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BY JOEL MUNSELL. 1^08-, . 

VOL. I. 






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This work was commenced under the title of the Albany 
Annual Register ^ which was continued two years, 1849 and 
1850. The aim of that publication was, in connection with 
matters suited to an almanac and city register, or civil list, to 
preserve the memory of the time-honored institutions of the 
city. Failing to awaken sufl&cient interest in the work to 
make it a paying enterprise, the ephemeral articles in those 
two Registers were omitted, and their place was supplied 
with historical and antiquarian matter, and the whole issued 
as a connected volume, and entitled the Annals of Albany , 
vol. I. To this, nine other volumes were added from year to 
year. The edition of this first volume having been smaller 
than the others, was long since exhausted, and it is now re- 
printed with some changes, and a more thorough index, to 
enable purchasers of the subsequent volumes to have their 
sets complete. 



Discovery of Hudson's River, 1 

Colony of Rensselaerswjck, 1614 to 1646, 9 

Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, , 37 

Executors of Jeremias Van Rensselaer, 39 

Sentence of Banishment, 39 

Arent Van Curler, 40 

Codirectors of Rensselaerswyck, 1630, 43 

Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany, 1749, 43 

First Charter Officers, 63 

Names of Settlers in Rensselaerswyck, 1630 to 1646, 64 

Sentence of William Juriaensen Bakker, 76 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church in Albany, 78 

Houses in 1786, 147 

Evangelical Lutheran Ebenezer Church, 148 

Reformed Gennan Church, 166 

Sabbath Evening School, 167 

German Evangelical Lutheran Church, 168 

First Presbyterian Church, 170 

Bethel for Watermen, 177 

Jewish Synagogues, 179 

Universalist Church, . . . . , 180 

Society of Friends, 181 

Ancient Albany, 182 

RuttenKil, 184 

City of Albany, 185 

County of Albany, 190 

Remarkable Winter, 194 

Operation of the Cheap Postage System in Albany,. 196 

Civil Officers of the City of Albany, 1693, 197 

Overslaugh, 198 

Manufacture of Bricks, 1847, 198 

vi Contents, 


Albany Academy, 199 

School of 1785, 201 

Albany Female Academy, 203 

State Normal School, 206 

School Appropriation, 207 

Grammar School, 1806, 207 

Lights and Shadows of Traveling in New York in 1796, 208 

Lancaster School, 213 

Commission of John Abeel, 1694, 213 

Books in 1772, 213 

Barlow's Prediction of the Erie Canal, 215 

Closing and opening of the River, 1785 to 1849, 216 

Centennial Anniversary, 218 

Incidents of a Northern Winter, 219 

Cold days in the last Century, 220 

Hudson River, 221 

Opening and Closing of the Canal from 1824 to 1849 inclusive, 223 

Imprisonment for Debt, ^ 223 

Births, Marriages and Deaths, 1848, 224 

Ferry Rates, 1784, 225 

Albany Merchant's Stock in 1790, 226 

Celebration of the Adoption of the Federal Constitution, 1788, 228 

Condition and Prospects of the City in 1789, 236 

Tobacco Establishment of 1790, 238 

Board of Trade, 240 

Custom House, 241 

Hibernian Provident Society, 242 

Mohawk and Hudson Rail Road, 243 

St. Andrew's Society, 245 

Albany Society of Brotherly Love, 245 

Stage and Mail Routes in Olden Time, 246 

General Hamilton at Quarantine, 254 

Albany County Bible Society, 255 

Price Current of Goods usually Imported at London from 

Albany, 1750, 256 

Ancient Commerce of Albany, 257 

List of the Freeholders of the City and County of Albany, 1720, 263 

Description of Albany in 1823, 269 

Dr. Morse's Description of Albany in 1789, 281 

Contents, vii 


Albany in 1796, 284 

Bond of tlie Aldermen of Schenectady, 1766, 286 

Family Record from the Groesbeeck Bible, 287 

Banks, 288 

Harmanus Bleecker, 299 

Vanderheyden Palace, 302 

Stevenson House, 305 

Wendell House, 307 

State Street in 1792, 310 

Scene of the Revolution in Albany, 317 

Canadian Invasion, 319 

Chronicle of Events in Albany, 1847 and 1848, 321 


View of Albany, Frontispiece. 

Map of Rensselaerswyck, 1630, 18 

Coejnians Creek, 67 

Dutch Churcli, 78 

Old Pulpit, 87 

The Dellius Grant of 1696, 95 

Portrait Gualterus DuBois, 96 

Lutheran Church, on Pine street, 1816, 68 

Fac Simile of Lutheran inscription placed in corner stone, 1816, 148 

First Presbyterian Church, new edifice, 170 

First Presbyterian Church, old edifice, 171 

Bethel for Watermen, 177 

Plan of Albany, 1695, 183 

Map of Albany City, 185 

Map of Albany County, 191 

Arms of the City, 185 

Albany Academy, 199 

Albany Female Academy, 202 

State Normal School, 206 

Ancient Dutch Costume, 237 

Caldwell's Tobacco Works, 240 

Troy Post Rider, 252 

First Practical Steam Boat, 262 

Capitol, c 273 

Ancient Printing Press, 285 

New York State Bank, 293 

Mechanics and Farmers' Bank, 294 

Vanderheyden Palace, 303 

Stevenson House, 305 

Wendell House, 307 

Plan of State street, 1794, 309 

Yates House, 314 

Plan of Fort Frederick, 1695, 315 

Hallenbeck Burial Ground, 353 



The third Voyage of Master Henry Hydson toward Nona Zembla, 
and at his returne, his -passing from Farre Hands, to New-foiind 
Land, and along to fortiefour degrees and ten minutes, and thence 
to Cape Cod, and so to thirtie three degrees; and along the Coast 
to the Northward, to fortie two degrees and an halfe, and vp the 
Riuere neere to fortie three degrees. Written ly Robert Ivet, 
of Lime-lioiise. 

[Henry Hudson sailed from Amsterdam on the 20tli 
March, 1609, o. s., in the yacht Half-Moon, with a crew of 
about twenty Dutch and EngHsh sailors, on a voyage for 
the discovery of a north-west passage to India. He encoun- 
tered ice and storms, which disabled his vessel, and about 
the middle of July ran into Penobscot bay on the coast of 
Maine. From thence he proceeded along the coast southerly 
till he arrived at Chesapeake bay about the middle of August, 
when he tacked about and coasted northward until, on the third 
of September, at three o'clock in the afternoon, he came to 
three great rivers, and stood for the northernmost. Proceed- 
ing leisurely, on the sixth he passed through the Narrows, 
and was attacked by the Indians, who killed John Coleman, 
one of his men, who was buried at Coleman's point, at Sandy 
hook. On the ninth the vessel arrived in New York harbor, 
which they perceived to be a very good one for all winds, and 
rode all night. On the twelfth of September, at two o'clock in 
the afternoon, Hudson weighed anchor, and began the memo- 
rable ascent of the great river which perpetuates his name. 
He proceeded two leagues against the wind, and came to 
anchor. Twenty-eight canoes full of men, women and children 
came out from the shore, of whom the mariners were wary. 
They brought oysters and beans, and had " great tabacco pipes 
of yellow copper, and pots of earth to dresse their meate in." 

2 Discovery of Hudson River. 

The remainder of the narrative Is copied verbatim from the 
edition published by the New York Historical Society, 
T7'ansactions, i, 138, et seq.] 

The thirteenth, faire weather, the wind northerly. At 
seuen of the clocke in the morning, as the floud came we 
weighed, and turned foure miles into the riuer. The tide 
beino; done wee anchored. Then there came foure canoes 
aboord : but we suffered none of them to come into our ship. 
They brought great store of very good oysters aboord, 
which wee bought for trifles. In the night I set the variation 
of the compasse, and found it to be 13 degrees. In the after- 
noone we weighed, and turned in with the floud two leagues 
and a halfe further, and anchored all night, and had flue 
fathoms soft ozie ground, and had an high point of land, 
which shewed out to vs bearing north by east fiue leagues 
off vs. 

The fovrteenth, in the morning being very faire weather, 
the wind south-east, we sayled vp Riuer twelue leagues, and 
had fiue fathoms and fiue fathoms and a quarter lesse ; and 
came to a streight between two points, and had eight, nine, 
and ten fathoms : and it trended north-east by north, one 
league, and we had twelue, thirteene and Iburteene fathomes. 
The Kiuer is a mile broad : there is very high land on both 
sides. Then wee went vp north-west, a league and an halfe 
deepe water. Then north-east by north fiue miles, then 
north-west by north two leagues, and anchored. The land 
grew very high and mountainous. The river is full of fish. 

The fifteenth, in the morning was misty vntil the Sunne 
arose : then it cleered. So wee weighed with the wind at 
south, and ran vp into the Riuer twentie leagues, passing by 
high Mountaines. We had a verygood depth, as six, seuen, 
eight, nine, ten, twelue and thirteen fathoms, and great store 
of Salmons in the Riuer. This morning our two Sauages got 
out of a port and swam away. After we were vnder sayle 
they called to vs in scorne. At night we came to other Moun- 
taines, which lie from the Riuers side. There we found very 
louing people, and very old men : where wee were well vsed. 
Our Boat went to fish, and caught great store of very good 

The sixteenth , faire and very hot weather. In the morning 
our Boat went againe to fishing, but could catch but few, by 

Discovery of Hudson River. 3 

reason their Canoes had beene there all night. This morning 
the people came aboord, and brought vs eares of Indian Corne, 
and Pompions, and Tabacco : which wee bought for trifles. 
VYee rode still all day, and filled fresh water ; at night wee 
weighed and went two leagues higher, and had shoald water : 
so wee anchored till day. 

The seuenteenth, faire Sun-shining weather, and very 
hot. In the morning as soon as the Sun was vp, we set 
sayle, and ran vp six leagues higher, and found shoalds in 
the middle of the channell, and small Hands, but seuen 
fathoms water on both sides. Toward night we borrowed so 
neere the shoare, that we grounded : so we layed out our small 
anchor, and heaued oiF againe. Then we borrowed on the 
banke in the channell and came aground againe; while the 
floud ran we heaued off againe, and anchored all night. 

The eighteenth, in the morning was faire weather, and 
we rode still. In the afternooneour Master's Mate went on 
land with an old Sauage, a Gouernor of the Oountrey; who 
carried him to his house and made him good cheere. 

The nineteenth, was faire and hot weather : at the floud, 
being neere eleuen of the clocke, wee weighed, and ran higher 
vp two leagues aboue the shoalds. and had no lesse water 
than fine fathoms : wee anchored, and rode in eight fathomes. 
The people of the countrie came flocking aboord, and 
brought vs Grapes, and Pompions, which we bought for trifles. 
And many brought vs Beuers skinnes, and Otters skinnes, 
which wee bought for Beades, Kniues, and Hatchets. So 
we rode there all night. 

The twentieth, in the morning was faire weather. Our 
Master's Mate with foure men more went vp with our boat 
to sound the Riuer, and found two leagues aboue vs but 
two fathoms water, and the channell very narrow; and aboue 
that place seuen or eight fathoms. Toward night they 
returned ; and we rode still all night. 

The one and twentieth was faire weather, and the wind all 
southerly: we determined yet once more to goe farther up 
into the Riuer to trie what depth and breadth it did beare ; 
but much people resorted aboord so we went not this day. 
Our carpenter went on land and made a fore-yard. And 
our Master and his Mate determined to trie some of the 
chiefe men of the countrey, whether they had any treacherie 


Discovery of Hudson River, 

in them. So they took them down into the cabbin, and gave 
them so much wine and aqua vitae, that they were all merrie ; 
and one of them had his wife with him, which sat so mo- 
destly, as any of our countrey women would do in a strange 
place. In the end one of them was drunke, w^hich had been 
aboord of our ship all the time that we had been there : and 
that was strange to them; for they could not tell how to 
take it. The canoes and folke went all on shoare -, but some 
of them came againe, and brought stropes of beades: some 
had six, seven, eight, nine, ten; and gaue him. So he slept 
all night quietly. 

The two and twentieth was faire weather : in the morning 
our Masters Mate and foure more of the companie went vp 
with our Boat to sound the Riuer higher vp. The people 
of the countrey came not aboord till noone : but when they 
eame, and saw the Sauages well, they were glad. So at three 
of the clocke in the after-noone they came aboord, and 
brought Tabacco, and more Beades, and gaue them to our 
Master, and made an Oration, and shewed him all the coun- 
trey round about. Then they sent one of their companie 
on land, who presently returned, and brought a great Plat- 
ter full of Venison, dressed by themselues; and they caused 
him to eate with them : then they made reuerence, and de- 
parted all saue the old man that lay aboord. This night at 
ten of the clocke, our Boate returned in a showre of raine 
from sounding of the Riuer; and found it to bee at an end 
for shipping to goe in. For they had beene vp eight or nine 
leagues, and found but seuen foot water, and vnconstant 

The three and twentieth faire weather. At twelue of the 
clocke wee weighed, and went downetwo leagues to a shoald 
that had two channels, one on the one side and another on 
the other, and had little wind, whereby the tide layed vs 
upon it. So, there wee sate on the ground the space of an 
houre till the floud came. Then we had a little gale of 
wind at the west. So wee got our ship into deepe water, and 
rode all night very well. 

The foure and twentieth was faire weather : the winde at 
the north-west, wee weighed and went downe the Riuer 
seuen or eight leagues ; and at halfe ebbe wee came on 
ground on a bank of oze in the middle of the Riuer, and 

Discovery of Hudson River, 5 

sate there till the floud. Then wee went on land, and ga- 
thered good store of chestnuts. At ten of the clocke wee 
came off into deepe water, and anchored. 

The five and twentieth was faire weather, and the wind 
at south a stiffe gale. We rode still, and went on land to 
walke on the west side of the Riuer, and found good ground 
for Corne, and other garden herbs, with great store of goodly 
oaks, and walnut trees, and chestnut trees, ewe trees, and 
trees of sweet wood in great abundance, and great store of 
slate for houses, and other good stones. 

The sixe and twentieth was faire weather, and the wind 
at south a stiffe gale, we rode still. In the morning our 
carpenter went on land with our Masters Mate, and foure 
more of our companie to cut wood. This morning, two 
canoes came vp the Riuer from the place where we first 
found louing people, and in one of them was the old man 
that had lyen aboord of vs at the other place. He brought 
another old man with him, which brought more stropes of 
beades, and gave them to our Master, and shewed him all 
the countrey there about, as though it were at his command. 
So he made the two old men dine with him, and the old 
mans wife; for they brought two old women, and two young 
maidens of the age of sixteene or seuenteene yeeres with 
them, who behaued themselues very modestly. Our Master 
gaue one of the old men a Knife, and they gaue him and vs 
Tabacco. And at one of the clocke they departed down the 
Riuer, making signes that wee should come down to them ; 
for wee were within two leagues of the place where they 
dwelt. The seuen and twentieth, in the morning was faire 
weather, but much wind at the north, we weighed and set 
our fore top-sayle, and our ship would not flat, but ran on 
the ozie bank at halfe ebbe. Wee layed out anchor to 
heaue her off, but could not. So we sate from halfe ebbe to 
halfe floud : then wee set our fore-sayle and mayne top-sayle, 
and got downe sixe leagues. The old man came aboord and 
would have had vs anchor and goe on land to eate with him : 
but the wind being faire, wee would not yeeld to his request. 
So hee left vs, being very sorrowful for our departure. At 
fine of the clocke in the afternoone, the wind came to the 
south-south-west. So wee made a boord or two, and anchored 
in fourteene fathomes water. Then our Boat went on shoare 

6 Discovery of Hudson River. 

to fish, right against the ship. Our Masters Mate and 
Boat-swaine, and three more of the companie went on land 
to fish, but could not finde a good place. They tooke foure 
or five and twenty Mullets, Breames, Bases, and Barbils; 
and returned in an houre. We rode still all night. 

The eight and twentieth being faire weather, as soon as the 
day was light, we weighed at halfe ebbe, and turned downe 
two leagues belowe water; for the streame doth runne the last 
quarter ebbe : then we anchored till high water. At three of 
the clocke in the afternoone we weighed, and turned downe 
three leagues, vntill it was darke ; then wee anchored. 

The nine and twentieth was drie close weather: the wind 
at south, and south by west, wee weighed early in the 
morning, and turned downe three leagues by a lowe water, 
and anchored at the lower end of the long Reach ; for it is 
sixe leagues long. Then there came certaine Indians in a 
canoe to vs, but would not come aboord. After dinner there 
came the canoe with other men, whereof three came aboord vs. 
They brought Indian wheat, which we bought for trifles. 
At three of the clocke in the afternoone we weighed, as 
soone as the ebbe came, and turned downe to the edge of the 
Mountaines, or the northermost of the Mountaines, and an- 
chored : because the high land hath many points, and a 
narrow channell, and hath many eddie winds. So we rode 
quietly all night in seuen fathoms water. 

The thirtieth was faire weather, and the wind at south- 
east a stiflfe gale between the Mountaynes. We rode still 
the afternoone. The people of the countrey came aboord 
vs, and brought some small skinnes with them, which we 
bought for kniues and trifles. This a very pleasant place to 
build a towne on. The road is very neere, and very good 
for all winds, saue an east-north-east wind. The Mountaynes 
look as if some metall or minerall were in them. For the 
trees that grow on them were all blasted and some of them 
barren, with few or no trees on them. The people brought 
a stone aboord like to emery (a stone vsed by glasiers to cut 
glasse), it would cut iron or Steele. Yet being bruised small, 
and water put to it, it made a colour like blacke lead glister- 
ing; it is also good for painters colours. At three of the 
clocke they departed, and we rode still all night. 

The first of October^ faire weather, the winde variable 

Discovery of Hudson River. 1 

between the west and the north. In the morning we 
weighed at seuen of the clocke with the ebbe, and got downe 
below the Mountaynes, which was seuen leagues. Then it 
fell calme and the flood was come, and wee anchored at twelue 
of the clocke. The people of the Mountaynes came aboord 
vs, wondering at our ship and weapons. We bought 
some small skinnos of them for trifles. This afternoone, one 
canoe kept hanging vnder our sterne with one man in it, 
which we could not keepe from thence, who got vp by our 
rudder to the cabin window, and stole out my pillow and two 
shirts, and twobandeleeres. Our Masters Mate shot at him, 
and strooke him on the brest, and killed him. Whereupon all 
the rest fled away, some in their canoes, and some leapt out of 
them into the water. We manned our boat, and got our things 
againe. Then one of them thatswamme got hold of oure boat, 
thinking to ouerthrow it. But our cooke took a sword, 
and cut off one of his hands, and he was drowned. By this 
time the ebbe was come, and we weighed and got downe 
two leagues, by that time it was darke. So we anchored 
in foure fathomes water, and rode well. 

The seconde, faire weather. At break of day wee 
weighed, the wind being at north-west, and got downe seuen 
leagues; then the floud was come strong, so we anchored. 
Then came one of the sauages that swamme away from vs. 
at our going vp the E-iuer with many other, thinking to betray 
vs. But we perceived their intent, and svffered none of them 
to enter our ship. Whereupon two canoes full of men, with 
their bowes and arrowes shot at vs after our sterne : in recom- 
pence whereof we discharged sixe muskets, and killed two 
or three of them. Then aboue an hundred of them came to 
a point of land to shoot at vs. There I shot a falcon at them, 
and killed two of them : whereupon the rest fled into the 
woods. Yet they manned off another canoe with nine or ten 
men which came to meet vs. So I shot at it also a falcon, and 
shot it through and killed one of them. Then our men with 
their muskets killed three or four more of them. So they went 
their way ; within a while after wee got downe two leagues 
beyond that place, and anchored in a bay, cleere from all 
danger of them on the other side of the Riuer, where we saw 
a very good piece of ground : and hard by it there was a 
cliffe, that looked of the colour of a white greene, as though 

8 Discovery of Hudson River. 

it were either copper, siluer myne : and I think it to be one 
of them by the trees that grow vpon it. For they be all 
burned, and the other places are greene as grasse, it is on 
that side of the Riuer that is called 31anna-haUa. There 
we saw no people to trouble vs : and rode quietly all night ; 
but had much wind and raine. 

The third, was very stormie ; the wind at east-north-east. 
In the morning, in a gust of wind and raine, our anchor came 
home, and we droue on ground, but it was ozie. Then as 
we were about to haue out an anchor, the wind came to the 
north-north-west, and droue vs off againe. 

Tnen we shot an anchor, and let it fall in foure fathomes 
water, and weighed the other. Wee had much wind and 
raine, with thicke weather, so we rode still all night. 

The fourth, was faire weather, and the wind at north-north- 
west, wee weighed and came out of the Riuer, into which we 
had runne so farre. Within a while after, wee came out also 
of The great mouth of the great Riuer ^ that runneth vp to the 
north-west, borrowing vpon the norther side of the same, 
thinking to haue deepe water; for wee had sounded a great 
way with our boat at our first going in, and found seuen, six, 
and fiae fathoms. So we came out that way, but we were 
deceiued, for we had but eight foot and an halfe water : and 
so to three, fine, three, and two fathomes and an halfe. And 
then three, foure, fine, sixe, seven, eight, nine and ten fath- 
omes. And by twelue of the clocke we were cleere of all 
the inlet. Then we took in our boat, and set our mayne- 
sayle and sprit-sayle and our top-sayles, and steered away 
east-south-east, and south-east by east, off into the mayne sea : 
and the land on the souther side of the bay or inlet, did beare 
at noone west and by south foure leagues from vs. 

The fift, was faire weather, and the wind variable between 
the north and the east. Wee held on our course south-east 
by east. At noone I obserued and found our height to bee 
39 degrees 30 minutes. Our compasse varied sixe degrees 
to the west. 

We continued our course toward England, without seeing 
any land by the way, all the rest of this moneth of October. 
And on the seuenth day of Nouember, stllo nouo, being 
Saturday, by the Grace of Grod. we safely arriued in the Range 
of Dartmouth, in Deuonshire, in the yeere 1609. 

Colony of Rensselaerswych 


1614 to 1646. 

[The Dutcli having in 1609 discovered and explored the 
North river, which has since taken the name of their navi- 
gator, Hudson, a number of adventurers followed in his track, 
who pursued a small trade with the Indians, and made fur- 
ther voyages of discovery along the coast and up the rivers. 
The most noted of these were Adrien Block, Hendrick 
Corstiaensen and Cornelius Jacobsen Mey, in the year 1614. 
We compile from the valuable History of New Netherlands 
by Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan, the following account of the 
progress of the colony of Rensselaerswyck for a period of 
thirty-three years.] 

Intelligence of the discoveries made by Block and his 
associates having been transmitted to Holland, was received 
there early in the autumn of 1614. The united company 
by whom they had been employed, lost no time in taking the 
steps necessary to secure to themselves the exclusive trade of 
the countries thus explored, which was guarantied to them 
by the ordinance of the 27tli of March. They sent deputies 
immediately to the Hague, who laid before the States Gene- 
ral a report of their discoveries, as required, by law, with a 
figurative map of the newly explored countries, which now, 
for the first time, obtained the name of New Netherland. 
A special grant in favor of the interested parties was forth- 
with accorded by their High Mightinesses, in the following- 
terms : 

" The States General of the United Netherlands to all to 
whom these presents shall come, greeting. Whereas Gerrit 
Witsen, former burgomaster of the city of Amsterdam, 
Jonas Witsen, and Simon Mastersen, owners of the ship 
called the Little Fox, (het vosje,) Captain Jarn de Witt, 
master ) Hans Hongers, Paul Pelgrom, and Lambrect van 
Tweenhuysen, owners of the two ships called the Tiger and 
the Fortune, Captains Adriaen Block and Hendrick Cor- 
stiaensen, masters ; Arnoudt van Lybergen, Wessel Schenck, 

10 Colony of Bensselaerswych 

Hans Claessen, and Barens Sweetsen, owners of the ship 
the Nightingale, (Nochtegael,) Capt. Thuys Yolckertsen, 
merchant in the city of Amsterdam, master; and Pieter 
Clementsen Brouwer, Jan Clementsen Kies, and Cornelis 
Volkertsen merchants in the city of Hoorn, owners of the 
ship the Fortune, Capt. Cornelis Jacobsen Mey, master, 
have united into one company, and have shown to us by 
their petition, that after great expenses and damages by loss 
of ships and other perils, during the present year, they, with 
the above named five ships, have discovered certain new 
lands situated in America, between New France and Virginia 
being the sea coasts between 40 and 45 degrees of latitude, 
and now called New Netherland : " Ahd whereas, they 
further represent that We did, in the month of March, pub- 
lish, for the promotion and augmentation of commerce, a 
certain consent and grant, setting forth that whosoever should 
discover new havens, lands, places, or passages, should be per- 
mitted exclusively to visit and navigate the same for four 
voyages, without permitting any other person Oui: of the 
United Netherlands to visitor frequent such newly discovered 
places, until the said discoverers shall have performed the 
four voyages, within the space of time prescribed to them 
for that purpose, under the penalties therein expressed, &c., 
and request that We should be pleased to accord to them due 
testimony of the aforesaid grant in the usually prescribed 
form : Wherefore, the premises having been considered, 
and We, in our Assembly, having communication of the 
pertinent report of the petitioners relative to the discoveries 
and finding of the said new countries between the above- 
named limits and degrees, and also of their adventurers, 
have consented and granted, and by these presents do con- 
sent and grant, to the said petitioners, now united into one 
company, that they shall be permitted exclusively to visit 
and navigate the above described lands, situate in America, 
between New France and Virginia, the seacoasts of which 
lie between the 40th and 45th degrees of latitude, and which 
are now named New Netherland, as is to be seen on the 
figurative maps by them prepared ; and to navigate, or cause 
to be navigated, the same for four voyages, within the period 
of three years, to commence from the first day of January, 
1615, or sooner, without it being permitted, directly or in- 

Colony of Reyisselaerswych 11 

directly, to any oue else to sail, to frequent, or navigate, 
out of the United Netherlands, those newly discovered lands, 
havens, or places, within the space of three years, as above, 
on penalty of the confiscation of the vessel and cargo, be- 
sides a fine of fifty thousand Netherlands ducats, for the 
benefit of said discoverers.. Provided, however, that by 
these presents we do not intend to prejudice or diminish any 
of our former grants and concessions ; and it is also our in- 
tention that if any disputes or differences should arise from 
these our concessions, that they shall be decided by ourselves. 
We therefore, expressly command all governors, justices, 
ofl&cers, magistrates, and inhabitants, of the aforesaid United 
Netherlands, that they allow said company peacefully and 
quietly to enjoy the whole benefit of this our grant, and to 
interpose no difficulties or obstacles to the welfare of the 
same. Given at the Hague, under our seal, paraph, and 
the signature of our Secretary, on the 11th day of October, 

Having thus obtained for themselves the exclusive right 
to visit and trade with the countries in America, lying be- 
tween the fortieth and forty-fifth degrees of north latitude, of 
which they strangely claimed to be the first discoverers, so 
shortly after Hudson's visit, the above named merchants, 
who now assumed the name and title of The United New 
Netherland Company, proceeded to make the arrangements 
necessary to draw from their new possessions the largest 
returns. On an island situated at the head of the naviga- 
tion, near the west bank of the Manhattan river, now named 
De Riviere van den Vorst Mauritius, or Prince Maurice's 
river, and immediately below the present city of Albany, 
they caused a trading house to be erected, thirty-six feet 
long and twenty-six feet wide. Around this was raised a 
strong stockade, fifty feet square, which was next encircled 
by a moat eighteen feet wide, the whole being defended by 
two pieces of cannon and eleven stone guns, mounted on 
swivels, and garrisoned by ten or twelve men. This post 
was placed under the command of Jacob Jacobz Elkens, who 
continued here four years in the employ of this association, 
during which time he was well liked by the natives, with 
whose language he was thoroughly conversant. Another 
fort was erected, under the superintendence of Corstiaensen, 

12 Colony of Rensselaerswych 

on an elevated spot on the southern extremity of the island 
Manhattan, where an insignificant establishmenthad already 
existed in 1613, as already stated. Possession was thus 
taken of the two most important points on the river, to which 
the powerful Mohawks, the fierce Manhatters, and the vari- 
ous other tribes in the neighborhood, brought their valuable 
furs to be exchanged forEuropean trinkets and dufifels. The 
post at the mouth of the river was, however, the traders' 
head-quarters. Hither annually came the ships of the New 
Netherland Company, and hence was annually exported 
whatever had been collected from the Indians, after their hunt- 
ing season, at the neighboring coasts and rivers ; from the 
distant castles of the Five Nations to the hunting grounds 
of the Minquas. Considerable activity consequently prevailed 
among the agents and other servants of the company in push- 
ing trade, and exploring the adjoining coasts. Runners 
scoured the woods, in order to become acquainted with the 
habits of the Indians, their manner of dealing, and to esta- 
blish friendly relations with those tribes to which the Dutch 
were not already known. 

The Restless having now thoroughly examined the coast 
as far as 38°, and penetrated up the Delaware as far as the 
Schuylkill, Capt. Hendrickson returned to Holland in the 
summer of 1616, from his second voyage, for the purpose of 
laying before the managers of the company the particulars 
of his explorations. On being presented to the States Gene- 
ral, he made a verbal report of his adventures, on the part 
of his employers, who, at the same time, petitioned their 
High Mightinesses, setting forth that they had, at con- 
siderable expense, discovered and explored certain countries, 
bays, and three rivers, lying in latitude from 38°, to 40°, with 
a small yacht called the Restless, of about eight lasts burden, 
commanded by Capt. Cornells Hendricksen, Jr., of Monni- 
chendam, which yacht the petitioners had built in the afore- 
said country. They thereupon demanded, in conformity with 
the provisions of the ordinance of March, 1614, the ex- 
clusive privilege of trading thither. 

Skipper Hendricksen's report, it is to be regretted, is 
both meagre and brief. After the detail of the preceding 
discoveries, he described the country as well wooded with 
oak, pine, and hickory, which trees, he added, were in some 

Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 13 

places covered with vines. He stated that he found in 
those parts male and female deer, turkeys, and partridges, 
and that the climate was as temperate as that of Holland ; 
that he had traded for seal and sable skins, furs, and other 
peltries, with the Minquas, from whom he had ransomed 
three of the company's servants, who had left their employ- 
ment among the Mohawks and Mohegans, having given, in 
exchange for them, beads, kettles, and other merchandise. 

Whether it was that the States General were dissatisfied 
with the small amount of information furnished in this 
report, or that other interests had by this time sprung up, 
which were anxious to participate in the advantages of the 
trade to America, or that paramount reasons of public policy 
influenced their deliberations, their high mightinesses laid 
this application on the table, and the exclusive grant to the 
New Netherland Company expired, by its own limitation, 
on the 1st of January, 1618, in the spring of which year, the 
breaking up of the ice, and the accompanying freshet on the 
River Mauritius, or North river, did so much injury to the 
company's fort on Castle island, that their servants were 
obliged to abandon it, and to remove a few miles south, to 
the banks of the Tawalsontha creek, now called the Norman's 
kill. Here, on a hill, called by the Indians Tawassgunshee, 
they erected a new fortification, and concluded with the 
great confederacy of the Five Nations a formal treaty of 
alliance and peace. 

This celebrated Indian confederation was composed of five 
tribes, namely, the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, 
and Senecas, and generally known by the name of the 
Iroquois. They inhabited the country bounded on the east 
by the G-reat River Manhattes and Lake Irocoisia, or 
Champlain ; on the west by Lake Erie and the River 
Niagara ; on the north by Lake Ontario and the Grreat river 
of Canada ; and on the south by the country of the Lenni 
Lenape, or Delawares. When the Dutch arrived in America, 
the tribes composing the Five Nations were at war with the 
Algonquin, or Canada Indians. But the latter having 
formed an alliance with the French, who, some years previ- 
ous to this date, had commenced the settlement of New 
France, as Canada was called, derived such powerful aid from 
the firearms of their European allies, that the Iroquois were 


14 Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 

defeated in almost every rencontre with their ancient enemy. 
Smarting under the disgrace of these unexpected repulses, 
the Iroquois hailed the establishment among them, now of 
another European nation familiar with the use of those 
terrible instruments, which, almost without human invention, 
scattered death wherever they were directed, and defied the 
war club and bow and arrow as weapons of attack or defence. 
Though jealous by nature, and given to suspicion, the 
Indians exhibited none of these feelings towards the new- 
comers, whose numbers were too few even to protect them- 
selves or to inflict injury on others. On the contrary, they 
courted their friendship, for through them they shrewdly 
calculated on being placed in a condition to cope with the 
foe, or to obtain that bloody triumph for which they thirsted. 
Such were the circumstances which now led to that treaty 
of alliance, which, as the tradition goes, was concluded on 
the banks of the Norman's kill, between the Five Nations 
and the Dutch. 

Nothing could surpass the importance the warlike inhabit- 
ants of those ancient forests attached to the ratification of 
this solemn treaty. Each tribe sent its chief as its ambassa- 
dor to represent it on this occasion. The neighboring 
tribes — the Lenni Lenape and Mohegans — were invited to 
attend; and there in the presence of the earth, their common 
mother — of the sun, which shed its genial heat on all alike — 
by the murmurs of that romantic stream, whose waters 
had been made to flow by their common Maker from all time, 
was the belt of peace held fast by the Dutch and their ab- 
original allies, in token of their eternal union. There Was 
the calumet smoked, and the hatchet buried, while the Dutch 
traders declared that they should forthwith erect a church 
over the weapon of war, so that it could no more be exhumed 
without overturning the sacred edifice, and whoever dared 
do that should incur the resentment of the white men. By 
this treaty the Dutch secured for themselves the quiet 
possession of the Indian trade, and the Five Nations obtained 
the means to assert that ascendency which they ever after 
maintained over the other native tribes, and to inspire terror 
far and near among the other savages of North America. 

The West India Company having finally in 1623 con- 
cluded its preparatory arrangements, and completed, with the 

Colony of Rensselaer swyck. 15 

sanction of the States General, the articles of agreement 
between the managers and the other adventurers, lost no time 
in commencing operations and forming establishments in 
New Netherland, which was erected into a province. A forti- 
fied post, called Fort Orange, was commenced on the west bank 
of the river Mauritius, as the North river was called, a few 
miles north of the redoubt which had been erected in 1618 
on Tawalsontha creek, and thirty-six (Dutch) miles from 
the Island of Manhattans. 

In 1629, a charter of privileges and exemptions was passed 
for the encouragement of patroons to settle colonies, and in 
the following year several wealthy and influential directors 
of the Dutch West India Company hastened to avail them- 
selves of its advantages. BastiacQ Jansen Krol commissary, 
and Dierck Cornelissen Duyster, under commissary at Fort 
Orange, having learned that a tract of land called San- 
nahagog, lying on the west side of the North river, extend- 
ing from Beeren island, by the Indians called Passapenock, 
up to the Smackx island, and in breadth two days' journey, 
was for sale, purchased the same from Paep Sikenekomptas, 
Nancouttanshal, and Sickoussen, the native proprietors, for 
Kiliaen van Rensselaer, a pearl-merchant in Amsterdam, and 
one of the directors of the West India Company. Three 
months afterwards, Gillis Hoossett purchased, in the presence 
of Jan Jansen Meyndertsen, Wolfert Gerritsen, and Jan 
Tyssen, trumpeter, for the same gentleman, from Cottomack, 
Nawanemit, Abantzene, Sagisguwa. and Kanamoack, the 
lands lying south and north of Fort Orange, and extending to 
within a short distance of Moenimines Castle, then situated 
on what is now called Haver island, at the mouth of the 
Mohawk j and from Nawanemit, one off'the last named chiefs, 
his grounds, called Semesseeck, stretching on the east side 
of the river from opposite Castle island to a point facing Fort 
Orange, and thence from Poetanoek, the Mill creek, north 
to Negagons. These conveyances were subsequently ratified 
by the respective parties, in the presence of the Director- 
general and council of New Netherland, who signed an in- 
strument to that effect, " sealed with the seal of New 
Netherland in red wax" on the same day that the charter of 
1629 was proclaimed at Fort Amsterdam. Nearly seven 
years afterwards — namely, on the 13th April, 1637 — an 

16 Colony of Eensselaerswyck. 

intervening district called Papsickenekaas or Papsskanea-as 
the name is now pronounced, lying also on the east side of 
the river, and extending from opposite Castle island south 
to the point opposite Smackx island, and including the 
adjacent islands and all the lands back into the interior, be- 
longing to the Indian owners, was purchased " for certain 
quantities of duffels, axes, knives, and wampum," also for 
Mr. Van Rensselaer, who thus became proprietor of a tract 
of country twenty-four miles long, and forty-eight miles broad, 
containing, as is estimated, over seven hundred thousand 
acres of land which now compose the counties of Albany, 
Rensselaer, and part of the county of Columbia. 

On the 1st of October 1630, a copartnership was entered 
into between Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, Samuel Grodyn, Johan- 
nes de Laet, and Samuel Bloemmaert, with whom were 
associated Adam Bissels and Toussaint Moussart, who, by the 
terms of the contract, were constituted codirectors of Rens- 
selaerswyck. The common stock of this association was 
divided into five shares, of which Van Rensselaer held two ; 
De Laet, one; Godyn,one; and Bloemmaert and his associates 
one; and the management of the affairs of the colonic was com- 
mitted to aboard consistingof four persons or votes, of which 
Van Rensselaer represented, or held two; Bloemmaert, or 
Bissels, one; and De Laet, or Moussart, one. Van Rensse- 
laer was, however, not to have any rank or authority in the 
colonic superior to his associates, except the title o? patroon^ 
which, with all its feudal honors, was vested in him alone, 
the partners binding themselves to do fealty and homage for 
the fief on his demise, in the name, and on the behalf of his 
son and heirs. 

Another association was formed, a few days afterwards, 
between Grodyn, Van Rensselaer, Bloemmaert, De Laet, 
Mathias van Cuelen, Hendrick Hamel, Johan van Ilarinck- 
houck, and Nicolaus van Sitterich, also directors of the 
West India Company, and Capt. David Pieterssen de Vries, 
for planting a colonic on the South river. Equalizing all 
expected advantages, they equipped a ship and yacht for that 
quarter, where they designed raising tobacco and grain, and 
prosecuting the whale fishery, oil bringing then a fair price 
in Holland. Preparations were also made to expedite 
farmers and cattle to Rensselaerswyck : and everywhere, at 

Colony of RmsselaersioycL 17 

home and abroad, things wore the aspect of prosperity, and 
" promised fairlie both to the state and undertakers.'' 

The condition of the Dutch settlements on the North river, 
at this time, is thus alluded to by a contemporary English 
writer : " This which they have settled in New England upon 
Hudson's river, with no extraordinary charge or multitude 
of people, is knowne to subsist in a comfortable manner, and 
to promise fairlie both to the state and undertakers. The 
cause is evdent : The men whom they carrie, though they be 
not many, are well chosen, and known to be useful and 
serviceable ; and they second them with seasonable and fit 
supplies, cherishing them as carefully as their owne families, 
and employ them in profitable labors, that are knowne to be 
of special! use to their comfortable subsisting." The Plant- 
ers' Plea; London, 1630. 

The inhabitants of Rensselaerswyck in 1 640, who numbered 
at the time as many traders as individuals, noting the avidity 
with which the Mohawks sought after fire-arms, willingly pay- 
ing the English twenty beavers for a musket, and from ten to 
twelve guilders for a pound of gunpowder, were desirous to 
share so profitable a trade. They commenced accordingly, to 
furnish fire-arms to these Indians. The profits which 
accrued became soon known, and traders from Holland soon 
introduced large quantities of guns and other munitions of 
war into the interior. The Mohawks, thus provided with 
arms for four hundred warriors, swept the country from 
Canada to the sea-coast, levying tribute on the surrounding 
terror-stricken tribes. 

The charter of 1629 having provided that every colonic 
should contain, within four years after its establishment, at 
least fifty persons over fifteen years of age, one fourth of 
whom should be located within the first year, the parties in- 
terested in the settlement of Rensselaerswyck lost no time 
in complying with these conditions. Early in the spring 
of the following year a number of colonists, with their 
families, and provided with farming implements, stock, and 
all other necessaries, sailed from the Texel, in the company's 
ship the Eendracht, Capt. Jan Brouwer, commander, and 
arrived in safety at the Manhattes, after a passage of sixty- 
four days. In a short time afterwards they landed at Fort 
Orange, in the vicinity of which they were furnished with 

18 Colony of Bensselaerswych. 

comfortable farm-houses and other dwellings, at the ex- 
pense of the patroon and his associates. Other settlers 
followed, with additional stock, each succeeding season, and 
thus were laid the foundations of those moral, wealthy and 
prosperous settlements which we now behold in and around 
the present city of Albany. 

Invested as well by the Roman law, as by the charter, with 
the chief command and lower jurisdiction, the patroon be- 
came empowered to administer civil and criminal justice, in 
person, or by deputy, within his colonic; to appoint local offi- 
cers and magistrates ; to erect courts, and to take cognizance 
of all crimes committed within his limits; to keep a gallows, 
if such were required, for the execution of malefactors, sub- 
ject however, to the restriction that if such gallows hap- 
pened, by any accident, to fall, pending an execution, a new 
one could not be erected, unless for the purpose of hanging 
another criminal. The right to inflict punishments of minor 
severity was necessarily included in that which authorized 
capital convictions, and accordingly we find various instances, 
throughout the record of the local court, of persons who had, 
by breaking the law, rendered themselves dangerous to so- 
ciety, or obnoxious to the authorities, having been banished 
from the colonic, or condemned to corporal chastisement, 
fine, or imprisonment, according to the grade of their 
05*6 nces. 

In civil cases, all disputes between man and man ; whether 
relating to contracts, titles, possessions, or boundaries; in- 
juries to property, person, or character ; claims for rents, and 
all other demands between the patroon and his tenants, were 
also investigated and decided by these courts; from the 
judgment of which, in matters affecting life and limb, and in 
suits where the sum in litigation exceeded twenty dollars, 
appeals lay to the director-general and council at Fort 
Amsterdam. But the local authorities, it must be added, 
were so jealous of this privilege that they obliged the colo- 
nists, on settling within their jurisdiction to promise not to 
appeal from any sentence of the local tribunal. 

The laws in force here were, as in other sections of New 
Netherland, the civil code, the enactments of the States 
General, the ordinances the West India Company, and of 
the director-general and. council, when properly published 

U^ Df ^ReniSsdaErsmtjck, Inno 1630. 


Colony of Rensselaerswyck, 19 

within the colonie, and such rules and regulations as the 
patroon and his codirectors, or the local authorities might 
establish and enact. 

The government was vested in a general court, which 
exercised executive, legislative or municipal, and judicial 
functions, and which was composed of two commissaries, 
{gecommiffeerden ;) two councillors, styled indiscriminately 
raefspersoonen, gerechts-persoonen, or raedtsvrienden, or schc' 
penen, and who answered to modern justices of the peace. 

Adjoined to this court were a colonial secretary, a sheriff, 
or, sellout fiscaal^ and a Gerechts-hode, court messenger, or 
constable. Each of these received a small compensation, 
either in the shape of a fixed salary or fees; the commissaries 
and magistrates, fifty, one hundred, or two hundred guilders 
annually, according to their standing ; the secretary one 
hundred guilders ', and the court messenger one hundred and 
fifty, with the addition of trifling fees for the transcript and 
service of papers. The magistrates of the colonie held office 
for a year, the court appointing their successors from among 
the other settlers, or continuing those already in office, at 
the expiration of their term of service, as it deemed proper. 

The most important functionary attached to this govern- 
ment was, as throughout the other parts of the country, the 
schout-fiscaal, who, in discharge of his public functions, was 
bound by instructions received from the patroon and co- 
directors, similar in tenor to those given to the same officer 
at the Manhattans. No man in the colonie was to be sub- 
ject to loss of life or property unless by the sentence of a 
court composed of five persons, and all who were under 
accusation were entitled to a speedy and impartial trial. The 
public prosecutor was particularly enjoined not to receive 
presents or bribes, nor to be interested in trade or commerce, 
either directly or indirectly; and in order that he might be 
attentive to the performance of his duties, and thoroughly 
independent, he was secured a fixed salary, a free house, 
and all fines amounting to ten guilders [ 84 ], or under, besides 
the third part of all forfeitures and amends over that sum, 
were his perquisites. 

Jacob Albertsen Planck was the first sheriff of Rensselaers- 
wyck. Arendt van Curler, who originally came out as 
assistant commissary, was appointed, soon after his arrival, 

20 Colony of JRensselaerswych 

commissary-general, or superintendent of the colonic, and 
acted as colonial secretary until 1642, when he was succeeded 
by Anthony de Hooges. Brant Peelen, Gerret de Reus, Cor- 
nells Teunissen van Breuckelen, Pieter Cornelissen van 
Munickendam, and Dirck Jansen were, if not the first, at 
least among the earliest magistrates of the settlement. 

The population of the colonic consisted at this remote 
period of three classes. Freemen, who emigrated from Hol- 
land at their own expense ; farmers and farm-servants, who 
were sent out by thepatroon, who judiciously applied his large 
resources in promoting the early settlement of the country, 
and in assisting the struggling industry of his people. To 
accomplish this laudable object a number of farms were 
set off, on both sides of the river and adjoining islands, on 
which he caused dwelling-houses, barns, and stables to be 
erected. These farms were suitably stocked with cows, 
horses, or oxen, and occasionally, sheep ; and furnished with 
ploughs, wagons and other necessary agricultural imple- 
ments, all which preliminary expenses were defrayed by the 
proprietor so that the farmer entered on the property unem- 
barrassed by the want of capital, which often tends to impede 
the progress of settlers in new countries. Some of those farms 
were then valued, and an annual rent was fixed, equivalent 
in some sort to the interest of the capital expended on their 
improvement, and payable semi-annually in grain, beavers, 
and wampum. Other farms were let out on halves, or for 
the third of their produce ; the patroon was entitled, at the 
same time, to half the increase from the stock, reserved to 
himself one-tenth of the produce of each farm ; and in various 
instances stipulated for a yearly erkentenis, or acknowledg- 
ment of a few pounds of butter. The tenant was privileged, 
however, to compound, by the payment of a fixed annual 
sum for the tenths of the farm, or for his halves or thirds. He 
was bound, at the same time, to keep the fences, buildings, or 
farming implements, in repair, and to deliver them up in the 
same good order in which he had received them, subject 
in all cases to ordinary wear and tear, but the patroon bore 
all risks of destruction of the buildings, cattle and other pro- 
perty which might accrue from war, or misunderstanding 
with the Indians. Wild or unimproved land was usually 
leased for a term often years free of rent or tenths, subject, 

Colony of Rensselaerswych 21 

however, to be improved by tbe lessee, all improvements 
falling to the patroon on the expiration of the lessee. In 
addition to the facilities above enumerated, each of the 
settlers, on leaving Holland, were, like those sent by the 
West India Company to the Manhattans, generally furnished 
with clothing and a small sum in cash, the latter to be repaid, 
at some future occasion, in produce or wampum, with an 
advance on the principal of fifty per cent. This, however 
disproportionate it may now seem, can not be considered 
unreasonable or extravagant, when it is understood that the 
diflFerence, at the time, between colonial and Holland cur- 
rency was nearly forty per cent, while between the latter 
and the value of wampum it was vastly larger. The patroon 
was bound, at the same time, to supply his colonists with a 
sufficient number of laborers to assist them in the work of 
their farms. As compensation for his trouble in engaging 
these and for his advances in conveying them to America, 
he was entitled to the sum of sixteen guilders, or six dollars, 
per-annum for each laborer, over and above the yearly wages 
which the farmer was to allow such servants, and which 
ranged from forty to one hundred and fifty guilders, and 
board. This sum provided these servants with necessary 
clothing, and in the course of time placed at their disposal 
wherewith to enter on a farm on tbeir own account. It is to 
be remarked, however, that the first patroon seriously com- 
plained that his settlers not only threw altogether on him 
the payment of these wages, but took large quantities of 
goods from his store for which they made no returns what- 
ever, though they were bound to settle at the end of each 
year, and to hand in an account of the produce of the farm, 
distinguishing the patroon's tenths, halves, or thirds, the 
amount paid for wages, and their own expenses, so as to allow 
him to ascertain what his own profits and losses were at the 
close of each annual term. 

In return for his outlay and trouble, the civil code, which, 
it must be always borne in mind, was the fundamental law 
of this colonic, vested in the patroon several privileges 
common to the feudal system. At the close of the harvest, 
the farmer was bound to hand in a return of the amount of 
grain which he had for sale, after deducting what was due 
to the landlord by the lease, and offer to him, or his com- 

22 Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 

missary the preemption of such produce. In case he re- 
fused to buy it, then the farmer was at liberty to sell the 
same elsewhere. The like rule obtained in regard to 
cattle. When these were to be sold, the first offer was 
also to be made to the patroon, in order, we presume, 
that he should have an opportunity of retaining the stock 
within the colonic. Every settler was likewise obligated 
to grind his corn at the patroon's mill, and the latter was 
equally obligated to erect, and keep such mill in repair, at 
his own expense, for the accommodation of his colonists. 
No person could hunt or fish within the limits of the 
colonic, without license from the patroon, who, on the 
exchange, sale, and purchase of real estate within his 
jurisdiction, was entitled to the first offer of such property; 
or if he declined to resume it, to a certain portion of the 
purchase money, except such mutation occurred in the 
natural line of descent. Finally, it was his right, as " lord 
of the manor," to succeed to the estate and property of all 
persons who might die intestate within his colonic. 

Under the fostering care of its first patroon, and the pru- 
dent management of its local magistracy, the colonic of 
Rensselaerswyck progressively, though slowly, advanced. 
Portions of its inhabitants occasionally returned to Father- 
land, to spread the tidings of their prosperity, and to invite 
their friends and relatives to join them in their new houses, 
which from the abundance and cheapness of provisions, 
deserved truly to be called " a land flowing with milk and 
honey.'' A hamlet gradually arose. On account, it is said, 
of the crescent form of the bank of the river at this point, 
this hamlet was first called the Fuyck, or Beversfuyck, and 
afterwards Beverswyck, by which name the present city of 
Albany was legally known until 1664, though it was famili- 
arly called the Fuyck, by the Dutch, for many years after 
the entire country had passed into the hands of other masters. 

In order to give greater stability to his settlement, and to 
become better acquainted with its condition, Mr. Van Rens-^ 
selaer, it is alleged, visited the colonic in person in 1637. 
His stay in the country, if he ever did come, was, however, 
not very long. The demise or resignation of Sheriff Planck 
now required the appointment of a new officer, and the 
peculiar position of the settlers, surrounded on all sides by 

Colony of BensselaersioycL 2B 

rude and unconverted savages, demanded the guardian 
supervision and solacing comforts of religion, for as yet 
neither church nor clergymen, existed in Rensselaerswyck. 
To secure an efficient administration of justice, and to pro- 
vide a properly qualified clergyman for his people, conse- 
quently became a paramount duty. 

Adriaen van der Donck, *'a free citizen of Breda," — a 
lineal descendant of Adriaen van Bergen, part owner of the 
famous turf-sloop in which a party of Dutch troops were 
clandestinely introduced, in the year 1590, into the castle 
commanding that city, then in the hands of the Spanish, by 
which stratagem that stronghold fell into the hands of their 
High Mightinesses the States General, — and a graduate of 
the University of Ley den, was selected as the successor of 
Sherifi" Planck. He entered on the performance of his 
duties, as schout-fiscaal of Rensselaerewyck, in the course 
of a month or two after his appointment, having, previous 
to his departure from Holland, taken a lease from the 
patroon of the west half of Castle island, called Welysburg. 

The Rev. Johannes Megapolensis, " the pious and well- 
learned minister of the congregation of Schoorel and Berge," 
under the classis of Alkmaer, was duly called to disseminate 
the light of the gospel among the Christians and heathen 
in the colonic, and regularly commissioned " to preach God^s 
word there ; to administer the holy sacraments of baptism 
and the Lord's supper; to set an example, 4n a Christian- 
like manner, by public precept; to ordain elders and dea- 
cons; to keep and govern, by and with the advice and 
assistance of the same, God's congregation in good discipline 
and order, all according to God's holy word, and in con- 
formity with the government, confession, and catechism of 
the Netherland churches, and the synodal acts of Dordrecht." 

The allowance guarantied to this clergyman was free 
passage and board for himself, his wife and four children, 
who accompanied him to New Netherland; an outfit of three 
hundred guilders, or one hundred and twenty dollars, and 
an annual stipend, for the first three years, of eleven hun- 
dred guilders, ($440,) thirty schepels of wheat, and two 
firkins of butter, or in place thereof, should he prefer 
it, sixty guilders in cash. The salary was to be further in- 
creased by an addition of two hundred guilders a year, for 

24 Colony of Rensselaer swych 

a second term of three years, if the patroon were satisfied 
with his services. A pension of one hundred guilders per 
annum was secured to his wife, in case of his demise within 
the above term, for and during whatever time might remain 
unexpired of his engagement. 

These preliminaries having been thus arranged, an 
obstacle was unexpectedly thrown in the way of Mr. Mega- 
polensis's departure by the directors of the West* India 
Company, who claimed the exclusive right to approve of 
his appointment. To this, however, the feudal lord of 
Rensselaerswyck demurred ; and it was not until after a 
lapse of several months that a compromise was agreed to, the 
directors approving of the appointment under protest on the 
part of Mr. Van Rensselaer, saving his rights as patroon. 

The Rev. Mr. Megapolensis and family embarked, to- 
gether with Abraham Staes, surgeon, Evert Pels, brewer, 
and a number of other freeman, farmers, and farm -servants, 
shortly after this, in the ship the Houttuyn, or Woodyard, 
which was freighted with a quantity of goods for the 
colonic — between two and three hundred bushels of malt 
for Mr. Pels — four thousand tiles, and thirty thousand stone 
for building — besides some vines and madder, the cultivation 
of which the patroon was desirous of introducing among his 
people. 1 On the arrival of Mr. Megapolensis at Rensselaers- 
wyck, a contract was concluded for the erection of a dwelling 
for himself and family, but the contractor having failed in 
fulfilling his agreement a house belonging to Maryn Adriaen- 
sen, constructed entirely of oak, was subsequently purchased 
for his use, for the sum of three hundred guilders, or one 
hundred and twenty dollars. For the convenience of the 
settlers at Tuscameatick, (as Greenbush, at the opposite side 
of the river, was called by the Indians,) a ferry was next 
established near the foot of the beaver's kill, (where it still 
continues to ply;) and as it was the patroon's intention that 

^Mr. Pels erected a brewery in the colonie; Dr. Staes became 
one of tlie council in 1643, and was appointed president of the board 
in 1644, at a salary of 100 florins ($40) per annum. He obtained 
license to trade in furs, and bad also a considerable bouwerie, 
besides pursuing the practice of his profession. He was the an- 
cestor of the Staats of the present day, the original name having 
assumed shortly afterwards the termination it now has. 

Colony of Bensselaerswyck, 25 

the clmrch, the minister's dwelling, the attorney-general's 
residence, and the houses for the trades-people and mechanics, 
should be erected in one vicinity, so as to constitute a kerck- 
huurte, or settlement around the church, orders were 
transmitted that no persons (farmers and tobacco planters 
excepted) should, for the future, establish themselves, after 
the expiration of their term of service, elsewhere than in 
the vicinity of the church, and according to the plan now 
sent out by the Houttuyn; for, it was justly observed, "if 
every one resides where he thinks fit, separated far from other 
settlers, they, should trouble occur, would be unfortunately in 
danger of their lives, as sorrowful experience hath demon- 
strated around the Manhattans." A church, thirty -four feet 
long and nineteen feet wide — the first in this quarter — was 
erected in the course of the following year. Though 
humble in its dimensions, when compared with modern 
edifices of a similar sacred character, it was considced, at this 
time, sufficiently ample for the accommodation of the faith- 
ful, " for the next three or four years, after which it might 
be converted intoaschoolhouse, or a dwelling for the sexton/' 
A pulpit, ornamented with a canopy, was soon added for the 
preacher, as well as pews for the magistrates and for the 
deacons, and "nine benches'' for the congregation. The 
expense of all this necessary furniture amounted to the sum 
of thirty-two dollars. While providing accommodation for 
the living the dead were not forgotten. The church-yard 
lay in the rear, or to the west, of the patroon's trading- 
house — in what is now very correctly called Church street : 
and in order " to be safe from the ravages of the Indians," 
the infant hamlet, living and dead, nestled close under the 
guns of Fort Orange. 

One 'of the principal aims of the first foundei's of 
Ivensselaerswyck seems to have been to secure for themselves 
the valuable trade in furs, the chief mart for which centered 
at the point where they made their purchase and commenced 
their settlement. To engross this the more efi'ectually, all 
foreign and unlicensed traders were rigidly excluded from 
the colonic. The patroon and his partners were the only 
privileged importers of European merchandise, the company 
having, in consequence of the war and other causes, ceased 
to keep Fort Orange supplied with foreign goods. All set- 

26 Colony of Rensselaerswych 

tiers were bound under oatli not to purchase any peltries from 
the Indians, on pain of forfeiting their goods and wages, un- 
less duly licensed to carry on such trade, for such a privilege 
was exclusively vested in the patroon by the sixth article of 
the charter. The majority of the settlers subsequently 
obtained such permission ; received goods on credit from the 
patroon's store, and every farmer, as De Vries observes, 
become a trader. They were, however, obliged to bring in 
all the furs which they purchased to the patroon's magazine, 
to be sent over to Holland to him, he retaining, as his share, 
half the profits. This condition was afterwards modified so 
far as to allow him to retain only the sixth beaver, and one 
guilder recognition, or duty, on each of the remaining five- 
sixths. This system soon produced results which were 
naturally to be expected. Competition raised the price of 
peltries nearly one hundred per cent. Prior to 1642 the 
price of a merchantable beaver, which averaged about an 
ell square, was six hands, or fathoms, of wampum. In the 
course of that year the article commanded from seven to 
seven and a half; but when the traders found that the 
agents of the patroon, as well as the officers at Fort Orange, 
did not refuse paying that price, they immediately offered 
nine ; and in the following year advanced the rate to ten 
fathoms of white wampum for each skin. A joint procla- 
mation was hereupon issued by the authorities of Rensselaers- 
wyck, and those of the Fort, fixing the price of furs at nine 
fathoms of white, or four and a half of black wampum, and 
forbidding all persons whatsoever, whether servants of the 
company or residents in the colonic, from going into the 
woods to trade in advance with the Indians, on pain of seizure 
of all their goods. Another proclamation was also issued, pro- 
hibiting all traders to come with their sloops within the limits 
of the colonic under the penalty of forfeiting the same. And 
on the following court-day a third proclamation followed, for 
the better securing the monopoly of the import trade to the 
patroon, by which the inhabitants of the colonic were abso- 
lutely forbidden purchasing any goods from the local traders. 
Orders were given at the same time to Sherifl" Van der Donck 
to enforce these regulations with strictness and severity. 

This functionary, between whom and Van Curler, and the 
other officers of the colonio; considerable jealousy and ill feel- 

Colony of Rensselaer swych 27 

iugalready existed, had no desire to render himself unpopu- 
lar with the colonists. "He should not," he said, "make 
himself the worst, man in the colonie, nor be suspected by 
the colonists, for his term as officer was but short." He 
therefore not only refused to enforce these regulations, but 
when, a few days afterwards, the colonists, contrary to the 
prohibitions of the court, did purchase duffels and sundry 
other goods which had been surreptitiously introduced, he 
connived at their proceedinos, and either told the suspected 
parties to put their goods out of his sight, or neglected entire- 
ly to execute his duty, or to make any seizures. Not content 
with this disobedience of orders, he proceeded, next, secretly 
to foment feelings of discontent and mutiny among the people, 
before whom he placed the abovementioned placards in a 
most odious light, and whom he persuaded into the belief 
that Van Curler was endeavoring "to steal the bread out of 
their mouths." His representation had eventually such an 
effect on the public mind, that a conspiracy was formed 
against the commissary-general among several of the colonists, 
who drew up a strong protest against that officer, which, in 
order that they might remain undiscovered, the ringleaders 
signed in the form of a " round robin," by affixing to the 
paper their signatures in " a circle." This done, they next 
denounced Van Curler in the most vehement terms. Some 
proposed driving him from the colonie as a rogue ; others, 
more vindictive and turbulent, insisted on taking his life. 
These threats, fortunately for the character of the settlers, 
were not followed up by any overt act Van der Donck pro- 
fessed, all the while, an honest desire to second the wishes 
of the constituted authorities. But when the time for testing 
his sincerity arrived, he was found wanting in the fulfillment 
of his promise. 

It became apparent now from the ill-feeling which existed 
between Sheriff Van dor Donck and the other functionaries 
in the colonie, and which had already caused in two instances 
an exchange of blows, that the former could not comforta- 
bly prolong his stay in Rensselaerswyck, or hold his office 
very agreeably, much longer. He determined, indeed, to 
return to Holland in the course of the next year, as he was 
desirous to become a patroon himself, with which view he 
proceeded, with several colonists, to Katskill, to purchase 

28 Colony of Bensselaerswyck. 

the lands there from the Indians, for the erection of an inde- 
pendent colonie. But the moment the patroon of Rensselaers- 
wyck received intelligence of this" dishonest" move on the 
part of " his sworn officer/' he immediately forwarded in- 
structions to Van Curler, couched in the following stringent 
terms : 

"The patroon of the Colonie of Renselaerswyck having, 
on the sixth of this month, given a Commission to Pieter 
Wyucoop, commis. on board his ship, to purchase for a 
reasonable price from the natural owners and inhabitants, 
and from their chiefs, their lands lying about Katskill, in 
consequence of certain information which he had that 
Adriaen van der Donck his sworn officer, dishonestly 
designed to purchase for him and his, to the prejudice of 
him, the patroon, his lord and master, the said lands, lying 
under the shadow of his colonie. Therefore he, by virtue 
of the sixth and twenty-sixth articles of his freedoms and 
exemptions, doth claim that no person shall, against his will, 
approach within seven or eight miles of him; also that he 
hath power to enlarge his colonie, on condition of planting 
a proportionate number of colonists there, which number 
was, even by this vessel, so increased that he hath already 
included the same from RansselaersStein, down to Katskill, 
remaining on the same side, within his resort. And further, 
having obtained certain information that such is, indeed, also 
true, the commissary-general Arendt van Curler, together 
with the aforesaid Pieter Wyncoop, are charged not to inquire 
of the above-named Van der Donck if it be true, (inasmuch 
as the patroon hath by him sufficient proof thereof,) but him 
to constrain, should he have done so, to desist, de facto, there- 
from, and to cede and to make over to him, the patroon, all 
whatsoever he hath required, conformably to his oath, having' 
sworn to be true and faithful specially to him, his injury to 
prevent and his advantages to promote, both which in this 
matter have not happened ; and in case the said purchase be 
not yet effected, that he, in presence of the commissaries and 
council of the colonic, do promise, under oath, not to proceed 
therewith, but to respect him the patroon, and to afford to 
his (agents) all favor and help, that they may be allowed to 
make the aforesaid purchase to the best advantage; and 
should he refuse the one, or the other, to secure his person, 

Colony of Rensselaer swyck, 29 

inasmuch us he has also endeavored, per fas et nefas, (met minne 
ofte onminue,) to return home in case the patroon should not 
consent to discharge him ; and inasmuch as the lease of his 
bouwerie, which he hath taken and agreed for in person 
with the patroon, hath still long to run, which he can not set 
aside without consent, but shall be bound to keep during that 
time. And in witness of the truth hath the Patroon sub- 
scribed these with his hand, and sealed them with his and 
the colonie's seal, in Amsterdam, this 10th September, 1643. 

KiLiAEN VAN Rensselaer, 
[Seal] Patroon of the Colonic of llensselaerswyck : 

" In case Van der Douck should prove obstinate, he shall 
be degraded from his office, and left on his bouwerie to com- 
plete his contracted lease, without allowing him to depart, 
and his office shall be conferred, provisionally, on Nicolaus 
Coorn, till further orders, divesting him of all papers apper- 
taining to his charge. But if he will desist, then his office, 
and his bouwerie, shall he be allowed to hold. Actum as above. 
KiLiAEN VAN Rensselaer, 

in quality as herein above stated." 

This order, which had the effect of arresting Van der 
Donck's intended colonic at Katskill, was conveyed to New 
Netherland by the patroon's ship, The Arms of Rensselaers- 
wyck, which was dispatched with an assorted invoice of mer- 
chandise, consisting of woollen, linen, and cotton goods, 
ready-made clothing, silks, glass, crockery, leather, fruit, 
cheese, spices, brandy, gin, wines, cordials, tobacco-pipes, 
nets, looking glasses, beads, axes, adzes, razors, knives, scissors, 
bells, nails, spoons, kettles, thimbles, pins, needles, threads, 
rings, shoes, stockings, gloves, combs, buttons, muskets, 
pistols, swords, shot, lead, canvas, pitch and tar, candles, 
stationery, and various other commodities, valued at twelve 
thousand eight hundred and seventy guilders, to be bartered 
with the Indians and other inhabitants of the country for 
tobacco, furs, and other produce. To ensure entire success 
for this venture, the skipper, supercargo, and pilot of the 
ship were allowed a direct pecuniary interest in the proceeds 
of the voyage. 

The system of license introduced by the patroon, and the 
profits which resulted, had already incited a number of pri- 

30 Colony of Bensselciersvyyck. 

vate individuals to embark in the fur-trade. As a conse- 
quence, this staple was altogether taken out of the hands both 
of the patroou's and the company's servants, who could 
purchase scarcely a skin, while private traders exported 
thousands of peltries. A number of unlicensed traders now 
resorted to the colonic, who drew the Indians away into 
" secret trading places," where by means of higher prices, they 
got possession of the most valuable furs, " not caring whether 
or not the trade was so injured as to render the patroon un- 
able to meet the expenses of his colonic/' Having thus 
''debauched" the savages, these interlopers succeeded next, 
by means of " wine and strong drink, which they sold at an 
usurious rate," in perverting many of the colonists, from 
whom they got, not only peltries, but even large quantities 
of grain, which the farmers disposed of without either respect- 
ing the patroon's pre-emption right, or paying the tenths, 
or accounting for the halves or thirds which they were 
bound by lease to pay. 

To arrest these illicit proceedings, the patroon adopted 
two measures which would, he expected, put a stop to the 
injuries which his interests were sustaining from the compe- 
tition that was then exhausting and impoverishing his colonic. 
One of these was the erection of a fortified post and trading 
house at Beeren, or Bear's Island, the southern boundary of 
his estate, which, by commanding the channel of the river, 
would exclude all vessels, but his own and those of the West 
India Company, from the upper waters of the Hudson. The 
other was, to send out a stock of goods sufficient to 
supply, through his establishments at Beverswyck and Beeren 
Island, the Mohawks and river Indians, and all the neigh- 
boring vsettlers, with whatsoever they may require in barter 
for their produce, whether furs or corn. It was with a view 
to carry out the latter part of this project^ that the Arms of 
Rensselaerswyck now sailed with the above mentioned valua- 
ble cargo. 

She arrived at the Manhattans while the war with the 
Indians was at its height, and at the moment when Kieft 
was sorely distressed for clothing for the troops which he 
had enlisted. A recjuisition was immediately made on Pieter 
Wyncoop, the supercargo of the ship, for a supply of fifty 
pairs of shoes to be distributed among the soldiers, payment 

Colony of BensselaerswycL 31 

for which was offered "in silver, beavers, or wampum,'^ at 
such price as the supercargo might demand. But Wyn- 
coop, perceiving that he could sell these goods to more advan- 
tage to the inhabitants than to the director, injudiciously 
refused to comply with this requisition. A forced levy was 
the result, and as many soldiers were equipped with shoes 
from the ship, as " killed five hundred of the enemy." The 
evil consequence of Wyncoop's refusal did not stop here. 
The ship was immediately overhauled by authority of the di- 
rector and council, and a considerable quantity of powder 
and a number of guns found on board, which were not enu- 
merated in the manifest, and which Wyncoop was charged 
with intending to sell to the savages. These articles having 
been made contraband by law, and their introduction for- 
bidden on pain of death, were, together with the ship, 
forthwith confiscated. 

Wyncoop now too late, perceived the error which either 
his instructions or his covetousness had plunged him In 
the hope, however, of retreiving his loss, he instituted an ac- 
tion against Cornelis Van der Huygens, the fiscaal at Fort 
Amsterdam, against whom he protested, in strong terms, for 
having unloaded his ship, which proceeding he pronounced 
an insult, a reproach, and a wrong inflicted on the honorable 
patroon, " the first and oldest patriot of the land," and for 
which aggression he now demanded redress from the director- 
general and council. It was much fitter for the fiscaal, he 
added, to discharge and to confiscate such ships as came and 
traded hither without any commission, and thereby brought 
contempt on the country and its government, than to affront 
a patroon who hazarded so much for his colonists and New 
Netherland. He finally maintained that the powder which 
he had on board was for the ship's use and for the defence of 
Rensselaers-Stein, or Castle Rensselaer, as the fortification 
on Beeren Island was called. This plea profited nothing. 
The powder was not mentioned in the manifest, and the ex- 
planation which was offered was merely used as "a cloak" to 
cover the ^real design. " It is far from us," concluded the 
attorney-g'eneral, " to insult the patroon. On the contrary, we 
are willing to aid him in promoting the welfare of his colonie. 
But it is you who are endeavoring to frustrate his noble plans, 
by associating exclusively with private traders, and striving 

82 Colony of Rensselaer swyck. 

to take them witli you to the colonie in direct opposition 
to the commands of the patroon, who hath sent out his ship 
to keep free traders from that place. If your conduct is 
just, free merchants can not be prevented trading thither, and 
they will be justified in so doing. I deny that any damage 
whatever has been done. Are you of a contrary opinion ? 
Cite me before any court of justice, whenever you please.^' 

Arendt van Curler, finding that no satisfactory issue was 
to be expected from this litigation, finally proposed that the 
ship should be released, and the whole case referred to the 
Directors in Holland for their decision. As the vessel was 
suffering considerable injury from detention this proposal 
was acceded to " so that the patroon should have no reason 
to complain," on the express condition, however, that no 
goods should be landed from the vessel until permission was 
obtained from the company, and that such articles as were 
already seized by the attorney-general should remain confis- 
cated, as they had not been included in the invoice. The 
vessel sailed soon after for Holland, whither Van Curler also 
proceeded to give an account of his stewardship. 

In the mean time Nicolaus Coorn, " Wacht Meester'' 
or commander in the service of the patroon, had completed 
his fort on Beeren Island, on which he mounted a number 
of cannon, sufficient not only for its defence, but for the com- 
plete command of the river. A claim to " staple right " was 
then boldly set up ; a toll of five guilders, or two dollars, im- 
posed on every trading-craft passing up or down, which 
were also obliged to lower their colors in honor of Rensselaers- 
Stein. And thus a sovereign jurisdiction was asserted over 
this navigable highvy-ay against all persons, save and except 
the servants of the West India Company. 

It was in the summer of 1644, that the yacht the Good 
Hope, of which Covert Lookermans was master, sailed from 
Fort Orange for New Amsterdam. Passing Beeren Island, 
the craft was hailed, and peremptorily ordered " to lower his 
colors.'' On being asked for whom, the commander replied, 
" For the staple right of Bensselaerswyck." But the skipper 
refused, with an oath, to strike his flag '' for any individual 
save the Prince of Orange and the Lords his masters;" 
whereupon Coorn fired several shots at the vessel, one of 
which, says the record, " perforated our princely flag," about 

Colony of Bensselaerswych 33 

a foot above the head of the skipper, " who kept the colors 
constantly in his hand," 

Such an outrage as this could not fail to create excitement 
in New Amsterdam, when the particulars became known. 
Philip de Truy, " marshal of New Netherland," summoned 
Coorn to appear immediately at the Fort to answer for his 
conduct. The latter pleaded the authority of his patroon. 
But this was considered no justification. He was condemned 
in damages, and forbidden to repeat the offence on pain of 
corporal punishment. He was further required to obtain 
Van Rensselaer's approval of the sentence, which should be 
executed on him without fail, if that approval were not 
forthcoming. This proceeding was followed soon after by a 
strong protest from attorney-general Van der Huygens, 
against the establishment on Beeren Island, which was 
declared to be inconsistent with the privileges granted to 
patroons and lords of manors. No patroon, it was main- 
tained, could extend this colony, by the fifth article of the 
charter, more than four miles along one bank, or two miles 
on both sides of the river, while Beeren Island was more 
than two miles' from the limits of the colonie. The bold 
attempt to construct a fort there, to command the river, and 
to debar Fort Orange from free navigation, would, it was 
added, be ruinous to the company ; it was therefore peremp- 
torily ordered that no building whatsoever, much less a 
fortification, should be constructed beyond the limits of 
Rensselaerswyck, and Coorn was formally threatened with 
further prosecution should he persist in his lawless trans- 

But Nicolaus Coorn, commander of Bensselaers-Stein, was 
not to be intimidated by the paper bullets of director Kieft's 
attorney-general. " As the vice commander of the honor- 
able Van Rensselaers," he replied, " I call on you, Cornells 
van der Huygens, attorney-general of New Netherland not 
to presume to oppose and frustrate my designs on Bear's 
Island ; to defraud me in any manner, or to cause me any 
trouble, as it has been the will of their High Mightinesses, 
the States General, and the privileged West India Company, 
to invest any patroon and his heir with the right to extend and 
fortify his colonie, and make it powerful in every respect, . . 
If you persist in so doing I protest against the 

^34 Colony of Rensselaer swych 

act of violence and assault committed by the honorable, Lords 
majors, which I leave them to settle, while this undertaking 
has nothing else in view than to prevent the canker of free 
traders entering his colonic." 

In the spirit in which this protest was drafted, were the 
feudal pretensions of the lord of Rensselaerswyck asserted 
and maintained, notwithstanding the conviction of Coorn and 
a warning of Van der Hujgens, during the remainder of the 
_patroon's life. The same policy was steadily continued by 
his executors for several years after his death, which event 
took place in Amsterdam, in the year 1646. 

With the demise of the first patroon terminated, also, Van- 
der Donck's connection with the colonic. He was succeeded 
in his office of fiscaal by Nicolaus Coorn. He did not, how- 
ever, quit Rensselaerswyck before experiencing a heavy loss 
in the destruction of his house on Castle Island by fire, in 
consequence of which he and his wife temporarily removed 
to Van Curler's residence, the hospitalities of which were 
generously offered to him by its proprietor. Differences of 
opinion now arose between him and Van Curler, as to the 
party on whom the loss of the house should fall ; one maintain- 
ing that the property was at the risk of the patroon; the other, 
of the lessee, a quarrel ensued. Van der Don ck gave Van 
Curler the lie, whereupon the latter ordered him out of his 
house. Van der Donck removed immediately to Fort Orange, 
where he remained until the opening of the navigation, when 
he proceeded to the Manhattans. In the mean time, his 
claims were referred for adjustment to the proprietors in 

The winter which had just terminated, was remarkably long 
and severe. The North River closed at Rensselaerswyck, on 
the 24th November, and remained frozen some four months. 
A very high freshet, unequaled since 1639, followed, which 
destroyed a number of horses in their stables ; nearly carried 
away the fort, and inflicted considerable other damage in the 
colonic. " A certain fish of considerable size, snow-white in 
color, round in the body, and blowing water out of its head," 
made at the same time his appearance, stemming the impe- 
tuous flood. What it portended, " God the Lord only knew." 
All the inhabitants were lost in woader, for " at the same 
instant that this fish appeared to us, we had the first thunder 

Colony of Rensselaersioyck. 35 

and lightning this year/' The public astonishment had 
scarcely subsided, when another monster of the deep, esti- 
mated at forty feet in length, was seen, of a brown color, 
having fins on his back, and ejecting water in a like manner, 
high in the air. Some seafaring people, " who had been to 
Greenland, " now pronounced the strange visitor a whale. 
Intelligence was shortly after received that it had grounded 
on an island at the mouth of the Mohawk, and the people 
turned out in numbers to secure the prize, which was forth- 
with subjected to the process of roasting, in order to extract 
its oil. Though large quantities were obtained, yet so great 
was the mass of blubber, the river was covered with grease 
for three weeks afterwards, and the air infected to such a 
degree with the stench, as the fish lay rotting on the strand, 
that the smell was perceptibly offensive for two (Dutch) miles 
to leeward. The whale, which had first ascended the river, 
stranded, on his return to sea, on an island some forty miles 
from the mouth of the river, near which place four others 
grounded, also, this year. 

The greater number of the houses around forts Amsterdam 
and Orange were, in those days, low-sized wooden buildings, 
with roofs of reed or straw, and chimneys of wood. Wind 
or water mills were erected, here and there, to grind corn, 
or to saw lumber. One of the latter, situate on Nut or Go- 
vernor's island, was leased in 1639 for five hundred mer- 
chantable boards yearly, half oak and half pine. Saw and 
grist mills were built on several of the creeks in the colonic 
of Rensselaerswyck, where a liorse mill was also erected in 
1646, of which the following is a contract, dated Jan. 31. 
" The mill situate on the fifth kill being-, to the great damag;e 
of the patroon, and inhabitants of the colonic, [Rensselaers- 
wyck], for a considerable time out of repair, or unfit to be 
worked, either by the breaking of the dam, the severity of 
the winter, or the high water, or otherwise; besides being out 
of the way, to the prejudice of the inhabitants in going and 
returning, a contract, after being duly proposed to the court, 
is therefore made with Pieter Cornelissen to build a horse- 
mill in the Pine grove, whereby not only the colonic, but 
also, if so be, the navigators who come hither, may be 
encouraged to provide themselves with other things. Pieter 
Cornelisz. shall complete the work for fl. 300, ($120,) I fur- 

36 Colony of Rensselaer swych 

nishing him fl. 200 in stones, two good horses, the expense 
of which is to be divided between us, half and half. The 
standing-work, plank, labor, and other expenses, we shall de- 
fray in common, bearing, each, equal profit and loss. On 
the completion of the mill, and on its being ready to go, 
Pieter Cornelissen shall work one day for himself and the 
other day for the patroon,and so forth; the patroon paying him 
one Rix dollar for his day. Should it happen, as we expect, 
that so great a demand shall arise, so that the mill will not 
supply all the colonic or strangers, (buytenwoonders,) then 
P. Cornelisz, is alone authorized and privileged to erect, in 
company with the patroon, another such mill, on these or 
such other conditions as are now, or shall hereafter be agreed 
on. Signed, Anthony de Hooges, Pieter Cornelis- 
sen." — Rensselaerswyck MSS.) A mill worked by horses 
stood, the course of the last century, as I am informed by 
an aged citizen, on the lot forming the northeast corner of 
Hudson and Grrand streets, Albany. There was a mill also 
on the 3d or llutten kill in 1646. 

A Brewery had been constructed previous to 1637 in the 
same quarter, by the patroon, with the exclusive right of 
supplying retail dealers with beer. But private individuals 
were allowed the privilege, notwithstanding, to brew what- 
ever quantity of beer they might require for consumption 
within their own families. ^ 

Rensselaerswyck was the only colonic which remained un- 
injured by the war. As a consequence its population 

^ 26 Dec. 1646. Whereas their Honors of the Court of this Colonie 
find tliat Cornelis Segersz, notwithstanding fonner placards and 
prohibitions, has still presumed to meddle with what is not his 
business — Avith beer brewing — directly contrary to the grant and 
authorization given to the brewery of this colonie ; Therefore their 
honors expressly forbid the said Cornelis Segersz, to brew, or caused 
to be brewed, or other^vise to manufacture any beer, except so much 
as shall be required by him for his own housekeeping, on pain of 
forfeiting twenty five Carolus guilders, besides the brewed beer. 
The said Cornelis Segersz, is further warned that no cloak, or idle 
excuse shall hereafter avail, but that this ordinance shall be main- 
tained and executed on the spot, without court process, if he shall 
make any mistake. Let him, therefore, prevent his loss. Actum. 
Rensselaerswyck, 26th October 1646. Pursuant to the resolution 
of their honors the magistrates of this colonie. 

A. DE Hooges. 

KiUaen Van Rensselaer, 87 

generally prospered, and sundry farms were taken up. 
Beaverswyck continued, however, in swaddling clothes, for 
the city which in 1845 holds over forty thousand inhabitants, 
contained in 1646 no more than ten houses. Several farmers 
had at an early date begun another settlement south of 
Beaverswyck, to which they gave the name of Bethlehem. 
A few bouweries were also cultivated on the east side of the 
river opposite Fort Orange. Katskill and its fertile bottoms 
had engaged at an early date the attention of the settlers at 
Bensselaerswyck, but the pretensions of opposite parties pre- 
vented any planting of consequence in that quarter, and Van 
Slyck, who had received a patent for lands there, had as yet 
made no commencement. The country between Rensselaers- 
wyck and the Manhattans, on both sides of the river, still 
remained a wilderness. It is true that the Dutch had built 
a fort at Esopus, in the year 1614, contemporaneously with 
the erection of their post on Castle island. This possibly 
might have been followed by the clearing of some small por- 
tions of land in that vicinity, but it is very doubtful whether 
any such settlements survived the destructive war of 1644—5. 
Such was the state of the public affairs when General Petrus 
Stuyvesant assumed the government of New Netherland. 


Merchant of Amsterdam, director of the West India Com- 
pany, and one of the first patroons of New Netherland, was 
the thirteenth descendant in a direct line from Henry 
"Wolters van Rensselaer. He married, firstly, Hellegonda 
van By let, by whom he had one son, Johannes who after- 
wards married his cousin, Elizabeth van Twiller. Kiliaen 
van Rensselaer married, secondly, in 1627, Anna van Wely, 
daughter of Joannes van Wely, merchant of Amsterdam, by 
whom he had four daughters and four sons, namely : 1, 
Maria; 2, Jeremias (who married Maria, daughter of Oloff 
Stevensen van Cortland); 3, Hellegonda; 4, Jan Baptiste 
(who married Susan van Wely); 5, Eleonora; 6, Susan 


38 Kiliaen Van Rensselaer. 

(who married Jan de la Court) ; 7, Nicolaus (who married 
Alida Schuyler) ; 8, Kickert (who married Anna van Beau- 
mont) ; Kiliaen van Rensselaer's sister (Maria), married 
Rykert van Twiller, and thus it is presumed the relationship 
originated between Wouter van Twiller, second director- 
general of New Netherland, and the first patroon of 
Eensselaerswyck. Of the above children, Maria and Helle- 
gonda died unmarried. Johannes succeeded his father as 
patroon, and Jeremias, Jan Baptiste and Ryckert were, in 
succession, directors of "the colonic.'' Nicolaus was a clergy- 
man of the Dutch Reformed Church. On being introduced 
to Charles II, then in exile at Brussels, he prophesied the 
restoration of that monarch to the throne of England, which 
circumstance obtained for him afterwards a cordial reception 
at the Court of St. James, when he visited London as chap- 
lain to the Dutch embassy. In acknowledgment of the 
truth of the prediction, the king presented him with a snufi"- 
box, on the lid of which was set his Majesty's miniature. 
This royal relic is still in the possession of the Van Rens- 
selaer family at Albany. 

xVlde. Anna van Rensselaer died in Amsterdam on the 12th 
June, 1670, after a sickness of seven weeks, having survived 
her husband twenty four years. Intelligence of her death, 
communicated by the following letter, was received in this 
country by her sons, Jeremias and Ryckert, on the 18th 
Sept., 1670 : 

"Amsterdam, 12th June, 1670. 

" Dear Brothers — On the 9th inst. I communicated to 
you, among other things, per ship Duke of York, Johannes 
Luyck, skipper, the low condition of our beloved mother, 
who accompanied me home, sick, from Cralo to Amsterdam, 
on the first of April. After lying so long, without any 
strong fever, or any great pain, troubled only with asthma, 
accompanied by considerable cough and phlegm, and the 
sprue, she took her departure with great piety from the 
Church Militant here, to the Church Triumphant above, on 
the 12th inst., being this day, about one hour after noon, in 
the presence of all our sisters and brothers who are in this 
country, and that with a full understanding and trust in the 
mercy of God, the merits of her and our Saviour Jesus Christ, 
which, through the grace of the Holy Ghost and belief in the 

Executors of Jeremias Van Rensselaer^ etc. 39 

Triune God, so strengthened her, that all her wishes were to 
be set free and to be with Christ, who hath taken her so 
mercifully to himself, that we all, thouf>;h afflicted children 
can not be sufficiently thankful to God for so gentle and holy 
a death. Her body will be committed to the earth in a 
Christian manner, as in duty bound, on Tuesday next, being 
the 17th inst. There is no doubt of a stately funeral. May 
the good God grant her, and us with her, a joyous resurrec- 
tion at the last day. Amen." — 0^ Callaghan' s History N. 
Netherlands i, 122,' 


On the death of Jeremias van Rensselaer, in 1675, the 
affairs of the colonic of Rensselaerswyck were administered 
conjointly, during the minority of Killiaen van Rensselaer 
(then twelve years old,) by the Rev. Nicolaus van Rens- 
selaer, Mde. Maria van Rensselaer, and Stephanus van 
Cortlandt. Nicolaus had the directorship of the colonic; 
Mde. van Rensselaer was the treasurer ; and Stephanus van 
Cortlandt had the charge of the books. Four hundred 
schepels of wheat were appropriated to defray the yearly 
expenses of this adminstration, of which Dom. Nicolaus 
(who then officiated as second clergyman in Albany,) re- 
ceived one half. The remainder was divided between 
Mde. van Rensselaer and her brother. Dom. Nicolaus* 
dying in 1679, the chief management of the minor's affairs 
devolved on his mother and uncle. — 0' Callaghan. 


The following is a translation of a sentence of banishment 
pronounced on one of the colonists at this early period of its 
history : 

" By the Presidentand Council of the Colonic of Rensselaers- 
wyck. Having heard the free confession of Adriaen Willem- 

40 Arent Van Curler. 

sen, at present in confinement, to wit : — That he on Saturday 
last, the 6th of Aug., at the house of the Patroon, where 
the Commissary-general, Arendt van Curler, resides, climb- 
ing in through the window of said house, stole seven beavers, 
and at noon of the following Monday, eight beavers and one 
drieling [third of a skin], also that on Saturday aforesaid 
he had stolen from the cellar of the said house a half [skin] 
which remained. And having, moreover, examined the de- 
mand of the prosecutor against the aforesaid delinquent, 
observing what appertains thereto ; we have hereby ordered 
and adjudged, and do order and adjudge, that the said 
delinquent shall be taken to the public place where justice 
is executed, and there be ignominiously tied to a post for the 
space of two hours, with some of the stolen property on 
his head ; after which he shall prostrate himself at the feet of 
the Worshipful Magistrates (de Edele Heeren van den 
Gerechte,) and beg of God and justice for forgiveness; that 
he, moreover, shall be henceforward and forever, banished 
out of this colonic, and never more return thereto. Done 
in Collegio, this 13th day of August, anno 1644 By order 
of their Worships the President and Council of this Colonie 
of Rensselaerswyck. Arendt van Curler." — 0' Cal- 
laghan's Hist. iV. Netherlands i, 320. 


Arent van Curler was one of those characters who deserve 
to live in history. His influence among the Indians was 
unlimited, and in honor of his memory, these tribes ad- 
dressed all succeeding governors of New York by the name 
of Corker. He possessed feelings of the purest humanity, 
and actively exerted his influence in rescuing from the 
savages such Christians as had the misfortune to fall into their 
hands of whose danger he might receive timely notice. On 
his marriage with Antonia Slaghboom, the widow of Jonas 
Bronck, he visited Holland, and on his return moved to the 
Flatts above Albany, where he had a farm. He was pro- 
prietor of a brewery in Beverwyck, in 1661. Being a cousin 

Arent Van Curler. 41 

of the Van Rensselaers, he had considerable influence in the 
colonie, where he was a magistrate to the time of his decease. 
He was one of the leaders in the settlement of Schenectady 
in 1661-2; and on the surrender of New Netherland, was 
specially sent for by Governor Nicoll, to be consulted on 
Indian affairs and the interests of the country generally. 
He was highly respected by the governors of Canada, and 
the regard entertained for him by M de Tracy, viceroy of 
that country, will be best judged of by the following extract 
of a letter which that high personage addressed him, dated 
Quebec, 80th April, 1667: 

" If you find it agreeable to come hither this summer, as 
you have caused me to hope, you will be most welcome, and 
entertained to the utmost of my ability, as I have a great 
esteem for you, though 1 have not a personal acquaintance 
with you. Believe this truth, and that I am, sir, your 
affectionate and assured servant. Tracy." 

Having accepted this invitation, Mr. Van Curler prepared 
for his journey. Gov. Nicoll furnished him with a letter to 
the viceroy. It bears date May 20th, 1667, and states that 
"Mons'r Curler hath been importuned by divers of his 
friends at Quebec to give them a visit, and being ambitious 
to kiss your hands, he hath entreated my pass and liberty to 
conduct a young gentleman, M. Fontaine, who unfortuoately 
fell into the barbarous hands of his enemies, and by means 
of Mons'r Curler obtained his liberty." On the 4th of July 
following, Jeremias van Rensselaer, writing to Holland, 
announces, that " our cousin Arendt van Curler proceeds 
overland to Canada, having obtained leave from our general, 
and been invited thither by the viceroy, M. de Tracy." In 
an evil hour he embarked on board a frail canoe to cross 
Lake Champlain, and having been overtaken by a storm, was 
drowned, I believe, near Split-Rock. In his death this 
country experienced a public loss, and the French of Canada 
a warm and efficient friend. — 0' Callagliaii' s Hist. N. Nether- 
land, I, 322. 

42 Codireciors of Eensselaerswyck, 1 630. 


The copartnership consisted of Kiliaen van Rensselaer, 
Samual Godjn, Johannes De Laet and Samuel Bloemmaert, 
with whom were associated Adam Bissels and Toussaint 
Moussart. The contract and the articles of agreement are 
referred to in the judgment of the Court of Holland, dated 
14th June, 1650, in re Bloemmart et al vs. Van Twiller et 
al., which judgment was ratified by the States General on 
the same day. (Hoi. Doc. v. 298. Alb. Rec. viii, 72, 73. 
Rensselaerswyck MSS.) It has been maintained, by some, 
that there was no partnership interest in the colonic of 
Rensselaerswyck, and that the claim of Bloemmaert, DeLaet, 
and the other partners was not allowed. But the judgment 
here referred to shows that such an assertion is contrary to 
the fact. The suit was decided in favor of Bloemmaert and 
his associates, and the executors of the first patroon were 
condemned to account for the rents and profits, and to pay 
to each of the partners, or their heirs, their just quota. 
The partnership is, moreover, plainly admitted in the account 
of the disbursements for the first venture to Rensselaerswyck, 
anno 1630, wherein the sums advanced by the other codirectors 
are admitted and acknowledged. Ample evidence of the 
fact will be further found by reference to the Rensselaerswyck 
M8S., and to Holland Documents, vi, 303, 304, 306. De Vries 
also mentions the circumstance. Subsequently, however, Jo- 
hanna de Laet, widow of Johannes de Hulter, and who 
married, secondly, Jeremias Ebbing, sold to the Van Rens- 
sclaers^ in the year 1674, all her right and claim, as heiress 
of Johannes de Laet, to the colonic of Rensselaerswyck, for 
the sura of fl. 5,762 lOst. or 82,301, which debt was dis- 
charged by the transfer to her of certain bouweries and 
lands which were deemed an equivalent. This lady was 
proprietor, among other tracts of the Weyland, or pasture, 
lying between the third and fourth kills, now called, in the 
map of the city of Albany, Rutten and Fox creeks. On the 
20th of April, 1685, Gerrit Bissels and Nicolaus van Beeck 
(nomine uxorie,) both representing the children and heirs 

Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany^ 1749. 43 

of Adam Bissels and Margt. Reust, entitled to one tenth part; 
and as attorneys for Abrahani Elsevier (husband of Catharina 
Bloemmaert) and Isbrand Schenk, Constantina Bloemmaert 
(widow of Isaac Sweers, in his lifetime, vice-admiral in the 
service of Holland,) and Juffrouw Anna Bloemmaert (widow 
of Francois Eomayn,) children and heirs of Samuel Bloem- 
maert and Catharine Reust, conjointly entitled to one tenth 
part of the colonie of Rensselaerswyck, sold, in Amsterdam, to 
Richard and Kiliaen van Rensselaer, Pabroon of said colonie, 
their respective shares, being two tenths, or one fifth of the 
whole, for gl. 3,600, payable in three equal yearly parts. 
Thus all claims on the part of the original partners, to any 
portion of the colonie, became finally extinguished ; and that 
estate vested altogether and exclusively in the Van Rensselaer 
family. — 0' Callayhan^ s Hist, of N. N^etherland, l, 127. 


The project of a scientific expedition to our shores, was 
suggested to the University of (Jpsala by Linnaeus; who 
desired that the North American provinces should be ex- 
plored for the purpose of making such observations and 
collections of seeds and plants, as would improve the hus- 
bandry, horticulture, manufactures, arts and sciences of his 
country. Accordingly Prof. Kalm, a naturalist of one of 
the Swedish universities, was selected, who left Upsala on 
the 16th of October, 1747; spent six months in England, 
and arrived at Philadelphia, September 26th, 1748. He 
traversed much of the country from Pennsylvania to Canada, 
and returned to Sweden in 1751, arriving at the place of his 
destination on the 13th of June. He prosecuted his researches 
with the industry and perseverance of a true friend of science, 
spending not only the salary and outfit provided by his friends, 
but so much of his little fortune, that on his return he found 
himself under the necessity of retrenching, so as to live on a 
very small pittance. He afterwards resumed his place of 
professor at Aobo, where, in a small garden of his own, he 
cultivated and experimented upon many hundred American 

44 Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany^ 1749. 

plants, there being no garden connected with the University. 
It was in honor of him that the beautiful kalmia received 
its name, which is still cultivated in European gardens as an 
ornamental shrub. Our traveler is more than once rather 
plain and unreserved in his remarks upon the character and 
manners of the people of Albany, as they were seen by, or 
represented to, htm. The charge, so often reiterated since 
his time, of habitual dishonesty in traffic with the Indians, 
is very bluntly made, although he admits of honorable excep- 
tions to the general rule. We give the old traveler's own 
version of what he saw and heard, without attempting to 
smooth any of the asperities of his remarks, which seem to 
have been made with honesty of purpose. His account is 
valuable, as representing the condition of the country at that 

June the 10th. At noon we left New York, and sailed up 
the River Hudson, in a yacht bound for Albany. All this 
afternoon we saw a whole fleet of little boats returning from 
New York, whither they had brought provisions and other 
goods for sale, which, on account of the extensive commerce 
of this town, and the great number of its inhabitants, go off 
very well. About twelve miles from New York we saw 
sturgeons (Acipenser sturio), leaping up out of the water, 
and on the whole passage we met with porpesses in the river. 
As we proceeded we found the eastern banks of the river 
very much cultivated j and a number of pretty farms, sur- 
rounded with orchards .and corn fields, presented themselves 
to our view. After sailing a little while in the night, we 
cast our anchor and lay by till the morning, especially as the 
tide was ebbing with great force. 

June the 11th. This morning we continued our voyage 
up the river, with the tide and a faint breeze. We passed 
the Highland mountains, which consist of a grey sandstone, 
and are covered with deciduous trees together with firs and 
red cedars. The country was unfit for cultivation, being so 
full of rocks, and accordingly we saw no farms The wind 
vanished away about ten o'clock in the morning, and forced 
us to get forward with our oars, the tide being almost spent. 
In one place on the western shore we saw a wooden house 
painted red, and we were told that there was a saw mill 
further up ; but besides this, we did not perceive one farm 

Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany, 1749. 45 

or any cultivated grounds all this forenoon. We now per- 
ceived excessive high and steep mountains on both sides of 
the river, which echoed back each sound we uttered ; yet not^ 
withstanding they were so high and steep, they were covered 
with small trees. The last of the high western mountains 
is called Butterhill, after which the country between the 
mountains grows more spacious : the farms t)ecame very nu- 
merous, and we had a prospect of many corn-fields between the 
hills. Whilst we waited for the return of tide and the change 
of wind, we went ou shore. The sassafras tree (Laurus sas- 
safras) and the chestnut-tree grow here in great abundance. 
I found the tulip-tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) in some parts 
of the wood, as likewise the Kalmia latifolia, which was now 
in full blossom, though the flowers were already withering. 
Some time after noon the wind arose from south-west, which 
being a fair wind, we weighed anchor and continued our voy- 
age. We passed by a little neck of land, which projected on 
the western side in the river, and was called Dance. The 
name of this place is said to derive its origin from a festival 
which the Dutch celebrated here in former times, at which 
they danced and diverted themselves; but once there came 
a number of [ndians, who killed them all. We cast anchor 
late at night, because the wind ceased and the tide was ebb- 
ing. The fireflies passed the river in numbers at night, 
and sometimes settled upon the rigging. 

June the 12th. This morning we proceeded with the tide, 
but against the wind. The country here in general is low 
on both sides of the river, consisting of low rocks and stony 
fields, which, however, are covered with woods. The land 
is so rocky, stony and poor, that nobody can settle on it op 
inhabit it, there being no spot fit for a corn-field, and for the 
space of some miles we never perceived one settlement. x\t 
eleven o'clock this morning we came to a small island which 
lies in the middle of the river, and is said to be half way 
between New-York and Albany. Towards noon it was quite 
calm, and we went on very slow. Here the land is well 
cultivated, and full of great corn-fields, especially on the 
eastern shore. To the west, also, we saw several cultivated 
places. The Blue mountains are very plainly to be seen here, 
appearing through the clouds, and towering above all other 
mountains. The people here make use of a yellow Agaricus, 

46 Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany, 1749. 

or mushroom, whicli grows on maple trees, for tinder : that 
which is found on the red flowering maple (Acerrubrum) 
is reckoned the best ; and the next in goodness is that of the 
sugar maple (Acer saccharinum), which is sometimes con- 
sidered equal to the former. At two in the afternoon the 
wind began to blow from the south, which enabled us to 
proceed. The country on the eastern side is high, and con- 
sists of a well cultivated soil. We had fine cornfields, pretty 
farms, and good orchards in view. The western shore is 
likewise somewhat high, but still covered with woods; and we 
now and then, though seldom, saw one or two little settle- 

June the 13th. The wind favored our voyage during the 
whole night, so that I had no opportunity of observing the 
nature of the country. This morning, at five o'clock, we 
were but nine English miles from Albany. The country on 
Both sides the river is low, and covered with woods, excepting 
a few little scattered settlements. Under the high shores of 
the river are wet meadows covered with sword-grass (Carex), 
and they formed several little islands. We saw no mountains, 
and hastened towards Albany. The land on both sides of the 
river is chiefly low, and more carefully cultivated as we came 
nearer to Albany. As to the houses which we saw, some 
were of wood, others of stone. The river is seldom above a 
musket-shot broad, and in several parts of it are sands, which 
require great experience for governing the yachts. At eight 
o'clock in the morning, we arrived at Albany. 

All the yachts which ply between Albany and New York, 
belong to Albany. They go up and down the River Hudson, 
as long as it is open and free from ice. They bring from 
Albany boards or planks, and all sorts of timber, flour, pease, 
and furs, which they get from the Indians, or which are smug- 
gled from the French. They come home almost empty, and 
only bring a few merchandises with them, among which rum 
is the chief. This last is absolutely necessary to the inhabit- 
ants of Albany : they cheat the Indians in the fur trade with 
it ; for when the Indians are drunk, they will leave it to the 
Albanians to fix the price of the furs. The yachts are pretty 
large, and have a good cabin, in which the passengers can be 
very commodiously lodged. They are commonly built of red 
cedar, or of white oak. Frequently the bottom consists of 


Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany^ 1749. 47 

white oak, and the sides of red cedar, because the latter with- 
stands putrefaction much longer than the former. The red 
cedar is likewise apt to split, when it hits against any thing ; 
and the River Hudson is in many parts full of sands and 
rocks, against which the keel of the yacht sometimes hits: 
therefore they choose white oak for the bottom, as being the 
harder wood, and not splitting so easily; and the bottom 
being continually under water, is not so much exposed to 
putrefaction, and holds out longer. 

The canoes which the yachts have along with them, are 
made of a single piece of wood, hollowed out : they are sharp 
on both ends, frequently three or four fathoms long, and as 
broad as the thickness of the wood will allow. The people 
in it do not row sitting, but commonly a fellow stands at each 
end, with a short oar in his hand, with which he governs and 
brings the canoe forwards. Those which are made here at 
Albany, are commonly of the white pine : they can do service 
for eight or twelve years, especially if they be tarred and 
painted. At Albany they make them of the white pine, since 
there is no other wood fit for them : at New York they are 
made of the tulip-tree, and in other parts they are made of 
red or white cedars ; but both these trees are so small, in the 
neighborhood of Albany, that they are unfit for canoes. There 
are no seats in the canoes ; for if they had any, they would 
be more liable to be overset, as one could not keep the equi- 
librium so well. 

Battoes are another kind of boats, which are much in use 
at Albany. They are made of boards of white pine. The 
bottom is flat, that they may row the better in shallow water : 
they are sharp at both ends, and somewhat higher towards 
the end than in the middle. They have seats in them, and 
are rowed as common boats. They are long, yet not all alike ; 
commonly three, and sometimes four fathoms long. The 
height from the bottom to the top of the board (for the sides 
stand almost perpendicular) is from twenty inches to two feet, 
and the breadth in the middle about a yard and six inches. 
They are chiefly made use of for carrying goods, by means 
of the rivers, to the Indians ; that is, when those rivers are 
open enough for the battoes to pass through, and when they 
need not be carried by land a great way. The boats made 
of the bark of trees break easily by knocking against a stone, 

48 Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany^ 1749. 

and the canoes cannot carry a great cargo, and are easily 
overset; the battoes are therefore preferable to them both. 
I saw no boats here like those of Sweden and other parts of 

The frost does frequently a great deal of damage at Albany. 
There is hardly a month in summer, during which a frost 
does not happen. The spring comes very late ; and in April 
and May are numerous cold nights, which frequently kill the 
flowers of trees and kitchen herbs. It was feared that the blos- 
soms of the apple trees had been so severely damaged by the 
frost last May, that next autumn there would be but very few 
apples. The oak blossoms are very often killed by the frost 
in the woods. The autumn here is of long continuance, with 
warm days and nights. However, the cold nights commonly 
commence towards the end of September, and are frequent 
in October. The people are forced to keep their cattle in 
stables from the middle of November till March or April, and 
must find them hay during that time. 

During summer the wind blows commonJy from the south, 
and brings a great drought along with it. Sometimes it rains 
a little ; and as soon as it has rained, the wind veers to north- 
west, blowing for several days from that point, and then 
returning to the south. I have had frequent opportunities 
of seeing this change of wind happen very exactly, both this 
year and the following. 

June the 15th. The enclosures were made of boards of 
fir-wood, of which there is abundance in the extensive woods, 
and many saw mills to cut into boards. 

The several sorts of apple trees grow very well here, and 
bear as fine fruit as in any other part of North America, 
Each farm has a large orchard. They have some apples here 
which are very large and very palatable : they are sent to 
New York, and other places, as a rarity. They make excel- 
lent cider, in autumn, in the country round Albany. All the 
kinds of cherry trees, which have been planted here, succeed 
very well. 

Pear trees do not succeed here. This was complained of 
in many other parts of North America. But I fear that they 
do not take sufficient care in the management and planting 
of them ; for I have seen fine pears in several parts of North 

Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany^ 1749. 49 

Peach trees have often been planted here, and never would 
succeed well. This was attributed to a worm which lives in 
the ground, and eats through the root, so that the tree dies. 
Perhaps the severity of the winter contributes much to it. 

_ They plant no other fruit trees at Albany, besides these I 
have mentioned. 

They sow as much hemp and flax here, as they want for 
home consumption. 

They sow maize in great abundance ; a loose soil is rec- 
koned the best for this purpose, for it will not grow in clay. 
From half a bushel they reap a hundred bushels. They 
reckon maize a very good kind of corn, because the shoot 
recovers after being hurt by the frost. They have had 
examples here of the shoots dying twice in spring, to the very 
ground ; and yet they shot up again afterwards, and aiForded , 
an excellent crop. Maize has likewise the advantage of stand- 
ing much longer against a drought, than wheat. The larger . 
sort of maize which is commonly sown here, ripens in Sep- 

They sow wheat in the neighborhood of Albany, with great" 
advantage. From one bushel they get twelve sometimes : 
if the soil be good, they get twenty bushels. If their crop 
amounts only to ten bushels from one, they think it very 
trifling. The inhabitants of the country round Albany are 
Dutch and Gr^rmans. The Germans live in several great , 
villages, and sow great quantities of wheat, which is brought 
to Albany : and from thence they send many yachts laden 
with flour to New York. The wheat flour from Albany is 
reckoned the best in all North America, except that from'', 
Sopus or Kingston, a place between Albany and New York. 
All the bread in Albany is made of wheat. At New York 
they pay the Albany flour with several shillings more per 
hundred weight, than that from other places. 

Rye is likewise sown here, but not so generally as wheat. 

They do not sow much barley here, because they do not 
reckon the profits very great. Wheat is so plentiful that 
they make malt of it. In the neighborhood of New York, I 
saw great fields sown with barley. 

They do not sow more oats than are necessary for their 


50 Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany, 1749. 

The Dutch and Germans who live hereabouts, sow pease in 
great abundance : they succeed very well, and are annually 
carried to New York in great quantities. They have been 
free from insects for a considerable time ', but of late years the 
same beetles which destroy the pease in Pennsylvania, New- 
Jersey and the lower parts of the province of New York, have 
likewise appeared abundant among the pease here. It is a 
real loss to this town, and to the other parts of North America, 
which used to get pease from hence for their own consumption 
and that of their sailors. It had been found that if they 
.procured good pease from Albany, and sowed them near 
Kingston or the lower part of the province of New York, 
they succeeded very well the first year, but were so full of 
' worms the second and following years that nobody could or 
would eat them. Some people put ashes into the pot, among 
the pease, when they will not boil or soften well ; but whether 
this is wholesome and agreeable to the palate, I do not know. 

Potatoes are generally planted. Some people preferred 
ashes to sand for keeping them in during winter. The Ber- 
jnuda potatoes (Convolvulus batatas) have likewise been 
planted here, and succeed pretty well. The greatest diflSculty 
js to keep them during winter ] for they generally rot in that 

The humming bird (Trochilus colubris) comes to this place 
sometimes, but is rather a scarce bird. 

The shingles with which the houses are covered are made 
.'of the white pine, which is reckoned as good and as durable, 
and sometimes better, than the white cedar (Oupressus thyoi- 
des). The white pine is found abundant here, in such places 
where common pines grow in Europe. I have never seen 
them in the lower parts of the province of New York, nor in 
New Jersey and Pennsylvania. They saw a vast quantity of 
deal from the white pine on this side of Albany, which are 
brought down to New York, and from thence exported. 

The woods abound with vines, which likewise grow on 
the steep banks of the river in surprising quantities. They 
climbed to the tops of trees on the bank, and bent them by 
their weight ; but where they found no trees, they hung down 
along the steep shores, and covered them entirely. The 
grapes are eaten after the frost has attacked them ; for they 
are too sour before : they are not much used any other way. 

Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany^ 1749. 51 

The vast woods and uninhabited grounds between Albany 
and Canada contain immense swarms of gnats, which annoy 
the travelers. To be in some measure secured against these 
insects, some besmear their face with butter or grease ; for 
the gnats do not like to settle on greasy places The gre it 
heat makes boots very uneasy; but to prevent the gnats from 
stinging the legs, they wrap some paper round them, under 
the stockings. Some travelers wear caps which cover the 
whole face, and have some gauze before the eyes. At night 
they lie in tents if they can carry any with them ; and make 
a great fire at the entrance, by the smoke of which the 
gnats are driven away. 

The porpesses seldom go higher up the river Hudson, than 
the salt water goes ; after that, the sturgeons fill their place. 
It has, however, sometimes happened that porpesses have 
gone quite up to Albany. There is a report that a whale 
once came up the river quite to this town. 

The fire flies ( Lampyris) which are the same that are so com- 
mon in Pennsylvania during summer, are seen here in abund- 
ance every night. They fly up and down in the streets of this 
town. They come into the houses if the doors and windows 
are open. 

Several of the Pennsylvanian trees are not to be met with 
in these woods, viz : Magnolia glauca, the beaver-tree; Nyss 
aquatica, the Tupelo-tree ; Liquidanbar styraciflua, the Sweet 
gum tree ; Diospyros virginiana, the Persimon ; Liriodendron 
tulipifera, the tulip tree ; Juglans nigra, the black walnut 

tree ; Quercus , the Swamp Oak ; Cercis canadensis, the 

Salad-tree; Robinia pseudacacia, the Locusttree ; Gleditsia 
triacanthos, the Honey-locust tree; Annona muricata, the 
Papaw tree; Celtis occidentalis, the Nettle-tree; and a num- 
ber of shrubs, which are never found here. The more north- 
erly situation of the place, the height of the Blue mountains, 
and the course of the rivers, which flow here southward into 
the sea, and accordingly carry the seeds of plants from north 
to south, and not the contrary way, are chiefly the causes 
that several plants which grow in Pennsylvania can not be 
found here. 

This afternoon I went to see an island which lies in the 
middle of the river, about a mile below the town. This 
island is an English mile long, and not above a quarter of a 

52 Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany, 1749. 

mile broad. It is almost entirely turned into corn fields; and 
is inhabited by a sing-le planter, who besides possessing this 
island, is the owner of two more. Here we saw no woods, ex- 
cept a few trees which were left round the island on the shore, 
and formed as it were a tall and great hedge. The Red Maple 
(Acer rubrum) grows in abundance in several places. Its 
leaves are white or silvery on the under sides, and, when agi- 
tated by the wind, they make the tree appear as if it was full 
of white flowers, the Water-beech (Platanus occidentalis) 
grows to a great height, and is one of the most shady trees 
here. The Water-poplar is the most common tree here- 
abouts, grows exceedingly well on the shores of the river, and 
is as tall as the tallest of our asps. In summer, it affords the 
best shade for men and cattle against the scorching heat. 
On the banks of rivers and lakes it is one of the most 
useful trees, because it holds the soil by its extensive branched 
roots, and prevents the water from washing it away. The 
Water-beech and the Elm-tree (Ulmus) serve the same pur- 
pose. The wild Prune-trees were plentiful here, and 
were full of unripe fruit : its wood is not made use of, but its 
fruit is eaten. Sumach (Rhus glabra) is plentiful here; as 
also the wild vines, which climb up the trees and creep 
along the high shores of the river. I was told that the 
grapes ripen very late, though they were already pretty large. 
The American Elm-tree (Ulmus americana) formed several 
hi^h hedges. The soil of this island is a rich mould mixed 
with sand, which is chiefly employed in maize plantations. 
There were likewise large fields of potatoes. The whole 
island was leased for one hundred pounds of New York cur- 
rency. The person who had taken the lease, again let some 
greater and some smaller lots of ground to the inhabitants 
of Albany, for making kitchen-gardens of; and by that means 
reimbursed himself Portulack (Portulaca oleracea) grows 
spontaneously here in great abundance, and looks very well. 
June the 20th. The tide in the river Hudson goes about 
eight or ten English miles above Albany, and consequently 
runs one hundred and fifty-six English miles from the sea. 
In spring, when the snows melts, there is hardly any flowing 
near this town; for the great quantity of water which comes 
from the mountains during that season, occasions a continual 
ebbing. This likewise happens after heavy rains. 

Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany^ 1749. 53 

The cold is generally reckoned very severe here. The ice 
in the river Hudson is commonly three or four feet thick. On 
the 3d of April, some of the inhabitants crossed the river with 
six pair of horses. The ice commonly dissolves about the 
end of 3Iarch, or beginning of April. Great pieces of ice 
come down about that time, which sometimes carry with 
them the houses that stand close to the shore. The water 
is very high at that time in the river because the ice stops 
sometimes, and sticks in places where the river is narrow. 
The water has been often observed to rise three fathoms 
higher than it commonly is in summer. The ground is frozen 
here in winter to the depth of three, four, or five feet. On the 
16th of November the yachts are put up, and about the be- 
ginning or middle of April they are in motion again. They 
are unacquainted with stoves ) and their chimneys are so 
wide that one could drive through them with a cart and horses. 

The water of several wells in this town was very cool about 
this time, but had a kind of acid taste which was not very 
agreeable. On a nearer examination, I found an abundance 
of little insects in it, which were probably monoculi. Their 
length was different : some were a geometrical line and an 
half; others two, and others four lines long. They were 
very narrow, and of a very pale color. The head was blacker 
and thicker than the other parts of the body, and about the 
size of a pin's head. The tail was divided into two branches, 
and each branch terminated in a little black globule. When 
these insects swim, they proceed in crooked or undulated 
lines, almost like tadpoles. I poured some of this water into 
a bowl, and put near a fourth part of rum to it; the mo- 
noculi, instead of being affected with it, swam about as briskly 
as they had done in the water. This shows, that if one makes 
punch with this water, it must be very strong to kill the 
monoculi. I think this water is not very wholesome for 
people who are not used to it, though the inhabitants of 
Albany who drink it every day, say they do not feel the least 
inconvenience from it. I have been several times obliged to 
drink water here, in which I have plainly seen monoculi swim- 
ming ; but I generally felt the next day somewhat like a pea 
in my throat, or as if I had a swelling there, and this conti- 
nued for above a week. I felt such swellings this year, both 
at Albany and in other parts. My servant, Yungstroem, like- 

64 Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany, 1749. 

wise got a great pain in liis breast, and a sensation as from a 
swelling after drinking water with monoculi in it; but 
whether these insects occasioned it, or whether it came from 
some other cause I cannot ascertain. However, I have 
always endeavored, as much as possible, to do without such 
water as had monoculi in it. I have found monoculi in very 
cold water, taken from the deepest wells, in diflPerent parts 
of this country. Perhaps many of our diseases arise from 
waters of this kind, which we do not sufficiently examine. 
I have frequently observed abundance of minute insects in 
water, which has been remarkable for its clearness. Almost 
each house in Albany has its well, and the water of which is 
applied to common use; but fortea, brewing and washing, they 
commonly take the water of the river Hudson, which flows 
close by the town. This water is generally quite muddy, and 
very warm in summer; and, on that account, it is kept in cel- 
lars, in order that the slime may subside, and that the water 
may cool a little 

We lodged with a gunsmith, who told us that the best 
charcoals for the forge were made of the Black Pine. The 
next in goodness, in his opinion, were charcoals made of the 
Beech tree. The best and dearest stocks for his muskets 
were made of the wood of the Wild Cherry-tree; and next to 
these, he valued those of the Red Maple most. They scarce 
make use of any other wood for this purpose. The Black 
Walnut tree affords excellent wood for stocks; but it does 
not grow in the neighborhood of Albany. 

June the 21st. Next to the town of New York, Albany 
is the principal town, or at least the most wealthy, in the 
province of New York. It is situated on the declivity of a 
hill, close to the western shore of the river Hudson, about one 
hundred and forty six English miles from New York. The 
town extends along the river, which flows herefrom N. N. E. 
to S. S. W. The high mountains in the west, above the town, 
bound the prospect on that side. There are two churches in 
Albany, an English one and a Dutch one. The Dutch church 
stands at some distance from the river, on the east side of the 
market. It is built of stone ; and in the middle it has a 
small steeple, with a bell. It has but one minister, who 
preaches twice every Sunday. The English church is situated 
on the hill, at the west end of the market, directly under the 

Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany, 1749. 55 

fort. It is likewise built of stone, but has no steeple. There 
was no service at this church at this time, because they had 
no minister ; and all the people understood Dutch, the garrison 
excepted. The minister of this church has a settled income 
of one hundred pounds sterling, which he gets from England. 
The town hall lies to the southward of the Dutch church, 
close by the river side. It is a fine building of stone, three 
stories high. It has a small tower or steeple with a bell, and 
a gilt ball and a vane at the top of it. 

The houses in this town are very neat, and partly built with 
stones covered with shingles of the White Pine. Some are 
slated with tiles from Holland, because the clay of this 
neighborhood is not reckoned fit for tiles. Most of the 
houses are built in the old way, with the gable-end towards 
the street; a few excepted, which were lately built in the 
manner now used. A great number of houses were built 
like those of New-Brunswick, which I have described; i the 
gable-end being built, towards the street, of bricks and all 
the other walls of planks. The outside of the houses is never 
covered with lime or mortar, nor have I seen it practised in a 
any North-American towns which I have visited ; and the 
walls do not seem to be damaged by the air. The gutters on 
the roofs reach almost to the middle of the street. This pre- 
serves the walls from being damaged by the rain ; but is ex- 
tremely disagreeable in rainy weather for the people in the 
streets, there being hardly any means of avoiding the water 
from the gutters. The street doors are generally in the mid- 
dle of the houses ; and on both sides are seats, on which, 
during fair weather, the people spend almost the whole day, 
especially on those which are in the shadow of the houses. 
In the evening these seats are covered with people of both 
sexes; but this is rather troublesome, as those who pass by 
are obliged to greet every body, unless they will shock the 
politeness of the inhabitants of this town. The streets are 
broad, and some of them are paved ; in some parts they are 
lined with trees : the long streets are almost parallel to the 

^ One of the streets is almost entirely inhabited by Dutclimen from 
Albany, and for that reason they call it Albany street. These Dutch 
people only keep company among themselves, and seldom or never 
go amongst the other inhabitants, living as it were (juite separate 
from them. — Vol. i, p. 238. 

56 Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany, 1749. 

river, and the others intersect them at right angles. The 
street which goes between the two churches, is five times 
broader than the others, and serves as a market place. The 
streets upon the whole are very dirty, because the people 
leave their cattle in them during the summer nights. There 
are two market places in the town, to which the country 
people resort twice a week. 

The fort lies higher than any other building, on a high 
steep hill on the west side of the town. It is a great build- 
ing of stone, surrounded with high and thick walls. Its 
situation is very bad, as it can only serve to keep off plun- 
dering parties, without being able to sustain a siege. There 
are numerous high hills to the west of the fort, which 
command it, and from whence one may see all that is done 
within it. There is commonly an officer and a number of 
soldiers quartered in it. They say the fort contains a spring 
of water. 

The situation of Albany is very advantageous in regard to 
trade. The river Hudson, which flows close by it, is from 
twelve to twenty feet deep. There is not yet any quay made 
for the better lading of the yachts, because the people feared 
it would suffer greatly, or be entirely carried away in spring 
by the ice, which then comes down the river. The vessels 
which are in use here, may come pretty near the shore in 
order to be laden, and heavy goods are brought to them upon 
canoes tied together. Albany carries on a considerable 
commerce with New York, chiefly in furs, boards, wheat, 
flour, pease, several kinds of timber, etc. There is not a 
place in all the British colonies, the Hudson's Bay settle- 
ments excepted, where such quantities of furs and skins are 
bought of the Indians, as at Albany. Most of the merchants 
in this town send a clerk or agent to Oswego, an English 
trading town upon the lake Ontario, to which the Indians 
resort with their furs. I intend to give a more minute 
account of this place in my journal for the year 1750. The 
merchants from Albany spend the whole summer at Oswego, 
and trade with many tribes of Indians who come to them 
with their goods. Many people have assured me that the 
Indians are frequently cheated in disposing of their goods, 
especially when they are in liquor; and that sometimes they 
do not get one half, or even one tenth of the value of their 

Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany, 1749. 57 

goods. I have been a witness to several transactions of this 
kind. The merchants of Albany glory in these tricks, and 
are highly pleased when they have given a poor Indian a 
greater portion of brandy than he can bear, and when they 
can after that get all his goods for mere trifles. The Indians 
often find, when they are sober again, that they have been 
cheated : they gri:^mble somewhat, but are soon satisfied when 
they reflect that they have for once drank as much as they 
are able, of a liquor which they value beyond any thing else 
in the whole world ; and they are quite insensible to their 
loss, if they again get a draught of this nectar. Besides 
this trade at Oswego, a number of Indians come to Albany 
from several parts, especially from Canada ; but from this 
latter place, they hardly bring any thing but beaver skins. 
There is a great penalty in Canada for carrying furs to the 
English, that trade belonging to the French West India 
Company; notwithstanding which the French merchants in 
Canada carry on a considerable smuggling trade. They send 
their furs, by means of the Indians to their correspondents 
at Albany, who purchase it at the price which they have 
fixed upon with the French merchants. The Indians take 
in return several kinds of cloth, and other goods, which may 
be got here at a lower rate than those which are sent to 
Canada from France. 

The greater part of the merchants at Albany have extensive 
estates in the country, and a great deal of wood. If their 
estates have a little brook, they do not fail to erect a saw- 
mill upon it for sawing boards and planks, with which com- 
modity many yachts go during the whole summer to New 
York, having scarce any other lading than boards. 

Many people at Albany make the wampum of the Indians, 
which is their ornament and their money, by grinding some 
kinds of shells and muscles : this is a considerable profit to 
the inhabitants. I shall speak of this kind of money in the 
sequel. The extensive trade which the inhabitants of Albany 
carry on, and their sparing manner of life, in the Dutch way, 
contribute to the considerable wealth which many of them 

The inhabitants of Albany and its environs are almost all 
Dutchmen. They speak Dutch, have Dutch preachers, and 
divine service is performed in that language : their manners 

58 Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany, 1749. 

are likewise Dutch ; their dress is, however, like that of the 
English. It is well known that the first Europeans who 
settled in the province of New York were Dutchmen. 
During the time that they were the masters of this province, 
they possessed themselves of New Sweden,' of which they 
were jealous. However, the pleasure of possessing this 
conquered land and their own was but of short duration ; 
for towardri the end of 1664, Sir Robert Carre, by order of 
King Charles the second, went to New York, then New 
Amsterdam, and took it. Soon after Col. Nichols went to 
Albany, which then bore the name of Fort Orange, and 
upon taking it, named it Albany, from the Duke of York's 
Scotch title. The Dutch inhabitants were allowed either to 
continue where they were, and, under the protection of the 
English, to enjoy all their former privileges; or to leave the 
country. The greater part of them chose to stay, and from 
them the Dutchmen are descended, who now live in the pro- 
vince of New York, and who possess the greatest and best 
estates in that province. 

The avarice and selfishness of the inhabitants of Albany 
are very well known throughout all North America, by the 
English, by the French, and even by the Dutch in the lower 
part of New York province. If a Jew, who understands the 
art of getting forward perfectly well, should settle amongst 
them, they would not fail to ruin him. For this reason 
nobody comes to this place without the most pressing neces- 
sity ; and therefore I was asked, in several places, what in- 
duced me to go to it two years one after another. I likewise 
found that the judgment, which people formed of them, was 
not without foundation. For though they seldom see any 
strangers (except those who go from the British colonies to 
Canada and back again), and one might therefore expect to 
find victuals and accommodation for travelers cheaper than in 
places where travelers always resort to; yet I experienced the 
contrary. I was here obliged to pay for every thing twice, 
thrice, and four times as dear as in any part of North Ame- 
rica which I have passed through. If I wanted their assist- 
ance, I was obliged to pay them very well for it; and when 

^ New Jersey and a part of Pennsylvania were formerly com- 
prised under this name. 

Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany, 1749. 59 

I wanted to purchase anything, or to be helped in some case 
or other, I could presently see what kind of blood ran in 
their veins; for they either fixed exorbitant prices for their 
services, or were very backward to assist me. Such was this 
people in general. However, there were some amongst them 
who equaled any in North America, or any where else, in 
politeness, equity, goodness, and readiness to serve and to 
oblige; but their number fell far short of that of the former. 
If I may be allowed to declare my conjectures, the origin of 
the inhabitants of Albany and its neighborhood seems to me 
to be as follows: Whilst the Dutch possessed this country, 
and intended to people it, the government took up a pack 
of vagabonds, of which they intended to clear the country, 
and sent them along with a number of other settlers to this 
province. The vagabonds were sent far from the other colo- 
nists, upon the borders towards the Indians and other 
enemies ; and a few honest families were persuaded to go 
with them, in order to keep them in bounds. I can not any 
other way account for the difference between the inhabitants 
of Albany, and the other descendants of sO respectable a 
nation a? the Dutch, who are settled in the lower part of 
New York province. The latter are civil, obliging, just in 
the prices, and sincere; and though they are not ceremonious, 
yet they are well meaning and honest, and their promises 
are to be relied on. 

The behavior of the inhabitants of Albany, during the 
war between England and France, which was ended with the 
peace of Aix la Chapelle, has, among several other causes, con- 
tributed to make them the object of hatred in all the British 
colonies, but more especially in New England. For at the 
beginning of that war, when the Indians of both parties had 
had received orders to commence hostilities, the French en- 
gaged theirs to attack the inhabitants of New England; 
which they faithfully executed, killing every body they met 
with, and carrying off whatever they found. During this 
time the people of Albany remained neutral, and carried 
on a great trade with the very Indians who murdered the 
inhabitants of New England. The plate, such as silver spoons, 
bowls, cups, etc., of which the Indians robbed the houses in 
New England, was carried to Albany for sale. The people 
of that town bought up these silver vessels, though the names 

60 Visit of Peter Kahn to Albany, 1749. 

of the owners were graved on many of them ; and encou- 
raged the Indians to get more of them, promising to pay them 
well, and whatever they would demand. This was afterwards 
interpreted by the inhabitants of New England, as if the 
Albanians encouraged the Indians to kill more of the people, 
who were in a manner their brothers, and who were subjects 
of the same crown. Upon the first news of this behavior, 
which the Indians themselves spread in New England, the 
inhabitants of the latter province were greatly incensed, and 
threatened that the first step they would take in another 
war would be to burn Albany and the adjacent parts. In the 
present war it will suflSciently appear how backward the other 
British provinces in America are in assisting Albany, and the 
neighboring places, in case of an attack from the French 
or Indians. The hatred which the English bear against the 
people of Albany is very great, but that of the Albanians 
against the English is carried to a ten times higher degree. 
This hatred has subsisted ever since the time when the 
English conquered this country, and is not yet extinguished, 
though they could never have got such advantages under 
the Dutch government as they have obtained under that of 
the English : For, in a manner, their privileges are greater 
than those of Englishmen. 

The inhabitants of Albany are much more sparing than 
the English. The meat which is served up is often insuf- 
ficient to satisfy the stomach, and the bowl does not circulate 
so freely as amongst the English. The women are perfectly 
well acquainted with economy : they rise early, go to sleep 
very late, and are almost over nice and cleanly in regard to 
the floor, which is frequently scoured several times in the 
week. The servants in the town are chiefly negroes. Some 
of the inhabitants wear their own hair, but it is very short, 
without a bag or queue, which are looked upon as the cha- 
racteristics of Frenchmen; and as I wore my hair m a bag 
the first day I came here from Canada, I was surrounded 
with children, who called me Frenchman and some of the 
boldest ofi'ered to pull at my French dress. 

Their meat, and manner of dressing it, is very different 
from that of the English. Their breakfast is tea, commonly 
without milk. About thirty or forty years ago, tea was un- 
known to them, and they breakfasted either upon bread and 

Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany^ 1749. 61 

butter or bread and milk. They never put sugar into the 
cup, but take a small bit of it into their mouths whilst they 
drink. Along with the tea they eat bread and butter, with 
slices of hung beef. Coffee is not usual here : they break- 
fast generally about seven. Their dinner is buttermilk and 
bread, to which they sometimes add sugar, and then it is a 
delicious dish for them; or fresh milk and bread; or boiled 
or roasted flesh. They sometimes make use of buttermilk 
instead of fresh milk, to boil a thin kind of porridge with, 
which tastes very sour, but not disagreeable in hot weather. 
To each dinner they have a great salad, perpared with abund- 
ance of vinegar and very little or no oil. They frequently 
eat buttermilk, bread and salad, one mouthful after another. 
Their supper is generally bread and butter, and milk and 
bread. They sometimes eat cheese at breakfast, and at din- 
ner: it is not in slices, but scraped or rasped, so as to 
resemble coarse flour, which they pretend adds to the good 
taste of cheese. They commonly drink very small beer, or 
pure water. 

The governor of New York often confers at Albany with 
the Indians of the Five Nations, or the Iroquese (Mohawks, 
Senekas, Cayugaws, Onondagoes and Onidoes), especially 
when they intend either to make war upon, or to continue a 
war against the French. Sometimes their deliberations 
likewise turn upon their conversion to the Christian religion ; 
and it appears by the answer of one of the Indian chiefs, or 
sachems, to Grov. Hunter, at a conference in this town, 
that the English do not pay so much attention to a work of 
so much consequence, as the French do ; and that they do 
not send such able men to instruct the Indians, as they ought 
to do. For after Gov. Hunter had presented these Indians, 
by order of Queen Anne, with many clothes and other 
presents, of which they were fond, he intended to convince 
them still more of her Majesty's good will and care for them, 
by adding, " that their good mother, the Queen, had not only 
generously provided them with fine clothes for their bodies, 
but likewise intended to adorn their souls, by the preaching 
of the gospel; and that to this purpose, some ministers 
should be sent to them to instruct them." The governor 
had scarce ended, when one of the oldest sachems got up 


62 Visit of Peter Kalm to Albany, 1749. 

and answered, " that in the name of all the Indians, he 
thanked their gracious good queen and mother for the fine 
clothes she had sent them ; but that in regard to the min- 
isters, they had already had some among them (whom he 
likewise named), who, instead of preaching the holy gospel 
to them, had taught them to drink to excess, to cheat, and 
to quarrel among themselves/' He then entreated the go- 
vernor to take from them these preachers, and a number of 
Europeans who resided amongst them; for before they were 
come among them, the Indians had been an honest, sober 
and innocent people, but most of them became rogues now; 
that they had formerly had the fear of God, but that they 
hardly believed his existence at present; that if he (the 
governor) would do them any favor, he should send two or 
three blacksmiths amongst them, to teach them to forge iron, 
in which they were unexperienced. The governor could 
not forbear laughing at this extraordinary speech. I think 
the words of St. Paul not wholly inapplicable on this occa- 
sion : " For the name of God is blasphemed amongst the 
Gentiles, through you." — Rom. ii. 24. 

June the 21st. About five o'clock in the afternoon we 
left Albany, and proceeded towards Canada. We had two 
men with us, who were to accompany us to the first French 
place, which is Fort St. Frederick, or, as the English call it, 
Crown Point. For this service each of them was to receive 
five pounds of New York currency, besides which I was to 
provide them with victuals. This is the common price here; 
and he that does not choose to conform to it, is obliged to 
travel alone. We were forced to take up with a canoe, as 
we could get neither battoes nor boats of bark; and as there 
was a good road along the west side of the river Hudson, 
we left the men to row forwards in the canoe, and we went 
along it on the shore, that we might be better able to examine 
it and its curiosities with greater accuracy. It is. very in- 
commodious to row in these canoes; for one stands at each 
end, and pushes the boat forwards. They commonly keep 
close to the shore, that they may be able to reach the ground 
easily. Thus the rowers are forced to stand upright, whilst 
they row in a canoe. We kept along the shore all the 
evening : towards the river it consisted of great hills, and 
next to the water grew the trees, which I have before men- 

First Charter Officers. 63 

tioned, and which likewise are to be met with on the shores 
of the isle in the river situate below Albany. The easterly 
shore of the river is uncultivated, woody and hilly; but the 
western is flat, cultivated, and chiefly turned into corn fields, 
which had no drains, though they wanted them in some 
places. It appeared very plainly here that the river had 
formerly been broader; for there is a sloping bank on the 
corn fields, at about thirty yards distance from the river, 
with which it always runs parallel. From this it sufficiently 
appears that the rising ground formerly was the shore of 
the river, and the corn-fields its bed. As a further proof, 
it may be added that the same shells which abound on the 
present shore of the river, and are not applied to any use by 
the inhabitants, lie plentifully scattered on these fields, I 
cannot say whether this change was occasioned by the dimi- 
nishing of the water in the river, or by its washing some earth 
down the river and carrying it to its sides, or by the river's 
cutting deeper in on the sides. 


The original charter of the city of Albany was granted 
by Gov. Dongan, on the 22d of July, 1686, and the follow- 
ing persons were the first who officiated under the charter : 
Peter Schuyler, Mayor ^ Jan Bleecker, Chamherlain, 

Isaac Swinton, Recorder, Richard Pretty, Sheriffs 
Robert Livingston, Clerk, James Parker, Marshall. 

Aldermen . 
Dirk Wessels, Johannis Wendell, 

Jan Jans Bleecker, Lavinus Yan Schaack, 

David Schuyler, Adrian Gerritse. 

Assistant Aldermen. 
Joachim Staats, Lawrence Yan Ale, 

John Lansing, Albert Ruyckman, 

Isaac Yerplanck, Melgert AVinantse. 

These were good substantial Dutch burghers, as their names 
indicate. The charter has undergone important alterations 
since that day, and the city councils are filled with the descend- 
ants of all nations and tongues upon earth, so mixed is the popu- 
lation by the migration of all peoples, aided by the unexampled 
increase of facilities for moving to and fro upon the earth. 

64 Names of Settlers in Rensselaer swych 

1630 TO 1646. 

Compiled from the books of Monthly Wages and other manuscripts, by E. B. 
O'Callaghan. See History of New Netherlands 433, 


Wolfert Gerritsen, superintendent of farms. 

Rutger Hendricksen van Soest, superintendent of the brew- 

Seger Hendricksen van Soest, shepherd and ploughman. 

Brandt Peelen van Nieukerke, schepen ; had two daughters, 
Lisbet and Gerritje. The latter married Goosen Gerritsen 
van Schaick, The father died in 1644. He is mentioned 
by the Rev. Mr. Megapolensis in his tract on the Maquaa 
Indians, and by Van der Donck in his Beschryvinge van N. 
N., as having raised wheat off one field in Rensselaers- 
wyck eleven years in succession. The land was ploughed 
twelve times in that period ; twice the first and once every 
succeeding year, when the stubble was ploughed and the 
wheat sown and harrowed under. Van der Donck adds : — 
" There are many thousand morgens of as good land 
there as that of which we have spoken.'^ Several descend- 
ants of this individual reside in Albany county, where 
they go by the name of Brandt. 

Simon Dircksen Pos, was one of Minuet's council in 1624 ; 
died in 1649. Jan Tyssen, trumpeter, Fort Orange. 

Andries Carstenssen, millwright. 

Laurens Laurenssen, ") 

Barent Tomassen, j ^ 

Arendt van Curler, was a magistrate of the colony until the 
time of his death, and one of the leaders of the settlement 
at Schenectady, 1641. 

Jacob Jansen Stol, succeeded Hendrick Albertzsen as ferry 
master at Beverwyck. 

Martin Gerrittsen van Bergen, married Neeltje Meynderts; 
-his oldest son was Gerrit ] his second, Myndert van Bergen. 

Names of Settlers in Rensselaerswych 65 

In the year 1668, he had a lease of Castle Island, called 
after bim, Martia Gerritsen's Island ; and in 1690 he lived 
south of that island, on the west side of the river. He 
had property in Katskill, Goxsackie, and Albany, of which 
he was magistrate for a long time. 

Claes Arissen. 

Roeloff Jansen van Maesterlandt, wife and family ; came 
out as a farmer to the Patroon, at $72 a year. The Rev. 
Ev. Bogardus, of New Amsterdam, married his widow. 

Claes Claessen, bis servant. Jacques Spierinck. 

Jacob Govertsen. Raynert Harmensen. 

Bastiaen Jansen Krol, Fort Orange. 

Albert Andriessen Bradt, de Noorman, mairied Annetje 
Barents, by whom he had eight children, viz : Barent ; 
Eva (who m. Roeloff Swartwout) ; Storm ; Engeltje (who 
m. Teunis Slingerland, of Onisquathaw); Gisseltje (who 
m. Jan van Eechelen) ; Andries, Jan, and Dirck. The 
tradition is, that one of the above children was born on 
ship-board, on the passage out, in the midst of a heavy 
storm, in consequence of which he was called Storm van 
der Zee. Barent Albertsen succeeded his father, in 1672, 
as a lessee of the water privileges on the Normans Kill, 
for which he was to pay S150 a year; and Slingerland 
succeeded, in 1677, as lessee of the farm which his 
father had occupied until then on the above stream. 
Albert de Noorman died 7th June, 1686, and Swartwout, 
mentioning the occurrence, says : — he was " een van de 
oudste en eerste inwoonders der colonic Rensselaerswyck.^' 
At the time of his decease, he was proprietor of some lots 
and houses on the island of Manhattans. It was after this 
man that the creek south of Albany was called the Noor- 
mans kill. Many of his descendants are still met with 
in and around the latter city. 


Maryn Adriaensen van Yeere. This was the freebooter, who 
afterwards played so prominent a figure in Kieft's time. 

Thomas Witsent. 

Gerrit Teunissen de Reus, schepen, had a well stocked farm 
in Greenbush. 

Cornelis Teunissen van Westbroek. 

66 Names of Settlers in Bensselaersvjyck. 

Cornells Teunissen van Breukelen, Kaedts persoon ; the 
descendants of thisman now call themselves van Brackelen. 

Johan Tiers. 

Jasper Ferlyn. 

Gerrit Willems Oosterum. 

Cornells Maessen van Buren Maassen (in Gelderland) and 
Catalyntje Martensen, his wife, came out in the ship Rensse- 
laerswyck. In the passage out was born their first child, 
Hendrick ; had besides him, four other children, viz: 
Martin, Maas, Steyntje, and Tobias, all of whom were 
living in the colony in 1662. Steyntje married, 1663, 
Dirck Wessels, " free merchant here.^^ The father had a 
farm at Papskenea. He and his wife died in 1648, and 
were both buried on the same day ! (Beyde op eenen 
dagh zyn begraaven. MS.). 

Cornells Teunissen Bos, bouwknecht to Cornells Maassen, 
was commissary at Fort Orange previous to 1662. 


Jan Labbadie, carpenter, native of France, was subsequently 
commissary to the Patroon, and after that held a like 
ofl&ce at Fort Orange, under the company. He married 
the widow of Mr. Harman van der Bogaert. He came 
out previous to this year, and was part owner of the Garce. 
Robert Hendricksen. Adriaen Gerritsen. 

LubertGysbertsen, wheelwright. Jan Jacobsen. 
Jacob Albertzen Planck, officier, or sheriff. 
Hendrick Cornelissen. Joris Houten, Fort Orange- 

Jan Jansen Dam, or Damen ; married Ariaentje Cuvel. 
He removed subsequently to New Amsterdam, where he 
was elected one of the Eight Men ; amassed considerable 
wealth, and was one of the owners of the privateer La 
Garce. In 1649-50 he went to Holland with C. van 
Tienhoven, to defend Stuyvesant against the complaints 
of Van der Donck and others, and died on his return, 
18th June, 1651. He does not seem to have had any 
children. He had three brothers, Cornells Jansen 
Cuyper ; Cornells Jansen Damen ; and Willem Jansen 
Damen ; and two sisters, Neiltje, and Hendrickje. He 
adopted the son of the last named sister — Jan Corne- 
lls Buys — who assumed his name, having been left 600 


Names of Settlers in Bensselaerswyck. 67 

Car. guilders. Jan Damen, at his deafh, willed 400 Car. 
guilders to the poor of Bunick, province of Utrecht. The 
inventory of his personal property fills ten folio pages in 
the records. 


Jan Terssen van Franiker. Juriaen Bylvelt. 

Jan Cornelissen, carpenter. 

Johannes Verbeek, raedt persoon, 1658, 1661. 


Barent Pieterse Koyemans, alias Barent the Miller, entered 
the service of the first patroon, at 30 guilders a year. 
Three brothers accompanied him to Bensselaerswyck in 
1636, viz: David, Jacob, and Arent, who was a lad. It 
is presumed that they came originally from Utrecht. 
Barent worked in the Patroon's grist-mill until 1645, in 
the fall of which year he took charge, with Jan Gerritsen, 
his partner (who came out with him), of the Patroon's 
saw-mills, being allowed 150 gl. each a year for board, 
and three stuivers a cut for every plank they sawed. He 
remained in this employment until 1647, having cut be- 
tween three and four thousand boards in that time. 
Previous to 1650, he lived a little south of the 5th or 
Patroon's creek, and in 1655 took a nineteen years' lease 
of a farm of maize land at 24 gl. per annum. In 1657 
he rented, in company with Cornelis Theunis van Breuke- 
len, for three years, the Upper Mills (as the mills on the 
Patroon's creek were called, in contradistinction to those 
on the Norman's kill), which he leased on his own account 
in 1660 for 13 years. This lease expired in 1673, about 
which time he purchased, by consent of the commissioners 
at Albany, from the Katskill Indians, a large tract of land, 
some twelve or fifteen miles south of that city, on the west 
side of the river. The place had been known, for many 
years previous, as offering peculiar advantages for the 
erection of saw-mills. Cryn Cornelissen, and Hans Jansen 
having erected saw-mills on the creek immediately north 
of Beeren island as early as 1651. Coeymans had, no doubt, 
these advantages in view when he made his purchase, 
which began at a point on the shore called Sieskasin, op- 

68 Names of Settlers in Rensselaerswych 

posite the middle of Jan Ryersen's island called by the 
Indians- Sapanakock, and ran south to the mouth of Pieter 
Bronck's kill, as Coxsackie creek was then called. Follow- 
ing up this creek to its head, the line then went west 
until it struck the head of the waters falling into the 
Hudson, all the land on which belonged to the Katskill 
Indians, the waters flowing west to the Schoharie creek 
being the property of the Mohawks. The line then went 
northerly to the bounds of Rensselaerswyck, and thence 
returned to the Hudson river. A patent was obtained 
for this tract, twelve miles deep and some eight or ten 
front, from Grov. Lovelace, on 7th April, 1673. But 
falling as it did within the original bounds of Van Rens- 
selaer's colonic, Coeymans purchased out the Patroon's 
claims, 22d Oct., 1706, agreeing to pay a quit-rent of nine 
shillings a year, and he finally obtained letters patent from 
Queen Anne, confirming the whole to him and his heirs 
forever, 6th Aug., 1714. This purchase now constitutes 
the ancient town of Coeymans in the county of Albany. 
Barent Pietersen had five children — Andreas, Samuel, 
Peter, Ariantje, and Jannitje. x\ndreas moved to the 
Raritans, New Jersey, where he purchased a considerable 
tract of land, and where some of the Coeymans still reside. 
Peter married twice; by his first wife he had Mayica, 
who married Andreas Witbeck ; and Elizabeth, the wife 
of Jacob van Allen. By his second wife, Charlotte 
Amelia Drawyer, he had Gerritje, who married John Bar- 
clay, mayor of Albany; Anne Margaret, who married 
Peter Ten Eyck, and Charlotte A., who married John 
Bronck. Mrs. Abraham Verplank of Coeymans is grand- 
daughter to this Mrs. Bronck. All the descendants of 
Barent Coeymans, after the first generation in a direct 
line, were females. Owing to this singular circumstance, 
the family name is now extinct in this state 

Pieter Cornelissen van Munnichendam, millwright. 

Dirck Jansen van Edam. 

Arent Andriessen van Frederickstad. 

Mauritz Jansen, Michel Jansen van Broeckhuysen. 

This Michel brought out his wife and two children. Van 
Tienhoven says he came out as a " boereknecht," or ser- 
vant. He amassed a fortune in a few years, in the fur 

Names of Settlers in Bensselaerswyck. 69 

trade, but not being able to agree with the head men of 
the colonie, he removed, in 1646, to the island of Man- 
hattans. He purchased Eversen Bout's farm in Pavonia, 
with some stock, for 8,000 gl., and was appointed one of the 
delegates to Holland in 1649, against the colonial admin- 
istration, but owing to the unsettled state of his private 
affairs he could not accept that appointment. It was in a 
room in this man's house, in New Amsterdam, that Van 
der.Donck wrote his celebrated "Vertoogh,'' or Remons- 
trance against the maladministration of affairs in New- 

Jacob Jansen van Amsterdam. 

Simon Walings van der Belt ; was killed at Pavonia, in 1648, 
by some savages from the south. 

Gysbert Classsen van Amsterdam. Hans Zevenhuyzen. 

Cristen Cristyssen Noorman van Adriaen Hubertsen. 
Ylecburgh and wife. Rynier Tymanssen van 

Tys Barentsen Schoonmaker van Edam. 

Edam. Thomas Jansen van Bu- 

Cornelis Tomassen, smith, and wife. nick. 

Arent Steveniersen, wife and two children; he married, 
anno 1637, the widow of Cornelius Tomassen, by whom 
he had two other children. 

Johan Latyn van Verduym. Claes Jansen van Nykerk. 

Ilutger Jacobsen van Schoenderwoerdt, married in New 
Amsterdam anno 1646, Tryntje Jansen van Briestede 
(who died at her son's in Rosendal, in 1711). By her 
he had two daughters and one son. Margaret, one of the 
daughters, married in 1667, Jan Jansen Bleecker, who 
came from Meppel, province of Overyssel, to America, in 
1658, and was the ancestor of the present highly respect- 
able Bleecker family in this state. Rutger Jacobson was 
a magistrate in Rensselaersvvyck as early as 1648, and 
continued to fill that office as late as 1662, and perhaps 
later. He owned a "\ ess el on the river in 1649, in which 
year he rented, in partnership with Groosen Gerrittsen, the 
Patroon's brewery, at 450 gl. a year, payable in addition 
one guilder for every ton of beer which they brewed. 
This duty amounted in the first year to 330 gl., and in 
the following season they worked up 1,500 schepels of 
malt On the 2d of June, 1656, he laid the corner stoue 

70 Names of Settlers in Rensselaer sioyck. 

of the new church, in Beverwyck, and we find him 
subsequently part proprietor of Pachonakelick, called by 
the Dutch Mohican's, or Long island, below Bethlehem. 
He had the character of an upright citizen, and to his 
credit it must be added, he rose by his honest industry 
from small beginnings. 

Ryckert Rutgersen, was engaged, when he first came out, 
at 120 gl. per annum for a term of 6 years. In 1648 he 
took a 6 years' lease of Bethlehem island, at 300 gl. per 
annum, besides the tenths. He received three horses, 
and two or three cows on halves, and the Patroon was to 
build him a barn and dwelling house, he cutting and 
drawing the timber, and boarding the carpenters. He 
was exempt from rent and tithes for the first year. In 
1652 he surrendered his lease to Jan Ryersen, after whom 
this island has since been named. 

N. B. The settlers of 1636 came out in the ship Rensse- 
laerswyck, having sailed from Holland on the 1st October 
of that year. 


Jan Micbaelsen van Edam, tailor, and his boy. 

Pieter Nicolaussen van Nordinge. 

Teunis Cornelissen van Vechten, succeeded Michel Jansen 
on his farm in 1646, and lived in 1648 in the south end 
of Greenbush. 

Burger Joris, smith. 

Jan Ryersen ] the island situate opposite the junction of the 
towns of Bethlehem and Coeymans, on the Hudson, was 
called Jan Ryersen's island, in consequence of this man 
having lived there in 1652. 

Abraham Stevenson, surnamed Croaet, a boy. 

Cornelis Teunissen van Merkerk. 

Goosen Gerritsen van Schaick; married, 1st, Gerritje Brants, 
daughter of Brant Peelen ; 2d, in July, 1657, Annetje 
Lievens. He was a brewer in the colonic in 1649, in 
which year he accepted, after a good deal of solicitation, 
the office of magistrate, or gerechts persoon. Was after- 
wards one of the part owners of Nachtenack, the Indian 
name for the site of the present village of Waterford, 
Saratoga county. 

Names of Settlers in Bensselaerswyck. 71 

Willem Juriaensen Bakker, was banished from the colonie, 
in 1650, at the age of seventy years, in consequence of 
his reputed misdeeds. (See p. 76). 


Jan Dircksen van Amersfoort. Gerrit Hendricksen. 

Wybrant Pietersen. Cornelis Leendertsen. 

Willem Meynten. Francis Allertsen, cooper. 

Martin Hendricksen van Hamelward. 

Roeloff Cornelissen van Houten. 

Adriaen Berghoorn. Yolkert Jansen. 

Hendrick Fredricksen. Jacob Jansen Nostrandt, 

Christoffel Davits; lived in 1650 on a farm at Domine's 
Hoeck, now called Van VVie's Point. 

Claes Jansen Ruyter. Jacob Flodder,'his man. 

Gysbert Adriaensen van Bunick ; came out in the Key of 

Teunis Dircksen van Yechten, came out with wife, child, 
and two servants, in the " Arms of Norway," and had a 
farm in 1648 at Grreenbush, north of that occupied by 
Teunis Cornelissen van Vechten. He is referred to in 
1663 as " an old inhabitant here." 


Jacob Adriaensen van Utrecht. Ryer Stoffelsen. 

Cryn Cornelissen ; obtained a license in 1651 to erect a saw- 
mill in company with Hans Jansen van Rotterdam, on 
what is now Coeyman's Creek. 

Adam Boelantsen van Hamelward, previously a schoolmaster 
in New Amsterdam. 

Sander Leendertsen Glen; married CatalynDoncassen. He 
was one of the Indian traders at Beverswyck, and finally 
moved to Scotia, near Schenectada, of which tract he 
obtained an patent from Gov. Nicolls, in 1665. Reference 
is made probably to this gentleman by the French in their 
account of the burning of Schenectady, anno 1690, in the 
following terms : " At daybreak some men were sent to 
the dwelling of Mr. Sander, who was major of the place 
at the other side of the river. He was not willing to 
surrender, and began to put himself on the defensive, 
with his servants and some Indians. But as it was resolved 

72 Names of Settlers in Rensselaerswych 

not to do him any harm, in consequence of the good treat- 
ment which the French had formerly experienced at his 
hands. M. d'Iberville and the great Agniez proceeded 
thither alone, promised him quarter for himself, his people 
and property, whereupon he laid down his arms on parole." 

Pieter Jacobsen and wife. Johan Poog. 

Gilles Barentsen. Claes Jansen van Breda. 

Cornelis Spierinck. Claes Tyssen. 


Nys Jacobsen. Jannitje Teunissen. 

Jan Teunissen, carpenter. 

Teunis Jacobsen van Schoenderwordt, brother to Rutger 

Jacobsen ; had 90 gl. a year salary for the first three years, 

and 100 for the next three. He became a trader in 1651. 
Andries Herbertsen Constapel van der Blaes; married An- 

netje Juriaensen; owned a tile kiln in Beverwyck, and 

died in 1662. 
Andries de Vos, brother-in-law to Barent Pieterse Coeymans ; 

was gerechts persoon, or magistrate, in 1648. 
Adriaen Teunissen van der Belt. Jan Creynen. 

Jan Jansen van Rotterdam; was killed in the Indian war, 

Jacob Jansen van Campen. Cornelis Keyne van Houtten. 
Claes Gerritsen. Jan Cornelissen van Houtten. 


Adriaen van der Donck, officier, or sheriff. 

Cornelis Antonissen van Slyck, alias Broer Cornelissen, was 
the first patentee of Katskill, anno 1646. Van Slyck's 
island, opposite Schenectada, was so called after one of 
his sons, Jacques, to whom it was granted, 13th Nov., 
1662, by Director Stuyvesant. 

Claes Gysbertsen. Joris Borrelingen, Engelsman. 

Jacob Wolfertsen. Claes Jansen van Ruth. 

Teunis de Metselaer. 

Cornelis Cornelissen van Schoonderwoerdt, alias Yosje. 


Hans Vos van Baden, court messenger; was sheriff's con- 
stable in New Amsterdam in 1661. 

Names of Settlers in Rensselaerswyck. 73 

Dominie Johannes Megapolensis, Juu., 

Matheld Willemsen, his wife, 

Hellegond, Dirck, Jan, and Samuel, their children. 
Samuel M., the last named son, was sent to Harvard Col- 
lege in 1657; spent three years there, and then proceeded 
to the University of Ley den, where he was licensed, in 
1662, as a minister, and obtained the degree of M.D. On 
his return, he became collegiate pastor of the church at 
New Amsterdam, and was appointed by Grov. Stuyvesant 
one of the commissioners to negotiate with the British the 
articles relating to the capitulation of the province. — 
'Rev. Dr. De Witt. 

Abraham Staes, surgeon. 

Evert Pels van Steltyn, brewer, and wife; lived at the Mill 
creek, Greenbush. 

Cornells Lambertsen van Doom. 

Johan Helms van Baasle. 

Joachim Kuttelhuys van Cremyn. 

Juriaen Bestval van Luyderdorp^ (near Leyden). 

Claes Jansen van Waalwyck. 

Paulus Jansen van Gertruydenburgh. 

Lucas Smith van Ickemsburgh; left the coloniein the spring 
of 1646, with the character of " een eerlyk ende vroom 
jongman'' — an honorable and virtuous young man. 

Cornells Crynnesen. 

Cornelis Hendricksen van Es, Gerechts persoon or magis- 
trate. His daughter, Elizabeth, married one Banckers, 
" Cryn Cornelissen declares that, in the spring of 1643, 
while conveying some of the guests, on the ice, to the 
wedding of Van Es's daughter, a mare belonging to him, 
(Cryn), and a stud belonging to Van der Donk, were 
drowned in the neighborhood of Black, or Horse's point — 
(omtrent de Swarte, ofte Paerde hoeck) — for which he 
understands Van der Donck received 150 guilders ($60) 
from the wedding party.'^ MS. 

Cornelis Gerritsen van Schoonderwoerdt. 

Wm. Fredericksen van Leyden, free carpenter. 

Antonie de Hooges, commis., afterwards Secretary of the 
colonic. His daughter, and an only child, says Bensen, 
"married Herman Rutgers, the ancestor of the respectable 


74 Name$ of Settlers in Rensselaer swyck, 

family of the name among us." De Hooges died, 1658. 
The well known promontory in the Highlands was called 
Anthony's Nose, after him. 

Johan Holmes. 

Juriaen van Sleswyck. 

Johan Corstiaenssen, mariner. 

Hendrick Albertsen ; second time of his coming out. He 
was the first ferry-master in Beverwyck ; died in 1648 or 

Gertrude Dries van Driesbergen, his wife. 

Albert Jansen, van Amsterdam. 

Geertje Mannix, widow, and two children. 

Nicolaus Koorn, sergeant or wachtmeester ; succeeded Van 
der Donck as sheriff. 

Hendrick Dries, her brother. 

Jan Jansen Flodder, carpenter. 

Pieter Wyncoop, commis. 

Adriaen Cornelissen van Bersingeren. 

Arendt Teunissen van Luyten. 

Cornehs Segers van Voorhout; succeeded Van der Donck 
on the farm called Weelysburgh, on Castle island; mar- 
ried Bregje Jacobsen, by whom he had six children ; 
Cornells, Claes, Seger, Jannitje, Neltje, and Lysbeth. 
The last named married Francois Boon, without her 
parents' consent, and was disinherited, having been left 
by will only £1 Flemish. Seger married Jannitje Teunis- 
sen van Vechten, and was killed, anno 1662, by Andries 
Herbertsen, in a brawl. Many of the Segers family are 
still residents of the county of Albany. 

Jacob Aertsen Wagenaar. 

Jan Creyne van Houtten. 

Jan Dircksen, Engelsman, van Amersfoort. 

Herry de Backer. " I have known a gunner, named Harry 
de Backer, who killed at one shot from his gun, eleven 
gray geese out of a large flock." — Van der Donck. 

Adrian Willemsen ; banished for theft in 1644. 

1643, 1644, 1645. 

Pieter Hertgers van Yee, was one of the commissaries of 
the court at Fort Orange in 1654 : died in Holland, 1670. 
Abraham Clock. 

Names of Settlers in Rensselaerswyck. 75 

Jan Barentsen Wemp, removed subsequently to Schenectada, 
where he became proprietor of some land. His widow 
married Sweer Teunissen van Velde. 

Richard Brigham. 

Lambert van Yalckenburg. 

Jacob Jansen Schermerhoorn, married Jannitje, daughter of 
Cornelis Segers. He was a prominent trader in Bever- 
wyck in 1648, when he was arrested, by Stuyvesant, on a 
charge of selling fire-arms and ammunition to the Indians. 
His books and papers were seized, and himself removed 
a prisoner to Fort Amsterdam, where he was sentenced 
to banishment for five years, and the confiscation of all 
his property. By the interference of some leading citizens ' 
the first part of the sentence was struck out, but his property 
was totally lost. These proceedings against Schermerhoorn 
formed, subsequently, a ground of complaint against 
Stuyvesant to the States General. 

Claes Teunissen, alias Uylenspiegel. 

Grysbert Cornelissen van Wesepe ; called also Grysbert op de 
Berg, from the fact of his having lived on a farm called 
the Hooge Berg, situate on the east side of the river, 
a little below Albany, which he rented in 1649 at 300 gl. 
a year. This farm still retains its original Dutch name, 
and is now owned by Joachim Staats, Esq. 


Jan Jansen van Bremen; lived in Bethlehem, and moved, 
anno 1650, to Katskill. 

Harman Mynderts van der Bogaert, arrived in New Nether- 
land, anno 1631, as surgeon of the company's ship the 
Eendracht; he continued in the company's service to 
1633, after which he resided in New Amsterdam until 
appointed commissary to Fort Orange. He was highly 
respected, though from all accounts he appears to have 
been of an irascible temper. An instance is mentioned 
of his having attempted, in the excitement of a high quar- 
rel, when both appear to have been in a violent passion, 
to throw the director-general out of a boat in which they 
were sailing on the river 5 he was, it is added, with 
difficulty prevented from accomplishing his purpose. He 
occasionally wrote his name Harmanus a Boghardij. He 

76 Sentence of Willem Juriaensen Bakker. 

came, I believe, to a violent death in 1649. Carl van 

Brugge succeeded him as commissary at Fort Orange. 
Jan van Hoosen. Hendrick Westercamp. 

Jacob Herrick. 
Jan Andriessen van Dublin, leased a bouwerie in 1649, 

described as lying ^' north of Stoney point, being the 

north half of the Flatt.'' 
Thomas Higgens. Jan Willemsen South. 

Wolf Nyssen ; executed. 
Willem Leendertsen, brass-founder. 
Pieter Bronck; built a tavern in Beverwyck, in 1651, which 

was then the third at that place ; afterwards lived at Cox- 

sackie, the creek at which place was called by the Dutch, 

Peter Bronck's kil. 
Tomas Kenningh. Jacob Jansen van Stoutenburgh. 
Jan de Neger, scherprechter, or hangman to the colonie. 


The following minute in the gerechts rolle, or court regis- 
ter, of the sentence pronounced against this public disturber, 
will afford some idea of the strictness of the police in those 
days. — 0' Callaghan' s Hist, of N. Netherland., p. 437. 

" Their worships, the Commissioners and Council of the 
colonie of Bensselaerswyck, having duly considered and 
weighed the demand of the Honorable Director, as prose- 
cutor against Willem Juriaensen Bakker, and finding that 
he was already banished out of the colonie by their Worship- 
ful Court, on the 4th February, 1644 ; and afterward 
because that he attempted on the Lord's highway with a 
knife to stab the person of Antonie de Hooges, then commis. 
to the Noble Patrcon, whereby he, in as much as in him lay, 
did commit a murder, for which he, on the 28th August 
1647, was banished from the colonie ; and he having by peti- 
tion prayed for a respite, which was granted to him, he pledged 
all his goods, and also subjected himself to the banishment 
of his person, should he happen to insult any person within 

Sentence of Willem Juriaensen Bakker. 77 

or without the court, or to do anything that should be dis- 
pleasing, or worthy of punishment. Therefore, the Honor- 
able Prosecutor, recapitulating the same, has set forth, to wit, 
that he, the Delinquent, hath so frightened and shocked a 
certain woman, [Saertje Cornelis, wife of Thomas Sander- 
ssen Smith,] that according to her complaint, she hath mis- 
carried ; Secondly, that he hath unjustly censured some 
honorable people, among others some of the Worshipful Court 
here, asserting, as relates to the agreement between him 
and Jan van Hoesem, that they had written a falsehood; 
Thirdly, having been quietly spoken to about the purchase 
of two beasts, he entering the house, called out that he had a 
knife in his sleeve, and that, if he were meddled with, he 
should pay the Honorable Prosecutor with it. Besides, 
being summoned on account of these enormities, he did 
openly insult the Honorable Prosecutor here, saying, ' I must 
bury you ; I am summoned before the court ; I must hang.' 
Moreover have we been assured by trustworthy persons, that 
he hath said to certain females who were proceeding to par- 
take of the Lord's Supper, ' Is it a bit of bread you want ? 
Come to my house and I'll give you a whole loaf;' and divers 
other things. [On being asked his age, to the contempt 
of the court, he said he was about twenty-one, though it is 
known to us that he is at least seventy years of age.] 
Wherefore, he being a blasphemer, a street-scold, a mur- 
derer as far as his intentions are concerned, a defamer, a 
contemner of law and justice, and a disturber of the public 
peace, their Worships of the court aforesaid have adjudged 
and sentenced, as they do hereby sentence and adjudge, that 
the aforesaid sentence of banishment shall stand fast, and 
he, Willem Juriaensen, is hereby banished out the district 
and jurisdiction of this colonic, from now henceforth and 
forever, to leave by the first vessel, and never more to return, 
on pain of corporal punishment; all with costs of court. 
Thus sentenced, &c., in College, this 18th July, 1650, to the 
knowledge of me, "A. De Hooges, Secretary. 

■'27th July, 1650. Resolved, that Willem Juriaensen 
shall be conveyed on board of Rutger Jacobsen, and then 
released, Rutger Jacobsen promising to give him a passage 
in his yacht to the Manhattans.'' 

78 Reformed Frotestant Dutch Church, 


The establishment of this church in Holland is said to 
have been consummated immediately after the decision of 
the Synod of Dort, in 1619. The colonists of New Nether- 
land brought with them a strong attachment to the doctrines, 
worship and government of the church at home, and how- 
ever deeply interested in secular pursuits, it is known that 
in very good time they took measures to establish among 
them the regular ministrations of the gospel. There are no 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 79 

records preserved in the church, by which to ascertain the 
exact time when it was organized in this part of the colony, 
though it is claimed by some to have been coeval with the 
first settlement. Dr. Livingston, a noted preacher in the 
early part of the present century, says, there were docu- 
ments in existence which rendered it certain that a con- 
siderable church was organized in New York, as early as 
1619, and that records were extant, containing the names of 
members in full communion, dated 1622.1 At another time, 
speaking of the Albany settlement, he says, "It is very cer- 
tain that they had ministers there as early, if not before, any 
were at New York.'' Dr. O'Callaghan, on the other hand, 
asserts that in 1640 no church or clergyman existed yet in 
Rensselaerswyck, although the colony at New Amsterdam 
erected a church in 1633 ; but that in 1642 the Rev Johan- 
nes Megapolensis came out under the patronage of the 
patroon, and arrived on the 11th of August. It is ascertained 
by documents preserved in the Van Rensselaer archives, 
that the conditions upon which the above named clergyman 
accepted the call to Rensselaerswyck, were, a free passage, 
and board for himself and family ; an outfit of 300 guilders 
(^120), and an annual salary of 1100 guilders ($440), 30 
schepels (22J bushels) of wheat, and 2 firkins of butter, 
for the first three years ; and if the patroon was satisfied with 
his services, he was to receive an additional sum of 200 guil- 
ders ($80) per annum, for another term of three years. The 
minister's family consisted of himself and wife, and four 
children. A house for the domine had been contracted for, 
but was not erected when he arrived ; the carpenter of the 
colony not being a reliable man, if Commissary Van Curler's 
account of him is correct; but a house constructed entirely of 

^ Since this was written, Mr. Henry C. Murphy, American minister 
to Holland, found there in 1858, a letter written from the "Manhattas 
in New Netherland" on the 11 Aug., 1628, by the Rev. Jonas Mi- 
chaelius, who is the earliest discovered Dutch Reformed pastor in 
this country. It seems strange that no other vestige of his ministry 
and residence in New Amsterdam has ever been discovered, and 
this singular circumstance goes far to convince us of what has been 
conjectured and asserted, that the church was organized much 
earlier than can now be ascertained by any documentary evidence 
that is known to exist. 

80 Beformed Protestant Dutch Church. 

oak was purchased on his arrival, for $120. We are led to 
infer that the church edifice was, likewise, unprepared for the 
use of the minister -, for the commissary wrote to the patroon 
that he intended to have one built during the summer, " in 
the pine grove," 34 feet long by 19 wide j a building pre- 
viously begun not proving satisfactory for the purpose. The 
church was clustered in among the other buildings around 
Fort Orange, which stood near the river between Denniston 
and Lydius streets, and the church yard was in the rear, on 
what is now Church street. The furniture of this church 
consisted of a pulpit ornamented with a canopy, pews for 
the magistrates and the deacons, and nine benches for the con- 
gregation ; the expense of all which was $32. A new stoop 
was added to the building in the year 1651, and the church 
continued to accommodate the faithful till 1656, a period of 
thirteen years from the time of its erection. Mr. Megapo- 
lensis retired from the colony in 1649, with the intention of 
returning to Holland; but he was persuaded to remain at 
New Amsterdam, where he still resided when that place was 
surrendered to the English, as did also his brother Samuel, 
who lent the weight of his influence to prevent the doughty 
governor, Stuyvesant, from firing upon the enemy. He died 
in 1670. 

In 1652 the Rev. Grideon Schaets was sent over to supply 
the pulpit at Albany for three years, under a salary of 800 
guilders per annum (8320), which was afterwards increased 
to 1000, and then to 1300 guilders per annum. He is said 
to have been 45 years of age when he arrived in the colony, 
and was accompanied by his two sons and daughter. He 
retired in 1683, and died 27 Feb. 1694, aged 86. 

The Rev. Mr. Niewenhuysen was a colleague of Mr. Schaets 
as early as 1671. In the year 1675, the Rev. Nicholas Van 
Rensselaer arrived here, and set up a claim not only to the 
pulpit, but also to the manor itself ; but failed to obtain either. 
The Duke of York recommended him to Sir Edmund An- 
dross for a living in one of the churches at New York or 
Albany. Suspected of being a papist, Mr. Niewenhuysen dis- 
puted his right to administer the sacraments, on the ground 
that he was not approved by the Classis of Amsterdam, to 
which the Dutch churches here held themselves subordinate. 
In this controversy the governor took the part of Mr. Van 

JReformed Protesiani Dutch Church, 81 

Rensselaer, and summoned Niewenhuysen before him to 
answer for his conduct ; but he was so grossly maltreated 
and so frequently harassed by fruitless and expensive attend- 
ances before the council, that the greater part of the people 
resented the usage he met with ; and the magistrates of 
Albany, in retaliation, imprisoned Mr. Van Rensselaer for 
" several dubious words " uttered in a sermon. The governor 
in turn ordered him to be released, and summoned the magis- 
trates to attend him at New York, where warrants were issued 
to compel them to give security in £5,000 each, to make out 
good cause for confining the minister. Leisler, who was 
one of them, refused to comply, and was imprisoned. Sir 
Edmund, fearful that a great party would rise up against 
him, was at last compelled to discontinue his ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction, and refer the controversy to the decision of the 
consistory of the Dutch church at Albany. It is said that 
Mr. Van Rensselaer's popularity with the prince grew out 
of his having predicted, while Charles II was in exile, the 
day of his restoration ; and it is futhermore related that the 
people of Albany held his prophetic pretensions in high 
estimation, out of which proceeded many strange tales. The 
signature of Mr. Van Rensselaer appears after that of Mr. 
Schaets, in the Deacon's book, as pastor ioci, in 1675 and 
1676.1 He died Nov., 1678. 

A church was erected in 1656, at the intersection of what 
was then or afterwards called Jonker's and Handelaer's 
streets, now known as State street and Broadway. The 
corner stone was laid by Rutger Jacobsen, and the pulpit 
and bell, promised to be sent over by the Dutch West India 
Company, arrived in due time, and served the congregation 
a century and a half. 

In 1683, the Rev. Godfredius Dellius arrived, to succeed 
Mr. Schaets in the ministry, who was now about 76 years of 
age. The Register of Baptisms commences this year, with 
the name of Mr. Dellius at the head of the page, and has 
been tolerably well kept ever since. At the time Mr. Dellius 
arrived in the colony, the church is said to have been very 

^ See Historical Collections of Albany, i, 38, 40. For a descrip- 
tion of the personal appearance of Dom. Scliaets, see Danlcer's 
Journal, 11^, ^11, 

82 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 

numerous, to which great additions were made by him, 
especially among the Mohawk Indians. Unhappily he was 
led into extravagant speculations in land, which involved 
him in difficulties, and led to his dismissal in 1699, when 
he returned to Holland. The history of the domines in 
New Netherland exhibits a succession of active labors in an 
unpromising and rather uninviting field ; and a series of 
private woes and difficulties, which drove several of them 
back to the shores of Europe. The flock was widely ex- 
tended. Besides the colony of Rensselaerswyck, it embraced 
the Mohawk Indians, and the settlements on the river. 
There was a considerable ingathering of neophytes from 
Kinderhook and more remote places, in all directions. 

In 1799, the Rev John Peter Nucella was the officiating 
minister ; he seems to have occupied the pulpit as tempo- 
rary supply, Mr. Dellius having ten months in which to 
procure his reinstatement. On the 20 July, 1700, the Rev. 
John Lydius arrived from Holland, and entered upon his 
ministry here, which terminated in 1719, his death occurring 
1 March. The pulpit seems to have been vacant two years. 
The baptismal register has the name of Rev. Grualterus Du 
Bois, who resided in New York, in 1710; and that of Rev. 
Petrus Yas, in 1711; neither of whom were settled pastors. 

In 1712 the Rev. Petrus Van Driessen was called and 
continued his ministerial labors until his death, which took 
place about the 1st of February, 1738. In the meantime 
the church was rebuilt, namely, in 1715, upon the site of 
the old one, at the confluence of State with Court and Market 
streets, and a patent or charter procured in 1720. The Rev. 
Cornelis Van Schie began to officiate as his colleague in 1733 ; 
after whose decease, in August, 1744, the Rev. Theodorus 
Frelinghuysen occupied the pulpit from 1746 till 1759, 
when he abruptly left the church and went to Holland. 
The story of this ill-fated divine, as told by Mrs. Grant, ex- 
cites our compassion for a worthy, zealous, and high-minded 
man. The account of his tragical end is variously told, 
and may have had a legendary origin. i 

In the latter part of the year 1760, the Rev. Eilardus 
Westerlo arrived from Holland, and entered upon the pastoral 

^ See Historical Collections, i, S. 

Reformed Frotestani Dutch Church, 83 

charge. He became one of the most eminent ministers of 
the Dutch church in America, and died in 1790, at the 
early age of 53, in the thirty-first year of his ministry, greatly 
revered and lamented by his people. 

During the occupation of New York by the British, the 
Rev. Dr. Livingston occasionally assisted Dr. Westerlo, from 
1776 to 1779; but v^hen a call was given him in 1780, he 
declined its acceptance. A disposition was manifested by 
some of the prominent members of the church, twenty years 
after, to give him a call to preach to them in the Dutch 
language ; but the trustees reluctantly consented, after seve- 
ral refusals, to grant a salary for the purpose; and when 
they finally acceded to it, the sum was too small, and the 
doctor had become too infirm to leave his charge in New 
York, if he had entertained the wish to do so. 

In 1787 the Rev. John Bassett was associated with Dr. 
Westerlo. The church had now become comparatively 
wealthy and numerous.^ In 1798, during his ministry, the 
congregation having become too large for the dimensions of 
their ancient church, a new one was completed, in North 
Pearl street, and services were held weekly in both places. 
About this time serious difi'erences arose between Mr. Bassett 
and his consistory, which led to his withdrawal from the 
church in 1804. He removed to the Boght, and afterwards 
to Bushwick, Long Island, where he died in 1820. 

The Rev. John B. Johnson became the colleague of Dr. 
Bassett in 1796, and continued here until 1802, when he 
withdrew, and removed to Brooklyn. He died at Newtown, 
Long Island, on the 29th August, 1803. [n consequence 
of impaired health he had withdrawn from the cares of a 
large congregation, and accepted a call where less exertion 
was required ; but his disease was too deeply rooted, and the 
change proved ineff'ectual to his relief. After the death of 

^ The church was full long before this time. As early as 1753 
galleries were erected on the west and south sides to accomniodate 
males. Previous to that, there were sittings for 611 women, and 
79 men, tlie latter occupying the bench around tlie wall. When 
the galleries were completed, the male portion of the congregation 
nimibered 209. From time to time seats had been gained by extend- 
ing the benches into the aisles, until the sittings on the ground -floor 
and gallery numbered 820. This was before 1770. 


Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 

his wife, who left him in April with three infant children, he 
rapidly declined. He was distin^'uished by abilities which 
marked him for extensive usefulness, and his mind was im- 
proved by a liberal education and indefatigable study. He 
enjoyed great popularityf^jsvith his people, and during his 
ministry very gratifying accessions were made to the church. 
The two ministers preached alternately in the old and new 

By the removal of Mr. Bassettin 1804, the church was left 
without a pastor. At this juncture, a meeting of the great 
consistory was called for the purpose of deliberating upon the 
concerns of the church, and to decide upon the call of a pastor. 
This body was composed of the acting board, and the sur- 
viving members of all former boards of consistory, and met on 
the 27th of May, 1805. The following members attended : 

John Veeder, 
John N. Bleecker, 
John B. Bradt, 
John H. Wendell, 
John D. P. Douw, 


Henry Truax, 
Douw Fonda, 
Gerrit Quackenbush, 
Killian J. Winne, 
Sol'n Van Rensselaer, 
Harmanus P. Schuyler, 
Anthony Van Santvoort, 
Jacob Ten Eyck,i 
Leonard Gansevoort, 
Gerrit Groesbeeck, 
Henry Quackenbush, 
Henry Staats, 
Isaac Truax, 
John Gates, 
Gerrit A. Lansing, 
Peter Lansing, 
Joachim Staats, 
James Bleecker, 

Elbert Willett, 
John J. Bleecker, 
Cor's Van Schelluyne, 
Philip P. Schuyler, 
Cornells Van Vechten, 
William Staats, 
Abraham Schuyler, 
John P. Quackenboss, 
K. K. Van Rensselaer, 
Jacob Bleecker, Jr., 
Teunis Ts. Van Vechten, 
Harmanus A. Wendell, 
Henry Van Woert, 
Casparus Pruyn, 
Gerardus Lansing, 
Jacob J. Lansing, 
Cornelius Groesbeeck, 
Richard Lush, 
Sanders Lansing, 
Isaac Bogert, 
Jacob Van Loon, 
Volkert S. Veeder, 
Peter E. Elmendorf, 
Abraham Ten Eyck. 

^ This was the last survivor of this consistory. He died 36 July, 
1863, aged 91. 

Beformed Protestant Dutch Church. 85 

In the absence of any pastor, Mr. Peter Dox had presided 
over the meetings of the board for a long time. They 
determined to call the Rev. John M. Bradford, under a salary 
ofS1500. He was to be required to preach but once on 
each sabbath during the first year, and his salary was to be 
increased $250 in the event of his marriage. The Rev. Mr. 
Linn, who had been an occasional preacher here several 
years, was also engaged to preach once on each sabbath. He 
died 8 Jan., 1808, aged 55. Mr. Bradford was ordained and 
installed pastor of the church on the 11th of August, 1805. 

The project of another new church began to be agitated 
early in 1799, to be located upon the ancient church yard, 
where it was subsequently built. In 1805, the ground occu- 
pied by the old church at the foot of State street, was sold 
to the city corporation, for $5,000, and in the spring of the 
following year it was taken down, and the materials used in 
the construction of the church on Beaver street. A great 
deal of interest still attaches to this venerable edifice, and 
its demolition was viewed with painful emotions by many of 
the old people, who had been so long accustomed to worship 
there. It had served the purposes of the congregation nearly 
a century, and was invested with an unusual religious affection 
and veneration; the march of improvement has seldom over- 
turned a nobler structure. The site had been selected for 
the church just a century and a half previous. The one 
erected in 1643 had before 1656 become inadequate to the 
accommodation of the community, and it had been determined 
in the course of the preceding year to erect a new building. 
To assist this good work the patroon and codirectors sub- 
scribed 1000 guilders, or $400, and 1500 guilders were 
appropriated from the fines imposed by the court at Fort 
Orange. In the early part of the summer, Rutger Jacobsen, 
one of the magistrates, laid the corner stone of the sacred 
edifice, in presence of the authorities, both of the town and 
colonic, and of the assembled inhabitants. A temporary 
pulpit was, at first, erected for the use of the minister, but 
the settlers subscribed twenty-five beavers to purchase a 
more splendid one in Holland. The chamber at Amsterdam 
added seventy-five guilders to this sum, for " the beavers 
were greatly damaged;" and " with a view to inspire the coa- 


86 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 

gregation with more ardent zeal," presented them the next 
year with a bell " to adorn their newly constructed little 
church." 1 A fragment of this bell is still preserved, it is 
said, in one of the churches, bearing the inscription, "Anno 
1601." And when in 1715, the original structure was 
beginning to decay, and the congregation becoming too 
numerous for its dimensions, the foundations of a new one 
were laid around it, and the walls carried up and enclosed 
before the first was taken down, so that the customary services 
were interrupted only three sabbaths.- This enlargement 
was made in the third year of the ministry of the Rev. 
Petrus Van Driessen ; and the ingenuity of the scheme by 
which so great a work was accomplished without materially 
interrupting the weekly services, seems to have been a sub- 
ject of great admiration and universal remark, in all time 
since. The edifice which had been constructed in this 
extraordinary manner, is correctly delineated in the accom- 
panying engraving. It occupied almost the entire width of 
State street, and extended into Broadway. 

When the church was demolished, very few of the armo- 
rial bearings upon its stained windows escaped destruction ; ^ 
still a few relics were preserved. Among these, is one of 
its small windows; also the weather-fane, and one of the bags 
in which the contributions were taken. ^ But above all, the 

^ History of New Netherland, ii, 307. 

"^ Elizabeth Vinhagel, afterwards wife of Jonas Oothout, was one 
of the children baptized on the 30 Oct., 1715, when the church was 
first opened for that purpose. — Hist. Coll. i, 57. She was the last 
person for whose funeral the bell was tolled, in 1806. The dominie 
has recorded that the first baptism in the new edifice was that of 
his own son. 

^Of these stained windows, but four sashes are known to exist 
entire, namely, the Van Kensselaer, the Schuyler, the Wendell, and 
the Jacobsen. I had the good fortune to acquire the remnant of 
five panes of the sash of Andries Herbertsen, which was claimed by 
the late Gerret Gates as belonging to his family, and preserved by 
him at the time the church was razed. They were sufficient to 
show the whole device with the exception of one pane, and is pictured 
in the Historical Collections of Albany, ii, 113. 

* Unfortunately some of these have recently disappeared, and are 
believed to have been wantonly destroyed or misappropriated. 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 


old pulpit is still in existence, 
and forms a very interesting 
relic. It was sent over from 
Holland in 1656, and was con- 
tinued in the service of the 
church 150 years. It is con- 
structed of oak, octagonal in 
form, about four feet high, 
and three feet in diameter. 
Although for a long time in a 
dismounted state, and rather 
off at the hinges, it was other- 
wise in a very good state of preservation, and has been 
rejuvenated. The accompanying engraving represents it very 
accurately as it stood for a time in the attic of the North Dutch 

Old Pulpit as becentlt bbstored. 

88 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 

Church. The bracket is seen in front upon which the 
dominie placed the hour glass, when he commenced his 
discourse. This pulpit was occupied by a long line of 
ministers, whose memory has been so much neglected, 
that it has been with great difficulty and labor we have 
traced their names and terms of service. The following is 
the best account we are able to give of the succession of the 
ministry : 

1642 to 1649, Rev. Johannes Megapolensis. 
1650, Wilhelmus Grasmeer, officiated one year. 
1652' to 1690, Rev. Gideon Schaets.i 
1671 to 1680, Rev. Wilhelmus Van Niewenhuysen. 
1683 to 1699, Rev. Godfredius Dellius. 

1699 Rev. Johannes Petrus Nucella. 

1700 to 1709, Rev. John Lydius.2 

1710 no pastor. Rev. Gualterus Du Bois (occasional). 

1711 do Rev. Petrus Vas. ( do. ) 

1712 to 1738, Rev. Petrus Van Driessen. 
1733 to 1744, Rev. Cornells Van Schie. 

1746 to 1759, Rev. Theodorus Frielinghuysen.3 

1760 to 1790, Rev. Eilardus Westerlo. 

1776 to 1779, Rev. John H. Livingston (occasional). 

1787 to 1804, Rev. John Bassett. 

1796 to 1802, Rev. John B. Johnson. 

1805 to 1820, Rev. John M. Bradford. 

The minutes of the board of consistory were very imper- 
fectly kept previous to the year 1790. The records of the 
church wichh we have seen, consist principally of registers 
of baptisms and marriages, kept often in a very obscure 
manner, in which the elections of church officers are some- 
times interpersed. Soon after the above date, however, a 

^ Mr. Brodhead says that Dom. Schaets began "his ministry 1647. 
But if his ministry was 42 years, and is counted to the time of his 
death, it would have begun in 1652, as has been the commonly re- 
ceived date of it. He does not seem to have oflaciated after 1683. 

^ The term of Mr, Lydius extended only to the close of 1709, old 
style, as he died on the 1st March, and the year extended to the 20th 
of that month. 

' It is ascertained that Dom. Frielinghuysen began his ministry 
in 1746 ; his first recorded baptism July 20. 

Reformed Frotesiant Dutch Church. 89 

new spirit seemed to have animated tlie board, which was 
composed of some of the most eminent men of the day. 
They entered upon the business of erecting a large church, 
surpassing all others in the city ; and among other improve- 
ments and regulations which they introduced, they caused 
the minutes of the board, as far as they had been kept, to 
be fairly transcribed, and insisted upon their being properly 
and fully noted. Since then their transactions have beea 
very well preserved. 

We have traced the history of this church, one of the 
oldest in the United States, down to the year 1805, when 
a new era begins. The church now consists of three con- 
gregations, an account of which is deferred to a future time. 

Call op the Rev. Johannes Megapolensis. 
Whereas, by the state of the navigation in the East and 
West Indies, a door is opened through the special providence 
of God, also in New Netherland, for the preaching of the gos- 
pel of Jesus Christ, for the salvation of men, as good fruits 
have been already witnessed there, through God's mercy; 
and whereas the brethren of the Classis of Amsterdam have 
been notified that Mr. Kiliaen Van Rensselser hath within 
the said limits in the North River, as patroon or lord, founded 
a colony named Rensselaerswyck, and would fain have the 
same provided with a good, honest, and pure preacher ; there- 
fore they have observed and fixed their eyes, on the reverend, 
pious and well-learned Dr. Joannes Megapolensis, junior, a 
faithful servant of the gospel of the Lord, in the congregation 
of Schorel and Berg, under the Classis of Alkmaar, whom ye 
have also called, after they had spoken with the said lord, Mr. 
Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, in the same manner as they, with his 
honor's approbation, do hereby call him to be sent to New 
Netherland, there to preach God's word in the said colony, to 
administer the holy sacraments of baptism and the Lord's 
supper; to set an example to the congregation, in a Christian- 
like manner, by public precept; to ordain elders and deacons 
according to the form of the holy apostle Paul, 1 Tim., iii., 
1; moreover to keep and govern, with the advice and 
assistance of the same, God's congregation in good discipline 
and order, all according to God's holy word, and in conformity 
with the government, confession and catechism of th« 

90 Beformed Protestant Dutch Church. 

Netherland churches and the synodal acts of Dordrecht, sub- 
scribed by him to this end, with his own hand, and promised 
in the presence of God, at his ordination, requesting hereby 
all and every who shall see and read these, to respect our 
worthy brother as a lawfully called minister, and him to 
esteem by reason of his office, so that he may perform the 
duty of the gospel to the advancement of Grod's holy name 
and the conversion of many poor blind men. May the 
Almighty Grod, who hath called him to this ministry, and 
instilled this good zeal in his heart, to proclaim Christ to 
Christians and heathens in such distant lands, strengthen 
him more and more, in this his undertaking, enrich him 
with all sorts of spiritual gifts; and bless overflowingly his 
faithful labors; and when the Chief Shepherd, Christ Jesus, 
shall appear, present him with the imperishable crown of 
eternal glory. Amen. Thus given in our classical assembly 
at Amsterdam, this 22d day of March, 1642. Signed in the 
name and on behalf of the whole body. Wilhelmus Somerus, 
loco praesidis; Zloahar Swalmius, scriba classis ; Jonas 
Abeels, elder. Examined and approved by the directors of 
the West India Company, Chamber of Amsterdam, 6th June 
1642 (signed) Charles Looten, Elias de Raet. Mr. Mega- 
polensis embarked in the Houttuyn, and arrived at the 
colony in August of 1642. — O'Vallaghan's Hist. N. Neth., 
I, 449. 

Agreement Between Dom. Megapolensis and the 


The conditions upon which Mr. Megapolensis accepted the 
call "to administer and promote divine service in the colonic 
for the term of six successive years, according to previous de- 
mission from his classis," were as follows: "Firstly, Dr. 
Johannes Megapolensis 39 years old, with his wife, Machtelt 
Willemsen, aged 42 years, besides his children, flellegond, 
Derrick, Jan, and Samuel, aged 14, 12, 10, and 8 years, shall 
furnish and provide themselves with clothing, furniture and 
other utensils, and these put up in such small and compact 
parcels, as can be properly stowed away in the ship. In the 
mean time, as his six years and his salary shall commence so 
soon as he shall set foot in the aforesaid colonic, the patroon, 
in addition to free board for them all in the ship, until they 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 91 

reach the colonie, shall over and above make him a present, 
for future service, at once, of three hundred guilders, without 
deduction. And in case it happen, which the Lord God in 
his mercy forbid, that he and his family come to fall in the 
hands of the Dunkirkers, the patroon promises to use all 
diligence to procure his ransom; to forward him afterwards 
on his voyage, according as occasion shall again offer, and 
to cause to be paid him during his detention, for the support 
of himself and family, forty guilders per month; and also 
so much here monthly, after he shall have received his 
liberty and orders, and shall have conveyed him hither, 
until he embarks. On his arrival, by God's help, in the 
colonie, the patroon shall cause to be shown to him where 
he and his shall lodge at first, until a fit dwelling shall be 
erected for him. So soon as he shall reach the colonie, his 
hereafter-mentioned salary shall commence, and his board and 
wages cease, and the patroon be discharged therefrom. 
Which salary, in order that he and his family shall be able 
honorably to maintain themselves, and not be necessitated 
to have recourse to any other means, whether tilling the 
land, commerce, rearing of cattle, or such like; but by the 
diligent performance of his duties, for the edifying improve- 
ment of the inhabitants and Indians, without being indebted 
to any person, which he also acknowledges to observe; 
wherefore the patroon promises to cause to be paid to him 
for the first three years' salary, meat, drink, and whatever 
else he may claim in that regard, one thousand, or ten hundred 
guilders yearly, one half here in this country, the remaining 
half in proper account there, according as he requires it, in 
provisions, clothing, and such like, at the ordinary and ac- 
customed prices; and a further yearly addition of thirty 
schepels of wheat — I say thirty schepels — and two firkins 
of butter, or in place thereof, sixty guilders in money's worth. 
Should the patroon be satisfied with his service, he shall give 
him yearly, the three following years, an increase of two 
hundred guilders. In case of decease within the aforesaid 
six years, at which time the salary shall cease, the patroon 
shall pay to his widow, besides the supplement of the half 
year in which he shall have entered, a yearly sum of one 
hundred guilders, until the expiration of the aforesaid six 
years. He shall, besides, befriend and serve the patroon, 

92 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 

in all things wherein lie can do so without interfering with 
or impeding his duties. The aforesaid Johannes Megapo- 
lensis having also promised to comport himself in the said 
colonie as a loyal subject and inhabitant thereof, the above 
named patroon, on his side, also promises, for him and his 
successors, to perform and execute what is hereinbefore set 
forth, and to furnish him with due acte and commission, 
sealed with the seal of the patroon and the colonie; and in 
acknowledgment of the truth, without fraud, guile, or deceit, 
has this writing been signed by both sides. In Amsterdam, 
this 6th of March, 1642."— 76 iV/., i, 448. 

The First Church. 

In commissary Van Curler's letter to the patroon, dated 
June 16, 1643, he says: "As for the church, it is not yet 
contracted for, nor even begun. I had written last year to 
your honor, that I had a building almost ready, namely, the 
covenanted work, which would have been for Dom. Megapo- 
lensis; and this house was not agreeable to the taste of Dom. 
Johannes; in other respects it was altogether suitable for 
him, so that I have laid it aside. That which I intend to 
build this summer in the pine grove (in het greynen bosch), 
will be 34 feet long by 19 feet wide. It will be large enough 
for the first three or four years, to preach in, and can after- 
wards always serve for the residence of the sexton, or for a 
aokooV— Ibid., i, 459. 

The Church Treasury. 

It appears that in 1647, the church was rich enough to 
loan money to the patroon, as will be seen by the following 
note of hand to the deaconry : I, the undersigned, Anthonie 
de Hooges, have, on the part of the noble patroon of the 
colonie of Rensselaerswyck, borrowed from the diaconie of 
the aforesaid place, for the term of one year, to be repaid 
in cash, at the option of the lenders, with ten per cent interest 
per annum, the sum of three hundred guilders in seawan, 
whereof one hundred and twenty is in ordinary seawan, 
promising thankfully to produce at the aforesaid time, in 
stated specie aforesaid, to the diaconie of the aforesaid place. 
In testimony whereof, have I subscribed this acte with mine 
own hand. Actum R. Wyck, 9th May, lQi7."— Ibid., i, 471. 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 93 

The church collections were taken up ostensibly for the 
support of the poor ; and it is true that the church maintained 
a poor house, the disbursements for which during many years 
may be be found in the first volume of my Historical Collec- 
tions of Albany. But the accumulations were so much beyond 
the necessities of the object, that there was at one time up- 
wards of 13,000 guilders in the treasury, and it was used to 
build the church and parsonage. 

The Rev Gideon Schaats, 

The second clergyman in Albany, was born in 1607. He was 
originally engaged as minister of the colonic of Rensselaers- 
wyck, but in 1657, he was appointed " at the request of the 
inhabitants of Fort Orange and Beverwyck," minister of the 
latter place, at a salary of 1200 guilders, " to be collected 
for the greatest part from the inhabitants.^^ The following 
is a contract under which he first came to this country : " We, 
Johan Van Rensselaer, patroon, and codirectors of the colo- 
nic Rensselaerswyck in New Netherland, having seen and 
examined the actes granted by the venerable Classis of 
Amsterdam to Dominie Gideon Schaats, so have we invited 
and accepted the said Gideon Schaats as preacher in our 
aforesaid colonic, there to perform divine service in quality 
aforesaid. To use all Christian zeal there to bring up both 
the heathens and their children in the Christian religion. 
To teach also the Catechism there, and instruct the people 
in the holy scriptures, and to pay attention to the office of 
schoolmaster for old and young. And further to do every- 
thing fitting and becoming a public, honest and holy teacher, 
for the advancement of divine service and church exercise 
among the young and old. And, in case his reverence 
should take any of the heathen children there to board and to 
educate, he shall be indemnified therefor as the commissioners 
there shall think proper. And he is accepted and engaged 
for the period of three years, commencing when his rever- 
ence shall have arrived thither in the Colonic Rensselaers- 
wyck, in the ship the Flower of Gelder, his passage and 
board being free; and he shall enjoy for his salary, yearly, 
the sum of eight hundred guilders, which shall be paid to 
his reverence there through the patroon's and codirectors^ 
commissioners; and in case of prolongation, the salary and 

94 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church 

allowance shall be increased in such manner as the parties 
there shall mutually agree upon. And as a donation, and 
in confirmation of this reciprocal engagement, one hundred 
guilders are now presented to the dominie. And in addi- 
tion the sum of three hundred guilders to be deducted from 
the first earned wages in the colonie, which moneys he doth 
hereby acknowledge to have received, acquitting thereof the 
patroon and codirectors. Finally, should the dominie re- 
quire any money to the amount of one hundred guilders, to 
be paid yearly here, and to be deducted there, the said pay- 
ment, on advice from the commissaries there, shall be made 
here, to the order of the aforesaid dominie. Whereupon, the 
call, acceptance, and agreement are concluded, each promising 
on his side, with God's help, to observe and follow the same, 
which each has promised, and in testimony thereof have both 
signed this. In Amsterdam, this eighth of May, XVI hun- 
dred two and fifty." Was signed Johan Van Rensselaer, Tous- 
eaint Mussart, for the codirectors, Gideon Schaats called 
minister to Rensselaerswyck. — Ihid.^ ii, 567. 

Mr. Schaats's Children. 

The Rev. Mr. Schaats had three children, two sons and 
one daughter. Reynier, the oldest, removed to Schenec- 
tady, where he was killed, with his son, at the great massacre, 
Feb 10, 1690. Bartolomeus the second, passed over to Hol- 
land, 1670, but returned and settled as a silversmith in New 
York, where he died about 1720, having a son, Reynier, from 
whom are descended all of the name now in this country. 
Anneke S., the daughter, married Thomas Davitse Kikebell,* 
of New York. She was by no means a favorite with some 
of the female portion of her father's congregation, who 
carried their feelings so far, at one time, as to object to 
approach the Lord's supper in her company. Her father re- 
sented this. Indeed, already female gossip had been caught 
busy at a tea party with even the dominie's character ; a prose- 
cution for slander ensued, and the parties had to pay heavy 
damages. Out of this probably arose the ill-will towards the 
daughter, who was sent by the magistrates to her husband at 
New York. The dominie in consequence, resigned his charge 
over the church, after having preached a sermon on 2 Peter, i, 
12-15. He was, however, reconciled to his flock, and Anneke 



This Grant was bounded west by the Hudson, north and south by dotted 
lines, and east by dotted lines and Wood Creek. The shaded part represents 
the Grant in two parcels as erroneously claimed by Jjuane.—Hairs Hist. 
Vermont, p. 490. 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 95 

returned to her father, by whom she seems to have been 
much loved/' — Ihid.^ ii, 568. 

DoM. Dellius Deposed. 

When the Earl of Bellomont arrived as governor of the 
province, in 1688, Mr. Dellius was despatched in company 
with Capt, John Schuyler, to Canada, to convey the account 
of the peace of Ryswick, and to solicit a mutual interchange 
of prisoners. The dominie allowed his Indian agency to 
involve him in serious difficulties. The Assembly of 1699 
took into consideration sundry extravagant grants of land 
which had been made by Col. Fletcher to several of his 
favorites. Among these were two grants to Mr. Dellius, 
who was accused of having fraudulently obtained the deeds, 
according to which the patents had been granted. One of 
these, dated Sept. 3, 1696, under the seal of the province, 
was made by Col. Fletcher for u tract of land " lying upon 
the east side of the Hudson river, between the northermost 
bounds of Saraghtoga and the Rock Rossian,'' containing 
about 70 miles in length, and 12 miles broad, subject to 
a yearly rent "of one raccoon skin ! Another grant was made 
to a Dominie Dellius, William Pinchon and Evert Banker, 
dated July 30, 1697, for " a tract on the Mohawk river, 50 
miles in length, and two miles on each side of the river, as 
it runs," subject to an annual rent of one beaver skin for the 
first seven years, and five yearly forever thereafter. On the 
12th May, 1699, the Assembly resolved that, " It having 
appeared before the house of representatives convened in 
general assembly, that Mr. Godfrey Dellius has been a prin- 
cipal instrument in deluding the Maquaas Indians, and 
illegal and surreptitious obtaining of said grants, that he 
ought to be and is hereby suspended from the exercises of 
his ministerial function in the city and county of Albany."" 

The Church Records. 

The book of baptisms and marriages commenced by Mr. 
Dellius in 1683, and continued to the present day, has been 
of great service to many, who from various motives have 
sought to trace their ancestry, and toothers who have resorted 
to it for the purpose of perfecting papers to obtain pensions ; 
but above all, the heirs of Anneke Janse are there enabled 

96 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 

to make out tlieir parentage, and get it established by the 
certificate of the church master; which having obtained 
they carefully deposit it in a capacious wallet, with as much 
satisfaction apparently, as if they had overcome a great obsta- 
cle, and were actually pocketing Trinity church itself. The 
resort to the books for the above and similar purposes during 
many years was so great, that they became a good deal defaced. 
In order to the entire preservation of so valuable a record, 
two large folio volumes were procured, into which a41 the 
names were copied in a fair and legible hand. Posterity is 
indebted for this laborious performance to the industry of 
Dr. John H. Trotter, who, with the zeal and perseverance 
of a Dutch commentator, gave up his leisure hours for many 
months to the arduous task of decyphering and transcribing 
several hundred pages of Dutch and Indian names, many of 
them almost unintelligible. The baptisms during the minis- 
try of Dom. Dellius, embracing about sixteen years, were 
more than 1100. Among these, Indians names frequently 
occur. The whole number of baptisms on record is about 
14,000. The first baptisms under the successor of Mr. Dellius, 
who was Dom. Nucella, bear date Sept. 3, 16t)9. In 1701, 
baptisms seem to have been made of a considerable number 
of persons belonging to Kinderhook, and in 1707 and 1708, 
at Esopus (Kingston). On the 23d and 30th xipril, 1710, 
61 baptisms are entered by Mr. Gualterus DuBois. In 1711, 
the following baptisms were made by Rev. Petrus Vas, who 
was a settled pastor at Kingston: March 4th, 14; 11th, 
7; Oct. 7th, 16; 12th, 2; 14th, 8; 20th, 3. Also in 1712, 
by the same, Feb. 10th, 15; 17th, 5. On the 20th April, 
1712, the first entry is made by Rev. Petrus Van Driesseu, 
of 29 baptisms. 

Prof. Jonathan Pearson, who has a most perfect knowledge 
of the names of the early Dutch citizens of this region, and 
their true orthography, has made a new transcript of the old 
record of baptisms and marriages, which it is contemplated 
to publish entire in a future volume of the Collections on the 
History of Albany, and the defective list of a portion which 
was given in the first edition of this volume of the Annals 
is therefore omitted. These names were copied by the best 
light that could then be brought to bear upon them, and 
printed with as much accuracy as could be expected in the 



Beformed Protestant Dutch Church 97 

infancy of similar researches. Still it is proposed not only 
to improve upon the former list, but to group them in fami- 
lies, and to present all the baptisms down to 1800 ; giving 
surnames to many which have been omitted in the original, 
as was so frequently the practice of the time. 

Patent of the Church Pasture. 

As this is an older document than the charter of the 
church itself, and as the Pasture has always been a promi- 
nent land-mark, the following papers on the subject will 
claim a place here. The report of Robert Livingston throws 
much light on its early history, before the patent was 
acquired by Dominie Dellius for this church, and seems to 
have been written after the patent was obtained of Gov. 
DoDgan, by the demand of Gov. Sloughter, as follows : 

In pursuance to his Excell. Coll. Henry Slaughter, Capt, 
Gen''e and Govern'r i^ Chief's command, I have eMclevored to 
inform myself about y^ pasture and doe make the following 
report : — 

That ye s^^ grounds lyeing and adjoyning to y^ old fort 
did first belong to the Colony of Renselaerwyck, but being 
so near ye fort, then in possession of ye West India Com'y : 
Then Gov Petrus Stuyvesant incorporated ye same, and took 
possession of as much grounde south and north and west from 
ye fort as a great gunn could shoot a bullet, and there erected 
a post above and below s-^ fort, as a land marke, this was 
done ao 1652. It was possessed by a Dutchman called Tho. 
Janse 39 year agoe, and mannured to a cornfield, ye s'^ man 
lived and was quietly possessed all ye time of ye Dutch go- 
vernment and part of ye English government from ye year 
1664, when Coll. Nicolls received this Province for ye crowne 
of England, and sent Capt. Manning up to be Commanded 
at Albany, who never disturb ye s^^ Tho. Janse, only ye s^i 
Thomas wintered out a cow for s^ Commander as an acknow- 
ledgment, bu/^ye year after Capt. Baker came up Command^, 
who made ye s'l Tho. Janse verry uneasy and disturbed 
them greviously, broke down ye fence and let ye cattle goe 
in his corn, whereupon ye s'l Tho. Janse complained to Coll. 
Nicolls ye Gov when he came up to Albany, who repre- 
hended ye s*i Capt. Baker, and gave ye ^d. Tho. Janse a 


98 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 

note under his hand yi he should peaceably possess ye s*^ land 
during his natura?/^ life, who enjoyed y^ same till his death, 
ao 1668. Nota. The said Tho. Janse did not enjoy the 
whole pasture so as it lyes in it circumference and fence, now 
for divers had gardins, lotts and orchards in ye same and 
patents from Col. Nicolls for it, y* which ye said Tho. Janse 
possessed did begin at ye ditch and so southward only in y® 
southermost pasture, a peece along ye river belonged to 2 
private men, Yolkert Janse and Jan Thomase. 

As soon as ye s^^ Tho. Janse dyed, Capt. Baker forthwith 
took possession of all ye pasture, as well as those people's lotts 
whose houses and /ewces were drove away with ye use in ye 
year 1666 as ye op*" part possessed by Tho. Janse and lett 
out ye same to his advantage till Capt. Salisbury came up 
Command!", who continued in possession of ye same till 
Binker and Evertse with a fleet took ye country and put in 
Antho Colvin Grov^ for ye States of Holland, who sent up 
Capt. Drayer to be Command ■", ye s^' Drayer granted ye 
afores*^ to ye troopers for their horses to feed there and to be 
ready on all occasions for ye country's service. This con- 
tinued till ye arrivale of S^ Ed™^ Andros who sent up Capt. 
Scnapton to be Commander, who took possession and lett 
out ye same and so successively when he was relieved by Maj. 
Brockholes, Salisbury, Baxter, all of them received the benefit 
of ye same, except one year y^ S"" Edm^ Andros received the 
same as I am informed and gave ye King credit for ye same : 
this continued till a" 1686, when Coll. Dongan, then Gov^ 
for a valuable consideration granted ye s*^! pasture to ye City 
of Albany in their charter, who forthwith convened those 
people yt had pretences in ye same, and B.ggreed and com- 
pounded with most of y"^ so y^ they were satisfyed, for in 
both S^^ Edmund Andros his time and Coll. Dongan's time 
ye people dayly came with their patents granted by Coll. 
Nicolls and Coll. Lovelace former governrs and demanded 
their grant, but had no satisfactory answer. 

The City of Albany being involved in sundry debts sold 
ye 8^ pasture to Doctor Grodevridus Dellius, ye Minister for 
ye behoof of ye Church who are now actually possessed of 
ye same, ye rents and profits whereof goes towards ye main- 
tenance of y^ old minister. 

Heformed Protestant Dutch Church. 99 

The said pasture consists of about 50 acres now, but when 
it was patented by y^ City there were two swamps in itt full 
of trees and brush and water, which by ye church wardens 
is cleerd and ditc/ic? so y^ it is much improved. 

This is humbly oflFered to your Excell. as my report, 

RoBT. Livingston. 

Albany, 15 June, 1691. 

Patent of Church Pasture. 

Thomas Dongan, Captain Grenerll and Governour in Chief 
in & over ye Province of New Yorke & Territoryes Depend- 
ing thereon in America under his most sacred Majesty James 
ye Second by ye Grace of God King of England Scotland 
France and Ireland Defender of ye faith &c. To all to whom 
this presents shall come sendeth greeting Whereas by vir- 
tue of a certaine Deed of Bargaine & Sale from ye Mayor 
Alderman & Commonalty of ye citty of Albany bearing Date 
ye first day of November in ye third year of his sdid Majes- 
tyus Reigne & in ye year of our Lord one thousand six hun- 
dred Eighty & Seaven Godfridus Dellius of ye said Citty 
Clerk stands seized in his owne Right and to his own use of 
an Estate of Inheritance in fee simple of & in a certain Piece 
or Parcell of Land commonly called or known by ye Name 
of ye Pasture Sxjituate Lyeing and being to the Southard 
of ye said Citty neere ye place where ye old Fort stood and 
extended along Hudsons River till it comes over against y® 
most Northerly Point of ye Island Commonly Called Martin 
Garritsons Island haveing to ye east Hudsons River to ye 
South ye Manor of Rensselaerswyck to ye West ye highway 
Leading to ye towne ye Pasture late in ye tenure and occupa- 
con of Martin Garrittse & ye Pasture late in ye tenure and 
occupacon of Caspf Jacobs to ye North ye several pastures 
late in ye tenure & occupacion of Robert Sanders Myndart 
Harmanse & Evert Wendell & y® several Gardens late in y® 
tenure & occupacon of Dirick Wessels Killian Van Renslaer 
& Abraham States togecher with all and singular ye Profits 
Commodityes & Apputences whatsoever to the said Pasture 
Piece or Parcell Land & Premissess or any part or parcell 
thereof belonging or in any wise Appurtaineing or to or with 
ye same now or at anytime heretofore belonging or used Occu- 
pied or Enjoyed as Part or Parcell or Member thereof & 

100 Beformed Protestant Dutch Church. 

whereas ye said Goodfridus Dellius has made his request unto 
me yi I would on ye behalfe of his Majesty grant & confirm 
unto him ye said Goodfridus Dellius his Heirs and Assigns 
ye before menconed Pasture Piece or Parcel of Land & Pre- 
misses with ye Appurtences. Know yee yt by virtue of my 
Commission & Authority ^rom his most sacred Majesty & 
Power in me being and Residing in Consideracon of y^ 
Acquit Rent or Chiefe Rent herein after Reserved and other 
Good & Lawful Consideratons me thereunto moving I have 
Given Granted & confirmed and by these presents Do here- 
by Give Grant & Confirm unto ye said Godfridus Dellius his 
Heirs & Assigns forever all y^ ye before Recited Pasture 
Piece or Parcell of Land & Premissess with all and every ye 
Hereditaments & Appurtenances to have and hold all y^ ye said 
Pasture Piece or Parcel of Land and Premissess with all & 
singular ye Herditaments and appurtenances to ye said God- 
fridus Dellius his heirs & Assigns forever to ye only Proper 
use and behoofe of him ye said Godfridus Dellius his Heirs and 
Assigns forever to bee holden of his most sacred Majesty his 
Heirs and Successors in free and Comon Soccage According 
to ye tenure of East Greenwich in ye county of Kent in his 
Majestys Realm of England Yielding Rendering and Paying 
therefore Yearly and every Yeare to his said Majesty his 
Heirs and Successors forever as a Quitt Rent one shilling Good 
and Lawfull Mony of this Province att Albany to be paid to 
such officer or officers as from time to time shall be empowered 
to Receive the same in Leew & Stead of all Services Dues and 
Demands whatsoever in testimony whereof I have Signed 
these Presents with my hand Writing Caused ye same to be 
recorded in ye Secretary's Office & ye Scale of this his Ma- 
jestey's Province to be hereunto affixed this thirtieth Day of 
of July in ye fourth yeare of his Mamies Reigne and in ye 
Yeare our Lord 1688. 

Thomas Donqan. 

May itt please yo^ Excy the Attorney General has Perused 
this Grant & finds nothing therein contained Prejudicial! to 
his Majestyes Interest. 

Exxd July ye 30 : 1688 


Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 101 

Sale of the Pasture. 

In 1791 the consistory directed " the ground commonly 
distinguished as the church pasture," to be laid out into lots. 
They lay on the " west side of Court street, leading from 
the ferry to the town." At this time a gate swung across 
the way a little above Lydius street, and a common road from 
thence to the ferry lay along the bank of the river through 
the pasture. Although the names of some of the streets in 
that region have been changed within a few years, several 
of them still bear the names of the ministers. The area 
which they intersect was once the property of the church, 
and when sold produced less than a hundred dollars a lot. 
These have since been filled in to a considerable extent and 
rendered valuable. There were comparatively but few lots 
built upon south of Lydius street, between Pearl and Broad- 
way, so late as twenty years ago, though now teeming with 
a dense population. 

Act of Incorporation. 

George by the Grace of God King of Great Britain, France 
and Ireland, defender of the faith, &c., to all to whom these 
presents shall come or may concern, sendeth greeting: 
Whereas our loving subjects the Rev. Petrus Van Driessen, 
Johannes Cuyler, Johannes Rooseboom, Henrych Van 
Rensselaer, William Jacobse Van Deusen, Rutgert Bleecker, 
Volkert Van Veghten, Myndert Roseboom and Dirck Tien- 
broock, the present ministers, elders and deacons of the 
Reformed Protestant Dutch Church in the city of Albany, 
in our province of New York, by their humble petition 
presented to our trusty and well beloved Colonel Peter 
Schuyler, president of our council for our province of New 
York, in council have set forth that the inhabitants of Albany, 
descended of Dutch ancestors, have from the first settlement 
of this province by Christians, hitherto held, used and en- 
joyed the free and undisturbed exercise of their religion 
and worship in the Dutch language, after the manner of the 
established Reformed Protestant religion in Holland, accord- 
ing to the common rules, institutions and church government 
of the national synod of Dort, in Holland, in the year of our 
Lord Christ one thousand six hundred and eighteen, and 

102 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 

one thousand six hundred and nineteen. And that the said 
minister, elders and deacons, and their ancestors and predeces- 
sors, at their own charge and expense, erected, built and 
hitherto maintained a church within the city of Albany 
aforesaid, and have dedicated the same to the service and 
worship of Almighty God, situate, lying and being in the 
high street commonly called Yonkers street, nigh the bridge 
in the city of Albany, containing in length on the south side 
thereof seven rod, three foot four inches ; on the north 
side seven rod, three foot jne inch, Ryland measure, and in 
breadth on the east and west ends, sixty-one foot and five 
inches, wood measure. And are now not only quietly and 
peaceably seized and possessed of their said church, but are 
likewise seized of sundry other demesnes to and for their 
sole and only proper use and behoof of their said church 
and congregation, that is to say, one certain messuage or 
tenement and lot of ground in the aforesaid city of Albany 
commonly called the Dutch minister's house, situate, lying 
and being in the Brewer's street, on the east side thereof, in 
the third ward of the said city, being in front from the south- 
ward to the northward five rod ten inches, and behind toward 
Hudson's river, six rod fifteen inches, Ryland measure, and 
in length from the said street to the city stockadoes, bounded 
on the south side by Jan Solomons, and on the north side 
by that of the late Hans Hendrycks and the widow of David 
Schuyler. Also one other certain messuage or tenement 
and lot of ground, situate, lying and being in the city afore- 
said commonly called poor house or alms house, in the first 
ward of the said city, bounded on the south by the high 
street that leads to the burying place to the north of Rutten 
kill, and to the east of Harman Rutgers, and to the west by 
the lot of Garryt Bancker, containing in breadth towards 
the street that leads to the Lutheran church by the said 
Rutten kill, six rod one foot and the like breadth in the rear, 
and in length on the east side, eight rod and two inches, all 
Ryland measure. Also that certain parcel of land commonly 
called and known by the name of the pasture, situate, lying, 
and being to the southward of the city of Albany, near the 
place where the old fort stood, extending along Hudson's 
river, till it comes over against the most northerly point of 
the island commonly called Marten Gerrytsen'^s island, having 

Beformed Prctesiant Dutch Church. 103 

to the east Hudson^s river, to the south the manor of Rens- 
selaerswyck, to the west the highway that leads to the city 
aforesaid, the pastures now or late in the tenure and occupa- 
tion of Martin Gerry tsen, and the pasture now or late in the 
tenure or occupation of Casper Jacobs, to the north the several 
pastures late in the tenure and occupation of Robert Saunders, 
Myndert Harmans and Evert Wendell, and the several 
gardens late in the occupation of Dirck Wessells, Killian 
Van Rensselaer and Abraham Staats, together with the old 
highway from Bever kill to the end of Schermerhorn's pasture, 
adjoining to the skme on the west side thereof- Also that 
certain parcel of pasture land situate, lying, and being to the 
southward of the said city, and to the westward of the before 
mentioned pasture, near and about the limits of the said city 
on the manor of Rensselaerswyck, containing in breadth along 
the wagon way, six and twenty rod, and in length towards the 
woods, eight and twenty rod, and in breadth towards the 
woods twenty five rod. And also all that certain garden lot 
of ground situate, lying, and being in the great pasture, con- 
taining in the breadth six rod and five foot, and in length 
eight rod and two foot, and stretching backwards with another 
small lot of three rod and two foot in length, and in breadth 
one rod and two foot Ryland measure; praying that they 
may by charter or patent under the great seal of the province 
of New York, be incorporated and made one body politic in 
fact and name, and that they and their successors forever 
hereafter, may not only be enabled to use, exercise and en- 
joy their aforesaid privileges, and the free use and exercise 
of their said religion and worship in manner aforesaid, by 
the name and style of the ministers, elders and deacons of 
the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, in the city of Albany, 
with such other liberties and privileges as have been formerly 
granted to other Reformed Protestant Dutch churches within 
the province of New York, with variations, additions and 
commissions, as long usage and experience has taught them 
to be most agreeable to their well being and circumstances, 
but also the grant and confirmation of all those their said 
inheritances and demesnes, to hold to them, the said minister, 
elders and deacons of the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church 
in the city of Albany, and to their successors and assigns 
for ever. We being willing to encourage and promote the 

104 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 

said pious intentions and the free use and exercise of their 
said reformed protestant religion, to the same congregation 
and their successors for ever, in the said city of Albany, 
know ye, that of our especial grace, certain knowledge, and 
meer motion, we have given, granted, ratified, and confirmed, 
and do by these presents for us, our heirs and successors 
for ever, give, grant, ratify and confirm unto all the inha- 
bitants of Albany, so as aforesaid descended of Dutch ancestors, 
and professing the said reformed protestant religion, and to 
their successors for ever, the free use and exercise of their 
worship, doctrine, discipline and church government, accord- 
ing to the canons, rules, institutions and directions of the 
Reformed Protestant Dutch 'Church in Holland, instituted 
and approved by the National Synod of Dort, and that no 
person nor persons whatsoever in communion of the said 
Reformed Protestant Dutch Church in Albany aforesaid, or 
at any time or times hereafter, shall be molested, disquieted, 
or disturbed in the free use and exercise of their said religion 
and worship, they behaving themselves peaceably, and not 
abusing this liberty to licentiousness, profaneness, and the 
civil injury or outward disturbance of the National Church 
of England, as by law established, or other reformed protestant 
churches in the aforesaid city of Albany, And to the end 
the same liberties and privileges be hereafter for ever sup- 
ported, maintained, and continued to them and their successors 
for ever, we of our especial grace, certain knowledge and 
meer motion, do likewise will and grant for us, our heirs and 
successors for ever, unto the same Petrus Van Driessen, the 
present minister of the same congregation at Albany, Johan- 
nes Roseboom, Henryck Van Rensselaer, and William Jacobse 
Van Deusen, the present elders of the same church, and unto 
RutgertBleecker, VolkertVan Veghten, Myndert Roseboom, 
and Dirk Tienbroock, the present deacons of the same church, 
and the inhabitants of Albany communicants of the said 
church, that they be as they are hereby created and made one 
body corporate and politick in fact and name, by the name of 
the minister, elders and deacons of the Reformed Protestant 
Dutch Church in the city of Albany, and that they 
and their successors for ever, shall and may by that name 
have perpetual succession, and be able and capable in the 
jaw to sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded, answer 

JReformed Protestant Dutch Church. 105 

and be answered unto, defend and be defended, in all 
and singular suits, quarrels_, controversies, differences, strifes, 
matters and things whatsoever, and in all courts whatso- 
ever, either in law or equity, of what kind soever, as al o by 
the same name, to have, hold, take, receive, be seized of, 
possess and enjoy to them and their successors for ever their 
said church, parsonage or minister's dwelling-house, alms- 
house, and other their demesnes or inheritances, by fee simple, 
before mentioned, and such other demesnes or inheritances to 
purchase and acquire to them and their successors and assigns 
for ever, and by the same name, the same lands, hereditaments 
and appurtenances, or any part of them (excepting only the 
same church); to alienate, bargain, sell, grant, demise, sell 
and to farm let to any other person, or persons, body corpo- 
rate and politic, whatsoever at their will and pleasure, in fee 
simple for life, or lives, or for term of years, as to them shall 
seem most convenient and profitable, as any other person or 
persons, body corporate or politic, may or can do, not exceed- 
ing the yearly value of three hundred pounds over and above 
what they now stand seized and possessed, or for the common 
use and benefit of the same Dutch Church and of all the 
members of the same congregation. And we do further will 
and grant that the minister, elders and deacons of the same 
church, for the time being, for ever hereafter, be the con- 
sistory of the same church, and shall and may have, keep and 
use a common seal to serve for all grants, matters and things, 
whatsoever belonging to the same corporation, with such 
device or contrivance thereon as they or their successors for 
ever shall think fit to appoint, with full power to break, new 
make and alter the same at their will and discretion; and the 
same consistory shall have and enjoy the like powers and 
privileges as a Dutch consistory in the Reformed Protestant 
Dutch church in Holland do, or may or ought to use and 
enjoy. And we do will and grant that the same Petrus Van 
Driessen be the first minister of the said church at the time 
of this our grant, and the same Johannes Cuyler, Johannes 
Roseboom, Henryck Van Rensselaer, and William Jacobse 
Van Deusen, be the first elders of the said church at the 
time of this our grant; and that the same Rutgert Bleecker, 
Volkert Van Veghten, Myndert Roseboom, and Dirk Tien- 
broock, be the first deacons of the said church at the time 

106 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 

of this our grant, to all intents and purposes ; and that the 
said ministers, together with the said four elders and four 
deacons, or the minister, elders and deacons for the time 
being, and the major numbers of them whereof the minister 
for the time being always to be one — be the consistory of the 
said church, and have and shall have full power and 
authority, at all time and times for ever hereafter, to act in 
all their church affairs and business, by majority of voices 
in as full and ample manner as if the minister and all the 
said four elders and four deacons were personally present 
and did actually and severally give their votes. But in case 
of the death, absence or removal of their said minister, then, 
and in any of these cases, the elders and deacons of the same 
church, for the time being, or the major number of them, 
whereof the first elder in nomination we will always to be 
one, and shall preside, shall have, use and exercise all the 
power and authorities of a consistory to all intents and pur- 
poses, and shall manage and order the church affairs in as 
full and ample manner as if their said minister were alive, 
present and consenting thereunto, any thing in these presents 
to the contrary thereof in any wise notwithstanding. And 
we will and grant that the same elders and deacons con- 
tinue in their respective ofl&ces until the next anniversary 
election. And the said elders and their successors, for ever 
hereafter, have and shall have the full power and authority 
of receiving and paying the moneys given for the maintenance 
of the minister or ministry of the same church, whether the 
same arise by legacy, donation or voluntary contributions or 
collection from the inhabitants or members of the same con- 
gregation, and are to keep exact and true accounts to the 
consistory, when thereunto by them required. And that the 
said deacons and their successors for ever hereafter, have and 
shall have the sole power and authority of receiving and 
paying all the moneys collected and offered at the adminis- 
tration of the Holy Sacrament of our Lord's Supper, and in 
church in the times of divine service of preaching, for the 
maintenance of the poor, and are to keep and render exact 
and true accounts thereof to the consistory aforesaid, when 
thereunto by them required, which election of the same 
elders and deacons of the same church is to be at Albany on 
every second Saturday of 'December, annually, forever, by 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 107 

majority of voices, of the consistory, iu the manner following: 
That is to say, on each second Saturday of December, annu- 
ally for ever at Albany, shall be chosen two new elders and 
two new deacons, who, together with the two elders and two 
deacons last in nomination in this our charter, shall serve 
for the year ensuing in their respective ofl&ces, and for ever 
thereafter, the two new ones shall be chosen and added to 
the younger two elders and deacons of the preceding year, so 
always as to preserve the numbers of four elders and four 
deacons of the said church. And moreover we do will and 
grant unto the said minister, elders and deacons of the 
Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, in the city of Albany, 
and to their successors for ever, that on the second Saturday 
of December next, and on every second Saturday of Decem- 
ber annually forever hereafter at Albany, shall be elected 
and chosen four discreet persons by the majority of voices 
of the consistory aforesaid, to be kirkmasters of the said 
church, whose office and charge is and shall be to build and 
repair the same church and cemetery, parsonage, alms-house, 
and all other the hereditaments and appurtenances to the 
said church belonging, and to have the ordering and direction 
of the pews and seats in the said church, and the breaking 
of the ground in the cemetery for burying of the dead, and 
shall have and receive all the rents and revenues of the said 
church, coming therefrom or from any other of the said 
church's inheritances ] also, the payments of all sum and 
sums of money laid out and expended, or to be laid out and 
expended, in such necessary buildings and reparations of all 
which the said kirkmasters are likewise to keep and surrender 
exact and true accounts to the said consistory aforesaid, two 
of which four kirkmasters last nominated, at the next election 
shall continue in the same office for two years and two new 
ones yearly for ever hereafter, to be elected and chosen to 
serve with the two predecessors in like manner as with the 
elders and deacons aforesaid and not otherwise. And it is 
our will and desire that the two elders, two deacons and two 
kirkmasters, who shall be superseded by a new annual election 
of two others to succeed in their respective places, shall ac- 
count and deliver up their several respective charges and 
moneys to their successors respectively, if any thereof be in 
their hands and possession, respectively in public manner. 

108 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church 

And we do likewise will and grant that the said kirkmasters 
shall be under the direction of the said consistory for the 
time being. And in case there shall not be enough in the 
hands either of the elders, deacons or kirkmasters, for the 
performing and finishing of any of their respective charges 
and trust of their particular respective funds before men- 
tioned, which they be hereby respectively impowered to re- 
ceive and manage. That then it shall and may be lawful to 
and for the consistory aforesaid, to order and direct the 
lending of what sum shall be necessary out of any of the 
aforesaid funds towards deficiency of any other of the said 
funds, so that there be no failure of any of the same three 
several charges or trusts upon any unforseen contingency or 
emergency. And we do likewise will and grant that in all 
elections of officers or other acts or orders of the consistory 
the minister or president of the consistory shall have but 
one vote. And if it shall happen there be an equal division 
of the voices or votes, so that the matter, or thing in dispute 
cannot receive the determination of a majority of voices, that 
then it shall and may be lawful to determine the same by lot, 
leaving it to the sole wisdom of Grod to determine the same 
as he shall think fit. And we do likewise will and grant that 
it shall be in the power of the minister of the said church, 
for the time being, by himself or in case of his death, absence 
or removal, in the president or first elder who shall preside 
for the time being, or in the power of the major number of 
the whole consistory for the time being, to call a meeting of 
the consistory for the good and service of the said churcb, * 
and the afiairs of the said corporation, whensoever they shall 
see meet within the said city of Albany; and in case it shall 
please God that any of the said elders, deacons or kirkmasters, 
for the time being, shall happen to die, remove, or otherwise 
be disabled from serving and officiating in their respective 
offices, within the year for which they are so chosen or ap- 
pointed to serve 3 we do will and grant that it shall and may 
be lawful to the consistory, for the time being, to assemble 
and meet together at Albany, at any other time of the year 
than the time of anniversary election, and so often as there 
shall be occasion to elect and choose other elders, deacons and 
kirkmasters in their respective rooms and stead, to officiate for 
the remaining part of the year until the next anniversary 

Beformed Protestant Dutch Church. 109 

election ; whicli person or persons so chosen as aforesaid into 
any of the aforesaid offices of elders, deacons or kirkmaster, 
shall have like power and authority to act in their respective 
offices as if they had been elected and confirmed at the afore- 
said time of the anniversary election aforesaid, or as if the 
same persons so dying, being absent or otherwise disabled, 
were alive, present and capable to do the same ; and we do 
will and grant unto the said minister, elders and deacons of 
the Reformed Protesant Dutch Church in the city of Albany, 
and to their successors for ever, the advowson and patronage 
of the said church ; (that is to say,) that after the decease of 
the aforesaid Petrus Van Driessen, or next and all other 
avoidances thereof, that it shall and may be lawful to and 
for the elders and deacons of the aforesaid church or the con- 
sistory of the aforesaid church and their successors for ever, 
to present and call another minister to succeed in the cure 
of souls in the aforesaid church and congregation of the Re- 
formed Protestant Dutch Church in the city of Albany, pro- 
vided always such minister, so called or presented by them 
to the said living, be always a person amenable to the laws 
of Great Britain and this Province, and pay due obedience 
and allegiance unto us and our royal heirs and successors, 
the kings and queens of Gi-reat Britain. And that it shall 
and may be lawful to and for the present minister or incum- 
bent of the said church and his successors, or any of them to 
have, take, receive and keep for his end and their own use and 
support, that maintenance that now is or shall be agreed upon 
between him or them and the said consistory from time to time, 
and at all times hereafter. And it shall and may be lawful 
to aod for the said elders of the same church, and their suc- 
cessors for ever, to collect and receive the voluntary subscrip- 
tions of the inhabitants of Albany, belonging to the said 
congregation, for and towards the payment of their said 
minister, or their minister for the time being, and to pay and 
cause to be paid unto the said minister and his successor, the 
minister of the said church, for the time being, his yearly 
stipend or salary, according to agreement, by quarterly even 
payments thereof, or otherwise, as it shall be agreed upon 
by and between them, the said minister of the said church 
and the aforesaid consistory. And we do will and grant that 


110 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 

the said deacons of the said church, and their successors for 
ever, shall and may lawfully and peaceably, from time to 
time, and at all times hereafter, at the meeting of the s^id 
congregation for the public service and worship of Almighty 
God, to collect and receive the free and voluntary alms and 
oblations of the members of the said congregation, and the 
free and voluntary oflPerings made by the communicants at 
their receiving of the holy sacrament of the Lord's Supper 
for the uses aforesaid, and to dispose thereof for the pious 
and charitable uses aforesaid. And we do will and grant 
that the kirkmasters aforesaid, and their successors for ever, 
shall and may from time to time, and at all times hereafter, 
and so often as it shall be necessary, shall and may demise, 
grant, and to farm let, of the demesnes of the said church, 
demisable and grantable to and for the profit and advantage 
of the said church, and receive and collect the rents and reve- 
nues arising therefrom, or otherwise, and apply the same for 
and towards tiie buildings and reparations of the said church 
and parsonage, and other the hereditaments belonging to the 
said minister, elders and deacons of the Reformed Protestant 
Dutch Church in the city of Albany, and such other uses as 
are proper and necessary, provided always that the said 
elders, deacons and kirkmasters in their separate offices, be 
always accountable to and under the direction of the con- 
sistory of the said church for the time being, and not other- 
wise. And we do further will and grant that it shall and may 
be in the power of the consistory of the said church, and 
their successors for ever, if they shall agree thereupon, and 
find themselves able and capable of maintaining him at any 
time or times hereafter, to nominate and call one or more 
able and sufficient minister, lawfully ordained according to 
the constitution aforesaid, in all things to assist and officiate 
in the ministry which doth belong to the sacred office and 
function of a minister of the gospel in the said church, pro- 
vided always that there be no preheminency or superiority 
in that office, and not otherwise. And we do likewise will 
and grant to the said minister, elders, and deacons of the 
Reformed Protestant Dutch Church in the city of Albany, 
and their successors for ever, that it shall and may be lawfull 
to and for the consistory of the said church, to nominate and 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. Ill 

appoint a clerk or precentor, schoolmaster, sexton, bellrihger, 
and such and so many other officers and servants of the same 
church, as they shall think convenient and necessary, and 
to call them by the same or what other names they shall 
think fit. And we do will and grant that it shall and may 
be lawfull to and for the consistory of the said church, and 
their successors from time to time, and at all times hereafter, 
to make rules, orders, and ordinances for the better discipline 
and government of the said church, provided always that 
such rules, orders, and ordinances shall not be binding, nor 
eflPect any other of our reformed protestant subjects within 
the same city, than the voluntary members of their said con- 
gregation, and be no ways repugnant to our laws of Great 
Britain and of this colony, but agreeable to the articles of 
faith and worship agreed upon and instituted by the National 
Synod at Dort, aforesaid. 

And further of our especial grace, certain knowledge and 
meer motion, we have given, granted, ratified, and confirmed 
unto the aforesaid minister, elders, and deacons of the Re- 
formed Protestant Dutch Church, in the city of Albany, and 
to their successors and assigns for ever, all that their said 
church and ground whereon it standeth, their said parsonage 
or minister's dwelling house, with its hereditaments and 
appurtenances thereunto belonging or any ways appertaining, 
and all the alms house or poor house aforesaid, all that the 
pasture or pastures, and all other the premises aforesaid, 
together with all and singular edifices, buildings, gardens, 
orchards, backsides, wells, ways, hollows, cellars, passages, 
privileges, liberties, profits, advantages, hereditaments, and 
appurtenances whatsoever, to all and every of them belong- 
ing, or in any ways appertaining. And all that our estate, 
right, title, interest, properly and demand of, into or out of 
the same or any part of any of them, and the reversions, 
remainders, and the yearly rents and profits of the same, 
saving only the right and title of any other person or persons, 
body corporate and politick whatsoever, to any of the pre- 
mises hereby granted, or meant, mentioned, and intended 
to be hereby granted, or to any of them, to have and to hold, 
all that their said church and ground parsonage or minister's 
dwelling house, almshouse or poor house, pasture or pastures, 

112 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 

and all and sin^jular other tlie premises with their and every 
of their hereditaments and appurtenances unto the aforesaid 
minister, elders and deacons of the Reformed Protestant 
Dutch Church, in the city of Albany, their successors and 
assigns for ever, to the sole and only proper use, benefit and be- 
hoof of the aforesaid minister, elders and deacons of the Re- 
formed Protestant Dutch Church, in the city of Albany, and 
their successors and assigns forever (save only as before is 
saved and expressed), to be holden of us, our heirs and 
successors for ever, free and common soccage as of our manor 
of East Greenwich, in the county of Kent, within our realm 
of Great Britain, yielding, rendering and paying therefore 
yearly and every year, for ever, unto us, our heirs and succes- 
sors forever, at our custom house in New York, unto our and 
their receiver general for the time being, on the feast day of 
the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, commonly 
called Lady Day, the annual rent of one pepper corn, if the 
same be lawfully demanded, in lieu and stead of all other 
rents, services, dues and duties and demands whatsoever, for 
the same church parsonage, alms house, pastures, and all other 
the above granted premises, with the hereditaments and 
appurtenances. And we do hereby will and grant unto the 
aforesaid minister, elders, and deacons of the Reformed 
Protestant Dutch Church, in the city of Albany, and to their 
successors for ever, that these our letters shall be made 
patent, and that they and the record of them remaining in 
our secretary's office of our province of New York, shall be 
good and effectual in the law to all intents and purposes 
whatsoever, according to the true intent and meaning of them, 
and shall be construed, reputed, esteemed and adjudged in 
all cases most favorable for the benefit and behoof of the 
aforesaid minister, elders and deacons of the Reformed Pro- 
testant Dutch Church in the city of Albany and of their suc- 
cessors forever, notwithstanding the not true and well 
reciting of the premises, or of the limits and bounds of any 
of them, or any part of them, any law or other restraint, 
incertainty or imperfection whatsoever to the contaary there- 
of in any way notwithstanding. 

In testimony whereof we have caused. the great seal of our 
province of New York to be affixed to these presents, and 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 113 

the same to be entered of record in one of the books of patents 
in our said secretary's office remaining. Witness our said 
trusty and well beloved Colonel Peter Schuyler, president of 
our council at Fort George, the 10th day of August, in the 
7th year of our reign, anno domini 1720. 

Rev. Mr. Frielinghuysen. 

A regiment came to town about this time, the superior 
officers of which were younger, more gay, and less amenable 
to good counsel than those who used to command the troops, 
which had been formerly been placed on this station. They 
paid their visits at the Flats,' and were received; but not 
as usual, cordially; neither their manners nor morals being 
calculated for that meridian. Part of the Royal Americans, 
or independent cooipanies, had at this time possession of the 
fort ; some of these had families : and they were in general 
persons of decent morals, and a moderate and judicious way 
of thinking, who, though they did not court the society of the 
natives, expressed no contempt for their manners or opinions. 
The regiment I speak of, on the contrary turned those plain 
burghers into the highest ridicule, yet used every artifice to 
get acquainted with them. They wished in short to act the 
part of very fine gentlemen ; and the gay and superficial in 
those days were but too apt to take for their model the fine 
gentleman of the detestable old comedies. These danger- 
ously accomplished heroes made their appearance at a time 
when the English language began to be more generally 
understood ; and when the pretensions of the merchants, 
commissaries, &c., to the stations they occupied were no longer 
dubious. Those polished strangers now began to make a 
part of general society. At this crisis it was that it was 
found necessary to have recourse to billets. The superior 
officers had generally been either received at the Flats, or 
accommodated in a large house which the colonel had in town. 
The manner in which the hospitality of that family was 
exercised, the selection which they made of such as were 
fitted to associate with the young persons who dwelt under 
their protection, always gave a kind of tone to society, and 
held out a light to others. 

^ The residence of the Schuylers. 

114 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 

Madame Schuyler's sister was married to the respectable 
and intelligent magistrate,! who administered justice not 
only to the town, but to the whole neighborhood. In their 
house, also, such of the military were received and enter- 
tained, as had the sanction of her sister's approbation. This 
judicious and equitable person, who in the course of trading 
in early life upon the lakes, had undergone many of the 
hardships and even dangers, which awaited the military in 
that perilous path of duty, knew well what they had to en- 
counter in the defence of a surly and self-righted race, who 
were little inclined to show them common indulgence ; far 
less gratitude. He judged equitably between both parties; 
and while with the most patriotic steadiness he resisted every 
attempt of the military to seize any thing with a high hand, 
he set the example himself, and used every art of persuasion 
to induce his countrymen to every concession that could con- 
duce to the ease and comfort of their protectors. So far at 
length he succeeded, that when the regiment to which I al- 
lude arrived in town, and showed in general an amiable and 
obliging disposition, they were quartered in different houses ; 
the superior officers being lodged willingly by the most 
respectable of the inhabitants, such as not having large fami- 
lies, had room to accommodate them. The colonel and 
madame happened, at the time of these arrangements, to be 
at New York. 

In the meanwhile society began to assume a new aspect; 
of the satellities, which on various pretexts, official and com- 
mercial, had followed the army; several had families, and 
those began to mingle more frequently with the inhabitants, 

^ Cornelius Ciiyler, mayor of Albany, who had been a most suc- 
cessful Indian trader in his youth, and had acquired large posses- 
sions, and carried on an extensive coniniercial intercourse with the 
traders of that day, bringing from Europe quantities of those goods 
that best suited them, and sending back their peltry in exchange ; 
he was not only wealthy, but hospitable, intelligent, and liberal 
minded, as appeared by his attachment to the army ; which was, 
in those days, the distinguising feature of those who in knowledge 
and candor were beyond others, [It will be seen by reference to the 
list of mayors of Albany, on another page, that the authoress has 
committed a mistake in the name of this person. Mrs. Grant 
returned to England in 1768, when but 13 years of age, and there 
was no mayor of that name during her residence in America.] 

Reformed Frotestant Dutch Church. 115 

wlio were as yet too simple to detect the surreptitious tone 
of lax morals and second-handed manners, which prevailed 
among many of those who had but very lately climbed up to 
the stations they held, and in whose houses the European 
modes and diversions were to be met with ; these were not 
in the best style, yet even in that style they began to be 
relished by some young persons, with whom the power of 
novelty prevailed over that of habit ; and in a few rare in- 
stances, the influence of the young drew the old into a faint 
consent to these attempted innovations ; but with many the 
resistance was not to be overcome. 

In this state of matters, one guardian genius watched over 
the community with unremitting vigilance. From the ori- 
ginal settlement of the place there had been a succession of 
good quiet clergymen, who came from Holland to take the 
command of this expatriated colony. These good men found 
an easy charge, among a people with whom the external 
duties of religion were settled habits, which no one thought 
of dispensing with ; and where the primitive state of manners, 
and the constant occupation of the mind in planting and 
defending a territory where every thing was, as it were, to 
be new created, was a preservation to the morals. Religion 
being never branded with the reproach of imputed hypocrisy, 
or darkened by the frown of austere bigotry, was venerated 
even by those who were content to glide thoughtless down 
the stream of time, without seriously considering whither it 
was conveying them, till sorrow or sickness reminded them 
of the great purpose for which they were indulged with the 
privilege of existBnce. 

The domines, as these people called their ministers, con- 
tented themselves with preaching in a sober and moderate 
strain to the people; and living quietly in the retirement of 
their families, were little heard of but in the pulpit ; and they 
seemed to consider a studious privacy as one of their chief 
duties. Domine Frelinghuysen, however, was not contented 
with this quietude, which he seemed to consider as tending to 
languish into indifference. Ardent in his disposition, elo- 
quent in his preaching, animated and zealous in his con- 
versation, and frank and popular in his manners, he thought 
it his duty to awaken in every breast that slumbering spirit 
of devotion, which he considered as lulled by security, or 

116 Beformed Protestant Dutch Church. 

drooping in the meridian of prosperity, like tender plants in 
the blaze of sunshine. These he endeavored to refresh by 
daily exhortation, as well as by the exercise of his public 
duties. Though rigid in some of his notions, his life was 
spotless, and his concern for his people warm and affectionate; 
his endeavors to amend and inspire them with happier desires 
and alms, were considered as the labor of love, and rewarded 
by the warmest affection, and the most profound veneration ; 
and what to him was of much more value, by a growing soli- 
citude for the* attainment of that higher order of excellence 
which it was his delight to point out to them. But while 
he thus incessantly " allured to brighter worlds, and led the 
way,'^ he might perhaps insensibly have acquired a taste of 
dominion, which might make him unwilling to part with any 
portion of that most desirable species of power, which sub- 
jects to us, not human actions only, but the will which directs 

The progress which this regiment made in the good graces 
of his flock, and the gradual assimilation to English manners 
of a very inferior standard, alarmed and grieved the good man 
not a little; and the intelligence he received from some of 
the elders of his church, who had the honor of lodging the 
more dissipated subalterns, did not administer much comfort 
to him. By this time the Anglomania was beginning to 
spread. A sect arose among the young people, who seemed 
resolved to assume a lighter style of dress and manners, and 
to borrow their taste in those respects from their new friends. 
This bade fair soon to undo all the good pastor's labors. The 
evil was daily growing; and what, alas, could Domine Fre- 
linghuysen do but preach! This he did earnestly, and even 
angrily, but in vairi. Many were exasperated but none re- 
claimed. The good domine, however, had those who shared 
his sorrows and resentments ; the elder and wiser heads of 
families, indeed a great majority of the primitive inhabitants, 
were steadfast against innovation. The colonel of the regi- 
ment, who was a man of fashion and family, and possessed 
talents for both good and evil purposes, was young and gay: 
and being lodged in the house of a very wealthy citizen, who 
had before, in some degree, affected the newer modes of 
living, so captivated him with his good breeding and affability, 
that he was ready to humor any scheme of diversion which 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 117 

the colonel and his associates proposed. Under the aus- 
pices of this gallant commander, balls began to be concerted, 
and a degree of flutter and frivolity to take place, which was 
as far from elegance as it was from the honest, artless cheer- 
fulness of the meetings usual among them. The good 
domine more and more alarmed, not content with preaching, 
now began to prophesy : but like Cassandra, or to speak as 
justly, though less poetically, like his whole fraternity, was 
doomed always to deliver true predictions to those who never 
heeded them. 

Now the very ultimatum of degeneracy, in the opinion of 
these simple good people, was approaching; for now the 
officers, encouraged by the success of all their former pro- 
jects for amusement, resolved to new fashion and enlighten 
those amiable novices whom their former schemes had 
attracted within the sphere of their influence; and for this 
purpose, a private theatre was fitted up, and preparations 
made for acting a play ; except the Schuylers and their 
adopted family, there was not perhaps one of the natives who 
understood what was meant by a play. And by this time, 
the town, once so closely united by intermarriages and num- 
berless other ties, which could not exist in any other state 
of society, were divided into two factions; one consisting 
almost entirely of such of the younger class, as having a 
smattering of New York education, and a little more of dress 
and vivacity, or perhaps levity, than the rest, were eager to 
mingle in the society, and adopt the manner of those 
strangers. It is but just, however, to add, that only a few 
of the more estimable were included in this number;- these, 
however, they might have been captivated with novelty and 
plausibility, were too much attached to their older relations 
to give them pain, by an intimacy with people to whom an 
impious neglect of duties the most sacred was generally 
imputed, and whose manner of treating their inferiors, at 
that distance from the control of higher powers, was often 
such as to justify the imputation of cruelty, which the 
severity of military punishments had given rise to. The 
play, however, was acted in a barn, and pretty well attended, 
notwithstanding the good domine's earnest charges to the 
contrary. It was the Beaux Stratagem ; no favorable 
specimen of the delicacy or morality of the British theatre ; 

118 Reforyned Protestant Dutch Church. 

and as for the wit it contains, very little of that was level to 
the comprehension of the novices who were there first 
initiated into a knowledge of the magic of the scene, yet 
they " laughed consumedly," as Scrub says, and actually did 
so, " because they were talking of him." They laughed at 
Scrub's gestures and appearance, and they laughed very 
heartily at seeing the gay young ensigns, whom they had 
been used to dance with, flirting fans, displaying great 
hoops, and with painted cheeks and colored eye-brows, sail- 
ing about in female habiliments. This was a jest palpable 
and level to every understanding ; and it was not only an 
excellent good one, but lasted a long while ; for every time 
they looked at them when restored to their own habits, they 
laughed anew at the recollection of their late masquerade. 

The fame of these exhibitions went abroad, and opinions 
were formed of them no way favorable to the actors or to 
the audience. In this region of reality, where rigid truth 
was always undisguised, they had not learned to distinguish 
between fiction and falsehood. It was said that the officers 
familiar with every vice and every disguise, had not only 
spent a whole night in telling lies in a counterfeited place, 
the reality of which had never existed, but that they were 
themselves a lie, and had degraded manhood, and broke 
through an express prohibition in scripture, by assuming 
female habits ; that they had not only told lies, but cursed 
and swore the whole night, and assumed the character of 
knaves, fools, and robbers, which every good and wise man 
held in detestation, and no one would put on unless they felt 
themselves easy in them. Painting their faces, of all other 
things, seemed most to violate the Albanian ideas of decorum, 
and was looked upon as the most flagrant abomination. 
Great and loud was the outcry produced by it. Little skilled 
in sophistry, and strangers to all the arts " that make the 
worse appear the better reason," the young auditors could 
only say "that indeed it was very amusing; made them 
laugh heartily, and did harm to nobody." So harmless, 
indeed, and agreeable did this entertainment appear to the 
new converts of fashion, that the Recruiting Officer was 
given out for another night, to the great annoyance of Mr, 
Frelinghuysen, who invoked heaven and earth to witness 
and avenge this contempt, not only of his authority, but, as 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 119 

he expressed it, of the source from whence it was derived. 
Such had been the sanctity of this good man's life, and the 
laborious diligence, and awful earnestness with which he 
inculcated the doctrines lie taught, that they had produced 
a correspondent effect, for the most part, on the lives of his 
hearers, and led them to regard him as the next thing to an 
evangelist ; accustomed to success in all his undertakings, 
and to " honor, love, obedience, troops of friends,'' and all 
that gratitude and veneration can offer to its most dis- 
tinguished object, this rebellion against his authority and 
contempt of his opinion (once the standard by which every 
one's judgment was regulated), wounded him very deeply. 
The abhorrence with which he inspired the parents of the 
transgressors, among whom were many young men of spirit 
and intelligence, was the occasion of some family disagree- 
ments, a thing formerly scarcely known. Those young people, 
accustomed to regard their parents with implicit reverence, 
were unwilling to impute to them unqualified harshness, and 
therefore removed the blame of a conduct so unusual to their 
spiritual guide; "and while he thought, good easy man, 
full surely his greatness was a ripening, nipt his root.'' 
Early one Monday morning, after the domine had, on the 
preceding day, been peculiarly eloquent on the subject of 
theatrical amusements, and pernicious innovations, some 
unknown person left within his door a club, a pair of old 
shoes, a crust of black bread, and a dollar The worthy pastor 
was puzzled to think what this could mean ; but had it too 
soon explained to him. It was an emblematic message, to 
signify the desire entertained of his departure. The stick 
was to push him away, the shoes to wear on the road, and 
the bread and money a provision for his journey. Too con- 
scious, and too fond of popularity, the pastor languished 
under a sense of imaginary degradation, grew jealous, and 
thought every one alienated from him, because a few giddy 
young people were stimulated by momentary resentments 
to express disapprobation in this vague and dubious manner. 
Thus, insensibly, do vanity and self-opinion mingle with our 
highest duties. Had the domine, satisfied with the testi- 

o ... 

mony of a good conscience, gone on in the exercise of his 
duty, and been above allowing little personal resentments to 
mingle with his zeal for what he thought right, he might 

120 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church 

have felt himself far above an insult of this kind ; but he found 
to his cost, that " a habitation giddy and unsure hath he 
that buildeth on the fickle heart" of the unsteady, wavering 

Madame now returned to town with the colonel; and 
finding this general disorder and division of sentiments with 
regard to the pastor, as well as to the adoption of new modes, 
endeavored, with her usual good sense, to moderate and heal. 
She was always of opinion that the increase of wealth should 
be accompanied with a proportionate progress in refinement 
and intelligence ; but she had a particular dislike to people's 
forsaking a respectable plainness of dress and manners for 
mere imperfect imitation and inelegant finery. Liberal and 
judicious in her views, she did not altogether approve the 
austerity of the domine's opinions, nor the vehemence of his 
language; and as a Christian, she still less approved his 
dejection and concern at the neglect or rudeness of a few 
thoughtless young persons. In vain the colonel and madame 
soothed and cheered him with counsel and kindness ; night 
and day he mused on the imagined insult; nor could the 
joint efforts of the most respectable inhabitants prevent his 
heart from being corroded with the sense of imagined 
unkindness. At length he took the resolution of leaving 
those people so dear to him, to visit his friends in Holland, 
promising to return in a short time, whenever his health was 
restored; and his spirits more composed. A Dutch ship 
happened about this time to touch at New York, on board of 
which the domine embarked ; but as the vessel belonging to 
Holland was not expected to return, and he did not, as he 
had promised, either write or return in an English ship, his 
congregation remained for a great while unsupplied, while 
his silence gave room for the most anxious and painful con- 
jectures ; these were not soon removed, for the intercourse 
with Holland was not frequent or direct. At length, how- 
ever, the sad reality was but too well ascertained. This victim 
of lost popularity had appeared silent and melancholy to 
his shipmates, and walked constantly on deck. At length 
he suddenly disappeared, leaving it doubtful whether he had 
fallen overboard by accident, or was prompted by despair to 
plunge into eternity. If this latter was the case, it must 
have been the consequence of a temporary fit of insanity ; 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 121 

for no man had led a more spotless life, and no man was 
more beloved by all that were intimately known to him. He 
was, indeed, before the fatal affront, which made such an 
undue impression on him, considered as a blessing to the 
place ; and his memory was^ so beloved, and his fate so 
regretted, that this, in addition to some other occurrences 
falling out about the same time, entirely turned the tide of 
opinion, and rendered the thinking as well as the violent 
party, more averse to innovations than ever. Had the Alba- 
nians been catholics, they would probably have canonized 
Mr. Frelinghuysen, whom they considered as a martyr to 
levity and innovation. He prophesied a great deal ; such 
prophecy as ardent and comprehensive minds have delivered, 
without any other inspiration but that of the sound, strong 
intellect, which augurs the future from a comparison with 
the past, and a rational deduction of probable consequences. 
The affection that was entertained for his memory, induced 
people to listen to the most romantic stories of his being 
lauded on an island, and become a hermit; taken up into a 
ship when floating on the sea, into which he had accidentally 
fallen, and carried to some remote country, from which he 
was expected to return, fraught with experience and faith. 
I remember some of my earliest reveries to have been occu- 
pied by the mysterious disappearance of this hard-fated 
pastor. — Mrs. Grants American Lady^ 170, et seq. 

A rumor, not well authenticated, was common among the 
people, that he embarked, on his return, in the same vessel 
with the person appointed to supersede him, and when made 
acquainted with the fact, very soon disappeared, and was 
supposed to have thrown himself into the sea. These idle 
traditions grew out of the superstitions of the times, and an 
omen. I have seen a letter written 10th October, 1759, by 
G. Abeel of New York to his relatives in Albany, in which 
he says that while he was writing, the ship in which Dom. 
Frielinghuysen sailed was leaving the port, and according to 
the custom, the guns were firing parting salutes. That on 
the previous Sunday, he preached in the new Dutch Church, 
and that when he sat down after giving out the last psalm, 
the bench gave way, and he fell to the floor, which was uni- 
versally regarded as a bad omen. It was remarked that the 


122 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 

ocean was fatal to his family, and the impression that he 
would never return pervaded the minds of the people. Dr. 
De Witt says that he went to Holland on business growing 
out of the controversy which agitated the church at that time 
concerning the coetus, and was expected to return. There 
does not seem to be any well authenticated account of him 
subsequently, but with the exception of these unfounded 
rumors of his decease, he disappears from history. The 
Rev. Eilardus Westerlo arrived in the following August, and 
commenced his ministry. 

Rev. Eilardus Westerlo. 

This divine was born in the province of Qroeningen, Hol- 
land, in 1738, and received a thorough university education. 
It was still a custom with the American churches to send to 
Holland for ministers to supply their pulpits; and in answer 
to the requisition of the church at Albany for a pastor, Mr. 
Westerlo, who was then at the University of Groeningen, 
was induced to accept the call. He arrived here in 1760, 
and entered upon the pastoral charge in October of that year, 
having been previously installed in Holland. He proved to 
be a man of great powers of mind, extensive erudition, and 
became one of the most eminent ministers of the Dutch 
church in America. He possessed caution and prudence, 
and great dignity of manners, yet was ajffable and courteous 
to all. His pastoral duties were discharged with exemplary 
fidelity over a field unusually extensive. He took a con- 
spicuous part in severing the church from its dependence 
upon the mother country, and its reorganization upon the 
present plan. During the war of the American revolution, 
lie took strong grounds in the cause of the people, and at a 
most critical time, when Burgoyne was advancing on the city 
from the north, he animated and inspired the people by 
having his church open every day for the purpose of prayer 
and address. He died on the 26th of December, 1790, at a 
time of life when age had scarcely begun to impair his frame, 
and was buried in the family vault of Stephen Van Rensse- 
laer, his funeral obsequies being attended by a large concourse 
from the city and neighborhood. Amid the arduous cares 
of his ministry, he found time to prepare a Hebrew and 
Greek Lexicon, in 2 vols., folio, which remain in manuscript, 
in the State Library." 

Heformed Protestant Dutch Church. 123 


In 1793 Bemjamin Lincoln, Timothy Pickering and 
Beverly Randolph passed through Albany on their mission 
of peace to the Indians at Niagara. They were accompanied 
by delegates from the Society of Friends, among whom was 
William Savery, an eminent minister, under whose faithful 
preaching while in England, Elizabeth Fry was transformed 
from a gay girl into a steadfast Christian, and a philanthropist 
of world wide renown. The commissioners were received 
with great civility here ; Domine Bassett waited upon them, 
and introducing himself promised to offer up prayers for the 
success of their pious design, and added that a thousand or 
more people would unite with him in his supplications. He 
seemed to the good Quakers to be a good natured, tender- 
spirited man When the church in State street was about 

to be removed, the trustees of the church at the Boght, 
where Mr. Bassett then officiated, applied for the old pulpit; 
but it having been resolved to preserve that relic in the 
church, they next applied for the pew doors and hinges, 
which were granted to them. 

Ancient Customs. 

The pyramidal roof and belfry of the old church are 
familiar to the present generation, from the print of it; but 
where is the remembrancer of its customs? The men sat with 
hats and muffs during divine service, and in the midst of the 
domine's sermon, uprose the deacons and presented to each 
hearer a small black bag, containing a little bell, borne on 
the end of a staff, somewhat resembling a shrimp net. In 
this way the contributions were collected. The tinkle of the 
bell roused the sleepy and diverted for the moment the busy 
thoughts of the traders from muskratand beaver skins. The 
bags, with their load of coppers and half-joes being duly 
replaced, the domine resumed the broken thread of his 
discourse. The Indians are said to have dreaded the coming 
of a Sunday before they had closed the sale of their peltry, 
for to their apprehension it seemed that the man in black 
spoke sharply to the people about the bargains they had been 
driving, and that the drift of the sermon might be guessed 
at by the lower prices offered for their skins on Monday. 

124 Beformed Protestant Dutch Church. 

The practice of taking collections for the poor during the 
sermon was discontinued in 1795. 

The Parsonage, 

Or as it is termed in the charter, the minister's house, 
which belonged to the congregation, and was occupied by Mr, 
Westerlo during the last six years of his life, was the building 
more recently known as the Bleecker House, and was taken 
down years since, to make room for Bleecker Hall. The 
first preaching in English was by Mr. Livingston, about 
1776 ; in 1782 Mr. Westerlo began to preach in English, 
and Mr. Bassett, his colleague, was the first settled English 

City Records Relating to the Church. 

Among the records in the City Hall, are three volumes in 
Dutch, written generally in a good character, embracing 
about thirty years of the close of the seventeenth century, 
in which are frequent allusions to church matters, coming 
under the notice of the council. Some of the city authori- 
ties procured the translation of these records a few years 
ago, but the work was very imperfectly done, the translator 
giving a mere synopsis of the original. The following items 
are taken from the translated volume : 

1676. A request of the consistory of Kingston, that 
Domine Schaats might come over to administer the Lord's 
supper and baptism, which was denied because Domine 
Schaats was a settled minister, but if they wanted Domine 

Rensselaer would agree thereto Domine Van Rensselaer 

preferred a complaint against Jacob Leisler and Jacob Mil- 
borne, for slandering his orthodoxy and ridiculing his 
preaching and the talents graciously bestowed on him by the 
Lord, &c., &c., requests consequently that it may please the 
court to give a verdict about this matter as will be most 
convenient with the truth and justice, and also with the wel- 
fare of Christ in the city Mandate of his excellency the 

governor general to the court to do their utmost endeavors 
to prevent, to smooth and to remove the divers disputes arisen 
between the pastors and some of the members of the Re- 
formed Dutch Church Reconciliation between Domine 

Van Rensselaer, Jacob Leisler, and Jacob Milborne, also 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 125 

between Domine Schaats and some members of tbe con- 
sistory, whereby all the former disputes and ecclesiastical 
discords are thrown in the fire of love. 

Feb., 1677. Proclamation was made prohibiting all mis- 
demeanors which have often occurred here on Shrove Tues- 
day, viz. : riding at a goose, cat, hare, and ale, etc., on a penalty 

of/25 seawan Order of the court to prevent and punish 

severely the shameful violation of the sabbath especially 
committed by the inhabitants of Kinderhook, and the 
appointment of Jochem Lambertse deputy sheriflF strictly to 
attend to it. 

1678. Captain Philip Schuyler complains about it being 
refused to Domine N. Yan Rensselaer by the consistory to 

take his seat in the usual pastor's pew with the elders 

Resolved and ordered that Captain Philip have a suitable 
seat in the church, behind that of the magistrates. 

Feb., 1679. A. Muir requests in the name of the court 
and consistory of Schenectady, that Domine Schaats may be 
sent four Sundays in one year to administer the Lord's sup- 
per to said place and community, which request is granted 
in so far that Domine Schaats is allowed to go four times in 
one year to administer the holy sacraments, but not on a 
Sunday, whereas it would be unjust to let the community be 

here without preaching Appeared before the court Domine 

Schaats, the elder and two deacons, who voluntarily ofi^er to 
take to their charge the rebuilding of the domine's house, 
to be in future a suitable dwelling for the pastor, requesting 

a deed of conveyance No person may sell any food or 

victuals during the time of service on the Lord's day, but 
after the sermon Proclamation by which is expressly cau- 
tioned against the violating of the Lord's day as by deplora- 
ble experience was found that a great deal of the inhabitants 

were committing Summoned before the court on request 

of Domine G. Schaats and the consistory of the Reformed 
Dutch Church, Ida Barents, to be inquired about the slan- 
derous manner in which some of the members of the Lu- 
theran church, and especially a certain Engeltje, the wife 
of Solomon Volktie should have expressed herself in the 
presence of said Ida Barents, on account of the church and 
consistory. Appeared before the court Engeltje, to whom 
the accusation was read, whereupon she prayed and received 
pardon, on condition of better behavior in future. 

126 Beformed Protestant Dutch Church. 

1681. Petition of the consistory of the Reformed Dutch 
Church community, according to the repeated and earnest 
solicitation of Domine Schaats, that it would please the court 
to do their utmost endeavors to obtain them a good orthodox 
pastor for their church, which is favorably answered by the 
court, and resolved in consequence to summon several of the 
principal citizens, in order to know their opinion of the 

matter May. Whereas, Captain Anthony Brockholsthas 

been pleased to give his approbation for the obtainance of a 
new pastor for the Reformed Dutch Church, it is resolved 
by the court to collect a sum of money of the community to 
defray the expenses of his passage hither Letter of Cap- 
tain Brockholst about the sending of Aneke, the daughter 
of Domine Schaats with her children to New York to her 
husband, Thos. D. Kikebel,i and order of the court to said 

Aneke, to depart thither with the first opportunity June. 

Appointment of two elders and two deacons to collect the 
contributions of the members of the community for the new 

appointed pastor Resolved that there shall be written to 

the classis of Amsterdam for the sending of a good orthodox 
pastor for the Reformed Dutch Church of Albany, who will 
eujoy a yearly salary of/800 in beaver, and the contribution 
in behalf of his passage thither, amounts to the sum of /6-4:8 
beaver, which is deposited with Messrs. J. H. Van Baal, 
Richard Van Rensselaer and Abel De Wolff, to be used for 

said purpose Dec. The sheriff, exojfficio, claims of Jan 

Van Loon y 800 seasvan, for a fine, having greatly upbraided 
and injured Marten Cornelis, who had changed the Roman 
Catholic religion for the Protestant, and calumniated the 
Protestant church itself by saying among other things to 
Marten, that he had turned from God to the devil. 

May, 1682. Resolution about making a new gallery in 
the north side of the church, by means of contribution on 
the community. Contract with an architect to build another 

gallery in the church List of twenty-four persons who are 

entitled because of their contributions to seats on the new 
made gallery in the church, as follows : Peter Schuyler 
Philipse, Arent Schuyler, Philip Schuyler, Jr., Johannes 
Schuyler, Martin Gerritsen, Johannes Wendell, Johannes 

1 See Journal of a Voyage to New York 1679-80, by Bankers and Sluyter, in 
L. I. Hist. Coll., I, 2T9. 

Reformed Protestant Butch Church. 127 

Cuyler, Joachim Staats, Levinus Van Schayck, Sybrant A^an 
Schayck, Jacob Lokermans, Robert Livingston, Albert Ryk- 
man, Martin Oornelise, Claes Van Petten, Dirk Wessells, 
Cornelis Teunise, Johannes Janse, Myndert Harmense, Jan 
Stoffolse Abeel, xinthony Van Schayck, Jacob Janse Flodder, 

Arnout Cornelise Viele, Evert Banker Consented that 

Kobert Livingston may occupy for himself and his posterity, 
a seat on the new gallery, as a reward for his trouble in 

getting contributions Resolution of the court to write to 

the commissaries of Schenectady, to get information whether 
it was true that the sabbath could be so dreadfully violated 
there by some Frenchmen, and that such should rather be 
nourished than hindered by the officer, L. Cobes. 

Aug. 1683. Citation of the Reformed Dutch church to 
inquire how much of them would please to contribute for 
the salary of the Holland arrived pastor, Domine Godefridus 
Dellius. List of the subscribers amounts to/ 1200 beaver, or 
350 pistareens. Determination about the just beginning of 
the ministerial year of Domine Dellius, and some dispositions 
in the notarial contract made at Amsterdam, the 20th July, 
1682, especially on account ofthe increase of his yearly salary, 
in case of the death of Domine Schaats.i Information given 
by Domine Dellius of his being willing to perform the notarial 
contract of his duties, but will be pleased in being paid 

with Dutch money Disposition on account of the yearly 

salary of Domine Dellius, being finally fixed at the sum of 
/900 Dutch money, [$360,] and also a consent of Domine 
Dellius to preach to the community of Schenectady once a 
month Resolution ofthe court to write a letter of thanks- 
giving to the classis of Amsterdam, on account of their 
paternal care in sending of the reverend, godly and deep 
learned Domine Godefridus Dellius, and also to write a 
letter of thanks to Richard Van Rensselaer and Abel de 
"Wolfi", for their exertions. 

Antiquities of the Old Stone Church. 

In demolishing the old church, care was taken to preserve 
only a small portion of the armorial bearings on the stained 

1 Mr. Schaats wTote his name Schaets, after the ancient orthography. A fac- 
simile of his signature is given in the Hist. Uoll. of Albany, vol. I, p. 44. He 
died 2T Feh. 1694, aged 86. See ante, p. 88. 

128 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 

glass windows. The late Killian Van Rensselaer, writing 
to Charles R. Webster, from Washington, in March, 1806, 
says: "I had no idea the old church would have been so 
soon demolished. I would have given a great deal to have 
been in Albany when the windows were attacked, for I would 
certainly have given $100 for the old family coat of arms. 
I had directions from Mr. Oliver Wendell in Boston, to 
obtain the glass containing his family arms at any price, and 
in case of his death to deposit it in the Cambridge Museum. 
Pray make some inquiries about the remnant saved, and if 
possible save it for me, as well as the Van Rensselaer arms. 
You will find the name at the foot of the glass on which the 
heraldry appears." One of the old church windows is pre- 
served, a small one, in a shattered condition; also the pulpit 
and the weathercock, and a bag and pole, with which it was 
customary to take the contributions, which was done in this 
wise. The minister paused in the midst of his sermon, 
when the deacons arose, and taking up these implements, 
brought them to a perpendicular position against their 
shoulders. An address was then pronounced from the pulpit 
upon the collection about to be taken in aid of the poor 
members of the church, and the ceremony was then accom- 
panied by the singing of the choir. This was designed to 
give solemnity to the rite. The form of the receptacle con- 
cealed the amount of the gift, so that the munificent were 
not incited by ostentation, nor the needy to deposit their 
scanty pittance with difl&dence. The collection so taken, 
however, was not unfrequently plentifully mixed with a 
variety of coin unrecognized by the statute, consisting of any 
substance that fell into the bag with a chinking sound. The 
deacons, to rid themselves of this class of contributors, pro- 
cured a number of shining, open plates, for the purpose ] 
but their chagrin may be imagined, when, on presenting 
themselves thus equipped before the audience, they found 
some of the honest burghers expressing their indignation at 
the innovation, by turning their backs upon them. A little 
war, wordy but bloodless, ensued; the plates, however, car- 
ried the day, and still maintain their place ; and the glean- 
ings eleemosynary are seldom mingled with base coin. By 
reference to the first eighty pages of the first volume of the 
Historical Collections of Albany, it will be seen how large a 

Beformed Protestant Dutch Church. 129 

sum was gathered in this church by these Sunday collections, 
at a time when the money in circulation consisted entirely of 
beaver skins and wampum, the population was small and 
sparse, and the wealth of the most successful tradesmen was 
trifling compared with that of the present day ; yet so much 
as 225 guilders were taken up of a Sunday. 

The Step Stone op the Church. 

This relic, which lay in the street for many years after 
the church was demolished, was an oblong flat stone, rounded 
by long use into the shape of a kidney, and served to mark 
the place of entrance to the church, the precise spot of the 
vestibule to the ancient sanctuary, and was the identical stone 
which had been impressed by the feet of several generations, 
in passing to their devotions. It was a few feet from the 
curb stone, on the left of the cross walk that leads from 
Douw's Building on the southwest corner of Broadway 
and State street, to the Exchange Building. There were 
several persons in the vicinity who continued to keep watch 
over the old stone step whenever the pavements were repaired, 
and to observe that it was kept in its place. But these 

persons were removed by death 
and the march of improvement, 
and the stone had many narrow 
escapes. The cross walk was re- 
paired in the spring of 1850, and 
the attention of the pavers was 
directed to its preservation; but a 
few months later, in June, other 
repairs were required, and the stone 
was tossed out and lost its place. A very rude engraving 
is given of the locality, done by a tyro at wood-cutting. 

Burial Customs and Ceremonies. 

The Indian commissioners previously spoken of (page 123), 
are said to have witnessed a burial, and been surprised at the 
ways of the people. No women attended the body to the 
grave, as they had been accustomed to see ; but after the 
corpse was borne out, they remained to eat cakes, and drink 
spiced wine. They retired quietly before the men returned, 
who resumed the feast and regaled themselves. Spiced 

130 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 

wine, and cakes, and pipes were provided, and wine was sent 
to the friends of the family. The best room in the house 
was specially appropriated as " the dead room," and was 
rarely opened but to be aired and cleaned At page 40, 
vol. I, Bist. Coll. of Albany, is a bill of expenses for burying 
a church pauper, about 100 guilders, or 40 dollars, some of 
the most prominent items being for rum and beer. Wealthy 
citizens procured a cask of wine for this purpose during 
their life time, and preserved it for that purpose. 

The Last op the Yoorleezers. 

In July, 1802, Mr. William Groesbeeck, who had been 
clerk of the church for a great number of years, died, and 
the desk he had occupied was hung in mourning. He was 
succeeded by his sons, Cornelius and David, who were the 
last of the voorzingers. Cornelius, the latest survivor, died 
in 1865, aged 87. When the North Dutch church was built, 
in 1798, he and his father oflficiated alternately in the new 
and the old churches. 

The Ancient Burial G-round. 

The burial ground for a great number of years was the 
present site of the Middle Dutch Church, where the bodies 
lie three tiers deep. The dead were removed from under 
the church in State street to this ground, after it had beeu 
selected for a place of burial. When the church was built, 
the gravestones were laid down upon the graves, and covered 
over to the depth of three feet, and the records show that 
it was customary, when the ground was wholly occupied, to 
add a layer of earth upon the surface, and commence burying 
over the top of the last tier of coffins. When the basement 
of the house on the northeast corner of it was excavated, the 
boxes were discovered in which the bodies were buried one 
above another. These relics have been frequently disturbed by 
the improvements constantly going on. After the lot was aban- 
doned as a place of burial, the new church yard was located 
south of the Capitol park in the vicinity of State street. The 
graves were many feet above the surface of the lots, as they 
now are, vast excavations having been made in that part of 
the city. 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 131 

Book of Burials. 
A record of the burials in the Dutch Reformed Church 
yard, for a period of about thirty-five years, from 1722 to 1757, 
was kept by Barent Brat, and was a few years since in the 
possession of the late Harmanus Bleeker, for a copy of which 
we are indebted to Mr. S. Y. Talcott. By reference to the 
church records, it is found that in 1719 the consistory esta- 
blished certain regulations for the burial of the dead, by which 
it was required that for the interment of children under 10 
years of age, there should be paid into the church treasury 
20s.($2.50); from 10 to 15 years, £2($5); and for persons 
over 15 years, £3($7.50), exclusive of the charges for digging 
the grave (^graf maeheii) and ringing the bell (luiden van 
die Moh). The coffins were required to be placed in tiers 
close to each other, and to consist of flat boxes. This was 
rendered necessary by the limited space on Beaver street 
allotted to the dead, the bounds of the city being quite 
circumscribed and enclosed in stockades. The burial ground 
occupied but little more space than the ground now enclosing 
the Middle Dutch Church. The street was narrower, and 
graves were extended beyond the present north line of the lot. 
It was on this spot that the burials here recorded, were made. 


16 TlieuDis Brat was buried 

18 Maria Cuyler da of Abram* 
24 Young child, da. of Baberrik 

23 CatljTia Van Benthuysen 

17 Clara Lang's son John 
8 Susana Brat, my grandmo- 
ther, was buried in the 
church by Rut Van Woert 

June 25 Gretie Killys 

30 Cornells Bogert's son 

3 Job's Beekman's Jr. child 
15 Gysbert Van de Berg's child 
17 Willem H. Van de Berg's 

19 Thunis Egberts' child 
Sept 16 Jonethan Rombelie 

i Jacob Roseboom's child 
3 Mallie Van Renselaer 
8 Albert Ryckman's son Albert 
15 Solomon Goewy's child 

21 Hend. T. Eyck 

22 Myndert Roseboom 

24 Phylip Livingston's child* 





Novr 18 Abram Van Arm en's 

19 Pieter van Dresen's child* 

20 Antie van Eivere* 

Deer 18 Maria Roseboom's daughter 

23 Willem Groesbeeck 

7 Daniel Flensburgh's child 
22 Jannetie Dunbar was buried 

in the English Church 
9 Wynant C Van de Bergh's 

10 Johannes De Vendalaer's 

25 Rut Van Woert's child 
9 A French child was buried by 
John Sharp 

21 Hend Cuyler' s child 

17 Jacob Roseboom's child 

18 Anna Marytie Carsten 

24 David Schuyler's wife Anna- 

Octr 15 Therck Harmese [Visscher] 
wife Femmetie 
27 Abram Lansingh's son 






*This mark denotes that the person was buried under the church; a 
privilege which was allowed to such as were willing to pay for it. 

132 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 

Novr 21 Mattys de Garmo's child 
Deer 18 Jacobus Lychasae's child 

1 Harmanis Schuyler's child 















19 Hendrick Hanse* 

22 Colic. Pieter Schuyler 

11 Philip Verplank's child* 

20 Christoffel AbeeFs child 

23 Claes Fonda's child 

7 Jaquemynna Mase 

9 Schiebolet Bogardus' child 
15 Hend. Cu5'ler 

25 Mattys Vlensburgh's child 
Jobs. Van der Heyd's child 

12 Epharim Borgardus' child 


9 Barnt Egbertse's wife 
18 Egbert Brat's child 

2 Jacob Beeckman's child 
6 Tobj'as Ryckman's child 
9 Tierck Visscher* 

10 Job's Ten Broeck's child 
10 Claes Fonda's child 

17 Benjamin Egbertsen's child 

18 Hend. Halenbeek's child 

20 Abram Lansingh's child 

26 Gerrit Lansing's child 

29 Gose Van Schayck 
6 Jacob Bogert 

Egbert Brat's child 
17 Gose Van Schayck's child 

21 Robert Levingston* 

3 Pieter Waldrum 
Isaac Fonda's child 

4 Cornelia Van de Heyden 

8 Femmetie da: of Cornelis 

14 Jobs Dpyster's child* 
31 Nicholaes Groesbeek's child 
26 Isaac Fryer's child 

2 Benjamin Brat's child was 

buried by Rut Van Woort 
8 Daniel Vlensburgh' s child 

24 Daniel Vlensburgh 

25 Philip Verplank's child* 

30 Volckerk Van Hoesen* 

3 Tryntie wife of Deely 
12 Jan Gerretz* 

14 Gerret B. Van den Bergh's 
child was buried at Paps- 

26 Jan Cluectt was hurried at 

17 Cornelis Van Dyck's child 

19 Claes Fonda's child 


Janry22 An Englishman's child 
27 Egbert Brat's child 

Febry 1 Elisabeth Rosie* 

Mch 22 Everte Jacobse Eel's child 
29 Peter Ryckman's wife 

May 27 Labreyh RedliTs child 

May 30 Antony S. Van Schayck's 

July 12 Gose Van Schayck Jr's child 
Augt 25 Jobs Becker's wife 
Septr 3 Jobs Becker's child 
4 Jobs Dfreest's child 

11 Jacob Roseboom's child 
Octr 17 Salomon Goewerk's wife 

20 Jeremie Penmerton's child 
Novr 1 Arent Pruyn's child 

2 Tarns Pruyn Jrs. child 
8 Evert Janse was buried in 
the Lutheren Church 

Janry 5 Myndert Marselis' child 

19 Andries Witbeeck Jr. child 

23 Samuel Pruyn's daughter* 
Mch 6 Evert Wendell's child* 

12 Gerret Roseboom's daugh- 


24 Johannes Muller 

May 26 Jacob Van der Heyden' s child 

27 Tobias Ryckman's child 
Jan Maasen's child 

30 Jan Milten's wife 

31 Janetie Van Aelstyne 

June 2 Elsie Winne Jr. daughter of 
Frans Winue 
10 Rabecka Fonda 
12 Sara Greveraedt 
July 12 Hendk Ridder's child 
Augt 1 Mattys Fliusburgh's child 
6 Ephrim Wendell's child 
10 Jacob Mulder's child 
12 Thanis Van den Bergh 
18 Philyp Dforeest 
Sept 3 Hans Hanse's child 

Nicolaes Groesbeek's child 
4 Tarn Flyt's mother-in-law 

12 Thunis Slingerland's child 
10 Jacobus Luychasse 

16 Evert Janse's child 

18 Abram Van der Poel's infant 

25 Bareni Barhyt's child 
Octr 2 Catharina Lydius* 

13 Catlynna wife of Jobs G. 

Irans Pruyn's little child 
Novr 26 Cornelus Cuyler's little child 
Deer 2 Jobs Van der Heyden' s child 


Janry 31 Willem Waldrum's little 

Feb 11 Maria wife of John Everts 
Ryck Magsilse 

26 Jan Lansingh* 

Mch 7 Sybrand Quackenbos' child 

28 Jurian Hogan's child 

May 6 Elsje Winne mother of Pieter 

27 Cornelus Van Schurlynse 

29 Pieter son of Pieter Waldrum 
June 27 Leena wife of Herpert Van- 


Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 133 

July 11 Engeltie wife of Melgert Abra- 
ham se 
Augt 4 Jan Maase's little child 
20 Lowis SchredePs child 
Sept 9 Harmen Van Hoesen's child 

27 Johs Lansing Jri? child 
Jeremiaa Schuyler's child 

Octr 5 Pieter Schuyler's child was 

buried at the flats 
Novr 10 Johs Wendell's little son was 

buried at the flats 
Deer 7 Philyp Wendell's son John 

14 Pieter Schuyler's daughter 

was buried at the flats 

17 Isaac Wendell's little son was 

buried at the flats 
30 Nicolaes Groesbeeck's wife 


Janry 13 Capt. Johannis Wendell was 
buried at the flats 
14 Johs Frest's little child 
Febry 6 Hans Hansen's little child 

20 Moses 

26 Isaac Verplank's daughter 
Mch 12 Gerit Ryckse's daughter 

29 Aelyda Schuyler 

June 13 Abram Ouderkerk's child 

21 Johs Bleeker Jr. little son 
Mattys Van den Bergh's child 

buried at Papskuee 
S4 Willni Grennie's child 

30 Elizabeth Muller's child 
July 7 Jacob Eghemond's child 

13 Johs E. Wendell's child 
16 DirckTen Broeck's child* 
23 Anna Witbeeck daughter of 

Tamas Willms 
26 Roelif Kidnie's child 
Augt 13 Johs Schoonmaker's child 
was buried at Papsknie 

18 Pieter Winne's little son 
Septrl3 Anna Brat was buried in the 

church by Rut Van Woert 
Octr 1 Johs Van Zante' 8 child 
12 Hendrick Benneway 

22 Roelif Kidney's child 
Novr 24 Johsde Foreest's child 

28 Christiena Ten Broeck* 
Deer 7 Gosen Van Schayck's child 

Feb 1 Maritie Schermerhom 

11 Egbert Barentsen's child 

14 Douwe Fonda's child 

15 Harpert Van Deusen's child 

16 Andrles Gardenier's two 

Mch 7 Adam Van den Bergh's child 

15 Samuel Cre^eer's child 
April 8 Nanningh Vischer 

9 Jacob Lansingh's child 

12 Dirck Van Scharluyne's child 


May 8 Johannis Schoonmaker was 
buried at Papsknee 

22 Joseph Ya s 
June 2 Ephraim Wendell's child 

22 Dirck Van Scharluyne's wife 
July 13 Huybertie Yaets 

18 Jacob Thunnise Van Woert 
Agt 10 Isaac Greveraet's child* 
Septr 5 Solomon Goewyck's child 

5 Isaac Greveraet's child* 

8 Thomas Wendell 
10 Elisabeth Lansingh 

16 Marietie Tymese was buried 

at Nistagayoene 
5 Jeremiah H. Van Rensselaer 

13 Jacobus Redlif 's child 
4 Jacob Alestyn 

28 Neeltie Van Schayck 

7 Katie Van Rensselaer 
28 Jan Kasperse 

Claes Luyckasse 
Joseph Yates child 


4 Jan Oothoudt Jrs. child 

5 Alida Van Vechten (wife of 
Sol'n ?) 

5 Ryner Myndertse's son Rey- 

9 Evert Ryckse's son Ryckert 

14 Johs Dpeyster's child* 

27 Mr. Ellet's child 
30 Peter Fonda's child 

14 Willem Vischer 

15 Johs. Migael* 
1 Chatriena Van den Bergh 

6 Thomas Witbeck, buried at 

22 Rutger Van Dusen buried at 

28 Abraham Kipp 

1 Nicolaes Van Arlen 

2 Doctr Epharim Wendell was 
buried at the flats 

5 Mattys Flensburgh's child 

6 Chattrina D Foorest 

19 Abrapa Van Armen's child 

21 ElbertGerritse's wifeMarytie 

22 Hendrick Ridder's child 
28 Johs Quackenbos' child 
28 Uldrick Van Franke's child 

4 Ilans Hansen's child 

8 Willem JacobsenVanDeusen 

10 Harmen Van Vechten' s child 
28 Jan Salomonse 
14 Gerrit C. Van den Bergh 
22 John Olyfer [Oliver ?] Jr. 

2 Willem Redlif 's child 

11 William Cremael's child 

12 Willim Redlif 's little son 

16 Thunis Vischer' s Isaac 

20 Johs. Lansingh's daughter 

21 Hendrick Halenbeck's child 

22 Hans Hansen's daughter 

23 Jacob Egmond's two children 
27 Myndert Marselis' child 








Heformed Protestant Dutch Church, 

Nov 27 Ephraim Wendell's child 
28 David Van Dyck's child 
28 Harpert Van Deusen's daugh- 
28 Pieter Ryckman's child 
30 Wvnant C. Van de Berth's 
Dec 7 Meyndert Marselis' daughter 
7 Jer. Pemmerton's little son 
12 Hester Swits' eon 
12 Johs. Segers two little girls 
12 GeritVan Zanten's child 

14 Jellis de Garmo's child 

15 Harmanus Wendell* 

15 Jacob Masen's child 

16 Johs. Hun's little son 

17 Johs. Schuyler's Jr. little son 

was buried at the flats 

17 Bettie Danielse' little son 

18 Symon Veeder's little child 

18 Mattys Dgamo's little child 

19 Isaac Greveraet's child* 

20 Thunis Egbertse's child 

21 Abraham Van de PoeFs 


23 Johs G. Lansingh's child 

24 Harmen Van BLoesen's little 


25 David Van der Heyden's 


25 Pieter Fonda's 

26 Stephanis V. Rensselaer's 


27 Anthony Brat's child 
27 Johs. Vischer's child 

27 David V. Dyck's 

28 Johs Goewyck's child 

30 Dirck Ten Broeck's Anna* 
30 Leendert Gansevoort's two 

30 Abraham Ouderkerk's daugh- 

30 Jacob B. Ten Evck's child 

31 Gerit W. Van den Bergh's 

31 Magiel Besset's child 

Janry 3 Maria Gerritse's little son* 

3 Da\'id Groesbeeck's child 

4 Benjamin Egbertse's daugh- 

6 Isaac Bogart's little son* 
6 Hendk Roseboom's child 
6 Daniel Hogan's child was 

buried by R. Beeckman 

6 Jan Brouyn 

7 Johs. Hun's daughter 

8 Wouter Barheyt 

8 Jacob Wendell's child was 
buried at Greenbush 

12 Johs A. Cuyler's child* 

13 Albert Brat was buried at 

■ the flats 

14 Johs. Ten Broeck's child was 

buried at Greenbush 

Janry 15 Willem Waldrum's daughter 

16 Isaac Swits' little son 

17 Epharim Bo^ardus' child 

19 Andries Witbeck Jrs. child 

20 Hendk. Cuyler's little son 

22 Gerit Van Nes' daughter 

23 David Groesbeeck's child 
25 Isaac Swits' daughter 

25 Johs. Ten Broeck's little son 
was buried at Greenbush 

25 Hendrick Bries's son was 

buried at Papsknee 

26 Abram Witbeck' s child 

26 Dirck Ten Broeck's little 

28 Johs. Bleecker Jrs. daughter 

28 Gerrit Marselis' child 

29 Johs. Ten Broeck's child 

was buried at Greenbush 
31 Mattewis Van Deusen"s child 
Feb 1 Gerrit C. Van Den Bergh's 
child was buried at Papa- 
6 Hendrick T. Eyck's little son 

20 Nicolaes Bleecker's child 

27 Johs Symonse Veeder's 

Mch 10 Pieter Schuyler's child was 
buried at the flats 

21 Arieje Oothout's daughter 
27 Johs. Vischer's daughter was 

buried at Hogebergh 
April 6 Johs J. Beeckman' s child 

6 Hendrick Bries' child was 

buried at Papsknee 
25 Willem Teller's wife Catrina 
May 18 Ryckie, wife of Abr. Lansing 

20 Hendrick H. Roseboom's 

27 Jer. Pemmerton's two child- 
June 9 Johs Dforest's child 

14 Johs Dpeyster's child* 
July 12 Abraham Lansing Jrs child 
Agt 19 A man was buried by Johs. 
Segers by order of the 
Sept 30 Johs. Beeckman 
Octr 15 Antony Brat's child 
Novr 12 Migul Besset's child 

17 Jons. J. Beeckman's child 
24 Jan Janse Bleecker* 
Deer 9 Salomon Goewey's child 
11 Freedk. Myndertse's wife 
11 MaragrietaComeel 

21 Johs. Schuyler Jrs child was 

buried at' the flats 
29 Johs. D Foreest's children 
31 Elsje Sanders 


Jan 11 Isaac Bogert's little child 
23 Isaac Bogart's little child 
31 Barent Staets' daughter was 
buried at the Hogebergh 

Feb 9 Coenraet Becker 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 135 

Feb 16 Sarah Roseboom was buried 
daughter of Jacob Eose- 

Mch 3 Maretie Van Alen 

13 Pieter Fonda's child 

21 Gelyn Verplank's child 
April 8 Coenraet Rechtmayor's wife 

14 Maes Van Buren was buried 

at Schoodack 

22 Abra Wj-ngart's wife 
May 4 Mallie Leedyus* 

June 2 Ephram Wendel's child 
July 4 Antony Bogardus's son 
Agt 12 Jan Winne 
Septr 18 Barent Egbertse's daughter 
Octr 25 Rychert Hanse's wife* 
29 Maragrietie Bleecker* 

Jan'y 8 Jannetje Bogert, [wife Jacob 
17 Aeltie Van Nes buried at the 
Febryl2 William Redlif 
March 4 Hend"k Bunsen's child 

17 Philip Van Vechten's wife 
17 Jobs. Dpeyster"s child* 
20 Elizabeth Banckers 
20 Ragel Hoogkerke's child 
April 11 Catharin Cuyler* 

14 Geertruy Van Scherluyne 

24 Willemhelmus V. de Bergh's 

May 25 Jacob Egmond 
June 23 Jobs Van Vechten was buried 

at Papsknee 
July 10 Evert Banker 
Agt 10 Dom Van Schie's child* 

11 Nich Bleecker' s Jr. child 

12 Ryck Hanse's child* 

12 Gysbert Roseboom' s child 

19 Judick Hoogkerke 

27 Jobs Dforesfs child 

28 Jannetje Cregeer was bimed 

at Xisceauna 
Sept 1 Jobs. Seegers child 

1 Ephar. Wendel's daughter 


2 Jer: Pemmerton's child 

4 Harmen Vechten" s child 

5 Benjamin Winne's child 

6 Cornells Van Dyck's little 


12 Isaac Swits' child 

13 Volkert V.Den Bergh's child 

15 Claes Fonda's little son 

17 Stephanus Van Rensselaer's 

20 NicholasVan Schayck's child 
22 Pieter Schuyler's "^ child was 

buried at the flats 
Oct 8 Jacob T. Evck little child 

22 Jobs. Ten Broeck's child 
Novr 10 Fredk. Myndertse's daughter 

15 Cornelia Van Scharlujm 

Deer 5 Gerret B. Van den Bergh's 
18 David A, Schuyler's little 

Febiy 5 

Mch 5 

Apl 12 
June 9 

July 2 
Augt 27 

Octr 12 


Novr 3 










Maria wife of P. Wendel 

Nedt Broon Servant of Jef : 
[Mrs ?] Livingston 

Jacob Staats 

Ruben Van Vechte 

John Stuward 

Isaac Van Allsteyn's child 

Tomas Sherp's child 

Dirck Brat was buried by Rut 
Van Wie 

Thunis Frelin's child 

Pieter Livingston' child was 
buried at the flats 

Volkert Oothout's child 

Cornelis Van Beuren's little 
eon was buried at Paps- 

Hendk. H. Roseboom' s child 

Catryn Fyn 

Jobs De Peyster's little 

Cornelia Quackenbos 

Jobs Wyngart's child 

Zacharias Sixkel's child 

Sybrant Van Schayck's child 

Nicholas Engelspreeker 

Elsje Wendell daughter of 


12 Jurryan Hogen's child 

18 Michael Besset's child 
26 Gerrit Lansing 

2 Geertie Ten Eyck 

8 Jobs Cloet's child 

10 Daniel Husen's child 

13 Catharina daughter of Catie 

Van Schaick 

23 David Groesbeeck's child 
5 Willem Hogen's wife 

5 Jobs Dforeest's child 

9 Pieter Livingston's child was 

buried at the flats 
29 Gose Van Schaick 
28 Nicholas Bleecker's child 

28 Cornelis C. Van den Bergh's 


4 Thunis Fiele's child 

5 Marytie Mingael* 

11 Jonas Douw was buried at 

25 Willem Waldrum's child 
7 Jacobus Schuyler's child was 
buried at the hogeberg 

19 Ryckart Hansen's'little son* 

24 Isaac Wendell's child was 

buried at the flats 

29 Domine Van Schie's child* 
2 Thomas Sherp's child 

136 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 





















Septr 3 

Octr 4 

Jan 12 Albert Ryckman was buried 
by Egbert Brat 
23 Haus Hansen's little son 
David Groesbeeck's little son 
Antony Van Schaick 
Robt Dunbar's child 
Edward Holland's wife was 
buried in the English 
Bastiaen Vischer 
Jacob Bogart's daughter 
Jobs Scuj'ler's wife* 
Migal Besset's son 
Georo:e hipkins ['?] was bu- 
ried in the English church 
Gerret J. Lansing's child 
Mattys Vander Heyden's 

The sister of Wm. Tellers 

Dirck Ten Broeck's little 

Jobs. Ouderkerk's child 
Abram Fonda's child 
Jobs Dforeest's child 
Adam Yates' child 
Domine Van Schie's child 
Dirck Hun's little daughter 
Sybrant Quack enbos' child 
Jacobus V. Valkenbergh's 

10 Neltie daughter of D. Ryck- 
Novr 1 Jan Rosie* 

19 Benjamin Brats daughter was 

buried by [Oliver] 
29 Wouter Knickerbacker's 

17 Douwe Fonda's child 


Jan 16 Gerret Van Benthuysen's 

18 Killian Winne's child 

Feb 3 Dom : Petrus Van Driesen* 
14 Cornells Clasen was buried 

in his Orchard 
12 Migael Basset's child 
June 5 Coenraet Rechtmayor's child 
6 Gerret Van Benthuisen's 

9 May ttsVanderHeyden's child 

22 Barent Sanders wife 
25 Jobs Dforeest's child 

Augt 25 Elsje Lansing 

25 Hendk Ridder's child 

26 Nicolas Bleecker's child 
Sept 17 Heud M. Roseboem's child 

23 Jacobus Kidnie's child 

27 Jan Van Alstyn 
Octr 13 Dirck Vander Heyden 

17 Neeltie Ryckman was buried 
by Antony Brat 

Octr 17 Hend'k H. Roseboom's child 

Novr 7 Casparus Van Yeveren 
Deer 2 Abram Vosbergh's child 

3 John Van Ostrande's child 
12 Jenneke Blyckers 

23 Job's Bleecker* 

26 Gerritie Draeyers* 

31 Jacob B. Ten Eyck's child 

Jan 4 Willem Hogen's child 
Feb 2 Teunis Egbertse's child 

2 Domine Van Schie's child* 
Jan 4 Jobs Van Schayck's child 
Mch 12 Jobs Van Vechte Jrs. child 

23 Jacob Beeckman 
Apl 7 Dircktie Vischer was buried 

by Rut Van Woert 
May 9 Jacob Glen's daughter* 
June 3 Geurt Benne way's child 
8 Maytts Flensburgh 

8 Adrieaen Brat's child 
July 10 Hannah Flensburgh 

14 Jacobus Redlif 's child 

15 Hendrick Oothout 
Agt 7 Fredk Vischer" s wife 

21 Rychart Hansen's child 

22 Gerret Ja Lansing's child 

22 Jobs W3'ngarfs child 

23 Jobs Douw's child 

26 Wouter Knickerbacker's 

26 Abram Van Deusen's child 
Sept 1 Abram Van Deusen's child 

9 Abram Lansingh's servant 

23 David Van der Heyden's son 
Octr 3 Leendt Gansvoort'sda.Maria 

4 Egbert Bart Egbertse's child 

15 Tneunise Egbertse's child 

21 Jobs Van Rensselaer's child 

was buried at Greenbnsh 
23 Pieter Schuyler's child was 
buried at the flats 

26 Sybrant A.V. Schaick' s little 

Novr 12 David A Schuyler's child 

16 Susanna wife of Jobs Sy- 

19 Jacob Glen's child* 

27 Thomas Scherp's daughter 
Deer 18 Jobs E. Wendell 

12 Aeltie Oothout 

22 Giertie Lansing* 
21 Gerrit Roseboom 

31 Jobs Van Schaick's child 

Jan 4 Anthony Van Dyck 

9 Jacobus Groesbeeck's child 
16 Cornells Van Dyck's two 

19 Billy Sixberry 

20 Harm. B. Vischer's child 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 137 



Septr 30 

Feb 12 Freedk Myndertse 

25 Hendk Ridder's little child 
Apl 1 Anna widow of Billy Sixber- 

ry's child [i. e. Billy's child] 
27 Gerret Brat's wife 
29 Jobs Marselis' child 
May 12 Antony Van Scbaick's da. 

June 8 Gysbert Marselis was buried 
by Daniel Brat 
24 Claes Van Schayck's wife 

26 Jan Fonda 

July 4 Hendk Renselaer 
12 Pieter Van Brush* 
22 Jobs Schuyler* 

22 Adriaan Brat's child 

23 Isaac Greveraet's child 
Augt 10 Abrani Bogart's sister 

12 Gerrit Teunisse Van Vech- 

ten's child was buried at 
Jobs De Forest's child 
Tjrck Swits 

Barent Van Beuren's child 
was buried at Pap;?knee 
5 Migal Besset's child 
19 Jacobus Redlif s child 
Octr 23 Marte Van Beuren was bu- 
ried near his own house 
Novr 3 Gerrit Jobs Lansing's child 
29 Volkert N. Douw's child 


Jan 10 Jobs Redlif "s wife Sella 

27 Gerrit Ja Lansingb's wife 

29 Harpert Jacobse's son Gerret 
Feb 5 Elisabeth daughter of Catie 
Van Schayck 
5 Luvckas Hooghkerk Jrs 

13 Luyckas Hoogbkeerk's child 
26 Jobs Beeckman 

Mch 6 Pieter Garmo 

9 Mattvs Van der Heyden's 
13 Luyckas Hooghkerk 
Apl 3 Sara Scbuylers was buried 
near her residence by P. 
9 Maragrietie daughter of Ma- 
ria Roseboom 
18 Thomas Scherp's son Tomie 

24 Anna Sixberry daughter of 

Jobs Redlef 
June Abram Van Arnem's daugh- 

28 Jobs Schuyler Jrs daughter 

was buried at the flats 
July fiendk Halenbeeck's little 
child was bui-ied by 
8 Gerrit Benneway 
10 Maria Roseboom 
12 Anna Van Schayck 
22 Jobs Douw's child 
24 Jobs Schuyler Jrs child was 
buried at the flats 

Augt 12 Volkert N. Douw's child 
15 Robert Lansingb's child 
Andries Brat's child 
Octr 6 Dirk Hun's child 

15 Coenraet Ten Eyck's daugh- 
ter Catrina 
Novr 1 Thomas Willem's son Philip 

6 Jobs Schuyler Jur. was bu- 

ried at the flats 
Deer 1 Douwe Js Fonda's child 

12 Hans Eversen was buried at 

the Lutheran church 
19 Arieaentie Wendell* 

Jan 6 Melchert A. Van Deusen was 
buried at Papsknee 

8 Dirck Martin's wife and child 
15 Angeneetie Schot widow her 

May 6 Obedia Coeper 

11 Sara Van Brugh* [wife 
28 Jobs Jacobuse Lansingb's 

June 16 Matty Van der Heyden's child 
July 6 Harp'ert Jacobse Van Deu- 

7 Jacob Maasen's child 

8 Maria Van Dyck 

15 Jobs Van Vechten was buried 

at Papsknee 
3 Jan Brat's child 
27 Jobs Beeckman's servant 
31 Anna Van Woert 
Agt 5 Jobs Van Vechte's child 
6 Jobs Van Goesen's child 

9 Willem Waldrum's child 

12 Jacob H. Ten Eyck's child 
Sept Zacharias Haes' child 

6 He-'ter Wendell 

19 Gerrit Ja Lansingb's child 
Oct 9 Jobs Van Schayck's child 

15 KiliaenVanRanselaer's child 

24 Catriena En^^elsprecker 
Novr 28 Abram Verplauk 

5 Debora Hansen* 

7 Domine Berly was buried in 

the English church 

9 Jobs Douw's child 

Deer 24 Voyntie wife of Andries Brat 

25 Jobs P. Witbeck 


Jan 7 Maria Gansevoort 

27 Wynant Van den Bergb's 
daughter Volkie 
Feb 13 Philip Wendell 

15 Robert Sanders' wife* 
Mch 4 Catbarina Van Ness 

9 Antony S. Van Schayck's 

9 Pieter Schuyler's child was 

buried at the flats 
27 Catlyntie wife of Gerret Van 

38 Marytie Van Schayck 

138 Reformed Protestant Butch Church. 

Apl 19 Antony Van Schayck's 
daughter Catriena 

21 Evert Sixberry's child 
May 24 Robert Lansing's child 

30 Chatie Salomonse 
Jane 5 Gerrit Van Nes' child 

5 Jobs D. Van der Heyden's 


20 Jacob Schermerhorn Jr was 

buried at Papsknee 
July 10 Jobs Eversen's child 
Agt 4 Gen-et Ja Lansingh's wife 

11 Barent Van Ceuren's wife 

was buried at Papsknee 
15 Antony Van Yeveren's child 

19 Benumen Winne's child 

22 Jacobus Redlif 's child 

26 Abram Witbeck's child 

31 Mattys Van der Heyden's 

two children 
Sept 6 Jobs Van Zante's wife 

Antony Van der Zee's child 
Oct 1 Vullenpie Brat was buried by 
Rut Van Woert 
9 Wouter Knickerbacker's 

21 Jobs H Wendell 

24 Abraham Ouderkerk 
Novbr 1 Robert Sander's child* 

3 Jacob Van Rutze Voert'e 

13 Gertie, daughter of Coenraet 

Ten Eyck 
21 Henderick Gerritz's child 

27 David Groesbeek's child 
Deer 3 Jobs Redlif 's daughter 

6 Thomas Coeper's child 

10 Gerret W. Van den Bergh's 

18 Stephanus Van Renselaer's 


25 Joseph Redlif ' 8 child 

Jan 4 Wouter Groesbeek's child 

5 Dirck De Garmo 

6 Barent Jans Brat 

8 Isaac Frelin's little son 

13 Harmen Gansevort's child 

Pebry 7 Dortie Halenbeeck was bu- 
ried in the Lutheran grave 

14 Wilhelmus Ryckman's child 
Mar 2 Gerrit Van Schoonhoven's 

wife, Lutheran 

3 Antony Van der Zee's child 

4 Harmanus H. Wendell's child 

7 Jobs M. Flinsburgh's child 
April 17 Antony Bogardus 

20 Gerrit Jobs Lansingh's child 

28 Cornells Ridder 

30 Pieter Coeyman was buried 
on Beeren Island 
May 2 Cornells Van deu Bergh'e 

June 6 





July 8 












Septr 2 

Oct 6 

Novbr 2 

Deer 8 

Jany 6 

Febry 5 

Mar 16 

April 6 

May 8 


June 4 







Augt 4 



James Stievenson's wife* 
Jobs Douw's child 
Jan Cell's child 
Isaac Frelin's child 
Johs Lansingh's wife 
Jobs Van Yeveren's child 
Isaac Halenbeck's child 
Johs Van Wie's child 
Stephanus Groesbeck 
Antony Van der .Zee's wife 
Benjamin Bogart's child 
Wouter Groesbeek's child 
Johs Jacobse Eversen 
Susanna Van den Bergh, 

wife of Cornells Clasen 
Dom : Cornells Van Schie* 
Gerrit W. Van den Bergh's 

Jacob Van Woert's little son 
Hai-men Vischer* 
Antony Van der Zee's child 
Tobyas Ryckman's wife 
Jan Van Amem's child 
Nicolas Blecker Jr's child 
Abraham H. Wendt ll's child 
Isaac Greveraet's child 
Bille Bronly's child 
Johs Brat's child 
Johs Van Aden's wife 
Cornells Van Alstyn's child 
John Ouderkerk' 8 children 
Pieter Fonda's wife 

Willem Hogen's 

Hendk Van Wie's child 
Hendrick Van Wie's wife 
Pieter Van Aden's child 

Jacob R. Van Woert's child 
Harme B Visscher's child 
Johs Roseboom* 
Johs Oothout 
Isaac Ouderkerk's child 
Teunis Slingerland's wife 
Sanna, da. of Pieter Van 

Wilhelmus Ryckman's child 
Jeremiah Van Rensselaer (the 

Jacob, son of Abram Lansing 
Gerret Van Zant's child 
Ned Hoek's child 
Henrlk Van Hoesen's child 
Abraham Lansingh 
Joseph Van Zante's wife 
Jacob Wendell's child 
Johs Boom, a high Dutch- 
Gerrit d'Ridder's child 
Dirk Wyt's child 
Stephanus Van Rensselaer's 

Cristoffell Abeel's child 
Johs Dpeyster's little son* 
David Groesbeek's daughter 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 139 

Septr 1 Cathiitie, da. or wife of Jobs 
Ja Lansing 

4 Hendk, son of David A. 


5 Jacob Wendell was buried at 


6 Scheeboleth Bogardus's 

6 Jeramee Schuyler's daughter 

was buried at the flats 
10 Isaac Hansen's child 
10 Gerrit Brafs child 
13 Jobs De Foreest's little son 
Septr 14 Geradus Groesbeek's child* 
16 Jobs, son of Isaac Lansingh 

16 John Courtney's child 

17 Hendk Coster* 

19 SannakaWendell, da. of Jobs 

19 Sybrant Gert Van Schaick's 

22 Jobs JaLansingh's child 
Octbr 2 Cornells Cuyler's child* 

5 Mr. Cateris's child was buried 
in the English church 

5 Abram Js Fonda's child 

6 Gerrit G Lansingb's wife 

20 Jobs Douw's little child 

28 Jobs Ja : Everson's child 

29 Jacob Hansen's child 
NovbrS Geertruy Van Vechte was 

buried in the Patroon's 

15 Elizabeth Wendell was bu- 
ried at the flats 
17 Barent Staats Jr's son 

21 Walraven Cloet's son 

21 Arent Slin^rland's child 
28 Benumen Hilten's child 

30 Asueros Roseboom's wife 
Deer 4 Madalena Lansingh 

5 Sander Van Woert's child 

12 Debora Beeckman 

19 Eysabell Staats* 

22 Mattys Van den Bergh 

23 Daniel Winne Jr's child 

Janryll Da\id Van Zante's wife 

20 Lammert Koofs child 

21 Jacob Muller's daughter 

26 JohannisMarselis was buried 

by Daniel Brat 
28 Jobs Yates's child 
Feb 14 Tomas Coeper's little child 
Mar 8 Walloven Cloet's daughter 
20 Gerret Van Wie's wife was 
buritd by his house 
April 1 Maria Van Hoesen in the 
Lutheran church 
1 Son of Jacob Fort 

10 Jacob Van der Heyden 

11 Wife of Harme Van Hoesen 

at the Lutheran church 
11 Daughter of Jacob Fort 

13 Little son of Jan Van Amem 

April 14 Wife of Johannes Cuyler* 

15 Child of W outer Js Groes- 


16 Jacob Glen* 

21 Willem Groesbeck 

23 Harmen Van Vechten 

27 Child of Abram Fort 
May 1 Ryckart Van Franke 

3 Gysbert Van Alstyn 
12 Martynis C. Van Alstyn 
12 Jacob Van Yeveren 
12 Barent Van Yeveren 

12 Son of Ryner Van Yeveren 

13 Child of Levynis Winne 

15 JohasRynr Van Yeveren 

16 Jacob C. Ten Eyck's child 
19 Fredk Ruyter Jr 

26 John Lagrange's wife 
30 Jobs Roelifse's daughter 
June 1 Philip Ruyter 

1 Michiel Besset's child 

2 Son of Bobbert Wendell 

15 Daughter of Philip Winne 

17 Child of Adam Yates 

19 Wife of Jochem Van der 


24 Thiefk Beeckman 

^ Geertruy, da. of Nich. Groes- 

24 Little child of Gen-et G. Lan- 

26 Gerret, son of Jobs Rolifsen 

28 Abram Fielie 

29 Theunis Slingerland 

30 Annata, wife of Dirck Wyt 

30 Nicolas Js. Groesbeck 
July 1 Wifeof JandeVoe 

6 Isaac Van Aelstvn 
8 Child of TbunisFiele 

10 Child of Abram Gardenier 

13 Hendrick Brat 

16 Child of Willem Ryckman 
23 Child of David Van Zante 
23 Evert Bogardus 

27 Geradus [K]loedt 
27 Jan de Voe 

29 Child of Franciskis Lansing 

20 Debora, da. of Hendk H. 

20 Wife of Lymon Vedder 

31 Child of Evert Sieger 
31 Harme Bogardus 

Aug 1 Gerrit Ja Lansingh 

1 Child of Abram Finhagen 

2 Child of Jobs Beeckman 

2 Son of Jobs Sieger 

3 Elsie, da. of Jacob Lansing 
5 Daughter of Jobs D'Foreest 

5 Wendell, son of Evert Wen- 


6 Wife of Zacharias Sickel 

6 Child of SybrandVan Schayck 

7 Child of Michael Besset 

8 Child of Hendk Fonda 

9 Child of Jacobus Wilton 
12 Child of Jobs Van Vecbte 

140 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 

Aug 12 





Sept 4 












Daughter of Jesse D'Foreest 
Jacob, son of Jobs D'Garmo 
Child of Johs Slingerland 
Barent Vrooman 
Hendk H Roseboom 
Sybrand H. Van Schaick's 

Child of Johs Visscher 
Child of Frans Wev Bosie 
Child of Egbert B. Egbertse 
Ragel Liversen 
Johs A. Cuyler's child 
Child of Sybrand H Van 

Willem Vander Zee's child 
Willem Kitten 
Johs, son of Jacob Van 

Willem Ouderkerk 
Child of Sara Fort 
Wife of Johannes Beeckman 
Little child of Claes Gard- 

nier's son in law 
Wife of Johs Ryckse 
Wife of Robt Lansing 
Daughter of Samuel Pruyn 
Child of Gysbert Mailstyn [i. 

e. GysbeVt M Aelstyn] 
Child of Sybrant G Van 

Son of Mattys Bovie 
Sander Van Woert 
Hendrick Jacobse Beeckman 
Wife of Jonatan Witbeck jr. 

Child of Abram Van Arnem 
Wife of Johs Hansen 
Child ofMr Carteris 
Child of Hellagont Lewis 
Child of Annietie Groesbeck 
Child of Robt Livingston 
Child of Wynant C V Bergh 
Child of Pieter Schuyler 
Daughter of Rychert Hitton 
Child of Cornells Martise 

Daughter of Saml Criegeer 
Little son of Li^-ynis Winne 
Elisabeth, daughter of Rut 

Van Woert 
Child of Jonas Oothout 
ChiUrof Isaac Smtts 
Child of Jacob Bleaker 
Hendk Gansevoort 
Daughter of Lysbeth Van 

Joh-< Ouderkerk 
Wife of Olderick Van Pranke 
Child o Zacharias Sickel 
Daughter of Da^id Dforeest 
Child of Pieter Missel 
Child of Jonatan Witbeck 
Johaanis Van Scharluyn 
Wife of Hugan Frele 
Son of Isaac Bogert 
Abraham Dox 

Oct 27 Johannis A Cuyler 

30 Child of Jacob Ten Eyck 
Nov 2 Martie Fonda 

3 Susanna P Wendell 

5 Killiann Winne, a young man 

(of Pakesie) 
7 John Schuyler jr. in the 

10 Daughter of Evert Wendell 

13 Child of Hendk Gerrit Van 


14 Sara, daughter of Isaac Gree- 


16 Jan Cristiaense 

23 Gerritie Roseboom, in the 

23 Wyntie Berrit 
25 Child of Mr Corrie 
Dec 3 Child of Luykas Tomase 


17 Daughter of Adriaen Quack- 


19 Catreen Bovie 

20 Gerrit Van Wie 

25 Johs Van Vechten 

26 Lowis Schredell 

31 Child of Richert M Van 


Jan 7 Child of Christialan Lagraniel 

16 Child of Barent A Staats 

17 Sannake Schuyler 

Feb 1 Child of PieterWaldrun, near 
his house 
23 Wife of Johs Van Rensselaer, 
in the church 
Mar 2 Johs Schuyler, in the church 
12 Gerrit Teunisse Van Vechten 
14 Geertruy Groesbeck 
19 Maycke Ouderkerk, by Pie- 
ter Van Woert 
Apr 14 Volckie, wife of Wynant V 
de Bergh 
16 by William Rogers jr 

19 Child of John Don way 
May 1 Child of Arent Van Deusen 
9 Symon Daniels 
10 Son of John Whitbeck died 

and was buried 
25 Wife of Scheeboleth Bogar- 
Jun 10 Child of Abraham Yeats 

21 Cornells Van Dyck 
July 1 Patroon Stephen Van Rena- 
selaer, at the mills 
2 Evert Van Nes' ^afe 
4 Cornells Swarthout 
14 Jacob Bleecker 
14 Abraham Cuyler, in the 

16 Child of Wouter Knicker- 

18 Little son of Mr Catries, in 

the English church 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 141 

July 24 Wife of Meyndert Schuyler, 
In the church 
31 Margrietie, daughter of 
Abram Lans^iu^ 
Aug 4 Child of Jacob van Benthui- 
5 Child of V P Douw, in the 

5 Child of Benjamin Goewey 
9 Jacob Seene 

11 Son of Pieter Van Beuren 

12 Jan Van Nes 

13 Child of Abram Ja Lansing 

14 Child of Benjamin Van 


15 Child of Mattys Van d Hey- 


18 Child of Andries Van Wie 

19 Johs Marselis jr, by Egbert 

19 Little girl of Elisabeth d 

24 Child of Levynis Winne 
24 Child of Dirck Van der Hey- 


26 Child of Abram Lansing 

27 Child of Wouter N Groes- 


29 Catriua, daughter of Elisa- 

beth Wendell 

30 Daughter of Calyntie Van 

der Bergh 
30 Child of Bastiaen Tymesse 
Sept 4 Child of Daniel Hussen 

5 Child of Jacobus Schuyler 
5 Wife of Philip Winne 
5 Daughter of Ayre Oothout 
7 Child of Adriaan Quackenbos 

7 Child of Robert Sanders 

8 Child of Gysbert Van Brakel 

9 Son of Gerrit Marselis [Ja- 

10 Jochim, son of Johs Visscher 
10 Gerrit, son of Heudk Gerritse 
10 Child of Sybrant Quackenbos 

10 Jochem, son of Johs Van der 


11 Two children of Benjamin 


12 Child of Hendk Bries 

12 Child of Volkert Van den 

12 Daughter of Neeltie Brat 

13 Giedcon Quackenbos 

16 Child of Sybrant Goes Van 


16 Child of Benjamin Goewey 

17 Daughter of Neeltie Brat 
17 Child of Evert Lansingh 
17 Child of Peter Schuyler 

19 Little son of Evert Wendell 

20 Nicolas Bleecker jr 

20 Annake, daughter of Petrus 

20 Catrina, widow of Willem 

Groesbeck, her child 

Sept 20 Daughter of Catrina, widow 
of Martyn "Van Aalstyn 
21 Child of Zacharias Haes 
21 Child of John Willems 
21 Child of Evert Lansingh 
23 Child of Dirk Giver 
23 Child of Isaac Hansen 

23 Daughter of Arye Oothout 

25 Child of Robert Wendell 

26 Child of Abraham H Wendell 
26 Child of Cornells C Van den 


26 Schieboleth Bogardus 

27 Child of Rebecca, widow of 

Hendk Brat 

27 Child of Ryckait Hansen 

28 Child of Johs Cloet 

28 Child of Rynier Van Hoesen 

30 Two children of Willem Gys- 

bert Van den Bergh 
Oct 1 Wife of Isaac de Voe 

2 Child of Johannis Van Wie 

2 Child of Nicolas Cuyler 

3 Daughter of Willem Van d 

3 Child of Harmen Hun 
3 Little son of Barent V Yeve- 

3 Child of Jacob Bogart jr 

12 Child of Sybrant Goes Van 

13 Child of James Stenhuys 

20 Wife of Isaac Ouderkerk 

25 Wife of Rutger Blecker 
Nov 17 Maryte Winne 

26 Child of Johannis Lansingh 

Dec 2 Child of Harme Knicker- 
3 Coenradt (Rutesmayor) 
15 Child of John Fryer 

21 Wife of Gerrit Rycksen 

24 Child of ComelesWaldrum 

25 Wife of Pieter Davids Schuy- 


Jan 13 Geritie Rykerson 

14 Little son of Catalyntie Rose- 

19 James, son of Rolf Schoon 

26 Daughter of Jellis D Garmo 
Feb 9 GeestieKipp 

25 Annate Hilton 

25 Obadya Cooper's child 

28 Child of Johs Van Yeveren 
Mar 2 Child of Pieter Schuyler 

23 Wife of Isaac Fonda 

29 Daughter of Cornelia Cooper 

31 Child of Gerrit Marselis 
Apr 3 Child of Dirck B VanSchoon- 

3 Johs Wendel's cosyn (i. e. 

nephew ?) 
9 Wife of James Steinhuys 
17 Wife of Obadya Coeper 

142 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 

Apr 19 Child of Jobs Ten Eyck 

21 Wife of Pieter Van Beuren 
.24 Marya Gerritse 

May 16 Madame Margrita Collans, in 
the cliurch 
20 Wife of Abraham Vinhagen 

24 Evert Ryckse 

25 Johannis Beneway 
30 Johaunis Hansen 

Jun 10 Alyda Visscher 
July 5 Child of Thomas Seeger 
8 Nicholas Schuyler 

10 Child of Jan Brat 

17 Childof Adam Yates 

20 Pieter Quackenbos 

24 Child of Robert Sanders, near 

his house 
24 Child of Abraham Lansingh, 

near his house 
29 Child of Jacob H Ten Eyck 
Aug 3 Jobs L Whitbeck 
6 Jobs G Lansingh 

15 Child of Antony Vaii der Zee 

16 Wife of Andries [Mahaus] 

17 Child of Jacob Egmond 

27 Eachel, daughter of John 

29 Lydia Van Vechte, in the 


30 Child of Hendk Van Nes 
Sept 2 Catie Van Weie 

4 Pieter Ryckman 

11 Wife of Tomas Coeper 

19 Melgert, son of David Groes- 

27 Two children of Cornells 

Winne, by his house 
Oct 2 GerritJs Lansingh 

6 Child of Cornells Sanford 

13 Wife of Volkert N Douw 
24 Child of Cornells Van Nes 

Nov 3 Bregie, sister of Cornells 
3 Wife of Tomas Scherp 

6 Childof Johannis V Douw 

Jan 3 Rynier Van Hoesen 

22 Child of Tomas Coyper 

26 Tryntie Vrooman 

26 Jacobus Van Schoonhoven 

28 Jan Dreth 
Feb 12 Willem Hilten 

16 Child of Dirk Van Aesdale 

17 Child of Jacob H Ten Eyck, 

by his house 
Mar 6 Child of Pieter Lansingh 

18 Catrina, daughter of Claes 

Van Woert 
Apr 3 Wife of Jacob R Van Woert 

7 Ragel Redliff' 

10 Johannis Visscher 

14 Sara, wife of Robert Lan- 

14 The child of Arye Oothout's 

Apr 25 Daughter of Jobs Janz Lan- 
Jun 13 Child of Petrus Van Loon 
14 Child of Robt Livingston 

16 Wife of Barent Staats jr 

17 Child of Cornells C Van der 

27 Child of Jobs Ten Eyck 
July 1 Child of Robt Lansingh 
2 Lievynis Lieversen 
7 Gelyn Verplanck 

20 Child of Jacobus Cleerment 
31 Child of Mr Kartryt, in Eng- 
lish church 

Aug 3 Child of Volkert Van der 
11 Child of Bethe Wilsen 

18 Child of Jacobus Cleement 

23 Johannis Pruyn 

31 Benjamin Van Vechte 
31 Son of Berrit Staats 
Sept 3 Child of Benjamin Hilten 

17 Pieter Van Aelen 
Oct 2 Debora Roseboom 

6 of Jacob Lansingh 

9 Child of Volkert P Douw 

24 Child of Harme Gansvort 
29 Gysbert Roseboom 

Nov 4 Child of Jonas Oothout 

6 Lyntie, wife of Abram Douw 

11 Child of Killiaen Van Rensse- 

Dec 3 John, son of Ruben Van 

14 Child of Abram Yates 

25 Annatie, wife of Antony Van 


26 Antie de Ridder 

Jan 3 Wife of Nicolas Cuyler, at the 

19 Wife of Joseph Yeats [Hen- 

drike ?] 
Feb 9 Child of John R Bleecker, in 

the church 
Mar 7 Child of Roelf, servant of 

Pieter Winne 
9 Marya Van Deusen 

21 Child of Harmen B Visscher 

22 Child of \ntony Brat jr 
Apr 7 Bettie Wilson 

12 Jobs Van Allen 
17 Robert Wendell 

24 Cornells Van Vechte 

29 Son of James Stevenson, in 
the church 
May 4 Evert Wendell 

25 Gerrit Ja Lansingh's child 
June 7 MarteHogan 

13 [Tunik ?] Hoogh 

22 Luycas Hooghkerk's child 

26 Child of Pieter D Wandelier 
July 6 Child of Gerrit Van Franke 

22 Daughter of Hendrick Lan- 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 143 

July 25 Child of Jacob Ja Lansing 
Aug 5 Child of Rychart Hansen 

23 Abigail Verplank 
Sep 15 Nicolaes Van Schaick 

16 Wife of Jobs de Peyster, in 

the church 
28 Son of Hendrick Halenbeeck 

30 Jobs F Van Yveren's child 
Oct 17 Salomon Van Vechte, [on the 

other side ?] 
22 Jobs Vinhagen, near his 
Nov 6 Luychas Hoogbkerk's wife 

17 Child of Marte Bockley 

18 Elbert Gerrits, in the church 

19 Little daughter of Annake, 

widow Heter Van Alen 

28 Child of Philip Hansen 

Dec 5 Child of David Van der Hey- 

11 Child of Jobs Douw 

31 Daughter of Adam Yaets 


Jan 4 Nicolaes Bleecker, in the 
7 Dirck Ten Broeck, in the 

14 Child of Staets Zantfort 
30 Anna Kiscbenar 

Feb 9 Daughter of Gerrit Van Zante 
9 Child of John Fryer 

17 Child of Barennardus Harscn 
Mar 10 Child of Pieter M de Garmo 

15 Child of Pieter D Wandelaer 
19 Little son of Rvckart Hansen 
21 Wife of Pieter D Wandelaer 

25 Child of Willem Van Beuren, 

at Papsknee 

26 Child of Antony Van Yveren 
Apr 3 Child of Willem Van Zante 

4 Philip Loock, by his house 

12 Child of Abraham Lausingh 

16 Little girl of (Volkert P 

Douw) Catie Cropel 
21 Child ot Evert Seeger 

25 Wife of Jacobus Groesbeck 

29 Heudk de Witt's son's child 
May 4 Little son of Gerrit G Van 

der Bergh 

18 Hendrick Douw 

28 Child of Jobs MFlensburgh 
June 4 Little child of Jobs Ten Eyck. 
10 Child of Tobias Ten Eyck 

26 Antony Ay Brat's wife 
July 7 Antony Ay Brat's child 

14 Child of Geradus Groesbeeck 
18 Child of Tam Smitd 

Aug 10 Child of Billy Bromly 

26 Child of Michael Besset 
Sep 2 Antony Van Zante 

5 Annetie. wife of Claes Fonda 

15 Wife of Adam Yates 

Oct 13 Daughter of Sybrant A Van 

30 Wife of John G Roseboom 

Nov 3 Children of Hendrick G Van 

12 Child of John R Bleecker, in 

the church 


Jan Wife of Volkert Douw 

Feb 5 Barentie Everse 
26 Arye Oothout 

26 Daughter of Jobs Cloett 
Mar 6 Wife of Jacob Maasen 

9 Wife of Rolif Seeger 
19 Jannetje, wife of Jobs Gr 
Apr 16 Wife of Pieter Willems 
May 4 Willem Van Scharluyn 
Jun 2 Cornells de Hiller 

27 Samuel Pruyn 

30 Child of Killiaen Van Rensse- 
July 2 Elsie Cuyler, in the church 
7 Child of Roelif, servant of 
Pieter Winne 

19 Child of Jobs Ten Eyck 
9 Neeltie Beeckman 

11 Asweurus Wendell 
26 Children of Gerrit Jobs Lan • 

28 Barent Staats, at the Hogh- 

30 Child of Abram Yates 
Aug 9 Child of Jobs Gansvoort 
9 John Waters 

17 Willem Van Beuren, at Paps- 


18 Daughter of Margrietie, wi- 

doAv of Nicolas Bleecker 
18 Child of Billy Bronbely 
26 Elisabeth Hooghkerk 
Sep 20 Child of Wilhelmus Van den 
Bergh jr 

26 Child of Wouter Knicker- 

30 Catie Witbeck, at Papsknee 
Oct 1 The sister of Gerrit Van der 
Bergh's wife 
3 Wife of Marte D Stiller 
5 Willem, son of David Groes- 

5 Child of Dirk Olfer 

5 Child of Geradus Lansingh 

13 Cornells Winne, at Bethel- 


21 Ryer Gerrits 

22 Child of John Jobs Lansingh 
30 Child of Thomas Seeger 

Nov 12 Child of Gerrit Van Franken 
13 Child of Jacob VanSchayck 

20 Child of Jobs Bleecker jr 

23 Thomas Willems 
Dec 4 Wife of Jobs Bleecker 

27 Child of Jacob Coeper 

29 Child of Antony Gose Van 

29 Child of Antony Egbertie 

144 Reformed Protestant Dutch Church. 

Jan 23 Coenraet Ten Eycke 
Feb 6 Antony Coster, in the church 
10 Child of Barenhardus Harsen 

16 Child of John Jacobse Ever- 

23 Hester Van Aernem 
Mar 5 Tryntie Waldrum 

20 Elsie, dauEThter of Leendert 

25 Child of Jacob Bogart jr 

29 Edward Collins in our church 
May 4 Pieter Schuyler's child, at 

the flats 

19 Child of Abram Yatea 

Jun 16 Child of Pieter Johs Garmo 

26 Willem Mecryda 

30 Abraham E Wendell 
July 8 Child of Harmea Hun 

28 Child of Isaac Hanse 
Aug 1 Son of Gerrit Van Zante 

10 Child of Johs Flensburgh 

11 Child of Johs Gansevoort 
13 Child of Marte Van Yveren 

Sept 2 Volkert Douw 

2 Pieter Schuyler jr, at the flats 

3 Cornelis Slingerlandt, at Nis- 

6 Wife of John Bertely, by 

8 Child of AdriaenQ,uackenbo8 
11 Child of Marte Van Yveren 
13 Wife of Thomas Seger 

17 Sarah Hoogkerk 

22 Hendrick Bries, at Papsknee 

23 Child of Philip Hansen 

29 Child of Abram Coeper 
Oct 16 Joseph Janz Van Zante 

20 Mr. Smit the schoolmaster's 


22 Wife of Benjamin Egbertz 
Nov t John Roseboom [Doxter] 

28 Child of Isaac Fonda 
Dec 5 Child of Steven Van Schack 

10 Jeramiah Schuyler, at the 

15 Child of Jacob Van dcr Hey- 
den, near his house 


Jan 3 Ragel Van der Heyden, at the 
13 Elisabeth Corlaer, in the 
Feb 5 Rabecca, mfe of Pieter Bo- 
22 Wife of Johs Van der Heyden 
26 Christofi'el Yates 
Mar 8 Ariaentie, wife of Douw Van 

11 Elisabeth, wife of Jonas 

Oothout [was a Lansing] 

18 A High Dutchman 

Apr 25 Geertruy, wife of Ryer 

Apr 25 Daughter of Johs Van Rens- 
29 Child of Martin Bockeley 
May 10 

19 Wife of Marte Bockely 
Jun 13 Johs D Freest 

23 Child of Isaac Freest 
Jul 10 Child of Abram Bogart jr 

10 Child of Gysbert Fonda, " ta- 
vont ' ' 

17 Samuel Coeyman 
Aug 11 Harme Hun's child 

17 Child of Willem Winne 

20 Catryn, wife of James Way 

23 Child of Wouter Groesbeeck 

28 Jan, son of Harm Van 

Sept 1 Abram Pells 

8 Child of Johs M De Garmo 

8 Child of Herry Van Dyck 

9 Wife of Samuel Cregier 
22 Child of Pieter Waldrum 
25 Wife of Petrus Hilton 

27 Child of Cornelis Groot 
Oct 2 Child of Petrus Hilten 

7 Child of Theunis Van Vechte 

10 Child of John Davids 

11 Wife of Adriaen Brat 

17 Cornelia, daughter of Johs 


18 Wife of Antony Johs Brat 

21 Child of Adriaen Brat 
21 Child of Rykert Hansen 

21 Child of Capt Hischen Hol- 

27 Elisabeth Vischer, mother of 

H Vischer 

29 Hendrick Roseboom 
Nov 12 Harmanis P WendeU 

14 G«ertie Groesbeeck 

25 Bettie Groesbeeck 

26 Child of Gerrit Lansingh 
Dec 3 Child of Ben Williams 

7 Luyckas J Wyngart, in the 

12 John Daniels 

18 Catrina, wife of David Groes- 

beek jun 
18 Wife of Robert Berret 

21 Wife of Wynant C Van den 


28 Wife of Hendrick Van Nes 


Jan 4 Annatie, wife of Ryckert Van 

11 Jacob Eversen 
14 Abraham Wendell 
16 Child of Johs Yates, at 


22 Wife of Robert Wendell, at 

the flats 

24 Child of Henry Van Dyck 

27 Jannetie Gelen, in the church 
Feb 5 Hendk Eversen 

Mar 6 Eva Beeckman 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 145 

Mar 13 Child of Jacob Johs Van der 
20 Child of Johs Johs Lansingh 
22 Wife of Johannis Goewey 
28 Abram To's Witbeck's wife, 
at Papsknee 
May 5 A child buried by David 

6 Child of Abram Yates 

7 Wife of Isaac Ouderkerk 

8 Child of Johs Seeger's young- 

est daughter 
June 4 Jacob Maasen 

6 Daughter of Geriit Van 


7 Daughter of Salomon Goe- 


11 Child of Dirk Van der Hey- 


12 Wife of Johs Fonda, at the 

July 9 Wife of Rutger Van Woert 
11 Wife of Abraham Van Ar- 

num (Ja Lansingh do) 
19 Child of John Lausingh 

21 Child of John Lansingh 

22 Child of Pieter Gansvort 

23 Child of Robt Berrit 

24 Child of Geradus Lansingh 

26 Child of Volkert P Douw, in 

the church 

29 Cornells Bogart 

30 Child of David Abeel 

Aug 3 Isaac Fryer, in the English 
4 Marte Van Aelstyn, son of 

10 Child of Bennonie 

15 (Janna Peisen) 

22 Child of Johs Johs Wendell 

23 Child of Philip Deforeest 
Sept 2 

3 Child of Fredk Gerrits 

6 Wife of Daniel Haelenbeeck 

11 Child of Harm Gansevort 

18 Child of Eobt Crannel 

27 Child of Volkert Van den 

Oct 7 Child of Daniel Haelenbeck 
8 Mayors Foot, by Pieter 
21 Myndert Schuyler, in the 

24 Willem Hilton, a young man 

25 Isaac Fort 

31 Johs N Schuyler, at the 

Nov 3 Harm Ryckman 

4 Child of Jacob Gerritz Van 


12 Johs Isa Wendell (in) Boston 

16 A New-England officer, by 

John E Wendell 

19 Child of Arent Van Deusen 

20 Cristina Cuyler, in the chiu'ch 


Nov 22. Child of Pieter M de Garmo 

24 Pieter Martin 

25 Child of Andries Gardinier 
Dec 3 Hendriekis M Beeckman 

15 Child of Abram Peeck 

17 Child of Abram P Bogart 

Jan 2 Elisabeth Brat, in the church 
6 Douwe Isa Fonda's wife 
6 Herry Abeel 
21 Appeelonie Merit 
21 By Johs Flensburgh, Sirsie- 
Feb 2 Gerrit Roelfse 

4 Wife of Rynier Meyndertse, 

by R V Woert 
14 Child of Maria Van der Hey- 
Mar 4 Child of Jhs Knickerbacker 
4 Child of Johs Ja Eversen 
6 Child of Abraham Ten 

18 Willem Nicolaes, in the 

20 Lybitie Olinde 

20 Child (son) of Waldraven 


21 Child of Abram H Wendell 

26 Child of Harme Gansevoort 
Apr 6 Wife of Pieter Douw 

6 Samuel Ten Broeck 

8 Maria, wife of Cornells Van 

12 Johs, son of Willem Van 

May 18 Child of Abram Van Francke 
18 Cornells Waldrum 

27 Son of John Raely 

30 Wife of Jacob Van Woert 
June 8 A son of Spinger 

9 Luycas, son of Luyckas 

21 Wife of Abram Mynderse 
27 Thuuis Van Vechte 
Jul 13 John Bries,by Jan Witbeeken 
21 Child of Thunis Van Vechte 
23 Child of Isaac Fonda jr 

31 Child of Jacob Sprager 
Aug 2 Johs Halenbeeck, by Abram 

5 Rutger Bleecker, in the 

10 Child of Johs Ten Eyck 
10 Madame Van Driesen, in the 

d4 Child of Fredk Cloet 
17 Child of Rutger Van den 

23 Child of Harm J Visscher 
26 Child Petrus Vosburgh 

26 A [Abram Van Duse] 

27 Mary Wyngart 

28 Child of John M Beeckman 
28 Child of John Cloet jr 

28 Child of Johs JaMuUer 


Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 

Aug 29 Jesee Winne 

30 Child of Abram Ja Lansingh 
Sept 1 Child of Abram Van den 
1 Wife of Hendk Mayor 
5 Child of Bastian T Visscher 
5 Child of Antony Flensburgh 

5 Jobs Brat Brat 

11 Leindert Van Vechte 

13 Daughter of Oldrick Van 

17 Child of Jobs Vap Zante jr 
19 John E Wendell 

19 Wife of Harmanus Wendell 

21 Child of Cornelis M Vanden 


22 A Roeyland man, by Jobs 


25 Child of Andries Gardanier 
27 Jesse D Forest 

27 Jobs Arie Ootbout 
29 A by Jobs Visscher Harme 
Oct 2 A by Staets Santford 

6 Jobs Poc .... 

7 Wife of Albartus Maase 

11 Child of Dirk BVan Schoon- 


12 Robert Berret 

15 Child of Albartus Maase 

15 Wife of Pieter Maase 

16 Child of Robert Sanders, bu- 

ried Barent 

17 Jacob Lansingh, by his house 

18 Maria, daughter of Aswerus 

20 Son of Jacobus Schuyler 

21 Pieter S Bogardus 
24 Maria Van Aelstyn 

26 Jobs Beeckman 

26 JohsPierson 

27 Pieter Lorkerman 

29 Wife of Andries Gardinier 


30 Child of James Adam 
30 Child of Pieter Maasen 

Nov 4 Pieter Goewey 

5 Barent, sou ot John Bleecker 
7 Child of Martynis Cregier 
18 Willem Bort, patooman 
18 Child of Jobs Ja Eversen 

29 Daughter of Jobs Ten Broeck 
Dec 6 Hans Hansen 

17 Jan Maasen jr 

20 Henry Douvv, at Greenbusb 

28 A Highdutchman's wife 

30 Catie Van Schayck 

31 Madame Elisabeth Van Rens- 


Jan 6 Wife of Harm Liverse 
7 Willem Crennel 

7 Little son of Geradus Grooes- 


8 Child of a Highdutchman 
10 Son of Edward Willems 
16 Child of Harm Liverse 

Jan 19 Jobs Redlif 

21 Wifeof David Groesbeeck 

22 Son of Edward Willems 
24 Olderick Van Francke 

26 Child of Geradus Groes- 
Feb 1 Wife of Pieter Quackenbos 
6 Son of Geradus Groesbeeck 
9 Wife of John Kaar 
13 Ragel Bogardus 
Mar 15 Jobs, son of Roelf Seger 

17 Child of the daughter of Jobs 

31 Child of Jobs Coon 
May 2 Catrina, wife of Isaac Vos- 
3 Elisabeth Koster, in the 

6 Two children of Volkert Van 

den Bergh 
9 Child of Abram Bogart 
10 Johannis Bleecker 
15 Wife of Abram H Wendell 
28 Child of Jacob Van Schayck 
30 Wife of Meyndert Marselis 
30 Daughter of SjTuon Vedder 
Jime 2 Child of Pieter Waldrum 

7 Child of Jobs Van Yveren 
17 Wife of Jobs Segers jr 

23 Child of Pieter Hilton 

24 Geoi'gie Lombers 

26 Child of David Sprugert 

30 Catrien, daughter of Gysbert 

Van den Bergh 
28 Child of Frans Lansingh 
Jul 11 Sonof Dirk Brat VanSchoon- 

hoven Cose 
21 Child of the widow of Jesse 


27 Wife of Jacob Roseboom 
27 A man, by Staats Zautfort 

31 Little son of Isaac D Fonda 
Aug 3 Child of Jellis K Winne 

5 Child of Gysbert Marselis 
10 Child of Harm B Visscher 

13 Child of Pieter Messel 

14 Daughter of Dirk B Scboon- 

24 Child of Jonas Ootbout 

26 Child of Jacob Ja Lansingh 

27 Gerrit Janz Lansingh 

28 Child of Jobs M Beeckman 
Sept 1 Child of Jobs M Flensburgh 

2 Wife of Hendk Seeger 

2 Child of Antony Van Yveren 

5 Child of Jacob Bogart 

7 Little girl of Jonas Ootbout 

12 Child of Abram Freest 

13 A Boston captain, by Abram 


14 Sara Luykase 

15 Child of Dom Freelinghuyse 
20 CbiK of Pieter M D Garmo 

29 John Fryer's child 

29 Child of Hend Wendel 
Oct 7 Child ot Pieter Jongs 

Houses in Albany in 1786. 


Oct 9 Child of Jacob G Van 
12 Child of Will Van den Bergh 

12 Child of Antony Van der Zee 
14 Child of Michel Bessett 
18 Child of Philip D Foreest 
20 Child of Cornells Santford 
20 Child of Marte Van Eyvere 
22 Child of Johs Knickerbacker 
Nov 9 Child of Bastiaen Visscher 
12 Child of PetrusVosburgh 

Nov 14 Hester Swits 

21 Barent Sanders, in the church 

22 Child of Thunis Van Woert 
30 Child of Pieter Waldrum 

Dec 1 Childof Johs Van Zante 

5 An officer, by Symon Ridder 
10 Child of Hendk Gerrits 
12 Lena Lansingh 
12 Child of Pieter Lansingh 
12 Bastiner G 

1599 burials. 


In 1786 the number of houses in Albany was found by 
actual enumeration to be 550. A statement of the number 
of houses in the principal cities and towns at this time, will 
serve to show their relative proportions. 

Philadelphia 4900 

New York, 3500 

Boston, 2100 

Baltimore, 1600 

Charleston (S. C.),...1540 

Albany, 550 

New Haven, 400 

Hartford, 300 

It will be seen that Albany was the sixth in point of num- 
ber. The census of Boston was found to be at that time, 
14,640, exclusive of strangers, which gives seven persons to 
a house. At this rate Albany would have had 3,850 
inhabitants. To carry out the calculation, Philadelphia 
would have contained 32,200 ; New York, 24,500; Baltimore, 
13,300; Charleston, 10,780. The number of strangers 
might have increased the estimate one-eighth. The popula- 
tion of these places, however, is known to have differed con- 
siderably from the above estimates. 

148 Evangelical Lutheran Ebenezer Church. 


The edifice recently occupied 
by this congregation as a place 
of worship, and of which the en- 
graving is but a poor sketch, was 
pleasantly located on the corner 
of Pine and Lodge streets. It 
was very plainly constructed of 
stone and stuccoed. The corner 
stone was laid on Thursday, Sept. 
21, 1816,1 by the Rev. Mr. 
Mayer, the pastor, assisted by 
Philip Hooker, the architect. 
Its dimensions were 40 by 60 
feet, and the expense of its erec- 
tion was about $25,000. In 
1848 it was repaired, and its in- 
terior thoroughly renovated, at an 
expense of upwards of 84,000. 

We have not been able to as- 
certain the precise date of the 
first establishment of a Lutheran 
church in Albany, but Father Jogues speaks of Lutherans 
here in 1644. The early immigrants, coming from Hol- 
land, were principally Calvinists, with strong predilections 
for the principles propounded by the Synod of Dort, and em- 
bodied under the name of the Reformed Protestant Dutch 
Church; yet, although the predominating sect, they seem to 
have found many difficulties in the way of supporting their 

^ This edifice was demolished in October, 1868, and the corner 
stone was found.containing an inscription engraved on copper, in the 
follo^^ing words : " The corner stone of the Lutheran Church was 
laid September 21, 1816, by Frederick Gr. Mayer, Pastor of the Con- 
gregation, and P, Hooker, architect ; Charles' Newman, Christopher 
Monk, John C. Feltman, Hennanus Henderer and Philip Talbot, 
trustees." Not one of the persons mentioned on the plate survived 
in 1868, but all had long been dead. 

Evangelical Lutheran Ebenezer Church, 149 

own churcli, which was often without a pastor. Before 
1680, however, the Lutherans had a church here, in spite of 
the opposition they met with ] for they seem to have been 
the first sect which the dominant party thought necessary to 
restrain in their mode of worship.' Application had been 
made at an early date, to the directors in Holland, to allow 
professors of this creed liberty to elect a pastor, and perform 
the free exercise of their religion in New Netherland. But 
these privileges were refused, and orders were sent over " to 
employ all moderate exertions to lure them to our churches, 
and to matriculate them in the public reformed religion,'' - 
Moderation is of little avail, where conscience interposes 
scruples. Fathers were compelled, contrary to their prin- 
ciples, to assist at the baptism of their children in the Dutch 
church, and as well as the sponsors, to declare their belief in 
the doctrines promulgated by the Synod of Dort. Many who 
objected to this were imprisoned. In a letter dated March 
10, 1656,'^ De Decker alludes to a certain placard drawn up 
and published by the authorities at Beverwyck, " against the 
congregation of some Lutherans, which has also been exe- 
cuted against the contraveners and disobedient." The 
Lutherans also sent over complaints, which led to the cen- 
sure of Stuyvesant, and the aggrieved were permitted to 
worship in their own houses. This, however, was not enough ; 
they demanded freedom from interruption in their worsliip. 
The director general avowed his determination to enforce 
the law against schismatical worship. The Lutherans ap- 
pealed to him, Oct. 24th, 1656, as follows ; " We, the united 
brethren of the Augsburg Confession here in New Netherland, 
show with all due reverence how that we have been obedient 
unto your honor's prohibitions and published placards, unwil- 
ling to collect together in any place to worship our God 
with reading and singing, although we solicited our friends 
in our fatherland to obtain this privilege ; who as our solici- 
tors exerted themselves in our behalf by the noble directors 
of the West India Company, our patrons; when after their 
letters to us, containing their entreaties, they obtained that 

^ O'Callaghcm's History of New Netherland, ii, 319 - 30. 
^ Alba7iy Records, iv, 130. 
' Fort Orange Records. 

150 Evangelical Lutheran Ehenezer Church. 

they resolved unanimously and concluded that the doctrine 
of the unaltered Augsburg Confession might be tolerated in 
the West Indies and New Netherland, being under their di- 
rection, as is the practice in our fatherland under its ex- 
cellent government; wherefore we address ourselves to your 
honor, willing to acknowledge your honor, as dutiful and 
obedient servants, with prayer that you will not any longer 
interrupt our religious exercises, which we, under God's 
blessing, are wishing to make, with reading and singing, till 
as we hope and expect, under God's aid, next spring, a quali- 
j&ed person shall arrive from our fatherland to instruct us, 
and take care of our souls." Accordingly, in July of the 
following year, the Rev. Johannes Ernestus Goetwater, a 
Lutheran minister, arrived with a commission from the con- 
sistory at Amsterdam, authorizing him to act as pastor to 
the Lutheran congregation at the Manhattans. The Dutch 
ministers, Megapolensis and Drisius, took active measures to 
procure his instant expulsion, demanding that he should be 
sent back to Holland in the same ship in which he arrived . 
Sickness alone prevented the immediate execution of the 
harsh and unchristian mandate, and he was put on the limits 
of the city for the time being, and finally forced to embark 
for Holland.' The department at Amsterdam, although 
desirous of soothing the feelings of the Lutherans, could do 
little to relieve their grievances, and in the hope of winning 
ihem over, ordered some alterations to be made in the formula 
of baptism, ns then practiced in the American orthodox 
church, to make it less objectionable. 

The British dynasty brought with it full permission to 
the Lutherans to follow their mode of worship. On the 
13th of October, 1669, Gov. Lovelace publicly announced 
that he had " lately received letters from the duke, wherein 
it is particularly signified unto me, that his royal highness 
doth approve of the toleration given to the Lutheran church 
in these parts. I do therefore expect that you live friendly 
and peaceably with those of that profession, giving them 
no disturbance in the exercise of their religion, as they 
shall receive no countenance in, but on the contrary strictly 
answer any disturbance they shall presume to give unto any 
of you in your divine worship.'' 

O'CallagMii's History of New Netherland, ii, 345, 346. 

Evangelical Lutheran Ebenezer Church. 151 

The Lutherans seem to have succeeded in gathering a 
church here before 1670, for it is found that the functions 
of their minister, the Rev. Johannes Fabritius, were in that 
year suspended by the public authorities.^ It is supposed to 
have been about this time that the Lutherans erected a church 
and parsonage in Albany, fronting on Pearl street, between 
Howard and Beaver streets, long since known as the Centre 
Market.2 Capt. Abram Staets (or Staas'^) obtained a patent 
of that lot on the 25th of October, 1653, which he sold to 
the officers of the Lutheran congregation on the 28th of 
March, 1680. The original deed, having the above date, 
states that the lot was already occupied by a Lutheran church, 'i^ 
and a house in which the domine lived. The consideration 
money is not stated, but it is distinctly set forth that the 
Jirst and last penny were paid^ which certainly puts a very 
credible finish to the aspect of the transaction. The follow- 
ing is a copy of the original deed, and a translation : 

Compareerde voor my Robert Li- 
vingston, Seer, van Alhauy, Colonic 
Eensselaerswyk ende Schaenhech- 
tady, &ca, ten overstaen van de E. acht- 
baar heercn, Mr. Andries Teller & Mr. 
Cornells Van Dyk, commissarissen 
der selver Gerechte, Maj. Abraham 
Staas, d'welke verclaerde in waren 
Rechten, vryen, E\ geudom te cederen 
Transporteereu, en over te draegen, 
aen en ten behoeve van Albert Bratt, 
Myndert frederickse ouder Lingen, 
Anthony Lespinard en Carsten i're- 
derickse Diakens van d'Luyterse ge- 
meente hier in Albany, seker buys 
en Erv, staeuQe ende geiegen alhier 
in Albany, met all es datteraen Aerde 

Appeared before me. Robert Living- 
ston, Secretary of Albany, Colony of 
Rensselaerswyck and Schenectady, 
etc., in the presence of the honorable 
Messieurs Andries Teller, and Cor- 
nells Van Dyck, commissaries of the 
same jurisdiction, Maj. Abraham 
Staets, who declares that in true 
rights, free ownership, he grants, 
conveys, and makes over, to and for 
the behoof of Albert Bratt, Myndert 
Frederickse, elders, Anthony Lispen- 
ard. and Carsten Frederickse, deacons 
of the Lutheran church here in Al- 
bany, in a certain house, standing and 
lying here in Albany, with all that 
is fast in earth and nailed, on the 

^Documentary History of ISfeio York, rv, 13, 22-3. 

^ The Centre Market, which cornered on South Pearl and How- 
ard streets was removed in 1868, to make room for a new building 
for city purposes. The workmen, in digging for laying the founda- 
tions, found the remains of several bodies, which were removed to 
the new grounds of the Lutherans in the Rural cemetery. There 
had been no burials here for nearly a century, and when the 
grounds were surrendered to the city in 1816, but one body was 
removed, that of John Christopher Hart wick, subsequently spoken 
of in this article. 

^He arrived 1643, in the same ship with Dom. Megapolensis, and 
is believed to be the ancestor of those who take the name of Staats. 

* The earliest allusion to this edifice that we have found in the 
public records is in a deed of a lot made in 1674. See Albany County 
Records, p. 100. 

152 Evangelical Lutheran Ebenezer Church. 

& nagel vast is, op d'Eerste kil, be- 
lendende ten suyden d'eerste kil, 
voortz ten noorden d'gewesene ge- 
mene Padt, nu gepossideert van Mr. 
Pretty, Jacob Sanders, Johannes 
Wendel, Myndert Harmense & Hend. 
Cuyler, ten oosten d'gemeine wegh, 
ten westen een cleyn killetje, Is 
Breedt ten oosten Twalf Eoeden en 
elf voet, & ten westen zes Eoeden 
& vier voet, & lang aen de Zuydt- 
syde een & twentigh Roeden & een 
voet, & aen d'noort syde drie & 
twentigh Roeden en Twee voeten, 
alles Rhynlandsche maet, op welke 
Erflf d'Luy terse Kerk nu staet, als 
mede 't huj's voor d'Luyterse domi- 
ne, synde van d'geheele Luj^erse 
Gemeente gekocht & betaelt, aen 
welke d'selve opgedraegen wort ; 
Zulx by Cedent uyt doet uyt Cracht 
van Grondtbrief hem verleentvan den 
gewezenen Governr Richard NicoUs, 
sub dato den 25 April 1667, zynde een 
gedeelte van d'Erff waertoe in desen 
gerefereert wordt, en dat vry en onbe- 
swaert, souder eenige Lasten daerop 
Btaende ofte uytgaende, behoudens 
der heer zyn Keght, sonder dat hy 
cedant in 't minste daerop meerder 
heett pretentie, als bekenende daer 
voor ten genoegen voldaen en be- 
taelt te wesen, de eerste Penning 
met den Laetaten, gevende derhalven 
plenam actionem cessam, & volkome 
macht aen d'voornoemde Persoonen, 
in qualitae als kerken Raet zjmde 
van d'Luyterse gemeente, synde voor 
het gebruyck van d'heele gemeente 
om met het voorsz buys en Ei-ffte 
doen & te disponeeren'gelyk als zy 
met haere Eyge Patrimoniale goode- 
ren & affecten doen sonde mo. gen, 
beloovende 't selve op & Jegens 
eenen Ygelycken te waren & te vrj^en 
voor alle commer, naemaeninge ofte 
beswaernisse als Recht is, & vor- 
ders hier tegens nimraer meer te 
sullen doen nochte laeien geshieden 
in geeniger maniere, onder verbant 
als naer Rechten daertoe staende. 

Actum in Albany, de 29 Maert, 1680. 
Abram Staas. 
My present, 

Ro. LiviNGSTEN, Sec. 

Concordat cum sua Principali quod 

Robert Livingsten, Seer. 

A. Teller. Corn. Van. DyTc. 

first kil, bounded to the south by the 
first kil aforesaid, to the north the 
late common path, now possessed 
by Messrs. Pretty, Jacob Sanders 
[Glen,] Johannes Wendell, Myndert 
Harmense [Van der Bogert] and 
Hendrick Cuyler, to the east the 
highway, to the west the little kil, 
breadth to the east 12 r. 11 ft, west 
6 r. 4 ft., length on south side 21 r. 1 
ft., on the north side 23 r. 2 ft., all 
Rhynlandi measure, on which lot the 
Lutheran church now stands, together 
with the parsonage, being purchased 
and paid for by the whole Lutheran 
congregation, to whom the same is 
now made over ; which this grantor, ' 
does by Airtue of a patent to him 
given from the late Governor Rich- 
ard Nicolls, of date the 25 April, 1667 ; 
being a part of the lot to which refer- 
ence is herein made ; free and unin- 
cumbered, with no claims standing 
or issuing against the same (except- 
ing the lord's right) without the gran- 
tor's making the least pretensions 
thereto any more ; also acknowledg- 
ing that he is fully paid and satisfied 
therefor, the first penny with the 
last; giving therefore /j^ewam actionem 
cessam., and full power to the afore- 
named persons in the character of the 
consistory of the Lutheran church 
being for the use of the whole con- 
gregation, to do with and dispose of 
the aforesaid house and lot as they 
might do with their own patrimonial 
estate and effects ; promising to pro- 
tect and free the same from all such 
trouble, claims and liens of each and 
every person, as are lawful, and 
further, never more to do nor suffer 
anything to be done against the same, 
in any manner, on pledge according 
to laws therefor provided. 

Done in Albany, the 29 March, 1680. 

Was subscribed, 

Abram Staas. 

In my presence, 

Ro. LiyiNGSTON, Seer. 

La the margin, 
A. Teller. 
Corn. Van Dyck. 

^ Tills is the orthography in most of the ancient records. A 
Rhynland or Leyden foot is equal to 12f inches English measure, 
and a Dutch or Amsterdam foot, about one inch less than the 

Evangelical Lutheran Ehenezer Church. 153 

It will be seen by reference to the ancient map of the 
city, on another page, bearing date 1695, that the same 
spot is marked by a Lutheran church and burying ground, 
fronting on South Pearl street, and extending from Howard 
to J3eaver street; or rather to the palisades, which formed 
the southern boundary of the city at that point. 

We have not been able to learn anything further of the 
history of this church, during the lapse of nearly a century ] 
except that in 1714, the Rev. Thomas Barclay was holding 
Episcopal services in " a small old chappell '' belonging to 
the Lutheran cong-rcsation at unreasonable hours, and in 
1746, William Christian Berkenmeyer was the Lutheran 
minister in the city and county of Albany, i Although the 
Lutherans still had possession of their lot in Pearl street, 
yet it is known by tradition that about the close of the 
revolution they had no church, but held their meetings for 
worship in a private house on the corner of Howard and 
Pearl street, a front room in which was fitted up with seats 
sufficient to accommodate the few members belonging to the 
congregation at that time. We believe there are no records 
extant to account for these things, ^ or giving any information 
as to the origin or organization of the church. It is found, 
however, to have been regularly incorporated August 26, 
1784, and on the 7th of September following, Rev. Henry 
Moeller was called. The trustees were J. P Hildebrand, 
Charles Newman, and Christian Ehring. The condition of 
the church at this time may be gathered from a letter 
written by Mr. Moeller in 1818, in which he says : " I wish 
brethren, you would call to remembrance the condition of 
your congregation in 1784 and 1785, when you had no 
church, and I was your pastor.^ I traveled in company 

^ Documentary History of the State of Neic York, iii, 594. 

"^ It would seem that they had worshiped with the Episcopalians 
by the following obscure entry, found in the book of minutes, writ- 
ten in German. "1786, March. A unanimous resolution was passed 
to build a church if possible. We are forced to do so, because tbe 
brethren of the English church pulled down the edifice, and ap- 
pointed an Episcopal minister for themselves. We paid £50 a year 
as our share of the salary of the common minister." 

^ 7 Nov. 1788. It was arranged with Rev. Henry Moller that 
besides the seven Sundays already allowed to him for serving the 

154 Evangelical Lutheran Ebenezer Church. 

with an elder, the now deceased Mr. Ehring, to New York, 
Philadelphia, Schenectady, and adjacent country, and col- 
lected, together with the generous donations of the citizens 
of Albany, and with what the cheerfulness of the poor con- 
gregation could aflford, the sum of £640 ($1,600), which 
was esteemed a large collection of money at that time. The 
honest Mr. John G. Greyer, now deceased, was treasurer, and 
the building was paid for soon after it was finished. The 
congregation had engaged to pay me £100 (S250), salary, 
leaving to me one-third of the time free to attend the Low 
Dutch congregation atLoonenburgh.i But finding that the 
congregation proved unable to pay me more than £50, 
besides furnishing me with fire-wood, I remitted the rest, 
and employed myself in vacant congregations, some of 
them laid in perfect wilderness, till I found my arduous 
task would waste my strength before the ordinary time of 
age, I took a call to Pennsylvania. After twelve years you 
did me the honor to present me a second call. I found the 
charge easier than before, but my travels to Helderberg and 
Beaverdam, which congregations were necessary to make 
up a necessary living, proved injurious to my health, to 
which was added the heavy expense of keeping a horse and 
chaise, and the increase of prices for fire-wood and other 
necessaries. I left you the second time, and am now com- 
fortably settled for the short rest of my life." 

The records of the church to which we have had access, 
extend no farther back than the 30 Aug., 1784. The congre- 
gation then appears to have had no settled pastor. In the 
year 1787 the trustees publicly expressed their acknowledg- 
ments for the receipt of donations, to the amount of £552 
13s. 2d.; more than £214 of which, they say, was obtained 
in Albany and its vicinity. The total cost of their building ^ 

church at Tomhanick, he should have so many Sundays and holy 
days in addition as will make a full third of a year, for which he 
was to remit a full third of his nominal salary in cash, leaving £50, 
($125) to be paid by the Albany congregation. The church officers 
were Martin Hebeysen, Charles Newman, trustees ; John George 
Geyer and John Conrad Ruby, elders ; George Klinck, deacon. 

^Athens, Greene county. 

^ The success of their collections is thus entered in the book of 
minutes : " There was collected in New York ^104 ; in Philadelphia 

Evangelical Lutheran Ehenezer Church, 155 

was .£640 ($1,600). They used, witli permission of the com- 
mon council, stone from the old fort at the head of State 
street. Still, about ten years later a complaint was made of 
hindrances, and that their church was still unfinished. 

From the time Mr. Moeller (pronounced Miller) left in 
1785, to 1794, the church was supplied with the word and 
ordinances by neighboring ministers. Among these were 
the Rev. Messrs. Schwertfeger, Groetz, and Johann Frede- 
erick Ernst, pastor of Loonenburgh (Athens) and Claverack. 
In June, 1794, Rev. Authon Theodore Braun (pronounced 
Brown) became their pastor, and remained till 1800. In 
1801 the Rev. Heinrich Moeller again took charge of the 
congregation, and remained till 18U6. In 1807 the Rev. 
Frederick George Mayer was settled as pastor, and remained 
until he was removed by death in December, 1843. In July 
of that year, the Rev. Henry Newman Pohlnian accepted 
a call from the congregation, and was installed on the 24th 
of September. Under his ministry the church gradually 
increased in numberri, and there were in 1848 about one 
hundred members at communion. In the fall of 1867, the 
Rev. Dr. Pohlman resigned the charge of the congregation, 
and was succeeded in the May following by the Rev. Samuel 
P. Sprecher, under whose preaching there was a great acces- 
sion of numbers, so that seats could not be had for all that 
applied, and it was determined by the congregation to build 
a new church. The streets had been regraded since the 
erection of the church, which left much of the foundations 
out of ground, and the walls had long continued to crack, 
and the tower bid fair to become a rival of that of Pisa for 
its lecuiing. 

The services of the church were in German until 1808, 
when at a meeting of the trustees, elders and deacons, held 

£117. Having paid the traveling expenses there was left £198 
4s. Qd. In tliis city £214 7s. 2d. In the neighborhood £63 19s. 2d. 
On the inauguration day £17 18s. 7d. The work done by Christian 
tradesmen no money was asked for ; the amount of this benefit to 
the chm-ch was more than £50. The deceased Mr. Jacob Evertsen 
left to the church a gift of £20. The oldest member, Mr. John 
Evertsen, left also by his testament a bond to the benefit of the 
church £41 Is. lOd. Other small donations were received, making a 
total of £640. There was also given subsequent donations by the 
congregation towards seating the church £19 3s. 

156 Evangelical Lutheran Ehenezer Church 

May 16th, at the house of Martin Hebeysen, it was resolved 
that, the sermons, after Whitsunday, should be delivered in 
English, except one sermon in the forenoon of the last 
Sunday in each month. Notwithstanding this resolution 
there was a meeting of the elders and deacons on the 4th of 
Jan., 1812, which passed a resolution peremptorily directing 
the pastor to preach altogether in the English language, 
except the first Sunday in each month in the morning, 
and to give notice thereof to the congregation in both lan- 

At the close of the last century, an effort was made to 
procure the location of a Lutheran seminary in Albany. 
The Kev. John Christopher Hartwick died in 1796, pos- 
sessed of a large estate, which he left by will for the endow- 
ment of an institution for training up young ministers of 
the gospel, and missionaries to be sent among the Indians, 
according to the Augustan Confession and the tenets of the 
Evangelical Lutheran church. The executors named in his 
will were Jeremiah Van Rensselaer of Albany, and Frederick 
A. Muhlenberg of Philadelphia, formerly a Lutheran min- 
ister of New York, but at this time speaker of the house of 
representatives in congress. His scheme contemplated the 
erection of a town on his tract in Otsego county, to be called 
New Jerusalem, where the theological school should be esta- 
blished, in which " no heathenish author should be read, 
until when, by divine providence, the revenues should 
increase, classical learning might be added." The adminis- 
trators, on looking into the affairs of the testator, found that 
a large part of the landed estate, about 13,000 acres, includ- 
ing the intended site of the New Jerusalem, was claimed by 
Judge Cooper, who professed to have purchased it of Mr. 
Hartwick at |2 per acre, payable at a distant time. Mr. 
Hartwick had desired to be buried in the Lutheran church 
of Albany, and his wishes were complied with. His remains 
were first placed under the church in South Pearl street, and 
removed from thence and placed under the pulpit of the 
church in Pine street, in 1816; and when that edifice was 
removed the remains of Hartwick were preserved to be depo- 
sited under the new church. A marble tablet bearing his 
inscription was placed in the floor of the church, in front of 
the pulpit. It being uncertain that much of anything re- 

Evangelical Lutheran JBbenezer Church. 157 

mained to found the contemplated sctool, the trustees of the 
church at Albany desired to have the institution connected 
with their church, promising to raise $3,000 towards the 
erection of a suitable building. In fact, they claimed the 
estate, and deprecated the idea of erecting a college in the 
wilderness, as a " monument like the pillar of Absalom/' 
They say that the Oneida Indians were provided with a 
Presbyterian minister forty years before, that " other nations 
have the same, and now the Indians have sold all their land, 
which will be inhabited by Christians, so that the whim of 
a college and a New Jerusalem, may fall away, and it may be 
better to support with it the congregation of Albany, which, 
from the time of Grov. Van Tromp, has always been oppressed. 
We, Lutherans of Albany, are the next heirs of Mr. Hart- 
wick — ,....His own writings will show with what affection 
we took care of him.'' At another time, writing to the cura- 
tors of the estate, the trustees, who at this time were J. 
Conrad Ruby, Martin Hebeysen. and Daniel Pohlman, still 
complain of the neglect shown to their interests by those 
having charge of the legacy, " mournfully observing that 
our poor Ebenezer is entirely forgotten, notwithstanding we 
appointed in our stead two worthy friends and gentlemen, 
the most Rev. Dr. Kunze and Mr. Jeremiah Van Rensselaer, 
our advocates for our distressed Ebenezer. Yet in their 
twelve resolves, nothing appeared for such a poor flock of 
Lutheran Christians to support their pious business. We 
collect about £18 per annum from the members of our 
church, -and no more. Our church is not finished and more 
like to decay. But we are forgotten, though we know that 
Hartwick loved us, for he would be with us, even when dead. 
It is now in your power to support that poor church out of 
an estate freely granted by the owner." The solicitations of 
the trustees seem to have been crowned with partial success ; 
for on the 17 th of October, 1801, articles of agreement, drawn 
by Peter E. Elmendorf, were entered into between them and 
the trustees of the estate, by which all the estate was to be 
deposited with the trustees of the church, within two years, 
for the purposes of the seminary, subject to the order of the 
curators, John C. Kunze and Jeremiah Van Rensselaer. The 
foundation of an edifice was laid in Park street; but the 


158 Evangelical Lutheran Ebenezer Church. 

arrangement seems to have given so much dissatisfaction 
among the Lutheran churches, as to lead to its abandonment. 
Accordingly at a meeting of the trustees on the 14th April, 
1808, they resolved that since it was found impossible to 
execute the trust committed to them, they would redeliver 
the property unto the hands of the surviving executor, Jere- 
miah Van Rensselaer ; and two years after the materials used 
for the foundation were ordered to be sold. The seminary 
was finally located at Hartwick, in Otsego county, and is now 
in successful operation under a special charter, obtained of 
the legislature in 1816. ' 

In 1816 the city corporation purchased the lot on South 
Pearl street, which had been in possession of the congre- 
gation almost a century and a half, and paid for it $3*2,000. 
The boundaries were a little differently described at this day, 
as follows : " on the east by South Pearl, late Washington 
street; on the south by the Rutten kil; on the west by a 
small run of water called Fort Killitie ] ~ and on the north by 
Howard, late Lutheran street.^' The common council con- 
veyed to the congregation the lot which they now occupy on 
Pine street, in consideration of some property so indefi- 
nitely described that it is not now easy to locate it; but is 
represented as being between the west side of Eagle street 
and the east side of Pearl street. This lot on Pine street 
occupying the square formed by Pine, Lodge, Steuben, and 
Eagle streets, was a huge clay hill, at that time hardly worth 
the cost of excavating. The expense of partial excavation was 
$5,000. They afterwards built a session room and parsonage 
on the premises, the former having been consecrated on the 

^ See Session Laws, c. 166 ; also the Hartmck Memorial, passim. 

"^ This property was purchased by the city for the purposes of a 
market. There was at the time a small market on a portion of the 
lot, called Fly market, sometimes Cassidy's market, it being occu- 
pied by Cassidy and Fredem-ich. A portion of that market building 
is still (1868) standing, forming the corner of Howard and William 
Street. It was first erected in the centre of Market street, nearly op- 
posite Stanwix Hall (now Broadway), and was removed to this spot, 
the ground being leased of the church. A view of the vicinity west of 
William street is given in vol. ix of this work, showing an unsightly 
landscape, with the Fly market as it then appeared. The lots west 
of William street were sold for building lots, and covered with cheap 
tenements, most of which still remain. 

Evangelical Lutheran Ebenezer Church, 159 

10th of July, 1836. The westerly portion of the lot was 
occupied by Van Wormer's tavern and other wooden build- 
ings, the lots having been let on long leases, and could not 
be controlled by the officers of the church. In 1834 the 
state purchased the ground on Eagle street, occupied by the 
State Hall, for $5,000. With this money the trustees exca- 
vated and began to build upon such lots on Park and Lan- 
caster streets as were not encumbered by long leases. This 
had been their second cemetery, and was so occupied by them 
until the cemeteries were removed about 1803, to the new 
grounds appropriated to that purpose west of Knox street. 
The old cemeteries extended from Eagle street west to 
Hawk street, and required a vast amount of excavation to 
make proper grades for streets and building lots. The deed 
of the last cemetery lot is dated 1 Nov., 1803, and it was 
formally surrendered to the city in 1868, when the bodies 
interred in it were removed to the Rural cemetery, in com- 
mon with the remains in all the cemeteries. The process 
of removal had been gradual by families for a period of 
nearly twenty years before this, so that but 938 bodies re- 
mained in the Lutheran ground, when the city undertook 
the work, and of these but 44 had head stones or plates on 
their coffins by which they could be distinguished. 

The unsightly buildings owned by the lessees on Pine and 
Steuben streets being an eyesore to the neighborhood, and 
being beyond the control of the trustees, the common council, 
against the remonstrances of the trustees, took the property 
for public use, and it was set apart as a square attached to 
the State Hall, about the year 1835. The property was ap- 
praised at $9,475, of which amount the church was assessed 
$■1,545.14, or about one-sixth the whole amount of ap- 
praisal. In 1868, wheo the old building came to be razed, 
it was found that -the line on Pine street was 63 feet 3 in. in 
width, and on Steuben but 57 feet, which was insufficient for 
the structure they wished to erect ; whereupon the trustees 
memorialized the common council for sufficient ground to lay 
their foundations and equalize the width of the lot on the 
west line ; which was granted to the extent of six feet on 
Pine street, and twelve on Steuben. The old edifice was 
thereupon immediately demolished, the congregation wor- 
shiping, during the building of the new church, in the 

160 Evangelical Lutheran Ebenezer Church, 

Lecture room of the Second Presbyterian church, which the 
trustees of that society very kindly and courteously rented 
to them for their use. 

The Church Treasury Stolen. 

Att a Court of Mayor and Aldermen held for ye Citty of 
Albany, y^ 17th day of August, 1686. Present Peter 
Schuyler, Jan Jans Bleeker, Johannes Wandel, Dirck Wes- 
sells, Adrian Gerritse, Levinus Van Schaik. Hercules, ye 
negro of Myndert Frederikne being brought before ye Court 
by warrant of ye May'' to answer ye fellonious taking out of 
his master's house a small chest wherein some bags of wam- 
pum ^ was contained, belonging to ye Poor of ye Lutheran 
Church, and being examined doth confess ye fact y^ upon 
Thursday night last he came to his master's house, and find- 
ing ye window of y^ chamber open, went in and stole away 
ye small chest wherein ye money of ye poor of ye Lutheran 
Church was kept, and broke ye chest open without ye gate, 
at ye water side with an axe Ordered^ y^ ye ^^ Negroe be 
committed and secured in ye Common Goale till ye next 
Court of Sessions, when he is to be brought to his tryall. — 
Albany Records, III, 4. 

The Tomb of Hartwick. 

In the will of Rev. John C. Hartwick, he devised £40 
for the construction of a stone coffin and vault for his burial 
under the pulpit of Ebenezer church in Albany^ and £40 
for the support of its minister. He died at the Livingston 
manor house quite suddenly and unexpectedly, on his way 
to Albany, 17 July, 1796. The Hartwick Memorial^ pub- 
lishen by J. Munsell, at Albany, 1867, gives full particulars 
of him and the institution founded with the wreck of his 
estate. His bones are still in the custody of the Lutheran 
church, and follow it in all its migrations. The following 
is an exact copy of an entry in the church book showing the 
faithfulness with which they executed their trust in regard 
to Hartwick's remains. The style in which it is wriUen 
shows the transition which the German was undergoing into 
English, and is as good as could be expected, when it is con- 

^ The currency was at this time beaver skins and wampum, or 
seawant, the money of the Indians, made of shells. 

Evangelical Lutheran Ebenezer Church. 161 

sidered that the preaching was all in German for twelve 
years later than this : 

" Be it Rememberet, That the once Reverendet John 
Christoper Hardwig Lutheren Minister had by the making 
his Last Will and Testament wished and with the Consent of 
the Trustees and Vestery of the Lutheren Ebenezar church 
in this City albany Direcdet that affter his Death his Corp 
Should be entered unter the pulpit in said Ebenezar church 
for wich he bequeadet Ceartain Sums of monney to the Use 
of said church out of the Revenue of his Estead as may be 
seen more clear and full in his Last will. Sometime affter 
said Hartwig on a journey from New Yorke to Albany fell 
Sick and Dieeth in the East Camp not completing his 
Endendet journey to Albany was hurried in the Lutheran 
Church there. The Trustees and Vestery in Albany being 
anxious to perform there Duty in answering Hardwig's 
Request, but as a Ceartain Condition in there Deeth given 
to Ebenezar Church for a pias of Land By our Most Re- 
spectfull Corporation had not bin permitted to Enter the 
Corp in there Church without forfitting the pias of Burring 
ground the Trustees and Vestery Peditioned to there hon- 
ners the Corporation for Permission and there Pedition has 
bin Grraciously grandet and one of the Trustees with the 
Minister Mr. Brown went to the Camp and fetched the 
Corp with wich they arrived here in Albany this 17 Febr., 
1798 and the 21 Instant sat him by unter the floar untel 
further orders. About the beginning of May 98 the Coffin 
had bin secured with Stone Coffin Brickwork and Covered. 
with a Marvel Sepulcher Stone wich is visible to all such that 
are anxious to Look at it. And so has the Lutheren church 
in Albany Called Ebenezar, become the Dwelling houss 
of the Corp of John Christoph'" Hartwig until the Coming 
of his and our Lord. The Trustees dought propper to give 
Notice of there proceedings to the Most Reverent Docter 
Kuntz one of the Administrators in a litter they Do wish 
and hope that in Consideration of all there performences an 
annual allowance be grandet and Stippendit to the Church 
out of the Estate of hartwig for the use mentainence and 
supporting said church fourthy pounds are particular men- 
tioned and grandet in his will for permission to Enter his 
Corp in the Lutheren Church unter the pulpit put it appears 
that out of the fourthy pounds Mr. Renselar made a Reduc- 

162 Evangelical Lutheran Ebenezer Church, 

tion for transporting the Corp from the Camp to Albany 
and for some other Expences on that account/' 

The following is the inscription in defective German upon 
the tablet placed in the floor of the old church in front of 
the pulpit. It may have been correctly written in German, 
and engraved by some other nationality : 

Hier ruhet 

Johann C. Hartwich 

Prediger der Evangelisch 

Lutherischen Kirche. 

Gebokren in Sax-Gotha 

den 6 Januer 1714 

den 16 Julius 1796. 

Seines alters 
82 Jahre 6 Monat 

Das kurzgesteckte ziel der tage, 
1st siebenzig, ist achtzig iahr, 

Ein innbegrif von mueh und plage, 
Auch wennesnoch so kostlich war. 

Gefliigelt eilt mit uns die zeit, 

In eine lange ewigkeit. 

Extracts from the Records. 

2d June, 1786, the cornerstone of the new church was 
laid; on the north-east corner under the third stone from 
the top there was laid down in a square short bottle, a 
Lutheran catechism, and also a memorandum in it, as follows : 

" This church was erected in the year of our Lord 1786, 
by the Evangelical Lutheran congregation of this city of 
Albany, under the propitious direction of its pastor, the 
Rev. Henry Moller, a member of the reverend Ministerium 
of the Lutheran confession in North America; at which 
time Messrs. Charles Neumann, Christopher Beckmann and 
John Leonhard, were trustees; and Messrs. John Horn, 
John Georg Geyer, Omy Legrange, Gottfried Enax, Doctor 
Medic, and Mr. Kling were church counsel; Messrs. J. G. 
Geyer and Christian Ehring were treasurers. 

" Deus sol et scutum.'' 

Evangelieal Lutheran Ebenezer Church, 163 

12th September, 1786, deeds were exchanged between the 
mayor of the city and the corporation, with the trustees, for a 
small lot of land in Washington [now South Pearl] street, 
for an acre on the hill where the hospital formerly stood. 
[This was what now forms the site of the State Hall, and of 
the church lot on Pine and Lodge streets, with the inter- 
vening space planted with trees.] 

Membership of the Congregation. 

30 Dec. 1788, the congregation consisted of the following 
heads of families : 

Christian Ehring, 

Charles Newman, 

John Gr. Greyer, 

Christopher Beekman, 

Matthew Kugler, 

John Ostrander, 

Martin Hebeysen, 

Andreas Roller, 

John Tillman, for his wife 

John Hendrick Niemeyer, 
George Klinck, 
Bernhard Bauer, 
John Matthew Horn, 
Michael Henn, 
John Hood, 
Christian Benter, 
John Leonhard, 
Nicholaus Michel, 
John C. Fredenreich, 
John Arnhout, 
Omie LaGrange, 
John C. Buby, 

Henry Dowmann, 

J. G. Hildebrand, 

Wendel Hildebrand, 

John Huth, for his wife, 

John Jacobsen, 

Evert Jansen, 

Philip Wagener, for his wife, 

Charles Bowmann, 

Mr. Erzberger, for his wife 

Begin a, 
C. F. Diefenbach, 
Samuel Hendrick(Henderer?) 
John Zeilman, 
Gerhard Mercelis, 
Johannis Rattenaur, 
Conrad Freitag, 
Andreas Benter, 
Jorgen Benter, 
John Gross, 
Daniel Leonhard, 
John Geyer, 

Jacob Kummig. 


The real property of the congregation consisted at this 
time of a church, a parsonage adjoining, and a lot renting 
for £2 10s. per annum, and five lots renting for £2 2s. 6d. 
each. Also six house lots in the second ward adjoining 

164 Evangelical Lutheran Ehenezer Church. 

Duke street, with a house and barn, leased to one Ashmore. 
Another lot renting for £2 10s. and a burying ground 
adjoining. The personal property consisted of debts amount- 
ing to £30; a pewter tankard, a pewter bread box, an iron 
bread mould, a silver chalice, a small silver plate, a table 
cloth, a napkin ; a tankard and oval dish of pewter, for 
baptism; a pewter plate for gathering alms; a small funeral 
cloth ; a small chest for the books and papers of the officers. 
The society was in debt nearly £200. 

9 March, 1790. The trustees, vestry and pastor accepted 
of a new grave yard, the one on State street, which has just 
been surrendered to the city, in common with all the grounds 
in that vicinity. 

6 Feb. 1792. The members of the congregation at this time 
were 39, and had changed much. The names of Greorge 
Klinck, Michael Henn, John Hood, the three Benters, Nicho- 
las Michael, John Arnhout, Omie Lagrange, J. Gr. Hilde- 
brand, Wendel Hildebrand, Jacob Jacobsen, Evert Jansen, 
Philip Wagener, Charles Bowman, Mr. Erzberger, Gerhard 
Marcelis, Johannis Battenaur, Conrad Freitag, John Gross, 
and Jacob Kummig, disappear, being nearly one-half; and 
in their places come Jacob Thunrick, Daniel Pohlman, John 

Matthew Dirk, Batterman, Peter Young, Peter Horn, 

Christina Boff, Johannes Young, Thomas Butts, George 

Geiger, Anthony Santvoord, Daniel Shueyder, Brum- 

ley, George Herris, Frederic Sharley, Margaret Enak. — 39. 

The inventory of the property was substantially the same. 
The debts due the church were £52 : 11 : 6, and it owed 
£74 : 17 : 3. 

2 Jan. 1795. A subscription of £10 : 10s. was made by 
the members in the city, and the members from the Boght 
paid £2:0:6. The stove cost £15:7: 6. 

5 Jan. 1795. There was a balance in the treasury of the 
poor, of £5:13 :9. 

27 March 1795. A list of members is given again, show- 
ing considerable change. Christian Ehring, a prominent mem- 
ber, disappears. Three Henderers appear, Jacob, Jacob Jr., 
and Harmanus, John Walls, William Gels, Jacob Hayne, 
John Disney, John Van Benthuysen's wife, John Arnhout 
reappears, Daniel Dirkes, Isaac Wormer, Christopher Baker, 
Adam Roman, Ezekiel Tiffney's wife, Conrad Betz, Wm Gif- 

JEvangelicat Lutheran Ehenezer Church. 165 

fert, Thomas ButtZj'Michael Henn reappears, Jacob Blumen- 
thalFs wife, Jacop Rottly's wife, Frederick Thaile. — 38. 

The rents of the lots had been considerably increased ; 
the outstanding debts were £22! lis., and there was £14: 6:10 
in the treasury, and it is recorded in large characters " The 
Corporation is in no Debt." Signed by John C. Fredenreich, 
Charles Newman, and Martin Hebeysen. 

26 Aug. 1796. " It was agreed that the church chist should 
be compleadet egain with three different locks." This fur- 
nished each trustee with a key (J. Conrad Ruby, Daniel 
Pohlman and Martin Hebeysen). Thus the chest could be 
opened only when all were present. 

The following record was entered by J. C. Ruby, 
clerk of the board : " It hath bin omidet to insert that 
the Trustees J. Conrad Ruby and Martin Hebeysen con- 
cludet to get a bell into their church. They presendet to 
his Excelency our Lieut. Governor and Likewise to his honor 
the mayor a Pedition to Collect as much money to purchase 
a bell. The Pedition was generously Exepdet and Grandet. 
They went with their Pedition to all principle Citiiens 
first and so in their Turns called upon every Christian Citi- 
zens on the ?8th August, 1796. But the subscribed Dona- 
tions have not bin called for till the third and fourth week 
in August, 1797, and with the Blessing of God the bell is put 
into the stippel of Ebenezer church and fully paid with the 
collected money. The bell cost 55 pound, the hanging there- 
of cost 15 pound." Other expenses were paid to the amount 
of £7 : 17 : 10 ; in all £77 : 17 : 10. The whole amount col- 
lected was £84 : 17 : 2, or S212.16. This bell was first used 
as an alarm bell on a British man of war, and weighed 288 
lbs. It was transferred to the church on Pine street, and 
in 1850 cracked, when it was sold for about $88, and a new 
one procured, as large as the tower would admit, which was 
about 1,000 lbs. 

166 Reformed German Church, 


The followers of Zwinglius, who differed from the Luther- 
ans in some matters relating to the sacrament J took the 
name of German Reformed. In the Albany (ra2;e^^e, printed 
by the Robertsons in 1772, was published an advertisement 
of a lottery to be drawn in March of that year, for the bene- 
fit of the German Reformed Church, which is the first we hear 
of them in this place. Lotteries were not an unusual means 
of raising money even for churches at that day. The 
spot pointed out as the location of this edifice, is between 
Orange and Patroon streets, west of Ten Broeck street, where 
its foundation had an altitude considerably above the present 
grade of the latter street, overlooking a deep ravine on the 
south. The object to be attained by the selection of so re- 
tired a location, is somewhat difl&cult to conceive, unless it 
was to set it " upon a hill that it should not be hid," for it 
was far out of town at that day. An idea of its remoteness 
may be had from the circumstance of some one having 
opened a tavern so far from any landmark, that he described 
it as " situated on the pleasant road to the German church." 
A cross road ran diagonally up the hill from what is now 
Orange street to Patroon street, both of which were then 
common roads, and the church stood a little west of the 
cross-road, with a burying ground in front. It was a wooden 
edifice about fifty feet square, with a tower at the north en- 
trance, furnished with a bell. It was provided with an organ, 
the first one known to have been used in a church in Albany. 
The only notice we can find respecting it in the public ar- 
chives, is an act passed March 27, 1794, "for the relief of 
Paul Hochstrasser and others," as follows : " Whereas it 
hath been represented that Paul Hochstrasser, John Abbet 
and John Tillman, having expended large sums of money in 
erecting a building for the Reformed German congregation 
in the city of Albany with sundry appurtenances, which sums 

^ Serious disturbances arose about 1845 in Prussia, in consequence 
of an edict of the king, directing the union of these two churches 
in one. 

Sabbath Evening School. 167 

were never reimbursed by the said congregation through 
the means of their inability. And whereas also it has been 
further represented, that the said congregation is dispersed, 
and the building become usele'ss : Be it enacted by the peo- 
ple of the state of New York represented in Senate and 
Assembly, That Abraham Hun, Teunis Ts. Van Vechten 
and John C. Cuyler, be, and are hereby appointed trustees for 
the purpose of selling the aforesaid building, with the 
appurtenances, exclusive of the right of soil ; and out of the 
moneys therefrom arising, to settle with all such persons 
who may have any demands against the same ; and should 
the moneys therefrom arising not be competent to satisfy the 
said claims, they shall be and hereby are authorized to pay 
each claimant a just proportion of the moneys arising from 
the said premises, according to his, her, or their respective 
demands/' The church appears to have been sold accord- 
ingly, and afterwards occupied by the Seceders. It was 
subsequently taken down, and the frame work is still stand- 
ing near Lydius street, about two miles out. On the 14th 
of April, 1803, Paul Hochstrasser and John Ram applied 
to the consistory of the Reformed Protestant Dutch Ijhurch 
for permission to bury their deceased relatives in the ground 
belonging to that church, alleging that the grave yard of the 
German Reformed Church had become almost a public com- 
mon ; that the former wished to take up the remains of his 
mother, and the latter those of his children, and deposit 
them elsewhere. When the pier was built, the lot upon 
which this church stood was excavated, and the earth used 
to fill in that work. The bones of the dead buried there 
were placed in boxes, and left by the road side in a ravine, 
till some one having occasion to use the boxes, the bones 
were turned out upon the ground, and afterwards plowed 


On March 24, 1816, a sabbath evening school was esta- 
blished at Mr. Young's school room, in Washington street, 
and appears to have been countenanced by the Moral Society. 
It was attended by 150 children and 50 adults. 

168 German Evangelical Lutheran Church. 


The building occupied by this congregation is situated in 
State street, above Swan. It was originally built for the 
use of a Methodist congregation, and purchased of them in 
1842, for eighteen hundred dollars. 

It will have been seen in our account of the Lutheran 
Ebeuezer church, that the use of the German language in 
the services of the sanctuary, virtually ceased in 1808. But 
the large number of immigrants from Germany rendered it 
necessary for the pastor of that church to resume its use in 
1834. Accordingly from that time a service in that lan- 
guage was held in the evening of the Lord's day, and occa- 
sionally during the week. After the erection of the Lecture 
Room of the Ebenezer Church, on the corner of Lodge and 
Steuben streets, in 1836, the Germans were regularly sup- 
plied with the word and ordinances in their mother tongue, 
by the Rev. William Moellman, from Hanover, in Germany. 
And when he accepted a call from Cincinnati, and removed 
to that city, the services were continued with more or less 
regularity by the Rev. F. G. Mayer, the pastor of Ebenezer. 

In 1841, in consequence of the rapid increase of the 
German population, and the inconvenience of holding ser- 
vice in two languages, it was deemed expedient to organize 
a separate congregation, which was done on the 8th of 
August in that year. Early in 1842, by the effective aid 
of the mother church, and the kind liberality of the citizens 
of Albany, they succeeded in purchasing the church above 
mentioned, which was set apart for the worship of God in 
the German language, with appropriate solemnities, on the 
10th of May. The first pastor of this church was the Rev. 
George Saul, who remained with them a year and seven 
months, and then removed to Canajoharie. He was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. Edward Meyer, in October, 1842, who, 
after a ministry of four and a half years, resigned his charge, 
and removed on the first of May, 1847, to Lockport, Nia- 
gara county. While he was their pastor, the congregation, 

German Evangelical Lutheran Church, 169 

at the cost of $500, purchased a lot for a burial ground on 
the north side of the Schenectady turnpike in Washington 
street, which was consecrated with appropriate solemnities, 
"on the 26th of November, 1846. 

On the 26th of September, 1847, the Rev. Frederick 
William Schmidt was installed, and entered upon the dis- 
charge of his ministerial duties. Under his ministry the 
church increased in members and usefulness. During the 
latter part of his ministry, however, a part of the congregation, 
living in the southern portion of the city, separated from the 
church and organized another congregation, building a church 
on the corner of Nucella and Franklin streets. The Rev. 
F. W. Schmidt died on the 17 March, 1855, and was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. C. M. Wossidlo from Prussia. Under 
his ministry the church was divided once more, and the 
Evangelical Lutheran church of St John's was built in Cen- 
tral avenue. The old church in State street, having become 
too small for the congregation, was torn down, and a new and 
large brick building erected on the same site, costing $8,000, 
which was dedicated in January, 1856. In the fall of the 
same year Rev. Mr. Wossidlo resigned, and was succeeded by 
the Rev. H. H. Ebsen, who labored here until the fall of 
1861. Owing to various causes the congregation had dimin- 
ished, but after Mr. Ebsen's resignation united with the 
Evangelical Lutheran Ministerium of New York, and called 
the Rev. R. Adelberg, formerly of Saugerties, N. Y., its 
present pastor, under whose ministry the congregation rapidly 
increased, counting about 500 communicants, and beautified 
and improved the church at a cost of about $4,000. 

The other German Lutheran congregation in Nucella 
street was successively served by Revs. Messrs. Rechenberg, 
Hennicke, Fischer and Ernst, and St. John^s church in 
Central Avenue by Revs. Hennicke, Fachtmann and Hoff- 
mann, and both are in a prosperous and flourishing condition. 


170 First Presbyterian Church. 


The Presbyterian Church in Albany, was formed at the 
conclusion of the French war, in the year 1763. In October 
of that year the corporation of the city executed a deed in 
trust for the congregation, to John Macomb, Daniel Edgar, 
Samuel Holladay, Robert Henry, Abraham Lyle and John 
Munro, for the ground on which the first building for public 
worship was erected by the church. This lot was bounded 
on the north by Beaver street, on the east by William street, 
on the south by Hudson street, and on the west by Grand 
street, including, it is supposed, all the ground now com- 
prised within these boundaries. The house erected on this 
spot was of wood, of considerable size^ with a tall steeple, 
and fronted to the east. It was occupied by the church till 
A. D. 1796. From the date of the formation of the church, 
A.I). 1763,tillthecommencementof the war-of the revolution, 
the church had two pastors, viz. : Rev. William Hanna, who 
remained with them two years, and was succeeded by the 
Rev. Andrew Bay, who continued in the pastoral charge for 
five years. The only elders known to have been ordained in 
the church during this time, were Robert R. Henry and 
Matthew Watson. There are to be found, however, during 
this period no sessional records nor any records of communi- 
cants, baptisms, marriages or deaths. On the 12th of July, 
1785, a unanimous call was given to the Rev. John McDonald, 
who was ordained and installed pastor of the church on the 
8thof November of the same year, and continued in that office 
till A. D, 1795. On the first of January, 1786, the church, 
which has been scattered, and without stated services during 
the war, was reorganized, and four elders and two deacons 
were ordained. The first communion after the new organi- 
zation was held on the third sabbath of April, 1787, when 
116 members were admitted. In the spring of 1794, pro- 
posals were issued for building a brick church, the materials 
for which were already procured, as well as the lot, extend- 
ing on Washington (Pearl) street, from Beaver street to 
Store lane (Norton street.) The building was completed 

First Presbyterian Church. 


in 1796, in an elegant style for the day, being altogetlier the 
best church edifice in the city, and was opened on the 20th 


of November of that year. Its dimensions were 64 by 76 
feet. In 1831 an addition of 16 feet was made to it on the 
north end, and the interior remodeled, so as to place it in 
advance of the other churches again for internal elegance. 
On the 3d of October, 1798, Eliphalet Nott was installed 
pastor of the church, where he continued to preach until he 
was removed to the presidency of Union College, which office 
he filled to a great a2;e, 

172 First Presbyterian Church, 


1763 Rev. William Hanna continued till 1765. 

Rev. Andrew Bay continued five years. 

1785 Rev. J. McDonald continued till 1795. 
1795 Rev. David S. Bogart, a licentiate from the Dutch classis, 
New York, supplied the pulpit for about two years. 
1798 Rev. Eliphalet Nott continued till September, 1804. 
1804 Rev. John B. Romeyn continued till October, 1808. 
1809 Rev. William Neill continued till August, 1816. 
1817 Rev. Arthur Jos. Stansbury continued till June, 1821. 
1822 Rev. Henry R. Weed continued till November, 1829. 
1830 Rev. John N. Campbell ; died March, 1864. 
1864 Rev James M. Ludlow ; resigned 1868. 

- In 1849 a new edifice was completed for this society, on 
the corner of Hudson and Philip streets. The old church 
was sold by auction on the 13th of Dec, for |17,550. Dr. 
J. N. Campbell preached a farewell discourse in it on the 
3d March following, and on the 10th of the same month, 
the new edifice was open for public worship, the pastor 
officiating alone in the dedication. The following descrip- 
tion of the new edifice was written by the late Sherman 
Croswell : 

The new edifice, for the accommodation of this large and 
increasing congregation was in the course of construction 
about two years. It was the third house built for the use of 
this society, the first two having been previously alluded to. 
The engraving opposite is a faithful representation of the 
edifice, which was the noblest specimen of church architec- 
ture in the city, as yet completed. 

The following are the names of its principal artificers : 

H. Rector, architect; Joshua R. Hayes, mason; Alexan- 
der Gray, stonecutter; James Dennison & Co., carpenters; 
Boyd & McDonald executed the mastic on the exterior, the 
plaster, stucco and fresco work of the interior. 

The workmanship, throughout, could scarcely be sur- 
passed in elegance and stability. 

The entire building occupies an area of about one hundred 
and twenty by seventy-five feet; and for the convenience of 
this brief description, the building may be arranged under 

First Presbyterian Church, 173 

three general divisions : the tower, occupying the east end ; 
the centre, or main body of the building; and the projection 
at the west end. 

The tower is twenty-six feet square, and one hundred and 
fifty-six high ', its external ornaments consisting of four 
octagonal turrets — one at each corner, terminating in pin- 
nacles ; two belt mouldings ] three clock faces ; panelled 
belt; five windows; the entrance doors, and the parapet. 

The body of the building is ninety seven by seventy-five 
feet, and forty-four feet to the top of the parapets ; and 
relieved externally with eighteen buttresses, four turrets, 
and perforated for twelve windows. 

The projection at the west end is about thirty by seven 
feet, and contains two angle buttresses, cornice and parapet. 

The turrets and buttresses present their usual display of 
corbels, pediment mouldings, crocketed angles, and termi- 
nating finials to their respective pinnacles; the belt and 
eave cornices are well formed and judiciously arranged ; the 
paneled course is filled with tracery; the clock faces fur- 
nished with architrave mouldings, crocketed bands, and 
terminating finials ; the tower windows furnished with cor- 
bels, crocketed heads, and finials ; and the principal entrance 
door has recessed jambs, columns, head-moulding, tracery, 
cornice, tudor-leaf parapet, side buttresses, and side and 
centre pinnacles. The parapets to the main body of the 
building, and to the projection at the west end, are plain ; 
that to the tower, open, and somewhat ornamented. The 
windows have double mullions, transoms, tracery heads, and 
are glazed with colored and figured glass manufactured for 
the express purpose. The facing to foundations, the steps, 
window heads, dressings, and all external ornaments are of 
cut stone ; the other portions masticated to imitate stone. 

The principal entrance is into the east side of the tower. 
The towftr contains the inner porch, the screen doors, and 
the organ and bell lofts ; also the apartment designed for 
the clock. The entrance to the organ, and to the choir 
gallery, is also through a portion of the tower ; and the west 
side of the tower is perforated and arched.^ in order to pre- 
sent a full view of the organ. The screen wall, dividing the 
hall and lobbies from the nave and aisles, is perforated for 
three doors corresponding with the inner passages along the 

174 First Presbyterian Church. 

several ranges of pews, and also for two doors leading to the 
galleries. Between the front and screen walls is a transverse 
hall which contains the staircases, all conveniently arranged 
to give easy access to the different portions of the building. 
The area west of the screen wall, about seventy-seven by 
sixty-four feet, is divided by two ranges of columns into 
nave and side aisles ; the columns form the support of the 
two ranges of galleries, and of the spandrels of the groined 
ceiling; the centre portion, or nave, terminating at its west 
end in the recess containing the pulpit, steps, and private 
entrance; and at the east end, in the organ loft and gallery 
for the choir. 

The main ceiling is formed into three general divisions, 
corresponding with the nave and side aisles, by -groined 
arches, ornamented with ribs, bosses, and the usual display 
of ornament, and laid off to represent blocks of cut stone 
masonry, and frescoed; the ribs descend along the different 
curves of the arches, and rest in a cluster of mouldings upon 
the ornamented caps of the columns, and upon ornamented 
corbels along the walls. The ceilings of the galleries, and 
also those of the porch and hall, are ornamented with span- 
drels, resting upon corbels, and the angles filled with tracery. 
In each panel of the galleries, between the columns, are 
presented five arches resting upon corbels ; and from each 
corbel rises a pinnacle, the arches and pinnacles ornamented 
with crockets and finials, and terminate below the gallery 
cornice ; the unoccupied spaces are filled with tracery panel- 
ing. The gallery for the choir is finished similar to the 
others, except that the main divisions and angles are formed 
by projecting octagonal paneling, in form of turrets, and the 
tracery within the arches perforated quite through. 

Within the projection at the west end is formed the 
recess which terminates the west end of the nave, the floor 
of the recess forming the area occupied by the pulpit and 
steps. The recess is ornamented with columns, panels and 
tracery, and a blank window finishes its centre; the window 
presenting all the variety of mullions, tracery, transom 
crowned with tudor leaf, usual in ornamental windows. In 
one side of the recess is a private entrance, with a corre- 
sponding blank door at the opposite side, the arches of both 
finished with crockets and finials. The pulpit is not in a 

• First Freshyterian Church 175 

suj95cient state of forwardness to admit of a particular descrip- 
tion, but will doubtless be in character with the other por- 
tions of the building. 

The main floor is intended to contain one hundred and 
fifty-eight pews, and the gallery forty-two. The choir will 
be of sufficient size to accommodate thirty persons. About 
twelve hundred persons can be accommodated in pews, gal- 
lery and choir, if required. The building is intended to be 
warmed by means of two furnaces located in the basement. 

This church edifice, though entirely divested of the tran- 
septs, clere-story, high ceiling, and lofty spires which cha- 
racterize the cathedral form of church edifices, will be found 
nevertheless, upon careful inspection, to present, in both 
general design and in detail, objects worthy the attention of 
the amateur and lover of the mechanic arts. 

The lot on which this edifice is erected is on Hudson 
street, 150 feet in length, and on Philip street, on which 
it fronts about 148 feet in breadth, enclosed by an iron fence 
of gothic structure. The organ, which is already put up, 
and is a full organ with three banks of keys, was made by 
Messrs. Appleton & Warren of Boston. The supposed 
cost of the whole structure will be nearly seventy thousand 

In 1857 an addition of 30 feet was made to the west end 
of the church, giving it an entire length of 127 feet. The 
entire cost of lot, edifice, furniture and fixtures, was $110,000, 
which was fully paid for in October, 1861. 


At the ordination of Mr. McDonald in 178.5, the society 
gave a public dinner to the three ministers who ordained 
him, probably to give eclat to the event. The trustees 
appropriated the seat on the right hand of the main door 
to the use of the corporation, and the opposite one to the 
governor; the pew on the right hand of the pulpit to 
the minister, and that on the left hand to the elders and 
deacons. The clerk was allowed 3s. for publishing mar- 
riages, and 6f?. for every person christened. Three pounds 
($7.50) was the price fixed for burying an adult under the 
church, and 30s. for a person under 14 years of age. It 
was ordained that " children must behave well/' and cour- 
tesy was enjoined toward strangers. It was the sexton's 

176 First Presbyterian Church. 

duty to warn persons to attend funerals, and to walk before 
the corpse, for which he was allowed a fee of 12s. On 
the 4th of January, 1790, it was resolved that " 1,000 cop- 
pers be stamped Church Penny, and placed in the hands of 
the treasurer, for the purpose of exchanging with the con- 
gregation at the rate of twelve for one shilling, in order to 
add respect to the weekly collections/' i The Presbyterian 
burying ground was on Hudson street, above Pearl, and 
that as well as the church, is spoken of as being on the hill, 
while the region below is called the plains. On the 17th 
of May, 1792, Stephen Lush and Leonard Gansevoort, Jun., 
conveyed to the trustees of the Presbyterian church, " the 
lot on the plains," in consideration of £110 ($275). The 
title seems to have been considered doubtful. The corpora- 
tion lease and release is drawn in consideration of 5s. The 
lot is thus described in the first mentioned lease : "abutting 
to the north the creek or kil called the Fuyck's kil; to the 
south on the common highway ; to the west the hills; and to 
the east Anthony De Hooghe's." The lot was used for a 
stave yard, through which the kil passed, and still passes, 
about midway under the church, being arched over as a 
drain. The entrance into Washington street, as it was then 
called, from State street, was through a gate, which was 
taken away some years later, when the street was opened to 
its present width. On the 15th of July, 1793, the trustees 
decided that the salary of the precentor, Mr. McFarlan, was 
inadequate, and voted him £8 (820) per annum. On the 
day the church was opened for public service, the Rev. Dr. 
Smith, president of tjnion College, preached two sermons. 
A call had been given to the Rev. David S. Bogert, of the 
city of New York, to become the pastor of the church, with 
a salary of $1,000 per annum. At a subsequent day, in 
order to prevent the passing of vehicles during service, the 
trustees procured the passing of a law which allowed two 
chains to be stretched across the street, at each end of the 
church, which effectually barricaded it to all but foot pas- 
sengers. The chains were removed in 1832. 

^ Three of these pennies were found about 1864, and have been 
sold to collectors of coins as high as $25 for a single one. One of 
them was spaded up in the garden of Mr. J, Carson Brevoort in 
Brooklyn, on Long Island. 

Bethel for Watermen. 



The above institution commenced its operations in May, 
1843, in the following manner. A few pious persons, who 
were convinced that boatmen had been too long neglected, 
resolved to try the experiment of establishing meetings in 
the city for their benefit. They procured a suitable room in 
Stanwix Hall, fitted it up for service, and invited Rev. John 
Miles, a Wesleyan Methodist minister, to labor for and with 
them, Mr. Miles accepted the invitation, and entered upon 
the duties of his office by preaching his first bethel sermon 
on State Street Bridge, sabbath morning, May 14, 1843, 
from Proverbs, xi, 30. "He that winneth souls is wise.'' 
A board of managers was early formed, consisting of twelve, 
from different sections of the Christian church. At their 
first meeting, held to adopt measures to sustain the cause, the 

178 Bethel for Watermen, 

following preamble and resolution were offered, and unani- 
mously adopted : " From a conviction that it is our impera- 
tive duty to do good unto all men, even to the neglected 
boatmen, sailors and strangers (as many such persons are 
constantly arriving in our city,) we the undersigned think 
it necessary that somethino; should be done in their behalf; 
and we agree to form ourselves into a board of managers for 
the Albany Bethel; to enact laws by which it shall be go- 
verned, and to do all we can to have it permanently sustained/' 
The room in Stanwix Hall was kept but one year, as at 
the close of the same, Clark Durant, E'-q., who had shown 
himself a very warm friend of the undertaking, by contribut- 
ing liberally towards its support, came forward and purchased 
the neat and commodious house lately occupied by the Third 
Presbyterian Church, for which he paid $5,000, and ten- 
dered its use gratuitously, so long as it could be sustained 
as a free bethel. The building of which the above is a 
representation, was situated in Montgomery street, between 
Orange and Columbia streets; its dimensions were 50 by 
60 feet. Mr. Miles was long its chaplain, faithful and 
devoted in the discharge of his duties. The meetings were 
all public, and the seats all free. The Bethel was entirely 
free from any sectarian influence, having no organized 
church, but standing entirely on neutral ground. It was 
supported by the voluntary subscriptions of those who took 
an interest in the spiritual and temporal welfare of water- 
men and the stranger within our gates. There was also a 
sabbath school connected with it which was commenced in 
June, 1844. 

The New York Central rail road company purchased all 
the territory around the Bethel, and would have purchased 
that also, but that Mr. Durant refused to sell. This cut off 
a long stretch of the dock that had been before used for 
water craft, and isolated the building to such an extent, that 
it was found necessary to remove to other quarters. But it 
is believed that the Bethel movement has been abaodoned 
for several years past, 

Jewish Synagogues, 179 


There are three Hebrew congregations in this city. The 
Bethel Congregation consisted originally ofsixteen.members, 
all of them Germans, who came over in 1837, from Europe, 
and after having been for a short time in New York, they 
settled in this city in the fall of 1837. Before that time 
there were very few Israelites residing in Albany. There 
are now about 250 members in the congregation. Their 
place of worship is called a synagogue, where they perform 
their service in the Hebrew language. Their meeting days 
are every sabbath or Saturday, and besides on thirteen holi- 
days and twenty-seven half-holidays. Their first place of 
worship was in Bassett street, but on the 2d of September, 
1812, they dedicated a new synagogue at No. 76 Herkimer 
street, formerly a church belonging to the Hibernian Bene- 
volent Society; which cost, after having been altered and 
repaired, about $3,500. This has since been transferred to 
Ferry street, late Methodist Episcopal Church. There is 
one minister or rabbi to the congregation, who is elected 
annually, for the term of one year. Mr. Henry Seehling 
was the second minister, and was succeeded by Rabbi Vise 
Traub. The present rabbi is Bev. Herman Birkenthal. 

In the spring of the year 1841, three members and eight 
seat holders quitted the Bethel Congregation and commenced 
a new society under the title of Beth Jacob-, which counts 
at present about forty members. Their service is the same 
as the Bethel Congregation. They met at No. 8 Rose street- 
until some time during 1848 they erected a synagogue in 
Fulton street, at an expense of $4,500. 

The congregation Anshe Emeth, was formed of a portion 
of Bethel congregation, about 1851. They purchased the 
Baptist Church in South Pearl street, below Lydius, and now 
constitute the largest congregation in the city. The present 
rabbi is Rev. Max Schlessinger. 

Each congregation has a separate burial ground. There is 
also a Mutual Benefit Society of Israelites in this city, to 
which nearly all the members of the Bethel Congregation 
belong. The object of this society is to support the poor 
sick, as well as their own members, and to give relief to the 
families of the poor and the sick, and to see that in case of 
death the corpse is properly buried. 

180 Universalist Church, 


There was preaching occasionally by Universalist clergymen 
in this city, for a few years previous to 1829. In the fall of 
hat year the first Universalist meeting house in Albany was 
erected on Herkimer street, being a temporary wooden build- 
ing 50 by 27 feet. Subsequently it was elevated for the 
purpose of forming a basement and lOJ feet added to its 
depth; it then had cost about $1,500. On the 1st of March, 
1830, it was resolved to form a Universalist Society. March 
23, 1830, the first Universalist Society was organized, when 
about thirty persons signed the constitution, which contains 
a confession of Christian faith; the society therefore com- 
prises the church. The Rev. Wm. S. Balch commenced 
his labors in the latter part of February, 1830, who, in 
consequence of poor health, removed at the expiration of 
three months. The Rev. Isaac D. Williamson commenced 
his labors on the 17th of June,. 1830, and resigned the 1st 
of May, 1837. The brick meeting house in Green street, 
now occupied by the society, was commenced the 25th of 
July, 1833, and completed in August, 1834. It is a sub- 
stantial, neat, and convenient edifice, 80 by 48 feet, con- 
structed in accordance with the Grecian Doric order, and 
with the lot, cost about $14,000. The Rev. Stephen R. 
Smith commenced his labors the 18th of September, 1837, 
and left the society on the 1st of May, 1842 ; was succeeded 
by Rev. S. B. Britton, who left the society in April, 1843, 
after which the Rev. L. B. Mason supplied the desk until 
the fall of 1845, when he left in consequence of ill health. 
The society was then without stated preaching until the 
spring of 1846, when Rev. S. B. Britton returned and 
remained for one year, after which Rev. R. P. Ambler 
preached for about eight months ; since which there has 
been no settled pastor until November 1st, 1848, when Rev. 
W. H. Waggoner was engaged as pastor, and installed on 
the 20th of December. There was a Sunday school attached 
to the society, consisting of more than one hundred scholars. 
The library consisted of 200 volumes, of very carefully se- 
lected books. The congregation numbered about four hun- 
dred and had sixty communicants. It dissolved about 1866. 

Society of Friends. 181 


The Society of Friends in the city of Albany first met for 
religious worship in diiTerent places, where they could obtain 
suitable rooms, from 1827 to 1833, a considerable part of 
the time in the Lancasterian School House, in Eagle street, 
by permission of the common council. In 1835 they be- 
came an organized society, and built a meeting house on the 
south side of Plain street, below Grand. The dimensions 
of the building are 36 by 42 feet, and 22 feet walls above 
the basement, and seated so as to accommodate about four 
hundred persons. It has a large and commodious basement, 
which is occupied as a school room. The school is under 
the charge of a member of the society, and numbers about 
50 pupils. This edifice was erected by the society here, 
with the assistance of the Yearly Meeting of New York, at 
an expense of $5,000, when the congregation numbered - 
about 150 persons. 


182 Ajicieni Albany. 


The denizens of this ancient city know by tradition that 
it was formerly protected against the incursions of the French 
and Indians, by palisades, a kind of fortification, consisting 
of upright posts planted firmly in the ground, and peculiar 
in the manner of its use to the settlements of this country. 
Occasionally in making excavations, the relics of these 
ancient wooden walls are met with, but from the difficulty 
we have had in gathering authentic oral information about 
the limits which they described, we are inclined to believe 
that few if any at this day can give a satisfactory account 
of them. The accompanying diagram shows the line of 
these old defenses. It is not known whether it was drawn 
after any accurate survey, but could hardly have been other- 
wise, from its correspondence with the same portion of the 
city at the present day. We can see how the curvatures 
and diagonal lines presented by our streets had their rise in 
the course of the protecting enclosure, which latter was run 
to correspond with the declivities on either side of the high 
ground upon which this part of the city stands, and termi- 
nating in a regular fort at Lodge street. It was drawn in 
1695, by the Rev. John Miller, a chaplain in the British 
army, and is unquestionably a true picture of the form and 
boundaries of the city a century and a half ago — reaching 
from Hudson to Steuben street on Broadway, and from the 
river west to Lodge street. A more extended line of pali- 
sades was afterwards constructed, bounded by Hamilton 
street on the south, and crossing Broadway on the north at 
the house occupied by the late venerable Abraham Van 
Vechten, a little north of Orange and y?n Tromp streets. 
The north gate was placed there, and was a local name as 
late as the beginning of the present century, dividing the 
city of Albany from the Colonic, which was a separate town, 
until the year 1815, when a portion of it was annexed, and 
called the fifth ward. It was a century after this draft of 
the city was made before it began to increase very rapidly 

Flan of Albany y 1695. 





1. The Fort. 

2. Dutch Calvinist Church. 

Dr. Delliua pastor. 

3. German Lutheran Church. 

4. Its burying place. 

5. Dutch Calvinist burying place. 

6. Stadt House. 

7. Blockhouses. 

9. A great Gun to clear a gulley. 

10. Stockade. 

11. City Gates, six in all. 

184 RuttenKil 

in population, since which it has expanded around this 
nucleus, " as from a stroke of the enchanter's wand." 

The following is the description given of Albany in 1695, 
by the author alluded to : 

'' As the city of New York is the chief place of strength 
belonging to this province for its defence against those 
enemies who come by sea, so Albany is of principal con- 
sideration against those who come by land, the French and 
Indians of Canada. It is distant from New York 150 miles, 
and lies up Hudson's river on the west side, on the descent 
of a hill from the west to the eastward. It is in circumfer- 
ence about six furlongs, and hath therein about 200 houses, 
a fourth part of what there is reckoned to be in New York. 
The form of it is septangular, and the longest line that which 
buts upon the river, running from the north to the south. 
On the west angle is the fort, quadrangular, strongly stock- 
aded and ditched round, having in it twenty-one pieces of 
ordnance mounted. On the north-west side are two block- 
houses, and on the south west as many : in the south-east 
angle stands one blockhouse ; in the middle of the line from 
thence northward is a horned work, and on the north-east 
angle a mount. The whole city is well stockaded round, 
and in the several fortifications named are about thirty guns." 


The grading of the great Hudson street ravine, anciently 
known as the Rutten kil, was nearly completed in 1847, 
from Hawk to Lark streets, and from near Lydius to State. 
During a period of about three years, from 50 to 250 per- 
sons, and 60 teams, were employed upon the work of grading 
and filling this extensive area. The ravine, originally 300 
feet broad and 50 feet deep, throughout its entire length, 
received the lofty banks upon its borders, and was raised to 
a convenient grade, thereby furnishing a large tract for 
habitation, that had long been waste, or only occupied for 
brick kilns, and dirty reservoirs, where truant boys fished 
and bathed. Not less than 600,000 yards of excavation were 
made in blue clay, and an equal amount of filling was done 
by one contractor. 

City of Albany. 




Albany enjoys an eligible situation on the west bank of 
the Hudson river, near the head oY tide water. Its latitude 
is 42° 39' 3" north ; its longitude 73° 32' west of G-reen wich, 
and 3° 13' east of Washington. The city of New York is 
distant meridianally 135J miles; by the road on the west 
side of the river 145 miles ; by the river a little less. The 
distance of Boston is 164 miles ; of Montreal, 230 ; of Wash- 
ington, 370. The city appears to great advantage from the 
river, having a south-eastern aspect; rising rapidly from the 
bank, and presenting its public buildings in bold relief. Its 
habitations occupy the alluvial valley of the Hudson, about 
a quarter of a mile in width, and ascend three hills of about 
140 feet elevation, separated by deep valleys, through which 
considerable streams of water formerly ran, known as the 
Foxen kil, the Rutten kil, and the Beaver kil. The view 
from either of the heights is picturesque ; to the north may 
be seen the city of Troy and adjacent villages, and in the 
distance the hills of Vermont. To the east the beautiful 
extent of country lying beyond the Hudson river; and to the 
south the Helderbergs, and the Catskill mountains with the 

river flowing at their base Before the arrival of white 

men, it was known to the Indians in the valley of the Mo- 

186 City of Albany. 

hawk, by the name of Schaughnaughfada, or Scho-negh- 
td-da, which signified over the plains ; a name which the 
Dutch applied to an Indian settlement where the city of 
Schenectady now stands, as being over the plains from 

Albany The first European vessel which is known to 

have penetrated this region, was the Half Moon, Captain 
Henry Hudson, in September, 1609. A boat from that ves- 
sel is said to have moored at some point on what is now 
Broadway. Several Dutch navigators followed during the 
next three or four years, and erected trading houses at 
Albany and New York, for the purpose of collecting furs 
of the Indians. Our city, therefore, is, next to Jamestown, 
Va., the oldest colony in the Union. One of the early 
pioneers in this traffic, was Hendrik Chrystiaense (or Cors- 
tiaensen), by whom a fort was erected in 1614, on the island 
below the city, known as Marten Gerritsen's or Castle island, 
Boyd's island, etc. This island, which contains about 70 
acres, will soon be difficult to indentify, having been several 
years ago connected with the main land at the north end by 
an embankment, and a narrow inlet behind it, is rapidly 
filling up. That fort appears on the Figurative Map made 
in 1616, found by Mr. Brodhead in Holland. It was a 
stockade, 50 feet square, encircled by a ditch 18 feet wide, 
and was defended by two pieces of cannon, and 11 stone 
guns, and garrisoned by 12 men under Jacob Jacobs Elkens. 
The trading house within the fort was 36 by 26 feet. When 
it was carried away by the spring freshet in 1617, a spot was 
chosen near the outlet of the Norman's kil and a fort erected 
there. That place was abandoned in 1623.anda newfortbuilt 
in what is now Broadway, at the steam boat landing, the site 
of .the Susquchannah rail road office. The fort mounted eight 
large cannon, called by the Dutch stone gesiucken, by which 
it is understood that they were loaded with stones instead of 
iron balls. It was named Fort Orange, in honor of the 
prince of Orange, who then presided over the Netherlands. 
This fort was intended to afi'ord convenient accommodations 
for traffic with the Indians, and to serve as a protection 
against sudden attacks from them. It was only occupied 
during the autumn and winter by the traders, who as yet 
made no attempts at colonization In 1630, the com- 
missary of the Dutch West Indian Company, purchased of 

City of Albany, 18T 

the Indians two tracts on the west side of the river, for 
Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, a wealthy pearl merchant of Amster- 
dam. The territory thus acquired included the fort, and 
the same year a number of colonists sailed from the Texel 
with their families, provided with farming implements, 
stock, and all other necessaries, and arrived at the mouth of 
the river on the 24th of May, after a passage of sixty-four 
days. On their arrival at Fort Orange, they were provided 
with humble accommodations in the vicinity. The names 
of the settlers that arrived this year are given by Dr. 
O'Oallaghan, in his History of New Netherlands vol. I, p. 
433, as follows : Wolfert G-erritsen, superintendent of farms. 
Rutger Hendricksen van Soest, superintendent of the brew- 
ery. Soger Hendricksen van Soest, shepherd and plowman. 
Brandt Peelen van Nieukerke, schepen ; he died in 1644 ; 
his descendants take the name of Brandt. Simon Dircksen 
Pos. Jan Tyssen, trumpeter, Andries Carstenssen, mill- 
wright. Laurens Laurenssen and Barent Tomassen, sawyers. 
Arendt van Cuyler, commissary. Jacob Jansen Stol ; suc- 
ceeded Hendrick Albertsen as ferrymaster. Martin Gerrit- 
sen van Bergen ; he had a lease of Castle Island, in 1668, 
which afterwards took his name. Claes Arissen. Boeloflf 
Jansen van Maesterlandt, wife and family ; came out as 
farmer to the patroon at $72 a year. Claes Claessen, his 
servant. Jacques Spierinck, Jacob Govertsen, Beynert 
Harmensen, and Bastiaen Jansen Krol. Albert Andriessen 
Bradt de Noorman. It was from him that the Norman's kil 
takes its name, the water privilege of which he leased ; as 
well as a large farm situated on that stream, which fell into 
the hands of Teunis Slingerland, who married his daughter, 
Engeltje Seven years later (1637) Mr. Van Rensse- 
laer purchased the tract on the opposite side of the river, 
"for certain quantities of duffels, axes, knives, and wampum," 
and thus became the proprietor of a tract of country 24 miles 
along the river, and 48 in extent, east and west. Over this 
extensive tract he possessed all the authority of a sovereign, 
and made a large outlay for its settlement, giving it the 
name of Rensselaerswyck. The administration of justice and 
the management of its financial affairs he committed to 
the care of a commissary general. Fortunate in the selec- 
tion of these, his colony prospered much more than that at 

188 City of Albany. 

New Amsterdam, and it was to the good offices of Van Cur- 
ler, or Corlear, the first commissary, that the colonists at 
New Amsterdam were indebted more than once, for their 

preservation from the hands of the Indians In 1642 

Mr, Van Rensselaer sent over the Rev. Johannes Megapo- 
lensis as minister of Rensselacrswyck, at his private expense. 
It is not certain that he visited the colony himself. He died 
in 1646, and the estate descended to his son Johannes, then 
a minor, between whose agent and Gov. Stuyvesant serious 
difficulties occurred, which it was necessary to refer to the 

states general of Holland for arbitration In 1664 the 

province came into the possession of the English, when the 
name of Beverwyck, by which it had been known, was 
changed to Albany, that being one of the titles of the Duke 
of York'. It had also been equally well known as William- 
stadt. Fort Orange, and the Fuyck,' which latter signifies 
the bend in the river. Fort Orange was built in 1623, and 
Williamstadt in 1647 at the head of State street. The right 
of soil was confirmed to the patroon by a new patent, but 
the government was retained in the hands of the colony. 

In 1686, Gov. Dongan granted a charter to the citizens 

of Albany. At first a trading station, then a hamlet, next 
a village, it was now dignified with the title of city. It has 
finally become the capital of the state — the Empire State ! 
The charter gave the city an area of one mile in width on 
the river, and extending in a north-west direction, at the 
same width, thirteen and a half miles to the north line 
of the manor of Rensselacrswyck; containing 7,160 acres. 
Peter Schuyler, the friend of the Indians, was named the 
first mayor, and the first common council consisted of the 
following persons: Peter Schuyler, mayor; Isaac Swinton, 
recorder; Robert Livingston, town clerk; Dirk Wessels, 
Jan Jans Bleecker, David Schuyler, Johannes Wendell, 
LevinusVan Schaick, Adriaen Gerritsen, aldermen; Joachim 
Staats, John Lansingh, Isaac Verplanck, Lawrence Yan Ale, 
Albert Ryckman, Melgert Wynantse, assistant aldermen ; 

^ The origin of tMs term for the settlement, which signifies the 
form of a hoop-net, and is pronounced fowk, is also ascribed to the 
form of Broadway between State and Steuben streets. See Albany 
County Records. 

City of Albany, 189 

Jan Bleecker, chamberlain; Richard Pretty, sheriff; James 

Parker,, marshal The Schuyler family, for several 

generations, exerted a powerful influence over the Indians. 
In all the treaties with them the city of Albany bore a 
conspicuous part; and so entirely had they won the con- 
fidence of the savages, that from the date of its settle- 
ment, it was never invaded by a hostile tribe ; although, in 
1689, when the citizens refused to submit to the adminis- 
tration of Leisler and Milborne, they yielded allegiance 
through fear of an Indian invasion .During the revolu- 
tion, the Albany committee nobly sustained their countrymen 
in the struggle. Burgoyne had boasted at the commence- 
ment of the campaign, that his army should revel upon the 
spoils of Albany ; but he only visited the city as a captive. 
Sir Henry Clinton twice attempted to invade it, but met 

with sufficient obstacles to prevent his success In 

1795 the town of Colonic was annexed, forming the fifth 
ward. It became the capital of the state in 1807. Since 
the introduction of steamboats and the completion of the 
canals, the growth of the city has been rapid, and the lines 
of railroads, which connect it with Boston and Buffalo, are 
giving it a still greater impulse. From its central position, 
Albany forms a kind of natural entrepot between New York 
and a vast interior country, comprising the Canadas, part of 
Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, and even Wisconsin and Iowa, on 
the one side, and parts of the New England states on the 
other. Flour and other agricultural products form the prin- 
cipal articles of export. The city has about 120 streets, and 
is divided into ten wards. Its population, by the last census 
[1845], was 41,139. Each ward elects two aldermen who, 
together with the mayor and recorder, form the Common 

Council The architecture of the citv has undergone 

a very great change in the last 30 years. Many of tiie pub- 
lic and private buildings of Albany are now of an elegant 
and costly character. The Capitol, occupied for legislative 
purposes, the state courts and the state library; the State 
Hall, erected for the accommodation of the public officers; 
the City Hall, occupied for city and county business, and 
the Albany Academy, all face the public square at the head 
of State street, and the foot of Washington street. A few rods 
south of these is the County Jail, and the Medical College, 
in Eagle street. The Female Academy is a handsome edifice, 

190 City of Albany. 

situated in North Pearl street. The Albany Exchange is 
situated at the foot of State street. The Orphan Asylum is 
located one mile west of the City Hall, and the Penitentiary 
near Lydius street on the Delaware turnpike. These will 
be more fully described in another place, as well as the 

churches, and other important buildings The trade, 

commerce and manufactures of Albany are important, and 
rapidly increasing. Its iron foundries are among the largest 
in the country. More stoves are manufactured here, than 
in any other city or town in the Union. It has extensive 
manufactories of piano fortes, leather, coaches, sleighs, hats, 
caps and bonnets, the three latter to the amount of nearly 
a million of dollars a year. In addition to the above, the 
Albany Nail Works, near Troy, the most extensive establish- 
ment of the kind in America, are principally owned in 
Albany, as also an extensive satinet factory, and flouring mills 
on the Patroon's creek. The Erie and Ohamplain canals, which 
form a junction ei^ht miles above, enter the Hudson at the 
north end of the city, where a capacious basin has been 
formed, of more than a mile in length, by means of a pier 
inclosing a part of what was anciently termed the Fuyck, or 
bend in the river, of 32 acres area, affording a winter harbor 
for boats, as well as safe protection to vessels navigating the 
river or canals, and commodious wharfage. The Mohawk 
and Hudson railroad, among the first roads built in the 
country, and connected with the Utica and Schenectady, 
and Saratoga and Schenectady railroads, terminates at 
Albany. The Albany and West Stockbridge railroad 
connects with the Western railroad at the state line, between 
Massachusetts and New York, forming a continuous line of 
railroads from Albany to Boston. The termination of these 
railroads and canals at Albany, renders it the centre of trade 
and transshipment, and has opened to the enterprise of her 
merchants and artisans an extent of country unsurpassed in 
its wealth and resources. In 1832 a company was incorpo- 
rated with a capital of three millions, to connect Albany 
with New York by a railroad on the margin of the river, 
but it was not until 1847 that efficient measures were taken 
to carry out that great project, when a new charter was 
granted by the legislature, the stock subscribed, and a por- 
tion of the road is already constructed, and will be in opera- 
tion over a considerable length of it in 1849. 

County of Albany, 



Albany county was organized under Gov. Dongan, in 1683, 
when it comprised the whole of the state north and west of 
Dutchess and Ulster counties, and part of Vermont. In 1757, 
the number of taxable inhabitants was 3,800; in 1767, 5,014 j 
and in 1786, after several counties had been set off, 72,360. 
In 1772 a very large tract was severed and took the name of 
Montgomery county, out of which a good many counties have 
since been formed. In the same year Washington county was 
also set off on the east side of the Hudson. On the 4th of 
April, 1786, an act passed the legislature, erecting the south- 
east part of the county of Albany into a new county, by the 
name of Columbia. In 1788, Clinton county was formed from 
the northern extremity, whose census in 1790 was 1,222? and 
that of Columbia county 27,552, of which 1,630 were slaves. 
The following is a table of the towns which comprised the 
county of Albany in 1790, and the census of each; the or- 
thography is also preserved : 































■ 572 

















Rensselaer- Ville, 





192 County of Albany, 

It was ascertained that the county of Ontario at the same 
time exceeded three thousand! In 1791, the legislature 
divided Albany into three counties, Albany, Rensselaer and 
Saratoga. By this arrangement, the population of Albany 
was 28,192, Rensselaer 29,634, and Saratoga 16,463. 
The rapidly increasing population of the state required the 
division of the other large counties which had been formed 
by the dismemberment of Albany ; the counties of Tioga, 
Otsego and Herkimer were cut off from Montgomery, in 
portions that afterwards admitted of subdivisions. In 1794 
the legislature had in contemplation a design to take another 
corner from Albany county ] but at the adjournment of that 
body, it remained in the senate, which passed a resolution at 
its close, that the further consideration of the bill entitled 
" An act to erect certain lands into a separate county by the 
name of Delaware," be postponed until the next session. 
The boundaries of the proposed county described in the bill 
are curious: "All that part of the counties of Albany, 
Ulster and Otsego, beginning at the Susquehanna river, at 
the mouth of the Unadilla, and running from thence along 
the division line, between the counties of Otsego and Tioga 
southerly, to the mouth of a brook called Aughquago, which 
runs into Delaware river near a place called the Cook house ; 
and thence down the said river to a place ten miles below 
Shohakin, measured along the said river as it runs, and 
thence hortheastly to the mouth of a creek called the East 
kill, which runs into the Schoharie kill ; and up the middle 
of the Stony kill to the head thereof to a hemlock- tree 
marked with the letters W. 1. 1. W., and thence northwest to 
the Adiquataygie or Charlotte river ] and thence down the 
middle thereof to the Susquehanna river ; and thence down 
the middle of the same to the place of beginning, shall be 
and hereby is erected into a separate county by the name 
of Delaware." This county was not formed until 1797, 
when it was taken wholly from Otsego and Tioga. The 
county of Albany then comprised the following towns : 
Albany, Schenectady, Catskill, Coxsackie, Schoharie, Berne, 
Coeymans, Bethlehem, Rensselaerville, Watervliet, Duanes- 
burgh, Freehold. The number of electors in the city was 
765 ; in the County, 6,087. The following is a list of the 

County of Albany, 


taxable inhabitants of the towns in the county of Albany, 
in July, 1795 : 

Albany, 806 

Watervliet, 573 

Coxsackie, 600 

Catskill, 354 

Freehold,.... 524 

Coeymans, 354 

Bethlehem, 350 

Rensselaervilie, 495 

Schohary, 507 

Duanesburgh, 400 

Berne, 386 

Schenectady, 747 

In 1809, the corporation of the city of Schenectady ap- 
plied to the legislature for another division of xllbany county, 
taking the city of Schenectady, the towns of Duanesburgh, 
and Princetown, and so much of the town of Watervliet as 
lay beyond the manor line. On a division of the house 
there were 8 in favor of the new county. This was the 
final subdivision, leaving the county as it now stands, when 
it consisted of Albany, Coeymans, Watervliet, Rensselaer- 
vilie, Berne, Colonic, Bethlehem, and Guilderland. Some 
of these have been subdivided, and otherwise altered, but 
the territory is believed to be the same. Its boundaries will 
be seen on the accompanying map. It consists of the fol- 
lowing towns, with the date of their incorporation : 

1686 Albany 



1688 Watervliet 



1790 Rensselaervilie 



1791 Coeymans 



1793 Bethlehem 


New Scotland 

The greatest length of the county is 28 miles ; breadth 
21 ; containing an area of about 515 square miles ; or 329,- 
110 acres according to the last census. The far greater por- 
tion of it belongs to the manor of Rensselaer. The surface 
is uneven, and in the south-west part hilly and mountainous. 
The soil in the vicinity of the Hudson is good, and much of 
it highly cultivated -, but in the interior sandy plains occur, 
most of which were formerly considered mere barrens; they 
are susceptible of cultivation, however, and under good hus- 
bandry are made to yield abundantly. These plains are 
from ten to eleven miles broad, and stretch from north to 
south nearly through the whole county. On the Mohawk 


194 County of Albany, 

the land is rugged and sterile. The agricultural produc- 
tions of the county are oats, corn, rye, buckwheat and 
barley, principally. Wheat is again becoming more gene- 
rally cultivated. Potatoes are raised in considerable quanti- 
ties. The western part is favorable to grazing, and butter 
is there largely produced. Sheep husbandry is also large 
and increasing. The Helderberg hills extend through the 
western part of the county, uniting with the Catskill range 
on the south. They are from 400 to 500 feet in height and 
precipitous, but quite uniform, displaying no isolated peaks. 
They furnish an abundance of fuel, consisting principally of 
hemlock, beech, sugar maple, black birch, bass-wood, and 
white ash. The swamps afford black ash, and soft maple, 
with a portion of elm. The eastern sides of the hills abound 
with sugar maple, beech, bass-wood and white ash, while 
the ridges and western aspects, abound with a greater pro- 
portion of hemlock. In the eastern part of the county 
yellow and white pine ; black, white and chestnut oak ] 
chestnut, walnut, in the wet land elm, and hemlock is often 
found near the streams. The rocks are principally com- 
posed of lime and sandstone, abounding in organic remains. 
The most important mineral productions are bog iron ore, 
which is found in various places ; marl and water limestone 
is found in Bethlehem, and in the city of Albany is a 
mineral spring, which evolves carbonic acid, and contains 
ingredients similar to those found in the celebrated springs 
at Biillston and Saratoga. There are also several sulphur 
springs in the county, but none of them have acquired much 
celebrity. Epsom salts are found at Coeymans Landing, 
and petroleum in Guilderland. Extensive explorations have 
been made for coal on both sides of the river, in this region ; 
and although large sums have been expended in the search 
during a period of full half a century, without any success, 
and the state geologists have determined that coal can not 
exist in this locality, there are still found persons anxious 
to continue the effort to find it. In the limestone of the 
Helderberg hills are several extensive caverns, in which are 
found crystals and stalactites of various degrees of beauty 
and perfection. Calcareous spar and alum also occur in the 

county The county is well watered. The principal 

rivers and creeks are the Mohawk on the north-east, the 

A Remarkable Winter, 195 

Hudson on the east, the Norman's kil, Vlamans kil, 
Haivnakraus kil, Coeymans creek, Provost creek, Cats kil, 
and Patroon's creek, &c., running into the Hudson on the 
east and south, the Foxes' creek and others flowing west ; 
together with several rivulets emanating from durable 
springs and lakes. Most of these have valuable waterfalls, 
affording great facilities for manufacturing, and are now 
made available to a great extent. The Foxen kil and Kut- 
ten kil, formerly considerable runs of water flowing through 
the city of Albany, are now obliterated, and their ancient 
beds turned into sewers. The Beaver kil, or Buttermilk 
creek, once a mill stream, affording considerable water 
power, is also nearly extinguished. The principal waterfall 
is the Cohoes, having a perpendicular descent of nearly 70 
feet, possessing great picturesque beauty, and much resorted 
to during the summer months by visitors from all parts of 
the county. The total fall of the Mohawk here is 140 feet, 
affording power sufl&cient to propel at least one million of 
spindles, with all the necessary apparatus. 


A meteorological table was kept for the month of Janu- 
ary, 1802, and published in the Gazette, by which it appears 
that the lowest range of the thermometer was 10°, and 
the highest 55^° above zero. The winter was so remark- 
ably mild as to have more the appearance of April, the river 
was navigable 17 days, so that vessels passed from Albany 
to New York, and at no time was the ice strong enough for 
any team to pass on it, and not more than \\ inches of snow 
fell within two miles of the city during the months of DC' 
cember and January. 


Cheap Postage System in Albany, 



The returns of the postmaster, Mr. James D. Wasson, of 
the number of letters, newspapers, pamphlets and maga- 
zines received at the Post Office in Albany during the 
month of October, 1845, were as follows : 

No. of unpaid and paid letters at 5 cents, . 
" " " " at 10 " . 

" free letters, at 5 " . 

at 10 " . 

" dropped letters, at 2 " . 

" printed circulars, at 2 " . 

" newspapers chargeable and free,. . 
" pamphlets and magazines, 









The following is a transcript of the returns for October, 
1843, no account having been kept in 1844 : 

No. of letters at 6 cents, 2,127 

10 " 3,372 

12i " 10,006 

18f " 8,182 

25 " 864 

" " to postmasters, 1,597 

" " to members of Congress, 172 

" drop letters, 1,629 

" regular papers, 10,030 

" free papers, 9,503 

" irregular papers, 1,752 

" pamphlets, periodical, 623 

" " not periodical, 39 

The receipts for the month of October, during the years 
1843, '44 and '45, were as follows, viz : 

October, 1843, $3,497 76 

1844, 2.860 71 

1845, 2.225 76 

The falling off in the receipts of 1844, under the old rates, 
compared with 1843, was $637.35; and in 1845, under the 
c heap postage system, compared with 1844, $624.65. But 
these deficiencies have been far more than realized since, and 
the system is working well, the business of the office having 
increased in a very rapid ratio. 

Civil Officers of Albany, 1693. 197 


The militia of the county consisted of 359 men, commanded 
by Major Peter Schuyler, divided into five companies of foot 
and one of horse. 

Peter Schuyler Esq Mayor 
Pirck Wessels Esq Recorder 
Robt Livingston Esq Town Clerk 
John Apeel Esq"" Sheriffe 

The Aldermen, Collectors, Assessors and Constables elec- 

The Mayor's Court hath the Power of the Comon Pleas. 

In each county there is a court of Comon Pleas whereof 
the first in the Commission of the peace is Judge, and is to 
be assisted with any two of the three next in the commission 
of the Peace. 

The Mayor and Aldermen are Justices of the Peace and 
have power to hold Quarter Sessions in the Cittys of N. York 
& Albany. 

Justicesof the Peace: — In the County of Albany to joyne 
the Mayor Recorde"" and Aldermen in the Quarter Sessions. 

Effhbert Theunisse "^ Nicholas Ripse 

^ ^g Sanders Glenn I ,-, ^^ 
^ Peter Vosbrough [ ^ 

Gerryt Theunisse 

Kilian van Ranslaer 
Martin Gerritse 
Dirck Theunisse 

The following is a list of the officers of the militia of the 
county of Albany, in the year 1700, when the regiment 
numbered 371 men. 

Peter Schuyler, Col., Lt. Col., Dyrck Wessels, Maj., 

Field officers. 

Of a Foot Company in the city of Albany:- — Johannes 
Bleeker, Captain; Johannes Roseboome Lieut.; Abra: Cuy- 
ler, Knsigne; Com^ Officers. 

Of another Foote Com^ in ye said city : — Albert Rykman, 
Captain; Wessel ten Broek, Lieut.; Johannes Thomasse, 

198 The Overslaugh^ etc. 

Of another Foot Compa in the said County: — Martin 
Cornelise, Captain; Andris Douw, Lieut.; Andris Koyman, 

Of another Foot Comp^^ in the said County : — Gerrit Teu- 
nisse, Captain; Jonas Douw, Jochem Lamerse, Lieut^.; Volc- 
kart V. Hoes^.m, Abra. Hanse, Ensignes. 

Of a Foot Compa in ye town of Schenectady : — Johannes 
Sanderse Glen, Captain ; Adam Woman, [Vrooman?] Lieut. 
Harman V. Slyke, Ensigne. 

Of the Troope of Horse in ye said Regiment : — Kilian 
Van Renslaer, Captain; Johannes Schuyler, Lieut. Bennone 
V. Corlaer, Cornet; Anthony Bries, Quartermaster. 


The legislature passed an act, in April, 1790, for the im- 
provement of the navigation at the Overslaugh, by allowing 
the proprietors o? Mills and Papskni islands to erect a dam to 
prevent the passage of the water between them and throw 
it into the main channel. This, it was thought, would 
more effectually benefit the navigation, than the employ- 
ment of " an unwieldy machine, which at best only aflfords a 
temporary relief 


The number of bricks manufactured in Albany during 
the last fifteen years, has averaged sixteen millions per annum, 
until the year 1847, when the quantity produced was only 
half that number in consequence of the reduced price, $2.50 
per thousand. 

Albany Academy, 



As early as 1804, a meeting of citizens was held at the 
City Tavern, on the 18th March, to take into consideration 
the expediency of instituting an academy. The Lieutenant- 
Governor, Mayor, Chancellor, Rev. Eliphalet Nott, Rev. 
John DeWitt, and Messrs. Henry and Beers, were appointed 
a committee to report a plan of an institution. The com- 
mittee's plan was submitted at a subsequent meeting, on 
the 5th May, and approved. It was proposed to make the 
academy a reorganization of the city schools, by fusing 
them all in one. But the project was allowed to slumber 
until, in January, 1813, the common council made an ap- 
propriation for the establishment of a city academy, and a 
meeting of citizens to confer upon the subject was called at 
the Capitol, on the 28th of that month. At that meeting 
Archibald Mclntyre was appointed chairman, and a com- 
mittee of fourteen was chosen to devise a plan of the future 
institution. The project of a male academy now began to 
be agitated in good earnest. The board of common council 
offered the lot in the public square which the Academy now 
occupies, and also appropriated the amount that should be 

200 Albany Academy, 

received from the sale of the lot and materials of the old 
jail which stood in the rear of the large building now occu- 
pied by the State Normal School, and which it was antici- 
pated would produce $12,000. In addition to this it was 
thought necessary to raise $30,000 by private subscription, 
to complete the requisite sum for erecting a suitable build- 
ing and establishing a permanent income. 

The institution was incorporated by the Regents of the 
University, on the 4th of March in the same year, at the 
instance of the corporation of the city, and appropriate grants 
were made for its endowment. The trustees named in the 
charter were Stephen Van Rensselaer, John Lansing, Archi- 
bald Mclntyre, Smith Thompson, Abraham Van Vechten, 
John V. Henry, Henry Walton, Rev. Messrs. William Neill, 
John M. Bradford, John McDonald, Timothy Clowes, John 
McJimpsey, Frederick G. Mayer, Samuel Mervin, and Mayor 
and Recorder ex officio. 

The building was commenced in 1815. On Saturday, 
the 29th of July, at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, the corner 
stone was laid by Philip S. Van Rensselncr The c^-^-^er 
plate deposited on this occasion had the following inscrip- 
tion : " Erected for an academy, anno 1815, by the corpora- 
tion of the city of Albany; Philip S. Van Rensselaer, 
mayor; John Van Ness Yates, recorder ; building commit- 
tee, Philip S. Van Rensselaer, John Brinckerhoff. Chauncey 
Humphrey, James Warren and Killian K. Van Rensselaer. 
Seth Geer, architect, H. W. Snyder, sculpt. 

The Academy was announced to open on the second 
Monday (11th) of September, under Rev. Benjamin Allen, 
of Union College, and Messrs. Neill, Beck and Sedgwick 
were the committee to receive applications for admission. 
The courses of instruction were temporarily commenced in 
the large wooden building on the south-east corner of State 
and Lodge streets, belonging to Killian K. Van Rensselaer, 
which was burnt in 1847. The faculty under which the 
Academy opened, consisted of Rev. Benjamin Allen, princi- 
pal; Rev. Joseph Shaw, professor of languages; and Moses 
Chapin (now Judge Chapin, of Oanandaigua), tutor. 

The Academy was completed in 1817, and the school 
opened in it on the 1st September. The courses of instruc- 
tion have been regularly pursued to the present time, 1848. 

School of mb, 201 

In August, 1817, the trustees appointed Dr. Theodric 
Romeyn Beck principal of the institution, which office he 
resigned at the close of the summer term, in 1848, having 
occupied with distinguished ability and universal satisfac- 
tion a station which was far from being a sinecure, during 
the long period of thirty-one years His resignation was 
followed by that of the whole faculty, when the trustees, 
deeming it expedient to reorganize the institution, chose a 
new set of professors. 

The Academy building which was commenced in 1815, 
and completed in 1817, is constructed of free stone, from 
near Newark, New Jersey, an excellent and durable build- 
ing material ; and notwithstanding the length of time it has 
stood, is still one of the most attractive edifices of the city. 
It is situated on the north west corner of the public square, 
on a line with the Capitol. The main building is 70 by 80 
feet, and the wings 30 by 45 feet, three stories high, includ- 
ing the basement. It commands a view down Steuben street, 
having an extensive park in front, surrounded by a sub- 
stantial iron fence, and planted with ornamental trees. The 
cost of its erection was about $100,000. 

SCHOOL OF 1785. 

A school was opened in May by Elihu Goodrich and John 
Ely. The classical term academy had not yet come into 
use. The Latin and Greek languages were taught, and the 
most useful branches of mathematics, as well as the element- 
aries. It went on the high pressure principle — through hy 
daylight. Hours of study from 6 to 8, 9 to 12, 2 to 5, and 
6 to 8. The magisters seem to have been willing to bestow 
at least time and diligence. Their terms were for Greek 
and Latin, and mathematics, 20s.; writing and cyphering, 
16s.; reading and spelling, 128. To all which singing 
" by the latest and most approved method " was added for 


Albany Female Academy. 


This institution was founded in the year 1814, under the 
designation of the Union School ; a name apparently s^ug- 
gested by the circumstances attending its origin. A num- 
ber of the most influential citizens, desirous to obtain for 
their daughters the benefit of a superior education, united 
for the purpose of securing the services of a competent 
instructor, rented a suitable building in Montgomery street, 
and appointed as principal Mr. Horace Goodrich. The 
original subscription list, which, amid the loss of other 
documents connected with the early history of the Academy, 
has been preserved, is as follows : 

" We, the undersigned, agree to send to Union School in 
Montgomery street, under the tuition of Mr. Horace Good- 
rich, the number of female scholars affixed to our names, 
for the space of one year, from the first day of May next; 
and we also agree to pay to Ebenezer Foot twenty-four 
dollars for each scholar in four equal quarterly payments, 

Albany Female Academy. 203 

the first payment to be on tlie first of August next. Feb. 
24, 1814. 

John Ely, 1 

Moses Allen, 2 

James Scrymser, 1 

Matthew Gill, 2 

Uriah Marvin, 2 

Thomas Gould, 1 

Solomon Allen, 1 

William Fowler, 1 

Nicholas Bleecker, 1 

Abram Van Vechten,... 1 

Benjamin Knower, 1 

T. & J.Russell, 4 

Edward Brown, 1 

G. Stewart, 1 

Harmanus Ten Eyck,... 1 

James Kent, 1 

John V. Henry, 3 

John Reid, 1 

Isaac Hutton, 1 

Asa H. Center, 1 

Nathaniel Davis, 

Arthur Roorback, 

John Stearns, 

It appears from this paper that Mr. Ebenezer Foot was 
preeminently active in commencing the Academy, and so 
far as an individual can claim an honor in which, however, 
several probably to some extent, participated, he may be re- 
garded as its founder. In a memoir of Mr. Foot, prepared 
and published at the request of friends, by his brother Sa- 
muel A. Foot, of Geneva, we find the following statement, 
which evidently conveys no more than the truth on this mat- 
ter. " One act of Mr. Foot's life should not be omitted or 
forgotten wherever his name is mentioned. The present 
Female Academy in Albany owes its existence mainly, if not 
entirely, to him. It is now, and has been for some years, 
one of the most valuable and useful institutions in the coun- 
try. It was commenced in February, 1814, under the name 
of the Union School, in Montgomery street. The original 
subscription paper is now before the writer. It bears date 
on the 24th day of that month. The subscriptions are pay- 
able to Mr. Foot, and it is within the knowledge and recol- 
lection of the writer that he started the project and obtained 
most of the subscriptions. The principal motive of Mr. Foot, 
no doubt, was to establish a good female school in his neigh- 
borhood, to which he might send his daughter. If this was 
his sole motive, it was a good one. But whatever the motive, 
whether to qualify his own daughter, or those of his neigh- 
bors and friends, for the duties of American ladies, or, more 
expansive still, to elevate and adorn the female character, 
and store the female mind with useful knowledge, his name 

204 Albany Female Academy. 

should be kindly remembered by every pupil who has enjoyed 
or may enjoy the benefits of the institution, and by every 
friend of female education." 

During the first six years and upwards of the existence of 
Union School, no records were kept of its proceedings, or if 
kept, they have not been preserved ; but no doubt it continued 
to increase, throughout this period, in numbers and reputa- 
tion; for, in 1821, an act of incorporation was obtained from 
the legislature. Theboardof directors named in the charter, 
consisted of 

James Kent, president, 
Gideon Hawley, 
Asa H. Center, 
John y, Henry, 
Teunis Van Vechten, 

Peter Boyd, 
Rev. John Chester, 
Joseph Russell, 
William Fowler. 

Five of these, it will be seen, were among the original 
subscribers, and thus had the satisfaction of seeing the en- 
terprise which they began, consolidated and rising into fame. 

In the same year, 1821, a more spacious building was 
reared, still in Montgomery street, the first stone of which 
was laid on the 16th June; and so rapidly did the school in- 
crease, that in 1827 an additional building was required, and 
erected accordingly. These edifices continued to be occupied 
by the Academy till 1834, when its celebrity and numbers 
became so great as to justify and demand the erection of the 
splendid and commodious edifice where the classes now meet. 
On the 12th of May, in that year, the new building was 
opened, when an address was delivered by the president, Rev. 
John Ludlow. 

Letter from Mr. Booth on the Origin of the 

Having noticed in the Albany papers a slight inaccuracy 
in regard to the age of the Albany Female Academy, I have 
thought that a true history of the origin and early progress 
of the school might be acceptable to the friends of that insti- 

Ebenezer Foot, a lawyer of eminence, residing in Mont- 
gomery street, Albany, was the prime mover in establishing 
the school. He associated with him Chancellor Kent, John 
V. Henry, Isaac Hutton, Thomas Gould, Dr. Stearns, Dr. 

Albany JFemale Academy, ^05 

Ely, Thomas and Joseph Russel, Asa TI. Center, Nathaniel 
Davis, and others. They leased a lot in Montgomery street 
north of the Third Presbyterian Church, and erected a cheap, 
one-story building. They employed Horace Goodrich as 
their first teacher, a graduate of Union College, son of Col. 
Goodrich, of Milton, Saratoga county. He commenced the 
school on the first of May, 1814. This is the origin of the 
Albany Female Academy. Mr. Goodrich resigned his 
situation at the end of the first year, and I was appointed 
his successor. I commenced my labors the first of May, 
1815 While Mr. Goodrich had charge, the school was 
becoming popular, and applications for admission were made 
which could not be accommodated. During my first year 
in the school, the trustees added another story to the build- 
ing, thus creating a second department in the school. 
Thomas Osborn, a young Irishman, educated abroad, was 
the first teacher in it. The second, Lucas Brodhead, a 
graduate of Union. The third, Frederick Mathews, a 
graduate of Harvard. About 1820, it was thought advisa- 
ble to erect a larger and more permanent building. Accord- 
ingly, a 7 per cent, stock was created, and I was called upon 
to obtain subscriptions for it. The .plan was successful, the 
money raised, and a three-story brick building was erected 
sufficiently large to accommodate 120 pupils. This build- 
ing was situated on the east side of Montgomery street, a 
little north-east of the Delavan. While the means were 
being raised for the erection of the building, an act of incor- 
poration was obtained, with the title of The Albany Female 
Academy, through the infiuence of the Hon. Charles E. 
Dudley, then state senator. Having occupied the situation 
of principal, with a slight interruption, until the spring of 
1824, I then resigned it, and Mr. Mathews was appointed 
my successor. But Mr. M. being of very slender constitu- 
tion and delicate health, held the situation but a short time, 
and Mr. Crittenton, now of Brooklyn, was appointed his 
successor. The subsequent history of the institution is 
familiar to the citizens of Albany. 

Your obedient servant, 

Lebbeus Booth. 
Ballston Spa, Nov. 16th, 1859. 



State Normal School, 


This institution was established in 1844, by an act of the 
legislature, for the instruction and practice of teachers of 
common schools in the science of education and the art of 
teaching. An annual appropriation of $10,000 was made 
for its support, to be paid out of the literature fund. Each 
county in the state is entitled to send to the school a number 
of pupils, of either sex, equal to twice the number of mem- 
bers it sends to the assembly, where they have the privilege 
of remaining until they graduate, defraying all their own ex- 
penses, except those of tuition and mileage. Females are 
not admitted under 16 years of age, nor males under 18. 
On entering the institution they are required to sign a pledge 
to devote themselves to the business of teaching district 
schools. The summer term commences on the first Monday 
in May, and the winter term on the first Monday in Novem- 
ber. The number of graduates during the four years since 
its organization, is as follows: 1845, 34; 1846, 110; 1847, 
110; 1848, 96; total, 350. The number of students dur- 
ing the last term was 146 females, and 147 males ; total 293. 


School Ajypropriation, etc, 207 

Attached to the institution is an experimental school, the ob- 
ject of which is to afford each normal pupil an opportunity 
of practicing the methods of instruction and discipline incul- 
cated at the school, as well as to ascertain his aptness to 
teach, and to discharge the various other duties pertaining 
to the teacher's responsible ofl5ce. The experimental school 
has 70 pupils, between the ages of six and sixteen, 35 of 
whom are free pupils. The edifice now occupied by the 
school, No. 119 State street, was built by the Mohawk and 
Hudson Rail Road Company, and used by that corpora- 
tion several years as a depot for the passenger trains, until 
the termination of the road was changed to Maiden Lane. 
The common council contributes the rent of the building to- 
wards the encouragement of the enterprise. In return for 
which, the free seats in the experimental school are given to 
fatherless children residing in the city of x\lbany. At the 
last session of the legislature, an appropriation of $15,000 
was made for the erection of a new edifice for the purposes of 
a school, and the city appropriated the lot occupied by Engine 
House No. 9, corner of Howard and Lodge streets. A spa- 
cious and convenient building was in progress of erection, 
when the first edition of this volume was printed, which was 
made ready for occupation in the summer of 1849. 


An act passed the legislature, 7th of April, 1795, appro- 
priating £20,000 annually for the term of five years, for 
the purpose of encouraging and maintaining schools in the 
state. The proportion allotted to Albany county waa 
£1,590, or $3,975; the law to go into operation on the 7th 
April. It was a stride towards the free school system. 


Frederick Beasly, John B. Romeyn, and John M. Bradford, 
clergymen in Albany, made proposals to the city in 1806, for 
the establishment of a grammar school, "of such a nature 
that it might be easily converted into an academy." The first 
step required by the proposers was a fund of $10,000. 

208 Traveling in New York in 1796. 

YORK IN 1796. 

[In 1795, Mr. Isaac Weld, Junior, viewing tlie frightful 
progress of anarchy in Europe, was desirous of " ascertaining 
whether in case of future emergency, any part of the United 
States might be looked forward to as an eligible place of 
abode." He accordingly made the tour of the United 
States and Canada, and like a great many others that had 
preceded him, found very little to his taste, and nothing to 
give him the " slightest wish to revisit it." He could not 
learn that the trees in the wilderness were any where more 
than seven or eight feet in diameter ! nor was there much 
of any thing on a sufficiently grand scale to meet his antici- 
pations, except the musquitoes which he found at White- 
hall. He arrived at New York in the summer of 1796, 
and gives the following account of his approach to, vexa- 
tions at, and departure from, Albany.] 

Being anxious to proceed on our journey before the sea- 
son was too far advanced, and also particularly desirous of 
quitting New York on account of the fevers, which, it was 
rumored, were increasing very fast, we took our passage for 
Albany, in one of the sloops trading constantly on the 
North river, between New York and that place, and em- 
barked on the 2d day of July, about two o'clock in the 
afternoon. Scarcely a breath of air was stirring at the time ; 
but the tide carried us up at the rate of about two miles and 
a half an hour. The sky remained all day as serene as 
possible, and as the water was perfectly smooth, it reflected 
in a most beautiful manner the images of the various objects 
on the shore, and of the numerous vessels dispersed along 
the river at different distances, and which seemed to glide 
along, as it were, by the power of magic, for the sails all 
hung down loose and motionless. The sun, setting in all 
his glory, added fresh beauties to this calm and peaceable 
scene, and permitted us for the last time to behold the 
distant spires of New York, illumined by his parting rays. 

Traveling in New York in 1796. 209 

To describe all the grand and beautiful prospects presented 
to the view on passing this noble river, would be an endless 
task; all the various effects that can be supposed to arise 
from a happy combination of wood and water, of hill and 
dale, are here seen in the greatest perfection. After sunset, 
a brisk wind sprang up, which carried us on at the rate of 
six or seven miles an hour, for a considerable part of the 
night; but for some hours we had to lie at anchor at a 
place where the navigation of the river was too dif&cult to 
proceed in the dark. Our sloop was no more than seventy 
tons burthen by register ; but the accommodations she 
afforded were most excellent, and far superior to what 
might be expected on board so small a vessel ; the cabin 
■was equally large with that in a common merchant vessel 
of three hundred tons, built for crossing the ocean. This 
was owing to the great breadth of her beam, which was no 
less than twenty-two feet and a half, although her length 
was only fifty-five feet. All the sloops engaged in this 
trade, are built nearly on the same construction ; short, 
broad, and very shallow, few of them draw more than five 
or six feet of water, so that they are only calculated for 
sailing upon smooth water. The highlands, as they are 
called, extend along the river on each side for several miles. 
The breadth of the river is here considerably contracted, 
and such sudden gusts of wind, commencing from between 
the mountains, sometimes blow through the narrow passes, 
that vessels sometimes have their topmasts carried away. 
The captain of the sloop we were in, said that his mainsail 
was once blown into tatters in an instant, and a part of it 
carried on shore. When the sky is lowering, they usually 
take in sail going along this part of the river. 

About four o'clock in the morning of the 4th of July, 
we reached Albany, the place of our destination, one hun- 
dred and sixty miles distant from New York. Albany is 
a city, and contains about eleven hundred houses ; the num- 
ber however is increasing fast, particularly since the removal 
of the state government from New York. In the old part 
of the town the streets are very narrow, and the houses are 
frightful ; they are all built in the old Dutch taste, with 
the gable end towards the street, and ornamented on the 
top with large iron weathercocks ; but in that part which has 

210 Traveling in New York in 1796. 

been lately erected, the streets are commodious and many 
of the houses are handsome. Great pains have been taken 
to have the streets well paved and lighted. Here are four 
places for public worship, and an hospital. Albany is in 
summer time a very disagreeable place; it stands in a low 
situation, just on the margin of the river, which runs very 
slow here, and towards the evening often exhales clouds of 
vapors ; immediately behind the town, likewise, is a large 
sandbank, that prevents a free circulation of air, while at 
the same time it powerfully reflects the rays of the sun, 
which shines in full force upon it the whole day. Notwith- 
standing all this, however, the climate is deemed very salu- 
brious. The inhabitants of this place, a few years ago, were 
almost entirely of Dutch extraction ; but now strangers are 
flocking to it from all quarters, as there are few places in 
America more advantageously situated for commerce. The 
flourishing state of its trade has already been mentioned ; 
it bids fair to rival that of New York in process of time. 
The fourth of July, the day of our arrival at Albany, was 
the anniversary of the declaration of American independ- 
ence, and on our arrival we were told that great prepara- 
tions were making for its celebration. A drum and trum- 
pet, towards the middle of the day, gave notice of the 
commencement of the rejoicings, and on walking to a hill 
about a quarter of a mile from the town, we saw sixty 
men drawu up, partly militia, partly volunteers, partly 
infantry, partly cavalry ; the latter were clothed in scarlet, 
and mounted on horses of various descriptions. About 
three hundred spectators attended. A few rounds were 
fired from a three pounder, and some volleys of small arms. 
The firing was finished before one hour was expired, and 
then the troops returned to town, a party of militia officers 
in uniform marching in the rear, under the shade of um- 
brellas, as the day was excessively hot. Having reached 
town, the whole body immediately dispersed. The volun- 
teers and militia officers afterwards dined together; and so 
ended the rejoicings of the day; no public ball, no general 
entertainment was there of any description. A day still 
fresh in the memory of every American, and which appears 
so glorious in the annals of their country, would, it might 
be expected, have called forth more brilliant and more 

Traveling in New York in 1796. 211 

general rejoicings ', but the downright phlegmatic people in 
this neighborhood, intent upon making money, and enjoying 
the solid advantages of the revolution, are but little disposed 
to waste their time in what they consider idle demonstra- 
tions of joy. 

We remained in Albany for a few days, and then set off 
for Skenesborough, in Lake Champiain, in a carriage hired 
for the purpose The hiring of this vehicle was a matter 
attended with some trouble, and detained us longer in the 
town than we wished to stay. There were only two carriages 
to be had in the whole place, and the owners having an 
understanding with each other, and thinking that we should 
be forced to give whatever price they asked, positively re- 
fused to let us have either of them for less than seventy dol- 
lars, equal to fifteen guineas. We on our part as positively 
refused to comply with a demand which we knew to be ex- 
orbitant, and resolved to wait patiently in Albany for some 
other conveyance, rather than submit to such an imposition. 
The fellows held out for two days, but at the end of that 
time, one of them came to tell us we might have his carriage 
for half the price, and accordingly we took it. Early the 
next morning we set off, and in about two hours arrived at 
the small village of Cohoz, close to which is the remarkable 
fall in the Mohawk river, about ten miles from Albany. 

[Having alluded to the Whitehall mosquitoes, we give 
the traveler the benefit of his record of them.] 

Skenesborough is most dreadfully infested with mosqui- 
toes; so many of them attacked us the first night of our 
sleeping there, that when we arose in the morning our faces 
and hands were covered all over with large pustules, pre- 
cisely like those of a person in the small-pox. This hap- 
pened too, notwithstanding that the people of the house, 
before we went to bed, had taken all the pains possible to 
clear the room of them, by fumigating it with the smoke of 
green wood, and afterwards securing the windows with 
gauze blinds; and even on the second night, although we 
destroyed many dozens of them on the walls, after a similar 
fumigation had been made, yet we suffered nearly as much. 
These insects were of a much larger size than any I ever saw 
elsewhere, and their bite was uncommonly venomous. Gen. 
Washington told me, that he never was so much annoyed by 

212 Lancaster School. 

mosquitoes in any part of America, as in Skenesborough, 
for they used to hite through the thickest hoot ! Mosquitoes 
appear to be particularly fond of the fresh blood of Euro- 
peans, who always suffer much more the first year of their 
arrival in America than they do afterwards. The people of 
the country seem quite to disregard their attacks. Wherever 
they fix their sting, a little tumor or pustule usually arises, 
supposed to be occasioned by the fermentation when mixed 
with the blood, of a small quantity of liquor, which the 
insect always injects into the wound it makes with its spicula, 
as may be seen through a microscope, and which it probably 
does to render the blood more fluid. The disagreeable itching 
this excites, is most effectually allayed by the application of 
volatile alkali ; or if the part newly stung be scratched, and 
immediately bathed in cold water, that also affords considera- 
ble relief; but after the venom has been lodged for any 
time, scratching only increases the itching, and it may be 
attended with great danger. Repeated instances have occur- 
red of people having been laid up for months, and narrowly 
escaping the loss of a limb, from imprudently rubbing a 
part which had been bitten for a long time. Great ease is 
also derived from opening the pustules on the second day 
with a lancet, and letting out the blood and watery matter. 


In August, 1810, the corporation had under consideration 
the project of establishing a free school, on the plan of 
Joseph Lancaster. As yet it is believed there were no pub- 
lic schools in the city. The society of mechanics had a 
number of years previously erected a building in Chapel 
street, called Mechanics Hall, and maintained a school out 
of their own funds, but it is presumed that its benefits were 
chiefly confined to the children of mechanics. 

Commission of John Abeel, 1694. 213 


[ I am indebted to A. Hejer Brown for the following copy 
of an ancient commission in his possession. John Abeel 
was the first mayor of Albany who was commissioned in this 
way, Peter Schuyler, who preceded him, having been named 
in the charter. In digging for the purpose of laying the 
foundation of the iron railing which was placed in front of 
the Middle Dutch Church a few years ago, the workmen ex- 
humed the bones of many persons that had been interred 
there, among them doubtless those of Mr. Abeel, as his tomb- 
stone was thrown out with the others, and was afterwards 
placed in the pavement of the side walk. This document is 
written in a very bold old English character, and has the 
original seal attached, which is a cake of wax about three 
inches in diameter, and three-fourths of an inch in thickness, 
stamped with the British arms. In copying it the original 
orthography has been preserved.] 

William & Mary by the Grace of Grod of England 
Scotland France & Ireland King & Queen defenders of the 
Faith &c To our loving subject John Abeel Esqr Greeting 
Reposing special trust and confidence in your Loyalty pru- 
dence and circumspection We do hereby nominate consti- 
tute and appoint you to be Mayor of the city of Albany for 
one year next ensuing y- fourteenth of October instant w^^ 
full power and authority to execute and perform all things 
whatsoever belonging to said ofl&ce in as full and ample man- 
ner as any former Mayor of the said city hath done or might 
have lawfully done executed and performed To Hold Ex- 
ercisse and enjoy the said oflfice of Mayor of the said city with 
all things thereunto belonging and to have and receive all fees 
Salarys profitts perquisites benefits advantages priviledges 
immunities prehemmencys and appurtenances Whatsoever 
to the said ofl&ce belonging or in way appurtaining during 
the term aforesaid In Testimony whereof we have caused 
the seal of our province of New York in America to be here- 
unto afl&xed Witness Benjamin Fletcher our Capt General 

214 Books in 1772. 

and Governor in Chiefe of our Province of New York Pro- 
vince of Pensilvania County of New Castle and the Terri- 
torys and Tracts of Land depending thereon in America and 
Vice Admiral of the same Our Lieut and Commander in chief 
of the Militia & of all the forces by Sea & Land within our 
Colony of Connecticut and of all the forts and places of 
Strength within the same on this fourth day of October in 
the sixth year of our Reign Anno Dom 1694 

I>AviD Jamison P Secry 

BOOKS IN 1772. 

The literature vended at this day seems to have been 
confined to a very limited number of books promiscuously 
arranged in the catalogues of other goods. For instance, 
John Heughan of Schenectady, advertises " Scotch Snuff, 
Tobacco, Bibles^ Testaments, Spelling Books, Knives and 
Forks, Writing Paper, Ink Powder, Quills, Razors," &c. 
James Gourlay & Co. in Cheapside street, next door to 
the king's arms, Albany, after a copious enumeration of 
articles, arrive at " Penknives, Pins, Bibles, Testaments^ 
Spelling Books, Green and Bohea Tea, Cotton, Pepper, 
Chocolate, Playing Cards, Shirt Buttons, Curtain Calicoes, 
Ink Powder, Knee Garters," etc. Thomas Barry, near the 
Dutch Church, had " Pins, None-so-pretty of different colors, 
Testaments, Spelling Books, Histories, Black Breeches Pat- 
terns," &c. 

1785, under the head of dry goods, were advertised by 
Thomas Barry " at his store near the Dutch Church," as 
just imported from Europe and now opening.for sale. Bibles, 
Testaments, Spelling Books, Primers, and Entick's Pocket 
Dictionaries, Snuff, Tobacco boxes and fiddle strings, ratti- 
netts and shalloons, best China and love ribbons, &c., &c. 
At the same time Robinson & Hale advertise Bibles with 
Psalms and Psalm books, Testaments and Spelling Books, 
Primers and Pocket Dictionaries, Young Men's Companions 
and Arithmetics, which are enumerated rather fantastically 
with red China tea pots, and shoemaker's tools. 

JBarloio's Prediction of the Erie Canal. 215 


The great American poem of Joel Barlow, although a 
popular book in the last century, is probably unknown to a 
great many of his countrymen; and few of his admirers, 
perhaps, ever expected to see the Vision of Columbus quoted 
in after years, to claim the fulfillment of a prediction. The 
work was published in 1787, when that magnificent project, 
the Erie Canal, if it had any other place than in the imagi- 
nation of the poet, was probably regarded only as the 
visionary chimera of an enthusiast. But the printed scheme 
of the poet may have awakened the attention of some strong 
mind to undertake the task of carrying out, what we now 
behold in successful operation, and which was foreshadowed 
in these words : 

" He saw, as widely spreads the unchannell'd plain, 
Where inland realms for ages bloom'd in vain. 
Canals, long winding, ope a watery flight. 
And distant streams, and seas, and lakes unite. 

From fair Albania, to'w'rd the falling smi. 
Back through the midland lengthening channels run. 
Meet the far lakes, the beauteous towns that lave. 
And Hudson joined to broad Ohio's wave." 

It was thirty years after this was published, that the Erie 
Canal was commenced, and more than forty before the 
opening of the Ohio Canal. In 1807, the Vision of ( olum- 
hus was metamorpliosed into The Columhiad. In the mean- 
time Philip Schuyler and his coadjutors had succeeded in 
connecting the Hudson with the lakes, by short canals and 
locks around the falls of the Mohawk, into Wood creek, 
which is thus alluded to by the poet : 

" From Moliawk's mouth, far westing with the sun, 
Thro all the midlands recent channels riin, 
Tap the redundant lakes, tlie broad hills brave. 
And Hudson marry with Missouri's wave. 
From dim Superior, whose uncounted sails 
Shade his full seas and bosom all his gales. 
New paths unfolding seek Mackenzie's tide. 
And towns and empires rise along their side." 

From the Annual Report of the Regents of the University. 


River close'd or 
ob. with ice. 

River open or 
Iree of ice. 




March 23, 1786 

Eight times in the last 





March 27, 1790 


65 years has the Hudson 





March 17, 1791 


closed before the 1st De- 





cember ; nine times 





March 6, 1793 


vv^ithin the same space 





March 17, 1794 


the river was open till 





the first and second 





weeks in January, and 





once till 3d February. 





In the majority of cases 





the navigation . closed 





between the 7th and 





20th December. In fif- 





teen of the sixty-five 





years, the river remain- 





April 6, 1804 


ed closed for more than 





one hundred days, and 





Feb. 20, 1806 


in 1843, 136 days — the 





April 8, 1807 


longest on record. The 





March 10, 1808 


years 1741, 1766, 1780, 





and 1821 are the only 





ones in a century, in 





which the river has 





closed over below 





March 12, 1813 


Powle's Hook, so as to 





be crossed on the ice. 





In 1842 the river opened 





on the 8th January, and 





April 3, 1817 


was not closed again 





March 25, 1818 


during the winter. In 





April .3, 1819 


the year 1806, it will be 





March 25. 1820 


seen, the navigation 





March 15, 1821 


was obstructed only 42 





March 15, 1822 


days; and the average 





March 24, 1823 


during the whole 65 





March 3, 1824 


years is less than 90 





March 6, 1825 







Feb. 26, 1826 






March 20, 1827 






Feb. 8, 1828 






April 1, 1829 


Time of Opening. 





March 15, 18.30 






March 15, 1831 


1850, March 10 





March 25, 18.32 


1851, February 25 





March 21, 1833 


1852, March 28 





Feb. 24, 1834 


1853, March 28 





March 25, 1835 


1854, March 17 





April 4, 18.36 


1855, March 27 





March 28, 1837 


1856, April 10 





March 19, 1838 


1857, March 18 





March 21, 18.39 


1858, March 19 





Feb. 21, 1840 


1859, March 3 





March 24, 1841 


1860, March 6 





Feb. 4, 1842 


1861, March 6 





April 13, 1843 


1862, April 3 





March 14. 1S44 


1863, April 2 





Feb. 24, 1845 


1864, March 12 





March 15, ia46 


1865, March 14 





April 6, 1847 


1866, March 11 





March 22, 1848 


1867, March 24 





March 19, 1849 


1868, March 17 

Closing of the Hudson Eiver. 217 


1817-18. This winter was long and intensely cold. On 
the third of March, 1818, the ice moved in a body down- 
wards for some distance, and there remained stationary. 
The river was not cleared until March 25th. 

1820-21, The river closed on the 13th, opened on the 
20th, and finally closed December 1. This was one of the 
four winters during a centui-y in which the Hudson, between 
Powles' Hook and New York, was crossed on the ice ; the 
other three being 1740, '41, 1765, '66, and 1779, '80. 

Jan. 12, 1824. The river was clear of ice and remained 
so for several days. 

1827-28. The river opened and closed repeatedly during 
this winter. Dec. 21, it closed a second time. 

1830-31. Opened in consequence of heavy rains, and 
closed again on the 10th January, 1831. 

1832-33. Opened again January 3 ; closed again Janu- 
ary 11. 

1834-35. March 17. River opened opposite to the city. 
March 18, Steamboat John Jay came to Van Wie's Point; 
ice at the overslaugh. 

1847-48. Dec. 24. River closed. Dec. 31. River opened. 

As the river throughout to New York, has not always been 
clear of ice on the days stated above, the time at which the 
first steamboat passed from New York to Albany, or vice 
versa ^ is also added for a few years. 

1835, March 25. 

1836, April 10. 

1837, March 31, Robert L. Stevens. 

1838, March 19, Utica. 

1839, March 25, Swallow. 

1840, February 25, Mount Pleasant. 

1841, March 26, Utica. 

1841, February 6, Telegraph. In consequence of heavy 
rains, the river opened in front of the city of Albany on the 
8th of January, and can hardly be said to have closed again 
during the season. The ice, however, continued piled up 
some miles below, at and about Beeren island, near Schodack 
Landing, and thus rendered the channel impassable. Cold 


21 8 Centennial Anniversary. 

weather followed about the middle of February, and 'again 
obstructed the navigation. A steamboat arrived on the 1st 
of March, 1842. 

1843, April 13, Utica. 

1844, March 18, 11 A. m., Utica. 

1845, February 24, steamboat Norwich at 1 A. M., from 
New York. Left that city on the 22d, at 8 P. M. River 
full of ice from West Point upwards. Ice opposite Albany, 
stationary, except a small portion that broke away yesterday 
opposite Lydius street. 

1846, March 18, steamboat Columbia and Oneida arrived. 

1847, April 7, steamboat Columbia. 

1848, March 22, steamboat Admiral. 

1849, March 18, steamboat Columbia. 


On Saturday, the 22d day of July, 1786, the corporation 
and citizens of Albany celebrated the Centennial Anniver- 
sary of the charter of the city. " At 11 o'clock the corpo- 
ration convened in the council chamber, at the City Hall, 
where they were joined by a great number of citizens; when 
the bells of the several churches began to ring, they marched 
in procession westward of the city, where a number of toasts 
were drank, under the discharge of cannon from the Fort.'' 

The order of procession was as follows: 1, The Sheriff; 2, 
Under Sheriff; 3, Constables; 4, Mayor; 5, Recorder; 6, 
Aldermen; 7, Assistants; 8, Clerk and Chamberlain; 9, City 
Marshall ; 10, The Ministers, Elders and Deacons of the 
Dutch, Lutheran, Episcopal, Presbyterian and ♦German 
Churches; 11, Fire and Engine Companies; 12, Members of 
the Legislature, Judges, Justices, and Counsellors at Law; 
13, Officers of the Army and Militia; 14, Citizens at large. 
In addition to the above, we are told that " the countenances 
of the inhabitants bespoke great satisfaction on the occasion.^' 

Incidents of a Northern Winter, 219 


\_From the Albany Argus.'] 

1848, January 1. Weather mild and rainy. Lake Cham- 
plain clear of ice. 

January 2. Steamboats Norwich and Columbia arrived 
from New York. 

January 7. Weather cold and fine. Thermometer marked 4 
degrees above zero. Columbia left for New York at 1 o'clock, 
last boat. 

January 9. Snow 6 to 8 inches deep. Steamboat landed 
mail at New Baltimore. 

January 10. Thermometer marked zero at 7 o'clock, A.M. 

January 11. Thermometers at Albany, 17 to 18 below 
zero. At Amsterdam, 36 below. Rochester, 8 below Troy, 
16 below. New York and Brooklyn, 3 above. Boston, 10 
below. Fryburgh, Me., 36 to 39 below. Franconia, N. H., 
45 below. The steamboat Columbia, which left New York 
the night before, was compelled to return after running up 
the river 30 miles. 

January 14 and 15. A general thaw. Weather continued 
to be warm the rest of the month. 

February 1. Four to six inches of snow fell. 

February 2. Weather warm again. 

February 4. The steamboat Columbia came within two 
miles of Albany. 

February 5. Snow fell to a considerable depth. 

February 6. Snowed most of the day. Steamboat came to 

February 9. Thermometer at zero. Hudson closed to New- 

February 11. Thermometer at zero. 

February 12. Floating ice in New York harbor, for the first 
time this winter. 

February 19. Blue birds seen atBloomingdale, New York 

February 20. Heavy rain storm from the south. 

•220 Cold Days in the Last Century. 

February 23. Steam ferry boat Boston, crossed to East 

February 24. Weatber very cold again ; thermometer five 
degrees above zero. 

February 28. River open to Hudson. 

March 3. Snow storm all day. 

March 9. About a foot of snow fell during the night. 

March 12. Thermometer 10 degrees below zero. 

March 15. Thermometer at zero at 7 A. M. At Schenec- 
tady seven below. 

March 16 and 17. Thermometer at zero. 

March 18. Thermometer 23 degrees above zero. 

March 21. Steamboat Columbia at Van Wie's Point. 

March 22. Ice passed out of the river. Steamboat Ad- 
miral arrived at Albany. 


On the first of February, 1789, the thermometer at noon 
indicated 18° above zero, and on the following morning at 
6 o'clock was 24° below, being 6° colder than had been ever 
known in the city. This memorandum was taken from the 
weather book keptatthe museum opposite Denniston's tavern 
in Green street. 

On the 3d Nov. of the same year a snow storm began at 
10 in the morning and continued through the day, the 
weather being remarkably cold, and having every appear- 
ance of the setting in of winter, a circumstance not before 
recollected by any of the inhabitants. 

On the 9th Dec, 1790, the thermometer indicated 10° 
below 0, and the weather was pronounced colder for the 
season than had ever been known before in this city. 

Hudson River. 221 


This river bears the name of one of the early navigators, 
who united invincible fortitude to unwearied assiduity, and 
who is identified with its history. " This noble river was first 
discovered by Henry Hudson, in 1609, while in the employ of 
the Dutch East India Company. By some it is believed that 
he sailed up that river as far as the present site of the city of 
Albany, in a small vessel called the Half Moon ; but, it is 
doubtful if any visions of futurity presented to his mind the 
present importance and celebrity of this beautiful stream, 
bearing his own name." It rises from numerous sources in 
the Adirondack mountain region of Essex and Hamilton 
counties, west of Lakes George and Champlain. Its prin- 
pal head branches are the Adirondack river, Boreas river, 
Indian river, Schroon river and the Sacandaga river ; the 
Hoosick river flows into it from the east in the county of Rens- 
selaer, and the Mohawk empties into it between the counties 
of Albany and Saratoga ; from this point it is navigable to 
its mouth, a distance of 160 miles. Its whole length is 320 
miles; the tide flowing up for about half that distance. On 
the upper part of this river, justly celebrated for its varied 
and romantic beauties, are several picturesque falls, of which 
Baker's falls and Glen's falls are the most noted. The re- 
gion of country where it takes its rise, was but little known 
until of late. In 1836, the state geologists, under an act to 
provide for a geological survey of the state of New York, 
commenced their operations ; since then this vast wilderness 
has been fully explored, new localities discovered, and new 
names given ; thus furnishing a great mass of information in 
regard to the sources of this river, and the mountain region 
from whence it takes its rise. Here are mountain peaks of 
Alpine appearance, containing vast deposits of iron ore and 
other minerals, well worthy a visit by the scientific admirers 
of wild and romantic scenery. In the head waters of the 
Hudson, are to be found trout, and other fish of fine flavor, 
in great abundance; and in its tide waters are taken annu- 

222 Hudson River, 

ally large quantities of shad, herring, bass, sturgeon and 
many other kinds of fish. From its mouth to the city of 
Hudson, a distance of 116 miles, it is navigable for ships of 
a large burthen, and to Albany and Troy for steam boats of 
a large class. When we reflect that this important river re- 
ceives the tributary waters of the great western and northern 
lakes, by means of the Erie and Champlain canals, and then 
commingles with the Atlantic ocean, after passing the High- 
lands, the Palisades, and through the secure and spacious bay 
of New York, well may we give it the appellation of the 
NOBLE Hudson. — DistumelVs Gazetteer. 

The combined action of the tides, arriving in the Hudson 
by East river and the Narrows, at different periods, carries 
the swell upward at the rate of 15 to near 25 miles an hour; 
and this circumstance clearly evinces a high superiority of 
oceanic influence in the Hudson. Swift sailing vessels, leav- 
ing New York at young flood, have repeatedly run through 
to Albany with the same flood tide. The time of high water 
is the same at Pollopell island, at the northern limit of the 
Highlands, as at New York ; at Albany it is 3 hours 30 min- 
utes later, where the common tides are little more than one 
foot. The passage of this river through the Highlands, 
without any impediment to its navigation, save that of a 
crooked though deep, and in some places a narrow channel, 
is a singular fact in geography, and it affords a pleasing diver- 
sity? of scenery. The Highlands are about sixteen miles 
wide, and their hills and mountains present many features of 
vast sublimity. The water is but seldom salt or brackish at 
Poughkeepsie, and water casks are often filled below the 
Highlands. Much has been said about extending sloop navi- 
gation upward, on this river, above where nature has placed 
its limit, and immense sums of money have been expended, 
to little purpose. Few rivers roll down so much alluvial 
matter as the Hudson, say between Waterford and the head 
of ship navigation, and this alluvion increases with the open- 
ing of the land adjoining, and the decrease of the waters in 
the Hudson. While the Batten kill, Hoosac river, and the 
Mohawk, pour in their alluvion, it will be a very hard mat- 
ter to make the navigation better than nature has made it. 
We may remove a sand-bar in one place, at the expense of 
obstructions in some other place, but all this alluvial mat- 

Opening and Closing of the Canxil^ etc, 223 

ter will rest somewhere. The quantity is increasing and 
will increase, till a different plan is adopted, which shall 
carry this alluvion farther down the river. This may be done 
by throwing in all the water of the Mohawk at Waterford, 
connecting the islands by piers or moles, so as to make as 
straight and narrow a channel as may be, and a strong cur- 
rent, to the deep tide waters below. — Spafford^s Gazetteer. 


The following table shows the days of opening and closing 
of the canal during twenty-five years. 












AprH 30 





April 20 

Dec. 9 



" 12 




" 12 

Nov. 25 



. " 20 




. " 20 

Dec. 16 



. " 23 




. " 20 

" 3 



. Mar. 27 




. " 26 

Nov. 29 



. May 2 




. " 20 

" 23 



. AprQ 20 




. May 1 

Dec. 1 



. " 16 




. April 18 

Nov. 26 



. " 25 




. " 15 

" 29 



. " 10 




. " 16 

" 25 



. " 17 




. May 1 

Dec. 21 



. " 15 

Nov. 30 



. " 1 

" 9 



. " 25 





. " 1 

" 5 



The prisoners confined for debt in the City Hall, which 
was the jail also, celebrated the 5th July, 1790 (the 4th be- 
ing Sunday.) There was an allusion to the 15th year of 
American independence^ and their confinement for debt. Their 
fifth toast was : " May the time come when no honestman shall 
be confined for debt." The time did arrive, in less then half 
a century, when not even the dishonest man was confined for 

224 Births, Marriages and Deaths, 1848. 


Abstract made from the returns of marriages, births and 
deaths which took place in the city of Albany during the 
year 1848: 

Marriages. — Whole number of marriages returned, 629 
do in which both parties resided in the city, 226 ; do one of 
the parties, 298 ; do both parties resided out of the city 
105; do the parties resided in Massachusetts, 29; Connect! 
cut, 5; Rhode Island, 2; and other states, 6. 

The marriages took place in the several months as follows 
January 34, February 38, March 21, April 45, May 57 
June 47, July 51, August 61, September 73, October 80 
November 63, December 59. 

Married in St. John's church, 104; do St. Joseph's, 71 
do St. Mary's, 69; total 244. 

Births. — Whole number of births returned, 1,325; males 
448, females 350, sex not stated 502; males (colored) 9, 
females do 9, sex net stated do 7 ; 44 twin children, of 
which 22 are males and 10 females, and 12 the sex not given. 

The births occurred in the several months as follows : 
January 97, February 70, March 108, April 85, May 92, 
June 87, July 117, August 120, September 103, October 
116, November 98, December 130, unknown 102. 

Deaths. — The number of deaths returned for 1848 is 1218; 
males 645, females 488, males (colored) 2, do females 3, sex 
not stated 80, married 206, unmarried 726, not stated 286, 
native born 815, foreigners 403. 

Deaths in the several months as follows : January 126, 
February 99, March 121, April 89, May 90, June 72, July 
136, August 145, September 104, October 91, November 69, 
December 76; total, 1,218. 

Diseases. — 151 died of consumption, 59 of diarrhoea, 29 of 
congestion of the brain, 26 of croup, 24 by accident, 20 of 
scarlet fever, 21 of teething, 13 of typhus fever, 13 of whoop- 
ing cough, 252 other diseases, 601 disease not stated. 

Ferry Rates 1784. 225 

Number of those who died — Number of those who died — 


IT the age 


year is 


over 50 


and under 55, 


1 year and under 5, 






5 " 







10 " 







15 " 







20 " 







25 " 







30 " 







35 " 







40 " 







45 " 







Average age of the persons dying, 20 years and 20 days. 


The city ordinance regulating the Ferry rates, was as fol- 
lows : 

For transporting every person across, except a suck- 
ing child, 2 coppers. 

For every man, ox, horse or cow, 9 pence. 

do. live sheep or lamb, 3 do. 

do. dead do, 2 do. 

do. barrel of rum, sugar, molasses, or other full 

do, 6 do. 

do. pail of butter, 1 do. 

do. firkin or tub of butter, 2 do. 

do. wagon and two horses, 3 shillings. 

do. full chest or trunk, 6 pence. 

do. empty do, 5 coppers. 

do. skipple [3 pecks] of wheat or other grain,. . 1 do. 

do. cwt. of lead, pewter or other metal, 4 do. 

do. chaise or chair and horse, 15 pence. 

do. saddle without a horse, 2 coppers. 

do. dozen pair of shoes or boots, 2 do. 

do. do. steel traps, 6 do. 

And all other articles and things not enumerated, in the same 
proportion to the rates above specified. 

These rates were doubled after sunset until sunrise ; and 
it was enjoined upon the ferry master to keep at least two 
boats and a scow, two of which should be constantly manned 
by four able hands. 

226 An Albany Merchant's Stock in 1790. 


The following is an exact copy of the advertisement of an 
eminent merchant doing business in this city in the latter 
part of the last century. 

It will be seen how many articles of that day have becoine 
obsolete, or changed their names. 

Kobert M'Clallen, 

No 10 State Street, north-west corner of Green Street, Albany, 

Has lately imported in the Goliah, Capt. Jones, from London, a 
large and general assortment of GOODS, suitable for the present 
season, which he will dispose of, wholesale and retail, at a very low 
advance, viz : 

Brown, blue and striped cam- 

blets ; 
Irish Linens ; 
A variety of purple and chintz 

shawls ; 
Dark blue and spotted cotton 

handkerchiefs ; 
Chintzes and calicoes ; 
Black fring'd Handkerchiefs ; 
Men's and boy's castor and felt 

hats ; 
Plated shoe and knee buckles ; 
Common brass and steel do. 
Bar lead ; 

Duck and pigeon shot ; 
Gun powder ; 
London pewter ; 
Dutch tea-pots ; 

With a variety of other arti- 

Also, a constant supply of 
Liquors and Groceries ; 

Swede's iron ; Crawley & blis- 

ter'd steel ; 
Common rum ; 
Window glass, 6 by 8, 7 by 9, 

8 by 10. 

Pots and pearl ashes, staves, 
and other kinds of country pro- 
duce taken in payment. 

SUPERFINE, second and 
coarse cloths with trimmings 
suitable ; Drab, mix'd and blue 
Yorkshire Plains ; 

Black satinetts and lastings ; 

Green, blue and drab Halfthicks'; 

Scarlet cloaking with Trim- 

Mixt, blue and claret twill'd coat- 
ings ; 

Claret, red and mix'd plain do. 

2, 2^ and 3 point blankets ; 

Striped do. 

Men's ribb'd and plain white and 
black worsted hose ; 

Ditto, striped, silk and cotton do. 

Blue, yellow, green, red & white 
flannels ; 

Green, red and blue broad baize ; 

Drab, blue, mixt and green sin- 
gle-folded naps ; 

Imperial and basket buttons ; 

Fashionable and common coat 
and vest buttons ; 

Velvet and worsted toilonette 
vest patterns ; 

Purple and garnet wildbores ; 

Plain and twill'd olive velvets ; 

Corduroys and superfine thick- 
setts ; 

Durants, Calimancoes and mo- 
reens : 

An Albany Merchant's Stock in 1790. 227 

Besides those enumerated in this advertisement, other 
merchants mention the following articles, equally curious for 
their names : 


Persians and Pelongs, 


Women's sliammy gloves and 

Cruel of all colors. 
None-so-pretty-do. , 
Plain and spotted Swanskin, 
Faggot trimming. 
Blue sagatha, 
Lungee Romals, 
Denmark fancy, 
Pullicat silk, 
Croncard muslin. 


Black Swanskin, 

Camlets and Camletees, 

Bed bunts, 

Dowlass and Woolen checks 

Leather breeclies. 

Black everlastings. 

Silk Damascus and Lorettas, 



Buff and White Royal Rib, ex- 
cellent for Breeches and Jack- 

Buff and olive Cotton Denim, 

Swandown Counterpanes, 

Drab Forest cloth. 

Printed Velvets. 

In a lecture delivered years ago, by the Hon. Mr. Sturges 
of Boston, on trade and finances, he referred to the singular 
changes of the fashions. Nankeens, said he, were once im- 
ported in large quantities. As late as 1820 there were one 
million of dollars worth imported — now there is none. In 
1806, Canton crape was first used; in 1810, ten cases were 
imported — in 1816, there were 21,000 pieces; in 1826, the 
importations amounted to a million and a half of dollars; 
and in 1842 the article was not imported ! Yet the country 
has lost nothing by the caprice of fashion, as our country 
women appear as lovely in ninepenny Lowell calico, as in 
Canton crape. 

Silk was once imported in large quantities from China ; a 
cargo of near a million dollars worth was once landed in this 
country, and now the whole yearly importations from China 
amount to less than $100,000. Great changes have also 
taken place in regard to the pay of our Chinese importations. 
In 1818, $7,000,000 in specie were carried to China, but 
now our purchases are paid for in bills of exchange on Eng- 
land, from the proceeds of the opium trade. The fur trade 
was commenced in 1787, and in 1808 there were fifteen 
Americans engaged in it, and now it has ceased altogether. 

228 Adoption of the Federal Constitution, 


The delegates nominated by the two parties for the conven- 
tion to decide on the adoption of the federal constitution were 
the following: 


Abraham Ten Broeck, 
Jacob Cuyler, 
Francis Nicoll, 
Jeronemus Hoogland, 
Peter Gansevoort, jr., 
James Grordon, 
John W. Schermerhorn, 


Robert Yates, 
John Lansing, jr., 
Henry Oothoudt, 
Peter Vrooman, 
Israel Thompson, 
Anthony Ten Eyck, 
Dirk Swart. 

By the returns from the counties of Albany, Montgomery, 
Washington, Columbia, Dutchess, Ulster, and Orange, 37 
anti-federal candidates were elected to the convention for 
considering the United States Constitution. The counties 
of New York, Westchester, Kings, and Richmond gave 19 
federal. The Counties of Queens sending 9, was divided. 
The whole number of delegates sent was 67. In New York 
the vote was decidedly federal; some of the opposite candi- 
dates receiving only thirty votes and the highest, which was 
given for Gov. Clinton, being but 134. The following is 
the canvass of the votes for the federal delegates, and will 
show the strength of the electors in that city, at that period. 


John Jay, 2735 

Richard Morris, 2716 

John SlossHobart, 2713 

Alex. Hamilton,. 2713 

Robt. R. Livingston,... 2712 

Isaac Rosevelt, 2701 

James Duane, 2680 

Richard Harrison, 2677 

Nicholas Low, 2651 


Gov. Clinton, 134 

Col. Willett, 108 

William Denning, 102 

The remainder each about 30 


Adoption of the Federal Constitution. 229 

The convention came to a decision on the 26tb July, 1788, 
yeas 30, nays 17 ; by which New York adopted the Consti- 
tution, being the 11th on the catalogue. 

When the vote was taken in congress 11 states were repre- 
sented; the two members from Rhode Island were excused 
from voting, and of the 22 members remaining there was but 
one dissenting voice, which was that of Mr. Yates, member 
from New York — the other New York member, Mr. L'- 
Hommedieu, voting ic the affirmative. 

The city of Albany, not to be behind her sister cities in 
patriotic display, set apart the 8th of August as a day of 
public rejoicings, to celebrate the ratification of the consti- 
tution of the United States by the convention of the state 
of New York, xllmost every trade and profession seems to 
have united in the jubilee, with appropriate emblems, and 
formed a truly imposing procession, notwithstanding the 
preponderance of the anti-federal party at the polls. A page 
of the Gazette of August 28, is occupied with the proceed- 
ings, as follows: 

Account of the Rejoicings in the city of Albany, on Friday, August 
8, 1788, on celebrating the Ratification of the Constitution for the 
Oomrnment of the United States, by the Convention of the State 
of New York. . 

At sunrise, a gun was fired to announce the day. 

At 10 o'clock, A. M., 11 guns were fired for the citizens 
to assemble in the fields near Watervliet. 

At lOj o'clock one gun for forming the procession. 

At 11, the procession was formed, when the whole line on 
the march saluted the Constitution. 

Immediately after the salute, the procession moved, in the 
following order : 

The Albany troop of Light Horse, in full uniform, com- 
manded by Captain Gransevoort. 


The Constitution, neatly engrossed on parchment, sus- 
pended' on a decorated staff, and borne by Major-General 
Schuyler, on horseback. 

Standard of the United States, carried by Colonel John 
A. Wendell. 


230 Adoption of the Federal Constitution. 

Eleven ancient citizens, each representing a state that had 
ratified the Constitution, bearing a scroll of parchment, with 
the name of the state endorsed in capitals. 

Axemen: ornamented with garlands of laurels. 

An elegant plough, guided by Stephen Van Rensselaer, Esq. 

Sowers : John Cuyler, Esq., and Capt. Jacob Lansing. 

A neat l.arrow, guided by Francis Nicoll, Esq. 

Farmers : neatly dressed, with various implements of hus- 

Farmers' Flag : Green silk — a sheaf of wheat. Motto — 
God speed the plough. 

Brewers : preceded by a dray carrying a butt. 

Carpenters : preceded by a carriage drawn by two horses, 
on which was erected a workshop 14 feet by 7; highly deco- 
rated. The flag of crimson silk, with a coat of arms. Motto — 
We unite. 

Gold and Silversmiths : preceded by a carriage bearing 
a Gold and Silversmith's shop, 12 feet by 7 — covered with a 
canopy supported by pillars 7 feet high. All the implements 
of art in the shop, and three artists and an apprentice indus- 
triously employed. Flag, blue silk with a coat of arms. 

Boat Builders : with their tools decorated. 

Tinmen and Pewterers : with implements of their craft 

Block and Pumpmakers : with their tools ornamented. 

Blacksmiths : A carriage, drawn by six horses, support- 
ing a blacksmith's shop 14 feet by 8, containing a forge, bel- 
lows, and all the apparatus of the trade, one sledge man, two 
vice men, one clink, all at work ] who made and completed 
during the procession, a set of plough-irons, a set of scythe 
mountings, two axes, and shoes for three horses, and followed 
by master workmen. The ^ag^ b^ack silk with coat of arms. 
Motto — 

With hammer in hand, 
All arts do stand. 

Clock and Watchmakers : An apprentice bearing an 
embellished eight-day time piece. 

Sail Makers. 

Barbers : handsomely dressed, bearing implements of 
their craft, decorated. Flag, white silk and coat of arms. 
Motto — Honor and Honesty. 

Adoption of the Federal Constitution. 23t ' 

Bakers : properly dressed, bearing implements of their 
art, decorated — an escutcheon, a loaf ornamented. 

Nailers : each wearing a clean white apron, preceded by 
a carriage drawn by four horses, supporting a nailer's shop, 
11 by 9 — nailers at work. Flag blue silk, coat of arms. 
Motto — 

With hammer and heart. 
We'll support our part. 


Tobacconists : dressed in white frocks, each carrying a 
hand of tobacco decorated with ribands. 

Carmen : In proper dress, preceded by a horse and cart 
carrying a hogshead marked No. 11. Flag white silk, and 
coat of arms. Motto — We hope to rest in God. 

Ship Joiners and Shipwrights : With implements of 
their art ornamented. 


Hatters : With decorated tools, preceded by a flag, car- 
ried by Mr. Solomon Allen. Coat of arms. Motto — Success 
to American Manufactures. 

Inspectors of Flour. 

Millers, in proper dress. 

Weavers : Bearing shuttles decorated. Flag, purple 
silk, with coat of arms. Motto — Weave truth loitJi trust. 

Printers : Preceded by apprentices, decorated with blue 
sashes, carrying yolumes of newspapers. A white silk flag 
carried by Charles R. Webster -, in an escutcheon the Bible, 
the Constitution, Sept., 1787, Ratification of the State of 
New York, July 26, 1788. On a wreath a hand holding a 
composing stick, proper.^ Motto — Our freedom is secured. 

Mr Webster, and Stoddard' and Babcock"-, apprentices, 
decorated with blue sashes, carrying quires of paper, &c. 

Painters and Glaziers. 

Tailors : Ornamented with yellow sashes and cockades, 
wearing green aprons, preceded by Messrs. Henry and Gib- 
son. A flag of green silk, with a coat of arms Motto — 
Concordia parva res crescunt. 

Coach Makers : Preceded by a flag of blue silk and coat 
of arms. Motto — Post nuhila Phoebus; followed by a car- 

^ Printer in Hudson. ' Printer in Lansingburgh, 

232 Adoption of the Federal Constitution, 

riage drawn by four horses, on which was erected a large 
workshop, handsomely decorated, with several men at work, 
who framed a coach and put several wheels together. 

Turners : properly dressed, preceded by a flag of pink 
colored silk, with a coat of arms. Motto — 

We turn to serve the common weal, 
And drive the trade with skill and zeal. 

Masons and Bricklayers : In their proper dress, carry- 
ing the implements of their trade ornamented. Flag — blue 
silk with coat of arms. 

Saddlers and Harness Makers : With implements of 
their craft. A flag of blue silk with coat of arms. Motto — 
Our trust is in God. 

Tanners and Curriers : Carrying the implements of 
their branches, decorated. A flag of pink silk, with coat of 

Brass Founders : Neatly dressed in green aprons and 
white cockades, carrying implements of the profession, pre- 
ceded by an air furnace neatly constructed. 

Coopers : Preceded by Benjamin Winne, aged 84 years; 
on a carriage drawn by 4 horses, a cooper shop, well con- 
structed, ornamented with 11 pillars, each crowned with a 
cask : several men at work. Flag, carried by Mr. Robert 
Hewson, of red silk, with coat of arms. 

Butchers : In uniform of white frocks and blue sashes, 
driving 2 beautiful oxen, ornamented with ribbons, pre- 
ceded by music. Flag — blue silk, with coat of arms. 
Motto — Ma?/ we never want /at cattle. 

Cordwainers : A carriage drawn by 2 horses, on which 
a handsome shop, 12 feet long and 6 wide was erected. In 
the shop, Mr. Fredenrich and several journeymen and ap- 
prentices at work, dressed in white, with aprons, yellow 
sashes and cockades. The carriage was preceded by Mr. 
David Groesbeck and Mr. Anthony Hallenbake, and fol- 
lowed by masters, journeymen and apprentices — Mr. Mat- 
thew Fryer carrying a yellow silk flag with a coat of arms. 
State Standard, carried by Major John D. P. Ten 

Gj.ass Makers : Dressed in green, carrying various tools 
and implements of their profession — globes, bottles and other 
specimens of their manufactory. 

Adoption of the Federal Constitution. 233 

A Bateau : Elegantly painted and decorated ; on a car- 
riage drawn by two gray horses, neatly caparisoned, loaded 
with goods proper for the Indian trade, navigated by a pro- 
per number of bateaumen furnished with setting- poles, 
paddles, &c., which were used with great skill during the 
procession. Mr. Gerardus Lansingh, in the character of a 
trader, and an Indian, properly dressed and ornamented, sit- 
ting in the stern. During the repast, the bateau made a 
voyage towards the Mohawk country, and returned with a 
full cargo of peltry. 

Captains of Vessels : Preceded by Capt. Philip Lan- 
sing, carrying a flag of blue silk, on which was a sloop with- 
out sails. Motto — God sends sails. 

Merchants and Traders, with their clerks, preceded 
by Mr. Jacob Cuyler, carrying a white flag, in an escutcheon, 
one ship inward and another outward bound — supported by 
two sheaves of wheat. Motto — 3Iay our expo7'ts exceed our 

The Corporations of the Dutch, Episcopal and Presby- 
terian Churches, preceded by the Clergy. 

Sherifi" and his deputies, with white wands. 

Constables with their staves. 

Grand Jury. 

Members of Corporation. 

Judges and Justices of Common Pleas. 

The Chancellor. 

Gentlemen of the Bar, in gowns, followed by their stu- 

School masters, followed by their scholars. 

Surveyor General. 

Adjutant General, and officers of Militia, in complete uni- 

Physicians and students. 

Detachment of Artillery, commanded by Capt. Lieut. 
Male Standard blue silk, on which was a field piece, mortar, 
and burning shell. 

The Procession moved with the greatest regularity 
through Watervliet, Market (now Broadway), and State 
street, to the Federal Bower, which the van reached at 
half-past twelve o'clock, announced by the firing of a gun. 

234 Adoption of the Federal Constitution. 

This edifice made an highly elegant appearance. It was 
erected on a most advantageous part of the heights west of 
Fort Frederick ; commanding the most extended prospect of 
any situation near the city ; and when the flags of the re- 
spective divisions were displayed on its battlements, that of 
the United States in the centre, that of the State on the 
right, and the farmers on the left, the coup d'ceil was 
extremely pleasing. 

The edifice was 154 feet in length and 44 in breadth, and 
was raised on 4 rows of pillars, 15 feet in height, which were 
close wreathed with foliage and composed of 11 arches in 

From the architrave, which was clothed with verdant 
branches, festoons of foliage were suspended, which crossed 
the arches ; above the centre of which, were white oval me- 
dallions, with the name of a ratifying state on each. 

When the procession had drawn up in a line, at the rear 
of the bower, the company marched off, in regular divisions 
to the tables, which were plentifully covered with substantial 
American cheer ; handsomely arranged under the direction 
of Mr. Wm. Van Ingen. And the tables, which were 
eleven in number, placed across the colonnade, in a line with 
the arches, were by no means sufficient for the company. 

After dinner, the following toasts were drank, each hon- 
ored with the discharge of eleven guns : 

1. The United States. 

2. The States which ratified the New Constitution. 

3. The Convention of this State. 

4. The Eleventh Pillar in the Federal edifice. 

5. General Washington. 

6. The friendly powers of Europe. 

7. Agriculture and Commerce. 

8. American Manufactures. 

9. Inland navigation and the Fur trade restored. 

10. The memory of those Heroes who have fallen in de- 
fence of American Liberty. 

11. Concord and confidence at home, and respectability 

12. May virtue, patriotism and harmony prevail, and dis- 
cord be banished from all American councils. 

13. May the union of the States be perpetual. 

Adoption of the Federal Constitution, 235 

A gun was fired, as a signal for again forming the pro- 
cession, which was done with the utmost regularity and dis- 
patch. The-Toute then taken was down State street into Pearl 
street, and through it, Columbia street. Market street and 
Court street, into a spacious pasture south of Fort Orange; 
where the whole formed a semicircle. After 11 guns had 
been fired from the Fort, answered by three cheers from the 
whole, the respective divisions marched ofi" at intervals, and 
as they passed the Fort, received a salute of a single gun, 
which they returned with three cheers, 

JAMES FAIRLIE, Esq., was the Marshal of the pro- 
cession. His assistants were Thos. L. Witbeck, Casparus 
Hewson, John Cuyler, Jr., and John Bleecker. 

It may be mentioned, by way of episode, that when the 
procession reached Grreen street, a party of anti-Federalists, 
as they were then called, who had collected there, made an 
assault upon it, and a skirmish ensued. One of the principal 
actors in the scene was the late Mr. Jonathan Kidney. A 
cannon had been procured, and heavily charged ; and the 
excitement was so great, that it would undoubtedly have 
been discharged upon the line of procession, had not Mr. 
Kidney prevented it by driving the end of a file into the 
fuse, and breaking it off". The lighthorse made a charge 
upon the assailants, who scampered out of the way. The pro- 
jecting oven of the old Stone House was torn down to fur- 
nish missiles. Among the wounded on the occasion was 
Mr. James Caldwell, who received a brick upon his forehead. 

The election of members of Assembly, terminated in 
the success of the anti-Federal party, and seems to have been 
the first party struggle growing out of the dissension on the 
question of the Constitution. The vote of the two parties 
in the county of Albany, as canvassed by the supervisors, 
on the 27th May, 1798, stood as follows. John Younglove 
seems to have the votes of both. 


John Lansing, 3048 i Stephen Van Rensselaer,.. 1953 

Jeremiah Van Rensselaer, 3042 I Leonard Gransevoort, 1888 

John Duncan, 2990 

Cornelius Van Dyck, 3033 

John Thompson,. , , 3006 

Henry K. Van Rensselaer, 2911 
John Younglove,. 4807 

Richard Sill, 1877 

Hezekiah Van Orden, 1871 

John Knickerbacker, 1868 

Isaac Vrooman, . , 1851 

236 Frospects of the City in 1789. 


A writer in the Gazette of this year gives the following 
account of its condition, improvements and prospects : 

Every thinking man, who takes a prospective view of this 
city, and contemplates what it was seven or eight years ago, 
and what it now is, will be astonished at the improvements 
in the city, and the increase of commerce, manufactures, 
&c., since that period. Then some of the principal streets 
were shamefully neglected, without a pavement sufficient 
even for a foot passenger to walk on, without annoying him- 
self with filth. We have a prospect, ere another year shall 
transpire, of seeing the principal streets not only comfortably, 
but elegantly paved. In addition to which, the wharves have 
been repaired and enlarged, and the city adorned with seve- 
ral new private buildings, which would not disgrace some of 
the principal cities in Europe, and would ornament any in 

At that period a competent English teacher was scarcely 
to be found. We now have an academy, which flourishes 
under the direction of Mr. Merchant, a gentleman who has 
always given such proofs of his abilities, as to render enco- 
mium entirely superfluous. 

At that period not more than seventy, at the utmost cal- 
culation, shops and stores were kept in this city Now we 
behold Market and State streets crowded with stores, and 
rents in those streets enhanced to such a degree as to put 
houses out of reach of the inconsiderable traders. Nor had we 
manufactories of any kind, but depended on importation 
entirely for every manufactured article. Now we see the 
citizens stimulated by motives of public spirit, daily pro- 
moting them. Messrs. Stevenson, Douw & Ten Eyck have 
erected a nail manufactory, in which nails of every descrip- 
tion are manufactured as cheap, and pronounced to be su- 
perior to any imported. 

Much praise is also due to James Caldwell, of this city, 
jnerchant, for his spirited exertions in promoting the manu- 

Prospects of the City in 1789. 


facture of tobacco of every description, snuff, mustard and 
chocolate, for which purpose he has, at great expense, erected 
mills wtjich are ranked among the first in America ; 
and in which every article manufactured is of the best in- 
gredients, and allowed to be of superior quality. 

What a glorious prospect lies before us ! A thriving city, 
situated in the heart of a fertile, extensive and growing 
country, possessing all the advantages of trade that can 
be desired, united to the power (some trivial inconve- 
niences excepted) of enjoying those of navigation. Such 
are the blessings which Nature has bestowed on us. And 
I flatter myself I am not too sanguine, when I indulge the 
idea, that I shall live to see the day when this city, adorned 
with every necessary public building, and other improve- 
ments, will become the fixed seat of government and of the 
legislature; shipping of considerable bulk, owned by our own 
merchants, opening their canvas before our wharves, and 
wafting the produce of our country to distant quarters of 
the globe: in short, that the city will wear an aspect as 
different from what it did seven years ago, as twilight is 
from noon-day. 

238 A Tobacco Estahlishmeni of 1790. 


It is believed that Mr. James Caldwell was the first 
great tobacco manufacturer of this region. 

The editor of the Grazette, in the fall of 1790, gave a de- 
scription of the recently erected tobacco works of this gen- 
tleman, prefaced by some laudatory and prophetic remarks 
on the present and future condition of the city. " V^hile 
we receive daily accounts of the progress of manufactures 
in our infant country," he says, " it affords us a singular 
pleasure to have it in our power to present the flattering 
prospects we have of vicing in this respect with any other 
town on the continent. As the peculiar advantages of our 
situation entitle us to look forward to the period loheM a com- 
merce^ great beyond calculation^ must circulate through this 
jplace^ we have equal reasons, from the advances already 
made, to anticipate the flourishing state of our manufac- 
tures." The establishment recently put in operation by Mr. 
Caldwell, is selected as an instance of the enterprise of the 
day — the site of which was occupied for the same purpose, 
by his partner and successor, Mr. Solomons, until about 
twenty years ago. 

" The buildings belonging to these works extend on a line 
along the front about 200 feet. That part which contains 
the machinery of the mills is 42 feet front. One water 
wheel of 3J feet wide with li inches water, by an upright 
shaft, puts in motion the snuff"-mill, which consists of 4 mor- 
tars, 16 rollers, and a snuff bolt. A mustard mill, with 2 
large rollers, 4 mortars and stampers; a charcoal mill, with 
a run of stones and cocoa roaster; an engine for cutting 
smoking tobacco ; a machine for cutting tobacco for the 
snuff-mill ; and a large grindstone for the use of the 
works. It likewise gives motion to an elegant colos- 
sal figure of a man, represented in the act of turning a 
winch, from which all the machinery apparently receives 

" The tobacco is pressed and brought to the knife of the 
cutting machine on a plan entirely new, without manual la- 

A lobacco Establishment of 1790. 239 

bor. All these works, together with a kiln for preparing 
the mustard seed, are on the first and second floors. Any 
part may be set in motion or stopped without afiecting the 
others. On the third floor is a kiln for tobacco. Both kilns 
are on a new and improved construction. Here are a num- 
ber of hands constantly employed in packing snuff" and to- 
bacco. The house for drying and curing tobacco adjoins 
the mill on the west, and is 70 feet in front. The fire-places 
are constructed with such improvements as not to require 
one-fourth the wood commonly consumed for the like pur- 
poses. The upper part is occupied as a store-room for tobacco. 
The house on the west contains the tobacco manufactory; 
on the lower floor of which are nine complete presses, and a 
room where the tobacco is formed into rolls, in a manner 
never before discovered, without either pios or thorns — of 
which invention the merit is solely due to the manufacturer. 
On the second floor the spinning is done, where ^4 hands 
are constantly employed in the various parts of the business. 
There is a machine by which one boy can turn for five or six 
tables, and can stop either, when occasion requires, without 
interrupting the rest. This last improvement has been of- 
ten attempted in Europe and America, but has never been 
brought to the perfection it is here. 

" The water is conveyed to the mills by a ti^3nch, and 
from thence passes off" by a subterraneous conduit, over which 
is the main road; and the water-wheel is so sheltered that 
neither can be perceived from the inside or outside of the 
mill. Besides these buildings, there is an elegant and com- 
modious dwelling-house and several out-houses belonging to 
the manufactory, all disposed in such a manner as to make a 
beautiful appearance. They are situated about one mile 
from the centre of the city, and 400 yards west from the 
mansion-house of Stephen Van Rensselaer, Esq., at the en- 
trance of the delightful valley, through which a never fail- 
ing stream passes, that turns a number of oth^r mills within 
sight of each other. 

"Mr. Christopher Batterman,^a young man, a native of 
Boston, is the architect, to whose ingenuity the plan of the 

1 He is believed -to have been the ancestor of the Battermans re- 
siding in Guilderland ; having removed to the glass-works after 


Board of Trade, 

works, and the various improvements in the execution are 
to be ascribed — as he was solely entrusted by Mr. Caldwell 
with the construction of them. He intends to make Albany 
his residence. The snu£f-mill is in such high perfection, that 
by going only nine months in the year, more snuff can be 
produced, it is said, than is consumed annually in the north- 
ern part of America. We may add, without prejudice or 
vanity, that these works are superior to anything of the 
kind in America; and give evidence of an emulation which 
will in a few years, in all probability, place Albany on a foot- 
ing with the first cities on the continent/^ 

July 12. 1794. — " The extensive and beautiful works, be- 
longing to Mr. Caldwell, situated about a mile north of this 
city, were entirely consumed by fire, together with between 
five and six thousand pounds worth of stock. The whole loss is 
estimated at upwards of £13,000. The fire broke out between 
the hours of one and two in the naorning of Saturday, in the 
chocolate mill, but by what means it caught, no one is able 
to determine. Nothing was saved of all that range, but one 
small kitchen.'' 

These works were soon rebuilt. The plate opposite is a 
representation of the appearance of the establishment, but 
it is not now known whether before or after the fire. 


This association of merchants commenced business on the 
15th of May, 1848. 

The following were its officers : 

William Chapman, President. 
Benj. C.Raymond, IstVice-Pres. 
Thos. Schuyler, 2d Vice-Presi- 
David H. Carey, Sec'y. 

Rufus K. Viele, Treasurer. 

Chas. Wright, M. H. Read, O. N. 
Chapin, T. P. Crook, John 
Tweed! e, Com. of Reference. 

this establishment was completed, where he resided during his life, 
and left a large and valuable estate. 

_~" '^^.rr:-" ,- ■ • — 

-zr . \_: ~ " 

■ -^-- .- . 

-•- ^'' =- > =- 5-i. 

— — - - /:^^ ■ -^ ■ 

f ■ — — 

==:r^^^^^ ^H ~ 

— — .~r 

— -=-.^r— 

— ,^=^ 

-" -[^^S:;/ ^r 


^^:;:"^=r~~,. .srr- 



»» 00 r'cAtoi* 9/ Geant * r7 

.V View of Rkxsselakrv ille, ^Manufactory 

IVie /iro/ic/t^ of J\r JAMES CAIuDli^J^. I.J^^.off/ie C/ry of 
.1/ i'^ ri I/. :\rercfnnt. with a distant Pros/eect dfWwAsowsYdvcr 
and t/ie Seat of Stephen Tan Reufsclaer.£>/J/''><'. 

Custom House. 241 


The custom touse was established in 1833, and was 
thought by some persons to be a proper subject for a little 
ridicule. In truth the business of conducting it was not 
very arduous for the first year. There were then but two 
vessels trading regularly to Boston, namely the schooner 
Visscher and sloop Greorge Washington, owned by Davis & 
Centre, whereas now there are above a hundred. Besides, 
there are several lines of steam propellers trading to difi"er- 
ent ports, which have come on the river quite recently, of 
which we believe the Mohawk was the pioneer. There is 
a line of steam packets between Albany and Hartford, do- 
ing a brisk business, and another to Philadelphia. One has 
recently been established between this city and New London 
and Norwich. And when it is considered what an enor- 
mous quantity of freight is taken overland by the railroad, 
it is remarkable that the packet business should increase so 
rapidly. Mr. William Seymour was the first collector, and 
the first license entered on his book is under the date of 
July 12, 1833. After this became a port of entry, the go- 
vernment made an appropriation for the improvement of 
the navigation of the river. It was contemplated to carry 
a dyke up from a point 25 miles below the head of tide wa- 
ter, at an estimated cost of $860,000, which would efi'ectu- 
ally relieve the channel of the bars that now obstruct it, 
and relieve the business men scattered over an immense re- 
gion of country of the vexations and embarrassments caused 
in various ways by the daily detention of vessels. The dyke 
was constructed a part of the distance contemplated, and 
there abandoned. But it was of great advantage to our 
commerce, enabling schooners of over 200 tons to reach 
the city, and steam boats of far greater tonnage made their 
regular trips at low water. The dyke however went to ruin. 
A few hundred dollars would have repaired the first breach. 
Only a part of the ve-sels trading to this port were registered 
bere; hence the whole number registered from 1841 to 1848 


242 Hibernian Provident Society, 

did not much exceed 500. The Rochester steam boat was 
the largest vessel licensed at our port, being nearly 500 tons. 
The vessel of the largest tonnage that arrives here is the 
steam boat Isaac Newton, .of about 1,300 tons. [These im- 
provements were renewed about 1866, and completed, giving 
more of surface water to the tides.] 


On the 17th April, 1833, Jas. Halliday, Jas. Maher, 
Patrick Cassidy, William L. Osborne, Peter C. Doyle, 
Thomas Gough, Wm. O'Donnell, Michael Cagger, and 
others, were incorporated under the name of the Hibernian 
Provident Society, the avowed objects of which were chari- 
table; "to create a fund by a general subscription among 
the members, which should contribute to their mutual 
advantage; if, by reason of sickness, they should at any 
time become destitute of the conveniences of life ; and also 
to organize in one body a numerous class of Irishmen, re- 
siding in this city, and to concentrate their moral energies, 
so as to bring fairly before the American people the repub- 
lican features of their national character; that a number of 
individuals should combine and reserve a portion of the 
fruits of their industry, while enjoying health and happiness, 
for the establishment of a fund for their support, when over- 
taken by misfortunes or infirmities; especially, that a body 
of men, who have been oppressed in their native land, by a 
despotic government, and who are influenced by the same 
associations and sympathies, and are led on by the same 
devotion in the path of freedom, should associate together 
for the purpose of vindicating their national character, and 
of procuring for themselves, in a proper time, the privileges 
of American citizens." The officers of the society for the 
year 1848, are as follows : 

Patrick Grrady, President. 
John Reynolds, 1st Vice-Presi- 
Joseph Clinton, 2d do. 
John Daly, Recording Secretary. 

Michael Fives, Corresponding 

Richard Brovm, Treasurer. 
Nicholas Markey, Physician. 

Mohawk and Hudson Bail Boad. 243 


This was one of the first rail roads constructed in the 
state. On the 17th April, 1826, Stephen Van Rensselaer, 
George W, Featherstonehaugh, and others received a char- 
ter from the state, for the purpose of constructing a rail 
road between the Mohawk and Hudson rivers; the capital 
stock was fixed at $300,000, with permission to increase it 
to $500,000, or $31,000 per mile, and the time for complet- 
ing the road was limited to six years. The work was com- 
menced in 1830, and a double track completed in 1833. It 
was originally constructed with an inclined plane at each 
end of the road ; the one at Albany a little more than half 
a mile in length, and both of them having a rise of 1 foot 
in 18. The road was laid out 15f miles in length, 6 of 
which were at a level, and the rest of it, with the exception 
of the two inclined planes, had an ascending grade of about 
1 foot in 250. The width of the excavations is 36 feet, 
that of the embankments 26 feet. The deepest excavation 
is 47 feet, and the highest embankment 44 feet. Greatest 
altitude 353 feet above tide water at Albany. Stone blocks 
were placed three feet apart, from centre to centre, laid on 
broken stone, and cross sleepers of wood rested upon them, 
seven inches in diameter and 8 feet long, supporting the 
timber rails, on which were placed iron bars, three-fifths 
by two and a half inches, with the upper corners rounded 
to Ij inches width ; and the width between the rails 4 feet 
9 inches. When the road had been constructed in this man- 
ner, it was found to have cost $1,100,000, or upwards of 
$70,000 per mile, for the double track. The stock sold at 
one time for 30 per cent premium, but subsequently went 
down to 25 cents on the dollar, and the road in unskillful 
hands, was on the point of being abandoned. At this junc- 
ture some of our enterprising men took the matter in hand, 
bought up the stock, and with the assistance of a loan from 
the city corporation, set about a complete reconstruction of 
the road. The inclined planes were abandoned, and by a 
little more circuitous ascent of the rising ground at each 

244 Mohawk and Hudson Bail Boad. 

terminus, and the use of heavy locomotives, it has become 
a popular and profitable concern. The company relaid the 
road with a heavy rail in part in 1843, and fully completed 
relaying: it during the last season. The distance is now about 
17 miles. On the 22 Sept., a train of three cars, filled with 
passengers by invitation, crossed the road from x\lbany in 
30 minutes, and returned in 24 minutes, the speed being at 
the rate of 1 mile in \m. 25s., or 42^ miles an hour. 

The following table shows the comparative condition of 
the company's operations in 1846 and 1847 : 

1846. 1847. 

No. passengers, 174,653 229,401 

Receipts from passengers, $92,194 $110,051 

" freight, &c., 33,641 51,323 

$125,835 $164,374 

Repairs and running road, 41,766 60,310 

Miles run by passenger trains, 45,357 49,674 

" freight, &c„ 16,515 22,821 

Cost of construction to Jan. 1, 1847, . $1,472,966 

Jan. 1,1848,. 1,473,253 

The receipts of the road in 1848 were $60,595; 1844, 
$89,882; 1845, $98,494. The receipts of 1848 were up- 
wards of $175,000. 

The road is fully equipped, as the company own six loco- 
motives, thirty first class passenger cars, twenty-two second 
class passenger cars, thirty-six freight cars, thirty-four bag- 
gage cars. With good management and economy the com- 
pany was enabled to resume its dividends in October, 1847, 
since which it continued to pay regular dividends, every 
six months, until it was consolidated as a part of the Cen- 
tral rail road line. 

St. Andrew's Society, etc. 



This society usually holds its anniversary about the 30th 
of November. It was organized on the 10th of October, 
1803, and celebrated the nativity of its patron saint on the 
30th of November following. At the first election of officers, 
the following persons were chosen : John Stevenson, presi- 
dent, Geo Ramsey, vice-President; Andrew Brown, 2d vice- 
president; Rev. John McDonald, chaplain; Dr. Wm. Mc- 
Celland, physician; William Milroy, treasurer; Archibald 
Mclntyre, secretary; Peter Boyd, assistant secretary; and 
Daniel Gumming, Peter Sharpe, John Kirk, John Grant, 
George Pearson, Thomas Barker, Wm. French, John D. 
Cunningham, managers. It will be perceived that but one 
of the above is now left among us, but their nanies will be 
familiar to the older citizens. The avowed object of the 
society, was to afford relief to poor and unfortunate Scottish 
immigrants, without regard to religious or political distinc- 
tions; and we are informed that its finances are in a very 
flourishing condition, and that a large amount is annually 
dispensed for benevolent purposes. At a meeting held at 
the City Hotel, on the 9th Dec, 1848, the following were 
elected officers of the Society for the ensuing year : 

James Taylor, President. 
Andrew Kirk, 1st Vice President. 
D. D. Ramsey, 2d Vice Presi- 
Peter Bullions, Chaplain. 
James McNaughton, Physician. 
William Gfray, Treasurer. 

James Dickson, Secretary. 

Daniel Campbell, Assistant Se- 

Alexander Gray, Peter Smith, 
Nathan Algie, Hugh Dickson, 
Geo. Young, Managers. 


This Society of Israelities, was incorporated by act of 
legislature. May 7, 1844, its avowed objects being charita- 
ble and benevolent, to afford relief to its members in the case 
of sickness and infirmity. The persons named in the act of 
incorporation, were Moses Schloss, Solomon Mark, Isaac 
Cohen, Lewis Sporborg, and Myer Stern. 

246 Stage and Mail Routes in Olden Time, 


In June, 1785, a company of stage proprietors undertook 
to make the land passage to New York from Albany, " the 
most easy and agreeable, as -well as the most expeditious,'^ by 
performing the journey in two days, at 8c?. a mile; but in 
the fall of the year, " for the ease of the passengers," the 
time of running was changed to three days, and the price 
raised to 4c7. a mile, " agreeably to act of assembly." This 
was a chartered company, the legislature having in the above 
year granted to Isaac Van Wyck, Talmage Hall and John 
Kinney, the exclusive right " to erect, set up, carry on, and 
drive," stage wagons between Albany and New York, on 
the east side of the Hudson river, for a term of ten years, 
and restrained all opposition under a penalty of £200. They 
were to have at least two covered wagons, each drawn by four 
able horses, the fare was limited to 4c7. a mile, and the trips 
to be performed once a week, under the penalty of the for- 
feiture of their charter. At this time the post office at Al- 
bany served not only for the adjoining towns, as Schenectady 
and Greenbush, but also for Orange and Dutchess counties, 
Cherry Valley, &c., and letters were advertised even for 
Vermont. By the post office arrangements of January, 
1786, the New York mail arrived twice a week, Wednesdays 
and Saturdays. The post office business jit this time could 
not have been very extensive, there being but two mails in 
the week, one from New York, and the other from Spring- 
field, which were so unimportant that for several years after 
the routes were called cross-roads in the government con- 
tracts, and terminated at the city. The communication with 
the neighboring counties and states was kept up by post 
riders, who met at certain points and interchanged letters 
and papers, and when the business was not sufficient to sup- 
port them, subscriptions were raised for the purpose among 

such citizens as were interested in their continuance In 

1789 a stage commenced running from Piatt's Inn in Lan- 
singburgh, to Lewis's City Tavern, Albany, three times a 

Stage and Mail Routes in Olden Time. 247 

week, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. The bill of fare 

down and back was 4s.; fare one way 3s In 1790 a post 

of this kind left Albany on Monday afternoon, and reached 
Schenectady the same day ; was at Johnstown on Tuesday, 
at Canajoharie on Wednesday, at Fort Plain on Thursday, 
at Fort Hunter and Warrensbush on Friday, and arrived at 
Albany, on its return, Monday forenoon. The post to Ver- 
mont left the city on Monday evening, arrived at Pittstown 
on Tuesday, at Bennington on Wednesday, at Little White 
Creek and Cambridge on Thursday, at Tomhannic and 
Schaghticoke on Friday, and at Hoosic on Saturday. This 
was also the mode, and almost the only means, of circulating 

newspapers at that day It was mentioned at this time 

(1790), that the trade and commerce of the United States 
had been greatly benefited by the regulations at the general 
post office, whereby the mail was transported five times a 
week between New York and Philadelphia; and the post 
master general had signified his intention to make the same 
arrangements between New York and Baltimore, at the be- 
ginning of the next year In February, 1790, the legisla- 
ture granted Ananias Piatt the exclusive right of running a 
stage between Albany and Lansingburgh. Four years later, 
Mr. Piatt, " grateful for public custom," undertook to run 
his stage twice a day from Lansingburgh to Albany and back. 
In the winter of 1795 he had increased the number of 
daily trips to six. In the summer of 1796, the amount of 
traveling had increased so much as to employ twenty stages 
daily between Waterford, Lansingburgh, Troy and Albany, 

averaging more than 150 passengers a day In 1791, the 

post master general was authorized by law to extend the post 
route from Albany to Bennington, Vt. ; and the first mail 
reached that place on the 25th of March, the anniversary of 
the settlement of the town thirty years before. The printers 
complained of the careless and irregular manner in which 
the New York mail was carried. It appears that the contract 
required the mail to be carried but once a week, though fhe 
carriers generally took it twice, and thereby exceeded their 

contract It may be here remarked, that the length of all 

the post routes in the state, is now, 1848, above 13,000 

miles In 1792, by the act of congress for extending post 

roads, and fixing the rates of postage, the mail route from 

248 Stage and Mail Routes in Olden Time, 

Albany to Bennington was extended through the state of 
Vermont to the north part of this state on Lake Cham- 
plain ; and a post road established from Albany through 
Schenectady to Canajoharie. The rates of postage on news- 
papers were about the same as they are now, with the excep- 
tion of the odious three cent appendage. A post was esta- 
blished in the same year from Albany to Whitestown, as a 
private enterprise, which performed the route once a fort- 
night. Several gentlemen in the Genesee country, esta- 
blished another to meet the one at Whitestown, by which a 
communication was opened between Albany snd thenar wes^. 
The latter post passed through Geneva, Canandarqua, Cana- 
wargus and Williamsburgh. Towns were then few and far 
between. There were but 7 in Saratoga county, 3 in Her- 
kimer, and 4 in Montgomery. Postmaster General Pick- 
ering's advertisements for contracts to carry the mails, also 
proposed to extend the post road west of Albany, "from 
Connojorharrie to Whitestown, and thence to Kanandarqua,^^ 
About the same time a private post was established from 
Niagara to the Genesee river, where it met the one previously 
mentioned, and interchanged letters and papers. By this 
means a chain of communication was opened through the 
whole extent of the state, and the Messrs. Webster in Al- 
bany received and forwarded letters gratuitously to every part 
of the country where there were no mails. Some one proposed 
this year to establish a line of stages from Albany to Whites- 
town, a project which the editor of the Gazette says, would 
have been ridiculed at an earlier day, but which the great 
intercourse with the western country might justify, and 
answer a valuable purpose, if the proprietors could succeed 
in contracting for the mail. In the spring of 1793, Moses 
Beal " erected a stage," to use his own words, " for the 
accommodation of passengers from Albany to Schenectady, 
Johnstown, and Canajohary, once a week.'' It left Albany 
at 6 o'clock on Friday morning, and arrived at Canajoharie 
the next day. The fare was 3c. a mile It returned on Tues- 
day. He proposed to go occasionally as far as Little Falls, if 
desired ? The success of these enterprises emboldened others; 
and we find that one John Hudson, innkeeper, established 
a line of stages to run between Albany and Schenectady, 
three times a week ] and John Rodgers, of Ballstown, ran a 

Stage and Mail Routes in Olden Time, 249 

line from that place to connect with it, by which a regular 
communication was now first established for the convenience 
of those who visited the springs. The fare was 4s. to Sche- 
nectady ; those who continued through were charged 3c/. a 
mile. A still bolder scheme was undertaken, to connect the 
city with the valley of the Connecticut, by a line of stages to 
Northampton. Arrangements having been made in the fall 
of the above year, a stage started from each end of the line 
on Tuesdays and Fridays, in the morning, and met at Pitts- 
field in the evening, accomplishing the entire route in two 
days. The proprietors, in their appeal to the public for pa- 
tronage, remark, that the difficulty of extending a line of 
stages across the mountains, had always been considered 
insurmountable, but reflecting that such an establishment 
would complete the line of an expeditious and sure communi- 
cation from " Portland, in the province of Maine," through 
a rich and flourishing country, to Whitestown, in the western 
part of the state of New York, a distance of upwards of 400 
miles, they had determined to make the experiment. The 

fare was 4c. amile In 1794 the post routes from Albany, 

or centering in Albany, had increased to five, as follows, 
preserving the orthography of the postmaster-general. 1st. 
From Albany to Kinderhook, Hudson, Clermont, Redhook,, 
RhinebeckjPoughkeepsie, Fishkill, Pickskill and New York, 
once a week. 2d. From Albany to Lansingburgh, Benning- 
ton, Manchester, Rutland, Middleburgh, Vergennes and 
Burlington, once a week. 3d. From Albany to New Le- 
banon, Pittsfield, Worthington, Northampton and Brook- 
field, once a week. 4th. From Albany to Kinderhook, 
Stockbridge and Springfield, once a week. 5th. From 
Albany to Schenectady, Johnstown, Canajohary, German 
Flatts, Whitestown, Old Fort Schuyler, Onondaga, Aurora, 
Scipio, Geneva and Kanandaigua, once in two weeks. A. 
branch ran from Canajohary through Cherry Valley to 

Cooperstown, once a week In January, 1795, Mr. John 

Hudson ran two stages, one of four horses and the other of 
two, daily between Albany and Schenectady, and Ananias 
Piatt soon after went upon the same line, making four trips 
a day. The fare to New York by stage this year, was reduced 
to £3 4s. ($8). It is understood that the price was usually 
$10. In the following year it was reduced to $6 in the sum- 
mer; the fare from Albany to Port Schuyler was S2.50; to 

250 Stage and Mail Routes in Olden Time. 

Whitestown, $3...... In the same year also (1796), the mails 

made the transit between Albany and Philadelphia, a dis- 
tance of about 260 miles, in three days, and from Boston to 
Philadelphia in four days, from Savannah to Philadelphia in 

thirteen days The post roads diver" ing from Albany were 

further increased in 1797, through northern towns. A list 
of the roads and distances in various directions from Albany, 
this year, was as follows : 

Albany to Hartford and New Haven. 


Sheffield, 4 

Canaan, 4 

Norfolk, 6 

Dr. Bidwell's, 4 

Phelps's (Green Woods),. ... 5 
Austin's (New Hartford), ... 5 

Case's (Symsbury), 7 

Northington, 4 

West Hartford, 5 

Hartford, 4 

Middletown, 15 

New Haven, 23 

Col. Visscher's and John 

Staats's, Greenbush, 1 

McKown's, 4 

Smith's, 6 

John Miller's 1 

Kinderhook Plains, 4 

Kinderhook Mills, 2 

Buck's Tavern, 5 

Spencertown, 7 

Green river 5 

Derby's, 5 

Egremont, foot of Nabletown 

mountain, 1 

Cook's, 4 

Baker's, in Gt. Barrington, . . 1 


Albany to Nla.gara. 


Humphrey's Tavern, 2 

McKown's, 3 

Douw's, 2 

Truax's, 5 

Schenectady, 4 

Groat's, 12 

John Fonda's, ^ 12 

Conally's, 7 

Roseboom's Fer., Can'joharie, 3 

Hudson's (Indian Castle), ... 13 

Aldridge's (German Flatts),. 11 

Brayton's, 13 

Old' Fort Schuyler, 3 

Whitestown, 4 

Rome (Fort Stanwix), 12 

Whitestown to Laird's Ta- 
vern, 9 

Oneida Castle, 8 

Wemp's, 5 

John Denna's, 7 


Foster's, 5 

Morehouse's, ' 6 

Keeler's or Danforth's,.. . .,. . 5 

Carpenter's, 15 

Buck's, 3 

Goodrich's, 8 

Huggins's, 4 

Cayuga, 7 

Seneca, 3 

Geneva, 11 

Amsden's, 6 

Wells's, 8 

Sanburne's (Canandarqua), . . 4 

Sears's & Peck's, 13 

Genesee river, 14 

Indiantown Tonawanda,. ... 40 
Niagara, 35 


Stage and Mail Routes in Olden Time, 251 

Albany to Montreal. 


Flatts, 5 

Waterford, 7 

Half-Moon, 6 

Stillwater, 4 

Ensign's, 6 

Du Mont's Ferry, 8 

Fort Edward, 12 

Sandy Hill, 2 

Fort Ann, 10 

Skeensborougli, 12 

Dr. Smith's, 8 


Burlington, 70 

Sandbar, 14 

John Martin's, 14 

Savage's Point, 6 

Windmill " 6 

Isle au Noix, 12 

St. John's, 14 

Laperara, 18 

Montreal, 9 


Albany to Boston. 


McKown's, 5 

Strong's, 9 

Schermerhorn's, 7 

Lebanon Springs, 9 

Pittsfield, 7 

Partridge field, 10 

Worthington, 10 

Chesterfield, 7 


Northampton, 13 

Belchertown, 15 

Brookfield, 15 

Leicester, „ 13 

Worcester, , 13 

Boston, 44 


Note. — From Worcester to Boston the country is almost one con- 
tinued village, and houses of entertainment in no instance of two 
or three miles. 

Albany and New York to Philadelphia. 


Greenbush, 1 

McKown's,* 4 

Smith's, 6 

J. Miller's, 3 

Kinderhook Plains, 4 

Kinderkook, 4 

Claverack, 14 

Livingston's Manor, 7 

Swart's, 15 

Rhinebeck, 9 

Staatsburg, 6 


Poughkeepsie, 11 

Fishkill, 14 

Nelson's (Highlands), 11 

Peekskill, 9 

Odell's, 10 

Conklin's, 12 

Kingsbridge, 12 

New York, 15 

Philadelphia, 95 


Nothwithstanding these facilities for travel, the publish- 
ers of newspapers were still dependent upon the postriders 
who traversed the country on horseback, distributing papers 
and letters. The advertisement of one of these is given to 

252 Stage and Mail Routes in Olden Time. _ 

illustrate the subject. It is copied in fac simile from the 
Northern Budget^ printed at Troj, in 1799. 


Aaron Oliver, Poji- Rider y 

'\T7'ISHES to inform the Publick, that he has ex- 
tended his Route ; and that he now rides thro* 
the Towns of Iroy, Pittjiown, Hoojick, Mapletowriy 
Part of Bennington^ and Shaftjbury, Peter/burgh^ Ste- 
phentown, Greenbujh and Schodack. 

All Commands in his Line will be received with 
Thanks, and executed with Punftuality. 

He returns his fmcere Thanks to his former Cus- 
tomers ; and intends, by unabated Diligence, to merit 
a Continuance of their Favours. 

Cfer rugged bills^ and vallies 'wide, 

He ne-ver yet hasfaiPd to trudge it j 
^s Jieady as the fioiving tide. 

He hands about the Northern Budget. 
June 1 8, 1799. 

So little improvement was made in regard to speed, that 
in 1804; a line of staoes commenced running between Albany 
and New York, which occupied three days in the journey, 
lodging the first night at Rhinebeck, and the next at Peeks- 
kill, The avowed object of this line was the ease of the 
traveler, who was allowed all the time requisite to make 
the passage agreeable. As far as time was concerned, surely 
no one could desire to be longer on the road. Fare $8. 
The steam boats soon after this introduced a new mode of 
conveying travelers, and the mail, with ease and comfort to 

Stage and Mail Routes in Olden Time, ■ 253 

the passenger, and a considerable increase of speed In 

1811 a line of stages was formed from Albany to Niagara 
Falls, which accomplished the journey in three days, at the 
following rates: from Albany to Utica, $5.50; Utica to 
Geneva, $5; Geneva to Canandaigua, $5.75; and from 

thence to Buffalo at 6c. a mile In 1814 a line of stages 

was established by a Mr. Hicks, to run between Albany 
and Brattleboro', to carry the mail twice a week, but to 
make the trip between the two places in one day. It was 
thought the journey to Boston could be performed with 

greater safety by this route than any other In 1818 a 

line of stages commenced running between Albany and 
Montreal, on the west side of Lake Champlain, transporting 
the mail three times a week. By continued gradations, 
Albany became the centre of a large amount of stage travel, 
which increased from year to year until about 1830, the 
dawning of the rail road era. Lines of stages diverged to 
every point of the compass, and its streets were thronged 
with vehicles departing and arriving at all hours of the 
day and' night. There were several lines daily to Buffalo, 
to Montreal, to New York, and to Boston. There was a 
line to Boston by the way of Charlestown, N. H., one by 
Brattleboro', Vt., one by Greenfield, Mass., and one by Spring- 
field, Mass., and one by Hartford, Ct. Besides these there 
were numerous less important lines. The firms of Thorp & 
Sprague and Baker & Walbridge, owned an incredible 
number of stage coaches, which were subsequently laid up on 
the completion of the rail roads, and other improvements in 
traveling, and many hundreds of worn out horses went to 
their rest. The glory of this business has departed ; its 
tired horses and tired men have been superseded by the 
iron horse, which never tires. Troy is now the seat of 
staging operations in this region ; a few straggling lines take 
the northern routes over the mountains, and short lines 
penetrate sections of the country remote from the rail roads. 
One line still (1848) occupies the route, over the Cherry 
Valley turnpike, terminating at Syracuse ; through in 24 
hours; fare $2.75, or thereabout. This route accommo- 
dates such as halt at by-places, or are a little doubtful of 
their entire personal safety behind a locomotive. Mr. Jq- 


254 General Hamilton at Quarantine, 

seph Webster, who is the veteran stager of the day, also 
traverses the Helderberg ridge with a six horse team, to 
Rensselaerville, and another line leaves the Clinton Hotel, 
keeping up a communication with Schoharie. Thus rapidly 
faded out a business that employed the largest capital, for a 
time, that was engaged in any enterprise then being con- 
ducted in this city. 


On Monday evening, the 23d September, 1793, the Hon. 
Alexander Hamilton, secretary of the treasury of the United 
States, and his lady, arrived at Greenbush opposite to this 
city, from the seat of government. As they were supposed 
to have been afflicted with the yellow fever then prevalent 
in Philadelphia, the city physicians, by request, immediately 
visited them, and on their return published the following 
certificate : 

Albany, September 23, 1793. 

This is to certify that we have visited Col. Hamilton and his 
lady, at Greenbush, this evening, and that they are appa- 
rently in perfect health ; and from every circumstance we 
do not conceive there can be the least danger of their convey- 
ing the infection of the pestilential fever, at present prevalent 
in Philadelphia, to any of their fellow-citizens. (Signed) 
Samuel Stringer, W. Mancius, H Woodruff, W. McClallen, 
Cornelius Roosa. 

In consequence of which on Tuesday morning an order 
was granted by the mayor, that Col. Hamilton and lady be 
allowed to cross the ferry ; but only after quite a spicy cor- 
respondence between the mayor, physicians, and General 
Schuyler, whose daughter was Mrs. Hamilton. 

Albany County Bible Society. 



This institution seems to have been founded in 1810. The 
first annual sermon was preached bj the Rev. Samuel Blatch- 
ford on the 12th Feb, 1811, in the North Dutch Church. It 
was incorporated by act of legislature, passed April 8, 1811. 
The managers named in the charter were Rev. John M. 
Brtidford, Rev. William Neill, Rev. Samuel Blatchford, Har- 
manus Bleecker, John Stearns, John H. Wendell, Stephen 
Yan Rensselaer, Philip Van Rensselaer, Rev. Eliphalet Nott, 
Abraham Van Vechten, John Woodworth, Douw Fonda, 
Rev. John JMcJimpsey, Rev. Frederick Gr. Mayer. On the 
6th February, 1814, a sermon was preached by Dr. Nott in 
the North Dutch Church, in aid of the funds of the society, 
when a collection of S-71 was taken. The society has been 
in operation nearly 39 years, during which time the following 
ministers have preached the annual sermon by appointment : 

Samuel Blatchford 1811 

Eliphalet Nott 1812 

J. M. Bradford 1813 

William Neill 1814 

Alexander Proudfit 1815 

JohnDe Witt 1816 

J.M.Bradford 1817 

John Chester 1818 

A. J. Stanshurv 1819 

Joseph Shaw ." 1820 

Thomas McAuley 1821 

Walter Monteath 1822 

Henry R. Weed 1823 

John Ludlow 1824 

James Martin 1825 

James Christie 1826 

Isaac Ferris 1827 

Henry R. Weed 1828 

Mark Tucker 1829 

E. D. Griffin 1830 

The whole number of Bibles circulated since the formation 
of the society appears, by the report of 1849, to haye been 

William B. Sprague . . . 

. 1831 

James R. Wilson 

. 1832 

William Lochead 


J. N. Campbell 

. 1834 

William James 

. 1835 

E N. Kirk 

. 1836 

Edwin Holmes 


Thomas E. Yermilyea . 

. 1838 

I. N. Wyckoff 


Ezra Huntincrton 


William B. Sprague. . . 


Edward D. Allen 


Noah Levings . . 


Duncan Kennedy 


W. H. Campbell 


Henry N. Pohlman 


William B. Sprague . . . . 


Allen Steele 


J. N. Campbell 


Benjamin N. Martin . . . . 


256 A Price Current of Goods. 

15,147 ; of Testaments, 20,757. The number of Bibles dis- 
tributed gratuitously during the year 1848, was 465 ; Testa- 
ments, 680. The number sold during that year was 242 
Bibles, 1,342 Testaments. The amount of receipts into the 
treasury during that year was $1,532.77. The whole amount 
contributed to the American Bible Society by this institution 
in thirty-eight years, was $15,638.98. 


Usually imported at London from Albany — July, 1750. 

Beaver coat, per lb 4s 9d to 5s 

Beaver parchment, per lb 4s 9d to 5s 

Indian dressed deer skins, per lb 2s 6d to 2s 3d 
Deer skins in the hair, per 

skin, about , 6s or 7s 

Bear skins, per skin 15s to 16s or 17s 

Raccoons, do about Is 9d 

Cats, do 3s to 3s 6d 

Otters, do ...*. ,.. 7s to 8s 

Grey foxes, do 2s 3d to 2s 6d 

Red foxes, do 3s 6d to 4s 

Martins, do about 3s 4d 

Fishers, do 7s 6d to 8s 

Wolves, do about 8s 6d 

Musquash, do 6d to 9d 

Minks, do about 2s 6d 

Tar, perbbl lis to 12s 

Turpentine, per cwt 10s to lis 

Ancient Commerce of Albany. 257 


It has been the custom with fancy scribblers, since the 
triumph of steam, to amuse the public with vuMdh. facetise at 
the expense of the honest zeevaarderen who were wont to 
navigate the Hudson in the last century, till the youngsters 
of this day have become pretty thoroughly imbued with the 
idea that the ancient commerce of the river is only worth 
remembering for the amusement it affords in that way. The 
real character of the old skippers ought to be rescued from 
such imputations, and their sturdy, honest enterprise placed 
in its true light. We give below the manifest of the sloop 
Olive Branch, Captain Abraham Bloodgood, as a sample of 
what was occasionally done in the way of distant voyages 
before the Revolution. Capt. Bloodgood is still remembered 
by some of the older citizens,* as are also most of the con- 
signors, the memory of whom will be singularly enough 
awakened by this article. The original account of sales of 
this voyage, from which we copy, is in the possession of Mr. 
Robert H. Waterman of this city. It affords a very interest- 
ing diary of the success of the adventure to Antigua and St. 
Christopher's with a very curiously assorted cargo of Albany 
merchandise, consisting of flour, herrings, horses, one negro 
man, and a great variety of the produce of this latitude; in 
exchange for which he brought back eighty-one pounds of 
cotton, a much rarer article then than now, some cash, and 
much rum. 

Account Sales of the Sloop Olive Branch, in a Voyage to the West 
Indies from New York, commencing Nov. M, 1770. 
Sold at Antigua, viz : 

One ton of Flour, the property of Henry Van Ranslar, 
weigliing Nt. 30C. Iqr. 41b — sold for 21s. pr. C. — sold 
to Messrs. Paterson & Hartshorn, £31 16 03 

* He was the grandfather of Simeon De Witt Bloodgood, late of this city, and 
resided in the vicinity of the Fort Orange Hotel. He superintended the build- 
ing of that house for Simeon De Witt, the surveyor-general, while the latter 
was absent from the city. The original Fort Orange Hotel, it is well known, 
occupied the site of the old fort of that name, which stood opposite the Steam 
Boat Landing. It fell a victim to the great fire of August, 1848. The Susque- 
hanna rail road oflace occupies its site. 

258 Ancient Commerce of Albany, 

One ton ditto, the property of John Stevenson weighing, 
Nt. 30C. Oqr lOilb— sold for 21s. 3d. pr C— Mr. 
John Lindsay, £32 05 11 

Sold one ton ditto, the property of. Richard Van Zant, 
weighing 27C. Oqr. 191b, for 2l8. pr. C. — Patterson 
and Hartshorn, 29 02 09 

One ton ditto the property of Jane Van Houser, weigh- 
ing 32C. Oqr. 151b— sold for 21s pr C— Mr. John 
Lindsay, , . . . . 

One ton ditto the property of Doctr. Samuel Stringer, 
weighing 31C. Iqr. 141b.— sold for 21s. 3d. pr. C— Mr. 
John Lindsay, 33 16 02 

One ton ditto, the property of Nicholas Cuyler, weigh- 
ing 27 C. 2qr. 01b. — sold for on an average, a 2l8. 6d. 
pr C. — different people, 29 11 03 

One ton ditto, the property of Peter Silvester, Esqr., 2 

barr's, wg 355 Nt. a 24s 4 05 02 

1 barr. ditto, sold wg 1901b. Nt a 21s 2 01 02 

13 barr. ditto, wg. 248 Nt. a 2l8 26 01 05 

£223 04 07 

Sales of Fish, viz : 

14 barrs. Herring, the property of Col. Philip Schuyler — 

sold a 12s— sold to Bustie Ent\\atch, Esqr £8 08 00 

1 barr. do— sold Mr. Carr 1 00 00 

10 barrs. do, the property of Henry and RobertLansingh, 

a 12s.— Entwich, Esq 6 00 00 

20 barrs. do., the property ef ditto, sold Mr. John Rose, a 

20s 20 00 00 

3i barrs ditto, the property of do., sold a 20. — Mr. Carr. 3 10 00 

£38 18 00 

Sales of Staves, viz : 
7050 Nt. Thd. Staves the property of self and comp'y, a 

£8pr. M. £62 16 00 

32 Ducks, sold a 33s. pr. doz'n 4 08 00 

2 Turkeys, « 7s 14 00 

3 1-2 Bushels of Pease, a 9s 1 11 06 

18 Pine Plank, « 2s. 6d 2 05 00 

15 Ditto Boards, a Is. 6d 1 02 06 

An Horse Arning, ■ . . . 1 10 00 

11 empty water casks, a 8s. 3d 4 10 09 

10 Caggs Pease sold for Mrs. Lynot 3 00 00 

10 ditto do., for do 2 10 00 

2 ditto do., for do 05 06 

2 ditto do., for do 10 00 

3 barrs. of Apples sold for Isaac Van Volkenberg, a 248. 3 12 00 

2 ditto, do. for do. a 20s 2 00 00 

2 ditto, do. for do. « 7s. 6d w... • 15 00 

20 Geese sold for ditto, a 5s 5 00 00 

Ancient Commerce of Albany. 259 

1 ditto sold for do. a 4. 6d £ 04 06 

2 brrs. Apples, sold for William Salsberry , 2 08 00 

2 ditto, do. for do a 12s ' 1 04 00 

2 ditto, do. for do. a 12s 1 04 00 

1 ditto do. for do 1 00 00 

30 bunches of Onions, sold for Mr. Alex. Mac Lean, add. 1 02 06 

2 hhds. ditto, sold for ditto 4 09 00 

11 Bunches ditto, sold for ditto, a7d 06 05 

1 Hhd. do. for do. 122 Bunches, a Qd 3 01 00 

1 Hhd. do. for do, 113 do. a 7d 3 06 00 

150 strings sold at vandue, for do. loose onions. ...... 13 00 

6 empty Hhds. for do. a 8s 2 08 00 

1 small horse for self and Doctr. Stringer 13 04 00 

Sales at St. Chrtstophek's, viz ; — 
1 Sorrel horse, the property of William Hunn marked P. 

V. Z : 7 00 00 

1 small Mare the property of William Pemberton.. ... 14 00 00 

1 Bay horse, the property of Francis Vina, marked H. I. , 7 00 00 

1 Black horse, the property of John Ross, marked I. L. S . 8 00 00 

1 Bay horse, the property of Doctor Sam Stringer, ... 13 00 00 

1 Sorrel horse the property of Robert Henery 17 00 00 

1 Dark Bay horse, the property of Henry Glen, marked 

B. V. B 13 10 00 

1 Blackhorse, the property of Mr. Wemp, marked P.M., 14 15 00 

1 Black horse, the property of Abraham Bloodgood. ... 14 00 00 

2 horses, the property of Abraham Tenbrook, marked I . 

D. &. A. T. B '. 39 16 00 

1 Negroe Man, the property of Mr. Staats, 51 00 00 

Total, £591 01 09 

Jletums from the West Indias, yiz : 
19 Hogsheads Rum for James Bloodgood & Comp'y 0. 

B., containing 2053 gal « 2s 6d £256 22 06 

Hhd's to contain the aboye Rum 21 07 06 

12 Barr's Limes for do 6 08 00 

Cash received at Antigua for freight, 15 10 00 

9 Hhd's Rum for Sundry Shippers, pr. their several 

accounts, 145 17 00 

81 lb Cotton, « 6d 2 0100 

£447 16 00 

These ventures to the "West Indies seem to have been more 
common to Lansingburgh and Hudson, after the war of the 
revolution, than to Albany, from the fact that the editor of 
the Albany Gazette, in 1790, marvelled that the citizens of 
Albany should remain inactiye spectators while their neigh- 

260 Ancient Commerce of Albany. 

bors on the north and the south were " participating in all the 
blessings of this valuable trade." As an instance in the com- 
merce of Lansingburgh, it was announced that the sloop 
Arabia, Capt. Johnson, which sailed for the West Indies in 
June, had sailed again in October on her second voyage 
thither, with a valuable cargo. 

On the 12th of April, 1791, it was mentioned as a con- 
gratulatory event that 40 sail of vessels had arrived at this 
port in one day, or passed it for Troy and Lansingburgh ; 
that 18 vessels, of which 16 were of from 40 to 80 tons lay 
at the port of Lansingburgh, and that the sloop Nancy had 
performed a trip from thence to New York and back in seven 
days. In November of the same year it was again announced 
as an, extraordinary occurrence, that 42 vessels of from 40 to 
100 tons, principally above 70, were at anchor in the port 
of Albany. 

Among other feats of sloop navigation in those days, we are 
told that Capt. William Van Ingen, of the sloop Cincinnati, 
sailed from Albany on the 5th December, 1794, and arrived 
at New York on the 9th; disposed of his cargo, took in a 
valuable freight, and returned to this port on the 16th. The 
navigation had then been uninterrupted for nine months, and 
was still unimpeded by ice. 

The examples of speedy voyages, which were boasted of in 
the last century, read a little oddly now, but yet the sloops, 
under a good wind, were an over match for the steamboats 
for a long time after the latter made their appearance on the 
river. In the year 1794, one Col. Wm. Colbreath, sheriff 
of Herkimer, left this city on Sunday morning, on a sloop 
for New York, and returned on Thursday afternoon, the 
11th, having performed the journey in a little more than four 
days, including a day and a half he was in New York. The 
feat was perhaps as much a matter of wonder and admiration, 
as when the steam boat had been so much improved as to 
make the passage from New York to Albany in 24 hours. 

In the early days of the steam boat, Christian Miller 
being in New York with his son, William C, then a lad, 
and being desirous of getting home speedily to attend to 
business, put his son aboard a sloop, and took the steam boat 
himse-lf, the fare of which was then eight dollars. The 
sloop fare was but two dollars ] but sloops which carried 

Ancient Commerce of Albany. ^61 

passengers, and little freight, drew but little water ; and this 
one, having the advantage of a strong wind, landed at the 
Albany dock before the steam boat. 

But the most remarkable of all the expeditions from this 
port, was the 

Voyage of an Albany Sloop to China. 

In the fall of 1785, the sloop Experiment, 80 tons burden, 
Capt. Stewart Dean, was fitted out at the port of Albany for 
China. It was very properly considered a hazardous voyage 
for so small a craft. She was laden with an assorted cargo, 
for a regular trading expedition, and was the second adven- 
ture from the United States to Canton. She left New York 
on the 18th December, and was absent eighteen months. 
Her return trip was made in four months and twelve days, 
with a cargo consisting principally of teas and nankins. 
Several pieces of costly damask silk were also brought to 
order, or for family gifts. One of the heir-looms in the family 
of a descendant of the mate of the Experiment, residing in 
Schenectady, is a dress, made of the silk referred to, in the 
fashion of that day. Capt. Dean also brought home thirteen 
sets of China ware, to order, for such families as could afford 
and thought proper to indulge in such luxuries. These 
articles were so much valued that they have passed from 
mothers to daughters, down to the present time ; and, though 
much broken and scattered, are objects of curiosity, not only 
from the associations connected with this singular voyage, 
but as showing the form and style of China ware sixty years 
ago. A set which belonged to Capt. Johnson, a revolutionary 
veteran, whose house stood with its gable to the street, on 
the corner of South Pearl and Howard streets, where the 
Centre Market now stands, was divided among his descend- 
ants. One set, however, has been preserved nearly complete, 
and is in the possession of Mrs. Abraham Ten Eyck, in 
Broadway. These sets being mostly brought to order, had 
the initials of the owners' names gilded upon each piece. 

It was matter of surprise to the hatives and Europeans in 
those seas, to see so small a vessel arrive from a clime so 
remote from China, and gave them an exalted conception of 
the enterprise of the citizens of the United States. At some 
of the ports where the Experiment touched, it is said that 


Ancient Commerce of Albany. 

she was atl object of alafm to tlie inhabitants, who mistook 
her for a tender to a fleet of men-of-war. She returned to 
New- York on Sunday, April 22, 1787, without the loss of a 
man during the voyage. On her arrival she was visited by 
at least two-thirds of the citizens, it is said ) very few of 
whom had expected her return. 

Capt. Dean made several voyages to China subsequently, 
when the famous merchant Howqua formed so favorable an 
opinion of him that he was accustomed to send over a chest 
of black tea occasionally for the captain, long after the latter 
had discontinued his voyages. Capt. Dean died in New 
York, a few years since, aged 85, at the house of Mr. Ro- 
derick Sedgwick. 

It is mentioned about this time that a sloop of 40 tons 
had twice visited the Cape of Good Hope without loss, which 
was considered the most difl&cult and dangerous part of the 
route to China. 

It was on one of the Hudson river sloops that Alexander 
Hamilton wrote the outline of his papers, in The Federalist ^ 
while on atrip to Albany. 

The first vessel that sailed to China from the por<t of New 
York, was the Empress of China. Qapt. Greene, who sailed 
Feb. 22, 1784. 

First Practical Steam Boat, 1807. 

Freeholders in 1720. 




Evert Wendell 
Jno Dunbar 
Harmanis Wendell 
Peter Van Brugh 
Joliannis Schuyler 
Antoney Van Schaick 
Mindert Schuyler 
Antoney Vanschaick Snor 
Robert Livingston Junr 
Tho: Williams 
Coonrodt Tennyck 
Joseph Yates Junr 
Jacob Roseboom 
Jacob Staats 
John Rosie 
Wm . Hogan 
Johannis Van Alen 
Jacob Lansen 
Baltis Van Bentheusen 
Hamianis Ryckman 
Fred. Mindertsen 
Daniell Kelly 
Johannis Vandenberg 
Joseph Vansante 
Joseph Yeats Snor 
Winant Vanderpoel 
John Kidney 
Mindert Lansen 
Obediah Cooper "*■ 
Johannis Vansante 
Matthews Flantsburgh 
Tobias Ryckman 

Peter Ryckman 
Wm. Hilton 
Johannis De Garmoe 
Claes Van Woort 
Henry Holland 
John Collins 
Hend : Halenbeek 
Peter Gramoe 
Johannis Ratclif 
Luykas Hooghkirck 
Hendrick Oothout 
Nicolas Winegaert 
Cornells Vandyke 
Johannis Lansen 
Luykas Winegaert 
Ryert Gerritse 
Gose Van Schaick 
Barent Egbertsen 
Bastian Visser 
Antony Bregardes 
Thomas Wendell 
Johannis Tenbroeck 
Antoney Coster 
Danl. Flantsburgh 
Johannis Beekman 
Johannis Wendell Jimr 
Antoney Van Schaick Junr 
Philip Livingston 
Jacob Beekman 
Rev. Thomas Barclay 
David Grewsbeck 
Stephanis Grewsbeck 

Johannis Cuyler 
Nicos: Bleeker 
Abram : Cuyler 
Warner Van Ivera 


Reyner Mindertsen 
Barent Sanders 
Wm. Grewsbeck 
Guisbert Marselis 

1 See Documentary History of New York, Vol. i, page 370. 


Freeholders in 1720. 

Herpert Jacobsen 
Arent Pruyn 
Johaunis Mingaell 
Johannis Hansen 
Seibolet Brigardes 
David Van Dyke 
Johannis Vinliagen 
Abram Kip 

Cornelis Schermerhorn 
Hendrick Tennyck 
Johannis Beekman Snor 
Gerrit Lansen - 
Issack Kip 
Nanning Visser 
Hendrick Roseboom 
Mindert Roseboom 
Andries Nach 

Jan : Janse Bleeker 
Johannis Bleecker 
Christofell Yeats 
Phillip WendeU 
Jan Lansen 
Gerrit Roseboom 
Cornelis Van Scherline 
Johans : Evertse Wendell 
Abram : Lansen 
Johannis Roseboom 
John Hogan 
Johannis Visser 
Benj. Egbertsen 
Johannis Grewsbeck 
Claes Funda 
Wm. Jacobsen 


Isaac Funda 
Samuell Babington 
Gerrit Van Ness 
Albert Rjckman 
Cornelis Borghaert 
Johannis Hun 
Phillip Van Vechten 
Lenord Gansivoort 
Jan : Evertsen 
Evert Janse 
Jacob Evertse 
Jno : Solomonse 
Hendrick Hansen 
Abram : Schuyler 
Derrick Brat 
Johannis Van Ostrande 
Johannis Evertsen 
Tunis Egbertsen 
Derrick Tenbroeck 
David Schuyler 
Win ant Vandenbergh 
Take! Derrickse 
Johannis Backer 
Thomas Long 

John Gerritse 
Elbert Gerritse 
Issac Borghaert 
Cornelis Maasse 
Jan Maasse 
Barnt Brat 

Jacob Borghaert Junr 
Jacob Visser 
Jacobus Luykasse 

Johannis Pruyn 
Wessell Tenbroeck 
Peter Winne 
Jacob Muller 
Johannis Muller 
Samll : Pruyn 
Reuben Ven Vechten 
Cornlis Switzs 
Guisbert Vandenbergh 
Teirck Harminse Visser 
Tunis Brat 
Peter Walderom 
Rutger Bleecker 
Harpert Vandeusen 


Jonathan Stevens Adam Vroman 

William CoppernoU Phillip Schuyler 

Claes Frause David Le^vis 

Teirck Franse Mindert Guisling 

Yellous Fonda Peter Quacumbus 

Freeholders in 1720. 


Abram Meebe 
Benj. Van Vlack 
Marte Powlisse 
Harma Van Slyck 
Sanders Gelon 
Evert Van Eps 
Arent Van Petten 
John Weemp 
Simon Switzs 
Jacob Switzs 
Mindert Weemp 
Arent Brat 

Hendrick Vrooman Junr 
Harmanis Vedder 
Dow Aukus 
Johannis Mindertsen 
Adam : Smith 
Abram Trueax 
Rob : Yeats 
Abram : Lytliall 
Assweris Marselis 
Abram : Groot 
Hendrick Vroman Snor 
Wouter Vroman 
Jno. Baptist Van Epps 
Derrick Brat 
Jan Barentse Wemp 
Barent Vroman 
Jan Vroman 
Gerrit Van Brackell 
Arent Danilse 
Simon Vroman 
Lawrence Chase 
Cornlis Vander Volgen . 
Abram De Grave 
Daniell Danielse 
Cornelis Footman 
Sam : Hagardoring ' 
Guisbert Van Brakell 
Volkert Simonse 
Jacob Schermerhorn 
Jacobus Vandyke 
Helmes Vedder 
Arnout De Grave 

Johannis Teller 
Albert Vedder 
Derrick Groot 
Gerrit Simonse 
Yealons Van Vost 
Victore Pootman 
Jan Delemont 
Caleb Beck 
Nicholas Schuyler 
Johannis Gelen 
Jacob Gelen 
Jesse De Grave 
Carle Hanse Toll 
Daniell Toll 
William Marrinas 
Arent Schennerhorn 
Esays Swaert 
Johannis Vroman 
Andries De Grave 
Joseph Clament 
John Bumstead 
Harma Phillipse 
Jereme Thickstone 
Jacob Van Olinda 
Arent Vedder 
Peter Vroman 
Daniell Janse 
Peter Danielse 
Jan Danielse 
Jan Meebe 
Johannis Peek 
Jacobus Peek 
Claes Van Petten 
Cornelis Van Slyck 
Marte Van Slyck 
Cornelis Feele 
Arnout Brat Junr 
Johannis Vedder 
Tunis Vander Volgen 
Claes Van Petten 
Andries Van Petten 
Jan Schermerhorn 
Wouter Swaert 
Arent Pootman 


Jochim Van Valkenburgh 
Isaac Fansborough 
Casper Rouse 
Peter Van Alen 


Lamert Huyck 
Burger Huyck 
Johannis Huyck 
Derrick Gardineer 


Freeholders in 1720. 

Peter Van Slyck 
Jno : Gardineer 
Evert Wider 
Derrick Goea 
Peter Fausburgli 
Peter Van Buren 
Jno : Goes 
Mattias Goes 
Luykas Van Alen 
Jacobus Van Alen 
Evert Van Alen 
Johannis Vandeusen 
Cornells Schermerhorn 
Johannis Van Alen 
Gerrit Dingmans 

Bartlemeus Van Valkenbnrgli 
Thomas Van Alstine 
Coonrodt Burgaert 
Stephanis Van Alen 
John Burgaert 
Abram : Van Alstine 
Lawrence Van Schauk 
Elias Van Schauk 
Jurie Klaime 
Guisbert Scherp 
Lawrence Scherp 
Hendrick Clawe 
Lamert Valkenburgh 
Melgert Vanderpool 
Lenord Conine 


Robert Livingston Esqr 
Peter Colle 
Killian Winne 
Jan Emmerick Plees 
Hans Sihans 
Claes Bruise 
Jonat : Rees 
Coonrodt Ham 
Coonrodt Schureman 
Johannis Pulver 
Bastian Spikerman 
Nicolas Smith 
Baltis Auspah 
Jno : Wm : Simon 

Hanse Jurie Prooper 
Abram Luyke 
Broer Decker 
Jurie Decker 
Nicolas Witbeck 
Johannis Uldrigh 
ffitz : Muzigh 
Coonrod Kelder 
David Hooper 
Gabriell Broose 
Solomon Schutt 
Jacob Stover 
Johanis Roseman 
Nicos : Styker 


Tobias Tenbroeck 
Cornells Mulder 
Cornlis Esselstine 
Jeremias Mulder 
Derrick Hogoboom 
Cornells: Huyck 
Isaac Vandusen 
Jno : Hoose 
George Sidnem 
Richard Moor 
John Hardyck 
Hendr : Van Salsbergen 
Jacob Van Hoosem 
Kasper Van Hoosem 
Jan Van Hoosem 
Saml Tenbroeck 
Peter Hogoboom 
Rob : Van Deusen 

Casper Conine 

Frank Hardyke 

Johannis Van Hoosem 

John Bout 

Wm : Halenbeck 

Johannis Coole 

John Rees 

Wm: Rees 

Johannis Scherp 

Andries Rees 

Ghondia Lamafire 

Hendrick Whitbeck 

Jurie Fretts 

Hendrick Lodowick 

Jacob Eswin 

Jurie Jan 

Cloude Lamatere 

Nicos : Vanduse Cats Kills. 

Freeholders in 1720. 



Mindert Scbut 
Wessell Tenbroeck 
Wm : Leflferrese 
Helme Janse 
Saml Van Vechten 
Gerrit Van berghen 
Marte Van berghen 
Frank Salisbury 
Jno Brunk 
Minkas Van Schauk 
John Albertse 
Arent Van Schauk 
Michael Collier 
Comelis Van Wormer 

Johannis Halenbeek 
Casper Halenbeek 
Jan Van Loan 
Albert Van Loan 
Jno : Van Loan Junr 
Abram : Provoost 
Jacob Halenbeek 
Jno : Casperse 
Coonrodt Hotlen 
Philip Conine 
Jno : Vanhoosem 
Lenord Brunk 
Peter Brunk 
Isaac Spoor 


Jno : Quacmnbus 
Jno : ffoort 
Jacob Pearse 
Derrick Brat 
Maes Rycksen 
Evert Rycksen 
Gerrit Rvcksen 
Nicholas Van Vranken 
Lapion Kanfort 
Comelis Christianse 

Eldert Timonse 
Jno : Quakenboes Jnnr 
Peter Ouderkerk 
Jacob Cluit 
John Cluit 
Frederick Cluit 
Saml : Creeger 
Derrick Takelsen 
Mattias Boose Snor 
Johannis Christianse 


Jacobus Van Schoonhoven 
Evert Van Ness 
TDaniell Fort 
Corn'ls Vanburen 
Conelis Van Ness 
Isaac Ouderkerk 
Lavinus Harminse 
Tunis Harminse 

Winant Vandenbergh 
Roolif Gerritse 
Hendrick Roolifse 
Jno : De Voe 
Daniell Van Olinda 
Eldert Ouderkerk 
Cornells Vandenbergh 


Saml Doxie Martin Delamon 

Curset Fether Lewis Fele 

Johannis Knickbacker Daniell : Ketlyne 

Derrick Van Vechten Peter Winne 

Johannis De Wandelaer Adrian Quacumbus 

Simon Danielse Abram Fort 


Freeholders in 1720. 


Wouter Barheyt 
Joliannis Valkenburgh 
Jno : Barheyt 
Isaac Van Alstine 
Jacob Scherinerliorn 
Jacob Scliermerhorn Jr 
Johns : Ouderkerk 
Claes Gardineer 
Andries Gardinier 
Hend : Valkenburgh 
Jacob Valkenburgh 
Andries Huyck 
Maes Van Buren 
Corn'lis Van Vechten 
Jonat : Witbeek 
Martin Vanburen 
Barent Geritse 
Jan Witbeek 
Jonas Dow 
Andries Dow 
Folcort Dow 
Jno. Van Vechten 
Gerrit Lansen 
Volcort Van Vechten 
Melgert Vandeuse 
Rut Vendeuse 
Tho: Witbeek 
Luykas Witbeek 
Solomon Van Vechten 
Cap : Hendrick Van 

Philip F'oreest 
Martin Van Alstine 
Albert Roolifse 
Marte Van Alstine Junr 
Jno : Funda 
Derrick Vanderhyden 
Gerrit Vandenbergh 
Albert Brat 
Cornells Van Alstine _ 
Johns : Wendell 

Jan : Van Alstyne 
Adrian Oothout 
Peter Coyeman 
Barent Staats 
Andries Coyeman 
Samuell Coyeman 
Jno : Witbeek 
Coonrod Hooghteeling 
Storm Backer 
Jno : Backer 
Hendrick Van Wyen 
Wm : Van Alen 
Daniell Winne 
Gerrit Van Wie 
Jan Van Wie 
Gerrit Vandenbergh 
Hendr : Dow 
Albert Singerlant 
Evert Banker 
Wouter Vanderse 
Killian Vanderse 
Johannis Appel 
Peter Husyele 
Derrick Hagodoru 
Andries Brat 
Storm Brat 
Ome Legrange 
Johns : Legrange 
Johonnis Simonse 
Nicos : Grewsbeek 
Jno : Oothout 
Mindert Marselis 
Jacob Lansen 
Abram Ouderkerk 
Peter Schuyler Esqr 
Abram Wendell 
William Ketlyne 
Frans Pryn 
Jaac Falkenburgh 
Claes Bovie 
Phillip Wendell 

Pursuant to an Order of Court of Judicature held for the Pro- 
vince of New York on the Eleventh Day of June 1720, Directed to 
Gerrit Vanschaick high Sherif of the City and County of Albany ; 
A Returne of the free holders of the said City and County. 

Gerret Vanschaijck Sheriff 

Description of Albany in 1823. 269 



Albany city, the capital of the state of New York, and of 
the county of Albany, is situated on the west bank of Hudson 
river, near the head of tide water, 144 miles north of the city 
of New York, 30 miles north of Hudson, 6 miles south of 
Troy, and 15 about southeast from Schenectady. In wealth, 
population, trade, and resources, it is next in rank to the city 
of New York, in this state, and takes about the sixth or 
seventh rank among the principal towns in the United States. 
The city of Albany, agreeably to the charter, is one mile wide 
on the river, and extends due northwest to the north line of 
the manor of Rensselaer, holding its width of one mile, and 
is about 13 J miles long, the right of soil of which is the 
absolute property of the corporation in perpetuity. It is 
bounded northerly by the township of Watervliet, and by 
the county of Schenectady; southerly by Guilderland and 
Bethlehem ; easterly by the Hudson or the county of Rens- 
selaer : and, with the small exception noticed below, the 
boundaries have never been altered from the original charter, 
granted in 1686. The area is about 7,160 acres, which also 
constitutes a township, for all the purposes of civil govern- 
ment. Of this extent, only a small proportion is under popu- 
lous improvement, or any kind of cultivation, the western 
part having a sterile clay or sandy soil, principally in wood, 
while the compact population is immediately on the margin 
of the Hudson. To the stranger, the situation of Albany is 
seldom thought pleasing; for the ground is singularly uneven, 
and there is a peculiar dissonance of taste in the plan of the 
city, as well as in the style of its architecture. A low alluvial 
flat extends along the river, and in the rear of this rises the 
river-hill, abruptly, to near the height of the plain which 
extends to Schenectady. This flat is from 15 to 100 rods 
wide; and the hill, which is composed of alternate strata of 
fine blue clay and silicious sand, though deeply gullied by 

STO Description of Albany in 1823. 

some small water- courses, rises, within half a mile of the 
river in the direction of State street, till it gains an elevation 
of 163 feet; thence, for another half mile, the ascent is about 
60; making about 220 feet above the level of the river, in 
the distance of one mile. 

The principal streets of Albany are parallel with the river, 
except State street, a spacious and central one that extends 
from the Hudson to the Capitol, being nearly east and west, 
with several others, less considerable, intersecting the main 
streets nearly at right angles. South Market, formerly Court 
street, extends from the Ferry, at the southern extremity of 
the compact part and near the south bounds of the city to 
State street, and has a large share of population and business. 
North Market street opens opposite this, and extends from 
State street to the northern bounds of the city, and near to 
the Mansion House of Major General Stephen Van Rens- 
selaer. These streets thus extend through the city nearly 
parallel with the Hudson, between which there are several 
other streets, less extensive, as Dock street. Quay street, &c., 
populous, principally occupied with store houses, shops, &c. 
State street extends from the river in a narrow avenue to the 
open area at the meeting of North and South Market streets, 
where it opens to the liberal width of 150 to 170 feet, and ex- 
tends 1,900 feet to the Capitol, with an average ascent of 6J 
feet in 100. The Public Square, an open space of liberal ex- 
tent, spreads a handsome area on the east side of the Capitol ; 
and from the centre of this, Washington street, spacious and 
level, extends westward in a right line on a commanding plain, 
to the junction of the Great Western turnpikes. These streets 
have been laid out in a style which may be characterized as 
modern in Albany, being straight and spacious. North Pearl 
street extends north from State street to the northern extrem- 
ity of the city, just on the brow of the river-hill, and next 
west of North Market street : and South Pearl, formerly 
Washington street, opens on the south side of State street, 
opposite North Pearl street, extending south to the south 
bounds of the city, ranging just at the foot of the river-hill. 
Between this and South Market street, there are several 
other streets, and a compact population, crowded, on the 
North towards State street, but thin in the southern part 
where South Pearl street diverges westward from the river, 

Description of Albany in 1823. 271 

between which lie the grounds formerly denominated the 
Pasture, from their being appropriated to grazing. The flats 
here were originally subject to annual inundation, and though 
recently raised some feet, are now hardly above high-water 
mark. North and South Market streets are the most popu- 
lous and rich, and do by far the most business. But, through 
the compact population on each side of State street, other 
streets extend from the hill to the river, parallel to State 
street, which are closely built, and contain many very valu- 
able brick houses and stores; these are intersected by others 
also in opposite directions, a bare enumeration of which would 
be useless and uninteresting, while it would swell this article 
far beyond the limits assigned to it. 

The position of Albany was first chosen by a commercial 
people, for a military post, that should extend the trade with 
the [ndians, and give to that trade a better security and 
character. Here seemed the head of the tide, and sloop 
navigation; and here the adventurers found a good ship- 
channel so close in with the shore as to save docking, — and 
a fertile intervale of low and rich alluvion, where they erected 
a stockade to guard against surprise by the Indians. This 
was about 1614. 

This establishment was on the bank of the river, in what 
has since been called the Pasture, immediately above the 
Steam-Boat Dock. About 1623 it was enlarged, better stock- 
aded, and called Fort Orange, according to the best accounts. 
A later work was erected on the river-hill, in a more com- 
manding position, but retained the same name, except in a 
very limited circle, where it was called Williamstadt, till 
1664, when the whole country passed into the hands of the 
English, who gave the present name in compliment to the 
Duke of York and Albany, then lord proprietor. 

The charter of Albany, incorporating " the ancient settle- 
ment there as a city," was granted in 1686, a few months 
previous to that of New York, and Albany has now the oldest 
charter of any city in the United States. 

The plan of this city, the style of its public and private 
works, with the whole character of its police and municipal 
regulations, are much improved within the last twenty years. 
Originally, the inhabitants had to consult present conve- 
nience, rather than taste and future elegance, more congenial 

272 Description of Albany in 1823. 

too with the Dutch character; though if Yankee, or Anglo- 
American ostentation, enjoying the ease and luxury of opu- 
lence and progressive improvement, reproach with parsimony 
the ancient character of the inhabitants of Albany, a just 
discrimination may find the happy medium, perhaps, some- 
where between these extremes of national character. A 
Dutch purse, talk as we may about parsimony, contracted 
views, want of taste, &c., &c., is yet a very good thing with 
which to embellish an estate, or a town. The corporation of 
this city was formerly rich, but it became lavish, if not pro- 
digal, though aiming, perhaps, only at liberality and public 
spirit, and it is now poor, and involved in debt. Many 
improvements have been made, but in doing this it is now 
felt that they have been rather in a style of extravagance, 
in which the good people have been paying " too dear for 
their whistle^' " Pride was not made for man,^' or rather, 
too much of it, any more than for cities, or communities. 
Property in Albany is very much depreciated in value, by 
the imposition of taxes, to pay for past follies. But let us 
look at its public buildings and works. 

The Capitol, or State House, erected for the use of the 
legislature, certain ofl&cers of state, the higher courts, &c., 
was in part designed, also, for city officers, and erected in 
part at the expense of the city. The whole expense exceeds 
^120,000, $34,000 of which was paid by the city. This 
building stands at the head of State street, adjoining the 
public square, and on an elevation of 130 feet above the level 
of the Hudson. It is a substantial stone building, faced 
with freestone taken from the brown sandstone quarries on 
the Hudson below the Highlands. The east front, facing 
State street, is 90 feet in length; the north, 115 feet; the 
walls are 50 feet high, consisting of 2 stories and a basement 
story of 10 feet. The east front is adorned with a portico of 
the Ionic order, tctrastile ; the columns, 4 in number, are 
each 3 feet 8 inches in diameter, 33 feet in height exclusive 
of the entablature which supports an angular pediment, in 
the tympanum of which is to be placed the arms of the 
State. The columns, pilasters, and decorations of the door 
and windows, are of white or gray marble, from Berkshire 
county in Massachusetts. The north and south fronts have 
each a pediment of 65 feet base, and the doors are decorated 

Description of Albany in 1823. 


with columns and angular pediments of freestone. The ascent 
to the hall at the east or principal front, is by 15 stone steps. 
48 feet in length. This hall is 58 feet in length, 40 feet in 

Capitol of the State. 

width, and 16 in height, the ceiling of which is supported 
by a double row of reeded columns; the doors are finished 
with pilasters and open pediments ; the floor vaulted, and 
laid with squares of Italian marble, diagonally, chequered 
with white and gray. From this hall, the first door on the 
right hand opens to the Common Council Chamber of the 
corporation of Albany; opposite this, on the left, is a room 
for the Executive and Council of Revision. On the right, 
at the west end of the hall, you enter the Assembly Chamber, 
which is 56 feet long, 50 wide, and 28 in height. The 
speaker's seat is in the centre of the longest side, and the 
seats and table for the members are arranged in front of it, 

274 Description of Albany in 1823. 

in a semicircular form. It has a gallery opposite the speaker's 
seat, supported by 8 antique fluted Ionic columns ; the frieze, 
cornice, and ceiling-piece (18 feet diameter), are richly 
ornamented in stucco. From this hall, on the left, you are 
conducted to the Senate Chamber, 50 feet long, 28 wide, and 
2^ feet high, finished much in the same style as the Assembly- 
Chamber. In the furniture of these rooms, with that of the 
Council of Revision, there is a liberal display of public muni- 
ficence, and the American eagle assumes an imperial splen- 
dor. There are two other rooms on this floor, adjoining those 
first mentioned, which are occupied as lobbies to accommo- 
date the members of the legislature. 

From the west end, in the centre of the hall, you ascend 
a staircase that turns to the' right and left, leading to the 
Galleries of the Senate and Assembly Chambers, and also to 
the Supreme Court Room, which is immediately over the 
hall : its dimensions are 50 feet in length, 40 in breadth, 
and 22 in height. This room is handsomely ornamented in 
stucco. An entresole or mezzazine story, on each side of 
the Court Room, contains four rooms for jurors and the uses 
of the courts. 

The attis story contains a Mayor's Court Room, a room 
for the Society of Arts, for the State Library, and the State 
Board of Agriculture. The basement story contains the 
County Clerk's Office, cellars and vaults for storage, and 
dwelling rooms for the Marshal of the city. In the Com- 
mon Council Room, there are portraits of some distinguished 
Americans, — and before revising this article, I took some 
pains, without success, to look at, so that I could at least 
enumerate them. In the Assembly Chamber, there is an 
admirable full length portrait of Washington, by Ames, of 
Albany, and in the Senate Chamber, one of George Clinton, 
unrivalled in faithfulness, and unexcelled in execution. 
The walls of these chambers are hung with maps, and I very 
lately had occasion to regret the difficulty of gaining access 
to th. m. 

This building is roofed with a double-hip, or pyramidal 
form, upon the centre of which is erected a circular cupola, 
20 feet diameter, covered with a domical roof, supported by 
8 insulated columns, of the Ionic order, and contains a small 
bell for the use of the courts. The centre of the dome sustains 

Description of Albany in 1823. 275 

a pedestal, on which is placed Themis, facing State street, a 
carved figure in wood of 11 feet in height, holding a sword 
in her right hand, and a balance in her left. 

The Public Square, on the southwest of which stands the 
Capitol, has recently been laid out in the style of a Park, 
surrounded by a handsome fence, levelled, laid out into walks 
and avenues, and planted with shrubbery and trees, the latter 
of very diminutive size. - Facing this on the west is Gregory's 
Row, a handsome range of well-finished brick buildings, 
extending also around the corner and up the south side of 
Washington street, on the north side of which there are some 
good buildings, and extending northward, facing the Acad- 
emy Park. Washington street avenue, across the Public 
Square, seems to divide it into two parks, Capitol Park and 
Academy Park, separately enclosed, the latter laid out and 
planted in the same style as the former. On the northwest 
corner of the Public Square, opposite the Capitol, north of 
Washington street, stands the Albany Academy, a large and 
elegant pile of masonry, faced with the red sandstone of Nyac, 
the same as that used in the Capitol. It is truly an elegant 
building, in design and execution the most chaste in the city, 
though in common with every other it is set rather too much 
in the ground, but makes a good appearance and has a com- 
manding prospect. I have not time to describe it minutely, 
nor does it comport with my plan to do so. It cost the city 
$91,802.45, exclusive of the lot on which it is erected, and 
a donation to the trustees of the old jail, and lots of ground 
on which it was situated. It is three stories in height, has 
a front of 90 feet, five teachers, and about 140 students. 
The State Hall, erected by the state, for the principal public 
offices, is a plain, substantial edifice, two stories and abasement, 
situated on the south side of State street, midway between 
the Capitol and the Banks. This building accommodates 
the principal offices of state, such as the Secretary's, Comp- 
troller's, Treasurer's, Surveyor-General's, and the Clerk of 
the Supreme Court's offices. The Jail, probably one of the 
best constructed in the state, cost the city $40,525.86; and 
the Lancaster School House, from a very bad policy, $23,- 
918.93 : to this may be added as an item, that the corporation 
contracted a debt of $32,000 for the purchase of a site from 
the Lutheran Church, for a market. Among the other public 

276 Description of Albany in 1823. 

buildings, we may notice three banks, and twelve houses 
for worship, belonging to Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Lu- 
therans, Baptists, Methodists, some Independents and Sece- 
ders, and Roman Catholics. 

The Arsenal is a large brick edifice, filled with military 
stores belonging to the state of New York, situated in the 
north part of the city, late Colonic. The City Powder House 
stands on the plain at the Washington Square; and a Powder 
House, erected in 1811, by the state, at the expense of S3, 000, 
stands on an eminence of the plain, near the three mile-stone. 
The Alms House is also on the plain, near the Washington 
Square, the annual expense of which, with the support of 
the poor, is about $8,000. 

There are two Ferries, one to Greenbush village, from the 
south part, and one to Bath village from the north part, on 
the border of Watervliet. From the south or principal 
ferry, the docks, or quays, extend north along the river, 
nearly one mile, and the street fronting this is pretty com- 
pactly built for the most of that distance. Here are usually 
seen from 80 to 200 sloops and schooners, with a scene of 
activity honorable to the character of the place. The usual 
tides at Albany are from one to three or four feet; but varia- 
ble according to the wind, and the strength of the current 
in the Hudson. To this city, the sloop navigation may be 
said to be pretty good. 

There are a great many associations for business purposes, 
and many literary, charitable, humane, and benevolent socie- 
ties, which I have not room to notice, and a Chamber of Com- 
merce, Marine Society, &c., &c. There are also an Insurance 
Company, and a Savings Bank. The Albany Library, is a 
very respectable one, as is the Apprentices' Library, and its 
Water Works, for supplying the city with pure and whole- 
some water, are entitled to particular consideration. Ames's 
Gallery of portraits, Mr. Cook's Reading Room, and the Mu- 
seum of Mr. Trowbridge, must not be omitted. The city is 
well supplied with printing establishments, having one daily, 
three semi-weekly, and two weekly newspapers, and printing 
and bookselling business to a great amount. Steamboats run 
daily between this city and New York, and there are stages 
in abundance, daily, in all directions, for Albany is a great 
thoroughfare, and will probably continue such, if nothing 

Description of Albany in 182B. ^77 

more. The Post-Office is well located, in North Market 
street, a little north of State street, near the two Mansion 
Houses, hotels, and the Albany, and Mechanics and Farmers' 
Banks. There are three Air Furnaces in this city, which 
make a very great variety and amount of castingjs ; and there 
are many mechanical establishments, in the different trades, 
though Albany, in proportion to its wealth and population, is 
not conspicuous in the extent of its manufactures, having no 
water-power for hydraulic works. The substitution of steam- 
power, and the very great importance to such a place, of mills, 
factories, &c., seem to have been strangely overlooked. 

But let us turn our attention to the Canals, and the great 
Basin, from which so much is anticipated at Albany. The 
Erie Canal, and the Champlain Canal, having formed a junc- 
tion in Watervliet, 8 J miles north of this city, flow on in one 
channel, which enters the present city of Albany in the Fifth 
ward, late part of Colonie, three fourths of a mile from the 
Capitol, where there is a small Basin, and descends to the 
Hudson in the rear of the State Arsenal, near the north ferry. 
From this place, a Basin is to be made, extending down stream, 
on the west side of the river, about 4,000 feet in length, to 
Hodge's dock, in the line of Hamilton street. It will em- 
brace the west part of the river, extending along in front of 
the city, formed by an outer mole of 80 feet in width, and 
about 18 in height, on the east side of which there is to be a 
street of 25 feet in width. The Basin will be from 80 to 300 
feet in width, averaging 10 feet water. It is connected with 
the Canal, at the upper end, by a boat lock, and with the 
Hudson river at the lower end, by a sloop lock. The works 
are rapidly progressing, and are intended to be completed in 
1824, being more than half finished. Should the Canal con- 
tinue to terminate here, this Basin will doubtless be of great 
importance to Albany, but I rather suspect it will ultimately 
be extended downward to the head of ship navigation. 

The town of Colonie, described in the first edition of my 
Grazetteer, in 1813, has since been consolidated or abolished, 
the northern part being annexed to Watervliet, and the 
southern to Albany, forming the Fifth ward, February 25, 
1815. But for this, this good old Dutch city would not have 
had its Canal, which does not come within the limits of its 


278 Description of Albany in 1823. 

old charter, thougli the Basin will, and extend almost down 
to the first position of Fort Oranu:e, noticed above. 

There are many companies of firemen, well regulated, and 
well provided with engines and other means of efi"ective ope- 
rations. But while a well-timed vigilance guards against 
the ravages of the fire of the elements, it were well to check 
the destruction arising from that of the tiiind. A deplorable 
defect in the system of public guardianship exists somewhere, 
and the small groceries and shops that retail ardent and 
other spirits are so numerous as to call loudly for reform. 

The city of Albany is governed by a Mayor, Recorder, 
10 Aldermen, and 10 Assistant Aldermen, denominated in 
the laws, "the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty." The 
Common Council must consist of 5 aldermen, 5 assistants, 
and the mayor or recorder, to be competent to the enacting 
of laws. For the better administration of justice, the city is 
divided into five wards, each of which elects two aldermen 
and two assistants, with such other officers as are found neces- 
sary to the purposes of government, including, also, the usual 
town officers, such as supervisors, assessors, &c., each ward 
being a town, as respects elections, officers, &c. The charter 
election is held on the last Tuesday in September, and the town 
election, on the day of general town elections in this state. 
A large proportion of the houses are of brick, well secured 
against fire. The whole number of houses and stores is about 
2000. There are also a Mechanic Hall, Uranian Hall, and 
sundry school-houses, in addition to the buildings already 
enumerated. The shipping, including that annually paying 
wharfage in this city, amounts to about 400, principally 
sloops, and an immense amount of business is done, principally 
with New York, though a good deal with Boston, Philadel- 
phia, &c. The shipment of wheat, annually, is probably to 
the amount of two to three millions of dollars. Importations, 
principally from England, are made to a great amount, in 
the dry goods and hardware business, in which are embarked 
very great capitals. The Troy Iron and Nail Works, a very 
extensive concern, is owned in Albany 

The annual expenses of the city amount to about $45,000. 
In 1821, the expenditures were 845,614, including $11,168 
to commissioners of the city stock; and the receipts for the 
same year, $49,507, $14,000 of which was for support of poor 

Description of Albany in 1823. 279 

and night watch, raised by tax. The city debt amounted to 
$250, :M2, for the reduction of which, there was a sinking 
ftind of $106,108, $81,000 of which is in city lands. To 
these notices it may be proper to add, as an evidence of the 
public spirit in which these burdens have been imposed, that 
the corporation of Albany, in 1813. publicly offered a reward 
ot $1,000, for the discovery of amine of fossil coal, if within 
five miles of the navigable waters of the Hudson river, and 
of a stratum not less than four feet. The coal to be sure, 
has not been discovered, but no one will pretend to say it 
never will be, or that such a discovery would not be of im- 
mense importance to the city of Albany, and the public. 

Mills' Island, in the Hudson, a very large and valuable 
one, commencing just below the city, is principally in Beth- 
lehem, partly in Albany The principal obstructions to the 
navigation of the Hudson below this city, to a free sloop 
navigation, are, the bar or bars, or rather the flats, sand-bars, 
and narrow channels, called the Overslcigh^ or Ooerslaugh^ 
in Bethlehem, three miles below, and Winne's Bar, also in 
Bethlehem, eight miles. Attempts have been made, and 
are still making, to remove these, but not with the success 
desired. Should the dam and sloop lock, below Lansingburgh, 
prove as beneficial as it is hoped they may, the same means 
will probably be resorted to here, for the benefit of Albany 
and Troy. The alluvial matter has been steadily increasing 
in the Hudson, say from ten or twelve miles below Albany, 
ever since the first survey of the river, and it is a perfectly 
rational conjecture, that it will continue to increase, and to 
multiply the obstructions to navigation. 

Albany has a Globe Manufactory, entitled to distinguished 
notice, and a Lyceum of Natural History, recently established, 
for which it has a room in tlie Academy. The actual dis- 
tance between Albany and New York, by land, is only 144 
miles, and perhaps no more measured on the ice, but the 
sloop channel may still be safely reckoned, as formerly, at 
160 miles, or very nearly. This city pays annually $500 
towards the support of the Lancaster School, which also 
receives $676 from the school fund, and collects about $250 
a year for tuition money. The annual expense of this very 
excellent school, is about $1400, and the number of scholars 
600 to 800 It jvas founded during the mayoralty, and by 

280 Description of Albany in 1823. 

the exertions of the late Mayor P. S. Van Renssehier, a good 
deed for the people, bj a man of good deeds. 

Population, in 1820, including the annexation from the 
late town of Colouie, 12,630: of this number, there were 
employed in agriculture, 75; in commerce and trade, 468; 
in manufactures and trades, 909; 288 foreigners not natu- 
ralized; 648 free blacks, 109 slaves; taxable property, 
$3,970,070; schools, 1, the Lancaster school receiving all 
the public moneys, an excellent plan, for populous towns; 
public moneys received in 1821, $1,101.98, the school being 
kept twelve months in twelve; number of children therein, 
in 1821, 685: electors, 2,357; acres of improved land, oc- 
cupied, ],515; number of cattle, 654; horses, 653; sheep, 
272: yards of cloth made in families in 1821, 1,023: 1 
distillery. Albany has no water power for hydraulic works. 

The first settlement of this city was made by some Hollanders 
about 16P2, and next to Jamestown in Virginia, it is the 
oldest settlement in the United States. In 1614, a tempo- 
rary fort was erected. Fort Orange was built about 1623. 
Albany received its charter in 1686. And it is worthy of 
remark that this city was enclosed by stockade defence 
against the Indians about 1745, when there were six block- 
houses erected, the last of which with the last remaining 
vestige of that work, was destroyed by fire in the summer 
of 1812. 

Albany is situated in north latitude 42° 39', and 73° 13' 
west longitude, from the Royal Observatory of England. 
Distances from Albany: to the city of New York, 144 miles; 
Philadelphia, 234; Washington city, 373; Boston, 171; 
Hartford, 92; Quebec, 394; Montreal, 247; Buffalo, by 
Utica, by land, 296 ; via Cherry- Valley, 282 ; by the Canal 
360 ; to Detroit, 664. 

The eastern section of the Erie Canal was completed, 
opened for navigation, when boats descended to the Hudson 
at Albany, and the great festival was held, Oct. 8, 1823. 
This completes the line of Canal navigation from Albany 
to Rochester. It was a great day^ celebrated with great 
pomp, a grand display of all sorts of pride and ceremonies, 
attended, probably, by 30,000 people. The Champlain 
Canal was completed September 10, 1823. — Spafford's Ga- 
zetteer^ 1825, 

Dr» Morse's Description of Albany in 1789. 281 


[The following extract from Morse's American Geography 
will serve to correct a very common error in relation to the 
singular position in which the reverend doctor is said to have 
placed the citizens of Albany in regard to the streets! It is 
extracted from the original edition, published in 1789, a copy 
of which we happen to possess. This edition is now so rare, 
that it was with great difficulty a copy could be procured, 
two or three years ago, for the British Museum. It will be 
seen that the people, as well as the houses, are placed in a 
true and proper position, as far as their standing is concerned, 
and the doctor's English will be vindicated.] 

The city of Albany is situated upon the west side of Hud- 
son's river, 160 miles north of the city of New York, in 
latitude 42° 36', and is by charter one mile upon the river, 
and 16 miles back. It contains about 600 houses, built most- 
ly by trading people on the margin of the river. The houses 
stand chiefly upon Pearl, Market and Water streets, and six 
other streets or lanes which cross them nearly at right angles. 
They are built in the old Dutch Gothic style, with the gable 
end to the street, which custom the first settlers brought 
with them from Holland. The gable end is commonly of 
brick, with the heavy moulded ornament of slanting with 
notches, like stairs, and an iron horse, for a weather cock, on 
the top. There is one little appendage to their houses, which 
the people, blind to the inconvenience of it, still continue, 
and that is the water gutters or spouts which project from 
every house, rendering it almost dangerous to walk the streets 
in a rainy day. Their houses are seldom more than one 
story and an half high, and have but little convenience, and 
less elegance ; but they are kept very neat, being rubbed 
with a mop almost every day, and scoured every week. The 
same neatness, however, is not observed in the streets, which 
are very muddy most of the year, except those which are 
paved ; and these are seldom swept and very rough. 

The city of Albany contains about 4000 inhabitants, col- 
lected from almost all parts of the northern world. As great 

282 Dr. Morse's Description of Albany in 1789. 

a variety of languages are spoken in Albany, as in any town 
in tlie United States. Adventurers, in pursuit of wealth, are 
led here by the advantages for trade which this place affords. 
Situated on one of the finest rivers in the world, at the head 
of sloop navigation, surrounded with a rich and extensive 
back country, and the store-house of the trade to and from 
Canada, and the Lakes, it must flourish, and the inhabitants 
cannot but grow rich. Hudson, however, is their rival. 
Other rivals may spring up. 

Albany is said to be an unsociable place. This is natur- 
ally to be expected. A heterogeneous collection of people, 
invested with all their national prejudices, eager in the pur- 
sut of gain, and jealous of a rivalship, can not expect to en- 
joy the pleasures of social intercourse or the sweets of an 
intimate and refined friendship. 

A gentleman of observation and discernment, who resided 
some time in Albany, has made the following observations, 
which, though of general application, I beg leave to intro- 
duce under this particular head. 

To form a just idea of the manners and customs of the in- 
habitants, we must confine ourselves to the Dutch, who being 
much the most numerous, give the tone to the manners of the 
place. Two things unite more particularly to render these 
disagreeable to foreigners; first, a natural prejudice which 
we all possess in favor of our own, and against the manners 
of another place or nation : secondly, their close union, like 
the Jews of old, to prevent the innovation of foreigners, and 
to keep the balance of interest always in their own hands. 

It is an unhappy circumstance when an infant nation adopt 
the vices, luxuries and manners of an old one ; but this was 
in a great measure the case with the first settlers of Albany, 
most of whom were, immediately from Amsterdam. Their 
diversions are walking and sitting in mead houses, and in 
mixed companies they dance. They know nothing of the 
little plays and amusements common to small social circles. 
The gentlemen who are lively and gay, play at cards, billiards, 
chess, &c., others goto the tavern, mechanically, at 11 o'clock, 
stay until dinner, and return in the evening. It is not un- 
common to see forty or fifty at these places of resort, at the 
same time; yet they seldom drink to intoxication, unless in 
company, or on public occasions, when it is thought to be no 

Dr. Morsels Description of Albany in 1789. 283 

They seldom admit many spectators to their marria^jes ; 
but the day after, the groom prepares a cold collation, with 
punch, wine, &c., to partake of which, he expects all his 
friends will come, at 11 o'clock without any invitation. A 
dictator, with absolute power, is then appointed to preside at 
each table, or in each room, and it seldom happens that any 
are suffered to leave the house, until the whole circle exhibits 
a shocking specimen of human depravity. 

Their funeral ceremonies ' are equally singular. None 
attend them without a previous invitation. At the ap- 
pointed hour they meet at the neighboring hou?es or stoops, 
until the corpse is brought out. Ten or twelve persons are 
appointed to take the bier all together, and are not relieved. 
The clerk then desires the gentlemen (for ladies never walk 
to the grave, nor even attend the funeral, unless of a near re- 
lation) to fall into the procession. They go to the grave, 
and return to the house of mourning in the same order. 
Here the tables are handsomely set and furnished with cold 
and spiced wine, tobacco and pipes, and candles, paper, &c., 
to light them. The conversation turns upon promiscuous 
subjects, however improper, and unsuitable to the solemnity 
of the occasion, and the house of mourning is soon converted 
into a house of feasting. 

The best families live extremely well, enjoying all the con- 
veniencies and luxuries of life ; but the poor have scarcely 
the necessaries for subsistence. 

The ground covered by this city charter, is of a thin, poor 
soil. In the river before the city is a beautiful little island, 
which, were it properly cultivated, would afford a faint re- 
semblance of Paradise. 

The well-water in the city is extremely bad, scarcely drink- 
able by those who are not accustomed to it. Indeed all the 
water for cooking is brought from the river, and many 
families use it to drink. The water in the wells, if Kalm 
was well informed, is unwholesome, being full of little insects, 
resembling, except in size, those which we frequently see in 
stagnated rain water. 

The public buildings are a Low Dutch church, one for 
Presbyterians, one for Germans or High Dutch, one for 
EpiscopaMans — a hospital and the City Hall, 

284 Albany in 1796. 

ALBANY m 1796. 

In tlie edition of 1796, the notice of Albany was some- 
what varied, as follows : 

Many new houses have lately been built in this city, all in 
the modern style, the inhabitants are paving the streets in 
the New York plan, with foot-ways, and making other im- 

The city of Albany contains about twelve or fourteen hun- 
dred houses, and 5000 inhabitants, collected from various 
parts. As great a variety of languages are spoken in Al- 
bany, as in any town in the United States, but the English 
predominates, and the use of every other is constantly lessen- 
ing. Adventurers, in pursuit of wealth, are led here by the 
advantages for trade which this place affords. 

Albany is unrivalled in its situation. It stands on the 
bank of one of the finest rivers in the world, at the head of 
sloop navigation. It enjoys a salubrious air, as is evinced 
by the longevity of its inhabitants. It is the natural em- 
porium of the increasing trade of a large extent of country 
west and north; a country of an excellent soil, abounding 
in every article for the West India market; plentifully 
watered with navigable lakes, creeks and rivers ; as yet only 
partially peopled, but settling with almost unexampled rapid- 
ity, and capable of affording subsistence and affluence to 
millions of inhabitants No part of America affords a more 
eligible opening for emigrants than this. And when the 
contemplated locks and canals are completed, and conve- 
nient roads opened into every part of the country, all which 
will, it is expected, be accomplished in a few years, Albany 
will probably increase and flourish beyond almost every other 
city or town in the United States. The trade of Albany, 
indeed, already increases with great rapidity. They sensi- 
bly feel the good effects of establishments made immediately 
after the peace. These effects will multiply when the im- 
mense quantities of produce which are now sold to supply 
the multitudes of new settlers (who will soon be able to sup- 

Albany in 1776. 


ply themselves), shall be diverted from these channels and 
sent to Albany. 

The well water in the city is extremely bad, scarcely 
drinkable by those who are not accustomed to it. It oozes 
through a stiff blue clay, and it imbibes in its passage, the 
fine particles common to that kind of soil. This discolors 
it, and when exposed any length of time to the air, it ac- 
quires a disagreeable taste. Indeed all the water for cook- 
ing is brought from the river, and many families use it to 
drink. But the inhabitants are about to remedy this incon- 
venience by constructing water-works, to convey good water 
into the city. 

At Bath, opposite this city, a large, neatly finished, and 
ingeniously constructed hathiny-liouse has lately been erected, 
divided into four apartments in which the visitants may be, 
accommodated at pleasure, with a warm, cold, or shower bath, 
only by the turning of a cock. 

The public buildings are a Low Dutch church, one for 
Presbyterians, one for Grermans or High Dutch, one for 
Episcopalians, a hospital, the city hall, a handsome brick 
gaol, and the city hotel. 

A bank was established here in 1794. 

286 Bond of the Aldermen of Schenectady^ 1766. 


[The following is printed from the autograph copy, found 
among the Vrooman papers, of a bond given by the alder- 
men and assistants of Schenectady, in 1766 to carry out 
certain measures in case of their being sworn into office. 
The orthography and capitalizing of the original is pre- 
served throughout.] 

Know all men by these Presents, That wee John Sanders 
Caleb Beck, Abraham Fonda Joseph R. Yattes, John Glen 
Junr. & Ryer Schermerhorn Esqrs. Ellected aldermen for 
the Borrough town of Schenectady, and Henry Glen, Nicolas 
Van Petten, John Visger, Junr. Abm. Wemple, Nicolas 
Degraaf, & Andries Truax Gentlemen Ellected Assistants 
for said Borrough, are Jointly & Severally held & firmly 
bound unto Isaac Vrooman & John Duncan Esqrs. of said 
Borrough in the Sum of five hundred Pounds Current Money 
of the Province of New York to be paid to the said Isaac 
Vrooman & John Duncan for which Payment well & truly 
to bee made wee hereby bind ourselves severaly & Joinly 
firmly by these Presents Sealed with our Seals dated this 5th 
day of Deer. 1766, in the Seventh Year of His Majestys 

The Condition of this Obligation is Such That if the above 
Bounden Aldermen & assistants as above, Shall do well & 
truly Qualify in their respective Ofices as aldermen & assist- 
ants for the Borrough of Schenectady within Eight days 
after the Governor Grants a New or additional Charter for 
the said Borrough with the Alterations or Amendments to 
the Present Charter of the following Articles Vizt. Th it the 
Boundarys of the Corporation shall be extended according 
to letters Pattent, dated Novr. 6th. 1764, And that the Al- 
dermen shall not be for life, but that they shall be Ellected 
Yearly or Every three years, as the Governor shall be pleased 
to Grant, And that none of the Inhabitants of said Borrough 
shall be Oblig'd to take out a Licence for there Wagons but 
to use them at there will and Pleasure And that the Children 
of the Freeholders and free men give a Certain Sum Not 
Exceeding Six Shillings for there freedome then this Ob- 

Family Itecordfrom the Gi^oesheck Bible . 287 

ligation to be Void and of no Effect otherwise to remain in 
full force. John /Sanders 

Sealed and Delivered Caleb Beck 

in the presence of us ^ 7 7 r-r 7 

Matthew Lynd Abraham ±onaa 

Alexander Campbell Joseph R. YateS 

J no Glen Jr. 
John Glen Jr for Ryer Schermerhorii 
Signed Sealed & delivered by Jno Glen Junr. for 
Kyer bchermerborn, in Presence of us 

Alexander Campbell 

Edward Burrovves Henry Glen 

Si^d Seald & Deliverd in the Presenc of us JSficola es Van petteil 
By Andr. Truax ^ , ^r • t 

John Visger John Visger Jr. 

Alexander Campbell ^^^ Wempel 

Aendres Truax 
nicolas degraf 


Now in the Possession of DAVID GROESBECK of Albany. 

1724 Nov 8. I, David Groesbeck senior, married Maria Van Der 

Poel who died January 18, 1757. 

1725 Aug 2. My son William was born. Died Oct 3, 1752. 

1726 Dec 24. My daughter Catrina was born. Died Jan 1,1732. 
1728 Aug 5. My son Da\dd was born (m. 1752). Died Mar 30, 1795. 
1730 Apr 30. My daughter Mary was born. Died Jan 26, 1732. 
1732 Apr 13. My son Melleghast was born. Died Sep 18, 1748. 
1734 Feb 23. My son John was born. Died Jan 23, 1737. 

1736 Apr — . My son Abram died (born dead ?). 

1737 May 8. My daughter Cathryna was born. 

1739 Apr 30. My daughter Gertruy was born. Died Aug 25, 1745. 
1741 Jul 12. My son John was born. 

1745 Mar 12. My daughter Catelyna was born. Died Jan 6, 1766. 
1766 (1763 ?). David Groesbeck senior died. 

1692 Mar 17. My father (David Groesbeck sen, son of WiUiam Claas 

Groesbeck) was born. 
1763 Feb 3. My father died. 

1752 Dec 23. I, David Groesbeck jim, married Catrina Vedder, 

1753 Jun 17. My son William was born. 

1754 Nov 30. My son CorneMs was born. 
1754 Dec 15. My wife died. 

1765 Sep 28. I married Sara Winne, who was born July 21, 1734 ; 

died 20th April, 1818. 
1795 Mar 30. David Groesbeck junior died. 
1818 Apr 20. Sarah Winne, his widow, died. 

288 Banks. 


The banks are open every day in the year, from ten A. M. 
to two P. M. except Sundays and holidays. The interest 
for discount in the banks in this city, is fixed at 7 per centum 
per annum. Three days of grace are allowed, und the dis- 
count taken for the same. Every bill or note offered for 
discount, must be delivered the day preceding the day of 
discount. Bills or notes lodged at the banks for collection, 
when protested for non-payment, the person lodging the same 
pays the charge of protest. Deposits of money, or notes for 
collection, must be entered in dealer's book at the time of 
deposit. No interest allowed on deposits. 

The first bank that went into operation in this city was 
the Bank of Albany, incorporated 10 April, 1792, and was 
the second bank chartered in this state, and the fourth in 
the union. It failed 11 May, 1861. 

A great many projects were on foot in the year 1792. 
The capitalists were eager for a bank, and a meeting was 
called on the 3d of February, at Lewis's Tavern (south side 
of State street, corner of Pearl, removed to widen the street), 
to discuss the subject. At this meeting came Goldsbrow 
Banyar, who was opposed to the enterprise. What will you 
do with the money? demanded he, contemptuously. 1 ivill 
take the whole of it! respoi]ded James Caldwell, fiercely. 
There was at this time, it is believed, but one bank in the 
state, the Bank of New York, the stock of which was fifty 
per cent above par. It was decided that the interests of the 
northern part of the state required the location of a bank at 
Albany. Some one writing for the newspapers, confidently 
asserted that a hundred thousand dollars would be subscribed 
in a few hours in the city alone; but it was liberally resolved 
that the neighboring places should be permitted to share in 
the honors and emoluments of the enterprise. At a subse- 
quent meeting, the outlines of a plan for the establishment 
of a bank were presented. The name of the institution to 
be The Albany Bank ; the capital, $75,000, to be divided 
into 500 shares, of $150 each; $15 to be paid on subscribing, 

Banks. 289 

and the remainder in three installments ; 13 directors to con- 
stitute the board, 9 of whom to be residents of the city. 
Jeremiah Van Rensselaer, Jacob Vanderheyden, and Barent 
Bleecker, were to open the books for subscriptions in the 
week following, and to close them as soon as five hundred 
shares should be subscribed. Accordingly the committee 
opened the books on the 17th of February, and the stock 
was overrun in amount in less than three hours. After the 
books were closed offers of 10 per cent advance were made 
on the stock, and on Saturday, the day following, it rose to 
one hundred per cent, cash. Application was immediately 
made, to the legislature for a charter, and as the prospect of its 
being granted was more or less doubtful during tlie progress 
of the bill, the price of the stock rose or fell, creating no little 
excitement and speculation in this quiet region, where stock 
transactions were quite a novelty. At one time it is said to 
have stood at |100 premium on a share, upon which only 
$15 had been paid. Stephen Van Rensselaer was elected 
president. Towards the close of the session the act of incor- 
poration became a law. The first election of directors was 
held on the 12th of June, at the City Tavern, and resulted 
as follows; Abraham Ten Broeck, Cornelius Glen, Stephen 
Van Rensselaer, Jeremiah Van Rensselaer, John Maley, 
Abraham Van Vechten, Henry Cuyler, John Stevenson, 
James Caldwell, Jacob Vanderheyden, Goldsbrow Banyar, 
Daniel Hale, Elkanah Watson. At a meeting of the direc- 
tors thus chosen, Abraham Ten Broeck was elected president. 
The bank was opened for deposits on the 16th of July, and 
began to discount on the 17th. The rate of interest was 6 
per cent. In September, notice was given that notes of 45 
days only would be discounted. The act of incorporation 
limited the capital stock to $260,000 ; each share to be 400 
Spanish milled dollars, or its equivalent. This did nut ex- 
haust the idle capital, and those who were unable to get bank 
stock, proposed to build an aqueduct. Whether they de- 
signed to throw cold water on the former project does not ap- 
pear, but it will be allowed that their scheme promised to 
furnish an equally useful circulating medium. 

In the month of January, 1794, in accordance with the 
provisions of the charter, the capital of the bank was in- 


290 Banks. 

creased $54,000, being 135 shares, at $400 each ; and there 
being a larger amount subscribed for than was required, a 
committee, consisting of Jeremiah Van Rensselaer, Jacob 
Van Derhejen and John Maley, appointed for the purpose, 
made the following distribution : 

Ninety-four persons, 1 share each 94 

Five " 2 " " 10 

One " 3 " " 3 

One " 8 " " 8 

Two " 10 " '' 20 

Making, as above 135 shares. 

By subsequent enactments of the legislature, and by sub- 
scriptions on the part of the state, the capital of the bank was 
increased to $320,000, and it continued at that amount until 
the year 1820, when the sum of $100 on each share was re- 
turned to the stockholders, thus reducing the capital of the 
bank one-fourth, and the value of each share to $300. 

In the year 1832, when the charter of the bank was ex- 
tended to January, 1855, for the purpose of more widely 
diffusing the stock of the bank, the par value of the shares 
was reduced to the sum of thirty dollars, and the number 
thereof proportionably increased. 

The first building used for a banking house was an old- 
fashioned Dutch edifice, standing on the Caldwell lot in 
North Pearl-street, third north of State-street, and which 
was then owned by Casparus Hewson. In February, 1794, 
the bank purchased the lot now next north of the Merchants' 
Bank, and subsequently erected thereon a building for bank- 
ing purposes, and occupied the same until the year 1810. 
The same building was subsequently used for the post office. 
In the year 1809, the bank purchased the property on the 
corner of State and Court streets, now Broadway, and erected 
thereon a splendid banking house. This building was occu- 
pied by the bank from February, 1810, until the year 1832, 
when it was torn down for the purpose of widening State 
street, and the award made to the bank by the commissioners 
for the property taken was forty-seven thousand dollars. 
During this year the bank succeeded in procuring a lease for 
the term of 21 years of the lot No. 42 State street, on which 

Banks. 291 

a building was also erected by the bank, and by tbe terms of 
the lease the value thereof was to be appraised at the expir- 
ation of the above term, and the value thus fixed was to be 
paid to the bank by the lessor. 

Before the expiration of the lease, they purchased the lot, 
on which the Merchants' National Bank now stands, and 
erected the building now standing there. 

The affairs of the bank were long managed with great 
prudence and considerable ability; and in proportion to its 
capital, it possessed more specie than any other bank in the 
country. The current price of its stock was from 45 to 50 
per cent above par. 

The presidents of the bank, from 1792 to 1861, when it 
failed, were 

Abraham Ten Broeck 1792 to 1798. 

Jeremiah Van Rensselaer 1798 to 1806. 

Philip S. Yan Rensselaer 1806 to 1810. 

Dudley Walsh 1810 to 1814. 

John Van Schaick 1814 to 1820. 

Barent Bleecker 1820 to 1840. 

Jacob H. Ten Eyck 1840 to 1861. 

During this period of seventy years, there were but four 
cashiers, namely: Gerrit W. Van Schaick, 1792 to 1815; 
John Van Zandt, 1815 to 1832; Jellis Winne, Jr. 1832 to 
1849; E. E. Kendrick, 1849 to 1861. Of the presidents 
and cashiers only the last incumbents are living in 1869. 

James Van Ingen and Harmanus P. Schuyler were the 
first clerks ; and on the appointment of James Van Ingen 
to a clerkship in the house of assembly, John Van Zandt 
was appointed his successor, in which capacity he was con- 
tinued till his promotion to the office of cashier, in the year 

The late John W. Yates was for many years a teller in 
this bank, and it was probably owing in a great measure 
to the business habits acquired and the discipline enjoined 
in discharging the duties pertaining to that station, that 
secured to him the appointment of cashier of the New York 
State Bank in the year 1803. 

July 26, 1792. Resolved, That the cashier cause to be 
engraved bills of the following denominations; 

292 Banks. 

One bill of 25; 1 bill of 30; 1 bill of 40; 1 bill of 50. 
The said bills to correspond with the paper intended for 
half-dollar bills. 

Sept. 29, 1792. Resolved, That from and after the 27th 
inst., no discount will be made on notes or bills having more 
than 45 days to run. 

On the same day they resolved to discount notes for gentle- 
men residing in Troy, Schenectady and Waterford, and in 
the Colonic. 

Sept., 1795. The President presented a letter signed by 
Philip Schuyler, David Brooks and John Cantine, requesting 
the Loan of $1,500 for the purpose of treating with the 
Oneida Indians. It was done. 

Oct., 1796. Resolved, That the cashier be requested to 
send $30,000 in specie to New York, by Capt. Matthew 
Trotter, to take up our notes in the New York Bank to that 

Novr. 27, 1800. Resolved, That John Willard be ap- 
pointed an additional clerk to this bank, at the salary of 
three hundred dollars pr. annum; that his duties be pointed 
out to him by the cashier, and that two sureties be taken, in 
the sum of four thou&and dollars, for the true performance 
of his duties. 

24th Jany., 1801. Resolved, That the great calls on the 
bank for money to sustain the wheat and potash speculations, 
will render it inconvenient to receive the paper of any other 
bank for the space of one mouth after this day. 

Resolved, That Stephen, Philip S. Van Rensselaer, 
and Simeon Dewitt, be a committee to call on Messrs. Aaron 
Burr, Brockholst Livingston, and Richard Harrison, direc- 
tors of the Manhattan Bank, for the purpose of enquiring 
of them whether it is the intention of the directors of said 
bank to establish a branch in this place, or its neighborhood. 
If so, the directors of the Bank of Albany think it necessary 
to apply to the legislature of this state for a declaratory act 
against it. If, however, the directors of the Manhattan 
Bank think proper to enter into an agreement with the 
Bank of Albany not to establish a branch at Albany or its 
neighborhood, that in such c^se they are not disposed to 
make the application with intention to injure them; and 
that the committee make report as soon as convenient. 


Banks. 293 

New York State Bank. — This was tlie second banking 
institution in Albany, and went into operation in 1803. 
The bank was incorporated with a capital of $460,000. At 
a meeting of the directors on the 25th of March, 1803. John 
Tayler was chosen president, and John W. Yates, cashier. 
It commenced business on Wednesday, Sept. 7; banking 
hours from 9 to 12, and from 2 to 4. Notes offered for 
discount were to be drawn payable at the bank, unless the 
drawer resided in the city of Albany or New York. Dis- 
counts were made for 36 days. In December the bank 
altered its hours of business, opening at 9, and closing at 2. 
On the 10th May, 1804, they commenced business in their 
new bankiog house, where they have ever since continued. 
By the act of incorporation, the comptroller, together with 
John Tayler, Thomas Tillotson, Abraham Gr. Lansing, Peter 
Gansevoort, Jr., Elkanah Watson, John R. Bleecker, Francis 
Bloodgood, John Robison, Gilbert Stuart, John de Peyster 
Douw, Richard Lush, and Thomas Mather, were constituted 
the first directors. The business was to be confined to the 
city of Albany, the rate of interest to be 6 per cent., and 
the state reserved the right of subscribing 3,000 shares. 
Thomas Mather, who died in 1850, was the last survivor of 
this board. Gorham A. Worth was the first teller. 

At the first meeting of the board, the directors appointed 
a committee to obtain from the Bank of Albany a supply of 
bank paper on which to print their first notes. That com- 
mittee, at a subsequent meeting of their board, reported 
that the directors of the Bank of Albany " deemed it inex- 
pedient to supply the State Bank with paper.'^ 
• At a meeting of the board, Sept. 9, 1803, it was resolved 
that $20,000 in specie should be remitted to the Manhattan 
Bank, and the cashier, associated with a director, was ap- 
pointed to carry the resolution into effect. 

On the 7th of Dec. 1803, the board " Resolved, That the 
president deliver to the cashier 1,000 sheets of bank paper 
for the purpose of printing." 

The lot on which the bank stands was purchased of the 
late Isaiah Townsend. Smith & Boardman were th-e builders. 
Philip Hooker, architect. 

The late Francis Bloodgood succeeded Gov. Tayler as 
president, and upon his demise, Rufus H. King was elected 

294 Banks. 

president in 1840; and upon his death in 1867, Gen. 
Franklin Townsend was elected to the office. 

Mr. Yates died in 1828, and was succeeded as cashier by 
his son Richard Yates, whose successor was A. D. Patchin. 
J. B. Plumb succeeded Mr. Patchin, and was in turn suc- 
ceeded by John H. Yan Antwerp, now (1869) in office. 

In 1850 the charter of the bank expired, when it closed 
up its business, paying back to its stockholders their capital 
with a handsome surplus. Under the same name, with new 
articles of association, and the same officers, it commenced 
business on the 1st Jan., 1851. Nearly all the old stock- 
holders subscribed for equal amounts in the new association. 

The Mechanics and Farmers' Bank, the third bank 
in Albany in order of time, was incorporated in 1811. The 
history of the origin and infancy of this institution, would be 
quite interesting to the present generation, since there were 
some phases in banking operations at that remote period, 
which are unknown now. The capital stock was limited to 
600,000 dollars. The first election for directors was held 
on Monday, June 1, 1812. It seems to have been very 
generally understood among the stockholders for some time 
previous, that two federalists should be admitted into the 
board, the directors named in the law being all democrats; 
but whose seats should be vacated for their admission, was 
not so easily agreed upon. The election opened at 10 o'clock, 
at the Columbian Hotel, in Court street, and was continued 
to a late hour in the afternoon. It was a warm and animated 
contest, and finally resulted in the election of the following: 
Solomon Southwick, president; Benjamin Knower, Elisha 
Dorr, Isaac Denniston, Benjamin Yan Benthuysen, William 
Fowler, George Merchant, Thomas Lennington, Giles W. 
Porter, Willard Walker, Walter Weed, Peter Boyd and Isaac 
Hutton. The two latter were elected in the place of Spencer 
Stafi'ord and John Bryan. Of that board it is believed there 
are no survivors. The bank was chartered ostensibly for the 
benefit of the mechanics and farmers of Albany county. 
In 1834, notice was given of an application to the legislature 
for an amendment of the charter, so as to authorize the election 
of president and directors without reference to the pursuits or 
employments in which they may be engaged. 


Banks, 295 

Gorham A. Worth, who had been teller of the New York 
State Bank, and was afterwards president of the City Bank 
in New York, was the first cashier of this institution, and 
brought his kinsman, Thomas W. Olcott, from Hudson to 
fill the office of clerk. Mr. Olcott long since rose, by regular 
gradations, to fill the highest office in the institution, which 
he not only still holds, but has acquired a world wide dis- 
tinction as a banker. Under his direction, the bank has 
ever been conducted with signal ability and success. In 
1853, on the second expiration of its charter, it closed up its 
business, dividing, besides the par value of its stock, fifty per 
cent surplus, and went into operation under the new law, 
with the same officers. During the war of the rebellion it 
again wound up its afi"airs, and came under the National 
bank system; which, however, it abandoned in 1868, and is 
now doins; business under the laws of this state. 

o ... 

The Commercial Bank, the fourth banking institution 
in this city, was incorporated in 1825. An attempt was 
made as early as 1813 to establish a bank under this title, 
with a capital of $1,250,000; but it did not succeed, and 
the present bank never had any connection with that enter- 
prise. The first directors were: Willard Walker, Joshua 
Tuffs, George W. Stanton, Lewis Benedict, William Cook, 
David D. Gregory, Seth Hastings, Ira Jenkins, Joseph 
Alexander, Robert Gilchrist, Richard Marvin, John Town- 
send, Asa H. Center. It is believed that but one of these 
survives (1869). Joseph Alexander was elected the first 
president, and held the office until the defalcation of Cashier 
Bartow, in October, 1835. The bank has at different times 
lost nearly the whole amount of its capital, by peculation ; 
but by extraordinary good management recovered itself again, 
and enjoys a high reputation for its soundness, and the 
amount of business transacted. The Albany Savings Bank^ 
the oldest institution of the kind in the state, incorporated 
in 1820, is connected with this bank. 

The Canal Bank was incorporated in 1829, with a 
capital of 8300,000. John T. Norton, Jeremiah Clark, 
Edward C. Delavan, Lyman Root, Israel Smith, John J. 
Godfrey, Aaron Thorp, David Wood, Henry L. Webb, 
James Gould, Alexander Marvin, Edwin Croswell, James 
Porter, Richard Varick DeWitt, Lyman Chapin. John 

296 Banks. 

T. Norton was elected the first president, and Theodore 
Olcott, cashier. In 1848 it failed. It was the first bank 
failure in Albany. 

The Albany City Bank was incorporated in 1834, 
with a capital of 8500,000. The first directors were Erastus 
Corning, Chauncej Humphrey, Martin Van Alstyne, John 
Knower, Samuel S. Fowler, John L. Schoolcraft, Garret W. 
Ryckman, Anthony Blanchard, William Smith, William 
Seymour, Peter Wendell, Thomas M. Burt, Albert Gallup. 
Erastus Corning was elected the first president, and Watts 
Sherman was appointed cashier. It has been eminently 
successful, and is still under the presidency of the first in- 
cumbent, although but five of the original directors survive 
in 1869. 

The Albany Exchange Bank was incorporated in 
1838, to continue 662 years, with a capital of 8311,100, pri- 
vileged to increase it to 810,000,000. It was among the 
earliest associations under the general banking act, passed 
in April of that year. Its first board of directors was com- 
posed of John Q. Wilson, president; Geo. AV. Stanton, vice- 
president ; Alfred Douglas, Galen Batchelder, Frederick J. 
Barnard, Lansing G. Taylor, John Thomas, Robt. Hunter, 
Oliver Steele, Henry Greene, J. M. Newton, Jas. McNaugh- 
ton, Giles Sanford, Samuel Stevens, and Robt. L. Noyes. 
Soon after the organization, and before the institution com- 
menced business, John Q. Wilson and Robert Hunter 
resigned as directors, and Ichabod L. Judson and Gaylor 
Sheldon were appointed to fill the vacancies. A vacancy 
thus arising in the office of president, George W. Stanton 
was elected president, which office he filled until his death in 
April, 1849. 

The following statement of its financial vicissitudes was 
published anonymously. As a bank, the institution had the 
reputation of being unfortunate. As part of the securities 
for its circulating notes, the board purchased at a discount 
from the par value $50,000 of the bonds of Arkansas. These 
bonds were entered up in the bank's assets at par, and the 
nominal profit accruing was divided as profits to stockholders. 
Two years afterwards the state of Arkansas stopped paying 
interest on the bonds, and they were unsaleable at any price. 
Thus one-sixth of the actual capital of the bank was rendered 

Banks, 297 

wholly unavailable and unproductive. In 1848, about S8,000 
was lost by failuie of the Canal Bank. In 1850, about $20,000 
by failure of J. & A. Groesbeck ; and in 1853, $60,000 by 
Northern Railroad. The average net dividends paid to stock- 
holders from the date of commencement of business in 1839, 
to January, 1861, was five and three-tenths per cent, annu- 
ally. From the losses connected with bank failures at the 
outbreak of the war in 1861, about $60,000 was lost. 

So severely had the institution suffered, that its solvency 
was doubted in quarters where good credit is valuable. Its 
stock was offered at seventy cents on the dollar without find- 
ing buyers. In this state of things, the present cashier of 
its successor, the National Albany Exchange Bank, was in- 
vited to take charge of its affairs as cashier. The damaged 
assets of the concern were carefully gathered up and strict 
economy instituted. Its business was carefully studied and 
cultivated, and it was soon observable that strict business 
principles, applied with fidelity and assiduity, told sensibly 
in resuscitating the concern from its weakened condition. 
The board of directors in July, 1861, against the dictates of 
sound judgment and in violation of business principles, not- 
withstanding it was known that the capital was largely im- 
paired, declared their usual dividend of three per cent, against 
the remonstrance of their then financial ofiicers. Dividends 
were thereafter suspended for two years. The bank invited 
the business of the government and was appointed agent of 
the treasury in distributing its loans, in which service its 
officers exerted themselves earnestly, faithfully, and with 
success. Although receiving no government deposits, the 
incidental advantages to it of the business of the government 
were of value. 

After the 'suspension of dividends for two years, during 
which period the losses incurred at the outbreak of the war 
were made up, in January, 1864, a dividend of four per cent, 
was paid to stockholders and that rate was regularly continued 
semi-annually until closing its business in February, 1865, to 
form a national bank. In regular and special dividends de- 
clared and paid since that time, including the final dividend 
just declared by the receiver, the capital of the bank at par, 
and seventy-two and six-tenths per cent, in profits, have been 
paid to the stockholders, making an annual average of divi- 

298 Banks, 

dend of profits from January, 1861, to the close of its business, 
of eighteen and fifteen-one-hundreths per cent, besides mak- 
ing up $60,000 loss of capital. 

The bank closed its business as a state association on 31st 
January, 1865, and the National Albany Exchange Bank 
having been organized for that purpose, succeeded to its busi- 
ness. Its affairs are placed in charge of the present receiver, 
C. P. Williams, who has closed all its interests, paid all its 
liabilities, and to-day makes a final distribution of its assets. 
All the labor of closino; the business of the institution has 
been conducted without expense to its stockholders, except 
for actual disbursements, which, besides taxes paid, was less 
than $500. 

The Merchants Bank was organized 19 January, 1853. 
The first board of directors consisted of John Tweddle, 
Billings P. Learned, Richard Van Rensselaer, Matthew J. 
Hallenbeck, Gilbert L. Wilson, Maurice E. Viele, Henry 
P. Pulling, Joseph N. Bullock, John Sill. John Tweddle 
was elected president, and still presides (1869), and John 
Sill was cashier. 

The Union Bank was organized June 8, 1853. The 
first officers were Billings P. Learned, Gilbert C. Davidson, 
William N. Strong, Chauncey Vibbard, Amos P. Palmer, 
Charles Coates, George H. Thacher, William L. Learned, 
John H. Reynolds, D. D. T. Charles, Alfred Wild, Le Roy 
Mowry, Adam Cottrell. Mr. B. P. Learned was elected 
president, and still holds the office, and A. P. Palmer, cashier. 

Besides these there were three other banks organized 
about the same time : the National Bank, the Bank of 
THE Capitol, and the International Bank j all of which 
failed in a few years after their organization. 

Harmanus Bleecker. 299 


Mr. Bleecker was a descendant of the celebrated Jan 
Jansen Bleecker, the ancestor, it is believed, of all who 
bear that name in this state. Jacob Bleecker, the father 
of Harmanus, was a merchant and a much esteemed citizen. 
After having received a classical education, Mr. Bleecker 
entered upon the study of the law in the office of John V. 
Henry and James Emott, who were eminent counsellors of 
the day ; and was admitted to practice at the bar of this state 
in 1801, in the 22d year of his age. He entered into part- 
nership with Theodore Sedgwick, late of Stockbridge ; which 
connection endured for many years, and proved honorable and 
lucrative to both. Mr. Bleecker in particular became known 
throughout the state as an eminent advocate, and his name is 
frequently to be found on the pages of the reports of the days 
when Kent, and Spencer, and Thompson, and Van Ness, were 
the great luminaries of the science.* 

He was also successful in his political career. Having 
been several years a member of assembly for this county, he 
was in 1810 elected to congress, where be served during the 
stormy period of the last war with Grreat Britain, and acting 
with the federal party, was one of those who opposed the war. 
At various times he was honored with other important trusts, 
indicative of the high opinion entertained of him. His name 
is found in the first board of managers of the Albany Bible 

* It will he seen, in the following list of students who acquired 
their profession in his office, that includes it many who have, by their 
talents and worth, risen to places of eminence and distinction. 

Henry D. Sedgwick, Robert Sedgwick, Solomon South wick, John 
W. Taylor (Speaker of the House of Representatives, 1825-26), 
David Rust, Henry Jones, Abraham Holdridge, Cornelius R. D. 
Lansing, Jacob Dox, Peter P. J. Kean, Jacob Sutherland (Judge 
of old Supreme Court), Henry W, Channing, John Rodman, Thomas 

D. Higgins, Sterling Goodenow, Isaac Truax, Gideon Hawley, Peter 
Gansevoort, Henry Starr, David Raymond, Ebenezer Baldwin, 
William Darling, Abraham Schuyler, Henry H. Fuller, John Porter, 

E. P. Storrs, James Dexter, Gilbert L, Thompson, James C. Blood- 

300 Harmanus Bleecker. 

society, incorporated in 1811. He was a regent of the uni- 
versity for several years ; a commissioner on the part of this 
state, for settling the boundary between New- York and New- 
Jersey. Grov. Clinton, to whom he had been actively op- 
posed for many years previous^ offered him the post of adjutant 
general, which he declined, while he appreciated the mag- 
nanimity that dictated the proposal. On ^the accession of 
Mr. Van Buren to the presidency, Mr. Bleecker was sent to 
that Hague as the American minister, where he made an im- 
pression that will not be effaced in our generation. It was 
during his residence at the Hague that he married a lady of 
that country. Miss Sebastiana Cornelia Mentz, with whom he 
visited Holland once after the close of his mission. 

Mr. Bleecker was one of the most cultivated gentlemen in 
the state. After his return from Holland, he continued the 
study of literature in all its varied departments, and paid much 
attention to theology. Though by association, and by family 
and inherited sympathies, identified with the older times and 
people of this country, no man entered more zealously into 
every progress of the times, and rejoiced that for the great 
multitude of the people the advancing years were, more and 
more, years of education and comfort and prosperity. A 
truer republican our country did not possess; and he carried 
with him in his diplomatic career, and in his residence abroad 
the dignity and the simplicity of an American, never ceasing, 
in every proper and courteous way to commend his country 
and his country's institutions to the respect of the European. 
He spoke and wrote the Dutch language with perfect purity 
and elegance; which, united to his engaging manners and 
irresistible dignity, procured for him, on retiring from his 

good, John D. Crocker, Cornelius Gates, Frederick Matthews, 
Bargood E. Hand, Richard V. De Witt, Frederick "Wliittlesey 
(Judge of Supreme Court), N. N. Hall, Henry J. Linn, C. V. S. 
Kane, Metcalf Yates, Hamilton Bogart, John B. Van Schaick, 
Augustus Beardslee, Henry G. Wheaton, S. V. R. Bleecker, W. 
Dvier Henderson, Charles Fenno Hoffman, Bradford R. Wood, 
David Dudley Field, D. A. Noble, Philip S. Van Rensselaer, Harvey 
Hyde, Charles Walsh, S. Cook, P. V. S. Wendover, E. T. T. Martin, 
Israel T. Hatch, Leonard Bement, W. H. Bogart, John B. Luce, 
Charlemagne Tower, John James Kane, Henry H. Martin, Charles 
N. Rowley, Cambridge Livingston, John W. Bradford, Francis 

Harmanus Bleecker. 301 

mission at the Hague, an official expression of regret at his 
departure from the Dutch government, a compliment the 
more flattering as it is almost without a precedent. 

The Hon. Harmanus Bleecker died at his residence on 
the corner of Chapel and Steuben streets, on the 19th of 
July, at the age of seventy years. The ancient house in 
which he was born on the 19th of October, 1779, stood upon 
the next lot south, and was taken down a few years ago, when 
he erected the block which now occupies its site. He was 
possessed of an ample fortune, which enabled him to consult 
his taste in the occupation of his time during the latter years 
of his life, a privilege of which he availed himself wisely. 

The pedigree of his branch of the family is as follows : 

I. Jan Jansen Bleecker, a native of Meppel, in the 
province of Overyssel, Holland, came to New- Amsterdam in 
1658, and subsequently settled at Albany. He was one of 
the first aldermen named in the charter of Albany, 1686; 
was recorder from 1696 to 1699, and mayor in 1700. Died 
Nov. 21, 1732, aged 91. In 1667 he married Margaret, daugh- 
ter of Rutger Jacobsen. His children were Johannes, 
Rutger (recorder 1725, mayor 1726 to 1728), Nicholas, 
Hendrick, Catharine, Jane, Margaret, Rachel. 

II. Johannes, born 1668; married Anna Koster 1693; 
succeeded his father as recorder of Albany 1700, and as 
mayor 1701 ; member of the general assembly 1701 and 1702 ; 
died Dec. 20, 1738, aged 70. His children were, Johannes, 
Gertrude, Nicholas, Hendrick, Margaretta, Anna, Jacob, 

III. Jacob, born March 1, 1715; married Margaret Ten 
Eyck; died 1747, leaving one son, Jacob. 

IV. Jacob, born July 22, 1747; married Elizabeth Wen- 
dell 1776. He left two sons, Jacob I. (died unmarried), and 

V. Harmanus, born Oct. 9, 1779; married Sebastiana 
Cornelia Mentz, daughter of Dirk Mentz and Immetje Keyser 
of Holland; died July 19, 1849, without issue. 

The armorial ensigns of the family are thus described : 
Arms, az., two embattled chevrons or, empaling, arg. a 
rose branch ppr. Crest, a phaeon, or. 


302 . Vanderheyden Palace, 

Erected 1725; Demolished 1833. 

This venerated edifice was situated in North Pearl street, 
the second lot below the corner of Maiden lane, on the site 
now occupied by the Baptist church. It was built in 1725 
by Johannes Beekman, a worthy burgher of the day. The 
bricks were imported from Holland/ as were those of many 
of the houses erected at that time; and it is supposed to 
have been, at the time of its demolition, one of the best 
specimens of the ancient Dutch architecture remaining in 
the state. It was occupied by Mr. Beekman as his family 
residence until his death in 1756, after which his two daugh- 
ters continued to reside in it until their marriage, a short 
time previous to the war of the revolution. The eldest con- 
nected herself with a gentleman of the name of Bain, belong- 
ing to the English army, and the youngest to Mr John 
McRae. The former moving shortly after her marriage to 
the West Indies, McCrea and his wife continued to occupy 
the mansion as their place of abode until after the war com- 
menced, when they removed from the city, and the house 
was rented. It was afterwards occupied by Mr. George Mer- 
chant as an academy ; and some eminent professional men are 
still left to relate the interesting events of many happy hours 
they spent under his tuition. In 1778 the mansion was pur- 
chased by Mr. Jacob Vanderheyden, for the consideration 
of £1,158, lawful money of New York ($2,895,) and it was 
from this gentleman that it received the appellation by which 
it has since been familiarly known, that of the Vanderhei/den 
Palace. It continued to be used as an academy until the 

/ This is a common tradition of all the old houses ; yet there were 
brick and tile makers here, and abimdant material for the manu- 
facture of the article. Possibly bricks were brought over as 
ballast in some cases. It is asserted that the timbers of certain 
houses, also, were imported from Holland, although the best of tim- 
ber abounded here, which could be had at the mere cost of cutting 
and hauling. 


804 Vanderheydeii Palace. 

great fire of 1797, wlien the dwelling in which Mr. Vander- 
heyden lived being consumed, he took up his residence in 
this house, and continued to occupy it till his death, which 
occurred in 1820. His family remained there but a few years 
beyond that event, after which the tenants became as various 
as they were numerous. The site having been selected by 
the Baptist society for the location of a new church, this 
venerable edifice, having stood one hundred and eight years, 
bowed to the spirit of improvement. Its dimensions were 
50 feet front by 20 in depth, having a hall and two rooms 
on a floor. Although it had been somewhat modernized inter- 
nally, the massive beams and braces projecting into the rooms, 
the ancient wainscoting, and the iron figures on the gable 
ends, involuntarily carried the mind back to dwell upon the 
days of old. It arrested the antiquarian fancy of Washington 
Irving, and is described by him in the story of Dolph Hey- 
liger, in Bracebridge Hall, as the residence of Heer Antony 
Yanderheyden.i The weatherfane, a horse under great stress 
of speed, now glitters above the peaked turret of the portal 
at Sunny Side, Mr. Irving having secured that relic from 
the hands of the destroyer, to adorn his unique country seat. 
Of the gable enders that graced Pearl street in the palmy 
days of the Yanderheyden Palace, when the street was yet 
carpeted with verdure, instead of paving stones, none re- 
main on the same side of the way j but one on the corner 
of Columbia, and another on the corner of State street, are 
the last representatives of the olden style of architecture on 
Pearl street; the former described in Hist. Coll. Albany^ ii, 

^The first Vanderheyden in Albany, seems to have been Jan 
Cornelissen, who made his will 1663, and- seems to have come from 
Sevenbergen, in Holland (see Albany County Records, 332). Jacob 
Tyssen Vanderheyden was contemporary with him, and the pro- 
genitor of the family, through his son Dirck, who purchased the 
site of the present city of Troy, in 1720. Ibid., 129, note. 


The Stevenson House. 


Erj:cted 1780; Demolished 1841. 

The above engraving will be recognized by many as an 
old acquaintance. It was a massy and spacious edifice, com- 
menced by the late John Stevenson, Esq., at the time of the 
breaking out of the American revolution, and finished about 
1780, fifteen years after the completion of the present Man- 
sion House of Stephen Van Rensselaer. For nearly half 
a century it was the mansion of the Stevenson family, and 
was occupied by Mr. Van Buren during the period he held 
the office of governor of this state. It was afterwards rented 
as a hotel, and finally became the headquarters or committee 
rooms of the democratic party of the city, when its walls 
resounded to the eloquence of Counsellor Gaffney, and other 
favorite orators of the day. Its architecture was of a style 

306 Tke Stevenson House, 

that became popular at a period subsequent to that of the 
erection of its neighbor; a few specimens of which still 
remain in different parts of the city. 

It was in the adjoining building, on the left, that Mr. 
James Stevenson commenced the practice of the law, and 
that Mr. John Lovett had his office. It was in that building 
also that Mr. Jacob Green, afterwards professor of chemistry 
in Jefferson College, Philadelphia, for some time kept a book- 
store ; and it was in this bookstore that Mr. John T. Norton, 
now a retired merchant, made his debut in Albany, as a 

The Wendell House, 



No. 98 Statb Street : Erected 1716 ; Demolished 1841. 

This ancient edifice stood on the south side of State street, 
the easterly line being a little over one hundred feet west 
of the westerly line of South Pearl street. It was built 
and occupied by Harmanus Wendell, in the year 1716, as 
was indicated by the iron figures upon its front, after the 
manner of the day. The figures are barely observable in 
the woodcut on close inspection ; the engraver not having 
given them sufficient prominence. Mr. Wendell was en* 
gaged in the fur trade, and no doubt many a curious and 
characteristic scene of Dutch and Indian traffic was carried 
on within its walls. The building was torn down on the 
sixth day of September, 1841 , for the purpose of erecting 

308 The Wendell House, 

a four story brick store on its site, by Messrs. John V. L. 
Pruyn and Henry H. Martin, the present owners of the 
property. The door and bow windows in the first storey, 
and the steps in front exhibit the lower portion of the build- 
ing in its original situation, as ascertained from persons who 
occupied it long since. Some years before its demolition, 
the steps were removed, and the doors and windows length- 
ened so as to conform to the level of the street -, previously 
to which, a covered passage way had been constructed for 
the side entrance, with a door in front, which was its situa- 
tion when it was taken down. The Stevenson House, 
•described on a subsequent page, and razed at the same time, 
adjoined the lot on the east, with the passage way referred 
to between. This relic of the olden time had become so 
dilapidated by its great age, and the walls so impaired by 
the excavations made around them, as to render its removal 
necessary. The editor of the Albany Argus alluded to the 
subject at the time, and made the following retrospective 
observations in connection with the event : 

" What changes has it not witnessed in its life of one 
hundred and twenty-five years! Then, the great and far 
west, save the French posts at Detroit, Michilimackinac, 
Chicago and Du Quesne (Pittsburgh), the French settle- 
ments at New Orleans and at Natchez, and a few scattered 
hamlets or posts on the Ohio and Illinois, was inhabited 
solely by the nations and tribes of Indians, from the six 
nations of our own colony and region, to the more remote 
Ottawas, Wyandots, Ottagamies, Hurons, Chippewas, etc. 
Only thirty-five years before, the adventurous La Salle had 
launched the first v^essel on the great lakes, had reached the 
Mississippi, and traced it to its mouth. It was only a few 
years after the first great council of all the distinguished 
chiefs of the various tribes from Quebec to the Mississippi 
had been convened at Montreal, with barbaric pomp and 
imposing ceremonial, and the power of New France strength- 
ened by new alliances with the natives. It was fifteen years 
after the expedition under M. Cadillac had established the 
post at Detroit. It was only three years after the chiefs of 
the Ottawas, having been invited to Albany, returned, dis- 
affected to the French, and at once commenced the siege of 
Detroit. It was nearly half a century before the English 

The Wendell House. 809 

conquest of New France and the Pontiac war, or gigantic 
confederation of that remarkable chief The principal seats 
of the fur trade were Michilimackinac, Montreal and Albany ; 
and the traffic between the two latter places was as active 
and prosperous as it could be, in the hands of the subjects 
of rival powers. 

" The city (ancient Beverwyck) and the manorial settle- 
ment, including Fort Orange, were little else than a fortified 
village, with the old church at the foot and in the middle 
of State street, a few stores and trading places in Chapel 
street (then Barrack street), and scattered residences on 
the margin of the river and in the vicinity of Fort Orange, - 
afterwards called Court, now Market street. The city char- 
ter had then been granted about thirty years; and the 
appearance of the city is described as being that of a small 
town, with two principal streets crossing each other, in one 
of which (State street) were all the public buildings, viz : 
the town-house, two churches (English and Dutch), guard- 
house, market, etc. There were three docks : lower, or 
king's dock, middle and upper, and vessels were unloaded 
by the aid of canoes lashed together, on which a platform 
was built and the goods placed. The population may have 
numbered 1000 : it was 3506 seventy-four years afterwards 
(in 1790). 

" In the progress of improvement, these two buildings 
are soon to give place to a spacious structure, for stores, 
public rooms, etc., etc. We confess that we regret the dis- 
appearance of these antique remains of the early history of 
our city. Upon the demolition of the ancient tenement of 
the fur dealer, which will quickly follow its associate at the 
corner of North Pearl and Steuben streets, not more than 
one of that age will remain in State street, and scarcely 
another in the city , although a few in North Pearl street, 
and in the colonic, of an uncertain age, but full a century 
in years, will continue to present their gables to the eyes of 
the curious. We regret it, because, go where you will in 
this new country, you see only the impress and handiwork 
of the present age. Even in places tlie earliest settled in 
the country — and where the trace and fashion of its dawn 
exist if anywhere — ' every thing ancient, everything vene- 
rable, every memorial of other times, is swept away, or 

BIO State Street in 1792... 

carefully concealed, under modern alterations or thick strata 
of paint and whitewash; as ifvit were a sin to recall old 
things and scenes, or a duty to dwell only among the very 
latest devices of the architect and the calculator of rents 
and profits/' 

State Street in 1792. 

In connection with the foregoing, a diagram of the section 
of State street lying between Pearl and Lodge streets, is 
introduced. The original map appears to have been made 
from actual survey by John Bogert, in 1792. The dimen- 
/ sions of the lots upon State street, and the name of the owners 
at that time, are given ; together with the location of the 
Episcopal Church and the Fort, edifices which disappeared 
nearly three-quarters of a century ago. Indeed, the fort 
began to be demolished immediately after the close of the 
war of the Revolution, and the stone was used for public 
purposes. (See Hist. Coll., it, 239.) 

The old English Church, which stood in the centre of State 
street opposite Berg (miscalled Barrack), i now Chapel street, 
was erected in 1715. The hindrances which the common 
council gave the builders of this church, are found in the 
minutes of their proceedings, published in vol. vii of this 
work, p. 32, et seq. The board was opposed to its being 
built in the street ; but the governor protected the workmen 
when they were imprisoned. It was alluded to by Kalm 
thirty-four years afterwards as being built of stone, without 
a steeple, and standing directly under the fort. The tower 
on the west end was a distinct structure, erected after 1750. 
The hell was cast in England, and was used in St Peter's 
Church until the second edifice was razed, bearing this in- 
scription : " St. Peter's Church in Albany, 1751 ; J. Ogilvie, 
minister; J. Stevenson, E. Collins, wardens." The Rev. 
Thomas Ellison was the last rector who officiated in the old 

^ This street was situated so high as to be at first called Berg 
straat, or Hill street. The Dutcli pronounced the word berg in 
two syllables, as har-g, or bar rag, or harrak, and it thus came to 
be known by the English as Barrack street. It was occupied by 
Indian traders, 


Survey of Stale Street 



17 9 2, 



John Green. 




John Sanders. o 


Rev, T. EUison. ^ 

Robt. Yates, Esq. gi 
John Easton. §| 

Jacob Van Ingen. ^ 
Bloomendall. ,^3 


H. Wendell. 51 



Roseboom. ^ 


Abm. Wendell. ^ 


John Stevenson. "^ 


Shephard. o 


158 feet wide. 

153 feet wide. 




Philip S. Van 

'^ Webster. 

S. Pruyn. 


149 feet wide. 


Bait, Lydius. 

312 State Street in 1792. 

On the northwest corner of the church, and directly in 
contact with it, stood the City Fire Engine House. The 
engine kept within it was the only one which the authorities 
provided for the protection of the city against fire. It is repre- 
sented to have been a very superior machine, and was one of 
the only two manufactured by the elder John Mason, a cele- 
brated machinist of Philadelphia — its counterpart was for a 
long time in possession of the Diligent Fire Company of that 
city. But the first fire engine ordered by the city was 
procured in 1763, by Harme Gansevoort, in England, and 
cost £159, or, $397.50. 

As we contemplate the map, and reflect upon the changes 
which have been wrought upon the owners and occupants of 
these lots during the last half century, a melancholy yet agree- 
able interest is awakened. A multitude of thoughts will pre- 
sent themselves to the octogenarian, skilled in antique lore 
and traditions of early times, of scenes that will remain unwrit- 
ten. Beginning at the foot of the map on the south side, 
the name of Mr. Lewis marks the site of the City Tavern 
then, and until the Tontine was opened by Matthew Gregory, 
the great house of the day. It belonged and was probably 
built by OQC of the Schuylers. I was informed by Mrs. Solo- 
mon Southwick that its interior ornamentation and finish 
was unusually elaborate for the houses of that day. The date 
upon the front ran across that and the Staats house, a part 
of which remains upon the latter Anno — Z)omi/u' having been 
upon the corner house, and the date 1667, extended across 
the front of both houses. 

It was removed to open the street, which was a narrow 
arched passage way at this time, having a gate to protect the 
entrance into the street below, known as Washington street, 
now South Pearl. A. part or the whole of the Shepard lot 
was also subsequently taken in extending the breadth of the 

The street in the rear of the lots above Pearl, now Howard 
street, is described in a Dutch deed of 1680, given by Dr. 
Abram Staats to the Lutheran Church, as " the old road 
belonging to Mr. Pretty, Jacob Sanders, Johannes Wendel, 
Myndert Harmense, and Hendrick Cuyler." Mr. Pretty was 
the first sherifi" under the English charter, and occupied the 
whole or a part of the large lot afterwards owned by Mr. 
John Stevenson. 

State Street in 1792. 313 

Of the Wendell house we have already spoken. In the rear 
of it was the printing office of Solomon Southwick, where the 
Albany Register \f3iS, issued, and the state printing performed 
by him, and is still standing, and known as Henry's Old 

The house and lot designated as the premises of Mr. Rose- 
boom, were for a time the residence of Thomas Shipboy, 
another merchant, who died in the year 1798. The old. edi- 
fice is concealed behind a modern front, but its zuydelyh 
aspect indicates its origin unmistakeably. Mr. Shipboy 
afterwards occupied the house No. 56 State street, sub- 
sequently the store of the late Christian Miller — the strong 
walls of which have also been carried up so as to present the 
appearance of a modern structure. 

The two next are the site of the American Hotel, belonging 
recently to the descendants of the late William James, but 
now to Hon. Erastus Corning. They were occupied by the 
great printing and publishing house of the Hosfords, which 
went down in 1826. In 1674 they seem to have belonged to 
Myndert Harmense Vandebogart. {Albany County Records^ 

The lots occupied by Van Ingen and Easton were patented 
by Gov. Lovelace in 1668 to Jochem Wesselse Backer. 
They are described in the conveyance to Hendrik Cuyler 
in 1774, as "standing and lying together here in Willem- 
stadt upon the hill, to the west of Myndert Harmense [Van 
de Bogartj, to the east of the town's fence [stockade], to 
the south of the street, and to the north of the fence of the 
Lutheran Church" {Alb. Co. Records., 100). At the time 
this map was made there was a two-story house on the Van 
Ingen lot, which was occupied by Izrahiah Wetmore as a 
tavern from 1818 to 1822. In 1825 Archibald Craig 
erected a fine residence there, which is called Mansion 
house in the Directory of 1827; in 1828 it was purchased 
by the Hon, Erastus Corning, and has been occupied by 
him to the present day. 

The Easton lot was sometime in possession of Gerrit 
Luycasse Wyngaart, who seems also to have purchased the 
adjoining lot on the west, which then had a depth of only 
30 feet by reason of the stockadoes which passed up diag- 



State Street in 1792. 

Yates House. 

onallj from the corner of Beaver and South Pearl streets to 
the fort. It was purchased by William Grould, who erected 
a graceful modern edifice thereon, and acquired a handsome 
fortune upon the premises as a law bookseller. It is now the 

property of Mr. Corning, who 
purchased it at the sale of Mr. 
Gould's estate. 

Robert Yates, who occupied 
the lot bearing his name, was a 
man of great intellectual power, 
and became chief justice of the 
state. It was afterwards occu- 
pied by his son, John Yan Ness 
Yates, until his death. In 1855 
it was demolished, and Mr. Phi- 
lip Wendell erected an elegant 
dwelling house with a freestone 
front upon its site, which he now 
occupies (1869). 
The house occupied by Mr. Ellison was standing in 1850, 
looking much the worse for its age, although it never had 
any pretension to elegance. It was long the well known 
chair factory of L. McChesney. This is also the property 
of Mr. Philip Wendell, who built a manufactory upon it. 

The late Killian K. Yan Eensselaer married a descendant 
of Mr. John Sanders, of Schenectady, and inherited the lot 
which bears the name of the latter on the map. Mr. Yan 
Rensselaer erected a large dwelling house upon the premises, 
about 1796, in which he resided till his death. It is now 
occupied by his sons Richard and Barnard S. (1869), the last 
survivors of the family. 

A large wooden building, which was built before the revo- 
lution, and we believe for a time used as a tavern, occupied 
the corner of John Green. In this building the Albany 
Academy was opened in 1815. It was burnt in 1847 ; when 
a substantial brick edifice was erected upon its site, by the 
heirs of the late Killian K. Yan Rensselaer, to whom the 
property belongs. 

^ The position of the Fort is believed to be very accurately 
given. The northeast bastion occupied the ground where the 
Episcopal Church now stands. Its foundations were as high 

State Street in 1792. 


as the top of that church. It was the fourth place selected 
for a fort, and was first, it appears, inclosed by stockades 
merely. The diagram here given was made by the Rev. 
John Miller, a chaplain of the English army, in 1695, when 
it was surrounded by a ditch. For several years the fort 
supplied material for buildings and the public sewers. 


1. Grovemor of Albany's house. 

2. Officers' lodgings. 

3. Soldiers' loogiugs. 

4. Flag-staflf mount. 

5. Magazine. 

6. Dial mount. 

7. Town mount. 

8. Well. 

9. Sentry boxes. 

11. Sally port. 

12. Ditch fortified with stakes. 

13. Gardens, 

14. Stockade. 

15. Fort gate. 

The square in the occupation of William Muir was long 
since divided up for residences and shops. 

The house of the worthy old mayor, Philip S. Van Rens- 
selaer, younger brother of the patroon, was occupied by his 
widow until her death in 1855, at the age of 90, when it was 
sold to Hon. Erastus Corning for $32,500. It is now occu- 
pied by E. Corning, Jr. (1869). 

The next three lots form the well-known Webster Corner. 
After the memorable fire of 1793, in which the printing 
office of Mr. Webster was consumed, he took the white house 
on the Livingston lot, which remained until 1860, when it 
was demolished and Tweddle Hall erected upon the site of 

316 State Street in 1792. 

the three Webster lots. The two lots above it were purchased 
and built upon by himself and brother George, where they 
resided during their lives. The corner property also came 
into their hands, and became the theatre of a very extensive 
printing and publishing business. In the palmy days of the 
establishment, it was customary twice a week to load with 
school and other books for the western country, one of those 
old-fashioned, two-story freight wagons, so common before 
the opening of the canal. There were no heresies in those 
days against Webster's Spelling Book. 

Intimately associated with the reminiscences of this corner, 
is the elm tree which throws its rugged arms across the street, 
and enjoys so extraordinary a degree of popular favor. It 
has been so extensively cropped from time to time that it now 
is only an abridgment of itself. This corner was the property 
of Philip Livingston, one of the signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, who was born in Albany in 1716 ; and the 
earliest reminiscence we have of the tree, is the circumstance 
of his having, when a young man, rebuked a sailor, whom he 
observed preparing his knife to cut it down, then a mere 
switch. From this datum we may infer that the elm has an 
age of a century and a half. 

The Lydius Corner, opposite, was occupied at the time of 
the survey by a very eccentric old gentleman, Balthazar 
Lydius. He died on the 17th November, 1815, aged 78, and 
was the last male descendant of his family, which was ancient 
and respectable. The house in which he lived was supposed 
by many to have been imported from Holland : bricks, wood- 
work, tiles, and ornamental irons, with which it was profusely 
adorned, expressly for the use of the Rev. Gideon Schaets, 
who arrived in 1652. The materials for the house arrived 
simultaneously with the old bell and pulpit, 1657. It was 
supposed to be the oldest brick building in North America 
at the time of its removal in 1832. The modern Apothecaries 
Hall was erected by Mr. George Dexter upon its site. For 
a view of the old house, see Historical Collections of Albany^ 
II, 17. 

A Scene of the Bevoluiion in Albany, 317 


In the spring of 1778, we went down to Bethlehem and 
brought home our cattle that had wintered there. As we 
were driving them slowly back, and as we entered Albany 
on our return, we met in State street a procession of novel 
character moving slowly up the hill. We perceived seven 
persons dressed in white, and soon learned they were of that 
unfortunate class of disaffected men, who to bad political 
principles had added crimes against society, which even a 
stateofwar would not justify. At Shodack they had distin- 
guished themselves by a series of desperate acts not to be pa- 
tiently endured by the community, and when they were taken 
prisoners their fate seemed inevitable. These men had been 
confined for some time in the city prison, now known as the 
Old Museum, and had once made their escape, but only to 
enjoy their liberty for a few hours. Indeed the whole city was 
underarms when we saw them moving to the fatal spot where 
they were to suffer. The public indignation was also much 
excited by their conduct in prison, and the circumstances 
attending their being brought to suffer the sentence of the 
law. They were confined in the right hand room of the lower 
story of the prison. The door of their apartment swung in a 
place cut out lower than the level of the floor. When the 
sheriff came to take them out he found the door barricaded. 
He procured a heavy piece of timber, with which he in 
vain endeavored to batter down the door, although he was 
assisted in the operation by some very athletic and willing 
individuals. . During the attempt the voice of the prisoners 
was heard threatening death to those who persevered in the 
attempt, with the assertion that they had laid a train of powder 
to blow up themselves and their assailants. Indeed it was 
well ascertained that a quantity of powder had passed into 
their possession, but how, could not be known. 

It was afterwards found placed under the floor and arranged 
to produce the threatened result. The sheriff could not 
effect his entrance, while a crowd of gazers looked on to see 

318 A Scene of the Revolution in Albany. 

the end of this singular contest. Some one suggested the 
idea of getting to them through the ceiling, and immediately 
went to work to effect a passage by cutting a hole through. 
While this was going on the prisoners renewed their 
threats, with vows of vengeance, speedy, awful and certain. 
The assailants however persevered and as I was informed, 
and never heard contradicted, procured a fire-engine, and 
placed it so as to introduce the hose suddenly to the hole in 
the ceiling, and at a signal inundated the room beneath. 
This was dexterously performed. The powder and its train 
were in an instant rendered useless. Still, however, to 
descend was the difficulty, as but one person could do so at a 
time. The disproportion of physical strength that appa- 
rently awaited the first intruder, prevented for some time 
any further attempt. At last an Irishman, by the name of 
McDole, who was a merchant, exclaimed, " Give me an 
Irishman's gun, and I will go first.'' He was provided 
instantly with a formidable cudgel, and with this in his hand 
he descended, and at the same moment in which he struck 
the floor, he levelled the prisoner near him, and continued 
to lay about him valiantly until the room was filled with a 
strong party of citizens who came to his assistance through 
the hole in the ceiling. After a hard struggle they were 
secured, and the door which had been barricaded by brick 
taken from the fire-place was opened. 

They were almost immediately taken out for execution, and 
the mob was sufficiently exasperated to have instantly taken 
their punishment into their own hands. The prisoners 
seemed to me when moving up the hill to wear an air of great 
gloom and ill nature. No one appeared to pity them, and 
their own hopes of being released by some fortunate circum- 
stance, as by the intervention of the enemy, had now vanished 
for ever. 

They arrived in a few minutes at the summit of the hill, 
near or at the very place now covered with new and elegant 
edifices, north and east of the Academy, and there upon one 
gallows of rude construction ended they their miserable lives 
together. — Sexagenary. 

A Canadian Invasion. 319 


In the year 1687 the French in Canada made preparations 
to invade the Five Nations which were under the protection 
of New York. This was three years before the invasion by 
the French, which resulted in the destruction of Schenectady. 
The authorities of Albany seem to have been always on the 
alert 3 and information was received at Albany in the fall, 
of the movements of the enemy, whereupon the following 
proceedings were had in council. (^See Doc. Hist. iV. Y.y 
vol. i, p. 272.) 

Council Held at ffort James ; ffriday the ninth of September 
1687. Present His Excy the Govern ^ &c. 

Tnformacon being given to his Excy and some of the 
Members of ye Board that ye ffrench at Canada are providing 
fifteen hundred pair of Snowshews. 

Ordered that ye Mayor and Magistrates of Albany send 
ordi"* to the five Nations to bring Down their Wives Children 
and old men least ye ifrench come uppon them in the Winter 
and none to stay in the Castles but ye yong men. That 
they who come be setled some at Cats Kill Levingstons land 
and along ye River where they can find Conveniency to be 
neer us to assist them if they should want and that they send 
Downe with them all ye Indyan Corne that can be spared 
by ye Young Men who are to stay in ye Castles. 

Councill Held at ffort James ; Sonday the ll^^of Septemb^ 
1687. Present His Excy the Govern •• &c. 

Letters from Albany giveing account that the people there 
are in great Consternation thro apprehension that ye ffrench 
will come down uppon them this Winter. 

Resolved that Every tenth man of all ye Militia troupes 
& Companys within the Province Except those who were 
out ye last yeare a whaling be Drawn out to go up thither. 

Accordingly, forces were sent to Albany, and Gov. Dongan 
came up himself to assist in sustaining the Indians against 


A Canadian Invasion, 

their enemies. By tlie report of Robert Livingston, made 
ot the Council, April 30, 1688, of his disbursements at Albany, 
for the maintenance of the forces, gifts and presents to the 
Indians; and relief of French prisoners, from August 11, 
1687, to June 1, 1688, amounted to £2067 6s. 4d. It ap- 
pears that these expenses required a new levy of £2556 4s. 
to be made upon all the inhabitants and free holders of the 
province, of which sum the proportion allotted to the city 
and county of Albany was £240 ($570.) The pay of officers 
and soldiers employed in the service, was as follows : 

The Major ten Shillings Cur" 

per diem. 

The Captn of horse £0.10.0 

The Lievt do 0. 7 

The Cornett - - - 0. 6.0 

The Quartermaster - 0. 5.0 

The Corporall - - 0. 2.0 

The Trumpiter - 0. 2.0 

The Troopers - - 0. 1.6 

Money of this Province. 

per diem. 
TheCaptoffflfoott - - £0.8.0 
The Lievt - - 0.4.0 

The Ensigne - - 0.3.0 

The Sergeant - 0.1.6 

The Corporall - - 0.1.0 

The Drumbeater - 0-1.0 

The rest of the private men 0.0.8 

Chronicle of Events in Albany, 321 


September, 1847. 

13. The Albany Morning Express^ a penny daily paper 
commenced by Stone & Henly,with a reported sale of 1,600 
copies of the first number. James Stanley Smith, editor. 
This constituted the fifth daily paper in the city at this time. 

Capt. Abram Van OLinda of the Albany Republican 

Artillery, killed at the battle of Chapultepec, in Mexico. 

The fall examination of the State Normal School com-. 

menced. At the close of the exercises 64 graduates received 

their diplomas The superintendent of the Alms House 

reported to the Common Council, that the establishment had 
in charge 404 persons, the majority of them sick. 

14. John H. Webb, of the late firm of Webb & Hummer, 
in this city, died at Hartford, Ct. 

15. News received of the battles of Contreras and Cheru- 
busco, which were fought in Mexico on the 18th and 19th 
of August, in which Lieut. Jacob Grriffin of Albany was 
among the wounded. 

16. First frost of the season A fire occurred at No. 

164 North Pearl street, which destroyed the large carpenter's 
shop of John Jervis, a two-story dwelling house, with several 
adjoining sheds. The firemen had a quarrel on the occasion. 

17. Andrew Hamburgh died, aged 24. 

18. Hannah Leavitt died, aged 51 ; wife of N. K. Leavitt. 

19. Rev. John McCloskey installed, by Bishop Hughes, 

the first bishop of the new diocese of Albany Mary Law 

died, aged 55. 

20. Upwards of a hundred vessels in port, 

22. Flour $5.75 William T. Lee, formerly of this city, 

died at Philadelphia, aged 27. 

23. Margaret Nugent died, aged 33; wife of Henry P. 

24. The Democratic County Convention met; two sets of 
delegates appeared from one of the wards ; failing to eff'ect a 
compromise, a separation took place, the Barnburners choos- 

322 Chronicle of Events in Albany, [Oct. 

iug Peter Cagger to tlie state convention proposed to be held 
at Syracuse, and the Old Hunkers choosing Henry Rector. 
Both parties nominated Conrad A. Ten Eyck for Assembly. 

Charles C. Yail died, aged 21 John Stanwix died, 

aged 39 Lydia Piatt died, aged 82; widow of the* late 

Annanias Piatt. 

25. The following steam boats were advertised to leave 
for New York this day : Hendrik Hudson, Captain Crutten- 
den; Isaac Newton, Capt. Peck; South America, Capt. 
Hultse; Columbia, Capt. Tupper; Rip Van Winkle, Capt. 
Riggs; Alida, Capt. Gr. D. Tupper; New Jersey, Capt. 

Hitchcock; all night boats except the Alida Martha 

Tappin died, aged 78 Wm. J. McDermott died, aged 

25 ; a printer, of New York, formerly of this city. 

27. Over 20,000 bushels of corn arrived by canal this 

day The first term of the Court of Appeals held in this 

city, closed its session, having exhausted the calendar of 40 

29. The Whig County Convention met, and nominated 
Robert H. Pruyn for Assembly. 

30. The amount of flour transported over the Boston and 
Albany Rail Road since the 1st of January, 352,317 barrels 
more than the quantity transported in the same space of time 
last year. Receipts for September, 47,527 barrels. 

October, 1847. 

1. Catharine Van Benthuysen died, aged 33. 

4. Mary M. Dexter died, wife of George Dexter. 

5. The district schools of the city held a celebration. The 
scholars, numbering near 2,000, marched in procession with 
banners to the park in South Pearl street, below Lydius, 
known as Kane's Walk, where addresses were delivered and 
several pieces of music sung. The nine district schools of 

the city are attended by about 5,000 pupils, usually James 

Clark died, aged 74; a merchant of good standing and 
wealth, for many years extensively engaged in the dry goods 

line, on the corner of Broadway and State street Mary 

A. Davidson died, aged 75. 

6. G-reat meeting at the Capitol of the friends of a general 

manufacturing law. Fire in the sheds behind the two-story 

brick row, 182 and 192 North Pearl street; loss-about ^300. 

1847.] Chronicle of Events in Albany, 323 

8. Great meeting of tliat portion of the democratic party 
known as the Barnburners. There was much rain from 
above, and indignation from below. John Van Buren recited 
the wrongs and perils of himself and coadjutors at the recent 
convention at Syracuse, where they were voted out as irregu- 
lar delegates. His speech was received with great applause 
on all sides. 

9. During the week ending this day, 16,000 barrels of 
flour were transported over the rail road to Boston. 

10. Abigail Osgood died, aged 28. 

13. A convention of Antirenters met in the city, and 
adopted candidates from the tickets of the other parties, of 
such men as were known to entertain favorable views of their 

14. A meeting of the friends of the Wilmot Proviso, for 
the disposition of the slavery question, convened at the City 
Hall. Mr. Lewis of Ohio was the principal speaker on the 

15. Mary Osborn died, aged 69; wife of Jeremiah Osborn. 
Chas. Van Ostrand died in New York, of an enlarge- 
ment of the heart, aged 37; formerly a compositor in the 
office of the Albany Argus. 

16. Ann Eliza Henderson died at Jersey city ; widow of 
David Henderson, and eldest daughter of Archibald Mcln- 
tyre of this city. 

17. An attempt made to fire the buildings in the rear of 
McAuley's bakery in Grand street; it was discovered in 

season to prevent much damage Mary Mott, formerly of 

Albany, died at Battle creek, Michigan. 

18. The members of the Comqion Council, and other citi- 
zens, took passage in the Hendrik Hudson, to witness the 
ceremony of laying the corner stone of the Washington 

Monument, which took place on the 19th Moses Cook 

died at Syracuse, aged 35; late of this city Martha S. 

Mills died, aged 26. 

19. The store of Matthew Jordan entered by burglars, 

corner of Broadway and Steuben street Several bakers 

prosecuted for selling light bread ; the trial adjourned, the 
bakers contending that the Common Council have no right 
to regulate the price of bread, or its weight A stated ses- 
sion of the United States Circuit Court opened at the City 

324 Chronicle of Events in Albany, [Oct. 

Hall, with a large amount of criminal business on the calen- 
dar. Judge Conkling presiding A select committee of 

the House of Assembly reported a bill to tax bachelors and 
widowers ; but the house disagreeing, it was referred to the 

committee of the whole An omnibus commenced running 

from the Exchange to Newton's Corners on the Shaker road. 
......Elizabeth Evertsen, widow of Evert Evertsen, aged 88, 

run over by a horse and cart, as she was crossing State street, 
and so badly injured as to cause her death. 

20. The Young Men's Association numbered 1,300 mem- 
bers Nicholas Brower died, aged 53. 

21. Capt. Frost, a stranger, walking late at night in Quay 
street, was knocked down by two ruffians, and robbed, and 

thrown into the Basin ; but was rescued, and his life saved 

Bichard Schuyler and Robert Allen, concerned in an assault 
and battery upon Thomas Sampson, captain of a canal boat, 
with intent to kill, were captured and committed. 

23. The trustees of the First Presbyterian Church, having 
purchased a lot for a new building on the corner of Hudson 
and Philip streets, contracted with J. R, Hays and Henry 
Rector for its erection, at $50,000. The foundations were 

begun Flour, $6.50; wheat, $1.40 ; corn, 71 cents ; 

rye, 86 cents ; barley, 80 cents. In consequence of the 
scarcity of vessels, and the inability of the rail road company 
to transport flour rapidly enough to meet the eastern demand, 
freights had advanced materially. 

24. A collection taken in St. Joseph's Church for the 
purpose of raising funds to build a Cathedral in Albany ; 
$4,500 were received Peter Bulson died, aged 78. 

25. A special committee of the Common Council reported 
in favor of removing the dead in the Arbor Hill Burying 
Ground (which are frequently exposed by persons digging 
there for sand), to a suitable vault in the Albany Rural Ceme- 
tery on the Troy road. No action was taken upon the subject. 
The ground is now an open space, the bones being depo- 
sited in the centre. 

26. A meeting of the elder branch of the democratic party 
was held at the Capitol in the evening, the younger branch 
holding a convention at the same time in Herkimer. These 
events were invested with extraordinary interest. 

1847.] Chronicle of Events in Albany, 325 

28. Aurelia McGowan died, aged 40 ; wife of Minos Mc- 

Gowan Dorothy E. Brown died, wife of Stephen A. 


29. Great meeting of the Barnburners at the Capitol ; 
Mr. Wilmot, author of the famous proviso, was present, and 
delivered a long speech. John Van Buren followed, and 
received great applause for the eloquence, wit and sarcasm of 
his harangue Genesee wheat 81.45. 

30. Margaret Dermody died, aged 52, wife of Patrick Der- 

31. Robert Lottridge died, aged 77 Thomas L. Wilson 

died, aged 26 The number of deaths at the Alms House 

for the last three months, 202 ; the great majority of cases 
being ship fever, a new epidemic. Permits granted since 
May 1st, 1200. 

November, 1847. 

1 . Whig rally at the Capitol ; said to have been '' not very 

large, but enthusiastic." Splendid aurora borealis in the 

evening There were 105 sloops and schooners lying at 

the Pier, and the Basin was choked with all sorts of craft, 

making preparation for the close of navigation Frances 

H. Deforest died, aged 17; wife of James P. Deforest. 

2. The election resulted, as usual, in the triumph of the 

3. Lucretia Johnson died, aged 68. 

4. The weather extremely fine for the season ; in the lan- 
guage of the editor of the Troy Budget," The golden sunshine 

sleeps on the russet earth as quiet as an infant's slumber !" 

Crawford Livingston died of consumption at the Mansion 
House in Columbia county. He opened the first express 
office in this city, known as Pomeroy's Express. 

5. The steam tug Commerce left the Pier for New York, 
with a convoy of 8 tow boats, and 12 lake boats, all heavily 
laden ; and the North America left with 21 lakers in the same 
condition. This was characterized as a hig haul. An 
impetus was given to it by a dreadful scowl in the heavens. 

Fire in Tivoli Hollow ; a large establishment in which 

several kinds of manufacturing operations were carried on, 


326 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [Nov. 

was burnt down ; loss upwards of $20,000 Wm. L. 

Cranston died, aged 26. 

9. This day was fixed upon by the Millerites for ending 
the functions of the Earth ; but as on several other days pre- 
viously appointed for the same catastrophe, the planet con- 
tinued its accustomed functions, and left the deluded sect in 
great perplexity Sarah Thomas died, aged 58. 

10. There had been transported over the rail road to Bos- 
ton, up to this time, ten months, 455,221 barrels of flour. 

11. The number of prisoners in the Penitentiary was 100. 
Flour $6.12 ; wheat $1.38 ; barley 87c. 

13. Catharine Ostrander died at Tully, aged 97; widow of 
John Ostrander a revolutionary ofl&cer and former sheriff of 

17. Warm day for the season Charlotte McCauley 

died, aged 42. 

18. Flour $5.87 ; two-rowed barley 87c. ) rye 92c. ; corn 
75c John Long died, aged 26. 

20. An affray between two engine companies, Nos. 5 and 
6 ; one of No. 5's men had his jaw broken by a blow with a 
pipe Martin White died, aged 64. 

21. Elizabeth Baillie died, aged 74. 

22. The weather at this time much resembled summer. 

Thomas Waters died of apoplexy, aged 65 Charles 

Van Loon, pastor of a Baptist church in Poughkeepsie, died 
of apoplexy, aged 28. He was native of Albany, and a young 
man of extraordinary talents. 

23. Opening lecture before the Young Men^s Association 
by Benjamin F. Butler, and a poem by Epes Sargent. 

25. Thanksgiving day ; dark and gloomy A footrace 

at the Bull's Head ; principal competitors Steeprock and 
Smoke, two Indians : Smoke won the race by 50 yards, mak- 
ing 10 miles in Ih. lis. ; the track heavy after a rain ; 500 
spectators supposed to have been present Brilliant north- 
ern light in the evening. 

27. A forged draft presented and paid at the Exchange 
Bank, purporting to have been drawn by Tweddle & Darling- 
ton for $1,805.25 Thomas Rock died, aged 31. 

28. The thermometer fell to 7° in the morning; the cold 
was felt severely on account of the suddenness of the 
change James Alfred Green died, aged 25 Alfred 

1847. J Chronicle of Events in Albans/. 327 

Groodwin died at Hartfort, Ct. ; he was of the firm of Good- 
win & McKinney, hatterg, of Albany. 

29. Flour $6.12; no wheat in market; barley 75c. ; oats 
48c. ; among the produce which arrived in the Albany 
Basin since the morning of the 27th, were 47,000 barrels 
flour, 52,000 bushels wheat, 20,000 bushels barley, 20,000 
bushels oats, 390,000 pounds cheese, nnd 160,000 pounds 
butter. The receipts of flour exceeded 20.000 barrels a day 
about this time A slight fail of snow. 

30. The mercury in the thermometer went down to zero. 

The number of arrests for criminal ofiences cognizable 

at the police office during the year ending this day, was 
2,859; being about 200 less than the previous year. 

December, 1847. 

1. The corner stone for a synagogue to accommodate the 
Jewish congregation of Beth Jacob was laid with appropriate 
ceremonies, at the corner of Lydius and Fulton streets, by 

Rabbi Wise The amount of tolls at the canal collector's 

oflace in this city since the opening of navigation was 
$358,067.72; do. 1846, 8263,551.03; showing an increase 

of 94,51 7. (»9, or 35 per cent Michael Dwyer robbed 

Olivette Michal, a catholic priest, of $875, on the Troy 

Boad ; and was apprehended a few days after Laughlen 

McPherson died, aged 89. He had resided in the city about 
twenty years, and was janitor of the Geological Rooms at the 
time of his death. 

4. A rain storm had continued 48 hours, and showed no 

symptoms of a termination John W. H. Canoll died 

aged 47. 

5. Susan Anderson died, aged 67. She was one of the 18 
persons who first united to form a Baptist society in this city 
in the year 1811. 

6. The corner stone of the edifice for the use of the First 
Presbyterian Church was laid without special ceremony, on 

the corner of Hudson and Philip streets T. W. Truax, 

one of the night police, in attempting to stop a pair of 
aff"righted horses, received a blow which resulted in death. 

7. The first popular election of chief engineer of the fire 
department took place, when James McQuade received 240 
votes and John Niblock 208; majority for the former 82 

328 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [Dec. 

So great was the contest that absentees were brought from 
New York and Philadelphia, and only 44 voters were missing. 

At a meeting of the Christian Mutual Benefit Society, 

Lemuel Jenkins was chosen president for the ensuing year. 

9. A festival held at the City Hall for the benefit of the 

Union Mission Sunday School Canal closed. (?) The 

receipts of some of the principal articles of breadstuff's at 
Albany and Watervliet were as follows : Flour 3,951,722 
barrels; wheat 3,897,576 bushels ; corn 6,021,144 bushels. 
The value of the property received at the above places by 
canal, was estimated at 872,365,986. 

10. Rev. Dr. Scoresby of England, lectured before the 
Young Men's Association, in the Third Presbyterian Church 
on the Telescopes of Lord Rosse. 

12. The river, swollen by the heavy rains of almost two 
weeks' continuance, overflowed its limits and submerged the 
Quay and lower part of the city. 

13. A man by the name of Burns was drowned in the 
river at the foot of Hamilton street, by the capsizing of a 

boat James Manning died, aged 23 ; one of the reporters 

for i\iQ Albany Atlas. 

15. Mary Ridgeway died, aged 56. 

16. Mr. Parsons, proprietor of the Carlton House, was 
knocked down and robbed of $138 in the ofl&ce of that hotel, 

at 4 o'clock in the morning Phoebe Lewis died, aged 

75 ; wife of Col. Henry Lewis Store of Mr. Shoemaker 

in Broadway, robbed by two boys, who were apprehended. 

17. Charles D. Townsend died, aged 69. He had been a 
practitioner of medicine in the city nearly half a century, and 

acquired considerable eminence in his profession Oliver 

Johnson died at Madeira, whither he had gone for the 
recovery of his health. 

18. First sleighing of any note.... ..William Roberts died, 

aged 25 James Radliff" died, aged 62 Elizabeth 

Veazie died, wife of Moses K. Veazie. 

19. Catharine Irving died, aged 17. 

23. The Middle Dutch Church, which had been closed 
several months for repairs, was opened, having undergone 
many improvements and decorations. The first commu- 
nication by magnetic telegraph with St. Louis, Missouri 

William Hale died, aged 57. 

1847.] Chronicle of Events in Albany, 329 

24. The Columbia steam boat arrived from New York, and 
was the last boat up this season. 

25. Christmas — the day fine, and the sleighing of the best 

kind Fire in the bakery of Stephen Paddock; damage 

about $300. 

26. Heman J. Whelpley died, aged 41; a legal practi- 
tioner of extensive business, and an active member of the 

whig party Margaret Delehanty died, aged 53; widow 

of the late Daniel Delehanty The morning train west 

(it being Sunday) had but about half a dozen passengers; 
and the four trains during the day, (two each way) carried 
but sixty-seven altogether. This state of things was a most 
powerful argument, undoubtedly, for the suspension of the 
Sunday trains, which was soon after effected. 

30. William I. Winne died, aged 45. 

31. The Housatonic train was detained by a dense fog, 
and did not arrive at the depot in East Albany till 10 

o'clock at night The trustees of the fire department 

disbursed $429 to indigent and disabled firemen during the 

January, 1848. 

1. New Year — the weather scarcely cold enough to 

require fire A steam boat left New York, expecting to 

reach Albany, but was debarred by the ice Lieut. Griffin 

arrived from the seat of war in Mexico, where he had been 

twice wounded David P. Page, first principal of the 

State Normal School, died, aged 38 James Connolly, 

while walking on the Quay, was assaulted by a blow, which 
caused his death. 

2. A fire at 2 o'clock in the morning destroyed the frame 
building at the head of Yan Woert street. 

4. The legislature commenced its session under the new 

constitution, which limited its duration to 100 days The 

governor's message, consisting of 12,000 words, was tele- 
graphed to New York in 8 hours. It was transmitted to Sche- 
nectady by rail road, in 29 minutes, and from thence to Utica 
in 2 hours 1 minute. 

7. River closed. 

8. Peter Carmichael died, aged 38 James Boyd died, 

aged 38. 

330 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [Feb. 

11. Thermometer ranged from 15° to 18° below zero. 

21. William B. Winne died, aged 90. He was 48 years 
pen ny-postman 

22. A pair of horses belonging to a farmer in Nassau, while 
crossing the river at the Greenbush Ferry, broke through 
the ice and were drowned. 

24. Robert Taylor died, aged 45. 

29. Jane K. Wyckoff, wife of Rev. I. N. Wyckoff, died. 

Willard Walker died, aged 79; long an intelligent and 

enterprising merchant. 

30. Isaiah Breakey, physician, died, aged 50 James 

A. Coulter died, aged 28 Hugh Riddle, a convict in the 

Penitentiary, committed suicide. 

81. The sabbath schools in the city numbered 33, with 

554 teachers, and 2,497 scholars Number of criminal 

arrests in the city during the month, 214 Alms House 

expenses for the month, $3,544. 

February, 1848. 

1. Annual meeting of the New York State Medical So- 
ciety : Dr. Alex. H. Stevens, president ; Dr. Alex. H. Thomp- 
son, vice-president ; Dr. Peter Van Buren, secretary; Dr. 
Peter Van OLinda, treasurer. 

2. The committee of the whole in the House of Assembly, 
struck out the enacting clause of the bill to encourage the 
discovery of coal in the counties of Albany and Rensselaer. 

A special meeting of the Common Council, on the 

resignation of the ward physicians, to devise means of sup- 
plying the poor with medical attendance Meeting of the 

Board of Trade to elect its officers ; Wm. Chapman, president. 

4. Jasper Hallenbake, M. D., died at New Orleans, aged 

39; formerly of Albany Snow storm commenced on 

Friday and continued till Saturday evening; the mildness of 
the weather prevented its accumulation. 

7. Major-General Quitman arrived in the city from Mexico 
and met with an enthusiastic reception ; after which he made 
the tour of the town, escorted by the military. 

9. Mayor's Court, Recorder Wright presiding, who an- 
nounced that there were 16 persons in jail awaiting trial. 

The civil calendar numbered 12 cases Catharine Mahar 

diedj aged 25. 

1848.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 331 

10. Elisha C. Porter died, aged 34. 

12. Livingston Ludlow Humphrey died, aged 28. 

14. Catharine Van Zandt died, aged 60; widow of John 

Van Zandt Upwards of 7,000 valentines passed through 

the post office. 

17. The sheriff going out to Berne to sell property, taken 
for rent, was followed by forty men on horseback, blowing 
horns and insulting him and his posse. No bids being made 
on the property, he brought away a pair of horses and a 

19. William Jenkinson died, aged 81 Emma Webster 

died, aged 21 ; wife of M. L. Webster The Directors of 

the New York and Albany Kail Road decided on adopting 
the river line of survey, ten to two. 

20. The number of convictions for state prison offences in 
the city during the last ten years, 335. Three persons in that 
time were convicted of murder, of which number, one was 
hung. The number of petit-larceny convictions, 800. 

21. Aurora borealis, which assumed such an unusual 
appearance, as to cause an alarm of fire. 

22. The anniversary of Washington's birthday celebrated 

with great enthusiasm George W. Hawley died, aged 

39 John Carroll died. 

23. Elizabeth Davis died, aged 53 Jane Anderson 

died, aged 29. 

24. Announcement of the death of John Quincy Adams. 
John W. Jackson died, aged 66. 

25. William Nordin died, aged 56. 

26. Amy Roberts died, aged 80. 

27. Navigation open as far north as Hudson. 

29. Prof. Agassiz commenced his course of lectures on 

Natural History at the Albany Female Academy Lester 

Bucklin Brown died, aged 22 Jane Frazer died, aged 

77 ; wife of John Frazer During the month there were 

175 cases under medical treatment at the Alms House, of 
which 7 died. 

March, 1848. 
1. A fire about 1 o'clock in the morning, at No. 83 Quay 
street, which communicated with about 20 brick and wooden 
buildings on the Dock and Broadway, below Hamilton street. 

332 Chronicle of Events in Albany, [March 

Richard Gillespie, a printer, was killed by the falling of 
a wall, and two persons were burnt in the house where the 
fire originated. Loss of property estimated at $70,000. 

2. Richard Van Zandt died, aged 23. 

3. Benjamin Van Benthuysen died, aged 70; Laura A. 
Bowers died, aged 26 ; wife of Augustus Bowers. 

4. Horace H. Grladding died, aged 20 ; Miss Buddington, 
a pupil of the Normal School, died. 

5. Richard Rosier died, aged 73 ; Isabella Orr died, aged 
57 ; wife of Samuel Orr. 

6. Joseph Curtiss died, aged 71 ', Melissa Prime died, 
aged 34; James H. Brown died, aged 42. 

7. Circulation of the Albany Eveniiig Journal^ daily, 
weekly and semi-weekly, stated to be 14,400. 

8. Stephen Traver died, aged 37. 

10. The grand jury presented " the rum and beer shops" 
of the city and county as a very serious evil, nearly all the 
business brought before the grand jury originating in these 
places ; that in their opinion the great expenses incurred by 
the county for Alms House, Penitentiary and Jail expen- 
ditures, grow out of the riots, robberies, assaults and batte- 
ries, and violations of the sabbath that occur or are con- 
nected with these places. 

11. Thomas W. Harman, attorney, died at Schenectady, 
formerly a resident in Albany. 

12. Alice Adaline Tallman died, aged 44; wife of 

Jonathan Tallman Ruth Ann Glovenbury died suddenly, 

suspected to have been murdered A meteor observed 

about 11 o'clock in the evening, in the northwest, which 
burst with an intonation resemblino^ distant thunder. 

13. Among the bills reported in the Assembly was one for 
the removal of the capital to New York; one for the con- 
struction of a bridge over the Basin; and one against the 

construction of a bridge over the Hudson at Albany 

Ambrose Spencer died at Lyons, aged 83 ; he was many 
years chief justice of the state, and regarded as one of 
the most distinguished jurists which the country has 

produced. He was interred at Albany Lawrence L. 

Schuyler died, aged 49. 

14. A meeting of citizens of Watervliet, when several 
thousand dollars were subscribed towards building a plank 

1848.] Chronicle of Events in Albany, 333 

road from Albany to the Mohawk river, witli a view to its 

continuance to Saratoga The managers of the Married 

Sociable transmitted to the treasurer of the Orphan Asylum 
$304.50, the avails of their ball given on the 7th in aid of 
the funds of that institution. 

15. Cold day; 3° below 0, at 5 o'clock in the morning. 

Philip Vanderlip died, aged 54.... ..Odd Fellows' Hall, 

Cooper's Building, corner Green and State streets, dedicated. 

17. St. Patrick's day celebrated with unusual ceremonies 
at the Catholic churches, and by the Hibernian Provident 

Society Thomas Lee died, aged 59 David B. Beatson, 

late of .Albany, died in New York, aged 40. 

18. The funeral of Judge Ambrose Spencer took place 
from St. Peter's church. The procession was one of the most 
imposing that had been witnessed in many years. He was 
born in Salisbury, Conn., 1765, and became a citizen of 
Albany in 1804, in which year he received the appointment 
of attorney-general of the state, and resided here until 1839. 
His house in Washington street was afterwards occupied by 

his son, John C. Spencer, until the death of the latter 

Capt. John Cook, of the Artillery, left the city for the army 
in Mexico, and was escorted to the depot by his company. 

19. Chapelof the Penitentiary formally dedicated; sermon 

by Dr. WyckoflF on the occasion Richard Graves died. 

Mrs Elizabeth Foot died, aged 44 Henry Y. 

Lansing died, aged 29. 

20. Capt. B. S. Roberts, of the Mounted Rifles, who was 
the first to plant the American flag upon the national palace 
of Mexico, and the first to enter the halls of the 3fontezumas, 
arrived in Albany and received calls at the Mansion House. 

Sarah Bay Livingston died at New York; widow of the 

late Edward Livingston and youngest daughter of the late 
Chancellor Livingston.. ....Rebecca Elizabeth Mix died, aged 

22 John Niblock, walking in the evening in Broadway, 

was assailed and stabbed in both arms. 

21. The steam boat Columbia reached Van Wie's Point, 
six miles below the city. 

22. The ice slipped away quietly, without subjecting us to 
the usual annoyance of high water, and the steam boat 
Admiral arrived during the day, and left again in the 

334 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [Apb. 

evening for New York Charles Quackenboss died of 

congestion of the brain, aged 33. 

23. Sarah Tompkins died, aged 38. 

24. The bill authorizing the construction of a bridge 
across the Basin at the foot of State street, of the full width 
of the street, and another for opening a street on the Pier to 
the same width, passed the Assembly. 

27. The steam boat Isaac Newton, on her way up the 

Hudson, ran down and sank a schooner The first tow 

boat fleet of the season arrived from New York, consisting 
of 17 barges, conveyed by the old Commerce, and laden with 

spring importations for Albany merchants principally 

The chamberlain reported that the whole expense of medical 

service for the poor since May 1, 1847, was $2,832.12 

Amount of business done at the justices' court, for the year 
ending this day, as follows: whole number of suits 2,400; 
amount of fees $3,300; of which $1,189.83 remained uncol- 
lected. Each of the members of the court (three justices and 
one clerk) received $527.56 ; do. the previous year $738.87. 

28. The two sections of the Democratic party united in the 

nomination of Dr. Thomas Hun for mayor Albany and 

Cohoes Rail Road bill passed the senate. 

29. Nicholas Van Rensselaer, a soldier of the revolution, 
died, aged 94. He was with Montgomery at the storming 
of Quebec; was at Ticonderoga, Fort Miller, Fort Ann, and 
at Remis's Heights, and was deputed to convey the intel- 
ligence of Burgoyne's surrender to the citizens of Albany. 

30. The Whigs nominated John Taylor for mayor. 

31. Anna Maria Tyler died, aged 51; wife of Benjamin 
O. Tyler. 

April, 1848. 

1. William Caldwell, a retired merchant, died, aged 72. 
His place of business, in which he succeeded his father, 
James Caldwell, was at No. 58 State street. Since his re- 
tirement, he resided principally at Caldwell, Lake George, 
where he had a large estate. (See Random Recollections 

of Albany, p. 97) Margaret Jane Bell died, aged 21 ; 

daughter of Joseph Bell. 

3. Isabella Adeline Peckham, died ; wife of Rufus H. 
Peckham, and daughter of Rev. Wm. B. Lacy. 

1848.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 835 

4. John T. Richards died, aged 23 Richard Thompson 

died, aged 45. 

6. A fire in Chapel street destroyed a carpenter's shop 

and the candle factory of Josiah Winants Hon. Wm. H. 

Seward delivered an eulogy on the late John Quincy Adams, 

in the North Dutch Church A splendid display of aurora 


7. Charles Davis died, aged 26 Maria Vibbard died, 

aged 30; wife of Philip G. Vibbard. 

9. Caroline Schmidt died, wife of Rev. F. W. Schmidt, 
pastor of the German Lutheran Church. 

11. Charter election, which resulted in the success of the 
Whig candidate for mayor, by 129 majority. The vote stood 
for John Taylor 3,115 -, for Dr. T. Hun 2,977 .The le- 
gislature appropriated $15,000 for the erection of an edifice 
for the State Normal School — a sum quite inadequate to the 

12. The legislature, having sat out its term of one hun- 
dred days, prescribed by the new constitution, adjourned at 
2 o'clock in the afternoon, having passed 381 laws. 

13. Catharine Douw died, widow of John D. P. Douw. 

Mary Ann La Grange died, aged 51 Gertrude Van 

Sanford died, aged 67. 

14. The new steam tug Baltic, intended for the service of 
the Albany Tow Boat Company, came up to take her place in 

the line A halibut, captured ofi" St. George's Bank, 

weighing upwards of 300 lbs., displayed in the Albany fish 

market Meeting of Germans, French and Poles at the 

National Hotel, to celebrate the establishment of a republic 
in France, and the rapid progress of republicanism through- 
out Germany and Europe. 

15. The law went into efiect prohibiting dogs from running 

at large without muzzles A fire in the vicinity of the 

Basin above Colonic street, destroyed much property and 
rendered several families houseless. A riot among the fire- 

18. Meetins: of the new board of Common Council for 
organization. The following appointments were made : L. 
D. Holstein, clerk ;H. H. Hickcox,dep. chamberlain; Hooper 
C. Van Vorst, attorney; George W. Carpenter, surveyor; 
Samuel McElroy, assistant surveyor ; Nelson W. Scovel, 

836 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [Aps. 

marslial ; John McBride, overseer of poor ; Henry B. Fay, 
almshouse physician. 

19. Cold day, snow fell to a considerable depth, accom- 
panied by a piercing wind from the north Mary Jane 

Wright died, aged 29 ; wife of Samuel Wright. 

20. James Farrell died, aged 78 Garrett Middleton 

died, aged 42. 

22. Joseph Grraham died, aged 35 The Armenia, a 

new steam boat, left New York at 7 o'clock in the morning, 
made the usual landings, and arrived at the dock at 4 o'clock. 

A fire, supposed to have been incendiary, consumed the 

out houses in the rear of 111 Washington street; 2 horses 

24. Great fires ; commenced on the corner of Westerlo 
and Church streets, at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, and before 
it was quelled, destroyed twenty buildiugs on Church, 
Westerlo, Dallius and John streets, and among them the 
Free Missionary Protestant Church. Loss estimated at 830,- 
000. This fire was hardly subdued, before another broke 
out about 10 o'clock in the evening, near the corner of Green 
and Beaver streets, which destroyed about twenty more 

buildings, valued at more than $60,000 Margaret Yates 

died; wife of Benjamin Yates. 

25. William Hamburgh died, aged 20. 

26. Chester Moore died of apoplexy, aged 55 Sarah 

Dodge died, aged 83; widow of Edmond Dodge Catha- 
rine M. Van Buren died, aged 30 ; wife of S. G. Van Buren. 

27. Elizabeth Whalen died, aged 64; wife of Jeremiah 

28. Jewish Synagogue, Beth Jacob, in Fulton street, 

consecrated Greatmeeting at the Capitol of the friends 

of progressive liberty, to congratulate on the recent move- 
ments in Europe. 

29. Jane McXaughton died, wife of Peter McNaughton. 

The Carlton House, corner of South Pearl and State 

streets, took fire, and narrowly escaped destruction A 

portion of the walls of the Westerlo street church, which 
was burnt at the late fire, were blown down by the high wind, 
and buried two boys. 

30. Mary Mahar died, aged 60 ; wife of James Maher 

Sarah Schuyler died, widow of Harmanus P. Schuyler. 

1848.] Chronicle of JSvents in Albany. B37 

May, 1848. 

1. The Common Council made tlie annual appointments of 
watchmen, street-inspectors, &c., and offered a standing 
reward of $100 for the discovery of any person engaged in 
setting fire to any building in the city. 

2. James Foster died, aged 62 Elizabeth M. Osbrey 

died, aged 28 ; wife of William L Osbrey. 

3. Caroline Smith, accused of stealing a child, having 
several times escaped the hands of justice, was finally tried 
and convicted, and sentenced to three years imprisonment at 
Sing Sing. 

4. Betsey Bentley died, aged 80 ; widow of Capt. Randall 
Bentley James Gough died, aged 37. 

6. The steam boats Alida and Hendrik Hudson left New 
York at 7 o'clock in the morning, and arrived at Albany, 
the former at 2 o'clock 55 minutes, and the latter 15 minutes 
after, having made but one landing on the way up. The 
time made by the Alida was as follows : Caldwell 9^. 
7m. ; West Point, 9A. 34m. ; Newburgh, 9A. 55 Jm.; Pough- 
keepsie, lOA. 4:{)m.; (landed 21m.); Hyde Park, llA. ; 
Catskill, 12^. 31m.; Athens, 12^. 42m.; Albany, 2h, 55m. 
The two boats not more than 15m. apart during the whole 
eight hours, with an ebb tide. 

6. Peter Drum died, aged 45. 

8. Steam propeller iVlbany arrived from Hartford, in- 
tended for freight and passengers ; length 140 feet, burden 

240 tons; built in Philadelphia Alfred Wickes died, 

aged 30. 

9. Mrs. Merrifield, wife of Richard Merrifield, died 

Meeting of the friends of Ireland at the City Hall; adopted 
a constitution, and elected officers, John Tracy in the chair j 
Robt. Higgles and Matthew Jordan, secretaries; Wm. Hawe, 

10. Hannah Vosburgh died, aged 82 George W. 

-Gardner died, aged 35 Nearly 1,000 Swiss emigrants ar- 
rived by the morning boats, on their way to Wisconsin. 

11. Abram Pittenger died, aged 47. 

12. High water ; a rise of 5 feet in 17 hours ; docks over- 
flowed William Newton of Albany died at Vera Cruz, 

aged 24. 


338 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [June 

13. The Albany and Cohoes Rail Road Company elected 

its officers Two frame houses in Centre street destroyed 

by fire Levi S. HoflFman died, aged 45 Ann Taylor 

died, wife of Robert Taylor. 

14. Severe frost, which nipped many tender buds 

Edmund Hall, arrested for a robbery committed the night 

15. The Board of Trade commenced operations in the ro- 
tunda of the Exchange The camphene store of S. T. 

Thorn, in Church street, took fire, which communicated 
with twenty-five other buildings before it was arrested. A 

Dutch immigrant lost $1,450 in gold, his all, Fires and 

robberies were of daily occurrence to an extent never before 

18. William A. McKown died, aged 39. 

19. Michael Henley died. 

24. William B. Emerson died, aged 36. 

30. A sportsman's club organized, at a meeting of citi- 
zens at the Broadway House; having for its object the ob- 
servance of the law for the preservation of game. 

31. John Gr. Russ drowned in the Basin, in attempting to 
get on board a canal boat ; his wife and children were pre- 
sent at the occurrence Business of the justices' court for 

the month of May ; suits commenced, 270 ; amounts received 

for costs, $194.12; amount outstanding, $115 A frost at 

some places near the city. 

June, 1848. 

1. Capt. Edward Whitney died, aged 49 Mary 

Schuyler died, aged 68; widow of Samuel Schuyler 

Elizabeth Garretson died, 

2. James C. Mull, stabbed several days previously by an 
insane man, died of his wounds. 

4. Matthew Gregory died, aged 91 ; he was an officer of 
the revolution, and one of the few survivors of the ancient 
order of Cincinnati. He came to this city soon after the 
war, was successful in business, and retired with an ample 
fortune. (See Random Recollections of Albany^ Munsell's ed., 
p. 80). 

5. The Albany County Court entertained an application 
for the incorporation of the village of Cohoes, under the act 

1848.] Chronicle of Events in Albany, 339 

of 1847. The village contained an area of If square miles, 
and had a population of 4,200 inhabitants, 

7. The great menagerie of Sands, Lent & Co., entered the 
city, presenting a pageant of some interest. The huge 
gilded chariot, drawn by four large elephants, contrasted 
singularly enough with tl;e Liliputian chariot, drawn by 
eight Shetland ponies — a new era in Caravans. 

12. The Common Council refused to grant $250 towards 
defraying the expenses of the Fourth of July Celebration, 
whereat much wrath and indignation was enkindled. 

17. The Pearl Street House burnt Andrew Lloyd 

died, aged 74 Abby M. Delavan died, aged 47; wife of 

Edward C. Delavan. 

22. The firemen had a riot on the corner of State and 
Pearl streets. The walks and streets were plentifully sprink- 
led with bricks and stones, on the following morning, and 
the doors and windows of the houses in the vicinity, pre- 
sented indelible marks of the force with which the missiles 
were hurled. 

26. Anna Garrison died, aged 97. 

27. A meeting in the park, announced by the blaze of tar 
and the roar of cannon, to respond to the nomination of 
Taylor and Fillmore. 

29. Anna Matilda Visscher died. 
80. James Lightbody died, aged 88. 

July, 1848. 

1. Elizabeth Campbell died, aged 18. 

2. Corner stone of the Catholic Cathedral laid, on the 

corner of Eagle and Lydius streets, by Bishop Hughes 

Charles Sayles died, aged 70. 

4. The national holiday celebrated with its usual accom- 
paniments, but with an unwonted sullenness, on account of 
what was deemed an overweening parsimony on the part of 
the Common Council in withholding supplies for ammunition 

ad libitum The remains of Capt. Abraham Van OLinda 

arrived in the morning, from Mexico, and were escorted to 
the City Hall. 

5. Twentieth anniversary of the Albany Female Seminary, 
under Rev. Mr. Garfield. 

340 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [July 

7. The funeral honors to the remains of Capt. Van OLinda 

were performed. The eulogy by Col. John Sharts A 

man killed by an accident, while laying the foundation of 
the Cathedral, in Lydius street John Summers died. 

8. As an instance of commercial despatch quite extraordi- 
nary, the steam propeller Mohawk arrived from Hartford in 
the morning, was unladen, took in about 300 tons of freight, 
mostly corn, and sailed on her return the same evening. 

9. Catharine Staats died, aged 65; wife of William N. 
Staats Bridget English died, wife of Patrick English. 

11. Canal Bank closed by order of the comptroller, and a 

commission issued to investigate its concerns Splendid 

display of aurora borealis in the evening Seventh anni- 
versary of the Alumnse of the Albany Female Academy. 

13. The workmen engaged in laying gas pipes in Broad- 
way, above Steuben street, came in contact with the founda- 
tion of the ancient mansion of Gen. Ten Broeck, which half 
a century before stood across Broadway at that point. At the 
time it was built it was outside of the city walls or stockades. 

The Boston City Guards arrived, as the guests of the 

Albany Burgesses Corps, by whom they were received and es- 
corted.. Enthusiastic meeting of the friends of Ireland at 

the Capitol, Hon. Erastus Corning presiding. There was uni- 
versal sympathy for the cause of Ireland, in view of the ex- 
pected outbreak in that country, for freedom from British do- 

14. This, it is believed, was the first day of the discon- 
tinuance of the Sunday train of cars west George S. 

Brown died, aged 38. 

15. Anna T. Gough died, wife of John T. Gough. 

16. Garret Hogan died, aged 65. He had filled the 
offices of county treasurer, deputy sheriff, and various other 
places of trust, with great fidelity and zeal for the public in- 
terest. He resigned the office of secretary of the Albany 
County Mutual Insurance Company, on account of ill health, 
some time before his death, the business of which he had con- 
ducted with faithfulness nearly eight years. 

17. The steam boat Oswego arrived from New York with 
a fleet of 5 barges and 24 lake boats in tow, all heavily laden. 

Upwards of 300 men engaged in the construction of a 

new depot to accommodate the increasing trade between this 

1848.] Chronicle of Events in Albany, 341 

city and Boston. Its dimensions were 750 feet by 183 feet; 
believed tohavebeen the largest building in theUnited States. 

18. Dr. Henry McHarg died, aged 23 William Long 

died, aged 62 Henry B,. Gossman died at Cayuga Bridge, 

aged 28 ; formerly of Albany Ann Kilkenny died, aged 

29 ; wife of Francis Kilkenny. 

19. Feast of St. Vincent observed at St, Joseph's Church, 
by the celebration of the pontifical high mass by Bishop 
McCloskey, and the panegyric of St. Vincent was delivered 

by Rev. Dr. McCaffrey, of Maryland The Rev. Benj. N. 

Martin was installed pastor of the Fourth Presbyterian 
Church. The Rev. E. N. Kirk and the Rev. Mr. Fisher of 
Cincinnati, former pastors of the church, officiated on the 

occasion Meeting of the Barnburners at the Capitol, to 

respond to the nomination of Martin Van Buren for pre- 

20. John Leonard died, aged 18. 

21. About 700 recruits passed through the city in the 
morning, destined for the newly acquired territory in Mexico. 

24, Sarah Justina Fassett died, aged 23, 

25. Company H, 1st Regiment New York Volunteers, 
Capt Farnsworth, arrived on board the Hendrik Hudson, 
and were gallantly received by the several military companies 
of the city, consisting of the Albany Republican Artillery, 
Albany Burgesses Corps, Emmet Guards^ Van Rensselaer 
Guards, and Washington Riflemen, Capt. Farnsworth suc- 
ceeded to the command on the death of Van OLinda. Of 
the 70 privates who left the city, but 45 returned. 

28. Anniversary of the district schools. The pupils 
assembled in the Capitol park, to the number of upwards of 
2,000, and walked in procession to Kane's walk, corner of 
South Pearl and Westerlo streets, where appropriate exer- 
cises were held, 

29. John S. Vandervolgen died. 

30. Cornelius Alexander died A robber assaulted 

alady in the street, who was accompanied by another lady and 
a gentleman, and wrested from her hand a purse of money 
and a ring valued at $20, with which he fled and eluded 

3L A new organ of great power, recently placed in the 
Middle Dutch Church, was opened for public inspection. It 

342 Chronicle of Events in Albany, [Aug. 

was tlie largest in the city, and cost $4,000 A meeting 

at the Capitol of the friends of Ireland, the mayor in the chair. 

Great rain storm at night, which damaged streets and 

houses. Nea'rly 2 inches of rain fell, about a week^s supply 
in a rainy season. 

August, 1848. 

1. Jacob Featherly died, aged 45 Elizabeth Damming 

died, aged 17. 

2. Jeremiah Smith died, aged 88. 

3. Mariah Hallenbake died, aged 21 ; wife of Christopher 

4. Margaret Bryan died, aged 24 John G-lass fell 

from a tow boat and was drowned. 

6. Charlotte Hoard died, aged 84; widow of Jonathan 
Hoard, a revolutionary soldier. 

8. Four military companies arrived from New York as the 
guests of the Emmet Guards. They were accompanied by 
Lothian^s Band ; and having extended their visit to the 
Watervliet Arsenal, and Troy, returned by the evening boat 
to New York. 

10. Dr. Jonathan Eights died at his residence, corner 
North Pearl and Columbia streets, aged 75. He practiced 
his profession in this city nearly half a century, with dis- 
tinguished skill and success, and was universally esteemed 

and respected William Updike died of paralysis, aged 

34 Mary Jane Van Buren died, aged 22. 

12. Thos. Sullivan, a deaf mute, run over by the Troy rail 
road train and killed. 

13. James Aiken died of paralysis, aged 59. 

15. Dr. Morrell made an ascension in a balloon from the 
Mineral Spring Garden in Ferry street. The ropes were 
cut about 5 o'clock in the afternoon, and the balloon rose 

majestically, and took a northerly direction Thomas 

Maher, aged 8 years, was drowned in the pond at the head 
of Canal street, formed by the pent up waters which for- 
merly supplied the Foxes kil. This was the sixth life lost 
in the pond during two years. 

17. The Great Fire. It broke out in a small shed ad- 
joining the Albion Hotel, corner of Broadway and Herkimer 
streets, said to have been occasioned by a washerwoman's 

1848.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 343 

bonnet taking fire. The flames spread with great rapidity 
before a south wind, taking in their course both sides of 
Broadway and Church street, and crossing to the Pier, swept 
every thing down as far as the cut at the foot of Maiden lane. 
The large buildings in the vicinity of the Eagle Tavern 
presented a temporary barrier to the flames, which having 
passed, they swept on as far as the corner of Hudson street. 
The wind then suddenly shifted to the north, and drove 
the fire in an opposite direction. At night it commenced 
raining, which rendered the buildings less combustible, and 
assisted in staying the conflagration. Besides the great num- 
ber of buildings consumed, vast quantities of every kind of 
property perished with them. The losses of the insurance 
companies was full half a million, and the whole loss could 
not have been much short of three millions of dollars, con- 
tained in about 600 houses. The exact area burnt over, in- 
cluding Basin and Pier, was 37 acres, about one-thirtieth of 
the whole city. It extended 700 feet west from the river 
on Herkimer street, 350 on Dallius, running northwardly; 
900 feet on Union street, continuing in the same direction ; 
300 feet east on Hudson, and 1,600 on Quay street, running 
south. This was the most densely populated part of the 
city Robert Harvey died, aged 48. 

21. The Common Council ordained that no wooden build- 
ing or buildings wholly or partially covered with wood, should 
thereafter be erected in any part of the city of Albany, east of 
Lark street; and that every eaves trough, cornice and gutter 
should be made of metal or other incombustible material. 

22. Isaac Brown died at Somerville, N. J., aged 49; for- 
merly a hardware merchant in Albany. 

23. Eliza Salisbury died, aged 28; wife of William 

Salisbury Benjamin P. Gregory, formerly of Albany, 

died at Jersey city, aged 43. 

25. Betsey McCarty died, aged 21. 

26. Whig meeting called at the Capitol on the receipt of 
Gen. Taylor's letter, accepting the nomination of the democrats 
of Charleston, S. C, to run on their ticket with Gen. Butler. 
Great indignation was expressed at this unexpected turn 
of things, and the disposition prevailed to throw the General 
overboard ; but it was wisely determined to postpone the act 
to Monday night James Hanley, shot at a riot of firemen 

344 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [Sept. 

on the 19th, died of the wound after a week of intense 

27. Perry Tucker died, aged 47. 

28. The Common Council decided to improve the burnt 
district by widening and straightening the streets, and rais- 
ing the grade of Broadway between Hamilton and Lydius 

streets Adjourned indignation meeting of the Whigs at 

the Capitol, convened to digest the Taylor and Butler nomi- 
nation at Charleston, S. C. It was decided that the alarm 
of Saturday evening was groundless, and that there was no 
danger to be apprehended from the circumstance of Gen. 
Taylor having accepted a democratic nomination. 

September, 1848. 

1. Col. Robert E. Temple returned to the city from the 
Mexican campaign George Eugan died of wounds re- 
ceived by the fall of the draw at the Boston Ferry two 
weeks before. 

2. Mrs. Elizabeth Van Schaack died, aged 42 ; wife of 
John Van Schaack. 

3. Rev. Elias Vanderlip died, aged 84. He was the pa- 
triarch of the Methodist Episcopal Church in this city. He 
was born at Carl's Neck, Staten Island, Feb. 10, 1765, and 
left fatherless at an early age. When the British took New 
York, he was apprenticed to the shoe-making business. In 
1787, he became a convert in the M. E. Church. In 1792, 
he first began to exhort. In 1796, he settled in Albany 
and opened a shoe store, but lost all his stock by fire ; he was 
then invited to Niskayuna (now Watervliet) to preach. In 
1800, he was ordained a deacon, and his first appointment was 
to Pittsfield circuit in 1802. In 1804, he was ordained an 
elder. In 1805, his name was put down for Albany. He 
preached from 1805 to 1836, when he was obliged by old 
age to desist. In April last he was laid upon his bed with a 
broken thigh, from which, with the frosts of years thick 
upon him, and fearless of death, his immortal spirit winged 
its flight to a better world. 

5. Althia A. Loveland died; a pupil of the Normal 

School from Franklin, Delaware county Mary Relay died, 

aged 86 ) widow of Robert Relay. 

1848.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 345 

7. Hon. John C. Spencer, of Albany, delivered the Address 
before the State Agricultural Society, at its annual fair, in 

9. The receipts of the Albany and Boston rail road, for the 
week ending this day, were $17,000 for passengers alone, 
being the largest sum received from that source in any one 
week since the opening of the road. 

12. The new steam ferry boat, T. W. Olcott, commenced 

running at the Albany and Boston Rail Road Ferry 

Barney Flinn died, aged 34; a volunteer in the company 
under Col. Temple. 

13. Nomination of Gen. John A. Dix, by the Barnburner 
or Free /S'oiY convention at Utica, for the office of governor of 

the state The house of A. McCowan robbed of money 

and jewelry. 

14. Frost ; fires necessary in the morning.. ..Annual ex- 
hibition of the Albany and Rensselaer Horticultural Society, 

at the Geological Rooms Meeting of the Clay whigs at 

the Capitol, when it was resolved to abandon Taylor, and 

adopt Henry Clay, and attempt to carry his election 

Meeting of the rail road companies at Utica, when it was 
resolved to reduce the fare between Albany and Buffalo to 

$9.75, being an average of 3 cents a mile Elizabeth 

Wads worth died, aged 73. 

15. Elizabeth Somers died, aged 48; widow of the late 
John Somers. 

18. The Common Council resolved to extend the area of 
the steam boat landing south to Lydius street. 

19. The members of the city corporation proceeded in a 
body to Congress Hall to pay their respects to Gen. Worth. 

On the opening of the Mayor's court the grand jury 

came in with thirty indictments without having finished their 
business. There were 170 criminal cases on the calendar 

before The last remittance from the New York relief 

committee to the sufferers by the fire in Albany, amounting 

in the whole to $12,035 A ship carpenter by the name 

of Paul, while engaged at work on a boat, fell into the Basin 

and was drowned Flour $5.75 to $5.87J ; wheat $1.30; 

oats 34 cents ; pork $13. The receipts by canal this day 
were : flour 6,236 bushels ; ashes 47 do ; whiskey, &c. 
7,600 gallons; corn, 3,296 bushels; barley 2,755; oats 7,246; 

346 Ghrordcle of Events in Albany, [Oct. 

wheat 4,948; peas and beans 225; clover and grass seed 

1,100 lbs.; butter 49,520; cheese 20,262; wool 1,527 

Sarah Winne died, aged 80 ; widow of Kilian I. Winne. 

Elizabeth Loucks died, aged 63 ; wife of John H. Loucks. 

Esther S. Meech died, aged 20. 

20. Henry Z. Whitney died, aged 23. 

21. The seventh semi-annual examination of the State 
Normal School, when 96 pupils graduated. 

22. Snow on the neighboring hills The heavy iron 

rail on the Mohawk and Hudson Rail Road being completed , 
an experimental trip was made with three cars, resting upon 
India rubber springs, and drawn by the 31ohawk locomotive, 
built by McQueen. The trip was performed in 30 minutes, 
and the return trip in 24 minutes, being at the rate of 42 J 
miles an hour. 

23. Dr. Christopher C. Yates died at Parishborough, 
Nova Scotia; he was originally from Albany, and took a 
very active and decided part in the controversy on the great 

question of the origin and treatment of yellow fever 

John W. Lightbody died, aged 26. 

25. William R. Cantine died, aged 49 Thomas Flood 

died, aged 39. 

26. Meeting at the Capitol of the Old Hunkers^ to ratify the 
state nominations. R. AV. Peckhara, Esq., and Mike Walsh 
were the principal orators, and the consumption of tar was 

27. First heavy frost of the season, which had been unu- 
sually cold with rain 13 days Thomas Gale died, aged 

28 Peter H. Hilton died Abraham T. Evertsen 

died, aged 41 Hannah Ten Eyck died, wife of William 

Ten Eyck. 

28. Convention of Antirenters, who nominated Gen. John 
A. Dix for governor and George W. Patterson for lieutenant 

29. Ellen Ann Graham died, aged 18. 

30. David Hemphill died, aged 39. 

October, 1848. 

2. At a meeting of the Common Council, the committee 
on the reorganization of the Fire Department reported in 
favor of paying firemen §30 per annum, and appointing a 

1848.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 847 

chief engineer, with a salary of §700j to devote his time 

wholly to the duties appertaining to his office Matthew 

Clerton died, aged 73. 

4. Jane Van Schaack died ; widow of the late Nicholas 
Van Schaack. 

5. The county convention of Whigs nominated John L. 
Schoolcraft for congress, and James Kidd for county trea- 
surer Sarah A.nn Holliday died, aged 33 ; wife of James 

Holliday Elizabeth Delehant died, aged 32; wife of 

Andrew Delehant. 

6. Flour, 85.50 to 85.87; buckwheat, $2.12; wheat, 
$1.27; corn, 67c.; barley, 71c. to 74c. 

7. Trotting match on the Troy road for a purse of $200. 
Jack Rossiter and Lady Moscow were the only competitors; 
the former won all three heats; time 2.38, 2.39, 2.37. After 
which Ferguson and McGovern had a two mile foot race for 
a purse of 830. Ferguson took it in 11.27 minutes. 

8. F. W. Ingmire ordained as a minister of the gospel at 

the Pearl Street Baptist Church William Maternaghan, 

an auctioneer, long in the employ of J. I. Jones, found 

drowned in the river below the city John A. Wilson 

died, aged 51. 

9. The steam boat Oswego reached the dock with 36 boats 
in tow ; 13 barges and 23 lakers. 

10. The Albany Burgesses Corps elected their officers for 
the ensuing year. 

11. William K. Amsden died, aged 28. 

13. Robert Lyle, a native of Scotland, died Catherine 

Carey died, aged 23. 

14. The steam propeller Hartford made her first landing 
here ; intended to run in connection with the Albany, be- 
tween this city and Hartford ; being the third steam packet 
plying between the two cities. Her capacity about fifty tons 
greater than the Albany. 

15. A fire destroyed the steam saw mill of Clement 
Warren in Water street, corner of Quackenbush, a large 
quantity of lumber adjoining, and the fur shop of George C. 
Treadwell. Loss about 810,000. 

16. Elvenah C. Anderson died, aged 16 Harriet Booth 

died, aged 21 Mrs. Prudence White died, aged 60. 

848 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [Nov. 

17. Mrs. Ann Bassett died at Penn Yan, aged 86; widow 
of the Rev. John Bassett, formerly pastor of the Reformed 
Protestant Dutch Church in Albany Mrs. Almira Bar- 
nard died, aged 55. 

20. James Keeler died at Summit, Wisconsin, aged 76; 
forty years a resident in Albany. 

22. Arthur Quinn died, aged 36. 

23. The rail road train from Buffalo, under the new 
arrangement, came through in 17 hours ; the usual time was 

24 hours; a gain of nearly one-third James Butler died, 

aged 40. 

24. Sale of Dutch Church lots on Snipe, Knox, and Sand 

streets, at $32.50 to $37.50 each James Frazer died, aged 


26. The hall corner of Green and Beaver streets, fitted 
up for the use of the Independent Order of Odd-Fellows, 
was dedicated with appropriate ceremonies. 

27. The iron cover of the great tank belonging to the gas 
company, in the process of erection in the north part of the 
city, fell about 2 o'clock, while more than 30 persons were 
at work upon it, by which one was killed, and others severely 
injured. The damage sustained by the company was about 

$1,000 Griles Fredericks killed by the accident at the 

gasworks Catharine Foy died, aged 50; wife of Philip 


29. Greorge L. Thomas shot by Jane Elizabeth Britton, 

in John street Jane Connick died, aged 72; widow of 

Andrew Connick Elizabeth Scott died, aged 59. 

30. Dense fog; the steam boats due in the morning did not 
arrive till 4 o'clock in the afternoon. The boats which left 
this city the day before, were overtaken by the morning boats. 

George Charles died, aged 81 Dr. Amos N. Burton 

died, aged 87. 

31. William Duncan Topp died, aged 42. 

November, 1848. 

1. Mutual agreement of the jewelers to close their stores 

at 8 o'clock in the evening Rev. W. H. Waggoner settled 

pastor of the Universaiist Church. 

2. The stables of Judge Gansevoort and Watts Sherman 
in Washington street set on fire and consumed in the evening. 

1848.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 849 

3. William Annesley died, aged 81. 

4. Whig torch-light procession in the evening, daring 
which several outrages and serious accidents occurred. 

5. Rev. B. T. Welch announced to his congregation, the 
First Baptist Church, in Pearl street, that he had accepted 
a call to the Pierrepont street church in Brooklyn. 

7. Election day ; the Whig ticket elected by a large ma- 
jority ; on the presidential electors, the vote stood for Taylor 
3473 ; Cass 1883 ; Van Buren 1376 ; for congress, J. L. 
Schoolcraft 3818; C. Bouton 1500; B. B. Wood 1351; for 
assembly, R. H. Pruyn 1729; H. Rector 558; Amos Dean 
631; Joel A. Wing 1858; Eli Perry 1011; J. R. Van 
Rensselaer 27; Stewart 727. Connected with the usual bal- 
loting, a vote was taken to get the public sentiment on the 
scheme of supplying the city with water at the public ex- 
pense. The vote for water was 4405; no water 6; brandy 

and water, strong, 1 By a wonderful achievement of art 

and science in the telegraph, the result of the elections in 
Massachusetts and other more remote states was pretty cer- 
tainly known before 9 o'clock in the evening; and within 
twenty-four hours after the closing of the polls, it was ascer- 
tained almost beyond question that Gen. Zachary Taylor 
was elected president by a large majority of votes. 

10. Cold morning ; thermometer indicated 15-j-O. Some 

of the ponds in the vicinity frozen over Cecilia Williams 

died in Xew York ; wife of Ezra Williams, and daughter of 
the late Sebastian Visscher, of Albany Jeremiah Wal- 
lace died, aged 80. 

11. The mayor acknowledged a donation from the Shakers 

of blankets to the value of several hundred dollars A 

snow storm commenced in the evening Jennet White 

Autey died, aged 48 ; wife of Alex. Autey. 

13. Elizabeth Kelley died, wife of Michael Kelley, 

20. Snow storm. 

21. Monument erected in the cemetery over the grave of 
Maj. Lewis N. Morris, who fell at the battle of Monterey. 

22. Christopher Anthony died, aged 25. 

23. Steam boat Belle left this port with 29 boats in tow, 
and arrived at New York in 42 hours. The tonnage of this 

fleet was 4,500, and its probable value $170,000 Patrick 

Morrison died, aged 26. 


350 Chronicle of Events in Albany, [Dec. 

24. Uriah Marvin died, aged 79. 

25. Silas Houghton, an aged and respected citizen died. 
Mary Leslie died, aged 53. 

26. Joseph S. Clark died, aged 68 Joseph Blake 

died, aged 39, 

27. The Common Council at a full meeting passed a new 

fire law, entirely reorganizing the fire department James 

Hays, a news boy, in attempting to jump from the cars fell 

under the wheels, and was killed The steam boat Belle left 

the dock with 39 boats in tow, and arrived in New York in 
46 hours. This was by far the largest number of boats ever 
attempted to be towed by one steam boat on the Hudson 

28. The firemen held an indignation meeting at the Capitol, 
and had a procession with banners in honor of the new fire 
law, which was not framed in consonance with their views 

and feelings Joseph Robinson died, aged 62 Francis 

Finnegan died, aged 53. 

December, 1848. 

5. Presidential electors of the state of New York met at 
the Capitol at 4 o'clock afternoon, and having organized 
adjourned to the following day, when they cast their votes 
unanimously for Zachary Taylor for president of the United 

States .Alida Visscher died, aged 82, widow of the late 

Teunis Gr. Visscher. 

6. Horace Pierce died, aged 42. 

7. Great competition between the Isaac Newton and Rip 
Van Winkle steam boats; prices of fare to New York 50 cts. 

8. Margaret Mayer died, widow of the late Frederick Gr. 

9. The canals closed by order of the commissioners, in 
order to prosecute the enlargement. The weather was still 
extremely mild, after a week of rain, and no ice had yet 

formed either in the canal or river Dr. John H. Doug:- 

lass, an aged and wealthy citizen of Troy, fell and expired in 

the Capitol, while attending the comptroller's tax sale 

Beermah B. Herner died, aged 35. 

10. Elizabeth Van Bergen died Julia Ann Shaw died 

11. Edward Harty died, aged 64. 

1848.] Chronicle of Events in A Ihany. 351 

14. Henry M. Fergusen died, aged 61. Thaddeus Pome- 
roy died at Clinton, Mich., aged 30, formerly of Albany. 

16. Athaliah Serviss died, wife of William Serviss. 

17. Charles Roarke died, aged 41. 

18. Fire in the area of the Carlton House Christiana 

M. Vandenburgh died, aged 47; wife of John A. Yanden- 

20. James Goadby precipitated himself from a third story 
window upon the street pavement, in a fit of derangement, 

which caused his death Sarah Beuchanan died, aged 65. 

James Maroney drowned in the Canal Basin Rev. 

W. H. Wagoner installed pastor over the Universalist church. 

21. Snow; no steam boat left for New York Nancy 

Lo^ett died John MacNamara died, aged 30. 

22. First sleighing Cynthia Y^ebster died at Albion, 

Orleans county, aged 78 ; widow of the late Charles R. 
Webster of Albany. 

23. John Thomas, Jr. died John Timmons, a dray- 
man, killed by a locomotive in attempting to cross the rail 

road track before the train The cold weather completely 

closed the river, but the Columbia forced her way up 
through the ice. 

24. Jane D. Thompson died, aged 80 Harriet Bassett 

died, aged 16. 

26. David Thomas died. 

26. A train arrived from New York by the Housatonic 
road, which opened on Christmas for the winter travel, pro- 
mising to make daily trips in eight hours, by daylight 

Fanny Perceval died, aged 50 ; wife of George Percevarl. 

27. Rev. Rutger Yan Brunt installed pastor over the 
Third Reformed Protestant Dutch Church in Albany ; the 
former pastor. Dr. William H. Campbell, preached the 
installation sermon. 

28. The river completely shut, no boat having arrived. 

29. Jane Ann Boyd died, daughter of the late Peter Boyd. 

30. Ceremony of presenting a sword to Gen. Wool took 
place at the Capitol. The sword, the gift of the state, valued 
at $1,700 was presented by the governor, John Young, and 
was in approbation of his distinguished services in the war 

with Mexico Seventy freight cars left the depot for 

New York by the Housatonic road. 

352 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [Jan. 

31. Trinity church, corner of Herkimer and Franklin 
streets, purchased by the South Baptist Society, was first used 
by them for public worship. 

January, 1849. 

1. New year; weather pleasant, and sleighing good 

Hon. Hamilton Fish and George W. Patterson, Governor 

and Lieut. Governor elect, inaugurated at the Capitol 

Michael McKown died of a wound inflicted by William 

Maxsted, Dec. 9th Total commitments to the penitentiary 

for the year ending December last, 363 ) to the jail, 1,961. 

2. Cold day; mercury 2° above zero The Governor's 

message, by means of the magnetic telegraph, was promul- 
gated at the western and southern extremities of the state 
simultaneously with its being read in the Capitol. 

5. Dr. Wing gave notice in the Assembly of a bill for the 
removal of the Halenbeek burial ground, corner of S. Pearl 

and Hamilton streets Benedict Lewis died, aged 66 

John Paterson died, aged 76. 

6. Peter Courtright died, aged 34. 

7. Warner Daniels, junior, formerly of this city, died in 

New York, aged 31 Mrs Euphemia, wife of William 

Chambers, died, aged 31 Mrs. Philo D. Lyon died 

Eev. Orville Dewey, D. D., having accepted an invitation to 
preach for the Unitarian Society one year, entered upon the 

duties of his office Weather very cold, the mercury 

little above zero, Fahrenheit's scale. 

8. Ice on the river one foot in thickness : By means of 
a temporary bridge on to it at the foot of State street, an un- 
interrupted and safe communication is formed with East 

9. William Bradley Cole, a printer, from Albany, died at 

Nassau, Bahama islands, aged 27 Nineteen paintings 

and sixteen Allston and Stewart medals, prizes allotted to 
the Albany members of the American Art Union, arrived, 

and were exhibited at Little & Co. 's Bookstore Alderman 

Jenkins reported the following schedule of the state of the 
City Rail Road Sinking Fuad, viz : Amount of sinking fund, 
Jan. 1, 1849, $231,597.38. Loaned on bonds and' mort- 
gages on property in the city, $209,617 \ city stock, $20,000 ; 
cash in bank, $1,980.38. 







1849.J Chronicle of Events in Albany, 855 

10. The corporation directed application to be made to the 
legislature for a law to designate the place of landing and 
departure of steam boats Dr. Fay, the almshouse physi- 
cian, reported, that during the last three months, 183 inmates 
required medical treatment, 122 of whom were cured, 15 died, 

and 46 are still under treatment Receipts of the Albany 

& Boston Rail Road Company over those of last year, $6,000. 

11. Aggregate valuation of the real estate in the city, $8- 
209,957.00; personal, $2,729,881.00; total, $10,939,838.00. 
Amount of taxes assessed for city purposes, $172,079.34 ; for 
county purposes, $71,463.10; total, $243,542.44. Incorpo- 
rated companies pay taxes on $2,004,634.86 ; private indi- 
viduals, $725,246.98; total, $2,729,881.84 Meeting of • 

the Society for the relief of the poor, held in the Middle 

Dutch Church Amount of profits received at St. Vincent's 

Orphan Fair, held by the Sisters of Charity, $3144.64 

The coldest day yet ; mercury ranging from 8 to 12° below 
zero Dorothea, wife of Capt James Wilson, died, aged 35. 

12. Amos Pilsbury reappointed superintendent of the 
Penitentiary for three years ; and William W. Forsyth and 
Samuel Pruyn of the city, and Gilbert J. Van Zandt of Wa- 

tervliet, chosen directors for the same term The death 

of the Rev. Noah Levings, D. D., former pastor of the M. E. 
Church in Division street, was announced by telegraph. 

13. Louisa, wife of W. W. Van Zandt, and daughter of 

W. Dowd, died, aged 27 The Albany California Company 

left New York in the ship Tarolinta Telegraph not in 


14. Sarah E. Ford died, aged 25 Change of weather, 

resulting in a January thaw William Hill, a newsboy, 

fell through the ice, but was rescued alive. 

15. Hon. D. D. Barnard delivered an address in the court 
room at the City Hall, on the Life and Character of tlie late 

Chief Justice Ambrose Spencer The weather moist 

throughout the day, and rain at intervals. 

16. The streets and sidewalks covered by a thick coating 
of ice. 

17. Cynthia, wife of Brunson A. Baldwin, died, aged 25. 

Prof. Emmons delivered an address on Agricultural 

Science, in the assembly chamber, before the State Agricul- 
tural Society .John B. Gough lectured before the State 

356 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [Feb. 

Temperance Convention Patrick Coyle, Michael Flood 

and Peter Halpen were killed by gas escaping from a pipe 
which they were repairing. Coyle was injured by the rope 
with which he was lowering himself with intent to relieve the 
other two. 

18. Richard Moehrie, an old inhabitant of the city, found 

dead in his bed Concert for the benefit of the Mission 

Sabbath School, held in Dr. Campbell's Church, Pearl street. 

19. Nathaniel E,. Packard died, aged 64. 

20. James McGrath, junior, died, aged 28. 

21. Trinity Church, in Broad street, opened for divine 

22. Christian Mary St. John died, aged 33. 

23. Frederick Fink, a native portrait painter, died at his 
father's residence at Littlefalls. Lewis Farnhamdied, aged 

23 Commencement of the Albany Medical College held : 

number of students about 100, of whom 20 graduated, re- 
ceiving the degree of M. D. Valedictory address by Dr. 

24. James McCulloch died. Lawrence Courtright died, 
aged 38. 

25. Mrs. Elizabeth Blake died, aged 24 George 

McKenzie died, aged 62 Passengers by the Housatonic 

route who left New York at 8 A. M., arrived in the city at 5 p. M. 

26. Mrs. Barbara Hamburgh died, aged 45. Elizabeth 
McHarg, sister of the late John P. McHarg, died at Bethle- 
hem, aged 76. John C. Ostrander, formerly of Albany, 
died at Boonville, Missouri, aged 45. 

28. Wells S. Hammond, of Cherry Valley, son of Hon. 
Jabez D. Hammond, died suddenly at Stanwix Hall in this 

31. Catharine O'Connor died. 

February, 1849. 

1. Catharine, wife of Conrad Van Alen, died Caucus 

was held in the assembly chamber at the Capitol : nominated 
Hon. William H. Seward for U. S. senator, in the place of 
Hon. John A. Dix. 

2. William Rennie drowned. 

4. Jason Rudes died, aged 74. Prudence, wife of James 
Kelly, died. 

1849.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 357 

5. Cornelius Lynch died, aged 35. 

6. Ship Robert Bowne sailed from New York for Cali- 
fornia, with twenty miners from Albany onboard Chris- 
topher Keeler died, aged 83. 

7. Sale of the medical library of the late Dr. Eights. 
9. Isaac Ward, father of J. C. Ward, died. 

12. Amos S. Fasset, late of this city, died, at Vienna, 
Oneida county. 

15. Francis Fiske died A pair of oxen from Wyoming 

county, weighing nearly 5,(K)0 pounds, were exhibited and 
purchased by Mr. D. D. Shaw. 

16. Thermometer, at 5 J A. m., at 11° below zero Mrs. 

Frances Maria, wife of Mr. James E,. Whyte, died, aged 53 . 

18. John Topp died. aged49. William Kane died, aged 75. 

19. Mrs. Sally White died, aged 58 Mr. C. Leach, of 

Eaton. Madison county, sold, at Warford's cattle exchange, 
three oxen for Brighton market, weighing over 2,200 lbs. each, 
at $9 per hundred. 

20. Jellis Winne, junior, cashier of the Bank of Albany, 
resigned his office on account of ill health. 

21. Nathaniel Tarbell, aged about 37, was killed on the 
Troy road, near the city, by the upsetting of the stage coach 
of which he was driver. 

22. Washington's birthday celebrated. Members of the 
legislature and several Albanians, partook of an annual din- 
ner at Troy Mrs. Ann Lydiott died. 

24. Four inches of snow fell during the night Mr. 

Jennings, in Green street, exhibited a hog weighing 949 lbs. 

27. Streets covered with ice and remnants of snow heaps. 

28. The ladies of the Universalist Society held a tea party 
for the benefit of the funds of their church. 

March, 1849. 

1. David Schwartz died, aged 73. 

4. Betsey, wife of Samuel Steele, died, aged 60. Mrs. 
Catharine Hart died, aged 37. Catharine, wife of Adam 
Stewart, died, aged 30. 

5. The directors of the Albany Savings Bank reported 
S707,595.62 as the amount of its deposits, most of which is 

in sums less than $100 Ann Alida, wife of Col. De- 

Russey, died at Fortress Munroe, after a short illness, aged 

358 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [March 

about 40. "This lovely woman'' says a correspondent of 
the Evening Post, "was the daughter of Isaac Denniston 
esquire, of Albany, and as amiable as she was lovely. No 
one acquainted with the society of that city about twenty 
years since, can have forgotten how much this lady was 
admired; nor how, with two other ladies, connections of her 
family, equally beautiful, though of diflFering styles of beauty, 
she was a grace that attracted universal homage. It was not 
often that so much personal elegance could be found in such 
close affinity. With a refined taste, a love of letters, and a 
more than ordinary talent, this lady was the cynosure of 
every eye. And now that she has passed away from the 
friends who loved her, and the circle she adorned, we call to 
mind, with the deepest emotion, those virtues, talents and 
attractions, which made the morning of life so brilliant; 
which drew around her in after years the most devoted 
friends, and now enshrine her memory in hearts where her 
living image was ever present.'' 

7. Ice in the river yet nearly three feet in thickness 

A. J. Winters, a grocer from Albany, was killed in attempt- 
ing to get into the cars at Rome, Oneida county. 

9. Jacob Featherly died, aged 25. Hannah, wife of 
Stephen Parsons, died at New Baltimore, aged 90. 

11. James H. Crane died. 

12. Christina, wife of Oliver H. Perry, died, aged 28. 
Geoige H. Scrafford died, aged 37. Thomas Dutson died, 

aged 63 A canal was cut through the ice to East Albany 

for the use of the Boston and Albany ferry boat. 

13. Mrs. Sylvester Topping died Weather quite 

springlike A baker's sleigh, with two men and other 

loading, fell through the ice : recovered. 

14. Mrs. N. S. Washburn died. Mrs. Margaret Rankin 
wife of John Ogden Bey, formerly from Albany, died at 

Oakwood farm near Cayuga Bridge, aged 47 A canal 

cut through the ice, for the use of the Bath ferry boat. 

16. Curtis Ware, aged 37, died. 

17. Steamer Columbia, Capt. Hulse, arrived about lip. M., 
making her way through the ice ; the first boat since the 

closing of the river in December High Mass said in St. 

Mary's Church in honor of St Patrick's anniversary, 

Mrs. Mary Ann McGarvey died, aged 45. 

1849. J Chronicle of Events in Albany. 359 

19. Steamer Columbia left, heavily laden with passengers 
and freight Peter McKenna died, aged 80, 

20. James Branion died of consumption, aged 17. Mrs. 
Ann Groot died in her 60th year. 

21. The ice from the Mohawk floated past the city 

Steamer Oregon came to the new landing place; her first 

trip since the closing of navigation Sloop Miriam of 

Albany, Capt. Johnson (a colored man), arrived from New 

York in 17 hours Miss N. C. Brainard died. Grace, 

wife of William Kennedy, died. 

23. Martin Van Alstyne, for many years a successful 

hardware merchant in the city, died, aged 65 At 

the meeting held at the City Hall, to take into consideration 
the frauds of the Canal Bank, Teunis Van Vechten was 

24. John I. Burton, aged 24, died. Michael Daley was 
found dead in the street, having, in a fit of delirium, sprung 
from the second story window of his house. 

25. A wall in Liberty street, standing since the late fire, 

was blown down, damaging several adjoining buildings 

Deborah, wife of John Burton, died, aged 66. 

26. A bill to establish a hospital in Albany passed the 

lower house At the request of the supervisors, the 

Legislature has recently abolished ward assessors, and sub- 
stituted a board of three individuals John Hermans 

died in the 29th year of his age. John Van Ness, junior, 

27. Mary Bard, wife of R. S. Warren, died, aged 32 

Mr. Saxton lectured on California in the Assembly Chamber. 

28. Jonathan Kidney, a soldier of the revolution, and one 

of the oldest inhabitants of the city, died The boats 

from New York were greatly impeded by a severe wind 

29. Bev. Stephen Bush and wife, from this city, as 
missionaries to Siam, arrived at Batavia, Island of Java, in 
98 days. 

31. A machine for sewing and stitching was exhibited at 
the Mansion house The finance committee of the Com- 
mon Council reported that the city debt on the first of May 
last, was $877,896. 00. 

360 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [Apr. 

April, 1849. 

3. Hannah Beekman, widow of Peter Douw Beekman, 
died, aged 83. 

4. Henry Williams died, aged 69 The Common 

Council appropriated $100 for an alarm bell at the Little 

Basin Mr. Bokee, of the Senate, reported favorably 

on the bill for the removal of the Halenbeek burial ground. 

5. Mary Ann, wife of Andrew D. Kirk, died. 

6. Mary Ann, wife of Alexander Thompson, died, aged 19. 

7. The city gave the members of the legislature a compli- 
mentary dinner at Congress Hall Samuel Grould, a 

colored fireman on board the lolas, was killed while repairing 
the waterwheel. 

8. The South Baptist Church, corner of Franklin and Her- 
kimer streets, formerly owned by the Trinity Church, was 
opened for divine service under the pastoral care of Rev. 

Mr. Wines George W. Stanton, president of the Exchange 

Bank, died, aged 69. Rensselaer Van Schelluyne died, leav- 
ing an elder brother the last male descendant of an ancient 
and wealthy family. 

9. The public charity of the city treasury for coal, &c., 
delivered to the poor, was $3,102.87 ; less by $1,816.42 than 
last year. 

10. Edward M. Teall died. Adelaide M., wife of Jason 

Collier, died City election, resulting in the choice of the 

Whig candidate for mayor. Friend Humphrey. 

12. John R. Black died, aged 78. Eleanor A., wife of 

Reuben Wilson, died, aged 21 The committee of the 

Assembly having in charge the case of Judge Harris with the 
Canal Bank, exonerated him of any blame. 

13. Rachel, widow of the late David P. Winne, died. 

15. Alfred Dorr died, aged 43. Mrs. Rachel Douw Van 
Schelluyne died. 

16. Law establishing a court of special sessions went into 

17. The new Common Council met ; the mayor was sworn 
in, and the appointments made Catherine, wife of Wil- 
liam Francis, found dead in her bed. 

18. Uriah St. John died, aged 21. Catherine, wife of 
James Riley, died, aged 34. Catherine Nichols died. 

1849.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 361 

19. Barent Hayan died, aged 68. 

20. A meeting was held to organize the Albany and Scho- 
harie Plank Road Company, Teunis Van Vechtenin the chair. 
Hannegan died. 

22. Mrs. Irene Pierce died, aged 65. Charles H. Weller 

died An unsuccessful attempt was made by incendiaries 

to set fire to H. Kuapp's store on Quay street. 

23. Mary Elizabeth, wife of M. J. Thomas, formerly of 
Albany, died at St. Augustine. 

24. The Court of Special Sessions was opened by the Re- 
corder and Justice Cole A meeting was held by the la- 
dies of Dr. Wyckoff's church, in favor of the Portuguese exiles. 

Cornelius Cassidy died, aged 75. Amelia Ward died, 

aged 20. 

25. John Cassidy died, aged 48. 
27 John Martin died, aged 60. 

28. The water was let into the canal its entire length 

A rail road car, of novel construction, from the coach factory 
of James Grould & Co., was placed on the Champlain and St. 
Lawrence rail road. 

30. Mary A., wife of Mark L. Linn, died. 

May, 1849. 

2. Hugh D. Elliot, civil engineer, son of the late Robert 
Elliot of Albany, died, aged 28, at Junction, Virginia. 

3. The steamer Isaac Newton brought up over 900 passen- 
gers, one of whom, a Grerman boy, was born a few hours pre- 
vious to landing : the mother assisted in unlading the baggage. 

4. Steamer Oregon, Captain St. John, arrived at her wharf 
with 840 passengers. 

7. Jane, wife of Gfeo. T. Clark, formerly of Albany, died, 
in Michigan, aged 34 General Worth died, at San Anto- 
nio de Bexar, of cholera The first meeting of the mer- 
chants on change this season took place. 

9. A boy about seven years old, son of Michael Forrester, 

was burnt to death by his clothes taking fire Luther 

Wheeler died, aged 32. David Evans died, aged 42. Wil- 
liam Whipple died, aged 40 Dr. Dill and Mr. Simpson, 

lately from Ireland, lectured in Dr. Sprague's church on the 
religious wants of Ireland. 


362 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [May 

10. Mrs. Catherine Angus died, aged 70. 

11. Samuel Pruyn was chosen chairman of the board of 
supervisors ; James M. Whelpley, clerk. 

13. Benjamin Welch died, aged 76 Rev. Dr. Dewey, 

of the Unitarian Church, preached his farewell sermon to 
his people. 

14. Margaret, wife of Richard Cosgrove, died, aged 28 

Abraham and Hiram Pangburn were found dead in a shanty 
on the island a little below the city : intemperate. 

15. The Albany Daily Messenger, a penny print, by B. F. 
Romaine, editor, made its appearance The Express an- 
nounced Lewis Benedict as the postmaster to succeed Mr. 

Wasson Alida Wynkoop, widow of Dr. Jonathan Eights, 

died, aged 77. John Mcintosh died, aged 39. 

16. Isaac P. Hand died, aged 46 The ground was 

broken for the site of the chapel of the Holy Innoceuts, 
corner of North Pearl and Colonic streets. 

17. Elizabeth McCluskey died, aged 60. 

18. Francis, wife of Cornelius McDonald, died, aged 25. 

Thomas Murtough died News reached the city of the 

wreck of the steamer Empire, on her upward trip. 

19. Sarah, wife of Edward Kellogg and daughter of Seth 

Hastings, died William Marvin, brother of John and 

Alexander Marvin of this city, died at New London, Con- 
necticut, aged 74. 

21. The materials for a monument to be erected in the 
Albany Cemetery, over the remains of Judge Spencer, arrived. 

22. Ann, wife of Levi H. Palmer, died. Erectus Tubbs 
died, Aris, wife of Stephen Townsend, died, aged 67. 
George T. Clark, merchant, of Dewitt county, Michigan, 
formerly of Albany, died, aged 47. 

23. Jabez W. Knowlton died, aged 26. Sarah M. Pugs- 
ley died, aged 43 Eight individuals subscribed $18,000 

to the stock of the Albany and Cohoes Railway. 

24. Over 4,000 hogs reported running at large in the 

25. The work of placing a sewer nine feet deep in Hamil- 
ton street, was completed A propeller named M. T. Rey- 
nolds, intended for the navigation of the canal, appeared in 
the basin. 

1849.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 363 

28. Ann B., widow of tlie late Douw B. Sliugerland, died, 

aged 65 Rev. J. B. Davenport, of Syracuse, accepted a 

call to the rectorship of Grace Church, and commenced his 

29, The work of planking the western turnpike com- 
menced above Snipe street Mrs. Ellen McMillan was 

found dead in her bed : verdict intemperance. 

31. Elijah Cobb died, aged 35. Caroline M. Lightbody 
died, aged 23. 

June, 1849. 

1. The new iron bridge, built by F. Townsend & Co. for 
the Pier Company, at the foot of Hamilton street, was swung 

over the opening: time occupied about one minute The 

district school on Arbor Hill was opened with appropriate 

exercises Catherine J. Angus, wife of Charles W. Mink, 

died, aged 42. 

2. Mrs. Grace H. Shattuck died, aged 58. 

3. The severe storm cut off telegraphic communication 
with the west : 15 or 20 poles were blown down. 

4. Henry Husthouse, aged 18, died of cholera Mer- 
cury in the thermometer rose to 89° in the shade. 

5. M. Maurice Strakosch, pianist, gave a concert in the 
Female Academy. 

6. The mayor, as chairman of the board of health, re- 
quested physicians, hotel keepers, &c., to report at his office, 
every day at noon, the cases of cholera occurring in their 
practice or houses. 

7. The ceremony of laying the corner stone of the chapel 
of the Holy Innocents took place under the direction of lit. 

Rev. Bishop Whittingham, of the diocese of Maryland , 

Robert M. Seymour, formerly of the firm of Seymour, Wood 
& Co., died in New York, aged 51. 

8. Isaac Matson died at the Northern Hotel, of cholera, at 
3 A. M. : he was from New York. 

9. Daniel Lafferty, aged 27, was drowned near the Colum- 
bia street bridge Two cases of cholera reported to the 

Board of Health : one fatal, an emigrant. 

10. John Powers died, aged 50 John Schoonmaker 

died, aged 54, at his residence, corner of Orange street and 
Broadway Conrad A. Ten Eyck, one of the justices of 

864 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [June 

the Justices' Court, died suddenly by the bursting of a 
blood-vessel, aged 61. 

11. Three cases of cholera reported since the 9th : one 

death Steamer New World made her first trip to Albany 

from New York : intended for a day boat. 

12. The Board of Health report only one case of cholera : 
fatal. Two deaths of those cholera patients reported on the 
11th, occurred Albany Hydrant Company dissolved. 

13. One new case of cholera reported : no deaths...... The 

citizens in the neighborhood of the Arbor Hill burying 
ground commenced converting it into a park ; the bones were 

collected into a mound in the centre The body of a man 

about 40 years of age, was found in the river at the foot of 
Bleecker street. 

14. The Temperance Pavilion, a large tent erected in North 
Pearl street by Mr. Van Wagner, the Poughkeepsie Black- 
smith, was crowded to excess. 

15. Several persons arrested for putting up signs protrud- 
ing more than eighteen inches from the front of the build- 
ings Two cases of cholera reported, both fatal. 

16. Three young lads in a sail boat capsized in the river 
below the city, and Charles Laasing, one of them, drowned. 
Two cases of cholera reported : no deaths. 

17. Dr. N. A. Jewett died, aged 46 George Winne, 

son of Jellis Winne of Albany, died at St. Paul, Minnesota 

18. John Gr. Chifferder, a German youth, found in a pond 

south of the old rail road Mr Hughes, of Dove street, 

died by cholera. 

19. Daniel W. Talcott died, aged 60. John Ryan died 
aged 85. George Smith, aged about 30, was drowned in the 

20. Mrs. Elizabeth Lockwood, widow of Jared Lockwood, 
formerly of Albany, died at Stamford, Connecticut, aged 85. 
...... One fatal case of cholera reported. 

21. Nelson W. Perry died, aged 21 One cholera 

case reported, fatal The body of a man named Welch 

was found upon a pile of lumber near Bath Ferry 

The mercury rose to 98° in the shade. A man named Rich- 
ardson, working on one of the canal boats, died suddenly from 

heat Belden B. Batty, of Albany, accidentally shot at 

San Francisco, and died. 

1849.] Chronicle of Events in Albany, 365 

22. Catherine Bleecker died. Mrs Elizabeth Phillip 
died, aged 50. James L. Schemerhorn died, aged 34. 

23. Two fatal cases of cholera reported. 

24. James R. Roe, and Hannah his wife, died Two 

cases of cholera reported ; not fatal. 

25. Four cases of cholera; none reported fatal. 

26. James B. Baker died, aged 44 A boatman 

from Philadelphia, and two residents in Snipe street, died 
of cholera. 

27. One fatal case of chojera reported. 

28. Eight cases of cholera; three of which are reported 
as fatal. 

29. Mrs. Boylan, residing in East Albany, died by cholera. 

Amey A. Brown, on a visit from Brooklyn, died of 


30. The SundaT/ Dutchman, a. new weekly, appeared 

Five cases of cholera; one fatal Capt. Thomas Wiswal 

died, aged 49 Number of cases of cholera for June, 41; 

deaths, 22. 

July, 1849. 

1. 0. Gr. DeGroff, formerly of Albany, died at Cincinnati 
of cholera, aged 50. 

2. Gen. Herrera and family from Mexico, took lodgings at 

Congress Hall Seven cases of cholera reported, five 

of which were fatal. 

3. Eleven cholera cases reported; four deaths The 

second exhibition of the Albany and Rensselaer Horticultural 
Society was held in the Agricultural Rooms, State street. 

4. National anniversary was celebrated. Three proces- 
sions: 1st, Regular, consisting of state and city officers, mili- 
tary, fire and boat companies, citizens and strangers; 2d, 
Independent, carmen, &c. ; 3d, Young Men's Association. 

Six cases of cholera reported for the last forty-eight 

hours; one fatal L. Z. Harvey died. 

5. Mrs. Harriet Stafford, widow of the late Spencer Staf- 
ford, died....... At a meeting of the county court, the grand 

jury, after a few hours absence, came into court, and reported 
they. had attended to and disposed of all the business before 

them, and found no bills 7,443 barrels of flour arrived 

by canal, 

366 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [July 

7. Henry Marvin, son of the late Uriali Marvin of this 

city, died. at East Chatham, aged 52 Three cases of 

cholera reported : no deaths The Receiver of the Canal 

Bank gave notice that 40 cents, the final dividend and full 

amount of the circulating bills, would be paid Concert 

by the JDistins, singers and performers on the sax-horn 

Among other produce received by canal, there were 10,478 
bbls. flour, 30,945 lbs. butter, and 29.111 lbs. cheese. 

7. Eleven cases of cholera reported at noon for the last 
twenty-four hours, four of which were fatal. 

8. J. C. Witt, agent of the Western Rail Road Company, 
died at Sharon Springs : he was a gentleman of great energy 

of character and excellent reputation Conrad Treadwell 


9. The mayor reported that within the last 48 hours, ten 

cases of cholera had occurred, four of which were fatal 

Parker Sargent appointed justice in the Police Court, in 

place of Conrad A. Ten Eyck, deceased AdamFrazier, 

formerly of this city, died at Cincinnati. 

10. The county board of supervisors met, and were organ- 
ized under the law giving them legislative powers Eight 

cases of cholera reported to the board of health; two fatal. 

Cornelius J. Cuyler died, aged 511 years, John W. 

Diamond died, aged 50. 

11. Seven cases of cholera, two of which were fatal, and 

one death of the cases reported yesterday Alexander 

Worden died, aged 39 Charles I. Wager drowned while 

bathing near the lower ferry. 

12. Sixteen cases of cholera reported for the last 24 hours, 
three of which were fatal, and one of the seven reported on 

the 11th since dead Mercury in the thermometer at 

9 a. m. was 86°; 96° at 2 p. m.; and at 7 p. m., 93° 

Frances F., wife of Israel Smith, junior, and daughter of Capt. 
Charles H. Bell, U. S. N., died. Jane, daughter of Michael 
McCafferty, died, aged 22. 

18. Eleven cases of cholera reported to the mayor as 
chairman of the Board of Health; three fatal. Two of the 

cases previously reported proved fatal Water in the 

Hudson lower than had been known for many years., 

At 58 State street, at 4 J a. m., the thermometer stood at over 
82°; at 7 A. M. it fell to 71*" Ellen,wife of Thomas Dunn, 

1849.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 367 

died. J. W. Butler died. Arthur Gibbous, son of S. Staf- 
ford, aged 18, died at the American Charles Russell, 

one of a sailing party of five, was drowned by the upsetting 

of his boat, aged 23 Tobias Morgan, formerly the slave 

of John D. Yischer, died of cholera, aged 60. 

14. Thirteen cases of cholera reported ; four fatal. Orfe 

previously reported terminated fatally John Butler, a 

cartman, died of cholera. 

15. Mrs. Elizabeth Nugent died, aged 38. 

16. Forty-six cases of cholera reported for the lasfc- forty- 
eight hours, ending at noon ; thirteen of which were fatal. 

Three deaths from cases previously reported Thomas 

Monkland died Frances, wife of William Worth, died, 

aged 41. Solomon Hayes, long and favorably known in 
Albany, died from cholera, aged 64. 

17. Seventeen cases of cholera; three fatal. Two cases 

formerly reported; terminated fatally Victor Post died, 

aged 33. Samuel Vail died, aged 83. 

18. Nine cases of cholera in the city and four in the hos- 
pital, one of the latter fatal The steamer Alida arrived 

at her wharf in seven hours from New York, running time. 

Stephen Squire of Fulton ville, Montgomery county, died 

in this city... James Sickles died, aged 75. 

19. Thirteen cliolera cases were reported to the board for the 
last 24 hours ; six fatal. Three of the fatal cases had been 
before reported.. ..'..Harmanus Bleecker, a prominent and 
well known citizen, universally respected, died in the 70th year 

of his age. (See p. 301.) The steamer New World left 

New York at 13 minutes after 7 a.m., reaching Poughkeep- 
sie in three hours sailing time and landed her passengers at 
Albany, 3 J P. M. ; making all her landings. 

20. Eight cases of cholera reported to the board. Four 

deaths of those previously reported The steamer Alida 

reached her landing place five minutes before 3 p. M., making 
the whole trip in 6 hours 51 minutes sailing time. 

21. Thirteen cases of cholera reported ; eight in the city, 
and five at the hospital; two fatal. Two deaths also oc- 
curred of those previously reported Jane, widow of 

Arthur Hooper, died, aged 76. Elizabeth, wife of Adam Ar^^- 
etrong, died, a»ed 72, 

368 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [July 

22. Thomas Moss died in tte 58th year of his age. Jellis 
Winne, junior, died, aged 71. Lydia, wife of Thomas 

Carson, died, aged 66 The body of John D. Morey, a 

young man about nineteen years of age, was found in a deep 
ravine north of the city. Death by suicide. 
* 23. Twenty-two cases of cholera reported as having oc- 
curred since noon of the 21st ; five fatal. One of these, Ira 
Hinckley from Osterville, Mass., died on board the schooner 

Oliver at the wharf; he was about 19 Margaret Trotter, 

widow of the late Gen. Matthew Trotter, died, in her 80th year. 

Mary, widow of the late Jason Eudes, died, aged 72, 

Roswell Wilson, of the firm of Callanan & Wilson died, 
at Whitewater, Wisconsin. 

24. Thirteen cases of cholera were this day reported; two 
of which were fatal. Two also of the cases reported at a 
prior day proved fatal. 

25. A very large and brilliant halo (corona) appeared 

round the sun a little before noon Fourteen cases of 

cholera reported as having occurred since last report. Three 

fatal besides one death of a case reported previously 

Ann, wife of Benjamin Ward, died, aged 63. 

26. The board of health reported that seven cases of 
cholera have been stated to them as having occurred since 
last report. One fatal and one more death of the 14 yester- 
day reported Elizabeth Singer died, in the 70th year of 

her age. Sally Clark died, aged 70. Mary Quinn died, aged 
20. Jane, wife of James Morrow, died. James Allen died, 
aged 82. Barney Lyman died of consumption, aged 21. 

A good southerly wind brought up a large number of 

sail vessels from the east, which in some measure prevented 
the steamer's intelligence (this day telegraphed) having 
any tendency to depress the market. 

27. Sixteen cases of cholera; five fatal. Four cases pre- 
viously reported have terminated fatally. Six of the six- 
teen cases embrace the report of Drs. Martin and Wiltsie for 

two days Bridget McMannus died, aged 55. John B. 

Smith died, in the o3d year of his age. 

28. Eleven cases of cholera; four fatal, within the last 24 

hours. One also of a previous report died. Lord, an 

emigrant lately from England, died. Mrs, Winaford Allen 
died, aged 60. Cornelius Higgins died, aged 83^ years. 
Abigail Walker died, aged 66, 

1849.] Chronicle of Events in Albany, 369 

29. Ann Eliza, wife of Jacob Grriffin, died S. H. Ship- 
ley from Baton Rouge parish, Louisiana, and Mr. Cochrane, 
both belonging to a party from Mississippi, died in the city 
of the prevailing epidemic ; they were properly cared for. 

Martin Truesdell, for many years captain of the steam 

boats Utica and South America, died atCoxsackie, of bron- 
chitis. Having retired from business, he was elected a mem- 
ber of the legislature for the session of 1848 Margaret, 

wife of Benjamin Yan Aernam of this city, died at Guilder- 
land, aged 47. 

30. For the last 48 hours thirty-one cases and twelve 
deaths by cholera were reported. Two deaths of cases 

previously reported Thirteen buildings and an immense 

quantity of lumber in Water street were consumed by fire. 

Its origin not ascertained The new building erected at 

the expense of the state on the corner of Lodge and Howard 
streets, was taken possession of by the Normal School, and 
the evacuation of the old building in State street, completed 
this -day. 

81. Sixteen new cases of cholera and seven deaths 

A woman and her child were found dead by cholera in Orange 
street. They died alone, leaving a child 2 J years old the only 
representative of the family, the father having died of the 

same disease a few days previous The mayor published 

a respectful request to the citizens to observe the 3d August 
as a day of fasting and humiliation, agreeably to the recom- 
mendation of the President of the United States, that if con- 
sistent God would avert from us his judgments....... William 

Dennison, a native of Ireland, died. George M. Mosher 

died, aged 53 At 6 o'clock a. m., the thermometer stood- 

at 82 deg., at noon it had descended to 72 deg., and 6 P. M. it 
was below 65 deg Rev. Mr. Taggart ordained and in- 
stalled pastor of the Unitarian church. Rev. Messrs. Dewey 

and Pierpont assisted in the exercises Number of cases 

requiring medical aid in the Alms House during the month 

of July, 249, cured 162 ; died 57 ; under treatment 37 

Number cases of cholera for July, 843 ; deaths, 125. 

August, 1849. 

1. Nine cholera cases, and one of them fatal, were re- 
ported. A fatal termination of a case formerly reported 

370 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [Aug. 

was also given in Steam boat South America ran down 

a sloop loaded with coal, which sunk in 20 feet water 

Number of prisoners in the Penitentiary 178 ; upwards of 

50 being females Number of paupers in the Alms House 

405. Expenses of the last quarter $2,678. 

2. Twenty-four cases of cholera, including seven fatal, 

were reported. Of a former report two proved fatal 

John Moore died of the prevailing epidemic, aged 66. 

3. Great national fast — business generally suspended, 

and the churches well attended No meeting of the board 

of health; five cases reported of cholera, two deaths David 

C. Wainwrightdied, aged 93. Lucius Allen died, aged 41. 

4. Thirty-one cases of cholera reported for the last 48 
hours; 9 fatal, and one fatal of the cases reported before. 

5. Edward Pacey, a caulker, extensively known, died of 
cholera, aged 84. 

6. Twenty-five cases of cholera, seven of them fatal, were 
reported as having occurred within the last 48 hours. Three 
of a former report also proved fatal. A strong southerly 
wind prevailed and brought with it in the afternoon an 

abundant and seasonable rain Ann, wife of William 

Clemshire died. James Pacey died of cholera, aged 19. 

7. Eight cases of cholera ; two deaths. Two deaths of 
cases previously reported. John P. Cassidy died in New 
York, formerly of Albany. 

8. Six cases of cholera ; one fatal. One fatal of those re- 
ported yesterday Jane Mitchell died, aged 15. 

9. Eleven cases of cholera ; two fatal. One death of those 
previously reported. Also four deaths not reported on the 
6th and 7th Anna Maria Soulden died. 

10. A great deal of rain fell during the night, which was 

much needed by vegetation Ten cases of cholera, and 

one death ; also one death of the cases previously reported. 
The board of health required the sextons to report all buri- 
als, since May 1, under a penalty of |25 for non compliance. 

11. Eleven cases of cholera; one fatal. Three deaths of 
previous cases. A marked change was now observable in 

the progress of the disease A salmon weighing twelve 

pounds was caught in the river above Bath, said to be the 
first known to have been taken in the Hudson. It was 
served up at the Mansion House. 

1849.] Chronicle of Events in Albany, 371 

12. Kev. William W. Halloway was installed pastor of the 
Third Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, corner of Ferry 
and Green streets. * 

13. Twenty-six cases of cholera ; seven fatal, in last 48 

hours; and four deaths of cases previously reported 

Johannah Durrie, widow of the late Horace Durrie, and 
daughter of the late Daniel Steele, of this city, died at 
Aurora, Cayuga county The Albany Republican Artil- 
lery made a pleasure excursion to Hudson by steam boat. 

14. Seven cases of cholera 3 three fatal within the last 
24 hours, with two deaths from cases of a former report. 

15. Eleven cases of cholera; two fatal Anna, wife of 

E. Wickes, Jr., died, aged 29. 

16. Cholera eleven cases, two fatal; five deaths of previ- 
ous cases. Mrs. Ralph Pratt died. 

17. Anniversary of the great fire of 1848 Seven cases 

of cholera, three fatal, and three deaths of previous cases. 
Abby, wife of John Townsend, and daughter of the late 
Ambrose Spencer, died, aged 60. 

18. Eight cases of cholera, two fatal ; two deaths of pre- 
vious cases, Samuel Grross died, aged 72. Harriet L., wife 
of John Dixon, died, aged 50. Isabella, wife of Neil Mc- 

Cotter died, aged 54 An agreement was eff'ected between 

the Albany and Schoharie Plank Road Company, and the 
Turnpike Company, by which the two roads would be made 
to intersect, and arrangements made to prosecute the plank 
road to its completion. 

20. Twelve cases of cholera in last forty-eight hours, three 
fatal; and two fatal of previous cases. Lucretia Shaver died, 
aged 83. 

21. Eight new cases of cholera, three fatal ; four cases fatal 
of those before reported. Nathaniel White died, of cholera, 
aged 57. He came to this city from Hartford, Connecticut, 
in 1808, at the age of 16, and was apprenticed as a book- 
binder to the late Mr. Daniel Steele. It is not an uninter- 
esting fact that Mr White began his apprenticeship in the 
same establishment with two prominent and highly valued 
citizens now living, Mr. Lemuel Steele and Mr. Isaac New- 
ton, and one now deceased, the late Mr. 0. R. Van Ben- 
thuysen. And he has remained in the same establishment, 
from that day to the present, without interruption, a period 

372 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [Aug. 

of nearly forty-one years, under the successive firms which 
have conducted it with eminent and deserved success, viz : 
Messrs. JD. Steele, Packard & Van Benthuysen, and C. 
Van Benthuysen. 

22. Seven new cases of cholera were reported ; six at the 
hospital and one in the city — two deaths of those formerly 
reported. Mr. Leoline Jenkins, son of Lemuel Jenkins, 
Esq., of this city, died while on a visit to G-reenviile, Greene 
county, N. Y. 

23. One case of cholera reported fatal, and three deaths 
of cases formerly reported. At 9 A. M. Isaac Whitney died, 

aged 34 Severe rain most of the day; wind north-east; 

Owen Tierney died, aged 35. Isaac L. Whitney died, aged 
34. Elias Fink, formerly of Albany, died at Danube, Her- 
kimer county, aged 42. 

24. Ten new cases of cholera reported ; no death. One 
of a former report proved fatal. At noon, Caroline Enz 

died, aged 18. John Cahill died Canal Receipts — 

Flour 4,244 barrels; ashes 62 do.; whiskey 24 do; corn 
11,149 bushels; oats 83 do. ; wheat 2,655 do. ; peas 50 do. ; 
butter 10,129 pounds ; cheese 17,057 do ; lard 150 do.; Wool 
61,054 do. ; hams and bacon 3,588 do. 

25. Fifteen cases of cholera reported. Seven of which 
were fatal. Also two deaths of cases previously reported. 

Almira, wife of Alexander Nichols, died. Mrs. Hen- 

nessy died, aged 60. Elizabeth, wife of G-errit Yates, died, 
aged 74. 

27. Sabbath — No cholera report; but the interments 

were numerous Ann Moran died, aged 19^ years. Mrs. 

Elizabeth Wagoner died. 

27. Seventy-six cases of cholera reported for the last for- 
ty-eight hours; eleven of which were fatal Charles 

Quinn died. Mrs. Bhoda Dean, formerly of Barnard, died at 
the residence of her son Amos Dean in this city, aged 80. 
Catharine, daughter of Peter Johnson, died, aged 19. 
Wife of Robert C. Russell died. Bridget O'Connor died, 

aged 39 Tivoli flour from New Genesee wheat sold 

$6.371 ; western 85.25 to 85.75; corn 58 cents; wheat 81. 25 to 

28. Twenty cases of cholera reported since yesterday's 
report; ten fatal. This high proportion of fatal cases is pro- 

1849.] Chronicle of Events in Albany, 873 

bablj rightly ascribed to an indiscreet use of unripe fruits. 

William McLaughlin died, aged 55 John G. Stewart, 

a colored barber, known as a man of considerable ability as a 
writer, and as the editor of several papers, was found dead 
in his chair, by a customer who entered his shop at the Little 

29. The Jersey Blue, a three masted steam-propeller, 
Captain Daniel Van Buskirk, made her first appearance at 
the dock with a cargo of coal and iron. She is rated at 
222 tons, was built at Newark, and made the trip from that 
city in less than twenty-four hours. 

30. Twelve cases cholera; eight fatal. One death of pre- 
vious cases Michael McAuley died, aged 43. Aaron 

Williams died, aged 48. Mrs. Amelia Fosket, lately of 
this city, died at the residence of her son at Blue House, 
Cobleton district, S. C, aged 62 years. 

31. Nineteen cases cholera; seven fatal Robert H. 

Burgess died, aged 50. Mary Ann Williams died, aged 54. 

William Hillman died Total number of cholera cases 

for August, 345 ; deaths, 150 : as otherwise reported, 348 

cases and 154 deaths Almshouse physician reported 

211 cases for month of August, requiring aid; 122 cured, 
52 died, and 37 under treatment. 

September, 1849. 

1. Six cases cholera ; two deaths, and three deaths of pre- 
vious cases Cornelius D. R. Lansing died, aged 63. 

Albany and .Sandlake Plank Road Company elected 

their officers for the ensuing year. 

2. Julia L., wife of Dr. John Yan Buren, died. C. P. 
Allen died. Robert Malloy died. Thomas Wallace, for- 
merly of this city, died at Detroit, aged 86. 

3. Twenty-two new cases, thirteen deaths, for 48 hours 

last past Louisa W., wife of Rev. T. R. Rawson, died. 

Benjamin Wilson died, aged 83. Neil McCotter died, aged 

57. James B. Van Huysen died, aged 49 Burgesses 

Corps made an excursion to Saratoga Springs A man 

named Sheridan, a mason, fell from the scaffolding of a 
building, corner of Patroon and Ten Broeck streets, and was 
killed ; his age 56. 


374 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [Sept. 

4. Three cases cholera, one death. Three deaths of pre- 
vious cases William Sanford, son of Giles Sanford of 

this city, died at Astoria, N. Y., aged 26. 

6. Six cases cholera, four deaths. The physicians were 
united in the opinion that the disease as an epidemic, had 
in a great measure left the city ; that where it now occurred it 
was invited by imprudence or by a peculiarly unfavorable 
loofelity ', wherefore the board determined to discontinue 

their daily reports Eleanor, widow of the late Milo 

Shaw, died. Clara, wife of George H. Cogswell, died, aged 
31. John C. Brown died, aged 48. 

6. The president, Zachary Taylor, arrived from the west, 

and took the steam boat for New York Betsey, wife 

of Nicholas Brate, died, aged 38. 

7. Ann Eliza, wife of Henry K. Duncan, died at West 
Point, aged 25. 

8. Hon. Henry Clay arrived in the city from Kinder- 
hook, where he had been to visit Mr. Van Buren. 

10. John Slack, aged 66, formerly of Albany, died at 
Guilder land, of a fall from a hay mow. 

11. Frederick A. Fargo, aged 83, was killed by being 

run over by the train at Rome Nancy A., wife of John 

Henry, formerly of Albany, died in New York, aged 25. 

12. Splendid display of aurora borealis towards midnight. 

13. An immense kettle cast at Townsend's Furnace, for 
the purpose of manufacturing salt at Syracuse. Its dimen- 
sions were 9 feet across the brim, 9 feet deep, and 7 feet 
across the bottom; weight 12 tons. 

14. Amey Mott, late of this city, died at Battle Creek, 
Mich., in the 82d year of her age. 

15. At 4 o'clock A. M., Catherine Tracey died A 

collection of $800 taken at St. John's Church in Ferry 
street, in aid of the erection of the Cathedral ; making over 
$5,000 collected in that church altogether, for that purpose. 

16. Jane Madison, wife of Jasper Latham and daughter 
of the late H. E. G. McLaughlin, of Chelsea, Vt., died, 
aged 40. Ann Hardy, daughter of James Freeman, died, 
aged 29 ^ years. Timothy Ensign, late of the firm of 
Ensign & Thayer, in this city, died at Windsor, Conn. 

18. The Hose Depot, so long a source of contention as to 
where it should be located, was commenced on the site of 

1849.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 375 

the old hay-market lots, corner of Plain and Phillip streets. 

Mary, wife of George Geary, died, aged 50. Sarah, 

wife of Andrew McKnight, died Baron Hecker, the Ger- 
man exiled patriot, came up the river in company with some 
50 of his countrymen, en route for his farm on the banks of 
the Mississippi, in Illinois. 

19. James Robinson died, aged 60 The Common Coun- 
cil held a special meeting to settle the pier question, &c 

Mr. O'Reilley was granted permission to erect telegraph posts 
within the bounds of the city under the supervision of the 
street committee. The chamberlain ordered to borrow S30- 

000 to meet the pier settlement First trip on the Hudson 

river rail road with passenger cars from New York to Peeks- 

20. Mr. Ralph Clark, formerly of Albion, Wis., died, aged 

25 The Albany and Rensselaer Horticultural Society's 

annual exhibition closed to-day. 

21. Joseph Hogeboom died, aged 32^ years. Elizabeth, 

daughter of the late Nathaniel R. Packard, died, aged 19 

The city and pier company closed their negotiations and came 
to terms with regard to the Basin — the city paying the pier 
company ^30,000 — the latter to maintain the bridge. 

22. An unusually strong south wind prevailed the whole 

day, accompanied in the evening with rain " On Saturday 

evening at seventeen minutes' past 11 o'clock, the Sun rode 
calmly and mildly over the autumnal equinox, and cast his 
golden anchor on the wintry coast of Autumn. But as yet, 
the vast ocean of air through which he sails, is glowing and 
transparent with the memory of the long Summer days that 
have passed over it, darting their rich beams to its very 
depths. Even as we write, however, the remembrance fades, 
like the sky's blanching souvenirs of sunset; and in the 
gray distance the cold ghosts of Winter glare and wave their 
frozen wings, which creak on icy hinges — while in the si- 
lence of midnight a prophetic voice of wailing and desola- 
tion moans fitfully at the casement.'' — Tribune. 

23. John Simons died A riot caused by some evil dis- 
posed persons throwing stones at a canal boat loaded with im- 
migrants, occurred at the Little Basin Ann K. Fitch, 

formerly of Greenwich, Conn., died, 

376 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [Oct. 

24. Weather cloudy and cold Edward Thomas died, 

aged 24 = Joseph Curdy, a laborer, committed suicide by 

cutting the arteries of both arms with a razor, and died sit- 
ting in a chair, 

25. The body of John Donahue was found in the river at 
the foot of Bleecker street — supposed to have been drowned 
on Saturday night — aged 40. 

26. The A. R. Artillery annual target excursion — the 
cup awarded to W. A. Davis for the best shot, and the gold 
medal to James H. Chadwick, for 2d best The first quin- 
quennial meeting of the State Normal graduates was held in 

the lecture room of the new building John Crippin died, 

aged 28. Patrick Murray died in his 65th year. Hannah 
B. wife of Amos P. Palmer, died at Newton's Corners. 

27. The spike factory belonging to the Albany Nail 
Works, near Troy, and owned by Corning, Winslow & Co. 
of this city, was destroyed by fire, loss $40,000 above in- 
surance John York died, aged 26. 

28. George W. Worcester, formerly of this city, died at 
the hospital, New York, aged 30. 

29. The travel between this city and Albany, says the 
Troy Whig, is immense. The cars, which run hourly, carry 
a large number of passengers : while the stages which run 
half-hourly, are crammed full nearly every trip. The num- 
ber of persons going to and coming from Albany daily is pro- 
bably in the neighborhood of two thousand. This would be 
equal to 60,833 per calendar month, and 730,000 a year ! 
This estimate does ntt, we think, fall short of the mark. 

October, 1849. 

1. A rain storm during the whole day refreshed the earth 

which had sustained a long drouth Henry Holmes died. 

Casper Walter died. 

2. Albany Medical College opened with a lecture by Dr. 

T. R. Beck Capt. Henry Terbush, of the steam boat A. 

L. Lawrence killed by the machinery of the boat. James 

Carroll died, aged 57. 

3. Working Men's State Convention assembled The 

flags of shipping were displayed at half mast on account of 
the death of Henry Terbush, captain of the steamer A. L. 
Lawrence Henry A. Newman died, aged 23. 

1849.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 377 

4. Severe rain storm The O'Reily Telegraphery re- 
ported from Catskill, though fully connected to Newburgh. 
Nathan 0. Banks, junior, of Putnam county, in going aboard 
the Isaac Newton, walked off the plank and was drowned. 

5. Moses Wallace died Rain in the morning and at 

intervals through the day. 

6. Rain again this morning. Telegraphery announced 
at 3 P. M. rain in New York and Buffalo ; very rainy in 

7. Still the rain fell. A strong northerly wind prevailed. 
The fourth day without sunshine or even at night star light. 
Patrick O'Brien died, aged 25. 

8. Stars were visible at 5 A. M. At 6 rain again com- 
menced, but cleared away at 8 A. M., when the sun for the 
first time in four days was visible George Mossop, a na- 
tive of Dublin, in connection with the Albany Museum, 

died, aged 35 T. D. Sprague, editor of the American 

Literary Magazine of this city, died at Andover, Conn., 
aged 30. 

9. Frost and a thick fog overspread the city. The mail 
and other New York steamers were accordingly delayed till 

noon The Synod of Albany (0. S. ) met in the First 

Presbyterian Church. The 25th regiment of N. Y. Militia, 

Col. Frisbie, went into encampment for three days 

George H. Welch, of the firm of Adams & Welch, died, 
aged 28. 

10. The Albany, Rensselaerville and Schoharie Plank 
Road Co. was organized. Lansing Pruyn as president, David 

H. Cary, treasurer, and Charles M. Jenkins, secretary 

Iron fence around the State Hall grounds completed. 

11. A heavy and drenching rain which commenced on 

the evening of the 10th, continued till midnight 

Mrs. M. A. Record died, aged 41. Peter Wall died, aged 

41 A Multitude of Fishes. — Mr. T. Carman of this 

city, in company with another, took on Thursday night at 
the Troy dam, no less than 7,000 fish, of the sucker tribe ! 
They were all towed down in large floating cars, alive and 
kicking, and were in the market in good order. They were 
brought down by the freshet which has swollen the river, 
and in this instance no doubt, the pockets of enterprising 
and experienced fishermen. 

378 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [Oct. 

12. Mrs. Kebecca BoUes, wife of Jeremiah Wallace, died, 

aged 30 years The water in the river was over the docks 

in many places. 

13. Thomas I. Morgan died, aged 38. Mary E. Hoff- 
man, daughter of the late Levi S. Hoffman, aged 14, died. 

Mrs. Kaesel died Specimens of coal exhibited in the 

city, said to have been obtained by boring at Coeymans. 
Half a million of dollars have been spent in this neighbor- 
hood in searching for coal, without any success, and the 
geologists have decided that there can be none. 

14. The house of Edward Thies, in North Ferry street, 
entered by burglars and robbed of various articles. 

15. Stephen C. Keeler died. 

16. Elizabeth, widow of the late Robert Lottridge, died, 
aged 65. 

17. Plank road on the old Cherry Valley turnpike com- 
pleted to Guilderland. 

18. Antirent Convention ; said to have been attended 
with small effect. 

19. Barley Trade of Albany. — The city of Albany is 
known far and wide as the barley market of the Union. 
At this market, five-sixths of the barley received every year 
at tide-water from the barley growing counties of the west 
is bought and sold. The trade lasts about two months, and 
during that time a very brisk business is done. As an evi- 
dence of the increasing demand for this article, we would 
mention that in 1844 the whole quantity of barley received 
at tide water from the canals did not exceed 820,000 bushels, 
while the quantity of the new crop of the present year 
which had reached ti-de-water on the 22d inst., was 650,101 
bushels. Of this new crop, 498,000 bushels have been 
reported as sold here, in the daily reports of the Argus. 
This is about five-sixths of the whole receipts, and if to 
this we add the lots which were sold here to arrive and 
which do not enter into the reports of the daily sales, the 
proportion of sales to receipts is more than five-sixths. 
The sales here may be thus classified : Two rowed barley, 
252,400 bushels; four rowed, 201,900; mixed, 43,700. 
Total, 498,000 bushels. 

20. Peter Donelly, a member of the Albany Artillery, 
died A company of nearly 300 Portuguese refugees, 

1849.] Chronicle of Events in Albany » 379 

under the charge of the American and Foreign Christian 
Union, arrived from New York in the steam boat, to spend 
the sabbath, on their way to Illinois. 

21. Christopher Joselyn alias Lillie was killed in South 

Broadway, near the steam boat landing Jane Moore, wife 

of M. D. Moore, died at East Albany, aged 35. David B. 
Douglass, LL.D., died at Geneva College, where he was profes- 
sor of mathematics and natural philosophy ; he laid out the 
grounds of the Albany Rural Cemetery. 

23. John Martin died, aged 32 Great storm of 

wind and rain with heavy thunder, in the evening, destroy- 
ing the circus tent and doing other damage. 

24. Robert C. Russell died, aged 51. 

25. The Common Council resolved to submit the water 
question to the people at the ballot box, where they might 
decide which of the projects for supplying the city they 

would choose, or decline to have water Mary Elizabeth 

Norton died, aged 18. Anna Layton died, aged 16. Sar- 
telle Prentice died, aged 83. David Sheridan died, aged 
22. Rosanna McDonald died, aged 19. 

26. Dense fog, detaining the steam boats from New York 
till nearly 11 o'clock a.m. 

27. Delia Adams, wife of Sherman Croswell, died, aged 
39. Anna Eliza, wife of William B. Winne, died, aged 37. 

29. Peter Wendell, M.D., died, aged 64.' He was the 
longest resident practitioner of medicine in the city, and 
next to Dr. Bay the oldest. Dr. Wendell was a native of 
this city — born in 1 786. He received the best education 
that the city afforded, and at the usual time* entered the 
office of the late Dr. Wm, McClelland, then one of the princi- 
pal physicians here. During his course of study, he 
attended two courses of lectures at the University of Penn- 
sylvania. On his return he commenced the practice of 
medicine. This was in 1807, and we need scarcely add how 
extensive and lucrative this proved duriug the long period 
of 42 years. Dr. Wendell received the honorary degree of 
doctor of medicine from the University of Pennsylvania 
some fifteen years or more after he had attended it as a student. 
In 1823, he was chosen by the legislature a regent of the 
university, of which body he became chancellor in 1842, 
and to which last office he has since been annually reap- 

380 Chronicle of Events in Albany, [Nov. 

pointed Great storm in the evening. The wind blew 

a hurricane, and the rain fell in torrents. The streets 
descending from the hill became rivers, washing down great 
quantities of stones, clay and sand; the sewers in some 
instances became clogged, and the turbid streams overflow- 
ing the side walks, poured a torrent into the, basements. 
The telegraph wires were blown down in all directions. 
The Isaac Newton gallantly breasted the storm, and reached 
her landing place at the usual hour. The tide in the river 

was higher than had been known for several years 

Statement of the amount of freight started from the depot 
at East Albany : 10,053^ barrels of flour: 942 barrels of 
apples; 1,405 boxes of cheese ; 75 bales of wool; 1,159 
firkins of butter ; 958 barrels of beef. Eight trains, with 
361 cars, were sent east; the receipts for freight were $5,423. 

30. Margaret Matilda, wife of Amasa Bates, died, aged 30. 

31. Ellen, wife of Smith T. Van Buren, and youngest 
daughter of the late Wm. James, died, aged 27. Mary, 
wife of John Grifl&n, died, aged 62. Henry Blake died, 

aged 70 A slight fall of snow in the morning The 

aggregate of all assessments approved and confirmed during 
the year to this date was $66,482.50 ; on account of which 
there has been received during the same time $36,952,93, 
leaving a balance of $29,520.51 due the city The earn- 
ings' of the Albany and Schenectady Rail Road for the 
month of October were $19,276; same time last year, $14,- 
732 ; excess in 1849 (equal to 31 per cent) $4,544. 

November, 1849, 

1. Ice made in the open cisterns of the city for the first 
time this season, which had thus far been remarkably free 

from frosts Mrs. Amanda Emerson died, aged 52 

Michal Querk, an Irish laborer, crushed to death by a canal 

2. There are five flouring mills in successful operation in or 
near this city, four of them are worked by water and one by 
steam power. They have each four run of stones and con- 
sume annually about 400,000 bushels of wheat. The mil- 
lers supply themselves in a great measure with grain from 
the market, and these mills are now turning out a goodly 
quantity of flour which forms a small addition to our daily 

1849.] Chronicle of Events in Albany, 881 

supply. Mr. C. N. Bement, has also a small steam mill in 
Hudson street, for flouring various kinds of grain for family 

3. Eliza, wife of Gr. Gr. Vandenburgh of this city, died at 
Burdett, Tompkins county, aged 60. 

4. A fire on the corner of Broad and Nucella streets con- 
sumed two buildings, one of them owned and occupied by 
Mr, Thomas Fisher, who some time since lost his eyesight at 
a fire in Grreen street, since which he had been allowed the 
privilege of selling cofi'ee and cakes from a wagon in State 
street for a subsistence. The fire was undoubtedly the work 
of an incendiary. While the fire was at its height, and 
Mr. Fisher and his family had escaped from the house, and 
the excitement somewhat subsided, he made known to 
several friends that a trunk, which was on the first floor 
under his bed, contained, besides valuable papers, over $100 
in money. Mr. William Bradt, a courageous and daring 
young man, volunteered to attempt its rescue, and the next 
moment was in the room. The bed and a portion of the 
floor was on fire, and the room filled with smoke The 
young man secured the trunk, but was so near suffocated as 
to be unable to regain the street with it, and was drawn 
from the building with the trunk in his arms, by one of the 
hooks of a hook and ladder company, completely exhausted. 
His hands, eyebrows and clothes were much singed. An 
offer from Mr. Fisher of $100 as a reward for his intrepidity, 
was promptly declined by him. 

5. Fanny, wife of John C. Heermance, died, aged 43 

The street committee of the Common Council reported in 
favor of opening Lydius street, from Allan to Magazine street, 
which would make that street an uninterrupted thorough- 
fare of thirteen miles in length. • 

6. Rachel, wife of Peter Putman. died at Canajoharie, 

aged 40; formerly of Albany The evening boat for 

New York was detained by the fog till 6 o'clock this morn- 
ing. The boat due this morning from New York did not 

arrive till 8 o'clock in the afternoon Robert H. Pruyn 

elected to the Assembly by a majority of 292 votes over 
the democratic competitor, Dr. Barent P. Staats. The entire 
Whig ticket elected in the city, 


Chronicle of Events in Albany. 



7. Sarah, wife of Robert Collins, died, aged 41 

The followine; table' is aa abstract of the official returns of 
the county vote : 

Whig. Maj. 

Spencer 5916 302 

Wright 6766 1197 

W. Hunt 6933 1329 

Morgan 6859 1130 

Stevens 6244 117 

A.Hunt 6872 1159 

Seymour 6660 743 

Beach 6444 313 

Squire 6369 134 

Johnson 6466 425 

Beardsley^ 6385 326 

Lay* 6598 689 

McKown* 6612 852 

Landon* 6362 

Winne* 7041 

Blaisdell 6018 

Senator . 
Shei'iff . . 
Cleric . . . 
Justice . . 


. Jewett 6218 

Hogeboom. . . 5569 

, Lott 5604 

Randall 5729 

Chatfield .... 6127 

Welch 5713 

CampbeU .... 5917 

FoUett 6131 

Clark 6235 

McEwen 6041 

Fenner 6059 

Blanchard 5909 

Daw 5769 

, Brower 6199 

Parker 6080 

Wadsworth . . 6019 

9. After nearly a week of rainy weather the river com- 
menced rising, and the merchants on the dock began to hoist 

their goods to the second loft A Drummond light 

exhibited successfully for the first time in this city, from top 

of the Museum Canal boat Hartford, belonging to 

J. H. Mallory & Co., arrived from Buffalo with 875 barrels 
of flour between decks — the largest quantity ever brought 
by one boat John Gill died, aged 39. 

10. Such of the forwarders and flour merchants along the 
dock and pier as had not secured their stock from the 
freshet, met with losses by the sudden rise on Friday night. 
Everything presented the appearance of a spring freshet, 
only that the damage was much greater in not being pro- 
vided against, at a busy season. Much property was carried 
away by the overflowing of the pier, and vessels even 
broke from their moorings. The freshet extended as far 
as Hudson Mary Teresa Shallow died, aged l8. 

11. The water in the river had fallen two feet since Fri- 
day night Trinity Church took fire from its furnace 

in the evening, but was only slightly damaged Samuel 

W. Harned died, aged 59. Mrs. Honourah Conway died, 
aged 52. 

* Elected. 

1849.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 383 

12. Capt. Samuel A. Brooks died. 

13. Ann Stewart died, aged 83 Josiah Miirton, a 

hand on a schooner, fell overboard and was drowned; age 
17 Annual meeting of Albany County Medical So- 
ciety; address by Dr. James McNaughton, on cholera. 

14. Mary A, wife of George E. Cady, died, aged 37 

The Emmet Guards went down to New York to participate 
in the funeral obsequies of Gen. Worth on the 15th. 

15. Philo Colvard died, aged 74. Hannah Margaret, wife 
of Thomas Jordan, late of Albany, died at Troy, aged 26. 

16. Thomas McGuire died, aged 34. 

17. The rail road took from this city and delivered in 
Boston, during the week ending this day, 29,300 barrel's 
flour, averaging nearly 5,000 barrels a day. 

19. Deidamia, widow of the late Timothy Adams, of 

Barre, Mass., died, aged 74 Joseph May hew, mate of 

a Rhode Island sloop, fell overboard and was drowned; aged 
40 Very rainy from New York to Buffalo. 

20. Selah Belden died, aged 35 Canal receipts at 

Albany : Flour 9,743 brls ; ashes 26 do. ; beef 284 do. ; 
pork 10 do. ; whiskey, &c., 42 do : corn 15,268 bushels ; 
barley 7.630 do. oats, 6,159 do. ; rye 3,960 do. ; wheat 2,200 
do; potatoes 7 do.; butter 11,528 lbs.; wool 27,130 do. ; 
hams and bacon 29,370 do. 

21. The canal boat Hartford, Capt. Van Alstyne, which 
left Buffalo on the 10th inst., arrived at this port with 910 

barrels flour shipped to J. H. Mallory & Co Henry H. 

Dodge died by the wound of a pin, aged 18. 

22. Nearly 300 emigrants came up from New York, 
among whom were a number of Hungarians. 

23. Collins W. Simonds died, aged 30 Canal receipts 

at Albany, Nov. 23 : Flour 22,101 barrels. ; ashes 64 do ; 
beef 1,816 do. ; whiskey, &c., 202 do. ; corn 8,750 bushels.; 
barley 13,713 do. ; oats, 7,823 do. ; wheat 2,010 do. ; peas 46 
do ; potatoes 693 do. ; seed 6,300 lbs. ; butter 57,950 do. ; 
wool 14,954 do.; hams and bacon 4,292 do. 

25. Barbary Hamburgh died, aged 24. A laborer by 

the name of Coughlin, fell from the Cathedral and was 
killed ; his age 35. 

25. Mary Brower died, aged 71. Maurice O'Conner 
died, aged 70. Patrick McNamara died, aged 44. Mrs. 
Martha Jacobs died, aged 68. 

384 Chronicle of Events in Albany, [Nov. '49.] 

26. Martha Russell, of New Bedford, died, aged 76 

The Water Works Company proposed to supply the city 
more effectually with water by increasing their capital to 
$450,000, and forcing water up from the river The fi- 
nance committee of the Common Council reported that the 
sum of $168,003.36 be raised by a tax for the support of the 
city government for the ensuing year, as follows : 

For expenses of night police $18,000.00 

<' public lamps, 10,000.00 

" contingent expenses (ordinary) $30,000.00 

" expense of fire department 20,000.00 

On account of payment to pier pro- 
prietors to obtain their consent to 
the law relative to expenditures 
for excavating Albany Basin, &c. 10,000.00 


To pay interest on city debt 45,500.00 

On account of sinking fund 10,000.00 

For support of common schools 9,003.36 

" alterations and repairs district school No. 10 500.00 

For temporary relief of city poor 5,000.00 

For probable balance that will remain unpaid 
May 1, 1850, on assessments and apportion- 
ments for improving streets 10,000.00 


27. Mrs. Elizabeth M. Noyes died. 

29. Thanksgiving The Albany and New York steam 

tug Oswego arrived at New York having 41 canal barges 
and boats in tow, all deeply laden with produce of various 

kinds, the largest and almost the last tow of the season 

Philo Redman murdered on the Schenectady turnpike. 

30. James Birmingham died, aged 50 The canal re. 

ceipts at Albany during the 4th week in Nov., were : Flour 
103,743 barrels ; ashes 466 do.; beef 9,459 do. ; pork 587 
do. ; whiskey, &c., 737 do. ; corn 24,902 bushels ; barley 
52,906 do.; oats 32,458 do.; rye 9,716 do.; wheat 14,241 
do. ; peas 765 do. ; potatoes 7,970 do. ; seeds 147,615 lbs. ; 
butter 533,270 do.; cheese 610,725 do. ; lard 137,280 do. ; 
wool 121.865 do. ; hams and bacon 14,146 do. 


Abantzeue, Indian sachem, 15 

Abbet, John, builds church, 166 

Abeel, Christoffel, child buried, 132, 
David, child buried, 145 
G.. his letter about Frielinghuy- 

sen, 121 
Henr}'. buried, 145 
Jan Stoffelse, his seat in church, 

John, sheriff, 197; mayor's com- 
mission, 213 

Abrahamse, Melgert, wile buried, 133 

Academy, attempt to organize, 199; 
incorporated by the regents, 200; 
Merchant's, 236 ; park, 275 

Adam, James, child buried, 146 

Adams, John Quincy, death announc- 
ed, 331 ; eulogv on, 335 
Mrs. Timothy. d"ied, 383 

Adelberg, K., Lutheran pastor, 169 

Adirondack mountains, source of Hud- 
son, 221 

Admiral, steam boat, 218, 220; first 
steam boat up, 333 

Adriaensen, Maryn, 24 

Aelstyne. Cornells Martise, child bu- 
ried, 140. 
Gysbert M., child bu.ried, 140 ; see 

Van Aelstyn. 
Jacob, buried, 133 

Agassiz, lectures, 331 

Agniez at burning of Schenectady, 72 

Aiken, James, died. 342 

Air furnaces, 277 

Albany, ancient plan of, 183 ; descrip- 
tion of, 185 ; described by Kalm, 
54 ; dimensions of city, 188 ; set- 
tlement of, 18; its rail road lacili- 
ties, 1S9; its exports, 189; popu- 
lation 1815, 189; centre of trade 
and transshipment, 190; popula- 
tion in 1790, 191 : electors in 1797, 
192 ; slaves in 1790, 191 ; towns in 
county. 1797. 192 ; taxable inhabit- 
ants, 1795. 193; towns set off, 1809, 
193; incorporated, 193, 271; super- 
fices of county. 193; agricultural 
products, 194; civil officers, 1693, 
197 ; described by Weld, 209 ; con- 
dition and prospects, 1789. 236; 
post office 1785, 246 ; ancient com- 
merce of, 257 ; description of, 1823, 


Albany, continued — 

269 ; city so called 1664. 271 ; char- 
ter obtained 1686, 271 : treasury 
impoverished, 272; public build- 
ings, 272 ; city government, 1823, 
278; income and expenses, 1825, 
278 ; first settlers 1612. 280 : latitude 
and longitude of, 280. 281 ; style of • 
architecture, 281 ; characteristics 
of the people, manners and cus- 
toms, 282; Morse's account of, 
1786, 281; do. 1796, 284; Catholic 
diocese, first bishop installed, 321 ; 
real estate valuations, 1848, 355; 
debt in 1849, 359; finances, 1849, 
3^ ; first fort at, 11 

Academy, account of, 199 ; its loca- 
cation and cost, 189, £75 ; first site, 

Argus, 219 

Burgesses corps entertain Boston 
City Guards, ?>40 

City Bank incorporated, 296 

County Medical Society, meeting- of, 

coimty, statistics of, 191; divided, 

Daily Messenger appeared, 362 

Evening Journal circulation, 332 

Exchange Bank incorporated, 296 

Exchange building, 190 

Female Academy, account of, 202; 
first edifice, 205; second edifice, 
205 ; anniversary, 340 

Female Seminary, anniversary, 339 

Gazette, of 1772, 166; Webster's, 
195, 259 

Library, 1823, 276 

Medical College, commencement, 
356 ; opening lecture, 376 

Morning Express begun, 321 

Nail Works burnt, 376 

propeller, arrived, 337 

Register, 313 

Rensselaerville and Schoharie Plank 
Eoad Co.. 377 

Republican Artillery in Mexican 
war, 321 ; excursion, 371 

Rural Cemetery, architect died, 379 

Savings Bank incorporated, 295; 
report of funds. 357 

Society ot Brotherly Love, 245 

Tow Boat Company, 335 



Albertse, John, freeholder, 267 
Albertseii, Barent, 65. See De Noor- 

Hendrick, ferry master, 64; died, 
74 ; settler, 187 
Albion Hotel, great fire began at, 342 
Aldermen, first board of, 63; assist- 
ant, 63 

justices of the peace, 197 
Aldridge's inn, 250 
Alexander, Cornelius, died, 341 

Joseph, bank director, 295 
Algie, Nathan, 245 
Algonquin or Canada Indians, 13 
Aliua, steam boat, 322; quick trips, 

337, 367 
Allen, Kev. Benjamin, first principal 
of Academy, 200 

C. P., died, 373 

Edward D., 255 

James, died, 368 

Lucius, died, 370 

Moses, founds school, 203 

Robert, arrested, 324 

Solomon, founds school, 203 

Mrs. Winaford died, 368 
Allertsen, Francis, 71 
Alms, how to be received in the church, 

Almshouse of Dutch church, size and 
location of, 102 

County, deaths at, 325; expense 
of, 276, 330 ; health, 309 ; mortal- 
ity, 331 ; paupers at, 321 ; re- 
port, 355 ; statistics, 370 ; sani- 
tary report, 373 
Ambler, R. P., Universalist pastor, 180 
American Hotel, 313 

Literary Magazine, editor died, 377 
Ames's gallery, 270; his portrait of 

Washington, 274 
Amsden, William K., died, 347 
Amsden's inn, 250 

Amsterdam, letter from, 38; foot de- 
fined, 152 
Anderson, Elvenah C, died, 347 

Jane, died, 331 

Susan, died, 327 
Andros, Sir Edmund, sent over as 

governor, 98; contest with the 

church ofllcers, 81 
Anglomania iu Albany, 116 
Angus, Mrs. Catharine, died, 362 
Anne, queen, presents of, 61 
Annesly, William, died, 349 
Anshe Emeth, Jewish society, 179 
Anthony, Christopher, died, 349 
Anthony's Nose, promontory, origin 

of name, 74 
Anti-federal vote, 1788, 228 
Antigua, voyage to, 257 
Antirent convention, 323, 378 
Apothecaries Hall, ancient site of, 316 
Appel, Johannis, freeholder, 268 
Apple trees, 1749, 48 

Appleton & Warren, organ builders, 

Apprentices library, 1823, 276 
Ai'abia sloop, 260 
Arbor hill buria! ground, removal of, 

324; converted into a park, 364; 

district school, 363 
Architecture of the city, 189 
Area of the city, 269 
Arissen, Claes, 65, 187 
Armen, Abram, 131 
Ai-menia, steam boat, arrived, 336 
Arms of Norway, ship, 71 

Rensselaerswyck, vessel, 29, 30; 
confiscated, 31 

the city, 185 
Armsby, Dr., address by, 356 
Armstrong, Adam, died, 367 
Arnhout, John, 163, 164 
Arsenal of 1823, 276 
Artillery, target excursion, 376 
Ashmore, 164 

Aswerus, daughter Maria buried, 146 
Athens, church at, 154, 155 
Aughquago, 192 
Augsburg confession adhered to by 

Lutherans, 149, 150 
Aukus, Dow, freeholder, 265 
Aurora stage, 249 

borealis, 325, 331, 3-35, 340, 374 
Auspah, Baltis, freeholder, 266 
Austin's inn, 250 
Autey, Mrs. Alex., died, 349 
Avarice of the people, 58 

Babcock, Elisha, 231 
Baberrik, child buried, 131 
Babington, Samuell, freeholder, 264 
Bachelor tax proposed, 324 
Backer, Jochem Wesselse, his lots, 313 

Johannis, freeholder, 264 

John, freeholder, 268 

Storm, freeholder, 268 
Baillie, Elizabeth, died, 326 
Bain, married, 302 

Baker, Captain, commander at Albany, 

Christopher, 164 

James B., died, 365 

& Walbridge, stagers, 253 
Baker's falls, 221 

inn, 250 
Bakers in procession, 2-31 ; prosecuted, 

Bakker, Willem Juriaensen, 71 ; sen- 
tenced, 76 
Balch, Wm. S., Universalist pastor, 180 
Baldwin, Mrs. Brunson A., died, 355 

Ebeuezer, law student, 299 
Balloon ascension, 342 
Ballston , population, 1790, 191 ; springs , 

194 ; stage, 248 
Baltic, steam tug, 335 



Baltimore, No. houses in, 147 ; mails, 

Bancker, Garryt, his lot, 102 
Bauckers, 73 ; Elizabeth, buried, 135 
Bank of Albany, 277, 285 ; account of, 
288; oppose Branch, 292 

New York, 288 

the Capitol organized, 298 
Banker, Evert, grant of land to, 95; 

his seat in church, 127 ; freeholder, 

268; buried. J 35 
Banks, Nathan O., droAvned, 377 

notices of, 288 
Banyar, Goldsbrow, opposed to bank, 

288 ; bank director, 289 
Baptisms, register of, 81, 88, 96 ; first 

in new church, 86 
Baptist Church sold to Jews, 179 ; site 
of Vanderheyden house, 302 

society, early member, 327 
Baptists, 276 
Baraet, see Berret. 
Barbers in procession, 230 
Barclay, John, 68 

Thomas, worships in Lutheran 
church, 153 ; freeholder, 263 
Bard, Mary, 359 
Barents, Annetje, 65 

Ida, witness against slanderers, 125 
Barentsen, Egbert, child buried, 133 

Gilles, 72 
Barheyt, John, 268 

Wouter, freeholder, 268; buried, 


Barhyt, Barent, child buried, 132 

Barker, Thomas, 245 

Barley trade of Albany, 378 ; 1749, 49 ; 
price of, 347 

Barlow, Joel, predicts Erie canal, 215 

Barnard. Almira. died, 348 

Daniel, address on Spencer, 355 
Frederick J., bank director, 296 

Barnburner convention, 324 ; meeting 
of, 325; nomination, .345; secede, 
321 ; meeting of, 323 ; nominate 
\^an Bur en, 341 

Barrack street, so miscalled, 310 

Barry. Thomas, merchant, 1785_, 214 

Bart^ Willem, Patroonman, buried, 146 

Bartow, Henry, cashier, 295 

Basin, excavations, 384; its dimen- 
sions, 277, 278; question settled, 

Bassett, Rev. John, his ministry, 83 ; 
notice of, 123: first English 
preacher, 124 ; term of ministry, 
88. See Besset. 
Harriet, died, 351 
Migael, child buried. 136 
Mrs. John, died, 348 
street, first synagogue in, 179 

Bastiner G., buried, 147 

Batchelder, Galen, bank director, 296 

Bateau in procession, 1788, 233 

Bateaux described by Kalm, 47 

Bates, Mrs. Amasa, died, 380 

Bath in 1796, 285 ; ferry boat, ice cut 

for, 358 
Batterman, Mr., 164 

Christopher, architect of tobacco 
works, 239 
Battv, Beldon B., died, 364 
Bauf, Bernhard, 163 
Baxtei, Major, has use of pasture, 98 
Bay, Andrew, Presbyterian pastor, 170, 

Beal, Moses, erects a stage, 248 
Beardslee, Augustus. 300 
Bear's island,^30; Coorn's defense of, 

33. See Beereu island 
Beasly, Frederick, proposes grammar 

school. 207 
Beatson, David B., died, 333 
Beaux Stratagem represented, 117 
Beaver dam, Lutheran church at. 154 

kil, 185 

skins, size and price of, 26 ; circu- 
lating medium, 128 
Beck, Caleb. 286, 287 ; freeholder, 265 

Theodric Romevn, 200; principal, 
201 : lecture by, 376 
Becker, Coeuraet, buried, 134 

Jobs, child buried, 132; wife 
buried, 132 
Beekman, buried, 137 

Christopher, 163 ; trustee, 162 

Debora, buried, 139 

Eva, buried, 144 

Hendrick, buried, 145 

Hendrick Jacobse, buried, 140 

Jacob. 136; child buried, 132; 
freeholder, 263 

Johannis, child buried, 131, 139; 
servant buried, 137: freeholder, 
263 : his residence, 302 ; buried, 
134, 140, 146 (difierent persons) 

Johannis Senior, freeholder, 264 

Jobs J., child buried, 134, 145 

Jobs M., child buried, 146 

Mrs. Peter Douw, died, 360 

Neeltie, buried, 143 

R., buried Hogan's child, 134 

Thierck, buried, 139 
Beeren island, 15, 30, 31, 32; protest 

against, 33 ; ice obstructed at, 217 ; 

niills near, 67 
Belchertown stage, 251 
Belden. Selah, died, 383 
Bell, Margaret Jane. died. 334 

from ' Holland, 81, 85 : tolled at 
funeral, 86 ; of St. Peters. 318 
Belle, steam boat, large tow, 349, 350 
Bellomont, Earl of, sends Dom. Dellius 

to Canada, 95 
Bement, C. N., flour mill, 381 

Leonard, 300 
Benedict, Lewis, bank director, 295; 

postmaster, 362 
Beneway, Johannis, buried, 142 

Gerrit, buried H. Halenback, 137 



Beneway, Geurt, child buried, 136 
Hendrick, buried, 133 

Bennington, 252 ; stages to, ^8, 249 ; 
post to, 247 

Bennonie, child buried, 145 

Benter, Andreas, 163, 164 
Christian, 163, 164 
Jargeu, 163, 164 

Bentley, Betsey, died, 337 

Berg, Gysbert de, see Van Wesepe 
street, miscalled Barrack, 310 

Berghoorn, Adriaen, 71 

Berkenmeyer, William Christian, Lu- 
theran minister, 1746, 153 

Berly, Domine, buried in English 
church, 137 

Berne incorporated, 193; taxable in- 
habitants, 1795, 193: antirenters, 

Berret, Robert, buried, 146; wife 
buried, 144 ; child buried, 145 
Wyntie, buried, 140 

Bertely, John, wife buried, 144 

Besset, Magiel, child buried, 134, 137 ; 
son buried, 130. 
Michael. 135, 139 ; child buried, 143, 
147. See Bassett. 

Beth Jacob, Jewish Society, 179 ; syn- 
agogue, 327, 336. 

Bethel for watermen, account of, 177 

Bethlehem, settlement of, 37; incor- 
porated, 193; taxable inhabitants, 
1795, 193 ; limestone and marl in, 
194 ; island, 70 

Betz, Conrad, 164 

Beuchanau, Sarah, died, 351 

Bever kil, 195 ; old highway on, 103. 
skins purchased by Hudson, 3. 

Beverwyck, Albany so called till 1664, 
22 ; brewery, 40 ; corner stone of 
church laid, 69 ; only ten houses 
in 1646, 37 ; named Albany, 188 

Bible Society, county, 255 

Bidwell's inn, 250 

Binker, admiral, 98 

Birkenthal, Herman, Jewish rabbi, 179 

Birmingham, James, died, 384 

Births, marriages and deaths, 1848, 

Bissels, Adam^ 16, 42, 43 
Gerrit, 42 

Black, John R., died, 360 

Blacksmiths preferred to missionaries 
by the Indians, 62 ; in procession, 

Blake, Mrs. Elizabeth, died, 356 
Henry, died, 380 
Joseph, died, 350 

Blanchard, Anthony, bank director, 296 

Blatchford, Rev. Samuel, 255 

Bleecker Hall, 124 
Anne, 301 
Anthony, 301 

Barent, bank president, 291 ; bank 
director, 289 

Bleecker, Catherine, 301 ; died, 365 

Gertrude, 301 

Harmanus, 255 ; book of burials, 
131 ; memoir of, 299 

Hendrick, 301 

Hon. Harmanus. died, 301, 367 

Jacob, 299, 301 ; buried, 140 ; child 
buried, 140 

Jacob, Jr., 84 

James, 84 

Jan, first chamberlain, 63, 189 

Jan Jansen, 69, 299; first alder- 
man, 63, 160, 188; freeholder, 
264; buried, 134; posterity of, 

Jane, 301 

Johannis, Captain, 197 ; freeholder, 
264 ; buried, 136, 146 ; wife bur- 
ied, 143 ; children of, 301 

John J., 84 

John, Jr., son buried, 133, 144 ; 
daughter buried, 134 

John, marshal, 235 

John N., 84 

John R., child buried, 142, 143 

John R., bank director, 293 

Jobs, son Barent buried, 146 

Margaret, 301 

Margarette, 301 

Margrietie. 143 ; buried, 135 

Nicholas, founds school, 203, 301 

Nicholas, Jr, child buried, 135, 138 

Nicolaes, child buried, 134,135. 136 
143; freeholder, 263; buried, 143 

Nicolas, Jr., buried, 141 

Rachel, 301 

Rutgert, 101, 104, 301 ; church 
deacon, 105; freeholder, 264; wife 
buried, 141 ; buried, 145 

S. V. R., law student, 300 

house, ancient parsonage, 124 
Block, Adrien, 9 
Blockhouses 1745, 280 ; last one burnt 

1812, 280; location, 183, 184 

and pump makers, 230 
Bloemmaert, Catharina, 43 

Coustantiua, 43 

Juflvrouw Anna, 43 

Samuel, 16, 42, 43 
Bloodgood, Abraham, 257, 259 

Francis, bank president, 293 

James, 259 

James C, law student, 299 

Simeon De Witt, 257 
Bloomendall, residence, 311 
Blyckers, Jenneke, buried, 136 
Board of Trade, 361 ; 1848, 240 ; elec- 
tion, 330 ; opened, 338 
Boa.tbuilders in procession, 230 
Bockley, Marte, child buried, 143, 144 ; 

wife buried, 144 
Bogardus, Antony, buried, 138; son 
buried, 135 

Anneke, daughter of Petrus. buri- 
ed, 141 



Bogardus, Epharin. child buried, 132, 
134; buried 139 
Evert, buried, 139 
Rev. Ev., married Anneke Jans, 

Harme, 139 
Pieter S., buried. 146 
Ragel, buried, 146 
Scheeboleth, buried, 139, 141; wife 

buried, 140 ; child buried, 142 
See Bregardus, and Brigardes 
Bogart, Abram, child buried, 146; 
sister buried, 137 
Abram, Jr., child buried. 144 
Abram P., child buried, 145 
Benjamin, 138; child buried, 141 
Coruelis, buried, 145 
Hamilton, 300 
Isaac, children buried, 134 ; buried, 

Jacob, child buried, 136, 146 
Jacob, Jr., child buried, 141, 144 
Pieter, wife Rebecca buried, 144 
Rev. David S., 172 
W. H., law student, 300 
Bogert, Cornells, sou buried, 131 

David S., Presbyterian pastor, 176 
Isaac, 84 ; child buried, 134, 140 
Jacob C, 135 
John, surveyor, 310 
Boghardij. Harmanus a, 75 
Boght, church at, 83,123; Lutherans 

at, 164 
Boom, Jobs, buried, 138 
Boon, Francois, 74 
Boose, Mattias, Sr., freeholder, 267 
Booth, Harriet, died, 347 

Lebbeus, account of Female Acade- 
my, 204 
Boreas river, head waters of Hudson, 

Bor^haert, Cornells, freeholder, 264 
Isaac, freeholder, 264 
Jacob, Jr., fi'eeholder, 264 
Borrelingen, Joris, 72 
Bos, Cornells Teunissen, commissary, 

Bosie, Frans Wey, child buried, 140 
Boston. Captain bnried, 146 
Boston City Guards arrived, 340 ; com- 
merce with, 278; distance of, 
185, 280; ferry accident, 344; 
flour sent to, 322, 323; freight 
depot built, 341 ; houses in, 147 ; 
rail road to, 189, 190 ; receipts, 
355 : stages, 250, 251, 253; trade 
with, 1833, 241 
Boundaries of the city, 269 
Bout, Eversen, sells his farm in Pavo- 
nia, 69 
John, freeholder, 266 
Bouton. C, candidate for assembly, 

Bovie, Catreen, buried, 140 
Claes, freeholder, 268 

Bovie, Mattys, son buried, 140 
Bowers, Laura A. mfe Aug. Bowers, 

died, 332 
Bowman, Charles, 163, 164 
Bowne, Robert, California ship sailed, 

Boyd & McDonald, workers in mastic, 
James, died, 329 
Jane Ann, died, 351 
Peter, 204, ai5 ; bank director, 294 
Boyd's (or Martin Gerretseu's) island, 

Boylan, Mrs., died, 365 
Bracebridee Hill, 304 
Bradford, llev. John M., 85, 255; term 
of ministry, 88 ; trustee of aca- 
demy, 200; proposes grammar 
school, 207 
John W., law student, 300 
Bradt, 65. See De Noorman, 

Albert Andriessen de Noorman, 

65, 1S7 
John B., 84 

William, intrepidity of, 381 
Brainard, Miss N. C, died, 359 
Brandt, descendants of Brandt Peelen 
Van Nieukerke so called, 64. See 
Van Niewkerk. 
Branion, James, died, 359 
Brants, Gerritje, married Goosen Ger- 

ritsen Van Schaick, 70 
Brass-founders in procession, 232 
Brat, Adreiaen, child buried, 136, 137, 
144 ; wife buried, 144 
Albert, freeholder, 268 ; buried at 

Flats, 134 
Andries, wife Voyntie buried. 137; 
freeholder, 268 ; child buried, 137 
Anna buried in church, 133 
Anthony, child buried, 134 ; buried 
Roseboom's child, 136 ; buried 
N. Ryckman, 136 
Anthony Ay., wife buried, 143; 

child buried, 143 
Antony Egbertie, child buried, 143 
Antony Jobs, wife buried, 144 
Antony Jr., child buried, 142 
Arent, freeholder, 265 
Arnout, Jr. freeholder, 265 
Barent, ancient grave digger, 131 
Barent, Jans, buried, 138 
Barnt, freeholder, 204 
Benjamin, child buried, 132 
Daniel, buried G. Marselis, 137 

buried J. Marselis, 139 
Derrick, freeholder, 265, 266, 267 

buried, 135 
Egbert, buried A. Ryckman, 136 , 
children buried, 132 ; buried J. 
Marselis, 141 
Egbert, child buried, 132 
Elizabeth buried, 145. 
Gerret, wife buried, 137; child 
buried, 139 



Brat, Hendrick buried, 139 ; child bu- 
ried, 141 

Jan, child buried, 137, 142 

Jobs, buried, 138 ; child buried, 146 

Neeltie, daughter buried. 141 

Rebecca, child buried, 141 

Storm, freeholder, 26S 

Susana, 131 

Theunis, burial of, 131 

Tunis, freeholder, 264 

Vullenpie, buried, 138 
Brate, Mrs. Nicholas, died, 374 
Brats, Benjamin, buried, 136 
Bratt, Albert, Lutheran elder, 151 
Brattleboro', stage to, 253 
Braun, Anthon Theodore, Lutheran 

minister, 155, 161 
Brayton's inn, 250 
Breakey, Dr. Isaiah, died, 330 
Bregardus, Antony, freeholder, 263. 

See Bogardus 
Brewers in procession 1788, 230 
Brewer's street, 102 
Brewery, 1637, 36 ; first superintend- 
ent, 64 
Bricklayers in procession, 232 
Bricks, manufacture of, 198 ; importa- 
tion of, 302 
Bridge over basin, 334; pier company 

to maintain, 375 
Bries, Anthony, quartermaster, 198 

nendk, buried, 144 ; child buried, 
141 ; at Papsknee, 134 

John, buried, 145 
Brigardes, Seibolet, freeholder, 264 
Brigham. Richard. 75 
Brinckerhofl; John, 200 
British chaplain, 182 
Britton, S. B.. Universalist pastor, 180 

Jane Elizabeth, homicide, 348 
Broad and Nucella streets, 381 
Broadway improved, 344 

House game club, 338 
Brockholes, Major, has use of pasture, 

Brockholst, Captain Anthony, 126 
Brodhead, Lucas, teacher, 205 
Bronck, Jonas, 40 

Mrs. John, 68 

Pieter, tavern keeper, 76 
Bronck's kil (Coxsackie creek), 68 
Bronly, Bromly, Bronbely, Billy, child 

buried, 1.38, 143 
Brookfleld stage, 249, 251 
Brooks, Capt Samuel A., died, 383 

David, 292 
Broon, ISTedt, servant of Jef [Mrs.] 

Livingston, buried, 135 
Broose, Gabriell, freeholder, 266 
Brouwer, Capt. Jan, 17 

Pieter Clemeutsen, 10 
Brouyn, Jan, buried, 134 
Brower, Mary, died, 383 

Nicholas, died, 324 

Brown, Amey A., died, 365 

A. Heyer, 213 

Andrew, 245 

Dorothy E., died, 325 

Edward, founds school, 203 

George S., died, 340 

Isaac, died, 343 

James H., died, a32 

John C, died, 374 

Lester Bucklin, died, 331 

Richard, 242. See Braun 
Bruise, Claes, freeholder, 266 
Brumley, 164 
Brunk, Peter, freeholder, 267 

Juo., freeholder, 267 

Lenard, freeholder, 267 
Bryan, John, bank director, 294 

Margaret, died, 342 
Buck's inn, 250 
Buckwheat, price of, 347 
Buddington. Miss, died, aS2 
Buffalo rail road, connection with, 189 ; 

stage to, 253 ; distance to, 280 
Bullions, Peter, chaplain St. Andrews 

society, 245 
Bullock, Joseph N., bank director, 

Bui son, Peter, died, 324 
Bumstead, John, freeholder, 265 
Bunick, 67 

Bunsen, Hendk, child buried, 135 
Burgaert, Coonradt, freeholder, 266 

John, freeholder, 266. See Bogart 
Burgess, Robert, died, 373 
Burgesses corps, excursion to Sara- 
toga, 373 
Burgojme, boast of, 189 ; religious 

services during his approach, 122 
Burial customs, 129 ; fees, 175 ; ground, 

ancient, 130 ; expenses of 1719. 

131 ; ground of Jews, 179 
Burials, record of, 131 ; required to be 

reported, 370 
Burlington stage, 249, 251 
Burns, drowned, 328 
Burr, Aaron, bank director, 292 
Burrowes, Edward, 287 
Burt, Thomas M., bank director, 296 
Burton, Dr. Amos N., died, 348 

John J., died, 359 

Mrs. John, died, 359 
Burnt district improved, 344 
Bush, Rev. Stephen, missionary, 359 
Bushwick, Rev. Bassett at, 83 
Butchers in procession, 232 
Butler, Benjamin F., lecture by, 326 

J. W., died, 367 

James, died, 348 

John, 367 
Buttermilk creek extinct, 195 
Butts, Thomas, 164 
Buttz, Thomas, 165 
Buys, Jan Cornells, 66 
Bylvelt, Juriaen, 67 



Cady, Mrs. George E., died, 383 
Cagger, Michael, 242 

Peter, head of barnburners, 322 
Cahill, John, died, 372 
Caldwell, James, 334 ; in celebration, 
1788, 235; tobacco factory, 236, 
238 ; burnt, 240 ; advocates bank, 
288 ; bank director, 289 
William, died, 334 
lot, first bank on, 290 
California expedition, 355 
Calmar, 71 
Calvinists, first settlers consisted of, 

Cambridge. Mass., population 1790, 

191 ; Wash. Co., poft to, M7 
Campbell. Alexander, 287 
Daniel, 245 

Dr. William H., sermon by, 351 
Elizabeth, died, 339 
John N. Presbyterian pastor, 172, 
Canaan, stage, 250 

Canada, 4l1 great river of, 13; In- 
dians, 1.3 ; Indian trade, 57 ; settle- 
ment begun, 13 
Canadian invasion, 319 
Canajoharie, post to, 247; post road, 

248; stage to, 248,249 
Canal Bank, incorporated, 295; fail- 
ure, 297, 340, 359, 360 : dividend, 
basin. 190 
enlargement, 350 
opening and closing of, 223 
receipts, 345, 346, 372, 383, 384 
street pond, 342 
Canandaigua, 200 ; post route, ^8 ; 

stage to, 250, 253 
Canastigeone, freeholders, 1720, 267 
Canawargus, post route, 248 
Canoes described bv Kalm, 47 
Canoll, John W. H., died, 327 
Cantine. John, 292 

William R., died, 346 
Canton, sloop voyage to, 261 
Cape Cod. Hudson sails to, 1 

Good Hope, voyage to, 262 
Capitol, described, 189 ; bill to remove, 
332 ; distance from Broadway, 
270; cost of building, 272; its 
elevation, 272; description of, 
273, 274 ; park, 275 
Caravans, new feature, 3-39 
Carey, Catherine, died, 347 

David H., sec. board of trade, 240 
Carlton House, robbery at, 328 ; fire in, 

Carman. Mr. T., great haul of fishes, 

Carmen in procession, 2.31 
Carmichael, Peter, died. 329 
Carpenter, see Teunissen, Jan 

George W., city surveyor, 335 
Carpenter's inn, 250 

Carpenters in procession 1788, 230 
Carr, Mr., 258 

Carre, Sir Robert, captured New Am- 
sterdam, 58 
Carroll, James, died, 376 

John, died, 331 
Carson, Mrs. Thomas, died, 368 
Carsten, Anna Marytie, buried, 131 
Carstenssen, Audries, settler, 64, 187 
Carteris, Mr., child buried, 140 
Cary, David H., 377 
Case's inn, 250 

Casperse, Jno., freeholder, 133, 267 
Cassidy, Cornelius, died, 361 

John, died, 361 

John P., died, 370 

Patrick, 242 
Cassidy' s market, 158 
Castle island, 13, 15, 16, 37, 186 ; leased 
to Vauderdonck, 23; Vander 
Donck's house on, .34 ; leased by 
Martin GerretsenYan Bergen, 65, 
187 ; farm on, 74 

Rensselaer, Rensselaer stein so 
called, 31 
Cateris, Mr., child buried in the Eng- 
lish church, 139 
Cathedral, accident at, 340 ; collection 

to build, 324, 374; corner stone 

laid, 339 
Catholic churches, celebrate St. Pa- 
trick's, 333 
Catries, Mr., son buried, 140 
Catskil creek, 195; freeholders, 1720, 

267; Indians take refuge at, 319; 

mountains, seen from Albany, 185, 

194; population 1790, 191; taxable 

inhabitants, 1795, 193; telegraph 

completed to, 377 
Caves in the Helderberg, 194 
Caj'uga stage, 250 
Cayugas, 13 
Celebration of the federal constitution, 

1788, 228 
Cell, Jan, child buried, 138 
Cemeteries removed to Knox street,159 
Cemetery of Lutherans, 151 
Centennial anniversary of charter, 218 
Center, Asa H., founds school, 203, 

205; director academy, 204; bank 

director, 295 
Central avenue, Lutheran church, 169 ; 

rail road, 244 
Centre market, its removal, 151 ; cost 

of lot, 275 
Chadwick, James H., 376 
Chamber of Commerce, 1823, 276 
Chambers, Mrs. William, died, 352 
Champlain canal, 277 ; completed, 280 ; 

lake, 13, 219 
Channing, Henry W., 299 
Chapel street, miscalled Barrack, 310 
Chapin, Lyman, bank director, 295 

Moses, tutor, 200 

O. N., 240 



Chapman, William, president board 

trade, 240, 330 
Chapultepeck,VanOLuida killed at, 321 
Charcoal of black pine, 54 
Charles, D. D. T., bank director, 298 
George, died, 348 
n, his snuffbox in Albany, 38 
Charleston, number of houses in, 147 
Charlestown, stage to, 253 
Charter of privileges for patroons, 15, 
17 ; of city granted 1686, 63, 271 ; 
oldest charter in Union, 271 ; cele- 
bration of, 218 
Chase, Lawrence, freeholder, 265 
Cheapside street, 1772, 214 
Cherry- Valley, distance of, 280; stage 

to, 249, 253 ; road planked, 378 
Cherubusco, battle of, 321 
Chesapeake bay, \isited by Hudson, 1 
Chester, Rev. John, 255; director 

academy, 204 
Chesterfield stage, 251 
Chifferder, John G., drowned, 364 
Chimneys of the ancients, 53 
China ware, import of, 261 
Chocolate factory, 237 
Cholera, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 
370, 371, 372, 373, 374; began 1849, 
Christening fee, 175 
Christian Mutual Benefit Society, 328 
Christianse, Cornells, freeholder, 267 
Henry, pioneer, 186 
Jan, buried, 140 
Johannis, ft-eeholder, 267 
Christie, James, 255 
Christmas, 1847, 329 
Chronicle of Events, 321 
Church ordered to be built, 25 ; lotte- 
ries, 166 ; pasture, 271 ; penny, 176 ; 
street 25 80 
Churches m 1749, 54 ; 1789. 283 ; 1796, 

210, 285 ; 1823, 276 
Cincinnati, sloop, 260 
City bounds, how first determined, 
97 ; gates, their locations, 183 ; 
hall, 223 ; its purposes, 189 ; rail 
road sinking fund, report on, 
352 ; sell pasture to pay debts, 
98; records relating to the 
church, 124 
Tavern (alias Lewis's tavern), 289 ; 
meeting at, 199 ; its location, 312 
Civil officers, 1693, 197 
Claesen, Claes, settler, 187 

Hans, 10 
Claessen, Bregie, 142 
Claes, 65 

Cornells, buried in his Orchard, 
136 ; wife Susanna buried, 138 ; 
sister Bregie buried, 142 
Clament, Joseph, freeholder, 265 
Clark, George T., died, 362 
James, died, 322 

Clark, Jeremiah, bank director, 295 

Joseph S., died, 350 

Mrs. Geo. T., died, 361 

Ralph, died, 375 

Sally, died, 368 
Classis of Amsterdam, churches subor- 
dinate to, 80 
Claverack, church at, 155 ; stage, 251 ; 

freeholders. 1720, 266 
Clawe, Hendrick, freeholder, 266 
Clay of Albany unsuitable for tiles, 55 
Clay, Henry, arrived, 374 

whigs, meeting, of, 345 
Cleerment, Jacobus, child buried, 142 
Clemshire, Mrs. William, died, 370 
Clerk in church to be appointed. 111 
Clermont stage, 249 
Clerton, Matthew, died, 347 
Clinton county, set off, 191 

Geo., portrait of, 274 

Gov., 228, 300 

Henry, invaded Albany, 189 

Joseph, 242 
Clock, Abraham, 74 
Clock and watch makers, 230 
Cloet, Fredk., child buried, 145 

Jobs, child buried, 135, 141, 143 

John, Jr., child buried, 145 

Waldraven, children buried, 139, 
143. See Cluet 
Cloth manufactures, 1820, 280 
Clothiers in procession, 231 
Clowes, Timothy, trustee of Aca- 
demy, 200 
Cluett, Jan, buried at Niskayawene,132 

Frederick, freeholder. 267 

Jacob, freeholder, 267 

John, freeholder, 267 
Coach makers in procession, 231 
Coal, alleged discovery of, 377: reward 

for discovery, 279; reward with- 
drawn, 330 
Coates, Charles, bank director, 298 
Cobb, Elijah, died. 363 
Cobes, L., 127 

Cochrane, Mr., died of cholera. 369 
Codirectors of Rensselaerswyck, 1630, 

Coeper, Abram. child buried, 144 

Jacob, child buried, 143 

Obadya, freeholder, 263; child 
buried, 141 ; buried, 137 ; wife 
buried, 141 

Thomas, child buried, 138, 139, 142 
Coetus controversy, 122 
Coeyman, Pieter, buried on Beeren 
island, 138 

Samuel, buried, 144 
Coeymans, Andreas, 68 

Anne Margaret, 68 

Ariantje, 68 

Barent, name extinct, 68 

Barent Pieterse, 72 

Charlotte A., 68 



Coeymaus, Elizabetti, 68 
Gerritje, 68 

Jaunetje, 68 


Peter, 68 

Samuel, 68 

creek, 195 

creek, saw mill on, 71 

iucorporated, 193 

Landing, salts found at, 194 

mills at, 67 ; see Coyemans, Koey- 

purchased of patroon. 68 

taxable inhabitants 1795, 193 
Cogswell, Mrs. Geo. H., died. 374 
Coh3u, Isaac, 245 

Cohoee, rail road bill passed, 334 ; rail 
road corapanj', officers elected, 
338 ; rail road subscription to, 
362; waterfall, 195 ; village incor- 
porated, 383 
Cohoz, 1796, 211 
Colbreath, Col. Wm., speedy voyage, 

Cole, Justice, opens court of special 
sessions, 361 

William Bradley, died, 352 
Coleman. John, killed by Indians, 1 
Coleman's point, 1 

CoUans, Madam Margrita, buried, 142 
CoUe, Perer, freeholder, 266 
Collections on the History of Albany, 

Collier, Mrs. Jason, died. 360 

Michael, freeholder, 267 
Collins, Edward, buried, 144 

E., warden, 310 

John, freeholder, 263 

Mrs. Eobert, died. 382 
Collones Renselaers-Wyck, 268 
Colonial administration, complaint of, 

Colonic annexed, 189, 277, 280 ; claims 

of partners extinguished, 43 ; sepa- 
rated from city, 182 : town of, 193 
Colonists, terms of labor, 20, 21 
Colony of Rensselaerswick, its condi- 
tion, 20 
Columbia county, set off, 191 ; returns, 

Hotel, 294 

steam boat, 218, 219, 322, 329, 333, 

351 , 358, 359 
Colvard. Philo, died, 383 
Colvin, Antho (Colve, Gov.). 98 
Commerce of the city, 380, 383, 384 ; of 
1823,276; of canal, 328; of the 
Hudson in 1749, 46 

steamtug, 325 ; brings up first tow, 
Commercial Bink, account of, 295 
Commissarissen, 19 
Common council, how formed, 189 ; of 

1823, 278 ; of 1849 ; met, 360 ; visit 

Washington, 323 

Conally's inn, 250 

Conine, Casper, freeholder, 26 

Lenard, freeholder, 266 

Philip, freeholder, 267 
Conkling, Judge of Q. S. court, 3-^4 
Conklin^s inn, 251 
Connecticut valley, stage to, 249 
Connick, Mrs. Andrew, died, 348 ' 
Connolly, James, killed, 329 
Consistor^, great, 84 
Constitution, 229 ; celebration of, 228 
Coustapel, see Vandcrblaes 
Contreras, battle of, 321 
Contributions, how taken in the old 

church, 128 ; bags, 86 
Conway, Mrs. Honourah, died, 382 
Cook, Capt. John, joined army, 333 

Moses, died, 323 

S., 300 

William, bank director, 295 
Cookery and food in 1749, 60, 61 
Cook's inn, 250 

reading room, 276 
Coole, Johannis, freeholder, 266 
Coon, Jobs, child buried, 146 
Cooper, Cornelia, daughter buried, 141. 
See Coeper. 

Judge, leaser of Hartwick, 156 

Obediah, freeholder, 263 ; child 
buried. 141 
Cooper's building, hall dedicated, 333 
Coopers in procession, 232 
Cooperstown stage, 249 
Coorn, Nicolaus, 29, 32, 33; became 

fiscaal. 34 
Coppernoll, William, freeholder, 264 
Cordwainers in procession, 232 
Corlaer, Elisabeth, buried, 144. See 

Van Curler. 
Corlear, see A^an Curler. 
Corn, annual receipt, 328; price of, 

324, 326, 347, 372; fields, 1749, 45, 

49 ; on the island. 52 
Corneel, Maragrieta, buried, 134 
Cornells, Marten, convert, 126 

Saertje, 77 
Cornelissen, Broer, 72 

Coryn, 67 ; erects saw mill, 71 

Hendrick, 66 

Jan, carpenter, 67. See Van Vech- 

Martin, captain, 198; his seat in 
church, 127 ' 

Pieter, builds horse mill, .35, 36. 
See Van Mimichendam. 
Corning, Hon. Erastus, 313, 314, 315; 
bank president, 296; president 
of city meeting, 340 

Hon. Erastus, Jr., his house, 315 

Winslow & Co.'s nail works burnt, 
Corona, 368 

Corrie, Mr., child buried, 140 
Corstiaensen, Hendrick, pioneer, 9, 
186 ; erects a fort, 11 



Corstiaensen, Johan, 74 
Cosgrove, Mrs. Kichard, 362 
Coster, Antony, freeholder, 263; bu- 
ried, 144 
Hendk, buried, 139 
Cottomaclv, Indian sachem. 15 
Cottrell, Adam, banli director, 298 
Coughlin fell from Cathedral, 383 
Coulter, James A., died, 330 
County Bible Societj', 255 

estates of Albany merchants, 57 
jail. 189 
Court of appeals, first term, 322 
of common pleas, 197 
special sessions opened, 361 
street, 101 
Courtney, John, child buried, 139 
Courtright, Peter, died, 352 

Lawrence, died, 356 
Courts first established, 18 
Coxsackie creek, 68; called Peter 
Bronck's kil, 76 ; freeholders, 1720, 
267; population, 1790, 191; tax- 
able inhabitants, 1795, 193 
Coyeman, Andries, freeholder, 268; 
ensign, 198 
A rent, 67 

Barent Pieterse, account of, 67 
David, 67 
Jacob, 67 

Pieter, freeholder, 268 
Samuel, freeholder, 268. See 
Coyle, Patrick, killed, 356 
Coyper, Tomas, child buried, 142 
Craig, Archibald, his house, 313 
Crane, James H., died, 358 
Crannel, Robt., child buried, 145 
Cranston, Wm. L., died, 326 
Creeks and rivers, 195 
Cregier, Jannetje, buried at Nisceauna, 
Martynis, child buried, 146 
Samuel, freeholder, 267 ; child bu- 
ried, 133, 140 ; wife buried, 144 
Crennel, William, buried, 146; child 

buried. 133 
Creynen, Jan, 72 

Criminal arrests, 1848, 330 ; business, 
365; indictments, 345; statistics, 
331, 352 
Crippen, John, died, 376 
Crittenton, Alonzo, principal, 205 
Crocker. John D., 300 
Crook, T. P., 240 
Cropel, Catie, buried, 143 
Croswell, Edwin, bank director, 295 
Mrs. Sherman, died, 379 
Sherman, describes Presb. church, 
Crown point, mode of going to, 62 
Cruttenden, Captain Robert G., 322 
Crynnesen, Cornells, 73 
Cumming, Daniel, 245 
Cunningham, John D., 245 

Curdy, Joseph, suicide, 376 
Currency, depreciation of, 21 ; in 1686, 

Curtiss, Joseph, died, 332 
Custom house, account of, 241 
Customs, ancient, 123 
Cuvel, Ariaentje, 66 
Cuyler, Abraham, ensign, 197 ; free- 
holder, 263 ; buried, 140 ; daugh- 
ter buried, 131 
Catharine, buried, 135 
Cornelius J., died, 366 
Cornelius, mayor, 114 ; child bu- 
ried, 132, 139 
Cristina, buried, 145 
Elsie, buried, 143 
Hendrick, 152,312; his lots, 313; 
buried, 131, 134; child buried, 
Henry, bank director, 289 
Jacob, federalist, 228 ; merchant, 

1788, 233 
J ohannis, freeholder, 263; church 
elder, 101, 105; his seat in 
chiirch, 127 ; wife buried, 139 
John, 230 

John C, trustee, 167 
John, Jr., marshal, 1788, 235 
Jobs A., buried, 140 ; child buried, 

134, 140 
Maria, burial of, 131 
Nicolas, 258; wife buried, 142; 
child buried, 141 

Daley, Michael, suicide, 359 

Daly, John, 242 

Dam. Jan Jausen, 66 

Damen, Cornells Jansen, cuyper, 66 

Hendrickje, 66 

Jan, 67 

Neiltje, 66 

Willem Jansen, 66. See Dam. 
Danforth's inn, 250 
Daniels, Arent, freeholder, 265 

Bettie, son buried, 134 

Daniell, freeholder, 265 

Jan, freeholder, 265 

John, buried, 144 

Peter, freeholder, 265 

Simon, freeholder, 267 

Symon, buried, 140 

Warner, Jr., died, 352 
Danker' s Journal, 81 
Dankers and Sluyter, their Journal, 

Darling, William, 299 
Davenport, Rev. J. B., rector Grace 

church, 363 
Davids, John, child buried, 144 
Davidson. Gilbert C, bank director, 

Mary A., died, 322 
Davis & Centre, merchants. 241 

Charles, died, 335 



Davis, Elizabeth, died, 331 

Nathaniel, founds school, 203, 204 
W. A., prize shot, 376 
Davits, Christoffel, 71 
De Backer, Harry, feat of gunning, 74 
De Decker, 149 

Deforeest, David, daughter buried, 140 
Chattrina, buried, 138 
Frances H., wife J. P., died, 325 
Jesse, buried, 140 
Jobs, child buried, 132, 133, 134, 

13(3, 137, 139 ; buried, 144 
Philip, buried, 145 
Philyp, buried, 133 
De Garmo, Dirck, buried, 13S 
Jellis, child buried, 134, 141 
Johannis, freeholder, 2G3 
Jobs M., child buried, 144 
Jobs, son Jacob buried, 140 
Mattys, child buried, 132, 134 
Pieter, buried, 145 
Pieter M., child buried, 143 
De Grave, Abram, freeholder, 265 
Andries, freeholder, 265 
Arnout, freeholder, 265 
Jesse, Ireeholder, 265 
De Groff, O. G., died, 365 
De Hiller, Cornells, buried, 143 
De Hooges, Antony, secretary, 77, 92 ; 
colonial secretary, 20; builds 
horse mill, 36 ; attempts to stab, 
76; his lot, 176; died, 74 
De Hulter, Johannes, 42 
D'Iberville, burns Schenectady, 72 
De la Court, Jan, 38 
De Laet, Johannes, 42 
De Mctselaer, Teunis, 72 
De Noorman, Albert Andriessen 
Bradt, 65, 187 
Andries, 65 
Bareut, 65 
Dirck, 65 

Engeltje, 65 ; married, 187 
Eva, 65 
Gisseltje, 65 
Jan, 65 

Storm Vanderzee, 65. See Bratt 
De Peyster, Jobs, children buried, 132, 
133, 134, 1:35, 138 ; wife buried, 143 
De Reus, Gerret, 20 

Geri-et Teuuissen, 65 
De Riddcr, Antie, buried, 142 

Gerrit. child buried, 138 
De Russy, Ann Alida, died, 357 
De Stillel-, Martie, wife biu-ied, 143 
De Tracy, letter to Van Curler, 41 
De Truy. Philip, marshal of New 

Netherland, 33 
De Yoe, Jno., freeholder, 267 
Isaac, 141, wife buried, 141 
Jan, buried, 139; wife buried, 139 
De Vos, Andries, 72 
De Vries, 26, 42 

De Wandelaier, Johannis, freeholder, 
267 ; child bmied, 131 

De Wandelaer, Pieter, buried, 143; 

wife and child buried, 142 
De Witt, Captain Jarn, 9 

Hendk, son's child buried, 143 
John, on academy committee, 199 ; 

preaches annual sermon, 255 
Rev. Dr., 73 
Richard Yarick, law student, 300; 

bank director, 295 
Simeon, house built, 257 ; on bank 
coiniuittGG 2Q2 
De Wolflf, Abel, vote of thanks to, 127 ; 

church depositary, 126 
Deacons, first under charter, 104, 105 ; 

their powers and duties, 106, 108 
Dead room, 1.30 
Dean, Amos, candidate, 349 

Capt. Stewart, voyage to China, 

261 : died, 262 
Mrs. Rhoda, died, 372 
Deaths, 1848, 224 

Debt of city 1823, 279 ; 1849, 359 ; im- 
prisonment for, 223 
Decker, Broer, freeholder, 266 

Jitrie, freeholder, 266 
Deely, wife Tryntie buried, 132 
Degraef, Nicolas, 286, 287 
Delamon, Martin, freeholder, 267 
Delavan, Edward C, bank director, 

295 ; Mrs. Edward C. died, 339 
Delaware county set off, 192 ; Indians, 
13 ; river explored by Dutch, 12 ; 
turnpike, 190 
Delehaut, Mrs. Andrew, died, 347 
Delehanty, Margaret, widow of Daniel, 

died, 329 
Delemont, Jan, freeholder, 265 
Dellius, Godfridus, newly arrived pas- 
tor, 127 ; his salary, 127 ; succeeds 
Dom. Schaets, 81 ; record of bap- 
tisms, 95, 96 ; term of ministry, 88 ; 
deposed, 82, 195 ; acquired church 
pasture, 97, 98, 99, 100 
Deming, Elizabeth, died, 342 
Democratic conventions, 324; coimty 

convention, 321 
Democratic party, nominations, 334 
Denna's inn, 250 
Denning, William, 228 
Deunisou, James, & Co., carpenters, 
William, died, 369 
Denniston and Lydius streets, 80 

Isaac, bank director, 294 ; daughter 
died, 358 
Denniston's tavern, 1789, 220 
Derby's inn, 250 
Dermody, Margaret, died, 325 
Derrickse, Takel, freeholder, 264 
Detroit, distance of, 280 
Dewy, Rev. Orville, pastor loci, 352, 

369 ; farewell sermon, 362 
Dexter, George, his store, 316 
James, law student, 299 
Mary M., wife of George, died, 323 



Dey, Mrs. John Ogden, died, 358 
Diamond, Jotin W., died, 366 
Dickson, Hugh, 245 

James, 245 
Diefenbach, C. F., 163 
Dill, Dr., lecture on Ireland, 361 
Dingmans, Gerrit, freeholder, 266 
Dirk, John Matthew, 164 
Dirkes, Daniel, 164 
Dirksen, Jan., 74 
Disney, John, 164 
Distins, saxhorn performers, 366 
District school anniversary, 341 
Dix, John A., nominated by antirent- 

ers, 346 ; nominated for governor, 

Dixon, Mrs. John, died, 371 
Docks in 1823, 276 ; none in 1749, 56 
Documentary History of New York, 

Dodge, Henry H. died, 383 

ISarah, died, 336 
Dogs prohibited, 335 
Dominie's hoeck (Van Wie's point), 71 
Donahue, John, drowned, 376 
Doncassen, Catalj'n, 71 
Donelly, Peter, died, 378 
Dongan, Thomas, charters Albany, 63, 

98, 188; conveys pasture, 99; or- 
ganized Albany county, 191 ; sus- 
tains Indians, 319 
Donway, John, child buried, 140 
Dorr, Alfred, died, 360 

Elisha, bank director, 294 
Douglas, Alfred, bank director, 296 

David B., died, 379 

John H., died, 350 
Douw, Abram, wife Lyntie buried, 142 

Audries, freeholder, 268; lieuten- 
ant, 198 

Catharine, widow of J. D. P., died, 

Hendrick, freeholder, 268 ; buried, 

Henry, buried, 146 

Johannis V., child buried, 142 

John de Peyster, bank director, 
293 ; member of great consistory, 

Jobs, child buried, 136, 137, 138, 
139, 143 

Jonas, freeholder, 268 

Jonas, lieutenant, 198; buried at 
Greenbush, 135 

Js Fonda, child buried, 137 

Pieter, buried M. Foot, 145 ; wife 
buried, 145 

V. P., child buried, 141, 142, 145 ; 
little girl bm-ied, 143 

Volkert, freeholder, 268; buried, 
144 ; wife buried, 143 

Volkert N., child buried, 137; 
wife buried, 142 
Douw^s building, 129 ; inn, 250 
Dowmann, Henry (Bowman?), 163 

Dox, Abraham, buried, 140 

Jacob, 299 

Peter, president of consistory, 85 
Doxie, Samuel, freeholder, 267 
Doyle, Peter C, 242 
Draeyers, Gerritie, 136 
Drama first introduced, 117; de- 
nounced, 119 
Drawyer, Charlotte Amelia, 68 
Draver, Captain, commander at Al- 
bany, 98 
Dress, stjie of, 1649, 58 
Dreth, Jan, buried, 142 
Dries, Hendrick, 74 
Drisius, expels Luthei'an minister, 150 
Drum, Peter, died, 337 
Drummoud light exhibited, 382 
Du Bois, Kev. Gualterus, temporary 

supply, 82 ; term of ministry, 88 ; 

baptisms by, 96 
Du Mont's ferry stage, 251 
Duane, James, 228 
Duanesburgh, taxable inhabitants, 

1795, 193; population 1790, 191 
Dudley, Charles E., aids Female Aca- 
demy, 205 
Duke of York, ship, 38 

sti-eet, 164 
Dunbar, Januetie, buried in English 
church, 131 

Jno., freeholder, 263 

Kobt., child buried, 136 
Duncan, Mrs. Henry K., died, 374 

John, assemblj'man, 235 ; receives 
bond of Schenectady aldermen, 
Dunkirkers, danger of capture by, 91 
Dunn, Mrs. Thomas, died. 366 
Durant, Clark, purchases Bethel, 178 
Durrie, Mrs. Horace, 371 
Dutch Cah-inist church, its location, 
183; in 1749, 54; corner stone 
laid, 69, 70 ; accoiint of, 78 ; ear- 
liest account of, 79 

ancient step stone, 129 ; 

antiquities of, 127, 128 

burial ground, 130 

call pastor to succeed Domine 
Schaets, 126 

capacity of old edifice, 83 

chartered, 82 

church edifice, dimensions of, 102, 

collections, how taken, 123 

consistory, members and powers 
of, 105, 109 

fines at Fort Orange appropriated 
to support of, 85 

first edifice, 92 

first English preaching, 124 

first in Albany, 80 ; subordinate to 
classis of Amsterdam, 80; of 
1656, erected, 81, 86 

garden lot, 103, 111 

incorporated, 101 



Dutch, loans money to the patroon, 92 

minister's house, size and loca- 
tion, 102, 111 

ministry, provision for the succes- 
sion of, 109 ; payments of salary, 
109, 110 

new edifice, 1798, 83 

no pastor in 1804, 84 

not to disturb national church of 
England, 104 

officers of, 101 

old edifice demolished, 85 

pasture, patent of, 9T, 99 

pastures, location of, 102. 103, 111 

poor house, location of, 102 

preachine in Dutch, 83 

proposal to build domine's house, 

pulpit supplied from Holland, 122 

rebuilt, 1T15, 82 

record of burials, 131 

records of. in city hall, 124-127 

services in Dutch. 101 

stained windows, 86 

subscriptions to pastor's fare, 127 

to conform to articles of Synod of 
Dort, 111 

the state church. 149; in cele- 
bration, 1788, 233; mentioned 
bv Morse, 283, 285; lots sold, 

East India Company, 221 

foot, dimensions of, 152 ; naviga- 
tors \isit Albany, 186 ; prisoners 
ransomed, 13; settlements, con- 
dition in 1630, 17 ; traffic, 307 

West India Company purchase ter- 
ritory, 186, 187; supply pulpit 
and bell, 81 
Dutchess county returns, 228 
Dutson, Thomas, died, 358 
Duyster, Dierck Cornelissen, 15 
Dwyer, Michael, apprehended, 327 
Dyke constructed in river, 241 

Eagle Tavern burnt, 343 
Easton, population 1790, 191 

John, his residence, 311, 313 
Ebbing. Jeremias, 42 
Ebsen, H. H., Lutheran church, 169 
Economy of the people, 60 
Edgar, Daniel, trustee. 170 
Eel, Everte Jacobse, child buried, 132 
Eendracht. emisrant ship, 17. 75 
Egberts, Thunis, child buried, 131 
Egbertsen, Barnt, freeholder, 263; 
wife buried, 132; daughter bu- 
ried, l;35 
(Egbertsen, Egbertz), Benjamin, 
freeholder, 264 ; children buried, 
132, 134 ; mfe buried, 144 
Egbert Bart, child buried, 136, 140 
Teunis, freeholder, 264 ; child bu- 
ried,134, 136 


Eghemond, Jacob, buried, 135; child 

buried, 133, 142 
Egremont stage, 250 
Ehring, Christian, Lutheran trustee, 

153, 154, 162, 163, 164 
Eights, Dr. Jonathan, died. 342; li- 

^ brary sold, 357 ; widow died, 362 
Elders, first under charter, 104, 105; 

their powers and duties. 106, 108 
Elections 1823, 278 ; in 1820. 280 
Elkens, Jacob Jacobz, 11, 186 
EUet, Mr., child buried, 133 
Elliot, Hugh D., died, 361 
Ellison, Thomas, rector, 310 , his resi- 
dence, 311, 314 
Elmendorf, Peter E., attorney, 84, 157 
Elmtree reminiscence, 316 
Elsevier, Abraham, 43 
Ely, John, founds school, 201, 203, 205 
Eiherson, Mrs. Amanda, died, 380 

William B., died, 338 
Emmet Guards, guests of, 342 
Emmons, Prof., address, 355 
Emott, James, 299 
Empire steamer wrecked, 362 
Empress of China, first vessel from 

New York, 262 
Enak, Margaret, 164 
Enax, Gottfried, council, 162 
Engan, George, died, 344 
Engelsprecker, Catriena, buried, 137 

Nicholas, buried, 135 
England, 310 ; Hudson returned to, 8 ; 

imports from, 278 ; 
English, first Lutheran preaching in, 
156 ; hatred of, by citizens, 60 ; 
preaching introduced, 124 

Mrs. Patrick, died, 340 
Englishman, child buried, 132 
Ensign, Timothy, died, 374 
Ensign's inn, 251 
Entwitch, Bustle, 258 
Enz, Caroline, died, 372 
Episcopal church in, 1749, 54; location 

in 1792, 310 ; site of ancient fort, 

314 ; in celebration, 1788, 233 
Episcopalians, 276, 283, 285 ; worship 

with Lutherans, 153 
Equinoctial afflatus, 375 
Erie Canal, 277 ; predicted, 215 ; length 

of, 280 ; opened, 280 
Erie lake, 13 
Ernst, Johann Frederick, Lutheran 

minister. 155. 169 
Erzberger, Mr., 163, 164; Regina, 163 
Esopus, fort built at, 37 ; Kingston, 

baptisms at, 96 
Esselstine, Cornells, freeholder, 266 
Eswin, Jacob, freeholder, 266 
European trade in hands of the .'pa- 
troon, 25 
Evangelical Luth. Ebenezer Church, 
148. 156 

of St. John, 169 
Evans, David, died, 361 



Eversen, Barentie, buried, 143 

Hans, buried at Lutheran cliurch, 

Hendk, buried, 144 
Jacob, buried, 144 
Jobs, child buried, 138 
Jobs Ja., child buried, 139, 144, 

145, 146 ; buried, 138 
Everteen. Abraham T., died, 346 

Elizabeth, widow of Evert, died, 

Jacob, donor to Lutheran church, 

Jacob, freeholder, 264 
Jan, freeholder, 264 
Johannis, freeholder, 264 
John, oldest member Lutheran 

church, 155 
John, wife buried, 132 
retook N. York, 98 
Express, first office opened, 325 

Pabritius, Johannes, Lutheran minis- 
ter suspended, 151 

Pachtmann, Rev., Lutheran church, 

Fairlie, James, marshal, 1788, 235 

Falkenburgh, Jaac, freeholder, 268 

Fansborough, Isaac, freeholder, 265 

Fansburgh, Peter, freeholder, 266. 
[Flansburgh ?] 

Fargo, Frederick A., died,*374 

Farmers in procession 1788, 230 

Farnham, Lewis, died, 356 

Farnsworth, Capt., 341 

Farrell, Jamee, died, 336 

Fassett, Amos S., died, 357 
Sarah Gustina, died, 341 

Past day for cholera, 369 

Fay, Dr., almshouse report, 355 

Henry B., almshouse physician, 

Featherly, Jacob, died, 342, 358 

Feathers tonhaugh, George W., 243 

Federal bower erected for celebration, 
1788, 233 
vote 1788, 228 

Feele, Cornells, freeholder, 265 

Fees of first officers, 19 

Feltman, John C, church trustee, 148 

Female Academy, its location, 189 

Fergusen, Henry M., died, 351 

Ferlyn, Jasper, 66 

Ferries, 1823, 276 

Ferris, Isaac, 255 

Ferry-master, first, 74 
rates, 1784, 225 

Pether, Curset, freeholder, 267 

Feudal pretensions maintained, 34 

Ffoort, Jno, freeholder, 267 

Field, David Dudley, law student, 300 

Fiele, Abram, buried, 139 
Lewis, freeholder, 267 
Thomas, child buried, 135 

Fiele, Thunis, child buried. 139 
Fifth ward, formed 1815, 277 
Figurative map, 1616, 186 
Finances of city, 38-1 
Finhagen, Abram, child buried, 139. 

See Vinhagen 
Fink, Elias, died, 372 

Frederick, died, 356 
Finnegan, Francis, died, 350 
Fire, 331, 335, 336, 338 

arms seized, 31 ; supplied to In- 
dians, 17 
department, reorganized, 346 
engine companies' aflYay, 326; 

house in State street, 312 
in North Pearl street, 322 
in Van Woert street, 329 
in Water street, 369 
law, new, 350 

the great, of 1848, 342 ; relief for 
Firemen, indignation meeting, 350 ; 

riot, 339 
First Baptist church ordination, 347 
or Beaver kil, 152 
Presbyterian church, 170; corner 
stone laid, 327 ; purchase new 
lot, 324 
ward freeholders, 1720, 263 
Fischer, Rev., Lutheran pastor, 169 
Fish, governor, inaugurated, 352 
Fisher, Rev. Mr., 341 
Thomas, burnt out, 381 
of Hudson river, 222 
Fishkill stage, 249, 251 
Fiske, Francis, died, 357 
Fitch, Ann K., died, 375 
Five Nations, trade with, 12; treaty 

with, 13, 14 ; invaded, 319 
Fives, Michael, 242 
Flantsburgh, Daniel, freeholder, 263 
Matthews, freeholder, 263. See 
Flats, account of, 63 ; bouwery at, 76 ; 
stage to, 251 ; Van Curler's farm, 40 
Flensburgh, Antony, child buried, 146 
Daniel, child buried, 131 
Hannah, buried, 136 
Jobs, child buried, 144 ; Sirsiemon 

buried, 145 
Jobs M., child buried, 138, 143, 146 
Mattys, child buried, 132, 133; 
buried. 136 
Fletcher, Benjamin, governor, 213; 

grants of land, 95 
Flinn, Barney, died, 345 
Plodder, Jacob, 71 

Jacob Janse, 127 ; his seat in 
church, 74 
Flood, Michael, killed, 356 

Thomas, died, 346 
Flour, annual receipts, 328 ; arrival 
of, 365, 372, 382, 383 ; price of, 324, 
statistics of, 326, 327, 345, 347, 372 ; 
receipts, 384 



Flouring mills, 190, 380- 
Flower of Gelder, ship, 93 
Fly Market, on Howard street, 158 
Flyt, Tarn, mother-in-law buried, 132 
Fog, detained hoats, 381 
Fonda, Abraham, 386, 287; child bu- 
ried, 136 

Abram Js, child buried, 139 

Claes, wife Annetie buried, 143; 
children buried, 132, 135; free- 
holder, 264 

Douw, 84, 255; children buried, 
133, 136 

Douwe Isa, wife buried. 145 

Gysbert, child buried, 144 

Hendk, child buried, 139 

Isaac D., son buried, 146 

Isaac, Jr., child buried, 145 

Isaac, wife buried, 141 ; child bu- 
ried, 132, 144 ; freeholder, 264 

Jan, buried, 137 

John, freeholder, 268 

Jobs, wife buried, 145 

Martie, buried, 140 

Pieter, buried, 134 ; wife buried, 
138 ; child buried, 133, 135 

Rabecka, buried. 132 

Yellous, freeholder, 264 
Fonda's inn, 250 
Fontaine, M., captive, 41 
Food in 1749, 61 

Foot, Ebenezer, founds Female Aca- 
demy, 202, 203, 204 

Mayors, buried, 145 

Mrs. Elizabeth, died, 333 
Ford, Sarah E., died, 355 
Foreest, Philip, freeholder, 268 

Philip D., child buried, 147 

Jesse D., buried, 146 
Forest trees described by Kalm, 51, 52, 

Forgery, 326 

Forrester, Michael, boy burnt, 361 
Forsyth, William W., penitentiary 

director, 355 
Fort, Abram, freeholder, 267; child 
buried, 139 

Daniell, treeholder, 267 

Isaac, buried, 145 

Jacob, children buried, 139 

Sara, child buried, 140 
Fort Amsterdam, court of appeal at, 18 

Ann stage, 251 

Edward stage, 251 

first erected, 1614, 186, 280; car- 
ried away, 13 

Frederick, in 1788, 234; location 
of, 54, 56, 311, 314 ; plan of, 183 ; 
its location, 184 

Hunter, post to, 247 

James, council at, 319 

Killitie, run of water, 158 

Orange, built 1623, 15, 188, 271 ; its 
location, 80, 186 ; debarred of 
free navigation, 33 ; ground ta- 

Fort Orange, continued — 

ken for in 1652, 97; captured 
by Col. Nichols, 58 ; mentioned 
in 1788, 235; built, 280; hotel 
built, 257 ; immigrants, 17 
Plain, post to, 247 
Schuyler, stage fare to, 249 
St. Frederick, 62 

Fortune, trading vessel, 9, 10 

Fosket. Amelia, died, 373 

Foster, James, died, 337 

Foster's inn, 250 

Fourth Julv celebration 1796, 210 ; by 
jail prisoners, 1790, 223, 365; 
appropriation denied, 339 
Presbyterian church installation, 

Fowler, William, founds school, 203 ; 
director academy, 204 ; bank di- 
rector, 294 
Samuel S., bank director, 296 

Fosen (see Vossen) kil, 42, 185, 195, 
342; pond, 342 

Foy, Mrs. Philip, died, 348 

Francis, Mrs. William, died, 360 

Franse, Claes, freeholder, 264 
Teirck, freeholder, 264 

Frazer, James, died, 348 

Jane, wife John Frazer, died, 331 

Frazier, Adam, died, 366 

Fredericksen, Carsten, Lutheran dea- 
con, 151 
Hendrick, 71 

Myndert, Lutheran elder, 151 ; 
[Smit] treasurer, 160 

Fredenrich, Mr., cordwainer, 232 
John C, 168; trustee, 165 

Fredenrick's, market, 158 

Fredericks, Giles, killed, 348 

Free Missionary Protestant church, 
burnt, 336 

Freehold, 191 : population, 1790 ; taxa- 
ble inhabitants, 1795, 193 

Freeholders of Albany, 1720, 263 

Freeman, Ann Hardy, died, 374 

Freest, Abram, child buried, 146 
Isaac, child buried, 144 
Jobs, children buried, 133, 144 

Freitag, Conrad, 163, 164 

Frele, Hagau, wife buried, 140 

Frelin, Isaac, child buried, 138 
Thunis, child buried, 135 

Frelinghuysen, Rev. Theodoras, his 
ministry, 82 ; term of ministry, 88 ; 
children buried, 113, 115, 116, 146; 
embarks for Holland, 120, 121 

Fi-ench, aided by Glen, 72; defenses 
against, 182 ; invade Five Nations, 
319 ; prisoners redeemed, 320 ; pro- 
hibited from trading with English, 

French, Wm., 245 

Frenchmen violate the sabbath, 127 

Freshet, 328; described by Kalm, 53; 
1647, 34 



Fretts, Jurie, freeholder, 266 

Frisbie, Col., 377 

Frost, 48, 345, 346, 377, 380; first in 1847, 
Capt., robbed, 324 

Fry, Elizabeth, conversion of, 123 

Fryer, Isaac, child buried, 132, 145 
John, child buried, 141, 143, 146 
Matthew, cordwainer, 232 

Fuller, Henry H., 299 

Funeral customs, 129, 283 

Fur trade, effort to secure, 25 ; in 1749, 
56 ; 1787, 227 

Fuyck (pronounced Fowk), 22 ; defini- 
tion of, 188 

Fuyck' s kill, or Beaver kill, 176 

Fyn, Catryn, buried, 135 

G. Bastiner, buried, 147 

Gaftuey, Dennis B., 305 

Gale, Thomas, died, 346 

Gallows to be kept, 18 

Gallup, Albert, bank director, 296 

Game, club for preservation of, 338 

Ganesvoort, Captain of light horse, 229 

71 ; house, size and location of, 102 
Gansevoort, captain of light horse, 229 

Harme, child buried, 138, 142, 145 ; 
procures engine, 312 

Hendk, buried, 140 

Jobs, child buried, 143, 144 

Judge, stable burnt, 348 

Leehdert, children buried, 134, 136, 

Leonard, 84 ; freeholder, 264 ; con- 
veys church lot, 176 ; federal can- 
didate, 235 

Maria, buried, 137 

Peter, jr., federalist, 228; law stu- 
dent, 299 ; bank director, 293 

Pieter, child buried, 145 
Garden lots in the pasture, 98 
Gardener, George W., died, 337 
Gardenier, Andries, freeholder, 268 ; 
children buried, 133, 145, 146; 
wife buried, 146 

Abram, child buried, 139 

Claes, ■ freeholder, 268; child bu- 
ried, 140 

Derrick, freeholder, 265 

Jno., freeholder, 266 
Garfield, Rev. Mr., principal, 339 
Garmo, Pieter, M. D., child buried, 
146. (De Garmoe) 

Pieter, freeholder, 203 ; buried, 137 

Pieter Jobs, child buried, 144 
Garretson. Elizabeth, died, 338 
Garrison, Anna, died, 339 
Gas pipes laid, 340 ; tank, accident, 348 
Gates, Cornelius, law student, 300 

Gerret, 86 

John, 84 
Gazette reports constitutional celebra- 
tion, 229 

Geary, Mrs. George, died, 375 

Gecommltteerden, 19 

Geer, Seth, architect, 200 

Geiger, George, 164 

Gelon, Sanders, freeholder, 265 

Gels, William, 164 

General Hamilton at quai-antine, 254 

Genesee river stage, 250; country 

post route, 248; river post route, 

Geneva post route, 248; stage, 249, 

250, 253 
Geological rooms, janitor of, died, 327 
Geology of the county, 194 
Gerechtsbode, a court messenger, 19 
Gerechts persoonen, 19 
Geritse, Barent, freeholder, 268 
German Evangelical Lutheran church, 
168; burial ground, 169; por- 
tion of congregation build new 
church, 169 ; preaching in Ger- 
man, 168 

exiles arrived, 375 

Flatts stage, 249 

Jews arrive, 179 

language ceased in Lutheran Eb. 
church, 156, 168 

Lutheran church, its location, 183 

reformed church, 166 
Gerritse (Gerritsen, Gerritz, Gerryt- 

sen, Gari-ison), Adrian [Papen- 

dorp], first alderman, 63, 66, 160, 

Gerritsen, Claes, 72 

Elbert, freeholder, 264; buried, 
143 ; wife buried, 133 

Fredk., child buried, 145 

Goosen [Van Schaick?],69 

Henderick, child buried, 138, 141, 

Jan, 67, buried, 132 

John, freeholder, 264 

Maria, buried, 142 ; son buried, 134 

Marten, 64; justice, 197; his seat 
in church, 126; his island, 65, 
102, 186 ; his pasture, 103. See 
Van Bergen. 

Roolif, freeholder, 267 

Ryer, buried, 143; wife buried, 144 

Ryert, freeholder, 263 

Wolfert, 15; superintendent of 

farms, 64 ; early immigrant, 187 

Geyer, John George, Lutheran elder, 

154, 162, 163 
Gibbons, Arthur, died, 367 
Gibson, Mr., tailor, 231 
Giffert, Wm., 164 

Gilchrist, Robert, bank director, 295 
Gill, John, died, 382 

Matthew, founds school, 203 
Gillespie, Richard, killed, 332 
Gladding, Horace, H., died, 332 
Glass, John, drowned, 342 

makers in procession, 232 ; works, 



Glen. Cornelius, bank director, 289 

Henry, 28. 259. 286 

Jacob, freeholder, 265 ; buried, 
139 ; children buried, 136 

Jacob Sanders, 152 

Jaunetie, buried, 144 

Johannes Sanderse, captain, 198 

Johannis. freeholder, 265 

John, Junr.. 286, 287 

Sander Lendertsen, 71 

Sanders, justice, 197 
Glen's falls, 221 
Globe manufactory, 279 
Glovenbnry. Ruth Ann, died, 332 
Gnats, found by Kalm. 51 
Goadby, James, suicide, 351 
Godfrey. John J., bank director, 295 
Godyu." Samuel, 16. 42 
Goes, Derrick, freeholder, 266 

Juo., freeholder, 266 

Mattias. freeholder, 266 
Goet water. Ernestus Johannes, 150 
Goewerk, Solomon, wife buried, 132 
Goewey. Benjamin, child buried, 141 

Johannes, wife buried, 145 

Pieter, buried, 146 

Salomon, child buried, 131, 133, 
1:^4, 145 
Goewick. Jobs, child buried, 134 
Goldsmiths in procession 1788, 230 
Goliah, importing ship, 226 
Good Hope, yacht, 32 
Goodenow. Sterling, 299 
Goodrich, Elihu. opens school, 201, 

Horace, principal of school, 202 
Goodrich's inn. 250 
Goodwin, Alfred, died. 327 
Gordon, James, federalist, 228 
Gossman, Henry R., died, 341 
Gough, Anna T., 340 

James, died, 337 

John B.. lecture of. 3.55 

Mrs. John T., died, 340 

Thomas. 242 
Goold. James, bank director, 295 ; new 

style of car, 361 
Gould, Samuel, killed, 360 

Thomas, founds school, 203, 204 

William, his house, 314 
Gourlay, James, merchant, 1772, 214 
Governor's island, rent of house on, 

Govertsen, Jacob, settler. 65, 187 
Grace church, rector of, 363 
Grady. Patrick, 242 
Graham, Ellen Ann. died, 346 

Joseph, died, 336 
Grammar school proposed. 207 
Grand jury indictments, 345 
Grant, John, 245 

Mrs., her American Lady, 114, 121 
Grasmeer, Wilhelmus, pastor 1650, 88 
Graves, Richard, died, '^^l 
Graveyard, first, 25 

Gray. Alexander, stone-cutter, 172, 245 

William, 245 
Great Barrington, stage, 250 
Green, Jacob, bookseller. 306 

James Alfred, died. 326 

John, his lot, 311, 314 
Green river stage, 250 

Wood's inn, 250 
Greenbush, 252 ; ferry, accident at, 

330; Indian name of, ^; stage, 

251, 253 
Greene, Captain, voyage to China, 262 

Henry, bank director. 296 
Gregory, Benjamin P., died, 343 

David D., bank director, 295 

Matthew, opens Tontine, 312 ; 
died, a38 
Gregory's row, 275 
Grennie, Willm, child buried, 133 
Greveraedt, Sara, buried, 132, 140 

Isaac, child buried, 133, 134, 137, 
138, 140 
Grewsbeck, Da\dd, freeholder, 263 

Johannis, freeholder, 264 

Nicos, freeholder, 268 

Stephanis, freeholder, 263 

Wm., freeholder, 263. See Groes- 
Griffin, E. D., 255 

Lieut. Jacob, wounded, 321, 329 

Mrs. Jacob, died. 369 

Mrs. John, died, 380 
Grist mills, 1639, 35 
Groat's inn, 2.50 

Groeningen, Westerlo from, 122 
Groesbeeck family record, 287 

Abram. died. 287 

Annietie, child buried, 140 

Bettie, buried, 144 

Catelyni, died, 287 

Catriua, 141. 287 ; died, 287 

Cornells, 84, 287 

Cornelius, last of the voorleezers, 

David, cordwainer, 232 

David, family record, 287; died, 

David, jun., died, 287; wife Ca- 
trina, buried, 144 

David, voorzinger, 130; children 
buried, 134, 135, 136, 138, 142. 

Geertie, buried, 144 

Geertrny, buried. 140 

Geradus, child buried, 139, 143, 

Gerrit, 84 

Gertruy, died, 287 

J. and A., failure of, 297 

Jacobus, child buried, 136; wife 
buried, 143 

John, died, 287 

John, 287 

Mary, died, 287 

Melgert, 142 ; died, 287 



Groesbeeck, Nicolaee, child buried, 
132; wife buried, 133; cliild 
buried, 133; daughter Giertury, 
buried, 139 

Nicolas, Js., buried, 139 

Stephanus, buried. 138 

WiUem, buried. 131, 139; wife 
Catrina, buried, 141 

William, voorleezer, 130; died, 

William Claas, 287 

Wouter, child buried, 138, 144 

Wouter, Js, child buried, 139 

Wouter N. child buried, 141 
Groetz. Mr., Lutheran minister, 155 
Groot. Abram, freeholder, 2G5 

Cornells, child buried. 144 

Derrick, freeholder, 265 

Mrs. Ann, died, 359 
Gross, John, 164 

Samuel, died. 371 
Guilderland incorporated, 193 

petroleum found at, 194 
Guisling, Mindert, freeholder, 264 
Gunpowder, price of, 1640, 17 
Gysbertsen, Claee, 72 

Lubert, 66 

Haes, Zacharias, child buried, 127, 141 
Hagardorin^, Sam., freeholder, 265 
Hagodom, Derrick, freeholder, 268 
Haivnakraus kil. 195 
Hale, Capt. Lieut, of artillery, 233 

Daniel, bank director, 289 

William, died, 328 
Hallenbake, Anthony, cordwainer, 232 

Casper, fi-eeholder, 267 

Casper Jacobse, 99, 103 

Mrs. Christopher, died, 342 

Daniel, child buried, 145 ; wife bu- 
ried, 145 

Dortie, buried in the Lutheran 
graveyard, 138 

Hendrick, freeholder. 263; child 
buried. 132, 133, 137. 143 

Isaac, child buried, 138 

Jacob, freeholder. 267 

Dr. Jasper, died. 330 

Johannis, freeholder, 267; Johs, 
buried, 145 

Matthew J., bank director, 298 

Wm., freeholder, 266 

burial ground, bill for removal, 

burial ground, report on removal, 
Half moon, freeholders of 1720, 267 

discovery ship. 1. 186, 221 

population, 1790,191 ; stage to. 251 
Halibut, large, 335 
Hall, Edmund, arrested, 338 

N. X., 300 

Talmage, 246 

Halliday, James, 242 

Halloway, Kev. William W., installed, 

Halpen, Peter, killed, 356 
Ham, Coonrodt, freeholder, 266 
Hamburgh, Andrew, died. 321 

Barbara, died. 356, 383 

William, died. 336 
Hamel. Hendrick. 16 
Hamilton, Alex., 228 ; plans Federal- 
ist, 262 ; at quarantine. 254 
Hamilton street, sewer built. 362 
Hammond, Wells S., died, 356 
Hand. Bargood E., 300 

Isaac P., died, 362 
Handelaer street, now Broadway, 81 
Hanley, James, shot, 343 
Hanna. William. Presbyterian pastor, 

170, 172 
Hannegan, died, 361 
Hanse, Abraham, ensign, 198 

Hans, child buried. 132 

Hendrick, buried. 132 

Isaac, child buried. 144 

Eyck. child buried. 135 
Hansen, Debora. buried, 137 

Hans buried. 146 

H;ins, child buried, 133 

Hans, son Pietre, buried, 136 : 

Hendrick. freeholder. 264 

Isaac, child buried. 139, 141 

Jacob, child buried, 139 

Johs. freeholder. 264; buried, 
142 : wife buried. 140 

Philip, child buried, 14-3. 144 

Evkert. child buried. 135, 136, 141. 
143, 144 : wife buried. 135 
Hardyck. John, freeholder, 266 

Frank, freeholder. 266 

Harman. Thomas W.. died, 332 
Harmans, Myndert, his pasture, 103 
Harmanse, Myndert. 312 ; his pasture, 

Harme, Johs Visscher buried. 146 
Harmensen, Reynert. 65 ; settler. 187 
Harminse. Lavinus, freeholder, 267 

Tunis, freeholder. 267 
Hamed, Samuel W., died, 382 
Harris, Judge, exonerated, .360 
Harrison, Richard, 228 ; bank director, 

Harsen, Barenhardus, child buried, 

143. 144 
Hart. Mrs. Catharine, died, 357 
Hartford, commerce with. 241 ; dis- 
tance of, 280 ; No. houses in, 147 ; 

stage. 250. 253; canal boat, lar^e 

load. 382. 383 ; propeller, first trip, 

Hartwick, John Christopher, died. 156; 
tablet, 162 : body removed. 151 ; 
tomb of. 160, 161; Albany Lu- 
therans heirs of. 157 

Memorial. 100. 158 : Seminary. 158 
Harty, Edward, died. 350 



Harvey, L. Z., died, 365 

Robert, died. S43 
Hastings, Setti, bank director, 295 
Hatch, Israel T., 300 
Hatters in procession, 231 
Haver island, 15 
Ha we, 'tVm., treasurer. 33~ 
Hawley, George W., died. 331 

Gideon, law student, 299 ; director 
academy. 204 
Hayes, Solomon, died, 367 
Hayne, Jacob, 164 
Haynn. Barent, died, 361 
Hays. James, liilled, 350 

J. R.. builder, 172, 324 
Heathen children, provision to edu- 
cate, 93 
Heheysen. Martin. Lutheran trustee, 

154. 156, 157, 163, 165 
Hebrew language, services in, 179 
Hecker, Baron, arrived, 375 
Heermauce, Mrs. J. C, died, 381 
Helderberg, Luthera- church at, 154 

hills, 194; stage over, 254; seen 
from Albanv. 185 
Hemphill, David,"'died, 346 
Henderer, Harmanus, 164 ; church 
trustee, 148 

Jacob, 164 

Jacob, Jr., 164 
Henderson. Ann Eliza (Mclntyre), 
died, 323 

Wm. Duer, 300 
Hendrick, Samuel, 163 
Hendricksen, Captain Cornells, Jr., 

Gerrit, 71 

Robert, 66 

Rutger, see Van Soest 
Hendrik Hudson, quick trip, 337 
Hendrycks, Hans, his lot, 102 
Henerv, Robert, 259 
Henley. Michael, died, 338 
Henn, Michael, 163, 164, 165 
Hennessy, Mrs., died, 372 
Hennicke, Rev., Lutheran pastor, 169 
Henry. Mr., tailor. 231 

Mrs. John, died, 374 

John v.. 299; director academy, 
204; founds school. 203, 204; 
trustee of academy, 200 

Robert, trustee, 170 

Robert R., elder, 170 
Henry's Old Museum (removed, 1869), 

Herbertsen, Andries, 72; see Vander 

Blaes ; armorial window, 86 ; kiUs 

Seger Van Yoorhout, 74 
Hercules, negro thief, 160 
Herkimer county, set off, 193; towns 

in, 248 
Hermans. John, died, 3.59 
Herner, Beermah B., died, 350 
Herrera, Gen., in town, 365 
Herrick, Jacob, 76 

Herris. George, 164 
Heughan, John, merchant 1772, 214 
Hewson, Casparus, marshal. 1788, 235; 
his house first bank, 290 

Robert, 232 
Heyliger, Dolph, 304 
Hiberuia Benevolent Society, church 
of, 179 

Provident Society, 242. 333 
Hickcox, H. H., deputy chamberlain, 

Higgens, Thomas, 76 
Higgins, Cornelius, died, 368 

Robt., secretary, 33'? 

Thomas D., 299 
High dutchman buried, 144; wife bu- 

' ried, 146 ; child buried, 146 
Highlands, stage. 251 
Hildebrand, J! P., Lutheran trustee, 
153, 163, 164 

Wendel, 163, 164 
Hill, William, accident, 355 
Hillman, William, died, 373 
Hilton, Annate, buried, 141 

Benjamin, child buried, 139, 142 

Peter H.. died, 346 

Pieter, child buried, 144, 146 ; wife 
buried, 114 

Ryckert, daughter buried, 140 

Willem. freeholder, 265 ; buried, 
142, 145 
Hinckley, Ira. died, 368 
Hipkius, George, buried, 136 
Historical Collections of Albany, 86, 

128. 304 
Hitchcock, Captain, 322 
Hoard, Mrs. Jonathan, died, 342 
Hobart, John Sloss. 228 
Hochstrasser, Paul, builds church, 

166. 167 
Hoek, Xed, child buried, 138 
Hodges dock at Hamilton street, 277 
Hoffman. Charles Fenno, law student, 

Levi S., died, 338 

MaryE., died, 378 

Rev., Lutheran pastor, 169 
Hog, large. 357 
Hogan. Daniel, child buried. 134 

Garret, died, 340 

John, freeholder. 264 

Jurian, child buried, 132, 135 

Marte, buried, 142 

Willem, freeholder, 263 ; child bu- 
ried, 135, 136. 138 
Hogeboom, Derrick, freeholder, 266 

Joseph, died. 375 

Peter, freeholder, 266 
Hogs running in streets, .362 
Holdridge, Abraham, law student, 299 
HoUaday, Samuel, trustee, 170 
Holland, 27 ; pulpit from, 85 

Capt. Hischen, child buried, 144 

Edward, wife buried. 136 

Henry, freeholder, 263 



Holliday, Mrs. James, died, 347 
Holmes, Edwin, 255 

Henrj', died, 376 

Johau, 74 
Holstein, L. D., clerk common council, 

Holy Innocents, ground broken for 

church of, 362: corner stone laid, 

Hongers, Hans, 9 
Hood, John, 163, 164 
Hooge Berg, farm on. 75 
Hoogh [Tuuik?], buried. 142 
HooiJjhkerk, Elizabeth, buried, 143 

Judick, buried, 135 

Luykas, freeholder, 263; buried, 
137 ; wife buried, 143 ; son Luy- 
cas. buried, 145 

Luykas, Jr., child buried, 137, 142 

Rage], child buried, 135 

Sarah, buried, 144 
Hooghleeling, Coon rod, freeholder, 268 
Hooglaud, Jeronemus, federalist, 228 
Hooker, Philip, lays corner stone, 148 ; 

architect State Bank, 293 
Hooper, Mrs. Arthur, died, 367 

David, freeholder, 266 
Hoose, Juo., freeholder, 266 
Hoosic, 252 ; population of, 1790, 191 ; 
post to, 247 

river, tributary of Hudson, 221, 
Hoossett, Gillis, 15 
Horn, John, trustee, 162 

John Matthew, 163 

Peter. 164 
Horse mill, 1646, 35 ; locations of, 30 

troop of, 198 
Horticultural exhibition, 345, 365, 375 
Hose depot commenced, 374 
Hosford's printing office, 313 
Hospital, 283; 1796, 210; bill passed, 

Hotlen, Coonrodt, freeholder, 267 
Houghton, Silas, died. 350 
Hour glass used in church service, 88 
Housatonic, rail road time, 356; 
opened, 351 

train detained by fog, 329 
Houses friii:htful. 209 

style olF, in 1749, 55 

in Albany 1786, 147 : in 1695, 1S4 ; 
1789, 281; 1796,284 
Houten, Joris, 66 
Houttuyn, Dutch ship, 25 
Howard street, formerly Lutheran, 

158 ; called the old road. 312 
Howqua, China merchant, 262 
Hubertsen, Adriaen, 69 
Hudson, Henry, discoverer, 221 

discovers Hudson's river, 1 

Hendrik, steam boat, 322 

his visit, 186 

John, stager, 248 ; John, his stage, 

Hudson, rail road, 1849,190; survey, 
331 ; first trip, 375 
river. 246, 279. 334 ; commerce of, 
1747, 44, 46; account of, 221, 
closings and openings of, 216, 
217 ; discovery of, 1 ; named, 9 
stage, 249 
Hudson's inn, 250 
Huggin's inn, 250 
Hughes, Mr., died. 364 
Hultse, Captain, 322 
Humphrey, Chauncey, 200 ; bank di- 
rector, 296 
Friend, candidate for mayor, 360 
Livingston Ludlow, died, 331 
Humphrey's tavern, 250 
Hun, Abraham, trustee, 167 

Dirck, daughter buried, 136 ; child 

buried, 137 
Harmen, child buried, 141, 144 
Johannis, freeholder, 264 ; child- 
ren buried, 134 
Thomas, nominated for mayor, 

334 ; vote cast for, 335 
William, 259 
Hungarian emigrants, 383 
Hunter, governor, 61 

Robt., bank director, 296 
Huntiu^on, Ezra, 255 
Husen, Daniel, child buried, 135, 141 
Hushouse, Henry, died, 363 
Husyele, Peter, freeholder, 268 
Huth, John, 163 
Hutton, Isaac, founds school, 203 ; 

bank director, 294 
Huyck, Andries, freeholder, 268 
"Burger, freeholder, 265 
Cornells, freeholder, 266 
Johannis, freeholder, 265 
Lamert, freeholder, 265 
Hyde, Harvey, 300 
Hydrant company dissolved, 364 

Ice, accident on, 330 ; formed in river, 
53 ; thickness of, 352, 358 ; river, 
1785, 1868, 216 

Immigrants, first from Holland, 187 

Imprisonment for debt, 223 

Incendiaries, reward for discovery of, 

Incidents of a northern winter, 219 

Independents, 276 

Indian baptisms, 96 ; Castle, stage to, 
250 ; in celebration 1788, 233 ; com- 
missioners, 123 ; confederation 
1618, 13 ; conferences, 61 ; corn, 3 ; 
money, 160 ; racers, 326 ; river, 
head waters of Hudson, 221 ; 
trade, 271 ; represented in celebra- 
tion, 233; traders occupy Berg 
street, 310 ; traffic, 307 ; dishonesty 
of, 44 ; wheat, 6 

Indians, 68 ; attack Hudson, 1 ; cheat- 
ed in trade, 56, 57; defence 



Indians, continued — 

against, 182 ; escaped, from Hud- 
sou, 2; influence of Schuylers 
over, 189 ; had tobacco, 3, 4, 5 ; 
Lutheran missionaries to, 156; 
maintenance of, 320 
Indiantown, stage, 250 
Ingmire, F. W., ordained, 347 
Inhabitants of Albany, characterized 

by Kalm, 58, 59 
Insurance company, 1823, 276 
International bank organized, 298 
lolas, steam tug, accident on, 360 
Ireland, lectures on, 361 ; meeting of 

friends. 337, 340, ai2 
Irocoisia Lake, 13 
Iron bridge at Hamilton street, 363 
Iroquois confederation, 13 ; defeated 

by Algonquins, 13 
Irving, Catharine, died, 328 

Washington, 304 
Isle au jSToix stage, 251 
Israelites, first organization of, 179 ; 

society Brotherly Love. 245 
Ivet, Robert, his account of Hudson's 
voyage, 1 

Jackson, Jacobs, Mrs. Martha, died, 

John W., died, 331 
Jacob sen, Bregje, 74 

Casper, his pasture, 99, 103 

Harpert, son Gerret buried, 137 

Herpert, freeholder, 264 

Jacob. 164 

Jan, 66 

John, 163 

Margaret, children of, 301 

Nys, 72 

Pieter, 72 

Kutger (see Van Schoonder- 
woert), 69, 72, 77, 85, 301 ; lays 
corner stone. 81 

Wm.. freeholder, 264 

anns of Rutger, 86 
Jacobus, freehokler, 267 
Jail in 1796, 285 ; on Eagle street, 275 ; 

old, to be sold, 200; on State 

street, donated to Academy, 275 
James, William, 255, 313 
Jamestown, Ya., priority of settle- 
ment, 186 
Jamison, David, secretary, 214 
Jan, Jurie, ft-eeholder, 266 
Janse, Auneke, descendants of, 95 

Daniell, freeholder, 265 

Evert, buried in the Lutheran 
church. 132 

Evert. [Wendell] freeholder, 264 

child buried, 132 

Helme, freeholder, 267 

Johannes, his seat in church, 127 

Thos., owned the pasture, 97; 
died, 98 

Janse, Volkert (Douw), 98 
Jansen, Dirck, 20 

Evert, 163, 164 

Hans, 67 

Mauritz, 68 

Michel, 70 

Roeloft", 65 

Volkert, 71 
Jay. John, steam boat, 217, 228 
Jenkins, Alderman, report on railroad 
funds, 352 

Charles M., secretary, 377 

Ira, bank director, 295 

Lemuel, president of society, 328 

Leoline, died, 372 
Jenkinson, William, died, 331 
Jennings, exhibits large hog, 357 
Jersey Blue, propeller, 373 
Jervis, John, shop burnt, 321 
Jewett, Dr. N. A., died, 364 
Jewish congregation, synagogue be- 
gun, 327 ; synagogues, account of, 

179 ; Beth Jacob.'consecrated, 336 
Jogues, Father, in Albanv, 1644, 148 
Johnson, Capt., 260, 261; quick trip 
of sloop, 359 

John B., died, 83 ; term of minis- 
try, 88 

Lucretia, died, 325 

Mrs. Peter, died, 373 

Oliver, died. 328 
Johnstown, post to. 247, 248, 249 
Jonas, Pieter, child buried, 146 
Jones, Captain. 226 

Henry, law student, 299 
Jonker's street, now State street, 81 
Jordan, Matthew, secretary, 337 

Mrs. Thomas, died, 383 
Joris, Burger, smith, 70 
Joseljm, Chistopher, alias Lillie, 379 
Judson, Ichabod L., bank director, 

Jurriaensen, Annetje, 72 

Willem, 77 
Justices' court, 364 ; statistics, 338 

of the peace, first, 19 

Kaar, John, wife buried, 146 

Kaesel, Mrs., died, 378 

Kalm, Peter, visits Albany, 43; allu- 
sion to churches, 310 

Kanamoak, Indian sachem, 15 

Kanaudaigua stage, 249. 

Kanandarqua, post to, 248. See Can- 

Kane, C. V. S., 300 
John James, 300 
William, died, 357 

Kane's Walk, celebration at, 322 

Kanfort, Lapion, freeholder, 267 

Kartryt, Mr., child buried. 142 

Kasperse, Jan, buried, 133. See Cas- 



Katskill. 29; first patentee, 72; inten- 
tion of Yander Donck to pur- 
chase, 27, 28; settlement at, 
hindered, 37 

Indians, 67, 68. See Catskill. 
Kean, Peter P. J., law student, 299 
Keeler, Christopher, died, 357 

James, died, 348 

Stephen C, died, 378 
Keeler's inn, 250 
Keldar, Coonrod, freeholder. 266 
Kelley, Mrs. Michael, died. 349 
Kellogo:. Mrs. Edward, died, 362 
Kelly, Daniell, freeholder, 263 

Mrs. James, died, 356 
Kendrick, E. E., cashier, 291 
Kennedy. Duncan, 255 

Mrs. William, died, 359 
Kenningh, Tomas, 76 
Kent, James, pres. academy, 204; 

founds school, 203, 204, 299 
Kerckbuurte. order for, 25 
Ketlyne, Daniell, freeholder, 267 

William, freeholder, 268 
Kettelhuys, Joachim, see Cremyn 
Kettle, large, 374 
Key of Calmer, ship, 71 
Kidd, James, nominated for county 

treasurer, 347 
Kidney, John, freeholder, 263 

Jonathan, in celebration 1788, 
235 ; died, a59 
Kidnie, Jacobus, child buried, 136 
Kidnie, Roelif, child buried, 133 
Kieft, at war with Indians, 30 
Kies, Jan Clementsen, 10 
Kikebell, Thomas Davitse, 94 ; hus- 
band of Aneke Schaets, 126 
Kilkenny, Mrs. Francis, died, 341 
Killys, Gretie, 131 

Kinderhook. baptisms at. 96: con- 
verts at, 82; freeholders 1720; 
265; stage, 249, 2.50. 251; viola- 
tion of sabbath at, 125 

Mills stage, 250 
King, Rufus H., bank president, 293 
Kings county returns, 228 
Kingsbridge stage, 251 
Kingston, church, application of, 124 
Kinney, John, ^46 
Kip, Abram, freeholder, 264 

Geestie, buried, 141 

Issack, freeholder, 264 
Kipp, Abraham, buried, 133 
Kirk, Andrew, 245 

Mrs. Andrew D., died, 360 

Rev. E. N., 255, 341 

John, 245 
Kirkmasters, their duties, 107, 108, 

Kischenar, Anna, buried, 143 
Kittell, Willem. buried. 140 
Klariue, Jurie, freeholder, 266 
Klinck, George, 163, 164; Lutheran 

deacon, 154 

Kling;, Mr., council, 162 

Kloedt, Geradus, buried, 139 

Knapp, H., store burnt, 361 

Kiiickerbacker, Harme, child buried. 
Johannis, freeholder, 267 ; 'child- 
ren buried, 145, 147 
John, federalist candidate, 235 
Wouter, child buried, 136, 138, 140, 

Knower, Benjamin, founds school, 
203 ; bank director, 294 
John, bank director, 296 

Knowlton, Jabez W.. died, 362 

Knox incorporated. 193 

Kool, Lambert, child buried, 139 

Koorn, Nicolaus, 74 

Koster, Anna, married, 301 
Elizabeth, buried, 146 

Krol. Bastiaen Jansen, 15, 65: settler, 

Kugler. Matthew, 163 

Kummig, Jacob. 163, 164 

Kuntz, Doctor, administrator of Hart- 
wick, 161 

Kunze, Rev. Dr., curator, 157 

Labbadie, Jan. 66 
Laet, Johannes de, 16 
Lafferty, Daniel, drowned, 363 
La Garce, privateer, 66 
Lagrange, John, wife buried, 139 

Marj' Ann. died, 335 

Johannis, freeholder, 268 

Omie, 163, 164 ; freeholder, 268 
Lagraniel, Christiaan, child buried, 

Laird's tavern, 250 
Lake Champlain. mail to, 248 ; stage 

to, 253 
Lamalire, Ghondia, freeholder, 266 
Lamatere, Cloude, freeholder, 266 
Lambertse, Jochem, deputy sheriff, 

Lamerse, Jochem, lieutenant, 198 
Lancaster school, project of, 212 ; 

school, cost of, 275 ; statistics of, 

279. 280: house used by Society 

of Friends, 181 
Lang. Clara. 131 

John, 1.31 
Lansen, Abram, freeholder, 264 

Gerrit, freeholder, 264, 268 

Jacob, freeholder, 263 

Jacob, freeholder, 268 

Jan, freeholder, 264 

Johannis, freeholder, 263 

Mindert, freeholder, 263. See 
Lansing, Abr., son Jacob buried, 138 ; 
daughter Margaret buried, 141 ; 
^^ife buried, 134; child buried, 

Abraham G., bank director, 293 



Lansin;?, Abraham, Jr., child buried, 
Abram, buried, 138 ; child buried, 

131, 142, 143 
Abram Ja, child buried, 141 ; child 

drowned, 364 
Capt. Jacob, 230 
Capt. Philip, in celebration 17S8, 

Charles, drowned, 364 
Cornelius D. R., died, 373 
Cornelius R. D., 299 
Elsje, 139; buried, 136 
Frauciskis, child buried, 139 
Gerardus, 84 

Gerret Ja, child buried. 136 
■ Gerrit. buried, 135 ; child buried, 

Gerrit A 84 

Gerrit Joiis, child buried, 136, 137 
Giertie, buried, 136 
Henry Y., died, 333 
Jacob, daughter Elsie buried, 139 
Jacob J., member of consistory, 84 
Jacob Ja, child buried, 84, 143 
John, assistant aldei'man, 63 
John, jr., anti-federalist, 228 
John, trustee of academy, 200 ; 

assembly man, 235 
Jobs G., wife buried, 1-32 
Jobs Ja, wife Catlyutie buried 139 
Jobs Jr., child buried, 133 
Peter, 84 

Robert, child buried, 138 
Sanders, 84 
Lansingburgh, commerce, 259, 260; 

stage from, 247, 249 
Lansingh, Abram, buried a Boston 
captain, 146 ; servant Jobs bu- 
ried, 136 
Abram Ja, child buried, 146 
Elizabeth, buried, 133 
Evert, child buried, 141 
Frans, child buried, 146 
Gerrardus, Indian trader, 233 ; 

child buried, 143, 145 
Gerret G., child buried, 1-39 ; wife 

buried, 139 
Gerrit, child buried, 144 
Gerrit Ja, buried, 139 ; wife bu- 
ried, 137, 13S ; child buried, 137, 
Gerrit Janz, buried, 146 
Gerrit Jobs, child buried, 138 
Gerrit Jobs, children buried, 143 
Gerrit Js, buried, 142 
Hendrick, daughter buried, 142 
Henry, 258 

Isaac, son Jobs buried, 139 
Ja, wife buried, 145 
Jacob, buried bv his house, 146 ; 

child buried, 133, 142 
Jacob Ja, child buried, 146 
Jan, buried, 132 
Johannis, Jr., child buried, 141 

Lansingh, John, child buried, 145 
John, first alderman, 188 
John Jobs, child buried, 143, 145 
Jobs, daughter buried, 133; wife 

buried, 138 
Jobs G., buried, 142 ; child buried, 

Jobs Gr, wife Jannetye buried, 

Jobs Jacobse, wife buried, 137; 

child buried, 139 
Jobs Janz, daughter buried, 142 
Lena, buried, 147 
Madalena, buried, 1.39 
Pieter, child buried, 142, 146, 147 
Robert, 258; child buried, 137, 
142 ; wife buried, 140 ; wife 
Sarah buried, 142 

Laperara stage, 251 

Latham, Mrs. Jasper, died, 374 

Latitude of Albany, 280, 281 

Laurensen, Lawrens, 64; settler, 187 

Law, Mary, died, 321 

Lawrence, steamer, 376 

Laws first established, 18 

Lawyers in gowns, 2.33 

Lay ton, Anna, died, .379 

Leach, C, sells large oxen, 3.57 

Learned, Billings P., bank president, 
William L., bank director, 298 

Leavitt, Hannah, wife of N. K., died, 

Lebanon Springs stage, 251 

Lee, Thomas, died, 333 
William T., died, .321 

Leedyiis, Mallie, buried, 135. See 

Leendertsen, Cornells, 71 
Willem, brass founder, 76 

Lefferrese, Wm., freeholder, 267 

Legislature, feted, 360 ; session lim- 
ited, 229 

Leicester sta^e, 251 

Leisler, administration of, 189; im- 
prisoned, 81 ; complaint against, 

Lenni Lenape Indians, 1.3, 14 

Lennington, Thomas, bank director, 

Leonard, John, died, 341 

Leonhard, Daniel, 163 
John, trustee, 162, 163 

Leslie, Mary, died, 350 

Leviugs, Rev. Noah, 255 ; died, 355 

Levingston, Robert, buried, 132 

Lewis, Benedict, died, 352 
David, freeholder, 264 
Hellagont, child buried, 140 
Phebe, wife of Col. Henry, died, 

Lewis's tavern, 288, 311, 312; its lo- 
cation, 289; called also City tav- 
ern, 289, 246 

Leydeu foot defined, 153 



L'Hommedieu, Ezra, votes Coustitu- 

tiou, 229 
Liberty in Europe, meeting, 336 
Lievens, Annetje, 70 
Lieversen, Lievynis, buried, 142. , See 

Light Horse, 229 
Lightbody, Caroline M., died, 363 

James, died, 339 

John W., died, 346 
Lighting city, expenses of, 384 
Lincoln, Benjamin, in Albany, 123 
Lindsay, John, 258 
Linn, Henry J., 300 

Mrs. MarkL., 361 

Rev. John Blair, 85 
Lispenard, Anthony, Lutheran deacon, 

Little Basin, alarm bell, 360 

Falls, stage to, 248 

Fox, ship, 9 

White Creek, post, 247 
Liverse, Harm, wife buried, 146 ; child 

buried, 146 
Liversen, Ragel, buried, 140. See 

Livingston, Brockholst, bank direc- 
tor 292 

Cambridge, 300 

Crawford, died, 325 

Dr., theory of an early church, 79 

John H., term of ministry, 88 

Mr., first preacher in English, 124 

Pieter, child buried at Flats, 135 

Philip, his residence, 311, 315; 
born in Albany, 316 

Phylip, freeholder, 263; child bu- 
ried, 131 

Rev. Dr.. 83 

Robert R., 228 

Robt., child buried, 140, 142; first 
clerk of Albany, 163, 188, 197 ; 
freeholder, 263, 266 ; his seat in 
church, 127; Indian commis- 
sioner, 320 ; report on church 
pasture. 97: report on Dutch pas- 
ture, 97, 98; witnesses, died, 152 

Sarah Bay, died, 333 
Livingston's Manor stage, 251 ; ma- 
nor, Indians take refuge at, 319 
Lloyd, Andrew, died, 339 
Lochead, William, 255 
Lockwood, Mrs. Jared, died, 364 
Lodowick. Hendrick, freeholder, 266 
Lombers. Georgie. buried, 146 
Long Island, near Bethlehem, 70 

John, died, 326 

Thomas, freeholder, 264 

William, died, 341 
Longevity, 284 
Longitude of Albany, 280 
Loock, Philip, buried, 143 
Lookermans, Govert, 32 

Jacob, his seat in church, 127 

Pieter, buried, 146 

Loonenburgh, 154 ; low Dutch church 
at, 155 

Lord, , died, 368 

Lothian's Band, 342 

Lotteries for benefit of churches, 166 

Lottridge, Robert, died, 325 
Mrs. Robert, died, 378 

Loucks, Mrs. John H., died, 346 

Lovelace, Gov., his grant not recog- 
nized, 98 ; grant to Coeymans, 68 ; 
permits Lutheran worship, 150 

Loveland, Althia A., died, 344 

Lovett, John, his oifice, 306 
Nancy, died, 351 

Low, Nicholas, 228 

Luce, John B., 300 

Ludlow, James M., presbyterian pas- 
tor, 172 
John, 2.55 ; address by, 204 

Lush, Richard, 84 ; bank director, 293 
Stephen, conveys church lot, 176 ; 
on bank committee, 292 

Lutheran street now Howard, 158 

Lutherans, 276, 283, 285 ; oppressed by 
Van Tromp, 157 ; restrained in 
their worship, 149 ; early inAlbany, 

Lutheran Church, 275; ancient loca- 
tion, 312 ; before 1670, 151 ; history 
of. 148 ; first edifice, 151 ; deed of 
church lot, 151 ; cemetery, 151 ; 
dimensions of church lot, 152; 
first church and parsonage, 152 ; 
used by Episcopalians, 1714, 153; 
society incorporated 1784, 153 ; 
records of, 154 ; collections for 
building, 154 ; succession of the 
ministry, 155 ; effort to secure 
Lutheran semmary, 156; custo- 
dian of Hartwick's remains, 156, 
160 ; oppressed, 157 ; abandon 
seminary, in Park street, 158; 
sell ancient church lot, 158 ; ac- 
quire lot on Pine street, 158, 163 ; 
build session house and parsonage, 
158; build houses on cemetery 
lots, 159; deed cemetery to city, 
159 ; remove dead to Rural ceme- 
tery, 159; erect new church in 
1869, 159 ; treasury stolen, 160 ; 
comer-stone of church, 1686, 162 ; 
records, 162, 165 ; church council, 
1686, 162 ; membership, 1788, 163 ; 
real and personal estate, 163, 164 ; 
new cemetery, 1790, 164; Boght 
members, 164 ; treasury balance, 
164; membership 1795, 164, 165; 
treasure chest, 165 ; bell procured, 
165 ; aid German congregation, 
168 ; the German language disused, 
1.56, 168 ; fence, 313 ; road to, 102 ; 
slanderous members of, 125 ; semi- 
nary, 150 

Luyck, Johannes, 38 

Abraham, freeholder, 266 



Luyckasse, Claes, buried, 133 

Sara, buried, 146 

Jacobus, child buried, 132; buried, 
Lyceum of Natural History, 279 
Lydiott, Ann, died, 357 

Catharine, buried, 132 

Kev. John, succeeds Dellius, 82; 
died 1709, 82 ; term of ministry, 

street, city gate near, 101 
Lyle, Abraham, trustee, 170 

Robert, died, 347 
LjTnan, Barney, died, 308 
Lynch, Cornelius, died, 357 
Lynd, Matthew, 287 
Lynot, Mrs., 258 
Lyon, Mrs. Philo D., died, 352 
Lythall, Abraham, freeholder, 265 

Maase, Albartus, child buried, 146 ; 
wife buried, 146 

Cornells, 66 ; freeholder, 204 

JaquemjTina, buried, 132. See 
Maasen, Jacob, buried, 145 ; child bu- 
ried, 134, 137; wife buried, 143 

Jan, freeholder, 264 ; child buried, 
132, 133 

Jan, Jr., buried, 146 

Pieter, child buried, 146 ; wife 
buried, 146 
MacLean, Mr. Ales., 259 
MacNamara, John, died, 351 

Patrick, died, 383 
Macomb, John, trustee, 170 
Magsilse, Eyck, buried, 132 
Mahans, Andries, wife buried, 142 
Mahar, Catharine, died, 330 

James, 242 

Mary, wife of James, died, 336 

Thomas, drowned, 342 
Maine, Hudson visits coast of,l 
Maley, John, 290 ; bank director, 289 
MaUoy, Robert, died, 373 
Manchester, stage, 249 
Mancius, Dr. W., 254 
Manhattan bank, specie sent to, 293 ; 
directors of, 292 

fort at, 12 

river, 11, 13 
Manhattans, 21, 37, 69; first Lutheran 

minister at, 150 
Mauhatters, bring furs, 12 
Manhattes, settlers arrive at, 17 
Manna-hatta, visited by Hudson, 8 
Manners of the people, 114, 115, 116 
Manning, Capt., sent to command the 
fort, 97 

James, died, 328 
Mannix, Geertje, 74 
Mansion houses (hotels), 1823, 277; 

sewing machine at, 359 
Manufactories, deficient, 277 


Manufacturers meeting, 322 
Manufactures, 190; 1789,236 
Mapletown, 252 
Maquaas Indians, deluded by Dellius, 

95 ; tract on, 64. See Mohawks 
Marcelis, Gerhard, 164 
Marine society, 1823, 276 
Mark, Solomon, 245 
Market in State street, 54, 56 

street, now Broadway north, 233 
house, 158 
Markey, Nicholas, 242 
Maroney, James, drowned, 351 
Marriage customs, 283 
Marriages, 1848,^24; fee for publish- 
ing, 175 ; records of, 88 
Marrinas , William, freeholder, 265 
Marselis, Assweris, ft-eeholder, 265 
Gerrit, child buried, 134, 141 
Gerrit, son [Jacob] buried, 141 
Guisbert, freeholder, 263; buried, 

Gysbert, child buried, 146 
Johannes, child buried, 137; 

buried, 139 
Jobs, Jr., buried, 141 
MjTidert, freeholder, 268 ; child bu- 
ried, 132, 133, 134 ; wife buried, 
Martensen, Catalyntje, 66 
Martin, Rev. Benj. N., 255; installed, 
Dirck, wife and child buried, 137 
E. T. T., 300 

Garritson's island, 99, 186 
Henry H., 308 ; law student, 300 
James, 255 
John, died, 361, 379 
Pieter, buried, 145 
Martin's inn, 251 

Marvin, Alexander, bank director, 295 
Henry, died, 365 
Richard, bank director, 295 
Uriah, founds school, 203 ; died, 350 
William, died, 362 
Maryland, 363 

Mason, John, engine builder, 312 
L. B., Universalist pastor, 180 
Masons in procession, 232 
Mastersen, Simon, 9 
Maternaghan, William, drowned, 347 
Mather, Thomas, bank director, 293 
Mathews, Frederick, .300 ; teacher, 205 
Matson, Isaac, died, 363 
Mauritius, river, 11 
Maxsted, William, assault by, 352 
Mayer, Frederick George, Lutheran 
minister, 155 ; lays corner stone, 
148 ; preaches in German, 168 ; 
trustee of Academy, 200 ; mana- 
ger of Bible Society, 255 
Mrs. Frederick G., died, 350 
Mayhew, Joseph, drowned, 383 
Mayor, Hendk, wife buried, 146 
Mayor, a justice of the peace, 197 



Mayor's court, power of, 197 ; calendar, 

McAuley, attempt to burn bakery of, 

Michael, died, 373 

Thomas, 255 
McBride, John, overseer of poor, 336 
McCafferty, Jane, died, 366 
McCarty, Betsy, died, 343 
McCawIy, Charlotte, died, 326 
McChesney, L., chair factory, 314 
McClallen, Eobert, his advertisement, 

McClelland, Dr. Wm., 245, 254 
McCloskey, Rev. John, bishop, 321, 341 
McCluskey, Elizabeth, died, 362 
McCotter, Neil, died, 373 

Mrs. Neil, died, 371 
McCowan, A., 345 
McCulloch, James, died, 356 
McDermott, Wm. J., died, 322 
McDole, captures tories, 318 
McDonald, Mrs. Cornelius, died, 362 

John, presbyterian pastor, 170, 
172, 175, 245; trustee of aca- 
demy, 200 

Eosanna, died, 379 
McElroy, Samuel, surveyor, 335 
McFarlan, Mr., precentor, 176 
McGarvey, Mary Ann, died, 358 
McGowan, Aurelia, wife of Minos, 

died, 325 
McGrath, James, Jr., died, 356 
McGuire, Thomas, died, 383 
McHarg, Elizabeth, died, 356 

Dr. Henry, died, 341 
Mcintosh, John, died, 362 
Mclntyre, Archibald, 245; chairman, 

199; trastee of academy, 200 
McJimpsey, Rev. John, 255 ; trustees 

of academy, 200 
McKenna, Peter, died, 359 
McKensie, George, died, 356 
McKnight, Mrs. Alex., died, 375 
McKown, Michael, died, 352 

William A., died, 338 
McKown's inn, 250, 251 
McLaughlin, Wm., died, 373 
McMannus, Bridget, died, 368 
McMillen, Mrs. Ellen, died, 363 
McNaughton, Jas., 245 : bank director, 
296 ; address on cholera, 383 

Jane, wife of Peter, died, 336 
McPherson, Laughlen, died, 327 
McQuade, James, chief engineer, 327 
McRae, John, married, 302 
Mechanic's Hall, 298 ; school in, 212 
Mechanics and Farmers' Bank, 1823, 

277 ; account of, 294 
Mecryda, Willem, buried, 144 
Medical college, 189 
Meebe, Abram, freeholder, 265 

Jan, freeholder, 265 
Meech, Esther S., died, 346 
Megapolensis, Dirck, 73, 90 

Megapolensis, Hellegond, 73, 90 
Jan, 73, 90 

Johannes, first pastor, 23, 24, 79 ; 
his voyage, 151 ; term of minis- 
try, 88 ; his call, 89 ; sent as pas- 
tor, 188 ; Maquaa tract, 64 ; expels 
Lutheran minister, 150 ; retired 
from Fort Orange, 80 
Johannis, Jr., 73 
Samuel, 73, 80, 90 
Mentz, Sebastiana Cornelia, 300 ; mar- 
ried, 301 
Mercelis, Gerhard, 163 
Merchant, George, bank director, 294 ; 
his academy, 303 
Horace, his academy, 236 
Merchants in celebration, 233 
Merchants' Bank organized, 298 
National Bank, 291 
stock in 1790, 226 
Merit, Appelonie buried, 145 
Merrifield, Mrs. Richard, died, 337 
Mervin, Samuel, trustee of academy, 

Messel, Pieter, child buried, 146 
Methodist Episcopal church, sold to 
Jews, 179 ; ancient pastor died, 
Methodists, 276 
Metselaer, see De Metselaer 
Mexico, recruits for, 341 
Mey, Cornelius Jacobsen, 9, 10 
Meyer, Rev. Edward, Lutheran pastor, 

Meyndertsen, Neeltje, 64 
Rynier, buried, 145 
Jan Jansen, 15 
Meynten, Willem, 71 
Michael, Olivette, robbed, 327 

Nicholaus, 163, 164 
Michaelius, Rev. Jonas, 79 
Middle Dutch Church, site of a burial 
place, 130 ; burial lot, 131 ; burial 
place, 213; repaired, 328; new 
organ, 341; meeting held in, 355 
Middleburgh stage, 249 
Middleton, Garrett, died, 336 
Middletown stage, 250 
Migael, Jobs, bm-ied, 133 
Milborne, Jacob, complaint against, 

124; administration of, 189 
Miles, Rev. John, pastor of bethel, 

177, 178 
Military of 1796, 210 
Militia statistics, 1693, 197 ; 1700, 197 
Mill creek, Greenbush, 15, 73 
Mill, patroon's, 22 
Miller, Christian, his house, 260, 313 
John, his plan of Albany, 182, 

William C, 260 
Millerite prophecy unfulfilled, 326 
Miller's inn, 250, 251 
Millers in procession, 231 
Mill's island, 198, 279 



Mills, Martha, died, 323 
Milroy, "William, 245 
Milten, Jan, wife buried, 132 
Minder tsen, Fred, freeholder, 263 
Johaunis, freeholder, 265 
Reyner, freeholder, 263. See Mj'n- 
Mineral Spring Garden, balloon ascen- 
sion, 342 
Min2:aell, Johanni?, freeholder, 264 

Ilarytie, buried, 135 
Minister's house, 102 
Mink, Mrs. Charles W., died, 363 
Minqiias, hiinting grounds, 12, 13 
Missel, Pieter, child buried, 140 
Mission sabbath school concert, 356 
Missionaries declined by the Indians, 

Mitchell, Jane, died, 370 
Mix, Rebecca Elizabeth, died, 333 
Moehrie, Richard, died, ;356 
Moeller, Henry, Lutheran minister, 

153, 155, 162 
Moellman, William, Lutheran pastor, 

Moenimines castle, 15 
Mohawk river, 194, 195 ; tributary of 
Hudson, 221 ; broke up, 359 ; 
plank road to, 333 ; castle at 
mouth of, 15 
and Hudson rail road, 243 ; first in 
the country, 190 ; speed on, 346 ; 
building used for Normal School, 
Indians, bring fiirs, 12; converts 
among, 82 ; their territory, 68 ; 
land sterile, 194 ; supplied with 
firearms, 17 ; one of the five na- 
tions, 13. See Minquaas, Min- 
propeller, a pioneer, 241 ; speedy 
trip of. 340 
Mohegans, 13, 14 < 

Mohican island, 70 
Monk. Christopher, church trustee, 

Monkland, Thomas, died, 367 
Monoculi in Albany water, 54 
Monteath, Walter, 255 
Montgomery county, returns, 228 ; set 
oft", 191; towns in, 248 
street, female academy in, 203, 204 
Montreal, distance of, 185, 280 ; routes, 

Moor, Richard, freeholder, 266 
Moore, Chester, died. 336 
Mrs. M. D., died, 379 
John, died, 370 
Moral Society, 167 
Moran, Ann, died, 372 
Morehouse's inn, 250 
Morey, John D., suicide, 368 
Morgan, Thomas I., died, 378 

Tobias, died, 367 
Morrell, Dr., aeronaut, 342 

Morris, Maj. Lewis K, monument to, 

Richard, 228 
Morrison, Patrick, died, 349 
Morrow, Mrs. James, died, 368 
Morse's Description of Albany, 1789, 

Moses, buried, 133 
Mosher, George M.. died, 369 
Moss, Thomas, died, 368 
Mossop, George, died, 377 
Mott, Amey, died, 374 

Mary, died, 323 
Mount Pleasant steam boat, 217 
Moussart, Toussaint, 16, 42 
Mowry, Le Roy, bank director, 298 
Muhlenberg, Frederick A., trustee of 

Hartwick, 156 
Muir, A., his petition, 125 

Wm., his lot, 311,315 
Muldey, Cornells, fi-eeholder, 266 

Jacob, child buried, 132 

Jeremias, freeholder, 266 
Mull, James C, died, 338 
MuUer, Jacob, freeholder, 264 ; daugh- 
ter buried, 139 

Elizabeth, child buried, 133 

Johannes, freeholder, 264 ; buried, 
Muller, Jobs Ja., child buried, 145 
Muuro, John, trustee, 170 
Murphy, Henry C, 79 
Murray, Patrick, died, 376 
Murton, Josiah, died, 383 
Murtough, Thomas, died, 362 
Museum of Trowbridge, 276 ; ancient 

city prison, 317; exhibits Drum- 

mond light, 382 
Musquitoesrgigantic, 208, 211 
Mustard factory, 237 
Muzi^h, tfitz, freeholder, 266 
Myndersey, Abram, wife buried, 145 
Myndertse, Fredk, buried, 137; wife 
buried, 134; daughter buried, 

Rynier, son buried, 133 

Nabletown mountain, 250 
Nach, Andries, freeholder, 264 
Nachtenack (now Watei'ford), 70 
Nail factory, 1789, 236 ; works, 190 
Nailers in procession, 231 
Nancouttaushal, Indian sachem, 15 
Nankins, importations of, 227 
Narrows passed by Hudson, 1 
National bank organized, 298 

hotel, meeting of foreigners at, 335 

prejudices, 60 
Navigation, efi"ort to improve, 1790, 198 
Nawanemit, Indian sachem, 15 
Negagans, 15 
Neger, Jan de, 76 

Negro servants in 1749, 60; sold in 
I West Indies, 257 



Neill, William, Presbyterian pastor, 

172, 255; trustee of academy, 200 
Nelson's inn, 251 
New Amsterdam, 79; its perils, 188; 

captured by Sir Robt. Carre, 58 
New Brunswick inhabited by Albany 

Dutchmen, 55 
New England officer buried, 145 
Newfound Land, Hudson sails to, 1 
New France, permit to visit, 10 ; set- 
tlement commenced, 13 
New Hartford inn, 250 
New Haven, No. houses in, 147; stage 

route to, 250 
New Jersey steam boat, 322 
New Jerusalem, in Otsego county, 156, 

New Lebanon stage, 249 
New London, commerce with, 241 
New Netherland, 41 ; Vanderdonck's 
Beschi*yvinge, 64; erected into a 
province, 15 ; figurative map of, 10 
New Scotland incorporated, 193 
New Sweden taken, 58 
New World, steam boat, quick trips, 

New Year, 352 ; 1848, 329 
New York, Hudson arrived at, 1 ; No. 
houses in, 147 ; distance of, 185, 
279, 280, 281 ; stage journey to, 
246,251,252; merits, 247 ; relieves 
sufferers by fire, 345 ; county 
returns, 228 
lights and shades of traveling in, 

State adopted federal constitution, 

State Bank, account of, 293 ; cash- 
ier, 291 
volunteers, arrived. 341 
Newark (read Nyack), 201 
Newman, Charles, Lutheran trustee, 
148, 153, 1.54, 162, 163, 164, 165 
Henry A., died, 376 
Newspapers, 1823, 276 
Newton, Isaac, competition, 350 ; large 
load, 361; steamboat, 322,334; 
tonnage of, 242 
J. M., bank director, 296. 
William, died, 337 
Newton's Corners, omnibus to, 324 
Niagara, stage to, 250, 253 ; Indian 
treaty at, 123 ; post route, 248 ; 
river, 13 
Niblock, John, candidate for chief en- 
gineer, 327; stabbed, 333 
Nichols, Catharine, died, 3(30 

Mrs. Alexander, died, 372 
Nicolaes, Willem, buried, 145 
Nicoll, Francis, federalist, 228, 230 
Nicolls, Richard, governor, 41, 71 ; re- 
ceived the province, 97; his 
grant not recognized, 98 ; patent 
lot to Staats, 152 ; takes Albany, 

Nicolls, W., 100 

Niemeyer, John Hendrick, 163 

Niewenhuysen, Rev. Mr., 80 

Night police, expense of, 384 

Nightengale, trading vessel, 10 

Noble, D. A., 300 

Nordin, William, died, 331 

Norfolk stage, 250 

Normal school in Lodge street opened, 

369 ; on State street, 200 
Norman's kil, 67, 195 ; fort erected on, 
13 ; fort on, 186 ; lease of water 
power, 65 ; origin of name, 187 ; 
treaty of the, 14 
North America, 14 ; steam tug, 325 

Dutch church, 87 ; collection, 255 ; 
voorzingers of, 139 

gate, its location, 182 

Slarket street, business of, 271 

Pearl street, 321 

river, closed by ice, 24th Nov., 
1646, 34 
Northampton, stage to, S49, 250, 251 
Northern Budget, post rider, 252 

rail road, failure of, 297 
Norton, John T., clerk, 306; bank 
president, 295 

Mary Elizabeth, died, 379 
Norwich, commerce with, 241 

steam boat, 218, 319 
Nostrandt, Jacob Jansen, 71 
Nott, Eliphalet, presbyterian pastor, 

171, 173, 253; on academy com- 
mittee, 199 
Noyes, Mrs. Elizabeth M., died, 384 

Robt. L., bank director, 296 
Nucella, Johannes Petrus, term of 

ministry, 88 ; baptisms by, 96 ; 

temporary supply, 82 
Nucella street Lutheran church, 169 
Nugent, Elizabeth, died, 367 

Margaret, wife H. P., died, 321 
Nyack stone (instead of Newark), 201 ; 

sandstone used in public build- 
ings, 275 
Nyssen, Wolf, executed, 76 

O'Brien, Patrick, died, 377 

O'Callaghan's History New Nether- 
land, 9, 39, 40, 41, 43, 64, 76, 150 ; 
theory of the first church, 79 

O'Connor, Bridget, died, 372 
Catharine, died, 336 
Maurice, died. 383 

O'Donnel, Wm., 242 

O'Reilly, Henry, 375; telegraphery, 

Oats, price of, 327, 345 

Obstructions in river, 222 

Odd Fellows' Hall, dedicated, 333, 348 

Odell's inn, 251 

Ogilvie, J., rector, 310 

Olber, Dirke, child buried, 141, 143 



Olcott, Theodore, cashier, 296 

Thomas W., hank clerk, 295 

ferry boat, 345 
Old Fort Schuyler stage, 249, 250 
Old Hunker convention, 324; meeting 

Old Hunkers nominations of, 322 
Old stone church, 127 
Olinde, Lybitie, buried, 145 
Olive Branch, manifest of sloop, 257 
Oliver, buried B. Brat's daughter, 136 

Aaron, post rider, 252 
Olyfer [Oliver] John, Jr., buried, 133 
Oneida castle stage, 250 

Indians, 13 ; presbyterians among, 
157 ; treaty with, 292 

steam boat, 218 
Onisquathaw, 65 
Onondaga stage, 249 
Onoudagas, 13 
Ontario county, population of, 192 

lake, 13 
Oosterum, Garrit Willems, 66 
Oothoudt, Adrian, freeholder, 268 

Aeltie, buried, 136 

Arye, daughters buried, 134, 141, 
142 ; buried, 143 

Hendrick, freeholder, 263 : buried, 

Henry, anti-federalist, 228 

Jan, Jr., child buried, 133 

Jno, freeholder, 268 

Jobs, buried, 138 

Johs Arie, buried, 146 

Jonas, children buried, 140, 142, 
144, 146; wife Elizabeth buried, 

Volkert, child buried, 135 
Orange county, returns, 228 

fort, 79 
Oregon, brings large load, 361 
Organ, first in Albany, 166 
Orphan asvlum, aid to, 333 ; its loca- 
tion, 190 
Orr, Isabella, wife of Samuel, died, 

Osbom, Mary, wife of Jeremiah, died, 

Thomas, teacher, 205 

William L., 242 
Osbrey, Elizabeth M., wife Wm. L., 

died, 337 
Osgood, Abigail, died, 323 
Ostrander, Catharine, widow of John, 
died. 326 

John, 163 

John C, died, 356 
Oswego, steam boat, large tow, 340, 

347, 384 
Otsego county, set off". 192 
Otter skins purchased by Hudson, 3 
Ouderkerk, Abraham, freeholder, 268 ; 
buried, 138; children buried, 
133, 134 

Eldert, freeholder, 267 

Ouderkerk, Isaac, freeholder, 267; 
wife buried, 141, 145 ; child 
buried 138, 141 
John, freeholder, 268 ; children 

buried, 138 
Johs, buried, 140; child buried, 

Maycke, buried, 140 
Peter, freeholder, 267 
WiUem, buried, 140 
Overslaugh, effort to subvert, 198 ; 

obstructs navigation, 279 
Oxen, large, 357 

Pacey, Edward, died, 370 

James, died, 370 
Pachonakelick, island, 70 
Packard, Elizibeth. died, 375 

Nathaniel R.. died, 356 
Paddock, Stephen, fire in bakery, 329 
Paerde hoeck (Horse point), 73 
Page, David P., died, 329 
Painters in procession, 231 
Palisades, the city fortified with, 182 
Palmer, Amos P., cashier. 298 

Mi-s. Amos P., died, 376 

Mrs. Levi H., died, 362 
Pangburn, Abraham, died, 362 

Hiram, died, 362 
Papendorp, Adraien Gerritse, 160. See 

Gerritsen, Adriaen 
Papsickenekaas. See Papskanea 
Papskanea, 16, 198 ; farm at, 66 
Park street, ancient cemetery on, 159 ; 

Lutheran seminary in, 157 
Parker, James, first marshal, 63, 189 
Parsonage of the Dutch church, 124 
Parsons, Mr., robbed, 328 

Mrs. Stephen, died, 358 
Partridgefield stage, 251 
Passapenock island, 15 
Pasture, church, 271 ; dimensions of. 

99 ; laid out into lots, 101 ; patent 

of, 97, 99 
Patchin, A. D., cashier, 294 
Patroon's creek, factories on, 239 ; 
mills on, 190, 195 

house robbed, 40 

encouraged to settle colonies. 15 
Patterson and Hartshorn, 257, 258 

John, died, 352 
Patterson, George W., inaugurated, 

352 ; nominated by autirenters, 


Paul, , drowned, 345 

Pay of oflicers and soldiers 1688, 320 
Peach trees unsuccessful, 49 
Pearl street house burnt, 339 

street widened, 288 
Pearse, Jacob, freeholder, 267 
Pearson, George, 245 

Jonathan, transcript of church 
records, 96 
Peas 1749, 50 



Peck, captain of steamer, 322 
Pecklaam, Isabella Adeline, wife R. W., 
died, 334 

K. W., political speaker, 346 
Peek, Abram, child buried, 145 

Jacobus, freeholder, 265 

Johannis, freeholder, 265 
Peekskill staije, 249, 251, 252 
Peelen, Brant, 20, 70 
Peisen, Janna, buried, 145 
Pelgrom, Paul, 9 
Pells, Abram, buried, 144 

Evert, brewer, 24 
Pemberton, William, 259 
Pemmerton, Jer., children buried, 132, 

134, 135 
Penitentiary, convict died by suicide, 

330; its location, 190; prisoners 

in, 326, 370 ; supt., reappointed, 355 
Penny-post, ancient, 330 
Penobscot bay, Hudson visits, 1 
Perceval, Mrs. George, died, 351 
Perry, Eli, candidate, 349 

Mrs. Oliver H., died, 358 

Nelson W., died, 364 
Peter sburgh, 252 
Peys, Jobs, buried a Roeyland man, 

Phelps's inn, 250 
Philadelphia, commerce with, 241, 278 

distance of, 280 

No. houses in, 147 

stage route to, 247, 250, 251 
Phillip, Elizabeth, died, 365 
Phillipse, Harma, freeholder, 265 
Physicians decline office, 330 
Pickering, Timothy, in Albany, 123 

postmaster general, 248 
Pier, earth used to fill, 167 

its extent, 190 

question meeting, 375 
Pierce, Horace, died, 350 

Mrs. Irene, died, 361 
Pierpont, Rev. Mr., 369 
Pierson, Jobs, buried, 146 
Pietersen, Wy brant, 71 
Pilsbury, Amos, reappointed super- 
intendent. 355 
Pinchon, William, grant of land to, 95 
Pine grove, 35 

sti'eet, Lutheran church on, 158 
Pittenger, Abram, died, 337 
Pittsfield stage, 249, 251 
Pittstown, population, 1790, 191 ; poet 

to, 247, 252 
Plains of sand, 193 
Plan of Albany, 1695, 183 
Planck, Jacob Albertsen, first sheriff 

of Rensselaerwyck, 19, 66; his 

demise, 22 
Planter's plea, allusion of, to Rensse- 

laerswyck, 17 
Piatt, Ananias, first stage to Albany, 

246. 247, 249 ; stage to his inn, 246 
Plees, Jan Emmerick, freeholder, 266 

Plumb, J. B.. cashier, 294 

Poc. . , Jobs, buried, 146 

Poetanock, 15 

Pohlman, Daniel, trustee, 157, 164, 165 

Henry Newman, Lutheran minis- 
ter, 155 
Police statistics, 327 
Pomeroy, Thaddeus, died, 351 
Pomeroy's express, origin of, 325 
Poog, Johan, 72 
Poor, collections for, 93 ; expenses for 

coal, 360 ; expenses of, 384 ; house 

of Dutch church, size and location 

of, 102 ; meeting for relief of, 355 
Pootman, A rent, freeholder, 265 

Cornells, freeholder, 265 

Yictore, freeholder, 265 
Population, classes of first, 20; 1820, 

280 ; 1789, 281 ; 1796, 284 ; 1790, 309 ; 

1716, 309 
Pork, price of, 345 
Poi-pesses, at Albany, 51 
Porter, Elisha C, died, 331 

Giles W., bank director, 294 

James, bank dii'ector, 295 

John, 299 
Portland, stage route to, 249 
Portuguese exiles, meeting in favor 

of, 361 ; refugees arrived, 378 
Pos, Simon Dirckson, 64; settler, 187 
Post, Victor, died, 367 
Post office 1785, 246 ; 1823, 277 ; opera- 
tions of 1845, 196 

riders, dependence upon, 251 

routes, 246, 247, 248, 249 
Postage statistics, 1845, 196 
Potato raising, 194 
Poughkeepsie stage, 249, 251 
Powder house, 276 
Powers, John, died, 365 
Powles Hook, river closed at, 217 
Powlisse, Marte, freeholder, 265 
Pratt, Mrs. Ralph, died, 371 
Prentice, Sartelle, died. 379 
Presbyterian church, First, 170; first 
church edifice, 170 ; second edi- 
fice, 171 ; succession of the min- 
istry, 172; third edifice, 172: 
description of, 172, 173 ; size of 
lot, 175 ; seatings in 1785, 175 ; 
fees of clerk, 175 ; sexton's 
duties, 176; church pennies 
stamped, 176 ; location of burial 
ground, 176 ; pastor's salary, 
176; street barricaded with 
chains, 176 ; in celebration 1788, 

minister, among Oneidas, 157 
Presbyterians. 276, 283, 285 
Pretty, Richard, first sheriff of Albany, 

63, 152, 189, 312 
Price current of goods, 256 
Prime, Melissa, died, 332 
Prince Maurice's river, 11 
Princetown, set ofi', 193 



Printers in procession, 231 
Prooper, Hanse Juris, freeholder, 266 
Proiidfit. Alexander, 255 
Provoost, Abram, freeholder, 267 

creek, 195 
Pruyn, , 84 

Arent, freeholder, 264; child bu- 
ried, 132 

Casparus, 84 

Frans, freeholder, 268; child bu- 
ried, 132 

Johannis, freeholder, 264 ; buried, 

John v. L., his house, 308 

Lansing, president, 377 

Robert H., norainated for assem- 
bly, 322 ; elected, 349, 381 

S., his lot, 311 

Samuel, freeholder, 264; buried, 
132, 140, 143 

Samuel, penitentiary director, 355 ; 
supervisor, 362 

Tarns Jr., child buried, 132 
Public buildings, 1789, 283 ; 1796, 285 

square, at capitol. 270. 275 
Pugsley, Sarah M., died, 362 
Pulling, Henry P., bank director, 

Pulpit, ancient, 123 ; from Holland, 81, 

Pulver, Johannis, freeholder, 266 
Pumpkins raised by Indians, 3 
Putnam, Mrs. Peter, died, 381 

Quackenbos, Adriaan, freeholder, 267 ; 
child buried, 140, 141, 144 

Charles, died, 334 

Cornelie, buried, 135 

Gideon, buried, 141 

Jno. freeholder, 267 

Jno. Jr., freeholder, 267 

John P., 84 

Jobs, child buried, 133 

Peter, fi-eeholder, 264 

Pieter, buried, 142 

Pieter's wife buried, 146 

Sybrand, child buried, 132, 136, 
Q.uackenbush, Gerrit, 84 

Henry, 84 
Q.uaker delegates, 123 
Quarter sessions, 197 
Quay submerged, 328 
Quebec, distance of, 280 
Queen Anne confirms patent of Coey- 

mans, 68 
Queens county, returns, 228 
Querk, Michael, died, 380 
Queues proscribed. 60 
Quinn, Arthur, died, 348 

Charies, died, 372 

Mary, died, 368 
Quitman, Major Gen., arrived, 330 

RadliflF, James, died, 328 

Raedtsvrienden, 19 

Raely, John, son buried, 145 

Raetspersoonen, 19 

Rail road freight. 383; receipts, 345; 

speed, 244, 329, 348 ; survey adopt- 
ed on river line, 331 
Rain. 372, 375, 376, 377, 379, 380, 382, 

Rain siorm, 327, 342 
Ram, John, 167 
Ramsey, D. D., 245 

George, 245 
Randall, Francis, 300 
Randolph. Beverly, in Albany, 123 
Random Recollections of Albany, 334 
Ransselaer's Stein. 28. 
Ratclif, Johannis, freeholder, 263 
Rattenaur. Johannis, 163, 164 
Rawson, Mrs. T. R., died, 373 
Raymond, Benj. C, vice president 
board of trade, 240 

David. 299 
Read, M. R, 240 
Rechenberg, Rev., Lutheran pastor, 

Rechtmayor, Coenraet, wife buried, 

135 ; child buried, 136 
Record, Mrs. M. A., died, 377 
Recruiting officer represented, 118 
Rector, H., architect, 172, 324; candi- 
date for office, 349 ; head of old 

hunkers, 322 
Redhook, sta^e, 249 
Rediff, Anna Sixberry, buried, 137 
Redlif, Jacobus, child buried, 133, 136, 
137, 138 ; Jobs, wife. Sella, bu- 
ried, 137 ; Johs. daughter buried, 
138 ; buried, 146 

Joseph, child buried, 138 

Labrej'h, child buried, 132 

Ragel. buried, 142 

Willem. buried, 135 ; son buried, 
Redman, Philo, murdered, 384 
Rees, Andries, freeholder, 266 

John, freeholder, 266 

Jonat, freeholder, 266 

Wm., freeholder, 266 
Reformed German church, 166 

Protestant Duich church, 148 

See Dutch church. 
Reid, John, founds school, 203 
Relay, Mrs. Robert, died, 344 
Reminiscences of Presbyterian church, 

Rennie, Willem, drowned, 356 
Rensselaer county, set off, 199 
Renselaer, Hendk., buried, 137 

Jeremiah, administrator, 161. See 
Van Rensselaer 
Rensselaer's stein, protest against, 31, 

82, 33 
Rensselaerville and Schoharie plank 

road, organized, 377; incorporated, 



Eeneselaerville, continued — 

193 ; population, 1T90, 191 ; stage, 
254 ; taxable inhabitants, 1795, 

Rensselaerwyck, 33, 40, 67, 92 ; codi- 
rectors of, 16; colonie formed, 
16 ; colony of, 9 ; derivation of 
name, 187 ; emigrant ship, 70 ; first 
settlers, 64 ; Fort Orange belonged 
to, 97; its progress, 20, 21, 22; 
lands adjoining Fort Orange be- 
longed to, 97 ; manor of, 193 ; mills 
erected in, 35 ; partnership interest 
in, 43 ; population 1790, 191 ; unin- 
jured by the war, 37 ; wheat pro- 
duct, 64 ; emigrant ship, 66 

Republican (democratic) vote, 228; 
meeting of foreisners, 335 

Restless, discoveries of, 12 

Reust, Catharine, 43 
Marg't, 43 

Revolutionary scene 1778, 317 

Reynolds, John, 242 

John H., bank director, 298 
M. T., propeller, 362 

Rhinebeck stage, 249, 251, 252 

Rhode Island, in vote for constitu- 
tion, 229 

Rhynland foot defined, 152 

Richards, John T., died, 335 

Richardson, died, 364 

Riclimoud county returns, 228 

Ridder, Cornells, buried, 138 

Hendk, child buried, 132, 133, 136, 

Symon, buried an officer, 147 

Riddle, Hugh, died, 330 

Ridgeway, Mary, died, 328 

Riggs, Capt., 322 

Riley, Mrs. James, died, 360 

Ripse, Nicholas, justice, 197 

River closed, 351; 1848, 329; low 
water, 366; navigation, improve- 
ment of, 241 ; open, 331, 333; 1849, 
358 ; opening and closing of, 216 

Rivers and creeks, 195 

Riviere van den Vorst Mauritius, 11 

Roarke, Charles, died, 351 

Roberts, Amy, died, 331 

Capt. B. 8., bravery of, 333 
William, died, 328 

Robertsons, first printers here, 166 

Robinson, James, died, 375 
Joseph, died, 350 

Robison & Hale, merchants, 214 
John, bank director, 293 

Rochester steam boat, tonnage of, 242 

Rock, Thomas, died, 326 

Rodgers, John, stage, 248 

Rodman, John, 299 

Roe, Hannah, died, 365 
James R., died, 365 

Roelifl'sen, Gerrit, 139 ; buried, 145 
Jobs, daughter buried. 139; son 
Gerrit buried, 139. See Roolifse. 

Roeyland man buried by Johs Peye, 146 
Roff-, Christina, 164 
Rogers, William, Jr., 140 
Roller, Andreas, 163 
Romaine, B. F., published Daily Mes- 
senger, 362 
Roman, Adam, 164 
Roman Catholics, 276 

law in force at Albany, 18 
Romayn, Francois, 43 
Rombelie, Jonethan, buried, 131 
Romeyn, John B., Presbyterian pas- 
tor, 172; proposes grammar Bchool, 

Roolifse, Albert, freeholder, 268 

Hendrick, freeholder, 267. See 
Roorback, Arthur, founds school, 203 
Roosa, Dr. Cornelius, 254 
Root, Lyman, bank director, 295 
Rose, Mr. John, 258 
Roseboom, Asueros, wife buried, 139 

Catalyntie, son buried, 141 

Deborah, buried, 142 

Gerret, freeholder, 264; daughter 
buried, 132 ; buried, 136 

Gerritie, buried, 140 

Gysbert, buried, 142 ; child buried, 

Hend. M., child buried, 136 

Hendk, freeholder, 264; child 
buried, 134; daughter Debora 
buried, 139 ; buried, 144 

Hendrick H., buried, 140; child 
buried, 134, 135, 136 

Jacob, freeholder, 263 ; wife buried, 
146 ;■ child buried, 131, 132, 135 

Johannis, freeholder, 264; church 
elder, 101, 104, 105; lieutenant, 
197 ; buried, 138 

[Doxter] John, buried, 144 

John G., wife buried, 143 

Maria, buried, 137; daughter bu- 
ried, 137 

Mindert, freeholder, 264 ; church 
officer, 101, 104, 105; buried, 131 

residence, 311, 313 
Roseboom' 8 inn, 250 
Roseman, Johannis, freeholder, 266 
Rosendal, 69 
Rosevelt, Isaac, 228 
Rosie, Elizabeth, buried, 132 

Jan, buried, 136 

John, freeholder, 263 
Rosier, Richard, died, 332 
Ross, John, 259 

Rosse's telescopes, lecture on, 328 
Rottly, Jacob, 165 
Rouse, Casper, freeholder, 265 
Rowley, Charles N., 300 
Royal Americans, at the Flats, 113 
Ruby, John Conrad, Lutheran elder, 

154 ; trustee, 157, 163, 165 
Rudes, Jason, died, 356 
I Mrs. Jason, died, 368 



Rum shops, presented by grand jury, 

Eunners employed to learn habits of 
Indians, 12 

Euss, John G., drowned, asS 

Eussell, Charles, drowned, 367 

Joseph, director academy, 204, 205 
Martha, died. 3&4 
Eobert C„ died, 379 
Mrs. Eobert C died, 372 
T. and J., found school, 203 

Eust, David, law student, 299 

Eutesmayor, Coenradt, buried, 141 

Eutgers, "Herman, 73 : his lot, 102 

Eutgersen, Evckert, 70 

Eutland stage', 249 

Euttenkil, 42, 158, 185, 195 ; grading of, 

Euyckman, Albert, assistant alder- 
man, 63. See Eyckman. 

Euyter, Claes Jansen, 71 
Fredk. Jr., buried, 139 
Philip, buried, 139 

Eyan, John, died, 364 

Eyckman, Albert, freeholder. 264 ; first 
alderman, 188 ; his seat in 
church, 127 ; captain, 197 ; bu- 
ried, 136. See Euyckman. 
Albert, jr., 131 

D., dausrhter Hettie buried. 136 
Garret W., bank director, 296 
Harmanis, freeholder, 263; buried, 

Neeltie, buried, 136 
Peter, freeholder, 263; buried, 

142; wife buried, 132 
Pieter, child buried, 134 
Tobyas, freeholder, 263; wife bu- 
ried, 1.38 ; child buried, 132 
Wilhelmus, child buried, 138 
Willem, child buried, 139 

Eyckse, Jobs, wife buried, 140 

Eycksen, Evert freeholder, 267 

Gerrit, freeholder, 267 ; wife bu- 
ried, 141 ; daughter bnried, 133 
Maes, fi-eeholder, 267 

Eyckser, Evert, freeholder, 267 ; bu- 
ried, 142; son buried, 133 

Eye, price of, 324, 326 

Eyersen, Jan, 70 

Eyerssen's island, 68 

Eykerson, Geritie, buried, 141 

Sabbath evening school, 1816, 167; 

school statistics, 330 
Sacandaga river, head waters of Hud- 

Sacrament scoffed at, 77 
Saddle and harness-makers, 232 
Sagisguwa, Indian sachem. 15 
Sailmakers in procession. 230 
St. Andrew's Society, 245 
St. Christopher, 259 ; sloop voyage to, 


St. John, Christian Mary, died, 356 
St. John's Lutheran church, 169 

Uriah, died, 360 

stage, 251 
St. Loiiis. first telegraph from, 328 
St. Patrick's dav. celebrated, 333, 358 
St. Peter's church, 17.51, 310 
St. Vincent, feast of, 341 ; orphan fair, 

Salisbury, Captain, commander at 
Albany, 98 

Frank, freeholder, 267 

Major, has use of pasture, 98 ^ 

Mrs. William, died. 343 
Salmon found by Hudson, 2 

taken in river, 370 
Salomonse, Chatie, buried, 138 
Salomonse. Jan. buried, 133 
Salsberry. William, 2.59 
Sampson. Thomas, assaulted, 324 
Sanburne's inn. 250 
Sandbar stage, 251 
Sander. Mr., see Glen. 
Sanders. Barent, freeholder, 263 ; 
buried, 147 ; wife buried, 136 

Elsje, buried. 134 

Jacob. 312 

John. 286, 287 ; his lot, 311. 314 

Eobert, child buried, 138, 141. 
142 : son Barent buried. 146 ; wife 
buried, 137 ; his pasture. 99, 103 
Sandlake plank road election. 373 
Sands. Lent & Co.. circus, 338 
Sandy Hill stage, 251 
Sanford, Cornells, child buried, 142 

Giles, bank director, 296 

William, died. 373 
Sannahagog, tract purchased. 15 
Santford, Cornells, child buried, 147 

Staets. buried, 146 
Santvoord. Anthony. 164 
Sapanakock island." 68 
Saratoga county, set off, 192 

towns in, 248 
Saratoga, population 1790. 191 ; mine- 
ral springs, 194; first stage to, 

Sargent, Epes, poem by, 326 

Parker, police justice, 366 
Satinet factory, 19«0 
Saul, Eev. George, Lutheran pastor, 

Savage's point stage, 251 
Savannah, stages to, 250 
Saveiy, William, Quaker preacher, 123 
Savings bank, 1823, 276 
Saw mills, 57, 67 ; 1639, 35 ; 1749, 45 

at Coeymans, 71 
Saxhorn performers, 365 
Saxton, Mr., lecture of, 359 
Sayles, Charles, died. 339 
Schaatkooke freeholders 1720, 267 
Schaats, Ann eke S., 94 

Aneke, sent to her husband, 126 

Bartolomeus, 94 



Schaats, Eev. Gideon, account of, 93 ; 
his house, 316 ; reconciled to 
Dom. Eensselaer, 125; services 
required at Kingston, 124; term- 
of ministiy, 88 ; applies for a suc- 
cessor, 81, 126 ; children of, 94 ; 
death, 80, 127 
Reynier, killed, 94 

Schaghticoke, post to, 247 ; population 
1790, 191 

Schausrhnaughtada. Indian name of 
Albany, 186 

Schenck, Isbrand, 43 
Wessel, 9 

Schenectady, 246 ; bond of aldermen, 
286 ; burning of, 71 ; definition of 
name, 186; 'Dellius to preach at, 
127 ; destruction of, 319 ; foot com- 
pany, 198; freeholders, 1720, 264; 
heir-loom in, 261 ; population 1790, 
191 ; rail road returns, 380 ; require 
services Dom. Schaats, 125; stage 
to, S48, 249, 250 ; post to, 247 ; post 
road. 248 ; settled by Van Curler, 
41, 64; taxable inhabitants, 1795, 
193; violation of sabbath in, 127 

Schepenen, 19 

Schermerhorn, Arent, freeholder, 265 
Cornelis, freeholder, 264. 266 
Jacob, freeholder, 265, 268 
Jacob Jansen, property confis- 
cated, 75 
Jacob, Jr., freeholder, 368; buried 

at Papsknee, 138 
James L., died, 365 
Jan, freeholder, 265 
John W., federalist, 228 
Maritie, buried, 133 
Ryer, 286, 287 

Scherimerhorn's inn, 251 ; pasture, 103 

Scherp, Guisbert, freeholder, 266 
Johannis, freeholder, 266 
Lawrence, freeholder, 266 
Thomas, daughter buried. 136 ; son 
Tomie buried, 137 ; wife buried, 

Schlessinger, Max, Jewish rabbi, 179 

Schloss, Moses, 245 

Schmidt, Caroline, died, 335 

Frederick William. Lutheran pas- 
tor, 169 ; died, 169 

Schodack, 252 

landing, ice obstructed at, 217 

Schoharie creek, 68 

Schoharie, population 1790, 191 ; 
stage, 254 ; taxable inhabitants 
1795, 193; plank road company, 
361, 371 

School appropriation 1795, 207 

School, cost of, 384 

Schoolcraft, John L., bank director, 
296 ; nominated for congress, 347 ; 
elected to congress, 349 

Schoolmaster, early, 71 

Schoon, Rolf, son James, buried, 141 

Schoonhoven, Dirk B., daughter bu- 
ried. 146 
Schoonmaker, Johannis, buried at 

Papsknee, 133 ; child buried, 133 

John, died, 365 
Schot, Angeneetie, child buried, 137 
Schout fiscaal, or sheriff, 19 
Schredell, Lowis, buried, 140; child 

buried, 133 
Schroon river, head waters of Hudson, 

Schureman. Coonradt, freeholder, 266 
Schut, Mindert, freeholder, 267 
Schutt, Solomon, freeholder, 266 
Schuyler, Abram, freeholder, 264 

Abraham, 84 ; law student, 299 

Alida, married, 38 ; buried, 133 

Arent, his seat in church, 126 

Captain John, sent to Canada, 95 

Captain Philip, his seat in church , 

Col. Philip, 258 

David, freeholder, 264 ; first alder- 
man, 63, 188; lot of widow, 102; 
wife buried, 131 

David A., child buried, 135, 136, 

Gen. Philip, 254, 292 ; builds canals, 

Hai-manis, child buried, 132 

Harmanus P., 84 ; bank clerk, 291 

Jacobus, buried at the Hogeberg, 

Jacobus, son buried. 141, 146 

Jeremiah, buried, 144 

Jeremias. child buried. 133 ; daugh- 
ter buried at Flats, 139 

Johannis, freeholder, 263; lieute- 
nant, 198 ; his seat in church, 
126 ; buried, 137, 140 ; wife bu- 
ried, 136 

Jobs, Jr., buried at Flats, 137; 
child buried at Flats, 124, 134, 
137 ; buried, 140 

Jobs iST., buried, 145 

Lawrence L., died, 332 

Madame, 114 

Maj. Gen., in celebration 1788, 229 

Mar}', widow Samuel, died, 338 

Mindert, freeholder, 263 ; buried, 
145 ; wife buried, 141 

Nicholas, freeholder, 265; buried, 

Peter, Col., 101, 197; buried, 132 ; 
witness to church patent, 113 ; 
entitled to seat in church, 126; 
first mayor, 63, 160, l&S, 197, 
213: freeholder, 268; child bu- 
ried. laS, 134, 135, 136, 137, 140, 
141, 144 

Pieter, child buried, 140 

Pieter Davids, wife buried, 141 

Pieter, Jr., buried, 144 

Philip, freeholder, 264 

Philip, Jr., his seat in church, 126 



Schuyler, Philip P., 84 

Richard, arrested, 324 

Sanuake, buried, 140 

Sara, buried near her residence by 
Pieter, 137 

Sarah, widoAv of Harmanus P., 336 

Thos., vice president board of 
trade, 240 

arms, 86 

family, influence of, 189 

fiats, 113 
Schuylers, house of, 312 
Schuylkill, discovered by Dutch, 12 
Schwartz, David, died, 357 
Schwertfeger, Mr., Lutheran minister, 

Scipio, stage, 249 
Scnapion, Captain, commander at 

Albany, 98 
Scoresby, Rev. Dr., lecture of, 328 
Scotia, settled by Glen, 71 
Scott, Elizabeth, died, 348 
Scove], Nelson W., city marshal, 335 
Scraftbrd, George H., died, 358 
Scrymser, James, founded school, 203 
Scuth, Jan Willemsen, 76 
Sears and Peck's inn, 250 
Seceders, 276; have a church, 167 
Second Ward, freeholders, 1720, 263 
Sedgwick, Henry D., law student, 299 

Robert, law student, 299 

Roderick, 262 

Theodore, 200, 299 
Seeger, Evert, child buried, 143 

fiend k, wife buried, 146 

Johs, two girls buried, 134, 135, 

Roelif, son Johs buried, 146 ; wife 
bm-ied, 143 

Thomas, child buried, 143; wife 
buried, 144 
Seehling, Henry, Jewish rabbi, 179 
Scene, Jacob, buried, 141 
Seger family, 74. See Sieger. 
Segers, Cornells, 75 ; forbidden to 
brew, 36 

Jannitje, married, 75 

Johs, interment by, 134 

Johs, Jr., wife buried, 146 
Semesseeck, purchased, 15 
Seneca stages, 250 
Senecas, 13 

Sentence of banishment, 1644, 39 
Servants principally negroes, 60 
Serviss, Mrs. William, died, 351 
Settlers in Rensselaerswyck, names 

of, 64 
Seward, Wm. H., delivers eulogy, 335 ; 

nominated for senator, 336 
Sewing machine, advent of, 359 
Sexagenary, 318 
Sexton's lees and duties, 176 
Seymour, Robert M., died, 363 

William, bank director, 296 ; first 
collector of customs, 241 

Shaftsbury, 252 

Shaker road, omnibus on, 324 

Shakers, charity of, 349 

Shallow, Mary Teresa, 382 

Sharp, John, buries French child, 131 

Peter, ^45 
Sharts, Col. John, eulogy by, 340 
Shattuck, Mrs. Grace H., died, 363 
Shaver, Lucretia, died, 371 
Shaw, D. D., purchases large oxen, 

Joseph, professor, 200, 255 

Julia Ann, died, 350 

widow of Milo, died, 374 
Sheep husbandry, 194 
Sheflield stage, 250 
Sheldon. Gaylor, bank director, 296 
Shephard lot, 311, 312 
Sheridan, David, died, 379 

killed, 373 
Sheriff's posse go to Berne, 330 
Sherman, Watts, cashier, 296 ; stable 

burnt, 348 
Sherp, Tomas, child buried, 135 
Ship fever, new epidemic, 325 

joiners in procession, 231 
Shipboy, Thomas, his house, 313 
Shipley, S. H., died, 369 
Shipping 1823, 278 
Shueyder, Daniel, 164 
Shoemaker, Mr., store robbed, 328 
Shoes, want of in the colony, 31 
Shrove Tuesday misdemeanors, 125 
Sickel, Zacharias, child buried, 135, 
140 ; wife buried, 139 

James, died, 367 
Sickonssen, Indian sachem, 15 
Sidnem, George, freeholder, 266 
Sieger, Evert, child buried, 139 

Johs, son buried, 139 
Sieskasin, 67 
Signs abridged, 364 
Sihans, Hans, freeholder, 266 
Sikenekomptas, Paep, Indian sachem, 

Sill, John, cashier, 298 

Richard, federal candidate, 235 
Silversmiths in procession 1788, 230 
Silvester, Peter, 258 
Simonds, Collins W., died, 383 
Simons, John, died, 375 
Simonse, Gerrit, freeholder, 265 

Jno. Wm., freeholder, 266 

Johannis, freeholder, 268 

Volkert, freeholder, 265 
Simpson, Mr., lecture on Ireland, 361 
Singer, Elizabeth, died, 368 
Singerlant, Albert, freeholder, 268 
Sisters of charity, fair of, 355 
Sixberry, Anna, daughter of Billy, 
buried, 137 

Billy, buried, 136 

Evert, child buried, 1.38 
Skeensborough stage, 251 ; difficulty 

of travel to 1796, 210 



Skippers in procession, 233 

Slack, John, died, 374 

Slaghboom, Antonia, 40 

Slave population, 191 

Slaves in 1823, 280 

Sleighing, first, 1847, 328 ; first, 1848, 

351, 352 
Slingerland, Arent, child buried, 139 
Cornells, buried, 144 
Jobs, child buried, 140 
Mrs. Douw B., died, 363 
Tennis, Go ; settler, 187 ; buried, 
139 ; child buried, 132 ; wife bu- 
ried, 138. See Singerlant. 
Sloop Experiment, voyage to China, 261 
Miriam, quick trip, 359 
Nancy, trip of, 2G0 
navigation, head of, 271 
speed of, 222 
traveling, 208 

voyages to West Indies, 257; to 
China, 261 
Sloops, number in port, 325 
Sloughter, Col. Henry, 97 
Smackx island, 15, 16 
Smit, Mr., child buried, 144 
Smitd, Tarn, child buried, 143 
Smith, Adam, freeholder, 265 
& Boardman, builders, 293 
Caroline, child stealer, 337 
Cornells Tomassen, 69 
George, drowned, 364 
Israel, bank director, 295 
James Stanley, editor, 321 
Jeremiah, died, 342 
John B., died, 368 
Mrs. Israel, Jr., 366 
Nicolas, freeholder, 266 
Peter, 245 
Eev. Dr., president Union College, 

Stephen R., Universalist pastor, 

Thomas Sanderssen, 77 
William, bank director, 296 
inn, 250, 251 
Smoke, foot racer, 326 
Snow, 346, 351, 357 
Snow shoes, 319 
Snuft' factory, 237,240 
Snyder, H. W., engraver, 200 
Society of Arts, 274 

of Friends, account of, 181 
Soil of county, 193 
Solomons, Jan, his lot, 102 
Solomonse, Jno, freeholder, 264 

Levi, tobacconist, 238 
Somers, Mrs. John, 345 
Souldeh, Anna Maria, died, 370 
South America, steam boat, 322 

Baptist Society, 352 ; church open- 
ed, 360 
Market street, business of, 271 
Pearl street, formerly Washington, 

Southwick, Solomon, bank president, 
294 ; his printing office, 313 ; law 
student, 299 
Mrs. Solomon, 312 
Spafibrd's account of Albany, 269, 280 ; 
his theory of river obstructions, 
Special sessions established, 360, 361 
Spencer, Ambrose, 299; address on, 
355 ; died, 332; buried, 333; monu- 
ment to, 362 
John C, agricultural address, 345; 
his house, 333 
Spencertown stage, 250 
Spierinck, Cornells, 72 

Jacques, 65 ; settler, 187 
Spikerman, Bastian, freeholder, 266 
Spinger, son buried, 145 
•Spoor, Isaac, freeholder, 267 
Sporborg, Lewis, 245 
Sportsmen's club organized, 338 
Spouts to houses, 281 
Sprague, T. D., died, 377 

William B., 255 
Sprecher, Samuel P., Lutheran minis- 
ter 155 
Springfield stage, 249, 253 
Springs, 195 

Sprager, Jacob, child buried, 145 
Sprugert, David, child buried, 146 
Squire, Stephen, died, 367 
Staats (see Staes), Dr. Abraham, 73, 
312 ; his garden, 99, 103 ; sells lot 
to Lutherans, 151 ; embarked, 

Barent, freeholder, 268; buried, 

at Hoghbergh, 143 ; son buried, 

142; daughter buried at Hoge- 

bergh, 134 

Barent A., child buried, 140 

Barent, Jr., son buried, 139; wife 

buried, 142 
Dr. Abram, 73, 312 
Eysabell, buried, 139 
Henry, 84 

Jacob, freeholder, 263 ; buried, 135 
Jochim, of Hooge Berg, 75, 84 ; first 
alderman, 188; his seat in church, 
127 ; assistant alderman, 63 
Mr., sells his negro man, 259 
Mrs. William N., died, 340 
William, 84 

house, on State street, 312 
inn, 250 
Staatsburgh stage, 251 
Stadt House, its location, 183 
Staes, see Staats. 
Stafl"ord, Mrs. Harriet, died, 365 
Spencer, bank director, 294 
Stage and mail routes in olden time, 
fare, 246, 247, 249 
Stages in 1823, 276 
Staging run out, 253, 254 
Stained glass windows, 128 



Stansbuiy, Arthur Jos., Presbyterian 

pastor, 172, 255 
Stanton, George W., bank director, 

295, 296 ; died, 360 
Stanwix Hall, first bethel in, 177, 178 

John, died, 322 
Staple right claimed by Coorn, 32 
Starr, Henry, law student, 299 
State Hall, described, 275; location of, 
163 ; lot purchased, 159 ; its pur- 
poses, 189 
Medical Society, meeting of, 330 
Normal school quinquennial, 376 ; 
account of, 206 ; annual examina- 
tion, 346; bill passed, 335; ex- 
amination, 321 ; first principal 
died, 329 
street, 164 ; 1792, 310, 311 ; average 

frade, 270; burial ground, 130; 
ridge sermon on, 177 

States-General, commission adventur- 
ers, 9 

Stealing, how punished, 1644, 40 

Steam boat, first up, 329 ; landing de- 
signated, 355 ; site of Fort Orange, 
257 ; impeded, 359 ; race, 337 ; 
South America, caused accident, 
370 ; speed, 367 

Steam boats, 1823, 276 

Steamer Alida, quick trip, 367 
New World, first trip, 364 
Oregon, early boat, 359 

Stearns, John, 203, 255 ; founds school, 

Steele, Mrs. Samuel, died, 357 
Oliver, bank director, 296 

Steeprock, foot racer, 326 

Steinhuys, James, wife buried, 141; 
child buried, 141 

Stephentown, 252; population, 1790, 

Step stone of the church, its location, 

Stern, Myer, 245 

Steveniersen, Arent, 69 

Stevens, Dr. Alex. H., pres. society, 330 
Jonathan, freeholder, 264 
Robert L., steam boat, 217 
Samuel, bank director, 296 

Stevenson, Abraham (Croaet), 70 
Douw & Ten Eyck, nail makers, 

James, his oflice, 306; son buried, 

J 42, wife buried, 138 
John, 245, 258 ; bank director, 289 ; 
his residence, 305 ; warden, 310, 
311, 312; family residence, 305; 
house, account of, 305 

Stewart, Mrs. Adam, died, 357 
Ann, died, 383 
G., founds school, 203 
John G., died, 373 
candidate, 349. See Stuart 

Stillwater, population 1790, 191 ; stage, 


stockades erected, 11 ; object of, 271 ; 

of 1745, 280 ; location of, 313 ; lines 

of, 182, 184 
Stockbridge stage, 249 
Stoddard, Ashbel, 231 
StofTelsen, Ryer, 71 
Stol, Jacob Jansen, ferry master, 64 ; 

settler, 187 
Stone gestukken; or guns, 186 

& Henly, 321 

house in Green street, 235 
Stoney point, 76 
Stores in 1789, 236 
Storrs, E. P., 299 
Stover, Jacob, freeholder, 266 
Stoves unknown in 1749, 53 
Strakosch, pianist, 363 
Street barricaded with chains, 176 
Streets in 1789, 281; narrow, 209; 

number of, 189 ; paved in 1749, 55 
Stringer, Samuel, Dr., 254, 258, 259 
Strong, William N., bank director, 

Strong's inn, 251 

Stuart, Gilbert, bank director, 293 
Sturgeon, 51 

Stuward, John, buried, 135 
Stuyvesant, Gen. Petrus, became go- 
vernor, 37; disturbs colony, 188; 

took ground for Fort Orange, 97 ; 

arrests Schermerhorn, 75; com- 
plaints against, 66 ; permits Luth- 

theran worship, 149 
Styker, Nicos, freeholder, 266 
Suckers, great haul of, 377 
Sullivan, Thos., killed, 342 
Summers, John, died, 340 
Sunday collections in old church, 128 

Dutchman appeared, 365; trade 

prohibited during sermon time, 

125 ; trains discontinued, 340 ; 

suspension of, 329 

Sunnyside, old irons from Albany, 

Susquehanna rail road, office, site old 

fort Orange, 257 
Sutherland, Jacob, 299 
Swallow, steam boat, 217 
Swart, Dirk, antifederalist, 228 

Esays, freeholder, 265 

Wouter, freeholder, 265 
Swarthout, Cornells, buried, 140 
Swart's inn, 251 
Swartw^out, Roeloff, 65 
Sweers, Isaac, 43 
Sweetsen, Barens, 90 
Swinton, Isaac, first recorder, 63, 188 
Swiss emigrants, 337 
Swits, Isaac, daughter buried, 134 

Tjerck, buried, 137 
Switzs, Coruelis, freeholder, 264 ; 
daughter Femmitie buried, 132 

Hester, buried, 147 ; son buried, 

Isaac, son buried, 134, 135, 140 



Switzs, Jacob, freeholder, 265 

Simon, freeholder, 265 
Symonse, Johs, wife Susanna buried, 

Symsbury stage, 250 
Synagogues first organized, 179 
Synod of Albany, 377 
Syracuse stage, 253 

Taggart, Rev. Mr., ordained, 369 
Tailors in procession, 231 
Takelsen, Derrick, freeholder, 267 
Talbot, Philip, church trustee, 148 
Talcott, Daniel W., died, 364 

S. v., 131 
Tallman, Alice Adaline, wife of Jona- 
than, died, 332 
Tanners and curriers, 232 
Tappin, Martha, died, 322 
Tarbell, Nathaniel, killed, 357 
Tawalsontha creek, fort erected on, 13 
Tawassgunshee, fort erected at, 13 
Tax for war expenses 1688, 320 
Tayler, John, bank president, 292 
Taylor, Ann, died, 338 

& Fillmore, nomination, 3.39 

Gen., indignation meeting, 343 

James, president St. Andrews So- 
ciety, 245 

John, nominated for mayor, 334 ; 
elected mayor, 335 

John W., law student, 299 

Lansing G., bank director, 296 

Robert, died, 330 

Zachary, arrived, 374 

ticket elected, .S19 

vote cast for, 350 
Tea, introduced about 1700, 60 
Teall, Edward M., died, 360 
Telegraph announcements, 377 ; posts 

permitted, 375 ; results of, 349 
Telegraphic feat, 329, 352 
Teller, Andries, commissaris, 151 

Willem, wife buried, 134; wife's 
sister buried, 136 

Johaunis, freeholder, 265 
Temperance Pavilion, erected, 364 
Temperature 1802, 195 

described by Kalm, 53 

high, 364, .366 

low, 326, 327, 330, 349, 352, 355, 357, 
Temple, Col. Robert E., returned from 

Mexico, 344 
Ten Broeck, Abraham, child buried, 
145; ships horses, 259; bank 
director, 289; bank president, 
291 ; federalist, 228 

Anna, buried, 134 

Christiena, buried, 1.33 

Dirck, freeholder, 264; child bu- 
ried, 133, 134, 136; buried, 134, 

Ten Broeck, Dirk, church deacon, 104, 
105 ; church officer, 101 

Dirk Wessels, 160 

Gen., foundations of mansion 
found, 340 

Johannis, freeholder, 263; child 
buried, 132, 134, 135, 146 

Saml., freeholder, 266 ; buried, 145 

Tobias, freeholder, 266 

Wessell, freeholder, 264, 267 ; lieu- 
tenant, 197 
Ten Eyck, Abraham, 84 

Anthony, anti-federalist, 228 

Coenraet, freeholder, 263 ; buried, 
144; daughter Catrina buried, 
137 ; daughter Gertie buried, 138 

Conrad A., candidate for assembly, 
,322; died, 363 

Geertie, buried, 135 

Harmanus, founds school, 203 

Hendrick, freeholder, 131, 264; 
son buried, 134 

Jacob, child buried, 84, 135, 140 

Jacob B., child buried, 134, 136, 139 

Jacob C, child buried, 139 

Jacob H., child buried, 137, 142 ; 
bank president, 291 

Johs, child buried, 142, 143, 145 

Maj. JohnD. P., 2.32 

Margaret, married, 301 

Mrs. Abraham, has ancient china 
set 261 

Mrs. William, died, 346 

Peter, 68 

Tobias, child buried, 143 
Terbush, Capt. Henry, killed, 376 
Teunise, Cornells, his seat in church, 

Claes, 75 

Gerrit, captain, 198 

Jan, 72 

Jannetje, 72. See Theunisse. 
Texel, colonists sail from, 17, 187 
Thacher, George H., bank director, 

Thaile, Frederick, 165 
Thanksgiving day, 384 
Theunisse, Dirck, justice, 197 

Eghbert, justice, 197 

Gerryt, justice, 197 
Thickstone, Jereme, freeholder, 265 
Thies, Edward, house robbed, 378 
Third Presbyterian church edifice, a 

bethel, 178; location of first edi- 
fice, 205 
Third R. P. Dutch church, installation, 

351 371 
Third ward, freeholder, 1720, 264 
Thomas, David, died, 351 

Edward, died, 376 

George L., shot, 348 

John, bank director, 296 

John, Jr., died, 351 

Mrs. M. J., died, 361 

Sarah, died, 326 



Thomasse, Johannes, 98; (Mingael?) 

ensign, 197 
Thompson, Dr. Alex. H., vice presi- 
dent, soc. 330 

Gilbert L.. 299 

Israel, anti-federalist, 228 

Jane D., died, 351 

John, assemblyman, 335 

Judge, 299 

Mrs. Alexander, died, 360 

Richard, died, 335 

Smith, trustee of Academy, 200 
Thorn, S. T., store burnt. 338 
Thorp, Aaron, bank director, 295 

& Sprague, stagers, 253 
Thuurick, Jacob, 1(54 
Tides described by Kalm, 52 

velocity of, 222 
Tierney, Owen, died, 3T2 
Tiers, Johan, 66 
Tiffney, Ezekiel, 164 
Ti^er, trading vessel, 9 
Tile kiln owned by Herbertsen, 72 

makers, early, 302 
Tiles brought from Holland, 55 
Tillman, John, builds church, 163, 166 

Margaretta, 163 
Tillotson, Thomas, bank director, 293 
Timber, import of, 302 
Timmons, John, killed, 351 

Eldert, freeholder, 267 
Tinsmiths in procession, 230 
Tioga county, set off, 192 
Tivoli flour, price of, 372 

hollow, fire at, 325 
Toasts at Constitutional celebration, 

1788, 234 
Tobacco found with Hudson river 

Indians, 3, 4, 5 ; establishment, 

1790, 236, 238 ; burnt, 240 
Tobacconists in procession, 231 
Toll, Carle Hanse, freeholder, 265 

Daniell, freeholder, 265 
Tomassen, Barent, 64 : settler, 187 

Cornells, Smith, 69 
Tomhannic, post to, 247; church at, 

Tompkins, Sarah, died, 334 
Tonawanda, stage, 250 
Tontine, 312 
Topp, John, died, 357 

William Duncan, died, 348 
Topping, Mrs. Sylvester, died, 358 
Tory execution, 317, 318 
Tower, Charlemagne, 300 
Town Hall in 1749, 55 
Townsend, Dr. Charles D., died, 328 

Franklin, bank president, 294 

Isaiah, his lot in State street, 293 

John, bank director, 295 

Mrs. John, died. 371 

Mrs. Stephen, died, 362 
Townsend's furnace, large cast, 374 
Tracey, Catharine, died. 374 
Tracy, John, chairman, 337 

Trade in 1789, 282; 1796, 284; begun 

with Indians, 12 ; and commerce, 

Trading house, dimensions of, 186; 

first erected, 11 
Traub, Vise, Jewish rabbi, 179 
Travel between Troy and Albany, 

1849, 376 
Traveling in New York, 208 
Traver, Stephen, died, 332 
Tread well, Conrad, died, 366 

George C, fur shop burnt, 347 
Treaty with Five Nations, 14 
Trees of Albany, 1749, 51, 52 
Trinity church, occupied by Baptists, 

352 ; opened, 356 ; sold, 360 ; took 

fire, 382 ; New York, its property 

coveted, 96 
Trotter, Capt. Matthew, transports 
specie, 292 

widow of Gen. Matthew, died, 368 

John H., copies records, 96 
Trotting match, 347 
Troy Budget, eloquent on the weather, 
325 ; ancient post rider, 252 

Iron and Nail Works, 278 

owned by Vanderheyden, 304 ; seat 
of staging operations, 253 ; stage 
1796, 247 ; seen from Albany, 185 
Truax's inn, 250 
Trueax, Abram, freeholder, 265 

Andries, 286, 287 

Henry, 814 

Isaac, 84 ; law student, 299 

T. W., killed, 327 
Truesdell, Martin, died, 369 
Tubbs, Erectus, died, 362 
Tucker, Mark, 255 

Ferry, died, 344 
Tufts, Joshua, bank director, 295 
Tapper, Capt. G. D., 322 
Turners in procession, 232 
Tuscameatick, Indian name for Green- 
bush, 24 
Tweddle & Darlington, check forged, 

John, 240 ; bank president, 298 

Hall, built, 315 
Twenty-fifth reo:iment encamp, 377 
Tyler, Annia Maria, wife B. O., died 

Tymese, Marietie, buried at Nistaga- 
yoene, 133 

Bastiaen, child buried, 141 
Tyssen, Claes, 72 

Jan, settler, 187 ; trumpeter, 15, 64 

Uldrigh, Johannis, freeholder, 266 
Ulster county returns, 228 
Union Bank, organized, 298 

Mission Sunday School, 328 

School, founded, 202 
Unitarian church. Dr. Dewey left, 362 ; 

ordination, 309; Dewey, pastor, 352 



United New Netlierland company, 11, 
12 ; charter expired, 13 

United States circuit court, 323 
constitution, 229 

Universalist church, account of, 180 ; 
settled pastor, 348; pastor in- 
stalled, 351 ; tea party, 357 

Updike, William, died, 342 

Uranian Hall, 278 

Utica, distance of, 280 ; stage to, 253 
steam boat, 217, 218 

Uylenspiegel, Claes Teunissen, 75 

Vagabonds sent over as colonists, 59 
Vail, Charles C, died, 322 

Samuel, died, 367 
Valkenburgh, Hend., freeholder, 268 

Jacob, freeholder, 268 

Johannis, freeholder, 268 

Lamert, freeholder, 266 
Van Aelen, Jobs, wile buried, 138 

Pieter, child buried, 138; buried, 
142. See Van Alen 
Van Aelstine Abram, freeholder, 266 
Van AelstjTi, Isaac, buried, 139 ; child 
buried, 135 

Janetie, buried, 132 

Maria, buried, 146. See Aelstjoi 

Martyn, daughter buried, 141 ; son 
MaVte buried, 145 
Van Aeriiam, Mrs. Benjamin, died, 

Hester, buried, 144 
Van Aesdale, Dirk, child buried, 142 
Van Ale, Lawrence, assistant alder- 
man, 63, 188 
Van Alen, Mrs. Conrad, died, 336 

Evert, freeholder, 266 

Jacobus, freeholder, 266 

Johannis, freeholder, buried, 263, 

Luykas. freeholder, 266 

Maretie, buried, 135 

Peter, freeholder, 265 ; daughter 
Annake buried, 143 

Stephanis, freeholder, 266 

Wm. freeholder, 268 
Van Allen, Jacob, 68 

Cornelis, fi-eeholder, 268; child 
buried, 138 

Gysbert, buried, 139 

Isaac, freeholder, 268 

Jan, freeholder, 268 ; buried, 186 

Marte, Junr.. freeholder, 268 

Martin, ft-eeholder. 268 ; died, 359 ; 
bank director, 296 

Martynis C, buried, 139 

Thomas, freeholder, 2^6 
Van Amersfoort, Jan Dircksen, 71, 74 
Van Amsterdam, Albert Jansen, 74 

Jacob Jansen, 69 

Guysbert Classen, 69 
Van Antwei-p, John H., cashier, 294 
Van Allen, Nicholaes,bttried, 133 

Van Armen, Abram, child bnned, 

133,137,145 ^ .„ 

Van Arnem, Jan, son buried, 139; 

child buried, 138 . 

Van Amum, Abraham, wife buried, 

145 . ^_ 

Van Baal, J. H., church depositary, 12b 
Van Baden, Hans Vos, 72 
Van Baasle, Johan Helms, 73 
Van Beaumont, Anna, 38 
Van Beeck, Nicholaus, 42 
Van Benthusen, Baltis, freeholder, 
263 , _,. 

Benjamin, died, 332; bank direc- 
tor, 294 

Catharine, died, 322 

Catlyne, 131 .. 

Gerret, child buried, 136; wife 
buried, 136 

Jacob, child buried, 141 

John, 164 
Van Bergen. Adriaen, 23 

Elizabeth, died, 350 

Gerrit. U 

Martin Gerritsen, account of, &4 ; 
settler, 187 

MjTidert. 64 
Van Bergh, Wynant C, child buried, 

Van Berghen, Gerrit, freeholder, 267 

Marte. freeholder. 267 
Van Bersingeren, Adriaen Cornelis- 

sen, 74 
Van Beuren, Barent, child buried at 
Papsknee, 137 

Cornelis, son buried at Papsknee, 

Marte, buried near his own house, 

Pieter, son buried, 141 ; wife bu- 
ried, 142 

Willem, buried, 143 ; child buried 
at Papsknee, 143 
Van Brackelen. See Van Breuckelen 
Van Brackell, Gerrit. freeholder, 265 
VanBrakel, Guisbert, freeholder, 265 ; 

child buried, 141 
Van Breda, Claes Jansen, 72 
Van Breman, Jan Jansen, 75 
Van Breuckelen, Cornelis Teunissen, 

20, 66, 67 
Van Briestede, Tryntje Jansen. 69 
Van Broeckhuysen, Michael Jansen, 

Mauritz Jansen, 68 
Van Brugge, Carl, 76 
Van Brugh. Peter, freeholder, 263 ; bu- 
ried, l37 

Sara, buried, 137 
Van Brunt, Rev., Rutger, installed, 

Van Bunick. Gysbert Adriaensen, 71 

Thomas Jansen, 69 
Van Buren, Catharine M., 336 

Cornelis, freeholder, 267 



Van Buren, Dr. Peter, secretary me- 
dical society, 330 

Hendrick, 66 

John, political speech of, 323 ; 
speech of, 325 

Maas, 66 

Maasen Cornells Maessen, 66; 
freeholder, 268 ; buried at Scho- 
dack, 135 

Martin, freeholder, 268 ; nominated 
for president, 341 ; his residence, 
305 ; vote for, 349 

Mary Jane, died, 342 

Mrs. John D., died, 373 

Mrs. Smith T., 380 

Peter, freeholder, 266 

Steyntje, 66 

Tobias, 66 
Van Bylet, Hellegonda, 37 
Van Campen, Jacob Jansen, 72 
Van Ceureu, Barent, wife buried at 

Papsknee, 138 
Van Corlaer, Bennone, cornet, 198. 

See Van Cui-ler. 
Van Cortland, Oloff Stevensen, 37 

Stephanus, 39 
Van Cremyn, Joachim Kuttelhuys, 73 
Van Cuelen, Mathais, 16 
Van Curler, Areudt, assistant com- 
missaris, 19 ; commissaris, 79 ; 
commissary-general, 40; account 
of him, 41 ; his death, 41 ; 
magistrate of the colony, 64 ; 
went to Holland, 32; colonial 
secretary, 20; settler, 187, ISS; 
aids Van der Donck, 34 ; orders 
Van der Donck out of his house, 
34 ; builds church, 92 ; effort to 
injure, 27 ; drowned, 41 

Beuoni, 198 
Van d Zee, Antony, Annatie wife, bu- 
ried, 142 
Van de Heyden, Cornelia, buried, 132 

David, child buried, 134, 143 ; son 
Nanningh, buried, 136 

Derrick, freeholder, 268; pur- 
chased site of Troy, 304 ; buried, 
136 ; child buried, 141, 145 

Heer Antony, his residence, 304 

Jacob, buried, 139; child buried, 
132, 144 ; bank director, 289 ; his 
residence, 302, 304 ; on bank com- 
mittee, 290 

Jacob Jobs, child buried, 145 

Jacob Tyssen, 304 

Jan Cornelissen, first settler, 304 

Jochem, wife buried, 139 

Jobs, child buried, 132; son Jo- 
chim,buried,141 ; wife buried,144 

Jobs D., child buried, 138 

Maria, child buried, 145 

Mattys, child buried, 136, 137, 138, 
Van de Heyden, Ragel, buried, 144 

palace, account of, 302 

Vanden Bergh, Abram, child buried, 

133, 146 
Calyntie, daughter buried, 141 
Chatriena, buried, 133 
Cornelis, freeholder, 267: child 

buried, 138, 142 
Cornelis C, child buried, 135, 141 
Cornelis M., child buried, 146 
Gerit W., child buried, 134, 138 
Gerret B., child buried at Papski- 

nee 132 135 
Gerrit C.,' child buried at Paps- 
knee, 133, 134 
Gerrit, freeholder, 268; sister of 

wife, buried, 143 
Gerrit G., son buried, 143 
Guisbert, freeholder, 264; child 

buried, 131; daughter Catrien 

buried, 146 
Johannis, freeholder, 263 
Mattys, buried, 139 ; child buried 

at Papsknee, 133 
Mrs. G. G., died, 381 
Mrs. John A., died, 351 
Rutger, child buried, 145 
Susanna, 138 
Thunis, buried, 132 
Volkert, child buried, 135, 141, 

142, 145, 146 
Wilhelmus, Jr., child buried, 143 
Will, child buried, 141, 147 
Willem Guysbert, two children 

buried, 141 
Willem H., child buried, 131 
Willemhelmus, child buried, 135 
Winant, freeholder, 264, 267 ; wife 

Volckie buried, 140; daughter 

Volkie buried. 137 
Wynant C, child buried, 131, 134 ; 

wife buried, 144 
Vander Belt, Adriaen Teunissen, 72 

Simon Walings, 69 
Vander Blaes, Andries Herbertsen 

Constapel, 72 
Vander Bogart, Harmen, 66 

Harman Mynderts, 75 ; died, 76 
Myndert Harmanse, 182 ; his lots, 

Vander Donck, Adriaen, 29, 74; ar- 
rived, 72 ; sheriff of the colony, 23 ; 
bad conduct of, 26, 27, 28 ; his Ver- 
toogh, 69; complains of Stuyve- 
sant, 66 ; office ceased, 34 ; his 
description of Xew Netherland, 
64, 69 ; his house burnt, 34 ; his 
stud drovnaed, 73; occupied Cas- 
tle island, 74 
Vander Huygens, Cornelis, 31, 33 
Vanderlip, Rev. Elias, died, 344 

Philip, died, 333 
Vander Poel, Abram, infant buried, 

132 ; daughter buried, 134 
Maria, died, 287 
Tander Poel, Melgert, freeholder, 266 
Winant, freeholder, 263 



Vanderse, Killian, freeholder, 268 

Wouter, freeholder, 268 
Vander Volgen, Cornlis, freeholder, 


John S., died, 341 

Tunis, freeholder, 265 
Van der Zee, Anthony, child buried, 
138, 142, 147; wife buried, 138 

Storm, 65 

Willem, child buried, 140 
Vandeuse, Melgert, freeholder, 268 
Van Deusen, Abram, child buried, 136 

Arent, child buried, 140, 145 

Harpert, freeholder, 264; child 
buried, 133; daughter buried, 
134 \ wife buried, 132 ; Jacobse, 
buried, 137 

Johannis, freeholder, 266 

Marya, buried, 142 

Mattervis, child buried, 134 

Melchert A., buried at Papsknee, 
137. See Vendeuse. 

Rob., freeholder, 266 

William Jacobse, church officer, 

101, 104, 105 ; buried, 133 

Van Doom, Cornells Lambertsen, 73 

Van Driesbergen, Gertrude Dries, 74 

Van Driessen, Petrus, pastor of Dutch 

church, 101, 104, 105; child bu- 
ried, 131 ; Madame, buried, 145 ; 

baptisms, by, 96; builds church, 

86 ; his ministry, 82 ; his successor 

how to be appointed, 109; term of 

ministry, 88 ; buried, 136 
Van Dublin, Jan Andriessen, 76 
Van Duse, Abram, buried, 145 

Nicos : freeholder, 266 
Van Duesen, Abram, child buried, 136 

Isaac, freeholder, 266 

Eutger, buried at Papsknee, 133 
Van Dyck, Anthony, buried, 136 

Cornells, freeholder, 263; com- 
missaris, 151 ; buried, 140 ; child 
buried, 132 ; son buried, 135 ; 
two daughters buried, 136 ; wife 
Maria buried, 145 

Cornelius, assemblyman, 235 

David, freeholder 264 ; buried, 134 
child bui'ied, 134 

Herry, child buried, 144 

Jacobus, freeholder. 265 

Maria, buried, 137 

witnesses, died, 152 
Van Edam, Dirck Jansen, 68 

Jan Michaelsen, tailor, 70 

Rynier Tymansseu, 69 

Tys Barentsen Schoonmaker, 69 
Van Eechelen, Jan, 65 
Van Eivere, Antie, buried, 131. See 

Van Ey verse 
Van Epps, Jno., Baptist, freeholder, 

Van Eps, Evert, freeholder, 265 
Van Es, Cornells HendrickseD,73 

Elizabeth, 73 

Van Eyvere, Marte, child buried, 

See Van Eivere 
Van Francke, Abram, child buried, 

Gerrit, child buried, 142, 143 

Rickert, buried, 139. 140; wife 
Annatie, buried, 144 

Ulderick, buried, 146 ; child buried, 
133 ; daughter buried, 146 ; wife 
buried, 140. Sec Van Vranken 
Van Franiker, Jan Terssen, 67 
Van Frederickstad, Arent Andries- 
sen, 68 
Van Gertruydenburgh, Paulus Jansen, 

Van Goesen, Jobs, child buried, 137 
Van Hamelward, Adam Roelantsen, 

Martin Hendricksen, 71 
Van Harinckhouck, Johan, 16 
Van Hoosen, Jacob, freeholder, 266 

Harme, son Jan buried, 144 ; wife 
buried, 139; child buried, 133 

Harmen, son buried, 134 

Hendk, child buried, 138 

Jan, 77 

Jan, freeholder, 76, 266 

Jno., freeholder, 267 

Johannis, Iteeholder, 266 

Kasper, freeholder, 266 

Maria, buried, 139 

RjTiier, buried, 142 

Rynier, child buried, 141 

Volckart, ensign, 198 

Volckert, buried, 132 
Van Houser, Jane, 258 
Van Houten, Roeloff Cornelissen, 71 
Van Houtten, Jan Creyne, 74 
Van Huysen, James B., 373 
Van Ickensburgh, Lucas Smith, 73 
Van Ingen, Jacob, 311, 313 

Cap. Wm., 234, 260 

James, 291 
Van Ivera, Warner, freeholder, 263 
Van Loan, Albert, 267 

Jan, freeholder, 267 

Jno., Jr. 267 
Van Loon, Charles, 326 

Jacob, 84 

Jan, 126 

Petrus, child buried, 142 
Van Luyter, Arendt Teunissen, 74 
Van Luj'derdorp, Juriaen Bestval, 73 
Van Lybergen, Arnoudt, 9 
Van Merkerk, (Nieuwkerk) Cornelia 

Teunissen, 70 
Van Munickendam, Pieter Cornelis- 
sen, 20, 68 
Van Nes, Aeltie, buried at Half Moon, 

Catharina, buried, 137 

Cornells, freeholder, 267 ; child bu- 
ried, 142 ; Evert, freeholder, 267 ; 
wife buried, 140 



Yan Nes, Gerrit, freeholder, 264 ; child 
buried, 138 : daughter buried, 
134 ; wife Catlyntie, buried, 137 

Hendk Gerret, child buried, 140 

Hendrick G., buried, 143; wife 
buried, 144 ; child buried, 142 

Jan, buried, 141 

John, Jr., died, 359 

Judge, 299 
Van Nieukerke, Brandt Peelen, alder- 
man, 64, 187 

Gerritje, 64 

Lisbet, 64 
Van Niewenhuysen, Rev. "Wilhelmus, 

term of ministry, 88 
Van Nordinge, Pieter Nicolaussen, 70 
Van Nykerk, Claes Jansen, 69 
Van O Linda, Capt. Abraham, killed, 
321 ; remains received, 329 ; 
funeral honors to, 340 

Daniel, freeholder, 267 

Dr. Peter, treasurer medical soci- 
ety, 330 

Jacob, freeholder, 265 
Van Orden, Hezekiah, federalist can- 
didate, 235 
Van Ostrand, Chas., died, 323 

Johannis, freeholder. 264 

John, child buried, 136 
Van Petten, Andries, freeholder, 265 

Arent, freeholder, 265 

Claes, freeholder, 265 ; his seat in 
church, 127 

Nicolas, 286, 287 
Van Rensselaer, Barnard, his house,314 

Cap., Hendrick, freeholder, 268 

Domine, complaint against Leisler, 

Domine N. refused pastor's seat 
in church, 125 

Eleanora, 37 

Hellegonda, 37, 38 

Henry, 257 

Henry K., assemblyman, 235 ; 
church elder, 101, 104, 105 

Henry Wolters, 37 

J. R., candidate, 349 

Jan Baptiste, 37, 38 

Jeremiah, 290; assemblj-man, 235; 
bank director, 289 ; bank presi- 
dent, 291 ; curator, 157; execu- 
tor of Hartwick, 156, 158 

Jeremiah H., buried, 133 

Jeremias, 37, 38, 41 

Jeremias, patroon buried, 138 ; ex- 
ecutors of, 39 

Johannes, second patroon, 37, 
188 ; sends over Dom., Schaets, 

Jobs, child buried at Greenbush, 
136 ; daughter buried, 144 ; wife 
buried, 140 

Katie, buried, 133 

Kiliaen, 29, 39, 42, 43, 80; pur- 
chases first tract, 15, 16; pur- 

Van Rensselaer, continued — 

chases territory, 187; his rank 
in the association, 16; sends 
over Megapolensis, 89; agree- 
ment Avith, 90 : justice, 197 ; his 
garden, 99, 103; merchant of 
Amsterdam, 27; captain, 198; 
child buried. 137, 142, 143 

Kiliaen K., 84; letter from, 128; 
200 ; his house. 314 

Mallie, 131 

mansion, 270 

Maria. 37. 38, 39 

Madame Elizabeth, buried, 146 

Mr., first patroon died, 188 ; Aisited 
his colonv, 22 

Nicolaus, 38, 39, 80 ; suspected of 
being a papist, his controversy, 
81 ; died, 334 

Philip, 255; his residence, 311, 315 

Philip S., bank president, 291 
founder of Lancaster school, 280 
laid Academy corner stone, 200 
law student,^300 ; on bank com 
mittee, 292 

Richard, 43; bank director, 298; 
church depositary, 126; his 
house, 314; vote of thanks to, 

Ryckert, 38 

Solomon. 84 

Stephanis, child buried, 134, 135 ; 
daughter buried, 138 ; son buried, 

Stephen, 255 ; bank president, 289; 
in procession, 1788, 230; procures 
Mohawk and Hudson rail road 
charter, 243 : federal candidate, 
235; manor house, 239; era of 
mansion, 305 ; triistee of Acade- 
my, 200 ; patroon, buried, 140 

Susan, 37 

archives, 79 

arms, 86 ; in church window, 128 

vault, Westerlo bui-ied in, 122 
Van Rotterdam, Hans Jansen, 71 

Jan Jansen, killed, 72 
Van Ruth. Claes Jansen, 72 
Van Salsbergen, Hendr., freeholder, 266 
Van Sanford, Gertrude, died, 335 
Van Santvoort, Anthony, 84 
Van Schaick, Anna, buried, 137 

Anthony S., wife buried, 137 ; child 
buried, 132 

Antoney, freeholder, 263; buried, 
136; daughter Catriena buried,; 
138 ; daughter Elsie, buried, 137 
his seat in church, 127 

Antoney, Jr., freeholder 263 

Antony Gose. child buried, 143 

Arent, freeholder, 267 

Calie, daughter Catharina buried, 
135 ; daughter Elizabeth, bu- 
ried, 137; buried, 146 

Claes, wife buried, 137 



Van Schaick, Gerrit, 268 
Gerrit W., cashier, 291 
Goosen Gerritsen, 64, 70 
Gose, freeholder, 263 : buried, 132, 

135; child buried, 132, 133 
Jacob, child buried, 143, 146 
Jacob Gerritz, child buried, 145, 

John, bank president, 291 
John B., law student, 300 
Jobs, child buried, 136, 137 
Levinus, first alderman, 63, 160 

188 ; his seat in church, 127 
Marytie, buried, 137 
Miukas, freeholder, 267 
Mrs. John, died, 344 
Mrs. Nicholas, died, 347 
Neeltie, buried, 133 
Nicolaes, buried, 143 ; child buried, 

Steven, child buried, 144 
Sybrand, child buried, 139, 135; 

Gert daughter buried, 139 
Sybrant, his seat in church, 127 
Sybrant A., daughter buried, 136, 

Sybrant G., child buried, 140, 141 
Sybrant H., child buried, 140 
Van Scharluyn, buried, 135 
Johannis, buried, 140 
Willem, buried, 143 
Van Scharluyne, Dirk, child buried, 

133 ; wife buried, 133 
Van Schauk, Elias, freeholder, 266 

Lawrence, freeholder, 266 
Van Schelluyne, Cornells, 84 
Van Schelluyne, Mrs. Rachel Douw, 
died, 360 
Rensselaer, died, 360 
Van Scherline, Cornells, freeholder, 

Van Scherluyne, Geertruy, buried, 135 
Van Schurlynse, Cornelus. buried, 132 
Van Schie, Rev. Cornelia, died, 82; 
buried, 138; term of ministry, 88 ; 
child buried, 135, 136 
Van Schoonderwoerdt, Cornells Corn- 
lissen, 72 
Cor.ielis Gerritsen, 73 
Margaret, 69 

Rutger Jacob sen, account of, 69 
Tennis Jacobsen, 72 
Van Schoonhoven, Dirck B., child bu- 
ried, 141, 146 ; son buried, 146 
Gerrit, wife buried, 138 
Jacobus, buried, 142 
Van Sitterich, Nicolaus, 16 
Van Sleswyck. Juriaeu, 74 
Van Slyck, patentee of Katskill, 37 
Cornells, freeholder, 265 
Cornells Antonissen, 72 
Harma, freeholder, 265; ensign, 

Jacques, 72 
Marte, freeholder, 265 

Van Slyck, Peter, freeholder, 266 

island, 72 
Van Soest, Rutger Hendricksen, 64; 
his arrival, 187 
Seger Hendricksen, 64; his arri- 
val, 187 
Van Steltyn, Evert Pels, 73 
Van Stoutenburgh, Jacob Jansen, 76 
Van TienhovenV C., defends Stuyve- 

sant, 66 
Van Tromp, Governor, oppressed Lu- 
therans, 157 
Van Tweenhuysen, Lambrect, 9 
Van Twiller, Elizabeth, 37 
Rykert, 38 

Wouter, relation of patroon, 38 
Van Utrecht, Jacob Adriaensen, 71 
Van Valkenburgh, Bartlemeus, free- 
holder, 266 
Isaac, 258 

Jacobus, child buried, 136 
Jochim, freeholder, 265 
Lambert, 75 
Van Vechte,Thuni8, buried, 145; child 
buried, 144, 145 
Geertruy, buried, 139 
Harmen, buried, 139 ; child buried, 

133, 1.35 
Jannitje Teunissen, 74 
Jno., freeholder, 268 
Jobs, buried at Papsknee, 137 ; 

child buried, 1.37, 139 
Jobs, Jr., child buried, 136 
Leindert, buried. 146 
Lydia, buried, 142 
Lysbeth, daughter buried, 140 
Phillip, freeholder, 264 
Reuben, freeholder, 264 ; buried, 

135 ; son John buried, 142 
Samuel, freeholder, 267 
Solomon, freeholder, 268 ; buried, 

143 ; wife buried, 133 
Tennis, chairman, 359, 361 ; direc- 
tor academy, 204 
Teunis Cornelissen, 70, 71 
Tennis Dircksen, 71 
Teunis Ts., 84 ; trustee, 167 
Volcort, freeholder, 268 
Volkert, church officer, 101, 104, 
Van Vechten, Abraham, 255 ; bank 
director, 289 ; founds school, 
203; his house, 182; trustee of 
academy, 200 
Benjamin, buried, 142; child bu- 
ried, 141 
Cornells, of great consistory, 84 
Corn'lis, freeholder, 268; buried, 

Derrick, freeholder, 267 
Douw, wife Ariaentie buried, 144 
Gerrit Teunisse, child buried at 

Papsknee, 137 ; buried, 140 
Jobs, buried, 140 ; buried at Paps- 
knee, 135 



Van Vechteu, Philip, wife buried, 135 
Van Vee, Pieter Hert^ers, died, 74 
Van Vere, Maryn Adriaensen, 65 
Van Velde, Sweer Teunissen, 75 
Van Verduym, Joham Latyn, 69 
Van "Vlaclv, Benj., freeholder, 265 
Van Vlecburgh, Cristen Cristyssen 

Noorman, 69 
Van Voorhoiit, Claes, 74 
Cornelis, 74 
Cornells Segers, 74 
Jannitje, 74 
Lysbeth, 74 
Neltje, 74 
Seger, 74 
Van Vorst, Hooper C, city attorney, 
Yealous, freeholder, 265 
Van Vranken, Nicholas, ft-eeholder, 267 
Van "W"aah\'5xk, Claes Jansen, 73 
Van Wagner, lecturer on temperance, 

Van Wely, Anna, 37 
Joannes. 37 
Susan, 37 
Van Wesepe, Gysbert Cornelissen, 75 
Van Westbroek, Cornelis Teunissen, 

Van Wie, Andries, child buried, 141 
Catie, buried, 142 
Gerrit, freeholder, 268 ; buried, 140 ; 
wife buried, 139 
Hendk, child buried, 138 
Hendrick, wife buried, 138 
Jan, freeholder, 268 
Jobs, child buried, 138, 141 
Rut buried, D. Brat, 135 
Van Wie's Point, first settler at, 71 
Van Winkle, Rip, 322; competition, 

Van Woert, Anna, buried, 137 

Claes, freeholder, 263 ; daughter 
Catrina. buried, 142 
Henry, 84 

Jacob, son buried, 138; son Johs 

buried, 140; wife buried, 145; 

Jacob R., child buried, 138; wife 

buried, 142 
Jacob Th