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Obituary of T. Romeyn Beck, 1 

Abstract of Meteorological Observations, - 28 

New York Colonial Manuscripts, 37 

Notes from the Newspapers, ... 75 

Sunday Schools, ------ 165 

"William Alexander, - - - - 168 

Case of William Teller, - 169 

The City's Ancient Ravines, - - - 174 

Prices of Produce at the Manor House, - - 176 

Thirty Years Difference, - - 178 

Accidents by Travel, ----- 179 

Albany, as seen by Dr. D wight, - - 181 

Albany, by Winterbotham, - - - - 191 

Schenectady, ------ 192 

John Melish in Albany, - - - - 194 

Cascade of the Vly Kill, - - 198 

License in Old Times, ----- 204 

iv Contents. 

Orders Regulating the Indian Trade, - 205 

Rates of Excise in 1686, ... - 215 

John Lambert in Albany, - - - - 217 

Mrs. Alexander Hamilton, .... 225 

The City Records, - - 229 

Barley Trade in Albany, '' - - - 313 

Charitable and Criminal Institutions, - 316 

Fires in 1856, 325 

Annals of the year 1856, - '.* - - -/ ; 328 


It is nine years since the compiler of this work, 
imbued with the ambition of contributing something 
in his day and generation for the diffusion of know- 
ledge among men, resolved himself into an historical 
and antiquarian society on his own account, and 
ventured upon the labor of collecting and publishing 
materials which should serve some future historian 
to write the history of Albany and its vicinity. 
Time, industry and money, have produced eight 
volumes in the interim; and in view of the abun- 
dance of material, it is proposed to add two more, 
when he will be happy to find some one who may be 
willing to continue the work. Many glimmerings of 
the dark lights and shadows of the ancient time are 
still unexplored, and a willing hand and ardent mind 
may find occupation for a life-time. 

The compiler is impelled to apologize to those who 
have continued from year to year to receive the 
work, for the want of vigor that may be observed in 

vi Preface. 

its pages ; which is not attributable wholly to lack 
of ability and judgment, but also to want of sufficient 
time and opportunity, and the seeming impossibility 
of engaging the cooperation of such as have an 
abundance of those commodities. Hence many arti- 
cles which were expected to fill prominent places in 
these volumes, and give them zest, have never been 
written by those who promised them, and they were 
closed up with less attractive material. This is not 
mentioned in the spirit of reproach, but by way of 
apology to those who may expect to find an attrac- 
tive miscellany, in what is intended only as a store- 
house for neglected and forgotten things. 

In this volume, the city records are brought down 
to the year 1725, Johannis Cuyler, mayor. The 
aldermen were considerably exercised with the diffi- 
culties of regulating the Indian trade, digging wells 
and drains, restraining inordinate speed in driving 
"with horses, wagons, carts and sleds," and restrict- 
ing unlicensed tapping of liquors. The public 
granary was replenished bountifully by the revenue 
from the leases of Schaghticoke, and the city chest 
grew plethoric from the sale of lots in the outskirts. 
The town was becoming corpulent, and the pressure 
was great upon the stockadoes, which operated as 

Preface. vii 

stays upon its increasing obesity. It was at this 
time, that Joseph Pamerton undertook to assist John 
Brumley, to go round the city as bell man, every 
other night, from ten to four o'clock, and call the 
hour and state of the wheather from certain points, for 
ten pound ten per annum ! The notes from the 
newspapers end with the year 1826, and revive the 
recollection of events in the minds of middle aged 
citizens. The corporation expenses will attract the 
attention of those who have grown so rich that their 
taxes have become fearful to contemplate. The 
annals of the year are necessarily brief. They serve 
merely as an index to the particulars in the news- 
papers, having the advantage of dates. 


Portrait of Dr. T. R. Beck, 1 

Diagram of the Winds, - 35 

Southwick's Printing Office, ... - 102 

Mechanic Hall, - - - - r - 111 

Pearl Street Theatre, 118 

Albany City Hospital, .... 321 

Engraved vTl. 





[Reduced from an Address by Dr. Hamilton, before the N. Y. State Medical Societr, 
Feb., 1856.] 

Theodric Romeyn Beck was born in Schenectady, in 
the state of New York, on the 1 1th day of August, 1791. 
The family were of English origin, but so long settled at 
Schenectady that their descendants, by association and 
intermarriage, became identified with the Dutch popula- 

The first of the family, of whom we have any know- 
ledge, was Caleb Beck, who sailed as master of a vessel 
from Boston to England, and who having married at 
Schenectady, was subsequently lost at sea. His son, 
the great grandfather of the subject of our memoir, as 
we learn from the probate of liis will before the commis- 
sioners at Albany, in the year 1733, was "Caleb Beck, 
gentleman, a freeholder in this colony; having during his 
life, and at the time of his death, goods, rights, and 
credits in divers places in our province." 

His grandfather was admitted an attorney at law, to 
practice in all the courts, at Albany, in the year 1751. 

The father of Dr. Beck, who also studied law, but 
never practiced, married Catherine Theresa Romeyn, only 
daughter of the Rev. Derick Romeyn, D. D., then pastor of 
the Reformed Dutch Church, at Schenectady, and well 
known as a distinguished professor of theology in that 

[Annals viii.] 2 

2 Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Beck. 

The ancestral name, Caleb, was preserved through 
five successive generations, having only ceased with the 
brother of Dr. Beck. 

The Romeyn family came from Holland, and settled in 
New York about the middle of the seventeenth century. 
Among those who acquired distinction, and whose names 
have come down to us, in addition to the Rev. Derick 
Romeyn, of whom we have spoken, we may recognize the 
brother of Mrs. Beck, the Rev. John B. Romeyn, D. D., 
who died in New York, in 1825; and a cousin, Nicholas 
Romaine, M. D., who was president of the State Me- 
dical Society in 1809, 10, and 11, and who was made an 
honorary member in 1812. 

Dr. Beck's father having died in 1798, at the age of 
27 years, left his five sons to the sole care of his young 
widow, to whose indomitable energy, sound education, 
piety and good judgment they are probably mainly 
indebted for the distinction which they all subsequently 

Abraham, a lawyer of much promise, died at St. Louis, 
Missouri, in 1821. 

John Brodhead Beck, M. D., was elected professor of 
materia medica and botany, at the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons in the city of New York, and author of 
many medical works, besides the chapter contributed 
by him to Beck's Medical Jurisprudence, died in New 
York, in 1851. 

Nicholas Fairly Beck died while holding the office of 
adjutant general of the state, under De Witt Clinton, in 
1830. And 

Lewis C. Beck, M. D., late professor of chemistry in 
the Albany Medical College, and in the Rutgers College, 
New Jersey, author of several scientific works, and who, 
as a member of the scientific corps which made the New 
York geological survey, contributed the volume on mine- 
ralogy, one of the most valuable portions of that excel- 
lent state report, died in 1853. 

The rudiments of Dr. Beck's education were acquired 
at the grammar school of his native city, under the more 

Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Seek. 3 

immediate supervision of his maternal grandfather, the 
Rev. Derick Romeyn, D. D. 

He entered Union College, at Schenectady, in 1803, 
and graduated in 1807, when only sixteen years old. 
Union College had then been established but a few 
years, and, in a great measure, through the exertions of 
Dr. Romeyn. 

Immediately on leaving college, he came to this city, 
and was admitted to the office of Drs. Low and Mc- 
Clelland. His' medical education was completed, 
however, in the city of New York, under the personal 
instructions of the celebrated Dr. David Hosack. At 
the same time, also, he attended the lectures at the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons of the Eastern District, 
then recently established in that city; and in 1811 he 
received the degree of Doctor in Medicine, on which 
occasion he presented, as the subject of his inaugural 
thesis, a paper .on Insanity, the first fruits of the study 
of that subject which afterwards engaged so large a share 
of his attention, and uponVhich he expended such stores 
of learning, and exhibited such powers of research. The 
thesis was published in a pamphlet form, containing 
thirty-four pages, and received from various quarters 
highly flattering notices. 

On his return from New York, he commenced at once 
the practice of medicine and surgery in this city, and the 
same year he was appointed physician to the alms-house. 
On resigning this office, he presented a memorial to the 
supervisors on the subject of work-houses, the practical 
wisdom of which daily experience proves at this time. 

Dr. Beck was married in 1814, at Caldwell, Warren 
county, to Harriet, daughter of James Caldwell, a mer- 
chant of this city, but whose principal estate and resi- 
dence was at Caldwell, on Lake George. Mr. Caldwell 
was a gentleman of Irish birth, and well known for his 
wit and hospitality. His humor has been especially cele- 
brated in several of the entertaining tales written by J. 
K. Paulding. 

In the year 1815, at the age of twenty-four, Dr. Beck 

4 Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Beck. 

received the appointment of professor of the institutes of 
medicine, and of lecturer on medical jurisprudence in 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons for the Western 
District, established under the auspices of the Regents, 
at Fairfield, in Herkimer county, New York; an institu- 
tion then in the third year of its existence. Notwith- 
standing this appointment, which required his absence 
from home only a small portion of the year, he continued 
in the practice of his profession at Albany. 

At the opening of the term of 1824, he delivered an 
introductory lecture on the Advantages of Country Medical 
Schools, which was published by request of the class. 
The subject had been suggested by a remark made in an 
introductory lecture by one of the professors in New 
York, disparaging to country schools, and which had 
found its way into some of the New York prints, to 
which this discourse was a severe, but dignified and dis- 
passionate reply. 

Already, in 1817, Dr. Beck had withdrawn entirely 
from the practice of medicine, having in this year accept- 
ed the place of principal to the Albany Academy. In a 
letter to his uncle, Dr. Romeyn, then in Europe, dated 
June 30, 1814, he says: " I have begun to look upon 
medicine in a very different manner from what I formerly 
did. Although delighted with the study yet I dislike the 
practice, and I had not acquired sufficiently comprehen- 
sive views of its value and great importance as an ob- 
ject of research. I now find it a subject worthy of my 
mind, and for some time past I have brought all my 
energies to its examination." From this remarkable 
passage, in which we have definitely the plan of his fu- 
ture life, we learn also what enlarged and intelligent 
views he entertained of t;he value of true medical science. 

In 1829 Dr. Beck was elected president of the New 
York State Medical Society, and was re-elected the two 
succeeding years in itself a sufficient testimony of the 
esteem in which be was held by his fellow-members. 

In 1826 Dr. Beck was made professor of medical juris- 
prudence, at Fairfield Medical College, instead of lecturer, 

Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Beck. 5 

and in 1836, he was transferred from the chair of 
practice to that of materia medica, in accordance with 
his own request; and these two chairs he continued to 
occupy until the abandonment of the college in 1840. 

Medical colleges had been established both at Albany 
and Geneva under new and favorable auspices, each 
having received liberal endowments from the state, and 
although the college at Fan-field still retained the confi- 
dence of the profession to such a degree that in its last 
catalogue its pupils numbered 114, and its graduates 33; 
yet as it was apparent that the wants of the community 
did not require three colleges situated so near each other, 
and as both Albany and Geneva had the advantage in 
their relative size and accessibility, it was determined by 
the several professors to discontinue the lectures at Fair- 

Immediately on resigning his place at Fairfield, Dr. 
Beck was elected to the chair of materia medica, in the 
Albany Medical College, the chair of medical juris- 
prudence, to which he would most naturally have been 
chosen, being already occupied by a very able teacher, 
Amos Dean, Esq. This professorship Dr. Beck conti- 
nued to hold until 1854, when his declining health, together 
with an accumulation of other pressing duties, induced 
him to resign his place as an active officer, having now 
taught medicine in some of its departments for thirty- 
nine years, and the trustees then conferred upon him the 
honorary distinction of emeritus professor. 

It has been mentioned that in 1817, Dr. Beck was 
made principal of the Albany Academy; and in a letter 
to his uncle, Dr. Romeyn, dated August 1, 1817, shortly 
before the appointment, he writes as follows: "This I 
know, that by zeal and attention on the part of the in- 
structors, it can be made an eminent and useful institu- 
tion. * * I pray you to believe that the mention of 
my name as a candidate, was unsolicited and very unex- 
pected. It is a spontaneous offer, and as such I shall al- 
ways look on it as a testimony of no mean value." The 
citizens of Albany and his numerous pupils, now scat- 

6 Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Beck. 

tered throughout the United States, can bear witness, 
how great has been his zeal in behalf of that institution, 
and how well he has fulfilled his promise. 

The building occupied as the Academy, was erected 
for this purpose by the city authorities ; it is large, com- 
modious and distinguished, even among the numerous 
public edifices which adorn this capital, for its fine 
architectural proportions. Each department is supplied 
with able teachers, and with ample means for illustra- 
tion, and during the more than thirty years of his 
administration, it has sustained a reputation second to 
no similar institution in the state. 

I. find in one of the Albany city papers, dated some 
years back, pencil sketches of a few of its most promi- 
nent citizens, among whom is mentioned Dr. Beck. The 
writer, who is not ignorant of his many other public 
services, and of bis reputation abroad, thus speaks of 
his connection with the Academy: "The Albany Aca- 
demy is an institution which has furnished the commu- 
nity with more mind, than any other academy in this 
country. A distinction that is doubtless due to the ad- 
mirable discipline, and well stored brain which Dr. Beck 
brought with him into the institution, in 1817." 

In 1848, Dr. Beck resigned his place as principal of 
the Academy, and on the death of James Stevenson, Esq., 
he succeeded him as president of the board of trustees. 

The Society for the Promotion of Agriculture, Arts 
and Manufactures, was incorporated by the legislature 
on the 12th of March, 1793, with Chancellor Livingston 
as its president. The existence of the corporation was 
limited by its charter to the first day of May, 1804. On 
the 2d day of April, 1804, the legislature virtually re- 
newed the charter, making it perpetual, changing the 
name of the corporation to that of the Society for the 
Promotion of the Useful Arts, and Chancellor Livings- 
ton was appointed the president of the new corporation. 
Dr. Beck was admitted a member of this society on the 
5th day of February, 1812. Among its officers, in addi- 
tion to its distinguished president, already named, were 

Obituary of Dr. T. Eomeyn Beck. 7 

Simeon De Witt, John Taylor, David Hosack, Stephen 
Van Rensselaer, De Witt Clinton, Edmund C. Genet, 
and others prominent in the history of our state. Al- 
though Dr. Beck was at this time only in his twenty- 
first year, yet at the second meeting after his election, 
he was made chairman of a standing committee of five, 
appointed "for the purpose of collecting and arranging 
such minerals as our state affords." And on the 1st of 
April, 1812, less than two months after his admission, 
he was appointed to deliver the annual address at the 
following session of the society. This duty he performed 
on the 3d day of February, 1813. The object of this 
address, as he remarks in his preface, was to "exhibit at 
one view the mineral riches of the United States, with 
their various application to the arts, and to demon- 
strate the practicability of the increase of different 
manufactures, whose materials are derived from this 
source." This was eminently the field for Dr. Beck's 
peculiar talent; it was new, and everything had to be 
learned from the beginning; a host of persons and au- 
thorities had to be consulted, and the whole to be care- 
fully digested, analyzed and applied. The result could 
not have disappointed those who were familiar with 
his habits; but to one who had known him less, or who 
was at all acquainted with the difficulties which he was 
compelled to encounter in the little that was then known 
of the mineral resources of this country, the result 
seems astonishing; and to that elaborate and timely 
paper, we think, the American manufacturer is, to-day, in 
no small degree indebted for his wealth and prosperity. 
It was the lens which first brought the scattered rays of 
light upon this subject to a focus, and which now melts 
the ores in a thousand furnaces. If, as Dr. Beck asserts, 
American mineralogy was then in its infancy, he was 
the first to urge upon it a confidence in itself, and to 
demonstrate to others its unsuspected capacities, and it 
is through such early guidance and assistance that it has 
so rapidly grown to complete manhood, no less than to 

8 Obituary of Dr. T. Eomeyn Seek. 

the "persevering industry, the unconquerable enterprise, 
and the extraordinary ingenuity of our citizens." 

In 1819, Dr. Beck read, before the same society, a 
Memoir on Alum, the object of which was to present a 
view of one of the most important of the chemical arts. 
In preparing it, "I consulted," says Dr. Beck, "every 
work relating to the subject within my reach. Had the 
work conducted some years ago by Prof. Cooper, of Phila- 
delphia, under the title of the Emporium of Arts, been 
continued, this attempt would doubtless have been use- 
less, as the subject under consideration was one of those 
which he proposed to notice. I venture, though with 
unequal steps, to examine the history, progress and 
present state of the manufacture of alum, with a hope 
that my investigations may prove useful to some who are 
unable to consult systematical works, and above all, that 
they may direct the attention of our citizens to the 
means which they possess, within their own reach, of 
converting useless mineral products into rich sources of 
individual and national profit." This, together with the 
paper first mentioned, is published in the transactions of 
the society before which they were delivered. 

The Albany Lyceum of Natural History was incorpo- 
rated by the legislature on the 23d day of April, 1823. 
Stephen Van Rensselaer was, by the charter, appointed 
its first president, and Dr. Beck, its first vice president. 
A union between this association and the Society for the 
Promotion of the Useful Arts, was agreed upon and car- 
ried into effect in 1824, and consummated in form by an 
act of the legislature of the 27th of February, 1829, in- 
corporating the Albany Institute, which was to consist 
of three departments: the first, that of the physical 
sciences and the arts, to consist of the Society for the 
Promotion of the Useful Arts, as then constituted; the 
second, that of natural history, to consist of the Albany 
Lyceum of Natural History, as then constituted; the 
third, for the promotion of history and general litera- 
ture, to be formed for the purpose. Of the Albany In- 
stitute so constituted, dating back its foundation to the 

Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Beck. 9 

establishment of the Society for the Promotion of Agri- 
culture, Arts and Manufactures, in 1793, and thus being, 
I believe, the oldest institution of this character in our 
state, and one of the oldest in our country, Dr. Beck 
was not only one of the most active members, but it may 
be safely said, without doing injustice to many others 
who have been connected with it, that he did more to 
keep up its organization, to enlarge its library and col- 
lections, and generally to advance its interests, than any 
other person. Its proceedings, as well as its published 
transactions, bear evidence to the fidelity and zeal with 
which he labored for its prosperity. At the time of his 
death, and for many years before, he was its president. 
In 1835, Dr. Beck, by appointment, delivered before the 
Institute a Eulogium on the Life and Services of Simeon 
De Witt, surveyor-general of the state, chancellor of the 
university, and also, at the time of his death, one of 
the vice-presidents of the society. 

One of the originators of the plan for the geological 
survey of the state, Dr. Beck became one of its most 
ardent supporters, and under the successive governors, 
he was entrusted with much of the supervision of the 
work. As evidence of the great part which he took in 
this labor, I subjoin the dedication of the fifth volume, 
on Agriculture, written by E. Emmons, M. D. 

" To T. ROMEYN BECK, M. D., LL. D.: Sir, There is 
more than one reason why the concluding divisions of 
the present work, undertaken to explore and illustrate 
the natural history of the state of New York, and con- 
ducted under legislative patronage, should be dedicated 
to you. You were among the first to foster the enterprise 
and remained its consistent advocate in times when 
adverse circumstances seemed to jeopardize its continu- 
ance; much more than this, your whole life has been 
assiduously engaged in promoting the advance of science 
and the spread of popular education, and the published 
results of your scientific and literary labors, may be 
referred to as reflecting an honor on your native state. 
Would that the merits of the present volume were such 
as to render it more worthy its dedication." 

10 Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Seek. 

The legislature of 1850 confided to the secretary of 
state, and to the secretary of the board of regents, the 
supervision of the publication of the remainder of the 
Natural History of the state. The geological survey 
having been protracted much beyond the period originally 
contemplated, and various claims existing in reference to 
it, the two officers named were required by law to report 
to the next legislature what those claims were, and what 
contracts existed between the state and individuals for 
such of the work as remained to be completed. They 
were also required to report a plan for the completion of 
the survey, and to submit estimates of the cost of such 
completion. Dr. Beck's acquaintance with the history 
of this work, and all the matters connected with it, was 
perhaps more complete than that of any other person in 
the state; and this fact led to the selection of the secre- 
tary of the regents (which post he then filled), as one of 
the commissioners. Whether we look at the interests 
of the state or those of science, no better choice could 
have been made. 

The reports of the commissioners to the legislature, 
show the good effects of the investigation made by them; 
and, judging from the order and system which the affair 
soon assumed under their hands, and the comparative 
economy which attended their expenditures and plans, 
it is hazarding little to say, that, had a permanent com- 
mission of this character been charged with the care of 
the survey from its outset, the work would have been 
more systematically pursued, and at an expense greatly 
less than that which the state has incurred. 

Since 1841 he has occupied the office of secretary of 
the board of regents ; a position of great honor and 
trust. The regents have the supervisory charge of the 
educational interests of the state, and are required to 
report annually the condition of all the colleges and 
academies under their care. His reports made during 
the period of his incumbency are not only voluminous, 
but they are equally models of accuracy and of compact- 
ness. But the supervision of colleges and academies 

Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Seek. II 

does by no means limit the powers and responsibilities 
of the regents. To them is entrusted the care of the 
State Library, and of the State Cabinet of Natural His- 
tory, with also the management of much of the foreign 
correspondence, and all of the literary and scientific 
international exchanges. Most of which various duties 
devolved officially upon Dr. Beck. To his earnest devo- 
tion, and eminent qualifications, the state is therefore 
indebted for its large and judiciously selected library; 
and especially for its unrivaled collection of works on 
the history of this country and state. 

In the language of Dr. E. H. Van Deusen, from whose 
brief but elegant biography, written for the American 
Journal of Insanity, I am indebted for several of the 
facts contained in this memoir: 

" Dr. Beck has witnessed the adoption in this state, of 
a public system of education, elementary and collegiate, 
alike thorough and successful; and as the crowning effort 
in the field of his severest, yet most congenial labor, a 
State Library, which, for completeness of organization 
and beauty of arrangement, stands unrivaled, and for 
which, it may be remarked, the state of New York is 
almost entirely indebted to his extended and complete 
knowledge of the history of literature and science, in 
which he had no equal in this country, if indeed any- 

Many years ago Dr. Beck became interested in the 
subject of a State Museum. In fact, while connected 
with the City Lyceum, established in the Albany Aca- 
demy, he was industriously accumulating and depositing 
every thing of which he could possess himself, relating 
to history or to natural science a passion, which, it 
is well known, did not cease or abate, when his admission 
into the board of regents gave him a wider field for its 
exercise. To the State Library and the State Cabinet 
hereafter his time and talents were in no small degree 
directed ; and such was his zeal in behalf of these insti- 
tutions that he has not hesitated at times when the illib- 
eral policy of individual members of the legislature 

12 * Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Beck. 

hazarded the success of necessary appropriations, to give 
his personal pledge that the moneys should be judiciously 
applied, and by becoming, as it were, the endorser of the 
government, he has secured the recognition of the claims 
of these interests, and obtained the necessary supplies. 

On the arrival of M. Vattemare in this country, Dr. 
Beck immediately saw the value of such a system of 
international exchange as was proposed, and became at 
once one of its warmest advocates; nor has he ever 
ceased to urge upon the successive legislatures the con- 
tinuance of the system ; and even upon his death-bed he 
entreated, as a personal favor, that his friends would not 
forget the claims of this subject, in which he had always 
felt so deep an interest. In a letter lately received, M. 
Vattemare writes "The death of Dr. Beck deprives me 
of the best and most faithful friend I ever had, as well 
as of the most enlightened and active co-operator in the 
noble cause to which my life is devoted. * * * * 
I thought that with my friend all was gone; but the 
recollection of his solicitude for the system of exchange, 
as well as his paternal anxiety for the State Library 
that glorious monument of his patriotism and high 
knowledge revived my courage, and with it the hope 
that those kind friends I have yet among the regents of 
the university, and the recollection of the friendship of 
Dr. Beck for me, and of his association in my labors, 
would secure the continuation of their good will." 

Outside of his own peculiar sphere of duties, no ob- 
ject of public interest was undertaken without finding 
in him a warm supporter. When the project of a uni- 
versity in the city of Albany was started, intended to 
supply in some measure, the scientific and literary wants 
of the whole United States, Dr. Beck, while seeing 
clearly all the difficulties and discouragements attending 
such a scheme, did not fail to recognize its practical 
bearings, and his views were liberal and comprehensive. 

Of the American Association of Science he was an 
active member, and rendered it many services. 

In obedience to those promptings of humanity which 

Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Beck. 13 

seem in a great measure to have determined his course 
in life laboring always most zealously for those who 
were least able to appreciate his services, or to recognize 
them he read before this society in 1837, a paper on the 
statistics of the deaf and dumb, which had the effect to 
direct the attention of the public and of the legislators 
more fully to the condition and necessities of this unfortu- 
nate class, and the results of which may be seen in the 
establishment in the city of New York of a school for 
deaf mutes, unrivaled in the excellence of its system 
and in the perfection of its details. 

By the act of its incorporation, in April, 1842, Dr. 
Beck was made one of the board of managers of the 
New York State Lunatic Asylum, situated at Utica; and 
he has been re- appointed by the governor and senate at 
the expiration of each successive triennial period. Upon 
the death of Mr. Munson, in 1854, he, although a non- 
resident member, was unanimously elected president of 
the board. This important institution, established and 
endowed by the state upon a scale of almost unparallel- 
ed munificence, is no doubt indebted largely to Dr. Beck, 
for his wise counsels and efficient personal aid, which he 
has at all times freely contributed. 

Dr. Beck was also an occasional contributor to the 
pages of the American Journal of Insanity,* published 
at Utica, under the editorial management of Dr. Brig- 
ham, the late principal: and when, upon the death of 

* In April, 1844, the first number of the American Journal of 
Insanity was issued from the press, occupying an entirely new field 
in the medical literature of this country. The generous motive 
which Jed Dr. Brigham, its founder and first editor, to assume, in 
addition to his onerous duties as superintendent of a large asylum, 
the labor and responsibility of its establishment, is \vell known to 
most of our readers. To many of his colleagues and professional 
friends he was largely indebted for encouragement in his undertaking, 
and for much valued and gratefully acknowledged assistance: among 
them, Dr. Beck, who. deeply interested in the attainment of the ends 
at which the Journal aimed, warmly seconded his efforts, and, amid 
many other engagements, found sufficient time to contribute frequently 
and ably to its pages. After Dr. Brigham's death, the managers of 

[Annals, viii.] 3 

14 Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Beck. 

Dr. Brigham, in 1850, the management of the Journal 
fell into the hands of the board, Dr. Beck was chosen 
Its editor, a place which he continued to hold "until the 
close of the last volume, when advancing years and more 
imperative duties compelled him to relinquish his edito- 
rial connection." 

Of the chief labor of Dr. Beck's life, and of that 
which has made his name illustrious wherever science 
and literature are cultivated, it still remains to speak. 
I allude to his work on Medical Jurisprudence, and 
which no less reflects honor upon us as Americans, upon 
this city of his adoption, and upon you, gentlemen, who 
were his associates and fellow-members in this society. 
From how early a period in his life the subject of this 
work occupied his attention we may infer from the fol- 
lowing brief extracts from letters written to his uncle, 
the Rev. J. B. Romeyn. The first is dated in 1813: 
*' Permit me to press upon you the obtaining of one or 
the other of the French authors on legal medicine. It 
has long been a favorite idea with me to prepare a work 
of that subject, and should I be enabled to procure Fo- 
dere or Mahon, my design may be completed." The second 
is dated June 30, 1814, and was addressed to his uncle 
at Lisbon, Portugal: "As the communication is now 
open between Great Britain and France, you will doubt- 
less be enabled to procure the books I wished. Dulan 
advertised them some years since." 

On this topic I find ready at my hand nearly all that 
it is necessary to say, in a biographical notice of the 
author, contained in the first volume of an elegant pub- 

the State Lunatic Asylum, aware of the importance, to a specialty, 
of a periodical devoted to its advancement and interest, assumed the 
entire responsibility of its publication, and, by their unanimous 
request, induced Dr. Beck to edit the ensuing volume. He gave his 
consent, hoping at the close of the year to be relieved of a care 
which, with his other numerous duties, was a heavy tax-, but. in the 
absence of any other arrangement, he continued to conduct it until 
the close of the last volume, when "advancing years and more im- 
perative duties' 7 compelled him to relinquish his editorial connection. 

Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Reck. 15 

cation, entitled The National Portrait Gallery of Distin- 
guished Americans, issued at New York in the year 1834, 
under the auspices of the American Academy of the 
Fine Arts. In 1823, Dr. Beck published his work entitled 
Elements of Medical Jurisprudence, in two volumes, oc- 
tavo; which at the time, attracted great attention, and 
has since continued a standard work on the subject of 
which it treats. The science of medical jurisprudence 
is one of great interest and importance. It treats of all 
those questions, in which the testimony of a medical 
man may be required before courts of justice, and from 
the nature of many of the questions, it is obvious that 
their discussion requires the widest range of medical and 
scientific knowledge. Although deeply studied in Italy, 
France and Germany, this science had scarcely attracted 
any attention either in this country or in England, pre- 
vious to the publication of the work of Dr. Beck. To 
him is certainly due the high credit, not merely of rous- 
ing public attention to an important and neglected subject, 
but also of presenting a work upon it which will probably 
never be entirely superseded. In foreign countries its 
merits have been duly appreciated and magnanimously 
acknowledged. The Edinburg Medical and Surgical 
Journal says of it, vol. xxii, p. 179 (1824): "We under- 
take this task with the greater pleasure on the present 
occasion, that we shall have to throw aside, for the first 
time on medico-legal subjects, the character of the austere 
critic. Ic has been our misfortune to handle with some 
freedom, almost all previous works on the subject. And 
we have been induced to handle them more freely than 
many may have thought was called for, because we 
apprehend that all early works on medical jurisprudence, 
especially of the systematic kind, should be viewed with 
peculiar jealousy by every one interested in its progress. 
For as it is now circumstanced, languishing still in its 
infancy, and struggling against the supineness, indiffer- 
ence and prejudices of those who ought to be its most 
zealous protectors, no greater mischief could happen than 
that systematic treatises should pass without warning 

16 Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Beck. 

into the hands of the public, which, however meritorious, 
are nevertheless, not on a level with its state of advance- 
ment, and do not present an expanded view of its general 
spirit and practical applications. At length, however, 
the English language may boast, that it is possessed of a 
general work on medical jurisprudence, which will not 
only stand comparison with the best of the kind that the 
continent has produced, but which may also be referred 
to by every medical jurist as a monument worthy of his 
science, and as a criterion by which he is willing that its 
interest and utility should be tried. Under the unas* 
stiming title of Elements of Medical Jurisprudence, 
Doctor Beck has presented us with a comprehensive sys- 
tem, which embraces almost every valuable fact or doc- 
trine relating to it. Each of its diversified departments 
has been investigated so minutely, that few cases can 
occur in practice, on which it will be necessary to seek 
elsewhere for further information. At the same time by 
studying succinctness and shunning those verbose orato- 
rical details with which other writers, and particularly 
those of France abound, he has succeeded in rendering 
his treatise comprehensive within a singularly moderate 
compass. We may securely assert, that a work on the 
subject is not to be found in any language, which displays 
so much patient and discriminating research, with so 
. little of the mere ostentation of learning. The opinions 
expressed both on general principles and on the particu- 
lar questions which have occurred in courts of law, are 
given clearly and judiciously. There are few occasions, 
even where the points at issue are difficult and obscure, 
on which persons of skill and experience will be disposed 
to differ materially with him." 

In the various medical colleges of Great Britain, there 
has been, we believe, no text book on medical jurispru- 
dence positively adopted; but we have been informed 
that Dr. Beck's work has been for years recommended to 
students by professors. In 1828, it was translated into 
German, at Weimar, and has been favorably received in 
various parts of the continent of Europe. 

Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Seek. 17 

It is not alone the physician and the jurist who are 
indebted to Dr. Beck for this essential work; but it has 
proved to the general reader, we believe invariably, a 
fund of interesting information ; and we will venture to 
say that no one has ever risen from its perusal without 
experiencing an agreeable surprise, that a subject so 
uninviting in its title, should afford so much amusement. 

We will only add, that the work has already passed 
through five American, and four London, besides the 
German edition. In the preface to the first London 
edition which was published as early as 1825, with notes 
by Dr. Wm. Dunlap, the editor says: "We do not claim 
for the present work the meed of a faultless performance, 
but we fear not to challenge a comparison of it with any 
of the English works in scientific accuracy, philosophical 
plainness and precision of style, extent of research, gen- 
uine scholarship and erudition, pointedness of illustra- 
tion, and copiousness of detail and reference to original 

Says a bibliographer, in a notice of the German edi- 
tion, "Among the numerous and unequivocal evidences 
of the very high estimation in which Dr. Beck's Elements 
of Jurisprudence are held by the profession in Europe, 
their translation into the German language must be 
regarded as the most flattering and decisive indication of 
their true value. In no country has this interesting and 
varied science been prosecuted with such unabated zeal, 
or have so much learning and research been elicited on 
its several curious topics, as in Germany. From the 
time of Zachias, indeed, to the present day, it has been 
the favorite object of study with German physicians, and 
their opinions of the merits of any treatise on the subject 
are therefore entitled to the highest weight and the most 
respectful consideration. Proud are we, therefore, to 
see them prize the performance of our learned country- 
man so high as to deem it worthy of transfusion into 
their vernacular tongue. In his native language his 
work is as yet without a parallel." 

Although the two volumes originally comprised more 

18 Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Beck. 

than 2000 pages octavo, yet to each successive American 
edition he did not fail to add largely from his apparently 
inexhaustible stores of knowledge and research. Nor 
even here did his labors cease, but he continued to con- 
tribute almost to the period of his death to one or more 
of the medical or scientific Journals of the country, such 
additional facts or discoveries as from time to time came 
to his knowledge. In the American Journal of Medical 
Science, edited by Dr. Hays, may be found many of his 
most valuable papers. 

Says a distinguished writer 'for that periodical, in 
reviewing the tenth edition of his Medical Jurisprudence: 
"The pages of this journal, for many years past, have 
borne constant evidence of the untiring and invaluable 
research of Dr. Beck, whose observations and extracts 
from foreign and domestic sources have filled that por- 
tion of it devoted to medical jurisprudence; and the 
writer of the present notice bears his testimony to the 
same effect; for, having taken much interest in the 
subject, and consequently had occasion to examine the 
journals, he found it impossible to furnish a single nov- 
elty to this department in which he had not been antici- 
pated by Dr. Beck." 

Nor is there perhaps, any testimony more pertinent as 
to the rank occupied by Dr. Beck in the literary and 
scientific world, than the large number of societies, both 
abroad and at home, which conferred upon him either 
honorary or active memberships. 

Dr. Beck enjoyed during his life, almost uninterrupted 
health, the result, we suspect, of a good natural consti- 
tution, and of temperate, regular, and, so far at least as 
his literary pursuits would permit, active habits. 

The following account of his last illness and of the 
autopsy, is too interesting to admit of abridgment, and 
I shall make no apology for its introduction. It was 
furnished at my request by his attending physician, Dr. 
S. D. Willard, of this city, who visited him from the 
earliest stage of his illness, and whose personal care and 
devotion, as well as that of Dr. Hun, who was called in 

Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Beck. 19 

counsel, toward the close of his life, was most faithful, 
unremitting, and far exceeding all claims of professional 

' Dr, Beck suffered from an attack of indigestion in 
the early part of January, 1854. It was at a time when 
he was busily engaged in his official duties, and although 
he placed himself under medical treatment, and was 
visited twice daily by his physician, he did not allow 
himself, as I remember, to be deterred from going to his 
office for a single day. He recovered from this attack in 
two weeks, and with the exception of a slight paroxysm 
of gout, he enjoyed nearly his usual health during the 
remainder of the year. 

In February, 1855, he was again taken ill, and the 
symptoms with which his illness began were precisely 
similar to those of the year previous. The weather was 
intensely cold, and he was induced on account of it to 
remain at home for a few days, though he was quite 
unwilling to admit the necessity of such a regimen. The 
symptoms did not yield as readily as they had dono 
before; he experienced great uneasiness about the stom- 
ach and bowels; his appetite not only failed, but he felt 
nausea at the very mention of cither food or medicine; he 
complained greatly of weakness, but was almost invariably 
invigorated by his sleep at night. He was so much better 
at the end of a fortnight as to go out, and this he con- 
tinued to do nearly every day, utterly regardless of the 
weather, and appeared to be daily gaining strength until 
the last of March, when the symptoms returned upon 
him, as violent as they had been at first; but they again 
yielded after a week or ten days, and with the exception 
of his not having regained his strength, he appeared for 
a little time nearly recovered. We looked forward to 
the return of mild weather with confident expectation 
that his health would be res-tored. During the month of 
May he was daily at his office, and continued his labors 
and researches with his accustomed untiring industry. 
About the first of June he visited his daughter, Mrs. Van 
Cortlandt, at Croton, and while there he had a recurrence 

20 Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Beck. 

of some of his unpleasant symptoms, though they were 
less severe than in preceding attacks. His visit at Croton 
was brief, and he returned again to pursue his labors 
beyond the measure of his strength. At length he yielded 
to the solicitations of his friends to make his summer 
visit to Lake George a few weeks earlier than usual, and 
this in the belief that total relaxation would prove of 
the desired benefit to him. Here, however, he indulged 
less in the social pleasures and rural sports than had for 
many years been his practice. Occasionally he went out 
on the lake for fish, and once he joined a party that had 
arranged to dine on a rock about five miles down the 
lake. He went and returned in a row boat, and though 
much fatigued, bore the exertion better than could have 
been expected. [August 29.] His very nature gave 
him a keen relish for such pleasures, but he now united 
in them with reluctance. He became averse to exercise, 
and much of his time was passed with his friends on the 
piazza of the hotel, or in his own room, reperusing some 
favorite volume. Scarcely a week passed without the 
return of some of his annoying symptoms, and notwith- 
standing he thought himself^ getting better, he was 
becoming weaker and losing flesh. He returned from 
Lake George on the 7th September. His journey home 
greatly fatigued him, and he found himself obliged to 
send for his physician the next clay. Medication almost 
uniformly brought him present relief, but it did not serve 
to eradicate the morbid condition to which his system 
had become subjected. He continued to go to the State 
Library until the 15th September, when lie left it for the 
last time. 

Until the present there was, to my mind, no positive 
indications of other than functional derangement in his 
case. He was very weak, and had not only lost his full, 
portly habit, but had become greatly emaciated. His 
appetite, at times, was good, but not uniformly so. The 
food he took did not appear to assimilate with and nourish 
his body, although it was generally well digested. He 
retired early, slept quietly, and maintained his fixed 

Olituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Beck. 21 

habit of rising at five or six o'clock in the morning. He 
had not, thus far, suffered any severe pain during the 
progress of his illness; the recurrence of nausea gave 
him great uneasiness, and he complained likewise of 
lassitude and debility, but not of pain. 

For several years he had, at times, been afflicted with 
paroxysms of dyspnoea, and he assured me that the pul- 
sations of his heart had "always been irregular." Since 
he had become so feeble, these had increased to such an 
extent as to indicate that they were occasioned by disease 
of the heart but they lacked essentially some of the 
peculiarities which would be expected in advanced 
disease of that organ. 

It was at this time that Dr. Hun, who had seen him at 
intervals while visiting other members of the family, 
united with me in regular attendance. So great a change 
had taken place in his appearance, that it now became 
manifest that the disease was making rapid inroads upon 
his remaining strength, and was advancing to a fatal 

The doctor consented to remain quiet for a few days ; 
it was without a realization of his own feebleness. He 
consented, not because he admitted the necessity of 
quietude, but because his physicians positively enjoined 
it. He still looked forward, one week after another, to 
the time when he should be able to resume his duties, 
and appointed several days when he hoped to go out; 
But, when the time came, he felt that his strength was 
insufficient for the effort, and consented readily to abide 
the advice of his attendants and friends. 

During these weeks of confinement, he was uniformly 
cheerful, and looked on the bright side of his own case. 
He seldom complained of pain, and was rather unwilling 
to admit that he suffered any. He rarely inquired par- 
ticularly about the nature of his disease, nor did he 
evince anxiety about the manner in which it might ter- 
minate. Thus he continued until late in October, when, 
upon the suggestion of his daughters, he consented to an 
arrangement for a consultation with Dr. Willard Parker, 

22 Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Seek. 

of New York, who had been the physician of his brother, 
Dr. John B. Beck, and who is likewise a warm personal 
friend of the family. 

The evening before Dr. Parker came (October 24), he 
spoke more freely of himself than he had previously done. 
It was conclusive to me then, that the character of his 
malady had not escaped his own careful observation. 
He said to me: " I don't altogether give up my own case 
yet, but I have lived long enough to wear out my consti- 
tution and whatever is the result, I must be content." 
These were the first words indicating that he regarded 
his condition critical. The next morning he was visited 
by Dr. Parker, together with Dr. Hun and myself. He 
received us with great composure and cheerfulness, and 
made a clear, full statement of his case, speaking of 
himself as if he was not the person interested in the 

After the consultation, we returned to his room, and 
Dr. Parker taking his seat by him kindly said: "Now, 
Doctor, we have asked you a great many questions, are 
there any you would like to ask us?" His reply was 
strictly characteristic of himself as a man of few words. 
He did not seek to evade the result of this investigation, 
but arrived at once at the conclusion, by a single ques- 
tion, that covered the whole subject: "Can you get me 
well?" Dr. Parker told him that we were unable to 
detect organic disease, but there was a suspension in the 
process of assimilation, his food digested, but did not 
assimilate; "The engine," said he, "you have, but the 
fuel fails to make it work." Again he*asked : "Can you 
get in fuel that will?" The answers to these pointed 
inquiries were necessarily of a negative character; to 
which he replied: "You make out my case very unfa- 
vorabty." In the afternoon of the same day, I found 
him cheerful, without having been fatigued by the morn- 
ing interview, and he expressed some confidence in the 
efficacy of the nitro-muriatic acid sponge bath which was 
suggested by Dr. Parker. 

Until the Uth November no special change occurred; 

Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Beck. 23 

he slept more than usual, and at night comfortably, 
awaking at his accustomed hour in the morning; he sat 
nearly every day for a short time, and often devoted a 
part of this to business; his books and his papers were 
around him, and he still devoted himself to them with 
untiring industry; although he was sick, he did not know 
how to be idle. I visited him at all hours, and I always 
found him with a book in his hand; when he retired at 
night, it was with lights arranged by his bedside that he 
might read until he fell asleep. 

With the first loss of sleep (Nov. 11) came total pros- 
tration, he was unable longer to take nourishment, and 
soon began what appeared to be the process of dying; of 
this he was fully aware, yet no murmur escaped his lips, 
nor the wish that the termination might be averted. Nov. 
14, his breathing became gradually more difficult, and 
his extremities cold; he was extremely restless, but 
uniformly answered '* No," when asked if he w r as suffer- 
ing. Each hour appeared for two or three days to be 
his last, but he rallied again however, and remarked of 
the wonderful tenacity of his constitution, and expressed 
surprise that he lived so long. "It is hard breaking the 
chain ;" and then he asked: " Is not this a long struggle? 
How long have I been in it?" To my reply " More than 
twenty-four hours," he asked: "Do you think it will 
last much longer?" Addressing his daughters, who were 
by his bedside, he said : " I had a coldness, a sort of 
spasm in my side last night, that was near my idea of 
the coming on of death ; I have thought my case over, it 
is a remarkable complaint, don't all you think so?" And 
at the same time he expressed his conviction that he must 
have organic disease. 

At another time, when he thought his daughters 
greatly fatigued by prolonged attention to him, gazing 
upon them with paternal tenderness, he said: ' k l am 
sorry to tire you so ; I wish it was over." Thus, in his last 
hours, he did not fail to regard the comfort of others 
before .himself. His hearing continued acute, and his 
mind clear and calm through those hours of protracted 

24 Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Seek. 

dissolution, although he was so weak that he could not 
converse. Thus he lingered until the morning of the 
19th. A few hours preceding his death, Mrs. Parmelee 
was sitting by his side, when he asked: "Where is 
Catherine?" (Mrs. Van Cortlandt); immediately she was 
with him. He pressed her hand in token of recognition, 
gazed upon them for a moment, and then closed his eyes 
for ever. His breathing became quiet, fainter, and still 
more faint, until at length, gently as sleeps a child, the, 
slumber of death came upon him. And thus passed 
away this great man, on the 19th of November, 1855, at 
the age of sixty-four years and three months. Mr. and 
Mrs. Parmelee, Mrs. Van Cortlandt and myself, were 
with him when he died. 

During the whole period of his illness, his daughters 
watched him with the utmost filial devotion and tender- 
ness. They were almost constantly with him, anticipat- 
ing every want, and administering every comfort. His 
last hours were not only soothed by their presence, their 
words of kindness and love, but by their earnest prayers 
that he might be sustained by his Heavenly Father in the 
eventful hour that still awaited him. 

Dr. Beck had no sons. His two daughters, Catharine, 
wife of Pierre Van Cortlandt, Esq., of Westchester, and 
Helen, wife of Hon. William Parmelee, of Albany, still 
live to attest his inestimable worth and to exemplify his 

In the presence of strangers, Dr. Beck was somewhat 
reserved, and not unfrequently seemed unsocial; but with 
his more intimate acquaintances he was remarkably free, 
affable, and unrestrained; and through all his familiar 
social conversations there was a rich vein of humor 
mingling with the profounder currents of thought and 

His knowledge of books was not confined to scientific 
treatises* He read most of the standard works in 
history, romance, poetry, and in all departments of light 
literature. He read rapidly, and soon possessed himself 
of the meaning or value of any author; which faculty, 

Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Beck. 25 

united to a retentive memory, made him almost the final 
umpire wherever questions of text or of authority arose. 
In the language of one who knew him intimately, and 
who had been a colaborer with him in the establishment 
of the State Library, " His knowledge of what I would 
call the science of literature, I have never seen equaled." 

He was liberal to the poor, and kind to all. Not even 
the brutes escaped his sympathy. Cruelty to animals 
excited in him always the most intense disapprobation. 

His belief in the divine revelation, and in its doctrines, 
as held by the great body of protestant Christians, was 
firm, decided and often expressed; and he could never 
tolerate any attempts on the part of any person to 
impugn or to throw discredit upon them. 

In conclusion, I beg to repeat the language and judg- 
ment of a well known gentleman who had spent several 
summers in his society at Lake George, Mr. George 
Ticknor, of Boston. In a letter written during the 
illness of Dr. Beck, he says: "I have known few men 
of so faithful a nature as he was, and still fewer in whom, 
on a more continuous acquaintance, I have been so much 
interested. The amount of his knowledge, and the 
eagerness with which he pursues it, are remarkable ; but 
not more so than the excellent use to which he puts it 

Also of an intimate personal friend, the Rev. Dr. J. N. 
Campbell of Albany, who was his pastor for some years, 
and his associate as a member of the board of regents : " I 
think that the secret of that respect and regard which 
Dr. Beck had acquired in the community, and which he 
enjoyed in a measure rarely attained by any man, is to 
be found in his industry and disinterestedness, and these 
were prominent features in his character. He was the 
most laborious man I ever knew. He never lost a min- 
ute, and we all know how much he accomplished; yet he 
never appeared in anything he did to be seeking to 
acquire position or honor for himself; and I have repeat- 
edly remarked that, in speaking of the results of his 
labors, he was always careful to give all the credit to his 

[Annals viii.] 4 

26 Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Seek. 

associates and to claim nothing for himself. * * * 
He was a remarkably pure-minded man ; of true honor, 
above all meanness, and of the strictest integrity." 

The annexed is a list of offices which he filled, and 
societies to which he was elected, etc. 

Alms House Physician, Albany, 1811 

Fellow of the College of Phys. and Surg., N. Y.,. . 1811 

Medical Society, State of New York 1813 

New York Historical Society, New York, 1813 

Member of Physico-Medical Society, New York,. . 1815 

Trustee of the'Albany Academy,., 1815 

Professor of the Institutes of Medicine, F airfield, 1815 

Hon. Mem. of Academy of Nat. Sciences, Phila.,. . 1816 

Receiving Officer of Antiquarian Society, Mass.,. . 1816 

Hon. Mem. Lyceum of Natural History, N. Y., 1817 

Hon. Mem. Amer. Geolog. Soc., New Haven, 1819 

Hon. Mem. Medical Society, London, 1824 

Hon. Mem. Medical Society, Quebec, 1824 

Corresponding Member Linnean Society, Paris,. .. 1826 

Hon. Mem. Medical Society, Connecticut, 1826 

Hon. Mem. Nat. Hist. Society, Montreal, 1827 

Senior Hon. Mem. Med. Soc. of Emulation of 

Charlestown, 1827 

Hon. Mem. Med. Soc. of New Hampshire,, 1828 

Associate of the College of Physicians, Phila.,. ... 1829 

Hon. Mem. of the Ithaca Lyceum 1830 

Hon. Mem. of the West Point Lyceum, 1830 

Mem. Albany Connty Agricultural Society, 1830 

Hon. Mem. Royal Medical Society, Edinburgh,. . . 1832 

Philosophical Society, Rutgers College, 1833 

Prof. Materia Medica and Med. Juris., Fairfield,. . 1836 

Hon. Mem. Meteorological Society, London, 1838 

Hon. Mem. Amer. Philosophical Society, Phil.,. . . 1839 

Hon. Mem. Medical Society, Rhode Island, 1839 

Hon. Mem. Nat. Institution for Promotion Science, 

Washington, 1840 

HOE. Mem, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, . . . 1841 

Obituary of Dr. T. Romeyn Beck. 27 

Secretary of the Board of Regents, 1841 

Hon. Mem. Araer. Ethnological Society, N. Y.,. . . 1842 
Hon. Mem. North. Acad. Arts and Sciences, Dart- 
mouth, 1843 

Corresponding Fellow of N. Y. Acad. of Med 1847 

Degree of LL. D., Mercersburgh, Pa 1849 

Degree of LL. D., of Rutgers Col., New Brunswick. 

President of Albany Institute. 

Royal Soc. of North. Antiquarians, Copenhagen, . . 1843 

Hon. Mem. Historical Society, Vermont, 1850 

Hon. Mem. American Statistical Society, Boston, 1851 

Hon. Mem. State Historical Society, Wisconsin,. . 1854 
Trustee State Lunatic Asylum, and President 

Board of Trustees. 

Pres. of the Board of Trustees Albany Academy, 1852 
Mem. Executive Com. of the Normal School. 

Emeritus Professor Albany Medical College, 1854 




Taken at the Albany Academy, from April, 1855, to April, 
1856, by Prof. D. Murray. 

The natural and rational epoch from which to com- 
mence our reckoning of the year, is the time when the sun 
crosses the equinoctial from south to north. That is a 
point in absolute time, capable of being determined with 
facility and precision. It is, besides, the real beginning 
of that gradual awakening into activity of those systems 
of animal and vegetable life, whose growth, maturity and 
decay form the land-marks in the existence of mankind. 
As far as any physical phenomena are concerned, there 
is no more reason why the first of January should be the 
first day of a new year, than the first of October, or the 
first of June, or the 20th of August. No event either 
astronomical or terrestrial occurs at that time to make 
it deserving of any such distinction. On the contrary, 
the period of the sun's crossing the line from the south 
to the north, is an event well marked, and of great im- 
portance to the whole of the civilized world. And at a 
time when scientific investigation is adjusting with so 
much delicacy the practical details of life, when systems 
of weights and measures for the very unromantic purpose 
of meting out our bread and our drink are being con- 
structed, having for their basis the length of a terrestrial 
meridian, when the precise hour of the day, even to the 
tenth of a second, is of so much importance to a great 

Meteorological Observations. 29 

commercial metropolis, that an astronomical clock one 
hundred and sixty miles distant is to be employed for its 
indication, when such accuracy is being called for and 
attained, it is not visionary to suppose that the time will 
come when an inconvenient and irrational epoch for the 
commencement of a new year will be changed into one 
more convenient and rational. 

To the Caesar or the Gregory whose duty it may be to 
readjust the calendar, we submit, that the day on which 
the sun crosses the line, should in every case be called 
New Year's day; that the first day of April should be 
moved back on the calendar, so as to coincide with this; 
that the number of days in. March should be given to 
February, making it a constant quantity, and the neces- 
sary intercalations should be thrown upon March, which 
would now be the last month in the year. 

This subject has this much to do with meteorology. 
If a series of observations are intended to set before us 
a representation of the phenomena of the year, it is in- 
judicious to commence when such phenomena are at their 
maxima or minima. For in so doing, we separate those 
observations which show the manner of approach to that 
maximum or minimum from those which show the man- 
ner of departure. If for instance a set of observations 
for the year upon the thermometer be commenced in Jan- 
uary, we have not before us a complete view of the win- 
ter, but only of that part of it, where it begins to change 
into spring. "VVe thus break up our view of this well 
marked and unique season of the year, and set at the 
beginning of our outline a delineation of the last half of 
one winter and at the end of it the first half of another, 
obtaining a full outline of neither. But commencing in 
the spring when the thermometer is at a mean, we ob- 
tain, when we have completed the year, an entire repre- 
sentation of both the summer and the winter and of the 
manner in which they are related to each other. 

For these reasons I have taken the first of April as 
the starting point; that being the month which approach- 

30 Meteorological Observations. 

es most nearly to occupying the place of the first month 
in our theoretical year. 

We present first, then, a meteorological table giving 
a summary of the observations on the thermometer and 
barometer, the rain-guage, and wind-vane, between the 
1st of April 1855, and the 1st of April 1856. The in- 
struments used are those furnished by the Smithsonian 
Institution, and the mode of notation is theirs. 


Temperature. The warmest day within the period 
designated was July 1st, when the thermometer stood 
at 2 o'clock &3.6 deg.,. the coldest was Jan. 6, 
when the thermometer stood at 7 A. M. at 7.7 deg. 
the range of the thermometer therefore, for the year 
has been 101.3 deg. The mean temperature of the 
year, has been 48.2 deg., which differs only 0.1 deg. 
from the mean annual temperature for Albany between 
the years 1826 and 1853 inclusive, that being 48.1 
deg. But although the temperature for the year cor- 
responds so exactly with the average temperature, there 
have been some peculiarities worthy of notice. Taking 
the aggregate of the mean monthly temperature for June, 
July, and August, from 1826 to 1853 inclusive, it is 
208.49 deg., while the same aggregate for the summer 
of 1855 gives 211.3 deg., about 3 degrees warmer. 
Again we find but 3 times during those 28 years when 
the temperature of July rose to what it reached in 1855, 
viz: 75.1 deg. whilst the average is but 7 1.37 deg. This 
indicates then that the summer, especially the month 
of July, was considerably warmer than usual. 

When we turn from the summer to the winter, we find 
the reverse. If we take the aggregate of the mean 
monthly temperatures of December, January, February 
and March, during the 28 years above referred to, we shall 
find it 115.5 deg., whereas the same aggregate for the 
winter of 1855 and 1856 is but 98.6 deg., differing from 
it by the unusual amount of 17 deg. Omitting the month 

Meteorological Observations. 


1 1 I 

| ' OS 1 'COI * Ci 1 ' 

tO) 'COOtOO 
CO TO *- rfs. 7 O 


-<I C5 -1 CO KD ^1 rfx rfx CO rfx QC fcO 

bo o 05 cr> 4^ -j *>. (-> o -i to m 

!z; cc C 







No. days 
of fall. 

in inches. 

Av. am't 
for 29 y'rs 







32 Meteorological Observations. 

of December, which was much warmer last winter than 
it usually is, the aggregate of January, February and 
March for 28 years is 87.55 deg., while for 1856 it is 
but 67.1 deg., showing the astonishing difference of 
over 20 deg. Three times within the 28 years have wo 
had a colder January, six times a colder February, once 
a colder March ; but never have these months succeeded 
each other as cold as last winter. The nearest approach 
to it was in the winter of 1843, when the aggregate tem- 
perature for January, February and March was 72.4 

Beginning with the 26th of December, the temperature 
continued below the freezing point, almost without ces- 
sation to the end of March, and during all that time 
scarce a drop of rain fell. The thermometer has often 
reached a lower point than it did at any time last winter; 
and indeed did so during the January of 1855, but no 
record exists at Albany of its having averaged so low for 
so long a time. It is well known that the unusual inten- 
sity of the cold has been more apparent in other places 
than here. Ice has formed in localities where no recol- 
lection or tradition affirms it to have ever formed before. 

An observer near Chicago, Illinois, gives the mean 
temperature of January at 9.34 deg., and during the 
first eleven days of it, the mean temperature was but 
2. 15 deg. He says: "the ground in many places 
cracked open with a sound resembling that of a gun, 
heard sometimes by day, but oftener by night." The 
usual temperature of that part of Illinois does not differ 
materially from that of this place. 

Barometer. The peculiarities in the observations on 
the barometer are not such as to demand any particular 
notice. In general it may be said, that the altitude of the 
column has averaged a little less during the year than 
usual. At this place the mean height of the barometer 
for a month, seldom rises to thirty inches ; it has occur- 
ed but four times within the last six years. On the 
contrary it is seldom less than twenty-nine and a half 

Meteorological Observations. 

inches ; only once has it happened within the saitfe'jteVibfl. ^ 
Beginning from the month of April, the altitude of the 
column usually falls a little during the rains of May, 
then gradually ascends during the month of June, July 
and August, attaining its maximum in September; then 
falling during the rainy month of October, then gradual- 
ly rising, as the temperature falls, through the months of 
November and December, and attains a second maxi- 
mum in the month of January, from which point it falls 
to its minimum in March. The present year it has 
followed the usual course, with two exceptions, viz: a 
very decided fall during the rainy month of June, and a 
still more decided fall during the rainiest month ever 
recorded here, October. 

Rain and Snow. The total amount of water which 
has fallen during the year is 39.89 inches, about f 
inch less than the average fall for 29 years. But while 
the total agrees so nearly, the distribution throughout the 
year differs very materially. 

In the month of April, and more especially the month 
of May, a much less amount of rain fell than usual, and 
it will be remembered how much anxiety was felt by 
the agricultural portion of the community, lest another 
summer was to follow like that of 1854. But the month 
of June brought with it an abundance of rain, 6.84 inches 
having fallen, an amount greater by 50 per cent than 
usually falls during that month. July and August had 
their usual supply; but during the first half of Sep- 
tember scarcely a drop of rain fell, and during the last 
half a quantity little more than one third of what 
usually belongs to September. The rains, which began 
in September, continued into October, and during the 
whole of the month rains fell almost every other day, 
until the astonishing amount of 8.93 inches was recorded. 
This is the greatest amount which is ever recorded to 
have fallen in a single month at Albany, during the years 
that the rain guage has been kept. The nearest ap- 
proach to it took place May, 1833, when 8.47 inches fell. 

34 Meteorological Observations. 

I have already referred to the fact that during the rainy 
months of June and October the records of the barome- 
ter showed a very great depression. 

During the winter months the amount of water which 
fell either in the form of snow or rain, was much less than 
the average, although popular belief places it much high- 
er. The amount which fell, from December 26th, when 
our snows began, to the end of March, was 4.81 inches 
of water; or taking the usual average of 10 inches of 
snow to one of water, it would make 48.1 inches of snow, 
or about four feet. Or including the month of December, 
we have for: 

December, January, February, March, 1855, 1856, 7. 14 inches water 
= 6 feet snow. 

December, January, February, March, (average for 29 years,) 
10.96 inches water = 9 feet snow. 

Perhaps a greater- amount of snow has fallen in other 
places, but here certainly, it has not been the amount of 
snow which has made the winter remarkable. What 
has given rise to the popular opinion, I suppose, has been 
the fact that the uninterrupted cold, preserved the snow 
without melting, almost from the first day that it fell; 
so that there was upon the ground in March the entire 
accumulated snows of three months. 

Winds. Smithsonian observers are required to ob- 
serve the direction and force of the winds; the former to 
be expressed to 8 points of the compass, the latter in 
numbers running from 1 to 10. 

1, indicating a very light breeze, 2 miles per hour, 

2, " a gentle breeze, 4 " " " 

3, " a fresh " 12 " " " 

4, " a strong wind, 25 " " " and lastly, 
10, indicating the most violent hurricane, 100 miles per hour. 

Of course, in the absence of any instrument for measur- 
ing the force of the winds, the observer can make but 
imperfect approximations to accuracy. The best indica- 
tion, perhaps, is the motion of the wind- vane. The vane 
in a strong wind never remains stationary, but continual- 
ly oscillates with greater or less velocity, according to 

Meteorological Observations. 


the violence of the winds, through an arc of 10 cleg, to 
60 deg. 
I have constructed a diagram which reveals the facts 

in regard to the winds of the year better than any 
description can do. From the monthly records of the 
winds, I have abstracted the prevailing winds for each 
month and their mean force. With these I have con- 
structed the resultant for each month, and then com- 
bined these twelve resultants into one diagram to obtain 
the resultant for the year. Thus obtained, the resultant 
is a wind blowing from S. 5l|deg. W., at an average 
rate of about 12 miles per hour. The direction differs 
from that obtained by Dr. Hough as the resultant for 
twenty-four years, by 23 J degrees, that being S. 75 deg, 

Freezing of the Hudson. The last trip to New York 
from Albany on the Hudson was made by the steam boat 
Hero, on the 24th of December. The river continued 
firmly frozen until the ferries broke through on 3d of 
April. On the 4th, the ice moved away from that part of 
the river immediately opposite the city. On the 10th the 
river was entirely clear, no flooding of the docks having 

36 Meteorological Observations. 

taken place during the whole breaking up of the ice. 
South America was the first boat up. The whole num- 
ber of days during which the river was closed was 108, 
a period much longer than usual. The longest period on 
record is from Nov. 28, 1842, to April 13th, 1843, 135 
days; the shortest from Dec. 14, 1841, to Feb. 4, 1842, 
47 days. The average is about 90 days. 



[Continued from vol. vi, p. 302.] 

[The following papers are copied from the sixth vol- 
ume of the Documents relative to the Colonial History of 
the State of Neiv York. The references are to the Man- 
uscripts in the office of the Secretary of State at Albany.] 

LNew York Papers. Ff., No. 30.] 

Albany 18th May 1736. 

May it please your Honor; The Mayor communicated 
to this Board your letter of the llth instant directed to 
Captain Collins, whereby we perceive that you would have 
our opinion of a certain Tract of Land in the Mohawks 
Country, petitioned for Messrs Storke and Van Brugh 
Livingston to his Majesty. We therefore shall endeavor 
to give you our opinion of it and its consequenses accord- 
ing to the best of our Capacity and understanding. In 
the mean while we join with your Honor in Opinion that 
there is a course left out. However we can partly guess 
where the Land petitioned for lyes, and are well assured 
that great part of said Tract is already Patented and we 
are credibly informed that there are several purchases 
made from the Mohawks in the regular method for part 
of said Tract We are also assured that some of the 
Mohawks Indians are seated on part of it. But can not 
conceive that any of the Mohawks Flatts are included in 
those imperfect Boundaries We are confident that the 
method made use of by those Gentlemen first to obtain a 

[Annals vii.] 5 

38 New York Colonial Manuscripts. 

Patent for Lands before a purchase made from the Natives 
will prove of ill consequence and alienate the Indians from 
His Majestys Interest and create great animosities and 
strife between them and us and in the end drive them* 
to the French So we most earnestly entreat your honor 
that you would in the strongest manner you can sett forth 
the ill consequenses of such proceedings to the Lords of 
Trade and desire them to discountenance any such prac- 
tices We are 

May it please you Honor 

Your Honor's mo obedient 
humble servants 



[New York Papers, Ff., fto. 31,] 

Albany 17th May 1736 

May it please your Honor: Sir Capt Collins has com- 
municated to us the Commissioners of Indian affairs, your 
letter to him of the llth Instant whereby we perceive 
you desire our opinion concerning a Tract of Land Mr 
Storke and Mr Van Brugh Livingston has petitioned His 
Majesty for, and whether any of them be already granted 
to others, whether the Mohawks be seated on any part 
of it and whether the Mohawk Flatts be included in said 
Tract We observe with you that there is one course left 
out but are certain that a great part of the Land we take 

* from us. Minutes of Common Council, Albany. N, Y, 

New York Colonial Manuscripts. 39 

to be petitioned for is already granted to others, and as 
we are informed some purchases made in the usual way 
tho' not yet granted by Patent and that some of the Mo- 
hawks Indians live upon part of it but do not think that 
the Mohawk Flatts are included therein But are humbly 
of opinion that that way of granting Land before purchas- 
ing from the natives may be of ill consequence and alienate 
the minds of the Indians from His Majestys Interest and 
occasion great divisions among the people of this Province 
We most earnestly desire that your Honor and Council 
will be pleased in the strongest manner to recommend to 
the Lords of Trade to discountenance any such Practice 
We are 

May it please your Honor 

Your Honors mo' obedient 
humble Servants 










[New York Papers, Ff.,'No. 33] 

New York May 28th 1736 

Sir: With the Duplicate, for the first is not yet come 
to hand of that of the 23rd of January I had the honor 
to receive your letter of the 25th of February last with a 
copy of Mr Storke and Mr Livingstons Petition for lands 
in the Mohawks country a copy whereof I sent two days 
after to the surveyor General directing him to inform me 
whether any of the lard petitioned for by them be already 
granted, how much and to whom, who tells rne he can 

40 New York Colonial Manuscripts. 

not at present give me a satisfactory answer perhaps he 
may not be well acquainted with that part of the country. 
I therefore likewise wrote to Albany for the same infor- 
mation and whether any of the Mohawks are seated on 
any part of it, or whether any of the Mohock Flatts be 
comprehended within it and having received an answer 
thereto from -the commissioners of the Indian affairs I do 
myself the honor to inclose it to you presuming it will 
give their Lordships full satisfaction in those points and 
to obey their Lordships commands in the rest I beg leave 
to make the following observations on the Petition and 
first, They pray to have the grant before they purchase 
the Lands of the Indians This is a practice so little 
known and so seldom used among us that I have heard 
of no more than two instances of it vizt that in the Albany 
Charter, before the Revolution of the Mohawk Flatts 
mentioned in your letter to be surrendered by the Mo- 
howks to the City of Albany in trust for them'selves the 
other a grant made by Mr Van Dam after Coll Montgom- 
eries death to Mr Philip Livingston, the Petitioner Liv- 
ingtons Father and four others, of lands in the Mohawks 
Country likewise, Livingston and the other Grantees of 
the Grantees of the last mentioned Tract having in vain 
attempted in Coll Montgomeries time to purchase it of 
the Indians, took the advantage of Van Dams weakness, 
and got a grant from him without a real purchase but the 
Indians would never yet suffer them to possess it the Gov- 
ernment in all other instances have been very careful not 
to grant Lands until they have been first purchased of the 
Indians knowing that they are impatient of such injuries 
and too apt on slighter occasions to show their resent- 
ment of them, their Lordships know of how much im- 
portance it is to the British Colonies to tye the six Nations 
to our Interest, and I am confident they will discounten- 
ance every thing that may tend to alienate their affections 
from us The Petitioners pray to be exempt from paying 
any Quitt Rents till the Lands come to be settled who 
would not on such Terms take Grants, and if such a 
Grant be made who will afterwards take them on any other 

New York Colonial Manuscripts. 41 

Terms Few who take Grants of Lands propose to make 
any immediate Profits of them, those who have Lands 
lease them out for ten or twelve years on a pepper Corn 
Rent and pay the Quitt Rents themselves from the date of 
their Patent which may be ten years more before they do 
lease it The Petitioners intend they say to bring over 
Palatines to settle the Land but they don't propose to 
oblige themselves to do it, nor do they mention any time 
for it nor any number of family s, they foresee perhaps 
that a few years may people the Province from Germany 
Ireland and other Parts of Europe and ere preparing 
before hand to lay in for themselves an estate on easy 
Terms, for Sir having often reflected on the great con- 
course of People that for almost twenty years have flocked 
to Pensilvania, from Germany and other parts of Europe 
and have informed myself of the nature of the Soil in 
General of that Province, of the price that the proprie- 
tors sell their Land for and the Rents they reserve I con- 
cluded that if one could induce some familys to come to 
this Province from Europe, they would find the Lands so 
much better than any that are now bought of the Pro- 
prietors of Pensilvania and the terms on which they may 
be bought or leased so easy that multitudes on their re- 
port of these things, would follow them. I drew up 
therefore some proposals, showed them to Govr Cosby 
and having had his approbation and that of the Attorney 
and Surveyor General, we laid them before the Governor 
and Council in 1734 desiring they would make some re- 
solves engage the honor and faith of the Government for 
the performance of the Proposals as they very readily did 
and ordered them to be advertized printed dispersed in Eu- 
rope but those being only printed papers some merchants 
in Dublin and Amsterdam desired that they may have the 
proposals under the Seal of the Government assuring us 
that they could then procure people to come In this we 
complyed and sent it to them last fall under the Seal of 
the Province, and under the hands of the Governor and 
Council and hope to hear further from them this Sum- 
mer The proposals were these to grant no dealers of Land 

42 New York Colonial Manuscripts. 

in the Mohawks Country in 200 acres to a family to the 
first 500 protestant families that shall come from Europe, 
the Grants to be made gratis and the Lands to be pur- 
chased for them the only difference that they are to be 
at (besides the Quitt Rent which is to commence from the 
date of the Patents) will be the Surveying it, which will 
be very little, we have already some Lands purchased 
which we design for this use if the people come in reason- 
able time: and this is such encouragement as Messrs 
Storke and Livingston can not give them and such as 
the[y] can not have in any other Province, for no proprie- 
tors will give away their Land when they can have twenty- 
five pounds and more a hundred for them. By the pro- 
posals for giving away 100,000 acres I shall be at con- 
siderable expence, for parchment, wax, engrossing Books 
for recording the Patents and Certificates &c the Gover- 
nor and Surveyor General at none at all for they will only 
sett their names to the Surveys and certificates, the At- 
torney General will only be at the expense of copying 
paper for the Drafts of the Patents The prospect of ad- 
vantage to us arises from the Expectation that after these 
100,000 acres are settled great numbers of people will 
follow who must purchase of the Indians and take grants 
at their own expence or if they are not able must become 
Servants to others who are able and will readily do it 

Thus Sir, I have without disguise opened to you my 
design the advantage I propose to myself is at a distance, 
the publick benefit in the augmentation of the Quitt Rents, 
and the peopling of the Province near at hand, but near- 
est of all the profit to the Merchants in the Transporta- 
tion of the people. This advertisement which contained 
the proposals was sent to Mr Guerin in London the Gov- 
ernors Agent to Messrs (Swoern?) Merchants in Dublin 
and to Mr Livinus Flackson merchant in Amsterdam to 
be printed and dispersed in Great Britain and Ireland, 
and in Holland to be translated into High Dutch and 
sent into all parts of Germany, the Germans are the most 
likely people of all these to set on foot the Hemp manufac- 
ure for which we have many lands in the Mohawk Country 

New York Colonial Manuscripts. 43 

rery proper, but the first settlers being generally poor 
will want some further encouragement to enable them to 
begin that work and some skilful people to lead the way 
and show others the best method of raising and dressing 
it: If these proposals had some publick Countenance 
at home and that signified would without doubt 
highly promote the design, I presume Governor Cosby 
acquainted their Lordships with it and ordered Mr Guerin 
to present some of the printed copies to them. There 
is one line omitted in the Copy of the Petition that was 
sent to me wherein the description of the Land is thus, 
beginning at a certain brook which vents itself into the 
Mohawks River known by the name of Canada Creek 
being the Western bounds of Lands heretofore granted to 
John Collins and company computed to be forty miles 
Westward from Hudsons River, thence coming from said 
River at the mouth of the said Brook northward in a di- 
rect line six miles into the woods, thence extending south 
to the said northwest Spring and from thence Easterly 
along the Banks of the said River terminating at Canada 
Creek aforeasaid Here I find but three lines which can 
neare make six miles square If by the said Northwest 
Spring be meant the Northwest Spring of the Mohawks 
River the Tract petitioned for will be almost one hundred 
and thirty miles in length, and six miles Wide which will 
comprehend almost all the Lands granted in the Mohocks 
Country on the Northside of the River but that can't be 
so understood, because you say the Land the Petition for 
is about Six miles Square which must be six miles along 
the River from Canada Creek and six miles back into the 
woods it must be therefore some other Northwest Spring 
than that of the Mohawks River or the Petitioners would 
most grossly deceive the Crown 

Since I begun to write this I received the enclosed let- 
ter from the Mayor, Aldermen and Common Council of 
Albany much to the same effect as the letter from the 
Commissioners of Indian affairs and two of the the Coun- 
cillors informed me that Mr Philip Livingston, the Peti- 
tioner Livingstons father) who is likewise one of the 

44 New York Colonial Manuscripts. 

Commissioners of the Indian affairs being present when 
they wrote the letter to me declared to them that he 
would not for two or three thousand pounds that his son 
and Mr Storke should succeed and that he knew nothing 
of his Sons petitioning till the arrival of the last ships 
from London, but yet he would not sign the letter; with- 
out doubt he would not have made that Declaration had 
he not been sensible himself, and conscious that the Com- 
missioners evidently foresaw the perniceous consequences 
that must attend the Grant. Inclosed I send you Sir the 
Boundaries of a Tract of Land containing eight thousand 
acres which at first sight will evidently appear to be 
within the Petition I could send you the Boundaries of 
other Tracts likewise within the Petition but. that 1 think 
this with the other Papers will be abundantly sufficient to 
satisfy their Lordships in what they expect to be in- 

I am with all possible respect 

your most obedient 

Humble servant 


[New York Papers, Gg., No. 21] 

Albany 30 Aug: 1738 

May it please your Honor: Sir Since our Jast of the 
25 instant Captain Cornelius Cuyler returned from Can- 
ada, who informs us that he has heard that the french 
have a design to settle severall familyes on the Wood 
Creek about 10 miles from our settlement next spring; 
that the Governor of Canada has sent several farmers 
there among which was Ilber, to view the land last fall 
and this summer as far as fort Ann; and that he has 
heard a report that the land is granted to the said Ilber 
and others, which we believe to be true; which settle- 

New York Colonial Manuscripts. 45 

ments we conceive to be of very bad consequence to this 
province in general and to this city and county in partic- 
cular; wherefore we earnestly entreat your honor to find 
out some proper expedient to prevent this encroachment 
of the french of Canada for we are perswaded if they be 
suffered to proceed in this their intention they will soon 
erect a fort at the Wood Creek : We hope that more no- 
tice will be taken of what we now mention, than of what 
we informed about the erecting the french fort at Crown 
Point, which is made as strong as any in Europe. Some 
of the principal Sachims of the Sinneckes are gone to 
Quebeck, we fear to make over Tierondequat to Gover- 
nour Beauharnois, who no doubt will take the first op- 
portunity next spring to erect a strong building there, 
then we are inclosed on all sides, but we are yet in hopes 
that the french may be prevented in their designs. We 
heartily wish that thelimitts between our Crown and that 
of france were settled which might prevent their continu- 
al encroachments on us. We are with respect 
Your honors most humble Servants 



[New York Papers, (S. P. 0.) X., 218.] 

New York 23 May 1747 

May it please Your Grace: Besides the other reasons 
for'my paying some part of thefarrearages due to the forces 
levied on the expedition designed against Canada, Mr 
Scuyler who (it is said) has a Commission from the Pres- 
ident of New Jersey to command the forces levied in that 
government, his giving out that he would pay the whole 
of the arrearages due to them under his command, made 
it absolutely necessary to do at least what I have done. 

46 New York Colonial Manuscripts. 

As soon as I heard of the mutinous disposition among 
the forces at Albany I was at the same time informed 
that Mr Scuyler had given out that he was resolved to 
pay the troops (under his command) all of the arrearages 
due to them, I informed the President of Jersy of my 
resolution by the advice of His Majesty's Council of this 
Province to pay 40s per man in part of what was due to 
to the forces at Albany without distinction of what Col- 
ony they belonged to, and to continue to pay 20s per man 
monthly, till such time as His Majesty's pleasure should 
be signified to me. 

I informed him likewise that it was not thought advis- 
ible to pay the men their whole pay at this time suppos- 
ing that money sufficient could be procured for that pur- 
pose, which however it is thought could not be obtained, 
because there would then be no tie to prevent their desei - 

The President and Council of the Jerseys approved of 
these reasons, and wrote a letter to Mr Scuyler, of which 
a copy was inclosed to me, wherein they required him 
to conform himself to such directions as he should receive 
from me. Notwithstanding this he has paid the forces 
under his command, the whole of their pay, and the offi- 
cers of the other forces there inform me that Mr Scuyler's 
paying the New Jersey troops in this manner is the prin- 
cipal reason why the greatest number of the other forces 
and chiefly those levied in this Province remain discon- 
tented and mutinous, and refuse to receive less than 
their whole pay. 

Your Grace must likewise be sensible how contrary it 
is to the discipline of the army for any Officer which is 
in my government (and undoubtedly while there, under 
my command) to act in direct contradiction to my di- 
rections, especially in a matter of such general concern, 
and likewise to the orders which he had received from 
his own government. 

This must consequently introduce confusion, and I am 
informed speeches were given out by his men that they 
would receive no pay of the Governour of New York, be- 

New York Colonial Manuscripts. 47 

cause if they did, then they would be under his command, 
which they were resolved not to be. 

All these things, with many others of a different kind, 
show what danger this Province may be in from the ar- 
tifices of a prevailing faction at this time, and how pre- 
judicial it may be to his Majesty's service every where in 
North America. 

It must weaken* exceedingly my administration if this 
money be paid, without Mr Scuylers making application 
to me, with an acknowledgment of his fault at least, and 
desiring my intercession in order to obtain it. 

I must beg your Graces fbrgivness of all faults on ac- 
count of the hurry I am in. I am with the greatest re- 

My Lord 

Your Graces most obedient 
humble servant 
(signed) G. CLINTON, 

To His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. 

[New York, (S. P. 0.) X., 275.] 

My Lord: I am this day arrived from Albany and 
find our London ship upon sailing, but have prevailed 
with the Captain to stay two days for my dispatches, that 
I have not time to give your Grace any particular ac- 
count of my proceedings. I was in great hopes the 40s. 
advance, and 20s. a month each man, would have satis- 
fied them, as expected; but Coll Schuyler who commands 
the New Jersey forces, having paid his men their whole 
pay then due to them, and the people of Albany some 
out of a malicious spirit, others in hopes of the profit 
they would receive by the men receiving their pay while 
they remained at that place, instigated them to mutiny 
unless they had their whole pay; and for that purpose 
insinuated to them, that I, or their Officers had received 
money for their whole pay, and that they were defrauded 
of it. Upon this the mutiny became almost universal. 

48 New York Colonial Manuscripts. 

As these troops had been kept on the frontiers for the 
defence of it, the Province must inevitably be exposed 
to the greatest dangers from the enemy if these troops 
should be suffered to disband, as well as to plundering 
and other mischiefs for mutinous soldiers; I applyed to 
the Assembly for assistance on this occasion: but what an 
indecent refusal I received from them will appear from 
their answer, a copy of which I beg leave to inclose to 
your Grace; I was then reduced to draw bills for the 
whole payment of the forces at Albany. By the minutes 
of Council and other papers inclosed, the absolute neces- 
sity of drawing these Bills I hope will evidently appear 
to Your Grace ; for that reason I entreat the favour of 
their being paid, or that care be taken that I do not 
suffer in my fortune by my doing what I could not omit, 
without exposing many of his Majesty's subjects to cer- 
tain ruin. 

The Bills I first drew for the 40s. per man were drawn 
on Pay Office, but as I began to doubt whether these 
troops be upon the establishment for the pay of the army, 
I thought it more advisible to draw on the Treasury, who 
may order (as I think) the payment of them in any manner 
that may be proper. 

Coll Johnson who I have employ'd as Chief Manager 
of the Indian War and Colonel over all the Indians, by 
their own approbation, has sent several parties of Indians 
into Canada and brought back at several times prisoners 
and scalps, but the expedition being laid aside last year, 
the Indians were discouraged and began to entertain jeal- 
ousies, by which a new expense became necessary to re- 
move those jealousies and to bring them back to their 
former tempers ; but unless some enterprize be undertaken, 
which may keep up their spirits, we may again lose (hem. 
I intend to propose something to our Assembly for this 
purpose that they may give what is necessary for the ex- 
pense of it, but I almost dispair of any success with them 
when money is demanded. 

I must likewise inform your Grace that by this last 
trip to Albany, I have got two Indian Nations to join 

k New York Colonial Manuscripts. 49 

with us, who are numerous and who were formerly all- 
ways in the French interest. They have actually fallen 
upon several French trading parties. They may be of 
singular use to distress the French trade and cut off all 
communication between the French in Missesipia river 
and Canada. 

I hope to have the honor of receiving your Grraces com- 
mands with my leave to come to England to settle my 
private affairs. lam with the greatest respect, My Lord 
Your Graces most obedient 
humble servant 

New York 23 July 1747. G. CLINTON 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. 


[Xcw York Papers, Bundle Gg., Xo. 211.] 

14. July 1747. 

Sir: As by all your actions since the commencement 
of the present War, we are well satisfyed and convinced, 
that you have not only the Interest but the good and 
quiet of the people of our Country entirely at heart, We 
therefore beg leave to address you that you will be so 
good and speak in our behalf to his Excellency our Gov- 
ernor and Commander in chief (for whom we have the 
greatest regard) That his Excellency would be graciously 
pleased to appoint us Officers Freeholders residing in our 
own Ward. We take the liberty to set down the names 
of a few, out of which number be pleased to recommend 
two, the one to be second Lieutenant and the other En- 
sign; recommend which you please, any of them will be 
agreable to us, and we are ready for ever to do our duty, 
and to obey His Excellencys Commands on all occasions, 
under whose Government we enjoy all the happiness we 
can expect in this troublesome and Barbarous War, and 
that we shall ever acknowledge this singular favour, which 
if his Excellency will please to grant will make our whole 
company satisfied and contented. 


New York Colonial Manuscripts. 





[New York, (S. P. 0.) X., 332.] 

Copy of a Warrant 
tember 1847. 

to Colonel Roberts 14th Sep- 

By His Excellency &c : You are hereby required and 
directed to order three of the Companies of the New 
Levies from the Camp at Green Bush into the City of 
Albany, to be quartered in the Blockhouses or such other 
quarters as the Mayor and Corporation shall provide for 

New York Colonial Manuscripts. 51 

them, who are also to find them in fire and candle (and 
ease and relieve the Militia) and there to remain till fur- 
ther orders. You are to give them strict charge how 
they are to behave themselves ; and for so doing this shall 
be your Warrant &c &c 

To Coll Roberts G. CLINTON 

14th September 1747. 

Copy of Col Roberts' letter in answer to above said 

18 September 1747 

Sir: According to your Excellency's orders I have 
applyed to the Mayor and Corporation for Quarters 
either in the Block-Houses or elsewhere for 130 men with 
their officers, with fire and candle, and that as soon as 
he would please to order billets for the men they should 
be ready to do duty in the town. He told me in answer 
that hearing the report of their being ordered in, he had 
proposed to some of the Burghers who were entirely 
averse to their being in town, and that he would not force 
them f;o it contrary to law, of which he had taken advice, 
much less find them in fire and candle, nor had he money 
in his hands to defray such an expense. He called a 
Common Council on Tuesday, when it was agreed since 
they could not carry their point in having three Albany 
Companies (as they term them) in the City, they will 
have none, and for fear the New Levies should take pos- 
session of the Block-houses, Major Collins ordered all to 
be locked up, which they still continue to be. 

By the returns enclosed your Excellency will see we 
have not more men well in the whole than would be re- 
quisite to garrison Fort Clinton, had I sent a relief, and 
therefore did not, at this time, judging your Excellency 
would not have this city left destitute of defence. 

The party escorting the provisions to Saraghtoga 
marched this morning, but with difficulty it having been 
industriously reported in this town that they were to re- 
main there, which is the occasion of more desertion last 
night. It is impossible to relate the many malicious re- 

52 New York Colonial Manuscripts. 

ports that are continually spread in order to distress 
every Company but those raised in this County. 

When I sent the last express, Coll. Johnson was at the 
Mohawks, nor had I time to let him know; he is now in 
town, and goes for York tomorrow with ten of the chief 
Sachims of the Six Nations who were come to him with 
three belts to assure him of their readiness to go out 
whenever he called them; and as our Assembly are not 
all endued with a Christian Faith, they go down to make 
thes ame declaration of friendship. 


[New York Papers, Bundle Kk., No. 29.] 

New York. 21. October 1754. 

My Lords: I omitted in my last of the 8th inst: a 
duplicate of which is inclosed, to acquaint your Lordships 
with the steps taken upon the incursions of the French 
Indians into this Province. I immediately ordered the 
City of Albany to be inclosed with Stockadoes in the 
places where wanting, the Blockhouses to be repaired, two 
hundred Men of each Regiment of Militia of the adjoining 
Counties to be held in readiness to march, and the whole 
Regiment in case of need, to the Assistance of Albany. I 
sent the independent Company posted in Fort George in 
this City to Albany, detaining a sergeant and the Inva- 
lids to do the Fort duty; and had also directed a fort to 
be built at a Pass on the Hudson's River about forty miles 
from Albany, but no workmen would undertake it on the 
credit of the Government. I inclose a copy of my letter 
to the General of Canada I am My Lords, 
Your Lordships most obedient 

and most humble servant 


New York Colonial Manuscripts. 53 

[New York Papers, Bundle Kk., No. 31] 


New York 16. October 1754. 

Sir: I have received accounts from Albany, that seve- 
ral of the Indians of the Orondacks, and other Tribes, 
domiciliated within your Government, and as I have been 
well informed, intirely in your direction, have lately made 
incursions into this, and the Neighbouring provinces, and 
have burnt and destroyed the Houses and Barns of the 
poor Farmers living at and near Hoseck within my Gov- 
ernment: this, in a time of profound peace betvveen_His 
Britanick and most Christian Majesty, is a practice so Bar- 
barous, as I think is not warranted by any orders, and I 
persuade m} r self will not be approved of by the Most 
Christian King; and I would willingly flatter myself, 
could not have been done by the encouragement of a per- 
son of your Excell's Rank and character, and yet you 
will permit t me to say, it is with difficulty I can con- 
ceive, that those Indians would have attempted this piece 
of cruelty without your privity and connivance, since 
those Indians live among the French and are under your 
direction, what adds to the difficulty, is, that I am told, 
the Commanding Officer at Fort St Frederick furnished 
these Indians and those of Scachtacook whom they had 
taken with them, with a vessel to carry them to Canada. 
I am in duty bound to lay those things before the King 
my Master. 

I shall not doubt but your Excellency will, by putting 
an effectual stop for the future to such Barbarities, con- 
vince the world, that the suspicion entertained on this 
occasion are groundless, and I hope I shall always [have] 
the honor to subscribe myself ettc. 


54 New York Colonial Manuscripts. 

[New York Papers, LI., No, 6.1 

Camp at Lake George 
24 September 1755 

Your Lordships will observe from the inclosed Minutes 
that they repeat in a very earnest manner that the Gogh- 
nawagaes may never again be suffered to trade either at 
Albany or Oswego. 

In my humble opinion to grant their request, to pro- 
hibit and prevent by the strictest execution of Law all 
Trade with the Cognawagaes or subjects of the French 
King either at Albany or Oswegoe or elsewhere by any 
of His Majesties Subjects in these parts, but more parti- 
cularly at Albany, will be a measure of the most useful 
kind will highly distress the French, who by the great 
Trade between Canada and Albany are enabled to supply 
the Indians with Goods which otherwise they could not 
but under great disadvantages, and hereby they make us 
Tools to the increase and stability of their Indian Inter- 
est We might then push a stronger and more successful 
Interest amongst them and have one of the most powerful 
means in our hands to draw off the Coghnawagaes from 
the French reunite them to their Brethren of the Six Na- 
tions, and prevail on them to return to their antient hab- 
itations in this Province 

Sir Charles Hardy is come up to Albany in order to push 
forward the present Expedition. I hope to see him here, 
when I propose to lay this matter before him, but I for- 
see that if Sir Charles embrace my sentiments and tries 
to push them into effect he will meet with great opposi- 
tion from the Dutch Traders at Albany who by their 
Cabals and weight in the Assembly may perhaps distress 
or at least vex him, those people are so devoted to their 
own private profit that every other publick principle has 
ever been sacrificed to it I will detain your Lordships 
no longer than to assure you of my most sincere inclina- 
tions to promote what appears to me for the Honor and 
Interest of His Matys Service, and that I am My Lords 


New York Colonial Manuscripts. 55 

(From New York Colonial History, vol. iii.) 

(New England, V. SOO.) 

Hartford 14 April 1690 

May it please Your Excell: I was in hopes Your Ex- 
cel : should have heard the newes of the destroyin 
Shinnechtacly by the French and Indians before your de- 
parture that your Excel: might the more hastned their 
motion at Whitehall for our settlement. On the 9th of 
February last a Company of 250 French and Indians came 
upon that place when they all were asleep about 11 
aClock at night, and killed and destroyed 60 men women 
and children, carryed 27 men and boys prisoners and 
burnt the towne, except 6 or 7 houses which are saved 
by Capt: Sander* whom they did not touch, having ex- 
presse command to meddle with none of his relations for 
his wife's sake, who had always been kinde to the French 
prisoners. The people of that Towne were so bygotted 
to Leysler that they would not obey any of the Magis- 
trates neither would they entertain the souldiers sent 
thither by the Convention of all ; nothing but men sent 
from Leysler would doe theire turn. 

Thus had Leysler perverted that poor people by his se- 
ditious letters now founde all bloody upon Shinnechtady 
streets, with the notions of a free trade, boalting &c and 
thus they are destroyed; they would not watch, andwher 
Capt : Sander commanded, there they threatened to burn 
him upon the fire, if he came upon the garde; Wee were 
much allarm'd at Albany ; we sent the Maquase that were 
at hand, out, and to the Maquase castles; but the mes- 
senger being so timorous did not proceed; so that it was 
3 days before we could get the Maquase downe to pursue 
them ; who being joyned with our men, follow'd them to 
the Great Lake, where the yse being good and the French 
having robb'd sundrey horses, put their plunder upon 
sleds and so over the Lake; however the Indians pursued 
and gott 10, and afterwards 5, and killed 3. Who being 

* Captain ALEXANDER GLEN. Colden's History of the Five JVa- 
ft'ons, 115. 

56 New York Colonial Manuscripts. 

examined, relate that the-French design to attacke Al- 
bany early in the Spring, having 120 batoes 100 birch 
canoes and 12 light morter peeces, and severall other en- 
gines ready, and are to come with 1500 men. 

We signefied thisdissaster to N. Yorke, Virginia, Con- 
ectieut, Boston, &c and desyred assistance. I was com- 
missionated by our Gent: to come hither and to Boston, 
where I have been; but they being lusty to send 500 men 
to Port Royall and raiseing men to secure there out 
townes, for Salmon Fallsf was cut off when 1 was at 
Boston by 30 French and 30 Indians and but one French- 
man taken; Boston said, they could not assist us, but re- 
ferr'd us to this Collony where the General Court sits 
now, and have at last granted us about two Cumpan- 
ies, 124 men besides Officers, and as many of their In- 
dians as will make 200 in all, and furnish provisions for 
them, and are to goe forthwith to Albany. I had letters 
last week from home, who write me they have surrender- 
ed the fort to Leysler's party; for this Collony drew off 
the Company that was there as soon as the N. Yorke 
forces viz 160 men came up, and advised them to sub- 
mitt to Leysler as also did Boston, calling him Leift: 
Governor, and that we could not expect any assistance till 
we had submitted, for every one of our neighbors drew 
back their hands. The conditions as far as I can under- 
stand are but mean, the Red Coats they promised should 
be entertained, them that would stay, and should have 
their pay in 6 weeks time; and no sooner had they the 
Fort in their possession, but turned out all the souldiers 
but 13, among the rest poor Sharpe, who is lame, being 
wounded with a great gunn that splitt when the alarm 
came of Shinnectady. They of Albany agree wel eneugh 
with the New Yorke Commissioners concerning the car- 
rying on the warr. Albany furnishes 140 men, Sopus 
60, N. Yorke 200 that goe out in a months time against 
the enemy with the 5. nations towards Canida. But 
Leyslers faction will have the Mayor and other Magis- 
trates to take Commissions as Leift: Gov. and that they 

t A settlement in Strafford county, New Hampshire, on the river 
which divides that State from Maine. 

New York Colonial Manuscripts. 57 

will not doe till he can [produce] beter power from K. 
Win. to grant it. He is as cruel as ever, abuses all the 
principal men basely. Brother Cortland is fled, poor 
Cornel Beyerd, Mr. Goer, Wm. Nicolls, and severall 
more he keeps close and in dark prisones, and causes 
Beyerd to be carried in a chayr thorow the Fort by por- 
ters, with yrons on, in triumph. Your Excel: may con- 
jecture how we long to hear from His Majesty that a peri- 
od may be putt to our sufferings. Never were poor Prot- 
estants in the world so persecuted as this tyrant Leysler 
does and that upon pretence for standing up for King 
William. He mocks and skoffs when a man speaks of 
law: the sword must settle K.Williams right, not the law, 
he tells us. As soon as he heard of my goeing from Al- 
bany to these Colonies, he sends to this Colony and Bos- 
ton to apprehend me, writeing warrants, containing many 
false and pernicious lyes that I should have spoke this 
and that against the Prince of Orange, thinking by that 
means to render me odious to these Colonies, that they 
should not send supplyes. and then he could manage Al- 
bany at his pleasure. 

I begg your Excell: to put His Majesty in minde of 
our deplorable condition, and that a (governor may be 
sent if not already done; elce it is to be feared this conn- 
trey will be lost. 

We moved to them of Boston to joyne and fit' out ves- 
sels to take Quebcck, and we would goe with the Indians 
towars Mount Royall; but they alleadge the want of 
powder, and have therefore sent a sloop a purpose to 
the King for a supply. If Canada be not taken this su- 
mer, we wil be undone. I writt to my Lord Nottingham 
and sent his Lordship the copies of our protest against 
Leysler, the memorialls I delivered to this and Massa- 
chusetts Collony, all inclosed in a letter to Mr Ferguson. 
I hope they will come to hand, and that we may be 
speedily redressed. There is a generall meeting of Com- 
missioners at Rhode Island within a fortnight, of all the 
dominions, to carry on the warr. I hope it will be speedi- 
ly ended. We are well assured that if His Majesty 
never send so many letters Leysler will continue his ty- 

58 New York Colonial Manuscripts. 

rannicall government, till a Governor comes from His 
most sacred Majesty K. William which God send speedi- 
ly with men for our assistance. I have noe more to add 
but pray your Excel! : to be mindfull of my concerns 
about the Albany expedition, that His Majesty may send 
orders to setle and pay all these arrears; else I am un- 
done; for there is above 400 I am out, besides what I 
have the mortgage for, and I have since these revolutions 
advanced considerable, expecting every day a settlement 
Brother Cortlant and I have maintained the Kings soul- 
diers at Albany till the 12 of March 16^ exclus : and 
now they turn them out like doggs, and tell them "let 
the Convention pay yow," who adminiustred them the 
oath of allegience to them for King William and Q. 
Mary, for none elce were admitted to stay but them that 
took the oath, because they should iiave nothing to ob- 
ject against us. 

I doubt not but your Excell: will also take care about 
the 60 I advanced your Excel: at New Yorke. I am 
considerably indebted to one Joseph Hamond of London 
merchant and know not how to pay him except these 
matters be setled and paid. I have no more to add at 
present but that* I am 

Your Excel: most humble 

and most obedient servant 

[New-York Papers, B. II. 451.] 

7th June 1690. 
Hon Sir. 

We of Albany stood out the longest, till were deserted 
by all New England, and while I was sent by the conven- 
tion of Albany, to procure assistance from the neigh- 
bouring colonies, Leisler sends up one Jacob Milborne, 
formerly a servant to a man in Hartford, but now a fitt 
tool for his turn with 160 men, who gott the fort surren- 
dered to him, after I had maintained the garrison, and 
all publick charge to the 12th March, turned out all the 

New York Colonial Manuscripts. 59 

souldiers but 12 or 13, which they took in againe, and 
so kept there for some weeks This Jacob Milborne, 
John de Bruine, and Johannes Provoost, under the do- 
minion of New York Commissioners spending their time 
with drinking and Quaffing, while the French Indians 
comes and cutts off the people att Canastagione, and 
above Synechtady, and never one of them catcht. We 
have all Leisler's seditious letters secured which was the 
occasion of the destruction of Synechtady, miraculously 
found in the streets, all imbrued with blood the morning 
after the massacre was committed, soe that we want 
nothing but a Governor to call him to account I writt 
to the Gent: of New York as soon as I heard your hon- 
our was arrived to send an expresse to Virginia; to be 
satisfied how things are in England in reference to our 
province, and when we may expect Coll: Slater, fearing 
that our Tyrant will make his escape He has fitted out 
out a shipp, Briganteen, a sloop upon pretence of going 
to Canida who committ all manners of robberies in the 
sounde, having stole 30 Sheepe and 10 Calfs from Major 
Wintrops Island, fired severall gunns at Road Island, and 
by a man that hath deserted the said vessell, understand 
jhey design to take a Vessell with provisions and soe for 
the south sea, on Ginnee, and it is thought Leisler will 
make his escape after he has gott in this rate, he hath 
lately made with his pretended assembly and soe march 
off, which I hope will be prevented. If a Governor 
come not speedily it is much to be feared, the Country 
will be lost, all goes to confusion, all the Eastern parts 
lost and destroyed, no shipps ready to make an assault 
on Quebeke as was proposed, no army by land, the few 
sorry and despicable fellows that Leysler sent up as 
Souldiers to Albany, most of them being boys, dye like 
rotten sheep, of the bloody flux, by the fishy porke that 
Leisler robbed of the merchants, upon pretence to press 
itt for the Kings service. 

I am forced to abscond, haveing not seen my family 

these three months, have seized on my estate, because I 

will not give an account of the excise to him Brother 

Cortlandt, Coll . Willett, Capt. Jackson Mr. Whitebread * 


GO New York Colonial Manuscripts. 

and other gents : are forced to do the same ; you will 
have an account how tyranically he uses Coll: Bayard 
and the other Gents in prison at New York, so that shall 
need to say little to those affaires; I doe keepe at Hart- 
ford, and am come downe here to passe some few days 
with Coll: Winthrop, whom the General Court of this 
Colony have requested to be the Generall after that the 
Commissioners of the three Colonies met at New-York, 
had left it to Capt. Leisler to choose the chief comman- 
der I know not how to evade it brave doeings when 
all New England must come like servants to truckle to 
such an usurping Tyrant. 

The 160 men that Boston had raised to send us, who 
were upon their march were called back, upon the new r s 
of Caskoe being destroyed. This Colony has another 
camp ready, which they keep at home, fearing of the 
flux, that hath taken their men off the other camp at the 
green bush, soe that if somee speedy relief do not come, 
the King is liked to loose his interest in these parts. 
Coll: Wintrop who hath contrary to all their expecta- 
tions accepted to take the command of the forces at Al- 
bany presents his respects to you, says he had his share 
of troubles since your departure. The Gent: here knew 
they did not deserve, that he should take the trouble 
upon him, but he is soe willing to serve the King and 
the Country, that he waues all these things for the pres- 
ent. They sent an expresse to Leisler about it, but I 
know not what answer they have got come up to Hart- 
Sir, I have sent enclosed copies of some of my trans- 
actions with these Colonies, in the behalfe of Albany. 
They are scarce worth your perusing, considering the 
business you will have to doe in settling of the Diinin- 
ion. I have no more to add at present, begging the fa- 
vour to hear from you, which will be extream acceptable 
in our solitary condition soe shall remaine 
Honorable Sir ettc. 


New York Colonial Manuscripts. 61 

[Xew-York Papers, B. H. 453.] 

To the Hon the Governor and Gouncill and Represent- 
atives of Their Majesties Collonie of Connetticut assem- 
bled att a General Court att Hartford the 9th of May 

The Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Albany have 
desired me to return their hearty thanks to Your Hon- 
ours for taking their request into consideration : by grant- 
ing them men for their assistance, against ths common 
ennemy begging to be excused for their not writeing to 
your Honors not being able te express themselves in the 
English tongue, they write to me that they can supply 
the men with bread and pease, for the like quantity att 
N. York, but have no porke, nor flesh to exchange, neither 
would I advise your Honours to doe it, by any means for 
your Honours men are used to good provisions, and if 
they should get fishy porke it would not agree with them. 

They have also desired me to acquaint you with the 
affairs of that place, since great things were supposed 
would be done after a submission to Capt Leislers au- 
thority, which they only by the advice of your Honours 
and neighboring Collonies have done, but doe not finde 
the affect as was expected, neither is the business of the 
warr or Indians anyways promoted, or sett forward, nor 
their Majesties subjects preserved; The French Indians 
have murdered and destroyed divers persons and houses, 
and in two several places lately, and but not one of the 
Ennemie assaulted, the scouts, they sent to the lake re- 
turned pretending wanted provisions ; the three Commis- 
sioners sent to Albany by Capt Leisler, doe no great 
feats except throwing some of the Citizens into gaole, 
and carrying them up into the fort by musquetiers with- 
out mittimus or warrant, nay the Capt of the guard not 
escaping, but carried from the very watch to the fort by 
Milbourn. These are the least of our troubles, now many 
of Leislers own faction can cry as loud for a Governor 
comeingfrom England as ever we did: but I shall not de- 
taine this Honourable Assembly by relating how the 
poor people there have been oppressed and impoverished 

[Annalsviii.] 7 

62 New York Colonial Manuscripts. 

by 220 men, eating up their victuals, without any provi- 
sions delivered out, when 5 days quarters were but desir- 
ed; nor with the souldiers murmuring for their agree- 
ment not being performed, not with the news lately come 
from Canida how it is reported, that 5 Sinnekes are there 
makeing of peace with the French, nor the Indians of the 
5 nations not comeing down and the Mohogs backward- 
ness to pursue the French praying Indians ; the desire the 
Eastern Indians have of a peace, signified to us by the 
Sachim of Skachkook which I have sent an account of 
to the Gov and Councill of Boston. 

These and other such matters being more proper to be 
discoursed at large with a Committee, then to keep your 
Honours up from proceeding on greater business ; only 
one I must putt Your Honours in mind of, which I am 
affraid, if not remedied, will prove so pernicious, will 
ruine all His Majesties affairs in our parts; That is that 
a General for all the forces att Albany, be appointed by 
the United Colonies who send their forces thither till our 
Governor comes, and not left to Captain Leisler, upon 
pretence of his sending up the most men Gentlemen you 
all know how many mieschiefs and calamityes has hap- 
pened in former ages by the contendings of chief Officers, 
neither will the people that goe from hence be easiely 
commanded by such persons as Leisler shall nominate to 
be theire head, and wether there be any of his creatures, 
that are capable so great a charge and trust, since the 
principle persons of that province, both for conduct and 
estates are forced to abscond from his cruelty I leave 
Your Honours to judge, it is a business of great moment, 
the Kings interest, and the lives of a great many of his 
subjects, lyes att the stake, and itt is in your Honours 
power, now to prevent many mischiefs that may ensue. 
I hope your Honours doe not look upon Albany as Alba- 
ny, but the frontier of Your Honours Collony, and of all 
their Majesties countries, and you Honours have all a pe- 
culiar interest in the preservation of that place, and there- 
fore it would be convenient, that there was a judicious 
man from each Collony to reside there, till His Excell: 
our Governor arrives, to manage all affairs and not to 

New York Colonial Manuscripts. 63 

leave itt to such, who by report can not manage them- 
selves The Mayor and Aldermen who he continued out 
of meer fear and terrour of the Indians, have not that 
correspondence and familiarity with the three New York 
Commissioners as was expected, the said Commissioners 
managing most affairs without them, except such as they 
know not how to proceed on without their advice. 

We hope we shall have a Governor speedily, but in the 
mean tyme, it will be very requisite that the united Col- 
onies take Inspection of all affairs with us, since their 
interest and ours are so inseparable; fearing that if the 
business do miscarry we shall be ruined and that without 
lamentation, for all the world will say why did they trust 
persons to manage Kings affairs, which the King himself 
never did entrust, nay, such as have reason to believe, 
that all theyr actions will be called in question, as soon 
as a Governor comes, whom God send speedily to deliv- 
er us from the arbitrary yokes that poor province lyes 
under, and restore to us the Ministry of the Gospell 
which in some parts, by their evill management the Kings 
liege people are deprived of I shall conclude with an 
humble request in behalf of the City of Albany, that the 
forces your Honour design thither for their assistance 
and the annoying the common ennemy, may be dispatch- 
ed with all possible speed, since they long extreamlyfor 
their coming, and that your Honours would be pleased 
to remainde the Gent of Boston to do their part by sea 
towards Quebeek, and so shall remaine Your Honours 
most obedient Servant 


[New York Papers, B. 11.453.] 

To the Honourable the Governor and Councill and 
Representatives of his Majesty's Colony of Canetticut 
now assembled att a general Court in Hartford the 13th 
Day of May 1690. 

Honourable Gentlemen 

I am fully pers waded your Honours are now satisfied 

64 New York Colonial Manuscripts. 

the Gent: of Albany did not without cause dread to 
think of having fort and citty brought under Leislers 
command, when they considered on the one hand, what 
persons he designed to employ to have the management 
of all affairs, and the 5 nations on the other hand to 
deal with all, when the least disgust of such a nature 
may prove so fatal to all the countrey, which is so little 
regarded by those persons called Commissioners there, 
that they do not stick to doe any violence to exasperate 
the heathen. 

Having had sufficient experience of their strange man- 
ageing of affaires with us, and their utter ignorance to 
deal with the Indians, caused me and the other Gentle- 
men sent from the convention of Albany, and the Coun- 
ty of Ulster to be the more importunate with your Hon- 
ours last March to have Capt Balls company continued 
there, to putt a stop to Mr Jacob Milbornes dangerous 
proceedings; I think they have now sufficiently pulled off 
the vizard, appearing in their own colours, and declare 
by their actions to all the world that their designe never 
was to promote the King and the Countrey's interest, but 
to bring that poor place to poverty and slavery, and to 
obtain their own ambitious ends ; if the seizing of Church 
lands, abusing of Ministers, and other loyall subjects, 
insomuch that the heathen themselves are necessitate to 
rescue them out of their hands, occasioning a whole mu- 
tiny in the Towne, when the Sachims Captains of all 
the 5 nations were there to take notice of it, wether 
these be actions fitt for Protestants, and them that have 
the sole command, I leave the world to judge and weth- 
er we can expect the blessing of God upon our enter- 
prises, when affairs must chieftly be managed by their 
Councells; wee were all sufficiently satisfied that the 
Sachims of the five nations would wholly rely upon the 
Mayor and Aldermen of Albany till a Governor came, 
and it had been a desired work, if the three collonies 
had in such a juncture joyned with the Convention of 
Albany and the five nations in the carrying on of the warr 
till our Governor arrived and not concerned themselves 
with Captain Leisler, but we are all satisfyed what they 

New York Colonial Manuscripts. 65 

did was aimed for the best andpublick good of the coun- 

Wee hope the business is not so farr gone, but that it 
can be remedied, since it is apparent to the world if Mr. 
Milborne have any command, there no good can be ex- 
pected to be done in the King's concernes, the Indians 
being such implacable people never to be reconciled with 
them they once disafect, and since it is evident that he is 
person that Capt Leisler pitches upon to be the Generall 
of all Your Honours forces, I beg earnestly that your 
Honours would not only be pleased to write to Captain 
Leisler to call home the said Milborne from Albany, but 
with the neighboring Collonies appoint a General, and 
send Commissioners who with the Mayor and Aldermen 
may manage all affairs at Albany, and if the said Mr. Mil- 
borne or his associates, should obstruct their proceedings 
to protest against them as enemies of the Kings interest 
and so manifest to the world your Honours dislike of 
these illegal and rash proceedings and then appoint a 
Generall of the New England forces who may goe out 
with the promised aides of the five nations, to annoy the 
common enemy, since the distemper is so vehement att 
Albany and the New York forces whereof few, as is re- 
ported fitt for such an expedition, to stay at Albany and 
Guarde the towne ; that soe the business of the warr may 
be carried on, especially since our ennemies of Canida, 
are now mean and low for want of provisions: I pray 
God to direct your Councills in soe difficult a business, it 
looks very cloudy and dark, yet the God that made light 
shine out of darkness, can bless your Honours endevours 
in this affair, above all human expectations; I declare 
though Captain Leysler and his party have endeavored 
to destroy my good name and estate, and still doe persist 
therein, yett I should little regard itt, see that main bus- 
iness may be carried on without obstruction Hoping 
that the Gent, of Boston will not let soe good an oppor- 
tunity passing without laying hold of itt and proceed by 
water as the Indians are given to understand to prevent 
their unexpected succours comeing in, who can by that 
means soon be overcome I am 

Your Honours most obedient servant. 


6 New York Colonial Manuscripts. 


Margaret the wife of Akes Cornelisen aged about 45 
yeares being sworne, deposeth that she about the middle 
of Feb anno 16ff was with her husband and Joris,, A vert- 
sen at the house of Robert Livingston, and that the De- 
ponent at that time heard the said Livingston say, that 
the King saith that the Prince is the head of the rebells, 
and further she knows not well whether she heard it of 
Livingston or of her husband or of Joris Avertsen, yet 
she heard it of one of them three say, that Livingston 
also has said, that divers English subjects were gone out 
of England for Holland; as also, let him come in England, 
he shall there find such good soldiers as he shall bring : 
and further saith not. Past in Albany this first of Aprill 

Sworne before me 
(signed) JAN JANSE BLEECKER, Justice. 

Richard Pretty of the city of Albany, Gent, about 53 
years of age, maketh oath upon the Holy Evangelists 
and saith about the beginning of April 1689 Robert Liv- 
ingston of Albany aforesaid, told unto this Deponent 
that there was a parcell of rebells gone out of Holland 
into England, and that the Prince of Orange was the 
head of them, but that he might see howh e got out againe, 
and should come to the same end as Monmouth did. 

Signed Richard Pretty. 

Sworne in Albany the 25 day of March 1690, before us, 


[Board of Trade Papers, New York, III.] 

Propositions made by the praying Indians of the three 
Tribes or races of the Maquass, to His Excellency 
Coll: Henry Slaughter Captain Generall and Govern- 
or in Cheife of the Province of New-Yorke and the 

New York Colonial Manuscripts. 67 

Honourable Council!, and to the Mayor and Alder" 
men of the Citty of Albany in the Citty Hall the 
26th day of May 1691: PRESENT His Excellency 
the Governour, Coll: Joseph Dudley, Coll: Thomas 
Willet, Coll: Stephen Van Courtland, Capt. Wil- 
liam Pinhorne, William Nicholls, Major Peter Schuy- 
ler, Mayor, Direck Wessels, Recorder, Jan Becker, 
Evert Banker, Claes Ripse, Jan Bleeker, Gerrit Ry- 
erse, Eghbert Teunise, Aldermen. 
Brother Corlaer, 

We Maquase of the three races or Tribes of our Coun- 
try being praying Indians, are come to see you and are 
glad to see a Governor come from our great King of Eng- 
land; we are sencible of the great hazard and danger you 
have undergone to come to us, and if any of your Men 
dyed upon the voyage by the cold season of the yeare and 
badd weather, wee desire that the tears for their death 
may bee wiped off, and that you may not be troubled or 
grieved at it but look upon us with a good and clear eye, 
meaning a good heart. Give three fathom of wampum. 
Brother Corlaer, Wee are extreamly rejoyced to see 
your Excellency and the Gentlemen of the Council safe 
arrived here and to see the Mayor and Aldermen convien- 
ed with you in this house, wee are not commissionate by 
the Sachims of our Nation to treat of publick affairs but 
being praying Indians and your children, think our- 
selves obliged to congratulate your safe arrival in a spe- 
ciall manner, and bid your Excellency heartily welcome, 
do give a Beaver and an Otter. 

Father Corlaer, Wee are extreamely obliged to your 
Excellency and do returne you our hearty thanks for 
restoreing to us our Minister Domine Godeuridus Del- 
lius, we were verry sorry that he was forced to leave us 
in the late troubles, wee hope that your Excellency will 
for the future take an especiall care, that we may be in- 
structed in the Christian Religion, for the weake and 
faint setting foward of that greate worke hitherto among 
us, has occasioned our Brethren to be drawn out of our 
Country to the French by their Priests. Doe give a Bea- 
ver and an Otter. 
Father Corlaer, We do againe congratulate your Excel- 

68 New York Colonial Manuscripts. 

lency safe arrival, and are gladd to see you and the Ma- 
yor and Aldermen convened together; our earnest request 
and desires is, that you take great care we may be in- 
structed in the Christian Religion; we are fully resolved 
to settle ourselves at Tionondoroge * (a place 56 miles 
above Albany) and pray that we may have ministers to 
instruct us as well as the French send Priests to instruct 
their Indians; yea they are zealous in their way that 
they send their Priests to teach the Indians quite to Di- 
onondade which is 300 Leagues above Canada. Doe give 
two Beavers. 

Father Corlaer, The Great God of Heaven has opened 
our ej'es, that we discerne the difference betwixt Chris- 
tianity and Paganism, and by that means of the authori- 
ty here, we have partaken of that benefitt to be instruct- 
ed in |the Religion of the Great King of England that is 
the Protestant Religion, wherein we are instructed al- 
ready. Doe give two Beavers. 

Father Corlaer, We would make your Excellency a 
considerable present, that we are able, we are soldiers 
and do present you with that wherewith we adorne our- 
selves, when we go out to warr (that is a Pouch made of 
Porkepine quills) and desire that your Excellency will be 
pleased to accept of that ornament as come from your 
* Children. 

a true Copy examined by 



[Board of Trade Papers, New York, III.] 

His Excellency's answer to the propositions made by 
the Maquase praying Indians. Albany the 26th day 

* Now known as fort Hunter, Montgomery county. See New 
York Documentary History^ 8vo., III., 902. O'C. 

t ; 'true Christian Religion, and we Desyre and Pray tlie Continua- 
tion of it, that we may be Instructed in the 1 ' follows here in the 
copy of this document in New York Colonial Manuscripts, XXX VI{* 

New York Colonial Manuscripts. 69 

of May Anno 1691: PRESENT His Excellency the 
Governor, Coll: Dudley, Coll: Willett, Coll: Cort- 
landt, Capt. Pinhorne, Mr. Wm. Nicholls, P. Schuy- 
ler, Mayor, D Wessell, Recorder, Jan Becker, and 
Evert Banker; Aldermen. 

Children. I am heartily glad to see and receive so 
many of the praying Indians who acknowledge them- 
selves Children of the Government of the Great King of 
England, I shall always account them as such and treat 
them accordingly. 

I was well pleased that Domine Dellius, your Minis- 
ter was still at Boston not yet removed out of the Coun- 
try whome I sent for and came to me at New Yorke, and 
was willing to returne for your sakes. I hope I have al- 
ready [so well] provided for him here, that will encour- 
age his attendance upon, and puting forward of that good 
worke in his hand, but above all incouragements I re- 
commended your obedience and observance of his Minis- 
try as the greatest. 

I am contented at your settlement at the place called 
Tionondorage as you propose, and as you are at present 
instructed here at Albany, so in time, I doubt not but 
such care shall be had that you may be supplyed with 
Instruction at your own habitations. 

I am very well pleased that the understanding in Reli- 
gion is so farr advanced that you cannot only distinguish 
between the Christian Religion and Paganizm but also be- 
tween the Reformed Religion and that of the Romans; I 
hope your Minister will take care further to instruct you 
in the Religion of our great protestant King whome I 
shall acquaint with this your present application; as for 
your apologize for your small present was needless, 'tis 
your good heart that only acceptable to me. Was given 
them: 1. Dozen stockings, 6 shirts, 3 Baggs Powder, 16 
Barrs lead, 30 gul strung wampum, 3 Runletts Rumm. 
[3 rolls of Tobacco] and privately to the Cheife men some 
Coats of Duffells. 

a True copy Examined by R LIVINGSTONE. 

70 New York Colonial Manuscripts. 

[Ne^r-York, B. T., IV. D. 21.1 

Albany the 2d July 1691. 
May it please Your Excell : 

The enclosed was designed to be with your Excell. be- 
fore this tyrae, onely stayed till the Maquaes came down, 
that Your Excell, might have an account of their number, 
but they not appearing Mr. Wessells resolved to goe to 
their Castles last Munday and found the 2 first Castles 
ready, but the 3d Castle in such a consternation about 
the death of Tahaiodoris their cheife Sachim, that they 
had quite forgot t their engagement to Your Excellency 
and ha'd noe thoughts of marching up; but have now con- 
cluded to send 74 men with the Mayor. They of the first 
and 2d Castles will be at Schennectady, to day, and the 
3d Castle will speedily follow. They expected when Mr. 
Wessells came there, a considerable present to wipe of 
their teares for their dead Sachim and told they had stayd 
soe long for the Christians last year, they could stay 
some time for them now. I wish to God we had such a 
force that we needed not to court such heathens, for any 
assistance, for they are a broken reed to depend upon ; 
but for the present there is noe help for it, they must be 
tenderly handled. 

It is a deplorable thing that our people will expose 
themselves without any cause. Last Munday 2 men went 
over the river att Canastagoine to make hay upon Claes 
de Brabanders land, the most dangerous place in all the 
Province : some French Indians surprizes them, kills the 
one and takes off his skull, and what is become of the 
other we know not, whether he be sttott in the river or 
caryed away prisoner. The other people that were a 
mowing of hay went upon Claes de Brabanders island that 
now belongs to John Child heard 3 gunns goe off, went to 
the river side see noe body but the cannoe that they went 
over in cutt and sunk in the water. We sent a party of 
horse thither who found one of the men lying in the wa- 
ter at theshoare side, who was buryedhere in towne yes- 
terday. Warning was immediately sent to the farmers 
below to be on their guarde. This is the worst time of 

New York Colonial Manuscripts. 71 

the year, the harvest just at hand; if another such thing 
should happen the corne would be left upon the ground 
and all the farmers fly into Towne; The people of the 
Halfe Moon dare not stay without they have a garrison 
there. I tell them Your Excell. will send up men as soon 
as you come to New Yorke; for the people here are very 
timerous since are soe few men in the towne for Burgers, 
and all cannot make a hundred. People are extream 
afraid to goe into the woods at present* 
I remaine in all humility, 

Your Excell. most obedient Servant 


Inclosed is the list of the Company of volunteers gone 
to Canada. 122. 

Just now Lieutenant Abraham Schuyler comes from 
the Mayor; says all is ready, cannoes making and nothing 
but the Indians that they stay for, all the men well and 

A true Copy 
(Signed) M. CLARKSON Secry. 


[New York Papers, III. D. 29.] 

Albany lyes upon the same River distant from New 
Yorke 144 miles, only settled for Indian trade, its com- 
merce extends itself as farr as the Lakes of Canada and 
the Sinneskes country in which is the Susquehanna Riv- 
er: their cheife dependance is. upon their traffick with the 
5 nations called Sinnekes Cayeugoes Oneydes Onondages 
and Maquase, which Indians in the time of the Dutch did 
surrender themselves and their lands to the obedience and 
proteccon of Albany, and upon that places reduccon to 
Your Majesties Crowne of England they continued con- 
firming the same successively to all the Governours of 
this Province, and hath now ratifyed and confirmed the 
same unto Your Majesty: so that all that tract of land 
from the westernmost extent of the Sinneskes Country 

72 New York Colonial Manuscripts. 

unto Albany hath been appropriated and did absolutely 
belong unto the inhabitants of Albany upwards of fourty 
yeares; The Indian inhabitants have always reckoned 
themselves subjects to Your Majesties crowne, and are 
not willing to submitt or have any trade or commerce 
with any of Your Majestys subjects but those at Albany, 
Your Majestys forts of New Yorke and Albany had all- 
ways an absolute dominion over all the Indian Nations, 
adjacent to this Province but especially of all those to the 
westward; and they were accustomed annually to bring 
tribute to Your Majestys forts, acknowledging the same, 
but of late years the neighbouring Collonys have obstruct- 
ed them which we conceive highly injurious to Your Ma- 
jestys interest and that this royalty is not conveyed by 
any of the afore recited grants. 

All which is humbly submitted 


LNew-York Papers, m. A. 14.] 

Albany 30th Dec 1691. 

This we offer to Your Honour's consideracon as a bus- 
iness of no mean concern, most of our praying Indians 
are now killed, 15 we have lost this summer whom we 
could most confide in. Those 4 Indians that have come 
off say that they have examined the prisoners which 
they took in Canida and especially our 2 Christian boys 
who say that the French are making all preparacons im- 
aginable to come here as soon as the yce was strong. 
We are vigilant and careful and keep good watch with 
those few men we have, we are in hopes that the Compli- 
ment would have been made up of the 250 men raised by 
the Assembly but there is above 70 men wanting, We 
had a meeting of all the Commicon Officers the 23rd in- 
stant where it was concluded what post every Officer and 
soldier should repair to in the time of Alarm and the 
word and sign concluded upon and all sworn to the secre- 

New York Colonial Manuscripts. 73 

sy of the same till there be occacon to divulge it. It was 
also thought convenient to send for the River Indians 
from below to come up and ly at the Mill or the flatts. 
Capt: Wessells went to acquaint them of it. The Indi- 
ans at Kinderhook about 19 [17] men came up the other 
about Katskill are now going to be sent for, it is also 
thought convenient to send for the Maquaes for their 
Wives and Children to ly at Schenectady and about this 
place but have no answer from the Maquaes as yett being 
dispersed in the woods a hunting; the Schackhook Indi- 
ans are most all gone out a hunting afarr off and there- 
fore can expect noe assistance from them this season. 
We have viewed the fusileers' arms find most of them 
to want swords, have desired Mr Livingston to cause 
make hatchetts and spears or launces for them in lieu of 
swordes and also spunges for the ladles for the guns in 
the block houses and many other incident charges that 
happen daily which we hope Your Honour will order to 
be paid out of the tax; there are so many things wanting 
that we are grieved to think of it, not knowing how he 
shall be reimbursed that should supply them, it is neces- 
sary that some men should be sent to strengthen the Fort, 
Capt : Shankes has cleered a room for the reception of 40 
men but we cannot well spare so many and if we had the 
men there is bedding wanting all which cannot be done 
without charge, this is in short our present condition we 
wish it were better, however with the help of God we 
hope to be prepared for the enemy when they come, and 
if they do not surprize us we feare them not, if we 
have but a days warning we hope to receive them soe that 
they will be loath to venture the like journey. Wee are 
designed to gett 50 men of the Farmers here in Towne 
25 out Capt: Gerritson's Company and 25 out of Capt. 
Teunsen's Company if the enemy come it will be in a 
month or 5 weeks time. We are busy in making another 
Blockhouse at the Strand behind Albert Rickman's which 
gives us our hands full the not coming of the provisions 
by water has occasioned some inconveniency to our Com- 
missary but we are going about to help them up. We 
[Annals, viii.] 8 

74 New York Colonial Manuscripts. 

shall [not] be wanting to doe our endeavors each in our 
station according to our capacity for the publick safety, 
so wishing Your Honor a Happy New Year 
We remain 

Honorable Sir 

Your most obeidient Servants. 


A true Copy JOHN TUDER 


The Scribe prays to be excused the ink freezing in the 



Continued from vol. vii, p. 167. 


May 4. James Scott died, aged 76. 

May 7. The Rev. Henry W. Weed was installed pas- 
tor of the First Presbyterian Church. 

May 7. Jabez D. Hammond, attorney at law, gave 
notice that he had removed from Cherry Valley, and 
opened an office at No. 65 State street. 

On the first of May the letters remaining in the post- 
office began to be published in the Daily Advertiser. 

May 14. The following persons were elected directors 
of the Albany Bank: 

Barent Bleecker, DOTIW Fonda, 

Ph. S. Van Rensselaer, Volkert P. Douw,* 

Abraham Van Vechten, Jacob H. Ten Eyck,* 

Matthew Gregory, James Stevenson, 

Matthew Trotter, Jellis Winne, Jr., 

Teunis Van Vechten,* Geo. W. Mancius. 
David Newlands, 

Barent Bleecker was unanimously re-elected president. 

May 21. David P. Winne and John Garnsey adver- 
tised the dissolution of the firm of Winne and Garnsey, 
doing a business in dry goods at No. 483 South Market 

May 22. The canal loan of $600,000 was taken by 
the New York State Bank and Mechanics' and Farmers' 
Bank, at a premium of 1^ per cent on a six per cent stock. 

May 29. A committee of the vestry of St. Peter's 
Church advertised for proposals to build a steeple to the 

* Survivors, 1856., 

76 Notes from the Newspapers. 

church according to a plan and specification in their pos- 

June J. The copartnership of Websters & Skinners 
was dissolved; it consisted of Charles R. Webster, 
George Webster, Elisha W. Skinner, Hezekiah Skinner 
and Daniel Skinner. 

June 2. The members of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church in the city of Albany, publicly thanked the citi- 
zens for the liberality of their contributions towards 
paying for the construction of the church edifice. But 
as they were still short of the necessary sum for liquidat- 
ing the whole expense, they therefore gave notice that 
a sermon would be preached at the North Dutch Church 
on the first Sabbath evening in June, by the Rev. James 
R. Willson, and a collection taken up for the purpose of 
defraying the remainder of the debt. 

June 13. The grand jury visited the Jail and found 
that there was not a single debtor confined within its 

The steam boat owners introduced cotillions on Iheir 
decks to add to the pleasure and attractions of the pas- 

The Harrowgate spring was discovered in 1792 in 
Greenbush, half a mile from the ferry, and was fitted up 
for the reception of company. In 1806, Mr. Rockwell, 
who kept the hotel at Greenbush, attempted to induce 
visitors to frequent the spring, which derived its name 
from the celebrated Harrowgate waters of England, 
whose properties and distinguishing qualities they were 
said to possess. The spring was much visited until 1813, 
when the establishment of a large military post in the 
immediate neighborhood drew to it a train that was cal- 
culated to drive away genteel visitors, and the works 
went to decay. In 1822 an attempt was again made to 
attract visitors by the erection of bathing houses and 
other accommodations. 

Martin Van Buren and Benj. F. Butler removed their 
office to 109 State street, which had recently been occu- 
pied by Bleecker & Sedgwick. 

Notes from the Newspapers. 77 

June 23. Joseph Caldwell, for many years a respect- 
able citizen, died, aged 85. 

June 29. Died at Savannah, Georgia, William Hoch- 
strasser, son of Paul Hochstrasser, aged 28; a young 
gentleman, whose correct deportment and amiable man- 
ners, had endeared him to a numerous acquaintance, and 
by whom his memory was long cherished with the "kind- 
est affection and regard. ' 

The number of members of assembly -in the county of 
Albany having been reduced by the new constitution to 
three, it became necessary to call a county convention, 
consisting of three delegates from each ward and town, to 
arrange that and other matters pertaining to elections. 
The convention was called at Dunn's Tavern in Albany 
on the 28th of June. 

At a meeting of the electors of the first ward, held at 
Crosby's Hotel, James La Grange in the chair and John 
T. Godfrey secretary, Henry B. Cook, James Stevenson 
and Elisha W. Skinner were apppointed delegates. 

The second ward electors met at J. D. Smith's Tavern, 
Isaac Hamilton in the chair, Levi H. Palmer secretary. 
Jonathan Eights. Jeremiah Waterman and Peter Roggen 
were appointed delegates. 

The third ward electors met at Hazard's Hotel, John 
H. Wendell chairman, Richard I. Brinckerhoff secretary. 
Teunis Van Vechten, Chandler Starr and Conrad A. 
Ten Eyck were appointed delegates. 

The fourth ward sent Joseph Alexander, Peter Boyd 
and Ephraim De Witt. 

The electors of the fifth ward convened at the house 
of David Nash, John A. Goevvey chairman, H. Leonard 
secretary. Stephen Van Rensselaer, Jr., Jacob Lansing, 
Jr., and John Geddes were elected delegates. 

June 30. Capt. John Tillman, formerly of Albany, 
died at Geneva, aged 76. 

July 1. Robert Lowther died at S warts Ferry, aged 
48. He was returning to his home in Albany from a 
visit to Sharon, which place he left in apparent good 
health. He availed himself of the new mode of convey- 

78 Notes from the Newspapers. 

ance which the canal afforded, and is supposed to have 
died of apoplexy. He was a native of Ireland, whose 
love of liberty induced him to engage in the cause of his 
country with Emmet and others. 

The construction of the Erie canal being now in rapid 
progress to completion, the freight by land carriage be- 
tween Utica and Albany was greatly increased. It is 
mentioned that one mercantile" house paid upwards of 
$2000 for a single day's transportation. A traveler pas- 
sing west, had the curiosity to count the number of 
wagons which he met on the road between Schenectady 
and Utica, and found them to exceed 350 loaded with 
flour, from 12 to 14 barrels each ; making the quantity 
transported by land in one day, to exceed 4300 barrels. 
The quantity transported by water was supposed to be 
still greater. 

July 6. Theodorus Van Wyck Graham, an eminent 
lawyer, died. 

July 21. The Rev. Jonas Coe died at Troy, aged 64. 
July 24. A meeting of citizens at the Capitol nomi- 
nated Solomon Southwick for governor unanimously. 

August 3. It was announced that Bezaleel Howe 
would on this day issue a new religious paper to be e"n- 
titled The Oriental Star. 

The following statistics of the schools in Albany were 
published in the Advertiser of Aug. 8, and said to have 
been substantially correct. 

The whole number of academies and schools was 50: 
The Albany Academy had 4 teachers and 130 pupils. 
The Albany Female Academy 4 teachers 138 do 
The Mechanics' Academy 1 do 40 do 
The Lancaster School 1 do 390 do 

Besides these schools there was 46 in different parts of 
the city, as follows : 

Montgomery street, 1 Union street, 1 

North and South Market St., . 4 Liberty street, 2 

North and South Pearl street, 13 Lodge street, ..... 1 

Chapel street, 3 Ferry street, I 

Green streetj 1 Lydius street, 4 

Notes from the Newspapers. 79 

Hamilton street, 1 Fox street, 2 

Hudson and Beaver st., each 1, 2 Van Schaick street, 1 

Washington street, 6 Van Tromp street, t 

Steuben street, 1 Patroon street, 1 

One of these schools, having 25 pupils, was supported 
by a society of charitable females. Another of 70 pupils 
was composed of colored children. The 50 academies 
and schools had 62 teachers, and 2,225 pupils. Of the 
teachers 27 were males and 35 females. Of the whole 
number of pupils, one-fourth were rated between the 
ages of 4 and 8; two-fourths between the ages of 8 and 
12; and most of the remaining fourth between the ages 
of 12 and 16 years. 

The Rochester Republican boasted that letters mailed 
in New York on the 19th of July were received at 
Rochester on the 23d, a distance of 390 miles; and asks 
triumphantly " where the mail is carried with more ra- 
pidity ?" 

The yellow fever prevailing in New York, the steam 
boats from Albany landed at the State prison dock. 

Several New York merchants removed their stock of 
goods to Albany, and opened them in Market street, in 
consequence of the yellow fever. 

Ira Porter relinquished the business of merchant tai- 
lor, and recommended to his customers Thomas Lee, 
who succeeded him at No. 64 State street. 

August 5. Alexander Smith, aged 63, died in the 
Jail, where he had been confined about 40 years. He 
was a soldier in the revolutionary army, and taken pri- 
soner, when the rigorous treatment he underwent im- 
paired his understanding, and in a paroxysm of insanity 
he killed his brother, for which he was imprisoned. He 
spent much of his time in reading, and could read the 
smallest print without the aid of glasses at the time of 
his death. 

August 15. Joseph Bonaparte, ex-king of Spain ar- 
rived in the city and put up at the Eagle Tavern. 

Daniel Carmichael, No. 226 North Market street adver- 
tised bread of 4 Ibs. weight of superfine flour at Is. 

August 27. The price of wheat was 1 8 22 a bushel, 


Notes from the Newspapers. 

though not of as good a quality as that of the previous 

August 28. Estes Howe, recorder of the city in the 
absence of the mayor, issued a proclamation, forbidding 
steam boats and other vessels coming from New York, 
having persons sick on board, to perform quarantine at 
the island below the city. 

September 12. Job Taber, Jr., merchant, died, aged 
35, and was buried in the Second Presbyterian Church 

September 18. William Duffey died, aged 48, and was 
buried from his residence No. 516 South Market street. 

September 19. The annual charter election took 
place when the following were elected : 

Fir$t Ward. 

Wm. I. Van Zandt, 
Wm. Gould. 

Seaond Ward. 
Jacob F. Steenberg, 
Wm. Seymour. 

Third Ward. 
Robert Davis, 
Conrad Ten Eyek. 
Fourth Ward. 

John Townsetid, 
Friend Humphrey. 

John Cassidy, 
Jerem. Waterman. 

Ebenezer Baldwin, 
Jacob H. Ten Eyck. 

Abm. Sickles, 
Jesse Randall. 

Robert Ruby, 
Heber Stone. 

John Graves, 
John D. Fisher. 

Jas. L'Amoreaux, 
Welcome Esleeck. 

Hawthorn McCulloch, 
James Maher. 

B. C. Allen, 
John Butman. 

John Meigs, 
Ira G. Jenne. 

Fifth Ward. 

James Gibbons, Francis Costigan, 

Benj. Wilson. Francis I. Bradt. 

September 20. James Murray died, aged 7 1 ; a native 
of Scotland, but for thirty years a resident of South 
Pearl street. 

September 30. John Taylor died at Greenwich, aged 
70. He was seized with the prevailing epidemic, but 
had so far recovered as to be pronounced convalescent, 
when he was removed from his residence in Maiden lane 
to the village of Greenwich where he was taken with the 
typhus fever, which terminated his life. Mr. Taylor 
was born in England; but having determined to adopt 

Notes from the Newspapers. 81 

the United States for his residence, he embarked in the 
year 1790 for New York, and soon after settled in this 
city, where he resided twenty-six years. Not long after 
his settlement here, he witnessed the trying scene of 
losing all his property by fire, and the narrow escape of 
his youngest daughter, who was snatched from the flames 
a few moments before the building fell in. He was a 
person of uniform industry, and ardently devoted his 
life in the humble walks of Christian piety. 

September 30. The common council directed a tax 
to be raised of $3,000 to pay the interest on the city 
debt ; of $6,000 for the expense of lamps and night watch, 
and $8,000 to defray the expenses of the poor. 

October 13. Harmanus P. Schuyler died at Neskay- 
una, aged 53. He formerly held the office of sheriff of 
the county, and was for many years chamberlain of the 
city; and on his removal to Neskayuna was elected su- 
pervisor from that place. 

October 14. Dr. Alden March advertised his second 
course of anatomical lectures. 

October 20. Hamilton Boyd died at his residence, 38 
South Pearl street, aged 45. 

October 25. Peter McHench died, aged 69. 

Hawthorn McCulloch, residing in lower Ferry street, 
exhibited a beet 17 inches in circumference and 2 feet 
3 inches long, or nearly 4 feet including the leaves. It 
was a trophy for a city farmer. 

The New York merchants who removed their stock of 
goods to Albany and opened them for sale, during the 
prevalence of the yellow fever in their own city, were 
now returning home. 

Nov. 4, 5 and 6. Election of members of assembly, 
sheriff, county clerk, and coroners. Jesse Buel, Abra- 
ham Brooks and Abraham Rosecrantz were elected to 
the assembly; Daniel Hale, Jr., Jacob C. Cuyler, Benoni 
C. Allen and John D. Ogsbury coroners; Cornelius Van 
Antwerp, sheriff; and Lawrence L. Van Kleeck, county 

Nov. 9. James Denny, quartermaster of the United 

82 Notes from the Newspapers. 

States schooner Alligator, was killed in an action with 
pirates, aged 30. He was the son of Capt. John Denny, 
late of Albany, deceased, an officer of the revolution. 
Young Denny was a volunteer in the same boat with 
Lieut. Allen, and perished with him. He was an expert 
seaman, and his untimely death was a severe loss to his 
widowed mother, who was left without support. 

Nov. 1 1. A fire broke out in the store of John Taylor, 
Jr., on Quay street, in front of the Eagle Tavern, occupied 
as a tallow chandlery. The loss was estimated at about 
$3000; no insurance. This was the third time within 
30 years that " a very meritorious and deserving family 
have had their property destroyed by fire." 

Nov. 16. The price of wheat was lls to 11s 6d per 

Nov. 19. A meeting of citizens was called at the Capi- 
tol, to consider the case of the great struggle of the 
Greeks for emancipation from the Turks. A writer in 
the Daily Advertiser of the day previous had recom- 
mended that an effort should be made in this country to 
sustain the Greeks. 

The Booksellers in Albany at this time were as follows : 

C. R. & G. Webster, corner of State and Pearl sts. 

E. & E. Hosford, 100 State. 

William Gould, Law, 104 State. 

E. F. Backus, Law, cor. State and Middle lane. 

Daniel Steele & Son, 437 South Market st. 

S. W. Johnson, 395 South Market st. 

Samuel Shaw, Washington st. 

E. W. Skinner & Co., 38 State st. 

Daniel Carmichael, bread baker, 229 North Market 
street, advertised bread from superfine flour, 4 Ibs. for 
Is.; from fine flour, none at present. 

Nov. 21 An election was held in the third ward for 
the choice of an assistant alderman to fill the place of 
Robert Davis, resigned; when Chandler Starr was elect- 
ed by 73 votes; Garret L. Dox, his opponent, received 60. 

Nov. 22. Proposals were advertised for by S. Johns, 
22 State street, for erecting a brick theatre. 

Notes from the Newspapers. 83 

Nov. 24. A sermon was preached by the Rev. Mr. 
Lacey, in St. Peter's church, for the benefit of the Sunday 
schools, and a collection of $105'82 taken. 

Nov. 27. Benjamin Quackenbush, blacksmith, died, 
aged 42. As a husband, he was kind and affectionate; 
as a parent, tender and indulgent; as a neighbor and a 
friend, generous and obliging. 

Dec. 7. The president's message, delivered in Wash- 
ington on the 3d, arrived by steam boat, and appeared in 
the Daily Advertiser on the morning of this day. 

Dec. 17. Benjamin Ostrander died, aged 42. He was 
a cabinet maker, residing at 56 South Pearl street. 

Dec. 19. Isaac Demilt advertised that he had fitted* 
up the old Stone House No. 5 Green street, formerly oc- 
cupied by Mr. Dunn. 

At the November term, Solomon Southwick was ad- 
mitted to practice as solicitor and counsellor in chancery. 
He was likewise admitted to practice as attorney and 
counsellor in the court of common pleas for the county 
of Albany, at the same time, having been formerly ad- 
mitted to the same degrees in the supreme court. 

A writer in the Daily Advertiser advocated the estab- 
lishment of a work house and stepping mill, as he termed it. 

Dec. 20. Samuel S. Fowler advertised that he had 
purchased the stock in trade of William Fowler, and had 
removed from his former store to No. 401 South Market 
street, where he opened an assortment of hatters' stock 
and trimmings, goat and sheep skin morocco, buffalo 
robes, hats, &c. 

Dec. 24. James Murphy advertised that he had settled 
in Albany, in the practice of medicine and surgery. 

Dec. 26. John Ten Broeck died, aged 83. He was 
one of the patriots of the revolution, and together 
with Abraham Yates, formerly mayor of the city, were 
the last representatives under the colonial government 
from the city and county of Albany. Mr. Ten Broeck 
was also a member of the convention of this state, which 
in 1777, framed our constitution. During the arduous 
struggle of the revolution he held several responsible 

84 Notes from the Newspapers. 

stations, and discharged the duties thereof with fidelity. 
After the organization of our state government, he at 
different times received distinguished marks of public 
confidence; and in every situation in which he was 
placed, he acquitted himself as an upright and meritori- 
ous public servant. 

Aaron Thorpe & Co. advertised a line of stages from 
Albany to Canandaigua. They accomplished the distance 
between Albany and Utica in one day. 

A Mr. Armstrong bid off the ferry at $4,725, which 
was looked upon as a wild speculation; but his receipts 
were $7,764 during the year; his expenses, $1,668; rent 
$4,725; leaving $1,371 as profits. 

Dec. 28. A fire at an early hour in the morning, 
destroyed part of a block in South Market street, known 
as Caldwell's Row, belonging to James Caldwell and 
Benjamin V. Clench. 

T. Powell & Co., who ran a line of stages from Albany 
to Buffalo, sent over the turnpike an afternoon coach for 
the accommodation of such persons as wished to sleep at 
Schenectady! This project might have been denomi- 
nated traveling made slow. 


Jan. 1. Joseph C. Yates was sworn into office as 
governor, at the Capitol, and Erastus Root as lieut. 
governor, by Chancellor Kent. The governor appoint- 
ed Christopher Y. Lansing his private secretary, and 
John F. Bacon one of his aids. 

The lieutenant governor, on being sworn into office 
immediately repaired to the senate chamber, and taking 
his seat as president of that body, ordered the clerk to 
call the roll of members, when but two answering, Mr. 
Dudley, of Albany, and Mr. Cramer, of Waterford, the 
president made a short address, complaining of the non- 
attendance of members, and stating explicitly, as his 
opinion, that the first day of January was the day 
appointed by the constitution for the meeting .of the 
legislature. After which an adjournment was made to 

Notes from the Newspapers. 85 

the next day, when one member only, Mr. Dudley, 

Jan. 1. Snow fell to the depth of six inches, which 
seems have been the first of the season in sufficient 
quantity to afford sleighing. 

Jan. 10. A meeting of citizens was called at the Eagle 
Tavern, to consider the expediency of certain plans, 
whereby the healthy poor might be enabled and induced 
to support themselves. 

Jan. A new theatre was opened at No. 140 State 
street. The Albany Theatre was in operation at the 
Thespian Hotel in North Pearl street. 

Jan. 15. Jacob Dox died at Geneva, aged 36. He 
was born in Albany, and graduated at Williams College 
quite early in life. He settled in the practice of the law 
at Geneva. For several years, and until the office was 
abolished, he was commissary of military stores for the 
western district of this state. During the war with 
Great Britain, he served as aid to Gen. Porter. In every 
station which he held, Mr. Dox showed himself to be a 
gentleman of integrity and worth, of vigilance and 
capacity, and was universally esteemed as a private 

Jan. 16. An African meeting house was dedicated. 
The name of the pastor was Paul. 

Mrs. Ores well seems to have taken up her residence in 
Albany at this time, at No. 3 North Pearl street. She 
"strongly recommends her corsets with plain braces for 
growing misses, both for an appendage of dress, health 
and utility." 

Among the counselors admitted at the January term 
of the Supreme court, were the following: James Dexter, 
Richard Van Rensselaer, Albanians ; and N. S. Benton, 
of Little Falls, who afterwards resided at Albany as 
secretary of state, and as auditor of the canal department, 

Jan, 20. Charles E. Dudley was unanimously chosen 
mayor by the common council. 

Jan. 22. Mrs. Anna Ten Eyck died, aged 76, wife of 
Abraham Ten Eyck. 

[Annals, viii.] 9 

86 Notes from the Newspapers. 

A writer in the papers signing himself A Traveller, 
complained of the unreasonable fare charged by the pro- 
prietors of the stages between Albany and Buffalo; the 
selection of indifferent and exorbitant houses of entertain- 
ment, and the refusal to permit passengers to stop at 
such other houses as they might prefer. 

The proprietors in their reply maintained, that on no 
public road in the United States was the fare so low as 
on this ; that in the New England states it was from seven 
to eight cents a mile, and west and south of Philadelphia 
from eight to ten; that before the opposition line came 
on between Canandaigua and Buffalo, in 1820, the fare 
on that route was seven cents a mile; it was then re- 
duced to two cents, and when the opposition hauled off, 
it was raised to five cents ; that this was the only regular 
and established line of stages which had been maintained 
from the day when the route consisted only of an Indian 
path, to its present improved state; that it was still 
difficult to keep up that part of the route between 
Canandaigua and Buffalo, the passengers for three years 
past not averaging more than three a day each way, and 
that a line of post coaches would not have been attempt- 
ed there at all but for the assistance afforded by the 
eastern proprietors in order to connect and complete the 
entire line; that the western section did not pay the 
daily expenses of maintaining it; that owing to increased 
travel during the past two years in boats on the middle 
section of the Erie canal, and from other causes, there 
had been a large number of passengers in stages between 
Albany and Utica, while between Utica and Canan- 
daigua there had been less than four a day each way, 
and the Cherry Valley line " had been reduced to a mere 
skeleton." The whole number of passengers between 
Albany and Utica in two daily stages, do not average six 
passengers in a stage each way; between Utica and 
Canandaigua less than four each way in a daily stage; 
and between Canandaigua and Buffalo less than three 
each way, and the mail was carried as low as in any 
other part of the United States, and much lower than in 

Notes from the 'Newspapers. 87 

most parts of it. About four hundred horses, and a pro- 
portionate number of post coaches, were employed by 
this line; and as the canal took a majority of the pas- 
sengers in the summer west of Utica, the whole receipts 
very little exceeded the expenses; that without the mail, 
they would be unable to keep up the entire line, with 
the new oppositions every year chopping in upon the 
most productive parts of the route. As to the exorbitant 
charges at houses of entertainment, they say that at 
Utica and all places west, the charges for meals was 37 J 
cents, and 12J cents for lodging. 

Jan. 24. Moses I. Cantine died, aged 49 years. He 
was one of the editors and proprietors of the Albany 
Argus, and state printer. 

Jan. 26. Nicholas N. Quackenbush, counselor at law, 
died at his residence, 272 North Market street, aged 59. 

Jan. 31. Tobias Van Schaick advertised his stock of 
dry goods for sale at prime cost, with a view to relinquish- 
ing business. 

Jan. 31. Thomas Pemberton died, after a long and 
severe illness. 

Jan. 31. The third anniversary of the Albany Marine 
Bible Society was held in the First Presbyterian church. 
The officers elected for the ensuing year were: Capt. 
Uriah Marvin, president; Capt. Richard Winslow, Capt. 
Aaron Hand, Mr. Jas. B. Douglas, Capt, Jedediah Rogers, 
vice presidents; S. P. Jermain, treasurer; Asa H. Center, 
recording secretary; Rev. John Chester, corresponding 
secretary. A number of state dignitaries were made 
honorary vice presidents. The managers were Capts. 
James N. Oobb, George Monteith, Jasper S. Keeler, 
Selick Whitney, Eliakirn Ford, Nicholas Page, D. T. 
Wandell, J. H. Mabbett, Randel Bentley, Daniel Peck, 
Joshua Parker, Daniel Attwood, John Case, William 
Dowd, Messrs. Garret Gates, Nathaniel Davis, John 
Boardman, V. W. Rathbone, H. W. Snyder, Jeremiah 
Clarke. The annual sermon was preached by the Rev. 
Alexander Proudfit, and a collection taken up amounting 
to $72-18, 

88 Notes from the Newspapers. 

Feb. 3. An anniversary of the Lancaster school was 
held, when the principal, Wm. A. Tweed Dale reported 
the number of students to be 311, and the income of the 
past year $161 1'56, which paid expenses. 

Feb. 5. Jeremiah Waterman announced that he had 
opened a dry good store directly opposite the Mechanics' 
and Farmers' Bank, in North Market street, lately occu- 
pied by Jacob DeGarmo, and would sell at an advance of 
5 per cent, on auction prices. 

Feb. 7. Thermometer 18 degrees below zero. 

Feb. 8. The old line stage performed an uncommon 
feat of speed. It left Utica at 12 midnight, and arrived 
in Albany at ten minutes past 9 in the morning, with 
six passengers, having accomplished 96 miles in 9 hours 
10 minutes, which was supposed to be the greatest speed 
ever known to have been made in so great a distance. 
The distance between the cities of Schenectady and 
Albany, 16 miles, was performed in 67 minutes. 

The same coach with the same passengers, reached 
Utica, on its return, at 7 o'clock the same evening, and 
proceeded immediately to New Hartford, and returned to 
Utica before 8 o'clock ; having performed the full distance 
of 200 miles in less than 20 hours. 

Feb. 9. Henry N. Bleecker, son of Nicholas Bleecker, 
died at Canajoharie, aged 39. 

Feb. 1 1. The canal commissioners made the following 
report on the Albany basin : 

In obedience to the resolution of the Assembly, of the 
14th ult., instructing the canal commissioners to report a 
plan for the construction of a basin at the termination of 
the Erie and Champlain canals at the city of Albany, the 
canal commissioners respectfully report: 

That during the last session of the legislature they had 
the subject under consideration, and directed Benjamin 
Wright, Esq., one of their engineers, to report thereon 
to the board. That the said Benjamin Wright did make 
a report on the subject, together with a map of the con- 
templated basin, which are herewith transmitted. 

The commissioners believe that a basin may be con- 

Notes from the Newspapers. . 89 

structed on a plan specified in the report of Mr. Wright, 
for about $100,000; and that such a basin would be 
extremely beneficial to the trade of the city of Albany, 
and a great accommodation to all persons carrying pro- 
duce or merchandise to or from the said city; as it would 
enable transshipments to be made between canal and river 
crafts, without the cost and delay of cartage and storage. 

The canal commissioners have uniformly declined 
making basins along the canal line, believing that mercan- 
tile capital and enterprise would find sufficient induce- 
ments of interest to furnish these local accommodations 
to trade, and that to expend the public moneys for indi- 
vidual benefit would not be just. 

They think however that it may be proper for them to 
construct the sloop lock at the southern termination of 
the basin, as the connection of boat and sloop navigation 
at the arsenal lot, will probably cost nearly as much as 
the said lock; and in case of the construction of the said 
lock, it would be reasonable for the state to receive tolls 
on the length of the said basin, as a part of the canal. 

By order of the board, SAMUEL YOUNG. 

Feb. 11. At an election for officers of the Albany 
Mechanics' Society, the following were chosen for the 
ensuing year: Charles R. Webster, president; John Ran- 
dall, 1st vice pres.; Abraham F. Lansing, 2ddo; Robert 
Boyd, treasurer; Elijah Brainard, John Buckbee, John 
Hermans, Elijah Hosford, Arthur Hotchkiss, Moses Ken- 
yon, John Meads, Henry Newman, Benj. D. Packard, 
John Russell, John Goodrich, Tunis Slingerland, Levi 
Steele, Benj. Van Benthuysen, James Young. 

Feb. 14. The number of readers of the Apprentices' 
library was about 350; the number of books, 1585. A 
sermon was preached in the South Dutch Church -by 
Rev. Hooper Gumming, for the benefit of the society, on 
the 23d of February, which produced $137. 

Feb. 21. George Webster, one of the proprietors of 
the Daily Advertiser died, aged 61. His memory is 
still cherished and respected by a numerous circle of 
friends and acquaintances. 

90 Notes from the Newspapers. 

March. Benj. F. Butler was appointed district attor- 
ney for the county of Albany. 

March 19. Abraham Douw died, and was buried from 
the residence of his mother, No. 4 Fox street. 

March 21. Messrs. Wasson & Jewell came into the 
city with 50 Canadian horses harnessed to a single 
sleigh. They had been purchased in Montreal, by Mr. 
James Wasson and Major C. Humphrey for the Philadel- 
phia market. 

March 24. The ice commenced breaking up in the 
river, and on the morning of the 26th had entirely 
disappeared, and the steam boat Fire Fly, Capt. Wiswall, 
arrived in the evening. 

March 27. The senate appointed Thomas A. Bridgen, 
surrogate of Albany county; and Daniel L. Van Ant- 
werp, John O. Cole, and John Gansevoort justices of the 
justices' court. 

March 31. Ira Porter, merchant tailor of Albany, 
died at Ballston Spa. 

The population of the city was about 14,000. The 
churches numbered 13, and were thus divided: Episco- 
palian, 1; Dutch Reformed, 2; Presbyterian, 4; Reformed 
Presbyterian, 1 ; Lutheran, 1 ; Roman Catholic, 1 ; Metho- 
dist, 1; Baptist, 1; First African, 1 ; Baptist African, 1. 

April 1. Alida Switz, widow of Brandt Schuyler 
Switz, daughter of Col. Gosen Van Schaick, died, aged 
52. She was buried from 251 North Market street. 

April 4. John I. Godfrey and John S. Walsh an- 
nounced that they had formed a partnership under the 
name of GODFREY & WALSH, at the store lately occupied 
by Godfrey & Townsend, 52 State street (now 62). 

April 5. A bill passed the legislature and became a 
law authorizing the construction of the basin in the city 
of Albany at the termination of the Erie and Champlain 

April 15. A law was passed to provide for the erec- 
tion of a tread mill in Albany. The supervisors were to 
raise $1.100 for the purpose of building it near the Jail, 

Notes from the Newspapers. 91 

Friend Humphrey, James McKown and Philip Hooker 
were commissioned to superintend the structure. 

April 18. Simeon Abbey died of apoplexy, aged 50. 

April 18. Harriet, wife of Dr. Romeyn Beck, and 
daughter of James Caldwell, died. 

April 19. Ellen, wife of James King, and daughter of 
William James, died, aged 23. 

April 25. Jane, wife of Tobias Van Schaick died, 
aged 40. 

April 25, The legislature adjourned, having passed 
269 laws. 

May 1. The firm of Pruyn & Gardner was dissolved. 
Samuel Pruyn continued the dry goods business No. 
418 North Market street, 2d door above the Mechanics' 
and Farmers' Bank. 

May 15. It was announced that the state engineers 
had located the lock which was to connect the Erie canal 
with the Hudson river, and that the pier had been staked 
out to form a harbor. At the same time it was hinted 
that a removal of the sand bars in the river for about 
ten miles would admit of merchantmen from the ocean 
to sail up to the docks. 

May 15. William S. Fowler, son of William Fowler, 
died, aged 22. 

The steam boats that plied the river this season were 
the Fire Fly, Capt. T. Wiswall; the Richmond, Capt. 
Centre; and the Chancellor Livingston. It was an- 
nounced in May that the latter arrived at her dock in 
New York with 300 passengers, 160 of whom were from 
Albany, to attend the New York races. 

June 11. Levi Solomons, tobacconist, died in New 

June 17. John Cook, librarian, gave notice that at 
the request of several respectable gentlemen, the State 
Library in the Capitol would be kept open for the accom- 
modation of ladies and gentlemen who might wish to 
consult it, until the 1st November. 

June 26. Schuyler Wetmore gave notice that he had 

92 Notes from the Newspapers. 

succeeded his father, Izrahiah Wetmore, in the large and 
commodious tavern, No. 106 State street. 

July 4. Mrs. Sarah Wilson, mother of Benjamin and 
Joseph Wilson, died, aged 89. 

July 21. Mrs^Elizabeth Bloodgood, died, aged 78; 
widow of Abraham Bloodgood. 

July 24. The friends and acquaintances of Dirck 
Van Schelluyne were invited to attend his funeral this 
afternoon at his house in Pearl street. 

A clump of rye raised near the city, the product of a 
single grain, was exhibited, consisting of eighty-seven 
full grown stalks, on each of which was a full grown ear 
of grain. 

July 24. Mrs. Elsie Fonda, died, aged 92, and was 
buried from 320 North Market street. 

July 26. Doctor Beriah Douglas gave notice that he 
intended to reside in Albany, and would attend faithfully 
to medical and dental practice, if his services were re- 

July 26. The first class of the new series of the 
Literature Lottery was drawn in this city under the di- 
rection of Ebenezer Baldwin, William Gould, and C. A. 
Ten Eyck. 

July 27. Between the hours of three and four o'clock 
in the afternoon, it being Sunday, the city was visited by 
one of the most severe gales that had ever been known, 
accompanied by rain and hail. It was of the nature of 
a tornado, passing over in less than eight minutes. In 
its fury it tore off the ' ' arms and wings " of the wind- 
mill which stood west of the Capitol, and otherwise 
damaged the building. Several small buildings were 
unroofed, the tops of chimneys blown down, and almost 
every garden suffered the loss of fruit trees. 

July 29. Mrs. Rachel, wife of Herman Knickerbacker 
of Schaghticoke, and daughter of John H. Wendell of 
this city, died, aged 37. 

July 29. A meeting of the members of the Albany 
bar was held for the purpose of testifying their respect 
for the Hon. James Kent, on his retirement from the 

Notes from the Newspapers. 93 

office of chancellor. Estes Howe presided, and Gideon 
Hawley officiated as secretary. 

Aug. 1. Mrs. Gertrude, wife of John Robison, died, 
aged 76. 

Aug. 2. Jared Lockwood, died, aged 63. Also Wil- 
liam Capron, aged 60, and Jacob Wilkinson, aged 37. 

Aug. 5. One of the prisoners confined in the jail, 
having possessed himself of the key of the prison door, 
liberated himself and four others, who were confined for 
various crimes. 

Aug. 7. The funeral of Albert Bradt took place from 
his residence near the Capitol. 

Aug. 16. Mary, wife of Dr. Samuel Humphries, died, 
aged 25, and was buried from No. 12 South Pearl street. 

Aug. 18. James Brown, died, aged 45. 

Aug. 19. The new steam boat James Kent, made her 
first appearance at the dock, having made the passage up 
from New York in twenty hours. . ^ 

Aug. 20. The degree of LL. D. was conferred on 
John V. Henry by Middlebury College. 

Aug. 20. Rev. John Ludlow was installed pastor of 
the North Dutch Church at 10 o'clock in the morning. 

Aug. 21. John Cook, state librarian and proprietor of 
the Albany Reading Room, died, aged 59. 

Also, Henry Spencer, aged 75, formerly a bookseller. 

Mr. Cook was a native of England, but had resided 
here about 30 years. His wife undertook to continue the 
reading room. Calvin Pepper succeeded him as state 

Aug. 29. Graham Klink, publisher of the Directory, 
died, aged 30. 

Aug. 30. Mordecai Lester, died, aged 53. 

Sept. 2. Alfred Conkling and Jabez D. Hammond, 
gave notice that they had formed a copartnership in law 
business, at 65 Sta.te street. 

Sept. 3. John Williamson, Jr., died, aged 32. 

Sept. 10. The lock and dam in the river above Troy 
was completed, and a celebration was made for the 
occasion by the people of Waterford and Lansingburgh. 

94 Notes from the Newspapers. 

The Fire Fly was advertised to take up passengers from 
Albany, and pass through the lock, at a fare of $1. 
Boats and sloops ascended the Hudson to Waterford, 
which had been unnavigable water before. The dam 
was 1 100 feet long, 58 feet wide and 48 feet high from 
its foundation. It was estimated that ten thousand per- 
sons were assembled to celebrate the occasion, and were 
addressed by DeWitt Clinton. 

Sept. 15. Beck's Medical Jurisprudence published. 
.Sept. 16. William Vickars, residing corner of North 
Pearl and Van Schaick streets, was buried. 

Sept. 25. The first water was passed through the lock 
at the head of the Albany basin, from the Erie canal. 
An eel three feet in length came through the gate and 
was hailed as the first passenger. It was caught, and the 
skin preserved in the museum of the Lyceum of Natural 

Sept. 29. Dr. John Mitchell died, aged 93, and was 
buried from the house of Thos. L. Pemberton, corner of 
State and South Pearl streets. 

Sept. 29. Col. Daniel Worthington died; formerly of 
Colchester, Conn. 

Sept. 30. At the annual charter election the following 
aldermen were elected: 

First Ward. 

Aldermen. Assistants. 

John Townsend, William Gould, 

Friend Humphrey. Herman Jenkins. 

Second Ward. 

John Cassidy, William Seymour, 

Jeremiah Waterman. Jacob J. Lansing. 

Third Ward. 

James Van Ingen, Coenradt A. Ten Eyck, 

Ebenezer Baldwin. Robert Davis. 

Fourth Ward. 

Philip Phclps, James Maher, 

Hawthorn McCulloch. 0. R. Van Benthuysen. 

Fifth Ward. 

James Gibbons, Francis Costigan, 

Benjamin Wilson. Francis 1. Bradt. 

Notes from the Newspapers. 95 

Oct. 2. Jacob Cuyler died at Coxsackie, aged 77. 

Oct. 8. The opening of the canal was celebrated with 
great and imposing ceremony. 

Oct. 25. The city was visited by a severe snow 
storm, which continued all day, and 12 inches of snow 
fell. It thundered at short intervals during the after- 

Oct. 27. John Randall died, aged 69. 

Oct. 29. Elisha Jenkins advertised for proposals for 
constructing the Pier, 1700 feet in length, 80 feet broad 
and 18 feet high. 

Oct. 29. The Presbytery of Albany convened, and 
ordained the Rev. Joseph Hulburt to the work of the 
ministery, and installed him pastor of the Third Presby- 
terian Church. 

Nov. 3. The election for members of assembly result- 
ed in the success of the People's ticket, as it was called. 
The vote was as follows in the five city wards : 

Democratic. Republican. 

Baldwin, 716 Still well, 768 

Lay, 656 Stevens, 936 

Hillhouse, 779 Wood, 952 

The returns from all the country towns were not re- 
ceived in six days. 

The mean temperature of the month of October was 
47 deg. 15 min.; highest temperature 74 deg., lowest 30 
deg. The prevailing wind was south-east, and there was 
snow on two days. 

Nov. 19. Henry Hempsted, son of Isaac Hempsted, 
died, aged 30. 

Joseph Alexander, G. W. Stanton, Alexander David- 
son and David E. Gregory, gave notice of application to 
the legislature for the incorporation of the Commercial 
Bank of Albany, with a capital of $500,000. 

Nov. 27. Samuel Vanderheyden, one of the proprie- 
tors of the city of Troy, died. 

Nov. 27. Christiana, wife of Moses I. Cantine, died 
at Kinderhook, aged 42. 

The Apprentices' Library was removed to the building 

96 Notes from the Newspapers. 

occupied by the Bank of Albany, at the foot of State 
street, and Paul Hochstrasser was appointed librarian. 

Nov. 30. The Rev. Mr. Ludlow preached a sermon in 
the Second Dutch Church, at the conclusion of which a 
collection was taken up for the benefit of Sabbath schools, 
which amounted to $151*75. There were ten schools in 
operation, namely, 2 Presbyterian, 2 Reformed Dutch, 
1 Episcopal, 1 Baptist, 1 Lutheran, 1 Methodist, and 2 
Independent. These consisted of 10 principals, 9 super- 
intendents, 5 secretaries, 112 teachers, 91 of whom were 
professors, and about 1127 scholars. The Methodist 
school had been opened as recently as August of the pre- 
sent year, and the First African and the Baptist African 
schools had been discontinued. 

Dec. 1. The river was closed. 

Dec. 2. The common council resolved that they 
would no longer be responsible for accidents happening 
at the Greenbush ferry between sunrise and sunset. 

The mean temperature of the month of November, was 
34 deg. 17 min. The highest range of the thermometer 
was 48 deg.; the lowest 16 deg. Snow fell on two days. 
The rain guage indicated 1*13 inches. 

Collections were taken up in the churches for the re- 
lief of sufferers by fire in the towns of Alna and Wiscas- 
sett, Maine, and the following sums obtained: 

Lutheran Church, $60'25 Meth. Episcopal $21-34 

North Dutch, 87'10 United Presbyterian, .... ]5'68 

South Dutch, ., 54*60 Rev. Mr. Christy's 11-50 

Episcopal, 70-63 Third Presbyterian, 60.00 

Total $381-10 

Dec. 4. George W, Mancius died, aged 56; formerly 

Dec. 12. A meeting of young men was held at the 
Capitol for the purpose of adopting measures in aid of 
the emancipation of the Greeks; James Edwards chair- 
man, C. V. S. Kane, secretary. 

A very enthusiastic meeting was held a year earlier, 
for the same purpose, but nothing seems to have resulted 
from it. 

Dec. 13. Peter Townsend died, aged 34. 

Dec. 15. The malt house of Robert Dunlop was de- 

Notes from the Newspapers. 97 

stroyed by fire, with five thousand bushels of barley and 

Dec. 16. Thomas Ennis died, aged 58. He was a 
native of Ireland, had resided in Albany since 1798, and 
was a very successful teacher. 

Dec. 19. Mrs. Sarah Maria, wife of Gaylor Sheldon, 
and daughter of Douw B. Slingerland, died, aged 20. 

Dec. 25 The rain and mild weather conspired to 
break up the ice in the river, and considerable damage 
was done. The Pier, which was nearly completed, was 
exposed for the first time to the action of such a freshet. 

Dec. 26. Ann Hilton died, aged 27. 

The mean temperature of the month was 29'84 deg. 


Jan. 1. A meeting of the common council was held 
for the purpose of declaring the office of mayor vacant, 
and appointing a new incumbent. Charles E. Dudley was 
mayor, and the members were so divided that the casting 
vote of the mayor prevented the removal intended. It 
was explained that Mr. Dudley voted for himself, by 
which the division stood 11 to 11. 

Jan. 4. Capt. Isaac Keeler died, aged 49. 

Jan. 6. The weather was so mild as to have nearly 
the appearance of April. The snow was gone, and the 
ice on the river had become so much weakened as to 
make crossing extremely dangerous, and the boats were 
brought into requisition. 

Jan. 6. The legislature convened at the Capitol, and 
was called to order by Edward Livingston, clerk of as- 
sembly; and the oaths of office were administered by 
John V. N. Yates, secretary of state. 

Jan. 6. Mrs. Elizabeth Webb died, aged 26. 

Jan. 8. Twelve of the Niskayuna Shakers were 
brought to this city under a warrant for refusing to per- 
form military duty, and committed to close confinement 
in the jail. The colonel of the regiment, on learning of 
the case, remitted their fines, and they were liberated. 

[Annals viii.] 10 

98 Notes from the Newspapers. 

Jan. 11. The ice moved down the river at night, and 
left it open for navigation to New York. It had rained 
during the night. 

Jan. 15. Mrs. Eliza, widow of Hamilton Boyd died, 
aged 48. 

Jan. 16. The senate confirmed the appointment of 
John S. Van Rensselaer as judge of the county court. 

Jan. 20. The dwelling house of Leonard Gansevoort 
Jr., took fire and was much damaged. 

The store and dwelling house of Horace Durrie, was 
burnt also. On the 4th February folio wing he published 
a card, setting forth that he was left destitute by the 
fire, but that through the generous liberality of his fellow 
citizens he found himself again in a situation to pursue 
his business. On the fifth was published the dissolu- 
tion of the partnership of Horace Durrie and Lemuel 
Steele, and Mr. Durrie informed his friends that he had 
taken the store 470 Broadway. 

Feb. 5. Chauncy Johnson advertised lottery tickets 
in the New York State Literature Lottery, at his store 
No. 393 South Market street. 

Feb. 5. Chauncy Webster issued proposals for the 
Religious Monitor, which he continued to publish a 
number of years. 

Feb. 9. The Common Council met, and made ten 
ballots for mayor, each time eleven voting for John N. 
Quackenbush and eleven for Ambrose Spencer. 

At the same meeting a law was passed for pitching 
and paving Liberty street from Lydius to Hamilton. 

Business being finished the motion to adjourn stood 11 
to 11. The mayor observed that as there was no 
business before the board he should exercise his privilege 
of giving a casting vote, and he declared the board 
adjourned. The eleven members remaining after the 
others retired organized again, and passed the following: 

Resolved, That the conduct of Charles E. Dudley 
Esq., acting as mayor defacto, against the protest of a 
majority of the common council, in asserting and exer- 

Notes from the Newspapers. 99 

cising the right of giving a casting vote as presiding 
officer, after having once voted as a member of the 
common council, on the question of adjournment, and 
thereby preventing an election of mayor of this city, is 
an unwarrantable usurpation of power, unknown to our 
laws, and incompatible with the spirit of our charter, and 
the genius of our institutions. 

They then balloted for mayor, when Ambrose 
Spencer received 11 votes, and was declared mayor. 

Feb. 10. William Cuttin died of small pox, aged 60. 

Feb. 11. The ice broke up and left the river free to 
navigation for the third time since December. The 
breaking up was so sudden as to carry away sloops, and 
other vessels moored for the season. 

Feb. 16. Lydia A. wife of George Kane died, aged 23. 

February 20. A meeting was held in the session 
room of the First Presbyterian Church,"in Beaver street, 
with a view to the establishment of a State Tract Society. 

Feb. 21. The copartnership of C. Miller & Co., con- 
sisting of Christian Miller and his son Wm. C. Miller, 
was dissolved, the latter continuing the business at No. 
56 State street, third house above Green. 

Feb. 23. The birthday of Washington was celebrated 
with much ceremony. An address was delivered by 
Salem Butcher in the Baptist Church in Green street. 

Feb. 24. John Stilwell died, aged 33. 

Feb, 25. Dr. Robert Kerr died, aged 69 ; a physician 
in the British army in Canada, noted for his kindness 
and hospitality to the officers of the American army in 
the war of 1812; he was buried with Masonic honors, from 
Cruttenden's Hotel. 

Items for the Political History of Governor Yates, or as he 
calls himself, the Executive. 

[From the Ballston Spa Gazette.] 

1. In 1792, he was in favor of George Clinton for 
governor, against John Jay, and was instrumental in the 
affidavits which disparaged the purity of the votes of 

100 Notes from the Newspapers. 

Otsego county, that were set aside by Thomas Tillotson 
and the other canvassers. 

2. In 1795, he was for Robert Yates for governor, 
against John Jay. 

3. On the 26th of March, 1798, Schenectady was 
incorporated as a city, and on the 31st of the same 
month, he was appointed by John Jay, and a Federal 
council, mayor of Schenectady. 

4. In the general election in April following, when the 
late Chancellor Livingston was held up by the Republi- 
can party for governor, he supported Gov. Jay the 
Federal candidate. 

5. He continued a Federalist during the reign of terror, 
and in 1801, after the Republican triumph, he was 
neutral, when George Clinton was re-elected governor. 

6. In 1804, he supported Aaron Burr for governor 
against Morgan Lewis, the Republican candidate. 

7. In April, 1805, he ran against Judge Quackenboss, 
the regularly nominated Republican candidate for sena- 
tor for the Eastern district, and prevailed by Federal aid. 

8. In 1807, he supported Daniel D. Tompkins for 

9. In 1808, he was appointed by a council, composed 
of the friends of De Witt Clinton, a judge of the supreme 

10. In 1812, he was at the head of the Republican 
electoral ticket of New York, that voted for De Witt 
Clinton for president against James Madison. 

11. In 1816, he endeavored to obtain a nomination for 
governor, against Tompkins, but failed. 

12. After this, he electioneered for De Witt Clinton 
for governor, on the assumption that Tompkins, being 
elected vice-president, would decline; but on the first 
offer, he became a candidate himself, and did not with- 
draw until his chance was desperate. 

13. On Gov. Clinton's election, he commenced a sys- 
tem of masked hostility, and was finally, on Clinton's 
declining a second re-election, chosen governor. 

[This political sketch is no doubt highly colored; but 

Notes from the Newspapers. 101 

its rancor loses all force with the lapse of time, and the 
article furnishes some facts of personal history.] 

February 24. At the annual meeting of the Bible and 
Prayer Book Society of Albany and its vicinity, held at 
Trinity Church, Lansingburgh, the following were elect- 
ed officers for the ensuing year: 

Philip S. Van Rensselaer, president. 

Win. A. Duer, vice-president. 

Henry Trowbridge, treasurer. 

S. De Witt Bloodgood, recording secretary. 

H. B. Davis, corresponding secretary. 

Managers. Jas. Gibbons, Jas. Stevenson, John Taylor 
Cooper, Barent Staats, James Dexter, Salem Dutcher. 

The Universalists held their meetings at the Morning 
Star Lodge Room, over Jeremiah Smith's store, in 
Washington street. 

March 7. Gilbert Van Zandt died, aged 91, and was 
buried from the residence of Mr. Yates, 40 Hudson street. 

March 8. The common council met, and after all 
other business was concluded, balloted for mayor with 
the usual result of 11 to 11. Finally, on counting the 
result of the second balloting, it was found that Ambrose 
Spencer had 11, John Lansing, Jr., 10, blank 1; where- 
upon Ambrose Spencer was resolved to be duly elected, 
and he was sworn into office on the 10th. 

March 10. The steam boat James Kent, Capt. Wis- 
wall, arrived from New York, the navigation being per- 
fectly free. 

March 12. The legislature adjourned ; almost the last 
act of which was the removal of De Witt Clinton presi- 
dent of the board of canal commissioners, which he had 
held fourteen years without any compensation. 

March 23. Josiah Field died, aged 44; a respectable 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

March 24. John S. Jones died, aged 36, and was 
buried from No. 4 Van Tromp street. 

March 30. The south ferry was leased to Mr. Weu- 
dell for one year at $5,890. 


Notts from the Newspapers. 

April 4. Mrs. Sarah Buel died, aged 86, wife of Elias 
Buel, and mother of Jesse Buel. 

April 6. Wendell & Jenkins, dealers in dry goods, 52 
State street, admitted John V. S. Hazard into partnership. 

April 7. William McDougal announced that he had 
discontinued the publication of the National Democrat, 
edited by Solomoa South wick. 

April 10. Mr. South wick ad- 
vertised that he would at an early 
day revive the publication of the 
National Democrat in his own name, 
at the old Albany Register printing 
office, opposite the Fly Market. 
April 20. It was revived. 

The Merchants' Insurance Com- 
pany of the city of Albany was 
incorporated. At a meeting of the 
stockholders on the 12th of April, 
the following were elected officers 
of the company for the ensuing 
year : Thomas Herring, president ; 
Elisha Jenkins, secretary; Benja- southwick's Printing office. 
min F. Butler, attorney; John Boardman, surveyor; 
Moses Kenyon, naval surveyor; Thos. Herring, Allen 
Brown, Jas. G. Mather, Jas. B.Douglas, Ralph Pratt, S. 
P. Jermain, Asa H. Center, Peter Bain, Spencer Stafford, 
John Stilwell, John Willard, Wm. McHarg, Willard 
Walker, William Durant, Joshua Tufts, Ephraim Wilder, 
Jr., Alexander Marvin, Jellis Winne, Jr., Erastus Corn- 
ing, James Mabbett, Thos. W. Olcott, Benj. F. Butler, 
William Fowler, John T. Norton, Friend Humphrey, Ni- 
cholas Devereaux, Ephraim Hart, Richard M. Bailey, 
David E. Evans, Thaddeus Joy, Eleazer Hills, directors. 

April 19. At a meeting of the common council, the 
chamberlain made his semi-annual report, by which it ap- 
peared that the receipts were $30,386'74i, and the ex- 
penditures $13,005*72^. The chamberlain was directed 
to purchase 1000 gallons of oil of T. & J. Russell at 36 

Notes from the Newspapers. 103 

cents a gallon. Herman Jenkins lesigned, being about 
to remove from the city. A petition was presented, re- 
questing that a lot between South Pearl and Frelinghuy- 
sen streets, on Ferry, which was a collection- of stagnant 
water, might be filled up. A petition of John B. Swan 
and others for another team boat at the ferry. A com- 
munication was received recommending the erection of a 
weigh house in State street, between Green and Market 
streets, for'the purpose of weighing hay, and also to serve 
as a shelter for farmers who bring produce to market. 

April 20. Mathew Gill of Albany, and James Camp- 
bell, Jr., of Johnstown, Mont, county, formed a connection 
in the dry goods business, under the name of James 
Campbell, Jr. & Co., at No. 375 North Market street, 
directly opposite to the Mechanics' and Farmers' Bank. 

The mean temperature of the weather for the year 
1823, was 47'31 deg. ; greatest height of the thermometer, 
94 deg. ; lowest do, 6 deg. below zero ; rain fell during 67 
days ; snow, 35. Quantity of rain during 8 months, 20*21 

The mean temperature of the month of January, 1824, 
was 27'23 deg. Greatest height 41 deg.; lowest 7 deg. be- 
low zero. Rain on five days, and snow on five. 

The mean temperature of February was 26*55 deg. 
Greatest height, 57 deg. ; lowest, 3 deg. Rain on 3 days ; 
snow on 6. Prevailing wind, southeast. 

The mean temperature of March, was 46*76 deg. 
Greatest height, 75 deg. ; lowest, 27. Rain 8 days; 
3*16 inches rain fell during the month. 

The mean temperature for the month of May was 54*90 
deg. Greatest height, 80 deg.; lowest, 83 deg. Rain 
on 9 days ; nearly 2 inches fell. 

The mean temperature of the month of June, was 
65 67 deg. Greatest height, 89 deg.; lowest, 48 deg. 
Rain on 13 days; nearly 4 inches fell, 

April 21. The firm of Spencer Stafford & Co., having 
been dissolved on the 1st of April (consisting of Spencer 
Stafford, Lewis Benedict, Hallenbake Stafford, and Spen- 
cer Stafford, Jr.), Spencer Stafford and Lewis Benedict 

104 Notes from the Newspapers. 

took in Joab Stafford, and did business under the title of 
Stafford, Benedict & Co. 

April 25. Alexander Davidson, died, aged 42, mer- 
chant, and was buried from No. 20 Union street, on the 
27th. He was of the firm of Root & Davidson, which 
was dissolved by his death, and the business continued 
alone by Lyman Root. 

April 27. Lewis Aspenwall gave notice that he was 
establishing a bell foundry at No. 18 Beaver street. 

April 23. Volkert Veeder, died, aged 50. 

May 3. The Circus, corner Green and Division streets, 
was sold by auction. 

May 3. Notice was given, agreeably to the articles of 
union between the Society for the Promotion of Useful 
Arts and the Albany Lyceum of Natural History, that a 
meeting of those societies would be held on the 5th of 
May under the name of the Albany Institute, when a 
third department would be formed under the title of 
History and General Literature. 

May 4. Election for town officers, which resulted as 


Republican. Democratic. 

1st Ward James McKown, 225 Friend Humphrey, 133 

2d do Isaac Hamilton, 288 John F. Bacon, 104 

3d do Teunis Van Vechten. 

4th do William Mayell. 

5ih do John N. Quackenbush. 


Itt Ward Green Hall, 347 

2d do Jeremiah Waterman, . . 277 William Seymour, 116 

3d do James Van Ingen. 
4th do Phillip Hooker. 
5th do Benj. Wilson. 

An election for assistant alderman took place in the 
first ward, to fill vacancy occasioned by the resignation 
of Harman Jenkins, when Willard Walker received 217 
votes; John 0. Cole, 138. 

May 4. John L. Wendell advertised that he had re- 

Notes from the Newspapers. 105 

moved from the county of Washington and opened an 
office in the city of Albany, at 448 South Market street, 
opposite the store of Henry W. Belavan & Co. 

May 5. Mrs. Susan DeWitt, died; wife of Simeon 
DeWitt, surveyor general. 

May 5. The Albany County Medical Society, re- 
solved, That they had full confidence in the efficacy of 
vaccination, and recommend it to their fellow citizens as 
the best means to be adopted for checking the progress of 
small pox. 

May 12. Maj. Elias Buel, died, aged 87. He was the 
father of Jesse Buel, and served his country in the revo- 
lutionary war. 

May 30. A fire on the corner of South Pearl and 
Hudson streets, destroyed four houses, two of which be- 
longed to Mr. Kidney. 

At the term of the supreme court, the following were 
admitted to the degree of counselor at law: Simeon De 
Witt Bloodgood, Charles A. Clinton, Richard Varick De 
Witt, John Tayler Cooper, Charles Monell, Albert S, 
Benton, Charles -C. King. 

May 31. The steam boat James -Kent left New York at 
a quarter past five in the morning and arrived at Albany 
at eight o'clock, with only "the common pressure of 
steam kept up, so that the passengers were exposed to no 
hazard," and "affording the passengers the gratification 
of viewing the beautiful and sublime scenery of the 
Hudson by daylight.'* 

June 3. A meeting of subscribers to the erection of a 
new theatre was called at the green room of the theatre 
in Green street. 

June 24. The North River Steamboat Company re- 
duced the fare on their boats to five dollars. They had 
three boats on the river, namely, the Richmond, James 
Kent, and Chancellor Livingston. 

June 27. John S. Skinner died, aged 21, son of N. S. 

A new line of steamboats was announced to run this 
season, called the Union Line, of which but one boat, the 

106 Notes from the Newspapers. 

Olive Branch, was put on. The steam boat Richmond 
ran the same days, at a fare of $2, and the old line got 
out an injunction to stop the Olive Branch. She was 
122 feet deck, and 39 beam, with 53 berths and 30 settees. 

June 26. Mrs. Elizabeth Newman died in New York, 
wife of Henry Newman, aged 41. 

July 2. Mrs. Catharine Teller died, aged 64. 

July 9. Chancellor Sandford decided that the steam 
bost Olive Branch should be prohibited from making a 
direct voyage from the city of New York to any port on 
the Hudson river, but could not be prevented from sail- 
ing from a port in another state to any part of this state; 
so the Olive Branch started from Jersey City, and took 
passengers from New York, as a way station. Fare $2. 

July 9. Isaac Hempstead died, aged 51, and was 
buried with masonic honors. He was sometime sheriff 
of the county, and was characterized as the poor man's 
friend and the father of the fatherless. 

July 10. Maxwell Strange died, aged 38. 

Penniman & Co. advertise pure sperm oil, warranted 
of the best quality, at 3s. 6d. per gallon (44 cts.). 

July 15. The old buildings in South Pearl street, 
near Crosby's Hotel, were sold by auction to make room 
for a new theatre. The lot had been occupied by S. 
Wilcox, and was 60 feet on South Pearl street, and 114 

July 16. The North River Steamboat Company re- 
duced the fare on all their boats to $2. 

David Worth, who would seem to have been a Quaker, 
commenced a new morocco factory at 275 North Market 

Samuel I. Wood gave a similar notice a few days later. 

The mean temperature of the month of July was 69'92 
deg. ; greatest height, 86 deg., lowest, 56 deg. Rain 
on 10 days; nearly 5 inches fell during the month. 

August 2. Governor Yates having called an extra 
session of the legislature, that body convened at the Capi- 

August 13. John Spencer, of the house of John Spen- 

Notes from the Newspapers. 107 

cer & Co., died, aged 44. His partner, Erastus Corning, 
continued the business on his own account. 

August 16. George Knower died, aged 41. 

August 17. William Merrifield died, aged 68. 

August 19. John H. Wendell and Matthew Gregory, 
appointed by the common council to repair to New York 
and deliver to Lafayette a letter of invitation to make 
Albany a visit, left the city on their mission. 

August 21. Dr. Joseph Shaw, one of the professors 
in the Albany Academy, died suddenly in Philadelphia. 

August 21. The steam boat Chief Justice Marshall 
was launched at New York. She was intended to run in 
connection with the Olive Branch between Jersey City 
and Troy, and had a splendid career. 

September 2. Eliza, wife of Thomas Acres died, 
aged 26. 

September 2. George M. Gould died ; for many years 
a clerk in the office of the secretary of state. 

September 3. The Rev. John Bassett, D. D., died at 
Bushvvick, Long Island, aged 59; some time pastor of 
the Dutch Reformed Church in Albany. 

September 5. Capt. Henry Green, forty years a resi- 
dent of Albany, died at Florida, Montgomery county, 
aged 65. 

September 17. Lafayette arrived in this city by steam 
boat, and was received with every possible demonstra- 
tion of joy and gratitude. He left on the 18th. 

Sept. 23. Mrs. Anna Alexander, wife of Joseph Alex- 
ander died, aged 48. 

Sept. 24. Peter G. Waldron died, aged 75. 

Sept. 25. Philip S. Van Rensselaer died, aged 58. 
He held the office of mayor a great number of years, and 
was conspicuous in every useful and benevolent measure. 
He was buried from his residence on the corner of State 
and Chapel streets, on the 28th, attended by the com- 
mon council and a large concourse of the people, by whom 
he was universally lamented. 

Sept. 28. The charter election took place, which re- 


Notes from the Newspapers. 

suited in the success of the entire Republican ticket as 

First Ward. 

Aldermen. Assistants. 

John Townsendj 
' Willard Walker. 

Second Ward* 

John Cassidy, 
Jeremiah Waterman. 

Third Ward. 

Jas. Stevenson, 
Josiah Sherman, 

Jacob J. Lansing, 
Dan. McGJashan. 

James Van Ingen, 
Gilbert F. Lush. 

JobnM. Cuyler,* 
John Mancius. 

Fourth Ward. 

Giles W. Porter, Salem Butcher, 

Chas. D. Cooper. John Taylor. 

Fifth Ward. 

Jas. Gibbons, Francis J. Bradt, 

Benj. Wilson. Francis Costigan. 

The Daily Advertiser was the organ of the Republican 
party: the Argus of the Democratic. 

Sept. 28. At a meeting of the common council, Henry 
W. Snyder was re-elected chamberlain, Paul Hochstras- 
ser city marshal, and Abraham Sickels high constable. 

Oct. 2. Sebastian Visscher died, aged 52. 

Oct. 4. The common council directed the superintend- 
ent " to adopt measures for the improvement of the road 
leading to Arbor Hill, by the way of Chancellor Lan- 
sing's garden." 

The mean temperature of the month of September was 
62 % 7 deg. ; greatest height 84; lowest 41. Rain on 
7 days ; nearly three inches fell. 

Oct. 7. Michael Connoway died, an officer of the Re- 

Oct. 27. The Rev. Isaac Ferris was installed pastor of 
the Second Reformed Dutch Church. 

# It was through the perseverance of Mr. Cuyler that an order was 
made to place curbstones in North Market street from Maiden lane to 
Mark lane (Exchange street). They were the first in the city. 

Notes from the Newspapers. 109 

The temperature of the month averaged 50-46 deg. ; 
greatest height 67 deg. ; lowest 32 a deg. Rain 5 days ; 2'09 
inches fell.. 

Oct. 31. The common council held a meeting and re- 
moved Philip Phelps, police magistrate, and appointed 
John Gansevoort in his place. They also removed the 
city physician, Peter Wendell, and appointed Peter Van 
OLinda to succeed him. 

Nov. 4. The election was a vigorous contest between 
the two parties, known as Democrats and Republicans. 
The following table shows the irrelative strength in 
the city, and the number of voters at this time. Clinton's 
majority was 1032 in the county. 

First Ward. 
Republicans. Democrats. 

Gov. De Witt Clinton,.... 302 Samuel Young, 171 

Lt. Gov., Jas. Tallmadge.. 310 Gen. Root 156 

Second Ward. 

De Witt Clinton, ... 293 Samuel Young, 153 

Jas. Tallmadge 309 Gen. Root 133 

Third Ward. 

De Witt Clinton.... 156 Samuel Young, 66 

Jas. Tallmadge 162 Gen. Root 50 

Fourth Ward. 

De Witt Clinton..., 294 Samuel Young, 194 

Jas. Tailmadge 300 Gen. Root 170 

Fifth Ward. 

De Witt Clinton, ... 150 Samuel Young, 79 

Jas. Tallmadge 152 Gen. Root 75 

Nov. 7. Aaron James died, aged 29. 

Nov. 14. Henry B. Davis, a member of the Albany 
bar, died at Poughkeepsie, aged 32. A meeting of the 
Albany bar was held at the Mansion House ; Harmanus 
Bleecker chairman, and Peter Gansevoort secretary, 
when after appropriate remarks by Samuel A. Foot, a 
complimentary resolution was offered by S. DeWitt Blood- 
good, and adopted by the meeting. 

Nov. 16. J. B. Van Schaick gave notice that he had 
opened an office for the practice of law, at No. 67 State 

[Annals viii.] 11 

J 10 Nates from the Newspapers. 

Nov. 17. Robert Owen of Lanark, arrived in this 
city on his route to New Harmony, the seat of his social 
experiment in America. 

Nov. 18. Rev. Michael 'Gorman, who had officiated 
at the Catholic Church in this city, died in New York. 

Rev. Dr. Neill, who had been the pastor of the First 
Presbyterian Church some time, was on the llth inst. 
inducted as president of Dickinson College. 

Nov. 25. Benjamin Kriower having resigned the office 
of state treasurer, the legislature appointed Abraham 
Keyser in his stead. 

Nov. 30. Catherine, wife of John Sickels died, aged 

Sarah, wife of Rev. John De Witt died at New Bruns- 
wick, N. J. 

The mean temperature of the month of November was 
37-30 deg. ; greatest height 58 deg. ; lowest 24 deg. Rain 
on 7 days. 

Dec. 1. The state electors met at the Capitol to 
ballot for president and vice-president of the United 
States. The result was, John Quincy Adams received 26, 
Wm. H. Crawford 5, Henry Clay 4, Andrew Jackson 1; 
total 36. For vice-president, John C. Calhoun 29, 
Nathan Sanford 7. 

Dec. 1. Mary, wife of Daniel McGlashan died, aged 

Dec. 2. Selden Strickland died, aged 38. 

Dec. 4. John Russell died, aged 50. 

Dec. 7. Benjamin Vervalin, deputy sheriff of the 
city of Albany, died. 

Dec. 9. A fire in the store of W. & A. Marvin in 
South Market street, destroyed property to the amount 
of nearly $10,000. 

Dec. 9. Mrs. Phebe Hills died at Geneseo, aged 67; 
widow of Augustus Hills. 

Dec. 14. Samuel A. Van Vechten died, aged 30; son 
of Abraham Van Vechten. 

Ebenezer B. Russ died, aged 24. 

Dec. 22.- Capt. Charles Stewart died, aged 32. 

Notes from the Newspapers. 


Mechanic HalJ. 

Dec. 23. John Meads ad- 
vertised the property belonging 
to the Mechanics' Society, sit- 
uated on the corner of Chapel 
and Columbia streets, and con- 
sisting of the Academy, and 
the Mechanic Hall. 

Dec. 24. The navigation of 
the Hudson river and the 
Canal was closed. 

Dec. An appeal was made 
by the officers of the New 
York State Tract Society for aid. It was formed on 
the 25th of February, 1824, and the donations of the five 
auxiliary societies in Albany was upwards of $1,200, 
which was nearly six times as much as had been contri- 
buted by the whole state besides. The officers of the 
society consisted of Samuel L. Hopkins, W. A. Tweed 
Dale and John Willard, executive committee; Lewis 
Leonard, Henry R. Weed and John Ludlow, counselors. 
The common council resolved to apply to the legisla- 
ture for a law authorizing a lottery to enable the 
corporation to pay its debts, by disposing of the public 

The mean temperature of the month of December was 
32*45 deg. ; greatest height 50 deg. ; lowest 13 deg. Rain 
on 5 days ; snow on 3 days. 

The mean temperature of the year 1824, was 47'88 deg. 
The highest temperature was 85 deg.; lowest 3 deg. 

By the report of the comptroller, it appeared that the 
value of real estate in the county of Albany, was $6,748,- 

The return of personal estate was $3,438,962. 
It appeared by the report of the teacher of the Lancas- 
ter school, Wm. A Tweed Dale, that 947 children 
attended the school during this year; the greatest daily 
attendance being 386. Simon De Witt was elected 
president, Gideon Hawley vice-president, Lewis C. Beck, 
secretary, Charles R. Webster, treasurer. 

112 Notes from the Newspapers. 


Jan. 1. The common council met and unanimously 
re-elected Ambrose Spencer mayor of the city for the 
ensuing year. 

Jan. 2. Until this day the weather was unusually 
mild for the season; the river had become clear of ice, 
several sloops left here for New York, and the steam 
boats continued to run as far up the river as Poughkeepsie. 
But it began to snow at night, and winter set in in good 

Jan. 7. The partnership of Winne & Fondey was dis- 
solved. It consisted of J. Winne, Jr., and Isaac Fondey. 

Jan. 10. Mary Ann Pohlman died, aged 20; daughter 
of Daniel Pohlman. 

Application was made to the legislature for the 
incorporation of the Albany Gas Light Company, with 
a capital of $200,000. 

Jan. 19. Timothy C. Convers died, aged 23. 

Jan. 20. Rev. John H. Livingston who had preached 
here in the last century in the Dutch Reformed Church, 
died at New Brunswick-, aged 79; he was professor of didac- 
tic and polemic divinity in the Theological Seminary there. 

Jan. 21. Rebecca, wife of Cornelius Swart died, aged 
55, and was buried from No. 33 Church street. 

Jan. 23. A sermon was preached in the First Presby- 
terian Church by the Rev. M, Martin for the benefit of 
the Sunday School Union, and a collection taken up 
amounting to $110,25. 

Jan. 27. Maria Van Yeghten died at the residence of 
her nephew Gen. John H. Wendell, aged 94 years. 

Jan. 30. John A. Lansing died, aged 76; a patriot of 
the revolution, and was buried from his house, 33 South 
Pearl street, Corner of Hudson. 

Jan. 30. Mrs. Elisabeth Malcomdied, aged 54. 

The mean temperature of the month was 25*91 deg. ; 
greatest height 40 deg. ; lowest 6 deg. ; rain 2 days ; snow 
P> days. 

Jan. 31.- The following officers were elected by the 
common council : 

John Gansevoort, police justice. 

Notes from the Newspapers. 113 

Abraham Sickels and John Meigs, police constables. 

John E. Lovet, attorney. 

Philip Hooker, city superintendent and surveyor. 

Barent P. Staats, city physician. 

(At the next meeting of the board this appointment 
was reconsidered, and Roger Vest, appointed at $150.) 

Wm. Humphrey, Samuel S. Treat, Alden March, and 
Peter Van OLinda, city physicians. 

Feb. 3. Widow Sarah Wiley died at Westerlo, aged 

Feb. 17. Mrs. Maria Van Schaack died, widow of 
Egbert Van Schaack, and was buried from her residence 
No. 60 South Pearl street. 

Feb. 21. The friends of James Bleecker deceased were 
requested to attend his funeral this day, from his dwell- 
ing No. 82 South Pearl street. 

Feb. 23. Henry F. Benne died, aged 38. 

The mean temperature of the month was 27*72 deg.; 
greatest height 44 deg. ; lowest 3 deg. Rain on 3 days ; 
snow on 5 days. 

March 2. Erastus Corning, late of the firm of John 
Spencer & Co., and John T. Norton, late of the firm of 
Henry W. Delavan & Co., formed a copartnership in the 
hardware business at the store previously occupied by 
John Spencer & Co. 

The Greenbush ferry was leased to John Humphrey, 
Jr., for three years, at an annual rent of $5,900. 

March 5. Phebe Ann, wife of Sanford Cobb died. 

March 7. The river was open, and the steam boat 
Richmond arrived in the morning of this day. 

March 8. Mrs. Hannah Hopkins died, aged 49, and 
was buried from the house of Gerrit Lansing, Jr., No. 20 
South Pearl street. 

The steam boat fare to New York was $4.00. Since 
the decision of the Court of Errors, a number ef new 
boats came on. The Bristol, Henry Eckford, Chief 
Justice Marshall and Olive Branch, among them. 

March 13. Laura J., wife of Robert Gilchrist, and 
daughter of Ambrose Spencer, died, aged 22. 

114 Notes from the Newspapers. 

March 15. Stephen Sackrider died. 

March 19. Mrs. Daniel was buried from No. 23 
Division street. 

March 21. The vases presented by the merchants of 
New York to De Witt Clinton, were exhibited at Knick- 
erbacker Hall. 

March 21. The common council ordained that no 
person should thereafter ring any bell or make any 
public outcry at a public sale, under a penalty of five 

Mrs. Susannah Doty died at Peekskill, aged 92; 
formerly of Albany. 

March 25. Solomon Southwick retired from the 
editorship of the National Democrat, having been an 
editor more than thirty years, and opened a lottery office, 
hoping to find better support for a numerous family in 
that pursuit. 

March 25. Henry, son of Gen. Mathew Trotter died, 
and was buried from ]Yo. 488 South Market street. 

By an act of the legislature passed March 24, 1818, the 
common council was authorized to fund the city debt to 
the amount of $205,000, which had been incurred for 
various objects of public utility. Two years later, 
upon the representation of the common council, that 
owing to certain causes, they were unable to pay their 
debt, a law was passed on the 14th of April, 1820, 
authorizing them to dispose of certain lots of land 
belonging to the city, by lottery, not to exceed in amount 
$250,000. The lots were to be valued, put in parcels, 
and be made the prizes. The tickets were to be sold in 
Albany only; but that provision was repealed by an act 
passed the 15th of March, 1822. The commissioners 
found, however, that they could not carry the lottery 
into effect, because the prizes consisted only of lots of 
land. The common council therefore, in 1825, applied 
to the legislature for permission to sell their lands and 
to be allowed to raise the balance of the amount in money 
by selling tickets in the lottery created by the act of 
1820, and paying prizes out of the proceeds in the usual 


Notes from the Newspapers. 115 

way. As the act had been passed authorizing the 
lottery before the constitution was amended, which pro- 
hibited lotteries, the committee on the judiciary brought 
in a bill authorizing the desired change. 

March 26. The new Theatre in South Pearl street, 
below Beaver, was open to the public, and the keys 
were delivered to the lessee the same day. It was 
erected by subscription. 

March 26. John C. Rubey died, aged 23. 

The mean temperature of the month was 39*44 deg. ; 
greatest height , 63 deg. ; lowest, 25 deg. Rain on 3 days ; 
snow on 5 days. 

April 4. A fire destroyed a tobacco store belonging 
to Kline & Gott, in Middle lane. Loss $20,000; insured, 

April 9. John Booking died. 

April 10. James Campbell died, aged 36. 

April 11. Mary, wife of Josiah Winants died, aged 43. 

April 11. Estes Howe resigned the office of recorder. 

April 12. John Hunn died, aged 84, and was buried 
from No. 51 Liberty street. 

April 15. John B. Visscher died, aged 56, and Vvas 
buried from his house corner of Columbia street and 
Middle lane. 

April 19. Stephen Lush died, aged 72, and was buried 
on the 2Jst from his residence No. 311 North Market 
street. "His death is no ordinary loss to society. As 
a patriot his services in the war of the revolution entitle 
him to a high rank. He was one of those who suffered 
in the Jersey prisonship; and was subsequently aid and 
private secretary to Gov. George Clinton. As a legisla- 
tor he was well known as one of a sound mind and wise 
head. As a Christian he was meek and lowly; religious, 
not because he feared, but that he loved his Creator and 
adored him for his mercy shown to man through the 
Savior. As a citizen and a neighbor, his memory will 
be long revered by all who knew him." He was cap* 
tured at the storming of Fort Montgomery. 

116 Notes from the Newspapers. 

April 21. The legislature adjourned having passed 
328 laws. 

April 23. Stephen H. Morse died, aged about thirty. 

The temperature of the month averaged 49-63 deg. ; 
greatest height 73 deg. ; lowest 29 deg. Rain on 5 days. 

Among the acts passed by the legislature at its session 
just closed were the following relating to Albany: 

An act to incorporate the Gas Light Company of the 
city of Albany. 

An act relative to the Albany Academy. 

An act to incorporate the Albany Lombard Association. 

An act to incorporate the president, directors and 
company of the Commercial Bank of Albany. 

An act to remove certain records from the clerk's office 
of the county of Albany to the clerk's office of the county 
of Saratoga. 

An act concerning the terms of courts of common 
pleas and general sessions of the peace in the county of 

An act equalizing and allowing compensation to 
petit jurors attending certain courts in the county of 

An act for the relief of the Albany and Delaware 
Turnpike Company. 

An act to incorporate a second company to supply the 
city of Albany with water. 

The tedious voyages of the sloops have been made the 
subject of frequent remark. They are still often alluded 
to in contrast with the speed of steam boats. The fol- 
lowing will serve to show what could be done. 
t " The sloop Ohio, Capt. J. Utter, of the old Albany 
line packets, commenced discharging a full cargo of 
merchandise in this city on Monday ; reloaded on Tuesday, 
and sailed for New York on Wednesday morning ; arrived 
at New York on Thursday; discharged on Friday, left 
there on Saturday, and arrived in this city on Monday 
with a full cargo destined for the west." 

April 27. John B. Washburn died, aged 39, and was 

Notes from the Newspapers. 1 17 

buried from his residence corner of Liberty and Hamil- 
ton streets. 

April 29. Drs. E. Willard & S. P. White became 
connected in the practice of physic and surgery, at 
No. 171 North Market street. 

May 1. The firm of Stafford, Benedict & Co. was 
dissolved, consisting of Spencer Stafford, Lewis Benedict 
and Joab Stafford. The business was continued by 
Spencer Stafford alone. 

May 2. At a meeting of the common council, Messrs. 
Cooper, Townsend, Stevenson and the Chamberlain were 
appointed a committee to treat with Yates & Mclntyre 
respecting their proposition to purchase the Albany City 
Lottery for $200,000. 

May 3. The election for town officers took place, when 
the Republican ticket succeeded in every ward. The fol- 
lowing were elected supervisors and assessors : 

Supervisors. Assessors. 

1st Ward James McKown. Green Hall. 

2d do Isaac Hamilton, Ichabod L. Judson, 

3d do Teunis Van Vechten, James Van Ingen, 

4th do Peter Bain, Philip Hooker, 

5th do John N. Quackenbush, Benjamin Wilson. 

Mr. Hochstrasser, deputy excise officer, reported that 
he had licensed during the past year, 49 taverns, 209 
ordinaries, 53 groceries, 20 victualers, and 65 cartmen; 
amount of license money, $3,662. 

Butter, which had been selling recently at 28 cents a 
pound, had fallen to 12 and 14 cents. 

May 9. The subscriptions to the Albany Lombard 
Association, which had been chartered during the previ- 
ous winter, were in excess of the capital, and Rufus 
Brown advertised that they would be returned at his 
store in State street. At the same time Cornelius Van 
Antwerp, cashier, advertised a call for three dollars on 
each share of the capital stock. 

A writer in the Argus urged upon the capitalists of 
the city the absolute necessity of a railroad to Schenecta- 
dy, to prevent the city from going to decay through the 
rivalry of Troy. 


Notes from the Newspapers. 

May 18. The new Theatre in South Pearl street 
opened by GILFERT, with Laugh when you Can, and 
Raising the Wind. The actors were Barrett, Anderson 
and Spiller, Mrs. Stone and Mrs. Barrett, very clever in 
their way, and not yet wholly forgotten. 

Pearl Street Theatre. 

^ May 22. William Staats died, and was buried from 
his dwelling 77 Hudson street. 

The common council caused the Capitol and Academy 
parks to be enclosed with a fence, previous to which 
they seem to have been an open common, where the 
planting of shade trees met with small success. It seems 
not to have been done at the expense of the city. 

Notes from the Newspapers. 119 

May. The Pier, which had been authorized by a law- 
passed April 5, 1823, was now completed; being nearly 
4400 feet long, 80 wide, and 20 high. It enclosed a basin 
of about 32 acres, capable of harboring 1000 canal boats, 
and fifty vessels of a larger class. 

May. The prices of Albany stocks were quoted as 
follows : 

Bank of Albany $125-130 

Mechanics' and Farmers' Bank 121-1 25 

New York State Bank 117-119 

Albany Insurance Company 105-l07i 

Merchants' Insurance Company 102-103 

Water Works Company 100-105 

Pier 105-108 

May 26. Henry B. Cook, merchant, died, aged 34, 
and was buried on the 27th from his residence No. 69 
Division street. 

The steam boat Constitution made her first trip about 
this time, running to Troy. 

May 31. A schooner arrived from Richmond, Va., 
with coal, which seems to have been a new article of 
commerce direct. 

May 31. Philip McCready died, aged 29. He was 
a soldier in the war of 1812, under Maj. Birdsell, was 
wounded at Fort Erie, and taken prisoner. 

June 2. The stock books of the Commercial Bank, 
which had been open three days for a subscription of 
$300,000, were closed this day, when the amount sub- 
scribed was found to exceed $1,500,000. 

June 10. The stock not having been distributed to 
the satisfaction of all the subscribers, considerable in- 
dignation was generated on the occasion, and a meeting 
was called at the Capitol to get some of it off. The 
case seems to have been thus. The charter of the bank 
was urged on the ground that the stock of the three exist- 
ing banks was principally held by men who had retired 
from business, and it was urged that by granting a new 
institution, the stock of which should be finally distribut- 
ed among small capitalists, the mercantile and manu- 
facturing interests of the city would be greatly promoted. 

Notes from the Newspapers. 

It was claimed to have been the firm belief of this which 
enlisted the whole middling class of the city in behalf of 
this new bank, and caused hundreds of men to join in 
the application, and by personal effort to further its 
incorporation. But the commissioners, it was said, had 
proceeded in a manner that had defeated the public expec- 
tation and outraged public opinion. In answer to a call 
at the Capitol, a "large and respectable" meeting of 
merchants and other citizens of Albany convened there. 
Col. John Stilwell was called to the chair, and Isaac 
Fondey appointed secretary. Mr. Jeremiah Waterman 
briefly stated the object of the meeting, and Mr. John S. 
Van Rensselaer was called upon for an address. In 
obedience to the call, and appealing to the indulgence 
and favor of the audience, Mr. Van Rensselaer briefly 
explained what he considered to be the cause which had 
called together so unusual and respectable a number of 
his fellow citizens. He concluded by submitting, inas- 
much as the just and reasonable expectation of commu- 
nity had been disappointed in the erection of the Com- 
mercial Bank, and inasmuch as the subscription to that 
bank had ^shown the large amount of surplus capital 
sought to be vested in bank stock, whether it might not 
be expedient to apply for a bank to be located in Albany, 
with a capital of $400,000, to be divided into shares of 
$25 each, in the charter of which there should be a pro- 
vision that if the commissioners in the distribution of 
the capital stock should allot to any individual more 
than fifty shares, they should be adjudged guilty of a 
misdemeanor, and forfeit each to the use of the bank, 
$1,000. Upon the conclusion of Mr. Van Rensselaer's 
speech, it was 

Resolved, That the charter of the Commercial Bank was 
not granted by the legislature of the state of New York 
to create a monopoly for the profit of speculators, but 
was granted at the pressing instance of hundreds of 
citizens who subscribed the petitions for said bank, for 
the general advantage of the community of Albany. 

June 11. Gen. Lafayette made his second visit to 

Notes from the Newspapers. 121 

Albany, arriving from the west. He attended church on 
the following day, which was Sunday, and left for Boston 
on Monday, the 13th. 

The weather during these three days was extremely 
warm, the thermometer being on Saturday the llth at 
97 deg. ; on Sunday at 98 deg. ; and on Monday at 86 deg. 

A new daily line of mail stages commenced running 
from Albany to Rochester, by the way of Cherry Valley, 
which was claimed to be the shortest route by 16 miles, 
and the country through which it passed " more airy and 
sightly" than the route through the Mohawk valley. 

June 11. A new stand of colors was presented to 
Capt. Gilbert's company of Albany Independent Volun- 
teers, by John Leman, a painter, through Gen. Solomon 
Van Rensselaer. 

June 18. The Albany Republican Artillery met at 
Crosby's Hotel, and passed resolutions of respect to the 
memory of the late Daniel D. Tompkins. 

June 19. William I. Hilton died, aged 91. 

June 21. The steam boat Constitution burst her 
boiler off Poughkeepsie, severely scalding the cooks, 
three of whom died. 

June. The Second Presbyterian Church received 
an organ from the establishment of Hall & Erban, New 

June 27. Judith Van Vechten, daughter of Abraham 
Van Vechten, died, aged 22. 

May. The mean height of the thermometer for this 
month was 60'75 deg. ; highest 82 deg. ; lowest 37 deg. 
Rain on 4 days; 1*21 inches fell. 

June. The mean temperature for the month was 
70'64 deg. Highest range 98 deg.; lowest 57 deg. Rain 
on 7 days; 5'7S inches fell. 

j u ]y i, The safety barge, Lady Clinton, towed by the 
steam boat Commerce, made her first appearance at 
Albany, with a large number of passengers from New 
York, among whom was the Danish minister, attracted 
by this new mode of traveling. 

[Annals mii."} 12 

122 Notes from the Newspapers. 

July 1. Lafayette arrived in the city from Vermont, 
accompanied by the governor of that state, and a mili- 
tary escort from Troy, it being his third visit during 
this tour in the country. He put up at Crittenden's, 
now Congress Hall. At 4 o'clock in the afternoon a 
dinner was served up by the citizens in the Capitol, 
Elias Kane presided, assisted by Harrnanus Bleecker, 
Benjamin Knower, John Townsend, Gamaliel H. Bar- 
stow, then state treasurer, and William Caldwell. Judge 
Story and Daniel Webster, of Boston, John Wood worth, 
Ambrose Spencer and Stephen Van Rensselaer are men- 
tioned among the guests of distinction. The blessing 
was asked by the Rev. Dr. Chester. Among the toasts 
were the following, the first volunteer being by Lafay- 

" Albany as I have known it, and Albany as it is now 
a comparative standard between royal guardianship 
and the self government of the people; may this differ- 
ence be more and more illustrated at home, and under- 
stood abroad." 

By Daniel Webster. " The State of New York; the 
national link which connects the east and the west; 
regardless of the greatness conferred by her numbers, she 
seeks to be great by the spirit, and the works, of im- 

By Judge Story." The Judiciary of New York; its 
past glory set in unclouded brightness ; may its rising 
sun beam in a clear sky." 

By Ebenezer Baldwin, recorder of the city. Gen. 
Lafayette; "When our country numbered but three 
millions of citizens, he imposed upon it a national debt, 
that thirteen millions in vain attempt to discharge a 
debt of gratitude." 

By Daniel Webster. " The ancient and hospitable 
city of Albany; where Gen. Lafayette found his head 
quarters in 1778, and where men of his principles find 
good quarters at all times." 

The General attended the Theatre in the evening, 
which closed at 12 o'clock, soon after which he proceed- 

Notes from the Newspapers. 123 

ed to the steam boat Bolivar, which awaited him at the 
dock, and proceeded to New York. 

July 1. The first anniversary of the Albany Institute 
was held at the Albany Academy, Gen. Stephen Van 
Rensselaer presiding. The annual address was delivered 
by the Rev. John Chester. 

July 4. The forty- ninth anniversary of national 
independence was celebrated by the military and citi- 
zens with the customary enthusiasm. The Declaration 
of Independence was read by Salem Butcher, and the 
oration was delivered by Henry G. Wheaton. 

July 4. William Churchill died, aged 66; a soldier of 
the Revolution, and a worthy citizen. 

July 12. Robert 0. K. Bennett, who had for many 
years been an able and successful instructer of youth in 
this city, died, aged 52. 

July 12. A public dinner was given to Gen. Solomon 
Van Rensselaer by the citizens of Detroit. The follow- 
ing toast was given by Alderman Rowland: 

"Gen. Van Rensselaer, our esteemed guest; on the 
banks of Miami and the heights of Queenstown, his blood 
flowed with no stinted tide; may the gratitude of his 
country flow as freely." 

July 17. Mrs. Johannah, widow of Obadiah Van 
Benthuysen, died, aged 75. 

July 20. John Paul died, aged 28. 

July 22. Anthony McMurdy died, from exposure to 
the heat of the sun, aged 36. 

This was a remarkable summer for the height of the 
temperature over the whole of the northern states. 

July 23. Fanny Stewart died, aged 90. 

July 27. The sale of the Pier lots took place on the 
State street bridge, where a splendid canopy had been 
erected for the occasion, surmounted by the national 
flag. The cost of the Pier was $130,000. The sale of 
all the lots but one, which was reserved, being 122 in 
number, amounted to $199,410, ranging from $1,200 to 
$2,625 each. 

124 Notes from the Newspapers. 

July 27. The new steam boat Saratoga arrived at the 
dock. She was built by the North River Company, for 
the purpose of taking passengers to and from the large 
boats, when the tide would not admit of their crossing 
the bar. 

July 30. Several persons largely concerned in the 
shipping interest went down to examine the overslaugh in 
the new steam boat Saratoga. After having made 
soundings and considered the measures that seemed to 
be necessary to remove the obstructions and improve the 
navigation, a formal meeting was called, at which Gen. 
Stephen Van Rensselaer presided, and John T. Norton 
acted as secretary. The meeting resolved that an effort 
ought immediately to be made to improve the navigation 
of the river at the overslaugh, and that a meeting of the 
citizens of Albany should be called to deliberate upon 
the subject. Such a meeting was held on the 2d of 
August at the Knickerbacker Hall, at which Joseph 
Alexander presided, when a committee was appointed to 
raise money, and another to devise the best mode of 
removing the obstructions. 

July. The steam boat Swiftsure Capt. Stocking, made 
her appearance, with the safety barge Lady Van Rensse- 

July. The temperature of the month averaged 77 '69 
deg. Greatest height 96 deg. ; lowest 60 deg. Rain on 
6 days; 1' 13 inches fell. 

Aug. 5, Thomas Barry Hill died, aged 21. 

Aug 7. The steam boat Constellation, Capt. Robert 
G. Crittenden, made her first appearance at the steam 
boat landing. She was built by a company of Albanians, 
and was fitted up with unusual elegance. 

Aug 8. The Albany Patriot and Daily Commercial 
IntelUge7icer, the second daily newspaper in Albany, 
was first published this day by George Galpin. 

Aug. 8. There were at this time 93 adults and 40 
children in the Alms House. 

There were 43 taverns, 201 ordinaries, 50 grocers, 

Notes from the Newspapers. 125 

22 victuallers, and 46 cartmen, who had licenses; and 
the amount received by the city for these licenses was 

Aug. 12. John Chestney was drowned, aged 26. 

Aug. 16. Mrs. Maria Staats, wife of Dr. B. P. Staats, 
died, aged 24. 

Aug. 16. The steam boat Constitution, Capt. 
Bartholomew, made her first appearance here, with 250 

It was asserted by the editors of the Daily Advertiser 
that the wholesale business of the city had quadrupled 
during the two years since the opening of the canal, and 
that Albany merchants had opened a direct business 
with the manufacturers of Europe. 

The returns of the census marshal gave the following 
statistics of the Shakers at Niskayuna. There were 
four families, having each their head, or leader, subject 
to one general head, or elder. 

4 heads of families, 4 deaths during the year pteced- 

112 males, ing July 1st, 

153 females, 899 acres of land improved, 

74 entitled to vote, 155 neat cattle, 

13 aliens, 22 horses, 

. 3 people of color, 475 sheep, 

73 females between 16 and 45, 134 hogs, 

51 do over 45, 1450 yards fulled cloth made during 

29 do under 16, the year, 

1945 yards flannels made during the year, 
4464 do linen and cotton. 

Aug. 17. Mrs. Charlotte H. Henry died, aged, 36. 

Aug. 19. Roger Skinner died, United States judge 
for the northern district of New York. 

Aug. 22. An injunction having been obtained 
staying the opening of the Commercial Bank, the chan- 
cellor decided against the dissolution of the injunction, 
moved for by the commissioners of the bank. 

Aug. 22. A person whose name does not appear, 
stated that he had discovered a bed of coal in the vicinity 
of Albany, and claimed the premium of $1,000, there- 

126 Notes from the Newspapers. 

tofore offered by the corporation for such discovery. 
His petition was laid on the table. 

At the same meeting Mr. Stevenson, from the alms 
house committee reported a plan and specifications for 
building an alms house, which were adopted. Sealed 
proposals were at the same time opened for building the 
same, when the work was awarded to Fasset & Halen- 
bake, at $9,875. 

Aug. 22. Maj. Edward Cumpston, died at Auburn, 
aged 72, and was interred with military honors. He 
had resided in Albany, was a soldier of the Revolution, 
and was on one occasion directed by Lafayette to per- 
form the duties of adjutant-general. He was a worthy 
and upright man. 

Aug. 26. The steamboat New London was advertised 
to leave that part of the Pier opposite the Eagle Tavern, 
for New York, this afternoon at 4 o'clock. A prejudice 
existed at this time against iron boilers, which were 
thought to be unsafe. It was therefore stated that the 
New London had a copper boiler. 

Aug. 27. James Elliot Thompson died. 

Aug. 29. Dr. Samuel Dexter died, aged 69, and was 
buried from his residence No. 57 State street. 

The mean temperature of the month of August was 
72'05 deg. Greatest height 89 deg., lowest, 55 deg. 
Rain on 9 days; 6*43 inches fell. 

Sept. 3. A meeting of citizens was held at Knicker- 
backer Hall for the purpose of forming a Prison Discipline 
Society. A constitution was adopted, and a board pf 
managers chosen, of which Samuel M.Hopkins was pre- 
sident, and James Stevenson treasurer. 

Sept. 9. John Gates, who had been a resident of the 
city about fifty years, died, aged 74. He early embarked in 
the war of the Revolution, and was one of the party that 
accompanied Arnold through the wilderness to Quebec, 
where he fought beside Montgomery when that general 
fell under her walls. He was also engaged in the battle 
of Saratoga. He was also distinguished for his virtues 
as a private citizen. 

Notes from the Newspapers. 127 

Sept. 12. Christopher Monk died, aged 55; character- 
ized as a very worthy citizen. 

Sept. 14. A meeting was held at the Capitol, for the 
purpose of taking some action preparatory to celebrating 
the completion of the canal. 

Sept. 18. Levi Cole, printer, died. 

The following is a list of the steam boats that plied 
between Albany and New York, at this time: 

Boat. Captain. 

James Kent, ; T. Wiswall. 

Chancellor Livingston, Lockwood. 

Richmond, Cochrane. 

Olive Branch, Moore. 

Wm. Penn, Fountain. 

Chief Justice Marshall, Sherman. 

Constitution, Ricketson. 

Constellation, . . . . . Cruttenden. 

Henry Eckford, Drake 

Hudson, , Brooks. 

Bristol, Young. 

Saratoga, Benson. 

Sept. 25. Duncan Stewart died, aged 33. 

Sept. 26. Robert B. Hewson was buried from 51 
Lydius street. 

Sept. 27. Mrs. Phebe, widow of Uriah Benedict died, 
aged 45. 

Sept. 27. The charter election took place on this day, 
and resulted in the choice of the entire Republican ticket. 
The following was the vote for aldermen and assistants. 

First Ward. 

Republican. Democratic. 

John Townsend, 237 Peter Van Loon,* 151 

Isaac Denniston, ...201 James Stevenson. * 159 

Jonah Scovel, 213 Geo. R. Hendrickson, *. . . . 140 

John D . Hewson 368 

Sicond Ward. 

John Cassidy, 280 Allen Brown, 97 

Jacob J. Lansing, 227 Wm. Seymour, 146 

Daniel McGiashan, 262 Christian H. Shear, 103 

Adrian Day, 273 Arnold Nelson, 116 

* These were not of the Democratic party, but were run in oppo- 
sition to the regular Republican ticket. 

128 Notes from the Newspapers. 

Third Ward. 

Gilbert F. Lush, 119 John Mancius,* 33 

Herman V. Hart, 130 Gerrit Gates,* 43 

John Mancius, 126 Richard I. Knowlson, 34 

Andrew Kirk, 159 

Fourth Ward. 

Charles D. Cooper, 195 Erastus Corning, 145 

Welcome Esleeck, 327 

Moses Kenyon, 213 James Maher, 133 

James Goold, 196 Thomas Morgan, Jr., 127 

Fifth Ward.i 
James Gibbons, Francis I. Bradt, Francis Costigan, BenjammWilson. 

Sept. 28. The tragedian, Conway, made his first ap- 
pearance in this city. 

Sept. 29. A splendid Masonic pageant was held to cele- 
brate the installation of Stephen Van Rensselaer as Grand 
Master, who succeeded De Witt Clinton in that office. 

An association of twenty-four merchants was formed, 
to carry on a direct trade with the West Indies. The 
first venture was made with a schooner, which was laden 
partly with horses and flour. On the third day out, one 
horse and a quantity of hay was swept overboard by a gale. 
The trip was a rough one, but was successful. 

The mean temperature of the month was 60'37 deg. 
Greatest height, 77 deg., lowest, 41. Rain on 6 days; 
1 inch fell. 

Oct. 4. Mrs. Catharine, widow of Henry Van Woert, 
died, aged 75. 

George Pearson, formerly of Albany, died in New York, 
aged about 30. 

Oct. 7. Daniel Waters died, aged 24. 

Oct. 15. Richard Dunn died, aged 81. 

Oct. 18. De Witt Clinton issued a proclamation for a 
public thanksgiving, which is believed to have been the 
introduction of those observances that have been con- 
tinued annually ever since. 

Oct. 18. The Albany Argus was first published daily. 

# The division in this ward was not political but local, 
t No opposition in this ward. 

Notes from the Newspapers. 129 

Oct. 22. Mrs. Harriet, widow of the Rev. J. B. Romeyn, 
and daughter of John N. Bleecker of Albany, died in New 

It appeared by the returns of the census marshals, 
that the population of the city was 15,974, being a gain 
of nearly 3,500 in five years. 

There were five extensive breweries in the city; that 

tof Fiddler & Taylor, supposed to be the largest in the 
United States, was capable of manufacturing 250 barrels 
of beer a day. 
Oct. 23. John N. Bleecker died, aged 87. 

Oct. 24. A fire destroyed the brass foundry of James 
Maxwell, in the rear of Peter Smith's coppersmith shop, 
No. 47 State street, by which Mr. Maxwell lost all his 
property, having no insurance. 

Oct. 25. Mrs. Harriet S., wife of Ichabod L. Judson, 

Oct.26. Aline of cannons was formed the whole length 
of the Erie canal, and extended down the Hudson river, 
and to Sandy Hook. At 3 minutes before Jl o'clock the 
first boat from Buffalo passed through the lock into the 
Albany basin, and was announced by the discharge of a 
cannon, which was continued in both directions by the 
cannons along the line as they caught the sound, and 
was returned in the same way. The return fire from 
New York was received five minutes before 12. 

Oct. 26. Jacob Ackerman died, aged 26. 

Oct. 29. The first canal boat through from Albany 
reached Buffalo, on which occasion a celebration took 
place there. 

The mean temperature of the month was 52'79 deg. 
Greatest height/,79 deg. ; lowest 29 deg. Rain on 6 days, 
when nearly 5 inches fell. 

Nov. 2. The city of Albany held a special celebration 
of the opening of the canal. Philip Hone delivered an 
address in behalf of the city of New York. 

Nov. 5. A fire destroyed the two story wooden building 
in State street, owned by E. & E. Hosford, and formerly 
occupied by them as a printing office, now No. 74. The 
occupants at the time of the fire were L. K. Norton, 

130 Notes from the Newspapers. 

shoemaker, Wm. Carpenter, tailor, and Jesse Howe, gro- 
cer. Mr. Norton lost nearly alL his property. 

Nov. 7. The celebrated Miss)Kelly, the particular star 
of the theatrical firmament at this time, made her first 
appearance in Albany, as Letitia Hardy, in the Belle's 

Nov. 9. The last day of election, the law at this time 
requiring the polls to be kept open three days. The con- 
test was vigorously carried on between the Democrats and 
Republicans, who accused each other of federalism. No 
one would allow himself to be a federalist now, but 
claimed to be either a Democrat or a Republican. 

This was called the state election; the charter election 
being held in September. The following are county 
returns : 


Republican. Democratic. 
Ambrose L. Jdrdan, 2746 King, 2003 


Samuel S. Lush, 2868 Staats, 2077 

Malachi VVhipple, 2846 Chapman, 1968 

Andrew Ten Eyck, 2644 Van Kleeck, 2145 

Conrad A. Ten Eyck, 2607 Calvin, 2251 


James Van Ingen, 666 Philip Phelps, 1424 

Lawrence L. Van Kleeck, 2780 

The latter ran as an independent candidate, and had 
held the office some time. The baptismal names of the 
Democratic candidates were not given in the returns 
from which the table was derived. 

A vote was taken on the mode of choosing electors for 
president and vice-president. It stood for general ticket, 
plurality, 2684. For districts, 1738. 

Nov. 14. At a meeting of the common council, John 
Gansevoort resigned his office as police magistrate, and 
John O. Cole was unanimously elected in his stead. . 

Nov. 17. The drawing of St. Peter's church lotteiy 
took place. 

Nov. 18. Mrs. Elizabeth Dyer died, aged 66. 

Notes from the Newspapers. 131 

On the 18th November, 1823, the canal froze up, and 
winter set in fiercely. Nov. 25, severe cold and one 
heavy snow storm. But January was as rnild and open 
as spring. In some warm positions lilacs budded. The 
river was open four times during the winter, and free of 
ice on the 10th March. 

1824. Winter set in on the 10th December. Rest of 
the month mild. Canal boats continued to run till the 
15th. January like spring, and except a slight snow 
storm in February, the whole winter moderate. River 
only slightly frozen, and entirely open on the 6th March. 

1825 Two extreme cold days in December, and two 
in January; otherwise winter was remarkably mild; no 
snow south of Albany, but sufficient the great part of 
the winter north of Sandy Hill. River opened 26th of 
February, earlier than ever before known. 

Nov. 20. Col. Peter Schuyler died at Natchez, aged 
48. He was a nephew of Gen. Philip Schuyler, and 
entered the army at the age of 18, as an ensign, and rose 
to the rank of colonel. He distinguished himself under 
Wayne by his bravery and good deportment. He was 
treasurer of the state of Mississippi, and held responsible 
offices in the city of Natchez. 

Nov. 20. A sermon was preached in the Second R. P. 
Dutch Church by the Rev. Isaac Ferris, and a collection 
taken up for the Albany County Sabbath School Union, 
which amounted to $119'32. 

Nov. 21. Hamblin, who had been in this country but 
three weeks, made his first appearance at the Theatre 
in Albany as Hamlet. 

Nov. 21. A fire broke out in the Colonie, which de- 
stroyed Cosgrave's soap factory and other buildings. 

Nov. 22. It was announced that an application would 
be made to the next legislature, to incorporate a com- 
pany to construct i railway from Schenectady to the 
Hudson river at Albany or Troy, as should be deemed 
most advisable. 

Jabez Hammond and Azor Taber formed a copartner- 
ship in law. 

132 Notes from the Newspapers. 

Mr. Parsons was engaged in erecting a circus building 
on the site of an old brewery in North Pearl street, 
above Columbia. The edifice was 66 feet by 111 deep. 

City Finances. It is interesting to look at the state- 
ment of the chamberlain at this time, it contrasts so 
strangely with our present financial transactions, although 
but thirty years intervene. The following report was 
made by Mr. Henry W. Snyder, chamberlain, of the re- 
ceipts and expenditures for the year ending Oct. 11, 1825. 

For lands sold previous to 1818, $452 92 

excise, 3741*72 

fines received of P. Phelps, late police 

justice 18*25 

dividends on water works stock 918*00 

tax for night watch and city lamps, . .... 6000'00 

do support of the poor, 8000*00 

market fees, 444-50 

sale of vegetable stalls, 102*49 

ferry receipts, 5896*87 

Expenditures refunded: 

From Philip Phelps, late overseer of the 

poor per settlement, 27*00 

For advances on improvements, $152*58 

opening Montgomery street, 1018*50 

do Marsh street, 901*00 

do Centre street 814*00 

work done and vegetables sold at Alms 

House, ". 335*55 

timber sold,, 23'32J 

old ferry scow sold, 30*00 

stone sold 12*00 

From the county 1810-49 

S. Van Rensselaer, lighting 6 lamps,.. . 60*00 

loans, 28458*33 

For account of commissioners: 

rents, 66 17-4 1 J 

lands sold, . 400*00 

Notes from the Newspapers. 133 

Commutation, , , $217*50 

interest on lands sold, 93*37 

do on quit rents, 2*66 

city tax, 8000*00 

dividends on turnpike stock 481*88 

EXPENDITURES. $75030*36 

Streets ordinary repairs, $935*38 

extraordinary do, 1865*43 

opening Montgomery street, 68*49 

do Marsh street, 398*00 

do Centre street, 319-00 

do Water, 186* 18 

widening Ferry street, paid assessment 

18 15 to estate H. Bradt, 6298*64 

removing street dirt, 723*33 

Drains, 124*91 

Wells and pumps, 1357*88 

Engines, Hook and ladder companies, &c.,. . . 1448*04 

Lamps, 3041*56 

Watch, 4089*72 

Salaries 2527-50 

Support of the poor: 

alms house, $4159*81 

new alms house, 2000*00 


city physicians, 661*00 

city poor 2886*98 

Lazaretto, 158*41 

Payments on the city debt, 8667*80 

Interest, 2405*80 

Taxes on city property, 221*35 

Forest, 79*37 

Police office, 27'63 

Ferry expenses, 3047. 13 

Surveys, 6*00 

Fourth of July, 220*00 

Capitol, 10*00 

Support of Lancaster school, 500*00 

[Annals, viii.] 13 

134 Notes from tke Newspapers. 

Inspection of chimneys, $1&3*00 

Payments to commissioners of city stock, .... 15507*21 

Printing and advertising, 470-08 

Markets, 35'12 

Payments on loans, 5500*00 

Contingencies : 

repairing house on Truax farm, 12-00 

charter elections 10-75 

making wheelbarrow for sealer, 6*00 

common council room, 33*62 

insurance of alms house, 20*00 

removing nuisances, 21*75 

mayor's court room, 19*37 

repairing school-house in Beaver street, . 40*00 

making fence round Potter's field, 88*38 

excavating at the foot of Rutten kill 75*00 

chamberlain's office, 5*06 

discount on uncurrent bills 18*05 

attorney's fees, 330*69 

reception of Gen. Lafayette, 1320*00 

materials furnished for academy, 7*50 

guarding the park, &c., front of Capitol, 13*00 

expenses to New York, chamberlain, 10*00 

forty copies City Directory, 30*00 

repairing dock, 2*63 

raising sloop sunk in river, 25*37 

ANNUAL RENTS. $72220*11 

bush. Ibs. 

Reserved on lots in the city, 72 :45 wheat, and $1829*38 

do Schaghticoke, 124:30 do 28*31 
do Fort Hunter, 8:15 do 


Old City Hall, 1600'00 

Western hay scales 200*00 

Southern do, 200 00 

Northern do, 20'00 

Truax farm, eight miles from city, $50*00 

Acre lot on Westerlo street, 4*00 

School-room in Beaver street, 50*00 

Lutheran church lot, 60*00 

Notes from the Newspapers. 135 

Lot north of watering place, $50-00 

Butcher's stall north of do, 25*00 

Two lots south of do, 510*00 

Lots Nos. 1 and 2 Lancaster and Jay streets, 20*00 

Delaware square, 20'00 

Lot No. 1 1 south side Great Western turnpike, 5'00 

205 J bushels wheat, estimated at $1, 205'50 



City stock held by the commissioners, 6000-00 

Albany insurance stock, 2500*00 

Bonds, notes and interest due for lands sold,. 2879*67 

Cash loaned 4535'00 

Cash on hand, 3130-88 

359 shares in great Western turnpike 8975'00 

46 do Bethlehem do, 1 150-00 



Mayor, $400*00 

Chamberlain, 500-00 

City Superintendent, 450-00 

Superintendent Alms House, 400*00 

Overseer of the poor, 200-00 

Police justice, 450*00 

Police constables, $200 each, 400*00 

Deputy excise officer, 200 00 

City physicians, 550*00 

Clerk of common council, 150-00 

Deputy clerk of market 100 00 

Bell ringer. 40-00 



Funded, 205000*00 

Due on bonds to individuals, 40100*00 

Small notes unredeemed, 10300-18 


136 Notes from the Newspapers. 

The average temperature of November was 37*17 deg. 
Greatest height, 58 deg. ; lowest, 17 deg. Rain on 2 days, 
snow on 2 days. To'al fall of rain and snow, 1J inches. 

Dec. 1. John Vernor died, aged 80. He was a 
zealous partizan in the war of the Revolution, and for a 
time was deputy commissary of military stores, in which 
station, as well as in all others that he occupied, he 
showed himself competent and faithful. He was buried 
with masonic honors from his residence in North Market 
street, opposite the arsenal. 

Dec. 3. Brinckerhoff & Co., advertised the dissolu- 
tion of their copartnership, the members of which were 
Richard I. and Abraham S. BrinckerhofF, dealing in 

Dec. 3. Abram Keyser died, aged 72. 

Dec. 5 Kean the tragedian, made his first appearance 
in Albany, in the character of Richard III. The house 
was crowded to its utmost capacity, and not a hiss was 
heard although a riot was expected in retaliation of op- 
probrious epithets, said to have been uttered on his re- 
turn from America some years previous, a fearful retri- 
bution for which attended him in Boston a few weeks later. 

Dec. 12. The fire department held its annual election: 
John T. Norton, President; James Merri field, vice presi- 
dent; Jacob I. Fort, secretary; Joseph W.Clark, treasurer. 
The society had a fund of nearly a thousand dollars in- 
vested, which had accumulated by a light tax upon fire- 
men, for the relief of indigent members. 

Dec. 13. Said to have been the coldest day in Albany 
since Jan. 14, 1822. The thermometer at the Academy 
indicated 6 deg. below at 7 in the morning, and 1 deg. 
below at 2 P. M. Thermometers down town vary 
considerably from the one at the Academy, being often 
several degrees lower in cold weather. 

By the census returns of all the wards and towns in 
the county, the population was found to be 42,821, of 
which 15,971 was in the city. 

The following meteorological facts were recorded a t 
the Academy for the year 1825, by Dr. T. R. Beck. 

Notes from the Newspapers. 137 

Mean temperature the whole year at 7 a. m., 44*79 deg. 
do do at 2 p. m., 56*97 " 

do do at 9 p. m., 49*64 " 

Mean temperature of the year, 50*46 " 

Highest during the year, 98 " 

Lowest do 6 " 

Greatest daily range, 30 

do monthly range, 54 

do annual range, 104 

Weather, clear 166 days. 

cloudy, .. 112 " 

variable, 87 " 

rain fell on 59 " 

snow do 16 " 

rain guage of last 8 months, 24*22 in. 

Winds, north 60 J days 

north-east 14 " 

east, 4 " 

south-east, 46 " 

south, 87 J " 

south-west, 30J- " 

west,. . 45 " 

north-west, 77 J- " 

prevailing winds, south. 

The mean temperature for six years, was 48*63 deg.; 
highest, 100 deg. ; lowest, 14 deg. below 0. 

Dec. 18. The Rev. Hooper Gumming, some time 
pastor of the Third Presbyterian church in this city, died 
at Charleston, S. C., whither he had gone for the benefit 
of his health, 

Dec. 21. Gertrude, wife of James Van Ingen died, 
aged 53. 

An appeal was made to the Christian public through the 
newspapers, for the establishment of an orphan asylum. 

Dec. 24. Capt. William Brown died, aged 63, and was 
buried from his residence 42 State street. 

The average temperature of December was 30'09 deg. 
Greatest height 48 deg. ; lowest, 6 below 0. Rain on 4 
days, snow on 3. Total fall 2-J inches. 


Notes from the Newspapers. 



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Notes from the Newspapers. 



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140 Notes from the Newspapers. 


Jan. 2. At a meeting of the common council, James 
Stevenson was elected mayor, Ambrose Spencer having 
declined a re-election. 

Jan. 2. The following were elected directors of the 
Albany Insurance Company : 

Isaiah Townsend. John D. P. Douw. 

William James. Simeon De Witt. 

Charles D. Cooper. Benjamin Knower. 

Francis Bloodgood. *Teunis Van Vechten. 

Chas. R. Webster. *Chandler Starr. 

Thomas Russell. John W. Yates. 

*Erastus Corning. 

Isaiah Townsend was elected president. 

It is believed that but three of the number survive in 
1856, which are designated by an asterisk. 

Jan. 2. The following were elected directors of the 
Merchants' Insurance Company: 

Charles E. Dudley. *John T. Norton. 

Allen Brown. Ephraim Wilder, Jr. 

James B. Douglass. Friend Humphrey. 

*Ralph Pratt. * Alexander Marvin. 

Archibald Craig. *Eleazer F. Backus. 

Peter Bain. *Asa H. Center. 

Abel French. Willard Walker. 

William Cook. Joshua Tuffs. 

George Humphrey. John Still well. 

John Willard. *Benj. F. Butler. 

"William McHarg. *Thomas W. Olcott. 

Russell Forsyth. Henry L. Webb. 

Jared L. Rathbone. *Robert Dunlop. 

Daniel Steele. Robert Boyd. 

Walter Clark. Thomas Herring. 

Gilbert F. Lush. 

Charles E. Dudley was elected president. 

Nine of these are known to be living, Dec. 1856, 
which are designated by an asterisk. 

Notes from the Newspapers. 141 

Jan. 9. The name of E. Forrest appeared on the play 
bill quite unostentatiously in the play of Timour the 

Jan. 1 1. The river was open to navigation and the 
water very high. 

Jan. 13. Nathan Sandford having been nominated 
for United States Senator, resigned the office of Chancel- 
lor. On the following day he was elected by the legisla- 
ture for six years, to the office of senator in congress. 

Jan. 19. The tailoring establishment of Francis 
Horth in South Market street was destroyed by fire. 
Loss $6,000; insured $4,000. 

The valuation of real estate in the county was 
$6,749,226; personal estate $3,512,589. Total, $10,- 

Jan. 21. Capt. Horace Durrie died, aged 31. 

Henry P. Guest was buried from his residence, corner 
of Union and Division streets, Jan. 25. 

Jan. 26. A report was made to the assembly by Mr. 
Lush, on the petition of Isaac Newton and others, for 
the incorporation of a transportation company to convey 
goods on the canals and Hudson River. 

Gerrit L. Dox and others memorialized the legisla- 
ture on the subject of the navigation of the river, pur- 
posing to form a company with a capital of $250,000, 
purposing to open and deepen the channels on the west 
side of the river, commencing at the island below the 
city and continuing down to deep water. They were 
satisfied that raising dams, lateral piers and excavations 
in the river, by ihe slow and expensive process of dig- 
ging, had Ihus far proved fruitless. 

Jan. 29. Mathias Kline, of the house of Kline & Gott, 

Jan. 31. Thermometer 3 deg. below zero. 

Jan. 31. Judge Conkling commenced his first term as 
presiding judge of the United States Court for this dis- 
trict at the Capitol. 

The temperature of the month averaged 27*74 deg. ; 
highest, 53 deg.; lowest 3 deg. below zero. 

142 Notes from the Newspapers. 

Feb. 1. Thermometer 12 deg. below zero. 

Feb. 2. Cooper, the tragedian, made his first appear- 
ance in Albany in the character of Macbeth. 

The common council appointed the following officers 
for the ensuing year. 

John 0. Cole, police magistrate. 

Abraham Sickels and John Meigs, police constables. 

John E. Lovett, city attorney. 

Philip Hooker, city superintendent and surveyor. 

Geo. W. Welch, superintendent of Alms House. 

Isaac I. Fryer, overseer of the poor. 

Henry Radcliff, inspector of weights and measures. 

Henry Fryer, Adam Russ and Samuel Vail, weighers 
offish and iron, and measurers of salt and grain. 

Joseph Fry and S. W. Johnson, city guagers. 

John Meigs, Abraham Sickels and Jonathan Brooks, Jr., 
captains of the watch. 

Roger Viets, Alms House physician. 

Peter Van OLinda, Hazael Kane, Warren Hinckley 
and Alden March, city physicians. 

Feb. 7. Samuel Waterman died, aged 32. 

Feb. 8. Dirck L. Vanderheyden died, aged 37 ; at- 
torney at law and formerly clerk of the house of as- 

' ' Farmers who have onions for sale will do well to 
bring them to this market, as they are scarce and ex- 
travagantly high. They were sold from the wagon on 
Monday for one dollar and seventy-Jive cents a bushel, 
and the retailers of provisions ask their usual advance 
when disposed of to their customers. We are told that 
some of them even sell them by the pound." 

Feb. 8. James Gibbons, alderman of the fifth ward, 
died. " If ever a worthy man died, he was that man. 
In the language of Burns, he held the patent of his 
honors immediately from Almighty God. In every sense 
of the word, his loss will be severely felt. Generous, 
honorable and humane, the tears of the helpless widows 
whom he fed, and the tender orphan whom he reared 
and protected, will bedew his grave." 

Notes from the Newspapers. 143 

Feb. 12. William Rigby died, aged 79. 

Feb. 14. The Circus erected by Parsons in 

North Pearl street, above Columbia, was open with an 
equestrian company, among whom were West, Gates, 
Burton and others then famous in their way. There 
were also stage performances at the close of the horse- 
manship, at which some tolerable comedians figured. 
It surpassed every other circus edifice in the country. 

Feb. 18. The sheriff in behalf of the debtors confined 
in the jail, acknowledged the receipt of $19*50 from the 
grand jury, presented to him for their use, assuring the 
jury that their donation was well timed and gratefully 
acknowledged by the debtors. 

Feb. 19. Mary Ann. wife of Wm. S. Randel died, 
aged 32. 

Feb. 23. Catharine Raum died, aged 90. 

Feb. 26. The river was clear of ice. Henry Elliston 
of the Theatre, died. 

Feb. 25. Israel Wells, died. 

Feb. 25. Ebenezer Baldwin resigned the office of re- 
corder of the city of Albany, 

The mean temperature of the month was 29'79 deg.; 
highest 53 deg.; lowest 12 deg. below zero. Rain on four 
days, snow on five. 

March 1. Angus McDonald died at Knox, aged 106. 
He came from Scotland in 1758 as a private soldier, 
with the army destined for the conquest of Canada. He 
was at the siege and capture of Louisburg; was one of 
those who climbed the heights of Abraham with Wolfe 
at night, and was in the heat of the battle on the follow- 
ing day at the taking of Quebec. He afterwards settled 
in Connecticut, where he married; and on the breaking 
out of the war of the revolution, he joined in the strug- 
gle, and remained in the army throughout the contest. 
He removed to this country in 1796, where he remained 
till his death. 

March 3 James McKown was appointed recorder of 
the city. 

At the same time Levi H. Palmer was appointed 

144 Notes from the Newspapers. 

master in chancery in place of Dirck L. Vanderheyden, 

March 7. John N. Quackenboss was elected alderman 
of the fifth ward in place of James Gibbons, deceased. 

March 8. It was announced that hereafter the South 
Dutch Church bell would be rung at 12 o'clock M., 
and at 8 o'clock p. M. by order of the corporation. The 
South Dutch Church was at this time the church front- 
ing on Beaver and Hudson streets. 

March 10. The Mohawk and Hudson Rail Road bill 
was discussed in the assembly. Mr. Lush, the Albany 
member, moved to strike out that part of the bill which 
gave the company permission to locate the termination 
of their road at any point of the river lying within the 
distance of three miles above or below the city. He 
hoped the house would not consent to a measure which 
might have a tendency to divert the trade from this city, 
and carry it to a place below, where speculators might 
purchase land and build up a town which might rival 
and seriously effect the interests of Albany. The Albany 
and Schenectady Turnpike Company had spent much 
money in improving a road between the two cities, and 
had never realized more than two per cent on the in- 
vestment. Mr. Hoffman had yet to learn that the in- 
terests of Albany were to be looked to as paramount to 
those of the state. If the company found it advantage- 
ous to terminate the road here they would no doubt 
do it ; but if it should be inconvenient from the nature 
of the ground to do so, they certainly should have elbow 
room enough to terminate it at any other place. Mr. 
Sill did not know as it was important that the proposed 
road should come out just where the old Dutch church 
had stood. The ancient burghers of Albany thought that 
nothing could be an improvement which went beyond its 
limits. The city of Hudson owed its origin to such 
narrow views. Many years ago a number of persons 
from the eastern states wished to purchase the ground 
at the southern extremity of this city, called the pas- 
ture; but the Albany dons would not sell it, because 

Notes from the Newspapers. 145 

they did not think it right that population and business 
should go beyond the old bounds. The consequence was 
that the emigrants went and settled at the place now 
called Hudson. Some years ago the Albanians wanted 
a bridge, but the project was defeated by their quar- 
reling among themselves whether it should be opposite 
one wharf or the other. The speaker of the house 
thought that passengers and light freight might be easily 
conveyed upon the- road, but he conceived that heavy 
articles would be transported on the canal, and the 
revenue of the state derived from that source would 
not be diminished. It had been said that railroads in 
England had almost superseded the use of canals. The 
reason might be that the boats were small and the supply 
of water scant; the boats in England could, by the aid 
of machinery, be placed with all their freight on the rail 
way carriages, but he doubted if our heavy boats would 
ever be conveyed in that manner. He would like to see 
the experiment of making a rail road tried in this coun- 
try, and he knew of no better place to try it than be- 
tween Albany and Schenectady, where there was so 
much travel. It would be an advantage in the winter. 
He hoped the bill would pass, and that the applicants 
would be permitted to make this road at their own ex- 
pense. Mr. Lush's amendment was lost. 

March 12. Dr. William Humphrey died, aged 31. 

March 12. At 3 o'clock in the afternoon a fire broke 
out in the windmill belonging to Mr. Harris, situated on 
the hill south of the Capitol, which was wholly destroyed. 
At one time the scene was truly grand. Enveloped in 
flames, the whole machinery was in rapid motion, and 
the wings moved with incredible velocity, fanning the 
flames away from them, till the main building was con- 
sumed, and the whole came down with a tremendous 
crash. It was the third time that the elements had de- 
stroyed the structures of this industrious citizen, the 
winds having prostrated two, by which he lost his whole 

[ Annals viii.] 14 

146 Notes from the Newspapers. 

March 13. John Kirk died, aged 79. 

March 13. The senate concurred in the nomination 
made by the governor, and appointed Richard S. Treat, 
judge of the county court. 

March 13. G. W. Featherstonhaugh, in a letter to the 
mayor, intended to answer the objection to so wide a range 
for the eastern terminus of the proposed rail road, says: 
*'We thought that the introduction of the rail road system 
in this state would be followed by incalculable advantages 
to the public. It has succeeded in Great Briiain; under 
similar circumstances it must succeed here. The trans- 
portation of property from Albany to Schenectady is 
seldom effected in less than two and sometimes three 
days. By the rail road the communication between the 
same points will be safely made, winter and summer, in 
three hours, and the public will enjoy this advantage at 
no greater charge per ton per mile than on the canal, 
paying for 16 miles instead of 28. Thus the canal toll 
of a ton from Schenectady to Albany at 1 J cents per mile, 
being 37 cts., and the railroad toll being only 24 cts., 
those who say the rail road will injure the canal revenue 
overlook the fact that the public will be benefited by 
saving nearly one half of the present cost of transporta- 
tion. In truth, this is an experiment to test the fact, 
whether this economical mode of transportation will 
succeed in this country. 

March 17. Mr. Conway, the tragedian, made his first 
appearance here in the character of Hamlet. 

March 17. Thomas Kidd died, aged 51. 

March 25. Jacob H. Wendell was buried from his 
residence, corner of North Market and Columbia streets. 

March 25. Rev. John M. Bradford died. 

The following is the list of the pastors of the churches 
at this time, 13 in all. 

Dutch Reformed. John Ludlow, Isaac Ferris. 

Presbyterian. Henry Weed, John Chester, John Al- 

Episcopalian. William B. Lacey. 

Lutheran. Frederick G. Mayer. 

Notes from the Newspapers. 147 

Baptist. Lewis Leonard. 

Methodist. Bowne. 

Catholic. Savage. 

Cameronian. James Christie. 

Associate Presbyterian. James Martin. 

African. Nathaniel Paul. 

March 27. The assembly passed the bill incorporating 
the Mohawk and Hudson Rail Road Company, with a 
capital of $300,000, and a duration of fifty years, to be 
constructed within six years. 

March 27. Daniel I. Hewson died, aged 71. 

March 28. Hester, widow of Leonard Gansevoort, 
died, aged 77. 

March 29. Mrs, Elizabeth, wife of William Mitchell 
died, aged 30. 

March 31. Mrs. Eve Young died. 

The mean temperature of the month was 37*75 deg. 
Greatest height, 69 deg.; lowest, 13 deg. Rain on 5 
days, snow on 2. 

April 10. The common council decided to memorialize 
congress on the improvement of the navigation of the 
Hudson river near this city. 

April 11. Mrs. Maria Van Antwerp died, aged 87. 

April 16. The water was let into the canal. 

April 16. Stephen V. R. Bleecker died, aged 24. 

April 22. Charles Galpin and M. M. Cole printed the 
specimen number of a paper called the Daily Chronicle. 

April 22. John W. Daniels died, aged 82. 

April 28.-The tragedian Forrest had a benefit at the 
Theatre, on which occasion Hyatt played Richard III, 
Mr. Forrest taking the character of Buckingham. Hyatt 
was a comedian, and of course burlesqued the great 
hunchback. The performance could not have been more 
absurd indeed than now appears the circumstance, that 
Hyatt should have performed Richard III for Forrest's 

April 25. The firm of Trotter, Douglas & Co., was 
dissolved. It consisted of James B. Douglas, John Trotter 

J48 Notes from the Newspapers. 

and James Dunn. A new firm of Douglas & Dunn con- 
tinued the freighting business. 

April 28. Joseph Henry was appointed professor of 
mathematics in the Albany Academy in the 'place of 
Michael O'Shoughnessy, resigned. 

The mean temperature of the month was 44'40 deg. ; 
highest, 76; lowest 22 deg. Rain on 6 days; snow on 3. 
Rain guage 1'77 inches. 

May 2. City election. The republican ticket was 
elected throughout, as follows: 

First Ward. James McKown, supervisor; Green Hall, 

Second Ward. Isaac Hamilton, supervisor ; Icbabod 
L. Judson, assessor. 

Third Ward. Richard S: Treat, alderman in the place 
of Harman V. Hart, resigned; Nicholas Bleecker, super- 
visor; James Van Ingen, assessor. 

Fourth Ward. William Mayell, supervisor; Philip 
Hooker, -assessor. 

Fifth Ward. John N. Quackenboss, supervisor; Ben- 
jamin Wilson, assessor. 

An application was made about this time to constitute 
Albany a port of entry. It was suggested by the conduct 
of the collector at New York, Jonathan Thompson, who 
detained the schooner Enterprise, Capt. Attwood, having 
a cargo for Albany, and insisted that the cargo should be 
taken out and weighed and inspected at New York. The 
owners wished to bring her immediately to Albany, and 
prepared to take such measures as would prevent any 
infringement of the revenue laws, which could have been 
done by allowing a proper officer to accompany the 
schooner and inspect the cargo when unladen. 

The cargo of the schooner was advertised to be sold 
on the pier, May 3, and brought encouraging prices. 

The steam boat Richmond was advertised to take pas- 
sengers at $3. Her motto was " slow but sure." This 
probably had some connection with the name of Swift- 
sure, which was the title of another boat. 

Sheldon & Sykes commenced business as dry goods 

Notes from the Newspapers. 149 

dealers at 456 South Market street, which was in the old 
City Hall, it is believed. 

May 5. Thomas Dunn gave notice that as dry goods 
were from fifteen to twenty per cent lower than they 
were last year, he had been induced to commence busi- 
ness in one of the stores formerly occupied by Wood & 
Acres, 445 South Market street, nearly opposite Mont- 
gomery Hall. 

May 6. Henry T. Meech announced that he had 
become the lessee of the New York State Museum, to 
which he had made large and attractive additions. Many 
will remember the attraction of the phantasmagoria! 

May 8. The common council met for the purpose of 
appointing a clerk, under authority of a law passed at 
the last session of the legislature, the clerk heretofore, 
in accordance with the old city charter, being also clerk 
of the county.- On counting the ballots it appeared that 
Lawrence L. Van Kleeck, the officiating clerk, had 8 votes 
and Paul Hochstrasser 8. Whereupon the mayor gave a 
casting vote for Mr. Van Kleeck, who was declared duly 

May 9. Joseph B. Graham died, aged 60. 
May 9. The journeymen carpenters struck for an 
advance of 12| cents a day on their wages, which 
were from |1'12 to $1'50 a day. 

May. 11. Catharine C., wife of Nicholas Bleecker, Jr., 

May 11. Judge Conkling held an United States court 
at the Capitol. "The following substantial citizens com- 
posed the grand jury. 

Benjamin Knower, Richard S. Treat, 

Rensselaer Westerlo, * Giles W. Porter, 

Charles D. Cooper, Jesse Buel, 

William Mayell, John Cassidy, 

Francis Bloodgood, Jacob C. Cuyler, 

Charles R. Webster. 

No business appearing before the court, the jury was 

* Only survivor. 

150 Notes from the Newspapers. 

The new and elegant steam boat Sun, Capt. H. Drake, 
was advertised to go " through in one day, by day light." 
In order to accomplish this feat, she left the pier foot of 
State street bridge at 6 o'clock in the morning. 

Tyler & Dillon commenced the manufacture of portable 
furnaces in Washington street. It was a new business 
in this city. 

May 15. Caleb N. Bement, having purchased the 
Robison property, with a view to fitting it up as a hotel 
and garden, applied to the common council for a piece of 
land adjoining. The hill upon which these premises 
stood was long since graded down, leaving no vestige of 
that elevated spot. 

A contract was agreed upon with Yates & Mclntyre 
to take the management of the Albany lottery, they 
agreeing to pay the city $48,159 a year for five years, or 
$240,795 in all. The whole amount of the valuation of 
the city property which formed the basis of this lottery 
was $254,395, subject to reservations. The city debt 
which this lottery was to pay off, was $250,000. 

May 17. The Albany Prison Discipline Society, which 
had been formed in September previous, held a meeting 
to receive the report of a committee appointed to visit 
the jail. (See Daily Adv. May 25.) 

May 18. James Lloyd died, " a highly valued citizen." 
The steam boats plying the Hudson between Albany 
and New York, were as follows: 
Union Line: 

Olive Branch, Capt. H. Moore. 
Niagara, Capt. H. Fountain. 
William Penn, Capt. C. Benton. 
North River Line : 

Chancellor Livingston, Capt; Cochrane. 
James Kent, Capt. T. Wiswall. 
Richmond, Capt. S. Wiswall. 
Saratoga, Capt. Benton. 
North River Association Line: 
Constellation, Capt. Cruttenden. 
Constitution, Capt. W. Wiswall. 

Notes from the Newspapers. 151 

Steam Navigation Company; 
Swiftsure, Capt. D. Peck. 
Commerce, Capt. Seymour. 

Or. & D. Co., Tr. Co.: 

Henry Eckford, Capt. Peck. 
Sun, Capt. Drake. 

Troy Line: 

Chief Justice Marshall, Capt. Sherman. 5 ' * - + 
New London, Capt. Fitch. 

Conn. Line: 
Hudson, Capt. Bartholomew. 

May 23. Isaiah Shaw died, aged 53. 

May 27. Rain fell after an interval of twenty days, 
the greatest length of time without rain since observa- 
tions began to be taken at the Academy, in January, 1820. 

May 29. A petition was sent to the common council 
to continue Lodge street through to Steuben. 

Welcome Esleeck, at the same meeting offered a reso- 
lution directing the attorney of the board to prosecute 
Charles R. Webster, for an infringement of the law in 
building stoops of an illegal width before his houses in 
Beaver street. 

William S. Van Tassell, formerly of Albany, died in 
the hospital at Carthagena, S. A. 

May 29. The common council ordained that every 
baker carrying on business within the city should file 
his name and place of residence with the city clerk, under 
penalty of five dollars. Also that bread should be 
made into loaves weighing three pounds or one and a 
half pounds, and marked with the initials of the baker; 
and bread made of unwholesome materials or unmarked, 
should subject the baker thereof to a fine of twenty-five 
cents per loaf; and for light weight a penalty of 10 cts. 
an ounce, was imposed. 

The mean temperature of the month was 66*49 deg,; 
highest. 92 deg.; lowest, 45 deg. Rain on four days, in 
which 0'75 inches fell. 

June 4. A severe gale passed over the city, unroof- 
ing buildings and doing other damage. A torrent of rain 

152 Notes from the Newspapers. 

fell at the same time. One inch of rain fell in 15 min- 

June 6. The following persons were elected directors 
of the New York State Bank. John Tayler, William 
James, Francis Bloodgood, Isaiah Townsend, John D. P. 
Douw, John H. Webb, *Erastus Corning, Thomas Rus- 
sell, 'Silvanus P. Jermain, Allen Brown, *Nathaniel 
Davis, *Robert Boyd. 

June 6. Burr Lewis died, aged 35. 
The steam boat Sun, Capt. Drake, arrived from New 
York in 12 hours 13 minutes, having made 13 landings. 
A passenger inflated with the sublimity of the fete, broke 
forth in the following strain: 

" Who can out'clipse the Sun, 
When she from port to port hath run, 
In hours twelve and minutes few? 
The time is short, the fact is true." 
June 11. Mrs. Phebe Bell died, aged 80. 
June 12. -Paul Hochstrasser resigned the office of 
marshal and was elected city clerk, the term of office 
of Lawrence L. Van Kleeck having expired. 

June 12. The common council gave the First Presby- 
terian church liberty to erect chains across South Pearl 
street and Store lane during the Sabbath. 

The present steam boat landing was formerly called 
the watering place, where teams and cattle had access to 
the river. The common council at this time directed 
a Navigation Company, who had leased the premises, to 
have the north side filled up, reserving a space of 45 feet 
in width from South Market street to the river, as a 
watering place, and that they be authorized to have the 
wharves made and repaired in a substantial manner, and 
cause a bridge for foot passengers to be made over the 
east side of the watering place in a range with the docks; 
and that they also be directed to cause such parts of the 
watering place and the streets about the same, to be 
paved as they think proper. 

They also appropriated two hundred dollars towards 
defraying the expenses of celebrating the fourth of July. 

* Survivori in January, 1857, 

Notes from the Newspapers. 153 

June 22. Peter Deitz died, aged 50. 

June 23. Robert McGill died, aged 33. 

June 26. Books were opened for subscriptions to the 
stock of the Mohawk and Hudson Rail Road Company, 
which was eagerly taken by capitalists. 

Louis Lemet, a French copperplate engraver, opened 
the State Street House on the south side of State street, 
three doors below Pearl street. He fitted it up quite 
tastily for the time, and added to its other attractions the 
novelty of a French and English library. 

June 26. The trustees of the African Baptist church 
applied to the common council for permission to circulate 
a subscription paper in aid of the funds of the church. 
The recorder moved that the petition lay on the table 
until some inquiry could be made. He said that some 
years ago donations were made to build this church, when 
the trustees spent a considerable part of the funds in 
treating themselves with hot suppers. 

At the same meeting of the common council the mayor 
laid before the board the draft of a law creating a new 
officer, to be called the street inspector. 

June 26. Mrs. Cornelia Dunbar, wife of James Chest- 
ney, died, aged 64. 

June 27. A severe hail storm passed over the city, at 
half past 1 o'clock in the afternoon. 

The mean temperature of the month was 65'73 deg. ; 
highest, 86; lowest, 56 deg. 

July 3. Thomas Lockrow died, aged 31. 

July 4. The fiftieth anniversary of American inde- 
pendence was celebrated by the citizens and military. 
The procession moved to the Capitol, where the Declara- 
tion of Independence was read by Richard V. De Witt, 
Esq., and an oration was delivered by T. Atwood Bridgen. 
After the exercises were closed, the citizens and military 
partook of corporation punch. The military dined at 
different hotels. They consisted of the following: Capt. 
Hendrikson's Artillery. Capt. Van Cott's Artillery. 
Capt. Shankland's Albany Volunteers. Capt. Johnson's 

154 Notes from the Newspapers. 

Governor's Guards. Capt. Barker's City Guards. Capt. 
Wright's National Guards. 

July 9. The steam boats James Kent and Sun, arrived 
from New York in 14 hours, and brought the news of the 
deaths of Adams and Jefferson, which occurred on the 
4th inst. The Daily Advertiser of the. following day 
was shrouded in black lines, 

The treasurer of the Schenectady Turnpike, Barent 
Bleecker, announced a dividend o'f one per cent on its 
capital stock. The treasurer of the first company of the 
Great Western Turnpike, Christian Miller, announced a 
dividend of fifty per cent upon the capital stock of that 

July 14. John Shaw died, aged 66. He entered the 
revolutionary army at a very early age, and was a lieu- 
tenant in an artillery corps. He sustained a very reput- 
able character throughout his life. 

July 16. William Mitchell died, aged 32. 

July 21. A novel craft passed through the canal lock 
into the basin, being the sloop St. Clair, 50 tons, laden 
with peltry and ashes from Mackinac, bound to New 
York. The St. Clair unshipped her masts at Buffalo, 
was towed down the Erie canal, and proceeded to New 
York in tow of a steam boat. This was a novelty, which 
soon became common enough. 

July 23. Another novelty at this time was the arrival 
of a party of Swiss emigrants, by the tow boat, on then- 
way to Ohio, by the Erie canal. The costume', and sin- 
gular appearance of these children of the country of Wil- 
liam Tell, excited universal attention. They were 
accompanied by their wagons, plows and other farming 
utensils, rude enough in their construction. This phe- 
nomenon became common also, for it was some years after 
this before the Swiss emigrants ceased to bring over such 
cumbrous articles. 

July 25. Solomon Southwick issued the first number 
of the National Observer. 

July 25. Arthur Hotchkiss died, aged 53. 

Some people about these days thought others were 

Notes from the Newspapers. 155 

very extravagant. One set wanted Liberty street paved 
from Division to Hamilton, which another thought to 
be wholly useless. Several restless persons who had 
gone out of the pale of civilization were clamorous for 
" a road from Patroon street at the foot, of Chancellor 
Lansing's garden, northwardly to the old burying ground 
near the residence of Geo. Merchant, thence west- 
wardly through Grand street to the yellow house, the 
property of Judge Woodworth." It was thought that 
this would enable people to get up arid down the hill 
without a tackle ! A law was got through the common 
council for pitching and leveling Chapel street from State 
to Steuben street, and the same for Sturgeon lane. They 
also began to think of attempting to cut Eagle street 
through from the Lancaster school house to Lydius 
street. Others still more bold, began to think of im- 
proving the upper end of Hudson street. The upper 
end of Hudson street at this time, which was so unsightly 
to these fastidious citizens, lay between South Pearl and 
Grand streets, and was almost inaccessible at times 
by any vehicle. 

July 27. Elizabeth, wife of Hezekiah Scovel died, 
aged 34. 

July 30. The steam boat Sandusky made her first 
appearance here, being intended to run with the Olive 

July 31. The citizens of Albany offered a tribute of 
respect to the deceased patriots, Adams and Jefferson. 
A procession was made by the citizens, military and 
masonic societies. The procession formed at the Capi- 
tol and marched through the streets to the Second Pres- 
byterian Church, where an eulogy was pronounced by 
Judge Duer. It was represented to be the greatest pa- 
geant the city had ever witnessed. 

The mean temperature of the month was 73' 11 deg.; 
highest 90 deg.; lowest 56 deg. Eain on seven days; 
5J inches fell. 

Aug. 2. A fire destroyed a grocery store in Lark 
street, occupied by Benj. Woodbury & Son. 

156 Notes from the Newspapers. 

Aug. . The Daily Chronicle made its appearance, 
published by Charles Galpin and M. M. Cole. 

Aug. 3. Burial of Mrs. Matthew Gregory. 

Aug. 5. A fire destroyed the dwelling house of a 
Mr. Patterson on Arbor hill. The inmates, sixteen in 
number, barely escaped alive, saving none of their 

Aug. 8. Hester, wife of George Hanford, died, aged 

Aug. 8. George Blake, carpenter, fell from the roof 
of a house while at work, and was so badly injured that 
he died two days afterwards. 

Aug. 11. 'George Creswell died, aged 49. 

Dwycr, the elocutionist, made his appearance here, 
and gave recitations from Shakspeare. He was famous 
on the stage at a later day as Falstaff. 

Aug. 16. Audley Clarke Peckham died at Utica, 
aged 36. He came to this city from Newport, R. I., 
when 15 years old, and had ever since been engaged in 
merchantile business. His death was very sincerely re- 
gretted, so much had he endeared himself to com- 

"John G. Gebhard, who died at Claverack, Aug. 16, 
aged 77, was born at Waldorf in Germany, 1750; re- 
ceived a classical education at Heidelberg, completed 
his theological education and was licensed at Utrecht 
in Holland. In 1771 he immigrated to this country, and 
first officiated in the ministry in Pennsylvania. In 1774 
he was called to New York, where he continued till it 
was invested by the British fleet, when he fled to Kings- 
ton. Of three calls received while at New York, he 
selected Claverack, where he remained until his de- 
cease, having officiated in the ministry there fifty-one 
years. He was a proficient linguist, having been accus- 
tomed to converse in the learned languages, according 
to the custom of the university where he was educated. 
As a divine he was solid, preaching the doctrines of the 
Reformation. His style was didactic ; addressed to the 
understanding with a view to enlighten and convince." 

Aug. 21. The first notice of William Morgan in the 

Notes from the Newspapers. 157 

Daily Advertiser appeared in an obscure paragraph, in 
these words : 

" The Masonic fraternity and others are cautioned in 
the Ontario Messenger, against a man calling himself 
Capt. William Morgan, as he is a swindler and a dan- 
gerous man." 

Aug. 21. An attempt was made in the common coun- 
cil to get an appropriation of $250 towards procuring a 
clock for the South Dutch Church, as the church on 
Beaver street was then called. But it was determined 
that the city finances would not admit of the expense. 

The newspapers of this time daily acknowledged the 
receipt of news by the steam boats in advance of the 
mail. The boats made the passage in about fourteen 

Aug. 21. The dwelling house and stable belonging 
to Mr. Whiteside, on Arbor Hill, was destroyed by fire. 
Aug. 24. William Kirk died, aged 29. 
Aug. 28. Thomas Bridgen died. 
Aug. 29. The chancellor decided in the case of John 
Meads and others vs. the Commercial Bank, that the 
bank might go into operation so far as to issue bills and 
discount notes, but prohibited any transfer of stock, or 
making any loans on pledges of stock. H. Bartow of 
Utica was appointed cashier, and Lambert Norton 

The mean temperature of the month was 71*79 deg. ; 
highest 86 deg.; lowest 56 deg. Rain on eight days; 2J 
inches fell. 

Sept. 8. Edward C., son of Dr. Elias Willard, died, 
aged 34. 

Sept. 11. Joseph Henry entered upon one of the pro- 
fessorships of the Albany Academy, on which occasion 
he delivered a public address. 

The Water Works Company were engaged at this 
time in boring for water at the junction of the Sche- 
nectady and Cherry Valley turnpikes. 

Sept. 16. The firm of Van Alstyne and Brinckerhoof 
[Annals viii.] 15 

158 Notes from the Newspapers. 

was dissolved. It consisted of Martin Van Alstyne and 
Richard J. Brinckerhoof. 

Sept. 20. The Alms House, which is still occupied 
as such, was completed at this time, and was visited by 
three or four hundred people. The expense of its erec- 
tion was about $14,000. The following statement was 
given of the number of persons then occupying the pre- 
mises : 
44 white females between the ages of 19 and 80, of 

whom 13 were sick and lame, and P> insane. 
38 children between 4 months and 8 years, all 


3 black males between the ages of 45 and 80. 
8 black females between 35 and 80. 
30 white males. 


The architect of the Alms House was Henry W. Snyder, 
city chamberlain. 

Sept. 23. Maria C. Hewson died, aged 25. 

Sept. 26. The common council reappointed Henry 
W. Snyder city chamberlain. 

Sept. 26. The charter election resulted in the elec- 
tion of all the Republican candidates for aldermen but 

First Ward. 
Aldermen. Assistants. 

John Townsend, 255 John D . Hewson, 317 

Isaac Denniston, 231 Jonah Scovel, 264 

Friend Humphrey, 229 John Herman, 176 

*William Gould, 193 *Robert Davis, 146 

Second Ward. 

John Cassidy, 316 James Humphrey, 296 

Daniel McGlashan, 405 *William Seymour, 224 

Jonathan Eights, ....... 91 Arnold Nelson, 115 

Jacob F. Sternbergh, .... 184 

Third Ward. 

R. S. Treat, 124 Isaac W. Staats, 124 

Andrew Kirk, 169 Richard J. Knowlson, ... 179 

Tunis Slingerland, 70 Andrew E. Brown, 56 

* Democrats. 

Notes from the Newspapers. 159 

Fourth Ward. 

Welcome Esleeck, 179 James Goold, 168 

*Moses Kenyon, 166 Benj. Thayer, 129 

Wm. Mayell, 166 *Lemuel Steele, 174 

Wm. Fowler, 141 James Maher, 156 

Fifth Ward. 

John N. Quackenbush, . . 210 Francis J. Bradt, 210 

John L. Winne, 164 Jamas Gibbons, 153 

Benj. Wilson, 42 John A. Wilson, 52 

Sept. 28. Aaron A. Vedder, a chorister in the Dutch 
church during the Revolutionary war, died at 50 South 
Pearl street, aged 80. 

Messrs. Boyd & McCulloch, brewers, who were boring 
for water at their brewery in Ferry street, had reached 
the depth of 294 feet, without obtaining sufficient head. 
At the depth of 250 feet they struck a vein of sul- 
phureted hydrogen gas, which emitted a brilliant flame 
on being ignited. 

Sept. 30. Elizabeth Henry died, aged 29. x 

The mean temperature of the month was 64 deg. ; 
highest, 82 deg.; lowest, 44 deg. Rain on 9 days; 3| 
inches fell. 

Oct. 1. Alexander Hamilton Bogert died, aged 

Oct. 3. Jacob, Henry & Co. gave notice that they 
had commenced the manufacture of earthen ware, in 
Washington steet. 

Paul Hochstrasser, clerk of the Albany library, re- 
ported that there were 242 shares in that institution, 
producing a revenue of $1*25 per annum, and that the 
whole income of the year was $433. The expenditures 
were $241, leaving a balance of $192 for the books and 
for binding. The trustees resolved, in answer to a pro- 
position that the library should be opened every day, 
that as soon as sufficient funds were placed at their dis- 
posal they would comply. 

Oct. 17. Moses Kenyon having been elected alder- 

* Democrats. 

160 Notes from the Newspapers. 

man of the fifth ward to fill a vacancy, took his seat in 
the common council. 

Oct. 24. Mrs. Sarah Trowbridge died, aged 80. 

Oct. 26. John Cleves Symmes delivered a lecture at 
Knickerbacker Hall, on the subject of his theory of the 
earth being open at the poles. 

Oct. 30. Hugh Robison and others petitioned the 
common council to change the name of Dock street to 
Dean street, in honor of Capt. Stewart Dean, late of 
Albany. Passed Nov. 6. 

At the same meeting the board authorized the boring 
for water in a well in Plain street, provided the expense 
did not exceed ten dollars ! 

The mean temperature of the month of October was 
51*92 deg; highest 72 deg.; lowest 31 deg. Rain on 
7 days; 2*37 inches fell. 

Nov. 3. Mrs. Hester Roseboom died, aged 84. 

Nov. 3. George Upfold died In New York, aged 64; 
formerly a school-teacher in Albany. 

Nov. 6. Thomas Barker died, aged 55. 

Nov. 9. The three days' election for state officers 
terminated. The majority in the city was largely for 
Clinton over Rochester, for governor. 

Nov. 11. Martin Dorset died, aged 39, formerly of 
Ware, Mass. 

The common council began to entertain the project of 
filling in the ground below the south ferry, and docking 
to the lower end of the city. This ground was much of 
the time overflowed, and occasionally in high freshets 
the water sat back to South Pearl street. 

Dec. 2. Theophilus Carter died, aged 73. 

Dec. 3. Mylo Guernsey died, aged 49. 

Dec. 4. There was so much ice in the river that the 
steam boats Richmond and Sun left in the morning for 
Hudson to await the arrival of passengers by the 
stages, on- the next morning, the navigation being com- 
pletely closed here; but it seems to have opened 

Notes from the Newspapers. 161 

Dec. 4. Elizabeth, widow of Maxwell Strange, 

The clerk of the market reported that from Sept. 1 to 
Dec. 1, there had been exposed for sale in the markets of 
this city, 1382 quarters of beef, 232 calves, 168 sheep, 
2941 lambs; the fees for which amounted to $127*10. 

Dec. 8 Samuel Sloan died, aged 51. 

Dec. 11. It was determined by the common council 
to pitch and pave Howard street from Lodge to Eagle. 
The aspect of that avenue was rather uninviting at that 

Dec. 12. Christina, wife of [saac Van Wie, died, aged 

Dec. 13. The Theatre was opened by the company 
of the Lafayette Theatre in New York, under the man- 
agement of Burroughs, with Pizarro. 

Dec. 13. John W. Rockwell, proprietor of the Man- 
sion House, died, aged 61. 

Dec. 14. Two boats cleared and one arrived by canal ; 
but tho navigation seems to have closed immediately 

Dec. 18. The common council passed a resolution 
declaring that the piece of ground known as the Delaware 
Square, should, after the term of the occupant then in 
possession expired, for ever remain a public square. 

At the same meeting the trespass committee reported 
in favor of appointing a forester ; accordingly Jeremiah 
Cutler was elected forester for three months at a salary 
of $25 a month. 

Dec. 18. Catharine, wife of Peter Van Tassel, died, 
aged 42. 

Dec. 20. The river, which had closed and opened 
again, was now frozen over, so that the boats landed 
their passengers at Castleton, whence they reached the 
city in wagons. 

The amount of canal tolls received at the collector's 
office in this city during the year, amounted to $120,- 
354-12. The whole number of boats that arrived and 
departed was 12,856. 

162 Notes from the Newspapers. 

Dec. 26. Maria Wendell died, aged 26. 

The following is the chamberlain's report of the busi- 
ness of his office for the year ending in October. 


For land sold previous to 1818, $469*12 

Excise, 470988 

fines received, 386*75 

proceeds of stolen goods sold 53*25 

dividends on water works stock, 1530-00 

tax for night watch and lamps, 8000-00 

tax for support of the poor, 18000*00 

market fees 416-00 

sale of vegetable stalls, 188'47 

ferry receipts, 5900'00 

Expenditures refunded : 

for advances on improvements of streets,.. . 1224*38 

opening Market street, 5th ward, 140-00 

Water, do., 1001*50 

Centre, do 160-00 

Montgomery, do., 50*00 

Spencer, do., 17'00 

work done and vegetables sold at Alms 

house, 437*78 

county of Albany for board of transient 

poor, 2555*51 

costs of suits refunded, 39*86 

board of paupers at lunatic asylum 219*57 

lighting six lamps for S. Van Renselaer, 60.00 
For accounts of the commissioners : 

city tax 8000*00 

rents, 4024*50 

lands sold,. 2212-50 

interest on lands sold, 156 44 

interest on quit rents 46*24 

dividend on turnpike stock,. 411*46 


Notes from the Newspapers. 163 


For streets, $4791-02 

opening Centre street, 655 00 

Montgomery street, , lOOO'OO 

Marsh street, 275'00 

Spencer street, 54*66 

Water street, 652*76 

removing street dirt, 1057-32 

drains, 207'86 

wells and pumps, 1518-56 

engines, hook and ladder company, &c.,. . 1193'06 

lamps, 2547-96 

city watch 3811-14 

salaries, 3261*95 

alms house, 13,132-50 

city poor 2,940'61 

city physicians, 538-73 


payments on city debt, 2000-00 

interest, 2642 50 

taxes on city property, 341'53 

forest 103-50 

police office, 20-38 

ferry expenses, 292*01 

fourth of July, 240 00 

Capitol, 5T85 

support of Lancaster school, 500*00 

inspection of chimneys, 90'00 

payment to commissioners of city stock, . 10,667*94 

printing and advertising, 390*44 

markets, 15*00 

payments on loans, 5000*00 

repairing docks 37-18 

charter elections 16'50 

mayor's court room, 37*33 

common council room, 85'29 

removing nuisances, lO'OO 

repairing Park fence, 3'77 

making index to minutes, 1 3*34 

164 Notes from the Newspapers. 

celebrating completion of canals $100*00 

raising scow sunk in the river, 51*31 

attorney's fees, 319*25 

chamberlain's office, 10*68 

purchasing lands sold for taxes, 920*70 

sabbath schools, 15*00 

clerk's office, 7*25 

engrossing state law, 9*00 

forty copies City Directory 20*00 

revising state law relative to city of Al- 
bany and city ordinances, 200*00 

noticing death of Adams and Jefferson,.. . 154*80 




The committee appointed to prepare a statement of 
the Sunday Schools under the care of the society for the 
year 1826, reported as follows: 

That there are now under the care of this society 18 
schools, containing by the best estimates about 1,762 
children, and taught by about 193 teachers exclusive of 
officers, making an increase since the last year of about 

6 schools, 63 teachers and 742 scholars; but about 250 
of these scholars are from places without the city of 
Albany. The following will present the condition of 
these schools in more detail : 

School No. 1, attached to the South Dutch Church, insti- 
tuted June, 1816. This school has 1 principal, 5 male 
and 10 female teachers and 120 scholars on the register, 
average attendance 70. Verses recited, 14,434. In one 
of his reports, the principal observes that his school is 
in a far more flourishing condition than at any time 
sjnce he has officiated. 

School No. 2, attached to the First Presbyterian Church t 
instituted July, 1816. This school has 1 principal, 1 
superintendent, 1 secretary, 4 male and 25 female teach- 
ers, of whom 26 are professors of religion. 94 boys and 
167 girls on the register, average attendance 100. Les- 
sons recited, 21,988. This school has a library of 228 

School No. 3, attached to the Second Presbyterian 
Church. This school has 1 male and 1 female superin- 
tendent, 1 secretary, 7 male, 7 female teachers, of whom 

7 are professors of religion, and of whom 1 has joined 
the church since the last report. 143 scholars on the 
register; verses recited, 17,865. Since the last report 
they have been enabled to collect a library for the scho- 

166 Sunday Schools. 

lars, an object for which they are much indebted to the 
pastor of the church. 

School No. 4, attached to the Episcopal Church, insti- 
tuted January, 1818. This school has 1 principal, 2 su- 
perintendents, 3 male and 5 female teachers, of whom 9 
are professors of religion, and of whom 1 has joined the 
church since the last report. 112 scholars on the re- 

School No, 5, attached to the Baptist Church, instituted 
November, 1819. 1 superintendent and 20 teachers, of 
whom 16 are professors of religion. 228 scholars on the 
register; average attendance 83. Verses recited, 15,021. 
There is a library attached to this school of upwards of 
200 volumes, to which the children freely resort. 

School No. 6, Uranian Hall, instituted April, 1820. 
This school has 1 principal, 1 superintendent, 1 secre- 
tary, 10 teachers, of whom five are professors of reli- 
gion. 70 scholars on the register, of whom about 40 are 
regular attendants. Verses recited 8,225. 

School No. 7, an independent school, located in Wash- 
ington street, instituted in 1820. This school has 1 
principal, 1 secretary, 6 male and 6 female teachers; 
137 scholars are on the register. Verses recited 3,040. 
A class consisting of 5 scholars and residing 2 miles 
from the city, have attended the school for the term of 
three months. 

School No. 8, attached to the North Dutch Church. 
This school has 1 principal, 1 superintendent, 1 secre- 
tary, 7 teachers, and an average attendance of 45 scholars. 
Verses recited for 6 months, 5,919. 

School No. 9, the Adult African School for the first 
6 months of this year was located in Mr. Cook's school 
room, in Chapel street. Since that time this school 
has been discontinued, and replaced by school No. 15, 
hereafter mentioned. In the first 6 months of this year 
this school had 11 teachers, and an average attendance 
of 44 scholars. Verses recited 5,379. 

School No. 10, attached to the Methodist Episcopal 
church, instituted Aug. 1823. This school has 1 princi- 

Sunday Schools. 167 

pal, 1 superintendent, 1 secretary and 14 teachers, of 
whom 11 are professors of religion. 82 scholars on the 
register, average attendance 62. Verses recited 13,525. 
School No. 11, attached to the 3d Presbyterian Church, 
instituted Oct. 1825. Has 1 superintendent, 3 male and 
6 female teachers; 95 scholars on register, of whom 
there is an average attendance of about 45. Verses re- 
cited, 7,872. 

School No. 12, an independent school in the Colonie, insti- 
tuted in 1823. This school has 1 principal, 1 superin- 
tendent, 8 teachers, of whom five are professors of reli- 
gion. The scholars on the register 60, the attendance 
irregular. This school, like that in Washington street, 
being situated on the outskirts of the city, has been 
formed and conducted under many discouragements. 

School No. 1 3, attached to the United Presbyterian Church, 
instituted Nov. 1825. This school has 1 principal, 15 
teachers, 72 scholars on the register, average attendance 
40. Verses of scripture recited 26,449; questions from 
catechism, 9,747. 

The Greenbush School has 1 superintendent and about 
60 scholars. The number of teachers is not reported to 
us. This school was admitted into the Union in March, 
1826. The scholars have recited about 17,400 verses of 

No. 15, the Adult African School, attached to the 
church of the Rev. Mr. Paul. It has about 40 scholars. 

The society of the Greenville Sabbath Sabbath was ad- 
mitted into this Union in July, 1826. It has 3 schools, 
31 teachers, of whom 22 are professors of religion. The 
number of scholars is 180. 



Better known as Lord Sterling, died at Albany, Jan. 
15, 1783, aged 57 years. He was a major general in 
the service of the United States during the Revolu- 
tionary war; was born in the city of New York, but 
passed a portion of his life in New Jersey. Through 
courtesy he was styled Lord Sterling, in consequence of 
being considered by many as the rightful heir to the 
title and estates of an earldom in Scotland, from which 
country his father came, though the government refused 
to acknowledge the son's claim, when he repaired to 
Great Britain in pursuit of this inheritance. He was 
early remarkable for his fondness for mathematics and 
astronomy, in which sciences he made considerable 

Throughout the/Revolution hs acted an important 
part, and distinguished himself particularly in the battles 
of Long Island, Germantown and Monmouth. In the 
first he was taken prisoner, after having, by a bold at- 
tack upon a corps commanded by Cornwallis, effected 
the escape of a large part of his detachment. In the 
second, his division, with the brigades of generals Nash 
and Maxwell, formed the corps de reserve; and, in 
the last, he commanded the left wing of the American 
army. He was always warmly attached to Washington, 
and the cause which he had espoused, and left behind 
him the reputation of a brave, discerning and intrepid 
officer, and an honest and learned man. 




Upon the 16th day of May 1678 

There is a certain Katskills Indian woman shott dead 
at y e house of Mr Wm Teller Burger in this town, where- 
upon the sherrifFe secretary & constable by order of y e 
court went to the house to take information which way 
it came to passe So it is y l y e s d Win Teller Senr con- 
fessed to have shott y e s d Indian Squaa Innocently as 
followeth viz 

Whereas his sonne Johannes came in, and did report 
y l y e Sergeants & Corporalls were goeing about to visit 
y e armes, whereupon Mr Teller steps to y e Room, where 
his armes were and said are not y e Gunns fixed, & took 
a gunne from y e wall, which was the Gunn his sonne 
Paulus had had abroad that morning Shooting Pigeons, 
wch was loaden w* Pigeon Shott, which he did think to 
be his own gunn, which having well knew was unloaden, 
and pulling back the cock, it slipd out of his hand, 
as he was standing in y e Inner Room, of his littell house 
at which time y Indian -Squaa came in at y e Utter door 
& when she was near the door of y e Inner Room, y e 
gunn went off, he not knowing that there were any living 
soule there & looking about him did see that an Indian 
Squaa was there, who said, I am dead, I am dead, where- 
upon an other Indian squaa took her by y e hand, but she 
fell down to ye Ground, & to his great sorrow died im- 
mediately in his house, all wch he confesseth to have come 
to Passe, declaring y l it was Very Innocently done, & 
humbly submitteth himself to ye judgm 1 of y e court. Act- 
urn in Albany at ye house of ye said Wm Teller, datum 
ut supra. In presence of me 


[ Annals viii.] 16 

170 Case of William Teller. 


Whereas we underwritten jurie men are sent to y e 
house of Wm Teller to take information how it came to 
passe y l this day a certain Catskills Indian Squaa is soe 
wounded w* shott, out of a gunn, that she immediately 
dyed upon it, in his house & while there were none pre- 
sent but y e Negerin & his sonne Johannes Teller. The 
negerin thereof declares as followeth viz 1 . 

That she was gone up the Stares in y e fore Room w l a 
bagg to y e garritt, & as she was coming down heard 
a gunn goe off, but not knowing from whence it came & 
heard immediately an Indian Squa Cry out. 

Johannes Teller declareth y l hee came in & told his 
father y* y e burger officers were goeing about to Visit y e 
armes, whereupon his father immediately went to y e 
gunns to see y l they were clear, & taking a gunn in his 
hand, went off Immediatly, but did not see there about 
any Indian Squa, nor any body else. 

Wm Teller Confirms what his sonne hath said only 
that in looking to y e gunn, did think he had his own 
gunn in his hand, which he knew was not Loaden. 

His wiff and daughter Mrs Susanna, declareth y i they 
were in y e fore Room of y e great house, & did hear y e 
shott & further knoweth not. 

Alb y e 16 may 1678. 

We underwritten Jury men doe declare to have Ripely 
Considered & Perrused the Papers delivered to us & doe 
Judge in Conschiense & can finde nothing else but that 
y e case betwixt Mr Teller & y e Indian Squaa is done in 
all Innocence. 

Sic Subscribitur 





Case of William Teller. 171 



Concordatt cum sue Principal! quod attestor. 



Att a Special Court held in Albany the 16th of May 1678 
Whereas there is this day a certain Indian woman 
shott dead at ye house of Mr Wm Teller burger in this 
towne whereupon the sherriffe seer & constaple were 
forthwith sent there to take information what way it 
came to passe who doe Report that it is done Verrie In- 
nocently, by the s d Wm Teller according to his own Con- 
fession, seeing he did not know that the Gunn was Loaden 
wch went off Unawares, neither did he see any bodie 
when it went of, as can be seen by said informacon. 

Whereupon the court forthwith ordered a Jury of In- 
quest to be call d , who were sworn, to Search, Inquire, & 
try, what way it came to Passe & give in there Verdict 
to y e Court y l y e Law may be fulfilld & doe consist of 
yes 12 men. 







And whereas y e Court are inform' 1 y l there were 3 
Indians Present, they thought good to Examine ym in y e 
Presence of Mahickanders Sachems, & Jury. 

Cassorachkenit a north Indian being examined doth 
say y l he was in y e Entrie of ye small house, when y e 
gunn was fired Whereupon he forthwith went to see y e 

172 Case of William Teller. 

Woun d hearing y e Indian Squae cry out, I am dead, I am 
dead, who was held up by my Squae, and soe fell to y e 
ground, but says that there was never any difference or 
quarreling word betwix y e s d Teller and y e Squaa. 

Wampieroask a Mahikander Squae being examin' d 
doth say y l shee came by Mr Tellers door, in Companie 
w l y e Indian Squae y l was shott, who was called in by 
his daughter because shee had Indian corn, who went in 
at y e Utter door of y e litle house & soo Passed through 
to y e middle door, & y e Indian Squa which was shott 
foliowed.her, & being just oppositt to y e Inner door, re- 
ceived y e shott, but never did hear y* there was any 
quarrell or difference betwix Teller and y e Squaa. 

The above said Examinacon being done in Presence of 
y e Sakamakers, & propounded to ym how innocintly the 
Indian Squaa was shott. Therefore Required ym forth- 
with to bury her, & doe give/ 50: Zew*. 

The Indians doe answer & say y l they are well Con- 
tented & have good Satisfaction, because yey know well 
y l it was not done wilfully. 

The Jury men coming to court, doe declare y* they 
have taken full Informacon of y e matter & have Exam- 
in'd every one in y e house, as is to be seen, by there Ex- 
aminacon at Large, & haveing Ripely Considerd all y e 
bussinesse doe Judge in Conschience that y e matter be- 
twixt Mr Teller and y e Indian Woman is done most 

The Worshipfull Court, haveing taking y e matter con- 
cerning Mr Tellers shooting of an Indian Squa into their 
serious consideracon doe confirm & approve y e Verdict of 
y e Jury y l it was Innocently being it can be Deem'd 
nothing else but chance medling & have therefore sent 
for the Indians, & Propounded the case to ym, who are 
Very well Satisfyed, Notwithstanding y e court doe think 
Good to Referr y e whole matter to y e Govrs Councill in 
N: York, & to have your Judgment in y e case. In the 
mean time Wm Teller is ordered to be confined in his 
house till such time as the court shall have Received an- 
swer & orders from N: Yorke, how & what way they 

Case of William Teller. 173 

shall act in s' ! bussinesse which is expected by y e very 

By order of the court 


May it Please your Hours : 

The occasion of our troubling your honrs is because a 
certain Accident fell out here in town the 16th Instant, 
by one Wm Teller who by chance killed an Indian Squaa, 
and after due Inquisition (as is usual in those affares) 
can finde it nothing else but chance medling, but we have 
thought good to send down all y e Papers, to your hons. 
Expecting first an Answer & order what way to act in 
s d bussinesse & have confined s d Teller in his house, till 
further order, as can be seen by our Proceedings at a 
speciall court call d to y l Intent, herein Inclosed * * 
Your honrs 

Most humble & obedient Servants 
Y e Commissaries of Albany & Ca. 
Albany 20 May 1678. 


[Among some brief memoranda of proceedings of the 
council at New York, is the following item: The pro- 
ceedings at Albany of the Commissaryes upon the un- 
happy accident of William Tellers Killing an Indian 
Squaw, upon the which the said Teller stood confined, 
he was ordered to bee releast the Corns Enquest & cort 
having judged him guilty onely of Chance Medley.] 



Three considerable streams of water, which anciently 
traversed the city, have within the memory of many in- 
habitants, been converted into sewers, namely, the Foxen 
kill, the Rutten kill, and the Bever kill. 

The Foxen kill, when the city was first settled, and 
for a long time after, afforded abundance offish. It ran 
outside of the stockades, which for a great many years 
formed the northern boundary of the city. It is but little 
more than a quarter of a century since it was crossed by 
a bridge in North Pearl street, near Orange. 

The Rutten kill was a lesser stream, having its source 
above Lark street, but which sent down a formidable 
volume of water in times of freshet. The inhabitants of 
the upper end of Beaver street, have an inkling of what 
it may have been when they are refreshed by a heavy 
rain storm. This also was a never-failing brook, stored 
with fish, and was the only one that came within the old 
city walls. Passing down the Hudson street ravine, it 
crossed Pearl street where the Congregational church 
stands, and entered the river a few feet below State 
street. In the oldest map of the city, 1676 (see Annals 
Albany, vol. iv., p. 200), a brug marks the spot where it 
crossed the street now called Broadway. The city 
records frequently allude to these bridges. In January, 
1701, we find the following entry: 

" It is further concluded since ye Bridge by Coll. Schuy- 
ler's doth decay, that Mr. Roseboom, Hendrick Octhout 
and Harpert Jacobse vizite ye same, and make returne 
ye next court what is required to be repaired." 

A meeting was held on the next day, when the follow- 
ing report was made: 

"Relating ye Bridge at Coll. Schuyler's, ye gentlemen 
yesterday appointed to vizite ye same, doe return that it 
requires to be repaired with one oak log, of 17 foot, 12 

The City's Ancient Ravines. 175 

inches square; four posts, 10 foot, 10 inches square; two 
pine loggs of ten foot, 1 foot square ; three ditto, 17 foot 
apiece; three ditto of 20 foot; and one of 37 foot." 

In 1706 the following entry was made in the common 
council minutes, relating to another of these bridges: 

" The petition of William Hogan relating ye bridge by 
ye Lutheran Church being much out of repair desyreing 
that ye Common Council will take ye same into their 
wise consideration yt ye Bridge be repaired. It is 

" Resolved that in convenient time ye same shall be 
made sufficient to passe and repasse without danger." 

The Lutheran church alluded to occupied the ground of 
the Market house in South Pearl street, and its burial 
ground was the site of the vegetable market adjoining. 
Pearl street, for a century after this, was but a lane, 
many persons now living remembering when a gate swung 
across it at State street. 

On the 13th April, 1706, the following record was 
made in the common council minutes : 

"As to ye Bridge towards ye Lutheriaen church, Mr. 
Hansen is agreed to make a sufficient and strong new 
bridge, laid with good plank two inches thick, wherefore 
he is to receive ye 5. 10 due from Evert Janse." 

Two years later we find the following entry: 

" The Commonalty being informed yt ye- Bridge over 
ye Rutten kill in ye street lately known by ye name of ye 
ffuddamart * is very much out of repair & decade, doe 
therefore order yt ye sd Bridge shall be made anew and 
yt Mr. Robt Livingston & Coenradt Ten Eyk are ap- 
pointed to see ye sd Bridge made upon ye Citty charges." 

" September 28. This day Mr. Robert Livingston 
Jun & Conraet ten Eyk brought in their acct of makeing 
of ye Bridge over ye Rutten kill in ye street calld ye 
fodde mart, amounting in all after .2:9: is deducted, 
wh is payd to them 1: 14 : 4 J wh is approved of by ye 
Commonalty & orderd yt those persons are to have credt 
in ye Citty book for what there is due to them." 

Whether the name of this creek is derived from rats, 

*Vodden warfcf, a rag market, or junk shop. 

176 Price of Wheat. 

as some suppose, it is infested with myriads of the lusti- 
est specimens of that vermin to this day. The creek is 
now a sewer throughout its entire length. The grading 
of the ravine which it traversed was nearly complete in 
1847, from Hawk to Lark street, and from Lydius to 
State. So late as 1827 it was an unbroken waste. Eagle 
street then extended no farther than the Lancaster School, 
now the Medical College. There was not a dozen build- 
ings even on Lydius street, from Pearl to Lark. When 
the unfortunate Strang was executed in its grassy valley 
in the above mentioned year, its green hills on either 
side were darkened by a multitude numbering full thirty 
thousand. The clay banks on Lydius street furnished 
the city with bricks for a great number of years. During 
a period of about three years two hundred and fifty 
men and sixty teams were employed upon the work 
of grading and filling this large area. The ravine, three 
hundred feet broad and fifty feet deep, received the lofty 
banks upon its borders, and was raised to a convenient 
grade, whereby a large tract was reclaimed for habitation, 
that had been useless except for brick kilns, or basins 
where water gathered, furnishing reservoirs for bathing 
and fishing to truant boys. Not less than six hundred 
thousand yards excavation was made in blue clay, and an 
equal amount of filling was done by one contractor. By 
this improvement Hudson street has become the most 
inviting avenue to the city, and comely blocks of dwell- 
ings already adorn most of the streets which intersect the 
area of the ancient Rutten kill. 


The rents paid by the tenants of the Van Rensselaer 
estate are payable not only in money, but in wheat and 
fowls and in day labor. The market value of each of 

Price of Wheat. 177 

these is fixed on the 1st of January every year, and con- 
tinues throughout the year. The following table of these 
rates, showing the annual changes of prices in the Albany 
market for the past sixty-four years, is an interesting 
retrospect : 




l-l 1 

-*! - 





o > 

ol f 

*'S'o S 


6s. Qd. 




8s. Qd. 












































9 6 








12 6 








14 6 








































11 6 
































12 6 




























7 6 








9 6 
















10 6 








9 6 








9 6 
























9 6 



























178 Thirty Years' Difference. 

Wheat, it will be observed, has reached the high rate 
of 18 shillings ($2'25) only three times, once during the 
commercial stagnation that followed our last war with 
England; again during the monetary crash and "hard 
times" of 1836, '37; and again after the ruin of the crops 
by the drought of 1854. 

Fowls appear by this table to have decreased in value 
since 1840, which is not the case. It was found when 
6s. were allowed for them, that some of the tenants made 
a considerable profit on this item by bringing lean, tough, 
scraggy "birds." So the price was put down to 4s., 
giving them the option of paying the money, which most 
of them prefer to do. 

Labor, it is gratifying to observe, instead of being 
" brought down to the European standard," as croakers 
have predicted it would be, by the inventions and ma- 
chines of the present day, has steadily commanded better 
and better wages. At no time in half a century has it 
been impossible for a well man, however ignorant or poor, 
to earn a comfortable subsistence in Albany. Albany 
Evening Journal. 


In 1823, a traveler from Portland, Me., overwhelmed 
in admiration of the facilities afforded for locomotion at 
that time, gave the following table of time and distances 
between Albany and Portland by steam boats and stages : 

miles, hours. 

From Albany to New York, 150 18 

" New York to Providence, 200 20 

" Providence to Boston, 40 6 

" Boston to Portland, 110 12 

500 56 

This gave 500 miles in 2J entire days. It should be 
some consolation to modern travelers detained on their 
way to New York that they still accomplish their journey 
within 18 hours in spite of the worst obstructions. 



A recent accident on the Hudson River rail road, and 
the excitement which followed it, heightened by the 
newspaper accounts, brings to mind the excitements which 
attended accidents to the stages on the same route only 
about thirty years ago. The difference in the magnitude 
of the travel, and consequently of the destruction of life 
and limb, serves to mark our progress in that direction 
in so short a space of time. 

In January, 1823, the traveling public was accommo- 
dated by two lines of stages between Albany and New 
York, the proprietors driving a sharp competition for the 
small amount of passage then offering. The engineers 
of these vehicles could not resist the temptation to show 
the capacity for speed of their respective teams, and 
when they came near each other, they could not be pre- 
vented from racing any more than our modern steam boat 
captains. Such an exhibition of speed came off at 
this time, which resulted disastrously, and the news- 
papers were made the safety valve of public indignation. 
The account of it contrasts so ludicrously with the 
awful catastrophe of a rail road accident, that we hesitate 
in contemplating the horror of the one to smile at the 
trifling amount of the other. The account of the accident 
was thus : 

" To the Public. The stage from New York to Albany 
was overset on the Highlands, on Friday last, with six 
passengers on board ; one of whom, a gentleman from Ver- 
mont, had his collar bone broken, and the others were 
more or less injured, and all placed in the utmost jeo- 
pardy of their lives and limbs, by the outrageous conduct 
of the driver. In descending a hill half a mile in length, 
an opposition stage being ahead, the driver put his horses 
in full speed to pass the forward stage, and in this situ- 

180 Accidents by Travel 

ation the stage overset with a heavy crash, which nearly 
destroyed it, and placed the wounded passengers in a 
dreadful dilemma, especially as the driver could not 
assist them, as it required all his efforts to restrain the 
frighted horses from dashing down the hill, which must 
have destroyed them all. It was therefore with the great- 
est difficulty, and by repeated efforts, the wounded pass- 
engers extricated themselves from the wreck of the stage. 
Such repeated, wanton, and willful acts of drivers, to 
gratify their caprice, ambition, or passions, generally, 
under the stimulus of ardent spirits, calls aloud on the 
community to expose and punish these shameful aggres- 
sions. As the legislature is now sitting, it is earnestly 
hoped that a law will be immediately enacted, to make it 
penal in a driver to attempt to run by another stage 
traveling in the same direction, and to make the proprie- 
tors responsible for all the injuries passengers may sustain, 
with severe damages for putting in jeopardy the lives and 
limbs of peaceable citizens committed to their care." 

It will be seen that this was called a crash, as was 
also the rail road accident. There was a wide difference 
between the two, but it should be borne in mind that 
one was the crash of 1823, and the other the crash of 



[In the year 1798, the Rev. Timothy Dwight, presidpnt of Yale 
College, passed through this city, and has given the following ac- 
count f what he saw in the second volume of his Travels, p. 491.] 

Tuesday, October 4, we left Schenectady in the morning ; 
and rode to Albany: sixteen miles. The road passed 
over a pitch pine plain, nearly a perfect flat chiefly covered 
with a forest; the soil miserably lean; the houses few, 
and poor; and the scenery remarkably dull, and discou- 
raging. The road also is encumbered with sand; and, 
unless immediately after a rain, covered with an atmo- 
sphere of dust. 

Albany is the second town in this State. From New 
York it is distant one hundred and sixty miles ; from Bos- 
ton one hundred and sixty- five; from New Haven one 
hundred and seven; and from Quebec South by West, 
three hundred and forty. 

It was first settled about the year 1612; and the spot, 
where it was afterwards built, was visited by the cele- 
brated English navigator, Henry Hudson, in 1609. It 
was first called Beverwyck; then fort Orange; then Wil- 
liamstadt. The name of Albany it received in 1664. 

Albany was a Dutch Colony; and, until within a few 
years, the inhabitants have been, almost without an excep- 
tion, descendants from the original settlers. From this fact 
it has derived its whole aspect, and character. The 
houses are almost all built in the Dutch manner; stand- 
ing endwise upon the street ; with high, sharp roofs, small 
windows, and low ceilings. The appearance of these 
houses is ordinary, dull, and disagreeable. The house, 
first erected in this town, is now standing; and was built 
of bricks, brought from Holland. If I were to finish this 

[Annals viii.] 17 

182 Albany as seen by Dr. Dwighf* 

picture according to the custom of poets and paintersf, 
and in obedience to the rules of criticism, by grouping 
with it animated beings, I should subjoin, that the mas- 
ter of the house, and often one or two of his neighbours, 
are regularly seen, sitting* in a most phlegmatic com- 
posure in the porch, and smoking with great deliberation 
from morning until night, j 

The site of Albany is an interval on the Western side 
of the Hudson, and the brow of an elevated pine plain, 
rising rapidly at a small distance from the river. The 
soil of the elevation is clay. Both grounds easily imbibe, 
and retain, water. The streets therefore, few of which 
have been paved until very lately, have been usually in- 
cumbered with mud, so as at times to render travelling 
scarcely practicable. When I was in this city, in the 
year 1792, a waggon, passing through the heart of it, was 
fairly mired in one of the principal streets. 

Since that period, an essential change has taken place 
in Albany. A considerable number of the opulent inhab- 
itants, whose minds were enlarged by the influence of 
the Revolutionary war, and the extensive intercourse 
which it produced among them and their countrymen, and 
still more by education, and travelling, have resolutely 
broken through a set of traditionary customs, venerable 
by age, and strong by universal attachment. These gen- 
tlemen have built many handsome houses in the modern 
English style; and in their furniture, manners, and mode 
of living, have adopted the English customs. To this 

* 1708. 

t That this custom is not new, may be seen in the following 
passage from the travels of Professor Kalm, June 1749. Speaking 
of Albany, he says, " The street doors are generally in the middle 
of the houses, and on both sides are seats, in which, during fair 
weather, the people sit and spend almost the whole day, especially on 
those which are in the shadow of their houses. In the evening these 
seats are covered with people of both sexes; but this is rather trou- 
blesome, as those who pass by are obliged to greet every body, unless 
they will shock the politeness of the inhabitants of this town." 
Kalm, Vol. 2, p. 92, 2rf edition, Lond. 

Albany as seen by Dr. Dwight. 183 

important change the strangers, who within a few years 
have become a numerous body of the inhabitants, have 
extensively contributed. All these, from whatever coun- 
try derived, have chosen to build, and live, in the Eng- 
lish manner. 

The preference, given to the customs of the English, 
must descend with increasing influence to their children. 
In the English language all accompts, instruments of con- 
veyance, records and papers employed in legal processes, 
must be written. The attainment of this language has 
therefore, now become indispensable to the safety, as 
well as to the prosperity, of every individual. Urged by 
this necessity, and influenced by the example of their 
superiours, the humblest classes of the Dutch must, with- 
in a short period, adopt the English language, and man- 
ners. Within two generations there will probably be no 
distinction between the descendants of the different 
nations. Intermarriages are also becoming more frequent ; 
and will hasten this event. 

The streets of Albany are, in a loose sense, parallel, 
and right angled, to the river. The ground admitted, 
very happily, of a regular location: but, as in other 
places, this beautiful object was unthought of by the first 
settlers. Market, Pearl, and State streets, the principal 
ones, are straight and handsome. The two former are 
parallel with the river; the latter meets them at right 

The public buildings in this town are a State-house; 
two Dutch, two Presbyterian, one Episcopal, one Ger- 
man Lutheran, one Methodist, and one Roman Catholic, 
churches; a building, containing the offices of State, two 
banks; a prison; an arsenal; a hospital; a City Hall; 
and a Tontine Coffee House. One of the Dutch churches 
is new, handsome, and ornamented with two towers 
crowned with cupolas. None of the other public build- 
ings claim any particular attention. 

Since I visited this city in 1792, it has fortunately, I 
think, been ravaged by two fires, one of them supposed, 
the other known to be kindled by incendiaries. The 

184 Albany as seen by Dr. Dwight. 

tenants of the houses which were burned have in many 
instances been sufferers, but the town and the proprietors 
have gained much. The house lots have commanded a 
higher price than could have been obtained both for houses 
and lots antecedently to the fires, and the town has 
already been improved not a little in its appearance and 
will probably be much more improved hereafter. There 
are persons who will imagine this to be a matter of little 
consequence. I wish them to consider for a moment the 
following hints. 

There is a kind of symmetry in the thoughts, feelings, 
and efforts of the human mind. Its taste, intelligence, 
affections, and conduct are so intimately related that no 
preconcertion can prevent them from being mutually 
causes and effects. The first thing powerfully operated 
on, and in its turn proportionally operative is the taste. 
The perception of beauty and deformity, of refinement 
and grossness, of decency and vulgarity, of propriety and 
indecorum is the first thing which influences man to at- 
tempt air escape from a grovelling, brutish character; a 
character in which morality is effectually chilled or 
absolutely frozen. In most persons this perception is 
awakened by what maybe called the exteriour of society, 
particularly by the mode of building. Uncouth, mean, 
ragged, dirty houses constituting the body of any town, 
will regularly be accompanied by coarse grovelling man- 
ners. The dress, the furniture, the equipage, the mode 
of living and the manners will all correspond with the 
appearance of the buildings and will universally be in 
every such case of a vulgar and debased nature. On the 
inhabitants of such a town it will be difficult if not impos- 
sible to work a conviction that intelligence is either ne- 
cessary or useful. Generally they will regard both 
learning and science only with contempt. Of morals 
except in the coarsest form, and that which has the 
least influence on the heart, they will scarcely have any 
apprehensions. The rights enforced by municipal law 
they may be compelled to respect, and the corresponding 
duties they may be necessitated to perform. But the 

Albany as seen by Dr. Dwight. 185 

rights and obligations, which lie beyond the reach oii 
magistracy, in which the chief duties of morality are 
found, and from which the chief enjoyments of society, 
spring, will scarcely gain even their passing notice. 
They may pay their debts but will neglect almost every 
thing of value in the education of their children. 

The very fact that men see good houses built around 
them will more than almost any thing else awaken in 
them a sense of superiority in those by whom such 
houses are inhabited. The same sense is derived in the 
same manner from handsomer dress, furniture and equip- 
age. The sense of beauty is necessarily accompanied by 
a perception of the superiority which it possesses over 
deformity, and is instinctively felt to confer this supe- 
riority on those who can call it their own over those who 
can not. This I apprehend is the manner in which 
coarse society is first started towards improvement; for. 
no objects but those which are sensible can make any. 
considerable impressions on coarse minds. On these 
grounds I predicted to my friends in this town a speedy 
change for the better in its appearance, and in the cha- 
racter and mariners of its inhabitants. I have since seen 
this prediction extensively fulfilled." 

It will perhaps be asked here, whether all that has 
been said and believed concerning the virtue of cottages, 
and the purity of humble life, is erroneous; and whether 
splendour and polish are necessary to sound morals; 
whether wealth ceases now to draw luxury, and other 
vices in its train; and whether the golden mean has, by 
some strange revolution in human nature, become dan- 
gerous to piety, while ambition and show have, in. 
consequence of a revolution not less strange, actually 
assumed the province of its foster-parents. To these 
questions I answer in the negative. There are virtuous 
cottages still ; though their number is no w, and always has 
been, less than it has been supposed by the fancy of the 
poet and the novelist; and sound morals can now be 
found where there is neither polish nor splendour. But 
the debate is not between cottages and palaces, nor be- 

186 Albany as seen by Dr. Dwight. 

tween poverty and opulence; it lies between taste and 
the want of it, between grossness and refinement. The 
mediocrity which has been dignified with the name of 
golden, and which prevails more extensively in the 
Northern American states than in any other country, is, 
in mathematical language, a variable quantity; rising and 
falling, as what is called wealth in any country, rises or 
falls. Its golden nature consists, not in the amount of a 
man's possession, but in the relative situation in which it 
places him as it respects the extremes of society; a posi- 
tion equally removed from insolence and meanness. The 
station to which it gives birth, not the degree of property 
possessed, the station I mean, in which it induces the 
man to place himself, is that, which principally renders 
this mean so valuable. 

In these letters you may observe, that only a single 
style of building and living has been particularly com- 
mended; viz: that which is neat, tidy and convenient. 
This is a style always within the reach of those who 
possess the mediocrity in question. Where it prevails, I 
am assured, if my experience teaches me any thing, 
virtue in every form is much oftener found than with its 
opposites, vulgarism, grossness and dirt. Persons sur- 
rounded by these accompaniments may be sanctified, and 
therefore may be virtuous: yet, so far as I have observed, 
they are commonly exuberant sources of vice as well as 
of wretchedness, and are scarcely less hostile to virtue 
than to comfort. 

I have mentioned that only a single style of building 
and living has been here recommended. Permit me to 
add, that I am still willing with Demosthenes to have 
public buildings assume a style superiour to this, and am 
not afraid of seeing them even splendid. Yet, 
Sit modus in rebus. 

At the head of Market-Street stands the mansion of the 
Hon. Stephen Van Renssellaer, late Lieutenant Govern- 
our of this State. Mr. Van Rensellaer is the eldest 
male heir of the first branch of the Rensselaer family, 
one of the most numerous and respectable in the former 

Albany as seen by Dr. Dwight. 187 

province of New- York, and among the most distinguished 
at the present time. The mansion house in which he 
resides struck my eye as exhibiting an appearance re- 
markably comporting with the fact, that, for a long 
period, it had been the residence of an ancient and dis- 
tinguished family. The situation though not much ele- 
vated is fine, cheerful and prospective. It is the front of 
a noble interval in the township of Watervleit, contain- 
ing seven hundred acres. East of this interval flows the 
Hudson; and, beyond it, is seen a handsome acclivity 
rising from its margin, upon which stands the neat, 
sprightly village of Bath. The house is large, and vene- 
rable, and looks as if it was the residence of respecta- 
bility and worth. The hospitality which reigns here has 
ever been honourable to the successive proprietors. 

At a small distance from this house Westward is the 
most extensive collection of manufactures which I have 
seen in the possession of a single man. The proprietor 
is James Caldwell, Esq. In these works barley is hulled, 
peas are split, and hair powder, starch, snuff, tobacco, 
mustard, and chocolate, are manufactured. I visited 
them in the year 1792; and thought the manner of per- 
forming the business ingenious and happy. In 1794 they 
'were burnt. The loss was estimated at $37,000. 
Within eleven months they were rebuilt and ready for 
their respective operations. In these works forty boys 
find employment beside other workmen. 

The trade of Albany is extensive. It consists in the 
exchange of foreign commodities for the produce of a 
large, fertile country; and must, I think, continue to 
increase through a long period. Heretofore the inhabit- 
ants pursued a profitable commerce with the Indians, 
and were for many years still more profitably employed 
in the lucrative business of supplying successive armies 
with almost every thing which armies consume. Many 
of the inhabitants have of course become rich. This has 
been the fact particularly since the formation of the 
present American government, 

188 Albany as seen by Dr. Dwight. 

I know not that Albany has ever suffered any serious 
evils from the savages. 

I ought not to leave this town without paying a tribute 
of respect to the Hon. Philip Schuyler, major-general in 
the American army during the revolutionary war. This 
gentleman was born at Albany, in the year 1731, of an 
ancient and respectable family. In very early life he was 
distinguished for superiour talents, and an energy and 
activity almost singular. He was an officer in the army 
in the war which commenced at Lake George, 1755. At 
an early period of life he became a member of the New- 
York Legislature; and was soon distinguished for his in- 
telligence and influence. To him and Governour Clin- 
ton it was chiefly owing, that this province made an 
early and decided resistance to those British measures 
which terminated in the independence of the colonies. 
When the revolutionary war commenced he was ap- 
pointed a major-general; and was always an active, use- 
ful officer wherever he was stationed. After the retreat 
of St. Clair from Ticonderoga, he contributed largely to 
the defence of his country by his prudent and vigorous 
exertions. In the Senate of New- York he contributed 
probably more than any other man, to the code of laws 
adopted by this State. Of the Old Congress he was a 
useful member; of the New he was a Senator from its 
commencement, and was chosen a second time in 1797. 
He died at his own seat just below Albany, Nov. 18th, 

In the year 1790, this city contained 3,498 inhabitants, 
in 1800, 5,387, in 1810, 9,356. 

Wednesday, October 11, we rode from Albany to New- 
Lebanon; and lodged five miles below the spring; the 
distance being thirty-one miles. We arrived late; being 
prevented from commencing our journey by some neces- 
sary hindrances 'till 11 o'clock. 

After crossing the ferry, we rode over a charming in- 
terval at Greenbush, handsomer and more fertile than 
any other, which I have seen on this river. It extends 
several miles towards the South; and is divided into 

Albany as seen by Dr. Dwight. 189 

beautiful farms, and planted, in a thin dispersion, with 
houses and out buildings, whose appearance sufficiently 
indicates the easy circumstances of their proprietors. 
From the excellent gardens, which I have at times seen 
in this spot, and the congeniality of the soil to every hor- 
tulan production of this climate, I should naturally have 
believed, that the inhabitants, together with the neigh- 
bours, would have supplied the people of Albany with 
vegetables. Instead of this, they are principally furnished 
\}y the Shakers of New-Lebanon: a strong proof of 
the extreme reluctance, with which the Dutch farmers 
quit their ancient customs, even when allured by the 
prospects of superior gain. The Shakers, 1 have been 
informed, obtain by gardening a revenue, not less than 
from five to seven hundred pounds, New-York currency, 
per annum. 

From this interval we ascended the elevated grounds, 
by which it is bordered; and on the acclivity were pre- 
sented with a very fine view of the city of Albany; the 
high lands North of it ; the handsome seats in the neigh- 
bourhood; the river; and the pleasant intervals, by 
which for a great extent it is bordered on both sides. 
After we had ascended the hill, we found a long succes- 
sion of gradual swells, resembling those between Still- 
water and Schenectady: the soil a mixture of sand and 
clay, replenished everywhere with black, friable slate; 
and the surface forested with oak, chestnut, pine, &c. 
This tract is tolerably fertile, and well suited to the 
growth of wheat. Within five or six miles of the river 
the country becomes gradually more and more hilly; and 
the clay begins to be mixed with loam and gravel. 
Granite and limestone are found in considerable quanti- 
ties; and the forests become chiefly oak and chestnut. 
Our road, after leaving Greenbush, passes through 
Schodac, and Stephentown. The principal part of this 
County is the property of the Hon. Stephen Van Rensel- 
laer, from whom it derives its name. 

There is a small village in Schodac, containing about 
thirty houses ; and another in Stephentown, of perhaps 

190 Albany as seen by Dr. Dwight. 

twenty, standing on the border of Kinderhook creek, at 
the' foot of a sprightly fall. The rest of this region is 
divided into farms, moderately fertile; and cultivated by 
tenants. The houses, which they inhabit, are generally 

Schodac contained in 1790, , in 1800, 3,788, in 

1810, 3,166 inhabitants. Stephentown contained in 
1790, 6,795, in 1800, 4,990, in 1810, 2,567 inhabitants. 

I suppose Schodac, in the first census, to have been in- 
cluded in Stephentown. 

The face of the country, after we left the vicinity of 
the Hudson, was nowhere very pleasant; yet from two 
sources we derived not a little gratification. One of 
them was a succession of running waters, everywhere 
limpid and murmuring. These a New-England traveller 
would in ordinary cases scarcely notice ; as being objects 
so universally met with in his own country. But we 
had travelled before we came to Schenectady, one hun- 
dred and seventy miles, without finding more than two 
or three cheerful streams, beside the Hudson, and the 
Mohawk: the season having been very dry. To us, 
therefore, living springs, murmuring brooks, and noisy 
mill-streams, were delightful; especially after crossing 
numerous channels, where water had once flowed; but 
where it then lay in dirty puddles, and disgusted the 
traveller by its loathsome effluvia. Nature seemed, here, 
animated anew. The earth, and the atmosphere, were 
charmingly freshened : and we finally lost the dull, fceavy 
spirits, which we had derived from the melancholy 
grounds, opposite to Crown Point, and those which lie 
between that fortress and Sandyhill. 

The other source of our gratification was the Catskill 
Mountains; of which we had several very interesting 



I Fa-cm Winterbotham's Yiew of the United States of America.} 

The city of Albany is situated upon the west side of 
Hudson's rjver, one hundred and fifty miles north of the 
city of New York, in latitude 42 deg. 36 min., and is, by 
charter granted in 1686, one mile upon the river, and 
sixteen back. It contains upwards of one thousand 
houses, built mostly by trading people on the margin of 
the river. The houses stand chiefly upon Pearl, Market, 
and Water streets, and six other streets or lanes, which 
cross them at right angles. They are mostly built in 
the old Dutch Gothic style, with the gable end to the street, 
which custom the first settlers brought with them from 
Holland. The gable end is commonly of brick, with the 
heavy moulded ornament slanting, with notches like 
stairs, and an iron horse for a weather-cock at top. The 
houses are seldom more than one story and a half high, 
and have but little convenience, and less elegance; but 
they are kept very neat, being rubbed with a mop almost 
every day, and scoured every week. Many new houses, 
however, have lately been built in this city, all in the 
modern style ; the inhabitants are paving the streets in 
the New York plan with foot- ways, and making other 

The city of Albany contains about four thousand in- 
habitants, collected from various parts. As great a 
variety of languages are spoken in Albany as in any 
town of the United States, but the English predominates, 
and the use of every other is constantly lessening. Ad- 
venturers, in pursuit of wealth, are led here by the 
advantages for trade which this place affords. 

Albany is unrivaled in its situation. It stands on the 
bank of one of the finest rivers in the world, at the head 

192 Schenectady. 

of a sloop navigation. It enjoys a salubrious air, as is 
evinced by the longevity of its inhabitants. It is the 
natural emporium of the increasing trade of a large ex- 
tent of country west and north ; a country of an ex- 
cellent soil, abounding in every article of the West-India 
market, plentifully watered with navigable lakes, creeks, 
and rivers, as yet only partially peopled, but settling 
with almost unexampled rapidity, and capable of afford- 
ing subsistence and affluence to millions of inhabitants. 
No part of America affords a more eligible opening for 
emigrants than this ; and when the contemplated locks 
and canals are completed, the bridge over the Mohawk 
river erected, and convenient roads opened into every 
part of the country, all which will, it is expected, be ac- 
complished in a few years, Albany will probably increase 
and flourish beyond almost every other city or town in 
the United States. 

The well-water in this city is extremely bad, scarcely 
drinkable by those who are not accustomed to it. It 
oozes through a stiff blue clay, and it imbibes in its pas- 
sage the fine particles common to that kind of soil; this 
discolours it, and when exposed any length of time to the 
air, it acquires a disagreeable taste. Indeed, all the 
water for cooking is brought from the river, and many 
families use it to drink. The water in the wells is un- 
wholesome, being full of little insects, resembling, except 
in size, those which we frequently see in stagnated rain- 
water. But the inhabitants are about to remedy this in- 
convenience, by constructing water- works to convey 
good water into the city. 

The public buildings are, a Low Dutch Church, one 
for Presbyterians, one for Germans or High Dutch, one 
for Episcopalians a hospital, the city hall, and a hand- 
some brick gaol. 


Skenectady is sixteen miles north-west of Albany, in 
Albany county, situated on the banks of the Mohawk 
river. The town is compact and regular, built of brick, 

Schenectady. 193 

and excepting a few, in the old Dutch style, on* a rich 
flat of low land, surrounded with, hills. The windings of 
the river through the town, and the fields, which are 
often overflowed in the spring afford a beautiful prospect 
about harvest time. As it is at the foot of navigation on 
a long river, which passes through a very fertile country, 
one would suppose it to embrace much of the commerce 
of it; but originally knowing no other than the fur trade, 
since the revolution the place has decayed, and no ad- 
vantage been taken of its happy situation. 

[Annals mii.] 18 



[About 1810, Mr. John Melish, an English merchant, 
traveled extensively in this country, and in 1812 pub- 
lished his observations in two volumes.] 

My tour of discovery being completed, I had no very 
important information to receive at Albany, but I still 
continued my journal, and Mr. Fellows of Geneva having 
favored me with letters of introduction to Mr. Southwick 
and Mr. North, these two gentlemen showed me a great 
deal of attention, and obligingly answered all my inqui- 
ries. In obedience to the request of my friend, Mr. M'- 
Intyre, I called on his son, the comptroller, and he also 
showed me much attention. I was quite pleased with 
my visit. 

Albany is the seat of government of the state of New- 
York, and is situated on the west side of .the Hudson 
river, at the head of tide water, 180 miles from the sea. 
It runs nearly a mile along the river, and about half a 
mile back from it. The city is divided into streets, some 
of which are spacious, but others rather narrow and ir- 
regular. They are however pretty convenient, and there 
is a line of excellent wharfs and warehouses. The 
houses amount to about 1300, and the inhabitants to 
nearly 10,000. The houses are mostly built of brick, 
and many of them are elegant. The state-house stands 
on an elevated situation at the head of State street, and 
is a very handsome building, with most splendid and 
convenient apartments for the legislature to meet in. 
The old state-house is also in State street, and is occu- 
pied by the different public offices. The other public 
buildings are the arsenal, powder-house, city library, 3 
banks, 10 churches, 2 market-houses, 2 masonic lodges, 
a theatre, and Cook's reading-room, an institution pro- 
bably better supplied with newspapers, and other peri- 
odical publications, than ony other in the United States. 

John Melish in Albany. 195 

The city is well supplied with water. There are two 
excellent springs three miles to the westward, from 
whence it is conveyed in pipes, to every part of the city. 
Lots in the principal streets are as high as in New York, 
and the rent of houses and stores is in proportion. This 
being the great mart, in which the trade of an extensive 
back country centres, it is well supplied with provisions ; 
but the outlet to the great commercial city, New York, 
is so easy, by the fine river Hudson, that all articles 
which can be easily shipped, are kept pretty high. Flcur 
is about 10 dollars per barrel; beef 6 dollars; pork 5 
dollars per cwt. ; bacon 12 cents per Ib. ; fowls 12 each; 
geese 25 ; turkeys 62 ; cyder 1 dollar 50 cents per barrel ; 
beer 3 to 10 dollars, according to quality; porter 7 dol- 
lars 25 cents. Board from 2 to 4 dollars. House rent 
for mechanics 20 to 60 dollars. 

The principal manufactures at Albany are those of 
grain, brewing and distilling. There are no manufacto- 
ries of cloth in the city, but there are several in the 
neighborhood, and there is a disposition in the citizens 
to encourage them, though apparently against their in- 
terest, the trade of the city being almost wholly commer- 
cial. The principal trade is by the river, on which is 
sent down grain and provisions, timber, malt-liquors, and 
spirits; and they receive in return groceries, dry goods, 
hardware and crockery, to supply a great part of the 
country. American manufactured glass, however, be- 
gins to make a prominent appearance in the warehouses; 
and they will, no doubt, feel the advantage of other ar- 
ticles of American manufacture soon. Albany, from its 
situation, must be always a place of extended commerce. 
At present, it suffers by the reaction of an over-strained 
foreign commerce, but that will be but temporary. In- 
ternal manufactures and commerce, being once organized, 
will more than compensate for the loss of the other. 

The citizens of Albany are very mixed. The original 
settlement was by the Dutch, and their descendants form 
a very prominent part of the society. Of Scottish set- 
tlers there are a great many, and the rest are principally 

196 John Melish in Albany. 

New Englanders. In such an assemblage, we may natu- 
rally look for industry and enterprise, and a general at- 
tention to education and the improvement of the mind, 
all of which are very perceptible in the citizens. There 
are good mechanics in all the different branches; and 
there are 10 clergymen, 20 doctors, and 45 lawyers, 
The schools are numerous ; the library and reading-room 
have been already noticed. Two newspapers are pub- 
lished, each twice a week, which have a pretty extensive 
circulation. That the place is healthy, appears in the 
countenances of the ladies, many of whom are handsome, 
with beautiful florid complexions. That it is cold in 
winter, is indicated by the general use of stoves, the 
hard frost in the ground, and the appearance of snow; 
so, for fear of being storm-staid, I shall close this chap- 
ter, and hurry off to New York. 

My anticipation was realized; there was a considera- 
ble fall of snow this morning. I engaged a passage for 
my horse by one of the packets, fare 4 dollars, exclusive 
of board; and for myself by the steamboat, fare 7 dol- 
lars, including board; and getting on board of that ele- 
gant conveyance, we started from the wharf at 9 o'clock. 
The snow continued to fall, and the weather was very 
hazy, so that we could not enjoy the view on the river; 
but we had a .very comfortable view in the boat. The 
cabin was sufficiently large to accommodate 80 or 100 
people; the births were neatly mounted with drapery, 
and contained good clean bedding; there was a good 
stove in the room; our company, though not numerous, 
were sociable and agreeable; and our captain kept a most 
excellent table. I should mention that this was the 
North River steamboat, captain Roorbach, and to that 
gentleman's politeness I was indebted for a variety of 
information regarding this river. Four other steamboats 
were upon the river, but it was supposed that two of 
them would be stopped, as they were started without the 
sanction of the patentees. A most superb new boat had 
just been started by the patentees, Livingston and Ful- 
ton, who are entitled to great praise for their exertions 

John Melish in Albany. 197 

in bringing into active operation an invention of such 
importance to the navigation of the American inland 

The banks of the river are nearly the same as above 
Albany, for 20 miles, to Hudson ; the soil is pretty good, 
and the settlements thick on both sides. The river is a 
noble stream, augmented, as it proceeds, by a great num- 
ber of tributary streams on each side. Towards night, 
we were four miles below Poughkeepsie, and the captain, 
thinking it too dark to run on, came to anchor, and re- 
mained during the night. 



[From the Albany Daily Advertiser, 1825.] 

In the vicinity of Albany there are several waterfalls 
that have attracted the notice, and been often visited by 
the lovers of picturesque scenery. Tivoli, Tempe, and 
Ida, are classic names, which in the defect of more ap- 
propriate or more descriptive ones, have been applied 
to well known objects, and the Cohoes has been often 
sung by poets, and described by tourists. But it is not 
generally known that there is a beautiful cataract on 
the northern declivity of the Helderberg, about eight 
miles from our city. This waterfall is formed by the 
Vly Kill, a tributary of Norman's Kill, about half a 
mile from its confluence. The Vly Kill is a small 
stream arising in the Helderberg mountains, but its 
water is sufficient, even at this season, to exhibit the 
cataract to great advantage. The perpendicular, or 
nearly perpendicular pitch of the water is 65 feet about 
30 feet from the top the descending sheet of water is 
broken by a projecting rock, like the Valino in Italy. 
The quantity of water is about half as great as that of 
the admired Valino. The rock that forms the preci- 
pice over which the water is precipitated, is a well 
characterized grau wacke it is distinctly stratified, 
and the strata have an inclination to the southwest- 
viewed from below, the stratification has a very distinct 
and somewhat artificial appearance, as of a wall, and the 
apparent dissimilarity of the different strata, suggests 
the idea that it discloses several geological formations, 
but on inspection it is found that the strata are only grau 
wacke, alternately compact and fissile. The more com- 
pact stratum soon becomes fissile on exposure to the 
atmosphere, and is easily decomposed. We approached 

Cascade of the Vly Kill. 199 

the cascade from the west, through an open field, and 
our first view of it was from the top of the fall. The 
Vly Kill was entirely concealed from view, until we ar- 
rived at this place. The eastern shore is a steep decli- 
vity covered with a lofty original forest, and the stream 
soon disappears below in a deep rocky wooded ravine. 
The country to the south is also wooded, and the 
high trees intercept in some degree the view of the 
Helderberg summits. To the north the eye commands 
the distant range of the Green mountains the wide val- 
ley of Albany, and near at hand are seen the rich mea- 
dows and cultivated farms of Norman's Kill. The scene 
is considerably extensive and varied, but wholly rural. 
We have no cities, villages, turnpike roads, canals or 
rivers white with commerce, within the view. We have 
also attained an elevation that gives us a little of the 
freshness of the mountain air. To persons of leisure, 
of taste, and to lovers of a monetary escape from the 
bustle and dust of a city, we can confidently commend 
this excursion. To the geologist our little tour presents 
several curious and extremely interesting phenomena. 
The clay, which appears so conspicuous at Albany, and 
is beautifully stratified, as may be seen in many places 
where it has been recently excavated to fill up the pier, 
is a regular geological formation, entitled to its place, 
like sandstone or wacke. I suppose this formation to be 
the plastic clay of Phillips and Conybeare. This clay 
reposes on argillite, and upon it is deposited the sand 
and boulders so conspicuous in the country around Alba- 
ny. This is supposed to be the diluvial deposit of Phil- 
lips and Conybeare. 

On passing over the sand plain the clay is seen to crop 
out, or is thrown into hillocks, near the Helderberg. 
The strata of clay when examined in these low hills is 
irregular and indefinite in its inclination, as secondary 
or transition rocks are always found to be in the near 
vicinity of primitive, if the primitive is more elevated 
than the secondary. This fact evinces the antiquity of 
the clay, as compared with the diluvial deposits. The 

200 Cascade of the Vly Kill. 

diluvial being seldom stratified if stratified never in- 
clined, and above all, never confused in the direction of 
its strata, by older formations. The plastic clay, having 
a strong affinity for water, rapidly subsides towards its 
surrounding level, and hills or precipices of it would 
soon disappear, unless very large, or in some way pro- 
tected from atmospheric influence. From the operation 
of natural causes the character of the tract we are en- 
deavoring to describe, is rendered some what obscure, and 
some attention is requisite to determine the confused 
inclination of the strata to which we allude. 

It is evinced, however, distinctly and unequivocally, 
in the undulating aspect of the country along the valley 
of the Norman's Kill. Within this hilly and disturbed 
district, corresponding with the spurs and northern out- 
line of the Helderberg mountain, the Norman's Kill pur- 
sues its way to the Hudson. To the north of this 
stream, extends a slightly undulating diluvial sand, rest- 
ing on the plastic clav, and usually concealing it from 
the view. This sand is of very limited depth ; in many 
places indeed the underlying clay crops out, forming al- 
ternate tracts of clay and sand. The clay contains a 
considerable portion of carbonate lime, but no organic 
remains to my knowledge have been noticed in it or in 
the diluvial sand. Primitive boulders, from a few ounces 
to many tons weight, are seen in many places connected 
with the sand. As far as I have been able to examine 
them, these boulders appear to be fragments derived from 
the mountains in the vicinity of Lake George, Saratoga 
and Lake Champlain. The remark was first made (I 
believe by Col. Young,) that the direction of the current 
that scattered these fragments must have been from 
north to south. H. Hayden, predicating his conclusion 
on similar phenomena, arid many other geologists, have 
arrived at the same supposition. I have several remarks 
to make on this subject, but I fear my communication is 
already to long. The mercury also, in the coolest shade 
that I can find, now stands at 92 and I am admonished 
to defer the consideration of the true cosmogony to an- 
other occasion. 

Cascade of the Vly Kill. 201 


Near the cascade of the Vly Kill, elevated about two 
hundred feet above the level of the Norman's Kill, we 
noticed a rounded block of sienite of three or four tons 
weight, which was filled with nests of a redish cocoa- 
lite, arranged in the same manner as we had noticed the 
chrystals of this mineral, in places near Whitehall, at 
the southern extremity of Lake Champlain. A boulder 
of porphyritic sienite of still larger size, was seen at the 
same spot, in which the feldspar, in large rhombic masses, 
had the same aspect, and the quartz had the same green 
tinge which we had noticed in places at Moria, near 
Crownpoint. A large mass of gray granite was also 
noticed, in which the mica is in small black scales, the 
feldspar and the quartz of different shades of green 
the fracture uneven, &c. This granite is coarse grained 
and compact a specimen of it could not be distinguished 
from one taken from the granite of Westport, opposite 
Crownpoint. After examining the boulders in this vi- 
cinity with some care, I have not been able to recognize 
fragments of rocks from the south or west. 

If the distribution of these rolled fragments were en- 
tirely accidental, or dependent on gravitation, we should 
expect to meet with such substances as abound most in 
the immediate vicinity, more especially at a greater ele- 
vation, as at the Catskill or Helderberg mountains; but 
no fragments peculiar to these higher and contiguous 
eminences are found, while the primitive and more dis- 
tant mountains to the north seem evidently to have con- 
tributed to the diluvial formation of this tract. In the 
channel of Wendell's creek near Albany, several large 
primitive fragments are noticed, which evince a similar 
evidence of their being out of place. Here also is an 
anomalous boulder of primitive lime stone it is white 
granular, the grains rather small, and the whole mass 
a little stained, black or bluish. This mass is called 
anomalous, because after having viewed the country to 
the north as far as Crownpoint, I have seen no such lime 

202 Cascade of the Vly Ml. 

rock in any place. At New Lebanon a similar stone is 
seen, and it exists in the same range, as far north as Mid- 
dlebury, in Vermont, but it requires some violence and dis- 
tortion of our favorite hypothesis, to transport such a 
mass from New Lebanon to its present place, if indeed 
it is doing justice to this subject, I mean the direction of 
the diluvial current as ascertained by present appear- 
ances, to call it hypothetical. The history of such a 
state of things is recorded in a system of medals or 
monuments as durable and as unequivocal as the ever- 
lasting mountains. 

The influence of a northern current is strikingly illus- 
trated, on the farm called Norman vale, the property of 
the late Lt. Gov. Taller. Near the place where the 
Hunger Kill crosses the low range of clay hills, towards 
the Norman's Kill, there is a gap or breach in the soil 
of considerable extent, which from its configuration 
strongly suggests the idea of its having been formed by 
water. The clay in this vicinity is entirely denuded of 
diluvial sand, but heaps of gravel and pebbles are distri- 
buted, as in bars formed by running water, in the inter- 
mediate rivers. At the entrance of the level, fertile 
tract, called Norman vale, there is a remarkable bar of 
this kind. It extends from north to south, at the dis- 
tance from the gap above mentioned, that it would natu- 
rally occupy, if formed by such a current as we have 
supposed. This bar is a short distance from the place 
that appears to have been the narrowest throat of the 
channel, where the water, in beginning to lose the velo- 
city it had when comparatively confined, would naturally 
deposit the heaviest particles of earth or stone that were 
carried along by it, at the point where the force of the 
current began to be diminished, as at the mouth of riv- 
ers. This bar forms a conspicuous mound which is 
crossed by the road. On our return, we made a circuit- 
ous route along the Norman's Kill ; we were conducted 
by a private road through a succession of well cultivated 
farms. Between this tract and the public roads, there 
is a part of the diluvial sand plain covered with a thick 

Cascade of the Vly Kill. 203 

low growth of pine, oak, poplar, &c. There are a few 
improved farms scattered through this sandy tract, and 
the soil though light, is found to amply reward culti- 
vation. These farms are so distant from each other, as 
not to destroy the wild and secluded aspect of an unre- 
claimed country. The forest serves the more effectually 
to insulate the valley of the Norman's Kill from the 
populous, the traveled, and the busy world a more se- 
cluded situation can hardly be imagined. As a conve- 
nient and agreeable excursion, I take pleasure in recom- 
mending that to the cascade of Vly Kill to the attention 
of my fellow citizens and to strangers. 



The records of the colony of Rensselaerwyck and of 
the city of Albany show how much restraint was continu- 
ally thrown around the retailing of spirituous liquors. 

There was a provision in new Amsterdam in 1641, 
which reads as follows : 

' Whereas complaints are made that some of our in- 
habitants have commenced to tap beer during divine 
service, and use a small kind of measure, which is in 
contempt of our religion, and must ruin the state," and 
annexes a penalty of 25 guilders, besides the forfeiture of 
the beer for the use of the attorney-general, upon each 
offender; and such offender " shall not tap beer again for 
three months." Whether this enactment provided the 
attorney-general with a sufficient quantity of beer for his 
own consumption does not appear upon the minutes, and 
is left wholly to conjecture. 

It is amusing to notice the complaints made by the 
governor, twenty years later, against retailers of brandy, 
for selling that liquor to the Indians. The rate of ex- 
change was one pint of brandy for a schepel (three pecks) 
of wheat. 

The regulations in other respects, at some places, were 
very strict in terms, but not rigidly enforced. For in- 
stance, at Wilt wick it was declared that if any person 
should desire to leave the place to take care of his private 
concerns, or should wish to go to the Manhattans, 
Fort Orange or any other place, "he shall notify his 
intended departure, and write directly on his arrival there, 
under the penalty of twenty-four stuyvers." There ap- 
pears to be no salvo for those who could not write. 

Another regulation was no doubt highly salutary, as 
follows: " No one shall appear drunk on guard, nor on 
parade, nor curse, nor swear, nor make any noise, nor 
blaspheme the religious worship, or the holy sacrament, 
under the penalty of 25 guilders " ($10). 




From New York Colonial MSS., vol. xxiv, Secretary's office. 

[This document seems to be the original rules and regulations 
concerning the Indian trade, a part of which was yearly renewed by 
the common council, and will be found in the City Records, printed 
in the previous volumes of these Annals. The copy in the secretary's 
office is mutilated by time and use, as will be seen by the omissions 
in the printed pages which follow.] 

Citty of Albany Set. 

Att a Common Councill held at y e Citty Hall of y e said 
Citty, on y e 14th day of September, in the second 
year of the Reign off our Souveraigne Lord James the 
Second, by the Grace of God of England, Scotland, 
France and Irland King, Defender of y e faith, Su- 
pream and only Lord of y e Province of N : Yorke, 
&c., and in y e year of our Lord 1686, before Pieter 
Schuyler Esq. Mayor, Isaack Svvinton Esq. Recorder, 
Dirk Wessells, Jan Jansz.Bleeker, Johannes Wendell, 
David Schuyler, and Adriaen Gerritse, Aldermen, 
and Jochim Staets, Lawrence Van Ale, Melgert Wyn- 
antse, Isaak Vplank, Albert Ryckman and John 
Lansing, Assistants. 

Whereas his Excell. Thomas Dongan, Capt. Gen. and 
Governour under his said Maj. of y e Province of N: York 
and Dependencies, by virtue of y e Power and Authority 
in him being, from and under his said Maj. in and by a 
certain Charter beareing date y e 22d day of July last 

[Annals, viii.] 19 

206 Orders Regulating the Indian Trade. 

past, and given under y e Scale of y e said Province for y e 
consideracon therein expressed, amongst diverse other 
things, did Grant Ratify and Confirm, unto us y e s d 
Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of the Citty of Albany, 
to have, hold and enjoy the Priviledge, Preheminence 
and Advantage of haveing within our owne walls the sole 
management of ye Trade with all the Indians liveing 
within, and to y e eastward, northward and westward of 
y e said county of Albany, within y e compasse of his said 
Majs. Dominion here, therein and thereby prohibiteing 
and dischargeing all and every of y e Inhabitants of ye 
said Province of New Yorke (y e Inhabitants of y e Citty 
of Albany only excepted) to trade or trafique with any 
of y e five Nations of Indians called the Sinnekes, Cay- 
ouges, Onondages, Oneydes and Maquase, who live to 
the westward, or with any other Indian or Indians what- 
soever, within y e County of Albany or to y e eastward 
northward, or westward thereof, so farr as his said Majs. 
Dominions have doth or may extend, or to have or to 
keep within their houses or elsewhere any Indian Goods 
or Merchandize, upon y e pain and penalty of y e forfeiture 
and confiscation off such Indian Commodities, whether 
the same be Severs, Peltry, or other Indian Commodities 
whatsoever, except Indian Corn, Vennison, and drest 
Deer Skinns, so traded for and upon pain and penalty of 
y e forfeiture and confiscation of all such Indian Goods 
and Merchandize, as Gunns, Powder, Lead, Duffells, 
Rumm, and all other Indian Goods and Merchandize, 
which should att any time thereafter be found concealed, 
or kept in any house or place, without y e walls of y 6 said 
Citty and within > e said County, and y" other limites, and 
boundaries therein and herein before sett forth and pre- 
scribed to be sued for prosecuted and disposed off, in 
such manner as therein is more particularly sett forth 
and prescribed ; and whereas in and by y e s d Charter, itt 
is further granted ratifyed and confirmed unto us y e said 
Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of y e Citty of Albany, 
to make such further and oy r orders in y Regulacon of 
y e said Trade as to us from time to time should seem 

Orders Regulating the Indian Trade. 207 

convenient, as in and by the said Charter, relation 
thereto being had may more att large appear : 

Now Wee the said Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty 

of y e of Albany in Common Council mett and 

assembled in pursuance of y e premisses and by virtue of 
y e power and authority to us in and by y e said recited 
Charter graunted as afores d for y e due orderly manage- 
ment of y e Indian Trade, as well within y e said Citty and 
County as without the same, within y e limites, and 
boundaryes aforesaid, doe hereby make, ordeyn, publish 
and declare these our Orders Rules and Regulations, in 
manner following, that is to say: 

That no Person or Persons whatsoever within this 
Citty or County or without y e same, within y c limites 
and boundaries aforesaid, shall trade or trafique with any 
Indian or Indians, for any Bever or Peltry, or any Indian 
Commodities without y e Gates of this Citty, except for 
Indian Corn, Vennison and drest Deer Skinns, on Pen- 
alty of forfeiting such Indian Commodities, soe traded for 
as aforesaid, as also under penalty of being fined for so 
tradeing att y e discretion of such Court, before whom the 
same shall be prosecuted so as such fine exceed not 
twenty pounds courant money of this Country, one third 
of such Commodities so to be forfeited to y e Mayor of y e 
s d Citty for y e time being, one third to y e Mayor Alder- 
men and Commonalty of the said CUty, and one third to 
such person as shall sue for y e same, and two thirds of 
such fine to be adjudged to y e Mayor, Aldermen and 
Commonalty of y" said Citty, and y e other third to such 
person as shall sue for y e same. 

That no Person or Persons in this Citty or County, 
or without y e Same, within y e limittes and boundaries 
afores' that shall receive of any Indian or Indians any 
Indian Commodities except before excepted for Provisions, 
shall keep y e same, if of y e value of twelve shillings, in 
there houses or elsewhere without y e Citty, for ye space 
of more than twenty four hours after there receit of y e 
Same, on Pain and Penalty of forfeiting, such Indian 
goods so kept as afores d , two thirds to y e use of y e Mayor, 

208 Orders Regulating the Indian Trade. 

aldermen and Commonalty of y e said Citty, and y e oy r 
third to such person as shall sue for y e same. 

That no Person or Persons whatsoever within this 
Citty and County or without y e same, within y e limites 
and boundaries afores d , shall have and keep within there 
houses or elas ^here without y e Gates of s^ Citty, any 
Gunns, Strouds, BJanketts, Rumm, Pouder, Lead or 
other Indian Goods or Merchandizes whatsoever, on pain 
and penalty, of forfeiting such Indian Merchandizes and 
Commodities so kept and concealed as afores d , one Third 
part to y s use of y e Mayor of y e s d Citty for y e time 
being, one Third part to y e use of y e Mayor. Aldermen 
and Commonalty of y e s d Citty, and y e other third part 
to such person as shall sue for y e same. 

That no person or persons whatsoever within the said 
Citty or County, or without y e same, within y e limites 
and boundaries afores^, shall take or receive, upon any 
pretence whatsoever, any paun or paunesCzew' excepted) 
from any Indian or Indians whatsoever, upon pain of 
forfeiture of y e value of what such paun was left for, 
two third parts y e Mayor, Aldermen and Common- 
alty of y e said Citty, and part to such person 

as shall sue for y e same, and upon Pain and Penalty of 
haveing such pawne restored to such Indian or Indians 

That no person or persons whatsoever, within this 
Citty, shall upon y e arrivall of any Indian or Indians 
addresse themselves or speake to them of and concerning 
Trade, nor shall entice y m either within or without y e 
gates of y e said Citty, by Signs or oyrwise howsoever, to 
trade with themselves or any other Persones upon pain 
and penalty of paying for each offence iff committed with- 
out the gates of y e s d Citty, y e summe of tenn pounds, if 
within y e same, y e summe of six shillings only, one moyety 
thereof, to y e Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of y e 
said Citty, and y e oy r to such Person as shall sue for y e 

That no Person or Persons whatsoever within this 
Citty, shall send out or make use of any Broakers, 

Orders Regulating the Indian Trade. 209 

whether Christians or Indians, in y e management of y e 
Indian Trade, upon pain and penalty of paying as a fine 
for each offence y e somme of five pounds, one Moyety 
thereof to y e use of y e Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty 
of y e said Citty, and y e other raoyety to such person as 
shall sue for y e same. 

That no Person or Persons whatsoever within 

trade for or receive any Bevers, Peltry or other Indian. . 
.... from any Indian or Indians after y e ringing of y e 

Bell of y e Clock on y e night, upon pain and penalty 

of forfeiting such Commodities so traded for or received 
as afores d , two third parts thereof to y e use of y e Mayor 
aldermen and Commonalty of y e said Citty, and y e other 
third part to y e use of such Person as shall sue for y e same. 

That no Person or Persons whatsoever within this 
Citty shall trade or trafiqe with or by any means what- 
soever directly or indirectly entice any Indians soe to do 
upon y e Sabath day, upon pain and penalty of forfeiting 
such goods so traded for as aforesaid, as also on pain and 
penalty of paying as a fine for each offence y e some of 
forty shillings, two third parts to y e use of y e Mayor, 
Aldermen and Commonalty of y e said Citty, and y e oy r 
third part to y e use of such person as shall sue for y e 

Whereas by constant experience y e giveing of gifts and 
presents to Indians has been found to have been very 
prejudiciall to y e trade of this place, it haveing been 

generally used by trade as an enticement to 

bring y e Indians to them, Indian Commodities 

has been in no small measure adva .ordered 

that for the future no person or persons whatsoever. . . . 
. .pretence shall give any present or gift to any Indian 
or Indians. t ... ..small beer, tobacco, worth exceeding 

half a pound on provisions present time, upon pain 

of paying as a fine for each offence, y 9 summe of five 
pounds courant money of this Country, two third part 
to y ? use of y e Maj'or, aldermen and Commonalty of y 9 s' 1 
Citty, and y p oy r third part to such person as shall sue 
for y e same. 

210 Orders Regulating the Indian Trade. 

That no Person or Persons whatsoever shall transport 
or cause to be transported any Wampum, Wampum Pipes, 
Indian Jewells, or money out of this Citty and County 
or y e limites and boundaries afores d , nor shall they ex- 
change, treffique give or sell, or any oyrwise dispose of 
such money, Wampum, or Jewells to any stranger or 
person whatsoever, who shall carry them out of this 
Government, under penalty of forfeiting, such Wampum, 
money or Jewells or y e value thereof, two third parts to 
y e use of^y e Mayor, aldermen and commonalty of y e s d 
Citty, and y e other third part, to y e use of such person, 
as shall sue for y e same. 

Whereas it has been for some time past the Practice 
of several Indian Traders within this Citty themselfs to 
send for their Indian Merchandizes to England and . . 

has been found by experience to be greatly to y e 

in regard, that not only y c Merchants, have 

been but y Indian Trade for y e most part engrossed 

unto hands the other traders who for y e small- 
ness of their Stocks, w. ; of doeing y e like, not 

being able to afford such penniworths haveing themselfs 
bought y e goods of y e Merchants here, by means whereof, 
the trade of this place is much decayed, in that our 
Merchandizes are rendred by farr more cheape to y e 
Indians, and by consequence these commodities more 
dear to us, for remedy whereof for y e future, itts hereby 
ordered that no Indian Trader whatsoever shall from and 
after the five and Twentieth day of March which shall 
be in y e year of our Lord 1687 directly or indirectly in 
his own name, or in y e name of any other persons, living 
in or Import from England or any oy r part off Europe 
or y e West Indies into this Citty or the liberties thereof 
any of these Indian Goods and Merchandizes following 
viz 1 duffells, rom, strouds, blanketts, plains, halfthicks, 
woolen stockings, white ozenbridge, ketles hatchetts, 
hoes, red lead, vermillion, cotton, red kersey, Indian 
haberdashery, or any oy r Indian goods and merchandize 
whatsoever, upon pain and penalty of paying y e somme 
of forty pounds, for every hundred pounds worth of goods 

Orders Regulating the Indian Trade. 211 

(and so in proportion), so to be imported as afores d , two 
thirds thereof, to y e use of y e Mayor, aldermen, and Com- 
monalty of y e s d Citty, and y e oy r third part, to such 

person same, or upon pain and penalty of 

being Indians, for and dureing y e space of two 

yeares to be at y e choyce of y e person offending 

herein if any such Trader, shall have before or 

within three months. .... .sent to his factor beyond y e 

seas for such Indian goods as af here within 

y e said term, and such factor shall neglect to send on. . 
....indue time, if they come afterwards such Trader 
shall not incurr of y e penaltyes hereinbefore pre- 
scribed any thing herein contained to y e contrary not- 

That in case any Indian Trader convicted of merchand- 
izing, who shall make choyce of being debarred from 
tradeing with any Indian or Indians, for y e space of two 
whole yeares as aforesaid, shall within that time trade 
or trafique with any Indian or Indians shall forfeit for 
soe doeing such Indian Commodities so f;raded for, and 
moreover pay as a fine y e somme of five pounds for each 
offence; two third parts to y e use of y e Citty and y e other 
third part to y e use of such person as shall sue for y e 

That no merchant or other Person or Persons what- 
soever that trades and Merchandizes for any Indian 
Goods and Merchandizes in parts beyond y e Seas, shall 
trade or trafique with any Indian or Indians whatsoever 

within this City or County, upon penalty forfeiting 

such Indian Commodities, soe to penalty of 

paying as a fine for each offence two thirds 

thereof to y e Mayor aldermen and Commonalty 

Citty, and y e oy r third part, to such person as shall sue 
for y e same. 

Whereas, the selling of y e severall small Indian wa.. 

in after named, would Conduce much to y e 

affording a comfortable livelyhood, to severall people 
inhabitants within this Citty, whose mean stocks renders 
them uncapable of dealeing in Commodities, of greater 

212 Orders Regulating the Indian Trade. 

value, in y e doeing whereof, they are obstructed, by y e 
constant resort of y e Indians to such persones as sell all 
sorts of goods, for y e remedy whereof, and for the makeing 
a more equall distribucon of y e Indian Trade amongst y e 
Inhabitants of this Citty, its hereby ordered that no 
Trader who hereafter shall sell Duffells, Strouds, 
Blanketts, and other Indian goods of value, shall or may 
sell or Dispose off, to any Indian or Indians whatsoever, 
these small wares after mentioned, viz 1 : Knives, Looking 
Glasses, Painting stuff, Boxes, Aules, Tobacco Pipes, 
Tobacco, Tobacco Boxes, flints, Steels, Sizers, Wire of 
any sort, Ribboning, Bottles, Thread, Salt, Sugar,Prunes, 
Apples, Razins, Juiseharps, Bells, Thimbles, Beedes, 
Indian Combs and Needles, upon pain and penalty of 
paying as a fine for each offence, y e some of twenty shill 
one moyety thereof to y e use of y e Mayor, aldermen and 
Commonalty of y e s d Citty, and y e other moyety to such 
Person as shall sue for y e same. 

That no Indian Trader whatsoever toy 

wampum or oy r Indian Commodity from upon pre- 
tence of procureing there gunns, hav ded or 

fix 1 , nor shall they use any means dive 

cause any Indian or Indians to goe to any particular. . . . 
....gunn stock maker for y e doeing thereof, but shall 

Leave or Indians att y e free liberty and choyce, to 

make use of and such smith and gun stock maker 

he or they please therein, on pain and penalty of paying 
as a fine for each offence y e some of twelve shillings one 
moyety thereof to y e use of y e Mayor, aldermen and 
Commonalty of y e said Citty, and y e oy r moyety to such 
person as shall sue for the same. 

And because it has been found by experience that it 
will be almost impossible to make discovery of y e breach 
of y c several! orders herein before mentioned by y e ordi- 
nary method of probacon, in reguard that the severall 
transactions will be managed with so great secrecy, as 
none will be privy thereto butt the delinquents themselves 
or Indians, whose testimony are not held valid in law, 
for y e discovery therefore of such secrett practices itts 

Orders Regulating the Indian Trade. 213 

hereby ordered, that upon informacon made to y e Mayor, 
Recorder or any of y e Aldermen of y e said Citty, for the 
time being, by any Indian or Indians against any person 

or persons of y e orders herein and hereby 

before Aldermen and Commonalty of y e said 

Citty as regulacon of y e s d Indian trade here- 
after forth his summones to y e party accused, 

requireing appear before him, then and there 

if he can upon his himselfe of such acusation as 

afores d , which if gu shall refuse to do y e matter of 

fact in y e accusation con taken pro confesso 

and certifiate of such refuseal under y e hand of such 
Mayor, Recorder or Aldermen shall be deemed and 
entered as positive prooff thereof upon tryal if above 
on hearing before y e Mayor, if y e fine or penalty for 
such offence be under y e value of forty 

And because altho there be no such informacon given 
in by any Indians as afores^, nor any other legall proof 
of delinquency in y e premises and yett there may be a 
violent presumption thereof, for y e perfect discovery of 
itt, It is hereby orded that upon y e information of any 
Christian (so it be upon oath to avoid clamours), to y e 
Mayor, Recorder or any of y" aldermen for y e time being 
that hee does verrily beleeve (and has good ground so to 
doe) that such a person has transgressed in y e premises, 
or in such other orders, or for y e regulation off trade here- 
after shall be made as afores d , such Mayor Recorder or 
aldermen shall issue forth his summmonce, to y e party 
accused, requireing him forthwith to appeare, before him, 
then and there if he can upon his oath to purge himselfe 
of such accusation, as afores d , which if such person shall 
refuse to doe y e matter of fact in y e information conteined 
shall be taken pro confesso, and a Certificate under y e 
hand of such Mayor, Recorder or aldermen, shall be 
deemed and esteemed as positive prooff thereof upon 
tryall, if above, or on hearing before y e Mayor if y e fine 

or penalty for such offence be as aforesaid. . . . 


may be duely observed, and y e offenders against them or 

214 Orders Regulating the Indian Trade. 

any of them impartially punished, without any manner 
of favor or connivance, its hereby ordered, y l y e Mayor, 
Recorder and Aldermen, or any of them to whom inform- 
ation shal be made, of any of y e breaches of these or any 
other such orders as aforesaid; shall with all convenient 
speed, bring the same to a determination by a heareing 
before y e Mayor if y e penalty of such offence, be under y e 
value of forty shillings, or by a tryall att y e Mayors 
Court, or some other Court of Record if above that value, 
and that after an informacon made to such Mayor, Re- 
corder, or Aldermen, or any of y m , there be no composition 
or other and made with such delinquent or delinquents, 
then what is publicke and in y e open course of Justice, 

on penalty of y e summe of twenty pounds to be 

every such maj'or, Recorder or Aid thereto, two 

third parts to y e use of y e y e s d Citty, and y 6 

other third .same. 


space of Seven 

fter the date hereof or till Ordered that the, 

der... sent. 



City of Albany ss. 

At a Common Councill held att the Citty hall of the 
said Citty on the 14th day of September in the second 
year of the Reigne of our Sovereigne Lord James the 
second by the Grace of God of England Scotland 
ffrance and Ireland King defender of the faith Su- 
pream and only Lord of the province of New Yorke 
&c: and in the year of our Lord 1686 Before Peter 
Schuyler EsqrMaior, Isaac Swinton Esqr Recorder, 
dirk wessells, Jan Jansz. Blecker, Johannes Wendlle, 
david schuyler, and Andrian Gerritze aldermen; and 
Jochim Staets, Lawerence Wendle, Melgert Wyn- 
antze, Isaack Verplancke, Albert Ryckman, and 
John Lansingh assisstants. 

Whereas ever since the first settlement of this place 
by the people of the nether dutch nation as well under 
their Government as since the same has been under the 
Subjection of his Majestye the King of England the fol- 
fowing small Packt or Excyse has been layd and taken 
upon the several Liquors hereafter mentioned Towards 
the defraying of thePublick Charges of the Citty in man- 
ner as herein after Is Expressed; Wee the said Mayor 
Aldermen and Comonalty doe hereby ordayne and order 
that for Ever hereafter the said small packt or Excise 
shall bee towards the defraying of the publick Charges of 
the Citty aforesayd to bee had and taken for and upon 
the several Liquors that shall be Consumed within the 
said Citty,. and Libertyes and precincts thereof to be 
payed by the several and Respective persons as shall 
have and Consume the same In manner and forme fol- 
lowing: That is to say ffor Each barrell of Beer one 

216 Rates of Excise in 1686. 

shilling, ffor each barrell of over Sea Beer one shilling 
and six pence, ffor Each anchor of Wine, Rum, Brandy, 
Spanish wine, distilled Waters or Malmsy one shilling 
and six pence, ffor each hoggshead of ffrench or ffyal 
wine ffour shillings and six pence (and so in proportion) 
Provided allways that those persons as formerlye have 
enjoyed the priviledge of Being Exempted from the pay- 
ing of said Excyse shall so continue to Enjoy the same 
any thing herein contained to the Contrary thereof in 
any wise notwithstanding. 

Ordered that the aforesaid order be sent down to his 
Excell Thomas dongan Captaine Generall and Governour 
of this province for his Confirmation. 


Read and ordered to Continue in force for the space of 
one year after the date hereof and in the mean time its 
Recommended to the Mayor Aldermen and Comonalty to 
Considderof some other more apt method for the Raising 
money for the defraying the publick Charges of that Citty 
It being the opinion of this board that no further taxe 
should beeLayd upon those Commodityesthat are Lyable 
to the payment of his Majestyes Revenue. 

Citty of Albany Order for an Excyse A D 1686. 



[Near the close of the year 1807, Mr. John Lambert, 
an English traveler, left Montreal on a trip to the city of 
New York, which he extended to the southern and eastern 
states. There were no stages and but very indifferent 
roads in those days, and hence traveling was much less 
a luxury than it is now. Nevertheless, Mr. Lambert 
finds but little fault with the fare he meets with, and 
endures the perils and fatigues of riding over rough roads 
in a common farm wagon with great philosophy, and 
moreover found a great deal to speak well of. Leaving 
Salem, Washington county, about the 20th Nov., at dark, 
he says:] 

This night we passed through Cambridge, Hosick, 
Pitts town.. andSchatchoke, all small neat towns. The fur- 
ther we went to the southward the less snow we found 
on the ground, and by the time we arrived at Lansing- 
burgh it entirely disappeared. We reached this town 
about four o'clock in the morning; but it was yet so dark, 
that I could only discern that it consisted of one long 
street of large brick houses, many of them apparently- 
handsome buildings. Troy is situated but a few miles 
from Lansingburgh, and we arrived there about five 
o'clock. We put up at a large inn; and as we had now 
done with our wagon-drivers we paid them the twenty 
dollars according to our agreement, and parted mutually 
satisfied. We had no cause to complain of either of them, 
and the rough humour of Captain White had afforded us 
much mirth. 

Troy is a well built town, consisting chiefly of one 
street of handsome red brick houses, upwards of a mile 
and a half in length. There are two or three short 
streets which branch off from the main one; but it is in 

[Annals, mii.] 20 

218 John Lambert in Albany. 

the latter that all the principal stores, warehouses and 
shops are situated. ' It also contains several excellent 
inns and taverns. The houses, which are all new, are 
lofty, and built with much taste and simplicity, though 
convenience and accommodation seems to have guided 
the architect more than ornament. The deep red brick, 
well pointed, gives the building an air of neatness and 
cleanliness seldom met with in old towns ; but I can not 
say that I admire it so much as the yellow brick in 
England. The town is built on the east shore of the 
Hudson or North River close to the beach, and about six 
miles above Albany, which is situated on the opposite 
shore. Troy has been erected within the last twenty 
years, and is now a place of considerable importance. 
The trade which it has opened with the new settlements 
to the northward, through the states of New York and 
Vermont as far as Canada, is very extensive; and in an- 
other twenty years it promises to rival the old established 
city of Albany. Its prosperity is indeed already looked 
upon with an eye of jealousy by the people of the latter 

While we were at breakfast, newspapers came in from 
New York, containing accounts of the English expedition 
to Copenhagen, and the refusal of the British government 
to agree to the proposals of Mr. Pinckney, to negotiate a 
treaty upon the same terms as had been before so haught- 
ily rejected and sent back by Mr. Jefferson. We were 
much interested with the news, and the Americans 
appeared apprehensive that a war would take place 
between the two countries. Several strangers came into 
the room, and began to make some observations on the 
news: but none of our party made them any reply; for 
the Americans are so extremely captious upon political 
subjects, that they can never speak of them without 
entering into a dispute; and disputes generally terminate 
in quarrels. I soon perceived that the people were di- 
vided into two parties, the federalists and the democrats, 
and that both were equally violent in their political 
altercations. The federalists are as partial to the 

John Lambert in Albany. 219 

English as the democrats are to the French, and the 
people of those nations who reside in the States enlist 
themselves under the banners of these two parties. I 
shall have an opportunity of speaking more particularly 
of them in a future chapter, and for the present shall 
proceed with our journey. 

After breakfast we crossed the Hudson in a ferry-boat, 
and got into the stage which was going to Albany. It 
was similar to the one in which I had travelled from La 
Prairie to St. John's, and is in general use throughout 
the States. It is in the form of a large coach, with open 
sides and front, and flat roof supported by eight pillars. 
The panels do not come up higher than the hip, and in 
wet or cold weather leather curtains are let down on 
each side; the buttons and straps are however frequently 
broken off, so that the wind and rain often find a ready 
admittance. This kind of carriage, notwithstanding its 
defects, is far superior to the Canadian calash for long 
journeys, as the later affords not the least shelter. It is 
always drawn by four horses, which in well settled parts 
of the United States are as good as the generality of 
English stage horses. The Americans have not yet in- 
troduced the close English stage with glass windows, 
probably on account of the hot weather which prevails 
there much more than in England, and the indifferent 
roads which are yet in existence in many parts of the 
Union, particularly to the southward, and in the back 

We rode along the border of the Hudson, which is 
prettily adorned with several small islands. It is suffici- 
ently deep to admit sloops up to Troy, and flat-bottomed 
boats much higher. The surrounding country is well 
settled, and presents to the eye the pleasing prospect of 
rich cultivated lands, woods, towns, villages, and scat- 
tered habitations. We arrived at Albany about noon, 
and put up at the Tontine coffee-house kept by Gregory. 
We now learnt that the river was frozen over several 
miles below Albany, and that the steamboat in which we 
intended to have taken our passage to New York was 

220 John Lambert in Albany. 

laid up for the winter. We were much disappointed at 
this news, as we were very desirous of seeing the con- 
struction and management of this celebrated vessel, 
which travels at the rate of Jive miles an hour against 
wind and tide. It was built about four years ago, under 
the direction of Mr. Fulton, an American gentleman of 
great mechanical abilities. The length of the boat is 
160 feet, and her width in proportion, so as not too 
much to impede her sailing. The machine which moves 
her wheels is called a twenty-horse machine, or equal to 
the power of so many horses, and is kept in motion by 
steam from a copper boiler eight or ten feet in length. 
The wheels on each side are similar to those of water- 
mills, and under cover; they are moved backward or 
forward, separately or together, at pleasure. Her prin- 
cipal advantage is in calms or against head winds. 
When the wind is fair, light square sails, &c., are em- 
plo)ed to increase her speed. Her accommodations in- 
clude fifty-two berths besides sofas. and are said to be equal, 
if not superior to any vessel that sails on the river. 
They are necessarily extensive, as all the space unoc- 
cupied by the machinery is fitted up in a convenient and 
elegant manner. Her route between Albany and New 
York is a distance of 160 miles, which she performs regu- 
larly twice a week, sometimes in the short period of thirty- 
two hours, exclusive of detention by taking in and landing 
passengers. She carries from 100 to 120 people. The 
fare from New York to Albany is seven dollars. 

The city of Albany has of late years rapidly increased 
in size, wealth, and population. A number of handsome 
dwelling-houses and public buildings have been erected, 
and the old heavy Dutch houses with the gable end 
towards the street are considerably diminished. One of 
the principal streets has a great resemblance to the Hay- 
market in London, being nearly the same width, and 
situated on an ascent. Albany contains about 6.000 
inhabitants, and ranks next to the city of New York in 
that state. The trade which is carried on in this city 
with the new settlements to the northward and westward 

John Lambert in Albany. 221 

is very considerable, and is daily increasing. We had 
excellent accommodations at Gregory's, which is equal 
to many of our hotels in London. It is the custom in all 
the American taverns, from the highest to the lowest, to 
have a sort of table d'hott, or public table, at which the in- 
mates of the house and travellers dine together at a certain 
hour. It is also frequented by many single gentlemen be- 
longing to the town. At Gregory's, upwards of thirty 
sat down to dinner, though there were not more than a 
dozen who resided in the house. A stranger is thus soon 
introduced to an acquaintance with the people, and if he 
is travelling alone, he will find at these tables some 
relief from the ennui of his situation. At the better sort 
of American taverns or hotels, very excellent dinners 
are provided, consisting of almost every thing in season. 
The hour is from two to three o'clock, and there are 
three meals in the day. They breakfast at eight o'clock 
upon rump steaks, fish, eggs, and a variety of cakes, with 
tea or coffee. The last meal is at seven in the evening, 
and consists of as substantial fare as the breakfast, with 
the addition of cold fowl, ham, &c. The price of board- 
ing at these houses is from a dollar and a half to two 
dollars per day. Brandy, hollands, and other spirits, are 
allowed at dinner; but every other liquor is paid for 
extra. English breakfasts and teas, generally speaking, 
are meagre repasts compared with those of America; and 
as far as I had an opportunity of observing, the people 
live, with respect to eating, in a much more luxurious 
manner than we do, particularly in the great towns and 
their neighbourhoods. But their meals, I think, are 
composed of too great a variety, and of too many things, 
to be conducive to health ; and I have little doubt but that 
many of their diseases are engendered by gross diet, and 
the use of animal food at every meal. Many private 
families live nearly in the same style as at these houses, 
and have as great variety upon their tables. Formerly, 
pies, puddings, and cyder used to grace the breakfast 
table: but they are now discarded from the genteeler 
houses, and are found only at the small taverns and farm- 
houses in the country. 

222 John Lambert in Albany. 

Having hired a stage to take us to Hudson, about 
thirty miles below, on the east side of the river, we left 
Albany the following morning, and crossed over to the 
opposite shore in the ferry-boat. At the top of a hill, 
which rises gradually from the water side, we had a 
beautiful view of the city and its environs. Several 
gentleman's seats appeared to great advantage, and the 
plantations, gardens, meadow lands, and orchards, in- 
terspersed among a number of handsome buildings, had 
a very picturesque effect. I only regretted that I was 
deprived of the pleasure of viewing such a pleasing scene 
at a more congenial season of the year. The day was 
however remarkably fine, which made some amends for 
the sombre tint of nature. The country through which 
we travelled this day was fruitful, well cultivated, and 
adorned with several neat farms and villages. In the 
evening we arrived at Hudson. This town is of modern 
construction, and like Troy consists of one very long 
street. The houses are of wood or brick ; many of them 
built with taste, and all spacious and commodious. Shops 
and warehouses are numerous, and there are several large 
inns; from which I conceived that a considerable trade 
was, carried on between this town and the interior. It 
has every appearance of a thriving settlement; and its 
situation is elevated and advantageous for commerce. 
There are several large brick warehouses near the wharfs 
for tie reception of goods; and a great many small vessels 
sail continually between this town and New York. Ship- 
building is carried on here, and a vessel of 3 or 400 tons 
was just ready for launching. Several other vessels of 
that size were also in the harbour. 

The next morning, Sunday, 22d November, we em- 
barked on board the Experiment, a fine new sloop of 130 
tons, built expressly for carrying passengers between 
Hudson and New York. The whole vessel was hand- 
somely fitted up. 

It had two private cabins abaft, containing several bed- 
places for ladies. In the midship was a large general 
room upwards of sixty feet long, and twenty feet wide, 

John Lambert in Albany. 223 

containing a double tier of bed-places on each side for 
gentlemen, with printed cotton curtains drawn before 
them. At the head of this cabin or room there was a 
bar, like that of a coffee-house, where the company were 
supplied with wine, bottled porter, ale, segars, and such 
articles as were not included in the passage money. 
Between the bar and the forecastle was a very complete 
kitchen fitted up with a good fire-place, copper boilers, and 
every convenience for cooking. The forecastle was ap- 
propriated to the use of the sailors. The passage-money 
was five dollars, for which the passengers were provided 
during the voyage with three meals a-day, including 
spirits; all other liquors were to be separately paid for. 

About nine o'clock in the morning we left ike wharf, 
which was crowded with people to see ihe vessel depart; 
for it was the largest and best of the kind, except the 
steam-boat, that sailed on therivei as a packet. It had 
not been established above six months. The mainmast, 
boom, and mainsail were of immense size for a slorp, tut 
we had ten or a dozen fine young fellows to work the 
vessel; and having a smart breeze we soon left the town 
of Hudson far behind us. Mr. Elihu Bunker, who com- 
manded the vessel, was part owner as well as captain, 
and seemed to be a plain re igious sort of man. He had 
more the look of a parson than a sailor; and had posted 
up a long list of regulations at the cabin door, which, if 
properly enforced, were well calculated to keep his pas- 
sengers in good order. In truth, sonn thing of ihe kind 
was necessary; for we had upwards of fifty persons on 
board, nearly all men. Among the forbidden articles 
were playing at cards and smoking in the cabin. 

The morning was remarkably fine; the wind favoured 
us, and we had every prospect of an agreeable voyage. 
The month of November was but ill adapted to view the 
country to advantage; for the gay verdure of the fields 
and forests was now supplanted by the brown and gloomy 
hue of winter. Yet the scenes that preseijted themselves 
along the shores of the Hudson were in some places of 
that grand and romantic description, and in others so 

224 John Lambert in Albany, 

beautifully picturesque, that they could not fail to inter- 
est the spectator at any season of the year. This river 
affords some of the noblest landscapes and scenery that 
are to be found in any part of North America. Nature 
and art have both contributed to render its shores at 
once sublime and beautiful, 



Elizabeth Schuyler, afterwards Mrs. Hamilton, was 
the second daughter of Gen. Philip Schuyler, and is sup- 
posed to have been born at the city residence of the 
family; on the corner of State and South Pearl streets on 
the 7th day of August, 1757. The house was taken 
down to widen the street several years ago, and adjoined 
the ancient Dutch house that now corners on those streets, 
Mrs. Solomon Southwick, who knew the house in the 
latter part of the last century, speaks of the interior as 
having been elegantly finished. 

She was married to Alexander Hamilton, then one of 
the aids of General Washington with the rank of lieu- 
tenant colonel, on the 9th of December, 1780, there being 
not quite a year's difference in their ages. They lived 
together in the enjoyment of every blessing that could ren- 
der wedded life happy for nearly twenty-four years. To 
estimate her character properly it is necessary to bear in 
mind that of the individual who had selected her from 
the many who would have been proud of the distinction 
of his notice, as the companion of his life. 

The untimely death of Gen. Hamilton is too well 
known to need any notice here. He was in the 48th 
year of his age when he died, and left his wife with eight 
children, four boys and four girls, the youngest a help- 
less infant. 

Mrs. Hamilton survived her husband for half a century, 
and we have heard it said that during the whole of that 
time she retained the widow's dress of that early period. 
A correspondent of one of the Boston papers, we believe 
the Transcript, published the following incident: 

Some there are who may recollect her on a visit to 
Boston, we think more than ten years ago. It so hap- 
pened that a horticultural celebration was about to take 

226 Mrs. Alexandr Hamilton. 

place at Faneuil Hall, and this distinguished lady was 
invited and placed in the desk, by the side of the presi- 
dent of the institution. There were clergymen and other 
dignitaries; but she was the only woman admitted on 
the platform. In the course of various addresses made 
from the table below, richly loaded with flowers, fruits, 
&c., Daniel Webster arose and begged leave to announce 
that the daughter of Gen. Schuyler and the widow of Gen. 
Hamilton was then present; and with his own happy and 
thrilling reminiscence, he dwelt on the departed. 

Mrs. Hamilton laid aside her black bonnet and arose. 
All was silent attention; those who sat near enough 
could read the tender and touching emotions of her coun- 
tenance. She turned to the president and addressed him. 
He immediately, in a graceful and appropriate manner, 
uttered the sentiments she expressed to him, and request- 
ed him to make known. When she left the desk and 
descended to the aisle, there was something truly congen- 
ial to our republic, and beautiful, in the simplicity of her 
manner and the respect showed to her in our national 
hall. No one moved, but all silently waited. She walk- 
ed through the aisle, attended by one or two friends, 
bowing almost imperceptibly from one side to the other 
to the multitude, expressing her feelings by her counte- 
nance. Her simple and unpretending manner, and the 
silent, respectful homage of the people, seemed to contain 
a clear and beautiful demonstration of republican truth 
and sincerity. 

Mrs. Hamilton, after the death of the general, was 
devoted to acts of benevolence. She with Mrs. Bethune, 
founded the New York Orphan Society, one of the noblest 
charities of the age, and she was the presiding officer 
until she left New York to reside at Washington, when 
Mrs. Bethune assumed the duties of that office. Perhaps 
there is not another case on record where two ladies, 
the directress and second directress have filled offices in 
the same society for such a length of time. 

Mrs. Hamilton resided in Washington with a devoted 
daughter, for some years, enjoying a green old age, and 

Mrs. Alexander Hamilton. 227 

like Mrs. Madison, had her weekly reception mornings, 
and was always active in welcoming friends. She 
seldom if ever, went into general society, but on one 
occasion, and by particular desire, attended one of the 
President's levees, where she excited the admiration of 
all; and, supported by the President's arm, was introduced 
to each of his guests as a specimen of nearly a century 

A letter from a gentleman in New York to his friend 
in Boston, written on the 23d of August, 1851, thus speaks 
of Mrs. Hamilton while a resident of New York: 

She is now ninety-four years of age, and is in fine 
health and spirits. On my return from Fort Lee, to- 
day, I received a letter from her, containing a request 
that I would call and see her. The letter was written in 
as clear and steady a hand as if she were not more than 
fifty. I received several letters from her last winter, dated 
from Washington, written in the same way. This letter 
was dated August 20th, 1851. She was to be found, she 
informed me, at Mr. Schuyler's in Laight street, in this 
city, I called this afternoon to see her, and think of my 
surprise in finding that she had taken the cars for Con- 
necticut only an hour before. She told me in her last 
interview that her husband wrote the outline of his pa- 
pers in The Federalist, on board of one of the North 
river sloops, while on his way to Albany, a journey, (or 
rather a voyage) which in those days, usually occupied a 
week; and that public business so filled up his time, that 
he was compelled to do much of his studying and writing 
while traveling. 

Mrs. Hamilton lived to the very advanced age of 
ninety-seven years and three months, and died without 
a struggle, in full communion with the Episcopal church, 
and surrounded by her surviving children. 


[From the N. Y. Express.] 

As we go to press, the funeral knell of one of the 
worthiest women of her time, rings in our ears, from the 
towers of Trinity Church, under whose shadow we pur- 

228 Mrs. Alexander Hamilton. 

sue our daily avocations. The day is dark and dreary, 
but the edifice is thronged with many who have come 
thither to pay the last sad tribute of respect to one who, 
apart from her own well known excellencies of character, 
was loved and honored as the life long partner of one of 
the most illustrious sons of the republic Alexander 
Hamilton, the pure patriot, the brave soldier, the lofty 
statesman the bosom friend of Washington. Mrs. 
Hamilton lived ninety-six years in the land. She had 
attained to womanhood before it had exchanged colonial 
vassalage for the more noble condition of national inde- 
pendence. Amidst the many exciting scenes in political 
life, into which her relationship to Hamilton often threw 
her, her graces and virtues shone forth to adorn and 
dignify her sex. She survived many years the untimely 
death of her partner, and as one gazes on the moulder- 
ing monument to his memory in Trinity Church yard, 
amid the solemn associations of the moment, the mind 
involuntarily recalls the saddening incident of his un- 
timely and melancholy end. 



Continued from vol. vii, p. 85. 

At a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 
17th day of January 17 If. Present, Rob 1 Livingston 
Jun. Esq., Mayor, John Cuyler, Esq., Recorder, 
Hend. Hansen, Johan. Roseboom, Mynd 1 Schuyler, 
Ab. Cuyler, Goose Van Schaick, John Pruyn, Egbert 
Gerritz, Nicolas Bleeker, Johannis Ten Broeck, 
Johs. Lansingh, David Schuyler, Jacob Lansingh. 
Condition whereon the Mayor, Aldermen and Common- 
ality of this City Design to Expose to Sale winter wheat 
which is to come from the Tenants at Schaahcook. The 
highest bidder shall on the delivery of y e wheat pay unto 
the Treasurer ol this City y e money he shall bid for such 

Sold to Teunis Eghbertse 25 Skiple wheat at 3s 6d. 
Johannis Cuyler, - - 25 Skiple Do. at 3s 
LeendertGansevoort, 25 Skiple Do. at 3s 4^d 
To idem 25 Do. at /6:17 

David van Dyk - - 25 Do. /6:19 

Myndert Schuyler - - 25 Do. a 3s 6d 

David van Dyk ... 10 Do. a 3s 6d 

Resolved by the Comonality that the following ordi- 
nance shall be publishd 

By the worshipfull Mayor, Aldermen & Comonalty of 
the City of Albany. 

An Ordinance. 

Whereas complaints have been made y l several pales 
were Lost in y e extinguishing of y e last fire y l was in this 
City wherefore it is Resolved that it shall be ordaind, 
Publishd and declard and it is hereby ordaind publishd 
and declard } rt all owners of pales shall for y e future sett 
their respective marks on them, and y l all pales which 
[Annals, viii.] 21 

230 The City Records. 

shall at any time hereafter be lost in Extinguishing of 
fire which may happen in this city (which we hope God 
will prevent) shall be paid to the owners by y e Corpora- 
tion of this City, and if any person or persons shall keep 
or conceal any pale or pales not belonging to him her or 
them selvs shall forfiet for every such offence the sum of 
Twenty Shillings and Restore such pales to y e owners 

And Wheras Great abuses are dayly Committed in this 
City in the Sale of wood for preventing whereof It is 
ordaind Publishd and declard that from and after the 24th 
of this Instant January all Slees of two horses shall be 
33 Inches wide and all wood so brought for sale thereon 
to be 8 foot wood measure in length and the .Load 36 
Inches high and that all Slees of one horse shall be 30 
Inches wide and that the wood so brought for Sale there- 
on shall be 7 foot wood measure Long and the load to be 
33 Inches high on penalty of forfeiting such wood so to 
be brought and Exposed to Sale for y e behoof of y e sheriff 
or any person that shall sue for y e same, and whereas 
Sundry persons within this City & County of Albany do 
presume to ryde with slees & horses in y" streets of y e s d 
City very fast and unrulely for preventing whereof It is 
hereby publishd ordaind & declared that from & after the 
publication hereof no person or persons Shall Ryde or 
drive any horse or horses with the slee, waggon or cart or 
otherwise in the street or lanes in y e s d City faster than 
on a steap or a very moderate trot on penalty of forfiet- 
ing for every such offence y c sume of six Shillings to be 
paid by y e owner Ryder or dry ver of such horse slee wag- 
gon or cart for y e behoof of y e sheriff or any other person 
that shall sue for y e same dated y e 17th Jany in y e fifth 
year of his majesties Reign A. D. 171-f. 

The Comonality have this day Sold unto Johannis 
Dewandlaer for the Consideration of five pounds and 
Return the bonds he has of y e Comonality for 240: 
which makes 250: the land he has now in his posses- 
sion Situate lying & being at Schaahkook within the 
bounds of land belonging to y e said City bounded as in y e 

The City Records. 231 

Release he has given is expresd, paying for the said lands 
yearly & Every year thirty & one half bushell winter 
wheat unto y e mayor aldermen & Comonality of y e said 
City for y e time being their successors or assigns and that 
the mayor of the said City shall in behalf of y e Com- 
onality Sign a Release of > e said Land unto the said 
Johannis D'wandlaer his heirs & assigns for Ever and 
Cause the City Scale to be the same affixed and Enterd 
on y e publick Records. 

Att a Comon CouncilLheld in the City hall of Albany the 
28th day february 161| 

It is Resolved by the Comonality that notice be given 
to Dirk vander Heyden; and Dirk Brat and Jacobus van 
Schoonhoven that they pay unto the Treasurer of this 
City the Rent they are in arrear for y e land at Schaah- 
kook being one year 

The Petition of Johannis Knickerbacker, Johans. D'- 
wandlaer, Dirk van veghten, Lewis viele, Corsett vedder, 
Marten Dellemont & Peter winne was Read. 

The petition of Dirk van Veghten being Read Setting 
forth that he has made articles of Agreement with Daniel 
Ketelhuyn to Release his land at Schaahkook to him for 
y e Consideration of 270: to be paid at y e delivery & 
Execution of a lawful Release of y e same which he may 
do at before the Expiration of six year, and being oblidgd 
by his Indentures to give y e worships y e Refuzall thereof 
which he by his said Petition doth give. 

The Comonality have taken the s d petition into their 
Consideration do grant Leave unto the said Dirk van 
Veghten to dispose of y e said Lands unto y e s d Daniel 
Ketelhuyn It is Resolved y'- Robert Livingston Jun. Esq. 
Mayor shall in behalf of y e Comonality Sign a' Lease unto 
Isaac vanvalkenburgh for Eight morgans of land Situate 
Lying & being at y e verreberg within y e Limitts and bounds 
of y e s ! city where y e s' Isaac vanvalkenburgh now lives 
beginning at a small Rivelett which vents into y verre- 
b erghs Creek or Run of water to y e Eastwards of his house 
Running up westerly along y e s d Rivelett Cross y e high 

232 The City Records. 

way which Leads to Schinectady to a Certain small mash 
or meadow which is to y e westward of y e s' house, thence 
to y e verreberghs Creek thence along y e s d Creek or Run 
of water to y e place it first begun, and y l for y e term of 
thirty one year Comencing the first day of April last past 
for his heirs to pay yearly dureing the said term after y e 
month of may 1721, two Skiple of good merchandable 
wheat & a couple of fatt hens, and y l the City Seale be 
thereunto affixed and the be Enterd on y e public Record 
of the said City 

This day the Comonality have Resolved that Robert 
Livingston Junr. Esqr. mayor Shall in behalf of y e Com- 
onality Sign and Release unto Symon Danielsethe water 
Run of a certain Small Creek scituate lying and being on 
the East side of hudsons River on y e south side or end of 
y e land of y e s d Symon Danielse being over against the land 
belonging to the heirs of David Ketelhuyn deed to make 
erect & build a griss mill thereon paying yearly and every 
year unto y e s d mayor aldermen & Commonality and their 
Successors for y e time being after y e first day of may 
1724 for Ever the Just quantity of six Shiple of good 
merchandable winter wheat in y e month of January or 
February for Ever under such Exceptions and Condi- 
tions as by s d Release may appear and y l y e Seale of y e 
said City shall be thereunto affixed and y e same be entered 
on y e public Records of y e said City and County. 

The Petition of Thomas Williams being Read Desiring 
the Refuzall of small piece of ground Lying between his 
Lott formerly belonging to Gabriel Thomson dec d and 
y e City Stokados Resolved y l the Ground be viewed and 
y l he shall have y e Refuzall thereof. 

Att a Comon Council held in the City hill of Albany the 

14th day of March 1711 

It is Resolved by y e Comonality that the native Indian 
owners of y e land Called Tionondorogue in y e maquase 
Country shall ,as soon as Conveniently may be, be sent 
for to come to the City in order to purchase from them 
One thousand acres of meadow land. 

The City Records. 233 

The Comonality have this day Granted unto Barentje 
widow of Thomas Barret a Lott of ground containing in 
breadth thirty foot and in length one hundred foot Situate 
lying and being agst. y e gallows hill, fronting with y e 
Corner of y e pasture of Johans. Mingael, and y l for y e 
sume of nine pounds 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 

17th day of March 171f 

Whereas the mayor aldn. and Comonalty of y e s' 1 City 
did on y e 9th day of last past publish an ordinance pro- 
hibiting all Indian trade without this City as by y e s d 
Ordinance more at large may appear and Complaints are 
dayly made y t y e same is not put in Execution according 
to y e true Intent and meaning thereof werefore it is Re- 
solved to desire the mayor Recorder and aldn. to put the 
same in Execution as soon as Conveniently it may be 
done and y l all Charges of suits or otherwise which may 
issue by putting y e s d Ordinance in Execution shall be 
p d & defraied & bee on y e Charge of y e s ! City whereto y e 
assistants do Especially promise to stand & perform as 
far as in ym lyes. 

Att a meeting of the Comon Councill held in the City 
hall of Albany y e 22th day of April 1719. 

The Comonalty have this day sold unto Peter D Gar- 
moy for the sume of fifteen pounds payable in three year 
a Certain piece of ground Scituate lying & being in the 
fosenkill beginning on the west by the fence of y e Pas- 
ture in possession of Wm. Gysbertze widow on y e north 
of y e s d fossenkill containing in breadth three Rodd and 
in length ten Rodd all Rynland measure. 

It is Resolved by y e Comonality that the following 
ordinance be published (viz.) 

By the worshipfull Mayor Aldermen and Comonality of 
the "City of Albany 

An Ordinance. 

Whereas that Severall persons do Leave their fire 
wood on the streets Lanes and passages of y e s d City as also 

234 The City Records. 

durt filt & dung before their houses and lotts, It is there- 
fore ordaind publishd and declared that all Person or 
persons shall at or before y e tenth day of May now next 
Ensuing Remove their firewood from the streets, as also 
to clean y e said Streets lanes and passages and pavements 
within the said City before his her or their houses and 
Lotts of ground of all dirt, filt and dung within the said 
time on penalty of six shillings for every offence for the 
behoof of y e Sheriff who is to sue for y e same. 

And whereas the water Courses in severall Streets of 
the s 1 City are much stopd up so that y e water has no 
certain course to vent dry & drain y e s d street wherefore 
it is Resolved that it shall be ordaind Publishd and de- 
clard and it is hereby ordaind Publishd and declard that 
on or before y e first day of August now next Ensuing 
there shall be so much ground dugg out & carryd away 
from such places in y e said City and in such manner as 
the Mayor Recorder Aldermen and Comonalty of the 
said City or y e aldermen & assistants in Each Respective 
ward shall order direct & appoint, the severall owners or 
Tenants before whose houses or lotts any ground is lying 
which shall be Judgd to them to be Removd dugg up 
and carryd away and prevents y e water to drain and 
dry y e s d Streets on penalty of Twenty Shillings for every 
week after y e s d first day of Aug 1 , any person or persons 
who shall neglect or Refuse to perform and do what he 
her or they shall be ordered to do and perform as afores 4 
for y e behoof of y e sheriff who is to sue for y e same 
Given in Albany y e 22 day of April in y e fifth year of his 
majesties Reign A. D. 1719. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 
26th day of May 1719. 

Adriaen Quackenboss appearing in Comon Councill 
desires y e Comonality that they will be pleased to dispose 
unto him Twenty morgan of meadow land & ten morgan 
of wood land at Schaahkook on y e North side of y e Creek 

Resolved to clear and discharge the said land from y e 
pretention y e Indians have thereon w'h when done y e said 
Adriaen shall have y e refusall thereof. 

The City Records. 235 

Att a Comon Council! held in the City hall of Albany y e 
29 day of May 1719. 

This day the Comonality have sold unto Adriaen 
Quackenboss a Certain piece of Land scituate lying and 
being at Schaahkook on the north side of y e Creek over 
ags 1 the house & hoftstead of Daniel Ketelhuyn contain- 
ing Twenty morgans of meadow land and Twenty morgan 
of wood land on the hill and that for the sume of one 
hundred and ninety pounds currant money of New York 
half of w'h sume to pay first May 1720 and the other half 
thereof first May 1721, for w'h sumes he is to give bond 
with security and to Receive Indentures for the land be- 
tween this and October next with condition to pay yearly 
Thirty Bushels of winter wheat after y e months of Janu- 
ary or February 172f in that in y e months of January or 

It is Resolved that the mayor shall in behalf of y e 
Comonality sign y e s d Indenture and cause y e Seale of y e 
s^ City to be thereto affixed taking such bond and secu- 
rity as above is expressed. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the Citv hall of Albany 

the 14th day of July 17 19. 

The Comonality having sold unto Jeronemus van 
Vlieren a certain lott of ground scituate lying and being 
at the bottom of the Gallows hill on the south of the lott 
of Barentje Baret wid'w containing in breadth thirty five 
foot and in length one hundred & twenty foot wood mea- 
sure, and y 1 for y e sume of twenty pounds six pound thereof 
on y e first of October next, seven pounds in October 1720 
& seven pounds in October 1721. The Comonality have 
also sold unto Peter D. Garmoy a certain lott of ground 
scituate lying and being at the bottom of the Gallows 
hill and south of lott of Jeronemus van Vlieren contain- 
ing in breadth thirty five foot and in length one hundred 
and twenty foot wood measure and y l for y e sume of 20: 
Six pound thereof on the first of October next, Seven 
pounds in October 1720, and Seven pound in October 
1721, on condition to receive a release when y e last pay- 
ment is done & performd. 

236 The City Records. 

Johannis Redlif has also bought of y e Comonality a 
certain lott of ground scituate lying and being at y e bot- 
tom of y e gallows hill on y e south of y e lott of Peter D. Gar- 
moy containing in breadth thirty five foot and in length 
one hundred & twenty loot wood measure and that for 
the sume of 20: Six pound thereof on the first of Octo- 
ber next, Seven pounds in October 1720 and Seven pound 
in October 1721. 

Obediah Coeper appearing in Comon Councill desires 
y e Comonalty to dispose unto him a certain spott of 
ground behind his lot w'h y e Comonality have taken in 
consideration & do grant unto him the prevelege to use 
y e s d spott of ground until such time as they shall dispose 
of y e same and y l then he shall have the refuzall thereof. 

Att a Mayors Court held in the City hall of Albany y e 
28th day of July 1719 

It is orderd that the following Sumonce be sent to 
Volkert Symonse (viz.) 

To Volkert Symonse of Schinectady. You are hereby 
given notice & acquainted to appear here in y e City hall 
of Albany on y e Eleventh day of August next ensuing to 
give your reasons why the two pieces of Strowds which 
were lately seized from you shall not be condemnd accord- 
ing to the direction of the City Charter dated in Albany 
y e 28th day of July 1719. 

pr. order of y c Court Per Cur'm 

Phi. Livingston D. C. 
The Court adjourned till this day forthnight. 

August 1 1th. Volkert Symonse of Schinectady appears 
in Court) to whom a Surnonce was sent last Court to 
appear at this to give his reasons why the two pieces of 
Strowds seized from him should not be condemned accord- 
ing to y e directions of y e City Charter; and refers himself 
to y e consideration of the Court. The Court having taken 
consideration the two pieces of Strowd seized by Adam 
Haydon Deputy Sheriff from Volkert Symonse do con- 
demn them to be disposed off according to the directions 
of y e Charter of the City of Albany. 

The City Records. 237 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany 
30th day of July 1719. 

Daniel Ketelhuyn appearing in Comon Councill gives 
unto them the refusall of Seayen morgan of land scituate 
lying and being at Schaahkook on y e great flatts w'h he 
has sold unto Harmanus Wendell for Sixty five pounds 
and desires liberty if they do not take y e s ri land that he 
may dispose of y e same 

Resolved that he may sell y e same when he pleases. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y 6 
llth day of August 1719. 

Upon application of Volkert Symonse to the mayor 
aldermen and comonality that they will be pleased to give 
him their third in the two ps. strowds condemnd from 
him this day which is taken in consideration do release 
their third unto him accordingly. 

Resolved that notice be given by advertisement that all 
persons who have accounts or claims on this City to 
bring in their ace 1 at or before the 28th instant and fol- 
lowing persons are appointed a Comittee to view & audit 
the Citys accounts, viz. Johs. Roseboom, Mynd f Schuyler, 
Johs. Pruyn Esqr's. aldn. & Nicolas Bleecker & Johannis 
Ten Broeck assistants and bring in their Report in Comon 
Councill on or before 22th Do. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City of Albany y e 12th 

day of September 17 19 

Resolved that the Rob 1 Livingston Jun'r Esq'r mayor 
shall in behalf of the Comonality signd and release for 
Barentje Spoor for a certain lott of ground scituate lying 
and being at y e foot of y e gallows hill the north side 
thereof in fronting with y e fence of the pasture of Johs. 
Mingael stretching southerly towards the wid'w of Isaac 
Gaspers' wid'w y e breadth of thirty five foot and in length 
westerly up y e hill one hundred and twenty foot wood 
measure and that y l City Scale be thereunto affixed and 
y e same to be enterd in the publick Records. And also 
Resolved said Robert Livingston Jun'r Esq'r mayor shall 

238 The City Records. 

sign and release in behalf of y e Comonality for Jeronemus 
van VJieren for a certain lott of ground scituate lying 
and being att y e bottom or foot of y e gallows hill on the 
south of y e lott of Barentje Barret wid'w containing in 
breadth thirty five foot and in length one hundred and 
twenty foot wood measure and y l y e City Seale be there- 
unto affixed and y e same to be entered in y e public He- 

Albany y e 29th September 1719. 

This day being appointed by the Charter of this City 
for aldermen of each Respective wards to make Return 
of aldermen, assistents and Constables Choisen for y e 
Ensuing year viz 1 

First Ward. 
Aldermen. Assistants. 

Myndert Schuyler Johannis Ten Broeck 

Goose van Schaick David van Dyck 

Joh's G. Lansingh Constable. 

Second Ward. 

Johan's Roseboom Niecolas Bleeker 

Abraham Cuyler Johan's Lansingh 

Thomas Sharpe Constable. 

Third Ward. 

Hendrick Hansen Johannis Hansen 

Johannis Pruyn David Schuyler 

Gerrit vand Bergh Constable 
Johannis D. Garmoy is chosen High Constable 
Teunnis Brat chosen Chamberlain of this City. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 
3d day December 1719 Present Mynd 1 Schuyler 
Esq'r mayor, John Cuyler Esq'r Recorder, Abraham 
Cuyler, Goose van Schaick, Johan's Pruyn Esq'rs 
Aldermen Joh's Ten Broeck, Johan's Hansen, David 
Schuyler, David van Dyck assistants. 
The following persons are appointed by the Comonality 

to be fire masters for the year ensuing 

The City Records. 

First Ward. 
Joseph Yetts Hendrik Halenbeek 

Second Ward. 
Reynier Myndertse Tieleman van Schelluyne 

Third Ward. 
Philip van Veghten Peter Bogaert 

By the Worshipfull Mayor Recorder Aldermen and Com- 
onality of the City of Albany. 

An Ordinance. 

Whereas in and by our Charter under the Seale of the 
Province of Newyork bearing date the Twenty Second 
day of July 1686, for the Consideration therein Expressd 
amongst divers other things there is granted Ratifyed and 
Confirmed unto the mayor aldermen and Comonality of 
the said City for the time being To have hold and Enjoy 
the Preveledge Preheminence and advantage of haveing 
within their own walls the sole management of the trade 
with all the Indians Liveing within and to y l Eastward 
northward and westward of the County of Albany within 
the Compass of his maj'es Dominions heretherein & 
thereby prohibiting and Discharging all and Every the 
Inhabitants of y e s d Province (the Inhabitants of the City 
of Albany Excepted) to trade or trafique with any of the 
five nations of Indians Called > e Sennekes Cayouges 
Onnondages Onneydesand Maquase who live to the west- 
ward or with any other Indian or Indians whatsoever 
within the County of Albany or to the Eastward north- 
ward or westward thereof so far as his said Majesties 
Dominions here do or may Extend, or to have or keep 
within their houses or Elsewhere any Indian goods or 
merchandize upon penalty of the forfeiture & Confiscation 
of such Indian Comodities whatsoever Except Indian 
Corn venison & drest dear skins so traded for and upon 
pain and penalty of the forfeiture & Confiscation of all 
such Indian goods and merchandize as gunpowder Duf- 
fells Rum and all sort of other Indian goods and mer- 
chandize which should at any time hereafter be found 
Conceald or kept in any house or place without the walls 

240 The City Records. 

of the said City and within y e said County and other the 
Limitts and boundaries therein and herein before sett 
forth and prescribed to be sued for prosecuted & disposed 
oft in such manner as therein is particularly sett forth & 

Be it therefore ordaind publishd and declard and it is 
hereby ordaind publishd and Declard that no person or 
persons whatever within this City and County or without 
the same within the Limitts and boundaries afores d shall 
trade or trafique with any Indian or Indians for any bever 
or peltry or any Indian Comodities without the gates of 
this City Except for Indian corn venison and drest dear 
skins on penalty of forfeiting such Indian Comodities so 
traded for, to be taken and sued for by the sheriff his 
deputy or deputy s, as also under penalty of being fined 
for so trading at y c discretion of such Court before whom 
the same shall be prosecuted so as such fine Exceed not 
Twenty pound Curant money of this Country two thirds 
of such fine so to be adjudged to the mayor aldermen and 
comonality of the said City and the other third to the 
sherrif his deputy or deputys or such person or persons as 
shall sue for y e same. 

Be it further ordaind publishd and Declard and it is 
hereby ordaind publishd and declard that no person or 
person whoever within the said City and County or with- 
out y e same within y e Limitts or Boundaries afores d shall 
have and keep within their houses or elsewhere without 
y e gates of y e s d City any Strowds blankets Rum or any 
Indian comodities or merchandize so kept & concealed as 
afores d except 5 gall. Rum for Christean use to be taken 
and sued for by y e sherrif his deputy or deputies one 
third part to y e use of y e mayor of y e s d city for y e time 
being one third to y e use of y e mayor aldermen & comon- 
alty of y e s d City and one other third to y e sherrif his 
deputy or deputys who are to sue for y e same Given in 
Albany y e 3d day of Dec'r in y c Sixth year of his maj'es 
Reign A. D. 1719. 

N. B. This ordinance was published the 19th day of 
December 1719. 

The City Records. 241 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 

26th day of January 17^. 

The mayor aldermen and comonality have this day 
sold unto Thomas Williams a small lott of grounds scitu- 
ate lying and being in this City near y e horse block house 
in breadth on y e front twelve foot and in length Ten 
Rodd & one foot & behind fourteen foot Rynland measure 
haueing on y e west y e street on y e north y e ground of y 6 s d 
Williams & on y 6 south y e ground of Peter Ryckman, and 
y l for y e consideration of Eighteen pounds one half thereof 
y e first of May next & y e other half y e first of May 1722. 

The mayor aldermen and Comonality have this day 
sold unto Obediah Cooper a small lott of ground scituate 
lying and being in this City by y s horse guard block house 
being in breadth in front on y e west 21 foot & behind to 
y e East 7 foot & 2 inches and in length on y e north side 
Six Rod four foot & on y e south side seaven rods & a half 
Rynland measure having on y 6 west the street & and y e 
s d block house on y e north y e lott of Thomas Williams 
and the south y c ground of y e s d Obediah Cooper and y' 
for y e consideration af ten pounds half thereof y e first of 
May next and the other half y e first of May 1721. 

Ordered y l y e mayor shall in behalf of y e Comonality 
signd Releases for y e s d ground and that y e same shall be 
enterd in the public Records. 

It is Resolved that David van Dyck one of the assist- 
ants shall procure work men and materialls to Pave y e 
Street between y e north west corner of y e Church and 
house of Anna Maria Cartense and y l at the charge of y e 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 

21st day of March 17-HK 

Resolved by y e Comonality y l y c following ordinance 
be published. 

By y e Worshipfull mayor aldermen & Comonality of y e 
City of Albany. 

An Ordinance. 

Whereas severall streets lanes and alleys within this 
{Annals, mii.} 22 

242 The City Records. 

City are stopd up with dung chips dirt lilt and fire wood 
to y e great damage of several Inhabitants of y e s d City for 
the preventing whereof and y l y e same may be Removd 
be it ordaind publishd and declard that all owners or 
Tenants before whose houses or lotts of ground any dung 
chips dirt filt or fire wood is placed shall be Removed & 
carryd away at or before the second day of April next 
ensueing on penalty of Twelve Shillings and for every 
day y e same shall Remain after the 2d of April the sume 
of six shillings for y l behoof of y e sheriff to be Recoverd 
before y e mayor Recorder or any one of y e aldermen of 
the s 1 City. 

It is also Resolved that is shall be ordaind publishd & 
declard y l the street which goes in by y e South Corner of 
y 8 house of Fredrich Myndertse and y e north corner of 
y e lott of the heirs of Marcelis Janz. now calld Spanish 
street and also y e street between y e houses and lotts of 
Jacob Lansingh shall be paved by the owners or tenants 
of y e houses and lotts of ground fronting y e s d streets 
on or before y first day of June next and that in such 
manner as the mayor or aldermen of this City shall direct 
on penalty of twenty shillings for y e behoof as afores d & 
to be Recoverd as afores d . 

The Inhabitants of the City of Albany as hereby notice 
given y l on y" 2d day of April next there will be disposed 
to sale at y e City hall of Albany at a public vendue to y e 
highest bidder some wheat w'h y e Corporation has rec d 
for Rent from y e tenants at Schaahkook. 

The Comonality of this City have this day granted unto 
Cap 1 Jacobus van Schoonhoven, Johannis D' Wandlaer and 
Dirk van Veghten the fall and water course of Tamhenicks 
Creek lying and being within the bounds of Schaakook 
for the term of twelve years comencing 1st May 1720 and 
ending 1st May 1732 to erect & build a Sawmill on the 
said Creek near the said fall and to ride and saw yearly 
four hundred and fifty Saw Loggs to the said Sawmill, 
for w'h Liberty the said Jacobus van Schoonhoven, 
Joh's D'Wandlaer & Dirk van Veghten is to pay yearly 
and every year during the said Term unto the mayor 

The City Records. 243 

aldermen & Comonality and their Successors in the month 
of May y e quantity of two hundred merchandable deal 
boards to be delivered at the City of Albany free from 
all costs and charges and that at y e expiration of y e s d 
time they are to have the Refusall to farm the s (1 mill 
again before any other person but in case another person 
doth farm the same then the said mill shall be appraizd 
by indifferent Persons & y" money so to be appraizd to 
be paid by y e mayor aldermen & comonality to y e s d Jacob 
Schoonhoven, John D. Wandlaer Dirk van ' 
their heirs & assigns. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 
26th day March 1720. 

The Petition of severall Inhabitants of the north part 
of the pearle street and others in the Second ward of the 
s d City being read praying that y e Comonality will grant 
the ground now vacant between y R house & lott of Joh's 
Visger and the lott of Rutger Bleecker may be layd out 
for a publick Street. 

The Comonality haveing taken the said Petition in 
consideration do grant that there shall remain a com on 
Street running up westerly five foot from y e north of y e 
house of y e s d Johannis Visger twenty one foot in breadth 
Rynlands measure. 

This day'the Comonality have caused Hendrick Oothout 
sworn Surveyor to measure & lay out y c following Streets 
viz 1 beginning at the Corner of y e Lott of Jacob Visger 
and the Corner of the Lott of Schibboleth Bogardus, run- 
ning from thence Northerly to the Lott of the heirs of 
Jan Dirkse and the Lott late belonging to Adries Dvoss 
dec d to be in breadth at the north end of the said Street 
two Rod, and the Street on the north end of the pearle 
Street being opposite to the Corner of the Lott of Johannis 
Bleeker Jun'r to be in breadth Seaven Rodd Running up 
northerly till the end of the s d Street where it is to con- 
tain Six Rod & ten foot all Rynland measure. 
. It is Resolved that all y e vacant Ground on y e north 
of y e lott of ground late belonging to Andries Dvoss dec d : 

244 The City Records. 

and others on the north part of the City near, and front- 
ing y e foxes Creek Shall for Ever hereafter Remain in 
Comon for y e use of y e Inhabitants of y e s d City. 

The Comonality have this day sold unto Wynant Van- 
derpoel a small Lott of ground scituate lying and being 
before his house and that for y e sume of five pounds to 
be payd on y e 29th day Sep 1 next. - 

Yesterday y e Comonality sold unto Johannis van Santen 
a small piece of ground lying on y e north end of his lott 
and y l for y e sume of four pounds ten shillings on y e 29lh 
day of Sep 1 next ensuing. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 
28th day of March 1720. 

The petition of the Inhabitants of the first ward of the 
City of Albany being read, setting forth that at the time 
of election according to the Charter they made choice of 
maj'r Myndert Schuyler for an alderman in that ward who 
was appointed by the president of our province of New 
York to be mayor of the s d City for the then ensuing 
year and therefore praying that they may proceed to a 
new election for another alderman for y e said ward. The 
Comonality haveine; taken the s d petition in consideration, 
do make void the election the Inhabitants made on y e 
29th day of Sep 1 of maj'r Myndert Schuyler for an alder- 
man of y e s d ward since is appointed to be mayor of y e s d 
City and grant the petitioners and other Inhabitants of 
y e said first ward may proceed to a new Election for an 

This day the mayor aldermen and comonality have sold 
unto Mathews Flensburgh a piece of ground behind his 
Lott for y e sume of four pounds ten shillings half on y e 
29th Sep 1 and the other half on y e first day of May next. 

Att a Comon Councill held in y e hall of Albany y e 2d day 

of April 1720. 

The mayor aldermen and comonality have Pursuant to 
the Resolution of y e 21st of March according to the Pub- 
lick notice then given, Disposed of y e wheat received for 

The City Records. 245 

Rent from the Tenants at Schaahkook at a Publick yen- , 
due to y e highest bidder on the condition following: 

That the highest bidder of any of y e said wheat shall 
Receive y e s d wheat so bidd for on or before y e pmo. of 
May next and on the Rec 1 thereof shall be obliged to pay 
for the same, and the first bidder shall have the choice 
of the said wheat 

/1 52: Dirk Vanderheyden 24 Skepel at 3s 3d 

169:4 Barent Brat 24 Skepel at fl:l 

168: Barent Brat 24 Skepel at 7: 4:4 

150 Barent Brat 24 Skepel at 6:5 3:15 

150 David Schuyler 24 Skepel at 6:5 3:15 

150 Joh's Cuyler 24 Skepel at 6:5 3:15 

150 Baltus van Benthuysen 24 Skepel at 6:5 3:5 

147:12 Dirk Brat 24 Skepel at 6:3 

151:4 Dirk Brat 24 Skepel at 6:6 

148:16 Leendert Gansevoort 24 Skepel at 6:4 

150 Leendert Gansevoort 24 Skepel at 6:5 

147:12 Thomas Williams 24 Skepel at 6:3 

145:4 Leendert Gansevoort 24 Skepel at 6:1 

144: Ph. Livingston 24 Skepel at 6: 


Pursuant to the order of Comon Councill on the 28th 
of March to warn y e Inhabitants of the first ward in this 
City have preceeded to Elect an alderman in room of 
Mynd 1 Schuyler Esq'r present mayor, who have chosen 
Mr Harmanus Wendell for alderman who is now sworn 
in that office. 

It is Resolved by the Comon Councill that Mynd 1 
Schuyler Esq'r mayor Abraham Cuyler Esq'r alderman 
Johannis Hansen& David Schuyler asst's be appointed a 
Comittee to gett the Property of this Corporation Sur- 
veyd by a sworn Surveyor scituate & being at Schaakook 
and that neighbors be warning given whose lands joyns 
next to y l of y e Corporation and make a report thereof 
as soon as conveniently may be, and also y l y e s d Comittee 
view y e land, Jacob Fort, Johannis Knickerbacker, Dirk 
Vanderheyden & Peter Winne have desird to purchase 
from y e Comonality. 

246 The City Records. 

, Alt a Mayors Cotirt held in the City hall of Albany y 6 

3d of May 1720. 
The Court opend and adjournd till this day forthnight. 

Whereas that by vertue of the Charter granted to the 
major aldermen & Comonality of this City there was on 
y e 19th day of this Instant dec'r publishd an ordinance 
by the now mayor aldermen & comonality of the said city 
Prohibiting thereby that no person or persons whatsoever 
within the City & County of Albany shall trade or tra- 
fique with any Indian or Indians for any bever or peltry 
or any Indian Comodities without the walls of the said 
city (Except for Indian corn venison and drest dear skins) 
and that no person or persons whatsoever within the s d 
City or County or without y e same shall have or keep 
within their houses or elsewhere without the walls of the 
said city any strowds blankets rum or other Indian Com- 
odities or merchandize whatever on such penalty and 
forfeiture as by y e s d ordinance recourse thereunto being 
had may more fully and at large appear, and since it has 
been found by experience that severall persons in defiance 
of y e ordinance formerly published relating the Indian 
trade have presumed to trade & trafique with the Indians 
contrary to the said ordinances 

We do therefore hereby Require & Comand you ta 
make a sarch in all houses barns ware houses or else- 
where of such person or persons who profess the Indian 
trade and are suspected to profess the same in the said 
County and without the walls of the said City and to 
seize all Strowds Duffells Blankets, powder, ozenbrighs 
Rum or other Indian Comodities (Except five gallons Rum 
Blankets and other necessaries for y e use of Christian 
families) as also all bever otters fishers Bearskins or any 
other sort of peltry (Except Indian corn venison and 
drest dear skins) there so to be found and the same to 
remain in your custody until y e same be Condemned and 
Confiscated according to the directions of y e said Charter, 
hereof you are not to fail and for so doing this shall be 
your sufficient Warrant. Given under our hands in Al- 

The City Records. 247 

bany the 21st day of Dec'r in the sixth year of his maj's 
Reign Annoq e Do. 1720. 


To GERRIT VANSCHAICK, Esq. Sheriff of the City & 
County of Albany or to his Deputy. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany 
the 18th day of June 1720. 

Whereas the Rutten Creek has done much damage 
occasiond by the late Sowr cf Rain and stoping of y e 
water in y e s d Creek and by y e owners & tenants who stop 
y e sam up with dung dirt filt & old wood which they leave 
in y e s d Creek and y l their schoring or wall at y e side of 
y e s d Creek are much decayed and out of repair. 

Wherefore it is hereby orderd and Resolved that for y e 
future y e walls at y e sides of y e s d Creek from the upper 
end of y e ground of Johannis Schuyler & Antho. van 
Schaick till y e end of y e Lotts of Collo. Peter Schuyler 
& Johannis Lansingh, which are now out of repair shall 
be made and repaired on or before y e first of August next 
by y e owners or Tenants whose Lotts of ground front and 
are bounded to y e s d Creek and y l in such manner of hight 
breadth and of such materialls as y e mayor, the aldermen 
and assistants of y e first ward or any of them shall order 
& appoint It is also ordered that y e s d owners or tenants 
shall within four days clear y e said Rutten Creek behind 
and fronting their lotfcs. 

Resolved y l Public notice be given by advertizement 
that y e mayor aldermen and comonality of y c City of 
Albany design to dispose of severall small peices of land 
within y e Bounds of land of y e s d City at Schaahkook at 
or before y e 10th of July next and those that are inclind 
to purchase any of them may then appear before unto y e 
comonality and hear on what condition and terms y e same 
shall be disposed of It is also Resolved y 1 all y e Publick 
Streets & passages within this City which are incroach'd 
by persons who have presum'd to sett in & build in y e s d 

248 The City Records. 

streets and passages shall be peculated by y e s d Comon- 
ality on or before y e last day of August next. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 

9th day of July 1720. 

It is thought proper by y" Comon Councill that Philip 
Livingston, D. Clark do take y e following oath viz 1 , you 
swear that you shall keep secret all laws & occurrances 
w'h shell happen and be acted in Comon Councill of this 
City all such things & matters as shall be told you by 
the Mayor which ought to be kept a secret, so help you 
God. The Recorder, Abraham Cuyler, Harmanus Wen- 
dell, Goose van Schaick & Joh's Pruyn, Esq'rs Ald'n, & 
Baltus van Benthuysen, marshall, have taken y e above 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 
llth day of July 1720. 

The Mayr Aldermen & Comonality of the City of Al- 
bany have this day sold unto Daniel Ketelhuyn a certain 
peice wood land scituate lying & being at Schaakook on 
y e north side of the Creek about 400 paces above y e pro- 
perty of Adrian Quackenboss lying under a hill contain- 
ing about six morgan wherein is comprehended a mash 
of about two morgan, for which he is to pay nine pound 
in two payments four pound ten shillings on pmo. Jan'y 
next and four pound ten shillings on pmo. Jan'y 1722, 
and pay unto the mayor aldermen and comonality and 
their successors for ever y e quantity of two skiple of 
wheat for ever y e first payment to comence in Jan'y 

The Comonality have this day sold unto Peter Winne 
a certain piece of land at Schaahkook being on y e west 
of Tamhenicks Creek under the hill where y e Comon 
Road runs over, containing about three morgan more or 
less for which he is to pay the sume of nine pounds cur- 
rant money of New York in two payments the first on 
pmo. Jan'y next being four pounds ten shilling and y e like 
sume on or before pmo. Jan'y 1722, and to pay unto y e 

The City Records. 249 

mayor recorder aldermen and comonality and their suc- 
cessors forever y" quantity of three skiple of winter wheat 
y ? first payment to cornence in Jan'y 1731, 

The mayor aldermen and comonality have this day 
sold unto David Schuyler for y e sume of thirty pounds to 
be paid in three equall yearly payments y e first on pmo. 
Jan'y next the two peices of land, the one being a flatt 
or plain about one Englise mile distance from a certain 
flatt of land lying on y e Schaahkooks creek contains 
six morgan beginning by a white pine tree which stands 
just upon y e bank of y e river, from thence along y e river 
to a small run of water and thence along y e s d run of 
water to y e stone bank or land to the place where begun 
and a certain tract of land over against Anthonys creek 
containing seaven morgan and a half bounded on y e west 
by y e river on y e south by a run of water on y e east by 
pine woods on y e north by two pine trees together with 
a morgan forahoftstead paying after ten years a skiple 
of wheat for each morgan. 

Att a Comon Council 1 held in y e City hall of Albany y e 
30th day of August 1720. 

The mayor aldermen and comonality have this day for 
the consideration of twenty two pounds ten shillings re- 
leased unto Isaac Fryer a lott of ground scituate lying 
and being at the foot of the gallows hill on y e north side 
of y e comon road about five rodd distance from y e house 
and lott of Barentje Barret wid'w, containing in length 
one hundred and twenty foot and in breadth thirty five 
foot all wood measure, having on y e east & south the 
street and on y e west and north the comons. 

It is ordred that the s d release shall be signd by y e mayor 
in behalf of y e comonalty and that the same shall be en- 
terd on the public records. 

Whereas complaints are made that severall persons 
have omitted & neglected to pave y e street called Spanish 
street according as they are orderd & directed by an 
ordance dated y e 21th day of March last It if therefore 
ordered that y e owners of y e houses and lott fronting y e s d 

250 The City Records. 

street shall pave y e same at or before pmo. October next 
on penalty of twenty shillings for every offence and 3s. 
for every day y e same shall be undone, to be paid by y e 
owner of each lott. 

Whereas y e walls at y e sides of y e Rutten Creek are 
much decayd & out of repair wherefore the mayor alder- 
men & comonality of y e city of Albany do order and direct 
that y e owners or tenants whose lotis of ground front y e 
3 d Rutten creek from y e upper end of the ground of Joh's 
Schuyler & Anthony Vanschaick untill y e end of y e lotts 
of Cold. Schuyler & Johannis Lansingh shall be made 
& repaird by y e s d owners or tenants on or before the last 
day of Sep 1 next and y l in such manner of hight and 
breadth and of such mateiialls as y e mayor y e aldermen 
and assistants of y e first ward or any of them shall order 
& direct and in case any person or persons shall delay or 
neglect to repair as afores d shall forfeit twenty shillings 
and also three shillings for every day y e same shall be 

Resolved that y e Resolution made on y e 18th of June 
last relateing y e regulation of streets in this city expird 
by its own limitation shall be and continue in force till 
y 9 last of Sept next. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 
8d day of Sep 1 1720. 

Resolved that Public notice be given by advertisement 
that all persons who have any just claime or accounts 
with the corporation of the city of Albany arc desired to 
deliver their accounts unto Teunis Brat, chamberlaine of 
the s d city on or before the 16th day of this Instant to the 
end that the same may be viewd examind and allow 'd. 

Resolved that the following persons viz 1 . Hendrick 
Hansen, Abraham Cuyler, Joh's PruynEsq'rs aldermen, 
Johannis Hansen & David Schuyler, assistants be ap- 
pointed a comittee to view and examine y e accounts of 
the s d city on or before y e two & twentieth Instant and 
bring in their Report in Comon Coiincill on y e 23th fol- 

The City Records. 251 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 
21th day of September 1720. 

Dirck vander Heyden haveing desird to have liberty to 
dig y e Creek at Schaahkook through a small neck of land 
y* is adjoyning to his land that y e s d creek may be lead 
straight to prevent takeing away of land at high or over- 
flowing of water which is granted accordingly. 

This day the Comonality sold unto Johannis Cuyler a 
certain lott of ground scituate lying and being in the city 
of Albany in the second ward on thfe East side of the 
pearle street bounded on the south by the lott of y e s d 
Joh's Cuyler on the north the corner lott this day sold to 
Johannis Beekman Jun'r, on the east by a lott formerly 
granted to Jan Verbeek containing in breadth at the front 
one Rod Eleven foot Eight Inches, in length on the South 
side nine Rod three foot nine inches and on the north nine 
Rod Seaven foot and a half, keeping the same breadth in 
the rear as in the front all Rynland measure, and that 
for the consideration of fifty one pounds Eighteen Shil- 
lings & six pence in the three following payments, fifteen 
pounds on the receipt of the Release; Eighteen Pounds 
nine shillings and three pence in y e month of September 
1721, and Eighteen Pounds nine shillings threepence in 
September 1722. 

The Comonality have also sold this day unto Johan's 
Beekman Jun'r. a certain lott of ground scituate lying & 
being in the City of Albany in the second ward on the east 
side of the pearle street bounded on the south side by the 
lott this day sold unto Johannis Cuyler on the north the 
new street that leads down between the lott of Anthony 
van Schaick Jun'r and the s d Johannis Beekman Jun'r. and 
on y e East by a lott which was granted to John Verbeek 
by patent on y e 12th of Sep 1 1670. Containing in breadth 
at the front one Rodd Eleven foot Eight Inches in length 
on the south nine rodd seaven foot and a half and on the 
north ten rodd less two inches in breadth in the rear two 
rod six foot and eight inches to the s d 'new street (which 
street is to be in breadth three rodd all Rynland measure) 

252 The City Records. 

for which lott of ground the said Johannis Beekman Junr 
is to pay Eighty three pounds one shilling & six pence, 
fifteen pounds thereof on the receipt of y e receiver and 
thirty four pounds & nine pence in the month of Sep- 
tember 1721, and y like sume of thirty pounds 9d in 
Sep 1 1722. 

This day y e Comonality have sold unto David Schuyler 
sixteen morgan of land on the East side of Hudsons river 
on the south of Sehaahkooks creek and on y e east of y e 
land sold unto him so that it be taken in one fence & 
adjoining to the other land sold him for y e consideration 
of nine pounds to pay in three payments & 3j skeple wheat 
after 10 years free. 

Albany y e 29th September 1720. 

This day being appointed by the Charter of the City 
of Albany for the aldermen of y e s d city to return the 
Election of y e aldermen & assistants and constables of 
the respective wards in the said city to serve for y e ensu- 
ing year and are as follows (viz 1 ) 

First Ward. 

Aldermen. Assistants. 

Harmanus Wendell Johan's Ten Broeck 
Goose van Schaick David van Dyck 
David Groesbeek, Constable. 

Second Ward. 

Hend'k Roseboom Gerrit Lansingh 

Barent Sanders Hendnck Roseboom Jun'r 

Casparus van Yveren, Constable 

Third Ward. 

Hend'k Hansen Joh's Hansen 

Johan's Pruyn David Schuyler 

Jacob Goewey, Constable 
Thomas Scherpe is chosen High Constable and 
Teunis Brat, Chamberlain of the said city. 

The City Records. 253 

Att a Comon Council! held in the City hall of Albany y e 
3th day of October 1720. Present, Mynd 1 Schuyler 
Esq'r Mayor. Joh's Cnyler Esq'r, Recorder, Johan's 
Roseboom, Hendrick Hansen, Abraham Cuyler, Har- 
manis Wendell, Joh's Pruyn Esq'rs ald'n, Joh's Han- 
sen, Johan's Lansingh, Joha's Ten Broeck, David 
Schuyler, David van Dyck, ass'ts. 
It is orderd by the Comonality that the mayor shall in 
behalf of the Comonality sign the conveyance unto Jo- 
hannis Cuyler Esq'r, and Joh's Beekman Jun'r, each for 
a lott of ground sold unto them on y e 21th day of Sep'r 
last with a sufficient warrantee, as also to sign a release 
unto David Schuyler for land sold him llth of July & 
21st of September with such conditions as y e said land is 

The Comittee appointed on y e 8th day of September 
last bring in their report that they have viewd and exa- 
mind the accounts of the severall persons therein men- 
tioned payable by y e s d city amounting in all y e sume of 
Two hundred nine pounds three shillings and eleven 
pence half penny which is examind and approvd of by the 
Comonality and orderd that an order be signd unto Teu- 
nis Brat city chamberlain for paying the said sume of 
money unto the several persons mentioned in y e said 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 

15th day of November 1720 

Resolved that an advertisement be. put up in a publick 
place to give notice that no person or persons shall dis- 
pose of any strong liquor without being first 'duely Ly- 
cenced on penalty of five pounds. 

Att a Comon Councill held in y e City hall of Albany the 
18th day of November 1720 

It is Resolved that y e following ordinance be pulishd 
viz 1 

By the Worshipfull Mayor Recorder Aldermen & Com- 
onalty of the City of Albany 

[Annals, viii.] 23 

254 The City Records. 

An Ordinance. 

Whereas we are credibly informd that severall persons 
within this city do presume to cut down the stockados 
standing about this for y e preventing whereof It is Re- 
solved that it shall be publishd ordaind and declard and 
it is hereby publishd ordaind and declard that no person 
or persons shall ciitt down any of y e s d Stockados nor 
carry or convey them away on penalty of three shillings 
for every stockado so cutt down carryd or conveyd away 
to be recoverd before anny of his majeties Justices of y e 
peace within this city from any person or persons that 
shall transgress either by himself his son or servant for 
y e use of any person that shall sue for y e same. 

It is Resolved by the Comonality that y e members be-, 
longing to y e same shall duely attend y e comon councill 
an half an hour at furthest after y e bell ringing for y e 
same on penalty of three shillings for every offence. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 
25th November 1720. 

The Comonality have this day let to farm y e Water 
Run and fall of water on Tamhenicks creek unto Jacobus 
Schoonhoven mentioned on y e 21st of March last to be 
let unto him Joh's D'Wandlaer and .Dirk van Veghten 
since they decline, he is to have it for y e term of twelve 
years commencing from y e first day of August 172 1 & 
ending pmo. August 1733, on y e same condicon as men- 
tioned in y e foregoing condition. 

Resolved that an Indenture be drawn according to y e 
true intent and meaning of y e s d agreement and that y e 
mayor in behalf of y e comonalit3 r shall sign y e same and 
cause the City Scale to be thereunto affixed and y e same 
to be enterd on y e Publick Records. 

Resolved that a well be made in y e second ward of this 
city in y e midle of y e pearle street at y e charge of this 
city not exceeding fifteen pounds and y l y e recorder, the 
aldermen and assistants or any of them of y e s d ward 
have y e management thereof to provide materials, work- 
men &c. 

The City Records. 255 

Resolved that a well be made in the third ward of y e 
said city in y e midle of y e s d Brewers street at y e charge 
of y e s d city not exceeding fifteen pounds, and y l y e alder- 
men and assistants or any of them have y ? management 
thereof to procure materials workmen &c. and that y e s d 
wells be finisht by y e first of August next ensueing. 

Att a Mayors Court held in the City hall of Albany y e 

23th of August 1720. 

Samuel Babington Plentive by John Collins his attor- 

Tjerk Visger Defend 1 by Ph, Livingston his attorney. 
Leend 1 Gansvort Harman Rykman 

W. Hogan David V. Dyke 

Nicolas Fonda Jacob Lansing 

Hendr. Roseboom Nicolas Wyngaer 

Jurrem Hogan Joh. Groesbeek 

Dirk Tenbroeck Dirk Bratt 

Declaration and Pleading read. 

The account of Mr. Samuel Babingtone sworn for ten 
pounds seven shillings & six pence. 

Benjamin Egbertse sworn. John Collins sworn. 
Teunis Brat. Antho, Brat. 

The Jury Return who find for y e Plentive five pounds 
four pence half penny for y e Debt & sixpence costs, for 
which y e Plentives attorney moves for Judgment for the 
verdict & for costs of suite, wh. is granted accordingly. 
The Court adjournd till this day forthnight. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 
3th day of December 1720. 

The Comonality have appointed the following Persons 
to be fire masters for the ensuing year. 

William Hogan, Frederick Myndertse, Claes Fonda, 
Hend. Bleecker, Isaac Fonda, Jan Maase, to go run on y e 
12th Instant for y e first time and that a warrant be 
directed unto them. 

Resolved y l y e Cryer go round in this city to cry about 
y l all those who have any of y e City leathers or Iron 

256 The City Records. 

hooks to bring y e same to Anthony Bogardus house that 
it may be known how many there shall be wanting which 
is ordered shall be made on charge of this city to com- 
pleat y e number of leathers and iron hooks &c. 

At a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 
llth day of Dec'r 1720. 

Resolved by the Comonality that the following ordi- 
nance shall be publishd. 

By the Worshipfull Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen & 
Comonality of the City of Albany. 
An Ordinance. 

Whereas it has been found by experiance that abuzes 
have been committed in this city in the sale of wood for 
preventing whereof it is Resolved that it shall beordaind 
publishd and declard and it is hereby ordaind publishd 
and declard that from and after the Eighteenth of this 
Instant month December, all Sices for two horses shall 
be thirty three inches wide and all wood to be brought 
for sale thereon to be eight foot wood measure in length, 
and the load to be thirty six inches high, and that all 
Slees for one horse shall be thirty inches wide and that 
the load of wood to be brought for sale thereon shall be 
seaven foot long and the load to be thirty inches high all 
wood measure on penalty of forfeiting such wood to be 
brought, and exposed to sale for the behoof of the sherif 
or any person that shall sue for the same. 

And whereas sundry persons within this city and 
county of Albany do presume to ride with slees and horses 
in the streets of the s d city very fast and unrulely for pre- 
venting whereof it is hereby ordaind publishd and declard 
that from and after the publication hereof no person or 
persons shall ride or drive any horse or horses with slee 
waggon or cart or otherwise in the streets or lanes of the 
said city faster than on a steap or a very moderate trot 
on penalty of forfeiting for every such offence the sume of 
six shilling to be paid by the owner or driver of such 
horse slee waggon or cart for y e behoof of y e sheriff or 
any other person that shall sue for the same. 

The City Records. 257 

That no person or persons shall presume to ryde down 
any hill within this city with any slees boards or other- 
wise after five o'clock at night on penalty of six shillings 
for every offence, to be paid by the person and persons 
offending, their parents or masters for y e behoof as afores d 
dated in Albany this tenth day of December in the seventh 
year of his maj'es Reign annoqo. Do. 1720. 

Resolved that a warrant be issued to the assessors to 
appear in the City hall of Albany on the 13th day of this 
Instant to take their oaths for well truly equally and 
impartially and in due proportion as it shall appear unto 
you according to your best understanding to assess and 
rate on all and every the freeholders inhabitants and 
residents of y e s d city for which you are choisen asses'rs, 
the number of four thousand yellow pine Stockados and 
return such estimate in y e Clerks office on or before y e 
18th Instant. 

A tt a Mayors Court held in y e City hall of Albany y c 13th 
day of December 1720. 

Johannis Wyncoop by John Collins his attorney, Plen- 

Peter De Garmoy Defend 1 who appears in Court and 
Confesses Judgment for Eleven Pounds fourteen shillings 
Debt with costs of suite and six pence damages, the court 
give Jugement for the same accordingly. 

The sherif protest against the insufficiency of the goal 
of this city & county. 

The Court adjournd till this day forthnight. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 

24th day of Dec'r 1720. 

Pursuant to the Resolve of the Comonality and y e 
warrant directed to y e assessors of this city dated y e llth 
Instant they deliverd their estimate for 4000 Stockados in 
y e Clerks office of the s d city which is but little above 
one third of the same it be to want may be wanting, a 
heavy and burthensome tax on the inhabitants alone to 
fortify the s d city, wherefore it is Resolved not to pro- 

258 The City Records. ' 

ceed but endeavor to gett releave by the next assembly 
that y e Province may contribute fortifying y e same. 

Att a Comon Councill held the 28th day of February 

Whereas David Schuyler has purchazed on y e 21th day 
of Sep'r last sixteen morgan of land scituate lying and 
being in the bounds of land belonging to the said city at 
Schaahkook to be an addition to 2 other peices of land, 
which said sixteen morgan of land he desires may be in 
three severall pieces of land instead of one which is, 
granted accordingly, and Resolved that the Indentures be 
drawn over inserting therein that the said David Schny- 
ler is to have said 16 morgan in three peices, and that 
the mayor in behalf of the Comonality do sign y e s d In- 
denture affix y City Seale thereto and that y e same be 
enterd on the Publick Records, taking such payment and 
bonds as orderd on y e llth July and 21th day of Sep' last 
and on y c like condition as then there ordered and Re- 

Myndert Schuyler Esq. mayor, desires to have the 
refusall of a pice of land containing about three morgan 
lying & being in the bounds of land belonging to the said 
City at Schaahkook towards the Northeast from the land 
of Symon Danielse being the land he has shown to Jo- 
hannis Hansen, which is granted, 

Harmanus Wendell Esq. alderman, acquaints the Com- 
onality that he has sundry times been at y e expence to 
gett the Pales and Chains mended and repaird to y e well 
which stands on the hill in the Joncker Street and sev- 
erall families do fitch water out of the said well without 
paying a penny towards the expense wherefore desires 
that he may have leave to gett the s d pales and chains 
mended at y e charge of y e s d City, which is granted. 

Whereas there is a Resolve made by the Comonality 
on y e 25th Nov'r last that a well shall be made in the 
second ward of y e s d City in y e midle of y e Pearle Street 
and some of this meeting moveing that y e s d well will be 
very inconvenient at that place and prejudiciall to sev- 

The City Records. 259 

erall inhabitants who live on the east side of y e said 
street it is therefore Resolved and ordered that y e former 
Resolution concerning the said well shall be void and 
that y e same shall be made and placed at y e cross street 
between the houses of William Jacobse van Deusen and 
Gysbert Marcelis that y e water may drawn from the said 
well down y l street or lane at Gysbert Marcelises which 
will be then no nuisance to any inhabitant of this city. 

David van Dyck desires that he may have the liberty 
to build his house three foot and a half in y e street on 
that lott of ground late belonging to Jacob Lookerman 
deceased, scituate being in this City fronting on y e East 
the house of Johannis F. Lansen, and if the s d 3^ foot of 
ground doth not belong to him on produceing of his title 
& writings, which he promises to do. he is willing and 
oblidges himself to pay for the same what shall be rea- 
sonably agreed on by the Comonality, which is granted 

Resolved that an ordinance be drawn and publishd re- 
gulateing rydeing of Indians from Schinectady to this 

By the Worshipfull Mayor, Aldermen & Comonality 
of the City of Albany. 

An Ordinance. 

Whereas it has been found by experience that severall 
private Persons in this County who not regarding y e 
safety & prosperity of this City & County of Albany but 
only for their own private lucre and gain do & for many 
years have done by indirect means ingrossd the fur trade 
with the Five Nations and other Indians into their hands 
by their contrivance with those who are employed by y 
s d Indians to y e great prejudice of y e Indians and ruin of 
y e s d trade for y e preventing whereof and that the s d trade 
may be duly managed, 

Be it ordaind publishd and declard and it is hereby 
ordaind publishd and declard that no Person or Persons 
who shall at any time or times hereof be imployed by 
the said Indians to carry them or any of their wives and 
children, their peltry, beavers or other furs in his her or 

260 ' The City Records. 

their waggons from any place in the County of Albany, 
shall not bring them or either of them or their said effects 
any neigher to the said City than six hundred yards dis- 
tance from y e Stockados of y e s d City upon penalty pain 
of forfeiting the sume of five pounds lawfull money of New- 
York for every male or female or any of their s d effects 
to be carryed in his her or their waggons contrary to the 
intent of this ordinance, to be recoverd in y e Mayors 
Court of the City of Albany for y e behoof of y e sherrif or 
any person that shall sue for the same : dated in Albany 
y e 7th of March in y 2 7th year of his maj'es Reign, 
annoqo Do. 172^. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 
25th day of March 1721. 

David Schuyler to whom y e Comonality have sold and 
granted morgan of land on y e 28th day of February 

last, makes his application to y e Comonality that he has 
sold the said land unto Johannis Knickerbacker for the 
sume of fifty pounds, and doth now hereby give pursuant 
to his Indenture the Comonality the refuzal) thereof. 
Liberty is hereby granted unto y e said David Schuyler to 
dispose of y e said land. 

The Comonality have this day sold unto Abraham 
Vosburgh Jun'r a lott of ground scituate lying and being 
at the foot of Gallows hill on the north side of the lott 
of Isaac Fryer, containing in length one hundred and 
twenty foot and in breadth thirty five foot all wood mea- 
sure, having on y e east y e street on y e south y e lott of 
Isaac Fryer and on y e west and north the Comons, for 
which he is to pay the sume of twenty two pounds ten 
shillings in three equall payments, seaven pound ten shil- 
lings on receipt of a release for y e s d lott of ground, 
seaven pounds ten shillings on the 25th day of March 
1722, and seaven pounds ten shillings on y e 25th day of 
March 1723; for the two last payments he is to give 

It is ordered that the Mayor in behalf of the Comon- 
ality shall sign the release for the said lott of ground, 

The City Records. 261 

affix the City Scale thereto and that y e same be enterd 
on the public records of the said City and County. 

Whereas the Mayor, Aldermen & Comonality on the 
llth day of July last did sell unto Daniel Ketelhuyn a 
certain peice of wood land scituate lying and being at 
Schaahkook on the north side of the creek about 400 
paces abcve y c property of Adriaen Quackenboss, lying 
under a hill, containing about six morgan wherein is 
comprehended a mash of about two morgan. Instead 
whereof it is ordered that y e s d peice of wood land shall 
contain six rnorgan and one half morgan and on the south 
to be bounded on y e s d Schaahkooks Creek and running 
up northerly in such breadth & length between y e s d creek 
&.y e hill as the s d Dan ; l Ketelhuyn, his heirs or assigns 
shall judge most convenient, for which he is to pay nine 
pounds, one half on receipt of a release and the other 
half on pmo. January 172J, and pay unto the mayor, 
aldermen and comonality and their successors forever y e 
quantity of two skiple of wheat for ever, the first pay- 
ment to commence in January 1731. 

It is ordered that y e mayor in behalf of the comonality 
sign a release for y e s d peice of ground, affix the city 
scale thereto and that y e same be enterd on y e publick 
records of the said city and county. 

It is Resolved that public notice be given that all those 
who are indebted unto y e mayor, aldermen and & comon- 
ality of y e city of Albany by bond or otherwise are re- 
quired to pay the same on or before y e 15th day of April 
next, and all those who have given bonds are desired to 
pay & discharge y e same when due on penalty to be sued 
& prosecuted. 

Att a Comon Counsill held in Albany y e 4th day of April 

It is Resolved by y e Comonality that the wheat which 
is come in for the rent of y e Tenants at Schaahkook shall 
be disposed on or before Monday next at a publick vendue. 

Resolved y l y e following ordinance be publishd, viz 1 . 

By the Worshipfull Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen and 
Comonalty of y e City of Albany. 

262 The City Records. 

An Ordinance. 

Whereas several! streets and lanes within y e aforesaid 
city wants to be regulated & conveniently layd out, 
draind, pavd and in some parts Earth dugg out & carted 
away, for the effecting whereof be it ordaind, publishd and 
declard and it is hereby ordaind, published and declard that 
all and every person and persons within this city before 
whose houses & lotts y e water has no vent shall forthwith 
ditch & drain the water to give it passage that the high- 
ways may be dry & be useful for y e Inhabitants ofy e s d city, 
and that all y e streets and lanes be sufficiently pavd, 
y e earth dugg out and carted away on or before y e first 
day of May next ensueing by y e owners or tenants of y e 
houses and lot of ground fronting any such streets where 
it shall be wanting and y l in such manner & form as the 
mayor, recorder aldermen & assistants in each respective 
ward shall order and direct on penalty of thirty shillings 
for every offence and three shillings for every day after 
y e s d first day of May as such paveing, digging & carting 
shall be undone, for y e behoof of y e sherrif or any other 
person as shall sue for y e same. Dated in Albany this 
fourth day of April 1721. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 

8th day of April 1721. 

Whereas it is very requisite & necessary that a fitt and 
able school master settle in this city for teaching and in- 
structing of the youth in speling, reading, writeing and 
cyffering and Mr. Johannis Glandorf haveing offered his 
service to setle here and keep a school if reasonably in- 
couraged by y e Corporation, It is therefore Resolved by 
this Comonality and they do hereby oblidge themselves 
and their successors to give and procure unto y e said 
Johan's Glandorf free house rent for the term of seaven 
years next ensueing for keeping a good and commendable 
school as becomes a diligent Schoolmaster. 

Att a Comon Council held in the City hall of Albany y e 
18th day of April 1721. 

The City Records. 263 

It is Resolved by y e mayor, aldermen and Comonality 
that a letter be sent to y e Tenants at Schaahkook who 
are in arrear for rent of their land there, that they come 
forthwith to pay unto this Corporation what they are yet 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 

10th day of April 1721. 

Conditions of sales of wheat by way of a public vendue 
which the Corporation of the City of Albany has received 
for rent from the Tenants at Schaahkook, that the high- 
est bidder of any of y e s d wheat shall pay ready money 
unless he has an approved account payable by the said 
Corporation of which it shall be deducted and debited in 
the Treasurers Book for the same, the said wheat is to 
be delivered in three days. 

To Stephanis Groesbeek 24 Skiple a 3s. 3:12 
David van Dyck 24 Do. a 3 3:12 

David van Dyck 24 Do. a 3 3:12 

David van Dyck 24 Do. a 3 3:12 

Philip Livingston 24 Do. a 3 3:12 

Myndert Schuyler 24 Do. a 3 3:12 

Philip Livingston 24 Do. a 2 11 3:10 

Philip Livingston 24 Do. a 2 11 3:10 

Philip Livingston 24 Do. a 2 11 3:10 

Philip Livingston 24 Do, a 2 11^ 2:19:2 

216 Skeple 35:01:2 

Att a Comon Councill held in y e City hall in Albany y e 

29th April 1721. 

Whereas an ordinance was publish 'd on y e 4th day of 
this Instant, Ap'l, for sufficiently paving y e lanes & streets 
in y e s d city, digging & carting away ground out of y e 
same streets, w'h stops y e course of y e water on or before 
pmo. May next and some persons having made applica- 
tion to be a further time allowed for paveing & digging 
away y e ground which is thought very reasonable to be 
granted, allowd till y e 20th of May next. 

264 The City Records. 

Att a Comon Councill held in y e City hall of Albany y e 
pmo. of May 1721. 

Corsett Vedder haveing exchangd of one half of his 
land at Schaahkook unto Johannis Christianse desires y e 
Corporation to confirm y e same by giveing such liberty, 
being obliged by his Indentures to give y e refusall thereof 
and y e s d Corsett Vedder haveing sold one other half of 
his land at Schaahkook unto Joh's Groesbeek for y e sume 
of 120, give y" refusall thereof to y e Corporation pur- 
suant to his Indentures, who give him liberty to sell y e 

Resolved that if the Tenants at Schaahkook who are 
in arrear for rent of their land do not pay the same 
within eight days that y e mayor in behalf of y e Comon 
Councill shall impower y e sherrif to distrain for the same 
pursuant to their Indentures. 

Att a Comon Council held in the City of Albany the 5th 
day of May 1721. 

Eesolved that y e following ordinance shall be publishd 
concerning the Indian trade, viz 1 . 

By the Worshipfull Mayor, Aldermen and Comonality 
of the City of Albany. 

An Ordinance. 

Whereas complaints have been made that severall 
Persons in the City and County of Albany who not re- 
garding or considering the comon welfare and prosperity 
of the s d city, but for their own private lucre & gain in- 
gross the whole Indian trade, which if not prevented will 
not only tend to the deminishing of the s d trade, but alli- 
nate the affection and allegiance of y c s d Indians from his 
majesty, for preventing whereof, and that y e s d Indian 
trade may be duly and orderly managed for the equall 
benefit and advantage of the Inhabitants of the said city 
and the incouragement and increase of y e s d trade we do 
hereby make, ordain, publish & declare these our orders, 
rules and regulations in manner following, that is to say, 

That if any person or persons within the s d ciiy of 
Albany shall at any time or times after the publication 

The City Records. 265 

hereof receive, conceal, harbour or take in his her or 
their houses warehouses shops or elsewhere any packs or 
bundles of Beaver, Peltry or other fur belonging to any 
Indian or Squa, every person or persons so offending 
shall for every bundle or pack so received, concealed 
harbored or taken in as afores d forfeit the sume of five 
pounds currant money of the Colony of Newyork for the 
behoof of y e sherrif or any person that shall sue for y e 
same, to be recovered before any Court of Record within 
this city. 

That if any person or persons within the s d city shall 
at any time or times hereafter suffer or entertain any 
Indian or Squa (except those Indians adjugd to be Sa- 
chims of the five nations), to lodge in his or their houses 
warehouses or shops, for every Indian or Squa, he or they 
shall so suffer after the time to be received and lodge as 
afores d , forfeit y e sume of five pounds currant money 
afores d for the behoof afores d and to be recoverd as 
afores d . 

That if any Person or Persons that shall ride or drive 
with any waggon or cart any Indian or Indians or any 
of their wifes or children, or any of their Beaver or Pel- 
try or other effects from the westward towards this city 
and shall neglect or delay to take and receive his or their 
payment for such ridding before y e unloading of y e s d 
Indian or Indians their wifes or children, Beaver, peltry 
or other effects, or at such unloading (at y e place ap- 
pointed) not immediately depart without speaking wis- 
pering or makeing signs to them or any of them shall 
forfeit for every offence y c sume of five pounds currant 
money afores d for y e behoof afores d and to be recoverd as 
afores d . 

That if any person or persons that shall ride or drive 
with a waggon or cart any Indian or Indians or any of their 
wifes or children or any of their Beaver or peltry from 
the westward towards this city that shall take or receive 
from any man, woman or child any payment, gift, present 
or consideration whoever for such rideing shall for every 
offence .forfeit y e sume of ten pounds currant money 

[Annals, viii.] 24 

266 The City Records. 

afores d , one half thereof for the behoof of the s d mayor, 
aldermen and comonality of the s d city arid the other half 
for the behoof as afores d and to be recoverd as afores d . 

That no person or persons shall speake to any Indian 
or Indians or to any of their wifes or children comeing 
from y e westward, without the gates or stockadoes of y e 
s d city (except in those houses which stand within y e 
Libertie of the s d city nor intice them or any of them by 
signs or otherwise to trade with themselves or others on 
pain & penalty of five pounds for every offence for the 
behoof afores d and to be recoverd as afores d . 

That no Person or Persons whatsoever within this city 
or that hereafter shall come within this city shall send 
out or make use of any Breakers, whether Christians or 
Indians, in the management of the Indian trade upon 
pain & penalty of paying as a fine for each offence the 
sume of five pounds for y c behoof afores d and to be re- 
coverd as afores d . 

Provided always that nothing herein contained shall 
debar any person or persons to take, receive or harbour 
any of the Sachims of y e 5 nations ; the mohoggs dwelling 
at their two Castles and River Indians with their effects, 
any thing herein contained to the contrary hereof in any 
wise notwithstanding. 

That in case any person or persons shall have commit- 
ted any offence contrary to this ordinance and the sher- 
rif, his deputy or deputys or any other person or persons 
shall on his or their own accord contract, agree, com- 
pound or make up the matter with such offender or with 
any body else by their means for a less sume of money 
then y" offence or penalty afores d made for such offences, 
he or they being thereof convicted by one or more credi- 
ble witnesses shall forfeit for each offence the sume of 
eighteen pounds for the behoof as afores d to be recoverd 
as afores d . Given in Albany y e 5th of May in the seav- 
enth year of his maj'es Reign, annoqo. Do. 1721. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 

8th day of May 1721. 
Whereas the ordinance made on y e 4th of April last 

The City Records. 267 

concerning the paveing draining and carting away of 
ground out of the streets & lanes in this city is therein 
left to y e direction of the mayor, aldermen and comonal- 
ity in each respective ward of ye s d city: the direction 
thereof is now Resolved shall be in y e mayor, recorder, 
aldermen and comonality of y e s d city or any two of them. 
That y e street called y e Rum street shall be pavd at or 
before y e 15th day of August in such manner as y-s d 
mayor, recorder, aldermen and comonality shall order & 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 
21th day of July 1721. 

The Petition of Mr. Johannis Glandorf being read set- 
ting forth that the house which the comonality designd 
for him is too small, desires a convenient house to keep 
a school in within this city, whereon it is Resolved to 
hire for him a house of Robert van Deusen, which he has 
in this city in the right of his wife, from Mr. Harmanus 
Wendell (who has a lease for y e same) for the term of 18 
months, commencing pmo. November next for y e sume of 
ten pounds pr annum, which is to be paid by this Corpo- 

The Petition of Gerrit Lansingh Jun'r of this city, 
coeper, being read desireing to purchase a lott of ground 
from this Corporation next to that of Abraham Lansingh, 
which Petition is Resolved shall be taken in considera- 

Niecolas Wyngaert appears in Comon Councill desires 
to purchase a lott of ground on y e plain next to the lott of 
Mr. Barclay, which is taken in consideration. 

Att a Comon Councill held in y e City hall of Albany y e 
8th of August 1721. 

Resolved by the Comonality that the following ordi- 
nance shall be drawn and publishd viz 4 . 

By the Worshipfull Mayor, Aldermen & Comonalty of 
the City of Albany. 

263 The City Records. 

An Ordinance. 

Whereas severall Persons for their own private lucre 
and gain do buy and take in pawn from y e Indians their 
cloathing and other necessaries, by Wh means they are 
rendered incapable to go hunting to maintain themselves 
and families and are often inveigled to drink to excesse, 
for preventing whereot we do hereby strictly prohibit y e 
buying, receiving or detaining any cloathing or appearle 
belonging to any Indian or Indians or any of their accu- 
trem'ts (except wampum and Indian Jewells) on penalty 
of forfeiting such cloathing and accutrements, and also y e 
sume of three pounds for each offence to be recovered 
before any Court of Record within this city for y e behoof 
of y e sherrif or any person who shall sue for y e same. 

That no tavern or alehouse keeper, or one that sell 
strong liquor by retaile within this city & county shall 
suffer any disorders in his her or their houses or sell 
strong liquor at unreasonable hours in the night, or ony c 
Sabbath day to y e disturbance of those that live near 
them, on penalty of having their 'Lycence taken from 
them. Given in Albany this eighth day of August in the 
eighth year of his maj'es Reign, annoq. Do. 1721. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 
24th day of August 1721. 

Hendk. Roseboom & Barent Sanders Esq'rs, aldermen, 
lay before the Comonality an ace 1 how far they are pro- 
ceeded in making the well in the second ward of this city 
amo. near the sume of fifteen pounds allowd for making 
the same, desire an addition may be allowed. Resolved 
that the sume of twelve pounds shall be added for making 
y" s d well & paid by this city. 

An order was issued this day on Teunis Brat to pay 
unto Hencl. Roseboom, Barent Sanders Esq's, aldermen, 
Ger 1 Lansingh & Hend. Roseboom Jun r, assistants, the 
sume of twelve pounds for paying part of y e charges of 
the said well. 

Resolved that for y e future y e accounts allowd to be 
p d by this city shall be paid out of y e first money that 

The City Records. 269 

shall come in the Treas'rs hands and before any ace 1 
now to be brought in or allowd by the Comonality. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 

4th day ofSep 1 1721. 
To his Ex'ly Wm. Burnett Esq. Cap 1 Gen'l & Gov'r in 

Chiefe of the Provinces of Newyorl^, New Jersey and 

Territories Depending thereon in America & vice 

admirall of the same, &c. 

The humble Petition of the Recorder, Aldermen and 
Assistants of y e City of Albany. 

Whereas there is an act passed in this Province in w'h 
it is stipulated that all Indian goods that shall be found 
to the north of an east and west line to be drawn from 
y e north limitts of this City shall be forfieted together 
with y e value of such Indian goods as also 100 for every 
such offence, and such person or persons esteemed a 
trador contrary to the intent of y e s d act, in pursuance 
whereof Henry Holland Esq'r sherrif of y e City and 
County of Albany has made a seizure of some strowds at 
Schinectady, lying to the north of y e s d east & west line, 
w'h has been duly condemned, and we being informd 
that your Ex'ly has given orders to stop y e execution for 
levying y e s d fine, wherefore we hope that your Ex'ly for y e 
safety & prosperity of this city will be pleased to lett the 
Law have its course, w'h if not duely observed we humbly 
conceive will tend to y e ruin and distruction of the In- 
habitants of y e s d City, and as in duty shall ever pray and 
remain. May it please your Ex'ly, Your Ex'lys most 
humble & most obed 1 servants, 


Att a Comon Council in the City hall of Albany the 20th 

day of September 1721 

Resolved that Publick notice be given by advertise- 
ments that all persons who have any accounts with the 

270 The City Records. 

mayor, aldermen & Comonality of the said city to deliver 
the same unto Tennis Brat, City Treasurer, on or before 
the 23th Instant to the end that the same may be viewd 
and examind by the following persons who are appointed 
a Comittce, viz 1 , Hend. Hansen, Harmanus Wendell, 
Barent Sanders Esq'r ald'n, David Schuyler, David van 
Dyck & Gerrit Lansingh Jun'r, assistants, and bring in 
their report on or before y e 30th Instant. 

Ordered that the Bridge at the tan pitts on the north 
of this city shall be repaii d and mended ; as also the bridge 
on the north of y e Dutch Church, at the charge of this 
city. Hend. Hansen, Job's Pruyn Esq's ald'n, Job's 
Hansen & David Schuyler be desired to procure work- 
men & materialls to gett that work done. 

Albany the 29th September 1721. 

This day being appointed by the Charter of the City of 
Albany for the aldermen of the severall wards of the said 
city to return the names of aldermen, assistents and Con- 
stables who are to serve for the ensuing year, being as 
follows : 

First Ward. 
Aldermen. Assistants. 

Goose van Schaick Johannis Ten Broeck 

Harmanus Wendell John D'Peyster. 

Johan's V. Olinda, Constable. 

Second Ward. 

Hendrick Roseboom Johan's Lansingh Jun'r 
Barent Sanders Hendrick Roseboom Ju'r 

Johannis van Sehelluyne, Constable. 

Third Ward. 

Hendrick Hansen Johan's Hansen 

Johan's Pruyn Barent Brat 

Hans Hansen, Constable. 

Teunis Brat is chosen Chamberlain of y e City of Albany 
for the year ensuing. 

Jacob Goewey is chosen Hiyh Constable. 

The City Records. 271 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City of Albany the 30th 

day of September 1721. 

Pursuant to the order of y e mayor, aldermen and com- 
onality on y e 20th Instant the comittee then appointed 
to view and examine the accounts due from the said city 
do Report that they have examined the said accounts as 
pr. a list now produced amounting in all to the sume of 
one hundred thirty one pound one shilling & two pence, 
which the mayor, aldermen & comonality do approve and 
directed an order to the Treasurer of y e s d City to pay y e 
said sume of money unto y c severall persons therein men- 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 
2d day of October 1721 Present Myndert Schuyler, 
Esq'r Mayor, Joh's Cuyler Esq'r Recorder, Hend. 
Hansen, Harmanus Wendell, Goose van Schaick, 
Johan's Pruyn, Hend. Roseboom, Barent Sanders, 
Esq'rs, Aldermen, Johan's Hansen, Johan's Ten 
Broeck, David van Dyck, David Schuyler, Ger 1 
Lansingh Jun'r. Hendr. Roseboom Jun'r, Assistants. 
The Petition of Joh's Visger being read and is as fol- 
lows, viz*. 

To the Worshipfull Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen & Com- 
onality of the City of Albany in Comon Councill 

The humble Petition of Johannis Visger of the City of 
Albany, Most humbly sheweth, 

Your Petitioner takes leave to inform your worships 
that on y e first day of September 1707 the then mayor, 
aldermen & comonality of y e s d city did sell unto your 
Petitioner five foot broad of ground & the length of eight 
rod & five foot Rynland measure, scituate lying and be- 
ing on y e west side of the Pearle street, which ground 
they covenanted & agreed for themselves & their succes- 
sors to and with your Petitioner to defend and save him 
harmless from all claim & demand whatsoever on y e same 
tho' some time after your Petitioner was ejected from the 
s d ground by Andries Coeyeman, and your Petitioner 

272 The City Records. 

applyd to them for releave to defend him ag'st y ? said 
Coeyeman, but they then were of opinion that your Peti- 
tioner should first stand out y e law suite and they would 
defend your Petitioner, but y e s d Coeyeman being a 
powerfull man and your Petitioners circumstances but 
mean, could not with stand him in law and being appre- 
hensive if your Petitioner should loose that case the said 
Coeyeman would gett possession of part of his house, 
which the then Comonality as your Petitioner perceivd 
would scarcely have defended and put him in possession 
again, which made him compound to y e great impoverish- 
ment of y'r Petitioner. 

Wherefore your Petitioner humbly begs y l your wor- 
ships will be pleased to take his case and circumstances 
in your wise & serious consideration and allow him what 
money your Petitioner has expended at y c s d law suite 
and paid to y e said Coeyeman, and your Petitioner as in 
duty bound shall ever pray. 

The mayor, aldermen & Comonality have taken the 
above petition in consideracon and peruzd y e conveyance 
y e petitioner setts forth and do for y e releave of y e s d Pe- 
titioner grant and allow y l he shall be paid y e sume of 
thirty pounds out of the first ground that shall be sold by 
this Corporation on the plain or else a peice of ground 
for the-s d sume. 

Resolved that priviledge & liberty be given to the In- 
habitants of this city to make an Indian house in each 
ward without the city at the charge of those Inhabitants 
who will freely contribute towards y e makeing and erect- 
ing y e same for y e accommodation of y e Indians that come 
to trade with y c Inhabitants of this place. 

That in y c first ward behind y e Lutheran Church on 
y e north side of y e Rutten kill. 

That in y e second ward on y e hill opposite to the street 
between y e houses of Johannis Bleecker and Hend. Ten 

That in y e third ward near y e water side at y e south 
side y e third Creek. 

The City Records. 273 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 

28th day of November 1721. 

The Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen & Comonality have 
this day appointed the following persons to be fire mas- 
ters for the year ensueing: 

First Ward. 
Niecolas Wyngaert Uldrick van Francke 

Second Ward. 
Christophell Yetts Jacob C. Schermerhorn 

Third Ward. 

Cornells Bogaert Cornells Maase 

Whereas that on y e 5th day of May last an ordinance 
was publishd relateing to y e Indian trade which is hereby 
annuld and made void until y e 15th day of April next, of 
which is orderd that y e sherrif shall be given notice. 

Evert Wendell appears in Comon Council desires to 
purchase a small peice of ground adjoyning to his lott, 
ordered that a Ccmittee be appointed to view y e s' 1 ground 
and bring report next Comon Councill day. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 
21th day of February 172J-. 

Henry Holland Esq'r present receiver of his maj's quit 
rents for y e City & County of Albany appears in Comon 
Councill desireing to know if this meeting is of opinion 
whether the severall houses in this city are included in 
the Charter of the s d city or not. 

It is the opinion of this meeting that the severall 
houses and lotts of ground within y e s d city, patented be- 
fore y e obtaining of y e said Charter and whereon a quit 
rent was then established are included in y e quit rent 
mentioned in y e said Charter, and y l this Corporation 
are to defend those persons who shall be troubled for 
such quit rent. 

It is Resolved that all lotts of ground within this Cor- 
poration shall be sold in publick vendue and not other- 

That all persons who are indebted to this Corporation 
are required to pay their respective debts on or before 
y e 6th day of March on penalty of being prosecuted. 

274 The City Records. 

The following persons, viz 1 , Job's Cuyler Esq'r, Re- 
corder, Hend. Hansen, Har. Wendell & Barent Sanders, 
Esq's aldermen, Job's Lansingb & Barent Sanders, assist- 
ants, are appointed a Comittee to examine y c acc'ts of 
Teunis Brat dec'd, late Treasurer, and bring in their 
Report on Monday next. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany 
this 26th day of February 172 J. 

The Mayor, Aldermen & Comonality haVe this day 
nominated and appointed Barent Brat of this City to be 
Sexton in the room of Teunis Bradt deceased that half 
of y e perquisites and advantages shall be for y e behoof of 
Williampie Brat his mother. 

The Reverend Petrus van Driesen minister of y e nether 
Dutch Reformed Congregation of this city with y e 
Elders & Deacons of y e s d Congregation appearing in 
Comon Councill, desire y e y e mayor, aldermen & comon- 
ality of y e s d City will be pleased to release unto them and 
their successors y e Church yard or Burying place scituate 
& being to y e south of y e s ' city, which is granted shall 
be released when y e same shall have first measurd. 

This day the mayor, aldermen & comonality have no- 
minated & appointed Barent Bradt City Chamberlain in 
room of Teunis Bradt dec'd. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 

1st day of May 1722. 

The Comonality have this day sold unto Johannis 
Groesbeek three acres of wood land for a hoftstead, scit- 
uate lying and being at Schaahkook on the south side 
of a creek lately run from Tamhenicks creek into y e 
Schaahkooks creek and on ye west side of y e high road 
which leads to Stone Arabia two rodd distance from y e 
said road, for the sume of seaven pound ten shillings pay- 
able on the first day of May one thousand seaven hundred 
twenty three; orderd that a release be drawn for the s d 
three acres of land and y l y e mayor in behalf of y e com- 
onality sign y e same and affix y e City Seale to y e sarne and 
it be recorded in y e Clerks office y e s d city & county. 

The City Records. 275 

Att a Comon Council held in y e City of Albany y e 9th 
day of June 1722. 

An Ordinance. 

Whereas complaints have been made that severall per- 
sons in this County for their own private lucre & gain do 
Ride w l their waggons y e Indians w l their effects to the 
Houses of such persons as will pay them the greatest 
price for bringing them, and such waggoner exacts the 
payment for his or their fraight from the Indians; w'ch 
is a means to discourage the far Indians from comeing to 
trade to this place and alienates the affection and friend- 
ship of the s d Indians, for the preventing whereof and 
that the said Indians may be encouraged to carry on their 
trade to this place, we do therefore hereby make, ordain, 
publish & declare these our orders & regulations follow- 
ing, that is to say, 

That if any person or persons shall ride or drive w* 
waggon or cart any Indian or Indians or any of their 
wifes or children or any of their Beaver Peltry or other 
effects from the westward towards this city and shall 
neglect or delay to take & receive his or their payment 
for such rideing before the unloading of the s d Indian or 
Indians, their wives or children, beaver, peltry or other 
affects, or at such unloading at the place hereafter ap- 
pointed not immediately depart without speaking, whis- 
pering or making signs to them or any of them shall for- 
fiett lor every offence the sume of thirty six shillings 
currant money of New York to be recovered before any 
Justice pf the Peace within the city for the behoof of the 
sheriff or any person that shall sue for the same. 

That if any person or persons that shall ride or drive w l 
waggon or cart any Indian or Indians or any of their 
wives or children or any of their Beaver, Peltry or other 
effects from the westwards towards this city nearer to 
the s d city than the first hill above the Indian house shall 
forfiett for every offence the sume of thirty six shillings 
currant money afores d to be recovered as afores d and for 
y e behoofe afores r] , Given in Albany this ninth day of 

276 The City Records. 

June in th the Eighth year of his Majestys Reign, Anno 
Do. 1722. 

Pr Order of the Mayor, Aldermen & Comonality of the 
City of Albany. PHILIP LIVINGSTON, Cl'k. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 
26th day of June 1722. 

The Mayor, Aldermen & Comonality have this day sold 
unto Gerrit van Schaick four acres of wood land scituate 
and being at Schaahkook on y e south side of y e creek 
lately run from Tamhenicks creek into Schaahkooks 
creek on y e east side of y e road which leads to Stone 
Arabia to be two rodd distance from y e s d road for the 
sume of seaven pound ten shillings, payable on y e first of 
August 1723. 

Ordered that a release be drawn for y e s d four acres of 
land and that the mayor in behalf of the comonality sign 
the same and affix y e City Seale thereunto and to be re- 
corded in y e Clerks office. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 
3d day of September 1722. 

Philip Livingston produces his majesties Royall Com- 
mission to the mayor, aldermen and comonality consti- 
tuting and appointing him Town Clerk, clerk of y e peace 
and clerk of the comon pleas in the county and city of 
Albany, which he desires may be recorded; the same be- 
ing read and ordered to be enterd on y e public records, 
and took the following oath for the faithfull performing 
the said offices. 

Whereas you are comissionated by his majesty King 
George to be town clerk, clerk of the peace and clerk of 
the comon pleas in the county & city of Albany you do 
swear by the Everlasting God that you will by yo*iir self 
or sufficient deputy or deputies faithfully and diligently 
perform the s d offices according to the best of your under- 
standing and to keep the boeks & records of the s d citj 
& county and give true copies of such records as are pro- 
perly to be delivered so help you God. 

The City Records. 277 

Whereas it is absolutely necessary that the quit rents 
which is in arrear by the Corporation for the land at 
Schaahkoolrand this City be paid since the 25th day of 
March 1712, It is therefore thought convenient that 
Barent Bradt, present Treasurer, take up twenty five 
pound for one year for the use of y e mayor, aldermen & 
comonality to pay the same and for other urgent occasions, 
which he has taken up from Mr. Jacob Staats for that 

Resolved that the said Barent Bradt shall be repaid 
out of the first money that shallbe received for the use 
of the said city. 

Albany 29th September 1722. 

This day being appointed by y e Charter of the City of 
Albany for the aldermen of the respective wards of the 
said city to make return of the aldermen, assistants & 
constables who are choisen to serve for the ensuing year. 

First Ward. 
Aldermen. Assistants. 

Johan's Ten Broeck Harm's Ryckman 
John D'Peyster Goose van Schaick Jun'r 

James Livingston, Constable. 

Second Ward. 

Hend. Roseboom Hend. Roseboom Jun'r 

Barent Sanders Hend. Cuyler Jun'r 

Johan's Roseboom, Constable. 

Third Ward. 

Johannis Pruyn Teunise Eghbertse 

Dirk Ten Broeck Barent Brat 

Johannis Hun, Constable. 
Johannis Vanolinda, choisen High Constable. 
Barent Brat, choisen Chamberlain. 

Albany the 14th day of October. 

By the directions of the Charter of the City of Albany 
the above mentioned persons were, sworn in their respec- 
tive offices. 

[Annals, viii.] 25 

278 The City Records. 

Alt a Comon Council! held in y p City hall of Albany y* 
27th day of November 1722 Present, Peter van 
Brugh Esq'r, mavor, Job's Cuyler Esq'r, recorder, 
Johannis Pruyn, Hend. Roseboom, Barent Sanders, 
Johan's Ten Broeck, Dirk Ten Broeck, John D'Pey- 
ster, Esq l rs, aldermen, Barent Bradt, Harme Iv'yck- 
man, Teunis Eghbertse, Hend. Schuyler, assistants. 
The mayor, aldermen & comonality have this day ap- 
pointed the following persons to be fire masters for the 
ensuing year : 

First Ward. 
David Groesbeek William Waldron 

Second Ward. 
Cornells Schermerhoorn Andries Nak 

Third Ward. 

Wynant vanden Bergh Jacob Visger 

Orderd that the fire masters_be given directions and a 
warrant to perform that service. 

This day the accounts due unto severall persons from 
the City of Albany being examined amounting in all to 
the sume of one hundred twenty nine pounds & four pence 
halfpenny, for w'h an order is directed to the Treasurer 
for payment of the said sumesout of the first money that 
shall corne unto his hands after the former debts are paid. 
Resolved by the Comonality that y e following ordinance 
be publishd viz 1 : 

By the Worshipfull Mayor Recorder Aldermen and Com- 
onality of the City of Albany. 
An Ordinance. 

Whereas severall persons within the City & County of 
Albany presume to sell & dispose of strong Liquors by 
retaile without being duly Licenced, to the great damage 
of his maj's interest & decrease of his Excise in this city 
and county as also to the disadvantage ofy e comon profit 
of this city for preventing whereof it is Resolved that it 
shall be publishd, ordaind and declard and it is hereby 
publishd, ordaind and declared that no person or persons 
within y e s d city or county shall directly or indirectly sell 
or dispose of any strong liquor by retaile unless he she 

The City Records. 279 

or they be first duely lycenced by y e mayor of the said 
city on penalty of incuring such fine or forfieture as by y e 
laws of this Province in that case made and provided. 

And whereas severall persons within the said City & 
Liberties thereof do presume to exercize arts, trades and 
manuall occupations without being made free citizens 
according to the direction of the City Charter, for pre- 
venting whereof and for the better government of the s 1 
city and well fare of the s d citizens, It is therefore hereby 
ordaind, publishd & declard that no person or persons 
within the said City or Liberties thereof shall after the 
publication hereof use any art, trade, mystery or manual 
occupation except free citizens on penalty of such fine and 
forfieture as directed and expressd in the Charter of the 
said city. Given in Albany the 27th day of Nov'r in the 
ninth year of his maj's Reign, A. D. 1722. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 

3d December 1722. 

This day the mayor, aldermen & comonality agreed 
with Jan Masse to be the Sealer of all weights & yards 
for the city of Albany. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 

4th day January 172f. . 

Joseph Pamerton has undertaken to assist John Brum- 
ley to go round in this city as bell man every other night 
from ten to four a clock on y e usual places in the s d city 
calling every hour they go round and y e wheather, for 
which he is to be paid by this Corporation at the rate of 
ten pound ten per annum. 

Att a Comon Councill held in y e hall of Albany y e 2d 

Feb'y 172-f. 

It is Resolved that the Treasurer of the City shall de- 
mand the payment from the severall persons who are in- 
debted to this Corporation by bond, and those who refuse 
or neglect to discharge the same on or before pmo. April 
next shall be sued. 

280 The City Records. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 
26th day of April 1723. 

Resolved by the mayor, aldermen & comonality to 
Publish the following ordinance in relation to the Indian 
trade made on y e 13th Instant (viz.) 

By the worshipful Mayor. Recorder, Aldermen and 
Comonality of y e City of Albany. 

An Ordinance. 

Whereas the mayor, aldermen & comon council of the 
city of Albany or the major part of them are by vertue 
of an act of the General Assembly of the Colony of New 
York Entitled an act for the further and more effectual 
prohibiting of the selling Indian Goods to the ffrench, 
impowered and authorized to make such regulation with 
relation to the Indian Trade as shall to them seem most 
fitt and convenient for the just and fair managing and 
carrying on the s d trade and for preventing any force 
or fraud to be used or practizd with the s d Indians or 
any of them in obedience to the above recited act of 
General Assembly, we the s d mayor, aldermen and 
comonality do therefore make ordain publish and de- 
clare these our orders rules ard regulations in manner 

That no person or persons whatsoever within this 
city or county or without the same shall to the north- 
ward of a line extending from the north limits of the 
boundaries of the said city of Albany due East and West 
by the natural position unto the utmost eastern and west- 
ern limits and boundaries of this Province of New York, 
trade or traffique with any Indian or Indians for any 
bever or peltry or any Indian commodities (except Ind'n 
corn, venison and drest deer skins) on penalty of forfiet- 
ing such Ind'n comodities so traded for, as also on pe- 
nalty of ten pounds to be applyed two thirds of the s d 
sum for building and repairing the fortifications of this 
Province, the other third to such person or 'persons as 
shall inform and sue for the same. 

That no person or persons whatsoever within the city 
and county or without y e same shall have and keep within 

The City Records. 281 

their houses or elsewhere to the northward of the s d line 
any trading guns, strowds, blankets, rum, powder, lead 
or other Indian goods or merchandize whatsoever, five 
gallons of rum & goods for immediate Christian use ex- 
cepted on penalty of forfieting such Indian merchandizes 
and commodities so kept and concealed as afores d as also 
on penalty of ten pounds to be recovered and applyed for 
the uses as afores*. 

That no person or persons shall ride or drive with 
waggon or cart any Indian or Indians or any of their 
wives or children or any of their bever, peltry or other 
effects from the westward towards this city nearer than 
ten yards to the west of the two new Indian houses built 
on the hill and shall neglect or delay to take or receive 
his or their payment for such riding the value of nine 
shillings and no more, and that before the unloading of the 
said Indian or Indians their wives or children their bever 
peltry or other effects, and at such unloading at or near 
the place afores d not immediately depart without speak- 
ing whispering or making signs to them or any of them 
shall for every offence forfiet the sum of five pounds, to 
be recovered and applyed for y e uses afores d . 

That no waggoner or driver of any waggon or cart 
shall presume to take receive harbour or transport any 
bever peltry or other furr belonging to any Indian or In- 
dians at their return .from this city towards Schinectady 
shall forfiet for every offence the sum of five pounds, to 
be recovered and applyed for the uses as afores d . 

That no person or persons within the s d city shall at 
any time after the twentieth day of May next ensuing 
suffer any farr Indian or Indians coming from the west- 
ward to lodge in his or their houses, warehouses or 
elsewhere shall for every Indian or Squa he they or she 
shall suffer to lodge as afores d forfiet the sum of five 
pounds to be recovered and applyed for the uses afores d . 

That no person or persons whatsoever within the city 
or county shall upon the arrival of any farr Indian or 
Indians address themselves or speak to them by signs or 
otherwise of and concerning trade nor shall entice them 

282 The City Records. 

without this city at the westward by signs or other- 
ways on penalty of five pounds to be recoverd and 
applyed for the use as afores' 1 . 

That no person or persons whatsoever within the city 
and county of Albany shall take or receive upon any 
pretence whatsoever any pawn or pawns from any Indian 
or Indians whatsoever (Indian jewels only excepted) on 
penalty of five pounds to be recovered and applyed for 
the uses as afores d . 

That no person or persons whatsoever at the Town- 
ship of Schinectady, or those that hereafter shall come 
in the s d Township or elsewhere to the northward 
of the s d line shall presume to take, receive, lodge, 
entertain harbour or conceal in his or their houses shops 
sellars ware house or other place whatsoever any Ind'n 
or Ind'ns whatsoever with any bever peltry or other furr 
on penalty of forfieting for every offence the sum of ten 
pounds for the use and to be recovered & applyed as 
afores d . 

This ordinance to remain in full force till the fifteenth 
day of September now next ensuing. Given in Albany 
this twenty sixth day of April in the ninth year of his 
maj'es Reign, Ao. Do. 1723. 

By order of the Mayor, Aldermen and Comon Council 
of the City of Albany. 

Whereas on the twenty sixth day of April last past, an 
ordinance was made by the mayor, aldermen, and com- 
onality of the city of Albany and publishdon this present 
day prohibiting thereby that no person or persons what- 
soever within this city or county of Albany or without 
the same shall to the northward of a line extending from 
the north limits of the boundaries of the city of Albany 
due east and west by the natural position unto the utmost 
eastern and western limits & boundaries of the Province 
of New York trade or traffique with any Ind'n or Indians 
for any bever peltry or any Indian Comodities (except 
Indian corn venison & drest deer skins) and that no per- 
son or persons whatsoever to the northward of the s d line 

The City Records. 283 

shall have & keep within their houses or elsewhere any 
trading Guns Blankets Rum Powder Lead or other Ind'n 
goods or merchandize whatsoever, live gallons Rum and 
goods for immediate Christian use only excepted, We do 
hereby therefore require and comand you to make dili- 
gent search in all houses barns ware houses or elsewhere 
to the northward of the s d Line and to seize all Bever, 
Peltry or other Indian comodities as also all Trading 
Guns, Strowds, Blankets, Rum, Powder, Lead or other 
Indian goods or merchandize whatsoever, except what is 
before excepted, and the same to remain and be kept in 
your custody until the same be condemned and con- 
fiscated according to the before recited ordinance and 
for your so doing this shall be your sufficient warrant. 
Given under our hands and seals in Albany the eigteenth 
day of May in the ninth year of his Majesties Reign, 
Annoq. Dommini 1723. 


Att a Comon Council 1 held in the City hall of Albany y c 
12th day of May 1723. 

Resolved y l y e Lane between y e second and third ward 
in this city shall be cleand mended & repaird in such 
manner as the aldermen & assistants of s l wards shall 
order & direct and y l at or before pmo. August next en- 
suing on penalty of 36 shillings. 

That all persons within this city shall for the future 
within every forthnight clean y e streets & pavements be- 
fore their respective houses & lotts of ground on penalty 
of three shillings for every default. 

It is further Resolved and Concluded that all streets, 
lanes, altyes and pavements within this City of Albany 
and Liberties thereof shall be layd out mended made and 
repaird by the severall owners or tenants before whose 
houses & lotts of ground such streets lanes allyes & 
pavements are fronting and y l in such man'r and form as 
the respective aldermen and assistants in their wards 

284 The City Records. 

shall think fitt& convenant in conjunction with y e mayor 
of the s d city on penalty of six shillings for each neglect 
on warning given to be p d by such persons that shall re- 
fuse or deney, for y e behoof of any person who shall sue 
for y e same. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 

18th day of May 1723. 

This Comonality have allowed unto Augustinus Turek 
marshall of this city the sume of six pound pr annum, 
since y e day of last for his service & attendance. 

Att a Comon Council held in the City hall of Albany the 
25th day of May 1723. 

The mayor acquaints the comonality that the Com'rs 
appointed by the Govern 1 of Boston to treat with the 
Sachims of the Five Nations desire that an ordinance 
may be made forbidding the selling and giveing Strong 
Liquors to the said Indians, 

Resolved y l y e following ordinance be publishd: 

By the Worshipfull Mayor, Aldermen and Comonality 
of the City of Albany. 

An Ordinance. 

Whereas here are arrived some Commissioners Deputed 
by the Governm 1 of the Massachusetts Hay who by and 
with consent of the Governm 1 of New York are admitted 
to treat with the Sachims of the five nations about some 
publick affairs, some of them being come and it being 
found by experience that y" selling and giveing of Rum 
and other strong liquors to those Indians have been of 
dangerous consequence and very prejudiciall tohismaj'es 
interest and the public welfare of the inhabitants of this 
city. We have therefore thought h'tt to publish and de- 
clare and it is hereby ordaind publishd and declard that 
no person or persons shall give sell or otherwise dispose 
of any Strong Liquor to any Indian or Indians dureing the 
said treaty on penalty of five pounds for each offence 
(the far Indians excepted) for the behoof of sherrif or 
any person that shall sue for the same. 

The City Records. 285 

That liberty is hereby given to all persons within this 
city to lodge and entertain any Sachim or Sachims of y e 
five nations during the s (l Treatie, any former ordinance 
to the contrary hereof in any wise notwithstanding. 
Given in Albany this 25th day of May in the ninth year 
of his maj's Reign, Ao. Do. 1723. 

Att a meeting of the Comon Councill held in the City 
hall of Albany the 12th June 1723. 

By the Worshipfull Mayor, Aldermen & Comonality 
of the City of Albany. 

An Ordinance. 

Whereas the Lane between the second and third ward 
of this city is very much out of repair and it being neces- 
sary & needful that y e same be regularly mended made 
and repaird, Be it therefore ordain'd publish'd and de- 
clar'd and it is hereby ordain'd publish'd and declar'd 
that the said Lane shall be mended and repair'd at the 
charge of the owners or tenants whose lotts, houses or 
stables front the said Lane and that in such manner as 
the aldermen and assistants of the s d wards shall order 
and direct so as the same be finish'd at or before the first 
of August next ensuing on a penalty of thirty shillings 
for each default to be forfieted by the person who refuses 
or delays to repair and mend as afores d for the behoof of 
the sherrif or any other person that shall sue for the 

It is further ordaind publishd anddeclard that all per- 
sons within the s d city shall forthwith cause the streets 
and pavements before their respective houses and lotts 
of ground to be clean'd and for the future within every 
fortnight on penalty of three shillings for every default 
for the behoof as afores d . 

And whereas several streets & lanes within the s d city 
want to be regulated and conveniently laid out and in 
some parts earth dugg out and carted away, for the effect- 
ing whereof be it ordain'd publish'd & declar'd and it is 
hereby ordain'd publish'd and declar'd that all & every 
person or persons within the s d city whose houses and 

286 The City Records. 

lotts front any such streets or lanes shall at their own 
costs and charges mend repair digg up and cart away 
earth where it shall be wanting and that in such manner 
and form as the mayor, recorder, aldermen & assistants 
in each respective ward shall order & direct on penalty 
of six shilling for each default after notice given for the 
behoof as afores d . Given in Albany this 12th day of 
June in the ninth year of his maj'es Reign, Annoq. Do. 

Atta Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany y e 
15th day of June 1723. 

Johannis E. Wendell & Rob 1 Roseboom declare on oath 
y l Johannis Myndertse of Schinectady has taken Indians 
with bever and peltry in his house on w'h it is Resolved 
that y e following warrant shall be issued to bring him 
before this meeting, which is as follows: 

To the Sherriff of the City and County of Albany or 
to his Deputy. 

City of Albany ss. Whereas on the 26 day of April 
last past an ordinance was publishd by the mayor, alder- 
men & Comonality of y e city of Albany & amongst other 
things it is ordaind publishd and declard that no person 
or persons whatsoever at y e Township of Schinectady'or 
those y* shall hereafter come within the s d township as by 
the s d ordinance may appear, shall presume to take, re- 
ceive, lodge, entertain, harbour or conceal in his or their 
houses shops sellers ware houses or other places whatso- 
ever any Indian or Indians whatsoever with any bever 
peltry or other fur on penalty of forfieting for every 
offence the sume of ten pounds, and being credibly in- 
formed on oath that Johannis Myndertse of Schinectady 
afores d has on y e thirteenth instant contray to y e s d ordi- 
nance taken Indians in his house with bever & Peltry, 
We do therefore hereby require and command you that 
you take the said Johannis Myndertse and him safely 
keep so that you may have him before us or three of 
us to answer for his said offence, and for so doing this 
shall be your sufficient warrant. Given under our hands 

The City Records. 287 

and seals in Albany the 15th day of June in the ninth 
year of his maj'es Reign, Ao. Do. 1723. 


At a Coinon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 
the 25th day oCJune 1723. 

The sherrif brought Johannis Myndertse before this 
meeting, who being 'chargd of haveing taken Indians in 
his house at Schinectady with bever and peltry on y e 
13th instant contrary to an ordinance of the mayor, 
aldermen and comonality of the city of Albany he con- 
fessd to have taken Indians in his house. 

Whereon it is Resolved to lay a fine on him of ten 
pounds and that a warrant be directed to the sherrif to 
committ him to goal untill he shall have paid the said 
fine, which is as follows: 

City of Albany ss. To the Sherrif of the City and 
County of Albany or to his Deputy Greeting 

Whereas on y e 26 day of April last past an ordinance 
was publishd by the mayor, aldermen and commonality 
of the city of Albany and amongst other things it is 
ordaiud publishd and declard y l no person or persons 
whatsoever at y e township of Schinectady or those that 
hereafter shall come within the said township (as by the 
s d ordinance recourse thereunto being had may appear) 
shall presume to take receive lodge entertain harbour or 
conceal in his or their houses shops sellers warehouses or 
other places whatsoever any Indian or Indians with any 
bever peltry or other fur on penalty of forfieting for every 
offence the sume of ten pounds, and being informed on 
oath that Johannis Myndertse off Schinectady has on y e 
thirteenth day of this instant contrary to the above re- 
cited ordinance taken Indians in his house with bever & 
peltry of which he is convict, We do therefore hereby 
require & command you to take the said Joh's Mydertse 
and him safely keep in the comon goal of the said city & 
county and him safely keep untill he shall pay the sume 

288 The City Records. 

often pounds to be applyed two thirds of the said sum 
for building and repairing the fortifications of this Pro- 
vince and the other third to such person who has informed 
against him and for so doing this shall be your sufficient 
warrant. Given under our hands and scales in Albany 
this 25th day of June in the ninth year of his maj'es Reign, 
Annoq. Do. 1723. 


Ordered that warrants be directed to the sherrif to 
cause Isaac Truex & van Slyck to appear before this 
meeting to answer for transgressing contrary to an ordi- 
nance of y e 26th Instant. 

Albany the 29th July 1723. 

Gentlemen: Inclosed we send J T OU an ordinance made 
by us in pursuance of an act of Gen'll Assembly of New 
York Entituled an act for the further & more effectual 
prohibiting of the selling Ind'n Goods to the ffrench as 
also our proceedings against one Johannis Myndertse 
grounded on the s d ordinance, whereon he was fined ten 
pounds for which he has been taken in execution and de- 
taind till, a Habeas Corpus was sent hither for removing 
him to the next Supreme Court, now our request is to 
favour us with youre opinion whether our proceedings 
are legal, and how far our Power by vertue of the s d act 
doth extend, we are advis'd here by our attorney that no 
action can be removed by Habeas Corpus, under twenty 
pound, so crave your opinion also on that subject. Here- 
with is also a printed Charter of our City whereon we 
also crave your opinion in relation to the Ind'n Trade 
how far we can legally proceed to preserve bever & fur 
trade in this Corporation and in making ordinances for 
the best management thereof for the advantage of the 
inhabitants of this city and preventing the trade without 
the jurisdiction of this city. 

We send you each three pound which we desire you to 
accept as a retaining fee and for the advice above desired. 

The City Records. 289 

Begging your answer we conclude with that we are, Gen- 
tlemen, your humble servants. 


Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 
4th day of September 1723. 

Whereas Johannis Myndertse of Schinectady has com- 
menced an action in the Supream Court of the Province 
of New York against Johannis Pruyn, Hendrick Rose- 
boom, Barent Sanders, Dirck Ten Broeck and John De 
Peyster Esq'rs, aldermen of the city afores d , for trespass 
and false imprisonment, It being put to the vote whether 
the charge in defending the said suits should be defrayd 
by this Corporation, the Comonality (except Mr. Mayor) 
are of opinion that the costs and charges of the same 
shall be paid by the Corporation and that attorneys 
be imployd at New York to defend the s d suites till a 
final 1 determination thereof shall be had. 

To Henry Vernon & Joseph Murray attorneys at law 
at New York. 

These are to authorize and impower you jointly and 
severally to appear for us at the next Supream Court to 
be held in the City Hall of New York at certain suites 
comenced by Johannis Myndertse against Johannis Pruyn, 
Barent Sanders. Hend. Roseboom, Dirck Ten Broeck, 
Jno. D'Peyster, Esq'rs, aldermen of the city of Albany 
& from time to time to defend the same as to you shall 
seem meet. Witness our hands in Albany the 4th day 
of September, 1723. 

Albany 4th Sept'r 1723. 

Gentlemen: Having been fa vor'd with your acceptable 
Letter of the 12th ultimo which is very pleasing, return- 
ing thanks for y e incouraging advice hoping we may have 
success, but since that five of the aldermen of this city 
are sumon'd to appear at the next Supream Court at the 

[Annals, viii.] 26 

290 The City Records. 

suite of Job's Myndertse concerning our proceedings 
against him which is to be defended at the charge of this 
Corporation as may appear by the enclosed resolution, 
to w'ch purpose you have here a power of attorney for 
defending the s d suites until a final determination be had, 
your fees and charges shall be paid to content, and beg 
we may from time to time hear from you, so conclude 
with being &c. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany 

the 28th day of September 1723. 

Whereas a bond will be due from Johannis Beekman 
Jun'r on the first day of October next to this Corpora- 
tion for the sume of thirty four pounds and nine pence, 
It is Resolved that after a demand shall be made of the 
same and on non payment that the said Johan's Beekman 
Jun'r shall be su'd for the said Debt at the next Inferior 
Court of Comon Pleas, and that the mayor and recorder 
or either of them do imploy an attorney for the recovery 
of the said debt. 

Albany the 29th September 1723. 
This day being appointed by the Charter of the City of 
Albany for the aldermen of the respective wards to return 
the aldermen, assistents and Constables choisen to serve 
for the ensuing year, viz* : 

first Ward. 

Aldermen. Assistants. 

Johannis Ten Broeck Harmen Rykman 
John D'Peyster Isaac Lansingh 

Luykes Wyngaert, Constable. 

Second Ward. 

Hend. R. Boom John E. Wendell 

Barent Sanders John Roseboom Jun'r 

Jacob C. Schermerhorn, Constable. 

Third Ward. 

John Pruyn Barent Bradt 

Dirck T. Broeck John V. Oostrander 

Goose V. Schaick, Constable. 
Barent Bradt is choisen Chamberlain. 

The City Records. 291 

Albany y e 14 Octo'r 1723. 

This day being appointed by y e Charter of y e Citty of 
Albany for y e aldermen, assistants & constables of y e said 
citty to be sworn according to y e return therof made on y e 
20th Sep 1 last, those who are sworn for y e due execution 
of their respective offices and took the Oaths appointed 
by act of parliament. 

Johanis Pruyn, Hend: Ro:boom, Johanis T : Broek, 
John De Peyster, aldermen; Ham:Rykman, Isaac Lau- 
singh, John E. Wendel, John Ro:boom Jun'r, Baret 
Bradt, John V. Oostrander. 

Thomas Williams, high Sherrif for y e citty and county 
took y e said oaths and for y e execution of that office. 

Jacob C. Schermerhorn sworn constable. 

This day was agreed with Jacob Eghmont to be one of 
the bellman in this citty for a year to go round every 
other night and call at y e usual places what a clock and 
wheather it is, for the sume of ten pound ten shillings & 
thirty load of wood. 

y e 19 Octob: 1723. This day Dirck Ten Broek Esq'r 
was sworn as one of y e aldermen of this citty and took 
the oath appointed by act of Parliament. 

Att a meeting of y e Recorder, Aldermen and Assistants 
ofy e Citty of Albany this 25th day of October 1723. 

Resolved by this meeting to publish the following ordi- 

By the Worshipfull Recorder, Aldermen & Assistants 
of y e Citty of Albany. 

An Ordinance. 

Whereas severall persons within the City & County of 
Albany do presume to sell Strong Liquor byretaile with- 
out being duely lycenced or whithout speaking to any of 
the magistrates within the said citty that they are in- 
clind to such licence, It is therefore Resolved by the 
recorder, aldermen & assistants of the said city to ordain 
publish and declare and it is hereby ordaind publishd and 
declard that no person or persons within the said city & 
county shall sell or dispose of any Strong Liquor by re- 
taile unless he she or they shall be duely lycenced by 

292 The City Records. 

the mayor of the said city on penalty of five pounds for 
each default, and during the absence y e said mayor that 
who are inclind to take such lycence do acquaint y e re- 
corder of y e said city therewith and those who he approves 
to be proper and able persons may sell by retaile during 
y e absence of y e mayor and no other person or persons 
on y e like penalty of five pounds for y e use of any person 
or persons that shall sue for the same. Given in Albany 
the 25 day of Octo'r in y e tenth year of his maj's Reign, 
Annoq. Do. 1723. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany 

the 19th day of Novem'r 1723. 

This day Picter Van Brugh Esq'r was sworn as mayor 
of the citty and took the oaths appointed by act of Par- 
liament. As also Mr. Barent Sanders for alderman in 
y e second ward. 

Elizabeth the wife of Johannis Visger haveing in behalf 
of husband made application to severall members of this 
meeting for thirty pounds which the former mayor, alder- 
men & Comonality of this city prornisd to be paid unto 
him on the second day of October 1721 as appears by the 
minutes of that date, which being read and having taken 
this matter into consideration, It is Resolved that the 
said Johannis Visger shall be paid by this Corporation 
the sume of thirty pounds in the month of May next, and 
that on receipt of s d money he shall give a generall re- 
lease & discharge to this Corporation of all dues and de- 
mands whatsoever. 

This Corporation have this day appointed the follow- 
ing persons to be fire masters for this ensueing year: 

First Ward. 
Barent Eghbertse Johannis Marcelis 

Second Ward. 
Johannis Bleecker Jun'r Gysbert Roseboom 

Third Ward. 

Gerrit W. vanden Bergh Casper Ham. 
Ordered that a warrant be directed unto the s" 1 fire 
masters to go round on the 26th instant and then every 

The City Records. 293 

Att a Comon Council! held in the City hall of Albany the 
1st day of February 172f Present Peter van Brugh, 
Esq'r Mayor, Joh's Cuy'er Esq'r Recorder, Joh's 
Pruyn, Hend. Roseboom, Barent Sanders, Joh's Ten 
Broeck, Dirk Ten Broeck, John D' Peyster, Esq'rs, 
aldermen; Barent Brat Harmanus Ryckman, Joh's 
E. Wendell, Joh's Roseboom Jun'r, Isaac Lansingh, 
Joh's van Oostrande. 

Resolved by the mayor, aldermen and comonality that 
the following articles be concluded and remain as a stand- 
ing Rule till the same be effected. 

1. To sign the list of approved accounts of y e 28th 
September last. 

2. To endeavor that the city of Albany maybe fortifyd 
as much as possible. 

3. That the bell men perform each their respective 
services or that better men be appointed in their room, 
and that the Leaders and other materialls against fire 
(w'h God forbid) may be always ready. 

4. To make the Constables compleat in this city. 

5. To make an ordinance against the profanation of 
the Lords day, &c. 

6. That Johannis Myndertse pay the ten pound and 
charges acrud thereon and the witnesses against Nicolas 
Schuyler be further examind. 

7. That an ordinance be made for the better regulation 
of the Indian trade in the city of Albany, against Schinec- 
tady and elsewhere to the westward northward & east- 

8- That no lycences be granted to the Indian traders 
at Schinectady, as Johannis Myndertse, Nicolas Schuyler, 
Haimanus Vedder, Harme van Slyck. Jan Baptist van 
Eps, Barent Vroman, Maritie Browers, &c., nor to any 
above Schinectady and others to the north of this city, 
which cant be otherwise but stretch to the Ruine of this 

9. That the Treasurer do collect all Debts due to the 
City of Albany at the proper times, and concerning other 
Debts due from the city to allow after examination and 
no disposition of any cities money but by Comon Councill. 

294 The City Records. 

10. To desire his Excellency for a lycence for wood 
land of the Mohoggs adjoyning to our 1000 acres low- 
land at Tjondorogue and at the same time to pay the 
meadow land to the end that a patent may be obtained 
for the whole. 

11. That an ordinance be made that the streets, bridges 
and other ways in this city be made sufficient, that the 
water may have it vent and empty in the river. 

12. All inhabitants not born here to buy their freedom 
and strangers who sell by retaile to shut their shops and 
to fine them according to the directions of y e Charter. 

13. To raise money by a tax pmo. May 1724 for pay- 
ment of the Cities Debts to y e 29 September next. 

Johannis Roseboom Jun'r is choisen & appointed High 
Constable for the ensueing year. 

The List of approved accounts payable by the City of 
Albany of the 28th September last was signd this day 
amounting to one hundred nineteen pounds eight shillings 
and four pence half penny. 

By the Worshipfull Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen & 
Assistants of the City of Albany. 

An Ordinance. 

Be it ordaind by the mayor, recorder, aldermen & 
assistants of the city of Albany, and it is hereby ordaind 
by the authority of the same, that if any person or per- 
sons who is or shall hereafter be elected, choisen or no- 
minated in any of the officers hereaf'er mentioned and 
shall neglect or refuse to take upon him or them the ex- 
ecution thereof to serve in the same shall pay the fine 
hereafter mentioned and expressed, that is to say, Every 
person elected, choisen or appointed for high constable 
four pounds and a petty constable three pounds, to be 
levyed by distres on the goods and chattels of the person 
so neglecting or refuseing to serve by warrant of the 
mayor, recorder and aldermen or the major part of them 
under the comon scale of this city directed to the sherrif 
of the city and county, which fines shall be paid to the 
Treasurer of this city for y e publick use of the same. 
Given in Albany this first day of February in the tenth 
year of his maj'es Reign, Ao. Do. 172|. 

The City Records. 295 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany 
the 3d day of February 172|. 

This day Johannis Roseboom Jun'r sworn High Con- 
stable for the ensueing year or untill another be appointed 
or chosen in his room. Likewise Goose van Schaick Jun'r 
sworn petty constable for the ensueing year untill an- 
other be elected & sworn in his place. 

Resolved that Peter van Brugh Esq'r, mayor, John 
Cuyler Esq'r, recorder, Johannis Pruyn, Hendrick Rose- 
boom, and Johannis Ten Broeck Esq'rs, aldermen, or any 
three of them be appointed a Committe to imploy Lau- 
rence Clark the Interpreter to treat and speak by him to 
the Maquase Indians in order to pay for the one thousand 
acres of Low Land in Tionondorage and to purchase a 
quantity of wood land adjoyning to the same, for use of 
this Corporation, and that the charge be paid by the 
comonality to whom they are to give an account of their 
proceedings when thereto required. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany 
the 17th of March 172|. 

The fortifications about the City of Albany which 
were built and errected of pine Stockados being wholly 
decayd as also the block houses which were made and 
errected for the security and defence of the said city, so 
that the same lyes now open to our great reproach from 
the French of Canada, our and their Indians, and it be- 
ing absolutely necessary for the safety of the Inhabitants 
of the s d city and security of the fronteers of y e Province 
of Newyork that the said city of Albany be regularly for- 
tifyd, and being informed that a bill lay before the late 
Assembly to be passd into an act for fortifying of the 
said city, which the mayor, aldermen & comonality do 
humbly pray may be passd into a Law for fortifying the 
said city at the charge of the freeholders & inhabitants 
of the said city and county (Schinectady excepted) in 
such manner & form & at such convenient places as his 
Ex'cy the Governor shall order and direct. 

By the Worshipfull Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen and 

296 The City Records. 

Comonality of the City of Albany in Comon Councill 

An Ordinance. 

Be it ordained by the mayor, recorder, aldermen and 
assistants of the city of Albany, convened in Comon 
Councill and it is hereby ordained by the authority of the 
same. That no manner of servile work be done on the 
Lords day (works of piety, charity or necessity excepted) 
nor any goods bought or sold on that day within the said 
City or Liberties thereof, under the penalty of ten shil- 
lings for the first offence, and for every offence thereafter 
double that sume. 

And be it further ordained by the authority afores d 
that no children, youth, maids or other persons whatso- 
ever, do meet together on the Lords day in any the streets 
or places within this city or Liberties thereof, and there 
sport, play, make noise or disturbance, under the penalty 
of one shilling for each offence, to be paid by the parents 
of all under age. 

And be it further ordained by the authority afores d that 
no publick houses tap houses or ordinaries within this city 
& Liberties thereof, do suffer their doors to be kept open, 
or do entertain or receive any company into their houses, 
and to them sell any kind of wine or other liquors on the 
Lords day in time of divine service or preaching (unless 
to strangers, travellers, or those that lodge in such houses, 
for their necessary refreshment) and no keeper of such 
publick house, tap house or ordinary is at any time to 
suffer any excessive drinking or persons to be drunk in 
their houses, under the penalty of ten shillings for each 

And be it further ordained by the authority aforesaid 
that no negro or Indian slaves above the number of three 
do assemble to meet together on the Lords day or any 
other time, at any place from their masters service, within 
this city and the Liberties thereof, and that no such slave 
do go armed at any time with gun, sword, club or any 
other kind of weapon whatsoever, under the penalty of 
being whipt at the publick whipping post fifteen lashes, 

The City Records. 297 

unless the master or owner of such slave will pay six 
shillings to excuse the same. 

And be it further ordained by the authority aforesaid 
that one of the constables of three wards in this city do 
by turns successively on each Lord day, in time of 
divine service and preaching, walk through the several 
streets and lanes of this city with his staff and see the 
orders before written be duely observed and kept, and to 
that end he is likewise to enter into all or any publick 
houses, tap houses or ordinarys, and if any company or 
persons shall be found therein, or drink sold contrary to 
the orders afores d , he is to make complaint and present- 
ment thereof to any magistrate within y e s d city that y e 
penalty may be inflicted accordingly. 

And be it further ordained by the authority aforesaid 
that no person or persons whatsoever within this City and 
Liberties thereof do keep shop or sell any goods or wares 
by retail or exercise any handcraft trade or occupation, 
but such as are free men thereof, or so admitted by the 
mayor, recorder and aldermen, or by the mayor or any 
three or more of the aldermen (after legal warning given) 
under the penalty of five pounds for each offence, and all 
persons hereafter to be made free shall pay as followeth: 
every merchant, trader or shop keeper the sum of thirty 
six shillings, and every handycraft trades man eighteen 
shilling currant money of Newyork with customary fees 
on being made free as afores d , for the use of this city. 

And be it further ordained by the authority aforesaid 
that the Gentlemen belonging to the Court of Common 
Councill of this city, do attend the same upon summons, 
precisely half an hour after the ringing of the bell upon 
penalty of three shillings for. each default, unless hindred 
by sickness or some other reasonable cause to be disposed 
of for the benefit of the comon councill as they shall 
think fit. 

And be it further ordained by the authority aforesaid 
that from and after the publication hereof no person or 
persons shall ride or drive any horse or horses with wag- 
gon, sled or cart or otherwise in the streets or lanes of 
the said city faster than on a steap or a very moderate 

298 The City Records. 

trot on penalty of forfieting for every such offence th 
sume of six shillings to be paid by the owner or drive 
of such horse waggon or cart for the behoof of the sherri 
or any person that shall sue for the same. 


Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 

first day of April 1724. 

Resolved to imploy Mr. Evert Wendell to sue Mr. 
Philip Verplank late sherrif for ten pound & charges 
accrued prosecuting Johannis Myndertse, for suffering the 
s d Myndertse to escape out of his custody being comitted 
in the com on goal for refuseing to pay a fine of ten pound, 
and also to sue Jochim Bradt for a Trespass comitted on 
the land belonging to this Corporation near Schaahkook, 
and that the mayor in behalf of himself, the aldermen & 
comonality do give power of attorney unto y e s d Wendell 
to prosecute the s d actions. 

List of debts due from the mayor, aldermen & comon- 
ality of the city of Albany to the following persons. 
Albany the first day of April 1724. 

Dirk Ten Broeck - - < * 6: 4:1J 
Barent Sanders - : - - ; -* 2:12:4| 

Joh's Pruyn - - * - - 3 : 

Hendrick Roseboom ... 3: 

Johannis Cuyler - - - - 1: 1J 

Evert Wendell - - - 5:10: 


Ordered that the Treasurer pay the above sume unto 
the respective persons above named each their due as 
above expressd as also nine pound shillings unto 
Philip Livingston in part of his account out of the first 
money he shall receive. 

Att a Comon Council held in the City hall of Albany y e 
24th day of April 1724. 

The Petition of Johannis J. Cuyler being read desire- 
ing to purchase of lott of ground to the west of the house 
of Joh's Visger. 

It is Resolved by the mayor, aldermen and comonality 

The City Records. 299 

of the city of Albany that the following lotts of ground 
shall be sold at a publick vendue to the highest bidder on 
the fourth day of May next ensueing, viz 1 . 

A certain lott of ground lying and being in the first 
ward of this city on the south side of the Jonckers street 
to the west of the house and lott of Evert Wendell, con- 
taining in breadth at y e street thirty foot and in length as 
the s d Wendells lott. 

Two other lotts of ground lying and being in the second 
ward of the s d city to the west of the lotts of Johannis 
Visger having on the north the Lane of s d Visger con- 
taining in breadth at the w est fronting y e Comons fifty 
five foot wood measure five foot whereof is to be for a 
comon lane, and in length from east to west foot. 

Another lot of ground lying in the second ward of the s d 
city next to the lott of Albert Slingerlant being in breadth 
on y e east by the street thirty six foot and on the west 
fifteen foot, in length as y s d Slingeriants lott. 

Att a Comon Councill held in y e City hall of Albany the 
28 April 1724. 

Evert Wendell appearing in comon council desires y l 
he may be admitted to purchase from the comonality five 
foot of ground in breadth to the west of his house at y e 
same rates as y e lott of 25 foot to the west thereof shall 
be sold for at vendue, w'h was granted accordingly. 

It is Resolved that y e following warrant shall be 
directed to the sherrif. 

To the Sherrif of the City & County of Albany, 

Whereas we are credibly informed that Isaac Truex of 
Schinectady in y e county of Albany, hath transgressd 
against an ordinance made & published by the mayor, 
aldermen & comonality of the s d city dated the 26th day 
of April 1723, We do therefore hereby Require & Comand 
you that you cause y e s d Isaac Truex forthwith to appear 
before us or the major part of us in comon councill at the 
City hall of y e s d city to answer what in that behalf shall 
be objected against him, and hereof faile you not. Given 
under our hands and scales in Albany this 28th day of 
April in the tenth year of his maj'es Reign, A. D. 1724. 

300 The City Records. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 
2d day of May 1724. 

Conditions of sale of three lotts of ground lying within 
this city to be sold by the mayor, aldermen & comonality 
of the s d city being bounded as follows, viz 1 . 

A certain lott of ground lying and being in the first 
ward of the city of Albany on the south side of the 
Joncker street five foot to the west of the house and lott 
of Evert Wendell, containing in breadth twenty five foot 
and in length as the s d Wendell lott, with a reserve when 
it shall be requird by y e mayor, aldermen & comonality 
of y e s d city or their successors there shall be room left 
for a round passage and to sett y e city Stockados. 

One other lott of ground lying and being in the second 
ward of the said city to the west of the lotts of Johannis 
Visger, haveing on y e north the Lane of y e s d Visger, on 
the south & y e west the Comons, containing in breath at 
the front & rear twenty seaven foot and in kngth 
Rodd & foot. 

One other lott of ground lying in the second ward of 
the s d city next to the lott of Albert Slingerlandt con- 
taining in breadth on y e east by y e street thirty six foot 
and on y e west fifteen foot and in length as y e s ' Slinger- 
landt s lott. 

That any person who shall be the highest bidder for 
any of y e s ! lotts of ground shall have a release for y e 
same and be obliged to pay on y e 25th day of this present 
month May, half of the money and the other half on y e 
first day of May 1725, and enter unto bond with securitie 
if required and pay y c charges of writeing, which if re- 
fused they shall be offered to sale again at his charge, and 
if any of y e s' 1 lotts should be sold for less he shall be 
oblidgd to pay it. 

Barent Sanders is the highest bidder for the lott next 
to Evert Wendells for forty seaven pounds. 

Philip Livingston is the highest bidder for the lott next 
to Johannis Visger for sixty one pound. 

Harmanus Wendell is the highest bidder for the lott 
next to Albert Slingerlants for forty one pound. 

The City Records. 301 

Att a Comon Councill held in y e City of Albany the 28th 
July 1724. 

The releases for the lotts of ground lying in this city 
sold unto Evert Wendell on the 28th of April last, and 
those lotts sold at vendue to Harmanus Wendell, Barent 
Sanders & Philip Livingston on y e 2d day of May being 
produced in comon councill, Resolved that the mayor in 
behalf of the ccmonality sign the s d releases and y l the 
same shall be recorded in the publick records, the s j per- 
sons giveing bond for the second payment of the purchase 
money, which is done accordingly by Philip Livingston 
& Evert Wendell. 

Harmanus Wendell appearing in comon councill re- 
quests that there may be granted unto him an addition 
of three foot of ground in breadth on the west end of the 
lott he bought at said vendue to run straight to the cor- 
ner of said lott, in lieu thereof he proposes to lett one 
foot of ground lye at the front. 

Resolved that this request be referd untill next comon 
councill day. 

Barent Sanders Esq. not being in Town his release was 
signd in behalf as afores d , and is to be left in custody of 
the mayor untill he pay y e first payment and gives bond 
for the second. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 
10th day of Augs' 1724. 

Barent Sanders Esq'r this day gave bond unto y e com- 
onality for y e last payment for the lott of ground sold on 
y e 2 d of May last, being twenty three pound ten shillings 
payable y e 25th of May 1725, and release for y e same 
being lawfully executed was deliverd him. 

The Comonality having taken in consideration the re- 
quest of Harmanus Wendell of 28 July last and are of 
opinion that they cant grant any ground further north- 
ward than what they already sold him at vendue on y e 
2d May last, since it would incroach on the publick high- 

[Annals, viii.] 27 

302 The City Records. 

Albany, y e 29th Sept'r 1724, 

This day being appointed by the Charter of the City 
of Albany for the Aldermen of each respective ward 
within the said city to make Return of the Aldermen, 
Assistants & Constables to serve for the ensueing year, 
who are as follows: 

First Ward. 

Aldermen. Assistants. 

Johannis Ten Broeck Harme Schuyler 
John D'Peyster Daniel Hogan 

Adam Conde, Constable. 

Second Ward. 

Hend. Roseboom Joh's Roseboom Jun'r 

Barent Sanders Joh's Bleecker Jun'r 

v Joh's Wyngaert, Constable, 

Third Ward. 

Johannis Pruyn Johan's van Oostrande 

Dirk Ten Broeck Barent Bradt. 

Goose van Schaick Jun'r ehoisen for high Constable, 
Barent Bradt is ehoisen for Chamberlain. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany 
the 19th October 1724 Present, Peter van Brngh, 
Esq. Mayor, Johan's Pruyn, Hend. Roseboom, Barent 
Sanders, Joh's Ten Broeck, Dirk Ten Broeck, Joh's 
D'Peyster, Barent Bradt, Johan's Vanoostrande, 
Johan's Roseboom Ju'r, Harmanus Schuyler, Daniel 

The Comonality have this day appointed y e following 
persons to be fire masters for the year ensueing: 

Claes van Woert, Lambert Radlef, Thomas Sharpe, 
Harmanus Wendell Jun'r, Harp 1 van Deusen Jr, Jacob 

Orderd that a warrant be directed unto them to go 
about this city on Monday next and then every forthnight. 
Ordered that Barent Sanders, Dirk Ten Broeck, and 
John D'Peyster Esq's, aldermen, Barent Brat, Johannis 
Roseboom Jun'r & Harmanus Schuyler,- assistants, be 
appointed a comittee to view, examine and audit the 

The City Records. 303 

accounts payable by this Corporation, and bring their 
Report in comon councill the 21st instant. 

Att a Comon Council held in the City hall of Albany y e 
21stofNov'r 1724. 

The Comittee appointed on the 19th Instant bring in 
their Report that they have viewd and examind the ac- 
counts of severall persons therein mentioned payable by 
the said city amounting in all to the surne of one hundred 
and twenty pound ten shillings and three pence three 
farthings, which being approvd of by the comon councill, 

Ordered that a warrant be directed to Barent Bradt, 
City Chamberlain; for paying the said sume of money 
unto the severall persons mentioned in the said Report. 

Att a Comon Councill held in y e City hall of Albany y e 
9th day of February 172f. 

Resolved by the Comonality that Barent Bradt, City 
Chamberlain shall lay before this meeting an exact ac- 
count of the City Debts with a List of the ballance due 
to the several persons mentioned in the City Book at or 
before the 9th of March next. 

Ordered that fifty deal Boards shal be sent pr. the first 
sloop to Mr. Henry Vernon. 

Oidered that an ordinance be made and publishd to 
prevent the unrulely Rideing with horse, waggon cart or 
sled through the streets of this city on penalty of six 
shillings for y e behoof of the sherrif. 

By the Worshipfull Mayor, Aldermen and Comonality 
of the City of Albany. 

An Ordinance. 

Whereas severall persons within the city & county of 
Albany do presume to ride with horses carts and sleds in 
y 6 streets of the said city very fast and unrulely which is 
very dangerous, for preventing whereof it is hereby or- 
daind publishd & declard that from and after the publica- 
tion hereof no person or persons whatsoever shall ride or 
drive any horse or horses with sled, waggon or cart or 
otherwise in y e streets lanes or alleys of the s d city faster 

304 The City Records. 

then on a step or very moderate trot on penalty of forfiet- 
ing for every such offence the sume of six shillings 
to be p d by the owner or driver of such horse, sled, wag- 
gon or cart that shall transgress, for the behoof of the 
sherrif who is to sue for the same. Given in Albany, 
this 9th day of February in y e eleventh year of his maj'es 
Reign, Ao. Do. 172. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 

15th day of May 1725. 

It is ordered by the Comonality that Johannis Ten 
Broeck Esq. shall be paid the sum of three pound ten 
shillings for one hundred Deal Boards sent unto Henry 
Vernon Esq'r (by Jan van Ness) by order of the Comon- 
ality, wherein the freight is included. Its Resolved y l an 
order be drawn on Barent Sanders Esq. for the payment 
of the s d sume. 

Att a Comon Councill held in y e City hall of Albany this 

22th day of June 1725. 

Resolved by the Comonality that two block houses to 
be built by the city in the first and second ward are to be 
lett to any person who will undertake the same for the 
lowest price, and is to be cryed round the city on 
Wednesday Thursday & Saturday, to be agreed for at the 
City hall of the said city on Munday y e 28th Instant at 
two a clock in afternoon. 

Att a Comon Councill held in y e City hall of Albany the 
30th day of June 1725. 

The Comonality have this day agreed with Thomas 
Davis to build erect, & compleatly finish the two block 
houses to be built by the Inhabitants of the city of Al- 
bany in the first & second ward of y e s d city according to 
the directions of an act of Gen'l Assembly of the Colony 
of N. York Entitled an act for fortifying the city of Al- 
bany and of such dementions as is mentioned in the bonds 
of performence, for which he is to have the sume of Sixty 
Pounds in money and five pound in wheat, the first pay- 

The City Records. 305 

ment when the work is compleatly finished and y e second 
payment the next winter, for the performence of y e s d 
work is to be the first of October next, y e s d Davis has 
given bonds in y e penalty of 200. 

Att a Comon Council! held in the City hall of Albany y ? 
18th day of August 1725. 

Whereas the Mayor, Aldermen & Comonality now con- 
vened considering for raising money to defray the charges 
for building the two block houses to be built by the in- 
habitants of this city this year and having perused & read 
the act of Gen'l Assembly of the Colony of N. York, pub- 
lished in July 1724 Entitled an act to enable the mayor, 
aldermen and comonality of the city of Albany to defray 
thepublick and necessary charges of the s d city, whereby 
they were enabled to levy on the estates real and personal 
of all the freeholders inhabit's and sojourners of the s d city 
of Albany such sum & sums of money not exceeding 60 : 
w'h s d act is expird by its own limitation, and it being ab- 
solutely necessary the money agreed for to build the s d two 
block houses be raisd & levied on y e freeholders & inhabit's 
of y e s d city & also for those two to be built the next year, 
It is therefore resolved that the members of this city be 
desird to procure an act of Gen'l Assembly to enable y e 
mayor aldermen & comonalty of the s d city for raising & 
levying as afores d the sum of 65, this year, and y e like 
sumeof 65 the next year to be employed for y e erecting 
and compleatly finishing y e s d four block houses. 

Orderd that the Clerk send a copy of this minute to 
Jno. Cuyler Esq. one of y e members lately gone to N. Y'k 
to attend y e Gen'l Assembly, That the charges for pro- 
curing y e s d act shall be p d by this Corporation. 

Albany y e 29th September 1725. 

This day being appointed by the Charter of the city of 
Albany for the aldermen of the said city to make Return 
of the aldermen, assistants & constable of the respective 
wards of the s d city to serve for the ensuing year, viz 1 : 

306 The City Records. 

First Ward. 

Aldermen. Assistants. 

Johan's Ten Broeck Thobias Ryckman 

John D'Peyster Jeremiah Schuyler 

William Cranny, Constable. 

Second Ward. 

Hendrik Roseboom Johan's Roseboom Jun'r 

Barent Sanders Job's Bleecker Jun'r 

Jeremy Pamerton, Constable. 

Third Ward. 

Johannis Pruyn Barent Bradt 

Dirk Ten Broek Isaac Fonda 

Abraham Bogaert, Constable. 
Barent Bradt is choisen City Chamberlaine. 
Adam Conde choisen High Constable. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City of Albany this 4th 

day of October 1725. 

This day allowd & approvd the following accounts & 
issued a warrent to the Treasurer for the payment thereof 
being Eighty pound four shillings. 

Maria van Rensselaer -. 

Jacob Eghmont - . - 

John Brumley ---- 

Augustinus Turk .... 

Philip Livingston ... 

Dirk Bradt 

Harraanus Wendell - ... 

Ragel Radlif 


Albany 14th October 1725. 

This being the day appointed by the Charter of the 
city of Albany for the aldermen, assistants and consta- 
bles of y e s d city to be sworn who are as follows, viz 1 : 

Aldermen Johan's Pruyn, Hend'k Roseboom, Johan's 
Ten Broeck, John D'Peyster. 

Assistants Tobias Ryckman, Johan's Roseboom Ju'r, 
John Bleecker Jun'r, Barent Bratt, Isaac Fonda. 

The City Records. 307 

Constable Wm. Kranny, first ward, Jeremy Pamerton 
2d ward, made choice of Adam Conde for High Constable. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany the 
9th day of November 1725 Present, Johan's Cuyler 
Esq'r, Mayor, Rutger Bleeeker, Esq'r, Recorder, 
Johannis Pruyn, Hend'k Roseboom, Barent Sanders, 
Johan's Ten Broeck, Dirck Ten Broeck, Esq's, alder- 
men ; Joh's Roseboom Jun'r, Job's Bleecker Jun'r, 
Tobias Ryckman, assistants. 

The said mayor, recorder, Thomas Williams Esq, sheriff, 
the aldermen and assistants here mentiond took the oaths 
appointed by act of parliament to be taken by all persons 
officiating in any publick office, and then the s d mayor, 
recorder, sherriff, Barent Sanders & Dirck Ten Broeck, 
two of the aldermen, took their Corp'lt oaths for the due 
performing of their respective offices. 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany 

this 15th day of November 1725. 

The Comonality have this day appointed the following 
Persons to be fire masters for the year ensueing: 

First Ward. 
Jan Oothout Joh's van Der Heyden. 

Second Ward. 
Christopel Yetts Benjamin Eghberts. 

Third Ward. 

John Dunbar Johannis Evertse. 

Capt. Henry Holland appearing in Comon Councill 
desires to have y e liberty and use of a block house for 
one of his men to life in. Its Resolved that he may have 
that liberty of the Block house at the Luthren Church 
till pmo. May next, and that the other new block houses 
shall be Lockd and stand for the use of the city on occa- 
sions, as also the other block houses after pmo. May 

It is Resolved that an ordinance be drawn & publishd 
for regulating the Carmen within this city. 

308 The City Records. * 

Att a Comon Councill held in the City hall of Albany 
this 28th day of February, 172. 

This day was read the following Petition from Seven 
of the Tenants of Schaahcook deliverd in to the Comon 
Council in the year 1719, which is as follows: 

To the mayor, recorder, aldermen & assistants of the 
City of Albany in Comon Council conveend. 

The Humble Petition of Johan's Kriickerbacker, Jo- 
hannis Dewandlaer, Dirck van Veghten, Lowis Viele, 
Corsett Vedder, Marte Dellemont and Peter Winne, 

Humbly Sheweth, That whereas your Petitioners by 
Indenture from this Corporation have purchased & are 
severally become seized of certain tracts of land at 
Schaahkook for which they are each obligd to pay for 
ever the yearly rent of thirty seven & a half bushels of 
wheat, with this condition, if hinderd in their s d posses- 
sions and settlements the time so hindred to be allow'd 
them after September one thousand seven hundred & 
fourteen without paying any acknowledgment for that 
time, and whereas your Petitioners having been hinderd 
from improving their settlements, 

Wherefore your Petitioners Humbly begg this worship- 
ful Comon Council, will be pleased to allow and abate 
unto them one half years acknowledgment for the above 
hindrance which if your worships will be pleased to grant, 
Your Petitioners shall never thereafter make any further 
Pretence for any abatement of Rent for hindrance in their 
settlements before the date hereof, and your Petitioners 
as in duty bound shall always pray. 

Sign'd I : k : Backer, 
his PL 

Dirck + van veghte Dit is het + mark van marten 
merck Dellemont met ygen hant gest 

Johannis D Wandlaer corset vedder. 

It is Resolved that each of the s d Petitioners is hereby 
abated the one half of the s d fourth years Rent which was 
due in January or February one thousand seven hundred 
& eighteen & nineteen, being eighteen bushels of wheat 
& three quarters of a bushel to each of them, it appearing 

The City Records. 309 

that the same hath been promised by the then Comon 
Counil, but do not find it enterd. Be it therefore orderd 
that the City Treasurer give credit for the same. 

Mary widow of Johannis Bradt deceased, having pro- 
ducd her certain Indenture from Joha's Hallenbeeck for 
one farm of land at Schaahkook, which on the third of 
September one thousand seven hundred & fourteen was 
granted by the mayor, recorder, aldermen and assistants 
to Mr. Philip Livingston, containing thirty five morgans 
for the yearly Rent of forty five bushels of wheat, the 
first payment thereof was due in January or February 
one thousand seven hundred and twenty & twenty one, 
being now six years whereof remains due by ballance of 
the City Book one hundred and seventy seven bushels of 
wheat. She now desires abatement of fifteen bushels of 
wheat yearly & so yearly for ever. 

The rnayer, recorder, aldermen & comonality taking 
the said request under consideration, have examin'd the 
rent of the first seven farms of land at Schaahkook con- 
taining each thirty morgan, do find that they have been 
lett out in one thousand seven hundred and eight for forty 
five bushels of wheat yearly, & that by the new Inden- 
tures made in one thousand seven hundred and nine it is 
stated for thirty seven and one *half bushels of wheat for 
each farm yearly for ever. 

It is therefore Resolved Nemine Contradicente that if 
payment be made of one hundred thirty & two bushels of 
wheat by the said Mary Bratt or any body for her on or 
before pmo. May next that the comonality will then abate 
the remaining forty five bushels of wheat in full of the 
said six years & not otherwise & no further. 

This day the mayor & comon council have agreed with 
Mr. Harmanus Wendell for the rent of the house of Ro- 
bert van Deusen for the use of Mr. Johannis Glandoorf 
where he now lives within this city for two years, com- 
mencing the first day of May next to the first day of May 
one thousand seven hundred twenty and eight, at seven 
pound ten shillings per annum. 

310 The City Records. 

Att a Comon Council held in y e City hall of Albany this 
15th day of March 172f. 

Whereas the Tenants in Schaahkook who are in arrear 
have been served w l a writing fix'd upon their meeting 
house by order of the mayor & comon council to come & 
settle accounts and pay the arrearage of their Rent by 
this present fifteenth day of March & not having appeard 
according to y e directions of s d writing, 

It is therefore Resolved nemine contradicente that if 
the s d Tenants shall not come in within the space of eight 
days & give satisfaction to the mayor & comon council 
for the arrearage of their rent that an execution shall be 
issued out to distrain their goods and chattels for pay- 
ment of s d arrearages according to the directions of their 
respective Indentures, and that the Tennants shall be 
served with a copy of this Resolution. 

This day sold to Jacob Egmont a certain corner lott of 
ground, scituate lying and being in the plain on the south 
side of this city fronting on the south opposite the pas- 
ture ground of Johannis Mingael four rod distance be- 
tween the lott of Johannis Mingael and the s d corner lott 
in length south and north one hundred & five foot wood 
measure and in breadth before & behind thirty five foot 
of like measure, bounded on y e west by y c street y 1 leads 
south towards Dirckie Widow Hallenbeck, having to the 
east and to the north the city ground, for the sum of 
thirty pounds currant money of N. York, twenty pounds 
thereof to be p d on or before the twenty ninth day of 
Sept'r next ensueing & the remaining ten pounds on or 
before the twenty ninth of Sept'r which will be in y e year 
of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and twenty 

Resolved that the mayor in behalf of the comonality 
sign a release for y 6 s d corner lott of ground & that y 6 
same shall be recorded in the publick Records, the s d 
Jacob Eghmont giving bonds for the payments as before 

The City Records. 311 

Att a Comon Council held in y e City hall of Albany this 
19th day of March 172f. 

By the Worshipfull Mayor, Aldermen & Comonalty of 
the City of Albany. 

An Ordinance. 

Whereas the water in weat Seasons of the year comes 
down the hill which lyes to the west side of this city in 
the second ward forces through several lots of ground 
from opposite the north part of Johannis Roseboom to 
the foxes Creek beyond the lott of Abraham Lansingh, 
for preventing whereof It is Resolved by the said mayor, 
aldermen & comonality of the s d city that it shall be or- ' 
daind publishd & declard and it is hereby ordaind pub- 
lishd and declard that y e earth shall be taken of slenting 
with a descent of one rod & half Rynland measure from 
the said lotts and houses fronting the hill that the water 
may vent itself into the foxes creek which is to be done 
by the Inhabitants or owners of the s d houses & lotts of 
ground on or before pmo. June next, on penalty of thirty 
shillings for each default. 

Be it further ordaind by the authority afores d that the 
water which forces from the said hill against the pave- 
ments of the houses from the north side of the house and 
lott of Johannis Roseboom & the south side of the house 
of John Lansingh shall lead along the pavements which 
lyes before the said houses that the water may vent it- 
self into the middle of the Rum street, which is to be 
done by the owners or tenants of the houses & lotts front- 
ing the said Pavements who are to cause the earth to be 
dugg up carryd away & fill up the ground where it is or 
shall be required and directed at or before pmo. May 
next on penalty of thirty shillings. 

And whereas the Lane between the second & third 
ward in this city is very much out of repair, and it being 
necessary and needful for the ease of the inhabitants 
within s d city that the same be regularly mended & repaird 

Be it therefore ordaind publishd & declard that the s d 
Lane shall be sufficiently mended & Repaired at y e charge 
of the owners or tenants whose lotts, houses or stables 

312 The City Records. 

front the s d Lane and in such manner as mayor, recorder 
aldermen & assistants of the wards or the major part of 
them shall order and direct, so as the same be compleatly 
finishd at or before pmo. August next ensueing on penalty 
of thirty shillings. 

And whereas the water cant have its course and vent 
to the Brewer street from the west end of the Lane be- 
tween the houses & lotts of Jacob Lansingh & Jacob Vis- 
ger, being their pavements are laid too high which pre- 
vents the same, 

Be it therefore further ordaind publishd and declard by 
the authority afores d that s d Lansingh & Visger shall at 
or before y e first day of April next take up stone & earth 
each the breadth of one foot in the midle of their Pave- 
ments that the water may have its free course into the 
Brewers street, and hereafter lay their Pavements as 
shall be directed on penalty of thirty shillings. 

Be it further ordaind by the authority aforesaid that 
the Lane in the said second & third ward from the cor- 
ner of the house of Schiboleth Bogardus & from the south 
corner of the lott of Jacob Visger to the north end of the 
lotts of Hester Dirckse & y l lately belonging to Harmanus 
Wendell shall be well pavd at the charge of y e owners or 
tenants fronting the houses ^and lotts, and that in such 
manner that the water may vent one half to the south & 
the other to the north as shall be ordered & directed by 
the mayor, recorder, aldermen & assistants of she s d 
wards or y e major part of them, so as the same be com- 
pleatly made and finishd at or before pmo, August next 
ensueing, on penalty of thirty shillings for each default, 
to be paid by y e owners or person who refuses or delays 
to repair & mend as aforesaid for the behoof and to be 
recovered as afores d . 




Albany continues to be the largest barley market in 
the United States. Yet the figures for that trade from 
which most of the beer producing cities on the Hudson 
river and on the Atlantic states draw their supplies of 
either barley or malt, do not show that the article of 
beer is consumed to so great an extent in proportion to 
the population, as it is in England, where the duty paid 
annually on malt covers an aggregate of 36,000,000 of 

Still the trade is increasing, as the following figures of 
the receipts of barley by canal at tide water during the 
following years show. 

Bushels. Bushels. 

1844, 813,542 1851, 1,809,417 

1845, ,152,297 1852, 2,273,367 

1846, 391,968 1853, 2,518,941 

1847, 523,020 1854, 1,895,208 

1848, ,548,197 1855, 1,674,457 

1849, ,400,194 1856, 2,030,000 

1850, 1,744,867 

The receipts of 1856 are only exceeded by those of 
1852 and 1853, and probably not much exceeded by 
those years if the deliveries from the Central rail road, 
which are annually on the increase, could be obtained. 

Within twelve years the receipts have increased near- 
ly 200 per cent, and the business has increased in this city 
in greater proportion; in 1843 and 1844 we find the busi- 
ness done in barley was reported not over 50,000 bushels 
per week. Now it is not uncommon to report a daily 
business of 40,000 to 50,000 bushels. 

Barley, consequent upon the increased demand and 
the high figures in the western markets, which have not 

[Annals, viii.] 28 

314 Barley Trade of Albany. 

only retained their own growth of barley at home, but 
have drawn that article hence to a large extent, has 
ruled high, in comparison with other coarse grains, and 
has been maintained at a very uniform price. The sales 
of barley reported during the season are only 1,682,400 
bushels, which is far under the deliveries by canal, to say 
nothing of what has been delivered from the Central 
road. This is to be explained by the contracts which 
are made every season, covering large parcels, the par- 
ticulars of which are not allowed to get into print, and 
shipments to Troy, &c. 

Of the quantity sold 895,300 bushels is four rowed, 
604,500 is two rowed, 123,800 bushels is Canadian, and 
59,200 is mixed. The average value of the sales of four 
rowed may be put at 126 Jc., of two rowed at 122jc,, of 
Canadian at 127 Jc. and of mixed at 118c. The aggre- 
gate quantity and value of the reported sales may thus 
be stated : 

Bushels. Value. 

Four rowed 895,300 $1,126,155 

Two rowed 604,500 740,364 

Canadian 123,800 158,092 

Mixed 59,200 72,355 

Total 1,682,800 $2,096,966 

Making an average of a small fraction under 125c. per 

The highest figure paid for four rowed was 132 in 
September; for Jefferson county (two rowed) 126, 128 
and 133 was paid, and it is the large sales during the 
season of this description of barley that brings the aver- 
age of two rowed barley up to 122J; the highest figure 
paid for Canadian barley was 132 in November. 

The greatest quantity of two rowed barley sold at one 
price was at 125c. at which sales of 80,500 bushels were 
reported. Of Canadian more than one third of the whole 
quantity reported sold was at IP.Oc. the sales at that fig- 
ure reaching 52,500 bushels. Of four rowed 145,200 
bushels were reported at 126c. and 142,100 bushels at 

Barley Trade of Albany* 315 

126J, being more than one third the whole quantity re- 
ported at 125 a 126J. 

The quality of the barley sent forward this season is 
much better than that of last, excepting Lower Canada 
which was much grown and stained. The great bulk of 
the two rowed, excepting that of Jefferson county and 
some samples of Madison and Onondaga, has been much 
neglected owing to the" bad condition in which it came 
forward; indeed, if we except Jefferson county, and one 
or two sales reported of Onondaga, there has been a 
very wide difference between the price of two and four 



In the legislative session of 1856, the senate appointed 
a select committee to visit all charitable institutions 
supported by the state, and all city and county poor and 
work houses and jails. The committee reported to the 
next legislature, and such parts of the report as relate 
to the institutions belonging to the city of Albany, are 
as follows: 


The asylum for idiots was -established, and commenced 
receiving pupils in 1851. It was first opened and placed 
under the direction of a board of trustees appointed by 
the state, a few miles north of the city of Albany, where 
it continued till August, 1855. The success of the un- 
dertaking being established larger accommodations were 
required, and it was determined to erect suitable build- 
ings in a more favorable location. The citizens of Syra- 
cuse having offered to contribute a sum nearly sufficient, 
to purchase suitable grounds near that city, eighteen 
acres of productive land were bought for the site of the 
new asy-lum, and in September, 1854, the corner stone of 
the new edifice was laid. The building was completed in 
August, 1855, and the pupils removed to it in the fol- 
lowing month. 


This establishment located at the city of Albany, em- 
braces four buildings constructed of brick, two stories 
in height above the basements, one in size 40 x 70 feet 
and two others 32 x 90 feet, connected with a farm of 

Charitable and Criminal Institutions. 317 

216 acres, yielding an annual revenue estimated at $6,- 
OOO'OO. The basements of one building are used for 
domestic purposes, the others are unoccupied. In the 
poor house proper are 10 rooms, warmed by furnaces and 
stoves, but with very little ventilation. This building 
was erected 34 years ago. From six to forty paupers 
are placed in a single room. 

The number of inmates was 319, 120 males and 299 
females. Of these three-fourths are foreign born, and 
eighty are under six years of age. The sexes are kept 
separate, only meeting at their meals, which are eaten 
in the same mess-room. 

The average number of inmates is 350, and the keeper 
reports that the number is declining, and states as causes 
of such decline, a reduction in the amount of emigration 
and the improved system adopted by the commissioners 
of emigration in forwarding emigrants to their detestina- 
tions. They are supported at an average weekly cost 
of ninety cents, exclusive of the products of the farm. 
As is common, the paupers who are able are employed 
on the farm and about the house. Once during the past 
year the supervisors have visited and inspected the house, 
in a body. It is supplied with Bibles, and the city mis- 
sionary preaches once or twice each Sabbath. A teacher 
is employed in the house during the whole year, who 
teaches the. common English branches to an average 
number of about fifty children. On arriving at proper 
age they are bound out to various trades and employ- 
ments, by the overseer of the poor of the city. The com- 
mon council of Albany, impose rules and regulations for 
the government of the house, and under their direction 
supplies are furnished. The fare of the paupers is plain 
and wholesome. To attend the paupers, a physician is 
employed at an annual salary of $800. He is assisted 
by two resident medical students, who are boarded for 
their services. The physician visits once each day and 
the students twice. For bathing, two bath-rooms are 
furnished in the insane asylum and two in the fever 
hospital. During the past year, have occured in the 

318 Charitable and Criminal Institutions. 

house thirty-two births and seventy-one deaths. The 
keeper thinks twenty-five of these births were illegitimate 
offspring. During the same time the inmates have suf- 
fered from small pox, typhoid fever and dysentery. 
They have a good pest or fever house, constructed of 
brick twenty-four by one hundred feet and two stories 
high above the basements. It is heated by furnaces, and 
is quite well ventilated by numerous openings into a 
hollow wall. It embraces four wards, with capacity for 
one hundred beds. There are now in the hospital thirty- 
two sick; only two cases of fever, the residue chronic cases. 
Of the inmates seventy-three are lunatics, thirty-two 
males and forty-one females, seventy are paupers, the 
remaining, three cases pay from $3*00 to $4*50 per week. 
There is provided an insane asylum in connection with 
the alms hou-e, built of brick forty by ninety feet, two 
stories in height, containing thirty-eight rooms above and 
eight in the basement, with convenient halls and yards. 
Thirty-nine lunatics have been admitted during the past 
year. They are under the care of the house physician, 
who is required to devote to them particular attention, 
and four attendants, two male and two female. Two are 
confined in cells or small rooms, which is the only kind 
of restraint used. When out of the building they are 
confined in commodious yards. Seven during the year 
have been dismissed as cured, and two improved. It is 
judged that two thirds of the whole number of insane 
may be safely pronounced improved. One lunatic escaped 
on the 5th of January last and froze to death. Fre- 
quent application has been made for admission to the 
state institution, and refused. 

Four of the paupers are idiots, three males and one 
female, two are under sixteen years of age. There is 
one deaf and dumb, fourteen years old, and three blind. 

No corporal punishment is administered in the house. 

One half, at least, of the paupers are reduced to their 
present position by reason of intemperate habits. 

The poor houses throughout the state may be generally 
described as badly constructed, ill-arranged, ill-warmed, 


Charitable and Criminal Institutions. 319 

and ill-ventilated. The rooms are crowded with inmates ; 
and the air, particularly in the sleeping apartments, is 
very noxious, and to casual visitors, almost insufferable. 
In some cases, as many as forty-five inmates occupy a 
single dormitory, with low ceilings, and sleeping boxes 
arranged in three tiers one above another. Good health 
is incompatible with such arrangements. They make it 
an impossibility. 

Inmates in August, 1856 319 

Native born 79 

Foreign born 240 

Children under 16 years 80 

Average number of inmates 350 

Months school taught 12 

Births the past year 32 

Deaths the past year. , 71 

Extent in acres of poor house farm , 216 

Annual income of farm $6,000 

Number of inmates in sleeping room 40 

House inspected by supervisors the past year 1 

Weekly cost of inmates' support $0'90 

Intemperance the cause of pauperism. (Per cent.) 50 

Number of lunatics 73 

Males 32 

Females 41 

Lunatics in cells 2 

Lunatics under mechanical restraint 

Lunatics improved past year 2 

Lunatics recovered 7 

Lunatics not paupers 3 

Lunatics received past year 39 

Number of idiots in house ". 4 

Number of deaf and dumb in house 1 

Number of blind in house 3 


This asylum was established and incorporated in 1830, 
and has since been supported by private donations, by 
interest on a small vested fund, by appropriations from 
the state, and sums received for support of alms house chil- 
dren. The present number of inmates is one hundred; they 
are received between the ages of three and twelve years, 
and disposed of by indenture at such ages as good oppor- 

320 Charitable and Criminal Institutions. 

tunities present. While in the asylum the children are in- 
structed in those English branches taught in common 
schools. The school is not inspected by school officers, 
neither do they share in the Common School Fund. The 
children enjoy the privileges of a Sabbath school, and oc- 
casionally other religious teaching. The institution can 
accommodate one hundred and fifty inmates. The house 
is very well built and commodious, and surrounded by 
fine gardens and yards. 


This asylum was founded two years since and has now 
in charge sixty orphans. It is supported mainly by 
charity. What sums were received from the state, the 
managers were unable to state. There is no rule re- 
garding the age at which children are received, and they 
are discharged whenever places may be obtained. 


This institution has been established for twelve years, 
and is supported by private charity and by appropria- 
tions from the state, which in 1855 was $1,179. The 
present number of inmates is ninety-seven, and they are 
admitted at ages ranging from one to seven or eight. 
They are dismissed at the age of fourteen or fifteen years, 
when they are usually put out at wages. They are not 
bound as apprentices. While at the asylum the orphans 
are taught in the common branches of an English educa- 
tion, and in domestic duties. Their success after dismis- 
sal from the asylum has been usually satisfactory. T\vo- 
thirds of the children are of foreign parentage. 


This institution is located in the city of Albany, and 
was established eleven years since; it is supported en- 
tirely by private charity. The managers state its objects 
to be to feed the hungry, clothe the naked, and to serve 
as an intelligence office, furnishing good places of em- 
ployment to the needy and destitute. Twenty-five aged 
females from sixty- five to one hundred years of age, are 


H I 


Charitable and Criminal Institutions. 321 

here supported during the short remainder of their lives. 
Six of these are of foreign and nineteen of native birth. 


This hospital is pleasantly and healthfully located on 
the corner of Howard and Eagle streets. 

It is supported by donations from individuals, by ap- 
propriations from the state, by interest from a vested 
fund of about $20,000, and from pay patients. It has 
received from the state in all, to 1855, $ 10, 8 17. 

The institution has been established for five 3*ears, and 
in that time has treated 705 patients; of these 412 
were paupers. To pay patients there is a charge, in 
general ward, of $3'50 ; in private rooms $5. Of patients 
treated 545 were foreigners, and 160 Americans. Of the 
foreigners 425 were from Ireland. 

Of the whole number 474 were males, and 231 females. 
Sixty-four deaths have occurred. No persons laboring 
under contagious diseases are admitted. In 1855 were 
222 patients. The average weekly expense for patients 
is $5-14. Average time patients remained in hospital 
during the year 1855 was five weeks and nineteen hours. 

The present number of patients is twelve, of which 
number ten are foreigners. 

The average number in the hospital is twenty-five. 

In connection or attached to the hospital is the Albany 
dispensary, to support which the state has appropriated 
$500 per year for the past three years. Here medicines 
and advice are administered gratuitous to the poor on 
application. The dispensary fronts on Howard street. 

The hospital building is well and substantially built 
with modern improvements. It is well warmed and 
ventilated, and appears to be well provided with all 
the usual appliances and conveniences calculated to 
secure the ends contemplated by the founders of the 
institution. It has a board of governors, four attending 
physicians and four attending surgeons, aresident physi- 
cian and surgeon. 

The labor of the attending physicians and surgeons is 
gratuitous, and would amount annually, if performed in 

322 Charitable and Criminal Institutions. 

private practice, at the usual rate of charges in Albany, 
to at least $8,000. 

It owes its existence to untiring energy, active be- 
nevolence and labors of a few prominent citizens of 
Albany, among whom are several who are an honor to 
the medical profession, and to the human race. 

It is a noble charity, well deserving the confidence and 
liberal contributions of the public, and the bounty of the 


This though a comparatively new structure does no 
credit to the capital city of the state, and by a grand 
jury of the county has been more than once indicted. 
Surrounded by other buildings, there is little chance for 
the circulation of fresh air, and that within the jail was 
found to be offensive and unhealthy; without ventilation, 
and crowded with prisoners, it is rendered dangerous to 
the health of the inmates, and should attract the atten- 
tion of the courts and grand juries. It is impossible to 
classify the prisoners as the law requires, and yet there 
are found in the jail thirty-seven men and eight women; 
and it was represented to the committee that prisoners 
waiting trial are frequently allowed to remain in this 
place for months. The character of the prisoners and 
the effect of such an association can be judged by the 
commitments ; which are : one for murder, two for rape, 
six for grand larceny, four for burglary, one for robbery 
of the post office, six for petit larceny, four for misde- 
meanor, three for assault and battery, two for vagrancy, 
one for damages, one for rescuing prisoners, seven for 
drunkenness, five for disorderly conduct and two witnes- 
ses, and all these it was admitted had free intercourse 
during most of the day. It would seem that those long 
resident in such a place and in such company, if not lost 
to all hope of reformation upon going in, must be ruined 
in morals and in health on coming out. In the female 
department were eight, all confined in one room, and in 
which the air was found to be more offensive than in the 

Charitable and Criminal Institutions. 323 

There was said to be preaching in the jail every week, 
and the house was supplied with Bibles as required by 

Nearly all the jails in the state are insufficient to ful- 
fill the 'purposes contemplated bylaw. No adequate 
provisions are usually made by the counties to enable 
the jailer, however well disposed, so discharge the duty 
which is clearly enough imposed on him by the statutes. 

Number in confinement 45 

Native born 13 

Foreign born 32 

Average weekly expense of support $125 

Commitments consequent on inebriation. (Per cent.) 

Average number in confinement 50 

Supplied with Bibles Yes, 

Number usually confined in single cell or ward 2 

Number confined constantly in cell 

Can classify as law requires. .'. No. 


This institution was opened in 1846. The building 
furnishes cells for two hundred males and one hundred 
females. The average number of inmates is tw o hun- 
dred; the present number is two hundred and fifty, seventy 
females and one hundred and eighty males. Three-fourth 
of these are of foreign birth. The convicts work at dif- 
ferent trades under contract, and the average earning 
per day of each is thirty cents. 

The great class of commitments is for misdemeanors 
incident to and caused by intemperate habits. In eight 
hundred and one committments for the year 1855, 
seven hundred and seventy-one admitted themselves to 
to be intemperate. The same proportion will hold good 
for the present year. During the day the convicts are 
in the work shops and at night confined in separate cells. 
The prison is a very healthy one, there being but one 
death during the past year and that from delirium 
tremens. The patient came to the prison intoxicated. 
There was but one in hospital, and the average number 
so confined was one half of one per cent. There is chapel 
service every Sunday morning and religious conversation 
by the chaplain with the prisoners the residue of the 

324 Charitable and Criminal Institutions. 

day, A library is being established by private donations of 
individuals through the agency of the keeper, and already 
numbers some five hundred volumes. The hospital and 
chapel are not sufficiently ventilated ; otherwise the in- 
stitution appears well constructed, and its arrangements 
quite faultless. 

The income of the prison for the year 1855 was $18,- 
174*25, and the expenses $15,587-72, leaving a profit for 
the year of $2,586, there is no indebtness of any kind; 
and this is believed to be the best additional comment 
the committee can make upon its management. 

The keeper is the son of the former superintendent 
Amos Pilsbury, who after bringing the penitentiary to 
its present perfect condition, has taken charge of a more 
extensive establishment at Wards Island at the solicita- 
tion of the commissioners of emigration, who are now- 
profiting by his superior qualifications, and where the 
state and all interested in that important commission are 
receiving the benefit of his skill and experience. 


FIRES IN 1856. 

While all the larger cities in the Union have suffered 
severely from conflagrations during the year just closed, 
it is gratifying to know that our city has been singularly 
exempt from those disasters which have laid waste up- 
wards of twenty-Jive million dollars worth of property 
within twelve months. By reference to the record we 
ascertain that from January 1, 1856, but eighteen fires 
occurred in the city, East Albany, and Kenwood, and the 
total value of the property destroyed did not exceed 
$217,630. Included in this amount was $70,000 by the 
burning of Claassen & Barclay's oil cloth factory; $50,- 
000 by Smith & Go's. Argentina works at Kenwood, and 
$50,000 by the Hudson river rail road depots at East Al- 
bany. Deducting this amount from the sum total and 
we find the value of the property destroyed by fire 
within the period named, was but $47,630, and this too 
a very liberal allowance. 

The following is the record of fires with the date of 
their occurence, &c: 

Jan. 20, Saturday, 8| p. M., rear of Ames's Buildings, 
corner South Pearl and Plain streets. 

Feb. 2, Saturday, 7 P. M., slight fire onDeWitt street; 
loss $30. 

Feb. 8, Friday, 2 A. M., McGinty's, South Broadway; 
loss $100. 

Feb. 13, Wednesday, 7 A. M., Wiles's house, south side 
Lydius street, near Cathedral; loss $25. 

March 20, Friday, 10 A. M., Anable's morocco factory, 
South Broadway; loss $16,000. 

June 24, Tuesday, 3 p. M., Pruyn's rope walk, Lumber 
street; loss $3,000. 

[Annals, riii.] 29 

326 Fires in 1856. 

July 8, Tuesday, 2 A. M., Lloyd & Jones's carriage 
factory, and Taylor's malt house, Hamilton street; 
loss $15,000. 

July 10, Thursday, 2 A. M., Coming's building, State 
street, occupied by Miss Shaw; loss $6,000. 

July 30, Wednesday, 11 p. M., woodshed, Philip street, 
opposite hay market; loss $.0. 

Aug. 30, Saturday, 5 A. M , Claassen & Barclay's oil 
cloth factory, Lydius street; loss $50,000. 

Oct. 2, Thursday, 7 A. M., Smith & Go's Argentina 
works, Kenwood; loss $50,000. 

Oct. 4, Saturday, 3J A. M., Ten Eyck's Building, Green 
street, occupied by Gilkerson ; loss $600. 

Oct. 22, Wednesday, 9 p. M., Conly's building, Van 
Woert street; loss $2,000. ' 

Oct. 27, Monday, 0: 15 A. M., Mrs. McCluskey's build- 
ing, Quay street; loss $1,000. 

Oct. 28, Tuesday, 8:20 A. M., Holmes's building, Mont- 
gomery street ; loss $400. 

Nov. 2. Sunday 0:30 A. M., Dr. Me. Naughton's build- 
ing, corner Lydius and Church streets. 

Nov. 19. Wednesday 0:30 p. M., wood sheds in rear of 
Nos. 43 and 45 Second st. 

Dec. 14, Sunday, 4 A. M., Hudson river rail road depots, 
East Albany ; loss $50,000. 

Dec. 25, Thursday, 6:45 A. M., E. Gates's house, 
Hudson street; loss $125. 

No city in the Union can claim such exemption from 
the ravages of the devouring element, indicating great 
caution and diligence on the part of our citizens. 

Since the introduction of the new supply of water the 
diminution in fires has been great, and the loss of pro- 
perty very small. There are various reasons for this. 
One is that there is no encouragement for incendiaries, 
as their hopes for plunder are disappointed by the secu- 
rity our citizens feel, they not removing their goods from 
their houses even though the fire is in close proximity. 
Another reason is the efficiency of the fire department, 
and the perfect mastery its members have over the ele- 
ment, in conjunction with the inexhaustible supply 

Fires in 1856. 827 

of water. With such a safe guard, and with ordinary 
care, we need have no fear of destructive conflagration 
unless extraordinary circumstances should interpose to 
thwart the efforts of the firemen. 

The following is the record of fires during the years 
1850 to 1855 inclusive: 

1850, 26; 1851, 36; 1852, 23; 

1853, 17; 1854, 38; 1855, 19. 

Previous to the introduction of the present supply of 
water, our city was dreadfully scourged. No one can forget 
the year 1848, when so much of our fair city was laid 
waste. Our citizens stood in constant fear, and the alarm 
bell was the signal for general consternation. After the 
great fire the insurance companies paid for losses $6 1 2,700, 
probably one third of the entire loss. During the years 
1847 and 1848 the old Albany Insurance Company, 
promptly paid $367,000 losses in Albany and elsewhere. 
Since that time they have been recuperating, and once 
again are in the full tide of success. They were incorpor- 
ated in 1811; and have transacted business for 46 years 
with a reputation which has never been dishonored. 

( 328) 



1. The New Year's day mild and beautiful, the sleigh- 
ing good, and every thing conducive to enjoyment, 

The legislature convened at the Capitol. 

2. Mrs. Rebecca, widow of the late Matthew Van Al- 
styne, died, aged 61 Oliver Gates died, aged 50. 

3. Mrs. Elizabeth McCrea died, aged 73. 

4. A countryman crossed the river on the ice with a 
span of horses and a lumber sleigh, in which were three 
women and a ton of iron. The weight of the load broke 
the ice, and the iron slid into the river, but the rest of 

the load was saved by fast driving. Joseph Ward 

died, aged 19 Mary Eliza, wife of James Bo wen, 

died, aged 30. 

5. Thermometer 5 deg. below 0, and the crossing of the 

river on the ice now first became safe for teams A 

woman in Orange street found dead in her chair, sup- 
posed to have perished with cold. 

6. The ferry boats went into winter quarters, the road- 
ways having been strengthened on the river by throwing 
water upon the ice, and thereby increasing its thickness. 

The Hudson river rail road train due 10-J o'clock 

on Saturday night, arrived at 8J Sunday morning, 

the road being obstructed with snow Job Bendall 

died, aged 46 Benj. Potter died, aged 71. 

8. Ann Eliza, wife of Chas. King, died, aged 28 

Mrs. Abigail Sickles died, aged 51, wife of Alexander 

Sickles Hester Neeley died, aged 22 Mrs. 

Susan Stewart died, aged 65. 

9. Thermometer 8 deg. below in the morning, and 

9 deg. below at noon The Hudson river express 

train was run into by the Poughkeepsie train, and three 
persons killed, among whom was Mrs. Henry Hurlburt, 

Annals of the Year 1856. 329 

of Albany; and a great number wounded, among whom 
was Mr. Thomas Schuyler and Mr. W. H. De Witt, of 

Albany John Hendrickson died, aged 80. He was 

a native of Long Island, and came to Albany at an early 
age, a poor and unfriended youth. At first he was a 
merchant, but after a short time became a money and ex- 
change broker, in which business he continued until he 
retired with a competency. He was universally known 
and respected for his sound judgment, unblemished in- 
tegrity, and a sympathy towards the poor and unfortu- 
nate which was often manifested by liberal deeds John 

Carter died, aged 30 Samuel Davidson, cartman, 

aged 50, left home in a deranged state of mind, and was 
found dead in the vicinity of the city. 

10. Thermometer 10 deg. below A lunatic es- 
caped from the asylum at the Alms house, and was frozen 
to death in a graveyard in the vicinity. 

11. Matilda, widow of James Gibbons, died, aged 56. 

Charles A. Fassett died, aged 43 Margaret, 

wife of Gilbert V. Van Zandt, died, aged 34. 

12. G. V, S. Bleecker died, aged 65. He had been a 
member of the common council nearly twenty years. In 
all the relations of public and private life he was highly 
respected Grace J. S. Hagaman died, aged 2 1 . 

13. Rev. Mr. Mayo commenced the pastorate of the 

Unitarian church in Division street The German 

Lutheran church in State street was dedicated. 

15. Harriet M., wife of Jas. Sutherland, died, aged 44. 

16. Continental Co. B went to Newburgh to attend 
the funeral of Usual Knapp, the last of Washington's 
life guards, where it was assigned the post of honor. 

17. James Fitzsimmons, Jr., died, aged 22. 

20. A fire broke out in South Pearl street, near Plain, 

which damaged a millinery store Thermometer 

ranged from 4 to 7 deg. below 0. 

21. Erasmus D. Smith, a policeman, died suddenly. 
27. Mrs. Harriet Eames died, aged 71 Georgo 

Morrow died, aged 34. 

29. Dorcas Maria, wife of Geo. Randall, died, aged 48. 

330 Annals of the Year 1856. 

30. Margaret P., wife of J C. Bowling, died, aged 56. 

31. Jane, wife of James Webster, died, aged 27. 


2. The bedding in rear of house No. 43 De Witt street, 
took fire, causing a general alarm. A child was badly 

burnt; otherwise little damage was done Bonfires 

were burnt on the arrival of the news of the election of 

Mr. Banks as speaker of congress A remonstrance 

signed by 4000 Albanians, against U bridge at Albany, 

was presented to the legislature Jane Matilda, wife 

of Langham Jupp, died, aged 38 John C. Bullions, 

formerly of Albany, died at Honolulu, aged 28. 

3. The formal institution of the Rev. Thos. C. Pitkin, 
as rector of St. Peter's church, took place, Bishop Potter 
officiating. According to the Episcopal usage, the new 
rector was presented by the bishop with the Letter of 
Institution, the Bible, and the Book of Common Prayer; 
and by the senior warden, with the keys of the church. 
The bishop preached an appropriate discourse on the 
duties of the Christian pastor, from the text, " The good 
pastor layeth down his life for the sheep," in which were 
many feeling allusions to his own recent and long con- 
tinued connection with the parish in that relation. The 
church was densely filled. 

4. Mrs. William Boyd died, aged 73. 

5. Charles L. Schoolcraft died at Marseilles, in France, 
whither he had gone for his health. 

6. The governors of the Hospital entertained several 
hundred citizens, legislators and physicians from abroad; 
a supper was served, and several speeches made. 

7. The house of the late David Newland, on Broad- 
way, was sold to the Bank of Albany for $14,000 

Richard Merrifield elected president of the Young men's 

8. A train from Buffalo over the Central rail road ar- 
rived, the first one since Sunday the 3d, the detention 
having arisen from snow storms and high winds, which 
obstructed the road in the western part of the state. 
A fire at 3 o'clock in the morning damaged a gro- 

Annals of the Year 1856. 331 

eery in South Broadway William Trainor died, 

aged 52 Mrs. Freelove S. Ferris died, aged 75. 

9. Thomas Martin died, aged 73. 

10. Mrs. Lyons died, aged 67 Hugh Duffy died, 

aged 26 Mary Louisa Goewey, formerly of Albany, 

died at Auburn, aged 19. 

1 1. Thomas Hill died, aged 41 Mrs. Sarah Van 

Benthuysen, wife of William C. Cafferty, died, aged 63. 
Mrs. Sarah Springsteed died, aged 45. 

12. Alanson Bennett, of Rome, while descending the 

Capitol steps, fell dead in a fit of apoplexy William 

C. Cafferty died, aged 69. 

13. An alarm of fire caused by the burning of bedding 

in the house adjoining Cathedral, in Lydius street 

Thermometer from 5 to 8 deg. below 0. 

14. Catharine, wife of Jacob Messenger, died, aged 30. 

15. Michael McCafferty died, aged 61; long known as 
the cake baker in the old Dutch house in North Pearl 

street, adjoining the Female academy Nancy, wife 

of Abraham V. McDowel* died, aged 30 John 

Henry Hallenbeck died. 

18. The Daily Albany Argus and the Albany Evening 
Atlas were united, under the title of Atlas and Argus, 
by Comstock & Cassidy. 

20. Eunice Low, wife of Wm. H. Frame, died, aged 22. 

24. George Warren died, aged 67 Dr. John Van 

Buren died, aged 48. 

25. EUsha N. Pratt died at his residence in Green 
bush, aged 42. 

26. Mrs. Margaret, widow of Philip Gaylor, died, aged 

73 Edward B. Carroll died, aged 24 Mary, 

wife of Martin Cunningham, died Alfred Hanson 

died, aged 30. 

27. An alarm of fire in the evening, occasioned by the 

careless use of camphene Frances M., daughter of 

Stephen Clark, died, aged 19. 

29. The whole number of persons arrested, charged 
with criminal offences, and brought before the police jus- 
tices during the month of February, was 210 Eli- 
zabeth Curran died, aged 24. 

332 Annah of the Year 1856. 


2. Abby, widow of the late George W. Cady, died, 
aged 56. 

4. A special meeting of the board of commissioners of 
foreign missions, opened its sessions at the Congrega- 
tional church John J. Jarvis died, aged 38 

Mrs. Gertrude, widow of Willard Lloyd, died, aged 49. 
Mary, wife of James Hamilton, died, aged 27. 

5. A law was reported to the common council for en- 
larging the bounds of the city of Albany, by annexing 

parts of the towns of Bethlehem and Watervliet 

Michael Arts died, aged 81. 

10. Cold, thermometer 7 deg. below in the morning, 

Capt. George Monteath died, aged 78. He was 

born in the town of Dumblane, Scotland, in 1778, and 
came with his parents to Albany, at the age of seven, 
and resided here more than seventy years. He com- 
menced the profession of a schipper on the Hudson river 
at the age of ten, and for more than thirty years was 
occupied in sailing sloops, much of the time as master 
and owner. He was one of the founders of the Albany 
and Canal line of tow boats, with which he was actively 
connected until age and its infirmities compelled his re- 
tirement. Unlike some of his fellow craft, he took ad- 
vantage of the introduction of steam, instead of treating 
it with contempt, and acquired a fortune by it. 

11. George Anderson died, aged 38. 

13. Caroline, wife of Geo. Kreuder, died Sarah, 

wife of Peter H. Diamond, died, in New York Mrs. 

Anna Bleecker Truax, widow of Harmanus Lansing, 
died, in Watervliet Henry G. Bendall died, aged 21. 

14. Sarah L. Keith, wife of L. Stuart Rose, died, aged 
24 Andrew Murdock, Sen., died, at Schaghticoke, 

15. William Parmelee, mayor [of the city, died, of a 
cancerous affection in the throat, aged 49. He was a 
native of Lansingburgh ; graduated at Yale college in 
1827, and was admitted to the bar of the Supreme court 
in 1830, when he commenced the practice of law in this 
city. In 1836 he was appointed city attorney, and in 

Annals of the Year 1856. 333 

1839 a judge of the county court, from which bench, in 
1840, he was appointed recorder; he remained in that 
office till 1846, when he was elected mayor. In 1847 he 
was elected judge of the county, and held the office till 
1852. In 1855 he was re-elected mayor, which office he 

held at the time of his death Wm. H. Mosher died, 

aged 27. 

17. Elizabeth Wilson died, aged 18. 

18. Mary, wife of Wm. Castle, died, aged 43, 

Sarah Hepinstall, wife of John Holmes, formerly of Al- 
bany, died at Brampton, C. W., aged 53 Jane Me- 

Chesney, wife of William Loomis, formerly of Albany, 
died at Enfield, Conn., aged 42. 

19. A very large attendance of citizens followed the 
remains of Mayor Parmelee to the grave, notwithstand- 
ing the snow storm which rendered the streets very dif- 
ficult to pedestrians A fire was discovered in the 

Geological hall, in time to prevent its conflagration. 

20. A fire destroyed the tannery at the lower end of 

Broadway ; loss $16,000 insured Jeremiah Whalen 

died, aged 89. 

21. Harriet Hagen died, aged 42 Elizabeth Mc- 

Guire died, aged 26. 

22. The Albany Morning Express, which had been 

published about ten years, was discontinued Mrs. 

Sarah Creswell died, aged 81; an ancient corset maker, 
who had stayed the bodies of the ladies of Albany for 
at least two generations. She came to the city about 
1823, from New York, and located at No. 3 North Pearl 

24. The Albany Daily Statesman was first published, 
to advocate the doctrines of the American party. 

26. Michael Moakler died, aged 56 Margaret 

Carey died, aged 70. 

29. A fire slightly damaged the pottery corner of Hawk 
and Hudson streets. 

30. Benjamin F. Harwood, clerk of the Court of ap- 
peals, died, aged 38 Harriet E., wife of James 

Mahony, died, aged 22. 

31. Sallie A., wife of Geo. K. Greene, died 

334 Annals of the Year 1856. 


1. James McDonald died, aged 43 G. W. Carter 

died, aged 21. 

2. Miss Nancy Henry died. 

3. The democrats called a meeting at the Capitol 
which was largely attended. The sudden lighting up of 
large bonfires alarmed the bell ringers, and there was a 
tremendous peal from all the bells, and a general turnout 

of the fire companies Gorham A. Worth died in New 

York, aged 73. He was formerly cashier of the Mecha- 
nics' and Farmers' bank, and wrote some reminiscences 
of Albany. 

4. The ice moved down the river, leaving the whole 

channel free as far as could be seen Charles R. 

Wooley died at Frankfort, Ky., aged 26. 

8. Hon. Isaac Wells, member of assembly from Jeffer- 
son county, died of varioloid, aged 65. Two other legis- 
lators who were confined with the same disease at the 

same time, recovered An election of city officers 

resulted in the choice of Dr. J. V. P. Quackenbush, by 20 
votes over Eli Perry. William Paddock was elected re- 
corder. Samuel K. Hardy, died, aged 56. 

9. The legislature adjourned, leaving the greater part 

of the business of the session unfinished A fire at 

2 o'clock in the morning, damaged the stove foundry of 

Quackenboss & Wasson, in Montgomery street 

Mrs. Elizabeth Christy died. 

10. The first steamboat up from New York was the 
South America, which arrived this morning A dwell- 
ing house in South Pearl street was damaged by fi re 

Eli, son of Hiram Perry, died, aged 22 Mrs. Anne 

Cullen died, aged 77. 

11. Joseph Fry died, aged 82. He was a native of 
East Greenwich, R. I., where he was born in the year 
1774; was bred to the printing business in Providence; 
came to Albany in 1796, and in 1798 was engaged with 
Henry C. Southwick in the publication of the Albany 
Chronicle. In 1813 he published the first Albany Di- 
rectory; but he was principally engaged in the tobacco 

Annals of the Year 1856. 335 

business in which he acquired a competence. He made 
a profession of religion under the ministry of Hooper Cum- 
mings, to whom he was sincerely devoted, during all the 
trials of that remarkable man; and was also distinguished 
for inflexible integrity in all the relations of life. 

12. Jacob Bradwell died, aged 54 Mrs. Hannah 

Herner died, aged 84. 

13. Charles Boyd, aged 21, died at Princeton theolo- 
gical seminar}', where he was about to graduate. 

14. Indignation meeting at the Capitol, on account of 
alleged frauds in the recent charter election, by which 
the returns showed a small majority in favor of Dr. 
Quackenbush over Eli Perry, for mayor The Com- 
mon council met in the evening, and declared the returns 
of the 7th and 8th wards to be fraudulent, and declared 
Eli Perry elected to the office of mayor, by a vote of 1 1 

to 9... ...Thomas Ogden died, aged 52 Abram 

Truax Bahannan died, aged 38. 

15. Mrs. Catharine Annesley, widow of the late John 
Crawford, died, aged 98. 

17. Alarm of fire; a stable in South Pearl street 
slightly damaged. 

20. A heavy storm of snow all day. 

22. Sarah, wife of Daniel Winne, died, aged 24. 

23. Frederick J. Barnard died, aged 25. 

24. Maria, wife of William H. Andrews, and daughter 

of Levi Phillips, died at Buffalo Hannah, wife of 

James H.Warner, died, aged 37 Hannah Coats 

died, aged 22. 

25. Mary A. Bartley died, aged 22. 

27. An alarm of fire in the evening proceeded from a 

fire in West Troy Catharine Matilda, wife of T. 

V. L. Wheeler, died in New York, aged 33; daughter of 
the late Benj. Van Benthuysen. 

28. At a meeting of the Common council, C. W. God- 
dard was elected mayor to fill the unexpired term of 

Wm. Parmelee, deceased The fire companies made 

an experiment with Grenoble hose, before the City hall. 

29. Jonathan Brooks, Jr., died, aged 45. 

30. Charles S. Vernam. died, aged 34. 

336 Annals of the Year 1856. 


1. Mary Crocker, wife of Thomas L. Greene, died, 
aged 39. 

2. Mrs. Catharine Shepherd, died, aged 91. She was 
a native of East Hartford, Ct, and came to Albany in 
1796. She was the eldest of five sisters, all of whom 
resided in Albany, and of whom the venerable Mrs. Guest 
is the only survivor. Mrs. Shepherd retained her men- 
tal faculties to an unusual degree, and her society was 
sought and enjoyed equally by the old and the young. 

4. Elisabeth, wife of Henry T. Could well, died, aged 
58 Alexander Holmes died, aged 48. 

6. At a meeting of the new board of Common council, 
Dr. J. V. P. Quackenbush was elected mayor, by the de- 
mocratic majority, although Eli Perry had been declared 
mayor by the retiring board, and duly sworn into office. 
The city, for the first time had two mayors. 

8. The boilers of the steam tug Washington Hunt ex- 
ploded severely scalding four persons Mrs. Innocent, 

wife of Halsey Woodruff, died, aged 65 The body of 

Adam Beam, who had been missing for a month, was 
found floating in the river. 

9. S. Cornelia, wife of J. W. Randolph, died, aged 26. 

10. Annie Knower died at Knowersville, aged 34. 

12. Mrs. Lois Marvin, widow of David E. Gregory, 
died, aged 73. 

15. Explosion of a fifty horse power steam boiler at 
Cyrus Edson's distillery, at the lower end of Broadway, 
by which Mr. Edson and two others were instantly killed, 
and several wounded. Mr. Edson was 36 years of age. 
Julia, wife of Hiram Holiday, died, aged 52. 

16. Robert Brew died, aged 68. 

18. The funeral of Cyrus Edson attended by a very 
large concourse of citizens. 

19. Rebecca Hartshorne died, aged 84. 

20. Mary, wife of John Mclntyre, died, aged 58. 

21. Elizabeth, wife of Charles Buss, died, ar-cd 35. 

22. John B. James died at Chicago, aged 40 

Sarah Harkison died, aged 35 

Annals of the Year 1856. 337 

23. Thomas D. Gaynor died, aged 64 Catharine 

E., wife of Thomas Hillson, died, aged 44. 

25. Mrs. Julia McGregor died, aged 58 Olinda, 

wife of Daniel At wood, died, aged 43. 

28. Jane, wife of Thomas Campbell, died, aged 46. 

30. Harriot E. Deuel, wife of J. R. Herrick, died, aged 
31 Mrs. Nicholas Coyle died, aged 33. 


I. The ceremony of laying the corner stone of St. Jo- 
seph's church took place with great pomp, attracting an 

immense crowd of spectators Patrick McKeever 

died, aged 78. 

3. Stephen Watson died at Brattleboro, Vt., aged 68. 
5. Benj. F. Craft died, aged 56. 

9. Eve, wife of Zera Wilber, died, aged 80. 

10. John W. R. Marvin died in Brooklyn, aged 31. 
James McGuire died. 

II. Jonathan White died, aged 81. 

15. Mary, widow of James LaGrange, died, aged 85. 

Mary, wife of Denison Worthington, formerly of 

this city, died at Summit, Wisconsin, aged 39. 

16. Workmen began the demolition of the City hotel. 

Mrs. Catharine A., wife of Capt. Peter A. Bradt, 

died, aged 44. 

17. Mary Augusta, wife of S. F. Parsons, died, aged 

19. The Yates mansion on Broad street, sold to T. W. 
Olcott, for the use of the principal of the Female aca- 
demy. $16,000 paid for it.. Delia M., wife of 

Luton Shaw, died, aged 38. 

20. Mrs. Susan D. C. Aiken, late of Albany, died in 
Syria, aged 21. 

23. Theodore Fondey died, aged 28 Alexander 

Campbell died on his passage home from South America. 

24. A fire in Lumber street destroyed a rope walk and 

two tenements; several persons injured Dennis 

Allen died, aged 65. 

25. The capita! stock of the Albany Bridge company, 
[Annals, ?m.] 30 

338 Annals of the Year 1856. 

$500,000, was subscribed in a few hours Daniel 

H. Crais died, aged 57. 

b 26. William V. Pruyn died of wounds received at the 

burning of the rope walk in Lumber street, aged 45. 

27. Jane Knight died, aged 49. 

28. Catharine, wife of A. S. Beers, died, aged 52. 


f 2. The 25th regiment having erected a flag staff on 
the Steam boat square, Gen. Frisby raised the national 
colors, and a salute of thirteen guns was fired on the oc- 
~ 3. Dr. C. C. Griffin died suddenly at Toledo, Ohio. 

6. A disturbance took place among the members of 
the German Lutheran church in State street, which 
amounted to a riot; the majority of the members having 
become dissatisfied with the pastor, and considerably 
tinctured with heresy. 

7. The Common council changed the name of Patroon 
street to Clinton avenue. 

8. A fire destroyed the carriage manufactory of Lloyd 

& Jones, on Hamilton street Francis McCan, living 

in the lower part of the city, murdered his wife, cleaving 
her head open with an axe. 

9. The murderer McCan was arrested in Greenbush. 

10. A fire destroyed the house 128 State street, the 

inmates barely escaping with their lives Cornelius 

Brooks died, aged 42. 

12. John I. Boyd died, aged 76. He was formerly of 
the house of Peter & John I. Boyd, doing business in 
South Market street, and retiring some years ago with a 

14. Archibald Campbell died, aged 77. He was born 
in Glenlyon, Perthshire, in the Highlands of Scotland, in 
1779. He came to this country in 1798 and was a short 
time engaged in the printing establishment of Barber & 
South wick, in this city, but most of his active life was 
spent in the state department. He entered the secretary 
of state's office as a clerk in 1805, under Thos. Tillotson 

Annals of the Year 1856. 339 

and served in that capacity until 1812, when, without 
solicitation, he was appointed deputy secretary, by Eli- 
sha Jenkins, and continued to hold this office, with the 
exception of a brief interval of two years, until 1853, 
when his increasing ill health compelled him to resign. 
Mr. C. remained in the state department through va- 
rious political changes, under the following secretaries, 
viz : Thomas Tillolson, Elisha Jenkins, Daniel Hale, 
Jacob Rutsen Van Rensselaer, Peter B. Porter, Robert 
L. Tillotson, Charles D. Cooper, John Van Ness Yates, 
Azariah C. Flagg, John A. Dix, John C. Spencer, Samuel 
Young, Nathaniel S. Benton, Christopher Morgan, and 
Henry S. Randall. He was thoroughly acquainted with 
the business of his office, and devoted to its duties, and 
uniformly enjoyed the entire confidence of the heads of 
the department, and of the other branches of the state 
administration, and of the public, during the long period 
of his service. The purity of character which distin- 
guished his private life, as well as the unwearied courtesy 
and fidelity which marked the discharge of his public 
duties, secured him the sincerest respect of all who knew 
him. It may be mentioned, only as an illustration of 
the esteem which he commanded from all who had most 
intimate knowledge of him, that he enjoyed in a remark- 
able degree, the confidence of Gov. Tompkins, during 
his connection with the state government. Mr. Camp- 
bell was one of the founders of the St. Andrew's society 
of this city, and for many years its president. He and 
our lamented fellow-citizen John I. Boyd, who died a 
few days before him, and Archibald Mclntyre and Wm. 
Mcliarg, were the only survivors of the founders. The 

two last now only remain Mrs. Cornelia, wife of 

Abram Wilkinson, died, aejed 29. 

15. A steam boat arrived from New York for the north 
ferry, the steam boat which ran there a few years ago 
having been abandoned for a horse boat. The immense 
numbers of cattle brought from the west by rail road 
were proposed to be ferried over here, to avoid the nui- 
sance of driving them through the city, which had become 
a serious evil. 

340 Annals of the Year 1856. 

18. Joseph C. Born died, aged 41 Jane K., wife 

of Albert T. Dark, died, aged 25. 

19. Robert Evans died, aged 60. 
21. James Waddell died, aged 54. 

24. Rachel, widow of John McGill, died, aged 75. 

29. Mariah, wife of Thomas Lees, died, aged 40. ... 

J. Richmond Gladding died, aged 19 Bridget, wife 

of Richard Burke, died, aged 34. 

30. A fire in the evening destroyed a shed corner of 

Hamilton and Philip streets Sally A,, wife of 

Robert F. Rose, died, aged 43. 

31. Polly Mann died, aged 83. 


2. Nathan B. Stiles, formerly of Albany, died at Phila- 
delphia, aged 25. 

5. Sophia, wife of Jared Holt, died, aged 50 

Mary A., wife of John P. Cox, died, aged 36. 

6. Isaac Arnold died, aged 90 Mrs. Margaret 

Allison died, aged 56. 

8. Margaret, wife of John Dillon, died, aged 36. 

10. Eliza, wife of Daniel Miller, died, aged 41 

An aged woman named Lawless, returning from church, 
fell dead in the street from the rupture of a blood vessel. 
Margaret Craig died, aged 46. 

13. Mrs. Rena Davis died, aged 62. 

14. Convention of the old line whigs, which ratified 
the nomination of Millard Fillmore for president, and in 
the evening there was a great meeting at the Capitol, and 
a large procession with transparencies and Roman can- 
dles George Riley died, aged 50. 

16. Mary Hagerdorn died, aged 64. 

17. George Osborn died, aged 71 Thomas Green 

died at sea, on board the bark Stella and was buried on 
the Peruvian coast. 

18. Alida, widow of Alexander Cameron, died, aged 66. 

20. Great rain storm The American association 

for the advancement of science met at the Capitol 

Nancy A., wife of Joseph La Fleur, died, aged 25. 

Annals of the Year 1856. 341 

21. Great freshet, caused by the rain of the previous 
36 hours; the bridge over the Normanskill on the Beth- 
lehem turnpike, was carried away, and several mills dam- 
aged The bridge commissioners decided to locate 

the bridge over the Hudson at the foot of Exchange 

street Elizabeth, wife of Robert Jennings, died, 

aged 45. 

24. Robert M. K. Strong, late of Albany died in New- 
York, aged 44. Among the members of the bar who 
had turned from its active scenes to seek repose in re- 
tirement, and who have been called to leave to life itself 
the farewell they had uttered to their profession, few 
have been more missed or more sincerely mourned than 
the late Robert M. K. Strong. Having acquired a libe- 
ral education at Union college in this state, he com- 
menced his legal studies under the care of the late 
Samuel Stevens of Albany, and completed them in the of- 
fice of the late Daniel B. Talmadge, in this city. Begin- 
ning his professional career without family influence,;and 
pursuing it unaided by adventitious circumstances he 
achieved in an eminent degree, and while yet a young 
man, the reward of integrity, industry and ability. From 
inclination and aptitude, Mr. Strong participated in the 
important labors and consultations of the office^ rather 
than in the more conspicuous duties of court. While he 
sought no opportunity for public notoriety, he attained 
the confidence of clients and the esteem of his profes- 
sional brethren. Retiring in 1854, from the commercial 
law firm of Martin, Strong & Smiths, in which he was 
long a partner, he undertook, in the following year a voy- 
age to Europe, but returned a confirmed invalid. Years 
of arduous application had been intermitted in vain, or 
too late. Disease, which shattered a constitution, not of 
the firmest, disordered for a time a mind distinguished 
for its healthful balance. Under such circumstances, death 
came at last in the form of relief. As his friends could 
not hope to wtlcome him back to life, they could 
hardly mourn his release from the dark valley whose 
shadows to him were deepened by a mental cloud. He 
died in the prime of life his age little exceeding forty 

342 Annals of the Year 1856. 

leaving to an interesting family the bereaved enjoyment 
of -accumulations which he had designed to share with 
them in his coveted retirement; . 

u When hearts whose truth was proven 

Like his are laid in earth, 
There should a wreath be woven 
To tell the world their worth." 

He was a man of directness, sincerity and heart. 
These qualities gave a manly gentleness to his manner, 
and endeared him to many, whose recollections will sup- 
ply omissions in this imperfect tribute to his memory. 
M Y. Eve. Post. 

25. Mrs. Jane M. Shires died, aged 68 Amanda 

M., wife of Moses Murdock, died, aged 26. 

27. The State geological hall was inaugurated by the 
American scientific association. Addresses were deli- 
vered by Prof. Louis Agassiz, and other distinguished 
in en. 

28. The largest assemblage of ladies and gentlemen 
ever seen in Albany, congregated under the immense 
canvas erected in the Academy park, to participate in 
the ceremonies attending the dedication of the Dudley 
observatory. The scene presented was brilliant, and 
well calculated to inspire an orator. The stand was filled 
with the magnates of the state, and the distinguished 
men from abroad. They were so numerous that we 
have no room to name them. The first orator was Ex- 
Gov. Hunt, who paid a high eulogy to the late Charles 
E. Dudley. He was followed by Prof. Goold, the young 
astronomer, who is to have charge of the Dudley obser- 
vatory, who gave a history of the rise and progress of 
the observatory. He mentioned particularly the inde- 
fatigable services of Dr. Armsby, which called from the 
audience loud applause. When he finished, Prof. Bache 
paid a very neat and appropriate compliment to the great 
orator of the day. Previous to Judge Harris introducing 
Mr. Everett, he read a letter from Mrs. Dudley, tender- 
ing $50,000 for the support and maintenance of the Dud- 
ley observatory. Prof. Agassiz pushed forward to the 
front of the platform, and asked that the audience would 

Annals- of the Year 1856. 343 

every one rise in honor of the lady who had made this 
gr eat contribution to American science. The vast crowd 
rose, and three enthusiastic cheers were given. Mrs. 
Dudley, who was present, was so overcome by the com- 
pliment, that she shed tears of joy. The great Massa- 
chusetts orator then came forward and was warmly 
welcomed. He held the attention of the immense crowd 
for nearly two hours. It was a brilliant effort of his pro- 
lific genius, worthy of his dazzling name. The whole 
affair passed off creditably to all concerned. The con- 
vention adjourned, to meet next year at Montreal. Votes 
of thanks were passed to the trustees of the different 
institutions in town for their kind attention, to which 
were added complimentary remarks. The citizens of 
Albany, particularly the ladies, were highly complimented 
for their kindness and hospitality. Appropriate eulogies 
were passed on the late Dr. Beck, when the association 

adjourned Jane, wife of Abraham Sickels died, 

aged 74. 

29.' Catharine Nehmire died, aged 27 A man 

named William Grant dropped dead in the street, from 
enlargement of the heart. 

30. A fire destroyed the oil cloth factory of Claassen 
& Barclay, in Lydius street, about 4 o'clock in the 

morning. Loss estimated at $50,000 J. Bamberg's 

store robbed of laces and silks to the amount of $3,000. 

The scaffolding used for enlarging the First presby- 

terian church fell a little after 7 o'clock in the morning, 

and injured several of the workmen Two thieves 

arrested for stealing jewelry from the stores of James 

Mix and others Mrs. Levi Parker died, aged 56 

Ann, wife of John Burns, died, aged 65 Susannah, 

widow of the late Wm. Cagger, died, aged 83 Bas- 

sill Watson died at Buffalo aged 37 ; formerly of Albany. 

31. Edmund Cooper died, aged 54. 


1. The steamboat Knickerbocker, at one time the most 
splendid boat on the river, but now used principally for 

344 Annals of the Year 1856. 

the transportation of cattle to New York, sank on her 
downward trip at an early hour in the morning, at the 
Highlands, having on board a considerable number of 
passengers and nearly 700 sheep. The passengers were 
saved, but their baggage was lost, and the live stock and 

freight also William Cooper, late of Albany, died 

at Philadelphia, aged 56; and was interred here on 
the 5th. 

3. George W. Beers died, aged 28. 

4. Sarah L., wife of Daniel True, died, aged 38. 

5. Sally Ann, wife of B. C. Brainerd, died, aged 46. 

8. The Albany Evening Union, a democratic paper 

was published by J. McFarland a penny paper 

Ellen, wife of John Tobin, died, aged 26 Kate 

O'SulHvan drowned at Schenectady, aged 21. 

10. Caroline, widow of David Armour died, aged 90. 

11. Mariah, wife of Barent Van Zandt, died, aged 49. 

Jeremiah Schuyler, formerly of Albany, died at 

Chicago, aged 31. 

15. James P. Gould died, aged 66. He was a Christ- 
ian philosopher. His mental endowment was far above 
mediocrity. He was a living compendium of civil and 
ecclesiastical history. No man in Albany, knew more of 
Albany, he having been for many years chief engineer of 
the fire department and assessor. He knew the number, 
dimensions, and valuation, of almost all the real estate. 
He was accurate, precise, methodical, honest. He was 
interesting and instructive in conversation. He was 
cheerful without levity. He was ardent and abiding in 
his attachments. He was faithful and true as husband, 
father, and friend. He was courteous, meek, unostenta- 
tious, sympathetic, and inflexible where principle was 
involved. His religious exercises were fervent, reverent 
and impressive, and suffered nothing by inspection or re- 
view. His views of God and his Providence were emi- 
nently exalted, philosophical, and scriptural. He was 
frugal and benevolent. He was honortd. No man in 
Albany could hold an office for which he would consent 
to be a candidate, civil or ecclesiastical. His elections 

Annals of the Year 1856. 345 

were by overwhelming majorities, or unanimous consent. 
Hundreds who saw him during his last illness, could 
adopt the language of Young: " The chamber where the 
good man meets his fate," &c. I was his physician. He 
was my friend. I never knew a man whom I loved more. 
He said he only wished to live to my account, lest dying 
I might suffer professionally. This was the strongest 
expression of friendship that I ever heard of. His dis- 
ease was protracted and painful. A post-mortem exam- 
ination, by the ablest physicians and surgeons of the 
Medical college, demonstrated an absolutely incurable 
disease of one kidney and the liver. He lived and died 
as none but great and good men ever can. He detested 
eulogy and parade. He will read this obituary in the 
last great day, and I shall have thousands to witness that 
the half has not been told. His death-bed biography was 
a "sinner saved by grace." CHARLES DEVOL. 

17. A match was played between the Albany and the 
Poughkeepsie cricket clubs, in which Albany was victor- 

18. The Westerlo mansion on Pearl street, sold by 

auction, brought $17,000 Mrs. Anna Morris died. 

John Hastings died, aged 90. 

19. Margaret, wife of Hugh Gillespie, died, aged 74. 

20. Catherine, widow of Wm. H. Whitney, formerly 
of Albany, died in New York, aged 62. 

21. Jacob E. Fuller died, aged 33 Mrs. Ann 

Vickers died, aged 82. 

24. The Hudson river bridge company elected officers; 
Erastus Corning, president; Gilbert L. Wilson secretary 

and treasurer A pole consisting of a single stick of 

timber, 90 feet in length, was raised at the corner of the 

Exchange, by the Fillmore club Mrs. Richard 

Creamer died, aged 51. 

25. American mass meeting Closing day of the 

county agricultural fair Mrs. Carroll died of burns 

by a camphene explosion. 

26. James W. Randolph died, aged 34. 

28. Patrick A. Carroll aged 25 killed in an affray. 

346 Annals of the Year 1856. 

29. Robert Thompson elected chamberlain. 

30. The whole number of cars drawn on the Albany 
and Utica division of the Central rail road during the 

month of September was 13,149 Mrs. Hannah 

Robinson died, aged 35. 


1. High water, occasioned by the unusual rain of the 
previous day. The docks were submerged. 

2. A fire destroyed the Argentina works of Smith & 
Co., at Kenwood; loss about $50,000. 

3. A fire destroyed a silver plater's shop in Green 
street below Hudson. 

5. One hundred and fourteen cars arrived at Albany 
laden with cattle. 

9. Eveline, wife of John Cutler, died. 

10. Mary Ann, wife of John Tyrrell, died, aged 29. 

11. Adelaide A. Griswold, wife of James H. Chipman, 
died, aged 36 John D. Groesbeck died at San An- 
tonio in Texas . N. Colburn died at Sacramento, 

Cal.. aged 42. 

12. Nancy, wife of Arthur H. Coughtry, died, aged 55. 

13. At a meeting of the Common council, the com- 
mittee to which was referred the widening of Broadway, 
from near Steuben street to Columbia, reported against 
the measure. The same committee reported in favor of 
widening Orange street, by taking a portion of the lots 
on the north side, so that it would be 58 feet on Broad- 
way instead of 21, and 62 feet on North Pearl instead of 

38 feet 3 inches, as at present The steam boat 

Glencove, made the trip from New York, in 7h. 30m. , 
including all the usual landings. 

14. Jacob Wickliffe was found dead in his bed. 

15. Vinal Luce died at Washington; formerly a resi- 
dent of this city. 

16. The Northern rail road was sold by auction, and 
bid in by C. W. Bender at $250,000. The sale cut off 
the lien of the third mortgage, and terminated the inte- 
rest of the stockholders Ames C. Page died at 

Brooklyn, aged 42. 

* Annals of the Year 1856. 347 

17. Sarah Augusta, widow of Thomas Stamps, died. 
William Hamilton died, aged 67. 

22. A fire destroyed a double frame dwelling house 
and its contents in Van Woert street, at 9 o'clock in the 
evening The Democracy made as grand a proces- 
sion in the evening, as tar, torches, brass bands and 
transparencies were capable of producing by human aid ! 

Elizabeth S., wife of Mathew Sheridan died, aged 


23. Mary, wife of Michael Cassidy, died, aged 46. 

27. A fire destroyed the wooden store 56 Quay street. 

28. A fire in Montgomery street partially destroyed 
a wooden tenement. 

29. Mrs. Abigail widow of Timothy Knower died. 

30. Russell Forsyth died, aged 83 Samuel Gates 

died at Saratoga springs, aged 72. 

31. Politics having found its way among the members 
of the Methodist church by the Rev. Allen Steele endorsing 
John C. Fremont's protestantism, the Times remarked 
that ten years ago the Methodists in this city numbered 
over 2000 members, but at present less than 1200. The 
following was written in explanation of the decrease. 
" It is known to those acquainted with our church that 
we receive persons upon probation for six months. Pre- 
vious to the general conference of 1848, members and 
probationers were reported together under the question, 
What numbers are in society? Since that period they 
have been reported separately. In 1846, ten years ago, 
the exact number of members and probationers in this 
city, was 1276; in 1856, including probationers, 1408. 
In 1842, we had 1102. During the next year, under the 
unnatural excitement respecting the end of the world, 
which few remember but to deplore, there was a great 
influx of probationers so that in 1843 we reported 2139. 
But a majority of these never became members of the 
church, and many of them were never seen after they 

fave their names as probationers. In 1844, we returned 
ut 1634, and in 1846, 1276. Not only did we lose those 
who had thus been drawn to the church, but the energies 

348 Annah of the Year 1856. 

of the church were paralyzed and her moral power 
lessened. During this period, occurred the excitement 
in the church respecting slavery, which resulted in the 
spring of 1845, in the division between the north and 
south, as also the secession of the Wesleyan methodists 
from our body. These farther distracted and weakened 
the church here as elsewhere, and combined with the 
immense emigration to the west caused a farther decrease, 
and in 1850 we reported but 884 Methodists in this city. 
But the church had recovered a healthy tone and during 
the last six years has increased 524, nearly 100 per year. 
I allude to these facts and figures without any comment, 
simply to show that although for a time weakened by 
unfavorable influence, the Methodist church has recover- 
ed her moral power, and is doing her part with the sister 
denominations for the promotion of religion in this com- 
munity. S. D. BROWN. 


1. A fire in Lydius street destroyed a tobacco factory 

belonging to Joseph Sherwood The steam boat 

America was sunk by running into a sloop; being the 
fourth steam boat which had gone to the bottom of the 
river during seven weeks, namely, the Knickerbocker, 
Hero, American Eagle, and America. 

4. The election resulted in the success of the demo- 
cratic party by large majorities. 

5. Isabella, wife of J. B. Child, died, aged 29. 

6. Mary Ann Jones died, aged 18. 

7. George Klinck, a native of Albany, died at Peter- 
boro, Madison county, aged, 66. 

8. Michael McNally died, aged 87 Catherine 

Elizabeth Kiernan died, aged 20 Ann Scarlett died, 

aged 95. 

10. A meeting of ladies was held in the consistory of 
the Middle Dutch church to consider the subject of 
establishing industrial schools for vagrant children. They 
determined to recommend the establishment of two such 
schools, one in the north, the other in the south part of 

Annals of Albany. &49 

the city The steam tug Cayuga of the Swiftsure 

line arrived with fifty-one boats in tow, the largest 

number ever attempted by one steamer A. S. Gris- 

wold, who had long since been an Albany merchant, died 
in New York. 

11. The Albany county medical society held its semi- 
centennial anniversary. There was a large attendance. 
Dr. U. G. Bigelow the president delivered the annual ad- 
dress, and Dr. S. D. Willard read a history of the society. 
The following officers for the ensuing year were elected : 
S. H. Freeman, president; S. D. Willard, vice-presi- 
dent; Levi Moore, secretary; W. H. Bailey, treasurer. 
Drs. S. Vanderpoel, Cogswell, P. McNaughton, Quack- 

enbush, Boyd, censors A meeting of about thirty 

members of the Hudson Street Methodist Episcopal church 
was held to consider the propriety of withdrawing from 
that church and forming a new society, in consequence of 
the decision of the pastor in the case of Br. Bronk, who 
was tried for disturbing the congregation by making 
pious ejaculations after the manner of the primitive 

Methodists Mrs. Mary, widow of Francis Low, 

died, aged 72. 

13. St. Andrews society elected officers: Andrew 
Kirk, president; George Dawson, first vice president; 
D. D. Ramsey, second vice president; Rev. E. Halley, 
chaplain; Dr. Peter McNaughton, physician; James 
Wilson, treasurer; Peter Smith, Jr., secretary; John 
McHoffin, assistant secretary; Peter Smith, James Dick- 
son, James Duncan, Thomas McCredie, Alex. Gray, 

managers The Christian Ambassador contained an 

appeal from the Rev. J. N. Parker, recommending that 
the Universalist societies throughout the state should 
take up collections to aid the Albany society in its pre- 
sent embarrassed condition. 

14. Snow commenced falling soon after seven o'clock 
in the evening, and continued throughout the night; but 
little of it remained in the morning. 

16. A new Methodist society, which had its origin in 
the difficulties in the Hudson street church, occasioned 
by one of the members having a propensity to ejaculate 

[Annals, viii.] 31 

350 Annah of Albany. 

more than was thought proper, having negotiated with 
the Universalists for their house of worship in Green 
street below Hamilton, held their first meeting there in 
the afternoon, and were addressed by Rev. Mr. Goss. 

17. A meeting was held in the Middle Dutch church, 
consisting of representatives from the various churches 
of the city, to consider the matter of forming two indus- 
trial schools. It was addressed by several of the clergy- 
men of the city, and adjourned to a future day. 

18. The Exempt firemen's association elected its offi- 
cers: F. M. Stone, president; Cornelius Glen, vice-presi- 
dent ; G. W. Hobbs, treasurer ; Samuel Templeton, secre- 
tary Sarah, wife of William Ballentine, died, aged 


19. A fire destroyed a frame dwelling on Arbor Hill. 

The Rev. E. P. Rogers, D. D., was installed 

pastor of the North Dutch church; installation sermon 
by the Rev. Jacob Van Vechten, D. D. ; the charge to the 
pastor by the Rev. I. N. Wyckoff, D. D. 

20. Thanksgiving day. 

21. Maria, widow of Goldsborough Banyar, and 
daughter of John Jay, died in New York, aged 75. 

22. The Mansion house, known in ancient times as 
Rockwell's Mansion house, was sold at auction, and pur- 
chased by Van Heusen & Charles for $60,000 Frances 

Matilda, wife of Edward J. McClasky, died, aged 32 

Elizabeth, widow of Ammon Rasey, died, aged 60. 

25. Two stones for the observatory, weighing ten tons 

each, arrived from Kingston Elizabeth, wife of 

Anthony Flanagan, died, aged 24. 

26. Mrs. Anastasia Bulger was found in Cherry street, 
lying upon the ground, evidently having been murdered. 

A lad aged 14, fell from the mast head of a vessel 

lying in the basin, a distance of sixty feet, landing on the 
deck, by which no less than six bones were broken ; yet 
he survived. 

28. Francis McCann convicted of the murder of his 
wife, and sentenced to be hung on the 22d of January. 
Richard Griffin died, aged 76. 

Annals of Albany. 351 

29. Snow fell during the whole day, the first of the 
season which remained. 

30. The Rev. Dr. Pitkin, rector of St. Peter's, in 
closing his first year's ministry, stated in his sermon 
that there had been 34 baptisms, 13 marriages, and but 
5 deaths, in the congregation during the year; that 
the attendance upon public worship had nearly doubled 
and the attendance upon the Sunday school quadrupled ; 
that the Sunday collections amounted to over $2,400, 
and a movement had been made for the erection of a new 

church There were 280 cases brought before th 

police justices during the month of November, embracing 
27 different classes of crime. , , . . .E. C. Delavan, who 
had subscribed $1000 to clothe the needy in Kansas, sent 
off 164 winter coats, 150 pairs winter pantaloons, 82 
vests, 204 shirts; in all 600 garments. Miss Pellet was 
sent out with them, to superintend their distribution. 


1. Nicholas F. Effner died, aged 47 Charles M. 

Gilbert died, aged 32. 

2. The water was so low in the river that the passen- 
ger boats could not reach the city, but were detained 

either on the sand bars, or at the Castleton dock 

Magdalin, widow of Capt. Samuel A. Brooks, died, aged 

3. Hail, rain, snow, thunder and lightning occurred 

during the day The jury in the case of John Cum- 

mings tried for the murder of Christopher Stumpf, brought 
in a verdict of guilty Sarah Briggs died. 

4. The canal was found in the morning to have been 
effectually closed during the night time, and navigation 

entirely stopped The Assessment rolls of the city 

and county, were submitted to the board of supervisors. 
Catherine Falconer, late of Albany, died at Eliza- 
beth, N. J. 

5. Harriet, wife of David W. Thomas, died, aged 28. 
John Yule died Jonathan Lyman died at 

Schodack landing, aged 70; formerly of Albany. 

10. At the annual election of officers for the New York 

352 Annals of Albany. 

Central rail road, Erastus Corning was re-elected presi- 
dent, and J. V. L. Pruyn, treasurer The steam 

boat Hero left the dock for New York, and made her 
way through the ice with great difficulty. The river was 
completely frozen over for several miles, and no other 

boat ventured up or down Mrs. Mary, widow of 

Ananias Platt, died, aged 86 Isaac E. Judson died, 

aged 77 Charlotte Kane, wife of John Carson, died, 

aged 36. 

11. Henry A. Williams died at Stapleton, on Staten 
Island, aged 62. He was for many years one of the 
proprietors of the Eckford line transportation company, 
and for several years alderman of this city; was unas- 
suming in his manners and much esteemed by those who 
knew him best. 

12. The supervisors reported the total amount of taxes 
to be levied for city purposes at $259,527-54; and for 
city's proportion of coupty expenses $75,747*48; total 
assessment $335,275'02. 

13. Angus McNaughton died, aged 43. 

14. A fire destroyed the freight depot of the Hudson 
River rail road, and a large quantity of goods. Although 
the property was on the opposite side of the river, the 
alarm was first given from the City hall, and the Albany 
engine, No. 8, threw the first water on it. . . . . .Hamilton 

Trainor died. 

15. The propeller Reliance arrived from Poughkeepsie 
with freight, and hurried back with all speed, but could 
not get below Van Wie's point, and was forced to return 
to this city. 

The following statement of the assessed and equal- 
ized value of the real estate and personal property 
of the city and county of Albany, was prepared by the 
finance committee of the board of supervisors and pre- 
sented at the meeting of that body. 

Annals of Albany. 


1st Ward 



Assessed Value. 

Value. Real. 
$969 945 


$18 500 


$988 445 

2d " 

1 047 925 

28 300 

1 076 '225 

34 " 


132 600 

1 733041 

4th " 

3 206 921 

1 141 987 

4 348 908 

5th " 

3,245 823 

3 103 013 

6 348 836 

6th " .... 

1,886 740 

233 350 

2 120 090 

7th " 


31 900 

1 294 725 

8th " 

1,090 025 

12 300 

1 102 325 

9th " 

1,629 623 


1 745 923 

10th " 

2,188 170 

58 550 

2 246,720 

1st "Ward 

Equalized Value. 
$ 872,950'SO 



2d " 


28 300 


3d " ' 

1 440 396 90 

132 600 



2 S86.228'90 

1 141 987 

4 028,215-90 

5th " 


3 103 013 

6 024 253 70 

6th " 


233 350 

1,931 416'00 

7th " 


31 900 


8th " 




9th " 

1 466,660'70 


1 582 960'70 

10th " 

1,969 353*00 

58 550 




Assessed Value. 

54-39 1,812,825 
9-84 388,335 






New Scotland,... 


36-74 1,126,675 
22-31 725,211 
973 254,269 
22,52 809,846 
18 00 670,235 
17-00 604.950 



" Village, 


58-31 2,097,800 






Equalized Value. 

55-00 1,832.875-00 
18-00 710.532-00 






New Scotland,... 
" Village,. 

26,125 5- 

35.25 1,080,976-50 
39 00 1,267,812-00 
, 18-00 470,250-00 
39-00 1,402,167-08 
18-03 2-3 671,579-30 
22-00 780,340-00 
58-00 2,086,492-00 



304,736 12,738,379-80 1,880,691 14,619,070'SQ 

In the above city valuation it should be mentioned 
that after the rolls were completed, the board by resolu- 
tion allowed the National and Exchange Banks to com- 
mute, and therefore the sum of $665,103 was deducted 
from the valuation of the 5th ward. 

354 Annals of Albany. 

The total assessed value of the wards and towns is as 
follows : 

Real. Personal. Total. 

Wards, $18,128,438 4,876,800 23,005,238 

Towns, 10,925,508 1,880,691 12,806,199 

Grand Tola], 29,053,946 6,757,491 35,811,437 

The total equalized value is as follows: 

Real. Personal. Total. 

Wards $16,315, 594'20 4,876,800 21,192,394-20 

Towns, 12,728,379-80 1.880,691 14,619,070'SO 

Grand Total, 29,053,974'00 6,757,491 35,811,465'40 

The following is the valuation of the real estate and 
personal property for the year 1855 : 

Real. Personal. Total. 

1st Ward, $947,456 $17,450 $964,906 

2d 1,024,975 33,000 1,057,975 

3d 1,587,381 155,150 1,742,531 

4th 3,134,136 1,078,597 4,212,733 

5th 3,008,600 3,118,533 6,127,133 

6th 1,844,130 239,950 2,084,080 

7th " 1,248,850 59,600 1,308,450 

8th " 1,043,350 23,550 1,066,900 

9th " 1,5.68,398 174,750 1,743,148 

10th u 1,996,455 62,200 S-,058,655 

$17,403,731 $4,962,780 $22,366,511 

By comparing the valuation of 1856 with 1855 we 
find the following result : 

Real. Personal. Total. 

1856 $18,128,441 $4,876,800 $23,005,241 

1855 17,403,731 4,962,780 22,366,511 

$724,710 $S5,980 $638,730 

Showing an increase in the valuation of the real estate 
of $724,710, a decrease in the valuation of the personal 
property of 85,980, and a total increase of $638,730. 

17. The river was frozen over so effectually as to ad- 
mit of crossing on foot Eliza Olmstead, wife of 

Stephen J. Rider, died, aged 55 Richard L. Wilson 

died, aged 42. For several years he occupied a com- 
manding influence in Illinois as the editor of the Chicago 

Annals of Albany. 355 

18. Cold day; 7deg. below zero; by some thermometers 
lOdeg. belo y. The Westerlo house in North Pearl street, 
recently known as the convent of the Sacred Heart, was 
purchased by James Kidd, for a sum exceeding $16,000. 

. . . .Martinus Witbeck died, aged 47 Judith Darnay 

died, aged 64. 

19. Samuel Pruyn, of the board of Penitentiary in- 
spectors, reported the business and condition of that in- 
stitution. The net earnings for the year amounted to $3, 
178,04, a larger sum than had ever been realized during 
any previous year, and at the close of the fiscal year not 
one dollar indebtedness was held by any individual against 
the institution. The gross receipts for the fiscal year 
ending Oct. 31, 1856 was $18,345-98, the expenses $15,- 
167*94. The number of commitments during the year 
was 990, with those on hand at the time of making the last 
report 213, and a total number of commitments during 
the year of 1,203. The number discharged during the 
year was 956, leaving the number in confinement at the 
close of the year 247 181 males and 66 females. The 
average monthly number of inmates is about the same 
now as it was in 1854. The commitments for public in- 
toxication for periods of ten, twenty, and thirty days 
each, in its practical effects is very bad for the institu- 
tion. The time is too short for cure or reformation, and 
in a pecuniary view, the county might rather place a 
five dollar bill in the hands of every one of these con- 
victs, and tell them go about their business, than to take 
them into the Penitentiary. 

During the year but one death has occurred, and that 
a ten day subject who entered the prison in a state of 
delirium tremens. 

The inspectors allude to the singular circumstance of 
the number of commitments being greater in the summer 
than the winter months. 

"Another, although a usual feature, is the over-pro- 
portion of foreigners among the inmates of the Peniten- 
tiary. Of the 990 committed in the past year, but 385 
were born in the United States. Since 1st Nov. 1848, 

356 Annals of Albany. 

a period of eight years, there has been imprisoned 5,477 
persons, of whom 3,985 (nearly two thirds) wore of for- 
eign birth. Of these, Great Britain, its colonies and de- 
pendencies, have furnished 2,998; the various German 
states in the aggregate 231; France 40; all other nations 
together 26. 

" The largest foreign customers of the Penitentiary, 
have been our nearest national relatives those who speak 
one common tongue, viz : 

Born in England 187 

" Wales 4 

" Scotland 119 

" Ireland 2518 

11 Isle of Man 1 

The Canadas 179 

** Nova Scotia and New Brunswick 4 

Total. 2998 

" Neither South America, the West Indies, Mexico, or 
any country on this hemisphere, beyond the southern 
bounds of our own land, has thus far been represented. 
One genuine native African, who from his own account, 
was a prince or king, or something of that kind in his own 
country, has appeared." 

The whole number of commitments in eight years has 
been 5,477, and the receipts over expenses $13,71 1'98. 

For general information, the inspectors state in a com- 
prehensive way, that the Penitentiary, including the land, 
has cost $50,000 in cash. The value of the labor of the 
prisoners (or rather those who could do nothing else) in 
grading and shaping the land, and in other work of a 
similar nature for eight years (of which no account has 
been kept, because it cost nothing) is computed at some 
$10,000. The amount of money expended out of the net 
earnings of the other prisoners for buildings, workshops, 
embankments, &c., and in the accumulation of personal 
property, with the advance in the worth of the land over 
its first cost, all put together, authorizes and justifies the 
opinion that the value of the whole property, real and 
personal, at the present time, and just as it now is, is at 

Annals of Albany. 357 

least $100,000, showing that the county has made $50,- 
000, and doubled the capital it has employed by the opera- 
tion Thermometer 6 deg., below zero Sophia, 

wife of John Dubuque, died, aged 25 Mary Ann 

Ward died, aged 18 James B. VanEtten died, aged 

41. He was taking a drive in a single sleigh upon the 
ice in the canal, and when returning and near the city, 
took his son, a lad of fifteen years, in the sleigh with 
him. A moment or two afterwards, the son observed 
his father to sink back in his seat speechless. Calling 
two other boys to support his father, the son drove home 
as soon as possible, and although probably not more than 
ten minutes had elapsed, Mr. Van Etten was dead when 
they arrived. It is probable that his death was instan- 
taneous, resulting from disease of the heart, or some simi- 
lar cause. Mr. Van Etten was an active and much es- 
teemed citizen. He had twice occupied a seat in the 
house of assembly of this state, in 1852 as representative 
from the county of Chemung, in 1855, from the 4th dis- 
trict of Albany county. He was a man of generous 
impulse and correct action, and warmly esteemed by a 
wide circle of friends, who will long cherish recollections 
of his generous qualities in all the relations of life. It 
was found by a post-mortem examination that his kidneys 
were enlarged to the weight of eighteen pounds. 

20. Edward James died, aged 38 Mrs. Sarah 

"Ward died, aged 70. 

21. Sarah M. Summer, wife of Benj. Wilson, died, aged 

22. James McMullen died in New York, aged 45. 

25. A fire damaged the dwelling house 76 Hudson 

street Robert McPherson, died in California, aged 


26. Theodore Carman died, aged 46. 

30. Warner Daniels died, aged 77. Mr. Daniels began 
business in a very small way; for some time carried on 
the Eagle furnace in Beaver street, and gave a name to 
Daniels street, which he built up and owned to a con- 
siderable extent. 

31. John Bonner died, aged 24. 



Abbey Simeon, 91. 
Accidents by travel, 179. 
Accounts audited, 271, 278. 

ordered paid, 294, 303. 

regulated, 268. 
Ackerman, Jacob, 129. 
Acres, Mrs. Thomas, 107. 
Adams, funeral, 155. 
African church, 85. 

baptist church, 153. 

pastor, 147. 
Agassi z, Louis, 342, 
Aikin, 0. D. C., 337, 
Albany, design to attack, 56. 
put in defence, 52. 

so named, 181. 

academy, 4,6,78, 116. 

Argus (See Argus). 

Chronicle, 334. 

Daily Statesman, 333. 

Directory, 334. 

Co. Med. Society, 105. 

Evening Union, 344. 

Institute, 8, 104, 122. 

Insurance Co., 140, 327. 

Library, 159. 

Lyceum of Natural History, 8. 

Marine Bible Society, 87. 

Med. College, 5. 

Morning Express, 333. 

Patriot and Daily Commercial 
Intelligencer, 124. 

Register office, 102. 
Alburtis, John, 146. 
Alderman, election for, 244. 
Aldermen, 1719, 238. 

1720, 252. 


1722, 277. 

1723, 290. 

1724, 302. 

Aldermen, 1725, 306. 

fined if late, 254. 

sued, 289. 

Alehouse regulations, 268. 
Alexander, Joseph, 95, 124. 

Mrs. Joseph, 107. 

Win., 168. 
Aliens in 1825, 138. 
Allen, B. C., 81. 

Dennis, 337. 
Allison, Margaret, 340. 
Alms house, 124, 162,316, 

built, 158. 

building, 126. 
American steamboat, 348. 

mass meeting, 345. 

scientific association, 340. 
Anderson, George, 332. 
Andrews, Mrs. W. H., 335. 
Annexation to city, 332. 
Anthony's creek, 249. 
Apprentices' library, 89, 95. 
Arbor hill road, 108, 155. 
Argentina works burnt, 346. 
Argus, 87, 108, 128. 

proposed rail road 117, 
united to the Atlas, 331. 
Armies, supplied for, 187. 
Armour, Caroline, 344. 
Armsby, J. H., 342. 
Armstrong, Mr., 84. 
Arnold, Isaac, 340. 
Arts, Michael, 332. 
Artillery, Republican, 121. 
Assessment, 352. 

rolls, 351. 
Assessors elected, 104, 117 

sworn, 257. 

Associate presb. pastor, 147. 
Aspenwall, Louis, 104. 
Atlas and Argus, 331. 



Attwood, Capt., 148. 

Mrs. Daniel, 337. 
Auction bells prohibited, 114. 
Babington, Samuel, 255. 
Backus, E. F., 82. 
Bacon J. F., 84. 
Bahannan, A. T., 335. 
Bakers, ordinance, 151. 
Baldwin, Ebenezor, 92, 122, 193. 
Ballentine, Mrs. Wm., 350. 
Bank of Albany, 75, 96, 119, 330. 
Ban jar, widow Goldsborough, 350. 
Baptist pastor, 147. 
Bar in the river, 124." 
Barker, Thomas, 160. 
Barley burnt, 97. 
trade, 313. 
Barnard, F. J., 335. 
Barometer, 31, 32. 
Barrett, Thomas, 233. 
Barstow, G. H., 122. 
Bartholomew, Capt., 125. 
Bartley, Mary A., 335. 
Bartow, cashier, 157. 
Basin lock opened, 94. 

report on, 88, 90. 
Bassett, Rev. John, 107. 
Beam, Adam, 336. 
Beck, Abraham, 2. 

Caleb, 1. 

John B., 2. 

Lewis C., 2, 111. 

N. F., 2. 

T. R., 343. 

biog. sketch of, 1. 
Med. Jurisprudence ,94. 
Mrs., 91. 

Beekman Johannis, 251 . 
Beer tapping regulated, 204. 
Biers, George W., 344. 

Mrs. A. S., 338. 
Beet, large, 81. 
Bell, Mrs. Phebe, 152. 

at noon, 144. 
Bellman, 279, 291. 
Bells at auction prohibited, 114. 
Bement, Caleb N., 150. 
Bendall, Henry G., 332. 

Job, 328. 

Benedict, Louis, 103, 117. 
Mrs. Uriah, 127. 
Benne, H. P., 113. 
Bennett, Alanson. 331. 
R. 0. K., 123. 

Benson, Capt., 127. 
Beverkill, 174. 

Bible and Prayer Book Society, 

Society, Marine, 87. 
Birdsall, Maj., 119. 
Blake, George, 156. 
Bleecker, Barent, 75. 

G. V. S., 329. 
Harmanus, 122. 
James, 113. 
John N., 129. 
Nicholas, 39, 45, 148. 
Mrs. N., Jr., 149. 
Rutger, 39, 45. 
& Sedgwick, 76. 
S. V. R., 147. 

Blockhouses built, 304, 307. 
Bloodgood, Abraham, 92. 
Elizabeth, 92. 
S. D. W., 101, 105. 
Boardman, John, 87. 
Booking, John, 115. 
Bogert, Alexander H., 159. 
Boilers of copper, 126. 
Bolivar steamboat, 122. 
Bonaparte, Joseph, 79. 
Bonfires, 330. ' 
Bonner, John, 357. 
Booksellers, list of, 82. 
Boring for water, 157, 159, 160. 
Born, Joseph C., 340. 
Bowen, Mrs. James, 328. 
Bowne, Rev., 147. 
Boyd, Charles, 335. 
Hamilton, 81. 
Mrs. Hamilton, 98. 
& McCulloch, 159. 
Mrs. Wm. 330. 
John I., 338. 
Bradford, John M., 146. 
Bradwill, Jacob, 335. 
Bradt, Albert, 93. 
Mary, 309. 
Capt. P. A., 337. 
Brainerd, Mrs. B. C., 344. 
Brandy, price of, 204. 
Brat, Gerrit, 38. 
Antony, 38. 

Barent, 274, 290, 302, 306. 
Teunis, 252, 253, 270, 274. 
Bread, price of, 79, 82. 
regulations, 151. 



Brew, Robert, 336. 
Breweries, 129. 
Brewers street, 312. 
Brewery, 132. 
Brewing, 195. 
Bridge carried away, 341. 
co. election, 345. 
company stock, 337. 
defeated, 145. 
remonstrance, 330. 
BiSdgen, Thomas, 157. 

T. A., 153. 
Bridges, ancient, 174. 

to be repaired, 270. 
Briggs, Sarah, 351. 
Bristol, 127. 

steam boat, 113. 
Brinckerhoff & Co., 136. 

R. L, 158. 

Brockhollo, Capt., 173. 
Bronk, brother, 349. 
Brooks, Capt., 127. 

Cornelius, 338. 
Jonathan, 335. 
Jon., Jr.. 142. 
wid. of Capt, S. A., 351 
Brown, James, 93. 
Rufus, 117. 
Capt. Wm., 137. 
Buel, Elias, 105. 

Mrs. Elias, 102. 
Jesse, 81. 

Buildings, style of, 181, 191, 194. 
Bulger, Mrs., murdered, 350. 
Bullions, John C., 330. 
Bunker, Elihu, 223. 
Burke, Mrs. R., 340. 
Burns, Mrs. J., 343. 
Buss Mrs. C., 336. 
Butler, B. F., 76, 90. 
Butter, price of, 117. 
Burroughs, comedian, 161. 
Cabal, of Dutch traders, 54. 
Cady, Abby, 332. 
Cafierty, Wm. C., 331. 

Mrs. Wm. C.,331. 
Cagger, Susannah, 343. 
Caldwell, James, 187, 391. 
Joseph, 77. 
Wm., 122. 
CaldwelPs Row, 84. 
Cameron, Mrs. A., 340. 
Cameronian pastor, 147. 
Campbell, Alexander, 337. 

[Annals, viii.] 32. 

Campbell, Archibald, 338. 
James, 115. 
J. N., 25. 
Mrs. T., 337. 
& Co., James, 103. 
Canadian Houses, 90. 
Canal, first boat, 129. 

celebration, 95, 129. 
closed, 111, 161, 351. 
completion, 127. 
frozen, 131. 
improved trade, 125 
novelty, 154. 
tolls, 161. 
water let in, 147. 
Can tine, Moses I., 87. 

Mrs. M. I., 95. 
Capron, Wm., 93. 
Carey, Margaret, 333. 
Carson, Mrs. John, 352. 
Carman, Theodore, 357. 
Cartmen, regulations, 307. 

No. of, 125. 

Carmichael, Daniel, 79, 82. 
Carter, G. W., 334. 
John, 329. 
Theophilus, 160. 
Carpenter, Wm., 130. 
Carpenters' strike, 149. 
Carroll, E. B., 331. 
Mrs., 345. 
P. A., 345. 

Cascade of Vlykill, 198. 
Cassidy, Mrs. M., 347. 
Castle, Mrs. Wm., 333. 
Catholic priest, 147. 
Cattle in 1825, 139. 

from the west, 339. 
great arrival, 346. 
Cayuga, steam tug, 349. 
Census, 129, 136, 138. 

at difierent periods, 188. 
of Shakers, 125. 
Centennial anniversary, county 

medical society, 349. 
Central rail road business, 346. 
election, 352. 

Chains across South Peari st 152 
Chamberlain, 158. 

change of, 274. 
report, 102, 132, 162. 
Chancellor Lansing's Garden, 155. 

steam boat, 127. 
Chapel street, 155. 



Characteristics of Albany, 182. 
Charter elections, 80, 94, 104. 107, 
117, 127, 130, 168, 238, 252, 
270. 277, 302, 306, 334. 
Charitable females, 79. 

institutions, 316. 
Chestney, John, 122, 123, 125, 146. 

Mrs. Cornelia, 163. 
Chief Justice Marshall steam boat 

launched, 107, 113, 127. 
Child, Mrs. J. B., 348. 
Chipman, Mrs. J. H., 346. 
Chorister ancient, 159. 
Christiause, Johannis, 264. 
Christie, James, 147. 
Christy Elizabeth, 334. 
Church disturbance, 338. 
organ, 121. 
pastors, 146. 
Churches, 192. 

No. of, 90. 

Churchyard applied for, 274. 
Churchill, Wm. 123. 
City accounts, 250. 

bounds, enlargement, 332. 
creditors to pay, 261. 
debt, 81. 

to be paid, 294, 298. 
funded, 114. 
finances, 102. 
Hall, old, 149. 
hotel demolished, 337. 
lands, 111. 
lots to be sold, 114. 
parks enclosed, 118. 
physicians, 113. 
Circus, 143. 

North Pearl street, 132. 
sold, 104. 

Claes de Brabander's land, 70. 
Clark, Francis M., 331. 
Joseph W., 136. 
Lawrence, 295. 
Clarkson, M., 74. 
Clench, Benj. V., 84. 
Clerk of market report, 161. 
Clinton avenue, so termed, 338. 
Governor, 160, 188. 
De Witt, 94, 128. 
introduced thanksgivings, 128. 
removed, 101. 
vases, 114. 

Clock for the city, 157. 
Coal, anthracite, 119. 

Coal near Albany, 125, 
Coasting prohibited, 257. 
Coats, Hannah. 335. 
Cobb, J. N , 87. 

Mrs. Sanford, 113. 
Cochran, Capt., 127. 
Coe, Jonas, 78. 
Coeyman, Andries, 271. 
Colburn, N., 346. 
Cold day, 30, 74, 88, 131, 136, 141, 
142, 328, 329, 331, 332, 316, 

Cole, John 0., 104, 130, 142. 
Levi, 127. 
M. M., 147, 156. 

Collection for Sunday Sch'ls, 112. 
in churches, 96. 
1st Presb. ch., 87. 
Collins, Edward, 39. 

Major, 51. 
Colonial Mss., 37. 
Colored children, 79. 
Colors, military, 121. 
Commerce, 195. 

steam boat, 121. 
Commercial Bank, 95, 116, 119, 

125, 157. 

Intelligencer, 124. 
Commissioners for Indian affairs, 


Comstock & Cassidy, 331. 
Congress Hall, 122. 
Congregational church, 332. 
Conkling, Alfred, 93, 141, 149. 
Connoway, Michael, 108. 
Constellation, 124, 127. 
Constitution, steam boat, 119,125. 


boiler burst, 121. 
Continental Co. B., 329. 
Convent of Sacred Heart, 355. 
Convention, old line whigs, 340. 
Convers, T. C., 112. 
Conway, tragedian, 128, 146. 
Cook, Henry B., 77, 119. 

John, 91, 93. 
Cooper, Edmund, 343. 
tragedian, 142. 
John Taylor, 101, 105. 
Obediah, 236, 241. 
William, 344. 

Corning, E., 106, 113, 152, 352. 
Corporation punch, 153. 
Cosgrave's soap factory, 131. 



Coughtry, Mrs. A., 346. 
Couldwell, Mrs. H. T., 336. 
Council sustain judgment, 173. 
Courts, 116. 

of Inquiry, 171. 
Cox, Mrs. J. P., 340. 
Coxsackie, 49. 
Coyle, Mrs. N., 337. 
Craft, B. F., 337. 
Craig, D. H., 338. 

Margaret, 340. 
Crashes, 180. 

Crawford, Mrs. John, 335. 
Creamer, Mrs. R., 345. 
Creswell, George, 156. 

Mrs., 85, 333. 
Cricket match, 345. 
Criminal institutions, 316. 

statistics, 331, 351, 355. 
Crosby's hotel, 77, 121. 
Cruttenden, Capt., 124, 127. 
Cruttenden's hotel, 99, 122. 
Cullen, Anna, 334. 
Cummings, Hooper, 89, 137. 

John, convicted, 351. 
Cumpston, Edward, 126. 
Cunningham, Martin, 331. 
Curran, Elizabeth, 331. 
Customs changed, 182. 
Cutler, Jereniiah,cityforrester,161. 

Mrs. J., 346. 
Cuttin, Win., 99. 
Cuyler, Abraham, 39, 45. 

Cornelius, 38, 39, 44. 
Jacob, 95. 
J. C., 81. 

Johannes, 251, 307. 
Johannes J., 298. 
Daily Advertiser, 108. 

Chronicle, 147, 156. 
Dam across Hudson, 93. 
Daniel, Mrs., 114. 
Daniels, J. W., 147. 

Warner, 357. 
Dark, Mrs. A. T., 340. 
Darney, Judith, 355. 
Davidson, Alex., 95, 104. 

Samuel, 329. 
Davis, Henry B., 109. 
Nathaniel, 87. 
Rena, 340. 
Robert, 82. 
Thomas, 304. 
Day's service, price of, 177. 

Deal boards, 303, 304. 
Dean, Amos, 5. 

Stewart, 160. 
street, so called, 160. 
Death by cold, 328. 

in the street, 343. 
Debtors in jail, 143. 

none in jail, 76. 
Debts due city, 273, 279. 
to be collected, 293. 
called in, 237. 
De Garmo, Jacob, 88. 
De Garmoy, Peter, 233, 235. 
Deitz, Peter, 153. 
Delavan & Co., 105. 
E. C.,351. 
Delaware square, 161. 

turnpike Co., 116. 
Dellius, Godfredius, 67, 69. 
Demilt, Isaac, 83. 
Democrats, 130. 
Democratic procession, 347. 
rally, 334. 
success, 348. 
Denny, James, 81. 
De Peyster, John, 39, 45. 
Depot burnt, 352. 
Devoss, Andries, 243. 
Dewandelaer, Johannis, 230. 
De Witt, Mrs. John, 110. 
R. V., 105, 153. 
Simeon, 9, 111. 
Mrs. Simeon, 105. 
Wm. H. 329. 
Dexter, James, 85, 101. 

Dr. Samuel, 126. 
Diamond, Sarah, 332. 
Dillon, Mrs. J., 340. 
Dinners at the Tontine, 221. 
Directory, 93. 
Dispensary, 321. 
Distillery, 195. 

Driving teams regulated, 297, 303 
Dock street, 160. 
Docks submerged, 346. 
Doctors, No. of, 196. 
Dorset, Martin, 160. 
Doty, Mrs. Susannah, 114. 
Douglas, Beriah, 92. 

J. B., 87, 147. 
Douw, Abraham, 90. 

Volkert P., 75. 
Dowling, Mrs. J. C., 330. 
Dox, Garret L., 82, 141. 



Dox, Jacob, 85. 

Draining, 267. 

Drains ordered, 234, 262, 263. 

Drake, Capt., 127, 150. 

Drouth, 161. 

Drunkenness prohibited, 204. 

Dubuque, Mrs. John, 357. 

Dudley, C. E., 84, 85, 97, 140, 342. 

Observatory, 342. 
Duer, Wm. A., 101, 155. 
Duffey, Wm. 80. 
Duffy, Hugh, 331. 
Dunlop, Robert, 96. 
Dunn, James, 148. 
Richard, 128. 
Thomas, 149. 
Dunn's tavern, 77, 83. 
Durrie, Horace, 98, 141. 
Dutch language, 184. 

reformed pastors, 146. 
traders' cabals, 54. 
Dutcher, Salem, 99, 101, 123. 
Dwight, Dr., in Albany, 181. 
Dwyer, elocutionist, 156. 
Dyer, Mrs. E., 130. 
Eagle street, 155, 176. 
Eames, Harriet, 329. 
Earthen ware factory, 159. 
Eckford transportation line, 352. 
Edson, Cyrus, 336. 
Edwards, James, 96. 
Effner, Nicholas, 351. 
Eghmont, Jacob, 291. 
Election, 82, 148, 348. 

state, 81, 95, 160. 

see charter. 

of Aldermen, 270, 277, 
290, 302. 

of city officers, 158. 

of mayor, &c., 334. 

returns, fraudulent, 335. 

returns in 6 days, 95. 
Electors, mode of choosing, 130. 
Elliston, Henry, 143. 
Emigration regulated, 204. 
Ennis, Thomas, 97. 
Enterprise detained, 148. 
Episcopalian rector, 146. 
Erie canal, 78, 94. 
Esleeck, Welcome, 151. 
Evans, Robert, 340. 
Excise of 1686, 215. 
Expedition against Canada, 54. 
Expenses of city, 162. 

Experiment, sloop, 222. 
Express, Morning, 333. 
Fair, 345. 

Falconer, Catherine, 351. 
Fall from mast head, 350. 
Fassett, Charles A., 329. 

& Hallenbake, 126. 
Fast driving prohibited, 230, 256. 
Federalism, 130. 
Female Academy, 78. 
Ferris, Freelove S., 331. 

Isaac, 108, 131, 146. 
Ferry boats laid up, 328. 
leased, 101, 113. 
profits, 84. 
regulations, 96. 
St., stagnant water in, 103. 
steam boat required, 103. 
Fidler & Taylor, 129. 
Field, Josiah, 101. 
Finances, 132. 
Fine for dirty streets, 284. 
Fines of aldermen, 297. 

for declining office, 294. 
Fire department, 136, 326. 
Fly, steam boat, 90, 94. 
masters, 239, 256, 273, 278, 

292, 302, 307. 
regulations, 178, 229. 
Firemens' association, 350. 
Fires, 81, 82, 84, 96, 98, 105, 110, 
115, 129, 131, 141, 145, 
155, 156, 157, 183, 329, 
330, 331, 333, 334, 335, 
337, 338, 340, 343, 346, 
347, 348, 350, 352, 357. 
in 1856, 325. 

First Presbyterian church, 99, 343. 
Fitzsimmons, James, 329. 
Flannagan, Mrs. A., 350. 
Flensburgh. Matthew, 244. 
Flour, business increased, 78. 
Fly market, 102. 
Fonda, Douw, 76. 

Elsie, 92. 

Fondey, Theodore, 337. 
Forces at Albany, 46. 
Ford, Eliakim, 87. 
Foreign missions, 332. 
Forrest, Edwin, 141, 147. 
Forrester, city, 161. 
Forsyth, Russell, 347. 
Fort, Jacob I., 136. 
Fortifications, 293, 295. 



Fortification by province, 258. 
Fountain, Capt., 127. 
Fourth of July, 123, 162, 163. 
Foxen kill, 174, 233. 
Foxes' creek, 311. 
Fowler, S. S., 83. 

William, 83, 91. 
W. S., 31. 

Fowls, price at Manor, 177. 
Frame, Mrs., 331. 
Freedom to be bought, 294, 297. 
Freshet, 341. 

in Rutten kill, 247. 
Frisby, Gen., 338. 
Fry, Joseph, 142, 334. 
Fryer, Isaac, 249, 260. 

Isaac, I., 142. 
Fuller, Jacob E., 345. 
Funeral obsequies of Adams and 

Jefferson, 155. 
Furnaces, portable, 160. 
Fur trade rules, 259, 264 
Gale, 92, 161. 

Gallows hill, 233, 235, 237, 260. 
Gulpin, Charles, 147, 150. 

George, 124. 

Gansevoort, John, 109, 112, 130. 
Leendert, 38. 
Leonard, 98. 
Mrs. Leonard, 147. 
Garmoy, Peter de, 257. 
Garnsey, John, 75. 
Garrison turned out, 58. 
Gas light company, 112, 116. 
Gates, Garret, 87. 
John, 126. 
Oliver, 328. 
Samuel, 347. 
Gaylor, Mrs. Philip, 331 
Gaynor Thomas D., 337. 
Gebhard, J. G., 156. 
Geological hall, 333. 

inaugurated, 342. 
survey, 9. 
German Lutheran church, 329, 


Gerritse, Reyer, 39. 
Gibbons, James, 142. 

Matilda, 329. 
Gilbert, C. M., 351. 
Capt., 121. 

Gilchrist, Mrs. Robert, 113. 
Gilfert opened theatre, 118. 
Gill, Matthew, 103. 

Gillespie, Mrs. H. 345. 
Glandorf, Johannis, 262, 267, 309. 
Glen, Alexander, 55. 
Glencove, steamboat, 346. 
Goddard, C. W., 335. 
Godfrey, John I., 77. 

& Townsend, 90. 

& Walsh, 90. 
Goewey, Jacob, 270. 

Louisa, 331. 
Goss, Rev. Mr., 350. 
Gould, James P., 344. 
John M., 107. 
Win., 82, 92. 

Grading Fox's creek, 311. 
Graham, J. B., 149. 

T. V. W., 78. 
Grant, Wm., 343. 
Great Western turnpike, 154, 
Greek emancipation, 96. 
Greeks, meeting to relieve, 82. 
Green, Henry, 107. 
Thomas, 340. 
Greene, Mrs. G. K., 333. 
Mrs. T. L., 336. 
Greenbush, 188. 

camp at, 50. 
Gregory, D. E. , 95. 

Mrs. D. E., 336. 

Matthew, 75,107,219,220. 

Mrs. Matthew, 156. 
Grenoble hose experiment, 335. 
Griffin, C. C., 338. 

Richard, 351. 

Grist mill at Schaghticoke, 232. 
Griswold, A. S., 349. 
Grocers, No. of, 124. 
Groesbeck, Johannes, 274. 
JohnD., 346. 

Stevanus, 39. 
Guest, Henry P., 141. 

Mrs., 336. 

Guernsey, Milo, 160. 
Guysbertse, Wm., 233. 
Hagaman, Grace J. S., 329. 
Hagan Harriet, 333. 
Hagerdorn, Mary, 340. 
Hail storm, 153. 
Hale, Daniel, 81. 
Hall, Green, 148. 
Halleiibeck, J. H., 331. 
Hamblin, comedian, 131. 
Hamilton, Mrs. Alexander, 225. 
Isaac, 148. 



Hamilton, Mrs. James, 332. 

Win., 347. 

Hammond, J. D., 75, 93, 131. 
Hand, Aaron, 87. 
Hanford, Mrs. George, 156. 
Hanson, Alfred, 331. 
Hardy, Sir Charles, 54. 

S. K.,334. 

Harkison, Sarah, 336. 
Harrowgate spring, 76. 
Hart, Harman V., 148. 
Hartshorn, Rebecca, 336. 
Harwood, Benj., 333. 
Hastings, John, 345. 
Hawley, Gideon, 92, 111. 
Hazard's hotel, 77. 
Hazard, J. V. S., 102. 
Hempstead, Henry, 95. 
Isaac, 106. 

Hendrickson, John, 329. 
Henry, Mrs. C. H., 125. 
Elizabeth, 159. 
& Co., Jacob, 159. 
John V., 93. 
Joseph, 148, 167. 
Nancy, 334. 
Eckford, steam boat, 113, 


Herner, Hannah, 335. 
Hero, steamboat, 352. 
Herrick, Mrs. J. R., 337. 
Hewson, Daniel I., 147, 
Maria C., 158. 
R. B., 127, 
High constable, 294, 302, 306. 

water, 346. 
Hill, Thomas, 331. 

Thomas B., 124. 
Hills, Mrs. Augustus, 110. 
Hillson, Mrs. T., 337. 
Hilton, Ann, 97. 

Wm. I., 121. 
Hinkley, Warren, 142. 
Hotchkiss, Arthur, 154. 
Hochstrasser, Paul, 96, 108, 117, 
149, 152, 159. 
Wm., 77. 

Holiday, Mrs. H., 336. 
Holland, Edward, 38, 39. 

Henry, 269, 273, 307. 
Holmes, Alexander, 336. 

Mrs. John, 333 
Holt, Mrs. Jared, 340. 
Home for friendless, 320. 

Home, Philip, 129. 
Hooker, Philip, 91, 113, 142, 148. 
Hooks and Ladders, 255. 
Hopkins, Hannah, 113. 

S. M., 126. 

Horse blockhouse, 241. 
Horth, Francis, 141. 
Hosack, David, 3. 
Hosford, E. & E., 82, 129. 
Hospital, 321, 330. 
Houses, number of, 191, 194. 

style of, 181, 191, 194. 
Howard street, 161. 
Howe, Bezaleel, 78. 

Estes, 80, 92, 115. 
Jesse, 130. 
Hudson, 127, 222. 
river, 197. 
bridge, 341. 
freezing of, 35. 
street, 155. 
ravine, 174, 176. 
M. Ep. church, 349. 
Humphrey, C., 90. 

Friend, 91: 
John, 113. 
Dr. Wm., 145. 

Humphries, Mrs. Samuel, 93. 
Hun, Thomas, 18, 21. 
Hunn, John, 115. 
Hurlburt, Mrs. Henry, 328. 

Joseph, 95. 
Ice broke up, 90. 

by team, 328. 

Improvements wanted, 154. 
Incendiaries not encouraged, 326. 
Indignation meeting, 335. 
Indian goods seized, 269, 282. 
houses, 272. 
interpreter, 295. 
lands purchased, 232. 
slaves, 296. 
title purchased, 234. 
trade, 187, 233, 259, 264, 

275, 280, 293. 
infringed, 269, 287, 


question of, 12 r 88. 


pawns prohibited, 268. 
presents, 67, 68. 
woman shot, 169. 
Indians, riding of, 259, 265. 



Industrial School, 348, 350. 
Insurance Co. stock, 119. 
Invasion from Canada, 72. 
Jail, 322. 

broke, 93. 
debtors in, 143. 
insufficient, 257. 
without debtors, 76. 
James, Aaron, 109. 
Edward, 357. 
JohnB., 336. 
William, 91. 
Jarvis, John L, 332. 
Jefferson's funeral, 155. 
Jenkins, Elisha, 95. 

Herman, 103. 
Jennings, Mrs. R., 341. 
Jermain, S. P., 87. 
Johns, S., 82. 
Johnson, Chauncey, 98. 
S. W., 82, 142. 
Jones, John S., 101. 

Mary Ann, 348. 
Judson, Mrs. H. L., 129. 
IchabodL., 148. 
Isaac E., 352. 
Jupp, Mrs. L., 330. 
Jurors, compensation of, 116. 
Kalm, 183. 
Kane, C. V. S., 96. 
Elias, 122. 
Mrs. George, 99. 
Hazael, 142. 
Kansas donations, 351. 
Kean in Albany, 136. 
Keeler, Isaac, 97. 
J. S., 87. 
Kelly, Miss, 130. 
Kent, James, 92. 

steam boat, 93, 101, 105, 

127, 154. 

Kenyon, Moses, 159. 
Kerr, Dr. Robt., 99. 
Ketelhuyn, Daniel, 237, 261. 
Keyser, Abraham, 110, 136. 
Kidd, Thomas, 146. 
Kidney, Jonathan, 105. 
Kiernan, Catherine E., 348. 
King, Mrs. Chas., 328. 
Mrs. James, 91. 
Kirk, John, 146. 

William, 157. 
Klinck, George, 348. 

Klink, Graham, 93. 

Kline & Gott, factory burnt, 115. 

Matthias, 141. 
Knapp, Usual, 329. 
Knickerbacker hall, 124. 



Mrs., 92. 

Knickerbocker, steam boat, 343. 
Knight, Jane, 338. 
Knower, Annie, 336. 

Benj., 110, 122. 

George, 107. 

Mrs.T., 347. 
Kreuder, Caroline, 332. 
Lacy, Wm. B., 83, 146. 
Ladies, health of, 196. 
Lady Clinton, 121. 

Van Rensselaer, 124. 
Lafayette, invited, 107. 

arrived, 107, 120, 122. 
La Fleur, Mrs. J., 340. 
La Grange, James, 337. 
Lambert, John, 217. 
Lamp tax, 81. 

Lancaster School, 78, 88, 111, 163. 
Lane to be repaired, 285, 311. 
Lansing, C. Y., 84. 

Mrs. Harmanus, 332. 

John, Jr., 39. 

John A., 112. 
Lansingh, Gerrit, Jr., 267. 
Lawless, Mrs., 340. 
Lawyers, No. of, 196. 
Lease at Schaghticoke, 232, 247, 


Lee, Thomas, 79. 
Lees, Mrs. Thomas, 340. 
Legislature convened, 106, 328. 

adjourned, 91, 101, 

115, 334. 

Leisler and party, 56, 57, 58. 
Leman, John, 121. 
Lemet, Louis, 153. 
Leonard, Lewis, 111, 147. 
Letters, list published, 75. 
Lewis, Burr, 152. 
Liberty pole, 345. 
street, 98. 
Library, hotel, 153. 
License, amount of, 125. 

in old times, 204. 

law, 291. 

regulation, 253. 



Licenses 1825, 117. 

Liquor regulations, 268, 279, 284, 

Living, style of, 221. 
Livingston, John H., 112. 

Philip, 40, 43, 45, 276. 
Robert, 175. 
letter to Andros, 65. 
Gov. Nichol- 
son, 58. 
Conn., 61, 63. 
maintaining soldiers, 


depositions agt., 66. 
to Gov. Sloughter, 

Lloyd, Gertrude, 332. 

James, 150. 
Loan of .25, 277. 
Lockrow, Thomas, 153. 
Lockwood, Jared, 93. 
Capt., 127. 
Lodge street, 151. 
Lombard association, 116, 117. 
Loomis, Mrs. Win., 333. 
Longevity, 143. 
Lottery drawn, 92. 

office, Southwick's, 114. 

St. Peter's, 130. 

to pay city debt, 111, 114, 

117, 150. 

Lots, price of, 17, 24, 300. 
sold, 253. 
to be sold by auction, 273, 

299, 300. 

Lovet, John E., 113, 142. 
Low, Dr., 3. 

Francis, 349. 
Lowther, Robert, 77. 
Luce, Viiial, 346. 
Ludlow, John, 93, 96, 111, 146. 
Lunatic frozen, 329. 
Lush, Mr., 141. 
S., 144. 
Stephen, 115. 
Lutheran church, 175. 
pastor, 146. 
Luxury of living, 221. 
Lyman, Jonathan, 352. 
Lyons, Mrs., 331. 
McCaflerty, Michael, 331. 
McCann, Francis, murderer, 338, 

McClasky, Mrs., 350. 

McClelland, Dr., 3. 
McCrea, Elizabeth, 328. 
McCready, Philip, 119. 
McCulloch, H., 81. 
McDonald, Angus, 143. 
James, 334. 
McDougal, Wm., 102. 
McDowell, Mrs. A., 331. 
McGill, Mrs. J., 340. 

Robert, 153. 

McGlashan, Mrs. Daniel, 110. 
McGregor.Jiilia, 337. 
McGuire, Elizabeth, 333. 

James, 337. 
McHarg, Wm., 339. 
McHench, Peter, 81. 
Mclntyre, Archibald, 339. 
Mrs. John, 336. 
McKeever, Patrick, 337. 
McKown, James, 91, 143, 148. 
McMullen, James, 357. 
McMurdy, Anthony, 123. 
McNally, Michael, 348. 
McNaughton, Angus, 352. 
McPherson, Robert, 357. 
Mahony, Harriet E., 333. 
Mails, great speed, 79. 
Malcom, Mrs. E., 112. 
Malt house burnt, 96. 
Mancius, George W-, 75, 96. 
Mann, Polly, 340. 
Manor price of wheat, &c., 178. 
Mansion house, 187. 

sold, 350. 

Manufactures, 195. 
March, Alden, 81, 113, 142. 
Market statistics, 161. 
Marriages in 1824, 138. 
Martin, James, 147. 

M., 112. 

Thomas, 331. 
Marvin, J. W. R., 337. 

W. & A., 110. 

Uriah, 87. 
Masonic burial, 136. 

pageant, 128. 
Masse, Jan, 279. 
Mayell, William, 148. 
Mayer, F. G., 146. 
Mayo, Rev. Mr., 329. 
Mayor elected, 112. 
election, 334. 
Godard elected, 335. 

1720, 244. 



Mayor, 1723, 292. 
1726, 307. 

strife for, 97, 98, 101. 
Mayor's office vacant, 97. 
Mayors, two, 336. 
Maxwell, James, 129. 
Meads, John, 111. 

vs. Com. Bank, 167. 
Mechanics' Academy, 78. 

and Farmers' Bank, 

75, 119. 
Mechanics' Society, 89, 111. 

Hall, 111. 

Medical Society, 349. 
Meech, Henry T., 149. 
Meigs John, 113, 142. 
Melish, John, 194. 
Members of assembly, 77. 
Merchants' Ins. Co., 102, 140. 

imports, 125. 
Merrifield, James, 136. 
Richard, 330. 
Wm., 107. 

Message from Washington, 83. 
Messenger, Mrs. C., 331. 
Meteorological, 136. 

observations, 28. 
Methodist pastor, 147. 

secession, 349, 360. 
society, new, 360. 
statistics, 347. 
Miller, Christian, 99. 
Wm. C., 99. 
Mrs. D., 340. 
Millerism, 347. 
Milborne, Jacob, 68. 
Military, 153. 
Mingael, Johamiis, 310. 
Mitchell, John, 94. 
Wm., 154. 
Mrs. William, 147. 
Moakler, Michael, 333. 
Mohawk and Hudson R. R., 147, 


Mohawks, Christian, 66, 68. 
Mohoggs, 294. 
Monk, Christopher, 127. 
Montgomery Hall, 149. 
Monteath, Capt. Geo., 87, 332. 
Moore, Capt., 127. 
Morgan, William, 156. 
Morris, Anna, 346. 
Morocco factory, 106. 
Morrow George, 329. 

Morse, S. H., 116. 
Mosher, Wm. H., 333. 
Murder, 338. 

of Mrs. Bulger, 350. 
Murdock, Andrew, 332. 
Mrs. M., 342. 
Murphy, James, 83. 
Murray, James, 80. 
Museum, 149. 
Myndertse, Frederick, 242. 

Johannis, 286, 289 , 

National Democrat, 102, 114. 

Observer, 154. 
Naturalization, 294, 297. 
Navigation, 112. 

Hudson, 147. 
improvement propos- 
ed, 141. 

Neat cattle in 1825, 139. 
Nerley, Hester, 328. 
Negro regulations, 296. 
Nehmire, Catharina, 343. 
Neill, Rev. Dr., 110. 
Newland, David, 75, 330. 
New London steam boat, 126. 
Newman, Mrs. Henry, 106. 
Newspapers, 196. 
News by steam boat, 157. 
Newton, Isaac, 141. 
New Year's Day, 328. 
New York merchants openedbusi- 

ness in Albany, 79. 
return to New York, 81. 
State Bank, 75, 152. 
Niskayuna, 125. 
North, Mr., 194. 

Dutch church, 93. 

installation at, 360. 
Northern R. R. sold, 346. 
North Ferry, 339. 

river line, 160. 
association, 150. 
steam boat co., 105, 106. 
Norton, John T., 113, 124, 136. 
Lambert, 157. 
L. K., 129. 
Novel craft, 164. 
Oath of city clerk, 248. 
of town clerk, 276. 
Observatory, 350. 
Ogden, Thomas, 335. 
Ogsbury, J. D., 81. 
Ohio sloop, quick trip, 116. 



Oil, price of, 102, 106. 
Olive Branch, 106, 113, 127. 
Onions, 142. 
Oothout, Hendrick, 243. 
Orange street widened, 346. 
Ordinaries, No. of, 124. 
Organ, 2d Presbyterian, 121. 
Oriental Star, 78. 
Orphan asylum, 137, 319. 
Osborn, George, 340. 
Ostrander, Benj., 83. 
Overslaugh, 124. 
Owen, Robert, 110. 
O'Gorman, Michael, 110. 
O'Shaughnessy, Michael, 148. 
O'Sullivan, Kate, 344. 
Paddock, William, 334. 
Page, Ames C., 346. 
Pails lost, 229. 
Palmer, Levi H., 143. 
Parker Mrs. L., 343. 
Parks enclosed, 118. 
Parnialee, Wm., 332, 333. 

Mrs., 24. 
Parsons, Mr., 132, 143. 

Mrs. S. P., 337. 
Parties, relative strength, 109. 
Passports required, 204. 
Pastors of churches, 146. 
Pasture, 144, 160. 
Patroon street, 338. 
Paul, John, 123. 
Mr., 85. 

Nathaniel, 147. 
Rev., 167. 

Paupers in 1825, 138. 
Pavements, 249. 
Paving contemplated, 155. 

ordered, 241, 262, 263, 267, 


Pay of soldiers, 46. 
Pearl street, 243. 

gate at, 175. 
Pearson George, 128. 
Peckham, A. C., 156. 
Pellet, Miss, 351. 
Pemberton, T. L., 94. 

Thos., 87. 

Penalties for offences, 204. 
Penitentiary, 323, 355. 
Penniman & Co., 106. 
People's ticket, 95. 
Pepper, Calvin, 93. 
Perry, Eli, 334, 335, 336. 

Perry Eli 3d, 334. 
Personal estate, 111, 141. 

property, 352. 
Petty constable, 295. 
Phelps, Philip, 109. 
Pier, 91, 95, 97. 

completed, 119. 
sale of lots, 123. 
Pilsbury, Amos, 324. 
Pitkin, Rev. Dr., 351. 

Thomas C.,330. 
Plain, 272, 310. 
Platt, wid. of Ananias, 352. 
Pohlman, Mary A., 112. 
Polls open three days, 130. 
Poor house, 316. 

meeting to consider, 85. 
tax, 81. 
Population, 90, 129, 136, 138. 188, 

191, 194, 220. 
Port of entry, 148. 
Porter Giles, W., 149. 

Ira, 79, 190. 
Potter, Benj., 328. 
Post office letters, 75. 
Pottery, 333. 
Powell & Co. T., 84. 
Pratt, Elisha N., 331. 
Presbytery of Albany, 95. 
Presbyterian pastors, 146. 
Pretty, Richard, 66, 173. 
Prisoner 40 years, 79. 
Prisoners escaped, 93. 
Prison Discipline society, 126,150. 
Produce, prices of, 176. 
Provisions, prices of, 195. 
Pruyn & Gardner, 91. 
J. V. L.,352. 
Samuel, 91. 355. 
Wm. V., 338. 
Public buildings, 183, 192, 194, 


Quackenboss, Adriaen, 261, 234. 
Quackenbush, Benj., 83. 

Dr. J. V. P., 334, 
335, 336. 

John N. 98, 144, 

N. N., 87. 
Quarantine, 80. 
Quit rent, decision on, 273 
Races, Albanians at, 91. 
Radcliff, Henry, 142. 
Rail road proposed, 117. 



Rail road collision, 328. 

obstructed, 328, 330. 
to Schenectady, 131, 
144, 146, 147. ' 
Rain, 31, 33, 340. 
Randall, Mrs. George, 329. 

John, 95. 

Randel, W. S., 143. 
Randolph, J. W., 345. 

Mrs. J. W., 336. 
Rasey, Mrs. Ammon, 350. 
Raum, Catharine, 143. 
Ravines, ancient, 174. 
Real estate, 141. 

valuation, 352. 
Receipts of city, 162. 
Records removed, 116. 
Red coats, 66. 
Redliff, Johannis, 236. 
Reformed Presb. church, 76. 
Reliance propeller, 352. 
Religious Monitor, 98. 
Reminiscences of Albany, 334. 
Rents abated, 308. 

for mechanics, 1 95. 
Republican ticket, 108, 127, 130, 


Revenue, 216. 
Richmond, coal, 119. 

steamboat, 106, 113. 

Rickerson, Capt., 127. 
Rider, Mrs. S. J., 354. 
Riding down hill stopped, 257. 
Rigby, Wm., 143. 
Riley, George, 340. 
River closed, 35, 96, 111, 112, 160, 
161, 328, 352, 354. 
low, 351. 

open, 36, 97, 98, 99, 101, 

113, 131, 141, 143, 334, 352. 

Robbery of store, 343. 

Robinson, Hannah, 346. 

Robison, Mrs. John, 92. 

Hugh, 160. 

property, 150. 

Rockwell, John W., 161. 

Rodgers, Rev. E. P., 350. 

Jedediah, 87. 
Romaine, Nicholas, 2. 
Romeyn, Derick, 1, 3. 
John B., 2. 
Mrs. J. B., 129. 
Roorbach, Capt., 196. 

loot, Erastus, 84. 

& Davidson, 104. 
lopewalk burnt, 337. 
Rose, Mrs. L. S., 332. 
Mrs. R. F., 340. 
Joseboom, Hester, 160. 

Johannis, 294. 
Rubey, John, C., 115. 
um street, 267, 311. 
Suss, Adam, 142. 
E. B., 110. 
Russell, John, 110. 
Rutten kill, 174, 175, 176, 247, 250. 
Ryckman, Peter, 241. 
Tobias, 38. 

Rye, great product, 92. 
Sabbath regulations, 293, 296. 
school union, 131. 
school, 96. 
Sackrider, Stephen, 114. 
Safety barge appeared, 121, 124. 
Sanders, Barent, 292. 
Sandford, Chancellor, 106. 

Nathan, 141. 

Sandusky steam boat, 155. 
Saratoga steam boat, 124, 127. 
Savage, Rev., 147. 
Saw mill, 242. 
Scarlett, Ann, 348. 
Schaghticoke, 254, 258, 261, 274, 

Indians, 63, 73. 
petitions, 308. 
rent, 229, 231. 
tenants petition, 

tenants to pay, 263, 


to be surveyed,245. 
wheat sold, 229, 


Scherpe, Thomas, 262. 
Schenectady, 192, 282. 

burning of, 55. 
railroad, 117, 131. 
turnpike, 144, 154. 
Schermerhorn, J. C., 291. 
Schodack, 189. 
Schoolcraft, C. L., 330. 
Schools in Albany, 78. 

in 1721, 267. 

Schoolmaster in 1721, 262. 
Schoonhoven, Jacobus, 254. 
Scotch in Albany, 195. 



Scott, James, 75. 

Scovel, Mrs. Hezekiah, 155. 

Schuyler, Abraham, 71. 

David, 249, 252, 258, 

Elizabeth, 225. 

H. P., 81. 

Jeremiah, 344. 

John, Jr.. 39. 

Mr., 46. 

Myndert, 39,~45, 244, 

Peter, 74, 131. 
Philip, 188. 
T. Gil., 173. 
Thomas, 329. 

Sealer of weights, &c., 279. 
Second Dutch church, 108. 

Presbyterian church, 121. 
Seneca county belongs to Albany, 


Sexton, change of, 274. 
Shakers imprisoned, 97. 
statistics of, 125. 
Shanks, Capt., 73. 
Sharpe, wounded, 56. 
Shaw, Isaiah, 151. 
John, 154. 
Joseph, 107. 
Luton, 337. 
Samuel, 82. 
Sheldon & Sykes, 148. 

Mrs. Gaylor, 97. 
Shepherd, Catharine, 336. 
Sheridan, Mrs. M., 347. 
Sheriff 1723, 291. 

suit against, 298. 
Sherman, Capt., 127. 
Shires, Jane M., 312. 
Sickles, Abraham, 108, 113, 142. 
Abigail, 328. 
Mrs. A., 343. 
Mrs. John, 110. 
Situation unrivaled, 191. 
Skinner & Co., 82. 
E. W., 77. 
John S., 105. 
Roger, 125. 

Sleighs, sizes established, 230. 
width prescribed, 256. 
Sloan, Samuel, 161. 
Sloop fare, 196. 

from Mackinac, 154. 
speed, 116. 

Sloughter, Gov., 66. 
Smith, Alexander, 79. 
E. D., 329. 
Jeremiah, 101. 
Smith's tavern, 77. 
Snow, 33, 85, 95, 349. 

obstructed R. R., 328, 330. 
Storm, 335. 

Snyder, H. W., 108, 132, 158. 
Society of Agriculture, Arts, and 

Manufactures, 6, 9. 
Soldiers' billets. 51. 
pay of, 46. 
Solomons, Levi, 91. 
South American steam boat, 334. 
South Dutch church, 144. 

Pearl street chained, 152. 
Southwick, Solomon, 102, 114, 


attorney, &c., 83. 
nominated for Gov., 

Stinting office, 102. 
rs. Solomon, 225. 
Spanish street, 242, 249. 
Spencer, Ambrose. 98, 99, 101. 

112, 122, 140. 
Henry, 93. 
John, 106. 
Spirituous liquors restrained, 204, 


Spoor, Barentje, 237. 
Springsteed, Sarah, 331. 
St. Joseph's church, 337. 
St. Andrew's Society, 339, 349. 
St. John's Orphan Asylum, 320. 
St. Peter's church, 75, 330. 

church collection, 83. 
lottery, 130. 
statistics, 351. 
St. Vincent's Orphan Asylum, 


Staats, BarentP., 101, 113, 125. 
Jacob, 277. 
Wm., 118. 

Stafford, Benedict & Co., 104. 
& Co., Spencer, 103. 
Spencer, 117. 
Stages, 217, 219. 

to New York, 179. 
racing, 180. 
rates in 1823, 178. 
speed of, 84, 88. 
fare, 86. 



Stages, west, 121. 
Stamps, Sarah A., 347. 
Stanton, G. W., 95. 
Starr, Chandler, 82. 
State elections, 130. 
bank stock, 119. 
electors meet, 110. 
Idiot asylum, 316. 
Library, 91. 
prison dock, 79. 
street bridge, 123. 
house, 163. 

Statesman, Albany Daily, 333. 
Steaui boats, 91. 

account of, 220. 
fare, 105, 113, 196. 
first up, 334. 
introduced cotil- 
lions, 76. 
explosion, 121. 
landing, 79, 80, 152. 
list of, 127, 150. 
speed, 93, 150, 152, 

157, 346. 
sunk, 348. 
square flagstaff, 338. 
through by day- 
light, 105. 
Steam boilers, copper, 126. 

exploded, 336. 
Steam ferry boat, 339. 

tug Washington Hunt, 336. 
Steele & Son, 82. 
Stevenson, James, 6, 75, 77, 126, 


Stewart, Capt. C., 110. 
Duncan, 127. 
Fanny, 123. 
Susan, 328. 
Stiles, N. B., 340. 
Stilwell, John, 99, 120. 
Stockadoes, 52, 295. 

deficiency, 257. 

not to be cut down, 


Stocking, Capt., 124. 
Stock prices, 119. 
Stone House, 83. 
Strange, Maxwell, 106. 

Mrs. Maxwell, 161. 
Streets of Albany, 183, 220. 
improved, 162. 
inspector, 153. 
to be improved, 282,285,294. 

[Annals, viii.] 33 

Streets proposed, 243. 

to be kept in order. 234, 

242, 250. 

widening of, 346. 
Strickland, Selden, 110. 
Strike of carpenters, 149. 
Strong, R. M. K., 341. 
Strouds seized, 236, 269. 
Sturgeon lane, 156. 
Sun, steam boat, 150, 152, 154. 
Sunday schools, 83, 165. 

union, 112. 

Sutherland, Mrs. James, 329. 
Supervisors, election of, 104, 117. 
Swart, Mrs. Cornelius, 112. 
Swiftsure, steam boat, 124. 
Swiss emigrants, 154. 
Switz, Alida, 90. 
Symnies, J. Cleves, 160. 
Symonse, Volkert, 236, 237. 
Taber, Azor, 131. 

Job, 80. 

Tallow chandlery burnt, 82. 
Tan pits, 270. 
Tannery burnt, 333. 
Tavern regulations, 268. 
Taverns, No. of, 124. 
Tax levied, 81. 
Taxes, 352. 
Taylor, John, 80. 

John, Jr., 82. 
Teller, Mrs. C., 106. 

Win., case of, 169, 173. 
Temperature, 95, 96, 97. 

remarkable, 123. 

July 1824, 124. 

August, 126. 

Sept., 128. 

Oct., 129. 

Nov., 110, 136. 

of 1825, 137. 

Dec., Ill, 137. 

Jan., 1826,103,112, 

Feb., 103, 113, 143. 

March, 103, 115, 

April, 103, 116, 148. 

May, 103, 121, 149. 

June, 103, 153. 

July, 106, 155. 

August, 157. 

Sept., 108, 159. 

Oct., 109, 160. 



Temperature of year, 111, 
TenBroek, Dirk, 39, 291. 

John, 83. 

Ten Eyck, Anna, 85. 
C. A., 92. 
J. H., 75. 

Thanksgiving, 128, 350. 
Theatre, 122, 147. 
brick, 82. 
new, 85. 

opened, 115, 118, 161. 
Pearl street, 106. 
proposed, 105. 
Thermometer, 328, 329, 331. 
Thespian hotel, 85. 
Thieves arrested, 343. 
Thomas, Mrs.D. W., 351. 
Thompson, James E., 126. 

R., 346. 

Thorpe Co., Aaron, 84. 
Thunder and snow storm, 95. 
Tillman, Capt. John, 77. 
Tionondorogue, 294, 295. 

Indians, 232. 
Tivoli, 198. 
Tobacco works, 187. 
Tobin, Mrs. J., 344. 
Tanihanick, 242, 274, 276. 

leased, 254. 
Tompkins, D. D., 121. 
Tontine coffee house, 219. 
Tow, largest, 349. 

boat line, 332. 
Town clerk, 276. 
clock, 157. 
valuations, 354. 
Townsend, Isaiah, 140. 
John, 122. 
Peter, 96. 

Tract Society, 99, 111. 
Trade of Albany, 187, 195, 220. 

improved, 125. 
Trainor, Hamilton, 352. 
William, 331. 
Transportation Co., 141. 

increased, 78. 
Traveling, difficult, 217. 

made slow, 84. 
Treat, Richard S., 146, 148. 

S. S., 113. 
Tread mill, 83, 90. 
Trespass, 298. 
Trotter & Douglas, 147. 
Henry, 114. 

Trotter, Matthew, 75, 
Trowbridge, Henry, 101. 
Mrs. S., 160. 
Troy, in 1807, 217. 
dam, 93. 
rivalry, 117. 

Truax, Isaac, 288, 299, J-v. ' 
True, Mrs.. Daniel, 344. 
Turck, Augustiiius, 284. 
Turnpike dividends, 164. 
Tweed Dale, W. A., 88, 111. 
Tyler & Dillon, 150. 
Tyrrell, Mrs. M., 346. 
Union line steam boats, 105. 
Unitarian church, 329. 
Universalists, 101, 349. 
Uphold, George, 160. 
Utter, Capt. J., 116. 
Van Alstyne & Brinckerhoof, 157. 

Mrs. M., 328. 

Van Antwerp, C., 81, 117. 

Maria, 147. 

Van Benthuysen, Mrs. 0., 123. 
Van Brugh, Pieter, 292. 
Van Buren, John, 331. 
Martin, 76. 

Van Cortland, Mrs., 19. 24. 
Vanderheyden, Dirck L.,142, 144. 
VanEtten, J. B., 357. 

Samuel, 95. 

Vanderpoel, Wynant, 243. 
Van Driesen, Petrus, 274. 
Van Dyck, David, 259. 
Van Ingen, James y 148. 

Mrs. James, 137. 
Van Kleeck, L. L., 81, 149, 152. 
VanOLinda, Peter, 109, 113, 142. 
Van Rensselaer, John S., 98, 120. 
Ph. S., 75, 101, 


Richard, 85. 
Solomon, 121, 


S. R., 8. 

Stephen, 122,123, 
124, 128, 186. 

Van Santen, Johannis, 243. 
Van Schaick, Mrs. Egbert, 113. 
Gerrit, 276. 
Goose, 295, 302. 
Gosen, 90. 
J. B., 109. 
Tobias, 87, 91. 
Van Schelluyne, Dirck, 92. 



Van Tassel, Mrs. Peter, 161. 

W. S., 161. 

Van Vechten, Abram, 75. 
Judith, 121. 
S. A., 110. 
Tennis, 75. 

Van Veghten, Dirck, 231. 
Maria, 112. 

Van Vlieren, Jeronimus, 235. 
Van Wie, Mrs. Isaac, 161. 
Van Woert, Henry, 128. 
VanZandt, Mrs. B., 344. 

Gilbert V., 329. 
Vaccination, 105. 
Vagrant children, 348, 350. 
Vail, Samuel, 142. 
Varioloid, 334. 
Vases, Clinton's, 114. 
Vedder, A. A., 159. 

Corsett, 231, 264. 
Volkert, 104. 
Verdict of chance meddling, 172, 


Veriiam, Charles S., 335. 
Vernor, John, 136. 
Verplank, Philip, 298. 
Vervalin, Beiij., 110. 
Vest, Roger, 113. 
Viats, Roger, 142. 
Vickars, Win., 94. 
Ann, 345. 

Victuallers, No. of, 125. 
Visger, Elizabeth, 292. 
Johannes, 271. 
Tjerk, 255. 
Visscher, John B., 115. 

Sebastian, 108. 
Vly Kill, cascade of, 198. 
Vodden market, 175. 
Volunteers, Independent, 121. 
Vosburgh, Abr., 260. 
Waddell, James, 340. 
Wages of carpenters, 149. 
Waldron, Peter G., 107. 
Walker, Willard, 104. 
Ward, Joseph, 328. 

Mary Ann, 357. 
Sarah, 357. 
valuations, 354. 
Warm day, 121. 
Warmest day, 30. 
Warren, George, 331. 
Warner, Mrs. J. H., 335. 
Washburn, John B., 116. 

Washington's birthday, 99. 
Washington Hunt steam tug, 336. 
Wasson & Jewell, 90. 
Watch tax, 81. 
Water, bad, 192. 

benefit of, 327. 
company, 116. 
Watering place, 152. 
Waterfalls, 198. 
Waterman, Jeremiah, 88, 120. 

Samuel, 142. 
Waters, Daniel, 128. 
Water shed regulated, 312. 
works Co., 157. 

Co. stock, 119. 
Watson, Basil, 343. 

Stephen, 337. 
Weather, 112. 

see snow,ice, wind, cold, 

rain, temperature, &c. 

extraordinary, 351. 
Webb, Elizabeth, 97. 
Webster, C. R., Ill, 151. 

C. R. & G., 82. 

Chauncey, 98. 

Daniel, 122. 

George, 89. 

Mrs. James, 330. 

& Skinner, 76. 

Weed, Henry W., 75, 111, 166. 
Welch, G. W., 142. 
Weigh house, 103. 
Well in Joncker street, 258. 
in Pearl street, 254, 258. 
Brewers street, 255. 
in second ward, 268. * 
Wells, Isaac, 334. 
Israel, 143. 
Wendell, Evert, 273, 298, 299. 

Harmanus, 245, 258,267. 

Jacob H., 146. 

Jenkins, 102. 

John, H., 92, 101. 

JolmL., 104. 

J. E., 38. 

Maria, 162. 

Peter, 109. 
Wessels, Dirk, 74. 
West India trade, 128. 
Westerlo mansion, 345, 355. 
Wetmore Schuyler, 91. 

Izrahiah, 92. 
Whalen, Jeremiah, 333. 
Whitney, Mrs. W. H., 345. 



Wheat, price of, 79, 82, 177, 25 


for rents, 261, 263. 

sales, 1721, 263. 

sold by auction, 242. 
Wheaton, Henry GK, 123. 
Wheeler, Mrs. Matilda, 335. 
Whigs, old line, 340. 
White, Captain, 217. 

Dr. S. P., 117. 

Jonathan, 337. 
Whiteside, M., 157. 
Whitney, S. 87. 
WickliftVsr, Jacob, 346. 
Wilber, Mrs. Z., 237. 
Wilcox, S., 106. 
Wiley, Sarah, 113. 
Wilkinson, Abram, 339. 

Jacob, 93. 
Willard, Dr. E., 117. 

Edward C., 157. 
John, 111. 
S. D., 18,349. 

William Penn steamboat, 127. 
Williams, Henry A., 352. 

Thos., 232, 241,291. 
Williamson, Jr., John, 93. 
Willson, James R., 76. 
Wilson, Benj. ,148. 

Mrs. Benj., 357. 

Elizabeth, 333. 

R. L., 354. 

Sarah, 92. 

Winants, Mrs. Josiah, 115. 
Windmill, 92. 

burnt, 145. 
Wind, 31, 34, 35, 92. 

Winne, Mrs. Daniel, 335. 
& Fondey, 112. 
& Gernsey. 175. 
Jellis, Jr., 75. 
Winslow, Richard, 87. 
Winter, mild, 131. 
set in, 131. 
Winterbotham's view of Albany, 


Wiswall, Capt., 90, 127. 
Witbeck, Martinus, 355. 
Wood, abuse in sale of, 230. 

measure regulated, 256. 

& Acres, 149. 

Samuel, 106. 
Woodbury & Son, 155. 
Woodland, license for, 294, 295. 
Woodruff, Mrs. Halsey, 336. 
Woodworth, John, 122. 
Wooley, Charles E., 334. 
Workhouse, 83. 
Worth, David, 106. 

Grorham A., 334. 
Worthington, Daniel, 94. 

Mrs. D., 337. 

Wyngaert, Nicholas, 267. 
Yates, Abraham, 83. 

Governor, 99, 106. 

J. V. N., 97. 

Joseph C., 84. 

mansion, 337. 

& Mclntyre, 117, 150. 
Yellow fever, 79, 80. 
Young, Capt., 127. 

Mrs. Eve, 147. 

Men's Association, 330. 
Yule, John, 352.