the 
head. Frontal callus black, tumid and very sliiiiy, consisting 
of two separate parts — namely, a large trapezium completely 
filling the space above the base of the antennse, and a smaller 
somewlnit oval patch higher up. Ocelli large and very 
prominent. Fi/es quite bare. 

Scutum and scutellum (denuded) dark. 

Legs reddisli brown, tibise and tarsi of first pair black. 
Spurs on hind tibige small, reddish brown. 

Wings hyaline, with a long light-brown spot at the distal 
end of the first longitudinal vein. Halteres dark brown. 

Abdomen very distinctly cross-banded — the after edge of 
every segment being lighib brown ; the rest of the segment 
being purplish brown in the case of the first two segments, 
blackish brown in the case of the other segments. 

This species is very similar to S. alcocki in size and 
general appearance. It can be distinguished from the latter, 
however, by having no angle on the third segment of the 
antennge. The colour of tiie legs is different and the spines 
on the hind tibiee are not so distinct. The abdomen in this 
species is darker in colour and more distinctly banded. 



XXVII. — Tioo new Species q/Nasua. 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum,) 

Nasua candace, sp. n. 

Allied to N. dorsalis, but the black dorsal line scarcely 
defined. 

Size about as in N. nasua, though the teeth are smaller. 
General colour above tawny ochraccous, a median darker 
area, 2-3 in. in breadth, extending from the nape to the 
base of the tail, but not forming a sharply defined black 
dorsal line as in dorsalis. Along this area the hairs are 
cream-buff basally, with tawny or ociiraceous tips and black 
subterminal rings. Under surface brown, the tips of the 
hairs buffy, throat and chest cream-buft'. Muzzle brown. 
Ears thickly hairy, blackish with white edges. Forearms 
pale buffy to the metacarpus ; digits dark brown. Hind 
iimbs smoky brown^ some of the hairs, especially on the 
metatarsus, pale buffy. Tail heavily haired, completely 
ringed with black and pale buffy, about 7-8 rings present. 



new Species of Nasua. 229 

Skull very like tliat of A^. nasua in size and the proportions 
of the muzzle. Nasal opening not showing evidence of a 
specially lengthened snout, as is the case in iV. vittata. 
Palatal' foramina oblong, pointed behind. Canines less 
broadened at the base than in male N. nasua. Molars 
conspicuously smaller than in that animal, as small as in 
N. montana and quichua. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the skin) : — 

Head and body 750 mm.; tail 470; hind foot 90; 
ear 31. 

Skull : greatest length 130 ; condylo-basal length (c.) 122 ; 
zygomatic breadth 64 ; iuterorbital breadth 25-7 ; breadth 
of brain-case 43 ; breadth of muzzle behind canines 18-5 ; 
palatal length 80 ; front of canine to back of m^ 46*3 ; 
breadth of canine at base 8 ; length of molar series 18'6 ; 
7W^, length 6'4, breadth Q\. 

Hab. Medellin, Antioquia, Colombia. 

Type. Subadult male. B.M. no. 73.4.23.5. Collected 
by Mr. J. K. Salmon. 

This Nasua has been many years in the Museum collection 
under the provisional name of N. dorsalis, but it may be 
distinguished from that animal by the greater length and 
diffusion of the darker dorsal area, which does not form a 
defined black line, and by the pale buffy forearms, these 
being dark rufous in the allied form, From all the members 
of the N. nasua group it is separable by its much smaller 
teeth. 

N. dorsalis is a native of Peru and Ecuador, and the 
present species is a more northern representative qf it. 

Nasua manium, sp. n. 

N. nasua group. PremaxillEe short. Posterior back 
blackish. 

Size about as in N. nasua. General colour above dark 
grizzled tawny, the posterior back black mesially. Under 
surface brown, dull whitish on throat, chest, axillae, and 
inguinal region. Head greyish brown, without defined 
markings. Ears dark with light edges, a well-defined whitish 
streak on the sides of the neck below them. Arms and legs 
grizzled tawny, hands and feet dark brown, Tail rather short, 
black, with six lighter rings, which are narrow and more 
or less incomplete above, especially terminally. 

Skull agreeing in size with that of N. nasua, but the 
nasal opening and premaxillaR are short, and the anterior 
palatine foramina are short, broad, and roui^ded, quite 

Ann, ct' Mag, N, Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. x. IQ 



230 Oil a new Deserl-Lurk. 

different from the narrowed foramina of the other species. 
Canines less broad at their bases than in N. nasun. Molars 
large^ m^ with a well-developed internal cusp. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Hind foot (dry) 90 mm. 

Skull : greatest length 130 ; condylo-basal length 120 ; 
zygomatic breadth 62 ; length of nasals in middle line 36 ; 
interorbital breadth 27 ; breadth of brain-case 47 ; palatal 
length 77 ; palatal foramina 5 ; front of canine to back of 
m^ 46 ; length of molar series 21*3 ; m\ length 7'7, 
breadth 6-8. 

Hab. Balzar Mts.^N.W. of Guayaquil, Western Ecuador. 

Type. Subadult male. B.M. no. 80.5.6.78. Collected 
by Mr. Illingworth. 

This is the representative of N. nasua in the coast country 
to the west of the Andes. The little N. olivacea is also 
found in Ecuador, as is the intermediate sized N. quichiia, 
Thos. 



'K.XN 111.— Description of a new Desert-Lark from the Central 
Western Sahara. By Ernst Hahtert. 

The mountains and stony desert-tracts of the northern 
Sahara are inhabited by sand-coloured Desert-Larks which 
are now generally looked upon as races of Ammomanes deserti. 
Thus in the Algerian Sahara a reddish subspecies, Ammomanes 
deserti algeriensis, is common in suitable places. On the 
expedition to In Salah I found the latter as far south as about 
30 kilometres north of El Golea, but after that it ceased 
entirely, and did not occur again until we came to the banks 
of the waterless Oued Saret, where it suddenly was in evidence 
again, but in a conspicuously different form, which I propose 
to name 

Ammomanes deserti niija, subsp. n., 

after the River or Oued My a, in the system of which we 
only found this bird. 

This form does not much differ in colour from A. d. alge- 
riensis, though it is generally less reddish, especially on the 
rump, and the tail-feathers are more blackish on the inner 
webs; but it differs considerably in size : wing of males 107- 
111, of females 97-101 mm., i. e. about Q-7 mm. longer 
than in A. d. algeriensis ; tail about 7i-76'5 mm. The bill 



On Heterocera from Costa Rica. 231 

is much longer and thicker and generally of a brighter 
yellow. 

The song is also difterent from that of the smaller northera 
form^ and will be described elsewhere. 

Type of Ammomanes deserti my a : c? , no. 200. Oued 
Mya, 7. iv. 1912. In the Tring Museum. 



XXIX. — New Species of Heterocera from Costa Rica. — XVII. 
By W. SCHAUS, F.Z.S. 

GeometridaB. 

Subfani. BoAMMiiNM, 
Semiothisa lydia^ sp. n. 

? . Body brownish grey, with some darker irrorations on 
abdomen. Wings greyish wliite, almost obscured by grej^ 
strijB, and some scattered black irrorations ; lines grey- 
brown ; medial line coarse, waviiy dentate ; postmedial fine, 
lunular dentate, closely followed by a broad didl shade of the 
same colour, reaching termen, but slightly mottled with 
ground-colour on termen at middle of outer margins. Fore 
wings; a fine antemedial line angled on subcostal; a dark 
streak on di.scocellular ; some wliite mottlings at apex. 
Hind wings : a black discal point. Wings below whiter^ 
mottled with grey-biowu strise ; the veins yellow-brown ; 
the lines daik brown ; the postmedial lunular and the shade 
following it narrower ; on fore wings the white grounds 
colour is partly shaded with yellowish. Outer margin of 
fore wing sinuous, of hind wing bluntly angled, 

Expanse ^^ mm. 

Hah. Tuis, Sixola, 

Semiothisa delta, sp. n. 

$ . Very similar to S. lydia, Sclis. ; the outer margin of 
fore wing more deeply sinuous, of hind wing more sharply 
angled ; ground-colour whiter, the markings all dark brownish 
slate-colour ; the hind wings with medial line much broader, 
suffusing with strise to near base. Underneath the same 
difference in colour is noticeable^ and the veins are dark 
brown, not yellow-brown. 

Expanse 28 mm. 

Hub, Juan Vinas, Sitio, 

JO* 



232 Mr. W. Scluiud on 

Apicia fexilis, sp. n. 

(J . Palpi and frons biown. Vertex grey. Collar grey, 
mottled with fuscous. Thorax and abdomen whitish buff, 
the latter ivrorated with black dorsally. Wings whitish butf 
to outer line, then tinged with lilacine brown, thinly irrorated 
with black scales, partly connected by dark strise, chiefly on 
hind wings; black discal points. Fore wings: antemedial 
line very fine and indistinct, oufangled, marked by a darker 
point on subcostal ; outer line from apex to middle of inner 
margin lilacine white, finely wavy, preceded by a dull green 
shade and some black in places ; subterminal i'uscous points 
between veins 3 and 4, and 5 and 6. Hind wings : a post- 
medial line near cell like outer line of fore wing ; a faint 
subterminal lilacine line, preceded by a dull green shade. 
Wings below dull whitish; a subterminal broad brownish 
shade suffusing with greyish ternien at apices and at tornus 
of fore wing. Fore wings heavily striated with brown ; 
traces of a fuscous outer line; a black line on discocellular. 
Hind wings : some striae on costal half ; a black discal 
point. 

Expanse 27 mm. 

Hah. Oarillo, Puriscal. 

Pyrinia rvjinaria, sp. n. 

S . Head purple-brown. Collar grey, irrorated with 
purple-brown. Thorax and wings reddish brown. Abdomen 
orange-brown. Wings with darker striae ; outer margins 
glossed with lilacine slate ; outer line dark reddish brown, 
slightly wavy, outwardly shaded with slate. Fore wings : 
costa whitish grey, spotted with black, broadest on basal 
half; a reddish-^brown medial line, angled at end of cell and 
inwardly shaded with slate; a black point on discocellular; 
the outer line expanding on costa. Wings below orange, 
striated with dark red. Fore wings : a medial purplish 
blotch at end of cell and one from cell to inner margin ; the 
shading following outer line bifuicating at vein 3 to tornus. 
Hind wings : the outer line purplish ; the termen shaded 
with red. 

Expanse 28 mm. 

Uab. Juan Vinas, Tuis, San Mateo. 

Metanema striolata, sp. n. 

(J . Antennse pectinated. Head, collar, and thorax dull 
greyish brown. Abdomen brighter brown. Wings light 



Ileterocera from Costa lUca. 233 

brown, with long darker brown stripe ; fuscous discal points ; 
lines fine, dark brown. Fore wings: anteniedial line faintly 
angled on subcostal and subniedian ; a faint postmedial 
brownish sluule, outcurved beyond cell; outer line subter- 
niinal, followed by a white point on C(jsta, angled at vtin 7, 
slightly sinuous. Hind wings : the subterminal line slightly 
sinuous. Underneath whitish buff, irrorated with grey- 
brown ; the subterminal line fine, straighter; the discal 
points minute. 

Expanse 31 mm. 

? . The lines darker, outwardly shaded with fuscous, 
especially the subterminal. The outer margins more sharply 
arigled at vein 4. 

Expanse 29 mm. 

Hab. Juan Vinas. 

Somewhat like Anisoperas atropunctaria, Wlk;, but brown, 
and the outer line much nearer termen. 

Microgonia amicaria, sp. n. 
<$ . Head and thorax brown* Abdomen above grey-brown. 
Fore wings : base brown, limited by the antemedial fuscous 
line, which forms three curves marked by grey points on 
median and submedian, by some dark grey shading on inner 
margin, and is preceded by some fine whitish lines on extreme 
costa ; medial space fufcous brown ; a black point at end of 
cell, faintly edged with dark grey ; a postmedial outbent 
whitish line on costa to vein 7, then an inbent series of 
whitish points on veins connected by an indistinct lunular 
fuscous line ; a large light brown and whitish subterminal 
spot on costa, crossed by black strise and outwardly edged 
with white ; a subterminal, fine, interrupted, dentate, fuscous 
line. Hind wings brown, the basal half shaded with fuscous; 
the postmedial line with the points less distinct; some black 
strise on outer half and traces of subterminal line. Wings 
below pale brownish grey, with fine black strige and irrora- 
tions ; black discal points ; a postmedial fuscous line, followed 
by a broad brown shade not reaching termen. 

? . Thorax and wings richer brown, the lines more 
distinct, heavier, grey ; the subterminal fuscous, partly 
shaded with grey. Fore wings : a large round grey spot at 
end of cell containing a black point ; the medial space only 
slightly darker ; the subterminal costal sp)ot more heavily 
edged with white ; some scattered white irrorations. Hind 
wings : grey and whitish irrorations near lines and along 
inner margin ; a small round grey discal spot containing u 
black point. Wings below as in male, the termen whitei'. 

Expanse, ($ 51, ? 50 mm. 

Hah. Juan Vinas. 



234 Mr. W. Scbaus on 

Oxydia obtusaria, sp. n. 

S. Palpi and head brown* Collar and thorax yellow- 
buff. Abdomen and wings buff-grey, faintly tinged with 
lilacine and with scattered black irrorations. Fore wings : a 
fine brown antemedial line, outcurved in cell ; outer line dark 
brown, more heavily marked except on costa, angled just 
below vein 7, and inbent to inner margin beyond middle, 
followed by a dentate fuscous shade from veins 7-2 ; a black 
point at end of cell. Hind wings : a medial fuscous line. 
Wings below darker, browner, more thickly irrorated with 
black; black discal points; a bioad postmedial pale reddish- 
brown shade and faint traces of the lines. 

Expanse 48 mm. 

Ilab. Juan Vinas, Poas. 

Allied to 0. platypterata, Gn., but the falcate apex short 
and blunt ; it is a variable species in colour, and the outer 
line is sometimes followed by whitish spots at veins 2 and 3. 

Certima armaria, sp. n^ 

(J . Body light brown, the collar and thorax darker, 
mottled with lighter scales. Wings light brown, palest on 
medial space, striated with reddish brown to outer spots and 
on termen with fuscous brown. Fore wings : antemedial 
black and gi*ey points on veins, followed by a dull olive-brown 
shade ; a postmedial reddish-brown dentate lunular line, 
inbent, so the medial paler space is very narrow on inner 
margin ; an outer row of black and grey points on veins, 
slightly inset on veins 5, 2, and submedian, connected by a 
dull greyish-brown shade; cilia with small dark brown 
spots at veins. Hind wings : a reddish-brown medial line ; 
the outer spots outcurved, also connected by a broad dull 
greyish-brow n shade ; cilia tipped with grey. Wings below 
yellowish, with a few dark stvia3; dark streaks on disco- 
cellular ; a broad subterminal daik purplish-brown fascia, 
expanding to termen between veins 4 and 5 on fore wing 
and vein 4 to fold on hind wing. 

Expanse 36 mm. 

Hab, Juan Vinas. 

Isocliromodes hellona, sp. n. 

$ . Body light browri ; a black dorsal tuft at base of abdo- 
men. Wings light brown, with a few scattered black strise 
and irrorations ; black discal points ; cilia with black spots, 
the largest at veins 2 and 3. Fore wings : antemedial small 



Ileterocerafrom Costa Rica. 235 

dark brcwn spots on veins, tlie one on submedian a liltle 
larger and preceded by some grey scales ; a postmedial 
reddish-biowii sliade, linear from vein 3 to inner margin ; an 
outer row of small black S})ots, close to postmedial from 
vein 3, followed from below vein 4 by a dark grey and black 
sliade; a black spot at apex; a subterminal black spot 
below vein 3 and a terminal wavy black mark from just 
above 4 to vein 2. Hind wings: inner margin medially 
shaded with reddish brown, followed by irregular black 
markings to anal angle. Wings below butF, with a few dark 
irrurations ; black discal points ; the outer spots in a straighter 
line and followed by a broad fuscous shade. 

Expanse 26 mm. 

Hdb. Juan Vinas. 

Near 1. brumusa, Dogn. 

Therina silanaria, sp. n. 

? . Palpi, body, and fore wings slate-grey. Head 
yellowish. Fore wings : a black point on discocellular ; a 
tine whitish outer line from below costa, outcurved and inbent 
to near middle of inner margin, interrupted and consisting 
partly of whitish striae, increasing on inner margin ; a small 
white spot striated with grey near apex. Hind wings light 
silky gre3^ 

Expanse 33 mm. 

IJah. Poas. 

Therina ? perpectinata, sp. n. 

cJ . Antennai with exceptionally long pectinations finely 
ciliated. Head and thorax olive-black ; some reddish-browu 
scales on vertex. Fore wings silky olive-brown ; a black 
point at end of cell ; a fine outer black line, vertical on costa, 
then slightly outcurved ; a small subterminal yellow spot 
between veins 7 and 8. Hind wings dark silky grey ; a 
minute blaek point on discocellular. Underneath dark silky 
grey, with black discal points. 

Expanse 40 mm. 

IJab. Ojo de Agua. 

Macrolyrcea sceva, sp. n. 

(J . Body and wings dark olive, the wings shaded with 
silky grey except between medial and outer lines. Fore 
wing : a fine wavy subbasal line, dark olive ; antemedial 
dark olive, outbent on costa, angled in cell, inbent and slightly 



236 Mr. W. Scliiins on 

wavy ; medial line angled beyond cell, suffusing with the 
dark olive postmedial space, which is limited by a slightly 
sinuous^ fine, lilacine line ; an elongated pale buff space, 
striated with olive-brown on costa, preceding the outer line ; 
a dark olive shade on outer margin from vein 5 to termen 
above tornus. Hind wings : the medial dark shade very 
narrow ; the postmedial line nearly straight, barely visible ; 
some scattered fuscous stripe on outer half. Wings below 
olive^brownj thickly striated with buff-grey ; the fore wing 
with costa whitish ; the termen broadly clear dark olive-brownj 
and a straight subterminal white line; a dark streak on 
discocellular ; hind wings with scattered black irrorations 
and a very indistinct outer line, nearly straight. 

Expanse 46 mm. 

? . Body and wings buff-brown, the latter with darker 
shades and stripe ; antemedial line lunular on costa. 

Expanse 50 mm.. 

Hah, Poas. 

Near M. nondina, Dr. ; differs in colour, in the absence of 
black discal points, and in having the medial and outer lines 
closer together. M. nondina has the postmedial line on hind 
wings distinct and sinuous both above and below. 

Aids herse, sp. n. 

(J. Palpi and frons black mottled with grey. Vertex 
grey j a black line between antenna?. Collar, thorax, and 
abdomen light grey, thinly irrorated with black ; a transverse 
black line at base of abdomen and pale buff segmental lines. 
Wings white, with a few dark irrorations. Fore wings ; 
costa, base, and termen shaded with grey ; dark striae on 
costa and fuscous spots at origin of lines ; a fine subbasal 
shade ; a fine black antemedial line, inbent below cell, pre- 
ceded by a curved greyish shade ; a greyish spot at end of 
cell, edged by a fine fuscous line ; a fine medial line, out- 
curved around discocellular ; postmedial fine, remote on 
costa, vertical at first, bluntly outcurved. across vein 5, then 
sinuous and incurved, approximating medial line from veins 4 
to 3, and from fold to inner margin, followed tiiroughout by 
a brownish shade; subterminal white, finely lunular; dark 
marginal points on interspaces and a fine terminal black line. 
Hind wings : a black line at base; medial line fine, black, 
sinuous, heaviest on inner margin ; a semilunar outlined spot 
at end of cell ; postmedial fine, wavy to below vein 6, then 
barely incurved, followed by a brownish shade ; subterminal 
wavy, lunular. Wings below white. Fore wings : costa 



ileterocera from Costa Rica, 237 

heavily striated with black ; a fuscous streak on disco- 
cellular ; tevmen fuscous, narrovvesfc at tormis, mottled with 
white between veins 3 and 4. Hind wings : a fine medial 
line from cosfa to discocellular ; a narrow marginal fiiscoUS 
shade from apex to near vein 4. 

Expanse 31 mm. 

Hab. Avangarez. 

Sometimes the antemedial and postmedial lines on fore 
wings expand on inner margin into fuscous blotches. 

Aids aglauros, sp. n. 

($ . Head, collar, and thorax dull brownish grey ; a few 
brown irrorations on collar. Abdomen paler, with dark 
segmental lines. Fore wings pale brown, tinged with lilacine 
in cell and with whitish medially below cell and just beyond 
cell ; some scattered dark irrorations and black strisy on 
costa ; a faint subbasal fuscous shade ; antemedial tine, 
black, angled on subcostal, then slightly inbent, marked by a 
small black spot on median ; a tine medial line, crossing a 
large greyish spot at end of cell and marked by dark points 
on median, vein 2, and submedian ; postmedial fine, black, 
somewhat incurved on costa, bluntly angled across vein 5, 
then inbent, wavy ; subterminai whitish, wavily dentate, 
preceded by a fuscous shade above and below vein 5, and 
there followed by dark streaks to termen; dark terminal 
points on interspaces connected by a lunular line. Hind 
wings whitish at base, otherwise pale brown ; medial line 
fine, black, downbent towards inner margin ; an oval dark 
line on discocellular ; postmedial bluntly angled at vein 6, 
then incurved ; subterminai more deeply dentate. Wings 
below pale browidsh. Fore wings : a large fuscous spot at 
end of cell, and a similar subapical ])atch from below vein 5 
to vein 9 ; traces of postmedial beyond cell ; terminal points 
on interspaces. The hind wings immaculate. 

Expanse 35 mm. 

Hab. Juan Vinas. 

Aids j^Cindr'osos, sp. n. 

^ . Head and collar grey ; thorax whiter grey, with a 
few dark irrorations ; abdomen grey, with whitish segmental 
bands. Fore wings grey-white, thinly scaled, witii a few 
pale greyish striaj and darker irrorations ; terminal third 
shaded with pale greyish brown ; costa pale brown, with 
dark striae and fuscous spots at origin of lines ; a faint suba 
basal, straight, brownish shade ; antemedial line tine, black. 



238 Mr. W. Scliaus on 

minutely wavy and nearly vertical, preceded by a faint 
brownish shade ; a large greyish spot over discocellular ; 
postmedial line fine, fuscous brown, minutely wavy, vertical 
from costa to vein 5, then inbent, preceded from vein 2 to 
inner margin by a fuscous shade ; fuscous streaks above and 
below vein 5 to near termen ; a subterminal dentate whitisli 
line, suffusing with a terminal whitish shade between veins 7 
and 8 ; marginal small dark spots on interspaces. Hind 
wings : basal half whiter, with a few fuscous irrorations above 
and below cell ; a medial brownisii line, irrorated with black, 
geminate, followed by an oval line on discocellular ; the post- 
medial fine, black, angled at discal fold, then incurved ; the 
outer half brownish; a whitish line near postmedial; the 
subterminal white, more deeply dentate than on fore wing. 
Wings below dirty white ; a broad marginal fuscous shade, 
not quite reaching termen ; a fuscous spot at end of cell on 
fore wing. 

Expanse 36 mm. 

Hab. Sixola, Tuis, Juan Vinas, Guapiles. 

Nesalcis Iceca, sp. n. 

(^ . Head olive-brown ; a dark brown shade between 
ajitennee. Thorax brownish grey. Abdomen brownish 
white ; a fuscous line at base of abdomen and brownish 
segmental lines, interrupted dorsally. Wings dirty white, 
thinly irrorated with dark brown ; an outer, slightly curved, 
fuscous-brown lunular line, outwardly toothed on veins ; the 
veins pale orange-brown, interrupted before the subterminal, 
which is whitish, lunular ; a faint brownish shade follows 
both the postmedial and subterminal ; terminal fuscous-brown 
spots on interspaces; a small fuscous spot on discocellular. 
Fore wings : a fine fuscous antemedial line ; a faint post- 
medial lunular dentate line, suffusing with outer line just 
below vein 2. Hind wings : a fine brown medial line. 
Underneath whitish; faint discal points; the outer line 
visible through wings; costa of fore wings yellowish striated 
with brown. 

Expanse 35 mm. 

Hab. Juan Vinas, Avangarez. 

Smaller and less brill iantl}' coloured than N. croesaria, 
Schs. = regularts, Dogn. 

LeucuJa cachiaria, sp. n. 
^ . Head black, thinly scaled with white. Body and wings 



Ileterocera from Costa Rica. 239 

"white, the latter thinly scaled. Fore wings : the edg-e of 
costa at base black ; a fine medial smoky line, anc^led on 
subcostal and inbent to near base of iinier margin ; a black 
spot at end of cell; outer line from costa near apex to inner 
margin beyond middle. Hind wings : a smoky medial line 
followed by a black point on discocellular below vein 6 ; a 
subterminal smoky spot below vein 6 and one on iinier 
margin. Fore wings below with a postmedial small black 
spot on costa. 

Expanse 24 mm. 

Hob. Cachi, Juan Vinas. 

Nipteria fronsaria, sp. n. 

cJ . Palpi dark brown. Frons deep yellow ; vertex, collar, 
and patagia whitish grey. Thorax and abdomen dark grey. 
Wings thinly scaled greyish white; veins brownish grey; 
discocellulars finely darker. Fore wings : an outer dark 
grey line from costa before apex to inner margin beyond 
middle, more heavily marked towards costa ; the costal margin 
more heavily scaled and whitish; cilia white, tipped with 
dark grey. Hind wings : a faint darker postmedial line. 
Underneath white, the veins more heavily marked, especially 
on hind wings ; the outer line well marked. 

Expanse 24 mm. 

Hab, Guapiles. 

Nipteria mitellaria, sp. n. 

?. Palpi dark grey. Headand collar yellow ; someorange- 
brown shading on vertex and collar behind. Thorax, abdo- 
men, and wings grey, the wings thinly scaled. Fore wings : 
a darker grey medial shade, inbent on inner margin ; a 
similar postmedial shade, slightly angled at vein 5; a darker 
grey line on discocellular. liind wings : a subterminal 
darker grey line. 

Expanse 31 mm. 

Hab. Tuis. 

Astyochia lackesis, sp. n. 

cJ . Palpi dark brown. Head, collar, and patagia yellow. 
Thorax and abdomen greyish buff. Wings whitish grey ; 
veins, lines, discal spots, and some terminal striae fuscous 
grey ; cilia white, shaded with grey at veins. Fore wings : 
antemedial inbent from subcostal; subcostal and median 



240 Mr. E. E. Austen on a new 

darker from near base to just bejond antemedial ; outer line 
ontcurved, irregular. Hind wings: discal spot large ; outer 
line outcurved ; the termen of botli wings rather more heavily 
scaled. Underneath whiter, the lines duller. 

Expanse 27 mm. 

Hub. Tuis. 

[To be continued.] 



XXX. — A new Species of Tabanus from German East 
Africa J in the British Museum {Natural History). By 
Ernest E. Austen. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the Britisli Museum.) 

Tabanus trianguliger, sp. n. 

$ . — Length (22 specimens) 13*6 to 16 mm. ; width of 
licad 5 to 5"6 mm. ; width of front at vertex 0"8 to 1 mm.; 
length of wing 12 to 13*4 mm. 

Dusky species (^dorsal surface of abdomen in rubbed speci- 
mens more or less cinnamon-rufous), with upper surface of 
body bearing conspicuous, light-grey markings ; front mode- 
rately broad and of uniform width ; dorsum of thorax 
longitudinally striped loitli grey ; dormm of abdomen bearing 
three longitudinal series of large, smoke-grey or drab grey 
triangles, so that the ground-colour is reduced to a minimum ; 
wings faintly tinged ivith drab, almost hyaline; femora pale 
{greyish fawn-coloured or greyish ochraceous buff), inner 
surfaces affront pair more or less dark broivn. 

Head : subcallus pale cream-coloured pollinose ; face, 
jowls, and basioccipital region whitish pollinose and clothed 
with white hair; occiput light grey pollinose ; front smoke- 
grey, clothed with short, yellowish hair, but with a darker, 
black-haired patch on vertex, and a similar patch in the 
middle ; front (estimated by eye) about four times as long 
as its breadth at lower extremity, inner margins of eyes 
bordering it parallel or only very slightly convergent below ; 
frontal callus rather large, dark "brown, not very shining, 
roughly quadrate in shape but with its angles (at least the 
upper pair) rounded off ; traces of a second, similarly 
coloured, elongate (more or less elliptical) callus are usually 
distinguishable in the centre of the median dark patch ; 
proximal joint of palpi greyish cream-buff, clotiicd with 



species o/Tabanus. 241 

white hair, terminal joint cream-buflT, acuminate, moderately 
swollen at base, thickly clothed on outer side with appressed, 
glistening silvery-white hairs, usually mixed with some 
minute black hairs ; first and second joints of antenn(B 
greyish ochraceous-buff, clothed with glistening silvery- 
white hairs (the upper distal angles clothed with minute 
black hairs), expanded portion of third joint cinnamon- 
rufous or ochraceous-rufous, often more or less brownish 
or dark brown towards distal extremity, relatively short, 
annulate portion of third joint clove-brown, relatively long. 
Thorax: dorsum dark brown (in rubbed specimens appearing 
more or less slate-grey), marked with five light-grey, partly 
yellowish-, partly whitish-haired longitudinal stripes ; ante- 
rior and lateral borders of dorsum also grey; outer surface 
of each postalar callus, and a narrow area immediately in 
front of this above base of wing, clothed with white hair j 
median dorsal grey stripe very narrow, starting on front 
margin but terminating before reaching prescutcllar groove ; 
admedian dorsal grey stripes broad and entire, starting on 
front margin and meeting at tip of scutellum, which their 
distal extremities encircle; lateral grey stripe on each side 
short, extending only from outer extremity of transverse 
sutui'c to postalar callus ; dark stripes between grey stripes 
clothed with blackish hair ; distal extremity of scutellum 
cinnamon-rufous or ferruginous ; swelling in depression 
at each end of transverse suture drab-grey ; pleurae and 
pectus light grey, clothed with whitish hair, upper portion 
of mesopleurse drab-grey, clothed jjartly with whitish, partly 
with blackish or black hair. Abdomen-, tergite of first 
segment with a large drab grey patch on each side, and on 
hind margin in middle line with a small, somewhat triangular 
or transversely elongate spot, similarly coloured and clothed 
with yellowish hair ; in the centre of the segment is a dark 
brown blotch (somewhat greyish in front, where it projects 
from beneath the scutellum) extending to the hind margin j 
the distal edge of this blotch is indented by the median 
light spot or triangle already described, and its sides are 
concave ; each of the lateral drab-giey patches bears an 
oblique streak or patch of minute black hairs, extending 
outwards towards the posterior angle ; tergites of second to 
fifth segments inclusive each bearing three large drab-grey 
triangles, arranged in a transverse row (thus forming also 
three longitudinal series), resting on the hind margin, where 
they are usually though not always connected, and extending 
to the front margin ; the outer triangles are right-angled or 
obtuse-angled, the right angles or obtuse angles being the 



242 On a new Species o/Tabanus. 

inner ones on the hind margins of the segments ; those o£ 
the median series are acute-angled, though their apices are 
truncate and^ in the case of the median triangles on the 
second and third segments, usually elongate ; the sides of 
the median triangles on the second and third segments are 
also more or less concave ; lateral margins of second and 
following segments, which cut off the outer angles of the 
outer series of triangles, drab-grey or buff; tergite of sixth 
segment with more or less distinct traces of the three 
triangles seen on preceding segments ; basal angles of tergite 
of second segment drab-grey ; basal angles of tergite of first 
segnaent, and lateral margins of this and of the five following 
tergites, clothed with whitish hair ; all drab-grey triangles 
clothed with minute, appressed, yellowish hairs ; intervening 
dark brown or mummy-brown markings clothed with minute, 
appressed, black hairs ; tergite of seventh segment clove- 
brown (its sides and hind border buff), clothed with black 
hairs, which at each lateral extremity are usually mixed 
with yellowish hairs ; venter greyish salmon-coloured, when 
viewed obliquely from behind usually with traces of a 
narrow, dark, interrupted, median, longitudinal stripe, 
ventral scute of penultimate segment mouse-grey, that of 
terminal segment slate-grey, hind margins of ventral scutes 
of second to sixth segments inclusive cream-coloured; ventral 
scutes of second to sixth segments inclusive clothed with 
appressed yellowish hairs, which in centre of ventral scute of 
sixth segment are mixed with longer black hairs, a few 
longer black hairs sometimes also present in centre of ventral 
scute of fifth segment ; ventral scute of seventh (terminal) 
segment clothed as usual with coarse, erect, black hairs. 
Wings : veins dark brown ; stigma pale and inconspicuous, 
usually faintly raw-umber-coloured. Squamce : alar pair of 
same colour as wing-membi'ane, but more opaque, their 
borders mouse-grey ; thoracic pair cream-buff, their borders 
somewhat deeper in colour. Halteres : knobs yellowish 
cream-coloured, more or less buff or orange-buft' towards 
base, stalks buff or cream-buff. Legs : coxae grey, clothed 
with white hair; femora and tibiae clothed with white or 
silvery-white hair, except inner surfaces of front femora and 
distal extremities of front tibia3, which are clothed with black 
hair; tibiae buff or ochraceous-buff, distal extremities of 
front pair, to a greater extent on inner than on outer surface, 
dark brown, front pair also narrowly mouse-grey at extreme 
base ; front tarsi clove-brown, second, third, and fourth 
joints somewhat expanded ; middle tarsi dark brown ; hind 



On a neio Species of Oligoneuria. 2 iS 

tarsi muramy-brown, last joint and tips of the three pre- 
ceding joints dark brown. 

German East Africa : type and eight other speeinaens 
(para-tyi'.es) from a water-hole in the Usangu District, 
26. xi. 1910, and two additional specimens from the Uhehe 
District, 3000 to 3500 ft., 22-27.xi.l910 {S. A. Neave : 
presented liy the Entomological Research Committee). In 
addition to the foregoing the following material, in possession 
of the Entomological Research Committee and also collected 
by Mr. S. A. Neave, has been studied : one para-type from 
the Usangu District, and ten other specimens from the 
Uhehe District — remaining data in each case as before. 

In the shape of its frontal callus and upper frontal callus, 
as also in that of the terminal joint of its palpi, Tabanus 
iriavguligej- shows some affinity to T. 2)allidifacies, Snrcoui, 
which hitherto has been found only in the (British) East 
Africa Protectorate. Apart, however, from its very different 
fades, due to the development of the grey abdominal 
markings into a triple series of broad triangles, as described 
above, T. trianguliger is distinguishable from T. pallidi- 
facies by, among other characters, its front being distinctly 
narrower, and by the inner margins of the eyes bordering 
it being more regularly parallel, instead of somewhat 
divergent above. From T. distinctus, Ricardo, T. trian- 
ytdiijer, apart from its abdominal markings, may be dis- 
tinguished at OQce by its broader front, and differently 
shaped (less elongate) frontal callus. From tiie variatus- 
form of T. taniola, Pal. de Beauv., the new species, apart 
from the greater development of its abdominal triangles, is 
distinguishable by the shape of its frontal callus and of the 
third joint of its antennae, as also by its pale femora. It is 
scarcely necessary to add that in the foregoing comparisons 
the female sex is alone considered. 



XXXI. — On a new Species q/ Oligoneuria (Ephemeridie) 
from British East Africa. By Rev. A. E. Eaton. 

Oligoneuria dobbsi, sp. n. 

Adult (dried) ? . — Wings transparent light blackish grey, 
with a faint dull violet-i)urple gloss and intense sepia-browu 
longitudinal neuration ; the cross-veinlets not bordered 



2U 



On a new Species of Oligoneuiia. 



(c/. text-figure) . These are numerous (about 30) and straight 
in the marginal area, but are mostly concealed in the dried 
insect so far as the subcosta is overlaiu in the longitudinal 




Neuration of Oli(/07ieuria dobbsi, sp. n. 

furrow in front of the ridge crested by the radius (3) ; the 
next three open areas contain respectively about 15, 7, and 5 
cross-veinlets, of which many are obsolescent posteriorly, 
and are too delicate to be shown in the figure. The 
two subfiliform tails terminating the narrow membrane 
incurrent along the posterior edge of the mesonotum or 
scutellum from the roots of the fore wings seem long enough 
to reach the base of the third abdominal segment. Head, 
body, fore legs, and the stout portions of the hinder legs 
pitch-brown ; head opaque ; thorax and dorsum lucid ; 
venter pallid ; tabescent hind tibia and tarsi impure 
whitish. Abdomen tapering posteriorly ; segments nos. 6, 7, 
and 8 longer than those anterior to them, of which the poste- 
rior lateral angles (if not rectangular) are produced into only 
very short, inconspicuous, tooth-like points ; but in segments 
nos. 8 and 9 the points produced are spiniform. Setae 
broken off when captured. Egg-masses lutescent, pale. 
Subanal lamina of the tenth segment narrow, shrunken 
troughwise in the dried insect, and produced on each side 
posteriorly into a broad-based, short, subulate spine. 

Length of body about 20, of fore wing 25 mm. 

Prep. Etn.; wings in Ca. balsam, mounted without pres- 
sure, detached from the pinned tvpe-specimen (Brit. Mus. 
Nat. Hist.). 

Hab. Sotik Post (alt. 6000 feet), Lumbwa District, British 
East Africa : one adult fly, captured at night in a house half 
fl mile from the river Nyangoris, 22. viii, 1911 (C. M. Dobbs), 



On new Species of Ipidae and PlatypoJidae. 24:5 



XXXII. — Some new Species o/Tpidfe and Platypodidte in the 
British Museum, By Lt.-Col. Winn Sampson, F.E.S. 

The first two species described are from specimens received 
through Mr. Guy Marshall from Mr. Urich, and found on 
cacao-plants in Trinidad. The only other specimens of 
X. urichi in the British Museum are two received in 1905 
from Angola (Portuguese West Africa), and reported as 
damaging the cacao-plants there, but whether to a serious 
extent is not stated. 



Amphicranus theobronia, sp. n. 

Oblongus, nitidus, glaber, piceo-brunneus ; prothorace lateribus 
subrccto, a triente antico in apicem coustricto, supra ad apicem 
oblique rotundatim declivi, asperato ; sumrao antico tuberculo 
minuto ornato ; elvtris vix conspicue punctaiis, post medium 
oblique excavatis, ad apicem breviter productis, anguste divari- 
catis, raargine excavationis utrinque deutibus tribus ornato, certio 
majore prope apicem, exstructo. 

Long. 2'5, lat. 0*9 mm. 

Hab. Trinidad. 

Near to A. collaris, Bldf., but smaller, with all the abdo- 
minal segments similaily coloured and with a prominent 
single tubercle on the centre of the prothoracic anterior edge, 
■which is bisinuate, with the base truncate ; the exposed 
portion of the mesonotum above the scutellum strongly 
punctured ; anterior tibiae very strongly toothed on the outer 
edge and having the inner edge sinuous and hairy ; femoral 
lobe large. 

Xyleborus urichi, sp. n. 

Oblongus, prothorace semielliptico, gibbo, summo apiee medio 
granulis proiuiuulis notato, dorso postice puuctato ; elytris a basi 
ad medium valde nitidis, teque pulvinato-convexis, dense striato- 
punctatis, et interstitiis irregulariter punctatis : sed a medio ad 
apicem opacis, subtilissime gramilatis, interstitiis tuberculis 
pilisque ornatis. 

Long. 3*0 mm. 

Hab. Trinidad. 

Head ferrugineous, retracted, slightly convex, and evenly 
rugulose-punctate, with a straight transverse row of pale 
yellow hairs anteriorly ; eyes oblong and emarginate, with 

Ann. & Mag. N. Ilist. Ser. 8. Vol. x. 17 



246 Lt.-Col. Winn Sampson on neir 

coarse facets ; antennae pale ferrngineons ; prothorax ferm- 
gineous and shiny on the posterior half, gibbose and semi- 
elliptical, slightly longer than broad, base truncate, with 
posterior angles acute, anteriorly rugose, with 4-6 prominent 
tubercles on the extreme anterior margin, the rugosity 
decreasing to the middle, the posterior half shiny and punc- 
tate, and the whole surface slightly pubescent. Elytra the 
same breadth as the prothorax and one-half longer, the poste- 
rior half parallel-sided and thence decreasing to form a 
somewhat acuminate apex, longitudinally arched from base 
to apex, with the basal third ferrugineous and shiny ; punc- 
tate-striate, with the interstices irregularly punctured and 
piliferous ; the apical portion dark and opaque, the inter- 
stices becoming tuberculate in the centre, with a double row 
of pale hairs, the remainder of the siarface being very finely 
shagreened ; a slight sinuosity and depression of the inter- 
stices near the suture is evident towards the apex ; the 
under surface of the body uniformly coloured, except the 
abdominal segments, Avhich are slightly darker, sparsely 
hairy, and coarsely punctured ; the anterior coxae contiguous, 
and the legs the same colour as the prothorax. 

This species is near X. capucmus, Eichh., but diflFers in 
being narrower and longer, with punctate strise on the elytra, 
the sides of which are rfot rounded from base to apex, &c. 

Xyleborus arquatus, sp. n. 

Oblongus, subnitidus, thorace semielliptico, anterius rugis trans- 
versis scabro, posterius subtiliter punctulato, lineola media basali 
dense hirta ; elytris striato-punctatis, iuterstitiis uniseriatim 
punctulatis, lateribus subparallelis. 

Long. 2*5 mm. 

Hah. Ceylon. 

Compact in shape, with pale ferrugineous head and elytra 
pitchy black ; head convex in front, the surface minutely 
and uniformly shagreened, sparsely hairy towards the front, 
with a row of pale hairs over the mouth ; eyes transverse, 
black and emarginate ; antennae the same colour as the head ; 
prothorax a dirty yellow, semielliptical, and as broad as long, 
with sides and posterior angles rounded, rugose, but not 
tuberculate, slightly hairy, obsoletely asperate behind, gibbose, 
with a small tuft of yellowish hairs at the centre of the base ; 
scutellum small and dark-coloured ; elytra one-half as long 
again as the prothorax, with subparallel sides, and obtusely 
rounded at the apex, slightly rounded at the basal angles, 
longitudinally arched from base to apex, striate-punctate. 



Species of Ipidae and PlatypodiJas. 247 

with rows of longish hairs ; interstices with uniseriate rows 
of punctures and shorter hairs; under surface dark, slightly- 
hairy, and sparsely punctured ; legs paler than the body, the 
anterior tibiae long and narrow, enlarged towards the apex, 
with a few strong te th on the outer edge. 

This insect has been received from Mr. E. Green, who 
reports it as a troublesome pest on the camphor-trees in 
Ceylon, where it is found both on the living and dead 
branches. 

Xi/leborus niger, sp. n. 

Oblongus, niger, nitidus, pilis f ulvescentibus parce adspersis, thorace 
gibbo, semielliptico, dorso antice exasperato, posterius subtiHter 
punctate ; elytris latitudine thoracis et illo vix duplo longioribus, 
subtilissime lineato-punctatis, interstitiis uuiseriatim puuetatis, 
apice a medio excavato-retuso, punctato, excavationis fuiido 
nitido, lineato-punctato ; sutura vix elevata et piliferis tuber- 
culis ornata, interstitiis uniseriatiiu puuetatis, 3° et 4"^ tuberculis 
ornatis, margine apicali iutegro. 

Long, vix 6 mm. 

Flab. Ruby Mines, Burmah. 

Head black, sparsely covered with piliferous punctures, 
the hairs very long, especially centrally ; there is a ti'ansverse 
fringe of long yellow hairs over the mouth, and anteriorly a 
central small shining depression with a slight longitudinal 
carina posteriorly, the general surface shagreoied ; protborax 
semielliptical, shiny black, rugose-asperate in front, inter- 
spersed with longish hairs, gibbous, with scattered piliferous 
punctures behind and a medial posterior group of pale hairs • 
scutellum triangular and polished. 

Elytra nearly twice as long as the protborax, with sub- 
parallel sides and excavate from the middle, punctate-striate, 
the punctures being large, round, and shallow ; the inter- 
stices before the declivity are smooth, with small uniseriate 
piliferous punctures down the centre; at the commencement 
of the declivity each interstice has a sharp tooth, with one or 
two longish hairs close to it ; interstices 3 and 4 also have a 
few teeth distributed along them towards the apex ; the 
sutural striae have a single row of small tubercles after the 
commencement of the declivity. 

This species belongs to Eichhoff's division *^ of the genus 
Xyleborus, but is larger than any described by that author. 

Xyleborus sphenos, sp. n. 

Elongatus, subeylindricus, brunneo-testaceus, subiiitidus, antice 

17* 



248 Lt.-Col. Winn S.ampson on new 

rugulosus, postice parce subtilissime punctulatus ; elytris supra 
subtilissime striato-punctatis, interstitiis ante declivitatem non 
tuberculatis, apice acuniiiiatis, siDgulo lateribus seriatim tubor- 
culato, siitura immuni. 
Long. 2 mm. 

Hub. Uganda. 

Head, prothorax, antennae, and legs testaceous ; elytra 
dark ; the eyes deeply and broadly eraarginate ; prothorax 
bluntly rounded anteriorly and decreasing in breadth towards 
the base, rugose in front, but shiny and smooth behind ; 
elytra very faintly striate-punctate and gradually narrowing 
to the acute apex, which is lengthened by two blunt broad 
processes, being continuations of the second elytral inter- 
stices ; the declivity (commencing from the apical third of 
the elytra) has the first two strise toothed at the commence- 
ment and then tuberculate to the apex, a.id the edge of the 
declivity is provided with numerous teeth, increasing in size 
towards the apex. 

In one very pale (immature) specimen the only dark 
portions are the eyes and the elytral declivity. 

These insects were sent me with the specimens of X. in- 
dustrius, but I am not certain as to whether they were 
captured at the same time. 

Xylehorus industrius, sp. n. 

Elongatus, cylindricus, pallida villosus, thorace testaceo, anticc 
imbricate exasperato, postice punctato ; elytris striato-punctatis, 
interstitiis subtiliter uniseriatim punctulatis, apice a parte tertio 
abrupte excavato-truncato, ambitu calloso dentibus pluribus 
minimis ornato, fundo ipso irregulariter punctato, sutura vix 
elevata, taberculis pilisque ornata. 

Long. 3^ mm. 

Hah. Uganda. 

Head and thorax testaceous ; elytra dark except basally 
and laterally ; head asperate, with scattered pale pubescence ; 
eves very deeply and broadly emarginate ; prothorax oblong- 
cylindi'ical and slightly longer than broad, anteriorly rough- 
ened and hairy, the posterior part thickly covered with pili- 
f erous punctures ; scutellum pale but well defined ; elytra 
punetate-striate with very short hairs, the interstices having 
a single row of punctures with long hairs ; after the 
declivity the hairs are continued only along the sutural striae 
to the apex ; the apical third of the elytra is somewhat 
abruptly truncate, fornaing a shiny very slight excavation 
with large shallow irregularly placed punctures, the margin 



species of Ipidse and Platypodida.'. i?49 

oeiiig- edged with numerous small tubercles (two rather 
larger ones near the apex) and long pale hairs ; the sutural 
striaj have a single row of tubercles extending to the apex, of 
which one or two near the apex are larger than the others. 

Judging from Dr. Hagedorn's description, this species is 
somewhat siuiilar to his X. Jisheri, but differs in size, colour, 
arrangement of the tubercles, want of the suture between 
the pronotum and prosteruum, &c. 

Although here treated as a separate species from X. stphenos, 
I am of opinion that when more material comes to hand 
this insect will prove to be the female of the former. 

Crossotarsus fragmentus , sp. u. 

Bruuneus, fronte plana, profunde punctata, medio fossulata ; pro- 
thorace quadrato, parce irregulaiiter punctato, sulco brevi baud 
profundo ; elytris lineato-pimctatis, lineis ad basin impressis, 
interstitiis jjlanis teuuiter liiieato-puuctatis, apice declivi, convcxo, 
striate, interstitiis elevatis, seriato-tuberculatis et pilosis, margine 
extern© utroque postice profunde emarginato, apice triplice 
emarginato. 

Long. 5'5 mm. 

Hab. Singapore. 

Shiny brown, front flat, deeply punctured and sparsely 
hairy, with a small indentation in the centre and a dark 
median line at the top ; prothorax with graduated punctua- 
tion, becoming coarser laterally, median line slight and 
scarcely reaching the base, Avith no groups of punctures ; 
elytra with faintly punctured lines, the interstices shiny to 
the declivity and then contracted and bearing series of pili- 
feroas tubercles, the base of the third interstice having a 
small group of punctures. 

This handsome insect belongs to the Crossotarsi siib- 
depressi, and seems nearly allied to C. terminatus, Chap,, 
and C. venustus ^ as described bv Mr. Blandford (Ann. & 
Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xv., April 1895). The elytral 
sculpture is somewhat complex, as will be seen from the 
figure (fig. 1, p. 250) of the apical half of the elytra, there being 
a deep lateral emargination on each elytron posteriorly and a 
triple emargination common to both elytra at the extremity ; 
the interstices 1-3 cease a short distance before the apex, 
where the surface becomes smooth and shiny. 

Crossotarsus fractus, sp. n. 

C. fragmento similis, sed differt magnitndine et apicis elytrorum 

excisione minus profunda. 
Long. 4"3 mm. 



250 



Mr. G. Lewis on 



Hah. Borneo : Kuching, Savawali. 

This species also belongs to the Crossotarsisubdepressi, and 
only differs from C.fragmentus in size and in the elytra 
being less excised at the apei (fig. 2). 



ris-. 1. 



Fi-. 2. 





Fit?. 1. — Crossotavsus frcgmenfus, sp. u. 
Fig. 2. — Crossofarsus/ractHs, sp. n. 



XXXIII. — 0?i neiv Species of Histeridse and Notices of others. 
By G. Lewis, F.L.S. 

The last paper on this family by me was published in July 
1911 ; the present is the thirty-eighth of the series. 

In all the papers, when referring to the genera Trypanaus 
and Trypeticus I have wrongly assigned the masculine forms 
to the female and the female to the male. Marseul and 
other writers have committed the same error. In 1853, when 
Marseul first began the study of the group he described the 
sexes as species, and although warned by Monsieur A. Salle, 
who had seen the insects in their natural habitat, he was not 
convinced of the truth of the matter. 

The doubt having arisen as to the sexes of Trypanaus and 
its ally Trypeticus, specimens were sent to Dr. Sharp for his 
opinion, and he, having dissected them, reported that the 
sexes have hitherto been reversed by describers. In order to 



new Species 0/ Ilisterldfe. 251 

malic this doubly certain, other speeimens were sent to 
Mr. F. Muir in Houohilu, who has examined them thoroughly ; 
his results are given in the following note and drawings : — 

" Tlie large Iri/panaus thorncicus (marked c^ ) is a female ; 
tlie spcrniatheca is globular, large, and chitinized. I then 
opened up the T. ensifer and Tnjpeticus marked ? , and 
found them both to be males. 1 have therefore not opened 
the specimens marked ^ . They are both of the Histerid 
type, but very feebly chitinized. Trypanaus is much larger, 
and the last abdominal segment (hidden beneath pygidium) 
is simple, while in Trypeticus the last abdominal segment 
is complex, with a pair of lateral struts and a large median 
plate (all chitinized invaginations of the last segment and 
not phallic). Cm 2 is very long in these two forms, and the 
aedeagus can be drawn into the abdomen a long way, and 
one is apt to destroy it if one tries to only take off the last 
segment of abdomen. 

''Trypeticiis fayi (figs. 1 &2). — The last abdominal segment 
lies under the pygidium, the lateral edges being extended 
forward into the abdomen as two small struts ((/) ; imme- 
diately within the segment is the usual 'cloaca/ with the 
anal opening on the dorsal face, and the ventral aspect ex- 
tending into the abdomen as the second connecting membrane 
(cm 2) which connects the base of the sedeagus to the body- 
wall. In this case this membrane is of great length and 
allows the sedeagus to be withdrawn into or thrust out of the 
abdomen to a great extent. From each side of the base of 
the connecting membrane there is a long, thin, chitinized 
strut running forward into the abdomen ; from the ventral 
edge of the ' cloaca,' between these two struts, there are two 
thin serai-membranous plates : the upper one (c) is some- 
what spindle-shaped in outline, and sliglitly more chitinized 
along the margin than in the middle ; the ventral one is 
angular (6), and also more chitinized on the margin than in 
the middle. The two plates and the lateral struts have 
similar origin, viz. by the invagination of the base of the 
second connecting membrane ; a section through the struts 
near their base shows them to be hollow, with chitinized 
walls, and the plates consist of two membranes closely applied 
together. The lateral lobes are long and slender, semi- 
chitinized except at the tips, the chitinization extending a 
little way down the cylindrical basal piece. The median 
lobe is long, slender, and cylindrical, and very slightly chiti- 
nized, with the median orilice at the apex. The basal piece 
is about one and a half times the length of the lateral lobes, 



Mr. G. Lewis on 



Fig. 1. 




Fig. 4. 




cyliudrical and membranous, without any sharp line of 
demarcation at junction with the connecting membrane ; 
there appears to be no specialized internal sac. 

"Trypanceus ensifer (fig. 3). — The last abdominal segment^ 
which is hidden under the pygidium, is of a simple nature, 
without any struts ; the second connecting membrane, 
which is very long, joins directly on to the ventral plate, and 
sends out no struts or plates into the abdomen. The basal 
piece is cylindrical {bp), about two and a half times the 
length of the lateral lobes, membranous, with two lines more 
highly chitinized extending from the base of the lateral 
lobes to end of basal piece ; the lateral lobes (//) are sub- 
cylindrical, more highly chitinized than the basal piece except 



new Species of Histerldaj. 



253 







■^nO 



Fig. 1. — Last abdominal segment and fedeagus of Trypetiais fagi viewed 
from below. /(7=last dorsal plate; /y=Iast ventral plate; cm 2 = 
second connecting membrane ; «e// = aedeagus ; (y'=ejaculatory dnct; 
a and f/=struts ; b and c = p]ates. 

Fiiy. 2. — ^^deagus of Tn/peticus fagi. Lew. 

Fig. 3. — ^Fdeagus of Trypanans ensifer. Mars. 

Fig. 4. — Receptaculum seminis of Trypanceiis thoracicus, Fabr., 5. 

at the tips ; the median lobe is cylindrical, membranous, 
with median orifice at apex ; the ejaculatory duct within 
the sedeagus is slightly enlarged and its surface bears 
' herring-bone ' striations. 

"Trypanceus thoracicus (fig. 4). — The receptaculum seminis 
(spermatheca) is large, irregular flask-shape." 



List of Species. 



Hololepta umbratilis. 

baulnyi, Mars. 

vagata. 

cavata. 

curta, Mars. 

Teretriosoma paratum. 

stebbingi, Leiv. 

cristatam, Lew. 



Plsesius acutideus. 
Platy lister habitus. 
Eb isia exortiva, Letc. 
Hister quadrimaculatus, L. 
Pacbycrperus baconi. 
Pelorurus fraudator. 

densistriatus. 

Discoscelis curvata. 



Hulolepta umbratilis, sp. n. 

Oblonga, siibdepressa, nigra, nitida ; fronte bistriata, striis brevibus ; 
prouoto lateribus anguste punctato ; elytris striis 1 brevi, 2 in- 
terrupta ; propygidio parce, in medio tenuiter punctato ; pygidio 
vix dense punctato ; tibiis auticis 4-dentati8. 

L. 10 mill, (absque mandibulis). 



254 Mr. G. Lewis o?i 

Oblong, depressed, black and shining ; forehead with two 
short transverse striae ; the thorax has a narrow band of 
lateral punctures sparsely set and not quite on the edge, the 
lateral stria passes the basal angle and also the anterior angle, 
the male has no emargii)ation or fovea ; the elytra, striae, 
subhumeral rather v\ide and shortened before and behind, 
first dorsal basal and about one-quarter of the elytral length, 
second broken not far from the base ; the propygidinm is 
wholly punctured, but somewhat sparingly, and the points 
on the disc are smaller than those on the sides ; the pygidium 
is somewhat densely punctured and the points are again 
smaller on the median area, the apex is narrowly smooth ; 
the anterior tibiae are 4-dentate, the two apical teeth have a 
common base. 

The form of this species is distinctly oblong and like 
Hololepta caracasica, Mars., and Lioderma pervalidnm, Blais. ; 
it has the disc of the propygidinm punctate, a characteristic 
seldom seen in either genus. 

Hub. Argentina. 

Hololepta baulnyi, Mars. 

Marseul (Mon. p. 399, 1857) described the female of this 
species ; the male has no carina on the nientum, the anterior 
thoracic angle is feebly notched, and the fossette is deep and 
oval and near, but not in, the angle. 

Hololepta vagata, sp. n. 

Oblongo-ovalis, depressa, nigra, nitida ; pronoto lateribus parco 
punctulato ; elytris striis 2 dorsalibus brevissimis, 1* appendicu- 
lata ; propygidio toto sparsim punctulato ; pygidio dense punc- 
tate. 

L. 7 mm. (absque mandibulis). 

Oblong-oval, depressed, black and shining ; the forehead 
feebly impressed and without stria, mentum of the male is 
not carinate, mandibles slightly swollen in the middle, the 
vertex of the head has two small foveae (doubtful as to being 
constant) ; the thorax, lateral margin with a band of rather 
fine punctures not densely set, anterior angle minutely 
notched, with a rather deep circular fossette close to the edge ; 
the elytra, the outer basal stria has a short and straight 
apical appendage ; the propygidinm has scattered punctures, 
but at no point are the punctures close together, and the 
median area is almost free of them, apically there are two 
shallow impressions ; the pygidium is closely punctate ; the 



new Species of Histeridse. 255 

prostenuim is slightly constricted before the coxre ; anterior 
tibiffi 4-dentate. 

This species differs chiefly from cavata in the mentum not 
being distinctly carinate in the male, in the form of the 
thoracic fovea, and in the punctuation of the propygidium. 

Hub. Sukabumi (2000 feet), West Java. 

Hololepta cavata, sp. n. 

Oblongo-ovalis, depressa, nigra, nitida ; pronoto lateribus sparsira 
punctulato ; elytris striis 2 dorsalibus brevissimis, 1" appondicu- 
lata ; propygidio circum punctato ; pygidio dense punctate. 

L. 8-8| mill, (absque mandibulis). 

Oblong-oval, depressed, black and shining ; the head, 
surface with microscopic punctures, without strife, forehead 
impressed, the mentum is very feebly carinate in the male ; 
the thorax has a few lateral punctures chiefly in the anterior 
area, the anterior angle is not notched nor emarginate, but 
close behind the angle there is a shallow fovea almost 
circular in outline ; the elytra has two basal strise well- 
marked, the first having a short appendage ; the propygidium 
has an external circle of punctures, the lateral points are the 
largest, but apically there are two clusters joining together, 
and here the punctures are most dense ; the pygidium is 
densely punctate ; the presternum is slightly constricted 
before the coxae ; the anterior tibiae are 4-dentate. 

The general characters of this small species are similar to 
those of baulnyi, but the thoracic fossette in the male is 
different in form and position. 

Hab. Ruby Mines, Burmah {Doherty). 

Note. — Clean and bright specimens of Hololepta curta, 
Mars., Hister curvatus, Er., and Scajiomegas auritus, Mars., 
are distinctly bluish, although they have all been described 
as black. 

Tereti'iosoma paratum, sp. n. 

Subcylindricum, cyaneum, nitidum, undique dense et fortiter 
punctatum, pedibus piceis ; elytris transversim basi impressis ; 
prosterno grosse punctato ; mesosteruo baud marginato, antice 
in medio obtuse arcuato ; a metasterno leviter distinct o ; pro- 
pygidio dense punctulato. 

L. 2| mill. 

Cylindrical, blue, shining, above rather densely and rather 
coarsely punctate ; legs obscurely brown ; the head closely 



256 Mr. G. Lewis on 

punctate, with an obsolete smooth spot on the vertex ; the 
thorax is closely punctate outwardly and scarcely less so on 
the disc, marginal stria complete; the elytra are similarly 
punctate, with a transverse impression near the base ; the 
pygidia, the punctuation is slightly finer than that of the 
elytra, the carina on the pygidium is well marked ; the pro- 
sternum punctate, punctures smaller and less close anteriorly ; 
the mesosternum is immarginate anteriorly and the meta- 
sternal suture is fine but visible, surface punctate; the 
metasternum is somewhat irregularly punctured, and the first 
abdominal segment is evenly punctate ; the scape of the 
antennae in ^ is furnished with flavous hair. 

This species is much less robust and smaller i\x?i\\festivuni, 
Lew. (which measures 3^ mm.), and the surface punctuation 
is coarser and more dense, especially noticeable on the 
thoracic disc and on the scutellar region. The raetasternal 
suture is not visible in festivum. Both species agree in the 
form of the mesosternum, anteriorly it is arched in outline, 
not acuminate. 

Hub, latahy. Province of Goyas. Four examples. 

Teretriosoma stebbingi, Lew. Ann. N. Hist. viii. p. 380 
(1901). 

$. cristatum, Lew. I. c. p. 381. 

After examining a series of the species, I find that the 
characters I relied on as being specific are sexual. I took 
the long palish hair on the scape of the antenna for a 
masculine character ; the male has a pilosity, but it is much 
less conspicuous. Dr. Sharp has kindly made dissections of 
this species. 

Plcesius acutidens, sp. n. 

Oblonj^us, niger, nitidus ; fronte distincte bistriafca ; pronoto stria 
marginali antice interrupta ; propygidio margine antice anguste 
lEevi, postice baud dense punctate ; pygidio subconvexo parum 
transverse ; prosterno hand striato. 

L. 10 mm. 

Oblong, black and shining ; forehead bistriate, surface 
with some fine punctures, mandibles sparsely punctulate, 
with a small but acute tooth on the inner edge ; the thorax, 
marginal stria interrupted behind the head ; the elytra, 
inner subhumeral stria shortened before and behind, outer 
very short and median, first dorsal apical and shortened 
before the middle 2-3 apical very short, puuctiform or 



new Species of Hhteridse. 257 

obs )1etc ; tlie propygidium has a narrow smooth margin 
anteriorly, otherwise it is punctate but not densely ; the 
pygidium is very feebly convex and not very closely punc- 
tured ; the prosternum is without striae ; the mesosternum, 
stria interrupted behind the emargination ; the femora are 
smooth. 

The thoracic and dorsal striae are almost similar to those 
of ellipticus, Mars. ; but acutidens differs in being ol)long, the 
mandibles with a small iicute tooth only, and the pygidium 
is very slightly convex and not very closely punctate. I 
have not seen an example of ellipticus with the first dorsal 
stria complete, as figured by Marseul, but his species is 
well-known and specimens are in most collections. P. ellip- 
ticus has the " pygidium bombe, deusement ponctue.''^ 

Hab. Isle of Batian [Doherty), 

Platylister habitus, sp. n. 

Ovatus, parum convexus, niger, iiitidus ; fronte coneava ; pronoto 
stria lateral! baud iuterrupta ; elytris striis 1-2 integris, 3 in 
medio iuterrupta ; propygidio trausversim puuetato ; pygidio 
margine haud elevato ; mesosteruo stria iutegra ; tibiis auticis 
4-dentatis. 

L. 4|-5 mill. 

Oval, rather convex above, black and shining ; forehead 
concave, stria fine, complete and nearly straight anteriorly; 
the thorax, marginal stria complete, parallel to the sides, 
slightly bent inwards at the basal angle; scutellar fovea 
clear but shallow ; the elytra, first stria complete, second 
very slightly shortened at the base where the interstice is 
widest, third widely interrupted in the middle, apical portion 
longest but varying in length : the propygidium is irregularly 
transversely punctured in the middle ; the pygidium is 
similarly punctate at the base and in the middle, but 
posteriorly the points are smaller and fewer, there is no rim ; 
the prosterual keel is a little narrowed before the coxse ; 
the mesosternum, marginal stria complete, fine and close to 
the edge at the emargination but leaving it laterally ; the 
anterior tibiae are 4-dentate. 

The form of the pygidium and of the mesosternal stria are 
good distinguishing characters for this species. P. platy- 
pygus, Mars., is seemingly similar, but the forehead of 
habitus is not concave nor punctate, and the stria is feeble, 
not strong. 

Hab. Paumomu River, New Guinea [Loria). In the 
Genoa Museum and in mv own collection. 



258 Mr. G. Lewis on 

Eblisia exortiva, Lew. Ann. Mus. Genova, vi. p. 636 (1888). 

This species appears as an Idister in ray catalogue o£ 
1905, but as the tarsal grooves are not curved, it is well to 
place it in Eblisia until further revision of the genus is 
made. 

Hister quadrimaculatus, L. 

Herr H. Bickhardt has furnished this species with a 
twentieth name, one suggested by its superficial coloration. 
Not long since four other names were given on similar 
trivial characters, and 1 think that the multiplication of 
names of this kind is much to be deprecated. 

Pachycrcerus baconi, sp. n. 

Oblongiis, parum convexus, niger, nitidus ; fronte punctata, stria 
Integra ; pronoto stria lateral! antice interrupta ; elytris striis 
1-3 integris, 4-5 suturalique brevibus, margine apicali punctato ; 
prosterno angustato bistriato, striis parallelis; mesosteruo stria 
arcuata ; pygidio vix dense puuctato ; tibiis anticis 5-dentatis. 

L. 2 =-3 mill. 

Oblong, rather convex, black and shining ; the forehead 
feebly convex, distinctly and somewhat closely punctured, 
stria complete and rather fine ; the thorax punctured like 
the head except in the scutellar region where the points are 
finer, lateral stria rather near the edge and it ceases behind 
the eye ; the elytra, apical margin punctate, dorsal striae 1-3 
complete, 4 dimidiate, 5 short not reaching the apex nor the 
middle of the disc, sutural shortened at the apex and reaching 
the disc, subhumeral very short and basal ; the propygidium 
and pygidium are rather closely punctured, the latter is not 
smooth at the apex ; the prosternum, the keel is narrow and 
the lateral striae parallel ; the mesosternum is obtusely 
acuminate anteriorly and the stria arched not marginal; the 
anterior tibiae are 5-dentate. 

This species is very similar to P. verulamii, Lew. ; it is a 
little smaller and slightly narrower. Both have a narrow 
prosternal keel and the mesosternal stria of each is of similar 
outline. The punctuation of the head, thorax, and pygidium 
is very distinct in baconi and the thoracic stria is similar in 
both species, but the lateral margin is widest in verulamii. 

Hab. Errer River, Abyssinia. Eight examples. 



new Species of Histeridas. 259 

Pelorurus fraudator, sp. n. 

Breviter ovalis, supra depressus, nigro-aeneus, nitidus, elytris 
viridi-caeruleis, pygidio rufo ; fronte depressa, punctulata, 
lateribus marginata; pronoto lateribus punctato ; elytris striis 
1-4 iiitegria geraiiiatis, 5 suturalique simplicibus ; propygidio 
parce punctato ; pygidio convexo, tenuissirae punctulato ; meso- 
sterno bisinuato marginato ; tibiis anticis 6-denticulatis. 

L. 4|-5| mill. 

This species is very similar to glaucopterus, Mars., from 
Natal, but the thorax has a wide antescutellar space smooth, 
the inner subhumeral stria is somewhat irregular and broken 
anteriorly, the fifth dorsal stria is single, with a short apical 
appendage parallel to it but not joined. 

There are only ten species of this genus known and they 
all appear to be local and restricted in their distribution. 
The measurements given for this and densistriatus show that 
specimens vary much in size. 

Hab. Beira [A. P. Shejipar'd) ; Matopos {Guy A. K. 
Marshall). 

Pelorurus densistriatus, sp. n. 

Breviter ovalis, supra depressus, niger, subopacus, pygidio apice 
obscure rufo ; fronte punctulata ; pronoto lateribus sat fortiter 
punctato, disco laevi ; elytris striis 1-5 dorsalibus geminatis 
interstitiis striatis, suturali in medio furcata ; pygidio apico 
utrinque compresso, punctato ; prosterno lobo antico grosse 
punctato ; tibiis anticis denticulatis. 

L. 3-4 mill. 

Oval, somewhat short, depressed above, black and a little 
opaque ; the head, foreliead impressed, surface punctulate 
and margined laterally ; the thorax punctured at the sides, 
disc smooth, scutellar puncture bilinear, being divided in the 
middle, marginal stria complete, posterior rim punctured 
opposite the second and third dorsal striee ; the elytra, 
dorsal striae 1-5 geminate but not very distinctly joined at 
the base, the outer pairs have interstitial striae which render 
the true striae less apparent ; the sutural stria is not gemi- 
nate, but it has a short branch on the discal area obliquely 
pointing outwards, the suture itself is finely marginate; 
the propygidium has punctures of varying sizes, which are 
largest and more close on the anterior half ; the pygidium, 
the anterior portion is slightly convex and smooth, and from 
the middle of this area runs a smooth carina to the apical 
margin, on each side of the carina the pygidium is com- 
pressed, the surface distinctly punctured and obscurely red ; 



260 On new Species o/'Histerid.^. 

the prosternum, anterior lobe densely and coarsely punc- 
tured, keel with smaller and variously sized points less 
closely set, striae widen out posteriorly (in one example the 
strise are obliterated between the coxae) ; the mesosternum 
is pointed like the keel, the marginal and the transverse 
striae are crenate ; the metasternum has a median furrow 
and a cluster of large punctures on each side at its base ; 
the anterior tibiae are denticulate. 

Tlie furcation or branch in the sutural stria is remarkable 
and also the fine marginal stria along the suture ; it is not 
the ordinary sutural stria and the form of the pygidium is 
exceptional. 

Hab. Harrar, Abyssinia (G. Christensen) . 

Discoscelis curvata, sp. n. 

Oblongo-ovata, convexa, nigra, nitida ; fronte tenuiter impressa, 
stria iiiconspicua ; pronoto impiinctato, stria marginal! post 
oculos interrupta; elytris striis subhumerali interna basi 
abbreviata, 1-4 integris, 4 incurvata, 5 abbreviata, suturali 
dimidiata ; propygidio vix grosse punctato ; prosterno bistriato ; 
mesosterno tenuissime marginato ; tibiis valde dilatatis. 

L. 6i mill. 

Oblong-oval, convex, black and shining ; the head ira- 
punctate, slightly impressed in front, frontal stria very fine, 
almost obsolete ; the thorax, surface smooth, lateral stria 
near the edge, continuing at the base as far as the first 
dorsal stria, anteriorly it is interrupted behind the eyes, but 
it is continued as a straight line behind the head, scutellar 
puncture small and shallow ; the elytra, the inner sub- 
humeral stria is a little shortened at the base, outer humeral 
is broken behind the middle, the dorsal striae 1-3 are 
complete, 2 markedly turning inwards at the base, the 
fourth stria is complete and like the second turns in at the 
base and continues along it nearly to the suture, 5 apical 
and rather short, sutural apical and almost dimidiate ; the 
propygidium is somewhat coarsely punctured, punctures 
somewhat irregular and not closely set, the points of the 
pygidium are smaller ; the prosternum is bistriate, striae 
widening out between the coxae and aie near together 
anteriorly ; the mesosternum has a fine marginal stria which 
is straight anteriorly and not easily seen, behind the 
marginal stria is an arched stria clearly marked and common 
to it and the metasternum ; the tibiae are widely dilated. 

I have assigned this species to Discoscelis, notwithstanding 
its large size. 

Hah. Mar de Hespanha, Minas Geraes, Brazil. 



Notes on Guiana Birds. 261 



XXXIV. — Notes on Guiana Birds. By Lord Brabourne, 
F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., and Charles Chubb, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., 
Zoological Department, British Museum. 

In the preparation of the List of the Birds of South America 
we have been allowed access to the very fine collection of 
British Guiana birds in thepossession of Mr. F. V. McConnell, 
and in examining some of the species noticed the items 
mentioned below. 

We have also to thank the Hon. Walter Rothschild for 
the loan of specimens which has helped us in the elucidation 
of some of the more difficult points. 

We find that Rhamphastos aragari, Linn., is not appli- 
cable to the Guiana bird, as the author attributes it to the 
Brazilian species : cfr. Syst. Nat. i, p. 104; (1758) (Brazil), 
ex Marcgrave. R. atricollis, P. L. S. Mailer, Syst. Nat., 
Suppl. p. 83 (1776), was also founded on the Brazilian 
form, ex Buffon. 

Wied appears to be the first author to recognize the true 
Pteroglossus aracari (Linn.), cfr. Beitr. Naturg. Bras. iv. 
p. 283 (1831) ; and P. iviedii, Sturm, must be allocated as a 
synonym of P. aracari (Linn.). 

The habitat of this species is Eastern Brazil, from Para to 
Rio de Janeiro. 

The Guiana bird therefore requires a name, for which we 
pi'opose 

Pteroglossus roraima, nom. nov. pro Pteroglossus aragari, 
auctorura (nee Linn.). 

This species is most nearly allied to P. aragari (Linn.), 
from Eastern Brazil, but is distinguished by the broad black 
longitudinal band on the ridge of the culraen and the citron- 
yellow colour on the breast and abdomen, instead of the 
narrow black band on the culmen and the sulphur-yellow of 
the underparts, as in the Brazilian form. 

The following notes have been compiled on a large 
number of examples of the Thryothorus coraya group of 
Wrens, which indicates four different races, or subspecies. 
T. coraya (Gmel.) was founded on Daubenton''s plate, which 
bird was supposed to have come from Cayenne. Ridgway 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. x. 18 



262 Notes on Guiana Birds. 

accepted birds from Britisli Guiana as typical, and named 
the French Guiana form T. oyapocensis. 

Bei'lepsch, arguing that Cayenne was in French Guiana, 
concluded that E-idgway had named the wrong bii*d, and 
restricting T. coraya to the French Guiana ( = Cayenne) 
form_, named the British Guiana bird T. ridgwayi. 

Reference to Daubenton's plate, however, proves Ilidgway 
to be right, as, notwithstanding the locality " Cayenne/' the 
French Guiana birds do not agree with Daubenton's figure ; 
but British Guiana specimens collected at lloraima are 
almost identical in every detail; consequently we should 
select lloraima, British Guiana, as the type locality of 
T. coraya (Gmel.), notwithstanding the locality being given 
as Cayenne. 

The series from Roraima would therefore be known as 

Thryothorus coraya coraya. 

A series of examples from Bartica Grove, British Guiana, 
however, differ fi'om T. coraya coraya in the deeper chestnut 
colour of the back and the darker and duller fulvous on the 
chest and abdomen. This form we propose to name 

Thryothorus coraya herlepschi, subsp. n. 

The French Guiana birds must be called 

Thryothorus oyapocensis oyapocensis. 

We consider this form to be specifically distinct from 
T. coraya. Subspecies of this race, however, are existent, as 
a series from Ituribisci differ from T. oyapocensis oyapo- 
censis in the darker coloration of the head, deeper chestnut 
of the back, and the more tawny colour of the abdomen. We 
propose, therefore, to separate this form under the name of 

Thryothorus oyapocensis ituribisciensis, subsp. n. 

We may remark also that we have examined a good series, 
both male and female, of the Bush-Shrike from British Guiana, 
which has been erroneously called Thamnophilus major by 
many authors, but we find it to be identical with T. burbce^ 
Pelzeln. 



Bihliographical Notice, 263 

XXXV. — Description of a new Cichlid Fish from the Lower 
Niger. By G. A. Boulengeu, F.R.S. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Pelmatochromis arnoldi. 

Deptli of body 2\ to 2| times in total length, length of 
head 3 times. Head I5 to If times as long as broad; snout 
roundedj with concave upper profile, much broader than 
long, as long as the eye, which is 3^ times in length of head, 
1^ to ]5 times in interorbital width, and slightly exceeds 
pra^orbital deptli ; mouth moderate, extending to between 
nostril and eye ; teeth small, in 3 series, 60 to 70 in outer 
series of upper jaw; 3 or 4 series of scales on the cheek, 
width of scaly part equal to diameter of eye. Gill-rakers 
short, 9 on lower part of anterior arch. Uorsal XV-XVI 
10-11, spines gradually increasing in length to the last, 
which measures nearly ^ length of head ; median soft rays 
produced into filaments, as long as or a little longer than 
head. Anal III 8-9 ; third spine as long as or slightly 
longer than longest dorsal. Pectoral ^ to | length of head, 
not reaching origin of anal. Ventral produced into a fila- 
ment, extending beyond origin of anal. Caudal rounded. 
Caudal peduncle a little deeper than long. Scales cycloid, 
28 j~ ; lateral lines g^y- Brownish or dark olive, with five 
indistinct dark bars and six large, blackish, round spots on 
each side, the first being the opercular spot ; fins greyish, 
soft dorsal, anal, and caudal with small blackish spots. 

Total length 90 mm. 

Three specimens from the Lower Niger, presented to the 
British Museum by Mr. J. Paul Arnold, of Hamburg. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE. 

Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture in India. Entomological 
Series. Yol. IV. No. 1. Eri Silk. By H. Maxw£LL-Lefeoy 
and C. C. Ghosh, Agricultural llesearch Institute, Pusa. Pp. 130, 
pis. ix., and 13 figures in the text. May 1912. Price Es. 3. 

The Eri silkmoth is one of the closely allied species belonging to 
the genus Philosamia of Grote, of which P. ajnthia, Drury, from 
Java, is typical. The present species, P. lunula of Walker, feeds on 
the castor-oil plant, and is largely reared for its silk in various parts 
of India. As the cocoon is open at the end, there is no occasion to 



264 Miscellaneous. 

destroy the insect to obtain the silk, as is necessary in the case of 
the mulberry silkworm. The Eri silkworm is a much larger insect, 
and belongs, not to the family Bombycida3, like the mulberry silk- 
worm, Bomhyx mori, but to the Saturniidte, or Emperor Moths (one 
species of which is found in Britain), and is not very distantly 
allied to Attacus atla^, the largest known moth, which, like the Eri, 
is also an Indian species. 

The present monograph gives us the full history of the Eri silk- 
moth in all its stages, illustrated, with elaborate instructions for 
rearing and for preparing the silk. It concludes with chapters on 
the castor-oil plant and on the Eri silk industry. We may add 
that the Eri silkmoth is very closely allied to the Ailanihus silk- 
moth, the cultivation of which Dr. Alexander Wallace attempted to 
introduce into England some years ago, with a moderate amount of 
success. W. F. K". 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

A Review of South-African Land-Mollusca belonging to tlie Family 
Zonitidae. By Lt. -Colonel H. H. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S. &c. 

It was at first contemplated publishing the third and concluding 
part dealing with species of the Peltatinse in the summer of this 
year. This has been found impossible, owing to insufiicient data 
relating to two species — corneus and jpoeppigi — and the doubtful 
identification of the shells of species dissected ; this could not be 
settled until the types of these species had been seen. These are 
fortunately in the museum at Stettin. Dr. Heinrich Dohrn, to 
whom I recently wrote, has courteously promised assistance, but, 
owing to the collections in his charge being packed up pending 
transfer to new buildings, they cannot be got at until next winter. 

Besides this, further spirit-specimens of some species are wanted 
from Natal ; these Mr. H. C. Burnup will endeavour to obtain, but 
he tells me they cannot be secured until the right season comes 
round, viz. midsummer, so that very little more can be done in this 
family until we have entered on 1913. 



Errata in Dr. Artibdcl-Christie-Linde's jpaper in the 
^ Annals' for June 1912. 

Page 610, line 24, for the number of premolars read the number 
of upper premolars. 

Page 611, line 9, for I, I, I, I^ (C) P, P, (P3) P, read 
IxI.l3l.(C)P,P.(P3)P.M,M,M3. 



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CONTENTS OF NUMBER b%.— Eighth Series. 

I'.ge 

XVIII. Ileport on the Annelida Polycbasta collected in the North 
Sea and adjacent parts by the Scotch Fishery Board Vessel 
' Goldseeker.' — Part I. Amphinomidce to Sigalionidoe. By William 
Small, M.A., B.Sc, Gatty Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews. 
(Plate VI.) 105 

XIX. Descriptions of new Batrachians from the Andes of South 
America, preserved in the British Museum. By G. A. Boulenger, 
F.R.S 185 

XX. New or little-known Ethiopian Hemiptera. By E. Bebgeoth, 
C,M.Z.S 191 

XXI. LygistorrTiina urichi, a new Mycetophilid from Trinidad. 

By F. W. Edwabds, B.A., F.E.S 203 

XXII. A new Vespertilionine Bat from Angola. By Oldfikld 
Thomas 204 

XXIII. On a Species of Nymphon from the North Pacific. By 
Flora M. Scott, M.A., University College, Dundee. (Plate VII.) . . 20G 

XXIV. A Eevision of the South-American Siluroid Fishes of the 
Genus Corycloras, with a List of the Specimens in the British 
Museum (Natural History). By C. Tate Regan, M.A 209 

XXV. Some Considerations in regard to the Classification of the 
Order Thysanoptera. By IIichard S. Bagnall, F.L.S., F.E.S., Hope 
Department of Zoology, University Museum, Oxford 220 

XXVI. Entomological Notes from the London School of Tropical 
Medicine. — No. IV. Blood-sucking Diptera from Port Darwin, 
Australia. By Sophia L. M. Summers, M.A., B.Sc, Carnegie Student 

of Aberdeen University 222 

XXVII. Two new Species of Nasua. By Oldfield Thomas .... 228 

XXVIII. Description of a new Desert-Lark from the Central 
Western Sahara. By Ernst Hartert 230 

XXIX. New Species of Heterocera from Costa Ilica. — XVII. 

By W. ScHAus, F.Z.S 231 

XXX. A new Species of Tabanus from German East Africa, in the 
British Museum (Natural History). By Ernest E. xIusten 240 

XXXI. On a new Species of Oligoneuria {Ephemeridce) from 
British East Africa. By Rev. A. E. Eaton 243 

XXXII. Some new Species of Ipidce and Platypodidm in the 
British Museum. By Lt.-Col. Winn Sampson, F.E.S 245 

XXXIII. On new Species of Histeridce and Notices of others. 

By G. Leavis, F.L.S 250 

XXXIV. Notes on Guiana Birds. By Lord Brabourne, F.Z.S., 
M.B.O.U., and Charles Chubb, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., Zoological De- 
partment, British Museum 261 

XXXV. Description of a new Cichlid Fish from the Lower 
Niger. By G. A. Boulengbr, F.B.S 263 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE. 
Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture iu India. Entomological 
Series. Vol. IV. No. 1. Eri Silk. By H. Maxwell-Lefkoi- 
and C. C. Ghosh, Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa ih. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
A Review of South-African Land-Mollusca belonging to the Family 

Zonitidce. By L.-Col. H. H. Godwin- Austen, F.R.S. &c 264 

Errata in Dr. Arnback-Christie-Linde's paper in the ' Annals ' for 

June 1912 ib. 



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MAGAZINE OF NATUEAL HISTORY. 

[EIGHTH SERIES.] 
No. 57. SEPTEMBER 1913. 



XXXVI,— ^T/2e Classification of the Blennioid Fishes. 
By C. Tate Regan, M.A. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

The Blennioids may be defined as Percomorplious Teleosts 
with th(3 pelvic fins jugular or mental, each of a spine and 
four soft rays or still further reduced, with the dorsal and 
anal lays typically corresponding in number to the vertebrae, 
each basal bone attached to its own neurtil or ha3mal spine 
(rays more numerous in Ophidiiformes), with well-developed 
wings of the parasphenoid ascending in front of the prootics, 
atid with all or most of the ribs inserted on strong para- 
pophyses. The limits and contents of the group are indicated 
in the following scheme : — ^ 



Order PERCOMORPHI. 
Suborder Blennioidea. 

1. Bleyiniiformes : Blenniid8e,Anarrhichadid8e,CongrogadldaB, 

Notograptidae. 

2* Cliniforme$ : 01inid?e, Dactyloscopida?, Xiphidiontidaj, 
SticliseidsB, Pliolididse, Lumpenidas, Microdesmida?, 
Ptilicbthyida;, Zoarcidai, Sc) talinidie, Rhodichthyidaj. 

3. Ophidiiformes ; Brotulidse, Ophidiidaj, Fierasferidse, 
Ann. tfc Mag. N. Hist. ISer. 8. Vol. x. 19 



2G6 Mr. C. T. Regan on the 

The principal genera usually regarded as Blennioid and 
now excluded from the group are Fataecus, Acanthoclinus, 
and Gadopsis. 

Fataecus proves to be a Scorpsenoid related to Oiiathan- 
acanthus {cf. Gill, P.oc. U.S. Nat. Mu?. xiv. 1891, p._701). 

Acanthoclinus is related to F/esiops, differing- especially in 
the absence of a subocular shelf, the increased number o£ 
vertebrae and of dorsal and anal spines, the more advanced 
pelvic tins with fewer rays, the smaller scales, and the 
additional lateral lines. Tlie pelvic fin of Plesiops has a 
.t^pine and four soft rays, the first long, thick, and bifid, the 
third and fourth small and slender; tlvAt of Ac(i7ithocltnus 
differs only in the absence of the two inner rays. Acantho- 
clinus hidicus, Day, 1888, has large scales and only one 
lateral line ; I propose for it the new generic name Acantho- 
plesiops. 

Gadopsis has the pelvic fins jugular, reduced to a small 
P])ine and a bifid ray; the crowding of the posterior dorsal 
and anal rays, the intervention of the prootic between para- 
sphenoid and alisphenoid, the three anal spines, &c. are against 
Blennioid relationships ; this genus is a Percoid of isolated 
position. 

Division 1. BlenniifORMES. 

Each basal bone of the dorsal and anal fins attached to its 
own neural or.hfemal spine. Suborbital ring stout, rigid; 
prasorbital expanded inwards and firmly united with the 
lateral ethmoid ; postorbital similarly expanded and solidly 
united to a lateral expansion of the frontal. 

Family 1. Blenniidae. 

Body naked. Spinous and soft-rayed portions of the 
dorsal fin subcqual ; 1 or 2 anal spines; caudal free, with 
about 13 principal rays ; pelvics jugular, each of a small 
spine and 2 to 4 simple rays. JMouth not protractile; max- 
illary almost or quite excluded from the gape; jaws with a 
single series of slender close-set teeth, resembling the teeth 
of a comb, within which curved canines may be developed; 
))alate usually toothless. Palatines separated by the vomer ; 
pterygoid connecting palatine with quadrate. Parietals 
separated by the supraoccipital ; exoccipital condyles wide 
apart ; skull more or less contracted and compressed imme- 
diately behind the postorbital expansions of the frontals ; 
sphenotic remote from the orbit. Post-temporal forked ; two 
post-clcithra on each side ; hypercoracoid and hypocoracoid 



Classification of the Blennioid Fishes. 



267 



in contact, narrow, especially the latter, which is not deve- 
loped below the base of the pectoral fin ; radials elongate, 
4 in number (fig. 1, A) ; pelvic bones short, firmly attached 
at the cleithral symphysis. 

Principal genera : Ophioblennius, ISlennius, Salarias^ 
Andamia, ChasmodeSy Petroscirtes, Xiphasia, from tropical 
and temperate seas. 

In Ophiohlennius wehbii I find that the comb-like outer 
series of teeth is developed, althongli very small ; this genus 
diflers from other Blenniidse in tlie presence of syniphysial 
canines and of more than one lateral canine in tiie lower jaw. 
Xiphasia has the iiead, mouth, teeth, gill-openings, &c. of 
Petroscirtes, but diflfers from that genus in the very long tail 
and greatly increased number of fin-rays and vertebrae. 



Fig. 1. 




A. B. 

Pectoral arcli of A. Bhnnius bufo and B. Anarrhichas lupus. 

pfte, post-temporal ; scl, supra-cleithrum ; d, cleithrum ; pel, postT 
cleithrum ; sc, hypercoracoid ; cor, hypocoracoid ; r, radials. 

Family 2. Anarrhichadidse *. 
Body naked or with vestigial scales. Dorsal fin formed 

* Since tliis paper was written Dr. Gill lias issued a memoir entitled 
^' Notes on the Structure and Habits of the Wolffishes" (Proc. U.S. Nat. 
Mus. xxxix. 1911, pp. 157-187, pis. xvii.-sxviii.j — a valuable account 
of the fishes of this family. 

19* 



268 Mr. C. T. Regan on the 

entirely of flexible spines ; caudal witli about 13 principnl 
rays; pelvics absent. Mouth not protractile; prfemaxil- 
laries fixed; maxillary entering the gape; jaws with conical 
canines anteriorly ; strong molar teeth at the sides of the 
lower jaw and on the vomer and palatines ; pterygoid con- 
necting jialatine with quadrate. Parietals separated by the 
supraoccipital ; exoccipital condyles separate. Post-temporal 
simple, the lower fork represented by a ligament; no post- 
cleithra; liypercoracoid and hypocoracoid well developed, 
widely separated by cartilage ; radials plate-like, not 
elongate (fig. 1, B). 

Anarrhichas and Anarrhichthys, with a few species, are 
large fishes of the noithern seas. In Anarrhichas lupus I 
count 77 vertebise (26-f51), and in the eel-shaped Arinr- 
rhichth7/t, with about 250 dorsal rays, there are probably 
about 250 vertebrse. 

L. A. Adams (Bull. Univ. Kansas, 1908, pp. 331-355, 
pis. xxv.-xxxvi.) has given a detailed description of the 
skull of Anarrhichthys. Anarrhichas is very similar, and 
both show considerable resemblance to Bhnnius in cranial 
structure. 

Family 3. Congrogadidae. 

Body covered with small scales. Caudal of 9 or 10 rays, 
joined to the dorsal and anal ; all the fin-rays articulated, 
"or the first of the dorsal spinous ; pelvics, if present, jugular, 
1- or 2- rayed, appearing as a pair of filaments. Mouth pro- 
tractile, with strongly developed lips; maxillary excluded 
from the gape ; jaws with a single series of conical or some- 
what compressed teeth ; palate usually toothless. Palatines 
separated by the vomer ; pterygoid unconnected with palatine 
or mesopterygoid, curved backwards above the quadrate 
(fio. 2j B). Parietals separated by the supraoccipital; ex- 
occipital condyles almost contiguous. Post-temporal forked; 
liypercoracoid and hypocoracoid in contact, rather narrow ; 
radials small, hourglass-shaped. 

Synopsis of the Genera. 

I. No dorsal spine ; gill-iuembranes united, free from the isthmus ; 

branchiostegals ; lateral line incomplete ; no pelvic tins. 

1 . Congnxjttdus. 

II. First dorsal ray a short spine ; gill-membianes joined to the 

isthmus ; 4 branchiostegals. 

Lateral line incomplete ; pelvic tins present 3. Bleyjnotlcamus. 

Lateral line complete ; no pelvic fins o. Haiiophis. 

Three lateral lines ; pelvic tins present 4. Hctlidtsmus, 



Classijicalion of the Blennioid Fishes. 



269 



Conqrogadus (including Hierichihys) comprises tliree species 
from Japan, tlie East Indies, and Northern Austialia. 

Bleniwdesmus scapidaris, (Jiintli., from llockluunptoti, 



Fi"-. 2. 











pmr 



wx 






^'^ dp'^'an ^^ 



pwx 



PfP^ hm pal ^ 





Jaws, suspensoriiim, and opercular bones of A. Brotida jayakari, 
B. Congrogadus subducms, and C. Zoarces vivqMi'us. 

pmx, prsemaxillary ; mr, maxillary ; smx, supra-maxillary ; deii, dentar}' ; 
ar, articulare ; cm, angulare ; pal, palatine ; 2^t, pterygoid ; ms, meso- 
pterygoid ; mt, metapterygoid ; hm, hyomandibular ; si/, symplectic ; 
g, quadrate ; pop, prseoperculum ; op, operculum ; sop, suboperculum ; 
top, iuteroperculum. 



Haliophis mactdatus, Riipp., from tlie Rftd Sea, and IlaH- 
desinus scapularis, Giintli., from Port Elizabeth, resemble 
each other in the presence of a spot or ocellus above the 



270 Mr. C. T. Regan on the 

pectoral fin^ as is indicated by the specific names ; all are 
small littoral forms. 

I have examined the skeleton o£ CongrOgadus stthducens, 
and I liave ascertained that Halidesmus agrees with it in the 
structure of the pterygoid. 

Family 4. Notograptidae. 

Body covered with small scales. Vertical fins confluent ; 
each dorsal and anal ray, except the last two, which are 
branched, a slender pointed spine to which a distal filament 
is attached posteriorly ; caudal of 11 branched rays ; pelvics 
small, jugular, 1-rayed, appearing as a pair of simple fila- 
ment.s. Mouth not ])rotractile ; a short mental barbel; 
maxillary excluded from the gape^ reduced to a slender rod ; 
broad bands of small pointed teeth in the jaws and on the 
palatines, which nearly meet in the middle line below the 
toothless vomer ; pterygoid connecting palatine with quad- 
rate. Parietals meeting above the supraoccipital ; exoccipital 
condyles wide apart. Post-temporal forked 3 hypercoracoid 
and by pocoracoid well developed, in contact ; radials hourglass- 
shaped. 

This family includes but a t^ingle species, Notograptus 
gttttahcs, Giinth., rei)resented in the 13ritish Museum by three 
examples from Cape York and Bowen. 

Division 2. Clinifokmes. 

Each basal bone of the dorsal and anal fins attached to 
its own neural or haemal spine. Suborbital ring laminar, 
movable. Exoccipital condyles wide apart. 

Family 1. Clinidae. 

Body Usually scaly. Dorsal wath spinous portion more 
extended than the soft, or with all the rays spinous ; 1 or 2 
anal spines j caudal free, with about 13 principal rays ; 
pectorals broad^based ; pelvics jugular, of a spine and 3 or 4 
simple articulated rays, 2 or 3 of which are usually thickened, 
closely articulated and free distally. Gill-membranes united, 
free from isthmus. Mouth protractile; conical or villiforra 
teeth in jaws and often on vomer and palatines. Suborbitals 
not stout ; prgeorbital a lamina with a small pit on its upper 
edge articulating with a small facet on the lateral ethmoid ; 
postorbital a lamina adherent by its upper edge to the skulK 
Poslorbital part of skull of nearly equal width throughout ; 



Classification of the Blenni'oi'd Fishes. 271 

parietals separated by supraoccipital ; a basisphenoid ; para- 
sphenoid lueeting alisphenoids ; exoccipital condyles wide 
aparf. Post-temporal I'orked ; 2 post-cleitlua on eacli side ; 
4 flattened radials inserted on liypercoracoid and liypo- 
coracoid, which are in contact and well-developed, the latter 
continued forward below the base of the pectoral. Pelvic 
bones erect lamina? that meet above and enclose a chamber 
between them. Vertebrae 34 to 57 (10-22 + 24-35) or more ; 
prsecaudals with pavapophyses from the sixth or seventh to the 
last. 

The principal genera are: Heteroslichus, Clinus, Gohio- 
chnus, Sticharium, Emnion, Neoclinus, Einhlemaria^ Cristiceps, 
ExerpeSj Auchenopteras, Tripterygiwn, Lepidohlennius^ from 
tropical and temperate seas. 

Family 2. Dactyloscopidae. 

Body scaly; a single lateral line. Dorsal with the spinous 
portion less extended than the soft ; anal long, preceded by 
2 spines ; caudal free^ with 10 or 11 principal rays ; pectorals 
broad-based, somewhat procurrent below ; pelvics jugular, 
each of a sn)all spine and 3 simple articulated rays. Mouth 
protractile ; jaws with bands of cardiform or villiform teeth ; 
palate toothless. Operculum fringed ; gill-membranes nob 
U!iited, free from the isthmus. Head-skeleton as in the 
Clinidse, except that there is no basisphenoid ; parasphenoid 
meeting frontals. Pectoral arch as in the Clinidai, except 
that the hypercoracidd and hypocoracoid are separated and 
the two lower radials are inserted on the cleitlirum (tig. 3, 1) ; 
pelvic bones formed exactly as in the CliniJas. 

Four genera: Gillellus, Dactylo^copus^ Dacttjlagnusy and 
Myxodugyius, from the coasts of tropical America. 

In Dactyloscopus tridigitatus I count 46 vertebrge (12 +'34) ; 
there are 10 pairs of ribs, the last 7 inserted on parapaphyses. 



Family 3. Xiphidiontidae. 

Body covered with small scales; 3 or 4 lateral lines with 
numerous vertical branches. Vertical fins confluent; dorsal 
formed of spines only ; anal long; caudal with 15 branched 
rays; pectorals small ; pelvics absent. Moutli small, scarcely 
protractile ; jaws with conical or villiform teeth and with 
anterior canines ; palate toothless. Gill-membranes united, 
free from the isthmus. Head-skeleton as in the Clinida?, 
except that there is no basisphenoid ; parasphenoid meeting 



272 



Mr. C. T. Eegan on the 



frontals. Pectoral arch much as in the Dactyloscopidre, 
except that the coraeoids and radials are smaller (figi 3, 2). 




cor p/ 

Bones at base of pectoral fin of 1. Dactyloscopvs tridigitatiis and 2. Xi- 
phidion cMnis. Pectoral arch of 3. Zoarces vivipai'us and 4. Brotula 
jayakari. 

Lettering as in fig. 1 ; pv, pelvis; 



Xiphidion comprises a few species, eel-shaped shore-fishes 
of the North Pacific. 

1h Xiphidion chirus I count 76 vertebrae (24 -|- 52) ; para- 
pophyses are developed on the prsecaudals from the fourth. 

Family 4. Stichseidae. 

Body usually scaly. Caudal either free or united with 
the dorsal and anal, usually with 15 principal rays. Pelvic 
fin?^ when present, jugular, with the soft rays normally 
branched. Parietals separated by supraoccipital ; no basi- 
sphenoid ; parasphenoid meeting frontals. Praeorbital with 
an inner shelf attached anteriorly to the posterior face of 
lateral ethmoid ; suborbitals well ossified ; exoccipital con- 
dyles above the basioccipital, with articulating surfaces 
looking downwards and backwards ; centrum of first vertebra 



Classification of (he Bleanioid Fishes. 273 

concave anteriorly; normal parapo|)liyses on most of the 
prsBcaudal vertebrae. Post-temporal forked ; iiypercoracoid 
and hypocoracoid well-developed, in contact or scarcely 
separated; radials sometimes hourglass-shaped, but usually 
rather short and squarish, inserted on the coracoids. Pelvic 
bones slender, elongate, not expanded vertically. 
The numerous genera may be arranged thus : — 

I. Dorsal with a posterior soft-rayed portion. 

hictyosoma, £!ulophias, Neozoarces, Cebedichthys, &c. 

II. Dorsal fin of spines only. 

Chirolophiis, StathmonoUis, Atiojylarchus, Opidho- 
centrus, Plagiogram7nus, Stichceus, Dinogunnellus, 
CryptacanthodeSf &c. 

Ail are inhabitants of Arctic or northern seas. 

Family 5. Pholididae. 

Closely related to the Stichasidse, differing in that tho 
prsecaudal parapophyses are united to form closed hseuial 
arches. The body is elongate, compressed, covered with 
very small scales ; there is no lateral line. The vertical fins 
are confluent ; the dorsal is long and low, of 75 to 100 short 
spines ; the anal, preceded by 1 or 2 spines, is about half as 
long as the dorsal ; the pectorals are rather small, placed low, 
and the pelvics, when present, are formed each of a s[)ine and 
one small soft ray. The mouth is rather small, oblique, with 
conical or villiform teeth in the jaws and sometimes on the 
palate ; the gill^membranes are united, free from the isthmus. 

Pholis, Apodichthys, &c., small shore-fishes of Arctic and 
nortiiern seas. 

Family 6. Lumpenidae. 

Differs from the Stichseidje especially in that the praeorbital 
is represented by the inner shelf only, the suborbitals are not 
ossified, and the anterior surface of the first vertebra is 
convex, fitting into the single concavity formed by the basi- 
occipital and by the laterally placed exoccipital condyles. 

The body is very elongate, little compressed, covered with 
small scales ; the lateral line is indistinct or absent. The 
caudal, of 13 principal rays, is free ; the dorsal is long, of 55 
to 75 slender spines ; the anal, preceded by 2 or 3 spines, is 
more than half as long as the dorsal ; the pectorals are well 
developed and each pelvic is formed of a spine and 3 or 4 
branched rays. The head is longer, the eyes larger, and the 
mouth less oblique than i)i the Xiphidiontidse or Pholididje; 



274 Mr. C. T. Regan on the 

small conical teeth are present in the jaws and sometimes on 
tlie palate; the gill-openings are rather wide, the gill- 
membranes being joined to the isthmus below the pra^- 
operculum. 

\\\ Lumpemis lamjyetriformis there are 81 vertebrae (28 + 
63) ; the skull has the interorbital region narrower and the 
postorbital part shorter and flatter above tlian in Chirolophus, 
Dictt/osoma, Pholis, &c. 

It is doubtful whether more than one genus is really 
definable : Lumiyenus, Ueinh., with a few species from 
Arctic and northern seas. 

Family 7. Microdesmidae. 

Body elongate, covered with small scales ; no lateral line. 
Vertical fins confluent ; dorsal long, anteriorly of slender 
spines, posteriorly of soft rays ; anal without spines; caudal 
of 15 principal rays ; pelvics subthoracic, of a snuill spine 
and 1 or 2 soft rays. Mouth small, not protractile, terminal, 
oblique, with the lower jaw prominent ; teeth in the jaws 
only; eyes small; suborbitals apparently not ossified; gill- 
openings small oblique slits in front of the lower part of the 
pectorals. 

Three species, from the Pacific coast of Tropical America, 
have been referred to two genera, Microdesmus and Ctrdale. 
In Microdesmus dipus, Giinth., I find that each pelvic Un 
consists of a small spine and 2 soft rays, the outer simple, 
the inner bifid distally ; in some features this species recalls 
the Stichasid Cehedichthys. 

Family 8. Ptilichtliyidse. 

Ptilichthys goodei^ Bean, from the North Pacific, has the 
naked body extremely elongate, tapering posteriorly, without 
caudal fin ; the anterior part of the dorsal fin is formed of 
short isolated spines, and the soft dorsal and anal are many- 
rayed ; there are no pelvic fins. There is a broad mental 
barbel ; the mouth is terminal, non-protractile ; the teeth 
form a singla series in the jaws; the gill-membranes are 
united but free from the isthmus, and the gill-openings are 
restricted from above. According to Gilbert * the post- 
temporal is not forked, but is a very slender bony rod; the 
coracoids are well-developed and are not separated by carti- 
lage ; the radials are large, hourglass-shaped, one on the 

* Gilbert, in Jord. & Everm. Fish. N. Amer. iii. pp. 2451-2452 (1898). 



Classification of the Blennioid Fishes. 



275 



as IS 



liypercoracoid and three on the liypocoracoid. If, 
probable, the fin-rays correspond to the myotomes, the 
vertebrae number about 235. 



Family 9. Zoarcidse. 

There are no spinous fin-rays, except sometimes a few 
posterior rays of the dorsal, the ventral fins are confident and 
the pelvic fins, when present, are small, jugular. The mouth 
is non-protractile, the suborbitals are delicate, attached as in 
the Clinidae, and the gill-membranes are joined to the isthmus. 
The width of the gill-openino-s is extraordinarily variable; in 
]\lelanodigma they are small foianiina, in Lycodapus and 
Bothrocara they extend forward to below the eye; other 
genera are intermediate. 

I have exan)ined the skeleton in Zoarces and Ly codes. 
The skull is flatfish above, with the fronfals narrowed 
between and expanded behind the orbits; the parietals are 

Fi-. 4. 







p pto spo -p ptO'^ 
• • ' ' opo- 





prd^^ asp 'p^ V' 

Skull of Zoarces vivlparus from above, from the side, and from behind. 

n, nasal ; eth, mesethmoid ; leth, lateral ethmoid ; v, vomer ; psp, para- 
sphenoid ; asp, alisphenoid ; /, frontal ; p, parietal ; soc, supra- 
occipital ; eoc, exoccipital ; hoc, basioccipital ; ^j?'o, prootic ; spo^ 
sphenotic ; pto, pterotic ; epo, epiotic ; opo, opisthotic. 

separated by the supiaoccipital, which has a feeble crest or 
none ; the exoccipital condyles are widely separated and the 
wing of the parasphenoid meets a descending process of the 
frontal ; the opisthotic is small, the pterotic elongate, and 
the sphenotic not very prominent. These features are shown 
in the figures of the skull of Zoarces viviparus (fig. 4), from 



276 Mr. C. T. Regan on the 

wliich Lycodes frigidas differs chiefly in tlie greater length 
of the narrow orbital^ portion of the frontals. Tlie jaws, 
suspensorium, and opercles (fig. 2, C) are much as in the 
Stichajidge, as is the pectoral arch except for the separation 
of tlie coracoids by cartilage (fig. 3, 3). The vertebra are 
numerous, 112 (24 + 88) in Zoarces and 102 (22 + 80) in 
Lycodes ; strong transverse processes are present on the 
prsecaudals from the first to the last ; the ribs are slender. 

A variety of forms, chiefly from Arctic and northern seas, 
but with Antarctic representatives olso. 

The principal genera are : Zoarces, Lycodes, Emhryx, Lyco^ 
dopsis, Aprodon, Lycenchelys, Lycodonus, Lyconema, Melano^ 
stigma, Gymnelis, Bothrocara, Lycodapus^ Phucocoetes^ lluo- 
cetes, Platea, Maynea. 

Lycodapus, Gilbert, includes small deep-sea fishes of the 
North Pacific, and has been made the type of a distinct 
family and placed near the Fierasferidse. But the head and 
mouth recall those of Lycodopsis or Bothrocara, the gill- 
membianes join the isthmus between the rami of the lower 
jaw (at least in L . Jierasfer) , and the dorsal and anal rays 
correspond in number to tlie myotomes. 

Two other aberrant genera, Scytalina and Rhodichthys, are 
closely related to the Zoarcidae, but may for the present be 
regarded as the types of separate families. 

Family 10. Scytalinidae. 

Scytalina cerdale is a small eel-like fish known only from 
specimens obtained on the shores of Waadda Island, in the 
Straits of Juan de Fuca, where it lives in the wet shingle. 
The very small eyes placed far forward and the tumid cheeks 
give it a physiognomy unlike that of the Zoarcidse ; the gill- 
membranes are united, but not joined to the isthmus j the 
pectoral fins are small and the privies absent. The skull 
is much more depressed than that of Zoarces or Lycodes, the 
frontals gradually increase in breadth backwards, and the 
union of the parasphenoid and frontals is very elongate, 
almost as in the Symbianchidse. The parietals, occipital and 
otic bones are much as in Zoarces ; the suspensorium, opercles, 
and pectoral arch are also as in Zoarces, except that the very 
small coracoidi are in contact ; the vertebrae number 69 
(22 + 47); strong transverse processes are present on the 
prsecaudals from the third to the last. 



Glasdfication of the Dlennioid Fishes. 277 

Family 11. Rhodichthyidae. 

Bhodi'chthys regina is known to me only from Collett's 
description and figures* of the type, 297 mm. in total 
lengtli, from the depths of the North Atlantic ; it is a very 
remarkable fish, naked, translucent, and bright red in colour; 
it agrees with the Zoarcida3 in the restricted gill-openings, 
the jugular position of the pelvic fins, and the correspondence 
between tiie fin-rays and the myotomes. The vent is placed 
at the throat and each pelvic fin is a long bifid filament, 
characters which indicate that this fish should probably rank 
as the type of a separate family. 

Division 3. Ophidiifobmes. 

Dorsal and anal basalia outnumbering the corresponding 
neural or haemal spines. Suborbital ring, when ossified, as in 
the Cliniformes. Operculum V-shaped. No spinous fin-rays. 
Exoccipital condyles meeting above the basioccipital ; ante- 
rior face of first centrum convex, fitting the slight concavity 
of the basioccipital. 

The three families have also the following characters in 
common : — 

Pelvic fins, when present, jugular or mental, close to- 
gether, each of 1 or 2 filamentous rays. Teeth cardiform or 
villiform, in bands in the jaws and usually on the vomer and 
palatines ; prsemaxillavies wnth short ascending processes ; 
maxillaries well developed, expanded behind. Palatine with 
a maxillary process ; pterygoid normally connected with 
))alatine and quadrate ; hyoraandibular very broad ; oper- 
culum V-shaped, the upper fork usually forming a sharp 
spine; suboperculum large ; 6 to 8 branchiostegals. Cranium 
elongate, with the postorbital portion longer than the orbito- 
rostral and the parasphenoid united with the frontals in front 
of the pro-otics and alisphenoids ; ethmoid keeled. Post- 
temporal more or less distinctly forked ; coracoids weakly 
ossified; pectoral radials 4, moderate. First two vertebrae 
short ; third with a sessile rib; which is expanded to support 
the air-bladder. 

Family 1, Brotulidae. 

The pelvic fins, when present, are jugular and the vent is 
remote from the head. As a rule the long dorsal and anal 

* Norwegian N. Atlantic Exped. Fish. p. l53, pi, v, (1880). 



278 Mr. C. T. Regan on the 

fins are confluent with the reduced caudal, but tlie latter may 
be well-developed and tree {Dinematicht/n/s) or may be 
absent. "J'he gill-openings are wide, with the gill-membranes 
separate and free from the isthmus (except in Dennatopsis). 
Tiie moutli is usually protractile. 

This family includes the blind cave-fishes of Cuba {Stygi- 
cola and Lucifuga?) as well as a number of marine forms, some 
of those inhabiting the depths of the sea being extraordinarily 
aberrant (^Tauredophidium, Aphyonus, Typklonus, Acan- 
thonus, &c.). Many have been described by Giin'ther 
(' CliaUenger ' Deep-sea Fishes), and Goode and Bean 
(' Oceanic Ichthyology ') give a useful synopsis of the genera. 

I have examined the skeleton of Brotula jai/akan, and 1 
have already figured the skull (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 
xi. 1903, p. 461). Tiie parietals are separated by the supra- 
occipital, the latter forms with the e&occipitals a strong 
median crest which does not project above the level of the 
upper surface of the skull, the opisthotic is not enlarged, the 
basioccipital and pro-otic form a rather prominent auditory 
bulla. 

The structure of the jaws, the hyoTspalarine and opercular 
bones (tig. 2, A), and the pectoral arch (fig. 3, 4) is shown 
by the figures ; the lower fork of the post-temporal is directly 
attached to the opisthotic, and the hypercoracoid and hypo- 
coracoid are separated by cartilage. 

In Brotula jaijakari there are 55 vertebrae (15 + 40) ; the 
first two vertebrae are short and bear sessile epipleurals; the 
third, fourth, and fifth bear sessile ribs, the first two pairs 
being expanded j from the sixth to the fifteenth the ribs are 
borne by strong transverse parapophyses. 

Emery has figured the suspensorium of Pteridium atrum *, 
but I find that his figure is incorrect and that the pterygoid, 
mesopterygoid, and metapterygoid are exactly as in Brotula ; 
fie, has overlooked the suture between pterygoid and nieso- 
pterygoid, and has mistaken the anterior part of the meta- 
pterygoid for the latter bone. 

Family 2. Ophidiidse. 

Differ from the preceding externally in the anterior 
position of the pelvic fins, inserted between the rami of the 
lower jaw ; behind them the gill-membranes are attached to 
the isthmus. I have examined the skeleton of Genypterus 
fjlacodes, which differs from that of Brotula especially in the 

* Fauna u. Flora d. Golf. v. Neapel, ii. (1880j. 



Classification of the Bleu nioi'd Fishes. 279 

ankylosis of the pteryo'oicl and meso|,'terygoicl, and the 
juolongation forwards of the cleithra within the isthmus as 
a [)air of slender processes, with the pelvic bones attached at 
tlieir extremities. The lower fork of the post-temporal is 
shortened and attached to the opisthotic by a ligament, and 
the coracoids are in contact. There are 72 vertebra? (20 + 52) : 
the first five are as in Brotula, except that oidy the first rib 
is expanded; the anterior six pairs of parapopliyses (on 
vertebra? G-11) are strong and broad, much as in Merluccius, 
the rest are normal. 

Principal genera : Ophidium, Otophid'ium, Lepophidiumy 
G<ni/pterusj from tropical and temperate seas, some in- 
habiting deep water. 

Derej odic/ithijs, Gilbert, from the North Pacific, has the 
mouth non-protractile, the body naked, and the gill-openings 
more restricted than the others ; it may not pertain to this 
faujily and may prove to be related to the Zoaicida?. 

Family 3. Fierasferidae. 

Differ externally from the Brotulidpe in that the anal fin 
extends further forward and the vent is placed at the throat, 
caudal and pelvic fins are absent"^, and the mouth is non- 
protractile. The craniu n shows many striking resemblances 
to that of Biotula, but differs in that the parietals meet above 
the supraoccipital, the occipital crest is weak, and the ex., 
occij itals do not take part in its formation, and the enlarged 
opisthotic reaches the basicccipital, sharing with that bone 
and the pro-otic in the formation of the auditory bulla f. 
The low^er fork of the |X)st-temporal is reduced to a little 
knob; otherwise the pectoral arch is as in Genypterus. In 
Fierosfer oxus [fide Emery) the vertebrae rmmber 125 to 144, 
of which 17 or 18 are pracaudal ; in F. dentatus there are 26 
pijecaudal vertebrse; the first rib is more strongly expanded 
in the former species than in the latter. 

Seeing that tiie Fierasferidae had always been placed near 
the OpI idiida3, and that Emery's anatoiuical researches con- 
firmed this view as to their systematic position, it is not 

* I at one time thouglit tliat a reduced homocercal fin was present in 
some Fiei'a>feridte, as iu the lirotulidse ; but on looldng- into the matter 
I tind that whenever a caudal fin appears to be present it is due to 
regeneration after the end of the tail has been broken off. 

t 'I'hese features were first described by Emery (Faun. u. Flora d. 
Golf. V. Neap. ii. 1880), and I am able to confirm' the accuracy of his 
account of the head-skeleton, after preparing and examining that of 
F. acus. 



280 Mr. O. Thomas on 

easy to understand Boulenger^s transference of the familj' to 
the Heteiomi, with which they iiave practically nothing in 
common. 

There are two genera, Fierciffer and Jordanicus, widely 
distributed in tropical and temperate seas, 



XXXVII.-— T«^70 new West- African Mammals. 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

(Published b}' permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Muugos plioeaicmus, sp. n. 

A small species with the terminal pencil of the tail rich 
reddish. 

General appearance that of the members of the gracilis 
group of the genus, apart from the red tiiil-tip. Colour most 
nearly approaching tliat of a pale Lake Zuai specimen of 
M. gracilis, far paler than the West- African M. melanurus. 
General coloui- of back approaching ''clay-colour," paler and 
more buffy on the shoulders, more rufous on the posterior 
back. Head as usual greyer than back, but still with a bufFy 
tone in it, Sides grizzled bufFy. Under surface uniform 
bufF, the throat more "cream-buff." Hands and feet dull 
buffy, rather darker than '^ cream-buff," Tail coarsely 
grizzled with black and bufFy above, uniform ochraceous buff 
below j the full terminal pencil deep tawny rufous. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 

Head and body 330 mm. ; tail 289 ; hind foot 61 ; ear 28. 

Skull : condylo-basnl length 68'3 ; zygomatic breadth 33'5 ; 
palatal length 35'4 ; greatest diameter of p* 7"7. 

Bah. Panyam, Bauchi Province, N. Nigeria. Alt. 4000'. 

Type. Old male. B.M. no. 12. 7. 9. 2. Collected 12th 
February, 1912, and presented by the late Rev. G. T. Fox. 

Tlie only other known mungoose with a red tail-tip is 
il/. sanguineus, Riippell, of Kordofan, which is considerably 
smaller (hind foot 50-54: mm.), is lighter coloured throughout, 
and has the under surface white instead of buffy. 

In Mr. Wroughton's monograph of this group he assigned 
to M. sanguineus an example from Suakin with the tail-tip 
*' half chocolate-brown and half black," but the conspicuous 
and evidently natural red tail-tip of the N. Nigerian species 
leads me to tliink that §angui7ieus has also a really red tail- 
t;ip and that the Suakin specimen is merely one of the ordinary 



new West-African Mammals. 281 

gracilis type with a more or less bleached tail-tip. Examples 
of the true Kordofan sanguineus would be valuable accessions 
to the British Museum collection. 

The type of the present handsome and distinct species was 
obtained by Mr. Fox shortly before his death, and was 
forwarded to the Museum by his brother Mr. J. C. Fox. 

Kerivoula phalcena, sp. n. 

A small pale brown species with subequal incisors. 

Size as in the smallest members of the genus. Fur long, 
soft, and fine; hairs of back about 7 mm. in length. General 
colour above uniform pale reddish brown — like " Mars-brown " 
of Ridgway, but much paler; the hairs of this colour all 
through, except that on the posterior back they have incon- 
spicuously darker bases. Extreme tips of some of the rump- 
hairs silvery bufl^. Under surface similar but rather paler, 
and with more blackish at the bases of tiie hairs. Membranes 
and Avings almost naked, the base and edge of the inter- 
femoral with tiiinly scattered hairs, not forming a fringe, the 
upper surface of the legs thinly hairy, the feet well haired. 

Ears with inner margin strongly convex, a distinct con- 
cavity below the tip. Tragus slender, straight, a well- 
marked projection at its outer base, succeeded above by an 
emargination, above which there is again a projecting point, 
forming the broadest part of the tragus ; in front of the 
middle of the base there is a wart clothed with long hairs, 
forming a loose tuft ; a particularly prominent tragoid pro- 
jection present facing the tragus on the inner side of the 
outer base of the ear. 

Skull very light and delicate, with narrow brain-case. 
Upper incisors subequal in length, the outer rather shorter, 
and practically unicuspid, a small secondary cusp at the 
extreme posterior base of the inner one and at the internal 
base of the outer. First and second lower incisors tricuspid, 
third with a single large rounded cusp with minute anterior 
and posterior secondary cusps. 

Dimensions of the type (the starred measurements taken in 
the flesh) : — 

Forearm 29*5 mm. (28 mm. in the male). 

Head and body *33 ; tail *40 ; ear *13; third finger, 
metacarpus 29'5, first phalanx 12 5; lower leg and foot 18-8. 

Skull : greatest length 12*1 ; basi-sinual length 9*1 ; 
zygomatic breadth 7'1; breadth of brain-case 6*1 ; front of 
upper canine to back of m^ 5"1. 

JIab. Bibianaha, inland of Denkwa, Gold Coast. Alt. 720'. 
Ann. ck Marj. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. x. 20 



282 Mr. N. Colgan o?i 

Tij^e. Adult female. B.M. no. 12. 6. 20. 3. Original 
number 224. Collected 24th April, 1912, and presented by 
Dr. H. G. F. Spurrell. Male and female skins, female and 
• young in spirit examined. 

This delicate little Kerivoida belongs to Dobson's second 
group of the genus, and would seem to be allied to K. lanosa 
and smithii, but is markedly smaller than either. 

Perhaps its nearest relative is the Kamerun K. muscilla, 
Thos., which is, however, distinguishable by its more inflated 
brain-case and its interfemoral fringe. 



XXXVIII. — Self-evisceration in the Asteroidea. 
By Nathaniel Colgan, M.R.I.A. 

In the considerable body of extant literature which deals 
with the subject of autotomy, or self-mutilation, I can find no 
instance on record of self-evisceration in the Asteroid section 
of the Echinodermata, although the existence of that curious 
propensity or infirmity in the Ilolothuroid division is well 
known to every student of the phylum. The following notes 
of observations made tliree years ago on some living speci- 
mens of the common Cribella oculata of Pennant — Henricia 
sanguinolenta, 0. F. Miiller — are accordingly published here 
in the belief that they may contain something new and may 
stimulate to further research. 

On the 17th April, 1909, 1 took at low tide from the shore 
near Bullock, Dublin Bay, two living specimens of this 
species. The larger of the two was quite regular in form, 
with a spread of arms measuring 4 inches, the smaller, with 
a spread of 3^ inches, had a sixth supernumerary arm from 
the upper surface of which protruded a monstrous wart placed 
midway between the disk and the tip of the arm. In the 
hope that these specimens might deposit ova and so enable 
me to study the early stages in the development of the 
species, they were placed in sea- water, each in a separate 
dish, just deep enough to permit of the animals being fully 
immersed. 

Four days later, on the 21st April, on examining the 
smaller specimen with the abnormal sixth ray, I was 
astonished to find that it had completely eviscerated itself. 
The paired dendroid j)yloric cfBca, closely resembling those 
of Asterias rubens as figured by Miiller and Troschel, hung 
in festoons from the tip of each of the five normal rays, 



Se^f- evisceration in the Asteroidea. 283 

wliile a sixth mass of cseca issued from tlie wart-like pro- 
tuberance lialfway down the upper surface of the super- 
numerary sixth ray. Each of the five normal rays was 
ruptured for a length of 5 mm. on the upper surface close to 
the tip, and from these small slits protruded the whole caecal 
contents of the ray still paired by their basal connection. The 
animal thus eviscerated was in a livoly condition. It moved 
across the dish with its tube feet in active motion and the 
dermal branchiae exserted, and when turned over on its back 
was able to quickly resume its normal position. The rays 
had become flattened and in places even concave by the 
withdrawal of the ca?ca. This individual lived for three days 
after the rejection of its cseca, and on the 22nd April, the day 
after this rejection, a mass of orange gonads was seen to 
issue from the ruptured tip of one of the arms. Though 
changed from time to time, the water in which this specimen 
was ke])t became rather stale at intervals, as it did with the 
other specimens dealt with in these notes. 

The actual process of self-evisceration, which I had no 
opportunity of observing in this six-rayed individual, 1 was 
enabled to watch closely in the larger and normally tive-rayed 
specimen taken on the same day, the 17th April. At 11 A.M. 
on the 23rd April the first sign of extrusion was noticed. 
A small lump of tawny ceeca made its appearance on tiio 
upper surface and near the tip of one of the arms. Three- 
quarters of an hour later this extrusion was completely 
withdrawn and no trace of rupture could be made out on 
examining the tip of the arm with a hand lens. No further 
extrusion took place that day, but at 8 A.M. on the following 
day, 24th April, a mass of caera as large as a pea was 
observed at i\\Q extremity of one ray and a much smaller 
mass at the tip of a second and adjacent ray. Half an hour 
later the smaller mass was found to have doubled in size and 
at 10 A.M. a fairly large extrusion appeared at the end of a 
third ray, adjacent to those already luptured. Nearly two 
hours later, at 11.4.5 A.M., measurements were taken of tiie 
caeca extruded from the three contiguous rays, when the 
lengths were found to be 4, 8, and 11 millimetres respectively. 
About this time swellings and pale bands and blotches were 
seen to travel very slowly along the ruptured arms and to 
come and go on different parts ^ the dislc, suggestive of the 
slowly propagated swellings which [)recede self-evisceration 
in certain Holothurians. 

Further measurements of the extruded caeca made at 
12.45 P.M. the same day gave lengths of 4, 10, and 16 
millinielres, and about the same time orango-coloured gonads 

20* 



284 Mr. N. Colgan on 

were seen to issue in the normal way from the oviduct in the 
angle between two adjacent arms. At 1 P.M. the pale blotch 
on one of the arms was seen to accompany the swelling, 
which slowly travelled along the arm towards the ruptured 
extremity, and a further extrusion occurred as soon as the 
swelling and its accompanying pale blotch had reached the 
point of rupture. About the same time the tip of the fourth 
ray became ruptured and a portion of the cseca was extruded 
at the moment when a slowly travelling swelling had reached 
the tip. At four minutes to 7 p.m. on the same day a pro- 
minent swelling was seen to have travelled along the fifth 
ray almost to the tip, and watching this narrowly the beginning 
of a protrusion of the cceca, which ultimately reached to a 
length of 4 mm., was seen to take place at the moment when 
the swelling reached the extremity of the arm. While the 
extrusion was being slowly effected — it occupied fully four 
minutes — the unattached sucker feet near the tip of the ray 
were seen to be in vigorous spasmodic action, and the 
swelling proceeded to travel backwards along the ray to- 
wards the disk. The propagation along the rays of these 
swellings or waves of inflation was very slowly effected, the 
average of several observations giving a rate of 6 mm., or, 
say, a quarter of an inch per minute. 

By 8 P.M. on the 24th April one pair of cseca was found 
to be fully extruded from an arm of this second specimen of 
Crihella. It was detached and placed in spirit and the 
following day the animal was treated with chloral and then 
preserved in spirit so as to show the unequal extrusion of the 
cseca from the tips of the other arms. In this case no gonada 
were observed to have been extruded from the ruptured arm- 
tips, as they probably would have been had the process of 
self-evisceration been suffered to proceed. 

In October 1909, further observations were made on a 
third individual of this species, a regular 5-rayed specimen 
2i inches in diameter over all, which 1 iiad dredged in 
10 fathoms off Bullock on the 25th of the month. On the 
morning of the 29th, four days after the capture, slight 
swellings and constrictions were noticed on some of the arras, 
and on the 31st two distinct knots or abrupt swellings 
appeared on one of them. For ten days these swellings 
continued to appear and to pass in very slowly propagated 
waves along the arms without any rupture being effected. 
Finally, at 8.30 a.m. on the 11th November, a minute 
rupture of the integument was observed on the upper surface 
of one of the arms near its tip, and from this breach a sni«ll 



Self-evisceration in the AsleroiJea, 285 

mass of the cseca was protruded. By the 14th November 
tliis mass had grown to a length of 6 mm., and two other 
arms showed protrusions of about 3 ram. in diameter; by the 
17th the protrusions from all three arms had grown in size ; 
and, finall}^, at 9 r.M. on the 18th, the two remaining arms 
were ruptured and showed small protrusions. This individual 
died the next day before self-evisceration had proceeded very 
far. 

Is the peculiar form of self-evisceration here described 
purposeful or morbid ? Is it in any way useful to the 
individual or to the species, or is it to be regarded as purely 
pathological? These are the questions suggested by the 
observations just recorded, and it must be confessed that it 
is not possible in the present state of our knowledge to do 
more than hint at an answer. The fact that the operation 
was seen to be effected by three distinct individuals of the 
same species would warrant at least the suspicion that it may 
be purposeful, and tliis suspicion gains a certain strength 
from the many observations already on record of the occur- 
rence of an analogous operation in another section of the 
Echinodermata, the Holothuroid section. The manner, too, 
in which the effect is produced in Crihella, not by a cata- 
strophic rupture, but by a long-continued series of muscular 
efforts, all tending towards the same end, may fairly be taken 
as further strengthening the inference of purpose, while the 
extrusion of the sexual products along with the viscera 
suggests, at all events, the nature of that purpose. It is, 
perhaps, hardly necessary to say that the word " purpose" 
here is not meant to imply any volitional action in the 
human sense. It merely denotes action helpful in repro- 
duction and dissemination of the species; and the suggestion 
that autotomy, or self-mutilation, in the Asteroidea may be 
purposeful in this sense is not a novel one. 

On the other hand, it may be urged in opposition to this 
hypothesis of purposeful self-evisceration that the unnatural 
conditions under which the living specimens were kept were 
sueii as to inevitably induce a morbid state of the organism. 
Exposed as tliey were to strong light for considerable periods 
while barely covered with water, which from time to time 
became mure or less foul as compared with their native 
element, the animals must necessarily have grown sickly, so 
that the long-drawn-out muscular efforts which finally 
effected the extrusion of the viscera may have been merely 
symptoms of the approaching death of the organism. Ob- 
viously, further study of the life-history of Gribella and of 



286 Mr. W. Schaus on 

otlier species of the Asteroidea is necessary before one can 
venture with any degree of assurance to answer tlie questions 
raised by the observations recorded in these notes. 

For assistance in consulting tlie scattered and by no means 
readily accessible literature of autotomy and self-evisceration, 
I am indebted to the kindness of Dr. Bather of the British 
Museum of Natural History, and of Mr. A. R. Nichols of 
the National Museum, Dublin. 



XXXIX. — Neio Species of Heterocera from Costa 
llica.—XNU. By W. Schaus, F.Z.S. 

[Coutinued from p. 240.] 

Subfam. Geometbin^. 
Peoutoscia, gen. no v. 

(J . Antennae serrate and densely ciliate. Palpi short ; 
second joint thickly scaled, third slender. Femora and tibiae 
dilated, the hind tibiae with large tufts of long hairs; ventral 
tufts at end of abdomen. Fore wings broad ; outer margin, 
rounded, slightly incurved above tornus ; vein 2 from just 
beyond middle of cell ; 3 and 4 apart ; 6 from cell ; 7 from 
end of areole ; 8, 9, 10 stalked from end of areole ; 11 from 
middle of areole. Hind wings broad, excised and lobed at 
anal angle; median approximated to inner margin; vein 2 
apparently absent; 3 from near angle ; 4 from angle; 5 from 
middle of discocellular, downbent towards angle; 6 from 
upper angle; 7 from cell ; underneath with long tufts about 
anal angle, upturned hairy scales along vein 4, and down- 
turned scales along vein 6 ; an oblique ridge of hairy scales 
between veins 6 and 7. In the female the neuration is 
normal, and the tufts are absent ; the anal angle is slightly 
produced. 

Proutoscia mirijica^ sp. n. 

$ . Frons buflf- white with black points. Vertex white 
shaded with lilacitie grey behind. Collar and thorax mottled 
lilacine and whitish, with a few dark irrorations. Abdomen 
above lilacine grey ; two dorsal and an interrupted lateral 
reddish-brown line. Wings : base and margins pale lilacine 
grey. Fore wings : disc of wing with a large semihyaline 
pale yellow space pointed towards base of cell, its hind edge 



Ileterocera from Costa Rica. 287 

curved to near inner margin postmecllallj, its fore edge 
following subcostal, and interrupted on vein 6 by a pro- 
jecting brown shade, its outer edge parallel with outer 
margin ; this space is edged with reddish brown, and is 
followed from vein 2-7 by a narrower reddish-brown shade ; 
an oblique brown line at base of costa ; an elongated yellow 
spot edged with reddish below cell at base ; a brown, sinuous 
antemodial line from cell to submedian below which it is 
deeply inbent ; a subterminal fine dark purplish line from 
costa, curved before apex, and slightly inbent below vein 3. 
Hind wings : a subbasal yellow spot partly edged with 
reddish ; a large semihyaline yellow space, angled towards 
base, upturned towards costa, constricted postmedially, and 
not expanding towards apex, edged with reddish brown ; a 
reddish-brown postmedial line, and a yellow, reddish-edged 
spot below vein 7 ; the subterminal purple line sinuous to 
termen at vein 6 ; termen shaded with reddish brown from 
apex to vein 6 ; termen from 6-5 shaded with black. Wings 
below yellowish white, simply showing the semihyaline 
spaces. 

Expanse 40 mm. 

The female differs in having the terminal opaque space on 
fore wings broader; the semihyaline space on hind wings 
outbent towards middle of outer margin, and has five rounded 
projections ; the subterminal line continues to inner margin, 
and there is no black shading near anal angle. 

Expanse 42 mm. 

Hab. Sixola. 

Oospila peralta, sp. n. 

(^ . Palpi dark brown. Frons rubbed. Vertex green ; a 
white line between antennae. Body and wings deep green. 
Abdomen : three suffusing oval tufts on segments 2-4 
dorsally, dark brown irrorated with white and silver ; smaller 
brown dorsal tufts on following segments. Wings : faint 
traces of an outer and subterminal darker shade ; terminal 
white spots extending on cilia which are otherwise fuscous 
brown tipped w ith white. Fore wings : costa finely yellow, 
with a few brown irrorations ; a faint darker antemedial 
shade; a black discal point. Hind wings: a small white 
discal spot. Wings below greenish white ; the costa of fore 
wing more broadly yellowish. 

Expanse 26 mm. 

Hab. Peralta. 

Near 0. restn'cta, Warr. 



288 Mr. W. Scliaus on 

Blechroma epaphras, sp. n. 

^ . Palpi black, edged below and above with white. 
Frons white mottled with brown ; vertex and body above 
green ; some brown mottlings on thorax ; abdomen with 
four small white dorsal spots, and faint whitish segmental 
lines on following segments. Wings green with some 
scattered darker green spots ; cilia whitish green, with small 
fuscous spots at veins. Fore wings : costa finely creamy 
white striated with fuscous grey ; some antemedial smoky 
spots forming an inbent line; fuur fuscous spots about 
discocehular ; an outer lunular smoky shade, slightly inset 
between veins 5 and 6. Hind wings ; a fuscous spot at base; 
a fine antemedial line and smoky spot on inner margin ; the 
outer smoky shade nearer termen from vein 4 to inner 
margin. Wings bedow greenish white; the costa of fore 
wings with dark striai and spots ; some small spots in cell, 
and larger spots at end of cell and beyond it ; the outer line 
well marked on costa. 

Expanse 28 mm. 

Uab. Juan Vinas, Carillo. 

Tachyphyle oleaster, sp. n. 

(J . Frons green ; vertex white. Thorax, abdomen, and 
wings dull green, the wings tinged with brown ; minute 
black discal points ; a greenish-white line from near apex of 
fore wing to middle of inner margin of hind wing. Fore 
wings : the costa brighter green ; a faint whitish-green 
medial line ; cilia rather long, silky green. Wings below 
whitish olive ; the whitish lines indistinct ; the apex of fore 
wing tipped with black; minute black discal points. The 
female has no black tip to apex of fore wing below. 

Expanse, c? 21 mm., ? cO mm. 

Hub. La Florida, Sixola, Tuis, Guapiles. 

Tachyphyle hamata, sp. n. 

S. Palpi white. Vertex white. Collar and thorax green ; 
abdomen above paler green. Wings green. Fore wings: the 
apex falcate ; the cuter margin incurved ; some brownish stria3 
in cell and below it, forming a faint antemedial line extending 
to subraedian ; a fine fuscous line on discocellular ; outer 
space to termen shaded with brown, crossed by a broad dark 
purplish-brown shade, outwardly tinged with lilacine ; this 
shade extends across middle of hind wings. Fore wings 
below dull dark green, the hind wings greenish white ; a 



Heterocera from Costa Rica. 28i) 

broad dull purj)lisli-gieen sliade from apex of fore wing- to 
middle of inner margin of hind wing. 

Expanse 32 mm. 

Hah. Tuis. 

BacJieospila acutularia, sp. n. 

(^ . Palpi brownish fringed with white below. Head and 
body green; a white line between antenna;; three dorsal 
white spots on abdomen, the first and third edged with dark 
red. Wings green ; a terminal reddish-brown line, cut hy, 
fine buff lines on veins ; cilia pale buff, darker-tipi)ed, and 
with faint reddish shades at veins; minute black discal 
points; lines whitish, very fine ; antemedial very indistinct; 
postmedial straight on fore wings, slightly angled on hind 
wings. Apex of fore wings acute^ the costa white^ shaded 
brown at base. 

Expanse 25 mm. 

Ilab. Tuis. 

Belongs to Sect. I. 

Racheosjnla agenoria, sp. n. 

^. Palpi brown fringed with white below, the second 
joint long, the third minute. Frons dark green with lateral 
white points below ; a white line between antenna edged 
behind with brown. Thorax and abdomen above green ; a 
small white spot edged with roseate brown dorsally at base; 
traces of segmental white lines and two points; in the female 
there are three dorsal spots of about the same size. Wings 
green; a terminal red line; cilia white tipped with greyisi), 
and with narrow brownish shades at veins ; an outer wavy 
lunular white line ; black discal points. Fore wings : the 
costa finely white shaded with brown at base; an antemedial 
while line faintly wavy and outbent from costa. Hind 
wings : the antemedial white line slightly wavy, indistinct. 

Expanse 22 mm. 

Hub. Juan Vina^', Tuis. 

Belongs to Sect. 1. Allied to R. Uxaria, Gn., but dis- 
tinguished by the green frons and more wavy lines. 

Racheospila dorsiltneaj sp. n. 

^. Palpi whitish tipped with reddish brown. Head 
reddish brown crossed by a white line between antennae, and 
one near palpi. Body above green; a white dorsal line on 
thorax behind and on abdomen. Wings pale green finely 



290 Mr. W. Schaus on 

irrorated with darker green ; a very fine terminal brownisli- 
red line ; cilia creamy white ; minute black discal points. 
Fore wings: costa white shaded witii brownish red at base ; 
a fine white antemedial line^ slightly outcurved ; a fine 
white outer line, parallel with ternien. Hind wings : a fine 
white outer line, slightly curved. Underneath greenish 
white, the costa of fore wing tinged with pale brown, and 
with dark red at base. 

Expanse 25 mm. 

Hab. Poas. 
' Belongs to Sect. I. d, 

Racheospila nympharia, sp. n. 

(? . Frons. greyisli brown edged with green in front. 
Vertex and body green ; three dorsal white spots on abdomen 
faintly edged with reddish, the basal spot smallest. Wings 
green ; a very fine terminal pale brownish line, sometimes 
absent; cilia buff^white, with faint darker shades at veins; 
minute black discal points; antemedial and postmedial lines 
fine, white, the antemedial outcurved, the postmedial straight 
on fore wings, faintly wavy on hind wings. The female 
has the frons darker brown, and the white line on vertex 
edged with reddish brown. 

Expanse, S 27 mm., ? 30 mm. 

Ilab. Juan Vinas, Sitio, Tuis. 

Belongs to Sect. I. d. 

Racheospila strigaria^ sp. n. 

? . Frons brown. Vertex green ; a white line between 
antennae. Body green, with traces of paler green segmental 
lines on abdomen. Wings green crossed by whitisii striae ; 
cilia green ; costa of fore wings finely white. Wings below 
whitish green ; some fuscous shading at base of costa, and 
similar faint irrorations above median on fore wings. 

Expanse 29 mm. 

Hab. Turrialba. 

Belongs to Sect. I. h. 

Racheospila concinnaria^ sp. n. 

(^ . Palpi white shaded with light brown. Frons light 
brown crossed by a white line near palpi ; vertex white. 
Body above green ; a dorsal white line on abdomen. Wings 
pale green ; antemedial and outer lunular white lines, the 
latter outbeut between veins 3 and 4 ; minute black discal 



Heterocera from Costa Rica. 291 

points ; terminal minute wliite points; cilia white tipped 
witli pale grejish brown. 

Expanse, ^ 15 mm., ? 19 mm. 

IJab. Sixola, Guapiles, Juan Vinas, Avangarez. 

Belongs to 8ect. II. 

Racheospila interlucens, sp. n. 

(^ . Palpi reddish brown fringed with white. Frons reddish 
brown crossed by a wiiite horizontal line ; vertex white, 
edged with reddish brown behind. Collar and thorax green. 
Abdomen above purple with short white segmental lines 
dorsally. Wings green ; an outer row of short purple 
streaks on veins ; a tine terminal roseate brown line ; cilia 
roseate white, with faint darker shades at veins. Fore 
wings : antemedial small purple spots on subcostal, median, 
and submedian ; costa white shaded with brown at base, and 
edged behind by a faint yellowish line ; a purple discal 
point. Hind wings : a large semi-oval purple spot on inner 
margin, edged with a broad yellowish shade on discal side. 
Underneath greenish white. 

Expanse 27 mm. 

Hab. Juan Vinas, Tuis. 

Racheospila jyorciiis, sp. n. 

Palpi purplish fringed with white below. Frons purplish. 
Vertex green edged with white behind. Collar and patagia 
green. Thorax and abdomen above roseate brown, partly 
irrorated with black ; two white dorsal spots. Wings green ; 
discal spots rather large, lilacine brown. Fore wings : costa 
creamy white ; inner and outer lines paler green, edged on 
medial side with darker green, the former slightly outbent, 
the latter faintly outcurved and barely luuular, suffusing at 
vein 2 with roseate brown blotch on inner margin, which is 
downcurved to tornus, and upbent as a line on termen ; a 
similar large spot on outer margin from just above vein 4 to 
vein 8, its inner edge rounded ; both spots edged with 
purple-brown and then narrowly with orange-yellow ; termen 
green from below to above vein 4. Hind wings : termen 
from apex to near vein 4, and from 2 to inner margin broadly 
lilacine brown, edged as spots on fore wings, but connected 
b}' a fine terminal purple line ; a narrow purplish streak 
from anal blotch along inner margin, not reaching base. 

Expanse 29 mm. 

IJab. Juan Vinas. 

Near R./alUuv, Warr., but spots all larger. 



292 Mr. W. Scliaus on 

Leptolopha marginafa, sp. n. 

? . Palpi buff- white. Fions reddish brown ; a white line 
between antenna?. Body above green ; abdomen with 
yellowish-white dorsal line, and lateral white segmental lines. 
Wings green with some scattered darker green irrorations ; 
termen pale greenish yellow inwardly edged b}' a fine yellow- 
brown line; cilia greenish yellow. Fore wings: costa 
greenish yellow ; a black discal point. Hind wings : a 
whitish-yellow streak across end of cell. Wings below 
greenish white. 

Expanse 21 mm. 

Bab. Tuis. 

Between L. Jlavolimes, Warr., and pcrmagna, Warr. 

Subfam. AciBALiiN^, 
Anisodes aquila, sp. n. 

? . Body olive-buff, the last three segments of abdomen 
above bright magenta. Fore wings yellow-buff, finely 
irrorated with purplish brown ; an indistinct dark ante- 
medial line, angled in cell, and marked by pur])lish points 
on subcostal, in cell, on median, and on submedian ; a fine 
purplish-red outer line from vein 7, straight and inbent to 
inner margin, followed by a slightly fuscous shade ; sub- 
terminal purple-brown points on veins ; a fine terminal 
magenta line, and similar points on interspaces. Bind wings 
similar, the irrorations partly replaced by purplish stria?, 
the outer line not reaching costa. Wings below" similar, but 
duller ; purplish discal shades; the outer line broader, 
purplish ; the fore wing below cell shaded with purplish. 

Expanse 43 mm. 

Hab. Poas. 

Anisodes erastus, sp. n. 

? . Head fuscous grey. Collar, thorax, and abdomen pale 
brownish red. Wings yellow thickly irrorated with brown- 
red, the lines fine, fuscous grey. Fore wings : costa fuscous 
grey; antemedial slightly outcurved ; a streak on disco- 
cellular; veins from cell greyish; postmedial slightly out- 
curved, vertical from vein 2 ; outer line oblique from vein 8 
to vein 6, then lunular ; a subterminal greyish line from 
costa to termen at vein 4. Hind wings : medial space and 
veins beyond greyish ; a black point on discocellular ; post- 
medial slightly curved ; outer line straight from costa to 



Tleterocera from Costa Rica. 293 

vein 6, then lunular and closer to termen. Wings below 
luteous tinged with roseate ; lines faintly marked. 

Expanse 22 ram. 

Hab. Sixola. 

Anisodes peplumaria, sp. n. 

? . Palpi purplish fringed with pale buff. Hi^ad, collar, 
thorax, base, and tip of abdomen yellow irrorated with red ; 
abdomen otherwise dorsally fuscous tinged with lilacine. 
Wings fuscous tinged with lilacine. Fore wings : base 
yellow irrorated with red, its outer edge inbent from end of 
cell to inner margin at antemedial line, which is tine, fuscous. 
and slightly outcurved ; an outbent fuscous line at base ; 
a medial line on costa, beyond which are some yellowish 
irrorations ; postmedial fine, black, lunular, deeply out- 
curved and barely visible on dark ground-colour ; outer line 
fine, lunular, oblique to vein 4, then inbent, followed by 
yellow to termen, but cut by dark veins, and greatly reduced 
before apex by a broad fuscous line from costa to termen at 
Vein 4. Hind wings : base and termen from below vein 4 
to anal angle yellow irrorated with red; a black discal point ; 
traces of a postmedial and subterminal black line; a few 
black scales postmedially below vein 3. Wings below 
purplish ; the yellow spaces on termen whiter ; the base 
suffused with roseate yellow. 

Expanse 24 mm. 

Hab. Sixola. 

Anisodes scriptilineaj sp. n. 

? . Frons lilacine brown, Vertex, collar, thorax, and 
base of abdomen deep yellow irrorated with red ; abdomen 
otherwise lilacine white irrorated with yellow and reddish 
brown. Wings yellow, the lines purplish. Fore wings 
thinly irrorated with red, rather more thickly on basal half ; 
a basal line ; antemedial line outbent on costa, then vertical, 
preceded by a short line in cell ; a lilacine grey line on 
discocellular edged with purple, and a spot above it on costa ; 
postmedial fine, outcurved, straight and slightly outbent 
from vein 2, below discocellular, to inner margin ; outer 
line outbent, wavy, lunular, and incurved from vein 4; a 
heavy straight line from costa before apex to termen at 
vein 4; a terminal lunular line, veins finely greyish. 
Hind wings more heavily irrorated with red, except on 
medial space which is lilacine grey, and encloses a small 



294 Mr. W. Schaus on 

yellow, red, and black discal spot; antemedlal line wavy; 
postmedial outbent between veins 4 and 3 ; outer line oblique 
to vein 4, tben lunular and subterminal ; a fine line from 
costa to ternien at vein 4 ; the veins on outer iialf fuscous 
grey. Wings below tinged with red ; the lines fine, faintly 
indicated. 

Expanse 24 mm. 

Hab. Sixola. 

Anisodes silas, sp, n. 

(^ . Palpi whitish buff edoed above at base with magenta. 
Head, body, and wings pale yellow ; terminal half of 
abdomen whiter, and with a few dark red hairs. Wings 
irrorated with reddish-brown points connected b}^ ochreous- 
yellow shades, forming short strise. Fore wings : two dark 
superposed points on costa beyond base; black points on 
subcostal, in cell, on median and submedian, connected by a 
fine ochreous-yellow antemedial lunular line, inbent from 
subcostal ; a white point circled with purple-brown at end of 
cell, followed by an oblique dark line, faintly lunular, from 
costa to middle of inner margin ; a fine outer lunular line* 
marked by dark points on veins ; a fine subterminal lunular 
sliade, the lunules outwardly filled with clearer yellow; 
terminal dark points on interspaces. Hind wings : a fine 
antemedial wavy line ; a dark transverse shade from costa 
beyond middle to middle of inner margin, crossing the 
discocellular spot which is white, broken into three parts by 
some dark shading; outer and subterminal line, also terminal 
spots, as on fore wing. Underneath whitish yellow, the lines 
as above, purplish ; a similar faint shade on fore wing along 
median and between veins 3 and 4 to subterminal. 

Expanse 36 mm. 

Hab. Juan Vinas, Tuis, Poas. 

Anisodes snjjater, sp. n. 

c?. Body above roseate brown, the third and fourth 
segments of abdomen dorsally purplish ; underneath luteous. 
Wings roseate brown ; minute subterminal black points on 
veins ; fine terminal points on interspaces ; a very faint 
postmedial smoky shade. Fore wings : a white point on 
discocellular. Hind wings : a white point edged with black 
on discocellular. Fore wings below roseate ; a fine whitish 
line on discocellular; a fine darker outer line. Hind wings 
below yellowish white, the costa tinged with roseate ; a fine 
roseate outer line. 

Expanse 29 mm. 

Hub. Juan Vinas, Tuis. 



Heterocera from Costa Rica. 295 

Anisodes tertullus, sp. n. 

? . Palpi and head fuscous brown. Body and wings deep 
yellow thickly irrorated with red; a dorsal line on abdomen, 
and lines on win^s fuscous. Fore wings : costa fuscous ; a 
fine anteinedial line, slightly curved ; a line on discocellular ; 
postmedial slightly outbent to vein 4, angled and inbent to 
below discocellular, then downturned ; subterminal fine, 
lunnlar ; veins tinged with fuscous brown, irrorated with 
yellowish ; cilia purplish. Hind wings : a small white spot 
at end of cell, dark-edged; postmedial straight from costa to 
vein 4, angled and upturned and outbent to middle of inner 
margin; subterminal fine, lunular. Wings below roseate 
yellow, the lines faintly indicated. 

Expanse 30 mm. 

ilab. Juan Vinas. 

Am'sodes timotheus, sp. n. 

? . Palpi whitish buff, the second joint streaked above 
with purple-red. Frons whitish, edged with dark brown 
above. Vertex, collar, thorax, and wings lilacine buff witii 
brownish striae ; a fuscous line on collar in front. Wings : 
lines dull olive-green irrorated with black ; outer line lunular, 
outcurved ; traces of subterminal dull greenish shades, veins 
terminally so shaded ; terminal black points. Fore wings : 
costal margin dark olive, with fuscous-brown irrorations ; 
antemedial line outcurved to below cell, then outbent ; an 
oblique narrow oval line at end of cell ; postmedial sinuous, 
nearly vertical ; two small subterminal black spots between 
veins 4 and 6. Hind wings : a black point at base ; ante- 
medial lunular, outangled near inner margin ; an oval black 
spot containing a white point on discocellular; medial line 
fine; outer line a continuation of medial line on fore wing. 
Wings below yellowish white ; fore wings with lines and 
strise purplish red ; hind wings with faint traces of outer line 
and a few striae on costa ; terminal points reddish. 

Expanse 27 mm. 

Hah. Juan Vinas, Tuis, Guapiles. 

Very near A. spissata, Warr. 

Anisodes transecta, sp. n. 

(? . Body above olive-grey ; abdomen pale buff terminally 
and with a lateral purple-red streak about middle. Wings 
wiiitish buff, shaded and striated with light brown. Fore 
wings : costal margin olive-grey, irrorated with fuscous ; a 



296 Mr. W. Scliaus on 

reddish-brown line from base along median and close above 
vein 4 to termen, crossed by a similar line from costa near 
apex to middle of inner margin, both partly shaded with dark 
grey; a curved antemedial line in cell and a short line from 
cell, inset ; a reddish-brown annular spot at end of cell con- 
taining lilacine scales ; an outer, wavy, reddish-brown line 
from vein 8 to just below 4, and a similar point on vein 3 ; 
termen mottled with dark grey and red-brown from line at 
vein 4 to near 6 ; olive-grey shading and reddish irrorations 
from vein 4 to tornus ; terminal dark points. Hind wings: 
a fuscous basal streak ; a fine red-brown antemedial line and 
broader medial line, suffusing below costa, diverging on inner 
margin, the latter followed by olive-grey shading and a 
silvery-white point on discocellular ; outer line fine, reddish 
brown from vein 6 to inner margin ; termen broadly fuscous 
grey from near vein 4 to inner margin. Underneath whitish 
yellow, with few strige ; the lines fuscous, less distinct; the 
outer line punctiform. 

Expanse 37 mm. 

Hub. Juan Vinas. 

Antsodes trophimis, sp. n. 

? . Body and wings deep yellow, irrorated with red ; a 
black dorsal patch, irrorated with white near base of abdo- 
men ; lines fine, black ; a subterminal deeply lunular dentate 
line; an interrupted terminal red line; a fine black and red 
line on discocellulars ; some black mottling on cilia at veins. 
Fore wings : antemedial line twice outcurved to submedian ; 
a lunular postmedial line, incurved below vein 3 and thick- 
ened on veins. Hind wings : subterminal line irregular, 
angled at vein 4. Wings below yellow, shaded with red ; 
the subterminal line well marked. 

Expanse 33 mm. 

Hah. Juan Vinas. 

Antsodes tyclii'cus, sp. n. 

? . Palpi buff, edged with purple above. Frons purple. 
Vertex fuscous. Collar and thorax red. Abdomen above 
red at base, otherwise purplish ; underneath luteous. Wings 
reddish orange, thickly striated with red ; a faint sub- 
terminal lunular line, marked by dark points on veins ; 
terminal purplish points on interspaces. Fore wings : costa 
and inner margin dull purplish brown ; antemedial line 
slightly outbent, dark red ; a white point at end of cell, 
closely followed by a broad medial reddish shade, interrupted 



Ileterocera from Conta Rica. 297 

by a dull greyish-brown shade just below cell, this shade 
extending on veins 3 and 4 to ternien. Hind wings: a fine 
subbasal line ; a large white spot at end of cell, followed by 
a transverse dark shade ; veins S, 4, 6, and 7 heavily shaded 
with dull greyish brown. Wings below pale yellowish, 
shaded with roseate purple; medial sliade and subterminal 
line well marked ; discocoUular spots dull white, on lore 
wing linear. 

Expanse 33 mm. 

Hah. Juan Vinas. 

Anisodes vineotincta, sp. n. 

? . Body above brownish red, underneath yellowish buff, 
the legs partly dull roseate. Wings dull brownish red, with 
scattered white striie ; veins fuscous ; subterminal white 
points on veins. Fore witigs : a round white spot at end of 
cell, edged with fuscous. Hind wings: a large round white 
discal spot, edged with fuscous and containing an interrupted 
fuscous ritig, within which the white is tinged with yellow. 
Wings below thinly scaled, whitish buff, tinged with roseate; 
a postmedial sinuous red line ; an indistinct fine red sub- 
terminal line ; termen with reddish strise. 

Expanse 35 mm. 

Hab. Juan Vinas, San Jos^. 

Heterephyra direcfilinea, sp. n. 

? . Body and wings brown, thickly irrorated with reddish, 
the lines purplish red. Fore wings : the antemedial line 
oulcurved on costa and slightly outbent, very distinct ; post- 
medial line straight, distinct; outer line finer, twice out- 
curved ; a minute white discal point, dark-edged. Hind 
wings : a white discal spot, dark-edged ; postmedial line 
straight ; outer line wavy. Wings below yellowish, tinged 
with pale roseate brown; black streaks on discocellular ; 
postmedial line straight, fuscous; outer line dentate, wavy, 
without the pronounced curves of upper side. 

Expanse 35 mm. 

Hab. Juan Vinas. 

Closely allied to H. ladrilla, Dogn. 

Heterephyra johannis, sp. n. 

(J. Palpi reddish brown, fringed below with pale buff. 
Frons below dark brown, shading to black above and on 
vertex. Collar, thorax, abdomen, and wings brown, tinged 

Ann. <k Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. x. 21 



298 Mr. W. Scliaus on 

with red and finely irrorated witli fuscous. Fore winsfs : 
the costa darker shaded; lines fine, fuscous; antemedial 
slightly angled on median ; postmedial vertical to vein 4, 
inbent to vein 2, and vertical to inner margin ; outer line 
finely wavily lunular, inbent at vein 3 and vertical below it; 
a small white discal spot. Hind wings : a black discal point, 
edged with grey ; postmedial bluntly angled at vein 4 ; 
outer line curved, finely wavy, indistinct. Wings below 
roseate brown, with faint traces of postmedial and outer 
lines. 

Expanse 32 mm. 

Hab, Juan Vinas. 

Allied to II. fuscicosta, Warr., but differently coloured. 

Dichromatopodia masinissa, sp. n. 

cJ . Head, thorax, and wings reddish brown, finely irrorated 
with buff ; discal spots small, whitish and fuscous grey ; a 
fine outer buff line, faintly curved ; a medial fuscous shade. 
Fore wings: a fine buff antemedial line, angled on subcostal. 
Wings below pale reddish brown ; a medial dark line; a fine 
purplish-red outer line. Abdomen fuscous brown. 

Expanse 26 mm. 

The female has the base and outer margin tinged with dark 
purple, and some fuscous shading following outer line. 

Ilah. Juan Vinas, Cartago. 

Dichromatopodia micipsa, sp. n. 

^ . Body and wings reddish brown, irrorated with greyisli 
buff; veins slightly yellowish ; discal spots small, mottled 
grey and black ; an outer nearly straight buff line, inwardly 
edged with slightly darker brown. Fore wings : an ante- 
medial buff line, angled on subcostal, then straight to inner 
margin. Wings below luteous, shaded with pale red ; cilia 
purplish ; a faint reddish outer line. 

Expanse 25 mm. 

Hab. Juan Vinas. 

Very similar to D. niitnata, Dr., which has a white line on 
discocellular. 

Dichromatopodia orbona, sp. n. 

$ . Body and wings purplish brown. Fore wings : costa 
dark-shaded ; a fine antemedial purple-red line, inwardly 
edged with dark grey, outwardly oblique from costa ; a small 
white spot on discocellular; outer line heavily marked, 



Helerocera from Costa Rica. 599 

fuscous brown, outwardly edged witli ochreous grey, from 
costa near apex to middle of inner margin on hind wings; 
the ochreous-grey shade on hind wing is followed b^ a fine 
black line. Wings below dull roseate, the outer line less 
conspicuous. 

Expanse 24 mm. 

IJab. Tuis. 

Subfara. Larentiinje. 

Camhogia cilriaria, sp. n. 

? . Head and collar orange-brown ; a white line between 
antennse. Thorax and abdomen yellow, spotted witli orange- 
brown. Wings bright yellow, crossed by broken orange- 
brown lines; the small discal spots distinct on a clear yellow 
sl)ade preceding the postmedial fascia, which is broad, tinged 
with dull lilacine grey, and striated with yellow, its inner edge 
slightly curved, its outer edge on fore wing incurved beyond 
cell and below vein 2 ; this fascia is followed by a narrow 
clear yellow shade ; the lines on outer space are darker 
yellow, edged with orange-brown, and irregularly confluent. 
Hind wings : the outer edge of postmedial fascia expands 
between veins 2 and 4. Wings below pale yellow, the 
markings purplish. Fore wings: an antemedial shade; 
postmedial shade broad, outlined as above, followed by a fine 
line and heavier subterminal line ; terminal points between 
the veins. Hind wings : the postmedial shade narrow ; a 
subterminal line ; discal spots on both wings. 

Expanse 21-23 mm. 

Hob. Juan Vinas, Tuis. 

Intermediate between C. odafis, Dr., and C. numeria, Dr. 

Hammaptera caribhea, sp. n. 

$. Body and fore wings pale green. Fore wings: sub- 
basal fascia consisting of three black lines on a greenish- 
brown ground ; antemedial space clear, with faint traces of 
a line and dark spot on costa ; medial fascia consisting of 
four black lines on greenish brown ; a dark line on disco- 
cellular ; postmedial geminate, irregular, somewhat incurved 
opposite cell, followed by two outer lines, the inner one more 
heavily marked, indentate between veins 6 and 5, outcurved 
and punctiform on veins and fold ; another line suifuses witli 
the brown shadings preceding the subterminal lunular 
whitish line, these shadings being blacker and heavier above 
and below vein 5 and at vein 7 ; terminal geminate black 

21^ 



aOO Mr. W. Scliaus on 

points at veins. Hind wings dull brownish grey, tlie outer 
margin darkest. Wings below yellowish white ; black discal 
points; three wavy postniedial lines; the outer margins 
broadly black ; cilia greenish yellow, spotted with black on 
fore wings. 

Expanse 32 mm. 

Nab. Sixola, Banana River, Alajuela. 

The male has anal fold to near base tilled with long creamy 
tufts. 

ITammajjtei'a fartaria, sp. n. 

(J . Body greenish mottled with brown ; black segmental 
lines on abdomen, edged beliind with grey. Fore wings to 
outer line dark green ; subbasal, medial, and postniedial 
fascial dark brown, edged and crossed by still darker lines, 
starting from three black lines on costa, the medial and post- 
medial siiflfusing shortly below cell ; a narrower antemedial 
fascia marked by two lines ; outer line white, strongly 
marked, slightly incurved between veins 6 and 4, then 
lunular, projecting somewhat between 4 and 3, inwardly 
shaded with dark green and outwardly edged by a green line 
from costa to vein 6 and between veins 4 and 3 ; terminal 
space broadly light green, crossed by some darker lunular 
lines, and with fuscous-brown shadings on costa, from vein 3 
to tornus, and above vein 4, the latter having its anterior 
edge oblique and shaded with reddish brown. Hind wings 
slate-colour, without fovea or long hairs in fold. Wings 
below fuscous ; black discal points. Fore wings : an outer 
white fascia from costa to vein 4, angled and less distinct, 
but expanding and better marked on inner margin ; apex 
white ; a terminal white spot between veins 3 and 4. Hind 
wings : a narrow outer whitish line. 

Expanse 38 mm. 

Ilah. Juan Vinas, Sitio. 

Ilammapiera herhosana, sp. n. 

cJ . Palpi green, mottled with fuscous. Head and body 
oreen, collar with a transverse fuscous shade ; patagia 
heavily shaded with fuscous brown; abdomen with trans- 
verse black shades, most distinct on three basal segments. 
Fore wings bright green; a subbasal dark green fascia, some- 
what constricted below cell, edged by fine black lines and 
crossed by two fitie dark brown lines; antemedial space 
crossed by a geminate dark green line, and a tine single line 
before medial fascia, which is similar to subbasal, but its 



IJeterocera from Costa Rica. 301 

outer edge is lunular below cell and touches the inversely 
lunular postmedial on vein 2, on fold, and not quite on sub- 
median ; postmedial fuscous brown, geminate, wavy, and 
outcurved beyond cell ; a fuscous line edged with pale green 
on discocellular ; postmedial followed by a fine indistinct 
dark green line ; a geminate outer line, the inner portion 
heavily shaded with black from costa to vein 4, and on veins 
otheiwisej a lunular subterminal pale green line, preceded 
by fine geminate lines and outwardly partly edged with 
black; a terminal black line; cilia green, spotted with 
fuscous green. Hind wings dark slate-colour ; the fovea 
above anal angle whitish, shaded with roseate buff; a terminal 
black line and pale points at veins; cilia brown, tipped with 
grey. Wings below whitish, finely irroratcd with black ; 
black discal lines. Fore wings : an antemedial small black 
spot on costa ; postmedial and outer fuscous lines angled at 
vein 4 and not reaching inner margin, which is broadly clear 
white; termen broadly fuscous, a whitidh shade at apex and 
terminally between veins 3 and 4. Hind wings : fine post- 
medial and outer black lines ; a broad marginal black shade, 
partly mottled with white terminally. 

Expanse 35 mm. 

Hah. Juan Viuas. 

Hammaptera linusaria, sp. n. 

(J. Palpi light brown, joints tipped with white. Head 
and abdomen cream-colour, the latter with fine pale brown 
transverse lines. Thorax grey ; patagia streaked with black. 
Fore wings white, irroratcd with brown ; medial space 
brown; termen shaded with brown; a subbasal brownish 
line, edged with black irrorations ; a fine brownisli antemedial 
line, preceded and followed by a less distinct line; the medial 
space inwardly edged by a wavy black line and outwardly by 
angled black lines on veins, also crossed by black lines, 
suffusing below black discocellular line, forming spots to 
inner margin; a subterminal lunular white line, preceded by 
black spots above and below vein 5 ; terminal geminate 
black spots at veins. Hind wings whitish, the termen 
rather broadly dark giey. Wings below whitish, the outer 
margin broadly fuscous grey ; fine discal streaks, more pro- 
nounced on fore wing. 

Expanse 24 mm. 

Hah. Esperanza, Tuis, Banana River, Avangurez. 

The description is taken from a specimen witli medial space 
heavily marked, some specimens having it much greyer, with 



302 Mr. W. Schaus on 

only its margins darker; this is especially tlie case in the 
females. The species is very similar to H. tenera, Warr., 
but differs below. 

Coremia apollosaria, sp. n. 

S . Body brownish grey ; abdomen with transverse dark 
brown shades and whitish segmental lines. Fore wings 
grey ; base and medial space light reddish brown, the termen 
shaded with grey-brown ; basal space edged by a darker line ; 
two fine antemedial lines ; the medial space crossed by fine 
darker lines before and beyond the black point on disco- 
cellular, the last line vertical from costa to vein 4, outangled, 
and slightly inbent ; postmedial space whitish, with geminate 
black points on veins ; apex greyish, with an oblique terminal 
fuscous shade below it. Hind wings whitish ; a minute 
point on discocellular ; postmedial lines very faint ; some 
grey-brown shading at anal angle. Wings below greyish, 
with faint traces of lines; minute discal points and some 
scattered irrorations on hind wings. 

Expanse 24 mm. 

The female has the medial space broader and deep reddish 
brown. 

Hah. Poas, Turrialba. 

Coremia di'scatan'a, sp. n. 

cJ. Body slate-grey ; abdomen with paler segmental lines. 
Fore wings slate-grey; a medial and a postmedial broad 
brownish fascia, suffusing below a large pale patch at end of 
cell and crossed by indistinct fuscous lines, the outer edge 
of postmedial finely paler grey, sinuous ; a subbasal curved 
brownish line and traces of a finer antemedial; traces of a 
subterminal lunular whitish line, preceded by brownish 
shadings, all very indistinct ; traces of an interrupted ter- 
minal fuscous line. Hind wings grey; three sinuous, fine, 
medial fuscous lines, and traces of other lines on inner margin 
close to anal angle. Wings below greyish ; black discal 
points ; three fine postmedial fuscous lines. Hind wings 
thinly irrorated with fuscous and reddish brown. 

Expanse 26 mm. 

Hab. Poas, Turrialba. 

Coremia hicasaria, sp. n. 

^ . Body brown ; some black irrorations on abdomen. 
Fore wings : basal and outer thirds yellow-brown ; medial 



Ileterocera from Costa Rica. 303 

space fuscous brown ; basal space crossed by indistinct 
darker lines ; medial space broad on costa, narrower below 
vein 4 and cell, its inner edge outcnrved, shaded with wiiite 
on costa, ils outer edge serrate, vertical to vein 4, projecting, 
slightly inbent, with darker streaks on veins 2-4 and some 
white shading on costa ; veins on postniedial space irrorated 
with fuscous and whitish ; subterminal black spots from 
veins 4-8, partly edged with white ; an interrupted terminal 
black line. Hind wings grey-brown ; a broad medial shade, 
slightly darker. Wings below greyish ; outer third of fore 
wing and entire hind wing irrorated vvitii reddish ; minute 
black discal points. 

Expanse 23 mm. 

Hah. Turrialba. 

Coremia zenasaria, sp. n. 

cJ . Head, collar, and thorax greyish brown. Abdomen 
dark grey, mottled with black and crossed by pale segmental 
lines. Fore wings grey-brown, rather browner on medial 
space; a black discal point; lines fine, fuscous, slightly 
outcurved ; a basal, two subbasal, two antemedial, three 
medial, three postmedial ; the outer medial and inner post- 
medial somewhat lunular ; a fuscous spot on postmedial 
above vein 4, not always present ; two lunular dark grey 
outer lines marked with black ))oints on veins ; subterminal 
whitish, more distinct from veins 4-8, and inwardly shaded 
with black; an interrupted terminal black line. Hind wings 
greyish ; a black point on discocellular anteriorly ; three fine 
medial and two subterminal fuscous lines. Wings below 
grey ; hind wings and costa of fore wings shaded with lilacine 
brown ; black discal points ; the lines faintly marked ; the 
outer postmedial line most distinct. 

Expanse 20 mm. 

Hab. Turrialba. 

Anapalta artemas, sp. n. 

(^ . Head and collar brown. Thorax brown ; patagia 
mottled black and grey. Abdomen brown, witli black dorsal 
spots. Fore wings dark brown ; a subbasal lunular black 
line; a broad antemedial whitish fascia, irrorated with light 
brown ; medial and postmedial space with some lighter 
brown irrorations; two medial black lines and two postmedial 
lunular lines, black on costa, otherwise fuscous brown, and 
followed on costa to below vein 7 by a brownish-white 
shade, less so on inner margin ; outer space lighter brown, 



304 Mr. W. Scliaus on 

with a faint subterrainal pale lunular line, preceded by a 
black shade at vein 6; an interrupted terminal dark brown 
line. Hind wings greyish, with traces of two lunular dentate 
postmedial lines, closer together on inner margin ; a terminal 
fuscous line. Fore wings below fuscous grey ; the outer 
margin and iiind wings brownish white; black discal points ; 
the two postmedial lines finely lunular dentate; two con- 
verging lines from costa before apex of fore wing. 

Expanse 26 mm. 

Uab. Poas. 

This species shows considerable variation, especially in the 
intensity of the antemedial fascia. 

Perizoma pudens, sp. n. 

Palpi and body black-brown, except terminal half of 
abdomen, which is light grey. Fore wings light silky grey ; 
basal fourth dark brown, crossed by two fine black lines, 
starting from indistinct fuscous-grey spots on costa ; a faint 
fuscous spot at end of cell; a postmedial and a smaller sub- 
terminal dark brown spot on costa ; a faint postmedial darker 
shade and some dark points on veins ; termen irregularly 
and faintly shaded with brown; cilia fuscous grey. Hind 
wings wliitish grey. 

Expanse 17 mm. 

Uab. Turrialba, Poas. 

Near P.fallax, Warr. 

Perizoma tcetrica, sp. n. 

(J . Palpi and frons black-brown, vertex paler, shaded with 
grey behind. Collar and three terminal segments of abdo- 
men whitish grey ; abdomen otherwise and thorax black- 
brown. Fore wings : basal third fuscous brown, crossed by 
three fine wavy black lines, the outer two edged with grey 
on costa; outer two-thirds pale grey shaded with fuscous 
grey at end of cell, terminally, and broadly on inner margin 
from postmedial line to tornus ; a quadrate dark brown 
postmedial spot on costa, from which are two fine and 
interrupted dark lines, slightly incurved, and macular on 
inner margin ; a subterminal broad fuscous-brown shade 
from costa to near vein 6 ; a terminal black line interrupted 
by pale spots on veins ; cilia grey partly shaded with black. 
Hind wings dark silky grey-brown ; the dark postmedial 
line of underside partly visible. Wings below dark silky 



Heterocera from Costa Rica. 305 

grey ; black discal spots. Hind wings : the postmedial 
fuscous line angled below vein 4. 

Expanse 13 mm. 

Hab. Juan Vinas. 

Eriopygidia myrtusaria, sp. ii. 

? . Palpi brownish ringed with white. Head whitish 
buff, possibly faded green. Collar and thorax dark green. 
Abdomen orange-yellow. Foie wings sage-green, lines 
black-brown, thick ; an irregular subbasal line ; antemodial 
outcurvod from subcostal to fold, preceded on costa by a short 
line ; medial broad on costa, oblique and angled near 
discocellular and suffusing with the inbent postmedial, the 
two lines diverging to vein 2, from which to inner margin 
they are connected by dark browu lines forming four green 
spots between them ; a costal spot between medial and post- 
medial, from which a darker green shade extends to and on 
discocellular ; an outer line, replaced from between veins 7 
and 6 to between 5 and 4, and also from below vein 3 to 
below 2, by a pale brownish shade ; a dentate bluish-green 
subterminal sliade partly shaded outwardly with black- 
brown ', cilia with large black spots at veins. Hind wings 
orange, the base and inner margin clouded with fuscous, and 
similar subterminal clusters of scales; the spots on cilia 
smaller, not reaching apex. Underneath [lale olive-brown ; 
fine dark discal streaks; faint traces of a darker postmedial 
shade, and a subapical shade on fore wings. 

Expanse 38 mm. 

Hah. Poas. 

Near E. narangilla, Dogu. 

Psaliodes demasai'ia, sp. n. 

(J . Palpi grey. Head brown. Collar, thorax, and 
abdomen brown mottled with wliite. Fore wings chocolate- 
brown, darkest between medial and postmedial lines and on 
outer margin ; an antemedial white fascia, crossed by a 
brown line and expanding on inner margin to medial line, 
wiiich is lunular, the lunules incurved, preceded by a small 
white spot on costa; an oblique fuscous streak on disco- 
cellular; postmedial white, irregularly outbent from costa, 
sharply inturned at vein 3 to cell, expanding on inner margin, 
wliere it is crossed by a brown line, and followed on costa by 
an inbent white line to vein 6 ; subterminal wiiite markings 
on costa, between veins 4 and 2, and at tornus; base of 



306 Mr. W. Scliaus oyi 

cilia black spotted with buff, terminally paler. Hind wings 
greyish brown; cilia spotted at base with dark brown. Fore 
wings below greyish brown, darker shaded apically; white 
points on costa_, and similar irrorations on termen; post- 
medial whitish shadings below costa ; an outer lunular 
velvety brown line edged with white outwardly. Hind 
wings below brownish thickly mottled and irrorated with 
white ; a round yellowish spot at end of cell partly edged 
with dark brown ; a deeply lunular dark brown outer line 
from costa to vein 3 ; apostmedial dark brown spot on inner 
margin. 

Expanse 18 mm. 

Ilab. Volcano Tarrialba. 

Psaliodes claudlaria^ sp. n. 

Palpi, head, and thorax brown ; the abdomen paler^ with 
dark transverse shades posteriorly, edged dorsally by white 
segmental lines. Fore wings brown ; a darker inbent sub- 
basal line, faintly edged witii white outwardly; a medial 
white line, slightly inbeilt^ edged with dark brown, more 
broadly outwardly; a postmedial white line, also edged with 
dark brown and followed by a whitish line outbent above 
vein 5 to apex ; this outbent line edged by a fuscous shade, 
which is irregularly outbent below vein 5 to termen at vein 3 ; 
the terminal space from vein 3 to apex shaded with grey- 
brown ; a terminal fuscous line; cilia yellowish spotted with 
fuscous. Hind wings whitish, the termen faintly shaded 
with brown; a terminal dark line; cilia yellow. Hind 
wings below white striated with grey-brown ; the veins 
partly yellow ; a dark discal point ; a postmedial curved 
brown line, inangled at vein 3. 

Expanse 18 mm. 

Hob. Juan Vinas. 

Psaliodes crispafa, sp. n. 

(?. Palpi, head, collar, and thorax brown. Abdomen 
silvery grey at base with brownish irrorations; dorsum 
shaded with dark brown terminally. Fore wings : base 
brown, becoming darker before antemedial line, which is 
white, inset from median to inner margin ; space to medial 
line dark brown, thinly irrorated with pale brown and shaded 
with white along subcostal ; medial line broad, white, its 
edges incurved and crossed from subcostal by a fine wavy 
brown line ; space to postmedial dark brown, its outer edge 
deeply lunular ; postmedial white, the space beyond pale 



Ilelerocera from Costa Rica. 307 

brown, mottled with white towards apex and crossed near 
postmedial by whitish hmules ; a broad terminal dark brown 
space from vein 7-4, inwardly edged with whitish, and dark 
marginal lunules below 4 and below 3; cilia dark brown 
spotted with yellowish. Ilind wings whitish grey ; cilia 
pale yellowish with dark spots at veins. Fore wings below 
greyish, with traces of whitish lines; a vermilion streak 
above subcostal from base to medial line, then below sub- 
costal and along vein 8 to apex. Hind wings below whitish 
striated with brown ; a dark brown line on discocellular; a 
daik outer dentate line, inset at vein 3. 

Expanse 19 mm. 

Hub. Poas. 

Psaliodes infulata, sp. n. 

? . Palpi and frons brown. Vertex, collar, and thorax 
yellowish buff, the collar and patagia anteriorly shaded with 
dark brown. Abdomen light brown with pale segmental 
lines. Fore wings: base yellowish buff mottled with brown, 
shading to dark brown at antemedial line, which is white, 
vertical, indentate on submedian ; space following yellowish 
buff mottled with brown ; medial and postmedial lines white 
inversely lunular edged with dark brown, the space between 
them filled in with irregular dark brown blotches at end of 
cell, and from vein 2 to inner margin, otherwise lighter 
brown shaded with yellowish buff; postmedial line followed 
by a straight yellowish-white shade; outer space brown, 
paler shaded ; a terminal dark brown space, very broad 
between veins 4 and 6, narrowing to apex, and similar 
lunules below vein 4 to tornus ; cilia yellowish spotted with 
fuscous brown. Hind wings whitish grey, shaded with pale 
brown on outer half. Fore wings below fuscous grey, the 
costa shaded with orange. Hind wings below yellowish 
white, striated with grey, chiefly at base and on outer third ; 
a brown discal spot and sinuous postmedial line. 

Expanse 23 mm. 

Hab. Cachi. 

Psaliodes interstrata, sp. n. 

? . Palpi and frons light brown. Vertex white. Collar 
and thorax wiiitish buff shaded with brown. Abdomen pale 
brown with whitish segmental lines, edged with dark brown. 
Fore wings white striated with brown except on lines, which 
are rather broad and with nearly straight edges; antemedial 
line inbeut, inwardly edged with dark brown ; medial lino 



308 Mr. W. Schaiis on 

inherit, the space to postniedial line dark brown from costa 
to median, and from vein 2 to inner margin; postmedial line 
inbent below vein 4, its outer edge suffusing somewhat with 
ground-colour ; some terminal dark brown shading, chiefly 
above vein 4 to apex; cilia yellowish wiiite spotted witii 
dark brown. Hind wings white, the termen shaded with 
pale brown. Fore wings below fuscous grey ; a white medial 
spot across cell, and one above inner margin; the postmedial 
hue and subterminal markings white, distinct. Hind wings 
below white striated with brownish grey ; a dark streak on 
discocellular ; a fine dark postniedial line, slightly sinuous. 

Expanse 21 mm. 

Hub, Poas. 

Psaliodes pldhtaSj sp. n. 

? . Palpi brown. Head, collar, and thorax olive-brown, 
with paler mottlings ; a dark brown spot on patagia. Abdo- 
men whitish buff, finely irrorated with brown. Fore wings 
olive-brown ; the lines white, divided by a fine dark brown 
line ; the antemedial sinuous, the medial and postmedial 
inversely lunular ; a fuscous-brown streak on discocelluUir, 
and dark brown shade beyond it; a subterminal lunular dark 
brown line, almost touching postniedial between veins 4 
and 6, and outwardly shaded with dull fuscous brown to 
termen ; some yellowish strise on costa and outer space ; 
cilia alternately black and yellow. Hind wings whitish, 
outwardly shaded with brown ; a faint fuscous medial line ; 
cilia yellow, with fine fuscous streaks at veins. Hind wings 
below yellowish white striated with greyish brown ; a black 
discal spot followed by a fuscous-brown line, broad on inner 
margin and barely reaching costa. 

Expanse 27 mm. 

Hah. Poas, Turrialba. 

Near P. aurantivena, Warr. 

Psaliodes simplex, sp. n. 

^ . Palpi dark brown fringed above with white. Head, 
collar, patagia, and abdomen purplish grey ; thorax dark 
reddish brown. Fore wings purplish grey, with a few 
scattered whitish irrorations ; a fine subbasal dark brown 
vertical line ; inner and outer lines fine, yellowish white, 
broadly edged on medial side with dark reddish brown, the 
inner line faintly inbent, the outer line vertical on costa, 
outangled on vein 6, where a faint brown shade extends to 
apex, and parallel with outer margin from vein 6 to inner 



rieferocera from Gosta Rtca. 309 

margin ; terminal yellowish points at veins ; cilia fuscous on 
basal half, outwardly white spotted with fuscous. Hind 
winos dull roseate, terminally shaded with lilacine grey ; a 
straight brownish outer line ; cilia fuscous grey partly tipped 
with white. Fore wings below roseate brown ; traces of 
inner and outer lines ; costa and termen fuscous grey ; a 
fuscous line on discocellular. Hind wings below roseate 
brown, the termen sliaded with fuscous grey ; a black line 
on discocellular; a broad yellowish outer line edged with 
(lark reddish brown. 

Expanse 18 mm. 

Hah. Carillo. 

Near P. cronia, Dr., and P. acutangula, Warr. 

Psaliodes sutuni, sp. n. 

? . Palpi whitish outwardly shaded with roseate brown. 
Read and collar whitish divided by a purplish line. Thorax 
and abdomen purplish brown, the latter with slate-colour 
segmental lines. Fore wings brown faintly tinged with 
})urple ; a broad inner fascia, dull greyish, shaded with 
ochreous brown on costa, edged by white lines, and crossed 
by a faint similar line, its inner edge angled in cell, its outer 
ei\^Q, straight and iubeiit ; a fuscous shade on discocellular ; 
a faint postmedial darker brown line, irrorated with grey, 
outcurved beyond cell, dentate from vein 3 to inner margin, 
the space beyond it broadly clearer brown crossed by a faint 
darker line; cilia dark brown, irregularly tipped with white. 
Hind wings white, the termen shaded with roseate brown ; 
a black discal point. Wings below roseate brown. Fore 
wings: a black streak on discocellular. Hind wings: a 
black discal point broadly edged with white; a lunular 
postmedial whitish line. 

Expanse 20 mm. 

Hab. Poas. 

Allied to P. hicolo)\ Prout. 

Subfam. (ENOCKJtoMiNM. 

DolicJioneura eriphyJej sp. n. 

S . Palpi and head fuscous brown. Thorax slate-grey. 
Abdomen brownish slate; dorsal white points. Wings slate- 
grey ; a terminal fine black line ; cilia light brown. Fore 
wings : an antemedial pale brown line, broadest in cell and 
on costa ; a pale brown wavy outer line, shaded on either 



310 On Heterocera from Costa Rica. 

side with buff, slightly incurved opposite cell and below 
vein 2 ; terminal space shaded with buff except at apex ; a 
dentate lunular subterminal greyish shade. Hind wings : 
an antemedial and a postmedial light brown line ; ^ an 
irregular and faintly marked subterminal greyish line. 
Wings below dark grey. 

Expanse 35 mm. 

Hah. Tiiis. 

Dolichoneura squaHda, sp. n. 

? . Palpi and head dark brown. Body and wings slate- 
grey ; white dorsal points on abdomen. Fore wings : ante- 
medial geminate whitish spots on inner margin ; a white 
discal point ; an outer light brown lunular line, angled at 
vein 6, preceded by a narrow light grey shade, the space 
beyond to termen being ochreous grey except on costa to 
subterminal which is slate-grey ; an interrupted subterminal 
lunular dentate slate-grey line partly shaded with whitish 
grey. Hind wings : a subbasal geminate whitish line, closely 
followed by the white discal point; a pale brown lunular 
outer line edged with ochreous grey, somewhat interrupted, 
and chiefly noticeable on inner margin ; faint subterminal 
whitish spots ; cilia dark olive-brown. Wings below dark 
grey. 

Expanse 35 mm. 

Ilab. Juan Vinas, Tuis, Guapiles. 

This may possibly be the female of D. eriphyle, Schs., in 
spite of their dissimilarity. 

PheUinodes gratiosa, sp. n. 

$ . Head brown. Collar and thorax mottled grey and 
white. Abdomen dark grey irrorated with white. Fore 
wings grey mottled with dark grey and fuscous, the inner 
margin tinged with brown ; costal and outer margins mottled 
with white except at apex which is occupied by a large dark 
brown spot inwardly edged by a curved black line and con- 
taining some fuscous striae ; a small black spot on disco- 
cellular. Hind wings black, slightly mottled with grey on 
inner margin ; a broad white space from base to well beyond 
cell. Fore wings below : costal margin broadly brownish 
grey striated with fuscous ; a small postmedial white spot ; 
the apical spot more broadly edged with black; a narrow 
white shade from base above median, expanding between 
veins 2 and 4 to termen, and terminally irrorated and spotted 



Descriptions and Records of Bees. 311 

witli black; inner margin broadly fuscous grey. Hind wings 
below white mottled witli fuscous brown, forming a well- 
marked subterminal shade ; discocellular shaded with fuscous ; 
cilia black spotted with white from vein 4 to apex. 

Expanse 38 mm. 

Hah, Tuis. 

Belongs to Sect. II. 



XL. — Desci'iptions and Records of Bees. — XLVI. 
By T. D. A. CocKERELL, University of Colorado. 

Trigona ziegleri may arum, subs p. n. 

Worker. — Agrees with Friese^s short account of T. ziegleri, 
except that the hair of the thorax is pale ferruginous, and 
the head is distinctly wider, fully 2^ mm. The size also is 
a little greater, length fully 6 mm. Friese states that the 
hind tibiae of ziegleri are black at apex, in mayarum about 
the apical half is black, and the hind basitarsi are black on 
outer side. Among the species known to me, T. mayarum 
comes closest to T.jaty, Sm. ; but the latter is much smaller, 
with the pleura mainly dark, and the yellow lateral face- 
marks forming a much more acute angle above. Other 
characters of mayarum are : mandibles with a little tooth at 
inner corner, but otherwise unarmed ; scape very broadly 
yellow in front ; flagellum clear ferruginous beneath, 
rufo-piceous above ; yellow supraclypeal mark an equilateral 
triangle; front dullish with fine short reddish hair, but 
smooth and shining below the ocelli ; tegulse apricot-colour ; 
wings with a faint orange tint ; abdomen apricot-colour, 
shining. 

Hab. Quirigua, Guatemala (TV. P. Cocherelt). 

I expect that when this can be actually compared with 
T. ziegleri it will be found to be a distinct species. An allied 
but larger species is the Brazilian T. manni, Ckll. 

Trigona jatiformis, sp. n. 

Worker. — Length 4^ mm. 

Smooth and shining; head and thorax black with 
pale markings ; abdomen clear ferruginous, with a rather 
narrow black or blackish band along hind margin of 
first dorsal segment ; labrum honey-colour ; mandibles 
edentate, pallid (pellucid whitish) basally, rufous apically ; 



312 ]\Ir. T. D. A. Cockeiell — Descriptions and 

clypeus yellow, slightly suffused witli reddish; triangular 
supraclypeal mark and lateral marks pale yellow, the 
latter elongate, pointed above on orbital margin above level 
of antennae, but with the inner margin reddish and not 
sharply defined ; scape pale reddish yellow, black above at 
apex ; flagellum dark ; mesothorax nude, shining black, with 
yellow lateral margins ; axillfe yellow ; hind margin of 
scutellum yellowish white; tubercles cream-colour; tegulse 
pellucid rufo-testaceous ; wings hyaline, faintly dusky, stigma 
and nervures reddish ; legs ferruginous; hind tibise with apex 
broadly, and hind margin except at base, black ; hind basi- 
tarsus with a large black patch ; face and front with fine 
short pale hair, not at all dense. 

Hah, Quirigua, Guatemala, = type locality, four workers 
[W. P. Cockerell) ; Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, one, Jan. 28, 
1912 {W. P. Cockerell). 

Looks exactly like T. jatij, Smith, but differs at once 
by the abdomen, which is broad instead of almost linear. 
Smith's description of T. jaty refers to the male, but I 
have workers with the same narrow abdomen. The new 
species also differs from jaty by the dark flagellum and other 
small characters. 

Trigonajaty, Smith. 

Amatitlan, Guatemala, Feb. 1912 (W. P. Cockerell) ; 
Quirigua, Guatemala, two on " common yellow Compositae/' 
one at flowers of Zexmenia virgulta, Klatt, one Feb. 11, on 
plant no. 15 [W. P. Cockerell). 

Trigona mellaria, Smith. 

Gualan, Guatemala, one Feb. 23, at flowers of Calopogonium 
caruleum, Desv., Feb. 23 (JV. P. Cockerell) ; Quirigua, 
Guatemala, one [W. P. Cockerell, 7). 

Trigona stigma, Smith. 

Quirigua, Guatemala, one {IV. P. Cockerell). New to 
Central America. 

Trigona nigerrima, Cresson. 
Quirigua, Guatemala, sixteen {W. P. Cockerell). Taken 




Is it possible that the " silvestriana"" reported by Vachal 
from British Honduras was nigerrima? 



Records of Bees. 313 

Trigona argyrea, sp. n. 

Worker. — Length slightly over 3 mm. 
Black, including antenuse and legs, but abdomen (which is 
short and rather broad) shining dark sepia-brown; head large; 
face up to antennse flattened, densely covered with short, ap- 
pressed, brilliantly silver hair; mandibles edentate, black with 
the apical margin rufous; cheeks small ; front shining, the 
upper part with rather large sparse punctures, as they appear 
under a lens, but the microscope shows that they are the bases 
of black bristles ; vertex with black hair ; posterior ocelli very 
close to occipital margin ; thorax narrower than head, without 
light markings, the dorsum shining, with black hair, the 
mesothorax also with very short strongly plumose pale hairs ; 
pleura with pale hair ; sides of metathorax minutely pale- 
tomentose ; hair of legs largely black, but white hair on 
underside of middle trochanters and basal half of their femora 
(hind legs broken off in type) ; wings dusky, nervures and 
stigma dark sepia; tegulte rufo-piceous ; underside of 
abdomen pale ochreous. 

Hab. Quirigua, Guatemala, one (JV. P. Cockerell). The 
specimen is labelled " nest in clay bank,'' where it was 
taken along with a couple of T. cupira, Smith. 

This may be compared with T. hyalinata, Lep., and T. tiibibu, 
Smith ; differing from both by its very silvery face, from 
hyalinata also by the smaller size, and from tuhiba by the 
shining front and mesothorax (these parts in tuhiba are 
absolutely dull) . T. argentata, Lep., has silvery hair on face, 
but the wings are clear. 

Trigona zexmenice, sp. n. 

Worker. — Length 7^ to 9 mm. 

Robust, abdomen parallel-sided, not quite so broad asthorax; 
head and thorax dull black, but the clypeus and supraclypcal 
area shining and strongly punctured ; labrum ferruginous, 
more or less bigibbous ; mandibles rufo-piceous, edentate, tl>e 
broad apical margin sharply marked off and ornamented with 
elongate punctures ; malar space rather large ; no light face- 
marks ; front dull and densely granidar, as also are the meso- 
thorax and scutellum ; antennae black, with the scape red at 
base and extreme apex, and flagellum dark reddish beneath ; 
hair of head and thorax above scanty and black, longest on 
scutellum; edge of mesothorax above tegulse with a narrow 
d;ill yellow stripe; hair of pleura mostly black, partly pale 
below; tegulse piceous or rufo-piceous. Wings dusky, with a 

& Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. x. 22 



314 Mr. T. D. A. Cockevell — Descriptions and 

strong reddish tint ; stigma and nervures testaceous. Legs 
black, the small joints of tarsi dark red ; abdomen dull but 
not dark reddish fulvous, the segments more or less dusky, 
though ujirrowly, at apex. The face is very broad. 

Hab. Quirigua, = type locality, eight ; one at flowers of 
Zexmenia virgulta, Klatt, two at flowers of common yellow 
Compositae, three (Feb. 31) at blue flowers of a species of 
Labiatse {JV. P. CockereU) ; Gualan, Guatemala, one at 
flowers of Vernonia aschenhorniana ^ Schauer, one (Feb. 18) 
without flower record ( W. P. CockereU). 

A relatively large species, looking a little like Melipona 
mandacaia, Smith, but the resemblance is merely superficial. 
It should rather be compared with Trigoiia fulviventris, Guer., 
which is considerably smaller and has a shining abdomen. 
The two agree in the dense white tomentum on cheeks. 

Trigona fulviventris , Guerin. 

Mrs. Cockerel! took this in Guatemala as follows : — Puerto 
Barrios, six, Jan. 28 ; Quirigua, five, two at Zexmenia 
virgulta, Kiatt, one (Feb. 20) at Ipomoea quinquefulia, 
Grisebach, one (Feb. 11) at Pontederia cordaia, L. ; Ama- 
titlan, February, one ; Guatemala City, one. 

Trigona cupira, Smith. 

Mrs. Cockerel! took this in Guatemala as follows :- — 
Amatitlan, one; Puerto Barrios, one, Jan. 28; Guatemala 
City, three (I also have three from Guatemala City collected 
by Mr. J. Kodriguez) ; Antigua, one ; Gualan, twelve, al! 
but one at flowers of Veniojiia aschenborniana, Schauer ; 
Quirigua, sixteen, two at nest in clay bank, five (Feb. 12 and 
20) at flowers of Ipomoea sidcefolia, Clioisy. 

Trigona amalthea, Olivier. 

Mrs. Cockerel! toolc tliis in Guatemala as follows : — Gualan, 
two, Feb. 22-23, at flowers of Calopogonium ccerulewri, Desv.; 
Puerto Barrios, one ; Quirigua, five, one (Feb. 11) at 
Pontederia cordata, L., one at flowers of common yellow 
Compositse. 

Trigona frontalis flavocinct a, Cockerel!, var. a. 

Quirigua, Guatemala, a variety with lateral thirds of 
clypeus blaclc or nearly, bases of first and second abdominal 
segments usually creamy wliite, tlie hind margin of first 
segment very broadly dark ; nine workers, one at nest in 



Records of Bees. 315 

clay bauk, six at sap^ others at flowers of plant no. 7 
(IF. P. Cockerell). 

MeUpona fulvipes, Gucrin. 

Gualan, Guatemala, one male, Feb. 18 ( W. P. Cockei^ell). 
Near to M. liyata, but the male differs. Mrs. Coclverell took 
workers of M . fulvipes at Quirigua, eleven specimens ; three 
(Feb. 20) at flowers of Solarium, one (Feb. 11) at Pontederia 
cor data. 

Meli^jona solani, sp. n. 

Worker. — Length about 10 mm. 

Black, with the general build and structure of M. fulvipes ; 
face without light markings, except the faintest possible 
reddish median line on the dull minutely granular clypeus ; 
labrura ferruginous, minutely punctured; antennae dark, scape 
rufo-piceous, flagellum reddish at end; hair of head and thorax 
above abundant, mixed dark fuscous and ferruginous, of sides 
of thorax rich ferruginous, beneath whitish ; mesothorax and 
scutellum shining, the latter testaceou^s ; tegulse clear amber- 
red ; wings dusky, very red, especially toward base ; stigma 
and nervures ferruginous ; much of middle, and nearly all of 
liind femora, bright red ; apical tarsal joints and end of lobe 
of hind basitarsus red ; hair of legs partly black and partly 
redj the short appressed hair on inner surface of hind tibiae 
with a purple lustre in certain lights ; abdomen black with 
black hair, hind margins of the segments very narrowly 
obscure reddish (this is wholly wanting on the fifth), and 
the second and third with a fringe of pale golden-brown hair ; 
venter ferruginous suft'used with darker, and with glittering 
cream-coloured hair. 

Hab. Quirigua, Guatemala, one at flowers of Solarium, 
Feb. 20, 1912 {IV. P. Cockerell). 

Allied to M. fulvipes, but easily known by the lack of yellow 
bauds on the abdomen and of yellow face-markings. 

Augochlora yemmella, sp. n. 

$ . — Length about 6 mm. 

Very brilliant shining blue, more green on thorax, varying 
to nearly all blue-green ; in the type the face, vertex, and 
cheeks are peacock-green, the front blue ; thorax blue-green 
with purple shades, but the scutellum and postseutellum very 
green, contrasting with the blue metathorax ; abdomen blue 
with purple lights, dorsum of second segment distinctly 
green ; on the legs the blue colour extends to the femora 

22* 



316 Mr. T. D. A. Copkerell — Descriptions and 

and anterior and middle tibial ; labram black, mandibles 
with the apical half rufous; clypeus not much produced, 
strongly but sparsely punctured, its lower margin rather 
broadly black ; antennae blacky scape I'ufous at extreme base ; 
front minutely granular ; cheeks with rather abundant white 
hair ; mesothorax very brilliant, with extremely minute 
punctures, sparse in middle, becoming dense only at sides ; 
anterior angles of prothorax prominent, greater (but not 
very much greater) than right angles; hair of thorax scanty 
and pale ; area of metathorax semilunar, with fine plicae 
which cover little more than the basal half ; apical trunca- 
tion not distinctly defined above ; tegulae pale rufo-testaceous, 
with a blue spot. Wings slightly dusky, nervures and the 
large stigma dark sepia ; third s.m. twice as long as second ; 
first r. n. joining second t.-c. on entering basal corner of 
third s.m. ; hind spur with three spines, two very long ; 
hair on iinier side of hind basitarsus shining mouse-grey. 
Abdomen broad, shining, very brilliant, the linear hind 
margins of the segments reddish ; no vibrissse ; much hair 
on ventral surface of abdomen. The specimens have col- 
lected an abundance of white pollen on the hind femora and 
the under surface of the abdomen. 

Hub. Quirigua, Guatemala, six females (JV. P. Cockerell). 
Three collected Feb. 13, 1912, at flowers of Centroseina 
plumieri, Bentham. One at flowers of Zexmenia virgulta, 
Klatt. Two at plant no. 60. 

Quite distinct from all other Guatemalan species by the 
small size and brilliant colours. It belongs to Vachal's 
group sericei, and in his table runs to the much larger and 
otherwise different Angochlora tonsilis {Halictus tonsilis, 
Vachal), except for the long spines on the hind spur. There 
is quite a close resemblance to A. cyaneoviridis, Ashm., 
from St. Vincent ; but Ashmead^s species has the area of 
metathorax covered with fine striae, the wings browner, 
tlie head narrower, and the mesothorax rugulose with dense 
punctures. 

Augochlora amatitlana, sp. u. 

(J . — Length about 10 mm., anterior wings about 7. 

Head and thorax bright blue-green with purple tints, the 
purple mainly in the form of two suffused longitudinal bands 
on mesothorax and two spots on scutellum ; middle of face 
golden green ; metathorax and postscutellum of the same 
colour, not so blue as scutellum ; a small golden triangle at 
upper end of metathoracic truncation ; head broad above, 
eyes deeply emarginate, almost without hair ; clypeus strongly 



Records of Bees, 317 

produced, shilling, rather sparsely punctured, with a little 
median golden stripe, and the lower margin rather broadly 
testaceous; labrum brown, pointed below; autennaj black, 
with a red spot at extreme apex, flagellum very long; front 
densely granular; mesothorax and scutellum densely granular- 
punctate; postscutellura large, with indications of longi- 
tudinal fluting ; area of metathorax large but poorly defined, 
the middle and base densely wrinkled ; posterior truncation 
sharply defined only at sides below ; tegulse red-brown, with 
a large green spot and pallid margin. Wings orange-tinted, 
not dark; the nervures and rather small stigma ferruginous ; 
second s.m. broad, its sides parallel ; first r. n. joining second 
t.-c. ; femora and tibise green, hind tibise black behind ; 
tarsi ferruginous ; hind legs long and slender ; spurs light 
ferruginous. Abdomen brilliantly shining, but finely and 
rather conspicuously punctured, disc of first segments with 
punctures all over ; general colour of abdomen brilliant 
coppery shading to golden, the middle of the segments 
(especially the second) reddest, the hind margins broadly 
pale greenish ; thin pale pubescence, especially at sides, but 
no bauds or vibrissee ; underside of abdomen dark green, 
the third segment broadly emarginate at apex, and the 
middle beyond the third broadly excavated or hollowed. 

Hub. Amatitlan, Guatemala, Feb. 1912 {W. P. Cockerell). 

A magnificent species, presumably one of the sericei, but 
the female is unknown. It seems to be nearest to A. aurora. 
Smith, in which the abdomen is yellowish green and the 
thorax dark blue-green. It does not agree with anything in 
Vachal's tables. 

Ccenohalictus wilmattce, sp. n. 

^ . — Length about 10 mm., anterior wings nearly 8^. 

Eyes with short scanty hair ; pubescence very conspicu- 
ously plumose ; eyes deeply emarginate ; head broad, eyes 
converging below ; clypeus much produced, shining blue- 
green, with scattered strong punctures, lower margin rather 
broadly dull whitish, the actual edge ferruginous ; labrum 
transverse, rufo-fuscous, the base whitish, the apex angular 
and fringed with long golden hairs ; mandibles black ; 
malar space about twice as broad as long; supraclypeal area 
with a golden patch in middle ; front dark green, very hairy; 
hair of head and thorax below sordid white, of vertex and 
dorsum of thorax dull fulvous; cheeks brilliantly purple- 
blue ; thorax dark purple-blue, the pleura richly coloured, 
the mesothorax and scutellum blackish except at sides, the 



318 Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell — Descriptions and 

middle o£ mesothorax slightly greenish ; metathorax very 
dark green or greenish black ; mesothorax and scutellum 
densely granular -pun ctate^ almost rugose ; anterior corners 
of prothorax not at all prominent ; area of metathorax poorly 
defined, coarsely rugose-wrinkled at base and middle ; pos- 
terior truncation quadrate, sharply defined only below, over- 
lapped at apex by the golden-tinted tip of basal area ; tegulse 
rufo-fuscous, with pallid margins and a bluish spot. Wings 
ample, somewhat dusky, consiHcuously so at apex; nervures 
and stigma ferruginous; second s m. large ; first r. n. joining 
second t.-c. Legs with pale hair, orange-tinted on inner side 
of tarsi ; femora and tibise mainly metallic blue, hind tibioe 
black behind ; tarsi more or less ferruginous, especially the 
hind ones. Abdomen closely and finely punctured but shining, 
golden green, the disc of first segment and base and sides 
of second faintly flushed with coppery ; hind margins of 
segments sufFusedly and rather obscurely blackish ; venter 
of abdomen formed as in AugocJilora amatitlana ; antennae 
long and black. 

Hub. Amatitlan, Guatemala, Feb. 5, 1912 {W. P. 
Cockerell) . 

This certainly must be quite closely related to Augochlora 
amatitlana, having essentially the same structure and general 
type of coloration. In detail, however, A. amatitlana is very 
differently coloured. The eyes of A. amatitlana are practi- 
cally hairless, but with the compound microscope I find a 
very few short hairs. It is a question whether A. amatitlana 
should not stand as Ccenohalictus amatitla?ms ; but, on the 
other hand, it is possible that actual comparison w^ith the 
type of Ccenohalictus (from Ecuador) would show that 
neither of the insects now described should really be referred 
to it. Certainly they have not the long hair of the eyes of 
C. trichiophthalmus , Cameron. If, however, we redefined 
Ccenohalictus as Augochlora of the sericei group with hair 
on the eyes, we have four species : C. trichiophthalmus, Cam.; 
C. chcetops, Vachal ; C. amatitlanus, Ckll. ; C. ivilmattce, 
Ckll. The species of Vachal and Cameron are considerably 
smaller than those from Guatemala, being only about 8 mm. 
long. 

Dialictus onustulus, sp. n. 

? . — Length fully 5^ mm. 

Head and thorax olive-green ; clypeus smooth with sparse 
large punctures, the lower half black, the upper half crimson 
and green ; supraclypeal area tinged with brassy ; mandibles 
red at apex ; front dull and densely granular ; antenuse 



Records of Bees. '^ 1 9 

blacky tlie flagellura stout ; mesothorax dullish, with minute 
not very dense punctures ; area of metathorax rugose, liardly 
plicate ; tegulse small, rufo-piceous. Wings hyaline, faintly 
dusky, stigma and nervures brownish testaceous ; first r. n. 
joining second s.m. more than a third from base. Legs black, 
with pale hair. Abdomen black with a distinct aeneous tint, 
the hind margins of the segments so slightly and narrowly 
reddish that the fact is hardly noticeable ; no bands, but 
rather abundant pale hair. The following characters are 
microscopical : face and front minutely tessellate, sides of 
front as densely punctured as is possible ; sides of meso- 
thorax (also minutely tessellate) with punctures about as far 
apart as the diameter of one ; middle o£ mesothorax with 
punctures about or nearly twice as far apart ; teguhe witli 
minute piliferous punctures only ; area ot metathorax with 
irregular basal pliciie ; abdomen with extremely fine piliferous 
punctures, sparse but not absent on disc of first segment ; 
third segment with much beautifully plumose hair ; hind 
spur with four long teeth. The type carries much yellow 
pollen. 

Hab. Guatemala City, Guatemala {W. P. Cocker ell). 
Except for the larger size, this agrees fairly well with the 
description of D. costaricensis, Crawford, but the tegulse are 
no larger, and the punctures of the mesothorax are not 
closer, than in D. accident alls, Crawford, from the United 
States. The insect is nearest to D. occidentalis, from which 
it is known by the brassy or greenish-tinted abdomen and 
somewhat dtisky wings. 

Exomalopsis callura, sp. n. 

^ , — Length 6-6i mm. 

Black, shining ; head broad ; face and front with shining 
white hair ; labrum with much white hair ; cheeks Avith 
white hair, except the uppermost part, where it is black ; 
occiput with much black hair ; sides of vertex smooth and 
shining ; ocelli in a very slightly curved line; no light face- 
markings ; clypeus and supraclypeal area smooth and Hat, 
with very few minute and feeble punctures ; mandibles 
black ; scape black ; flagellum normal, black above, bright 
yellowish ferruginous below ; mesothorax with rather small 
but strong and close punctures, except the posterior disc, 
which is impunctate ; hair of thorax black, but a large white 
tuft on lowermost part of pleura ; tegulae black. Wings 
hyaline, suffused with orange, the apical margin broadly pale 
greyish; stigma and nervures bright apricot-colour, stigma 



320 Mr. G. A. K. Mardliall on new 

large ; second s.m. rather large, receiving first r, n. near 
beginning of its last third. Legs black, the small joints of 
tarsi ferruginous ; hair of legs mainly black, but partly 
reddish on middle and anterior tarsi, and some pale glittering 
hair on anterior side of hind tibise and a little on base of 
basitarsus. Abdomen shining, finely punctured ; fii'st two 
segments appearing dark, with hair partly black, though 
broadly pale ochreous at base and sides of first segment, and 
red at base of second ; third and following segments densely 
covered with apprfessed shining red-orange hair. 

Hab. Gualan, Guatemala (W. P. Cockerell). 

Three at flowers of Vernonia aschenborniana. Nearest to 
E. otomita, Cresson, but colours of abdomen different^ wings 
not yellowish fuscous^ stigma not brown, &c. 



XLI. — Three new Species of Neotropical Coccittellida3. 
By Guy A. K. Maeshall. 

Azya trinitatis, sp. n. (Fig. 1.) 

Parva, subcyaneo-nigra ; abdomine, pedibus, ore, epistoma rufo- 
flavis; supra setulis parvis erectis griseis undique aequaliter 
vestita. 

Black, with a slight dark blue reflection ; the abdomen, 
legs, mouth-parts, and epistome reddish yellow. The entire 
upper surface densely and evenly clothed with very fine, 

Fig. 1. 




Azya trinitatis, Mshl. 

short, erect, grey hairs, and without any patch or patches of 
dark hairs. The elytra closely, evenly, and distinctly punc- 
tate throughout ; the punctation of the thorax shallower. 
Length 2'75 ram. 



Species of Neotropical Coccinellidae. 321 

Trinidad: Cedros, April 1911 (F. W. Un'ch). 

Type in the British Museum. 

TJescribed from five specimens received by tlie Entomo- 
logical Kesearch Committee from Mr. F. W. Urich, Ento- 
mologist to the Board of Agriculture, Trinidad. Mr. Urich 
states that the species is of economic importance, as both tiio 
adults and larvae attack the coconut scale {Aspidiotus 
destrucloi-), upon which they operate as a very serviceable 
check. 

This species may be readily distinguished from all the 
previously described species of Azya by its small size and by 
the complete absence of any of the characteristic patches of 
dark hairs. 

Azya nana, sp. n. 

Parva, cyanea, nitida ; abdomine, pedibus, ore rufo-flavis ; supra 
setulis griseis subreclinatis vestita, elytris ante medium macula 
circular! communi setulis fuscis brevioribus suberectis obsita 
ornatis. 

Dark blue, shining ; the abdomen, legs, and mouth-parts 
reddish jellovv. The upper surface is densely clothed with 
fine subrecumbent grey hairs, which are rather longer than 
those of A. trinitatis, and on the elytra there is, before the 
middle, a common circular patch of rather shorter suberoct 
dark hairs; the front margin of the patch does not quite 
reach the scutellum, and its hind margin is just behind the 
middle. The punctation is very similar to that of A. tnni- 
tatis, but is distinctly shallower on the disk of the elytra. 

Length 2*25 mm. 

Beazil : Pernambuco {Alexander Fry). 

Type in the British Museum. 

The two Brazilian species, A. scutata, Muls. (3'5 mm.), 
and A. nigrina, Weise (4 mm.), which agree with A. nana in 
having a common patch of dark hairs on the elytra, may be 
at once distinguished by their much larger size, reddish- 
yellow epistome, and less strongly punctate elytra, as well as 
by their different colour — the first-mentioned being black 
with a dark purplish reflection, and the other entirely black. 
I have seen sixteen specimens of this species. 

Cryptognatha nodiceps, sp. n. (Fig. 2.) 

Parva, flava, signaturis piceis notata ; elytris singulatim litura 
magna irregulari picea discum fere totum obsideute (vide fig. 2) 
et macula parva elongata longitudinali ante medium juxta suturam 
ornatis. 



322 On new Species of Neotropical Goccincllidte. 

Pale yellow or reddish yellow, with a large irregular 
piceous black patch occupying nearly the whole disk of each 
elytron, and an elongate longitudinal spot close to the suture 
before the middle. Head of ^ broadly impressed, with a 
small projecting tubercle close to the inner margin of the eye, 
the epistome broadly truncate anteriorly, its external angles 
roundly subrectangular and somewhat recurved ; in the ? 

Fio:. 2. 




Cryptoynatha nodiceps, Mshl. 

the head is much less deeply impressed and the tubercles are 
less conspicuous. Pronotum with a fine, transverse, curved, 
raised line just in front oP the scutellum, the entire surface 
closely and distinctly punctate. Elytra broadest before the 
middle, the punctation rather less close than on the pro- 
notum ; the epipleur'se sloping steeply inwards and with deep 
excavations for the anterior pairs of legs. Front tibiae with 
the exterior border angularly dilated in both sexes (omitted 
in the figure); tarsal claws simple. 

Length 2'16 mm. 

Trinidad: Cedros (C. W. Hewlett, F. W. Urich). 

Types S ? in the British Museum. 

The structure of the head and epistome, as well as the very 
distinctive coloration, will render this an easily recognizable 
species. The discal patch on the elytra varies somewhat, 
the included paler arens being often entirely dark and the 
outline of the whole patch more sharply defined. Described 
from six specimens. 

As in the case of Azya tnnitatis, Mr. Urich has found this 
species to be an effective check on the coconut scale in 
Triiiidad. 



On new Eels from Went Africa. 323 



XLII. — Description of Tioo new Eels from West Africa, 
belonging to a new Gemis and Family. By C. Tate 
Kegan/M.A. 

(Published by permissiou of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Heterenchelys, gen. no v. 

Naked, elongate, subcylindrical, with the tail much longer 
than the trunk. Dorsal and anal fins long, but very low 
except towards tlie end of the tail, where they are confluent 
witli the caudal ; rays concealed beneath the skin ; no 
pectorals. Gill-openings separate, placed low. Nostrils 
lateral, the posterior in front of the very small eye. Mouth 
moderate; teeth conical, biserial in jaws and on vomer; 
tongue not free ; pharyngeal apertures of branchial clefts 
wide ; pharyngeals covered with small teeth. 

Very similar to Moringua, which has the trunk much 
longer than the tail, the teeth uniserial, and the pharyngeal 
apertures of the interbranchial clefts small. A study of the 
anatomy confirms the relationship to Moringua, but reveals 
some important differences, notably that the heart is placed 
just behind the gills and the palato-pterygoid is well developed 
in Heterenchelys^ whereas in Moringua the heart is a con- 
siderable distance behind the gills and tlie palato-pterygoid 
is vestigial. In these and other characters the new genus is 
the more generalized ; it is the type of a new family, which 
will be further characterized in a forthcoming paper on the 
classification of the Apodes. 

Heterenchelys microphthalmus, sp. n. 

Depth about 22 in the length. Tail nearly twice as long 
as rest of fish ; head, to gill-opening, about ^ as long as 
distance from gill-opening to vent. Eye nearly equidistant 
from end of snout and angle of mouth ; cleft of mouth a little 
more than ^ the length of head. Coloration uniform. 

Two specimens, 390 and 460 mm. in total length, from 
the mouth of the Congo, presented to the British Museum in 
1893 by Mr. V. H. Cornish. 

Heterenclielys macrurus, sp. n. 

Depth about 27 in the length. Tail more than three times 
as long as rest of fish ; head, to gill-opening, nearly f of 



324 Mr. E. Schwarz on Malay Tigers. 

distance from gill-opening to vent. Eye a little nearer to 
angle of mouth than to end of snout ; cleft of mouth ^ the 
length of head or a little less. Coloration uniform. 

Three specimens, 300 to 330 mm. in total length, from 
Lagos and Elobi. 



XLIII. — Notes on Malay Tigers, with Description of a new 
Form from Bali. By Ernst Schwarz. 

In 1868 * Fitzinger described the tiger from Sumatra and 
Java as "Der Sunda-Tiger '^ {Tigris sondaica). As the 
Sumatra and Java tigers are subspecifically distinct, Fitz- 
inger's name can only stand for one of these, and I propose 
to use it for the Javan race. In 1908 Pocock used Fitzinger's 
name for the Sumatran tiger, but he does not appear to have 
distinguished more than one race of Malay tiger, but simply 
followed Fitzinger. 

In the diagnosis of Tigris sondaica Fitzinger describes the 
stripes as follows : — " f asciis angustis transversalibus parum 
numerosis." In a skin of a tiger from Java in the Sencken- 
berg Museum, Frankfurt-a.-M., the stripes are narrow, as 
described by Fitzinger, whereas in a skin from Deli, 
Sumatra, in the same collection, and in the specimen 
described and figured by Pocock f (also Deli, Sumatra), they 
are " numerous, closely placed, and broad." 

The tiger from Java will therefore have to stand as Felis 
iigris sondaica (Fitzinger). 

The following races of Malay tiger can be distinguished : — 

Felis tigris, subsp. 

Felis tiyris, var. nigra, Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. E.. Anim,, Mamm. p. 50 

(1842) (Sumatra) (nom. nud.). 
Tiyris sondaica, Fitzinger (part.), Sitzungsb, k. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 

math.-nat. CI. Bd. Iviii. i. Abth. p. 454 (1868) (Java). 
Felis tigris sondaica, Pocock (part.?), P. Z. S. 1908, ii. pp. 890-893, 

text-iig. 174 (1908). 

Hah. Sumatra. 

Specimens examined. 1 ^ skull, 1 $ skin (mounted) with 
skull. Deli, Sumatra. Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt- 
a.-M. 

* Sitzungsb. k. Akad. Wiss. Wien, math.-nat. CI. Bd. Iviii. i. Abth. 
p. 454 (1868). 

t P. Z. S. 1908, ii. pp. 890-898, text-fig. 174 (1908). 



Mr. E. Schwaiz on Malay Tigers. 325 

Ground-colour somewhat paler than in sondaica ; stripes 
rather broad, but less so than in tigris, and duplicated, espe- 
cially on the hind-quarters and thighs. Shoulders rather 
scantily striped. Horizontal stripes on forehead distinct, 
broad. Back of ears black, with an elliptical white band 
below the tip and a number of brown hairs at base. Lower 
portion of face and anterior part of cheek-beard white. 
The light area above the eyes much larger than in sondaica, 
consisting of a white spot above the anterior angle of the eye 
and a buffy area above the eye, separated by a black band. 

Fur longer and beard more distinct tlian in sondaica. 

Skull. Somewhat smaller than in F. t. sondaica ; zygo- 
matic width markedly less. Occipital plane broad, its upper 
margin rounded ; mastoid process conspicuously projecting 
laterally. Bullse more rounded than in sondaica; P4 with 
better developed metacone and weaker protocone. 

This local form of tiger appears to be intermediate between 
F. t. sondaica from Java and the mainland races. It is 
easily distinguished from sondaica by the broad nasals and 
the shape of the occipital plane. 

Felis tigris sondaica (Fitzinger). 

Tigris sondaica,, Fitzinger (part.), Sitzungsb. k. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 
matli.-nat. CI. Bd. Iviii. i. Abth. p. 454 (1868) (Sumatra). 

Hab. Java. 

Specimens examined. 1 skin, 3 c? skulls, 1 ? skull. Java. 
Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt-a.-M. 

Ground-colour light rusty ; stripes very narrow^ often 
duplicated. Less stripes in the shoulder region. Frontal 
stripes indistinct. Back of ears black except an elliptical 
white spot below the tip. Lower portion of cheeks white. 
A very small whitish area above the anterior angle of the 
eye. 

Fur short and close. 

Skull. Size rather larger. Nasals long and narrow. Occipi- 
tal plane narrow, its upper margin triangular. 

This is the largest of the island tigers. It is distinguished 
by the shape of the occipital plane. 

Felis tigris balica, subsp. n. 

Type locality. Bali. 

Type. ? ad., skin and skull. Senckenberg Museum, 
Frankfurt-a.-M. No. 2576. Purchased from Dr. J. Elbert. 
Specimens examined. One, the type. 



326 



Mr. E. Schwarz on Malay Tigers. 



Ground-colour somewhat brighter 



light markings clearer 



than in sondaica and 
white. Stripes a little broader and 
more duplicated. Frontal markings indistinct. Back of 
ears black except an elliptical white spot below the tip. 
Lower portion of cheeks white. A rather small white area 
above the anterior angle of the eye. v 

Fur short and close. 

Skull. Very small ; general plan as in sondaica. Nasals 
long and narrow. Occipital plane narrow, its upper margin 
triangular. Bullae of the same general shape as in sondaica, 
but much flatter. P4 shorter. 

Dimensions of type : — Head and body 1530 mm. ; tail 580. 

Skull: basilar length 207; condylo-basilar length 223; 
greatest breadth 169 ; mastoid breadtli 100 ; nasals 86 x 41'5 ; 
intertemporal constriction 44 ; width of brain-case 86 ; 
palatilar length 110; palate, greatest breadth (inch teeth) 
102; breadth of rostrum across roots of canines 71; p^, 
length on outer edge 30'6, breadth 15*5, greatest oblique 
diameter 31*5. 

The Bali tiger is easily recognized by its very small size. 
In the shape of its skull it is much like F. t. sondaica, but 
differs in the flatness of the bullae and the narrower zygomatic 
arches.. 



Skull-measurements [in 


mm.) of Malay Tigers. 












.a" 




^ a5 


Locality. 


•A 


1^ 


"bo 

a 







'=4-1 ."tJ 
PL. 




^3 

a 


'€ 


<D 


g 


r/i 


-ci 




Cl> 


CJ 


Ph 


ha 


C3 


Ci 




ZL 








ct 






< 


in 


D 


N] 


^ 


pq 


Deli, Sumatra .... 


cT ad. 


2 


309 


206 


101x50-3 


G5 


Sumatra 


? ad. 


IIGO 


270 


176 


94x50 


51-5 


Java 


d ad. 
2 ad. 
2 ad. 


1616 

4 
2576 


315 
290 
254 


220 
195 
1G9 


103x48-7 
96x47-7 
86x41-5 


52-8 
47-2 
41-5 


.Tava 


Bali 





On new Burmese Species of Ruteline CoJeoptera. 327 



XLIV. — Descriptions of some neio Burmese Species of 
Ruteline Coieoptera helonging to the Genus Anomala. By 
Gilbert J. Arrow. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Additional forms of this great genus are continually found, 
and the larger the number of its species grows the less 
practicable becomes the task of subdividing it. About 700 have 
already been described, and yet from various tropical regions 
in which they abound hardly any have yet received names. 
Probably no country is more richly provided with species 
of this attractive group than Burma, but the number of 
described forms at present known from that country is insig- 
nificant. A few additions form the subject of this paper. 
They were collected chiefly by the late L. Fea, H. Doherty, 
and G. Q. Corbett, and a few by Mr. H. E. Andre wes. The 
types of all are in the British Museum, and co-types are 
either in Mr. H. E. Andrewes's collection or the Genoa 
Museum, or in both. 

Anomala (subg. SpirMnomala) paUidospila, sp. n. 

^neo-viridis vel cuprea, elytris testaceis, margiuibus vel parte 
majora seneo-nigris, pronoti lateribus lineaque basali medio 
interrupta, scutello, elytrorum puncto submarginali post medium, 
femoribus, coxis sternoque partim, pallida flavis, pygidio obscure 
rufo, tibiis cupreis : elongato-ovata, paulo depressa, capite rugoso, 
clj'peo semicirculari ; prothorace crebre insequaliter pimctato, 
parce setoso, medio leviter sulcato, lateribus fortiter arcuatis, 
angulis anticis acutis, posticis fere rectis, basi anguste marginato, 
leviter trisinuato; scutello grosse pimctato; elytris profuude 
striatis, interstitiis inaequalibus, subtiliter punctulatis ; pygidio 
metasteruoque leviter rugulosis et hirtiferis, abdomine crebrius 
ruguloso et flavido piloso, segmento 2" utrinque spinis tribus 
munito ; pedibus posterioribus gracilibus, tibia antica fortiter 
bidentata, pedum 4 anticorum ungue majori fisso. 

Deep metallic green or coppery green, the elytra light 
brown, with margins of varying breadth and sometimes 
nearly the whole greenish black, and the sides of tlie pro- 
notum, a narrow basal line on each side, the scutellum, a 
small spot near the outer edge of each elytron behind the 
middle, and the greater part of the femora, coxae, and 
sternum pale yellow. Thepygidium is deep reddish and the 
tibiic are coppery. 

The shape is elongate ovate, rather depressed and dis- 
tinctly tapering before and behind, and almost the whole 



328 Mr. G. J. Arrow on neio 

body, except the elytra, is clothed with rather coarse and 
not close greyish hairs. The head is rugose and the clypeus 
flat and semicircular. The pronotum is ratlier strongly 
punctured, the close and fine punctures being intermixetl 
with larger ones, which bear long erect hairs. The scutel- 
lum bears a few large punctures and the elytra are deeply 
striated, the interstices being unequal and finely punctured. 
The pygidium and metasternum are rather lightly rugose and 
hairy, and the abdomen more closely. The second abdominal 
segment bears on each side three spines, rather larger than 
those forming the general clothing. The mesosternum is 
not produced, the front tibise are strongly bidentate, the four 
posterior legs very long and slender, and the larger claw of 
the front and middle feet cleft, 

S . The hind legs are longer than those of the female and 
the inner front claw is broad but very acute. 

Long. 8-9 mm. : lat. 4'5-5 mm. 

Hah. Burma: Maymyo, 3500 ft. (May 1910—^7. L. 
Andreioes). 

This species is said to feed on Prunus persica. 

It is closely related to the group of Bornean species to 
which Dr. Ohaus has given the name Spinanomala. The 
characteristic spines at the sides of the abdomen differ only 
slightly from the general hairy clothing, and the mesosteriial 
epimera are not produced upwards. It seems to me that no 
sufficient reason remains for regarding Spinanomala as more 
than a subgenus of Anomala in the present condition of the 
latter. 

Anomala hruchomorpha, sp. n. 

Lsete fulva, capite (clypeo antice excepto), clava antennaU, scutello, 
prothoracis vitta lata mediana nonnunquam, elj'trorum fasciia 
duabus interruptis, pygidii maculis 2 basalibus bifidia, pectoris 
medio, tibiis posticis tarsisque omnibus nigris vel fuscis, corpora 
(elytris exceptis) eeneo-micante : breviter ovata, supra paulo 
depressa, capite dense punctate, clypeo brevi, antice fere recto ; 
pronoto crebre et sequaliter sat minute punctato, lateribus medio 
valde angulatis, dein antice fere rectis, postice paulo sinuatis, 
angulis anticis vix, posticis fere, acutis, basi baud marginato ; 
scutello crebre punctate ; elytris profuude sat sequaliter sulcatis, 
interstitiis minute et sparse punctulatis ; pygidio subtiliter 
transverse strigoso ; mesosterno baud producto, metasterni 
lateribus breviter griseo-pilosis ; tibiis anticis bidentatis, pedum 
4 anteriorum uuguibus majoribus fissis. 

Orange, suffused, except upon the elytra, with a greenish- 
metallic lustre and with black markings consisting of the 



Burmese Species of JRuteline Coleoptera. 329 

head (except the front part of the clypeus), a broad median 
stripe upon the pronotum (sometimes absent), the scutelhim, 
and four irreguhirly shaped spots upon each elytron, forming 
two transverse median bands. A bifid mark \\\)0n cacli side 
of the base of the pygidium, the middle of the sternum, 
transverse bands on tiie dorsal side of the abdomen, tiie hind 
tibiae and all the tarsi are also usually dark, and the posterior 
part of the elytra fi'om the second transverse row of spots is 
deeper in colour than the anterior part, 

Tiie body is shortly ovate and rather depressed above. 
The liead is densely punctured, with tlie clypeus broad and 
nearly straiglit in front. The pronotum is minutely, densely, 
and evenly punctured, with the lateral margins strongly 
angulated in the middle, nearly straight to the front angles 
and gently incurved to the iiind angles, all the angles being 
nearly riglit angles. The base is well lobed and without a 
marginal stria. The scutellum is closely punctured and the 
elytra are deeply and rather closely and regularly sulcate, 
the second sulcus broken into ii regular f)unctures at the base 
and the interstices minutely and sparingly punctured, the fifth 
having a linear row of punctures either throughout its lengrli 
or restricted to the bapal jiart. The pygidium is finely 
transversely strigose. There is only a very siiort pubes- 
cence at the sides of the metasternum and tlie mesosteruum 
is not produced. Tlie front tibia is strongly bidentate and 
the longer claw of the front and middle feet is cleft. The 
club of the antenna is rather long. 

^ . The club of the antenna is very long, and the teeth 
of the front tibia short and shaip. 

? . There is a slight dilatation of the outer margins of the 
elytra at the middle and the terminal tooth of the front tibia 
is long and blunt. 

Length 10-12*5 mm.; breadth 6-7 mm. 

Hab. Bukma: Toungoo {G. Q. Corhett), Karen Hills 
(L. i^m— 2 7 00-3 300 ft.'). 

Both in shape and coloration this is a very well-marked 
and peculiar insect. I have examined several females, but 
only a single male, in which specimen alone the prothorax 
lias a broad median dark band. It is not yet possible to 
decide whether this represents a sexual feature or merely a 
colour variety. 

Anomala bilobata, sp. n, 

Testacea, clypeo, tibiis posticis tarsisque omnibus rubris ; corpus 
cylindricum, sat angustum, convexum, capita parvo, fortiter 

Ann. (& Mag. X. lllst. Ser. 8. Vol. x, 23 



330 Mr. G. J. Arrow 07i new 

piinctato, clypei margine valde reflexo, antice bilobato ; pro- 
thorace subtiliter puiictato, lateribus arcuatis, angulis anticis fere 
rectis, posticis obtusis, basi marginato, leviter arcuato ; scutello 
minute punctate ; elytris minute punctatis, punctis plerisque 
seriatis, interstitio secuudo lato, irregulariter nuuctato ; pj'gidio 
rugose punctato ; metasterno subtiliter rugose punctato, baud 
longe aut dense fulvo-piloso ; pedibus omnibus setis raris rigidis 
munitis, pedis antici tibia tridentata, ungue majori fisso. 

Testaceous, witli the clypcus, liind tibiae, and all the tarsi 
reddish. Tiie form is elongate and cylindrical. The head 
is small and deeply punctured, and the clypeus transverse, 
with the margin strongly rcflexed and bilobed in front. 
The pronotum is very linely punctured, rounded at the sides, 
with the front angles nearly right angles, the hind angles 
very obtuse and the base tinely margined and very gently 
rounded. The scutelluin is finely punctured and the elytra 
bear irregular rows of fine punctures, the second interstice 
being wide and irregularly punctured. The pygidium is 
rather rugosely but not deeply punctured. The metasternum 
is finely and densely punctured and clothed with fine yellowish 
pubescence. The front tibia is tridentate and the inner claw 
of the front tarsus is cleft. 

^ . The inner front claw is very broad. The clypeus is 
shining, a little excavated on each side and the lobes 
pointed. 

? . The clypeus is rugosely punctured, the lobes blunt, 
and the apex o£ the front tibia spatnlate. 

Long. 16-19 mm. ; lat. max. 7*5-9*5 mm. 

Ilah. Bengal : Calcutta, Murshidabad, Koolna (March — 
Ind. Mus.) ; BuKMA : Tharrawaddy {G. Q. Corhett),^.0\\\n 
Hills, Bhamo, Teinzo (L. i^m— May & June, 1886) : 
Tenasserim : Tavoy {Doherty). 

This insect, together with that which follows and 
A. siamensis, Nonfr., form a peculiar group distinguished by 
the bilobed clypeus and in the male by a form of oedeagus 
the paramera of which end in transverse laminoe. A. hilobata 
is extremely like A. siamensis, of which Dr. Ohaus has 
kindly sent me for examination a typical male specimen, but 
it is a little more elongate and lets stout. It is doubtful, 
however, if the absolute discrimination of the two is 
possible without examination of the genitalia, which are very 
different. They are shown in the accompanying sketches, 
the oedeagus of A. hilobata (fig. 1) being longitudinally 
grooved and the two terminal laminte meeting in a sharp 
angle behind. In that of A. snimensis (fig. 2), both groove 



Burmese Species of Ruteline Coleoptera. 33 1 

and angle are absent and the laminae are larger and of more 
irregular shape. 

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 





Anomala fissiUihris, sp. n. 

Testacea, tibiis tarsisque posticis nigris, clypeo et tarsis reliquis 
rufis ; corpus sat angustum, cyluidricum, parum coQvexum, 
capite parvo, fortiter puncfcato, clypei margiue valde retlexo, 
Lifido ; prothorace cum scutello subtilissime puuctato, hujus 
lateribus paulo fortius, marginibus lateralibus arcuatis, angulis 
anticis fere rectis, posticis obtusissimis, basi margiuato, leviter 
arcuate ; elytris minute pimctatis, punctis plerisque seriatis, 
intervallo subsuturali lato, irregulariter puuctato ; pygidio 
modice punctate ; raetasterno subtiliter rugose punctate, fulvo 
pilose; pedis antici tibia tridentata, ungue majori fisso ; pedis 
intermedii femore prepe njarginem inferiorem hirtis rigidis i'ljlvis 
dense cristate. 

Testaceous, with tlie hind tibiae and tarsi black and the 
remaining tarsi and the clypeus red. 

The body is elongate and a little depressed. The head is 
small and strongly punctured, the clypeal margin strongly 
elevated and bilobed in front. The pronotum and scutellura 
are very minutely punctured, tiie former a little more strongly 
at the sides. The lateral margins are rounded, the front 
angles nearly right angles and the hind angles very obtuse, 
Tiie elytra are very tinely punctured, most of the punctures 
forming longitudinal rows, but with a wide irregularly 
punctured subsutuial space. The pygidium is moderately 
punctured and the metasternum finely rugose and clotlied 
rather thinly with yellowish hairs. The front tibia is tri- 
dentate, the larger front claw cleft, and the middle femur 
bears a thick fringe of stiff hairs just behind the posterior 
edge. 

$ , The inner front claw is strongly dilated. The clypeus 
is a little excavated on each side and not densely punctured. 
? . The clypeus is densely punctured and the apical tooth 
of the front tibia long and blunt. 

;^3* 



332 Mr. G. J. Arrow on new 

Long. 17-18 mm. ; lat. 9 mm. 

Hab. Burma : Tharrawaddy, Prom^ {O. Q. Corlelt), 
Minhia {L. Fea—May 1885). 

Tliis species is extremely close to A. hilohata, but differs 
in its rather finer puncturation, the black hind til)i;e untl 
tarsi, and the thick fringe on the middle femur. 

Anomala latipes, sp. n. 

Laete testacea, vertice, humeribus suturaque sat late nigris, linea 
suturali scntellum amplectente, prothoracc nonnunquam bi- 
maculato ; corpore cylindrico, parum depresso aut lato, clypeo 
brevi, rugose punctato, margine antico fore recto, fronte crebre 
punctate ; prothorace subtiliter aequaliter punctate, lateribus 
arcuatis, angulis antieis acutis, posticis obtusis ; scutello 
punctato ; elytris profunde punctato-striatis, marginibus raem- 
branaceis sat latis ; pygidio aaqualiter sat crebro punctato ; 
corpore subtus parce piloso ; tibiis antieis fortiter 3-dentatis, 
pedibus posticis brevibus, femoribus latis, trochanteribus longis, 
baud acutis, tibiis latis, postice baud constrictis ; pedis antici 
ungue majori fisso. 

Bright yellow, with the head behind the eyes, a spot on 
each siiouldor, and a broad sutural line extending to the base 
black. A pair of black spots sometimes appears at tl e 
middle of the pronotiim. The tarsi are reddish. 

The borjy is rather cylindrical in shape, nearly parallel- 
sided, and not very depressed. The clypeus is rugose, short, 
and nearly straigh.t in front and the forehead is clostly 
punctured. The pronotum is finely and evenly punctured, 
with the sides rounded, the front angles acute, the hind 
angles very obtuse and the base finely margined and very 
feebly trisinuate. The scutellum is punctured and the elytra 
are deeply {)unctate-striate. 1'he pygidiuin is evenly and 
fairly closely punctured. The lower surface of the body is 
very thiidy hairy. The front tibia is strongly tridentatc and 
the hind legs are short, with the femur broad, tiie trochanter 
long and not acute, the tibia broad and not acute nor con- 
stricted before the extremity. 

^. The inner anterior claw is unequally divided and the 
trochanters of the hind legs are long, nearly parallel-sided, 
and rather prominent at the end. 

$ . The black sutural line is broader than in the male, 
the forehead has a rugose area in front, the apex of the I'ront 
tibia is spatulatc, and the inner anterior claw almost equally 
divided. 

Long. 14"5-16 mm.; lat. 7'5-8 mm. 



Burmese Species of Ruteline Coleoptera. 333 

ITah. Burma: Thanawaddy [G. Q. Corhett), Cacliin 
Hills. 

A. latipes is very closely like A. communis, Burm., and 
A. pallida, F., but is iianow.er in shape, the bhick sutuial 
line is broader, especially in the female, and the hind femora 
and tibiae are shorter and broader. 

Anomala semiustn, sp. n. 

Pallide testacea, capita, pronoto (lateribus exceptis), scutelli lateri- 
bus, elytrorunique sutura (antice late) fusco-brunneis, capite 
pronotoque vix perspicue metallicis, clypeo, tibiis tarsisque rufis ; 
pronoto nonnunquam medio plus miuusve pallido : cyliiidrica, 
parum convexa, clypeo parvo, rugoso, antice fere recto, front e 
ruge punctata ; pronoto ubique sat a^qualiter, baud fortiter 
punctato, basi marginato, lateribus cum augulis posticis regulari- 
tor arcuatis ; scutello bene punctato ; elytris fortiter punctato- 
striatis, interstitiis alternis latis atque irregiilariter punctatis ; 
pygidio cum metasterni lateribus crebro punctatis, parce pilosis ; 
processu sternali nullo ; tibia antica 3-dentata. 

(J. Clava antennali modice elongata, oculis majoribus, tibiae anticaj 
dentibus paulo acutis. 

$ . Clypeo paulo latiori, tibiaj anticaj dente apicali clavato, tertio 
subobsoleto. 

Pale testaceous, with the head, pronotnm, excc] t the 
lateral margins, the sides of the scutelhun and the elytral 
suture brown, and the clypeus, tibiso, and tarsi reddish. 
The head and pronotnm have usually an exceedingly faint 
metallic lustre. The dark central mass of the pronotnm is 
often divided into two by a pale median line. 

Katlier shortly cylindrical and parallel-:sided, not verv 
convex, with the clypeus small, nearly straight in front and 
finely rugose, and the forehead rugosely punctured. The 
pronotum is ratiier evenly but not strongly punctured all 
over, margined at the base, with the lateral margins and 
hind angles strongly and continuously rounded. Tlie scutel- 
lum is well punctured and the elytra are deeplj^ punctate- 
striate, with the humeral and alternate dorsal interstices very 
wide and irregularly punctured, the punctures of the fourth 
interstice becoming reduced upon the anterior half to a single 
row. The pygidium and metasternum are strongly and 
closely punctured and scantily hairy. There is no sternal 
process. The front tibia is 3-dentate and the inner claw of 
the front tarsus alone is cleft. 

S' The eyes are large, the clypeus very small, and the 
club of the antenna long. The three teeth of the I'ront tibia 
are all well marked and rather sharp. 



334 Mr. G. J. Arrow on new 

? . The eyes are a little smaller, the clypeus rather larger, 
the terminal tooth of the front tibia blunt and clavate and 
the third tooth feeble. 

Length 12-14 mm. ; breadth 6'5-7-5 mm. 

Hah. Burma : Teinzo (L. i^m— May 1886). 

This belongs, like the last species, to the pallida and 
communis group. It is more easily recognized than most of 
its allies by its marking and the almost obsolete hind angles 
of the thorax. 

Anomala erosa, sp. n. 

Testacea, capita toto, prothoracis disco, scutelli margine vel toto, 
elytrorumque marginibus internis et externis, vitta humerali 
Btriisque omnibus (nonnuuquam dorso fere toto) nigris, pygidio 
et corpore siibtus vel testaceis vel nigris vel variegatis, femoribus 
testaceis, tibiis et tarsis plus minusve infuscatis: breviter ovata, 
convexa, nitida, capita densissime punctate, clypeo brevi, margine 
valde rcflexo ; pronoto subtiliter sat crebre punctate, postice 
marginato, lateribus fortiter arcuatis, angulis anticis paulo 
obtusis, posticis fere obsoletis ; scutello minute punctato ; elytris 
profunda punctato-striatis, iuterstitiis alteruis latis, crebre irre- 
gulariter punctatis ; pygidio crebre et subrugose punctato ; 
corpore subtus minute punctato, parum hirsuto ; processu meso- 
sternali nilllo ; tibiis anticis 3-dentatis, pedum 4 anteriorum 
ungue majori fisso. 

Testaceous, with the entire head, the disc of the pronotum 
(sometimes divided by a pale median line), the circumference 
or tlie whole of the scutelluni, tlie inner and outer borders of 
tiie elytra, a vitta extending backwards from the shoulder, 
and the grooves and punctures of the elytra black. The 
pygidium and underside of the body are eitlier entirely pale 
or partly or entirely black, and the amount of dark pig- 
mentation generally is extremely variable. The femora are 
usUfiUy pale and the tibiae and tarsi more or less dark. The 
boiiy is oval, short, convex, and smooth and sinning. The 
head is densely and finely punctured, with the clypeus short 
and its front margin strongly reflexed. The pronotum is 
finely and rather closely punctured, with the sides strongly 
rounded, the front angles slightly obtuse and the hind angles 
rounded away. The base is finely margined. The scutelluni 
is iinely punctured. The elytra are very deeply striated, 
\^\t\\ the strise closely punctured, the primary dorsal costaj 
very narrow and the intermediate intervals very broad, the 
lateral ones strongly punctured all over and the dorsal ones 
with deep crowded punctures idong the middle, the latter 
reduced to a single row posteriorly upon the second sub- 
sutural interstice, and anteriorly upon the fourth interstice. 



Burmese Species of liuleline Coleoptcra. 335 

The ityoidium is finely and subrug'oscly punctuied and llic 
lower surface is finely ))unctured and only very scantily 
hairy. There is no niesosternal process. The front tibia 
is tridentate and the longer claw of" the front and middle 
feet cleft. The hind tibia is not strongly inflated or 
constricted. 

<$. 'idle inner front claw is very broad and divergently 
cleft, and the last abdominal segment is extremely slmrt and 
only visible at the sides. 

? . The penultimate ventral segment is very broatl aud 
the last segment well develo})ed. 

liength ll-5-14*5 mm.; breadth 7-8"5 mm. 
Hah. Burma : Mandalay, iShenmaga (L. Fea — June 
188,0). 

This is closely related to A. varicolor, Gr} dl., of which it 
has the general appearance and type of coloration, as well as 
great variability in the degree of pigmentation. 

Anomala dorsopicta, sp. n. 

Flava, vertice, prouoti vittis duabus, extus medio productia 
clj'fcrisque nigris, his utrinque macula media ovata oblique 
oruatis, clypeo tarsisque rutis : elongato-ovata, sat lata, parura 
convexa ; capita ubique sat fortiter punctate, clypeo brevi, 
margine valde retlexo ; protborace minute sat a^qualiter punctato, 
lateribus arcuatis, basi marginato, trisiuuato, angulis posticis 
rotundatis ; scutello punctato ; elytris profunde punctato-striatis, 
interstitiis angustis, couvcxis, lateribus post humeros pauIo 
deplanatis ; pygidio sat fortiter punctato ; mesosterno baud prci- 
ducto ; metasterno punctato et brevissime tlavido-hirto ; tibiis 
auticis bidentatis, pedum 4 posteriorum ungue majori bifido. 

Bright testaceous yellow, with the head and tarsi reddish 
and the forehead (except a triangular excision in front), a 
longitudinal bar on each side of the pronotum, extending 
from front to hind margin and emitting an external branch 
at the middle, and the elytra, except an oblique oval patcii 
a little before the middle of each, black. 'J he head and pro- 
thorax have generally a very slight metallic lustre. 

The shape is elongate-oval, moderately broad and not 
very convex. The head is strongly and rather evenly 
punctured, with the clypeus short, rounded at the sides and 
strongly reflexed at the edge. The pronotum is rather 
finely but regularly punctured, strongly rounded at the sides, 
margined and trisinuate at the base, with the hind angles 
very obtuse. The scutellum is punctured and the elytra are 
deeply punctate-striate, with the interstices narrow and con- 
vex and the outer edge flattened for a short distance behind 



336 Mr. G. J. Arrow on new 

tlie shoulder. The pygidiuin is evenly punctured and the 
sides of the metasternum rugosely punctured and very thinly 
clothed with short hair. I'he front tibiie are strongly bi- 
deiitate and the hirger claw of the front and middle feet 
cleft. 

^ . The forehead and clypeus are shining and the inner 
lobe of the cleft front claw is broad. 

? . Tlie forehead and clypeus are more densely punctured 
and scarcely shining, and tlie dilated margins of the elytra 
are thickened. 

Long. 13-14 mm.; lat. 7-^8 mm. 

Ilab. Burma : Tharrawaddy, Toungoo, Prom^ [G. Q. 
Corhett). 

Anomala auripennis, sp. n. 

Testacea, viridi- vel roseo-aurata, capite, pronoto (inarginibus 
lateralibus exceptis), tibiis posticis tarsisque omnibus viridi- 
cupreis : ovata, vel elongato-ovata, convexa, parum nitida ; 
capite omnino dense punctate, clypeo rugose, sat lato ; pronoto 
etiam dense punctate, basi hand raarginato, lateribus medio 
obtuse angulatis, angulis anticis fere rectis, posticis distinctis sed 
paulo obtusis ; scutello sat fortiter punctate, lateribus Isevi ; 
elytris minute punctatis, punctis majoribus intermixtis, his costas 
suturalem, intrahumeralem et intermediam plus minusve dis- 
tiuctas indicantibus, interstitio subsuturali latissimo et confuse 
punctulato ; pygidio subtihter transverse strigato ; pectore sat 
dense flavide-puhescenti, mesosterno baud producto, tibiis anticis 
bidentatis ; tarsorum 4 auteriorum ungue majori fisso, antennia 
l)aulo longis, articulo 5° ad duos prsecedentes sequali. 

Pale yellow, entirely suffused with a rosy or grefuish- 
golden tinge, the iiead, pronotum (except the pale lateral 
margins), hind tibise and all the tarsi deep coppery green. 

It is ovate, short, or moderately long, convex and only 
slightly shining. The head and pronotum are very closely 
punctured all over, the clypeus rugose and broadly rounded. 
The prothorax is not margined at the base and the sides are 
scarcely rounded, but sligiitly angiilated before the middle, 
with the front angles almost right angles and the hind ones 
well niiirked but obtuse. The scutellum is well punctured 
except at the sides. Tiie elytra are minutely punctured all 
over, with larger punctures between. The latter form a 
sutural and two paired dorsal rows, the subsutural interstice 
being very broad and coarsely punctured. _The pygidium 
is finely transversely strigose. The sternum is moderately 
thickly clothed with soft yellowish pubescence. Tiiere is no 
mesosternal process. Tlie front tibia is bidentate and the 



Burmese Species of Ruteline Coleoptera. 337 

larger claw of the front and middle tarsi cleft. The antennce 
are rather long and the fifth joint equal in length to the two 
preceding joints together. 

^ . The club is as long as the remainder of the antenna 
and the front tibial teeth are very short. 

$ . The body is more elongate, the antennal club moderately 
long, and the terminal tooth of the front tibia long and 
clavate. 

This rather resembles the Japanese A. lucens, Ball., and 
some varieties of the European A. cenea, Deg., but it is 
sharply distinguished from these, as from nearly all species 
of the genus, by the length of the fifth joint of the 
antenna. 

Length 13-18 mm. ; breadth 8-9'5 mm. 

Hah. Burma : liiiby Mines (JDohertij), Karen Giiecu 
(L. Fea, 3900-4200 ft.— Feb., Mar. 1888) ; Tenasserim : 
Plapoo (L. Fm— Apr. 1887), Mooleyit (3000-3900 ft.— 
Apr. 1887). 

Anomala aurora, sp. n. 

Laste testacea, toto roseo-metallico-sufFusa, pronoti et pygidii 
lateiibus femoribusqiie posticis nonnunquam brunueo-punctatis : 
breviter ovalis, convexa ; capita rugoso-punctato, clypeo semi- 
circulari, piano, margine reflexo ; pronoto minute baud dense 
punctate, lateribus medio obtuse angulatis, angulis anticis 
acutis, posticis distinctis sed obtusis, basi marginato, leviter 
trisinuato ; scutello minute punctate ; elytris fortiter et sequaliter 
seriato-punctatis, spatio subsuturali lato, irregulariter punctato ; 
pygidio corporeque subtus fortiter baud dense punctatis, hoc 
sparse paUido-hirto ; mesosterno baud producto ; tibia antica 
fortiter bidentata, femore postico brevi, crasso, tibiaque antice 
paulo inflata ; tarsorum 4 anteriorum ungue majori fisso. 

Pale yellow, entirely suffused above and beneath with a 
delicate rosy-green metallic lustre, sometimes with a large 
vaguely reddish patch on each side of the pronotura, a small 
brown spot near each lateral margin and two or three still 
smaller on each side of the pygidium. 

It is a stout, oval, and highly convex species. The head 
is rugosely punctured, with the clypeus semicircular and flat. 
The pronotum is minutely and sparingly but rather deeply 
punctured, with its sides obtusely angulated in the middle, 
the front angles acute, the hind angles obtuse but well- 
marked, and the base margined and gently trisinuated. The 
scutellum is minutely punctured and the elytra strongly 
in regular rows, with a wide, irregularly punctured second 



338 Mr. G. J. Airow on neio 

interstice. The pygidium and the lower surface are rallicr 
strongly but not closely punctured, the latter thinly clothod 
with pale hairs. The trout tibiie are strongly bideiitatc, the 
hind femora short and thick, the hind tibise a little iuflati-d 
in the basal half, and the larger claw of the front and middle 
feet cleft. 

The sexes scarcely differ, but the iinier anterior claw of 
the male is a little widened and the apex of the front tibia 
rather less blunt. 

Long. 10*5-12 mm. ; lat. 5'5-6'5 mm. 

Hah. Burma: ^laymyo (//. L. Amir ewes— Mixy \\)\i)), 
Ruby Mines {Doherty). 

Mr. H. M. Lefroy has received the species from Maymyo 
as feeding upon Prunus persica. 

Anomala puella, sp. n. 

Tota pallida flava, leviter metallesccns, tarsis anteuiiisquo paulo 
rufescentibus : breviter ovata, nitida, convexa, jjygidio corporc- 
qiio subtus pilis crectis pallidis vestitis; capita profuudc rugoso- 
punctato, clypeo late rotuudato, margiue valde retlexo, sutura 
clypeali distincte carinata : pronoto sat crcbre a^qualitcr punctato, 
lateribiis fortiter arcuatia, angulis anticis acutis, posticis fero 
obsoletis, basi omnino niarginato ; scutcllo punctato ; olytris 
profunda punctato-striatis, intci'stitio subsuturali late, grosso 
punctato, aliis angustis, parce et minutissime iJinictulatis ; 
pygidio crebro irregulariter punctato ; prostcruo postico jjaulo 
tuberculato, mesostcrno liaud protlucto ; tibiis anticis bidcutatis 
pedumquo 4 anteriorum unguo majori tisso. 

Entirely pale yellow, with a faint metallic lustre, the 
antennjB and tarsi only being a little darker. The body is 
shortly ovate in form, convex and shining, with pale erect 
liairs upon the pygidium and lower surface. The head is 
strongly and rugosely punctured, with the clypeus short and 
broadly rounded, its margins strongly nfiexed and the 
frontal suture carinate. The pronotum is strongly and 
closely punctured, )vith the base completely margined, the 
sides strongly rounded, the front angles acute and the hind 
angles rounded away. The scutellum is well punctured and 
the elytra are closely striate-punclate, with the interstices 
narrow, except the subsutural one which is broad and strongly 
and irregularly punctured. The pygidium is strongly and 
closely punctured. The jnosternum is slightly lobed behind 
the front coxfe and the mesosternum is not produced. The 
front tibise are bluntly bidcntate and the larger claw on each 
of the four anterior feet is cleft. 



Burmese species of Ruieline Coleoptera. 339 

cJ, The lower lobe of the inner front claw is acutely 
pointed, broad, and angulated at the lower edge. 

Length 10 mm. ; breadth 5"5-G'5 mm. 

Ilab. BUUMA : Krvqu li'iWs (Doherty). 

This little insect is one of the puzzling species which 
stand on the border-line between Atioinala and Mimela. It 
is very much like Alimela dehilis, Sharp, to which it is un- 
doubtedly allied. Tiie prosternum is prominent behind the 
front coxa% but does not form an angular process between 
them, and the species must, I think, be placed in Anomala if 
any distinction is to be retained. 



Anomala (JEuchlora) laniventris, sp. n. 

Obscure cupreo-olivacea, pronoti lateribus, corpore subtus fcmori- 
busquo testaceis, tibiis tarsisquo viridi-aeneis, abdomine subtus 
bruiiucscenti : ovalis, supra parum nitida, pectore, abdominis 
lateribus pygidioque sat dense griseo-pubescentibus, corpore 
supra undique crebre sat minute punctato, elytrorum lineis 
nonnullis inconspicuis longitudinalibu-s, marginibus extcrnis 
latissime membranacois ; mesosteruo baud producto ; tibiis 
anticis bidentatis, pedum 4 anteriorum unguo majori fisso. 

Dark coppery olivaceous, with the lateral edges of the 
pronotuni, tlie lower surface of the body and the femora 
yellow, the abdomen browner and the tibiae and tarsi deep 
metallic green. 

Elongate oval, not very shining, with the sternum, the 
pygidium and sides of the abdomen rather thickly clothed 
witli soft grey pubescence. The entire upper surface is 
closely and finely punctured, except the clypeus, which is 
rugose and broa<ily rounded. The base of the pronotum is 
rather prominent in the middle and not margined, and the 
sides arc obtusely prominent in the middle, with the front 
angles nearly right angles and the hind angles obtusely 
rounded. There are a few indistinct longitudinal rows of 
fine punctures on the elytra, the outer margins of which are 
bordered with very broad membranous fringes. There is no 
raesosternal process. The front tibia is sharply bidentate 
and the larger claw of the front and middle feet is cleft. 
The third and fifth joints of the antenna are longer than the 
fourth. 

(^ . The terminal tooth of the front tibia is slender and 
the upper one short but sharp. Tiie inner lobe of the inner 
front claw is very broad and abruptly angulated at the middle 
of the lower edge. 



340 On new Burmese Species of Rut ell ne Culeoptera. 

? . The teeth of tlie front tibia are ratlier long and 
sharp. 

Length 17-19 mm. ; breadth 9*5-10'5 mm. 

Hob. BuKMA: Paungde {G. Q. Cvrbett) ', Palon, Pega 
{L. Fea — Aug. & Sept. 1887) ; Rangoon {E. T. Atkinson). 

This species is related to the Himalayan A. perplexa, 
Hope, but much duller in colour and easily recognizable by 
the very broad external membranes of the elytra. 

Anomala (^Euchlora) cMorochelys^ sp. n. 

Lsete viridis, nitida, corpore subtus, pedibus, capitis, prothoracis et 
elytrorum marginibusque extremis aureo-rufis : grandis, ovalis, 
convexa ; clypeo crebre punctato, fronte minus crebre aut grosse, 
pronoto subtilissime sat dense, elytris similiter sed minus dense 
punctatig, his valde nitidis, lateribus postice paulo dilatatis, apice 
fere recte truncato, marginibus membranaceis obtectis ; pygidio 
minute haud profuude striguloso. 

Bright green, with the loAver surface, legs, and extreme 
edges of the head, pronotum, and elytra golden red. 

It is a large, very shining, oval and convex species, with 
the outer margins of the elytra conspicuously dilated behind 
the middle and truncate at the apex. The clypeus is rounded 
and closely punctured, the forehead more finely and less 
closely. The pronotum is very finely and closely punctured, 
a little more strongly at the sides. Tlie elytra are very 
shining, finely and lightly punctured, with the outer margins 
conspicuously dilated towards the extremity and truncate 
behind, forming an obtuse external angle. The membranous 
margins are narrow and almost concealed by the lateral 
dilatation. The pygidium is submetallic and transversely 
rugulose. The front tibise are bidentate and the larger claw 
oE the front and middle feet cleft. 

$ . The two teeth of the front tibia are sharp and close 
together. 

? . The two teeth of the front tibia are less sharp and 
close together, and the pygidium bears a few long scattered 
hairs. 

Long. 26-29 mm. ; lat. max. 15-16-5 mm. 

Hah. Burma: Bhamo {Selkirk, Fea — June 1885); 
Teinzo {Fea — May 1886) ; Tenasserim {Col. Adamson). 

The species resembles A. truncata^ Bates, but is larger and 
much more smooth and shining. 



On the Stromatoporoids and Eozoon. 341 



XLV. — 0)1 the Stromatoporoids and Eozoon. 
By E,. KiRKPATRICK. 

(Published hy permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

[Plates VIII. & IX.] 

In a letter to ' Nature/ Aug. 15, 1912, p. 502, I wrote that 
the presence of siliceous spicules in t!ie k^tromatoporoids, 
similar to those found in Merlia and MontlcuUpora, liad led 
me to the conclusion that Stromatoporoids were Sponges. 
I must now slate that I was misled to that conclusion, for it 
has become evident to me that the supposed (spicules are 
the calcified chitinous rings and half-rings belonging to the 
canals and chambers of Foraminifera. It is now clearly 
obvious also that the calcareous skeleton of Stromatoporoids 
has a structure similar to that of the higher forms of 
Perforate Foraminifera. 

It is not surprising that palaeontologists have failed to arrive 
at a correct solution of the problem of the Monticuliporas, for 
these organisms, when alive, exhibit extraordinary phenomena 
without parallel elsewhere in biology, and wholly impossible 
to understand without observing living specimens. Mo.>t 
fortunately the discovery of the living Moniiculipora [Merlia) 
normani off Porto Santo Island will enable me to explain 
the real nature of the Palaeozoic examples. 

The Stromatoporoids, on the other hand, carry in them- 
selves the clue to the problem they present, and it is at first 
sight a little surprising that this clue has eluded the patient 
search of so many investigators. This result was, I believe, 
due to the use of insuflSciently high magnifying-powers. 

Stromatoporoids are commonly in the form of hemispherical 
or cake-like masses, but they may be incrusting or digitate. 

The surface has a roughly granular aspect and presents 
scattered stellate patterns (astrorhiza?). A vertical section (or 
weathering of the edges) shows that the mass is built up of 
concentric laminae or crusts. 

Slight magnification of a vertical section shows apparently 
a meshvvcrk of regular or irregular radial and concentrio 
calcareous strands, these being really the edges of walls of 
Foraminiftral chambers. 

The so-called 'Mabulse " are present in the usually darker 
calcified soft tissues tilling the meshes or spaces not only 
in S roniatcpora, but also in Actinostroma. Stromatoporoida 
are found in the Ordovieian, Silurian, and Devonian strat?. 



342 Mr. R. Kirkpatiick on the 

From Nicholson's great monograpli on the British Stroma- 
toporoids I extract a few historical data. 

The histor}' of the group |)ractically begins with Goldfiiss 
(1826), who described a fossil (|)robablj from the Devonian 
of Gerolstein), which he named Stromatopora concentrica 
and placed near Millepora. 

In the following list I give the name of the author, the 
date, and his views as to the nature of Stromatoporoids : — 

GoLDFUSs, 1826. Hydrocoralliuse. 

Steininger, 1834. Sponges. 

F. RcEMEB, 1843-4. Corals. 

Hall, 1847. Alcj^ouariaiis near Tubipora. 

d'Orbigny, 1850-51. Sponges. 

The two Sandbebgers, 1850-56. Polyzoa. 

F. RcEMER, 1851-56. Polyzoa^ but later tabulate corals like Favosites 
and Chcetetes. 

Billings, 1857. Beatricea (a Stromatoporoid), a vegetable. 

EiCHWALD, 1860. Horny sponges. 

Hyatt, 1865. Some Stromatoporoids regarded as Cephalopoda. 

Baron von Rosen, 1867. Horny sponges. 

Dr. G. Lindstrom, 1870. Foraminiiera, and, in 1873, Labechia allied 
to Hydractinia. 

Salter, 1873. Calcareous sponges. 

Nicholson, 1873-4. Calcisponges. 

Dawson, 1875. Between Foraminifera and Sponges. 

Sollas, 1877. llexactinellid sponges, and, later, partly siliceous 
sponges, partly Hydrozoa. 

Carter, 1877. Hydrozoa. 

Nicholson, 1886 (the Monograph). Partly Hydroida, partly Hydro- 
corallinse. 

Zittel, 1903. Hydrozoa. 

Geikie, 1903. Polyzoa. 

Steinmann, 1907. Hydrozoa. 

Kirkpatrick, August 1912 : Sponges. September 1912 : Fora- 
minifera. 

To sum up, within the last eighty-six years Stromato- 
poroids have been regarded as Foraminifera ; calcareous, 
horny, Monaxonellid, and Hexactinellid Sponges ; Hydroida, 
Hydrocorallina3, Alcyonaria, corals (Anthozoa), Polyzoa, 
Cephalopoda, vegetables. 

Kepler wrote a treatise, which is said to be highly instruc- 
tive, entitled ^ A Book of Mistakes.' A \'q\w observations on 
some of the errors recorded in the above list will not be 
without interest. 

The *' Ccelenterate " view was mainly held on account 
of the presence of " tabulie," the Sponge theory owing to 
the oscule-like astrorhiza?, to the incrusting and enveloping 
character of some species, and to the resemblance of the skeletal 



Stromatoporoids and Eozoon. 343 

framework to that of a Dlctyonine sponge. Beatricea was 
compared to an rthocerasAWs.^ mollusc. 

I myself at first mistook altered cliitinous rings and coils 
for siliceous spicules, the astrorliizse for oscnles, and the 
tabular for dia|)hragms and dissepiments like those of CUona, 
and regarded the general skeletal framework as an originally 
spicular structure altered by mineralization, for I could often 
see rings and apparent sigmas imbedded in it. I found 
later, however, that the supposed "spicules^' were altered 
chitinous hoops and spirals. Tiie astrorliizte appear to be due to 
the fusion of several outer openings of tubuli, thereby leading 
to the converging of finer pseudopods into main trunks. 
J^l. IX. figs. 13, 14, representing a longitudinal vertical 
section of Polytrema ci/h'ndncum, shows, for instance, tubuli 
with a relatively large single external opening and one, two, 
or tliree smaller inner openings, a compound system being 
funnel-shaped with a cribriform mouth directed inwards. A 
growth and extension of this simple system would result in 
the formation of an astrorhiza. Further, a more careful 
examination revealed the typical Foraminiferal structure of 
the skeleton itself. 

What chiefly led me to regard the Stromatoporoids as 
siliceous sponges was the discovery, in the sections of those 
fossils, of little " pockets " of coiled sigma-like bodies and also 
tubular canals lined with these bodies in scalariform fashion. 
I had seen a somewhat similar arrangement of ring-like real 
siliceous spicules in the sponge part of " Merlia normani,^^ 
which at one stage of my devious gropings after the clue 
to this mystery I had named NoronJia scalariformis. But 
presently I found similarly shaped rings in the soft tissues 
of decalcified recent Foraminifera *. Here the chitin has 
resisted the acid used for decalcifying, and the rings seemed 
to be chitinous, but in the fossils they looked like siliceous 
spicules. I now examined the skeletal framework, and saw 
that it was penetrated by tubuli and channels of communi- 
cation between chambers. 

The so-called tabulse, which were supposed by Nicholson 
to be similar to those of Millepoi'a, are diaphragms formed in 
the chambers and in tlie course of the canals. 

Tuese " tabulae" are present in the spaces filled by the soft 
tissues, both in the Stromatopora type and in i\\e. Actinostroma 

* Evidently the function of tlie chitinous hoops and coils is to give 
support to the soft raonilated branching sarcode. The swellings on many 
of them are due apparently to lateral compression arising from the pull 
of the extensile sarcode along nn axis at right angles to the plane of the 
hoops. 



344 Mr. R. Kirkpatrick on the 

type of Stvomatoporoids. Apparentl}' Nicholson failed to 
see them in the latter, snpposing the holes in the regular 
" tangential himinse " to represent the " zooitlal tubes." 

Nicholson's classification, based on the erroneous idea that 
one group of Stromatoporoitls (the Actinostromida^) was 
related to Hydractinia, and the other (Stromatoporidte) to 
Millepora, needs revision. As Nicholson himself pointed out, 
there are transitions between Actinostromids and Stromato- 
porids. In both there are concentric layers, astrorhizse, 
"tabula}/^ and a capacity for incrusting and enveloping other 
objects, such as corals. In the Actinostromid or rectilinear 
type the calcareous skeleton has a more regular and definite 
arrangement of chambers than has the Strou)atoporid type. 

My intention in the present paper, however, is not to enter 
into the question of the classification of Stromatoporoids, 
but mainly to announce that these fossils have a calcareous 
skeleton showing the Foraminiferal structure. 

While I was examining sections of the aberrant genus 
Beatricea I was reminded of the peculiar structure of 
Eozoon, and was thereby led to examine specimens of the 
latter, despite the fact that current opinion is almost wholly 
opposed to a belief in their organic nature. Zittel *, following 
Prof. Karl Mobius t, refers to Eozoon as a product of purely 
mineral origin. SteinmannJ does not even mention this, 
perhaps the most interesting of all fossils, but writes, " Aus 
der eozooischen Periode kennen wir kaum sichere Spuren 
organischer Wesen." Likewise in Lister's § memoir on the 
Foraminifera there is no reference to Eozoon. Ilartog {| 
writes in a footnote : " The alleged Archsean genus Eozoon, 
ibunded by Carpenter and Dawson on structures found in 
the Lower Laurentian serpentines and referred to the close 
proximity of Nummulites, has been claimed as of purely 
mineral structure by the petrologists ; and recently biologists 
have admitted the claim." Geikie ^, while stating the pros 

• Zittel, K., ' Grundziige der Palaontologie,' Abth. i. 2ud edition, 1903, 
p. 35. 

t Mobius, K., * Palseontograpliica,' xxv. 1878, p. 175. Also Carpenter, 
on Mobius's results, ' Nature,' vol. xx. 1880, p. 272. 

J Steinmann, G., ' Einflihrung in der Palaontologie,' ed. 2, 1907, p. 7. 

§ Lister, J. J., 'Treatise of Zoology' (ed. by E. R. Lankester), 
Memoir " Foraminifera." 

II Hartog, M., 'Cambridge Natural History' (Harmer and Shipley), 
Memoir "Protozoa," 1906, p. 70. 

*[[ Geikie, A., 'Text-book of Geology,' 1903, p. 878. See also Sher- 
born, ' Bibliography of the Foraminifera,' under Dawson, Mobius, 
Carpenter, &c. 



Stromatoporoids and Eozoon. 345 

and cons of the opposing views, apparently inclines to a 
belief in the mineral theory, and demands, in view of the 
antiqnity of the rocks and the changes to which they have 
been subjected, the clearest possible evidence of organic 
structure before accepting- the theory of the organic nature of 
Eozoon. 

I consider that the sections made by the late Dr. Carpenter 
yield abundant evidence of organic structure. 

Eozooyi canadense is a Foraminiferaii. Its calcareous 
skeleton shows clearly the Foramiuiferal structure of pores 
and tubuli, and, further, chitiuous rings and coils are present. 
Dr. Carpenter's specimens must have died, peacefully on 
the Lower Laurentian sea-bottom, and have been buried and 
slowly metamorphosed by infiltration, but in such a way as 
to preserve a good deal of their structure. Possibly igneous 
irruptions may have occurred later within varying distances 
of the dead specimens, leading to varying degrees of mineral- 
ization. I suppose the tiieory of the mineral origin of 
Eozoon is due to the existence of much metamorphosed 
specimens. 

Fortunately Dr. Carpenter had several very fine examples 
of Eozoon in his magnificent collection [now in the British 
Museum, Nat. Hist,). About the time of his death he was 
engaged in writing a monograph which would have finally 
settled the whole question. A friend of mine who- knew 
him tells me that Dr. Carpenter could scarcely listen with 
patience to the arguments of the mineralists, and I can 
appreciate this attitude when I look at his beautiful sections. 
Sir AV^illiam Dawson, too, had occasion to resent the charge of 
" subjectivism " brought against him by an upholder of the 
mineral theory. 

Sir W. Logan "^ was the first to notice the resemblance of 
Eozoon to the Stromatoporoids. 

The recent Foraminiferan Po^ytrema e(/Undricum, Carter, 
recalls in certain respects both Beutricea and Eozoon. Tin's 
pretty little branching- Foraminifeian, of a brilliant yellow or 
red colour, has a surface-layer of large chambers, but at the 
same time the central axis of the branches is occupied with a 
smaller vesicular tissue. A tiansverse section of Beatricea 
has somewhat the appearance of tliat of a megalospheric 
Foraminifei>an. 

Li the Stromatoporoids and Eozoon there is a many- 
chambered (Polythalamous) calcareous skeleton with tlie 
walls of the chambers penetrated by fine tubuli. Altered 
chitinous hoops and coils are found in the c'omniunication- 

* Logan, W., ' Geology of Canada,' 18G3, p. 19. 
Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. x. 24 



346 On the Sti'omatoporoids and Eozoon. 

channels between chambers and in the cliambers themselves, 
{. e. in the spaces formerly filleJ with sarcoJe. Similar 
structure to the above is found in the recent Perforate Fora- 
minifera. Weathered edges of specimens of Eozoon are finely 
laminate. 

With regard to Eozoon, two objections are urged against 
the organic theory, viz. the immense antiquity of the Lower 
Laurentian limestones and the unlikelihood that any organic 
structure could survive the effect of metamorphosing agencies. 
Concerning the first objection, it may be said that when once 
an organism is entombed and infiltrated the time factor j;)er se 
is not an important one. Many Devonian Stromatoporoids 
are less well preserved than those of Silurian age, and a 
Foraminiferan might retain its structure as well in a Lauren- 
tian as in a Wenlock limestone. The effect of igneous action 
on the fossils of any particular formation is apparently more 
or less a matter of chance, and examples of late origin may 
fare worse than those of earlier date. 

Leaving hypotheses and coming to facts — to wit, the speci- 
mens themselves, — I find that the Foraminiferal theory is 
wholly adequate, and I am certain it is unnecessary to go 
further afield in search of some highly complicated and proble- 
matical theory of mineral origin. As a matter of course, the 
evidence for the mineral theory, based mainly on the existence 
in Eozoon of minerals of igneous origin, falls to the ground in 
presence of the least trace of indubitable organic structure. 

Summary. — The Stromatoporoids are Foraminifera. 
Eozoon canadense likewise belongs to the Foraminifera, 
and is nearly related to Labechia and Beatricea, 

Note on Caunopora. 

Many of the Caunopora tubes so f lequently found in Stroma- 
toporoids are not corals, but Chfetopod worms, apparently 
belonging to the group Spioniformia. 

It is sometimes possible to see anatomical features, such as 
the introvert, pharynx, intestine, peristomial cirri, and acicula. 
The supposed " tabulre," which have misled some investi- 
gators, are simply the expression of Annelidan segmentation 
or, rather, annulalion. 

I have found what appears to be a similar kind of worm 
in the living MonticuUpora {MerVui) normani, and at Porto 
Santo Island have often watched it extending and drawing 
in its peristomial cirri or " tentacles." The Palaeozoic Monti- 
culiporasare frequently infested with a worm possibly related 
to this modern one. If this is so, we liave a curious instance 
of the conservatism of Nature. 



Anatomy and Classijication of the Order Lyomeri, 347 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 
Plate VIII. 

Fiff, 1. Stromatopora concentrica, Goldfuss, from Devoniau of Gcrolsteiu. 

Wall of a chamber, showinjf tubuli. X 3:25. 
Fill. 2. Larger tubiili from an older wall. X 550. 
Fig. 3. Hoops and coils in chambers and canals of S. concentrica. 

3 a. Ditto from Actinostroma clathratum, Nich. Both 

X 1300. 
Fi{i. 4. Ditto from sarcode of rohjtrema cylin^ricum, Carter. X L300. 
Fig. 5. Part of wall of chamber of Evzoon ccmadense, Dnwson, from 

Lower Laurentian limestones, Burgess, Canada, showing 

mural pores and tubuli. X 140. 
Fig. 6. The same. X 550. 

Fig. 7. Old branching canals in Fozoon. X 1300. 
Fig. 8. Branching system of canals in Eozoon. X 35. 8 a. The same 

showing hoops. X 3:25. 
Fig. 9. Hoops and coils in chambers and canals of Eozoon. X 1300. 
Fig. 10. The same from another specimen, x 1300. 

Plate IX. 

Fig.W. Canals in ^0200??. X 140. 

Fig. V2. Eozoo7i. Young chambers forming just below surface of speci- 
men, a, mural tubuli ; i, diaphragm across opening in 
chamber. X 140. 

Fig.\2x. Series of yonng chambers. X 50. 

i-V^. 12 b*. Minute Foraminiferan found in one of the chambers of 
Eozoon. X 190. 

Fig. 13. Vertical longitudinal section of Folytrema cylindricuvi, Carter. 
X 12. 

jp/y. 14. Wall of chamber of same, showing branching tubuli. X 100. 

Fig. 15. Caunopora tube in Stromatopora bilcheliensis, Bargarzky, Devo- 
niau, showing Spioniform worm inside, a, acicula. X 35. 

Fig. 16. Another Caunopora tube from same section, showing surface 
anuulations of annelid inside. X 17. 



XLVI. — The Anatomy and Clossifieation of the Telcostean 
Fishes of the Order Lyomeri. By C Tate RegAN^ M.A. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Order LYOMERI. 

Scaleless soft-rayed fis])es witli a long slender tail, dorsal 
and anal fins long, no caudal, pectorals (when present) small 
and pelvics absent. Gill-oi^enings small_, separate. Mouth 

* The discovery of the beautiful little coiled shell (fig. 12 b) in one of 
the chambers of Eozoon ca)iadeni<e settles the " Eozoon controversy " 
beyond the possibility of further dis])ute. I do not think that the shell is 
a yonng stage of Eozoon, but rather that it has been ingested as food from 
without. 

24* 



348 



Mr. C. T. Eegan on the Anatomy and 



very large and pharynx very distensible ; upjDer border 
o£ mouth formed by a single pair of slender bones (praj- 
maxillo-maxillaries) meetin'X anteriorly and with their distal 
extremities attached within the qnadrates, connected by a 
loose membrane anteriorly with a moval^le ethmoidal ros- 
trum and for tlie greater part of their length with the 
suspensorium ; lower jaw of dentary, articulare, and angulare ; 
mandibular rami slender, loosely united at the symphysis and 
connected by a broad distensible membrane; suspensorium long 
and directed obliquely backwards, of two bones, iiyomandibular 
and quadrate, which are movably articulated ; opercular bones 
absent and brancliiostegals vestigial ; branchial arches and 
pectoral arch far behind the head, with skeleton reduced and 
little ossified. Skull with much cartilage, the membrane 
bones very thin ; parietals meeting in front of the small 
supraoccipital ; no exoccipital condyles. Vertebral centra 
co-ossified with arches, which are reduced, the neural arches 
appearing as paired, erect, spine-like processes ; no ribs. No 
air-bladder. Gonoducts normally developed {fide Zug- 
mayer) . 

The whole structure of the Lyomeri is quite unlike that of 
the Apodes ; in my opinion they may well have been derived 
from Iniomi such as the Synodontidce, which approach them 
in the short snout, wide mouth, oblique suspensorium, &c. 
(c/. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) vii. 1911, p. 121). 



SOC 



^ya 


elJi- 


^^ 


-spo,^ / 


^^OC 


-pto-\- / 

' epo- ->^ 

SOC"-' 



A. 




Diagrams of upper surface of skull in A. Qastrostomus bairdii, B. Sacco- 
pJtnry7i.v a?nptiUaceus, and C. Saui'ida nebiilosa. (A after Ziig-mayer's 
iijzure, modified by omission of sutures that appear to subdivide the 
froutals.) 

eth, mesethmoid ; leth, lateral ethmoid ; /, frontal ; p, parietal ; spo, 
sphenotic ; ptu, pterotic ; ejio, epiotic ; soc, supraoccipital ; eoc, 
exoccipital. 

The skull of the Synodontidse has much in common with 
that of the Lyomeri, and the greater width of the pterotics 
and greater size of the whole poatorbital portion of the 



Classification of tlie Order Lijomeri. 319 

skull in the latter is for the attachment of the enlarged 
suspensorium, and is consequentlj more marked in Gastvo- 
stoimis than in Saccopharynx. 

The vertebra3 of the Synodontida3 are also very similar to 
those of the Lyomeri ; interiorly there are short processes at 
the end of each centrum, exactly as shown in Zugmaycr's 
figure of the anterior vertebrce of Gastrostomus ; the neural 
arciies are slender processes, and in the vertebrse below tlie 
dorsal fiu these are shortened and do not meet to form 
unpaired neural spines. 

It is of interest to nolo that in the Apodes the pectoral 
arch is pushed backwards by the large branchial apparatus, 
but in the Lyomeri the pectoral arch and the reduced 
branchial apparatus are displaced by the enormous pharynx, 
the distensibility of which is increased by the pendent 
movable etiimoid and the joint between the hyomandibular 
and the quadrate. 

The order Lyomeri was first characterized by Gill and 
Kyder (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vi. 1883, p. 262), who gave 
an account of the anatomy of Gastrostomus hairdii and 
maintained the distinctness of these fishes from the Apodes. 
Quite recently the anatomy of Gastrostomus has again been 
described by Zugmayer (Rds. Camp. 8ci. Monaco, xxxv. 
1911, p. 8S, pi. iv.). 

After comparison of the upper surface of the skull of 
Saccopharynx with Gill and Kyder^'s description and Zug- 
maycr's figure of Gastrostomus I agree with the former 
authors that the Saccopharyngidaj and Eurypharyngidaj may 
be regarded as distinct families. 

Family 1. Saccopliaryngidae. 

Mouth large; jaws with slender, curved, pointed teeth; 
stomach very distensible; gill-openings much nearer to end 
of snout than to vent ; skull longer than broad ; frontals 
larger than the parietals. Piscivorous. 

A single species, Saccophary^ix ampidlaceus, Harwood, 1827. 

Family 2. Eurypharyngidae. 

Moulh enormous; jaws with minute teeth, the mandibles 
sometimes with a pair of symphysial canines ; stomach not 
specially distensible; gill-openings much nearer to vent than to 
end of snout; skull not longer than broad; parietals larger than 
frontals. Probably feeding mainly on small invertebrates. 

Eurypharynx, VaiU. 1882 (with symphysial mandibular 
canines) ; Gastrosloinus, Gill and llyder, 1883 ; Macro- 
pharynx, Brauer, 1902 (without pectoral fins). 



350 Miss G. Ricarclo— A Revision of 

XLYII. — A Revision of the Asilitlae of Australasia. 
By Gertrude Ricardo. 

[Coutimied from p, 160.] 

Dasypogon, Macquart. 

lUiger's Magazine f. Ins. ii. p. 70 (1803). 

The species from Australia and Tasmania not yet assigned 
to other genera from Dasypogon in sensu lato are the 
following : — 

Dasypogon australis, Macq., Dipt. Exot. i. (2) p. 45 (1838). 
Dasypogon albonotatus, Macq., 1. c. Suppl. ii. p. 49 (1846). 
Dasypogon nigripennis, Macq., 1. c, Suppl. iii. p. 180, pi. i. fig. 10 

(1847). 
Dasypogon nigrinus, Macq., 1. c. Suppl. iv. p. 06, pi. yi. fig. 9 (1849). 
Dasypogon carbo, Walker, Dipt. Saund. i. p. 87 (1851). 

The type of this last is probably destroyed, not being iu 
the Brit. Mus. Coll. 

Dasyjjogon australis, Macq. 

Type a female seen by me in the Paris Museum, 12. 4. 11. 

The head is gone, and Macquart makes no mention of it 
in his description ; it is therefore impossible to assign it to 
any genus, apparently it will belong to the Dasypogon genus 
in sensu stricto. It should be easily recognized by the 
loinys, which are brown on the fore border, by the absence 
of spines on fore tibiae, and by the black abdomen, with 
broad reddish-yellow segmentations, the apex has spines ; 
no ovipositor visible. Legs yellowish. Thorax black, 
shoulders reddish. Scutellum reddish, with long yellow 
bristles. The brown colouring on the wings extends along 
the fore border to the apex, as far as the posterior branch of 
fork of third vein^ fills the first basal cell, the extreme base 
of the first posterior, and only touches the discal cell on its 
border ; the fourth posterior cell is wide open, anal not 
quite closed. 

Macqujirt gives the length as 6 lines. 
From New S. Wales. 

Dasypogon albonotatus, Macquart, 

From Tasmania. 

Described as having a long, slender, black abdomen^ with 
white spots at sides of second to fifth segments. Face and 
forehead golden yellow. Beard and the plain moustache 
white. Legs reil, the anterior tibiie with a curved spine. 



the AsilidoG of Australasia. 351 

Wings hyaline, a little yellowish at base and on fore border, 
apex grey, fourth posterior cell closed. 
Leugtb 8 lines. ^ . 

Dasypogon nigripennis, Macquart. 

Type is probably lost. From New S. Wales. 

Described as black. Face white, Avith a black moustache 
confined to oral opening. Beard black. Palpi black with 
black hairs. Legs black, the fore tibise with a curved spine. 
Wings violet-black, centre of cells yellowish. In the figure 
of wing the fourth posterior cell is practically closed at 
border and anal cell closed. The figure of head shows the 
antenn(B with the third joint ^about the length of the first 
two, Avith a short terminal style. 

Dasypogon nigrinuSj Macquart. 

Type, a male, seen by me in Paris Museum, 12. 4. 11. 
Furnished with a spine on the fore tibiae and the abdomen 
is club-shaped, but the short antennae seem to preclude it 
from belonging to the genus Brachyrrhopola or Codula. 
Face not very broad ; no tubercle ; moustache confined to 
oral opening, composed of yellow bristles ; the face is covered 
with yellow tomentum. Pal2n black with black hairs. 
Antennae very short, the third joint conical, about as long 
as the first two together, the latter with black hairs, on the 
second a very strong black bristle is present. Thorax black 
(denuded). AbdomenhldicV (denuded). Macquart states the 
first two segments are shining black, the fifth and sixth with 
testaceous segmentations ; no pubescence is visible, but 
some white hairs at sides ; genitalia large, protruding, but 
not club-shaped ; underside reddish with white hairs. Legs 
red, stout, shining; femora largely black; tarsi black; 
bristles on legs black and yellow. Wings dark brown, 
hyaline at base, only the apices of the basal cells being 
brown ; the fourth posterior cell is a little narrowed at the 
border ; the anal half open ; the small transverse vein is 
below the middle of discal cell; Macquarfs figure of wing 
gives this incorrectly, and also makes the fourth posterior 
cell too narrow at border. 

Length 10 mm. 

From Tasmania. 

The species from New Guinea or other parts of the 
Australian region are : — 

Dasypogon occlusus, Meijere, Nova Guinea, v. Zool. p. 75 
(1906), which the author suggests may be the same or nearly 
allied to, Stichopogon congressus, Wlk. 



352 Miss G. Ricaixlo — A Revision of 

Tlie Walker types of the following species described from 
Tuiknown localities are not to be found in tlie Brit. Mus. 
Coll., viz. Dasypogon ap/iidmis, inserens, and occidens, and 
might well be deleted from the list of species. 

Selidopogon, Bezzi. 
Zeitschr. Hymen, u. Dipt. ii. p. 192 (1902). 

Fore tibi.x with a curved spine. 

Selidopoifon diadema, Fabr.^ a European species extending 
to Asia JNIinor, has a number of synonyms, among others 
Dasypogon pundatus, Fabr., which IMacquart records as from 
New Holland, stating that a female he had seen was similar 
to the European specimens : see Dipt. Exot. Suppl. iii. )). 180, 
(1848). I have not seen any specimens of this species from 
Australia. 

The genus extends through Europe, N. Africa, Asia Minor, 
and the American continent. 

Stichopogon, Loew. 

Lmn. Ent.ii. p. 499(1847). 

Stichopogon congressus, Walker. 

Proc. Liun. Soc. London, v. p. 302 (1801) ILasypogoii]; Kertesz, Cat. 

Dipt. p. 127 [Dasypoyonj (1909); Meijere, Nova Guinea, v. Zool, 

p. 75 (1906). 
Stichopoyon albicapUhts, v. d. VVuIp, Tyd, v. Entom. (2) vii. (xv.) 

p. 147 (1872) ; Kertesz, Cat. Dipt. p. 83 (1909). From New 

Guinea. 
Stkhojwyon scalan's, Bigot, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, (5) viii. p. 440 

(1878). From Fiji Island?. 

Type (c?) from Tidore, Celebes, and a ? from Sula 
Island. 

See v. d. Wulp for description of tliis species. 

DiocTRiA, Meigen. 

Illiger's Magaz. f. Ins. ii. p. 270 (1803). 

Methylla, Hansen, Fulnea oris Dipt. pp. 145 et 198 (1883). 

The type of D. claviventris, Walker, from New Guinea, 
and D. tasmanica, Walker, from Tasmania, are both species 
of Brac/iyrr/topola, the latter being a synonym of B. maculi- 
n(iV)-is, Macq. 

1). conop}> aides, F., from Australia, was unknown to Wiede- 
mann and Schiner. From the description it is impossible 
to ascertain what genus it belongs to ; it would seem 
therefore best to expunge the name from list. 

V. horsleyi, Walker, from unknown locality, is not a 



the AsilicliX3 of Australasia. 353 

species of Dioctria, though it bears a general resemblance 
to the genus and has a long third antennal joint ; but the 
fore tibiae are armed with a very distinct curved spine. It 
cannot bch:)ng to the genus Cyrlophrys, Loew, the oniemue 
having no apparent style. The abdomen is black, reddish at 
the apex. 

Lafiirinje. 

Table of Genera. 

1. Fore tibia; witli a curved spine at apex 2. 

Fore tibia) with no curved spine at apex .... 3. 

2. Blue-black species marked with white abdo- 

minal spots. Moustache usually reaching 
nearly to antenna), tubercle distinct on face . Thercutria, Loew. 
Small species. Moustache coutined to oral 
opening, no tubercle on face Metal(q)]iria, g. n. 

3. Posterior transverse vein in a straight line, or 

almost so, with the vein closing discal cell. . 4. 
Posterior transverse vein not so placed (3. 

4. Third joint of antenna) notched at apex, usually 

with a spine Clariola, Kertesz. ^a/u^Ai^ta 

Third joint of antennae not notched 5. ■ i/' 

5. Abdomen punctuate, third joint of antennas 

longer than the iirst two joints together .... Atomosia, Macc[uart. 
Abdomen hardly punctuate, the third joint 
three times as long as the first two joints 

together Aphestm. 

C. First posterior ceil closed or very narrow. 

Abdomen bare Nusa, Walker. 

First posterior cell wide open or not very 

narrow 7. 

7. Moustache confined to oral opening. Head 

orbicuhir, very much excised behind Maira, Schinor. 

Moustache not confined to oral opening. Head 
semicircular, not usually so much excised 
behind Laphriu, Meigen, 

Thereutria, Loew. 

Prngr. Realscliule Meseritz, 1851, p. 20 (1861), 
8ca)ido7i, Walker, Ins. Saund., Dipt. i. p. 108 (1851), 

This genus was formed by Loew for a new species from 
Australia, viz. Tkereutria calcar, which Loew made the 
type of the genus. He separated the genus from Laphria 
by the presence of tlie curved spine on tlie fore tibise. It is 
as yet peculiar to tlie Australasian region. The species are 
distinguished by the blue-black abdomen often marked with 
white spots, by the blue-l)lack legs, the tibire or femora 
often yellow, the latter usually stout, curved, i\\Q face with a 
prominent tubercle covered by the thick moustache, witli 
often long hairs continued to the base of tlie antenna?, which 



354 Miss G. Hicardo — A Revision of 

last have the third joint broad, lonojer than the first two 
joints together. Wings with the first and fourth posterior 
cells open, the anal cell closed. 

The species as yet recorded in this genus are : — 

Thereutiia luctuosa, Macq., Dipt. Exot. i. (2) p. 155 [Dasypogon'] 
(1838). 

Thereutria amaracus, Walker, List Dipt. ii. p. 380 [Laphria] (1849) et 
vii. Suppl. 3, p. 559 [^Laphriii] (1855). — Ommatius iabnus, Walker, 
I. c. p. 479 et p. 759. Dasypogon diversicolor, Macq., Dipt. Exot. 
Suppl. iv. p. 368 (1849) ; Ijigot, Ann. Soc. Eut. France, (5) viii. 
p. 219 (1878). Dasypoyon aunfacies, Macq., I. c. p. 367, pi. vi. 
tig. 5. Thereutria mlcar, Loew, Progr. Realscliule Meseritz, 1851, 
p. 20 (1851 ). Scando7i compacta, Walker, Ins. Saund., Dipt. i. p. 108, 
pi. iv. fig. 7 (1851), et List Dipt. vii. Suppl. 3, p. 663 (1855). 
Laphria diver sipes, Macq., Dipt. Exot. Suppl. v. p, 73 (1855) ; 
Froggatt, Australian Insects, p. 295 (1907). Thereutria caligulu, 
Bigot, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (5) viii. p_. 233 (1878). Dasypoyon 
diversipes, Kirby, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. xiii. p. 458 (1884). 

Thereutria pulchra, Schiner^ lleise Novara, p. 169 (1868). 

Thereutria luctuosa, Macquart. 

Type, a male, seen in Paris Museum, 12.4. 11, described 
by Macquart as from unknown locality : a label below gives 
" New Holland " ; no doubt this is correct, as the genus, at 
any rate as yet, is peculiar to Australasia. It is a species 
of Thereutria distinguished from T. amaracus and T. jndchra 
by the wholly black legs and brown tvings. A blue-black 
species. Abdomen with white spots at sides of segments 
2-6. Face with white lines on each side, flat, hardly raised 
at oral opening. Moustache white. Antenna gone, except 
the first two joints, which are black, with black pubescence. 
Wings brownish, the fourth posterior cell narrowed at border, 
the anal almost closed. 

Thereutria amaracus, Walker. 

Ommatius ialmus, Wlk. 
Danjpoyon diversicolor, Macq. 
Dasypoyon auri/acies, Macq. 
Thereutria calcar, Loew. 
Scandon compacta, Wlk. 
Lnphria diversip)es, Macq. 
Tliereutria caliyula, Bigot. 
Dasypoyon diversipes, Kirby. 

Type (c?) from Hunter River, New S. Wales, and 
other specimens from Burpengary, Queensland, and New S. 
Whales. 

Two male specimens from New S. Wales (presented by 
J. Hunter) were described by Walker as Ommatius ialmus; 
in both the third joint of anteunai is wanting and Walker 



the Asillda3 of Australasia. 355 

made no mention of tliem in his description ; they appear to 
me identical with the ahove. The type of Dasypoijon auri- 
facies, Macquart, a male, was seen by me in the Paris 
Museum, 12. 4. 11, and is a species of Thereutria identical 
with Thereutria amaracus, \A'alker. 

The drawing of the wiv^ by Maoquart, pi. vi. fig. 5, is 
incorrect, the submarginal cell should be closed not open, 
and the small transverse vein is beyond the middle of the 
discal celh Type has the moustache bUick, two female 
specimens with it have it yellow. Antennae now wanting, 
except the first two joints, which are black with black 
pubescence. Le^^s reddish ; the tibiae pale yellow with black 
apices, the anterior pair with curved spine, no black stripe 
on the femora. 

From New^ S. Wales. 

Macquart^s description precedes the one of D. diversicolor, 
which apparently is the same species. Bigot, who had the 
type before him, declared it to be a species of Thereutria. 

Loew's species is no doubt identical, judging from the 
description. Scundon compacta was declared to be identical 
Avith it by Schiuer; the type is not to hand. The type of 
T)asypogon diversipes, Kirby, is a female from Sidney, New 
S. Wales. 

Laphria diversipes, Macq., was described from Sidney 
Island, Oceania, and is evidently the same as T. amaracus. 
Mr. Froggatt describes it as being a common insect about 
Sidney, often taken on fences. 

The specimen, a female, described by Bigot as T. caligula, 
appears to be an example of this species, as the only 
difference in the short description is the mention of the 
upper side of femora being black; in one of the specimens 
in the Brit. Mus. Coll. of T. amaracus there is a black stripe, 
very short however, beginning at the apex. Bigot gave 
Australia as the locality. 

The species may be identified by the almost wholly reddish- 
yellow legs^ the femora being testaceous, the tibise yellow, 
only their apices, the coxse, and tarsi being black. Abdomen 
blue-black, with the typical white side spots ou the second 
to fifth segments. Wings with the first posterior cell rather 
narrow, narrower at the border, the fourth open at border 
but narrowed, the anal cell closed at border ; the males 
mentioned al)0ve have the moustache black, in the females it 
is yellow^, otherwise males aud females seem identical. 

Thereutria pulchr a, Schiner. 

Described from one male specimen, from New S. Wales. 



356 Miss G. Eicardo — A Revisioti of 

In Brit. Mus. Coll. six males from Burpengaryj Queens- 
land {Br. T.L. Bancroft). 

A black species, distinguished from T. amaracus by the 
wholly black femora, and the tibiee are partly brassy yellow. 

Length 14< mm. 

Face covered with yellowish tomentum. Moustache of 
black bristles surrounding mouth, not reaching up the 
face, tubercle small. Antennce with black hairs on the first 
two joints. Beard white. Palpi Avith black hairs. Forehead 
with greyish tomentum and black hairs, hind part of head 
with black pubescence. Thorax with the usual white 
shoulder-spots and markings and with black pubescence. 
ScvteUu7n Ijlack, with grey tomentum and black pubescence. 
Abdomen dull black, hardly shining, the white side-spots are 
present on the second, third, and fourth segments, covered 
with white hairs ; sides of abdomen with white and black 
hairs ; underside black. Legs slender, the femora not 
swollen ; coxge and femora black, with long white pubescence 
on the former and a few scanty white hairs on the latter, 
thickest on the posterior pair; fore tibiae blackish, a dull 
yellowish-red tinge on the apical two-thirds below, covered 
with fulvous pubescence which appears white above, the 
others are black, dull yellow on outer border, with dense 
white pubescence, on the black part it is black ; tarsi black, 
the posterior pair with the first joint yellow ; pubescence 
chiefly black; all bristles on the legs are black. V/lngs 
hyaline, veins broAvn, narrowly yellow on fore border j 
neuration as in Jliereutria amaracus. 

Metalaphria, gen. nov. 

A genus next to Thereutria, having a curved spine to the 
fore tibia?. Antenna with no style, the third joint long 
cylindrical. Face with no tubercle and the moustache con- 
fined to the oral opening. Wings Avith the first posterior 
cell widely open, the fourth very narrow at the border, 
almost closed, the anal cell the same. 

The only species in general appearance resembles a 
Saropogon species. 

Metalaphria australis, sp. n. 

Type S , type ? , from Upper Playford, Alexandria, 
N. Australia (IF. Stalker), 1906. 

A small species Avith a bluish-black abdomen, red at apex, 
Avith reddish-yellow legs and clear ivings. 

Length, S 8 mm., ? 9 mm. 



the Asllidte oj Australasia. 357 

Male. — Face covered with pale golden-yellow tomentura. 
Moustache of fairly strong yellowish-white bristles round 
the oral opening. Palpi reddish yellow. Beard silvery 
white. Antennae reddish yellow, the first two joints equal 
in length, with some short black pubescence and two stout 
bristles at apex of second joint ; the third joint a little darker 
in colour^ cyliudrical, about one and a half times as long as 
the first two joints together. Forehead darker than face, 
with a few short black hairs and two black bristles on the 
ocelligerous tubercle ; hind part of head with some bristly 
hairs, not at all excised behind. Thorax greenish brown, 
covered with yellowish-grey toaientum ; a broad, brown, 
median stripe appears ; beyond on each side three or more 
black short bristles are present, and on side of thorax just 
before the suture yellowish ones, and two longer weak ones 
beyond the base of wings ; sides and breast with yellowish- 
grey tomentura. Scutellum same colour as thorax, armed 
with two yellowish bristles. Abdomen blue-black, shining 
and bare, the last two segments chiefly reddish ; underside 
chiefly red. Legs reddish yellow, with some black bristles ; 
hind femora almost bare, hardly incrassate. Wings clear ; 
veins yellowish, the small transverse vein situated about the 
middle of the discal cell. Female is identical, the fourth 
posterior cell a little more open at border. 

Clariola, Kertesz. 

Termes Fuzetek, xxiv. pp. 404-406 (1901). 

Formed for Clariola pulchra, a male from New Guinea. 
The author places this genus between Atomosia and Aphestia 
in Schiner's table (Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xvi. p. 662, 
1866), from both of which it is distinguished by the 
peculiar third joint of antennce, which has on the upper side 
before the middle a small projection with a spine, and also 
by its Dioctria-Yike appearance. C. pulchra is a small 
species, only 5 3 mm. The three new species from Queens- 
land now added to this genus are large robust flies, very 
much larger than C. pulchra, and the projection on the third 
antennal joint is placed beyond the middle of the joint, 
otherwise they seem to agree in all the characters given 
of the genus, though the thorn or spine is not visible in 
one species, even when examined under a strong lens and 
magnified 28 times, but minute hairs fringe the apex. 

1. Abdomen black, pubescence chiefly reddish 

biown. Legs yellowish pulchra, ScLiuer. 

Abdomeu and leys blackish, pubescence white. '1. 



358 Miss G. Ricardo — A Revision of 

2. Moustache black and white. Abdomen with 

white-haired bands or spots on each segment. 

Wings brownish, yellower at base alboMrta sp. n. 

Moustache white. Abdomen with the white 

pubescence only at base and apex. Wings 

blackish nu/resctms, sp. n. 

Moustache reddish yellow. Abdomen with 

the white pubescence on apex. Wings 

blackish anrifacies, sp. n. 

Clariola albohirta, sp. n. 

Types ( ? (5" ) from Northern Queensland, and another 
female from Dandenong Ranges, Victoria, in Mr. Frenches 
collection. 

A handsome, large, black species with brown wings, black 
legs, and abdomen marked with white-haired bands. 

Length 19 mm. 

Face with grey tomentum, Avhich is whiter at the sides. 
Moustache consists of strong black bristles and some fine 
black and yellow hairs intermixed, i^eaching to the antennae, 
in the ? ; in the male the moustache consists wholly of long 
silky yellow hairs ; face with no perceptible tubercle ; pro- 
boscis short, black ; beard and hairs on under part of head 
white. AntenncB black, the first joint covered with grey 
tomentum in the % , cylindrical, longer tlian the second 
joint, which in the female is broader, both with black 
pubescence ; on the underside of the first joint is a strong 
black bristle, and another is visible on the upper side of the 
second joint ; in the male the one on the first joint is 
wanting ; the third joint longer than the first two joints 
together, with the small tooth on the upper side towards 
the apex ; the small spine Kertesz speaks of is not visible. 
Forehead black, with some grey tomentum and black hairs and 
bristles, the hairs on back of head chief! 3^ whitish. Thorax 
blue-black, covered with very short grey pubescence, strong 
black bristles on the sides posteriorly, the pubescence longer 
at base of thorax and on the scutellum, which is armed with 
weak yellowish and black bristles. Abdomen blue-black, 
stout, one width throughout, shining, finely punctuated ; 
the first two segments with silvery wliite hairs on their 
posterior borders, forming well-marked white bands ; the 
third and fourth segments with only a few white hairs on 
the side anteriorly ; the fifth segment with almost a com- 
plete white-haired band (in the male quite complete), the 
sixth segment with a complete white band, these last two 
bands are situated on the anterior borders of the segments ; 
the seventh segment almost covered with white pubescence ; 
sides of abdomen with some black bristles and fine hairs ; 



the As'iVidtG of Australasia. 350 

underside black. Legs ]on^, fairly stout, blue-black ; the 
coxie with brown tomciitum and black hairs, some white 
liairs on the anterior and middle ones ; the femora with 
black pubescence, on their upper sides some fine white 
pubescence, which is thickest on the hind pair and extends 
below, a few yellow bristles appear on these last ; tibiae with 
dense white pubescence and with black bristles, the hind 
pair with a few yellow ones ; the tarsi with chiefiy black 
pubescence and bristles, but some Avhite pubescence and a 
yellow bristle on first joint of posterior tarsi. Wings tinged 
brown, the subcostal cell ending in a point, the anterior 
branch of the third vein curved, the cross-veins closing the 
discal and fourth posterior cell almost in a line. Halteres 
yellow, 

Clariola ragrescens, ^ ? , sp, n. 

Type ($ , type $ , and three other males from S, Queens- 
land [Bancroft). 

A black, robust, but smaller species than C albohirta, to 
which it is closely allied ; distinguished from it by the 
moustache being almost wholly white in both sexes, but 
chiefly by the white-haired bands of abdomen only being 
present on the first two segments, and the apex with white 
pubescence. 

Length, c? 14 mm., $ 15 mm. 

Face covered with whitish tomentura, yellower at the 
sides ; moustache wholly whitish ( c? ), white, the oral opening 
bordered with black bristly hairs ( ? ) ; beard white. 
Antenna black, the first joint with long white hairs below 
and a few short black ones above, the second joint with 
black hairs above and below and a black bristle on its upper 
side at apex ( ? ), two in the male ; the spine on tiffe tooth 
on upper edge is here plainly perceptible. Forehead h\vic\\\$,\\^ 
with yellowish-grey tonientum and white pubescence, a few 
black hairs intermixed, more numerous in the female. 
Back of head with white hairs. Thorax shining bluish black, 
with short white pubescence anteriorly, elsewhere black. 
The white bands on abdomen are situated on posterior borders 
of segments ; abdomen convex, finely punctured, sides after 
the second segment with black hairs, the last two segments 
with white hairs. Legs blue-black, all the bristles black ; 
the posterior tibite with a dense white fringe of hairs below, 
otherwise similar to those of C. albohirta. Wings blackish, 
paler at base and on posterior border j neuration as in 
C. albohirta. 



360 A Revision of the Asilidie of Australasia, 

Clariola aurifacies, ? , sp. n. 

Type ? and another from Townsville_, Queensland 
(F. P. Dodd), 29. iii. 1902; and a male and female from 
Mackay^ Queensland (G. Turner). 

A species distino-uished from Clariola aJbohirta and Clariola 
pulchra by the golden-haired /ace and hind part of head, and 
by the blackish wings. 

Length 19 mm. The specimens from Mackay only 15 
and 16 mm. 

It differs from Clariola albohirta in the following parti- 
culars : — Face blacky covered with bright golden tomentum 
and with the moustache reddish golden, thick, occupying 
the whole of the middle of face to base of antennsB. Beard 
same colour. Pa//ji small, black, with black hairs. Antenna 
similar to those of C. albohirta, but the spine on the pro- 
jection of the third joint is here visible and there are two 
bristles on the first joint. Forehead same colour as face. Hind 
part of head similar in colouring of pubescence to that of 
the face. Thorax shining, blue-black with very short 
yellowish-white pubescence_, hardly visible to the naked eye, 
some black hairs on the posterior border^ black bristles 
at the sides ; sides and breast the same. Scutellum the 
same^ bordered with black bristly hairs. Abdomen punc- 
tuated blackish with greenish reflections at the apex, the 
white pubescence is only visible on the last four segments, 
chiefly at the sides ; pubescence on the dorsum black and 
shore except at the apex, where it is whitish ; sides with 
black pubescence ; underside brownish. Legs with no white 
hairs on the coxse, no white pubescence is visible on the 
femora nor white bristles on these or on the tibiae ; the 
tarsi have dense white pubescence like the tibiae, only the 
posterior pair with chiefly black pubescence and no yellow 
Ijristles. Wings blackish, a little lighter on the posterior 
border and apex, viewed against the light they appear 
brownish with clear spaces ; the other female has lighter 
wings than the type; veins black; neuration as in C. albo- 
hirta, with the exception of the cross- veins not being exactly 
in a line, the one wdiich closes the third posterior cell being 
a little above the other ; the female has a short appendix. 

The species from other parts of the Australasian region will 
include, besides Clar'iola pulchra, two of Walker's species 
placed under Laphria, viz, Laphria complens, type, from 
Celebes, and Laphria obliguistriga, also from Celebes. 

[To be coiiliuued.] 



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XLVTII. — Notes on Fossorial Hymenoptera. — X. 
By KowLAND E. Turner, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

On new Species from the Oriental and Ethiopian Regions. 

Family Psammocharidae (olim Pompilidce). 

Cei'opales pictus, Shuck. 

Ceropales }7icfa, Shuck. Trans. Ent. Soc. London, ii. p. 70 (1837). J • 
Ceropa/es ruficollis, Cam. Sjostedf s Kilimandjaro-Merii Exp. ii. p. 260 
(1910). ■$ . 

Hab. Cape Colony (Shuckard) ; British East Africa, 
Kikuyu Escarpment, Kijabe to Limorn, 7000 feet (S. A. 
Neave) ; Harar, Abyssinia (G. Knstensen). 

Abyssinian specimens are daiker on the legs and antennae, 
■which are only irregularly tinted with fuseo-fcriuginous, 
not almost entirely ferruginous as in the typical form. 

Xanthampulex pernix, Bingh. 
Ceroixiles perniic, Bingh. Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxy. p. 425 (1896). 

This species, though near to X. trifur, Schulz, in colour, is 
probably distinct. The eyes are strongly conveigent towards 
the clypeus, as in the other species of the genus. The 
sculpture differs somewhat from the description of trifur, 

Ann. dh Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol x. 25 



oG2 Mr. R. E. Tuiner on Fossorial Ihjmenoptera. 

especially on the head ; but as the female only of trifur is 
known and the male only of pernix, there is a possibility 
that they are opposite sexes of the same species. Ceropales 
parva, Cam., which closely resembles X aJbovariegata in 
colour, docs not belong to the same genus, but I do not 
think that it is correctly placed in Ceropales, the eyes being 
without emargination. 

Xanthampulex alhovariegata, Cam. 

Ceropales albovaviegata, Cam. Mem. Mauch. Lit. .S: Pliil. Soc. xli. p. 84 
(1896). 

This species is mentioned, but without a name, by Schulz 
(Zool. Annal. iv. p. 145, 1911). 

I cannot agree with Schulz as to the position of this 
genus, which 1 look on as closely allied to Ceropales in the 
structure of the pronotum and the eniarginate eyes. The 
median segment is very unlike any of the Ampulicinse, with 
which group Schulz connects the genus, and the frontal 
prominence is not similar in form to that in DoUchunis. 

Family Crabronidae. 

Subfamily Pemphsedoninx. 

Psen matalensis, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra ; tegulis, tarsis iiitermediis et anterioribus, tibiisque basi 
testaceis ; segmentis abdominalibus primo apice secundo lateribus 
ferrugineis. 

? . Clypeus covered with dense, fine, silver pubescence, 
more than twice as broad as long, the anterior margin very 
slightly rounded and shallowly emarginate in the middle, 
moderately convex and with a very obscure carina from the 
base to the apex. Antennse inserted nearly twice as far 
from each other as from the eyes, and separated from the 
base of the clypeus by a distance equal to half the length of 
the clypeus, the first joint of the flagellum very short, partly 
concealed in the apex of the scape, less than one quarter of 
the length of the second joint, which is more than half as 
long again as the third joint, the apical joints thickened but 
all much longer than broad, the whole antenna about equal 
in length to the thorax and median segment combined. 
Head shining, sparsely and very finely punctured, a very 
short longitudinal carina between the antennre, the eyes 
separated on the front by a distance equal to twice the length 
of the scape. Thorax shining and sparsely punctured ; the 



Mr. 11. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenoptera. 'M]?> 

mesopleurae sparsely clothed with wliite pubescence, a vertical 
carina below the anterior wings joining a wide shallow 
vertical groove, a few very short horizontal strife behind the 
carina. JNIedian segment short, the basal area shorter than 
the scutellum and strongly longitudinally striated, a deep 
groove running from the apex ot the basal area to the apex 
of the segment, which is very steeply sloped behind the basal 
area and very coarsely rugose. Petiole as long as the thorax 
without the median segment, not grooved or carinated ; the 
abdomen shining, very minutely punctured, the four apical 
segments with sparse, short, grey pubescence. Pygidial area 
well defined, elongate-triangular and very coarsely punctured. 
First recurrent nervure received before one-third from the 
base of the second cubital cell, the second received by the 
third cubital cell very near the base ; the second cubital cell 
not more than one-third of the length of the third on the 
radial nervure. 

Black ; the tegulse, intermediate and anterior tarsi, the 
base of the intermediate and anterior tibiae, and the spines 
of the tibiae and tart«i testaceous ; the apex of the first abdo- 
minal segment most broadly on the sides and the sides of 
the second f'eiTuginous. Wings hyaline, nervures black, the 
stigma fusco-ferruginous. 

1^ . As in the female, but the petiole is slightly longer and 
the ferruginous colour is more extensive on the second dorsal 
segment ; the apical joint of the antennae is light brown. 

Length, ? 11, c? 9 mm. 

Hab. Matale, Ceylon, 2000 feet (P. Beirne). 

Types in B. M . 

Psenulus bicinctus, sp. n. 

5 . Nigra ; segmentis abdominalibus secundo, quiuto sextoque 

rufis ; alis hyalinis. 
Long. 8-9 mm, 

? . Clypeus vei'y finely and closely punctured, thickly 
clothed with silvery-white pubescence, more than twice as 
broad as long, the anterior margin nearly straight, with two 
small teeth near the middle. Antennae inserted a little 
further from each other than from the eyes, and separated 
from the base of the clypeus by a distance equal to the length 
of the clypeus, gradually thickened to the apex, shorter 
than the thorax and median segment combined ; the second 
joint of the flagellum nearly as long as the first and third 
combined ; a very nai'rowly V-shaped carina between the 
antennae, which extends to a transverse feebly arched carina 

25* 



364 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Hymenoptera. 

less than halfway between the base of the antennae and the 
elypeus, the transverse carina reaching halfway from the 
middle of the front to the eyes and produced upwards at its 
extremities so as to touch the base of the antennae. Front 
betw^een the eyes as broad as the length of the scape and 
three basal joints of the flagellum. Head shining, opaque 
on the front, closely and very minutely punctured ; thorax 
shiningv, finely and rather sparsely punctured; mesopleurse 
more closely and minutely punctured, with a deep vertical 
groove below the anterior wings. Median segment shining 
and almost smooth, with long white pubescence on the sides ; 
a narrow transverse depression at the base, with about six 
short oblique carinte on each side, produced in the middle 
and joining a deep longitudinal groove which reaches to the 
apex of the segment and is transversely striated. Abdomen 
smooth and shining, petiolate; the petiole as long as the 
posterior tibia, with a shallow and narroAV groove from the 
base to the apex ; pygidial area feebly defined, elongate- 
triangular and finely punctured. First recurrent nervure 
interstitial with the first transverse cubital nervure, second 
received by the third cubital cell very near the basal angle ; 
the second cubital cell is less than half as long as the third 
on the radial nervure. Cubital nervure of the hind wing 
originating just beyond the apex of the anal cell. 

Black ; the second, fifth, and sixth abdominal segments 
entirely and the apical margins of the other segments very 
narrowly ferruginous red ; spines of the tibiae and tarsi 
testaceous. Wings hyaline, nervures black, stigma fusco- 
ferruginous. 

Length 8-9 mm. 

Hab. Shillong, Assam, 6000 feet {Turner). Four 
specimens. 

Subfamily Ampulici^^^. 

Dolichurus bipunctatus, Bingh. 

Dolichurus bipunctatus, Bingh. Joiirn. Liun. Soc, Zool. xxv. p. 4.39 

(1896). c?. 
Dolidniriis retictilatus, Cam. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, (7) iv. p. 56 (1899). 

$. 

Hab. Burma; Assam ; Sikkim ; Kangra Valley, N.W. 
India. 

The female differs from taprobana, Sm., in the slightly 
greater length of the median segment, the lesser development 
of the lateral spine on the posterior truncation of the median 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Hymenoptera. 365 

segment, and the less strongly punctured front. The two 
species are very closely allied, and may possibly prove to be 
mere local forms of one species. 

Dolichurus taprobance, Sm. 
Dolichurus taprobance, Sm. Trans. Ent. Soc. liouclon, p. 304 (1869). $ . 

Smith's type is a female, not a male as stated by him in 
the description. So far as I know, the male is unknown, 
but Bingham appears to have seen a male differing from his 
bipunctatus, unless, indeed, he has been misled by Smith. 

Hab. Ceylon; Nicobar Isl. ; Sikkim. 

Dolichurus yilberti, sp. n. 

5 . Nigra ; segmentis abdominalibus 4-6 rufis ; segmento mcdiaiio 

postice lateribus baud denticulatis. 
Long. 9-10 mm. 

(S . Omninoniger; fronte longitudinaliter striata. 
Long. 6 mm. 

? . Eyes separated from each other on the vertex by a 
distance almost equal to the length of the second and third 
joints of the flagellum combined ; the posterior ocelli very 
close together, nearly twice as far from the eyes as from each 
other. Front longitudinally striate-rugulose, the plate 
above the base of the antennie smooth and shining ; the 
space round the ocelli punctured ; the vertex shining, with 
sparse and fine punctures. Clypeus with a longitudinal 
carina not reaching the apex. Second joint of the flagellum 
almost half as long again as the third. Thorax shining, 
finely punctured ; mesopleune rugulose. Median segment 
broader than long, truncate posteriorly, the angles without 
spines, the dorsal surface transversely striated, with five 
longitudinal carinse, the two lateral carinte forming raised 
margins and meeting at the apex ; the three middle carinse 
not reaching the apex, the outer two parallel at the base, 
curved and forming a broad enclosed area posteriorly ; the 
surface of tlie truncation coarsely rugulose. Abdomen 
smooth and shining. Spines of the tibiae testaceous. First 
abscissa of the radius as long as the third, but a little 
shorter than the second. 

^. The carina of the clypeus reaches the apex ; the 
surface of the frontal plate is punctured, not smooth, and 
the cariute on each side of the median carina of the median 
segment are convergent towards the apex, not parallel at the 
base. The calcaria are whitish. 



366 Mr. E. E. Turner on Fossorial Hymenoptera. 

IJab. Shillong, Assam, 5000 feet (G. Turner) ; May, 5 ? , 

2 c?. 

The male differs from the European D. corniculus, Spin., 
in having the posterior ocelli nearer together and the front 
more coarsely sculptured, also in the convergence of the 
carinte of the median segment. The female is without the 
lateral spines of the median segment, and has the posterior 
ocelli nearer together and the front more coarsely sculptured 
than in the same sex of corniculus. The shape of the cubital 
cells does not seem to be quite constant, and cannot be 
relied upon for small specific distinctions. It is just possible 
that this species may be identical with the S.-European 
D. h(e7norrhous, Costa, which I have not seen. But Schulz 
(Zool. Annal. iv. p. 147, 1911) treats that form as a mere 
colour-variety of corniculus. From the similarly coloured 
D. Ignitus, Sm. (syn. D. tertius, Sauss.), from S. Africa, 
this species differs in the sculpture of the front and median 
segment, in the lesser distance between the posterior ocelli, 
and the greater distance between the eyes on the vertex. 

The female is the type. 

Genus Trirhogma, VVestvv. 

Trirhogma carulea, Westw. 

Trirhogma ccerulea, "W estw. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. iii. p. 225 (1842). J ; 
Westw. Arc. Ent. ii. p. 67 (1844). c? 2 ■ 

It is remarkable that all males which I have seen from 
India are of the form prismatica, Sm., which has a large 
tubercle on the scutellum and the base of the mandibles 
white ; Westwood^s description does not make any reference 
to these points, though taken from a North-Indian 
specimen. All females from India seem to be without the 
tubercle. Males in the British Museum collection from 
Celebes answer well to Westwood's description, and Colonel 
Bingham's account of cm'ulea ^ (Faun. Brit. Ind., Hym. i. 
p. 262) seems to be taken from these rather than from 
Indian specimens. I have not seen the types, but if the 
type c? is similar to the Celebes form, I do not consider 
that it can be the $ of the usual Indian form, for which 
the name prismatica, Sm., would liave to stand. A male 
from Hongkong in the British Museum collection has the 
tubercle on the scutellum less strongly developed than Indian 
specimens. I consider that only one species of the genus 
occurs in India. 



Mr. R. E. Tunicr on Fossorial llymenoptera. 307 

Ampulex approximata, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra ; mandibulis, clypeo apice, scapo subtus pygidioque 

obscure fusco-ferrugineis ; alls hyalinis, venis fuscis. 
Long. 10 mm. 

? . Clypeus strongly convex, with a median carina, pro- 
duced into a tooth at the apex, with a smaller tooth on each 
side. Head subopaque, microscopically punctured, the 
frontal carinae very short, the median one scarcely developed 
and continued by a narrow and shallow sulcus which is lost 
halfway between the base of the clypeus and the anterior 
ocellus, the lateral carinse extending very little above the 
base of the antennae. Second joint of the flagellum nearly 
twice as long as the third. Eyes separated on the vertex by 
a distance equal to the length of the second joint of the 
flagellum ; posterior ocelli nearer to each other tlian to the 
anterior ocellus. Thorax shining, very minutely punctured ; 
the pronotum convex, longer than the breadth in the middle, 
with a narrow median sulcus from the base not reaching 
the apex, without a tubercle ; mesonotum with an obscure 
median sulcus and a much deeper sulcus on each side, be- 
tween which and the tegulse is a deep depression. Scutellutn 
with a depressed transverse row of very deep punctures at 
the base. INIedian segment longer than broad, with a distinct 
median carina and two slightly oblique lateral carinse on 
each side, the space between the cariuai transversely striated, 
the distance between the cariuae at the base of the segment 
almost equal, the posterior angles of the segment without 
spines. The narrow petiole of the first abdominal segment 
is considerably shorter than the broadened portion of the 
segment; second segment distinctly longer than broad, the 
ventral surface rather strongly convex. The third dorsal 
segment has fine white pubescence at the base, the apical 
segment compressed laterally. Fourth tarsal joint reaching 
to the middle of the apical joint. Two cubital cells ; the 
second abscissa of the radius a little longer than the first, 
the third half as long as the second. 

Hub. W. India, Bombay Presidency. 

Nearly allied to the European A. fasciata, Jur., from 
which it diifers in the sculpture of the metiian segment, on 
which the carinas are strongly developed, in the greater 
length of the second cubital cell, the almost complete absence 
oi: fuscous colouring ou the fore wing, and the greater 
proportionate length of the second abdominal segment. 



3G8 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenopteva. 

Ampulex latifrons, Kohl. 

Ampule.v latifrons, Kohl, Aun. natur. Hofuius. Wieu, viii. p. 461 

(1.S93). § . 
Amjiulex brevicorms, Cam. Ejjtomologist, p. 312 (1902). §. 
Amjmlea: pidchriceps, Cam. Auu. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) v. p. 38 (1900). 

Ampulex longicoUis, Cam, 

Ampulex longicoUis, Cam. Entomologist, p. 2G3 (1902). §, 
Ampulex trichiosoma, Cam. Aim. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) x. p. 55 (1902). 

Ampulex crudelis, Bingh. 
Ampulex crudelis, Bingh. Fauna Brit. India, Ilym. i. p. 258 (1897). 

s- 

Ampulex trigona, Cam. Entomologist, p. 264 (1902). $. 

Ampulex sodalicia, Kohl. 

Ampulex sodalicia, Kohl, Auu. naturh. Hofmus. Wien, TJii. p. 417 

(1893). _$._ 
Ampulex tricarinata, Cam. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) ix, p. 245 

(1902). §. 
Ampulex striatifrons, Cam. Journ. Straits Br. Asiat. Soc, xxxvii. p. 95 

(1902). 6 ■ 

The type of Cameron's species from Borneo has the red 
colour of the hind and intermediate femora and coxae very 
strongly suffused with green, but does not seem to differ 
otherwise. 

Hab. Sikkim ; Assam ; Malacca; Borneo. 

Ampulex hospes, Sm. 

Ampulex hospes, Sm. Cat. Hym. B. M. iv. p. 272 (1856). $ , 
Ampuhx foveifro7is, Cam. MS. ? 

Specimens marked as type and co-type oi foveifrons are in 
the British Museum, but I cannot find that the name has 
been published. 

A. cognata, Kohl, is at most a local form of this species, 
differing in the more strongly punctured pronotum and the 
greater depth of the pronotal longitudinal furrow. The 
specimen recorded by Bingham from the Khasi Hills is now 
in the British Museum, and answers well to Kohl's descrip- 
tion, being thus apparently identical with the Java variety 
rather than with Bornean specimens. Cameron, whose 
work on this genus is very careless, throws doubt on 
Bingham's record without any cause. 



Mr. E/. E. Turner on Fossorial IJi/menoptera. 369 

Ampulex sibirica, Fabr. 

SpJicv sibirica, Fabr. Ent. Syst. ii. p. 207 (1793). J- 

Ampulex sibirica, Sin. Cat. Ilyin. B. M. iv. p. 209 (1856). 

Ampulex compressiventris, Guer. Icouogr. Regu. Anim., vii. Insect. 

p. 436(1845). $. 
Chlorampulex sibirica, Saiiss., Grandidier, Hist. Madagascar, xx. p. 444 

(1892). 

From an examination of the Fabrician type, I have no 
doubt that Saussure was quite correct in his identification of 
the species. He had probably seen the type, though he does 
not say so. Kohl, in his excellent monograph of the genus, 
does not seem to have thought of the possibility of this, and 
])uts aside Saussure's identification too lightly. The locality 
given by Fabricius is, of course, erroneous, the species being 
West African. 



Subfamily Sprecinje. 

Sphex hceinorrhoidalis, Fabr. 

Sphex h^morrhoidalis, Fabr. Spec. Insect, i. p. 443 (1781). 
Sphex niqripes, Sm., var. vohibilis, Kohl, Ann. naturh. Hofmus. Wien, 
X. p. 04 (1895J. 

Hub. Sierra Leone ; Uganda. 

Type in the Banksian Collection. 

Tlie name hamorrhoidalis must stand as the specific name 
and the name nigripes, Sm.,as only subspecific. The typical 
form has the wings dark, whereas in the Indian form they 
are flavo-hyaline, clouded with fuscous at the apex. In 
specimens from Ceylon the wings are fusco-violaceous, as in 
the African form. 

Sphex [Parasphex) elegantulus, sp. n. 

2 . Nigra ; albo-hirta, abdomiue ItBte ferrugineo ; petiolo seg- 
mentisque dorsalibus 3-5 nigris, laberibus ferrugineis, apice 
auguste flavo-testaceis ; alls subhyalinis, venis fiiscis. 

Long. 25 mm. 

? . Clypeus slightly convex at the base, flattened at tiie 
apex and broadly truncate, the base and sides closely covered 
with silvery pubescence intermixed with long white hairs. 
Eyes very slightly convergent towards the clypeus, separated 
on the vertex by a distance about equal to the length of the 
three basal joints of the flagellum combined. Posterior 
ocelli a little further from each other than from the eyes ; 
second joint of the llagellum nearly twice as long as the 



370 Mr. 11. E. Turner on Fossorial Hi) me no pier a. 

tliird. Head sparsely, thorax more closely punctured ; 
scutellum without a median sulcus, slightly emarginate at 
the apex. Dorsal surface of the median segment narrow 
and very slightly concave, the sides above the spiracles 
smooth and shiuing, the rest of the segment covered with 
pubescence. Petiole fully hialf as long again as the broad- 
ened portion of the first dorsal segment, as long as the 
second, third, and fourth joints of tjie hind tarsi combined. 
Fifth ventral segment deeply emarginate at the apex. 

Hah. Lo-Fou Mountains, S. China {ex coll. Perkins). 

Very nearly allied to the common S. viduatus, Chr., from 
which it differs in the distinctly slenderer form, the greater 
proportionate lengtli of the second joint of the flagellum, 
the smooth sides of the median segment above the spiracles, 
the absence of a sulcus on the scutellum, and the distinctly 
longer petiole. The sculpture of the dorsal surface of the 
median segment is somewhat concealed by pubescence, but 
is certainly not so strong as in viduatus. 

Subfamily Prilantkin^. 

Cerceris yi^eeni, sp. n. 

5 . Nigra ; clypeo, margine interiore oculorum sub insertione an - 
tennarum latissime, carina frontali, scapo subtus, macula post 
oculos, pronoto angulis postieis, tegulis macula parva, segraentis 
dorsalibus 2-3 fascia apicali angustissima, tibiis anticis et inter- 
mediis subtus, tarsisque anticis subtus albido-flavis ; clypeo late 
emargiuato, segmen-to mediano area basali longitudinaliter 

, striata, segmento ventrali secundo area basali elevata nulla ; alis 
fusco-hyaliuis, cseruleo-tinctis. 

Long. 14 mm. 

$ . Eyes divergent towards the clypeus ; posterior ocelli 
more than half as far again from the eyes as from each other. 
Mandibles with a triangular tooth on the inner margin a 
little before the middle. Clypeus very widely emarginate, 
the angles of theemargination slightly produced and forming 
short teeth ; a very short longitudinal carina just before the 
teeth. Head very broad ; the cheeks nearly as broad as the 
eyes ; the clypeus short, subconcave, very broadly truncate 
at the base, separated from the base of the antennae by a 
distance equal to the length of the second joint of the 
flagellum, which is almost equal in length to the tirst and 
third joints combined. Pronotum transverse, the margins 
slightly raised. Head and abdomen rather closely and not 
finely punctured ; thorax coarsely and closely punctured. 



Mr. E.. E. Turner on Fossorial Hymenoptera. 371 

the postscutellum almost smooth, the triangular area at the 
base of the median segment strongly longitudinally striated. 
First abdominal segment twice as broad as long ; pygidial 
area transversely riigulose, nearly three times as long as 
broad, the sides almost parallel, truncate at the apex. Ven- 
tral segments more sparsely and finely punctured ; second 
segment without a raised basal area, sixth segment deeply 
and narrowly emarginate and ending in two small spines on 
each side, the outer spine the shortest. First recurrent 
nervure received at three-fifths from the base of the second 
cubital cell, second at about one-sixth from the base of the 
third cubital cell. 

Hub. Kharkur, Nilgiris, S. India {E. E. Green) ; May 
1910. 

Type presented to the British Museum by the Bombay 
Natural History Society. 

This is another species of the small group of which ferox, 
Sm., may be taken as the typical species. The group hitherto 
has only been known from Borneo, Sumatra, Siamese 
Malaya, and Southern Burma. 

Subfamily Bembecinje. 
Bembex scotti, sp. n. 

cJ . Niger; clypeo albido, nigro bimaculato ; labro scapoque subtus 
paliide flavis ; mandibulis basi, carina frontali, linea post ociilos 
pedibusque fiavis ; pronoto linea postice, callis humeralibus, 
mesonoto lateribus et macula parva utrinque in medio raarginis 
postici, scutello postscutelloque fascia subapicali, segmento 
mediano fascia arcuata angulisque anticis et posticis, mesopleuris 
macula magna, segmento dorsaii primo fascia late emarginata, 
segment] 8 2-6 fascia bisinuata, septimo macula magna basali, 
segmentisque veutralibus basi nigris, secundo macula magna 
triangulari nigra, flavo-olivaceis ; segmento dorsaii septimo spinis 
lateralibus ; alis hyalinis, venis fuscis. 

Long. 16 mm. 

(^ . Basal joint of fore tarsi with seven spines, all the tarsi, 
tibiae, and femora simple, not broadened or serrate. Clypeus 
not very strongly serrate, a distinct carina between the 
antennae ; eyes almost parallel. Four apical joints of the 
flagellum excavate beneath, the apical joint longer than the 
penultimate, slightly curved, rounded at the apex, the ninth 
to eleventh joints of the fiagellum slightly produced beneath 
at the apex, the sixth joint a little thickened at the apex, the 
seventh at tlie base beneath, but not spinose. Second ventral 
segment without a carina ; sixth with a delicate carina on 



372 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Hyinenoptera. 

the apical half, shallowly sinuate at the apex ; seventh 
unarmed. Seventh dorsal segment narrowly rounded at the 
apex, with a spine on eacli side near the base, 

? . Second ventral segment shining and very sparsely 
punctured in the middle ; sixth dorsal segment subtriangular, 
rounded at the apex. 

Hab. Zungeru, N. Nigeria ; November 1910 (/. W. Scott- 
Mac fie). 

Very nearly allied to B. bidentata, Lind., but the inter- 
mediate femora of the male are not toothed, the shape of 
the seventh dorsal segment is different in both sexes, and the 
colouring is very different. 

Bembex johnsto7ii, sp. n. 

■S . Niger ; maudibulis, apice nigris, labro, clypeoque maculis biuis 
nigris, flavis ; autennis, pedibus capiteque(vertice nigro excepto) 
ochraceis ; prouoto, tegulis, lateribus mesonoti, segmeiitisque 
Jibdominalibus sexto septimoque fusco-ferrugineis ; abdomine 
obscure iridescenti ; alls hyalinis, veuis fuscis. 

Long. 24 mm. 

c? . Antennae with the three apical joints strongly exca- 
vated beneath, the apical joint much longer than the penulti- 
mate, slightly curved and rounded at tlie apex, the eighth 
and ninth joints of the flagellum with a small spine beneath, 
the sixth emarginate beneath, the seventh with a very minute 
spine near the base. Eyes almost parallel on the inner 
margin ; front distinctly carinated between the antenneR, 
the carina continued on the base of the clypeus, which is 
strongly convex. Eore tarsi normal, the basal joint with 
seven spines on the outer margin ; none of the femora 
serrate, intermediate tibiae not produced at the apex, basal 
joint of intermediate tarsi normal. Second ventral segment 
Avith a low longitudinal carina ending in an acute spine, sixth 
segment produced and bluntly tuberculate at the apex, 
seventh segment with an indistinct median carina. Seventh 
dorsal segment narrowly rounded at the apex, the sides not 
sinuate. Finely and closely punctured, the ventral segments 
more spars^ely punctured. The apical margins of the dorsal 
abdominal segments are very narrowly tinted with testaceous, 
the whole abdomen with a blue iridescent sheen. Wings 
very feebly tinted with fuscous towards the base. 

Hab. Uganda (^Sir H. Johnston). 

Allied to B. mobii, Handl., but in that species the seventh 
dorsal segment is toothed at the sides. In the type of the 
present species, however, the seventh segment is so much 



^Ir. li. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilijmenoptera. 373 

withdrawn that it is quite possible that the spines nre really 
present, though I cannot see them. Tlie colour is very- 
distinct, the apical dorsal segment is narrower at the apex 
and rounded, not subtruncate as in nidbii, and the structure 
of the eighth and ninth joints of the flagellum is different. 

Bembex albofasciata, Sm. 

Beiiihex albofasciata, Sm. Aun. & Mag. Nat. Hist, (i) xii. p. 296 

(J 873). c?-.. 
Bembex karscfiii, Haiidl. Sitzuugsb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, cii. v. 742 

(1893). c??. 

These descriptions undoubtedly refer to the same species. 
The range does not appear to be very extensive, the series in 
the National Collection being mostly from the Southern 
Transvaal, with one or two specimens from Basutoland and 
Zululand. 

Bembex diversipennis , Sm. 

Bembex diversipennis, Sm. Ann. & Mas:. Nat. Hist. (4) xii. p. 297 
(1873). c?$. 

The localities in the National Collection are from Angola 
to Nyasaland, Mashonaland, and Harar, Abyssinia. 

Subfamily Nyssonin.^. 

Genus Ammatomus, Costa. 

Ammatonms, Costa, Fauna Napoli, Nyssonid. p. 36 (1859). 

Gon/tes, Handl. (pars) Sitzimgsb. Aljad. Wiss. Wien, xcvii. p 317 

(i888). 
Tanyoprymnus, Cam. Trans. Amer. Eut. Soc. xxxi. p. 375 (1905). 

I cannot agree with Handlirsch in sinking this genus in 
Gorytes, though 1 think that Ashmead goes too far in 
removing it from his family Nyssonidse and placing it with 
his Stizidse. In addition to the list of species given by 
Handlirsch in the supplement to his most valuable mono- 
graph as belonging to the species group of coarctatus, Spin. 
(Ammatoinus), the following species should be included : — 

A. alipes, Bingb. Fauna British India, Hymen, i. p. 273 (1897). (Go- 
rytes a.) 

A. ornatus, Sm. Trans. Ent. Soc. London, p. 248 (1868). {Gorytes o.) 
(nee Sm. 1856). Syn. Gorytes decoratus, Handl. 

A. icarioides, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 499 (1908). (Gorytes i.) 

A. lonyitarsis, Cam. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. xxxi. p. 376 (1905). 
(Tanyoprymnus I.) 



374 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ttijmenoplera, 

The latter is probably a synonym o^ A.moneduloides, Pack. 

I suspect that A. rttfanodis, Rad., will prove to be a 
synonym of A. amatorius, Sra. 

The genus seems to me to be most nearly related to 
Kohlia, liandl., though differing in the convergence of the 
eyes and the chivate antennfe. 

Ammatomus africanus, sp, n. 

5 . Nigra ; clypeo, f ronte sub antennis, scapo subtus, pronoto postice 
angustissimo, mesoDoto macula raiiiuta augulis posticis, segmento 
dorsali prirao macula transversa uiritique, segmeiitis 2-5 fascia 
angusta apicali, tibiis supra tarsisque albido-flavis ; alls hyalinis, 
venis uigris. 

Long, 9 mm. 

$ . Eyes strongly convergent towards the clypeus, at the 
base of which they are separated by a distance equal to about 
two-thirds of the length of the scape ; posterior ocelli nearly 
twice as far from each other as from the eyes. Antennae 
clavate, the four apical joints as broad as long or broader. 
Opaque, covered with very delicate, close-lying, white pubes- 
cence; head almost smooth, with a well-marked frontal 
sulcus reaching the anterior ocellus ; thorax and median 
segment sparsely punctured ; the basal area of the median 
segment distinctly defined, triangular, and very sparsely 
punctured. Mesopleuraj rather closely punctured, the sides 
of the median segment almost smooth, with a few scattered 
punctures. Abdomen shallowly and rather sparsely punc- 
tured ; first segment narrow, nearly three times as long as 
the apical breadth, of almost equal width throughout, not 
constricted or inflated at the apex, about equal to the second 
segment in length, but not more than one-third of the apical 
breadth of the second segment. Hind tarsi very long and 
slender, fully as long as the tibia and femur combined ; hind 
tibise with very short feeble spines; anterior tarsi without a 
comb. Second abscissa of the radius about equal to the first, 
but distinctly less than half as long as the third. Both 
recurrent nervures received by the second cubital cell, the 
distance between them on the cubitus slightly exceeding the 
length of the second abscissa of the radius (in one specimen 
slightly less). Cubitus of hind wing originating a little 
before the transverse median nervui'e. 

The yellow band at the apex of the second dorsal segment 
is narrowly interrupted in the middle. 

Hab. Pakasa, N. Rhodesia (Siiverluck) ; January, 2 ? ? . 

This is the first species of the genus recorded from the 



Mr. It. E. Tunici' on Fossoriul llijtneaoplera. 375 

Ethiopian Region. It seems to be most nearly allied to 
mesostenus, llandl., which I liave not seen, but is more finely 
and sparsely punctured. As in other species of the genus, 
there is a strong elbow close to the cubitus on the first 
transverse cubital nervure, from which on the inner side 
branches the stump of a nervure continued as a scar to the 
base of the stigma. 

Gorytes {Harpactus) escalera, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra ; clypeo, meaopleuris, scutello, posiscutello, segmento 
dorsali secundo basi et linea lata, longitudinali, mediana, seg- 
mento ventrali secundo fascia lata interrupta, segmeiitoquo quinto 
dorsali albido-flavis ; alls fusco-hyalinis, venis fuscis. 

Long. 7 mra. 

$ . Eyes almost parallel on the inner margin ; posterior 
ocelli twice as far from each other as from the eyes. Clypeus 
broad, transverse at the apex. Head and thorax opaque, 
very finely and closely [junctured, mesopleurse and abdomen 
more sparsely but a little niore deeply punctured and shining ; 
a transverse crenulated groove between the mcsonotum 
and the scutellum. Second ventral segment only slightly 
convex ; first abdominal segment broad and short ; pygidial 
area well defined, fiat, rather narrowly triangular, and more 
deeply punctured than the other segments. Basal area of 
the median segment well defined, coarsely longitudinally 
rugose-striate, with a distinct median sulcus. Third abscissa 
of the radius longer than the second by one-quarter, both 
recurrent nervures received by tlie second cubital cell, the 
distance between them on the cubitus scarcely greater than 
that between the second recurrent nervure and the apex of 
the second cubital cell. Cubitus of the hind wing origin- 
ating distinctly beyond the transverse median nervure. 

Hab. Mogador, S.W. Morocco {Escalera). 

The absence of the ferruginous colouring prevalent in the 
group and the great extent of the yellow markings on the 
mesopleurse and second abdominal segment distinguish this 
species at a glance. It is more robust than most of the 
allied species, and the pygidial area is more distinctly 
margined. 

Subfamily Crab:roninjj:. 

Rhopalum seychellense, nom. n. 

Crabro {Ithopalum,) oceanicus, Turn. Trans. Linn. Soc, Zool. (2) xiv. 

p. .373 (1911). 
Nee Crabro {Rhopalum) oceanicus, Schulz, Spolia Hymen, p. 202 (1906). 



^ 



376 Mr. 11. E. Tinner on Fossorial UymenopLera. 

The name oceanicus, being preoccupied^ has to be changed, 
Schulz having priority. 

Dasyproctus opifex, Bingh. 
Crahro opifex, Ringli. Faun. Brit. India, Hym. i. p. 323 (1897). $ . 

Dasyproctus huddka, Cam. 

Rhopalum huddha, Cam. Mem. Mancli. Lit. & Phil. Soc. (4) ii. p. 18 

(1889). S. 
Crahro buddha, Cam. Mem. Manch. Lit. & Phil. Soc. (4) iii. p. 270 

(1890). c? ; Bingh. Faun. Brit. India, Ilyra. i. p. 323 (1897). J. 
Crabro brookii, Bingh. Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxv. p. 444 (1896). 5 . 

I think there can be no doubt that buddha and brookii are 
sexes of one species. 

Dasyproctus orientalis, Cam. 

Crabro orientalis, Cam. Mem. Mauch. Lit. Sc Phil. Soc. (4) iii. p. 272 
(1890). 

Dasyproctus solltarius, Sm. 
Crabro solitaritis, Sm. Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. iii. p. 162 (1858). J. 

Crabro {Ceratocolus) alatus, Panz. 

Crabro alatus, Panz. Faim. Insect. Germ. iv. (1797). 
Crabro quadriceps, Bingh. Faun. Brit. India, Hym. i. p. 327. 

Hab. Kumaun. 

This wide-ranging species extends to N. China and N.W. 
India. 

Crabro auricomus^ Bingh. 

Crahro auricomus, Bingh. Faun. Brit. India, Hvm. i. p. 327 (1897). 2 • 
Crnbro hhasianus, Cam. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) x. p. 6J (1902). 
$• 

There is only a slight colour-difference between the types. 
The species seems to me to be a Crnbro of the same group as 
C. fossorius, but I cannot see the structure of tlie mandibles 
distinctly. The striation of the mesonotum is transverse, 
not longitudinal. 

Cbabro, subgenus Solenius. 

It is unfortunate that Ashmead, in selecting a type for 
Solenius, Lep., should have departed from Kohl's indication 
of the typical forms of the group and selected C. interruptus, 



Osteology and Classification of the Order ApoJea. 377 

Lep., a North- American species, as the type. Kohl's indi- 
cation can hardly be accepted as fixing the type, as he 
mentions two species, C. vagus, Linn., and C. dives, H.-Sch., 
as examples of the group. It would certainly have been 
more convenient if Ashmead had followed Kohl and selected 
C. vagus as the type of Solenius. The valuable work done 
by American authors in revision of nomenclature is unfor- 
tunately sometimes disfigured by inconvenient changes which 
might easily have been avoided. C. vagus and the allied 
eastern forms differ from Ashmead's definition of Solenius in 
not having the abdominal segments constricted and strongly 
punctured, and eventually may have to be separated. Pio- 
visionally the following species may be placed in Sulenius, 
being allied to C. vagus, most of them having been described 
as Crabro without any definite indication of the subgenus 
to which they belong. In nearly all the specimens 1 have 
examined the mandibles are closed, and I have often been 
unable to distinguish clearly the tooth on the inner margiu 
near the base. 

Asiatic Species. 
Crabro {Solenius) agycus, Cam. 
Crabro agycus, Cam. Eiitomologist, p. 261 (1904). 

Crabro {Solenius) palitans, Bingh, 
Crabro palitans, Bingh. Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 446 (1896), 

Crabro [Solenius) alacer, Bingh. 
Crabro alacer, Bingli. Pros. Zool. Soe. p. 443 (1893). 



XLIX. — Tlie Osteology and Classification of the Teleostean 
Fishes of the Order Apodes. By C. Tate Regan, M. A. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum,) 

Order APODES. 

Malacopterous physostoraes with the pelvic fins, when 
present, abdominal. Body elongate, cylindrical, or com- 
pressed ; scales vestigial or absent ; gill-openings restricted ; 
dorsal and anal fins contiguous to or continuous with the 
reduced caudal, when this is present; pectoral fins small and 

Ann. (& Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. x. 26 



378 Mr. C. T, Regan on the Osteology and 

pelvics usually absent. Pigeraaxillaries not developed as 
distinct elements ; maxillaries bordering the mouth, sepa- 
rated anteriorly by the ethmoid*; hyo-pahitine bones 
reduced to 2 or 3, hyomandibular, quadrate, and palato- 
pterygoid, the last sometimes absent ; lower jaw of dentary 
and articulare ; opercular bones small, the membrane covering 
the large branchial chambers chiefly supported by the long 
branchiostegals. A single pair of dentigerous upper pha- 
ryngeals, opposed to the separate lower pharyngeals. Skull 
long and low ; prsemaxillaries, mesethmoid, and lateral 
ethmoids represented by a single dentigerous f bone ; parietals 
meeting in front of the supraoccipital ; no exoccipital con- 
dyles \ ; no opisthotic, but other otic bones well developed ; 
pterotic extending forward above sphenotic to alisphenoid ; 
paired §orbitospheiioids; nobasisphenoid. No post-temporal ; 
supra-cleithrum attached by ligament to the vertebral column ; 
hypercoracoid and hypocoracoid small, laminar ; no meso- 
coracoid. Vertebrse numerous ; arches ankylosed to centra; 
prrecaudals with strong parapophyses bearing the ribs; epi- 
neurals and epipleurals usually present. Gonoducts reduced 
to genital pores. 

Tlie peculiarities of the skull, jaws, suspensorium, and 
pectoral arch separate the Apodes very sharply from the 
Isospondyli, of which they must be regarded as an offshoot. 
They correspond to the family Mura^nidaj of Giinther after 
removal of the Saccopharyngidge, now generally regarded as 
comprising a separate order, Lyomeri (see ' Annals,' Sept. 
1912, p. 347). 

Except for tlie elevation of the subfamilies to family rank 
and liie addition of the more recently discovered Urenchelid^e, 

* Accordiug to Boulenger (Camb. Nat. Hist. p. 600) the maxillaries 
of the Muraeniclse are palato-pterygoids. I tind that in all their relations 
these bones are the same in the MurfenidaB as in the other families ; 
distally they are external to the mandibles ; moreover tlie true palato- 
pterygoids are present in the usual place, but reduced to mere threads of 
bone. 

t In Heterenchelys and also in Synaphobranchus the vomerine teeth are 
separated by an interspace from the praemaxillary teeth and the vomer is 
a distinct bone. It can hardly be doubted that the dentigerous bone in 
front of the vomer and between the maxillaries represents the priie- 
maxillaiies ankylosed to the mesethmoid. 

X As in the Isospondyli an anterior half-centrum is very tirmly united 
to the basi- and exoccipitals. 

§ The orbitosphenoids lie in front of the alisphenoids and usually 
separate the parasphenoid fiom the frontals ; rarely {MoriiKjua and some- 
times in AnyuilJn) the parasphenoid and frontals meet, concealing the 
orbitosphenoids. 



Classification of the Order Apodes. 379 

Simenchelidffi, Ilyophid^, and Dyssomidas^ Giintlier'rf arrange- 
ment (Cat. Fish. viii. p. 19) is the one still in general use 
{cf. Jordan & Eveiniann, ' Fisiies of N. A.nierica,' p. 345). 

Gill (Proe. U.S. Nat. Mus. xiii. 1890, pp. 157-170, 231- 
242) has added considerably to our knowledge of the diagnostic 
characters of the Anguillida3, Simenchelidge^ Synapho- 
branchidse, Mursenesocidse, and Muraenidse. JV|^lie. Popta 
(Ann. Sci. Nat. (8) xix. 1905, p. 367) has described the 
pharyngeals in a number of types. 

Synopsis of the Families. 
I. Caudal fin free 1, Ureticheliche. 

II. Caudal fin, when present, continuous with dorsal aud anal ; no 
pelvic fins. 
A. Frontals pau-ed, united by suture. 

1. Jaws not produced, the snout conical or obtuse, 
a. Otic bulla little inflated. 

». Pharyngeals oblong- or ovate, covered with small teeth j 
caudal vertebrae without transverse processes. 
* Pharyngeal openings of branchial clefts wide ; palato- 
pterygoid well developed ; pectoral fins present. 
Mouth with lateral cleft ; 8 pectoral radials . . 2. Amjtdllidce, 
Mouth transverse ; 4 pectoral radials 3. Simenchelidcu. 

** Pharyngeal openings of branchial clefts narrow. 

Palato-pterygoid an elongate lamina ; no pec- 
toral fins 4. X.enocon(jridce. 

Palato-pterygoid very slender, almost vestigial ; 

pectoral tins present 5. Myrocongridce. 

/3. Upper and lower pharyngeals with strong biserial teeth, 
elongate, supported by the enlarged fourth epi- and 
cerato-branchials ; caudal vertebrae with transverse pro- 
cesses ; pharj'ngeal openings of branchial clefts narrow ; 
palato-pterygoid very slender, almost vestigial ; no pec- 
toral fins 6. Miircenidce. 

h. Prootic and basioccipital forming a prominent bulla ; eyes 
very small ; vertical fins well developed only near end of 
tail ; pectorals vestigial or absent. 
Heart just behind gills; palato-pterygoid well 
developed ; pharyngeal openings of bran- 
chial clefts wide 7. Heterenchelidce, 

Heart far behind gills ; palato-pterygoid ves- 
tigial ; pharyngeal openings of inter- 
branchial clefts narrow ■ 8. Moringuidce. 

2. Jaws much produced, the snout long and slender ; no palato- 

pterygoid ; pharyngeal openings of branchial clefts wide. 
Suspensorium vertical ; vent near gill-openings 
and tail very long ; vertebrae very nume- 
rous 9- Nemichthyidce. 

26* 



380 Mr. C. T. Regan on the Osteology and 

Suspensorium directed obliquely backwards ; 
vent equidistant from gill-openings and 
end of short tail ; vertebrae about 80 ... . 10. Cyemidce. 

B. Frontals anlcylosed to form a single bone ; pharyngeals oblong or 
ovate, covered with small teeth ; pharyngeal openings of 
branchial clefts wide. 

1. Jaws strong; suspensorium vertical or directed obliquely 

forwards ; palato-pterygoid weU developed as an elongate 
lamina. 

a. Nostrils superior or lateral ; neural spines long and slender. 
Maxillaries articulating with ethmoid at some 

distance from end of snout ; caudal ver- 

tebrfe without transverse processes 11. Muranesocidce. 

Maxillaries ai'ticulating with ethmoid near end 
of snout ; caudal vertebrae with transverse 
processes 12. Conyridcp. 

b. Nostrils labial ; neural spines vestigial ; maxillaries articu- 

lating with ethmoid near end of snout ; caudal vertebrae 

with transverse processes. 

Caudal fin present ; ribs strong 13. Echelidce. 

No caudal tin ; ribs feeble 14. Opldchthyidce. 

2. Jaws slender ; suspensorium directed obliquely backwards. 
Gill-openings well separated ; vent remote from 

head 15. Ilyophidce. 

Gill-openings well separated ; vent not far be- 
hind them ; no palato-pterygoid 16, Dysommidts, 

Gill-openings confluent ; palato-pterygoid very 

slender, almost vestigial 17. Synaphohranchidcs. 

Family 1. UrenchelidaB. 

Cretaceous eels with the caudal fin f lee from the dorsal and 
anal. Several specie.? of Urenchelijs have been described by 
Smith Woodward (Cat. Foss. Fish. iv. p. 337, 1901). 
Anguillavus hathshehce, Hay (Bull. Amer, Mus. xix. 1903, 
p. 439, pi. xxxvii. fig. 1), from the Upper Cretaceous of 
Mount Lebanon, is of great interest as an undoubted eel with 
pelvic fins; these are small, 8-rayed, abdominal in position. 

I here designate this species as the type of the genus 
AnguillavuSj for, in my opinion, Anguillavus quadriphinis 
(Hay, t. c. p. 437, pi. xxxvi. figs. 2 & 3) is the representative 
of another genus, and probably not an eel at all. Although 
the body as far back as the pelvic fins is preserved, there is 
no trace of the dorsal fin, wliich begins just behind the head 
in AnginllavHs and UrencheJys ; on the other hand, there are 
traces of lateral rows of bony plates, unknown in these 
genera. 

Dr. Hay's description of maxillae "parallel with the 
premaxillw," and of supramaxillse, palatines, entopterygoids, 



Classification of the Order A/odes. 381 

ectopterygoids, and praef rentals, is not in accord with the 
systematic position assigned to this fij^h, and his figure leads 
me to believe that it may belong to the family Dercetidae 
and possibly to the genus Leptotrachelus. 

Family 2. Anguillidae. 

Dorsal and anal continuous with the reduced caudal ; 
pectorals present ; body scaly ; vent remote from head. 
Mouth terminal, witli lateral cleft extending to below eye ; 
maxillary articulated with ethmoid near end of snout ; teeth 
small, cardiform or villiform, in bauds ; nostrils lateral; gill- 
openings well separated ; pharyngeal apertures of branchial 
clefts wide. Frontals paired ; vomer ankylosed to etiimoid; 
suspensorium directed obliquely forwards ; palato-pterygoid 
well developed as an elongate lamina. 8 pectoral radials. 
Neural spines slender, free ; no lateral transverse processes 
(additional to parapopiiyses or hsemal arches) on caudal and 
posterior prsecaudal vertebrae ; ribs and intermuscular bones 
feeble. 

A single genus, Anguilla. 

Family 3. Simenchelidae. 

Simencheli/s parasitt'cus differs from Anguilla in the trans- 
verse mouth, blunt uniserial teeth, and very large tongue ; in 
osteological characters it is very similar to the Anguillidie, 
but there are only 4 pectoral radials. The recently described 
Gymnosimenchelys, Tanuka, is naked and has pluriserial 
teeth. 

Family 4. Xenocongridae. 

Xeiioconger fryeri^ from Assumption (Regan, Trans. Linn. 
Soc. 1912), differs from the Anguillidae in the absence of 
scales and of pectoral fins and in the small pharyngeal aper- 
tures of the branchial clefts. I have ascertained that the 
frontals are paired, the palato-pterygoids are developed as 
elongate laminae, and the caudal vertebrse lack lateral 
processes. 

Family 5. MyrocongridsB. 

Naked, but traces of large regularly arranged scale-pouches 
on the thorax ; body compressed, with the tail longer than 
the trunk and the vertical fins well developed ; pectorals 
present. Mouth terminal, with lateral cleft extending a little 
behind eye ; maxillary articulating with ethmoiil near end of 



382 Mr. C. T. Regan on the Osteology and 

snout ; teeth cardiform, in bands ; nostrils latei'al ; gill- 
openings well separated ; pharyngeal apertures of branchial 
clefts restricted ; pharyngeals ovate or oblong, covered with 
small teeth. Frontals paired ; suspensorium vertical ; palato- 
pterygoid very slender, not laminar. 4 pectoral radials. 
Neural spines long and slender ; caudal vertebrae without 
transverse processes. 

Myroconger compressus, from St. Helena, appears to be 
quite as closely related to the Anguillidse as to the Murtenidse. 

Family 6. Murapnidae. 

Naked, compressed or cylindrical ; vertical fins variously 
developed; no pectorals. Mouth terminal, with lateral cleft 
extending behind eye; maxillary articulated with ethrao- 
vomer at some distance from end of snout; teeth strong, 
acute or obtuse, in one or more series; nostrils lateral ; gill- 
openings well-separated; pharyngeal apertures of branchial 
clefts restricted ; upper and lower pharyngeals bearing 
strong curved teeth in a double series, elongate, supported 
by the enlarged epi- and ceratobranchials of the fourth arch. 
Frontals pail red ;- hyomandibular with broad head; palato- 
pterygoid very slender^ almost vestigial. Neural spines 
developed in caudal region only, short, laminar; caudal 
vertebise with lateral transverse processes. 

Alurcena^ Oymnothorax, Echidna, Strophiodon, Thyrsoidea^ 
lihinomurcena, Murcenohlenna, Channomu7'ce?ia, Enchelychore, 
&c., from tropical and temperate seas. 

Family 7. Heterenchelidae. 

Kaked, cylindrical, with the tail much longer than the 
trunk ; vertical fins well developed only towards the end of 
the tail ; pectorals absent. Mouth moderate, with lateral 
cleft extending behind the very small eye ; maxillary articu- 
lating jvith ethmoid near end of snout ; teeth conical, biserial ; 
nostrils lateral ; gill-openings separate; pharyngeal apertures 
of branchial clefts wide ; pharyngeals oblong or ovate, 
covered with small teeth. Heart just behind the gills. 
Frontals paired, anteriorly with strongly developed mucous 
channels ; vomer distinct, united by suture with ethmoid ; 
orbitosphenoids long and narrow, separating parasphenoid 
from frontals ; prootic and basioccipital swollen to form a 
thin-walled bulla containing a large otolith. Suspensorium 
vertical ; palato-pterygoid a rather broad lamina. Neural 



Glassijicalion of the Order Apodes. 



383 



spiiios sliovt, laminar ; neural arches without zygapophyses ; 
caudal vertebrpo without lateral transverse processes ; ribs 
and intermuscular bones feeble, 

Heterenchelys^ with two species from West Africa (' Annals,' 
Sept. 1912, p. 323). 



Fisr. 1 . 



PPP op sop 







Ooc 




prv osp 



Heterenchelys macrurus. Jaws, hyo-palatiue, and opercular boues, and 
skull from above and from the side. 

mx, maxillary ; den, dentary ; ar, articulare ; ^)<, palato-pterygoid ; 
hm, hyomandibular ; q, quadrate ; jmp, praeoperculum ; op, opercu- 
lum ; sop, suboperculum ; iop, interoperculum ; br, branchiostegals ; 
eth, ethmoid; v, vomer; /, frontal ; p, parietal ; jisp, parasphenoid ; 
asp, alisphenoid ; osp, orbitosphenoid ; /?;-o, prootic ; spo, spheuotic ; 
pto, pterotic ; epo, epiotic; soc, supraoccipital ; eoc, exoccipital : 
hoc, basioccipital. 



384 Mr. C. T. Regan on the Osteology and 

Family 8. Moringuidae. 

Naked, cylindrical, with the tail much shorter than the 
trunk ; vertical fins developed on the tail only ; pectorals 
small or absent. Mouth small, with lateral cleft extending 
behind eye ; maxillary articulating with ethmoid not far from 
end of snout ; teeth uniserial ; nostrils lateral ; gill-openings 
separate; pharyngeal apertures of interbrachial clefts re- 
stricted, of cleft in front of first gill wide ; pharyngeals oblong 
or ovate, covered with small teeth. Heart at some distance 
behind the gills. Frontals paired, anteriorly with moderately 
developed mucous channels ; vomer ankylosed to ethmoid ; 
parasphenoid meeting frontals in a long sutural union; a 
prominent otic bulla. Suspensorium vertical ; palato- 
pterygoid slender, almost vestigial. Neural arches with 
zygapophyses, without distinct spines ; caudal vertebrae 
without lateral transverse processes ; ribs and intermuscular 
bones feeble. 

Moringua. 

Family 9. Nemichthyidae. 

Naked, very elongate, compressed ; dorsal and anal long, 
confluent witli the reduced caudal, or extending to the end of 
the long slender tail ; vent not far behind gill-openings. 
Snout and lower jaw produced, slender ; maxillary articulated 
to ethmoid far behind tip of snout ; nostrils lateral ; gill- 
openings wide, sometimes confluent below ; pharyngeal 
apertures of branchial clefts wide. Frontals paired. Suspen- 
sorium vertical ; palato-pterygoid absent. Caudal vertebrae 
with long neural spines and without transverse processes. 

Principal genera: Sphiivomer, Serrivomer [Qavialiceps)y 
Stemonidium^ Avocettina, Nemichthys. 

In the last three the teeth are small and numerous, regu- 
larly arranged in quincunx ; the first two have a series of 
strong teeth on the vomer. 

Family 10. Cyemidae. 

Cyema atrum has the jaws and dentition of Nemichthys, 
except that the maxillary is longer, extending backwards far 
behind the small eye ; the suspensorium is directed obliquely 
backwards. The body is only moderately elongate, with the 
trunk and tail nearly equal in length ; the dorsal and anal 
fins are opposed, separated only by a notch at the end of the 
tail ; the vertebrae number about 80. 



Classification of the Order Apodes. 



385 



Tlie suggestion that Cyema is a Nemichihys with regene- 
rated tail cannot be entertained ; the four specimens known 
are extremely similar and the posterior caudal vertebrae 
decrease in length backwards in a perfectly regular manner. 

Family 11. MuraenesocidaB. 

Murcenesow is related to the Congridse, but the maxillaries 
are articulated to the ethmoid at a considerable distance from 
the end of the somewhat produced snout, the ribs are rather 
strong, and the caudal vertebrai are formed as in the Anguil- 
lidge, without lateral transverse processes. The jaws have 
strong anterior canines and the vomer is armed with a median 
series of large teeth. 

Family 12. Congridae. 

Dorsal and anal fins continuous with the reduced caudal; 
body naked ; vent remote from head. Mouth with lateral 
cleft, not extending far beliind eye; maxillary articulated 







yjsp -pro osp 

Conger conger. Skull from above and from the side. 
Lettering as in fig. 1. 

with ethmoid near end of snout; teeth conical, cardiform, or 
compressed, in bands or in one or more series, well developed 



386 Osteology and Classification of the Order Apodes, 

in jaws and on vomer. Nostrils lateral ; gill-openings sepa- 
rate ; pharyngeal apertures of branchial clefts wide ; pha- 
ryngeals ovate or oblongs covered with small teeth. Frontals 
ankylosed to form a single bone ; vomer ankylosed to ethmoid ; 
orbitosphenoids small, Suspensorium vertical or directed 
obliquely forward ; palato-pterygoid an elongate lamina. 
4 pectoral radials. Neural spines well developed ; caudal 
and posterior prgecaudal vertebrse with lateral transverse 
processes, in addition to haemal arches or parapophyses ; ribs 
and intermuscular bones feeble. 

This large and varied family corresponds to tb.e Lepto- 
cephalidas, Mursenesocidse (except Murcenesox)^ and Nettasto- 
midge of Jordan and Evermann. 

Principal genera : Heteroconger, Promi/llanfor, Congro- 
muroena^ Conger, Congrosoma, Ui'oconger, Coloconger, Neo- 
conger, Stilbiscus, Leptoconger, Gordiichthys, Iloplunnis, 
Oxyconger, Xenomystax, Nettastoma, Saurenchelys, Eetten- 
chelys, Chlopsis, Venejica, Metopomycter. 

In this family there is a more or less prominent vertical 
ridge on the middle of each centrum and the parapopliysis is 
more or less completely divided into two. Echelion montium 
(Hay, Bull. Amer. Mus. xix. 1903, p. 441, pi. xxxvii. 
ligs. 2-6), from Mount Lebanon, described as an apparently 
diplospondylous eel, had vertebrge of this type. 

Derichthys serpentinus, Gill, is said to have distinct pra3- 
maxillaries, but this requires confirmation, as in other cha- 
racters it seems to be a member of the family Congridse. 

Family 13. Echelidse. 

Differs from the Congridse in the labial nostrils, the rather 
strong ribs and intermuscular bones, and the vestigial neural 
spines. 

Echelus, Ahlia, Myrophis, Paramyrus, Ghilorhinus, Murcen- 
ichthys. Eomyrus, from the Upper Eocene of Belgium, also 
belongs to this family (Storms, Bull. Soc. Beige G^ol. x. 
1896; pp. 225-240, pis. v., vi.). 

Family 14. Ophichthyidae. 

Differs from the Congridse in the absence of the caudal fin, 
the tip of the tail projecting beyond the dorsal and anal, the 
labial nostrils, and the vestigial neural spines. 

Sphagehranchus, Pisodontophis, Callechelys, OpJncJithijs, 
BrachysomopMs, &c. 



A Bevision of South- American Gharacid Fishes. 387 

Family 15. Ilyophidae. 

Dorsal and anal continuous with the reduced caudal ; 
pectorals present; body scaly ; vent remote from the head. 
Mouth terminal, with lateral cleft extending behind the eye ; 
maxillary slender, articulated with ethmoid near end of 
snout J teeth conical, small and in narrow bands in the jaws, 
large and in a single series on the vomer ; nostrils lateral; 
gill-openings separate ; pharyngeal apertures of branchial 
clefts wide. Suspensorium probably directed somewhat 
obliquely backwards. 

Ilyophis hrunneus, Gilbert, may be related to the Anguil- 
lidai on the one hand and the Synaphobranchidae on the 
other, but it seems still nearer to the Dysommida?. 

Family 16. Dysommidae. 

External characters, jaws, and dentition of the Ilyophidse, 
except that the body is naked, the vent is not far behind the 
gill-openings, and the cleft of the mouth extends far 
behind the eye. Frontals ankylosed to form a single bone ; 
suspensorium directed very obliquely backwards ; palato- 
pterygoid absent ; vertebral column as in the Anguillida3. 

Two genera, Dysomma, with pectoral fins and the vent 
below the gill-openings, and Dysommopsis, without pectorals 
and with the vent further back, have been described by 
Alcock from the depths of the Indian Ocean. 

Family 17. Synaphobranchidae. 

External characters of the Ilyophidae, except that the cleft 
of the mouth extends far behind the eye and the gill-openings 
are confluent ; teeth small, conical, in narrow bands or in a 
single series in jaws and on vomer. Frontals united to form 
a single bone ; suspensorium long, directed very obliquely 
backwards ; palato-pterygoid long, slender, almost vestigiaL 
Vertebral column as in the Anguillidse* 



L. — A Revision of the South-American Gharacid Fishes of 
the Genera Chalceus, Pyrrhulina, Copeina, and Pogono- 
charax. By C. Tate Kegan, M.A. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

The four genera here dealt with form a natural group, 
differing from other Characidse in the very large raesethnioid 



388 Mr. C. T. R",oan— yi Revision of 

and showing further agreement in their oblong or elongate 
form, rounded abdomen, flattish upper surface of tiie head, 
large scales, short dorsal and anal fins, &c. 

I give a list of the specimens in the British Museum 
collection, considerably augmented in the last few years by 
gifts of examples from tiie Amazon (Herr J. Paul Arnold), 
Obidos (Herr A. Rachovv), Manaos (E. Stanley Sutton, Esq.), 
and Colombia (Sir Bryan Leighton), and by the acquisition 
of a set from Professor Eigenmann's collection made in 
British Guiana. 

1. Chalceus. 

Chalceus, Cuv. Mem. Mus. Paris, iv. 1818, p. 454 ; Giinth. Cat. Fish, v, 

p. 333 (1864). 
Plethodectes, Cope, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. xi. 1871, p. 563. 
Pellegrinina, Fowler, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1906, p. 442. 

Body oblong, compressed. Scales large, unequal ; lateral 
line present, running low. Mouth moderate, terminal ; 
prseraaxillary teeth triserial, the outer tricuspid, the inner 
pentacuspid ; maxillary toothed; mandibulary teet'i biserial, 
the outer tri- or pentacuspid, the inner series conical, small, 
except for an enlarged median pair ; ])alate toothless. Nos- 
trils close together. Gill-membranes free. Dorsal and anal 
fins short ; adipose fin present. 

1. Chalceus macrolepidotus. 

Chalceus macrolepidotus, Cuv. M^m. Mus. Paris, iv. 1818, p. 454, 

pi. xxi. fig. 1 ; Gunth. Cat. Fish. v. p. 333 (1864). 
Pellegrinina heterolepis, Fowler, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1906, p. 442, fig. 

Depth of body 3| to 4 in the length , length of head 3^ to 
3|. Diameter of eye 3 to 4 in length of head, interorbital 
width 2 to 2^. 20 or 21 scales in a longitudinal series from 
upper angle of gill-cleft to base of caudal, 37 in the lateral 
line. Dorsal 12; origin behind base of pelvics, equidistant 
from tip of snout and end of middle caudal rays. Anal 12. 

Guiana. 

1. 150 mm. Essequibo. Ehrhardt. 

2-3. 110 mm. Brit. Guiana. Schomburgk. 

4. 65 mm. Surinam. Kappler. 

2. Chalceus ery thrums. 
Plethodectes erythrurus, Cope, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. xi. 1871, p. 563, 

fig. 
Depth of body 3§ in the length, length of head 3|. 



South- American Characid Ftslies. 389 

Diameter of eye 4 in length of head, interoibital width 2^. 
18 or 19 scales from upper angle of gill opening to base of 
caudal fin, 33 or 34: in the lateral line. Dorsal 12; origin 
above base of privies, equidistant from tip of snout and end 
of scales on caudal. Anal II. 
Upper Amazon. 

1. 170 mm. R. Cupai. Stevens. 

Cope's type was a specimen of 65 mm. with the head -^ of 
the length, eye I and interoibital width | of the length of 
head, &c. He described the outer praeniaxillary teeth as 
conical, and indeed they are less expanded than in C. macro- 
lepidotus, but they have a pair of cusps. 

2. Pyrrhulina. 

Pyrrhulina, Cuv. & Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss. xix. 1846, p. 585 ; Giinth. 
Cat. Fish. T. p. 286 (1864). 

Body oblong or rather elongate, compressed. Scales 
large ; no lateral line. Mouth moderate or small, terminal, 
with the lower jaw projecting ; prgemaxillary and mandibulary 
teeth conical, biserial; palate toothless. Nostrils close 
together. Gill-membranes free. Dorsal and anal fins short ; 
no adipose fin. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

I. 26 or 27 scales in a longitudinal series ; diameter of eye 2§ to 3^ in 

length of head, in specimens of 35 to 80 mm.. . 1. Jilamentosa. 

II. 20 to 25 scales in a longitudinal series ; diameter of eye 3 to 4 in 

length of head, in specimens of 25 to 85 mm. 

A. Body slender, the depth 5 in the length ; caudal peduncle nearly 

as long as head ; 22 scales in a longitudinal series. 

2. nattereri. 

B. Body deeper, the depth 3| to 4| in the length. 

1. Caudal peduncle at least % length of head ; 22 to 25 scales in a 

longitudinal series 3. mnifasciuta. 

2. Caudal peduncle at most f length of head, 
laterorbital width 2 in length of head ; 20 scales in a 

longitudinal series ; depth of body 3^ in length . . 4. vittata. 
luterorbital width 2 to 2^ in length of head ; 20 to 23 

scales in a longitudinal series ; depth of body 3| 

to 4i in length 5. australis. 

Interorbital width 2^ to 3 in length of head ; 20 to 

22 scales in a longitudinal series 6. brevis, 

1. Pyrrhulina Jilamentosa. 

Pyrrhulina Jilamentosa, Cuv. & Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss. xix. 1846, p. 535, 
pi. 589; Guuth. Cat. Fish. v. p. 286 (1864). 



390 Mr. C. T. Regan— A Revision of 

Depth of body 4^ to 5^ in the length, length of head 4 to 
4j. Caudal peduncle f to | length of head. Snout shorter 
than the diameter of eye, which is 2f to 3^ in tlie length of 
head ; interorbital width 2^ to 2|. 26 or 27 scales in a 
longitudinal series. Dorsal 10 ; origin equidistant from 
middle or posterior part of operculum and base of caudal. 
Anal 11-12. Olivaceous; a blackish stripe round lower jaw- 
to eye, continued as a more or less distinct brownish stripe 
from eye to operculum ; a large black spot on dorsal fin. 

Guiana. 

1-2. 65-80 mm. Essequibo. Ehrhardt. 

3. 50 mm. Issorora, Brit. Guiana. Eigenmanu. 

4-5. 35-40 mm. Lama, „ „ „ 

2. Pt/rrhulina nattereri. 

? Holotaxis melanostomus, Cope, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. xi. 1871, 

p. 563. 
Pyrrhulina nattereri, Steiad. Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien, Ixxii. 1876, 

p. 13, pi. ii. tig. 5. 

Depth of body 5 in the length, length of head 4 J. Caudal 
peduncle nearly as long as head. Snout somewliat shorter 
than diameter of eye, which is 3^ in the length of head ; 
interorbital width 2^. 22 scales in a longitudinal series. 
Dorsal 9-10, elevated in the male, nearly reaching caudal 
when laid back ; origin equidistant from middle of operculum 
and base of caudal. Anal 10-11. Olivaceous; scales of 
back and sides dark-edged ; a small pale blue spot with dark 
margin at the posterior end of each scale on the side ; a dark 
stripe from upper part of eye round end of snout, another 
from eye round lower jaw, continued on body as a faint 
dusky band ; a large blackish spot on middle of dorsal fin, 
with red band below it. 

Amazon. 

1. 40 mm. Amazon. Arnold. 

This specimen is undoubtedly P. nattereri ; it agrees with 
the description of H. melanostomus in every way, except that 
the latter is said to have 25 scales, a number perhaps 
obtained by counting forward above the opercle or by 
including the scales on the caudal fin. 

3. Pyrrhulina semifasciata. 

■? Holotaxis lata, Cope, Proc. Acad. Pliilad. 1871, p. 257. 

Pyrrhulina semifasciata, Steind. Sitzungsb. Akad, Wien, Ixxii. 1876, 

p 7, pi. i. figs. 1, 2; Eigenm. it Eigenm. Proc. Calif. Acad. (2) ii. 

1890, p. 110. 



South-American Characid Fishes. 391 

? Pt/rrhulvm VKtxima, Eigenui, & Eigenui. t. c. p. 111. 

? Fi/rr/iuliiia lata, Fowler, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1906, p. 294, fig. 1. 

Depth of body 3|- to 4^ in tlie length, length of head 3| to 
4^. Caudal peduncle ^ to | the lengtii of head. Snout as 
long as or shorter than diameter of eye, which is 3 to 3f in 
the length of head ; interorbital width 2^ to 2|. 22 to 25 
scales in a longitudinal series. Dor.sal 10 ; origin equidistant 
from eye or postorbital part of head and base of caudal. Anal 
10-12. Scales sometimes with pale bases and dark margins. 
A dark stripe from lower jaw through eye, ending on anterior 
part of body ; sometimes a long dark median spot on back 
between head and dorsal fin and a smaller one just in front of 
dorsal fin ; a blackish spot on dorsal fin. 

Amazon; Guiana; (yolombia. 

1-4. 35-70 mm. Nickafaroo, Brit. Guiana. Eigenmanu. 

5-9. 45-55 mm. Christiansburg, Brit. Guiana. „ 

10-14. 40-85 mm. Holmia, Brit. Guiana. „ 

15-16. 45-55 mm. Honda, Colombia. Leighton. 

17. 50 mm. Bogota, „ Cutter. 

In these specimens the dark stripe usually runs on only 
2 to 4 scales of the body; in the larger ones it is continued 
backwards, as shown in Steindachner's figures ; in the 
smaller fish the mid-dorsal spots are absent. 

P. lata is evidently closely reUited to P. semifasciata, even 
if it be distinct. The saddle-shaped spot on the back would 
easily be formed by the increase in size of the two spots seen 
in P. semifascinta. 

P. maxima is based on a single specimen, and as described 
seems to differ from P. semifasciata only in the fewer scales ; 
but " the scales are partly lost, so an exact count is impossible.^' 

4. Pyrrhulina vittata, sp. n. 

Depth of body 3^ in the length, length of head 3f. 
Caudal peduncle | length of head. Diameter of eye o in 
the length of head, interorbital width 2. 20 scales in a 
longitudinal series. Dorsal 11 ; origin equidistant from 
prseoperculum and base of caudal. Anal 11. A dark stripe 
from lower jaw through eye, ending in a spot just behind 
head ; 3 blackish bars on body, the first above end of pectoial, 
the second running upwards from base of anal, the third in 
front of the caudal ; a blackish spot on dorsal fin. 

Amazon. 

1. 28 mm. (type). Obidos. Racbow. 



392 Mr. C. T. Regan— A Recision of 

5. Pyrrhulina australis. 

Pyrrhulina mistrale, Eigeum. & Kennedy, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1903, 
p. 508. 

Depth o£ body 3| to 4^ in the length, length of head 3| 
to 4^. Caudal peduncle i to | length of head. Snout 
shorter than diameter of eye, which is 3 in the length of 
head ; interorbital width 2 to 2^. 20 to 23 scales in a 
longitudinal series. Dorsal 10-11 ; origin equidistant from 
head and base of caudal or a little nearer to head. Anal 11-12. 
Olivaceous ; a blackish stripe from lower jaw to eye, usually 
continued as a brownish stripe on postorbital part of head ; 
a black spot on dorsal fin. 

La Plata ; Rio Grande do Sul. 

1-3. 30-40 mm. Colonia Eisso, Upper Paraguay, Borelli. 

4-5. 30 mm. Oarandasinho, Matto Grosso. „ 

6-11. 25-45 mm. Corumba, „ ,, Moore. 

12-14. 30-35 mm. Descalvados, „ „ Ternetz, 

15-16. 25-30 mm. Monte Sociedad, Chaco. „ 

17. 25 mm. R. Grande do Sul. Von Ihering. 

6. Pyrrltulina hrevis. 

Pyrrhulina brevis, Steind. Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien, Ixxii. 1876, p. 11, 
pi. i. figs. 3-4 ; Eigenm. & Eigeum. Proc. Calif. Acad. (2) ii. 1890, 
p. 111. 

Depth of body nearly equal to length of head, 3| to 4 in 
the length of the fish. Caudal peduncle | or | length of 
head. iSnout nearly as long as or even a little longer tlian 
diameter of eye, which is 3^ to 4 in the length of head; 
interorbital width 2^ to 3. 20 to 22 scales in a longitudinal 
series. Dorsal 9-10, moderately elevated; origin equi- 
distant from operculum and base of caudal, or a little nearer 
the former. Anal 11-12. Olivaceous ; a dark stripe from 
eye round lower jaw ; a dark spot on dorsal fin ; pelvic and 
anal fins with narrow blackisli edge. 

Amazon. 

1. 85 mm. Manaos, Sutton. 

3. COPEINA. 
Copeina, Fowler, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1906, p. 294. 

Differs from Pyrrliulina in the uniserial praemaxillary 
teeth. 



South- American Char acid Fishes. 39;^ 

Synopsis of the Species. 

I. Depth of body less than |- of the length ; caudal peduncle nearly as 
lonuf as head ; origin of dorsal fin well behind base of pelvics. 

A. Origin of dorsal fin nearer to base of caudal than to head. 

1. arnoldi. 

B. Origin of dorsal fin equidistant from head and base of caudal, or 

a little nearer head. 

21 scales in a longitudinal series 2. callolepis. 

23 or 24 scales in a longitudinal series 3. eigeninanni. 

26 scales in a longitudinal series 4. carsevennensis. 

II. Depth of body not less than \ of the length ; caudal peduncle 
considerably shorter than head. 
Origin of dorsal fin a little behind base of pelvics . . 5. gutiata. 
Origin of dorsal fin above base of pelvics 6. argyrops. 

1. Coptina arnoldi, sp. n. 

Deptli of body 4^ to 4f in the length, length of head 4| to 
5. Caudtvl peduncle nearly as long as head. Snout shorter 
than diameter of eye, which is 3^ in the length of head ; 
interorbital width 2\. 23 or 24 scales in a longitudinal 
series. Dorsal 10; origin nearer to base of caudal tlian to 
head. Anal 11. Olivaceous; a dark stripe from eye round 
lower jaw ; a blackish spot on dorsal tin. 

Amazon. 

1-2. 30-40 mm. (types). Amazon, Arnold. 

2. Copeina callolepis, sp, n. 

Pyrrhulina nattereri (non Steind.), Eigenm. & Eigenm. Proc. Calif. 
Acad. (2)ii. 1890, p. 112. 

Depth of body 4^ to 5 in tlie length, length of head 4^. 
Caudal peduncle nearly as long as head. Snout sliorter than 
diameter of eye, which is 3 in length of head ; interorbital 
width 2^ to 2^. 21 scales in a longitudinal series. Dorsal 
10 ; origin equidistant from head and base of caudal, or 
slightly nearer the former. Anal 11. Olivaceous; a dark 
stripe from lower jaw to eye continued as a dusky band on 
lower part of body ; a pale spot on each scale, except below 
the band ; a black spot on the dorsal fin. 

Amazon. 

1-2. 35-40 mm. (types). Amazon. Arnold. 

3. Copeina eigenmanniy sp. n. 
Depth of body 4:^ to 5 in the length, length of head 4 to 4^. 
Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. x. 27 



394 A RevUion of South- American Characid Fishes. 

Caudal peduncle nearly as long as head. Snout shorter than 
eye, the diameter of which is 3 to 4 in tlie length of head ; 
interorbital width 2^. 23 or 24 scales in a longiiudinal 
series. Dorsal 10 ; origin equidistant from head and base 
of caudal, or nearer head. Anal 11-12, originating a little 
behind end of dorsal. Olivaceous ; a dark stripe from lower 
jaw through eye to operculum ; a blackish spot on dorsal fin. 
Amazon ; Guiana ; Colombia. 

1-2. 25 mm. (types). Para. Eigenmann. 

S-9. 25 mm. „ R. Aruka, Brit. Guiana. ,, 

10. 27 mm. „ Lama, „ „ „ 

11-12. 35-45 mm. „ Bogota. Cutter, 

In the smaller examples there is sometimes an indistinct 
dusky band on the anterior part of the body and an indication 
of a pale stripe above the dark one on the head. In the 
larger ones, from Bogota, a silvery stripe from eye to caudal 
fin separates a broad dark band below from the dark colour 
of the back. 

4. Copeina carsevennensis, sp. n. 

Depth of body nearly equal to length of head, 4:^ to 4| in 
the length of the fish. Caudal peduncle nearly as long as 
head. Snout shorter than eye, the diameter of which is 2^ 
to 2| in the length of head ; interorbital width 2^. 26 scales 
in a longitudinal series. Dorsal 10; origin equidistant from 
head and base of caudal, or a little nearer head. Anal 11-12, 
commencing scarcely behind end of dorsal. Olivaceous ; 
a dark stripe from lower jaw through eye to operculum ; a 
black spot on dorsal tin, 

French Guiana. 

1-6. 25-33 mm. (types). Carsevenne. Paris Mus. (Coll. Geay). 

5. Copeina guttata. 

Pyrrhulina guttata, Steind. Sitzungsb. Akad. Wien, Ixxii. 1876, p. 15, 
pi. ii. fig. 6; Eigenm. & Eigenm. Proc. Calif. Acad. (2) ii. 1890, 
p. 112. 

Depth of body 3| to 4 in the length, length of head 4 to 4^. 
Caudal peduncle much shorter than head. Diameter of eye 
3^ in the length of head, interorbital width 2_^ to 2|. 23 or 
24 scales in a longitudinal series. Dorsal 10; origin a little 
behind base of pelvics. Anal 12. A silvery spot at the base 
of each scale ; a dark spot on dorsal fin. 

R. Amazon. 

Total length 70 mm. 



On Small Mammals from Central China. 31^5 

6. Copeina argyrops. 

Pyrrhulina argyrops, Cope, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. xvii. 1878, p. 694. 
Copeina argyrops, Fowler, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1906, p. 295, fig. 2. 

Very similar to C. guttata in form, coloration, &c., but 
witii the dorsal fin a little further forward, originating above 
base of pelvics. 

R, Maranon, Peruvian Amazon. 

4. POGONOCHARAX. 
Pogonocharax, Regan, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) xix. 1907, p. 261. 

Differs from Pyrrhulina in the toothless mouth and the 
presence of two pairs of barbels, prremaxillary and maxillary. 

1. Pogonocharax rehi. 
Regan, /, c. fig. 

Dorsal 8, above the anal. Anal 8. 25 scales in a longi- 
tudinal series. Maxillary barbel f as long as the fish. 
Argentina. 

1. 45 mm. (type). Argentina. Reh. 



LT. — On a Collection of Small Mammals from the Tsin-ling 
Mountains ,CentralChina, iiresented by Mr.G. Fenwick Owen 
to the JSational Museum. By Oldfield ThomaS. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

During the late summer of 1911 Mr. G. Fenwick Owen, to 
whom the National Museum already owed some valuable 
collections of mammals from French Gambia, made an 
exploring and collecting expedition into Central China, into 
Southern Shen-si and Kan-su, with the intention of exploring 
the mountain-ranges between those provinces and Eastern 
Tibet. Owing, however, to the breaking out of the recent 
revolution in China, Mr. Owen's party had to shorten their 
work and to come home through Tibet and Russia in Asia, 
by which route they were fortunately enabled to transport in 
safety such collections as they had made before the revolution 
broke out. 

The small mammals, which Mr. Fenwick Owen has now 
presented to the British Museum, were all prepared by his 

27* 



396 Mr. 0. Thomas on 

companion and interpreter, Dr. J. A. 0. Smith, wlio had 
already accompanied Mr. Malcolm Anderson into this region, 
and had also made collections on his own account, so that 
both country and fauna were well known to him. 

The collection consists of 68 specimens, belonging to 18 
species, of which 7 are new, thus again showing the richness 
and diversity of the fauna of this wonderful region. 

Of these by far the most striking is the new mole, Scapan- 
ttlns oweui, representing a new genus more allied to the 
American moles than to any previously known in Asia. 
Other valuable accessions are the Zapus, the Sicisia, and the 
new sinews of the new genera BlarinelJa and Chodslgoa. 

Mr. Fenwick Owen and Dr. Smith are to be congratulated 
on the amount of novelties yielded by the collection, which 
forms a most valuable supplement to the series obtained by 
Mr. Anderson during the Duke of Bedford's Exploration of 
Eastern Asia. 

1. Scapanulus oweni, gen. et sp. n. 

cJ. 59. 46milesS.E.ofTao-chou, Kan-su. Alt. 10,000'. 

(J. 72. 23 miles S.E. of Tao-chou. 9000'. 

** In mossy undergrowth in fir-forest." — J. A. C. S. 

Scapanulus, gen. nov. {Talpidw, subfam. Scalopinoi). 

Manus broadly expanded, nearly as much so as in the true 
moles, more so than in Scaptonyx. Claws rather slender for 
a mole ; those of hind foot thin, rather straight, except that 
of the hallux, which is curved. On both sides in both speci- 
mens the hallux is peculiarly twisted away from the other 
digits, but this may possibly be due to distortion in drying. 
Tail comparatively long and thickly haired. Skull about as 
in Urotnchiis, the pterygoid region less inflated and with 
better developed pterygoids than in Scapanus. Tympanies 
incomplete. Interparietal broad, less tapering forwards than 
in Uroti'ichus. 

Teeth ^x 2 = 36, these being apparently 

1. 1, C. \, PM. i, M. l 

As to the individual homologies of the teeth, I would 
tentatively suggest the following as the complete formula of 
the permanent dentition : — 

T ^-^'Q C, ^ PM ^■^■^■^ M ^-^^^. 

•*• 1 . 2. 0> ^ • 1) -•• ■^"' 1.0.3.4' ^^' 1.2.3 

In this the premolar formula is not very certain, since it 



Small Mammals from Ctntral China, 397 

may possibly be 1.2.0.4, as in the Urotrichus- Uropsilus 
series of genera ; but I am quite confident about the lower 
incisors, which are 1 . 2 . 0, as in Desmana and the American 
moles, as compared with 0.2.3 or 0.2.0 in Urotrichus^ 
Uropsilus, and tiieir allies. 

The most salient points of the dentition are : (1) the total 
number of 9 above and below, elsewhere only found in 
Neurotrichus, and (2) the Desmana-Mko, character of the 
lower incisors, which are subequal, strongly proclivous, the 
second equally with the first abutting upon and being worn 
down by the hinder surface of the huge anterior upper 
incisors. 

P large, about as large jn-oportionally as in Scalops and 
Urotrichus, therefore larger than in iScapanus, but very far 
from as large or as specialized as in Desmana and Galemys. 
P and p^ subequal, small, the canine between them rather 
larger, double-rooted. P^ of about tiie same length and 
twice the bulk of the canine ; p*' about four times the bulk of 
p^, with a well-marked internal cusp. Molars with their 
internal ledge subtrilobate, about as in Scapanus. 

Type. Scapanulus oweni, sp. n. 

Dividing, as I should, the family Talpidte into five sub- 
families — the Desmanince, Talpince, Scalopince, Condylurince, 
and Uropsi/ince — this most interesting new genus falls 
obviously into the ScaJopinte, within which it belongs rather 
to tiie Scalopine than the Urotriciiine series of genera. But 
with its rather less modified manus and pterygoids and com- 
paratively delicate skull it adds anotlier to the links which 
bind these two series of genera to each other. From Scaptonyx, 
the only allied genus geographically near it, it is at once 
separable by its more modified manus, fewer teeth, much 
laiger i^ , and its Desman-like lower incisors. 

Scapanulus oiceni, sp. n. 

Bulk about half that of TaJpa europwa. Colour of body 
exactly as in that animal, the lower surface almost imper- 
ceptibly lighter than the upper. Head rather paler. Hands 
pale brown above, with whitish edges. Feet brown proxi- 
mally, white on the digits. Tail long, thick, well-haired, 
grey-brown with rather lighter tip. 

Skull and teeth as described above. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in flesh) : — 

Head and body 108 mm. ; tail 38 ; hind foot 14. 

Skull : greatest length 28*2 ; condylo-basal length 27*5 ; 



398 Mr. 0. Thomas on 

greatest breadth 13 ; zygomatic breadth 10"6 ; iiiterorbital 
breadtli 5*5 ; palatal length 12'7 ; upper tooth-series 12*3 ; 
molars only 5' 2. 

Hah. as above. 

Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 12. 8. 5. 2. Original num- 
ber 72. Collected 31st October, 1911. 

I have great pleasure in naming this most interesting new 
mole in honour of Mr. Fenwick Owen, to whose interest and 
kindness the Museum owes this valuable accession to its 
collections. 

2. Sorex sinalis, sp. n. 

cJ. 8, 11, 12, 13, 16 ; ? . 5, 7, 14. 45 miles S.E. of 
Feng-siang-fu, Shensi. 10,500'. 

? . 71. 17 miles S.E. of Tao-chou, Kan-su. 8900'. 

" Rocky mossy mountain-top." — J. A. G. S. 

A large plain-coloured species, with a long tail. 

Size one of the largest of the genus. Fur about 5 mm. 
long on the back in summer specimens. General colour 
unitorm greyish brown, with scarcely any tendency to a 
tricolor pattern ; under surface drab-brown. Hands and feet 
brownish white. Tail long, slightly pencilled at the tip, 
brown above, lighter below. 

Skull large, with long muzzle ; brain-case not specially 
broadened. 

Unicuspids slightly but evenly decreasing backwards. 
Concavities behind molars well marked. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Head and body 70 mm. ; tail 55 ; hind foot 14. 

Skull : condylo-incisive length 21 ; condylo-basal length 
20*3; greatest breadth 9'6; upper tooth-row 9*1; front of 
i^ to front of p* 4*2 ; front of p'^ to back of m^ 4*5; breadth 
between outer corners of m^ 4"8. 

Uab. 45 miles S.E. of Feng-siang-fu, Shen-si. 

Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 12. 8. 5. 3. Original num- 
ber 8. Collected 10th August, 1911. 

This large but rather delicately built shrew has a decidedly 
longer skull than the other large Eastern plain-coloured 
species S. uvguiculatus and sJiinto. It has nothing of the 
remarkable development of tooth-pigment characteristic of 
S. daphcenodon. 

3. Sorex cansulus, sp. n. 

<J. 68. 15 miles S.E. of Tao-chou. 8500'. 

? . 56, 65. 46 miles S.E. of Tao-chou. 9800-10,000'. 



Small Mammals from Central China. 399 

S. annexus-centralis gioiip, paler than the former and 
without the lon<2^ muzzle of tlie. hitter. 

Size as in S. centralis. Fur of back about 4 mm. in 
length. General colour above greyish brown, about as in 
S. centralis, much greyer than in S. annexus^ which verges 
towards Proufc's brown ; sides in one specimen tinged with 
buffy, but no definite tricolor pattern present. No trace of a 
darker dorsal stripe. Under surface drab or broccoli- brown. 
Hands and feet brownish white. Tail dark brown above, 
lighter below. 

8kull slightly longer than in S. annexus^ its muzzle not 
specially lengthened as in S. centralis. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Head and body (J4 mm. ; tail 38 ; hind foot 12. 

Skull: condylo-incisive length 19'2 ; condylo-basal length 
IS'l ; greatest breadth 9; upper tooth-row 8 ; front of i^ to 
front of// 3'7 ; front oi p*^ to back of m^ 4; breadth between 
outer corners of m^ 4*6. 

J^ab. (of type). 46 miles S.E. of Tao-chou. 

Type. Adult female. B.M. no. 12. 8. 5. 13. Original 
number 56. Collected 23rd September, 1911. 

This species connects the Korean S. annexus with the 
Central-Asian S. centralis. It is much paler in colour than 
the former and has not the lengthened muzzle of the latter. 
While the skulls of all three are of about the same bulk, the 
muzzle, as measured from the front of jo* to the front of the 
large incisors, is in S. annexus 3'5 mm., S.cansulus 3'7 mm., 
and S. centralis 4*2 mm. 

4. Sorex wardi, Tho3. 

S. 42, 43; 45; ?. 46. 42 miles S.E. of Tao-chou. 
10,000'. 

cJ.58, 63, 64. 46 miles S.E. of Tao-chou. 10,000'. 

? . 29. 30 miles S.E. of Tao-chou. 9000'. 

In summer pelage. The type, which is in winter pelage, 
came from 10 miles S. of Tao-chou. 

5. Chodsigoa lamula, sp. n. 

^. 66. 40 miles S.E. of Tao-chou. Alt. 9500'. 1st 
October, 1911. B.M. no. 12. 8. 5. 22. Type. 

" Picked up on path in forest." — /. A. C. S. 

Allied to C. hypsibia,, but smaller. 

General proportions and comparative length of tail about 
as in C. hypsibia, but size decidedly less. Fur close and soft ; 
hairs of back about 3*5 mm. in leno-th. General colour above 



400 Mr. O. Thomas on 

" mouse-grey," scarcely paler below. Hands and feet white, 
a sliglitly darker shade edging the latter externally. Tail 
greyish above, glossy wliitish below. 

Skull smaller than in G. hypnibia, its interorbital region 
even lower and flatter than in that species. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in flesh) : — 

Head and body 67 mm.; tail 54; hind foot 13. 

Skull: condylo-basal length 18; condylo-incisive length 
18"7 ; greatest breadth (c.) 9 ; upper tooth-series 8*0 ; com- 
bined length of jo^-w^ 4*7. 

Hah. & Type as above. 

The species of Chodsigoa are all very closely allied, 
differing mainly by size and lengtli of tail. This is the 
smallest and shortest-tailed as yet described. 

6. BlarineUa griselda, sp. n. 

$.41. 42 miles S.E. of Tao-chou. 10,000'. 17th Sep- 
tember, 1911. B.M. no. 12. 8. 5. 23. Type. 

"On mossy bank, in biicli-wood.''^ — J. A. C. S. 

Smaller, greyer, and shorter-tailfd than B. quadraticauda. 

Size rather less than in quadraticauda. General colour 
above ''mouse-grey," rather paler and more drabby below. 
Hands, feet, and tail all dull greyish, not dark brown as in 
the allied species ; tail decidedly shorter than in that animal. 

Skull rather smaller th^nin quadraticauda. Second upper 
unicuspid evenly intermediate in size between the tirst and 
third — in quadraticauda the second nearly equals the tirst 
and is conspicuously larger than the third. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in flesh) : — 

Head and body 68 mm. ; tail 33; hind foot 11, 

Skull : condylo-incisive length 20 ; condylo-basal length 
18"6 ; greatest breadth 9'4 ; upper tooth-series 8'6 ; front of 
j9* to back of m'^ 4' 5. 

Hob. & Type as above. 

Tliis second species of the genus BlarineUa is easily distin- 
guishable from the Sze-chwan form by its smaller size, 
greyer colour, and shorter tail. 

7. Mustela astuta, M.-Edw. 

S . 40, 73. 25 and 40 miles S.E. of Tao-chou. 9000- 
9500'. 

The marked narrowness of the frontal region distinguishes 
this weasel from the Tibetan M. temon, Hodgs., which it 



Small Mammals front Central China. 401 

resembles very closely in external characters. The type was 
obtained by David at Moupin. 

The species had not previously been represented in the 
Museum collection. 

8, Eutamias asiaticus, Pall. 
J . 62. 46 miles S.E. of Tao-chou. 9800'. 

9. Apodemus speciosus penmsulw, Thos. 

cJ . 21, 22, 23, 24, 47, 53, 67 ; ? . 25. 15 to 46 miles 
S.E. of Tao-chou. 8500-10,000'. 

10. Microtus malcolmi, Thos. 

cJ. 10; ?. 6,9,15. 45 miles S.E. of Feng-siang-fu, 
Shensi. 10,500'. 

? . 19, 49. 40 to 46 miles S.E. of Tao-chou, Kan-su. 
9500'. 

11. Microtus oniscus, Thos. 

cJ. 18, 50; ?. 27, 31, 35, 36, 37, 38. 40 to 46 miles 
S.E. of Tao-chou, Kan-su. 9500'. 

12. Microtus {Caryomys) eva, Thos, 

S . 28, 32, 54, 55 ; ? . 17, 39, 57, 69, 70. 17 to 46 miles 
S.E. of Tao-chou. 8900-9500'. 

13. Myospalax smithii, Thos. 

$ (immature). 44. 40 miles S.E. of Tao-chou. 9000'. 
The second specimen known of this species. Thou oh 
immature, it already shows evidence of the cranial and dental 
characters distinguishing M. smithii from M. cansus. 

14. Sicista concolor, BUchn. 

$ . 30. 35 miles S.E. of Tao-chou. 9000'. 

? . 33. 44 miles S.E. of Tao-chou. 10,000'. 

The type locality of this species is the Alps of Si-ning, 
also in the province of Kan-su. No example of it had 
hitherto been in the Museum collection. 



402 On Small Mammals from Central China. 

15. Zapus (^Eozapus) setchuanus vicinus, subsp. n. 

cJ. 61; $.52 to 60. 46 miles S.E. o£ Tao-cliou, Kan-su. 
9800-10,000'. 

Similar to the Sze-cliwan form in essential characters, but 
with longer tail, entirely white belly without central line 
(one specimen with a few pale buffy hairs along tiie mesial 
line of the belly), and with the tail usually black above to 
the tip. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in flesh) : — 

Head and body 78 mm. ; tail 144; hind foot 28 ; ear 15. 

Skull : greatest length 23"2 ; condylo-incisive length 20 ; 
zygomatic breadth 12'7; nasals 9; interorbital breadth 4*2; 
palatilar length 8"7 ; palatal foramina 4*6 ; upper tooth- 
series 3*6. 

Bab. as above. 

Type. Adult female. B.M. no. 12. 8. 5. 62. Original 
number 52. Collected 22nd September, 1911. 

These are the first specimens of the Asiatic Zapus received 
by the British Museum, and, so far as I know, the first that 
have been obtained since the Paris Museum received the 
examples from Sze-chwan described by M. Pousargues. 
They are therefore a most acceptable addition to the Museum 
collections. 

The Kan-su form is evidently closely allied to tliat from 
Sze-chwan, but has a longer tail (12B, 137, and 144 mm. in 
three specimens as compared with 95, 10.}, and 120) and is 
practically without the ventral stripe characteristic of the 
latter. One specimen (no. 60) has a few of the mesial hairs 
of the abdomen washed with buffy, and this indicates the 
affinity of the two forms. In a similar way one specimen 
(no. 61) out of three has a white tail-pencil, like all three of 
the true setchuanus. 

16. Ochotona syrinx, Thos. 

S. 34. 42 miles S.E. of Tao-chou, Kan-su. 12,000'. 

The typical specimens were obtained at 10,600' on 
Mount Tai-pei-san, some 200 miles further east on the same 
mountain-chain. 

17. OcJwtona cansa, Lyon. 

(?. 48, 51; ? . 20. 40 to 46 miles S.E. of Tao-chou. 
9500-10,000'. 

These specimens are slightly darker in colour than examples 
from nearer Tao-chou, the type locality, and are tlierefore to 



On new Bats and Rodents from S. America. 403 

some extent intermediates between the true causa nnd the 
subspecies next following. 

18. Ochotona cansa morosa, aubsp. n. 

? . 4. Tai-pai-san, 45 miles S.E. of Feng-siang-fu, 
Shen-si. 10,500'. 4th August, 1911. B.M. no. 12. 3. 5. 68. 

Size slightly greater than in typical cansa. Colour darker, 
the hairs of the back more heavily blackened terminally. 
Under surface with all the hairs broadly washed with dark 
buffy, instead of, as in true cansa, only those of the middle 
line being so coloured, the sides of the belly being whitish. 
Hands and feet darker and more uniformly buffy above and 
more blackish below, the whitish fringes on eitlier side of the 
feet, so marked in cansa, less developed and dull buffy in 
colour, so that practically the whole of the sole appears 
sooty brown. 

Skull with rather more strongly convex frontal outline, 
broader interorbital space, larger brain-case, and broader 
palatal bridge than in any of the specimens of true cansa. 
In the type the projecting point representing the posterior 
part of the septum of the palatal foramina is more developed 
than usual, but this may be an individual peculiarity. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Head and body 149 mm.; tail 8; hind foot 27; ear 18. 

Skull : greatest length 36 ; condylo-incisive length 34*3 ; 
zygomatic breadth 18 ; nasals 11"2 X 4'4; interorbital breadth 
4'1 ; breadth of brain-case 14"2 ; palatal bridge 2'6 ; upper 
tooth-series (alveoli) 6*7. 

Hab. & Type as above. 

In its dull colour this Pika has some resemblance to the 
0. tihetana of Sze-chwan, but is smaller, with larger bullae 
and a more bowed frontal outline. Much more material is 
needed before the true relationship to each other of these 
allied forms of Ochotona can be clearly understood. 



LII. — New Bats and Rodents from 8. America. 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Cheer onycteris inca, sp. n. 

Nearly allied to Ch. minor, but the premolars shorter 
(horizontally) and the molars longer. 



404 Mr. O. Thomas on 

Fur of back about 6 mm. in length. General colour above 
of the usual dark brown, the bases of the hairs lighter, their 
tips blackish brown. Interfemoral membrane broad. 

Skull rather larger and broader than in Ch. minor. 
Upper premolars shorter, less excessively compressed laterally. 
Two anterior molars longer, narrower proportionally, the 
posterior lobe particularly elongate, and with a well-marked 
postero-external cusp, each of the teeth showing three distinct 
cusps when viewed from the side. Last molar and lower 
teeth about as in Ch. minor. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Forearm 33 mm. 

Head and body 62; tail 8; lower leg and foot 21 ; 
calcar 6*5. 

Skull : greatest breadth 8'5 ; interorbital breadth 4 ; 
front of canine to back of m^ 7*8 ; length of />^ 0*8, jt>* 0*0, 
m} 1-1, w2 1-1, jo^ 0-9, wi 1-0. 

llab. Yahuarmayo, S.E. Peru. Alt. 1200'. 

Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 12. 9. 5. 2. Original 
number 709. Collected 7th February, 1912, by H. and C. 
Watkins. One specimen. 

Taking as representing Peters's Surinam Ch. minor the 
skull from the Oupare River, Lower Tapajoz, so determined 
by Dobson (and there is a very strong Guianan cliaracter in 
the fauna of that part of the Amazon), the present bat from 
Peru differs in the proportional size of its teeth, but is other- 
wise closely similar to it. Tlie Trinidad bat described by 
Allen and Cliapman as Ch. t'ntertnedia is very probably the 
same as Ch. minor j as those authors were deceived by Peters's 
impossible measurement of 11 mm. for the calcar, an organ 
drawn as about 5 mm. long in the more recently published 
plate of the latter species (Chiropt. Mus. Berol. pi. viii. a). 

SCLERONYCTEEIS, g. n. {Glossophagince). 

Like Chceronycteris, but molars and premolars more normal 
in structure. 

External characters, general shape of skull *, and dental 
formula all as in Chceronycteris. Zygomata not ossified. 
Chin unusually prominent, projecting both forwards ajid 
downwards. Interfemoral membrane broad. 

Upper teeth. — Incisors comparatively large, the space be- 
tween the inner pair not greater than the diameter of one of 

* The only skull is imperfect in the pterygoid region, so that the 
relationship to Hylonycteris cannot be stated. That genus agrees with 
(Jhtironyderis in its dental characters. 



))ew Bats a)id Rodents from S. America. 4(»5 

these teeth. Outer pair slightly larger than inner. Pre- 
molars normal in shape and size, not of the peculiar narrow 
elongate shape of those of Chceronycteris, but evenly oval in 
outline, each with one main cusp and without anterior or 
posterior secondary cusps; the anterior about two-thirds the 
size of the posterior. Molars broader than in the allied 
genus^ their outer border straight, inner evenly convex ; the 
hinder of the two main cusps, which are seen in lateral view, 
pushed inwards by an external broadening tending in the 
direction of the usual W-shaped structure of ordinary 
Glossophagine bats ; but the anterior main cusp absolutely 
at the external edge of the tooth. 

Loioer teeth. — Incisors absent. Canines with well-marked 
posterior basal ledge. Premolars quite normal in shape, 
elongate oval in outline, increasing slightly in size from 
before backwards, nearly touching one another, therefore 
very different from the abnormal linear widely separated 
lower premolars of Chceronycteris, the anterior of which is the 
longest of the three. Lower molars nearly oval in outline, 
with something of the normal triangle in front and a broad 
deeply concave talon behind. 

Type : — 

Sderonycteris ega, sp. n. 

General external characters as in Chceronycteris minor. 
Colour above Prout's brown, paler at bases of hairs, blackish 
at tip. Under surface rather lighter, except on the chin and 
interramia, where the colour is as dark as on the back. 
Palate-ridges three undivided and five divided. Tail present, 
its tip appearing on the upper surface of the membrane. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in skin) : — 

Forearm 35 mm. 

Head and body 57 ; tail 6 ; third finger, metacarpus 34, 
first phalanx 14, second plialanx 18 ; lower leg and hind 
foot (c. u.) 20 ; calcar 7. 

Skull : greatest length (c.) 22 ; breadth of brain-case 9 : 
front of canine to back of m^ 7*4, greatest breadth between 
outer corners of m^ 4*8; horizontal length of ^* 0*9, px 0*7, 
p, 1-0. 

Bab. Ega, Amazons. 

Type. Adult female. B.M. no. 7. 1. 1. 671. Original 
number 171. Tomes's number 212 a. Collected by H. W. 
Bates. From the Tomes Collection. 

The type specimen has only recently had its skull extracted, 
so that its peculiar characters have not hitherto been 
observed. It is a most interesting form, as tending to 



406 Air. O. Thomas on 

connect the aberrant Chceronycteris a.x\i}i Hylonycteris with the 
more normal-toothed members of the Glossophagince. 

PhyUotis magister, sp. n. 

General characters of Ph. darwini ; size greater than in 
any other species of the genus. 

Size conspicuously greater than in Ph. darwini. Fur of 
medium length and thickness. General colour above grizzled 
drabby grey, with sligiit buffy suffusion. Under surface dull 
creamy whitish, the bases of the hairs slaty. Ears large, as 
in the allied sj^ecies ; pale brown. Hands and feet large and 
heavy, their upper surfaces white. Tail long, well haired, 
blackish brown above, wiiite below. 

Skull as in darwini, but conspicuously larger throughout. 
Supraorbital edges not very sharply ridged. 

Dimensions of the type, measured in the flesh : — 

Head and body 152 mm.; tail 158; hind foot 32; 
ear 29. 

Skull : greatest length 36*8 ; condylo-incisive length 34*2 ; 
zygomatic breadth 18*5; nasals ]5*3 ; interorbital breadth 
4*5 ; palatilar length 16*6 ; palatal foramina 9 ; upper molar 
series 6. 

Hah. Arequipa, Peru. Alt. 2300 m. 

Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 0. 10. 1. 31. Original num- 
ber 997. Collected 29th March, 1900, by Perry O. Simons. 
Presented by Oldfield Thomas. 

This fine species is represented by a single specimen caught 
at the same place as a number of examples representing the 
northern form of Ph. darwini^ a species in which the head 
and body length rarely exceeds 125 mm. and the skull 
length 33 mm. Its large molars and heavy rat-like feet also 
considerably surpass those of that animal. 

PhyUotis darivini 2^osticalis, subsp. n. 

Proportions about as in true darwini. Fur very long, 
summer specimens with the wool-hair of the back very thick, 
about 15 mm. in length. General colour dark, little buify, 
about as in typical Chilian darwini or in hitescens, therefore 
very different from the paler and more buffy forms inhabiting 
Southern Peru and the highlands of Bolivia. Tail rather 
longer than head and body, thickly hairy, the hairs practi- 
cally hiding the scales, blackish above, sharply contrasted 
white below. 

Skull as in true daruini, the teeth slightly larger. 



new Bats and Rodents from S. America. 407 

Dimensions of two specimens, measured in flesh; the first 
the type : — 

Head and body 117 and 125 mm. ; tail 122 and 135 ; 
hind foot 25 and 30; ear 27 and 26. 

Skull of type : greatest length 30'7 ; condylo-incisive 
length 28*1; interorbital breadth 4 ; palatilar length 13*6 j 
palatal foramina 7"2 ; upper molar series 5'3. 

Hah. Gal^ra, W. of Oroya, Department of Junin, Peru. 
Alt. 4800 m. 

Ti/pe. Aduh female. B.M. no. 0.7.7.38. Orioinal 
nuniber 870. Collected 26th February, 1900, by P. O. 
Simons. Presented by Oldfield Thomas. 

This is a dark well-haired mountain race of Ph. darivini\ 
a widely spread species which ranges over the whole Andean 
area from Central Peru at least as far south as Santiago and 
Valparaiso in Chili, whence the Museum owes a good series 
from our generous correspondent Mr. J. A. Wolffsohn. By 
its dark colour it resembles the southern forms and differs 
from the other Peruvian and Bolivian representatives of 
darioini, which are pale and may mostly be referred to the 
following subspecies. 

Phyllotis darioini Umatus, subsp. n. 

A pale race of Ph. darwini. 

Size as in true darioini. Fur fine and soft. General 
colour pale greyish drab with a variable suffusion of buffy ; 
the sides especially buflfy. Face clearer grey. Under 
surface dull creamy white. Ears large, pale brown. Hands 
and feet white. Tail not very heavily haired, brown above 
and white below, some specimens with an all-white tail- 

Skull as in true darwini. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in flesh) : — 

Head and body 115 mm. ; tail 150 (generally 130-135) ; 
hind foot 25 ; ear 28. 

Skull : greatest length 31*4 ; condylo-incisive length 29*2 ; 
zygomatic breadth 16; interorbital breadth 4'4; upper molar 
series 4'8. 

Hah. Chosica, near Lima, Peru. Alt. 850 m. 

Type. Old male. B.M. no. 0. 5. 7. 43. Original number 
820. Collected 29tii January, 1900, by Perry O. Simons. 
Presented by Oldfield Thomas. 

This northern representative of Ph. darwini is paler and 
has a longer tail than the typical Chilian form. Specimens 
referable to it are in the Museum from various parts of the 



408 Mr. 0. Thomas on 

liiglilands of Peru and Bolivia, including Caylloma, Arequipa, 
La Paz, &c. Further eastwards it probably grades into the 
form I named wolffsohni, which has, however, a rather 
differently shaped skull. 

Phyllotis darwini tucumanus, subsp. n. 

Proportions as in darwt'ni. Colour dark. Nasals narrow. 

Size about as in true darwini. Fur long and fine. 
General colour dark, about as in Ph. lutescens. Under 
surface dull soiled grey'sh buffy, less white than in most of 
the races of duriGini. Ears not very large. Hands and feet 
white. Tail rather longer than head and body, well haired, 
blackish above, white below. 

Skull slightly smaller than tliat of true darwini, rather 
larger than that of lutesceiis. Nasals comparatively narrow, 
tapering backwards to a fine point. Interorbital region 
narrow, its edges less sharply angular than usual. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in flesli) : — 

Head and body 107 mm.; tail ("two or three vertebrae 
lost") 110; liind foot 24; ear 22. 

Skull : greatest length 'SI ; condylo-incisive length 29'2; 
zygomatic breadth 15*8 ; nasals 13*5 ; interorbital breadth 4 ; 
palatilar length 14*5; palatal foramina 7"8 ; upper molar 
series 5*2. 

Ilab. Cunbre de Mala-mala, Sierra de Tucuman. Alt. 
3300 m. 

Ti/pe. AduU female. B.M. no. 4.10.2.6. Original 
number 3027. Collected 10th April, 1904, by E. Dinelli. 
Presented by Oldtield Thomas. Two specimens. 

The skull of this animal is somewhat intermediate between 
that of Ph. darwini and Ph. lutescens, but 1 consider it pro- 
visionally as being more allied to the former. No species of 
this group have been previously recorded from anywhere 
near Tucuman. 

Phyllotis darwini vaccarum, subsp. n. 

A mountain race of Ph. darwini, with long hair and 
yellowish rump. 

Size larger than in true darwini of the Central Chilian 
lowlands. Fur very long; hairs of back about 15 mm. in 
length. General colour paler than in true darwini, the upper 
surface suffused with buffy, especially on the rump, which is 
strong clear buffy. Face greyer. Under surface of the 
usual dull greyish white. Hands and feet white. Tail 
heavily haired, dark brown above, white below. 



new Bats and Rodents from S. America. 409 

Skull longer than in any of the available specimens of 
true darwini\ its interorbital region narrow, sharply edged, 
concave niesially. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in flesh) : — 

Head and body 130 mm.; tail 140; hind foot 28; 
ear 27. 

Skull: greatest length 34 ; condylo-incisive lengtii31*7; 
zygomatic breadth 17'5 ; nasals 13"7 ; interorbital breadth 4; 
palatilar length 16*2; palatal foramina 8'4; upper molai- 
series 5'8. 

IJab. Las Vacas, Argentine slope of Uordilleia opposite 
Mendoza. Alt. 2500 m. 

7ype. Old male. B.M. no. 2.2.5.51. Collected 15th 
November, 1901, by P. O. Simons. Presented by Oldtield 
Thomas. 

This Phyllods, found at the well-known station of Las 
Vacas, on the Andean route between Mendoza and Santiago, 
differs from the true Fli. darwini of the Chilian plains b}^ its 
rather larger size, longer skull, sharply edged interorbital 
region, long fur, and buffy-coloured rump. It was also 
obtained by Philip Gosse at Puente del Inca, about 9000', 
but there is no evidence as to whether these animals are able 
to surmount the Andean chaiti (altitude of pass 12,800') or 
whether the eastern and western races are now completely 
isolated. 

None of Philippi's numerous species of " J/ms " that are 
referable to PJiylhils dcmoihi are inhabitants of the high 
And'S. 

Phyllotis andium, sp. n. 

Like Ph. haggardi, but tail much longer. 

Size and general characters as in haggardi. Colour a 
little darker grey on the average, but the diiference is neitjier 
great nor constant. Under surface dull greyish white slightly 
tinged with buffy. Ears not immensely large, greyish 
brown. Hands and feet white. Tail considerably and 
uniformly longer than in haggardi, brown above, white 
below. 

Skull slightly larger and heavier than in haggardi, smaller 
thati that of darwini, with which it agrees in general 
proportions. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in flesh) : — 

Head and body 115 mm.; tail 119; hind foot 25 ; 
ear 21. 

Skull : greatest length 28*7 ; condylo-incisive length 2G-8 ; 

Ann. C& Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. x. 28 



410 Mr. 0. Thomas on 

zygomatic hreadth 15*2; nasals 11"3 ; inteiorbital breadth 
4-3 ; palatilar length 13'2 ; palatal foramina 7; upper molar 
series 4*4. 

Hah. Ecuador and Peru, along the Andean chain. Type 
from Canar, Ecuador. Alt. 2600 m. 

Type. Mvi\t male. B.M. no. 99.9.9.68. Original 
number 267. Collected 18th April, 1899, by P. 0. Simons. 
Presented by Oldfield Thomas. 

The numerous examples of this Phyllotis obtained by 
Mr. Simons in the mountains of Ecuador and Peru have 
been hitherto looked upon as referable to Ph. haggardly but 
additional specimens of the latter, received since its first 
description, show that it always has a comparatively short 
tail (85-90 mm.), while that oi Ph. andium is rarely less 
than 115 mm. in length. 

Euneomys mordax, sp. n. 

A large heavily built greyish species, with normal-sized 
claws. 

Size large, much larger than in the southern species 
E. chinchilloides and petersoni, more as in E. fossor. Fur 
long, thick, and woolly; hairs of back about 12-13 mm. in 
length. General colour dull greyish, too much faded in the 
type for exact description. Under surface lighter, not sharply 
detined, the hairs broadly washed with cream-buff. Ears of 
medium length, well-haired, the proectote blackish. Hands 
and feet dull greyish white above ; fore claws of normal 
length, not elongated as in E. fossor. Tail thickly haired, 
greyish white with an indistinct darker line above. 

Skull stout and heavily built, very like that of E. fossor 
and quite unlike that of the comparatively delicate E. chin- 
chilloides. The supraorbital edges are, however, less sharply 
angular than in E. fossor, the muzzle and palatal foramina 
are shorter, and the teeth are smaller. Incisors very broad 
and heavy, strongly grooved. 

Dimensions of tlie type (measured on the dry skin) : — 

Head and body (no doubt stretched) 147 ; tail (vertebrae 
dried in) 78 ; hind foot 28. 

Skull (old, with worn teeth) : condylo-incisive length 31 ; 
zygomatic breadth 20; interorbital breadth 4*7; breadth of 
brain-case 16; palatilar length 15"7 ; diastema 9; palatal 
foramina 7"6 ; upper molar series 6*1. 

Hab. Fort San Rafael, Province of Mendoza. 

Type. Old female. B.M. no. 55. 12. 24. 199. Collected 
by Mr. T. Bridges. 



new Bats and Rodents from S. America. 411 

Tn general proportions of body and skull this species 
resembles the Salta E. fossor, but is distinguished by its 
normal-sized claws, that animal having them elongated as in 
the subgenus Chelemys. 



Reithrodon cuniculoides jlammarum, subsp. n. 

A large pale race of R. cuniculoides. 

Size comparatively large, larger than in any other member 
of the genus. General colour pale, as in the typical race, 
much paler than in the inland forms hatcheri and ohscurus. 
Posterior back suffused with buffy. Sides with the buffy 
wash at a maximum, the flanks and under surface bright 
" buff." Feet and tail heavily haired, the latter with a well- 
defined dark line along its upper surface. 

Skull longer and more bowed than in the allied forms, so 
that the height is markedly greater. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 

Head and body 169 mm. ; tail 100 ; hind foot (s. u.) 34 ; 
ear 18. 

Skull : greatest length 37'4 ; condylo-incisive length 34"8 ; 
zygomatic breadth 21 ; nasals 16*7 ; interorbital breadth 4'4 ; 
height from anterior base of m^ 12"3 ; palatilar length 19 ; 
palatal foramina 11; upper molar series 6 4. 

Hah. Tierra del Fuego. Type from Spring-hill, in the 
north of the island. 

Type. Adultmale. B.M. no. 9. 9. 10. 1. Original number 
357. Collected 15th June, 1909, by Dr. W. H. France, and 
presented through Mr. J. A. WolfFsohn, of Valparaiso. 

The Tierra del Fuego Reithrodon seems to be rather 
larger than tiie typical form of Eastern Patagonia and is paler 
coloured than the two inland races described by Dr. Allen, 
R. c. ohscurus of Punta Arenas * and R. hatcheri of the 
Cordilleras farther north. How these two latter differ from 
each other is not clear, as each is simply diagnosed as being 
darker than R. cuniculoides. Dr. Allen has given the skull- 
length of a series of three cuniculoides as 33-35 mm., while 
tiie type skull of hatcheri is 35*7 in length. The Tierra del 
Fuego animal, with a skull-length of 37*4, is therefore 
markedly larger than either. 

* 'Pxoh?ih\j pachycephalus, Philippi, 1900, based on a young specimen : 
cf. Wolffsohn, Bol. Mus. Chile, ii. p. 101 (1910). 



28* 



412 Dr. F. Haas on new Shells 



LIII. — JS^ew Land and Freshwater Shells collected by Dr. J. 
Elhert in the Malay Archipelago. By Dr. F. Haas, 
Frankfuvt-a.-M. 

The collection upon which the present paper is based was 
made by Dr. J. Elbert in the islands of South Celebes, 
Moena, Boeton, Kabaena, Lonibok, Soembawa, Flores, and 
Wetar. It contained a considerable number of new species 
and subspecies, whicli are described below. The types are 
in the Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt-a.-M. 

(1) Xesta everetti elberti, subsp. n. 

Distinguished from typical X. everetti by its more conic 
form, more convex whorls, purple epidermis, and more opened 
umbilicus. 

Diani. maj, 47, diam. min. 40 mm. ; alt. 44 mm. 

Ty2'>e locality. Tongkok, Soembawa. 

Specimen examined 1. 

(2) liemiplecta [Rhysota] rugidosa, sp. n. 

Shell perforate, depressed conic, rather solid, striulate, with 
faint spiral lines and numerous elevated regular rugae ; some- 
wliat shining, yellowish to brown, with a light peripheral 
and a dark subperipheral band; whorls 5|, regularly in- 
creasing, the upper ones somewhat flattened, only with 
marked oblique rugae, the lower ones more convex, with less 
maiked oblique, and faint, somewhat undulating spiral lines ; 
last whorl very broad, not deflexed anteriorly ; suture im- 
pressed, submargined ; aperture oblique, ovate-lunate; peri- 
stome shaip, not expanded, coluniellar margin reflexed above 
the umbilicus. 

Diam. maj. 49, diam. min. 41 mm. ; alt. 35 mm. 

7ype locality. Mengkoka, S.E. Celebes. 

{>pecimens examined 8. 

(3) Xesta rugosissiina wetarana, subsp. n. 

This local form differs from typical X. rugosissima by its 
somewhat lower spire, more convex whorls, and by not being 
carinate at the periphery of the last whorl. 

Diam. maj. 29, diam. min. 24 mm. ; alt. 19 mm. 

Type locality. Tihoe, Wetar ; another specimen from 
Ilwaki, Wetar. 

Specimens examined 2. 



from the. Mala// Arcliipelaijo. -413 

(4) Ilemiplecta rasori, sp. n. 

Shell perforate, tliin, diaphanous, densely and obliquely 
striate above, with a few faint spiral strise, greyish brown, 
slightly striulate and shining below; spire low, conically 
globose, suture faint, appressed; whorls 5, rapidly increasing, 
the apical ones polished, the following ones flattened and 
scarcely striate, the last convex, densely striate, with an 
indistinct darker supraperipheral band, not descending ante- 
riorly ; aperture oblique, ovate; peristome faint, not ex- 
panded, coliimellar margin reflexed above the umbilicus. 

Diam. maj. 39, diam. min. 32 mm.; alt. 24 mm. 

T^pe locality. Raha, island of Moena, off S.E. Celebes. 

Specimen examined 1. 

(5) Uemiplecta demmeri, sp. n. 

Shell narrowly perforate, diaphanous, minutely and 
obliquely striate above, almost polished and shining below, 
covered with a very subtile green epidermis ; spire depressed 
conic, apex rather well marked ; whorls b\, regularly in- 
creasing, the upper ones somewhat flattened, the last very 
convex, not descending anteriorly; suture well impressed; 
aperture oblique, ovate ; peristome not thickened nor ex- 
panded, columellar margin leflexed above the umbilicus. 

Diam. maj. 33, diam. min. 27 mm. ; alt. 22 mm. 

Type locality. Tongkok, Soembawa; another specimen 
from Dompoe Plain, Soembawa. 

Specimens examined 2. 

; (()) Nanina irautij sp. n. 

Shell perforate, rather solid, densely and obliquely striate 
above, with a few faint spiral striae, light chestnut, slightly 
striulate and shining below, umbilicus dark chestnut ; spire 
depressed conic, apex distinctly marked ; whorls 6^, the 
upper ones flattened and rather polished ; the last scarcely 
defiexed anteriorly, convex, very striate, with a white peri- 
pheral band and a narrow dark chestnut one below it ; suture 
faint, appressed ; aperture narrow, ovate, peristome not 
thickened nor expanded, columellar margin partly covering 
the umbilicus. 

Diam maj. 31, diam. min. 26 mm..; alt. 20 mm. 

Type locality. Baoe-baoe, Boeton, off S.E. Celebes. 

Specimens examined 2. 



414 Dr. F. Haas on new Shells 

(7) Nanina hutonensis hageni, subsp. n. 

Distinguished from typical N. hutonensis by its higher 
spire, more convex whorls, chestnut-coloured umbilicus, and 
by the distinctly marked black peripheral band on the last 
whorl. 

Diam. maj. 33, diam. min. 28 mm. ; alt. 22 mm. 

Typa locality. Baoe-baoe, Boeton. 

Specimens examined 3. 

(8) Nanina hutonensis rarimaculata, subsp. n. 

Nearly related to typical N. hutonensis, but somewhat 
larger, with two peripheral bands on the last whorl which are 
not connected at the aperture, and tlie last whorl above the 
upper band densely spotted with black; umbilicus dark. 

JJiam. maj. 36, diam. min. 30 mm. ; alt. 21 mm. 

Type locality. Lipoemangaoe, S.E. Boeton. 

Specimens examined 4. 

(9) Everettia iridescens, sp. n. 

Shell small, moderately umbilicated, thin, corneous, 
shining and iridescent, very minutely striate above and 
below; spire much depressed, apex blunt, suture rather deep; 
whorls 5j, rounded at the periphery, somewhat flattened 
above and below, regularly increasing; last whorl not 
descending anteriorly; aperture oblique, lunate; peristome 
thin, not tliickened nor expanded ; columellar margiu some- 
what reflexed upon the umbilicus. 

Diam. mjij. 8"5, diam. min. 7*5 mm. ; alt. 4 mm. 

Type locality. Swela, island of Lombok, 

Specimens examined 2. 

(10) Trochomorpha (^Videna') sterni^ sp. n. 

Shell widely umbilicated, acutely keeled, thin, minutely 
and regularly striate above and below, pale corneou-^, with a 
dark chestnut, narrow band both above and below the keel; 
spire depressed, apex obtuse ; whorls 5^, regularly increasing, 
rather flattened below, the last obtusely angulated round the 
deep umbilicus, not descending anteriorly; suture very faint, 
appressed ; peristome thin, columellar margin not reflexed. 

Diam. maj. 15*5, diam. min. 13'3 mm. ; alt. 5'5 mm. 

Type locality. Tihoe, island of Wetar. 

Specimen examined 1. 



from the Malay Archipelago. 415 

(11) Trochomorpha (Videna) grundleri, sp. n. 

Shell widely umbilicated, acutely keeled, thin, minutely 
and densely striated above and below, the stiiai decussated 
below by faint undul.ited spiral lines ; pale corneous, with a 
broad chestnut band both above and below the keel, shining ; 
spire rather depressed, apex obtuse but distinctly marked ; 
whorls 5^, regularly increasing, the last obtusely angulated 
round the umbilicus, not descending anteriorly ; suture faint, 
somewhat appressed ; peristome thin, columellar margin not 
reflexed. 

Diam. maj. 11, diam. min. 10 mm. ; alt. 5 mm. 

Ti/pe locality. Swela, island of Lombok ; some more 
specimens from Sadjang, island of Lombok. 

Specimens examined 6. 

(12) Chloritis planorhijia, sp. n. 

Shell discoid, widely umbilicated, thin, brownish corneous, 
with a slight trace of a darker band near the suture, paler 
below, finely striated; spire somewhat impressed; whorls 4|, 
the first ones increasing regularly, the last almost suddenly, 
slightly dilated towards the aperture, descending distinctly in 
front ; aperture somewhat oblique, subovate ; peristome thin, 
slightly reflexed, reddish, whitish at the columellar margin; 
the latter slightly overhanging the umbilicus. 

Diam. maj. 24, diam. min. 19*5 mm.; alt. 11*5 mm. 

Type locality. Hoembia, S.E. Celebes. 

Specimens examined 2. 

(13) Amphidromus wetaranus, sp. n. 

Shell oblong-conic, sinistral, nearly imperforate, solid ; 
whorls 6^, rather convex, pale yellow, with oblique greyish- 
purple stripes showing a tendency to break up and to form 
spira ^bands; apex obtuse, dark brown; aperture very high ; 
peristome slightly expanded and reflexed, whitish and shining 
inside. 

Long. 37, diam. 18 mm. 

Type locality. Tihoe, island of Wetar. 

Specimen examined 1. 

(14) Clausilia [Pseudonenia) simillima kabaencB, subsp. n. 

Nearly allied to typical CI. simillima, but easily distin- 
guished from it by its smaller size and by its mouth being 



416 Dr. F. Haas o)i new Shells 

mucli more elliptical and not so high as in specimens of the 
typical form. 

Long. 18'5, diam. 3*5 mm. 

Ti/pe locality. Kabaena Island, off S.E. Celebes. 

Specimens examined 6. 

(15) Prosopeas elberti, sp. n. 

Shell very high, imperforate, subsolid, finely striated, 
pale corneous; spire high conic, turreted^ apex very blunt ; 
whorls 10^, the upper ones somewhat convex, the others 
nearly flat, gradually increasing in breadth; suture incised; 
aperture piriform, rather acute above, effuse basally ; peri- 
stome sharp, not reflexed, terminations connected by a flat 
shining callus, columellar margin whitish, somewhat 
thickened. 

Long. 36*5, diam. 10 mm. 

Type locality. Sadjang, Lombok. 

Specimen examined 1. 

(16) Prosopeas hasta, sp. n. ' 

Shell Imperforate, cylindric-turreted, densely and minutely 
striated, whitish corneous ; spire very high and slender, apex 
obtuse, suture rather deep, impressed; wliorls IO5, the upper 
ones somewhat convex, the others more flattened ; aperture 
nearly vertically, narrowly piriform, acute above; peristome 
thin, columellar margin thickened, reflexed. 

Long. 16, diam. 4*5 mm. 

Type locality. Svvela, Lombok; some more specimens from 
Sadjang, Lombok. 

Specimens examined 3. 

(17) Limncea javanica elbertce, subsp. n. 

Distinguished from typical L. javanica by its higher spire, 
less convex whorls, and enormous fragility. 
Long. 27, diam. 14"5 mm. 

T'ype locality. Swamps of Sembaloen Plain, Lombok. 
Specimens examined 135. 

(18) Limna^a javanica nana, subsp. n. 

A dwarfed solid form of L. javanica, with flattened whorls 
and thickened, reflexed peristome. 
Long. 11, diam. 6 mm. 

Type locality. Rapids of Kali Poetih River, Lombok. 
Specimens examined 26. 



from the Malay Archipelago. 417 

(19) Planorhls {Gijraulis) elberti, sp. n. 

Siiell discoidal, rather tliin, seinitransparent, pale lioni- 
colour ; spire somewhat concave; whorls 5^, rapidly in- 
creasing, densely striated, the last obtusely carinatcd at its 
periphery ; suture deeply impressed ; base of shell concave; 
aperture somewhat rhomboidal, a little broader than high, 
rounded above and below, angulated laterally ; peristome 
thin, acute. 

Diam. maj, 7*5, diam. min. 6"5 mm. ; alt. 1*75 mm. 

Type locality. Swamps of Sembaloen Plain, Lombok ; some 
more specimens from Sadjang, Lombok. 

Specimens examined 47. 

(20) Cyclotus discoideus, sp. n. 

Shell very depressed-conic, nearly discoid, widely umbili- 
cated, solid, faintly and densely striated above and below, 
pale horn-colour, marbled with dark brown, and with a 
narrow dark subperipheral band ; apex obtuse ; whorls 4|^, 
regularly increasing, the last slowly descending anteriorly ; 
suture well impressed ; aperture circular, somewhat oblique ; 
peristome double, the inner margin simple, the outer thickened 
and somewhat expanded. 

Diam. maj. 18"5, diam. min. 15 mm. ; alt. 11 mm. 

Type locality. Kabaena Island, off S.E. Celebes. 

Specimens examined 17. 

(21) Cyclophoras loetaranus, sp. n. 

Shell somewhat depressed-conic, umbilicated, solid, very 
faintly striated above, nearly smooth below, pale to dark 
horn-colour, with very indistinct darker markings and a 
narrow dark subperipheral band; apex obtuse; whorls 5, 
regularly increasing, the last swollen, somewhat descending 
anteriorly ; suture distinctly impressed ; aperture circular, 
somewhat oblique ; peristome somewhat thickened, slightly 
expanded, with a slight whitish callus inside. 

Diam. maj. 14, diam, min. 11 mm. ; alt. 11*5 mm. 

Type locality, llwaki, Wetar ; other locality, Tihoe, 
Wetar. 

Specimens examined 9. 

(22) Lagochilus tricarinatus, sp. n. 

Shell conic, umbilicated, solid, with a strong peripheral 
and a faint keel both above and below it, finely striated, horn- 



418 Dr. F. Haas on nero Shells 

colour, with dark undulating oblique striae between the suture 
and tiie uppermost keel ; apex distinctly marked ; wliorls 6, 
rapidly increasing, the last somewhat descending anteriorly; 
suture well impressed ; aperture oblique, circular ; peristome 
somewhat thickened and expanded, the margins connected 
by a faint columellar callus. 

Diam. maj. 7, diam. min. 6"25 mm. ; alt. 6'5 mm. 

Type locality. Kabaena Island. 

Specimen examined 1. 

(23) Leptopoma celehesianum concoloi'j subsp. n. 

Smaller than typical L. celehesianum^ wider umbilicated, 
extremely fine sculptured, and of a uniform whitish colour. 
Diam. maj. 8*5, diam. min. 7 mm. ; alt. 8"25 mm. 
Type locality. Mengkoka, S.E. Celebes. 
Specimen examined 1. 

(24) Vivipara javanica soembawana^ subsp. n. 

Differs from typical V. javanica by its more globular 
general form, lower spire^ and more convex whorls. 
Diam. maj. 18, diam. min. 16 mm. ; alt. 23 mm. 
Type locality. Dompoe, Soembawa. 
Specimen examined 1. 

(25) T ivipara javanica lomhocensis, subsp. n. 

This local form is strikingly similar to V. javanica borneensisf 
Kob., from whicii it is distinguished by its smaller size, lower 
spire, better impressed suture, and more convex whorls. 

Diam. maj. 17'5, diam.*min. 15 mm. ; alt. 23 mm. 

Type locality. Bajan, Lombok. 

Specimens examined 16. 

(26) Neritina {Clithon) soembaioanaj sp. n. 

Shell semiglobose, very solid, densely striated or rugose, 
without spines, greyish brown to dark brown, dull, often very 
indistinctly marbled; last whoil distinctly shouldered ; aper- 
ture white or yellowish white ; columellar area rather smooth, 
columellar edge finely dentate and with a blunt tooth in its 
upper part. 

Diam. 20'5, alt. 17 mm. 

Type locality. Bima, Soembawa. 

Specimens examined 19. 



from the Malay ArcMpelago. 419 

(27) Neritina [Neritina) wetarana, sp. n. 

Shell semigiobose, very solid, densely and minutely 
striated, light brown with an irregular black network pattern, 
or a nearly unit'ortn black with small yellow markings ; apex 
distinctly marked; aperture bluish white; columellar area 
smooth, polished. 

Diam. 20, alt. 19 mm. 

Type locality. Ilvvaki River, near Ilmedo, Wetar. 

Specimens examined 19. 

{28) Septaria elberti, sp. n. 

Shell oviform, rather rounded anteriorly, somewhat pointed 
behind, moderately inflated, rather solid ; apt x very distinctly 
projecting beyond the posterior margin, worn away below ; 
epidermis light to dark brown, with narrow, oblique, dark 
bands showing the tendency to form a network laterally and 
posteriorly ; septum rather broad, with a distinctly convex 
margin ; inside uniformly bluish white. 

Ler.gth 24*5, breadth 20, height 8 mm. 

Type locality. Kali Spi, Flores; some more specimens 
from an unnamed locality in Flores. 

Specimens examined 7. 

(29) Tarehia celebensis hoetonensis, subsp. n. 

Distinguished from typical T. celebensis by its much more 
conic spire, more convex last whorl, and by the sculpture 
showing nodules only on the upper part of the whorls. 

Length 24, diam. 9*5 mm. 

Type locality, Lipoemangaoe, S.E. Boeton. 

Specimens examined 13. 

(30) Plotia scalra suhlcevisy subsp. n. 

A slender, high conic, and nearly smooth form of P. scahra, 
related to von Martens's P. scabra mutica, but distinguished 
from it by its higher whorls, by a very indistinct angle on 
the uppermost portion of the last two whorls, and by its high, 
narrow, piriform aperture. 

Length 26, diam. 11 mm. 

Type locality, Sadjang, Lombok. 

Specimens examined 12. 

(31) Melanoides striatissi'mus, sp. n. 
Shell high conic, solid, light brown to black, often with 



420 Mr. G. A. Boulenger on 

very distinct marks of growth ; whorls 9^, the upper ones 
smooth, somewhat flattened, the last three with numerous 
elevated spiral ledges, rather convex, especially the last ; 
suture moderately impressed ; aperture piriform, greyish 
white inside ; columella somewhat bent in. 

Length 32*5, diam. 12 mm. 

T^pe locality. Kabaeua. 

{specimens examined 23. 

(32) Melanoides crepidinatus ventricosulus, subsp. n. 

Distinguished from typical J/, crepidinatus by its more 
slender general form and by its much more convex last 
whorls ; adult specimens are always decollated. 

Typ>e locality. Mengkoka, S.E. Celebes. 

Specimens examined 2^. 

(33) Melanoides tuberculatus nudatus, subsp. n. 

A high smooth form of 31. tuberculatus, nearly related to 
M. tuberculatus seminudus, Marts., but easily distinguished 
from it by its more convex whorls, deeply impressed suture, 
pointed apex, and by the nearly complete lack of spiral 
sculpture. 

Length 34, diam. 12 mm. 

Type locality. Segare Anak, Lombok. 

Specimens examined 45. 



LI V. — Descriptions of new Reptiles from the Andes of South 
America J preserved in the British Museum, l^j G. A, 
Boulenger, F.R.S. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Tropidurus holotropis. 

Upper head-scales large, keeled ; a series of four trans- 
versely enlarged supraoculars, more than half as broad as 
the supraocular region ; occipital very large, as long as 
broad ; anterior border of ear scarcely deuticulated. A strong 
transverse gular fold ; side of neck with imbricate keeled 
scales, directed backwards and upwards. Body moderately 
depressed ; a vertebral crest, well developed on the nape, 
gradually decreasing in height on the body ; dorsal scales 



neio Reptiles from the Andes. 421 

rather large, strongly keeled and mucronate, the keels 
directed obliquely towards the vertebral line ; ventral scales 
smaller, also strongly keeled ; 4i) scales round the middle ot" 
the bod3^ The adpressed hind limb reaches the eye. Tail 
cylindrical, without crest, covered with unequal-sized scales, 
the largest of which are smaller than the dorsals. Dark 
brown above and on the throat ; small black spots on the 
back and on the hind limbs ; a large, black, light-edged spot 
at the angle of the mouth ; gular fold white in front, black 
behind ; fore liml) pale grey^ with black bars ; belly 
brownish. 

mm. 

Total length 260 

Head 19 

Width of head 18 

Body 56 

Fore limb , 43 

Hind limb 60 

Tail 185 

A single specimen from Alpayaca, Rio Pastaza, E. Ecuador, 
3600 feet, from the collection of Mr. M. G. Palmer. 

Ptychoglossus hrevi frontalis. 

Head short ; snout subtruncate. Frontonasal broader than 
long ; prasfrontals forming a short suture ; frontal not longer 
than broad, but slightly longer than the frontonasal or the 
frontoparietals ; interparietal nearly as broad as the parietals ; 
no occipitals ; a small loreal ; seven upper labials, third very 
long; hve lower labials ; chin-shields very large, one anterior 
and three pairs, the first two pairs in contact on the median 
line. Gular scales squarish, in 7 transverse series ; collar 
formed of 7 shields. Dorsal scales in 24 longitudinal and 
33 transverse series; ventrals a little longer than broad, in 8 
longitudinal and 18 transverse series. Four prgeanals, median 
pair the larger. The hind limb reaches the wrist, the fore 
limb between the ear and the eye; scales on limbs smooth. 
14 femoral pores on eacii side. Brown above, mottled with 
black ; an interrupted yellowish streak on each side, from 
above the eye to the tail ; below it a black streak, broken up 
into spots towards the middle of the body ; lower parts white. 

mm. 

Head 12 

AVidth of head 10 

From end of snout to fore limb 22 

„ „ vent 65 

Fore limb 15 

Hind limb 24 



422 Mr. G. A. Boulenger oi 

A single specimen from El Topo, Rio Pastaza, E. Ecuador, 
4200 feet, from the collection of Mr. M. G. Palmer. 

LeptognatJius palmeri. 

Body slender, strongly compressed. Eye large. Rostral 
broader than deep, just visible from above ; internasals nearly 
half as long as the praefrontals ; frontal slightly broader than 
long, shorter than its distance from the end of the snout and 
than the parietals ; nasal divided ; loreal a little deeper than 
long, bordering tiie eye, with a pra^ocular above it ; two post- 
oculars ; temporals 2 + 3; nine upper labials, fourth, fifth, 
and sixth entering the eye; first lower labial in contact with 
its fellow behind the symphysial ; three pairs of chin-shields, 
ajiterior longer than broad. Scales in 15 rows, vertebrals 
enlarged but longer than broad. Ventrals 187 ; anal entire; 
subcaudals 120. Reddish brown, with broad blackish-brown 
annuli, edged with yellowish, on the anterior part of the 
body ; further down these annuli are gradually replaced by 
pairs of large alternating spots which approximate on the 
vertebral line but are widely separated on the belly ; head 
blackish brown, with yellowish-white bars on the labial 
shields and a few light dots on the loreal and temporal 
regions. 

Total length 950 ; tail 310 mm. 

A single male specimen from El Topo, Rio Pastaza, 
E. Ecuador, 4200 feet, from the collection of Mr. M. G. 
Palmer. 

Allied to L. aJternans, Fisch. Distinguished by the shorter 
frontal, the divided nasal, and the absence of a lower pr^- 
ocular. Distinguished from L. holiviana, Werner, from 
Bolivia, by the shorter frontal and the presence of two super- 
posed anterior temporals. 

Leptognathus polylepis. 

Body slender, rather strongly compressed. Eye large. 
Rostral broader than deep, scarcely visible from above ; 
internasals nearly half as long as the prefrontals ; frontal as 
long as broad, a little longer than its distance from the end 
of the snout, much shorter than the parietals; nasal divided ; 
loreal as long as deep, bordeiing the eye, with a praeocular 
above it; two postoculars ; temporals 2 + 3; nine upper 
labials, fourth, fifth, and sixth entering the eye ; first lower 
labial in contact with its fellow behind the symphysial ; 
three pairs of chin-shields, anterior a little longer than broad. 



new Reptiles from the Andes. 42a 

Scales in 19 rows, vertebrals not enlarged. Ventrals 199 ; 
anal entire ; subcauJals 91. Black, witli narrow, vvliitisli, 
black-spotted cross-bars above, widening or bifurcating on 
the sides ; a few whitish spots on the upper lip, behind the 
eye; belly lineolate with white. 

Total length 950 ; tail 240 mm. 

A single female specimen from Huancabamba, E. Pern, 
above 3000 feet, from the collection of Mr. E. Boettger. 

Allied to L. altemans, Fisch. Distinguisiied from all the 
species of the genus by the number of rows of scales. 

Lackesis pleuroxanthus. 

Head short, cordiform ; snout turned up at the end, with 
sharp canthus. Rostral a little deeper than broad ; nasal 
divided; upper head-scales small, feebly imbricate, smooth 
on snout and vertex, feebly keeled on occiput, larger and 
more decidedly keeled on temples ; supraocular large, sepa- 
rated from its fellow by 8 series of scales; internasals sepa- 
rated by a pair of apicals ; two or three series of scales 
between the eye and the third and fourth upper labials ; loreal 
pit separated from the upper labials ; latter 7. Scales rather 
feebly keeled, in 23 rows. Ventrals 144 ; anal entire ; sub- 
caudals 49 pairs. Tail not prehensile. Greyish above, 
bright yellow on the sides, which bear A-shaped dark grey 
markings, some of which meet on the back, each branch 
terminating in a black spot ; a dark streak, light-edged above, 
from the eye to the angle of the mouth ; sides and lower 
surface of head bright yellow, without spots ; belly closely 
mottled with blackish, with a series of large black spots on 
each side. 

Total length 350 ; tail 55 mm. 

A single female specimen from Alpayaca, Rio Pastaza, 
E. Ecuador, 3G00 feet, from the collection of Mr. M. G. 
Palmer. 

Closely allied to L. microphthalmu.i^ Cope. Distinguished 
by the larger eye, the shorter body, and the feebly keeled 
scales. 

Lacliesis chloromefas. 

Snout rounded, with sharp canthus. Rostral as deep as 
broad; nasal divided; upper head-scales keeled; a large 
supraocular ; 5 or 6 longitudinal series of scales between tlie 
supraoculars ; small frontal and parietal shields sometimes 
present ; two series of scales between the eye and the third 
and fourth upper labials ; temporal scales strongly keeled ; 



424 Mr. H. Scott on 

7 upper labials, second forming the anterior border of tlie 
loreal pit. Scales strongly keeled, in 23 or 25 rows. Ven- 
trals 178-187; anal entire; subcaudals 41 ( ? ) -63 ((^), 
partly single, partly in pairs. Tail preliensile. Yellowish 
green above, speckled with black, with large black irregular 
spots, some of which may form cross-bars ; the spots very 
large on the top of the head, separated by narrow lines of 
the ground-colour forming symmetrical markings ; a broad 
black band on each side from the eye to the angle of the 
mouth ; lower parts greenish yellow, speckled or spotted 
with black ; end of tail bright yellow. 

Total length 740; tail 110 mm. 

Three specimens from Huancabamba, E. Peru, above 
3000 feet, from the collection of Mr. E. Boettger. 

Closely allied to L. peruvianus, Blgr. ; distinguished by the 
rounded snout without raised canthus, the presence of two 
series of scales between the eye and the labials, and the very 
different coloration. 



LV. — A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Fauna of 
Bromeliaceffi. By Hugh Scott, M.A. (Cantab.), F.L.S., 
r.E.S., Curator in Entomology in the University of 
Cambridge. Including Descriptions of new Insects by 
W. L. Distant, F.E.S., and the late R. Shelford, M.A., 
F.L.S. 

[Plate X.] 

The fauna inhabiting the spaces between the bases of 
leaves of Monocotyledonous plants in the tropics oft'ers for 
investigation a fascinating field, in which that of the 
Bromeliacese is pre-eminent in its interest. The curious 
funnel-like form and closely fitting leaf-bases of these plants, 
adapting them for the holding of water and oi'ganic detritus, 
their distribution throughout the richest parts of the 
Neotropical Region, their vast numbers of individuals and 
frequent epiphytic habit, all lead to the expectation that 
they may contain a rich and interesting series of animal 
forms. 

In a recent article ^ on " les Bromeliacees epiphytes 

* C. 11. Ac. Sci., tome cliii. no. 20, 1911, p. 960 : this article also 
contains interesting remarks on the means by which Bromeliacea3 luay 
have become peoi^led by their fauna, &c. 



the Fauna of l)iomeliacea?. 425 

comme milieu biologique," Monsieur C. Picado has likened 
the Bronicliaceiie and their contents taken as a whole to 
*'iin grand mareoage fraetionne, etendu dans toute I'Am^ri- 
que iiitertropicale." Tiie bromeliad marshes, he writes, 
are ver}' different from terrestrial marshes, owing to their 
arboreal situation, restricted area, conditions of lighting, &c, ; 
they are supplied not only with rain-water, but also with 
water condensed daily from the atmosjjhere, and so they 
may continue to contain water even at seasons when terres- 
trial marshes are dried up; substances do not undergo a 
real putrefaction in Bromeliacese *, but the water in them is 
exceptionally pure. Dr. Ohaus also mentions (Stettin, cut. 
Zcit. 1900, p. 211) that the water in bromeliads does not 
disappear even in the dry season^ and even in places where 
sometimes rain does not fall for months. From this it can 
be seen that the fauna is likely to be largely amphibious or 
aquatic in nature. 

Professor P. P. Calvert, who has given much time to the 
study of the bromeliad fauna in Costa Rica, has published 
several articles on the subject, dealing particularly with the 
bromeliadicolous Odonate larvae. Previously to his researches 
nothing Avas known of the early stages of the remarkable 
dragonflies of the genus }Jecistogaster, the larvae of which 
are among the most interesting of the bromeliad dwellers. 
In one paper he states that various forms of animal life are 
found in tlie Bromeliaceae in many localities, i. e. at very 
different elevations and consequently under very different 
climatic conditions: "cockroaches, earwigs, katydid-like 
insects, larvse of beetles, of moths, of flies and of mosquitos, 

ants , snails, earthworms, scorpions, both true and 

false, centipedes, and even snakes of poisonous repute are 
connnon drome/iadlco/i which we met in oiir examinations ^^f. 
In another article is given a long list J of the creatures 
found in a single clump of Bromeliacece near Juan Villas, 
a list which includes Odonate larvse, a scurpion and a 
pseudoscorpion, Phalangids, Coleoptera and Coleopterous 
larvae of many kinds (including Ilydrophilidse, Elateridse, a 
Lampyrid, an Endomychid, a weevil, &c.), Lepidopterous 
and Dipterous larva?, two Heteropterous bugs, an earwig, an 

* See .1 second article bv Picado, C. R. Ac. Sci., tome cliv. no. 9, 1912, 
p. n07. 

t From 'Old Penn,' Weekly Review of the University of Penn- 
sj'lvania, ix. no. 6, pp. 105-170 (1910) : an extract is given by Champion 
ill Ent. Mo. Mag. xxii. 1911, p. 17. 

X Ent. News Philad. xxii. 1911, pp. 402-11 : the list referred to above 
is quoted t'n extenso in Ent. Rec. xxiv. 1912, p. 76. 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol x. 29 



426 Mr. H. Scott on 

ant, &c. In another place in the same paper (p. 407) 
spiders, slugs, and planarians are mentioned as being fonnd 
in Bromeliacese ; and (on p. 411) Morton is cited as writing 
(in litt) that Fritj^ Muller once sent him cases of caddis-fly 
larvffi found in epiphytic bromeliads in the primseval forests 
of Southern Brazil.^ 

To quote again 'the work ^ of Dr. Ohaus : in Brazil he 
found that large Bromeliacese, growing both on trees and 
on steep rock-faces, were rich hunting-grounds, containing 
beetles (particularly Tenebrionidse), many kinds of spiders, 
mvriapods, Peripatus, and numbers of Blattidse. In the 
water in the bromeliads he frequently found tree-frogs, 
which deposit their spawn there ; and he considers this not 
an exceptional but a normal habit, persisted in even when 
terrestrial pieces of water are quite close at hand. In a 
later record f of South American travel he records finding a 
dung-beetle, Aphenyium setninudum, Bates, usually several 
specimens together, in large Bromeliacese. These lists are 
summarized to show the extent of the bromeliad fauna, and 
for the sake of comparison with the results of my bromeliad 
collecting in the West Indies, given below. 

My own interest in the matter was roused by my 
experiences in the Seychelles Islands during the Percy 
Sladen Trust Expedition of 1908-9. Some of the most 
interesting species of beetles were found there between leaf- 
bases of certain endemic species of palms and Pandamis, 
notably a true water-beetle (Dytiscid) in the latter. In 
the paper describing my experiences a short account J is 
given of this form of collecting, with a list of the creatures 
found in leaf-bases of palms and Pandanus : a list which 
includes earthworms, planarians, snails, woodlice, a scorpion, 
Lepidopterous and Dipterous larvse, Coleoptera and Coleo- 
pterous larvse of very different forms, earwigs, and a very 
peculiar flattened form of cockroach described by Bolivar as 
a new genus [Hololeptublatta : a find in Pandanus very 
interesting in connection with the discovery of the interesting 
new bromeliadicolous cockroach described below) . 

Thus in the tropics of both hemispheres, aiid in other 
plants besides Bromeliacese, an interesting and largely 
aquatic or amphibious fauna dwells between the bases of the 
leaves. Nor does this exhaust the list of curious situations 
in which aquatic insects have been found in plants. In 

* Stettin, ent. Zeit. 1900, pp. L>1 1,212. 

t Op. cit. 1909, p. 26. 

j Trans. Linn. Soc. London, ser. 2, Zool. vol. xiv. 1910, p. 24. 



the Fauna of Biomeliacere. 427 

Trinidad I was informed that many Culicid larvre are some- 
times found in the water that collects in the strange inflo- 
rescences of HeliconicE (wild Musacese) ; and in the Sandwich 
Islands Dr. Perkins found that nymphs of some dragonflies 
exist and complete their development in the water accumu- 
lated in the leaves of lilies growing on dry land *. 

Therefore, during a short visit to Trinidad and Dominica 
in March of this year, I determined to try to see something 
of the bromeliad fauna. I was only able to examine Erome- 
liaceae for this purpose on three occasions, in a single locality 
in Trinidad and in two localities in Dominica. A brief 
account of these investigations will be given, followed by 
descriptions of four new species of bromeliadicolous insects. 

I. Trinidad. — The locality was the actual summit of the 
highest mountain in the island. El Tucuche, 3100 feet^ in 
the northern range of hills. My visit was made on March 
20th, in company with Mr. F. W. Urieli, Government Ento- 
mologist, and Mr. W. G. Freeman, Assistant Director of 
Agriculture, to both of whom I am greatly indebted for 
ranch kindness and help. Having left Port of Spain at 
daybreak and travelled by rail to St. Joseph, formerly the 
capital, we then drove northwards into the mountains up 
the Maracas valley as far as the road is passable for vehicles. 
We then climbed the steep side of the valley-head through 
cacao-plantations till we arrived at a gap or saddle between 
two peaks high in the hills. Pushing our way through a 
dense bed of Heliconia, the broad banana-like leaves of 
which reached some way over our heads, we crossed the gap 
and emerged on to the track leading to the mountain-top. 
From this point we followed the track to the summit, 
mounting gradually for about 4 miles through a dense 
tropical forest of extreme beaut3^ In the higher part espe- 
cially was an indescribable luxuriance of vegetation, very 
njticeable being many graceful palms of several kinds 
(^Euterpe, Bactris, Geonoma, &c.), an extraordinary wealth 
of ferns, Lycopodiaccfe, climbing and epiphytic Aroids, lianes, 
and epiphytic Bromeliaceae often with gaudily-coloured 
inflorescences, not to mention the many kinds of Dicotyle- 
donous trees. Immediately below the summit the forest 
becomes somewhat stunted, and trunks and branches of trees 
wear a shaggy clothing of thick moss. At the actual summit 
a small area is cleared and a little wooden camping-house 
has been built. On the Avay through the forest we had been 

* See Sharp. ' Cambridge Natural History,' vol. v. pp. 425-G. 

29* 



428 Mr. H. Scott on 

delayed by heavy rain, aiul at the summit found ourselves in 
a chilly driving cloud, the difference of temperature between 
this place and the lowlands being so great that one gladly 
sought the shelter of the house. Later the cloud rolled off, 
disclosing a magnificent view^ southward over the low-lying 
level central part of the island, and northward over those 
peaks and forests and that l)eautiful northern coast which 
form the subject of one of the most charming chapters in 
Kingsley's ' At Last.' 

In contrast with the climatic conditions on the mountain, 
the country in the lowlands was extremely parched, the dry 
season being at its height, and a severe drought, such as had 
not been experienced for years, prevailing in addition. But 
in the mountain-forests moisture is perennial, and tlie water 
between the bromeliad leaves would never dry up — an 
important fact with reference to the amphibious and aquatic 
nature of the bromeliad fauna. 

During the hour spent on the summit we collected a 
sample of this i'auna. One or two plants of a species of 
Tillandsia were taken by Mr. Urich from two or three feet 
abjvc the ground (it being very difficult to get at specimens 
perched in lofty trees) and brought into the house, w^here 
the leaves were stripped off one by one, from outside inwards. 
In the water and liumiis between their bases were found the 
following :— 

Two specimens of a small frog; a millipede; crustaceans 
(Isopoda) ; Odonate larvae, about which I shall say nothing, 
as they are being further investigated by Mr. tiricli ; an 
earwig, determined by Dr. Burr as an immature Psalid, 
perhaps Psalis americana ; numbers of a new species of 
cockronch, Homa/optery.v scotti (described below by Shelford), 
adults of both sexes and young in several stages; large 
numbers of a Coleopterous laiva, either of or allied to the 
genus Helodes (mentioned again below) ; a series of a new 
Dytiscid beetle, Aglymbus bromeliariim (described below) ; 
several of a new Hydrophilid, Cyclonotum. urichi (described 
below) ; four specimens of a species of Trichopteryx (deter- 
mination of the genus due to Mr, H. Britten) ; a single 
specimen of a Thysanopteron, determined by Mr. R. S. Bagnall 
as a species of Eupathithrips Bagn.*; and, lastly, a number 
of a new Hemipteron, Microvelia insignis Distant (described 
below). 

Of these the Dytiscid (^Aglymbus), the Microvelia, the 
Odonate larvae, and the Helodine larvae are purely aquatic 

* =Keterothnps Buft'a {nee Rood), = Poli/o?)imatot/in'ps Buffa (teste 
Bagnall). 



tke Fauna of Bromeliaceie. 429 

insects. The finding of the Aglymhus is speciallj'^ interesting 
iu connection with the previous discovery, already referred to 
above, of a tree-inhabiting species of the allied genus 
Copelatus iu the Old-World tropics — i. e. Copelatus panda- 
norum, which lives in the water between leaf-bases of Pan- 
danus in the perennially moist mountain-foiests of the 
Seychelles. Beyond these two species I am nnaware that 
any Dytiscid has been found inhabiting trees. The larvse of 
Helodinge are aquatic, e. g. those of Helodes minuta live 
beneath stones submerged in streams ; and Microvelia 
belongs to a group the members of which run on the surface 
of fresh water. As to the Hydrophilid, the members of the 
genus Cyclonotum might be described as subaquatic, most of 
them appearing to live in decaying vegetable refuse which 
often contains much moisture. Shelford has called attention 
(below) to an adaptation of the new cockroach (^Homa/o- 
pteryx) for an amphibious existence. In this connection 
nothing can be said at present with regard to the Tricho- 
pteryx or the Eupathithrips ; but the facts just summarized, 
iu conjunction with the presence of the frogs, show the 
aquatic or amphibious nature of the bromeliadicolous fauna. 

It may be asked if the truly aquatic insects show any 
special adaptation for living in the Bromeliaceae as compared 
with their congeners w^hich inhabit waters on the ground. 
The Aglymbus is more flattened dorso-ventrally than its con- 
geners, this being perhaps an adaptation for living iu the 
narrow spaces between the leaf-bases {Copelatus pandanorwn 
is also flattened) . I am unaware of any special adaptation in 
the Microvelia. The Hclodine larvae are less flattened than 
those of Helodes minuta, which live under stones ; and 
Prof. Carpenter considers the bromeliadicolous larvse the less 
specialized of the two (see below). 

In a letter to me Mr. Urich writes : — " If these beetles 
[the Aglymbus'] are confined to higher elevations and must 
live at the tops of our highest hills, then they are entirely 
confined to Bromelia-water, as the tops of several hills of the 
Northern Bange appear to have no otlier water " within a 
mile of the summit by road, or, vertically, above 2500 feet *. 
Mr. Urich refers to the fact that, although there is extremely 
abundant moisture on the mountain-tops, yet there are no 
pools or streams, and the only water in which truly aquatic 
insects such as Dytiscidse could live is that which collects 
between leaf-bases, in inflorescences, &c. The same state- 
ment applies to the highest parts of the Seychelles forests ; 

* Mr. Urich adds that he has seen frogs siiuihtr to those found by us 
in the same kind of brinueliad at similar elevations on other peaks. 



430 Mr. 11. Scott on 

they are saturated with moisture, but there are no pools, 
and though swift mountain-streams are numerous at lower 
levels, they are not present on the peaks ; so that on those 
peaks the only water in which aquatic insects can exist is 
that which accumulates in hollow leaves, pitchers of Ne- 
pent/ies, leaf-hases of Pandanus, &c. In speaking of the 
lily-dwelling Odonate larva3 referred to above Dr. Sharp 
states that the Sandwich Islands are extremely poor in 
stagnant waters; in large areas of forest the only water that 
Odonata can find for their larvae to live in may be small 
accumulations in plants. 

II. Dominica. — In this island I made two excursions, on 
both of which I was accompanied and guided by Mr. Jones, 
Assistant at the Botanic Station at Roseau, who aided me 
in collecting, and to whom I am greatly indebted for his 
kindness. On March 29th we rode to a point above the 
freshwater lake, whence a view is obtained in two directions — 
westward down the valleys towards Roseau and the leeward 
coast, and eastward down on to the windward coast. I am 
uncertain of the elevation, but it is in the neighbourhood of 
3000 feet, probably over. Two or three plants of an un- 
determined bromeliad, groAving just low enough to be 
reached, were taken from trees growing at the roadside edge 
of the luxuriant forest. These contained numbers of 
Helodine larvse very similar to, or perhaps identical with, 
those found in Trinidad ; three specimens of a small Staphy- 
linid beetle, which Mr. Champion tells me is a new species 
of Sta7nnode7'us near to S. optatus Sharp; one worn specimen 
of a Barid weevil, possibly a species of Nicentrus Casey 
{teste Champion) ; one (wingless) specimen of a Microvelia, 
determined by Mr. Distant as identical with the new species 
[M. insignis) found in Trinidad Bromeliacese ; and some 
Chironomid larvse. 

On March 30th we visited a piece of virgin forest at an 
elevation somewhat over 1000 feet in the mountains behind 
Roseau. Here, in a single epiphytic bromeliad, numbers of 
the Helodine larvae were again met with : in my journal I 
Mi'ote that Hydrophilidce and a Trichopteryx were also seen, 
but these are not now forthcoming and were perhaps lost in 
the hurry of departure ; and a single specimen was captured 
of a cockroach, determined by Mr. Shelford as a well-known 
species, Epihimpra conspersa Burm. Some, at any rate, of 
the species of Epilampra are amphibious, and in the specimen 
before me the spiracular tubes can be seen projecting from 



the Fauna 0/ Bromeliacea3. 431 

beneath the antepenultimate abdominal tergite as clearly as 
they can in the new Homalopteryx *. 

Note on the Helodine Larvae. — Professor G. H. Car- 
penter has kindly determined these larvae, of which such 
umnbers occurred in the Bromeliacete, as being either 
members of or closely related to the genus Helodes. No 
imago to which they could belong was found. They are 
long and narrow, not tapering much towards the posterior 
extremity, flattened dorso-vcntrully, with filamentous an- 
tennae nearly as long as their bodies, and a group of rectal 
gills. Prof. Carpenter writes {in liti.} that they are closely 
like the larvae of Helodes minuta, but on tlie whole less 
specialized, being less flattened dorso-ventrally. He and 
Miss MacDowell have recently published (Quart. J. Micr. 
Sci., vol. Ivii. part 4, 1912, p. 373) a very interesting paper 
in which the mouth-parts of the larva of Helodes minuta 
are described and figured. I have made preparations of the 
mouth-parts of two of the bromeliadicolous larvae, and on a 
cursory examination find them much like those of H. minuta 
in general structure, though differing in detail (especially in 
the form of the labrum, wiiich is strongly emarginate) ; the 
hypopharynx and maxillulae appear much as they do in 
pi. XXXV. hg. 11 of the paper just cited. 

Descriptions of New Species. 
Blattidae. 

]. Homalopteryx scotli, sp. n. (PI. X. figs. 1 & 2.) 

(J . Head and antennae rufo-castaneous ; vertex of head 
freely exposed, smooth, impunctate; eyes widely remote, 
their distance apart and that of the anteunal sockets equal ; 
ocelli distinct, 'closer together than the eyes. Pronotum 
trapezoidal, anteriorly- and posteriorly subtruncate, impunc- 
tate, nitid, castaneous, broadly bordered laterally with 
ochreous, a narrow line of the same colour on the anterior 
border, extreme outer lateral margins castaneous. Scutellum 
not visible. Tegmina ovate^ semicorneous, not extending 
beyond the middle of the antepenultimate segment of the 
abdomen, impunctate, strongly overlapping, marginal area 

* See Shelford, below, under tlie description of Homalopteryx scotti ; 
also Ms papers in ' Zoologist,' vol. xi. 1907, p. 221, and 'llecords of the 
Indian Museum,' vol. iii. part 2, 1UU9, p. 125. 



432 i\Ir. H. Scott on 

broad, costals regular, discoidal sectors oblique ; castaneous, 
laterally bordered with oclireous, the band diminishing from 
before backwards ; extreme outer margin of mediastinal 
area castaneous^ mediastinal vein piceous ; radial vein 
ridged on the under surface of the tegmina. Wings flavo- 
testaceouSj equal in length to tegmina; costals irregular; 
11 ulnar rami, 4 being incomplete. The abdomen above 
j'cllow-brown, the disc dark, posterior angles of distal tcrgites 
dentately produced ; beneath castaneous. Supra-anal lamina 
subbilobate, barely exceeding the subgenital lamina, which 
is narrow, produced, slightly asymmetrical (PI. X. fig. 2), 
and with two small slender styles. Cerci short, pointed, 
piceous, the two apical joints ochreous. Legs rufo-casta- 
iieous ; femora strongly armed, front femora with three to 
four spines on the anterior margin beneath ; forrnvila of 
apical spines f, |, j ; no genicular spines on front femora. 
Tibia? triseriately spined on their outer aspect. Tarsi short, 
with large pulvilli and arolia ; metatarsi quite unarmed 
beneath ; posterior metatarsus I'ather shorter than the suc- 
ceeding joints. 

? . Resembles the (^ , but is larger, the ochreous margins 
of the pronotura and tegmina translucent ; the tegmina and 
wings are shorter and the abdomen is dark castaneous in 
colour both above and beneath ; supra-anal lamina slightly 
more produced, and subgenital lamina ample, produced, with 
sinuate margins. 

Larva dark castaneous, variegated with rufous in some 
specimens ; lateral margins of the thoracic tergites trans- 
lucent ochreous. 

Measurements (S and ? types). — Total length (c?) 28, 
(?) 38'5 mm. ; length of tegmina {^) 16, (?) 19 mm.; 
greatest breadth of abdomen {(^) 14, (?) 19 mm; pro- 
uotum ( c? ) 8 X 12, (?) 9-5 X 14-2 mm. 

Loc. Trinidad, summit of El Tucuche, 3100 feet, 20. iii. 
1912 ; from leaf-bases of TiUandsia sp., 2 c? » "f' ? j 7 lai'vre. 
'^yp(^ {<S) and one paratype (?). presented to British 
Museum, and one paratype (?) to the Hope Museum, 
Oxford ; remaining paratypes and larvae in Cambridge 
University Museum. 

A certain amount of water collects in the spaces between 
the leaf-bases, and the cockroaches must therefore lead a 
more or less aquatic life ; the spiracular tubes which in 
both sexes are clearh^ visible, projecting from beneath the 
antepenultimate abdominal tergite, show that this species 
is as well adapted for an aquatic existence as those Oriental 



the Fauna o/' BroineliacecC. 433 

iorms of E/jilainpra and Rklcnoda described by me*. It is 
quite possible that a new genus will have to be erected 
eventually for this species, since in the free exposure of the 
vertex of the head it differs from typical Hunm/upteri/x ; but 
at })resent it may be allowed to rest in that genus. Hitherto 
Humalopteryx was represented in the New World by but a 
single species, H. capuchia Brunn., from Venezuela, the 
ty[)e of the genus. — R. Shelfohd f. 



COLEOPTERA. 

2. Aglymbus bromeliarum, sp. n. (PI. X. fig. 3.) 

cJ . Depressus, ovatus, subopacus, persubtilissime reticulatus, Cv)r- 
pore supra subtusque omnino uigro, palpis antennisque pedibusque 
piceo-rufis ; capite subtilissime punctato et breviter longitudiualiter 
striolato, antice utrinque impresso ; prothorace tote tenuiter 
longitudiualiter striolato, ante angulos posteriores leviter curvutim 
impresso; elytris omnino dense longitudinaliter striolatis, striis 6 
tenuibus, parte anteriore stria3 suturalis tenuissima, interdum 
obsoleta, stria submarginali nulla ; tibiis anticis ad basin attenu- 
atis, curvatis, intus leviter emarginatis ; tarsorura anticorum 
mediorumque articulis 1-3 dilatatis. 

§ . Striolis longitudinalibus in capite et in parte media prothoracis 

fere obsoletis ; tibiis anticis simplicibus, tarsis hand dilatatis. 
Long. Corp. ( c? $ ) 5-6 mm. 

Depressed, ovate, body entirely black above and beneath, 
with mouth-parts reddish, and palps, antennse, and legs 
pitchy red ; subopaque, the entire surface extremely finely 
reticulate J. Head extremely finely punctured, with short 
fine longitudinal striohe in addition to the punctures, these 
striohe, however, much fewer or nearly absent in $ ; on 
either side in front is a marked impression bearing several 
larger punctures, and there are also one or two larger punc- 
tures behind and nearer to the eye than this impression ; in 
some specimens a vague median impression on the back of 
the head is present. Frothorax entirely covered with short 
fine longitudinal striolye in the J* ; in ? these striolse are 
more strongly marked at the sides and are present along the 

* See footnote on p. 431. 

t These specimens were examhied and the description made by Mr. 
Shelford about three weeks before his death. He gave his assent in a 
letter to my publishing the description in this paper. — H. Scott. 

X This hne reticulation of the entire surface of the chitin is not to be 
confounded with the sculpture of striolte described below. 



434 Mr. H. Scott 071 

anterior and posterior margiiis^ but become obsolete in tlie 
median part of the disc. A median longitudinal impression, 
abbreviated before and behind, is sometimes present on the 
disc, and the b .se has a slight impression on either side 
about halfway between the middle and the i)Osterior angle. 
A series of punctures extends across the thorax immediately 
behind the front margin ; it continues as an impressed 
series along each side, in the front part running parallel to 
the lateral margin, but behind curving inwards away from 
the side and approaching the basal impression. Scutelluni 
smooth. Elytra entirely and closely coveied with very 
numerous tine striolse, elongate and rather irregular in 
direction, appearing to form a network of elongate meshes, 
though few, if any, of the striolse are actually connected 
with one another ; each elytron has six very fine strise on the 
disc, reaching almost to the base, though striae 1 and 3 are 
extremely fine in front, stria 1 (the sutural stria) being 
sometimes obsolete in its anterior portion ; strife 2, 4, 6 are 
a little more strongly marked and finely punctured ; strise 5 
and 6 are closer together than the others are to one another ; 
the strice do not quite reach the apex, 2 and 4 are a little 
shorter than 1, 3, and 5, and 6 is the shortest of all; the 
apical portion of the elytron beyond the ends of the strise 
bears some punctures; there is no submarginal stria, but a 
series of punctures, rather difficult to see, close to the margin. 
Metasternum without striolse or punctures. Hind co.va and 
abdominal segments 1 and 2 with numerous fine striolae, 
segments 3-6 smooth. 

Loc. Trinidad, summit of El Tucuche, 3100 feet, 20. iii. 
1912; from between leaf-bases of Tillandsia sp., 4 c?, 5 ? . 

Type ( J ) and one paratype ( ? ) presented to British 
Museum ; remaining paratypes in Cambridge University 
Museum. 

A sculpture of longitudinal striolse on the upper surface 
is very characteristic of the genus Aylymbus. JNlost of the 
previously known species have only the striolse and no strise 
on tlie elytra, but A. bromeliarum has both striae and striolae. 
In this one character it resembles the two Abyssinian species 
{A. yestroi Sharp and A. brevicornis Sharp) more than it 
does the South American species ; but they only have four 
striae on each elytron, while it has six. In fact, A. bromeli- 
arum is unlike any of the other species of the genus. 
Several of the South American species which I have seen in 
Dr. Sharp's collection are very different ; in addition to 
being devoid of elytral striae, they are narrower and much 



the Fauna of Bromcliacein?. 435 

less flattened, and the striolte are much coarser and stronger. 
In A. bromeliarum both striolce and striae are very fine 
indeed, forming a remarkable and beautiful sculpture ; a 
rather similar type of el;^ tral sculpture is to be seen in 
Copelatus incognilus Sharp (Biol. Ceutr.-Am., Col. i. 2, p. 38), 
though tiiat insect is absolutely difl^'ereiit in other respects. 

Ayhjmbus closely resembles Copelatus, but is distinguished 
therefrom by the absence of eoxal lines. Seven species were 
enumerated in Dr. Sharp^s monograph 'On Dytiscidic' 
(p. 596), five from South America and two from Abyssinia. 
He stated [up. cit. p. 893) that tl.ey are " excessively rare.-"^ 
Van den Branden, in his Catalogue of Dytiscidse published 
in 1885, three years after Dr. Sharp-'s monograi)h, only gives 
the same seveu species (Ann. Soc. ent. Belgique, xxix. 
p. 87), and, although I have searched, I have found no 
record of any species being added to the original seveu up 
till now. It is just possible that an Aglymbus might be 
described as a Copelatus ; but though 1 have looked up the 
descriptions of many species of Copelatus published since 
Dr. Sharp's monograph, I have found none in the least 
resembling Aglymbus bromeliarum. Possibly further investi- 
gation of the fauna of Bromeliaceae will add to our knowledge 
of the rare genus Aglymbus. — H. Scott. 

3. Cyclonotum urichi, sp. n. 

Oblongo-ovale, convexum, nitidum, corpore supra subtusquo nigro, 
antennis palpisque flavescentibus, pedibus piceo-ferrugiiieis ; 
capite consiiicue lato, subtiliter crebre punctulato, ad margincm 
anteriorem persubtilissime reticulato ; prothorace subtiliter crebre 
punctulato ; elytris dciiso parum fortius punctulatis, punctorum 
seriebus nullis, stria suturali postice tenuissima, dimidio anteriore 
omnino obsoleta ; tarsis intermediis et posticis brevibus, hirsutis, 
articulo basali incrassato. 

Long. Corp. ca. 4| mm. 

Oblong-oval but not elongate, rather less convex than 
some members of the genus. Head very broad and short, 
scarcely narrowing in front of the eyes except for the 
rounding off of the angles, with the front margin straight ; 
closely and finely punctured ; towards the anterior margin 
very finely reticulate, this portion appearing dull, while the 
rest of the head and all the remainder of the upper surface 
are strongly shining. Thorax closely and finely punctured. 
Scutellum very finely punctured. Elytra very closely punc- 
tured (if anything a little more closely than the thorax), the 



43G Mr. H. Scott on 

punctures fiue but slightly stronger than those on the head 
and thorax. There are no traces of seriate punctuation, Tlie 
sutural stria is visible as a very fine line in the posterior 
part of the elytron, but in the anterior half is quite absent. 
Wing examined in one specimen and found to be 5^ mm. 
long, the elytron being 3 mm. long. Middle and hind tibm 
short, narrowed at base, with fine short spines on the ante- 
rior margin, a number of very short spines on the under 
surface near the apex, and two long strong spines on the 
inner side at the apex. iMiddle and hind tarsi considerably 
sliortcr than the tibise, hirsute, with the basal joint incrassate 
and considerably longer than the second. 

Being not quite satisfied as to the generic position of this 
insect, I add the following characters : — Eyes not emarginate 
in front ; mentum broader than long, strongly impressed 
and concave in front (the concave part shining, the posterior 
part appearing very finely rugose-punctate) ; maxillary palpi 
short, second joint incrassate^ terminal joint slightly longer 
than penultimate ; labial palpi short, with basal joint short 
and transverse, second joint somewhat incrassate, with sette 
at its apex, terminal joint narrower and a little shorter than 
second ; antennae 9-jointed, basal joint elongate and about 
equal to joints 2-6 together, joint 2 nearly as stout as basal 
joint, joint 3 slender ; joints 4, 5, 6 very short and trans- 
verse ; joints 7-9 forming a loose club ; prosternum not 
longitudinally carinate in middle, not very short (longer in 
proportion than that of some members of the genus, e. g. 
C. orbiculare) ; mesosternum forming a somewhat elongate 
elevated lamina (much longer than in C. orbiculare and some 
other species), stretching Ijack to meet the front of the 
metasternum, Avhich is elevated medially but not pioduced 
far forward between the middle coxse : the produced part 
narrows in front and there is a depression, where meso- and 
metasternum meet. Basal abdominal segment without a 
carina. 

Loc. Trinidad, summit of El Tucuche, 3100 feet, 20. iii. 
1912; from between leaf-bases of Tillandsia sp., 5 specimens. 

Type presented to British Museum ; paratypes in Cam- 
bridge University Museum. 

This species is dedicated to Mr. F. W. Urich, Government 
Entomologist of Trinidad. 

The very short broad head, oblong-oval form, and short, 
hairy, tapering tarsi give this insect a most distinct appear- 
ance. The tarsi somewhat resemble those of Phmionotum, 
but C urichi is distinguished from that genus by the abso- 



tlie Fauna of ^xo\\\q\\i\cq\.v. 4)57 

lately different structure of meso- and metasterna and by 
the presence of a sutural stria on tlie posterior part of the 
elytra. Its prostcrnum is longer than in those species of 
Ci/clonolum with which I have compared it ; the raised 
niesosterual lamina is much more elongated and does not fit 
nearly so closely to the front of the metasternum, there 
being a depression at tlie point of meeting. The Central 
American Cyclonutam jjosticatum Sharp also diflers from its 
congeners in having the mesosternal lamina much elongated, 
but in that species the lamina is differently formed and fits 
much more closely to the front of the metasternum than it 
docs in C. urichi. The oblong-oval form of the body slightly 
recalls Dactylostenmm, but C. urichi ditfers widely from 
that genns in the structure of its underside and in the entire 
absence of seriate punctuation on the elytra. Altogether it 
seems best to retain it as a very aberrant Cijclonutum. — 
H. Scott. 

Hemiptera. 

4. Microvelia insignis, sp. n. (PL X. figs. 4 & 5.) 

Winged form. — Head and pronotum black; hemelytra 
black, with rather more than basal third greyish white and a 
small spot at apex dusky grey ; body beneath black ; an- 
tennae, rostrum J coxse, and legs pale ochraceous, extreme 
apices of the femora infuscate, apices of the tarsi black ; an- 
tennae with the first and second joints robust, first distinctly 
longer than second, third and fourth slender, a little the 
longest, and almost subequal in length; head with a central 
longitudinal subcarinate line; pronotum with the lateral 
angles obtusely prominent ; hemelytra with the veins distinct 
and slightly ochraceous on the basal white area. 

Apterous form. — Body above black, about basal half of 
connexivum very pale ochraceous, the first two abdominal 
segments obscure greyish. 

Long. 2 mm. 

Localities. 'JVinidad, summit of El Tucuche, 3100 feet, 
20. iii. 1912; from between leaf -bases of Tillandsia sp., 
1 winged and 6 wingless specimens. Dominica, from above 
freshwater lake, about 3000 feet, 29. iii. 1912; leaf-bases 
of undetermined bronieliad, 1 specimen (wingless). 

TrjiJe (winged specimen) presented to British Museum ; 
apterous specimens in Cambridge University Museum. 

A very distinct species by the structure of the antennae 



438 Mr. W. L. Distant on 

and the prominent coloration of the hemelytra. — W. L. 
Distant. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE X. 

Fiff. L Homalopteryx scotti, sp. n. (Shelford), J. X I5. 

Fig. 2. Ditto. Apex of Abdomen from beneath, showing subgeuital 

lamina, cerci, and styles. X 3. 
Fig. 3. Aglymhus bromeliarum, sp. n. (Scott), J . X 1^0. 
Fig. 4. Microvelia insiynis, sp. n. (Distant), winged form. X 15. 
Fig. 5. Ditto, apterous form, x 15. 



LVI. — Desmptions of some new Homopfera. 
By W. L. Distant. 

Tam. Cicadidae. 

Macrotristria occidentalis, sp. n. 

? . Head and pronotum piceons, more or less ochraceously 
pilose^ ocelli red ; pronotum with the hasal margin and an 
elongate spot on lateral margins behind eyes pale oclira- 
ceous ; mesonotum castaneous, tlie disk more or less piceous, 
two central obconical piceous spots, margined with castaneous 
on anterior margin, extending over about half the disk, 
lateral margins longly greyishly pilose and also greyislily 
pilose between the anterior angles of the basal cruciform 
elevation ; abdomen above black, greyishly pilose, the poste- 
rior segmental margins ochraceous ; body beneath ochra- 
ceovis, greyishly pilose and pubescent, a small castaneous 
spot on each side of the last ventral segment ; face with the 
central sulcation and transverse ridges castaneous ; tegmina 
and Avings hyaline ; tegmina with the venation black, the 
costal and greater part of the postcostal membranes and the 
claval vein ochraceous, basal cell and a basal longitudinal 
streak above it black, the whole venation of the apical areas 
broadly infuscated, posterior margin of the clavus mostly 
black ; wings with the venation either ochraceous or black ; 
front of head with the lateral areas obliquely carinate, the 
lateral areas of vertex also carinate ; pronotum with a 
central, longitudinal, subcruciform carination ; rostrum 
reaching the bases of the posterior coxae ; face moderately 
globose, the transverse carinations strong and distinct. 

Long., excl. tegm., ? , 30 mm. ; exp. tegm. 92 mm. 



some new TTomoptera . 439 

Hab. West Australia, Southern Cross (//. Broivn, Brit. 
Mas.). 

I have only seen the female sex of this species, which may 
be placed near M. hillieri, Dist. 

Terpnosia crowfooti, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum pale olivaceous green ; 
head with anterior marginal lines to front, lateral margins to 
vertex, and the area of the ocelli black : pronotum with two 
central curved longitudinal lines, the outer fissure, a trans- 
verse spot near lateral angles, and two small, central, con- 
tiguous spots near base black ; mesonotum with a central 
straight longitudinal line, on each side of which is a short 
inwardly curved line, a curved fasciate line on each lateral 
area, two spots in front of the basal cruciform elevation, 
and the anterior angles of the same black ; abdomen pale 
brownish ochraceous, shortly palely pilose, the central area 
darker, with a series of large segmental spots on each lateral 
area and smaller spots on lateral margins piceous, apical 
segment covered with greyish- white pile ; head beneath, 
sternum, legs, and opercula pale greenish ochraceous ; tibiae, 
tarsi, and rostrum brownish ochraceous; abdomen beneath 
thickly covered with greyish pile; tegmina and wings 
hyaline, unspotted, both with the venation and the first with 
the costal membrane piceous ; opercula in ^ not extending 
beyond base of abdomen, their lateral and apical margins 
convex ; tympanal coverings less than half the length of 
tympanal orifices, small and rudimentary. 

Long., excl. tegm., S j 24 mm. ; exp. tegm, 58 mm. 

Hab. Badamtam, near Darjeeling {A. R. Crowfoot, Brit. 
Mus.) . 

By the completely unspotted tegmina and the rudimentary 
tympanal coverings this species is allied to T. madhava, 
Dist., from which it differs by the more elongate tegmina 
and totally different markings &c. 

Gudaba maculata, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, and mesonotum ochraceous ; head with 
the apex and two longitudinal fasciae to front, area of the 
ocelli, and an oblique fascia before each eye black ; pronotum 
with two central longitudinal fascise, a spot behind each eye, 
and the lateral fissure black ; mesonotum with a central 
longitudinal line, on each side of which is a short oblique 



440 Mr. W. L. Distant on 

linear fascia, a snblateral fascia (sometimes much broken), 
two small spots in front of the cruciform elevation, and the 
anterior angles of same black ; abdomen brownish ochra- 
ceous, in (J a small black basal spot and the apical area 
castaneous, in $ a central black spot on the first three 
segments and a series of small lateral marginal spots ; body 
beneath and \e'^s brownish ochraceous in c? , the apices of 
the femora distinctly blacky and the apical area o£ the 
abdomen piceous or black ; in the ? the underside of 
the body and legs is virescent ; tegniina and wings hyaline, 
venation brownish ochraceous or fuscous ; tegmina with a 
snblateral series of marginal fuscous spots placed on the 
lateral veins to apical areas ; head as long as breadth between 
eyes ; pronotum with the lateral angles angulated ; abdomen 
considerably longer than space between head and base of 
cruciform elevation, second and third ventral segments 
furnished with a tubercle near each lateral margin, the 
posterior tubercle very small ; tympanal coverings very 
much shorter and narrower than the tympanal orifices ; 
opercnla short, oblique, not passing the base of abdomen ; 
rostrum reaching the posterior coxec ; wings with five apical 
areas. 

Long., excl. tegm., ^J ? , 13 mm. ; exp. tegm. 33-34 mm. 

Hab. $, Sikhim [Bingham); ?, Dehra Dun {N. C. 
Chatterjee, Brit. Mus.). 

Allied to the Burmese species G. marginata, Dist., and 
constituting the first species described from India proper. 

Urabunana verna, sp. n. 

$ . Body virescent or greenish ochraceous ; head with a 
black line on each side of front and a large irregular black 
spot on each side of vertex before the eyes ; pronotum more 
ochraceous in hue, with the anterior and posterior margins 
and a central longitudinal fascia, widened posteriorly, pale 
virescent, near base this fascia contains a small quadrate 
black spot ; mesonotum with four anterior black obconical 
spots, the two central smallest ; abdomen above wnth a 
central black macular fascia reaching the penultimate 
segment, where it is narrowest ; face centrally black ; apex 
of rostrum black ; tegmina and wings hyaline ; tegmina 
with the veins infuscated, the costal and postcostal 
membranes pale virescent ; lateral margins of the pronotum 
nearly straight, slightly ampliated at posterior angles ; 
tegmina a little arched towards apex of radial area and 
sinuate at the junction of costal and postcostal membranes ; 



soDic new llomoplerm 411 

wings with four apical areas ; tegmiua with eight apical 
areas. 

Long., excl. tegm., $ , 14 mm. ; exp. tegm. 30 mm. 

Hah. Australia ; Byron Bay, N. S. Wales {Ross, Brit. 
Mus.). 

Fam. Jassidae. 
Petalocephala bombaijensis, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, scutellum, body beneath, and legs very 
pale virescent or greenish ochraceous; tegmina subhyaline, 
talc-like, the clavus and basal third of costal area pale 
virescent or greenish ochraceous, inner area of clavus more 
or less castaneous ; lateral margins of vertex and pronotum, 
and a small central spot on anterior and posterior margins 
of" pronotum, casianeous; vertex about as long as breadth 
between eyes, lateral margins almost straight for a little 
before eyes and then subangularly rounded to apex, centrally 
medially carinate ; pronotum centrally, finely, longitudinally 
impressed, more or less distinctly transversely wrinkled ; 
face strongly flattened from in front of eyes to anterior 
margin ; posterior tibiae outwardly strongly spinose. 

Long., ? , 9 mm. 

Hab. Bombay (Brit. Mus.). 

In general coloration allied to P. nigrilinea, Walk., but 
differing in the larger vertex of head, which is about as long as 
breadth between eyes. 

Petalocephala perakensis, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, scutellum, body beneath, and legs 
greenish ochraceous ; lateral and anterior margins and a 
slightly curved transverse fascia near basal margin of vertex, 
and lateral margins (narrowly) and basal margin (broadly) 
to pronotum castaneous ; tegmina castaneous ; face with the 
anterior margin and two short angulate fasciae on anterior 
area castaneous ; lateral margins of sternum castaneous ; 
vertex distinctly shorter than breadth between eyes, the 
lateral margins perpendicularly continued for a short space 
in front of eyes, and then obliquely continued to apex, 
centrally very finely longitudinally carinate; pronotum 
with the lateral margins nearly straight ; clavus and costal 
membrane to tegmina very finely granulose, the venation 
on apical third very coarse and distinct ; posterior tibiae 
outwardly strongly spinose. 

Long. 9 mm, 
Ann. db Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. x, 30 



U2 Mr. W. L. Distant on 

Hub. Malay Peninsula ; Peralc {Doherty, Brit. Mus.). 

Allied to P. conspiciui, Dist., but diftering by the shorter 
vertex, the lateral margins of which are perpendicular for a 
short distance in front of eyes, different markings to face, &c. 

Ledrotypa, gen. nov. 

Vertex of head flat, the margins moderately laminately 
reflexed, about as long as pronotum and scutellum together, 
the anterior margin broadly rounded, the lateral margins 
slightly sinuate before eyes, ocelli near base, nearer to eyes 
than to each other, eyes posteriorly elongate ; face conca