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A second edition of this volume of the Annals of Albany 
having been called for, opportunity has been taken to in- 
troduce a large portion of the city t records belonging to this 
period, that are missing in the volumes at the chamberlain's 
office, but which exist in the state archives at Hartford, 
Conn., where they were probably conveyed by Robert Liv- 
ingston, in the time of the troubles with Leisler. They 
were found and translated by Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan, and 
published ia the Documentary History of New York. 
There are still other important documents at Hartford, that 
belong to our city records, which remain unpublished. An 
omission has been made of the portion of Dutch church 
baptisms which was in the first edition, because they will be 
more perfectly printed, entire, either in a separate volume, 
or in a future volume of the Historical Collections of 
Albany, which is published'in continuation of this series of 
annals. A more complete index than the one in the first 
edition has been made. Otherwise than in these particulars, 
the contents of the volume have been very little changed. 

April, 1870. 


Wampum, .1 

Colony of Rensselaerswyck, 8 

Description of Albany, and manners of the inhabitants, . 48 

Return of Abercrombie's army, 55 

Charter of the city of Albany, . ... . . .56 

The city records, 82 

Glossary, . .270 

Philip Pietersen Schuyler, 272 

Commission of Gerrit Swart of Rensselaerswyck, ; . . 273 
A governor's marriage license, 1732, . . . . . 277 

Indian disturbances, 278 

TheFuyck, 279 

Form of oath to the patroon, 280 

Game, . . . ' 281 

List of freeholders in the city of Albany and manor of Rensse- 
laerswyck, . . . . . 282 

Notes from the newspapers, 1771-1790, .... 284 

Lancasterian school, . . 304 

Ancient funeral custom, * . . 307 

The Dutch language, .308 

Dutch names for Albany and vicinity, . . . . 311 

Origin of Yankee Doodle, .312 

Salmon in the Hudson river, 314 

Castle island, 316 

Indian names of Albany and vicinity, . . . . 317 

Dutch names for the fish in our river, 319 

Albany Academy medals, 320 

Annals for the year 1849-50, '.324 

Statistics: city finances, 355 

assessor's valuation, . 360 

vi Illustrations. 

The mayor's statement on the financial condition of the city, 362 

Taxes for city government, 364 

Pauperism in Albany, 365 

Comparison of taxes for 1849 and 1860, 366 

Albany and Schenectady rail road, 367 

Albany and West Stockbridge rail road, . . . .368 

Basin excavation, ........ 368 

Barley trade of Albany, . . ... \ . 369 

Hills and Creeks, 370 

Index, . 371 


View of Albany, frontispiece. 

Wampum, 1 

Peter Stuyvesant, . . .13 

Jeremias Van Rensselaer, 47 

St. Peter's church (Episcopal),. ....... 48 

Pieter Schuyler, . . 64 

View of portion of North Market Street, . . . .287 
Title page first Albany almanac, . . . . 290 

Lancasterian school, 304 

Salmon of the Hudson, . . . . . .:.'.. 314 

Caldwell mathematical medal, ........ 321 

Van Rensselaer classical medal, ..... 322 

James H. Armsby, president County Medical Society, . . 351 



This article, more frequently called sewant in the pages 
which follow, particularly in the old city records, is said 
to be derived from wampi, 1 signifying in the Massachusetts 
Indian language, white, the color of the shells most frequent 
in wampum belts. It was strung, and sometimes formed 
into a broad belt, to be worn as an ornament. One of the 
sea coast terms of the Algonquins for this article was peag* 
and it is frequently called wampumpeage. It was the first 
money in use in New Netherland and in New England. 3 
Seawant was the generic name of this Indian money, of 
which there were two kinds ; wompam, commonly written 
wampum, which signifies white, and suckhanock, sucki sig- 
nifying black. Wampum or white money, was originally 
made from the stem or stock of the meteanhock or periwin- 
kle ; suckhannock, or black money, was made from the in- 
side of the shell of the quahaug, commonly called the hard 
clam. Specimens of a similar article are numerous in the 
Indian cemeteries of this state, formed of bone and mineral. 
The material from which the figure here given is copied, 
is the red pipe- NII_ stone of the west, 

so much valued; it ^^^p^^^g^S^ is perforated long- 
itudinally, and was evidently worn 
about the neek and breast, like the modern article of wam- 
pum. The Indians had various kinds of ornaments strung 

1 Encyclopedia Americana, article Wampum. 

John Josselyn says : " Their beads are their money ; of these there 
are two sorts, blue and white ; the first is their gold, the last their 
silver. These they work out of shells so cunningly, that neither 
Jew nor devil can counterfeit them." Old Indian Chronicle, 58. 

3 'Schooler off 's Notes on the Iroquois, p. 244. 

3 Gabriel Furman, in Gowans's Bfoliotheca Americana, I, 42. 

Annals, ii. 1 

2 Wampum. 

in a like manner, some of which were worn for a defense 
against witchcraft. This, also, was formed of the red pipe- 
stone of the Coteau du Prairie, west, of the Mississippi, and 
its disinterment from Indian graves in the state of New 
York, denotes an early traffic or exchange of the article, Mr. 
Schoolcraft thinks. Other species, assuming a great variety 
of shapes, and formed of as many kinds of material, including 
native copper, seem to have been worn with the object of 
producing a jingling sound, or to inspire fear by the tread. 

The manufacture of wampum by the Indians, before the 
appearance of Europeans, was necessarily laborious, with 
the rude implements which they employed. They broke off 
about half an inch of the purple color of the inside of the 
shell, and converted it into beads. 1 These before the intro- 
duction of awls and thread, were bored with sharp stones, 
and strung upon the sinews of animals, and when inter- 
woven to the breadth of the hand-, more or less, were called 
a belt of sea want, or wampum. A black bead, of the size of 
a large straw, about one-third of an inch long, bored longi- 
tudinally and well polished, was the gold of the Indians, 
and always esteemed of twice the value of the white ; but 
either species was considered by them, of much more value 
than European coin. An Indian chief, to whom the value 
of a rix dollar was explained by the first clergyman of Rens- 
selaerswyck, laughed exceedingly to think the Dutch should 
set so high a value upon a piece of iron, as he termed the 
dollar. Three beads of black, and six of white, were equi- 
valent, among the English, to a penny, and among the Dutch 
to a stuyver. But with the latter the equivalent sometimes 
varied, depending upon the finishing of the seawant. Sea- 
want was also sometimes made from the common oyster 
shell, and both kinds made from the hard clam shell. 

The us.e of wampum was not known in New England un- 
til it was introduced there in 1627, by Isaac De Razier, se- 
cretary of New Netherland, while on an embassy there to 
settle a treaty of amity and commerce between the two colo- 
nies. He carried with him wampum and goods, and with 
them purchased corn. To this introduction of wampum into 
New England, Hubbard attributes all their wars with the 

1 Q-owans's BiUiotheca Americana, i, 42. 


Indians which afterwards ensued. "Whatever were the 
honey in the mouth of that beast of trade, there was a deadly 
sting in the tail. For it is said they (the Dutch) first brought 
our people to the knowledge of wampum-peag ; and the ac- 
quaintance therewith occasioned the Indians of these parts 
to learn the skill to make it, by which, as by the exchange 
of money, they purchased store of artillery, both from the 
English, Dutch and French, which proved a fatal business 
to those that were concerned in it." 1 

Although the general distinction of this seawant was 
black and white, yet that in use in New England was black, 
blue and white ; and that of the Iroquois of a purple color. 2 

^HuHbarcCs History of New England. - 

2 Wampum is a sort of a shell found on the New Iprk coast : 
they are burgos or periwinkles, some of which are white, others 
violet, verging towards black. The white are of little value ; the 
violet more in demand, and the more they incline to black the 
higher are they esteemed. Wampum, for state affairs, is shaped 
into small cylinders, a quarter of an inch long, and proportionably 
thick. They are worked into two forms, strings and belts. The 
strings consist of cylinders strung, without any order, one after an- 
other, like the beads of a rosary. The belts are wide sashes, in 
which the white and purple beads are arranged in rows and tied by 
little leathern strings, whereof a very pretty tissue is formed. Their 
length, width and color are in proportion to the importance of the 
affair to be negotiated. Ordinary belts consist of twelve rows of 180 
beads each. 

These belts and strings of wampum are the universal agent 
among the Indians, serving as money, jewelry, ornaments, annals, 
and for registers ; 'tis the bond of nations and individuals ; an in- 
violable and sacred pledge which guaranties messages, promises and 
treaties. As writing is not in use among them, they make a local 
memoir by means of these belts, each of which signifies a particular 
affair, or a circumstance of affairs. The chiefs of the villages are 
the depositaries of them, and communicate them to the young peo- 
ple, who thus learn the history and engagements of their nation. 

In addition to the name gaionne, which is most used to signify 
these belts, the Indians gave them, also, that of garifioua, which 
means, an affair ; that of guauenda, as a speech or message, and 
gaianderensera, which implies greatness or nobility, because chiefs 
only are competent for the great affairs treated by belts ; they it is 
who furnish the belts and strings, and it is among them that they 
are divided, whenever presents are made to the villages and an- 
swers are given to the speeches of ambassadors. Doc. Col. Hist., 
x, 556, note. 

4 Wampum. 

A string of this shell money, one fathom long, varied in 
price from five shillings, among the New Englanders, 
to four guilders among the Dutch, or one dollar and sixty-six 
and a half cents of our present currency. The process of 
trade was This ; the Dutch and English sold for seawant to 
the Indians of the interior, their awls, knives, combs, scis- 
sors, needles, looking-glasses, hatchets, guns, black cloth, 
and other articles of aboriginal traffic, and with the seawant 
bought the furs, corn and venison from the Indians on the 
seaboard, who also with their shell money bought such arti- 
cles from the aborigines residing farther inland ; and by this 
course the white men saved the trouble of transporting their 
furs and grain through the country. Thus, by this circu- 
lating medium a brisk commerce was carried on, not only be- 
tween the white people and the Indians, but also between 
different tribes among the latter. So much was this the 
circulating medium, that the colonial governments found it 
necessary to make regulations on the subject. In 1641 Gov. 
Kieft and his council, in view of the fact that a vast, deal of 
bad seawant, " nasty rough things imported from other 
places, " was in circulation, while the " good, splendid sea- 
want, usually called Manhattan's seawant, was out. of sight, 
or exported, which must cause the ruin of the country!" 
therefore, in order to remedy the evil, it was ordained that 
all coarse seawant, well stringed, should pass at six for one 
stuyver only, but the well polished at four for a stuy ver, and 
whoever offered or received the same, at a different price, 
should forfeit the same, and also ten guilders to the poor. 

The Connecticut Code of 1650 ordained " That nopeage, 
white or black, bee paid or received, but what is strunge 
and in some measure strunge sutably, and not small and 
great, uncomely and disorderly mixt, as formerly it hath 

Massachusetts colony passed a law in 1648, declaring that 
wampumpeag should pass current in the payment of debts 
to the amount of forty shillings ; the white at eight for a 
penny, and the black at four fora penny, "if entire, without 
breaches or spots ; except in payment of county rates to the 
treasurer." This law was repealed in 1661, yet seawant 
continued to form a part of the circulating medium of the 
colony for a long period afterward. 

Wampum. 5 

The wampum currency appears sometimes to have been 
measured by the fathom, in New England. The Pequot 
Indians, in the year 1656, paid as a tribute to the united 
colonies of New England 215 fathoms of wampum ; of which 
amount Thomas Stanton, the agent among the Indians, was 
paid 120 fathoms for his salary, and the remaining 95 fa- 
thoms, together with 51 fathoms at New Haven, in all 146 
fathoms, was divided among the united colonies, according 
to the number of males enumerated in the year 1655, in the 
following manner, being the first distribution of public mo- 
neys in the good old time of our history. 

To Massachusetts, 94 fathoms. 

Plymouth, 18 fathoms. 

Connecticut, 20 fathoms. 

New Haven, 13 fathoms. 

The governor and council in the city of New York, in 
1673, made an order, declaring that by reason of the scarcity 
of wampum, that which had hitherto passed at the rate of 
eight white and four black pairs, for a stuyver or penny, 
should then pass at six white and three black pairs for a 
stuyver, "and three times so much the value of silver." 
At this period there was little " certain coin in the govern- 
ment " of N. York, and wampum readily passed as change 
for current payment in all cases. This seawant, or wam- 
pum, was the only Indian money ever known in North 
America ; it was not only the money of the Indians, but 
also the ornament of their persons. It distinguished the 
rich from the poor, the proud from the humble. It was the 
tribute paid by the vanquished to those, the Five Nations 
for instance, who had exacted contribution. In the form 
of a belt it was sent with all public messages between the 
Indian tribes, and preserved as a record of all public trans- 
actions among the aboriginal people. If a message was sent 
without the belt, it was considered an empty word, unworthy 
of remembrance. If the belt was returned it was a rejec- 
tion of the offer or proffer accompanying it. If accepted it 
was a confirmation, and strengthened friendship, or effaced 
injuries. These shells, indeed, had more virtue among the 
Indians, than pearls, gold and silver had among Europeans. 
Seawant was the seal of a contract, the oath of fidelity. It 
satisfied murders, and all other injuries, purchased peace, 

6 Wampum. 

and entered into the religious as well as the civil ceremonies 
of the aborigines. A string of seawant was delivered by 
the orator in public council, at the close of every distinct 
proposition made to others, as a ratification of the truth and 
sincerity of what he said, and the white and black strings 
of seawant were tied by the pagan priest, around the neck, 
of the white dog suspended to a pole, and offered as a sacri- 
fice to Thaloughyawaagon, the upholder of the skies, the 
god of the Five Nations. 1 

The article continued to be manufactured in different 
parts of the state of New York until a comparatively recent 
period. Smith 2 mentions, that a short time previous to 
writing his work, several poor families at Albany made their 
living by its manufacture. Burn aby 3 mentions that in jour- 
neying from Philadelphia to New York, he passed through 
Staten Island, and had an opportunity of seeing the method 
of making wampum, the process of which he thus describes; 
" It is first chipped to a proper size, which is that of a small 
oblong parallelepiped, then drilled, and afterwards ground 
to a round smooth surface and polished. The purple wam- 
pum is much more valuable than the white ; a very small 
part of the shell being of that color." In the summer of 
1831, several bushels of wampum were brought from Baby- 
lon, on Long Island, and the person who had them, stated 
that he had procured them for an Indian trader, and was 
in the habit of supplying those traders with wampum. The 
best wampum is at this day manufactured on Long Island, to 
be sent to the western states and territories, for the purpose 
both of a circulating medium, and of conventions andtreaties. 4 

Wampum is also manufactured at the present day in Ber- 
gen county, New Jersey, for the Indian traders of the far 
west. 5 It has been manufactured by the females of that re- 
gion from very early times, of the thick and blue part of the 
sea-clam shell. The process is simple, but requires a skill at- 
tained only by long practice. The intense hardness and 
brittleness of the material render it impossible to produce 

1 See Yates and Moulton's History of New York. 
3 History of the Province of New York. 

3 Travels through the Middle Colonies in North America, 1760. 

4 Gowans's Bibliotheca Americana, i, 41. 

6 Barber and Howe's Historical Collections of New Jersey, p. 72. 

Wampum. 7 

the article by machinery alone. It is done by wearing or 
grinding the shell. The first process is to split off the thin 
part with a light sharp hammer. Then it is clamped in the 
sawed crevice of a slender stick, held in both hands, and 
ground smooth on a grindstone, until formed into an eight- 
sided figure, of about an inch in length, and nearly half an 
inch in diameter, when it is ready for boring. The shell then 
is inserted into another piece of wood, sawed similarly to the 
above, but fastened firmly to a bench of the size of a common 
stand. One part of the wood projects over the bench, at the 
end of which hangs a weight, causing the sawed orifice to 
close firmly upon the shell inserted on its under side, and to 
hold it firmly, as in a vice, ready for drilling. The drill 
is made from an untempered handsaw. The operator 
grinds the drill to a proper shape, and tempers it in the 
flame of a candle. A rude ring, with a groove on its circum- 
ference, is put on it; around which the operator, who is 
seated in front of the fastened shell, curls the string of a 
common hand-bow. The boring commences, by nicely ad- 
justing the point of the drill to the centre of the shell; while 
the other end is braced against a steel plate, on the breast of 
the operator. About every other sweep of the bow, the drill 
is dexterously drawn out, cleaned of the shelly particle by 
the thumb and finger, above which drops of water from a 
vessel fall down and cool the drill; which is still kept revolv- 
ing, by the use of the bow with the other hand, the same as 
though it were in the shell. This operation of boring is the 
most difficult of all, the peculiar motion of the drill rendering 
it hard for the breast; yet it is performed with a rapidity 
and grace interesting to witness. Peculiar care is observed, 
lest the shell burst from heat caused by friction. When 
bored halfway, the wampum is reversed, and the same opera- 
tion repeated. The next process is the finishing. A wire 
about twelve inches long is fastened at one end to a bench. 
Under and parallel to the wire is a grindstone, fluted on its 
circumference, hung a little out of the centre, so as to be 
turned by a treadle moved with the foot. The left hand grasps 
the end of the wire, on which is strung the wampum, and as 
it were, wraps the beads around the fluted or hollow circum- 
ference of the grindstone. While the grindstone is revoling, 
the beads are held down on to it, and turned round by a flat 

8 Wampum. 

piece of wood held in the right hand, and by the grinding 
soon become round and smooth. They are then strung on 
hempen strings, about a foot in length. From five to ten 
strings are a day's work for a female. They are sold to the 
country merchants for twelve and a half cents a string, always 
command cash, and constitute the support of many poor and 
worthy families. 

The value of sewant about 1660, in Rensselaerswyck, in 
payment of taxes, was twelve white and six black to the 
stuyver, which is a little less than two cents. 

The collections in the church were mostly in sewant, of 
which they had in the treasury at one time about 13,000 
guilders in amount. It was a depreciated currency, however; 
a guilder in sewant being but about twelve and one-half 
cents in gold, or about one-third of a guilder, which was 
nearly forty cents. 

Colony of Renssdaerswyck. 


[From O'CaUagUaris History of New Netherlands Vol. 2.] 

1646 to 1664. 

Johannes Van Rensselaer, heir to the patroonship of Rens- 
selaerswyck, being a minor at his father's decease, the care 
of his interests devolved on his uncle Johannes Van Wely, 
and Wouter Van Twiller, 1 executors to the last will and 
testament of the first patroon, who immediately rendered 
fealty and homage for the colonie to their high mightinesses, 
in the name and on the behalf of their ward. 

The immediate management of this estate was entrusted to 
Brant Arent Van Slechtenhorst of Nieukerke in Gruilderland, 
who was appointed director of the colonie, president of the 
court of justice, and superintendent of all the bouweries, 
farms, mills, and other property belonging to the patroon, 
at a salary of seven hundred and fifty florins ($300) per an- 
num, to reckon from the date of his arrival out, together 
with a house, four milch cows, two horses, four morgens of 
tillage and four morgens of pasture land. He was specially 
charged to uphold, maintain and defend the freedoms and 
privileges with which the colonie was invested, to promote 
the interests and advance the settlement of Beverwyck and 
its immediate neighborhood, and to acquire by purchase the 
lands around Katskill, for the greater security of the colonie, 
inasmuch as the colonists, through a notion of acquiring pro- 
perty In that quarter, were forming companies or associations 
to remove thither and abandon Rensselaerswyck. He was 
further ordered to explore the country for minerals, and to 
report to his superiors in Holland whatever success might 
crown these labors. Thus commissioned and instructed, the 
newly appointed director sailed with his family and servants 
for Virginia. He proceeded thence in another vessel to the 
Manhattans, where he landed after a passage of four months 
and finally arrived in the colonie in the latter part of March. 

1 Van Twiller died in Holland in 1656, or 1657. Van Wely died 
19th March, 1679, aged 83 or 83 years. 

10 Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 

His son, Grerrit Van Slechtenhorst, was to act as officier or 
schout-fiscaal, at a salary of six hundred florins; but he filled 
the office only two months, when it was merged in that of 
the director. 1 

From the moment that colonies began to be planted by 
patroons in New Netherland, the directors of the Amsterdam 
Chamber became jealous of their existence and opposed to 
their continuance. They considered them injurious to the 
settlement of the country and the increase of its population. 2 
By the repurchase of Pavonia and Zwanendaal in 1634, they 
took the earliest means to check the evil. In the prosecution 
of their policy, they endeavored to induce the patroon of 
Rensselaerswyck to cede to them his rights, privileges and 
possessions also; but having failed in effecting this, they now 
changed front, and determined to circumscribe a jurisdiction 
and weaken a power which they could not buy off, and 
which they wished to destroy. Gen. Stuyvesant and Brant 
Van Slechtenhorst were the champions of these hostile inte- 
rests and opposing views. The former claimed to be supreme 
ruler of the whole country, irrespective of the special rights 
and feudal privileges granted, as well by the charter of 1629, 
as by the civil law, to the local authorities of independent 
fiefs. The latter, thoroughly conversant with the immuni- 
ties claimed for manors and municipalities in continental Eu- 
rope, recognized the exercise of no authority within his 
limits save that of his patroon, or such as was approved and 
sanctioned by his legal representatives. Whatever orders or 
placards the director-general might issue were, he maintained, 
null and powerless, unless so endorsed and countersigned by 
his commander and executed by the officers of his court. 
It was easy to foresee that pretensions so opposite could not 

1 Gerrit Van Slechtenhorst married Aeltje Lansing, by whom he 
had four children, viz: Hellegonda, Gerrit, Rachel, and Gouda, 
He' was one of the commissaries of Schenectady in 1672, after which 
he removed to Kingston, Ulster Co., where he died 9th January, 1684, 
N. S. The other children of Brant Van Slechtenhorst, were Mar- 
garet and Alida. The latter was born in Beverwyck, and married 
Gerrit, son of Goosen Gerritsen Van Schayck, by whom she had no 
issue. She lost her husband llth November, 1679, after which she 
married Pieter Davitse Schuyler, son of David Schuyler. 

3 Alb. Rec., iv, 199. 

Colony of EensselaerswycL 11 

fail to lead to collision, and Slechtenhorst had not been much 
more than a month at his post when an explosion took place. 

A copy of a proclamation ordering the first Wednesday in 
May to be observed by a general fast and the performance of 
public worship in the several churches of New Netherland 
was duly forwarded to Rensselaerswyck. It was received by 
the authorities of that place, not in that spirit of submissive 
obedience which the director-general demanded for all his 
orders, but as an invasion of the rights and authority of the 
lord of the manor, against which Van Slechtenhorst forth- 
with protested. 1 

This proceeding did not comport with Stuyvesant's ideas 
either of law or propriety. To correct the abuse he resolved 
to visit the colonie, where, accompanied by a military escort, 
he soon after landed, his arrival being most loyally greeted 
by salvos from the patroon's artillery. 2 Summoning Van 
Slechtenhorst, he called in question his pretensions, and 
charged him with infringing the company's sovereignty. But 
the sturdy commander retorted: "Your complaints are un- 
just, I have more reason to complain, on behalf of my patroon 
against you." The director-general fulminated, thereupon, 
a lengthy protest, in which Van Slechtenhorst was accused 
with having conveyed lots, and authorized the erection of 
buildings, in the immediate vicinity of Fort Orange, in disre- 
gard not only of the sovereign authority, but in contempt of 

'This 26th April, 1648, hath the director Slechtenhorst pro- 
tested against a certain writing of the Right Hon. P. Stuyvesant, con- 
cerning the publication of a day of fasting and prayer, whereby it 
is understood, that the right and authority of the Lord Patroon are 
invaded. This document was handed in only before the sermon, 
so that there was no time to have it read. Rensselaerswyck M88. 

2 July, 1648. Whereas, the council of the colony directed the 
Heer General Peter Stuyvesant should be greeted on his arrival and 
departure, with several salutes from the Heer Patroon's three pieces 
of cannon, so hath the director employed Jan Dircksen Van Bremen, 
and Hans Encluys, to clean the same, as they were filled with earth 
and stones, and to load them, in which they were employed three 
days, to wit : one day in cleaning them ; the second in firing for the 
arrival, and the third, for Stuyvesant's departure for which Slech- 
tenhorst purchased 201bs. of "powder, and expended ten guilders, 
for beer and victuals, besides having provided the Heer General, at 
his departure, with divers young fowls and pork. Ib. 

12 Colony of EenssdaerswycL 

the director-general's commission, thus infringing the pri- 
vileges granted by their high mightinesses and destroying the 
security of the fort. Such proceeding was totally repugnant 
to "military discipline and tactics." He therefore ordered, 
" in a friendly manner," a stop to be put to all building, 
within range of cannon shot, unless specially ordered by the 
lords majors. He further commanded, that no new ordinances 
affecting.the sovereign authority, or relating to commerce or 
the public welfare, be issued without the previous consent of 
their high mightinesses or their representative in New Nether- 
land ; and that no exclusive right to any branch of trade be 
rented, nor any grain, masts, or other property belonging 
to the company's servants be seized, unless the prosecutions 
on such suits were disposed of without delay. The 
practice of compelling the inhabitants of the colonie to sign 
a pledge that, as defendants, they should not appeal to the 
supreme court of New Netherland from judgments rendered 
by the court of Rensselaerswyck, was pronounced " a crime," 
an infraction of the law of the land, and a subversion of the 
twentieth article of the charter. To prevent the recurrence of 
this illegal practice, an annual return to the director and coun- 
cil of all the affairs transacted in the colonie and of the pro- 
ceedings of the court was insisted on, conformably to the 
twenty-eighth article of the said charter. And as Van Slech- 
tenhorst claimed, in direct contradiction to the charter and 
the director-general's commission, to the vilification of the 
latter's office and in disrespect of the lords majors, not to be 
responsible to the government at Fort Amsterdam, he was 
called on to produce his authority, either from the states- 
general or the directors of the chamber at Amsterdam, for 
such pretension. Failing this, the director-general protested 
against him for disobedience of orders. 

Commander Slechtenhorst, was, in the estimation of his op- 
ponents, " a person of stubborn and headstrong temper." 
He was, besides, fully confident that he had law and custom 
on his side ; he was sure that he had the instructions of his 
superiors in his pocket, and was therefore determined not to 
abandon the rights of "his orphan patroon." He answered 
protest by protest. He charged, in his turn, the director- 
general with having proclaimed a day of fasting and prayer 
in Rensselarswyck, " contrary to antient order and usage, 
as if he were the lord of the patroon's colonie." 

Colony of Eensselaerswyck. 13 

He accused the company's servants at the fort with hav- 
ing cut, without permission, the best timber and firewood in 
the patroon's forests, " as if these were their own " and 
with having ranged through the whole colonie, along with 
people from Manhattans, "with savages by their side to 
serve as brokers," trading publicly with the aborigines, as 
if the place were their property ; all this without license from 
the patroon or his authorized agents, and without paying 
either duties or recognitions. As for the order not to build 
within a prescribed distance of Fort Orange, it was an ag- 
gression which could not be justified. The patroon's trading 
house stood, " a few years ago," on the border of the moat 
which surrounded that fort. That soil, with all around, be- 
longs still to the patroon ; he was never disturbed in its pos- 
session until Director Stuyvesant sought now "by unbecom- 
ing means," to oust " his orphan heir," to deprive him of 
the benefit thereof, and to appropriate the soil to himself; 
threatening to destroy the patroon's buildings by cannon shot. 
Van Slechtenhorst is hereby prevented erecting " even a hog 
pen" on the patroon's own land, and Stuyvesant has become 
a judge in his own case. The assertion that the objection- 
able buildings endangered the security of the fort, was a 
mere pretext. They were more than five hundred rods from 
the fort, or trading house; and, it was added, eight houses 
already intervened between them and Fort Orange. 

In keeping with the spirit here displayed, did Van Slech- 
tenhorst continue his improvements in Beverwyck. An- 
other protest from the Manhattans followed, warning him 
that force should be used if he did not desist. But this had 
the effect only of calling forth " a counter blast." No suit, 
he insisted, could be instituted, nor execution issued in an- 
other district, without previous consent of the schout fiscaal 
or court of that jurisdiction, on the pain of non-suit and ar- 
bitrary correction, and therefore the present proceeding was 
informal. The pretensions now put forth were, moreover, at 
variance with those which had already been promulgated, 
and in contradiction with practice even at New Amsterdam. 
The director-general claimed, in July, that all the territory 
within range of cannon shot belonged to Fort Orange ; now 
he reduces the circle to the range of a musket ball, within 
which he will not allow a house to be built, "notwithstanding 

Annals, ii. 2 

14 Colony of EensselaerswycL 

he permits whole streets to be filled with houses, in view of 
Fort Amsterdam." It was a matter of surprise, that he 
should use the power with which he was invested, to oppress 
" our infant patroon." It was his duty, as a Christian neigh- 
bor, to preach other doctrines ; to turn his arms, not against 
friends, but enemies. It was besides, highly unbecoming in 
him to use force whilst their high mightinesses had not yet 
decided the case, especially as the house in dispute was not 
within musket shot of the fort. 

This continued contumacy served but to irritate the exe- 
cutive. The freshets of the past winter had nearly destroyed 
Fort Orange, and the company's commissary had received 
orders to surround that post with a solid stone wall in lieu 
of the wooden fence by which it had hitherto been encom- 
passed. But scarcely had a rod of the work been finished, 
when Van Slechtenhorst forbade Carl Van Brugge, " in an 
imperious manner/' to quarry stone within the colonie, or 
to fell a tree either for the repair of the fortification or for 
firewood. The farmers and inhabitants were also ordered, 
contrary to the practice of former magistrates, and contrary, 
it might be added, to the fifth article of the charter of 1629, 
not to convey any such materials thither. 1 The company 
was thus deprived of articles necessary to build forts, or 
other edifices, and compelled either to beg them from their 
vassals ; or " what is worse/' to purchase them at enormous 
prices. Whilst thus opposing repair of the public works, 
Van Slechtenhorst actively continued his own buildings, 
" even within pistol shot of Fort Orange." 

On receipt of this intelligence, General Stuyvesant resolved 
to maintain his authority by force. Six soldiers- were dis- 

1 This prohibition arose rather in consequence of the claim to ju- 
risdiction, than on account of the value of the timber. For "about 
midsummer of 1649, the Heer General being here, asked Jan Bae- 
rentsen to wheel out some masts, which he refused to do, saying 
that the horses and the land which he made use of belonged to the 
patroon, whose consent he must first have. Whereupon the Heer 
General came to the director, and requested him, after relating the 
above circumstances, to consent thereto. The director accordingly 
consented. Rensselaerswyck Gerechtsrolle, 1648-1652, 71. 

2 A manuscript protest among the Rensselaerswyck papers, re- 
presents this force as " seven soldiers and five sailors," who remained 
fourteen days in the colonie. 

Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 15 

patched to Van Brugge's assistance, with orders to demolish 
the offending house, to arrest Van Slechtenhorst " in the 
most civil manner possible," should he offer any opposition, 
and to detain him in custody until he delivered a copy of his 
commission and his instructions, and had declared that he 
had no other. He was finally summoned to appear at Fort 
Amsterdam to answer for his conduct. Orders were at the 
same time issued, prohibiting the importation of guns into 
the colonie without license from the lords majors. Such 
arms, when imported, were to be sold only to the company 
at a fixed price of two beavers each. 

The excitement produced in the hitherto peaceful hamlets 
of Beverwyck, on the appearance of this armed posse, may be 
easily conceived. The oldest inhabitant had not seen a sol- 
dier nor heard the sound of a drum in that place until the di- 
rector-general's visit in the course of the last summer. And 
how when another armed band arrived, with the hostile design 
of razing the houses of quiet and inoffensive settlers, they 
were sorely amazed and much alarmed. 

Those whom the director-general had dispatched to en-f 
force his orders, were not, in truth, the best qualified for 
the perforrnan ce of this delicate mission . They were very zeal- 
ous " when the patroon's timber was to be cut, or his deer 
killed," and were not slow to exhibit their insolence by 
grossly insulting the commander, "when walking the public 
street " in company with his deputy, Andries de Vos, cursing 
them and " abusing God's holy name," because " they had 
not bade them good evening." 

This rude conduct, and the unconcealed avowal of their 
mission, aroused the indignation not only of the settlers but 
even of the Indians. These assembled in a tumultuous and 
angry manner, and demanded if <: Wooden Leg, 1 in whom 
they had confided as their protector, intended to tear down 
the houses which were to shelter them in stormy and wintry 
weathar?" When they learned that all the trouble was 
about a few roods of land, they told the commander to accom- 

1 Ebeling, in his Erdbeschreibung and Geschichte von Amerika, 
Hamburg, 8vo, 1796, in 34, represents Stuyvesant as having, " a 
silver leg." Slechtenhorst and the Indians are better authority on 
this point. 

16 Colony of Rensselaersivyck* 

pany them home, and they would give him plenty of land 
"in the Maquaas country;" so that " more kindness was 
evinced by the unbelieving savages than by our Christian 
neighbors, subjects of the same sovereign, bound by their 
oaths to protect us against insult and outrage." 

The soldiery now flushed with triumph, were disposed to 
celebrate whatever victory they obtained by firing a feu-de- 
joie. They accordingly discharged three or four volleys. 
This brought the Indians again together. Slechtenhorst 
succeeded, however, in soothing their irritation, and per- 
suaded them to depart. They returned, shortly, in increased 
numbers, and inquired in angry terms, " If Wooden Leg's 
dogs were gone ?" They were assured that all would yet 
be well ; that they had been misinformed, that the houses 
should not be pulled down. A threatening storm was thus 
happily averted, for the director-general's rash conduct had 
well nigh produced bloodshed, " and the ruin not only of the 
colonie, but of the Manhattans and of the Christians within 
this land, who are all at the mercy of the savages " espe- 
cially had these been joined by some Christians, " as might 
have been the case/' 

Yan Slechtenhorst's indignation at this encroachment on 
the patroon's privileges was n ot so easily removed. He gave 
vent to his feelings in a long and angry protest. The demand 
for a copy of his commission, and the summons to appear at Fort 
Amsterdam, he answered by calling for a copy in writing of 
the director-general's claims and complaints. "The noble 
patroon had obtained his possessions and immunities ; was in- 
vested by the States General with high and low jurisdiction 
and the police of the most priviledged manors ; and were he, 
as his agent, now so base as to crouch before the present un- 
warrantable proceedings, and to produce his commission, 
before he had received orders to that effect, from his lords 
and masters, not only would they be injured, but he be guilty 
of a violation of his oath and honor, a betrayal of his trust, 
and a childish surrender of the rights of his patroon." He 
could not, therefore, obey such demands, the illegality of 
which was only rendered more flagrant by the unusual and 
insolent manner in which they were made. If a sworn mes- 
senger in Holland had to serve a summons, or to execute a 
warrant, in one of the small cities, in the name of the supreme 

Colony of Rensselaersioyck. 17 

court, or of any of the states, he was previously required to 
solicit admittance, consent and aid from the local magistrates, 
who should give permission in writing, by endorsing the words 
" Fiat insinuatio " on the paper, before the summons could be 
made. This written authority was then placed in the hands 
of the messenger of the city in which the order was to be 
served, who thereupon made his first service both verbally 
and in writing on the party complained against, and reported 
the result to the messenger of the court or state. This, and 
no other, constituted a legal service. Such was the practice 
in Fatherland, even in the same province, though subject to 
a high court of appeal. But none of these prerequisites were 
observed by the director-general's commissary. Accompa- 
nied by an armed soldiery, he not only entered the patroon's 
jurisdiction, but violated, on the 28th September, the sanc- 
tity of his house. Such illegal conduct betrayed a deep con- 
tempt of the patroon and his court, as well as of the sovereign 
whom they represent. Those who have been guilty of simi- 
lar violations of law in Fatherland " had often been appre- 
hended, and condemned to bread and water for the space of 
five or six weeks ; yea, were sometimes brought to the block/' 
so jealous was every local jurisdiction of the least encroach- 
ment on its privileges. 

As for preventing timber being cut within the colonie, is 
the patroon, he demanded, not master on his own land ? Is 
he not free to cut his timber at well as his corn ? And can 
he not arrest these, when cut by others without his permis- 
sion ? Jacob Janscn had cut two fir trees in the course of 
the summer without leave; the patroon's officer seized them 
eight days afterwards, on the river, and can he not now 
exercise a like authority ? The objection, that the houses 
he was building militated against the defense of the " famous 
fortress," was, he again maintained, a mere pretense. " The 
ten houses which stood betwixt them and the fort on the 
north, besides those tothe west, and the patroon's woods, not 
a stone's throw to the west, south-west and north-west," 
were left unmolested, though they were a greater obstruc- 
tion than the new buildings to the fort, " which you can enter 
or quit at pleasure, by night or by day," without let or 
hindrance. " Wherefore it is notorious that all the present 
proceedings emanated from party spirit ; had no foundation 

18 Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 

in reason, and were as justifiable as the complaint in 
fable, of Cousin Gysbert, who, whilst drinking on a hill from a 
waterfall, quarrelled with a lamb, who stood below, for dis- 
turbing the water and making it muddy." 

This protest produced a long replication from the director 
and council, whose power, it was maintained, " extended to the 
colonie of Rensselaerswyck, as well as to the other colonies, 
such as Heemstede, Vlissingen and Grravenzande." Strin- 
gent orders were issued to Van Brugge and Labadie to prose- 
cute and complete the repairs of the fort ; to procure, for that 
purpose, timber everywhere within the limits of NewNether- 
land ; to quarry stones " from the mountains, rocks and plains, 
and have them conveyed from any place, and in the most 
convenient manner, except from farms and plantations which 
are fenced and cultivated, or about being so." In case the 
people were forbid to assist with their horses and wagons, 
the commissaries were to have a wagon made, and to use the 
horses belonging to Jonas Bronck, on Van Curler's farm, as 
he was indebted to the company. The jurisdiction of the 
company, and " the antient and uninterrupted use of the 
gardens and fields near the fort," were to be rigidly main- 
tained, and the destruction of the buildings within musket 
or cannon shot proceeded with forthwith. 

The schout-fiscaal of New Netherland followed. He aver- 
red that it was long since notorious that the director and 
council had been treated with disrespect by Van Slechten- 
horst. No court of justice in the colonie could pronounce 
on the present case, even if the director general should con- 
descend to appear before such a tribunal. The only question 
to decide now was, whether Van Slechtenhorst had been 
summoned three times by the company's commissary in the 
presence of two credible witnesses; for it was, by no means, 
the custom in Holland to serve written summons. It was a 
base misrepresentation to assert that three armed soldiers 
insolently intruded themselves into the patroon's house. 
Van Brugge had knocked at the door " in a civil manner," 
and had been admitted by the back way when he "courteously" 
demanded the commander to exhibit his commission and to 
furnish him with a copy thereof. This having been re- 
fused, a protest was served, according to order, and Van Slech- 
tenhorst summoned to appear at Fort Amsterdam. He could 

Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 19 

have obeyed without inconvenience, as "the river remained 
open, the winter pleasant, and several vessels sailed up and 
down, during the whole month of November." Now, how- 
ever, to remove all doubt, the citation was again renewed, 
and the commander was peremptorily ordered to appear at 
Fort Amsterdam, on the fourth of April next ensuing, by 
the first sailing vessel, " where he will be informed of the 
complaint against him." The director-general immediately 
forwarded a report of the whole of this affair to his superiors. 
The prospect from Fort Orange ought, in his opinion, to be 
unobstructed, at least within circle of cannon shot : there were 
plenty of vacant lots along the river, on which the inhabitants 
could construct their dwellings, yet they persist, "through 
pride," in building near the walls. But the truth was, it 
was neither through pride nor obstinacy that the colonists, 
at this early day, persisted in clinging to Fort Orange. This 
post supplied them in their feebleness, with security against 
the Indians, and they were loth to forego its protection. 

Removed from the contentions which were distracting the 
capital of New Netherland, Commander Van Slechtenhorst 
was actively extending the limits of Rensselaerswyck, by the 
purchase of the Muhegan lands to the south of that colonie. 
On the 4th of September, 1648, he had acquired for the pa- 
troon the tract called Paponicuck, in exchange for some 
thirty ells of duifels and a few handfuls of powder 1 and this 
spring purchased Katskill - and Claverack. On the other 
side of the Atlantic, Wouter Van Twiller was boldly laying 
claim to the control and monopoly of the upper waters of 
the Hudson river, and publicly announcing his determina- 

1 The names of the proprietors of Paponicuck, were Waneman- 
keebe, Askanga his brother, Skiwias (alias Aepje), and Wainpumit, 
"chiefs of the Mahecanders." 

2 "In manner, under restriction, stipulation, and condition as 
herein before particularly mentioned, [in the deed of Paponicuck,] 
hath the honorable the director sent deputies in the presence of the 
Rev. Mr. Megapolensis, in the name and for the account of the ho- 
norable the patroon of this colonie Rensselaerswyck, and bought of 
Pewasck, being a squaw, and chief of Katskill, therein included, 
and her son Supahoof, through the medium and interpretation of 
Skiwias, or Aepje, chief of the Mahecanders, a kil named Katskill, 
accounted to be nine miles from Fort Orange, and six miles from 
Beeren island, together with the land on both sides that is to say, 

20 Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 

tion not to permit any merchant vessel to pass Beeren Island, 
or to trade in the vicinity of Rensselaerswyck. For he 
maintained that Fort Orange had been built on the patroon's 
territory, and that none "not even the company" had a 
right to permit others to erect houses or to pursue any 
branch of business thereabout. Feudal law and feudal pri- 
vileges thus brought along with them, into these parts, the 
old feudal quarrels of Europe for the free navigation of na- 
ture's highways to the ocean, and the question was whether 
the North river should be open to all their high mighti- 
nesses' subjects, or whether these should be debarred from its 
use of the garrison on Beeren island, now named " in such a 
lofty way, ' The place by right of arms/ " The absurdity 
of the claim to the soil on which Fort Orange stood, was 
clearly established, by the fact that that fort was built and 
garrisoned by the company full fifteen years before the exist- 
ence of Rensselaerswyck; that up to the year 1644, the com- 
pany had the exclusive enjoyment of the fur trade, which 
the company intended to reclaim "whenever it shall be able 
to provide its magazines with a sufficient store of goods." 
In view, therefore, of all these circumstances, and in order 
to correct a state of things, of which the merchants gene- 
rally complained, the directors determined to use their sove- 
reign right to the confusion of Van Twiller "that ungrateful 
individual, who had sucked his wealth from the breasts of 
the company whom he now abuses." They accordingly dis- 
patched orders to remove all obstructions to the free naviga- 
tion of the North river and commercial intercourse with Fort 

the kil with the falls, also along the north side of the kil three flat 
parcels of land, and on the south side two flats, extending on both 
sides, from the mouth of the kil unto the aforesaid fall, together 
with the wood and pasture of the woods on both sides, to hold all 
in peaceable possession. Whereof cession and conveyance are from 
this day made to the aforesaid patroon. For the purchase thereof 
is this day handed to them, by the honorable director of this colonie, 
seventeen and one-half ells of duffels, a coat of beaver, and a knife, 
and that in full without any further demand, all without fraud or 
deceit. In witness whereof the aforesaid squaw as cedant, and her 
son, with witnesses, have signed this instrument with their own 
hands. Actum in the colonie Rensselaerswyck, this 19th day of 
April, Anno 1649. Skiwias for his* services hath received 5J ells 
of duffels." [All these goods were valued at gl. 108, 16.] 

Colony of Renssdaerswyck. 21 

Orange. If Van Twiller should again plant guns near that 
river, they were to be seized ; and if any person dared to ex- 
act tolls, or salt duty, on any rivers, islands, or harbors 
within the company's limits, to the injury of the inhabitants 
or traders generally, such were to be prevented by all means 
possible e?en by force if necessary as it was the firm de- 
termination of the directors never to part with these preemi- 
nences or jurisdictions to any colonists whatsoever. 1 

Previous to this date Van Slechtenhorst had granted seve- 
ral leases for land in Katskill. But the directors refused to 
admit the patroon's pretensions to that section of country, as 
it had already been granted to another. In conformity with 
his instructions, -Stuyvesant now protested against those 
leases, and announced his resolution to oppose these encroach- 
ments. The authorities of Rensselaerswyck were, conse- 
quently much embarrassed, and therefore remonstrated : they 
had only obeyed the orders of their superiors in Holland : 
" as two opposite things can not be made to approximate un- 
less one give way," it is easy to see how impossible it had 
become for them to perform their duty according to their 
oaths. " It is unbecoming natives of the United Nether- 
lands," they added, " to loosen the bond of union by which 
they are joined ; on the contrary, they ou<.'ht to use all pos- 
sible means to tighten it." They therefore requested the 
director-general to defer further proceedings in the matter, 
until they should communicate with their superiors, and 
promised in the meanwhile neither to send nor allow to be 
sent any settlers or cattle to the land in dispute. Thus was 
impeded the early settlement of the present county of Greene. 

The local authorities were now earnestly besought to pro- 
vide the inhabitants with a'proper schoolmaster, "Perceiv- 
ing how necessary such a person was to the establishment of 
a well-constituted republic," a committee was appointed to 
build a school-house and to collect funds for defraying what- 
ever expenses might be incurred. Andries Jansz was 
appointed to take charge of this institution in the course of 
the following year, and received a present, on entering on 
the discharge of his duties, of twenty dollars. 

l Alb.Rec., IY, 44, 46, 49, 50. 

22 Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 

Whilst engaged in this praiseworthy undertaking, the set- 
tlers were thrown into great consternation by a report that 
the Mohawks were meditating an attack upon them. An 
Indian from Tappaan had arrived "unasked and unexpected, " 
and said, " Ye Dutchman have now been selling guns long 
enough to the Maquaas. They have been among us, and by 
presents, engaged us to assist them to kill you when the river 
takes. They have been likewise among the southern Indians, 
who have promised also to lend them a hand." When closely 
questioned he persisted in his statement. " Come and take 
me, and bind me fast; and if it do not happen at the stated 
time, as I have said, then strike me dead ! " Asseverations 
so strong could not fail to convince. The settlers were called 
together, and the whole matter was laid before them. Opi- 
nions, however, differed. Some were for repelling force by 
force : others recommended negotiation. The latter and 
wiser policy prevailed and the authorities passed, accordingly, 
the following resolutions : 

" The insecurity of our lives and property forces itself 
continually upon us, living, as we do, under the licentious 
constraint of inhuman men and cruel heathens. Of this we 
had, last year, a suspicion, but now it has really manifested 
itself by evident demonstration and truthlike predictions and 
advices communicated to us, not by the parties implicated, 
but by warnings and premonitions from far distant Indians. 
Though some have ad vised a recourse to arms and resistance, 
and to measure our weakness with their strength, the director, . 
commissaries and council, weighing the necessity of the case 
have concluded and resolved to commission and empower 
Mons. Arendt Van Curler, Gerrit Van Wencom, Cornelis 
Teunisz. van Breuckelen, Thomas Chambers, and Volckert 
Hanz (being thereunto requested), to repair, with a suitable 
present to the Mohawk country, and to renew former friend- 
ship and alliance, for the welfare of the Patroon's colonie, 
the safety of the common weal, and the protection of our 
wives and children, all which they willingly undertake." 

Labadie, the French commissary at Fort Orange, who was 
well acquainted with the Mohawk tongue, was invited to 
accompany this embassy; but he refused. Would it not be 
better, he was asked, to embrace peace than war ? "It 
matters little to those in the fort," he selfishly replied, " how 

Colony of Hensselaerswyck. 23 

it goes whether it be war or peace ;" and truly they could 
not but feel secure. In addition to whatever arms they might 
have belonging to the company, the commissary, to render 
his position stronger, had borrowed three pieces one a six, 
another a five, and the third a three pounder, belonging to 
the Fatroon. With these, therefore, it mattered little with 
him what the relations with the Indians were. But it was 
far different with the mass of the unprotected colonists. 

The ambassadors departed in the beginning of October, 
solemnly assuring the authorities of Rensselaerswyck that 
they should do all in their power to promote peace. To re- 
move all cause of future misunderstanding with the Indians, 
a placard was issued abolishing licenses to trade in the 
interior, as well as " bosloopers " or runners, called by the 
French " coureurs de bois," a " fountain of mischief, trouble 
and animosity " " but as this could not be properly or 
effectually accomplished without the consent of the people, 
the latter, in confirmation of their good inclination, have, as 
far as they were concerned, assented thereto, in Fort Orange, 
under their own hands." 

The embassy to the Mohawk was successful. Presents 
were distributed among them to the amount of five hundred 
and seventy-five guilders ; the expenses of the delegation 
amounted to eighty-one and a half guilders, or about thirty 
dollars, the whole of which sums were paid by the authorities 
of Rensselaerswyck. 1 

In 1651, the call for a subsidy from Rensselaerswyck 
brought on a collision between the authorities of that colonie 
and the provincial government. The latter had, already, 
peremptorily demanded the excise on wines and strong liquors 
consumed in the Patroon's district, which was refused. It 
was considered an invasion of the freedoms, and in direct 
opposition to the custom of fatherland. The Patroon had de- 
frayed, from his own resources, the salaries of the minister 
and other public servants, as well as the general expenses 
attendant on the settlement of the country. These had 
amounted, on the 30th of June, 1650, to the sum of twenty- 
five thousand seven hundred and seventy-three guilders, or 

1 Gerechtsrolle der Colonie. The items of expenses are stated 
in Slechtenkorst's accounts. 

24 Colony of RensselaerswycL 

more than ten thousand dollars ; no part of which had been 
paid either by the company, or the codirectors of the colonie. 1 
It would be, therefore, submitting to a wrong to consent to 
the demand now put forth. As it was a matter, however, 
that concerned the common interests of the country and the 
privileges of the colonie, commander Van Slechtenhorst was 
commissioned to proceed to New Amsterdam, to remonstrate 
with the director and council against it. 

He arrived at the Manhattans towards the close of the 
month of April, and took the earliest opportunity to repre- 
sent how contrary to reason, law and usage were the proposed 
exactions. But Stuyvesant was inexorable, and Slechten- 
horst, on his side, was equally unyielding ; " for it was a 
matter of great importance, which may cause not only tumult 
but bloodshed in the country." The parties separated, but 
Slechtenhorst had not yet finished his dinner, when a mes- 
senger summoned him before the director-general and coun- 
cil. Immediately on his appearance the authorities pro- 
ceeded to pronounce sentence against him, animadverting in 
strong terms on his conduct, especially in reference to the 
settlement of Katskill. Slechtenhorst, no ways daunted, 
demanded if a man could be condemned unheard ? The 
only answer he received was an order for his arrest. He 
was detained four months at the Manhattans, notwithstand- 
ing he repeatedly protested against his detention, and the 
authorities of Rensselaerswyck made several applications for 
his release. Finally, seeing no prospect of obtaining per- 
mission to depart, he embarked in a sloop, and returned to 
Fort Orange, having given a guaranty to the skipper to see 
him harmless, should he be prosecuted for having received 
him on board. It was well for the skipper that he had taken 
this precaution ; for, on his return to the Manhattans, his vessel 
was arrested, and he was fined two hundred and fifty guild- 
ers and costs. Van Slechtenhorst estimated his expenses 
in consequence of these proceedings at about four hundred 

1 This expenditure is stated in a letter, signed by Johan Van 
Wely and John B. Van Rensselaer, and dated 7th April, 1671. 
Rensselaerswyck Manuscripts. 

Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 25 

Three years had now elapsed since director Stuyvesant 
set up a claim for a separate jurisdiction for Fort Orange, 
distinct and independent of that of Rensselaerswyck. Yet 
the question remained still unsettled. Lines were not drawn 
in those days with as much precision as in our times. The 
Indians measured by the day's journey; Stuyvesant by the 
cannon ball. The jurisdiction of the fort, as claimed by him, 
extended over a circumference within the range of gun shot, 
which he estimated at six hundred paces of five feet to a 
pace; l a distance subsequently estimated at one hundred and 
fifty rods. As the hamlet of Beverwyck, now becoming every 
day more populous and valuable, would, by this operation, be 
severed from the colonie; and as the company could not fail, 
in consequence, to secure the greater part of the fur trade, 
to the serious injury of the Patroon, considerable opposition 
was manifested to Stuyvesant's pretension. The authorities 
of Rensselaerswyck maintained that the fort stood on the 
Patroon's soil; that the whole territory from Beeren island 
to the Cohoes was his ; and that, consequently, the fort could 
have no jurisdiction beyond its walls. As for trading in 
furs, or cutting timber, it was, they insisted, a flagrant spolia- 
tion of the Patroon's property. 

Jean Baptiste Van Rensselaer, the first of that family who 
visited this country, was elected one of its magistrates, whilst 
this controversy was at its height. Shortly afterwards, an 
order was issued that all the freemen and inhabitants should 
take the oath of allegiance to the Patroon and his represent- 

These conflicting pretensions were necessarily productive 
of a bad state of feeling between the opposing parties. On 
New Year's night, some soldiers, armed with matchlocks, sal- 
lied from the fort, and fired a number of shots at the Pa- 
troon's house. Several pieces of ignited wadding settled on 
the roof (which was of reed), and had caused the destruction 
of the building had not the inmates been on the alert. On 
the following day, the soldiers assaulted young Slechtenhorst 

1 De forts gerechticheyt synde, naer gemeene ordre ende gebruyck, 
ontrent de doel van een gotelings schoot, gereckent op ses hondert 
geometressche passen. 

Annals, ii. 3 

26 Colony of EensselaersioycL 

in the street, "and not only beat him black and blue, but 
dragged him through the mud and mire in the presence of 
Joannes Dyckman, the company's commissary, 1 who cried 
out all the time, "Let him have it now, and the d 1 take 
him ! " Philip Pietersen Schuyler endeavored to save his 
brother-in-law. Dyckman, hereupon, drew his sword and 
threatened to run Schuyler through, if he interfered. The 
soldiers struck others of the commander's children, and 
threatened to shoot them, but were prevented. The friends 
of the family were justly incensed at this outrage, and me- 
naced revenge. This coming to Dyckman's ears, he, it is 
represented, ordered the guns of the fort to be loaded with 

frape, with the intention of blowing down the patroon's 

Things were in this unpleasant state when Stuyvesant 
sent up some placards relating to the limits of Fort Orange, 
which he ordered to have published in the colonie. Dyck- 
man, accompanied by six followers and three soldiers " armed 
with carbines and pistols," proceeded to the house where the 
magistrates were in session, and demanded of Slechtenhorst 
to make a minute of what he was about to require. As it 
was contrary to law for any man to enter another's jurisdic- 
tion with an armed posse, without the previous consent of 
the local authorities, Dyckman's conduct was looked upon as 
an additional insult, against which Slechtenhorst protested, 
ordering the commissary at the same time to quit the room. 
Dyckman retired ; but " as force hath more to say here than 
justice/' he returned with increased numbers, and demanded 
that the placards should be published throughout the co- 
lonie by the sound of the bell. " It shall not be done so long 
as we have a drop of blood in our veins," replied the court, 
" nor until we receive orders from their high mightinesses 
and our honored masters." But Dyckman, nevertheless, 
persisted, and ordered the porter to ring the bell. This was 
opposed also. Dyckman now proceeded to the fort; ordered 

1 Dyckman had been first clerk to the Amsterdam Chamber of the 
West India Company, and sailed in the Waterhound, in the spring 
of 1651, for New Netherland, having been appointed bookkeeper, at 
a salary of 30 fl. per month and board. On his arrival he was sent 
as commissary and vice director to Fort Orange, which offices he 
filled until 1655, when, having become deranged, he was superseded. 

Colony of Renssdaerswyck. 27 

the bell there to be rung three times ; then returned to the 
Patroon's court-house; ascended the front stoop, or steps, 
with his armed followers, whilst the wondering burghers 
stood round, and directed his deputy to make proclamation 
of the placards. The latter was about to obey, when Van 
Slechtenhorst, rushing forward, tore the placards from his 
hands, " so that the seals fell on the ground." Another long 
protest followed from the authorities of the colonie, whilst 
young Van Rensselaer said to the crowd, "Go home, good 
friends! 'tis only the wind of a cannon ball fired six hundred 
paces off." 

On receiving the report of these accurrences, the director- 
general immediately dispatched another. placard to Dyckman, 
again declaring the jurisdiction of Fort Orange to extend 
within a circumference of six hundred paces of said fort, 
"and in order that no man shall plead ignorance, we further 
charge our commissary, after publication hereof, to erect on 
the aforesaid limits, north, south and west of the aforesaid 
fortress, a post, marked with the company's mark, and 
to affix on a board nailed thereto, a copy hereof/' Within 
these bounds, no house was, for the future, to be built, ex- 
cept by consent of the director and council, or those autho- 
rized to act for them. 1 This violent and illegal act, violat- 
ing at once the rights of property and the sixth article of 
the charter of 1629, severed, now and forever, the town of 
Beverwyck from Van Rensselaer's colonie. 2 It was not, 

1 Rensselaerswyck Manuscripts. 

2 The Patroon and codirectors of Rensselaerswyck never ceased 
to protest against this high handed proceeding, and to demand the 
restitution of the property thus unlawfully taken from them. 
They succeeded at length in 1673 (when the country fell a second 
time into the hands of the Dutch), in obtaining tardy justice. On 
the 3d of April of that year, the directors of the West India Com- 
pany acknowledged, by a notorial act, after having examined the 
original Indian deeds, that the proprietors of the colonie were also 
right owners of the town, then called Willemstadt ; that the aggres- 
sion committed against them by director Stuy vesant, was in special 
violation of the 6th Art. of the charter of 1629, and could neither 
take away nor diminish the proprietorship claimed by the parties. 
The company at the same time declared that they had no right or 
claim to any part of the said colonie. This view of the case was ad- 
mitted also by Gov. Dongan, in 1686, who considered it necessary 
to obtain a release from the Patroon of all his claims, before he could 
legally incorporate the city of Albany. 

28 Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 

however, quietly submitted to by the authorities of the lat- 
ter, for they immediately ordered their constable to remove 
the posts forthwith, " protesting before Almighty G-od and 
the states-general, against all open force and violence, and 
insisting on reparation for all losses and damages which 
might accrue, or be caused thereby." On the same day, the 
court drew up a long remonstrance u against the unbecoming 
pretensions and attacks of the director and council of New 
Netherland," in which they denied that the latter had any 
authority over the colony ; they had never sworn allegiance 
to the company, much less to Monsieur Stuyvesant, and 
owned no masters but the states-general, and their own imme- 
diate superiors, whose lands have been erected into a perpe- 
tual fief, with high, middle, and low jurisdiction ; and he 
who would now destroy this, must be more powerful than 
the company, " yea, than their high mightinesses." The 
late director Kieft, understood the law better than those 
who administer it now-a-days ; and this will be made mani- 
fest when the matter shall be subjected to that touchstone. 1 

This paper was declared, by the director and council, " a 
libellous calumny." Secretary de Hooges was called on to 
furnish the names of the magistrates who had voted in favor 
of it, and threatened, in case of disobedience, to prosecute 
him for contumacy. 

In the meanwhile the question of jurisdiction presented 
itself in a new shape to agitate and disturb still further this 
infant hamlet. A negress belonging to Sander Leendert- 
fien Glen, charged with theft, caused several u decent per- 
sons " to be prosecuted as receivers of stolen goods. She was 
ordered to be arrested for defamation, and Dyckrnan pro- 
ceeded to take up the wench. Her master refused to surren- 
der her that evening. Dyckman, offended at this, told the 
burgher that he had power to send him and all his family to 
jail ; to pull his house down about his ears, and trample it 

1 On the 13th of this month, the authorities of the colonie pur- 
chased from the Indians two tracts of land on the east side of the 
Hudson, and situate north-east of the flats. One of these was 
called Paanpaack (on which the city of Troy now stands), the other 
Panhoosick, or Hoosick, as it is now called, which adjoined the first 
mentioned on the north. It is described as running landward in 
" unto the Wappenakicks, or otherwise to the Fresh river." 

Colony of Benssefaerswyck. 29 

underneath his feet, " as it was erected on the company's soil/ 
" I have nothing to do with you/' replied Glen ; u I can not 
serve a new master until I am discharged from the one I 
live under." The commissary threatened him with Stuy- 
vesant, but the other thought he should fare as well at the 
director-general's hands as he. This retort overthrew Dyck- 
man's temper. He drew his rapier and threatened to run his 
adversary through. But Glen was not afraid. He seized a 
stick to repel his assailant, who then retired. Next morning 
he was summoned to the fort, and placed under arrest. Ru- 
mors now became rife that Stuyvesant was about to visit the 
place, and the commissary went so far as to give out that a 
new gallows was building for Slechtenhorst and his son, and 
for young Van Rensselaer, who were put down as the foment- 
ers of this rebellion." 1 

The director was at this time occupied in ridding himself 
of all that remained of his opponents at New Amsterdam. 
Melyn was in a manner outlawed ; Van Dinclage had retired 
to Staten Island to brood over his contumelies ; Van Schel- 
luyne durst not exercise his profession, and the nine men 
were under ban. The only one undisposed of was attorney- 
general Van Dyck, and his hour had now arrived. 

From the moment that he had been commissioned, he was 
treated by Stuyvesant with marked contumely, and excluded 
from the council for over two years after his arrival in the 
colony. In the exercise of his office he was most commonly 
employed as a scrivener, to copy legal papero, the drafts of 
which the director-general usually prepared ; at other times 
he was "charged to look after the pigs and keep them out 
of the fort, a duty which a negro could very well perform." 
When Van Dyck happened to object, the director " got as 
angry as if he would swallow him up ; " or if he presumed 
to disobey, " put him in confinement, or bastinadoed him 
with his rattan ! " A series of ill-usage such as this natu- 
rally drove the fiscaal into the ranks of the opposition. 
Charges of drunkenness and of having received bribes were 
brought against him as early as 1647, and periodically re- 
newed, but did not accomplish as yet his dismissal or disgrace. 

1 Rensselaerswyck Manuscripts, 

30 Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 

But in the spring of this year * a silly lampoon against 
the director-general made its appearance, and Van Dyck was 
put down as its author.' 2 The council was convoked to con- 
sider this weighty affair of state, and a resolution followed, 
dismissing the schout-fiscaal from office, " on account of the 
multitude of his misdemeanors and connivances. " This 
resolution purported to be " by and with the advice of the 
nine men," but these repudiated the assertion, and declared, 
" that they never had any knowledge of the commonalty, 
having complained of Van Dyck ; that they never had agreed 
to the resolution ordering his dismissal ; that Stuy vesant had 
passed it on his own authority, and that the secretary 
had falsely appended to it their names." 

To fill this vacancy, Cornelius Van Tienhoven, the puta- 
tive author of the above intrigue, received the appointment 
of attorney-general; Carel Van Brugge, " an Englishman," 
provisionally succeeded him as provincial secretary ; and 
Adriaen Van Tienhoven became receiver-general in place of 
his brother. 

" Were an honorable person appointed in my stead," says 
Van Dyck, commenting on these proceedings, " the false 

1 The directors, writing this year to Stuy vesant, say : " We have 
observed that your climate does not reform much the manners of in- 
dividuals. Of this there is yet much less hope if the chiefs of the 
administrations set a bad example to others. In this respect, we re- 
ceive many complaints from those who return from New Netherland, 
against the attorney-general, for drunkenness and other vices. If he 
continue such a disorderly life, we shall be compelled to employ 
such means of restraint as we deem expedient." Alb. Rec., iv, 74. 

a This pasquinade was in these terms : " Myn Heer General ! 
It is impossible for me to conceal from your excellency, that I heard 
you scolded and cursed on the evening of the llth of March, at Mr. 
Fyn's house, as a rogue and a tyrant, with many other calumnious 
defamations, which cut me to the heart. Thou art a God appointed 
of God ! I pray you for Christ's sake to prevent it, or I shall feel 
very unhappy, for I can no longer listen to it, and durst not acquaint 
you with it by word of mouth. Christman, Fyn, and two other 
women heard it also. I wish that the fiscaal would bestir himself. 
No other man is better. Was neither signed nor subscribed, nor 
compared with the discovered scrap, this 28th March, 1652, in New 
Amsterdam, (signed), Cor. Van Thienh., secretary," Van Dyck ac- 
cused Van Tienhoven, Christman (V. T.'s clerk), and others of hav- 
ing got up this plot, and circulated this lampoon to have him dis- 
missed. Hoi. Doc., vi, 263-265. 

Colony of Renssdaerswyck. 31 

accusations against me, which have been so long resolved 
upon and written, might have some semblance of truth; but 
the person whom the director-general hath, on his own mere 
motion, made fiscaal, is his perjured secretary, who returned 
here contrary to their high mightinesses' prohibition ; a 
public, notorious, and convicted whore-monger and oath- 
breaker ; a reproach to this country, and the main scourge 
of both Christians and heathens, with whose sensualities the 
director himself has been always acquainted." "The -fault 
of drunkenness could easily be noticed in me, but not in 
Van Tienhoven, who has frequently come out of the tavern 
so full that he could go no further, and was forced to lie 
down in the gutter." 1 

Having thus disposed of Van Dyck, Stuyvesant turned 
his attention to Van Slechtenhorst, and to conclude all diffi- 
culties with him, repaired to Fort Orange and called on the 
authorities of Rensselaerswyck to state where their bounds 
commenced. It was indifferent to him from what point, 
north or south, they should start. The exemptions allowed 
them four miles on one, or two miles on both banks of the 
river, and he was prepared to concede to that extent ; but 
he warned them, if they should refuse this " reasonable 
offer," he would proceed ex parte. They replied that they 
had no instruction to act in the premises ; and requested 
delay, until they advised with the interested parties in Hol- 
land. The delay was granted, but the question of supremacy 
over Beverwyck was not so easily settled. Sergeant Litchoe 
presented himself with a party of soldiers before the patroon's 
house, and having stationed his followers at the door, or- 
dered Van Slechtenhorst to strike the patroon's flag. The 
latter peremptorily refused to obey, whereupon " fourteen sol- 
diers armed with loaded muskets, entered the enclosure, and 
after firing a volley, hauled down the lord's colors." Stuy- 
vesant followed up this act, by issuing a proclamation erect- 
ing in Fort Orange a court of justice for the village of 
Beverwyck and its dependencies, apart from, and independent 
of, that of Rensselaerswyck. This placard having been affixed 
to the court house of the eolonie, was torn down by Van 
Steehtenhorst, who in return posted a proclamation vindicat- 

l Alb. Bee., in, 264-268 ; Hoi Doc., yi, 194-276. 

32 Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 

ing the patroon's rights, and denouncing the pretensions 
of those who infringed them. This was removed by those 
of the fort. 1 

From the date of general Stuyvesant's proclamation above 
mentioned, reckons the establishment of a legal tribunal in 
Beverwyck, and consequently, in the present city of Albany. 
It was an exercise of the prerogative which followed naturally 
the high-handed proclamation of the fifth of March pre- 

Van Slechtenhorst's reign was now evidently drawing to 
a close. For four years he had manfully defended the rights 
of his " orphan patroon," and unflinchingly contended against 
the invasions of superior force. But what, in those days, 
could avail in New Netherland the opposition of one man 
against the attacks of the executive ? Nine armed soldiers 
burst into his house, and, without exhibiting any authority 
for the act, dragged him, a prisoner, " against all his pro- 
tests/' to Fort Orange, " where neither his children, his 
master, nor his friends, were allowed to speak to him," whilst 
"his furs, his clothes, and his meat were left hanging to the 
door-posts," and his house and papers were abandoned to the 
mercy of his enemies. He was next conveyed on board a 
sloop lying in the river, and removed, in charge of a guard, 
to New Amsterdam, " to be tormented, in his sickness and 
old age, with unheard of and insufferable prosecutions, by 
those serving a Christian government, professing the same 
religion, and living under the same authority." 2 

Jan Baptist Van Rensselaer succeeded Van Slechtenhorst 
as director, and Gerrit Swart was appointed sheriff or schout- 
fiscaal of Rensselaerswyck in his place. Provision was made 

1 Gerechtsrolle der Colonie Rensselaerswyck, 103-114 ; Alb. Rec., 
ix, 123 ; Rensselaersvyyck Manuscripts. - Gerechtsroll evan den 
Banck van Justitie der Fortresse Orange, Dorpe Beverswyck ende 
appendentie van dien, door den Eerentfesten ende Achtbaeren Heer, 
Myn Heeren de Heer Directeur Generaal en Raaden van Nieuw 
Nederlandt, den 10 Aprilis AO 1652, in loco synde gestelt. Mort- 
gage Book A, in County Clerk's Office, Albany. 

2 Slechtenhorst's Memorial, Manuscript. It has been stated that 
the commander was lodged in the keep at New Amsterdam. This 
was not so. He was placed under what was called civil arrest. 
Some of his time was passed at Staten Island, some at Breukelen. 

Colony of Rensselaersivyck. 33 

at the same time for the regular preaching of the gospel, and 
the conversion of the heathen, by the appointment of the 
Rev. G-ideon Schaets as minister of the colonie, at a salary 
of eight hundred guilders, or $320 per annum. This 
stipend was afterwards raised to one thousand, and then to 
thirteen hundred guilders. 1 

Information was received by the patroon and codirectors 
of Rensselaerswyck of the high-handed measures which Stuy- 
vesant had exercised in the early part of this year in regard 
of their colonie. They thereupon sent in to the Amsterdam 
chamber a remonstrance, complaining, 1st. That the di- 
rector-general had dared to intrude in their colonie, and had 
commanded the patroon's flag to be hauled down; 2d. That 
he had caused timber to be cut on the complainant's lands, 
without either their knowledge or permission; 3d. That he 
had claimed for the company the right of jurisdiction and 
property over all the land within a circumference of one hun- 
dred and fifty rods of Fort Orange, where he had erected a court 
of justice, notwithstanding the soil had been purchased from 
the right owners by the patroon, with the jurisdictions there- 
unto belonging ; whereby the colonists were reduced to a 
state of dependency, absolved from their oaths, " transformed 
from freemen to vassals, and incited to disregard their former 
solemn compacts and their lord and master;" 4th. He 
had, moreover, discharged sheriff Swart from his oath of office 
and obliged him to swear allegiance to the company; 5th. 
Demanded copies of all the rolls, protocols, judgments, reso- 
lutions and papers relative to the colonie and its affairs; 6th. 
Ordered his commissary to force Van Slechtenhorst's house, 
and to toll the bell at the publication of his illegal placards ; 
7th. Arrested by force and arms the director of the colonie; 
had him conveyed to the Manhattans, where he illegally 
detained him in custody ; 8th. Taxed the colonie to swell 
the company's revenues; licensed those who quit the patroon's 
service to sell articles of contraband to the savages; and in 

1 The power of attorney to J. B. Van Rensselaer is dated 8th May, 
1652. Gerrit Swart was born in 1607, and was, consequently, 45 
years of age when he came to New Netherland. He filled the 
office of sheriff in Albany, to 1670, when Capt. Salisbury was elected 
his successor, by a majority of the burghers of that city. 

34 Colony of JRensselaerswyck. 

addition to the exaction of the tithes, had raised a tax by farm- 
ing out the excise on wines and beers " thus in every respect 
and everywhere using violence and infringing rights, juris- 
dictions and preeminences, apparently determined to take 
our goods and blood, contrary to all laws, human and divine ; 
declaring, over and above all this, that he is continued in 
his administration solely in the hope and consideration that 
before his departure he should ruin this colonie." 1 The 
patroon and codirectors solemnly avowed their intention 
" to employ all lawful remedies to preserve and maintain 
their rights and privileges, and to protect their colonists 
against such lawless aggressions," and insisted that the 
West India Company should forthwith order their director 
to abandon these attempts, repeal his placards, and compen- 
sate for the injuries which he had inflicted. But if the 
directors were of opinion that they had any just cause of 
complaint, they were then called on to appear in any court 
of justice to make good their pretensions before " our com- 
mon judges." Failing to answer categorically the above 
accusations within fourand-twenty hours, the interested par- 
ties threatened " to complain where they expect they shall 
be heard." 

The director answered in vague terms, that they were un- 
willing to commit an infraction on any person's privileges ; 
but this not being deemed satisfactory, the patroon and his 
friends addressed a memorial to their high mightinesses the 
states- general, of whom they demanded justice and redress. 
This paper was immediately sent to the department of Am- 
sterdam, who, after considerable delay, returned a reply to 
some of the charges brought against their agent in New 
Netherland. They denied all knowledge of the patroon's 

a We, the undersigned, certify that it happened in December, 
Anno 1651, when M. Joannes Dyckman was in conversation with 
us concerning the Heer General Petrus Stuyvesant, and the differ- 
ence between his honour and the colonie, that he answered there- 
upon, that the Heer General was continued in his office for no other 
purpose than to plague the colonie. This we declare to have oc- 
curred, and are ready to confirm the same by a solemn oath. Done 
in the Colonie Rensselaerswyck, the 16th March, AO 1652. B. V. 
Slechtenhorst, Director; A. van Curler. Rensselaerswyck Manu- 

Colony of JRensselaerswyck. 35 

flag having been hauled down; of his colonists having been 
released from their oaths ; of any of his lots having been taken 
away; and of the establishment of a court of justice in Fort 
Orange. The timber was removed from a place so defined as 
to injure no one, and all complaints against the extension 
of the jurisdiction of Fort Orange were without foundation. 
That jurisdiction was determined " before the colonie of 
Kensselaerswyck was granted." " The limits of the colonie 
were, therefore, fixed above and below the fort, under whose 
walls the petitioners were afterwards permitted to shelter 
themselves from the savages; but from this concession 
no right or title can be imagined or acquired." G-errit Swart 
was not discharged from his oath to the patroon. He was 
only obliged to take a second one to the company, " remain- 
ing subject to both masters." The demand of the rolls 
and papers belonging to the colonie, as well as the levy- 
ing tithes and excise therein, was authorized by the charter. 
As Van Slechtenhorst would not " toll the bell " on the 
publication of the placards, it was unavoidably necessary 
that it should be executed by others ; and his arrest was 
imperatively demanded in order to curb the insufferable 
insolence, effrontery and abuse of power," of which he was 
guilty. The authorizing the sale of arms and ammunition 
to the savages was acknowledged. " It was deemed prudent 
that it should be now and then permitted." 

Having thus disposed in one way or another, and as best 
they could, of the charges which were brought against them, 
the directors now assumed the offensive, and presented 
against the patroon and codirectors of Rensselaerswyck a 
number of counter-charges, in justification of the measures 
they had adopted, or as an offset to those accusations made 
against themselves. 

They had, it was averred, exceeded their lawful limits, and 
were now called on to record their boundary lines in the land 
office of the company, otherwise the latter would have the 
survey made by its own orders. They had attempted, 
against all law, to extend their lines along the North river, 
to monopolize the trade, to the ruin of private persons. 
They refused to permit any vessel to pass by a certain house 
called Rensselaers-stein, and claimed without any founda- 
tion the privilege of staple right. They exacted seven per 

36 Colony of Renssdaerswyck. 

cent duty on each beaver and five per cent on other goods, 
enforcing these pretensions with cannon shot, which they 
discharged into yachts that refused to come to. They have 
endeavored, " by perverse machinations ; " to possess them- 
selves of Fort Orange, and when frustrated herein, they 
undertook to lease lots in its vicinity and erect buildings 
thereupon. " They had dared to grant commissions to indi- 
viduals to sail to the coast of Florida ; " and forbade colo- 
nists to move within the company's limits on pain of corporal 
punishment, confiscation of property and banishment; to 
cut or cart wood for the inhabitants of Fort Orange ; to pay 
to the latter what they owed them ; or to appeal from any 
judgments over fifty guilders, as they were privileged to do. 
They declined to furnish any extracts of their proceedings 
or judgments ; to make returns to writs of appeal ; to publish 
placards or permit such publication by others, but tear them 
by force from the hands of court messengers and destroy 
their seals; and if any writ be served by the company's 
officers, then they incite the parties summoned not to appear. 
Over and above all this, the oath which the colonists are 
compelled to take is " seditious and mutinous," for no notice 
is taken therein, either of their high mightinesses or of 
the company. No report has been made of the state of the 
colonie, as should have been annually done, nor have the 
instructions issued for the administration of the colonie been 
ever communicated, as the charter required. " From all 
which flow, as a natural consequence, an insolent and over- 
bearing demeanor on the part of their commanders to their 
inhabitants; insufferable protests, injuries, menaces, dis- 
putes and provocations against the company's ministers; 
and, lastly, a general disobedience of all the company's com- 
mands and ordinances, to such a degree that they would not 
permit the director and council to proclaim even a day of 
prayer in the colonie in the same manner as in all other 
parts of New Netherlands' l 

The limits between Fort Orange and the colonie were in 
1654 still undetermined. Some confusion as to jurisdiction 
necessarily ensued, to remove which the director-general 
called again on the patroon's agents to fix on their point of 

Alb. Rec., vm, 59-63, 215-221 ; Hoi. Doc., vi, 303-306 ; vn, 1-24. 

Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 37 

departure, as he was willing to allow them, agreeably to the 
charter, four miles on one side, or two on each bank of the 
river, " without the limits of Fort Orange." The magistrates 
of the colonie being unprovided with instructions from their 
superiors requested delay, and Stuyvesant seized an opportu- 
nity which offered, shortly after, to enlarge his juris- 
diction. The court of Rensselaerswyck was about to farm 
the excise, and demanded how far they could collect this im- 
post. The answer was an order to the court of Fort Orange 
to collect the duties on all wines, beers and spirituous liquors 
sold by retail " within a circuit of one thousand rods of the 
fort." The colonie was hereby deprived of a very important 
source of revenue, and fresh fuel was heaped on the old fires 
of litigation and trouble. As if the elements of strife were 
not sufficiently numerous, a claim for tenths was also put 
in. Counter orders were given by the patroon's officers to 
their vintners, to refuse the payment of the excise, on the 
ground that the general government defrayed none of the 
local charges; and as for the tenths, " neither the inhabitants 
of the colonie nor those of Beverwyck could be induced 
either by monitions or persuasions to pay them." 1 

Commissary Dyckman, whose violent demeanor might, 
long ere this, justified doubts of the soundness of his mind, 
became now so unquestionably insane that the magistrates 
were forced to represent his condition to the supreme coun- 
cil, who thereupon appointed Johannes de Decker vice- 
director, "to preside in Fort Orange and the village of 
Beverwyck, in the court of justice of the commissaries 
aforesaid to administer all the affairs of police and justice, 
as circumstances may require, in conformity to the instruc- 
tions given by the director general and council, and to pro- 
mote these for the best service of the country and the 
prosperity of the inhabitants." 

Shortly after the installation of the new vice director, 
Father Le Moyne took occasion to pay his respects to the 
Dutch at Beverwyck. He was received with much respect 
by the Hollanders; and the Mohawks whom he visited for 
the purpose of concluding a treaty on the part of the 
French evinced more than ordinary gratification at seeing 

1 Alb. Rec., iv, 213 ; ix, 121-125, 126, 129. 
Annals, ii. 4 

38 Colony of EensselaerswycL 

him. 1 But the Father had not well left the country when a 
body of one hundred of these Indians presented themselves 
at Fort Orange. They were on the eve of setting forth on 
a war excursion against the Canada Indians, and fearing 
" that the French had poisoned the ears of their Dutch 
brothers against them," now asked the latter to remain neu- 
ter. They complained, at the same time, that when they 
visited the fort, they did not experience as much hospitality 
and feasting as the Dutch did when they came to their cas- 
tles ; they could not have the smallest repairs done to their 
guns unless they had wampum to pay in return, which 
treatment was not such as a brother should receive from a 
brother. The authorities assured them that they should 
observe a perfect neutrality, as they had no concern with 
their quarrels with other Indians. When they visited the 
Mohawk country they went few in number, and should their 
brothers observe the same rule, they should be lodged and 
entertained in a manner becoming their rank. In regard to 
the other subject of complaint, they could not interfere. 
Every Dutchman was obliged to earn his bread, and no man 
could be obliged to serve another for nothing. This being 
the rule among Christians, their brothers could not justly 
complain if they were treated as their other brethren. Pre- 
sents were duly exchanged. The Indians laid their wam- 
pum belts at the feet of the white men, and the latter 
furnished powder and lead in return; "all which they 
accepted with their customary barbarous applaudings," and 
departed.' 2 

The church erected in 1643 had long since become inad- 
equate to the accommodation of the community, and it had 
been determined in the course of the preceding year to erect 
a new building. To assist this good work, the patroon and 
codirectors subscribed one thousand guilders or four hundred 
dollars, 3 and fifteen hundred guilders were appropriated 

1 Relation, 1655, 1656, 7-16. 

2 Present on this occasion, Commissary De Decker and the ma- 
gistrates of both the courts, viz ; Rutger Jacobsen, Andries Herperts, 
Volckert Jansen, J. B. Van Rensselaer, A. van Curler, J. van 
Twiller, J. Hap, H. Jochemsen, and Philip Pietersen Schuyler, &c. 
Fort Orange Rec. 

8 Rensselaerswyck Manuscripts. 

Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 39 

from the fines imposed by the court at Fort Orange. A 
site, at the junction of what is now State street and Broad- 
way, was selected, and in the early part of the summer, Rut- 
ger Jacobsen, one of the magistrates, laid the corner-stone 
of the sacred edifice, in the presence of the authorities, 
both of the town and colonie, and of the assembled inhabit- 
ants. A temporary pulpit was, at first, erected for the use 
of the minister, but the settlers subscribed twenty-five bea- 
vers to purchase a more splendid one in Holland. The 
Chamber at Amsterdam added seventy-five guilders to this 
sum, for" the beavers were greatly damaged;" and "with 
a view to inspire the congregation with more ardent zeal," 
presented them in the course of the next year with a bell 
"to adorn their newly constructed little church." 1 

The difficulties about the excise in the colonie remaining 
still unsettled, orders were sent up by the director and coun- 
cil to arrest and convey the contumacious tapsters to New 
Amsterdam. De Decker accordingly invited one of them to 
his house, where, on his arrival, he made him prisoner. 
The sloop in which he was to be conveyd down the river 
not being ready to sail until the next day, De Decker, for 
greater security, lodged his prisoner through the night in 
the same bed with himself. Through the connivance of the 
soldiers on guard, the tapster contrived to escape from the 
fort on the morrow, and repaired forthwith to the patroon's 
house. Hither De Decker followed and ordered him to re- 
turn to the fort, but he refused. The other tapsters now 
made common cause with the fugitive, and arming them- 
selves, remained together to protect each other from the 
emissaries of the law. The vice director, esteeming it an 
absurdity to suffer an asylum for fugitives from justice to 
exist in the very centre of his jurisdiction was preparing to 
execute his orders by force, whan John B. Van Rensselaer 
pledged himself to repair to the Manhattans and arrange the 
matter with the supreme authorities. To avoid bloodshed, 
De Decker acquiesced in this proposal; but another order 
arrived a few days afterwards, directing him to send down 

1 Alb. JRec., iv, 233. A fragment of this little bell is still in pos- 
session of one of the Dutch reformed churches at Albany. It bears 
the inscription" Anno 1601." 

40 Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 

the tavern-keepers forthwith. In obedience to these instruc- 
tions, he proceeded with an armed posse to the houses of the 
parties, where he again met Van Kensselaer and " his 
associates." He summoned them, in the name of the di- 
rector and council to surrender and accompany him to the 
fort. " Whereupon they each answered. * There sits the Lord 
he will answer for me/ " Van Rensselaer acquiesced herein, 
and again bound himself to produce the tapsters when 
required. De Decker ; finding it useless to continue, the 
discussion, protested, and Mr. Van Rensselaer proceeded to 
New Amsterdam. Here, on his arrival, he presented a 
strong remonstrance against the course which the govern- 
ment was pursuing. Their exactions, he insisted, were con- 
trary to the sixth article of the charter. Instead of the 
directors having any claim on the patroon, the contrary was 
the fact. The company had guarantied to defend the colo- 
nists against all violence, yet the latter had thrice come 
forward, at great expense, to assist Fort Orange ; first, during 
the war with the French savages secondly, in the trouble 
with the English ; and lately during the unhappy misunder- 
standing with the Indians around the Manhattans. When- 
ever there was any prospect of trouble, they were the 
first to appease the savages by presents. The losses which 
the latter inflicted on the colonie, by the killing of cows, 
horses, and other cattle, amounted annually to several thou- 
sand guilders; and, in addition, the patroon and codirectors 
maintained, at their own expense, all the ministers and 
officers of the colonie. In the face of these facts, it was 
manifestly unjust to seize now on the excise, and to insist 
on the payment, also, of tenths. However, to prevent all 
further disturbance, he was willing to permit the payment 
of the former, under protest, if the director and council 
pledged themselves to refund the money, should a final 
decision be given against them by impartial judges, either 
here or in Holland. 

This remonstrance was, at once T pronounced " frivolous" 
by the director- general and council, -whose " high office and 
quality permit them not to stoop so low as to enter the lists 
with their subjects and vassals, much less to answer their 
frivolous and unfounded protests with a pusillanimous diffi- 
dence." Their duty was rather " to correct such absurd 

Colony of Eensselaerswyck. 41 

assertions, and to punish the offenders." "Wherefore, as a 
public example, the protestor was fined twenty guilders. 

Having thus, as they considered, vindicated their dignity, 
Van Rensselaer was informed that his colonists were bound 
equally with other settlers in the province to contribute to 
the public burthens, not only by the very nature of civilized 
government, but by Art. xvm, of the charter of 1629 ; and 
this they ought to do, without suspecting any infraction on. 
their privileges or jurisdiction. The excise due from this 
colonie which amounted by estimate, to fifteen hundred guil- 
ders, must therefore be paid, together with all damages which 
may have accrued by the delay. The tavern-keepers must, 
moreover, submit to the guaging of their stock as often as 
the same may be required } and as John Baptist Van Rens- 
selaer was, himself, the original cause that the excise is re- 
sisted, he was called on to give a bond of three thousand 
guilders, for the personal appearance of the " contumacious 
tavern-keepers;" otherwise he was to remain at the Man- 
hattans under civil arrest. 

The director and council also insisted that the colonie 
was obliged to pay the tithes. If Mr. Van Rensselaer 
would agree with some of his colonists on a round sum, in 
lieu of these, it would be accepted until instructions should 
be received from Holland ; if the directors or arbitrators 
should decide afterwards that the colonie was not subject to 
tenths, the amount paid should be reimbursed. The 
assertions that the colonists assisted the company in its diffi- 
culties ',' were made, but not proved." It is true they 
promised to assist in putting Fort Orange in a state of 
repair, at the time of the troubles with the English ; but it 
was not less true, that after having given three or four days 7 
labor, " they left us to shift for ourselves." The director 
and council were entirely ignorant of being under any 
obligations to them " during the late troubles." This rejoin- 
der was followed by a proclamation, ordering .all the towns 
and colonies in the province not to remove their crops before 
they settled with the company's commissaries for the tenths. 
A copy of this placard was sent for publication to the 
authorities of Rensselaerswyck, but they refused to publish it. 

It was during this misunderstanding that the " contuma- 
cious tapsters," having been guarantied by the director and 

42 Colony of Jtensselaerswyck. 

court of the colonie against damage, arrived at the Manhat- 
tans to answer for their conduct. The plea of residence in 
the colonie and of acting according to superior orders 
availed them nothing. One was fined two hundred pounds, 
failing payment of which he was to be banished; the 
other was mulcted eight hundred guilders. The pa- 
troon subsequently made good both these fines. The dif- 
ficulties about the tenths were not settled until July, 1658, 
when the colonie compounded for them by the yearly pay- 
ment of three hundred schepels of wheat. Commissary De 
Decker being now about to return to Holland, resigned his 
office, and Johannes La Montague, hitherto one of the coun- 
cil, was commissioned vice director of Fort Orange, Johan- 
nes Provoost became secretary and Ludovicus Cobbes court 
messenger. 1 The vice-director's house at this period was 
an old building within the fort, twenty-six feet nine inches 
long, Rhineland measure; two stories high, constructed of 
boards one inch thick, with a roof in the form of a pa- 
vilion," covered with old shingles. Under this house was 
a cellar " as long as the house was broad." The first floor 
was divided into two compartments. At the north end was a 
chamber, sixteen or seventeen feet broad ; at the south end 
an entry ten feet wide. The space on the second floor was 
one undivided room, directly under the roof, without a chim- 
ney, to which access was had by a straight ladder, through 
a trap-door. Here the magistrates administered justice : this 
was the first court-house of the present city of Albany. 

Fort Orange was, until the year 1661, the frontier town 
on the northern and western borders of the province. Beyond 
that all was " the far west/' little known and less explored, 
wholly abandoned to the wild savage or wilder beasts of 
prey. But civilization, that giant before whom beasts and 
savages were alike fated to disappear, and who was never to 
pause until he bathed his feet in the waters of the Pacific, 
was now about to take another step westward. The proxi- 
mity of the whites had exhausted the resources of the Indians 

*ji, Rec., x, 68; xi, 409, 410, 415-430, 445-447, 466, 470, 488- 
499;xiii, 72 ; 221-233 ; xviii, 83; Rensselaerswyck Manuscripts; 
Fort Orange Rec. The number of furs exported this year from Fort 
Orange and vicinity, amounted to 34,840 beaver and 300 otter skins 

Colony of Eensselaerswyck. 43 

in the neighbourhood of Beverwyck. Furs were becoming 
scarce, and the soil was no longer an object of value. The 
natives were, therefore, inclined to sell for a trifle the Great 
Flatt, west of the fort, " towards the interior of the country." 
Six or eight families were desirous to move thither, and 
the prospect of obtaining additional settlers was favorable, for 
at Beverwyck the common people were much impoverished 
and unable to meet their wants, " from one loaf to another." L 
Under these circumstances, Arent van Curler applied, on be- 
half of himself and others, to the director-general for per- 
mission to purchase the land in question. The requisite 
authority was duly granted,- but had not been yet received 
at Fort Orange when a freshet laid the country for miles 
around under water. This was followed, a few days after, 
by an inundation, much greater than the first, which forced 
the inhabitants to quit their dwellings and fly with their 
cattle for safety to the woods on the adjoining hills. Incal- 
culable damage was caused by these irruptions. The wheat 
and other grain were all prostrated, and had to be cut mostly 
for fodder, affording scarcely seed sufficient for the next 
spring. 3 This visitation necessarily caused the postpone- 
ment of the purchase of the great Flatt until the ensuing 
month, when the following deed was obtained from the 
Indian owners : 

1 Arent van Curler's letter to Director Stuyvesant, dated Rensse- 
laerswyck, 18th June, 1661, in Fort Orange Rec., also in Alb. Rec., 
xix, 179. Van der Kemp's translation, in the latter, is in many 
essential parts incorrect. 

2 Alb. Rec., xix, 180. Arent van Curler's letter having been read, 
together with the authority to purchase the same, and to make a 
concentration thereupon, the director and council assented there- 
unto, " provided that the said lands, on being purchased from the 
native proprietors, be, as usual, transferred to the director-general 
and council aforesaid as representatives of the Lords Directors of the 
Privileged West India Company ; that, what ever the petitioners 
shall pay for the aforesaid lands to the original proprietors, shall, 
in due time, be returned to them, or be discounted to them against 
the tenths. 

3 Petition in Rensselaerswyck Manuscripts of the colonists of Rens- 
selaerswyck to the director and commissaries of that colonie, 
for a remission of rent and tenths for this year, dated September 
15th, 1661. Jeremias van Rensselaer's letter to his mother, 8th 
October, 1661, in Rensselaerswyck Manuscripts, Alb. Rec., vi, 345, 

44 Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 

" Appeared before me, Johannes La Montagne, appointed 
by the Director general and council of New Netherland 
Vice Director and Commissary in the service of the privi- 
leged West India Company, at Fort Orange and the town 
of Beverwyck, certain chiefs of the Mohawk country, by 
name Cantuquo, Sonareetsie, Aiadane, Sodrachdrasse, pro- 
prietors of a certain parcel of land, called in Dutch the 
Groote Vlacht (Great Flatte), lying behind Fort Orange 
between the same and the Mohawk country, which they 
declare to have ceded and transported, as they hereby cede 
and transport, in real and actual possession and property, 
unto Sieur Arent van Corlear, the said parcel of land or 
Great Flatt, called, in Indian, Schonowe, as it is bounded 
in its contents and circumference, with its trees and streams, 
for a certain number of cargoes, wherein the cedants ac- 
knowledge to have received satisfaction ; renouncing, now 
and for ever, all property and claim which they hitherto 
have had in the aforesaid parcel of land, promising to free 
the same from all claims which other Indians might have 
thereon. Done in Fort Orange the 27th July, anno 1661, 
in presence of Martin Morris and William Montagne, 
thereunto requested, in presence of me La Montugne, Vice 
Director and Commissary over the Fortress Orange. " l 

A grant under the provincial seal was issued in the 
following year, but the land was not surveyed or di- 
vided until 1664. ' 2 The inhabitants of Fort Orange and 
its neighborhood were most anxious to retain the fur mono- 
poly, and had sufficient influence with the director and 
council to induce them to order that the settlers of Schaen- 
hechstede (as the new village came to be called) should 
confine themselves exclusively to agriculture, and abstain 
from all trade with the Indians. This, in fact, was the con- 
dition on which they were allowed to remove thither; " for 
it would never have been permitted to settle this plain 
except on the assurance that no object was in view but 
agriculture, because of the dangers which would accrue if, 

Orange Bee., 1654-1680. The mark of Cantuquo to the 
above instrument was a bear ; of Aiadane, a turtle ; of Sonareetsie 
a wolf ; denoting the tribe or family to which each belonged. 
9 Alb. Rec., xxi, 137. 

Colony of Renssdaerswyck. 45 

at such a distant place, any trade with the savages was 
allowed/' 1 Such a restriction was easily evaded at this 
" distant" outpost, and it soon -came to be known that some 
of the settlers sold intoxicating liquors to the natives. 
When the application for the survey came before the coun- 
cil, Jacques Cortelyou was sent thither, but with instruc- 
tions not to survey any man's land who might refuse to sign 
the following obligation : 

"We the undersigned inhabitants on the Flatt named 

, hereby promise that we shall not carry on, or allow 

to be carried on, at the aforesaid Flatt, or thereabout, any 
the least handeling (traffic), however it may be called, with 
any Indians, under what pretext the same may be, directly 
or indirectly, on pain of paying, if we, or any of us, happen 
to violate this our promise, a fine, without any opposition, 
for the first offence, of fifty beavers: for the second, one 
hundred; and for the third, forfeiture of our acquired and 
obtained lands on the aforesaid Flatt."' 2 

When this resolution was communicated to the parties 
interested, it excited much discontent. They avowed their 
loyalty, and willingness to pay the duties rightfully belong- 
ing to the company, and not to do anything in violation of 
the laws and placards of the province. They hoped that 
they should not be treated less liberally than others. They 
had purchased their lands with their own moneys, erected 
buildings, stocked their farms; now should all this be in 
vain, they would be ruined. They therefore requested that 
the surveyor might be allowed to proceed, "otherwise they 
should be necessitated to help themselves as best they 
could." 3 

Accompanying this remonstrance was a private letter from 
Van Curler to the director-general. On his recommenda- 

1 Alb. Rec., XXT, 139. 

2 Pampieren raekende Schaenhechtady in Albany County 
Clerk's office, 1680-1685 ; 297-301. 

8 Signed, A. van Curler, Fillip Hendricksen, Sander Leendertsen 
Glen, Symon Volcertsen, Pieter Soghmaekelyk, Teunis Cornelissen, 
Marte Cornelise, William Teller, Bastiaen De Winter, attorney for 
Catalyn widow of Arent Andries de Voss, Pieter Jacobse Borsboom, 
Pieter Danielse van Olinda, Jan Barentse Wemp, Jacques Cornelise, 
These were the first settlers of the locality in question. 

46 Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 

tion the settlers had consented to proceed with their plough- 
ing and planting, though, at first, they seemed unwilling to 
do so. He trusted that the place would he surveyed, though 
it was his impression that the director and council were 
acting on the suggestion of some envious persons who sought 
their own profit at the expense of the cultivation of the 
puhlic lands, and that under a pretended fear that" a little 
heaver " should be bought there, and they have thereby so 
much less. It seemed to him that they who followed 
agriculture ought not to be worse treated than those who 
pursue commerce. It would be lamentable were the settlers 
and their posterity to remain forever under this ban of 
slavery, and be excluded from bartering either bread, milk, 
or the produce of their farms for a beaver, so as to be able 
to purchase some covering for their bodies and dwellings. 
No person would imagine that trade could be carried on with 
the Indians at Schaenhechtady as favorably as at Fort 
Orange Goods must be brought from the latter place thither, 
and therefore must needs sell higher. To obviate all diffi- 
culty, the settlers were willing to pledge themselves not to 
sell any brandy to the Indians, on pain of confiscation of 
their property. l 

This appeal in favor of unshackled commerce was of no 
avail. Nothing but danger would accrue if the inhabitants 
were to continue conveying merchandise, as they had al- 
ready begun to do, on wagons and horses, to the savages. 
" Already the Indians had attacked wagons, fired on those 
who conducted them, and attempted to violate females 
journeying thither, as well in the concentration as on the 
road." To prevent a repetition of these insolences, no 
goods were to be carried to Schaenhechtady for the future, 
and the schout of Fort Orange was ordered to proceed forth- 
with to the new settlement, take an inventory of all the 
goods introduced there in violation of the act of concession, 
and have the same removed, " as it was not the intention to 
build up one place for the purpose of bringing ruin on 
another yea, on the whole country/'' 2 Thus things re- 
mained for nearly another year. It was not until May, 

1 Pampieren raekende Schaenhechtady. 

Colony of Rensselaer swyck. 47 

1664, that the surveyor was allowed " to lay out the lands of 
Schaenhechtede." 1 In legal and municipal affairs it re- 
mained dependent on the court at Fort Orange. 

Jeremias Van Rensselaer succeeded his brother Jan Bap- 
tist, as director of the colonie in 1658, and administered its 
affairs for sixteen years with great prudence and discretion. 
He was much respected by the French, and exercised an 
influence over the Indians surpassed only by that of Van 
Curler. On the change of government and the breaking 
out of the war, considerable difficulty was experienced in 
obtaining a patent for the manor from the Duke of York. 
To obviate this, some persons of influence advised him to 
take out one in his own name, he being qualified, as a Bri- 
tish subject, to hold real estate. To his great honor, it is 
recorded that he rejected the offer, for he was. only coheir, 
and could not thus .defraud his brothers and sisters. He 
was a man of great industry, and communicated to Holland 
an account of various occurrences in this country, under 
the name of the New Netherland Mercury. His corre- 
spondence, from 1656 to his death, still in good preserva- 
tion, affords a valuable and interesting commentary on 
private and public affairs, and contains a relation of facts 
and incidents which otherwise would be irreparably lost. 
He died on the 12th October, 1684, and was followed to the 
grave by a large concourse of mourners. 2 

1 Alb. Rec., xxii, 169, 234. 

2 His wife died 29th January, 1689, N. S., in the 44th year of her 
age, leaving five children, the eldest of whom, Kiliaen, was the 
first lord of the manor of Rensselaerswyck, which he represented 
in the Provincial Assembly from 1691 to 1703, when he was called 
to the Council. In the following year he conveyed Claverack, or 
"the lower manor," as is was called, with the Cralo estate at 
Greenbush, to his younger brother Hendrik. From these two pro- 
ceed the numerous members of this wide-spread family in this 
country. Jan Baptist Van Rensselaer survived his brother four 
years, having deceased 18th October, 1678 ; Dom. Nicolaus Van 
Rensselaer died the month following. 

48 Description of Albany, and its Manners. 


[From Mrs. Grant's Memoirs of an American Lady.] 


The city of Albany stretched along the banks of the 
Hudson ; one very wide and long street lay parallel to the 
river, the intermediate space between it and the shore being 
occupied by gardens. A small but steep hill arose above 
the centre of the town, on which stood a fort, intended (but 
very ill adapted) for the defence of the place, and of the 
neighboring country. From the foot of this hill, another 
street was built, sloping pretty rapidly down till it joined 
the one before mentioned that ran along the river. This 
street was still wider than the other; it was only paved on 
each side, the middle being occupied by public edifices. 
These consisted of a market-place, or guard-house, a town 
hall, and the English and Dutch churches. The English 
church, belonging to the Episcopal persuasion, and in the 
diocese of the bishop of London, stood at the foot of the 
the hill, at the upper end of the street. The Dutch church 
was situated at the bottom of the descent where the street 
terminated ; two irregular streets, not so broad, but equally 
long, ran parallel to those, and a few even ones opened 
between them. The town, in proportion to its population, 
occupied a great space of ground. This city, in short, was 
a kind of semi-rural establishment; every house had its 
garden, well, and a little green behind; before every door a 
tree was planted, rendered interesting by being coeval with 
some beloved member of the family ; many of their trees 
were of a prodigious size and extraordinary beauty, but 
without regularity, every one planting the kind that best 
pleased him, or which he thought would afford the most 
agreeable shade to the open portico at his door, which was sur- 
rounded by seats, and ascended by a few steps. It was in 
these that each domestic group was seated in summer evenings 
to enjoy the balmy twilight, or the serenely clear moonlight. 



3 O 

^j HH 



Description of Albany, and its Manners. 49 

Each family bad a cow, fed in the common pasture at the end 
of the town. In the evening the herd returned all together, 
of their own accord, with their tinkling bells hung at their 
necks, along the wide and grassy street, to their wonted 
sheltering trees, to be milked at their masters' doors. No- 
thing could be more pleasing to a simple and benevolent 
mind than to see thus at one view, all the inhabitants of a 
town, which contains not one very rich or very poor, very- 
knowing or very ignorant, very rude or very polished, indi- 
vidual; to see all these children of nature enjoying in easy 
indolence, or social intercourse, 

" The cool, fragrant, and the dusky hour," 

clothed in the plainest habits and with minds as undisguised 
and artless. These primitive beings were dispersed in 
porches, grouped according to similarity of years and inclina- 
tions. At one door were young matrons, at another the 
elders of the people, at a third the youths and maidens, 
gayly chatting or singing together, while the children played 
round the trees, or waited by the cows, for the chief ingre- 
dient of their frugal supper, which they generally ate sitting 
on the steps in the open air. This picture, so familiar to 
my imagination, has led me away from my purpose, which 
was to describe the rural economy, and modes of living in 
this patriarchal city. 

At one end of the town, as I observed before, was a common 
pasture where all the cattle belonging to the inhabitants 
grazed together. A never-failing instinct guided each home 
to her master's door in the evening, where, being treated 
with a few vegetables and a little fat, which is indispensably 
necessary for cattle in this country, they patiently waited the 
night; and after being milked in the morning, they went 
off in slow and regular procession to the pasture. At the 
other end of the town was a fertile plain along the river, 
three miles in length, and near a mile broad. This was all 
divided into lots, where every inhabitant raised Indian corn 
sufficient for the food of two or three slaves (the greatest 
number that each family ever possessed), and for his horses, 
pigs, and poultry } their flour and other grain they purchased 
from farmers in the vicinity. Above the town, a long stretch 

Annals, ii. 5 

50 Description of Albany, and its Manners. 

to the westward was occupied first by sandy hills, on which 
grew bilberries of uncommon size and flavor, in prodigious 
quantities ; beyond, rise heights of a poor hungry soil, thinly 
covered with stunted pines, or dwarf oak. Yet in this com- 
paratively barren tract there were several wild and pictur- 
esque spots, where small brooks, running in deep and rich bot- 
toms, nourished on their banks every vegetable beauty; 
there some,of the most industrious early settlers had cleared 
the luxuriant wood from these charming glens, and built neat 
cottages for their slaves, surrounded with little gardens and 
orchards, sheltered from every blast, wildly picturesque, 
and richly productive. Those small sequestered vales had 
an attraction that I know not how to describe, and which 
probably resulted from the air of deep repose that reigned 
there, and the strong contrast which they exhibited to the 
surrounding sterility. One of these was in my time inha- 
bited by a hermit. He was a Frenchman, and did not seem 
to inspire much veneration among the Albanians. They 
imagined, or had heard, that he retired to that solitude in 
remorse for some fatal duel in which he had been engaged ; 
and considered him as an idolater because he had an image 
of the virgin in his hut. I think he retired to Canada at 
last ; but I remember being ready to worship him for the 
sanctity with which my imagination invested him, and being 
cruelly disappointed because I was not permitted to visit him. 
These cottages were in summer occupied by some of the 
negroes, who cultivated the grounds about them, and served 
as a place of joyful liberty to the children of the family on 
holidays, and as a nursery for the young negroes, whom it 
was the custom to rear very tenderly, and instruct very 

In the society I am describing, even the dark aspect of 
slavery was softened into a smile. And I must, injustice 
to the best possible masters, say that a great deal of that 
tranquillity and comfort, to call it by no higher name, which 
distinguished this society from all others, was owing to the 
relation between master and servant being better understood 
here than in any other place- Let me not be detested as au 
advocate for slavery, when I say that I think I have never 
seen people so happy in servitude as the domestics of the 
Albanians. One reason was, (for I do not now speak of the 

Description of Albany, and its Manners. 51 

virtues of their masters,) that each family had few of them, 
and that there were no field negroes. They would remind 
one of Abraham's servants, who were all born in the 
house ; this was exactly their case. They were baptized 
too, and shared the same religious instruction with the child- 
ren of the family ; and, for the first years, there was little 
or no difference with regard to food or clothing between 
their children and those of their masters. 

When a negro woman's child attained the age of three 
years, it was solemnly presented, the first New Year's day 
following, to a son or daughter, or other young relative of 
the family who was of the same sex with the child so pre- 
sented. The child to whom the young negro was given, 
immediately presented it with some piece of money and a 
pair of shoes ; and from that day the strongest attachment 
grew between the domestic and the destined owner. I have 
nowhere met with instances of friendship more tender and 
generous than that which here subsisted between the slaves 
and their masters and mistresses. Extraordinary proofs 
of them have been often given in the course of hunting or 
of Indian trading ; when a young man and his slave have 
gone to the trackless woods together, in the case of fits of 
the ague, loss of a canoe, and other casualties happening 
near hostile Indians. The slave has been known, at the 
imminent risk of his life, to carry his disabled master through 
unfrequented wilds, with labor and fidelity scarce credible ; 
and the master has been equally tender on similar occasions 
of the humble friend who stuck closer than a brother ; who 
was baptized with the same baptism, nurtured under the same 
roof, and often rocked in the same cradle with himself. 
These gifts of domestics to the younger members of the 
family were not irrevocable; yet they were very rarely with- 
drawn. If the kitchen family did not increase in propor- 
tion to that of the master, young children were purchased 
from some family where they abounded, to furnish those at- 
tached servants to the rising progeny. They were never sold 
without consulting their mother, who, if expert and saga- 
cious, had a great deal to say in the family, and would not 
allow her child to go into any family with whose domestics 
she was not acquainted. These negro-women piqued 
themselves on teaching their children to be excellent ser- 

52 Description of Albany, and its Manners. 

vants, well knowing servitude to be their lot for life, and 
that it could only be sweetened by making themselves par- 
ticularly useful, and excelling in their department. If they 
did their work well, it is astonishing, when I recollect it, 
what liberty of speech was allowed to those active and pru- 
dent mothers. They would chide, reprove, and expostulate 
in a manner that we would not endure from our hired ser- 
vants ; and sometimes exert fully as much authority over 
the children of the family as the parents, conscious that 
they were entirely in their power. They did not crush free- 
dom of speech and opinion in those by whom they knew 
they were beloved, and who watched with incessant care over 
their interest and comfort. Affectionate and faithful as these 
home-bred servants were in general, there were some in- 
stances (but very few ) of those who, through levity of 
mind, or a love of liquor or finery, betrayed their trust, or 
habitually neglected their duty. In these cases, after every 
means had been used to reform them, no severe punish- 
ments were inflicted at home. But the terrible sentence 
which they dreaded worse than death, was past they 
were sold to Jamaica. The necessity of doing this was be- 
wailed by the whole family as a most dreadful calamity, and 
the culprit was carefully watched on his way to New York, 
lest he should evade the sentence by self-destruction. 

One must have lived among those placid and humane 
people to be sensible that servitude, hopeless, endless ser- 
vitude, could exist with so little servility and fear on the 
one side, and so little harshness or even sternness of autho- 
rity in the other. In Europe, the footing on which service 
is placed in consequence of the corruptions of society, 
hardens the heart, destroys confidence, and embitters life. 
The deceit and venality of servants not absolutely dishonest, 
puts it out of one's power to love or trust them. And if in 
hopes of having people attached to us, who will neither 
betray our confidence, nor corrupt our children, we are 
at pains to rear them from childhood, and give them a reli- 
gious and moral education ; after all our labor, others of 
their own class seduce them away to those who can afford to 
pay higher for their services. This is not the case in a 
few remote districts, where surrounding mountains seem to 
exclude the contagion of the world, some traces of fidelity 

Description of Albany, and its Manners. 53 

and affection among domestics still remain. But it must be 
remarked that, in those very districts, it is usual to treat 
inferiors with courtesy and kindness, and to consider those 
domestics who marry out of the family as holding a kind of 
relation to it, and still claiming protection. In short, the 
corruption of that class of people is, doubtless, to be attri- 
buted to the example of their superiors. But how severely 
are those superiors punished ? Why this general indiffer- 
ence about home ; why are the household gods, why is the 
sacred hearth so wantonly abandoned ? Alas ! the charm 
of home is destroyed, since our children, educated in distant 
seminaries, are strangers in the paternal mansion ; and our 
servants, like mere machines, move on their mercenary 
track without feeling or exciting one kind or generous sen- 
timent. Home, thus despoiled of all its charms, is no longer 
the scene of any enjoyments but such as wealth can purchase. 
At the same time we feel there a nameless cold privation, 
and conscious that money can coin the same enjoyments 
with more variety elsewhere. We substitute these futile 
and evanescent pleasures for that perennial spring of calm 
satisfaction, " without overflowing full," which is fed by 
the exercise of the kindly affections, and soon indeed must 
those stagnate where there are not proper objects to excite 
them. I have been forced into this painful digression by 
unavoidable comparisons. To return : 

Amidst all this mild and really tender indulgence to their 
negroes, these colonists had not the smallest scruple of 
conscience with regard to the right by which they held them 
in subjection. Had that been the case, their singular hu- 
manity would have been incompatible with continued injustice. 
But the truth is, that of law the generality of those people 
knew little; and of philosophy, nothing at all. They sought 
their code of morality in the Bible, and there imagined they 
found this hapless race condemned to perpetual slavery ; and 
thought nothing remained for them but to lighten the chains 
of their fellow Christians, after having made them such. This 
I neither "extenuate," nor " set down in malice," but merely 
record the fact. At the same time it is but justice to record, 
also, a singular instance of moral delicacy distinguishing 
this settlement from every other in the like circumstances; 
though, from their simple an-d kindly mode of life, they 

54 Description of Albany, and its Manners. 

were from infancy in habits of familiarity with these 
humble friends, yet being early taught that nature had 
placed between them a barrier, which it was in a high de- 
gree criminal and disgraceful to pass, they considered a 
mixture of such distinct races with abhorrence, as a violation 
of her laws. This greatly conduced to the preservation of 
family happiness and concord. An ambiguous race, which 
the law does not acknowledge, and who (if they have any 
moral sense, must be as much ashamed of their parents as 
these last are of them) are certainly a dangerous, because 
degraded part of the community. How much more so must 
be those unfortunate beings who stand in the predicament of 
the bat in the fable, whom both birds and beasts disowned? 

I am sorry to say that the progress of the British army, 
when it arrived, might be traced by a spurious and ambigu- 
ous race of this kind. But of a mulatto born before their 
arrival, I only remember a^ single instance; and from the 
regret and wonder it occasioned, considered it as singular. 
Colonel Schuyler, of whom I speak, had a relation so 
weak and defective in capacity, that he never was intrusted 
with any thing of his own, and lived an idle batchelor 
about the family. In process of time, a favorite negro- 
woman, to the great offence and scandal of the family, bore 
a child to him, whose color gave testimony to the relation. 
The boy was carefully educated; and when he grew up, 
a farm was allotted to him well stocked and fertile, but 

II in depth of woods embraced," about two miles back from 
the family seat. A destitute white woman, who had some- 
how wandered from the older.colonies, was induced to marry 
him ; and all the branches of the family thought it incum- 
bent on them, now and then, to pay a quiet visit to Chalk, 
(for so, for some unknown reason, they always called him.) 
I have been in Chalk's house myself, and a most comfortable 
abode it was ; but I considered him as a mysterious and 
anomalous being. 

I have dwelt the longer on this singular instance of slavery , 
existing devoid of its attendant horrors, because the fidelity 
and affection resulting from a bond of union so early formed 
between master and servant contributed so very much to 
the safety of individuals, as well as to the general comfort 
of society. 

Return of Abercrombie's Army. 55 


After the defeat of the British under Abercrombie before 
Ticonderoga, in 1758, the corpse of the gallant and lamented 
Lord Howe was escorted to Albany by Philip Schuyler. 1 
In a few days the wounded of this proud but humbled army, 
were brought down, and received by the Schuylers at their 
farm residence, the Flats, as men and brethren. The barn 
was fitted up as a hospital, and a part of the house allotted 
to the surgeon, among whose patients was the afterward 
notorious Charles Lee, who was a captain in the forty-fourth 
regiment. On the advance of the army from Albany by 
the way of the Flats, Lee commanded one of the first de- 
tachments in the line of march ; and although he neglected 
to bring the customary warrants for impressing cattle and 
other necessaries, he, however, says Mrs. Grant, seized 
every thing he wanted wherever he could most readily find 
it, as if he were in a conquered country ; and not content 
with this violence, poured forth a volley of execrations on 
those who presumed to question his right of appropriation. 
Even Mrs. Schuyler was not spared. On his return he 
shared the hospitalities of the mansion,- and in the language 
of Mrs. Grant, " was received and treated as a child." Lee 
felt and acknowledged the resistless force of such generous 
humanity. He swore, in his vehement manner, he was 
sure there was a place reserved in heaven for Madam 
Schuyler, though no other woman should be there. 

1 For an authenticated account of the final destiny of the remains 
of Lord Howe, see Historical Collections of Albany, I, 390, 391. 

2 The house of Madame Schuyler was soon after this event 
burned, but was rebuilt after her death, and a portion of the old 
wall is still seen in the present edifice. 

56 Charter of the City of Albany. 


This instrument was executed by Governor Thomas Don- 
gan, in 1686. In the Governor's report on the province, 
made in the following year to the committee of trade, he 

" The town of Albany lyes within the Ranslaers colony, 
and to say truth the Ranslaers had the right to it for it was 
they settled the place, and upon a petition of one of them 
to our present King, about Albany, the petitioner was re- 
ferred to his Majesty's council at law, who upon a perusal 
of the Ranslaers papers, made their return that it was their 
opinion that it did belong to them ; upon which there was 
an order sent over to Sir Edmond Andros, that the Rans- 
laers should be put in possession of Albany, and that 
every house should pay some two beavers, some more some 
less, according to their dimensions, per annum, for thirty 
years, and afterwards the Ranslaers to put what rent upon 
them they could agree for. What reason Sir Edmund 
Andros has given for not putting these orders in execution 
I know not. The Ranslaers came and brought me the same 
orders which I thought not convenient to execute, judgeing 
it not for his Majesty's interest that the second town of the 
Goverment and which brings his Majesty soe great a reve- 
nue should bee in the hands of any particular men. The 
town of itself is upon a barren saody spot of land, and 
the inhabitants live wholly upon trade with the Indians. 
By the meanes of Mr. James Graham, Judge Palmer and 
Mr. Cortlandt, that have great influence on that people, I 
got the Ranslaers to release their pretence to the town and 
sixteen miles into the country for commons to the King, 
with liberty to cut firewood within the colony for one and 
twenty years. After I had obtained this release of the 
Ranslaers I passed the patent for Albany." 

The citizens commissioned Peter Schuyler and Roberr 
Livingston to go to New York and receive the Charter 
from the hands of the Governor. The original document 

Charter of the City of Albany. 57 

is on file in the Chamberlain's office, dated July 22, 1686, as 
is also a copy of it printed by Hugh Gaine, in 1771, from the 
latter of which we have copied. 1 

Thomas Dongan, lieutenant and governor of the province of New 
York, and dependencies in America, under his most sacred 
majesty James the Second, by the grace of God, of England, 
Scotland, France, and Ireland, King, defender of the faith, etc., 
and supreme lord and proprietor of the said province of New 
York and its dependencies, to all persons to whom these presents 
shall or may come, or in any wise concern, sendeth greeting : 

Whereas the town of Albany is an ancient town within 
the said province, and the inhabitants of the said town have 
held, used and enjoyed, as well within the same as elsewhere 
within the said province, divers and sundry rights, liberties, 
privileges, franchises, free customs, preeminences, advantages, 
jurisdictions, emoluments, and immunities as well by pre- 
scription, as by grants, confirmations and proclamations, not 
only by divers governors and commanders-in-chief in the said 
province, under his said majesty, but also of several governors, 
generals and commanders-in-chief of the Nether-Dutch Na- 
tion, whilst the same was or has been under their power and 
subjection. And whereas divers lands tenements and heredi- 
taments, jurisdictions, liberties, immunities 'and privileges 
have heretofore been given and granted to the inhabitants 
of the said town, sometimes by the name of commissaries 
of the town of Beverwyck ; sometimes by the name of the 
commissaries of the town of Albany; sometimes by the name 
of schepenen of Williamstadt; and sometimes by the name of 
justices of the peace fer the town of Albany; and by divers 
other names, as by their several grants, writings, records 
and minutes amongst other things may more fully appear. 
And whereas the inhabitants of the said town have erected- 
built, and appropriated at their own proper cost and charges, 
several public buildings, accommodations, and conveniencies 
for the said town, as also certain pieces or parcels of ground 
for the use of the same, that is to say, the town-hall, or stadt- 

1 The Council Minutes of July 29, 1723, speak of a printed Charter 
(see vol. YIII, 288). It seems to have been first printed in 1706. 
(Annals, v, 134, 139). 

58 Charter of the City of Albany. 

house, with the ground thereunto belonging ; the church or 
meeting place, with the ground about the same ; the burial 
place, adjoining to the palisades at the south east end of 
the town ; the watch house and ground thereunto belonging ; 
a certain piece or parcel of land, commonly called or kno\*n 
by the name of the Pasture, situate, lying and being to the 
southward of the said town, near the place where the old fort 
stood, and extending along Hudson river, till it comes over 
againstthe most northerly point of the island, commonly called 
Martin Geritsen's island, having to the east Hudson's river, 
to the south the manor of Rensselaerwyck, to the west the 
highway leading to the town, the Pasture late in the tenure 
and occupation of Martin Gerritsen, and the Pasture late in 
the tenure and occupation of Casper Jacobse, to the north 
the several pastures late in the tenure and occupation of 
Robert Sanders, Myndert Harmense, and Evert Wendel, and 
the several gardens late in the tenures and occupation of 
Dirk Wessels, Killian Van Rensselaer and Abraham Staats, 
with their and every of their appurtenances ; and also have 
established and settled one Ferry from the said town to 
Greenbush, situate on the other side of Hudson's river, for 
the accommodation and conveniency of passengers, the said 
citizens and travellers. And whereas several the inhabit- 
ants of the town, do hold from and under his most sacred 
majesty respectively, as well by several respective patents, 
grants and conveyances, made and granted by the late gover- 
nors and commanders-in-chief of the said province, as other- 
wise, several and respective messuages, lands, tenements, 
and hereditaments, in the town of Albany aforesaid, and 
that the said inhabitants of the said town of Albany and 
their heirs and assigns respectively, may hold, exercise, and 
enjoy, not only such and the same liberties, privileges, 
franchises, rights, royalties, free customs, jurisdictions and 
immunities, as they anciently have had, held, used and 
enjoyed, but also such public buildings, accommodations 
conveniencies, messuages, lands, tenements and heredita- 
ments in the said town of Albany, which as aforesaid, have 
been by the inhabitants erected and built, or which have as 
aforesaid been held, enjoyed, granted, and conveyed unto 
them, or any of them respectively. 

Charter of the City of Albany. 59 

Know ye therefore, that I the said Thomas Dongan, by 
virtue of the commission and authority unto me given, and 
power in me presiding, at the humble petition of the justices 
of the peace of the said town of Albany, and for divers other 
good causes and considerations me thereunto moving, have 
given, granted, ratified and confirmed, and by these presents, 
for and on behalf of his most sacred majesty aforesaid, his 
heirs and successors, do give, grant, ratify, and confirm 
unto the said inhabitants of the said town, hereinafter 
agreed to be called by the name or names of the Mayor, 
Alderman, and Commonalty of the City of Albany, all and 
every such and the same liberties, privileges, franchises, 
rights, royalties, free customs, jurisdictions, and immunities, 
which they have anciently had, held and enjoyed, provided 
always, that none of the said liberties, privileges, franchises, 
rights, free customs, jurisdictions, or immunities, be inconsis- 
tent with, or repugnant to, the laws of His Majesty's King- 
dom of England, or other the laws of the general assembly 
of this province ; and the aforesaid public buildings, accom- 
modations and conveniences, pieces or parcels of ground 
in the said town, that is to say, the said town hall or stadt 
house, with the ground thereunto belonging ; the said church 
or meeting place, with the ground about the same ; the said 
burying place, the watch house, and ground thereto belong- 
ing; the said pasture and the aforementioned ferry, with 
their and every of their rights, members, and appurtenances, 
together with all the profits, benefits and advantages that 
shall or may accrue or arise at all times hereafter, for anchor- 
age or wharfage in the harbor, port or wharf of the said 
city, with all and singular the rents, issues, profits, gains 
and advantages which shall or may arise, grow or accrue by 
the said town-hall or stadt-house, and the ground thereunto 
belonging ; church or meeting-place, with the ground about 
the same ; buryirig-place, watch-house, pasture, ferry, and 
other the above mentioned premises, or any of them, and 
also all and every the streets, lanes, highways and alleys, 
within the said city, for the public use and service of the 
said mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the said city, and 
of the inhabitants of the places adjacent, and travellers 
there ; together with full power, licence and authority to 
the said mayor, aldermen and commonalty, and their sue- 

60 Charter of the City of Albany. 

cessors for ever, to establish, appoint, order, and direct the 
establishing, making, la'ying-out, ordering, amending, and re- 
pairing of all streets, lanes, alleys, highways and bridges, 
water courses and ferries in and throughout the said city, 
or leading to the same, necessary, needful and convenient 
for the inhabitants of the said city, and the parts adjacent, 
and for travellers there : Provided always, that the said 
license, so as above granted for the establishing, making, 
and laying out streets, lanes, alleys, highways, ferries and 
bridges, be not extended or construed to extend, to the 
taking away of any person or persons right or property, 
without his or their consent, or by some known law of the 
said province. And for the consideration aforesaid, I do 
likewise give, grant, ratify, and confirm unto all and every 
the respective inhabitants of the said city of Albany, and 
their several and respective heirs and assigns, all and every 
the several respective messuages, lands, tenements, and 
hereditaments situate, lying and being in the said city, to 
severally and respectively granted, conveyed, and confirmed 
by any the late governors, lieutenants, or commanders in 
chief of the said province, or by the commissaries or justices 
of the peace, or other magistrates of Albany aforesaid, or 
otherwise howsoever ; to hold to their several and respective 
heirs and assigns forever. 

. And I do by these presents, give and grant to the said 
mayor, aldermen, and commonalty of the said city of Albany, 
all the waste, vacant, unpatented and unappropriated land, 
lying and being within the said city of Albany, and the 
precincts and liberties thereof, extending and reaching to the 
low water mark, in, by, and through all parts of the said 
city ; together with all rivers, rivulets, coves, creeks, ponds, 
water courses, in the said city, not heretofore given or 
granted, by any of the former governors, lieutenants, or 
commanders-in-chief, under their, or some of their respective 
hands and seals, or the seal of the province, to some re- 
spective person or persons, late inhabitants of the said city, 
or of other parts of the said province; and also the royalties 
of fishing, fowling, hunting, hawking, mines, minerals, and 
other royalties and privileges, belonging or appertaining to 
the city of Albany (gold and silver mines only excepted.) 

Charter of the City of Albany. 61 

And I do by these presents give, grant, and confirm unto 
the said mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the said city 
of Albany, and their successors, forever, full and free 
licence and liberty of fishing in Hudson's river, not only 
within the limits of the said city, but without, even so far 
northward and southward, as the river does extend itself, 
within the said county of Albany, together with free liberty, 
licence, and authority to and for the said mayor, aldermen, 
and commonalty of the city of Albany aforesaid, and their 
successors, at all time and times hereafter, for and during 
the space of one and twenty years, from and after the fourth 
day of November last past, to be accomplished and fully to 
be compleat and ended, to cut down and carry away, out of 
any part of the manor of Rensselaerwyck (provided it be not 
within any fenced or enclosed land) such firewood and 
timber, for building and fencing, as to them shall seem meet 
and convenient. 

And I do by these presents, grant unto the said mayor, 
aldermen, and commonalty of the city of Albany, and their 
successors for ever hereafter ; all such strays as shall be 
taken within the limits, precincts, and bounds of the said 
city, a 

And I do by these presents, give and grant unto the 
said mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city of Albany, 
and their successors, full liberty and license at their plea- 
sure, to purchase from the Indians, the quantity of five 
hundred acres of low or meadow land, lying at a certain 
place, called or known by the name of Schaahtecogue, 
which quantity of five hundred acres, shall, and maylJl, in 
what part of Schaahtecogue, or the land adjacent, as they 
the said mayor, aldermen and commonalty, of the city of 
Albany, shall think most convenient. 

And I do by these presents, give and grant unto the said 
mayor, aldermen and commonalty, full power and license at 
their pleasure, likewise to purchase from the Indians, the 
quantity of one thousand acres of low or meadow land, 
lying at a certain place, called or known by the name of 
Tionnondoroge, which quantity of one thousand acres of low 
or meadow land, shall and may be in what part of Tionondo- 
roge, or the land adjacent on both sides of the river, as they 

Annals ii. 6 

62 Charter of the City of Albany. 

the said mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the said city 
of Albany, shall think most convenient ; which said several 
parcels of low or meadow land, I do hereby in behalf of 
his said majesty, his heirs and successors give, grant and 
confirm unto the said mayor, aldermen and commonalty of 
the city of Albany aforesaid, to be and remain to the use 
and behoof of them, and their successors forever. To have 
and to hold, all and singular the premises, to the said mayor, 
aldermen and commonalty of the said city of Albany, and 
their successors forever, rendering and paying therefor unto 
his most sacred majesty, his heirs, successors and assigns, 
or to such officer or receiver, as shall be appointed to receive 
the same, yearly, forever hereafter, the annual quit rent or 
acknowledgement of one beaver skin, in Albany, on the 
five and twentieth day of March, yearly forever. 

And moreover, I will, and by these presents for his said 
majesty, his heirs, and successors, grant, appoint, and de- 
clare, that the said city of Albany, and the compass, pre- 
cincts, and limits thereof, and the jurisdiction of the same, 
shall from henceforth extend and reach itself, and shall 
and may be able to reach forth and extend itself, as well in 
length and in breadth, as in circuit, on the east by Hudson's 
river, so far as low water mark ; to the south, by a line to 
be drawn from the southermost end of the Pasture, at the 
north end of the said island, called Martin Gerritsen's is- 
land, running back into the woods, sixteen English miles 
due. northwest, to a certain kill or creek, called the Sandkill, 
on the north, to a line to be drawn from the post that was 
set ^f Governor Stuyvesant, near Hudson's river, running 
likewise northwest, sixteen English miles ; and on the west 
by a straight line, to be drawn from the points of the said 
south and north lines; wherefore by these presents, I do 
firmly enjoin and command, for and on behalf of his said 
majesty, his heirs, and successors that the aforesaid mayor, 
aldermen and commonalty of the city aforesaid, and their 
successors, shall, and may freely and quietly have, hold, 
use, and enjoy the aforesaid liberties, authorities, jurisdic- 
tions, franchises, rights, royalties, privileges, advantages, 
exemptions, lands, tenements, hereditaments, and premises 
aforesaid, in manner and form aforesaid, according to the 
tenure and effect of the aforesaid grants, patents, customs 

Charter of the City of Albany. 63 

and these letters patent of grant and confirmation, without 
the let, hindrance, or impediment, of any of his majesty's 
governors, lieutenants, or other officers whatsoever; and 
that the said mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city 
aforesaid, and their successors, or any of them, in the free 
use and enjoyment of the premises, or any of them, by the 
lieutenants or governors of his said majesty, his heirs, and 
successors, or by any of them, shall not be hindred, molested, 
or in any wise disturbed. 

And also I do for and on behalf of his most sacred 
majesty, his heirs and successors, ordain and grant to the 
mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city of Albany, 
and their successors, by these presents, that for the better 
government of the said city, liberties and precincts thereof, 
there shall be forever hereafter, within the said city, a 
mayor, recorder, town clerk, and six aldermen, and six 
assistants, to be appointed, nominated, elected, chosen and 
sworn, as herein after is particularly and respectively men- 
tioned, who shall be forever hereafter, called, the mayor, 
aldermen and commonalty of the city of Albany, and that 
there shall be forever, one chamberlain or treasurer, one 
sheriff, one coroner, one clerk of the market, one high 
constable, three sub-constables, and one marshal or sergeant 
at mace, to be appointed, chosen, and sworn in manner 
hereinafter mentioned. 

And I do, by these presents, for and on the behalf of 
his most sacred majesty, his heirs and successors, ordain, 
declare, constitute, grant and appoint, that the mayor, 
recorder, aldermen and assistants of the said city of Albany, 
for the time being, and their successors, forever hereafter, 
be, and shall be, by force of these presents, one body cor- 
porate and politic, in deed, fact, and name, by the name of, 
the mayor, aldermen and commonalty, of the city of Albany ; 
and them by the name of, the mayor, aldermen and common- 
alty of the city of Albany, one body corporate and politic, in 
deed, fact, and name ; and I do really and fully create, ordain, 
make, constitute, and confirm by these presents, and that 
by the name of, the mayor, aldermen and commonalty of 
the city of Albany, they may have perpetual succession, 
and that they, and their successors, forever, by the name 
of, the mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city of 

64 Charter of the City of Albany. 

Albany, be, and shall be, forever hereafter, persons able, 
and in law capable, to have, get, receive, and possess lands, 
tenements, rents, liberties, jurisdictions, franchises, and 
hereditaments, to them and their successors, in fee simple, 
or for term of life, lives or years, or otherwise; and also 
goods, chattels, and also other things of what nature, 
quality, or kind soever; and also to give, grant, let, set, 
and assign the said lands, tenements, hereditaments, goods, 
and chattels, and to do and execute all other things in and 
about the same, by the name aforesaid ; and also, that they 
be, and forever shall be r persons able in law, capable to 
plead, and be impleaded, answer, and be answered unto, 
defend, and be defended, in all or any of the courts of his 
said majesty, and other places whatsoever, and before any 
judges, justices, and other person or persons whatsoever, in 
all and all manner of actions, suits, complaints, demands, 
pleas, causes and matters whatsoever, of what nature, kind 
or quality soever, in the same and the like manner and form 
as other people of this province, being persons able and in 
law capable, may plead and be impleaded, answer and be 
answered unto, defend and be defended, by any lawful 
ways or means whatsoever; and that the said mayor, 
aldermen and commonalty of the said city of Albany, and 
their successors shall and may forever hereafter, have one 
common seal to serve for the sealing of all and singular 
their affairs and businesses, touching or concerning the 
said corporation. And it shall and may be lawful to and 
for the said mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the said 
city of Albany, and their successors, as they shall see cause, 
to break, change, alter and new make their said common 
seal, and as often as to them it shall seem convenient. 

And further know ye, that I have assigned, named, or- 
dained and constituted, and by these presents, do assign, 
name, ordain and constitute Peter Schuyler, to be the pre- 
sent mayor of the said city of Albany, and that the said 
Peter Schuyler, shall remain and continue in the office of 
mayor there, until another fit person shall be appointed 
and sworn in the said office, as in and by these presents, is 
hereafter mentioned and directed. And I have assigned, 
named, ordained and constituted, and by these presents do 
assign, name, ordain and constitute, Isaac Swinton, to be 


painting done in England in 1712, and now in the posse ssion of John Schiiyler 

He is said to have been hurried near the site of the old Eagle Tavern, in 
Broadway, below Hamilton street, west side. 

Charter of the City of Albany. 65 

the present recorder of the said city, to do and execute all 
things, which unto the office of recorder of the said city 
doth, or may any way appertain or belong. And I have 
assigned, named, ordained and constitute, and by these 
presents do ordain, constitute, create and declare, Robert 
Livingston, town clerk of the said city ; to do and execute 
all things which unto the office of town clerk, doth or may 
belong. And also I have named, assigned, constituted and 
made, and by these presents do assign, constitute and make 
Dirk Wessels, Jan Jans Bleecker, David Schuyler, Jo- 
hannis Wendel, Lavinus Van Schaick, and Adrian Garritse, 
citizens and inhabitants of the said city of Albany, to be 
the present aldermen of said city. And also I have made, 
assigned, named and constituted, and by these presents do 
make, assign, name and constitute Joachim Staats, John 
Lansing, Isaac Yerplank, Lawrence Van Ale, Albert Ryck- 
man, and Melgert Winantse, citizens and inhabitants of the 
said city, to be the present assistants of the said city. 
Also I have assigned, chosen, named and constituted, Jan 
Bleecker, citizen and inhabitant of the said city, to be the 
present chamberlain or treasurer, of the city aforesaid. 
And I have assigned, named, constituted and appointed, 
and by these presents do assign, name, constitute and ap- 
point, Richard Pretty, one of the said citizens there, to 
be the present sheriff of the said city. And I have as- 
signed, named, constituted and appointed, and by these 
presents do assign, name, constitute and appoint, James 
Parker, one other of the said citizens, to be the present 
marshal of the said city. 

And I do, by these presents, grant to the said mayor, 
aldermen and commonalty of the said city of Albany, and 
their successors, that the mayor, recorder, aldermen, and 
assistants of the said city, for the time being, or the mayor 
and any three or more of the aldermen, and three or 
more of the assistants of the said city, for the time being, 
be, and shall be called the common council of the said 
city; and that they, or the greater part of them, shall 
or may have full power and authority, by virtue of these 
presents, from time to time, to call and hold common 
council, within the common council house, or city hall 
of the said city ; and there, as occasion shall be, to make 

66 Charter of the City p/ Albany. 

laws, orders, ordinances and constitution in writing ; 
and to add, alter, diminish and reform them, from 
time to time, as to them shall seem necessary and conveni- 
ent, (not repugnant to the prerogative of the King's ma- 
jesty, his heirs or successors, or to any the laws of the 
kingdom of England, or other the laws of the general 
assembly of the province of New York aforesaid) for the 
good rule, oversight, correction and government of the 
said city, and liberties of the same, and of all the officers 
thereof, and of the several tradesmen, victuallers, artificers, 
and of all other people and inhabitants of the city, liberties 
and precincts aforesaid, and for the preservation of govern- 
ment, the Indian trade, and all other commerce and dealing, 
and for disposal of all the lands, tenements and heredita- 
ments, goods and chattels of the said corporation : which 
said laws, ordinances and constitutions, shall be binding 
to all the inhabitants of the said city, liberties and precincts 
aforesaid ; and which laws, orders, ordinances and constitu- 
tions, so by them to be made as aforesaid ; shall be and 
remain in force, for the space of one year, and no longer, 
unless they shall be allowed and confirmed by the governor 
and council, for the time being. 

And further, I will and grant to the said common council 
.of the said city, for the time being, as often as they make, 
ordain and establish such laws, orders, ordinances, and 
constitutions aforesaid, shall or may make, ordain, limit, 
provide, set, impose, and tax reasonable fines and amercia- 
ments, against and upon all persons offending against such 
laws, orders, ordinances and constitutions as aforesaid, 
or any of them, to be made, ordained and established as 
aforesaid, and the same fines and amerciaments shall and 
may require, demand, levy, take and receive, by warrants, 
under the common seal, to and for the use and behoof of 
the mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the said city, and 
their successors, either by distress and sale of the goods 
and chattels of the offenders therein, if such goods and 
chattels may be found within the said city, liberties and 
precincts thereof, rendering to such offender and offenders 
the overplus, or by any other lawful ways or means whatso- 

Charter of the City of Albany. 67 

And I do by these presents, for the King's majesty, his 
heirs and successors, approve and Ordain the assigning, 
naming and appointment of the mayor and sheriff of the 
said city, that it shall be as follows, viz : upon the feast 
day of St. Michael, the arch angel, yearly, the lieutenant 
governor or commander in chief, for the time being, by 
and with the advice of his council, shall nominate and 
appoint such a person as he shall think fit, to be mayor of 
the said city, for .the year next ensuing; and one other 
person of sufficient ability in estate, and capacity in un- 
derstanding, to be sheriff of the said city of Albany, for the 
year next ensuing; and that such person as shall be 
assigned, named and appointed mayor, and such person as 
shall be assigned, named and appointed sheriff of the said 
city as aforesaid, shall on the 14th day of October, then 
next following, in the city-hall or stadt-house aforesaid, 
take the several and respective corporal oaths before 
the recorder, aldermen and assistants or any three of the 
aldermen and four of the assistants of the said city, for the 
time being, for the due execution of their respective offices 
as aforesaid ; and that the said mayor and sheriff, so to be 
nominated and appointed as aforesaid, shall remain and 
continue in their respective offices, until another fit person 
shall be nominated, appointed and sworn in the place of 
mayor, and one other person shall be nominated, 'appointed 
and sworn in the place of sheriff of the said city, in manner 
aforesaid : which oaths the said recorder, aldermen and 
assistants, or any three or more of the aldermen, .shall and 
may lawfully administer, and have hereby power to adminis- 
ter to the said Mayor and the said sheriff, so nominated 
and appointed, from time to time, accordingly. 

And further, that according to usage and ffcfitom, the 
recorder and town clerk of the said city, shall be persons 
of good capacity and understanding, such as his most sacred 
majesty, his heirs and successors, shall in the said respective 
offices of recorder and town clerk respectively appoint and 
commissionate; and for defect of such appointment, and 
commissionating, by his most sacred majesty as aforesaid, 
his heirs and successors, to be such persons as the said 
governor, l^utenant 'or commander in chief of the said 
province, for the time being shall appoint or commissionate ; 

68 Charter of the City of Albany. 

which persons so commissionated to the said office of re- 
corder and office of* town clerk respectively, shall have, 
hold and enjoy the said offices respectively, according to 
the tenor and effect of the said respective commissions, and 
not otherwise. 

And further, I will, that the recorder, town clerk, alder- 
men, assistants, chamberlain, high constables, petty-6on- 
stables, and all other officers of the said city, before they, 
or any of them shall be admitted to enter upon and exe- 
cute their respective offices, shall be sworn faithfully to 
execute the same, before the mayor, or any three or more 
of the aldermen, for the time being. And I do, by these 
presents, for and on behalf of his said majesty, his heirs and 
successors, grant, and give power and authority to the mayor 
and recorder of the said city, for the time being to ad- 
minister the same respective oaths to them accordingly. 

And further, I will, and by these presents, do grant for and 
on behalf of his most sacred majesty, his heirs and suc- 
cessors, that the mayor aldermen and recorder of the said 
city, for the time being, shall be justices and keepers of 
the peace of his said majesty, his heirs and successors, 
and justices to hear and determine matters and causes 
within the said city, liberties and precincts thereof; 
and that they or any three or more of them, shall and may 
forever hereafter have power and authority, by virtue of 
these presents, to hear and determine all and all manner 
of petty larcenies, riots, routs, oppressions, extortions, and 
all other trespasses and offences whatsoever within the said 
city of Albany, and the limits, precincts, and liberties 
thereof, from time to time, arising and happening, and 
which shall arise or happen, and any ways belong to the 
office of jj^tices of the peace, and correction and punish- 
ment of the offences aforesaid, and every of them, according 
to the laws of England, and the laws of the said province ; 
and to do and execute all other -things in the said city, 
liberties and precincts aforesaid, so fully and in as ample 
manner as to the commissioners assigned, and to be assigned 
for the keeping of the peace in the said city and county of* 
Albany, doth or may belong. 

And moreover, I do, by these presents, fot his majesty 
his heirs and successors, will and appoint that the alder- 

Charter of the City of Albany. 69 

men and assistants, within the said city, be yearly chosen 
on the feast day of St. Michael the arch angel, for ever, 
viz : Two aldermen and two assistants for each respective 
ward, in such public place in the said respective wards, 
as the aldermen for the time being, for each ward, 
shall direct and appoint, and that by the majority of voices 
of the inhabitants of each ward ; and that the chamberlain 
shall be yearly chosen, on the said feast day, in the city 
hall of the said city, by the said mayor, aldermen and 
assistants of the said city, or by the mayor or three or 
more of the aldermen, and three or more of the assistants 
of the said city, for the time being. And I do, by these 
presents, constitute and appoint Robert Livingston to be the 
present town clerk, clerk of the peace, and clerk of the court 
of pleas, to be holden before the mayor, recorder and alder- 
men within the said city, and the liberties and precincts 

And further, I do by these presents, for his said majesty, 
his heirs and successors, require and straitly charge and 
command, that the sheriff, town clerk, clerk of the peace, 
high constable, petty constables, and all other ' subordinate 
officers in the said city, for the time being, and every of 
them respectively, jointly and severally, as causes shall 
require, shall attend upon the said mayor, recorder, and 
a}dermen of the said city, for the time being, and every or 
any of them, according to the duty of their respective place, 
in and about the executing of such the commands, precepts, 
warrants and process of them, and every of them, as be- 
longeth and appertaineth to be done or executed. 

And that the aforesaid mayor, recorder, and aldermen, 
and every of them, as justices of the peace, for the time 
being, by their or any of their warrants, all and every 
person or persons for high treason or petty treason, or for 
suspicion thereof, and for other felonies whatsoever, and 
all malefactors and disturbers of the peace, and other offend- 
ers for any other misdemeanors, who shall be apprehended 
within the said city or liberties thereof, or without the 
same in any part within the said county, shall and may 
send and commit, or cause to be sent and committed to the 
common gaol of the said city, there to remain and be kept 
in safe custody by the keeper of the said gaol, or his deputy 

70 Charter of the City of Albany. 

for the tine being, until such offender and offenders shall 
be lawfully delivered thence. 

And I do, by these presents, for his said majesty, his 
heirs and successors, charge and require the keeper and 
keepers of the said gaol for the time being, and his and 
their deputy and deputies, to receive and take into safe 
custody, to keep all and singular such person and persons 
so apprehended, or to be apprehended, sent and com- 
mitted unto the said gaol, by warrant of the said justices 
or any of them as aforesaid, until he or they so sent and 
committed to the said gaol, shall from thence be delivered 
by due course of law. 

And further, I grant and confirm, for his said majesty, 
his heirs and successors, that the said mayor of the said 
city for the time being, and no other, shall have power 
and authority to give and grant licenses annually, under 
the public seal of the said city, to all tavern keepers, inn 
keepers, ordinary keepers, victuallers and all public sellers 
of wine, strong waters, cider, beer, or any sort of liquors 
by retail within the city aforesaid, or the liberties and 
precincts thereof, or without the same in any part of said 
county ; and that it shall and may be lawful to and for the 
said mayor of the said city, for the time being, to ask, de- 
mand, receive for each license by him to be given and granted 
aforesaid, such sum or sums of money, as he and the person 
to whom such license shall be given or granted, shall agree 
for, not exceeding the sum of thirty shillings, current 
money of this country, for each license ; all which money, 
as by the said mayor, shall be so received, shall be used 
and applied to the public use of the said mayor, aldermen 
and commonalty of the said city of Albany, without any 
account thereof to be rendered, made or done to his said 
majesty, his heirs, successors or assigns, or any of his 
lieutenants, or governors of the said province, for the time 
being, or any of their deputies. 

And further, I do grant for his said majesty, his heirs 
and successors, that the said mayor of the said city, for the 
said city, for the time being, and no other, be, and forever 
shall be clerk of the market within the city aforesaid, and 
the liberties and precincts, thereof; and that he and no 
other, shall and may forever do, execute and perform all 

Charter of the City of Albany. 71 

and singular acts, deeds and things whatsoever, belonging 
to the office of clerk of the market within the city aforesaid, 
and the liberties and precincts thereof, to be done, ex- 
ecuted, and performed. And that the said mayor of the 
said city for the time being, and no other person or persons, 
shall or may have assize or assay of bread, wine, beer and 
wood, and other things to the office of clerk of the market 
belonging or concerning, as well in the presence as in the 
absence of his said majesty, his heirs, and successors, or his 
or their lieutenants or governors here. Also, I will and 
grant for his said majesty, his heirs and successors, unto 
the mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the said city for 
the time being, and their successors forever, that the mayor 
of the city aforesaid, for the time being, during the time 
that he shall remain in the said office of mayor, and no 
other, be, or shall be coroner of his said majesty, his heirs 
and successors, as well within the city aforesaid, and the 
liberties and precincts thereof, as without the same, within- 
the limits or bounds of the said county : and that he, and 
no other, shall do or cause to be done and executed, within 
the said city, limits and precincts thereof, or without the 
same, within the limits and bounds of the county, all and 
singular matters and things to the said office of coroner 
belonging, there to be done. And that the said mayor of 
the said city for the time being, shall take his corporal 
oath before the recorder, or any three or more of the alder- 
men of the said city, well and duly to execute the said office 
of clerk of the market and coroner of the said city and 
county, before he take upon him the execution of either of 
the said offices. 

And also, I do by these presents, grant unto the mayor, 
aldermen and commonalty of the said city of Albany, that 
if any of the citizens of the said city, or inhabitants within 
the liberties and precincts thereof, that shall after be elected, 
nominated, and chosen to the office of mayor, aldermen, 
assistants, sheriff or chamberlain of the said city as afore- 
said, and have notice of his or their election, shall refuse 
or deny to take upon him or them to execute that office, 
to which they shall be so chosen or nominated ; that then, 
and so often it shall and may be lawful for the mayor, 
recorder, aldermen and assistants of the said city, for the 

72 Charter of the City of Albany. 

time being, or the mayor, or any three of the aldermen, 
and three or more of the assistants of the said city for the 
time being, to tax, assess, and impose upon such person or 
persons so refusing or denying, such reasonable or moderate 
fines and sum of money as to their discretion shall be 
thought most fit so as the said fine, penalty, or sum, for 
refusing or denying to hold and execute the office of mayor 
of the said city, do not exceed the sum of twenty pounds, 
current money of this country ; and the fine for refusing 
or denying to hold and execute the place of an aldermen 
do not exceed the sum of ten pounds, like current money ; 
and the fine for denying or refusing to hold and execute 
the place of chamberlain, assistant or sheriff, the sum of 
five pounds, like current money. 

And I do, by these presents, for his said majesty, his 
heirs and successors, authorize the mayor, recorder, alder- 
men and assistants of the .said city for the time being, and 
the mayor, and three or more'of the aldermen, and three or 
more of the assistants there for the time being, to frustrate 
and make void the election of such person or persons so 
refusing or denying as aforesaid; and then, and in such 
cases, any other fit and able person and persons, citizen 
and citizens, of the said city, or inhabiting within the liberties 
and precincts thereof, in convenient times, to elect anew in 
manner aforesaid, directed and prescribed to execute such 
office and offices so denied or refused to be executed as 
aforesaid; and that if it shall happen that such person or 
persons so to be elected anew, shall refuse or deny to take 
upon him or them any of the said office or offices unto 
which he or they shall be chosen and elected as aforesaid ; 
then and in such case, the mayor, recorder, aldermen and 
assistants of the said city for the time being, or the said 
mayor, or three or more of the said aldermen, and three or 
more of the assistants of the said city for the time being, 
shall or may set, and impose upon them so denying or 
refusing, such and the like moderate fines as is before set 
down in the like cases to the respective offices, with such 
limitations as aforesaid ; and also in such and the like 
manner as aforesaid; to continue and make void such 
election and elections, and make new elections as often as 
need shall be and required ; all which said fines so set and 

Charter of the City of Albany. 73 

imposed, I do, by these presents, for and on behalf of his 
said majesty, his heirs, successors and assigns, grant to be, 
and shall be and remain, and belong unto, and shall be 
put into the possession and seizen of the mayor, aldermen 
and commonalty for the time being, and their successors, 
to be levied and taken by warrant under the common seal, 
and by distress and sale of the goods and chattels of the 
several persons so refusing or denying as aforesaid, if such 
goods and chattels may be found within the said city, 
liberties and precincts thereof, rendering to the parties the 
overplus, or by any other ways or lawful means whatsoever, 
to the only use of the said mayor, aldermen and common- 
alty of the said city of Albany, and their successors, with- 
out any account to be rendered, made or done to the said 
king's majesty, his heirs, successors or assigns for the same. 

And know ye, that for the better government of* the 
said city, and for the welfare of the citizens, tradesmen and 
inhabitants thereof, I do by these presents, for his said 
majesty his heirs and successors, give and grant to the 
said mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the said city, 
and their successors, that the mayor, recorder and alder- 
men, or the mayor or any three or more of the aldermen, 
for the time being, shall, from time to time and all times 
hereafter, have full power and authority, under the common 
seal, to make free citizens of the said city and liberties 
thereof; and no person or persons 'whatsoever, other than 
such free citizens, shall hereafter use any art, trade, mystery 
or manual occupation within the said city, liberties, and 
precincts thereof, saving in the times of fairs there to be 
kept, and during the continuance of such fairs only. And 
in case any person or persons whatsoever, not being free 
citizens, shall hereafter use or exercise any art, trade 
mystery or manual occupation or shall by himself themselves 
or others, sell or expose to sale any manner of merchandize 
or wares whatsoever by retail, in any house, shop or place, 
or standing within the said city, or the liberties or precincts 
thereof, no fair being then kept in the said city, and shall 
persist therein, after warning to him or them given or left, 
by the appointment of the mayor of the said city, for the 
time being, at the place or places where such person or 

Annals, ii. 7 

74 Charter of the City of Albany. 

persons shall so use 'and exercise any art, trade, mystery or 
manual occupation or shall sell or expose to sale any wares 
or merchandize, as aforesaid, by retail ; then, it shall be 
lawful for the mayor of the said city, for the time being, to 
-cause such shop windows to be shut, and also to impose 
such reasonable fine for such offence, not exceeding twenty 
shillings, for every respective offence ; and the same fines 
so imposed, to levy and take, by warrant under the common 
seal of the said city, for the time being, by distress and 
sale of the goods and chattels, of the person or persons so 
offending in the premises, found within the liberties and 
precincts of the said city, rendering to the parties the over- 
plus, or by any other lawful ways or means whatsoever, to 
the only use of the said mayor, aldermen and commonalty 
of the said city of Albany, and their successors, without 
any account to be rendered, made or done to his majesty, 
his heirs and successors or to his or their lieutenants, go- 
vernors, or commanders in chief, for the same. Provided 
always, that no person or persons, shall be made free as afore- 
said, but such as are his majesty's natural born subjects, or 
such as shall be first naturalized by act of general assembly, 
or have obtained letters of denization, under the hand of 
the lieutenant, or governor, or commander-in-chief for the 
time being, and the seal of the said province; and that all 
persons to be made free as aforesaid, shall and do pay for 
the public use of the said mayor, aldermen and commonalty 
of the said city, such sums of money, as such person or 
persons, so to be made free, shall respectively agree for, not 
exceeding the sum of three pounds twelve shillings, for 
the admission of each merchant or trader; and the sum 
of six and thirty shillings, for the admission of each hand- 
icraft or tradesmen. 

And whereas, amongst other the rights, privileges, pre- 
heminences and advantages, which the citizens and freemen 
of the said city of Albany, and their predecessors, have for 
many years last past held, used and enjoyed, the privileges, 
preheminences, and advantages of having within their own 
wall, the sole management of the trade with all the Indians 
living within and to the eastward, northward and westward 
of the said county of Albany, within the compass of his 
said majesty's dominion here, which hath been from time 

Charter of the City of Albany. 75 

to time, confirmed to them, and their said predecessors, as 
well by prescription, as by divers and sundry grants, orders, 
confirmations and proclamations, granted, ordered, con- 
firmed, and issued forth, not only by and from divers go- 
vernors, and commanders in chief in the said province, since 
the same hath been under his said majesty's dominion, but 
also of several governors, generals, and commanders- in 
chief of the Nether-Dutch nation, whilst, the same was, or 
has been under their power and subjection, which has 
always been found by experience, to be of great advantage, 
not only to the said city in particular, but to the whole 
province in general; and that by the care, caution and in- 
spection of the magistrates, of the said city, to the well and 
orderly management and keeping the trade with the Indians 
within their walls, it hath returned vastly to the advancement 
of trade and the increase of his majesty's revenue, and been 
the sole means, not only of preserving this province in 
peace and quiet, whilst the neighbouring colonies were 
imbrued in blood and war; but also of putting an end to 
the miseries those colonies labored under from the insulting 
cruelty of the Northern Indians. Whereas on the other 
hand, it has been no less evident, that whenever there has 
been any slackness or remissness in the regulation and keep- 
ing the Indian trade within the walls of the said city, 
occasioned by the incroachment pf some persons trading 
with the Indians, in places remote, some clandestinely, 
others upon pretence of hunting passes, and the like, the 
trade not only of the said city, but of the whole province 
has apparently decreased, the king's revenue has been 
much impaired, and not only so, but this government has 
lost much of the reputation and management amongst the 
Indians, which it otherwise had and enjoyed; wherefore, 
for and on behalf of his said majesty, his heirs and suc- 
cessors, I have given, granted, ratified and confirmed, and 
by these presents, do give, grant, ratify and confirm unto 
the mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the said city of 
Albany, and their successors forever, the right, privileges, 
preheminence and advantage of the sole and only manage- 
ment of the trade with the Indians, as well within this 
whole county, as without the same, to the eastward, north- 
ward and westward thereof, as far as his majesty's dominion 

76 Charter of the City of Albany. 

here does or may extend, to be managed and transacted 
only by the freemen, being actual inhabitants within the 
said city and within the now walls or stockadoes thereof, 
and not elsewhere. And I do hereby, for his said majesty, 
his heirs and successors, absolutely forbid and prohibit all 
and every the inhabitants of the said province of New York, 
(the inhabitants of the said city of Albany, only excepted) 
to trade or traffic with any of the five nations of Indians, 
called the Senekas, Cayouges, Onnondages, Oneydes, and 
Maqueas, who live to the westward, or with any other Indian 
or Indians whatsoever, within the county of Albany, or to 
the eastward, northward or westward thereof, so far as 
his said majesty's dominions here, do or may extend, or to 
have or keep in their houses or elsewhere, any Indian 
goods or merchandize, upon the pain and penalty of the 
forfeiture and confiscation of such Indian commodities, 
whether the same be beavers, peltry or other Indian com- 
modities, whatsoever, except Indian corn, venison, and 
dressed deer skins, to trade for, and upon pain and penalty 
of the forfeiture and confiscation of all such Indian goods 
and merchandizes, as guns, powder, lead, duffels, rum and all 
other Indian goods and merchandize, which shall at any 
time hereafter be found, concealed, or kept in any house or 
place without the walls of the said city, and within the said 
county of Albany, and the other limits and boundaries herein 
before set forth and prescribed ; and in case any person or 
persons whatsoever shall at any time hereafter, out of the 
walls of the said city, and within the said county, or the 
other limits and boundaries herein before set fofth and 
prescribed, trade or traffic with any Indian or Indians, for 
any beavers, peltry, or other Indian commodities, (except 
before excepted) or there shall conceal and keep any Indian 
goods, wares or merchandizes in any house or place as afore- 
said; then it shall and may be lawful for the mayor, recorder, 
or any of the aldermen for the time being, by warrant under 
their or any of their hands, to cause such Indian commodities 
so traded for, and such goods or merchandizes so kept and con- 
cealed without the walls of the said city, wheresoever they shall 
be found within the said city or county, or without the same, 
within the limits and boundaries before expressed, to be 
seized, and the same to be condemned and confiscate, in the 

Charter of the City of Albany. 77 

court of pleas, or common pleas in the said city, or any 
other court of record within the said city or province, one 
third part to the mayor of the said city for the time being, 
one third part to such person or persons as shall inform or 
sue for the same, and the other third part to the use of the 
mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the said city of Al- 
bany, and their successors forever. And also, that it shall 
and may be lawful to and for the mayor, recorder and 
aldermen of the said city for the time Being, by a warrant 
under their or any of their hands and seals, to cause such 
person or persons, as shall presume to trade or traffic with 
the Indians contrary to the form and effect of these pre- 
sents, to be apprehended wherever they shall be found 
within the limits and boundaries herein before prescribed, 
to answer the same at the court of pleas and common pleas 
in the said city, or any other court of record within the said 
city or province, where being legally convicted thereof, such 
person or persons, over and besides the forfeiture and con- 
fiscation of such goods, merchandizes and commodities as 
aforesaid, shall be fineable, and fined in such sum or sums 
of money, (not exceeding twenty pounds, current money 
of this country) at the discretion of such court, before 
whom he or they shall be prosecuted, shall be thought 
reasonable and convenient; which said fines shall be one- 
third part to the person who shall inform and prosecute for 
the same, and the other two-thirds to the use of mayor, 
aldermen and commonalty, and their successors forever. 

And further, I do by these presents, for and on behalf of 
his said majesty, his heirs and successors, grant and declare 
to the said mayor, aldermen and commonalty of Albany, 
and their successors, that his majesty, his heirs and suc- 
cessors, or any of his or their governors, lieutenants, 
commanders in chief, or other officers, shall not, or will not, 
from henceforth, forever, hereafter, grant unto any person 
or persons whatsoever, any license or licenses, to. hunt 
within the said county of Albany, or to the eastward, north- 
ward or westward, so far as his said majesty's dominions 
here, doth, or may extend, without the consent and ap- 
probation of the mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the 
said city of Albany, for the time being, by the said person 
or persons first to be had and obtained. 

78 Charter of the City of Albany. 

And further, I do, by these presents, for his said majesty, 
and his successors, grant to the said mayor, aldermen and 
commonalty of the said city, that they and their successors 
be forever, persons able and capable, and shall have power 
to purchase, have, take, and possess in fee simple, lands, 
tenements, rents, and other possessions, within or without 
the same city to them and their successors forever, so as 
the same exceed not the yearly value of one thousand 
pounds per annum, the statute of mortmain, or any other law 
to the contrary notwithstanding ; and the same lands, ten- 
ements, hereditaments, and premises or any part thereof to de- 
mise, grant, lease, set over, assign and dispose at their own will 
and pleasure, and to make, seal, and accomplish any deed or 
deeds, lease or leases, evidences or writings for or concerning 
the same or any part thereof, which shall happen to be made 
and granted by the said mayor, aldermen and commonalty of 
the said city for the time being. 

And further, for and on behalf of his said majesty, his 
heirs and successors, I do, by these presents, grant to the 
said mayor, aldermen and commonalty, that they and their 
successors shall and may forever hereafter, hold and keep 
within the said city, in every week in the year, two market 
days, the one upon Wednesday, and the other upon Satur- 
day, weekly forever. 

And also, I do by these presents, for and on behalf of 
his said majesty, his heirs and successors, grant to the said 
mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the said city, that they 
and their successors and assigns shall and may at any time 
or times hereafter, build a public weigh-house in such part 
of the said city, as to them shall seem convenient ; and that 
they the said mayor, aldermen, and commonalty shall and 
may receive, perceive, and take to their own proper use and 
behoof all and singular the issues and profits therefrom or 
thereby arising or accruing; as also, that they the said 
mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the said city of Al- 
bany, their heirs and successors, shall and may at any time 
or times hereafter, when it to them shall seem fit and con- 
venient, to take in, fill and make up, and lay out all and 
singular the ground and lands within the limits and precinct 
of the said city, and the same to build upon and make use 
of in other manner or way as to them shall seem fit, as far 

Charter of the City of Albany. 79 

into the river that passeth by the same as low water mark 

And further, and on behalf of his said majesty, his heirs 
and successors, I do, by these presents, give and grant unto 
the aforesaid mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the said 
city of Albany, and their successors, that they and their 
successors, shall and may have, hold and keep within the 
said city, liberties and precincts thereof, once every fort- 
night in every year forever, upon Tuesday, one court of 
common pleas for all actions of debt, trespass upon the case, 
detinue, ejectment, and other personal actions, and the 
same to be held, before the mayor, recorder and aldermen, 
or any three of them, (whereof the mayor or recorder to be 
one,) who shall have power to hear and determine the same 
pleas and actions, according to the rules of common law, 
acts of the general assembly of the said province, and the 
course of other corporations in the like nature. 

And further, for and on the behalf of his said majesty, his 
heirs and successors, I do, by these presents, give and grant 
to the said mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the said city 
of Albany, and their successors forever, that the mayor of 
the said city for the time being, shall and may determine 
all and all manner of actions, or causes whatsoever, to be 
had, moved or depending between party and party, so always 
as the same exceed not the value of forty shillings, current 
money of this province. 

And further, for and on behalf of his said majesty, his 
heirs and successors, I do grant to the said mayor, aldermen 
and commonalty of the said city, and their successors for- 
ever, that the mayor, recorder and aldermen of the said city 
shall always be, so long as they shall continue in their 
said respective offices, justices of the peace for the said 
county, and as such shall and may sit in the courts of 
sessions, or county courts, and courts of oyer and terminer 
that shall from time to time be held and kept within the 
said county ; and that the mayor, recorder, or some one of 
the aldermen of the said city for the time being, shall and 
may always preside in or be president of such county courts 
or courts of sessions, to be held within the said county, as 
aforesaid, and that the sheriff of the said city for the time 
being, shall always be sheriff of the said county ; also that 

80 Charter of the City of Albany.- 

the town clerk of the said city for the time being, shall al- 
ways be the clerk of the peace, and clerk of the court of 
sessions, or county courts for the said county. 

And further, I do, for and on the behalf of his said ma- 
jesty, his heirs and successors, by these presents grant to 
the said mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the said city 
of Albany, and their successors, that the said mayor, alder- 
men and commonalty of the said city, and their successors, 
shall have and enjoy all the privileges, franchises, and pow- 
ers that they have and use, or that any of their predecessors, 
at any time within the space of twenty years last past, had, 
took, or enjoyed, or ought to have had, by reason, or under 
pretence of any further charter, grant, prescription, or any 
other right, custom or usage, although the same have been 
forfeit or lost, or hath been ill used or not used, or abused, 
or discontinued, albeit they be not particularly mentioned 
herein; and no officer shall disturb them therein, under 
any pretence whatsoever, not only for their future, but 
their present enjoyment thereof, provided always, that the 
said privileges, franchises and powers be not inconsistent 
with, or repugnant to the laws of his majesty's kingdom of 
England, or other the laws of the General Assembly as afore- 
said, and saving to his majesty, his heirs, successors and as- 
signs, and his commanders in chief, lieutenants, governors 
and other officers under him or them in his Fort Albany, in or 
by the city of Albany, and in all the liberties, boundaries, 
extents and privileges thereof, for the maintenance of the 
said fort and garrison there, all the right, use, title and 
authority, which his said majesty, or any of his said com- 
manders-in-chief, lieutenants, and other officers have had 
used or exercised there, (excepting the said pasture herein 
before granted, or mentioned to be granted, to the said 
mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city of Albany, 
aforesaid,) and saving to all other persons, bodies politic and 
corporate, their heirs, successors and assigns, all such right, 
title and claim, possessions, rents, services, commons, emolu- 
ments and interest, of, in and to any thing that is theirs 
save only the franchises aforesaid, in as ample manner as if 
this charter had not been made. 

And further, I do appoint and declare, that the incorpora- 
tion to be founded by this charter shall not at any time 

Charter of the City of Albany. 81 

hereafter do or suffer to be done, anything by which the 
lands, tenements or hereditaments, stock, goods, or chattels 
thereof, or in the hands, custody or possession of any of the 
citizens of the said city, such as have been set, let, given, 
granted, or collected, to and for pious and charitable uses, 
shall be wasted or misemployed, contrary to the trust or 
intent of the founder or giver thereof. And that such, and 
no other construction shall be made hereof, than that 
which may tend most to advance religion, justice and the 
public good, and to suppress all acts and contrivances to be 
invented or put in use contrary hereunto. In witness whereof 
I have to these presents set my hand, and thereto have 
affixed the seal of the said province, and caused the same 
to be enrolled in the secretary's office of the said province 
this two and twentieth day of July, in the second year of 
his said majesty's reign, and in the year of our Lord, one 
thousand six hundred eighty and six. 


The City Records. 


The early records of the colony, and of the city also, 
were written in the Dutch language, until about 1686, 
There is a mass of books and papers relating to Albany in 
the office of the secretary of state, and in the county clerk's 
office; the latter in an imperfect state, and written in a 
very obscure manner. The records in the office of the 
clerk of the common council begin in 1668. The first 
volume consists of minutes of the court from 1668 to 1673, 
written in Dutch. The second volume consists of the pro* 
ceedings of the commissarissen, or magistrates, of the city of 
Albany from 1676 to 1680. The third volume contains 
the proceedings of the justices of the peace from 1680 
to 1685. These are bound in vellum, and are mostly in 
Nederduytsche, generally very* well written. The common 
council ordered them to be translated several years ago, 
but the person employed for that purpose has merely given 
a synopsis of the two last volumes, in such a way that they 
are of no use to any body. The minutes of the common 
council are very well preserved, as far as we have observed, 
from the time the charter was received, in 1686. The 
following transactions of the common council under the 
charter are extracts from the records referred to, taken 
from the volume marked No. 3, which, by the way, is a 
part of the contents of No. 4, transcribed in a fairer cha- 

1686 to 1695. 


Att a meeting of y e Justices of y e peace for y e county of 

Albany, ye 26th day of July, A. D. 1686. 
Pieter Schuyler, gent, and Rob* Livingston, gent., who 
were commissionated by y e towne of Albanie, to goe to New 
Yorke and procure ye Charter for this citty w h was agreed 

The City Records. 83 

upon between y e magistrates and y e right hoft 1 , -.CjpV Tho. 
Dongan, Gov. Gen 11 , who accordingly have brought the same 
along with them, and was published with all y e joy and 
acclamations imaginable; and y e said two gent m received 
y e thanks of y e magistrates and burgesses for their dili- 
gence and care in obtaining y e same ; and whereas Pieter 
Schuyler is nominated and appointed to be mayor of y e 
citty of Albany by y e said charter, till such time that anoy r . 
fitt person be chosen in his room. Was sworn as follows : 

Whereas you Pieter Schuyler are appointed and commis- 
sionated to be mayor and clerk of y e market and coroner of 
y e citty of Albany, as also coroner for y e s d county, by y e 
charter granted toy 6 said citty 'by y e Right Hon le Coll. Tho. 
Dongan, Gov. Gen 11 , of this province, you doe swear by y e 
ever living God, y l y u will truly endevor, to y e best of y r skill, 
with a good conshience and according to y e laws of this Go- 
vernment dispence iustice equally in all cases and to all p'sons 
whereunto by vertue of y r office you are impowered, and 
further officiat and perform y e duty and office of mayor, 
clerk of y e market, and coroner, in every respect to y e best 
of y r knowledge and capacity, so help y u God. 

These following persons were ordained aldermen by -y e 
charter y e ensuing year. 



The oath administred to them was : 

Whereas, you Dirk Wessels, Jan Jans 2 Bleeker, David 
Schuyler, Johannes Wendell, Levinus van Schaik and 
Adrian Gerritse, by y e charter of privileges of y e city of 
Albany, graunted by y e Right Hon b!e Col. Tho. Dongan, Go- 
vern 1 " Gen' 1 dated y e 22d of this instant July, and assigned, 
constituted and made to be y e present aldermen for y e city 
afor 3cl you doe swear by y e etternall and almighty God, that 
according to y e best of y r skill and capacity, you truly endevor 
with a good conshience and according to y e laws of this go- 
vernment, dispence justice equally and impartially in all cases 
and to all persons whereunto by virtue of your office you 
are impowered, and endeavor and further y e welfare and 
prosperity of this city as farr as it in y u lyes so help you 

84 The City Records. 

These following persons were ordained assistants by y e 
charter for y e ensuing year. 




Whereas, you Jan Lansing, Isak Verplank, Lawrence Van 
Ale, Alb 1 Ryckman, Jochim Staets and Melgert Wynantse 
are assigned, constituted and made y e present assistants of 
y e city of Albany, by charter graunted by y e Right Hon ble 
Col. Thomas Dongan, dated y e 22d of this instant, July 
1686, you doe swear by y e ever living G-od, y l you will 
according to y r best skill arid understanding att all times 
freely give y r advice to y e mayor and aldermen for y e good 
mannagement of y e public affares of this citty and be aideing 
and assisting in y e makeing and constituteing of orders for 
y e advancem 1 of trade and traffique of y e citty afore sd and 
further to doe and act for y e common weill of this citty, so 
help y u Grod. 

Robt. Livingston was by charter appointed towne clerke 
& a and was sworn accordingly. 

Richard Pretty being assigned and constituted high 
sheriff of y e citty and county of Albany, by y e charter, and 
James Parker Marshall, were sworn accordingly. 

Att a court of Mayor and Aldermen held for y e citty of 

Albany y 17th day of August, 1686 : Present, Pr. 

Schuyler, mayor, Jan Jansz Bleeker, J. Wendel, Dirk 

Wessels, Adr. Gerritse, Lev. Van Shaike. 

Hercules y e negro of Myndert Frederikse being brought 
before y e court by y e warrant of y e Mayor, to answer y e fel- 
onious takeing out of his masters house a small chest 
wherein some baggs of wampum was contained belonging to 
y e poor of y e Lutheran church, and being examined doth 
confess y e fact y l upon Thursday night last he came to 
his masters house and finding y e window of y e chamber 
open went in and stole away y e small chest wherein 
y e money of y e poor of y e Lutheran church was kept, and 
broke y e chest open without y e gate at y e water side with 
an ax. 

The City Eecords. 85 

Ordered y 1 y e said negroe be committed and secured in y e 
common goale till y e next court of sessions, when he is to 
be brought to his tryall. 

The court of mayor and aldermen doe hereby publish and 
declare y 1 according to y e act of assembly they have appointed 
y e freeholders of y e city and county Albany to meet to- 
gether on Monday next, being y e 21 of this instant month 
August, at y e citty hall, and there elect a certain -number of 
persons by y c majority of y e freeholders to be assessors for 
this ensuing year, who shall have full power and authority 
to make an assessment or certain rate for y e defraying y e pub- 
like charge of y e county. 

Actum in Albany ye 17th day of August, 1686. 

Att a Court of Mayor &c., Aug. 31, 1686. 

Whereas Myndert Frederickse hath made his request to 
y e court that his negroe Hercules now in custody, may be 
punished for y e theft y t he committed, in stealing y e chest 
of wampum out of his masters house belonging to y e church 
wardens of y e Lutheran church, and y l y e court order may 
be remitted of having his tryall at y e sessions. Whereupon 
y e court have considered y e matter and granted his request, 
and ordered y e negroe to be brought to his further exami- 
nation [who again confessed the deed]. 

The coiltt of mayor and aldermen having considered ye 
case of y e negroe of Myndert Frederikse called Hercules, 
who hath stole a chest of wampum be-longing to y e poor of 
y e Lutheran parich out of y e house of his master, where he 
went in a night throw y e window, all which he confesseth, 
and considering how evil consequence it is and how bad 
example it is for y e negers, the court have ordered y e s d 
neger Hercules to be whipt throw y e towne att y e cart tale 
by y e hands of y e hangman forthwith, for an example to 
oy rs , and his master to pay y e costts. 

Sept. 10.-=-Kegulations were passed for the observance of 
the Sabbath. 

* Sept. 11 Ordered that whoever of y e members of the com- 
mon councill shall be absent at y e second ringing of y e bell, 
being in town, at any common council day, shall forfeit six 
shillings, toties quoties. 

Annals, ii. 8 

86 The City Records. 

Sept. 14. Orders were passed for the regulation of the In- 
dian trade, which are very lengthy. At this meeting the 
salary of Robert Livingston, " in consideration of the diverse 
services" which he performed as clerk, were advanced five 
pounds, so that he was to have 20 per ann. 

Whereas it hath been found by experience that y e bringing 
in of y e fountain fromy e hill, into y e citty hath not only been 
of great use to y e inhabitants for water butt the only means, 
under God, of y e quenching of y e late fyre, wh h oy r wise 
by all probability had consumed y e whole towne ; and where- 
as y e spouts y 1 convey y e water to the wells in some places 
are gone to decay or at least so leaky that y e wells are quite 
useless, the mayor, aldermen and commonalty of y e citty 
have therefore thought convenient to appoint and order y e 
high constable, Isaak Verplank, forthwith to cause y e said 
spouts and wells to be repaired, that they may be of like use 
as formerly, and to keep an exact account of what y e charge 
is which shall be forthwith ordered to be paid; and all labor- 
ing persons are hereby strictly charged to assist towards y e 
s d work as they will answer y e contrary att y r perills ; and if 
the said high constable be found negligent y l he doth not 
hys duty herein, and y l ye work be not and all y e wells and 
spouts compleated in y e space of a fortnight, he shall for- 
feit forty shillings. 

Sept. 23. The assessors were directed to proceed to rate 
the county the sum of 1600 guilders beaver, or 160; and for 
defraying the city expenses 30, or 400 gl. beaver. 

Att a Common Councill held in Albany, at y e Citty Hall of 
y e said Citty on y e 26th day of October in y e 2d year of 
ye Reign of our Souveraign Lord James y e Second, by 
y e Grace of God of England, Scotland, France and 
Ireland king, Defender of y e Faith, Supream and only 
Lord of y e Province of New Yorke, &c., and in y e year of 
our Lord 1686 : Present, Dirk Wessels, recorder ; Adrian 
Gerritse, Hend. Cuyler, Albert Ryckman, aldermen; 
Abraham Van Tricht, Luykas Gerritse, William Groes- 
beck, Jan Andrese Cuyper, Gerrit Ryerse. 

The common council having taken into consideration y e 
charges and expenses y e city have been at in obtaining y e 

The City Eecords. 87 

charter, and y l it is requisite some means should be used 
to raise some money towards y e defraying of y e same have 
therefore concluded and unanimously resolved to dispose off 
and sell some lotts of grounde upon y e Plain lying on y e 
south side of y e citty for gardens, as also y e land lying on 
both sides of Rutten kil for two pastures, and to that end 
these following persons are appointed to lay out y e same in 
lotts, and to number them, to wit: G-errit Ryerse and 
Luykas Gerritse, assistants, and Claes Riper and Jacob 
Meese, carpenters, which said- lotts of grounde y e common 
councill will dispose of at a publike vendu or out cry in y e 
city hall on Wednesday ye first day of December next 
ensuing. It is also ordered yt y e towne clerk put up bills 
at y e citty hall door and y e church to give notice to all 
persones that they may come at y e day appointed. 

Whereas his Excell. Tho. Dongan, Capt. General and 
Governour in cheeffe under his Majesty of y e Province of 
New York and Dependencies, by virtue of y e power and 
authority in him being, from and under his said Majesty, 
in and by a charter bearing date y e 22d day of July last 
past, given under y e scales ofy e said province for y c considera- 
tions therein expressed, amongst diverse oy r things did 
graunt to y e city a certain tract of land" above Schinnech- 
tady, upon y e Maquaas river, of a thousand acres, called 
Tiononderoga, and y e other land thereunto adjoining, and 
whereas y e season will now admitt that a view may be taken 
thereof, in order to purchase y e same of y e Indians, these 
following persons are nominated and appointed by y e com- 
mon councill by y e first conveniency to goe thither and view 
y e said land, and make a report thereof to y e common 
councill, to witt, Dirk Wessells, recorder, and Robt. Living- 
ston, gentleman, with two other fitt persons whom they shall 
think fit to goe along with them and assist them in the pro- 
secution of said business. 

John Carter and Cobus Van Vorst porters are convened 
before y e common councill to take y e oaths as porters for 
the city. 

Ordered that y e fyremasters goe about and visite each 
respective house in y e citty, to see if there chimneys and 
fyrehearths be sufficient ,, and also that care be taken that 
y e ladders and fyre hooks be upon there places and in re- 

88 The City Records. 

pare, all which is recommended to y e high constable, Isak 
Verplank, forthwith to be put in execution. 

John Gow is appointed and sworn for fyer master in y e 
roome of Hend. Beekman. ' 

Att a Common Councill &c. 6th Nov., 1686. 

Whereas there hath been diverse orders published from 
time to time concerning y e wells and fountains of this city 
where sundry people rense there cloathes, throw down 
water and all sorts of filth neer to y e s d wells, and water 
there horses out of y e pale y 1 hangs at y e same, and draw 
water with foule pales ; It is therefore ordered by y e 
mayor, recorder, aldermen and commonalty of this citty, 
y* no person whatsoever shall for y e future rense cloathes 
or throw water or any sort of filth in or near any of the 
wells or fountains within this city, nor water any -horses 
out of y e pale y l ha*g at y e same or draw water with any 
fowle or dirty pale, upon pain of forfeiture of y e somme of 12s 
for each offence, one moyety thereof to y e mayor, aldermen 
and commonality of y e s d citty, and y e oy r moyety to y e use of 
y e sheriffe, constables, or any oy r person as shall inform or 
sue for y e same. 

Whereas we have received information y* sundrey carmen 
and oyr persons fetch sand from a topp of y e hill where y e 
old burying place has been, insomuch y l ye verry coffins 
are exposed to publke view; ordered y l no carman or other 
person shall henceforth fetch or digg any sand on ye north 
side of y e Shennechtady path, upon pain of forfeiting y e 
some of twelfe shillings for each offence, one moyety [&c. 
as above]. 

Nov. 19. It being "found inconvenient and that daily 
disorders and abuses doe increase within this city by people's 
taking the freedom to sell all sorts of liquor by retaile 
both to Christians and Indians," without license, it -was 
prohibited to sell by retail in less quantities than five 
gallons, without license, under penalty of 5 for each 

The Lycence for one y* sells ~by retaile. 
Peter Schuyler, Esq r May r of y e city of Albany, to y e 
sheriffe, constables, and y e King's Maj es officers, greet- 

The City Records. 89 

ing, know yee y* wee, y e s d mayor, have lycenced and by 
these presents doe lycence Volkie Pieters to sell wine, rum, 
and oy r strong drink by retaile in y e house where she now 
liveth in this citty, both to Christians and Indians, for one 
whole year next ensuing y e date hereof; provided always 
shee pay such dutyes and excyse, as by y e laws and statutes 
of this province are established, and behave herself accord- 
ing to y e rules and orders of this city, in that behalfe made 
and provided, in testimony whereof we have caused y e 
scale of this city to be hereunto affixed, dated y e 22th day 
of Novem br in y e Reign of our Souvraign Lord James y e 
second by y e grace of God, of Engl d Scotland, France, and 
Ireland, king, defender of y e faith. 

P B . SHUYLER, Mayor. 

Att a Court of Mayor &c., Dec. 28, 1686. 

Be it remembred y l y e s d day came before y e mayor's court, 
John Doe who gave this court to understand and be informed 
y* Lafleur alias Rene Poupar, of y e county of Albany, yeoman, 
on y e 23 d day of Decem r in ye second year of his maj se reign, 
att his house at y e Stille water in y e county of Albany, did 
trade and traffique with y e indians, and then and there did bar- 
ter with s d indians, certain goods and merchandizes, viz 1 strung 
wampum, stockings and oy r indian commodities for dear 
skins and peltry, and did also in his house keep and con- 
ceale two hundred and thirty-four gilders in strung wam- 
pum, nine pare of indian stockings, and eight dear skins, 
contrare and against y e form and effect of severall laws, 
orders and proclamations in y l case made and provided, 
whereupon y e said John Doe demands judgment of con- 
demnation of y e s d 234 gilders, strung wampum, accDrding 
to y e papers upon s d bunches writt, and nine pare of indian 
stockings and eight dear skinns, one-third part for y e mayor, 
aldermen and commonalty, one-third part for y e mayor, and 
one-third part for y e s d John Doe, and ye s d John Doe doth 
also demand jugem 1 of this court against y e s d Lefleur for ye 
somme of twenty pounds courant money of this province, 
as a fine for his so trading as aforesaid. Two-thirds thereof 
for y e behoof of y e mayor, aldermen and commonalty of 
this city, and one-third part for y e said John Doe. 

90 The City Records. 

Before Dirk "Wessels Eecorder and Aldermen, Jan. 25. 

John Doe's information against Renne Poupar being read, 
and y e s d Renne Poupar did engage to bring prooffs y l y e 
wampum was at his house in order to pay the carpenter 
for y e making of his house, of which he is wanting ; where- 
upon y e case is put into y e hands of y e jury , viz 1 : Jan 
Bleeker, Jan Lansing, Johannes de Wandelaer, David 
Schuyler, Lawrence Van Ale, Johannes Cuyler, Jacob 
Lokermans, Melg 1 Wynantse, Wessel ten Broek, Jan 
Vinnagen, Arent Schuyler, Anth Lespinard, who being 
gone out brings in their verdict and fynde it for y e Col. 
and yt ye def 1 hath trangressed ye law in having zewant 
and stockings in his house. 

The court haveing considered y e case doe approve of y e 
verdict of y e jury, and give judgem 1 against ye 234 gl. in 
zew 1 and 9 pare of stockings founde in his house, one-third 
for y e mayor, one third for y e mayor, aldermen and com- 
monalty, and one-third for y e informer ; and moreover as an 
fine y e somme of forty shillings courant money of this province, 
two-thirds thereof for behooff of y e mayor, aldermen and com- 
monality of this citty, and one-third for y e informer with 
costs of sute. 

Rene Poupar gives in a petition, and setts forth yt he 
being a stranger, did not know y l it was prohibited to have 
strung wampum in his house, doth therefore pray y 1 y e wam- 
pum seized by the sheriff may be restored, and y e fine of 
forty shillings remitted. 

The court deferrs y e bussinesse till y e mayor comes home. 

Same day (see above) Richard Pretty, sheriff of y e said 
citty giveth this court to understand and be informed, Arent 
Schulyer of this citty, trader, sometime in Decemr. last, at 
his dwelling house in this citty, did affront and abuse y e 
fyre-masters and constables who were sent by speciall order 
and commission from y e court of mayor and aldermen, to 
view y e chimneys and fyre-hearths, and notwithstanding his 
being warned that his chimney was fowle and was desyred 
to clean it against next day y l they came again, affronted them 
and threatened to beat them, with divers oy r base words and 
actions. It is therefore considered by y e court y'y e s d Arent 
Schuyler doe pay as a fine, y e somme of forty shillings cou- 

The City Records. 91 

rant money of this province, and y l he pay for his costs and 
charges 204 like courant money for his costs and charges 
of prosecution at y e discretion of y e s d court. 

Since it is very requisite y l there be fyre-wood rid to y e in 
dian houses for y e indians' accomodation and y e traders be- 
ing founde negligent in rideing y e same according to former 
custome, you are hereby required in his maj st name to charge 
and command all y e indian traders of this citty, that in y e 
space of 14 days they ride wood according to y e list w h shall 
be made by John Johnse Keeker, Jan Lansing, Robt. San- 
ders and Arent Schuyler, to y e s d indian houses, and give 
an ace 1 to you of each load they so shall ride to y e indian 
houses afores d upon y e penalty of each person, if they shall 
be negligent, to pay as a fine one ps. of I, and yt yu are in 
no ways to ommitt in doeing whereof this shall b e y re suffi- 
cient warrant, dated in Albany ye 24th day of February, 

To Isaak Verplank, high constable of this city. 

Att a Court of Mayor, &c., April 11, 1686-7. 
Ordered that there be a pounde made upon y e plain for y e 
use of this citty and precincts thereof, to put all horses, cattle, 
hoggs and sheep therein, that any ways are founde trans- 
gressing in any corn, pastures, orchards, gardins and oy r 
lotts, according to law, and y e constables to have y e keeping 

Jacobus Van Yorst, Wm G-ysbertse and Joseph Yetts, 
were admitted carmen, and had the following Lycences 
granted them: P r Schuyler, may r of ye city of Albany, sends 
greeting in our Lord God everlasting ; know yee y* wee y e 
s d mayor, of good and credible report, to us made by diverse 
credible and honest persones, y l Jacobus Yan Yorst one of y e 
porters of this citty, is a man meet to keep a cart and be one 
of y e carters of this city j have licenced, allowed and admitted, 
and by these presents doe licence, allow, and admitt y e said 
Jacobus Yan Yorst to be one of y e carters of this city, so y* 
y e said Jacobus Yan Yorst doe not deny any body to ride 
or cart for them when he is not employed about y e porter's 
employment, and to behave himself according to y e rules 

92 The City Becords. 

and orders of this citty, in that behalf, made and provided, 
in testimony whereof we have caused y e scale of y e said citty 
to be hereunto affixed, dated ye 19th day of April, 1687, in 
y e 3 d year of his maj st reign. 

Whereas some of y e inhabitants of this city have been 
wanting in y e makeing up their proportion of y e stockadoes 
about y e fort upon the hill, by w h means y e fort can not be 
repaired, you are hereby required in his maj ts name to cause 
them of your comp e y 1 have not wrought and performed 
there part at y e setting up of y e stockadoes, forthwith to 
sett them up yt y e fort may be finished, in doeing whereof 
this shall be to y u a sufficient warrant, Actum in Albany, 
ye 25th day of May, 1687. 

Att a Court of Mayor &c., June 14, 1687. 

Ordered by y e court y* y e cap tns of y e respective com- 
panies doe warn y e people under there command to keep a 
watch every night in y e city till further order. 

Orderd also y l y e sergeants of y e respective companies goe 
about to raise a half years sellary for y e ratel watch. 

[Mrs Elizabeth Van Dyck, relict of Cornelis Van Dyck, 
applied for an appraisement of the estate.] 

At a Common Council, &c., Aug. 27, 1687. 
The business concerning y e tax or rate being taken into 
consideration, is put to y e vote whether y e publike charge 
of y e citty should be defrayed by an assessment or rate upon 
y e inhabitants or not, and they that voted for a tax or 
assessment are, 

Pr. Schuyler, mayor, Albert Kyckman, 

Dirk Wessels, recorder, Hend. Cuyler, 

Johannes Wendell, Ger 1 Ryerse, 

Adrian Gerritse, Mynd* Harmense. 
Levinus Van Schaik, 

And they yt voted to sell of y e lands belonging to y e city 
at Tionondoroga &c.. are, 

Wm. Claese, Luykas Gerritse, Jan Andriese. 

The City Records. 93 

Att a Court of Mayor &c., Oct. 14, 1687. 
The returns of y e aldermen for y e 3 respective wards, for 
choosing of new ones being made, and for y e first ward are 
chosen Hend. Cuyler, Johannes Wendel ; for y e 2d ward 
Levinus Van Schaick, Jan Jans Bleeker ; for y e 3d ward 
David Schuyler, Alb 1 Ryckman. And for y e common 
councill men are choose for y e first ward Reynier Barents, 
Jacob Staas, for ye 2d warde Johannes Cuyler, W ra Claese, 
for y e 3d warde Garrit Van Nesse, Ger* Ryerse j and were 
sworne in there respective offices accordingly, except Capt. 
Wendel and Capt. Bleeker. 

By the court of Mayor and Aldermen of y e citty of Albany 
Whereas y e selling of drink at unreasonable hours at night 
is founde inconvenient especialy at this juncture of time, y e 
court doe therefore hereby strictly charge and command y l 
none of y e inhabitants of this city or county thereof doe 
presume to sell any strong drink, beer, syder or other liquor 
to any person whatever after y e Taptoo upon y e penalty of 
forfeiting y e somme of tenn shillings every person y 1 shall 
be found drinkeing in y e house, and if any citizen or in- 
habitant of this citty doe presume to suffer people to 
drink in their houses any drink fetched from y e tavern or 
any other places, y e master of y l house shall pay for every 
person yt he shall so adrnitt to drinke in his house after 
y e Taptoo aforesaid, y e somme of six shillings courant 
money of this province. 

And whereas divers persons were warned last year to 
ride a load of fyrewood to y e watch house, have been 
negligent in doing y e same ; all persons are hereby warned 
y l have not brought ye load of wood accordingly, y* they 
bring or cause to bring y e same to y e guardhouse in y 6 
space of 8 days, else it shall be brought from there yards 
upon there cost and charge and moreover pay a fine of 2s, 
and if there be no wood in there yards a load of wood shall 
be brought upon there charge and brought to y e garde. 
Dated in Albany ye 17th day of Oct. 1687. 


94 The City Records. 

May 23, 1688. Isak Yerplank, high constable, and 
Benony van Colaer, Evert Wendel Junr., and Johannes 
de Wandelaer, constables, were dismissed, and thanked for 
their good service. 

And Benony van Corlaer was sworn high constable for 
y e ensuing year, and Pr. Davidse Schuyler and Johannes 
van Sante sworne as constables, and Evert Banker. 

Oct. 14, 1688. The returns for ye aldermen of y e citty 
of Albany for y e ensuing year, were, for aldermen, 

Johannes Wendell, Levinus van Schaik, for y e first ward. 

Jan Jansz Bleeker, Jan Lansing, second ward. 

Albert Ryckman, David Schuyler, thirde ward. 
And for y e common councill or assistants, 

Reynier Barrentse, Evert Banker, 1st warde. 

Johannes Beekman, Isaak Verplanke, 2d warde. 

Johannes Abeel, Johannes Mingael, 3d warde. 
Who were sworn in their respective offices accordingly. 
For constables this ensuing year : Johannes van Sante, 
high constables, Phill. Foreest, 1st warde ; John Nack, 2d 
do ; Wessels ten Broek, 3d do. 

November 27, 1688. Anthony Lispenard peticons y e 
court y l order might be taken to pay y e funerall charges 
of Mons. Salvay, a Frenchman of Canada, who dyed at 
his house in June last, since he is daily troubled with 
people who demand y e money of him . [The effects of 
deceased ordered to be sold to pay charges.] 

Ordered y l John Van Loon, late coroner of this citty; 
deliver y e papers of Adrain van Ilpendam, notary publike, 
deceased, to Robert Livingston, towne clerk, in order if 
any persons are minded to have copies of those instruments 
they may have them. 

The last will and testament of Adrian Grerritse Papen- 
dorp, in his life time burger and inhabitant of this city, is 
brought into court by Johannes Abeel, and proved by y e 
oaths of Jan Janse Bleeker and Johannes Lansing, wit- 
nesses thereto, and his wife Jannetie Croon, therein named, 
was approved to be heir and executrix to y e s d will. 
Ordered yt ye will afores d be translated and recorded, and 
she referred to his excellency Sir Edm. Andross, Cap 1 . 
Gen. and Gov. in Cheeffe of his Majs. territory and domi- 
nion of N. England, for further confirmation of y e probate 

The City Records. 95 

June 5, 1688. Adam Vrooman doth petition y e com- 
mon council y l whereas Rode y e Maquase sachem, for di- 
verse considerations hath about three years agoe granted 
him two flatts or plains upon both sides of y e Maquase 
river above Hend. Cuyler's land, containing about eleven 
morgen, w h said land he doth presume is included in ye 
grant given to this citty and inserted in their charter 
and therefore prays y l y e mayor, aldermen and commonality 
would be pleased to grant him a conveyance for y e s d two 
parcells of land lying neer ye stone house, so called by 
y e Indians, as you goe to y e Maquase country, and 40 acres 
of wood land adjoining them, which would be a convenient 
settlement for y e s d Adam Yrooman, and is willing to pay 
a small acknowledgement for y e same yearly. [The lands 
were granted, consisting of sixty-two acres, for a yearly rent 
of two bushels of winter wheat, conditioned that he should 
build a small house on it and plow a part of the land the 
next spring.] 

Whereas Pr Schuyler and Rob 1 Livingston did stand 
engaged to Capt. Andrew Bowne for ye somme of eighty- 
three pounds fifteen shillings with y e interest a ten per 
cent from y e 22d of July, 1686, which they now necessi- 
tate to borrow, towards y e payment of ye charter, we 
whose names are underwritten doe hereby engage to in- 
demnify and bear harmless y e s d Rob 1 Livingston his heirs, 
executors, administrators and assigns, from any damage 
y l he might incur by paying of y e s (1 somme or any part 
thereof; and whereas P r Schuyler mayor and Johannes 
Cuyler one of y e assistants doe engage to satisfy and pay 
Capt. Andrew Bowne y e s cl somme of 83 15s. with two 
years interest, at ten per cent, we whose names are here- 
unto subscribed doe for our selfs, our heirs, executors, ad- 
ministrators and assigns, oblige our selfs to pay or cause to 
be paid unto Mr. Pieter Schuyler, mayor, and Johannes 
Cuyler, in y e space of a year after y e date hereof each of 
us severally y e somme of seven pounds three shillings and 
six pence, with our proportion of a year's interest, if y e s d 
mayor shall have occasion to take up ye money to pay s d 
Capt. Bowne, that is each a fourteenth part ; for y e pay- 
ment of which, well and truly to be made, we bynde our 
selfs our heirs, executors, administrators and assigns, and 

96 The City Records. 

every of them, firmly by these presents, as witness our 
hands in Albany, ye 23 d day of July, 1688. 

Signed by y e mayor, recorder, y e 6 aldermen, and 6 

December 4, 1688. Upon application of Dom Gode- 
vridus Van Dell who gives y e court to understand y l by y e 
testimony of divers antient inhabitants y e kings high way 
went formerly to y e westward of y e great pasture by y e 
Beverskill along Shermerhorns pasture and not over y e 
same as y e open way between Shermerhorns pasture doth 
sufficiently evidence doth therefore desyre y l y e high way 
may be orderd to be as it was formerly where it may be 
laid out very conveniently : or if y r worsps juge more 
convenient y l the high way be kept throw y e pasture as 
it has been admitted this last summer, then y e s d Dom 
Dellius requests y l y e old highway which lyes without ye 
pasture to witt from y e Beverskill or creek to y e end of 
Shermerhorns pasture may be added to y e great pasture. 

The mayor, recorder and aldermen doe juge it com- 
modious and requisite, yea absolute necessary y* y e highway 
be forever throw y e great pasture, and not where Dom Del- 
lius alledges y e old path went formerly, and doe therefore 
after mature consideration grant y l y e old highway from ye 
Beverskill to y e end of Shermerhorns pasture be joyned to 
y e great pasture, and y* whoever hereafter shall posess or 
enjoy y e s d great pasture may freely inclose, keep and enjoy 
y e s d old highway for ever, and Mr. Marte Gerritse one of 
his majestys justices of y e peace, who joyns with s d pasture 
declares y l he doth relinquish all claim and pretence which 
he might or could pretend to y s s d highway for him and his 
heirs for ever. 

Att a Mayors Court &c., Dec. llth, 1688. 
Dom e Gideon Schaets doth by Bennony Van Corlaer 
produce into court y e last will and testament of his decased 
wife, Barentie Hendricks, dated ye 26th Oct. 1688, whereun- 
to were wittnesses Paulus Martense and John Harris, who 
being called, declared upon oath that they see ye s d Barentie 

The City Records. 97 

Hendrickse in good and perfect memory and in sound under- 
standing when she signd and sealed s d will. Ordered y l y e 
s d will be translated and recorded accordingly. 

Whereas divers complaints have been made concerning y e 
bakers who sell there wheat bread at such dear rates, not 
withstanding y e cheapness of y e corn. Ordered y l y e bakers 
and whatever .persons who expose bread to sale in this city 
doe take no more than one penny, half-penny or five stuyvers 
zewant for a loaf of fine wheat bread, which must weigh one 
pound English weight and y e same finenesse as hitherto they 
have made, which order to continue for y e space of one whole 
year after y e date hereof or further order. 

It is further orderd y l no persone whatever presume to 
cutt down any of y e townes old stockadoes till y e spring, 
when new ones is to be putt in y e room, upon pain and 
penalty often shillings. 

Whereas great inconveniences and confusion doth arise 
by divers persones assumeing to themselfs y e liberty to make 
use of ye towne ladders for there owne occasion which were 
made for y e citys use in time of need, in so much that verry 
few are to be found in there places where they were first 
ordained : It is therefore ordered by y e mayor and-aldermen 
y l y e fyre masters doe inspect into y e condition of s d ladders 
and fyrehooks y l they be in good condition and repare, and 
y l in some convenient 'place of each ward there be at least 
2 good ladders of 25 foot, and 2 of 15 foot with iron hooks, 
fast to y e ladder and 2 fyrehooks which will make 12 ladders 
and 6 hooks for y e 3 respective wards, and whatever ladders 
or hooks shall be founde over and above y e s d number y e 
fy remasters are to take care they be hung at y e church. 
It is further orderd y l no person or persons whatever pre- 
sume to take or use any of y e s d ladders without leave of 
some one of*y e fyremasters for y e time being, upon y e for- 
feiture of one shilling courant money of this provence, but 
if he ask leave of any of y e fyremasters y e person using y e s d 
ladder shall pay 2d. per diem. 

It is ordered likewise y l y e constables, together . with 
John Gow, Anthony Lespinard, Melgert Wynantse and 
Hen d . Bries fyremasters for y e ensuing year, joyntly see ye 
above s d orders put in execution and frequently visit the 

Annals, ii. 9 

98 The City Records. 

houses and hearths of this city, if that they be without dan- 
ger and sufficient and if any be founde deficient or there 
chimneys fowle they shall pay as a fine y e somme of three 
shillings courant money of this province. 

At a Common Council, &c, Dec. 11, 1688. 

The mayor, aldermen and commonality of y e city of Albany 
having taken into consideration y e burger or small pakt 
hath been paid by y e inhabitants of this towne time out of 
mind towards y e defraying of y e publike charge thereof, 
which s d packt or excise is continued by his excellency y e 
gov r for y e space of two years, upon y e mayors and aldermen's 
request; and whereas many frauds are committed by y e 
merchants and inhabitants of this citty by selling their rom 
and oy r liquor without acquainting ye towne treasurer there- 
with, or using y e sworn porters to house y e same, it is there- 
fore hereby ordered that no inhabitant of this city do pre- 
sume to take or receive into their houses any rom, wyne, 
beer, or other excysable liquor, above y e quantity of five 
gallons, or that hath by y e antient custome of this citty lies 
been liable to pay y e s d burger packt, without y e sworn por- 
ters, and before they fetched a note of y e treasurer of this 
city, of the quantity which they so have purchased, in order 
yt y e excyse may be collected accordingly. And if any mer- 
chant who shall receive rom in order to dispose of y e same, 
shall refuse or deny to give an account to y e towne treasurer 
how he hes disposed of his s d liquor, or who can not give a 
just ace 1 thereof y e s c1 merch 1 or merch ts shall be lyable to 
pay ye excyse for y e liquor whereof he can give no such ac- 
compt. And in case any person is found to take or receive 
any rom, wine or beer, or other excysable liquor into his 
house without y e sworne porters or a note of y e tresurer, 
they shall be lyable to pay ~as a fine to y e citty y e somme of 
six shillings for each anker or tenn gallons which they so 
shall take or receive into their houses or sellers as aforesaid. 

It was also determined at this sitting to demand 18d 
" courant money of this province" for the acknowledgement 
of conveyances before the mayor, recorder or aldermen. 
James Parker was allowed 50s. per annum as marshal. 
The will of Carsten Frederikse was produced by his widow 

The' City Records. 99 

Tryntie Warners, and proved by Evert Janse, the other 
witness, Stoffell Janse, being dead. 

Att a mayors Court &c., Jan. 15, 1689. 
Anthony Lespiaard was appointed by y e mayor and 
aldermen to be viewer of corn in this citty, and took his 
oath accordingly, and is to have for each time he is desyred 
to view y e same 9 d if y e corn be good of his y l receives, 
and if bad or not merchandable by y l delivers. 

Forasmuch as it is thoug' convenient y< y e stockadoes be 
removed from y e place where they now lye and planted 
rounde this city where y e old stood, and since it can not 
well be effected without due order be taken y 1 an equal 
division be made of y e proportion, and every person ac- 
quainted where there stockadoes ought to be putt up and 
from whence they are to fetch them. It is therefore orderd 
by y e mayor and aldermen of this city yt y e assistants doe 
make a dividend of y e new stockadoes : how many rodd 
every person according to there ability should putt up and 
from whence they are to bring them where it is nearest 
and most convenient, beginning at y e place y l is open 
between Dirk Dragoons and y e point, and so round north- 
ward as far as y e said new stockadoes will reach ; all which 
are to be putt up in y e space of a month after y e date 

Acturn in Albany ye 6th day of March 1689. 

By the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of y e City 
of Albanie, and y e justices of y e peace of y e County 
afores d , the 21st day of May, 1689. 
Present the mayor, recorder, all the aldermen and as- 
sistants, justices, Rob 1 Sanders and Abr. Schuyler. 

Whereas the selling and giving of strong drinke to y e 
Indians at, this present juncture is founde by experience 
not only inconvenient but extream dangerous insomuch 
yt ye greatest part of y e traders and inhabitants of this 

100 The City Records. 

city have made their application to us, y l it may strikly 
forbidd, since y e Indians by their excessive drinking are 
so insolent and troublesome y 1 nothing but y e greatest 
mischeeffs and calamities can be expected if not prevented 
we doe therefore hereby strickly prohibite and discharge 
all y* inhabitants of y e citty and county of Albany to sell 
or give any rom, brandy, or strong liquor, beer or cyder, 
to any Indian or Indians, upon any pretence whatsoever, 
upon y e penalty of five pounds, toties quoties, and because 
it has been founde by experience y l it will almost be im- 
possible to make discovery of y e breach of this order by 
y e ordinary method of probation in regard y e same will 
be managed with so much secrecy as none will be privy 
thereto but y e delinquents themselves, or Indians whose 
testimonys are not held valid of law, for y e discovery 
therefore of such secret and dangerous practices we doe 
hereby order and declare y l upon information made to y e 
mayor, recorder, aldermen, or justices of y e peace, by any 
Christian Indian or Indians against any person or persons 
whatsoever, of y e breach of this order, the said magistrate 
or justice of y e peace shall issue out his warrant, requir- 
ing him forthwith to come before him ; then and there 
if he can upon his oath so purge himselfe of such accusation 
as aforesaid, which if such person shall refuse to doe, 
y e matter of fact in y e accusation contained shall be taken 
for granted, and y e s d magistrate or justice of y e peace 
shall forthwith issue out execution to y e sheriff or any 
constable to levy y e fine and charges by distress upon y e 
offenders goods and chatties without any further procese 
or tryall, always provided y 1 it shall be in y e power of y e 
mayor, aldermen and commonalty of y e s d city, if they see 
cause to give or dispose of any small quantity of rom to 
some particular Sachims, who come here upon publike 
bussinsse any prohibition aboves d in any manner notwith- 
standing. The said fyne to be disposed of as follows vizt : 
y e one half or moyety for y e high sherriffe of y e . county 
for y e time being if he informs, and y e other half for y e 
mayor, aldermen and commonalty afors d , and* if y e s d 
sheriffe doth not inform, he is to have y e quarter part and 
y e informer ye half and y e citty y e other quarter part. 

The City Records. 101 

Whereas we are informed y* one Dubison is intended to 
transport himself and family to Canida, being suspected to 
have kept a secret correspondence with y e French there, 
and it being juged dangerous to suffer such a percon to live 
at Sarachtoge or any place of this county at this juncture 
of time where he may have conveniency to keep such a 
correspondence. You are therefore hereby required in his 
majestys name to bring y e s d Dubison and family forth- 
with here, in order that they may be secured from any 
such dangerous designs, in doing whereof this shall be your 
sufficient warrant. Given under my hand and seal in 
Albany ye 14th of June, 1689. 

To Anthony Van Shaik, Constable of y e Halfmoon. 

Albany ye first day of July, 1689. 

The proclamation for proclaimeing there majesty, king 
William and queen Mary king and queen of England, 
France and Ireland, &a being brought hither from N. 
York immediately upon y e receit thereof, y e mayor and 
recorder caused y e court of aldermen and common councile 
to assemble, who attended accordingly and hayeing con- 
sidered of y e greatest solemnity y l could be used in so 
short a time appointed y e cittizens to be in arms abut 12 
o'clock, which haveing done they went in order from y e 
city hall up to where there majestys were proclaimed in 
solemn manner in English and Dutch ; y e guns fyreing 
from y e fort and volley of small arms; y e people with 
loud acllamations crying God save king W m . and queen 
Mary. Afterwards they marched down to y e city hall 
where there majestys .were again proclaimed. Y e night 
concluded with y e ringing of y e bell, bone fyres, fyre 
works and all other demonstrations of joy. 

Aug. 13, 1689. The peticons of Adam Vrooman and 
Pr. Van Olinda, Robert Sanders and Claes Lawrence Van 
Purmurent being read in court, who request for parcells of 
land in Tionondoroge, belonging to y e city, which the court 
will consider of. 

102 The City Records. 

A Proclamation ly the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty 
of the City of Albany. 

Whereas by these late revolutions diverse persons have 
taken the freedom to fetch Indians with their packs into 
their houses, and to be so troublesome and importune to 
y e heathens, that they have complained they could not eate 
their vietualls quietly, which is contrare to the wholesome 
laws and orders made by this city for y e regulation of y e 
Indian trade ; we doe therefore hereby, in y e name of 
there maj es , King William and Qaeen Mary, publish and 
declare that no person or persons whatsoever, within this 
city, shall upon y e arrivall of any Indian or Indians address 
themselfs to speake to them of and concerning trade, nor 
shall entice them either within or without y e gates of y e s d 
citty, by signs or otherwise, howsoever, to trade with 
themselfs or any other persones, upon payne and penalty 
of paying for each offence, if committed without y e gates 
of y e s d citty; y e somme of three pounds, if within ye 
same y e somme of six shillings only ; which fine is to be 
for y e behooffe of such person as shall sue for the same. 
That no person or persons whatsoever -within this citty 
shall presume to take any Indian or Indians into there 
houses with pack or packs of beaver or peltry, and so 
trade them, upon penalty of paying as a fine for such offence 
30 shillings, and y e Indian or Indians with said packs im- 
mediately to depart out of y e house without trading, di- 
rectly or indirectly. That no person or persons whatever 
within this city shall send out or make use of any breakers 
whether Christians or Indians, in y e management of y e Indian 
trade upon payn and penalty of paying as a fine for each 
offence y e somme of five pounds, onernoyety thereof for y e use 
of mayor, aldermen and commonality of y e s d city, and y e 
other moyety to such person as shall sue for y e same. 
That no person or persons whatsoever within this city 
shall trade for or receive any beavers, peltry, or other 
Indian commodities from any Indian or Indians, after y e 
ringing of y e bell at eight of y e clock on y e night, upon 
payn and penalty of forfeiting such commodities so traded 
for and received as afores d , two third parts to y e use of 
y e mayor, aldermen and commonalty of y e s d citty, and 

The City Records. 103 

y e other third part to y e use of such person as shall sue 
for y e same. That no person or persons whatsoever 
within this city doe presume to trade or traffique with, or 
by any means whatsoever, directly or indirectly, entice 
any Indians so to doe upon y e sabbath day, upon pain 
and penalty of forfeiting such goods so traded for as 
afores d , as also on payne and penalty of paying as a fine 
for such offence, y e somme of forty shillings to y e use of 
such person as shall sue for y e same. Actum in Albany 
y e 13th day of August, in y e first year of y e reign of 
William and Mary, king and queen of England, France 
and Ireland, defender of ye faith, A 1689. 

Resolved, y l y e fall waters on y e Bevers kill or creek, 
where Melgert Wynants intends to erect a saw mill, be 
sold to y e deakons of y e Netherdutch church for y e somme 
of 25, to pay for y e maintenance of Dicke Jan Cornelise, 
one of y e poor belonging to this county. 

Sept. 29, 1689. The common council being convened 
to give their votes for a treasurer for this citty for y e en- 
suing year, doe by plurality of voyces choose Mr. Jan 

Albany ye 14th day of Oct., 1689. 

This day being appointed by y e charter of this city for 
y e aldermen of y e respective wards to bring there returns 
of y e aldermen chosen for y e ensuing year, which were 

Johannes Wendel, Levinus van Schack, for y e 1st ward. 

Claes Ripse van Dam, Jan Jansz Bleeker, for y e 2d 

David Schuyler, Albert Ryekman, for y e 3d ward. 
The assistants chosen for this year were 

Reynier Barents, Evert Banker, for y e 1st ward. 

Johannes Cuyler, Jan Nack, for y e 2d ward. 

Ger 1 Ryerse, Eghbert Teunise, 3d ward. 

Y e constables were Pr. Boss, for y e 1st ward ; Joh. Appel, 
for y e 2d ; Gert. van Ness, for y e 3d. Phill. Foreest was 
sworne high constable. 

This day being the 14th of Oct., 1689, Cap 1 Thomas, 
commander of there majjestys fort of Albany, took y e oath 
of fidelity to there majestys king W ra> and Q. Mary. 

104 The City Records. 

Albany, 29h of Oct., 1689. 

Zacharias Sickells, ratel man desyres he may have payment 
of 123 g 1 wampum, which is due to him for his service as 
ratel watch. Ordered y l y e sergents make ye division of y e 
inhabitants, and y e constables to collect s d money. 

Whereas wee are informed y l y e watch of this citty is 
so irregularly kept that few or none of y e inhabitants of 
this city doe appear upon y e guard when it is there turn, 
which of necessity must be occasioned by y e remisseness, con- 
nivance and neglience of y e commission" officers, whose duty 
it is to see y e orders concerning y e setleing of y e guarde 
of this city putt into execution, particularly y e order made 
by y e court martial y e 28th of November last, by which 
mean& the city is in eminent danger and many dissasters, 
calamities, mischeefs and confusion might ensue. 

And since it is a duty incumbent upon us to see y l good 
watch and orders be kept in this city, and to use all possible 
means y r y e same may be effected, we doe therefore in there 
majestys name, king W mt and queen Mary, require y 1 y e 
commission officers of this city doe take especial care that 
y e s d order of y e court marshall here unto annexed, be putt 
into execution, which is so easy for y e people y l none but 
enemies to y e peace, wellfare and tranquillity of this, jbhere 
majestys city, can refuse } and therefore you are hereby en- 
joyned to cause y e s d four men of each comp. to be warned 
to attend y e watch ; which if they shall refuse, neglect and 
not appear according to order, y l then you see they pay y e 
fine or be punished for y e said offence according to y e rules 
and methods usual in this city. And if we shall hereafter 
fynde y* y e guarde be not kept according to y e s d orders, we 
declare we shall be necessitate to take other measures y l so 
such a great neglect may not be imputed to us orlye at our 
door since the preservation and peace of there majestys city 
as it hath hitherto been, so it is still our principall aim and 

And whereas there hes been severall orders given from 
time to time, to Cap 1 Wendel and Capt Bleeker to compleat 
y e works about y e city which fell to there share, which 
still is left undone, and not knowing how soon wee may 
have occasion for y e same, we doe in an especiall manner 

The City Eecords. 105 

desyre and require that they may withall speed call there 
people together and perfect, and coinpleat said works accord- 
ing to there proportion, yt so we may be in a capacity to resist 
an enemy if they should make any attaque, which God forbid. 
Given under our hand and seal. Albany y e 28th day of 

Dec., 1689. -^ ,, 


In the year 1690 ye 14th of Oct., when Jacob Lysler had 
usurped y e gov 1 the following persons were chosen aldermen : 
John Becker, Evret Banker, John Bleeker, Claes Ripse, 
Ger 1 Eyerse, Eghbert Teunise. 

Assistants, Johannes de Wandelaer, Hend d van Dyck, 
Luykas Gerritse, P r Davidtse, Joh. Abeell, Ger* van Ness. 

Att a Common Councill &c. 7th Nov., 1689. 
The common council of this city being called by y e mayor 
to consult of business relating to y e welfare of this citty, 
Jan. Nack, trader and gunstokmaker, one of y e assistants of 
this citty, being sent for by y e mayor, y e s d Jan Nack ans- 
wers to y e marshall y l went for him as follows : " Neen wat 
meenje ick ben voor een gatt niet gevangen, sail ick gaan 
teykenen voor dat volk dat Leijslers volk te gemoet sail gaen." 
Waerop d marshall seyde, " Wilt gy d mayor nied ghehoor- 
saeme wanneer "hy u ontbiedt f " * Hy antw., " Wat pratje 
nu van de mayor ; isser eens na court well gehouden, weet 
gy weel wateer to doen is : myn heele wyck seggen al te mael 
behalve 4 dat zy cost genoegh hebben voor Leyslers volk dat 
boven comt." Waerop d marshall seyde vorders, " Ben gy 
geen common councill man?" " Jae" seyde hy, " als volk 
hier was" meenend sd JV. Yorkse comp e dan soude hy comen. 1 
Jan Nack* by y e perswasion of Joh. Cuyler and Reynier 
Barents, assistants, being came to y e common council who 

1 The English of this is as follows : No ! What do you mean ? I 
am not to be caught in a trap. Shall I go and sign for those peo- 
ple who are going out to meet Leysler's men? Whereupon the 
marshal said. Will you not obey the summons of the mayor ? 
He answered, what do you prate about the mayor! Has there 
been any court holden? Do you know what is going on? My 
whole ward except four insist that they have provisions enough 

106 The City Records. 

acknowledges to have give y e answer as y e marshall did 
relate, and moreover says y l he acknowledges one Capt. 
Jacob Leysler to be his head, who is chosen by N. York to 
be y e commander in cheefe. Jan Nack was forgiven this 
fault, promising to comporte himself better for y e future. 

[Information of the accession of William and Mary to the throne 
of England, reached Albany July 1, 1689, when they were imme- 
diately proclaimed by the magistrates and people, with the custom- 
ary ceremonies (see p. 101) Jacob Leisler, a New York merchant, 
had previously assumed the government of the colony ; but his 
authority was decidedly opposed by the magistrates of Albany, 
and his efforts to extend his rule over this city were so vigorously 
and judiciously resisted, that he only partially succeeded. During 
these distractions the French made their memorable descent upon 
Schenectady. There is a gap in the minutes of common council 
of nearly two years, the period of the troubles that grew out of 
this usurpation. The records are partially lost, no doubt, for 
besides the general confusion, Mr. Livingston, the clerk, was a 
fugitive. What remain of them are bound up in a book of mort-' 
gages in the county clerk's office, where they were found by Dr. 
O'Callaghan, and such as were written in Dutch translated, and the 
whole printed in the Documentary History, n, 80-178, from whence 
they are copied into this work.] 

At a Convention of y e May r Aldermen Commonalty Justices 
of y e Peace and Military officers of y e Citty and County 
of Albany on y e first day of August and y e first year of 
y 6 Reign of our Souveraign Lord & Lady William & 
Mary King & queen of Engl : France & Ireland &c 1689 : 
Present, P r Schuyler May r , Dirk Wessels Rec r , J. 
Wendel, Lievs Van Schaick, J. Bleeker, Jan Lansing, 
Albt Ryckman, David Schuyler, Reynier Barentse, Ev. 
Banker, J. Beekman, Jochim Staets, Jan Abel, Capt. 
Marte Gerritse, Kil : v : Renselaer. 
Resolved that all public affares for the Preservation of 

there Majesties Intrest in this Citty be managed by y e 

for Leisler's party that are coming up. The marshal demanded 
again, Are you not a common councilman ? Yes, said he, when 
the people (meaning the New York Company) are here, then he 
would come. 

At this time fifty soldiers under Milborne were on the way from 
New York to take possession in Leisler's name, and Jan Nack seems 
to have been the only member of the council in Leisler's interest. 

The City Records. 107 

Mayor aldermen Justices of y e Peace Commission officers 
and assistants of this Citty and County, untill such time as 
orders shall come from there most Sacred Majesties William 
& Mary king & queen of England fr : & Irland & Defenders 
of y e faith 

Resolved since there is news of warr between England & 
France y l y e gentlemen now mett at this Convention doe 
each bring a gunn with J Ib of Pouder and Bale equivalent 
to be hung up in y e church in y e space of three days & y* 
y e Traders and oy r Inhabitants be Perswaded to doe y e same 
to make up y e number of 50 to be made use off upon occasion 

That ye Troopers bring 200 Slabbs from y 6 mill of Wynant 
Grerritse to make a Point behinde David Schuylers 

.Warrant to fetch Lafleur &c from Sarachtoge. Present: 
P' Schuyler, J. Wendel, D. Schuyler, Alb' Ryckman, 
J. Abeel, D. Wessells, Lev. V Schaick, J. Bleeker, Evert 
Banker, Capt Sharpe. 

Whereas itt is thought Convenient y l at this Juncture of 
time the french y l live towards Sarachtoge shall be Removed . 
from thence to Remoove all suspicion which People now 
have, It is therefore y e opinion of y e Justices of y e Peace of 
this County y l Lafleur and Villeroy & De la Fortune three 
frenchmen that live to y e northward of this Citty towards y e 
Stilwater & Sarachtoge be forthwith brought hither and 
Examined, anent such Transactions of Keeping Correspond- 
ence and Conveying letters to y e french at Canida. Yow 
are therefore hereby Required in his Majisties Name forth- 
with to Repare to Sarachtoge and bring y e said Lafleur, 
Villeroy and Delafortune here to Albany before his Majisties 
Justices of y e Peace to be Examined & treated as y e Exigency 
of y e Case Shall Require in doeing whereof this shall be y e 
Sufficient Warrant and all persons are hereby Required to 
be aiding and assisting to yow, Actum in Albany the first 
day of August 1689. 

10 Aug. 1689. Lafleur, Villeroy, & Francois three french 
men from Sarachtoge being sent for to be examined concern- 
ing keeping a Correspondence with them of Canida upon 
which was Resolved To Confine La Fleur to y e Chamber of 

108 The City Records. 

Arnout Cornelise till ye witnesses come from Sarachtoge to be 
further examind 

And y 1 Villeroy stay in Toune till further order 
At a convention &c., Albany 5th day of August 1689, 
Present as before. 

Upon a Rumor brougt to day by four Skachkook Indians 
that an army of French & Indians were Seen on this Side 
of y e Lake, Lief 1 Rob 1 Sanders was sent thither with 17 men 
to make Discovery, which was found to be false 

Whereas we are Informed upon oath thatt Anthony Les- 
pinard, Jdhn Van Loon, Renne Poupor, alias Lafleur, and 
Villeroy, foure frenchmen have last winter endevored to 
entice some souldiers of his Majesties garrison of Albany to 
Runn away to Canida & Desert his Majesties service by 
Professing to furnish them with Provisions Ammunition, 
make them sleds shoos, & all oy r necessaries for their journey, 
by all which means they wholly Designed to weaken y e force 
of this Place, & undoubtedly by y l means of such souldiers 
goeing to Canida Convey letters & keep some private Cor- 
respondence with the french there which hath long been 
.suspected It is therefore thought fitt by y e magistrates of 
y e Citty of Albany Justices of y e Peace & militia officers of 
y e s d County who considering how dangerous such suspected 
persohes are in this juncture of time y 1 y e s d Anthony Les- 
pinard John Van Loon Renne Poupard and Villeroy be 
secured in his Majesties fort at albany till further order 
and till such time the Bussinesse can be further Inspected 
and Examined, actum in albany y e 5th of aug. 1689 

By ord of y e Magest r : of albany Justices 
of y e Peace & Military officers &c 

Anth Lespinard haveing heard y e Depositions read in 
open court Confesses y l y e s d John Sage & William Boyen 
came to him for bread and for french money to goe to Canida 
advised them to y e Contrary y l they should not goe to Canida 
but for it was a very Poor Place & shortly after he went to 

John Van Loon Confesses y 1 he knew somewhat of there 
Design but advised them not to goe, for when he made an 

The City Records. 109 

ax for John Sage and when he saw Wm Boyen come back 
again from Sarachtoge & asked for John Sage at his house , 
then he see some Rogguerey in there mind and yt they had 
concluded to Runn away & further y l he told Maj. Baxter 
y l John Sage designed to run away 

Villeroy haveing heard y e Depositions of Wm Boyen and 
and Cornelia Vroman read in open Court said y l John Sage 
desired him to make a paire of snow shoes last winter but 
he Replyed had no leather, who told him to take barke 
of Trees yet he Promised to make y e s cl John Sage a pare 
but knew not of any design he had of running away. Item 
yt Will : Boyen asked him at Sarachtoge for y e snow shoos 
who replyed he had no time to make them, but when he 
was removed to his little house he would may be make them. 
Whereupon Mathys said doe not make them, who knows 
what ill Design they may have may be they will Run away 
& then y e will come into a Prirnmenary 

Lafleur haveing heard y e s d Depositions Read in open Court 
s d y l a Souldier called John Sage spoke to him for a canoe to 
goe to Canida withall last fall, and whether he could procure 
such a one upon which-Lafleur replyed upon what Condition 
he went and whether he would get a passe y e s d Sage an- 
swered he would get a Passe of Maj. Baxter then Lafleur 
replyed there may be probably a Canoe to be had, and fur- 
ther y e s d Sage met y e s cl Lafleur a Pretty while after here 
in y e street in Albany who asked Lafleur if he had been 
mindefull of what he had spoke to him, & whether he could 
not procure or make him a slee since it was to late for a Canoe, 
& also whether he had Bread for him, whereupon Lafleur 
said no, and whether La Sage had gott a Passe he spoke of, 
for without y l he would neither help him to slee Bread nor 
nothing else nor not see him Passe by his house. 

Item yt ye s cl Wm Boyen had discourse with De Chene 
at his house att y e Stillwater & y l La Sage had sent a kitte 
to Dechene. 

By the Justices ofy* Peace of y e Citty & County of Albany 


Whereas we are credibly informed y l diverse persones upon 
y e late news of y e approach of y e french and there Indians 
Annals ii. 10 

110 The City Eecords. 

are makeing Preparation to Transport themselfs out of this 
County by which means and bad Example of such Timerous 
and Cowardly People others will be Discouraged to stay and 
Defend there Majesties Intrest in this Frontier part of y e 
Province, and Forasmuch there is no setled government for 
y e p'sent in this Province, and that thereby it is a duty 
Incumbent upon us to Prevent any Danger and Inconven- 
ience yt might happen y e Inhabitants of our County which 
may arise by suffering men to Depart y 1 are able to do there 
Majesties service if any attempt should be made wee There- 
fore doe hereby Declare That no Person or Persones (except 
masters of sloops & Boats) being fit & able to bear arms who 
have been setled or liveing in this County for these six 
monthes last past shall in ye space of three monthes Presume 
to Depart or absent themsels out of this County of albany 
whither they are under y e Roll or List of y e Respective 
Capt 113 or not without a Passe from one Justice of ye Peace 
of this County upon ye Penalty to be Esteemed Pursued & 
followed after as fugitives Cowards Runnaways & Vagabonds, 
& as such to be Prosecuted by y e utmost Severity of y e Law, 
& y l all People take notice thereof accordingly. Given at y e 
Citty hall of Albany ye 7th day of august 1689 in ye first 
year of there Majesties Reign 

10th August, 1689. A Peticon of ye wife of Villeray De- 
livered to y e Court whereby she Prays y l her husband may 
be released from his Confinem 1 or at least to be sett free upon 
security to answer when he shall be called for who 

being brougt before ye Court Insists much for his Release- 
ment & Tenders P. Van Wriaglum & Dirk Vanderheyden 
for his security 

The Court doe acccept of y e s d Securities and that they 
give Bonde of one hundred Pounds y l Villeray shall be 
forthcomeing when Demanded 

13 th August, 1689. A Peticon of Anth Lespinard Jan 
Van Loon and Lafleur being read whereby they request that 
there Bussiness may be inspected into & examind that they 
may make there Defence & so be cleared if Innocent else Pun- 
ished if guilty. 

The City Records. Ill 

Upon which it was considered by y e Magistrates Justices 
of the Peace Commission officers & Common Council y l y e s d 
three Prisoners be bayled out of y e fort giving security each 
one hundred Pounds to answer when they shall be called. 
Provided they doe not goe above y e Citty of Albany til such 
time y e Case be Decided 

At a Convention &c albany y e 21 of august 1689. Present : 
P. Schuyler May r , D. Wessells Record 1 ", J Wendel, J 
Bleeker, J Lansing, Dav. Schuyler, Albt Ryckman, 
Reynier Barentse, Ev. Banker, Is : Verplank, Joh. Beek- 
man, J Mingael, Capt. Jochim Staets, Robt. Sanders. 
Resolved to acquaint y e Inhabitants of y e County ye news 
yt we received of Col. Pynchen. 

That Pemmaquid was taken by y e Indians and french 45 
People kild & taken also that there should be a ship be 
come to Quebek of y e french with news of wars Between 
Engl d & france & therefore nothing can be Expected but y* 
y e french will doe all y e mischieffe they can to this governm* 
& therefore every one to be upon there guarde & take care 
they be not surprized. 

Mr. Wessells and Reynier Barentse were Desyned to 
Communicate this to the farmers of Kinderhook & Clave- 
rack Capt Wendel & John Lansing the People above 
Rich' 3 Pretty & Evert Banker at Skenechtady & Canastagione. 

24 August, 1689. Resolved that ye Inhabitants of ye 
County be Informed of y e alarm which was last night at y e 
Green Bush occasioned by some Malitious Persones fyreing 
of severall gunns w th Baale throw y e Door and house of 
John Witment which was done by letters accordingly 

28 August, 1689. Resolved yt Barent Geritse of Beth- 
lehem who is suspected to have a hand in y e late disturbance 
y l was at Green Bush, or least Privy to it y 1 he give 50 
security to answer when he shall be called for to be Ex- 
amined about yt Bussinesse 

112 The City Records. 

[Translation.] ' 

Answer of the Magistrates and Justices of the Peace to the 
Onnondage ambassador who is sent from the Onnondages 
with the news from Canada. Albany, ye 28 Augusti 

1. We heartily thank the Brethren for the news they 
send us from Canada, though we have received the news by 
the Islands of the great victory the English obtained over 
the French in burning and sinking sixteen big ships and cap- 
turing 12 others, each ship being of 60 guns and 400 men ; 
which captured ships the English convey home as you do your 
prisoners; and therefore our vessels are so long delayed 
coming because they meet french men of war and fight with 

2. We lament the death of the brave warriors who were 
slain in the last battle with the french above mont Royall 
but rejoice at the great victory gained by you over them, 
which we recommend you to follow up and not be imposed 
on by the idle and nonsensical speeches of the Governor of 
Canada and not to trust any of his ambassadors, for you 
have experienced his falsehood when he kidnapped so many 
of your warriors, and promised last harvest to Canadgegai 
that they should return in summer ; but we hear that 5 ships 
have come but do not hear of one Indian in them. 

3. We hope the Brothers will follow up their victory 
without delay as we perceive the Governor of Canada is now 
in distress, and would be very glad that you should now 
make some delay, that he may ship his bait again to cheat 
the Brothers. Have therefore a keen open eye on the 
motions of the French and warn us, as we shall warn you ; 
and we hope to see within 30 or 40 days some of the Sa- 
chems and Chief Warriors here whose feet shall be well 

g reased ' Pr order 


1st September, 1689. Harme Janse Van Bommel brings 
news y l our Indians have taken 5 Praying Canida Indians 
upon y e Lake who were bound hither to doe mischeeffe, & 
y 1 severall french were seen upon y e Lake 

The City Records. 113 

Upon which Capt Wendel & 6 men were ordered to goe 
to Sarachtoge to examine s d 5 Indians & to make enquiry of 
affares there 

Att a Meeting of the May Aldermen and Justices of y e 
Peace of y e Citty and County of Albany ye 2 d Day of 
Sept A 1689. Present : P. Schuyler May, Dirk. Wessels 
Recd r , John Wendel, Jan Janse Bleeker, AlbtRyckman, 
David Schuyler, Kilian Van Rensselaer, Capt. Marte 

The Maquase Desyre by Arnouts Letter that the Magis- 
trates of Albany and Shinnechtady would be pleased to assist 
them with two or three pare of horses & 5 or 6 men to Ride 
the heaviest Stockadoes for there new Castle of Tionondage 
which they remove an English mile higher up & they will 
pay for it in due time 

Which Request y e Court are willing to Comply withall to 
shew there good Inclination and true friendship they bear to 
ye s d nation have Consented that three pare of horses & six 
men goe thither 

Vizt of y e Troopers Jacob Lockermans of Capt Bleekers 
Company Dirk Albertse Bradt & W u Hendricks 6 who did 
voluntarily p'sent there service. The Patroon a horse. 
Cap 1 Gerritse a horse. Off Capt Wendells Company Hen- 
drick Gerritse & Cornelis Slingerlant; & Hans Cross w th 2 

3d Sept. 1689. Resolved by ye Civill & Military officers of 
y e Citty & County y l y e Bastions & Curtain es about the 
Citty be made & Repaired with al speed by y e Several Di- 
visions of y e Companies & y l y e gates be Repaired; And y l 
To morrow there be a full Convention 

Att a Convention &c at y e Citty Hall y e 4 th day of Septemb r 
in y e First year of y e Reign of our souveraign Lord and 
Lady King William and Queen Mary of Eng 1 France & 
Ireland &a Defenders of y e Faith A 1689. Present : P. 
Schuyler May, Dirk Wessels Rec dr , Capt John Wendel, 
Capt Jan Janse Bleeker, Jan Lansing, David Schuyler, 
Albt Ryckman, [aldermen ; ] Joh. Abeel, Evert Banker, 
Isak Verplank, Joh : Beekman, Assistents : Dirk Teu- 

114 The City Records. 

nise, Capt Mar. Gerritse, Capt Sander glen, Justices; 
Capt Gerrit Teunise, Lieut Evert d Bidder, Lieu 1 Jan 
van Eps, Ens. Job : Sanders. 

Eesolved Since there is such Eminent Danger threatened 
by y e French of Canida and there Praying Indians to come 
into this County to kill and Destroy there Majesties Subjects 
that there be immediately an Express sent doune to Capt. 
Leysler and y e Rest of y e Militia officers of y e Citty and 
County of New Yorke for assistance of one hundred men or 
more for y e secureing of there Majesties Fort and y e out 
Plantations of this County as also a Recruite of six hundred 
weight of Pouder and foure hundred Bale Viz : 200 Two 
Pounders and 200 four Pounders with some match & one 
hundred hand granadoes out of there Majesties Stores and 
Two hundred Pounds out of there Majesties Revenue which 
we understand is dayly collected by them for to employ y e 
Maquase and other Indians in there Majesties service for y e 
Securing ye frontier Parts of this County from any Incur- 
sions of s d Indians or French. 

Resolved y l y e floor of y e Stone Point in ye fort be Raised 
with new Planks and Timber and y e Portholes altered & 
made fitt for Defence. 

Upon y e news y* three people should be kild at Bartel 
Vromans at Sarachtoge by y e Indians. 

Resolved by ye Convention y l Leift Jochim Staets forwith 
goe with ten men to Sarachtoge to see how y e matter is, & 
bring us an accompt with y e first, & y l he send a post hither 
with y e tideings. 

Resolved by y e Convention y l Rob 1 Sanders & Eghbert 
Teunise forthwith goe to Sarachtoge to lye there till further 
order, whither any mischeefe be done there or nott, & y* 
they goe themselfs with s d Indians to Sarachtoge where 
Lieft Jochim Staets will stay there Comeing & if Eghbert 
be not at y e farm y l he take anoy r whom he shall think Con- 

Resolved that there be 400 Stockadoes Rid for the Citty, 
to be set up in y e Room of y e old Stockadoes & y l y e Troopers 
bring 100, Capt Blekers Come 160, Capt Wendels 160, and 
sett them up according to y e Division. 

Major Savage Capt Belsher & Capt Jonathan Bull agents 
for y e 3 Collonies of n : England Desyre y l this Convention 

The City Eecords. 115 

would Depute three or foure Gent n to have a Conference 
with them what will be Requisite to Propose to y e Indians 

Resolved y* y e Mayor Recorder Capt Wen del Capt Bleeker 
Capt Gerritse & Mr. Livingston doe meet y e gentlemen this 
afternoon & advise them in y* matter 

Resolved that there be a fort made about y e house of 
Bartel Vroman at Sarachtoge & Twelve men Raised out of 
y e Two Companies of y e Citty & 2 Companies of y e County 
to Lye there upon pay who are to have 12 d a day besides 
Provisions and some Indians of Skachkook to be there with 
them to goe out as skouts in y l Part of y e County. 

Resolved that y e fort at y e Halfmoon about y e house & 
barne of harme Lievese be Removed to a more Convenient 
Place & y e Mayor & M r Evert Banker to goe thither & see 
it effected. 

Resolved that there be a fort made at Paepsknee in y e 
most Convenient Place, & y l Melgert abrah : Claes van 
Patten, Marte Cornells, Gerrit Gysbertsen & y- 6 Inhabitants 
of Paepsknee make y e same for there security to retreat 
into upon occasion & that Albt Ryckman and John Beekman 
see it effected. 

Resolved that there be a fort made at Betlehem in the 
most Convenient Place, and y* the inhabitans of Betlehem 
make y e same for there oune security to Retreat unto upon 
occasion, & Albert Ryckman Justice of y e Peace & Johannes 
Beekman to see it done. 

Resolved that Capt. Gerrit Teunise and y e Commission 
officers of his Company doe order a fort to be made att y e 
Groot Stuk and one at Pompoenik where it shall be thought 
most convenient since y e fort about y e Barn of Lawrence 
Van Ale is judged Dangerous except y e Bergh with Corn 
be removed all which is for y e Peoples most security, & that 
y e People of Patcook doe make there Retreat to Johannes 
Bensings upon occasion & what y e s d Capt and officers shall 
doe herein ye Inhabitants there are to submitt too upon there 

Understanding by y e Commission officers of Schennectady 
that there is no settlement there how or what way they are 
to Behave themselfs if y e enemy should come, since they 
cannot agree amongst themselves in y l particular. 

Resolved that M r Dirk Wessells and Cap 1 Johannes 
Wetidel Justices of y e Peace goe thither & Conveen y e Com- 

lib The City Records. 

pany togeather & consult what measures they are to take 
upon occasion if an enemy should come, to y e end there may 
be unity in such extremityes, & y e Inhabitants there are 
ordered to submitt to what y e s d gentlemen & y e head officers 
of there Toune shall Conclude upon, upon there oun Perrill 
Resolved since we have Received Certain Information of 
some Praying Canida Indians lately taken by our Maquase 
that y e french Design to send out there Indians and french 
to kill and Destroy there Maj ts Subjects of this County that 
Dirk Teunise Esq r one of there Maj ts Justices of the Peace 
goe to ye County of Ulster for y e assistance of 25 or 30 men 
to be Ready upon occasion if any attaque or Incursion should 
be made on y e frontiers of this County for to secure & de- 
fend there Maj ts Interest here who is Impowered to dis- 
course with ye Civill and Military officers of y* County about 
y e p'mises. _ 

Att a Convention &c., llth g ept . 1689 ; Present, P. Schuyler 
May', D. Wessells RecoV, Capt Wendel, Capt Bleeker, 
Levinus Van Shaik, Killian van Renselaer, Leift Jochem 
Staets, Leift Robt Sanders, Capt gerrit Teunise. 
List of men who have taken service to serve there Maj te 
& y e Countrey upon the frontiers of there maj ts County of 
Albany who are to have 12 d p r diem and Provisions except 
Claes Rust who is to have y e Command & is to have 18 d pr 
diem who had Instructions given him accordingly. 

of Capt Wendels Compe Claes Rust 

gerrit Luy kasse 
Jellis funda 

of Capt Bleekers Comp e Johannes Rutjers 
Rutjer Teunise 

of y e Troop Frank Salisbury 

of Capt g: Teunise Comp e Joh: gerritse Yan Yechten 
Teunise dirkse Yan Yechten 
Lamb 1 Jochimes 
Manuel .Cansalis 

off Capt gerritse Comp e Johannes Janse ouderkirk 

Joseph Janse 

By y e Mayor aldermen and Commonality of 
y e Citty of Albany and y e Justices of y e 
Peace of y e County aforesaid 

The City Records. 117 

Whereas the selling and giving of strong Drink toy 6 Indians 
at this present juncture is founde by experience Extream 
Dangerous insomuch y l diverse Inhbitaants at Shennectady 
and Elsewhere have made there Complaint that there is 
no living if y e Indians be not kept from Drinke. Wee 
doe therefore hereby strikly Prohibite & forbid in the 
name of King William & queen Mary y l no Inhabitants 
of the Citty and county of Albany doe sell or give any 
Rom Brandy Strong Liquor or Beer to any Indian or 
Indians upon any pretence whatsoever upon y e Penalty of 
Two monthes Imprisonement without Baile or main prise & 
moreover a fine of five Pound toties quoties, y e Prooffe hereof 
to be made as is Incerted in y e Proclamation Prohibiting y e 
Selling of Strong Drink dated ye 21<h day of May 1689 
which is by Proof or Purgation by oath, always Provided y l 
it shall and may be in y e power of y e Mayor aldermen & 
Commonality of y e s d Citty if they see cause to give any srnal 
quality of Rom to any Sachims who come here about Publick 
Bussinesse any Prohibiton above sd in any manner notwith- 
standing, given att y e Citty hall of Albany y e 12 day of 
Septernb-- 1689 


Att a Convention &c. Sept 17 lh 1689 
Present, all the members heretofore mentioned. 
The Messenger Johannes Becker who was sent Expresse to 
N. Yorke with a letter to Capt Leysler and y e Rest of y e 
Military officers of y e Citty & County of N : York according 
to y e Resolution of this Convention y e 4 th of this Instant 
being Returned was sent for and asked whither he had De- 
livered ye Letter as it was Directed and if he had Received 
any answer from s d Leysler to y e gent'- 1 that had sent him 
who answered that he had delivered y e Letter to Capt. 
Leysler but had no letter in answer but thatt Directed to 
Capt Wendel and Capt Bleeker and y* he further heard 
Capt. Leysler say, yt he had nothing to doe w th y e Civill 
Power he was a Souldier and would write to a Souldier. 

Resolved since Capt Leysler and y e Military officers of y e 
Citty and county of N : Yorke have not been Pleased to 
Return y e Least answer to y e Convention upon there Letter 

118 The City Records. 

and Resolve of y e 4 th Instant but sent a Letter to Cap 1 
wendel & Capt Bleeker signed by Leysler alone which is 
openly Read, ye Purport of which Cheeffly tends to Desyre 
them to Induce the Common People to send Two men to assist 
them in there Conimite, and advise them further y l he 
sends them 40 Ib match out of there Maj ts Stores and Two 
hundred Ib of Pouder belonging to y e merchants of albany 
Item 4 small Gunns, but as for money they Receive none, 
neither is itt in there Power to Command any of there Militia 
for our assistance alledgeing y l y e great slight there People 
Rec'd when here Deprives them to oblige Volunteers In- 
sisting again for y e Sending doune of Committes to consult 
w th them and shall then according to there Capacities Re- 
solve for ye Publick good. 

That some oy r methods may be used for y e Procureing of 
men if possible from N : England or Elsewhere for y e De- 
fence of there Maj ts Intrest in this County, and if Christians 
cannot be procured yt some Indians may be gott w th al speed 

Ordered yt Rob 1 Sanders use his Endeavor to procure the 
Indians of y e Long Reach Wawyaehtenok and Sopus to come 
here to lye out as skouts upon y e borders of this County & 
yt he have Letters of Recommendation to y e Justices of ye 
Peace of ye County of Ulster to assist him in Perswading 
of s d Indians 

Ordered yt ye assistants of y e Respective wardes & y e Mili- 
tary officers of y e County goe about & see what y e Inhabitants 
will be willing to advance for y e Raiseing of some men for 
y e Defence of this County against y e french, and are sent 
with this following Proposall, 

PROPOSALL TO Y E COMMONALITY for y e maintaining and 
paying of men in this juncture of time for our Defence 
against y e french, since by the Present Revolutions we can 
expect no releef for or assistance from our neighbours accord- 
ing to there letters sent hither, which Charge will be Re- 
presented by this Convention to y e gov r 'whom there Majes- 
ties will i>e Pleased to send that s d men may be p d out of 
y e Public Revenues of y e Countrey being for y e Preservation 
of there Majesties Intrest in these parts, otherwise that it 
will be paid by a generall Tax out of y e whole County To y e 
maintaining which men these following persons subcribe viz 1 

The City Eecords. 


P. Schuyler Mayr .... 15 

Kil : van Renselaer ... 15 

gabriel Thompson .... 10 

Marte gerritse .. 10 

Dirk wesseUs '. 6 

Jan Lansing 12 

Job : wendel 12 

L. v Schaick 10 

Albt.Ryckman 6 

Robt Sanders 6 

Robt Livingston 50 

Johannes abeel 6 

Gert Teunise 5 

David Schuyler 6 

Jochim Staets 5 

Evert Banker 5 

Isak Verplank 3 

Johannes Beekman ... 4 

Johannes Thomase ... 2 


Reynier Barents . ... 


Jan Jaifse Bleeker . . . 
abraham Cuyler ..... 

. 6 


antho Bratt 

. 15 

Margt Schuyler . . 


Catharina Glen 


Myndt harmense 
Elisabeth Van Tricht 
Jannetje Gerritse 
Jan Rosie ...... 

. 6 
. 3 
. 10 


Jan Becker 



Gerrit Banker 

. 18 




Johannes Cuyler 3 : 12 

Johannes appel 3 : 

Jeronimus wendel .... 4 : 

P. Davidtse 2 : 

Hend : Bries 3 : 

Jacob abrahamse 2 : 

Evert wendel 3 : 

Phil: wendel 1: 

arent Schuyler 6 : 

Jacobus Turk , . 1 : 10 

Johannes Rooseboom . . 2:6 

31: 8 

Dirk Sensing 1:10 

Bennony van Corlaer 
Jacob Meese 
Jacob Voss . 


Myndt Frederickse . 
Johannes van Sante 


The farmers belonging to 

Melgert abrahamse . . . 

Claes van Petten 

gerrit gysbertse 1 

Dorite Janse 

geertruy Janse 1 

Cornelis Teunise 

Cobus Janse 

Catharina van d r Poel 

antho van Shaik . . 

Hend : van Ness ..... 

P. Lockermans 

Teunise d metselaer . . 

Capt Marting Grerritse Comp e 


And. hanse 
Jan Ouderkerk 


Hanne Lieverse 

1 : 


Jan van ness . ... 

1 : 


Barent Bratt 



Geurt hendrickse 
Roeloff gerritse 

: 6 


William Ketelhevn . . . 
gert Lansing as^vell . 
as his brothers 

2 : 
26 : 18 

120 The City Records. 

The farmers belonging to Capt ger Teunisens Comp e 

Lievo winne 




Jacob van hoesen 


Volkert van hoesen . . . 

Luykas Janse 


1st ward & Convention 292 


C : gerritsens Comp e . . 

2dward .. 

Att a Convention &c., 23 d day September 1689. Present, 
P. Schuyler May, Dirk Wessels Rec^, J. Wendel, J. 
Bleeker, Jan Lansing, Liv : van Schaik, albt Ryckman, 
Job: Abeel, Ev. Banker, Capt Marten gerritsen, C. gert 
Teunise, Leift Job : Benseni, Leift Rob : Sanders, Leift. 
Ev.d Ridder, V : gabr : Thomson. 

The Schedule or List of y e Burgers & farmers names who 
subscribed for y e Contribution of money for ye Raiseing of 
men for our assistance being summd up amounts to y e 
somme of 367 : 6 and therefore not half Enough for y e Pro- 
cureing of one hundred men which is judged Requisite to 
acquaint y e Commonality withall : So y l other means must 
be used to procure men, doe therefore Mortify e & make null 
& void y e aforesaid subscriptions thanking y e People who 
had signed for there good Inclination. It is therefore 

Resolved since no assistance can be expected from N: 
Yorke nor money raised here to Procure men to write to y e 
governor and Convention of Boston for y e assistance of one 
hundred men and also to governor and generall assembly off 
Connetticut for y e assistance of y e like number of men to 
lye in garrison here this winter to secure there Majesties Fort 
and y e frontiers of this county against y e french or there 
Praying Indians which Letters are written accordingly 

Whereas it is thougt Convenient by y e Convention of 
Civill and Military officers of y e Citty and County of Albany 
y* all Possible endeavors be used to Procure y e Indians of 
y e Long Reaqji Wawijachtenock & Sopus to come here & 
Lye out as skouts upon y e borders of this County to prevent 
any Incursions y l might be made by y e Indians of Canida 
and Robert Sanders Lieftennant of one of y e Train bande 

The City Records. 121 

Companies of this Citty being thought a fitt p'son to Procure 
y e same, he is therefore hereby Impowered & authorized to 
use his Endevors in effecting y e same, & y e gentlemen of our 
neighbouring County of Ulster are earnestly desyred & In- 
treated to be aideing & assisting to him in s d bussinesse itt 
being for y e Preservation of there Majesties king William 
& queen Maryes Interest in these parts Actum in albany 
ye 27 th of September 1689 

Att a Convention &o. Albany Oct. 24th 1689 Present, P. 
Schuyler Mayor, Joh : Wendel, albert Ryckman, David 
Schuyler, Eghbert Teunise, Claes Ripse, Ev. Banker, 
Captain Marten gerritsen, C : Sanders glenn, L : Jan van 
Eps, En : Joh : Sanders, Lieft Jochim Staets, Capt 
Sharpe, gert Ryerse. 

The Convention being mett to consider y e Contents of a 
Letter sent by y e governor of Boston in y e name and by 
Consent of y e Councill and Representatives wherein they 
signify there sence of y e feares and Dangers we Lye in of 
Incursions by y e french and French Indians & y e need we 
stand in of some forces to be sent for y e enforcing of our 
garrison which they would be willing to afford from thence, 
but there p'sent Circumstances of things haveing so many 
men out against y e Common Enemy to y e Eastward, besides 
y e great Distance from hence, y l they cannot doe what they 
would in that Regard, but have written to y e governor and 
Councill of Connetticutt Earnestly Pressing them to Provide 
one hundred men (if they can so many) or what they can 
for our present Relieffe, & y 1 Capt Bull be desyred to take 
the Command of them ; and that they had writt to y e Go- 
vernor and Councill of Plymouth that they would enforce the 
same motion by there Letter to Connetticut, y 1 it may be 
sent by y e joynt Concurrence of all y e Collonies. 

Robert Treat Esquire Governor of Conetticut doth ans- 
wer our Letter sent him by Captain Bull which he had 
Communicated to y e general assembly that there Court had 
taken our condition into there serious Consideration, and 
have Resolved to send us about eighty souldiers with there 
officers as soon as they can effect it, and are endeavoring to 
Annals, ii. 11 

122 The City Records. 

Procure Captain Bull to be there Captain but hope and 
Expect y l we will pay y e Commission officers there wages, 
They being at so great a charge about y e warrs with y e 
Eastern Indians and otherwise by Losses throug great sick- 
nesse and mortality in there harvest season yet they think 
strange thatt none of our oun neighbouring Counties should 
Releave us which lye so farr before them with lesse charge 
& difficulty then they can Reach, & therefore think it so 
Reasonable a Request on there Parts unto us to take off 
some Part of there wages, there expenses being so great 
among themselfs, & Cannot raise men for such service at 
p'sent with great Difficulty & waite our Complyance herewith, 
Vpon which this following was resolved Captain Sander 
Grlenn Lieft Jan van Eps Ens : Johannes Sanders glen, and 
Sweer Teunise doe vote in ye behalfe of y e Toune of Shin- 
nechtady y l y e men may be sent for from Canetticut and 
that they will bear there Proportiones of y e Cherge of y e 
officers there wages and maintain them accordingly, Provided 
they be under Command and obey such orders and Instruc- 
tions as they shall Receive from time to time from y e Con- 
vention of this Citty and County and in y e time of there not 
sitting to y e Mayor & aldermen of this citty. It is y e opin- 
ion of y e Convention y l y e 8 men still at Sarachtoge doe 
Remain ther til further order. 

At a Convention &c. Oct. 25. 1689. Present as before. 

It is Thougt Convenient that all there Majesties Justices 
of y e Peace & Commission officers doe take y e oath of alle- 
giance to there Majesties William & Mary king and Queen 
of England France & Ireland & a Defenders of y e faith and 

Peter Schuyler mayor & Justice of y e Peace did take y e 
oath of fidelity before Dirk wessells Recorder & Justice of 
the Peace 

And these following Persons took y e oath of fidelity to 
there Majesties before Peter Schuyler mayor viz 1 

Dirk wessells Recorder Capt Gerrit Teunise Capt : Marte 
G-erritse Lieft : Robt : Sanders Ens : Gabriel Thompson kilian 
van Renselaer Claes Ripse Van Dam David Schuyler Robt : 

The City Records. 123 

Livingston Lieft : Jochim Staets : Johannes appel Constable 
& Peter Boss Constable 

Dirk Wessells Jan Janse Bleeker and Dirk Teunise 
Justices of the Peace haveing been at Sopus for y e behalfe 
of this County to Desyre assistance, and accordingly made 
there application to Major Chambers y e third time, who gave 
his warrant to y e Commission officers to collect the votes of 
y e Inhabitants concerning y- sending up of men upon acca- 
sioo for y e assistance of y e People of alb. upon which y e 
return was by Capt Beekman of y c horse, That all his men 
were willing but Two Capt Matthys that all his Company 
was willing, Capt Garten that he himself and all his Comp : 
were Ready but Capt Paling had not brought in his return 

The s d Justices did Insist with y e Major of y l County 
that y e men might be Prikt yet were to come upon occasion 
of allarm, that they might y e more Depend thereupon, who 
ordered yet y e Court marshall should meet y e 25 of October 
to effect that Bussinesse 

Resolved that the men that are at Sarachtoge be sent for 
doune and that seven souldiers out of there majesties fort 
with Claes Rust and Dick albertse Bradt be sent thither to 
lye there as skouts on y l part of y e County. 

Resolved y l Capt killian van Ranselaer & Capt gert Teunise 
be deputed to goe to y e Governor and Council of Connetticut 
and to Return our hearty Thanks for there kinde Letter of 
ye 15th Instant wherein they signify y* they will send about 
80 men besides officers for our Releefe Expecting y* we will 
pay y e Commission officers there wages who are to be com- 
missionated to treat w th y e s d governor and Council about 
y e officers wages since this county hath had such excessive 
Charges without y e least assistance & to accept of y e men 
by them Proferd & to Dispatch them hither with all speed 
who are to lye in garrison here this winter. 

Whereas we are informed that diverse persons envying y e 
Peace wellfare and tranquility of y e Inabitants of this City 
& County have Endeavored to Raise diverse false aspersions 
and jealousies as if some Inhabitants here should have 
greater affection to y e late Popish king James Stuart then 
to our endeared Souvraign Lord & Lady king William & 
Queen Mary whom God almighty through his great mercy 
hath been pleased to call to y e Throne & to rule over us j 

124 The City Eecords. 

but to avoid all such Jealousies thogh we are very well as- 
sured that few or none in our Posts but doe abhor and De- 
test all Popery and what tends thereunto but on y e Contrarie 
will with all Cheerfullnesse & readinesse abide y e oath of 
allegiance to there s d Majesties as -all y e members of y e s d 
Convention have already done 

It is therefore thought Convenient by y e s d Convention 
thogh for y e present there be no Commission from there 
Majesties to administer y e s d oath that y e Inhabitants of y e 
Citty & County of Albany & souldiers of there Majesties 
fort doe all take y e oath of Allegiance to there Majesties 
king William & queen Mary on or before the last day of 
October next ensuing, and y e Aldermen in there wards are 
ordered to administer s d oath who will be founde at there 
respective houses on y e forenoon & y e justices in y e out 
plantations to administer the same to them that live there, 
all who are to make Return thereof to y e office of y e Citty 
& County who names are to be recorded accordingly. 
By order of y e Convention 


The 26^ of October 168ft Resolved yt Dirk Wessells John 
Wendell Jan Janse Bleeker David Shuyler & albert Ryck- 
man, Justices of y e Peace doe repare to there Majestys fort 
and administer to y e Souldiers the oath of fidelity to there 
Majesties William & Mary king & queen of England &c. who 
accordingly with all Cherfulnesso & Readinesse took y e same 
(as they were drawn up in y e fort in arms by Lev 1 Sharpe 
who took his oath ye 19 th of October last in y e full Conven- 
tion) a list whereof follows 

Charles Rogers ) H t Wm Ellis 

Christoph: Barnsford f >erg Robt Farrington 

John holman "1 Ralph Graunt 

John gilbert V Corprs Wm Haaton 

John Thompson J Wm hather 

Wm Shaw meatros [gunner] Stephen hooper 

Tho. Rodgers Drummer Wm Rogers 

gert arentse John Radecliffe 

Robt Barnet Richd Tunnell 

John Carter Elias Van Ravesteyn 

John Douglas Ricd white 

John Denny Ricd wilson 

The City Eecords. 125 

Jos Tetts James willet 
Tho : wakefield 

Tho. Shaver Refuses [to] 

These were not present take ye oath 
being at ye halfmoon 

Tobyas henderson Memorandum y e 10 of Nov. 

James Larmond ye abovesd men Took all ye 

Wm Powel oath of allegiance 

It is unanimously Resolved y l Leift Thog. Sharpe who to- 
gether with y e Souldiers of there Majesties garrison have 
taken ye oath of fidelity to there Majesties William & Mary 
king & queen y l y e s d Leift Sharpe shall Continue in y e Com- 
mand of there Majesties fort of Albany who is to obey such 
orders & Instuctions as he shall from time to time Receive 
from ye Convention of y e Citty and County of Albany, & 
y l no other person shall have y e Command of s d fort till 
orders Came from there Majesties king William & queen 
Mary which we with Patience will waite for Since y e s d fort 
is kept for there Majesties use 



This Protest was sent aboard of Jochim Staets by y e Mar- 
shall inclosed in a letter to him & alderman Skaik 

Resolved to write and give our hearty thanks to y e Hon- 
orable Governor & Councill and Representives of Boston for 
there kinde letter of y e 10th of October in writeing to y e 
governor & Councill of Conetticut Pressing them to Provide 
one hundred men for our assistance who accordingly have 
granted to furnish us with eighty men with there officers 
hopeing & expecting Payment for y e Commission officers & 
y l Kilian Van Renselaer & Capt gerrit Teunise be sent to 
Conetticut to return them thanks for there assistance and to 
accept of y e men and withal to "Inform them of y e mean 
Condition of this place and how willing we would be to pay 
s d officers & Souldiers too if we were in condition to bear it. 

126 The City Eecords. 

Resolved to write to y e governor & Councill of Conetticut 
to thank them for there kinde letter of y e 15th of October 
wherein they graunt to send us eighty souldiers with there 
officers, hopeing and expecting we will Pay y e Commission 
officers, & yt Capt. Renselaer and Capt. gert Teunise be 
Commissionated to goe thither and Return our Thanks and 
accept of y e 80 men & Endeuor to have them hither with 
all speed, who are to submit themselfs to y e orders & direc- 
tions of y e Convention, & withal to consult with y e Governor 
& Councill Concerning y e Payment of y e Commission Officers. 

By y e Convention of y e Civill and Military officers of y e 

Citty and County of Albany. 

Whereas it is thought Convenient that some p'sons be 
Commissionate to goe to y e honorable governor & Councill 
of Conetticut and y e assembly if sitting to give our Cordiall 
thanks for there great kindnesse in Resolueing to send 
eighty men with there officers for y e security of there Majes- 
ties Interest in these parts, and we confideing in y e Integrity 
and fidelity of Capt. Kilian van Renselaer & Capt. Gert 
Teunise members of our Convention have Desyred and 
authorized them with all Convenient Speed to goe to y e Col- 
lony of Conetticut and Signify to y e honorable governor & 
Councill of y l Colony & to y e assembly if sitting y e Real 
sence we have of there kindnesse in Sendeing these men, & 
to hasten there Comeing with all convenient Speed, as also 
to Discourse with y e s d Governor Concerning y e wages of y e 
Commission officers earnestly Desyreing y l y e s d Two gentle- 
men may be Reputed and Esteemed as our agents in y v Be- 
halfe Ratifyeing and Confirming whatever they shall act or 
doe about y e p'mises, given under our hands & sealls in 
Albany ye 28th day of October in y e first year of y e Reign 
of our Souveraign Lord & Lady William & Mary king & 
queen of England: &c. 1689. 



The City Records. 


Att a Convention &c. Albany 28th Sept. [October] 1689 

Present as before. 

Resolved y 1 Capt. wendel & Capt. Bleeker Cause y e gates 
& Courtains of y e Citty to be made & Repared according to 
y e Division made and there engagement who are to warn 
there People to doe it upon Pain of answering whatsoever 
Inconveniencies that may happen by such neglect and each 
of y e s d Captains had an order given them accordingly. 

Resolved y l Since Sundrey members of y e Convention 
have Signed a Bonde for y e Reimburseing of Robt Livings- 
ton such disbursements as he shall make for there Majesties 
account upon our Request y 1 y e said Bonde be Recorded 
which is as follows. 

Whereas there is at this Present juncture litle or no Rev- 
enue accrueing to there Majesties in this Citty and County 
and nevertheless diverse Charges to be paid as y e Reparations 
of there Majesties fort Paying of y e People that have been 
at Sarachtoge upon y e kings & queens account and Diverse 
other Public Charges and altho Robert Livingston is already 
Considerable in advance yett y e Convention doe Desyre y 1 
he further may advance upon there Majesties accompt, such 
necessary Charges as shall from time to time happen and 
* because y e s d Livingston may be y e more Incouraged to 
Proceed, we whose names are underwritten doe Promise & 
Engage y l if y e s d Livingston be not Reimbursed such Dis- 
bursements as he shall make by y e Mayors order one aider- 
men and assistant for y e Publick account in Six monthes 
after y e arrivall of a governor or orders from there now 
Majesties king William & queen Mary y l wee will yointly 
& severally see him p d & Satisfyed and that he shall not 
sustain any Losse or Damage by Such Disbursements being 
by our Particular orders as witnesse our hands in albany y e 
26 of October 1689. 


128 The City Records. 

Johannes van der heyden hend : Janse & William Hollie 
took y e oath of allegiance to there Majesties. 

The Convention writt a letter to alderman Schayk and 
Lieftenant Staets putting them in minde of what they had 
writt yesterday Concerning ye Keports of Leyslers Inten- 
tions to send up armed men to overthrow y e government of 
this Citty, and that they would endevor to prevent it as 
they loved y e Peace of this Citty, and withall Informed 
them that we hear by a Prisoner come from Canida y l y e 
Indian Prisoners were come from france with y e governor 
of Mont Koyall and y l y e governor of Canida and diverse 
officers went to france, & therefore consider in what a Con- 
dition we would he with y e Indians if a Change of Magis- 
trates and a Subversion of y e government should at p'sent 
be made. 

Albany ye 29th of October 1689. Present, Peter Schuyler 
Mayor, Dirk wessells, Jan Bleeker, Claes Ripse, David 
Schuyler, albert Ryckman, Joh : Cuyler, Eghbert Teu- 
nise, Jan nack 

"Whereas there was an order made by y e Convention y e 
25th Instant that y e men Lyeing at Sarachtoge be sent for 
and yt seven Souldiers of there Majesties fort with Two other 4 
men be Sent there y l can speak y e Indian Language, and 
being informed by Leift Sharpe y* y e Souldiers were un- 
willing to go, they were Sent for who told the Gentlemen 
that if ye Convention would engage for their Pay they 
would willingly serve there Majesties to whom they have 
Sworne fidelity in their Majesties fort; But they would all 
willingly goe with there officer for their Majesties account 
whereever he would lead them, & if y e Convention were 
not satisfied with that they would all grounde there arms 
alleadgeing y l none but a governor or he y l had Iminediat 
Commission from there Majesties William & Mary could 
Command them out in Such Small Partyes Except they en- 
gage for their pay 

Upon which it was Resolved y l Dirk albertse Bratt and 
anothSr be sent thither to stay there with Some Indians till 
further order. 

The City Records. 129 

Att a Convention &c. albany y e 4th of november 1689 
Present, Peter Sehuyler mayor, Dirk wessels Recorder, 
Joh : wendel, Liv Van Schaik, Jan Bleeker, Claes 
Ripse, David Sehuyler, albert Ryckman, Reynier Bar- 
entse, Evert Banker, Jan nack, Joh : Cuyler, Eghbert 
Teunise, Captain Marten gerritse Justice, Leif. Robert 

Whereas y e members of y e Convention have given to 
Robt. Livingston a Bonde whereby they oblige themselfs 
to bear y e s d Livingston harmlesse for such Disbursements 
as he hath now or shall make for y e Publike account by our 
Particular order. That if he be not paid within Six months 
after y e arrivall of a governor or orders from there now Majes- 
ties King William & queen Mary, that wee will see him 
paid, & if it should happen that care should not be taken 
for y e Reimburseing of s d Livingston, that he should be 
necessitated to Demand y e s d Disbursements of y e members 
of s d Convention. It is ordered yt such p'son or p'sons so 
Paying Such Publike Charge be Reimbursed outofy 6 Pub- 
like Rates of y e County, always Provided y e s d Charge be 
for ye Reparations of there Majesties fort of Albany & y e 
Charge of y e People y l Lay at Sarachtoge. 

Livinus Van Schaik alderman and one of y e Justices of 
y e Peace of this County arrived this day from N : Yorke to 
whom the Resolution of this Convention of y e 26th of 
October Last was Sent, inclosed in a letter to him and Leift 
Jochim Staas who were Desyred after they had Received 
Information y l Capt Leysler was intended to send up a 
Company of armed men to make themselfs master of there 
Majesties Fort .of Albany and of y e Citty turn y e govern- 
ment of this Citty upside doune & Disturbe y e Peace and 
Tranquility of there Majesties King William & queen Marys 
Liege People, and carry Some of y e Principle Burghers and 
Inhabitants of this Citty Prisoners to N : Yorke. 

That they should Deliver y e Protestation sent them by 
this Convention against Such Proceedings. 

Alderman Schaik haveing Received diverse Informations 
from Credible Persones that they had such and such Designs 
Discoursed Jochim Staets telling him h thought himself 
obliged to Deliver y e Protest to Leysler and y e Committee, 

130 The City Records. 

which was sent by y e Convention of Albany upon which 
Jochim Staets Replyed he knew not what to doe. They 
would have him Capt of y l Company that went up to Albany 
which was to Lye in y e fort. 

Alderman Shaik answered Mr. Staets you know that 
would Be against y e Resolution of y e Convention of Albany 
who hes Put Captain Sharpe to be Commander there, where- 
upon Jochim Staets Replyed they would have Sharpe out, 
& if I will not accept of itt they will putt in Churchill, me- 
thinks that it is better that I accept of itt then that such a 
Vagabond as Churchill should have y e Command. 

Upon which y e s d alderman went in with Jochim Staets 
to y e Committee being y e 29th day of October & Delivered y e 
Protest to Capt. Leysler & y e Resolution of y e Convention 
of Albany for Capt Sharpe to Continue till further orders. 

The Said alderman Skaik askd, what answer they would 
give him upon y e Protest, upon which Jacob Milborne 
Replyed with Consent of y e other Persons Conveined y l 
time that he would goe up to Albany, & see the fort there 
better Secured. 

The Said Schaik Considering y Contents of y e Conventions 
Letter whereby they earnestly Desyred advice by an Expresse 
if occasion Required, thought Convenient to come up him- 
self to give y e Convention an acct off affares not Doubting 
but that they were fully Resolved to Send up men hither 
to Oisturbe the People of Albany Since y e day before ye Pro- 
test came to his hands he himself being in there Committee 
(about some Discourse thatt should have Passed on Long 
Island) heard Capt. Leysler Say amongst other Discourse 
that they of albany should bring there Charter here if they 
had one, & y l Leift Sharpe & Rodgers were Papists all which 
with severall other Informations he heard: while he was at 
N : Yorke. 

The Convention did Returne there hearty thanks to alder- 
man Schaik for his Care & fidelity in acting so Prudently in 
y l affaire & for Delivering y e Protest which they understand 
would not have been Delivered by Jochim Staets; & Espe- 
cially for his trouble that He hes been Pleased to take to 
come up himself Expresse & give an acct of affares. 

Upon which itt* was Enquired by y e Mayor of y e Con- 
vention ^whither there were any Person or member of y e 

The City Records. 131 

Convention from y e greatest officer to y e Least yt any Per- 
son had any objection against or y e Least mistrust that they 
should now declare itt. 

Whereupon y e Convention unanimously answered that 
they had nothing to object against any of y e members of y e 
Convention, but that they should be and Remaine in there 
Respective offices and Stations till orders from there most 
Sacred Majesties William & Mary king & queen of England 
&c. and that they would not Suffer that any member Should 
be Disturbed Displaced or Removed from this Citty upon 
any Pretence whatsoever and if such a thing happened to 
be done by force Contrare to y e Priviledge of this Citty 
(which God forbid) that y e whole Convention would Resent 
it as done to them all in generall & make Record of it ac- 

Itt is Resolved by this Convention to acquaint the Burgers 
and Inhabitants of this Citty by the assistants of there Re- 
spective wards how j l we have Received Information from 
N : Yorke that there is a Company of men comeing up from 
thence, who Intend to Turn y e government of this Citty 
upside doune, make themselfs master of y e Fort and Citty, 
and in no manner to be obedient to any orders and Com- 
mands as they should Receive from time to Time from y e 
Persons now in authority in this Citty and County, whereby 
great Confusion will Ensue, Especially, if y e Indians Per- 
ceive Such Divisions amongst our Self's, will be in Danger 
to be led away to y e french, & so break y e frindship which 
with so much Trouble and Paynes and charge hath hitherto 
been Preserved by this government which might tend to y e 
great Ruine and Destruction of there Majesties Interest in 
these Parts which s d men so comeing up we hear are to be 
paid by y e Burgers and Inhabitants of this Citty and County, 
which charge would be untollerable to be born by y e In- 
habitants att this Juncture of time, & not only that charge 
butt by such means cause us to Contribute to what Charge 
they of N : Yorke have been att Since these Revolutions, 
and therefore itt is thought Convenient to Convein the Bur- 
gers in the Citty hall & there to Demand there opinion, and 
to answer to Some articles which will be given them in write- 
ing to morrow. 

132 The City Records. 

Att a Convention &c. Albany the 5th day of november 1689 

Present as before 

According to y e Resolution taken by y e Convention yes- 
terday ye Burgers and Inhabitants of y e Citty and Part ofy e 
County were Conveined in y e Citty hall by Bell Ringing 
and these following Proposalls were made & given them in 
writeing & Desyred to give there answer. 

PROPOSEALLS made by the Convention to y e People. In 
Albany y e 5th day of november 1689. Upon y e Report 
of men comeing from N : Yorke. 

1 If they be not Resolved to stand for y e Privileges of 
there Citty and County, and to Resist all p'sons who shall 
endeavor to Brake y e Same. 

2 If they had any objection or any thing against the 
Magistrates or members of y e Convention from y e Least 
member to y e greatest, That they now would Reveale y e 

3 If they were Inclined to pay y e Souldiers wages come- 
ing from N : Yorke which we here y e military officers of 
N : Yorke have Engaged must be paid by y e Inhabitants of 

4 If they had any mistrust of Lieft Tho. Sharpe whom 
y e Convention have Continued in y e fort to be under them, 
and if they would have one besides him to have y e Com- 
mand of y e fort. 

5 Since we have heard Such Strange Rumours, if it^would 
not be Very Dangerous to Suffer y e men comeing from New 
Yorke to come intoy e Citty, before we have Sufficient assur- 
ance that they come with a good Intent to assist us as 
neighbours, and to obey the Convention, and not to turn y e 
government of y e Citty upside doune, to make themselfs 
master of the fort and Citty, and to fetch y e meanest Burger 
from hence ; and if they Burgers would not oppose Such 
hostility and force. 

6 If it is not Extream Dangerous at this Juncture to 
make any Confusion Division or change least y e Indians 
who are in Covenant with us and depend thereupon should 
mistrust our Integrity and so be brought to Side with y e 

The City Eecords. 133 

7 If they will not secure y e fort and Citty for there Ma- 
jesties till Such time there Majesties king william & queen 
mary Send orders or a governour, and that of N : yorke 
nor none else be admitted to be master of y e same 

8 That they ought to Consider y l y e Souldiers that lye in 
y e fort are no Burthen to y e Citty nor County but kept main- 
tained & paid upon there Majesties accompt who are not 
only naturall born subjects of England but have all (Except 
one) taken y e oath of allegeance to y e Present king & Queen 

9 If they doe not owne and acknowledge y e Convention 
of y e Citty and County for there Lawfull Authority till a 
Settlement comes, and if they them will obey as such 

Upon which y e People agreed and Consented to y e s d 
Articles, acknowledgeing y e members of y e Convention for 
there Lawfull Magistracy in there Respective offices and 
Places and made this following answer Signed by forty of y e 
Inhabitants Principall men of y e Toune 

Whereas y e Convention of albany have Propounded Some 
articles to y e Commonality for y e wellfare of y e Place wee 
underwritten Burgers and Inhabitants of y e Citty and County 
of albanie do Promise and Declare faithfully and Sincerely y l 
wee will uphold and Maintain to y e utmost y e Previleges of 
albany, & oppose all Persones who shall Seeke to infringe 
y e Same. 

2 That we have not y e least objection or Evill opinion of 
y e Magistrates or members of y e Convention, butt Promise 
to Obey them and assist them as faithfull Subjects are 
bounde to doe there lawfull authority. 

3 That we are no ways Inclined to pay y e People comeing 
from: N: Yorke, neither can bear such Excessive Charge, 
but if they come as good neighbours & friendes shall en- 
deavor to Treat them Civilly with meat and Drink and 
Lodgeing according to our ability. 

4 That y e Bussinesse Concerning y e fort is Referred to 
y e Convention. 

oly That we unanimously judge it Dangerous to lett y e 
men comeing from N : Yorke come into y e Citty till Such 
time y e Convention have Sufficient assurance of there sincere 
meaning and Intention, Since by no means we can Suffer 
them to Turn y e government of this Citty upside doune, 

Annals ii. 12 

134 The City Becords. 

nor that they be masters of City or fort nor suffer y e Least 
Burger to be carried away from hence, or molest them. But 
if anything to object against any of y e Burgers of this Citty, 
that they may enter there action before y e Courts of this 
Citty & County according to law 

6 That we juge a Change or Subversion of government 
att this jucture to be Exceeding Dangerous in Reference to 
y e Treating with y e Indians, and therefore doe not under- 
stand that there now be a Change upon any Pretence what- 
soever, before y l orders co'mes from there Majesties 

7 That wee are fully Resolved with y e help of god al- 
mighty to keep & Secure y e fort and Citty for the behoofe 
of our Souveraign Lord & Lady King William & Queen 
Mary; and not suffer them of N : Yorke or any Person else 
to Rule over y e Same, Since it will be Required att our 
hands when a governor comes & not of theres. 

8 That we verry well approve of y e Souldiers that have 
taken ye oath of fidelity doe Remain in ye fort, & if there 
be occasion for more men in y e fort to Secure y e Same y l 
then Some of y e Burgers or whom y e Convention shall ap- 
point doe goe thither and no others 

9 : & Lastly: That we doe Esteem owne and acknowlege 
y e Convention to be our only Lawfull authority in this 
Country till such time orders comes from there Majesties 
whom we doe Relye upon for y e good government of y e 
Same, Praying God to Blesse them in their undertakeings 
for ye wellfare of our Country, Promiseing to assist them 
wherein they shall have occasion for the Preservation of 
Peace and Tranquility in our Toune & to lett and hinder 
all p'sones who shall Stirr up Mutinie and Sedition to 
Disturbe our Peace. In Testimony whereof that this is our 
Reall Intent & y* we faithfully will p'form y e Same have 
hereunto Sett our hands in Albany y e 5th day of november : 

was signed by forty Inhabitants vizt 

Jan Becker the mark of Jan 

H: v: Dyck Cornelise Vyselaer 
Myndert Frederikse & W V P 

Pieter D : Schuyler Wm gysbertse 

Arent Schuyler Abram Isaakse 

Wm Teller Hend: Beekman 

The City Records. 


Casp r Teller 
John liarris 
A : Teller 
Jacob Lockermans 
Johannes Schuyler 
Hend : Rensselaer 
John Gilbert 
William hendriksen 
Isaak Vr planken 
Anthony Bratt 
Wessel Ten Broek 
Takel heimstraet 
Warner Carstense 
Myndert Schuyler 

Bennony Yan Corlaer 

Johannes Thomase 


Andrews Teller junior 

Francis Salesbury 

Johannes appel 

Abraham Cuyler 

Jan Bleeker Junior 
Johannnes Becker the younger 

Jacpb meese vroman 

Jacob Vanden Bogaert 

Gert vanness 


Hans Cross H-K mark 
Dirk Bratt 

Att a Convention &c. Albany 7th & 8th days of november 
1689. Present as before, Except C : Jan Bleeker absent, 
and C. Marte gerritse & Gert Ryerse present 

The matter concerning y e Better Secureing of there Ma- 
jesties fort of albany being taken into Consideration this fol- 
lowing order was made thereabouts. 

Whereas there is a Resolution made by y e Convention y e 
26th day of October Last whereby Leift. Thomas Sharpe 
should Continue in y e Command of there Majesties fort of 
albany till orders comes from there Majesties William and 
Mary king & queen of England &c. who was to obey such 
orders and Instructions as he should from time to time 
Receive from y e Said Convention, and whereas we are In- 
formed that Diverse Persones are jealous that there Majes- 
ties Fort is thereby not Sufficiently Secured but are 
Desyreous that another Sufficient Person shall be authorized 
along with said Leif Thomas Sharpe to have y e Command 

It is therefore thought Convenient by this Convention 
Since y e winter approaches and y e Long Expected orders 
from there Most Sacred Majesties not yet being come and 
to'Prevent all jealousies and Annimosities Concerning that 
. affaire at this juncture of time, That Pieter Schuyler 
Esquire Mayor of this Citty and one of there Majesties Jus- 

136 The City Records. 

tices of y e Peace of this County and Leiftenant of y e Troop 
be authorized and is hereby authorized to have y e Command 
of there Majesties fort and y e same to keep and maintain 
and Defend for y e Behooffe of there Majesties William & 
Mary king and queen of England france & Irland &a 
Defenders of y e faith, and Lieftenant Sharpe be Lieft under 
him who are both to obey and Perform Such orders & 
Instructions as they shall from time to time Receive from 
y e Convention of y e Citty & County of albany that have the 
greatest Intrest in y e Preservation & Securing of s d fort for 
there Majesties behalfe, and y l till such time and while 
there Majesties William & Mary shall be pleased to send a 
governor or orders for y e government of this Province & the 
s d P r Schuyler Mayor to take Possession of y e Same 

N. B : Joh wendel Suspends his vote for y e p'sent as also 
Joh : Cuyler & J : nack. 

This being Published by Bell-Ringing y e members of y e 
Convention went to ye Mayers house, and told him they 
were come to waite upon him and Conduct him up to y e fort 
who being accompanied with some of y e Principle Burgers 
went up and Possession of s d fort after y e usuall Ceremonies 
was Delivered, & y e s d Mayor with all cheerfulness Received 
by y e officers and souldiers of there Majesties garrison. 

Att a Convention &c. Albany 9th day of November 1689. 

Present as before, Except, Mayor & Leif. van Schaik 


The Members of y e Convention that were in Toune did 
meet Together att y e Citty hall upon the news that there 
were three Sloops in Sight whereof one had y e king Jack 
aboard, and hereing that there were a Comp e of Souldiers 
come by there beating of y e Drum, foure of y e Convention 
to witt Captain wendel Captain Bleeker Johannes Cuyler 
and Reynier Barents were sent aboard to know on what 
accompt they came, Jacob Milborne who was on board of 
Jochim Staets Sloop Replyed. If the fort was open for his 
men to march in that night he was answered no, That y e 
Mayor of y e Citty had Possession of y e fort who was Com- 

The City Records. 137 

mander of y e Same and was Desyred to goe a shore where 
they would Discourse further, who with y e s d four Persones 
came to y e Citty hall and was bid welcome by y s members 
of y e Convention then Present. 

No sooner was y e s d Milborne come into y e Citty hall 
which was very full of People, but addressed his Discourse 
to y e Common People in a long oration with a high Stile & 
Language telling them That now it was in there powr to free 
themselfs from y l Yoke of arbitrary Power and G-overnnient 
under which they had Lyen so long in y e Reign of y* 
Illegal king James, who was a Papist, Declareing all Illegal! 
whatever was done & past in his time, yea the Charter of 
this Citty was null & void Since it was granted by a Popish 
kings governour & that now y e Power was in the People to 
choose both new Civill and Military officers as they Pleased, 
challenging all them that had. bore office in king James 
Time to be Illegall, and therefore they must have a free 
Election and much Such like Discourse. 

After Jacob Milborne had ended his long Discourse 
Jochim Staets & P r Bogardus who came up with him from 
N : Yorke asked why y e magistrates did not speak now, 
now was y e time for to Speake upon which Dirk wessells 
Recorder Replyed, that there was time Enough yet, he was 
nott Authorized at that Juncture to make him answer to 
such Discourse, they had seen no Commission he had yett 
and that they were met together to make Billets for the 
quartering of y e men If they were come with a good Intent, 
which lay Ready upon y e Table, & j l Milborne addressed 
his Discourse to y e wrong People Since there were no arbi- 
trary Power here ; Grod had Delivered them from that yoke 
by there Majesties now upon y e throne, to whom we had 
taken y e oath of allegiance, for we acted not in king James's 
name but in king William & queen Marys & were there 

Jacob Milborne Desyred that y e Mayor Might be Present 
in y e Convention who was Twice Sent for, but answered yV 
he could not leave his Post which was to keep good watch 
in there Majesties fort, Referring y e s d Milborne to y e 
Gentlemen that were Conveined together and y l he would 
call ye Convention together to morrow after y e 2d Sermon 
when they would Discourse the Case further with him, this 

138 The City Records. 

was Communicated to Jacob Milborne who answered that y e 
Kecorder Represented y e Mayor in his absence, and Delivered 
y e Convention a letter Signed by 25 Persones which was 
Read y e Contents whereof is as follows 

Fort William In N : York y 28 October 1689 

GENTLEMEN The unspeakeable goodnesse of god and y e 
unimagineable benefit which all Protestants Relating to y e 
Crowne of England do Receive by the Ilustrious armes of 
the Prince of Orange now our Benigne Leige Lord and 
king as they are unexpressible So likewise they cannot but 
call for y e most humble & unfeigned thanks to heaven and 
all Expressible Returns of obedience to his Majestic 

Therefore to Evince y e Same according to our Capacities 
wee y e Committee or members chosen by y e free and open 
Elections of y e freemen in y e Respective Counties of this 
Province and Councill of warr 

Humbly- traceing y e Stepps and Laying hold of y e En- 
couragement given by So Royall an Example have as farr 
as in us Lyed Prevented y e Rageing Intrest of y e Roman 
Catholic Party and there adherents in this Province and 
not only asserted the Right of our new Soveraigne but Re- 
duced most of y e Dissafected to their obedience and Esta- 
blisht his Majesties Interest upon So Sure a foundation y* 
from thence already we fynde the fruits of Tranquility and 
Peace, So we doubt not, but all y l are willing to be Es- 
teemed of y e Reformation will Comply with the same ; 
and to y e Intent that none of his Majesties forts or Subjects 
should be Exposed where apparent fears and Dangers of his 
Professed enemies doth Threaten them as wee are made 
Sencible by yours of y e County of albany, we have sent 50 
men with arms suteable, which doubt not but will bee of 
Seasonable use for Defence of y e Same, and have given full 
Power to our Trusty and Beloved friende Jacob Milborne 
gentleman to treat with Consult, order doe and Performe all 
things that shall be Requisite for his Majesties Service & 
your Safety to whom we Desyre you will give Credence and 
treat amicably that so we may not occasion y e Enemy to 
Scandalize us with or take any advantage of Disputes and 
Differences amongst uSj Especially when we are upon Such 

The City Records. 


good Terms of breaking of Papist and arbitrary Yokes from 
our necks forever. This all at p'sent from your Loveing 

Samuel Edsall 
Pieter de Lanoy 
Gerardus Beekman 
"Myndert Corten 
Mathew harvey 
Johannes V r melie 
Jacob Leysler 
Henry Cuyler 
Richard Pan ton 
Adriaen van Schaik 
Gerrit Duyking 

Jacob Leysler junior 
Pieter demilt 
Joh : Beekman 
John Slott 
hendrick ten Eyck 
Jh : Bruyns 
Is : d Biemer 
Jean Desmareest 
David Clerk 

Teunise XR Roelofse his 

Joh : de Peyster 
William Churchill 
Sjort cipher se 

After y e abovesaid Letter was Read y e Becorder asked 
Jacob Milborne if he Pleased to have y e People quartered 
which lay aboard since y e Billets were Beady who answered 
no, But desyred Some Provision which was graunted & so 
Parted y l night. 

Memorandum that on y e 10th day of November being 

The following letter was Sent by Adam Vroman of Shin- 
nectady to y e Mayor which Milborne had sent to him to 
warne all y e People there forthwith to come to albany and 
Receive there Rights Priviledges and. Liberties in such 
manner as if the government of king James y e 2d never had 
been, or any of his arbitrary Commissions or what is Illegally 
done by his governours never had been done or Past, which 
Letter follows in Terminis : 


Whereas I am authorized by the Honorable Delegates or 
Members elected at a Free and Publick Election of the 
Freemen and Respective counties of the Province of N. 
York and Military Council thereof, to arrange and settle 
the affairs of the City & County of Albany according to the 

140 The City Records. 

Constitution of the other Counties of the Province aforesaid 
pursuant to the interest of His Majesty our Souveraign 
Lord & King and the Welfare of the Inhabitants of said 

These are to advise and require all the Inhabitants of 
Shinnectady and adjoining places to repair forthwith to the 
aforesaid City of Albany to receive their Rights and Privi- 
ledges & Liberties in such manner as if the Government of 
King James the 2d had never existed or any of his arbitrary 
Commissions or any of his Governors illegal acts had never 
been executed or done. 


Upon which Adam Yroman sent him this answer : 


Worthy Friend I have just now received your 
letter. Firstly, I am not a person of quality; Secondly, the 
Indians lie in divers squads in and around this place and 
should we all repair to Albany great disquiet would arise 
among the Savages to the general ruin of this Country; 
therefore please excuse me as I am a person of no power 
nor authority. 

Your affectionate friend 


By which letter it is Plainly Evident y e s d Milborne 
Designs y e Subversion of y e government Confirmed by there 
Majesties Proclamation of y e 14th feb. last, and thereby to 
Disturbe y e Peace and Tranquility of there Majesties Leige 
People Especially in this Juncture when the Indians are 
Round about us, who much Depend on the Present Magis- 
tracy that have with so much trouble Pains and Cost Secured 
them to this government which if they should see y l y e 
authority here should be troden under foot would undoubt- 
edly undertake Some Dangerous Design 

And that it may be apparent to y e world y l y e Design 
was Laid at N : Yorke, y e following Letter writt by hend : 
Cuyler one of there Councill of warr as they Term them- 

The City Records. 141 

selfs, to y e People of Schinnectady Desyreing there assist- 
ance, and that they would come to albany, Telling them itt 
was Resolved upon that they should have no lesser Privi- 
ledges then they of albany, both in Tradeing and boalting 
which Jacob Milborne. would Disclose unto them and Such 
like false notions doth Sufficiently Demonstrate 


N. Yorke 2 Novembr 1689 
Copia vera of a Letter from London 
All Lands Plantations houses and Lots which were 
escheated [prys gemaekt] since the year 1660 are again 
restored by Act of Parliament. It was communicated to 
his Majesty who approved of it. It will be passed in a few 
days. Parliament is resolved to make a public example 
of Sir Edmund Andros to the next Generation on account 
of his Arbitrary illegal proceedings. I break off herewith 
as it is too long to enlarge upon. Hearty respects to all 
Noble friends of Shinnechtady. This goes per Mr Vedders 
hand. I remain 

Your friend & Servant 

Hend: Cuyler 

P. S. We earnestly request the aid and diligence of the 
Noble gentlemen there for the promotion of the Public Good 
in assisting those whom we now Send up at Albany's re- 
quest being to the number of 50 men, of whom Jochim 
Staets is Commander : not doubting but the gentlemen of 
Shennechtady will be preferred to those of Albany in the 
approaching New Government as we pledge ourselves to 
speak in favor of your Diligence. I promise to send up to 
you the first Order which we expect from England. 

We expect a short answer from You by the next oppor- 

Sir, We have this day resolved that you shall have no 
less Privileges than those of Albany in Trading and Bolt- 
ing, which Mr Milborne will explain to you. We therefore 
request that you will exhibit all Dilligence in repairing to- 
gether to Albany to welcome said Milborne. 


The City Records. 

STORES out of his Majesties Garrison of New Yorke for 
his s cl Majesties Service in an Expedicdn to Albany 
November 2 1689. 

100 Bullets divers Calibre 
16 hand Grenadoes 

2 quires Cartouch paper 

8 half & 2 whole barrells powder 

3 half barrels do 

lOlb loose powder 1 bunch Match & Lintstock 
A Krygs Jack (a flag). 

100 flints 47 ffire lockes & Bandelier with 
1 halbert 1 Pike heading 1 Drum 

Kilaen van Renselaer Esquire Justice of y e Peace and 
Capt gerrit Teunise who were sent by y e Convention to y e 
Collony of Conetticut concerning y e men which thatt Collony 
by y e joynt Concurrence of y e Collony of Massachusetts had 
Promised to send hither for our assistance being Returned 
brings a letter from y e governor & Councill there, how that 
they are Resolved to Raise 80 men with there officers forth- 
with, that they may be upon there march hither upon 
munday y e 13th of november. . 

The Agreement Concluded upon between y e governor 
and Councill of Conetticut and our agents are as follows. 

That we are to afford there Souldiers and officers ammo- 
nition meet Drink and Lodgeing sufficient 

That we are to pay to y e officers 8 shil. a day vizt 

To ye Capt. 
To ye Leift. 
To e Ens : 

4 sh. 6d 
Ish 6d 

to be paid weekly. 

If any of s d officers or Souldiers should be visited with 
Sicknesse or wounde, y e Charge of Attendance Phisick and 
Doctors should be borne by us. 

That we are to Provide a Canoe to carry y e Company over 
Westenhook River 

That y e Souldiers arms be Repaired at our Charge if 

Which agreement was approven off by y e Convention. 

The Said Mr. Renselaer & Capt Teunise Report that 
when they come by kinderhook founde y e People Yery 

The City Records. 143 

much Inclined to mutiny who were Prepareing themselfs to 
come hither by Reason of a Letter which they had Received 
of Jacob Milborne to come up to albany in all Speed to 
Receive Priviledges and Libertyes, So y 1 they had much 
adoe to stop them however some Came. 

Att a Convention &c. Albany in y e Citty hall Die Sabbathi 
10th november. Post merid : Anno Dom : 1689. -Pre- 
sent. Dirk wessels Recorder, Livinus van Shaik, Claes 
Rysse, albt Ryckman, C. gert Teunise, Capt Sanderglen, 
Ev. Banker, Jan nack, gerrit Ryerse, L : van Eps, 
L : Robert Sanders, C. John wendel, C. Jan Janse 
Bleeker, David Schuyler, C. Marte gerritse, kill : v. 
Renselaer, Reynier Barentse, Johannes Cuyler, Eghbert 
Teunise. Sweer Teunise, Ens : Joh : Sanders, Ens : 
gabriel Thompson. 

The Convention being met together at the Citty hall 
Jacob Milborne was Sent for, the Recorder Dirk wessells 
assumed y e Discourse and told that he had Received a Letter 
yesterday of y e s d Milborne directed to y e Military and Civill 
officers and inhabitants of y e Citty and County of albany, 
but y e Convention not being full y e Bussinesse was Delayed 
till to day which was Read being Signed by 25 Persones 
wherein was Inserted that there were 51 men Sent hither 
for our assistance, the Said Milborne was asked upon whose 
Cost and charge y e men were come, and who were to pay 
them there pay. Jacob Milborne answered, that we of albany 
must pay them, and that they were hyred at 25 shil per 
month, the Recorder Replyed that that was Repugnant to 
there Resolution and letter sent to N : Yorke, y e ~ 4th of 
September Last which y e s d Milborne Perruseing founde to 
be soe, & askd all y e People Standing by if they thougt y e 
County of albany would be able to pay y l Charge, who all 
unanimously answered no ; upon which y e s d Milborne said 
Then we shall fynde a way for it, and showed y e Convention 
his Commission Signed and Sealed by 6 or 27 Persoues y e 
Same that Signed y e letter which was Read : The Recorder 
told him that Such a Commission graunted by a Company 
of Private men was of no force here, and that he had no 
Power to doe or order any affaires in albany, but if he could 

144 The City Records. 

shew a Commission from his Majesty king william our Liege 
Lord then were willing to obey it. 

The S d Milborne went on and made a long oration to y e 
Common People which were got together in y e Citty hall of 
Popish government and arbitrary Power Condemning all 
things which had been done and Passed in y e late King 
James Stuarts time Particularly y 8 Charter of this Citty and 
that there ought to be a new Election of Magistrates &c and 
many other things to Stirr up y e Common People, upon 
which he was told that if all things were null & void which 
were passed in King James time then y e Inhabitants were 
in a Desolate Condition, Since many Patents of houses and 
lands were obtained in y e Late King James time, which 
undoubtedly will be approved and confirmed by there 
Majesties now upon y e Throne, and that there had been a 
free Election according to y e Charter and further that they 
Plainly did Discern yt y e s d Milborne by his Smooth tongue 
& Pretended Commissions did aim nothing else but to Raise 
mutiny and Sedition amongst y e People which y e Conven- 
tion had with So much trouble these Six monthes Last Past 
kept in Peace and quietnesse Expecting dayly order from 
there Majesties King William and Queen Mary and that 
they had not Spared cost or charge to Secure y e Indians to 
this government, of which there neighbors could give a 
Sufficient Testimony, and therefore, if things were Carried 
on as Milborne would have it, all would Runn into Confusion 
with y e Indians all authority turned Upside Doune as in 
many Parts of y e government was done, to which y e Con- 
vention by no means could Condeshend, but were Resolved 
to be quiet & in Peace if Possible till y e Long expected 
orders from there Majesties should come to hand under 
whom they acted, and therefore desyred y e s d Milborne to 
desist from Such Discourse, for that they would Dispute no 
more with him about it, leaveing all till a Lawful Power 
came, nott acknowlegeing him to have any, and that they 
should Proceed to discourse of quartering y e men who 
endured so much hardship by Lyeing aboard, upon which 
it was Concluded to meet again in y e morning about 9 a 
Clock to aggree about y e quartering of y e 51 men Sent for 
our assistance. 

The City Records. 145 

Memorandum That Kiliaen van Renselaer Capt gerrit 
Teunise Capt Sander Grlenn Leift. Jan van Eps Ens : 
Johannes Sanders & Sweer Teunise members of y e Con- 
vention did approve of y e order made y e 7th & 8th In- 
stant that Peter Schuyler Mayor should have y e command 
of there Majesties fort till orders from there Majesties 
king William & Queen Mary 

Die Lunse 11 november 1689 

The Convention were Intended to goe to y e Citty hall 
but understanding that there was so greafa multitude of peo- 
ple assembled together there in an Illegal manner to choose 
one Jochim Staas Leift off one of y e Train bande Companies 
of this Citty under Capt. Wendel to be Capt. of y l Company 
of Souldiers come from N : Yorke, They stayd atty e Record- 
ers house Endeavouring to agree with Jacob Milborne about 
y e quartering of y e men, the s d Milborne Proposeing Some 
articles which were answered by y e Convention and sent 
him by Capt Marte Gerritse Livinus Van Schaik & Johan- 
nes Cuyler, but y e s d Milborne Insisting to have y e s d men 
to be under a Superior officer who was to be Commander of 
y e fort, Distinct from the Civill function, and that then he 
should fynde a way to pay y e men, which y e Convention by 
no means would Condeshend, but y l s d men should be under 
y e command of y e convention till orders came from there 
Majesties otherwise could expect no assistance from them, 
which answer was sent him by y e s d Capt gerritse alderman 
Schaik & Johannes Cuyler assistant. 

In y e meantime the Convention sent messengers thrice to 
y e People Convened att y e Citty hall to Disperse themselfs 
and goe home, they nevertheless went on and choose y e s a 
Jochim Staets to be Capt of y l Company come from N: 
Yorke by syncing there names to near a hundred Persones, 
most youthes, and them that were no freeholders which s d 
Place y e s d Jochim Staets did accept contrare to y e order 
of y e Convention of which he was a member 

Yea y e People were so Rageing and mutinous that some 
of y e Convention being in y e Citty hall, were forced to with- 
draw themselfs being threatened and menaced that they 
were in danger of there life, all which was occasioned by y e 

Annals^ ii. 13 

146 The City Eecords. 

Instigation of Jacob Milborne who is come hither with no 
other Design then to overthrow all, as Plainly appears by all 
his actions Deludeing y e Common Pec pie by Promiseing 
them Priviledges and liber tyes and such like false notions 
and Suggestions endeavouring to draw y e People off from 
there obedience due to there Lawfull authority Confirmed 
by there now Majesties William & Mary and to fill this 
Citty and County with Divisions factions and Sedition to y e 
utter Ruine of y e same Especially in this juncture while we 
are Surrounded with y e heathen who Seing such Divisions 
may undertake some Desperate Design and breake there 
Covenant with us kept so many Years Inviolable 

The Convention being met together in y e fort Sent Jo- 
hannes Cuyler Ens : Jon : Sanders & Ens: abr Schuyler to 
Leift Jochim Staets to know y e Certainty, if he had accepted 
of y e Capt. place by virtue of such Illegal assembly or meet- 
ing of y e People chooseing him so who made answer 
m [Record is blank here] 

This afternoon hend : ten Eyck was Sent by Jacob Mil- 
borne with this following Paper to y e Convention Vizt. 
Albany november y e llth 1689 

Whereas I am authorized by y e Committee for the Pro- 
vince of N: Yorke and y e Councill of warr for y e s d Citty 
of N : Yorke aforesaid to order y e affaires att albany, and 
in Pursuance thereof have made knowne there Demands 
unto y e Convention (or as many as would appear) in y e 
Toune house and y e Rest of y e Inhabitants according to 
Direction of a letter there Delivered and fynde no Satisfac- 
tion to my Proposealls, likewise haveing Discoursed some 
Points more Particularly with them, whereupon it was 
apointed y l I should Present y e Same in writeing this after- 
noon accordingly I offer Vizt 

That there should be a free and open Election for all 
officers both Civill and Millitary for y e Citty and County of 
Albany if it hath not been already done 

That a Person should be chosen to Command y e Kings 
fort Distinct from y e Civill function, 

Th'at the articles for y e men brought hither may be 

The City Records. 147 

That they would Consider of some Particulars Relateing 
M r Thomas Sharpes Letter 

That they would Produce there Evidence for grounding 
there Resolution which Mss Livinus Van Schaick & Jochim 
Staas were to Enform themselfs off, and act as thereby was 

That they would Return me all y e old armes in the fort 
which are unfixed in lieu off (or so many) as y e arms fur- 
nished y e men withall at N : Yorke 

That they would Please lett me know what Stores they 
have for his Majesties service in his fort or can command 
upon an attaque of y e french which god forbid 


Die Martis 12 of November 1689 
The Convention met together at y e house of Capt Jan 
Janse Bleeker where it was unanimously Resolved to accept 
of y e 50 men come from N : Yorke on no other terms Then 
that they should be under y e Command of the Convention, 
and Since y e members of y e Convention were So many it 
was Resolved y l Eight should be nominate who should Repre- 
sent y e Convention and Sign the articles with Jacob Mil- 
borne, as by y^ articles can be showne with which Resolution 
Capt Marte gerritse Livinus van Schaick & Johannes Cuyler 
were sent to Jacob Milborne who Returning to y e Con- 
vention Reported they had agreed upon y e articles which 
were ordered to be drawn over fair 

The Convention considering y e many Inconveniences 
that would Ensue by Jochim Staets takeing upon himself 
the office of Capt of that Company that came from N : Yorke 
by such an Irregular way as was Practised yesterday by the 
Common People in y e Citty hall proposed to him y e said 
Captains Place till orders from there Majesties Provided he 
would be obedient to y e Convention or authority of this 

t Place, y 1 so by that means all jealousies and animosities 
may be laide aside and Peace & Unity Established, & all to 
goe hand in hand to defend their Majesties Interest, butty 6 
3 d Jochim Staas did flattly Refuse itt. 

148 The City Records. 

Post Meridiem 

The eight men appointed by y e Convention to Sign the 
articles with mr. Milborne to witt, Pieter Schuyler Mayor 
Capt Johannes Wendel Capt. Jan Bleeker kiliaen van Ren- 
selaer Capt Sanders glenn, albert Ryckman, gerrit Ryerse & 
Evert Banker went to y e house of Richard Pretty where s d 
Milborne was (Except the Mayor who had Signed already) 
and asked if he would sign y e articles, who denyed to have 
made any such articles which caused many Debates, and y 1 y e 
s d Milborne agreed upon y e Point in y e Presence of s d Gentle- 
men ; Milborne correcting the Paper himself, & was aggreed 
to make no more Alterations, but to be writ over fair & 
Signed in y e morning making his excuse that he could not 
attend it tthat night. 

While y e s d Wendel and Bleeker were att Mr Prettyes 
they were sent 'for to come to gabriel Thomsones where a 
great Company of People were met together they sent y e 
s d 2 Captains Wendell & Bleeker up with a Message to 
y e fort to y e Mayor y l y e People were Resolved if he came 
not into Toune to choose new military officers. 

Die Mercury 13 November 1689 

Johannes Cuyler and abraham Schuyler were Sent to 
Jacob Milborne with y e following articles which were Con- 
cluded the day before, to Enquire if he was ready to sign 
them y e other Gentlemen being Ready, Vizt 

ARTICLES made concerning y e Receiving of men 

officers and Centinells Sent by y e Military officers of y e Citty 
& County of N : Yorke upon y c Desyre of y e Mayor alder- 
man Commonality and Military officers of y e s d County for 
y e Security of there Majesties fort and y e out Plantations 
and Inhabitants of y e Citty & County of albany against any 
forreign or Domestick Enemies that shall Invade oppose or 
resist there Majesties king William & queen Maryes Intrest, 
which y e Subscribers as Representatives for y e Mayor alder- 
men Commonality and Military officers of y e Citty of albany 
and the Justices and Military officers of s d County doe 
hereby oblige to Performe these undermentioned articles 

The City Records. 149 

1 That y e officers and Souldiers shall obey and Performe 
Such Commands and Directions as they shall Receive from 
time to time from y e Eight underwritten Persones 

2 That y e s d Eight Subscribers shall quarter ye s d officers 
and Souldiers as they shall see Convenient in the Citty & 
County of albany who shall be well fedd Decently Lodged 
according to there quality, Becomeing Persones in such 
Services att y e Proper cost and charge of y e Citty & County 
of albany 

3 That they shall not be Exposed to any harder Service 
or any wise more Irregularly treated then y e Rest of y e men 
raised for y e same Purpose 

4 That they shall Remain in s d Service from y e 9th of 
november 1689 untill the 25th day of March as aforesaid 
next ensueing or orders from there Majesty for longer Con- 
tinuance, dureing which time from there Reception to y e 
25th day .of March as aforesaid they shall and must Expect 
there Pay or wages from them who sent them 

5 That they shall be Particularly reguarded if any hap- 
pen to be sick or Lame, or any ways Distempered according 
to Christian Care of Phisicks and Requisite attendance 

6 That y e s d men are not to choose any officers over them- 
selfs but such officers as arg already come up with them 

7 That y e s d Eight Underwriters shall be obliged to 
pay y e Passage of y e s d men to N : Yorke thus Concluded 
in albany y e 13th day of november 1689 

The said Jacob Milborne said he had forgott some words 
which must be Inserted, Particularly y e word Committee, 
and also would first have an answer upon his Proposealls 
which he Delivered on Munday Last before he would Sign 
y e articles, y l s d Cuyler and Schuyler told him they could 
make no alteration without y e Convention, but y' y e answer 
to his Proposealls was Ready and Signd and would be De- 
livered as soon as he signed the articles but not before 

The Convention of Albanye's answer to Jacob Milbornes 
Proposalls which was to be Deliverd as soon as he 
Signd y e articles about y e men , else not 

That they being y e Lawfull Civill and Military officers 
of y e Citty & County of albany, and accordingly Since y e 

150 The City Records. 

Proclamation of there Majesties William & Mary king & 
queen of England &c. in this Citty, have acted in there Re- 
spective Stations without y e Least hinderance or obstruction 
from any Person, who are Resolved with y e assistance of god 
so to continue till orders comes from there most Sacred Ma- 
jesties when they will be ready & willing to give an account 
of all there actions during these Revolutions to such Person 
or Persons as there Majesties shall be Pleased to Send hither 
for y l purpose, thinking themselfs no ways obliged to article 
with or Render any account of there Proceedings to any 
Person Except they have Commission from there Majes- 
ties now upon y e Throne, which we long have Expected and 
waited for, & still with Patience shall waite till god shall 
please to send it from England from there Majesties king 
William & queen Mary whom god Long Preserve 

And if y s d Milborne hath any Ammunition belonging 
to there Majestic Stores. y e Convention Desyres he would 
Land it, and let them have it for there Majesties fort they 
are willing to give a Receit for y e same 

Signd PR SCHUYLER Mayor 

K : V : RENSELAER Justice 
alb : 13 novembr 1689 SANDER GLENN Justice 

The Convention haveing heard y e Report brougt them by 
Johannes Cuyler & abraham Schuyler, were willing to come 
to an accommodation if Possible & Resolved to graunt yt y e 
word Committee might be Inserted & was also Resolved if 
y e s d Milborne then Denyed to Sign y e articles to Deliver 
him over this following Paper 


Wee are sorry you should give yourself and us so much 
trouble concerning y e Receiving and Quartering of the fifty 
men Sent up hither by y e gent : of N : Yorke, if therefore 
there and y e Intentions be good & Reall for y e Security of 
there Majesties king William & queen Marys Intrest and 
the Safety of there Subjects here wherefore they were sent, 
Then y e Convention Expect y u will Comply with y e an- 
nexed articles which we declare was after many debates 

The City Records. 151 

fully Concluded and agreed upon Yesterday, & this is y e 
Last Resolution which y e Convention can take in y l Subject, 
neither will they Proceed to any further answers till this 
Bussinesse be Ended Signd 

Fort albany y e 13 of nov P r SCHUYLER Mayor 

1689 iny e name of y e 

Convention of albany 

The S d Johannes Cuyler and abraham Schuyler were 
sent y e 2d time with y e articles to Jacob Milborne who told 
him yt y e word Committee as they called themselfs was graunt- 
ed, & if he* was Ready to Sign, but answered he would 
not Sign y e articles with many absurde words as y e s d 2 
persones doe Relate upon which they delivered him y e above - 
s d Paper. 

This day Jacob Milborne caused y e Company of Souldiers 
Come from N: Yorke, which for 2 nights Past had Lyen 
at Marte gerritse's Island to march into Towne&y e Burgers 
of y 1 faction Received them in there houses without billet- 
ing or lawfull authority. 

Die Jovis y e 14th of november 1689 
The Mayor came doune to Towne and went with y e Con- 
vention to y e Citty hall, were y e Burgers forthwith appeared 
and there did Declare y e Rasons why he had Secured 
there Majesties fort (since he had heard that diverse were 
Dissatisfyed at his so doing) vizt that he had Received Suffi- 
cient and Credible Information from N : Yorke, Especially 
from alderman Schaick who was in there Meeting of there 
Committe as they call it at N : Y : where he heard Jacob 
Milborne say he would goe to Albany and see y e fort better 
Secured, Shewing them further three Testimonyes Sworne 
to, by which it did Evidently appear it was Concluded upon 
to make an absolute change of government, to carry some 
Persones Prisoners to N : Yorke, and so to make a generall 
disturbance among y e People, and force us to Comply with 
there new fashioned government Declareing further that he 
he had Sent y e Recorder from* time to time with y e other 
members of y e Convention to Discourse with Milborne Con- 
cerning y e Receiving of 50 Souldiers, & to enquire with 

152 The City Records. 

what Power and authority he came here Upon which y e 
Recorder Put them in minde of y e Discourse Past between 
him and Milborne on Sunday's night concerning his autho- 
rity, when it was Concluded upon to Consult next day about 
y e Receiving and quartering of S d Company of men where- 
abouts they had been in agitation till now j but See y l y e 
Said Milborne is no ways Inclined to come to any agreement 
Since it was Positively Concluded upon, but when it came 
to Signing founde always Exceptions three Severall times 
which was y e Reason y e Convention did not meet Sooner at 
y e Citty hall, upon which y e articles was read concerning 
y e quartering of y e 50 Souldiers which Pleased y e Burgers 
very well and wished they might be Signed ; and Milborne 
being fetched was asked if Such articles were not Concluded 
upon who Confessed Yess but that he had given some Pro- 
posealls to y e Convention, which he first would have an- 
swered and then Sign to y e articles. 

But y e Convention Replyed y l he had Delivered y e articles 
concerning y e quartering y e men on munda^r morning & y e 
Proposealls on Munday afternoon, and was therefore fitting 
that first an Issue should be made of y e articles before an 
answer be given to y e Proposealls, and y l y e answer to y e 
Proposealls was Ready to be delivered assoon as he had 
Signd to y e articles, But Refused in y e p'sence of Twelve 
men whom y e People had chosen to be Present to hear y e 
Debates between y e Convention and y e s d Milborne ; where- 
upon a Certain Paper was Read which had been Delivered to 
y e s d Milborne y e day before, y e Purport of which was that 
they were not Designed to give him any answer to his Pro- 
posealls before he had Signd to y e articles which was ap- 
proved off by s d 12 men Since it was Plainly Demonstrate 
how y e s d milborne had from time to time intended to Delay 
and Deceive them as by y e Testimoneys can appear 

The Convention Said to y e s d 12 men that they had used 
there uttmost Endeavors, & asked if they could Propose or 
think of any better means or method they would doe well 
to tell them,, and Desyred them to Consult about y e matter 
upon which after Consultation they Deputed three of y e 12 
men to witt Harnie gansevoort Peter van waggelum and Je- 
ronimus wendell who made Report to y e Convention then 
all together at y e Mayors house at Least Eighteen in number 

The City Records. 153 

Harme gansevoort being there Speaker, That they Concurrd 
with y e Convention and y l y e s d Milborne ought to Sign y e 
articles, and that y e Convention could doe no more then they 
had done Referring further the mannagement of that affaire 
to y e general 1 Convention Since they were Resolved to trou- 
ble themselfs no more about it. 

Die Vpneris 15th of november 1689 

Itt is orderd to be Entred how y l Jacob Milborne came 
to there Majesties fort of albany on y e 15th day of november 
1689 with a Company of armed men, who upon his approach 
was charged by a messenger sent a Purpose not to come 
without y e gates of y e Citty nevertheless Marchd up and 
made Demand of there Majesties fort who was answered by 
y e Mayor Pieter Schuyler Esq r Commander of y e s d fort, 
Thatt he kept y e Same for there Majesties king william 
& queen niary, & Commanded them away in there Majesties 
name with his Seditious Company j^vho after he had at- 
tempted to gett into y e gate haveing one foot in was thrust 
out withdrew himself & Company to within y e gates of y e 
Citty, and there Putt. up y e Kings Jack facing to y e fort, 
and Jacob Milborne after he had charged them to Load 
there -guns with Bullets came to y e Citty gate & Read a 

A Company of Maquase who were come here for y e assist- 
ance of there Majesties Subjects Standing upon y e hill neer 
y e fort and being Spectators to all these tumolts Sent word 
by hille Pieterse y e Interpreters Sister to y e fort to acquaint 
y e Mayor -and ye other gentlemen that Since they were in 
a firm Convenant chain with us, and Seeing yt y e People 
of N : Yorke came in a hostile manner to Disturbe their 
Brethren in y e fort which was for our and there Defence, 
Desyred y l y e said hille should tell them if any of those 
men came without y e gates to approach y e fort they would 
fyre upon them and charged there gunns, 

Upon which the members of y e Convention then p'sent in 
y e fort caused this following Protest to be Read off one of 
y e Mounts 

154 The City Records. 

Fort albany y e 15th day of november 1689 

Whereas one Jacob Milborne hath with a Company of 
armed men, come up to there Majesties fort in a hostile 
manner with full arms and Demanded Possession thereof 
from y e Mayor of y e Citty who has y e Command of y e same' 
who Declared to keep said fort for there Majesties William 
& Mary untill there orders comes but y e said Jacob Milborne 
as a Tumultuous & Mutinous Person doth Proceed to occa- 
sion great Disturbance to there Majesties Liege People, by 
again faceing to y e fort with Loaden arms, Especially so 
many heathens to witt Maquase being y e Spectators thereof 
who seems to be upon y e Point to undertake some Danger- 
ous Design, The Convention of y e Civil & Military officers 
of y e Citty & County of albany now at p'sent in y e fort doe 
therefore Protest hereby in their Majesties King William 
& Queen Maryes name before god and y e world against y e 
s d Milborne and his Seditious Troops, for all Dammages 
Murthers Bloodsheds ^Plunderings and other mischieffs which 
may Ensue by his Rebellious actions and charge him & them 

and commander of there Majesties fort 

The Protest being Read hille akus Sister told y l y e In- 
dians were very much Dissatisfyed & if Milborne did not 
withdraw with his Company they would fyre upon him, 
whereupon y e Mayor Desyred Doctor Dellius & y e Recorder 
to goe to y e Indians tb Pacify and quiet them for y e Bussi- 
ness was y l a Person without Power or authority would be 
Master over y e gentlemen here which they would nott ad- 
mitt ; the Indians answered goe and tell him that if he come 
out of y e gates we will fyre upon him, which Doctor Dellius 
forthwith Communicated to y e s d Milborne at y e head of 
his Company in y e Presence of a great many Burgers who 
made no further attempt to goe to y e fort, but Marched doune 
y e towne and Dismissed his men 

Die Saturni y 16th of november A 1689 
Notwithstanding^* y e Burgers according to their Duty 
had Referred y e Bussinesse concerning y e quartering of y e 

The City Records. 155 

Souldiers to y e Convention on y e 14 instant nevertheless by 
y e Perswasion of Jacob Milborne some of y e Inhabitants 
gathered together att y e house of Gabriel Thompson, where 
Sundrey of y e Very same Persones appeard who were De- 
puted by the People Two days agoe to acquaint y e Conven- 
tion that they Referred y e management of y l affaire wholly 
to them 

And these following Persones to witt Harme Gansevoort 
Pieter Bogardus Myndert harmense Dirk Bensing an Peter 
Van Waggelum Private but Extream active men in these 
Revolutions have taken upon them to sign a Contract 
with ye s d Milborne concerning y e s d Company of Souldiers, 
not only without y e least knowledge or Intimation of y e Con- 
vention but after they were warned to y e contrary who took 
upon them y e Charge as overseers of s d Company together 
with Jochim Staets who was made there Captain, who with 
much Perswasion of s d Milborne at last was accepted by y e 
men to be there Captain y e s d Milborne went away leaving 
said Company here in such Confusion. 

Die Lun. 25 novembris 1689 

Capt Bull arrived at y e Green Bush with 87 men from 
N : England on Teusday following marched with flying Col- 
lors into Citty where he was Reed by y e mayor & aldermen 
att y e gate & bid welcom, he Drew up his men in y e midle 
of y e Broad Street gave three volleys & was answered by 3 
gunns from y e fort y e men were orderly quartered in y e 
Citty and extreamly well accepted. 

The 29 day of november 1689 

Leift Enos Talmadge of Captain Buls Company marched 
with 24 men to Shinnectady to keep y l Post as it was agreed 
upon by y e 5 gentlemen appointed by y e Convention & y e 
Capt Bull & Jochim Staets. 

Whereas Ensign abraham Janse is ordered to convey three 
men with thirty horses to woodberry who came here with 
y e Souldiers sent hither for there Majesties Service These 
are in there Majesties name King William & Queen Mary 
to will and Require all there Majesties Subjects of this 
County of albany and to Desyre all there- .Majesties Subjects 
in y e neighbouring Counties and Collony to be aideing and 

156 The City Records. 

assisting to y e s d Ensign and three men in y e Prosecution of 
there journey and to furnish them with such necessaries as 
they and there horses shall have occasion upon s d Journey 
being for there Majesties Service given att y e Citty hall of 
albany ye 26th day of november in y e first year of there 
Majesties Reign A 1689 

PETER SCHUYLYR Justice of y e Peace 

By the Mayor aldermen and Commonality and Military 
officers of y e Citty of albany and Justices of y e Peace 
and Military officers of y e s a County 

Wee haveing taken into Consideration y e Lamentable 
Condition of this Citty and County, occasioned by a dread- 
full warr threatened from without, of which our neighbours 
and allyes have already felt y e smart, as also y e manifold 
Divisions and factions which are amongst y e Inhabitants 
within* which are fatall Tokens for Land & Church, It is 
therefore thought Convenient to keep a Day Extraordinary 
for fasting & Prayer upon Weddensday y e 4th of December 
1689 to Pray to almighty god (whose wrath and anger for 
our manifold Sinns and transgressions is Righteously kin- 
dled against us) for Pardon and Remission of Sinns and to 
free us from y e bloody Sworde of our Enemies without and 
Especially from y e Inhuman Barbarity of y e heathen, and 
on ye other side to bynde y e hearts and mindes of y e People 
within, with Love and unity to y e Praise of almighty God 
and ye welfare of y e Church and Country, Prohibiting there- 
fore upon s d day all manner of servile worke all Rideing 
Playing or other sorts of Recreation which may hinder or 
obstruct y e worship of God that day Chargeing and Com- 
manding Expressly all y e Inhabitants of this Citty & County 
to keep y e said fast day most Solemnly, Thus given att y e 
Citty hall of albany at a meeting of y e Convention y e 27th 
day of november 1689 in y e first year of there Majesties 

God Save King William & queen Mary 

Capt. Sander glenn Leift John van Eps & Ens : Joh : 
Sanders took ye oath of fidelity to there Majesties before 
Peter "Schuyler Mayor Justice of y e Peace 

The City Records. 157 

Att a Convention &c. 

albany y 28th day of November 1689 

It was thought Convenient by y e Convention y l 5 of there 
members should be appointed to have a Conference with 
Capt Jonathan Bull & Mr Jochim Staets concerning y e Soul- 
diers they have under there Command here in Toune. 

And for that Purpose were nominated Dirk Wessells Capt 
Marte gerritse Levinus Van Schaick Capt Sander glenn & 
Johannes Cuyler who in y e behalfe of y e Convention told 
them they had Two Companies Lyeing in y e Toune and y* 
y e out Plantations were not secured where y e Enemy first 
must be expected as Shinnectady half moon and Canasta- 
gioene, Desyred them to consider y l some men might be 
sent thither with all Expedition, upon which Capt Bull 
Proposed to Mr. Jochim Staets to take tenn men out of his 
Company & y e said Capt Bull would take Twenty men of his 
Company make in all 30 men & send to Shinnectady, upon 
which Mr. Staets answered he was but weake had but 46 or 
47 men, & he would not breake his files he must at least 
keep 10 files, upon which Capt Bull Replyed y 1 he could 
not Expect that they would always be compleat for sicknesse 
and diverse other accidents might happen, Mr. Staets Pro- 
posed y 1 Capt Bull should send 24 men to Shinnectady & 
y l he Staets would join six of his Company with six of Capt 
Bulls men to goe and lye at y e half moon & y l by Turns one 
should have y e Command 14 days & then the other where- 
upon Dirk Wessells answered that there was no quarters for 
12 men at y e half moon but that some men might goe to 
Canastagioene where 6 could be conveniently quarterd and 
y 1 was a Dangerous Passe also But Capt Bull said he did 
not care to have his men so Scattered about. 

The s d Gent: told Mr Staes that y e Convention were De- 
syreous to know upon what account that N : Yorke Com- 
pany lay there & if he would submitt himself to them Since 
they had not seen his Commission, he answerd he could not 
doe that since there were other overseers or weesfaders as 
he termed them appointed over his men, but he Promised 
& would Swear y 1 nothing should be acted or done by him 
against y e Convention althogh new orders did come, & de- 
syred y 1 y e Convention would advise and Consult with these 

Annals, ii. 14 

158 The City Records. 

overseers upon which they answerd that there was many 
Dissections in ye Place already & by such Confusion and so 
many masters y e Contention would augment and Increase, 
Mr Staets Replied it is now so we must doe as well as we 
can Joh : Cuyler asked to see his Commission but Refused 
to show it and so broke off from y l discourse and Returned 
to y e former Proposealls concerning y e Sending out men to 
garrison y out Plantations, & it was finally Concluded that 
24 men of Capt Bulls Company should goe to Shinnectady 
and 6 of his men to Paepsknee & of Mr. Jochim Staets men 6 
to y e half moon 

And as Justices of y e Peace they desyred y e Commission 
officers to call a Court Marshall in y e afternoon to setle y e 
watch in y e Toune y x all Things may goe Regularly as was 

But that which was concluded upon on y e forenoon was 
alterd by some of y e Military officers in there meeting un- 
known to y e 5 gentlemen Viz 1 y' Mr Staets should send of 
his men ten to Shinnectady & Capt Bull 20, butt took no 
care for y e half moon as was concluded upon by y e Commis- 
sioners of y e general Convention Nevertheless y l which was 
Concluded upon by y e Deputies of y e Convention & Capt 
Bull and Mr Staets was thougt fitt by y e Convention to be 
Performed & Capt Bull accordingly sent his Lieft with 24 
men to Shinnectady to keep that post but Mr Staets would 
send out no men as was agreed upon, but went to Shinnec- 
tady with some others of y l faction, Insomuch y l y e Mayor 
himself & some other gent : were necessitated to goe thither 
to see y e men of Capt Bulls Company quartered 

Att a Convention &c. Albany 14th December 1689 Present 
Peter Schuyler Mayor David Schuyler 

D. Wessells Recorder Evert Banker 

Joh: Wendell Reynier Barentse 

Liv V Schaik Joh : Cuyler 

Jan Bleeker Gert Ryerse 

Claes Ripse Kiliaen V. Renselaer 

Albert Ryckman C. Marte gerritse 

Resolved y l some money be Raised by way of Loan for y e 

Paying of Capt Bull & y e other 2 Commission officers come 

The City Becords. 159 

from Canetticut according to Contract who are to have 8 
shil per diem upon which y e Recorder & Mr Van Renselaer 
were sent to Mrs. Schuyler who is willing to advance 18 : for 
a month without Intrest but if it be not Repaid in s d Time 
to have moderate intrest & y l shee may have a Bonde for 
y e Payment of y e Same upon which this following: Bill was 
orderd to be writt 

KNOW all men by these Presents y l we whose names are 
underwritten members of y e Convention of albany doe ac- 
knowlege to have Reed of Mrs. Margret Schuyler y e Somme 
of Eighteen Pounds Courant money of this Province which 
is toward y e payment of Capt Bull and y e other Commission 
officers come from Canetticut according: to Contract which 
s d Somme if it be paid in y e Space of a month after y e date 
hereof then no intrest has to be paid but if it be not justly & 
honestly Paid & satisfyed to y e s d Mrs. Margret Schuyler 
her heirs Executors administrators or assigns in y e Space 
of a month after y e date hereof then we whose names are 
hereunto Subscribed doe Promise Engage and oblige our- 
selfs joyntly and severally our heirs Executors and ad- 
ministrators and every of them firmly by these p'sents to 
pay or cause to be paid unto y e s d Mrs. Margret Schuyler 
her heirs Executors administrators & assigns y e s d Somme 
of 18: with y e Interest of y e same at Per cento to be 
Reckond from y e 18 of January next. In witnesse whereof 
cember 1689 

we have hereunto sett our hands in albany y e day of De- 
Resolved y l Dirk albertse Bratt and hendrik gerritse be 
sent for from Sarachtoge. 


Albany 16th December 1689 

The Albany Convention having received the following 
news it is sent from the Mohawk Sachems by post to Akus 
to be forwarded to us. 

1. That 10 Nations of Twigh Twighs are coming to the 
5 Nations to destroy them. 

2. That two of the Indian prisoners who were sent to 
France have returned back home, who say that Ambas^ac^r^ 
must come to Canida. \|&* 

160 The City Records. 

3. That the Oonondages have sent for the Mohawk war- 
riors and Sachems and that they must bring belts with them. 

4. That the Mohawk prisoners were to France with the 
Cowherd who was taken prisoner at Onnondage. 

5. That Cadarachqui is abandoned by the French. 
Whereupon the gentlemen resolved to send Lawrence alias 

Jannetje the Indian to Onnondage to learn the truth hereof, 
and to forbid them in our name to send Ambassadors to 
Canida or to receive any according to our Treaty not to 
trust the French, and if they let them cheat them not to 
blame us : and to communicate the following news to them. 
That 2 ships have come direct from England to N. Eng- 
land, which give for news 

1. That almost all the large Ships of War are sailed full 
of people towards France, to seize it; full 300,000 men. 

2. That 150 ships are ready to come westward to convoy 
our ships. 

3. That we have here a brave Troop of Souldiers and if 
we want more, there are full 200 in the Sopus, and 3 or 400 
in N. England. 

This is sent in a letter to Sweer Teunise who shall go to 
Akus to interpret it correctly to him. 

Mr. MAYOR Worthy and beloved friend Sr pieter Schuyler. 

Ambassadors from Onondage and Oneyda arrive here just 
now who report to us that I must accompany them to Albany 
to interpret their propositions to you. As it is inconvenient 
for me at present I have taken the liberty to put their 
meaning on paper. 

They let your Honour thus Know that the news received 
from Canada shall not be communicated before all the Sa- 
chems have assembled. Your Honour & Johannes Wendel 
and I are sent for Express to be present there as they will not 
discuss the. matter until you are there, and then your 
Honour shall also deliberate on it in order to consult with 
them as to what may occur to You. 

They have again seen three of their Indians who were 
prisoners, but they do not expect to have them back again 
as they must return quickly to Canada. They also assure 
you that they are not going to lie on there backs in conse- 

The City Records. 161 

quence of these tidings of peace, and learn to fight only by 
looking Sideways at it but they shall again grapple with it 
because Many of their War chiefs ( Veltoversten) have re- 
mained in that Country. 

They also say that had the Governor of Canada sent the 
prisoners back home to us as soon as they had come from 
France, they had in no wise determined on peace, inasmuch 
as only thirteen survived : all the remainder died of Sickness. 

They hear two letters have come to the Jesuit one from 
the Governor, the other from Pere Lamberville. They 
had consulted to wit, those of the Domine's side to burn 
them, but the more cunning Sachems advised that they 
should be opened before the full Council ; your Honour will 
then be able to see whether they will contain any deception 
If, on the other hand there be ruone, they shall then be 
handed to the owners. 

They also acquaint your Honour that it is a lie that 10 
nations of Savages came to destroy them, but Ambassadors 
of 7 different Nations have come in Zinnodo Wan ha and 
restored 2 Seneca prisoners and promised to give up 4 more 
of them as soon as they shall have returned home ; also to 
treat for peace, and say there are 3 Nations which would 
continue the War, namely the KigJitages and the Twight- 
wighs and the Sawenochques and give 2 Strings of Zewant 
with this letter. 

The 3 prisoners from Canada had reported that Cuada- 
roghque is abandoned and they found 30 barrels of powder 
there ; among the rest was a barrel of Match in a hole which 
they intended to set fire to and thus to burn up the others. 
But it went out of itself, after burning an ell in length. 
There found considerable booty both in beaver and peltries 
in the fort. Six of the principal officers were drowned 
after they left the fort and fled to Canada, with divers sol- 
diers but they know not how many. 

They further say that they had proposed this to Duinan- 
dougha, whereupon the Cajadorus answers If my brothers 
do not find it convenient for them to journey so far, they 
would come to Duinandoughe, and should your Honour in- 
form him of your wish it shall be faithfully attended to 
provided your honour send along one, two or three Strings. 

162 The City Records. 

Jo more than commending you to the Lord with the hearty 
Salutations of your Servantby my order. 

This 25th December A 1689 
Addressed Aen d'E. Achtbare Mr 

Major Pieter Schuyler Residerende tot Albany. 

At a Convention of the Mayor Aldermen and Commonality 
and Military officers of y e Citty and County of Albanie 
ye 27th day of December 1689 

Five messengers called Desagochquaetha Arachkoenichta 
Dehashedis Rashiedeagoe and Adochtirasse being sent by 
the Sachims of onnondage and Oneyde to acquaint us and 
them of New England that there are three of y e Indians 
come back into y e Country which were sent Prisoners to 
France, who are Sent by them of Canida to Propose a Peace 
or Truce, but that they have Resolved not to hear them till 
Some Gentlemen goe from hence to be Present at there 
general meeting at Onnondage, and there Consult what 
shall be necessary for y e Publike good Doe Say further that 
there are 13 Indians come back from France the Rest being 
23 all dead of Sicknesse and that there are Two Letters In- 
tercepted which y e Governor of Canida and father Lamber- 
ville had Sent to y e Jesuit in Oneyde, which they keep till 
y e gentlemen from hence arrive there, when they will be 
opend to see what Treachery the french Design 

That there are messengers from Seven of y e farr nations 
come to y e Sinnekes who Speake of Peace haveing Deliverd 
Two Sinn eke Prisoners and Promisd to Deliver foure more 
as soon as they come home, and y' three of y e farr nations 
will Continue y e warr. 

They bring further news y* Cadarachqui is Deserted by y e 

french and that y e Indians have founde thirty Barrells of 

Pouder and abundance of Beverand Peltry there and y* 

Six of y e Principle officers were Drownd in goeing home to 

Canida from Cadarachqui and Sundry Souldiers. 

Vpon which it was Resolved unanimously to Send Caristasie 

Tosoquatho and Jurian three ofy e most Prudent Maquasse 

Thither to onnondage with this answer it not being 

thought Convenient at this juncture to Send Christians 

from y e Convention. 

The City Records. 163 

1 Wee are glad to hear y l y e Report of y e 10 nations of 
Indians Westward comeing Doune to Destroy y w is false 
and on y e other Side much Rejoyced that Seven of s d nations 
are Inclined for Peace, which we y e more must Recommend 
to y e Brethren y l yowmay have y e Larger Scope to Revenge 
your Selfs of y e French for y e Blood shed by that false 
nation, who are now in a mean Condition, and think to 
Ensnare yow with y e 13 Prisoners they have sent for from 
france, and haveing obtained Such a Peace, will have y e 
better opportunity to Catch a great number of y e people as 
they did in y e Last Peace, Therefore we doe Recommend 
you (as we are in a fast Covenant chain together) not to 
hearken to y e french nor Speak to them of Peace Since our 
great king is in actual warr with s d nation 

2 We would come in Person to be Present at your meet- 
ing according to your Desyre, but we have Reed a Ship from 
England which brings us Certain news, that there is a 
governor for us upon y e way with many Souldiers & is 
Expected every houre, when we shall Send you an Expresse 
to Onnondage a horseback hopeing to have orders by our 
Governor that y e English may unanimously goe and Root 
out Canida 

3 Concerning ye 13 Prisoners come from france being all 
that is to be founde of 39 our advise is y* yow make Demand 
of them Positively of y e French, being Stole from yow and 
Deceitfully taken in time of Peace, in y e 2d Place if y e 
french there hearts were good, they would have sent yow y e 
Prisoners assoon as they came from france. Therefore doe 
not heare them Speake of any thing before they have Sent 
you back your Thirteen Prisoners, But yow need not be 
affraid of your Prisoners So Long as yow have y e Jesuit and 
So many french in your Countrey whom yow must keep 
verry well to be Exchanged as was done in Col Dongans 
time ; It is certain they are in no hazard that yow should be 
so hasty to release them, they will nott kill them it not 
being y e Christians fashion. 

4 And for y e Brethrens more Incouragement we can assure 
y w yt the French king hath his hands so full that he can- 
not assist Canida much, Yow may See this Plainly by there 
Leaving Cadarachqui. 

5 That they send y e Two Letters writt by y e governor of 
Canida and Lamberville y e Priest, to y e Jesuit at Oneyde 

164 The City Eecords. 

hither if not already done, and shall Inform them with y e 
Contents thereof, and take Especiall care that the messengers 
that Return to Canida Carry no Letters from y e Jesuit or 
any body Else thither. 

A true Copy Examind per 

Att a Convention &c. Albany, Die Sabbathi y e 5th of Janu- 
ary 16 |f Present Peter Schuyler Mayor D Wessells 
Recorder Captain John wendel Liv : van Schaik C. J. 
Bleeker Claes Ripse David Schuyler albert Ryckman 
C. Marte gerritse Kilian van Renselaer Reynier Barents 
Evert Banker gert Ryerse. 

It was again put to y e vote whether any members of y e 
Convention should goe to Onondage to be Present at y e 
general meeting of y e Indians. 

But was unanimously Resolved upon y e negative Confirm- 
ing there Resolution of y e 27 of december last since it is 
judged dangerous to be there if y e Indians should Conclude 
of 'any Peace or truce which they some times have done 
notwithstanding all Perswasions to y e Contrare, and since 
Tahaiadoris cheeffe sachim of y e JVLaquase is bounde thither 
It is thougt Convenient y l he Repeat y e 5 articles sent by 
Caristasie and Tosoquawo thither and withall put them in 
mind that this is the Prefixed house to speake of Peace and 
all Publike affaires and not Onondage, and y l y e Sachim 
sent for by y e governor of Canida by no means goe thither 
to Treat or act with our great Kings Enemies, and y* we 
hope y l y e 5 nations will not be so mad as to hearken to 
any Peace with the treacherous french at such a juncture 
when y e greatest hopes is of Totally Rooting there name 
out in America but on y e Contrare take y e wholesome advice 
ofthere Brethren y e Christians, who knows what is for there 
Security better then they doe themselfs Lastly to Charge & 
Command them to make no Peace truce or any sort of ami- 
cable treaty with y e french Since his Majesties Declaration 
of warr against them which hes been so much longed for by 
y e English nation is now come over and as they are subjects 
of our great King of England Soe they can not expect to 
keep y e Covenant chain Inviolable with this government 

The City Records. 165 

and make Peace with Canida while we are in actual warr 
with said nation. Therefore Remember we have warned y e 
y* if any evill be fall y u you must always acknowledge we 
gave you fair advertisement. 

It was also Resolved y' Tahaiadoris should have a faddem 
of Duffels a shirt and a Pare of Stockings. 

And y* a Belt of wampum should be sent to y e 4 Sachims 
of Dowaganhaes or farr nations to Congratulate y e Peace 
made between them & y e Sinnekes. 

Att a Meeting &c. 

Albany January 6th 16 f$ 

Present as before except Kiliaen van Renselaer &gertRyerse 

The Convention being mett again to consult about y e 
affaires of y e Indians y e members continue in there opinion 
y l none of y e Convention goe thither to y e Indians general 
meeting, but Considering that it is of great Import, and that 
they may be y e more Certain and Satisfied y 1 y e Proposealls 
sent to said Indians by Tosoquatho Caristasie and Jurian 
may be Exactly and Peremptorily told them ; according as 
it is mentioned in y e 5 articles Concluded upon y e 27 decem- 
ber last. 

It is Resolved y l arnout Cornelise sworne Interpreter goe 
thither toOnnondage withall Convenient speed who Desyres 
y l one may be appointed to goe along with him y 1 tinder- 
stands y e Language, upon which Robert Sanders was pitched 
upon to goe for his assistance who upon his arrival! there 
shall take Especiall Care y l y e 5 articles be Plainly told to 
y e Sachims in there general meeting which are herewith 
given you, & further in our name to acquaint 

PROPOSITIONS to be made by Arnout Cornelise Interpeter 
to whom Robert Sanders is joyned for assistance in y e 
Indians Generall meeting at onnondage in ye name and 
behalfe of y e Convention of albanie over and above y e 
5 articles sent them by Caristasie Tosoquatho and Jurian 
albany y e 6th day of January 16f$ 
1 That albanie is y e Prefixed house to Treat and Speak 

of peace with all Sorts of people and y 1 they who Strive to 

166 The City Records. 

make a Peace or Cessation with y e french must be lookt up- 
on as persones who are Designd to make a breach in y. e great 
Silver Covenant chain which hath been So many years kept 
Inviolable by this government 

2 That they must look upon themselfs as they are, to witt 
Subjects of y great king of England who cann make no 
peace with them who are his Publik enemies You have 
felt y e smart of makeing peace with the french nation al- 
ready, when they were allijes of our Great king, then you 
did it without our Consent 

3 That y e Sachim Degannesore who is sent for by the 
governour of Canida by no means goe thither since they are 
absolute Enemies of our great king whose Declaration of 
warr is now come to hand which hath so long been Desyred 
by y e English nation in which Declaration his majestic for- 
bids all his subjects to keep the least Correspondence with 
y l false nation 

4 Never could there be greater Disobedience and madnesse 
Committed by people then for y e 5 nation to hudle up a sort 
of peace or Cessation of arms with y e french at this Juncture 
when y e greatest hopes are of rooting out of y e Very name 
of y e French in america by the English who are Twenty to 
one of y e french in Canida 

5 We have sent Arnout Cornelise y e Interpreter accom- 
panied with Robert Sanders to be present at your Generall 
meeting not only to Poure understanding into yow, but in 
our name to Charge and Command yow as you love y e pro- 
texion of our great king and y e friendeship of this Govern- 
ment by no means to hearken to nor make any peace or 
Cessation or truce with y e french Directly or indirectly. 

6 Thatt y Sachims Endevor to perswade 3 or 400 Indians 
to come towards our Confines ahunting to be as skouts to 
watch y e french Designs for when they most Speak of peace 
then warr is in there hearts and therefore are not to be 
trusted since they have called all there Garrisons together to 
mont Roy all 

Was Signed PR SHUYLER mayor 


JOH : WENDEL Justice 

A True Copy Examind per 


The City Becords. 167 

At a Convention of the Mayor Aldermen Commonality and 
Military Officers of y e Citty of Albanie and Justices and 
Military Officers of the Said County, held in Albanie 
Die Saturni den llth Januarie A 16|$ Present Peter 
Schuyler mayor, Captain John wendel, Captain Jan 
Bleeker, David Schuyler, Reynier Barents, Gert Ryerse, 
-Captain Marte Gerritse, Dirk Wessels Recorder, Livinus 
Van Shaik, Claes Ripse, Albert Ryckman Evert 
Banker, Kilian van Renselaer, Joh : Cuyler 

A Certain Letter was brougt into y e Convention by 
Captain Johannes Wendell Signd by Jacob Leysler the Con- 
tents whereof are as follows 

New Yorke y 28th December 1689 

GENTLEMEN I having Receivd orders from his Ma- 
jestie KING WILLIAM for takeing care of this Government 
have Commissionated Captain Jochim Staas To take into his 
Possession Fort Orange and keep y e Souldiers in good order 
and Discipline, and y l y e Magistracy may be in a good 
Decorum have Ordered and doe hereby Order that free 
Elections be forthwith made for a Mayor and Aldermen 
whom I have Signified to Captain Staas with whom Pray 
Correspond and give all due assistance for his Majesties 
Intrest and y e Safety of y l Citty and County yt so Peace 
and Tranquillity may be Preserved amongst you, untill wee 
shall Receive further orders from y e King, which is y e need- 
full matter 'at present from 

Your Loveing Frinde 

The Superscription was 

To y e Military and Civill officers and y e Protestant freemen 
Inhabitants of y e Citty and County of Albanie 

Vpon which it was Resolved by y e Convention to send 
the high Sherriffe of y e Citty and County to y e said Jochim 
Staas with this message 

WHEREAS a Certain Letter of Jacob Leysler dated y 28th 
day of December Last at N : Yorke hath been Read in the 
Convention, wherein he writes j l he Jacob Leysler hath Re- 
ceived orders from KING WILLIAM for y e takeing care of 

168 The City Records. 

this Government and accordingly Commissionated Jochim 
Staasto take into his Possession fort Orange and Orders free 
for a mayor and Aldermen whom he hath Signified Elections 
now met together .that Richard Pretty Esquire high SherrifFe 
toy 6 s d Staas, It is therefore thougt Convenient by y e conven- 
tion of y e Citty and County of Albanie doe Repare to Jochim 
Staas, and Demand if any such orders from our Souveraign 
Leidge Lord KING WILLIAM be sent to him as Jacob Leysler 
mentions in his Letter, Being Desyreous to see them that we 
may Conform and Behave our Selfs accordingly : Since y e 
Preservation of y e Peace of our Souveraign Lord KINO 
WILLIAM as it is a duty Incumbent upon us, So it is our only 
aim to have y e same kept Inviolable in these Dangerous 

Sign.d DIRK WESSELS Justice 

Liv : VAN SCHAIK Justice 
of y e Peace 
EVERT BANKER assistant 

The high SherifFeR : Pretty Esquire Returns from Jochim 
Staas and says that he hath Deliverd him y e message & y l 
said Jochim Staas comes Presently 

Jochim Staas appears in y e Convention and says he doth 
not Intend to answer y e Convention and says he doth not 
Intend to answer y e Convention by writeing but by Dis- 
course, alledgeing that he might be Ensnared by writeing 
upon which the Gentlemen did Insist, that if he had any 
Lawfull Authority Devolved from our Souveraign Lord 
KING WILLIAM upon Jacob Leysler, that he would be pleased 
to show itt, they were willing to Obey, and notwithstanding 
y e orders were not Directed to Mr Leysler yet they were 
willing with all cheerfullnesse to Obey such orders as-were 
Comprehended in said Letters, but cannot obey Captain 
Leysler as Leift governor Except his Majestic hath made 
him soe, upon which Jochim Staas Replyed y 1 we knew well 
eneugh y e KING'S Letters were Directed to Captain Nichol- 
son and in his absence to such as for y e time being take care 
for y e Preserveing y e Peace and administring the Laws in 
their Majesties Province of New Yorke, and further said 

The City Records. 169 

Lett y e Bell be Rung and Lett all y e People come Together 
and then he would show what he had to show, Whereupon 
y e gentlemen of ye Convention Replyed that they were not 
willing to Runn into Confusion to Convein y e People beforo 
they knew what to Publish or Declare to them; and withall 
Desyred Since he acknowledged to have a Proclamation for 
y e Proclaimeing of there Majesties King and Queen of 
England Scotland France and Irland &a which of Scotland 
hath not hitherto been done here, that they might have 
there Majesties Proclamation to Proclaim there s d Majesties 
accordinly, and they would cause the Companies come in 
arms, & doe it with what Solemnity the Place could afford, 
but y e s d Jochim Staas answered y l y e Proclamation was 
sent to him, & he would Obey Orders 

Post Meridiem. 

Jochim Staas accompanied with Peter Bogardus came to 
y e Convention and there showd an Order from Jacob Leysler 
authorizeing Jochim Staas assisted with y e Freeholders and 
Inhabitants of Albanie to Proclaim William and Mary 
Prince and Princesse of Orange to be king and Queen of 
England Scotland France and Irland &a Since he y e s d 
Leysler had Received Letters from y e Lords of his Majesties 
most honorable Privy Councill dated y e 29th day of July 
1689 to Proclaim there Majesties if not already done, to 
which Intent he had sent a Proclamation for y e Same Pur- 
pose which Proclamacon is made by y e s d Leysler and not 
a Proclamation sent hither by there Majesties as y e Gentle- 
men of the Convention did Conclude and Expect it was. 

VPON which many Debates were made, But Jochim Staes 
Insisted Principally if the Gentlemen did not acknowledge 
Captain Leysler to be Lieutenant Governor and Commander 
in Cheeffe of this Province, and whither they would obey 
him as Such. 

The Gentlemen of y e Convention asked if he had nothing 
else to show which Impoured Captain Leysler to be Lieu- 
tenant Governor then those Papers now Produced and if he 
had y e Copies of y e Letters Sent by his Majestic for y e 
Province of N : Yorke, who Replyed, If he did show the 
Copies thereof then yow would say it was Milborn's writeing, 

Annals ii. 15 

170 The City Records. 

he Staas shewd a Commission from Leysler to take Posses- 
sion of fort Orange and an order for a day of Thanksgiveing. 
The Convention told Jochim Staas that if be could Produce 
but ye Least orders from his Majesty King William directed 
to Jacob Leysler then they would obey him and Submitt, 
Else thougt itt not answerable to Obey his Commands in y e 
Least, but desyred Copies of those Papers which he shewed, 
& they would Consider y e Bussinesse when Some members 
of y e Convention who were not in Toune were made ac- 
quainted with itt and give him there answer in writeing 
telling him withall they were Intended to write to Captain 
Leysler about it, but y e s d Jochim Staas did not think it 
Convenient to give Copies of y e s d Papers and so went away 
he and Peter Bogardus together. 

Att a Meeting of there Majesties Justices of y e Peace of y e 
Citty and County of Albany Die Sabbathi L2' n() Janu- 
ary A 16f Post Meridiem Present P' Schuyler May' 
Dirk Wessells Record 1 " Cap 1 Job : Wendel Cap 1 Jan 
Bleeker Livinus van Schaik David Schuyler Alb 1 Ryck- 
man Cap 1 Marte Gerritse Kiliaen van Renselaer Claes 
Ripse Justices ofy e Peace. 

ALL the Justices of y e Peace of y e Citty and County of 
Albanie except Major Abraham Staas Dirk Teunise and 
Captain Sander Glen were Conveined together to give 
their opinions whether Captain Jacob Leysler ought to 
be Esteemed and acknowledged to be y e Lieutenant Go- 
vernor and Commander in Cheefe of the Province Since 
nothing hitherto hath been Produced to there view from his 
most Sacred Majesty KING WILLIAM our Souveraign Leige 
Lord whereby they can acknowlege him soe, only takes upon 
him y e Title in Severall Papers which have been showne 
by Jochim Staas yesterday. 

Peter Schuyler Mayor his vote is that he cannot acknow- 
lege y e s d Captain Leysler to be Lieutenant Governor and 
Commander in Cheeffe of this Province nor Obey his orders 
till he hath showne that he hath Lawfull Authority from 
his most Sacred Majesty KING WILLIAM so to be. 
Dirk Wessells votes y e same with y e Mayor 

The City Records. 171 

Captain Wendel is van opinie ora dat hy sich Sodanigh 
Shryft als Luytenant Governeur en Commandeur an Chef, 
dat zyn verstant niet & can beseffen off het sodanigh is of 
niet & is ; 

Captain Jan Jansz Bleeker is of y same opinion with 
Captain Wendell which being translated is as follows that 
because he writes himself soe as Lieutenant Governor and 
Commander in Cheeffe, That his understanding cannot Com- 
prehend whither it be soe or not soe 

Livinus van Schaik is of y e Same opinion with y e Mayor 
David Schuyler is of y e same opoinion with y e Mayor 
Albert Ryckman of y e Same opinion with y e Mayor 
Captain Marte Gerritse is off opinion y ! he cannot see y l 
he is Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Cheeffe, 
before he shows it, 'that he hes it from his most Sacred 

Kiliaen van Renselaer is of y e same opinion with y e Mayor 
Claes Ripse is of y e same opinion with y e Mayor 
The opinion of Captain Jonathan Bull who Commands 
the men sent hither from N : England for our assistance 
being asked says, That for any thing he hath either seen or 
heard yet, hath no Reason to Conclude y l Captain Jacob is either Lieutenant Governor or Commander in 
Cheeffe of y Province of N : Yorke 

The opinion of James Bennet Ensign to Captain Jonathan 
Bull being asked says, y l for anything that hes appeared to 
him, he cannot judge that Captain Leysler is Lieutenant 
Governor & Commander in Cheeffe of y e Province of N : 

While y e s d Justices of y e Peace were together a Letter 
comes from Captain Sander Glenn there Majesties Justice 
of y e Peace at Shinnechtady Informing them how that there 
are five Commissions come to Shinnectady from Captain 
Leysler for five Justices of y e Peace brougt thither by 
Jeronimus Wendell and Gerrit Luykasse, y e Persones are 
Myndert Wemp Dowe Aukus Ryer Jacobse David Christ- 
offelse & Johannes Pootman, and a Commission to call the 
People together to choose new Captain Lieutenant & Ensign 
and a Toune Courte, and y l y e s- 1 5 justices come here to- 
morrow to assist Mr Jochim Staas and to Enter upon there 

172 The City Records. 

The said Captain Sanders together with y e Lieutenant & 
Ensign and Sweer Teunise members of y e Convention doe 
write to the gentlemen that there vote is not to Obey Cap- 
tain Leyslers orders, But to Protest against his Illegal Pro- 

And since we are Informed by Captain Bleeker of one of 
y e Train band Companies of this Citty that Jochim Staas 
did ask him to beat y e Drum and call his Companie together 
tomorrow to Publish a Proclamation sent hither by Captain 
Leysler of there Majesties to be King and Queen of Eng- 
land Scotland France and Irland, which Proclamation y e s d 
Justices Declare they are Ready to Proclaim, if there is y e 
Least Title of orders for y e same from there Majesties but 
since this is used merely as a means to Establish Captain 
Leyslers authority who makes y e s d Proclamation 

It is y e opinion of y e Mayor and Aldermen and the Jus- 
tices to Discharge Captain Bleeker and Captain Wendel 
not to Convein their Companies together nor beat any Drums, 
to Disturbe y e Peace of there Majesties Leige People of this 
Citty, Since y e s d Magistrates are Resolved to use all means 
and methods to Preserve y e Peace of our Souveraigne Lord 
king WILLIAM & Queen MARY and not to suffer y e Least 
Innovation or Alteration in y e government of this Citty and 
County till orders comes from his Majesty King William 
for y e same, which never hath been hitherto showne 

RESOLVED that for y e Preservation of y e Peace of our 
Souveraign Lord"& Lady King William & Queen Mary and 
y e wellfare of the Inhabitants of this Citty and County of 
Albanie the following Protest be Published in a most 
Solemn manner tomorrow, only Captain Wendel & Captain 
Bleeker say they will have nothing to doe with y e Protest 
when they heard it Read 

WHEREAS Jacob Leysler of y e Citty of N : Yorke Mer- 
chant hath for some monthes past assumed to himself a 
Power to Command there Majesties Fort at N : Yorke, and 
brougt to his Devotion severall of y e adjacent Tounes and 
Villages without y e Least Commission or Authority derived 
to him from y e Croune of England; whose Ambitious and 
Restlesse Spiritt, together with Diverse of his. associates have 
Indefaticably strove and Endevord to bring there Majesties 
KING WILLIAM and QUEEN MARYS Loveing subjects in ye 

The City Eecords. 173 

Citty and County of albany unto y e same Confusion and , 
Slavery, upon Pretence to Redeem them from Arbitrary 
Power, and to free them from y e Yoke of Popery, which his 
Creatures when Last here did Endevor to Infuse into y e 
heads of y e People and to stirr them up to Sedition and 
Dissobedience to y e Lawfull Authority Confirmed by there 
Majesties most Gracious Proclamation; But he the said 
Leysler not attaining his aim, which was y e Subversion of 
y e Government of this Citty and County (so Extream Dan- 
gerous at this Juncture by Reason of y e Indians) Continues 
Still his Malice, and Endevors to Disquiet there Majesties 
Leige People, by assumeing to himself the Titell of Lieuten- 
ant Governourand Commander in Cheeffe of there Majesties 
Province of N : Yorke, without ye Least Shadow of orders 
or authority so to doe from his most Sacred Majestic KING 
WILLIAM, Deludeingthe Common People and makeing them 
Believe, y l y e letters which were sent by his Majestic to 
Francis Nicholson Esquire his Majesties Lieutenant governor 
and Commander in Cheeffe of New Yorke and in his absence 
to such as for y time being take Care of y e Preserveing of 
Peace and administering ye Laws in said Province of N : 
Yorke, Belonged to him, which he can no ways Pretend to, 
but on y e Contrary we must Conclude are Directed to us so 
farr as y e County of albany is a Part of y e Province of New 
Yorke and althogh y e s d Leysler is sufficiently senceible of 
y e Dangerous Condition y e Citty and County of Albany are 
in, by Reason of y e French of Canida and there Indians 
which we may dayly Expect, haveing Intelligence that they 
have Drawne all there forces together to Mont Royall, y e 
season of y e year being now most favourable, if they Design 
to make any Attaque upon us, who besides are useing all 
Possible means to Delude and Draw off y e five nations of 
Indians westward from there Obedience and Subjection to 
y e Croune of England by there Indians Lately come from 
france, By which means there Majesties Intrest will not only 
in y e Citty and County of albany but also in y e Northern 
Parts of america suffer Extreamly,To Prevent which we have 
spared neither cost nor Trouble to secure them to this Go- 
vernment. Yet he y e . said Lteysler doth Continue to make 
new Confusions when Peace and Unity is moat Requisite 
by sending orders and Commissions to Jochim Staes, Par- 

174 The City Records. 

ticularly a Commission to take into his Possession fort 
Orange and Diverse oyr Commissions to sundrey Persones 
of this Citty and County, intending thereby to subvert y e 
government here and Turn all upside Downe, writing Sedi- 
tious. Letters which are come to our hands wherein he orders 
new Elections for Mayor and Aldermen forthwith to be made 
whom he hath signified to y e & Staas Contrare to the Pre- 
viledges of this Citty G-raunted by Charter, soe y 1 Great 
Part of y e Time must be spent to Defeat the s (1 Leyslers 
Pernicious and Malitious Designs which otherwise Could be 
Employd to Resist upon all occasions y e Common Enemy 
and for y e Publike good, and althogh y e Bussinesse hath 
been -sufficiently Debated with y e s d Jochim Staas and so 
many Arguments used as ought to , Convince any Rationall 
man, That if he could show but the Least Title of an order 
from our Souveraign Leige Lord KING WILLIAM to y e s d 
Leysler or authentique Copies thereof, wee were willing and 
Ready to Obey him or if he could not Produce Such that 
if he could but Deliver us authentique Copies of his Majes- 
ties Letters or orders sent to Captain Nicholson, wee were 
most willing to Obey and Perform -whatever was Compre- 
hended in the Same, wee have by the assistance of God 
durein^ these Revolutions taken care for y e Preserveing y e 
Peace & and adrninistring y = Laws in our said Citty and 
County notwithstanding all Combinations and Contrivances 
to y c Contrare, and forasmuch as we have seen among y e 
Papers sent by y e s d Leysler to Jochim Staas a Proclama- 
tion made by y e s d Leysler Pretended Lieutenant Governor 
and Commander in Cheeffe for y e Proclaiming WILLIAM 
and MARY Prince and Princesse off Orange KING and QUEEN 
of England Scotland france & Irland & a together with a 
warrant Signd by y e s d Leysler authorizeing Jochim Staas 
to Publish y e same, mentioning y l he Leysler had Received 
Orders dated y e 29th day of July 1689 (never yet showne 
to us) to Proclam there Majesties if not already done, which 
Titles of Prince and Princesse off Orange since they have 
above six months agoe been Proclaimed here KING and 
QUEEN of England France and Irland &a and we in there 
names so acted would be a Dimunition of there Majesties 
Titles, but if they were to be again Proclaimd wee Conceive 
would be of Scotland alone, since it is mentiond in s d Order 

The City Eecords. 175 

to Proclaim there Majesties if not already done ; And altho 
y e s d Staas knows y l there Majesties were Proclaimed here 
in albany on y e first day of July Last KING & QUEEN of 
England France and Irland & a in y e Self same manner as 
our neighbours of Boston had done to whom his Majesties 
is Pleased to signify his Royall approbation of y e same and 
gracious acceptance, and having Desyred y e s d Jochim Staas, 
that if there was any Orders from there Majesties for a 
second Proclamation because .Scotland was not Inserted in 
y e first that we were most willing and Ready to doe itt with 
what solemnity y e Place could afford But could get no oy" r 
answer of him, then whether we would not acknowlege 
Leyslers authority," and yt he had no other Proclamation 
then y l made by y e s d Leysler which s d Proclamation we are 
Credibly Informed y e s d Jochim Staes doth Design to Pro- 
claim by which means he Intends to Erect and Establish 
Leyslers authority here, and so overthrow y e whole p'sent 
Magistracy, whereby many Mischeiffs and Calamities must 
of necessity Ensue to his Majesties good subjects since y e 
Indians have much Depended upon them during these 

And that it may be Apparent to y e world that we under- 
written Mayor and aldermen of y e City of albany and Justices 
of y e Peace of y e said County have done and still Continue 
to doe what lyes in our Power for y e Preservation of Peace 
and Tranquillity among y e Inhabitants of this City and County 
till y e arrivall of a governor or Orders from his most Sacred 
Majestic KING WILLIAM which is daily Expected, and to 
Prevent Such Confusion Innovation and Alteration Since 
it is an Indispenceible duty upon us at this juncture, and 
fearing to Incurr there Majesties Displeasure for our too much 
Lenity, Wee doe in his Majesty's KING WILLIAM'S name, 
forewarn Discharge forbid and Prohibite y e s (1 Jochim Staas 
and his associates upon Pain of Rebellion to Con vein or cause 
any meeting or assembly of People to come together, within 
this Citty and County of Albany upon any Pretence what- 
soever whereby there Majesties Peace any wise may be Dis- 
turbed ; and therefore in y e Behalfe of ther Majesties Leidge 
People of y e said Citty and County we do PROTEST against y e 
s d Jochim Staets and his associates for all Bloodshedds, 
Plunderings Robberies, mischeeffs Dammages, Losses 

1T6 The City Records. 

Detriments that may henceforth Ensue by his or there Ir- 
regular and Illegal Proceedings, Since such meetings can 
be looked upon no other ways then as Contrare to y e Peace 
of our Souveraign Lord and Lady King William & Queen 
Mary there Cronne and Dignity In Testimony whereof we 
have hereunto Sett our hands and Sealls in albany y e 13th 
day of January in y e first year of there Majesties Reign a 
16ff and caused y e same to be Entered in the Publike 
Register of y e Citty and County Signed & Seald p r 

P* SCHUYLER mayor 

. AND QUEEN MARY L v SHAIK alderman. 

K v : RENSSELAER Justice 
DAV : SCHUYLER alderman : 
ALB'RYCKMAN alderman 
CLAES RIPSE v : DAM alderman 

The Manner how y e s d Protest was Publishd on y e 13th 
day of January 16-|f was orderd to be Entred being as fol- 

The Mayor with y e . Recorder and Aldermen and y e Justices 
and y e Common Councill marchdfrom there Majesties Fort 
(The marshall going before with a white Rod) accompanied 
with diverse of y e Antient Citizens, with a guarde of fifty 
Inhabitants in arms The Mayor as y e Kings Leif 1 together 
with y e Recorder alderman Shaik and Captain Marte 
Gerritse Justice of y e Peace as soon as they came with- 
in y e Citty Gates, went with there Swords Pointed ; Then 
followdy 6 other aldermen and justices and Common Councill 
and Sundrey Citizens and then the guards and in this Posture 
with Drumms Beateing came to y e Plain Before y e Church 
where y e Bell Rung thrice. Then y e Mayor made a speech 
to y e Citizens which flokd together, shewing the Reasons why 
he came there in Such manner Then y e PROTEST was 
Read in English and Dutch, this being done they all went 
in y e Same Posture through y e Principle Streets of y e Citty 
and So up to y e fort, where y e guardes were Dismissd and 
thankd by y e Mayor y e Present Commander of y e fort for 
y e Service they had done there Majesties KING WILLIAM 
and QUEEN MARY that day, and y e Protest sent by y e Mar- 
shall to be affixed at y e Porch of y e Church. 

The City Records. 177 

Evert Banker Gerrit Ryerse and Eghbert Teunise assist- 
ants Concurr with y e Mayor aldermen and Justices in y e 
Protest and think it Extream needful that it be most So- 
lemnly Published who went themselfs in Person and see it 
done and desyred that this there Opinion and advice as 
assistants of y e Citty might be Entred. 

Captain Sander Glenn one of there Majesties Justices of 
y e Peace came to y e office and Perrused Proceedings of y e 
Justices Enterd yesterday Concerning y e not acknowledg- 
ing Jacob LeyslerofN: Yorke Merchant to be governor 
and Commander in Cheeffe of this Province who Concurrs 
with y e Re?t of y e Justices y 1 he cannot be Esteemed So 
nor his orders be Obeyd till y e s d Leysler hath Showne that 
he hath Lawfull authority from his Majestic King William 
so to be and desyred that his vote might be Entred, and also 
y l he Concurrs with y e Rest of the Justices in y e Protest 
and approoves of y e same. 

A true Copy Examind By me 


Albany ye 20th of January 16J Present P* Schuyler 
mayor D. Wessells C : Wendel C : Bleeker L. V. Shaik 
albt Ryckman 

The mayor and Aldermen haveing Consulted to day how 
to Procure some Christians and Indians to goe towards y e 
Great Lake to Lye as skouts for y e space of three weeks to 
give notice if y e ffrench should come with an army to Invade 
there Majesties Territory, but could fynde none y* would 
goe under 2 shil 6d to 3 shil p r day, for Capt Bull would suffer 
none of his men to goe alledgeing it Contrare to his In- 
structions, and while they were bussy discourse s d affare y e 
following Indians came and s d as follows vizt. 

Proposeal made by Captain Blew Stocking and anoy 
maquase called Deganochkeeri to y e mayor & alderman 
in albany y e 20 January 16f Present P r Schuyler mayor 
J : Bleeker Dirk wessells Recorder alb 1 Ryckman Livinus 
van Shaik 

BRETHREN We have sent by y e 40 maquase Souldiers 
now at Shennechtady to acquaint y w that they are come to 

178 The City Records. 

goe out as Skouts towards y e lake and otter creek to wath 
y e Desiirne of y' Deceiver y e governor of Canida to see if he 
will come and Invade our Country again & if'we Discern any 
Progresse of his we have 4 Indians y l we send forthwith 
Post to give y u & our people advertisement Such we in- 
tend to spend our time So till y e Ice be out ofy e water & 
there design to make Canoes & goe to Caaida a fighting But 
we being Poor doe want amunition as Pouder lead & axes 
for y e journey, & gave 7 hand of wampum as a token desy re- 
ing J l J e governor may Provide them with Such ammunition 

Answer to y e s d Messengers y e 21th d Present P r 
Schuyler Liv : V. Shaik D : wessels J Bleeke J. wendel 

We are glad thaty w take our Recommendations so well 
and haste to be vigilant at this Juncture when y e false french 
might come & fall upon your Country ; Proceed & look out 
well & give us an account from time to time how all affares 
is with y w & according to your Request we have sent to y e 
s d Companie three Baggs of Pouder & 20 Barrs of lead to 
make use of in s d Expedition, Desyreing y w to make all 
speed thither imaginable; & y w need not fear but we shall 
be Ready upon all occasions if the french should come ; 

The s d Indians were very thankfull and s d they would 
withal speed goe to Shinnechtady & forward y e Companie & 
hasten them upon there march, A true Copy 

Examind p r 

[For entries which follow in these Records, relating to the 
burning of Schenectady, see Doc. Hist., vol. I, pp. 302-306.] 

Feb 10th 

Resolved yt 25 volunteers goe under y e Command of Leift 
Evert de Ridder together with those men gone to Shinnec- 
tady this morning and Pursue and follow after y e french & 
Indian Enemy who have carried Sundrey of there Majesties 
Subjects Captives from Shinnectady who had this following 

Whereas the french and Indians of Canida have come in 
a hostile manner massacred and murtherd Sundry of there 
Majesties Subjects at Shinnectady burning y e Towne and 

The City Records. 179 

caried divers Captives along with them ; yow are hereby re- 
quired in there Majesties name king William and Queen 
Mary to PursuS and follow after y e s cl french and Indians 
with so many volunteers as shall be sent with y w and y e s d 
french and Indians to kill and Destroy and y e Captives to 
Rescue and Redeem out of y e s d Enemies hands if Possible, 
always Provided yow meet with a sufficient number of friend 
Indians at Shinnectady to assist yow in said Expedition 

You are to take Especiall care to have always Spyes and 
Skouts out to Prevent all ambushes in y e march and to keep 
y e said men in good order and Discipline & y e men are to be 
obedient to y r orders as Souldiers are obliged to obey there 
officers by y e Law marshall given in albany y e 10th day of 
february 16-f 

To Leift Evert de Ridder 

It was Resolved to Detach 30 men more out of y e Com- 
panie to go to Shinnectady y e Mayor Peter Schuyler Joc- 
him Staets & Robert Livingston were to goe out along with 
them but after that y e Respective Posts and watches were 
reduced by Mr Wessells Captain Jochim Staets & Captain 
Bleeker they were found so weake that they could not spare 
there men & y e People generally unwilling to consent that 
any more men should go out of Towne not being much above 
150 men in y e Citty. 

Die Martis Albany ye llth day of Febuary 16f| 
Haveing Received Information from Shinnectady last 
night y l no messenger was yet gone to y e Maquase Castle to 
warn them to come doune it was resolved that Mr Wessells 
should goe in all haste thither to bring doune y e Maquase 
and Captain Gerrit Teunise to goe with a Party of men now 
att Shinnectady to follow y e Enemies Tract to see if they 
have a stronger army or any party bounde hither to this 
Toune and comeing to Shinnectady were assured that a 
messenger was gone to y e Maquase Castles, and Lawrence 
y e Indian haveing been out in pursuit of y e Enemy with 9 
men which Lay here in Toune got an Indian Prisoner by y e 
way who was examind and told y l the Enemy were not 
many above a hundred french and 100 Indians y e s d Lawrence 
y e Maquase Proposed y 1 he now had 49 .men of y e Maquase 
& River Indians sent from Albany, y* he was Intended to 

180 The City Records. 

pursue y e Enemy to morrow, for his heart was Broke to see 
so much of his Brethrens blood shed and would Procure 
some of y e Prisoners back again either by force or by strate- 
gern, upon which Mr Wessells proposed to y e young men 
come there with Leift Evert de Bidder } now yow see what 
that Lawrence y e Indian Intends, how many of yow are 
willing to goe along with him & serve there Majesties king 
William & Queen Mary & Pursue there Enemies that have 
Destroyed so many Christians, out of which Companie & of 
some oy rs y l came from Albany only 21 went out with Law- 
rence y e Maquase on y e 12 of february being Weddensday, 
and just as they were furnish d and Beady to goe y e Indians 
of y e first & 2d Castle came to Captain Sanders but y c 
weather being so badd & such a Bain they could not Proceed 
y ! day Expecting y e Indians of y e 3d Castle would be there 
that night. 

The 12th dito Die Mercury. 

Last night was Besolved upon to make Beady one hundred 
men, to joyn with y e 50 men y l were at Shinnectady & 
with y e Maquase & Biver Indians & so pursue y e Enemy, 
but this day y e great Thaw and Bain Prevented there march 
and quite Discouraged y e People of haveing any Successe, 
we writt therefore to Shinnectady to Mr Wessells y l we 
hoped he had sent y e men forward that was there and them 
were sent him last night, Since we see no Probability of 
Sending any more from hence y e weather being so badd 
which accordingly was done haveing advice y l Mr. Wessells 
had Dispatchd about 90 or 100 Christians & Indians & y e 
Skachkooc Indians w ch were gone by the way of Sarach- 
toge were to meet them together with y e 40 maquase y l 
were out as skouts Lawrence sending forthwith 2 messengers 
before to warn y e s d 40 Indians to meet them. 

The 13th dito. Die Jovis. 

About 10 a Clock y e Indians of Tionondage y e 3d Castle 
of y e Mohoggs came to Shinnectady who Bested there that 
day, alderman Shaik Captain Staets & Ensighn Shuyler 
were Commanded out with a Party of men to joyn y e Tion- 
ondages and so Pursue y e Enemy but comeing to Shinnectady 
y e Indian Prisoner taken by Lawrence being given to y e 

The City Records. 181 

Sachims of Tionondage after they had Tormented him he 
was given to an Indian wooman according to there custome 
who gave him his life, who then Confessed y l when he came 
out of Canida there were 600 men making Ready to come 
out towards albany or N: England, which Discouraged 
alderman Shaik Captain Jochim Staets to Proceed ; The 
more because a negro woman of Shinnectady was told y e - 
Same by a Spanyard y l was among y e french y l a Design 
was Laid against albany, So y l y e Tionondages went out & 
followed Lawrence, & after they had been out a day came 
back again till Lawrence sent a messenger that he was 
within a days journey of y e Enemy and Praid them to come 
up with all speed then they went & 9 of our Christians 
with Ens : abr : Schuyler, but could not overtake y e Enemy 
y e Christians came back & y e Indians went on The maquase 
upon our Dsyre granted the Indian Prisoner to be sent to 
y e fort to be Secured for fear of his Running away to Canida 
Captain Garten Captain Paling Captain Beekman & 
Captain Matthys with 30 men came from Sopus for our as- 

Atta meeting of y e Convention of albany y e 15th day of 
february 16f^ Present P r Schuyler Mayor Lev. van Shaik 
Claes Ripse, Joh : Cuyler, . Capt Marte gerritse Capt 
Garten D. wessells Recorder J. Bleeker albt. Ryckman 
Evert Banker Capt gerrit Teunise Capt Paling Capt 

Resolved to write to y e governor & Councill of Boston 
Connetticut & Virginia & to y e Civill & Military officers of 
N : Yorke & desyred them to joyn together that Quebeck 
may be taken by water in y e Spring as p r said letters appears 
Stephen Lee & Mr Davenport were sent Post to Boston 
and Connetticut & Cornelise Viele to N : Yorke 

The 18th of february 16|f 

Whereas there are severall houses near y e Citty which 
stand Extream Dangerous & y e Enemy being dayly Ex- 
pected y e generality of y e Citizens desyre that they may be 
pulled doune It is ordered by y e mayor aldermen and com- 
monality of y e Citty of Albany y l y e same be forthwith re- 
Annals, ii, 16 

182 The City Records. 

moved to wift y e house of Barent albertse Bratt y e house of 
William hoffmayer y e house of adriaen appel, y e house of y e 
widow of Cornelise vanderholve, and to y e end that y e same 
may be effected with y e Least Dammage to y e owners these 
following p'sones to witt Peter Winne Peter Bogardus 
William Claese Groesbeek harme Gansevoort Dirk Bensing 
& Jan Cornelise Vyselaer are appointed and authorized to 
agree with y e owners Else to apprise the same, which s d ap- 
prizement is to be paid by the Publike & to order yt ye 
same may be broke off in the most orderly way with all 
speed ;y e s (1 6 Persones are also authorized to Cause all y e 
fences & trees standing neer the Toune to be Removed & 
to warn y e owners to doe it with all Expedition else to order 
it to be done, in doeing whereof this shall be y e sufficient 
warrant ; y c s d men are authorized to give there Report 
whether any oy r houses ought to be Removed in this danger- 
ous time that order may be taken therein actum in albany 
y e 18th day of february 16f-- Signd Peter Schuyler mayor 
J. Bleeker Job: wendel albert Ryckman Claes Ripse van 
dam Liv : van Shaik Jochim Staets Gerrit Ryerse Reynier 

Albany ye 21th february 16f Present P r Schuyler D 
Wessells Claes Ripse albert Ryckman Eghbert Teunise 
Joh Cuyler gert Ryerse Capt gert Teunise Capt Marte 

Peter Winne Peter Bogardus Harme gansevoort Dirk 
Bensing & Jan Cornelise Vyslaer who were authorized to 
give there Report whether any oy r houses ought to be Re- 
moved from y e Toune walls, doe say y l y e 4 houses of Barent 
albertse Brat Adrien appel W m hoffmayer & y e widow of 
Cornelise vanderholve be Removed y e oy r houses may stand 
till further order, but y l all fences Trees and oy timber must 
be Removed 60 paces without y e City stockadoes, & all oy r 
things with might hinder y e view of y e enemy 

Item y l y e Curtain must be Repaired by Bennony van 
Korlaers & by y e Mayor P r Schuylers. 

Ordered y l y e houses of Barent albertse Bradt W m hoff- 
mayer adriaen appel & y e widow of Cornelise vanderholve 
be pulled doune by y e Companies of Capt Bleeker & Capt 

The City Records. 183 

Wendel & sett up again within y Citty on such lotts as shall 
be appointed for y 3 same &y l y e quarter of a Companie doe 
work at a time & so by Turns 

The Mayor aldermen & Commonality have granted to 
Adrien appel y e Lott between Jurian van hoese & Reynier 
Schaets for his house to be erected there, that is to say so 
much grounde as his house can stand on in front to be on y e 
Side of Jurian van hoese & for W in hoofmayer y c Lott Be- 
hinde between y e Brew house of Bennony van Corlaer & y e 
Lott of Reynier Shaets deceased that in so much as y e s d 
house can stand upon in front next to y e Brew house Pro- 
vided y e Lotts of y e s d W m Hoffmayer & adriaen appel with- 
out y e gate shall for y e future belong to y e Mayor aldermen 
& Commonality of y e Citty of albany & there successors 

Ordered y l y e house of Barent alberts Bradt be erected 
on a lot of Johannes den wandelaer next to hans hendriks 
& if y l s !l Johannes de wandelaer and Barent albertse Bradt 
cannot agree about y e Price 4 persones shall be appointed 
to apprize y e same w 11 y s s d Barent is to pay, & then y e 
Lott without y e gate Remains his but not to be built upon 
without order 

Ordered y l all persones y l have fences neer y e Toune be 
warned to Remove y e same 60 paces from y e Toune Stocka- 
does in 3 day's time 

Ordered y- first divison of Captain Bleekers Companie 
goe to worke & Pull doune y e s d 4 houses on Munday morning 
standing neerest y e gates, beginning at the house of Barent 
albertse Bradt which house together with y e house of William 
hoffmayer and adriaen appel is to be sett up again by y e 
Inhabitants in some Convenient Place within y e Citty & 
y r by every division both in Pulling doune y e houses & 
setting them up there be at least one Carpenter or Two. The 
house of y e wid w of Cornelise vanderholve being old and 
Decayed is only to be pulled doune 

Ordered y l y e gate by harme ganseforts be forthwith 

184 The City Records. 

At a meeting &c. Albany y e 22th day of February 16|f 
Present Pr Schuyler Mayor D. Wessells Recorder L : 
v : Shaik J : Bleeker Albt Ryckman Joh : Cuyler Rey- 
nier Barents Kiliaen van Renselaer Ev : Banker Capt 
Bull Capt Jocbim Staets Ens : Bennitt Capt Paling 
Capt Beekman Ens : Joh : Sanders Pr Winne William 
de Mayer C : Marte gerritse Claes Ripse Capt garten 
Capt gerrit Teunise Lt Robt Sanders 

Resolved that for y e p'servation of there Majesties Intrest 
in these parts & y e Secureing of there Subjects in this time 
of war with y e french, y l all means be used to Perswade all 
y e Maquase to come & live & Plant at Shinnectady lately 
Destroyed by y e french and there Indians which will be a 
means y l y e winter Corn sowed there may be Reaped & y e 
Indians in Readinesse to joyn with our forces upon any 
occasion if y e enemy should come 

Resolved y* all Endevors be used to Perswade y e Indians 
of Skachkook to come & live & Plant upon Marte gerritse 
Island neer y e toune whereby y e fidelity of y e Indians will 
he knowen & they Ready upon all occasions to goe as Skouts 
to discover y e Enemy & to assist upon any attempt of y e 

Resolved yt y e River Indians liveing at Beere Island and 
Catskill be Perswaded to goe all & live & Plant at Catskill 
who will be Ready on all occasions to be employed as skouts 
or oyrwise which will much Conduce for y e Security of our 
neighbours of y e County of ulster by there Continuall hunt- 
ing and Rangeing y e woods 

And Captain garrit Teunise doth Promise upon all occa- 
sions to send up such number of s d Indians as shall be Re- 
quisite to be Employd as aforesaid 

Symon van Ness and Andries Barents who went out y e 
first with y e maquase Returning told; they had Pursued y e 
Enemy to y e great Lake & would have overtaken them had 
they not been Spyed by some of y e Enemy Indians that 
went out to looke for 2 negroe boys j l were Runn away 
from them, & y l y e Indians & Christians were all Tyred 
when they came to y e Croune Point neer y e Lake ; some 
went farther till they came to where y e Ise was smooth 
where the french had with horses that they carried from 

The City Records. 185 

Shinuectady & skeets & Yse spurrs, made all the way they 
could over y e Lake in So much that our People could gain 
nothing upon them ; whereas at first they went 2 of there 
days journeys in one; neverthelesse Lawrence y e maquase 
& about 140 Mohoggs & River Indians are gone in Pursute 
of them, & will follow them quite to Canida. 

Att a Meeting &c. Albany February 23<* 16f 

Itt was Proposed to y e gentlemen of Sopus to levy 50 
men out of there County for our assistance to lye in Garri- 
son here, who Replyed that they would use all Endevors to 
Perswade there People for a Supply, but by there unhappy 
Revolutions and Distractions Some adhereing to y e first 
magistracy oyrs to there new leaders, They cannot Execute 
y l Power & Command as is Requisite on such occasions 
People being under no Regulation. 

Resolved to write to y e Civill & Military officers of Sopus 
for y e assistance of 50 men to lye in Garrison here to Defend 
there Majesties King William & queen Marys Intrest in 
these Parts 

It was also proposed to Raise some Goods by way of loan 
upon there Majesties acct. of them that were willing to 
advance, to be Employed for y e Publike 

It is Concluded to fortify y e Toune with all speed & y l y e 
4 houses standing neer y e gates be pulled doune to morrow 

Att a Meeting &c Albany February 25th 16|^- Present Pr 
Schuyler mayor D : Wessels Recorder John Bleeker Joh : 
Cuyler Reynier Barents Jocbim Staets albt Ryckman 
Resolved y l no merchandize either Christian or Indian 
fitt for cloathing be Transported out of y e Citty upon pain 
of Confiscation Bevers or Peltry money or oy r Treasure & 
goods not necessare for apparel may be sent doune 

186 The City Records. 

PROPOSITIONS made by the Sachims of y e Maquase Castles 
to y e Mayor Alderman and Commonality of y e Citty of 
albany and Military officers of y e s d Citty and County in 
y e Citty hall y 25th day of february 16ff Present Pr 
Schuyler Mayor D wessels Recorder L : v : Shaik Jan 
Janse bleeker alb 1 Ryckman Reynier Barents Joh : Cuyler 
C. marte Gerritse C. Jochim Staets L l abr : Schuyler En : 
gabr Thompson Interpreted p r arnout and hille Names of 
y e Sachims Sinerongnirese Speker Rode Saggoddiochqui- 
sax oquedagoa Tosoquatho odagerasse aridarenda Jagog- 

BRETHREN Wee are sory and Extreamly greeved for y e 
rnurther Lately Committed by y e french upon our Brethren 
of Schinnectady wee Esteem this evill as if done to ourselfs 
being all in one Covenant chain But what they have done 
is by way of Stelth by way of Robbery unawars our brethren 
of New England will be sorry to hear of this sad dissaster, 
but we must not be discouraged give a belt of wampam 
according to there custonie to wipe of the tears 

2 Brethren Wee Lament and Condole the death of so 
many of our brethren so basely murtherd at Shinnectady, 
we cannot accompt it a great victory for itt is done by way 
of Deceit He (meaning y e governor of Canida) conies to 
our Country by his messengers at onondage and speaks of 
Peace with y e whole house quite hither. But warr is in 
his heart as vow fynde by woful Experience but what shall 
we say it is y e same as he did at Cadarachqui and y e Sin- 
nekes Country this y e third time that he hes done so ; he 
hes this is y e third time Broke open y e gevell of our house 
on both ends y e one end at Sinnondowanne and y e oy r here 
but we hope to be revenged there is one hundred of our 
young men out still who will Pursue them to there doors at 
Canida nay y e french shall not be able Cutt a Stick of wood 
we will lay soe Close seige to them we doe now gather y e 
Dead together in order to There Interrment a manner of 
speaking amongst them doe give a belt of wampum 

3 Wee are come here from our Castles with tears in our 
Eys to bemoan y e murther Committed by y e Perfidious 
frencb at Schinnectady our young Indians are gone out in 
Pursute of them and while we are now Bussy in Burying 

The City Records. 187 

the dead y* were murtherd there we may have bad news y* 
our people are gone out may be killed also y e same y l is 
befallen y u may befall us ; we doe therefore come and bury 
our Brethren at Schennectady doe give a belt of wampum 
according to there custome 

4 Great is y e Mischaffe y 1 is befallen us it is come from 
y e heavens upon us were taught by our fore fathers when 
any Sad accident or Dissaster doth befall any of y e Covenant 
to goe with all Convenient speed to Bemoan there deatlT, 
doe give a Belt of wampum which they call a belt of Vige- 
lance that is not to have too much thought on what is done 
y l Cannot be Remedied but to be watchful for y e future and 
give Eye water to make y e Brethren Sherpe Sighted 

5 Wee come to y e house where we usually doe Renew ve 
Covenant which house we fynde Defiled with blood this is 
knowne to all y e 5 nations and we are come to wipe off y e 
blood and Sweep y e house clean and therefore pray y l Cor- 
laer and all they y l are in office here in albany nameing y e 
mayor whom they call pieter m r wessells and m r Living- 
ston may use all means and derect all affairs to be re- 
venged of y e Enemy that have done us this Evill doe 
give a belt of wampum 

6 Brethr : Doe not be discouraged this is butt a begin- 
ning of y e warr we are strong eneugh the whole house have 
there Eyes fixed upon y rs and they only stay your motion 
and will be ready to doe what ever shall be resolved upon 
by our Brethren, our Covenant is a firm Covenant it is a 
Silver Chain and cannot be broke we are resolute and will 
Continue y e warr we will not leave off if there were but 30 
men of us left we will Proceed Therefore pray take good 
heart Doe not Pack and goe away if y e Enemy should hear 
y l it would much Encourage them wee are of y e Race of 
y e Bear and a bear doth not yeald as long as there is a droop 
of blood in its body we must all be soe doe give a belt of 

7 Brethren Be Content Look up to y e heavens from thence 
y e Judgement is come now upon us be not discouraged y e 
some hand y 1 hath chastised us can heal us ; the sunn which 
now hath been Cloudy and sent us this dissaster will shinne 
again and with its Pleasant Beams Comfort us Be Incou- 
raged with many Repetitions doe give a bevir skin 

188 The City Records. 

8 Wee are Engaged in a bloody warr with y e French 
about 3 years agoe and were Incouraged to proceed and no 
sooner were well Entred and gott prisoners but a Cessation 
Came and Corlaer meaning Col : dongan hindred us to pro- 
ceed and demanded y e prisoners from us we were obedient 
and deliver them and layed doune ye hatchet which if we 
might have gone foreward then the french would not have 
been in y l Capacity to doe so much mischeeffe as they doe 
but now we must dye Such obstructions will Ruine us; if 
we might have had our wills we would have prevented there 
planting Sowing and Reaping and brought them low and 
mean Neverthelesse lett us be stedfast and not take such 
measures again lett us goe one briskly with y e warr doe 
give a Bever Skinn 

9 Wee Recommend y e brethren to keep good watch and 
if any Enemies come take care y 1 messengers be more 
speedily sent to us then lately was done we would not ad- 
vise y e brethren quite to desert Shinnectady but to make a 
fort there The enemy would be too glorious to See it quite 
desolate and y r Toune is not well fortifyed y e Stockadoes 
are so short y e Indians can jump over them like a dogg doe 
give a bever skinn 

10 This mischeeffe is done at Shinnectady and it Cannot 
bee helped but asoon as any Enemy Comes let nothing hin- 
der y r speedy sending to us y e news by Posts and fyreing 
great gunnes y l all may be alarmd and our advise is y x y r 
gett all y e Rivrr Indians who are under y r subjection to 
come and Live neer unto y r to be ready on all occasions and 
send word to n : England of all and lend us there helping 
hand ; lett us not be discouraged y e french are not so many 
as people talk off if we but minde our buissinesse they can be 
subdued with y e assistance of our neighbours of N : England 
whose Intrest it is to drive on this warr as much as ours 
y l it may be speedily ended 

Wee Desyre y l y e brethren may Recommend y e Smiths 
not to be dear in repareing our arms since money is so scarce 
and we only goe to warring and not to hunting we shall take 
care to warn y e Sinnekes and y e nations living above us to 
be in Readinesse for we being one they hearken to us and 
tell of N : England y l we shall take care y l y e upper nations 
be Ready for our security and assistance and lett them be 

The City Eecords. 189 

ready also with Ships and great gunns by water and we will 
plague him by land we are resolved not to goe out a hunting 
but to minde y e warr for y e sooner y e french be fallen upon 
y e better before they gett men and provisions from france as 
there usual custome is doe give a Sever Skinn 

ANSWER upon y e maquase Sachims Propositions by y e 
mayor aldermen and Commonality of y e Citty of albany 
and Military officers of y e s d Citty and County att the 
Citty hally 26 february 16f 

BRETHREN Your Coming heir according to the Custom 
of your ancestors to Condole y e death of the brethren mur- 
thred at Shinnectady is very acceptable, whereby your 
Inclination to wards us is demonstrate, wee must acknowledge 
that they did not keep so good watch as they ought Consi- 
dereing what a false and deceitfull Enemy they had to deal 
with all but that which made them secure was y e great trust 
they repossed in the 45 maquase who came heire and tendred 
there service to goe and be y e out watch and to spy y e 
Enemy, which end powder and lead was given them as 
they understood wee wer about hyreing of Christians to send 
thither but wer un happily Deverted by the s d Companie 
off maquase who promised to have four posts ready two to 
goe to there own Country and two to runn hither if any 
Enemy should appear for the Brethren did assur us that no 
french Could Comeheir without beeingDiscouered and then 
would all fall Into our hands wee are likewise mindfull how 
y 1 y e 5 nations last fall when the gentlmen of new England 
were heir did declare how they would Encompasse the 
french of Canida that they should not break out this winter 
without being Discoverd and fallen upon and die likewise 
propose by our messeinggers arnout and Rob' Sanders at 
the generall meeting of onnondage to have 307 : 400 men 
sent hither to be Readie on all occasions but see non 

Now Brethren this Evill is done and Cannot bee Called 
back again, and y e only meanes the prevent y e Like for the 
futur is to keep good watch and to have good Courage to 
oppose and resist y e Enemy wee are no wayes Discomfitted 
for this misfortune It is y e fortun of warr wee doe not feare 
to be Even with the french in a short time wee have alredy 

190 The City Records. 

sent Letters to all our nighbours of n : England Virginia 
and maryland the subjects of y e great king of England and 
acquainted them of the Evill done heir by the french and 
how requisite it is y r ships be fitted out with all Convenient 
speed to toe to quebek and to presse the bussinese there 
more wee doe now send prisoners to N : Yorke and n : 
England on purpose to lay open the Case before them & a 
to move them to Rigg out vessels not only to hinder succor 
comeing from france but to take Quebek itt Self as also to 
send more men hither y we may then send men along with 
y w to annoy y 8 Enemy in there Country : In y e mean time 
we recommend y brethren to Send for 200 men from y e 
upper nations to joyn with y w to keep y e french inContinu- 
all allarm and doe them what mischeeffe imagineable and the 
onnondage and Sinnekes must goe doune y e river of Cadar- 
achqui and meet on onoy about Mont Royall and annoy y e 
Enemy there ; we shall in y e mean while fortify y e toune 
and put our Selfs in a good posture of defence y 1 we may not 
be surprized as they of Shinnechtady were and make all 
preparations to oppose y e Enemy 

The Brethren see y 1 we are in warr with france how there 
is no time to speak of peace the french as you will observe 
have fallen on both end of y e Chain Butt not broke it lett 
us keep y e Covenant so much y c faster which never hes had 
y e crak since y e verry first y e Christians came here They 
ptrove to lull us all asleep by there Messengers at onnon- 
dage Speaking of peace and then they were upon y e way 
hither to Commit this murther The brethren need not fear 
for a Cessation to hinder us to Pursue y e Enemy for as we 
told y w before y e king y 1 ordered that was a papist and a 
great frinde of y e french but our psent Great king will 
pursue y e warr to y e uttmost therefore we must all prepare 
for warr. It well there fore be verry requisite that y e 
brethern for there better Security come and plant this sum- 
mer att Shinnechtady upon y e Land y 1 kannot be Cultivate 
this year that we may be near to on onoy upon any occasion 
Concerning y r Proposition of y e Skachkook Indians tis 
Concluded on some days agoe to propose to y e Skachkook 
Indians y Planting on Marte gerritse Island hard by y e 
toune and y e River Indians y 1 lived below shall also come 
together to be ready on all occasions 

The City Records. 191 

Wee must Insist and recommend y w to perswade there 
of oneyde to Send y e Priest hither for y w have Seen how 
dangerous it is to have such persoues among y w who Informs 
y e Enemy of all y r doings and discovers all our desyns we 
shall secure him y l he runn not away and when y e ouner 
demands him and y e troubles are over shall be deliverd 
for he can doe more harm in oneyde then 100 men 

We think it Convenient y 1 one or two of y r Sachims stay 
here and y l a Sachim of each nation be here to assist in y e 
management of y^ affaires of y e warr 

was give them 6 belt of wampum Some Duffells Tobaccy 
and some baggs with Provision 

After y proposition was answerd they gave a shout 
according to y e Custome which Signified amen they would 
Continue y e warr to the uttmost 

After y^ s d answer 

The Maquase Sachims s (1 you [have heard] repeated our 
answer we are [going to pursue the Enemy and] are not 
discouraged A mistake can [be committed] by y L best and 
wisest of men and we [are resolved] now to persue y u warr 
with all Vigour, We have a hundred men out in persute 
of y t: Enemy still who are good skouts in y^ mean time, we 
Expect all y e Sachims of y c upper nations to Consult with 
us, who will come to Condole y e death of our brethren 
murtherd at Schinnectady you need not fear our being ready 
wee are soon fitted out our ax is in OUT hands butt take 
care of y r selfs to be in Readinesse the Shipps y must doe 
prin cipall worke ar long a fitteing out and Rigging we doe not 
design to goe out with a small troop as skouts but as soon as y e 
nations come together we well goe with a whole army to Ruine 
y e french Country ; y bussinesse must be soone brought to a 
Pereod therefore send in all haste to N : England for we 
nor y w cannot live long in this Condition we must order it 
soe y ! y" trench be in a Continuall fear and alarm and y y e 
way to be in Peace here Concerning y< Skachkook Indians 
in our opinion they lye well where they are as a good watch 
they are our Childeren we will take good care y they doe 
there duty but as for y ; - Indians y 1 Live below y c toune 
them we mean must be sent for up and gott to plant and 
live together to be alwayes in Readinesse upon occasion 
This is a true Copy Examind 


192 The City Records. 

Att a meeting &c. albany February 26th 16-f-g Present as 
before, also, L : v. Shaik Ev. Banker M. gerritse L 1 abr 
Schuyler R. Sanders gabriel Thompson & Capt Bull. 

WHEREAS it is thougt Convenient yt all fences & Timber 
be Removed 60 Paces from y e City Stockadoes, you are 
therefore hereby Required in there Majesties name to warn 
all people y r have there fences & Timber or oy r materials 
so neer y e outside of y e fence whereby y e Sight Rounde y e 
Toune walls is hindred to Remove y e same in 24 hours 
time, else must be Removed at there Cost actum in albany 
ye 26th day of feb 16f$ 

P r order of y e Civill & Military officers 

R*Liv: 01 
To R : Pretty Esq r high Sherriffe of y e 

Citty & County of Alb : 

Att a meeting &c. albany Feb 27th 16 

The Bussinesse being taken into Consideration concern- 
ing Sending agents to N : Yorke & New England to acquaint 
them off affares here, and to Desyre assistance for y e Pre- 
servation of there Majesties Intrest in these parts it was 
putt to y e vote 

And these following vote for a Person to be sent to N : 
Yorke & one to N : England P r Schuyler Mayor C. Jan 
Janse Bleeker Reynier Barents D. Wessells C. Jochim 
Staets albt. Ryckman C. Sanders Glenn Claes Ripse gabriel 
Thomson Johannes Cuyler Liv van Shaik Evert Banker, 
abr : Shuyler Kiliaen van Renselaer Rob 1 Sanders 

It is voted by 7 votes y l Joh : Cuyler goe to N : Yorke 5 
votes y l Reynier Barents goe & 2 y 1 Livinus van Shaik goe 

It was Resolved nenaine Contradicente y' Robt Livingston 
goe with all Convenient Speed to Canetticut and Boston, & 
declare y e Condition of this County, & desyre y 1 all En- 
devors may be used to Rigg out vessells towards Quebek, & 
Prevent all succor comeing from france & and to Request y e 
assistance of fifty men and one hundred Barrells of Porke 
and Beefe, & if no men can be obtained then 400 in 
money & y' Commission & Instructions be given him accord- 

The City Records. 193 

It is thougt Convenient to write to y e gent of y e County 
of Ulster y l one of y e gent y l was lately here be desyred to 
goe to N . England with Rob 1 Livingston our agent to moove 
y e gentlemen there in y e behalfe of y l County for all Possible 
aid as above 

And y l by no means y e Companie of Capt Bull be draune 
off but stay here till a governor Comes or further order from 
there Majesties for our Releeffe 

Rob 1 Livingston desyred to be Excused from goeing to N : 
England not judgeing himself cappable of mannageing a 
Bussinesse of y* moment : but if y e gent would not excuse him 
y* he might take Capt gerrit Teunise along with him, who 
knew most of y e gent of y e neighbouring Collony which was 

Resolved Since Johannes Cuyler Refuses yt Reynier 
Barents with all Convenient Speed goe to Sopus & there in 
our name Request Capt Garten or one of y e gentlemen y l 
were Last here to goe to Boston along with Cap 1 Livingston 
& Capt gerrit Teunise agents to Procure y e assistance of 50 
men and Provisions, and if no men can be Procured, to Pro- 
cure some money, and use all Pressures Imaginable y 1 Ship- 
ping may be Equipd to goe to invade Canida, & y l y e s d 
Person may be at Catskill on Munday night in order to proceed 
on y e journey, y e s d M r Barents is to us all Endeavors 
with y e gent of Sopus to Procure 50 men with Provisions 
for our assistance as also 500 skepels of Indian Corn for 
there Majesties account for y e Indians y l goe out to warr 
against y e french, & Comeing to N : Yorke y e s d Barents is 
to inform them of affares there & Insist with y e authority 
there fory e assistance of men provisions & money, according 
to instructions which shall be given him. 

Resolved that for y e easier management of y e Present 
affares in this juncture y ! 6 persones out of y e Convention 
be appointed to order matters who are Dirk Wessells Re- 
corder L : van Shaik Capt Jan Bleeker Capt Marte gerritse 
Reynier Barents Evert Banker which s d Persones are for ye 
future to take y e Charge of doeing all Publike Bissinesse in . 
this County 

Orderd y l y e following Instructions be given to Mr. 
Reynier Barents bounde to N : Yorke who not understand- 
ing English desyre y* they might be in Dutch. 

Annals, ii. 17 

194 The City Records. 


INSTRUCTIONS given by the Civil & Military officers of the 
City and County of Albany to Reynier Barents one of the 
Common Council of this city, who is sent to N : York as 
their Agent. 

1. You shall go with all Convenient Speed to the Sopus 
and there in our name instantly require Capt. Garten or one 
of the gentlemen who were recently here, to accompany 
Rob* Livingston our Agent to N. England, and there pro- 
cure if possible the assistance of 50 men with Provisions, 
and if no people can be spared, to request money to aid in 
assisting the King and Queens cause in this County and 
that all means be used to persuade them to equip ships to 
invade Canada, and to the End that the said journey may be 
most speedily prosecuted he will please notify said agent 
from the Esopus to be next Monday at Catskill with Capt 
Ger 1 Teunise where our Agent shall be to proceed to- 
gether by Tachkauick to Harford, Conveying the horses 
over from Cattskill. 

2. Yo u are to use all means to perswade the gentlemen 
of the Sopus to send 50 men to our assistance with provision, 
and if 50 cannot be obtained, then 30. 

3. You will acquaint the gentlemen in the Sopus with 
all the circumstances here and how necessary it is that we 
have 500 Skepels of Maize for Supplying the Indians, re- 
questing that they be pleased to send hither together a like 
quantity for their Majesties ace 1 There shall be no doubt 
but such shall be thankfully paid for at the first settling. 

4 When arrived at N. York you will have to Wait on the 
Governor if he be arrived, otherwise on the authority there, 
and inform them pertinently of all the circumstances that 
have occurred especially here since our last letters of the 
15th inst that the Indians and Christians who pursued the 
French, could not bring them back. 

5. That they bring all their sea force together to unite 
with our neighbours of Boston to attack Canada. 

6. That we require people here to defend this place; also 
some young Frieslanders (frissemaets) to accompany the 
Indians as these Complain that no Christians go with them & 
that they shall act in like manner by our young men. 

The City Records. 195 

7 That we here cannot subsist without supplies to wit of 
Meat & Pork with Corn if things are to prosper here that 
provision be therefore sent up with the people. 

8. That you do also inform them how badly off this city 
is for money to defray the publick expenses which are daily 

so onerous that they cannot be met, and that be 

sent us for the King's Service 

9 That you do Set all this fully before them according to 
the merits of the case, and beseech them to lay aside all 
animosities and divisions and that every one exert his power 
to crush the Common Enemy. 

10. That you keep an exact account of your expenses 
during this journey which will be allowed you by the public. 

By the Convention of the Civill & military officers of y e 
Citty & County of Albany 

WHEREAS it is thougt convenient y l a fit Person be Com- 
missionated to goe to N : Yorke to Communicate to y e autho- 
rity there y e State & Condition of this Place and Confideing 
in y e Integrity and fidelity of Reynier Barents one of y e 
assistants of this Citty & a member of our Convention, have 
Desyred and authorized him with all Convenient Speed to 
goe to N : Yorke & to hasten there aid of men provisions & 
money for y e Preservation of there Majesties' Intrest in 
these parts & to use all Pressing Endevors that they may 
joyn with our neighbours of N : England to fitt out vessells 
to annoy y e french at Canida Earnestly Desyreing y 1 y e s d 
Reynier Barents may be Reputed and Esteemed as our agent 
in that Behalfe, Ratefyeing & Confirming whatever he shall 
act or doe about y c p'mises, given under our hands & Sealls 
in albany y e 20th day of february 16|-- and in y e first year 
of y e Reign of our Souvraign Lord & Lady William & Mary 
king and Queen of England & ;l 16f 

Ordered y' y e following Instructions be Delivered to Rob 1 
Livingston & he Desyred to Proceed in his journey for N : 
England with all Expedition 

196 The City Records. 

INSTRUCTIONS for Robert Livingston Gentleman Sent by 
y e Convention of y e Civill & Military officers of y e Citty 
& County of albany to be there agent in n : England 

1 Yow are to goe with y e first Conveniency to Canetticut 
along with Captain Gerrit Teunise and such Person as y e 
Gent : of y e County of Ulster shall appoint to joyn with y u 
in this bussinesse, & if no such Person come to Catskill as 
is appointed then with y c s c] Captain Gerrit Teunise & Com- 
municate to y e Governor & Councill of Canetticut the state 
of affares here, & in what Danger this Part of there Majes- 
ties Territory is in, if not speedily assisted by our neigh- 

2 Yow are to acquaint them how Requisite it is y l some 
sudden means be used to fitt out vessells to goe to Canida 
and Invade Quebek which is y e Easier and surer way then 
by Land, since Quebek is but meanly fortified, & few men 
there, y e strentch of Canida being Drawn up to mont Royall 
which y e french have fortified. 

3 Yow are to make y e addresse to y e s d Governor & Coun- 
cill of Canetticut for y e assistance of fifty Brisk young men 
or more fitt for traveling in y e woods to goe out upon occa- 
sion with our People and y e Indians to annoy y e Enemy 

4 After y u have discoursed of y e mean Condition of this 
Place & how Scarce Provisions are like to be the farmers 
leaveing there habitations, since y e murther Committed at 
Shinnectady ; where great store of all sorts of Provisions 
was Destroyed, then y u are to Desyre y e quantity of one 
hundred Barrells of Porke or Beefe Equivalent for there 
Majesties use to be Employed as occasion shall Require 
for there Majesties Troops that lye in garrison here for y e 
Defence of this part of y e Country 

5 If y e governor & Councill of Canetticut doe Decline to 
send any more men or no Provisions hither then y u are to 
Insist y* y e Companie of Captain Bull stay here till further 
order from there Majesties since it would be of Dangerous 
Consequence to draw off s d Companie at this juncture & 
Raise jealousies among y e Indians, while they are so Eager 
for more men to Pursue y e warr against y e french. 

6 Yow are to goe from Canetticut to Boston and apply 
y r Self to y e governor and Councill there, & Inform them 

The City Records. 197 

of all affares here, what dammage y e french have done & 
what Subtle Practices they use to draw of y e 5 nations of 
Indians from there Dependance on y e Imperiall Croune of 
England to side with y e french & how dangerous it would 
be to there Majesties Intrest if s d nations should hearken 
to y e Enemy. 

7 That y e only means to Secure there Countryes from y e 
Incursions of y e french and there Indians would be to Equipp 
& Rigg out some vessells with men to Invade Quebek, & 
to p'vent all Supplyes comeing from france whereby y e 
french will be Discomfited and our Indians Incouraged to 
Pursue y e warr by Land 

8 That we of this government are not able to Resist y e 
Power of Ganida without y e assistance of our neighbors, & 
therefore Desyre y' fifty men or more may be Speedily sent 
hither for y e Defence of y e Place and to Pursue y e Enemy 
upon occasion and one hundred Barrells of Porke & Beefe 
for there subsistence, which with that dayly Expected from 
N : Yorke will much Contribute for y e Safety of y e Place, 
since y e People here are so much Impoverished & Provisions 
so Scarce by y e out plantations Being Deserted y' y e forces 
cannot be maintained without a Supply 

9 Yow are to acquaint y e s d Governor & Gouncill what 
cost & Charge we have been att, with y- Indians, since these 
Revolutions to secure them to this government, & y 1 it is 

Impossible to Proceed without y e assistance of to 

be Employed y 1 way which shall be Exactly accompted for, 
what way Disposed & undoubtedly allowed by there Majes- 

10 Yow are to strive to make them senceible how usefull 
y e 5 nations will be during y e warr with y e french of Canida 
& how Dangerous it would be to loose them at such a junc- 
ture & y e only means to induce them to be vigorous in y e 
Prosecution of y e warr will be by giving them a good ex- 
ample since they verry well know y 1 y e English here farr 
exceed them of Canida 

11 Yow are to keep an Exact account of whatever Charges 
yw & ye Persones goeing witk y w from this County are att in 
y e Prosecution ofy r Journey out & home & whatever y w 
Disburse over and above y e money now given shall be 

198 The City Records. 

allowed yw on acc t O f ye Publik which if not be allowed by 
there Majesties then shall be paid by y e County 

12 Since it is unknowne to us what occurrences y w may 
meet withall in this Employ. Yow are to act & doe in our 
Behalfe with our s d neighbours whatever y w shall juge ex- 
pedient & needful for ye secureing of there Majesties Intrest 
here in these parts and Safety of there Subjects, Ratefying 
& Confirming whatever y w shall act or Perform Concerning 
y e Premises 

N. B. y e alteration of Chargeing y e Expenses to y e Pub- 
like which if not be allowed by there Majesties then shall 
be p d by y e County was made before Signing 
Signd P B SCHUYLER Mayor 

Albany 4th of March 16fJ 

By the Convention of y e Civill and Military officers of y e 
Citty and County of albany 

WHEREAS y e Exigency of affares here doth Require that 
some fitt Persones be sent from hence to our neighbors of 
N : England to Inform y e authority there, in what condition 
we are in, & what apprehensions we have of y e french doeing 
more mischeffe*in these Parts Especially iff they should gett 
y e 5 nations of Indians westward to there devotion which 
they Indefaticably strive to accomplish, & Confideing and 
being sufficiently assured of y e Integrity & fidelity of our well 
beloved friendes Robert Livingston gentleman & Capt G-errit 
Teunise, we have Desyred & authorized Impowered & Com- 
missionated them to be our agents in y l affare to treat with & 
consult y e honorable Governor & Councill of there Majesties 
Respective Collonyes of Massachusetts and Canetticut such 
things as shall be Requisite for there Majesties King William 
& Queen Maryes Service & y e Safety of there subjects in these 
Parts laying before them y e necessity of joyning all forces that 
can be procured to Invade the french of Canida by Sea & 
Land & Put a Stopp to there wicked & cruell Designs & also 
to desyre such assistance & supply from them as this place 

The City Records. 199 

doth stand in need off, Earnestly Desyreing they would give 
Credence to y e s d Rob 1 Livingston & Capt Gert Teunise, & 
yt they may be Reputed & Esteemed as our agents in y l 
Behalfe, given under our hands & sealls in albany y e 3d 
day of March in y e 2d year of there Majesties Reign anoq. 
Dom. 1690 

Signd P B SCHUYLER Mayor 

D WESSELLS Recorder. 

JOH : WENDEL ) alderman. 



The meaner sort of People of y e Toune were Extream 
Importune with y e Magistrates to Prohibite y e Exportation 
of goods who being verry Refractory & unruly y e Magis- 
trates to satisfye them Published this following 


By the Convention of the Civill & Military Officers of the 
Citty and County of Albany 

WHEREAS there are great Complaints & murmurings a- 
mong the Commonalty because the Traders export their 
goods, whereby many persons are so discouraged that they 
will quit the place leaving their Majesties interest here and 
their subjects a prey to the Enemy. 

The Civil & Military Officers so as to prevent such mis- 
chiefs, hereby expressly forbid all persons whomsoever to 
export any Merchandize such as Indian Cargoes, shirts, 
linen, cloths, Kerseys, Sarges and other goods requisite for 
the clothing as well of Christians as Indians, on pain of Con- 
fiscation of said goods for their Majesties use. 

But they are permitted to take away all Beavers, peltries, 
money, furniture & household articles, fine Silk stuffs, lace 
and such like fine articles and goods unnecessary for Cloth- 
ing which cannot be used here In order that all such 
may be regularly done, Johannes Beekman Jan Vinnagen 
& Jacobus Turke are ordered to inspect the goods in the 
houses before they are embarked, and permit such to be put 
on board 

200 The City Records. 

And all men are forbidden to depart this County pursuant 
to previous Proclamation dated 7th August 1689 which is 
now Confirmed. Done 4th March 1690. 

Albany. In the year 1690 y e 14 of October 
When Jacob Leysler had usurped y e government the 
following Persones were chosen John Becker Evert Banker 
John Bleecker Claes Ripse Gert Ryerse Eghbert Teunise 
Aldermen. Johannes de Wandelaer Hend van Dyck Luykas 
Gerritse P r Davidtse Joh : Abeel Ger< van Ness Assistants. 

By the Lieutenant Governor &c 

[From Papers, &c., in Leisler's time.] 

WHEREAS One Robert Livingston by the Instigac6n of 
the Devill did utter y e Malice of his heart in Saying that 
he was Enformed that a par cell of rebel Is were gone out of 
holland to England & that y e prince of Orange headed 
them Saying that they might See how they got of againe or 
words to this purpose & that they should Come to y e Same 
End that Monmouth did & hath Cdmitted other high 

These are in his Majesties Name to will and require all 
psons within this Province to apprehend y e s d Livingston & 
bring him before me to answer for y e Same & all governors 
& Magistrates of y e Neighbouring Colonies are hereby ad- 
vertized & desired In his Majesties King Williams behalfe 
to assist In apprehending y e s d Livingston if within their 
Jurisdiction as they do tender y e King's Interest, y e Wel- 
fare of y e Protestant Cause & their Allegiance. Given &c 
March the 1st 1689. 

To Captain Benjamin Blagge & all others 

whom this shall or may Concerne. 

By the Lieutenant Governor & Councill &ca 

WHEREAS a Certaine number of People terming them 
selves a Convention with In the Citty & County of Alban 
have vindicated y e authority of Colonel Thomas Dongan 
Countenanced his & Sir Edmund Andros their Illegall & 

The City Records. 201 

Arbitrary Comissions & proceedings acting thereby Like- 
wise having assumed to themselves the Ruling power by 
keeping his Majesties fort &c a Contrary to y e Authority of 
this province to y e great disturbance of his Majesties subjects 
and other y e good & peaceable Inhabitants thereof as also 
Contemning his Majesties Orders & directions not only by 
not proclaiming ther Majesties according to an Order from 
y e R l Honorable y e Lords of his Majesties Most honorable 
Privy Councill dated y e 29th July 1689 but opposing & in an 
hostile & rebellious manner forbidding and hindring y e 
Same besides many others Seditious practises all which are 
pernicious & destructive to his Majesties Interest y e peace 
tranquillity & welfare of his Province & y e Government 
thereof; & hath been y e dcasion of Encouraging y e French 
& Indians Ennemies to attack and destroy the Inhabitants 
of Skannectady, toy e great weakning of his Majesties forces 
in y e s d County. 

These are to authorise Empower & Constitute you Mrs 
Joannes de Bruyn Joannes Provoost & Jacob Melbourne to 
take into your care and under your directions & Comand all 
y e forces now raised in N: York and adjacent Countyes 
with all ammunicon & provisions thereunto apointed & forth- 
with proceed from hence to Albany afores d where you are 
to Super Intend direct Order and Controull all matters & 
things relating his Majesties Interest & revenue in that 
County & y e Security & Safety of his people & subjects 
therein by treating with y e Confederate Indians and other 
Such Methods & Meanes as to you shall seem meet that may 
Conduce to y e End before menconed likewise to proclaime 
their l publishing their gracious Orders & denounce war 
against y e french King &ca Subduing Reducing and bring- 
ing to their obedience all such who oppose y same & to 
settle & establish y e s ' County in y e Same Method & Con- 
stitution as this his Majesties City and County of N. York 
& others thereunto apertaining & further you are to obtaine 
y e fort ORANGE at Albany from those of y e Convencon & 
there adherents by due sumons offering them such Condi- 
c6ns as may be Agreable to y e End aboves d , but in case of 

1 " Maties King William & Queen Mary, " These words are 
omitted in the original. 

202 The City Records. 

resistance then you are to treat them as Ennemies to o r 
Sovereigne Lord y e King his Crowne & dignity y same 
to Subdue & over Come by force of Arms & all manner of 
Hostility whatsoever willing and Comanding all psons with- 
in the County afores cl to Be aiding and assisting therein as 
they will Answer y e Contrary at their utmost perills hereby 
giving & granting unto you full power & authority to Con- 
sult Act do & conclude all matters & things for or concern- 
ing his Majesties Interest & y e Welfare of and Security of 
that county as y e case shall require & to your judgement 
shall seem requisite, conforming ratifieng & establishing 
whatsoever you shall so act or do in y e prmisses to Be good 
Valid & of full force & virtue to all Intents Construccons 
& purposes whatsoever GIVEN under o r hands & Seals &c 
New York this 4th of March 1689 




Extracts from Letters. 

ffort william March 4th 1689 

Yours of the 8th instant by Mr pembrock I received & I 
returne you many thanks for the care I perceive you have 
had for our packet, since your last wee have received the 
sad & miserable newes from Skenectedy neere Albany where- 
of wee understand is laid to your woefull account it is such 
newes as we feared long since. Alase what could there be 
expected of a certane number of rebellious people that re- 
mained rulling under that arbitrary Commissione of sir Ed- 
mund at Albany within this province, and encouraged & 
supported by Cpnnecticoatt by ordering their forces sent 
thither to obserue the directions of the s d rebells named a 
Conventione, being well assured the same is supported more 
specially by that trayterous John Allan the Secretary of 
that Collony immediately upon the newes wee sent a mes- 
singer to advise the Governor that he may expect three 
messingers from hence with full power to propose to them 
what may be necessary for his Majesties intrest& the safety 

The City Records. 203 

of these provinces which was answered with great disdaine 
imaginable, soe that wee are denied the assistance wee ex- 
pected from that part to day I hope our forces will depart 
being already einbarqued wee send also three members of 
our counsell with presents to the nationes of the confederate 
Indianes and to endeavour to strengthen & corroborate their 
enmity to the french, and if they see meet to send any of 
our forces to joine with them agt the french att the first 
hearing of the s d newes I immediately made an allarum and 
in the morning disarmed & Imprisoned about 40 commis- 
sioned officers by sir Edmond who in the afternoon delivered 
up the same which was effected in the night by sixteen 
troopers, so that I gott in about 150 Commissiones & our 
militia well setled soe that wee are now in a very good pos- 
ture of union & better able to resist an enemy as ever, I 
have seaven in confinement, & a great many have abscond 
themselves with dongan, I shall be glad to understand 
from your Honor what measures you are like to take to at- 
tack the french and what assistance you are willing to afford 
us, for one exploit agt Canada by land or sea (Connecticott 
having refused to advise with us) etc. 

ffort william March the 5th 1689 : 


Honored sir yesterday was my last to your Honor 
This morning I received newes that one Robert Livingstone 
who by his rebellione hath caused great disorder in the 
County of Albany and also in the wholl province by main- 
taining the late comissiones granted unto them by sir Ed- 
mund Andross & Coll : dongan & other directiones which 
were given by the magistrates which were appoynted per 
Coll : dongan & sir Edmond Andross whereby they have 
caused a divisione & a rebellione, so that they been careless 
of watching, denying 52 souldiers which were sent up under 
the command of Captain States Inhabitant at Albany 
chosen by most of the Inhabitants there & commissionated 
by the Governor & Councill in hindering one Captain Ruster 
who was commissionated with 25 men to joine himselfe 
with our confederate Indianes to proceed agt the french, 
This rebell Livingstone being conscious of his crymes & 

204 The City Records. 

understanding our forces were coming up, he upon pretence 
of going to raise forces at Connecticutt & Boston for to de- 
fend Albany is departed yesterday for that intent, as is s d , 
to obtaine such if possible as may side with them & be obe- 
dient to their rebellious conventione, I beleeve they may 
expect him againe if the rogue does not rune further which 
I doubt he will if not prevented, by apprehending of him he 
being also considerably indebted to his Majestic, therefore 
have sent the bearer Captain Benjamin Blagg or Lievtdaniell 
Teneur to persue him with a warrant to that purpose desire- 
ing your Honor to assist him or either of them in the secur- 
ing the s d rebell it will be a great service, I will further 
recommend your Honor not to faill to assist us, so well by 
sea as by land not doubting if you are brisk & doe what you 
can but what we shall conquer Cannada pray give us speedy 
advice to what we may trust that we may encourage the 
Indianes & tell them the truth, This is all for the present 
after my service I remaine sir &c : 

[A duplicate of the above was addressed also to Connecticut.] 

[March 168990 

S B 

Your warr 1 for seizing Mr Levingston wee have received 
& the answer to it which the Governor Gave L' terneur wee 
have seen & appoved of it which is our Answer to what 
you propownded in that warr 1 but as to what you mention 
concerning the managment of y e designe against y e french, 
at Canada wee are willing & free to Joyn with all y e rest of 
y e Collonys, & provinces in this Wilderness to do what wee 
shall Judge nessery to manage the designe against y e french 
the Common Enemy of his Majesties subjects in these 
parts, according to our ability, we heare you have also de- 
signed a Considerable force for Canada out of those you have 
sent and are sending now to Albany wee would encourage 
that notion but it is not Land forces will effect it but force 
by seas is necessary and wee have now writt to y e Gentleman 
of Boston & must wayt for their resolves till wee hear further 
from them Sr wee cannot ad to what wee have formerly 
writt to you but must advice you to moderation & to make as 
Little Alterac6n amonge y e Officers of Albany as may be & 

The City Records. 205 

also that nothing be done to discourage the five nations In 
Amety with us for if any thing be Done that may have 
such an aspect the damages that may come thereby to be 
answered for by those that are active therein you whare so 
charged with aiding and abetting those rebbells of y e Con- 
vention at Albany by Capt Bull & our souldiers there to 
prevent any thing that may looke Like an Incouragement 
to them wee have sent for our Souldiers wbome Imediately 
upon y e arrivall of yours which we hope will be to your 
satisfaction I have not to add saue onely or respects & to 
desire that you should studdy ways of peace that nothing 
may be moued that may administer prouocation to yours or 
us who are Your friends & servants the Gouernr & Councill 
of Connecticut pr 

their order Signed 

Albany ye 17th day of March 1689 Present J : H : Bruyn 
Joh : Provoost Jac : Milborne Com rs P r Schuyler Mayor 
d : wessells Joh : wendel Levinus v : Shayk.Jan J: Bleeker 
Alb' Ryckman ald m Kiliaen v : Rens : Marte gerritse 
Wee the Commissioners of the Leift governeur of y e Pro- 
vince of N : York, and his Councill find it verry nessesery 
that y e Companie of Souldiers sent by The Colonie of Conet- 
tekot under Comand of Captain Jonathan Bull ought to Re- 
maine here. In Reguard of our Curcumstances Concerning 
the french and there Confedereths, and the alliwed Indians 
being Ingaged with us haveing taken notis what forces wee 
are able to Continue for their Incouragement, after debatting 
& Consulting with advys of the gentlemen Present doe Con- 
clude that y e s c1 Captain Bull with his s d Companie of Soul- 
diers shall Remaine in this Citty & County of alb : so Long 
as his Majesties Intrest & the Preserving of this Post Re- 

By order of y e Commissioners 


Annals, ii. 18 

206 The City Records. 

Albany March 20th 1689 

GrENTS According to your Expectacon yesterday having 
discoursed with you : Wee returne for answer. 

That its o r opinion your pay being promised by the 4 
psons you named they ought to performe the said promise, 
and the Law will compell them at least to give you Suffi- 
cient Security upon the arrivall of a governor from England, 
or within Gweekestime tohaueyour payment, in which wee 
will give you our Assistance and constitute a Court which 
wee haue no reason to doubt but will answer this end. 

That those who will remaine in the Garrison are at their 
liberty to continue and reasonable that Wee should Subscribe 
for their Pay, advancing somewhat for their present accom- 
modation, and Such who are disposed to quit the Garrison 
are at their Liberty. 

That Provisions shall be weekly allowed them according 
to the former Custome : The Kings pay to continue 

[Endorsed, Capitulacon with the Garrison in Fort Orange March 
20th 1689.] 

By the Commissioners for y e Citty & County of alb : y e 
Mayor aldermen & Justices of y e s d County. Present as 
before, also Claes Ripse 

WHEREAS There hath unhappely arose differences which 
hath created animosities and great distinctions amongst his 
Majesties Subjects in the Citty & County of alb : 

These are in his Majesties name strictly to forbid all Per- 
sons whatsoever that they doe no wise asperse Reproach, 
each other by words or actions to y e Disquietude or discourge- 
ment of any the good People in this Citty & County, of what 
rank or quality soever, under penalty of being Prosecuted 
as disturbers of his Majesties Peace and the quiet and Tran- 
quility of the Inhabitants thereof, (upon Conviction of twoo 
witnesse before any of his Majesties Justices of y e Peace) 
so far as y e Rigour of y e Law will inflict upon them, dated 
In alb : This 22th day of March 1689. 

By order of y e Comm : &c. 

The City Records. 207 

By the Commissioners for y e Citty & County of alb : &c. 

WHEREAS great Complaint is made of y e Severall Burgers 
under y Comand of their officers in this Citty & County 
of alb : that they doe not obey y e Lawfull Commands of 
their Captains and other officers appointed over them 

These are to will & Require all Persons whatsoever under 
such Commanders that they in no wise neglect, dispute, 
denye or Resist the Lawfull Commands of their s d officers 
upon Penalty of being Proceeded against by the Court 
marshall (in this time of warr) constituted for y e s d Citty 
and County whose insures shall be Executed in the most 
Stricted Rigour, dated In alb : This 22th day of March 


By order of y e Commissioners &c. 

By the Commissioners &c. 

Forasmuch as many Persons have given, forth that they 
will depart this County for y e Preservation of their persons 
&c. and the warr with y e french & their alleyes call for y e 
Strengthning his Majestic forces therein as much as Possible 
may be, 

These are in his Majesties name to Prohibite and forbid 
all mankind of what ranke or quality they may bee, from 
fourteen years of age unto sixty years if ould, or under, 
that they do not Transport their Persons out of this County 
upon any Pretence whatsoever under y e Penalty of forfeit- 
ing one hundred Pounds Currant monney of this Province 
which shall be for d'fraying the Charge for Support and 
Carrying on of this Immediate war, against the french and 
the allyes aforesaid Except masters of vessels and Seafare- 
ing Persons whose Livelyhoods depend upon the water, 
dated In alb : This 22th day of March 1689. 

By order of y e Commissioners &c 

These are to give notice to all Persons within this Citty 
& County of alb : That Peter Schuyler Esq r is Establisht 
Mayor of y e s d Citty and Joh : wendel, Levinus v : schayk, 
Jan Janse Bleeker, Albert Ryckman, Claes Ripse, aldermen, 

208 The City Records. 

and dirck weasel's, Guiliam van Renslaer, Marten gerritsen, 
Sander glen, abrah : States, & dirck Teunisse Justices of 
y e Peace for y e s d Citty & county, and to Remaine & be 
untill further order from his Majestic & all Persons within 
this s d Citty & County are hereby strictly charged that they 
acknowledge Reverence and obey the same in their Severall 
Stations upon Penalty of being prosecuted as Enimies to 
this Province and disturbers of his Majesties Peace and the 
welfare of y e Inhabitants of this Citty & County dated In 
alb : This 22th day of March and in y e Second year of his 
Majesties Reign annoq. dom : 1689 

By order of y e Commissioners &c. 

By the Commissioners &c. 

These are to Authorise & appoint you Mess : Luycas ger- 
ritse & wessel ten Broek to provide, and direct all such Pro- 
visions of bread as shall be Requisite for supplying those 
forces which shall be at all times sent from hence in the 
Seruice of his Majestic against the french and their con- 
federates according to o r orders as shall be directed to 
Johannis Cuyler as occasion offers, dated in aft) : March 
the 22th 1689 

Pr order 

By the Commissioners &c. 

WHEREAS the Records, Bookes and Papers &c. Relating 
to y e Citty & County of alb : are in the Possession of Mr. 
Robert Livingston and Mr. Johannis Cuyler being consti- 
tuted Clerk & Register of y e s d Citty & County, 

These are in his Majesties name to will & Require you to 
deliver the s d Records Bookes and Papers &c. unto y e s d 
Cuyler And his Receipt shall be a sufficient discharge, 
dated In alb : This 22th day of March 1689 

To Mr. Robert. Livingston or any in whose Costody The 
same are 

At a meeting of the Commisioners &c. Albany This 22th 
day of March 1689 

After Consultaceon Relating the present State of this 
Citty & County of alb : in Reguard of y e war withy e french 

City Records. 209 

and Their Confederates, It is Concluded that N : Yorke 
doth fornish these. following p'ticulars Viz 1 : 200 Men; 600 
Schiple of Indian Corne ; 100 Barrills of Pork ; 14000 
Ib of bread; 100 Schiple of Pease; 200 gall, of Rum; 
2100 ells Brown osenburg; 100 drest dear skins; 3000 Ib of 
Lead; 400 Ib of Powder; 180 Kartrit Boxes; 200 Ib of 
Swan Shot. 

And that y e Citty & County, of alb : Doe Provide and 
furnish the following Percells viz 1 : 6000 Ib of Bread ; 150 
Shiple of Pease ; 100 drest dear Skins ; 400 Ib Pouder ; 4000 
flints; 30 bark Conoos; 60 gunns; DO Hatchets. 

Albany ye 24th of March 1689. 

At A meeting were Present y e Commissioners for y e Citty 

& County of alb. advysing with Sundrey officers of y e 

Militia There, where upon It is Resolved That y e fol- 

lowing persones be Commissionated, vizt. 

Capt Jochim Staets Com- lr of Fort Orange always to keep 

under Command in s ci fort 60 men, Lievt Jonathan wrigt, 

Ens : John Hater. For the city of albany, Pieter winne 

Toune Major, Capt Johannis wendel, Melgert Wynants, Ens : 

Reynier Barentse, Capt Pieter van waggelen, Leift Rob f 

Sanders, Ens: Joh: Bleeker Jun r , Capt Barnet Luwis, 

Leiv 1 Marte Klock, Ens : ----- For the County of 

albany, Capt Marten gerritse, Liev 1 Evert d'Ridder, Ens : 

Zymon van ness, Capt Alexander glen, Leift Johannis glen, 

Ens : douwe Aukus, Cap 1 Johannis Bensing, Lieft Andries 

Barentse, Ens : Johannis Janse. 

Ordered That y e aforesaid Commissionated officers Now 
are Establiseth & shall from this time forth Remaine, and 
be in full Power & y e Authority, & y e Authority for y e Militia 
of this & County To act & doe in all matters and things relat- 
ing Militarie affaires according toy 6 Rules & decipline of war, 
untill further order from his Majestic king William of 
England Scotland french & Irland &c. & That seaven of 
y e s- 1 Commission 1 " 8 shall be and are hereby Constituted & 
aPointed a Court Marshall To Consult, apoint, Judge, order, 
Censure & determing whatsoever shall aroise under marchall 
notice within this Citty & County whereof Three Captains 
& Toune Major are always to be members, onles in y e 

210 The City Records. 

Majors absence, Then y e Eldert Capt of y e Fort orange is 
ever to Preside, To whom all Souldiers & others that are 
able to bear armes from 16 years old and upwards are to 
give due Reverence & obedience as they will Answer y e 
Contrary at their utmost Perrill, dated in alb : The day & 
year first written & in y e Second year of his Majesties 

By order of y e Commissioners 


By the Commissioners, Mayor Aldermen and Justices & a of 
the City and County of Albany. 

You are hereby ordered in his Majestys King William's 
name to take hence forthwith 17 Soldiers under your com- 
mand, and march with them towards Schagtkook, and take 
thence (according to the Indians' promise) 20 savages with 
you and proceed -thence to Crown Point, where you shall re- 
main and keep good watch by day & by night especially 
detach each day good outscouts and spies about half a dutch 
mile beyond said Crown Point until Sundown, and when- 
ever you perceive or meet any French or their Indians from 
Canada you shall endeavour to despoil, plunder and do them 
all injury as enemies, according to the usage of War; and 
the aforesaid Soldiers are hereby strictly charged to obey 
their officers in all things. 

In like manner Dirk albertse Brad is sent with that view 
with the aforesaid Company of Soldiers as guide and Indian 
Interpreter, who shall advise and consult with the aforesaid 
officers in all things that relate to the advantage of his Ma- 
jesties interest and this undertaken expedition : and further 
you shall remain until further order at the aforesaid Crown 
point, unless you are assured that a large army of the Enemy 
is really and truly approaching which it is impossible to re- 
sist ; then you must send a messenger hither cito cito and 
endeavour to do your best as far as in your power. Mean- 
while you shall occasionally try to make some Bark Canoes 
to be used should necessity require. 

We conclude then that you shall remain at Crown point 
aforesaid until further order; that is if you be not necessitated 
as abovestated. Thus given under our hands in Albany 

The City Eeeords. 211 

this 26th March and in the Second Year of his Majesty's 
reign annoq : dom. 1690. Was Signed 


To Capt Jacobus d'Warm JOHANNIS PROVOOST 

over the 17 Soldiers aforesaid. P B SCHUYLER, 



Albany, 27 March Ao 1690. 

CAPT JACOB MILBORNE, We expect that you have arrived 
safely to day at N. Yorck. We are obliged to notify you 
to procure these indispensable necessaries viz. 3 @ 400 
unmanufactured horns which can be easily had at Nicolaas 
Blanks and can be quickly put in order here ; further as 
much duffels as you can get, bleu baize for shirts, provision 
400 Ibs Swan shot, 50 Kettles. 

Yesterday evening the Soldiers tormented us considerably 
for blankets, as it is was very cold. We went every where 
and could not find any The Soldiers from the outposts, also 
whom we provided with duffels for coverlets, namely from 
our own duffels so that our stock which was intended for 
the Indians is diminished. The Soldiers in the fort must 
also have duffels as blankets are not to be had here. 

The picquet proceed immediately to their post. I forgot 
to send to you for 8 @ 10 hour glasses which are very 
necessary for the watches. W T herewith doubting not of 
your diligence and speedy return, We remain 
Your affectionate friends 

the name of J. H. BRUYN. 

Albany 38. March 1690. 

List of the Goods s^nt from York and received from 
Monsieur Jan Hendricksen Brujn and Johannes Proofoost 
to be distributed among the Refugees of Schoonectede, to 
wit 2348J Dutch ells of Osenb : Linen, 3 p* Serge, 13 
pairs Stockings, 72 ells pennestout, and delivered to the 
Deacons of Schoonectede and the Deacons of Albany, to 
wit : Barent Wimp, Jan Byvanck, Johannes de Wandelaer, 

212 The City Records. 

Jacob Loockermans. First, distributed to the following 6| 
ells each of Sarge : Barent Wimp, Harmen Vedder, Symen 
Schemenhoorn, Symen Groot, Arent Vedder, Aniie Widow 
of Frans, Willein Appel, Goosen Van Oort, Samuel Bradt, 
An dries Bradt, Johannes Dyckman, Geertruy Groot, 3 p s 
Sarge distributed of 79 & f . 

List of the Pennestout : to Aces Cornelise, 7 ells ; Dirck 
Bradt, 7; Isack de .Teurcx, 8; Nieces Volckers, 3 ; 
Johannes Dyckman, 3; Jan Eps, 7; Loowies Ooopeele, 3; 
Pieter Van Olinda, 7; Gerret Jansen, 5 ; Willem Van Eerde, 
3; Arent Vedder, 3; Elias Swart, 7; Jan Buys, 4; 
Geertruy Groot, 3 

List of the Stockings, to each one : 1 pair Marius Vedder : 
one pair of Stockings, Symen Groot one pair, Jan Buys, 
Willem Apel, Symen Schemenhooren, Gyspert Gerrets, 
Harmen Vedder, Hendrick Gardeniers, Samuel Bradt, Dirck 
Heffelingh, Adam Frooman, Tuenis Carstensen, Gerret 
Gysbersen, The no. of the Stockings 13 pairs 

List of the Osenburg Linen : Harmen Vedder, 80 ells ; 
Jan Eps, 70 ; Catlyn Barensen, 70; Dirck Bradt, 65 ; Barent 
Wemp, 70; Dirck Hesselinger, 58; Willem Appel, 80; 
Goosen van Oort, 50 ; Gyspert Gerrets, 80 ; Nieces Volc- 
kertsen, 20 ; Jacob van Laer, 20 ; Willem van Eerde, 75 ; 
Cornelis Viele, 40; Marius Haegedoorn, 40; Jannetie 
Sche'rmenhooren, 40 ; Cornelis Schermenhooren, 20; Citte 
Bradt, 60, Henderick Gardeniers, 40 ; Cornelis Claesen, 
20; Geertruy Groot, 31; Susanne Tellers, 50; Aces Cor- 
nelis, 50 ; Dieuer Wimp, 55 ; Anne Harmensen, 65 ; Tryntie 
Bosboom, 20; Symon Volcker, 30; Samuel Bradt, 50; 
Tryntie Schaets, 80; David Cristofelsen's children, 50; 
Johannes Pootmans children, 70; Adam Frooman, 70; 
Symon Schermenhooren, 50; Purmerent, 40; Symen Groot, 
80 ; Fytie Pietersen Rosboom, 20 : total Distributed to 
Schoonechtede. 1809 ells. 

List of the Linen distributed in the Bush ( Woestine) : 
Elias Swart, .36 ells; Lauries Coopesen, 20; Isack Teuerx, 
40 ; Jan Buys, 23 ; Tuenis Carstensen, 35 ; Binnonie Arent- 
sen, [Corlaer] 25; Dauit Marienissen, 30; Elias Gyseling, 
30 ; Arent Vedder, 30 ; Pitter Van Olinda, 35 ; Jan Frooman 
30; Manis Vedder, 24; Tuenis Viele, 20; Tryntie Verwy, 

The City Eecords. 213 

15; Claes Graef, 35; Jan Hilt, 25; Cornells Groot, 20; 
Jan Luycessen, 18 ; Johannes Dyckman, 30 ; Lysbet Cor- 
nelissen, 15 : total 2349 
By me 


Deacon of Albany. 

At a meeting of Mayor Aldermen & Common Council 
holden in Albany this 28 March 1690 Present, P' 
Schuyler Dirck Wesselse L. V. Schayck, J J Biecker 
Claes Ripsen Alb 1 Ryckman, Reynier Barentz, Evert 
Bancker, Eghbert Teunissen Ger 1 Reyersen. 

Having taken into Consideration how we shall obtain for 
King William's ace 1 the ammunition and provision which 
we are obliged to deliver from this County pursuant to our 
preceding Resolution adopted with the Honorable Commis- 
sioners from N. York on the 22nd March last and prepare 
forthwith for the Equipment of an Army both of Christians 
and Indians against our Enemies of Canada, and Resolve as 

Pieter Schuyler & Dirck Wesselse are appointed to get 
ready 6000 Ibs hard bread for the King's ace 1 

Johannis Wendel 100 prepared deer skins 

Levinus Van Schayk 150 skepels peas 

Jan Janse Bleeker & Reynier Barentse 60 guns & 100 

Claes Ripsen & Albert Ryckman the materials & expence 
for repairing the following 30 B. Canoes. 

Evert Bancker Eghbert Teunissen & Ger 1 Ryersen for 30 
Bark Canoes 

Job : Cuyler the 400 Ibs Powder 

Gabriel Thomson the 100 gall Rom 

By the Commissioners, the Mayor Aldermen & Justice & ca of 

the City and County of Albany. 

You are hereby ordered in his Majesties name to take 
hence forthwith under your command 9 men and march 
with Jannetie or Laurence the Mohawk Indian and his party 

214 - The City Records. 

of savages with some Sehagtkooks Indians upward about 
seven miles beyond the Crown-point unto the Otter-creek, 
or some other better place or Rendesvous which you may 
consider more suitable safer and more advantageous where 
you shall remain and keep good watch day and night, and 
send out especially good scouts and spies every day till Sun- 
down, and you shall correspond daily with Capt Jacobus de 
Warm & his soldiers who are sent to the aforesaid Crown 
point, and mutally communicate to each other all remarka- 
ble occurences, and should you perceive or meet any French 
or Canada Indians, you must endeavor to despoil, plunder 
and do them all injury as Enemies conformably to the 
Custom of War : And the aforesaid 9 men are hereby 
strictly charged to obey their officers in all things. 

And the Officers shall in all things advise with the afore- 
said Indian, Jannetie, as to what concerns his Majisty's 
Interest and this undertaken.Expedition. You shall, like- 
wise, remain at the aforesaid Otter Creek, or at the place 
you may think fit as above, for the time of one month except 
you really and truly perceive the approach of a powerful 
enemy's force, which you cannot resist, then you must Cito 
cito send a Messenger hither, and the remainder of Your 
Company must return immediately here to the City. 

But if there be any Volunteers, either Christians or 
Indians who will proceed from the aforesaid Otterkill to 
Canada as Spies, to reconnoitre or to take prisoners they have 
permission so to do, provided the post at the aforesaid 
Otterkill or your sojourn, shall always remain fully esta- 
blished. Meanwhile you shall manufacture some Bark 
Canoes which you can use according to Circumstances. 
Thus Given under our hands In alby. this 31st March, and 
in the 2nd year of his Majesty's Reign Annoq : Dom. 1690 


To Capt Abraham JOH : PROVOOST 

Schuyler P r SCHUYLER 


N : B. the aforesaid 9 men are Arent Schuyler Casper 
Teller But Teunissen David Kettelhuyn Daniel Brad Hendk 
Jansen van Saragtoge Tho Sjeer Willem the Indian 

The City Records. - 215 

By the Commissioners, the Mayor, Aldermen & Justices 

of the Peace of the City & County of Albany. 
WHEREAS you were ordered in your preceding Commission 
dated 26th March last to remain at Crown point till further 
orders as more fully appears in said Commission, and we 
are now asked if any other better sojourn or place of Ren- 
dezvous can be found 

These are, therefore, if you can find out any fitter place 
than the aforesaid Crown Point which you Know will be more 
secure, to empower you to do so with advice and consultation 
of Dirk Albertsen Brad and the Schagtkook Indians, on 
condition that you Send out Spies dayly towards the said 
Crown point : you shall also daily correspond with Capt 
Abraham Schuyler and his people and mutually com- 
municate all notable occurrences. And further you shall 
follow and obey your previous commission in all things. 
Thus given under our hands In Albany this 1st April in the 
2nd Year of his Majestys Reign A Dom 1 . 1690. 
Was Signed, J BRUYN 

To Capt Jacobus de Warm 

The Commissaries at Albany to Leisler. 

Alby. the 3d Aprill 1690. 

MYNHEER Mynheer, We again yesterday sent up a 
Scouting Party of 9 @ 10 Christians with about as many 
Indians who will cooperate as far as possible with the party 
previously sent up, against our enemies the french and their 
Indians from Canada, for his Majesties Interest. 

The Sheriff and County Clerk forwarded also yesterday 
the Minutes and other Books & papers &c. belonging to this 
City and the County of Albany, but found the Registers 
only to 1st December 1685. And Robbert Livingstons wife 
said, she has no Knowledge of the others. Item, were in 
like manner, Since, all the Excise Books and a cs concerning 

216 The City Records. 

his Majestys Revenue because there were reasons numerous 
enough to secure said Livingston, so that he may give ex- 
planations of all the accounts. 

N : B. We also Send your Honour enclosed, six sworn 
affidavits against the aforesaid Livingston in behalf of his 
Majesty. Item, herewith goes, besides, a packet of papers 
which we found in an old box in which were also discovered 
Some articles of value (Klynodie goederen) which heretofore 
belonged to the Canadian Jesuit Yaliand. These we have 
inventoried here for his Majestys use until further Order. 

We also pursuant to your Honor's order allowed the free- 
holders of this Citty & County to Choose & elect 2 proper 
persons to consult & conclude at New York concerning his 
Majesty's interest in this conjuncture, and the majority of 
votes have accordingly fallen on Capt Jan Janse Bleeker 
& Reyer Schermerhoren, and inasmuch as there is no sloop 
at present here in which the aforesaid can depart, they shall 
be forwarded by the first opportunity were it only a canoe. 
At present no more from 

Your Honour's faithful Friends 

Endorsed Alb. 2 apll 1690 Copy van Een brief Aen d'Luyt govr 
,. Jacob Leysler in het fort William tot-N. Yorke. 

Depositions Against Livingston. 

Present J Bruyn Johannes Prov 1 Jan J Bleeker Joh Cuyler 
Akes Cornellissen Van Slyck of the County of Albany, 
aged about 50 years being sworn on the Holy Evangelists 
before Mr Jan Jansen Bleeker Justus of the Peace declares 
that about the middle of Feb A 168| he was with his wife 
Grrietje and George Aersen at Robert Livingston's house 
and that he deponent stated and said to said Livingston 
Thou hast read the King's Declaration in English but I 
cannot understand it therefore repeat it to me in Dutch. 
Whereupon the aforesaid Livingston answered & said 
That the King stated that many of his Subjects had run 
away from England to Holland, of whom the Prince is the 
Chief Rebel and said further, Let him come to England ; 
he shall find there as good Soldiers to oppose him as he shall 
bring with him. And further he saith not. Thus in Albany 

The City Records. 217 

this 1st April and in the 2nd Year of his Majesty's Reign 
A Dom : 1690. 

Sworn before Me. 

Grietje wife of Akes Cornelissen, aged about 45 years 
being sworn before Jan Janse Bleeker Justus of the Peace 
de'clares that she was with her husband Akes & Joris Aersen 
about the Middle of February 168f at Robert Livingston's 
house, and that she Deponent heard said Livingston state 
that the King said that the Prince is the head of the rebels. 
And further she knoweth not well whether she heard from 
Livingston or her husband or from Jor : Aersen she, how- 
ever, heard one of the three say that Livingston had also 
said that divers English subjects had run away from England 
to Holland; also, let him but come to England he shall there 
find as good soldiers as he shall bring with him, and she 
further saith not. Thus, in Alby 1 April 1690 

Present. J Bruyn Joh Provoost Joh Wendel 
Reyer Schermerhooren of the county of Albany, aged 
about 38 years being sworn before Mr Johannis Wendel, 
Justus of the Peace, declares that he was last harvest at 
Sweer Teunissens van Velsen's house at Schanhegtade, 
where Joris Aersen, Capt Sander Glen, Joh Glen & Myndert 
Wemp were present, and that then Joris Aersen was asked 
if he had heard Robert Livingston Say that the Prince of 
Orange (who is our King of England & ca ) was the head of 
the Rebels who invaded England with the Prince A 1688 
Whereupon the aforesaid Jor : Aersen answered, No I did 
not hear Livingston say so; but he said this that in the 
declaration which the Late King James issued against the 
Hollanders he had read that the Prince was declared to be 
the Head of the Rebels Whereupon Meyndert Wemp again 
said in the presence of the aforesaid Company Remem- 
ber this well ; for Joris Aersen shall yet make these words 
good ; and said, further, that he will note down in his book 
the words which Joris aforesaid has there stated. And 
further he saith not. Thus in Alby this 1st April 1690 
Annals, ii. 19 

218 The City Records. 

Simon Schermerhooren of the County of Albany aged 
about 32 years being sworn in presence of Mr Johannis 
Wendel Justus of the Peace declares, that he was last har- 
vest in his house at Schanegtady where Joris Aersen came 
and related to him Deponent how Robert Livingston had 
told him that the Declaration issued against the Hollanders 
by the late King James denounced the Prince of Orange 
as the head of the Rebels ; and that he Joris had shewn 
this declaration to Dom : Tassemaker at the time minister 
of Schanhegtady, to learn if there were any such thing in it, 
but Dom : Tassemaker could see nothing of the sort there ; 
and as the Deponent afterwards heard that Joris tried to 
alter the aforesaid Livingston's words, he asked Joris if he 
now denied that he had spoken to Deponent against Living- 
ston? Whereupon Joris answered, I deny nothing of what 
I told you herein, for I stated the same to the Domine and 
the whole consistory of Schanegtady, 'and I shall not deny 
it even should I die the death, for Aces Corn 5 & his wife 
were likewise present when Livingston spoke so of our 
Prince, notwithstanding that Akes now says he is sick, and 
his wife says she is only a woman. But, said Joris, when 
they are put on their oaths they will speak the truth, and 
should they not, yet will I do it. Item, Joris said, it vexes 
me much that such slanders should be stated of our Prince 
as he is my countryman, for I too am an Amsterdam boy. 
And further saith not Thus in Albany, 1st April 1690. 

Myndert Harmensen of the County of Albany, aged about 
47 years, being sworn before Johannis Wendel Justus of the 
Peace, declares that last harvest in his house, he asked Joris 
Aersen if it were true that he heard Robert Livingston say 
that our Prince of Orange was at the head of the Rebels? 
Whereupon the aforesaid Joris Aerson answered No; I 
did not hear Livingston say that ; but he said this, that the 
Late King James hath in his Declaration against the Hol- 
landers pronounced the Prince to be the head of the Rebels, 
and further saith not. Thus in Albany this 1st April 1690. 

Present J Bruyn, Joh Provoost, J J Bleeker 
Capt Sander Grlen Justus of the Peace of the County of 
Alby, aged about 43 years being sworn before Mr Jan Jansen 

The City Records. 219 

Bleeker, Justus of the Peace, declares that he heard Joris 
Aersen say several times last summer or last harvest, that 
it was too much reported of him Joris that he should have 
spoken against Robert Livingston ; and that Joris also said 
what I heard Livingston say of the Prince, Akes Cornelissen 
and his wife were there then present when he read the 
declaration ; they well know what he said 1 and further saith 
not. Thus in Albany this 1st April 1690. 

Present : J Bruyn, Johannis Provoost, Richard Pretty, 
Joh Cuyler. 

INVENTORY of some goods heretofore the Property of 
the Father, or Jesuit Valiand of Canida. They are, on 
information of Jan Gow and Willena Hollie, transferred to 
us for his Majesty's interest, still remaining at present, & 
until further order, at the house of Jan Gow aforesaid. 
Thus in Alby this 1st April 1690, 

Found in one old chest as follows. : 22 Bunches of 
black Beads, also some loose d 2 doz : little looking glasses 
for Indians, 12 little Patrenoster Chains (Rosaries), 1 priest's 
white surplice ; also 2 @ 3 little shirts & c . 3 small bunches of 
Copper finger-rings, 4 doz tinder boxes with steel & flints, 5 
small papers of Needles, 2 papers of Awls 1 Compass 2 Belts 

1 Red matting table cover (strootwisch t-afelkleecT) 1 do Chim- 
ney little Valance (shoorsteen valletje) 3 parcels of garden 
Stuff 1 old ditto 2 little paintings 5 burning glasses 1 hand- 
some pair of womens hose 27 little books 11 paper pictures 3 
blank books 1 pr shoes & 1 pr. slippers & nothing else of Im- 
portance. Item found in a Small Basket: 1 little ben, 
weight about 16 Ibs. 7 old axes 4 old adzes 2 planeing chisels 

2 old chisels 1 little copper shears 1 small hatchet 1 small 
square in a joiners bench 1 small anvil with a horn 1 hand 
vice 1 large Auger 1 set of bits 2 files 3 old dishes 3 prs 
of ice spurs, (creepers) 1 crooked nippers 1 old plane 3 Rings 

1 The following was added here in the original but afterwards 
expunged : " And deponent further saith that he repeatedly 
heard several persons, in the course of conversation say that the 
Prince is the head of the Rebels ; But, knows not from whom he 
heard it." 

220 The City Records. 

for 2 small hammers 1 iron pick hook Item, some other 
pieces of old Iron of little or no importance ; of no value. 

Johannis Sand. Glen of the county of Albany about 42 
years old being Sworn before Jan Wendel, Justus of the 
Peace, declares that Rob ; Livingston came last harvest to 
Schannegtade and enquired expressly for Joris Aersen, and 
said he would give a quart or two to whomsoever would 
bring Joris, as he was in the Bush, for he must speak with 
him. Whereupon Deponent asked what had Joris done. 
To which Livingston Answered, You know well what I 
heard, since I heard Joris hath thus spoken against you 
Deponent replied, I know it not And when he Deponent 
afterwards saw Joris Aersen, he asked him, how the. matter 
stood about which Livingston had come to him ? to which 
Joris answered If the people to whom I spoke about Liv- 
ingston have not changed my words, Livingston is in no dan- 
ger neither have I. Otherwise I shall have difficulty ; And 
further saith not. Thus in Albany this 2d April 1690. 

Newyork Aprill 3d 1690. 

To the Honorable the Governor & Gent in authority for his 

Majesties Collony of Connecticutt. 
HONBLE SIRS, Whereas Captn Jonathan Bull hath by 
order from the authority of your collony, withdrawen the 
forces sent for Albany contrary to the order of those com- 
missionated for that post and the expectation both of the 
Christians & Indian Confederates, to the great discourage- 
ment of the remaining forces for his Majesties service in that 
frontier, In some parts to supply that defect, It is desired 
that Mr Samuel Edsall & Mr pembroke the bearer hereof, 
may have license & free leave to beat the drum for raising 
such volunteers as shall list themselves in his Majesties 
service for Albany aforesaid, & transport the same into this 
place, or directly thither without any lett hindrance or mo- 
lestatione whatsoever, Morover desireing your aide & 
assistance therein, which request of ours we hope not to faill 
of, Subscribing your loving friends & neighbours &c. 

The City Records. 221 

A List of y e Souldjers for ye Expedition of Albany @ 25s. 
p r Mont and their provision A. 1689 the 13 March 
in Fort William, & are departed on 2d april with Capt 
Jacob Milborne 

Gerrit woutersen Serjeant two pisses of 8, Thomis Chambers 
9s in inony & 12s Qd. in duffels Henry pyper 12s Qd in duffels 
9s in mony Syrnon Williams of Ranak 1 pc of 8 & 9s in 
mony & 10s in duffels Jean Marlett of Staten Island 1 lock 
& 4s in mony &10s in duffels Jacob Paers of Rye 9s in mony 
Richard Marten 9s in mony & 10s in duffels Richard Walters 
of Rye 9s in mony & 10s in duffels Mattheuw Barends of 
Westchester 1 pc of 8. & 9s in mony & 12s 6d. in duffels 
Francis Mauriss of Staten Island 9s in mony Daniell 
Magdaniell 9s in mony 1 pr of shoes Jonas Stevense of Rye 
1 pr shoes & 1 pc of 8 & 9s in mony & 12s Qd in duffels 
Hendrick Hendricksen Staten Island 9s. in mony Robert 
Raley 9s in mony William Nobell 9s in mony Gerrit arentse 
of N York 9s in mony & 10 in duffels Jean faefre Staten 
Islaud 1 lock & 4s in mony & 10s in duffels Pieter Berry 9s 
in mony 1 pr shoes George Sharp 9s in mony 1 pr shoes . 
John floid of N York 9s in mony & 10s in duffels Philiph 
Coome 1 pc of 8. & 9s in mony & 12s Qd in duffels John 
Mannin 9s in mony John Poeu 9s in mony & 1 pr. shoes 
Frans Thomasse of N. York 9s in mony John Clark 12s 6d. 
in duffels 9s in mony Charles Twist of Suffolk Bounds 1 ps 
of 8 & 9s in mony & 1 sword & 1 pc of 8, William Ingell 9s 
in mony & 12s Qd. in duffels Johannes Langestraet of N York 
1 pc of 8. Johannes fyne of N York 1 pc. of 8. John 
Barsett of Rye 1 pr of shoes & 9s. in mony Charles Olivatt 
12s Qd. in duffels 9s. in mony William Cornes 12s Qd. in 
duffels 9s in mony John Rob from Staten Island 9s in mouy 
William haukisson 1 pr shoes & 9s in mony Jean doulier 
from Staten Island 9s in mony & 12s Qd in duffels & 2 pc. 
of 8 for dyet & bringing over of people, Thomas hunt Sur- 
geon 9s in mony & 1 pc of 8 for dyet Robert Folther 9s in . 
mony gerrit Tappen 9s in mony & 9s for to bring a man 
Thomas Knight 9s in mony Ebenesar Lyon 9s. in mony 
Thomas Cromwell 9s in mony William Locker 9s. in mony 
Patrick Magrigerie 9s in mony Thomas Johnson 9s in mony 
Nathaniel Pietersen 9s in mony John Boyd 9s in mony Silley 

222 The City. Records. 

3s. in mony Robert Cam 9s in mony Jan Cornelise Johannes 
Van Tilburgh hendrick martensen Edward ford from the 
Man of War 9s in mony Jan Chalender 9s in mony 

Expedicon to Albany 26 May. John Care 9s. in mony 28 
ditto John Robinson 1 pr shoes .Richard Hill 1 pr ditto 
each 3s for board 4 leaves & 16 Ibs pork 

[From another List.] April 4. 1690 

Peter Henkesson from Staten Island Jost Pow. Andrew 
Smith 9s in mony 3s for dyett Willem Weaver 9s in mony 18s 
for dyet John Prescott9sin mony Moses Manase Hard 9s in 
monyCharles Masshell Henry low 9s in mony John Damelse 
6s in mony Peter Parsone" 9s in mony each 2 yd duffels 
Daniel Mellon 9s in mony Andrew Miller 9s in mony 
Johannes Liekeris, Thomas Stevensen. 

A list of the Souldjers y l went with Captain gabriell 
Thompson; [Supposed to be from Piscataway, Maryland] 
Capt. Gabriel Tomson, Lefteuant Rodgar Barton, Ensine 
"Ebennazar Wakeman, Sargant Joseph Rumsey, Sargant 
Thomis Sturgis, Thomas Hunt, Samuel uail, Mathu Randall 
Abraim broun, Josoph boils, Sammuel Couch, danniel 
Gou, John Ogdin, John Cable, Josiah Hunt, Samuel 
Shered, Philip trauis, Loeling philips, Thomas Brodgat, 
Robord Graims, Jorge Scot, James Camioll, John Owen, 
Nathaniel furbush, Sargant Jonathan Horton, John forge- 
son, Richard feloo, William Danford, John Knap, Richard 
Cozens, Thomas Poor, Philip galpin, Philip prise, Joseph 
Cable, John Green, Isaac Rumsey, Thomas Mathus. 

A part of.a list of the People y l went up to Albany. 
Jeronimes van Bommell, Hend'k Aernoutts, Coenradus 
Vander Beck, Jan Keteltas, Isac Jansen Van Tilburgh, 
Abram Matysse, Jacobus de Waim, Samuel Yardin, Harmen 
Jansen, Denys A denoan, Jacobus Colve, Ephraim Carpenter, 
Cornelis Loosie Boswyck, Gilliam gerlet Boswyck, Martin 
Beeckman, Arien Santwoort, Jacobus vander Spiegel, Isaac 
Franck, Daniel Robotham. Abram Uytersael, Alexander 
Wilson, Gerret Burger, Johannes Provoost Junior, Isaac 
Bos, John Thomas, Matthys de Hart, Charles fonteyn 

The City Records. 223 

Boswyck, Caste Laerse Junior, Jams Woodert, John Span- 
iard, Johannes Hartman, Jurian Andiesse, Pieter Pangborne 
Toinas foot, Mathys Loftus, James Weith, Lowrens hoist 

from Kings County, Peter Brouwer, Jacobus Monseu 
Casaue, Rein Jansen, Theunis Dircksen, Jan Tysse, Jan 

A 1690 19 8ber in Fort William. 

A List of y e Souldjers y l are a going up to Albany Robert 
Crafft, 8 shill. David Mandre Shotlander, 5s. or 8 s. Alex- 
ander farle, 2s. 3d. Brian Rome, 2s. John Jackmonsse, 2s. 
3d. George Casselltowne, 2. 3d. Samuel Kickham, in plas 
of John Baker Discharged Toby Indian, 2s. 3d. Thomas 
Barber, 8 shill, William Trip 2s. Nicholaes Porter, 2s. John 
Wolleston, 5s. Roburte Pate, 2s. 3d prest, Isaakfran 2s 3d. 

Copies of Divers other Orders Issued by Leislers Commis- 
sioners at Albany April & May 1690. 

By the Commissioners for Albany &ca. 

WHEREAS diverse persons within this Citty and County 
have presumed to retayle Rum unto the Souldiers Belonging 
to ffort Orange, and the respective Captains commanding 
such who came from New yorke and are since listed under 
them, which hath proved very pernicious to the Kings In- 
terests, the safety of this Citty and County, and the said 
Souldiers welfare 

These are in his Majesties name strictly to prohibite and 
forbid any person whatsoeuer to draw for, sell, or retayle 
any parcel! or quantity of rum upon any pretence whatsoeuer 
under the penalty of {forfeiting Ten pounds Currant money 
of this Province for doeing such trespasse, and the said Rum 
to forfeited, One third to be for the Enforuier and the rest 
to be improved for the support of this present Warr : Dated 
in Albany Aprill the 12th and in y e 2d yeare of his Majesties 
Reigne Annoq Dom. 1690. 

WHEREAS his Majesties Revenue hath been much em- 
paired by neglect of Due collecting the Grand Accizes &ca 

224 The City Eecords. 

These are in his Majesties name to command you Mr 
Richard Pretty forthwith to Gauge all Vessells containing 
Rum or strong liquors wheresoeuer you shall finde the same 
within this Citty and County, and take Acco 1 thereof accord- 
ing to an Act of Assembly and your Power substituting you 
Collector &ca for the same ; All persons being hereby 
required to conform thereunto as they will answer the con- 
trary att their Perrills Given under o 1 hands y e date afore- 
said : 

To Mr Richard Pretty Sherriffe of the Citty and County 
of Albany 

A List of Persons Departed from Albany without any 
leaue or giving notice Laurens (alais) Koehaerder, Jan Lau- 
rens, Cornelis Laurens, N B Cornelis Viele, Surgeon to send 
up Jan Jacobse, Evert Wendel Junior, Symon Schermer- 
hoorne, for o r want of him is great 


WHEREAS- there was an Order issued forth to Mr Robert 
Livingston Receiver of the Kings Revenue for y e Citty 
and County of Albany to deliuer unto Mr Richard Pretty 
all such bookes and Acco 1s as were in his Custody (or that 
haue been under his Charge or in his Possession) relating 
any part of Kings Revenue as aforesaid &ca and the said 
Livingston hath absconded without giving any order or 
direction concerning the same by which his Majesties In- 
terest is much abated. 

These are to giue notice unto the s d Livingston or in 
whose possession the s d bookes or Acco's are or do know 
where they are placed, that they Forthwith do give notice 
thereof unto Mr Richard Pretty &ca and in case any do 
conceale, or connive at covering the same, that then such 
shall be proceeded against as those who abett & contrive to 
defraud his Majesties dues and dutyes Moreover it is here- 
by ordered & declared that if the said Livingston doth not 
appeare in person in Albany City afores' 1 or make returne 
of the same here, at or before the 26th day of this Instant 
Aprill according to the true intent and meaning of this pre- 
cept : That then the Said Livingston shall be proceeded 

The City Records. 225 

against as one that hath defrauded his Majesty of his dues 
and rights and broken the trast reposed in him, according 
to the severity of Law in such Cases : Dated in Albany this 
14th day of Aprill 1690, and in y e Second Yeare of his 
Majesties Reigne : 

Albany Aprill the 22th 1690 

ORDERED that the Mill belonging to the Patroon Renselaer 
be immediately fortified against any attack or invasion that 
may be made by the Enemy, for which purpose it is recom- 
mended to the care & direction of Mr Levinus Van Schayck 
& Peter Schuyler Esqr for his Assistance, and what by 
them shall be appointed for accomplishing the same, all 
persons are hereby strictly required to be aiding therein 
with their Persons or what else unto them is belonging for 
that Service, as they well answer the contrary at their utmost 
Perill Giuen under o r hands the day & yeare above written. 

Albany Aprill the22d 1690 

WHEREAS there is a necessity of breast works to be forth- 
with made within the Stockadoes round this City, and that 
it may be more effectually accomplished : Ordered that 
Cap 1 Johannes Wendel, and Cap' Peter Van Wogolom doe 
take upon them the care & direction thereof, and what by 
them shall be found requisite for compleating the same all 
persons are hereby required to assist therein with their Per- 
sons and whatsoeuer is unto them belonging fit for that 
service as they will answer the contrary at their utmost 
Perill, Given under our hands the day and yeare above 
written : 

WHEREAS there was an Order issued forth bearing date 
the 14th this Instant Aprill for M r Rob' Livingston to 
render up the Bookes and Accounts relating the Kings 
Revenue, and a certaine day set and time limited for the 
same or his appearance in this City the which hath notbeene 
observed to the great prejudice of his Majesties Interest &c a 
These are in his Majesties name to will and require you 
forthwith to Attach all such houses, lands, Goods, and 
Chattells as doe belong or appertaine unto the s fl Livingston 
for and in behalfe of our Sovereigne Lord King William & 
to his Majesties use& behoofe whereof you are to make re- 

226 The City Records. 

turne according to this Precept Given under our hands in 
Albany April 30th and in the second yeare of his Majesties 
Reigne Annoq Dom 1690. 

To M< Richard Pretty Sherriffe for the City and County 
of Albany 

WHEREAS diverse persons haue pretended right and title 
to a parcell of meadow ground pasture belonging unto their 
most excellent Majesties King William and Queene Mary 
Supream Lord and Lady of this Province of N : Yorke lying 
neare this City and have sold y e same for the use of the 
Poore to emprove by letting it or entertaining sundry beasts 
to grasse therin 

These are in his Majesties King Williams name strictly to 
forbid ail persons whatsoever to trespasse thereon by enter- 
taining or driving into the s d Pasture any horses beasts, or 
other Cattell whatsoeuer without Speciall Licence from us 
Commissionated by his Majesties L' Governor of the Pro- 
vince of New Yorke aforesaid as they will answer the contrary 
at their utmost Perrill Given under our hands this 30th 
day of Aprill in y e second yeare of his Majesties reigne 
Annoq dom. 1690 And whosoeuer shall attempt to pull 
or deface, or any wayes Scandalize any Order affixed by this 
Authority shall be punished severely according to the nature 
of the Offence with its circumstances 

To all whom this doth or may Concerne 

COMPLAINT being made unto us by the Gentlemen ap- 
pointed for quartering of his Majesties Soldiers in this city 
& County that M r William Teller hath obstinately refused to 
entertaine a certaine Souldier by their Qrder sent for that 
purpose and hath shut his door against the officer 

Insomuch that they desire our Authority to compell him 
the s* Teller to performe his duty 

These are in his Majesties name to will and require you 
forthwith to make a forcible entry into the s d Tellers house, 
and quarter the said sould r accordingly, and take with you 
such psons for Assistance as are under your Command, in so 
doing this shall be your Sufficient Warrant Giuen under 
our hands in Albany this first day of May in the second 
yeare of his Majesties Reigne Annoq Dom. 1690 

The City Records. 227 

To Lieu 1 Twist Commanding a Cornp 6 of his Majesties 
Souldiers in this City : 

WHEREAS strict Orders haue beene made prohibiting all 
psons within this City and County to sell Rum unto the 
Indians, and the same haue not had due effect, neither 
beene regarded as they ought : 

These are in his Majesties name strictly to forbid all 
psons whatsoeuer that they sell noe Rum or strong drinke, 
directly or indirectly unto any sort of Indian, or Indians 
of what Nacon soever, and that none do presume to deliuer, 
or give any Rum or other strong Beere or drinke unto any 
of them upon what pretence soever (unlesse such who haue 
an especiall Licence from us so to doe) under the penalty 
of forfeiting Twenty pounds Currant money of this Province 
the One halfe to the Enformer the rest to be employed in 
y e Publiq service of the immediate War and in case the 
persons so offending shall not be capable of paying the said 
ffine, then to receiue open Corporall punishment by whipping 
at discretion and forthwith to be expelled this County : 
Given under o r hands this 2 J day of May in the second 
Yeare of his Majesties Reigne Annoq Dom 1690 : 

And that no pson shall go without y^ Stockadoes of this 
City to discourse or deale with any Indian whatsoeuer on 
penalty of forfeiting ten pounds like Current money and 
in Case they are not capable to pay the same, to be punished 
as aboves :1 : 

These are in his Majesties name to require you Mr Richard 
Pretty Sheriffe of this City & County to distraine Twelve 
Kettles now in the possession of Captain Johan Bleecker, 
weighing the same & promise payment (for the Kings ser- 
vice) in o r behalfe Griuen under o r hands May the llth 

THESE are in his Majesties name to will & require you 
forthwith to make diligent search within this City for all 
Kettles that may be fit for the Expedition against the French, 
and wherever you finde the same (as Merchandize) to secure 
for his Majesties Service that they may not be transported 
from this Towne but forth comming when occasion requires, 
as you shall haue farther order from us & for sodoing this 

228 The City Records. 

shall be your sufficient Warrant given under our hands in 
Alb a May 12th & in y e 2d year of his Majesties Reigne 
Annoq dona 1690 : 

These are in his Majesties name to order, & appoint you 
Mr Dirck Wessells forthwith to provide Indian Shoes, 
Canoes and Axes which are immediately requisite for his 
Majesties Service against y e ffrench and their adhering 
Enemyes commanding all persons proper to assist you herein 
& for sodoing this shall be your sufficient Warrant given 
under our hands in Alb a May 12th & in y e 2d yeare of his 
Majesties Reigne Annoq dom 1690 

These are in his Majesties name to prohibite and forbid 
all manner of persons within this City and County that they' 
dare not presume to receuie into any howse, or Cellar, any 
Wine, rum or Strong Liquors except it be first gaged by 
the Grager Adrian Appel then to be committed to the Porters, 
for howsing the same, and that no Beere be carried from 
any Brewer, but by the said Porters appointed by us and 
that they giue a true account of the same to the Collector 
of his Majesties Revenue for this City and County, euery 
weeke, and that no strong beere be brought to any Retailer 
or Tapper with out a ticket from y e said Collector upon y e 
penalty ffiue Pounds for euery offence committed by each 
Porter ' And that no Carman shall ride Wine, Rum, or other 
Strong Liquors from -any Vessell house, or Cellar without 
handling by said Porters All vessels being hereby ordered 
to land & load at y e Landing place behinde y e Court house 
to be rid through the Grate by said Court house & not other- 
wayes upon penalty of paying ffive Pounds for every Carman 
that shall soe offend Given under our hands May the 12th 
1690 & in y e Second Yeare of his Majesties Reigne. 

WHEREAS diverse persons dayly wast powder which is of 
such necessary use for defence of this City and County of 
Albany, and although many haue beene advertised thereof 
yet psist in the same : These are in his Majesties name to 
prohibite all persons whatsoeuer with in the said City and 
County to burne any powder unlesse to kill provision, or 
for his Majesties service & benefit of the places aforesaid, 

The City Records. 229 

upon paine of paying for every shot, or discharging of Gun 
or Pistoll (contrary to y e intent of this order) six shillings 
Currant money of this province of New Yorke, or Corporall 
punishment at discretion : Dated in Albany May 12th 1690 : 
These are in his Majesties name to Order & appoint you 
Mrs ClaasRipse, en Jacob Meesen diligently to visit, and 
narrowly inspect the Stockadoes & platformes round & about 
this City, (with such officers of the Militia as y e Towne 
Major shall appoint) and that what shall be found requisite 
& necessary to be done for y e better fortifying thereof, you 
doe by yourselves or such as you shall employ forthwith 
performe & accomplish : Giuen under our hands May 12 th 
& in the second yeare of his Majesties Reigne Annoq Dom 

These are in his Majesties name to order you to examine 
all houses within this City & County and take an exact Ac- 
count of what powder is in eur'y psons possession therein, of 
which all the Inhabitants thereof are hereby ordered & 
Commanded that they do giue you a true account of what 
quantity they haue, & if they or any of them shall conceale 
any part thereof to be proceeded against as contemnors of 
his Majesties Authority, and disaffected to the peace and 
Security of this City and County aforesaid. Dated in 
Albany the 12th day of May and in the second yeare of his 
Majesties Reigne Annoq Dom. 1690 : 

FORASMUCH as it is of high Concern to preserue his Ma- 
jesties City and County of Albany from the rage and mis- 
chief of the French & their adherents, who to our sad 
experience haue made divers attempts upon the skirts of the 
same : Wee doe therefore Order, and hereby it is ordered 
that the Posts of Schanechtede, Connestigioene, and the 
halfe Moone be forthwith supplyed with proper numbers of 
men to defend the same, and that none do presume to post 
any other forces saving at the three places aforesaid at their 
utmost perill Given under our hands this 12th day of May 
in the second yeare of his Majesties Raigne Annoq Dom 

To all whome this doth or may concerne 

Annals, ii. 20 

230 The City Records. 

WHEREAS it is judged necessary for to defend Schanech- 
tede and to that purpose it is likewise found requisite tliat a 
Fort shall be erected to defend y e Inhabitants and oppugne 
the Enemy if should attack the same. 

These are in his Majesties name to require you Captain 
Sander Glen & all Officers & Inhabitants belonging to y e 
said Schanechtede and adjacent Parts, with the Souldiers 
therein Garrison, to build a substantial Fort of due mag- 
nitude and strength upon that part or parcell of ground 
(called by the name of Cleyn Isaacs) and that all are 
aiding and assisting therein according to their abilitye to 
dispatch and compleat the same, as they will answer the 
contrary at their utmost perills Given under our hands 
this 13th day of May in the second yeare of his Majesties 
Reigne Annoq Doni 1690 : 

Albany the 30th May 1690 

You are from hence to set forth immediately to Sarrach- 
toge and so forward to the Carrying Place where you are to 
make your diligent inspection if any Tracks of people are 
made, or other notices can be taken either of the French 
or their Indians, and between the s d draegh Plaets &.Sar- 
raghtoge you are to keep constant passing and repassing 
for the space of 8 days, and if you meet with any remark- 
able thing that is worth our notice, forthwith to dispatch an 
Indian Messenger, except the ffrench Troops should appeare 
then to withdraw all your men & obserue so long as with 
safety you can how they march & what numbers of them 
may be guest and all psons with you are hereby strictly re- 
quired to obey your Commands as they will answer the 
Contrary at their utmost Perill Given under our hands the 
date abovesaid. 

To Ensigue Symon Van Nes. 

1689 The Heer Luyt Gouvernor Jacob Leysler debet 

Aug 9. For 15 green planks for Fort William 00.11. 

16ff i barrel of Strong Albany Beer 00.15 : 

Feb. 25. 8 skepel white peas for fort William. 1. : 

Mch 1. 2 ps bl. duffels long 50 : 46 both 96| 

yard a 5 st. per yard 24. 2 : 6 

169026. 501bsleada4i 00.18:9 

Carried forward,. . . 27. 7: 3 

The City Records. 231 

Brought forward, 27. 7 : 3 

1 Red Cloth Cloak trimmed with gold 
Lace & its accompaniments for an 

Indian 3. 5 : 

Item one hundred ps of eight in Spe- 

tie loaned for 3 days, 30. : 

Total '...*... 60.12: 6 

N York the 2d May 1690 p* Anna Cuyler Widow 
of deed HEND CUYLEB. 

N Torke Primo May 1690 

At a meeting of y e Commissioners of y e Province of New 
York & y c Collonies of y e Massachusetts, Plymouth & 

It is Concluded as their unanimous Result that In y<* 
Psent Expedicon for the Strengthning of Albany y e Pur- 
suing & by y e help of Almighty God Subduing y e french & 
Indian Ennemies Continrruing in hostility agst their Ma- 
jesties that each of y e Collonies aforesaid shall Provide & 
furnish y e undermenc6ned proporcons of Souldiers with 
Answerable Provisions at their own Charges to Be sent 
with all Speed : 

. viz 1 

By New Yorke four hundred 400 

By Massachusetts Colony one hundred & Sixty... 160 
By Conecticut Colony one hundred & thirty five.. 135 

By Plymouth Colony sixty 60 

By Maryland by Promise one hundred 100 

In all Eight hundred fifety five 855 

To Major Jacob Milborne 

GREETING By virtue of y e Authority derived unto mee I 
do hereby constitute & apoint You to be Major of all y e 
forces now raised or to be raised for y e expedicon of Albany 
out of this Province & y e New England Collonies & Mary- 
land according to y e unanimous result made with said Col- 
lonies agst y e french at Canada you are therefore Carefully 

232 The City Becords. 

& diligently to discharge y e duty of a major by Exercising 
y e Same In Armes & Keeping them In good order & dis- 
cipline both Officers & Souldiers observing Strictly all y e 
Articles In ye Said Result Expressed hereby willing & Com- 
manding them to observe & follow Such orders & direcc6ns 
as you Shall .from time to time receive from mee or any 
apointed by my Selfe & Councell Ac6rding to y e Rules & 
discipline of war Pursuant to y e trust reposed In You & to 
Execute all acts of hostility against y e french King his 
Subiects & their adherents & this Commission to Continue 
during my will & Pleasure only : GIVEN &c. this 25th of 
May 1690. 


Leisler to Tiis Agents at Albany. 

Fort William may 19th 1690 

GENTLEMEN Yours of y e 8th Instant I received y e 10th 
Instant expecting according your Promise y e next day y e 
Particulars of y e whole Proposition with y e Indians after 
which we Lang with y e greatest Impatiens Imaginable I 
have sent Imediately to major Gold and your governor desyr- 
ing them to desist to address there Letters so unadvisedly 
and also that I had newes of Sutch a Satisfactory answer to 
what was proposed to y e five n aeons who were to assist us 
with 1800 of there Indians for Canada and that I expected 
to morrow the particulars & y e time appointed for y e march 
which also I should speedily advice & so resolved to send 
Captain Blagg to boston with y e same to Spur them for dis- 
patch Mr Pembroke is departed before your advise to Mary- 
land & Virginia but have sent y e aforesaid advice after him. 
Since I received your Letter of y e 8th instant is arrived here 
severall sloops from albany but none of yours which puts 
us in the greatest consternacon as ever we where y e more 
because our adversaries have not only in y e towne but all 
y e Country over to our great grief spread abroad that no- 
thing was done but drinking and that thereby wheny* Indians 
where there was caused Sutch disturbance that y e widdou 
Scuyler beat Captain Milborne & that you where all three 
forced to fly out of y e towne & where gone to Esopes & 
Peter Scuyler was in y e fort with great many Incredible 

The City Records. 233 

reflecions which daily are reproached to our People to our 
great grief and Sorrow we Know that it is there daily 
practise to throw Scandal and Lyes upon us to render us 
odious they have formerly endeavored to posses y e whole 
Countrey I was become a dronkerd we doubt not but when 
we shall have Letters from you we shall be put of y e dark 
we are now In we durst not be inquisitive after newes 
therefore we have sent to Esopes, where we expected you 
would go so Soone y e business was settled at Albany & you 
could Spare time hoope you are gone again to Albany 
where this may find you all in good health & have given 
order if you were departed to Sent it with one a purpose 
that you might know the malice of our adversaries & to take 
away all what may give umbrage to refleckt so wickedly as 
they do heer now It is nor kan not be believed by us but 
Impossible to stop there Lying mouths I desire a speedy 
answer of all transacions when y e generall march Is In- 
tended who jou propose for major also forme of commission 
for him what for Instrucions is need to be given what 
People Is like to be had at Sopes & albany to compleat our 
nomber of four hundred what quantity of People of ours are 
dead with there names & pray send me downe again all y 
Letters with y e answers I haue send you by Mr. Cuyler & be- 
fore the proclamation of war our three vessells will depart 
y e of this instant we expect daily newes from Maryland 
which we shall send so soone we have it y e Sarge and 
Linning & Bread you have desired shall be sent by y e first I 
have secured in the fort 180 barrells of Pork which was all 
what was in y e towne we have an Imbargo Mr Edsall Is 
gone to Suffolk County to Settle all things they having sub- 
mitted this is all for y e present. I salute you & Kemaine 

Major Milborn and the rest of the Gentlemen at Schanhech- 

This afternoon Three of our folks arrived here from Canida 
who escaped from there ; namely, Klyn Isack, the Son of 
Ryck Claessen, and one of Capt Boll's Soldiers. ^ They re- 
port having been 24 days on the road, and the Soldier twenty 
six days from Monrojael. 

234 The City Records. 

They say that Monrojael is not very strongly garrisoned, 
though they fear nothing and think little of us. Neverthe- 
less the Soldier or Englishman would very gladly attack it 
and is inclined to accompany our people and gives us great 
encouragement, that the opportunity is favorable. 

The French abstain from talking before prisoners & say 
they have heard little or nothing from the Port rojael Ex- 
pedition or of the Indian fight on the Lake 

We further refer to the Enclosed to Arnout Cornelissen. 
We think it right if your Honors consider that Arnout 
Cornelissen is gone, that it should be sent after him by an 
Indian in order to communicate this news to the Indians. 
Wherewith, after salutation we remain, 
Your friends 


This 9 July A 1690. In Albany. 

Laurents or Jannetie the Indian with his party urge us 
very hard not to omit reminding the Gentlemen again to 
admonish the Indians at Schanhechtade not to let the French 
prisoners go out with them to fight, for we have an example 
now in our own people who have run away from Canada, 
and that they should be disarmed. 

JOURNAL of Captain John Schuyler who voluntarily em- 
barked at Wood Creek on the 13th August 1690, with 
29 Christians and 120 Savages, whom he recruited at 
Wood Creek as volunteers under his command to go to 
Canida to fight the enemy. 

Nearly about the swamps I met Captain Sander Glen on 
his way back to Albany, because the greatest number returned. 
The aforesaid Sanders had in his company 28 whites and 
5 savages and came from Tsinondrosie where Captain Sanders 
had been waiting 8 days for the whole corps. From 
these Captain John Schuyler enlisted 13 whites and 5 
savages to continue with Captain Schuyler the voyage to 
Canida and their to fight their mutual enemy. When the 
rest of the company had left us, and we had advanced nearly 
two hours on our voyage, we found 2 canoes which had been 
sent out to spy and which had shot an elk. After we had 

The City Records. 235 

done eating and had supplied bur canoes we proceeded on 
our way as far as Canaghsionie. 

The 15th day of August we came one Dutch mile above 
Crown Point. 

The 16th ditto we had advanced as far as Kanondoro, 
and resolved at that place to travel by night and have that 
night gone onward to near the spot where Ambropio (?) 
Corlaer is drowned, and there one of our savages fell in con- 
vulsions, charmed and conjured by the devil, and said that 
a great battle had taken place at Quebeck (Cubeck) and 
that much heavy cannon must have been fired there, and that 
one hundred canoes with savages had come down the river 
from Cadaraqui. (Coederoqua.) And about one hour after 
sunrise we have gone to Oghraro, where I placed the first 
guard and nominated Barent Wemp as officer of the guard. 

Tke 17 ditto in the evening we proceeded to Ogharonde. A 
Tsenondoga savage of our Company died there ; he died of 
sickness; the Oneida savages gave a wampum belt for the 
atonement of the dead. That day Capt. Schuyler with his 
subaltern officers and the Chief of the savages resolved where 
they should make their attack upon the enemy, and they 
determined by the majorities to fall upon fort La Prairie 
(Lapplarie) ; whereupon the Mohawks gave a wampum belt 
to the Schaghkock savages as a token to stand by each other 
faithfully, and what they do call " onroghquasa In a Goera." 
The Oneida savages did the same to the Mohawk savages by 
some handful of wampum, and in this manner this resolu- 
tion was decidedly agreed upon and confirmed with shaking 
of hands (kinsekaje) as well by the Christians as by the sa- 
vages and, moreover, approved by the savages as to whom 
should be their chiefs or headmen, Carristasio and Tehoe- 
sequatho and Juriaen the ferocious. 

The 18 ditto, set out in the evening, and about midnight 
we saw a light fall down from out the sky to the South, of 
which we'all were perplexed what token this might be. 

The 19 ditto on account of the strong wind we laid still 
because we could not proceed and we were laying about 3 
miles above the Sandbank of Chambly.- 

The 20 ditto we sent out spies along the west side of the 
river Chambly and found there a drawing of a party from 

236 The City Records, 

Canada and 14 palisades to which they had bound their 
prisoners whom they had fetched from New England. 

The 21 ditto we proceeded to about .one mile below the 
above mentioned sandbank of Chambly, when we again sent 
out spies, who discovered some places where french and savage 
spies had been keeping double night watch, and that the 
same had embarked for Chambly. Then, after having first 
placed our canoes and provisions in safety, 

The 22 ditto we pursued our journey by land and travelled 
that day close under La Prairie the road being very diffi- 
cult on account of the softness of the clay, over which we 
had to travel, so that two of our Christians returned to our 
canoes. Coming through the clay we heard much firing of 
musketry, of which we were astonished what it might be. 

The 23 ditto in the morning I sent spies towards the fort 
to see how it was ; returning said all the folks were leaving 
the fort of La Prairie to cut corn. Then we resolved in 
what manner we should hinder them to obtain the fort again, 
and agreed to do so by intercepting them on their way to 
the fort, but by the eagerness of the young savages such 
was prevented, because Christians as well as savages fell on 
with a war cry which displeased the officer that they fell on 
without orders having been given, but they made 19 pri- 
soners and 6 scalps, among which were 4 womenfolk. The 
first prisoner was examined, asking him, what the firing of 
yesterday at La Prairie signified ? said, the Governor is 
yesterday gone away with 800 men and the people discharged 
their muskets at their departure because their scouts had 
not heard from us. Then we fell upon their cattle, we 
pierced and shot to death nearly 150 head of oxen and cows, 
and then we set fire to all their houses and barns which we 
found in the fields, their hay, and everything else which 
would take fire. Then we Christians resolved to fall upon 
the fort, but could not move the savages io give their con- 
sent to help us to attack the fort ; the fort fired alarms when 
Montroyal and Chamble answered, so that we resolved to 
depart with the prisoners to Albany. A savage of ours was 
stabbed to death, whom we burned in a barn, and we went 
that day 7 Dutch miles 1 on our way back. Then the savages 

J A Dutch mile is equal to about three English miles. Sewett's 

The City Records. 237 

killed 2 french prisoners because they could not travel on 
account of their wounds. A little while after this we sat 
down to eat and thanked the Governor of Canada for his 
salute of heavy cannon during our meal they fired from 
the morning till 2 o'clock in the afternoon from all three of 
the forts That day we travelled to the river Chambly 
where our canoes were laying. 

The 24 ditto we went as far as fort Lamotte. 

The 25 ditto we reached the Sand point, where we shot 2 

The 26 ditto we came to the little stone fort, and from 
there sent a canoe with men to Albany to bring the news of 
what had happened to us. 

The 27 ditto we proceeded to Canaghsione and there shot 
9 elks. 

The 28 ditto we reached Wood Creek. 

The 29 ditto we have travelled to the little Rapid above 

The 30 ditto of August we have arrived at Albany, under 
the command of Captain John Schuyler. 

A true copy from the translation in the collection of Manuscripts 
of the New Jersey Historical Society, at Newark. 

Member H. Soc. N. J. 

List of Albany Commissions by Lieutenant Governor 
Leisler : 

December 1689, Justice & Dedimus Potest., Roelof 
Swartwout. Dec. 28, 1689, Collector & Sheriff, Richard 
Pretty; Clerk, Johannes Cuyler. Oct. 8, 1690, Mayor, 
Johannes Wendel ; Justices, Laurens Van Aelen, Reyer 
Jacobse Schermerhoorn, Barent Pietersen Koeymans, John 
Thyssen, Claes Van Potter, Myndert Harmensen, Harnien 
Gansevoort, Jacob Staas, John Naill, Jan Finagel, Jan Janse 
Bleeker ; Captains, Barent Wemp,' Pieter Wogolem, Hans 
Hendricx ; Lieutenant, Isaac Cornells Switz ; Ensigne, Douwe 
Aukus; Towne Major, James Campbell. Nov. 11, 1690, 
Captain, John Lansing ; Lieutenant, Reynier Barents ; En- 
sign, Abraham Coyler. 

238 The City Records. 

Att a Court of Mayor &c., July 14, 1691. 

Gerrit van Ness pi Jochim Staets, Barent Lewys clefts. 

The pi demands of the defts y e summe of 3 lls, for 71 
inch and half thick plancks delivered to them the 8th of 
december 1690, as appears by there note under there hands. 

The defts confesse to have received said quantity of planks, 
but that they were for the use of there majesys fort and 
therefore no ways obliged to pay the same. Umphrey Se- 
ward and John Carter being sworn in court, declares that 
Grerrit Van Ness delivered the said planks in the fort, and 
that they were used in said fort, y l is to say part for the 
gallerys, the remainder was pyled under the gallerys till 
y e mayor P r Schuyler rec d the fort, and then the remainder 
was used for the galleryes y l goes to the house off office and 
for the prisone house and for the floor of the garde room. 

The business deferred till y e next court day. 

Att a Court of Mayor &c., July 14, 1691. 

Johannes Cuyler atturney for Mrs Anna Cuyler pi Arnout 
Cornelise defts. 

The pi demands of y e def 1 by bill under his hand and 
seal, dated the first of Aprill 1687, y e somme of two hundred, 
ninety and seven gilders, seventeen and $ styvers in bevers, 
to be paid in bevers, which is at 6gl. per Ib. is nine and 
forty Ib. and | with cost. Damage 50sh. 

The plf* confesses y e deb 1 and that it is his hand and seal, 
neither is he unwilling to pay the same if he were able, and 
with all prays y* the court would take the case in considera- 
tion, since the goods were carried to Ottowawa, for to bring 
those farr nations -here to advance the trade of this place 
part whereof was given to the Sinnekes toward the redemp- 
tion of 9 Ottawawa Indians, and since they were taken by 
the French and robbed of all they had and made slaves in a 
manner, desyred time to pay the same. 

The court have taken the case into consideration and 
order the deft 1 Arnout Cornelise, to pay to y e pi the somme 
of two hundred ninety seven gilders, seventeen and stuy- 
vers in bevers according to obligation, and that in merchan- 

The City Records. 239 

dable bevers of li Ib. Duytch weight for 8gl. with costs of 

The Indian boy of Pr. Van Wuggelum was examined 
concerning his having been taken at Klinkenbergh by 
two French and three Indians. 

Att a Court of Mayor &c., August 25, 1691. 

The assistants of the citty of Albany, PL, Johannes Wen- 
del def 1 in an action for tradeing with y e Indians atOnnon- 
dgo, by Arnout Cornelise viele, his corrspondent contrarie 
to Law and the charter of priviledges of this citty. The 
def 1 pleads not guilty. The p l produces two wittnesses, 
swore before Gerrit Ryerse, justice of the peace, as there 
testimony will make appear, and yt he did send severall 
Indian goods to Armout to trade with, as letter to Mr. 
Wendell doth prove, and return of peltry for pay 1 of the said 

The jury brings in there verdict and find y e defen 1 guilty, 
y e court approves of y e verdict and orderd the defd 1 to pay 
a fine of eight pounds, courant money of y e province, cum 

Sept. 22, 1691. A petion of Jo. van Loon being read, 
setting forth how that & chest with sundrey goods, a bas- 
ket of yron worke, and a bell being left with him by Mr. 
Harrison the priest, which goods were taken away by force 
and arms by John Cornelise Vyselaer in y e time of y e late 
revolution, prays that he may be ordered to restour me y e 
goods according to the inventory taken by John Cuyler, or 
else to pay all y e damages that y e said van Loon may be 
freed about it. 

Jan Cornelise Vysselaer confesses y 1 he took the chest, 
basket and bell, out of John van Loons house, where Will. 
Hollie livd, and that he did it by order of Jan Bruyn, Jo- 
hannes Provost and Eich d Pretty, sheriffe, which sheriffe 
putt y e broad arrow upon it. 

The court orders that Jan van Loon shall produce y e in- 
ventory next court day, in order y l y e bussiness may be 
further inspected into. 

240 The City Records. 

Albany, Oct. 14th, 1691. 

This day being appointed by the charter of this citty for 
y e aldermen of the respective wards to bring there returns of 
the aldermen chosen, for the ensuing year, are as follows : 

Livinus van Skaik, Evert Banker, for y e first ward. 

Jan Janse Bleeker, Jan Lansing, second ward. 

G-errit Reyerse, Joh. Abeel, the 3d ward. 
Assistants, Reynier Barents, Hend. van Dyk, 1st ward. 

Joh. Cuyler, Jan. Yinnagell, 2d ward. 

Wessell Ten Brook, Bennony van Corlaer, 3d ward. 

Jacob Staets, Joh. de Wandelaer, assessors ; Joh. Becker, 
constable, 1st ward. 

Joh. Beekman, Will. Claese, assessors; Gysb. Marceles, 
constable, 2d ward. 

Gerrit v. Ness, Alb 1 Ryckman, assessors ; Hend. Hanse, 
constable, 3d ward. 

Mayors Court &c., Nov. 3d 1691. 

Johannes Bratt p 1 Jurian van Hoese def 1 . The pi de- 
clares y l ye def 1 accused him . for stealing canoe load of 
water millions. The deft denyes it, where with y e p l was 
satisfyed and so y e bussinesse was determined. 

John Gilbert, Wessell Ten Brook, bakers, prays y l the 
prise of wheat bread may be rasedj since corn is dearer. 
The court will consider of it. 

The representatives for this city, informing y e common 
council y 1 y e assembly made an act for the raising of one 
hundred and fifty men for y e security of y e fronteers of there 
majestys province in this country, who may be expected 
here speedily; it is concluded to quarter them in this city 
and at y e Greenbush, and y e Island, and at the mill, and 
these following persons are appointed to quarter said men, to 
make there tickets ready for the constable against they 
come : Reynier Barents, Joh. Cuyler, Wessell Ten Brook, 
Hend. van Dyk, Jan Vinnagell, Bennony van Corlaer. 

But in regarde y e inhabitants are so extreamely impover- 
ished by this war, in so much yt they are not able to pro- 
vide and furnish y e souldiers with bedding for the winter; 
it is thought convenient to write to y e honorable commander 

The City Records. 241 

in cheiff and councill to desyre them to send up bedding 
with there men, and if they should not send duffells or 
blanketts and for y l purpose to request that so much 

money of y e proportion of this city and county tax towards 
y e 2000 act may be appropriated for that use, to buy bed- 
ding for ye souldiers both of the fuzilleers in toune already, 
and them that are dayly expected. 

Nov. 17, 1691. Ordered that the six assistants doe, ac- 
cording to the resolution of -the common councill y e 3d 
instant quarter the souldiers in towne in their respective 
wards, and prepare billets for them y l are expected dayly. 

The assistants propose y l order may be taken concerning 
y e burger excyse in the time of the revolution, that it may 
be collected for the cittyes use. Ordered that this day fort- 
night a common council be convened in the afternoon at 2 
o'clock to consult about this affair. 

December 1, 1691. Robert Livingston vs. Jan Bronk. 
The plaintiff demands 180 Ib. speck, 1 and 418gl. 14st zewant, 
to be paid in wheat, at 5 skepels per beaver. The def 1 says 
y l seven and forty Ib. bakon was delivered on ye sade ace 1 , 
and ought to be deducted off y e 188 Ib porke but referrs 
y c businesse to the bench, and also of y e wheat. The court 
graunts judgement against y e def 1 to pay 188 Ib. porke and 
y e /418 : 15 zw l . in money or wheat, y l is tenn pound nine 
shillings & 4d, with cost, and the sheriffe to take y e def 1 
in custody till he hath given sufficient security to pay y e 
same in three weeks time. 

Feb. 9, 169i The will of Capt. Joh. Wendell proved, 
by the oaths of Barent Lewis and Gerrit Lansing, and "ye 
goedvrouw Elizabeth nominated sole executrix." 

Robert Livingston vs. Elizabeth van Tricht. The plff. 
by his declaration demands, of y e def 1 y e somme of 13 19s. 
for excyse of 3 hhds of rom brought up in July 1689, in 
Dirk Bensing's boate, and by her received and sellered. 
The def 1 confesses y l y e received y e 3 hhds of rom in dispute 

1 Pork. 

Annals, ii. 21 

242 ' The City Records. 

into her house and seller, but that shee disposed only of one 
hh d of 90 gallons, which she will pay, but y 1 y e other 2 hh d 
rom belonged to her suster, Lena Rombouts, who hes pro- 
mised payment for y e same and given it under her hand, 
which y e plaintive hes to show, and moreover that her 
suster had sent the pi. a note whereby she promised to pay 
the money in the spring. 

Whereas there is 3hhds rom landed at Albany out of the 
boate Unity, Dirk Bensing master, the 3d July, 1689, 
sellered at widow Van Tricht's house, and being a dispute 
about the guaging of it, Mr. Jacob Teller owned the rom, 
the contents of it 90, 90, 91, is gallons 271 and I doe de- 
clare I know not better but he undertook the payment of it. 
[Was signed] WM. SHAW, gager. 

The case being given in charge of the following jury, viz 1 ' 
Reynier Barentse, Hend. Van Dyk, Gerrit Lansing, Evert 
Wendell, Joh. Bleeker, Isaak Verplank, Jean Rosie, 
Luykas Gerritse, Pr. l)avidtse Schuyler, Abraham Staets, 
Bay. Croesveld, William Claese Groosbeek. They the said 
jury after some consideration thereof, came to the barr, de- 
livered in there verdict, and doe find for the plaintiff. It 
is therefore considered by y e court that the def 1 pay to the 
pi. y e somme of four pounds tenn shillings in currant money 
of this province for y e excyse of one hh d of 90 gall, accord, 
to confession and for y e 2 hh ds y e pi. may take his remedy 
against the widow Rombouts. remaining nine pounds nine 
shill. for y e 2hh d who ouns y e same by her hand writing. 

Att a Mayor's Court, June 28, 1692. 
Joh. Cuyler, atturney of Isaak & Volkquijn Kip & 
Toussain Domis merchts. at Amsterdam, vs. Wm. Teller. De- 
mands by his declaration y e somme of i hundred and eighty- 
two gilders five stuyers bever, as. also an yron ballance with 
2 skales and about 300 Ibs. yron weights delivered him by 
Jacob Sanders factor of y e said gent : The def 1 desyres time 
for to answer because his books and papers and other evi- 
dences are at N. Yorke. The court graunt y e def 1 time till 
y e next court day to answer ; except he produce som mate- 
riall reason why he should not be ready. 

The City Eecords. 243 

Job. Rooseboom vs. Gerrit Luykasse. The PI. complains 
against Gerr' Luykasse in an action of defamation y l he y e 
Def' did say to y e PI. you, meaning the said Joh. are a 
rogue and dogg, and diverse other base scandalous and ma- 
litious words against y a s 1 Joh. did expresse and him did 
threaten to strike, challingeing him y e said Joh. to fight, 
whereby he y- s' 1 Joh. hath lost his good name, credit and 
reputation, to y dammage of him y e s 1 Johannes 150<. 
The PI. [def.] in his oune proper person comes into the court 
and defends and says he is not guilty in manner and form 
as y e PI. declares against him, and thereof puts himself upon 
y e countrey. Jury Hend. Van Dyk, Eghb. Teunise, 
Bennony Van Corlear, Johannes Beekman, Johannes Apeell, 
Hend. Bries, Mynd 1 Harmense, David Schuyler, Hans. 
Hendrikse, Hend. Hanse, Joh. Van Sante, Jonas Volkertse. 
The jury bring in there verdict and fynde the Def. not 
guilty. It is therefore considered J>y y c court y f the Deft 
be freed of y e PL sute, and y e PI. orde'rd to pay costs of court. 

Bata Cloet wife ofJ. Cloet prisoner at Canida PI. vs. 
Sander Glen & Barent Wemp executors of Sweer Teunise 
Def 1 . The PI. demands nine pounds six shillings and six- 
pence for y e remaining pay 1 of a negroe called Jacob, sold 
by old Joh. Cloet to Sweer Teunise, and produces y e book 
of s d John Cloet sen. kept by her husband John Cloet Jun. 
[The defts. ask time.] 

Att a Common Councill &c., July 23, 1692. 

The assistants of this citty doe complain agains Johannes, 
Bratt, Pietre Villeroy, David Keteleyn, Willem Hendrikse 
Hend. Janse and Daniel Bratt, for trading with the five 
nations, against the charter priviledges of this city, pray yt 
they may be apprehended and presented according to law. 

The cous'l will consider of it till to morrow morning at 7 
o'clock ; in y e meantime order Mr. Livingston to inquire 
where they are, and what there intentions is for such a 

July 24, 1692. The common councill being again con- 
veined to consider about these persons tradeing with y e five 
nations, contrary to law, mentioned in the record yesterday : 
and doe order y* Johannes Bratt, David Ketelheyn, Pr 

244 The City Records. 

Villeroy, WillemHendrikse, Hend. Janse and Daniel Bratt, 
doe each pay y e somme of five pounds fine. Mr. Wessels 
and Mr. Grow who are to account with the city treasurer 
for y same in y e space of 3 days time, and gave a bond of 
fifty pounds each, not to doe the like offence in y e space of a 
year and a day; and they that are in the county doe not 
comply with this order, then 'a warrant to issue out to appre- 
hend y m and to try them before any court of record in this 
county or province, according as y e law directs. 

And in regard y 1 Johannes -Claese and Johannes Luykasse 
are also gone to trade to the 5 nations, against y e Laws of 
this place after they were fetched bak in contempt of the 
authority; they are also to pay each seven pounds tenn 
shillings courant money upon there arrival, and give bonde 
of 50 a p s not to trade soe in a year and a day, and they 
not complying with this favorable order, then to be prose- 
cuted according to law. 

July 27, 1692. The common council are convened upon 
y e request of Johannes Barentse Bradtand David Ketelheijn 
and there friends in behalfe of themselfs and the other 4 who 
have transgressed y e court and orders of this citty in trade- 
ing with y e 5 nations ; contrare to law, who were ordered to 
pay a fine y e 24th instant of five pounds a piece, and declare 
that they have lost by there journey; and moreover that 
they were willing to give all y l they had in y e world for 
liberty to depart from this place to' gett a livelihood, since 
there parents is not able longer to maintain them. Where- 
upon the common council have considered there request, 
and order yt they severally shall give bonds of fifty pounds 
not to doe the like offence in a year and a day, and have 
remitted y e fine of five pounds a piece, to forty shillings a 
piece for y e six, to witt. Johannes Bradt, David Ketelheyn, 
Pr. Villeroy, William Hendricks, Hendrick Janse and 
Daniel Bradt, which fine of forty shillings a piece is to be 
paid in eight days by y e said Job. Bradt and David Ketel- 
heyn and by y e other foure as soon as they return ; that s d 
persones to pay for this charges 3s a piece, and a piece of 
eight for the bonds. 

July, 1692. The justices have concluded to prohibite y e 
selling of strong drink, good bier and syder to the Indians 
for y e space of a month, upon penalty of being secured and 

The City Records. 245 

imprisoned till such time y commander in cheiff and coun- 
cil! be acquainted with it and y n to incurr such penalty as 
y e council! shall think fitt. 

Oct. 14th, 1692. This day being appointed by the char- 
ter of this citty for the aldermen of the respective wards to 
bring there returns of the aldermen chosen for the ensuing 

Livinus van Schaik, Evert Banker (aldermen) ; Reynier 
Barentse, Hend. van Dyk (assistants) ; Jan Becker, Doude 
Johannes Dwanelaer (assessors) } and Pr. Verbrugh (con- 
stable), first warde. 

Jan Janse Bleeker, Jan Lansing (aldermen) ; Joh. Roose- 
bom, Abraham Cuyler (assistants) ; Joh. Appell, Joh. Beek- 
man (assessors) ; Hend. Bries (constable), second warde. 

Joh. Abeell, Alb 1 Ryckman, (aldermen); Wessell Ten 
Brook, Eghb 1 Teunise, (assistants) ; Garr 1 Reyers, Jacob 
Staets, (assessors); Gerr* Vanness, (constable), sworne. High 
constable Hend. Hanse, sworne. John Becker, (treasurer), 

By the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Albany. 

Whereas divers persons, inhabitants of this city doe pre- 
sume to sell drink by retaile without lycence, to y e great 
dammage of y e revenue of this place and the increase of 
debauchery and wickedness ; we doe therefore hereby pub- 
lish and declare y* no person inhabiting or sojourning with- 
in y e citty and county of Albany, doe directly or indirectly 
sell any drink to Indian or Christian, without a lycence, 
under y e hand of y e mayor and y e seal of this citty, upon 
y e penalty of five pounds, to be applyed one half to the citty 
and one half to the informer, which said lycences for the 
future always are to terminate yearly upon y e 14th day of 
Oct. And whereas the bakers doe bake and sell the wheat 
bread which offtimes wants above a quarter of a pound ; it 
is hereby ordered that no baker shall expose to sale any 
wheat bread that shall weigh lesse than a Ib. English weight, 
upon y e penalty of five pounds and the forfeiture of the 
bread to be applyed to y e use aforesaid. 

Given at y e citty hall this 29 day of Nov. 1692. 

Ordered that the sheriffe have a warrant to levy the 
lycence money from the 14th Oct. 1691, to 14th Oct. 1692, 

246 The City Eecords. 

and a list to be given him accordingly ; and in regarde that 
y e retaileing of liquor this summer was prohibited for y e 
Indians, y e common councill doe abate one moeyty or half 
of y e lycence money from y e 14th Oct. 1691, to the 14th 
of Oct. 1692. 

Whereas y e Indian house upon the hill goes to dekay of 
want of being lookt after, y e sherriffe Joh. Appell is re- 
quired to see each trader ride a load of wood to the said 
house, and if they refuse he is to cause it to be ridd for 
them, and to levy so much money of the goods and chattels 
of y e delinquents as shall satisfy y e same. 

Nov. 29th. 1692. William Shaw, searcher and waiter of 
this port doth exhibite an information to this court giving to 
understand that he seized 211 barrs of lead at y e landing 
place, upon y e cart of Hans Cross, on Sept. last which was 
come from New Yorke and had not pay d y e duty according 
to law, and haveing affixed bills at the church door, for y e 
owner to appear and answer, and none appearing craves 
judgem 1 of condemnation according to law. It is therefore 
considered by y s court y l the said 211 barrs of lead be con- 
demned and is hereby condemned as prize and forfeit one 
third for there majesty, one third to y c governor and one 
third for y e said Mr. William Shaw, y e former. 

Whereas the citty's stockadoes are much gone to decaye 
and nothing more requisite than y l in these dangerous times 
ofwarry 6 cittyes should be well fortyfyed, it is resolved ne- 
mine contradicente, y l the inhabitants of this citty to ride 
this winter so many stockadoes as can be placed from y e 
north point of y e fort to y e point at y e riverside, behinde y e 
wed w of David Schuylers, and from y e southside of y e fort 
to y e kill or creek, commonly called Rattes kill, and to y e 
end y l each inhabitant according to there capacity doe de- 
liver an equall proportion of stockadoes. Cap 1 Bank and 
Mr. Abeeland Mr. Blecker are appointed to measure y e ground 
and calculate how many stockadoes of a foot over and 13 foot 
long will be needfull to be placed, and alderman Banker, Lans- 
ing and Ryckman, with the common council are to make a divi- 
dend how much each person is to ride out, and to acquaint 
them of it before y e 15 of December next in order y 1 y e 
stockadoes may be ride out, and if any bring stockadoes y* 

The City Eecords. 247 

are not a foot over and 13 foot long they shall be forfeit, 
and y e person is to ride oy rs in there room. 

Whereas several persons have neglected to fetch fyrewood 
for y e citty guards with the sloops this fall, they commission 
officers are required to warn these people to fetch there pro- 
portion of fyrewood now with canoes before y b river shut up, 
and the citty will provide canoes accordingly. 

February 7th, 169f. Orderd y* a warrant be issued im- 
pouring y e sheriffe, Johannes Appel, to levy y e money 
standing out upon lycence, by distresse of there goods and 
chattels j l have neglected to pay y e same. 

Orderd also j l a warrant be directed to y e constables of 
each ward, to distrain those y l have neglected to bring there 
proportion of fyrewood to the town gards, for each load of 
wood y< they are obliged to bring, Gg 1 z. or two load of wood 
and y l forthwith with out delay. 

Memorandum dat de Maijor, Aldermans& Common Councill 
van dese stadfc Albanij ter eenre en d justices van d 
countij ter andere sijde, zijn geaccordeert te weeten. 
Present, Pieter Schuyler, mayor, Jan Janse Bleeker, 
John Lansing, Joh. Abeel, aldermen : Hend. Van Dyk, 
"Wessell ten Brook, assistants; Cap Marte Gerritse, Cap, 
Sand. G-lenn, Dirk Teunissen, Cap 1 Gerrit Teunise, 
Pieter Vosburgh, justices. 

Hebbende eerst woll nagesien & opgenomen alle de 
schulden die dese stad en eountij ten agteren zijn als meede 
gerekent en geincludeert dese reijs van d assemblij mannen 
Mr. Wessels & Mr. Schaijk sijnde tegen wordigh tot N. 
Yorke idem d salaris van d clerck Mr. Livingston & mar- 
chall James Parker, neffons d voorleser Hendrik Rooseboom, 
haer lieden lopende jaer gagie eijndight alle in d herfst 
naest komende. Bedragende in 't geheel d somma van 
drie hond T en sestigh pond currant gelt. Waervan d stadt 
moet betalen drie hond 1 pond mits houdende aen zijn selven 
haer excijs op de rom stadts cost nijm op d wilde goederen 
en lycencen. In de stadt, &c. En d county Schinnechtady 
geexqueert raoet betalen sestigh pond en vier pond aen 
James Parker voorgedane A 1690. En verder blijven d 

248 % The City Records. 

colonie Renselaerswijk gehouden haer assemblijman d pa- 
troon Kiliaen van Renselaer apart te betalen aldus geconclu- 
deert ten huijse van Mr. Jan Becker treasurer. In Alb. 
desen 30 mae.rt, 1693. 

Att a Common Councill, July 21, 1693. 

Ordered y 1 the citty treasurer doe pay no money of the 
cittyes debts without a bill signed by the mayor, recorder 
one aldermen and assistant, and that all persons concernd 
with y e citty be advertised to procure bills for there just 
debts accordingly. That John Becker treasurer doe forth- 
with collect what debts are due to the citty. 

It is thought convenient, since the citty is considerable 
in debt, that a tax or rate be layed upon y e inhabitants of 
this citty, viz 1 , the sum of 80, to be assessed by y e citty 
assessors, before y e 28 of July, and collected by y e consta- 
bles of each ward, and paid to the citty treasurer before the 
first day of September, 1693. 

Ordered that y e 64 concluded ye 30 March last by y e 
justices of the citty and county to be paid by y e county in 
Jan. next, be paid 60 to Robert Livingston, clerk and 4 
to James Parker, and an order given and signed accordingly. 

Ordered y l y e respective justices of y e county of Albany 
be sent for to meet hear y e 5 of August next, to consult 
about y e act of the penny of y e pound of the governr., and 
other things relating to the publike. 

Ordered that since there hes been some discourse with 
his excell., concerning the penny of y e pounde, and the 
rideing new stockadoes for y e fort, which that Coll. Cortlant 
bewritt to agree with his excell. that were willing to ride y e 
stockadoes for the fort next winter for the penny of y e pound, 
and 15 in money over and to gett an answer speedily that 
the tax oy r wise may goe forward. 

Att a Common Councill, Aug. 1, 1693. 
The house of Anthony Lespinard is hyred for the officers 
to quarter in, of Hend. van Dyk, atturney, for the somme 
of eighteen ps. of 8, upon which the court deducts 4 ps. of 
8 for the quartering of a souldier, remaining fourteen ps. of 
8 for y e rent a year. 

The City Eecords. 249 

Ordered by y e court that Richard Pretty shall be allowed 
for the lodgeing of Captain Benj. Phipps, and other needfull 
necessaries which he had of him to the somme of one pound 
two shillings, for which note is given upon y e treasurer, 
John Becker. 

Att a Meeting &c., Sept. 12, 1693. 

Coll. Richard Ingoldesby, commander of this place, and 
Maj. Peter Schuyler, one of y e councill, doth produce an 
order of councill, dated the first instant, whereby they are 
directed to cause all speedy preparations be made for the 
fitting of y e fort of Albany with new stockadoes, for which 
an agreement is made by Robert Livingston in behalfe of 
this citty and county and y e councill, for the charge thereof, 
viz 1 105, and desyres the work may be done with all ex- 
pedition imaginable. 

Ordered that letters be writt to the justices of y e county 
to appear next Saturday, being y e 16th instant, about 8 
o'clock, to consult about y e said matter, and to have it 
effected before winter if possible. 

Sept. 20. The justices being convened together to con- 
sult what proportion of new stockadoes to ride for the fitting 
of the fort of Albany, for which the governor and councill 
allows the citty and county y e somme of 105, which somme 
is to be disposed as follows, viz 1 . 90 to his excell. for y e 
penny of the pound to be levyed by this citty and county 
for a free and voluntary gift according to the act of assembly : 
the other 15 to be divided among those that ride the stocka- 
does, which is for y e 560 to be employed for said use, 6^d. 
a piece. There is wanting to fill the fort with new stock- 
does 560, viz'., 250 of 20 foot, and 310 of 19 foot. It is 
concluded that the city doe ride for there proportion y e 
quantity of 

200 vizt. 90 of 20ft. and 110 of 19 ft. 

Rensselaers colony, 100 45 55 

Schennechtady, 90 40 50 

Kinderhook, 85 38 47 

Catskill & Coxhachy, 55 24 31 

Caverack, 30 14 16 

560 251 309 

250 The City Records. 

The said stockadoes are to be 12 inches thick at y e smallest 
end, and to be of good smooth-barked pyne, not of your 
bkck-bark pyne, and be sett up against the old stockadoes 
in a months time. 

Tis mede geconcludeert dat d colonij Renselyerswijk sail 
brant hout & caersen vourneren voort blockhuijse achter t 
Stadt Huijse voort aenstaende jaer en daeren boven 30 voor 
hout met 2 paerden leveren luyt blockhuijs achter d Luijter- 
sekerk. Dat Kinderhook t blockhuijse achter de Luyterse 
kerk sail fourneeren met brant hout & kaersen voor 't aen- 
staende jaer. Dat Catskill, Coxhachy, and Patkook sail 
brant hout and caersen fourneeren voor t blockhuijs op t 
pleijn voor 't aenstaende jaer. 1 

Rob 1 Livingston, clerk deser stadt & county vertoon 't d 
assignatie von de mayor, aldermaus & commonality op d 
justices van d county ter somme van 60 voor hem, & 4 
voor James Parker, en versoekt acceptatie. 

D asgignatie woort van de county justices geaccepteert te 
betalen volgens de tydt daerin gespecificeert & wort goetge- 
vonden dat Schinnechtady daer toe sail contribuceerd 7 : 10. 

D andere sullen* haer proportion determineeren so drae 
als d patroon 't huijs comt. 

Den 23 Sept. a warrant was directed to y e burger com- 
mission officers to cause y e burgers meet and gett y e stocka- 
does rid out for y e fort but by them denyed. 

,The 26th Sept. a warrant was directed to the assessors to 
make an equal computation how many stockadoes each was 
to ride for the fort. 

Oct. 14, 1693. 'This day being appointed by y e charter 
of this city for the aldermen of the Tespective wards to 
bring there returns of y e aldermen, assistants, assessors and 
constables of each warde, the following returns were made ', 

For aldermen. Evert Banker, Peter Bogardus, Albert 
Ryckman, Jan Abeel, John Bleeker, Jan Lansing. 

1 These relate to furnishing wood and candles to the three block 
houses on the south side of the city, by the country towns. The 
one behind the City Hall (Stadt Huijse) was at the gate where Hud- 
son street now intersects Broadway ; the one behind the Lutheran 
church was at Pearl and Beaver streets, and the one on the plain, 
was at the outlet of Green street. 

The City Records. 251 

For assistants. Hend. Van Dyk, Jacob Staets, Job. 
Thomese, Hend. Hanse, Abraham Cuyler. 

For assessors. John Becker, Ben. Van Corlaer, Gerrit 
Van Ness, Egbert Teunisse, Luykas Gerritse, Jacob ten Eyck. 

For constables. Elbert Gerritse, Jan Vandehoev, Gerrit 

Pr. Vanbrugge is chosen for high constable for the ensue- 
ingyear, and sworne y e 2 1st of November, 1693. The mayor 
and aldermen took there seats and voted for the treasurer 
or chamberlain of this citty, for y e next -year, and it fell 
upon Johannes Appell, who was sworn accordingly. 

Whereas you, Johannes Appell, are chosen to be cham- 
berlain or treasurer of this citty, you shall swear by the 
everliving God, y l you shall faithfully and diligently perform 
y e said office, by keeping an exact account of the revenue of 
this citty in fare books to be kept for that purpose, and ren- 
der an account thereof to the mayor, aldermen and common- 
ality when thereunto required, and endeavor as much as in 
you lyes to promote y e intrest of y e citty relateing the reve- 
nue or taxes -of this citty, and in all things behave yourself as 
becomes y e office of a treasuer and the duty, so help you God. 

Ordered that Maj r Wesseles, Mr. Banker, Mr. Bleeker 
and Mr. Ryckman, Mr. van Dyk, Abraham Cuyler and Joh. 
Mingael, doe call Mr. Jan Becker, late treasurer, to ace 1 of 
the cittyes revenue and give a report thereof next court day. 

Oct. 24th 1693. Alderman Joh. Abeel comeing from 
New Yorke, his excellency writes to Pieter Schuyler, mayor, 
that he had commissionated y e said Abeel to be mayor of 
this citty, who appearing in the court took the following 
oath : 

Whereas you are commissionate to be mayor of this citty, 
you doe swear by y e ever living .God y 1 you will with all your 
power and understanding maintain and preserve the liberties 
and privileges of this city and doe justice impartially to rich 
and poor, without favor or affection, and officiate in all 
things that belongs to the office of a mayor of this citty to 
the best of your skill and understanding, so help you God. 
[The commission of Johannes Abeel, which he brought home 
on this occasion, is still in existence, and is published in vol. 
I, p. 152, or p. 213 of last edition.] 

252 The City Records. 

Nov. 7th, 1693. John Fisker, Comp 1 ., Jochim Staets, 
Deft The PL demands by his declar. upon assumption 
five pounds eight shillings, for 3 hatts deliverd to 3 persons 
as per. a note under his hand appears. The Deft desyres a 
nonsute, because it is a debt due in Leyslers time, and ought 
to be determined by y e commissioners. The court refers the 
business till Jochim Staets comes in the spring y e middle of 
April, since y e PI. says it is Jochim Staets particular debt. 

Ordered y l Jan Cornelse Vysselaer, Jan Vinnagen, Melg. 

Wynantse and Gerr' van Ness be for the ensuing year, 

and a warrant be given them to search all dangerous place 
for fear of fyre. 

Dec. 19th, 1693. William Hollie, requests the mayor 
and aldermen y l he may be admitted, since Zacharias* Sick- 
ells is gone to N. Yorke, to be the towns cryer and porter 
and to shutt and open y e gates of this citty, promising to be 
diligent in said employ, provided he hes y u sellary as Zacha- 
rias had. The court will take into consideration. 

January 2d, 169f. William Hollie is upon his request, 
appointed to be porter and towne cryer, and ordered to take 
his oath accordingly, which was done in y e presence of Evert 
Banker, alderman, y e 17th of March, 169|. 

Joh. Cuyler vs. Corn Teunise. The PL demands delivery 
of 100 skepl. wheat which he bought of him at 5gl. 5s. to 
be delivered the 12 of October last, else at 5 skepl. per 2 
ps. of 8, and prays judgment. 

Feb. 8th, 169f. At the sessions it was ordered by y e 
mayor and alderman y l Gerrit van Ness and William G-ys- 
bert should be overseers of y e kings high ways, in this citty 
and precincts thereof. 

Att a Mayor's Court, Feb. 6, 169f . 

Johannes Appell sheriffe esqr. vs. David Keteleyn, Dan- 
iel Bratt deft s . The sheriffe demands of y e defendants y e 
somme of tenn pounds, of a fine for selling drink to y e In- 
dians at Kinderhook on a sabbath day, about a month agoe. 
Pr. Martense, constable, being sworn says y l a month agoe 
on a sabbath day, he was sent by y e justices of y e peace and 

The City Eecords. 253 

found y e 2 defts in an Indian house at Kinderhook selling 
drink to y e Indians, and y y e Indians were drunk found 
a kegg of rom by y e skinns, and y e deft* took away the 
skinns and the kegg. 

The deft 5 deny y e fact and putts them upon the country. 
The case defferred till next court day for y e evidences. 

Feb. 24, 169f. The common council were convened 
to consult what should be proper to remonstrate to y e 
general assembly y 1 is to sitt y e first of March next ensuing, 
and to that end doe desyre that Dirk Wessels and Ryer 
Shermerhoorn the representatives of y e citty and county of 
Albany may propose that these fronteers of Albany may be 
better secured with a greater garrison, and the out posts well 
mand and y l there may be a company of buss Loopers raised 
to scour y e cost for schulking partyes of y e enemy, else the 
farmers can not be securd but will be necessitate to desert 
y e country. 

That y e act of y e 2ps r formerley granted to the citty of 
Albany for the defraying y e publike charges thereof may be 
revyved for two years longer. 

March 6th, 169f. Johannes Appell, sheriffe vs. David 
Keteleyn and Daniel Bratt. The p 1 was ordered to summonce 
y e evidences for this court which he says he has done, and 
the wittnesses are at Green Bush, but can not come over, y e 
yse being so rotten, prays that the bussinesse may be deferred 
till next court day. The deft 3 appear and desyre tnat the 
tryall may proceed, being designd to gae out of y e county. 
The court grants time till next court day by reason of the yse 
being unfitt to bear, and that the wittnesses can not come over. 

Att a meeting, &c., March 10, 169f . 

Also der Claghte aen haer E zijn geprefereert wegens 't 
soontje van Hend. Rooseboom met naem Wouter de welke 
niet by zijn perfecte sinne is en doet over last aen d kinders 
van d buyrt hebbende een soontje van Mr. Livingston 
met een byltie boven zijn oogh gehakt waer door grooter on 
heylen konde renondeeren so ist dat haer E den gemelde 
Rooseboom hebben ontboode en sulkz hem voor geleijt dat 
indie n hij gemelde soontje niet will ophoude of 't verplaetse 

Annals, ii. 22 

254 The City Records. 

uyt de stadt dat zy het niet en soude kennen. Verantworden 
waerop de Rooseboom belooft sodanige sorgh te draegen in 
't aenstaende met het kindt in huijs te houden voor een 
maent en dan met hem personelijk te nemen & daer op 
passen dat hy geen voider quaet en sail doen. Haer E 
van d gerechte ordeneeren well exprysselijk dat Hendrik 
Rooseboom syn gemelde soontje genaemt Wouter so lang als 
hy neit by zijn kenisse is op te houden & so danig op te 
passen als hy uijt gaet datter gaen vordere Claghte en comt 
of t anders da' zy genoodt saekt sullen zyn andere mesures 
te nemen om alle vordere en heijlen voer te comen. 

[Relates to the little son of Roseboom, who being of unsound 
mind, was unfit to go at large among the children of the place, 
having committed acts of violence. He was therefore sentenced to 
be restrained by his father from appearing in the streets.] 

Att a Mayors Court, March 20th, 169f . 

Johannes Appell, sheriff, versus David Ketelheyn and 
Daniel Bradt, defts. Jury : John Fisher, Abraham Cuyler, 
Luykas Gerritse, Jacob Ten Eyk, John de Wandelaer, 
Anthony van Shack, Johannes Rooseboome, John Finnagell, 
Isaak Verplank, Johannes Bleeker junr., Johannes Beekman 
Phillip Freest: The p l declares y' y e defts have traded with 
the Indians at Kinderhook, contrarie to the laws and y e 
priveledges of this city, and that upon y e Lord's day make- 
ing y e Indians drunk in so much y l the constable was in 
danger of his life. Pieter Martense, constable and Nath. 
Wheeler, sworne. The jury gives in there verdict y l they 
finde y e deft 3 David Ketelheyn and Daniel Bratt, guilty 
in being so found by y e constable with the Indians on the 
sabbath day at Kinderhook, contrary to the laws and prive- 
ledges of this city. It is therefore considered by the court 
that the said David Ketelheyn and Daniel Bratt doe pay a 
a fine of 2 p s of 8 a p s courant money of this province with 
cost of sute. 

Att a Common Council, May 15th, 1694. 
Orderd that the assistants of this citty doe make billetts 
for ye quartering of y e 200 Fuzilleers, that are raised for 
y e securing ye fronteers from May till October, 1695. 

The City Records. 255 

By the Mayor and Aldermen and Commonality of the 
citty of Albany. 

Whereas sevrall inhabitants of y e citty doth hyre house 
for y e lodegeing of y e souldiers y* are quarterd upon them 
and at y e same time neglect to furnish y m with fyrewood 
whereby they are necessitate to steel from y e neighbourhood 
to ye great dammage of y e burgers and inhabitants ; wee doe 
therefore hereby order y l all persons who putts there soul- 
diers out to quarter and doe not k( ep them in there houses. y l 
they doe furnish them sufficiently with fyrewood, and for want 
thereof all wood which y e said souldiers shall steel or embezell 
there land lords, shall be forthcoming or lyable to pay trible 
dammages for there neglect, and moreover a fine as y e meritt 
of y e case shall require. Actum in Albany 15 May, 1694. 

God bless king William and queen Mary. 

Ordered y l the house of Anthony Lespinard be hyred 
another year till May 1694, for ace 1 of y e citty to quarter 
three Leifts. in y e same, y 1 is for Leif 1 Abra. Bickford, Lieft 
Symon Young and Leif 1 Robert Macilby. 

Alsoo dat het bevonden wort dat d wegen & straten van d 
stadt van Albany so on reddelijck leggen so wort tot dien 
eijnde geauthorizeert Jan Gow, Gerrit Lansing, en Willem 
Gysbertse om toe seght daer op 't nemen en te ordineeren 
aen yder particulier burger en inwoonder van dese stadt om 
d straten voor haer deur in goede reparatie ; t brengen als 
mede d hooge wegen in d lemijte van Albany. Actuin in 
Albany de 26 Junij, 1694. 

[Requires each citizen to put the street in front of his premises 
in good order.] 

Alsoo daer bevonde wort dafc daer dangerous gestookt 
wort lot groote Perijkell voord inwoonders van Albany, so 
wort lot dien eijnde om all ongelucke daer van voort 't komen 
geordineert Rob 1 Sanderse, Jan Gow en Melgert Wynantse 
nevens d constable aenstonts om 't gaen visseteeren alle 
huijse in dese stadt daer zy vinde dangerous gestookt wort 
dat zijn sodanige plaetse verbeeteren of te vernieteghen als 
mede to gaen visseteere of te noch eenige brant leeren en 
brant haeken moghte bevonde worden dat zij wederem niogen 
gerepereert worde en op bequaem plaetse mochte gehangen 
worden dat zij in tijdt van noodt gebruijckt worden. 

[Requires the houses to be visited to see if the chimneys were 

256 The City Records. 

safe, and when found dangerous to require them to be put in order ; 
also to see that the fire ladders and hooks were kept in order and 
in their proper places.] 

Sept. 4th, 1694. Catelyntie y e wed w of Jacob Abrahamse 
doe peticon y e court for letters of administration upon y e 
estate of John Cok, who lodged at her house and was acci- 
dentally killed by a cannon y 1 splitt in there majesties fort 
on February 16 |f. Y u court grants her requestt, giving 
security according to law. 

Hester Tierks executrix of Volkie Pieterse vs. Takel 
Dirkse. The PL demands of y e deft by oft rekening with 
Volkje Piterse 15 vaten teer, 1 /122, and 9 sk, maijes and 6gl. 
aeg., 1 sk. sout. 2 The deft wife says that there is 12 barrels 
teer paid upon this. The PI. shows y e book of y e deceased 
where y e oft reckoning is writt doune by Adriaen Appell. 
The court orderd y l the deft appear next court day, else 
judgm 1 shall passe against him. 

Sept. 18th, 1694. The jury sworne are John Fisher, 
Joh. Rooseboom, Myn* Schuyler, Isaak Verplank, Pieter 
Davidse, Marte Cregier, John Becker junr., Joh. Bleeker 
jun., Wouter van der tltthoft, Gysb 1 Marcelise, Anthony 
Bries, Evert 'Wendell. The PI. persists to demand of y e 
Deft by an oft rekoning with Volkie Pieterse 15 barrells 
tarr, and twelfve gilders 15 stuyvers zewant, en 9 skeppell 
Indian corn, and 6 gl. of 1 sk. sout. The Deft Takel Dirkse 
appears in his own proper person in the court, and says that 
he hes paid 12 barrells of tarr upon y e above ace 1 but after- 
wards the partyes referred it to undefferent men who com- 
posed the matter, the defendant acknowledging y e debt and 
promises to pay it provided he hes time, and tenders to give 
an obligation to y e Deft for y e same, which y e said 2 men 
viz 1 Gabr. Thomson and Joh. Rooseboom delivers for there 
report to the court. 

Rob 1 Livingston vs. Harma Gansevoort. The PI. demands 

of y e Deft six pounds, for a years excyse, from p mo . May 

1689 to p mo May 1690. The Deft says that he did not tape 

that time nor was not agreed. Witnesses sworne are, Barent 

Pieterse, John Knox, William Carnes, John Vinnagen, John 

-^Garter, Jan Cornelise Vysselaer, Gabriel Thomson, Hend. 

^ Jjansrng, Luykas Gerritse, Lawrence van Ale, William Shaw. 

*Tar. " 'Salt. 

The City Records. 257 

The jury sworne in this, G-ysbert Marcelise Mynd' Schuyler, 
Pr, Davidtse Schuyler, Marte Cregier, Joh. Becker jun., 
Joh. Bleeker jun., Wouter van der Uthoft, Anth. Bries, 
Evert Wendell jun., Jonas Volkertse, Johannes Mingael, 
Dirk van der Hey den. The jury bring in there verdict and 
fynde y e Deft hath tapped in that year from y e p mo . May 
1689, to y e p mo . May 1690. The court having considered y e 
case, doe order the Deft to pay y e PI. ye somme of six 
pounds courrant money of this province for y e excyse of a 
year from y e p mo . May 1689 to p mo . May 1690, for ye 
behooffe of there Maj es with costs of sute. 

Omy Lagrange vs. Gerrit Luykasse. The plentive demands 
of y - Deft for sundrey goods delivered to him upon his jour- 
ney to the Minnesink this last spring to trade with the In- 
dians y e quantity of seven and twenty pounds bever and three 
hondert and forty-two gilders 5 st. zewant. The Deft comes . 
in his oune proper person and says he is not so much indebted ; 
for it was agreed that he should have y e goods as cheap as 
of Abraham Schuyler, who came then from N. Yorke. The 
plentive replyes and says y l he was to have the same rate y l 
Maj. Schuyler was to have for his. The case is deferred 
till Maj. Pr. Schuyler and Abraham Schuyler come to toune, 
in y e meantime y e 3 6. heavy pieces of 8 in the hands of Joh. 
Appell sheriff are to be delivered to the plentive upon ace*. 

Oct. 16.. The jury bring in their verdict and fynde y l 
y e Deft must pay the plentive her goods according as y e 
price was then in Albany, at that time for ready money. 
And that the plentive pay the costs of sute. 

Same vs. Same. The PI. says y l y e Deft, agreed with him 
at Sopus to take in forty-three of y e farr Indians for Albany, 
with their bevers, promising him at y e rate of three shillings 
a piece. The Deft, denys that he made such an agreement. 
The PI. desyres that y e case may be deferred till he brings 
evidence, which y e court graunts. 

[This case was called for the third time Oct. 16, and the 
plaintiff not appearing a non-suit was granted.] 

Oct. 14, 1694. The election returns this day were for 
the first ward and sworne, 

Evert Banker, Jacob Staats, aldermen; Joh. 
Benony Corlaer, assistants; Joh. Dewandelaer, 
Dyk, assessors ; Joh s Teller, constable, f^ J^" *m 

** 3 

258 The City Records. 

For the second ward and sworne, J. Janse Bleeker, John 
Lansing, aldermen ; Evert Wendell, Joh s Cuyler, assistants ; 
Jan. Bleker, Pr. Mingael, assessors ; Stephanis Groesbeek, 

For the third warde and sworne, Albert Ryckman, Geritt 
van Ness, aldermen ; Hend. Hansen, Joh s Thomase, assist- 
ants; Eghbert Teunise, Anthony Bradt, assessors; Joh. 
Bradt, constable. 

Gerrit Roseboom, sworne high constable. 

Johanns Appell, chosen treasurer and sworne. 

November 15, 1694. Is ordered that Joh s Appel, sher- 
rif, goe and warn the Brant masters, R l Sanders, Jan. Gow 
and Melgt Wynantse to perform there derections, directed 
to them y e 26th Juny, 1694, concerning the brant haeken 
and fyreing dangerously. It is ordered and found very 
requisite y l y e aldermen of each respective ward shall cause 
to be made again two brantleere, 1 a great one and a little one, 
with yron hooks, and y l in time of one month, and cause to 
be brought to a ready place in case of any occasion what- 
somever, and then to bring in their accounts. 

Dec. llth, 1694. It is ordered by ye mayor and alder- 
men of the citty of Albany, that John Lansing, Jacob Staats, 
Gerrit van Ness, Joh. Thomase, Banony van Corlaer and 
Hend. Hansen shall goe and viziet round the towne to see 
what stoekadoes there will be wanting for y e ensueing year, 
divided and conclude y m every perticulaer according to his 
estate, and to measure how many rodd there wants, and 
where abouts y l reperation may be made, upon y e penalty as 
y e matter deserves. Dated in Albany y e llth day of Dec. 

It is ordered by warrant y* the justices shall appear in 
Albany the 20th of this instant. 

A Proclamation. 

Whereas diverse persons, inhabitants of this citty, doe 
presume to sell drink by retaile without licence to y e great 
damage of y e revenue of this place and y e 'increase of de- 
bauchery and wickedness, wee doe therefore hereby publish 
and declare that no person inhabiting, sojourning within y e 

1 Fire ladders. 

The City Eecords. 259 

citty and county of Albany, doe directly or indirectly sell 
any drink to Christians or Indians, without a new licence 
under y e hand of y e mayor and the seale of this citty, 
they paying a reasonable acknowlegement for y e same, and 
shall likewise pay all such excyce and dutys as by the law 
is enjoyned under y e penalty therein specified on pain 
and penalty of paying as a fine for each offence y e somme of 
five pounds, one half for y e citty and y e other half to such 
person as shall sue for y e same, which said licences always 
are to terminate yearly upon y e 14th of October. Given 
under Hand y e llth Dec., 1694. 

Signed, J. ABEEL, Mayor. 

Pr Robt. Livingston, C. 

Dec. 27, 1694. Visited the reckoning of y e coll. Chida 
Brooke, made up by Rob 1 Livingston, whereby wee find y e 
citty and county of Albany doe stand indebted y e summe of 
315, in two severall taxes, upon w h there is paid y e summe 
of 213 : 9 : 3 so y 1 they remain indebted y e summe of 
101 : 10 : 9. It is ordred y* each justice of y e peace of his 
respective warde shall call in y e collectors y l time to bring 
,in there list of there tax and y l in time of fourteen days. 

Whereas Mr. Rob 1 Livingston having made up his acct 
before his departure to England, with y e mayor and alder- 
men, and it being vizited and we doe find it agreeable to the 
treasurers book and have cleered all aect s viz 1 , of excyce of 
rom and oy r merchandize, and also agreed and cleered with y e 
years sallary from Aug. 1689 to Aug. 1690. and all others 
till the 14th of Oct. 1694, only excepted y e following years 
sallary from y e 14th Oct. 1694. 

Att a Meeting of Mayor &c., Dec. 28, 1694. 
It is agreed by y e mayor and aldermen, with the justices 
of y e county of Albany, that y e justices of y e county shall 
pay y e sum of four and forty pounds with y e two pounds to 
James Parker, makes in whole six and forty pounds courant 
money for all charges done for y e citty and county aforesaid 
till y e 14th day of Oct. 1694, except y e pretence and acct s 
of Barent Bradt, William Hoffmayer, Adriaen Appel, and 
Maritie wed w of Cornells van de Hoeve, concerning y e re- 
moveing of there houses, following the orders of y e magis- 

260 The City Records. 

trates of y e citty aforesaid on y e 18th of Feb. 168 9 Q-, which 
sume, forty six pounds, they doe promise to pay in y e 
pmo O f Aprill ensueing, 1695. Of which sume of forty 
six pounds K. V. Renselaer is to pay 4, and Schaenhech- 
tady 11 : 10, Kinderhook 16:15, and Castkill and Cox- 
hachky 13 : 15 is just 46. .. 

It is further ordered y l y e afores' 3 justices of y e county of 
Albany shall ride for y e three Blockhouses, on ye south side 
of this citty, three hundred load of wood, with two horses, 
viz 1 : the collony Renselaerswyck with Olaverak, one hundred 
and fifty lood of good oak, ippere, bill, stell or dry pine and 
ashy; and for Catskill, Coxhackie and Kinderhoek, two 
hundred good load of wood, as aforementioned, which three 
hundred and fifty load of wood is to be visited 1 by Paulis Mar- 
tense, for which visitation it is ordred y l Paulus Martense 
shall two p s of f which three hundred and fifty load of wood, 
y e aforesaid justices doe promise to deliver in four weeks time 
from this day. Agreed with Dirk and Gerritt Teunise that 
they shall deliver twenty blocks of 21 inches long, and 
Peter and Isaac Vosburgh 3 balks of 15 foot long. 

January 8, 169f. Jan Casperse gives in a peticon y l ye 
court will be pleased to appoint two sufficient men to vallow 
y e estate of William Hoffmayer, deceased, which y e court 
after vizited graunts unto him two sufficient men being 
Mr. Pr. van Brugh and Joh. Dewandlaer upon oath y l they 
only vallow the moveables according to y e invantary. 

February 27th, 169^|. Whereas complaint is made y 1 
Marte Cregier is intended to build a house next to his dwell- 
ing house contrary to his excellency's order, it is therefore 
ordered by y e mayor, aldermen and common councill, y l 
Albert Ryckman, Jacob Staats and Cap 1 John Janse Bleeker 
shall observe and take information of what y e s d Marte 
Cregier is intended to build, and on what manner ; and 
after when they have observed it, they are to warn s d 
Marte Cregier thereof, and then give in there report to y e 

Whereas the mayor, aldermen and common councill, be- 
ing convened concerning ye containing 2pr. ct. who doth 

1 Inspected. 

The City Records. 261 

agree and conclude y l the s d 2pr. ct., shall continue for y e 
ensuing year, and y l our representatives, Maj r Wessels, 
K. V. Rensselaer and Ryer Schermerhoorn shall propose it 
in y e assembly. 

March 12th, 169^. Whereas complaints are made y l ye 
streets of Albany are found so unfitt y 1 is most unable for 
any person to use them, it is therefore found very requisite 
by y e mayor, aldermen and common councill, y t every house- 
holder shall make or cause to be made, eight foot ground 
before his own house fronting to y e streets, paved with stones 
as formerly ; and it is also ordred y l Claes Ripse van Dam 
and J. Grow y l they shall be overseers, y l y e s d streets may 
be orderly laid, and y l between this and y e first of June, 
upon pain and penalty for every week after y l time six shil- 
ling from each person. 

March 29th, 1695. Whereas Coll. Rich d Ingoldesby 
has ordered Mr. Mayor to quarter Leift Shanks in town, 
whereto Mr. Mayor could not resolve, being he was an offi- 
cer belonging to her maj s garison in y e fort, whereupon 
Mr. Mayor calls y e common councill for there advice, and 
replyes to them y 1 y e Coll. will not releve y e town before y e 
Leift Shanks is quartered in town. Whereupon y c common 
councill think it is a hardship to keep s d granadeers in town, 
but will rather quaerter s (1 Shanks till they make there adress 
to his excellency for releve. 

April 30th, 1695. Whereas John Cuyler and Joh 
Roseboom, deakons of y e Doutch congregation of Albany, 
makes there adresse to y e mayor and aldermen that it might 
be granted them, that Maj ' Pr. Schuyler and Domini, might 
convine together concerning a certain transport given by y e 
s d Maj r Schuyler late mayor, unto y e late deakons of y e said 
Doutch congregation, upon a water run commonly known by 
y e Bev r creek; whereupon y e mayor and aldermen grants 
yt s d Maj r Schuyler and Domini Dellius shall meet in y e 
afternoon to give a right information concerning s d transport. 

Whereas there is new stockadoes ride this last winter for 
y e reparation of this citty of Albany, but y e weather haveing 
been so uncertain and still so continues, and also y e high 

262 The City Records. 

water y l it is almost impossible for y m to be sett along y e river 
side, doe therefore think very requisite and convenient y* 
all inhabitants y l have ride there stockadoes at y e south side 
of y e citty, and Lutheran church, and middle-most block 
house, shall sett there stockadoes in y e space of three times 
four and twenty hours, upon pain and penalty of three shil- 
lings for every person and immediately to strain upon there 
goods and chattels, and do thereunto authorize Joh* Appel 
sherrif, to take observation y l it may be equally done. 

Whereas the gates and high wayes of the citty of Albany 
are so unconvenient for any use, being therefore thought 
very requisite by y e mayor, aldermen and commonalty, y* 
a small tax of fifty pounds shall be raised out of the citty of 
Albany y l y e s d gates and highways may be repared and 
made in good order, and also y T y e assessors are to make the 
assessm 1 between this and y e first of June, and to deliver it 
to the collectors w h collectors are immediately to raise s d 
sume of money before y e first of July next ensuing, and give 
it in y e hands of y e treasurer, Johannis Appell. 

Upon the report made of D. Wessels, who had deliver d in 
Nov. a petition to y e Grov and councill, whereby he desyred 
of the Governor and councill to have a warrant on the addi- 
tionell duty to satisfy the sume of 1105:2:3, that hath been 
disbursed by several! inhabitants of the citty and county of 
Albany and Ulster, in y e late revolution, whose acct s hath 
been produced by y e assembly in y e time when Coll R. In- 
goldesby was commander in chief; but it seemed his excel- 
lency and councill was not pleased with the inspecting of y e 
s d account by the committee y l there was appointed to y l 
purpose, but was pleased to order a committee of y e councill 
y l they should inspect y e aforesaid acct 8 . Whereupon the 
mayor, aldermen and commonalty of Albany, conveined 
together and have considered y e necessity for y e want of y e 
afores d money, because some runns still upon intrest, to y e 
great damage of y e inhabitants, is therefore resolved y 1 May 
Abeel, D Wessels, K. V. Rensselaer and Joh s Cuyler, shall 
doe all there best endeavors for y e procureing of y e said 
money, wherefore they are allowed y e half of y e four posts 
mentioned in y e list for y e citty, being y e sumrne of 303:2, 
for y e quaertering y e soldiers of Cap 1 Bulls company in the 

The City Records. 263 

Whereas Marte Cregier of y e citty of Albany, having 
made an adresse to the mayor, aldermen and commonalty, to 
be admitted to build a house of 15 foot on y e north side of 
his house, standing in y e Parrell street next y e stockadoes 
or behinde s d house, w h addresse y e s d mayor, aldermen and 
commonalty doth reject, and saith y 1 if the s d Marte Cregier 
thinks his house too little, they will allow him to enlarge y e 
s d house seven or eight feet, but for building a new att this 
present time can not be allowed. 

Att a Mayor's Court, May 14th, 1695. 

Proclamation. Being thought very requisite by the re- 
corder and aldermen for y e repairing of y e citty of Albany ; 
every particular person that hath not sett there proportion 
of stockadoes belonging to the citty, shall in y e space of five 
days sett there s d stockadoes in a good and equall way, and 
upon pain and penalty of y- sume of six shillings for each per- 
son y l doth not perform ye same ; and also y l no person or 
persons shall in y e least meddle or make with any of the old 
stockadoes to take them away for any use, but y l they shall 
be reserved for y e use of y e guards ;- likewise y l every in- 
habitant within this city shall clain y e streets before there 
door from all filth and fyre wood, and also y l no inhabitant 
shall lay any timber to his neighbors prejudice, but to remove 
it to such places where they intend to build. 

Whereas it is resolved by y e recorder, aldermen and com- 
monalty, that the assessors of the city of Albany shall pre- 
pare billes or tickets for y e quartering of y e quantity of one 
hundred men, y ! within y e limitts of the city afores' 1 in the 
space of three days without fail, and give in there return at 
Majr Wessells. 

It is thought also very convenient y l y e sheriffe shall 
order a constable to presse all y e carters belonging to y e 
citty of Albany against tomorrow, to goe for Melgerts mill 
and fetch each a load of slabbs fore y e repareing of y e bridges 
and oy r necessaryes of y e afors d citty. 

May 21th, 1695. Whereas we dayly expect men from 
New York for y e sacurity of these, her Majestys fronteers of 
Albany, we doe therefore appoint John Lansing, Jacob 

264 The City Eecords. 

Stoats, Gerrit van Ness, aldermen, and Banony van Corlaer, 
Job* Thomase and Hend. Hansen, to prepare for the quar- 
tering of the souldiers j l shall come. 

June 4th, 1695. Whereas the assessors having now 
delivered in there assessment of y e last tax, amounting to 
y e summe of fifty pounds and odd money, which is not signed 
by all the assessors ; wee doe therefore hereby command you 
Hend. van Dyk, to order y l all y e assessors, with your self, 
to convein together at one aclock, upon penalty of forty shil- 
lings, and make a true assessment under hand and scale of 
each particular assessor, and thereupon make your return to 
morrow morning to y e mayor and justices of y e citty of 

June llth, 1695. Whereas there are several warrants 
and orders directed to the sherrif, Joh 3 Appel, which he has 
not punctially persued following his directions; doe there- 
fore now strictly order, and command the said sherriffe, what- 
soever orders or warrants are to him directed in absence of 
our mayor, he shall forthwith persue the same. 

Whereas on the llth of March 169f, and order being 
directed by the mayor of y e citty of Albany, unto Mr. Jacob 
Turk and Pr. van Brugh, to have the uppermost waell 
standing on the hill prepared, and to have the water from 
the fort drawn thereunto with an ruyoull as formerly. The 
s cl Mr. Jacob Turk and Pr. van Brugh appears now here per- 
sonally, with there ace' and charges made to the s d waell, 
amounting to the sume of five hundred seventy three gilders 
11 stuyvers in wampum, for which summe of money afores d , 
well and truly to be paid, the mayor, aldermen and common- 
alty have taken unto consideration and doe therefore appoint 
and authorize Bennony van Corlaer, Joh s Cuyler and Joh 3 
Thomase, who shall bate all and every particular inhabitant of 
this citty what they shall pay for the afores ' sume disbursed for 
the reparation of the s d waell, and whereas y t: mayor, aldermen 
and commonalty doe find an unconvenience y l the streets at 
last will come to damage by the water running out of y e s d 
wall ; it is therefore resolved by the s i1 mayor, aldermen and 
commonalty that another wall shall be made in the s ' street 
upon a convenient place, and forthwith drawne into the 
creek behynde Maj r Schuyler's. 

The City Becords. 265 

Whereas the streets and bridges of the citty of Albany 
are so uncqnvenient for want of being repaired, especially 
the great bridge by Maj r Schuyler, doe therefore appoint 
and authorize Joh s Appel, high sheriffe of the citty of 
Albany, to gett the afores d bridges and streets well repaired 
and in good order that in the time of eight days ensueing this 
date, especially the bridge by Maj Schuyler, and this you are 
in no ways to ommitt, upon penalty as the fact deserves. 
Dated in Albany the llth day of June, in y e seventh year 
of his majestys reign, anno do. 1695. 

"Whereas there is a considerable summe of money due to 
the two taxes of 2000, and 1550, by the citty and county 
of Albany in the year of our lord 1691, as p r the list of each 
particular ward doth appear, whereunto the justices doe 
appoint and command that y e constables of the citty and 
county afores d , emmediately to goe round and collect the 
said summe of money, as is still standing out, belonging to 
the said taxes. 

Whereas several proclamations hath been formerly directed 
to the sheriff, Joh s Appell, who are not well observed as it 
ought to be, doe hereby renue all the proclamations unto 
him derected viz 1 : against people who doe trade and keep 
conversation with the Indians upon the hill or elsewhere, 
that such orders shall still continue and remain in full force 
and vertue as ever did. 

Whereas the aldermen and commonalty doth recommend 
Major Dirk Wessels and Mayor John Abeel representatives 
for y e citty and county of Albany, to propose in the general 
assembly y l the containing of the two pr. cts. at and 3d. 
upon y e gallon might be granted as formerly, to continue 
for the ensueing year. 

June 23, 1695. Whereas the retailers of the citty of 
Albany doe retaile to the Indians in this dangerous time of 
alarm, doe hereby order Joh s Appel, high sherriffe, emmedi- 
ately to goe round to all the retailers of this citty aforesaid 
to prohibite them to draw any strong drink to any Indians 
in this dangerous times, untill further order from the mayor 
and aldermen of y e citty aforesaid. Dated in Albany this 
24th day of June 1695. 

Annals, ii. 23 

266 The City Records. 

Att a Common Councill &c., July 12, 1695. 

Whereas there has been an actentituled an act for y e defray- 
ing y e necessary charges of the city and county of Albany of 
2 per cent upon all Indian goods, likewise 3d. upon each gallon 
rom y l shall be imported in y e citty and county of Albany, 
which was expired y e 18th of May last and now being confirmed 
by y e general assembly, to remain in full force and virtue 
for y e space of two years ensuing the 4th of July 1695, be-' 
ing then published, doe hereby strictly charge and command 
all masters "of vessels, merchants, or other persons whatso- 
ever, that should have any such Indian goods or rorn brought 
or received from New York in this citty and county afore- 
said, shall enter such goods at y e treasurer, Johs. Appell, or 
his deputy, within the space of 12 hours after their arrive- 
ment, and to land the said goods at the gate by the court house 
of this citty, as formerly, and whoever neglects to enter such 
goods as aforesaid, or any thing to the contrary hereof, shall 
forfeit all the same. 

Whereas there is one Liev 1 Riede now lately come from 
England under Capt. Wm. Kidd's company, to lay here in 
y e fronteers of Albany, having no bedding, doe hereby order 
and appoint John Lansing and John Cuyler to provide bed- 
ding for the said Liev't upon y e citty charge in the time of 
three days ensuing this date of y e 12th July, 1695, upon 
penalty as y e fact deserves. 

July 25, 1695.- Whereas Mr. J. Lansing, O. V. Ness, 
and H. Hansen who are appointed to goe and agree with 
Robert Sanders concerning the hyre of his chamber for the 
leif 1 of Captain Weems, have brought in their report that 
they are agreed with y e said Robert Sanders for the space 
of one year for the sum of 17 ps. of 8, commencing the 23d 
of June 1695, and determining the 23d June, 1696, which 
sume of 17 ps. of 8 is laid at y e charge of y e citty of Albany 
to satisfy y e s d Robert Sanders. 

Whereas Marte Cregier appears here personally, who since 
the 30th of April last makes his addresse again to be ad- 
mitted to build a house of fifteen foot square on the north 
of his corner house on y e east of y e Parrel street, near the 
fortification of the citty of Albany, bynding and obliging him- 
self in no further building to the north during this warr, 

The City Records. 267 

and if in time of peace he shall be admitted to further build- 
ing, but in case of further war it should be ordered to remove 
his buildings, the said Cregier doth fully ingage to remove 
such buildings upon his owne charges. 

The mayor, aldermen and commonalty of this citty doe 
graunt the request as aforesaid provided first approbation 
of his ex c y the Cap 1 Genl. 

Att a Councill held att Fort Wm. Henry, the 15th day of 

Aug { , 1695 : Present his ex'cy Benj 11 Fletcher, &c. 
Marte Cregier having represented to his ex'cy in councill 
that he hath obtained liberty from y e mayor and aldermen 
of Albany to build his house in the s cl citty near a block- 
house provided he have his ex'cys approbation, the order of 
the mayor and aldermen of Albany was read in councill, and 
his ex'cy was pleased to give his approbation thereunto. 

Att a Common Councill held in the Citty Hall of Albany, 

the 6th of AugS 1695. 

Whereas Maj. D. Wessels, J. J. Bleeker, aldermen, Joh. 
Cuyler and H. Hansen, assistants, were appointed the 25th 
of July last to vizite the accounts of y e last year's revenue 
and the tax of 50 now lately collected, who give in there 
report that y e treasurer Joh. Appell is out over and above 
y e summe of 15gl. and 6st. and Johs. Becker y e summe of 
26gl. 4Jst. in wampum. The 31st July, 1695, vizited. 


The change of sovereignty which the colony of New Netherland 
underwent in 1664, necessarily interfered with the language, as 
well as the customs and manners of the people. The records con- 
tinued for twenty years after that event, to be written mostly in 
Dutch ; but in 1686 they were required to be kept in English. The 
Dutch, however, was the oral language of the city for many years 
after, and the records themselves bear evidence of the transition 
the language was undergoing, by the mixture of English and Dutch 
words and phraseology. The following glossary may be useful, so 
far as it goes, to such as are not conversant with the literature of 
Albany nearly two centuries ago. 

Beverskill, now known as the Buttermilk creek, and long since ob- 
literated below Grand street, being conducted into the 
river by a sewer. 

268 The City Records. 

Blockhuijse, for the locations of the blockhouses as they existed at 
this time, see diagram, vol. 1, 136. 

Brant hout, fire-wood. 

Brant leere, fire-ladders. 

Brant haeken, fire-hooks. 

City Hall, occupied the present site of Commercial Building, corner 
of Broadway and Hudson street. 

Gilder, gl.,f, a Dutch coin, value nearly forty cents. 

Luijtersekerk, Lutheran Church, which occupied the site of the City 
Building cor. Howard and Pearl streets. (See vol. i, 124). 

Leijsler's time, Jacob Leisler, an elderly and respected merchant, 
who raised the standard of William and protestantism, 
in 1689, and governed the province by the choice of the 
freeholders of New York and the authority of the- English 
ministry for nearly two years, was very unjustly exe- 
cuted as a traitor, March 16, 1691. The mayor and com- 
mon council of Albany were opposed to his administra- 

Maquaas river, the Mohawk river. 

Maijs, maize, Indian corn. 

Oyr 8 , others. 

Parrett, Pearl street. 

Pleijn, the Plain was the flat ground between Broadway and South- 
Pearl street below Beaver. At the beginning of the pre- 
sent century even, there were but few buildings erected 
upon it. The lot of the Presbyterian Church, corner of 
Beaver and South Pearl streets now Beaver Block (1869), 
is described in the deed, dated 1792 (see vol. i, 132), as 
being " on the plains." 

Piece 0/8, ps. 0/8, one dollar, consisting of 8 pieces of 12| cents. 

PL Plentive, plaintiff. 

Ratel Watch, night watch, furnished with a peculiar instrument 
for giving alarm. 

Revolutions, the ten years which these minutes embrace was a pe- 
riod of frequent changes in the government, which pro- 
duced constant trouble and excitement in the province. 

Rideing, drawing, or transporting by land. 

Rom, rum. 

RuttenJdll, had its head springs above Lark street, and passed 
down what was since called the Hudson street ravine 
(see vol. i, 146, 158). Its ancient bed, since the ravine 
was filled up, passes down Hudson and Beaver streets, 
crossing Pearl street at the centre of the Beaver Block, 
and enters the Basin near the State street bridge. 
Skepel, (schepel, bushel) three pecks English measure. 
Somme, sum. 

Sopus, (Esopus) Kingston. 
Sout, salt. 
Speck, pork. 
Stadt Huijse, City Hall. 

The City Records. 269 

Stuyver, St., a Dutch coin, value nearly two cents. 

Stockadoes, a style of fortification, consisting of upright posts, by 
wfcich the city was protected against the attacks of the 

Taptoo, (tattoo) beat of drum at night for soldiers to retire to their 
quarters in garrison. 

Toties quoties, as often as one, so often the other. Webster. 

Wendell's Mills, Buttermilk falls. 

Wampum, small beads made of different colored shells, used by the 
North American Indians as money, and also wrought into 
belts, etc., as an ornament. Trwribull. 

Ye, the. 

Yt, that. 

Tm, them. 

Tr, their. 

Zewant, see Wampum. 

169. Before the new style was adopted in 1752, there was much 
confusion respecting dates, particularly in regard to the months of 
January and February. Some writers began the year in January , 
and others in March. The difficulty was to determine whether 
January and February closed an old year, or began a new one. It 
became necessary to have some mode, by which it might be known 
to what year January and February belonged, whenever these 
months were mentioned. For this purpose the following method 
was adopted : during January and February, and to the 22d of 
March, the year was thus marked, 1716-17, or 17^f, meaning, that 
by the ancient mode of calculating, the month mentioned belonged 
to the year 1716 ; but, by the new calculation, to the year 1717. 
After the 22d of March there was no difficulty ; for by both calcu- 
lations, the succeeding months were included in the new year. 

270 Convention on the State of the Province. 



One after another the Dutch had now abandoned every 
point their enemies had assailed. The Connecticut river 
was gone, Westchester was relinquished, and, now, New- 
town, Flushing, Gemeco, Heemstede and Gravesend were 
surrendered. It was at this gloomy conjuncture, when it 
became evident that the country was held only on suffer- 
ance, and authority felt itself utterly powerless, that the 
principle of popular representation was, for the first time, 
fully recognized in this province. At the request of the 
burgomasters and schepens, a general assembly of delegates 
from the several towns was convoked, to take into considera- 
tion the state of the province. This important meeting was 
held in the city hall of New Amsterdam, and the members 
then in attendance were : 

Cornelius Steenwyk, Jacob Bakker, New Amsterdam; 
Jeremias van Rensselaer, Dirck van Schelluyne, Rensselaers- 
wyk; Jan Verbeek, Gerrit Slechtenhorst, Fort Orange; 
Thomas Chambers, Gysbert van Imbroeck, Wiltwyck ; Dan- 
iel Terneur, Johannis Verveeler, New Haerlem ; David de 
Marest, Pierre Billou, Staten Island; Wm. Bredenbent, 
Albert Corn. Wantenaar, Breukelen; Jan Strycker, Wm. 
Guilliams, Midwout; Elbert Elbertsen, Coert Stevensen, 
Amersfoort; David Jochemsen, Cornells Beekman, New 
Utrecht; Jan van Cleef, Gysbert Teunissen, Boswyck; 
Engelbert Steenhuysen, Herman Smeeman, Bergen. 

The first question which engaged the attention of this 
assembly was that of the presidency. New Amsterdam 
claimed the honor as the capital; Rensselaerswyck as the 
oldest colonie. The right of the latter was admitted, and 
the Honorable Jeremias van Rensselaer took the chair un- 
der protest. The convention then demanded of the govern- 
ment, protection against the Indians and " the malignant 
English." If it were not able to afford such protection, 
they wished to be informed to whom they were to address 

Convention on the State of the Province. 271 

themselves. The inhabitants of New Netherland, the di- 
rector-general insisted, had never contributed to the sup- 
port or defense of the province. On the contrary, the 
West India Company had expended the sum of twelve 
hundred thousand guilders over and above the customs, 
excise, revenue of the weigh-scale and tithes. Danger 
impended now over the country from two points the 
Indians and the English. He wished the convention to de- 
cide if the war should be continued, or peace made with the 
former. If war were decided on, should the allies of the 
Indians also be included ? Should the English summon the 
country to surrender, were they to be resisted ? If so, by 
what force? Was every sixth man to be enrolled? Over 
two hundred men besides the soldiers were required. He 
proposed a tax on mills and cattle. Were supplies refused, 
the military force now under pay would be reduced. 

The political system which commercial monopoly had so 
long been endeavoring to construct, collapsed at the moment 
when its powers were tested. The convention refused sup- 
plies, and adjourned for a weak to consider the propriety of 
again appealing to the home authorities. 

When the convention reassembled, the director and 
council immediately laid the above information before it. 
All further remonstrance to the West India Company was 
now considered unnecessary, and the assembly proceeded to 
deliberate on the measures proper to be adopted towards 
the Indians and the English towns. It was found useless 
to attempt to execute the orders of the Directors in regard 
to the latter. "The English rebels were as six to one; 
and with aid from Hartford would easily overcome and 
massacre the few Dutch soldiers that could be brought 
against them." It would be impossible to subdue them. 
The province would be thrown at once into their hands, or 
delivered up a prey to the savages. These were disposed 
for peace, and the situation of the province rendered it 
desirable that a treaty be concluded, for it was discovered 
that the English of Connecticut were tampering with 
them. 0' Callaghan's Hist. N. Neth. } n, p. 505. 

272 Philip Pietersen Schuyler. 


This was the first of the Schuyler family who settled in 
this country. He came from Amsterdam to America in 
1650, and was married on the 22d December of that year, to 
Margritta van Slechtenhorst, aged 22, daughter of the Di- 
rector of Rensselaerswyck, by Anthonie de Hooges the secre- 
tary of the colonie, " in presence of the officers both of Fort 
Orange and Rensselaerwyck, and of some of the principal 
inhabitants thereof." By this lady he had ten children, viz : 
Gruysbert, G-ertrude, (who married Stephanus van Cortland;) 
Alida, (who married, first, Rev. Nicholas van Rensselaer, 
second Robert Livingston ; ) Pieter, Brant, Arent, Sybilla, 
(died aged four weeks,) Philip, Johannes and Margritta. 
Peter Schuyler was the first mayor of Albany, John, the 
youngest son, held a captain's commission in 1690, when he 
led an expedition into Canada, and penetrated as far as La 
Prairie, being then only twenty-two years of age. He 
possessed great influence among the Indians, and is referred 
to frequently in La Potherie's History of North America. 
His grandson, G-eneral Philip Schuyler, occupies too high a 
place in the history of this state, to need further remark 
here. Philip Pietersen Schuyler died at Albany, on the 
9th March, 1683-4, and was buried on the llth of the same 
month in the church of that place, then situated at the 
junction of State street on Broadway. His will bears date 
Tuesday evening, 1st May, 1683, 0. S. 0' Cattaghan's 
Hist. M. Neth., ii, 177. 

Commission of Gerrit Swart. 273 


From the Kensselaerswyck Manuscripts. 1 

Jan van Rensselaer, hereditary Patroon, and the Codirec- 
tors of the Colonie named Rensselaerswyck, on the North 
River in New Netherland, have accepted as their officer or 
Schout, in the aforesaid Colonie, Gerrit Swart, who also 
engages himself in that capacity to them, on the^following 
conditions : 

That he shall now proceed, with his wife, maid and ser- 
vant, passage and board free, in the ship which shall be 
provided for him, to the aforesaid Colonie, and exercise there 
and fill the aforesaid office, and follow and punctually observe 
the commission and instructions which shall now be given 
herewith, together with those which shall from time to time 
be sent, and conveyed to him by authority of the Patroon 
and Codirectors. 

He shall use for his dwelling, the house formerly used by 
the former preacher, situate in Green Bush, and there reside 
with his family; and exercise and discharge his aforesaid 
office with all diligence and fidelity, according to the laws, 
. edicts and ordinances already, or hereafter to be enacted 

He shall also, as is the duty of an obedient officer, be and 
remain subject to all laws, ordinances, and edicts already 
made, or hereafter to be made by the "Patroon and Codirectors. 

Likewise, on condition that the officer there shall not 
trade nor barter, directly nor indirectly, by himself or others 
under any pretext. 

And the aforesaid Gerrit Swart shall receive yearly for 
his wages, to be paid there by the Commissioners, the sum 
of four hundred guilders, for which he shall support himself 
in all things. He shall, moreover, receive all fines and 
penalties amounting to ten guilders or under, but on all 
exceeding that sum, he shall retain a just third part. 

O'Callaghan's History of New Netherland, u, 564. 

274 Commission of Gerrit Swart. 

And all this for the term of three years certain, commenc- 
ing when he shall have arrived in that country ; provided 
that the Patroon and Codirectors reserve to themselves to 
abridge the aforesaid term, and discontinue the service 
whenever it shall so please them, without being obliged to 
give any reasons, nor to convey back either him or his family. 

On which condition was here furnished him the said officer 
Schout, in cash, the sum of three hundred Carolus guilders, 
which shall be deducted frpm his first earned wages. [Note 
in original : " This article was altered by the Patroon and 
Godirectors" ;] 

Finally, when circumstances demand, the Commissioners 
there shall accord to him a servant. 

All which points are agreed to, the aforesaid Grerrit Swart 
promising to acquit himself in his office honorably, faithfully 
and honestly, and perform his trust so 4hat neither the Pa- 
troon nor Codirectors nor their Commissioners in that quarter, 
shall have any reason to complain, pledging thereunto his 
person and goods having and to have ; submitting all them 
and the choice thereof to the judgment of all courts and 
magistrates, and specially to the jurisdiction of the Court of 
the Colonie of Rensselaerswyck. 

In testimony of all which, is this, by the parties, under- 
signed. In Amsterdam, the 24 April, 1652. to the know- 
ledge of the subscribing Notary Public, residing within the 
aforesaid city, duly admitted by the Court of Holland. Was 
by their respective hands signed Johan van Rensselaer, 
Griacomo Bissel, for the Codirectors : G- Swart. 


Instructions drawn up by Johan van Rensselaer, Patroon 
and Codirector of the Colonie called Rensselaer s-wyck, 
for Gerrit Swart as officer of the said Colonie, according 
to which he shall, in all good faith, regulate himself. 
Having arrived with God's help at the island of Manhat- 
tans, he shall proceed by the first opportunity to the Colonie, 
and report himself to Jan Baptist van Rensselaer, and make 
known unto him his quality, by exhibition of his Commis- 
sion and Instructions. 

He shall, above all things, take care that divine worship 
shall be maintained in said Colonie, conformably to the re- 

Commission of Gerrit Swart. 275 

formed religion of this country, as the same is publicly 
taught in these United Provinces. 

He shall, in like manner, pay attention that the Lord's 
day, the Sabbath of the New Testament, be properly respect- 
ed both by the observance of hearing the Holy Word, . as 
well as the preventing all unnecessary and daily labor on 
said day. 

And whereas, it -is a scandal, that the Christians should 
mingle themselves unlawfully with the wives or daughters 
of heathens, the officer shall labor to put in execution the 
placards and ordinances enacted or to be enacted against the 
same, and strictly exact the fines imposed thereby, without 
any dissimulation. 

He shall consequently be ex officio a party or attorney in 
all matters thereunto necessary, .before our court of justice 
resident in the aforesaid Colonie, in which he shall have 
free access and seat, but no vote. 

The conducting of all criminal suits, their institution, exe- 
cution, description and final prosecution,' as he shall deem 
consistent with his recorded oath, shall therefore be in his 
name ; it being well understood that he shall commence no 
suit relating to our jurisdiction, domain, or finance, except 
by order of our Commissaries. 

And he shall prosecute no man criminally, or cause him 
to be apprehended unless on previous information, and this 
he shall not himself take except by order aforesaid, or un- 
less he be on the spot when the offence is committed, and 
the delinquent be arrested in the act. 

He shall in taking information, conduct himself honor- 
ably and uprighteously, and describe the affair with all 
circumstances most fully, in order to record in writing the 
clearest and purest truth concerning the same, as well the 
grounds of defence on the part of the prisoners and accused 
persons, as of their accusation, provided that what most par- 
ticularly relates to the service of the Patroonship be first of 
all inquired into. 

He shall sedulously cause the placards, ordinances, reso- 
lutions, contracts and commands of the Patrodn and Codi- 
rectors to be observed, and atte'nd that nothing be done 
contrary thereto. 

And in order that he may be more free in every regard, 
he shall not be allowed to accept any presents, pensions or 

276 Commission of Gerrit Swart. 

gifts from any person whatsoever, nor compound or agree in 
any criminal matter, but prosecute all according to law, and 
content himself with the fines and penalties which shall be 
adjudicated to him. 

He shall likewise take care that in matters entailing 
confiscation of life or property, the judges shall be qualified 
to the number of at least five, and also see that the same 
rule be followed whenever courts of criminal jurisdiction 
shall be held. 

Copies of the judgments with the information either 
sent to, or taken and obtained by him, shall be forwarded 
hither in the first sailing ship, and all judicial acts shall be 
so recorded, that whoever need, may be able to be vindi- 
cated here. 

Care shall also be taken that no prisoners confined with 
the knowledge of our Court aforesaid, shall remain long in 
jail at the expense of the colonie, without special cause, but 
they shall be prosecuted so expeditiously that their business 
shall be dispatched, and with that view, shall the Court 
aforesaid be advised as frequently as possible what prisoners 
are in custody at his instance or otherwise, and on what 

In fine, he shall be holden to conduct himself always 
diligently and faithfully as a good officer is bound to do, on 
such stipend as is allowed by contract to him. 

And for the better dispatch and discharge of this his 
office and duty, the Secretary of our Court shall draft the 
preparatory or introductory acts of information, and all 
other preceding matters and minutes in judicio, and more- 
over whatever shall be necessary for the performance of 
his office which we hereby order. 

The sworn marshal appointed by the Commissaries, he 
shall also 'employ to serve all citations and summonses, in 
which he is not a party. 

He shall further be bound to have these Instructions and 
Commission enregistered by the Secretary of the Commis- 

Finally, in all matters relating to his office not specified 
herein, and which cannot admit of delay, or await the Pa- 
troon's and Codirector's advice, he shall act on the resolve 
of the Commissaries and Court, and advise the patroon and 

A Governor's Marriage License, 1732. 277 

Co-directors thereof, by the first opportunity, so that suit- 
able order may be taken thereupon. 

And all this provisionally, the Patroon and Co-directors 
reserving unto themselves, to augment, diminish, correct 
this Instruction according to circumstances, or therein 
otherwise order as shall be found proper. Thus done and 
concluded in Amsterdam, this 8th May, 1652. 
Johan van Rensselaer, 
Johan de Laet, for the Co-directors. 
0' Callaghan's Hist. N. Netherland. 


By his Excellency William Cosby Esq., captain general and 
governor in chief of the provinces of New York, New 
Jersey, and territories thereon depending, in America, 
vice-admiral of the same, and colonel in his majesty's 
army, &c. 

To any Protestant Minister: 

Whereas there is a mutual purpose of marriage between 
Jacob Glenn of the City of Albany, merchant, of the one 
party, and Elizabeth Cuyler of the same city, spinster of 
the other party, for which they have desired my licence, 
and have given bond upon conditions, that neither of them 
have any lawful let or impediment or pre-contract affinity, 
or consanguinity to hinder their being joined in the holy 
bands of matrimony; these are therefore to authorize and 
empower you to join the said Jacob Glenn and Elizabeth 
Cuyler in the holy bands of matrimony, and them to pro- 
nounce man and wife. 

Given under my hand and prerogative seal at Ft. George 
in New York, the 16th day of October, in the sixth 
year of the reign of our sovereign lord, GEORGE the 
Second, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France 
and Ireland, King, defender of the faith. Anno Do- 
mini 1732. W. COSBY. 
Annals, ii. 24 

278 Indian Disturbances. 


On the 7th June, 1663, the Indians made an attack upon 
the unsuspecting village of Esopus (Kingston), and de- 
stroyed the place, committing their accustomed barbarities- 
upon the inhabitants. The director and council, on receiv- 
ing intelligence of this catastrophe, dispatched forthwith 
Councillor de Decker to Fort Orange to raise volunteers, 
call out the Mohawks and Senecas, and finally obtain, if 
possible, a loan to aid the necessities of the government. 
A proclamation was next issued inviting the colonists in and 
around the Manhattans to enlist, who were further encouraged 
to come forward by the usual promise of plunder, as well as 
by the assurance that every Indian, taken in the war, should 
be the prize of his captor. In addition to these, each volun- 
teer was to receive soldier's pay, a gratuity ranging from 
four hundred to one thousand guilders if maimed, and be 
entitled to exemption from chimney tax and tithes for the 
term of six years. But, though General Stuyvesant visited 
Heemstede in person, and sent agents through the other 
villages, no more than half a dozen Englishmen enrolled 
themselves, the leaders of their towns having discountenanced 
the project. Treaties were again renewed with the River 
tribes, and forty-six Marespink savages were engaged to 
accompany the troops to the Esopus. Captain Martin Kry- 
gier, an old and experienced officer, was placed in command 
of the expedition, under whom Lieutenants Pieter W. van 
Couwenhoven, Nicolas Stillwell, and Ensign Samuel Edsal 
also received commissions. 

The news of the massacre caused no less a sensation at 
Beverwyck than at New Amsterdam ; for the inhabitants 
in that quarter were more exposed, by their frontier position, 
and the Senecas and Minquaas were now waging a bloody 
war. Efforts were, therefore, made to put Fort Orange in 
a thorough state of defence, 1 and ancient treaties were re- 

1 Fort Orange, at this period, had four points, on each of which 
there were two pieces of cannon. It had besides a twelve pounder 

The FiiycL 279 

newed with the neighboring tribes ; but so great was the 
alarm that the out-settlers fled for protection to the fort called 
Cralo, erected on the Patroon's farm at Greenbush, where 
they held, night and day, regular watch and ward. In this 
panic the country was abandoned or miles around. " No- 
thing, " says Jeremias van Rensselaer in one of his letters," is 
talked of but war, for no one can distinguish friend from 
foe."0'Cattayhan's Hist. New Netherland. 

THE FUYCK The earliest name of the hamlet which was 
gathered on the site of the city of Albany, is called in the 
Rensselaerswyck manuscripts, The Fuyck, or Beversfuyck, 
which signifies a hoop-net, and takes its name from the 
formation of the shore of the river. The earliest mention I 
have met, says Dr. O'Callaghan, of Beverswyck or Bever- 
wyck, as the name is indifferently written, was in a minute, 
dated 1634, the original of which was on a small, almost 
illegible scrap of paper which I found accidentally among 
the above manuscripts. That the Dutch continued to call 
Albany the Fuyck, long after the surrender of the country 
to the English, is evident from letters among the Rensselaers- 
wyck manuscripts. " De huysen in de Fuyck " is an ex- 
pression in one of S. van Cortlandt's letters, dated N. Yorck, 
20th April, 1681, as well as in several others of an anterior 

In Danker s and Sluyter's Journal, published by 'the Long 
Island Historical Society, it is said that Albany " was for- 
merly named the Fuyck on account of two rows of houses 
standing there opposite to each other; which being wide 
enough apart at the beginning finally ran quite together like 
a fuyck." J There is now no conformation of any street 
that would answer to this description but Broadway between 
State and Steuben streets. 

on a carriage. The village of Beverwyck was enclosed by a board 
fence, which was defended by three pieces of artillery loaned by 
Mr. Van Rensselaer in 1656, and placed on the church. Alb. Rec. 
VI, 388, 415, 416. 
1 Pronounced fowk, that is, a hoop net. 

280 Form of Oath to the Patroon. 


The following is the form of oath of allegiance to the 
patroon and co-directors, taken by the colonists. It is 
from a manuscript found by Dr. O'Callaghan among the 
papers in the patroon's office, and translated by him for 
his History of New Netherlands. 

" I, N. N., promise and swear that I shall be true and 
faithful to the noble Patroon and Co-directors, or those who 
represent them here, and to the Hon'ble Director, Commis- 
sioners and Council, subjecting myself to the Court of the 
Colonie ; and I promise to demean myself as a good and faith- 
ful inhabitant or Burgher, without exciting any opposition, 
tumult or noise ; but on the contrary, as a loyal Inhabitant, 
to maintain and support offensively and defensively, against 
every one, the Right and Jurisdiction of the Colonie. And 
with reverence and fear of the Lord, and uplifting of both 
the first fingers of the right hand, I say So Truly help me 
God almighty." 

This date, 15th July, 1649, hath Steven Jansen carpenter 
taken the Oath of allegiance from the hands of the Honor- 
able Director before the commissioners of the colonie. Wit- 
ness, A. de Hooges, Secretary. 

23d Nov., 1651. Resolved, that all Householders and 
Freemen of this Colonie shall appear on the 28th day of 
November of this year, being Tuesday, at the house of the 
Honorable Director, and there take the Burgerlyke oath of 

The following persons have taken the oath at the ap- 
pointed time, according to the foregoing formulary : Mon'r 
Arendt van Curler, Mons'r Johan Baptist van Rensselaer, 
Pieter Hartgers, Jan Verbeeck, Sander Leendertsz, (Glen,) 
Oysbert Cornelisz. van Weesp, Willem Fredericksz, Jan 
Michelz, Rutger Jacobszen, Goosen Gerritz, Andries Her- 
bertsz, Cornelis Cornelisz. Vos, Jan van Hoesem, Jan Tho- 
niasz, Pieter Bronck, Jacob Jansz. van Nostrandt, Harmen 
Bastiaensz, Teunis Cornelisz, Jacob Adriaensz. Raedmacker, 
Teunis Jacobsz, Rutger Adriaensz, Casper Jacobsz, Abra- 

Game. 281 

ham Pietersz. Vosburg, Thomas Jansz, Everardus Sansz, 
Adriaen Pietersz van Alkmaer, Jochim Wessels Backer, 

Jacob Luyersz, Thomas Sandersz Smith, Evert Pels, 

Hendricksz. Verbeeck, [One name defaced here,] Yan 

Es, Hendrick Westercamp, Thomas Keuningh, Cornelia 
Segersz, Cornelis Cornelisz. van Voorhout, Jan Kyersz, 
Jan Helms, Aert Jacobsz, G-uysbert Cornelisz. aende Berg, 
Evert Jansen Kleermaker, Dirck Jansen Croon, Jacob Sim- 
mons Klomp, Volcker Jansz. 21st May, 1653. 0' Call. 
Hist. N. Neih., n, 176. 

GAME. The creeks running through the settlements, as 
well as the river in front, abounded with fish ; the woods 
with deer and other game. Pike and sturgeon were caught 
in the Fourth, or Fox creek, and one of the latter could be 
bought for a knife. " The year before I came here," (1641), 
writes the Rev. Mr. Megapolensis, " there were so many 
turkeys and deer that they came to the house and hogpens 
to feed, and were taken by the Indians with so little trouble, 
that a deer was sold to the Dutch for a loaf of bread, or a 
knife, or even a tobacco pipe." Hist. N. Netherland. 


List of Freeholders. 


From a Manuscript in the office of the Secretary of State. 


Evert Wendell, 

Johannes D. Foreest, 

Nicholas Vandenbergh, 

Luykas Gerritse Wyn- 

Volkert Douw, Jun., 

Joseph Van Sante, 


John Beasley, 

David Van Sante, 

Isaac Wendell, 
Johannes Schuyler, 

Robert Lansing, 
Edward Holland, 

Abraham Van Derpool, 
Johannes Kidney, 

Anthony S. Van Schaick, 

Edward Collins, 

Isaac Lansing, 

John DePeyster, 
Myndert Schuyler, 

Luykas Hoogkerck, 
Lambert Ratliff, 

William Helling, 
Henderick Hallenbeeck, 

Isaac Staats, 

Garrit Van Sante, 

Johannes Radlif, 

Jacob C. Ten Eyck, 

Nicholas Van Woort, 

Manas Garlan, 

Thomas Williams, 

Benja. Bogart, 

John Savage, 

Joseph Gates, 
Jacob Roseboom, 

Egbert Brat, 
William Hilton, 

Isaac Fryer, 
Bernardus Brat, 

William Hogan, 
Johannes Van Alen, 

Peter Ryckman, 
Tobias Ryckman, 

Roelif Kidney, 
Jacobus Ratlif, 

Cornelius Van Dyck, 

Harman Ryckman, 

Jonathan Brooks, 

Johannes Lansing, 
Luykas Wyngaert, 
Ryer Gerritse, 

Garrit Van Benthusen, 
Johannes Myndertse, 
Isaac Bogert, 

Johannes Wyngaert, 
Andries Brat, 
Robert Barret, Jun., 

Johannes Van der Hey- 

Petrus van den Bergh, 

William Hilton, Jun., 


Johannes Gerr'se Lan- 

Johannes Seager, 

Sybrant Van Schaick, Jr 
Sybrant Goose Van 

Egbert Egbertse, 

Evert Saxbury, 
Richard Hilton, 


William Hogan, Jun., 

Jacobus Hilton, 

Gerrit Brat, 

Jillis D. Garius, 

John Heatoii, 

Antlesius Bogardus, 
Stephen Rensselaer, 

Dirk Hun, 
Johannes Flensburgh, 

Jacobus Kidney, 
William Waldron, 

Ulderick Van Vranken, 

Nicholas Van Schaick, 

Obadiah Cooper, 

Johannes Ten Broeck, 

Johannes Marselis, 

Johannes Van Sante, 

Anthony Koster, 

Johannes Van Vechten, 

Volkert Douw, 

Thomas Sharpe, 


Thomas Wilkinson. 

Philip Livingstone, 


Harmanus Wendell, 

Abraham Cnyler, 

Gulian Verplanck, 

Christopher Yates, 

Nicholas Bleeker, 

Rutger Bleecker, 

Luykas Job's Wyngaert, 
Hendrick Bleeker, 

Johannes Cuyler, 
Schebolet Bogardus, 

Ephraim Wendell, 
David van der Heyden, 

Hendrick Roseboom, 

Johannes Garius, 

Johannes Roseboom, Jr. 

Isaac Kip, 

David Groesbeeck, 

Nicholas Bleeker, Jr., 

Gerrit Lansing, 
John Beekman, 

Anthony Van Schaick, 
Cornelius Cuyler, 

Benja. Egbertse, 
Bernardus Harsen, 

James Stevenson. 

Hans Hansen, 

Nicholas Fonda, 

Jacob Ten Evck, 

Douwe Fonda, son of 

Hendrick M. Roseboom, 

Michael Bass'et, 

John Fonda, 

Johannes Lansing, Jun., 

Jacob Cornelius Scher- 

Christian Schaus, 

Teleman Van Schelluyne, 


James Stenhouse, 

William Van Schelluyne, 

Johannes Vinhagen, 
Harpert Van Deusen, 

Abraham Lansing, 
Abraham Lansing, Jr., 

Johannes Van Schel- 

Garrit Marselis, 

Garrit Roseboom, 

Harmanus Van Schel- 

Dirk Van Schelluyne, 
Barent Sanders, 
Myndert Van leveren, 

Johannes Hogan, 
Johannes Bleecker, 
Jacob Glen, Jun., 

Johannes Roseboom, 
Cornelius Ten Broeck. 

Stephanas Groesbeck, 

Hendrick Ten Eyck, 

List of Freeholders. 



Henry Holland, 

Johannes W. Quacken- 

Teunis Visscher, 

Hendrick D. Ridder, 


Abraham E. Wendell, 

Garrit Van Ness, 
Cornelius Bogert, 

Anthony Brat, 
Ahasuerus Roseboom, 

Gysbert van den Bergh, 
John Maase, 

Abraham Bogert, 

Gerrit Lansing, 

Cornelius Maase, 

Johannes Hun, 

Peter Bogert, 

Barent Brat, 

Leendert Gansevoort, 

John Waters, 

Johannes Visscher, 

Simon Veeder, 
Jacob Evertse, 
Johannes Goewyck, 

Thomas Floyd, 
Coenraet Ten Eyck, 
Gysbert Roseboom, 

Jacob Bogert, 
Jacob Vischer, 
Jacob Lansing, 

Richard Hansen, 

William Winne, 

Peter Winne, 

Jacobus Schuyler, 

Jesse DeForeest, 

Abraham Douw, 

Abraham Schuyler, 
David A. Schuyler, 

Solomon Goewyck, 
Wilhelmus van den 

Johannes Pruyn, 
Jacob Muller, 

Johannes A. Cuyler, 


Samuel Pruyn, 

William Rogers, 

Isaac Greveraet, 

Martin Beekman, 

Robert Roseboom, 

Dirk Ten Broeck, 

Garrit C. van den Bergh, 

Wynant Vandenbergh, 
Tennise Evertse, 

Adam Yates, 
Elbert Gerritse, 

Johannes Hansen, 
Isaac Swits, 

Johannes Evertse, 

Abraham Witbeck, 

Christopher Abeel, 

Harmanus Vischer, 

Harpert Van Deusen. Jr. 


Hendrick Lansing, 

John Van Wie, 

David D. Foreest, 

Jonas Oothout, 

Gerrit Van Wie, 

Regnier Van leveren, 

Jacob Lansing, 

Daniel Winne, 

Barent Van leveren, 

Philip Schuyler, 
Peter Schuyler, 
Jeremiah Schuyler, 

Rensselaer Nicoll, 
Hendrick Van Wie, 
David Verplanck, 

Aerje Oothout, 
John Ren sselaer, 
William Rensselaer, 

Jeremiah Van Rensse- 

Samuel Coeyman, 

Solomon Van Vechten, 


Peter Coeyman, 

Douwe Van Vechten, 

Teunis Viele, 
Volkert van den Bergh, 

Coenraet Hoogteling, 
William Hoogteling, 

John Witbeeck, 

Peter Van Woort, 

William Van Alen, 

Luykas Witbeeck, 

Lodewick Cridel, 

Johannes Slingerland, 

Volkert Van Vechten, 

Gerrit Willemse van den 

Cornelius Slingerland, 

Johannes Van Vechten, 


Philip Luke, 

Johannes Van Buren, 

Sybraut Van Schaick, 
Andries Gardenier, 
Abraham Van Arnham, 

Abraham Wyngaert, 
Benjamin Winne, 
Peter Fonda, 

Hendrick Beekman, 
Andries Huyck, 
Abraham Van Valken- 

Rutger Van Woort, 
Myndert Marselis, 

John Van Arnham, 
A rent Corlaer, 

Jacob Schermerhorn, 

Jacob Van Woort, 

John Milton, 

Johannes Schermerhorn, 

Johannes Oothout, 

Jacob Lansing, Jun., 

Wouter Barheydt, 

Abraham Ouderkerck, 

Isaac Viele, 

Hendrick Bries, 

Peter Quackenboss, 
Cornelius van den Bergh, 

Anthony Vanderzee, 
John Van Ness, 

Barent Martese Van Bu- 


Cornelius Ouderkerck, 

Evert Lansing, 

Johannes Symense Vee- 

Simon D. Ridder, 

Barent Staats, 


Johannes Ouderkerck, 

Johannes Van Valken- 

Isaac Lagrange, 
Jacobu s Lagrange, 
John Miln, 

Abraham Fonda, 
Sybrant Quackenboss, 
Johannes Lagrange, 

burgh, > 
Roelif Janse, 
Hendrick Van Buren, 

Kitchen Holland, 

Barent Brat, Jun., 

Casper Plank, 

Jacobus Holland, 

Jacob van der Heyden, 

Stephen Rensselaer, 

Teunis Slingerland, 
Hendrick Douw, 

Matthiasvan derfleyden, 
Matthias van den Bergh, 

Rutger Van Woort, 
Jacobus Rensselaer. 

Gerrit van den Bergh, 

284 Notes from the Newspapers. [1772. 


1771 to 1790. 

The events given below are gathered almost entirely from 
the newspapers. The locations of some of the principal 
business men are given, who were in active life at the close 
of the revolutionary war. 

1771. The first printing office in Albany, respecting which 
any information can now be gathered, was established in the 
latter part of this year, by Alexander & James Robert- 
son, who came up from New York for that purpose. Hence 
Albany was the second place in the state of New York, into 
which the art of printing was introduced. 

The charter of the city was printed this year in the city 
of New York, by Hugh Gaine, on a demy sheet, in quarto 
form, of which a copy is preserved in the chamberlain's 

The Albany Gazette, the first newspaper printed in this 
city, was commenced in November, by the Robertsons. It 
was printed on a sheet less than a quarter the size of the 
largest daily papers now printed here. It is not known when 
this paper was discontinued, but its publication is supposed 
to have ended at the breaking out of the revolutionary war, 
as the publishers are known to have joined the royalists in 
New York in 1776. A few copies of the paper are preserved 
in the Albany Institute, which were presented to that insti- 
tion by Rensselaer Westerlo, Esq. The volume containing 
the charter just alluded to, contains also a collection of the 
city ordinances, printed to match, by the Robertsons, in 

1772. Jan. 13. The printers of the Gazette, "from 
motives of gratitude and duty, are obliged to apologize to the 
public for the omission of one week's publication ; and hope 
that the irregularity of the mail from New York since the 
first great fall of snow, and the severe cold preceding Christ- 
mas, which froze the paper prepared for the press, so as to 
put a stop to its operation, will sufficiently account for it." 

1782.] Notes from the Newspapers. 285 

March. A lottery was advertised to be drawn for the 
benefit of the Reformed German Church in Albany. (See 
Annals, vol. I, p. 128.) 

Among the advertisers in the Gazette is the firm of James 
Gourlay & Co., " in Cheapside street, next door to the 
King's Arms." Cheapside street is now Green street, and 
the Kings Arms tavern was on the north-west corner 
of Green and Beaver streets, adjoining what was well known 
in the first quarter of this century as the Old Stone House. 
On the breaking out of the war of the revolution, the sign, 
which bore the device of the king's arms, was forced off by a 
party, one night, and burnt in State street. 

A noted merchant of the day, Thomas Barry, " near 
the Dutch Church," also enumerates his stock, occupying 
nearly a column of the paper with a catalogue of goods with 
names which sound quite odd at this day ; for instance, 
" none-so-pretty of various colors, and black breeches 

July 20. The governor of the .province, Gen. Tryon. 
visited the city, on which occasion the corporation gave a 
public dinner at Cartwright's Tavern (vol. i. 290). 

A meteorological table appeared in the Gazette occasion- 

A book store was kept by Stuart "Wilson, an Irishman, 
at the elm tree corner of State and Pearl streets, in a Dutch 
house which was afterwards converted into the Blue Belle 
tavern, the last keeper of which was the late Spencer 
Stafford's father. 

1779. Captain Machin was engaged in taking a water 
level between Albany and Schcnectady, with a view to the 
supply of this city with water by means of an aqueduct. He 
submitted a plan to the common council, with drawings to 
show the manner in which an aqueduct and reservoir should 
be constructed, as we learn by a notice of the same at a later 

1782. May. Messrs. Solomon Balentine and Charles 
R. Webster published the first number of the New York 
Gazetteer or Northern Intelligencer. The office file of this 
paper was destroyed by the great fire of 1793, and the only 
copies of it which are known to exist, are in the Albany In- 

Notes from the Newspapers. [1784. 

Sept. 30. A meeting of the creditors of the United 
States in the state of New York, was held at the City Hall 
in Albany, Philip Schuyler chairman; the object of which 
was to lay their claims before the public, in an address, and 
to suggest a general convention of deputies from the public 
creditors of the states composing the union, to devise ways 
and means of payment. (See vol. I, p. 282.) 

1783. The Gazette was enlarged and Mr. Webster with- { 
drew from it, and removed to New York. The paper was 
continued by Mr. Balentine alone. Its publication is sup- 
posed to have ceased in May, 1784. 

Mr. Balentine published a Pocket Almanac, for the year 
1784, which is the first work of the kind that is known to 
have been issued in this city. A copy of it is preserved in 
the State Library. 

Lord Sterling died in Albany and was buried under the 
Dutch church (?). An eulogium was written by John Lovett 
upon his character, and published. 1 

1784. May 28. Charles R. Webster, of the late firm of 
Balentine & Webster, published the first number of a new 
paper, entitled The Albany Gazette, of which the State 
Library contains the office file down to the time of its dis- 
continuance in 1845, when it was the oldest paper in the 
state, heing in its seventy-second year, 

At this time the post office not only served for the city 
and adjoining towns, but the lists of letters advertised con- 
tain the names of persons in Orange and Dutchess counties, 
Cherry Valley, and Vermont. 

Robison & Hale, dealers in European and East India 
goods, occupied the " north corner opposite the Dutch 
Church," now the site of the Museum Building, which was 
long kaown as Robison's corner. Maj. Hale is believed to 
have been an officer of the revolution, and a much respected 
citizen j but did not, like his partner, accquire wealth. 

Jacob Van Schaick, " in Water street near the Middle 
dock," publishes a long catalogue of articles under exceed- 
ingly quaint titles. 

Henry, McClallen & Henry, " next door north of the 
City Hall," which was the site of Commercial Building, 

1 Woodworth's Reminiscences of Troy. 

23. Chancellor Lansing. 

22. Sanders Lansing. 

21. Dudley Walsh. 

20. Andrew Brown. 

19. Dr. Samuel Stringer. 

18. Gen. John H. Wendell. 

17. Barent Bleecker. 

16. John Jacob Lansing. 

15. Martin Beekman. 

14. John Meads. 

John Brinckerhoff, 
Richard Lush. 

1784.] Notes from the Newspapers. 287 

present the most formidable array of goods, " adapted to all 
seasons, in payment for which they will take cash, Morris's 
and Hillegas's notes, wheat, corn, pease, flax seed, boards 
and plank, and also all sorts of furs." 

Dr. Samuel Stringer, " a little to the north of the Market 
House/' gave notice that he had just imported from Europe 
a general assortment of medicines, which he would " dis- 
pose of at the New York advance/' by wholesale or retail 
at his Medicinal Store. The Market House was opposite 
Stanwix Hall in the centre of the street, and Dr. Stringer's 
store was opposite Bleecker Hall. 

John McClintock advertised that he would open a school 
on the 14th June "in a lower apartment of that house 
in which the printing office is at present held." This is 
believed to have been on the south-west corner of Maiden 
lane and James street. 

At the annual election for members of legislature, the 
following candidates were returned by a majority of votes 
in the county : Dirk Swart, Peter W. Yates, Walter Living- 
ston, Matthew Visscher, Christopher Yates, Abraham Beeker, 
Matthew Adgate, Jacob Ford, John Younglove, Israel 

Peter Van Ness was chosen senator. 

John Blake advertised the usual variety of goods for 
sale at Archibald Campbell's store opposite Hugh Dennis- 
ton's. He soon after took a store u opposite the east end 
of the Dutch Church." 

Balch & Fryer opened a shop near the north gate, for the 
purpose of carrying on the gold and silversmith's business. 
The north gate at this time is believed to have been a little 
above Columbia street in Broadway. 

June. Gen. Schuyler was appointed by congress one of 
the commissioners for treating with the Indians. 

Roseboom & Co. sold all kinds of nails near the English 
Church . 

July 4. The anniversary of our independence was cele- 
brated ; in the morning thirteen guns " were fired from 
Fort Orange," and in the evening the city was illuminated. 

Gerardus Beekman advertises a store nearly opposite 
Wheeler Douglass's. 

288 Notes from the Newspapers. [1784. 

July 14. Mons. Dulonpres from Paris, proposed to 
open a school for dancing, " on the most moderate terms of 
one guinea entrance and one guinea a quarter." 

July 22. The governor of the state, and the Dutch am- 
bassador, Haere P. J. Yan Berckel, arrived in the city, 
and were received by the magistrates and citizens, and con- 
ducted to the City Hall, under discharge of cannon. On 
the following day the corporation gave their guests an 
elegant entertainment at Lewis's Tavern. 

July 23. Capt. John Fryer, "a worthy citizen," died, 
aged 64, and was interred in the Dutch Church yard on the 
following day. 

Edward Cumpston, "at the north-east corner of the Dutch 
Church," proposed to receive " new emission money of this 
state equal to gold or silver," for goods. 

Henry Hart had "a neat assortment of Dry and West 
India G-oods at his store between the Low Dutch Church 
and Market House." 

Aug. The firm of James & Yail was dissolved, and 
Thomas V. James assumed the business " at the store in the 
street opposite the City Hall dock," or leading from the 
dock, which is now Hudson street. 

Aug. Grov. Clinton left Albany to attend the Indian treaty 
to be held at Fort Schuyler, where the chiefs had already 
begun to assemble. 

Sept. 8. Nicholas Barrington opened a school at the house 
opposite to Mr. Burgess's, " money being very scarce, at the 
low prices of 10, 12 and 14s. per quarter, for spellers, writers 
and Scypherers, and three pounds for bookkeeping and 

I. Button, " minister of the gospel in Albany," proposed 
to print by subscription at Is. each, a sermon entitled Weak 
Faith Strengthened. Those who subscribed for twelve were 
to " have a thirteenth gratis." The work was issued in Janu- 
ary, 1785. 

Sept. 9. " Departed this life, at Nisqueunia, Sept. 1, Mrs. 
Lee, known by the appellation of the Elect Lady, or Mother 
of Zion, and head of that people called Shakers. Her 
funeral is to be attended this day." 

John W. Wendell, a few doors south of the City Hall, 
manufactured all kinds of beveret, castor and felt hats, on 

1784.] Notes from the Newspapers. 289 

better terms than the importers can admit of. He was a 

Thomas Sickels sold European and India goods on the 
south side of the street that leads from the Dutch to the 
English Church (State street). 

Oct. 21. The executors of Mrs. Margaret Schuyler, de- 
ceased, offered " a likely negro wench" for sale by auction 
at Lewis's Tavern. 

Sept. 13. The governor and the commissioners of Indian 
affairs for the state with a number of the citizens of Albany, 
returned from Fort Schuyler, where a treaty bad been con- 
cluded with the Six Nations and other Indians residing in 
this state. 

John Carey, offered at the store of Cornelise K. Van- 
denberg, " at the elm tree in the street leading from the 
Dutch to the" English Church," a quantity of goods which 
are represented as just imported from Ireland. 

Sept. 18. On this evening and the following (Sunday) 

morning, Oliver Wolcott, Arthur Lee, and Richard Butler, 

United States commissioners for Indian affairs, arrived in 

the city, on their way to Fort Stanwix, to meet the Six 

Nations. They gave notice that in order to avoid the ill 

consequences and hindrance to public business which would 

.naturally arise from the sale of spirituous liquors they 

'would be wholly prohibited until the treaty closed. The 

Marquis Lafayette was daily expected to accompany them. 

George Reab, at his store in the house of Abraham Douw, 
near the south-west corner of the Market, offered an assort- 
ment of Dry and West India Goods, adapted to the season , 
in exchange for which he would take cash, R. Morris and 
M. Hillegas's notes, new emission money, all sorts of public 
securities; also flax seed, wheat, and all kinds of country 

Saturday, Sept. 25, the United States commissioners to 
treat with the Indians, having remained one week in Albany, 
set out for Fort Schuyler. The goods intended for the 
treaty left on Tuesday following, and Gren. Lafayette followed 
about the 1st of October. 

Sept. 29. At the close of the polls, the following citizens 
were found to have been elected aldermen and assistants for 
the ensuing year. 

Annals, ii. 25 

290 Notes from the Newspapers. [1784. 

1st ward. Peter W. Yates and Robert McClallen alder- 
men ; Matthew Visscher and John W. Wendell, assistants. 

2d ward. Philip Van Rensselaer, Peter W. Douw, alder- 
men ; Richard Lush, Abraham Cuyler, assistants. 

3d ward. Thomas Hun, John Ten Broeck, aldermen; 
Leonard Gansevoort, Jun., Jellis Winne, assistants. 

Oct. 1. Alexander Smith was committed to the city prison 
for the " wilful murther of his brother, Isaac Smith," on 
the 29th Sept., at Saratoga lake. 

Oct. 7. The Marquis Lafayette returned from Fort Stan- 
wix, and on the following morning, Friday, sat out for 
Boston by the way of Hartford, to embark for France. He 
arrived at Hartford on Monday. There was at this time 
no other mode of crossing the mountain but on horseback. 

Joseph Kelly, currier, lately arrived from Ireland, " opened 
a shop at Capt. John RofFs, near the north gate, and will 
have ready in a few days, good leather, boot legs, and Irish 
Ben, of the best quality." 

Oct. 18. Isaac Arnold and James Stewart returned from 
a trading expedition to Detroit, having lost three of their 
companions, Jacobus Taller, Daniel Barclay and Isaac Van 
Alstyne, who were murdered by four Delaware Indians at a 
landing place on Lake Erie. 

Oct. 27. Samuel Thompson died. 

Nov. 19. An annual fair for vending all kinds of cattle 
was held in the city. 

Nov. 8. The first copy of Webster's Calendar, or the 
Albany Almanac for the year 1785, was ready for sale; 
"containing, besides the usual calculations, many very in- 
genious and entertaining pieces, both in prose and verse." 
This Almanac has been published annually to the present 

Died, at Port Roseway, Nova Scotia, Alexander Robert- 
son, one of the proprietors of the first paper printed in 

Nov. 5. Mrs. Lydia Bloodgood died, aged 22; wife of 
William Bloodgood. 

Nov. 10. Two of the principal hostages of the Six Nations 
arrived from Fort Schuyler, under, passport from the com- 
mander there ; to remain in custody until certain American 
prisoners were delivered up. 

Fac-ftmile of the Title Page of the Firfl Albany Almanac. 

Poor NED's 




Being the THIRD after LEAP-YEAR, 



The Motions of the SUN and MOON; the Rifing and Setting of the 
Sun; the Rifmg and Setting of the Moon; the Eclipfes; Judgment 
of the Weather; Time of High Water, &c. 


The ARTICLES of the TREATY of ALLIANCE between FRANCE and 
thefe UNITED STATES; an HISTORICAL ACCOUNT of the various 
NAMES of the CIVIL OFFICERS in the City and County of AL- 
BANY; with many ANECDOTS, odd SAYINGS, &c. &c. &c. 


" See, fee HeavVs wide Expanfe from Pole to Pole ! 
" Each Land with Verdure cloths ! all Seas that rowl 
" See this vaft Orb of Things with convex weight 
" Thee beck'ning to adorn the fov'reign Seat ! " 


Printed and Sold by BALENTINE 5" WEBSTER. 

1784.] Notes from the Newspapers. 291 

Cornelius & John H. Wendell, opposite the post office, 
near the Market house, imported goods " from London." 
The post office was a few doors above Maiden lane, on the 
east side of Market street, now Broadway. The post office 
at this time is believed to have been kept by Abraham 
Yates, afterwards mayor. 

Cuyler, G-ansevoort & Co. "received by the last vessels 
from London" an assortment of dry goods suitable for the 
season ; and presented besides a catalogue of other goods, 
which, like most of the advertisements of the day, began 
with rum and ended with brass kettles. The stock of an 
Albany merchant was truly multifarious. 

Peter D. Van Dyck dealt in a general assortment of 
goods opposite the south-east corner of the Butch Church. 

Benjamin Wallace had " a neat assortment of West India 
and dry goods at his shop a little north of the English 

James Doig, from Montreal, proposed to open a day and 
evening school, at Mr. John Hooghkerk's corner house, 
opposite to Thomas Barrett, cooper, near the Presbyterian 
Meeting House. This is supposed to have been at the corner 
of Hudson and G-rand streets. 

Wendell & Trotter carried on business principally in tlry 
goods, opposite the south-east corner of the City Hall. 

William Gray dealt in dry goods and a general assortment, 
between the Dutch Church and the Market House, near the 
City Hotel. 

Elbert Willett occupied the house now standing next 
south of the Mansion House, which he sold to Mr David 
Newland, for $11,000. 

Dec. 21. A detachment of troops from Fort Stanwix, under 
Capt. Lane, arrived in the city to remain during the winter, 
bringing with them a number of captives which had been 
liberated according to the terms of the treaty recently con- 
cluded with the Indians. 

Dec. 30. Dr. Alexander Edgar, a surgeon's mate in the 
army, died and was buried in the Presbyterian burial- 

Mr. Paffane, lately arrived from France, carried on " the 
muff and tippett making business, in the neatest manner," 
at the house of Hanse Home, near the north gate. 

292 Notes from the Newspapers. [1785. 

Teunis Ts. Van Vechten advertises Turks Island and 
rock salt, " living near the south-west corner of the Market* 
House." His house was the south-west corner of Broadway 
and Maiden lane. 

John Hinde offered a large invoice of cloths, at the house 
of Mr. Hewson, adjoining the Low Dutch burying ground. 

David Fonda, " next door to Gen. Ten Broek," kept dry 
goods, groceries and liquors for sale. 

John Bogart, next door south of the City Hall, sold mill 

Abraham Eights, next door to Capt. Stewart Dean, in 
Water street, sold Muscovado sugar by the barrel, and had 
" a few excellent English wind-mills, for cleaning wheat/* 

Anthony Helmer, at his store in the house of Harmanus 
Wendell, opposite to Gen. Ten Broek' s, sold groceries, 
German steel, " and a variety of other articles too tedious 
to be mentioned." 

Jacob Vander Heyden, in Pearl street, kept on sale, 
Dutch mill sawa, groceries, and dry goods. 

Abraham Bloodgood did business next to Denniston's 
tavern, probably in the Stone House. 

1785. The health of the city was very remarkable during 
the winter, insomuch that but one burial took place in the 
Dutch Church-yard, from the 9th December to the 10th 
March, and that was of a small child accidentally run over 
by a sleigh. 

March 21. A person was arrested for passing counterfeit 
state treasury notes, and lodged in the City Hall prison, to 
await a trial. 

April 20. Abraham Roseboom, a very respectable citizen, 

April 26. The annual election of two senators and ten 
representatives to the state legislature, for the county of 
Albany, resulted in the following vote. 

For the House of Assembly. 

John Lansing junior, .. 284 

John Tayler, 302 

Henry Glen, 281 

John Livingston, 243 

Peter Vrooman, . . '. 257 

Abraham I.Van Alstyne, 213 

Lawrence Hogeboom,. ., 216 

James Gordon, 305 

JamesVanSchoonhoven, 228 

Isaac Vrooman, 24 

Robert McClallen, 32 

Elbert Willett, 5 

1785.] Notes from the Newspapers. 293 

Abraham Schuyler,.... 1 

John Price, ..." 2 

Richard Lush, 1 

Jacob G. Lansing, 1 

Leonard Bronck, 245 

Matthew Visscher, 146 

Peter W. Yates, 97 

Jacob Ford, 23 

Matthew Adgate, 24 

Jacob C. Schermerhorn, 26 

Israel Thompson, ...... 14 

Abram Backer, 4 

Edmund Wells, 14 

Peter Swart, 1 

William Powers, 1 

Henry I. Van Rensselaer, 1 

Thomas Hun, 2 

Henry Quackenboss, ... 2 

Stephen I. Schuyler, .... 2 

Lucas Van Veghten, ... 1 

For the Senate. 

Philip Schuyler, 170 , Henry Oothout, 16 

Volkert P. Douw, 165 | William B. Whitney, .. 12 

Ivie Chambers, " at his store near the Low Dutch church, 
on the west side of the main street," sold the usual articles 
of a general store, principally liquors. 

The session of the supreme court closed, when Petrus and 
Christian Cooper being convicted of a robbery, and Christian 
Loucks of horse stealing, received sentence of death respect- 
ively. Two others, convicted of felony, were admitted to 
benefit of clergy. One was whipped for petit larceny, and 
two discharged by proclamation. 

May 3. An election of city officers took place, which re- 
sulted in the choice of the following : 

First Ward. Robert McClallen, supervisor ; Peter Yan 
Bergen, Bethuel Washburn, Edward Cumpton, assessors; 
Marte Minderse, overseer of the poor; Abraham T. Yates, 
Thomas Barrett, road masters. 

. Second Ward. Jacob Cuyler, supervisor; Jacob Yan- 
der Heyden, Casparus Pruyn, Richard Lush, assessors ; 
John N. Bleecker, overseer of the poor ; Jacob Bleecker, 
John Marselis, road masters. 

Third Ward. Cornelius Wendell, supervisor; Peter 
Gansevoort, Jun., Abraham A. Lansing, David Fonda, as- 
sessors ; Isaac Yan Arnum, overseer of the poor ; Sanders 
Lansing, Yolkert A. Douw, road masters ; Baltus Yan Ben- 
thuysen, collector for the city. 

Elihu Goodrich and John Ely opened a school "in 
the house occupied by Michael Hollenbake," who had " left 
keeping tavern." They taught Greek and Latin for 40s. 
a quarter ; grammar, arithmetic and writing for 30s. ; read- 
ing and spelling for 20s. The hours of study were from 6 

294 Notes from the Newspapers. [1785. 

to 8, and 9 to 12, in the forenoon; and from 2 to 5, and 6 
to 8, in the afternoon. This to the magisters of our day, 
may appear to have been a pretty thorough drilling of " the 
young idea." 

Alexander Laverty, "tayler from London," took the 
house lately occupied by Henry Hart, in the back apart- 
ment, where he carried on the " tayler's business as cheap 
as any in town," and made payments easy to those who em- 
ployed him. His prices were : for a coat 14s. ; lappelled 
do, 16s. ; lappelled do, with slashed sleeves, 18s. ; vest and 
breeches, 6s. 9d. 

Elisha Crane, opposite the City Hall, sold cyder at 18s. 
a barrel, and took boards, plank, staves, pease and any sort 
of grain in payment. In a nota bene the public is informed 
that money would not be refused. 

June. A company of stage wagon proprietors undertook 
to make the land passage between New York and Albany 
" the most easy and agreeable as well as the most expedi- 
tious," by performing the journey in two days, at 3d. a mile; 
but in the fall, " for the ease of the passengers," the time 
of performing the route was changed to three days, and the 
price raised to 4d. a mile, " agreeably to act of assembly." 

July 12. An ordinance was passed by the common coun- 
cil for the extermination of dogs, all of whom were to be 
killed in two days, under penalty of 8, which was to be 
recovered for the benefit of any person prosecuting. 

Nov. 8. The presbytery of New York ordained John 
McDonald a minister of the gospel, and he was at the same 
time installed pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Albany. 
He was the third pastor of that church, and it was during 
his ministry that the edifice was erected for that congrega- 
tion on the corner of South Pearl and Beaver streets, the 
site of Beaver Block. 

Dee. 13. A company of comedians having leased the 
old hospital, which stood near tne present site of the Lu- 
theran Church, and having fitted it up as a theatre, opened 
with Gross Purposes and Catharine and Petrucliio, between 
which was a dance, La Polonaise, and a Eulogy on Free- 
masonry. Tickets sold at Lewis's tavern, and no money 
taken at the door. Boxes 8s. ; gallery 4s. 

A vigorous effort was made to discontinue these perform- 
ances, by a large and respectable part of community, but 


Notes from the Newspapers. 


the common council determined by a vote of 9 to 4, that 
they had no legal right to prohibit theatrical exhibitions in 
the city. A whole number of the Gazette is taken up with 
the controversy, to the exclusion of every other subject. 

1785. January. By the post office arrangements of this 
year, the New York mail arrived twice a week, Wednesdays 
and Saturdays, at 8 o'clock P.M. ; and two hours after its 
receipt, the down mail was made up and forwarded. 

July 13. The Gazette was enlarged to a sheet 19 inches 
by 23, which we learn was the largest size then printed in 
America. In the same paper 'is announced the first part of 
the Grammatical Institute, abridged, by Noah Webster, price 
6 coppers, this day printed. 

The sloop Experiment, 80 tons burden, was fitted out 
at this port by Oapt. Stewart Dean, and sailed for China. 
(See Annals, i). 

1786. April 4. An act passed the legislature of the state 
of New York, for erecting the south-east part of the county 
of Albany into a new county, by the name of Columbia. 

July 5. The supreme court closed its July session, when 
Caleb Gardner, convicted of passing counterfeit Spanish 
dollars, received sentence of death. Two weeks afterwards, 
the sheriff advertised that the person then under sentence 
of death in the City Hall would be hanged on Friday the 
fifteenth of September ; and that any person willing to 
undertake the execution, was desired to apply to the said 

July 22. The corporation and citizens of Albany cele- 
brated the centennial anniversary of the charter of the city 
(See vol. i, 335). 

The number of houses in Albany at this time was found, 
by actual enumeration, to be 550. A statement of the num- 
ber of houses in the principal cities and towns at this time, 
will serve to show their relative proportions : 

Philadelphia, 4,600 Wilmington, 400 

New York, 3,500 Annapolis, 260 

Boston, 2,100 Fredericktown, 400 

Baltimore, 1,900 Alexandria (Va)., 300 

Charleston (S. C.), 1,540 Richmond, 280 

Albany, 550 Petersburg!!, 290 

New Haven, 400 Williamsburgh, 230 

Hartford, 300 

296 Notes from the Newspapers. 1787.] 

It will be seen that Albany was the sixth in point of 
numbers. The census of Boston was found to be at that 
time 14,640, exclusive of strangers, which gives seven per- 
sons to a house. At this rate Albany would have had 3,850 
inhabitants. To carry out the calculation, Philadelphia 
would have contained 32,200, New York 24,500, Baltimore 
13,300, Charleston 10,780. The number of stranger? might 
have increased the estimate one-eighth. 

1787. Jan. 1. The city authorities fixed the price of 
flour at 18s. per hundred weight and the assize of bread at 
the rate of lib. 12oz. for 4 coppers. In February, the 
assize of bread was lib. 8oz. of superfine flour for 4 coppers, 
and lib. lOoz. common ; flour, 20s. per cwt. 

The population of the state at this time was 220,000 
whites, 18,889 slaves, and 12 Indians who paid taxes. In 
1756, the whole population was 83,233 ; in 1771, 148,124. 

A nail manufactory was established in " Orange street, 
near the High Dutch Church," by Garret Witbeck, who 
manufactured 8s. and 10s. at Is. per lb., and 20s. and 24s. at 
llrf. per lb. He claimed that they were fully equal in good- 
ness to any imported, and hinted at the great importance of 
encouraging such an establishment in this country. The 
forging of nails, notwithstanding their prodigious consump- 
tion in this country, wae, until 1810, a handicraft trade : 
the machinery by which they are now produced is an Ame- 
rican invention. In the same year, Stevenson, Douw & Ten 
Eyck erected a similar establishment. 

A correspondent of a New York paper, Dec., 1785, observed 
that the infatuation which possessed many of the people 
of this state for theatrical exhibitions was truly alarming. 
That, strange to tell, the honest, sober Dutchmen of Albany, 
who were once distinguished by industry and a laudable 
parsimony, were now plunging into that very species of 
luxury and folly, which stamps upon the metropolis an 
indelible stigma. That it was still more observable and 
wonderful to relate that even the fathers of that ancient 
city had sanctioned the establishment of a public theatre, 
by granting their permission to players. That in justice to 
the magistrates of New York, it was necessary to say, that 
though it was not in their power to prohibit, they had never 
extended their authority so far. as to license the opening of 

1788.] Notes from the Newspapers. 297 

the theatre ; and if common fame could be credited, none 
of them had countenanced the comedians by attending their 

April 22. The sloop Experiment, Capt. Dean, returned 
from a -voyage to China, without the loss of a man during 
the voyage. (See Annals, I, 261, 2d edition). 

June 28. A regiment of militia was organized in the east- 
ern part of the manor of Rensselaerswyck, under the com- 
mand of Lieut. Col. John Van Rensselaer. The officers 
took the oath of allegiance and office before Matthew Viss- 
cher. clerk of the county of Albany : after which the regi- 
ment was formed, and the militia law and the officers' 
commissions were read by Adjutant Henry. At the same 
time two companies of light infantry were formed, the 
volunteers being so numerous as nearly to fill them in a 
short time. The uniform of these companies is thus 
described : The commissioned officers, dark blue coats, faced 
with white, and white under clothes ; non-commissioned 
officers and privates, a white linen hunting-shirt and overalls, 
a round hat three inches in the brim, bound with white 
tape, and covered with a piece of bearskin four inches wide 
over the crown ; a good musket, bayonet and cartouch box, 
twenty-four cartridges suitable to the bore of the musket, 
two spare flints, one knapsack and blanket. . 

Rev. John Bassett was ordained pastor of the Dutch Re- 
formed Church, collegiate with the Rev. Dr. Eilardus West- 

August. The trustees of the Lutheran Church, recently 
erected, acknowledged the receipt of donations to the amount 
of 552 12s. 2d. more than 214 of which was obtained in 
Albany and its vicinity. The total cost of the building was 
640. (See vol. i, p. 154, 2d ed.). 

1788. January, Leonard de Neufville l Jan Heefke and 
Ferdinand Walf'ahrt, proprietors of the Dowesbourgh Glass 
manufactory, ten miles from Albany, appeal to the patriot- 
ism of the state of New York to sustain their establishment. 
They say the state is annually drained of 30,000 for this 
necessary article which they can manufacture of any size 
superior to the English glass. 

3 See Annals, x, 219. 

298 Notes from the Newspapers. [1788. 

The delegates nominated by the two parties for the con- 
vention to decide on the federal constitution, were the fol- 
lowing : Abraham Ten Broeck, Jacob Cuyler, Francis Nicoll, 
Jeronemus Hoogland, Peter Gansevoort junior, James Gor- 
don, John W. Schermerhoorn, Federal; Robert Yates. John 
Lansing junior, Henry Oothoudt, Peter Vrooman, Israel 
Thompson, Anthony Ten Eyck, Dirk Swart, Anti-federal. 

Jan. 26. Charles R. and George Webster and Co., pub- 
lished a quarto paper, called the Albany Journal, or Mont- 
gomery, Washington, and Columbia Intelligencer, which was 
published twice a week during the session of the legisla- 

Feb. 11. Claxton and Babcock, lately from Lansingburgh, 
published The Federal Herald. They returned to Lansing- 
burgh the same year. 

March 11. A law was passed by the legislature, authoriz- 
ing the corporation to raise 2000 for the construction of a 
new jail (the old one being found inadequate to the safe 
custody of prisoners), and repairing the court-house. Clin- 
ton county was taken from Albany county at this session of 
the legislature. 

May 27. The election of members of assembly terminated 
in the success of the anti-federal party, and seem? to have 
been the first party struggle growing out of the dissension 
on the question of the constitution. The vote of the two 
parties in the county of Albany, as canvassed on this day by 
the supervisors, stood as follows. John Younglove seems 
to have had the votes of both parties. 


Stephen VanRenselaer, . 1953 

Leonard Gansevoort, 1888 

Richard Sill 1877 

HezekialiVanOrden, 1871 

John Knickerbacker,... 1868 
Isaac Vrooman, 1851 

John Lansing, 3048 

Jeremiah VanRensselaer, 3042 

JohnDuncan, 2990 

Cornells Vandyck. 3033 

John Thompson, 3006 

Henry K.VanRensselaer, 2911 
John Younglove, 4807 

The Albany Register was begun this year, by Robert 

The impolicy of imprisonment for debt is aptly illustrated 
in the following case, where a rich and popular citizen 
incarcerates a humble artisan for his inability to liquidate 

1788.] Notes from the Newspapers. 

his rent, who thereby becomes a charge upon the county, 
and a defaulter to all the rest of his creditors. 

" Whereas the subscriber (a master of shoemaking) is now 
confined in the City Hall, upper loft, for twenty pounds 
back rent which he is owing Gen. Schuyler ; and as he is 
desirous of working for his living, and not to be chargeable 
to the good people of this city, he therefore humbly requests 
such of the citizens and others as are desirous of having 
well made shoes on the most reasonable terms, to favor him 
with their custom, and they may depend on being served on 
the shortest notice, and every favor shall be thankfully ac- 
knowledged by the public's humble hervant, THADDEUS 

Aug. 8. The city of Albany, not to be behind her sister 
cities, set apart a day for public rejoicings, to celebrate the 
ratification of the constitution of the United States by the 
convention of the state of New York. Every trade and 
profession seems to have united in the jubilee, with appro- 
priate emblems, and formed a truly imposing procession 
under the conduct of Gen. Schuyler. (See vol. I, 380). 

November. The citizens were entertained with the extra- 
ordinary sight of an ''uncommon bird," killed at Saratoga, 
and sent down as a rarity. " The distance from the tip of 
one wing to the other, when both were extended, was nine 
feet two inches ; the mouth was large enough to contain the 
head of a boy ten years of age, and the throat so capacious 
as to admit the foot and leg of a man, boot and all." No 
one could decide what species the stranger belonged to, till 
the counsel of Dr. Mitchell of New York being called in, it 
was decided to be a pelican ; perhaps the only one that ever 
extended his discoveries to this region. 

Peter Van Deusen and Jacob Van de Bilt established 
for the convenience of the citizens, a soap and candle fac- 
tory, which useful branch of business, they say in their 
advertisement, had been long wanted in the city. To induce 
the citizens to encourage these domestic manufactures, they 
offer their articles at New York prices, thus making a 
saving of freight and cartage; and further to promote 
economy, manufactured for those who provided their own 
tallow, at 2 pence per pound, and furnish the cotton wick 


Notes from the Newspapers. 


1789. Jan. 1. The thermometer at noon indicated 18 
above zero ; and on the following morning, at six o'clock, 
it was 24 below, being six degrees colder than it had ever 
been known in the city. 

Jan. 5. The freeholders of Vanderliey den's or Ashley's 
Ferry, situate on the east bank of the Hudson river, about 
seven miles above Albany, met for the purpose of establish- 
ing a name for the place; when, by a majority of voices, it 
was confirmed that in future it should be called and known 
by the name of Troy. From its important state, and na- 
tural advantages, it was anticipated "at no very distant 
period to see Troy as famous for her trade and navigation 
as many of our first towns." The journals of the legis- 
lature for the session of 1789 were printed by S. and J. 
Loudon, at the house of Mr. Thomas McMurry, in Barrack 
(now Chapel) street, they being printers to the state. 

May. The Albany Gazette, on entering upon its sixth 
volume, began to be published twice a week The fol- 
lowing is given in the Register, as a particular statement of 
the votes of the several towns in Albany county for go- 
vernor. The election was opened on the 28th April, for 
governor, lieutenant governor, senators and assemblymen. 


G. Clinton. Yates. 

Hoosick, 34 33 

Saratoga, 14 67 

Steventown, 21 173 

Ballstown, 168 76 

Katskill, 39 33 

Watervliet, 50 294 

Schenectady, 71 132 

Schoharie, 129 30 

Duanesburgh, ... 14 9 


Stillwater, 76 

Cambridge, 100 

Albany (3 wards), 55 

Rensselaerwyck, . 23 

Schaghticoke, ... 7 

Halfmoon, 73 

Cexsackie, 40 

Pittstown, 56 

Eastown, 30 

G. Clinton. Yates. 

1000 1577 

The returns were very imperfectly given by the papers, the 
adjoining counties being seldom reported, and never accu- 
rately. The polls were closed in the city, we are told in 
the middle of the week ; but in the east and west districts 
of the manor of Rensselaerwyck, ballots continued to be 
received until Saturday afternoon. The election of Go- 
vernor Clinton was carried by the heavy majority from 
Ulster county, which gave him 1039 out of 1145. 

1789.] Notes from the Newspapers. 301 

July 6. The legislature met at Albany. The message 
of Gov. Clinton, at the opening of the session, occupied 
thirty-two lines in the newspapers. 

On the first of June, the thermometer stood at 40 ; on 
the 30th, at 80 ; on the 14th July, at 56 ; on the 24th, at 
84 ; on the 12th August, at 80 ; on the 30th, at 47 ; these 
being the highest and lowest ranges for those months. 

At the July term of the supreme court, held in Albany, 
Elihu Smeeds of Pittstown in the county of Albany, in- 
dicted for the murder of Ezekiel Mitchell, and convicted of 
manslaughter, was adjudged to receive thirty-nine lashes, 
at the public whipping post, and be imprisoned three ca- 
lendar months. Six ethers, convicted of stealing, were 
condemned to receive thirty-nine lashes each ; while about 
the same time, Francis Uss, convicted of breaking open and 
robbing a store in Poughkeepsie, was publicly hanged. 

There was a scarcity of breadstuffs this year, through- 
out the country, and complaints were made of monopo- 
lizers. Flour sold at New Orleans for twelve dollars a 
barrel. Complaints were frequent of the scarcity of pro- 
visions in the western part of the state, on account of the 
flood of immigrants. In the vicinity of Niagara, it was 
difficult to subsist'the new comers. A letter from "Cooper's 
Town, Otsego Lake," May 7, says: "The vast multitude of 
people that come daily to this country have caused a scarcity 
of provisions almost to a famine. In the Genesee it is quite 
so. Corn will bring ten. shillings in cash, and six shillings 
at Albany; and it is said potatoes at Niagara are twenty 
shillings. However alarming this may be, it proceeds from 
no other cause than that of an innumerable quantity of 
people flocking in. I have had thirty in a day seeking land 
of me." 

Nov. 3. A snowstorm commenced at ten in the morning, 
and continued during the day; and the weather was re- 
markably cold, having every appearance of winter : a cir- 
cumstance not before recollected by any of the inhabitants 
at so early a period. 

The amount of receipts and disbursements of the city of 
Albany for the first six years succeeding the revolution, 
was as follows : 

Annals, ii. 26 

302 Notes from the Newspapers. [1790. 

Received. Disbursed. 

1783-4 625 7s. 5c? 589 11s. 3d. 

1784-5 277 6 1 334 13 9 

1785-6 476 17 8 482 6 2 

1786-7 2392 10 10 2465 10 2 

1787-8 1421 5 11 1348 14 4 

1788-9 547 7 9 443 10 11 

1790. January. It was deemed " indispensably necessary " 
by Mr. Cornelius J. Wynkoop, that there should be in the 
city "an auctioneer and vendue master for dry goods, 
household furniture, &c." Whereupon he opened at No. 8 

Market street, "a licensed auction office." De Hart & 

Kinney received the postage for carrying the mail between 
New York and Albany. 

Feb. 1. The legislature granted Ananias Platt the exclu- 
sive right of running a stage between Albany and Lansing- 

April 2. The legislature passed an act for the improve- 
ment of the navigation of the overslaugh, by allowing the 
proprietors of Mills and Papskni islands to erect a dam to 
prevent the passage of the water between them, and throw 
it into the main channel. This, it was thought, would more 
effectually benefit the navigation, than the employment of 
" an unwieldy machine, which at best only affords a tempo- 
rary relief." 

The prisoners confined for debt in the city hall, which 
was the jail, celebrated the 5th July (the 4th being Sun- 
day). There was an allusion to the fifteenth year of Ame- 
rican independence, and their confinement for debt. Their 
fifth toast was : May the time come when no honest man 
shall be confined for debt." The time did arrive, in less 
than half a century,- when dishonest men even were seldom 
confined for debt. 

October. The mail stage between Albany and New York, 
which seems to have been suspended, was announced to 

commence running twice a week as formerly The synod 

of New York and New Jersey erected a new presbytery in 
the northern part of this state, under the name of The Pres- 
bytery of Albany ; to which they committed the care of all 
the congregations in this state in connection with them, 

1790.] Notes from the Newspapers*. 803 

wliicli lie north of the Catskill mountains on the west side, 
and of the southern boundary of Columbia county on the 
east side of Hudson's river. It was appointed to meet for 
the first time on the ninth November, in the city of Albany ; 
and to be opened with a sermon by Rev. William Schenck, 
the senior pastor. In the absence of Mr. Schenck, Rev. John 
Warford of Salem preached from Luke xiv, 23. Rev. John 

McDonald of Albany was appointed stated clerk There 

were but two mails which reached the city of Albany at this 
time ; one from New York, and the other from Springfield, 

Mass. (See vol. i, p. 56) The revenue of the city for six 

months preceding the twelfth October, was 918 16s. 10^.; 
the expenditures, 728 9s. 7c?. Among the expenditures is 
an item of 3 10s. paid constables for patrolling the streets 
on Sundays. 24 2s. 4(7. was received of P. S. Van Rens- 
selaer, for ground in Barrack (Berg, 1 now Chapel) street. 

December. The state of the weather is thus given for a 
part of this month : 

8th. Thermometer indicated 4 degrees below 0. 9th. 10 
deg. below ; the barometer higher than had been observed 
in four years, and the weather colder for the season than 
had ever been known in the city. 17th. 2 below 0. 18th. 
8 below 0. 19. 16 below 0. 20th. 20 above 0. 22d. 
0. 28th. 4 below 0. 30th. 3 below 0. 31st. 8 below 
0. Jan. 2d. 10 below 0. 

1 This being the most westerly and highest street, was called 
Berg street, that is hill street, which in time came to be written 
by the English, Barrack street, from the Dutch pronunciation bar- 
rg, as though it were two syllables. Thus the Helderberg, was 
pronounced Helder-bar~rag, and is often written by unlettered Ame- 
ricans, Hattebarrack. 


Lancasterian School. 


In the year 1810, the common council had under con- 
sideration the project of establishing a free school, on the 
plan of Joseph Lancaster. As yet there were no public 
schools in the city. The Mechanics' Society had, a number 
of years previous, erected a building on the corner of Chapel 
and Columbia streets, and maintained a school, which was 
not altogether confined in its privileges to the children of 
its own members. On the 26th May, 1812, the legislature 
passed a law incorporating the Albany Lancasterian School 
Society, which had then been some time in operation. The 
petition stated that Philip S. Van Rensselaer, John Lansing 
junior, Simeon De Witt, and others, had associated them- 
selves for the laudable purpose of establishing a school in 
the city of Albany, for the diffusion of common education } 
and presented a petition to the legislature, setting forth the 
benefits that would result to society from such an institution, 
by implanting in the minds of children the principles of 

Lancasterian School. 305 

religion and morality, and by assisting their parents in pro- 
viding suitable situations for them, where habits of industry 
and virtue may be acquired ; and that it would enable them 
more effectually to accomplish the benevolent objects of 
their institution, if their association was incorporated. The 
trustees named in the law to serve the first year, were Philip 
S. Van Rensselaer, Simeon De Witt, Stephen Van Rensselaer, 
Elisha Jenkins, Archibald M'Intyre, John M. Bradford, 
William Neill, Timothy Clowes, John Mac Jimpsey, John 
Lansing junior, James Kent, John V. Henry and Charles 
R. Webster. The members of the common council were 
made members of the society by virtue of their office ; and 
any person contributing twenty-five dollars to its benefit, was 
entitled to send one child to be educated gratuitously. The 
school was conducted in the upper part of the building of 
the Mechanics' Society, until the completion of the school- 
house on Eagle street in 1817. Mr. William A. Tweed 
Dale was appointed preceptor. His report of the business 
of the year 1814, was as follows : 

Salary of the teacher, $700.00 

Rent of school room, 82 . 50 

Fitting up Pettibone stoves, and ventilating, . . 91 . 00 
Incidental expenses, 331 .03 

The income of the society arose from the following sources : 

Allowance by the corporation out of the excise receipts, $500 . 00 

School fund appropriation, 487.66 

Tuition fees from scholars, 400 . 00 


The number of scholars instructed during the year was 
400, half of whom were new pupils, or such as had not pre- 
viously attended the school. 

On Monday, April 5, 1817, the ceremony took place of 
opening the new school house, the building now occupied 
by the Medical College and Law School, of which the 
woodcut on the preceding page is a correct representation, 
the wing having been added since the school was abandoned. 
The house was built by order of the common council, at an 

306 Lancasteritm School. 

expense of $23,918.93. It was capable of accommodating 
450 children, and a large infant school ; and afforded a resi- 
dence for the principal. A procession, consisting of the 
trustees, principal, and four hundred scholars, formed at 
the house of the president of the society, Philip S. Van 
Rensselaer, corner of State and Chapel streets, and moved 
to the Capitol, where it was met by the governor of the 
state, mayor and recorder of the city, and the clergy and 
citizens ; whence it moved to the school house. There the 
exercises consisted of a prayer by Rev. Mr. Bradford, an 
address by Dr. T. R. Beck, and prayer and benediction by 
Rev. Mr. De Witt. From the address we learn that during 
the six years the school had been in operation, 1149 scho- 
lars had been educated in it. The institution was designed 
to gather in the poor and neglected children of the city, 
who were growing up in idleness and ignorance. Of the 
thousands who were educated within its walls, many doubt- 
less owe a life of happiness and prosperity, in some instances 
of eminence, to the teachings there imparted. It continued 
in operation until about 1834, when it was abandoned. Mr. 
Tweed Dale, who superintended the school from its founda- 
tion till that time, a period of about twenty-three years, was 
now advanced in life. He was, before his arrival in this 
country, a pupil of both Dr. Bell and Mr. Lancaster, the 
rival claimants of the honor of having established the system. 
Incalculable benefits were rendered to the children of the 
poor in England and America, by the establishment of simi- 
lar institutions, at a time when education was mostly con- 
fined to the higher classes. 

This institution was superseded by the schools which 
went into operation in every part of the city, under the 
common school system of the state. The edifice was vacant 
for several years, when it was appropriated to the use of a 
medical college, of which an account is given in Collections 
Hist. Albany, n, 219. 

In 1818, Mr. Lancaster visited Albany on his tour in the 
United States ; the trustees of the Lancaster school pre- 
sented him with the following address : 

" Sir : The trustees of the Albany Lancaster school so- 
ciety, avail themselves of your unexpected appearance in 
this quarter of the world, to show you a young scion from 

Ancient Funeral Custom. 307 

that tree which you have planted, which is rapidly spreading 
its branches over every region, and imparting its blessed 
fruit to every nation. You, sir, have devised, matured, and 
brought into universal practice, a system of education, by 
which the knowledge of letters, science, morality and reli- 
gion, can with comparatively little effort and expense be 
communicated to millions of juvenile minds, who by the 
ordinary established means of education would not have 
become partakers of its invaluable benefits. Accept, sir, 
this tribute of our respect, which we tender to you as one 
of those rare benefactors of mankind, whose services merit 
such peculiar public acknowledgments as cannot be with- 
held without incurring the justly deserved imputation of 
public ingratitude. 


" President." 


The following is copied from a memoir read by Judge 
Benson before the New York Historical Society in 1816 : 

A family in Albany, and from the earliest time, of the 
name of Wyngaard. The last in the male line, Lucas 
Wyngaard, died about sixty years ago, never married, and 
leaving estate : the invitation to his funeral very general. 
Those who attended, returned after the interment, as was 
the usage, to the house of the deceased at the close of the 
one day, and a number never left it until the dawn of the 
next. In the course of the night a pipe of wine, stored in 
the cellar for some years before for the occasion, drank; 
dozens of pampers of tobacco consumed; grosses of pipes 
broken; scarce a whole decanter or glass left; and, to 
crown it all, the pall-bearers made a bonfire of their scarves 
on the hearth bordering on barbarism ! not to be denied. 
We are more temperate, wholly free from excess and riot 

308 The Dutch Language. 


Since the memorable era of Col. Dongan's administration, 
the descendants of the ancient families which peopled the 
manor of Rensselaerwyck and the city of Albany have not 
only suffered the decadence of the institutions and language 
of their fathers, but have, generally, sought to unlearn and 
forget every thing that was Dutch ; and thus virtually con- 
tributed, in no small degree, to render their paternity a bye- 
word. The ancient language of the city has been so wholly 
neglected, that, although spoken in some families, we know 
of no scion of the ancient stock who thinks it worth his 
while to cultivate it for literary purposes. Hence an im- 
pression prevails of the general stupidity of the people and 
the meagreness of the language. Nor is this impression in 
regard to the Dutch, notwithstanding the respectable figure 
they have made in the world for several centuries, confined 
to this country. It is not a little remarkable, says a British 
writer, that of a people whose national character runs in 
many respects parallel with ours ; who have been animated 
by a similar spirit of industry, commercial enterprise and 
maritime ardor, even the language should be hardly at all 
known in this country, notwithstanding the study of it is 
calculated to throw so much light upon our own, which has 
not only the same common origin, but has immediately 
borrowed a great number of words and expressions from it. 
So far from meriting that contempt with which the insolence 
of ignorance has branded them, there are few nations which 
have contributed more towards the civilization of Europe, 
and to learning and science, than the people of the Nether- 
lands. The country that has produced an Erasmus and a 
Grrotius, a Swammerdam, a Leeuwenhoek, and a Boerhaave; 
that has done so much for the physical sciences, for medi- 
cine, jurisprudence, philology, classical and oriental litera- 
ture ; that can boast of such writers as a Yondel and a 
Bilderdijk ; that has done so much for the cultivation of its 
language ; that possesses so many literary societies and in- 
stitutes, together with others for the encouragement of the 

The Dutch language. 309 

fine arts, ought not to be stigmatized as one inhabited by a 
dull, plodding race of merchants. 

One circumstance, which, if it has served to diffuse over 
Europe the labors of its learned men, has also merged their 
celebrity in that of continental literature generally, has been 
the practice of employing Latin ; a circumstance which has 
rendered an acquaintance with the Dutch language unneces- 
sary for the purpose of profitting by their studies or disco- 
veries. Most probably, too, the universal celebrity of the 
Dutch scholars throughout the learned world has in no 
small degree tended to divert attention from, and excite a 
prejudice against the vernacular language and literature, as 
being rude and uncultivated, and unfitted for any nobler 
purpose than that of carrying on the intercourse of daily 
life. Yet so very far is this from being the case, that there 
is scarcely any modern tongue which either contains within 
itself more plastic elements, or which has been more care- 
fully wrought up and polished ; nor have any people paid 
greater attention to purity of style and elegance of diction, 
than the writers of Holland of late years. It can not be 
said that the difficulty of acquiring it has deterred us from 
attempting to form any acquaintance -with the literature of 
this country ; because, of all foreign idioms, it is that which 
bears the strongest family resemblance to our own ; so much 
so, that flippant and ignorant travelers have sometimes 
described it as a sort of bastard English ; which is just as 
correct as it would be for a Hollander to call English a bas- 
tard jargon of Dutch. Those who decide that the language 
in which Yondel wrote is a barbarous one, would be capable 
of pronouncing with equal effrontery that the language em- 
ployed by Milton is altogether rude and unpolished. It 
certainly has its defects, but they are those of our own lan- 
guage, which sounds equally harsh to European ears, and is 
condemned as being clogged with consonants and abounding 
with monosyllables. At the same time it possesses far 
greater homogeneousness, and, like the German, the power 
of combining out of its own elements and roots, that class of 
words which we borrow immediately from the Latin and the 
Greek ; for instance, onnavolgbare, inimitable ', vereeningen, 
to unite; veelomvattende, comprehensive, &c. : whereas we 

310 The Dutch Language. 

have only a very few of the kind, such as unchangeable, 
wherein the Saxon root is employed. 

It is not pretended that the literature of the Dutch lan- 
guage contains so much to reward the student as that of 
Germany, but it certainly contains a very great deal, and 
much too that is equally or even more worthy of finding 
translators in this country than many of the productions 
which have come from Germany. There is a current of 
sound and healthy feeling in the literature of Holland ; a 
devotional fervor, and a regard for the hallowing influences 
of domestic life; a beautiful simplicity; together with a 
nobleness and independence, pervading many of the poetical 
productions of that country. 

But lest we should be thought to depart from our pro- 
vince in extending this subject here, we will conclude by 
referring to the Encyclopedia Americana, its article on the 
language, literature and poetry of the Netherlands, in the 
hope that it may have the effect to inspire more favorable 
opinions on this subject even among those who ought more 
highly to reverence the language and literature of their 

Dutch Names for Albany and Vicinity. 311 


Albany was known by the several Dutch names of Bever- 
wyck, Wittemstadt, and Fort Orange, chiefly by the last. 1 
It was also known as the Fuyck, or hoop-net; and a kil is 
mentioned as there, and known as the Fuyck kil, changed 
to Rutten kil, an abbreviation of Rutgert's kil; Rutgert 
Bleecker, 2 a proprietor of the ground adjacent to it, the 
third creek from the Norman's kil inclusive. The creek 
known as Vyde kil, the fifth creek, the creek at Water vliet, 
literally at the time water flood, the word vliet since rarely 
in use ; the seat of the family of Van Rensselaer. The 
lands immediately opposite to Albany, and for a distance 
along and from the river, the Dutch denoted as Het Greene 
Bosch, the pine woods, corrupted to Greenbush. The mouths 
of the Mohock they distinguished as the Spruytes, corrupted 
to, and which may also possibly pass for a translation, the 
Sprouts. The larger island formed by the Sprouts, they 
called Walvisch island, whale island. "I cannot forbear/' 
says Van Der Donck, " to mention, that in the year 1647, in 
the month of March, when, by a great freshet, the water 
was .fresh almost to the great bay, there were two whales, of 
tolerable size, up the river; the one turned back, but the 
other stranded, and stuck nor far from the great fall of the 
Cohoes." The arable land immediately above, they denoted 
as the Halve Maan, the half moon, from its crescent-like 
form along the hills on the western side. Judge Benson. 

1 .Fort Orange having been taken possession of by the govern- 
ment, and being often inundated, the settlement was removed far- 
ther north, to State street and vicinity, and called Beverwyk. 'M. 

2 This must be erroneous. In the records it is called Rattes kil, 
which shows that rutten is synonymous with ratten. No part of 
the city is so infested with rats to this day. This creek was called^ 
Kutten kil long before Rutgert Bleecker's day. M. 

312 Origin of Yankee Doodle. 


It is known as a matter of history, that in the early part 
of 1755, great exertions were made by the British ministry, 
at the head of which was the illustrious Earl of Chatham, 
for the reduction of the French power in the provinces of 
the Canadas. To carry the object into effect, General Am- 
herst, referred to in the letters of Junius, was appointed to 
the command of the British army in north-western America : 
and the British colonies in America were called upon for 
assistance, who contributed with alacrity their several 
quotas of men, to effect the grand object of the enterprise. 
It was still fresh in the memory of some of our oldest in- 
habitants sixty years ago, that the British army lay en- 
camped, in the summer of 1755, on the eastern bank of the 
Hudson, a little south of the city of Albany, on the ground 
now belonging to Jeremiah Van Rensselaer. Vestiges of 
their encampment remained for a long time ; and after a 
lapse of sixty years, when a great proportion of the actors of 
those days had passed away from the earth, the inquisitive 
traveler could observe the remains of the ashes, the places 
where they boiled their camp kettles. It was this army 
that, under the command of Abercrombie, was foiled with a 
severe loss in the attack on Ticonderoga, where the distin- 
guished Howe fell at the head of his troops, in an hour that 
history has consecrated to fame. In the early part of June, 
the eastern troops began to pour in company after company ; 
and such a motley assemblage of men never before thronged 
together on such an occasion, unless an example may be 
found in the ragged regiment of Sir John Falstaff, of right 
merry and facetious memory. It would have relaxed the 
gravity of an anchorite, to have seen the descendants of the 
puritans marching through the streets of our ancient city, 
to take their station on the left of the British army : some 
with long coats, some with short coats, and others with no 
coats at all, in colors as varied as the rainbow ; some with 
their hair cropped like the army of Cromwell, and others with 
wigs whose curls flowed around their shoulders. Their march, 

Origin of Yankee Doodle. 313 

their accoutrements, and the whole arrangement of the troops 
furnished matter of amusement to the wits of the British 
army. The music played the airs of two centuries ago, and 
the tout ensemble exhibited a sight to the wondering strang- 
ers that they had been unaccustomed to in their own land. 1 
Among the club of wits that belonged to the British army, 
there was a physician attached to the staff by the name of 
Doctor Shackburg, who combined with the science of a sur- 
geon, the skill and talents of a musician. To tease brother 
Jonathan, he composed a tune, and with much gravity re- 
commended it to the officers as one of the most celebrated 
airs of martial music. The joke took, to the no small 
amusement of the British corps. Brother Jonathan ex- 
claimed it was nation fine ; and in a few days, nothing was 
heard in the provincial camp but the air of Yankee Doodle. 
Little did the author or his coadjutors then suppose, that an 
air made for the purpose of levity and ridicule, should ever 
be marked for such high destinies : in twenty years from 
that time, our national march inspired the hearts of the 
heroes of Bunker Hill ; and in less than thirty, Lord Corn- 
wallis and his army marched into the American lines to the 
tune of Yankee Doodle. 

1 The appearance of the Massachusetts and Connecticut troops 
that marched through this city on their way to Saratoga, in the 
year 1777, was long a source of merriment among the Dutch burg- 
ers of Albany. Not only were many of them mere boys, but their 
dress and accoutrements were of the most heterogeneous descrip- 
tion. On being asked where they were going, the universal 
response was : " Going to take Burgoyne." But their arms and 
habiliments answered to the British description of the forces that, 
notwithstanding their uncouth and undisciplined appearance, made 
an indelible mark at Bunker hill. 

See the Yankees leave the hill 

With baggernets declining, 
With lop-down hats and rusty guns, 

And leather aprons shining. 

Annals, ii. 27 

314 Salmon in the Hudson Ewer. 


The historian of the first voyage of Europeans upon our 
river, speaks of the abundance of fish they met with, among 
which were "great store of salmons." There are also tradi- 
tions, if nothing more reliable, that the creeks of Albany 
abounded with these fishes, particularly the Foxes creek, 
now become a mere sewer. Dr. Mitchell, nevertheless, 
wrote a learned paper in the Philosophical Transactions, and 
a letter of his is contained in the Collections of the New 
York Historical Society, (vol. I, 41), in which he labors to 
show that the Hudson river has never been a favorite resort 
for salmon. His letter is as follows : 

Concerning the frequency of salmon in the river Caho- 
hatatea or Mahaganeghtuc, when first visited by the naviga- 
tor Hudson, I have my doubts as to its correctness. That 
fish has, indeed, been taken in this river, and even in the 
vicinity of Albany. But this is a rare occurrence ; and the 
individuals of this kind that have been caught are solitary, 
and not the gregarious salmons swimming in shoals. I have 
conversed with several persons here, who have seen a few 
of these lonesome and straggling fishes, from time to time, 
as they have been brought to market. 

I can not learn that there is any record or tradition of 
their having ever frequented our river, after the manner of 
the Connecticut, the Kennebeck,and the other streams on this 
continent. Salmon love clear and limpid water, as do all 
the species of the trout family, to which they belong ; and 
I should question much whether the ooze and mud of the 
Cahohatatea was so agreeable to them, as the sandy bottoms 
of the more precipitous and rapid rivers. Besides, you well 

Salmon in the Hudson River. 315 

know, that our river is but an estuary as far as the outlet 
of the Mohock; and the strata of schistic rocks which 
cross it above the junction of that river, are generally more 
shallow, than, perhaps, the salmon would like. And, fur- 
ther, the Dutch word salm or salmpie, commonly in use to 
signify salmon, means also, in ordinary and loose conversa- 
tion and composition, trout. 

There are, still, other considerations unfavorable to the 
abundance of salmon in our" river. They are those which 
relate to the herring, the shad, and the sturgeon, the 
annual visitants of this stream, at Albany and higher. 
Whatever may be the opinion of speculative men, as to the 
governing principle of these creatures, whether it be instinct 
or reason, the fact nevertheless is, that they select very pro- 
per places to deposit their spawn, and perpetuate their race. 
In our river, these three species of fish had each an appro- 
priate place for the great work of multiplication. 

The grand rendezvous of the herrings, was the Saratoga 
lake ; into which they entered by its outlet, yet called Fish 
creek. The obstruction of this passage by dams and artifi- 
cial impediments, has turned the herrings from their favorite 
haunt. The inhabitants of the neighboring region have 
thereby been deprived of their yearly treat of herrings. 
But, more than this, the herrings thus dispossessed and dis- 
couraged, have become more rare in the river, and are 
deserting it in proportion to the want of accommodation it 
affords them. It is reported, that the course of the herrings 
was more especially on the west side of the river. 

The shad traveled along the eastern shore. Their chief 
place of resort was the basin at the foot of Fort Edward 

No particular path in the river was selected by the stur- 
geons. They seem to have swam at large, as they do at pre- 
sent. But they assembled for the propagation of their kind 
at the bottom of the Cahoes, or great falls of the Mohock. 
The roes or eggs of the sturgeon, are exceedingly numerous, 
amounting to a large mass of spawn. You recollect that 
the Russian cavear is made of them. Other fishes are fond 
of feeding on them : they eat it with remarkable voracity. 
It is one of the most alluring baits that anglers can use. 
The abundance of this requisite food at the breeding season, 

316 Castle Island. 

is supposed to be a principal inducement for the basse or 
rockjish, to follow the sturgeons to their place of deposit. 
The disturbance the sturgeons have experienced in the pro- 
gress of settlement, has diminished their numbers exceed- 
ingly; and the basse has become proportionally rare. 

Now, with all this information relative to the several sorts 
of fish, that have frequented the Hudson, since the posses- 
sion of its banks by European emigrants, there are no regular 
notices of salmon. Neither a swimming-course, nor a breed- 
ing-place has been detected. It is therefore a fair presump- 
tion, that these fishes never found within its waters sufficient 
inducement to visit them in great numbers, or at regular 
times, and that those which have been taken are merely 
strays and wanderers. Dr. Mitchell, in Coll. N. Y. Hist. 
Soc., I, 41. 


A few were selected from the crews of the Dutch ships 
which sailed up the river the following year after the dis- 
covery of it, to remain here a winter over. They erected 
an habitation on the point of the island, the southern limit 
of the city of Albany, and enclosed it with palisadoes as a 
defence against the Indians, and it was known as the Kasteel, 
the castle. Stuyvesant, in his correspondence with the go- 
vernment of the Massachusetts Bay, mentions the island as 
still known by the name of Kasteel island. 
* Beeren island l and the Overslagh still retain their Dutch 
names. The Dutch navigators speak of the river Gambia, 
on the east of Africa, as having an * overslagh, a bar, at its 
mouth. Judge Bensen. 

1 Now often erroneously written Barren island, because so pro- 
nounced. It signifies Bear's island. Overslagh (overgeslagen) so 
called as the place struck upon by vessels going on the river. M. 

Indian Names 'of Albany and Vicinity. 317 


Hudson did not give his own name to the river which he 
discovered. The Iroquois Indians called it Cahohdtatta, 
The Mahiccans, Mahakaneghtuc, and sometimes Shatemucfc. 
Hudson styled it, emphatically, the Great River or the 
Great River of the Mountains,* no doubt from the extraor- 
dinary circumstance of such a body of water flowing through 
the mountains without a cataract. The name of its discoverer, 
however, was early attached to it. I find it familiarly called 
Hudson's** river in some of the public documents of the 
Dutch colonial government ; but more frequently the North 
river, to distinguish it from the Delaware, which was dis- 
covered by the same navigator, and which, being within 
the territory claimed by the Dutch, was called by them the 
South River* Dr. Miller, in Coll N. T. Hist. Soc., i, 37. 

The names of the rivers Mohock and Hudson, as they 
are extant among the Iroquois, have engaged my attention 
to make inquiry concerning them. My opportunities have 
been favorable. Mr. John Bleecker, the ancient Indian 
interpreter, now in the seventy-ninth year of his age, was 
well enough to receive a visit from me this morning, and in 
possession of his full recollection as to what I asked of him. 
On seeing me, he instantly, and without hesitation, pro- 
nounced my name, with a remembrance that he had been 
acquainted with me at Fort Schuyler, in 1788, when the 
Five Nations sold their lands to -the state of New York. I 
have also seen Colonel Louis, the distinguished Indian war- 
rior, who is now in Albany, and have sought information 
from him. Jacob Dochstetter, the present Oneida interpre- 
ter, likewise gave me all the opportunity I wished of con- 
versing with him, while he was attending with his country- 
men, a treaty with the commissioners appointed on the part 
of the state. 

1 This name is said by some to have been of Spanish origin. 

2 There is reason to believe, that this name, though soon adopted 
by the Dutch, was first applied by the English ; probably as a part 
of their system for assuming the discovery and the property of the 
country to themselves. 

318 Indian Names of Albany and Vicinity. 

From these several persons I have obtained the following 
words, which I immediately committed to writing, and 
corrected as well as I could, by many repetitions from the 
mouths of the speakers. Though I ought to observe, that 
there are a few sounds which the letters of our alphabet are 
incapable of expressing. 
. Canneogahakalononitade the Mohock river. 

Skenectadea the city of Albany. 

Ohnowalagantle the town of Schenectady. 

Cahoha*tatea the North or Hudson river. 

Skenectadea, Cahohatatea the North river, spoken of 
in relation to Albany or Albany river. 

Tioghsahronde the place or places at which streams 
empty themselves. 

Tioghsahronde, Cahohatatea the North river spoken 
of in relation to the Mohock, the Watervleit kil, the 
Norman's kil, and the other streams which discharge 
into it. 

The name of our North river, in the tongue of the Iro- 
quois, strikes my ear very agreeably : Cahohatatea. 

You may contrast this with the Mohegan name for the 
same river, given me this day by John Tayler, Esq., a gen- 
tleman long conversant in the Indian affairs of New York ; 

What their etymologies are, I have not been able to as- 
certain, except as to Skenectadea, Albany ; which signifies 
the place the natives of the Iroquois arrived at, by traveling 
through the pine trees. Dr. Mitchell, ibid., I, 43. 

The information that Shatemuck was one of the Mahiccan 
names of the River Hudson, was received from the Hon. 
Egbert Bensen. 

Dutch Names for the Fish in our Ewer. 319 


A. few only will be noticed some denoted by numbers 
as their names the Twaalf, the twelve, the Streaked Bass, 
and the Elf, the Shad the name of the Shad in Dutch 
is Elfet, in German Aloft, and in French Alose, all perhaps 
from the same root ; but being pronounced here Elf, the 
number eleven, the number itself possibly came to be con- 
sidered as its name, and so led to denote others in the same 
manner the Drum is said to have been the Dertien, the 
thirteen. Van Der Donck, speaking of the North river, ex- 
presses himself, it is seer visryck, literally very fish-rich 
here the Dutch language would seem to have the advantage 
over the English, its capability of composition het gelt- 
zucht, the money -lust; het mersch-zucht, the sway-lust ; for 
a word for the first the English are indebted to the French, 
covetousness ; for a word for the other to the Latin, ambition; 
Myn Eer-naam, my honor-name, the name or rather appella- 
tion, by which it is peculiarly my honor to be called no 
word for it in either of the three languages an instance 
illustrating it "The disciples were called Christians" 
Speaking of the fish in New Netherland at large, and conse- 
quently comprehending the Connecticut, he expresses him- 
self, " there is also in some places salmon." Extract from 
the voyage of Hudson, as found in Purchas ; " They saw 
many salmons, and mullets, and rays, very great" the 
third of September, not the salmon season. De Laet, ex- 
presses himself, " Hudson also testifies, that with their seines 
they took every kind of river fish in the river, also young 
salmon and sturgeon." The Dutch, whatever may be the 
true name of the fish in their language, always at least in 
this country, call the trout, Salmties, little salmon ; and they 
were doubtless in abundance at the mouths of the large 
streams issuing into the river. Belknap, and as &fact ap- 
pertaining to the life of Hudson, mentions, " that, in sailing 
up the river, he found it abounding with fish, and among 
which were great store of salmon. "Judge ensen } JV. Y. 
Hist. Soc. Coll., ii, 2d Series, p. 130, 


Albany Academy Medals. 


The Caldwetl Mathematical Medal. 

The institution of the Caldwell Medal took place in 1831. 
In that year William Caldwell, a retired merchant of the 
city of Albany, presented one hundred dollars to the trustees 
of the Academy, to be invested in stock, the income of 
which should be devoted to the purchase of a gold medal, to 
be. given at each annual examination to the student who 
shall have made the greatest proficiency in mathematics and 
natural philosophy; the student to be of at least three 
years standing in the academy, and the medal to be given 
but once to the same individual. The donation was in- 
vested, and the interest is annually appropriated to the 
purchase of a medal, which is awarded to the successful 
competitor. These medals have no device, but simply the 
words " Caldwell Premium, Mathematics," upon the obverse, 
and the name of the recipient and the date upon the reverse 
side, as seen in the fac simile of one of them which is here 
given. The names of the students who have obtained this 
medal, are as follows : 

1831, William Austin. 1841, 

1832, no examination on 1842, 

account of cholera. 1843, 

1833, Henry Waldron. 1844, 

1834, Aurelian Conkling. 1845, 

1835, John Newland. 1846, 

1836, Henry K. Viele. 1847, 

1837, George B. Hoyt. 1848, 

1838, Charles N. Waldron. 1849, 

1839, Joseph B. Brown. 1850, 

1840, William J. Gibson. 1851, 

John J. Olcott. 
Philip Phelps. 
William Wrightson. 
Andrew McElroy. 
John R. Croswell. 
Francis B. Hall. 
Frank Jones. 
Jacob J. Koonz. 
George Wrightson. 
William Alvord. 
Richard M. Strong. 


Albany Academy Medals* 323 

The Van Rensselaer Classical Medal. 

In 1837, General Stephen Van Rensselaer presented 
one hundred dollars in. trust, to be appropriated in the same 
manner as the preceding, as a reward for the greatest profi- 
ciency in the Latin and Greek languages; subject to the 
same reservations, except that the student must be of at 
least four years standing in the Academy. This medal, it 
will be seen, is in the same style as the Caldwell medal. 
The names of those who have received it are as follows : 

1837, Isaac L. K. Miller. 1845, Wm. T. Wrightson. 

1838, Henry F. Greene. 1846, John K. Croswell. 

1839, Charles K. McHarg. 1847, Jacob L. Pearse. 

1840, Gilbert L. Wilson. 1848, Henry L. Bullions. 

1841, Philip Phelps. 1849, William A. Gott. 

1842, John C. Bullions. 1850, Ernest J. Miller. 

1843, Oliver Bronson. 1851, Charles Boyd. 

1844, Samuel G. Courtney. 

324 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [1849. 


1849. December 1. Albany and Mohawk Plank Koad 
company organized: Wm. McElroy, president; Jacob Henry, 
vice president; Henry A. Allen, secretary; John M. New- 
ton, treasurer. Six thousand dollars were subscribed on the 
occasion. The capital stock of the road $25,000. 

2. Thomas Turner, U. S. Consul for Brazil, died at 
Bahai, aged 30 ; formerly of Albany. 

3. Snow commenced falling at an early hour, but turned 

to sleet and rain during the day Thermometer at 7 

A, M. 29; 12 M. 34; 3 p. M. 35; 6 p. M. 37. 

4. Thermometer, 7 A. M. 34; 12 M. 38 J; 3 P. M. 39 ; 

6 P. M. 40 Elizabeth, wijjow of John Luther, died, 

aged 89.' David A. Leighton died, aged 53. 

5. Last day of canal navigation ; the locks being closed 
by order of the canal board, instead of Jack Erost, to whom 

the business had always been left by common consent 

Mrs. Phoebe Hilton died, aged 78. 

6. Thermometer, 7 A. M. 41; 12 M. 45; 3 p. M. 

44; 6 P. M. 35 John Millington, Jr., died, aged 26. 

Wm. H. Chapman died, aged 22. John Roach died, aged 52. 

7. Meeting of citizens at the Mansion house, to take into 
consideration the prices charged by the company for gas. 
A committee was appointed .to confer with the company and 

report to a future meeting Thermometer, 7 A. M. 29; 

12 M. 30; 3 P. M. 29 ; 6 p. M. 30. 

8. The river so low that the morning boats grounded on 
the bars, and the Boston ferry boat also grounded in her 

slip on the East Albany side Daniel Poinier died, aged 

50 Richard Starr, type founder, formerly of Albany, 

died at Brooklyn Catharine M., wife of David Seaman, 

died, aged 29. 

9. Much floating ice in the river, and hail and rain fell 
during the day Hendrik Hudson reached her dock be- 
fore 2 o'clock in the morning Ann Visscher, relict of 

Levinus L. Winne, formerly of Albany, died, aged 67. 
Cornelia .Ann, wife of Chas. Richardson, died. 

DEC.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 325 

10. Cloudy and thawing Mr. Archibald Campbell re- 
moved from the office -of deputy secretary of state, which he 

had filled with great industry and capacity since 1812 

A force organized and sent down to Coeymans to make fur- 
ther efforts to obtain coal, at a locality which had been 

previously examined, about six miles west of the river 

Catharine, wife of Owen McManus, died. 

11. Janet Andrew, wife of Robert Dunlop, died, aged 

65 J. E. Dudley, formerly of Albany, was drowned 

during the passage from Buffalo to Detroit, on the steam 
boat Atlantic. 

12. Such was the severity of the weather, that the steamer 
Santa Glaus left at 1 P. M. and the Hendrik Hudson and 
Columbia at 3 ; and the Rip Van Winkle went into winter 
quarters in the Basin. The weather moderated in the even- 
ing Horace Knowles died, aged 50. Wm. F. Gombell 

died A convention of iron masters met at the city hall, 

to take into consideration the tariff on iron, and organized 
an association, Erastus Corning, president. 

13. The First Presbyterian Church, the oldest church 
edifice in the city, corner of South Pearl and Beaver sts., 
was sold by auction, and purchased by James Kidd for 
$17,550. It was built in 1792, and when completed was 

the best church in the city Andrew Fitzpatrick died, 

aged 60 Meeting of gas consumers to hear report of 

committee ; the directors of the company declined to reduce 
the price. 

14. The board of managers of the Albany City Tract So- 
ciety for the ensuing year, were chosen and consist of the 
following: president, Friend Humphrey; vice presidents, 
Ralph Humphrey, Robert Boyd, Lemuel Jenkins, Richard 
V. Dewitt, Wm. McElroy, Wm. C. Miller, Alden March ; 
secretary, Erastus H. Pease ; treasurer, Philip Phelps ; direc- 
tors, Rufus K. Viele, James B. Sanders, James Taylor, 
James A. Wilson, Walter R. Bush, S. T. Bowen, Wm. H. 
Ross, G. W. Benjamin, N. A. Fish, Eli Perry, Thos. Mc- 
Mullen, Silas B. Howe, A. H. Wells, James Edwards, 
John Yosburgh, Robt. Coburn, T. R. Rawson, William Gib- 
son, together with the pastors of the churches represented 
in the board Mrs. Margaret Gray died, aged 62. 

Annals, ii. 28 

326 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [DEC. 1849. 

15. A large pulley wheel, weighing about five thousand 
pounds, thirteen feet six inches diameter, with twenty-eight 
inches face was cast at F. S. Low's Machine Works on 
Saturday night, for the Nail Works 

16. Trinity Church having been repaired, after the late 

fire, was again opened for service Annual meeting of the 

Albany City Tract Society, at the Pearl Street Baptist 
Church, Rev. Dr. Kennedy presiding. From the report of 
the superintendent, Solomon Cone, it appeared that the So- 
ciety had been in existence fourteen years ; that there were 
100 visitors, who called at 500 houses once a month, distri- 
buting 7,000 tracts, or an aggregate of 28,000 pages. They 
had distributed a number of Bibles and Testaments, and 
other religious books, gathered during the year 150 children 
into sabbath schools, clothed most of them, nursed and 
counseled the sick, aided and comforted the poor, and ob- 
tained fifty names to the temperance pledge. The treasurer 
(Philip Phelps) reported the receipt of $588.66 into the 
treasury dfiring the past year, and expenditure of $877.41. 
There is, nevertheless, $130.25 still in the treasury. It was 
proposed to expend $1,000 during the ensuing year, to ac- 
complish which it would be necessary to raise about $900. 

17. John Peebles died, aged 59. 

18. The steam tow boats Commerce and Belle left with 
the last run of barges for the season Isaac W in ire, .form- 
erly of Albany, died at Sing-Sing. 

20. Jonas Wickes died, aged 63. He had been employed 
eighteen years as deputy clerk of the county of Albany, and 
previously in the county clerk's office of Rensselaer. He 
was a philanthropic citizen, and ever prominent in all be- 
nevolent and religious movements. 

21. First sleighing of the season. 

22. Mary, wife of Daniel Betts, died, aged 75. 

23. Ralph H. Meech died. 

24. John N. Cutler died, aged 71. 

25. The board of supervisors visited the Penitentiary 

David A. Bedell died, aged 29. 

26. The first mail from New York by land left New York 
at 4 o'clock on Tuesday afternoon by the Hudson River 
Rail Road, took the stage at 10 miles below Poughkeepsie, 
and arrived at Albany about 5 o'clock this morning No 

JAN. 1850.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 327 

boat arrived from New York to-day, owing to the sale of the 
boats composing the People's Line, in New York. Three- 
quarters of the Hendrik Hudson, 1 bought by Daniel Drew, 
for 848,000. The Columbia was bought by D. Drew for 
816,000. The Oregon was boughtby D. Drew for 836,000. 
One-half of the steam boats Empire. Troy and John Mason 
of the Troy and New York line, was bought by him for 
$40,000. The South America was bought by Capt. Dodge for 
829,000. The North America was bought by A. Van Sant- 
vord for 815,000. The Rochester was bought by Capt. 

Dodge for$ll,500 Robert Southey died, aged 38. Robert 

Hewson died, aged 38. 

27. Persons crossed the river on the ice near Bath, for 
the first time this season, navigation being fairly closed. 

29. The governors of the Albany Hospital appointed by 
the last legislature consisting of Marcus T. Reynolds, Greene 
C. Bronson, William James, Ezra P. Prentice, Barent P. 
Staats, Dyer Lathrop, Friend Humphrey, Samuel Pruyn, 
James G-oold, James D. Wasson, James P. Boyd, T. Romeyn 
Beck, Ralph Pratt, John C. Spencer, and Clark Durant, 
met and adopted regulations for the government of the in- 
stitution, and entered upon the business of procuring a sub- 
scription of 820,000, the sum requisite to secure state aid. 

31. Dr. Fay, the Alms house physician, reported that 
during 'the month of December there were 132 persons in 
that institution requiring medical attendance, of which 79 
were cured, 20 died, and 33 remained under treatment. 


JANUARY 1. Weather mild and sleighin'g good 

Meeting of the legislature. Mr. Elderkin, democrat, elected 
speaker, by three majority over Robert H. Pruyn, whig. 

James R. Rose, of Albany, elected clerk Rensse- 

laer Van Rensselaer, formerly of Albany, and commander- 
in-chief of the forces stationed on Navy Island in the late 
Canadian rebellion, died at Syracuse, from inhaling the fumes 
of charcoal. 

2. The Commercial Bank paid a dividend of five per cent 

1 It was the intention of the owners to name their boat after the 
old navigator, but his name was Henry, and not Hendrik. 

328 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [1850. 

on its capital stock. The State Bank had long been accus- 
tomed to make a semi-annual dividend of five per cent, and 
the Mechanics and Farmers' Bank began to do the same last 
year James Muir, Jr., died, aged 31. 

3. Mr. Pruyn offered In the house of assembly a petition 
from the board of supervisors, praying a law to change the 
bounds of the city of Albany. 

4. A dense fog enveloped the city, after the fall of a few 
inches of snow, so that at sunrise, objects could not be dis- 
cerned at a Distance equal to the. width of State street. The 

day was one of uncommon mildness and beauty Jane 

Frances, wife of John Cummings, died. 

V 7. The Housatonic train arrived from New York at a 

quarter before 5 p. M. making the trip in 8f hours 

The common council appointed C. L. Cutler to take charge 
of the clock of the Middle Dutch Church, as the town 
clock, which his father, recently deceased, had so long had 

the care of Organization of the Society for the Relief of 

the Poor, and the following persons appointed officers for 
the ensuing year : Rev. Win. James, president; Greene C. 
Bronson, Robert E. Temple, Thomas McElroy, vice-presi- 
dents; Rev. Thomas R. Rawson, secretary; William Mc- 
Elroy, treasurer ; Marcus T. Reynolds, W. W. Frothingham, 
Thurlow Weed, Chauncey P. Williams, P. M. Lovett, Elihu 
Russell, Jefferson Mayell, John Tracy, Lemuel Jenkins, 
Anthony Gould, Wm. G-. Deyermand, Nathaniel Davis, G-eo. 

C. Treadwell, Azor Taber The following gentlemen 

were elected Directors of the Albany Insurance Company 
for the ensuing year : Teunis Van Vechten, Gerrit Y. Lan- 
sing, Rufus H. King, Augustus James, Marcus T. Reynolds, 
Archibald Mclntyre, John Townsend, William C. Miller, 
Jacob H. Ten Eyck, Herman . Pumpelly, John T. Cooper, 
Henry Bleecker, Peter McNaugh ton At the annual elec- 
tion of the Tivoli Hose Company, the following named persons 
were elected as officers for the ensuing year ; John C. Felt- 
man, jr., foreman ; Jacob C. Cuyler, 1st asst. ; Robert W. 
Harvey, 2d asst. ; Samuel T. Thorburn, secretary ; Henry 
J. Wells, treasurer. 

8. A fall of snow during the early morning, and another in 
the afternoon One hundred guns fired in honor of the an- 
niversary of the Battle of New Orleans, in 1815 The 

JAN.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 329 

Albany Emmet Guards gave their annual ball in the even- 
ing, at Van Veehten Hall, No. 119 State street, which was 
opened for the first time on this occasion since its evacuation 
by the Normal School At a meeting of the Fire Depart- 
ment, the following persons were elected officers for the en- 
suing year: John B. Stonehouse, president; John McBride, 
vice president; L. D. Holstein, secretary; V. Ten Eyck, 
treasurer ; Archibald Young, collector ; John A. Sickles, 

George Cuyler, trustees Ephraim Howard died, aged 


9. From the long prevalence of southerly winds the ice 
in the river became so unsafe, that crossing with teams was 
discontinued Lawrence Murray died, aged 48. 

10. The wind having veered to the north, the sun shone 
out in the morning giving everything the appearance of 

early spring Ralph Waldo Emerson lectured before the 

Young Men's Association at the North Methodist Church ; 
and Frances Ann Kemble read Shakespeare at the Female 
Academy " as no other woman could read it, and very few 

11. A north-east rain spread a crust of ice on the walks, 

which rendered pedestrianism difficult and dangerous 

Mrs. Elizabeth Gansevoort, *relict of Conradt Gansevoort, 
formerly of Albany, died at Holmdell, N. J., aged 82. 

12. The weather quite cold and the ice strong The 

rail road ferry boat discontinued her trips ; a bridge being 
made from the dock to the ice to accommodate the business 

of the road Edward T. Winslow died in Geneva aged 


14. Thermometer 6 below News received of the 

death of J. K. Wing and Charles Thomas in California, 
late of Albany. Thomas Scott died, aged 27. 

15. The 41st anniversary ball of the Albany Republican 

Artillery, at Bleecker Hall James Sainmons died, aged 


17. Damp day, with snow and rain Mr. Ruel Clapp, 

died. His death supposed to have been caused by an affec- 
tion of the heart. Mr. C. was attending to his business as 
usual in the morning, and to all appearance, in good health. 

18. Rain and snow Southern mail delayed Daniel 

Bratt died. 

330 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [1850. 

19. A span of horses with a sleigh containing a farmer 
and three females broke through the ice ; one horse lost. 

20. John Phillips died, aged 24. Cornelia Dunbar Ben- 
sen died, aged 18. 

21. At a meeting of the common council, Alderman Sat- 
terlee offered a resolution that Lydius street be opened from 
Allen to Magazine street. Aid. Satterlee stated that in 
looking over the files of Albany Gazette, he found that in 
1817 these lands were sold by the common cofincil. They 
were designated as being bounded on Washington and 
Lydius streets, and were four miles from the Capitol. On 
the 29th May, 1817, 4,284 acres were sold for $71,750, the 
interest on the same from that day up to the present time, 
about 28 years, is $140,630, making a total of $212,380. 
Henry Yates now owns 1127 acres of this property on both 
sides of Lydius street. On the entire line "persons owning 
3000 acres have petitioned for the opening of the street, and 

those owning 182 are against it A farmer's horses broke 

through the ice below the ferry and were drowned. 

22. The. walks were covered three or four inches in depth 
with snow and water. 

23. A mild and clear morning resembling spring 

Mrs. Mary Van Bergen died, aged 79. 

26. The weather mild, and spring like. 

27. Warm and pleasant; the gutters filled with the melted 
snow finding its way to the river. 

28. Snow began to fall at 2 p. M., with an easterly wind. 
......Mary Ann, wife of Lucien B. Laney, died, aged 32. 

29. Sleighs were put in motion again Esther Maria, 

wife of Kev. P. M. Way, died. Hannah C. Priest died, 
aged 21. Anna E. Schuyler died, daughter of the late 
Stephen P. Schuyler. 

30. Thermometer indicated 4. A pleasant sun essayed 

to counteract the rigors of a northern breeze John L. 

Winne died, aged 77. 

FEBRUARY 2. A fall of snow and sleet before daylight 
covered the walks with splosh and supplied the gutters with 
running water during the day. 

3. Pleasant but cool, and the walks icy; inclement at 

night Exercises in Church of the Holy Innocents for 

the first time. 

FEB."] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 331 

4. A cold morning but sunny Janet Vanderheyden, 

daughter of Jacob Vanderheyden deceased, late of Albany, 
died at Bemis's Heights. Cornelia S., wife of A. A. Lan- 
sing, died, aged 26. 

5. Thermometer indicated 2 below in the morning 

John Robinson convicted of manslaughter in the second de- 
gree in killing Christopher Jocelyn in October last, and 
sentenced to seven years imprisonment at Sing-Sing. 

6. Coldest morning of the season : thermometer indicat- 
ing from 4 to 12 below 0. 

7. Weather moderated Election of officers of the 

Young Men's Association in the Exchange. Rufus Gr. 
Beardsley elected president; R. H. Northrop, vice presi- 
dent; John N. Cutler, 2d do; Gr. C. Lee, 3d do.; James 
I. Johnson, treasurer; J. B. Brinsmade, cor. sec.; Wm. 
Barnes, rec. sec Mrs. Bridget McAnnespie died. 

8. Angelica La Grange, wife of Solomon S. Leonard, 
died, aged 35. James B. Williams, formerly of Albany, 
died at Houston, Texas, aged 26. 

10. The ice in the river took a start from the city of 
Troy, in the morning, and at eight in the evening after two 
or three moves, finally cleared away to a short distance be- 
low, this city, Mrs. Sally Schuyler died, aged 41. 

11. The ice which broke up in front of the city, became 
obstructed a few miles below, causing a rise in the river, 
which submerged the docks, and damaged goods in the 

12. Catharine Farrall died, aged 42. Mrs. Hannah 
Blake died, aged 81. 

13. Weather pleasant and spring-like. 

14. A slight fall of snow in the afternoon ; the water still 
several inches deep on the floors of the stores on the dock 
and pier. 

15. The dam of ice which had formed just below the city 
was strengthening daily, and the only outlet was through the 
island creek. The old tree which stood at the point of the 
island, under whose shade we have many a day sat and 
passed the fleeting hours in angling, and which is dear to 
the memory of all, has been uprooted and torn into a thou- 
sand pieces by the ice and the flood. Express. 

332 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [1850. 

16. The Albany Daily Times first published by Heron, 
Furman and Thornton, edited by Jacob T. Hazen. 

18. Mrs. Elizabeth Jenkins died, aged 88. Mrs. Maria 
Hookey died, aged 41. Mrs. Anna Staats, widow of the 

late Col. Philip Staats, died, aged 84 The river closed 

in front of the city, so as to obstruct the regular trips of the 
rail road ferry boat. 

1 9. ArJ)or Hill is rapidly improving. Its elevated posi- 
tion renders it one of the most .delightful localities in the 
city. A great many fine residences have been built within 
a few months, and now that the park is enclosed, and men 
of taste are attracted thitherward, we shall expect it soon to 
become the most fashionable part of the town. Knicker- 

20. Charles Edward Judd died, aged 22. 

21. William Marchael died, aged 31 Meeting of capi- 
talists to consider the subject of a rail road through Water- 
ford to Bennington, and thence to Rutland to intersect the 

Boston and Burlington road A committee consisting of 

Erastus Corning, Thomas W. Olcott, James Kidd, James 
Edwards and Robert E. Temple, was appointed to memori- 
alize the legislature for an extension of the Cohoes rail road 
to the Vermont line near Bennington. 

22. Anniversary of Washington's birthday, celebrated by 
the military companies, and by the Young Men's Associa- 

23. Mrs. Rebecca Baker died, aged 70. 

25. A light stratum of snow lay upon the pavements in 

the morning, which disappeared before noon A young 

man by the name of Griffin killed by the falling of a clay 
bank which was being excavated on Patroon and Swan 
streets William Austin died, aged 74 Mary, daugh- 
ter of John Van Valkenburg, late of Albany, died at Cin- 
cinnati, aged 20. 

26. Mrs. Abby Babcock, died, aged 84; late of Alleghany 

27. Jane Molloch died, aged 86. 

28. Patrick Grout, engaged in excavating at the corner of 
Colonie and North Pearl streets, was killed by the falling of 
a clay bank. 

MARCH.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 333 

MARCH 1. A few inches of snow during the night hours. 

2. Coroner held an inquest on the body of a man found 
in the river near the foot of Maiden lane. 

3. Dr. J. N. Campbell delivered a farewell discourse in 
the old First Presbyterian Church, corner of Beaver and 
South Pearl streets, selecting as his text the 17th verse of 
the 4th chapter of James, in these words, " Therefore to 
him that knoweth to do good, and doeth it not, it is sin." 
Twenty years ago, when the reverend divine assumed the 
charge of the congregation, he preached from the same text. 
He stated that the society of the First Presbyterian Church 
had been in existence seventy-eight years. The church was 
crowded to its utmost capacity, and the discourse was one of 
great interest throughout. On Sunday next the new edifice 
on Hudson street is to be opened for public service for the 
first time. Express. 

4. Messrs. Tweddle & Darlington loaded the boat Gene- 
ral Taylor, of Albany, Capt. McAllister, with 180 tons of 
ice, destined for the Philedelphia market. It was taken 
out of the canal between the two freight depots of the Boston 

Rail Road Company, on the opposite side of the river 

The river which had been open for some time, above and 
below the city, was last night closed again, with strong 

ice The southern mail did not reach here until half-past 

two o'clock this afternoon. 

5. A state convention of the friends of peace met at the 
North Pearl Street Baptist Church, and were addressed in 

the evening by Elihu Burritt Jane, wife of Theophilus 

Roessle, died, aged 43 The Hibernian Provident Society 

held its annual meeting, and elected officers, as follows ; Pa- 
trick Grady, president ; John Higgins, 1st vice president ; 
Patrick Cullen, 2d vice president; John Daly recording 
secretary ; Daniel Boyle, corresponding secretary ; John 
Seery, treasurer; Christopher Wallace, John Mulholland, 
and Michael Berry, finance committee ; Edward Donahoe, 
John Purcell, Patrick Flynn, Lawrence Dowd, Michael 
Murtaugh, Hugh Coyle and Cornelius Ryan, executive com- 

7. Mrs. Nancy Alvord, daughter of Gen. Chauncey Hum- 
phrey of Albany, died at Waltham, Yt. 

334 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [1850. 

9. The steam boat Buffalo arrived at 9 -o'clock in 

the morning, and the Hudson arrived soon after Mrs. 

Maria B. Miller, relict of Morris S. Miller, died at Utica. 
aged 69 years. In 1804 the decased accompanied her 
husband the late Judge Miller, from Albany to Lowville, 
performing most of the journey on horseback. Some three 
years afterwards she removed to Utica, and there resided 
for more than forty years. The father of. the deceased, Rut- 
ger Bleecker, of Albany, Gen. Schuyler, John Morin Scott, 
and Gren. Bradstreet, were the original purchasers of Cosby's 
Manor, and thus by inheritance she became one of the original 
proprietors of the valuable site of Utica. Her first residence 
was at the foot of Main street, near old Fort Schuyler. 

10. The new edifice of the First Presbyterian church, 
corner of Hudson and Philip streets, opened for public wor- 
ship, the pastor officiating alone in its dedication. The 
discourse of Rev. Dr. Campbell was truly eloquent and im- 
pressive, and was listened to with intense interest by an 
immense auditory. The learned divine took for his text the 
2d chapter and 9th verse of Haggai, " The glory of this 
latter house shall be greater than the former, saith the Lord 
of Hosts, and in this place will I give peace, saith the Lord 
of Hosts." The house was filled to its utmost capacity, and 
large numbers were compelled to leave, being unable to gain 

admittance. (See vol. I, p. 293) Eunice, wife of Philo 

Booth, died, aged 54. 

12. Juliette, wife of Hiram Wheeler, died. 

13. Mrs. Hannah Gribson died, aged 88. 

14. Since the opening of navigation there has been 
a steady increase of business. The steam boats have brought 
up large loads of merchandise. These, together with the 
tows, have kept the draymen employed. The recent rain 
has caused the river to rise rapidly and there is sufficient 
water on the bar to enable laden vessels to pass over with- 
out difficulty. Owing to the rain the market was inanimate 
early in the day, but towards noon it cleared off and busi- 
ness was resumed. The market is firm for flour, with sales 
500 brls. at $4.87 a $5 for common to good state, $5.19 a $5.31 
for Michigan, $5.37 a $5.50 for pure Genesee. Some 90 brls. 
beef hams sold within a few days at 17 ; holders now ask 18. 
A steady market for whiskey, with sales 72 brls. prison at 

MARCH.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 335 

24 Jets. ; demand fully equal to the receipts. Journal ...... 

Great improvements were in progress at the southern point 
of the city, which was reclaimed from the water a few years 
ago. North of the factory of Mr. Deyermand, Messrs. 
Tracy & Edson had purchased a frontage on the river of 116 
feet, upon which they intended erecting a distillery. 
Mesrs. Yose & Co. were putting up a large brick building 
to be used as a store house for their extensive stove esta- 
blishment. There were also five or six large brick buildings 
going up in the same neighborhood ; and the whole aspect 
of the old pasture was being rapidly transformed. The lo- 
cality bounded by Rensselaer and Pearl streets, and the 
river and creek, were thus contemplated to be compactly 
filled with factories and dwellings. 

15. The Mohawk ice passed down the river this morn- 
ing ...... The rains and warm weather caused the snow in 

the surrounding country to melt so rapidly, that the river, 
which had been very low, was again over the docks in cer- 
tain places. 

16. The snow which fell through the whole of the pre- 
ceding day, melting as it reached the earth, congealed dur- 
ing the night, producing just ice and snow enough on the 
sidewalks to enable the boys who were out early to have 
their last ride down hill ...... The steam boats Hendrik 

Hudson and Manhattan reduced the fare to New York to 
50cts., and the Buffalo to 25cts., in opposition to the rail 
road line ...... Mrs. Mary M. Hubbard, wife of H. L. Hub- 

bard, died...... Richard Barhydt died, aged 61 ...... The rear 

wall of Messrs. Durant & Lathrop's grain store, corner of 
Steuben street and the dock, fell during the night, casting 
1000 bushels of oats into the yard. 

20. Considerable ice formed in the river during the 
night, which was a very cold one, and large quantities of 
ice floated past the city during the day ...... A meeting of 

the city capitalists to receive a delegation from Yermont at 
the Capitol to .deliberate upon measures for the construction 
of a rail road communication from Albany to Bennington ...... 

Foot race at the Bull's Head between Steeprock, Sharp 
Shooter and Doctor. Steeprock won the race : one mile in 
5m. 31Js. 

21. Horace Randall died, aged 56. 

336 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [1850. 

22. Ann Eliza Fitzpatrick died, aged 17 A new bell, 

weighing 2058 pounds, was hoisted into the steeple of the 
old brick church, corner of South Pearl and Beaver streets, 
recently vacated by the First Presbyterian society, and 
now undergoing repairs for a society of Congregationalists. 

23. Snowed all day. 

24. Sophia, wife of George C. Gaynor, died. 

25. Calvin Pepper died, aged 67. 

26. Selleck Whitney, formerly of Albany, died in New 
York, ajied 70. 

30. Patrick Grady died, aged 35. " 

31. Helen, wife of Amos Dodge, died, aged 45. John C. 

Wait died, aged 32 During this month 126 persons had 

required medical aid at the almshouse, of whom 13 had died 
and 20 remained under treatment. 

APRIL 2. The convention of democrats nominated Eli 
Perry for mayor. 

3. Eliza Osborn died, aged 21. 

4. Convention of whigs nominated Franklin Townsend 
for mayor. 

5. Great freshet ; the water overflowed the dock and pier. 

8. Snow upon all the surrounding hills, rendering the at- 
mosphere cold and piercing Charter election: Franklin 

Townsend elected mayor Mrs. Catherine, widow of the 

late Isaac A. Quackenboss, and daughter of the late Gerrit 
Bancker, of Normanskill, died at Erie, Pa., aged 96. 

9. Hester, widow of Benjamin Van Zandt, died, aged 73. 
Rebecca Jane, wife of Jacob Messenger, died. 

11. Mrs. Ann Patton died, aged 69. Mrs. Prudence 
Halsted died, aged 70. Sidney Wells died in California. 

12. Caroline, wife of Wm. H. Rice, died, aged 33. D. 
E. Hawley died, aged 40. 

13. Snow during great part of the day...... An attempt 

was made to fire the old Payn tavern in Broadway David 

Redden died, aged 60. 

14. William S. Relay died, aged 49. Lydia Ann, wife 
of L. D. Ayery, and daughter of the late Jacob I. Cuyler, of 
Albany, died at Aurora, N.Y., aged 48. 

16. Sarah Matilda Carson, daughter of the late Isaac Mo- 
Murdy, died in New York, aged 25. 

MAY.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 337 

19. Mary, wife of Oscar C. Betson, died, aged 32. 

21. Jubal T. Russell died, aged 40. 

22. The O'Reilly telegraph posts were erected throughout 

the city, surmounted by gilded eagles Opening of the 


23. Mrs. M. Catherine, wife of H. E. McAllister, died, 
aged 23. 

24. John Humphrey died, aged 62. 

25. The Albany, Benniugton and Rutland RsOil Road 
Company was organized under the general rail road law, 
and the first meeting of the stockholders held. The follow- 
ing were elected directors ; Erastus Corning, James Edwards, 
William W. Forsyth, John Tayler Cooper, Marcus T. 
Reynolds, Samuel Pruyn, James A. Wilson, John B. James, 
Franklin Townsend, Charles Van Benthuysen, Wm V. 

Many, John L. Schoolcraft, James Kidd Barent van 

Everen died, aged 80. 

26. Michael Keaty engaged with two others in digging a 
drain in Lumber street, was killed by the caving of the 

earth Mrs. Sarah Peters Munn, wife of Stephen B. 

Munn, died, aged 72. 

28. Rev. M. Van Waggoner preached his valedictory at 
the Universalist church Lydia, wife of Eli Perry, died. 

29. The water over the pier and still rising ; day rainy, 

with lightning ; cleared off cool in the evening Fire in 

Blunt's Building ; damage small. 

30. Water still rising in the river; a great quantity of 

logs and lumber floated past the city Meeting of the 

directors of the Albany and Rutland Rail Road Company; 
Marcus T. Reynolds, president ; James Edwards, treasurer ; 

Albert D. Robinson, secretary Mrs. Maria Miller, 

widow of the late Christian Miller, died, aged 87. 

31. Ann Schuyler, relict of the late Matthew Goslee, 
formerly of Albany, died, aged 86. 

MAY 1. Meeting of water commissioners, who appointed 
William J. McAlpine to examine the various projects for sup- 
plying the city with water and to superintend the con- 
struction of the work ...Jane M. Keogh died, aged 19. 

3. Mrs. Catherine Fryer, widow of the late Isaac Fryer, 
died, aged 85. 

Annals, ii. 29 

338 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [1850. 

6. Meeting at the Capitol to discuss the practice of flogging 

in the navy at which Dr. B. P. Staats presided A line 

of omnibusses commenced running from the north to the 
south ferry, through Broadway an experiment that had 
been made before and abandoned The following per- 
sons were elected managers of the Orphan Asylum for the 
ensuing year; William James, John Q. Wilson, Marcus T. 
Reynolds, James D. Wasson, Lawson Annesley, James Dex- 
ter, Eli Perry, Ichabod L. Judson, William Thorburn, 
John F. Rathbone, Daniel Campbell. 

7. John Lawyer, a cab driver, drowned in attempting to 

board the South America on her arrival The first 

boat through from Buffalo arrived with 660 barrels of flour. 
The docks submerged by another freshet. 

8. Annual election of the Schoharie and Albany Plank 
Road Association; the following persons were chosen direc- 
tors for the ensuing year : James Kidd, S. S. Peck, Rich- 
ard J. Grant, Albany; Jacob Vrooman, Samuel B. Ste- 
phens, Ralph Brewster, Schoharie ; Benjamin Lee, Knox ; 
Jonathan D. Wood Wright; George C. Batterman, Guil- 
derland. James A. Tremere, Albany; Henry Slack, Guil- 
derland ; and H. Warner, Wright, inspectors of election. 
James Kidd was reelected president, Ralph Brewster, 
secretary, and John G. Gebhard, jr., treasurer. 

10. Barent W. Esmay died. 

11. William Radley died, aged 50. 

12. At 5 o'clock, p. M., the ceremonies of laying the 
corner-stone of the new German Catholic Church, to be 
erected on the corner of Hamilton and Philip streets, were 
performed in the presence of a crowd of upwards of 3,000 
persons. The stone was laid by the Rt. Rev. Bishop 
M.cClosky, of the Roman Catholic diocese of Western 
New York, and the usual ceremonies of the church per- 
formed by him, aided by six priests, and the same number 
of attendant pages, clothed in white surtouts. The bishop 
wore a magnificent dress, his splendid mitre, and a gold 
cross set in diamonds, and delivered a short discourse. He 
was followed by the pastor of the German Catholics in this 
city, in a brief address or sermon. That portion of the com- 
munity is fast increasing in Albany, and the old church in 
which they worshiped, was ill adapted to their wants. The 

MAY.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 339 

new one is to be a handsome, substantial edifice and an or- 
nament to the city. Knickerbocker Sarah McDonald of 

Albany, died at Aiken, S. C. 

14. Samuel S. Fowler died, aged 51. Mr. Fowler was 
long a resident of this city, where in early life, by his in- 
dustry and integrity, he acquired a competent estate ; and- 
although his residence for several years past has been on 
the other side of the river, his business relations with the 
city have been unchanged, and he remained up to the 
time of his decease an active director and the vice presi- 
dent of the Mechanics and Farmers' Bank. 

15. Peter J. Martin died, aged 19. 

17. Cyrus S. McCammon died, aged 27. 

19. Sarah K., wife of William Wendell, died. 

20. The weather continued cold and ivet ; fires being still 
necessary," and snow, upon the hills north and east. 

21. At a meeting of the Whig General Committee, the 
folio wing officers were chosen for the ensuing year : S. H. H. 
Parsons, chairman j Joseph Davis, 1st vice, and Geo. M. 
Sayles, 2d vice chairman ; James Kidd, treasurer ; L. D. 

Holstein and George C. Lee, secretaries Mary Ann 

Walker died in Brooklyn. 

22. The Albany City Savings Institution, chartered by 
the last legislature, was open daily to receive deposits, and 
on Wednesday evenings for females ; the following are the 
officers of the institution : Erastus Corning, president ; John 
Taylor, 1st vice president; James Maher, 2d vice president; 
Watts Sherman, John T. Norton,. John Knower, Henry H. 
Martin, Lansing Pruyn, James Goold, Samuel White, J. V. 
L. Pruyn, Ellis Baker, C. W. Bender, William Humphrey, 
James Kidd, Thomas Noonan, John McKnight, trustees ; 

Watts Sherman, treasurer The old Albany Savings Bank 

was also open daily for depositors, under the following officers : 
John Townsend, president ; Teunis Van Yechten, 1st vice 
president ; Samuel Stevens, 2d vice president ; William 
Newton, William McHarg, James Taylor, Rufus H. King, 
Jacob H. Ten Eyck, Gerrit Y. Lansing, Frederick I. Bar- 
nard, Benjamin Tibbitts, James Stevenson, William E. 
Bleecker, Robert H. Pruyn, Harmon Pumpelly, James D. 
Wasson, Friend Humphrey, trustees; James Taylor, trea- 
surer ; Robert H. Pruyn, secretary. 

340 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [1850. 

27. The body of John L. Lawyer, drowned two weeks pre- 
viously, was found below the city Lawrence Dempsey 

died, aged 52. 

29. Joseph Dibble died, aged 55. 

30. Maria J. Hoyt died, aged 87. 

31. Twenty-two days of rain during the month. 

JUNE 1. Rain. At a meeting of the journeymen printers 
of the city at Clinton Hotel, the following were elected offi- 
cers of the Printers' Union for the six months next ensuing; 
Giles K. Winne, president ; John S. Nafew, vice president ; 
A. F. Chatfield, rec. sec. ; R. F. Johnstone, cor. sec. ; D. 

Farling, treasurer There had occurred in the eighth 

ward 158 deaths within the year ending this day, according 
to the census report. * 

2. Rain. Anthony Charbonnon died, aged 36. 

3. Rain. 

5. Dinner given by the printers to the Hon. Edward Gil- 
bert, of California, who was a journeyman printer in Albany 
before the Mexican war. 

6. The Caledonian Fusileers arrived from New York as 
the guests of the Albany Emmet Guards, by whom they 

were escorted to their quarters at Stanwix Hall Julius 

R. Ames died, aged 49. 

12. The steam boat Kosciusko left the pier for New York, 
fare 6i cents. 

15. The following were elected directors of the Water- 
vliet Turnpike Company : John Townsend, John Knicker- 
backer, James D. Wasson, Nathan Dauchy, Edward Learned, 
Charles B. Lansing, Tjiomas Hillhouse, Stephen Van Rens- 
selaer and D. T. Vail. 

16. James B. Tyler died, aged 37. 

17. John B. Robinson died, aged 21. Maria Louisa, 
wife of Dr. David Springstead, died. 

18. Robert Atkins died, aged 52. 

21. Caroline Matilda, wife of Egbert W. Barnum, and 
daughter of Lewis Benedict, died. Isaac Turner died, aged 

22. The amount of down freight on the Albany and Sche- 
nectady Rail Road from the 1st June to 22d, 1849, was 
1,045,554 Ibs; same time 1850, was 3,350,219 Ibs; Excess 
in June, 1850, 2,304,665 Ibs; equal to about 225 per cent. 

JULY.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 341 

One-half of the above increase is owing to the great number 
of cattle passing over the road toward Boston. This is a 
new and valuable feature in the business of the roads, and 
has been the result of the repeal of the tolls on live stock 
passing over the roads parallel to the canal. The first class 
passengers for the last few days, exceed those of the same 
time last June by 2,500. 

23. John Capron died, aged 59. 

24. William Champlin, of Albany, was drowned in Scho- 
harie creek, wbile bathing. 

25. O'Reilly line of telegraph connected with New York. 

26. The Horticultural exhibition at the Geological rooms 
was a rare display of the products of the season, among 
which were more than fifty varieties of stawberries. 

28. Jane Ellen D. McKo.wn, wife of John C. Campbell, 

29. The Albany and Schenectady Rail Road negotiated 
to-day their seven per cent convertible ten year bonds at 
par to an amount sufficient to fund the entire amount of 
their floating debt. The takers of these bonds were the 
leading stockholders of this road in Albany and New York, 
and they were taken for permanent investment. The road 
had now none but a funded debt, and the entire net earnings 
of the road were thereafter to be divided among the stock- 
holders after reserving a sinking fund of not less than one 
per cent or $10,000 a year. The prospects of this road 
were now more favorable than at any time since it was built. 
The track and equipage were in first rate order, and the in- 
ventory larger than at any previous time. The receipts for 

June exhibited a large excess over June of last year 

Mrs Margaret Mclntosh died, aged 74. Owen Mead, aged 
35, was drowned while bathing in the Island creek. Mary 
Bruce, daughter of Thomas Hillson, died, aged 47. 

JULY 1. Mrs Susan Foster died, aged 88. Mrs Mary 
Curran died, aged 63. 

3. Mrs. Phosbe Beardsley died, aged 77. William S. 
MaGrowan died, aged 52. 

4. INDEPENDENCE j celebrated by the usual processions 
and ceremonies ; oration by William Barnes ; reading De- 
claration of Independence by Walter R. Bush. The Young 

342 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [1850. 

Men's Association held their usual celebration in the after- 
noon ; the Declaration was read by John N. Cutler ; an ori- 
ginal poem was read by H. S. McCall; and an oration by 

Isaac Edwards James Meads died, aged 29. 

5. The city was visited at night, by a storm of thunder, 
lightning and rain, the like of which had not been witnessed 
in this city for thirty years ; and which, in this latitude, 
is a rare phenomenon. It had all the characteristics of a 
tropical storm, or rather, succession of storms, for it was pro- 
longed from seven o'clock in the evening until after midnight. 
The city seemed to be the centre of some extraordinary 
perturbation of the elements ; and the whole dome of the 
sky was kept illuminated with the sheet lightning with but 
momentary intermissions of darkness, between the flashes. 
Thunder and violent rain accompanied the manifestation. 
The electricity seemed to pervade the whole atmosphere, and 
to surround every object. After about two hours, a new 
storm from the west was attracted hither, to intermingle in 
the elemental strife, and sharp, forked lightning, rattling 
thunder, and bolts that appeared to strike, added additional 
grandeur and terror to the scene. From time to time, a 
new phase in the storm showed that its wasting energies 
were recruited by new arrivals of clouds, attracted to the 
vortex which the atmospheric commotion and the altered 
temperature produced. The rain fell in torrents and the 
streets in all parts of the city were inundated, and in many 
places the pavements torn up and much damage done to cel- 
lars. A house or barn on the opposite side of the river was 
struck and fired, and the blaze could be seen from the city. 
The schooner Rockaway, lying at the pier at the foot of 
Columbia street, loading with lumber, was struck by the 
lightning, which descended the forward mast, winding 
around it in its descent, shivering it to pieces, tearing the 
sails, &c. The crew were in the cabin and escaped unin- 
jured. The sloop J. K. Polk, lying in the upper part of the 
basin, and one or two other vessels were also struck, but no 
material injury was done. The day had been extremely warm 
and close. Much injury was done to the Rural Cemetery, 
the roads being broken, and the embankments destroyed, 
and large trees torn down by the storm. Express. 

JULY.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 343 

6. High water in the river caused by the heavy rains of 
th'e preceding night. 

7. A rail road train left for the west at night, with two 
days mails, there having been no communication with the 
west .since Friday night, on account of the damage by the 

8. The corner-stone of Grace Church, a new house of 
worship to be erected on the corner of Washington and 
Lark streets, was laid by Bishop Whittingham, assisted 
by Rev. Drs. Potter and Kip of this city, and Rev. Mr. 
Bostwick of Fort Edward. 

10. Splendid exhibition of the Albany and Rensselaer 
Horticultural Society at the Geological Rooms Intelli- 
gence of the death of General Taylor, president of the 

United States, reached Albany James Noonan died, 

aged 19 Mrs. Mary Reynolds died, aged 60. 

It. Edward B. Colburn died, aged 48. 

12. Francis N. Selkirk died, aged 44. 

14. Business suspended in the morning and the stores 
hung in mourning in honor of the funeral of President 
Taylor at Washington. 

15. Margaret C., wife of John B. Stonehouse, died, aged 
32. Henry Salisbury died, aged 68. 

16. Jacob Griffin, Jr., aged 30, was drowned by the up- 
setting of a sail boat. 

17. Funeral procession in honor of the late President of 
the United States, Zachary Taylor. It was one of the most 
imposing that had ever been witnessed in the city. George 
Benton drowned, aged 18. 

18. Francis Kant was drowned. 

19. Great rain storm A man drowned at the Co- 
lumbia street bridge. 

20; High water for sixth time this season ; the pier and 

docks submerged Mrs. Elizabeth Russell died, aged 

65. Timothy Spiers died, aged 62. 

21. The flood which had begun to inundate the docks on 
Friday, reached its greatest height about 9 o'clock in the 
morning, when it was higher than had been known for 
several years, and the current of the river running at the 
rate of seven miles an hour. The docks were submerged 
several feet, and the gardens on the island below the city 

344 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [1850. 

were from three to five feet below the surface of the water, 

and the crops totally destroyed Richard Merrifield 

died, aged 67. Mrs. Skerrett died. 

22. Mrs. Margaret E. Dempsey, daughter of John C. 
Feltman, died, aged 27. 

23. The children of the Orphan Asylum had an excur- 
sion to Kinderhook. 

26. Exhibition and procession of the District School 
children of the city, who turned out with their teachers 
to the number of about 2,500, and held their exercises in 
the Capitol park Margaret Ann Thornton, of New Hamp- 
shire, was found dead in her bed at the Delavan House, 
from the use of chloroform. 

28. John Griffin died, aged 64. 

30. Mrs. Fanny Hand died, aged 50. 

31. Michael Kennedy drowned, aged 23. 

AUGUST 2. A barge laden with 12,000 bushels of corn 

sunk in the river a short distance below^the city Alicia 

Maria, wife of Thomas J. Tuite, and daughter of John Cos- 
tigan, died at Cincinnati, aged 26. 

3. John Clark died, aged 74. 

4. Peter Hughes was drowned at the Steam boat Banding. 
Thomas Van Heynigen died, aged 24. 

5. The Republican Artillery left the city in two barges 
with excellent music and other arrangements for a pleasure 

excursion to Hudson The Burgesses Corps took the 

Rip Van Winkle in the evening for New York, on their 

annual excursion Election of officers of Mechanics' 

Benefit Society ; William A. Carr, president ; John Vos- 
burg, 1st vice president ; Oliver Houle, 2d vice president ; 
James A. Buckbee, treasurer ; R. S. Cushman, secretary ; 
S. L. Hodgkins, assistant secretary ; J. W. Hinkley, physi- 
cian. Stewards: 1st ward, H. F. Near; 2d ward, Michael 
Delehanty ; 3d ward, John Byrnes ; 4th ward, Paul Cush- 
man ; 5th ward, William A. Rice ; 6th ward, Daniel Boyle ; 
7th ward, J. W. Parsons; 8th ward, Alexander Sickles; 
9th ward, E..C. Batcheldor ; 10th ward, J. H. Waggoner. 

6. By the books of the deputy marshal, the census of the 
eighth ward just completed, was 6126, being an increase of 

AUG.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 345 

1300 in five years. There were 1155 families in the ward, 
and 718 houses Mrs. Edward Pacy died, aged 54. 

7. Excursion of the Universalist Church sabbath school 
by steam boat to Beeren island. The steam boat American 
Eagle and two barges were freighted with a greater number 
of people than were ever before known to embark upon a 
similar expedition from this city. 

8. Francis McLelland, owner and master of a canal boat, 

drowned by an accidental fall into the river Frederick 

Platto, formerly of Albany, died at Sullivan, Madison county, 
aged 55. 

9. Mrs. Margaret Bergen died. 

10. The Burgesses corps returned from their excursion 
to New York, Providence and Boston, and partook of a sup- 
per at the refectory of John McCardel, in Beaver street, by 
his invitation...... George W. Burk, formerly of Albany, 

died at Sandusky city, Ohio A frost in the vicinity, 

which touched lightly some" of the city gardens. 

11. John F. Stadtler died, aged 33. Volkert Austin 
died, aged 78. 

13. William Hotaling, formerly of Albany, died in West- 
chester county, aged 40. 

14. Mrs. -Margaret Finch died, aged 33. 

.15. The volunteer night watch succeeded in arresting one 
of the burglars which had infested the city for several weeks, 
and who were engaged in opening the store of Mr. William 
Mitchell, in Broadway. The burglar captured was Hugh 
Johnson. The watchman, James Wilson, was shot in the 
face. These depredations had been made every night for a 
month An Englishman named Nichols committed sui- 
cide by shooting himself through the head with a double 
barrelled fowling piece Mrs. Ann McHench died. 

16. Another of the burglars disturbed the night previous 
was taken during the day. It was John Finnegan, the one 
who shot Wilson. 

19. Mrs. Margaret M. Helnie died, aged 52. 

20. William Stevens died, aged 33. Elizabeth Dubois 
died, aged 82. 

22. Mrs. Agnes Johnson died, aged 29. 

23. John Hawthorn drowned in the Basin, and the body 
of a man found, which had the appearance of being several 

346 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [i860. 

days in the water The water commissioners, on behalf 

of the common council, purchased the Patroon's creek, with 
1 and sufficient for all the purposes contemplated, for $150,- 
000. The water leases, which paid an annual rent of about 
$8,000, but only ran for from three to seven years, were 
included in the purchase. 

24. Elizabeth, wife of Daniel Van Valkenburgh, formerly 
of Albany, died at Utica. 

25. Lucia Marvin, wife of Thomas Olcott, died, aged 25. 

27. Upwards of 70,000 baskets of peaches arrived in 

market from New Jersey, sold at from 12J to 37? cts 

James Wilson and Thomas Mead, who were instrumental in 
arresting the burglar Johnson on the night of the 15th 
Aug., received from the citizens a donation of $1,125. 

28. Daniel Fry died, aged 42. Abraham Phillips died 
at Ithaca, aged 23, formerly of Albany. 

29. John D. Fisher died. 

30. Robert Wallace died, aged 40. John Hodge died, 
aged 55. 

SEPTEMBER 2. A drenching rain, the like whereof was 

not remembered The common council determined to light 

the city with spirit gas, instead of oil as heretofore. 

2. The church of the Holy Innocents was consecrated by ' 
-the Rt. Rev. Bishop Whittingham, according to the ritual of 
the Episcopal church. Among the officiating clergymen pre- 
sent, were the. Rev. Mr. Reed, rector, Rev. Dr. Potter and 
Rev. Mr. Davenport, and several others from abroad. The 
bishop administered the rite of confirmation to some 20 
persons Frederika Bremer, the Swedish authoress, ar- 
rived in the city The river much swollen by the rain of 

the previous day. At nine o'clock in the evening the water 
was over the docks, but soon after b'egan to fall. 

4. State fair opened at Bull's Head on the Troy road 

Abigail Mott of Albany, died at Battle Creek, Mich. 

5. The second day of the fair, on which occasion the city 
was visited by the greatest multitude of strangers it had 
ever witnessed. The New World brought up 1200 passen- 
gers. The avenue to the fair grounds was thronged all day 
with an interminable mass of people moving up and down, 
enveloped in a cloud of dust so dense as to render it inipos- 

SEPT.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 347 

sible to discern objects across the road. At seven o'clock a 
rain storm came up which continued until morning. The 
number of tickets sold, 40,000. It was estimated that over 

6000 vehicles were in attendance upon the fair Hon. D. 

D. Barnard appointed minister to Berlin. 

6. Francis Schadelle died, agad 33. 

7. The State fair closed. The net income was $10,465.10, 
being double that ...of any two previous fairs of the so- 
ciety George George died, aged 59. 

9. Jane Roessle killed by an accident on the rail road. 

10. Joseph R. Pitcher died, aged 23. 

12. Fires were required in many houses by reason of the 

coldness of the weather Catharine E., wife of Isaac Rose, 

died, aged 24. Sanders Van Rensselaer died, aged 35. 

13. Abraham Baum, a German, accidentally fell into the 

river and was drowned Lord Elgin, governor-general of 

Canada, left this city for New York in the Hendrik Hudson. 

14. Henry E. Hills died, aged 20 John Norton, for- 
merly teller in the State bank, died at Buffalo. 

16. Catharine Barton died, aged 40. 

16. Sarah Ann, wife of Andrew Passenger, died. 

17. The water commissioners opened the various pro- 
posals which had been submitted for the construction of 
the projected water works. Nearly one hundred proposals 
were sent in from various sections of the state. The work 
was awarded to the following persons: Brick, to Dennis 
McCall, of Albany; retaining reservoir, Andrew Brigham, 
of West Troy; receiving reservoir, Aspinwall & Jackson of 
Albany; section No. 1, William J. Martlett, Syracuse; 
conduit sections Nos. 2 and 3 to A. G. Sage, Chittenango. 
The proposals were twenty-five per cent lower than the esti- 
mates of the engineer, bringing the entire cost to about 

18. Andrew Brand, the Kentucky giant boy, died, aged 
16. The deceased came to this city about four weeks pre- 
vious to this time, for the purpose of attending the state fair, 
accompanied by his brother and two friends, and not being 
in good health was immediately after his arrival prostrated 
by an attack of intermittent fever", from which he never re- 
covered. In size he was probably the most extraordinary 
person in the world ; his advertised weight previous to his 

348 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [1850. 

demise, being 537 pounds. He measured over 6 feet around 
the body, and 4 feet 8 inches round the thigh. His age 
was less than 16 years. 

19. Sanders Lansing, formerly of Albany, died at Man- 
heim, aged 85. He was born and educated in the city of 
Albany, and passed the greater portion of his life in the 
place of his nativity. For the last thirty years he had been 
a resident of Herkimer county. A member of one of the 
most ancient families in the state> he was intimately con- 
nected with many of the distinguished men who acted a 
prominent part in the scenes of the revolutionary war, and 
who participated largely in the formation and establish- 
ment of our state government. He was one of -the last 
links in the chain which connected the present generation 
with the immediate actors .in those memorable scenes. 
While the Hon. John Lansing, a brother of the deceased, 
held the office of chancellor, the subject of this notice was 
the register of the court of chancery. He held the office of 
county judge, and other places of trust and responsibility. 
At a good old age he descended to the tomb, sustained by 
the confidence and hopes that Christianity inspires, and sur- 
rounded by numerous friends and relatives who cherish his 
memory with respect and affection. His widow survived 
him but four days. 

20. Torch light procession at night, in honor of a com- 
pany of firemen from Utica on a visit Mrs. Elizabeth 

Cluett died, aged 85. Mrs. Sarah Lay died, aged 52. 

21. The St. Charles Hotel in Hudson street burnt. 

23. Eliza Gushing, wife of Granville Slack, died, aged 42. 

24. Torch light procession in the evening by the fire de- 
partment, in honor of the Howard engine company which 
arrived from New York on a visit. 

28. James Kidd appointed postmaster in place of Lewis 
30. James A. Pratt died at Binghamton, aged 29. 

OCTOBER 1. Hannah Briggs died, aged 71. 

2. The contract for the construction of the Albany and 
Rutland Rail Road from Rutland to the New York state 
line was closed, conditioned that the road should be ready 

OCT.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 349 

for the rail on the first September next Samuel Waddell 

died, aged 59. 

3. Meeting of colored and uncolored citizens at the City 
Hall on the fugitive slave law. 

5. John Regan died, aged 51. 

6. Arthur Bulgin, book keeper and accountant, was 
found dead at the door of his room in Blunt's Building ; age 
35. Richard Cooper died 

7. Mrs. Esther, wife of Michael Artcher, died, aged 50. 

8. Ground was broken for the erection of a row of splen- 
did stores on the old Eagle Tavern lot, by Mr. Delavan 

Annual election of the Burgesses Corps when the following 
were elected for the ensuing year : Military., B. R. Spel- 
man, captain ; J. W. Blanchard, 1st lieut. ; S. W. Whit- 
ney, 2d lieut. ; Hale Kingsley, 3d lieut. ; E. J. Lansing, 
1st sergt. ; E. A. Benedict, 2d. sergt. ; Win. 0. Muir, 
3d sergt. ; John Hastings, 4th sergt. ; Staff, Lewis Bene- 
dict, jr., quarter-master; W. J. Thomas, pay-master; J. 
McMichael, surgeon ; William Davis, chaplain ; Civil, John 
R. Taylor, president; Joseph Clinton, vice president; Wm. 
0. Muir, treasurer; J. C. Cuyler, secretary; S. W. Whitney, 

asst. secretary Sarah, wife of Erastus Hills, died, aged 

53. Mrs Hannah L. Warren died, aged 68. 

14. Cornelia Knower, wife of Peter D. Stevens, died, 
aged 27. 

12. Some idea of' the magnitude of the freight business 
at the depot of the Western rail road at East Albany, may 
be gained from the fact that two hundred and fifty cars per 
day were loaded aud sent off. The freight business of last / 
month, at that place was larger than in any other previous f 
September. In October, 1849, eight freight trains were 
sent off one morning. The freight bills of that day amounted 
to over $5000. 

14. Canal receipts in Albany for the 2d week in October : 
flour, 50,294 brls. ; ashes, 276 do; whiskey, &c., 326 do; 
corn, 33,090 bu. ; barley, 100,010 do; oats, 45,600 do; rye, 
4,270 do; wheat, 60,782 do; peas and beans, 1,220 do; 
potatoes, 4,580 do ; seed, 19,400 Ibs. ; butter, "92,140 do; 
cheese, 291,400 do; lard, 72,700 do; wool, 10,250 do. 

16. Helen, wife of James Gourlay, died, aged 76. 

Annals, ii. 30 

350 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [1850. 

17. Matthew Trotter died at sea, on his return from France, 
whither he had been for the recovery of his health. 

19. John A. Zuliinan died, aged 21. Isabella Clark, 
wife of Charles 0. Hagan, died, aged 46. 

21. John Kerin died, aged 27. Henry Kelley died, aged 

23. Ashley Scovil died, aged 52. Martha, wife of Chaun- 
cey V. Crapo, died, aged 23. 

25. The common council, by a vote of 15 to 1 adopted 
the report of the water commissioners recommending the 
purchase of the Patroon's creek for supplying the city with 
water. A loan of three hundred thousand dollars was nego- 
ciated with Rufus H. King and Watts Sherman for the 

purpose of prosecuting the work Lucy Jane Osterhout 

died, aged 35. 

26. John Harris died, aged 53. A man, name unknown, 
walked off the Steam boat dock and was drowned. 

27. Catherine, wife of Augustus Waterman, died, aged 
20. Hezekiah W. Whitney, late of Albany, died at Mil- 
waukie, aged 66. 

28. High water caused by the drenching rains of the 
previous thirty-six hours. The island at the lower end of 
the city inundated for the eighth time this season, causing 

great damage to crops ...The Van Namee Guards, a 

corps composed entirely of hatters, went out for a target 
exercise. The prizes, consisting of a silver cup and gold 
pencil case, were won by B. Lockwood and Teunis Visscher. 

20. The horse boat attached to the Greenbush ferry 
sunk at five o'clock in the morning with 8 horses and milk 
wagons on board, four of which were lost overboard. 

30. A fly wheel cast at Low's furnace weighing six tons, 
said to be the largest one ever cast. 

31. House's Telegraph line having been completed, went 
into operation this day, forming the third telegraph line. 

NOVEMBER 2. Margaret Paddock died, aged 23. 

5. Election day. John L. Schoolcraft reelected to Con- 
gress; A. J. Colvin, district attorney; Hamilton Harris 
and Eli Perry, assemblymen. Greatest number of votes 
polled in the county for any two candidates, 13,906. 

Nov.] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 351 

6. Walter B. Thayer, of Albany, died, at Cannelton, 
Indiana, aged 42. 

8. Mrs. Francis' Dougherty died, aged 64. 

9. Celebration of the completion of the Albany and Mo- 
hawk Plank Road, took place at the aqueduct. 

11. Martin Lawlor died, aged 52. 

12 Bartholomew Van Valkenburgh died, aged 49. Lucia 
M. Gregory died, aged 41. Nathaniel Ring died, aged 84. 
Joseph Sherwood died, aged 22. 

14. Annual meeting of Albany County Medical Society. 
Address by Dr. James McNaughton, president. Officers 
chosen for the ensuing year; James H. Armsby, president; 
William F. Carter, vice president ; 13. A. Sheldon, secretary; 
J. B. Rossman, treasurer ; John Swinburne, librarian; 
P. McNaughton, Howard Townsend, P. P. Boyd, Uriah G. 
Bigelow, and Leonard G. Warren, censors Annual meet- 
ing of St. Andrew's Society, when the following Ameers were 
chosen for the ensuing year : Dr. James McNaughton, 
president; D. D. Ramsey, 1st vice president ;' Lithan Algie, 
2d, do. ; Rev. Peter Bullions, chaplain ; Dr. Peter McNaugh- 
ton, physician ; William Gray, treasurer ; Peter Smith, jr., 
secretary; Robert Cameron, assistant do.; Peter Smith, 
Alexander Gray, James Dickson, James Duncan, George 
Young, managers Sarah Welch died, aged 16. 

15. Annual' meeting of Phoenix engine company, the fol- 
lowing were elected officers for the ensuing year ; J. B. 
Stonehouse, president; J. Kearney, 1st assistant ; D. Winne, 
2d assistant; G. Campbell, clerk; P. Hewson, steward. 

17. The sloop Index, Capt. Morris Bumpus, arrived on 
her return trip from New Bedford, having made two trips 
of 400 miles each, equal to 800 miles in 8 days. She left 
this port on the 9th inst., fully laden, and arrived at New 
Bedford on the llth. She discharged her cargo, reloaded 
in part, sailed again on the 14th, and arrived here on Sunday 
evening, the 17th. During the run she encountered con- 
siderable head winds, and when within twenty miles of New 
York on her return, nearly a whole day was passed in a 
calm. This favorite vessel is the property of Capt. Gibb. 

18. Canal receipts, Albany, Nov. 18: flour, 25,310 brls. ; 
ashes, 298 do.; beef, 1520 do.; whiskey, &c., 6380 galls.; 

352 Chronicle of Events in Albany. [1850. 

barley, 18,250 bu. ; oats, 6000 do. ; wheat, 14,600 do. ; 
potatoes, 1000 do .; seed, 5100 Ibs. ; butter, 79,700 do.; 
cheese, 95,900 do.; wool, 14,900 do.; hams and bacon, 

21,800 do The first snow storm of the season occurred 

before daylight, and was perceptible on the surrounding 
hills after sunrise Sarah Johnston died, aged 92. 

19. At a meeting of the stockholders of the Utica and 
Schenectady Rail Road Company, the president of the road, 
Erastus Corning, of this city, was voted a service of plate, 
for his long and valuable services, for which he has always 

declined to receive any compensation .In the early part 

of the week, three brigs arrived at Hudson from Maine for 
the purpose of loading. The high water enabled them to 
reach Albany, they being of such a large draft of water that 
in an ordinary state of the river they would have been una- 
ble to reach our port. They were towed up and loaded with 
staves from J;he stave yard of Mr. William H. Dewitt, and 
immediately left for the southern market. Their presence 
in our harbor was the subject of great curiosity among our 

commercial men Maria, wife of Aaron S. Ward, died. 

Mrs. Mary Percy died. 

20. A lad named David Barscall drowned at the Rail 
Road ferry. Sarah, wife of Wm. M. Graves, died, aged 22. 

21. Introductory lecture before the Young Men's Associa- 
tion by Charles King of New York, and poem by Wm. L. 
Learned, in Pearl Street Baptist Church. 

25. A new company, the Schoolcraft Light Horse, num- 
bering 120, under Capt. James B. Harris, went out for a 
target excursion to Sloan's tavern in Gruilderland. The first 
prize, a silver goblet, was won by David Osterhout; the 
second a silver cup, by Mr. Schoonmaker, the third a gold 
pencil case, by Mr. Henderson The Corning corps, num- 
bering 120, under Capt. John Osborn, went to Crane's 
tavern on the Troy road, for target firing. The first prize a 
$100 dollar watch, was taken by John Clark ; the $30 silver 
goblet, by Alexander Thompson; the $15 gold pencil case, 
by John Ingmire, and the $10 gold pencil case, by William 
Dwyer Mrs. Hannah Hilton died, aged 51. 

26. The streets were whitened with snow in the morning, 
which disappeared in a few hours; the day dark and rainy. 

'Nov.'] Chronicle of Events in Albany. 353 

27. Harvey Kilbourn, of St. Louis, died at the Franklin 
House, aged 45. Abigail, -wife of Samuel Carter, died, 
aged 53. 

28. The machinists of Jagger, Treadwell & Perry's 
establishment organized as a military company, under the 
name of the Eagle Guards, turned out for a target excur- 
sion Thomas J. McCall died. 

29. The Emigrant's Friend Society, organized for the 
protection and assistance of emigrants, elected the following 
officers: Hon. Franklin Townsend, mayor, president; John 
Tracey, vice president; R. M. Van Sickler, rec. sec.; C. 
P. Williams, . treasurer; James Maher, John 0. Cole, 
James Dexter, I. N. Wyckoff, H. B. Haswell, M. McMa- 

hon, directors The quantity of flour, wheat, corn, and 

barley left at tide water during the 4th week in Nov., in 
the years 1849 and 1850, was as follows: 

Flour, brls. Wheat, bu. Corn, bu. Barley, bu. 

1849, 270,426 212,183 84.644 88,448 

1850, 301,500 490,215 35,419 93,066 

Inc. 31,074 Inc. 298,032 Dec. 49,225 Inc. 4,618 

The aggregate quantity of the same articles left at tide 
water from the commencement of navigation to the 30th 
Nov., inclusive, during the years 1849 and 1850, was as 
follows : 

Flour, brls. Wheat, bu. Corn, bu. Barley, bn. 

1849, 3,191,864 2,667.802 5,053,559 1,390,737 

1850, 8,170,272 3,566,551 3,219,476 1,723,914 

Dec. 21,592 Inc. 888,749 Dec. 1,834,083 Inc. 333,177 

The aggregate quantity of the same articles left at tide 
water from the commencement of navigation to the 30th 
of Nov., inclusive, during the years 1848 and 1850, was as 
follows : 

Flour, brls. Wheat, bu. Corn, bu. Barley, bn. 

1848, 3,074,292 . 3,038,168 2,886,575 1,544.603 

1850, 3,170,272 3,556,551 3,219,476 1,723,914 

Inc. 95,980 518,383 832,901 179,311 

By reducing the wheat to flour, the quantity of the latter 
left at tide water this year, compared with the correspond- 


Chronicle of Events in Albany. [1850. 

ing period of last year, shows an increase of 156,157 barrels 
of flour. 

The following table shows the quantity of some of the 
principal articles of produce left at tide water from the 
commencement of navigation to the 30th of Nov., inclusive 
during the years 1848, 114 days; 1849, 114 days; 1850, 
122 days : 


Flour, brls., 3,074,292 

Wheat, bu ., 3,083,148 

Corn, bu ., 2,886,575 

Barley, bu., 1,544,603 

Rye, bu., 284,472 

Other grains, bu.,. . . . 1,425,739 

Beef, brls., 61,075 

Pork, brls., ' 89,760 

Ashes, brls., 63,676 

Butter, Ibs., 23,516,783 

Lard, Ibs., 9,775,277 

Cheese, Ibs., 22,985,803 

Wool, Ibs., 8,736,660 

Bacon, Ibs., 8,201,865 

Stephen Harris died, aged 61. 































Statistics. 355 



The annual report of the chamberlain for the year ending May 
1, 1850, was referred by the common council to the finance com- 
mittee consisting of Visscher Ten Eyck, C. P. Williams, and John 
D. Hewson, who, on the 12th August, made the following report 
on the condition of the finances of the city. 

The financial affairs of our city, from their magnitude and varied 
character, require from the officers connected with their manage- 
ment a strict devotion to duty, as well as zeal, promptness, fidelity, 
system and good order to control and govern all their operations. 
The essentials are now the prominent features of the chamberlain's 
office; and the officers connected therewith, are justly entitled to 
the commendation of the board for the faithful manner in which 
they have discharged their laborious and highly responsible duties. 
. Beceipts and Expenditures The aggregate amount received by 
the chamberlain from all sources, during the past year, including 
$41,668.78, the balance on hand 

May 1, 1849, was $695,366.67 

Expenditures during the same period 627,635.42 

Leaving a balance on hand, May 1, 1850, of $67,731.34 

In the year 1844, when the annual report of the chamberlain was 
made, the city had available means, applicable to the support of 

the city government of $19,464.67 

In the year 1845 10,677.81 

do 1846..... 6,797.98 

do 1847 793.70 

do 1848 662.35 

do 1849 ' 41,668.78 

do 1850.. 67,631.34 

The large balance of 1849, and the still larger balance of 1850, 
are the results of the operations of the law of 1848. In former 
years the amount raised by tax for support of the city government 
was nearly if not entirely exhausted on the 1st of May, by its ap- 
plication to the payment of temporary loans. These loans were 
made in anticipation of the annual taxes, and the means realized 
therefrom were required for the ordinary expenditures of the city. 
By a strict adherence to the requirements of the law above referred 
to, and a due regard to economy in the administration of the affairs 
of the city, these temporary expedients may be in a great degree, 
if not entirely, avoided. 

356 Statistics. 

Loans and Interest. The amount of temporary and other loans 

made during the past year is $190,000.00 

During the same period the amount paid and cancelled 

by the city was $192,008.75 

Cash paid to trustees of sinking fund for 

the same purpose 178,700.00 


Making a diminution in the debt of the city in one year 

of $180,708.75 

Of this amount, $153,415.36 was received from the state under 
the provisions of the law of 1859 relative to the Albany basin. The 
further sum of $20,000 was received from the state under the pro- 
visions of the same law, but the applications thereof by the city 
was changed by a law passed at the last session of the legislature. 
This $20,000 formed a part of the moneys paid by the city to the 
Pier proprietors, to procure their assent and release required in 
the law of 1849 relating to the Albany basin. 

The amount raised by tax during the past year on account of 
interest on the city debt, was $45,500.00 

Amount received of the Albany and Schenectady Rail 

Road Co., and from other sources 9,830.74 

Making a total of $55,330.74 

The expenditures during the same period were 61,991.11 

Leaving a deficiency of > $6,660.37 

This deficiency was caused by the accumulation of interest on the 
bonds held by the state, and which were paid and cancelled by 
carrying into effect the law of 1849, above referred to. 

City Lamps. The amount raised by tax during the past year 

for the maintenance of the city lamps was $10,000.00 

The expenditures during the same period were 10,489.17 

Leaving a deficiency of $489.17 

This deficiency was occasioned in part, if not entirely, by the 
high rates of oil during the past year. 

The expenditures for the city lamps were, 
In the year 1844, $7,135.90 

1845, 7,121.58 

1846, 10,899.49 

1847, 9,076.85 

1848, 9,207.30 

1849, 9,342.60 

1850, 10,489.17 

Statistics. 357 

A part of the city lamps are now maintained under the provi- 
sions of a contract made with the Albany Gas Light Company. 
The expense attending the execution of the contract can always 
be estimated, a.nd it can be increased or diminished by the com- 
mittee of the board having this- subject in charge. The expense 
attending the oil lamps is variant and must continue so, under the 
present system ; and your committee would suggest that measures 
be adopted by the appropriate committee to ascertain if the contract 
system can not be carried into effect for these lamps, and a large 
saving to the city be realized by its adoption. 

Markets. The aggregate amount received from butchers for 
licenses and for rents of the several markets and out stalls, during 

the past year is . $1,819.08 

Expenditures during the same period 1,369.58 

Leaving a balance in favor of the city of $449.50 

Of this balance the sum of $225 was realized from the lease of the 
North market, which being deducted from $449.50 would leave 
$224.50 as the net sum received by the city for the use of the large 
amount of property connected with the Centre and Vegetable 

From the year 1835 to 1845, the average annual net income de- 
rived from the several markets was $342.13, and from that period 
up to the present year, the average annual revenue was $915.69 ; 
a revenue entirely below a fair compensation for the use of so 
arge an amount of real estate. 

Common Schools. The amount raised by tax during the past 
year for the support of common schools and the erection of a school 

house, was $9,503.36 

Amount received from the School fund 4,501.68 

For tuition.. 301.00 

Making a total of . . . /. $14,306.04 

Expended during the year 15,340.46 

Leaving a deficiency of $1,034.42 

The Ferry. There has been received during the past year from 

the lessee of the ferry the sum of $1,525.00 

Expenditures during the same period for repairs 273.34 

Leaving a net revenue of $1,251.66 

The ferry is now under the operation of a lease or contract, and 
the city is realizing annually therefrom a fair equivalent for its 
use, whilst, under the old system, its management and maintenance 
was attended with expenditures far above the revenues received. 

Night Police. The amount authorized to be raised annually by 
tax for the support of the night police under the provisions of the 
2d section of the act of March, 1848, is $17,000. 

358 Statistics. ' 

The amount raised during the past year under the authority 

conferred by the 3d section of said act, was $18,000.00 

The amount expended during the same period was.. . . 16,979.46 

Leaving a surplus of. * . . $1,020.54 

Day Police. The amount expended during the past year for 
the support of this department, including the salaries of the police 

justices, was , $4,249.29 

Making an aggregate for the support of -the night and 

day police of $21,228.75 

This sum ought, in the opinon of your committee to be sufficient 
to secure a united and always reliable night and day police for our 
city, which would be prompt and efficient in its operation, and are 
preferable to the system now existing. 

City and County Poor. There was expended during the past 
for the maintenance of the Alms House $15.405.87 

For temporary relief in the city, salaries, cholera ex- 
' penses, &c 12,885.83 

Making a total of... $28,291.70 

During the year 1849, the expenditures for the same objects 
were $26,127.49 

During the year 1848 33,966.34 

" 1847 20,455.73 

" 1846, 18,797.51 

Justice's Court. The amount received during the past year from 

this court for fees was , $2,667.84 

Expenditures during the same period to the justices for 

salaries 2,630.00 

Leaving a balance in favor of the court of $37.84 

Fire Department. The amount expended during the past year 
for the support of this department was $20,476.47 

Of this sum $2,598.57 was expended for the Hose depot, $1,303.58 
for new hose, and $890 for fire policemen. 

Contingencies. The amount received during the past year on 

this account from taxes was $40,000.00 

From the state under the law of 1849, relating to the 

Albany basin 20,000.00 

From fines imposed by the Albany special sessions, 

($1,240.50) rents, surveys, and sundry other items, $14,699.86 

Expenditures during the same period 59,998.55 

Leaving a balance in favor of the city of 14,701.31 

Statistics. 359 

City Debt. On the first day of May, 1848, the debt of the city 

was. . i $877,896.93 

On the first day of May, 1849 858,396.93 

Making a diminution during the year of. $19,500.00 

On the first of May, 1850, the debt of the city was $677,688.18 
Showing a reduction during the past year of $180,708.74 

The debt here stated does not include the contingent liabilities 
of the city, viz : $100,000 of the bonds of the Albany and gchenec- 
tady Rail Road Company, guarantied by the city, and falling due 
in the year 1852 ; and 1,000,000 of city bonds issued to the Western 
Rail Road Corporation. These liabilities of the city are amply 
secured, and they can not therefore be classed as a debt, for the 
payment of which means should be provided. 

Your committee have stated that the debt of the city on the 1st 
day of May, 1850, was. $677,688.18 

From this there should be deducted the sum of $125,- 
000 loaned to the Albany and Schenectady Rail Road 
Company, and upon which they pay an interest of 5 per 
cent ; and also further the sum of $123,468.80, being the 
ain't expended by the city for the same company, for 
the purchase of the depot and track in the city, which 
sum, according to the terms of the agreement, is to be 
refunded to the city or interest paid thereon, at the ex- 
piration of the 20 years, at the rate of 5 per cent per 
annum, making an aggregate of. 248,468.80 

Leaving the actual debt of the city $429,219.38 

Under the restraining operations of the law of 1848, this debt 
can be steadily and successfully reduced each year, if the common 
council on their part carry into practical operation all the require- 
ments therein contained. To reduce taxation and lessen the bur- 
dens of our citizens should be the constant aim of all, and in order 
to do so effectually, great care must be exercised in the prosecution 
of new improvements. If improvements are directed by the board 
and the owners of the property benefited by the improvement are 
negligent or remiss in their payments, the deficiency must be 
raised by taxation. If the common council are profuse in their 
expenditures for the public lamps, or the night police, or in the ordi- 
nary contingent expenses of the city, all deficiencies beyond the 
amount received during the previous year must be raised by taxa- 

It is this inattention to small matters in the beginning, which 
has been the cause of rolling up this large debt against the city, 
and to cancel which all our energies should now be directe.d 

During the past year it became necessary to renew some of the 
loans of the city, and for that purpose stock was issued amounting 

360 Statistics. 

to $50,000 bearing an interest of 6 per cent. This loan was taken 
by Watts Sherman, Esq., of tins city, and upon which the city real- 
ized a premium of If per cent, being the first premium ever re- 
ceived by the city. 

During the month of May last, a further loan was negotiated 
with the same gentleman for $100,000 of the city bonds, bearing 
an interest of 5 per cent. This loan was taken at par, and the 
amount realized therefrom is to be applied to the payment of city 
"bonds, bearing an interest of 7 per cent, and falling due during the 
present and ensuing years. 

To provide means for the gradual payment of our present debt, 
and the necessary increase which must inevitably follow, when the 
water law is carried into effect, requires the board to be firm in the 
discharge of their duty, and to be governed and directed by the 
restraining law of 1848, before referred to, and all other laws which 
may tend to the same result. 

The character and prosperity of our city depend, in a great 
measure, upon the faithful discharge of the trust committed to our 
care ; and it is for us to determine by our acts, whether the credit 
which our city now enjoys shall continue to grow and flourish, or 
be reduced to that low standard under which we groaned a few 
years since. 

From the Albany Evening Journal. 

From many untoward and disastrous circumstances, the citizens 
of Albany, for several years past, have been burthened with what 
may be very justly termed most enormous rates of taxation ; 
reaching a point far exceeding that of any city in the Union. The 
causes which have produced such results have been numerous and 
in many instances, unavoidable ; while, in other cases, it has been 
the result of mismanagement and political maneuvering. The 
failure of the Canal Bank was a sad blow to the moneyed interests 
of our city, and coming at a time, too, when we were sorely scourged 
by conflagrations, the finale to which was the devastation of nearly 
one-eighth of our city. The basin assessment has been hanging 
over our heads like a leaden weight, completely crushing us and 
retarding our progress. From these and other numerous causes, 
rates of our taxation havebeen rangingfrom two to two and a quarter 
per cent, and on one occasion going beyond even that high figure. 

It will be a matter of congratulation to every Albanian, that we 
have at last emerged from the woods, and are now so firmly esta- 
blished on a good, sound basis, that we can rejoice at our deliver- 
ance, and look with bright hopes to the future. We have recovered 
from all our disasters; that incubus, the basin assessment, is 
wiped away ; our limits are extending on every side ; the last ves- 
tiges of the fire of 1848 are rapidly disappearing, and our popula- 
tion has, in spite of all the stumbling blocks cast in our way, 
reached over 50,000, an increase of over 12,000 since the last census. 

Statistics. 361 

We feel that we have a right to rejoice for all these favorable re- 
sults, and should any of our friends need additional cause for such 
manifestations, we have only to call their attention to the returns 
of the Assessors for the present year. 

In the year 1849, the entire amount of real and personal property 
returned as assessed by the common council, amounted to $11,971,- 
274.38. For the present year the amount returned is $12,602,284.- 
85, or an increase of $630,415.47 over the year 1849. The increase 
over 1849, when distributed among the wards of the city is as for- 

1st Ward 1850 $422,665 

1849 400,880 $21,785.00 

2d " 1850 602,010 

1849 591,440 10,570.00 

3d " 1850 903,186 

1849 874,015 29,171.00 

4th " 1850 1,925,175 

1849 1,879,448 45,727.00 

5th " 1850 1,916,196 

1849 1,912,306 3,890.00 

6th " 1850 1,003,360 

1849 930,050 73,210.00 

7th " 1850 583,289 

1849 514,935 68,354.00 

8th " 1850 387,635 

1849 351,860 35,775,00 

1850 853,009 

1849 814,993 38,016.00 

1850 833,575 

1849 781,365 52,210.00 


Total increase of real estate, $378,708.00 


1st Ward 1850 $5,500 

1849 4,455 $1,045.00 

2d 1850 32,300 

1849 27,300 5,000.00 

3d " 1850 92,200 

1849 38,500 53,700.00 

4th " 1850 766,822 

1849 713,666 53,156.00 

5th " 1850 1,928,617 

1849 1,896,240 32,377.00 

6th " 1850 151,950 

1849 123,450 28,500.00 

7th " 1850 44,200 

Annals , ii. 31 

362 Statistics. 

7th Wi 



ird 1849 $17,000 $37,200.00 
1850 6,500 
1849 6,800 
1850 103,500 
1849 63,000 40,500.00 
1850 40,000 
. 1849 29,500 10,500.00 

ncrease of personal estate, $251,978.00 

" real estate, 378,738.00 

Total excess, $630,415.47 


1st Ward $428,165.00 6th 

3d " 634,310.00 7th 

3d " 995,386.00 8th 

4th " 2,691,997.00 9th 

5th " 3,844,813.00 10th 


Total, $12,601,689.85 

The above statement gives us ample cause for congratulation, 
and although we have been groping in darkness for a long time, 
the day is breaking and light is pouring in upon us. As another 
gratifying evidence of our progress we would state that the rate of 
assessment will be about 1.70, where it was $2 to $2.25 last season 


Mayor's Office, Albany, May 25, 1850. 

Sir, In accordance with your request, I take pleasure in present- 
ing to you the following statement of the financial condition of 
the city of Albany : 

For many years prior to- 1847, the public debt of the city had 
been gradually rolling up, from the operation of the same causes 
which produce individual embarrassment ; an expenditure greater 
than the resources, and a reluctance to resort to those trenchant 
and restrictive measures necessary, as well to reduce the evil as to 
prevent its recurrence. But in the year 1847, the finance commit- 
tee of the common council, convinced of the necessity of preventing 
any additions being made to the debt, and also of providing for its 
liquidation, recommended a restraining law, which was passed by 
the legislature of the state in 1848. 

Statistics. 363 

This law is one of the most restrictive character : requiring that 
all expenses of the city government, and the deficiencies arising 
from the non-payment of assessments for street improvements, to- 
gether with the interest and ten thousand dollars of the principal 
of the debt, shall be raised by taxation annually : and also provid- 
ing that no expenditure of the public money, except for the ordinary 
expenses, which with the amounts, are specified in the law, shall 
be made, unless the appropriations for the same shall have been 
passed by the votes of two-thirds of all the members of the common 

On the first day of May, 1848, the debt of the city (exclusive of 
the loans made to the Western Rail Road Corporation, and to the 
Albany and Schenectady Rail Road Company, both of which are 
so amply secured that they can not be considered absolute liabili- 
ties of the city), amounted to $752,896.93. Since that date, this 
debt has been reduced $211,764.90 ; and the exact amount of the 
same at this present time, is $541.132.03. 

This rapid extinguishment of so large a portion of the debt, re- 
sulted from the assumption by the state of a part of the expenses 
which the city had incurred for the excavation of the basin at the 
eastern termination of the Erie and Champlain canals, and from 
the effect of the restraining law before alluded to. 

There is every probability that the amount which will be real- 
ized by the trustees of the sinking fund from taxation, receipts from 
the sales of city property, and payments of assessments, will not 
fall short of $20,000 annually. As this fund is sacredly pledged 
for the redemption of the debt, it is sufficiently evident that the 
liquidation of the same within a reasonable period, is placed be- 
yond contingence. In addition to all this, the city, in its corporate 
capacity, possesses property which may be fairly valued at $415,000, 
of which $375,000 are invested in real estate, and $40,000 in the 
stocks of water works, insurance and plank road companies. 

The population of the city as shown by the last census which 
was taken in 1845, was 42,189. The increase during the then 
previous five years was 8,476. The census which is to be taken this 
year, will probably show the present population to be over 50,000. 

The value of the taxable property in the city as shown by the 
assessment rolls returned to the board of supervisors, in November, 
1849, was $11,971,203. 

In speaking of the value of the taxable property, it should be re- 
marked that although the assessment rolls furnish the only criterion 
by which the aggregate value can be ascertained, they are by no 
means a correct one. To lessen the amount which each county 
must pay towards defraying the general expenses of the state, it 
has been, and still continues to be the practice of the assessors in 
most of the counties, to value property at much less than its actual 
worth. In this respect, the county of Albany is not an exception ; 
and, therefore, the assessors of this city have established a standard 
of valuation which is equal to about sixty-five per centum. For 

364 Statistics. 

this reason, the value of the taxable property in the city of Albany 
may be safely estimated at $18,000,000. 

Trusting that the information here contained may serve to main- 
tain the high credit which our city already enjoys, 
I remain very respectfully, your ob't serv't, 

Mayor of the City of Albany. 


The following statement of the amounts raised by tax for the 
support of the government of the city, is gathered from the reports 
of the finance committees of the years 1848 and 1849 : 

Amount required to be raised by tax for the support of the city 
government, 1848. 

For night police, '. $18,000.00 

Public lamps, 10,000.00 

Contingent expenses, 30,000.00 

Fire department, 5,000.00 

Interest on city debt, 47.000.00 

School house on Arbor hill, 7,000.00 

Temporary relief of city poor, 7,000.00 

Account of city debt, 10,000.00 

Improving streets, 22,500.00 

Support'of common schools, 9,003.36 

Total, $165,503.36 

Amount required to be raised by tax for the support of the city 
government, 1849. 

For night police, '. $18,000.00 

Public lamps, 10,000.00 

Expenses of fire department, 20,000.00 

Contingent expenses (ordinary), 30,000.00 

On account of payment to pier proprietors to ob- 
tain their consent to the law relative to expendi- 
tures for excavating Albany basin, &c., 10,000.00 

To pay interest on city debt, 45,500.00 

On account of sinking fund, 10,000.00 

For support of common schools, ,. . . . 9,003.36 

For alterations and repairs to district school No. 

10, 500.00 

For temporary relief of city poor, 5,000.00 

Probable balance that will remain unpaid May 1, 
1850, on assessments, and apportionments for 
improving streets, &c., approved and confirmed 
during the year ending Nov. 1, 1848, 10,000.00 


Statistics. . 365 


From May 1st, 1849, to May 1st, 1850, overseer of the poor of the 
city of Albany gave permits to 1,373 persons to enter the Alms- 
house ; of which number 169 were Americans, and 1,204 were 
foreigners ; of the latter number 737 were chargeable to the com- 
missioners of emigration. 

The ages of those admitted were as follows : 202 were under 5 
years ; 190 were 5 and under 10 years ; 79 were 10 and under 15 
years ; 112 were 15, and under 20 years ; 320 were 20 and under 
30 years ; 218 were 30 and under 40 years ; 152 were 40 and under 
50 years ; 62 .were 50 and under 60 years ; and 32- were over 60 

Of the above number, 6 were idiotic ; 19 were insane ; and 563 
were afflicted with various diseases. 

The amount collected by the overseer from the commissioners of 
emigration, during the year, on account of board of the emigrants 
supported in the Almshouse, and paid over by him to the chamber- 
lain of the city, to be placed to the credit of the county, is $2,405.97 
The additional amount audited and allowed by said 

commissioners for the like purpose, the payment of 

which has been withheld for the want of funds to pay 

the same, is 2,038.39 

Making a total credit to the county, $4,444.36 

The amount collected from said commissioners and paid 

to the chamberlain on account of temporary relief, is 2,542.26 
The amount audited and allowed by the said commis- 
sioners, and remaining due the city, is 2,598.08 


During the year he assisted 1560 persons principally heads of 
families by affording temporary relief, exclusive of fuel ; he also 
aided in the funeral expenses of 270 deceased persons, who died 
within the year, which expenses amounted in the aggregate to 
$914.25. Of the whole number thus relieved 280 were native born 
citizens, and 1550 were foreigners, 718 of the lal^er were charge- 
able to the commissioners of emigration ; and of the former, 38 
were persons of color. 

Of the whole number assisted 1555 received less than $5 each, 
166 received from $5 to $10 each, and 109 received more^han $10 
each, one of the latter received $72, that being the largest amount 
given to any family. 

The number of families who shared in the distribution of the 
fuel during the past winter, is 804, composed of 3162 persons. 
The heads of the families thus relieved may be classified as follows : 
Americans, white, 177 ; do. (colored) 62 ; foreigners, 565 ; of the 
latter 212 were chargeable to the commissioners of emigration. 

366 Statistics. 

For the purpose of granting the above temporary relief, and of 
meeting the incidental expenses of his office, the undersigned drew 
orders on the chamberlain for the payment of money to different 

persons amounting in the aggregate to $7,118.39 

From which deduct the following, to wit : for accounts 
charged to county for cholera and other expenses, in- 
curred by the city, prior to Nov. 13, 1849, which 
accounts were audited and allowed by the board of 

supervisors amounting to $550.40 

Amount of similar accounts chargeable to the county 

from Nov. 13, 1840, to May 1, 1850 84.30 

Blank books and stationery for office, 67.89 

Desks and repairs to office, and other incidental expenses 49.87 

Delivering wood to indigent families, $ 145.50 

Amount collected from commissioners of emi- 
gration and paid to chamberlain on account 

of temporary relief, : $2,542.26 

Amount audited and allowed by said commis- 
sioners not collected, -. 2,598.08 

Making a total amount of credit $6,038.30 

Balance, exclusive of fuel and incidental expenses... I, 1 
To which should be added the expenses incurred by 
the city for fuel delivered during the past winter to 
indigent families, to wit : 291 cords of wood 

at$5.51, $1,603.41 

Amount paid for delivering same, 145.50 

258| tonsof coal at $4.38, 1,132.96 

Total for fuel $2,881.87 

Balance of expenses for temporary relief proper $3,961.96 

The number of cords of wood on hand belonging to the city is 150. 
The overseer during the year took the affidavits of 986 emigrants, 
principally heads of families (representing 2606 persons), who for 
the first time applied for relief at his office. All of whom were 
relieved by him 1 ; either by sending them to the Almshouse, or by 
giving out door or temporary relief. 


1850. 1849. 

Expenses of night police, $18,000.00 $18,000.00 

public lamps 8,500.00 10,000.00 

Interest on city debt, 35,500.00 45,500.00 

Amount carried forward, $62,000.00 $73,500.00 

Statistics. 367 

Amount brought forward, $62,000.00 $72,500.00 

Sinking fund, 10,000.00 10,000.00 

Contingent expenses, < 27,000.00 30,000.00 

Fire department, 15,500.00 20,000.00 

Temporary relief to city poor, 3,000.00 5,000.00 

Common schools, 9,853.36 9,503.36 

Deficiencies improving streets, 3,500.00 10,000.00 

On account payment to pier proprietors, 10,000.00 

Totals $130,853.36 $168,003.36 


The following facts are gathered from the annual report of the 
condition of this company made to the comptroller on the 30th 
November : 

Capital stock subscribed and paid in, $1,000,000 

Funded debt as by last report, 552,000 

Total amount of funded debt, 700,000 

Total amount of funded and floating debt, 700,000 

Average rate per annum of interest on funded debt, 6f per ct. 
Cost of road and equipment, 1,711,412.30 

Length of road nearly 17 miles ; double track 9 miles ; weight 
of rail, 60 Ibs. per yard. The company own 3 engine houses and 
shops, 7 engines, 36 first class passenger cars, 33 second class do., 
45 mail and baggage, and 34 freight cars. 

Miles run by the passenger trains 51,545 ; do., freight 32,248 ; 
freight carried 63,012 tons ; number of passengers carried over 
road 284,279. 

Expense of maintaining road, $19,000.10 

repairs of machinery, &c., 5,924.87 

operating the road, 66,247 01 

Total expenses, 91,171.98 

Earnings from passengers, 132,207.69 

freight, 70,242.69 

rents and mail services, 6,134.50 

Total earnings, ' $208,584.88 

The receipts are the same as the earnings. 

Transportations including tolls paid state, $91.171.88 

Paid interest, 38,808.67 

dividends, 70,000.00 

Surplus fund, 8,604.23 

Total amount of surplus and reserved fund, 25,000.00 

368 Statistics. 


Capital stock subscribed and paid in, $1,000,000.00 

Floating and funded debt, 930,895.01 

Cost of road and equipment, 1,930,895.01 

Length of road 38 miles. The company have leased the road to 
the Western Rail Road Corporation ; the expense for repairs of 
machinery and running the road, are paid by the lessees. 


It was charged in August, that the person having the contract 
for removing the earth which had accumulated in the Basin, had 
dumped it near the channel below the city. The editor of the 
Express, having investigated the matter, made the following state- 
ment. It is interesting as showing the changes which the channel 
of the river is subject to in the neighborhood of the city. 

During the last spring freshet, the ice formed a complete dam, 
from a point a few yards south of the termination of the docks near 
the island, and a new channel was made by a diversion of a great 
body of the water which was flowing down the river. When this 
formidable barrier was worn away, it was found that an entire new 
channel had been made through the creek, and running out into 
the river at an opening in the dyke, nearly opposite the Abbey, and 
the flats had been materially increased, in very many places. The 
forwarding men who are most deeply interested in the navigation 
of the Hudson, last year had a channel cut through these flats upon 
the western side of the river, and when the work of excavation of 
the basin was commenced, made a visit to this formidable obstruc- 
tion. Upon consultation they arrived at the conclusion that by les- 
sening the depth of water upon these flats by depositions of earth, it 
would be forced into the original channel of the river, and in a 
great degree aid in rendering it navigable for vessels. Accord- 
ingly, the earth dug from the bed of the basin, is taken in scows 
to the flats, and dumped upon them, so as to lessen the quantity 
of 'water in that locality, and throw it over into the channel. 
These deposits are of a hard formation, impregnated with clay, 
and remain in their position, notwithstanding the ordinary current ; 
rivermen contend that it is proving an advantage to the navigation 
instead of a detriment, and is consequently worthy of approval. 
When the bill authorizing the removal from the basin, of the ob- 
structions to its free navigation, was pending, it was contended 
that the work would cost from $150,000 to $200,000. The whole 
expense, however, will not exceed $35,000. The lower section will 
be completed on Saturday, after having dug out over twenty thou- 
sand yards of earth affording eight feet of water in every portion 
of the same. The upper sections will also be soon finished, 

Statistics. 369 


Albany is the barley market of tlie Northern and Eastern states, 
and of many of the cities in the Atlantic states. Purchases have 
been made here during the past season for points as far south as 
Charleston, while with Baltimore and Philadelphia a large busi- 
ness has been transacted. To show the increase of the trade in 
this article within the last few years, we give from official docu- 
ments the receipts of barley at tide-water for a period of nine years ; 

1838, 677,338 bush. 1847; 1,523,020 bush. 

1841, 121,010 " 1848, 1,548,197 " 

1844, 818,472 " 1849, 1,400,194 " 

1845, 1,137,917 " 1850, 1,720,000 " 

1846, 1,427,953 " 

At Albany almost the entire of these receipts are sold. Of the 
new crop of the last season, of which we estimate that at least, 
1,600,000 bushels were received at tide-water, we have reported 
sales in this market of 1,330,000 bushels. In these reported 
sales the contracts made with. our brewers early in the season for 
delivery of barley are not included, and allowance should also 
be made for sales which were not reported to us. If we place the 
sale of the new crop in this market at 1,430,000 bushels, we think 
we shall be within the mark. Of the value of the contract, sales 
and the sales not reported to us, we can not make any esti- 
mate, but we have made a valuation of the actual transactions 
reported, reaching to about 1,330,000 bushels; all of the new crop, 
and find it amounts to the sum of $1,008,574, an average of 76 cents 
on the bushel. The lowest figure paid was 65 cents, the highest 
101^. The greatest number of bushels sold at one price was 117,500, 
which brought lOOc. ; 89,100 bushels were sold at 85c. ; 77,200 at 
77c. ; 75,100 at 60c. ; 69,500 at 78c. ; &c., &c., and the smallest 
quantity sold at any one figure was 700 bushels at 97c. It will 
be seen that the receipts of barley at tide-water for the season 
which has just closed, are 1,720 000 bushels, exceeding our estimate, 
which was considered a rash one, made at the opening of the new 
crop, 120,000 bushels, and exceeding the receipts of any previous 
season. The high prices realized during this season will no doubt 
be a, sufficient inducement to farmers to sow a greater breadth of 
land than usual with this grain. Whether the next season will call 
out the crop to such an extent as to justify the payment of high 
prices, is a problem yet to be solved. Argus. 

370 Hills and Greeks. 


For the past twenty years there has been a species of civil war 
going forward between the lads and young men residing on the 
hill, as the Texan section of Albany is called, and the creek, as the 
upper part of the 8th ward is styled. We remember twelve or 
fifteen years ago, that these feuds were of a serious character ; on 
one occasion a Creek who had ventured from his valley, upon the 
hill, was set upon by a large party of Hills, who pounded the life 
nearly out of him, when he fired a pistol and they retreated just 
far enough to enable him to limp down hill all bruised and bloody, 
being well revenged a night or two thereafter, for two of the Hills 
who strayed down into the creek, were attacked and soon trans- 
formed from tolerably good looking fellows into mummies. There 
were in those days frequent fights, in which one hundred and fifty 
persons, and often as many as two hundred, were engaged. Many 
who were engaged in them have grown up to manhood, become 
peaceable and influential members of society, and their children have 
succeeded them in carrying on the war. The combats within the 
last eighteen years between the Hills and Creeks, would fill vo- 
lumes. -For the last ten years the war has been carried on, but 
with less spirit, and at times lengthy cessations of hostilities. On 
Saturday, Nov. 4, however, it was renewed, and on sabbath after- 
noon the Hills and Creeks met again upon their old battle ground. 
The Creeks marched up hill, and the Hills drove them down 
again, when the latter sallied down and were driven back in great 
haste by the valley men ; and woe to the straggler or cripple who 
could not run fast and lagged behind his fellows. The running 
fight, which lasted several hours, attracted great crowds of specta- 
tors. No one, we are glad to say, was seriously hurt. This spe- 
cies of sabbath breaking and disgraceful wrangling should be 
stopped by the interference of a strong body of policemen. If such 
civil war is allowed to exist, it will soon be as of old, unsafe for 
persons residing on the hill or in the creek, to venture into the 
districts of the contending parties. It is morally wrong that such 
occurrences should take place in a law abiding community. 


Abeel, Christopher, freeholder, 283 
Gerrit, assistant alderman, 200 
Johannes, 94, 107, 113, 119, 120, 
246, 247; justice, 106; council- 
man, 94, 105 ; alderman, 240, 245, 
250, 251; mayor, 251, 259, 262, 
Stoffel Janse, 99. See Stoffel 

Janse, and Evert Janse. 
Abercrombie's army, 312 
Abrahamse, Jacob, 119 
widow of Jacob, 256 
Melgert, 115, 119 
Act of 2 per cent, 1693, 253, 261 
Adgate, Matthew, 287 ; for assembly- 
man, 293 

Adochtirasse, 162 
Adriaensz, Rutger, 280 
Aernoutts, Hendrik, soldier, 222 
Aersen, Joris (George), 216, 217, 218, 

219, 220 

Aiadane, sachem, 44 
Albany Academy medals, 320 
and Mohawk plank road, 324 
beer, price of, 230 
chartered, 56 

City Tract Society, 325, 326 
claimed to be the place to hold 

treaties of peace, 165 
Daily Times begun, 332 
description of, 48 
expedition to, 222 
Gazette by Robertsons, 284; by 
Webster, 286; enlarged, 295; 
semi-weekly, 300 

inhabitants manufacture wam- 
pum, 6 
Institute, 285 

Insurance Company, directors, 328 
Journal, 1788, 298 
petition for better defense of, 253 
Register founded, 298 . 
Republican Artillery ball, 329 
sends reluctant aid to Sehenec- 

tady, 179 
soldiers for garrison at, 221, 222, 


Aldermen, 1687, 93 ; 1688, 94; 1689, 103: 
assistant, see councilmeu; fined 
for absence, 85 ; first board, 65, 83 ; 
fine for refusal to serve, 72 ; surety 
for city loan, 96 

Alexandria, houses, 1785, 295 

Algie, Lithan, 351 

Allan, John, 202 

Allen, Henry A., 324 

Allyn, John, letter to Leisler, 206 

Almanac first printed, 290 

Almshouse, 1849, 327 ; 1850, 358 ; health 

of, 336 

Alofsen, S., translates Schuyler's jour- 
nal, 237 
Alvord, Nancy, 333 

William, takes medal, 320. ' 
Ambercrombie's army, 55 
Ames, Julius R., died, 340 
Amsterdam chamber, complaint to, 

33 ; merchants, suit by, 242 
Andrew, Janet, died, 325 
Andriese, Jan, 92 

Jurian, soldier, 223 
Andros, Edmund, 94, 200 ; neglects to 

confirm Van Rensselaer's title, 56; 

example to be made of, 141 
Annals of the year 1849-50, 324-354. 
Annapolis, houses, 1785, 295. 
Annesly, Lawson, 338 
Appel, Adriaen, 256, 259 ; his house to 
be pulled -down, 182; ganger, 
228; grant of lot to, 183 

Johannes, 119, 247, 266; assessor, 
245 ; chamberlain, 251 ; consta- 
ble, 103, 123; plaintiff, 252, 253, 
254 ; representative, 265 ; sheriff, 
246, 262; signs against Leisler, 
135; treasurer, 258; juror, 243 

Willem, 212 
Appell, Joh., 267 
Aqueduct, 1686, 86; 1779, 285; creek 

purchased for, 346 ; project of, 337, 

Arachkoenichta, 162 

Arbor Hill improved, 332 

Arentse, Gerrit, soldier, 221; takes 

oath, 124 

Arentsen, Binnonie, 212 
Arms deposited in the church, 107 ; 

importation prohibited, 15 
Armsby, James H., president County 

Medical Society, 351 
Army encampment, 312 
Arnold, Isaac, trader, 290 
Arnout's letter from the Maquase, 113 
Artcher, Mrs. Michael, died, 349 



Articles with Milborne, 148 
Ashley's ferry named Troy, 300 
Askanga, Indian owner, 19 
Aspinwall & Jackson, contractors, 347 
Assemblymen elected, 1785, 292 
Assessment voted for, 92 
Assessors elected, 85 ; valuation, 1849- 

Assistant aldermen, first board, 65, 84. 

See election. 

Assize, collecting of neglected, 223 
Atkins, Robert, died, 340 
Atonement for dead by savages, 235 
Aukus, Douwe, ensign, 209, 237 : Leis- 
ler's justice at Schenectady, 171 

Hille, 154 

Indian interpreter, 159, 160 
Austin, Volkert, died, 345 

William, died, 332 

William, Jr., takes medal, 320 
Avery, Mr. L. D., died, 336 

Babcock, Mrs. Abby, died. 332 

Backer, Abram, for assemblyman, 293 
Jochim Weasels, 281 

Baker, Ellis, 339 

John, soldier. 223 
Rebecca, died, 332 

Bakers complained of, 97; petition 
for advance on bread, 240 ; regula- 
tions of, 245 

Bakker, Jacob, 270 

Balch and Fryer, merchants, 287 

Balentine, Solomon, 285, 286 

Balstown vote, 1789, 300 

Baltimore, houses, 1785, 295: popula- 
tion, 296 

Banker, Evert, 107, 111, 113, 115, 119, 
120, 121, 125, 126, 129, 143, 148, 
158, 164, 167, 168, 181, 184, 192, 
193, 213, 246, 252; alderman, 105, 
200, 240, 245, 250, 251, 257; con- 
curs in protest, 177; constable, 
94; councilman, 94, 103, 106 
Gerrit, subscription to war fund, 
119; daughter died, 336 

Banks, Capt. 246 

Barbar, Thomas, soldier, 223 

Barber, Robert, prints Register, 298 

Barclay, Daniel, trader, killed, 290 

Barends, Matthew, soldier, 221 

Barensen, Catlyn, 212 

Barents, Reynier, 111, 119. 129, 136, 143, 
150, 158, 164, 167, 182, 184, 185, 
186, 195, 209, 213, 242; agent to 
New York, 192; agent to pro- 
cure aid, 193; assistant alder- 
man, 240, 245; councilman, 93, 
94, 103, 105 2 106; did not under- 
stand English, 193 ; instructions 
to, 194- lieutenant, 237 

Barheyott. Wouter, freeholder, 283 

Barhydt, Richard, died, 335 

Bark canoes, 210 

Barley trade, 1838-1849, 369; statistics, 

1850, 353, 354 
Barnard, D.D., minister to Berlin, 347 

Frederick J., 339 
Barnes, Wm., 331, 341 
Barnet, Robt., takes oath, 124 
Barnsford, Christoph, takes oath, 124 
Barnum, Mrs. Egbert W., died, 340 
Barrack street, derivation of, 303 
Barratt, Robert, Jun., freeholder, 282 
Barrett, Thomas, 291; road master, 


Barrington, Nicholas, school of, 288 
Barry, Thomas, merchant, 285 
Barscall, David, drowned, 352 
Barsett, John, soldier, 221 
Barton, Catharine,, died, 347 

Leiftenant Rodgar, 222 
Basin excavation, 3b8 
Bass in Hudson, 316, 319 
Basset, Michael, freeholder, 282 

John, ordained, 297 
Bastiaensz, Harmen, 280 
Batcheldor, E. C., 344 
Battle New Orleans, anniversary, 328 
Baum, Abraham, drowned, 347 
Baxter, Major, 109 
Beardsley, Phoebe, died, 341 

Rufus, G., Pres. Y. M. Association, 


Beasley, John, freeholder, 282 , 
Beaver Block, 294 

skins, duty on, 36 ; exported, 42 ; 

price of, 238, 239 
Beck, T. Romeyn, 327; address by, 


Becker, Jan, 119, 256, 267; assessor, 

245, 251; called to account, as 

city treasurer, 251 ; signs against 

Leisler, 134 

Johannes, the younger, 257 ; signs 

against Leisler, 135 
John, alderman, 105, 200; assist- 
ant alderman, 257; constable, 
240 ; treasurer, 103, 245, 248, 249 
Bedding furnished to soldiers, 266 
Bedell, David A., died, 326 
Beeckman, Martin, soldier, 222 ; free- 
holder, 283 
Beef, price of, 334 
Beeker, Abraham, 287 

Johannes, express to Leisler, 117 
Beekman, Capt., 181, 184; volunteers 

to aid Albany, 123 
Cornells, 270 
Gerardus, 139, 287 
Hendrick, firemaster, 88; free- 
holder, 283 ; signs against Leis- 
ler, 134 

Joh, 111, 113, 115, 119, 139, 199, 254 ; 
assessor, 240, 245; councilman, 
94 ; freeholder, 282 ; justice, 106 ; 
juror, 243 

Beer excise, 34, 37 ; good [i. e., strong], 



Be'eren island, excursion to, 345 ; forti- 
fied, 19 ; Indians, 184 ; limit of col- 
onie, 25 ; signification of name, 316 

Belcher, Capt., 114 

Bender, C. W., 339 

Benedict, Caroline Matilda, died, 340 
E. A., 349 

Lewis, postmaster, 348 
Lewis, Jr., 349 

Benjamin, G. W., 325 

Bennet, James, 171 

Bennitt, Ens., 184 

Bensen, Cornelia Dunbar, died, 330 
Egbert, 316, 317, 318 
Leift Job, 120 

Sensing, Dirk, 119, 241, 242; appraiser 
of houses to be taken down, 182 ; 
treats with Milborne, 155 
Johannes, his house a retreat, 115 ; 
captain, 209 

Benson, Judge, account of funeral cus- 
toms, 307 

Benton, George, drowned, 343 

Berg street, now Chapel, 303 

Bergen county made wampum, 6 
Margaret, died, 345 
See Van Bergen and Gerritsen 

Berry, Michael, 333 
Pieter, soldier, 221 

Bethlehem, fort at, 115 

Betson, Mrs. Oscar C., died, 337 

Betts, Daniel, 326 - 
Mary, died, 326 

Sever kil, 267 ; question of title, 261 ; 
king's highway west of, 96 

Beverwyck, 9, 37 ; court of justice for, 
31, 32; early name of Albany, 279; 
now Albany, 311 ; so called, 57 ; 
its site, 311, n.; cut off from Colo- 
nie, 25, 27; enclosed by board 
fence, 278; improvements at, 13; 
excited by armed posse, 15 

Bickford, Leift Abra., 255 

Bigelow, Uriah G., 351 

Billets offered to Milborne, 139 

Billou, Pierre, 270 

Bissel, Giacomo, 274 

Blagge, Captain Benjamin, 200, 202, 
232 ; sent in pursuit of Rob. Liv- 
ingston, 204 

Blake, Mrs. Hannah, died, 331 
John, merchant, 287 

Blanchard, J. W., 349 

Blanks, Nicolaes, 211 

Bleeker, Captain John, 104, 116, 127, 
136, 172, ^~ 

177, 179 ; his company, 
113, 116; to pull down houses, 
183; to repair stockadoes, 115; 
his kettles distrained, 227 ; Leis- 
ler willing to treat with, 117 

Ens. Job, 209 

Hall, its site, 287 

Hendrick, freeholder, 282 

Henry, 328 

Jacob, road master, 293 

Bleeker, Jan, 90, 107, 111, 128, 129, 158, 
178, 182, 184 ; alderman, 106, 120 ; 
assessor, 258 ; first chamberlain, 
65, 148, 164, 167, 170; on select 
committee, 193 

Jan Janse, 84, 91, 113, 119, 123, 124, 
125, 166, 186, 192, 198, 199, 207, 
213, 247, 267; captain, 143, 147, 
260; alderman, 93, 94, 103, 240, 
245, 258 ; first alderman, 65, 83 ; 
justice, 216, 217, 218, 219, 237; 
his opinion on Leisler 1 s author- 
ity, 171 ; delegate, 216 
Jan, Jr., signs against Leisler, 135 
Johannes, 246, 254; freeholder, 

282; Job., Jun., 256, 257 
John, 185, 242 ; alderman, 105, 200, 

250 ; Indian interpreter, 317 
John N., overseer poor, 293 
Nicholas, freeholder, 282 
Nicholas, Jr., freeholder, 282 
Rutgert, 311 ; freeholder, 282 ; pur- 
chaser of Cosby 's manor, 334 
William E., 339 
Blockhuijse, 268 

Bloodgood, Abraham, merchant, 292 
Mrs. Lydia, died, 290 
William, 290 
Blue Belle tavern, 285 
Blue Stocking, Capt., proposal by, 177 
Bogardus, Antlesius, freeholder, 282 
Pieter, takes sides with Milborne, 
137, 155; in Leisler's interest, 
169, 170 ; appraiser of houses to 
be taken down, 182; alderman, 

Schebolet, freeholder, 282 
Bogart, Abraham, freeholder, 283 
Benja., freeholder, 282 
Cornelius, freeholder, 283 
Isaac, freeholder, 282 
Jacob, freeholder, 283; signs a- 

gainst Leisler, 135 
John, sells mill stones, 292 
Peter, freeholder, 283 
Boils, Joseph, soldier, 222 
Bolting privileges promised, 141 
Bompoenik, fort at, 115 
Bond to Robt. Livingston, for money 

advanced, 127, 129 
Bookstore, early, 285 
Booth, Mrs. Philo, died, 334 
Borsboom, Pieter Jacobse, 45 
Bos, Isaac, soldier, 222 
Bosboom, Tryntie, 212 

Hendrick, freeholder, 282 
Bosloopers prohibited, 23 
Boss, Pieter, constable, 103, 123 
Boston called upon for aid, 181 ; called 
. upon for 100 men, 120; declines 
aid in French war, 121 ; houses, 
1785, 295; population. 296; Leis- 
ler's letter to, 202, 203 
Bowen, S. T., 325 
Bowne, Andrew, loan to city, 95 

Annals, ii. 




Boyd, Charles, takes medal, 323 

James P., 327 

John, soldier, 221 

P. P., 351 

Robert, 325 

Boyen, William, 108, 109 
Boyle, Daniel, 333, 344 
Bradford, Rev. Mr., 306; school trus- 
tee, 305, 306 
Bradstreet, Gen., purchaser of Cosby's 

manor, 334 
Bradt, Andries, 212 ; freeholder, 282 

Anthony, 119; assessor, 258; signs 
against Leisler, 135 ; freeholder, 

Barent, 259 ; does not subscribe to 
the war fund, 119; freeholder, 
Barent Albertse, his house to be 

demolished, 182, 183 
Bernardus, freeholder, 282 
Citte, 212 

Daniel, 214 ; fined, 244 ; illicit trad- 
er, 243 ; sells rum to Indians on 
Sunday, 252, 253; fined therefor, 
254 ; died, 329 
Dirck, 212 

Dirk Albertse, 212; sent to Sara- 
toga, 128 ; recalled from Sarato- 
ga, 159; guide and interpreter, 
210 ; signs against Leisler, 135 ; 
volunteers to aid Indians in 
building, 113 ; scout at Saratoga, 
123 ; to be consulted about ren- 
dezvous, 215. 

Egbert, freeholder, 282. See Bradt 
Johannes, illicit trader, 243, 244 ; 

plaintiff, 240; constable, 258 
Johannes Barentse, fine remitted, 


Samuel, 212 

Brand, Andrew, giant, died, 347 
Brandy not to be sold to Indians, 46 
Brant haeken (fire hooks), 268 

hout (fire wood), 268 
. leere (fire ladders), 268 
Bread, increase of price, 240; one 
penny a loaf, 97 ; price, 1785, 296 ; 
weight of prescribed, 245 
Bredenbent, Wm., 270 
Breeches patterns, 285 
Bremer, Frederika, arrived, 346 
Bridges, repair of, 263, 265 
Bries, Anthony, 256, 257 

Hendrick, 119; constable, 245; 
firemaster, 97; freeholder, 283; 
juror, 243 

Briggs, Hannah, died, 348 
Brignam, Andrew, 347 
Brinsmade. J. B., 331 
Brodgat, Thomas, soldier, 222 
Bronck, Leonard, assemblyman, 293 
Pieter, 280 
Jan, judgment against, 241 

Bronson, Greene C., 327, 283 
Oliver, takes medal, 323 

Brooke, Chida, his bill, 258 

Brooks, Jonathan, freeholder, 282 

Broun, Abraim, soldier, 222 

Brown, Joseph B., takes medal, 320 

Brouwer, Peter, soldier, 223 

Bruyn, Monsieur Jan Hendricksen, 139, 
211, 214, 215, 216, 217, 219, 234, 

Buckbee, James A., 344 

Buffalo steam boat, 334 

Building active, 1850, 335 

Bulgin, Arthur, died, 349 

Bull, Capt. Jonathan, 114, 157, 184, 192, 
196, 205; expense of quartering, 
262; his proposal to garrison 
neighboring places, 157, 158; dis- 
allows Leisler's pretensions, 171 ; 
motion to retain, 205 ; request that 
he be not withdrawn, 193 ; returns 
home, 220 ; declines to send scouts, 
177: soldier returned, 233 ; arrives 
with New England troops, 155 ; to 
aid in French war, 121, 122 

Bullions, Henry L., takes medal, 323 
John C., takes medal, 323 
Rev. Peter, 351 

Bumpus, Capt. Morris, 351 

Burger, Gerret, soldier, 222 
excise, 241 
pacht, 98 

Burgers to be defended, 134 

Burgess, Mr., 288 

Burgesses corps excursion, 344 ; to be 
convened in defence of their liber- 
ty, 131. 

Burglar hanged, 301 

Bunal ground desecrated, 88 

Burials, few in 1785, 292 

Burk, George W., died, 345 

Burnaby mentions wampum, 6 

Burritt, Elihu, address by, 333 

Bush, linen distributed in, 212 

Bush, Walter R., 325. 341 

Buss loopers (bush rangers) or scouts, 

Butler, Richard, 289 

Butter, receipts of, 349 

Buttermilk falls sold, 103 

Buys, Jan, 212 

Byrnes, John, 344 

Byvanck, Jan, 211 

Cab driver drowned, 338 
Cable, John, soldier, 222 

Joseph, soldier, 222 
Cadarachqui, 186; abandoned by 

French, 160, 161, 162; expedition 

at, 235 
Cahohatatea, the Hudson river, 314, 

317, 318 
Cajadorus, 161 



Caldwell, William, mathematical me- 
dal, 320 

Caledonian Fusileers, 340 

Cam, Robert, soldier, 222 

Cambridge vote, 1789, 300 

Cameron, Robert, 351 

Camioll, James, soldier, 222 

Campbell, Archibald, merchant, 287 ; 

removed, 325 
Daniel, 338 
G., 351 
John N.. farewell discourse, 333, 


James, town-major, 237 
Mrs. John C., died, 341 

Canada, 233 ; equipment against, 213; 
expedition against, 231 ; expedi- 
tion under Capt. John Schuyler, 
234; Indians invade, 38; Indians 
pursued, 178; reluctance to spare 
forces from Albany, 179 ; invasion 
from suspected, 1689, 107, 108; 
news from, 128; proposal to in- 
vade, 197 ; to be attacked by sea, 

Canadian invasion threatened, 110 

Canaghsionie, 235 

Canal boat, large freight, 338 

Canals closed, 1849, 324 ; opened, 1850, 
337; receipts, 1850. 349, 351 

Canastigeone, proposal to garrison, 
157, 158 

Canneogahakalononitade, or Mohawk 
river, 318 . 

Cannon, patroon's, 11 

Canoe, delegates to be 'forwarded to 
New York by, 216 

Canoes, bark, 210 

Cansalis, Manuel, soldier, 116 

Cantuquo, sachem, 44 

Capron, John, died, 341 

Captain, pay of, 142 

Captives, 290, 291 ; redemption of, 238 

Care, John, soldier, 222 

Carey, John, merchant, 289 

Carlan, Manas, freeholder, 282 

Caristasie, Indian messenger, 162, 164, 

Carmen licensed, 91 

Carnes, William, 256 

Carpenter, Ephraim, soldier, 222 

Carr, William A., 344 

Carristasio, warrior, 235 

Carson, Sarah Matilda, died, 336 

Carstensen, Teunis, 212 

Warner, signs against Leisler, 135 

Carter, John, 256; city porter, 87; 
takes oath, 124 ; witness, 238 

Carter, Mrs. Samuel, died. 353 
William F., 351 

Cartwright's tavern, 285 

Casane, Jacobus Mons., soldier, 223 

Casperse (Hallenbeck), Jan, 260 

Casseltowne, George, soldier, 223 

Castle Island, 316 

Catskill, its location, purchased, 19; 
Indians invited to settle at, 184; 
price paid, 20 ; right contested, 21, 
24; ptockadoes apportioned to, 
249 ; to furnish firewood and can- 
dles to the block house, 250 ; pro- 
portion of tax, 260; to furnish fire- 
wood, 260; vote, 1789, 300 

Cattle brought by rail road, 340 ; fair, 

Census. 1785, 296; 8th -ward, 344 

Chalender, Jan, soldier, 222 

Chalk, a mulatto, 54 

Chamberlain, first, 65 ; report, 1850, 355 

Chambers, Ivie, merchant, 293 

Major, orders vote of Ulster county 
on sending troops to Albany, 123 
Thomas, soldier, 22, 221, 270 

Chambly, sand bank, of, 235 

Champlain, William, drowned, 341 

Chandlery established, 299 

Chapman, Wm. H., died, 324 

Charbonnon, Anthony, died, 340 

Charleston, houses, 1785, 295 ; popula- 
tion, 296 

Charter centennial anniversary, 295; 
expense of obtaining, 87; first 
printed, 57 ; granted, 56 ; reception 
of, 82, 83 ; loan to pay expenses of, 
95 ; pronounced null, 137 

Chatfield, A. F., 340 

Cheapside street, 285 

Chimneys, fine for foul, 98 ; inspected, 

China, voyage to, 295 ; return, 297 

Christman, a clerk, 30 

Christoffelse, David, Leisler's justice 
at Schenectady, 171 

Church, becomes a depot of arms, 107; 
cannon placed on, 278; erected 
in 1643, 38 ; pasture, 58, 59, 96 
First Presbyterian, 294 

Churches, 1764, 48 

Churchill, candidate for command of 

fort, 130 
William, 139 

City bounds, movement to change, 

328 ; prescribed, 62 
expenses, 1686, 86 
Hall, its site, 268; dock, 288; pri- 
son, 292; site of, 286 
oflBcers prescribed by charter, 63 
records partly found, 215 
treasurer, 103 

Claese, Johannes, illicit trader, 244 
Wm. [Groesbeeck ?] 92; council- 
man, 93 ; assessor, 240 

Claesen, Cornells. 212 

Claessen, Ryck, son little Isaac re- 
turned from captivity, 233 

Clapp, Mr. Ruel, died, 329 

Clark, Isabella, died, 350 
John, died, 344 
John, soldier, 221 
John, wins prize, 352 



Claverack conveyed, 47; purchased, 
19; stockadoes portioned to, 249; 
to supply firewood, 260 

Claxton & Babcock, printers, 298 

Clerk, David. 139 

Clinton county taken off, 298 

George, elected governor, 300 ; his 
message, 301 ; at treaty, 288 

Cloathes not to be rinsed at the public 

wells, 88 
Cloet, Bate, suit of, 243 

John, prisoner in Canada, 243 
Clothing not to be exported, 185, 199 
Clowes, Timothy, school trustee, 305 
Clnett, Elizabeth, died, 348 
Cobbes, Ludovicus, court messenger, 

Coburn, Kobt., 325 
Coeymans, Peter, freeholder, 283 
Samuel, freeholder, 283 
coal, sought for, 325 
Cohoes, 311 ; limit of colonie, 25 ; rail 

road extension, 332 
Cok, John, killed, 256 
Colburn, Edward B., died, 343 
Cold, 1789, 300, 303, 329, 331 ; in Sep- 
tember, 1850, 347 
Cole, John O., 353 
Collins, Edward, freeholder, 282 
Colonie, limits undetermined, 36 ; de- 
prived of revenue, 37 ; minister of 
church, 33 
Columbia county set off, 295; steam 

boat, 325; sold, 327 
Colve, Jacobus, soldier, 222 
Colvin, A. J., elected dist. attorney, 350 
Commercial Bank dividend, 327 ; build- 
ing, 286 

Commissaries write to Leisler, 215 
Commission of Gerrit Swart, of Rens- 

selaerswick, 273-277 
Common council, how constituted, 65 
Commonalty refractory, 199 
Cone, Solomon, 326 
Congregational church bell, 336 
Conkling, Aurelian, takes medal, 320 
Connetticut furnishes 80 men to aid 
Albany, 125, 126; sends aid in 
French war, 121 ; sends 80 men to 
aid Albany, 142, 205 ; called upon 
for troops, 120 ; soldiers furnished 
by, 231 ; thanks voted to, for aid, 
123, 313; troops withdrawn, 220; 
pay of soldiers, 159 
Connestigioene, to be garrisoned, 229 
Constables to keep the pound, 91 
Constitution, ratification celebrated, 


Constitutional dissensions, 298 
Convention on the state of the pro- 
vince, 1664, 270, 271; to resist 
Leisler, and all comers, 107; re- 
solve to hold the city against Leis- 
ler, 131 ; lives of members endan- 

Convention, continued 

gered, 145; of military and civil 
officers, 195 ; superseded by Leis- 
ler, 200 

Conveyances, fees for acknowledg- 
ment of, 98 

Coome, Philiph, soldier, 221 

Coopele, Loowies, 212 

Cooper. Christian, death sentence, 293 
John Tayler, 328, 337 
Obadiah, freeholder, 282 
Petrus, death sentence, 293 
Richard, died, 349 

Coopers Town, -famine at, 301 

Coopesen, Lauries, 212 

Corlaer, Ambrosio, place of drowning, 


Arent, freeholder, 283 
Bennony, assistant alderman, 257 

Corn high in 1789, 301 ; statistics, 1850, 
353, 354 ; viewer, his fees and how 
paid, 99 

Cornelissen, Akes, 212, 217, 218, 219 
Arnout, interpreter, 108, 165, 234 ; 
sent to Indian council, 166. See 

Dicke Jan, 103 
Greetje, 216, 217 
Jacquse, 45 ; his letter, 162 
Jan, soldier, 222' 
Lysbet, 213 
Marte, 45, 115 
Teuuis, 45, 280 

Cornes, William, soldier. 221 

Corning, Erastus, 332, 337; president 
iron meeting, 325 ; pres. savings 
bank, 339; service of plate voted 
to, 352 
corps target excursion, 352 

Coroner, office created, 71 

Corporation bond to Mrs. Schuyler, 159 

Corten, Myndert, 139 

Cortlandt, Mr., 56 
Coll., 248 

Cortleyou, Jaques, surveyor, 45 

Cosby, William, governor, 277 

Costigan, John, 344 

Couch, Samuel, soldier, 222 

Councilmen, 84, 93, 94, 103, 105 

Counterfeiter arrested, 292; hanged, 

County, convened on the state of the 
country, 132; called- upon for 
men, 118 
court, 79 
tax levied, 247, 248 

Court house, first in Albany, 42 
of common pleas, 69, 79 

Courtney, Samuel G., takes medal, 323 

Cows milked in the streets, 49 

Coxsackie, proportion of tax, 260 ; to 
furnish firewood, 260; to furnish 
firewood and candles to the block- 
house, 250; stockadoes appor- 
tioned to, 249 ; vote, 1789, 300 



Coyle, Hugh, 333 

Coyler [Cuyler] , Abraham, ensign, 237 

Henry, 202 

Cozens, Richard, soldier, 222 
Crafft, Robert, soldier, 223 
Cralo estate, 47 

Crane, Elisha, cider merchant, 294 
Crapo, Mrs. Chauncey V., died, 350 
Cregier, Captain Martin, 256, 257, 260, 

278 ; petition to extend his house, 

263 ; permitted to build, 266, 267 
Cridel, Lodewick, freeholder, 283 
Crime, punishment for, 301 
Cristofelseu, David, 212 
Croesveld, Bay., 242 
Cromwell, Thomas, soldier, 221 
Croon, Dirck Jansen, 281 

Jannetie, widow of Papendoro, 94 
Cross, Hans, cartman, 113, 246; signs 

against Leisler, 135 
Croswell, John R. , takes medal, 320, 323 
Crown Point, rendezvous at, 215, 235 
Cuadaroghque, 161 
Cullen, Patrick, 333 
Cummings, John, 328 

Jane Frances, died, 328 
Cumpston, Edward, merchant, 288; 

Curran, Mary, died, 341 
Cushing, Eliza, died, 348 
Cushman, Paul, 344 

R. S., 344 

Cutler, C. L., custodian of town clock, 

John N., 331, 342; died, 326 
Cuyler, Abraham, 119, 254; assistant 
alderman, 245, 251, 290; free- 
holder, 282 ; signs against Leis- 
ler, 135 

Cornelius, freeholder, 282 

Elizabeth, married, 277 

Gansevoort & Co., 291 

George, 329 

Hend , 86, 92, 95; alderman, 93; 
writes to Schenectady in Mil- 
borne 1 s interest, 140, 141 ; widow 
of, 231 

Henry, 139 

Jacob, federal elector, 298 ; super- 
visor, 293 

Jacob C., 328, 349 

Jacob I., daughter died, 336 

Joh., 90, 119, 125, 128, 129, 136, 143, 
145, 146, 148, 149, 150, 151, 157, 
158, 167, 182, 184, 185, 186, 208, 
213, 216, 219, 233, 242, 252, 267; 
agent to New YOrk, 192 ; attor- 
ney, 238; assistant alderman, 
240, 258; clerk, 208, 237; council- 
man, 93, 103, 105; declines 
agency, 193 ; surety for city, 95 ; 
suspends his vote, 136 

John, 266; deacon, 261 

Mrs. Anna, 231 ; plaintiff, 238 
Cuyper, Jan Andrese, 86 

Daly, John, 333 

Danford, William, soldier, 222 

Danielse, John, soldier, 222 

Davenport, Mr., 181 
Rev. Mr., 346 

Davidtse, Pr. (Schuyler), 119; assist- 
ant alderman, 200 

Davis, Joseph, 339 
Nathaniel, 328 
William, 349 

Deacons, goods delivered to, 211 

Dean, Capt. Stewart, house of, 292: 
sailed to China, 295; returned 
from China, 297 

Death record, 340 

De Bruyn, Johannes, his commission 
from Leisler, 201 

Debt, confinement for, 302; of city, 

De Chene, 109 . 

De Decker, Johannes, vice director, 
37, 38; arrests tapsters, 39; com- 
missaris resigned, 42; councillor, 

Deer abundant, 1641, 281 

De Foreest, Jesse, freeholder, 283 

Degannesore, 166 

Deganochkeeri, proposal by, 177 

De Hart, Matthys, soldier, 222 
& Kinney, mail carriers, 302 

Dehashedis, 162 

De Hooges, Anthony, 280; secretary 
' of colony, 28, 272 

De Laet, Johan, 277 
on fishes, 319 

Delafortune removed on suspicion, 
107, 108, 111 

De Lanoy, P., 139, 202 

Delavan stores begun, 349 

Delaware Indians, murder by, 290 

Delehanty, Michael, 344 

Dellius, Godfredius, 261 ; delivers In- 
dian threats to Milborne, 154 

De Marest, David, 270 

De Mayer, William, 184 

De Metselaer, Teunise, 119 

Demilt, Pieter, 139 

Dempsey, Lawrence, died, 340 
Margaret E. dird, 344 

De Neufville, Leonard, glass factory, 

Denney, John, takes oath, 124 

Denniston'Hugh, tavern of, 287, 292 

Denoan, Denys A., soldier, 222 

De Peyster, John, 139 ; freeholder, 282 

De Razier, Isaac, introduced wam- 
pum, 2 

De Ridder, Leift. Evert, 118, 119, 120, 
180, 209; commands volunteers, 

Desagochquaetha, 162 

Desmareest, Jean, 139 

De Teurcx, Isack, 212 

Detroit, trading voyage to, 290 

De Vos, Andries, 15 



De Wandelaer, Johannes, 90, 183, 211, 
354 ; assessor, 240, 250, 257 ; as- 
sistant alderman, 200; consta- 
ble, 94 : councilman, 105 : deacon, 
Doude Johannes, assessor, 245 

DeWarm, Capt. Jacobus, 211, 215; 
soldier, 222 

De Winter, Bastiaen, 45 

De Witt, Rev. Mr., 306 
Richard V., 325 
Simeon, school trustee, 304, 305, 


William H., staves loaded for 
Maine, 352 

Dexter, James, 338, 353 

Deyermand, Wm., oil factory, 335 
Wm. G,, 328 

Dibble, Joseph, died, 340 

Dickson, James, 351 

Dircksen, Theunis, soldier, 223 

Dirkse, Takel, defendant, 256 

Ditches, regulations of, 264 

Dochstetter, Jacob, Oneida interpre- 
ter, 317 

Documentary History contain council 
minutes, 106 

Dodge, Mrs. Amos, died, 336 
Capt., 327 

Dogs to be killed, 294 

Doig, James, teacher, 291 

Domis, Toussain, 242 

Donahoe, Edward, 333 

Dongan, Col. Thomas, demands In- 
dian prisoners, 188 ; his authority 
vindicated, 200 ; executes the city 
charter, 56; signs the same, 81; 
his administration, 308 

Dougherty, Mrs. Francis, died,*351 

Douglas, John, takes oath, 124 
Wheeler, 287 

Doulier, Jean, soldier, 221 

Douw, Abraham, merchant, 289 ; free- 
holder, 283 

Hendrick, freeholder, 283 
Peter, freeholder, 283 
Peter W., alderman, 290 
Volkert A., road master, 293 
Volkert, freeholder, 282 
Volkert, Jun., freeholder, 282 
Volkert P., senator, 293 

Douwsborough glass factory, 297 

Dowd, Lawrence, 333 

Dragoons, Dirk, 99 

Drew, Daniel, 327 

Drowning, case of, 333 

Duanesburgh, vote, 1789, 300 

Dubison suepectrd of being a spy, 101 

Dubois, Elizabeth, died, 345 

Dudley, J. E., drowned, 325 

Duffels, price of, 230 

Duinandougha, 161 

Dulonpres, Mons., dancing school, 288 

Duncan, James, 351 

John, assemblyman, 298 

Dunlop, Robert, 325 

Durant, Clark, 327 

& Lathrop, grain store fell, 335 

Dutch church, site of, 286 

language, 308-310; transition of, 


names for Albany and vicinity, 311 
names for the fish in our rivers, 312 

Duyking, Gerrit, 139 

Dwyer, William, wins prize, 352 

Dyckman, Johannes, 34, 212, 213 ; ac- 
count of, 26 ; defines his authority, 
28 ; of unsound mind, 37 

Eagle guards, 353 

tavern, lot built upon, 349 

Eastown, vote, 1789, 300 

Edgar, Dr. Alexander, died, 291 

Edsall, Samuel, 139, 202, 220, 233 ; en- 
sign, 278 

Edwards, Isaac, 342 
James, 325, 332, 337 

Egbertse, Benja., freeholder, 282 
Egbert, freeholder, 282 

Eights, Abraham, merchant, 292 

Elbertsen, Elbert, 270 

Elderkin, speaker, 327 

Election, 1687, 93; 1691, 240; 1692, 245 ; 
1694, 257, 258 ; 1784, 289 ; 1785, 293 ; 
" 1789, 300 ; polls open, a week, 300 ; 
1850, 336, 350; for delegates to 
New York, 216 : of legislators, 292; 
proposed by Milborne, 146 ; to be 
held, 72. See aldermen 

Elgin, Lord, 347 

ElUs, Wm., takes oath, 124 

Ely, John, teacher, 293 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, lecturer, 329 

Emigrants' Friend Society, 353 

Emmet Guards, 340 ; ball, 329 

Empire steam boat sold, 327 

Encluys, Hans, 11 

English rebels, 271 

Ensign, pay of, 142 

Eps, Jan. 212 

Esmay, Barent W., died, 338 

Esopus destroyed, 278 ; Indians em- 
ployed, 118, 120 ; sends aid to Al- 
bany, 181, 185, 194 ; volunteers aid 
in French war, 123 

Evertse, Jacob, freeholder, 283 
Johannes, freeholder, 283 
Teunise, freeholder, 283 

Excise, 258, 259; claimed by Stuy- 
vesant, 23 ; of liquors, 98 ; 3 per 
cent, 265, 266 ; unsettled, 39 

Execution for burglary, 301 

Experiment, sloop voyage to China, 

Exports prohibited, 199 

Faction of Milborne, 151 
Faifre, Jean, soldier, 221 



Fair for cattle, 1784, 290; State Agri- 
cultural Society, 346 

Fairs regulated, 73 

Farle, Alexander, soldier, 223 

Farling, D., 340 

Farrall, Catharine, died, 331 

Farrington, Robt., takes oath, 124 

Fast ordered by Stuyvesant, 11 

Fay, Dr., almshouse physician, 327 

Federal Constitutional electors, 297; 
Herald, 298 

Feloo, Richard, soldier, 222 

Feltman, John C., 344 

John C., Jr., foreman, 328 

Ferry horse boat sank, 350 ; to Green- 
bush, 58, 59 

Finagel, Jan, justice, 237 

Finances, 1783, 90, 302, 303 

Finch, Margaret, died, 345 

Fine for foul chimneys, 98 ; for illicit 
trade with Indians, 102, 244; for 
neglecting to draw firewood, 91, 93; 
for obstructing streets, 261 ; for 
sabbath breaking, 254 ; for selling 
liquors after tattoo, 93 ; for selling 
liquors to Indians, 100, 227; for 
using fire apparatus, 97; for re- 
fusing to take office, 72 

Finnagell, John, see Vinhagel 

Finnegan, John, burglar, 345 

Fire of 1793, 285 

department, 1850, 358 

Firehearths inspected, 87, 97 

Firehooks inspected, 87 

Fireladders, 97, 258 

Firemasters, 258 ; 1693, 252 ; duties of, 
87, 97 ; resisted, 90 

Firewood brought in canoes, 247 ; for 
Indian houses, 91 ; required for 
watch house, 93; allowed to be 
cut on the commons, 61 

First Presbyterian Church edifice, 294 ; 
farewell discourse, 333; new edi- 
fice opened, 334 ; sold, 825 

Fish abundant, 1641, 281 ; Dutch names 
for, 319 

Fish, N. A., 825 

Fisher, John, 254, 256 
John D., died, 346 

Fisker, John, suit of, 252. See Visger 

Fitzpatrick, Andrew, died, 325 
Ann Eliza, died, 335 

Five Nations, god of, 6 ; not to be dis- 
couraged, 204 ; useful in war, 197 

Flats, residence of the Schuylers, 55 

Flensbtirgh, Johannes, freeholder, 282 

Fletcher, Ben}., 267 

Floid, John, soldier, 221 

Florida, commissions to sail to, 36 

Flour high, 1789, 301 ; price of, 334 ; 
price, 1785, 296; receipts of, 849, 
351 ; statistics, 1850, 353, 354 

Floyd, Thomas, freeholder, 283 

Flynn, Patrick, 333 

Fog extraordinary, 328 

Folther, Robert, soldier, 221 
Fonda, Abraham, freeholder, 283 

David, assessor, 293; merchant, 


Nicholas, freeholder, 282 
Peter, freeholder, 283 
Fonteyn, Charles, soldier, 222 
Foot race, 335 
Foot, Thomas, soldier, 223 
Ford, Edward, sailor, 222 

Jacob, 287 ; for assemblyman, 293 
Foreest, David D., freeholder, 283 
Johannes D., freeholder, 282 
Phill, 254; constable, 94; high 

constable, 103 

Forgeson, John, soldier, 222 
Form of oath to the Patroon, 280 
Forsyth, William W., 337 
Fort, Orange, 39, 206 ; aided by the 
Colonie, 40 ; attempt to possess, 
36; buildings erectdti at, 11; 
building prohibited, 12 ; cannon 
in, 278 ; Capt. Staats to quarter 
in, 167 ; citizens build near, 19 ; 
prior claim of company, 20; 
claimed by Stuyvesant, 13 ; court 
of justice in, 31 ; damaged by 
freshets, 14 ; extent claimed 150 
rods, 25 ; limits of, 27 ; frontier 
town, 42; in 1784, 287; its 
strength, 22 ; jurisdiction claim- 
ed for 1,000 rods, 37; Leisler's 
orders to occupy, 201 ; repre- 
sented in convention, 1664, 270 ; 
retains fur monopoly, 43 
alterations in, 114 ; candidates for 
command of, 130; deficient of 
. clothing, 911 ; held for William 
and Mary, and against Leisler, 
125; Leisler' s orders to .occupy, 
901 ; officers of 1689, 209, 210 ; 
regulations for securing against 
Leisler, 135 ; to be held by the 
mayor, etc., 145; to be repaired, 
Schuyler, Indian treaty at, 289: 

site of, 334 

Stanwix, troops arrived from, 291 
William, 203, Leisler's letter from, 


Fortifications in country, 115; neg- 
lected, 104; repaired, 1689, 113; to 
be made, 185 

Foster, Mrs. Susan, died, 341 
Fourth July in iail, 302 
Fowler, Samuel S., died, 339 
Foxes creek, sturgeon in, 281, 314. See 

Vossen kil 

Fran, Isaak, soldier, 223 
France, force sent against, 160 
Franck, Isaac, soldier, 222 
Frederickse, Carsten [Smith], died, 98 
Myndert, 84, 85, 119 ; signs against 

Leisler, 134 
Willem, 280 



Fredericktown, houses, 1785, 295 

Freedoms to be granted, 73 

Freeholders, election by, 216; in Al- 
bany and Rensselaerswyck, 1742, 

Freight business by Boston road, 349 

French, expedition against, 227, 228 ; 
invasion, effort to prepare for, 118 ; 
prisoners removed from Saratoga, 
107, 108, 110. Ill ; to be rooted out, 
166: war subscription, failure of, 

Freshet, 331, 335, 336, 337, 338, 343, 346, 
350; in 1661, 43 

Frieslanders required, 194 

Frooman, Adam, 212. See Vrooman 

Frost in August, 1850, 345 

Frothingham, W. W., 328 

Furman, Gabriel, 1 

Fyn, Mr., 30 

Fyne. Joflannes, soldier, 221 

Fry, Daniel, died, 346 

Fryer, Isaac, freeholder, 282, Mrs. 

Isaac, died, 337 
Captain John, died, 288 

Fugitive slave meeting, 349 

Funda, Jellis, soldier, 116 

Funeral customs, 307 

Furbush, Nathaniel, soldier, 222 

Furs became scarce, 43 ; exports of, 42 

Fusileers, 241 ; arrive, 1694, 254 

Fuyck, early name of Albany, 279, 311 

Gaine, Hugh, 284 ; prints city charter, 

Galpin, Philip, soldier. 222 
Gambia river, 316 
Game abundant, 1641, 281 
Gansevoort, Conradt, 329 

Elizabeth, died, 329 

Harme," 152, 153; appraiser of 
houses to be taken down, 182 ; 
justice, 237; sued, 256; fined, 
257 ; treats with Milborne, 155 

Leendert, freeholder, 283 

Leonard, federalist, 298 

Peter, Jr., assessor, 293; federal 

elector, 298 
Gardenier, Andries, freeholder, 283 

Hendrick, 212 
Gardens, 1764, 49 
Gardner, Caleb, sentenced, 295 
Garius, Jillis D., freeholder, 282 

Johannis, freeholder, 282 
Garrison, firewood for, 247 ; increased, 

185; quartered, 1694, 254; to be 

under the Convention, 145 
Garritse, Adrian, see Papendorp 
Garten, Captain, 181, 184, 198, 194; 

volunteers to aid Albany, 123 
Gas meeting, 324. 825 
Gates, Joseph, freeholder, 282 
Gates of city, keeper of, 252 ; repaired, 

127, 183, 262 

Gayner, Mrs. George C., died, 336 
Genesee. famine in, 301 
George, George, died, 347 
Gerechtsrolle der Colonie, 23 
Gerlet, Gillian, soldier, 222 
German Catholic Church, corner stone 

laid, 338 

Gerrets, Gyspert, 212 
Gerritse, Adrian, 84, 86, 92 

Barent, suspected of a disturbance, 


Capt. Marte, 106, 113, 114, 115, 122, 
135, 143, 145, 147, 157, 158, 164, 
167, 170, 182, 184, 186, 209, 247 ; 
his company, 116, 119 ; his opin- 
ion on Leisler's claim, 171; 
justice, 129; his island, soldiers 
quartered on, 151; on select 
committee, 193 
Elbert, constable, 251 
Elbert, freeholder, 283 
Gooseu (Van Schaick), 280 
Hendrick, 113 ; recalled from Sara- 
toga, 159 
Jannetje, 119 

Luykas, 86, 87, 92, 208, 242, 254, 
256; assessor, 251; assistant 
alderman, 200; councilman, 105 
Marte, [Van Bergen,] 96, 119, 120, 
121, 168, 190, 192, 205, 208 ; signs 
protest, 176 
Roeloff, 119 
Ryer, freeholder, 282 
Wynant, 107 
Gibb, Capt., 351 
Gibson, Hannah, died, 334 
William, 325 

William J., takes medal, 320 
Gilbert, Edward, dinner to, 340 

John, baker, 240; signs against 

Leisler, 135 ; takes oath, 124 
Gilder, value of, 268 
Glass factory established, 297 
Glen, Capt. Alexander, 209 

Capt. Sander, 121, 122, 143, 145, 148, 
150, 157, 170, 192, 208, 217, 247 ; 
concurs in protest, 177 ; his age, 
218; his deposition respecting 
Livingston, 218, 220; his com- 
pany, 234 ; to build fort, 230 ; in- 
structed not to recognize Leis- 
ler's orders, 172; took oath of 
allegiance, 156 
Cathmrina, 119 
Ens. Johannes Sander, 122 
Henry, assemblyman, 292 
Jacob, Jun., freeholder, 282 
Jacob, marries Elizabeth Cuyler, 


Johannes, 209, 217 
Sander, executor, 243 
Sander Leendertsen, 28, 45, 280; 

arrested, 29 

Glossary of Dutch-English terms, 267 
Goewyck, Johannes, freeholder, 283 



Goewyck, Soloman, freeholder, 283 

Gold. Major. 232 

Gombell, Wm. F., died, 325 

Goodrich, Elihu, teacher, 293 

Goold, James, 327, 339 

Gordon, James, assemblyman, 292; 

federal elector, 298 
Goslee, Mrs. Matthew, died, 337 
Gott. William A., takes medal, 323 
Gould, Anthony, 328 
Gourlay, Mrs. James, died, 349 

James & Co., 285 

Government usurped by Leisler, 200 
Governor, tax of a penny on the pound 

for, 248, 249 
Gow, Daniel, soldier, 222 

Jan, 219, 244, 255 

John, firemaster, 88, 97, 258 
Grace church, corner stone laid, 343 
Grady, Patrick. 333; died, 336 
Graef, Claes, 213 
Graham, James, 56 
Grains, Robord, soldier, 222 
Grant, Mrs., memoirs, 48 

Ralph, takes oath, 124 

Richard J.. 338 

Graves, Mrs. Wm. M., died, 352 
Gray, Alexander, 351 

Margaret, died, 325 

William, merchant, 291, 351 
Great flat purchased, 43 

pasture (same as church past.), 96 
Green, John, soldier, 222 
Greenbush, Cralo estate at, 47; ferry, 58 

(net graen bosch), 311 
Greene county, settlement impeded, 21 
Greene, Henry P., takes medal, 323 
Gregory, Lucia M., died, 351 
Grenadiers, refusal to quarter, 261 
Greveraet, Isaac, freeholder, 283 
Griffin, Jacob, Jr., drowned, 343 

John, died, 344 

killed, 332 

Groesbeeck, see William Claese 

David, freeholder, 232 

Stephanus, constable, 258; free- 
holder, 282 

William, 86 

William Claese, 242 ; appraiser of 

houses to be taken down, 182 
Groot, Cornelia, 213 

Geertruy, 212 

Symen, 212 ' 
Groot Stuk, fort at, 115 
Groote Vlacht (Great Flatt), 44 
Grout. Patrick, killed, 332 
Guard by soldiery not well kept, 104 ; 

house, 1764, 48 
Guilliams. Wm., 270 
Gysbert, William, overseer of high- 
ways, 252 
Gysbertse, Gerrit, 115, 119, 212 

William, 91, 255; signs against 

Leisler, 134 
Gyseling, Elias, 212 

Haaton, Wm., takes oath, 124 

Haegedoorn, Marius, 212 

Hagan, Mrs. Charles O., died, 350 

Hale, Major. 286 

Half Moon (Waterford), 311 ; prepared 

for invasion, 115 ; proposal to gar- 
rison, 157, 158 ; to be garrisoned, 

229 ; vote, 1789, 300 
Hall, Francis B., takes medal, 320 
Hallenbeck, Casper Jacobse, 58 

Henderick, freeholder, 282 

Jan Casperse, 260 

Michael, tavern, 293 
Halsted. Mrs. Prudence, died, 336 
Hand, Mrs. Fanny, died, 344 
Hangman performs a duty, 85 
Hankisson, William, soldier, 221 
Hansen, And., 119 

Hendrick, 258, 264, 266, 267 ; asst. 
alderman, 251, 258; constable, 
240; freeholder, 282; juror, 243; 
high constable, 245 

Johannes, freeholder, 283 

Richard, freeholder, 283 
Hanz, Volckert, 22 
Hap, J., 38 

Haid, Moses Manase, soldier, 222 
Harmense, Myndert, 92, 119, 224 ; his 

pasture, 58; juror, 243; treats 

with Milborne, 155; justice, 237; 

testifies in Livingston's case, 218 
Harmensen, Anne, 212 
Harris, Hamilton, assemblyman, 350 

Capt. James B., 352 

John, 96; signs against Leisler, 

John, died, 350 
Stephen, 354 

Harrison, Mr., priest, 239 
Harsen, Bernardus, freeholder, 282 
Hart, Henry, merchant, 288, 294 
Hartford, communication with only 
on horseback, 290; houses, 1785, 
295 ; agents sent to, 194 
Hartgers, Pieter, 280 
Hartman, Johannes, soldier, 223 
Harvey, Matthew, 139 

Robert W., 328 
Hastings, John, 349 
Haswell, H. B., 353 
Hater, Ens. John, 209 
Hather, Wm., takes oath, 124 
Hawley, D. E., died, 336 
Hawthorn, John, drowned, 345 
Hazen, Jacob T., editor, 332 
Health, 1785, 292 
Heaton, John, freeholder, 282 
Heefke, Jan, glass factory, 297 
Heffelingh, Dirck, 212 
Heimslraet, Take!, signs against Leis- 
ler, 135 

Helling, William, freeholder, 282 
Helme, Margaret M., died, 345 
Helmer, Anthony, merchant, 292 
Helms, Jan, 281 



Henderson, Tobyas, 125 

Mr., wins prize, 352 
Hendricks, Barentie, wife of Dom. 

Schaets, 96, 97 
Hendrickse, Geurt, 119 

Hans, 1&3 ; captain, 237 ; juror, 243 

Hendrick, soldier, 221 

Jan, 120 

Philip, 45 

Willem, 113; illicit trader, 243; 
fined, 244; fine remitted, 244; 
signs against Leisler, 135 
Hendrik Hudson steam boat, 334 
Henkesson, Peter, soldier, 222 
Henry, Jacob, 324 

John V., school trustee, 305 

Major, 297 

Herbertz, Andries, 280 
Hercules, negro thief, 84, 85 
Hermit, 1764, 50 

Heron, Furman & Thornton, 332 
Herperts, Andries, 38 
Herrings in Hudson, 315 
Hesselinger, Dirck, 212 
Hewson, John D., 355 

Mr., house of, 292 

P., 351 

Robert, died, 327 
Hibernian Provident Society, 333 

Higgins, John, 333 

water, 331. See freshet 
Hifi, Richard, soldier, 222 
Hillegas issues currency, 287, 289 
Hillhouse, Thomas, 340 
Hills and creeks, 369-370 
Hills, Mrs. Erastus, died, 349 

Henry E., died, 347 
Hillson, Mary Bruce, died, 341 
Hilt, Jan., 213 
Hilton, Hannah, died, 352 

Jacobus, freeholder, 282 

Phoebe, died, 324 

Richard, freeholder, 282 

William, freeholder, 282 

William, Jun., freeholder, 282 
Hinde, John, cloth merchant, 292 
Hinkley, J. W., 344 
Hodge, John, died, 346 
Hodgkins, S. L., 344 
Hoffmayer, Wm., 183, 289; deceased, 

260 ; his house to be taken down, 

Hogan, Johannes, freeholder, 282 

William, freeholder, 282 

William, Jun., freeholder, 282 
Hogeboom, Lawrence, assemblyman, 

Holland, Edward, freeholder, 282 

Henry, freeholder, 283 

Jacobus, freeholder, 283 

Kitchen, freeholder, 283 
Hollie, Hend. Janse, 128 

Willem, 128, 219, 239; porter and 
town crier, 252 ; takes oath, 128 

Holman, John, takes oath, 124 

Hoist, Lowrens, Jr., soldier, 223 

Holste.n, L. D., 329, 339 

Holy Innocents church opened, 330; 

consecrated, 346 
Hooghkerk, Mr. John, 291 

Luykas, freeholder, 282 
Hoogland, Jeronemus, federal elector, 

Hoogteling, Coenraet, freeholder, 283 

William, freeholder, 283 
Hooks and ladders, 1688, 97 
Hooper, Stephen takes oath, 124 
Hoosic, ancient name of, 28 ; vote, 1789, 


Home, Hanse, house of, 291 
Horse boat sunk at ferry, 350 

stealing, penal, 293 
Horticultural exhibition, 341, 343 
Horton, Sargant Jonathan, soldier, 222 
Hospital, 1784, site of, 294 

governors, 1849, 327 
Hotaling, William, died, 345 
Houle, Oliver, 344 
Housatonia train quick trip, 328 
House telegraph hue opened, 350 
Houses enumerated, 1785, 295 : in 8th 

ward, 345; removed, settlement 

for, 259, 260 ; to be demolished, 

13, 16, 18, 182; number of, 17 
Howard, Ephraim, died, 329 
Howe, Lord, 55 
Howe, Silas B., 325 
Hoyt, George B., takes medal, 320 

Maria J., died, 340 

Hubbard attributes the wars in New 
England to the use of wampum, 3 

Mrs.H. L., died, 335 
Hudson, Heudrik, steam boat. 324, 
325 ; sold, 327, 347 ; fare reduced, 

river, claim of Van Twiller, 19; 

names for, 317, 318 
Hughes, Peter, drowned, 344 
Humphrey, Mrs. Chauncey, died, 333 

Friend, 327, 339; president tract 
society, 325 

John, died, 337 

Ralph, 325 

William, 339 
Hun, Dirk, freeholder, 282 

Johannes, freeholder, 283 

Thomas, alderman, 290; for as- 
semblyman, 293 
Hunt, Josiah, soldier, 222 

Thomas, soldier, 222 ; surgeon, 221 
Hunting not permitted except to citi- 
zens, 77 

Hntton, Isaac, clergyman, 288 
Huyck, Andries, freeholder, 283 

Ice exported, 333 ; first crossed, 1849, 
327 ; prevents crossing river, 253 ; 
weak, 1850, 329 ; broken through, 
033 ; moved out, 331 



Importers from London.291 
Imprisonment for debt* impolicy of, 


Index, quick sloop voyage, 351 
Indian aid called in, 118, 120 ; affairs, 
meeting on, 164, 165; ornaments, 
1 ; bond in war, 235 ; cloak, price 
of, 231; depredations, 40; dis- 
turbances, 1663, 278, 279; excur- 
sion to Canada, 38 ; goods taxed 2 
per cent, 266 ; graves, relics in, 2 ; 
hostages, 290 ; nouses, to be sup- 
plied, 246 ; money, 1 ; none but 
wampum ever known, 5; names 
of Albany and vicinity, 317, 318 ; 
prisoners die in France, 160, 162 ; 
demanded of French, 163 ; racers, 
335; scouts employed in French 
war, 120; trade secured to the 
city, 74; its advantages, 75; pro- 
hibited to all others, 76, 77 ; fine 
for violating, 89, 244, 265 ; meeting 
to regulate, 86 ; proclamation con- 
cerning, 102 : trade at Schenectady 
prohibited, 46 ; traders fined, 244 ; 
treaty at Fort Schuyler, 289 ; war 
threatened, 22 ; Toby, old soldier, 

Indians captured, 112; condole with 
citizens on the Schenectady mas- 
sacre, 186; depend upon magis- 
tracy, 140 ; drunk on Sunday, 253, 
254; excited by Stuyvesant, 15, 
16; invited to settle in the vicinity, 
184, 190; liquors forbidden to, 99 ; 
troublesome when drunk, 100; 
liquors prohibited, 117, 223, 226, 
244, 245 ; message from, 160 ; pay- 
ing taxes, 296 ; prohibited coming 
into the city, 102; supplies for, 
194; threaten Milborne^s party, 
153, 154; to be retained, 197; 
volunteer as scouts, 177, 178 
Ingells, William, soldier, 221 
Ingmire, John, wins prize, 352 
Ingoldesby, Col. Richard, 249, 261 
Invasion by Leislerians expected, 131 
Isaacs, Cleyn, his laud taken for fort, 

Isaakse, Abram, signs against Leisler, 

Isack, Klyn, returned from captivity, 


Island inundated eighth time, 1850, 
350 ; soldiers quartered at, 240 

Jackmonssc, John, soldier, 223 

Jacobse, Jan, 224 

Jacobsen, Ryer, Leisler's justice at 

Schenectady, 171 
Rutger, 38, 280 ; lays corner stone, 

Jacobsz, Aert, 281 

Jacobsz, Casper, 280 ; hie pasture, 58 

Teunis, 280] 

Jagger, Treadwell & Perry, 353 
Jagogthare, Aridarenda, 186 
Jail, 4th July celebrated at, 302; on 

State and Eagle streets, 298 
Jailer, his duties," 70 
Jamaica, negroes sold to, 52 
James, Augustus, 328 

& Vail, merchants, 288 

John B., 337 

the Second grants charter, 57 

Thomas V., 281 ; merchant, 288 

Rev. Wm., pres. soc. relief of poor, 

William, 327, 338 

Jannetje the Indian, 234. See Law- 
Janse, Ensign Abraham, 155 

Andries, first schoolmaster, 21 

Cobus, 119 

Dorite, 119 

Douw Volcker, 281 

Ens. Johannis, 209 

Evert, [Abeel,] 99 

Geertruy, 119 

Hendrik, fine remitted, 244; illicit 
trader, 243 

Joseph, soldier, 116 

Luykas, 120 

Matthys, 120 

Roelif, freeholder, 283 

Stoftell, [Abeel,] 99 
Jansen, Gerret, 212 

Harmen, soldier, 222 

Hendk., 214 

Jacob, cut fir trees, 17 

Rein., soldier, 223 

Steven, 280 

Van Saregtoge, 214 

Volckert, 38 
Jenkins, Elizabeth, died, 332 

Elisha, school trustee, 305 

Lemuel, 325, 328 

Jocelyn, Christopher, killed, 331 
Jochemsen, David, 270 

H., 38 

Jochimes, Lambt., soldier, 116 
John Mason, steam boat sold, 327 
Johnson, Agnes, died, 345 

Hugh, burglar, 345 

James I., 331 

Thomas, soldier, 221 
Johnston, Sarah, died, 352 
Johnstone, R. F., 340 
Jones, Frank, takes medal, 320 
Josselyn John, 1 
Judd, Charles Edward, died, 332 
Judson, Ichabod L., 338 
July 4th celebrated, 1784, 287. 
Juriaense, Hans, 120 
Jurian, Indian messenger, 162, 165; 

the ferocious, warrior, 235 
Justices court organized, 69 



Kanondoro, 235 

Kant, Francis, drowned, 348 

Katskill, why acquired, 9. See Catskill 

Kearney, J., 351 

Keaty, Michael, killed, 337 

Kelley, Henry, died, 350 

Joseph, currier, 290 
Kemble, Francis Ann, readings by, 329 
Kennedy, Michael, drowned, 344 

Rev. Dr., 326 

Kent, James, school trustee, 305 
Kentucky giant (Andrew Brand) died, 


Keogh, Jane M., died, 337 
Kerin, John, died, 350 
Ketelheyn, David, illicit trader, 214, 
243; sells rum to Indians on 
Sunday, 252, 253 ; fined therefor, 
254 ; fine remitted, 244 

William, 119 

Keteltas, Jan, soldier, 222 
Kettles distrained for public use, 227 
Keuningh, Thomas, 281 
Kickham, Samuel, soldier, 223 
Kidd, James, 325, 332, 337, 339 ; post- 
master, 348; pres. plank road, 

Capt. Win., his company, 266 
Kidney, Jacobus, freeholder, 282 

Johannes, freeholder, 282 

Roelif, freeholder, 282 
Kieft, director, 28 ; regulates wam- 
pum, 4 

Kilbourn, Harvey, died, 353 
Kinderhook excited byMilborne's let- 
ter, 142 ; proportion of tax, 260 ; 

to furnish firewood 260 ; rum sold 

to Indians on Sunday, 252, 254; 

stockadoes apportioned to. 249; 

to furnish firewood and candles to 

the blockhouse, 250 
King, Charles, lecture by, 352 

Kufus H., 328, 333, 339 

William, 104, 128 

King's Arms tavern, 285 ; sign burnt, 

highway, 96 
Kingsley, Hale, 349 
Kip, Abraham, 224 

Isaak, 242 ; freeholder, 282 

Rev. Dr., lays corner stone, 343 

Volkquijn, 242 

Kleermaker, Evert Jansen, 281 
Klinkenbergh, captive at, 239 
Klock, Leiut. Marte, 209 
Klomp, Jacob Simons, 281 
Knap, John, soldier, 222 
Knickerbacker, John, 340; federalist, 


Knight, Thomas, soldier, 221 
Knower, Cornelia, died, 349 

John, 339 

Knowles, Horace, died, 325 
Knox, John, 256 
Koeherder, Laurens, 224 

Koeymans, Sarent Pietersen, justice, 

Kok, J., signs against Leisler, 135 

Koonz, Jacob C., takes medal, 320 

Kosciusko, steam boat, 340 

Koster, Anthony, freeholder, 282 

Krygier, see Cregier 

Kryg's jack (war flag) sent up by Leis- 
ler, 142 

Labadie, Jan, French commissaris, 22 

to repair fort, 18 
Ladders of city inspected, 87 
Laerse, Caste Junior, soldier, 223 
Lafayette, Marquis, attends treaty at 

Fort Schuyler, 289, 290 
Lafleur, alias Rene Poupar, 89, 90, 109 ; 

removed on suspicion, 107, 108, 

110, 111 
La Grange, Angelica, died, 331 

Isaac, freeholder, 283 

Jacobus, freeholder, 283 

Johannes, freeholder, 283 

Omy, plaintiff, 257 
Lamberville, Pere, 162; letter from, 


La Montagne, Johannes, 44; vice di- 
rector, 42 

Lamps, expenditures for, 356 
Lancaster, Joseph, founder of schools, 

304 ; visits Albany, 306 . 
Lancasterian school founded, 304, 305 ; 

finances, 305; building opened, 

305 ; cost of, 306 
Lane, Capt., 291 
Laney, Lucien B., 330 

Mary Ann, died, 330 
Langestraet, Johannes, soldier, 221 
Lansing, Abraham A., assessor, 293; 
freeholder, 282 

Aeltje, married, 10 

A. A., 331 

Charles B., 340 

Cornelia S., died, 331 

E. J., 349 

Evert, freeholder, 283 

Gerrit, 241, 242; freeholder, 282, 
283 ; and brothers do not sub- 
scribe to war fund, 119 

Gerrit Y., 328. 339 

Hendrick, 256; freeholder, 283 

Isaac, freeholder, 282 

Jacob, freeholder, 283 

Jacob G., for assemblyman, 293 

Jacob, Jun., freeholder, 283 

Jan, 90, 91, 113, 119, 120, 246, 255 ; 
alderman, 94, 106, 111, 240, 245, 
250, 258; Johannes, freeholder, 

Johannes Gerr'se, freeholder, 282 

Johannes, Jun., freeholder, S82 

John, 247, 263, 266 ; assistant alder- 
man, 65, 84; captain, 237; alder- 
man, 258 



Lansing, John, assemblyman, 298, 348, 
John, Jun., 304; anti-federal elec- 
tor, 298; assemblyman, 292; 
school trustee, 305 
Robert, freeholder, 282 
Sanders, road master, 293; died, 

Lansingburgh, first stage from, 302 

Laprairie, to be attacked, 235 

Larmond, James, 125 

Lathrop, Dyer, 327 

Laurens, Cornells, 224 
Jan, 224 

Laverty, Alexander, tailor, 294 

Law School, 305 

Lawlor, Martin, died, 351 

Lawrence, Thaddeus, debtor, 299 

alias Jannetje, the Indian, 160; 
234 ; march of, 213 ; pursues the 
French, 179, 180, 185 

Lawyer, John, drowned, 338 
John L., drowned, 340 

Lay, Sarah, died, 348 

Lead, price of, 230; seized for cus- 
toms, 246 

Learned, Edward, 340 
Win. L., poem by, 352 

Lee, Arthur, 289 
Charles, 55 
George C., 331, 339 
Mother Ann, died, 288 
Stephen, 181 

Legislative journals, 1789, 300 

Legislature, 1789, meet in Albany, 301 

Leightou, David A., died, 324 

Leijsler'e time, 268 

Leisler, Jacob, 139, 169, 170, 202, 216, 
230, 232; authority of protested 
against at Schenectady, 172 : called 
upon to assist against the French, 
114; magistrates write to. 215; 
express returned from, 117; his 
authority required to be exhibited 
168, 109, 170, 171; his commis- 
sioned officers, 237; his letter to 
the people, 138; letter from, 167; 
protest against his sending up 
armed men, 125, 128, 129, 172; 
sends commissions to Scheuec- 
tady, 171 ; usurper resisted in 
Albany, 106; usurper, 105, 200; 
gives Jochirn Staats command of 
the fort, 130 

Le Moyiie, Father, 37 

Leonard, Solomon S., died, 331 

Lespinard, Antho., 90, 94, 255; corn 
viewer, 99; firemaster, 97; re- 
moved on suspicion r 108, 110, 111 ; 
rent of his house to officers, 248 

Lewis's tavern, 288, 294; negro sold 
at, 289 

Lewys, Barent, 241 ; Leisler's officer, 
sued for planks, 238 

Licenses, order to collect, 247; to be 
given by mayor, 70 

Annals, ii. 33 

Liekeris, Johannes, soldier, 222 

Lieutenant, pay of, 142 

Lievens, Annetje, 119 

Lieverse, Harme, 119 ; house fortified, 

Lighting city with spirit gas, 346 

Liquor sales restricted, 88 

Liquors, excise of, 98; forbidden to 
be sold to Indians, 99, 117, 244; 
not be drunk after tattoo, 93 ; regu- 
lations concerning, 228; selling 
without license, penalty of, 244, 

Litchoe, sergeant, 31 

Livingston, John, assemblyman, 292 
Philip, freeholder, 282 
Robert, 87, 93, 108, 112, 115, 124, 
166, 178, 179, 191, 192, 215, 249, 
250, 253 ; a fugitive, 106 ; a rebel, 
203; pursued, 204; is sheltered 
by Connecticut authorities, 204 ; 
absconds with public records, 
224 ; agent to New England, 198 ; 
awarded papers of \an llpen- 
dam, 94; borrows money foe 
city, 95; certifies proceedings- 
against Leisler, 177 ; clerk, 259 ;. 
goes to England, 259; clerk of 
common council, 69; deposi- 
tions against, 216, 217, 218, 219 ;. 
first clerk, 65, 84 ; his property 
attached, 225 ; his records partly 
surrendered, 215 ; depositions, 
against, 216; indemnified, 129;, 
instructions to as agent, 195;, 
large subscription to war fund,. 
119; letter to Indian council,. 
164 ; married, 272 ; loans money 
to aid the war, 127, 129 ; order to 
apprehend, 200 ; order to deliver 
city books, 208; plaintiff, 241,. 
256 ; proposal to send him to New 
England for aid, 193; receives 
city charter, 56 ; salary fixed, 86 ;. 
takes oath of allegiance, 122;. 
tax levied to pay, 240, 247; to- 
fine illicit traders, 243 
Walter, 287 

Locker, William, soldier, 221 

Lockermans, Jacob, 90, 113, 211 ; signs, 

against Leisler, 135 
P., 119 

Lockwood, B., wins prize, 350 

Loltus, Mathys, soldier, 223. 

London tailor, 1785, 294 

Long Island, wampum made on, 6 

Long reach Indians procured, 118, 120 1 

Loosje, Cornelis, 222 

Lottery, 1772, 285 

Loucks, Christian, death sentence, 293 

Loudons print journals, 300 

Louis, Colonel, Indian warrior, 317 

Lovett, John, eulogy by, 286 
P. M., 328 

Low, F. S., machine works, 326 



Low. Henry, soldier, 222 

Low s furnace, large cast, 350 

Luitersekerk (Lutheran church), 268 

Luke, Philip, freeholder, 288 

Lush, Richard, assessor, 293; assist- 
ant alderman, 290; for assembly- 
man, 293 

Luther, Elizabeth, died, 324 
John, 324 

Lutheran church, block house behind, 
250; erected, 297; treasury stolen, 

Luwis, Capt. Barnet, 209 

Luycessen, Jan, 213 

Luyerez, Jacob, 281 

Luykasse, Qerrit, defames Job. Rose- 
boom, 243; defendant, 257: re- 
ceives commissions from Leis- 
ler, 171 ; soldier, 116 
Johannes, illicit trader, 244 

Lydius street, opening of, 330 

Lyon, Ebenezar, soldier, 221 

Maase, Cornelius, freeholder, 283 

John, freeholder, 283 ; see Meesen, 
and Van Buren, 

Machin, Captain, engineer, 285 

Machinists, military company, 353 

Macilby, Lieft. Robert, 255 

McAllister, Capt., 333 
Mrs. H. E., died, 337 

McAlpine, William J., 337 

McAnnespie, Mrs., Bridget, died, 331 

McBride, John, 329 

McCall, Dennis, 347 

McCall, H. S., 342 

McCall, Thomas J., died, 353 

McCammon, Cyrus S., died, 339 

McCardel, John T 345 

McClallen, Henry r fc Henry, merchants, 

Robert, alderman, 290 ; for assem- 
blyman, 292 ; supervisor, 293 
McClintock, John, school of, 287 
McClosky, Bishop, lays corner stone, 


McDonald, John, ordained, 294 ; stated 
clerk, 303 

i^arah, died, 339 
McElroy, Andrew, takes medal, 320 

Thomas, 328 

Wm., 324, 325, 328 
McGowan, William S., 341 
McHarg, Charles K., takes medal, 323 

William, 339 
McHench, Ann, died, 345 
Mclntosh, Margaret, died, 341 
Mclntyre, Archibald, 328; school trus- 
tee, 305 

McJimpsey, John, school trustee, 305 
McKnight, John, 339 
McLelland, Francis, drowned, 345 
McMahon, M., 353 

McManus, Catharine, wife of Owen, 
died, 325 

McMichael, J., 349 

McMullen, Thos., 325 

McMurdy, Mrs. Isaac, died, 336 

McMurry, Thomas, his house, 300 

McNaughton, Dr. James, prea. County 
Medical Society, 351; pres. St. 
Andrews Society, 351 
Peter, 328, 351 

Magdaniell, Daniell, soldier, 221 

Magistrates endorsed by the county, 
133; indemnify Robert Livingston, 
1*9; take the city, 107 

Magrigerie, Patrick, soldier, 221 

Mahakaneghtuc, the Hudson river, 
314, 317, 318 

Mahecander chiefs, 19 

Maher, James, 339, 353 

Mahiccans, name for Hudson river, 317 

Maijs (Indian corn). 268 

Mail, 1785, 295; 1790, 303; carriers, 

Maine, brigs arrive from, 352 

Maize for Indians, 194 

Manhattan steam boat fare reduced, 

Mannin, John, soldier, 221 

Many, Wm. V., 337 

Maquase persuaded to settle at Schen- 
ectady, 184 ; follow the marauders 
to Canada, 185, 190; river (Mo- 
hawk), 87, 268; castie, 113 

Marcelise, Gysbt., 256; constable, 240 

March, Alden, 325 

Marchael, William, died, 332 

Marespink savages,' 278 

Murienissen, Dauit, 212 

Market days, 78; house, 1764, 48; in 
Broadway, 287 ; receipts from, 357 ; 
state of. 334 

Marlett, Jean, soldier, 221 

Marriage license, a governor's, 277 

Marselis, Garret, freeholder, 282 
Johannes, freeholder, 282 
John, road master, 293 
Myndert, freeholder, 283 

Marshal, salary of, 98 

Marten, Richard, soldier, 221 

Martense, Hendrick, soldier, 222 
Paulus, 96, 260 
Pr., constable, 252, 254 

Martin Geritsen's island, 58 
Henry H., 339 
Peter J., died, 339 

Martlett, William J., contractor, 347 

Marvin, Lucia, died, 346 

Maryland, soldiers furnished by, 231 

Massachusetts, 142; furnishes sol- 
diers, 231; troops, 313 n. ; wam- 
pum in, 1, 4 

Masshell, Charles, soldier, 222 

Mathus, Thomas, soldier, 222 



Mathys, 109 ; Captain, 181 ; volunteers 

to aid Albany, 123 
Matysse, Abram, soldier, 222 
Manriss, Francis, soldier, 221 
Mayell, Jefferson, 328 
Mayor to be coroner, 71, 83 ; to grant 

licenses, 70; to be clerk of the 

market, 70 

Meads, James, died, 342 
Mead, Owen, drowned, 341 

Thomas, 346 

Mechanics and Farmers' Bank divi- 
dend, 828 

Mechanics' Benefit Society election, 

School. 304 
Medical College, 305 
Meech, Ralph H., died, 326 
Meeseii, Jacob, [Van Buren?] 87, 119? 

to inspect stockadoes, 229; see 

Megapel ensis, Rev. Mr., 19, 281 

Mellon, Daniel, soldier, 222 

Melyn, outlawed, 29 

Merchandise not to be exported, 185 

Merchants, stock multifarious, 291 

Merrifield, Richard, died, 344 

Messenger, Mrs. Jacob, died, 336 

Meteorological record, 285 

Metslaer, see De Metslaer, 119 

Michelz, Jan, 280 

Milborne, Jacob,;i36, 146, 148,205, 232; 
answer to his proposals, 149 ; ar- 
rives with soldiers, and harrangues 
the people, 137 ; his letter to Sche- 
nectady, 139 ; letter to Kinderhook, 
142; attempts to take the fort, 153; 
before the convention, 143 ; insti- 
gates mutiny, 146 ; created major, 
231 ; his commission from Leis- 
ler, 201, ; expedition to Albany, 
221; his soldiers marched into 
town, 151; his soldiers provided 
for, 149 ; demands the old arms in 
the fort, 147; order to for stores, 
211; protest against, 154; threat- 
ened by Maquase, 154; leaves the 
city, 155; proposes better security 
for the fort, 130; sinister inten- 
tions of, 151 

Military officers, 1689, 209; stores to 
be delivered, 208 

Militia organization, 297 

Mill, soldiers quartered at, 240 

Miller, Andrew, soldier, 222 
Mrs. Christian, died, 337 
Dr., on rivers, 317 
Ernest J., takes medal, 323 
Isaac L. K., takes medal, 323 
Maria B., died, 334 
Morris S., 333 
Wm, C.,-325, 32 

Millington, John, Jr., died, 324 

Mills's island dam, 302 

Miln, John, freeholder, 283 

Milton, John, freeholder, 283 
Minderse, Marte, overseer poor, 293 
Minerals, search for, 9 
Mines of gold and silver reserved, 60 
Mingael, Johannes, 111, 251, 257 ; coun- 
cilman, 94 

Pr., assessor, 258 

Minister supported by patroon, 23 
Minnesink, trade at, 257 
Minquas at war with Senecas, 278 
Mitchell, Ezekiel, murdered, 301 

William, 345 
Mitchill, Dr., 299, 314, 318; on fish, 

315, 316 
Mohawk country, 22; prisoners in 

France, 160 ; plank road finished, 

351 ; river, 317, 318 
Mohawks meditate an attack, 22; 

treaty with, 22, 23 ; pursue French 

to Canada, 185. See also Maquase 
Montagne, William, 44 
Morris, Hendk., deputy secretary, 277 

Martin, 44 

Morris's notes, currency, 287, 289 
Mott, Abigail, died, 346 
Mountain crossed only on horseback, 


Muff and Tippet maker, 291 
Muir, James, Jr., died, 328 

Wm. O., 349 
Mulholland, John, 333 
Muller, Jacob, freeholder, 283 
Mulloch, Jane, died, 332 
Munn, Mrs. Stephen B., died, 837 
Murray, Lawrence, died, 329 
Murtaugh, Michael, 333 
Museum building, site of, 286 
Mutiny instigated by Milborne, 146 
Myndertse, Johannes, freeholder, 282 

Nack, Jan, 128, 129, 143 ; constable, 94 ; 
councilman, 103 ; gunstock maker, 
a refractory councilman, 105 ; sus- 
pends his vote, 136 

Nafew, John S., 340 

Nail factory, 296 

Naill, John, justice, 237 

Nails, prices of hand made, 296 

Navigation improved, 1790, 302 

Navy flogging denounced, 338 

Near, H. P., 344 

Nfiill, William, school trustee, 305 

Negress arrested, 28 

Negro of Mrs. Schuyler sold by auc- 
tion, 289; whipt through the 
streets at a cart tail, 85 

Negroes, their privileges, 51 

New England, agents sent to for assist- 
ance, 192; Indian money in, 1, 4, 
5 ; resorted to for troops, 118, 120 ; 
soldiers, 231 ; succored from Eng- 
land, 160; troops arrive, 155; 
wampum first known in 1627, 2 

New Haven, houses, 1785, 295 



New Jersey, made wampum, 6 

Newland, David, house of, 291 
John, takes medal, 320 

New Netherland, money in use in, 1 

Newspaper, first in Albany, 284, 290 

Newton, John M., 324 
William, 339 

New York, agents sent to for assist- 
ance, 114, 192; assistance from 
asked, 114 ; furnishes soldiers, 231 ; 
Gazetteer or Northern Intelli- 
gencer, 285; Indian graves in, 2; 
invasion from expected, 132; not 
to be suffered to turn the city 
government upside down, 133 

Nichols, suicide, 345 , 

Nicholson, Captain, 168 

.Nicoll, Francis, federal elector, 298 
Rensselaer, freeholder, 283 

"Nisqueunia, Mother Lee buried at, 288 

Nobell, William, soldier, 221 

INoonan, James, died, 343 
Thomas, 339 

Normal School, 329 

Normans kil, 318 

North America steam boat sold, 327 

Northern rail road contracted, 348; 
election, 337 ; meeting, 332, 335 

North gate, 291 ; 1784, 290 

North river, names for, 317, 318 

Northrop, R. H., 331 

Norton, John, died, 347 
John T., 339 

,Notes from the newspapers, 284, 303 

Oath administered to city porter, 87 

of allegiance required, 25, 124; 

taken, 103; 1789, 122: of first 

mayor, 83 ; to be administered, 

66 ; to the patroon, 280 

O'Callaghan, Dr. E. B., 279, 280; finds 

council minutes, 106 
Officers prescribed by charter, 63 
Ogdin, John, soldier, 222 
Ogharonde, expedition at, 235 
Ohnowalagantle, Schenectady, 318 
Oil for lighting city abandoned, 346 
Olcott, John J., takes medal, 320 

Mrs. Thomas, died, 346 

Thomas W., 332 
Olivatt, Charles, soldier, 221 
Olpherse, Sjort, 139 
Omnibuses introduced, 338 
Oneida interpreter, 317 ; savages atone 

for dead, 235 
<Oneyde, 162 
(Onnondage council, 165; letter to 

council at, 162; embassy, 112 
Oonondages send for Mohawks, 160 
Oothout, Aerje, freeholder, 283 

Henry, antifedeiral elector, 298 ; for 
senator, 293 

Johannes, freeholder, 283 

Jonas, freeholder, 283 

Orange, Prince of, 216, 217 

O'Reilly telegraph connected with 

New York, 341 ; opened, 337 
Orphan Asylum managers, 338 
Orphans, excursion of, 344 
Osborn, Eliza, died, 336 

Capt. John, 352 
Osterhout, David, wins prize, 353 

Lucy Jane, died, 350 
Otter skins exported, 42 
Ottowawa, good* carried to, 238 
Ouderkerck, Abraham, freeholder, 283 

Cornelius, freeholder, 283 

Jan, 119 

Johannes, freeholder, 283 

Johannes Janse, soldier, 116 
Overslagh, derivation of name, 316 
Owen, John, soldier, 222 
Oyster shells, wampum made from, 2 

Paanpaack, now Troy, 28 

Pacht, see excise and tax 

Pacy, Mrs. Edward, died, 345 

Paddock, Margaret, died, 350 

Paepsknee fortified, 115; garrisoned, 

Paers, Jacob, soldier, 221 

Paffane, furrier, 291 

Paling, (Pawling ?) Capt,, 181, 184; 
failed to respond to call for aid to 
Albany, 123 

Palmer, Judge, 56 

Pangborne, Pieter, soldier, 223 

Panhoosick, or Hoosick, 28 

Panton, Richard, 139 

Papendorp, Adriaen Gerritse, first al- 
derman, 65, 83; his will, 94 

Paper money, 287 

Paponicnck, purchased, 19 

Papaknee island dam, 302 

Parker, James, 250; first marshal, 
65, 84; his account settled, 259; 
his salary as marshal, 98 ; tax 
levied to pay, 247, 248 

Parrell street (Pearl), 268 

Parsons, Peter, soldier, 222 
J. W., 344 
8. H. H., 339 

Passenger, Mrs. Andrew, died, 347 

Pasture, claimed for the king, 226 ; lo- 
cation of, 58, 59 

Pate, Roburte, soldier, 223 

Patkook, fortified, 115 ; to furnish 
firewood and candles to the block- 
house, 250 

Patroon's creek purchased, 846; his 
authority and immunities, 16; 
his house attacked ; 25, releases 
Albany, 27 ; flag pulled down, 31 ; 
jealousy of, 10; mill fortified, 
225 ; trading house, 18 

Patton, Mrs. Ann, died, 336 

Pauperism, 1850, 365, 36e 

Pavonia, repurchased, 10 



Payn's tavern, fired, 336 

Peace convention, 333 

Peaches, great arrival of, 346 

Peag, wampum, 1, 4 ; see Wampum 

Pearse, Jacob L., takes medal, 323 

Peas, white, price of, 230 

Peaee, ErastusH., 325 

Peck, S. S. .338 

Peebles, John, died, 326 

Pelican, captured, 299 

Pels, Evert, 281 

Pemaquid, taken. 111 

Pembroke, Mr., 202. 220, 232 

Pepper. Calvin, died, 336 

Pequot Indians pay tribute, 5 

Percy, Mary, died, 352 

Perry, EH, 325, 338; assemblyman, 

350: mayor, 336 
Mrs. Eli. died, 337 

Personal estate valuation. 361 

Petereburgh, houses, 1785, 295 

Pewasck, squaw chief of Catskill,- 

Phelps, Philip, 325, 326 

Philip. Jr., takes medal, 320, 323 

Philadelphia, houses, 1785, 295 : popu- 
lation, 296 

Philips, Loeling, soldier, 222 

Phillips, Abraham, died, 346; John, 
died, 330 

Phipps, Captain Benj., 249 

Piece of 8, 231 ; its value, 268 

Pieterse, Barent, 256 

Hille, the Indian interpreter's sis- 
ter, 153 

Volkie [Vroomanl 89: deceased, 

Pieterson, Nathaniel, soldier, 221 

Pike in Vossen kil, 281 

Piscataway, Maryland, soldiers from 
at Albany, 222 

Pitcher, Joseph R., died, 347 

Pitts town, vote, 1789, 300 

Plain, lots on to be sold, 87; its loca- 
tion, 268 

Plank, Caspar, freeholder, 283 

Plank road election. 338 

Platt, Ananias, sta^e right, 302 

Platto, Frederick, died, 345 

Pleijn, see Plain 

Plymouth, furnishes soldiers, 231 

Pocket almanac published, 286 

Poen, John, soldier, 221 

Poinier, Daniel, died, 324 

Police 1850, -357, 358 

Poor expenses, 1850, 358; relief so- 
ciety, 328 

Poor, Thomas, soldier, 222 

Pootman, Johannes, 212; Leisler' s 
justice at Schenectady, 171 

Popery, accusation of repelled, 123 

Population, 1785, 296 ; 8th ward, 1850, 

Porter, Nicholas, soldier, 223 

Porters, public, 228, 252 

Post Office, 1784, 286-; location of, 1784, 


Potatoes, high in 1789, 301 
Potter, Rev. Dr., consecrates church, 

346 ; lays corner stone, 343 
Pound ordered to be made. 91 
Poupar. Rene, (alias Lafleur) 89 ; fined, 


Pow, Jost, soldier, 222 
Powder, not be wasted, 228 
Powel, Wm , 125 

Powers,William, for assemblyman, 293 
Prairie, Coteau du, red pipe stone of, 2 
Pratt, James A., died, 348 

Ralph, 327 

Prentice, Ezra P., 327 
Presbytery of Albany, 302 
Prescott, John, soldier, 222 
Pretty, Richard, 90, 111, 148, 219, 226, 

227, 249 ; first sheriff, 65, 84, 168, 

192, 239 ; sheriff under Leisler, 237 ; 

to guage liquors, 224 
Price, John, for assemblyman, 293 
Priest, Hannah C.. died, 330 
Priest to be required to be sent to 

Albany, 191 

Printing office. (Barber's), 287 
Printing office, first, 284 
Prise, Philip, soldier, 222 
Prisoners, hostages for, 290, 291; re- 
turned from France, 159 
Proclamation about the excise, 258; 

on approach of the French, 109 
Produce statistics, 1850, 353, 354 
Proposals offered by Milborne, 146, 149 
Protest, against Leisler, 172 ; how 

published, 176 ; against Milborne, 

154 ; sent to Leister. 125, 129 
Provisions called for, 195 ; scarcity of, 

1789, 301 

Provoost, Johannes, 205, 211, 214, 215, 
216, 217, 219, 234, 239, 201, 211 ; 
his commission from Leisler, 
201; secretary, 42 

Johannes, Jr., soldier, 222 
Pruyn, Casparus, assessor, 293 

Johannes, freeholder, 283 

J. H.,205 

J. V. L., 339 

Lansing, 339 

Robert H., 327, 339 ; assemblyman, 
327, 328 

Samuel, 327, 337 

Samuel, freeholder, 283 
Public money distributed, 5 
Public schools, none in 1810, 304 
Pumpelly, Harmon, 329, 339 
Purcell, John, 333 
Pyper, Henry, soldier, 221 
Pynchon, Col., Ill 

Quackenboss, Henry, for assembly- 
man, 293 ; Mrs. Isaac A., died, 



Quackenboss, Johannes W., free- 
holder, 283 

Peter, freeholder, 283 

Sybrant, freeholder, 283 
Quahaug, shells used for wampum, 1 
Quebec supplies to be intercepted, 

192 ; project for taking, 181; meanly 

fortified, 196; vessels wanted to 

invade. 397 
Queen Mary, 104, 1S8 

Radley, William, died, m 

Radlif, Johannes, freeholder, 282 
John, takes oath, 124 

Raedmacker, Jacob Adriaensz, 280 

Rail roads obstructed by rain storm, 
343 ; statistics, 340 

Rain, guage, 340 

Rain storm, 346, 349 

Raley, Robert, soldier, 221 

Ramsey. D. D., 351 

Randall. Horace, died, 335 
Mathu, soldier, 222 

Rashiedeagoe, 162 

Ratel watch, definition of, 268 ; salary 
of, 104; to be paid, 92 

Rathbone, John F., 338 

Ratlif, Jacobus, freeholder, 282 
.Lambert, freeholder, 282 

Rattes kil (Rutten kil) 246, 311 

Rawson, Rev. Thomas R., 325, 328 

Reab, George, merchant, 289 

Real estate valuation, 361 

Records, Livingston, absconds with, 
224 ; lost, 106 ; to be kept in Eng- 
lish, 267 

Redden, David, died, 336 

Reed, Sylvanus, rector, 346 

Reformed German Church, 285 

Regan, John, died, 349 

Relay, William 8., died, 336 

Removal from city, prohibited, 207 

Rensselaer, Hend, signs against Leis- 

ler, ia5 

Jacobus, freeholder, 283 
John, freeholder, 283 
Stephen, freeholder. 282, 283 
William, freeholder, 283 
colony, stockadoes apportioned to, 
248 ; mill to be fortified, 225 

Rensselaers-8tein,staple right claimed, 

Rensselaerswyck, account of, colony 
of, 9 ; boundaries questioned, 31 ; 
separated from Beverwyck, 31 ; 
deprived of excise revenue, 37 ; 
endeavor to repurchase, 10: ex- 
tent of, 25 ; regiment, 297 ; repre- 
sented in convention, 1K64, 270 ; 
admitted as the oldest colony, 
270 ; to furnish fire wood and can- 
dles to the blockhouse, 250 ; 260 ; 
value of wampum in, 8; vote, 

Republican Artillery excursion, 344 
Revolutions, 268 ; 1689, expenses of ,262 
Reyers, Garrit., assessors, 245 ; alder- 
man, 240 

Reynolds, Marcus T M 327, 328, 338; 
president northern rail road, 337 

Mary, died, 343 
Rhineland measure, 42 
Rice, William A., 344 

Mrs. Wm. H., died, 336 
Richardson, Chas., 324 

Cornelia Ann, died, 324 
Richmond, houses, 1785 ; 295 
Ridder, Hendrick D., freeholder, 283 

Simon D., freeholder, 283 
Rideing, definition of, 268 
Riede,Xievt, 266 
Riemer, Is : d, 139 
Ring, Nathaniel, died, 351 
Rip Van Winkle, steam boat, 325, 344 
Riper, Claes, [Claee Ripse Van Dam?] 

87, 121 

Ripse, Claes, alderman, 105 
River closed, 1849, 326, 327 ; in March, 

333 ; open, 334 ; low water, 324 ; 

open, 1850, 334 
Roach, John, died, 324 
Rob, John, soldier, 221 
Robbery, penal offence, 293 
Robertson, Alexander, and James, 284 

Alexander, died, 290 
Robinson, Albert D., 337 

John B., died, 340 

John, soldier, 222 ; imprisoned, 


Robison & Hale, merchants, 286 
Robison's corner, site of, 286 
Robotham. Daniel, soldier. 222 
Rochester, steam boat, sold, 327 
Rock fish in the Hudson, 316 
Rode, Maquase sachem, 96 
Roelofse, Teunis, 139 
Roessle, Jane, died, 333, 347 

Theophilus, 333 
Roff, Capt. John, 290 
Rogers, Charles, takes oath, 124 

Wm., takes oath, 124; freeholder, 


Rom, rum, 268 

Rombouts, Lena, deals in rum, 242 
Rome, Brian, soldier, 223 
Rookey, Maria, died, 332 
Rose, Mrs. Isaac, died, 347 

James R., clerk assembly, 327 
Roseboom, Ahasuerus, freeholder, 283 

Abraham, merchant, 292 ; died, 292 
& Co.. merchants, 287 

Fytie Pietersen, 212 

Gerrit, freeholder, 282; consta- 
ble, 251 ; high constable, 258 

Gnysbert, freeholder, 283 

Hend., his son restrained, 253; 
voorleezer. 247 

Hendrick M.', freeholder, 282 

Jacob, freeholder, 282 



Roseboom, Johannes, 119, 254, 256; as- 
sistant alderman, 245: deacon, 
261 ; freeholder, 282 : plaintiff, 243 
Johannes, Jr., freeholder, 282 
Robert, freeholder, 283 
Rosie Jan., 242 : does not subscribe to 

war fund, 119 
Ross, Wm. H., 325 
Rossman, J. B., 351 
Rum, excise, 98: retailing to Indians 
prohibited, 223, 226 ; see Liquors 
Rumsey, Isaac, soldier, 222 

Sargant Joseph, 222 
Russell, Elihu, 328 

Elizabeth, died, 343 
Jubal T., died. 337 
Rust.Claes, 123 ; officer at 18d a day,116 
Ruster, Cajptain, 203 
Rutgers, Harme, 119 

Johannes, soldier, 116 
Rutgert's, kil (Rutten or rats), 311 
Rutten kil, 246; definition of, 311 ; its 
location, 268 ; pastures on to be 
sold, 87 

Ruyoull (ryaoel, sewer), 26 
Ryan, Cornelius, 333 
Ryckman, Albt., 86, 92, 111, 113, 115, 
119, 120, 121, 124, 127, 128, 129, 
143, 148, 158, 164, 167, 170, 177, 
181, 182, 184, 185, 186, 205, 207, 
213, 246, 260 ; alderman, 93, 94, 
103, 106, 107, 245, 250, 251, 258; 
assessor, 240; his opinion on 
Leisler's authority, 171 ; signs 
protest, 176 ; assistant alderman, 
' 65,84 

Harm en, freeholder, 282 
Peter, freeholder, 282 
Tobias, freeholder, 282 
Ryerse, Gert, 86, 87, 92, 121, 135, 143, 
148, 158, 164, 165, 167, 182, 213 ; 
alderman, 105, 200 ; councilman, 
93, 103 ; concurs in protest, 177 ; 
justice, 239 
Jan, 281 
Rysse, Claes, 143 

Sabbath regulations, 85 

Sachems, invited to stay here, 191 ; 

may have a little rum, 117 ; rum 

allowed to, 100 
Sage, A. G., contractor, 347 

John, 108, 109 

Saggoddiochquisax, ^Oquedagoa, 186 
St. Charles Hotel burnt, 348 
St. Michaels, election on, 67 
Salesbury, Francis, signs against Leis- 
ler, 135 ; trooper, 116 

Henry, died, 343 ; captain, sheriff, 

Salmon, 319 ; in the Hudson river, 314 ; 

no breeding places for them, 316 
Salt merchant, 29:2 
Salvay, Mons., died, 94 

Sammons, James, died, 329 
Sander Glen, Capt., 114: see Glen 
Sanders, Barent, freeholder, 282 ; cap- 
tain, 180; declines to obey, 
Leisler's order, 172 
Jacob, 242 
James B., 325 
Ens. Joh, 114, 121, 143,145, 146, 184 ; 

took oath of allegiance, 156 
Robt. 91, 101, 111, 116, 122, 129, 143, 
184, 192, 209, 255, 266 ; firemaster, 
258 ; his pasture, 58 : justice, 99 ; 
sent to Indian council, 166 ; sent 
to Indian council to interpret 
proposition, 165 ; sent to Sara- 
toga, 114; subscription to war 
rand, 219 ; see Saunders 
Sandkill, a city boundary, 62 
Sansz, Everardus, 281 
Santwoort, Arien, soldier, 222 
Sarachtoge, 107 ; fortified, 115 ; French 
at, removed, 107; garrison re- 
called from, 159 ; garrison relieved, 
123 ; Indian murders at, 114 ; 
scouts sent to, 230 ; spy removed 
from, 101 ; soldiers exchanged, 128 ; 
troops to remain at, 122 ; vote, 
1789, 300 
Satterlee, Alderman, proposes to open 

Lydius street, 330 
Saunders, Leift. Rob., sent to procure 

Indian aid, 120 ; see Sanders 
Savage, John, freeholder, 282 

Major, 114 

Savings Institution chartered, 239 
Saw mill on Bever kil, 103 
Saxbury, Evert, freeholder, 282 
Sayles, Geo. M., 339 
Schadelle, Francis, died, 347 
Schaets, Rev. Gideon, pastor, 33 
Reynier, deceased, 183 
Trynte, 212 
Schaick, alderman, 151 ; see Van 


Schano, Christian, freeholder, 282 
Schaticoke Indians, 108, 115. 180, 235 ; 
invited to settle as the island, 184, 
190, 191 ; march of, 214 ; permitted 
to be purchased, 61 : soldiers sent 
to, 260 ; vote 1789, 300 
Schenck, Rev. William, 303 
Schenectady, aftairs at, 234; attempt 
to revolutionize, 171 ; citizens re- 
quired by Milborneto appear be- 
fore him, 140 ; privileges promised 
by Milborne, 14l ; commissaris of, 
10 ; condolence of Indians on mas- 
sacre, 182; r,eply to, 189; could 
not agree how to fortify, 115 ; 
goods distributed in, 212; grants 
aid in the French war, 122 ; Leis- 
ler's authority declined, 172 ; Ma- 
qu.-isesojdiers, 177; 178; massacre 
at, 178, 202; feeble pursuit of the 
enemy, 179 ; name for Albany, 



Schenectady, contihued 

318 ; New England soldiers, gar- 
rison, 155 ; path, burial ground on ; 
88; proportion of tax, 260; pro- 
posal to garrison, 157, 158 ; pur- 
chased, 43; deed of, by Indians, 
44; settlers restricted from In- 
dian trade, 45; rail road, 367; 
prosperity of, 341 ; stockadoes 
apportioned to 249; to be gar- 
risoned, 229 ; fort to be built at, 
230 ; vote 1789, 300 ; winter corn 
to be saved, 184 ; goods delivered 
to deacons, 211 

Schermerhooren, Cornells, 212 
Jacob Cornells, freeholder, 282" 
Jacob, freeholder, 283 ; for assem- 
blyman, 293 
Jannetie, 212 
Johannes, freeholder, 283 
John W., federal elector, 298 
Eeyer, delegate, 216; representa- 
tive,^, 261 ; testifies in Livings- 
ton's case, 217 
Eeyer, Jacobse, justice, 237; his 

pasture, 96 
Simon, 212, 224 ; his testimony in 

Livingston's case, 218 
Schoharie plank road, 338 ; vote, 1789, 


Schonowe, Schenectady, 44 
School, 304; 1784, 291; 1785, 293; pro- 
cession, 344 

Schoolcraft, John L., 337 ; congress- 
man, 350 ; light horse, 352 
H. R., 2 

Schoolmaster, first, 21 
Schoonmaker, Mr., wins prize, 352 
Schout fiscaal, 10 

Schuyler, 149 ; see Davidse, Pieter 
Abraham, 146, 148, 150, 151, 186, 
19-2, 214, 215, 257; freeholder, 
283; for assemblyman, 293; JUB- 
tice, 99 
Alida, <272 
Ann, died, 337 
Anna E., died, 330 
Arent, 119, 214, 272; abuses fire- 
masters, 90 ; fined, 91 ; signs 
against Leisler, 134 
Brant, 272 

Capt. John, his journal, 234 
Colonel, 54 

David, 90, 107, 111, 113, 119, 121,122, 
124, 127, 128, 129, 143, 164, 167, 
170; alderman, 93, 94,103, 107; 
first alderman, 65, 83; council- 
man, 105, 106; freeholder, 283 ; 
his opinion, on Leisler's author- 
ity, 171 ; signs protest, 176 ; 
widow of, 246 
David, juror, 243 
Ensign, 180 

299; heads constitutional pro- 

Schuyler, continued 

cession, 299 ; great bridge at his 
house, 265; Indian commis- 
sioner, 287 ; purchaser of Cosby's 
manor, 334 ; senator, 293 

Gertrude, 272 

Guysbert, 272 

Jacobus, freeholder, 283 

Jeremiah, freeholder, 283 

Johannes, 272 ; freeholder, 282 ; 
signs against Leisler, 135 

John, 272 

Madam, 55 

Margaret, deceased, 289, 272 ; loans 
money to city, 159 ; subscription 
to war fund, 119 

Myndert, 256, 257; freeholder, 282; 
signs against Leisler, 135 

Peter, 88, 89, 91, 92, 95, 105, 111, 

120, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 145, 
148, 150, 151, 153, 154, 156. 158, 
160, 162, 164, 166, 167. 168, 170. 
177, 179, 181, 182, 186, 211, 213, 
214, 215, 232, 247, 249, 251, 261, 
272 ; borrows money for city, 95 ; 
first mayor, 64, 106, 107, 113, 116, 

121, 177, 184, 198, 199, 205, 207; 
freeholder, 283; put in posses- 
sion of the fort, 135, 136, 238 ; 
receives city charter, 56 ; refuses 
to see Milborne, 137 ; signs pro- 
test, 176; subscription, 119; 
takes oath' of allegiance, 122 ; to 
fortify patroon's mill, 225 

Philip, 272, 28K; freeholder, 283; 

Col. Philip, 55 

Philip Pietersen, 38 ; first of the 
Schuylers, 272 ; threatened by 
Dyckman, 26 

Pr. Davidtse, 242, 256, 257 ; consta- 
ble, 94- married, 10; signs 
against Leisler, 134 
Sally, Mrs., died, 331 
Stephen J., for assemblyman, 293 
Stephen P., 330 

Sybilla, 272 ; house burnt, 55 ; (near 
State in Broadway), 264; widow 
beats Milborne, 232 
Scot, Jorge, soldier, 222 
Scott, John Morin, purchaser of 

Cosby's manor, 334 
Thomas, died, 329 
Scouts, pay of, 177 
Scovil, Ashley, dted, 350 
Seager, Johannes, freeholder, 283 
Seaman, Catharine M., died, 324 

David, 324 
Seery, John, 3-33 
Segersz, Cornells, 281 
Selkirk, Francis N., died, 343 
Senators elected, 1785, 293 
Seneca, prisoners returned, 161, 162 
Senecas, at war with Minquas, 278 ; 
peace with, 165 



Sewant, see Wampum 

Seward, Umphery, witness, 238, 

Sewer, (rnyoull), 265 

Shackburg, Doctor, Yankee Doodle at- 
tributed to, 313 

Shad, Dutch name for, 319 ; in Hud- 
son, 315 

Shakers, bury Mother Ann Lee, 288 

Shanks, Leift* refusal to quarter his 
troops, 261 

Sharp, George, soldier, 221 

Sharpe, Capt. 107, 121 

'Leift. Thos., commands the fort, 
125, 128, 135 ; freeholder, 282 ; in- 
quiry respecting, 132 ; to be su- 
perseded, 130 ; his letter, 147 

Shatemuck, the Hudson river, 317,318 

Shaver, Tho., 125 

Shaw, William, 256; ganger, 242; 
searcher of the port, 246; takes 
oath, 124 

Sheldon, B. A., 351 

Shered, Samuel, soldier, 222 

Sheriff, ordered to impress carts, 263 ; 
puts mark of broad arrow upon 
goods,seized, 239 ; to lew licenses, 

Sherman, Watts, 339, 350, 360 

Sherwood, Joseph, died, 351 

Ships, arrival of, 160; proposes to in- 
tercept French supplies, 192 

Shoemaker in jail, 299 

Shotlander, David Mandre, soldier,223 

Sickells, Zacharias, ratelman, 104 ; 

town crier, 252 
Alexander, 344 
John A., 329 
Thomas, merchant, 288 

Sill, Richard, federalist, 298 

Silley, soldier, 221 

Sinerongnirese, 186 

Sjeer, Tho., 214 

Skepel, its capacity, 268 

Skerrett, Mrs., died, 344 

Skiwias, (alias Aepje), 19 

Slack, Mrs. Granville, died, 348 

Slavery, 1764, 50, 53 

Slaves, 1785, 296 

Slechtenhorst, Gerrit, member of con- 
vention, 1664, 270 

Sleighing, first, 1849, 326 

Slingerlandt, Cornells, 113 
Cornelius, freeholder, 283 
Johannes, freeholder, 288 
Tennis, freeholder, 283 

Sloan's tavern, 352 

Sloop, quick trip of, 351 

Slott, John, 139 

Smeeds, EHhu, murderer, 301 

Smeeman, Herman, 270 

Smit, see Myndert Frederickse 

Smith, Alexander, murderer, 290 
Andrew, soldier, 222 
Carsten Frederickse, 98 
Isaac, murdered, 290 

Smith, Peter, Jr 351 

Thomas Sanderz, 281 
Snow, 324, 352 : 1850, 328, 335, 336 ; 
in May, 339 ; in Nov , 1789, 301 
shoes, 109 ; storm, first, 1850 ; 352 
Soap and candle factory, 1788, 299 
Sodrachdrasse, sachem, 44 
Soghmaekelyk, Pieter, 45 
Soldiers furnished with bedding, 266 ; 
from Connecticut, pay of, 159 ; 
from New England, welcomed, 
155; in fort demand pay, 128; 
furnished to Albany, 231 ; neglect 
of, 254 ; order for quartering, 263 ; 
264 ; paid 12d a day, 115, 116 ; pay 
25s. a month. 143 ; pay of, 1689, 221 ; 
1690, 142 ; petition for aid in pro- 
viding for. 241 ; quartering, of. 240 ; 
refused, 203; refused to quarter, 
226 ; to take oath of fidelity, 124 
Sopus, Kingston, 268, 278 
South America steam boat sold, 327 
Southey, Rdbert, died, 327 
Spaniard, John, soldier, 223 
Specie, held in derision by Indiana, 3 
Speker, Rode, 186 
Spelman, B. R., captain, 349 
Spencer, John C., 327 
Spiers, Timothy, died, 343 
Spouts to be repaired, 86 
Springfield, mail from. 303 
Spriugstead, Mrs. David, died, 340 
Spruytes of the Mohawk, 311 
Staats, Abrah, 208 

Abraham, 170, 242 ; his garden, 


Anna, died, 332 
Barent, freeholder, 283 
Barent P., 327, .338 
Isaac, freeholder, 282 
Jacob, 119, 258, 260, 264 ; assistant 
alderman, 251 ; alderman, 257 ; as- 
sessor, 240, 245 ; councilman, 93 ; 
justice, 237 

Jochim, Lieut., 116, 119, 1 21, 123, 
128, 145, 146, 155, 157, 168, 179, 
182, 185 ; attempts to revolu- 
tionize Schenectady, 171 ; assist- 
ant alderman, 65, 84 ; com- 
mander of the fort, 111, 179 ; 
180, 184, 186, 208 ; to be quartered 
in Fort Orange, 167 ; cowardice 
of, 181 ; declines to divide his 
company, 157 ; or to show his 
commission, 158; elected cap- 
tain, by youths, 145, 146; en- 
deavors to proclaim for Leisler, 
at Schenectady, 172 ; his sloop 
brings Milborne. 136; induced 
to side with Leisler, 129, 130 : 
insists on proclaiming Wm. and 
Mary, 169, 170 ; intractable, 147 ; 
justice, 106,12 1; sent to Saratoga, 
114 ; Leisler' s officer sued for 
planks, 238 ; protest sent by 135, 



Stoats, continued 

128, 129; sued for hats, 352; 
takes sides with Milborne, 137 
Col. Philip, 332 
Samuel, 202 
Stadt house, Its location, 250; (City 

hall), 268 

Stadtler, John P., died, 345 
Stafford, Spencer, 285 
Stage to New York, 302 ; 1785, 294 
Stanton, Thomas, Indian agent, 5 
Starr, Richard, died, 324 
State population, 296 ; bank dividend, 


Staten Island, wampum made on, 6 
Statistics, 355, 360 
Steamboat, fare 6# cts., 340 ; 25cte, 

335 ; obstructed, 325 ; sale, 327 
Steenhouse, James, freeholder, 282 
Steenhuysen, Engelbert, 270 
Steenwyk, Cornelius, 270 
Steeprock, Indian racer, 335 
Stephentown, vote 1789, 300 
Sterling, Lord, died, 286 
Stevens, Mrs. Peter D., died, 349 
Samuel, 339 
William, died, 345 
Stevense, Cornelius, 120 

Jonas, soldier, 221 
Stevensen, Coert, 270 

Thomas, soldier, 222 
Stevenson, Douw & Ten Eyck, 296 

James, 339 ; freeholder, 282 
Stewart, James, trader, 290 
Still water, vote, 1789, 300 
Stillwell, Lieut. Nicholas, 278 
Stockadoes, apportioned .to citizens, 
99 ; described, 269 ; fine for cutting 
down, 97 ; houses to be removed 
sixty paces from, 183, 192 ; ordered, 
114; order to repair, 92; price 
. paid for, 249 ; so short the Indians 
could jump over them, 188 ; to be 
inspected, 258; to be repaired, 
246; length of, prescribed, 247, 
249 ; to be set up, 262, 263 ; to 
have breast works, 225, to be in- 
spected, 229 
Stonehouse, John B., president fire 

department, 329, 351 
Mrs. John B., died, 343 
Stone house tavern, 285, 292 ; on Mo- 
hawk, 95 

Stores, sent up by Leisler, 142 
Storm, 342 

Strawberries, variety of, 341 
Strays, pertain to the corporation, 61 
Street scenes, 1764, 49 . 
Streets, repairs of, 265 
Streets to be cleared, 255, 261, 263 
Stringer, Dr, Samuel, medicine store, 


Strong, Richard M,, takes medal, 320 
Strycker, Jan, 270 

Stuart, James, 123 

Sturgeon in Hudson, 315 

Sturgis, Sargant, Thomis, 222 

Stuyver, its value, 269 

Stuyvesant, Peter, 11, makes war on 
'Indians, 278 ; his illegal acts com- 
plained of, 33, 34 ; hostile to. pa- 
troon, 10 ; his post,62 ; visit Bever- 
wyck, 11, 31 ; entertained, at pa- 
troon's expense, 11 : threatens to 
destroy patroon's buildings, 13; 
sends up soldiers, 15; his leg 
not silver, 15; his illegal pro- 
ceedings, 16, 17 ; imprisons van 
Slechtenhorst, 24, 32 

Style, old and new. 269 

Subscription to French war fund, 
1689, 119 ; insufficient and there- 
fore annulled, 120 

Suckhaunock, black wampum, 1 

Suffolk Bounds, 221 

Sunday, desecrated at Kinderhook, 
252, 254 ; police, 1790, 303 ; trade 
prohibited, 102 

Supahoof, Indian chief, 19 

Swart, Dirk, 287 ; anti federal elector, 


Elias, 212 
Gerrit, 274; schout, 273, 274; 

sheriff, 32, 33, 35 
Peter, for assemblyman, 293 

Swartout, Roelof, justice, 237 

Swinburne, John, 351 

Swinton, Isaac, first recorder, 64 

Swits, Isaac, freeholder, 283 

Isaac Cornelis, lieutenant, 237 

Taber, Azor, 328 

Tachkanick, 194 

Tahaiadoris, chief sachem of Maquas, 
164, 165 

Tailor's prices, 1785, 294 

Taller, Jacobus, trader, killed, 290 

Talmadge, Leift Enos, 155 

Tappen, Gerrit, soldier, 221 

Tapsters fined, 42 

Taptoo, definition of, 269 ; liquors not 
to be sold after, 93 

Tassemaker, Dom, 218 

Tavern regulations, 1687, 93 

Tax, 1694, 259; 1850, 356; for city 
charges, 92 ; for city government, 
1849, 364 ; 1850, 367"; levy for city 
expenses, 86; levied, 1693, 247, 
248 ; to be levied, 264 ; to be col- 
lected, 265 

Taxation, 1849, 50 ; rates of, 361 

Tayler, John, 818 ; assemblyman, 293 

Taylor, James, 325, 339 
John, 339 

John R., 349 ; president, funeral 
obsequies, 343 

Tehoesequathq, warrior, 235 



Teller, A., signs against Leisler, 135 

Andrews, Jr., signs against Leis- 
ler, 135 

Caspr., 214 ; signs against Leister, 

Jobs., constable, 257 

Mr. Jacob, 242 

Susanne, 212 

William, 45; defendant. 242; re- 
fuses to quarter soldiers, 226; 
signs against Leisler, 134 
Temperature, 324, 329, 330, 331, 332: 

1789, 300, 301 ; 1790, 303 
Temple, Eobert E., 328, 332 
Ten Broeck, Abraham, federal elector, 

Cornelius, freeholder, 282 

Dirk, freeholder, 283 

Dirk Wessels, his garden, 58 ; first 
alderman, 65, 83 

Gen M his house, 292 

Johannes, freeholder, 282 

John, alderman, 290 

Wessel, 90, 208, 247 ; assistant al- 
derman, 240, 245; baker, 240; 
constable, 94; signs against 
Leisler, 135 

Teneur, Lieut. Daniel, sent in pur- 
suit of Livingston, 204 
Ten Eyck, Anthony, anti federal elect- 
or, 298 

Coenraet, freeholder, 283 

Hendrick, 139, 146 ; freeholder, 282 

Jacob, 254 ; assessor, 251 ; free- 
holder, 282 

Jacob C., freeholder, 282 

Jacob H., 328, 339 

Visscher, 355 ; treasurer of the fire 

department, 329 
Terneur, Daniel, 270 
Teunise, Cornelius, 22, 119, 252 

Dirck, justice, 208 

Dirk, 113, 123, l r ,0, 260; sent to 
Ulster for assistance, 116; [Van 
Vechten], 125, 127 

Capt. Gert, 114, 115, 116, 119, 120, 
122, 123, 143, 145, 179, 181, 184, 
247, 260 ; agent, to New Eng- 
land, 193, 196, 198 ; his company, 
116;* his return from Connec- 
ticut, 142; sent to treat with 
Connecticut, 125, 126 ; subscrip- 
tions of his company, to war 
*fund, 120 

Eghbert, 121, 128, 129, 143, 182, 
213; alderman, 105, 200; as- 
sistant alderman, 245 ; assessor, 
251, 258 ; concurs in protest, 177 ; 
councilman, 103 ; juror, 243 ; sent 
to Saratoga, 114 

Kutger, soldier, 116 

Sweer, 122, 143, 145; protest 
against Leisler' s proceedings, 
172; executors sued, 243; mes- 
senger to Indians, 160 

Tennlssen, But, 214 

Dirk, 247 

Gysbert, 270 

Thayer, Walter B., died, 351 
Theatricals, 1785, 294, 296 
Thomas, Charles, died, 329 

Capt. commander of the fort, 103 

John, soldier, 222 

W. J., 349 

Thomase, Johannes, 119, 258. 264 ; as- 
sistant alderman, 251, 258 ; signs 
against Leisler, 135 

Frans, soldier, 221 

Jan, 280 
Thompson, Alexander, 352 

Ens : Gabriel, 119, 120, 122, 127, 
143, 148, 155, 186, 192, 224,256, 113 

Israel, 287; anti-federal elector, 
298; for assemblyman, 293 

John, takes oath, 124 

Samuel, died, 290 

Thomson, John, assemblyman, 298 
Thorburn, Samuel T., 328 

William 338 

Thornton, Margaret Ann, died, 344 
Thyssen, John, justice, 237 
Tibbitts, Benjamin, 339 
Ticonderoga, defeat of, 1758, 55 
Tierks, Hester, executrix of Volkert 

Pieterse, 256 
Timber allowed to be cut on common, 


Tinonderoga, vote to sell lands at, 92 
Tioghsahron^de, or Hudson river, 318 
Tiouondage, castle at 113; Indians, 

180 ; Indians torment prisoner, 

Tiononderoga, explored, 87; land at 

petitioned for, 101 ; permitted to 

be purchased, 61 
Tithes, compounded, 42 
Tivoli Hoee Co. officers, 328 
Torch light procession, 348 
Tosoquatho, Odagerasse, 186; Indian 

messenger, 162, 164, 165 
Town clerk, salary of, 86 

Hall, 57, 59 ; 1764, 48 

ladders, rules about, 97 
Townsend, Franklin, 337, 364 ; may- 
or, 336; president Emigrant's 
Friend Society, 353 

Howard, 351 

John, 328, 340; president savings 

bank, 339 
Tracy & Edson, distillery, 335 

John, 328, 353 
Traders not to export, 199 
Trauis, Philip, 'soldier, 222 
Treadwell, Geo. C., 328 
Treat, Robert, governor of Connecti- 
cut, 121 

Tremer, James A., 338 
Trees in street, 1764, 48 
Trinity church repaired, 326 
Trip, William, soldier, 223 



Troopers to, set up stockadoes^ 114 
Troops, eastern, motley, 312 
Trotter, Mathew, died, 350 
Troy, ancient name of, 28 ; first so 

called, 300 ; steam boat sold, 327 
Truax, see JL)e Teurcx, aud De Trieux 
Tryoii, Gen., visits Albany, 285 
Tsenondoga, savage, died, 235 
Tuite, Mrs. Thomas J., died, 344 
Tuimell, Richd., takes oath, 124 
Turke, Jacobus, 119, 199, 264 
Turkeys abundant, 281 
Turner, Isaac, died, 340 
Thomas, died, 324 
Tweddle & Darlington, 333 
Tweed Dale, William A., preceptor, 

305, 306 
Twigh Twighs, threaten Five Na- 

tions, 159 
Twist, Charles, soldier, 221 

Lieut., ordered to force Wm. Tel- 

ler's house, 226 
Tyler, James B., died, 240 
Tysse, Jan, soldier. 223 

TJail, Samuel, soldier, 222 

Ulster county, applied to for aid, 121, 

193, 196 
United States creditors, meeting of, 


Unity, Dirk Bensing's boat, 242 
Universalist church, 337 ; excursion, 


Uss, Francis, burglar, hanged, 301 
Utica, . original proprietors of, 334 ; 

and Schen R. R., 352 
Uytersael, Abram, soldier, 222 

Valiand, Canadian Jesuit, 216 ; inven- 

tory of his goods, 219 
Van Aernum, Abraham, freeholder, 


Isaac, overseer poor, 293 
John, freeholder, 283 
Van Alen, Laurens, justice, 90, 237, 
256 ; assistant alderman, 65, 84 ; 
barn fortified, 115 
Johannes, freeholder, 282 
William, freeholder, 283 
Van Alkmaer, Adriaen Pietersz, 281 
Van Alstyne, Abraham I., assembly- 

man, 292 
Isaac, killed, 290 

Van Benthuysen, Baltus, collector, 293 
Charles, 337 
Gerrit, freeholder, '282 
Van Berckel, P. J., Dutch minister, 

Van Bergen, Marte Gerritse, see 

Mary, died, 330 
Peter, assessor, 293 

Van Bommel, Harme Jause, 112 

Jeronimee, soldier, 222 
Van Bremen, Jan Dircksen, 11 
Van Breucfcelen, Cornelis Teunisz, 22 
Van Bronk, Jonas, 18 
Van Brugge, Carl, 14, 15, 18 : provin- 
cial secretary, 30 

Pieter, high constable, 251, 260, 

264 ; (see Van Brugh.) 
Van Buren, Barent Martense, free- 
holder, 283 

Hendrick, freeholder, 283 

Johannes, freeholder, 283 
Van Cleef, Jan, 270 
Van Corlaer, Bennony, 96, 119, 240, 
258, 264 ; assessor, 251 , assistant 
alderman, 240 ; high constable, 
94 ; signs against Leisler, 135 

Bennony, juror, 243 
Van Cortlandt, Stephanus, 279; mar- 
ried Gertrude Schuyler, 272 
Van Couwenhooven, Lieut. Pieter W., 

Van Curler, (or Corlear) Arendt, 38, 

45, 47, 280; his testimony, 34; 

purchases Schenectady, 43, 44 ; to 

treat with Indians, 22 
Van Dam, Claes Ripse, 87, 122, 127, 

128, 129, 150, 158, 164, 167, 170, 182, 

184, 192, 207, 213, 261 ; alderman, 

103, 200 ; his opinion on Leisler's 

pretensions, 171 ; signs protest, 

176 ; to inspect stockadoes, 229 
Vande Berg, Guysbert Cornelisz, 281 
Van de Bilt, Jacob, chandler, 299 
Vande Hoeve, Cornells, deceased, 259 

Jan, constable, 251 

Van Dell, Godevridus, 96 ; see Delliua 
Van den Burgh, Cornelius, Jr., free- 
holder, 283 

Cornelise K., merchant, 289 

Garrit, freeholder, 283 

Gerrit Willemse, freeholder, 283 

Gysbert, freeholder, 283 

Matthias, freeholder, 283 

Nicholas, freeholder, 282 

Petrus, freeholder, 282 

Volkert, freeholder, 283 

Wilhelmus, freeholder, 283 

Wynant, freeholder, 283 
Van Deusen, Harpert, freeholder, 282 

Harpert, Jr., freeholder, 283 

Peter, chandler, 299 
Vander Beck, Coenradus, soldier, 222 
Van der Donck, mentions whales, 311 ; 

on fishes, 319 
Vanderheyden, Dirk, 110, 257 

David, freeholder, 282 

Jacob, assessor, 293: freeholder 
283, merchant, 292 ; deceased, 331 

Janet, died, 331 

Johannes, freeholder, 128, 282; 
takes oath, 128 

Matthias, freeholder, 283 



Vanderheyden's ferry named Troy, 300 
Vanclerhoeve, widow, Maritie, 259 
Cornelise, his house to be taken 

down, 182 
Vander Kemp's, 43 
Vanderpool, Abraham, freeholder, 292 
Catharine, 119 

Melgert Wynantse, assistant al- 
derman, 65, 84 ; see Wynantse, 

Vander Spiegel, Jacobus, soldier, 222 
Vander Utthoft, Wouter. 256, 257 
Vanderzee, Anthony, freeholder, 283 
Van De Ven, J., 274 
Van Dinclage, at Staten Island, 29 
Vandyck, Cornells, assemblyman, 298 ; 
estate appraised, 92 ; freeholder, 

Mrs. Elizabeth, 92 
Hend., 242, ,247, 264; attorney, 
248 ; attorney general, ill usage 
of, 29, 30; assistant alderman, 
200, 240, 245, 251 : assessor, 257 ; 
councilman, 105 ; signs against 
Leisler, 134 ; juror, 243 
Peter D ..merchant, 291 
Van Eerde, Willem, 212 
Van Eps, Lieut. Jan, 114, 121, 122, 143, 

145 : took oath of allegiance, 156 
Van Es, 281 (Van Ness ?) 
Van Everen, Barent, died, 337 ; see 

Van leveren 

Van Feurden, Henry, 202 
Van Heynigen Thomas, died, 344 
Van Hoese, Jurian, 183; accused of 

stealing water melons, 240 
Jacob, 120 
Jan, 280 
Volkert, 120 

Van leveren, Barent, freeholder, 283 
Myndert, freeholder, 282 
Kegnier, freeholder, 283 : see Van 


Van Ilpendam, Adrian, notary, died,94 
Van Imbroeck, Gysbert, 270 
Van Korlaers, Bennony, curtain at, to 

be repaired, 182 
Van Laer, Jacob, 212 
Van Loon, John, coroner, 94 ; plaint- 
iff, 239; removed on suspicion, 
108, 110, 111 

Van Namee Guards, hatters, 350 
Van Ness, Gerrit, 240, 258, 264, 266; 
alderman, 258 ; assessor, 251 ; 
assistant alderman, 200 ; con- 
stable, 103, 245 : firemaster, 252 ; 
overseer of high way, 252; free- 
holder, 283 ; councilman, 93, 105 ; 
signs against Leisler, 135 ; sues 
for planks, 238; witness, 238 
Hend., 119 

Jan, 119 ; freeholder, 283 
Peter, senator, 287: Symon, 184, 
209 ; to go in search of enemy, 

Annals, ii. 34 

Van Nostrandt, Jacob Janse, 280 
Van Oort, Goosen, 212 
Van Orden, Hezekiah, federalist, 298 
Van Olinda, Peter, 101, 212 

Pieter Danielse, 45 
Van Petten, Claes, 115, 119 ; justice, 


Van Purmnrent, Claes Lawrence, 101 
Van Ravesteyn, Elias, takes oath, 

Van Rensselaer, family seat, 311 

General Stephen, 323 ; federalist, 
298 ; school trustee, 305 

Guiliam, 208 

Hendrik, 47 

Henry I., assemblyman, 293 

Henry K., assemblyman, 298 

Jan Baptist, 24, 25, 33, 38, 273, 
274, 280 ; arranges for tapsters, 
39 ; director of colony, 32, 33 ; 
elected magistrate, 25 ; fined by 
Stuyvesant, 41 ; died, 47 

Jeremiah, assemblyman, 298 ; 
army encamp on his land, 312 

Jeremias, 279 ; member of con- 
vention, 1664, 270; president of 
the same, 270 ; succeeds to the 
manor, 47 ; his correspondence, 

John, 277; instructions for his 
colony, 274; freeholder, 283; 
heir to the manor, 9, 11 

Kilian, 47, 113, 116, 123, 143, 145, 
150, 158, 159, 164, 165, 167, 170, 
184, 192, 199, 205, 248, 261, 262 ; 
induced to release city of Al- 
bany, 56 ; agent to Boston, 125, 
126 ; his garden, 58 ; his opinion 
on Leisler 1 s pretensions, 171 ; 
his proportion of tax, 260 ; his 
return from Connecticut, 142; 
justice, 106 ; signs protest,' 176 ; 
subscription to war fund, 119 ; 
takes oath of allegiance, 122 

Lieut. Col. John, 297 

Philip, alderman, 2.K) 

Philip S., 303, 306 ; school trustee, 
304, 305, 306 

Reusselaer, died, 327 

Rev. Nicholas, married Alida 
Schnyler, 272 ; died, 47 

Sanders, died, 347 

Stephen, Jr., 340; title confirmed 

by British government, 56 
Van Sante, David, freeholder, 282 

Garrit, freeholder. 28'2 

Johannes, 119 ; constable, 94 ; free- 
holder, 282 ; high constable, 94 ; 
juror, 243 

Joseph, freeholder, 282 
Van Santvoord, A., 327 
Van Schaik, Adrian, 139 

Anthony, 119, 254; freeholder, 
282; constable at Half Moon, 



Van Schaick, Goosen Gerritsen, mar- 
ried, 10 ; died, 10 
Jacob, merchant, 286 
Van Schaik, Liv., 84, 92, 107, 116, 119, 
120, 129, 143, 145, 157, 158, 164, 
167, 168, 170, 177, 178. 182, 184, 
186, 192, 205, 207, 211 ; first alder- 
man, 65, 83, ; alderman, 93, 94 y 
103 106, 180,240 ; agent to New 
York, 192 ; cowardice of, 181 ; 
protest sent by, 125; delivers 
protest to Leisler, 130 ; his opin- 
ion on Leisler's authority, 171 ; 
on select committee, 193 ; signs 
protest, 176 ; to fortify patroon's 
mill, 225 

Nicholas, freeholder, 282 
Sybrant, freeholder, 282, 283 
Sybrant, Jr., freeholder, 282 
Van Schelluyne, 29 

Dirk, freeholder, 282 ; member of 

convention, 1664, 270 
Harmanus, freeholder, 282 
Johannes, freeholder, 282 
Teleman, .freeholder, 282 
William, freeholder, 282 
Van Schoouhoven, James, assembly- 
man, 292 

Van Sickler, E. M., 353 
Van Slechtenhorst, Brant, 10, 31 
Arent, director, 9 
Gerrit, director, 10 ; champion of 
Rensselaerswyck, 10 ; protests 
against btuyvesant, 11, 18 ; ex- 
tends patrooa's territory, 19; 
imprisoned, 24; deposed and 
imprisoned, 32 ; his family, 10 ; 
died, 10 
Margritta, 272 

Van Slyck, Akes Cornelissen, his de- 
position against Robert Livings- 
ton, 216, 217 
Van Tienhoven, Adriaen, receiver 

general, 30 
Cornelius, attorney general, 30 ; 

accused of drunkenness, 31 
Van Tilburgh, Isaac Jansen T soldier, 


Johannes, soldier, 222. 
Van Tricht, Abraham, 86 

Elizabeth, 119 ; sued, 241, 242 
VanTwiller, J., 38 

Wouter, his claims, 19 ; died, 9 
Van Valkenburgh, Abraham, free- 
holder, 283 

Bartholomew, died, 351 
Johannes, freeholder, 283. 
John, 332 
Mary, died, 332 
Mrs. Daniel, died, 346 
Van Vechten, see Dirk Teunisse 
Douw, freeholder, 283 
Hall, 329 

Johannes, freeholder, 283 
Johannes, Jr., freeholder, 283 

Van Vechten, Joh. Gerritse, soldier, 116 
Lucas, for assemblyman , 293 
Solomon, freeholder, 283 
Teunis, 339 ; president of the Al- 
bany Insurance company, 328 
Teunise, Dirkse, soldier, 116 
Teunis Ts., merchant, 292 
Volkert, freeholder, 283 ' 

Van Velsen, Sweer Teunissen, 217 

Van Voorhout, Cornells Cornelisz, 


Jacobus, city porter, 87 ; city car- 
ter, 91 

Van Vranken, Ulderick, freeholder. 

Van Waggelum, Capt. Pieter, 110, 
157, 209, 225, 239 ; treats with Mil- 
borne, 155 

Van Waggoner, Rev. M., valedictory, 

Van Weesp. Gysbert Cornelisz, 280 
Van Wely, Johannes, 24 ; died, 9 
Van Wencom,. Gerrit, 32 
Van Wie- Gerrit, freeholder, 283 

Hendrick, freeholder, 283 

John, freeholder, 283 
Van Woort, Jacob, freeholder, 283 

Nicholas, freeholder, 282 

Peter, freeholder, 283 

Rutger, freeholder, 283 
Van Zandt, Mrs. Benjamin, died, 336 
Vedder, Arent, 212 

Harmen, 212 

Marius, 212 

Veeder, Johannes Symenge, free- 
holder, 28a 
Verbeeck, -Hendricksz, 281 

Jan, 280; member of convention, 

1664, 270 
Verbrugh, Pr., constable, 245, see 

Van Brugh 

Vermilje, Joannes v 139, 202 
Verplanck, David, freeholder, 283 

Gulian, freeholder, 282 

Isaac, assistant alderman, 65, 84 ; 
constable, 86, 88; councilman, 
94 ; high constable, 91, 94 . 

Isak, 111, 113, 119, 242, 254, 256 
Ver Planken, Isaak, signs against 

Leisler 135 

Verveeler, Johannes, 270 
Verwy. Tryntin, 212 
Vice-director's house, 42 
Viele, Arnout Cornelise, defendant, 
238, 23ft 

Cornelise, 212 ; sent to New York, 
181 ; surgeon, 224 

Henry K., takes medal, 320 

Isaac, freeholder, 283 

Rufus K., 325 

Teunis, 212; freeholder, 283; fine 

remitted, 244 
Villeroy, Pietre, illicit trader, 243; 

deposition of, 109: removed on 

suspicion, 107, 108, 110, 111 



Vinnagen, Jan, 90, 199, 240, 254, 256 ; 
assistant alderman, 240 ; firemas- 
ter 252 : freeholder, 282 
Virginia, called upon for aid, 181 
Visscher, Ann, died, 324 

Harmanus, freeholder, 283 
Jacob, freeholder, 283 
Johannes, freeholder, 283 
Matthew, 287 ; assemblyman, 293 ; 
assistant alderman, 290 ; county 
clerk, 297 
Tennis, freeholder, 283; wins 

prize, 350 

Volcker, Symon, 212 
Volckers, Nieces, 212 
Volkertse, Jonas, 257; juror, 243 
Volkertsen, Symon, 45 
VOB, Cornells Cornelisz, 280 

Andries, deputy, 15 
Vosburg, Abraham Pietersz, 281 
Isaac, 260 
John, 325, 344 
Pieter, 247, 260 
Vose & Co., stoves, 335 
Voss, Jacob, 119 

Vossen kil, 281 ; see also Fox creek 
Vote, polled 1850, 350 ; see election 
Vrooman, Adam, 101, 212 ; petition for 
land, 95: sends Milborne's 
letter to Mayor Schuyler, 139; 
his reply to Milborne, 140 
Bartel, 114 ; his house fortified, 


Cornelia 109 
Isaac, federalist,298 ; foraesembly- 

man, 292 
Jacob Meese, signs against Leis- 

ler, 135 

Peter, anti-federal elector, 298 ; as- 
semblyman, 292; eee alsoFroo- 
Vyde kil (fifth kil, Pafcroon's creek), 


Vyselaer, John Cornelise, defendant, 
239, 256; signs against Leisler, 
134; appraiser of houses to be 
taken down, 182 ; firemaster, 252 

Waddell, Samuel, died, 349 
Waell (ditches), 264 
Waggoner, J. H., 344 
Wait, John C., died, 336 
Wakefield, Tho., takes oath, 125 
Wakeman, Ensiue Ebennazar, 222 
Waldron, Charles N., takes medal, 320 

Henry, takes medal, 320 

William, freeholder, 282 
Walfahrt r Ferdinand, glass factory, 


Walker, Mary Ann, died, 339 
Wallace, Benjamin, merchant, 291 

Christopher, 333 

Robert, died, 346 
Walters, Richard, soldier, 221 

Wampenakicks, 28 

Wampi, White, 1 

Wampum, 1 ; its manufacture labo- 
rious, 2 : circulating medium, 4 ; 
definition of, 269; made in Al- 
bany, '&; on Staten Island, 6 ; on 
Long Island, 6 ; its mode of inanu- 
iacture, 7 ; its value, in 1660, 8 ; 
stolen, 84, 85 ; wars attributed to, 
2 ; its qualities, 3 ; its value, 4, 5 ; 
its importance in all public busi- 
ness, 5 

Wampumit, Indian chief, 19 

Wampumpeage, 1, 4 

Wandelaer, see De Wandelaer 

Wanemankeebe, Indian owner, 19 

Wantenaar, Albert Cornells, 270 

War between France and England, 


with France, 107 
fund, subscription to, 1689, 119 

Ward, Mrs. Aaron S., died, 352. 

Warford, Rev. John, 303 

Warners, Tryntie, widow of Carsten 
Frederickse, 99 

Warren, Hannah L., died, 349 
Leonard G., "351 

Washburn, Bethuel, assessor, 293 

Washington's birthday celebrated, 332 

Wasson, James D., 327, 338, 339, 340 

Watch, by soldiery irregular, 104; 
house, 1686, 59: ordered to be 
kept, $2; regulated, 158; volun- 
teer night, 345 

Water, project, loan for, 350 
runs to be repaired, 264 
supply project, 337 
supply sought for, 285 
works, bids for construction, 347 

Waterman, Mrs. Augustus, died, 350 

Waters, John, freeholder, 283 

Watervliet kiL 318; signification of. 
311 ; turnpike election, 340 ; vote 
1789, 300 

Wawyachtenock Indians, 118, 120 

Way, Rev. P. M., 330 

Hester Maria, died, 330 

Weak Faith Strengthened, 288 

Weaver, William, soldier, 222 

Webster, Charles R,, 285, 286, 298; 

school trustee, 305 
George, 298 
Noah, his third part, 295 

Webster's Calendar first printed, 290 

Weed, Thurlow, 328 

Weems, Captain, chamber hired for. 

Weigh house, 78 

Weith, James, soldier, 223 

Welch, .Sarah, died, 351 

Wells, A. H., 325 

Edmund, for assemblyman, 293 

Henry J., 328 

Sidney, died, 336 

regulations of,88 ; to be repaired,8C 



Wemp, Barent, captain, 211, 212, 237 ; 
executor, 243 ; officer of guard, 

Diener, 212 

Jan Barentse, 45 

Myndert, 217 ; Leisler's justice at 

Schenectady, 171 
Wendell, Abraham E., freeholder, 283 

& Trotter, merchants, 291 

Capt., 104, 113, 116, 127, 136, 145, 
172, 177, 183 ; his company, 113, 
116 ; to repair stockadoes, 115 ; 
his opinion in Dutch, on Leis- 
ler's authority. 171 

Cornelius and John H., merch., 291 

Cornelius, supervisor, 293 

Ephraim, freeholder, 282 

Evert, 119. 242, 256, 257 ; assistant 
alderman, 258; freeholder, 282; 
his pasture, 58 

Evert, Jr., 224; constable, 94 

Hannanus, freeholder, 282 ; house 
of, 292 

Isaac, freeholder, 282 

Jan, 111, 124, 178, 220 ; alderman, 
106, 107, 113, 120 

Jeronimus, 119, 152 ; receives com- 
missions from Leisler, 171 

Johannis, (same as Jan) 92, 126, 
158, 166, 182, 198, 199, 205, 207, 
214, 215, 217 ; first alderman, 65, 
83 ; alderman,93, 94,103, 214, 217 ; 
illicit trader, 239 ; suspends his 
vote, 136 ; mayor under Leisler, 

Capt. Johannes, (same as above), 
84, 119, 121, 125, 126, 129, 143, 
148, 160, 170, 209, 225, 164, 167, 
170 ; sent to assist Schenectady, 
115 ; Leisler willing to treat 
with, 117; deceased. 241 

John W., assistant alderman, 290 ; 
hatter, 288 

Mrs. William, died, 339 

Philip, 119 

Wendell's mill, location of, 269 
Wertze, Jan, soldier, 223 
Wessells, D., 84, 86, 87, 92, 107, 111, 
119, 120, 123, 124, 126, 127, 128, 
129, 143, 157, 158, 164, 166, 167, 
168, 170, 178, 179, 180, 186, 207, 
211, 213, 214, 215, 244, 262; re- 
corder, 106, 113, 177, 184, 185, 
198, 199, 205; on select commit- 
tee, 193 ; to prepare munitions 
for expedition against French, 
228; replies to Milborne, 137; 
representative, 253, 265 ; sent to 
assist Schenectady, 115 ; signs 
protest, 176 ; takes oath of alle- 
giance, 122 ; see Ten Broek 
[ajor, 251. 261, 267 ; required to 
perform his duty, 264 
West India Company inefficient, 271 

Stockbridge rail road, 368 


Westenhook river, canoe to be pro- 
vided for, 142 

Westercamp, Hendrick, 281 
Westerlo, Eilardus, 297 

Rensselaer, 284 
Whale island, 811 
Wheat, price, 1693, 252; receipts of, 

349, 352 

Wheel, large cast, 326 
Wheeler, Mrs. Hiram, died, 334 

Nath., witness, 254 
Whig election, 339 
Whipping for manslaughter, 301 ; for 

petit larceny, 293 ; in navy, 338 
White, Rich., takes oath, 124 

Samuel, 339 
Whitney, Hezekiah W., died, 350 

Selleck, died, 336 

S W., 349 

William B., for senator, 293 
Whittirigham, Rt. Rev. Bishop, conse- 
crates church, 346; lays corner 

stone, 343 

Wickes, Jonas, died, 326 
Wilkinson, Thomas, freeholder, 282 

Willem , 135 ; the Indian, 214 

Willemstadt, now Albany, 311 
Willet, James, 125 

Elbert, for assemblyman, 292 ; site 

of house, 291 
William and Mary proclaimed, 101 

of Orange, 216, 217 
Williams,. C. P., 328, 353, 355 

James B., died, 331 

Symon, soldier, 221 

Thomas, freeholder, 282 
Williamsburgh, houses, 1785, 295 
Williamstadt, so called, 57 
Wilmington, houses, 1788, 295 
Wilson, Alexander, soldier, 222 

Gilbert L., takes medal, 323 

James, 345, 346 

James A., 325, 337 

John Q., 338 

Richard, takes oath, 124 

Stuart, bookstore of, 285 
Winantse, Melgerl, see Vanderpoel 
Winantze, seeWynantse 
Wind mills for cleaning wheat, 292 
Wine excise, 34, 37 
Wing, J. K.. died, 329 
Winne, Benjamin, freeholder, 283 

D., 351 

Daniel, freeholder, 283 

Giles K., 340 

Isaac, died, 326 

Jellis, assistant alderman, 290 

John L., died, 330 

Levinus L., 324 

Lieve, 120 

Peter, 184 ; appraisers, of houses to 
be taken down, 182 ; freeholder, 
283 ; town major, 209 

William, freeholder, 283 
Winslow, Edward T., died, 329 



Witbeck, Abraham, freeholder, 283. 
Garret, nailer, 296 
John, freeholder, 283 
Luykas, freeholder, 283 
Witchcraft, defence against, 2 
Witment, John, house attacked, 111 
Wogolem, Pieter, captain, 237 ; see 

Van Waggelnm 
Wolcott, Oliver, 289 
Wolleston, John, soldier, 223 
Woodbury, horses returned to, 155 
Wood creek, 234 ; for Indian trader, 


Woodert, James, soldier, 222 
Woutersen, Gerrit, soldier, 221 
Wright, Lieut. Jonathan, 209 
Wrighteon, George, takes medal, 320 

William, takes medal, 320, 323 
Wyckoff, I. N., 353 
Wynantse, Melgert, 209 ; firemaster, 
90, 97, 252, 258 ; purchases Butter- 
milk falls, 103 ; see Vanderpool. 
Wyngaard, Lucas, 307: freeholder, 282 
Luykas Johs., freeholder, 2B2 

Wyngaard, Luykas Gerritse, free- 
holder, 282 

Wyngaert, Abraham, freeholder, 283 
Johannes, freeholder, 282 

Wynkoop, Cornells J., auctioneer, 302 

Yardin, Samuel, soldier, 222 
Yates, Abraham, postmaster, 291 

Adam, freeholder, 283 

Christopher, 287 ; freeholder, 282 

Henry, 330 

Peter W., 287 ; alderman, 290 ; for 

assemblyman, 293 
Yetts, Jos., takes oath, 91, 125 
Young, Archibald, 329 

George, 351 

Left. Symon, 255 

Men's Association, 325 
Younglove, John, 287 

Zewant, (wampum), 269 
Zwanendaal, repurchased, 10