Skip to main content

Full text of "Annals of the Andersonian Naturalists' Society"

See other formats





nnals 



OK THE 



xxbevBoxxxaxx UTcriuraCtsts' 



Z&ociety. 



o . lot). 




From Photo, iy] 



Frontispiece. 



[fames Mi 



■BAROCHAN CROSS. 




nnals 



OF THE 



Mnbexzonian IZiatxtxatxBte' 



tpocxety. 

K 



Edited by Robert Turner. 



Published for the Society by 
ALLAN & FERGUSON, 126 Renfield Street. 

G LAS GO W. 
1893. 




Edition limited to 250 copies. 



No.. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Introduction, vii 

Lanarkshire Rambles. By Robert Turner, .... i 

Records of Excursions in Renfrewshire. By John Paterson, 18 

Rarer Flowers of East Renfrewshire. By John Wood, . 46 

Records of Excursions to Loch Lomondside. By John 

Paterson, 55 

The Flora of Stirling and its Neighbourhood. By Johnston 

Shearer, 66 

Alpine Excursions to Cam Chreag and Beinn Doireann. 

By E. Raymond Burden, 71 

On the Fertilisation of the Larch (Laiix europtea). By the 

Rev. A. S. Wilson, M.A., B.Sc, 78 

The Return of the Swallow {Hirundo rustica). By Hugh 

Boyd Watt, 83 

Scotch Names of Native Wild Flowers. By John Wood, . 89 

Notes on the Roman Wall. By W. Johnstone, B.L., . . 104 

Curious Protective Features in the Young of Vertebrates. 

By Prof. Edward E. Prince, B.A., F.L.S., . . . 110 

Waste Ground and Suburban Bird-Life. By John Paterson, 118 

The Moss-like Tillandsia (Tillandsia usneoides, Linn.). By 

Robert Turner, , . . 12S 

List of Excursions and Photographs, 133 

List of Members, 141 

Indices, 145 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Barochan Cross. By James Mitchell, . . . Frontispiece. 

White Cattle, Cadzow Forest. By James Mitchell, facing page 7 

False Acacia (Robinia Pseud-Acacia) at Barncluith. 

By John Stewart, ,, 12 

Great Maple (Acer Pseudo-platanus) at Westburn. By 

Samuel Stewart, „ 16 

Cedar ok Lebanon (Cedrus Libani) at Castle Semple. 

By John Stewart, ,, 37 

Scotch Fir (Pinus sylvestris) at Rossdhu. By Samuel 

Stewart, ,, 60 

Larch (Larix eurepocd) at Balloch Castle. By James 

Mitchell, ,, 65 



INTRODUCTION. 



The formation of the Andersonian Naturalists' Society in the 
spring of 1885 was due to Mr. William Cumming and other 
students then attending the popular Botany class conducted by 
the Rev. Alexander S. Wilson, M.A., B.Sc., in Anderson's 
College, Glasgow, and the first members were chiefly drawn from 
that class. The inaugural meeting was held on 25th August, 
1885, when sixteen gentlemen were present, most of whom still 
remain members of the Society. Mr. Wilson was elected 
President, and Mr. Cumming Honorary Secretary : and their 
successors in these offices have been Mr. Robert Turner 
and Prof. Edward E. Prince, B.A., F.L.S., Presidents; and 
Messrs. John Paterson, Robert Boyd, Hugh Boyd Watt, 
Robert S. Houston, R. D. Wilkie, and Thomas B. Wilkie, 
Honorary Secretaries. With the consent of the Governors, 
arrangements were made to hold monthly meetings in Anderson's 
College, and these meetings have been continued in the same 
place under its changed name of Andersonian Buildings, Glasgow 
and West of Scotland Technical College. 

From the first it was determined to aim at doing something to 
popularise studies in natural science in Glasgow, and to carry 
on the Society on practical lines within the resources and powers 
of its own membership ; and while its early history was not one 
of unvaried success, yet, since 1888 (when the question of its 
continuation was seriously considered), there have been steady 
progress and increase in membership. A strong feature all along 



Vlll INTRODUCTION. 

has been the series of excursions undertaken each season for field 
work, by means of which members have not only found mutual 
advantage in collecting and observing as naturalists, but have 
also become acquainted with many of the rural aspects and phases 
of interest in the neighbourhood of Glasgow and even about 
places so distant as Dailly and Tyndrum, Bute and Fife. The 
photographic camera has been effectively used at many of these 
excursions, with results not only in the form of happy mementoes, 
but also frequently of scientific and scenic value. While the 
botanical interest not unnaturally predominates in the Society, 
other departments of natural history have also been cultivated, 
as its records show; and at present sectional committees embracing 
the following branches are a part of its working constitution: — 
Botanical, Geological, Microscopical, Photographic, Entomological, 
Ornithological, and general Zoology. 

The publication now issued is the first venture of the Society 
at giving the permanence of print to some of the work it has done, 
and the publishing committee desires to express its thanks and 
obligations to the contributors of articles and illustrations, which 
it is confident will prove acceptable to the subscribers and of 
interest to all lovers of nature. From the material available 
only a selection has been made, particularly as regards excursions, 
some of the districts frequently visited being left untouched at 
present. 

H. B. W. 

March, /Sgj. 




LANARKSHIRE RAMBLES. 

By Robert Turner. 



Clydesdale is a country of surprises for the naturalist. Along 
with its populousness there are ample solitudes of moorland and 
hill where wildness is all in all. Peesweep, snipe, and whaup 
haunt this land of heather and bog-moss, and yet we can often 
pleasantly sniff humanity afar in the peat-reek perfume borne over 
miles of moor. Even round its great city there are quiet retreats 
where nature unfolds itself, and here and there amid industrial 
unloveliness sudden byeways open into green seclusions. Its 
blackest country is full of possibilities to those who study its rock 
records, whose enthusiasm flames over marvellous past creatures, 
who delight in stone forests and the mysteries of an antiquity 
beyond the measures of our clocks and chronologies. 

Much of Upper Clydesdale is moorland, trending down from 
" God's Treasure House in Scotland " at Leadhills in rounded 
undulations, heather and grass clad, of Silurian and Old Red 
Sandstone strata to the Falls. The flora of the uplands here is 
very similar to that of the high country fringing the valley further 
down ; but as the excursions of the Society have so far been 
restricted in that direction by the Falls, it is proper that this paper 
should not intrude on what is to the Society an unknown land. 

To refer first to the uplands along the valley, which are mostly 
moorland and marsh, the chief feature there in the vegetation is 
the ling-heather {Calluna vulgaris), with which miles of moor are 
aflush in autumn. With it is associated the fine-leaved heath 
{Erica cinerea) and the less frequent cross-leaved one {Erica 
Tetralix), popularly known as bell-heather. Other very character- 
istic plants are rushes of various kinds {Juncus, etc.) and sedges 
{Carex), and not the least conspicuous of this kind of vegetation 
are the two species of cotton-grass {Eriophoruvi) with white 

A 



2 LANARKSHIRE RAMBLES. 

fluffiness visible afar. Of grasses, the most abundant and note- 
worthy is the blue grass (Molinia carulea). Common, too, are 
the milkwort (Polygala vulgaris), the bog-asphodel (Narthecium 
ossifragum), the cinquefoil (Comarum palustre), the bogbean 
(Menyantlies trifoliata), the cranberry ( Vaccinium Oxycoccos), the 
grass of Parnassus (Parnassia palustris), and the two insectivorous 
plants, the butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris) and the round- 
leaved sundew (Drosera rohmdifolid). The English sundew 
(Drosera anglica) is also found, but is not common. By the 
burns in early spring grows the golden saxifrage with alternate 
leaves (Chrysospleniwn alternifolium), while the commoner one 
(C. oppositifolium) flowers in similar places the summer through. 
The hairy stonecrop (Sedum villosum), a rare plant in most of 
Britain, is plentiful in damp places. On drier banks and knolls 
flourish the golden broom (Sarothamnus scoparius) and whin 
(Ulex europaus), while the needlegorse (Genista anglica) is not 
quite unknown. Here, too, the scented thyme (Thymus 
Serpyllum), the lovely mountain-pansy ( Viola luted), the blue 
gentian (Geniiana campestris), the fragrant orchis (Gymnadenia 
conopsea), the little tormentil (Potentilla Tormentilla), and other 
lowly herbs grow. Of ferns, the bracken (Pteris aquilina) is the 
chief, while the fragrant heath-fern (Lastrea Oreopteris) is perhaps 
the most delightful in its greenness and perfume. There is not 
wanting the waving beauty of others, as the broad shield-fern 
(Lastrea dilatata), the lady-fern (Athyrium Filix-fcemina), and the 
male-fern (Lastrea Filix-mas). The common polypody (Polypodium 
vulgare), the hard fern (Blechnum boreale), and the bladder-fern 
(Cystoptcris fragilis) abound. The moonwort (Botrychium 
Lunaria) is not uncommon, and the adder's-tongue (Ophioglossum 
vulgatum) is found, though rare, while in shaded places grow the 
beautiful beech and oak ferns (Polypodium Phegopteris and 7 J . 
Dryopteris). 

The cultivated districts have only wayside and field weeds of 
an ordinary type. The prevalent stiff clayey soil is not favourable 
to weed profusion or variety. Farmers, besides, now leave hardly 
any ground waste, and there are no rich hedgerows to exhilarate 
the botanist as in some parts of England. In the cornfields the 
gaudy corn-rose (Papaver Phceas) is wanting, but the less brilliant 
long-headed one (Papaver dubium) may be seen. The variegated 



LANARKSHIRE RAMBLES. 



hemp-nettle (Galeopsis versicolor) is common in cultivated ground, 
and the viscid groundsel (Senecio viscosus) is abundant in the 
neighbourhood of Glasgow, though both plants are somewhat scarce 
in many other districts. A herb rare in Britain generally but 
common in the Clyde valley is the tuberous comfrey {Symphytum 
tuberosum), while a variety of the common comfrey with dingy 
purple flowers (S. officinale, var. patens) occurs frequently. Others 
that are noteworthy will be referred to in due course. Of marsh 
and water plants there is great variety in the lower valley. There 
are many little lochs about Glasgow, some of those of most note 
botanically being, however, outside Lanarkshire. In such places 
in the county we find some plants comparatively rare elsewhere, 
as the great spearwort {Ranunculus Lingua), the marsh stitchwort 
(Stellaria glauca), mare's-tail (Hippuris vulgaris), cowbane (Ciaita 
virosa), wild rosemary (Andromeda polifolia), tufted loosestrife 
(Lysimachia thyrsiflora), two kinds of reed-mace (Typha latifolia 
and T. angustifolia), the four British species of duckweed (Lemna), 
two kinds of bladderwort (Utricular id), with curious traps for 
small creatures, and pillwort (Pilularia globulifera). There are 
also several introduced plants, as the flowering rush (Butomus 
umbellatus), and the ubiquitous Canadian pondweed (Anacharis 
Alsinastntm), a pest in canals and lochs alike. 

To begin at the Falls of Clyde (Excursions %th September, 
1888, 22nd June, 1889, and 251/1 June, 1892). There is a magnifi- 
cence of beauty in the rush and flow, in the walls of rock, the 
grand gorge, the overhanging greenery, that fills the artistic sense. 
But naturalists read small. It is no undervaluing of landscape 
attractiveness to listen to the mavis that sings on the tree, to 
catch the radiant flash of the kingfisher, to peer into the tiny 
flower that is lost in the general grandeur. The naturalist may 
be closely involved in some of the intimate fashions of his sur- 
roundings, and yet wide awake to the general vision of loveliness. 
The geologist sees in the Cyclopean walls of Old Red Sandstone 
that form the gorge, with strata that can often be traced from one 
side to the other, proof that the river has been running over falls 
for ages and steadily wearing back. The problems of force and 
time sharpen the zest of his interest. The botanist, who " speaks 
with the lowliest of the meadow flowers as readily as with the loftiest 
firs," peering about sees at his feet among the stones or above him 



4 LANARKSHIRE RAMBLES. 

on the rocks and banks herbs of rarity and consequence. When 
in the best position for the view of the upper Fall— Bonnington 
Linn — if he look earthward he will observe the beautiful purple- 
tipped white blooms of the rare wood bitter-vetch ( Vicia Orobus). 
Further down on the rocks of the left bank grows the wood vetch 
( V. sylvaiica), lovely with large purple-veined white flowers. The 
shining crane's-bill {Geranium lucidum), the rock-rose {Helianthe- 
mum vulgare), the beautiful winter-green {Pyrola minor), cow- 
wheat {Melampyrum pratense), and twayblade {Listera ovatd) — all 
somewhat uncommon in Clydesdale — may be culled hereabout. 
In the woods grows the scarce broad-leaved cotton-grass {Erio- 
phorum latifolium). Of true grasses, the graceful wood-melic 
{Melica wiiflora) is frequent in the district; but about Bonnington 
the rare mountain-melic {Melica nutans) and the quaking-grass 
{Briza media) nod and quiver in the shade. In the season of 
fruit we may moisten our lips with blaeberries {Vaccinium 
Myrtillus) almost anywhere, and here and there vary our feast 
with red whortleberries ( Vaccinium Vitis-Idcea), cloudberries {Rubus 
Chamccmorus), and stone brambles {Rubus saxatilis). On moist 
rocks near Corra linn may be seen the narrow-leaved bitter-cress 
{Cardamine impatiens), a plant of very local occurrence in Britain, 
and also tufts of the purple saxifrage {Saxifraga oppositifolia), 
which is usually a dweller on the higher hills. In shaded nooks 
grow the pale parasitic toothwort {Lathma squamaria), and the 
whorled-leaved herb-paris {Paris quadrifolia). Of ferns one cannot 
be very confident where there are numerous visitors on the outlook 
for domestic vegetable pets, but the maidenhair spleenwort 
{Asplenium Trichomanes) and the rare green spleenwort {Asplenium 
viride) still survive in some stations though completely outrooted 
in others. About Corehouse grounds there are some fine speci- 
mens of trees, native and introduced, as walnut {Juglans regia), 
Norway maple {Acer platanoides), the small-leaved maple {Acer 
campestre), the giant redwood {Sequoia gigantea); among intro- 
duced shrubs, the fly-honeysuckle {Lonicera Xylosteum), the cornel 
{Cornus sanguinea), the ash barberry {Mahonia Aquifolium) ; and 
some noteworthy stranger herbs in ponds and waste places, as 
villarsia ( V. nymphceoides), the sweet sedge {Acorus Calamus), the 
flowering rush {Butomus umbellatus), the columbine {Aquilegia 
vulgaris), the Star of Bethlehem {Ornithogalum umbellatum), 



LANARKSHIRE RAMBLES. 5 

motherwort (Leonurus Cardiaca), the lily of the valley {Convallaria 
majalis), the perfoliate honeysuckle (Lonicera Caprifolium). Of 
plants which may be frequently observed as we ramble down by 
the river, and which, though not uncommon in Clydesdale, are of 
some scarcity over considerable areas of Britain, mention may be 
made of the luckengowan (Trollius europceus), the cross-leaved 
bedstraw {Galium boreale), the helleborine (Epipactis latifolia), 
the hairy St. John's-wort (Hypericum hirsutum), and the stately 
giant bellflower (Campanula latifolia), which, with its long pinkish 
white racemes, adds some grandeur to our summer woods. The 
tuberous comfrey already referred to may often be observed with 
corollas bee-bitten at base. There is, too, that beautiful May- 
flowering bush, the bird-cherry (Primus Padus), with profusion of 
pendulous racemes of sweet white blooms. 

We pass out of the gorge, and the banks widen into sunny 
slopes of green pastures, strawberry beds, gooseberry gardens, 
apple orchards ; and a little past Lanark Old Bridge there is a 
Roman bridge over the romantic Mouse, which has just emerged 
from a picturesque gorge of its own making, known as Cartland 
Crags (Excursion 23rd August, 1890). This gorge evidences 
wonderful intensity of steady erosion, all apparently since the end 
of the great Age of Ice. There is a profuse vegetation resembling 
that at the Falls, with many of the plants already mentioned, as 
the rock-rose, the narrow-leaved bitter-cress, the wood-vetch, etc. 
The willow-leaved spiraea (S. salicifolia) grows naturally, and the 
lily of the valley is quite wild here, more distinctly so than about 
the Falls. Landshells occur in some abundance and variety, and 
on the occasion of an excursion of the Society, Vertigo pusilio was 
found by Mr. James Steel — a new record for the district. 

On the uplands to the east is the ancient town of Lanark, 
where the statue of Wallace over the kirk door is busked every 
Lanimer day — a worship right and becoming to the great patriot. 
On the town moor grows the moonwort. 

Northward lies Lee Castle, the seat of the Lockharts, famous 
for the " Lee Penny " — Sir Walter Scott's Talisman — that in the 
times of over-belief was held when dipped in water to give it cura- 
tive powers over plagues in man and beast. Just beside the castle 
is an oak (Quercus Robur) known as the " Pease Oak," with some 
tradition, probably baseless, connecting it with Cromwell. It is 



6 LANARKSHIRE RAMBLES. 

hollow and very old, but still vigorous. It measures at the 
narrowest part of the stem, avoiding nodosities, 23 feet fy inches, 
and at a height of six or eight feet divides into great branches. 
There are some other grand trees in the grounds, as a great maple 
(Acer Pseudo-platamis) with fine bole and regular branches, 13 feet 
10 inches in girth at 5 feet 3 inches from the ground; a beech 
(Fagus sylvatica) measuring 15 feet 4 inches at 5 feet 1 inch; a 
tall larch (Larix europaa), 11 feet 10 inches at 4 J feet; and a 
hemlock spruce (Abies canadensis) about 50 feet high. 

Beyond lie some romantic ravines known as Gills — the Fiddler's 
Gill (Excursions 2,0th May, 1891, and 2W1 May, 1892), Jock's 
Gill, etc. — where in season grow goldilocks (Ranunculus auri- 
camus), herb-paris, the rare and curious bird's-nest orchid (Neoltia 
Nidus-avis), and abundance of the lesser winter-green, which indeed 
is quite a feature all over this part of the Clyde valley. 

The Clyde flowing eastward has still another leap to make at 
Stonebyres Linn. The Falls here are very grand, though their 
beauty seems less recognized popularly than the others. The 
surrounding scenery is picturesque and charming with ravines 
and woodlands. The flora is generally similar to that already 
described. 

The naturalist, who is nearly always a man who walks, will 
ramble on down the valley, and if his saunter is in the sweet May- 
time it will be through a region of orchards glorious with apple 
blossom, one of the compensations of beauty that help to atone 
for scientific hardness. At Crossford he will probably turn up the 
lovely glen of the Nethan and visit Craignethan Castle (Excursion 
7,0th May, 1 891), which is mostly spoken of now as Tillietudlem, 
so strong is the desire to fix here Sir Walter Scott's castle in the 
air. This was probably the situation of a fortress of some kind from 
remote times, and the present castle was erected early in the 16th 
century. It was then known as Draffan, and there Queen Mary 
tarried for a day or two before fatal Langside. After that the 
castle was besieged and taken, and finally it was dismantled in 
1579. It was purchased in 1665 from the Duchess Anne of 
Hamilton, and the new owner erected a house in the courtyard 
and called it Craignethan. Sir Walter Scott visited it in 1799, 
and was offered it as a residence but did not accept. On the 
ruins wallflower (Cheiranthus Cheiri) now grows profusely. On 



LANARKSHIRE RAMBLES. 7 

the east face of the castle hill and on the steep banks of the 
Nethan grow, besides many of the commoner plants of the district, 
the cuckoo-pint (Arum maculalum), alkanet (Anchusa semper- 
virens), the giant horse-tail (Equisetum Telmateia), and the 
pendulous carex (Carex penduld). There is a group of three yew 
trees (Taxus baccatd) near the ruins. Though reputed very old, 
none of them is very large. There is an alleged tradition about them 
which is somewhat tangled and inconsequential. On the occasion 
of the Society's excursion upwards of a score of species of birds 
were seen, including the cole tit and the grey wagtail. 

The Clyde now flows on peacefully through holm and lea, 
woodland and orchard, amid varied and picturesque scenery, by- 
Milton Lockhart, Mauldslie Castle, Garrion Gill, and on. There 
is a beautiful park at Mauldslie with some fine trees, especially 
wych-elms (Ulmus montand) and great white poplars (Papains 
alba). 

To the north-west is Cadzow Forest, with the deep ravine of the 
Aven hid in its heart (Excursions 2\st August, 1886, and 12II1 
September, 1891). This grand gorge is about three miles in 
length, and appears, like those at the Falls, Cartland, and 
elsewhere, to have been hollowed out by erosive action since the 
glacial period. The river views, the charming variety of prospect, 
the delightfulness of rock and woodland, the suggestions of the by- 
gone, lure us with their wondrous glamour. Here are remnants 
of the forest primeval, curious cattle of an ancient breed, ruins of 
a feudal fortress with a tale sad as the story of the deaths of kings. 
The old oaks and the "white kye" — Plate I. — are the most 
distinctive living antiquities of Clydesdale. I forbear to quote 
from Sir Walter Scott's powerful ballad of " Cadzow Castle," 
which refers both to the huge oaks and the mountain bulls, as it 
is familiar to all. 

These oaks are not indeed, strictly speaking, remnants of the 
Caledonian Forest, for that was further north, but of the great 
primeval forest lands stretching through Lanark and Peebles 
into England. There are some alleged traditions that they were 
planted about 1140, by David, Earl of Huntingdon, afterwards 
David I. of Scotland ; but I think we may dismiss these got-up 
stories, for their appearance and habit indicate natural sowing 
and wild-forest growth probably of a time remoter than that of 



8 LANARKSHIRE RAMBLES. 

King David I. The tale savours of a land nearly denuded of 
trees, when planting was a creditable thing, only a century or two 
back ; not of a time when there were but a few clearances here 
and there in a wild forest, and men were esteemed as they wielded 
their axes vigorously against the great trees. Most of them show 
signs of decay, for even to an oak, type of robustness, a thousand 
years brings decrepitude. A century ago they seem, indeed, to 
have been very much as now, for Naismith of Drumloch, writing 
of them, says they were very much decayed. The forest is full of 
trees such as artists love — " stag-headed " trees in all stages, for 
oaks die from the top assuming this form, what Shakespeare calls 
" high top bald with dry antiquity." Shortness of trunk and great 
girth relatively are the especial characteristics of these trees, 
betokening stubbornness and endurance. In gnarled cantanker- 
ousness they have outlived tumultuous generations of fretful men, 
who have struggled and schemed around them and then passed 
away like the grass and herbs in their shade. In their decay they 
afford a home to multitudes of chattering jackdaws, and fungi such 
as the poor-man's beefsteak (Fistulina hepaticd) prey on them. 
Yet as long as they live even their hollowness cannot hold them 
in trammels, and with every spring they awake to renewed 
greenness. 

Mr. Robert Hutchison gives in the "Transactions of the High- 
land and Agricultural Society of Scotland" for 1881, particulars 
of the measurement of some of these trees. At 5 feet he found 
the girth of several as follows :— 22—, 21, 21^, 20, 18, i4yW feet. 
Measurements of the trees have been frequently made by members 
of the Society with somewhat similar results, while measurements 
of trees nearer to the Barncluith entrance give 12— at 4, 14 at 
3^, 15 at 2 T %, ii t % at 3J, i8 T v at between 3 and 4, 21/3- 
at 4J, i2yf at 2, 21^ at between 3 and 4 feet. That these 
trees are much inferior in size generally to some English oaks is 
evident, but when we consider the more northern situation, the 
exposure, and the soil, we can readily admit that their antiquity 
may be even greater. Under any circumstances they are 
the most interesting remains in Scotland of the ancient forest- 
lands. 

In the park near Cadzow Castle the great maple becomes 
common and presents itself in many fine examples. One of 



LANARKSHIRE RAMBLES. 9 

these measured 14^ at 3A, and another i6j% at 4^ feet, the cir- 
cumference of the spread of branches of the former being 225 feet. 

The cattle are singularly beautiful, with straight back and fair 
underline, their bodies white with black markings. The tips of 
their small, turned-up, white horns, the muzzles, eyes, ears, hoofs, 
and the forelegs up nearly to the knee are black. The roof of 
the mouth and the tip of the tongue are of the same colour. The 
most marked features that may be held as indicating wildness are 
the watchfulness of their quick black eyes and their restlessness 
and alertness in the presence of any intruder. The calves are 
also very shy, and when separated from the herd and put in 
enclosures in autumn they continue mistrustful of man, re- 
treating as far as possible with their suspicious black eyes fixed 
on him. The bulls are usually considered to be exceedingly 
fierce. Among themselves they are savage enough. The law of 
battle prevails, and in spite of enclosures they frequently settle 
the question of herd supremacy. Several bulls as a rule perish 
yearly in these contests, for they fight to the death with unmiti- 
gated ferocity. So far as man is concerned there is no reason to 
treat them with special distrust ; but prudent watchfulness is 
required as with all bulls. The herd is, indeed, not easily 
approached by man. They scamper off on the least occasion, till 
on being hard pressed they take panic and charge. There are 
tales of persons being hunted by them and taking to trees, such 
as a bird-catcher " treed " by a bull, when, as the Rev. William 
Patrick remarks, " he had occasion to observe the habits of the 
animal." 

As to the early history of such cattle in Scotland little is known 
of a satisfactory kind. Hector Boece describes wild cattle in 
Scotland with a dash of the lion in them (1526-7), and other 
writers follow his lead. A herd of white forest-cattle at Cumber- 
nauld is referred to in a State paper of 1570. Sir Robert Sibbald 
in his Scotia Illustrata (1684) quotes certain references as to the 
forest-cattle, but holds that they are not so savage as stated, and 
do not differ in form from domestic ones. He adds that he 
knows nothing of maned bisons. 

Of the early history of the Cadzow herd nothing is known. 
When the forest was enclosed is even unknown. Cadzow was 
probably a seat of the ancient British kings, and was undoubtedly 



IO LANARKSHIRE RAMBLES. 

from very remote times held by the crown. It passed as a feu 
from the crown (King Robert Bruce) to the Hamilton family. It 
has been alleged that the king stipulated that a certain number of 
white cows should be maintained and the oaks preserved ; but of 
this there does not seem to be any confirmation. The conditions 
in the charter were an annual payment of ^80 sterling with 22 
chalders of wheat and 6 chalders of barley. 

After the battle of Langside, when Cadzow Castle was twice 
besieged and taken and finally dismantled, and the chiefs of the 
Hamilton family were executed or exiled and their power broken, 
we do not know how it fared with the herd amid the foraging of 
hungry armed men. It was at this time that the herd at Cumber- 
nauld was nearly extirpated. 

On the authority of Mr. Robert Brown, a former ducal cham- 
berlain, Sir William Jardine in the Naturalist? Library says that 
during the troublous times of Charles I. and Cromwell " they were 
nearly extirpated, but a breed of them having been retained for 
the Hamilton family by Hamilton of Dalziel and by Lord Elphin- 
stone of Cumbernauld, they were subsequently restored to their 
ancient purity." 

In Wilson's Clyde (1764), a poem on which the author had been 
engaged for many years, he refers to the cattle, so that I think we 
may safely assume that about 1760 they occupied the same pastures 
as now. 

Pennant in his Tours in Scotland (17 69-1 772) did not see the 
cattle at Cadzow ; he heard that there were still a few kept. In 
1772 he saw them at Drumlanrig. In the 4th edition of his 
British Zoology (1786) he mentions having seen the cattle at 
Drumlanrig and Chillingham, but says nothing of Cadzow. 

Bewick in his General History of Quadrupeds (1790) treats 
fully of the Chillingham cattle, but he does not mention Cadzow 
or Drumlanrig. He says that herds " were kept at several parks 
in England and Scotland ; but they have been destroyed by 
various means, and the only breeds now remaining in the kingdom 
are in the park at Chillingham " and other English places. 

In the Statistical Account of Scotland (17 91) the article on the 
Parish of Hamilton was written by Naismith of Drumloch, a local 
authority on agricultural subjects. He says : — " Among these 
venerable trees grazed the white cows mentioned by naturalists as 



LANARKSHIRE RAMBLES. II 

an untamed native breed. They seemed to differ in nothing from 
the domestic kind, excepting that they were all over white, with 
black or brown ears or muzzles ; and from their manner of life 
very shy and even fierce when they had not room to fly. They 
were exterminated, from economical motives, about the year 1760." 
This careful note by a resident in the district is, I take it, of much 
weight. 

The statement as to the extermination is supported by Heron, 
who made a tour in 1793, and by Denholm, who visited Hamilton 
about the year 1800. Prof. John Walker, of Edinburgh 
University, wrote his treatise on Mammalia Scoiica towards the 
end of the 18th century, and under Bos Scoticus he says that they 
only now continue in the woods about Drumlanrig. 

Sir Walter Scott spent the Christmas of 1801 at Hamilton 
Palace. A morning ramble to the ruined castle suggested the 
ballad, in a note to which he says the cattle were extirpated about 
forty years before. 

In the face of all this I think it is clear that the herd as such 
did not exist at Cadzow for about forty years. 

As the cattle are now in the park, the question arises, When 
were they re-introduced ? It is highly probable that Sir Walter 
Scott's ballad awakened the interest of the ducal family, and that 
a successful attempt to form or collect a herd was made, either 
from a few survivors of the former one that had been kept 
somewhere else, or from a distinct one. Under any circum- 
stances a small herd of white cattle, numbering about a score, 
were browsing in Cadzow by 1809, and the cows being horned 
and the bulls humble would seem to indicate a herd in process 
of formation from different sources. Later the whole herd 
became humble. For twenty-five years past, at least, they have 
been all horned. 

In 1866 the herd came very near its end. Rinderpest broke 
out among them, and by law they became subject to slaughter. 
A few young animals were hidden away in the deep gorge of the 
Aven, and from the survivors — some eight in all and only one of 
them a bull — the present herd is descended. Of recent years, in 
order to infuse some new blood, a Highland bull and one from 
Chillingham were introduced to the herd. 

In conclusion, I take it as established that white cattle have 



12 LANARKSHIRE RAMBLES. 

been about Cadzow from very remote times, with an occasional 
break and re-introduction, and that they are a fancy breed that 
have been kept for their beauty in a half-wild state in this forest 
as elsewhere in the parks of the great nobles. 

Among herbs, alkanet is not uncommon in some of the 
ravines, and may probably be a remnant of former cultivation. 
The hart's-tongue (Scolopendrium vulgarc) occurs along with 
the commoner ferns of the district. On walls are found the 
wall-rue (Asplenium Ruta-muraria) and the black spleenwort 
(Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum). About Chatelherault the musk- 
mallow (Malva moschata) and dropwort (Spircea Filipenduld) are 
to be found, while the ivy-leaved toadflax (Linaria Cymbalaria) 
grows profusely on the walls. The hairy St. John's-wort is still as 
common here as further up the valley of the Clyde. 

At the mouth of the gorge is Barncluith (Excursions 2is( 
August, 1886, 1 5 //I September, 1888, and 12th September, 1891), 
where, high above the Aven on a bold bank, are houses and 
terraces built about the close of the 16th century. It is a charm- 
ing old-world place with delightful outlooks over the wooded 
depths. The terraced gardens are picturesque on the steep and 
gracious in their antiquity. The yews and box-trees clipped into 
fantastic shapes, the fountain basin overgrown with moss and 
liverwort, are of the delights of the place ; but for the 
naturalist the old-fashioned garden flowers growing with the 
wild plants of the district have most interest. The place is a 
botanical treasury. On the crannied walls is a profuse vegeta- 
tion including, among ferns, hart's-tongue, maidenhair spleenwort, 
and bladder-fern. There and elsewhere about grow the great 
mullein ( Verbascum Thapsus), the celandine ( Chelidonium majus), 
yellow fumitory (Corydalis luted), hop (Hamulus Lupulus), teasel 
(Dipsacus sylvestris), heart-leaved valerian ( Valeriana pyrenaica), 
astrantia (Astrantia major), lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis), 
Jacob's ladder (Polemonium cozruleum), and a host of others of the 
same old garden type. 

There are some fine trees in the grounds. On one of the lower 
terraces is a false acacia (Robinia Pseud-Acacia) — -Plate II. — prob- 
ably the finest in the West of Scotland, measuring 5™ at 4! feet, 
a beautiful and interesting tree. This species is a native of North 
America, and was introduced into Europe in 1640, the name 




From Photo. by\ 



[/. Stewart, Largi 



FALSE ACACIA (Robinia PseuH-Acacia) at Barncluith. 



LANARKSHIRE RAMBLES. 1 3 

Robinia being in honour of Robin, a French botanist. It was at 
first supposed to be a kind of Egyptian acacia, and was thus 
named in error the locust tree. A walnut tree in the gardens, 
tall and with a fine spread, measures 8^ at 4^ feet ; but 
it is beginning to show signs of decay. The row of great 
maples at the back entrance attracts attention. The largest of 
these has a girth of 15 \ at 3^ feet. There are some oaks on the 
bank below the gardens, and on them the dripping polypore 
{Polyporus dryadcus) has been found. 

To the east on the other side of the Clyde at Dalziel there is a 
lovely glen and some bits of pleasant woodland, with an old oak, 
probably a remnant of the same forest as the Cadzow ones. The 
girth of this oak is given by Mr. R. Hutchison as i3 t °tt- at 5 feet. 

Hamilton Palace grounds, which are known as the Low Parks 
{Excursion 15/// September, 1888), consist of fertile haughs by the 
Clyde, with richly wooded glades, and in them are some very 
large beeches, limes, horse-chestnuts, and birches. Along the 
opposite bank of the Clyde woods extend to the South Calder 
Water. 

Near Bothwell Bridge helleborine (Epipactis latifolia) grows 
profusely, and a sandy bank by the river is quite over-run by 
the tall broad-leaved groundsel (Senecio saracenicus), which flowers 
very late in autumn. To the east on the way to the Roman 
bridge over the South Calder there were woods a few years ago 
and many wild flowers, with great abundance of sweet woodruff 
{Asperula odorata), and here-and-there the wild basil (Cctlamintha 
Clinopodiuni) ; but now a large colliery and rows of houses are 
there. In the glen at the Roman bridge the curious bird's-nest 
orchid may be seen. Beyond are Motherwell and malleable iron 
works. 

The sweep made by the Clyde at Bothwell Castle is known as 
Bothwell Bank {Excursion ijt/i August, 1889), and long has its 
praise been sung, as in the very old ballad, " Bothwell Bank, thou 
bloomest fair," which we are told in a book published in 1605 
had been heard by a traveller in Palestine sung by a woman 
— Scottish, of course — as she dandled her baby. The refrain was 
afterwards adopted for a wailing ballad over the defeat of the 
Covenanters at the " Brig." The ordinary flora of the district is 
well represented here, and about the grounds generally there are 



14 LANARKSHIRE RAMBLES. 

some uncommon plants as well — often probably strangers that 
have succeeded in establishing themselves — as the sweet violet 
( Viola odorata), the cowslip {Primula veris), which is rare in the 
West of Scotland, the cuckoo-pint, the great yellow loosestrife 
{Lysimachia vulgaris), the green hellebore {Helleborus viridis), 
the Welsh poppy (Meconopsis cambrica), the yellow figwort 
{Scrophularia vernalis), spurge-laurel {Daphne Laureola), besides 
the usual crane's-bills the blood-red one and the knotted one 
{Geranium sanguineum and nodosum), the plantain leopard's- 
bane {Doronicum plantagineuni), and the wild tulip {Tulipa 
sylvestris). Others might be mentioned, but there can be little 
doubt that even these are mostly introduced plants that have 
found a congenial home here. 

Bothwell Castle is one of the most interesting ruins in Scotland, 
both from the style of the building and its historic associations. 
It was erected during the 13th century, though the exact date and 
the name of the founder are unknown. It was taken and re-taken 
several times during the War of Independence, and both Edward 
I. and Edward III. of England stayed there for a few days. 
About the end of the 17th century the Earl of Angus had the 
present mansion built, using the old castle as a quarry. 

Extensive excavations have recently been made and the walls 
cemented, so that the climbing plants which have beautified the 
ruins so long have been somewhat disturbed. Having been 
carefully treated, however, they are now recovering their hold. 
Besides ivy and wallflower flourish old man's beard {Clematis 
Vitalba), wall pellitory {Parietaria officinalis), and above all the 
birthwort {Aristoloc/iia Sipho), that magnificent climber which the 
Wordsworths admired so much on their visit to the castle in 
1803, as "a broad-leaved, creeping plant without flowers, which 
scrambled up the castle wall along with the ivy, and spread its 
vine-like branches so lavishly that it seemed to be in its natural 
situation." Birthwort has flowers in its season, however, and very 
interesting they are. Dittander {Lepidium latifolium) also grows 
on the ruins, and this is probably the only station for it in the 
West of Scotland. 

Not far from the ruins there are some very graceful birches 
{Betula alba); a great maple that divides near the ground into two 
trunks, the larger of which measures 14/75- feet; a variegated 



LANARKSHIRE RAMBLES. 1 5 

variety of the great maple ; an old wych-elm that about a foot 
from the ground sends out ten great upright branches; and a 
Spanish chestnut (Castanea vulgaris) towards the river that girths 
i4 T \- feet. There are some good oaks, and in front of the 
modern mansion, one, round which a seat has been placed, 
measures 14,% feet. 

Perched on the steep bank on the other side of the river, right 
opposite to the old castle, are the ruins of Blantyre Priory. All 
about is delightful with fine woods diversified with rock, and 
altogether lovely. Here grow some plants that are probably not 
native, like those referred to on the Bothwell side. Perhaps the 
most interesting herb about the ruins is the dusky crane's-bill 
{Geranium pha'iim). 

The river flows calmly on past this enchanting boskiness that 
sets so well the fragments of the priory and the ruddy ruins of 
the ancient fortress. After some curving and winding it reaches 
Kenmuir Bank (Excursion 3rd April, 1886), which has long been 
a favourite resort of Glasgow botanists, and, indeed, of the people 
generally. Here there was formerly a wood of natural growth, 
pleasant in many ways. There was no fine or valuable timber, 
and its money value must have been paltry. It was cut down a 
year or two ago. The bank looks bare, and the river seems to be 
making inroads more than formerly. Here, in spring, come the 
young botanists of the city to discover much new to them in the 
world, as the curious flowers of the moschatell (Adoxa moschatel- 
lina), the dioeciousness of the red-campion (Lychnis diurna), and 
the wonderfulness of even the commonest herbs. Here, too, are 
found the large loosestrife, Dutch rushes (Equisetum hyemale), 
the great leopard's-bane (Doronicum pardalianches), along with 
the characteristic plants of the district, as the luckengowan, 
goldilocks, wild hyacinth, giant bell-flower, etc. Further down, 
about Carmyle, the goat's-beard ( Tragopogon pratensis) is common, 
and the toothwort has been found ; while a little inland, about 
Tollcross, the bird's-foot (Ornithopus perpusillus) and the least 
filago (F. minima) are at home on the sandhills. 

The bistort (Polygonum Bistorta) grows abundantly on the 
embankment on the south side of the river (Excursions nth July, 
1888, and 14th May, 1890), and the blunt-topped horse-tail 
(Equisetum umbrosum) is found on the banks of the river near 



1 6 LANARKSHIRE RAMBLES. 

Newton. The common sand-martin and sandpiper frequent the 
river here in considerable numbers. 

At Westburn, a little above Cambuslang, a good example of 
the great maple is to be seen — Plate III. In a paper read to 
the Society by Mr. John Paterson, he says of this tree that it is 
probably the most symmetrical example of the great maple in the 
West of Scotland, and that anything finer can hardly be imagined. 
The estate of Westburn was long held by scions of the Hamilton 
family, and till about a quarter of a century ago there was much 
fine timber in the park. The grandest trees are said to have been 
beeches, and these were studies for Horatio M'Culloch, the great 
artist, about half a century ago. The park is now used for pasture, 
and this is the only tree left. It measured in 1891 16J- feet girth. 

In the glen at Cambuslang a few herbs may still be found, as 
fool's-parsley (/Ethusa Cynapium), and abundance of tuberous 
comfrey. Beyond on the Cathkin Hills (Excursion 7 th May, 
1892) are good examples of the usual moorland vegetation, with a 
few rarer forms. About Stonelaw there are old quarries and 
waste ground, with many native plants and some that have 
become naturalized, as the periwinkle ( Vinca minor), the alpine 
currant (Ribes alpinum), and clematis. On a burnside near the 
Clyde at Farme, the yellow meadow-rue (Thalirtriim flavum) 
grows. This brings us to the confines of the City of Glasgow. 

To the north of the city is Possil Marsh, by the Forth and 
Clyde canal, a favourite resort of botanists owing to its wealth of 
aquatic plants ; and to the north-east Hogganfield and Frankfield 
Lochs, and further afield towards Coatbridge Bishop Loch and 
others, forming a group thereabouts. I have already referred to 
the more striking features in their flora, and frequent excursions 
have been made to them. Douglas Support (Rosehall), near 
Coatbridge (Excursion wth October, 1890), is somewhat marred 
by industrial contamination of the stream that passes through it ; 
but the estate itself is in admirable condition. Among its trees 
are some fine specimens of beech, horse-chestnut (sEsculus hippo- 
castannni), thorn ( Cratcegus Oxyacanthd), yew, wych-elm, oak, and 
hornbeam ( Carpinus Betuhis). The beeches are numerous and 
beautiful, some attaining a great height. Several were measured, 
the greatest girth found being 14 feet. On a mound between the 
stream and the mansion house there is a very fine wych-elm 




From Photo, by] 



[S. Stewart. 



GREAT MAPLE (Acer Pseudo-plat anus}, at Westburn, Cambuslang. 



6 NOt 31 



LANARKSHIRE RAMBLES. 1 7 

measuring 12^ feet. In the kitchen garden is a most notable 
hornbeam, with long cord-like branches, hanging vertically from 
the older branches, forming in summer a leafy screen with large 
clear space round the trunk, which is 7^° feet in girth. 

Usually rambles are made at a time when fungi are not very 
prominent features in wood and field, and special excursions fall 
to be arranged in late autumn for their study and collection. I 
have referred to a few kinds in the course of this paper ; but there 
was quite a display of them at Douglas Support on the visit there, 
forty species being collected, including representatives of Amanita, 
An/iillaria, Tricholoma, Clitocybe, Collybia, Mycena, Pholiota, 
Hebeloma, Psalliota, Hypholoma, Psilocybe, Coprimes, Hygrophorus, 
Laclarius, Russula, Marasmius, Boletus, Polyporus, Stereum, 
Clavaria, Lycoperdon, and Xylaria. Surely this is a gathering 
sufficient in itself to excuse such a string of generic names. 

I have tried to give a general sketch of the botany of the 
district, with some references to other features, geological and 
zoological, such as came under notice on the occasion of excur- 
sions ; and I take it we have something still to be thankful for in 
the beautiful green retreats and ravines of Lanarkshire and the 
refreshment and enjoyment they hold for lovers of nature. 



RECORDS OF EXCURSIONS IN 
RENFREWSHIRE, 

With Additional Matter. 

By John Paterson. 



Cathcart Parish. — On four occasions excursions have been 
made to localities in this parish. As to the first visit (15th June, 
1887) there is, unfortunately, no record in the minutes of what 
proved a most agreeable excursion. The beautiful and romantic 
Linn was the rendezvous. Passing the old castle of Cathcart, 
with a few tufts of wallflower nodding from its walls, the small 
company representing the Society proceeded by a charming 
country lane to the Cart. Before leaving the lane, however, 
attention was called to the rather unusual circumstance that part 
of the hedgerow here is formed of the hornbeam. This use of 
the hornbeam, though comparatively unfamiliar to us, is no 
new thing, as Evelyn was loud in his praise of it as forming the 
" noblest and stateliest hedge for long walks in gardens or parks of 
any tree whatsoever whose leaves are deciduous." The banks of 
the White Cart at the Linn are very steep, and clad to their tops 
with a variety of deciduous trees chiefly. The beauty and repose 
of the place formed a most striking contrast to the dreariness and 
din of the city so lately left behind, and as if to complete the 
transformation, there, revealed to the astonished gaze of those 
present, was the " hidden splendour of the stream," the kingfisher 
darting on rapid wing. Among plants gathered, perhaps worthy 
of mention were the evening campion {Lychnis vespertine.) and 
the giant bell-flower {Campanula latifolia). 

An evening visit was paid to the Queen's Park in July, 1887, 
for the purpose of viewing at a favourable season the rich collection 



RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 1 9 

of shrubs and trees there. The result of the perambulation was 
an added interest in a direction often neglected by botanists. 
None but those who have taken the trouble to inquire can 
appreciate the extent of the interest that attaches to such a collec- 
tion as that in the Queen's Park. The educational possibilities 
of this park seem to be scarcely dreamed of by our municipal 
rulers. A handbook containing some information as to the native 
country, economic uses, and morphology of the trees and shrubs 
would surely be a great public convenience. To give here a list 
of interesting trees in the park, or even of a selection of such, 
would demand greater space than the scope of this publication 
justifies. 

On the afternoon of the 6th of April, 1889, a series of 
excursions was initiated to illustrate the notable trees of the 
County of Renfrew, and the attendance and interest on this, the 
first of the series, have been maintained in the subsequent 
excursions. Cathcart was the rendezvous, and the party, number- 
ing about thirty, had the advantage of being accompanied by the 
late Mr. A. M. Scott, F.S.A. Scot., who has done yeoman service 
in the elucidation of the history and antiquities of the parish. 
The kirkyard was first visited, and here Mr. Scott — with the party 
congregated round the Covenanters' Memorial Stone, which had 
recently been raised from its former prone position — discussed the 
circumstances attending the death of the martyrs, the ancient 
foundation of the Kirk of Cathcart, and cognate matters. Atten- 
tion was then directed to the four large ash trees in the old 
portion of the kirkyard. Macdonald, in his Rambles, makes a 
passing reference to these trees, but they are not mentioned in 
either of the statistical accounts of the parish. The present 
venerable minister of the parish, the Rev. Dr. James Smith, who 
wrote the last statistical account, informs the writer " that there is 
no notice of them in the ancient records either of the heritors or 
kirk session, nor any tradition on the subject." He further states 
that " but for the damage done to them by every severe storm for 
many years past, they seem to me much as they were when I first 
knew them sixty-eight years ago." Since the time of the Society's 
visit the tree nearest the road skirting the north side of the kirk- 
yard has been completely shorn of its fair proportions, having 
suffered chiefly from the gale on the evening of 13th October, 1891. 



20 RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 

None of the group can compare for symmetry with that at the 
south-west corner, which is a beautiful tree, spreading equally in 
all directions. The following measurements of these trees were 
taken on the 12th of March, 1892 : — 

Tree, south-west corner of kirkyard, at 3 ft. 6 in., - girth, 10 ft. 9 in. 

,, near tool-house, at 3 ft. 6 in., - - - - ,, II ,, 3 ,, 

,, south-east of church, ,, - - - - ,, 10 ,, 6£,, 

,, clue east ,, ,, ----,, 10 ,, t\„ 

Aikenhead Estate was next visited, the following measurements 
of trees being taken at the time : — 

Wych-elm in garden overlooking pond, - 

,, ,, south-west of pond, 

English elm in park (south tree of a pair), 
Oak near garden, ------- 

Walnut in garden (much decayed), - - - - 



II ft. 


Sin 


is .. 


,, 


10 ,, 


2 ,, 


9 » 


10 ,, 


9 » 


6 „ 



The above measurements are all taken at the narrowest part of 
the stem accessible. The wych-elms in the garden are particularly 
handsome and tall trees. The tree giving the greatest girth 
measurement was thickly overgrown with ivy, and had large 
excrescences, but a foot was allowed for this in taking the girth. 
Probably the greatest attraction for those present was in the park, 
where two fine examples of the English elm (Ulmus campestris) 
were seen in proximity to their more freely branching Scotch 
congener, the wych-elm ( U. montand). 

The grounds about Cathcart House or Cartside, near the old 
castle of Cathcart, were next visited. An opportunity was thus 
afforded of viewing the castle from the bed of the river, and the 
strength of its position was here more easily understood than from 
the lane on its eastern side. A splendid beech at the entrance to 
the grounds of Cartside was measured (girth, 11 feet 1 inch). On 
the Court Knowe — the position from which Queen Mary viewed 
the battle of Langside — a halt was called, and Mr. Scott contri- 
buted further topographical notes. On this knowe formerly grew a 
thorn, known locally as " Queen Mary's Thorn," but it decayed a 
century ago, and a granite monolith has recently been placed on 
the summit of the mound — taking the place of an earlier stone — 
to keep green the memory of the connection of the unfortunate 
Queen with this spot. Crossing the Cart by the old bridge — on 
which a large number of plants of the wall-rue {Asplem'um Rata- 



RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 21 

muraria) still flourish — and mounting the opposite bank, the old 
yew which crowns the height was measured (girth, 8 feet 4 inches). 
After a peep into the garden of Mr. Sweet, the author of Villa 
and Cottage Gardening, the road was taken to Langside, and at 
the monument there Mr. Scott gave an account of the battle of 
Langside and the positions of the contending forces. A descent 
was then made upon " Long Peter," the old Lombardy poplar in 
Camphill Grounds, which has for years been a familiar object in 
Langside, but is now decrepit; and at this point the party separ- 
ated. The girth of the old poplar on 14th March, 1892, was 
6 feet 2 inches at 3 feet 6 inches. 

Those present had had a full feast of fine trees, all the more 
gratifying when it is remembered that the Rev. David Dow a 
century before, in the first statistical account of the parish, had 
declared that the "complaint of a late celebrated scholar and 
moralist " about the scarcity of trees in Scotland was " but too 
well founded." 

Austin & M 'Asian's nurseries for a long period have been one 
of the institutions of South Glasgow. Before the present century, 
however, their location was on the north side of the river, and as 
illustrating the expansion of the city it may be stated that in 17 17 
they were on ground between what we know as Glassford Street 
and Candleriggs. As feuing proceeded the nursery was removed 
on several occasions. The present nurseries on the Pollok Estate 
and extending to thirty-nine acres, were entered on at Candlemas, 
1886. On the evening of 14th July, 1890, they were visited, 
under the leadership of Mr. John Cairns, Jun., by a goodly com- 
pany of members of the Society, in spite of unpropitious weather. 
Much interest was taken in the many species of coniferse, which, 
though they were not of large size, yet served well as illustrations 
of the highly interesting and ornamental trees belonging to this 
order. The various operations of budding, grafting, and layering 
were all carefully explained by one of the foremen, and examples 
were shown in apples, limes, and rhododendrons. Many fine 
young specimens of some of our less common ornamental trees 
were pointed out. The pretty Patagonian shrub {Pernettya 
mucronata) was in fruit, and the seeds were germinating inside ere 
the fruit had fallen from the bush. The party afterwards visited 
the extensive range of glass houses. The excursion was a novelty 



2 2 RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 

to the Society, but it proved exceedingly interesting to the 
botanists who were present. 

The Parish of Eastwood, lying directly west of the parish 
of Cathcart, has been on three occasions the scene of excursions 
of the Society. The first of these visits took place early in the 
Society's history, Walkmill Glen being the centre of interest. The 
botany of this locality will be found particularly referred to in the 
paper in this volume from the pen of Mr. J. Wood, and is again 
touched on in the account of the excursion to Upper Pollok. On 
this occasion the picturesque Craig of Carnock was ascended, and 
here at this late date (26th September) a curious plant of Primula 
vulgaris was found in flower, with " four sepals, four petals, and 
four stamens, these last united in two pairs." 

The Rouken Glen at Thornliebank was the second locality 
visited in this parish. Near the bottom of the glen, on the right 
bank of the stream, the starlings build in some numbers in a 
retaining wall. The dipper is abundant on the stream, and its 
nest, composed outwardly of moss and having inside a bottom 
lining of oak leaves, was taken near the waterfall at the head of 
the glen. The oak, beech, and hart's-tongue ferns were gathered, 
and a profusion of the alternate-leaved golden saxifrage {Chryso- 
splenium alternifoliuvi) is one of the features of the glen, this form 
being generally less common in the district than the opposite-leaved 
one. A small collection of ornamental coniferse received some 
attention. Above the picturesque cascade at the top of the glen is a 
rush-grown dam with a sloping meadow beyond. When the botan- 
ical section visited this spot in the spring of 1891, a picture of 
placid beauty was their reward. On the meadow-land were some 
young cattle grazing, while over the dam many swallows and sand- 
martins were hawking. Resting on the turf-capped wall here, 
one could have watched indefinitely the gyrations of the beautiful 
hirundines. The water-hen and coot were also noted here, and 
a nest of the former with eggs seen. 

Auldhouse, near Pollokshaws, and Nether Pollok were visited 
in September, 1888. At the first-mentioned place exists a large 
rookery, the nests chiefly placed on a double row of limes; but the 
feature of commanding interest is in the garden, where are 
to be seen two remarkably fine old Spanish chestnuts (Castanea 



RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 23 

vulgaris) which Sir John Maxwell, the grand-uncle of the present 
proprietor, used to show to his friends with excusable pride. The 
following measurements were taken on the 19th March, 1892, by 
a party representing the Society :— South tree, 14 feet 2 inches at 
4 feet 10 inches. This tree lost a large branch in the storm of 
13th October, 1891. North tree, 15 feet 6| inches at 5 feet 
on east side. This tree was measured on the angle as it dips to 
the north, and shows, as is so common in this species, torsion. 
At the ground the trunk of this tree measures 22 feet 6 inches. 

Plants in the garden which chiefly attracted attention were 
the meadow-saffron (Colchicum autumnale), chicory (Cichorii/m 
Intybus), Virginian spiderwort {Tradescantia virginica), and borage 
(Borago officinalis). The petty-spurge (Euphorbia Peplus) occurred 
as a weed. 

It was anticipated that, considering the season and the well- 
wooded nature of Pollok Estate, many interesting fungi would be 
seen there, but curious to state they were conspicuously absent, 
and attention was therefore largely directed to the fine trees in the 
neighbourhood of the mansion house. These include, as is well 
known, a group of wych-elms (Ulmus montand) which were 
figured in the Scotch section, Sylva Scotica, of the sumptuous 
work on trees, Sylva Britannica, published by Strutt in 1822. 
Measurements of this group will be found in Strutt's work, in 
Loudoun's Arboretum el Fruticetum Britannicum, and in the 
publications of the Highland and Agricultural Society. The 
following measurements were taken at the same time as those of 
the Spanish chestnuts given above : — 

Tree at west end of group, at 5 ft. 5$ in. (river side), - 13 ft. 9^ in. 

,, next to above, at 4 ft. 2\ in. (river side), - - n , I0 .', 

3 » »i „ „ - - 12 „ oj „ 

*' " 4 ,, 9 >, „ - - 13 „ i| ,, 

The position on the trunk at which former measurements were 
taken cannot now be relied on, as the level has been raised. The 
arrangement of the twigs of the wych-elm, and the manner in 
which the branches are disposed, make it perhaps the most 
striking of our forest trees when bare of foliage, and the group at 
Pollok admirably illustrates this. 

At the west end of the avenue which leads to the mansion 
house from Bankhead Lodge stands a noble horse-chestnut, 



24 RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 

behind whose ample trunk beggars used to skulk, waiting the 
coming of the late proprietor from the principal entrance, which 
the position commanded, with the intention of waylaying him for 
an "awmos" — hence the tree is called "The Beggar's Tree." In 
August, 1892, this tree measured in girth at the narrowest part 
1 2 feet 1 1 inches at 2 feet from the ground (aspect towards house), 
swelling above this at 5 feet up to 14 feet 7 inches, where it forks into 
three branches. Spread of branches, 86 feet. Opposite the man- 
sion house, on the left bank of the Cart, is another fine wych-elm, 
with a very picturesque appearance, which has now, unfortunately, 
become knotted along all the larger branches, and which will no 
doubt shortly decay. At 5 feet 8 inches this tree measures 12 feet 
4 inches. At no great distance from an old pigeon house on the 
same side of the Cart as the last, stand, at short intervals, four 
noble beeches, one of which, north-west of pigeon house, has a 
circumference of 13 feet 3 inches at 6 feet 2 inches, and carries 
its principal stem to a great height. The gardens east of the 
mansion house, with a southern exposure, contain two curiosities 
worth mentioning. The first is a yew tree in the kitchen garden, 
which is in perfect health, and measures 3 feet 6J inches at a foot 
from the ground. This was a slip taken from the historic 
Crookston Yew. As the latter was rooted out in 181 7 (the 
remains are still in a loft in the offices at Pollok), and as Ramsay, 
in his Views in Renfrewshire, published in 1839, described the 
young Pollok tree as being then like the other descendant of the 
historic tree (planted near the entrance to the Glasgow Botanic 
Garden), which was raised from a slip taken in 1789, we may 
assume that the Pollok yew is now approximately a century old. 
The other curiosity in the gardens is the trunk of a huge oak dug 
out of the Cart in this vicinity, which is set up and used as a 
summer house. In connection with this relic of former sylvan 
glory it is interesting to notice that Pollok has long been one of 
the wooded parts of Renfrewshire. In one of the Maitland Club 
publications appears an "Account of the Sheriffdom of Renfrew," 
from the Sibbald MSS., written prior to 1653 an d probably after 
1647. I n this account it is stated "the woods are Crookston, 
Hawkwood, Pollok, Howstoun, and Barruchane, besides other 
lesser woods." At the present time extensive planting is being 
carried on in the policies. 



RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 25 

For the afternoon of 2nd May, 1891, an excursion had been 
arranged to Upper Pollok, in the Parish of Mearns, a neigh- 
bourhood famous as the scene of the exploits of that versatile 
" brither Scot," Christopher North. At Thornliebank station a 
small party turned up, and they proceeded to Pollok Castle, 
where they were kindly received by the proprietor, William 
Fergusson Pollok, Esq. Conducted to the top of the tower, a 
magnificent view was obtained, as was to be expected from the 
commanding situation of the castle. To the north-west, the 
Campsie Fells and Ben Lomond with snow-clad summits j to the 
west and south-west, Misty Law and the Argyleshire hills ; to the 
south, the Eaglesham moors, with the long plateau of Ballygeich 
shutting out further view in that direction ; to the east and north- 
east, the Clyde valley enveloped in thick haze. Pollok Castle 
itself is for the most part new, its predecessor, which was built in the 
seventeenth century, having been almost totally destroyed by fire 
in 1882. Largely owing, no doubt, to their exposed situation, the 
grounds contain no trees remarkable for size, although so long 
ago as the beginning of last century Crawfurd had declared that 
it was "well planted, and hath good orchards, and large and 
commodious parks." 

The party proceeded through the grounds to the Glen 
Reservoir. This dam had some time previous been stocked with 
the famed Loch Leven trout, and it is interesting to learn that 
the experiment has resulted somewhat successfully, a number of 
fair-sized fish having been taken. 

Walkmill Glen was visited on the homeward journey. Here 
on the rocks were large patches of the aerial orange-coloured alga 
(Chrookpus aureus, Ktze.), and in the burn were long waving 
masses of Cladophora gracilis, Ktze. The glen offers also many 
features of interest to the geologist, among others a fine section of 
the Cowglen series of limestones. From the shale overlying the 
limestone numerous fossil shells in excellent preservation were 
got. 

In the course of the afternoon Mr. John Robertson, of Thorn- 
liebank, showed two curiosities which excited some interest. One 
was a robin's nest with three fledglings in an old rusty milk-can, 
and the other a hedgehog in its simple nest. 



26 RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 

Neilston Parish. — Loch Libo, the beauties of which have 
been often extolled, was visited in September, 1889, but the loch 
was very full and there was little opportunity of examining the 
flora of the locality. Particular reference to the botanical features 
of the loch will be found in Mr. Wood's paper in this volume. 
Neilston Pad and Hairlaw Dam were at a later date (26th April, 
1890) the scene of an excursion. "The Craig of Neilston, 
. . . vulgarly called the Pad, from having in its appearance 
the form of a pillion " (as the writer of the first statistical account 
of the parish declares), is a favourite resort of Glasgow ramblers. 
On the occasion of our Society visit, the weather being clear a 
magnificent prospect was obtained, embracing Loudoun Hill, the 
mountains of Arran, the Argyleshire mountains, Ben Lomond, 
Ben Venue, etc. Common spring flowering plants only were 
noted at this time, but at one of the meetings in the following 
summer the green habenaria or frog-orchis (Habenaria viridis) 
was exhibited from this neighbourhood, where it is abundant. 

The chief feature of interest, however, was the breeding colony 
of the familiar black-headed gull {Larus ridibundus) on an islet in 
Hairlaw Dam — an extensive artificial collection of water south of 
the Pad. Glasgow people must always entertain some degree of 
affection for this species, as it does a great deal to enliven our 
polluted river at its busiest part, and the whole year round is to 
be seen in considerable numbers between the bridges and among 
the shipping in the harbour. The mature bird in summer 
plumage is strikingly beautiful, with its black head, red beak 
and legs, French-grey back, and pure white sides and under 
surface. In his Birds of the West of Scotland, Gray, writing 
in 187 1, says, with reference to the Hairlaw colony: — "There 
are perhaps from 500 to 800 pairs to be found breeding there 
every year. ... At the time when this colony is in the 
state of greatest activity the old birds are constantly flying 
about the neighbouring fields, especially those from which 
potatoes have been lifted, and picking up worms and beetles, 
the remains of these being found at almost every nest." When- 
ever the dam came within sight it was apparent that since Gray's 
time there is no diminution in the size of the colony. By means 
of a boat about twenty of those present got on the island, 
which was thickly strewn with nests, and care was necessary 



RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 27 

to avoid stepping on them and destroying their contents — in 
most cases a single egg only being laid. Describing the great 
Norfolk "gullery" at Scoulton Mere, Mr. Stevenson says "by 
the 1 8th of April the first eggs are laid," a date which seems to 
agree with our own district, judging from the experience of this 
visit. The nests are flat and of simple construction, and the eggs 
present great variety in shape and marking. Hopes were enter- 
tained that a photograph might be secured of the gulls rising from 
the island, but they were prematurely scared, and a golden oppor- 
tunity was thus lost. However, the sight of the vast multitude of 
gulls as they rose in a mass in the sunlight was a memorable 
one. 

The Abbey Parish of Paisley. — Many localities in this 
extensive parish have been visited by the Society, some of them, 
as the Gleniffer Braes and Crookston, on various occasions. Near 
the eastern boundary of the parish stands one of the best known 
of the remarkable trees of the county, the Darnley great maple, or 
" Queen Mary's Tree." Occupying solitarily a good position on 
the high road to Barrhead, adjacent to the site of Darnley Toll, 
and sharing with many natural objects in the west a mythical 
traditional connection with Mary Stuart, this tree attracts much 
attention. At a height of 4 feet 10 inches the trunk measured on 
8th March, 1892, 10 feet 5 inches, but it is now showing signs of 
decay. A fairly spreading tree, it seems to be remarkable for the 
area its branches cover, but this appearance it owes to the fact of 
its being relatively a short tree for the species. This tree was one 
of the items in the programme of the second excursion illustrative 
of the trees of Renfrewshire. On the same occasion Househill was 
visited. In this little policy are some fine trees and one remark- 
able hornbeam. Hooker mentions in his British Flora 10 feet 
as indicating the girth of trunk attained by this species (Carpinus 
Betulus), and the example in question at 2^ feet from the ground 
measures 9 feet (10th July, 1888), and this is the least girth that 
its trunk presents, as it is very much broader at the base, and 
again at 5 feet measures 15 feet 4 inches. At the last height the 
trunk branches freely in all directions, and the tree has a fine 
round head. The diameter of spread of branches north to south 
proved to be 63^ feet. Other trees here which have attained to 



28 RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 

some considerable size are saughs, great and common maples, and 
a horse-chestnut. 

Near Crookston Castle stood the famous Crookston Yew, about 
which the curious will find many interesting particulars in 
Ramsay's Views in Renfrewshire. In 1710 Craufurd writes: — 
" Hard by the castle is to be seen that noble monument, the 
ew-tree, called 'The Tree of Crockstoun,' of so large a trunk 
and well spread in its branches that 'tis seen at several miles' 
distance from the ground where it stands." It fell into decay in 
the end of last century, and the remains were removed finally in 
18 1 7 by Sir John Maxwell, of Pollok. The measurement of its 
trunk in 1782 was, in girth, 10 feet at 7 feet from the ground, 
which is not a great size for the yew; and indeed there is at least 
one fine example of this species in the county (at Craigends) more 
than twice this size which is vigorous in every part. The latter 
has not, however, had the problematical advantages of having 
sheltered Darnley and his young spouse " during the brief period 
of sunshine which they enjoyed," nor of occupying a commanding 
position, but has been ingloriously vegetating in its quiet corner 
on the banks of the Gryfe. Two scions of the Crookston Yew 
exist, at Nether Pollok {ante p. 24) and at the entrance to the 
Glasgow Botanic Gardens respectively. 

Under Crookston Castle, and between the Levern and Cart, lies 
Crookston Wood, apparently one of the old natural institutions of 
the county, as it appears in Blaeu's map, published in 1654. 
This wood takes the eye of travellers by the canal line to and 
from Paisley in the latter half of May, when its glades and 
alleys are covered by "a blue hyacinthine haze." On the 
occasion of the visit of the Society (12th June, 1889) this glory 
had just departed. In the wood the elegant spreading millet- 
grass {Milium effusum) was found. At the time of our visit the 
local mind was much occupied by newspaper reports that the 
nightingale had turned up here, so two of those present who are 
interested in ornithological matters haunted the vicinity till a late 
hour, but only the oft-repeated " chip-chow-cherry-churr " of the 
Scotch nightingale, bletherock, or sedge-warbler {Acrocephalus 
schcenobcenus) was to be heard. Rosshall, with its extensive green- 
houses, fine herbaceous collection, and rockery, with profusion 
of saxifrages, primroses, campanulas, etc., was also visited. 



RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 29 

Here on the lawn are some fine beeches, one of which, north of 
the house, measures 10 feet 5! inches in girth. This tree separates 
at about 4 feet into a number of branches. Another beech in the 
grounds, south-east from house and near the Cart, measured an 
inch less. This tree has a great head and a tall straight bole. 

The extensive policy of Hawkhead was visited as one of the 
" Trees of Renfrewshire " series of excursions. The estate boasts 
the possession of no historic tree to our knowledge, but Hawk- 
wood, as before mentioned in these notes, was one of the ancient 
forests of the county, and in 181 2 John Wilson, in his General 
Vieiv of the Agriculture of Renfreivshire, stated that "the greatest 
quantity of aged trees [in the county] is on the estate of 
Hawkhead," and this may still be true. Beech and elm are 
the chief timber trees, and of the former particularly there are 
many of great size. A wych-elm on the left of the avenue a short 
distance from Crookston Lodge measured n feet iof inches, 
another forty yards or so further on 10 feet 8| inches, another at 
a similar distance from the last 10 feet 3 inches. Only one beech 
was measured, its girth being 12 feet 2 \ inches. This tree stands 
near a bend on the Cart on the approach from Crookston. 

Extending our ramble a neighbouring property called Raiss was 
visited. Long the patrimony of a family of the name of Logan 
(one of whom is named in the chartulary of Paisley in 1488), and 
still locally called Logan's Raiss, it is chiefly interesting to us 
because on it stands the largest and not unlikely the oldest great 
maple near Glasgow. This colossal tree, which rises to a great 
height and measures at 3 feet 8 inches on south-east side 18 feet 
in circumference of trunk, has so far as can be learned no history 
attached to it. It is at present exceedingly vigorous, but there is, 
unfortunately, at the base of the trunk a hole, perhaps begun by an 
injury to the outside from the stones gathered from the adjoining 
fields having been piled round the base. In this hole in wet 
weather water lodges, and the tree from this cause alone will 
undoubtedly shortly decay if proper steps are not taken. 

Renfrew Parish. — The only excursion made by the Society 
in this parish was one of the " Trees of Renfrewshire " series in 
the spring of 1890. Elderslie and Blythswood were visited on 
the occasion. The first-named estate was bestowed by the Stuarts 



30 RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 

on one of the Rosses of Hawkhead, and remained in the posses- 
sion of that family till i860, when it became the property by 
purchase of Spiers of Elderslie, in whose family it continues. 
Originally from its insular situation called Inch, the name which 
reflected the physical history of the locality, had to give place to 
that of Mr. Spiers's other property of Elderslie, near Johnstone. 
The rich alluvial soil of the district — consisting of the washings of 
the varied rocks of Clydesdale — presents conditions highly favour- 
able for the growth of our ordinary deciduous trees, and it is 
therefore not surprising that the party which visited Elderslie 
should have been much struck on entering the park (at a lodge 
on the Govan Road) at the noble prospect that it presented. 
Many of the trees which stud the park are of large dimensions. 
An ash with a fine bole by the side of the approach measured 13 
feet 4J inches in girth at the narrowest part. Of three large 
willows (probably Salix fragilis) in the park the one nearest the 
lodge measured 16 feet 6 inches, another north-west of above 18 
feet, a third east of above 1 6 feet 1 inch ; a fine birch near above 
5 feet 10^ inches; a beech south-east of house n feet \\ inches, 
another beech south of west corner of house 13 feet 2\ inches ; a 
willow north-west of house 16 feet. In the matter of height and 
spread these were all well-developed trees. Prof. King, who was 
present, recalling that the Wallace Oak, which stood near the 
west end of the village of Elderslie, and which, when it was blown 
down in 1856, Mr. Spiers caused to be removed to his estate of 
Elderslie, near Renfrew, inquiries were instituted, with the result 
that those present had the privilege of viewing all that now 
remains of that historic tree. This consists of its fast-decaying 
trunk, which, in spite of the protection afforded to it (it is lodged 
in the loft of an outhouse), will soon be only a memory. In 
Ramsay's Views in Re?ifreu)shire (Edinburgh, 1839) there is an 
engraving of this tree as a tail-piece to the chapter of that work 
which is devoted to the Wallace Oak, and it is figured in Strutt's 
work. 

Blythswood was next visited. This estate (which has been in 
the possession of the Campbell family since 1654) was, until the 
erection of the present mansion house in 182 1, called Renfield. 
The park is pleasantly situated, and has as its western and north- 
ern boundaries the Cart and Clyde respectively. The gardens 



RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 31 

are kept in good order, and though our visit was early in the year, 
at least one feature rewarded us, for a fine Amcla?ichier tree 
sheeted with white blossom excited much admiration. Directly 
in front of the elegant mansion house, on a mound, occupying 
thus a commanding position, stands a noble beech, measuring in 
circumference of trunk 14 feet 4 inches. Several birches were 
measured. The first, near crossing of avenues on approach from 
Renfrew station, 5 feet 2 inches; another in the park 4 feet 10 
inches ; and a third south-west of summer house in the park 
5 feet 9^ inches. The Argyle Stone, which marks the place where, 
in 1685, the Earl of Argyle was wounded and taken prisoner, was 
visited. The stone may, however, claim even older historic asso- 
ciation with the name of St. Connal (a seventh century teacher of 
Christianity), to whom the church at Inchinnan was dedicated, 
although the parish takes its name from Inan, who was a confessor 
at Irvine in the ninth century. In 1620 regulations were passed by 
the bailies and council of Paisley for the annual horse race for the 
silver bell, and the starting place was the "gray stane called St. 
ConnaPs Stane, . . . thence right eastward to the Causey- 
end of Renfrew, and so to the wall-neuk of Paisley." 

Inchinnan Parish. — The church at Inchinnan was visited at 
the same time as the estates last described. The present church 
was built about 1828 on the site of the previous one, which dated 
from about 1100. The scenery in this vicinity lacks the colour 
and variety so characteristic of Scottish landscapes, but its softness 
and peacefulness commended it to Pennant, and others since his 
time have been not insensible to its claims on account of these 
qualities. Much of the parish consists of carse land, and the only 
moss in the parish, on the Southbarr Estate, which formerly sup- 
ported grouse, is at the present time a free coup for Glasgow. 
The estate of Southbarr was visited on the 16th April, 1892, under 
unique conditions for a Society excursion. A snowstorm set in 
an hour before that arranged for departure from the city, and on 
arrival at Houston station there was an inch of snow on the 
ground. The storm was, happily, not of long continuance, and 
the novelty of the experience added a zest to the afternoon's 
enjoyment. The estate of Southbarr boasts no timber of great 
age, but it is well wooded throughout, and the blending of the 



32 RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 

varied trees — deciduous and evergreen — has been carried out by 
a master hand, the effects being most pleasing from whatever 
points the woodland groups are viewed. Proceeding up the 
approach from the Houston Lodge, a rowan-tree was noted as 
having attained a good size for the species. It measured 5 feet 

10 inches in girth at 3 feet on the east side. On the way to the 
keeper's lodge to see the pheasant-rearing enclosure, a beech of 
large size on the left of the approach was measured. At 3 feet 
5 inches on the west-south-west side the girth of the trunk was 

1 1 feet 8| inches. After a pleasant and leisurely perambulation 
of Southbarr, the road was taken to Northbarr House (now the 
property of Campbell of Blythswood), recently known as House 
of Hill, which occupies a commanding situation amid surround- 
ings which have been enhanced by the art of the gardener and 
woodman. Close to the mansion house, in a bit of woodland, 
the cuckoo-pint (Arum maculatuni) was found growing luxuriantly 
and in patches of considerable size, and a bed of the snake-weed 
{Polygonum Bistorta) Was also noted. On the lawn opposite the 
house formerly stood a pair of large ash trees, one of which was 
blown down ten years since. The remaining tree is in fairly good 
condition, and measures 1 2 feet 4 J inches in girth at 3J feet from 
the ground. Two walnut trees, neither of great size, stand in prox- 
imity. North of the house stands a spreading yew tree (female) 
which has a good bole of some height, measuring 7 feet at 3 feet. 

Erskine Parish. — On three occasions excursions have been 
made to localities in this parish. Langbank was visited on a 
beautiful autumn afternoon in 1886 by a small party, who had the 
advantage of being conducted by Mr. John Renfrew, an ardent 
young local entomologist, who also showed those present his 
extensive collection of Lepidoptera made in the district. The 
shepherd's needle or Venus's comb (Scandix Pecten- Veneris), an 
umbellifer, rare hereabouts, was gathered not far from the station, 
and the common flax (Linum usitatissimurri) occurred in the same 
vicinity. 

In the spring of 1889 the district round Bishopton was visited, 
the estate of Dargavel being the first point of interest. This estate 
became in the beginning of the sixteenth century the patrimony 
of a branch of the Maxwells of Newark, and remains in the 



RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 33 

possession of that family still. There is near the house a widely- 
spreading yew tree of considerable age, which is still vigorous, 
although much broken away on one side. Ramsay claimed for it 
that it excelled " in size and beauty any other tree of the same 
kind in this quarter of the country," an opinion which we cannot 
from our knowledge of the yew trees of the county endorse. 
The spread of the Dargavel tree south-south-east to north-north- 
west is 60 feet 9 inches, and the trunk measures at the narrowest 
part 8 feet 7^ inches. In a letter from the late Mr. J. M. 
M'Phedran, of Craigbet, to the writer, dated 29th March, 1890, that 
gentleman states that Bailie Caldwell, of Paisley, had informed 
him quite recently that he remembered first seeing the Dargavel 
Yew in 1828, and at that time the public road passed between 
the tree and the mansion. There is a very fine yew-hedge in 
the gardens at Dargavel. In a paper in the " Transactions of the 
Royal Scottish Arboricultural Society," Vol. XII., 1890, this hedge 
is described as being "37 years old, 10 feet high, 3 feet broad at 
base, and 1 foot broad at top." An elegant hornbeam on the 
lawn and a beech of great size outside south-west corner of garden 
(girth of trunk, 10 feet 9 inches) were much admired. 

Bishopton House, which has passed through several hands in 
the past two centuries and is now the property of Lord Blantyre, 
was next visited. This old mansion house, which is beautifully 
situated on rising ground overlooking the Clyde, is approached 
by a long broad avenue of limes. The house has fallen on 
decadent days, and is now chiefly attractive from having near it 
on its western side, on a sloping bank, a remarkably fine example 
of the great maple, of which there is a beautiful figure in the 
Scotch section of Strutt's Sylva Britannica (folio edition). This 
tree is probably the best-known large tree of this species in the 
West of Scotland, but it is neither the largest nor most sym- 
metrical. It is remarkable for its great top and the size and 
number of its branches. At present it seems in vigorous health. 
The measurement of the trunk, taken at the time of our visit, was 
15 feet s| inches, and it shows little variation in size from the 
ground to the first great branch. This tree is frequently referred 
to in English publications, apparently following Strutt, but his 
measurement of over 20 feet is incomprehensible. 

c 



34 RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 

The extensive pleasure grounds of Erskine (since 1703 the 
property of the Lords Blantyre) were visited in May, 1890, the 
party being accompanied by the forester on the estate. Entering 
by the East Lodge, Erskine big wood was traversed to its western 
extremity, and at this point, in a glade, a large spreading beech 
was noted and photographed (girth, 1 1 feet 4^- inches ; spread, 
east to west, 90 feet 1 inch). Just outside the wood mentioned, 
and near this beech, was a fine group of wych-elms, the tree 
nearest the wood branching at the ground into two trunks, 
measuring respectively 11 feet 11 inches and 7 feet 7 inches. A 
heron on the wing attracted attention, and it appears that there 
is a small heronry of one or two nests in the wood. A halt was 
made on the lawn south of the house, as there are many interesting 
trees there, though none of great size. Among these may be 
mentioned a pair of cedars of Lebanon ( Cedrus Libani) and a fine 
deodar cedar {Cedrus Deodara). The larger of the former was 
photographed (girth, 9 feet 1 inch). The magnificent mansion 
house is in the " manorial style of Queen Elizabeth's time." At 
its north-east corner stands a group of great maples which may 
possibly be of greater age than they appear, as the forester 
informed those present that this group had some bearing on the 
site chosen for the present mansion house, built about seventy 
years since. These trees were photographed, also a large hand- 
some example of the same species north of the site of the former 
mansion house (girth, 15 feet 3 J inches). A large birch near 
the same spot, with beautiful drooping branches, was also 
photographed (girth, 7 feet 2 inches). In the same neighbour- 
hood an Oriental plane (JPlatamts orientalis) and a Spanish 
chestnut (girth, 14 feet 5 inches) also received notice. There are 
both young timber and much that is well matured on this estate, 
and the park, especially from the river, presents a noble appear- 
ance. 

Kilbarchan Parish. — In fine weather the pleasant policy of 
Milliken in this parish was visited on 25th April, 1891. At the 
East Lodge there is a large rookery. Immediately after passing 
this is a planting of young firs to be hereinafter mentioned in an 
ornithological connection. A pair of redstarts {Ruticilla phivni- 
curus) were noted on the occasion of the Society's visit. This 



RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 35 

brilliant bird " appears suddenly in spring, like a flower that has 
bloomed before the bud was noticed," and is rather rare in the 
district, being most conspicuous on its arrival in April. In 
proximity to the house (which was built about 1830) are gardens 
which have been laid out in most princely fashion, involving 
enormous expense. Viewed from the public rooms they had 
a very striking appearance, and attention naturally fixed on a 
number of yew thickets in oblong squares, the top branches of 
which had a burned or blighted appearance. This was attributed 
to the roosting there of vast numbers of starlings during autumn 
and winter, and measures had had to be taken to put a stop to the 
evil. The starlings, taking the hint, had shifted their quarters to 
the planting before mentioned, and there were still some numbers 
of this species roosting at the time of our visit, where a month 
earlier there were to be seen nightly thousands congregating from 
all directions, and making night hideous with their screeching. 
Owing to the continued drought with low temperature few plants 
were noted, the list including the leopard's-bane (Doronicum 
Pardaliaiiches), primrose, cowslip, purple willow {Salix purpurea), 
and goat-willow (S. Capred). There are no trees remarkable for 
size in the estate, the largest seen being a great maple overlooking 
one of the artificial ponds. The ascent of Barrhill was made. 
On this, the highest point in the neighbourhood, are the remains 
of a Danish camp, and from a round tower on the same eminence 
a splendid view of the surrounding country was obtained. The 
common moth, Diurna fagella, was the only entomological 
capture. 

The parish of Kilbarchan has the distinction of possessing in 
the estate of Craigends (John C. Cunninghame, Esq.) one of the 
most remarkable yew trees in Scotland. Fine photographs of this 
tree were exhibited at one of the meetings of the Society. It 
grows north of the mansion house and close to the Gryfe Water. 
Careful measurements taken on the 2nd of November, 1889, give 
the following results :— 

Spread, eastern extremity of branches to tree, - - 41ft. 6 in. 

Diameter of trunk in same line, 8 ,, 4 ,, 

Spread from tree to western extremity of branches, - 32,, o ,, 

Si ft. 10 in. 



36 RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 

This measurement was on a line nearly parallel to flow of the 
Gryfe there. Girth of trunk at narrowest part, 21 feet 2f- inches; 
circumference of branches, 218 feet 6 inches, the area enclosed 
by these being filled to the ground with a mass of foliage, indicat- 
ing vigorous health and abundant nutrition, possibly attributable 
to a sweet soil and proximity to the Gryfe Water. In spite of the 
yew being a slow-growing tree, the great vigour of the present 
example makes a considerable annual increment of wood in the 
principal stem not at all improbable. 

Lochwinnoch Parish. — Through the kindness of Mr. J. W. 
Shand-Harvey, the proprietor of Castle Semple, the fine policies 
there have twice been the scene of excursions of the Society. On 
both occasions the approach has been from Howwood. On the 
Black Cart, which has its origin in Castle Semple Loch, many 
yellow lilies (Nuphar hiteum) may be seen, and on the banks of 
the same stream Mimulus luteus has established itself. The 
sides of the loch, which are not much frequented, have become a 
veritable preserve of wild flowers, many of them deserving of 
notice. In early autumn particularly, the beautiful racemes of the 
giant bell-flower (Campanula latifolia), the tall spires of the purple 
loosestrife (Lythrum Salicaria), with the golden-rod (Solidago 
Virgaurea), monk's-hood (Aconitum Napellus), and great patches 
of meadow-sweet, all in profusion, form a picture of the most 
exquisite beauty. One of the archaeological features of interest 
within the policies is the Collegiate Church of Lochwinnoch, which 
has served for a long period as a burial place for the members of 
the Semple family. This rather dilapidated ruin is overshadowed 
by a number of tall hornbeams, and the walls both inside and 
outside are festooned with the ivy-leaved toad-flax (Linaria 
Cymbalaria). In and about some ponds adjacent to the Collegiate 
Church some rare plants were noted, including the great reed-mace 
(Typha latifolia), Clay Ionia alsinoides, and a large patch of the 
great yellow loosestrife (Lysimachia vulgaris). Other water plants 
occurring were the white water-lily (Nymphaia alba), Ranunculus 
heterophyllus and R. hederaceus. The maidenhair spleenwort 
(Asplenium Trichomanes) was found on the walls of the grotto and 
on the boundary wall near Lochwinnoch in fine condition. On 
the occasion of the second visit to Castle Semple (28th June, 1890) 







From Photo. /•-, 



I. Steivart, Lt 



CEDAR OK LEBANON (Cedrus Libani) at Castle Sempi k. 



RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 37 

the following fungi were collected : — Agaricus rubescens, A. semi- 
orbicularis, A. mutabilis, A. ceruinus, A. appendkulatus, Maras- 
mius peronatus, Russula cyauoxantha, R. heterophylla, Polyporus 
st/uamosus, P. annosus (and the resupinate form of this species), 
Stereum purpurea;//, Psalliota semi-globatus, Phallus impudicus. 
On the same occasion the grass between the loch and the large 
cedar of Lebanon was swarming with the " sweep," as Tanagra 
clucrophyllata is called, a moth too striking to be overlooked even 
by those uninterested in Lepidoptera. In the gardens and green- 
houses the two plants which engaged most attention were a very- 
old citron loaded with fruit, and a fine clump of Gaultheria 
Shallon, a beautiful North American shrub, the white flowers of 
which, flushed with delicate pink, are borne on secund racemes. 
Castle Semple Loch is much frequented by waterfowl, and 
within the mansion house is a case containing birds shot on the 
estate, including the common bittern (Botaurus stellaris) and the 
Egyptian goose (Anser egypiiacus). There are many fine trees 
within the policies, beeches being probably the most conspicuous 
for number and size. Near the house may be seen large examples 
of the variegated form of the great maple, a large tree of the 
common maple {Acer campestre), and an ailantus or tree of 
heaven (Ailantus glandulosa). Not far from the loch and west 
of the house stands a cedar of Lebanon, of which a reproduction 
from a photograph, taken on the occasion of our second visit by 
Mr. John Stewart, of Largs, is given in this volume — Plate IV. 
This tree has the reputation of being one of the largest of its kind 
in Scotland, but though it dwarfs all others as yet visited by the 
Society in the West of Scotland, it is much less than the examples 
at Hopetoun. It measured on the day the photograph was taken 
12 feet 8 inches at 3 feet. It is now, unfortunately, getting 
" thin " on the west side. Near it stands a large hornbeam. 
From the hermitage in the deer park a fine view of the valley 
with its chain of lochs and the surrounding heights is obtained. 

Barr Castle, a fifteenth century stronghold, now uninhabited 
but in fair preservation, was visited in August, 1890, and the old 
parish church (of which only one gable now stands) and kirkyard 
of Lochwinnoch on the same occasion. 

The valley of the Calder has been twice visited. Among plants 
noted on the first visit to this district were Corydalis daviculaia, 



38 RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 

Mimulus luteus, Sedum anglicum, Ranunculus Lenormandi, Ver- 
bascum Thapsus, and Hypericum perforatum. 

Writing of the physical features of this locality, in describing the 
second visit which the Society paid to the district, Mr. John Smith, 
of Monkredding, Kilwinning, says: — "The Calder Water rises 
between the two Burat hills, 1481 and 1589 feet high respectively, 
and its source is about seven miles to the south of Greenock. 
For nine miles it runs over rocks of the trap series, which lie 
between the calciferous sandstones and the lower carboniferous 
limestones. After running for about another mile over alluvial 
deposits of its own making, it enters Castle Semple Loch, which, 
from the material carried into it from the hills by the Calder, is yearly 
getting ' smaller and beautifully less,' and will one day become a 
level meadow like its southern neighbour, the now-drained Barr 
Loch. The lower part of the glen is bounded to a considerable 
extent by high mural porphyritic cliffs of a dull purple colour, and 
showing in parts a rude columnar structure on a large scale. Further 
up the hills slope down pretty steeply, the slopes being suddenly 
broken by a sheer descent of ten, twenty, or perhaps thirty feet 
into the bed of the stream. This last feature shows the amount 
of work, in the way of excavating, done by the Calder since glacial 
times. There is very little boulder clay in the Calder Glen, but 
here and there we did see a small patch of dull purplish till which 
appears to have been entirely manufactured out of the hill por- 
phyrites. With one exception all the boulders observed were of 
local origin, the odd one being a very small boulder or large 
pebble of vein quartz, in all likelihood brought from the Western 
Highlands. High on the north-east side of the glen the hill-slopes 
vanish from view without showing any very remarkable features 
except the numerous roches moutonnees which are everywhere very 
apparent. As well as this latter feature, high up on the south-west 
slope are to be seen long perpendicular ' crag falls,' indicating in 
a very distinct manner the way the 2000 to 3000 feet thick ice- 
sheet has acted on the rocks in this district." 

Among plants enumerated in the report of the second excursion 
to this district are the alternate-leaved golden saxifrage (C/iryso- 
splem'um alternifoZmm), the heart-leaved valerian (Valeriana 
pyrenaica), the mossy saxifrage (Saxifraga hypnoides), Alchemilla 
montana, the common club-moss (Lycopodium clavatum), the 



RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 30 

Scottish filmy fern (Hymenophylhmi unilateral), and attached to 
stones in the bed of the Calder the rare aquatic moss (Fontinalis 
squamosa). 

Among birds the black-cock, grey wagtail, golden plover, and 
common heron were the most notable residents, and attention at 
this date (30th April) being naturally directed to new-comers the 
swallow, wheatear, common sandpiper, and corncrake were noted. 

Kilmalcolm PARisn.-This parish affords many interesting 
localities for naturalists, and it has on several occasions been the 
scene of Society excursions. Twice the approach has been from 
bridge of Weir, in the adjoining parish of Kilbarchan. Proceed- 
ing towards Carruth from Bridge of Weir station, the heart-leaved 
valerian (Valeriana pyrenaica) and Sedum villosum were found 
and near the entrance to Carruth the small-leaved maple (Acer 
camp***) occurs as a hedge plant, a common use for this species 
m some parts of England, rarely seen here however. In the 
glen at Carruth are many interesting plants, some of them 
undoubted introductions, but their rare beauty lends a charm to 
the bits in the ravine. Among the plants found there are the 
globe-flower {Trollius europ<zus), Welsh poppy (Meconopsis cam- 
brua) Saxtfraga umbrosa, S. Geum, Solomon's seal (Polygonatum 
mulhflorum), and the oak and beech ferns. The rare barren-wort 
{Epimedtum alpinum) has also been gathered here, but was not 
found on the occasion of the Society's visit. Many interesting 
trees were noted in the vicinity of Carruth House, but the collec 
tion was more remarkable for variety than for the size of individual 
specimens. 

Craigbet, in close proximity to Carruth, has been twice visited 
On each occasion those present had the advantage of being 

rrMPh c T duc ^ d ab r the gardens by the ** i**^! 

J. M. M Phedran, Esq. The collection of herbaceous plants here 
is almost unique in the West of Scotland in its interest and 
variety and the bee observatory, bee fountain, and th" 
brought from the far East which adorn the garden make visits to 
the place memorable to most strangers. The approach is an 
avenue f limes intersected opposite the house by another, forming 
m the original design a cross, but some of the trees in one of the 
avenues having been felled, the intention of the designer is not 



40 RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 

now apparent without explanation. Behind the house and situ- 
ated one at each corner, stand a pair of vigorous yew trees, 
planted to commemorate a marriage in the Porterfield family 
(formerly proprietors of Duchall). The trees, appropriately 
enough, are male and female, and they show, to be contemporaries, 
an interesting discrepancy in the rate of growth, favouring the male 
tree, which at the narrowest part of the trunk accessible measured 
on 8th June, 1889, 7 feet 8f inches, its companion, the female, 
measuring 6 feet f inch. Readers may recall that Gilbert White, 
in writing of the old yew in the churchyard at Selborne, declared 
that "as far as we have been able to observe, the males of this 
species become much larger than the females." By the roadsides 
here bald-money {Meum athamanticum) is a characteristic plant, 
and a clump of Carex ovalis and many fine patches of the English 
stonecrop (Sedii/n anglicum) were noted between Craigbet and 
Kilmalcolm. The estate of Duchall, which lies between Craigbet 
and the village of Kilmalcolm, has much fine timber, the trees in 
the avenues of beech and lime being of large proportions. 
Against one of the gables of the mansion is a yew tree, probably 
of great age. From measurements taken in 1888, its branches 
extend in one direction 53 feet, the girth of the trunk being 13 
feet 10 inches; but as the principal stem is very short and many 
of the branches almost prone, measurement of girth becomes an 
unreliable test. In the grounds, bistort {Polygonum Bistortd) and 
Dorouicum platitagineum were noted. 

Kilmalcolm was the rendezvous of an excursion early in 1891. 
The parish church and a portion of its predecessor, which had 
been quite recently renovated and was to form a vestry, were 
inspected with much interest. The building stone is the hard 
trap of the district. The church is declared by competent author- 
ities to be the best example of its style in the West of Scotland. 
In the ruinous quier (the burial place of the Porterfields) are some 
interesting tablets, one showing in its design the conjunction of 
the national emblems of the rose and thistle, which a gentleman 
present declared a not infrequent combination in stones of the 
period about the Union of the Parliaments. Mr. J. Thomson, a 
local botanist, who was acting as conductor, said that a quarter of 
a century since the walls of the quier were literally covered with 
the wall-rue {Aspkniian Ruta-muraria), but since they had been 



RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 41 

plastered with Portland cement no vestige of it has been seen. 
On the portion of the church recently renovated it has hitherto 
appeared, though in less quantity, and it was hoped that the work 
then being carried on would not entirely obliterate it. 

One of the "Trees of Renfrewshire " series of excursions took the 
Society to the extensive grounds at Finlaystone, in this parish. On 
the approach from the old Greenock road is a fine avenue of limes, 
and on the lawn many well-grown ornamental trees, such as the 
flowering ash (Ornus eurojxea), copper beech, walnut, Spanish 
chestnut, cedar of Lebanon (girth, 8 feet i inch at i foot on west 
side), an aged yew somewhat decayed, and with its short main 
axis now covered by a mound, and a tulip tree {Liriodendrott 
tulipifera) which was, unfortunately, uprooted by what is popularly 
known as the Tay Bridge storm, and is in its present condition 
only interesting as a relic. A large beech in this neighbourhood 
measures 12 feet 4f inches at 3 feet 6 inches on west side. In 
the rear of the house and to the south-west, upon a sloping bank, 
stands a wide-spreading vigorous example of the Turkey oak 
{Quercus Cerris), a species of more rapid growth than those native 
to this country, which produces timber so heavy as to gain for 
itself the name "iron oak." This tree measures 11 feet 8^ inches 
in girth at 3 feet 3A inches on west side, and has a spread of 
branches, east and west, 98 feet 2 inches. Unfortunately, a large 
branch has been rent away in a storm, and the wound which 
resulted has been neglected, although the tree deserves every 
attention. The remains of a large yew west of the house are 
interesting from the tradition that under its branches and those 
of four others which have now disappeared, but which formed a 
line running westwards from the house, the Sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper was dispensed by John Knox, when he was at 
Finlaystone in 1556 as the guest of Alexander, the fifth or 
" good " Earl of Glencairn. The visit of Knox and his dispensing 
the sacrament are matters of history well authenticated, but 
whether it is correct to associate the ceremony with the group 
of yews, now only represented by a vigorous branch of one, 
may be doubted. Within recent years this, the last of the group 
of yew trees, has been much cut down, owing to its interfering 
with the house. In proximity to but without the gardens, stands 
an elegant wych-elm (girth, 12 feet 8^ inches at 3 feet ioj inches 



42 RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 

on west side), high up in which is hung the old parish church 
bell of Kilmalcolm, bearing thereon "Kilmalcolm, anno 1743." 
Near Finlaystone smithy, on the old Greenock road, stands in 
the policy a fine great maple (12 feet 6 inches at 4 feet 2 inches 
on west side), and in a wood east of the mansion house is a varie- 
gated example of large size (7 feet 8 inches at 2 feet 8£ inches 
on west side). 

Much interest attaches to a group of yew trees, three in 
number, standing in a plot of ground east of the old avenue of 
limes, which is called Paradise. Two of the trees are males, the 
other a female. The most westerly (female) measures 8 feet 

1 if inches at 2 feet 7 inches on north-west side, the middle one 
(male) of the group to the south measures 7 feet nf inches at 

2 feet 6| inches on west side, the remaining one (male) east of 
these being 8 feet io£ inches at 2 feet 11 inches on north-west 
side. They are all fine trees, with long clean boles, and from 
their relative positions form a triangle. There is now no vestige 
of a house to be seen in the vicinity, and this fact, coupled with 
the unusual name the plot of ground bears, excites our curiosity 
as to the existence of the trees there and the designation Paradise. 
In an ecclesiastical connection the name Paradise is not 
unfamiliar, having been, indeed, in some form associated with 
the Christian Church from the earliest times. It has been not 
infrequently in England applied to the garth or central space in 
the monk's cloister, appearing in the corrupt form Preese at 
Gresford near Chester, the Paradise garth at Beverley, and 
Paradise at Winchester and Chichester. At Watcombe also is a 
group of yews called Paradise, where nothing else now remains to 
indicate the former existence of a monastic foundation. That 
the Paradise at Finlaystone may have had a similar origin seems 
quite probable. The position was well chosen with regard to 
water, and the suggestion is supported by the fact that in the 
immediate vicinity curious plants are to be found, some of them 
well known to have been cultivated for medicinal purposes by the 
monks, and these plants in our district are usually found near old 
castles or monastic dwellings. The plants referred to include the 
green hellebore (Helleborus viridis), cuckoo-pint (Arum macu- 
latum), and Scrophularia vernalis. Immediately to the west of 
Paradise, on the other side of the old avenue, Finlaystone old 



RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 43 

gardens were situated, and evidences remain in the walls there of 
fruit culture, which may have begun in monastic times when the 
monks were our only horticulturists. This plot of ground may 
well have been their orchard. 

In Paradise are some fine yellow-berried hollies, and a wild rose 
is shown with a stem 7 inches in girth. Petasites alius and the 
Welsh poppy {Meconopsis cambricd) occur as garden escapes. On 
the approach from Langbank some aged thorns attract attention, 
and the gardens contain a collection of herbaceous plants of great 
extent and interest. The measurements above stated were made 
in June, 1892. 

Houston and Kilallan Parish. — Barochan House, in this 
parish, was visited in the spring of 1891, without any particular 
feature of interest being noted except what attaches to the house 
itself, over which the party were shown by Mrs. Renshaw. On the 
same visit old Kilallan Church was also inspected. Little of the 
church now remains except the walls to the height of 8 to 10 feet, 
and they are largely obscured by a most luxuriant growth of the 
ivy-green. In the outer wall a curious stone called St. Fillan's 
Stone received a large share of attention, as did also a natural 
depression in the rock by the roadside in this vicinage, called St. 
Fillan's Chair, from which tradition declares the saint to have 
preached. 

Barochan Cross, as illustrated in the frontispiece to this volume, 
arrested the party with conjectures as to the details of the design, 
which are slowly but surely giving way to atmospheric action. 
The cross in the time of Crawfurd, the historian of the county 
(as quoted by Motherwell), stood " a few score yards south 
from " Barochan Mill, and at a later date (about a century since) 
the writer of the old statistical account of the parish says that it 
was " lately removed ... to a neighbouring hill, where the 
old mansion house of Barochan formerly stood." Both sides of 
the cross have been elaborately carved, and the workmanship must 
have been excellent and the material well chosen, to admit of the 
present comparative sharpness of outline of some of the figures. 
Nothing of its history is known. Locally it is called a Danish 
cross, and Motherwell the poet had no difficulty in convincing 
himself that it should be considered commemorative of the defeat 



44 RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 

of Somerled, Lord of the Isles, when he made his descent upon 
Renfrew in 1164. 

Port-Glasgow Parish. — One of the most easily accessible of 
the glens in the West open to the public is Devol's Glen, in this 
parish. It was once visited by the Society early in its history, but 
there is no minute left. It is a locality which well repays a visit 
for its beds of volcanic ash with embedded bombs, its flows of 
trap with zeolitic minerals (stilbite prominently), its fine falls and 
rapid cascades, while the botany is also of considerable interest 
for both phanerogamic and cryptogamic forms. 

Inverkip Parish. — This parish has been the scene of several 
excursions, notable among these being one of the "Trees of 
Renfrewshire " series, and a later one conjointly with the Natural 
History Society of Glasgow to Shielhill Glen. Gourock was 
the rendezvous on the occasion of the first of these. The party 
proceeded by the Larkfield road, and in a field on the left of the 
road, near Cove Farm, they visited a great maple which stands 
solitary there (girth at 3 feet 10 inches on south side, 10 feet 
10 inches). The next halt was at Cresswell Farm, on the 
Inverkip road, where in a field close to the farmhouse stands 
another fine great maple (girth, 9 feet 6| inches at 2 feet 5 inches 
on south-west side). In proximity to this tree stands an ash 
which attracted attention (girth at 5 feet 3 inches on south-south- 
west side of trunk, 9 feet 6| inches). Before entering the policies 
of Ardgowan, Mimulus luteus and the masterwort (Peiuedamim 
Ostruthiuni) were found. Ardgowan, as we know it, is one of the 
most delightful estates in the county. It seems to owe much to 
the taste of Sir John Shaw Stewart, the fourth baronet, who early 
in this century erected the present mansion house. Robertson, 
who wrote the continuation of Crawfurd's history of the county, 
informs us that the improvements effected by him " were upon the 
most extensive scale," that he surrounded the new house "with 
an extensive park, and the gardens, pleasure grounds, and ample 
plantations which he planned, afford striking proof of the excel- 
lency of his taste." The beauties which owe their inception to 
this member of the Shaw Stewart family have matured in the 
intervening years, with the result (heightened, doubtless, by the 



RENFREWSHIRE EXCURSIONS. 45 

admirable order which at present obtains) that the surroundings 
of the house are almost unique for beauty and interest. On the 
main approach is a great maple of exceptional vigour, which, from 
its favourable situation, may yet attain a great size (girth, 13 feet 
at 4 feet 4 inches on north side), while a Spanish chestnut close 
to it, but nearer the house, measures 10 feet i\ inches. On the 
lawn are many fine young ornamental trees, including a Wellingtonia 
(girth, 11 feet 8 inches at the ground), an evergreen oak {Querais 
Ilex) 4 feet 6 inches in girth, and a strawberry tree {Arbutus 
Unedd) measuring 3 feet 7 inches in circumference. Near the old 
tower of Ardgowan the cowslip, leopard's-bane, and Saxifraga 
Geum occur. In this vicinity are also a large ash tree (13 feet 
2 inches in girth) and a large great maple (14 feet 5! inches in 
girth). Another large tree measured in the estate was a beech 
near the shore side of the woods (girth, 14 feet 5 inches). The 
measurements given above were taken at the excursion on 18th 
May, 1889. 

At the excursion to Shielhill Glen, in this parish, many inter- 
esting plants were found, including Ornithogalum umbellatum, 
Doronicum Pardalianches, Sedum villosum, Saxifraga hypnoides, 
Mimulus luteus, Listera ovata, L. cordata, Lepidium Smithii 
(sub-sp.). The last named plant is abundant in the district 
visited. CEna?ithe fistulosa was also seen, but not in flower, while 
the moss Neckera crispa was got in fruit (a rare occurrence). The 
entomologists captured Chortobius pamphihts, Fidonia atomaria, 
Coreiuia propugtmta, and C. unidentaria. 



RARER FLOWERS OF EAST 
RENFREWSHIRE. 

By John Wood. 
(Paper Read 3rd December, 1890.) 



Can anything rare or beautiful find a home in dirty, smoky, 
wet and muddy Renfrewshire? Come and see. Let me take 
you with me in imagination out from your mighty city's noise and 
dust and bustle, out into the pleasant fields and along the green 
burn-braes (for such things are) of my adopted county. Along 
with me there need be no fear of surly keepers with ugly dogs ; 
with me you are out of the treacherous domain of the fickle clerk 
of the weather. 

Thornliebank to Darnley Toll. — Now then, let us be 
off, and presto! at Thornliebank we catch the Capelrig ("from" 
or "at the top of the ridge") Burn and ascend. We are here 
above the works, and the stream is unpolluted. As soon as we 
leave the road, on the burn's right bank, we come upon a 
mass of garden escapes — -mallows, mulleins, horse radishes, 
etc. — the result of the place having been used as a "coup" at 
no distant date. Further up we enter the Rouken Glen, a very 
pretty little spot indeed, with flowers such as the Omphalodes 
verna, or creeping forget-me-not, of a cultivated character, and 
with many nice ornamental shrubs. In the glen we find the 
alternate-leaved golden saxifrage (Chrysosplenium alternifoliuni). 
I do not think this plant is such a rare one as is usually supposed. 
It is difficult to distinguish among the masses of its twin sister, 
and this I take to be the main reason why it is so seldom found. 



RARER FLOWERS OF EAST RENFREWSHIRE. 47 

Up till a few years ago the hart's-tongue fern (Scolopendriiitn vulgare) 
was to be found here, but the last one is now gone. The proprietor, 
Mr. Crura, kindly allows all sorts of picnic parties entrance, and 
hence this clearance. The hart's-tongue, from its characteristic 
shape, is easily recognised by non-botanists, and it stands small 
chance of survival in the neighbourhood of any large town. 

Immediately above the glen we come upon a small loch or dam. 
On its outer edge there is a very pretty bed of Jacob's-ladder 
(Polemonium cceruleum), its pale blue flowers looking somewhat 
out of place among the coarse marsh plants that surround it. It 
scarcely ranks as a wild flower anywhere, but it is wild enough 
and secluded enough up here. 

This Capelrig Burn comes down through Mearns Moor (" the 
moor of the Earn, or east-flowing, Burn ") ; and up there is the only 
station I know of in the district for the very pretty grass of 
Parnassus (Parnassia palustris). Strange that this plant (a moor- 
land one) should be so plentiful in the West, and Renfrewshire 
with all its moors should have so little of it. 

Take the road back towards our starting point, and in a barley 
field by the wayside, a couple of years ago, you would have seen a 
number of hemp plants growing {Cannabis sativa). One question 
to the farmer — " Hoo came this here withoot the leave o' ye ? " — 
brings us tidings that here we are face to face with a real German 
invasion. The field had been sown with Baltic seed. 

On the banks by the wayside we may find a specimen or two 
of the blue sherardia (Sherardia arvensis). It grows all over the 
lower portions of the county, but only in small patches, and it is 
anything but constant. 

In the old lime quarry at Arden there used to be plenty of the 
wild tulip (Tulipa sylvestris). But its beautiful, conspicuous 
yellow flower-cups have proved its ruin. Beauty by the average 
human animal is intensely admired, eagerly sought after and then 
wantonly destroyed. 

The teasel (Dipsaeus sylvestris), a tall hardy-looking plant, is or 
used to be got here also. Indeed you may find it occasionally 
almost anywhere from Arden to Paisley. In Darnley Glen long 
ago there was a small wack-mill. Teasel heads were used in 
works of this sort to raise the nap on cloth. Hence these teasel 
plants. But they are gradually dying out. 



48 RARER FLOWERS OF EAST RENFREWSHIRE. 

On the roadside, nearly opposite Queen Mary's Tree at Darnley 
Toll, I got in the autumn of 1888 one small plant of the yellow 
melilot (Melilotus officinalis). It is a plant not likely to become 
fixed in our county. It grows plentifully in the South of England, 
as does also its white sister. I fell in with a white one, large 
and beautifully developed, up near Barrhead some five or six 
years ago. 

Brock Burn and Darnley Glen. — From Darnley Mill let 
us take the Brock (or Badgers') Burn for Darnley Glen, called on 
the survey map the Wack Mill Glen. The whole district from 
here for miles down by Thornliebank and Shaws was anciently 
called Arden, and this glen above Darnley must have originated 
the name, for it is the highest "den," indeed the only "den" in the 
locality. And Darnley looks like a corruption of Arden-ley. It 
cannot be derived from Dar, an oak, for various reasons, though 
this ancient forest of Arden was unquestionably an oak forest. 

Darnley Glen, Wack Mill Glen, or Arden, whichever its name 
ought to be, was famous over the district some years ago for its 
fine ferns. But this glory has departed in great measure. Fern 
dealers from the city got scent of the place, and they have cleared 
out all the better varieties. 

The plant for which the glen is now famous is the herb-paris 
(Paris quadrifolia), known locally as the " peasemeal plant," from 
the smell of its leaves when bruised. The bed is pretty much 
run on at present, this being the nearest station of the plant 
to Glasgow. But in spite of this severe taxing, paris is spreading 
vigorously. Like the Hebrews of old, like the Irish of the present 
day, the more it is oppressed the more it multiplies and grows. 
The plant is anomalous among plants — a sort of vegetable platypus. 
It has the characters partly of a monocotyledon and partly of a 
dicotyledon. It derives its specific name of quadrifolia (say the 
books) because it has four leaves. But the leaves may number 
three, four, five, or even six, thereby indicating that the plant is in 
an active state of transition. It seeds freely enough, but the seeds 
never germinate. I have gathered dozens of the berries, planted 
them myself and given them to all the gardeners about to plant, 
and I have not yet been rewarded with a single seedling. Nor 
have I ever found a plant in the bed, and I have rooted up many 



RARER FLOWERS OF EAST RENFREWSHIRE. 49 

of them growing apart from the usual long white rhizome. There 
is a small bed of this plant in Bardrain ("hill of the thorn") Glen ; 
and another, the finest I have ever seen, on the Calder above 
Lochwinnoch. 

Farther down the glen, growing with its feet in the burn, is a nice 
bed of woody nightshade {Solatium Dulcamara). It bears a 
strong family resemblance to the potato in the leaf, and especially 
in the flower; but it is more slender and delicate in appearance. 
Its poisonous berries soon disappear when ripe — the birds find 
them innocuous and much to their taste. What is poison to one 
is wholesome food to another. 

In the glen everywhere there is plenty of bitter-cress (Cardamine 
amara). On its west edge are to be found a few plants of the 
little pinky-red Centaury {Erythraa Centaurium). It is common 
enough near the sea, on Irvine sands to wit, but this is its only 
station hereabout. One shrub of the wayfaring tree or mealy 
guelder-rose ( Viburnum Lantana) grows in the hedge here. Close 
to this there is a rowan-tree which exhibits a curious and 
interesting phenomenon. The tree is a twin one, i.e., two stems 
of about the same size rise from the one root. At ten or twelve 
feet from the ground two branches of the one stem clasp the other 
tightly round the waist and draw it in against its breast. The farmer 
has evidently looked upon the last stem as doomed to death by 
the tightness of this embrace, and he has cut it quite through a little 
above the ground to put it out of torture and to save the other. 
At this stage he has failed to disentangle the cut trunk and has 
left it standing held up by the embracing arms. Now comes in 
the strange thing — the cut trunk is growing, leafing, and bearing 
flowers as if nothing had happened to it — fed by the branches that 
clasp it. One tree acting as wet nurse to another, feeding it with 
its own heart's blood ! What a subject for a poem ; what a text 
for a sermon on brotherly love ! 

Up the Aurs Burn. — Close to Darnley House the Aurs 
Burn joins the Brock, and what a contrast this little stream 
presents above and below Barrhead. Below, it is foul, foetid, 
livid with dye, fermenting with filth and disgusting as the face and 
breath of a besotted drunkard; above, it is pure, clear, sparkling 
as ether as a stream ought to be, and like the smiling face and 

D 



5<3 RARER FLOWERS OF EAST RENFREWSHIRE. 

sweet breath of "bashful fifteen." Above, the spirit of nature 
holds sway; below, the burn is deformed by the spirit of the age 
— commerce, money. May the stream of our lives never pass 
through a Barrhead ! 

The Aurs comes from Glanderston Dam at the foot of Craig of 
Carnock. In all the dams up here in Neilston parish (and their 
name is legion) you will find a few specimens of the fresh-water 
purslane plant {Pcplis Portuld). It grows about two inches high, 
with small ruddy flowers borne in the axils of the leaves. It is 
difficult to see and difficult to get at except when the dams are 
low. A little below Glanderston Dam the Aurs enters a marshy 
piece of ground intersected by narrow ditches full of water, and 
the whole marsh is, in the season, one golden mass of wild musk 
{Mimulus luteus). Linnaeus's historic field of broom was nothing 
to this. The plant has been here for ten or twelve years at least. 
It cannot spread up the stream, and the polluted condition of the 
burn down by Barrhead checks its spread in that direction. The 
scented musk plant {Mimulus mosckatus), a near relative of the 
yellow mimulus and a common pot plant in cottage windows, bids 
fair also soon to add itself to the list of our wild plants. The ponds 
at Loudon, Ayrshire, contain lots of it. There is a small syke up 
behind the hamlet of Pokeston, in Mearns parish, which will soon 
be overrun by it. The streamlet, a mere ditch, is completely 
hidden in summer by the long grass ; but the strong musk odour 
betrays the presence of the plant at a considerable distance to 
anyone passing on the lee. The " rin " originates in a spring-well 
which supplies Pokeston with water, and this fact explains how 
the plant comes to be here. 

Below the mimulus swamp the left bank of the Aurs is upright 
and rocky; and here are some beautiful patches of Ehrhart's 
water-figwort {Scrophularia JEhrharti). The plants root in the 
clear stream and grow close against the perpendicular bank, 
and as high — five or six feet. Descending the stream the plant 
occurs again near Darnley House in a ditch of clear water which 
communicates with the Aurs. Aurs and Brock join the Levern, 
and the Levern empties itself into the Cart, and the banks of the 
latter in Hawkhead Wood are literally covered with this beautiful 
and rare plant. Up all the burns which feed the Cart may be 
found beds of the pretty snake-weed {Polygonum Bistortd), with 
its beautifully twisted heads and strangely distorted roots. 



RARER FLOWERS OF EAST RENFREWSHIRE. 5 1 

Near Nitshill railway station there is one nice bed of the yellow 
toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) and a considerable quantity of its rarer 
and more lowly sister, the least toadflax {£. minor). The latter 
has a very decided partiality for railways. 

At Hurlet we find adder's-tongue fern {Ophioglossum vulgatum); 
Veronica Buxbaumii — like V. agrestis in leaf and stem, and like 
V. Chamcedrys in its large, beautiful, clear blue flowers. In various 
of the gardens about and on the railway banks one occasionally 
gathers good specimens of the treacle mustard {Erysimum cheir- 
anthoides), but the plant, a South of England one, is not constant 
with us. 

On the banks of the Levern near Househill House there grows 
a fair quantity of the hop plant {Hamulus Lupulus). The flowers 
in the bed are all staminal ones, hence the plant may have been 
washed down stream after being thrown out as rubbish from 
some of the gardens higher up. On the Glasgow and Barrhead 
roadside near this there is plenty of hemlock (Conium maculatum) 
— enough, in fact, to poison half the people of the county. 
Beyond the road, and near Hawkhead policy wall, one whole 
field is covered in the season with the beautiful, rosy (rarely white) 
pea-blossoms of the rest-harrow {Ononis arvensis). The plants 
are of the prostrate variety. The upright variety is met with on 
the roadside half-way between Hurlet and Renfrew. 

Levernholme Wood. — In Levernholme Wood we find lords- 
and-ladies {Arum maculalum), asarabacca {Asarum europmim), 
woody spiraea {Spircea salicifolia), lungwort {Pulmonaria officinalis), 
etc. The arum, unique among our flowering plants, develops its 
curious spathe freely in the wood where it is well shaded. At 
Crookston Castle, in the old moat there is plenty of it, healthy 
enough, but it never flowers, not being in the shade. The spathe 
of the arum is a sort of insect shebeen. Small beetles and flies 
enter it, and as it is to the interest of the flower for purposes of 
fertilization to detain them inside, they forthwith get intoxicated 
with the strong juices the plant provides, and as they cannot find 
their way out for a time, they stay within in one big drunken spree. 
"There's no drunkenness or debauchery among the lower 
animals," say -the teetotalers. Is there not? Why, the very beetles 
and flies, of both sexes and of all ages, when they get the 



52 RARER FLOWERS OF EAST RENFREWSHIRE. 

chance outshine the Laird of Logan's pigs. The wood spiraea of 
Levemholme is not in good condition. It seldom flowers here; 
but there is a fine bed of it on the banks of a small stream which 
enters Lochwinnoch on the west side. 

The Pad. — Levern Burn is the offspring of a number of 
streams which come from the hills above Neilston. Take the 
most conspicuous of these heights, the Pad, named from the 
very old Saxon word "Paid," a hill. In the fields at its feet 
there is plenty of the little brownish-coloured frog-orchis 
(Habenaria viridis). It is not readily noticed, both size and 
colour favouring the plant in this respect. It grows plentifully 
also in fields on the Calder above Lochwinnoch. On the north 
forehead of the Pad grows the cow-wheat {Melampyrum pratense), 
and this, I believe, is its only station in East Renfrewshire. This 
is one of the most obstinate plants in the whole British flora 
to dry satisfactorily. Nothing will do so and preserve the colour 
except the hot iron. 

On the opposite side of the Pad we find abundance of the white 
climbing corydalis ( Corydalis claviculatd). Very delicate and fragile 
it looks, and very prettily it overspreads the roots — kissing the feet 
of the sturdy Scotch pine trees that give it shelter beneath their 
rugged, kindly, outspread arms. Beauty clinging to the feet of 
strength — an improvement on the poets and novelists — a return to 
the primitive law of nature. Here also, on this very spot, there 
used to be a fine large bed of the parsley-fern (Cryptogranwie 
crispci). But, alas! for the " used-to-be ! " Dealers from the city 
found it out, and they have not left so much as one little plant on 
the hill-side. 

Com more Dam to Loch Libo. — From the top of the Pad we 
can see Hairlaw Dam with its sea-gull island. The stream which 
issues therefrom we can follow with the eye till it enters Commore 
Dam ("the dam of the big hollow"). The Neilston side of this dam 
has a considerable number of bald-money plants (Mcum Atha?nan- 
ticum), with their feathery dark-green leaves and, to me, most 
disagreeable smell. A burnie wimples down the brae-side and 
empties itself into the dam at the opposite corner. This tiny 
stream is so well hidden by the nature of the ground that you step 
into it almost before you see it. Ascend and you will find it one 



RARER FLOWERS OF EAST RENFREWSHIRE. 53 

series of puny cascades and yourself so secluded that you could 
easily imagine yourself nature's last man. 

The cascades and linns of this fairy stream are filled with the 
narrow-leaved water-parsnip (Stum angustifolium), not a pretty 
plant by any means, but an exceedingly rare one here in the 
West. It is very late in flowering, and it only flowers in favour- 
able seasons. It is an east country plant, not common even there, 
and how it has come here is a puzzle. But here it is, and thriving 
famously. 

Descend the stream from Commore Dam till it crosses the road 
towards Loch Libo ("loch of the cows"). Half a mile or so up this 
road our eyes are feasted on a magnificent bed of masterwort 
(Peucedanum Ostruthiuni) containing dozens of plants flowering 
freely every season. There is a small bed of the same plant near 
what used to be the Peesvveep Inn, and there are other three 
stations for it near Paisley. 

Loch Libo. — Loch Libo gives us a fair number of good plants 
— the mace-reed {Typha latifolia), water-hemlock (Cicuta virosa), 
white and yellow water-lilies (Nymphcea alba and Nuphar luted), 
and the mare's-tail (Hippuris vulgaris). The typha is an object 
of almost superstitious awe to the natives hereabout. Popular 
local belief attributes to it roots fearfully and wonderfully made 
— going down deep into the bowels of the solid earth or through 
them; and the flooding of the pit with workings underneath the 
loch is believed to have resulted from a rash collier's tearing down 
one of these colossal roots which interfered with his work. The 
flooding is a melancholy fact; but, as not a man escaped, it is 
somewhat difficult to understand how such definite information 
as to the immediate cause was obtained. 

The water-hemlock is pretty common here. It is but an 
ordinary looking umbelliferous plant, very poisonous and very 
hollow in the stem; but there is one noteworthy point about it 
— its chambered rhizome or root — the only root of the kind in 
the whole British flora. 

But the poet's flower, the lily, the white water-lily, the queen 
of our waters, prime favourite of Flora, and first of all our beautiful 
wildings for elegance of shape and rich purity of colour, may fairly 
claim the loch as her own domain. One derivation of Loch 



54 RARER FLOWERS OF EAST RENFREWSHIRE. 

Libo gives the meaning of the word as the "loch of the fairies;" 
and verily no more befitting spot could be conceived of as a 
favourite haunt of these little people than this same Loch Libo. 
Look at it for a moment and note some of its outstanding beauties. 
The situation, sweet, delightful, and refreshing in its calm seclu- 
sion; the banks rising high from the very lips of the loch, and 
richly clad in a mantle of varied wildwood; at the loch's head a 
tiny belt or bank of silvery sand washed down from a source 
hidden high up on the sylvan braes, and upon which mimic 
billows, with motion gentle as the measured heave of sleeping 
Zephyr's fiexuous breast, lap with murmuring sound and low; the 
water itself glittering in sunlight and lying within its girdle of hills 
like the teeming lap of the benignant goddess of nature herself; 
the typha, proudest of the gentle offspring of a gentle mother, 
standing on guard, erect and tall, yet nodding its graceful head 
and dark chestnut locks with easy motion timed to the yEolian 
music of the low-voiced winds ; the floral pleasure-boats of snowy 
white — the skiffs of golden yellow; the rounded leafy platforms 
moored beside the boats and skiffs inviting, by the glossy smooth- 
ness of their tiny circles, to trip it on the lightest and most 
fantastic of elfin toes under the cool silvery beams of the summer 
moon : these are a few, and only a few, of the allurements 
which Loch Libo had to offer to the good folks. No wonder that 
they chose as they did! No wonder that Loch Libo became the 
home of fairies ! 

Corkindale Law. — The hill behind Loch Libo is Corkindale 
Law ("hill of the marshy valley"), famous for its fine view and its 
moonworts. Indeed, all the district we have been traversing from 
Corkindale Law here, over by the Pad, to Hairlaw Dam, abounds 
both in adder's-tongue and moonwort ferns. 

And now we must stop — our excursion has been long enough. 
We have done on a more extensive scale what Burns did long ago 
when he pu'd the posy to his ain dear May — we have culled the 
blossoms of spring, summer, and autumn into one handful. But 
through it all I claim to have proved that so far as Renfrewshire 
is concerned every nook and corner of it is worth a more 
thorough search from botanists than it has yet received. 






RECORDS OF EXCURSIONS TO 
LOCH LOMONDSIDE, 

With Additional Matter. 
v By John Paterson. 



Luss District. — The pleasantly situated village of Luss was 
the rendezvous of the first excursion made under the auspices of 
the Society to Loch Lomondside. The aim of the outing was to 
visit the island of yew trees, Inchlonaig. This island, which lies 
directly opposite Luss, cannot claim, in point of picturesqueness, 
to be favourably compared with such islands as Inchtavannach or 
Inchcalliach, but its remarkable collection of yew trees — stated to 
have been planted in the time of King Robert the Bruce and by 
his advice — will always attract those interested in old and remark- 
able trees. 

About the middle of the seventeenth century Inchlonaig was 
" laid waste " for use as a deer forest, and as such it has continued 
to the present time. In the following century fifteen Highland 
goats were introduced, and the descendants of these remained in 
a wild state for a long period thereafter. These are now extinct, 
however, only fallow deer being found on the island at present. 
Readers of The Moor and the Loch will remember the chapter called 
after the chief resort of the goats, Crap na Gower, in which John 
Colquhoun relates his experience in stalking one of the patriarchs 
of the flock. 

Naturally much attention was directed on the occasion of our 
visit to the old yew trees, of which there are a great many scattered 
throughout the island, solitarily or in small groups. Many of 
them in respect of girth of trunk are of large size. While the 
growth of this species is usually slow, it must, under the exposed 



56 EXCURSIONS TO LOCH LOMONDSIDE. 

circumstances of the situation of Inchlonaig and the rocky nature 
of many of the spots where the trees have found a lodgment, be 
still further restricted, so that the trees may be relatively older 
than others of like size which have had the advantages of shelter 
and abundant nutrition. The largest trees noted, in the brief 
time at the disposal of the Society, were in the neighbourhood of 
the caretaker's house on the south side of the island, the trunks 
measuring from twelve to fifteen feet in girth. Some of them 
spread their roots over the rock surfaces and into the crevices, 
enclosing as in a vice angular blocks of rock of considerable size, 
recalling vividly the expression of Tennyson about the old yew 
"that graspest at the stones." The collection suffered from fire, 
but the western end of the island, which was bare of trees, was 
partially replanted by the late Sir James Colquhoun. Besides 
the yews there is much alder, and sometimes in summer may be 
seen the picturesquely situated encampment of a number of 
English clog-makers engaged in cutting and preparing the alder 
for manufacture into clogs, for which purpose the wood is much 
valued. 

So far as was observed, the campions, stitchworts, and speed- 
wells which contribute so much at midsummer to the beauty of 
our woods and waysides, were conspicuously absent from the 
flora of the island, which is essentially a heath one. The follow- 
ing plants were among the most frequently met with — Erica 
cinerea, E. Tetralix, Calluna vulgaris, Vaccinium Myrtillus, V. 
Oxycoccos, Narthecium ossifragum, Myrica Gale. Other plants 
noted were Scutellaria galericulata, Ranunculus Flamviula, Gym- 
nadenia Conopsea, and Nephrodium Oreopteris. 

At the time of the visit of the Wordsworths to Luss — in the 
beginning of the present century — the village consisted of houses 
of the most primitive construction, while the garden plots had 
"potatoes and cabbages, but never a honeysuckle." Now all this 
is altered, the houses being well built and having latticed windows 
and projecting roofs, while the walls in every instance are covered 
with honeysuckles, roses, tropseolums, escallonia, the purple clematis, 
and many other beautiful shrubs and plants. From most coigns of 
vantage in the vicinity, the village — owing to the noble growth of 
the great maples, limes, and wych-elms which abound within and 
around it and the church — is only partially visible. In the 



EXCURSIONS TO LOCH LOMONDSIDE. 57 

churchyard is the resting-place of the Rev. Dr. John Stuart, who 
is well remembered for having " perfected the Gaelic translation 
of the Scriptures." The parish was fortunate in having him as its 
minister in the end of last century, and the first statistical account 
of the parish, which is from his pen, is full of interest for 
naturalists, as it contains a list of the avi-fauna, mammals, and 
reptiles of the district, with measurements of some remarkable 
trees and other cognate matter. Dr. Stuart was only less dis- 
tinguished as a naturalist than as a litterateur, and to him 
Lightfoot, in the preface to his Flora Scotica, expresses obligation 
for "a great portion of the Highland botany, for many of the 
medical and economical, and all the superstitious uses of plants, 
. . . and . . . the supply of their Erse or Gaelic names." 
The route followed by the Society on the Queen's birthday in 
1890 may now be traced. After passing through the village a 
tulip tree {Liriodendron tulipifera) attracted attention, as did also 
a fine wych-elm which stands on the roadway opposite the inn. 
Proceeding southward by the road which leads to Dumbarton, the 
well-wooded nature of the country was conspicuous, and many 
fine trees were noted, including silver firs, oaks, walnuts, poplars, 
etc., all in fine health and some of them of great size. The hamlet 
of Aldochlay, which was soon reached, is in a romantic situation 
on the side of the loch, with Elan Aldochlay, or the swan island, 
a few boat-lengths from the shore, and the wood-clad island of 
Inchtavannach opposite running parallel with the side of the loch. 
At this point on the public road begins a short avenue of fine 
beeches, among the branches of which squirrels, which now 
abound in the locality, may often be seen pertly gazing at the 
passers-by. The squirrel does not appear in the list of the 
mammals of the district in the old statistical account of the 
parish, the first of these lively creatures observed near Loch 
Lomond being killed, according to Mr. Colquhoun, in 1830. At 
Aldochlay the party embarked for Inchtavannach, and on landing 
there followed the pathway which leads to Tom-na-clag, or the 
bell-height, the northern summit of the island, from which in 
earlier times the faithful of the surrounding parishes were called 
to their devotions. At this stage a paper was read by Mr. G. W. 
'Walker, in which he urged the reasons for considering the loch a 
rock basin hollowed out by the action of ice during the glacial 



58 EXCURSIONS TO LOCH LOMONDSIDE. 

period. Before leaving the island the entomologists present had 
captured Melanippe tristata, Hypsipetes trifasciata, and Eupithecia 
nanata. Returning after a brief interval to the landing-place, the 
boats were again manned, and after rounding the north end of 
Inchtavannach the flotilla proceeded through Luss Straits — the 
sound separating Inchtavannach and Inchconachan — and so on 
to Inchmoan, or the gull island. This island, the highest point 
of which is only thirty-three feet above sea level, formerly supplied 
peats to the people of the Luss district. It has been for a long 
period a place of much interest to ornithologists as the nesting 
place of large numbers of birds, chiefly gulls. The two species 
hitherto most largely represented were the black-headed gull {Larus 
ridibundus) and the lesser black- back {Larus fuscus). It was with 
great regret that those present learnt that the colony of black- 
headed gulls had not reappeared in the spring of the year of our 
visit, nor have they since done so, the locality having been 
apparently abandoned in 1889, but from what cause was unknown. 
The lesser black-back, however, continues in considerable num- 
bers, and many of the simple nests of this species were seen, 
under a clump of ling, a bush of bog-myrtle, or the shade of the 
alders by the loch-side. The cloudberry {Rubies Chamcemorus), 
which is so naturally associated with our sub-alpine heights, was 
here found in flower, also the tufted loosestrife {Lysimachia 
thyrsiflord). Crab-apple trees here and on Inchtavannach were 
much admired for their wealth of delicately tinted bloom. The 
marshy heaths on the island proved fruitful hunting ground for 
the entomologists, great numbers of the common heath moth 
{Fidonia atomaria) being on the wing, and among the captures 
were Bupalus piniaria, Cabera pusaria, a female of the emperor 
moth {Saturnia pavonia), also larvae of the drinker moth 
( Odotiestis potatorid). 

Again embarking, the party proceeded to Rossdhu, passing on 
the way the islet Inchgalbraith, with its "ivy-mantled tower," on 
which, till early in this century, the osprey {Pandion haliaetus) 
nested. The author of The Moor and the Loch shot the female 
and trapped the male of the pair which had long built there. In 
maturer years he bitterly regretted having been " the means of 
expelling from the loch of my ancestors the most romantic and 
time-honoured dependant on its bounty." 



EXCURSIONS TO LOCH LOMONDS1DE. 59 

At one time the property of the Earls of Lennox, Rossdhu has 
been in the possession of the Colquhouns since it passed into 
their hands by marriage in the time of Bruce. The present hand- 
some mansion house was built about 1774. In its neighbourhood 
are the remains of " Our Lady's Chapel " of Rossdhu (which is 
ascribed to the twelfth century) and of a castle. The park is of 
great extent, and has been embellished by successive proprietors 
with a great variety of trees. The authors of a General View of 
the Agriculture of Dumbarton, published in 181 1, state that 
"previous to 1794 the late Sir James Colquhoun, Bart., had 
planted in the course of fifteen years not less than a thousand 
acres of land with trees of various kinds." 

On the walls of the old castle the wall-pellitory (Parielaria 
officinalis) and the snapdragon {Antirrhinum majus) were found. 
The stone-bramble (Rtibus saxatilis) and twayblade (Lisiera ovata) 
were also noted. Over the old chapel (which is used as a place 
of burial by the Colquhouns) spread the branches of a yew tree 
noticed in the first statistical account of Luss. This tree, which 
is a male, is getting rather thin in the foliage, and in this respect 
compares unfavourably with the example (a female) which stands 
in the roadway, opposite the middle lodge, which is an exceed- 
ingly handsome tree. Of the large great maple, or sycamore, 
mentioned in the first statistical account, only the shell of the 
trunk remains, but at no distance from it and behind the stables, 
a most worthy successor has grown up. 

There are many fine individual trees in the noble park at 
Rossdhu. On the largest noted, a beech, an interesting fungus 
had established itself {Polyporus igniarius), one of the sources of 
German tinder. A pinetum adjoining the old castle received a 
share of attention, one strikingly distinct shrub, the Earl of 
Harrington's yew ( Taxus Harringtonia), attracting special notice. 
The majority of those present returned by the boats to Luss, but 
a few proceeded by the North Lodge to the village on foot, thus 
completing an unusually varied and interesting excursion. 

The following measurements (taken in August, 1889) of the 
notable trees near Luss, to which the attention of the Society has 
been directed at different times, should be valuable for future 
reference : — 



60 EXCURSIONS TO LOCH LOMONDSIDE. 

Wych-elm (Ulmtis montana) opposite the inn, 13 feet in girth at 6 feet. 

Judging from measurements taken in successive years by Mr. Colquhoun, 

lately forester at Rossdhu, and from that recorded by the Highland and 

Agricultural Society in 1864, this well-known tree does not seem to have 

increased in size for the past quarter of a century. 
Great maple (Acer Pseudo-platanus) near hall in village, II feet at 3 feet 

(upper side). A similar tree stands in the ground about Dell Cottage, 

nearer Luss Water. 
Great maple between stables and loch at Rossdhu, 13 feet \i\ inches at 5 feet. 

One of the handsomest trees of the kind in the West of Scotland. 
Walnut (Juglans regia), Camstradden Park, south of house, 7 feet 3f inches 

at 5 feet ; Camstradden Park, south-west of last, 7 feet 6| inches at 

5 feet. 
Silver fir (Picea pectinata) opposite slate wharf, Camstradden Bay, east side of 

public road, 13 feet 6\ inches at 5 feet. 
Spanish chestnut (Caslanea vulgaris) on the public road opposite Rossdhu 

Nursery gate, 12 feet 7 J inches at 5 feet. 
Yew tree ( Taxus baccata) at the middle lodge, Rossdhu, 13 feet 4J inches at 

1 foot from level of mound. A female tree. Before the lodge was made, 

a cottage stood under this tree's branches on the north side. 
Yew tree overhanging the old chapel at Rossdhu, 13 feet o\ inches at 4^ feet. 

A male tree. 
Douglas fir (Abies Douglasii) near Rossdhu House, 10 feet 3^ inches at 4 feet. 
Beech (Fagus sylvatica) in park near Rossdhu House, 16 feet 9J inches at 

4 feet. Now attacked by Polyponis igniarius. 
Beech in stable avenue, Rossdhu, 1 1 feet 6£ inches at 4 feet. This is a fine 

forester's tree. 
Poplar (Populus nigra?) in a field on right bank of Luss Water, at 5 feet (low 

side), 13 feet of inches. 
Scotch fir (Pinus sylvestris) in park at Rossdhu, 11 feet at 5 feet. Extreme 

height, about 65 feet. Measured November, 1892. This is a typical 

example of the species, and was successfully photographed. (Plate V.) 

Buchanan Castle and District. — The 23rd of May, 1889, 
found the Society on the east side of Loch Lomond, Drymen 
being the starting point. At the entrance to Drymen kirkyard a 
halt was called to allow measurements and photographs to be 
taken of the old ash there. This tree is mentioned in the Agri- 
cultural Account of Stirlingshire, published in 181 2; in the new 
statistical account of Drymen; also in the "Report on Old and 
Remarkable Trees" of the Highland and Agricultural Society 
(March, 1864) — in all of which measurements are given. It was 
locally called the Bell Tree, because it was in it, as I am 




From 1 'hoto. by | 



[S. Stewart. 



SCOTCH FIR (Pinm sylvestris) at Rossdhi 



EXCURSIONS TO LOCH LOMONDSIDE. 6 1 

informed by the present minister, Rev. John Roy, that for a long 
time in this century and before it the church bell was regularly 
hung. It appears that for a time it hung in a belfry on the 
top of the west gable, but anterior to its being placed there and 
subsequent to the breakdown of this erection, it did duty in the 
old ash. When visited by us the tree measured 1 7 feet \\ inches 
in girth at 5 feet, but it was much decayed, and in the interval it 
has succumbed, having been blown down during the night of the 
23rd September, 1892. On a section of the trunk, taken near the 
root, 204 rings were counted. 

The grounds of Buchanan Castle were next entered, under the 
leadership of the estate forester. The gardens were shortly 
reached, and among items of interest to which attention was 
particularly directed were the original plant of the variety of the 
lady-fern known as the Buchanan fern, and some large, handsome 
examples of Araucaria imbricata, one of the latter being photo- 
graphed. The handsome Welsh poppy (Meconopsis cambricd) 
occurred here as an escape. Proceeding towards the castle, 
which is quite modern, its predecessor having been destroyed by 
fire in 1850, the forester drew attention to a Spanish chestnut, 
planted by Charles Kean in 1865, which measured 2 feet 
7| inches at 2 feet 5 inches. The party then passed the castle, 
attention being drawn chiefly to the fine trees which abound, 
among introduced species which have attained considerable size 
being the hemlock-spruce {Abies canadensis) and Douglas fir. 

In Hennedy's Clydesdale Flora a very fine Spanish chestnut is 
mentioned as growing on the lawn here. The largest tree of this 
kind on the estate stands in the park, west of the castle, and may 
be the one referred to. It measured 15 feet 9 inches at 2 feet 
6 inches. The noble and extensive park, which stretches west- 
wards from the castle to the shores of Loch Lomond, is studded 
throughout with trees of large size, chiefly oaks. One of the 
large oaks (near a well) measured 16 feet Z\ inches at 5 feet, 
while another, well known in the district as the " Five Sisters of 
Buchanan," from the five great branches which shoot up almost 
straight from the main trunk, measured 19 feet 3 \ inches at 2 feet 
4 inches. It was with regret that those present saw that these 
sylvan giantesses must inevitably soon succumb to the insidious 
attacks of a most destructive fungus, Polyporics sulfweus, of which 



62 EXCURSIONS TO LOCH LOMONDSIDE. 

large specimens were found on the main stem. A yew tree near 
some offices in the same vicinity measured n feet 7^ inches at 
2 feet 9 inches. 

The church of Buchanan was shortly reached, and from thence 
to the Pass of Balmaha nothing noteworthy was observed except 
the bloody-dock (Rumex sanguineus). The ferry was taken at this 
point to the island of Inchcalliach, on which formerly stood the 
parish kirk, the island at that time giving its name to the parish 
now called Buchanan. The ancient burying ground on Inch- 
calliach is interesting as the place of sepulture of some members 
of the Clan Gregor, though the visitor will look in vain for 
any melancholy yews that could have suggested to Scott to find 
here the wood for the fiery cross — 

"The shaft and limbs were rods of yew, 
Whose parents in Inch-Calliach wave 
Their shadows o'er Clan- Alpine's grave." 

Choked with weeds and rank grass, the graveyard now presents 
a scene of desolation. The island itself, as is well known, is one 
of the most picturesque of the many romantic isles of Loch 
Lomond. Approached from Balmaha it has a striking appearance, 
cliffs of considerable height rising from the edge of the loch, 
partly clad and surmounted by sombre firs. A broad grass-grown 
path, which at the time of our visit was fringed with wood 
hyacinths, leads from the landing place to the opposite extremity 
of the island, where in place of the cliffs of the east is a de- 
lightful bay, a veritable silver strand, or white bay, as its Gaelic 
name signifies. Among the plants gathered on the island were 
the white corydalis (Corydalis claviculatd), the globe-flower or 
lucken-gowan (Trollius europceus), the guelder-rose {Viburnum 
Opulus), and a rare moss, Dicratium Scottianum. One of the 
stone flies, Capnia nigra, was among the day's entomological 
captures. Returning to the mainland, the Pass of Balmaha or 
gateway to the Highlands was entered and the craggy fort 
ascended, from which, under the favourable conditions of weather 
obtaining, a delightful panorama of the loch and its surroundings 
was obtained. 

Alpine Excursions. — Twice during recent years the Society 
has made excursions to Loch Lomond for the purpose of botan- 
ising on the Arrochar chain of mountains. On the first occasion 



EXCURSIONS TO LOCH LOMONDSIDE. 63 

(31st August, 1889) Ben Voirlich was ascended. The flora of this 
hill was familiar to local botanists before our visit, nor was 
anything noted which had not been known as occurring there. 
On the second excursion, however (18th July, 1891), new ground 
was broken, Ben Ime (3318 feet), which lies north of the familiar 
Cobbler, being ascended. Following the course of the Allt 
Bhallachan, a typical mountain torrent, the watershed to the north 
of the Cobbler (2250 feet) was followed, thence up the long 
grassy slope to the cairn at the summit of Ben Ime. The 
descent was made down the course of the Allt Coiregrogan into 
Glen Loin, which opens into the head of Loch Long. This part 
of the route yielded by far the best results, most of the plants in 
the list which follows having been gathered there: — Ranunculus 
Flammula, Thalictrum alpinum, Viola lutea, Cerastium viscosum, 
Silene acaulis, Polygala vulgaris, Geranium sylvaticum, Potentilla 
Torme?itilla, Alchemilla vulgaris, A. alpina, Rubus saxatilis, 
Sedum Rhodiola, S. acre, S. anglicum, Saxifraga hypnoides, S. 
oppositifolia, S. stellaris, S. aizoides, Pamassia palustris, Galium 
saxatile, Crepis paludosa, C. virens, Hieracium alpinum, 
Gnaphalium supinum, Campanula rotundifolia, Vaccinium 
Myrtillus, V. Vitis-Idcea, Erica Tetralix, E. cinerea, Calluna 
vulgaris, Armeria vulgaris, Euphrasia officinalis, Pedicularis 
sylvalica, Thymus Serpyllum, Pinguicula vulgaris, Polygonum 
viviparum, Rumcx acetosella, Oxyria reniformis, Empetrum 
nigrum, Myrica Gale, Orchis maculata, O. latifolia, Gymnadenia 
conopsea, Habenaria chloranlha, Juncus sauarrosus, J. uliginosus, 
J. trifidus, Narthecium ossifragum, Potamogeton oblongus, Scirpus 
caspitosus, Eriophorum vaginatum, Carex pulicaris, C. pallesccns, 
C. binervis, C. ampullacea, C. vulgaris, C. stellulata, C. flava, 
Triodia decumbens, Festuca ovina (and the viviparous variety), 
Aira cazspitosa, A.flexuosa, Pteris aquilina, Nephrodium Oreopteris, 
Cryptogramme crispa, Lycopodium clavatum, L. Selago, L. alpinufn, 
Selaginella selaginoides. 

In the village of Arrochar a magnificent ash tree attracted 
attention. The trunk measured 16 feet 5^ inches in girth at 
5 feet 9 inches. 

At the Ben Voirlich excursion a handsome oak, half-way between 
Ardlui and Voirlich Burn, on the east side of the road, was 
measured (girth, 12 feet 6 J inches at 4 feet). 



64 EXCURSIONS TO LOCH LOMONDSIDE. 

Balloch Castle. — The pleasure grounds around Balloch 
Castle were visited on 9th July, 1892, fine weather prevailing. 
Of the ancient castle of Belach, or Balloch, which was a seat of 
the Lennox family anterior to the period of their residence on 
Inchmurrin, there are now no remains. The modern castle 
occupies a commanding situation on a steep hill facing Loch 
Lomond, of which fine views are obtained from the tower. Near 
the castle is one of the most compact and delightful old flower- 
gardens which it has ever been our privilege to visit. Here are 
floral beauties in abundance without any suggestion of crowding, 
while the pond in the centre, covered with water plants (the white 
water-lily being conspicuous) gives a restful air to the place, and 
the admirable order everywhere apparent contributes not a little 
to the favourable impression which the whole produces on the 
mind of the visitor. Surrounding the garden is a varied collection 
of trees, none of them yet remarkable for size. These include a 
fine pair of the Chilian Araucaria imbricata, measuring respec- 
tively 5 feet 2 inches at 2 feet 1 1 inches, and 4 feet 4 inches at 
2 feet 7 inches; a tulip tree {Liriodendron tulipiferd) measuring 
6 feet 9 \ inches at 2 feet 3 inches; an Abies nobilis, twenty-seven 
years planted, girthing 6 feet 4 inches at 3 feet \\ inches; and a 
mammoth pine of California (Wellingtonia gigantea) girthing 
6 feet 5! inches at 3 feet 2 inches. The kitchen garden, which 
is at some distance from the castle, contains a fine collection of 
herbaceous plants, and on the walls here were seen the ivy-leaved 
toadflax (Linaria Cytnbalaria), the house-leek {Sempervivum 
tectorum), the rare and striking orange hawk-weed, or Grim-the- 
Collier (JTieraa'um aurantiacum), together with several handsome 
species of climbers such as the double-flowered deutzia {Deutzia 
crenata), with prominent stellate hairs on the pedicels, and the 
rose-acacia {Robinia hispidd). A cool greenhouse was much 
admired for its wealth of bloom, one of the most striking objects 
being the large pendulous crimson flowers of Tacsonia van 
Volxe?ni, one of the passion flowers. On the approach to the 
kitchen garden a large beech was measured (girth, 12 feet 
10 inches at 1 foot 7 inches). Just outside the gardens stands a 
hazel (Cory/us Avellafia) of quite unusual size for the species. It 
has a fairly long bole and a fine round top like an ordinary forest 
tree, standing about 40 feet high and measuring 4 feet 9 inches in 



6 NOV 31 



EXCURSIONS TO LOCH LOMONDSIDE. 65 

girth at 3 feet 1 inch. In the park are some fine trees, photo- 
graphs and measurements of several being taken. The largest 
was a picturesque old larch — Plate VI. — measuring 12 feet 
3^ inches at 3 feet 3J inches on south side. Other trees 
measured here were a lime (n feet 7 inches at 2 feet 1 o inches), 
a great maple (8 feet 5 inches at 3 feet 3 inches), and two oaks 
(respectively 9 feet 1 inch at 2 feet 10 inches, and 9 feet n inches 
at 3 feet 4 inches). On the lawn in front of the castle the following 
trees were measured : — Silver fir (Picea pectinata), 1 o feet 3 inches 
at 3 feet; a Turkey oak (Quercus Cerris), 6 feet io£ inches 
at 2 feet 6 inches; a Wellingtotiia gigantea, 5 feet 5 inches at 
3 feet; and a Douglas fir, 6 feet 10 inches at 2 feet 8 inches. 
Among the native plants noted were the water-crowfoot {Ranun- 
culus heterophyllus) on the Leven, the great yellow loosestrife 
(Lysimachia vulgaris) at the same place and by the side of the 
loch, the lesser winter-green (Pyrola minor), the whorled-caraway 
( Carum verticillalum), and three species of cyperaceae, Heleocharis 
multicaulis, Carex remota, and C. flava. 

After leaving the policy a large, wide-spreading, vigorous ash 
was visited on Laderish Farm at Over Balloch (girth of trunk, 
14 feet 8 inches at 2 feet 8 inches on north side). This was the 
last item of interest in a pleasant afternoon's work. 



THE FLORA OF STIRLING AND 
ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD. 

By Johnston Shearer. 
(Read 5th September, 1889.) 



Stirling, with the surrounding district, is enshrined in every 
Scottish heart as a scene of the heroism and patriotism of their 
forefathers. It was crowded for centuries with incidents of the 
greatest historical interest; but it is as a rich treasury for lovers of 
nature that I am now to direct your attention to it, and particularly 
to its unique flora. 

The scenery is varied and grand — the panorama seen from the 
castle being perhaps unequalled in the British Islands. The 
geological features are remarkable, especially as examples of 
alterations in sea level and of glacial phenomena. The castle 
rock is trap-dolerite, and its contact with the strata of the carbon- 
iferous limestone is seen in the Back Walk, a little to the east of 
Ballangeich Pass. The Abbey Craig, to the east, is also dolerite. 
Craigforth, about a mile to the north-west, is a porphyrite of the 
same age and character as the lava-formed rocks of the Tough 
hills on the west. It contains a considerable amount of ironstone. 
The quarries at the foot of the castle rock on the north side, at 
Raploch, and the old quarries at Ballangeich and at the Abbey 
Craig will amply repay examination. These varied geological 
features account in some measure for the richness of the flora. I 
have been over a good part of Scotland and England, but I know 
of no place of equally circumscribed limits to compare with it for 
the number and variety of its wild flowers. Moreover, its central 
position in the country on the border line between the highlands 
and lowlands, and midway between the east and west coasts and. 
the Firths of Forth and Clyde; its intersection by the tidal waters 



STIRLING AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD. 67 

of the Forth ; and its shelter by the Ochil and Perth hills on the 
north and north-east, and the Tough hills on the south-west — 
which secure for it an equable climate and freedom from the 
great rainfall of the west coast — all contribute to foster plant life. 

There is reason for believing that this district bordered on the 
ancient Caledonian forest, the remains of gigantic timber having 
been frequently found in the moss and clay lands of Blair- 
drummond. 

The part of the district which is richest in botanical specimens 
could be explored in one of our summer excursions, and with the 
view of inducing the Society to visit it I shall enumerate the prin- 
cipal plants I have gathered there — particularly those which are 
rare or unknown in the Clydesdale district — and shall indicate the 
places where they should be looked for. 

The route should be by the west side of the town, round the 
castle rock, along the Gowlin hills, and out to the Abbey Craig; 
returning, if time permitted, by the banks of the Forth and Cam- 
buskenneth Abbey. On leaving the railway station we cross the 
town by the Arcade and Corn Exchange on to the Back Walk, 
where our botanising begins. Turning northward, we find on the 
rocks and nooks by the side of the path Smyrnium Olusatrum 
(Alexanders), not common in either England or Scotland. It is 
oftenest found about old castles and mansions, probably from its 
having been cultivated in former times as a pot herb. Peucedanum 
Ostruthiu?7i (masterwort) grows in the wooded slope here, but it 
is scarce. Lamium album (white dead-nettle) abounds along the 
Back Walk. Ornithogalum umbellatum (star of Bethlehem) may 
be found in the wood above the Smith Institute, but there are 
only a very few plants of it, and it is more plentiful near an old 
mill on the banks of the Forth about a mile and a half up from 
Stirling. 

Here the Smith Institute might be visited. It contains a 
capital picture gallery and museum of antiquities and natural 
history specimens. In the garden there the late Mr. Croll, 
curator, who was an accomplished botanist, had a rare collection 
of wild plants, which it is hoped may still be preserved. 

Centum maculatum (hemlock), Caucalis Anthriscus (hedge 
parsley), Chcerophyllum temulum (rough chervil), and Myrrhis 
odorata (sweet cicely), are all plentiful by the side of the walk. 



68 STIRLING AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD. 

At the highest point of the path we come to the cemetery, in the 
middle of which is the celebrated Ladies' Rock, from which the 
dames of the castle were wont to view the sports and tournaments 
in the valley below. Passing through the stile on to the castle 
rock, and ascending by the side of the wall, Sedum reflexum 
(crooked yellow stonecrop) and S. album (white stonecrop) are 
found in considerable quantity. S. rupestre is reported to grow 
about the castle, but I have never found it. Cheiranthus Cheiri 
(wall-flower) and Asplenium Ruta-muraria (wall-rue) are plentiful 
hereabout. At this side of the hill, amongst the blackthorn 
bushes, a few specimens of the rare Hyoscyamus niger (henbane) 
may be gathered. This plant yields a valuable narcotic medicine. 
Atropa Belladonna, another rare medicinal plant of the same 
natural order, grows in one or two places on the face of the hill 
further on. Its large black berries are extremely poisonous. 
Chrysanthemum Parlhenium (feverfew) is common in this part, 
and a variety with double flowers is frequently met with. Further 
on, at the foot of the perpendicular rocks and on the cliffs, Carum 
Petroselinum (wild parsley) and Brassica oleracea (wild cabbage) 
are found. Both are very rare in Scotland, and the latter is an 
exceedingly interesting plant, as being the parent of all the 
cultivated varieties of cabbage, kail, savoys, brussels sprouts, 
cauliflower, and broccoli. At this place I found Carduus Mari- 
anus (milk thistle), the most beautiful of the thistle tribe. Its 
veins are pure white, and it has white blotches on the glossy 
leaves, these marks having been caused by the Blessed Virgin's 
milk falling on the plant ! Parietaria officinalis (pellitory of the 
wall) is plentiful on these rocks. On the face of the hill the 
following plants may be found, all of which are more or less rare, 
some of them very rare, viz. — Laciuca virosa (strong-scented 
lettuce), the juice of which is narcotic, and is used as an opiate; 
Verbasann Thapsus (shepherd's club), V. Lychnitis (white mullein), 
Malva sylvestris (mallow), M. rotundifolia (round-leaved mallow), 
M. jnoschata (musk mallow), Tanacelutn vulgare (tansy), Convol- 
vulus arvcnsis (small bindweed), and Valerianella olitoria (lamb's- 
lettuce), an excellent salad. The two last are spread all over 
the hill. Viola odorata (sweet violet) and Geranium pusillum 
(small-flowered crane's-bill) are reported as growing there, but I 
have never met with them. A good many plants of Atitirrlwium 



STIRLING AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD. 69 

maj'us (snapdragon) grow in the crevices of the castle rock, but 
generally out of reach, as any plant that may find a lodgment 
within climbing distance is speedily captured. Amongst the 
boulders at the foot of the hill Myosotis collina (early field- 
scorpion-grass) is plentiful. There is no record of its having been 
found in the Clydesdale district. Trifolium strictum (soft-knotted 
trefoil), T. medium (zig-zag trefoil), and T. arvense (hare's-foot 
trefoil), may also be found, but they are rather scarce. Ranun- 
culus bulbosus (bulbous crowfoot) is abundant. In the wooded 
bank of the King's Park, at some distance to the west, two very 
rare plants grow, viz., Gagea lutea (yellow star of Bethlehem) 
and Astragalus glycyphyllos (sweet milk-vetch) — the former in the 
damp ground at the back of the rifle butts, and the latter nearer 
the town. In the park above, up towards the flagstaff, Viola 
lutea (mountain pansy) is very abundant in all variety of colours, 
from brightest yellow to deepest violet. 

Advancing along the Back Walk by -the north side of the castle 
the Pass of Ballangeich is reached. By it James V. — the " Guid- 
man o' Ballangeich" — went out and in to the castle on his 
nocturnal exploits. The outline of the door, long since built up, 
which he made use of on these occasions, is still to be seen in the 
east wall. The pass was then a footpath, but is now a good 
broad road. We now come to the Gowlin hills (so called from 
the wailing of criminals who were executed there), where Aquilegia 
vulgaris (columbine) is said to grow. Brassica oleracea is pretty 
plentiful on this side of the castle walls. On these hills Rosa 
rubiginosa (sweetbriar) and other members of the rose tribe are 
rather plentiful. 

We must now find our way to the Abbey Craig, and crossing 
the Forth by the old bridge, may gather Geranium pratetise 
(meadow crane's-bill) — the queen of the crane's-bills — in plenty 
on the Forth banks. Having arrived at Causeyhead, the best 
way to botanise the Craig is to ascend from the Alloa road a 
short distance before coming to the school. On the hill many of 
the plants already enumerated will be found, which I need 
not recapitulate. Some others may be mentioned : Echium 
vulgare (viper's-bugloss), plentiful; Anthyllis Vulneraria (lady's- 
fingers), Filago germanica (the impious weed), F. minima (least 
filago), Silene inflata (bladder-campion), Lychnis vesperti?ia (white 



70 STIRLING AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD. 

campion), Sedum anglicum (English stonecrop), S. villosum 
(hairy stonecrop), Clinopodinm vulgare (wild-basil), Chenopodium 
Bonus-Henricus (Good King Henry). Atropa Belladonna is 
abundant at the foot of the rocks above the school. On the 
face of the rocks Lychnis Viscaria (red German catchfly) and 
Geranium sangitineum (bloody crane's-bill) grow, but not plenti- 
fully. 

Having explored the hill, the top of the Craig may be gained 
through a crevice in the rocks known as Wallace's Pass. On the 
top, along the edge of the precipice, Helianthemum vulgare 
(yellow rock-rose) and Omithopus perpusillus (bird's-foot) have 
found a lodgment. 

The Wallace Monument can now be visited. Here a collection 
is being formed of objects of national interest, and from the top 
of the tower one of the finest views in Europe is got. 

This would probably be the most distant point of the excur- 
sion, and, if time allowed, the return might be made by the banks 
of the Forth (where there are many aquatic plants) and Cambus- 
kenneth Abbey, which is about a mile south from the Craig in 
one of the loops of the winding river; thence by the ferryboat 
back to the railway station. Along the foot of an old wall of 
what had been the Abbey garden there is a considerable quantity 
of Viola odor at a. 

Before concluding, I may mention that there is an uncommon 
plant, Saponaria officinalis (soapwort), growing pretty plentifully 
on the banks of the Allan where the railway crosses, about a 
mile from Stirling. Another extremely rare wild plant, Ledum 
palustre (Labrador tea) grows in Lecropt Moss, about a mile 
further away, the only station recorded for it in Britain. The 
Ochils and the Tough hills are rich in alpine plants and 
cryptogams. 



ALPINE EXCURSIONS TO CAM CHREAG 
AND BEINN DOIREANN. 

By E. Raymond Burden. 



During the Fair holidays of 1890 the Natural History Society of 
Ghsgow agreed to join our own in a series of alpine excursions 
which were accordingly undertaken under the conductorship of 
Mr. P. Ewing. 

The centre of operations chosen was Tyndrum, which is on 
account of the many advantages of its position, one of the most 
durable and convenient possible for such work. A very small 
village indeed, it has still several quite important features, and 
has been noticed favourably or unfavourably by every traveller 
who has made the tour of North Britain since touring became a 
fashionable pastime. It stands on the western military way, which 
■ jomed at Crianlarich, a little to the east, by the road which 
traverses Glen Falloch northward from the waterhead of Loch 
Lomond. A few miles further west this road divides into two 
branches, one arm stretching northward to Kingshouse and Glen- 
coe, the other south-westward through Glenorchy to Inveraray 
Due west the railway line leads to Oban, eastward to Callander,' 
so that the little village is really a gateway to most of the fines 
scenery m Scotland, though of itself it has been said that it is 
remarkable only for the « surpassing irksomeness of its position » 
and that no one would willingly go to Tyndrum a second time 
nor remain there an hour." Happily our party did not share this 
opinion. Doubtless it is, as Dorothy Wordsworth says, "a cold 
spot, lying 700 feet above sea level, but it is in keeping with the 
wild scenery of the district. There are no estates about it no 
shaven lawns nor conventional pleasure grounds to « fritter away 
the majesty of nature," and the surpassing irksomeness of its 



72 CAM CHREAG AND BEINN DOIREANN. 

position was of surpassing value in our eyes since it brought us 
right into the sacred places of nature, whose treasures we had 
come to seek. Thus, with thoughts unclouded by the solitude of 
our surroundings, we set out on our first day's adventure among 
the Bens. 

Starting from the hotel, we followed the highway which runs 
parallel with the course of the river Fillan for about a mile, passing 
on our way the picturesque little church on the southern side of 
the river, and the field of Dail Righ, where King Robert the 
Bruce met in deadly fight, and was defeated by, his feudal 
enemies, the Macdougalls of Lorn, on that famous occasion when, 
to save his life, the Bruce left part of his plaid and his brooch in 
the hands of his foes. Sir Walter Scott has preserved the incident 
in The Lord of the Isles. At Auchtertyre Burn we left the high- 
way, crossed the track of the new Highland railway, and followed 
the course of the burn up towards Beinn Chaorach, skirting the 
hilly ramparts that shelter Tyndrum on the north-west, culminat- 
ing in the heights of Beinn Odhar. Where the burns join at the 
base of Beinn Chaorach we crossed, keeping to the north side at 
first, but near the burn-head made our way across to Beinn 
Chalium, ascending one of its spurs in order to reach a mass of 
black-looking rocks on the hill-side beyond, where we hoped to 
reap our flowery harvest. 

A long, upward-winding way it was, with many a marsh to 
wade and burn to cross withal: but there was no lack of interest 
even in these, for to the lover of nature everything is new under 
the sun. With every upward movement the aspect of the hills 
alters, with every passing cloud their expression changes, and 
wherever the tiniest streamlet trickles down the mountain's face, 
or the spongiest bog makes the hill-side green— and walking, 
wading — there is the chance of something new turning up. As 
we wound round the lower slopes, scanning every thread of water 
narrowly, following one occasionally for some distance in search 
of rarer if not fairer treasure, the golden clusters of Saxifraga 
aizoides were starring the green hill-sides, the orange spires of 
Narthecium ossifragum lifted themselves daintily from the midst 
of their tufts of green ribbons, and over every marsh Eriophorum 
— the " down of Cana " of Ossianic legend — waved like an arrested 
fall of snow. 



CAM CHREAG AND BEINN DOIREANN. 73 

Now, however, we began to climb in earnest, and as we went 
added to our lists many of the commoner forms of sub-alpine 
growth. Here on every rock Saxifraga stellaris set its cluster of 
stars, and Alchemilla alpina touched with silver sheen every knob 
and promontory on the hill-face; Polygonum viviparum made 
iridescent lines here and there among the green, and the level of 
every mountain marsh was curiously striped and chequered with 
the long fiery arrows the leaves of Eriophorum angustifolium had 
transformed themselves into. 

Corrie Mohr, the corrie for which we had been making, was 
about 2300 feet above sea level, and having reached this height 
we began our search for the less frequent forms of vegetation 
likely to be found in such situations. About the lower shelves of 
the corrie Sedum Rhodiola stood out effectively against the dark 
rocks, and Oxyria reniformis spread out on long delicate foot- 
stalks its reniform leaves of every degree of richness of texture 
and brilliance of tint. Higher, among the less accessible clefts, 
we were fortunate in finding several of the rarer forms, though 
sometimes it was no easy matter getting into the fastnesses many 
of these wildings love to make their home. Cherleria sedoi'des, 
Sibbaldia procumbens, Dryas octopetala, Bartsia alpina, Salix 
Lapponum were among our captures, with many rare carices and 
rushes. One particular moss, Orthothecium ru/escens, attracted 
our attention by the curious effect its iridescent hues made con- 
trasted with the dark grey of the rocks. 

Many of these " oreades," as Mr. Ruskin calls them, are not, on 
first acquaintance at least, either very striking or very beautiful, 
but seen amid their natural surroundings these shy flowers have an 
indescribable wild grace of their own — an affinity with the red 
deer and the eagle — such as no lowland flower, however fair, can 
borrow. After thoroughly inspecting the corrie, we considered 
ourselves at liberty to give our undivided attention to the other 
features of the landscape. The shadows were deepening in the 
wild, bare straths below, but the sides and summits of the hills 
lay calm and tranquil in the warm sunlight; they would be look- 
ing their best when we should reach the top, so after a brief rest 
we resumed our pilgrim staves and made short work of the 600 
feet rising between us and the goal of our desires. We found the 
top a long bent arm (which characteristic gives the hill its name, 



74 CAM CHREAG AND BEINN DOIREANN. 

Cam Chreag) and having various knobs of almost similar height, 
of which we were able, only after traversing both sides of the 
angle, to determine that the farthest away point was the true 
summit. But, were we not gloriously repaid for our toil? A 
waste of towering peaks, 

" Spread like a sea that heaves without a sound," 

the billows of which changed and varied as infinitely as ever did 
those of ocean ! How the light played about them, bringing out 
patches of intensest green here and there ! And the shadows hid 
in their hollows, creeping out now and then like ghosts risen too 
soon ! And as the sun sank lower, how the soft purple haze fell 
round them like a web of gossamer, till, in the " golden lightning " 
of his last glances, they stood as if with veiled faces — a throng of 
Titan vestals ! 

It seemed as if all the mountains in Scotland must be gathered 
within reach of our vision. Away southward, Ben Lomond and 
Ben Arthur, attended by the picturesque train of the alpine peaks 
of Arrochar, seemed strangely familiar among the host of new 
acquaintances; nearer, the twin peaks of Beinn Mohr and 
Stobinnain flung a rugged chain westward to meet Beinn Laoigh, 
and the cairned summit of Ben Cruachan lifted itself full in the 
face of the setting sun. The Shepherd of Etive kept watch over 
his flocks further north, with Ben Nevis almost peering over his 
shoulder, while Ben Macdhui, the Cairngorms, Schiehallion, and 
Lawers seemed almost within reach of our voices. In all our 
wanderings, since we lost sight of the shepherd and his dogs just 
beyond Tyndrum, we had not met a single human being, and in 
all the range of our vision there was no sign of human habitation ; 
the birds even seemed to observe the sacredness of those mountain 
silences, and the night-hued moths that flitted duskily about our 
path were part of them. 

Our descent was made by long, pleasant, grassy slopes that 
sweep the southern side of the hill, and our sense of vision was 
almost overpowered by the glorious panorama of many-pinnacled 
hills and many-fountained valleys from which the gold and crimson 
tide of sunset had not yet ebbed, when, after a tun hours' tramp, 
we again reached level ground. 



CAM CHREAG AND BEINN DOIREANN. 75 

Beinn Doireann. — Our second expedition was to Beinn 
Doireann, a mountain of considerable dignity and presence, lying 
to the north-west of the scene of our former adventures. Our 
way on this occasion lay in the opposite direction, the road which 
winds north-westward among the mountains to Kingshouse and 
Glencoe leading us directly to the base of the Ben, which we 
could see before us all the way — a kingly figure, standing among 
his comrades of less pronounced characteristics, his dark robes 
ermined with mists and a cloudy crown upon his lonely brows. 

Beinn Doireann has other claims on the interest of the visitor 
which even the enthusiasm of the botanist could not overshadow. 
He is as kingly a figure in the poetry of the Highlands as in the 
surrounding landscape, and is particularly associated with the 
name of the most celebrated of the modern Gaelic bards, Duncan 
Ban Macintyre — fair Duncan of the songs, as he is called in his 
own poetical language — an utterly untaught, unlettered genius 
whose songs are full of the wild spirit of Highland minstrelsy, 
caught by the poet from the wonder of natural sounds among 
these lonely hills and misty corries, the broken echoes of which 
alone our lowland ears can catch. Born in the Breadalbane forest 
of the Black Mount, he was familiar from childhood with the 
characteristics and legendary lore of the region, and his poem on 
Beinn Doireann, where he lived for some time as forester to the 
Earl of Breadalbane, is considered one of the finest efforts in 
modern Gaelic poetry. His descriptions of natural beauty are 
strikingly direct and simple, and Jefferies himself could not vie 
with this untutored son of the mists in his descriptions of the 
looks, haunts, and habits of the wild red deer, sung not only to 
the pibroch, but actually in a measure imitating with subtle skill 
its various movements. 

The mountain gets its Gaelic name, it is said, "from the 
singular fact that it prognosticates coming storms by sounds 
caused by the winds moaning among the rocks " — a legend still 
held sacred by some natives of the district ; whether this be the 
case or not, certain it is in our opinion that it richly deserves its 
name, which means the " mountain of storms," if it offers to all 
travellers the inhospitable treatment it was our misfortune to 
experience. Curiously enough, during our stay we did not once 



76 CAM CHREAG AND BEINN DOIREANN. 

see its summit entirely clear of mist — a scarf of vapour seemed 
constantly to hover about it. 

Our ascent was for the greater part a scramble over rough 
stones — it seemed as if the whole hill-side were traversed by a 
river of great boulders — and this demanded careful and attentive 
footing. Between the stones the parsley-fern pushed out its 
delicately-hued, feathery fronds in rich abundance, filling every 
hollow with its gossamer of tenderest green; this, with Alchemilla 
alpina, Salix herbacea, and Oxyria reniformis, was, as far as we 
could discover, all that grew on the mountain having any claim to 
be called mountain plants. At a height of 3300 feet above sea 
level we found a corrie which, after a minute search, yielded no 
further spoils, and we were forced to content ourselves with these 
meagre results. 

This must not be taken, however, as an ultimate finding, as 
our progress was much impeded by the nature of the ground we 
had to traverse, and sometimes entirely arrested by the great walls 
of mist that came dashing round the shoulders of the Ben, and 
rolling down his face with ever-increasing density. These circum- 
stances, however untoward for our initial purpose, were not 
entirely regrettable, giving us, as they did, a very definite idea of 
what may be looked for on such an excursion, and an insight 
into certain conditions prevailing at these altitudes valuable as 
travelling experiences and invaluable in other ways. How 
changed was the aspect of the hills from that of yesterday! 
Those that were visible we were only able to recognise from their 
position, and then but uncertainly in many cases. Eastward, 
Loch Lyon gleamed fitfully between the hills, a broad shield of 
silver thrown down among soft folds of velvety green; southward, 
Beinn Mohr and Beinn Laoigh, with their chain of hills between, 
loomed large and dim, swathed in whirling mists, while down the 
beautiful stretch of Glenorchy we looked seaward to Ben Cru- 
achan standing in ermined majesty with Loch Awe at his feet. 

Two hundred feet or so would have brought us to the summit, 
but the grey of the clouds, hardly broken all day, was gradually 
lowering, and the mists, though constantly shifting, were tending 
downward rapidly, and our descent promised to be a somewhat 
formidable one, so that we were glad to get safely to the end of 
the first thousand feet, which was a series of sandy slides and 



CAM CHREAG AND BEINN DOIREANN. 77 

stony scrambles, and with as much haste as might be, reached 
level ground again. 

So we bade farewell to Beinn Doireann — " mountain long and 
sweeping," as its poet sings — slowly drawing about him his grey 
robes, and seeming to nod a misty response to our last backward 
look. 

List of plants recorded on these alpine excursions: — Thalictrum 
alpinum, Draba incana, Cochlearia officinalis (sub.-sp. alpina), 
Silene acaulis, Cerastium alpinum, Empetrum nigrum, Arenaria 
( Cherleria) sedoides, Dry as octopetala, Potentilla maculata, Sibbaldia 
procumbens, Alchemilla a/pina, Saxifraga oppositifolia, S. nivalis, 
S. stellaris, S. aizoides, S. hypnoides, Sedum Rhodiola, Saussurea 
a/pina, Solidago Virgaurea (var. cambrica), Gnaphalium supinum, 
Antennaria dioica, Leontodon hispidus,Pyrola rotundifolia, Getitiana 
nivalis, Bartsia alpina, Polygonum viviparum, Oxyria renifor?tiis, 
Salix herbacea, S. reticulata, S. Lapponum, Habenaria viridis, 
Tofieldia palustris, Juncus triglumis, J. trifidus, Luzula spicata, 
Triglochin palustre, Rhynchospora alba, Carex pulicaris, C. rigida, 
C. dioica, C. capillaris, C. vaginata, C. flava (var. CEderi), C. fulva, 
C. saxatilis, Aira ?nontana, A. alpina, Triodia decumbens, 
Selaginella selaginoides, Lycopodium alpinum, Cryptogramme crispa, 
Aspidium Lonchitis, Botrychium Lunaria. 



OX THE FERTILISATION OF 
THE LARCH. 

By Rev. A. S. Wilson, M.A., B.Sc. 
(Read gth May, i88g.) 



There is ample evidence that the bright colours of flowers are 
useful in attracting insects which carry pollen from flower to flower 
and effect cross-fertilisation, thereby conferring great benefit on 
plants. Lubbock proved that insects are guided by colour in 
their search for honey ; Darwin found on removing the petals of 
Lobelia that no bees came near the flowers, and Hermann Miiller's 
observations show that when other things are equal the number of 
insect visits which any flower receives increases in proportion to 
its conspicuousness. 

On the other hand, flowers which depend on the wind for the 
transport of their pollen are, as a rule, of small size, inconspicuous 
in appearance and devoid of bright colours, as, for example, 
grasses, rushes, sedges, docks, nettles, oak, elm, hazel, poplar, ash, 
and pine, which all belong to the anemophilous or wind-fertilised 
class. 

To this last rule the larch (Larix europad) presents a remarkable 
exception. From March to May the young female cones of this 
tree are among the most conspicuous and attractive objects to be 
seen in our plantations. If the brilliant crimson tassels of the 
larch have not hitherto sufficiently impressed the botanical mind, 
at least they have not escaped the observant eye of the poet, as 
may be seen from the 91st canto of Tennyson's In Memoriam — 

" When rosy plumelets tuft the larch, 

And rarely pipes the mounted thrush ; 
Or underneath the barren bush 
Flits by the sea-blue bird of March/' 



THE FERTILISATION OF THE LARCH. 79 

The bright coloration is so marked that if one had no other 
evidence before them they would be forced to conclude that the 
larch was adapted for insect-fertilisation. But according to 
Hermann Muller and other authorities, the coniferse, and, 
indeed, all gymnospermous phanerogams, are wind-fertilised. The 
gymnosperms, or naked-seeded plants, appear earlier in the 
geological strata, and are believed to represent a more primitive 
type than ordinary angiosperms. They stand midway as regards 
organisation between ferns and flowering plants, and although 
wind-fertilisation is less effectual and much less economical than 
insect-fertilisation, still it is just what we should expect on the 
supposition that these naked-seeded plants represent an early type 
of vegetation. It is deserving of notice, however, that some of 
the gymnosperms, yew and juniper for example, have coloured 
fruits adapted for dispersion through the agency of birds; it is 
quite conceivable, therefore, that some members of the group may 
also have attained to insect-fertilisation. With a view to deter- 
mine whether or not this was the case with the larch, last season 
I examined many specimens of the male and female cones; this 
year, possibly owing to the lateness of the spring, I have not been 
able to obtain any as yet. Although not indigenous, the larch is 
now a common tree in this country. It flowers earlier in the 
season than the Scotch fir (Pimis sylvestris), from which it is also 
distinguished by its deciduous foliage. The flowers are diclinous, 
and the same tree bears both male and female flowers (monoecious). 
The female cone, about an inch in length, is cylindrical in 
form, consisting of loosely imbricated bracts. These bracts are 
narrow strap-shaped or spathulate, with an acuminate apex, and 
of a colour varying from bright pink to deep crimson. In the 
axil of each bract is a semi-circular scale which at the period of 
fertilisation is very small. After a time this scale enlarges, 
becomes woody, and ultimately outgrows the bract, which persists 
in a withered condition under the woody scale of the mature cone. 
In the axil of each scale are two inverted ovules. The apex of 
each ovule expands into what resembles a capitate stigma bristling 
with somewhat elongated papillae. At the flowering period, 
before the scales have begun to enlarge, these stigma-like expan- 
sions protrude beyond the sides of the scale, and here and there 
are just visible between the narrow bracts. The female cones 



80 THE FERTILISATION OF THE LARCH. 

mostly occur towards the outer extremity of a branch, and the 
pedicel is twisted so that the cone stands erect. 

The male cones are much shorter than the female, more like a 
capitulum. The outside is surrounded by brown, chaffy scales, 
and the flat-topped central part is made up of shortened stamens. 
These male cones cannot be said to be conspicuously coloured, 
although when the pollen is ripe they have a yellow colour and 
can be seen some considerable distance away. They are generally 
sessile on the branch, and when they occur in the vicinity of a 
female cone are turned away from it — generally looking earth- 
wards. The anthers appear to discharge their pollen suddenly, 
as is so commonly the case in anemophilous flowers. The larch 
produces immense quantities of pollen — light, dry, and dusty in 
character — but the pollen grains are not provided with wings as 
is the case in Pinus sylvestris. 

In favour of wind-fertilisation, then, the following considerations 
might be adduced :— 

i. The early season of flowering — while as yet insects are scarce. 

2. The appearance of the flowers before the leaves. 

3. The unisexual, monoecious condition more common among 

anemophilous than insect-fertilised flowers. 

4. The relative inconspicuousness of the male cones. 

5. The abundant pollen. 

6. Its dry, incoherent character and sudden discharge. 

7. Absence of honey and odour from both kinds of flower. 

8. No observation as to visits of insects. 

In favour of insect-fertilisation we have the following char- 
acters : — 

1. The bright colour of bracts, which apparently disappears 

after fertilisation. 

2. The interference of the closely imbricated bracts with the 

access of wind to the ovules sheltering their stigmas. 

3. The large size of the pollen grains. 

4. The absence of wings on the pollen. (This, however, is 

inconclusive, as the pollen of the elm is also wingless.) 

5. The shortened axis of the male cone — the capitulum form 

of which might serve as a convenient alighting stage for 
insects. 



THE FERTILISATION OF THE LARCH. 8 1 

On the whole the evidence in favour of wind-fertilisation pre- 
ponderates, but the bright colour of the bracts and the sheltered 
position of the ovulary stigmas are hardly capable of reconciliation 
with this being the exclusive mode. Possibly the larch may be 
self-fertilised as a rule, and only an occasional crossing effected 
either by wind or by insect agency. 

It may be worth mentioning in this connection that a good 
many wind-fertilised flowers do exhibit more or less of a dull 
reddish tinge, such as the elm and some of the cypresses. Some 
authors state, probably on the authority of Strasburger or Hof- 
meister, that in coniferag the ovule at the period of fertilisation 
exudes a drop of liquid at the micropyle, and that the falling 
pollen is caught by this. Afterwards, by the evaporation of this 
drop, the pollen grains are stranded on the nucleus of the ovule. 
So far as I have been able to observe there is no such provision 
in the larch, where indeed it would be quite superfluous, for the 
pollen adheres very easily to the papillose expansion of the ovules, 
whether brought by wind or any other agency. 

The fertilisation of the larch has been studied by Delpino, but 
his papers are not accessible to English readers. (Altri apparecchi 
dicogamici recentemente osservati. — Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. II., 
pp. 51-64, 1870.) As Miiller appears to be familiar with this 
writer's investigations, he would most certainly have referred to 
the circumstance had Delpino found an insect-fertilised conifer, 
but instead of that, Miiller, as we have seen, asserts that all the 
gymnosperms belong to the anemophilous class. In view of what 
has just been said, however, we cannot accept this statement 
without reservation. If further observation should bring to light 
insect-fertilisation occurring among the gymnosperms, it would go 
to prove that they form a group more nearly co-ordinate with the 
angiosperms than has been supposed. Should any of the conifers 
turn out to be adapted to crossing by insect agency, this would 
favour the view that they had an independent origin, and are not 
to be viewed as representing a phase in the evolution of angio- 
spermous plants. If, however, the evidence be accepted as 
conclusively proving larix to be anemophilous, then, assuming the 
bracts to be protective in function, it might be possible to explain 
their coloration on the theory that their brilliancy serves to 
warn away birds and other enemies which might devour the young 

F 



82 THE FERTILISATION OF THE LARCH. 

delicate cones — the principle that determines the bright color- 
ation of wasps and other unpalatable insects. But whether we 
have in the female cones of larch an instance of vegetable 
mimicry or not, it would on this view appear that conspicuous 
colours may occur in association with wind-fertilisation, and that 
we must not, therefore, in every case ascribe the colour of flowers 
to the selective agency of insects. The coloured bracts of the 
larch cone, even if they have no relation to animals at all, at least 
suggest a possible origin of the colours of flowers, colours which 
in all probability owe their modification to natural variation and 
the selection exercised by insects in past time. 



THE RETURN OF THE SWALLOW 

A Narration and an Enquiry. 

By Hugh Boyd Watt. 

(Read nth April, i88g.) 



None of our birds of passage is better known than the swallow 
{Hirundo ruslica), and yet accurate knowledge of its migratory 
movements does not seem to exist. We may now affirm that 
it is a bird of passage, and the instances of its appearance 
here in winter may be taken to be exceptions which only 
prove the rule. It certainly does not remain here in a 
state of hibernation either under water or otherwise. The 
under-water theory died hard. Both Linnaeus and Cuvier 
accepted it; Berger, a pupil of the former, in his Calendar 
of Flora (published at Upsala), has under the date of 17th 
September, 1755, the matter-of-fact entry, "swallow goes under 
water;" Gilbert White, in a letter towards the end of last century, 
says that though swallows " may not retire into that element, yet 
they may conceal themselves in the banks of pools and rivers 
during the uncomfortable months of winter." Referring to the 
statement of Olaus Magnus, who, in his History of Northern 
Nations (19th book), says, "in northern waters fishermen often- 
times by chance draw up in their nets an abundance of swallows 
hanging together like a conglomerated mass," Swan, in his 
Speculum Mundi, expresses some incredulity as to this, but 
qualifies his doubt by saying, " Why may it not be as well as 
barnacle or bean geese ? of which it is certain that they grow on 
trees." The two beliefs are certainly equally worthy of credence, 
and may well be made to stand or fall together. I apprehend 
that the myth developed from two facts. The swallow undoubt- 
edly shows a partiality for water — no land bird does so in a like 



84 THE RETURN OF THE SWALLOW. 

degree — and consequently it attracts attention by its movements 
over water- surfaces. Why does it make these movements? 
Because it finds there an abundance of the winged insects on 
which it feeds. The swallow skimming over the water and the 
trout leaping from it have the same end in view — to make 
a living. The second fact is that in autumn, at sundown, swallows 
have been frequently observed to gather and settle in large num- 
bers in the vicinity of water. They are preparing for their descent 
into the water, it has been said. The fact is that on the 
branches of the willows and osiers which flourish near water 
swallows find most convenient perches. On these branches they 
can crowd together and so secure on a chilly autumn night a 
measure of warmth which they could not obtain on separate 
branches or in trees or shrubs of a different growth. 

These birds undoubtedly leave this country with the advance of 
winter, because their means of subsistence fails and the tempera- 
ture becomes killing to them; and the few authentic instances of 
the appearance of the swallow in winter here can easily be 
explained. They return in spring; and it is to the when, the how, 
and the why of this return that I shall devote the remainder of 
this paper. Gilbert White gives the earliest date of their first 
appearance at Selborne as 26th March; latest, 20th April; usual 
date he gives as about 15th April. Markwick's earliest is 7th 
April; latest, 27th. Forster communicated a rather elaborate 
table of the movements of the hiriindinidcs to the Linnsean 
Society, and the swallow is reported in it thus: — Naples, 27th 
February; Rome, 3rd March; Pisa, 5th March; Vienna, 25th 
March; Bruges, 5th April; and London, 15th April. Mr. Grant 
Allen says that the average date of their return to the south- 
western counties of England is the second week of April. A 
return compiled at the instance of Mr. J. E. Harting appeared in 
the Field in 1872, and gives the first appearance as 2nd March, 
four miles south of Glasgow. Mr. R. Gray stated that this was 
the earliest record of an arrival in Scotland, and as six weeks 
elapsed between the first and second appearance, I take it that 
this bird was a restless and adventurous spirit, a very far advanced 
pioneer of the army of migrants, which either perished miserably 
or retreated southwards until a more convenient season. The next 
record in this return is at Cromer, 31st March, and Great Cotes, 



THE RETURN OF THE SWALLOW. 85 

i st April. In Ireland the first reported is at Ballina, 13th April. 
The committee appointed by the British Association to report on 
the migration of birds have now issued nine reports full of valu- 
able observations largely gathered from lighthouse and lightship 
keepers on our coasts, but much requiring the redaction and 
epitomising of the whole promised by Mr. W. Eagle Clarke, of 
Edinburgh. I shall only refer to the two last reports. In 1886 the 
earliest swallows are two reported at Bull Point (Bristol Channel), 
23rd March. From the Nash Light, Cardiff, on 26th March, it 
is reported that " a swallow rested on lantern from 6.30 till 7 a.m., 
and then flew north-east " — an undoubted arrival. On the east 
coast of England the first reports are from Whitby and Hunstan- 
ton on 13th April, but no great numbers anywhere until end of 
month. This coincides with the report from the River Dee 
(North Wales) of 23rd April — "flocks whole day flying east." 
From Scotland the first reports are Corsewall, 24thx\pril; Rhinns 
of Islay, 27th; North Ronaldshay, 2nd May; and Bell Rock, 
3rd. In Ireland they appeared simultaneously at the Fastnet and 
Coningbeg (off south coast) on 12th April. One remarkable 
return should be noted. It is from the Swin Middle (mouth of 
Thames), dated July nth, 12th, 14th, 15th, and 16th, and reports 
numbers from east to west — on the 14th five flocks of about 
twenty each between 3 and 4 a.m. These were arrivals nearly 
three months after the usual time and in the very height of the 
breeding season, and I should like to have this accounted for. In 
1887 the first reported anywhere are from Coningbeg lightship on 
30th March, and at Killybegs, Donegal, 3rd April. In England 
there are simultaneous reports on nth April from the Galloper 
(off Kent), Hanois (Guernsey), and Langness (Isle of Man). In 
Scotland the first are from Corsewall, 17 th April, and Pentland 
Skerries, nth May. This spring, correspondents in our news- 
papers have reported swallows at Caticol, Arran, on 16th March, 
and large numbers at Lenzie from 23rd March onwards — both of 
which reports I take the liberty of doubting. 

Swallows seem to begin their northward movement from their 
trans-Mediterranean retreats very early in spring. They are seen 
at Gibraltar early in February; at Malta and in Greece early in 
March; in Palestine in the middle of March; and in Italy about 
the 20th. Folk-lore has much to say of them and of their move- 



86 THE RETURN OF THE SWALLOW. 

merits. The Russian peasant in his springtime calendar has it 
that on 25th March the swallow comes flying from Paradise and 
brings with it warmth to the earth. On the same day the festival 
of the Annunciation is noted in South Germany by the saying, 
"Our Lady's Annunciation brings back the swallow." There is a 
French saying to the same effect — " A l'Annonciation les hiron- 
delles viennent annoncer la belle saison." At Bergamo they say 
that on the 12th March, the festival of St. Gregory the Pope, the 
swallow crosses the water, i.e., arrives. There is a saying in almost 
every European language that one swallow does not make a 
summer or spring. It is a bird curiously familiar with man, and, 
let me say, with civilised man. It builds its nest and rears its brood 
within and upon the walls of his house; the homely name tells us 
so — chimney-swallow. Just as robin redbreast appears as the 
familiar bird-spirit of English winter scenes, so does the swallow 
appear in summer pictures. 

As to the route which the swallow follows in its migrations, a 
good deal of ingenuity is expended in speculating on this point. 
A writer in the Glasgoiv He raid recently, founding on the reports of 
swallows at Coningbeg, Wexford, and in Donegal Bay in 1887 
(which, as I have mentioned, are the very first reports for that year to 
the committee of the British Association), asks us to believe that 
the early appearance of these birds in Ireland is accounted for by 
the clearly proved fact that " once on a time " continuous land, far 
overlapping Ireland to the west, extended to Spain and Africa. 
Along that immemorial coast line (as he calls it) he cannot doubt 
but that swallows flew, and that when the coast foundered beneath 
the Atlantic the hereditary principle maintained them in their 
traditional course. This writer further points out that the 
meridian of io° west runs through the mountains of Kerry, and, 
skirting Portugal, touches Africa at Morocco, giving a mathemat- 
ical crow-line for migrants from Africa to Ireland. Are we 
expected to believe that swallows launch off from the coast of 
Morocco direct for Ireland, following the meridian of io° west, 
and thus are seen in Ireland before other parts of the United 
Kingdom ? First of all, the latter point has to be proved, and 
this is a considerable initial difficulty. A passage in the Migration 
Report for 1886 seems to indicate that the route of migrants 
bound for Ireland is probably along the line of the Avon and the 



THE RETURN OF THE SWALLOW. 87 

Severn, down the Bristol Channel, and across the Irish Sea. 
Further, it seems unreasonable to suppose that, granting the 
ability, a swallow will move in one flight from such a climate as 
that of Morocco to such an one as Ireland. And to put another 
question: In the days of the immemorial coast line were tem- 
perature and climatic circumstances just as they are at present, 
and did the swallow require to migrate — if it was there at all to 
do so ? Mr. Grant Allen also enunciates a theory of what he calls 
" a sort of unconscious hereditary teaching by which the memory 
of the lost land-connections has been handed down from one 
generation of swallows to another since pre-glacial times." In these 
times continuous land stretched from England to Africa, and, as 
Mr. Allen says, the temperature of England was apparently as warm 
as that of North Africa. Gradually both temperature and earth- 
surface changed, and the swallow found it necessary to seek a 
suitable climate, moving southwards in autumn and northwards in 
spring, until the movement reached its present dimensions. The 
English Channel and Mediterranean also came into existence, but 
the migratory practice engrained in the system of the bird had 
become a habit, and by this instinct these obstacles are over- 
come. If it is true that a large body of swallows cross the 
Mediterranean annually from Algeria to Marseilles, it is a most 
noteworthy fact; but there is no great difficulty in seeing how the 
passage can be accomplished by Malta and Italy, or Sardinia and 
Corsica, or the Straits of Gibraltar. Gilbert White pointed out 
the latter route, showing how little exposure there was incurred 
by it and by the Straits of Dover. He says that his brother, who 
lived in Andalusia, always found that some birds, and particularly 
the swallow kind, are very sparing of their pains in crossing the 
Mediterranean, taking the Tangiers and Gibraltar route quietly 
and without any hurry. It is well known, too, that swallows 
arriving on the Sussex coast take no rest, but go on their journey 
northwards, as if quite fresh. My last question is : Why do 
swallows migrate northwards, leaving the clear sunny atmosphere 
of the shores of the Mediterranean and seeking the grey skies of 
Northern Europe? As far north as Lapland, Siberia, Nova 
Zembla, and Iceland, they go. They must perish in thousands 
upon thousands as they move; and it may well be asked what 
advantage is it to them to spend the summer in northern latitudes ? 



88 



THE RETURN OF THE SWALLOW. 



The theory of " heredity plus environment " supplies an answer in 
general, but it is not explicit enough to be thoroughly satisfactory. 
I am not going to theorise on the point, but would just say that 
before the heredity theory can be accepted, proof should be forth- 
coming that the swallow was originally an English bird, and that 
it actually existed in these pre-glacial times. 



Addendum. 
Dates of arrival of swallows at Baillieston House, Lanarkshire, 
compiled by Mr. John Maxwell : — 



1855. - 


April 19. 


1874, 


Not observed 


iSs6, - 


May 6. 


l87S, 


- - - April 18. 


i8S7, - 


May 12. 


1876, 


April 26. 


1858, - 


April 28. 


1877. 


May 4. 


1859, - 


May 2. 


1878, 


April 12. 


iS6o, - 


April 25. 


1879, 


Not observed 


1861, - 


April 28. 


1880, 


April 22. 


1862, - 


April 22. 


1881, 


April 29. 


1863, - 


Not observed. 


1882, 


April 23. 


1864, - 


Not observed. 


1883, 


May 1. 


1865, - 


Not observed. 


1884, 


- - - May 8. 


1866, - 


April 23. 


1885, 


- - - April 18. 


1867, - 


Not observed. 


1886, 


May 6. 


1868, - 


April 24. 


1887, 


May 1. 


1869, - 


Not observed. 


1888, 


May 2. 


1870, - 


April 24. 


1S89, 


May 2. 


1871, - 


Not observed. 


1890, 


April 25. 


1S72, - 


April 16. 


1891, 


April 29. 


1873. " 


May 7. 


1S92, 


- - - April 28. 


Earliest, - 




April 12, 1878. 


Latest, - 




May 12, 1857. 



SCOTCH NAMES OF NATIVE 
WILD FLOWERS. 

By John Wood. 
(Read 4th March, i8gi.) 



Of all the weak parts of Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary the weakest 
is the list of native plants bearing Scotch names. Various reasons 
may be given for this. Up till the reign of Dutch William our 
country was one constant scene of national or civil, public or 
private strife. Again, in later, more peaceful, and better educated 
times the ordinary inhabitants of any country take notice 
only of such flowers as daisies and dandelions, wild roses and 
brambles, because no one, not even a child, can fail to be struck 
by them. In the Dictionary the only plants which have attracted 
a fair share of notice are the grasses, the plants which occur as 
troublesome weeds in cultivated ground, those which are sought 
after for their real or supposed medicinal virtues, and those which 
produce edible fruits. There is no attempt made at classification, 
for botanical knowledge was in its initial empiric stage. The same 
name is often applied to plants of totally different classes, or the 
name of one plant is applied to the whole family. The names are 
for the most part of Anglo-Saxon origin, but, as might have been 
expected, we have many names derived from Gaelic and French 
sources. To proceed then, let us take first the grasses. 

The Grasses — Natural and Cultivated. 

Aits or oats (Avena sativa) — Anglo-Saxon ata — has from very 
ancient times formed the staple of the nation's food, giving us 
savoury " parritch " and toothsome cake, and with these our firmly 
knit bones, hardy frames, and robust health. Corbie aits is the 
black variety — the name needs no explanation. AVild oats is 
Avena fatua. 



90 SCOTCH NAMES OF NATIVE WILD FLOWERS. 

Bere or barley — a pure Saxon word — (Hordeum vulgare) was 
formerly used as an article of food — " bannocks of bere meal and 
bannocks of barley" — but is now chiefly used to manufacture 
the national drink, "barley bree." 

Tall oat-grass (Avena elatior) has tuberous roots, and from 
this peculiarity it takes its Scotch name of arnut or earthnut. 
Bunium flexuosum takes the same name. The former is distin- 
guished by the name swines' arnuts, while the latter was called 
(and is still called) lousy or lizzie arnuts, from a belief that it 
tended to breed tick or sheep lice on the flocks that fed on the 
pastures where it grew. 

The name and locality of bent-grass (Agrostis) — " the bent so 
brown " — are derived from the Saxon biendse, meaning a rush. 
For good or evil a man is known by the company he keeps. So 
also it would seem are grasses. Bent-grass is the grass that keeps 
such low company as carices and rushes. 

Field brome-grass (Bromus arvensis) has two names — first, 
sleepies, from its supposed soporific qualities, constituting it an 
ancient Scotch chloroform, a feeble foreshadow of Simpson's 
famous discovery; and second, goose-corn, i,e. % feeding for the 
goose, a fowl much commoner with us in ancient times than at 
present. Scott refers to this former prevalence of the goose in the 
last canto of Marmion. The word corn was originally used to 
designate anything small, round, and hard. A corn on the foot 
is the same word, and in an old Scandinavian poem hail is 
called " cold corn." 

Couch-grass {Triticum repens) has also a double name — first, 
pirl-grass, from pry I, a needle, so named from its short, stiff, 
prickly awns (when it has any) ; and second, quicken grass, from 
quick, living, the opposite of dead. It is indeed a quick or lively 
grass. Let it once be settled in a corner of cultivated ground, 
and it is so tenacious of life that it will defy every effort even of 
the spade to uproot it. 

The poas or meadow-grasses go by the general name of pounce, 
from puntr, the name used in Iceland still for these grasses. 

All the Avenas or wild-oats are called oncorn or uncorn. The 
prefix on or un was formerly much used in Scotch, and our ancestors 
employed it in a very cannie, characteristic fashion. A Scotsman 
of the old school would never dream of saying a man or woman 



SCOTCH NAMES OF NATIVE WILD FLOWERS. 9 1 

was ugly; he used instead the term onbraw. Oncorns, then, are 
grasses which are not corn, i.e., oats, but which look like it. 

Grass in Scotch is gers, and both words are allied to the 
obsolete German word gerasen, meaning to grow or to be green. 
Their root meaning, therefore, is anything that is green, anything 
that grows, anything of a vegetable nature. The word green is 
from the same root. Many of our plant names still retain the 
primitive meaning of the word. 

Cotton-grass {Eriophoruni) is not a grass as we understand the 
word now. Its Scotch name is cannach down, a reduplicative 
name. Cannach is Gaelic and down is Saxon, and both words 
mean the same thing — anything soft, woolly, or feathery. It is 
also called wild-cotton — a name like the former, descriptive of its 
appearance — and moss-crops, from its locality. The word crop, as 
applied to plants — a crop of corn — is the same word crop — the 
crop of a bird. It means a gathering or a collection, and it is 
still properly applied in naming such plants as our stone-crops 
(Sedum), insomuch as these bear their leaves in a radicle crop, or 
bundle, or rosette. 

Ecclegrass is not a grass; it is the butterwort (Pinguicula 
vulgaris). Ecde, in such words as Ecclefechan, means church. 
But ecclegrass has no ecclesiastical connection whatever. Ic, ig, 
eig, or icde means first an island and then a wet meadow : ecclegrass, 
then, is the plant of the wet meadow — a very good descriptive 
name. The same plant was also called sheep-rot, from its being 
supposed to cause this disease among sheep. Marsh-pennywort 
{Hydrocotyle vulgaris) also gets this name and for the same reason. 
Ecclegrass has still another name, steep-grass — the plant steeped 
or soaked in water — a name synonymous with ecclegrass. 

Potentilla anserina, or silver-weed, was moor-grass or moss- 
grass from its locality. It has extended its quarters considerably 
since it was named, for we find it in many places not moorland 
now. But perhaps these habitats were once moorland, and the 
presence of the plant may point to this fact. 

Scrubie-grass is scurvy-grass (Cochlearia). The English and 
Scotch names are identical — the letters "u" and "r" being trans- 
posed. It takes its name from its supposed efficacy in cases of 
skin disease, disorders said to have been particularly prevalent in 
our country in the good old times. Either its virtue has gone out 



92 SCOTCH NAMES OF NATIVE WILD FLOWERS. 

of it, or the skin of the Scot has developed a corresponding degree 
of obstinacy with the rest of the man, for we find the plant cure 
discarded ages ago for the more drastic treacle and brimstone. 

Besides these grasses already named which are not grasses in 
the modern sense of the word, we have the common English 
names of many plants retaining the original root meaning, e.g., 
cotton-grass (already given), arrow-grass {Triglochin), goose-grass 
( Galium Aparine), grass of Parnassus {Parnassia palustris), knot- 
grass {Polygonum aviculare), scorpion-grass {Myosotis), whitlow- 
grass {Draba verna), etc. 

Corn-Weeds. 

Of the corn-weeds the two which seem to have caused most 
trouble are the corn-marigold {Chrysanthemum segetum) and 
charlock {Sinapis arvensis and Raphanus Raphanistrum). Together 
they went by the name of guilde or gool, from gol or gul, the 
colour of gold — yellow. That they were bad pests is proved by 
the ancient custom of " riding the guilde " in each barony once a 
year. This ceremony consisted in the baron with his bailiffs 
riding over his territory to inspect the growing crops and to see that 
the farmers were doing their duty in clearing out the obnoxious 
weeds. Where this was not satisfactorily done a fine was imposed 
in proportion to the offence. Marigold, in addition, was named 
manelet, either from the above-mentioned custom — its presence 
causing the farmer to main, or moan, or lament over the payment 
of the guilde fine — or from the old Scotch word mane, meaning 
vigour, on account of its spreading power and of the difficulty in 
getting the fields cleaned of it. The plant is now pretty well 
subdued in our locality ; but in some parts of the country it con- 
tinues to be a source of great trouble to the farmer. It was again 
christened for us by our French allies soucye, from the old French 
name of the plant, souci or soulsie; and the latter again from the 
Latin, sol-sequens, following the sun — a habit common to many 
other plants. 

The wild-mustard plant {Sinapis arvensis) and the wild-radish 
{Raphanus Raphanistrum), for no distinction is made between the 
two, got, in addition to guilde, the French name runches, from 
an obsolete French verb, ronger, to eat. The Scotch verb runch, 
not given in Jamieson, is from the same root. This plant 



SCOTCH NAMES OF NATIVE WILD FLOWERS. 93 

is not edible in its wild state. I should suppose that the 
French introduced the cultivated variety, and that their name 
for this came to be applied to the more common wild plants. It 
was also called sanape, from the Danish word senep, a name very 
near the scientific term sinapis. But its most common name is 
scaldricks, skelloch, or skellie, from an Erse word sgeallagach. 
Still another name — it rejoiced in the appellation of shirt, from 
the verb share or sheer, to cut, to separate, to root up — each 
farmer being bound to eradicate the weed or pay the guilde fine. 

Corn-cockle (Agrostemma Gitliago) was called popple, or 
papple, a Celtic word possibly meaning the same as cockle, 
chockle, or choke, from its being so plentiful sometimes as to 
choke the corn or wheat. 

Ononis arvensis has for its common English name rest-harrow, 
from the nature of its roots, so long and tough as to be too much 
for the primitive harrows of long ago and the oxen that drew 
them. The modern instrument has banished it completely from 
cultivated land. Trie Scotch name of the plant — sitfasts — is 
merely a paraphrase of the English name — once seated in a field, 
it holds fast to its seat. 

Ordinary Herbs. 

Catch-rogue is the Scotch name for cleavers, or Galium Aparine, 
and both English and Scotch names mean the same thing. The 
plant is a rogue for catching and cleaving or sticking to the dress 
of anyone who brushes against it. 

Chickenweed is the English chickweed (SteUaria media) — good 
food for chicks and little birds in general. It was a plant of some 
importance in olden times; long believed to be a cure for con- 
sumption. Some old-fashioned people still use it for chest 
diseases in the form of poultices. 

Day-nettles are dead-nettles (Lamiuni) — day being a corruption 
of dead. The term included the hemp-nettles (Galcopsis) as well. 
Dead-nettles are dead as regards the sting. 

Docken is the plural form of dock (Rumex), a pure Saxon word. 

The word gowan is peculiarly Scotch. It is a pretty name, 
and it represents a very pretty little plant, the daisy {Bellis 
perennis), a Marguerite — a very gem or pearl among flowers. 
The commonly given derivation of the name is the obsolete 



94 SCOTCH NAMES OF NATIVE WILD FLOWERS. 

Gaelic word gugan, meaning first a bud, or blossom, and then 
a daisy. But to this I demur. There is a very old Scotch 
word gow, meaning a halo, and this I hold to be the true 
derivation. In tracing the origin of a word like this, it is 
a safe plan always to take into consideration the derivation of 
correlative words such as daisy. Daisy is the day's eye, i.e., the 
sun. Note the old pictures of the sun — see the yellow, golden 
eye, with the surrounding pencils of silvery white rays branching 
out in all directions. The picture is the daisy to a T. The very 
same idea is as picturesquely conveyed by the word gowan or 
halo. What more natural than that the two portions of the 
Anglo-Saxon race — the one north, the other south of the Tweed 
— should have been struck with the same idea of the plant's 
appearance, and should have translated it into their most poetic 
figure of speech. The meaning of the word is alike poetic in 
either case, but gowan has the softer sound — it wants the sibilant 
" s." Gowan, therefore, is the superior word, and the English 
dictionary makers have acknowledged as much by adopting it. 
Ewe-gowan is the common daisy, so called from its being found 
abundantly in sheep pastures. Horse-gowan is, first, the ox-eye 
daisy {Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum), from its size; and second, 
the larger flowers of the hawk-weed tribe, such as Crepis and 
Hypochoeris. Yellow-gowan is not a composite at all. The term 
is applied to the more conspicuous of the buttercups, such as 
the lesser celandine (Ranunculus Ficarid) and the marsh-marigold 
(Caltha palustris). In addition the marsh-marigold has the 
name jonette, from its French name jaulnette. 

Hemlock (Conium maculatum) by our ancestors was called 
humloik, the same word practically as the English name. The 
derivation of hemlock is said to be from hem, the edge or border, 
and kac, Saxon word for a leek, but applied, e.g. house leek, very 
generally like crop, grass, and corn. Hemlock, then, would 
mean the plant that grows on the border of cultivated ground 
in hedges and such like places. The plant certainly answers 
this description, but so would three out of every four plants 
of the flora. Besides, to accept this derivation is to own 
that our forefathers did not know its poisonous properties, 
and this could scarcely be the case. If they knew the deadly 
qualities of the hemlock, which I hold they must have done, the 



SCOTCH NAMES OF NATIVE WILD FLOWERS. 95 

plant would be named from this outstanding fact. Haulm is 
applied usually to a stalk of corn, but is also used to designate 
other stems, as of such plants as potatoes and hops. Lock 
or, loik (Celtic) is from the root of the word lie or lyke, which 
we find still in the words lykewake, a wake or watch over a 
dead body; Lichfield, the field of slaughter; Lackford and Leck- 
ford, the sites of bloody battles; and Bolleit, the house of blood. 
If I am correct, then hemlock means the " plant of death," and I 
maintain that the derivation I have given is the only tenable one 
if the plant was known to our ancestors deeper than the skin. 
Further, our old Scotch words are many degrees nearer the 
original Anglo-Saxon fountain-head than modern English words 
are. Humloik, then, is a much older form than hemlock. The 
change brought about by the wear and tear of words is always 
from complex to simple. Hum could never come from hem, but 
it would quite naturally result from haulm. Put leek or leac on 
the grindstone of time and loik would never be the result; whereas 
loik and lyke are almost identical. 

Jacinctyne is the hyacinth, hoxa.jacin.the, the French name. 

Lucken-gowan I ought to have given under gowan. It is the 
globe-flower (Trollius enropceus), one of the yellow buttercups to 
which the Scots applied the term gowan. Tannahill speaks of the 
eventide as the time when " the daisy turns a pea, and the bonnie 
lucken-gowan has falded up her e'e." Lucken is the Saxon verb to 
lock, to shut up, and this plant, like the daisy and many others, is 
sensitive to light, and locks or closes its flower when the sun sets. 
The Scotch word luckie means a widow who is landlady of a hotel 
or public-house; and Jamieson (who must have been a teetotaler) 
says the word is derived from hlok, a witch. With all due defer- 
ence to such a high authority, I hold that the word luckie is 
derived, like lucken-gowan, from lucken, to lock. Luckie is so 
named because she carries the keys and locks up. Lucken-handcd 
was niggardly or close-fisted, and lucken-footed was web-footed. 
But this is away from our plants. 

Maskwort is the Scotch name for the woundwort or all-heal 
{Stachys), and the three words point to the same notion. Wound- 
wort is good for healing wounds. All-heal is better — it cures all 
the ills that flesh or spirit is heir to; and maskwort is the plant 
that grows for the special purpose of being "masked" or infused for 



96 SCOTCH NAMES OF NATIVE WILD FLOWERS. 

diseases of all kinds. No wonder that M.D.'s were a scant crop 
"langsyne" with such potent all-healing "yerbs" in abundance. 

Meduart — the meadow plant — is not such a good descriptive 
name as meadow-sweet (Spiraa Ulmaria). 

Milkorts or milkworts are, according to Jamieson, Scotch blue 
bells (Campanula rotundifolid). Eating the plant was believed 
to improve the milk of cattle, hence the name. Whether the 
improvement is in quality or colour I know not. If in colour, 
then this plant may be responsible for the beautiful blue tint 
observable in much of the milk supplied here. It (plant) was 
also called witch bells. Though no beauties themselves, these 
ancient ladies, the witches, knew what was good and beautiful in 
flowers, and could appreciate the same. Their taste in this 
respect was far superior to their master's, as we shall see by-and-by. 

Segg is the fleur-de-luce or yellow iris (Iris Pseud-acorus). The 
word is the same as the modern word sedge. 

Sourock (the Rumex Acetosd) takes its name from the acid 
flavour of the leaves, and reminds one of boyhood, when we were 
still in the omnivorous stage of stomach development. 

Souks or soukies — another boy's-name — is the red clover 
(Trifolium pratense). These clover heads produced large quantities 
of honey which only boys and bumble bees suck, by different 
processes, of course, and with different results. The bee benefits 
the plant and so pays honestly for his refresher; the boy, the 
father of the man, quaffs his sweet, and by so doing destroys the 
spring that supplies him. It is not often that the names given by 
children are permanent, but these last two are. 

Wabran is the Scotch form of the English name way-bread 
(Plantago major). Wabran (way-bran) means bran, or coarse 
grain, growing by the way-side. The heads are a favourite food 
for birds, hence its common modern name of bird seed. 

Michen is bald-money, or Meum Athamanticum, from the 
Gaelic moiken. Sinkel is another name for the same plant, from 
the Latin name finkel. 

Centaurea Cyanus is the blaewort, or blue bonnets, from its 
colour; and witch bells, or witch thimbles, from some supposed 
connection between it and those unholy sweethearts of the evil 
one. The colour blue seems to have been as great a favourite 
with our ancient witches as it is with the bewitching witches of 



SCOTCH NAMES OF NATIVE WILD FLOWERS. 97 

the present day, for different reasons of course: in the one case, 
because it is the colour of sulphur flames — their proper element ; 
and in the other, because it is the hue of the heavens — an external 
indication of the angelic nature within. 

Carmele, carmylie, or carameil, is the tuberous-rooted bitter- 
vetchling {Lathyrus macrorrhizus), from the Gaelic cairmeal. 
Heather-pease is another name of it telling of its locality. 

But of all the plants of the field the one which has been most 
abused and libelled by nicknames is the ragwort (Senecio Jacobad). 
First, it is ragweed, the same as the English name; second, bun- 
wede, from bun or bon, begging — bunwede, then, means beggar's- 
weed; third, stinking- weed — an unjust libel. But the worst insult 
is yet to come. Fourth, wee bo. Bo is the "bo man" of the 
nursery, conjured up by foolish nurses to frighten naughty 
children, and means the devil. Wee bo is little devil. Such vile 
name mud-throwing is enough to discourage any plant and arrest 
its development. 

Names from Animals. 

The connection between plants and animals is a very close one; 
and this fact has been recognised and extended by imagination in 
the common plant names of all languages. Our own old language 
is not behind the others in this respect, for we find many of our 
plants named from their fancied or real resemblance to animals; 
and from the fancied or real influence for " bein " or bane, for 
weal or " wae," of plant and animal upon each other. 

Boar's-ears is the Auricula, called in English bear's ears. Boar 
and bear are slightly modified forms of the same word, and 
anciently they were interchangeable. 

Brawlins, or brylies, are bear-berries {Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi). 
Braw is bear with the "r" transposed. 

Bull segg is the reed-mace ( Typha lati/olid), on account of its 
size. 

Bunnerts is the cow-parsnip {Heracleum Sphondylium), from 
Morn, a bear. Biornwort is the name still used in Scandinavia. 

Balderry is the Scotch generic name for the orchid {Orchis). 
Bawd or bald is from the Gaelic boide, a hare; and der or derry is 
bane or injury. Balderry means harebane. Instead of injuring the 
hare as it must have done in days of old, the hare has completely 

G 



90 SCOTCH NAMES OF NATIVE WILD FLOWERS. 

turned the tables on it now. The varieties of orchids growing in 
woods suffer greatly from hares and rabbits. Bald (or bawd) 
money is derived from the same word, and means hare's money. 
Bawd bree is still the common name for hare soup in certain 
country districts of Aberdeenshire. 

Catscluke, or catluke, is the bird's-foot lotus {Lotus corniculatus 
and major). Cluke is cleek or claw. Catscluke is cat's claw, 
from the shape of the tiny pea, and it means much the same as 
bird's foot. 

Dog's camovyne is the scentless May-weed {Matricaria inodora). 
Camovyne appears to be a Scotch attempt at pronouncing chamo- 
mile. It is also called feverfoulie, an attempt at feverfew, and, 
wildest of all possible attempts at the same, featherwheelie. Dog's 
gowan is another of its names. 

Dog's tansy is the silver-weed (Potentii/a anserina), also called 
moor-grass, moss-grass, and moss-crops. 

Dog's siller is the yellow rattle (Rhinanthus Crista-galli). 

Ern-fern (the eagle's fern) is our bladder-fern (Cystoptcris), 
named from its position beside the eagle's eyrie. 

Gouk's meat, or cuckoo's food, is wood-sorrel (Oxalis Acetosella). 

Horse-knot is the common knapweed or hard-head {Ccntaurca 
nigra). 

Lamb's-tongue is corn mint {Mentha arvensis), from the shape 
of the leaf. 

Names from Men or Women. 

Many of our plants, again, are named from men and women. 

Pteris aquilina is the bracken, which means the lady-fern. 
Brake or brack is the fern in general, and in is the feminine 
termination of Saxon nouns. The in has been changed here into 
en. Royal-bracken is the royal-fern (Osmunda regalis). 

Carl boddie is the ribwort plantain (Piantago lanceolata). Carl 
is the Scotch word for a man, and boddie (Jamieson says) means 
bald, or destitute of hair. Carl boddie, then, would mean the bald 
man. But this name is not a true description of the flower's head. 
It is at different stages quite covered with exserted anthers and 
feathery pistils, giving it plenty of wool in the place where the 
wool ought to grow. Boddie is not the word for bald. It is a 
corruption of baldy, or bold, and the name means brave men, or 



SCOTCH NAMES OF NATIVE WILD FLOWERS. 99 

warriors. The boys of the present generation fight mimic duels 
with these carl boddies, and they name the heads from this 
circumstance " sodgers." Soldier is comparatively a modern word, 
but the game of "sodgers" is a very old one. Carl boddies, i.e., 
men of war, means the same as " sodgers," and it was the term 
applied to these vegetable champions long before Tommy Atkins 
was born. 

Carlin heather, or lady's-heather, is bell-heather {Erica). Carlin 
is the feminine of carl, and means originally a woman. But carlin 
in later times came to mean an old woman, and carlin spurs, or 
the spurs of an old woman, is Genista anglica, the needle-gorse, 
which has small sharp prickles. The spur of a woman must be 
the tongue — the sharpest part of the fair sex, I am told. 

Dead-men's bells are fox-gloves (Digitalis purpurea), and the 
name refers to its poisonous properties. 

Deil's snuff-box — but stop, should the deil be classed among 
men or among beasts? I have searched in vain for reliable 
information to guide me on this point; but I have been able to 
find next to nothing of any real value. Our kirk-session refuses 
to regard him from a natural history point of view. Deil's snuff- 
box is the puff-ball (Lycoperdo?i) — fit "sneeshin" for such an 
antiquated, wizened, "reek-reisted " snout. But what delicacy can 
you expect to find in olfactory nerves so long sulphurated as his 
have been. 

Deil's spoons is the water-plantain (Alisma Plantago). The old 
proverb says, " He needs a lang spoon wha sups kail wi' the deil," 
and the east-country people extend it to include the men of the 
kingdom of Fife — they being considered veritable sons of Belial, 
and like to their father in so far as valour in the art of subduing 
the contents of a kail-pot is concerned. The large leaves of the 
Alisma are spoon-shaped and particularly long in the stalk, and 
the plant has got its Scotch name from the above proverb. 

Names from Shape, Position, and Use. 

Bobbins is the water-lily (Nymphcea alba). Bobbin means a 
bundle, and the name is given from the appearance of the 
ripe seed-vessels. The ordinary name of the water-lily, however, 
is cambie leaf. Cam or cam/nis, so common an element in place- 



IOO SCOTCH NAMES OF NATIVE WILD FLOWERS. 

names, means a bend or a curve, and the name is given the plant 
from the rounded shape of the floating leaves. 

Chasbol, chesbol, or chesbowe. C/ias or ekes is a cheese, and 
bol or bowe is round. The plant so named is the poppy (Papaver), 
and the round cheese is really the seed-vessel. 

Cockrose is the red poppy (Papaver Rhceas). It might puzzle 
one to find out the connection of the plant with the cock, but the 
Northumbrian name coprose solves the difficulty. Coprose is 
cuprose — rose because it is red (the original meaning of rose being 
red), and cop or cup from its shape. Cockrose is the Scotch 
corruption of the North of England word. 

Dandelion (Leontodon Taraxacum) is the French dent-de-lion, 
the tooth of the lion, from some imaginary resemblance between 
the two. 

Mekilwort is the deadly-nightshade (Atropa Belladonna). The 
word mekil or muckle means, first, great in size; and next, great 
in influence and power. This was the flower much in favour 
with witches, sorcerers, and the powers of darkness in general, 
and it was used by them in all their important enchantments. 
No deil's broth was properly brewed and seasoned without a spice 
of the deadly mekilwort. 

Bolgan leaves is the nipplewort (Lapsana communis). Bolga 
means a swelling, and is from the same root as the word bulge. 
The plant was considered a remedy for swellings. 

Dishilago is the colt's-foot (Tussilago Farfara). The Scotch 
name is remarkably near the Latin and Greek name tussilago, 
and means a driver away of coughs. 

Fews, or fouets, is the house-leek (Sempervivum tectorum). 
The North of England name is feys, and both names are derived 
from the Saxon verb fegan, to clean. The verb " to fey " is still 
used in provincial English, but only in connection with the word 
ditch — to fey a ditch means to clean a ditch. The leaves of this 
plant, as well as those of other Sedums, orpine or orpie (Sedum 
Telephium) to wit, were and still are much used for cleaning 
wounds. 

Kerses, or wall-kerses, is the water-cress (Nasturtium officinale). 
The Anglo-Saxon word is caerse. 

Water-purpie is Veronica Beccabioiga. Pur is pure, and pie, or 
bie, is a contraction for beck, a brook. Purpie means the purifier 



SCOTCH NAMES OF NATIVE WILD FLOWERS. IOI 

of the brook. The common belief concerning all water plants still 
is that they clean the water. Purslane — the name of another water 
plant — means exactly the same thing. Pur is pure, and lane 
means a stream. Lane is from the Anglo-Saxon word Minna, the 
same word radically as the Gaelic word lyn. Lyn means, first, the 
pool below a waterfall, and then both pool and waterfall. Hlinna, 
or lane, means, first, a stream with one or more falls, and then 
any stream whatever. It is the common name to-day for a burn 
in all the Scotch counties drained into the Solway Firth. 

Ramp is garlic {Allium ursinum). The Swedish name is rams, 
and both forms are from rampa, a paw, and the name describes 
the bulb, or what is vulgarly called the root. 

Trees, Shrubs, and Fruits. 

Aik is the oak (Quercus Robur). Its seed, acorn, is the oak- 
corn. Aikraw {Stictma scrobiculatd) is a lichen found on the 
trunk of the oak. Raw means hair. 

Allar is the alder tree (Alnus glirtinosa). 

Averin is the cloudberry, or wild raspberry (Rubus Chamccmorus), 
from aver, wild, and en, the juniper-berry. 

Berber is the barberry {Berberis vulgaris). 

Bindwood is the ivy {Hedera Helix), from its habit of growth. 

Birk is the birch {Betula alba) — pure Saxon. 

Blackboyds are bramble-berries (Rubus). Boyd is another form 
of the word bud, meaning originally a gem, or button. Black- 
boyds means black buttons. The long, stringy, young shoots of the 
plant give it a second name, garter-berries. The North of Eng- 
land name of this fruit is bumble-kytes — a most expressive term. 
Bumble is a bumming or rumbling noise, and kyte is the stomach 
or belly. The fruit is plentiful. It is late in ripening. Boys 
are impatient and do not always wait for full fruition. They 
gorge themselves with the unripe fruit, as English boys can do, 
and the result is a loud bumble in the kite and general outcry of 
the juvenile inwards against this breach of nature's law. 

Blaeberry ( Vaccinium Myrtillus) is named from the blue colour 
of the ripe berry. 

Boretree, or bourtree, is the elderberry tree (Sambucus nigra). 
The name is said to be derived from the verb to bore. The wood 
encloses a large, soft pith, and is therefore easily hollowed or 



102 SCOTCH NAMES OF NATIVE WILD FLOWERS. 

bored into pipes or tubes. This may be correct, but I prefer the 
following. About all the old farmhouses I know that have any 
pretensions to a garden, there is in some snug corner of the same 
a summer-house, or bower, and this bower is usually formed of 
bourtree shrubs, hence the name of bourtree, or bowertree. 

Bush is the box tree (Buxus sempervivum), from French buis, or 
bonis. 

Esh is the ash tree (Fraxinus excelsior). 

Gean is the wild cherry (Primus Avium), from French guigne. 

Hadder is an ancient form of the word heather (Calluna and 
Erica). 

Groset is the gooseberry (Ribes Grossularia), from French 
groseille, or Gaelic grosaid. All four words are the same, and are 
derived from the root of the word gorse, and they all mean the 
berry-bush with prickles like the gorse, or whin. 

Hagberry is the bird-cherry (Primus Padus). Hag is Saxon for 
a hedge. 

Hepthom is the wild rose (Rosa canina). Hep, or hip, the 
same word as heap, is the fruit from the heap of seeds enclosed in 
one husk, and thorn meaning, first, a prickle, and then any plant 
with prickles. 

The roden, or rowan-tree (Pyrus Aucuparia), derives its name 
from rone, ron, or runn, meaning a bush in general. It must 
have been exceedingly common to get the name of the bush. 

Roebuck-berry is the stone-bramble (Rubus saxatilis). 

Sivven is Gaelic for the raspberry (Rubus Idceus). 

Wineberry is the black currant (Ribes nigrum). The wine is 
medicinal — good for sore throats. 

In looking through a Scottish dictionary one naturally expects to 
find a fair number of names — pet names, perhaps — bestowed upon 
the national emblem. But no. Bur-thistle is all, and perhaps 
quite enough too, for it is a fitting emblem in itself of the proud, 
poor, hardy, independent, and not easily sat-upon people who 
figuratively saw themselves in the rough, prickly head of the bur- 
thistle (Carduus). 

Conclusion. 

In reviewing the foregoing list one cannot help being impressed 
with the notion, or at least with the hope, that it comprehends 



SCOTCH NAMES OF NATIVE WILD FLOWERS. 103 

only a part — a very small part — of the whole of the names of our 
Scottish wild flowers. Among those given there are no names of 
alpine plants ; and more remarkable still, not one single repre- 
sentative of our numerous and beautiful and characteristic sea-side 
flowers. This may arise from the fact that there was no such 
thing as a Scottish dictionary in existence till after the Scottish 
language had gone pretty much into disuse, and that it had to be 
manufactured of words collected from books, charters, old leases, 
and Acts of Parliament. And if our floras of the present day were 
lost as the genuine living old Scottish language now is, and it were 
required to reproduce a new list from the works of the poets, 
writings of fiction, charters, and Acts of Parliament, you can easily 
understand how small the list would be, even with the enormously 
increased literary means of accomplishing such a task lying open 
to our hands. 

Such has been very much the nature of the make-up of 
our present list, and such is the main reason, I believe, of its 
paucity. I have taken it from the 181S edition of Jamieson's 
Scottish Dictionary. 



NOTES ON THE ROMAN WALL. 

By W. Johnstone, B.L. 
(Read at the Excursion to Cadder, 25th June, i8go.) 



The hollow and mound and remains of stations which are met 
with at intervals across the isthmus of Central Scotland, and 
which are somewhat loosely termed the Roman Wall, are insignifi- 
cant enough in themselves, and yet they at once mark the 
beginning of history in what is now Scotland and form a monu- 
ment to the bravery and love of independence of its early 
inhabitants. Many strange and interesting things have come 
down to us from people who lived in a more remote antiquity, 
but no record tells us who set up the circles of great stones on 
lonely moors, built the hill forts, or hollowed out canoes from oak 
trunks. All is prehistoric till ' the Romans came. From that 
time onwards history sheds a faint light on the course of events 
that led to the making of the England and Scotland of to-day. 

It was in the year 81 of our era that Agricola led the legions 
who had subdued Southern Britain into the north. The induce- 
ment was not so much the worth of the country to them as the 
desire to have the arms of Rome everywhere, in order that, to use 
his own language, freedom should be out of sight of the con- 
quered people. He defeated the Caledonians, but could not then 
subdue them ; and constructing a chain of forts across the country 
between the Forth and the Clyde, withdrew behind its shelter. 
This, as we shall see, was the beginning of the Roman Wall. 

The turbulent tribes beyond made it, however, an insecure 
defence, and when Hadrian visited the island to settle what 
should be conserved by the empire, he abandoned Agricola's forts 
and constructed an elaborate line of fortifications seventy-three 
miles in length, stretching between the Solway and the Tyne. 
This consisted of— 



THE ROMAN WALL. I05 

i. A trench, on an average 36 feet wide and 15 feet deep. 

2. A wall built of stone, 8 feet broad and 18 feet high. 

3. Buildings for the troops, viz., large camps every four miles; 
smaller ones, called mile-castles, every mile; and intervening 
watch-towers 300 paces apart. 

4. A rampart consisting of a deep trench and three earthen 
walls. 

5. Two roads — first, a military way between the wall and the 
ramparts ; and second, a road some distance to the south of 
both wall and rampart. 

The works constituted a camp seventy-three miles long, de- 
fended both on the north and on the south. These enormous 
works show their makers' great respect for their northern neigh- 
bours, but strong as they were they did not prevent the Caledon- 
ians from troubling the province; and twenty years later (140 a. d.) 
Antoninus Pius sent Lollius Urbicus to subdue the northern 
tribes. He led a successful expedition as far north as the Moray 
Firth, but for safety restored the boundary only to the line of 
Agricola's forts. A stone was found at Bemulie, two miles east 
of Cadder, bearing this inscription : — 

P. LEG. II. A. 

Q. LOLLIO VR. 

LEG. AVG. PR. PR. 

[Placed by the Second Legion the August to (the honour of) 
Quinlus Lollius Urbicus, Legate and Proprretor of the Emperor] 

(Stuart, p. 313), which confirms the statement of the historian 
that he was the builder of the wall. This wall was a smaller 
work than Hadrian's, and such was the celerity of the Roman 
soldiers that it is supposed they would complete it from sea to 
sea in a few months. The fortification consisted of — 

1. A trench 40 feet wide and 20 feet deep, which would for a 
considerable portion of its course be filled with water. 

2. A sod rampart or wall twenty-five feet from the southern 
edge of the ditch, 14 feet wide at the base, and probably having 
a parapet with platform behind along its top for the use of the 
defenders. The height is conjectured to have been from 12 to 
20 feet. 

3. A military way along the south side of the rampart connecting 



106 THE ROMAN WALL. 

the stations, which were placed at two-mile intervals, or only half 
the distance of those on Hadrian's wall. 

In the western district, starting from Clydeside, there were 
forts at — 

i. Chapelhill, Old Kilpatrick (about 70 feet above sea level). 

2. Duntocher (200 feet). 

3. Castlehill (408 feet). 

4. New Kilpatrick (184 feet), where the military way crosses 
from the Drymen to the Milngavie road. 

5. At Balmuildy (158 feet), on the Balmore road just east of the 
Kelvin, the crossing of which it guarded. These two stations 
were among the most important on the wall. 

6. At Cadder (200 feet), on the site of the manse garden. 

7. At the peel of Kirkintilloch. 

8. Auchindavy. 

9. Barhill. 

10. Westerwood. 

11. Castlecary. 

Altogether there were on the wall nineteen forts distant 3554 
yards from each other, and the whole length of the wall was thirty- 
six and a half miles. 

Numerous sculptured stones, chiefly altars, have been found at 
these stations, and they are described at length in Stuart's 
Caledonia Romana. They show that the wall was constructed by 
the II., VI., and XX. Legions. 

The wall for nearly its entire length is situated on the gentle 
declivities, about 200 feet above ordnance datum, towards the 
southern side of what was in all probability in late geological 
times an arm of the sea, and now forms the valleys of the 
Kelvin and the Carron. It was then a much stronger line of 
defence than it is now. For at that time the haughlands along 
the rivers, which now constitute the best of the land, were to a 
large extent impassable morasses. The least defensible portion 
was probably that from the Clyde to New Kilpatrick, where the 
line was overlooked by the Kilpatrick hills ; and both on this 
account and from the necessity of their having a harbour in the 
deep water at Dumbarton, several authorities place a line of forts 
flanking the wall down to the Leven. When the wall ascended 
from the strong station at Bearsden on to Ferguston Muir (where 



THE ROMAN WALL. I07 

the remains of the ditch are specially distinct) it had the protec- 
tion of the loch or swamp formed by the Allander. Going east 
for many miles the Kelvin valley afforded a similar protection to 
the north. Let the hand of man be removed, let the drains get 
choked, the river embankments be destroyed, and the spoil of a 
virgin forest be brought down by every flood to block the river, 
and in a very few years the Kelvin would forsake its present 
channel and the haughs of Balmore would be a swamp. In the 
six miles from Killermont to Kirkintilloch the country is almost 
level, having a fall of only five or six feet. 

There can be little doubt that this was the state of the district 
in Roman times, and it explains the curious break in the wall 
where it is lost at Temple of Boclair till it is found again at Bal- 
muildy, fully a mile straight south from the former point. The 
object was to keep, as far as possible, on the higher grounds over- 
looking the Allander and Kelvin morasses, and to cross the latter 
at its narrowest point. 

Strong as the wall was, it did not fulfil the purpose for which it 
was constructed. We read of irruptions of the natives in 162 and 
182, when they broke through the defence and overran the 
district between the walls. In 208 so serious was the state of 
matters that the Emperor Severus led a large army in person right 
to the extremity of the islands. The natives did not meet him on 
the open field, but kept up a harassing attack among the woods 
and hills. Although he did not fight a single battle he is said to 
have lost 50,000 men by these attacks and by the hardships of the 
march. He reconstructed the wall between the firths, which from 
this fact is sometimes called Severus' wall. The Caledonians 
sued for treaties of peace, but within a year they broke them 
while Severus was still at York on his way to Rome. He swore 
he would exterminate the rebels, but death prevented him carry- 
ing out his threats. 

Little is known of the next hundred years, but the Picts and 
Caledonians from the north, joined with the Scots from Ireland, 
continued to prey upon the provincials during the third and 
fourth centuries. An able general at the head of a legion or two 
would drive them beyond the wall, but when he withdrew they 
quickly returned to the attack. In the end Rome, about 407, 
wearied and weakened by these incessant irruptions which she 



108 THE ROMAN WALL. 

could no longer find means to resist, abandoned Britain, one of 
the richest provinces of the empire, and the wall ceased to be a 
Roman fortification. Indeed the wall was known for centuries as 
Graham's dyke — not, however, from the exploits on it of a hero 
of that name, but probably, as Celtic scholars claim, as a corrup- 
tion of the Celtic words greim diog — the strong entrenchment. 

As regards the remains of the wall at Cadder little can be said. 
George Chalmers thinks that the name — anciently Cader — is the 
Celtic cader, a fortress, derived either from the wall itself or from 
a fort a short distance from the church. Stuart, in his Caledonia 
Romano, (p. 315), says: — "The course of the wall issued, accord- 
ing to Roy, from the plantations of Cadder, near a curious 
artificial tumulus supposed to have been the site of a Roman 
castellum or watch-tower. This tumulus stands at a short 
distance from the parish church, and is still uninjured. It seems 
to have been of a rectangular shape, flat on the top and sur- 
rounded by a ditch. The spot it occupies is 3600 yards distant 
from Bemulie; and it is by no means improbable that one of the 
prsetenturse had been situated here, with which the above tumulus 
was perhaps connected as an exploratory mount. Horsley 
suggests that a regular station may have stood near the site of the 
present church; or, as Roy supposes, its position was probably a 
little further to the north, on a gentle acclivity now occupied by a 
few cottages and gardens. . . . When Gordon visited this 
neighbourhood the remains of the causeway were very distinct — 
proceeding from Bemulie fort to the church of Cadder at the 
distance of twenty-seven paces from the wall. From Cadder the 
line was continued along the gentle acclivities which overlook the 
plain of the Kelvin, making several turns to reach the highest 
ground until it reached Kirkintilloch, 4450 yards distant." Dr. 
John Buchanan, in a paper to the Society of Antiquaries, describes 
discoveries made a few years prior to 1853 in rebuilding Cadder 
manse. The workmen there came upon a Roman causeway 
running right across the garden from east to west. He says : — " I 
observed it was composed of water-worn stones evidently gathered 
from the surface of the ground or from a neighbouring streamlet. 
Two or three parallel rows of larger stones ran along the edges, 
and the heart of the causeway was filled with a smaller class most 
completely rammed home, and requiring some force for their 



THE ROMAN WALL. IOO 

dislocation by the workmen's crowbars." A quantity of pottery 
was found there and in a field to the east of the garden. In that 
field, he says, there existed till lately a well, known as the Roman 
well. The well had been filled up, but the stone work was then 
existing. 

Built into the front of Cadder House, twelve or fourteen feet 
from the ground, is a stone having carved on it a laurel wreath, 
supported on either side by what is supposed to be a winged 
Victory, each standing upon a cornucopia which terminates in an 
eagle's head, and within the wreath are the words — 

LEG. 
II. 

AVG. 
FEC. 

(Legio Secunda Augusta fecit) 

meaning "the Second Legion made it" (Stuart, p. 313). The 
stone was probably inserted in the wall of some building or the 
gateway of the fort. 

As a closing remark allow me to say that much of what is most 
instructive and interesting about the wall — the sculptured stones 
which tell of the nationality and religion of its makers and de- 
fenders — is to be found in museums. 



CURIOUS PROTECTIVE FEATURES IN 
THE YOUNG OF VERTEBRATES. 

Bv Edward E. Prince, B.A., F.L.S., &c, 

Professor of Zoology in St. Mungo's College, Glasgo~cV. 
(Read 6th April, 1892.) 



The great Karl Ernst von Baer was wont to gather around him 
successive bands of Konigsberg students at the commencement of 
their professional course, and, holding in his hand a fowl's egg 
about the fifth day of incubation, he skilfully removed a lid-like 
portion of the shell in order to expose to their wondering eyes its 
strange contents. They beheld, as though modelled in miniature, 
the living chick upon its bed of yellow yolk, with the head dispro- 
portionately large and rounded, with fleshy stumps for wings, and 
with developing legs curled up beneath the naked trunk. Von 
Baer pointed out to them, as the embryonic heart, the pulsating 
bag beneath the throat, through the transparent walls of which the 
red blood was seen passing by in quick convulsive motions; he 
bade them note the curious clefts in the gullet, the "visceral 
slits," and, above all, drew attention to the sheets of thin mem- 
brane, full of fluid, like transparent water-cushions surrounding 
the immature bird. With the entrance of cold air into the warm 
chamber of the egg the body of the chick was seen to move very 
obviously, for the movements, as well as the whole general struc- 
ture, of the embryo, could be seen in the midst of its strange 
envelopes of membrane and clear fluid. 

The curious enveloping structures present in the young 
stages of all the higher animals have been variously interpreted. 
Some regard them as having arisen when the yolk-matter of 
the ovum was much more bulky than it is now; but, whatever 



PROTECTIVE FEATURES IN YOUNG OF VERTEBRATES. Ill 

their origin, their present purpose and meaning have been 
involved in much obscurity. It is known that slight mechanical 
pressure upon the immature young and alterations in the 
surrounding temperature produce apparently disproportionate 
effects. Professor Cleland's well-known experiments have 
furnished ample evidence of these results, usually inimical. To 
shield the developing organism from hurtful influences, reptiles, 
birds, and the higher animals are wrapped up in embryonic mem- 
branes and bathed in abundant fluid. That such structures now 
serve protective purposes can hardly be questioned. In the chick 
they are no less than seven in number: — the liquor amnii (i) con- 
tained in the true amnion (2), outside which is a serous fluid (3) 
retained within the false amnion (4). External to the amniotic 
envelopes are the inner shell-membrane (5), the air-chamber (6), 
and the outer shell-membrane (7), with its calcareous deposit con- 
stituting the dense outside shell. None of these really form an 
essential part of the bird, and by the time of hatching most have 
served their purpose and have degenerated. In the mammalian 
embryo the amniotic envelopes and fluids are discharged at the 
close of foetal development. In the lower vertebrates, the fishes 
and amphibians, no amnion exists; but there are other embryonic 
structures which serve the same purpose. The frog's egg, for 
instance, is a small sphere, of which the upper half is tinted 
black, while the lower half is whitish. Before deposition in water 
the egg measures barely T \th of an inch in diameter, with a thin 
outer coat of albumen, like a film of gelatine. The latter on contact 
with the water swells to more than five times its original size. 
Massed together these jelly-clothed eggs form the floating spawn 
so familiar in every wayside pond in spring. A distinguished 
naturalist has very happily compared the deposited eggs, each a 
ball of jelly with a black centre, to a number of hen's eggs removed 
from their shells and placed together. Each yellow yolk corre- 
sponds to the small black egg of the frog, the white represents the 
jelly of the spawn. The entire chick is formed from a part of the 
vitellus, whereas the frog is built up out of the entire tinted vitelline 
ball. The eggs too, as Professor Miall has pointed out, are kept 
apart, due aeration is facilitated, and parasitic vegetable growths 
prevented. The authority named says that the broad-billed duck 
is one of the few animals which can devour frog-spawn, other 



112 PROTECTIVE FEATURES IN YOUNG OF VERTEBRATES. 

creatures being prevented by the slippery nature of the enveloping 
jelly. Toad-spawn does not form irregular masses, which rise from 
the bottom of the water soon after deposition as in the case of the 
frog, but appears as gelatinous ropes, very tenacious and many 
yards long. The newt's eggs are similarly surrounded by a clear 
fluid contained in a skin or oval capsule, the central vitellus being 
spherical and buff-coloured. Such coverings of membrane and jelly- 
like fluid protect the delicate embryo during its early development 
in various ways, and are cast aside, like the amniotic envelopes, 
when free life is entered on. A gelatinous coat surrounds the 
lamprey's ovum, and similar mucous matter forms the huge float- 
ing egg-ribbons of the angler fish {Lophins). The glassy eggs 
of the angler are scattered through the glairy mucus, and thus 
shielded from the shocks of the waves. 

The jelly in fish and amphibian is an oviducal secretion not an 
essential part of the egg and not a product of the ovary. It is 
absent from the eggs of many fishes, a great number being simply 
provided with a thin capsule or vitelline membrane, so called 
because it arises as a skin or pellicle upon the surface of the yolk, 
and when hardened forms a resistent shell provided with pores, 
and in numerous species with knobs, filaments, and other projec- 
tions. The capsule in the eggs of the hag-fish (Myxine) and 
other forms is regarded by many authorities as a chorion secreted 
by the oviduct and not a true vitelline membrane. The germ 
and yolk do not usually fill the chamber of the egg-capsule com- 
pletely, and the perivitelline space (Ransom's breathing chamber) 
is filled with a dilute organic fluid, which forms a protective layer 
within the capsule. Upon emerging from the egg the larvae of 
fishes and many other vertebrates are delicate and comparatively 
defenceless. A larval herring, haddock, or cod is a minute worm- 
like creature, rarely more than ith of an inch long, with a trans- 
lucent body, a tapering dagger-shaped tail, blunt head, and with 
mere rudiments of paired limbs. The skin fits as loosely as 
Falstaff's tunic upon a lanky starveling, and the space separating 
the skin from the muscle-masses of the trunk is occupied by 
a clear serous fluid. In the larval frog and other amphibians 
this lymphatic layer is present, and in some bony fishes its quan- 
tity increases to such a degree that the head and trunk are 
swollen enormously as with some dropsical affection. In the 



PROTECTIVE FEATURES IN YOUNG OF VERTEBRATES. 113 

angler even the tail, in most of our common fishes as slender as 
the blade of a knife, is rendered thick and club-like. Delicate 
strands appear to pass across this fluid-filled sub-epidermal space, 
as in the lamprey, the angler, and other fishes. It is not difficult 
to surmise that this gelatinous layer around the delicate trunk 
serves a purpose identical with that of the amnion and other 
cushion-like coverings in the reptilian, avian, and higher vertebrate 
embryos. Buffeted about in the surface waters of the sea, or 
carried hither and thither by strong currents in lakes and rivers, 
minute larval fishes might suffer severely were it not for these 
surrounding coats of membrane and abundant fluid. Like the 
fatty blanket or blubber of the cetacean's skin, these layers pre- 
serve the larvae from hurtful alterations of temperature. Most of 
our marine food-fishes, such as the cod, haddock, mackerel, sole, 
plaice, etc., exhibit " sub-epidermal " enlargements of this char- 
acter, and over the head-region, where the sensitive brain, the 
delicate ears, .eyes, and other important organs are located, they 
serve to shield these parts from the shocks of the surrounding 
water. The larval sole exhibits curious enlargements in the 
anterior region, and in the small Irish sole, recently described by 
an able scientific observer, Mr. E. W. Holt, they have the form 
of a huge bladder protruding from the forehead. But in the 
angler {Lophius) these enlargements, as already stated, reach a 
most extraordinary stage of development. Thus the cavity over 
the spinal cord and brain, enclosed by the arachnoid sac, probably 
the " subdural space " of higher forms, is extremely large. It is 
roofed over by the coloured serous membrane, external to which 
is a " peri-neural " space limited externally by a delicate mem- 
brane, the last forming the floor of a third or "sub-epidermal 
space " proper, common to all young fishes and outwardly limited 
by the integument. The delicately organised central nervous 
system is thus shielded from pressure and external agitations by 
this triple envelope of fluid-filled chambers and protective mem- 
branes. No doubt these have some interesting phylogenetic 
meaning, if we could only discover it ; but they may without 
hesitation be regarded as amongst the most interesting and 
important protective provisions for securing the welfare of the frail 
organisms possessing them during larval life. Their minuteness 

H 



114 PROTECTIVE FEATURES IN YOUNG OF VERTEBRATES. 

and glassy translucency, as in all pelagic animals, protects them, 
moreover, from sharp-eyed predaceous foes. 

Hosts of the lower animals — starfishes, annelids, molluscs, etc. 
— are likewise pelagic, and when young possess this translucent 
character. "Pelagic animals," said the late Professor Moseley, 
"generally seem to be colourless or specially coloured with a view 
to protection from enemies both above and below the surface of 
the water. Probably the blue colour of Ianthina and Velella is 
protective as resembling that of the ocean water. . . . There 
are numerous other pelagic animals thus coloured blue for protec- 
tion, such as the mollusc Glaiicus, Porpita (allied to Velella), and 
some Salpie in which the nucleus is blue. There are also blue 
Medusce." While animals, young and adult, vertebrate and 
invertebrate, may be thus protected by their extraordinary trans 
parency, which renders them practically invisible in the surface 
waters, they are frequently armed also with deterrent spines and 
defensive thorny projections. Many larval fishes are now known 
to possess parallel structures. The young angler, the gurnard, 
and other familiar fishes in our own seas have a formidable array 
of transient spikes and protuberances upon the body. A larval 
angler, five days after hatching, shows a finger-shaped knob in 
the middle of the dorsum. It is the rudiment of a larval spine. 
Two oar-like organs are also rapidly pushed out below and behind 
the small pectoral fin-pads. They are hardly recognisable as 
ventral fins, though they really are such. On the fifteenth day 
no fewer than three formidable spines appear on the back— two of 
enormous length, just behind the head, curving backward like 
lengthy tapering whips, while a third erects itself as a blunt pro- 
tuberance half-way along the dorsum. The head becomes 
flattened and exhibits angular projections, the gape widens, and 
the ventral fins now resemble lengthy tentacles hanging below the 
trunk, and subsequently they become bifurcate and deeply tinted 
with black. All these spiny projections are supported by strong 
central rods of cartilage connected with the axial skeleton and 
limb-girdles. Thus they are somewhat rigid, and impart to the 
young fish a most formidable and grotesque appearance. Many 
other curious examples of such structures might be instanced: the 
ling and rocklings with their enormously long ventral fins, the 
gurnard and pogge with their huge expanded pectoral fins and 



PROTECTIVE FEATURES IN YOUNG OF VERTEBRATES. 115 

complex array of larval spines along the trunk, are typical illustra- 
tions. The young sharks, dogfishes, and rays are too familiar 
to demand more than a passing notice. Those not born alive 
— and many selachians are viviparous — are safely packed in a 
dense horny case secreted by a special gland in the oviduct, and 
comparable to the calcareous shell of the fowl's egg. This squarish 
egg-case is lined by a silky membrane enclosing abundant fluid, 
in which the young fish, attached to a large ball of yolk, floats 
securely. There is no amnion, such as reptiles, birds, and mam- 
mals possess, nor do large epidermal spaces develop beneath the 
larval skin, as in many bony fishes and cyclostomes, for these 
cartilaginous fishes remain during a long period within the egg- 
case, and are robust and even predaceous immediately on hatching 
out. Like young partridges they are well able to look after them- 
selves at the moment of leaving the egg and entering upon their 
independent life in the outer world. 

To speak of the invertebrates is beyond the scope of 
this paper, but reference must be made to one group of 
creatures, long classed as near relatives of the mollusca, viz., 
the tunicates, popularly known as the ascidians or sea-squirts, 
but now grouped by the more exact zoology of to-day 
in close intimacy with the Vcrtebrata. Amongst the solitary 
ascidians, Appendicularia (also called Oikopleura) is interesting, 
not only from the fact that certain vertebrate features are especi- 
ally well-marked in it, but from a transient larval structure which 
it possesses, and which recalls the layers of membrane and fluid 
briefly described in the foregoing remarks. From the eggs of 
Appendicularia a strange little tailed creature like a wriggling gnat 
emerges. It is of glassy transparency, and undulates actively 
through the surface waters of the sea by the vigorous movements 
of its long blade-like tail. It possesses, as close examination 
reveals, an oval body with mouth, gill-slits, eye, ear, heart, and 
rod-like backbone — features which entitle it to rank high in the 
scale of animal life. An animal so perfectly organised would be 
in constant peril in the open sea, and the larva secretes, probably 
from the integument, a loose mass of clear jelly, which completely 
envelopes the body and leaves merely the muscular tail free. In 
this translucent blanket, usually called the "house" of the 
ascidian larva, it is protected from many dangers, though it pays 



Il6 PROTECTIVE FEATURES IN YOUNG OF VERTEBRATES. 

apparently one penalty for its safety, for it is much incommoded 
in its progress through the water. Violently lashing its tail it 
rushes hither and thither, up and down, through the surface 
water, with its head in its " house " much as a terrified cat with 
its head in a bag. The jelly so loosely clings to the ascidian that 
it frequently drops off. 

But the curious protective features in larval vertebrates form a 
subject so varied and so new that more cannot be attempted in 
these notes than to point out some of the more salient features 
which recent researches have made known to us. Amongst the 
vertebrates we find embryonic structures often resembling in detail 
the analogous organs in larval invertebrates; nay, even in the 
vegetable world, in the embryonic stages of plants, and in the 
young growing parts of adults, corresponding provisions occur. 
The stipules, the bases of leaves, the more or less broadened 
proximal part of the petiole, the pedestal of the petiole, scales, 
spines, hairs, and gummy matter, all subserve the same important 
protective purposes. Sir John Lubbock, referring to the presence 
of stipules, declares that the most general reason for their exist- 
ence seems to be the protection of the young and tender bud, 
though they may take at times the function of leaves, while they 
may be spiny for the protection of the whole plant, sometimes 
glandular, and so on; but their protective function explains their 
frequent transiency. It is precisely so in the animal kingdom. 
We see in the highest groups, in quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, 
amphibians, fishes, and ascidians, examples of the curious care 
which is exercised in nature to ensure the safety of the tender and 
otherwise defenceless young. Doubtless the absence of colour in 
the case of typical pelagic larvae is one of the most remarkable 
provisions ; but hardly less so is the presence of peculiar colours 
in other larval as well as adult forms. The late Professor Moseley 
looked with little less than amazement at the strange colours 
exhibited by the inhabitants of the gulf-weed in the Sargasso Sea. 
" The shrimps and crabs which swarm in the weed are," he wrote, 
"exactly the same shade of yellow as the weed, and have white 
markings upon their bodies to represent the patches of Membrani- 
pora. The largest shrimp occurring has a dark-brown colour with 
sharply defined areas of brilliant white upon its surface, thus 
closely resembling the older darker-coloured pieces of weed, 



PROTECTIVE FEATURES IN YOUNG OF VERTEBRATES. 1 1 7 

which are also most thickly covered with Membranipora. The 
small fish Antennarius is in the same way coloured weed-colour 
with white spots. Even a planarian worm is similarly yellow- 
coloured, and also a mollusc {Scyllaa pelagicd). The white 
patches in some of the crabs, no doubt, represent also, to some 
extent, the white shells of barnacles, though these are not very 
abundant in the weed." Professor Moseley instanced a tunicate, 
a glassy Salpa of which the nucleus was of a dark red-brown 
colour in imitation of the tint of the floating sea-weed. 

But many of the vertebrates, especially our common marine 
fishes, furnish striking instances of protective coloration. The 
sole in an advanced larval condition is patched in the most 
grotesque and erratic manner with warm ochreous blotches, and 
resembles a minute shred of floating weed, for the transparent 
parts of the fish are invisible. The definite transverse bands of 
the newly hatched cod and the longitudinal stripes of the late 
post-larval ling may be persistent traces of ancestral coloration 
not now of much protective significance; but the post-larval lump- 
sucker ( Cydoptems), the father-lasher ( Cottus), and other common 
shore fishes are grotesquely blotched with the most diverse shades 
of black, brown, green, and yellow, while irregular patches of gleam- 
ing white may occur on the head or trunk and perfectly mimic 
fragments of corallines and encrusting polyzoan colonies. The 
protective coloration of immature and mature animals is, however, 
a familiar subject, and the object of this short paper is to point 
out protective structures less familiar and less obvious, and in 
many instances not hitherto observed or fully described. It is 
interesting to find that in the highest and lowest vertebrates alike 
there occur these curious embryonic and larval wrappings, differing 
so much in structure and origin, but subservient to the same 
protective purposes. 



WASTE GROUND AND SUBURBAN 
BIRD-LIFE: 

A Glasgow Study. 

By John Paterson. 

(Read Jth October, i8gi, and nth January, iSgj.) 



When the first part of this paper was read to the Society the 
entire area was without the city of Glasgow, but before the reading 
of the second portion it was wholly included by the extension of 
the city's boundaries. Nowhere, it may be safely said, do changes 
in the avi-fauna of a district proceed more rapidly than within the 
boundaries of a great commercial city such as Glasgow, where 
one locality after another which may have been the home of rural 
peace for centuries is swallowed up by the much-abused specula- 
tive builder to satisfy the demands of a population which is con- 
stantly growing in numbers. Notwithstanding the tenacity with 
which some birds cling to localities the physical features of which 
may have been altered or obliterated, there comes a time when 
their continuance becomes an absolute impossibility by the substi- 
tution of the tenement house with its unadorned backyard for the 
cottage with its orchard. The picture is not a fanciful one, as it 
reflects the history, within quite recent years, of many spots in the 
area to be described. 

The observations which follow refer to the years 1888-92, and 
the area included is scarcely more than a mile across any way that 
may be taken. Not only is it within the new city boundaries, 
but it reaches the boundary line on its eastern side alone. Its 
limits may be defined as bounded on the north by Butterbiggins 
Road ; on the south by the road which leads from the Mall's Mire 
Burn through Hangingshaw, and eastwards by Mount Florida to 



WASTE GROUND AND SUBURBAN BIRD-LIFE. 119 

the monument commemorating the battle of Langside; on the 
west by the western boundary of the Queen's Park and Victoria 
Road; and on the east by Polmadie and the Mall's Mire Burn, 
which at this point has some topographical distinction, being 
the city boundary and also the dividing line of the counties of 
Lanark and Renfrew. In proximity to the Mall's Mire Burn and 
within our limits are some brick-fields, and the disused workings, 
now filled with water and forming ponds of small size, are 
frequented in winter especially by a variety of wandering birds, 
while in summer they provide abundant food for all our hirundines, 
among whom the swift and swallow are usually to be seen through- 
out their stay with us in considerable numbers. 

Most of the ground within our area has been in time past 
the scene of brick-making, and the portions not yet built on are 
either presently free coups or ripening for the builder. In the 
Queen's Park alone can we hope for some little continuity in its 
bird-life, the rest of the district being the scene of rapid change, 
except in some places already congested where the sparrow, 
starling, jackdaw, martin, and swift have entered into possession 
and may be expected to remain until the present order of things 
has passed away. 

Falconid^e. — As might be expected, birds of prey are poorly 
represented within our restricted limits. The sparrow-hawk 
(Accipiter nisus) is the only member of its class that I have seen, 
and that only in winter. The first time it came under my 
observation, I saw it most favourably as it flew from the city 
southwards over the waste ground between Butterbiggins Road 
and Govanhill. It made a resultless stoop on some small birds 
among the docks and thistles there, and became immediately 
thereafter the recipient of unwelcome attention from a small flock 
of starlings. 

Turdid,e. — Most part of the year mistletoe-thrushes {Tardus 
viscivorus) are a well-marked feature of the bird-life of the Park, 
especially at the pairing season, when they arrest attention by 
their lively actions and harsh call notes. 

The redwing and fieldfare {Tardus iliacus and T. pilaris) are 
usually seen each winter in the district. The former is much 
more easily approached, and in hard weather on a Sunday morn- 
ing I have seen it on the terrace in the Park within a couple of 



120 WASTE GROUND AND SUBURBAN BIRD-LIFE. 

yards of the granite steps, which were then thronged with people 
going to morning service. The fieldfare is more conspicuous in 
point of numbers, though of wilder habit. I have seen it on a 
foggy morning near the old city boundary heading northwards, 
but apparently confused by its surroundings. 

The blackbird {Tardus meruld) remains a plentiful species with 
us, despite the fact of its nest falling an easy prey to the hordes of 
boys who regularly patrol the outskirts of the city in spring and 
early summer. His clarion call note is familiar at all seasons, and 
the flute-like notes of his song may be heard in perfection by the 
middle of February. 

The song-thrush (Turdus musicus) is not so abundant as the 
last-named, but occasionally appears in large numbers as the 
result of local migration. 

Sylviid.e. — The hedge-sparrow (Accentor modularis) is very 
common, and I have no doubt still breeds within the late bound- 
aries of the city, where for several years past I have frequently in 
early spring heard his cheerful song delivered from a billposter's 
hoarding or the roof of a joiner's shop, his choice of a perch in 
such localities being limited. I have heard him in full song as 
early (or as late?) as the 28th of December. 

The redbreast (Erithacus rubecula) is a familiar species, and 
extends his outposts well within the city's bounds in winter. His 
song is not infrequently the one bright element to redeem the 
sullenness of a winter day. Almost our only winter songster, his 
is also the dominant note of autumn, and at this season the chorus 
of robins in the hedges about our clay-holes is such as to surprise 
some who are not neglectful of " natural knowledge." 

The whinchat (Saxicola rubetrd) is occasionally to be seen on 
the waste ground south of Polmadie, and a few wheatears 
(S. cenanthe) usually appear on their return early in spring in the 
same locality, remaining in the neighbourhood for a few weeks. 
On the 27th of March, 1892, I saw my first wheatear of the year 
at the clay pits at Polmadie. There was snow on the ground, the 
result of a blizzard of great severity which had set in on the after- 
noon of the previous day, and in which a number of persons 
perished throughout Scotland. I was much interested at seeing 
one of our summer migrants appearing under such untoward 
circumstances. 



WASTE GROUND AND SUBURBAN BIRD-LIFE. 121 

The sedge-warbler (Acrocephalus schtznobanus) appears in the 
same locality as the two species last referred to, and might remain 
to breed, but its vociferousness betrays it and it shortly disappears 
to less-frequented quarters. Though open to the charge of 
monotony, the song of this warbler contains a cadence of great 
beauty, which is, however, but too seldom uttered. 

The greater whitethroat (Sylvia rttfa) I have only seen in the 
district on hedges at the southern boundary near Hangingshaw. 

Generally distributed in all sylvan localities round Glasgow, the 
willow-wren (Phylloscoptts trochilus) is conspicuous in the Queen's 
Park early in May, where it shares the honours of the vocal choir 
with the blackbird. 

TroglodytiDjE. — The wren {Troglodytes parvultis) is always to 
be found in the winter months skulking under the banks and 
hedges at the Mall's Mire Burn. 

ParidjE. — The great titmouse (Partis major) is well known in 
the Queen's Park. 

The blue titmouse (Parus carttleus) is familiar in the locality 
last-mentioned, and may be seen occasionally throughout our 
limits wherever hedges occur. His presence is announced by his 
cheerful birr-r-r-r, uttered while performing the most wonderful 
acrobatic evolutions on the slenderest of supports. I have seen 
him in winter in a suburban locality alighting at the bottom of the 
gable wall of a three-storey tenement and gradually working his 
way up to the top, diligently searching the interstices for such 
insectivorous tit-bits as offered. 

The coal-titmouse (Pants ater) I have several times seen on 
the western boundary of the Queen's Park near the mound. 

Motacillidte. — -One of the most characteristic birds on waste 
ground is the pied wagtail (Motacilla lugubris). He even ranks 
as a city bird, being frequently seen from the bridges over the 
Clyde, especially in winter. Though common everywhere, it is a 
rare pleasure to hear the song of the cock, which is of a bright and 
cheerful character. Familiar with this species as far back as I 
remember, I have only on one occasion heard his song, uttered 
in the pauses of short flights after insects on a bright day, the last 
of January, 1892. I was surprised to read in Yarrell's British 
Birds (last edition) that " the pied wagtail but seldom perches on 
a tree or bush." This is entirely contrary to my knowledge of the 



122 WASTE GROUND AND SUBURBAN BIRD-I.IFE. 

bird's habits, as, though frequently seen away from trees or bushes, 
it never hesitates when opportunity offers or occasion requires to 
avail of such for perching. When caught at his morning bath, as 
I have seen him standing on a stone in a horse-pond, with his long 
tail feathers — with shafts of pure white and jet black — arranged 
like a half-opened fan, the striking picture he presents is not 
readily forgotten. 

The grey wagtail {Motacilla sulphured) may sometimes be seen 
in summer near our eastern limits, where in winter he is of con- 
stant occurrence. 

The yellow wagtail (Motacilla raii) always appears at the time 
of its arrival in this country in the same locality as the last species. 

On the morning of the 23rd of March, 1892, I was surprised to 
note a tree-pipit {Anthus trivialis) among the hedges and scattered 
stag-headed willows at the Polmadie clay pits. This is an early 
date so far as I can learn for the arrival of this summer visitor. 
It remained in this neighbourhood for about three weeks, during 
which time 1 saw it frequently. 

In autumn and winter the meadow-pipit {Anthus pratensis) 
occurs in considerable numbers about the Mall's Mire Burn and 
adjoining ditches and clay holes. 

Alaudid^e. — The free coups which follow the disused clay 
workings are sometimes in winter frequented by numbers of 
skylarks (A/auda arvensis) in the company of finches, starlings, 
wagtails, rooks, and other birds, and in the present winter, with 
snow on the ground, I have seen one near the late southern 
boundary of the city. 

Emberizid^e. — The reed-bunting (Emberiza schceniculus) occurs 
irregularly near our eastern limits. The yellow bunting {Emberiza 
cilrinelld) is better known, and may be seen and (in the season) 
heard in the Queen's Park. 

Fringillidve. — The finches, who are so largely gregarious in 
autumn and winter, seem to take as kindly to the rubbish heap 
and free coup as they do to the stubble field. Mixed flocks of 
chaffinches, house-sparrows, and greenfinches are among the 
common objects of our suburban and waste ground bird-life. 
The chaffinch (Fringilla ceelebs) is familiar and abundant, and 
comes close to the streets in winter. I have heard his hurrying 
notes (which one naturally associates with the time of apple- 



WASTE GROUND AND SUBURBAN BIRD-LIFE. 1 23 

blossom) at Hangingshaw in foggy mornings in February when 
everything was covered thick with rime. Of the house-sparrow 
{Passe?- domesticus) it is only necessary to say that " other birds 
come back again, he never goes away." The greenfinch (Coeco- 
thraustes chloris) is common in the Queen's Park. On the second 
Sunday of April, 1892, I was much pleased while seated on the 
terrace in the park to see a greenfinch which, while en route from 
one perch to another, suddenly came to a halt, and moving about 
for some time with great apparent uncertainty, but singing all the 
while, at length moved on to a tree near at hand where the song 
was continued. This "graceful flight" seems to be chiefly 
indulged in early in the year. The goldfinch (Cardue/is elegans) 
is probably the greatest rarity that I am able to record from the 
district and from my own observation. Early in January, 1891, 
I was surprised one morning, in hard weather, to see a pair of 
goldfinches at Polmadie in a brick-field in company with some 
greenfinches and sparrows, one of the goldfinches being character- 
istically perched on an old thistle-head. 1 watched them for some 
time, and having my field-glass with me made no mistake about 
them. Recently, in conversation with a bird-catcher in this 
locality, I asked if he had ever seen the goldfinch hereabouts, and 
was interested in the reply which he made, as it was not prompted 
by any narrative on my part of my own experience. He indicated 
a time which closely synchronised with the date just given, and 
stated that he had seen five together on a free coup between 
Rutherglen Road and Polmadie, and that one of the birds had 
been "limed." The linnet {Linota cannabina) I am unable to 
include in my list, although it doubtless strays within our limits in 
winter at least. A few days before reading the second series of 
notes on this subject to the Society I saw one just snared half a 
mile south of our boundary. 

Sturnid/E. — When going out in the morning one of the first 
sounds to greet the ears in suburban localities is that of the 
" castanets " of the starling (Stunius vulgaris). Usually gregarious 
and often breeding in colonies, he is essentially a bird of social 
habits and finds community of interest with the sparrow and rook in 
frequenting the vicinity of human dwellings. In the second week 
in September, 1891, which was remarkable for the lovely Indian 
summer weather prevailing, I was much interested in watching the 



124 WASTE GROUND AND SUBURBAN BIRD-LIFE. 

starlings hawking high-flying insects which seemed to abound in 
that halcyon weather, and the gyrations of the birds from the 
greater weight of their bodies presented a curious contrast to the 
more agile movements of the then fast-departing hirundines. 

Corvid^e. — The rook (Corvus frugilegus) and jackdaw (C. 
moneduld) are well known, the former being very common. The 
rook, indeed, comes in great force with the first light, and his 
hoarse note is its usual accompaniment. In early morning they 
abound in the streets, from which, as the flow of traffic increases, 
they are gradually banished. Suburban localities with streets 
built of houses without any attempt at ornamentation have their 
dreariness emphasised at such early hours by the presence in all 
streets and open places of the shambling rook in great numbers. 
In our district we have a small rookery of some half-dozen nests 
(occupied in 1892) in a group of trees west of Crosshill station on 
the Cathcart line. A rook, conspicuous by the possession of some 
white feathers on his wings, has been seen several times of late in 
the Queen's Park. There are only two or three pairs of jackdaws 
about Govanhill. This species is altogether outnumbered by the 
last-mentioned. 

Hirundinid^e. — The large quantity of stagnant water in the 
vicinity of the clay holes at Polmadie and the black mud 
which is associated with it, together seem to give rise to a vast 
amount of those forms of insect life on which the hirundines prey. 
At any rate these clay holes attract all the members of the swallow 
family, and mixed groups are usually to be seen there throughout 
the period of their stay with us. The swallow (Hirundo rustica) 
is the most abundant among its congeners, and in the Queen's 
Park also it appears regularly. The martin (Chelidon urbicci) 
breeds sparingly about Govanhill and Crosshill. The sand- 
martin (Cottle riparia), as above stated, appears at the clay holes 
regularly every year. 

CypselidvE. — The swift (Cypselus apus) is well known in the 
district. During the autumn of 1891 attention was generally 
drawn throughout the country to the departure of this species 
being unusually delayed. My own experience that year confirmed, 
with regard to our neighbourhood, this general experience. On 
the 6th of September I saw some eight swifts in company with 
swallows and sand-martins at Polmadie. The main body of swifts 



WASTE GROUND AND SUBURBAN EIRD-LIFE. 1 25 

usually leaves the country by the middle of August. White of 
Selborne, who paid much attention to this, declares that they 
"retire ... by the ioth August, . . . and every 
straggler invariably withdraws by the 20th." He further writes, 
" but what is more extraordinary, they begin to retire still earlier 
in the most southerly parts of Andalusia, where they can be in 
no ways influenced by any defect of heat; or, as one might 
suppose, failure of food." Happening to arrive in a Tuscan city 
on the 1 8th of July, 1890, I was struck with the great numbers of 
swifts which were flying restlessly about one of the squares there, 
but it was only in the course of a day or two after my arrival that 
I realised that they had been congregating for departure, for in 
that brief space they had entirely disappeared. After the experi- 
ence of 1890-91 I watched curiously what would transpire in the 
autumn of 1892. The result was that in that year they continued 
in large numbers till 19th and 20th August in Polmadie and Lang- 
side respectively, and at the former locality I saw a pair on the 
26th of August. There only remains to be further recorded the 
notable circumstance that the departure of the swift, though 
delayed in 1891, was immediately followed by a week of remark- 
ably fine weather, referred to in this paper in the notes on the 
starling. 

Caprimulgid/E. — In the article on birds contributed by Robert 
Gray to the Fauna and Flora of the West of Scotland, published 
by the Glasgow Society of Field Naturalists, he states that the 
nightjar (Caprimulgus europtcus) has on various occasions been 
seen in the evening flying above the grass in the Queen's Park. 
This was published in 1876. 

Cuculid.e. — In the meteorological notes from the public parks 
contributed by Mr. M'Lellan, late parks superintendent, to the 
proceedings of the Natural History Society of Glasgow, he records 
for a number of seasons what he terms the " rare " and " somewhat 
rare " occurrence of the cuckoo ( Cuculus canorus) in the Queen's 
Park especially. One morning, early in the summer of 1890, I 
saw a cuckoo flying from one of the belts of shrubbery in the Park 
in the direction of Camphill. 

Alcedinid/E. — When my first series of notes on the present 
subject was read to the Society, I mentioned having once seen on 
the Mall's Mire Burn a kingfisher (Alcedo ispida) in hard weather, 



126 WASTE GROUND AND SUBURBAN BIRD-LIFE. 

which I was disposed to regard as an exceptional occurrence. 
Between that time and the date of the second series of notes, how- 
ever, I had again seen the kingfisher about the Mall's Mire Burn 
and the ditches and clay holes in that vicinity five times. The 
occurrences were all between October and December : once in 
the first-mentioned, twice in November, and thrice in December, 
and not invariably in severe weather. 

Columbid/e. — The ringdove {Columba palumbus), which comes 
to the fields under green crops near the city boundary, may some- 
times be seen passing overhead within our limits. 

Phasianidte. — In an October morning I have seen a cock- 
pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) at the Polmadie clay holes. This 
bird is common just beyond our south-eastern limits. 

RallidjE. — The land rail (Crex pratensis) is well known in the 
fields skirting the boundary of the city in the locality just men- 
tioned. 

CharadriidjE. — The golden plover (Charadrius pluvialis) 
comes within our limits about Polmadie, where the lapwing 
( Vanellus vulgaris) is better known. Continued severe weather, 
as in the present winter (1892-93), drives these birds from our 
neighbourhood, but after a few days of open weather they quickly 
reappear. 

Scolopacid.e. — For about six months of the year (October till 
March) I can rely on flushing the common snipe (Gallinago 
coilestis) in the ditches about Polmadie. As a recent writer in 
Black and White has remarked, it is surprising how close this 
bird comes to populous neighbourhoods. Its appearance in our 
district is neither irregular nor uncertain. 

In the same vicinity as the last the common sandpiper (Totanus 
hypoleucus) always appears on its arrival in spring. The ground 
hereabouts is quite congenial to their tastes and they usually show 
a disposition to remain, but the patrol to which the locality is 
subjected in the bird-nesting season undeceives them and they 
soon seek other quarters. The common redshank (Totantts 
calidris) occurs here also as a winter visitor, but sparingly. 

Larid/E. — The black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus) is a well- 
known species around Glasgow, and about Polmadie it abounds 
at the clay holes, where, even after prolonged frost, a few are con- 
stantly to be seen. One interesting feature about this gull is the 



WASTE GROUND AND SUBURBAN BIRD-LIFE. 1 27 

rapidity with which the black head is assumed in early spring. 
An instance is cited in Yarrell's British Birds in which the change 
from white to dark-brown was completed in five days. This, I 
think, cannot be exceptional. In our district the change in the 
great numbers of gulls which are to be seen everywhere seems to 
be completed within a fortnight — from the 15th of February till 
the end of that month. By the latter date black heads are the 
rule, and as the change is to be seen in all degrees of advance- 
ment during that period the likelihood seems to be that five or six 
days must suffice in most cases for its completion. 

The foregoing list embraces forty-nine species, of which forty- 
five have come under my observation within the past five years in 
a small area within the present boundaries of the city. When I 
look back a quarter of a century on the appearance which the 
locality described presented then, and consider the vast change 
which has gone on in that period, I cannot resist the conclusion 
that another such period of expansion will make it impossible to 
compile such a list again. In that fact lies any interest that may 
attach to the paper. It may be something to reflect that in the 
last decade of the present century we had not in this populous 
neighbourhood lost sight of that "bright finch," the goldie; that 
the cuckoo's call and the land rail's " crake " were not then 
unknown ; and that even by our turbid watercourses and clay pits 
the kingfisher darting like "a blue arrow" was not an unfamiliar 
sight to such as then took delight in the pursuit of natural 
history. 



THE MOSS-LIKE TILLANDSIA. 

{Tillandsia usneoides, Linn.) 

By Robert Turner. 

(Specimens of the Plant and Photographs of Trees showing its mode 
of growth exhibited ijth March, 1890.) 



This plant is found abundantly in the Southern United States 
from Virginia to Florida, also in the West Indies and Brazil. It 
hangs in dark and tangled masses from oak and pine branches, 
and is known popularly in the States as long moss, black moss, or 
old man's beard. 

It is an epiphytic plant, growing on trees but not deriving 
any of its sustenance from them. Most of these epiphytes are 
showy plants, but this one is not. They chiefly belong to the 
orders Orchidacece and Bromeliacea, and Tillandsia is included in 
the latter. 

Tillandsia usneoides is externally very unlike the others of the 
same genus. Its stem is diffuse, filiform, pendulous, and branch- 
ing. Now Tillandsia utriculata — the wild pineapple of Jamaica 
— has a stem three or four feet high and leaves a yard long, and 
these leaves are placed within each other in such a way that the 
water which runs down them is retained in their expanded bases, 
which swell out and form a reservoir or bottle, often holding nearly 
a quart of water, and as this is contracted at the neck evaporation 
is prevented. In the dry season they are the resort of animals 
and even a resource of travellers when other supplies fail. Some 
thirty species have been enumerated, all natives of the New 
World, though some have been introduced to West Africa and the 
East Indies. Most of them have leaves that serve as reservoirs 
for water, and they can all exist in a hot dry air without contact 
with the earth. 



THE MOSS-LIKE TILLANDSIA. I2g 

This Tillandsia usneoides would not be readily taken to be a 
near ally of the pineapple {Ananassa), and yet so it is, the pine- 
apple belonging to the same order, Bromeliacecz. Though exter- 
nally so Afferent from other Bromeliads, it agrees with many of 
them in its epiphytic habits, and of course with all in aeneric 
characters. The scurfy epidermis, like that of the pineapple 
leaves, displays a very interesting microscopic structure 

This little plant is of some use-perhaps rather insignificant- 
m the world. It is employed in the preparation of an ointment 
against hemorrhoids. The filamentous stems, when deprived of 
their bark by steeping in water for a fortnight or so, are used in 
some out-of-the-way parts of America in place of horse-hair for 
stuffing and other purposes, and also for making cordage When 
taken out of the water after steeping they are dried, and the 
epidermis then separates readily from the fibre. 

The name .Tillandsia was given to the genus by Linnams in 
honour of Ehas Tillands, Professor of Physic at Abo in Finland 
Linnaeus gives a curious account of his reason for choosing this 
name:-«Tillandsiae cannot bear water, and therefore I have 
given this name to a genus from a professor at Abo, who in his 
youth having an unpropitious passage from Stockholm to that 
place, no sooner set his foot on shore than he vowed never a-ain 
to venture himself upon the sea. He changed his original name 
to Tillands, which means on or by land; and when he had sub- 
sequently occasion to return to Sweden, he preferred a circuitous 
journey of 200 Swedish miles through Lapland to avoid going 
eight miles by sea." The most precious passage in the Scriptures 
for that professor must, I take it, have been the one in the 
Apocalypse, "And there shall be no more sea." 

I daresay most of us have read that delightful book, Ruskin's 
P^serpma, in which his genius lights up with freshness a whole 
field of beauty. But looking up at the sparkling stars of fancy we 
are apt to stumble sadly over the hard stones of fact. Asa Gray 
says of it. •-« In many a book the want of sufficient knowledge is 
pleaded as an excuse; in this, it is paraded as a recommendation 
Ignorance, no doubt, has its uses; but it is questionable whether 
teaching is altogether the best use to put it to." And this little 
TUlandsta has caught Ruskin up in a way that botanists will 
readily recognise and poets forgive. 



130 THE MOSS-LIKE TILLANDSIA. 

Ruskin goes out to his garden and brings in a bit of old brick, 
"emerald green on its rugged surface," and a thick piece of 
mossy turf. 

" First for the old brick," he says. " To think of the quantity 
of pleasure one has had in one's life from that emerald green 
velvet, — and yet that for the first time to-day I am verily going to 
look at it ! Doing so, through a pocket lens of no great power, I 
find the velvet to be composed of small star-like groups of smooth, 
strong, oval leaves, — intensely green, and much like the young 
leaves of any other plant, except in this; — they all have a long 
brown spike, like a sting, at their ends. 

" Fastening on that, I take the Flora Danica, and look through 
its plates of mosses, for their leaves only; and I find, first, that this 
spike, or strong central rib, is characteristic; — secondly, that the 
said leaves are apt to be not only spiked, but serrated, and otherwise 
angry-looking at the points ; — thirdly, that they have a tendency to 
fold together in the centre; — and at last, after an hour's work at 
them, it strikes me suddenly that they are more like pineapple 
leaves than anything else." Here we have Ruskin beginning to 
trip. The resemblance of moss leaves to those of pineapple is 
most fanciful, simply because serrated and pointed and gathered 
into a rosette. 

"And it occurs to me, very unpleasantly, at the same time, that 
I don't know what a pineapple is ! 

" Stopping to ascertain that, I am told that a pineapple belongs 
to the ' Bromeliacese ' — (can't stop to find out what that means) 
— nay, that of these plants ' the pineapple is the representative ' 
(Loudon); 'their habit is acid, their leaves rigid, and toothed with 
spines, their bracteas often coloured with scarlet, and their flowers 
either white or blue ' — (what are their flowers like?) But the two 
sentences that most interest me, are, that in the damp forests of 
Carolina, the Tillandsia, which is an ' epiphyte ' (i.e., a plant grow- 
ing on other plants), ' forms dense festoons among the branches of 
the trees, vegetating among the black mould that collects upon 
the bark of trees in hot damp countries; other species are inhabi- 
tants of deep and gloomy forests, and others form, with their spiny 
leaves, an impenetrable herbage in the Pampas of Brazil.' So they 
really seem to be a kind of moss on a vast scale." How Ruskin 



THE MOSS-LIKE TILLANDSIA. 131 

draws this inference I am at a loss to determine, except that both 
Tillandsiae and mosses sometimes grow on trees. 

Now comes Ruskin's supreme discovery in this connection. 
" Next, I find in Gray, Bromeliacese, and — the very thing I want — 
' Tillandsia, the black moss, or long moss, which, like most Brom- 
elias, grows on the branches of trees.' So the pineapple is really 
a moss; only it is a moss that flowers but 'imperfectly.' 'The 
fine fruit is caused by the consolidation of the imperfect flowers.' 
(I wish we could consolidate some imperfect English moss-flowers 
into little pineapples then— though they were only as big as filberts.) 
But we cannot follow that further now; nor consider when a 
flower is perfect, and when it is not, or we should get into morals, 
and I don't know where else; we will go back to the moss I have 
gathered, for I begin to see my way, a little, to understanding it." 
Ruskin is a master of words, and he slides most gracefully from 
one misunderstanding of facts to another till he persuades himself 
fully that the pineapple is a moss; and the turning point of it all 
is that the popular name for this flowering plant, the little 
Tillandsia, is black moss or long moss, just as the lichen Cladonia 
is known as reindeer moss, and a seaweed as Irish moss, and 
so on. 

I trust you will not misunderstand me with regard to Ruskin. 
He is recognised by all of us as one of the men of genius of the 
century. His prose is a pleasure to read, a delight lies in it like 
music, a charm like the singing of birds. He touches many dull 
things and they gleam like jewels under the light of his genius. 
In this very book Proserpina there are some most happy expres- 
sions, delicious conceptions, stimulating suggestions. But here I 
think we have Ruskin at his worst, overpowered by fancy, 
led astray by words, grasping at this and then at the other 
suggestion, having no time to get even at the most rudimentary 
knowledge of the wide difference between flowering plants and 
mosses. 



LIST OF EXCURSIONS AND PHOTOGRAPHS. 
1885-92. 

Compiled by Hugh Boyd Watt and James Mitchell. 



The following is a complete chronological record of the places 
visited by the Society since the inception of its excursion- 
programme, with the dates of the visits prefixed. A topo- 
graphical classification has been made into eight districts, and, 
for convenience of reference, these areas are mostly defined by 
political or territorial divisions, no attempt having been made 
to lay down more natural lines of demarcation. Under the 
same headings will be found the titles of photographs, the 
earliest of which were taken in 1888, and for these illustrations of 
its rambles the Society is indebted to Messrs. James Mitchell, 
Johnston Shearer, William Sinclair, John Stewart, and 
Samuel Stewart. 

H. B. W. 

I.— LANARKSHIRE (vide pp. 1-17). 

1885. Sept. 12. Stonelaw Wood, Rutherglen. 

Oct. 24. Garnkirk Moor and Gartferry House. 

1886. April 3. Carmyle and Kenmuir Bank. 
May 15. Blantyre and the Rotten Calder. 
June 16. Cadder Wilderness. 

June 30. Cathkin Braes. 

July 14. Tollcross. 

Aug. 21. Barncluith, Cadzow, and Chatelherault. 

Oct. 2. Bishop Loch, Bedlay, Gartferry Glen, and Chryston. 

1887. Oct. 1. Carmyle. 
1S88. June 27. Tollcross. 



134 



LIST OF EXCURSIONS AND PHOTOGRAPHS. 



1888. July 11. Cambuslang to Uddingston by Clyde-side. 
Sept. 8. Falls of Clyde. 

Sept. 15. Barncluith and Hamilton Low Parks. 

Oct. 13. Cadder Wilderness. 

1889. June 22. Falls of Clyde. 

June 25. Calderwood Glen, Blantyre. 

July 9. Possil Marsh. 

Aug. 17. Bothwell Castle and the Clyde. 

1890. Jan. 1. Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow. 
Feb. 1. Kelvingrove Museum, Glasgow. 

May 14. Cambuslang to the Rotten Calder by Clyde-side. 

May 24. Bishop Loch, Gartcosh. 

June 25. Cadder, the Roman Wall, and the Kelvin {vide pp. 104-9). 

July 1. Stonelaw Wood and Cathkin Braes. 

July 9. Possil Marsh. 

Aug. 23. Cleghorn, the Mouse, Cartland Crags, and Lanark. 

Oct. 11. Douglas Support, Rosehall. 

.Nov. 1. Messrs. J. & R. Thyne's Nurseries, Kelvinside. 

1891. May 13. Hogganfield Loch. 

May 30. Craignethan Castle (Tillietudlem) and Crossford. 

July 15. Bishop Loch and Gartloch. 

Sept. 12. Barncluith, Cadzow, and Chatelherault. 

Oct. 10. Cadder Wilderness. 

1S92. May 28. Braidwood, Fiddler Gill, Crossford, and Craignethan. 



Photographs. 



Great Maple at Westburn, Cambuslang 

{vide Plate III.). 
Birch at Westburn, Cambuslang. 
The Clyde near Carmyle. 
Pathway in Cadder Wilderness. 
Beech Avenue, do. 

Beech Trees below Kenmuir Bank. 
The Clyde above Bonnington Fall. 
Gorge of the Clyde between Bonnington 

and Corra Linn. 
Bonnington Falls. 
Corra Linn. 

Roman Bridge near Bothwell. 
Bothwell Bridge. 
Bothwell Castle (exterior). 

Do. (interior). 

Do. (distant view). 

Rustic Cottage in Bothwell Castle Grounds. 
The Clyde near Bothwell. 
View on the Mouse Water. 
Craignethan Castle. 



Craignethan Castle, Entrance and Tower. 
View on the Nethan. 
Ravine of the Nethan. 
Clyde from Crossford Bridge, looking up. 
Do. do., looking down. 

Carfin House and Park. 
Group of Great Maples at Barncluith, 

Hamilton. 
False Acacia, Barncluith Gardens (vide 

Plate II.). 
Terraces, Barncluith Gardens. 
Oaks in Cadzow Forest. 
Gnarled Oak, do. 
Great Maple, do. 

White Cattle, do. (vide Plate I.). 

Cadzow Castle. 
Wych Elm, Douglas Support. 
Pair of Beeches, do. 
Beech, do. 

Hornbeam with pendent branches, 

Douglas Support. 



i88s- 


Sept. 26. 


1886. 


May 1. 




June 12. 




June 20. 




Sept. 4. 


1887. 


May 14. 




May 28. 




June 15. 




June 25. 




June 29. 




July 6. 




Aug. 20. 




Sept. 17. 


1888. 


Aug. 4. 




Sept. 29. 


1889. 


April 6. 




April 13. 




April 29. 




May 4. 




May 18. 




June 8. 




June 12. 




Sept. 28. 


1890. 


March 8. 




April 12. 




April 26. 




May 3. 




June 28. 




July 5- 




July 14. 




Aug. 2. 


1891. 


April 4. 




April 25. 




May 2. 




June 20. 


1892. 


April 16. 




April 30. 




Aug. 27. 




Sept. 24. 



LIST OF EXCURSIONS AND PHOTOGRAPHS. 1 35 



II.— RENFREWSHIRE (vide pp. 18-54). 

Waulkmill Glen, Barrhead. 

Gleniffer. 

Eaglesham, Ballagioch, and the Earn. 

Inverkip, Ashton, and Gourock. 

Langbank. 

Shielhill Glen, Greenock. 

Devol's Glen, Port-Glasgow. 

The Linn, Cathcart. 

Inverkip. 

The Rouken, Thornliebank. 

Queen's Park, Glasgow. 

Gleniffer. 

Crookston Castle. 

Castle Semple, Howwood. 

Auldhouse and Nether Pollok. 

Cathcart, Aikenhead House, and Langside. 

Househill, Crookston Castle, Hawkhead, and Logan's 

Raiss. 
Dargavel and Bishopton House. 
Finlaystone House, Langbank. 
Gourock and Ardgowan. 
Carruth Glen, Duchal, and Craigbet. 
Rosshall, Crookston. 
Caldwell and Loch Libo. 
Paisley Museum. 

Renfrew, Elderslie House, Blythswood, and Inchinnan. 
Neilston Pad and Hairlaw Dam. 
Bishopton and Erskine House. 
Castle Semple, Howwood. 
Craigbet, Bridge of Weir. 

Messrs. Austin & M'Aslan's Nurseries, Cathcart. 
Lochwinnoch, Barr Castle, and the Calder. 
Kilmalcolm, Kilallan, and Barochan House. 
Milliken House and Kilbarchan. 
Pollok Castle and Darnley Glen. 
Shielhill Glen, Greenock. 
Southbar, Northbar House, and Inchinnan. 
Lochwinnoch and the Calder. 
Kelly, Wemyss Bay. 
Caldwell House and Loch Libo. 



136 



LIST OF EXCURSIONS AND PHOTOGRAPHS. 



Photographs. 



Great Maple at Darnley— " Queen Mary's 

Tree." 
Spanish Chestnuts at Auldhouse. 
Group of Wych Elms at Nether Pollok— 

figured in Strutt's Sylva Scotica (1822). 
Oak in Flower Garden at Nether Pollok. 
Hornbeam at Househill. 
Crookston Castle. 
Ardgowan Home Farm. 
Great Maple at Cresswell Farm, Gourock. 

Do. Cove Farm, do. 

Dargavel House. 
Great Maple at Bishopton House— figured 

in Strutt's Sylva Scotica (1822). 
Lime Tree Avenue, Bishopton House. 
Great Maple at Logan's Raiss, Nitshill. 
Craigends House. 
Yew at Craigends. 

Do. (from south-west). 

Horse Chestnut at Craigends. 
In Devol's Glen, Port-Glasgow. 
Old Crack Willow, Elderslie House. 
Beech Tree at Blythswood. 
Inchinnan Bridge. 
Erskine House. 

Beech Tree, Erskine. 

Cedar of Lebanon, do. 

Group of Great Maples, do. 
Great Maple, do. 

Birch, do. 



Hairlaw Dam. 

Castle Semple Loch. 

Castle Semple House. 

Ailantus Tree, Castle Semple. 

Cedar of Lebanon, do. (from south) 

(vide Plate IV.). 

Cedar of Lebanon, Castle Semple (from 
east). 

Old Collegiate Church, Castle Semple. 
Do. (Tombstone), do. 

Craigbet House. 

Lime Tree Avenue, Craigbet. 

Barr Castle, Lochwinnoch. 

Remains of "Quier" of Old Parish 
Church, Kilmalcolm. 

Remains of Kilallan (St. Fillans) Church. 

Kilallan (St. Fillans) Church and Church- 
yard. 

Barochan House. 

Barochan Cross, front {vide Frontispiece). 
Do., reverse. 

Milliken House. 

Great Maple, Milliken. 

View in Shielhill Glen, Greenock. 

Kelly House. 

Waterfall and Bridge on Kelly Burn. 

Millpond, Kelly Burn. 

Model of Livingstone's Hut, Kelly. 

Caldwell House. 



III.— AYRSHIRE. 

1SS6. July io. West Kilbride, Portincross, and Fairlie. 
1887. May 19. Dailly, Craighead, Bargany, Penwhapple Glen, and 
Killochan. 

June 11. Fairlie Glen. 
1 889. Sept. 14. Eglinton Castle, Kilwinning. 

Oct. 3. Mauchline, Barskimming, Auchinleck House, and Balloch- 
myle. 
1S90. June 7. Fairlie, Kelburne Castle, and Largs. 

Oct. 2. Galston, Loudoun, Lanfine, Newmilns, and Darvel. 
1891. May 21. Dalmellington, Ness Glen, the Doon, and Loch Doon. 

July 11. Troon. 
1S92. April 4. Fairlie, Portincross, and West Kilbride. 

May 14. Dairy, Blair, and the Garnock. 

May 19. Maybole, Culzean Castle, Kirkoswald, and Crossraguel 
Abbey. 



LIST OK EXCURSIONS AND PHOTOGRAPHS. 



*37 



Photographs. 



Eglinton Castle (front view). 

Do. (distant view). 

Entrance to Coach Coves, Barskimming. 
Bridge at Barskimming. 
Norway Maple, Barskimming. 
Auchinleck House. 
Meeting of the Lngar Water and Water 

of Ayr. 
Fairlie Castle. 
Silver Fir at Kelburne. 
Monument, do. 
Waterfall, do. 

Silver Fir (candelabra-like), Kelburne. 
Kelburne Castle (from lawn). 

Do. South Tower. 

Do. (front view). 

Kelburne Castle Garden. 
Sundial, do. 

Pinus insignis at Kelburne. 
Cryptomcria. japonica, do. 
Yew Tree, do. 

Lime Tree Avenue, do. 
Montgomery Aisle, Largs. 

Do., Armorial Bearings 

over Doorway. 
Ash Tree in Largs Churchyard. 
Old Wych Elm, Galston— " Wallace Tree." 
Barr Castle, Galston. 
Loudoun "Quier" and Kirkyard. 
Loudoun Castle. 

Historic Yew at Loudoun Castle. 
Silver Fir (candelabra-like), Lanfine. 



Spanish Chestnut (Lanfine House in back- 
ground). 
Rocks at north end of Loch Doon show- 
ing glaciation. 
Entrance to Ness Glen on the Doon. 
View in do. do. 

Gorge of do. do. 

Ardneil Bank, Portincross. 
Portincross Castle. 

Do. (view from top). 

Cannon from Spanish Armada, Portin- 
cross. 
Law Castle, West Kilbride. 
Blair House, Dairy. 
Ash Tree, Blair. 

Cleaves Cove on the Dusk Water. 
Culzean Castle (from the bay). 

Do. and Rock Terraces. 

Do. and Fountain in Garden. 

Gateway of the Cove, Culzean. 
Lake with Waterfowl, do. 
The Lawn, do. 

Culzean Bay. 

Large Rhododendron in Gardens, Culzean. 
Cratcegus (sp. ?), do. 

Fig Tree, do. 

Japanese Summer House, do. 
Crossraguel Abbey (from the south-west). 

Do., New Abbot's Tower. 

Do., Dovecot. 

Do., Chapter House. 

Do., Nave and Choir. 



IV.— DUMBARTONSHIRE. 

1886. Sept. 18. Darleith Glen, Cardross. 

Oct. 16. Auchentorlie Glen, Bowling. 

1888. June 16. Auchentorlie, Bowling. 

1890. Sept. 27. Rosneath. 

1891. Aug. 8. Dumbarton Rock to Dalmuir by Clyde-side. 

1892. June 11. Dalmuir and the Kilpatrick Hills. 
Sept. 10. Murroch Glen, Kilpatrick Hills. 

Photograph, 

The Clachan Avenue of Yews, Rosneath. 



V.— STIRLINGSHIRE. 

1 886. May 29. Ballagan Glen, Strathblane. 
Aug. 7. Finnich Glen, Killearn. 

1887. April 9. Bardowie Loch. 

July 9. Finnich Glen, Killearn. 



133 



LIST OF EXCURSIONS AND PHOTOGRAPHS. 



1887. 


Aug. 


6. 




Sept. 


3- 


1888. 


Aug. 


18. 


1889. 


May 


23- 




June 


29. 




Oct. 


12. 


1890. 


June 


21. 




Aug. 


16. 


1891. 


June 


13- 




July 


2. 




Aug. 


22. 


1892. 


Aug. 


6. 




Oct. 


15- 



The Whangie, Kilpatrick Hills. 

Garrel Glen, Kilsyth. 

Mugdock, Craigallion Loch, and the Whangie. 

Drynien for Loch Lomond, q.v. 

Denny and the Carron. 

Craigton Woods, Milngavie. 

Denny and the Carron. 

Bridge of Allan, Lecropt, and Keir. 

Bonnybridge, Bonnymuir, Forth and Clyde Canal, and 

Castlecary. 
Bardowie Loch. 

Castle Rankine Glen, Castlecary. 
Garrel Glen and Kilsyth Moor. 
Mugdock Castle, Milngavie. 



Photographs. 



Spout of Ballagan, Strathblane. 

Ballagan Beds, do. 

Blairquosh Oak, do. 

Oak at Blairquosh Farm, do. 

Beech Tree on Duntreath Estate, do. 



Lecropt Kirkyard. 

Keir House. 

Spanish Chestnut at Keir. 

Pathway to Bowling Green at Keir. 



1889. 
1890. 
J89I. 



May 20. 
June 23. 
Oct. 4. 
May 23. 
Aug. 31. 
May 22. 



VI.— LOCHLOMONDSIDE AND THE HIGHLANDS 
(vide pp. 55-65 and 71-77). 
Finlarig and Creag-na-Caillich, Killin. 
Luss and Inchlonaig. 

Callander, Lochs Vennachar and Achray, and the Trossachs. 
Drymen, Buchanan Castle, Balmaha, and Inchcalliach. 
Ardlui and Ben Voirlich. 
Luss, Inchtavannach, Inchmoan, and Rossdhu. 
July 18-21. Tyndrum, Cam Chreag, and Beinn Doireann. 
July 18. Tarbet, Arrochar, and Ben Ime. 
1892. July 9. Balloch Castle. 

July 16-18. Killin, Ben Lawers, and the Western Breadalbane Moun- 
tains, Glen Lochay, Loch Tay, Fortingall, and Kenmore. 

Photographs. 

Silver Fir at Camstradden. 

Scotch Fir at Rossdhu (vide Plate V.). 

Rossdhu Castle. 

Rossdhu House. 

Swan Island, Loch Lomond. 

Larch on Lawn, Balloch Castle (vide 

Plate VI.). 
Tulip Tree in Garden, Balloch Castle. 
Araucaria, Balloch Castle. 
Great Maple, do. 
Spanish Chestnut at Finlarig, Killin. 
Starting for Ben Lawers. 
Cairn on top of Ben Lawers. 



Loch Vennachar. 

Brig o' Turk. 

Loch Achray. 

Duncraggan. 

Old Ash Tree in Drymen Kirkyard — 

"The Bell Tree." 
Araucaria imbricata, Buchanan Castle 

Gardens. 
Boat House, Balmaha Bay. 
Pier at Balmaha. 
Torrinch from Inchcalliach. 
Ban Bay, do. 

Waterfall at Ardlui. 
View near head of Loch Lomond. 



LIST OF EXCURSIONS AND PHOTOGRAPHS. 



139 



VII. — ARGYLL AND BUTE. 

1888. July 7. Millport. 

1889. Aug. 3. Kilmun, Puck's Glen, and Benmore House. 

1890. April 7. Rothesay and Mountstuart. 
Sept. 13. Ardnadam and Glen Massan. 

1891. April 13. The Great Cumbrae. 



Kerrycroy, Bute. 
Mountstuart House. 
Lime Tree Avenue, Mountstuart 
Wallabies at Mountstuart. 



Photographs. 

Beaver Dams at Mountstuart. 

Keppel Pier, Great Cumbrae. 

Lion Rock — a trap dyke, Great Cumbrae. 

The Monument, Tomont, do. 



1889. July 6-22. 



1890. 
1891. 
1892. 



Aug. 
Oct. 
Oct. 



30- 



VIII.— EAST COUNTRY. 

Elie, Kilconquhar, St. Monance, Largo, North Queens- 
ferry, Inverkeithing, St. David's, St. Margaret's, 
Rosythe Castle, Dunfermline, Aberdour, Charleston, 
Linlithgow, and Manuel. 

Dollar, Castle Campbell, Rumbling Bridge, and the Devon. 

South Queensferry, Hopetoun, Abercorn, and Linlithgow. 

Portobello, Easter Duddingston Lodge, Craigmillar Castle, 
and Duddingston. 

Photographs. 



The Long Bridge, Dollar Glen. 
Craiginnen Waterfall, do. 
Sochie Falls, do. 

Castle Campbell. 
Rumbling Bridge. 

Upper Cauldron Linn on the Devon. 
Lower do. do. 

The Forth Bridge from South Queensferry. 
Hopetoun House. 

East Entrance to Hopetoun Policies. 
Cedar of Lebanon at Hopetoun. 
Abercorn Church. 
Gateway of Linlithgow Palace. 
Chapel Windows, do. 
Parliament Hall, do. 
The Quadrangle, do. 
The Screen, St. Michael's Church, Lin- 
lithgow. 



" Wyville Thomson " Memorial Window, 
St. Michael's Church, Linlithgow. 

Craigmillar Castle (from south-east). 
Do. (from east). 

Do., Outer Court. 

Great Maple at Little France, known as 
the Craigmillar Sycamore — " Queen 
Mary's Tree." 

Duddingston Loch and Church (from 
south-west). 

Duddingston Loch and Church (from 
south). 

Duddingston Church (from the Manse 
Garden). 

Loupin'-on Stane and Jougs at Dudding- 
ston Church Gate. 

Sir Walter Scott's Tree in Duddingston 
Manse Garden. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Year. 

1891 Adam, William, 31 Commerce Street, Glasgow. 

18S9 Allan, Alexander, Barloch Cottage, Milngavie. 

1891 Baird, Hugh, 75 Buchanan Street, Glasgow. 

1891 Baird, Thomas, 34 Queen Street, Glasgow. 

1889 Barrett, Franklin T., Mitchell Library, Glasgow. 
1888 Begg, A. Hood, 291 Hope Street, Glasgow. 

1892 Bell, Miss Ina, 108 Renfield Street, Glasgow. 

1891 Bonnar, William, 8 Lauriston Park, Edinburgh. 

1892 Boyd, John, Jun., 120 Wellpark Terrace, Dennistoun. 
1S90 Brooks, W., 32 Langside Road, Glasgow. 

*i8S5 Brown, Hugh A., 3 Nithsdale Street, Strathbungo. 

1885 Brown, Walter, 30 Glassford Street, Glasgow. 

1890 Brownlie, Archibald, 145 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

1888 Burden, Miss E. Raymond, 153 Greendyke Street, Glasgow. 

1889 Cairns, John, Jun., 151 Renfrew Street, Glasgow. 

1891 Campbell, Miss Madge, Maryland, Uddingston. 

1890 Campbell, William, 5 Seafield Cottages, Claythorne, Partick. 

1891 Christie, Andrew, East Park Public School, Maryhill. 

1892 Christie, John Knox, General Post Office, Glasgow. 

1 89 1 Clark, Allan, 1 13 Victoria Road, Glasgow. 

1893 Cleland, George, 30 Woodburn Terrace, Edinburgh. 

1885 Combe, Alexander, 126 Renfield Street, Glasgow. Hon. Treasurer. 

1892 Cross, Adam L., 22 Sandyhill Street, Shettleston. 

1891 Cross, James, 445 Eglinton Street, Glasgow. 

1889 Cullen, William, 4 Catherine Street North, Glasgow. 

*i88s Cumming, William, 34 Sandyhills, Shettleston. 

1892 Currie, Duncan, Gleniffer View, Thorn, Johnstone. 

1891 Davidson, Alexander M. Auldfield, Cogan Street, Pollokshaws. 

1892 Dean, Miss, 80 South Portland Street, Glasgow. 

1886 Dewar, Donald, Royal Bank, 11 Hope Street, Glasgow. 

1893 Dixon, Walter, 21 Sandyford Place, Glasgow. 

*i885 Donochy, John, 57 Hope Street, Glasgow. Vice-President. 

1892 Duff, Miss Annie, 25 Clyde Place, Glasgow. 



142 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

1892 Edgar, Robert, M.A., 4 Kelvingrove Street, Glasgow. 

1889 Ferguson, John, 27 Jamaica Street, Glasgow. 

1887 French, James, Millcroft, Rutherglen Road, Glasgow. 
1892 Fleming, William, General Post Office, Glasgow. 

1SS9 Gait, William, 60 Abbotsford Place, Glasgow. 

1890 Giffen, Thomas B., 104 Dixon Avenue, Govanhill. 
1S90 Gilmour, James, 74 Glassford Street, Glasgow. 

1888 Gilzean, Miss A., 104 Hanover Street, Glasgow. 

1885 Gilzean, A., 104 Hanover Street, Glasgow. 

1890 Glen, Duncan, 125 Aitkenhead Road, Glasgow. 

1891 Glen, Thomas F., 14 Annfield Place, Dennistoun. 

1892 Gow, William, 28 Scott Street, Bridgeton, Glasgow. 
1892 Grant, Frank L., M.A., 298 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

1889 Grieve, Henry, 34 Howard Street, Glasgow. 

1892 Gronbech, Miss Isie A. D., 189 Slatefield Street, Dennistoun. 

1890 Hamilton, Hugh, 2 Royal Crescent, Crosshill, Glasgow. 
1S90 Hart, Gavin S., National Bank, St. Rollox, Glasgow. 
1S90 Hay, John, 20 Queen Street, Glasgow. 

*i885 Henderson, John, 11 Hope Street, Anderston, Glasgow. 

1889 Henderson, Robert, 16 Cowcaddens Street, Glasgow. 

1889 Herriot, George, Fernlea, Crofthill Avenue, Uddingston. 

1886 Herriot, J. R., Fernlea, Crofthill Avenue, Uddingston. 

1891 Hodge, William, Craigvinean, 67 Nithsdale Drive, Pollokshields. 

1888 Houston, Robert S., Brisbane House, Bellahouston. 

1889 Hunter, Henry, 7 Rupert Street, Glasgow. 

1892 Johnston, Allan, 184 Slatefield Street, Glasgow. 

1889 Johnstone, William, B.L., City Chambers, Glasgow. 

1890 Kay, William, National Bank, St. Rollox, Glasgow. 
1888 Kidston, Walter, 43 Gibson Street, Hillhead. 

1890 King, James J. F. X., F.E.S., 207 Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow. 

1892 Lamb, Miss, Maryland, Uddingston. 

1885 Lamont, D., 103 Paisley Road West, Glasgow. 

*i885 Lee, John R., 139 Finlay Drive, Dennistoun. 

1892 M'Adam, Peter, 50 Albert Road, Crosshill, Glasgow. 

1891 MacAdam, William, 180 Comely Park Street, Glasgow. 
1890 Macbeth, Hugh, 26 North Portland Street, Glasgow. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 143 

1889 M'Corkle, Archibald, 688 New City Road, Glasgow. 

1886 M'Crea, William, 47 Waterloo Street, Glasgow. 

1889 M'Dougall, John, 540 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

1889 M'Farlane, Alexander, 27 Jamaica Street, Glasgow. 

1891 M'Gregor, Alexander, Post Office Buildings, Old Kilpatrick. 
*i88s M'Gregor, Daniel, 116 North Frederick Street, Glasgow. 

1890 M'Innes, William A., 20 Dixon Avenue, Govanhill. 

1888 M'Laren, D., 27 Jamaica Street, Glasgow. 

1892 M'Niven, Malcolm, 135 Mains Street, Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow. 

1S92 Maltman, John, 13 Kelvinside Terrace South, Glasgow. 

1885 Marr, William, 29 West Princes Street, Glasgow. 
1892 Matthews, H., Jun., 10 Annfield Terrace, Partickhill. 

1889 Mayer, Miss, 2 Royal Crescent, Crosshill, Glasgow. 

1890 Meiklejohn, A., 3 Windsor Street, Glasgow. 
1892 Melville, Mrs., 20 Bank Street, Hillhead. 

1888 Melville, Miss, 20 Bank Street, Hillhead. 
1892 Miller, K. M., 1 Buckingham Road, Govan. 

1890 Miller, William, I Montrose Street, Glasgow. 

1889 Mitchell, James, 240 Darnley Street, Pollokshields. 
'1885 Moir, William, 8 Young Terrace, Springburn. 

1891 Moodie, Charles E., Springhill House, Crossmyloof. 

1892 Moore, Miss Ellen J. C, 285 Crown Street, Glasgow. 

1890 Munro, John, 69 Bank Street, Hillhead. 

1 89 1 Nelson, George T., 115 Rottenrow, Glasgow. 
1890 Ord, George W., Kelvingrove Museum, Glasgow. 

1890 Paterson, Archibald, 12 Pollok Street, Glasgow. 

1886 Paterson, John, 14 Bankhall Street, Govanhill. Vice-President. 

1892 Prince, Edward E., B.A., F.L.S., &c, Professor of Zoology, 

St. Mungo's College, Glasgow. President. 

1892 Pringle, Miss H. C, 205 Watt Street, Glasgow. 

1888 Robbie, Miss, 46 Bank Street, Hillhead. 

1889 Robertson, James, 126 Renfield Street, Glasgow. 

1891 Robertson, John, Eastwood, Thornliebank. 

1891 Robertson, J., The Central Agency, Glasgow. 

1892 Robertson, J. J., 32 Daisy Street, Govanhill. 

1891 Robertson, T. Whitelaw, 32 Daisy Street, Govanhill. 

1890 Russell, Alexander, 32 Granville Street West, Glasgow. 
1890 Russell, W., 2S Norfolk Street, Glasgow. 



144 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

1890 Salmon, James, 91 Aitkenhead Street, Glasgow. 

1891 Scott, John, 3 M'Aslin Street, Glasgow. 
1890 Scott, Robert, 5 Hanover Street, Glasgow. 

1888 Shearer, Miss, 29 Dixon Avenue, Crosshill, Glasgow. 

1888 Shearer, Johnston, 29 Dixon Avenue, Crosshill, Glasgow. 
1890 Sinclair, William, 61 Oswald Street, Glasgow. 

1886 Smellie, James, Wynd, Cumbernauld. 

1892 Smith, Miss Agnes, 42 Leslie Street, Pollokshields. 
1892 Smith, Miss C. G., 42 Leslie Street, Pollokshields. 
1892 Smith, John, Monkredding, Kilwinning. Honorary. 
1890 Steel, James, 14 Shamrock Street, Glasgow. 

"1885 Stevenson, W. A., 35 Carnarvon Street, Glasgow. 

1892 Stewart, Miss Jessie D., 15 Govan Road, Glasgow. 

1890 Stewart, George, 8 Cowan Street, Hillhead. 
1892 Stewart, Henry, 171 Waddel Street, Glasgow. 

1889 Stewart, John, 32 Boyd Street, Largs. 

1888 Stewart, Samuel, Berazategui, Buenos Ayres. 

1S89 Stirling, George D., 17 Royal Crescent, Crosshill, Glasgow. 

1 891 Stobo, Thomas, 9 Whitehill Street, Dennistoun. 

1892 Taylor, David, 49 Virginia Street, Glasgow. 
*i88s Torrance, John, Chapelton Place, Cambuslang. 

1886 Turner, Robert, 18 Westbank Terrace, Hillhead. 

1891 Watson, Joseph, 60 King Street, Pollokshaws. 

*i88s Watt, Hugh Boyd, 4 North Court, Royal Exchange, Glasgow. 
Joint Honorary Secretary. 

1892 Wilkie, Miss Nettie, 302 Langside Road, Glasgow. 

1890 Wilkie, Thomas B., 302 Langside Road, Glasgow. Joint Honorary 

Secretary. 
1890 Wilkie, Robert D., 302 Langside Road, Glasgow. 
1892 Wilkinson, David, 130 Great Hamilton Street, Glasgow. 
1892 Wilson, Miss, 17 Kelvinhaugh Street, Glasgow. 
*i88s Wilson, Rev. Alexander S., M.A., B.Sc, Hope View, North 

Queensferry. Honorary. 

1890 Wilson, C. Ingram, 197 Crown Street, Glasgow. 
1889 Wood, John, Levern School House, Hurlet. 

1 89 1 Woodrow, John, Neilson Institution, Paisley. 

* Original Member. 



INDICES. 

I.— Fauna and Flora. II.— Places and General. 



I.— FAUNA AND FLORA. 



Abies canadensis, 6, 61 

„ Douglasii, 60, 61, 65 
,, nobilis, 64 
Acacia, false, 12 
,. rose, 64 
Accentor modularis, 120 
Accipiter nisus, 119 
Acer campestre, 4, 28, 37, 39 
,, platanoides, 4 
„ Pseudo-platanus, 6, 13, 14, 
15, 16, 27, 28, 29, 33, 34, 
. 35,37. 42.44.45, 59. 60,65 
Acomtum Napellus, 36 
Acorus Calamus, 4 
Acrocephalus schcenobaenus, 28, 

121 
Adder's-tongue, 2, 51, 54 
Adoxa Moschatellina, 15 
/Enanthe fistulosa, 45 
/Ethusa Cynapium, 16 
/Esculus Hippocastanum, 16,23-4. 

28 
Agaricus appendiculatus, 37 
,, cervinus, 37 
,i mutabilis, 37 
,, rubescens, 37 
,, semi-orbicularis, 37 
Agraphis nutans, 15 
Agrostemma Githago, 93 
Agrostis, 90 
Ailantus glandulosa, 37 
Aira alpina, 77 
,, caspitosa, 63 
,, flexuosa, 63 
,, montana, 77 
Alauda arvensis, 122 
Alcedo ispida, 18, 125 
Alchemilla alpina, 63, 73, 76, 77 
,, montana, 38 
,, vulgaris, 63 
Alder, 56, 101 
Alexanders, 67 
Alga, 25 

Alisma Plantago, 99 
Alkanet, 7, 12 
Allheal, 95 
Allium ursinum, 101 
Alnus glutinosa, 56, 101 
Amanita, 17 
Amelanchier, 31 
Anacharis Alsinastrum, 3 
Anchusa sempervirens, 7, 12 
Andromeda polifolia, 3 
Angler-fish, 112. 113, 114 
Anser egyptiacus, 37 
Antennaria dioica,~77 



Anthus trivialis, 122 

,, praiensis, 122 
Anthyllis Vulneraria, 69 
Antirrhinum majus, 59, 6S 
Appendicularia, 115-6 
Aquilegia vulgaris, 4, 69 
Araucaria imbricata, 6i, 64 
Arbutus Unedo, 45 
Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi, 97 
Ardea cinerea, 34, 39 
Arenaria sedoides, 77 
Aristolochia sipho, 14 
Armeria vulgaris, 63 
Armillaria, 17 

Arum maculatum, 7, 14, 32, 42, jt 
Asarabacca, 51 
Asarum europaeum, 51 
Ascidians, 115 
Ash, 19, 30, 32, 44, 45, 60-1, 63, 

65, 102 
Ash barberry, 4 
Asperula odorata, 13 
Aspidium Lonchitis, 77 
Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum, 12 
m Ruta-muraria, 12, 20, 

40, 68 
,, Trichomanes, 4, 12, 36 

,, viride, 4 
Astragalus glycyphyllos, 69 
Astrantia major, 12 
Atropa Belladonna, 68, 70, 100 
Auricula, 97 
Avena elatior, 90 
,, fatua, 89 
,, sativa, 89 

Bald-money, 40, 52, 96, 98 

Barberry, 101 

Barley, 90 

Barren-wort, 39 

Bartsia alpina, 73, 77 

Basil, 13, 70 

Bedstraws, 5, 63 

Beech, 6, 16, 20, 29, 31, 32, 34, 

4', 45, 59, 60, 64 
Beech-fern, 2, 22, 39 
Bell-flower, 5, 15, 18, 36, 63 
Bellis perennis, 93-C/4 
Bent-grass, 90 
Berberis vulgaris, 101 
Betula alba, 14, 31, 34, i t 
Bindweed, 68 
Birch, 14, 3 r, 34, ioi 
bird-cberry, 5 
Bird's-foot, 70 
Bird's-nest orchid, 6 

K 



Birthwort, 14 

Bistorts, 15, 32, 40, 50, 63, 73, 77 

Bittern, 37 

Bitter-cress, 4, 5, 49 

Bitter-vetch, 4 

Blackbird, 120 

Black-cock, 39 

Bladder-fern, 2, 12, 98 

Bladderwort, 3 

Blaeberry, 4, 56, 63, 101 

Blechnum boreale, 2 

Blue Bells, 96 

Bog-asphodel, 2, 56, 63, 72 

Bogbean, 2 

Bog-myrtle, 56, 63 

Boletus, 17 

Borago officinalis, 23 

Bos scoticus, 9-1 1 

Botaurus stellaris, 37 

Botrychium Lunaria, 2, 5, 54, 77 

Box, 102 

Bracken, 2, 63, 98 

Brassica oleracea, 68, 69 

Briza media, 4 

Bromus arvensis, 90 

Broom, 2 

Buchanan fern, 61 

Bufo vulgaris, 112 

Bunium flexuosum, go 

Bunting, reed, 122 

,, yellow, 122 
Bupalus piniaria, 58 
Butomus umbellatus, 3, 4 
Butter-bur, 43 
Butterwort, 2, 63, 91 
Buxus sempervirens, 102 

Cabbage, 68, 69 

Cabera pusaria, 58 

Calamintha Clinopodium, 13, 70 

Calluna vulgaris, 1, 56, 63, 102 

Caltha palustris, 94 

Campanula latifolia, 5, 15, 18, 36 

,, rotundifolia. 63, 96 

Campions, 15, 18, 63, 69, 70, 77 
Canadian pondweed, 3 
Cannabis sativa, 47 
Capnia nigra, 62 
Caprimulgus etiropasus, 125 
Cardamine amara, 49 

,, impatiens, 4, 5 

Carduelis elegans, 123 
Carduus, 102 

,, Marianus, 68 
Carex ampullacea, 63 
,, binervis, 63 



146 



Carex capillaris, 77 

„ dioica, 77 

,, flava, 63, 65 

,, „ var. CEderi, 77 

,, fulva, 77 

,, ovalis, 40 

,, pallescens, 63 

,, pendula, 7 

,, pulicaris, 63, 77 

,, remota, 65 

,, rigida, 77 

,, saxatilis, 77 

,, stellulata, 63 

,, vaginata, 77 

,, vulgaris, 63 
Carices, 7, 40, 63, 65, 77 
Carpinus Betuliis, 17, 18, 27, 36, 

37 
Carum Petroselinum, 68 
,, verticillatum, 65 
Castanea vulgaris, 15, 22, 23, 34, 

41, 45, 60, 61 
Catchfly, 70 
Cattle, White, 9-1 1 
Caucalis Anthriscus, 67 
Cedars, 34, 37, 41 
Cedrus Deodora, 34 

„ Libani, 34, 37, 41 
Celandines, 12, 94 
Centaurea Cyanus, 96 

,, nigra, 98 

Centaury, 49 
Cerastium alpinum, 77 

,, viscosum, 63 
Cheiranthus Cheiri, 6, 14, 18, 6S 
Chaerophyllum temulum, 67 
Chaffinch, 122 

Charadrius pluvialis, 39, 126 
Charlock, 92 
Chelidon urbica, 124 
Chelidonium majus, 12 
Chenopodium Bonns-Henricus, 

7° . 
Cherlena sedoides, 73, 77 
Chestnut, horse, 16, 23-24, 28 
,, Spanish, 15, 22, 23, 34, 
41, 45, 60, 61 
Chickweed, 63, 93 
Chicory, 23 
Chroolepus aureus, 25 
Chortobius pamphilus, 45 
Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum, 
94 . 
,, Parthenium, CS 

,, segetum, 92 

Chrysosplenium alternifolium, 2, 
22, 38, 46 
1, oppositifolium, 2 

Cichorium Intybus, 23 
Cicuta virosa, 3, 53 
Cinclus aquaticus, 22 
Cinquefoil, 2 
Citron, 37 

Cladophora gracilis, 25 
Clavaria, 17 
Claytonia alsinoides, 36 
Cleavers, 93 
Clematis Vitalba, 14, 16 
Clinopodium vulgare, 13, 70 
Clitocybe, 17 
Cloudberry, 4, 58 
Clovers, 69, 96 
Club moss, 38, 63 

,, rush, 63 
Cochleaiia, 91 



Cochlearia officinalis (sub-sp. 

alpina), 77 
Coccothraustes chloris, 123 
Colchicum autumnale, 23 
Collybia, 17 
Columba palumbus, 126 
Columbine, 4, 69 
Comarum palustre, 2 
Comfrey, 3, 5, 16 
Conium maculatum, 51, 67, 94 
Convallaria majalis, 5 
Convolvulus arvensis, 68 
Coprinus, 17 
Coremia propugnata, 45 
,, unidentaria, 45 
Corn-cockle, 93 
Corncrake, 39, 126 
Cornel, 4 
Corn-marigold, 92 
Corn -rose, 2 
Cornus sanguinea, 4 
Corydalis claviculata, 37, 52, 62 

,, lutea, 12 
Corylus Avellana, 64 
Coot, 22 

Corvus frugilegus, 124 
,, monedula, 124 
Cotile riparia, 16, 22, 124 
Cotton-grass, 1, 4, 63, 7a, 73, 91 
Couch-grass, 90 
Cowbane, 3, 53 
Cow-parsnip, 97 
Cowslip, 14, 35, 45 
Cow-wheat, 4, 52 
Crab-apple, 58 
Cranberry, 2, 56 

Crane's-bill, 4, 14, 15, 63, 68, 69, 70 
Crataegus Oxyacantha, 16 
Crepis paludosa, 63, 94 

,, virens, 63 
Crex pratensis, 39, 126 
Crowberry, 63 
Crowfoot, 36, 3S, 65, 69 
Cryptogramme crispa, 52, 63, 76, 77 
Cuckoo, 125 

Cuckoo-pint, 7, 14, 32, 42, 51 
Cuculus canorus, 125 
Cudweed, 63 
Currant, alpine, 16 
Cypselus apus, 124 
Cystopteris fragilis, 2, 12, 98 

Daisy, 93-94 
Daphne Laureola, 14 
Dead-nettle, 67 
Deutzia crenata, 64 
Dicranum Scottianum, 62 
Digitalis purpurea, 99 
Dipper, 22 

Dipsacus sylvestris, 12, 47 
Dittander, 14 
Diurna fagella, 35 
Dock, 62, 63, 93 

Doronicum Pardalianches, 15, 35, 
45 . 
„ plantagineurn, 14, 40 
Douglas fir, 60, 6i, 65 
Draba incana, 77 
Dropwort, 12 
Drosera anglica, 2 

,, rotundifolia, 2 
Dryas octopetala, 73, 77 
Duckweed, 3 

Earthnut, 90 



Echium vulgare, 69 

Elm, English, 20 
,, wych, 7, 15, 16, 2C, 23, 24, 
. 29> 34>4'> 60 

Emberiza citrinella, 122 
,, schoeniclus, 122 

Empetrum nigrum, 63, 77 

Epimedium alpinum, 39 

Epipactis latifolia, 5, 13 

Epiphytes, 128, 130 

Equisetum hyemale, 15 
,, Telmateia, 7 
,, umbrosum, 15 

Erica cinerea, t, 56, 63, 99, 102 
.; Tetralix, 1, 56, 63, 99, 102 

Erinaceus europaeus, 25 

Eriophorum angustifolium, 1, 73 
,, latifolium, 4 

,, vaginatum, 1, 63, 72 

Erithacus rubecula, 25, 120 

Erysimum cheiranthoides, 51 

Erythraea Centaurium, 49 

Euphrasia officinalis, 63 

Eupithecia nanata, 58 

Euphorbia Peplus, 23 

Eyebright, 63 

Fagus sylvatica, 6, 16, 20, 29, 31, 

32. 34. 4'.. 45> 59. 6o , 6 4 
Festuca ovina, 63 

„ var. vivipara, 63 

Feverfew, 68 
Fidonia atomaria, 45, 58 
Fieldfare, 119 
Figwort, 14, 42, 50 
Filago germanica, 69 

,, minima, 69 
Filmy fern, 39 
Fishes, 112-117 
Fistulina hepatica, 8 
Flax, 32 

Flowering rush, 3, 4 
Fly-honeysuckle, 4 
Fontinalis squamosa, 39 
Forget-me-not, 46 
Fraxinus excelsior, 19, 30, 32, 44, 

45, 60-61, 63, 65, 102 
Fringilla coelebs, 122 
Frog, in 

Frog-orchis, 26, 52, 63 
Fulica atra, 22 
Fumitory, 12 
Fungi, 17, 37 

Gagea lutea, 69 
Galeopsis versicolor, 3, 93 
Galium Aparine, 93 
,, boreale, 5 
,, saxatile, 63 
Gallinago ccelestis, 126 
Gallinula chloropus, 22 
Gaultheria Shallon, 37 
Genista anglica, 2, 99 
Gentian, 2 
Gentiana campestris, 2 

,, nivalis, 77 
Geranium lucidum, 4 

,, nodosum, 14 

,, phaeum, 15 

„ pratense, 69 

„ pusillum, 68 

,, sanguineum, 14, 70 

„ sylvaticum, 63 
Globe-flower, 39, 95 
Gnaphalium supinum, 63, 77 



INDICES. 



147 



Goat, 55 

Goat's-beard, 15 

Golden rod, 36, 77 

Goldfinch, 123 

Goldilocks, 6 

Good King Henry, 70 

Goose, Egyptian, 37 

Grasses, 63, 80 

Grass of Parnassus, 2, 47, 63 

Greenfinch, 123 

Groundsels, 3, 13 

Guelder roses, 49, 62 

Gull, black-headed, 26, 58, 126 

,, lesser black-backed, 58 
Gymnadenia conopsea, 2, 56, 63 

Habenaria viridis, 2*, 52, 63, 77 
Hag-fish, 112 
Hard fern, 2 
Hart's-tongue, 12, 22, 47 
Havvk's-beard, 63 
Hawkweeds, 63, 64, 94 
Hazel, 64 
Heath, fine-leaved, 1, 56, 63 

,, cross-leaved, 1, 56, 6s 
Heath-fern, 2 
Heather, 1, 56, 63 
Hebeloma, 17 
Hedera Helix, 14, ioi 
Hedgehog, 25 
Hedge-sparrow, 120 
Heleocharis multicaulis, 65 
Helianthemum vulgare, 4, 5, 70 
Hellebore, 14, 42 
Helleborine, 5, 13 
Helleborus viridis, 14, 42 
Hemlock, 51, 67, 94 
Hemlock spruce, 6, 61 
Hemp, 47 
Hemp-nettle, 3, 93 
Henbane, 68 

Heracleum Spondylium, 97 
Herb-paris, 4, 6, 48 
Heron, 34, 39 
Hieracium alpinum, 63 

,, aurantiacum, 64 

Hippuris vulgaris, 3, 53 
Hirundo rustica, 22, 39, 83, 124 
Hop, 12, 51 
Hordeum vulgare, 90 
Hornbeam, 17, 18, 27, 36, 37 
Horse-tails, 7, 15 
Humulus Lupulus, 12, 51 
Hyacinth, 15, 95 
Hydrocotyle vulgaris, 91 
Hygrophorus, 17 
Hymenophyllum unilaterale, 39 
Hyoscyamus niger, 68 
Hypericum hirsutum, 5, 12 
,, perforatum, 38 

Hypholoma, 17 
Hypochceris, 94 
Hypsipetes trifasciata, 58 

Impious weed, 69 
Iris Pseud-acorus, 96 
Ivy, 14 

Jackdaw, 124 
Jacob's ladder, 12, 47 
Juglans regia, 4, 13, 20, 32, 41, 60 
J uncus squarrosus, 63 

,, trifidus, 63, 77 

,, triglumis, 77 

,, uliginosus, 63 



Kingfisher, 18, 125 

Lactarius, 17 

Lactuca virosa, 68 

Lady-fern, 2, 61, 98 

Lady's-fingers, 69 

Lady's-mantle, 38, 63, 73, 76, 77 

Lamium album, 67, 93 

Landshells, 5 

Lapsana communis, 100 

Lapwing, 126 

Larch, 6, 65, 78 

Larix europasa, 6, 65, 78 

Larus fuscus, 58 

,, ridibundus, 26, 58, 126 
Lastrea dilatata, 2 

,, Filix-mas, 2 

,, Oreopteris, 2 
Lathrsea squamaria, 4, 15 
Lathyrus macrorhizus, 97 
Ledum palustre, 70 
Leek, house, 64 
Leontodon hispidus, 77 

,, Taraxacum, 100 

Leonurus Cardiaca, 5 
Leopard's-bane, 14, 15, 35, 40, 45 
Lepidium lalifolium, 14 

,, Smithii, 45 
Lepidoptera, 45, 58 
Lettuce, 68 
Lily of the valley, 5 
Lilies, 36, 53, 64 
Lime, 65 
Linaria Cymbalaria, 12, 36, 64 

,, minor, 51 

,, vulgaris, 51 
Ling-heather, 1, 56, 63 
Linnet, 123 
Linota cannabina, 123 
Linum usitatissimum, 32 
Liriodendron tulipifera, 41, 57, 64 
Listera cordata, 45 

„ ovata, 4, 45, 59 
Lonicera Caprifolium, 5 
„ Xylosteum, 4 
Loosestrifes, 3, 14, 15, 31', 58, 65 
Lophius, 112, 113, 114 
Lords and Ladies, 7, 14, 32, 42, 

5' 
Lotus corniculatus, g3 

,, major, 98 
Lousewort, 63 

Lucken-gowan, 5, 15, 39, 62, 95 
Lungwort, 12, 51 
Luzula spicata, 77 
Lychnis diurna, 15 

,, vespertina, 18, 69 

,, Viscaria, 70 
Lycoperdon, 17, 99 
Lycopodium alpinum, 63, 77 
,, clavatum, 3S, 6^ 

,, Selago, 63 

Lysimachta thyrsiflora, 3, 58 

,, vulgaris, 14, 15, 36, 65 

Lythrum Salicaria, 36 

Mahonia Aquifolium, 4 
Male-fern, 2 
Mallows, 12, 68 
Malva moschata, 12, 68 
„ rotundifolia, 68 
,, sylvestris, 68 
Maple, great, 6, 13, 14, 15, 16, 
27,28,29, 43,34.35,37. 
42. 44. 45. 59. 6°. 65 



Maple, Norway, 4 

,, small-leaved, 4, 28, 37,39 
Marasmius, 17, 37 

,, peronatus, 37 

Mare's-tail, 3, 53 
Marsh-marigold, 94 
Martin, 124 

,, sand, 16, 22, 124 
Masterwort, 44, 53, 67 
Matricaria inodora, 98 
Meadow-rue, 16, 63, 77 
Meadow-saffron, 23 
Meadow-sweet, 36, 96 
Meconopsis cambrica, 14, 39, 43, 

61 
Melampyrum pratense, 4, 52 
Melanippe tristata, 58 
Melica nutans, 4 

,, unirlora, 4 
Melilotus officinalis, 48 
Mentha arvensis, 98 
Menyanthes trifohata, 2 
Meum athamanticum, 40, 52, 96, 

98 
Milkwort, 2, 63 
Milium effusum, 28 
Millet-grass, 28 
Mimulus luteus, 36, 38, 44, 45, 50 

,, moschatus, 50 
Mistletoe-thrush, 119 
Molinia cserulea, 2 
Monk's-hood, 36 
Moonwort, 2, 5, 54, 77 
Mountain-melic, 4 
Mountain-pansy, 2, 63, 69 
Mountain-sorrel, 63, 73, 76, 77 
Moschatel, 15 
Mosses, 39, 45, 62, 73 
Motacilla lugubris, izi 
,, raii, 122 
,, sulphurea, 7, 39, 122 
Motherwort, 5 
Mullein, great, 12, 38, 68 
Musk, 36, 38, 44, 45, 50 
Musk-mallow, 12 
Mycena, 17 
Myosotis collina, 69 
Myrica Gale, 56, 63 
Myrrhis odorata, 67 
Myxine, 112 

Narthecium ossifragum, 2, 56, 

63. 72. 
Nasturtium officinale, 100 
Neckera crispa, 45 
Needle-gorse, 2 
Neottia nidus-avis, 6 
Nephrodium Oreopteris, 56, 6j 
Nightjar, 125 
Nightshade, 49 
Nuphar luteum, 36, 53 
Nympha;a alba, 36, 53, 64, 99 

Oak, 5, 8, 13, 15, 16, 20, 41, 45, 

6i, 63, 65, 101 
Oak-fern, 2, 22, 39 
Oat-grass, 90 
Oats, 89, 90 
Odonestis potatoria, 58 
Oikopleura, 115 
Old-man's beard, 14 
Oinphalodes verna, 46 
Ononis arvensis, 51, 93 
Ophioglossum vulgatum, 2, 51, 54 
Orchis, 2, 56, 63, 77, 7 



148 



INDICES. 



Orchis latifolia, 63 

,, maculata, 63 
Ornithopus perpusillus, 70 
Ornithogalum umbellatum, 4, 45, 

J 7 

Ornus europaa, 41 

Orthothecium rufescens, 73 

Osmunda regalis, 98 

Osprey, 58 

Oxalis Acetosella, 98 

Ox-eye daisy, 94 

Oxyria reniformis, 63, 73, 76, 77 

Pandion haliaetus, 58 
Papaver dubium, 2, 100 
„ Rhaeas, 2, 100 
Parietaria officinalis, 14, 59, 68 
Paris quadrifolia, 4, 6, 48 
Parnassia palustris, 2, 47, 63 
Parsleys, 16, 67, 68 
Parsley-fern, 52, 63, 76, 77 
Parus ater, 7, 121 

,, caeruleus, 121 

,, major, 121 
Passer domesticus, 123 
Passion-flower, 64 
Pedicularis sylvatica, 63 
Pellitory, 14, 59, 68 
Peplis Portula, 50 
Pepperwort, 45 
Perfoliate honeysuckle, 5 
Periwinkle, 16 
Pernettya mucronata, 21 
Petasites albus, 43 
Petty-spurge, 23 
Peucedanum Ostruthium, 44, 53, 

67 
Phallus impudicus, 37 
Phasianus colchicus, 126 
Pheasant, 126 
Pholiota, 17 

Phylloscopus trochilus, 121 
Picea pectinata, 60, 65 
Pillwort, 3 

Pilularia globulifera, 3 
Pinguicula vulgaris, 2, 63, 91 
Pinus sylvestris, 60 
Pipit, meadow, 122 

,, tree, 122 
Platanus orientalis, 34 
Plane, 34 
Plantago lanceolata, 98 

,, major, 96 
Plover, golden, 39, 126 
Poas, 90 

Polemonium caeruleum, 12, 47 
Polygala vulgaris, 2, 63 
Polygonatum multiflorum, 39 
Polygonum Bistorta, 15, 32, 40, 

. 5° 
,, viviparum, 63, 73, 77 

Polypodium vulgare, 2 

,, Dryopteris, 2, 22, 39 

,, Phegopteris, 2, 22, 39 

Polyporus, 17 

„ dryadeus, 13 

,, annosus, 37 

,, igniarius, 59 

,, squamosus, 37 

,, sulfureus, 61 

Pondweed, 63 
Poor-man's beefsteak, 8 
Poplars, 7, 21, 60 
Populus alba, 7 

,, nigra, var. fastigiata, 21, | 



Poppies, 2, 14, 39, 42, 61, 100 

Potamogeton oblongus, 63 

Potentilla anserina, 91, 98 
,, maculata, 77 
„ Tormentilla, 2, 63 

Primrose, 22, 35 

Primula veris, 14, 35, 45 
,, vulgaris, 22, 35 

Prunus Avium, 102 
„ Padus, 5, 102 

Psalliota, 17 

,, semi-globatus, 37 

Psilocybe, 17 

Pteris aquilina, 2, 63, 98 

Pulmonaria officinalis, 12, 51 

Purslane, 50, 101 

Pyrola minor, 4, 6, 65 
,, rotundifolia, 77 

Pyrus Aucuparia, 32, 49, 102 
„ Malus, 58 

Quaking-grass, 4 
Quercus Cerris, 41, 65 

„ Ilex, 45 

,, Robur, s, 8, 13, 15, 16, 
20, 61, 63, 65, 101 

Ragwort, 97 
Rana temporaria, in 
Ranunculus Auricomus, 6 
,, bulbosus, 69 

,, Ficaria, 94 

,, Flammula, 56, 63 

,, hederaceus, 36 

,, heterophyllus, 36, 65 

,, Lenormandi, 38 

,, Lingua, 3 

Raphanus Raphanistrum, 92 
Redbreast, 25, 120 
Redshank, 126 
Redstart, 34-5 
Redwing, 119 

Redwood, giant, 4, 45, 64, 65 
Reed-mace, 3, 36, 53, 97 
Rest-harrow, 51, 93 
Rhinanthus Crista-galli, 98 
Rhynchospora alba, 77 
Ribes alpinum, 16 
,, Grossularia, 102 
,, nigrum, 102 
Ringdove, 126 
Robin, 25, 120 
Robinia hispida, 64 

,, Pseud-Acacia, 12 
Rock-rose, 4, 5, 70 
Rosa canina, 102 

,, rubiginosa, 69 
Rosemary, 3 
Rook, 124 

Rowan-tree, 32, 49, 102 
Rubus, 101 

,, Chamcemorus, 4, 58, 101 
,, Idaeus, 102 
,, saxatilis, 4, 59, 6j, 102 
Rumex, 93 

,, Acetosa, 96 
,, Acetosella, 63 
,, sanguineus, 62 
Rushes, 1, 15, 63, 77 
Russula, 17 

n cyanoxantha, 37 

,, heterophylla, 37 

Ruticilla phcenicurus, 34-5 

St. Juhn's-worts, 5, 12, 38 



Salpas, 114, 117 
Salix Caprea, 35 

,, fragilis, 30 

,, herbacea, 76, 77 

,, Lapponum, 73, 77 

,, purpurea, 35 

,, reticulate, 77 
Sambucus nigra, 101 
Sand-martin, 16, 22, 124 
Sandpiper, 16, 39, 126 
Saponaria officinalis, 70 
Sarotbamnus scoparius, 2 
Saturnia pavonia, 58 
Saugh, 28 

Saussurea alpina, 77 
Saxicola cenanthe, 39, 120 

,, rubetra, 120 
Saxifrages, 2, 4, 22, 38, 39, 45, 46, 

63, 72) 73. 77 
Saxifraga aizoides, 63, 72, 77 
,, Geum, 39, 45 

„ hypnoides, 38, 45, 63, 

,, nivalis, 77 
,, oppositifolia, 4, 63, 77 
,, stellaris, 63, 73, 77 
,, umbrosa, 39 

Scandix Pecten- Veneris, 32 
Scirpus caespitosus, 63 
Sciurus vulgaris, 57 
Scolopendrium vulgare, 12, 22, 47 
Scorpion-grass, 69 
Scotch fir, 60 
Scrophularia Ehrharti, 50 

,, vernalis, 14, 42 

Scurvy-grass, 91 
Scutellaria galericulata, 56 
Sedge, sweet, 4 
Sedge-warbler, 28, 121 
Sedum, 91 
Sedum album, 68 

,, acre, 63 

,, anglicum, 38, 40, 63, 70 

,, reflexum, 68 

,, Rhodiola, 63, 73, 77 

,, rupestre, 68 

,, Telephium, 100 

,, villosum, 2, 39, 45, 70 
Selaginella selaginoides, 63, 77 
Sempervivum tectorum, 64, 100 
Senecio Jacobasa, 97 

,, saracenicus, 13 

,, viscosus, 3 
Sequoia gigantea, 4, 64, 65 
Shepherd's club, 12, 38, 68 
Sherardia arvensis, 47 
Shield-fern, 2 

Sibbaldia procumbens, 73, 77 
Silene acaulis, 63, 77 

,, inflata, 69 
Silver fir, 60, 65 
Silver-weed, 91, 98 
Sinapis arvensis, 92 
Sium angustifohum, 53 
Skull-cap, 56 
Skylark, 122 

Smyrnium Olusatrum, 67 
Snakeweed, 15, 32, 40, 50 
Snapdragon, 59, 69 
Snipe, 126 
Soapwort, 70 
Solanum Dulcamara. 49 
Solidago Virgaurea, 36 

,, ,, var. cambrica, 



Solomon's seal, 39 
Song thrush, 120 
Sparrow, 123 
Sparrow-hawk, 119 
SpearwortS, 3, 56, 63 
Speedwells, 51 
Spiderwort, 23 
Spiraea, 5, 51/52 

>> Filipendula, 12 
„ salicifolia, 5, 5,, 52 
i> UJmana, 36, 96 
Spleenworts, 4, 12, 36 
Spurge-laurel, 14 
Squirrel, 57 
Stachys, 95 

Star of Uethlehem, 4, 4,. 67, 69 
otarling, 22, 35, I23 
Stellaria glauca, 3 
>• media, 93 
otereum, 17 

. 11 purpureum, 37 
Stitcbwort, 3 
Stictina scrobiculata, 101 
Stone-bramble, 4, 59, 63, io2 
btonecrops, 2, 38, 39, 4 o, 45) 63, 

68, 70, 73, 77, gi 
Strawberry tree, 45 
Sturnus vulgaris, 22, 35, i 2 q 
Sundews, 2 

Swallow, 22, 39, 83, 124 
Sweep-moth, 37 
Sweetbriar, 69 
Sweet cicely, 67 
Swift, 124 
Sylvia rufa, 121 
Symphytum officinale, var. patens. 
3 
, t tuberosum, 3, 16 

Tacsonia van Volxemi, 64 

Tanacetum vulgare, 68 

Tanagra chaerophyllata, 17 

Tansy, 68 

Taxus baccata, 7, 16, 21, 24, 28, 
3 2 > 33> 3S> 40, 41, 42,' 
,55-6, 59, 60 
>, Harnngtonia, 50 

1 easel, 12, 47 

Tetrao tetrix, 39 

Thorn, 16 

Thalictrum flavum, 16 

„,. . ',' alpinum, 63, 77 

Thistle, milk, 68 

Thrift, 63 

Thyme, 2, 63 

Thymus Serpyllum, 2, 63 

Tlllandsia usneoides, 12S-31 

Tilia europasa, 65 

Tit, blue, 121 

,, coal, 7, i2i 

,, great, 121 
Toad, ii2 

Toadflax, 12, 36, 51, f 4 
Tofieldia palustris, 77 
Toothwort, 4, 15 
Tormentil, 2, 63 
Totanus calidris, 126 

>> hypoleucus, 16, 39, 126 
Iradescantia virginica, 23 
Iragopogon pratensis, 15 
I reacle mustard, 51 
Tree of Heaven, -? 7 
Trefoils, 69 
Tricholoma, 17 
Trifolium arvense, 69 



INDICES. 

Trifolium medium, 69 
it pratense, 96 
. » strictum, 69 
1 nglochin palustre, 77 
Triodia decumbens, 63, 77 
Triticum repens, 90 
Troglodytes parvulus, 121 
J rollius europaeus, 5, 15, 39, 62, 95 
lu ip, 14, 47 
luiipa sylvestris, 14, 47 
Tulip tree, 41, 57 , 64 
lumcates, 115, 117 
Turdus iliacus, 119 
,, merula, 120 
,, musicus, 120 
,, pilaris, 119 
,, viscivorus, 119 
Turkey oak, 41, 65 
Tussilago Farfara, 100 
Twayblade, 4, 45, 59 
Typha angustifolia, 3 

>, latifolia, 3, 36, 53, 97 

Ulex europaeus, 2 
Ulmus campestris, 20 

,, montana, 7, 15, 16, 20, 23, 
? 4, 29, 34, 41, 60 

Vaccinium Myrtillus, 4, 56, 63, 10 
,, Oxycoccos, 2, 56 

,,_ Vitis-Idaea, 4, 63 

valerian, 12, 38, 39 
Valeriana pyrenaica, 12, 38, 39 
Valerianella olitoria, 68 
Vanellus vulgaris, 126 
Venus's comb, 32 
Verbascum Lychnitis, 68 

,, Thapsus, 12, 38, 68 

Veronica agrestis, 51 

, Beccabunga, 100 
, Buxbaumii, 51 
,, Chamaedrys, 51 
Vertigo pusilio, 5 
Vetches, 4, 5, 69 
Viburnum Lantana, 49 

,, Opulus, 62 
Vicia Orobus, 4 

,, sylvatica, 4, 5 
Villarsia nymphajoides, 4 
Vinca minor, 16 
Viola Iutea, 2, 63, 69 

,, odorata, 14, 68, 70 
Violets, 2, 14, 63, 68, 69, 70 
Viper's-bugloss, 69 



149 



Winter-greens, 4, 6, 65, 77 
Wood-mehc, 4 
Woodruff, 13 
Wood-vetches, 4, 5 
Woundwort, 95 
Wren, 121 

Wych-elm, 7, i 5) J6, 20, 23, 24 
2 9> 34. 41. 60 

Xylaria, 17 

Yellow-rattle, 122 
Yews, 7, 16, 21, 24, 28, 32, 33, 3S 
40, 41, 42, 55-6, 59, 60 



Wagtail, grey, 7, 39, i 22 
,, pied, i2i 
,, yellow, 122 

Wallflower, 6, 14, 18, 68 

Wall-rue, 12, 20, 40, 68 

Walnut tree, 4, 13, 20 , 32, 4, 6 

Water-hemlock, 53 

Water-hen, 22 

Water-lily, 36, 53, 99 

Water-parsnip, 63 

Waybread. 96 

Wellingtonia, 45 

w , » gigantea, 4, 64, 65 

Wheatear, 39, 120 

Whin, 2 

Whinchat, 120 

Whitethroat, greater, 121 

Whortleberry, 4, 63 

Willows, 28, 30, 35, 73, 76, 77 

Willow-wren, 121 



SCOTCH NAMES. 
Aik, 101 
Aikraw, 101 
Aits, 89 
Allar, 101 
Arnut, 90 
Averin, 101 

Balderry, 97 

Bent-grass, 90 

Berber, 101 

Bere, 90 

Bindwood, 101 

Birk, 101 

Blackboyds, 101 

Blaewort, 96 

Blaeberry, 4, 56, 63, zoi 

Blue Bonnets, 96 
Boar's-ear, 97 
Bobbins, 99 
Bolgan leaves, 100 
Bourtree, lot 
Bracken, 2, 63, 98 
Brawlins, 97 
Brylies, 97 
Bull segg, 97 
Bumble-kytes, 101 
Bunnerts, 97 
Bunwede, 1,7 
Bur-ihistle, 102 
Bush, 102 

Cambie leaf, 99 
Cannach down, 91 
Carameil, 97 
Carl boddie, 98 
Carlin heather, 99 

,, spurs, 99 
Carmylie, 97 
Catch-rogue, 93 
Catscluke, 98 
Chasbol, 100 
Chickenweed, 93 
Cockrose, 100 

Dandelion, 100 
Day-nettles, 93 
Dead-men's bells, 99 
Deil's snuff-box, 99 

_,, spoons, 99 
Dishilago, 100 
Docken, 93 
Dog's camovyne, 98 

,, gowan, 98 

,, tansy, 98 

,, siller, 98 



i5° 



Ecclegrass, 91 
Em-fern, 98 
Esh, 102 
Ewe-gowan, 9) 

Featherwheelie, 98 
Feverfoulie, 98 
Fews, 100 
Fouets, 100 

Garterberries, 101 
Gean, 102 
Gers, 91 
Gool, 92 
Goose-corn, 90 
Gouk's meat, 98 
Gowan, 93, 95 
Groset, 102 
Guilde, gz 

Hadder, 102 
Hagberry, 102 
Heather-pease, 97 
Hepthorn, 102 
Horse-gowan, 94 
Horse-knot, y8 
Humloik, 94-5 

Jacinctyne, 95 
Jonette, 94 



Kerses, 100 

Lamb's-tongue, 98 
Lucken-gowan, 5, 15, 39, 62, 95 

Manelet, 92 
Maskwort, 95 
Meduart, 96 
Mekilwort, 100 
Michen, 96 
Milkorts, 96 
Moor-grass, 91, 98 
Moss-crops, 91, 98 
,, grass, 91, 98 

Oncorn, 90 
Orpine, 100 

Papple, 93 
Pirl-grass, 90 
Popple, 93 
Pounce, 90 

Quicken-grass, 90 

Ragweed, 97 
Ramp, 101 
Roebuck-berry, 102 
Roden, 102 
Royal-bracken, 98 
Runches, 92 



Sanape, 93 

Saugh, 28 
Scaldricks, 93 
Scrubie-grass, 91 
Segg, 96 
Sheep-rot, 91 
Shirt, 93 
Sinkel, 96 
Sitfasts, 93 
Sivven, 102 
Skelloch, 93 
Sleepies, 90 
Sodgers, 99 
Soucye, 92 
Souks, 96 
Sourock, 96 
Steep-grass, 91 
Stinking-weed, 97 

Uncorn, 90 

Wabran, 96 
Wall-kerses, 100 
Water-purpie, 100 
Wee bo, 97 
Wild-cotton, 91 
Wineberry, 102 
Witch-bells, 96 

Yellow-gowan, 94 



II.— PLACES AND GENERAL. 



Abbey Craig, Stirling, 66, 69, 70 

Abbey, Renfrewshire, 27-9 

Aikenhead, 20 

Aldochlay, 57 

Alpine Excursions, 62-3, 71-7 

Anemophilous Flowers, 78-9 

Animals giving names to plants, 

97-9 
Arden, Renfrewshire, 47, 48 
Ardgowan, 44 
Argyle Stone, The, 31 
Arrochar, 63 
Auldhouse, 22-3 
Aurs Burn, 49-50 
Austin & M'Aslin's Nurseries, 21 
Aven, Ravine of, at Cadzsw, 7 

Ballangeich, 69 
Balloch Castle, 64 
Balmaha, 62 
Bardrain Glen, 49 
Barncluith, 12-13 
Barochan Cross and House, 43 
Barr Castle, Lochwinnoch, 37 
Beinn Chalium, 72 

,, Doireann, 75 

,, Ime, 63 

,, Voirlich, 63 
Beggar's Tree, Pollok, 24 
Bell Tree, Drymen, 60-1 
Bird-Life near Glasgow, 11S-127 
Bishop Loch, 16 
Bishopton House, 33 
Blair Drummond, 67 
Ulantyre Priory, 15 
Blythswood, 30-1 
Botiiwell Bank, 13 



Bothwell Castle, 14 
Brock Burn, 48 
Buchanan, 60-2 

Cadder, 108 
Cadzow Castle, 7, 10 

,, Forest, 7-8 
Calder, Lochwinnoch, 37-8, 49, 52 

,, South, 13 
Caledonian Forest, 7, 67 
Cambuslang, 16 
Cam Chreag, 73-4 
Capelrig Burn, 46 
Carmyle, 15 
Carruth, 39 
Cartland Crags, 5 
Cartside, 20 
Cart, White, 18, 50 
Castle Semple, 3(1 
Cathcart, 18-22 
Cathkin Braes, 16 
Causeyhead, Stirling, 69 
Chatelherault, 12 
Chick in Egg described, 110-111 
Chillingham, White Cattle, 10-11 
Clyde, Falls of, 3, 6 

,, Gills on, 6 

,, at Bothwell, 13, 15 
Clydesdale, Natural Features of, 1 
Colour in Flowers and Fertilisa- 
tion, 78 
,, Pelagic Larvae and 
Fishes, 116-117 
Commore Dam, 52, 53 
Corkindale Law, 54 
Corrie Mhor, Beinn Chalium, 73 
Court Knowe, Cathcart, 20 



Cove Farm, Gourock, 44 
Craigbet, 39 
Craigends, 35 
Craignethan Castle, 6 
Craig of Carnock, 22, 50 
Cresswell Farm, Gourock, 44 
Crookston Castle and Wood, 28, 

Crookston Yew, 24, 28 
Crossford, 6 

Crosshill, Rookery at, 124 
Cumbernauld, White Cattle, 9, 10 

Dail Righ, Strathfillan, 72 

Danish Camp, Milliken, 35 

Dargavel, 32-3 

Darnley, 27, 46, 47, 48, 50 

Devol's Glen, 44 

Douglas Support, 16 

Draffan, 6 

Drumlanrig, White Cattle, 10 

Drymen, 60 

Duchall, 40 

Eastwood, 22-4 

Eggs of some Vertebrates de- 
scribed, 112-116 

Elderslie, 29-30 

Epiphytes, 128, 130 

Erosion on Mouse Water, 5 
,, Aven, 7 

Erskine, 32-34 

Etymology of Scottish Names of 
Flowers, 89-96 

Excursions topographiscd, 133-9 

Falls of Clyde, 3, 6 



INDICES. 



*5* 



Farme, 16 

Fertilisation of Larch, 7882 

Fiddler Gill, 6 

Finlaystone, 41-43 

Fishes' Eggs and Larvae, 112-116 

Five Sisters of Buchanan, 61 

Flowers, Scottish Names of, 89- 

103 
Folk-lore and the Swallow, 86 
Forest, Caledonian, 7, 67 
Frankfield Loch, 16 

Geology of Gorge of Clyde at 
Falls, 3 
Walkmill Glen, 25 
the Calder, 38 
Devol's Glen, 44 
Loch Lomond, 578 
Stirling and Neigh- 
bourhood, 66 
Gills on the Clyde, 6 
Glanderston Dam, 50 
Glen Reservoir, 25 
Gourock, 44 
Gowlin Hills, 69 
Graham's Dyke, 108 
Grasses, Scottish Names of, 89-92 
Gullery at Hairlaw Dam, 26 
,, at Scoulton Mere, 27 
„ on Inchmoan, 58 

Hairlaw Dam, 26, 52 
Hamilton Low Parks, 13 
Hawkhead, 29, 50, 51 
Hedge of Yew, 33 

„ Small-leaved Maple, 39 
Herbs, Scottish Names for, ^3 
Heronry at Erskine, 34 
Hibernation of Swallows, 83-4 
Hogganfield Loch, 16 
Househill, 27, 51 
House of Hill, now Northbarr, 32 
Houston, 43 
Hurlet, 51 

Inch, now Elderslie, 30 
Inchcalliach, 62 
Inchgalbraith, 58 
Inchinnan, 31-2 
Inchlonaig, 55 
Inchmoan, 58 
Inchtavannach, 57 
Inverkip, 44 

Insects and Flowers, 51-2, 78 
Irvine Sands, 49 

Jock's Gill, 6 

Kenmuir Eank, 15 
Kilallan, 43 
Kilbarchan, 34-6 
Kilmalcolm, 39-43 

,, Church, 40, 42 

King's Park, Stirling, 69 



Laderish Farm, 65 

Ladies' Rock, Stirling, 68 

Lanark, 5 

Lanarkshire Rambles, 1-17 

Langbank, 32 

Langside, 21 

Larch, Fertilisation of, 78-82 

Larval Fishes and Ascidians, 

112-117 
Lecropt Moss, 70 
Lee Castle, 5 
Levern, 50, 51 
Levernholme, 51 
Lines of Avian Migration, 86-7 
Linn, Cathcart, 18 
List of Excursions and Photo- 
graphs, 133-9 

,, Members, 141-4 
Loch Lomondside, 55-65 
Loch Libo, 26, 52, 53-4 
Lochwinnoch, 36-9, 52 
Lockharts of Lee, 5 
Logan's Raiss, 29 
Long Peter, 21 
Loudon, 50 
Luss, 55-60 

Mauldslie, 7 

Mearns, 25 

,, Moor, 47 

Measurements of Trees, 6, 8, 
12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 23, 
24, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 
35, 36, 37. 40, 4 1 . 42, 43> 44. 45. 
60, 6r, 62, 63, 64, 05 

Members, List of, 141-4 

Migration of Swallow North- 
ward, 84, 86 
,, Late, of Swift, 125 

Milliken, 34 

Moss-like Tillandsia, 128-131 

Mouse Water, Gorge of, 5 

Names, Scottish, of Flowers, 89- 

103 
Neilston, 26-7, 50 

„ Pad, 26, 52 
Nethan, Glen of the, 6 
Newton, 16 
Nitshill, 51 
Northbarr House, 32 

Orchards on Clyde, 6 

Paradise, Finlaystone, and else- 
where, 42-3 

Pease Oak, Lee, 5 

Peesweep Inn, 53 

Photographs topographised, 133-9 

Pinetum at Rossdhu, 59 

Place-Names, Renderings of, 46, 
47, 48, 49. 52, 69, 73, 74, gt, 95, 
101, I..S 

Pokeston, 50 



Pollen, Discharge of Larch, 80 
Pollok, Castle or Upper, as 

,, Nether, 23 
Port-Glasgow, 44 
Possil Marsh, 16 
Protective Features in Young of 
Vertebrates, 1 10-117 

Queen Mary's Thorn, 20 

,, Tree, 27, 48 

Queen's Park, Glasgow, 18-19, 
119 

Renfield, now Blythswood, 30 
Renfrew, 29-31 

Renfrewshire Excursions, 18-45 
,, East, Rarer Flowers 

of, 46-54 
Riding the Guilde, 92 
Roman Bridge on South Calder, 
, '3 
„ Wall, Notes on, 104-9 
Rookery at Auldhouse, 22 
,, Crosshill, 124 

,, Milliken, 34 

Rosehall, 16 
Rossdhu, 58-9 
Rosshall, 28 

St. Fillans, Kilallan, 43 
Scottish Names of Native Wild 

Flowers, 89-103 
Shielhill Glen, 44, 45 
Smith Institute, Stirling, 67 
Southbarr, 31-2 

Spawn of Frog and Toad, n 1-2 
Stirling and its Neighbourhood, 

6670 
Stonebyres Linn, 6 
Stonelaw, 16 

Suburban Bird-life, 118-127 
Swallow, Return of the, 83-8 

Tillandsia, Moss-like, 128-31 
Tillietudlem Castle, 6 
Thornliebank, 46 
Tom-na-Clag, 57 
Trees, vide Forest, Measure- 
ments and Woods 
Twin Rowan-tree, Darnley, 49 
Tyndrum, 71 

Vertebrates, Young, Protective 
Features in, 110-117 

Wallace Monument, Stirling, 70 

Wallace Oak, 30 

Walkmill Glen, 22, 25, 48 

Westburn, 16 

White Cattle, Cadzow and else- 
where, 0.-11 

Wind-fertilised Flowers, 78-9, 81 

Woods in Renfrewshire in Seven- 
teenth Century, 24 



N.B. — The names in the list, pp. 133-9, are not indexed. 



^K~**> f"K**~