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Full text of "Annals of Baltimore.."

Book:B-jJ3t:aacT 



ANNAI.S 



OF 



7363 



mM 



,jt 



BY THOMAS W. GRIFFITH. 



^ 



Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1833, by Thomas W. Griffith, in the 
Clerk-'a office of the District Court of Maryland. 



BALTIMORE: 

PRINTED BY WILLIAM WOODDY, 

.Yo. 6 S. Calvert street. 

1833. 



.B/Gf8r^ 



A^^M<>s>m ^AmmmiL 



L HE inhabitants of Maryland, much attached to 
the proprietary Government, had violently opposed the 
establishment of Crom wells' usurpation amongst them, 
so that Cecilius, lord Baltimore, anticipated a retroces- 
sion of the Government of the province, and furnished 
Capt. Josias Fendall w^ith a commission to receive and 
govern it in 1657. 

This gentleman had been very active in the civil com- 
motions of the Country, and formed a party, which, af- 
ter they had got the province the next year, assumed 
the government of it, and he accepted a nevv^ commis- 
sion from them, independent of the proprietary, the 
year after. 

The Governor then exerted his authority by send- 
ing Col. Nathaniel Utie, who had been instrumental 
to his elevation and was made one of his Council, to 
warn the Dutch from New Castle, which being within 
the 40th. deg. of N. Lat. was part of the territory of 
Maryland granted to lord Baltimore; and the same 
year, that is in 1659, issued patents for lands in Balti- 
more County, wll^h he then erected, to Col. Utie and 
others. 



4 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1660. 

Upon the restoration of Charles the 2nd. Philip Cal- 
vert Esq. who had acted as Secretary of the province 
for some time, was appointed by his Brother, justly of- 
fended with Fendalls' treachery, to the office of Gover- 
nor, and on the 20th July 1661, captain Thomas How- 
ell, captain Thomas Stockett and Messrs. Thomas Pow- 
ell, Henry Stockett and John Taylor, stiled commis- 
sioners of the county, held a court at the house of 
captain Howell, the presiding commissioner, Mr. John 
CoUett being their clerk. 

Thus it appears from the records of the County, al- 
though it is said in Mi'. Bacon's collection, that an act 
passed in 1663, "for seating of lands in Baltimore 
county," was rejected by the proprietary. 

All the navigable rivers emptying into the Chesa- 
peake bay had been fully explored, and trade establish- 
ed with all the natives of the country, who remain- 
ed on their shores, yet all the settlements, were w^ithin 
the six counties of St. Maiys, Kent, Talbot, Calvert, 
Charles and Anne Arundel; — As the county last in- 
cluded all the western shore, until the creation of 
others, so Baltimore county maybe considered at first, con- 
taining all the lands within the province, north of Anne 
Arundel, on the west of the bay, including even Cecil 
beyond Elk river. — The lines of Anne Arundel in 1698, 
were the high lands north of Magothy to Patuxent ri- 
ver, and Baltimore was bounded westward by that or 
Charles county, until Prince George's was laid off, 
then including Frederick, Sic. in 1695. 



1662.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. o 

There is an inventory of the Estate of Mr. Abra- 
ham Kaldman on the records of the oi-phan's court,takeu 
1666, by Messrs. William Hollis and Joseph Fallen, 
deputed by the Governor, as commissary General, for 
these courts were not established until after the Inde 
pendence. 

It appears that in 1662, the y»ar after the first 
county Court was held, contracts were made for To- 
bacco deliverable at JVoiih Point; that Mr. Abraham 
Clarke, a shipwright, was amongst the first settlers 
on the north side Patapsco river, and that Mr. Charles 
Gorsuch, of the Society of Friends or Quakers, took 
up and patented 50 acres of land on Whetstone Point; 
it being the practice while there were few competi- 
tors, to take up but little waste land, though the pur- 
chase money was only 4s. the quit rent 4s. per annum, 
and alienation 4s. sterling per 100 acres, payable in 
Specie, Tobacco or other products. 

The next land taken up which lies within the pre- 
sent limits of the City, was the glade or bottom, on 
each side of the run now called Hartford run, in 
1663, by Mr. Alexander Mountenay, for 200 acres, and 
called Mountenay's neck. 

In 1668 Timber neck, laying between the heads of 
the middle and north branches of Patapsco, was patent- 
ed for Mr. John Howard, and in the same year, that tract 
north of it, upon which the firet town of Saltimore was 
laid out, was granted to Mr. Thomas Cole, for 550 acres, 
and called Cole's Harbour, — This tract extended from 



(j ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1668. 

Mouiitenay's land, westerly, across the north side of 
the river, one mile, and northwardly from the river, 
about half a mile, but in the form of a rhomboid, di- 
vided into two nearly equal parts by the stream after- 
wards called Jane's Falls. Copus's Harbour, Long Is- 
land point, Kemps' addition and Parkers' Haven on 
the east, Lunns' lot and Chatsworth on the west, on 
the south David's fancy, and on the north Salisbury 
plains, Darley Hall and Gallow barrow, were patented 
for different persons at later periods, and have been add- 
ed to the town, with other tracts since. 

It seems that Mr. Cole left an only daughter, who 
became the wife of Mr. Charles Gorsuch, and they sold 
and conveyed separately., in 1679 and 1682, the tract 
called Cole's Harbour, to JNIr. David Jones, who gave 
his name to the stream, and therefore believed to be the 
first actual settler, having his residence on the north 
side of it near the head of tide water, and where the 
stream was crossed without a bridge, by the great eas- 
tern road ; this, passing down a drain or gully north west 
of the Parish Church Lot, from the southwest, after cros- 
sing turned north easterly, in the direction of what is 
now called French Street. Cole's Harbour came into 
the possession of Mr. James Todd, who was the step- 
eon of Jones, and also the whole or pai't of Mounte- 
nay's neck, having intermarried with the owner's daugh- 
ter, as is supposed. Mr. Todd resurveyed the first Tract 
and procuicd a new patent for it, by the name of Todd's 
range, in 1696, for 510 acres; and in 1702, Todd 
and wife, jointly conveyed 135^ acres of Mounte- 



1702,] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 7 

nay's neck, and 164^ acres of Cole's Harbour to Mr. 
John Hurst, who was an Inn-keeper and kept an Inn 
at or near Jones's, and the remainder of the latter tract, 
to Charles Carroll, Esq. agent of the proprietary. 

Immediately after his purchase Mr. Hurst mortga- 
ged his 300 acres, of the two tracts, to Capt. Richard 
Colegate, one of the County Commissioners, who lived 
on a creek bearing his name, below the north branch 
of Patapsco. 

In 1711, Mr. Carroll sold 31 acres of his part of 
Cole's Harbour, with a mill seat, to Mr. Jonathan Han- 
son, millwright, who erected the mill of which the re- 
mains are yet standing near the north west intersectio]\^ 
ef Holliday and Bath Streets. 

In 1726 Mr. Edward Fell, a merchant from Lancas- 
shire of the Society of Friends, who had settled on 
the east side of the Falls, took an escheat warrant and 
employed Mr. Richard Gist to survey Cole's Harbour 
or Todd's Range, and the next year purchased the 
right to it of John Gorsuch, son of Charles; but the 
sons of Mr. Carroll, then lately deceased, entered a 
Caveat, and prevented a new grant. 

Within a few years past, that is, above 100 years af- 
ter tlie new patent had been granted Mr. Todd, a very 
respectable young gentleman of the family of Mr. Jones, 
came from England to inquire for his ancestors' Land, 
but on learning the above circumstances, gave up aJJ 
further pursuit. 



8 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1126' 

By Mr. Gisf s return of the survey, it appears the 
then improvements consisted, besides the mill, in two 
dwellings. Tobacco houses, Orchards, &c. The land 
being about one half cleared and midling in quality; 
and on vacancies added, another dwelling, Tobacco 
houses, &c. 

In 1682, John Boring Esq. is presiding Justice of 
the County Court, Thomas Hedge, Esq. Clerk of the 
County. When in 1692, the seat of Government was 
moved from St. Mary's to Annapolis, and the Protest- 
ant Episcopal Church was established in Maryland, in 
consequence of the Revolution in England, and the gov- 
ernment of Maryland had been assumed by the crown, 
"Baltimore County was, like the rest, divided into parish- 
es; all christian sects being equally privileged until 
then. St. Paul's, St. Andrew's, St. George's and St. 
John's were the first and only parishes in tliis County 
for a long time. There were not Clergymen in the 
Country to supply all the parishes erected, so that cer- 
tain fees were appointed besides usual compensations 
in Tobacco per poll, and magistrates were prohibited 
from performing marriage rites, to encoiu'age ministers 
to emigrate, as was expressly stated. 

It is probable that the first Church in this parish and 
perhaps in the County, was in Patapsco neck on or ad- 
joining Mr. Partridge's land, near Bear Creek, though 
it is certain. Friends or Quakers, had meetings at Mr. 
John Giles' who was one of them, and, as early as 1720, 
purchased Upton coui-t, being the land on Whetstone 
point, and between the Town and Ferry branch and 



1692.] ANNALS OF DALTIMORIX 9 

perhaps meeting houses near where the town now is. 
So early as 1G76, Mr. Jeremiah Eaton devised 500 
acres of land for the first protestant minister settled in 
the comity, which was in 1719, confirmed to the rector 
of St. John''s parish, in which the land was situated, 
and his successors. The grant was of more value, as 
in the same year, Charles lord Baltimore succeeding 
his father Cecilius, suspended the grants upon condition 
of emigration^ and soon afler fixed the price or consid- 
eration money at 200 lb. Tobacco per 100 acres. It is 
known that there were three or four Protestant Episco- 
pal Churches in the province at the time Mr. Eaton 
made the above donation and it is probable the people 
of that society assembled to worship in Patapsco neck, 
long before they had parishes created. 

In 1693 Georg'e Ashman Esq. was presiding Justice 
of the county court and in 1698 Henry Wriothesly 
Esq. was county clerk. In the year 1695 Prince 
George's county was taken from the north west side of 
Charles and Anne Arundel, and became the limit of 
Baltimore, until in 1748, Frederick county was taken 
from the north west side of Prince George's. 

In 1705 Aquilla Paca Esq. was sheriff of Baltimore 
county, and in 1 706 he was succeeded by Francis Dal- 
ahide Esq. in 1708 colonel James Maxw^ell was presi- 
ding Justice of the county court, and so continued a- 
bout twenty years, during which period the sheriffs' 
office w^as filled, three years each, by Messrs. James 
Prcsbury, appointed in 1710; John Dorsey 1713; John 



I<jf ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1715. 

Stokes 1716; Edward Hall 1719; Francis Holland 
1122 and William Smith 1725. 

No effects of the great Revolution in England which 
placed the prince of Orange on the throne, are discover- 
ed here, except those relating to the church establish- 
ment. It must be admitted that the colonial system was 
rather invigorated than otherwise, but moderated by 
Q,ueen Anne; in whose reign the rate of money of ac- 
count was fixed at 133^/. for lOOZ. sterling; the pre- 
sent rate of interest established, and a general post for 
letters; nor was the restoration of the government of 
the province to the proprietary by George 1 in 1715, 
signalised by any particular event in this county; 
though there are several important regulations enacted 
at that period which arc still in force. 

In 1723 the Rev. Mr. William Tibbs, colonel John 
Dorsey, Messrs. John Isreal, William Hamilton, Thos. 
Tolley, John Stokes and Thomas Sheridine, were ap- 
pointed visiters of the county school, for which duties 
were laid by the legislature as for free schools in the 
other counties some years before. Mr. Tolley sold a 
ti'act for the purpose, of 100 acres at 10s. per acre, 
being less than the value and perhaps a nominal con- 
sideration, on the south side of Gunpowder and near 
the county town, where the free school was kept until 
a short time before the Revolution, and for which trus- 
tees have been lately appointed by Act of Assembly. 

In 1 726, the bounds of Anne Arundel and Baltimore 
counties were fixed on the south shore of the Patapsco, 



1726] ANNALS OF BALTli\[ORE. 11 

and with the south folk of the Falls, thence to Snow- 
den's branch of the Patuxent,and as far as the lines of the 
former county, and two yeai-s after the south bounds of 
St. Paul's Parish were fixed at the same rivers, at 
which time the Rev. Mr. Joseph Hooper was the rector, 
and perhaps the first settled minister of the Parish. 

The establishment of Ports, Towns, &c. was among 
the instructions first given to the Governor, pursuant 
to the Charter, but Chai^les lord Baltimore, was leaving 
the Province to contend with the crown for a share in 
the government of Maryland, which he finally lost, as 
already noticed. ' 

In 1683, several towns or ports of trade were crcT 
ated by act of Assembly^ and in this county, one on 
Patapsco near Humphrey's Creek, and another on 
Bush River, on the toivn land near tlie Court House. 
The next year another town was laid out on middle riv- 
er, and two yeais after a town was also laid out on 
Spesutie Creek, and another on Gunpowder at West' 
bury's point, but that oil Middle river was suspendod. 

In 170G, Whetstone point was made a town; the 
next year another place on Gunpowder called Taylors 
choice, was made a town, and the town where the old 
Court House was, being discontinued., a new Court 
House is directed to be built there. Queen x4nnc re- 
jecting the latter acts and the former being generally 
repealed, with others approved by lord Baltimore before 
William and Mary assumed the government of the pro- 
vince for the crown in 1 689, it became necessary to con- ' 



12 ANNALS OF BALTmOKE. [1712. 

Arm rights acquired under them j which was done as to 
the Court House in 1712. The seat of Justice being 
removed there the town was called Joppa, and contin- 
ued to be the county town above fifty years. No long- 
er checked by the presence of the proprietary or by 
his negative, there is no doubt but that interested 
holders of lands procured many of these acts to be pas- 
sed, without public necessity; or that towns were act- 
ually injured by their number, being so many rivals of 
each other. 

Whilst the produce raised on the borders of the 
Patapsco Avas insilfficient for the loading of ships in 
any reasonable time, they continued to be stationed off 
North point, where they could as conveniently take on 
board that which came from other rivers, or even from 
the other side of the bay; nor was there on any one 
river a sufficient number of inhabitants for the con- 
sumption of whole cargoes imported, so neither was it 
thought necessary at that time nor for a long time after, 
to have more than tlii'ee Custom House districts on 
each side of the bay, the chief places of which, on this 
shore, were St. Mary's, St. George's, and Annapolis. 
There were however Naval Officers or tide waiters, at 
many little towns or ports of trade, having the privi- 
lege of landing goods or shipping produce generally; 
But the demands and the quantity of produce increa- 
sing with the increase of population, the mutual inter- 
est of the shipper and the owner, brought the ships into 
our river, though not at once to the head of it. 



1723.] ANXALS OF BALTIMORE. 13 

In 1 723 there were five ships in Patapsco up for freight 
for London, to which place the trade was then carried 
on extensively,' but one of which only is said to lay in 
the Northern Branch. And there are persons yet liv- 
ing who have seen as many vessels of burthen, anchor- 
ed at the same time at the point between the south and 
middle branches of Patapsco as in the north branch, 
where the town is situated. 

To this point the main road from the west, and 
through the county generally, was directed, passing 
south of Gwinns falls, at the mouth of which Messrs. 
Tasker, Carroll, and others, by the name of "The Balti- 
more Company," built the furnace soon after, taking the 
seat for the forge on Jones's falls at the mill now owned 
by general Strieker. 

To Mr. John Moale a merchant from Devonshire, 
who owned the lands and carried on an extensive busi- 
ness near the point, the inhabitants of the neighborhood, 
applied for ground to lay out a town. It is said they 
went so far as to get a bill introduced for the purpose 
into the Legislature, of which he was a member but 
then absent, and that he, fearing the loss of the iron ore, 
which abounded on the shore; the exploring of which, 
did, after that period perhaps, afford him no reason to 
regret it as long as he lived ; refused the applications 
which were made to him on the subject, hastened to 
take his seat in the Assembly and defeated the measure ; 
according to some accounts, Mr. Moale was actuated 
by an ill-founded spirit of commercial jealousy; but, if 



V'. 



14 AXNALS OF BALTIMORE, [1729. 

it were so, the preference given to his grounds, over 
those on which the tosvn was placed, would shew a 
want of judgment in those who applied to him, which 
might have been more fatal to us their decendants, than 
Jiis refusal was to his heirs, .UnJess a seaport is actu- 
ally upon, or very near the seaboard, the head of naviga- 
ble water must be preferred to the side of a river, and still 
more to a point on that river, other circumstances being 
equal ; for, the advantages of direct intercourse with the 
sea can only be compensated by additional intercourse 
with the land, as respects trade and commerce ; whilst in 
respect to defence from foreign enemies, approaching by 
water, at least, the means are so much greater in pro- 
portion as a part, the branch, is less than the whole river. 

The head of the north west branch being then select- 
ed, a petition was prepared for the Assembly by some 
of the county commissioners, or justices, and others, 
and, agreeably to their prayer, an act was passed in 
1729, entitled, "an act for erecting a town on the 

NORTH SIDE OF PaTAPSCO, IN BALTIMORE COUNTY, AND 
FOR LAYING OUT INTO LOTS, GO ACRES OF LAND LN AND 
ABOUT THE PLACE AVHERE ONE JoiIN FlEMMING NOW 

LIVES." — Flennning was a tenant of Mr. Carroll, and 
resided in a house, then usually called a Quarter, 
standing on the north bank of Uhler's run, and near 
general Strieker's house, Cliarles street. By this act, 
which was similar to that in 1 G83 and other town acts, 
Baltimore was to be a privileged place of landing, load- 
ing and selling or exchanging goods. Major Thomas 
rolley. Win. Hamilton, Esq. Wm. Buckner, Esq. doc- 



rf^ 



1729] AX!srALS OF BALTIMORE ^ 15 

tor George Walker, Richard Gist, Esq. doctor George 
Buchanan and colonel Wm. Hammond were appointed 
commissioners. They were all justices of the county, 
except doctor Walker, and as such, generall}'^ deputy 
Commissaries ; Some of them were delegates before or 
after. Mr. Gist, then deputy surveyor of the Western 
Shore,wasthesonand heir of Mr. Christopher Gist.> or 
Guest, as in some records, who had settled on the 
south side of Patapsco as early as 1682, and died be- 
fore the river became the bounds of the county ; Doc- 
tor Buchanan, who came from Scotland, purchased 
lands and practised medicine in the county, from the 
year 1723; Colonel Hammond was probably the son of 
Mr. John Hammond, who settled on the north side of 
Patapsco, upon lands for which he paid 40s. sterling 
per acre, as early as 1695; Mr, Hamilton purchased 
lands in the county, as appears by the records, in 1710; 
Doctor Walker with a brother James, had practised 
medicine in Anne Arundel county some years, but came 
to reside in this county about the year 1715, and was tlic 
proprietor of that well known seat and tract of land, on 
the west side of the town, called Chatsworth, and Mr. 
Buckner had not apparently been long settled in the 
country, but in 1 726 became purchaser of several tracts 
of- land in Patapsco neck. 

These commissioners were appointed for life, since 
they were authorised to fill their own vacancies; appoin- 
ting their own clerk, and were directed to purchase b}' 
agreement or obtain by valuation of a jury, the above 
mentioned 60 acres of land, being part of Cole's Har- 
liour or Todd's- range, which they were to lay out m 



16 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE, [1729. 

the most convenient manner 'into 60 lots; to be erected 
into a Town to be called Baltimore town; which, as 
well as the name given to the county, was in compli- 
ment to the proprietary, whose ancestor received his 
title of Baron from a sea port of that name in the 
county of Cork in Irclandi Tlie first choice of one 
lot was reserved by the act for the owner of the land, 
and none to take up more than one lot during the first 
four months, nor any but the inhabitants of the county, 
within six months; after which, vacant lots might be 
taken up by any other persons. The takers up of lots 
to pay the owners of the land, in proportion to their 
lots. This was to give such persons an absolute estate 
in fee simple, to such lots, provided they erected there- 
on witliin eighteen months, a house that sliould cover 
400 square feet; if not so improved any other person 
might take up and enter upon such lots, paying the 
commissioners the valuation first set on them, with the 
same condition of building thereon; but all such lots 
as were not taken up witliin seven years, reverted to the 
owner of the land. The lots of some other towns 
were to pay the proprietary of the province Id. sterling 
each per annum; in this there was a saving of rights 
only, to secure the quit rent and portion of gold and 
silver mines for the crown, agreeably to the original 
charter. 

On tlie first of December the same year, Messrs. 
Richard Gist and Wm. Ifamilton and Doctors Buchanan 
and Walker, agreed with Mr. Charles Carroll, acting 
for himself and brother Daniel, sons of the agent lately 
deceased, for the 60 acres, to be paid for at 40 shil- 
lings each, in money or tobacco at Id. per pound. 



1730] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. I7 

OxN the 12th of January 11 SO, neio stile, assisted by . 
Mr. Philip Jones, the county surveyor, the commis- 
sioners laid off the Town, commencing at a point neaf 
the north west intersection of what are now called 
Pratt and Light streets and runnin* north westerly, 
along or near Uhler's alley, towards the great eastern 
road and a great gully or drain at or near Sharpe 
street, then across Baltimore street, east of the gully 
north easterly with the same road, afterwards called 
the Church road and now McClellan's alley, to the 
precipice which overhung the falls, at or near the 
south west corner of St. Pauls street and St. Pauls lane, 
then with the bank of that stream, southerly and eas- 
terly, various courses unto the low grounds ten perches 
west of Gay street, including the Fish street church 
lot, then due south along the margin of those low 
grounds to the bank on the north side of the river, 
near the south east corner of General Smith's house, 
and then by that bank various courses, nearly as Wa- 
ter street runs, westerly and southerly to the first men- 
tioned point; making thus by its original bounds, the 
form of an ancient lyre ; so that the first plan of the 
new Town of Baltimore, did not resemble the town of 
the same name in Ireland, which stands on a promon- 
tory in the sea; whereas here, the base of the lyre fronts 
towards the sea and the top points inland. 

Within, our town was divided by Long street, now 
called Baltimore street, running 132f perches from east 
to w^est and four perches wide, intersected at right angles 
by Calvert street, then not named, 561 perches from 



18 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1730. 

the hill near the falls north, to the river side south, also 
four perches wide and by Forrest street^ after- 
wards called Charles street, 89i perches in the same 
course, and three perches wide. There were also 
six lanes of the width of one perch, since widened 
and called East, South, Second, Light, Hanover and 
Belvidere streets and three lanes of the same width, 
Still called Lovely, St. Paul's and German lanes. The 
lots, containing about an acre each and numbered one 
to sixty, commenced on the north side of Baltimore 
;Street and running westward, returned eastward on the 
south side. 

On the fourteenth and on several of the following 
days, the office was open for takers up^ and it appeals 
that the proprietor, Mr. Carroll; chose number 49, 
which was the east side of Calvert street next the 
the river bank; Mr. Gist taking the lot on the opposite 
side of Calvert street. Other lots were taken by Messrs. 
AValker, Jones, Jackson, Hammond, Price, Buckner, 
Sheridine, Powell, Bidgcly, Trotten, North, Hewitt, 
Oorsuch and Harris, all inhabitants of the vicinity. 
Trom a very early transfer by Messrs. Jackson and 
Price. to Messrs. Peel and Gordon, of Annapolis, it is 
probable that the former were mere agents. Some of 
the others did not improve in time, and their lots were 
taken by new settlers in succession ; but some lots fell 
to the original proprietor, not lieing taken up within 
seven years. 

From the small quantity of ground originally taken 
for the town, and from the difficulty of extending the 
town in any direction, as it was surrounded by hills, 



1730.] A>mALS OF BALTIMORE. 19 

water courses or marshes, it is evident- that the com- 
missioners did not anticipate either its present com- 
merce or population. The expense of extending streets, 
of building bridges and of levelling hills and filling 
marshes, to which their successors have been subjected, 
and which, unfortunatel}^, increases that of preserving 
the harbour as improvements increase and soil is loo- 
sened, have been obstacles scarcely felt in other Amei'- 
ican cities; but requiring immense capitals of them- 
selves, against which nothing but the great local advan- 
tages for internal and external trade would have ena- 
bled the citizens to contend. The alluvion of the falls, 
spreading from the shore, from Hartford run to South 
street, already limited the channel of the river on the 
north side of it, and formed some Islands which con- 
tinued to be overflowed by high tides, until the islands 
and shoals were made fast land as they now are. Cer- 
tainly the commissioners were not regardless of the 
navigation, or they would not have located the town by 
the water, yet the exterior lines no where reached the 
^liore, and one street only, Calvert street, appeared 
to communicate with it; for between the east end of 
Baltimore street and the falls, there was a marsh, and 
on the south, Charles street terminated at Uhlers 
spring branch, or rather a precipice which stood on the 
south side of it, as did the north end of Calvert street, 
at a greater precipice, where indeed other commission- 
ers closed the street by erecting the Court House, which 
their . successors first arched, to procure a passage un- 
der it, and others finally removed altogether- 



20 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1730. 

The situation relative to other parts of the country 
liowever, afforded the most direct communication; the 
proximity of better soil ; the great security presented by 
the harbour; the abundance of Stone, Lime, Iron and 
timber, and the proximity of seats for water works, 
all contributing to make the first part of the town the 
centre around which additions have been nearly equal- 
ly made, affords some proof of the commissioners' judg- 
ment and foresight. It is to be noticed also, that the 
lots towards the river were all taken wiihiu the first 
three days, and not one of those on Baltimore street 
except that on the north side, next adjoining the great 
public road, now McClellan's alley. 

In the same year, Mr. Wm. Fell, ship cai*pentcr and 
brother of Edward, bought of Mr. Lloyd Harris, the 
tract on the Point, called Copus's harbour, and erected 
the mansion, still standing on Lancaster street, gome 
time after. 

It appears that Roger Mathews, Esq. was presiding 
justice at this time, and Thomas Sheridine, Esq. sheriff, 
but the latter was succeeded the same year by John Hall. 
Esq. 

The acts of the ensuing session furnish another 
evidence of the zeal of the founders of our city. Find- 
ing the money appropriated by law three yeai's before, 
for erecting a parish church, was not employed, they 
procured the passage of an act the ensuing session di- 
recting the vestry to purchase a lot for that purpose, and 
building the church in the town, to be called St. Paul's 
church. Lot No. 19 was selected, being the most elevated 



nSi.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. ^1 

ground on the plot, and part of that on which St. Paul'si 
church now stands; and the Rev. Mr. Joseph Hooper 
the Rector became a taker up of lots the same year.— 
He was succeeded by the Rev. Benedict Bourdillon be^ 
fore the chui'ch was finished ; which was not until about 
the year 1744. 

Down to tlie year 1 758, we have no knowledge of 
any other churches or meetings for worship here, but 
of the established churches and of the Society of 
Friends, or Quakers, of which latter Society it appears, 
a very great portion of the first settlers of Baltimore 
county consisted. It was a short time before the set- 
tlement of the county that they first ai'ose, and w'cre 
now persecuted in England; and from the time of tlie 
establishment of the Episcopal church in the prO' 
vince, tli^ right of affirmation and other privileges 
were extended to them and th eir meetings ; that of 
worship, they and all other christian sects enjoyed from 
the first planting of the province. In this vicinity, there 
were the families of Gorsuch, Giles, Fell, Hopkins, 
Mathews, Taylor, and others who were Quakers, for 
whom the last mentioned gentleman appropriated 
grounds near the one mile stone on the Hartford road, 
where they erected a meeting house and worshipped 
many years. 

The county town of Joppa, being afflicted by small 
pox, the legislature suspended the sessions of the court 
part of the year 1731. — A circumstance the more un- 
fortunate for that place as Baltimore was then prepar- 
ing to become its rival. 



2Z ANNALS OK UALTIMOKE. [1732 

In^1732, a new town of ten acres was laid off into 
twenty lots, valued at 150 pounds of tobacco each, on 
that part of Cole's harbor which was first improved, east 
of the falls, and where Edward Fell kept store ; belong- 
ing, it is said in the return of the jury, to the orphan 
children of Richard Colegate, and called in some re- 
cords, Jonas^ but afterwards Jones's town, in com- 
pliment to one of the former owners of the land; of 
which major Thomas Sheridine, captain Robert North, 
and Messrs. Thomas Todd, John Cockey and John 
Boring were commissioners, who also appointed doctor 
Walker their clerk. Messrs. Sheridine and Cockey 
being then county justices. 

Major Sheridine had taken up land in the county as 
early as 1721 and in 1731-, purchased the Kingsbury 
lands at the head of Back river, whore the furnace was 
afterwards erected, and general Smith built a niill. 
Captain Robert North, who took the lot No. 10 at the 
north west corner of Baltimore and Calvert streets, and 
erected the house on lot No. 2 Jones street, in which 
Mr. John Gross now resides, upon the laying out of 
Jones's town, had visited the Patapsco and carried 
freights in the ship Content, which he connnanded, as 
early as 1723. Mr. Thomas Todd was the son and 
heir of captain Thomas Todd, who removed from Vir- 
ginia and purchased the land at North Point in 1664, 
which had been first taken up by Messrs. William 
Batten and Thomas Tliomas. Mr. John Cockey pur 
chased lands near Patapsco in 1728, the year after his 
brother Thomas settled in the Limestone Valley, on 
the York road. Mr. Boring was a merchant, whose 



1732] ANNALS oi? BALTIMORE. 2S 

father had bought several tracts of land on Patapsco 
neck, as early as 1679. 

This town consisted of three streets, or one street 
with three courses corresponding with the meanders of 
the bank of the falls, from a gi'eat gully at Pitt street, 
to the ford at the intersection of the old road where 
French street commences, and which was afterwards 
called Front, Short and Jones streets; on the last 
of which, at the south west corner of Bridge street, 
as since called, and the only cross street, stood Mr, 
Fell's store. In consequence of which, the course of 
the eastern road, instead of passing through French 
street was directed into these streets by Bridge street, 
even before the bridge was built. The conditions of 
settlement were similar to those of Baltimore town, ex- 
cept that the possessors of lots in this town, were to pay 
the proprietary one penny sterling per lot, annually. 

It is stated that there were 60,000 hogsheads of To- 
bacco exported annually from the two colonies of Vir- 
ginia and Maryland, besides 21,000Z. sterling worth of 
lumber and skins, employing 24,000 tons of shipping, 
the two colonies being nearly equal in white population 
and wealth at that time. But great depression was expe- 
rienced throughout the province, and the low price of 
the staple caused an insurrection and the destruction 
of many fields of plants. 

■ However, the creation in 1733, of bills of credit as 
a substitute for a currency, as other colonies had done 
already, appears to have produced a change for the bet- 
ter, and improvements were soon made on the east side 



24 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [17^2 

of the falls, by which, and from the early settlement of 
Cole, Gorsuch or Jones, it obtained the name Old town. 

The communication with the first town being obstruct- 
ed by the passage of the falls was so inconvenient by the 
ford, a bridge was soon erected where Gay street Bridge 
now is, by the respective inhabitants of the towns. Ed- 
ward Hall, Esq. was presiding justice in 1732, and 
sheriff in 1734, when colonel William Hamilton was 
presiding justice. In this year, a town was laid out at 
Elkiidge Landing, from which produce was brought to 
the ships laying off Moales' point for many years after. 

It would seem however, from the patent to Mr. Car- 
roll of the tract called Orange, now granted, that ex- 
cept on the river side or the soil was very good, there 
yet remained much vacant land even near town. 

In 1 735, masters of vessels and others were prohibit- 
ed under a severe penalty, from casting ballast into any 
creek or river cm})tying into the bays, and into the bay 
itself, above Cedar point. 

Messrs. Hanson and Walker having procured a 
leasehold estate, by virtue of the law for appropriating 
mill seats by valuation, m addition to the fee simple ob- 
tained of Mr. Carroll by the former, sold both in 1740, 
to Mr. Edward Fotterall, a gentleman from Ireland, who 
imported the materials and erected the first brick house^ 
with free stone corners, and the first ^vhich was two 
stories without a hip-roof, in the town. It stood near 
the north west intersection of Calvert and Chatham 
^streets. Mr. Fotterall returned to Ireland, where he died, 
•and the Mext year his acUninistrators sold the mill pro- 



1735.] ANNALS OF BALTIMOREl. 2b 

perty to Mr. William Fell, who had just purchased of 
Mr. William Carter that tract on the point, adjacent 
to Copus's harbour, called Carter's Delight. 

In 1736, John Stokes Esq. clerk of the county, 
died, and was succeeded by his son Humphrey W. 
Stokes Esq. Colonel William Hammond was sheriff, 
and Richard Gist Esq. presiding Justice. 

Ip? 1738, colonel Nicholas Ridgely was sheriff. 
Mr. Edward Fell died, leaving a daughter or daugh- 
ters in England, but bestowed his property here on his 
brother's son Edward. 

In 1740, Mr. John Moale died, bequeathing his 
lands near Baltimore to his two surviving sons 
John and Richard. In 1741, Thomas Brereton Esq. 
was clerk of the county. 

It appeared to the inhabitants of Cecil cotmty that a 
place called Long pointy on the west side of North 
East river, would be an eligible situation for trade, and 
in 1 742 they procured an Act to lay out the town called 
Charlestown, with very suitable regulations, including 
a public wharf, warehouse and inspection of Flour, 
which apparently, was brought to the neighbourhood 
already from the counties of Chester and Lancaster 
in Pennsylvania. But the efforts of the founder of that 
Province, who travelled as a preacher among the (Qua- 
kers on the continent of Europe as well as through 
the British Isles, to give celebrity to his establishment. 

4 



26 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1742. 

and which procured a great influx of Irish and Ger- 
mans there, did not prevent them when arrived, from 
discovering the advantages presented in other provinces, 
and a great many who landed on the Delaware, passed 
the southern boundary and settled in Maryland, by 
which the scite of Baltimore became more eligible than 
Charlestown, and the latter was soon deserted. In the 
same year Mr. Thomas Harrison, merchant, arrived 
from England, and built a house near the north east 
corner of South and Water streets, buying the lots 
nearest the water on each side of South street. 

St. Thomas's parish was taken from St. Paul's and the 
new parish Church of that name, was erected about ten 
miles north west of the town on the decease of the Rev. 
Benedict Bourdillon, who was succeeded in St. Paul's 
by the Rev. Tliomas Chase. Major Thomas Sheredine 
was presiding Justice, and John Ridgely Esq. sheriff. 

In 1744, a new town by the name of Baltimore was 
laid out upon Indian river, which empties into tlie At- 
lantic, and was then in AVorcester county, now in Sus- 
sex in Delaware ; but with still less success than the 
others at Elkridge or Charlestown. The name however 
is still retained by one of the Hundreds of Sussex 
county in which the intended town was located. 

f In 1 14-Oyl the two towns -of Baltimore and Jones- 
town, were erected into one to\^^l by the name of Bal- 
timore town, and major Thomas Sheredine, doctor G. 
Buchanan, captain Robert North, colonel William 
Jlanunond, captain Dai'by Lux and Messrs, Thomas 



1745,] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 21 

Harrison and William Fell appointed commissioners 
the two first being then delegates, with John Paca and 
John Hall Esqrs. Captain Lux commanded a ship in 
the London trade as early as 1733, and in 1743, pur- 
chased the lots number 43 and 44 on the west side of 
Ligrht street where he resided and transacted much bu- 
siness. Mr. William Lux, his son, was appointed clerk 
to the commissioners in the place of doctor Walker, 
who died in the last mentioned year. 

The property of wharves, houses or other buildings, 
made or to be made out of tJw icuier^ or where it itsu- 
ally jlows is secured to tlie improvers by this act. 
The commissioners were authorised to levy three pounds 
for the clerk but had no compensation themselves. 

It was now thought necessary as is usual in Village 
settlements, to proscribe the geese and sicine from run- 
ning at large. At the same session, (a law was passed 
providing for the guage of barrels for pork, beef, tar, 
pitch and tui'pentine, the weight of pork and beef in 
barrels and the marking of tare on flour barrels. ; 

Mr, Wm. Fell dying in 1 746, was succeeded by Mr. 
Alexander Lawson as one of the commissioners. 

The communication by the Bridge, which brought 
the great eastern road from the Ford directly through 
both parts of the Town gave value to the intermediate 
grounds, and the whole land and marsh containing twenty 
eight acres in all, was purchased of Mr. Carroll by Mr. 
Harrison in 1747 for 160/ sterling, and at the ensuing 
session an act of assembly was passed by which Gay 
and Frederick and pait of Water and Second streets 



2H ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1747. 

were laid off, with eighteen acres of ground. This addi- 
tion, principally on the west side of the falls, contained 
all the fast land between the eastern limit of the first 
town and the falls. Takers up of lots were to agree 
with and pay the owners of the grounds, as for the 
former addition. 

The commissioners were authorised to open and 
widen streets or alleys with the consent of the propri- 
etors, and remove nuisances, and also to hold two an- 
nual fairs, the first Thursday of May and October, with 
privileges from civil process during the fairs. House 
keepers were subject to a fine of 10s. if they did not 
keep ladders for extinguishment of fires, or if their 
chimnies blazed out at top. But, lest the corporate pow- 
ers granted under this or former laws should be miscon- 
strued to increase the privileges of the citizens, dimin- 
ish the authority of the provincial government or in- 
fluence improperly the legislature, it was cautiously, 
"provided nevertheless, that this act nor any thing herein 
contained, shall extend or be construed to extend, to ena- 
ble or capacitate the said commissioners or inhabitants 
of the said town, to elect or choose delegates, or bur- 
gesses to set in the General Assembly of this prov- 
ince as representatives of said town." How different 
have the fortunes of Baltimore been in this respect, 
from that of all the other great cities of this continent. 
They were not only represented in the legislatures of 
the different provinces or colonies, but, being seats of 
government, were provided with well digested and suit- 
able laws, from the personal attendance and knowledge 
of v/hole assemblies; and, whilst the proceeds of taxes 



1747.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 29 ' 

drawn to the treasuries within them, went into circula- 
tion again through the inhabitants, those contributed by 
the Baltimorians go directly from them, and never re- 
turn but partially to their hands again. 

In 1 748 Messrs. Leonard and Daniel JBarnetz, from 
York in Pensylvania, erected a brewery on the south 
west corner of Baltimore and Hanover streets, lately 
replaced by stores. These gentlemen, if not the 
first were among the first of the Germans, or the decen- 
dants of Germans, whose successive emigration from 
that province, with capital and industry employed here, 
contributed so essentially to aid the original settlers — 
the arrival of whom or of their ancesors, it has not 
been thought necessary to mention in ail cases. 

Captain Darby Lux v/as elected a delegate in the 
place of Col. Hall. Talbot Risteau Esq, was clei^ of 
the county at this time. 

Messrs. Thomas Sheredine and Thomas Sleigh had 
bought of Mr. Hurst the year before, and in 1750 of 
Richard Colegates' sons, John and Thomas, their sev- 
eral rights to the residue of Cole's harbour and Moun- 
tenay's neck east of the Falls, when High street from 
Plowman street to French street, with lots on each 
side including eighteen acres of ground, are added to 
to the town. A Tobacco inspection house was erected 
on the west side of Charles street and near the head of 
the inlet into which Uhler's spring emptied; and a pub- 
lic wharf commenced at the south end of Calvert street, a 
Jong time called "the County wharf;" Messrs. Lawson„ 



30 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1750, 

Hammond and Lux, three of the commissioners, entered 
notices of their intention to improve into the water, 
and did actually erect houses on the bank ne«r the 
shore, the first of wood, on the east, and the last of brick, 
on the west side of Light street, near the west end of 
Bank street, and the other further east, near South street. 
All this part of the town was now closed by a 
fence, having a gateway for carriages on the north end 
of Gay street, and another at the west end of Baltimore 
street, with one smaller for foot passengers upon the 
hill near the church and towards the old road. For the 
purpose of making this enclosure there was a general 
subscription and it was kept in repair by the same 
means three or four years. — The fence it seems became 
a prey to the wants of needy inhabitants, and Lloyd 
Buchanan Esq, was employed to prosecute some of 
them but found the commissioneps not clothed with 
sufficient legal authority, and their inclosure was discon- 
tinued. In 1 750 doctor Buchanan died leaving besides 
the above son Lloyd, Archibald who was a merchant, An- 
drew, George and William, noticed hereafter. The doctor 
was succeeded in the board of commissioners by Mr. 
Brian Philpot, an english merchant tlicn lately ai'rived, 
and in the assembly, by William Smith Esq. of the 
north part of the county. Thomas Franklin Esq. was 
presiding Justice, and so continued more than twenty 
years, during which time the following gentlemen were 
appointed to the office of sheriff, viz. Messrs. Roger 
Boyce in 1750; William Young 1754; Charles Christie 
175C; Aquilla Hall 1761 ; Robert Adair 1765; Daniel 
Chamier 1768 and John R. HoUiday 1770. 



1751] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE 31 

There were other lists of subscription besides the 
following no doubt, but the object of it was not effected 
until ten years after. It is also probable that this delay 
was induced by the opposing interest and influence of 
the settlers on the two sides of the falls. The preamble 
and copy annexed, shows how anxious the first settlers 
continued to be to improve the town — '^Whereas, seve- 
ral acts of Assembly have been made for the enlargement 
and encouragement of Baltimore town, and foras- 
much as the said town increases as well in inhabitants 
as good buildings and trade, and the situation thereof 
renders it convenient for navigation and trade, as well 
with the inhabitants of Baltimore and Anne Arundel 
counties as the back settlements of this province and 
Pennsylvania, but no provision hath yet been made 
by law or otherways for purchasing a lot or lots where- 
on to build a market house, town house and other 
necessary buildings for the benefit of said town, and 
conveniency of such persons as bring their butcher's 
meat and other commodities to sell at market in said 
town . Wherefore,for the further encouragement and im- 
provement of Baltimore town, we whose names are here^ 
unto subscribed, do hereby promise and oblige ourselves^ 
our executors and administrators, to pay to the commis- 
sioners of Baltimore town, or their order, the several 
sum or sums of money to each of our names affixed, to 
be applied to the purchasing a lot or lots in said town 
and building thereon a market house and town hall, 
in such manner as the commissioners of said town shall 
direct and appoint, provided the said lot or lots shall be 
-purchased and building began within two yeai"s from the 



32 



ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 



[iT5r. 



date hereof, witness our hands aud seals this twenty 
third day of April, 1751." Subscription 



Thomas Sheredine 


19/. 


cvr. 


Wm. Hammond 


5/. 


cur. 


Thomn« Harrison 


15 


cnr. 


Alex. Lawson 


10 


cur 


Brian Pliilpot 


10 


stg. 


Wm. Rogers 


10 


stg^ 


Wtp. Lyon 


5 


stg. 


Thos. Sleigh 


10 


stg. 


Thon»as Chase 


Tj 


cur. 


John Randall 


5 


sfg. 


Lloyd Buchanan 


5 


cur. 


Wm. Lux 


5 


stg. 


N. R. Gay 


5 


cur. 









Captain Thomas Franklin and Jolm Mathews, Esq. 
were elected delegates in the place of Messrs. Lux and 
Sheredine, and in November, William Govane, Thomas 
Franklin, L. Buclianan Esqrs. and Major Charles Ridg- 
ley were elected, but the return was defective and they 
were re-elected in March follovring. 

In 1752,; John Moale, Esq. son of the former gentle- 
man of that name, sketched a plan or view of the town, 
tv'hich, after corrections by Daniel Bowley, Esq. was 
published a few years ago by Mr. Edward J. Coale, and 
exhibits the then state of improvements west of the falls. 
Including the buildings already noticed, it appears there 
were about 25 houses, four of which were of brick; and 
the only one of these now standing, built and occupied by 
Mr. William Payne, as a tavern, is on the north west cor. 
nerof Calvert and Bank streets, but the first one erected 
was that of Mr. Edward Fotterall, between Calveii: 
street and St. Pauls lane. It was pulled down after 
being with the rest of his property confiscated and sold, 
because he had returned to Ireland, where his heirs re- 
sided at the time of the revolution. 

It also appears that one brig, called the Philip and 
Charles, belonging to Mr. N. Rogers, and one sloop, thd 



1152-] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 35 

Baltimore, Mr. Lux's property, and represented in the 
sketch, were the only sea vessels owned in the town ; but 
there must have been several vessels owned on the river 
and neighborhood, for it is stated that in the month of 
October, there were upwards of 60 wagons loaded with 
Flax Seed came to town. Mr. William Rogers kept 
an inn in the house represented in the vieiv^ near the 
north east corner of Baltimore and Calvert streets and 
Mr. James Gardner, a school near the intersection of 
South and Water streets. In the same year, thirty 
two acres of Coles' harbour, which Mr. Joshua Hall 
had purchased of Mr. Carroll, were added to the town, 
being part of that tract which lay between the town and 
the lines of Lunn's lot at the south, west and north of the 
first town ; commencing at the same point on the river, 
and including the grounds between McClellan's alley 
and Forest lane ran to the falls side, north of the church 
and city spring, where Mr. John Frazier rented a 
shipyard and resided. Special penalties were enacted 
against obstructing the hai'bor or throwing earth, sand 
or dirt into the river at this period. 

In the Maryland Gazette of 27th February 1752, is 
inserted an advertisement for a schoolmaster "of a good 
sober character, who understands teaching English, wri* 
ting and arithmetic," and who, it is added, "will meet 
with very good encouragement froril .the inhabitants of 
Baltimore town, if well recommended." 

In the Gentlemen's Magazine for 1753, the popula- 
tion of the county the preceding year, still including 
Harford, is stated to consist of 

5 



34 ANNALS 


1 OF BALTIMORE. 




[1152.. 


2692 White men, 
SI 15 boys, 




2587 White women, 
2951 girls, 


i 


11,345 


695 men servants, 
126 boys, do. 




200 women servants, 
49 girls, do. 


\ 


970 


472 men convicts, 
G boys do. 
Mulattoe slaves 116, 


87 women convicts, 
6 girls, do. 
, free 196, 


\ 


571 
312 


Negroes, including eight 


free. 




4035 



total, 17,238 

In the same year 1 753 a Lottery is advertised for the 
purpose of raising 450 pieces of eight., or dollars, towards 
building a public wharf^ of which lottery Messrs. John 
Stevenson, Richard Chase, John Moale, Charles Croxall, 
William Rogers, Nicholas Rogers, John Ridgely, N. R. 
>< Gay, William Lux and Rrian Philpot were managers. 

Mr. George N. Myers, a Pennsylvania German 
moved to Baltimore and another,'" Mr. Valentine i' 
( Larsh built an Inn at the south west corner of Balti- 
more and Gay streets, and Mr. Andrew Steiger, butcher, 
who first bought of Mr. L. Goodwin, the south west 
corner of Baltimore and Charles streets. (JNIr. Steiger 
afterwards, that is in 1756, procured the lot at the 
iiorth east corner of Gay and Baltimore sti'eets, but on 
the gable end of the house arc fixed the figures 1741 
still there, being four years anterior to the laying out of 
tliat part of the town, and fifteen yeai's before the lot 
was deeded to him, and in 1759, he purchased of Dr. 
William Lyon, drained and cleared the wooded 
marsh in the bend of the falls and then on the east sidr 
of the stream, for pasturage for his cattle. 



1753.] A.NNALS 01^ BALTIMORE. S5 

In the meantime 1754, Mr. Moale built the brick 
store, south east corner Calvert street and Lovely lane, 
and the dwelling now standing in the rear of St. 
Peters church. The same year the buildings at the 
mount were erected by Charles Carroll Esq. barrister, 
of which the brick was imported. 

Mr. Sheredine dying was succeeded by Lloyd Buc- 
hanan Esq. and the same year Mr. Nicholas Ruxton 
Gay, who was surveyor, succeeded Col. Hammond, 
who had been one of the first commissioners of the 
town. 

Mr. John Sly came to settle in Baltimore and erected 
a house on the north side of south Gay street, and Mr. 
Conrad Smith another on the opposite side; and three 
years after Mr. Jacob Keeports another one adjoining; 
in the mean time, Frederick and Peter Myers arrived. 

John Paca, Wm. Govane, Lloyd Buchanan and Wal- 
ter Tolley Esqrs. are elected delegates, but Mr. Buchan- 
an being appointed prosecutor, is succeeded by Wm. 
Smith Esq. Beale Bordley Esq. is clerk of the county. 

The savages, after Braddocks defeat by the French 
and Indians in 1755, had passed the forts Cumberland 
and Frederick and got within eighty or ninety miles of 
the town, in parties of plunder and murder. Although 
the French abandoned fort Du Quesne on the Ohio 
1758^ the country this side of that river was but 
partially relieved. There is no doubt the growth of 
Baltimore was promoted by the continuation of the 
war, preventing the extension of the settlements wes- 
terly, for within a year after peace the town had cei*- 



3(6 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1755 

tainly become the greatest mart of trade in the prov- 
ince, if not before the war began. 

Many of the French neutrals forcibly deprived of 
their property and expelled, took refuge here from 
Acadia or Nova Scotia in 1756, the place being taken 
by the British. Some of them were received in private 
houses, others quartered in Mr. Fotterall's deserted 
house, in which they erected a temporary chapel. For 
although the province had been a refuge for perse- 
cuted catholics in particular, they were surpassed in 
number by Protestants before any settlement was made 
in this county, and they had no place of worship in it 
as yet. At first assisted by public levies authorised by 
law, these emigrants soon found means by their extraor- 
dinary industry and frugality, to get much of the 
grounds on south Charles street, erecting many cabins 
or huts of mud and mortar, which part was long dis- 
tinguished by the name of French town. By the same 
means they or their children converted their huts into 
good frame or brick buildings, mostly by their own 
hands, and there are yet some of the original French 
settlers living there at the age of eighty five years and 
upwards. Among these French neutrals Messrs. Gut- 
tro, Gould, Dashiel, Blanc (White) and Berbine, 
who had suffered least perhaps, attached themselves 
mostly to navigation and the infirm picked Oak- 
um. Several houses erected on the west side of the 
street, from timber cut on the lots by themselves, and 
yet standing, were occupied by some of them more than 
sixty years. 



1756.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 9f 

On the other hand the defenceless inhabitants were 
greatly alarmed lest the Indians should reach the town ; 
and we learn from the respectable relict of Mr. Moale, 
who was a daughter of the late captain North and the 
oldest native of the place now living, that the women and 
children were put on board of boats or vessels in the har- 
bour to he rescued by flight down the bay if necessary, 
w^hile the inhabitants of the adjacent country were fly- 
ing to town for safety. 

At the general election in September 1757 ]Mr. 
William Govane, captain Thomas C. Deye, doctor Sam- 
uel Owings and captain John H. Dorsey were chosen 
delegates, and again in 1758. 

In 1 758 Mr. Jacob Myers took the south east corner 
of Gay and Baltimore streets and built an inn. At this 
period there also arrived and settled on lots north of 
Baltimore street, Messrs. Levely, Conrad and Grand- 
chut the last of whom erected a brewejr^on north 
Frederick street. Mr. Daniel Barnet and others .who 
were German Lutherians, bought the lot and erect a 
small church on Fish street. 

In 1759 Messrs John Smith and William Buchanan, 
from Carlisle, the first a native of Strabane in Ireland, 
and the last of Lancaster county in Pennsylvania, pur- 
chased of Mr. Harrison after having been refused wa- 
ter lots on terms which they would accept, by Messrs. 
Moale and Fell, the lot fronting on Gay and Wa- 
ter streets; building, besides the dwelling houses still 



98 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [17o9. 

tliere, two wharves of piae cord wood about one thou- 
sand feet long each, to the channel of the river. Mr. Jo- 
nathan Plowman, an English merchant lately arrived, 
bought several acres of ground of Mr. Sligh, adjoining 
the last addition east of the falls, and built at the nortli 
cast cornej' of York now Baltimore and High streets. 

In 1760 Mr. Philpot purchased of Mr. Sligli, most 
of the peninsula between the falls and Harford run, 
and built the house at the north east corner of Balti- 
more street bridge, which caused the bridge afterwards 
built to be known by that name. 

llie same year, Messrs. Larsh, Steiger, Keeports 
and others, who were German or Dutch Presbyterians, 
bought the ground north of the church of Mr. Carroll, 
and built a small place of worship for that religious so- 
ciety, of which Mr. Faber was first minister. 

In 1761, Messrs. William Smith anjd James Stcrrett 
njoved from Lancaster, Pennsylv^Tnia, and improved the 
first in Calvert street, and the latter at the north west 
comer of Gay and Water streets, w^here he erected a 
brewery, which was burned and rebuilt and burned 
again soon after the revolution . 

Mr. Mark Alexander, from Cecil county, purchases 
part of the original lot number one, on the north side of 
Baltimore street, and afterwaids the water lot west side 
Calvert street, and erects extensive buildings at both 
places as well as the house south west corner of 
Cliarles and north west, now Saratoga street. 

"Mr. INIelchor Keener, a German ari:ived from Penn- 



1761] ANNALS OF BALTIIVIORE. 3d 

sylvania, and two years after erected the house in North 
Gay street which bears his initials with the date in a 
niche of the front, for an inn; building a wharf and 
warehouse on the grounds added to the town by Mr, 
Howard, below Hanover street, afterwards. In the 
mean time Mr. S teiger erected the dwelling next to the 
corner of Baltimore street and Mr. Lytle took the cor- 
ner house for an Inn, and Mr. Amos Fogg rented the 
White Horse Inn, south east corner of Front and Low 
streets. John Paca, Thomas C. Deye, John H. Dor- 
sey and Corbin Lee Esqrs. are elected delegates. 

From Mr. Edward Fell of William, who held a com- 
mission in the provincial army, the mill property was 
purchased by Mr. William Moore, who came from Ire- 
land and first settled at Brandj'wine mills, but removed 
to Baltimore in 1762. 

The next year Mr. Moore sold the upper mill seat to 
Messrs. Joseph Ellicott and John and Hugh Burgess, 
from Bucks coimty Pennsylvania, who built the mill 



opposite the present jnil. Mr. Ellicott sold his interest 
to Burgess and went away, but returned with his broth- 
ers John and Andrew, purchased the lands and erected 
the mills on Patapsco ten years after. 

The Canadian war having terminated in 1763, 
Messrs. Plowman and Philpot laid out some grounds 
between the falls and Harford run, into streets running 
north west to south east and nearly parallel with the 
former stream, with other streets at right angles with 
them; and Mr. Fell laid off part of the tracts of land 
cm the east and which his father had. pui'chased of Har^ 



40 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1765 

ris, Carter and others, buying of Sligh himself part of 
Mountenay's neck and all two years before rcsurveyed 
and patented by the name of Fell's prospect; with 
streets north and south and east and west, except on the 
extreme point itself, where he was governed by the 
course of the river; which locations were confirmed, 
and the same added to the town by act of Assembly ten 
years after. The duties on negroes and Irish ser- 
vants not protestants, imported by forei^ners^ were at 
twenty shillings sterling and twenty shillings currency 
more on all accounts^ to both were added in 1763, forty 
shillings currency. . On all kinds of liquors except from 
England the duty was three pence per gallon; on Pork 
six pence per hundred weight, or one shilling and six 
pence per barrel ; Pitch one shilling; Tar six pence; 
on dried Beef or Bacon exported the duly was one 
shilling per hundi-ed weight; and on pickled Pork and 
Beef one shilling per ban^el of two hundred weight; 
part of which with one shilling per hogshead on Tobac- 
co exported, was appropriated to the general ex- 
penses of the province and part to the free schools; 
to the proprietary one shilling sterling per hogshead, 
with half a pound of powder and three pounds of shot, 
or the value, on every ton of foreign shipping entered; 
three pence per hhd. to the governor, and the duty of five 
per cent or tonnage and jwundage u^on all imports,to the 
crown. The navigation act of Great Britam confined 
all the trade to British and colonial merchants and ships, 
and intercourse with her dominions of Europe only 
was allowed for Tobacco, no other trade but to her do- 
minions and the south of Europe. Restricted thus by 



17C3.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 41 

a government in which they had no share, the Americans 
contemned their revenue laws, and whilst they were 
enforced by the civil authority only as they still were 
wealth was increased and few complaints were made 
even by the merchants, on whom all such exactions fall 
in the first instance . 

Some time before Doctors John and Henry Steven- 
son arrived from Ireland, the former conducts an exten- 
sive trade with that and other countries, and the latter 
entered into the practice of medicine, and commence s 
the stone house rough cast near the York road 

In the same year, 1763, Messrs. John Brown, Ben- 
jamin Griffith and Samuel Purviance settled in Balti- 
more; the former from Jersey, having learned his trade 
in Wilmington, erected a pottery on the east side of 
Bridge, now Gay street, and the latter, who came from 
Donegal by way of Philadelphia, erected a distillery on 
the south east corner of Water and Commerce streets 
with a wharf; Mr. Griffith who came from New C astle 
county, having purchased FelPs lot adjoining the bridge, 
rebuilt it by contract and thence it was, to distinguish 
it from the others when afterwards built, called by his 
name. 

A new Tobacco inspection house was erected on 
Mr . Harrison's grounds, near what is now the south 
west intersection of Water and South streets, and a 
Powder magazine on the falls side, under the hill, 
near the north east corner of Washington Square 
streets ; Messr s. William Lyon, Nicholas R. Gay, John 
Moale and Archibald Buchanan, a majority of the 

G 



4-2' ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1763. 

town commissioners, took the corner lot on the north 
of Baltimore street and west of Gay sti'eet on lease 
of Mr. Harrison, at eight/, sterling per annum, for a 
market house, which was built by the subscriptio^of 
the citizens principally. 

The justices of the peace whose jurisdiction 
out of court, in relation to small debts, had been first 
limited to the sum of sixteen shillings and eight pence 
was extended to fifty shillings and some chancery juris- 
diction was extended to the county courts. 

In 1 764 Mr. William Spear, who came from Lancas- 
ter, took the water lot near Gay street and wharfing out 
about a 1000 feet to a small Island, erected a bakery 
there. Mr. Robert Long, who, it is said had persuad- 
ed Mr. Fell to lay off' that part of the town, commenced 
some improvements at the corner of Ann and Thames 
streets, moved to the country and left his buildings un- 
finished; some lots were also conveyed to Mr. John 
Bond by Mr. Fell, but sold out by him. James Heath 
Esq. was elected one of the delegates in the place of 
M. Dorsey. 

In 1765, captain Charles Ridgely and Mr. Griffith 
purchased water lots of INIr. Fell, west of the public 
wharf; the latter building a wharf and warehouse, which 
was the first there; and Mr. Benjamin Nelson, ship- 
wright, who had moved from Charlcstown, Cecil county^ 
established a ship yai*d in Philpot street; three years 
after Mr. Isaac Griest, also from Cecil, took the water 
lot east of the public wharf. The ensuing year captain 



1751 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 43 

George Patton, who came from Ireland, erected the 
wharf on the west end of the point, and three years af- 
ter, Mr. Jesse Hollings worth another on the east. The 
remainder of the water lots being chiefly taken and im- 
proved in the mean time, by Messrs. Pm'viance, Wells, 
Smith, Mackie and Vanbibber, the point containing 
all the artisans and articles requisite for building and 
fitting vessels, was already a rival of the town. 

Mr. Hollings worth, from Elkton, and Mr. Yanbibber 
from Charlestown, Cecil county, joined by their brothers 
afterwards moved from the point to the town, and made 
other considerable improvements. 

The first settlers were in fact at great loss to deter^ 
mine in which part to buy, as most likely to improve-, 
and those who had sufficient means or enterprize, gene- 
rally took lots both in town and point. 

Mr. Cornelius Howard, from part of the tract of land 
called Lunn's lot, then lately re-surveyed by Mr, How- 
ard, added thirty five acres of it, including the streets cal- 
led Conway and Barre after those successful opponents 
of the stamp act in the British parliament, and 
the dwelling house near the south east intersection of 
Hanover and Pratt streets, and running between the 
west side of Forest and the east side of Liberty to 
Saratoga street, which addition was confirmed by law 
the same year, aud Messrs. Keener, Myers, Yanbibber 
and others toqk water lots of him. 

Messrs. Stevenson, Smith, Lyon, Buchanan, Sterett, 
Spear, Plowman and others, Presbyterians erected a 
church on East now Fayette street, where the present 
church stands, in this year, doctor Patrick Allison be- 



44 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1705. 

iiig their minister, having three years before leased a lot 
on which they erected asmall place of worship on the oth- 
er side of the same street near Gay street, which they now 
dispose of to captain Ridgely, who owned the house 
at the south west corner of Gay and Fayette streets. 

The next year, a law was passed to compel Messrs. 
Harrison, Lawson and Philpot to fill up the mai'sh be- 
tween Frederick street and the falls, and nine commis- 
sioners, viz. Robert Alexander, John Smith, William 
Smith, Jonathan Plowman, William Spear, Andrew 
Steiger, Charles Ridgely, junr. John Merryman and 
Benjamin Griffith, or five of them were appointed to lay 
it off as an additi(m to the town; a law was also passed 
prescribing a quarantine at the discretion of the govern- 
or, on all passenger ships infected by diseases, and an- 
other relating to the roads of the county. 

In this year, 1766, died Mr. Edward Fell, leaving 
one son, William, an infant. 

At the election of 1767, John Ridgely, Thomas C. 
Deye, John Moale and Robert Adair Esqrs. are elec- 
ted delegates. Hitherto, the noi^th side of the county 
appeared to have its share of representatives, but none 
of these (xentlemen resided remote from the town. 
Mr. Adair who was sheriff resided in the house 
standing at the south east corner of Baltimore and 
South streets, which was about that time, struck 
by lightning and a Mr. Richardson of Annopolis killed. 
Such had now been the increase of the town, and the 
inconvenience to which the inhabitants were subjected 
in attending courts at Joppa, that a law was passed in 



i/ft 



jf- 



1763.] 



ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 



1768, authorising Messrs. J. B. Bordley, John Ridgely 
Ji —John Moale, Robert Adair,(Kobert AIexandeiJ> Wil- 
liam Smith and Andrew Buchanan, commissioners, to 
build a court house and prison, "on the uppermost 
part of Calvert street next Jones' falls." The former 
built of brick and two story high, with a handsome 
cupola, stood where the Baltimore monument now is, 
until the present court house was erected in 1808; 
the latter, the prison, of stone, two stories high, also 
stood on the west end of the same lot, adjacent to St. 
Pauls lane, now street, until the present county jail 
■was -built, in 1800. C''\'\ ; v 

The same commissioners w^ere directed to sell the 
court house and prison at Joppa, the courts being ac- 
commodated in the mean time in the Hall erected for 
public assemblies over the market, and the prisoners 
lodged in a log building, near Mr. Chamier the sheriff's 
house on the east side of south Frederick street. 
The subscription towards building the court house, 
amounting to near 900Z currency, chiefly by inhabitants 
of the town, did not reconcile the people on the north 
and east sides of the county and the removal of the 
records by Mr. Alexander Lawson, son of the late 
Alexander Lawson and now clerk of the county, was at- 
tended with some violence and outrajrc. 



T>^ 



A SOCIETY formed by Messrs. David Shields, James 
Cox, Gerard Hopkins, George Lindenbergcr, John Dea- 
ver and others, aided by a general subscription, procu- 
red an engine for the extinguishment of fires in 1769, 
which was called "The Mechanical Company." This 
was the first machine of the kind here, though there are 



46 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1769. 

now no less than eight others, much larger, besides six 
hose companies, all which latterly ai-e aided by the 
funds of the city to the amount of about four thousand 
dollars a year. The first engine cost ninety nine pounds 
or 264 dollars — ^but the same company have procu- 
red a larger and more powerful engine, as all the oth- 
ers are. 

Doctor Stevenson converts his new and elegant 
house, which on that account was called Stevenson's 
folly, to the very laudable purpose of a small pox in- 
firmary, by appropriating part of it for the reception of 
young gentlemen whom he inoculates successfully be- 
fore the practice had become general. 

The exports from Virginia and Maryland at this time 
included 85, 000 hogsheads of Tobacco, and from tJie 
middle colonies 751,240 bushels of wheat, 45,868 tons 
flour and bread ; the amount of all the imports into Eng- 
land from the two first mentioned colonies ^4,401,820, 
exports $3, 779,061 present currency at four shillings 
and six pence sterling per dollar ; there was therefore an 
apparent gain to Virginia and Maryland of above 
^600,000, but the surplus went then as it does now 
to the greater importing and manufacturing inhabitants 
of the east. 

Messrs. McNabb, Walsh, Stenson, Ilouk, Hillen. 
Brown, Wlielan, with the Frencli emigrants and others; 
Roman Catholics having sometime before obtained the 
lot of Mr. Carroll, erected a part of St. Peter's Chapel 
on Saratoga street in 1770; but they had no settled 
Priest until the arrival of the Rev. Mr. Chai'lea SewalJ. 
ten years after. 



1770.] AN^NALS OF BALTIMORE^ 47 

By a ludricrous suit against Ganganelli, Pope of Rome, 
for want of other defendant, to recover the advances of 
Mr. McNabb, become a bankrupt, the church was some 
time closed at the commencement of the revolution, and 
the congregation assembled in a private house in south 
Charles street until possession was recovered. This 
was sooner than was expected, by the address of captain 
Galbraith's company of volunteer militia, who were 
guarding some Scotch malcontents from North Carolina 
but desirous not to omit worship insisted upon being 
marched directly to the church, of which some were 
members, and demanded and obtained the key. 

In 1771, an act of assembly was passed, "to prevent 
the exportation of flour, staves and shingles not mer- 
chantable, and to regulate the weight of hay and mea- 
sures of ^ain, salt, flaxseed and firewood." 

The commissioners of the town were authorised to 
appoint the inspectors. Mr. Jonathan Hanson, son 
of the former gentleman of that name who had 
erected the third, fourth and fifth mills on the falls', 
was appointed inspector of flour, which continued to be 
sold by weight until after the revolution. 

The tobacco or warehouse system which was intro- 
duced for flour at Charlestown, was wisely abandoned. 
It is of less importance by whom inspectors are appoint- 
ed, than that they should, like the administrators of the 
law and all other Judges between man and man, hold 
their office during good behaviour. Whilst tobacco was 
a legal tender, than which no system could be better 
adapted to tempt every planter to become a counterfeiteV 



48 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1771. 

and produce a bad article, county warehouses and local 
inspectors were indispensable, but when the tobacco of 
the state is almost all brought to one place, and no 
tender one system should be common to both flour and 
tobacco. 

Messrs. Cumberland Dugan and Lemuel Cravath, 
from Boston, and the latter the first New England gen- 
tleman who settled here, traded largely thence; Mr. Du- 
gan, who had gone from Ireland and married at Boston, 
took the lot on Water street and built the house standing 
obliquely with the street but parallel with the shore, 
near Cheapside; about this time also, Mr. William 
Moore, built the stone house at the south east corner 
of South and Water streets. 

South street, originally an alley of sixteen and a half 
feet, was widened from Baltimore street to the Avater, by 
the new inspection house, at the instance of N. Rogers' 
guardians. Samuel Owings and George Risteau, Esqrs. 
were elected delegates in the places of Messrs. Ridglcy 
and Adair. The merchants of Baltimore, like those of 
other English colonial ports, had found the Mcditcranean 
trade the most profitable, and they had the address to 
limit the exactions of the English ministers by evading 
the payment of the customs in some instances. 

Among the number of those who arrived and car- 
ried on trade from Baltimore about this period, besides 
others mentioned, were Messrs. Hercules Courtcnay 
James Clarke, Thomas Usher, .James M'Honry, David 
Williamson, David Stewart, Daniel Carroll, David Phm- 
kett, James Cheston, John Ashburner, Matthew Ridl^)^, 
Wm. Russell, Thomas Russell, Jonathan Hudson, Ro- 



1771] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 49 

Robert Walsh, Mark Pringle, James Somervel, 
Thomas Place, John Riddle, Charles Garts, Wm. Neil 
and Johnson Gildert, and from other states or other 
parts of this, Messrs. John McKim, George Woolsey, 
James Calhoun, William Aisquith, Joseph Magoffin and 
Henry Schaeffe; and different trades or manufactm'es 
were established by other gentlemen, who lately arrived 
from other parts of the country or from Europe viz. 
Messrs. George Lindenberger, Barnett Eichelberger, 
Francis Sanderson, Richard Lemmon, Jacob Walsh, 
William Wilson, George Presstman, Richardson Stew- 
art, Robert Steuart, Englehard Yeiser, Christopher 
Hughes, also Mr. John Cornthwait, who established 
a tanyard on Wilkes street, the west side of Harford 
run, and Mr. William Smith, who established the Rope 
Walk near Bond street, which was the first except 
that of Mr. Lux's, but several tanyards had been estab- 
lished on the west side of the falls, above and below 
Gay street, at or before this period. 

The members of the bar who resided here, were 
Robert Alexander, Jeremiah T. Chase, Benjamin 
Nicholson, Thomas Jones, George Chalmers, Robert 
Smith of W. Robert Buchanan of W. Francis Curtis 
and David McMechin Esqrs. 

The practising Physicians in and near the town, 
were Doctors Lyon, Hultz, Stenhouse, Weisenthall, 
Pue, Stevenson, Boyd, Craddock, Haslet, Gray and 
Coulter. 

L\ May 1773, Charles Ridgely, Thomas C. Deye, 
Aquilla Hall and Walter Tolley, Esqrs. were elected 

7 



50 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1773 

Delegates to the General Assembly, and the subversion 
of the colonial government taking place before the usual 
period of issuing writs for an election, which was three 
years, they were the last delegates under that government, 
Messrs. Moale and Steiger were authorised, at a session 
in June, to add eighteen acres of ground lying between 
Bridge now Gay and Front steeets. It was not carried 
into effect until eight years after, but about eighty acres 
of Plowman, Philpot and Fell's lands were added to 
the town on the east. 

The markets were regulated by law, and the commis- 
sioners authorised to hire stalls, appoint a clerk, &c. 

Hitherto the relief afforded the poor was determined 
by the justices, who levied annually from 400 to 1200 
pounds of tobacco for each person, and there were above 
200 at this time, who received the value of their levies 
themselves, or by the hands of some reputable neigh- 
bour, as was the practice in all the counties until within 
a few years. The system was liable to great abuses 
and had become very burdensome, so that the govern- 
ment loaned 4000 pounds to the county, and Messrs. C. 
Ridgely, William Lux, John Moale, William Smith, 
Samuel Purviance, Andrew Buchanan and H. D. 
Gough, being appointed Trustees of the poor, erect the 
centre building and east wing of the house on north 
Howard street. The same law provided for the em- 
ployment of the poor, as well as a workhouse for va- 
grants, and the relief being determined by the discretion 
of the Trustees, no certainty is aflorded to tempt idlers ; 
experience soon proved the benefits of the system, and it 
has undergone no material change in this respect. 



1773.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 51 

The house caught fire accidentally, on the 18th Sep- 
tember, 1776, and was mostly consumed, but was, except 
a cupola, rebuilt and the west wing afterwards added. 

At different times Courts of Assize and nisi prius? 
composed of one or more judges of the provincial 
court, held circuit courts in the counties, and sometimes 
prisoners for «mall debts were relieved by a general in- 
solvent law, but those law matters were oftener deter- 
mined at the seat of government, and individuals una- 
ble to pay their debts obtained special acts for their re- 
lief. These circumstances, with the necessity of resort- 
ing to Annapolis to get registers for vessels, to enter 
and clear them, helped to impede the growth of our 
Town. However at this time the jurisdiction of the 
county courts was extended to causes real or mixed, 
to all debts and criminal offences. A tonnage duty of 
four pence was laid on the entry of ships towards erect- 
ing a light house on Cape Henry and fixing buoys in 
the bay jointly with Virginia. That colony had appro- 
priated 10,000 I. for the purpose, and Maryland 3,600/. 
but the difficulties of the times prevented the execution 
of the law, until about the year 1 788. 

The taxable inhabitants, that is all male persons and 
female slaves above sixteen years, being 10,498, the 
free white population about 20,000, it became exceeding- 
ly troublesome to assemble from distances of thirty and 
forty miles, to which the limits extended northwardly 
from Baltimore, and it had been necessary in 1 769 to 
authorise the holding of the election for delegates at 
Bush town after the polls had been closed at Baltimore. 
The county was therefore divided, and that part lying 



52 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1773. 

north of the little falls of Gunpowder was erected into 
a new county, by the name of the. then proprietary Mr. 
Harford, and at the same session, the justices or any 
three of them were directed to hold three courts a year 
for the trial of criminal offences exclusively. This 
was required as the result of an increase of population 
only, and if any should imagine that it w as a differ- 
ent kind of servants from those introduced amongst our 
neighbours, they are invited to remember that the se- 
verity of the British penal laws guaranteed us from 
any worse description of people than are sent forth 
from penitentiai'ies daily. 

After the new limits were fixed, the county became as 
it is now, a pentagon or five sided figure, bounded on 
the south by the Patapsco, on the east by the bay, north 
east by Harford, north by the Pennsylvania line 
and on the west by Frederick county. It is about 
forty miles from east to west, and thirty from 
north to south; divided into seventeen hundreds and 
twelve election districts, exclusive of the city, and, with 
it, is said to contain 622,084. acres of land. No map has 
yet been made of the county except that contained in 
the general map of the state, and a topographical map 
which would delineate the improvements and natural 
resources for additional ones, on a large scale, would be 
as useful to those who contemplate future works, as it 
would be gratifying to such as have been engaged in 
those already made. 

At this time. Gay street bridge was rebuilt of wood, 
and a new one erected at Baltimore street, first of stone, 
which gave way when finished and the centres removed. 



1773-] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 53 

and then of wood, and on Water street for the first 
time, another of wood ; to the two last of which it was 
necessary to raise causeway^from Frederick street 
across the marsh. 

On the 20th of August, Mr. Wm. Goddard, printer, 
of Rhode Island, moved from Philadelphia and com- 
menced the publication of the first newspaper, which 
was issued once a week, under the title of "IMaryland 
Journal and Baltimore Advertiser," from a house in 
South street, east side, near the corner of Baltimore 
street; until which time it was usual to take the papers 
from and send advertisements to either Annapolis or 
Philadelphia. Soon after, INIr. Joseph Rathel issued 
proposals for a Circulating Library here, but without 
success. 

The importance of the trade and intercourse had al- 
ready produced the establishment of a line of packets 
and stages, by the head of Elk, to and from Philadel- 
phia, and a coffee house or hotel was opened at thePoint. 
The bills of credit had depreciated in all the colo- 
nies, and fell here to 2001. for 100/. sterling before 
the year 1750, but had recovered their credit in INIary- 
land, and bills of exchange were quoted at sixty five 
and two thirds to sixty two and a half; Wheat six shil- 
lings per bushel. Flour twenty shillings per cwt. Bar 
Iron twenty six pound per ton. Pig Iron eight pound per 
ton. Salt two shillings. Sugar forty five to sixty shillings, 
Pork eighty five shillings. Tar thirteen shillings, Tur- 
pentine twenty two shillings and six pence. Tobacco 
was generally shipped for account £»f the Planters, but 
Eastern shore was not worth more than eleven 



54 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1773. 

and three pence and Elkridge from twenty to 
thirty shillings, there was none of the kinds now cal- 
led bright yellow or kit^foot, cultivated then. 

Although the legal currency and money of account 
remained as fixed by the coins one hundred years be- 
fore at six shillings per dollar, the par at this period 
must be considered by general assent, at seven shil- 
lings and sixpence, and so the legislature established 
the money by the law entitled "an act for the payment 
of the public creditors," and this rate was confirmed 
directly after the declaration of Independence. 

Messrs. Douglass and Hal) am had presented the 
inhabitants with some theatrical performances, in a 
w^arehouse which stood at the north west corner of Bal- 
timore and Frederick streets, and now encouraged by 
the friends of the Drama er-ect a small Theatre neai* 
the intersection of Albemarle and George, now Water 
street, where they performed until the war; all those 
amusements being then prohibited, they removed to the 
English West India Islands. However a company 
with Mr. Wall performed in York, now Baltimore street 
in 1781, and Mr. Hallam returned after the war, with 
Mr. Henry and built another Theatre near Queen, now 
Pratt street, to accommodate the town and point. 

Until this period tlie hills on which the Cathedral and 
Hospital are erected, and the grounds west of Greene 
street where Mi'. Lux had established a Rope walk, and 
the south shore of the river from Lee street, where 
Mr. Thomas Mogan set up the frame of a ship, to the 
fort point were covered with forest trees or small plan- 
tations. The grounds between the town and point, cal 



.1773] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 5 5 

led Philpot's hill, remained an open common. The 
last fair was held on Mr. Howard's grounds between 
Liberty and Greene streets, where races were also ran 
before the revolution. Most of the timber fell a prey 
to the wants of necessitous inhabitants during the cold 
winters of 1 779 and 1 783, and improvements did not 
commence even on Mr. Philpot's grounds for some 
years after. 

Messrs. John and Charles Wesley had visited Geor- 
gia as missionaries in 1 735, but soon returned to Eng- 
land. In 1740, Mr. John Whitfield arrived there and 
passed through Baltimore on several visits to the north . 
But now several followers of 3Ir. Jolin Wesley having 
arrived in America and visited Baltimore, amongst oth- 
ers the Rev Messrs. Asbury, Rankin, Webb and King, 
are joined by Messrs. Jesse Rollings worth,George Wells, 
Richard Moale, George Robinson, John Woodward and 
others, and a society is formed and a church erected in 
1 773, in Strawberry alley, and the next year part of the 
same society erect another church in Lovely lane. — 
Two years after on the twenty first of May, the preach- 
ers held their first conference in this town, three former 
being held in Philadelphia ; but the society was yet only 
an auxiliary to other churches, as the preachers were 
still considered laymen, the members received the sacra- 
ments with the societies to which they had been attach- 
ed until after the revolution. 

Messrs. Griffith, Shields, Lemmon, Presstman, 
McKim, Cox and others buy the lot and erect a part 
of the church on Front street for the Baptist society 
the Rev. John Davis from Haii:ord officiating!: or 



5(j ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [I773 

casionally, but they were not regularly constituted 
until 1 785, when the Rev. Lewis Richards was chosen 
minister. 

The German Lutherans, of whom were Messrs. 
Lindenberger, Wershler, Hartwig, Hoeckle, Rock, 
Grasmuck, Levely and Bai netz, doctor Wiesenthall and 
others, with the aid of a Lottery, erected a new church 
in Fish now Saratoga street, the Rev. Mr. Gerock being 
their pastor, having been assisted in religious duties by 
visiting clergy of that society from York or Lancaster 
until now. 

As this town did not appear to be the Capitol of the 
Province and the population and wealth of the place 
had not y t attracted the notice of the British govern- 
ment, the teas upon which it was intended to raise a re- 
venue were like the stamps, sent to Annapolis, where 
they meet that fate which would have attended them 
here, and Baltimore was, like the rest of the confedera- 
cy, saved from these fatal impositions altogether. 

At the last session of the provincial Legislature 
which assembled twenty third INIarch 1771, an act pas- 
sed providing for the appointment by the commissioners 
of a guager, prohibiting the sale of liquid merchandise 
before guaging; and another appropriating the sum of 
4000/. or 10,6661 dollars as a loan to make the three 
great roads leading to the town, to be expended under 
the direction of Isaac Griest, Benjamin Griftith and 
Jesse Hollingsworth, and thirteen gentlemen in the 
county named in the act, supervisors. 

The British government had determined not only to 



1774.] ANNALS^F BALTIMORE. .57 

increase the exactions on the trade of the colonists, but 
to enforce them by military poAver, so that their evasioii 
become almost impracticable. — They were no longer 
mere matters of form, but tangible substances, and most 
likely to be resisted where the trade was most extensive 
and the grievance more severely felt, as was the case to 
the eastward. 

In the Maryland Journal of the twenty eighth of May 
1774, a notice appeared of which the following is a 
copy, "On Tuesday last, a few hours after the arrival of 
an express from Philadelphia relative to the situation of 
affairs at Boston, a number of merchants and respectable 
mechanics of this town met at the Court House and 
appointed a committee to correspond with the neighbor- 
ing colonies, as the exigency of affairs may make it 
occasionally necessary." 

The news was the arrival of governor Gage with a 
bill for blocking the port of Boston, and the retreat of 
governor Hutchinson from the town to Fort William?} 
now Fort Independence. 

Committees appointed by tliC several counties met at 
Annapolis on the twenty second of June, in which Bal- 
timore county and tov/n were represented by captaih 
Charles llidgcly, Thomas C. Deye, Walter Tolley Jv. 
-^Robert Alexander, William Lux, Samuel Purviance Jr. 
and George Risteau Esqrs. By them, nonimportation 
resolves were entered into ; collections were to be maftc 
for the relief of the Bostonians and congressmen were 
appointed. The congress which met at Philadelphia 
on the fifth of Sp])tomber, having adfipted similar mea- 

H 



58 



ANNALS OF BACTIMORE. 



[1774. 



sures, recommended the appointment of town and coun- 
ty committees thi'ougliout the colonies: and on the 
twelfth of November a meeting of the freeholders and 
other inhabitants of Baltimore county and town, enti- 
tled to vote, was held at the comt house and the fol- 
lowing gentlemen were chosen to compose the commit- 
tee for Baltimore town, viz. Messrs. 



Andrew Buchanan 
Robert Alexander 
William Lux 
John Moale 
John Merry man 
Richaid Moalc 
Jeremiah T. Chase 
Thomas Harrison 
Archibald Buchanan 
William Buchanan 
William Smith 
James Calhoun 
Benjamin Griflith 
Gerard Hopkins 
William Speai'- 



Jolm Smith 
Barnet Eichelberger 
George Woolsey 
Hercules Courtenay 
Isaac Griest 
Mark Alexander 
Samuel Furviance Junior 
Francis Sanderson 
Dr. John Boyd 
George Lintenbcrgcr 
Philip Rogers 
David iVIcMcchen 
Mordccai GisL 
and 
John Dcaver 



in all twenty nine, and thirty eigiit oilier gentlemen for 
tlie county, of whom Mesjirs. 



Thomas C. Dcye 
ca])tain Charles Ridgel} 
AV alter Tolley junior 
Benjamin NicholL-on. 



Sanmel AVorthington 
John JMoale 
doctor Joim Boyd 
William Buchanan. 



1774.] 



ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 



or any three of them were a committee to attend the 
committee meetings at Annapolis, and Messrs. 

'Robert Alexander John Moale 

Samuel Purviance junior Jeremiah T. Chase 

Andrew Buchanan William Buchanan 

doctor John Boyd William Lux. 

or any four of them a committee of correspondence for 
Baltimore town. 

Of the Baltimore committee, Samuel Purviance, Esq. 
was elected chairman, and possessing much ardour in 
the cause which his excellent talents enabled him tn 
promote in an eminent manner, so continued until the 
new government was organised. Mr. Chase was the 
first secretary, but as other duties were confided toliim,- 
was succeeded by Mr. George Lux. 

After the separation of Harford county, there remain- 
ed twenty three justices for the town and comiLy, of 
whom Andrew Buchanan, Jonallirn Plowman, John 
IMoale, William Buchanan, William Spear, Jolai 
Smith, Isaac Vanbibbcr, James Calhoun, Hercules 
Courtenay and William Russell, Esqrs. resided in or near 
town. Mr. A. Buchanan was presiding justice, Mr. 
Alexander Lawson, son of Mr. liawson b(;forc mention- 
ed, clerk of the count}', and Robert CHjristie, Esn. 
sheriff. Thomas Jennings, Esq. of Annapolis, being at- 
torney general, attended the courts as occasion required. 

Doctors llultse, Wcisenthall, Craddock and Haslet 
attended the poor of the county, and Messrs. Oliver 
Cromwell and Henry Stevenson were the inspectors ot 



(jO ANNALa Oi' BALTIMORE. [1774 

tubacco, receiving each cerUiin salaries out of the levy, 
annually. 

The number of taxable inhabitants in the county, in- 
cluding the town, was 7410, and the levy 172 pounds of 
tobacco each, j;er /JoW, together, 1,271,-520 pounds. Al- 
though the rate was in tobacco, the taxables had the 
option of paying in current money at twelve shillings 
and six pence per 100 pounds, and the price of the ar- 
ticle being then from fifteenio twenty five shillingsin Bal- 
timore they generally did so of course. Besides 1 1 1,150 
pounds towards the poor house, the alms of this county 
included in the above, amounted to 124,700 pounds, re- 
lieving above 200 persons. It is true, that a great part 
of the levy was not for current charges ; in particular, the 
quantities: 
^Qi- grounds aud a new tobacco house, 

erecting at the Point, 183,556 lbs. 

To repay the bills loaned for poorhouse, 

roads, &c. 177,840 

Iiidemnity to Harford county, for pub- 
lic buildings in town which they had 
contributed to build, 77,333 

Due former SherilT, 64,724 

Bridge on Gunpowder, 20,000 

Town market house, 3,000 



526,453 lbs. 

Being above two fifths of the whole levy of the yeaf, 
as above. Although this levy was rendered still more 
burdensome by the parish rate of ten pounds of tobacco 
per poll on two thousand eight hundred and thirty one 



1774.] ANXALS OF BALTIMORE. 61 

taxables then rated, the venerable rector, Mr, Chase, 
undertook the edcuation of several children. A number 
of others learned the languages &c. fiom the late Dr. 
Archer, of Harford, ind Mr. James Alcock. 

On the 8th December, the deputies appointed by the 
several counties met at Annapolis, and resolved, "that 
they would maintain the association just entered into 
by congress," purporting a settled and united resistance 
of the late acts of the British Parliament, recommending 
the enrolment of the militia aiid a voluntary contribu- 
tion of 10,000 pounds, of which 933 pounds by Baltimore 
county, for the purchase of arms and ammunition. 
Messrs. Richard Moale, William Spear, Isaac Vanbib- 
ber and Isaac Griest were appointed a committee of 
this town to observe and report the arrival of vessels. 

In the course of this year, the office of deputy postmas- 
ter general was taken from Dr. Franklin by the Ministry, 
and the communications by mail exposed to the control 
of English agents. Mr. Goddard, editor of the Mary- 
land Journal in this town, devised and succeeded in es- 
tablishing an independent line from Massachusetts, first 
to Virginia, and afterwards to Georgia, and he was ap- 
pointed surveyor of the post roads by congi'css, but they 
having restored his office to Dr. Franklin the ensuing 
year, Mr. Goddard was disappointed, and retiring him- 
self, made his sister ostensible editor of the newspaper. 
The sister. Miss Mary K. Goddard, who was aided in 
the editorial department of the paper by several gentle- 
men of talents and public spirit, kept the post office 
also, for many years after the return of her brother, and 
until the establishment of the federal government in 



02 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1774 

1789, having by her attention and integiity obtained 
the entire confidence and esteem of the public. 

In the course of the next year 1775, Mr. John Dun- 
lap of Philadelphia established a weekly paper by the 
title of "Dunlap's Marylaiid Gazette,'^ under the direc- 
tion of Mr. James Hayes who became editor in 1778 
but discontinued it, to be revived by his son, as Mr. 
Goddai'd's paper was by himself. 

Early in this year a few gentlemen undertook a cen- 
sus of the town and it ^vas found that there were five 
hundred and sixty four houses and five thousand nine 
hundred and thirty four persons of all descriptions. — 
The Baltimore committee of observation, imitating the 
committees in other places, determined not only to pro- 
liibit the use of Tea, but the landing of English Salt, 
although- the price was near a dollar and two thirds a 
bushel, and so much wanted, unless a duty of two pence 
per bushel was paid for the use of the Bostonians. 

The committee had accepted the explanations given 
by several persons charged with inimical acts, but the 
people accused Mr. James Dalgleisli, a foi'eign mer- 
chant, who had declared his aversion to the cause and 
therefore as soon as he had been published as an enemy 
he fled for safety. The laws against Roman Catholic 
teachers still existing, some persons actuated by woi-se 
motives, broke up Mr. John Hefrernan''s school and he 
also left the place. Other individuals were also expo- 
sed to personal violence as it was allcdged, from tlie 
mistaken zeal of the committee itself or ignorance of 
the principles by which they should be governed, they 



1775.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. CB 

published a declaration on the nineteenth of April "that 
they had in no instance exceeded the line pointed out 
by congress and the provincial assembly, and abhorring 
every idea of proscription, the committee call upon 
persons v^^ho have circulated such reports to disclose 
the author," they also declare that their meetings had 
been held in public "and their records free and open for 
inspection." An instance of moderation occurred in the 
case of Mr. James Christie: A letter of his to a rela- 
tion in the British service, which was intercepted, cau- 
sed him to be arrested and protected, while the conven- 
tion, upon his appeal, fined him 500/. sterling and or- 
dered him to leave the province. 

Pursuant to a recommendation of congress, the com- 
mitte e prohibited the fair then approaching by desiring 
the inhabitants to abstain from such assemblages, as 
well as horse racing, cock fighting, &c. 

Several members of the German or Dutch Presby- 
terian society attached to the Rev. William Otterbein 
form a separate religious society which they distinguish 
by the name of the "German Evangelical Reformed," 
and they purchased a lot where their present church is 
on Conway street and worship in a small house ihere. 

Before the 1 9th of April when the battle of Lexington 
took place, the town had formed several companies of 
each description of arms, and every exertion was made 
to procure ammunition. Amongst others general Bu- 
chanan the lieutenant of the county, distinguished him- 
self by his zeal and took command of a company of 
;entlemen of riper years, and a company of their sons 
nd othors. mostly immarried. who armed nnd rquippfd 



G4 tNNNALS of BALTIMORE. [1775. 

themselves in an elegant scarlet uniform, put themselves 
under the command of captain, afterwards general Gist, 
lieutenant Thomas Ewing and other officers, who with 
some of the privates became distinguished in different 
commands in the regular service afterwards, being train- 
ed by Mr. Richard Carey adjutant, who had arri' 
Ved from New England and had been a member of the 
ancient artillery company of Boston, then lately com- 
manded by John Hancock Esq. first president of 
congress. 

The provincial convention having entered into arti- 
cles of association in August, declaring in the name of 
the inhabitants that "they would to the utmost in their 
power, prosecute and support the then opposition carry- 
ing on, as well by arms, as by the continental associa- 
tion." Provided for regular elections of their succes- 
sors, and of committee men, by "the freeholders of each 
county and other free men having a visible estate of 
forty pounds sterling, or qualified by law t(j vote for 
burgesses." Baltimore county and town were allowed 
to send five delegates and to have thirty seven commit- 
tee men, whose powers extended to the general police 
and local government of the county; the county was 
also directed to furnish five of forty companies mhmtc 
men. Several gentlemen volunteered and joined the 
army before Boston, amongst others Messrs. Richard 
Carey, David Hopkins and Ja^nes Mc Henry, the latter 
1 laving made some progi'ess in medicine became surgeon. 

At or before this time there arrived and s -ttled in the 
town, Messrs. Hugh Young, Alexander Donaldson, 
Clnisloplier Johnston, James Sterling, John Weather- 



1775.J ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 6.3 

burn, George Salmon, John McFadon and others who 
were foreigners, and Messrs. William Young, Hezekiah 
Waters, Benjamin May, Peter Hoffman, George War- 
ner, Anthony Houck and others from this or neigh- 
bouring provinces. 

Messrs. Robert Alexander, Benjamin Nicholson, 
John Moale, Walter Tolley Jr. and Jeremiah T. Chase, 
were elected delegates. The committee of observation 
was composed of Messrs. Moale, Chase, Calhoun, 
Nicholson, A. Buchanan, Craddock, Sellers, Gittings, 
Alexander, Purviance, Wilkinson, Ridgely, of William^ 
Tolley, Darby Lux, John Cockey, William Smith, 
William Buchanan, William Lux, Dr. Boyd, John / 
Smith, Zacariah Maccubbin, captain Charles Ridgely, 
Harrison, Griffith, Randall, Thomas Gist, Cromwell, 
Griest, Deye, Mordecai Gist, Stevenson, Towson Wil- 
liam Aisquith, John E. Howard, Risteau and Britton^ 
Mr. Purviance, Chairman, Mr. William Lux, Vice 
Chairman, Mr. George Lux, Clerk, and Mr. McMechen, 
assistant Clerk. Messrs. Purviance, William Lux, 
Chase, Alexander and doctor Boyd, were appointed a 
committee of correspondence. Messrs. Purviance, 
John Smith, William Buchanan, Griffith, Griest, Tho- 
mas Gist Jr. and Darby Lux, were a committee to 
superintend the trade and import arms. Theie was 
another committee, consisting of Messrs. Moale, Harri- 
son, Calhoun Sollers, Aisquith, Ridgely of William, and 
John E. Howard, selected to license suits at law, as re- 
commended by the Convention, to prevent the abuse 
of them which the disaffected might make; for some 
debtors had been rescued from the^shetjff already; but 

9 



tSfij ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1775 

the courts being still open, they were restored to cus- 
tody by captain Buchanan and captain Gist's companies, 
which received a vote of thanks from the Convention. 

Many vessels returning home, learned the commence- 
ment of hostilities by being searched and stripped of 
their arms and ammunition, but they soon retaliated, 
and powder and ball were distributed to the militia. It 
was soon discovered that it would be highly essential to 
the safety of the town, to erect a fort on Whetstone 
Point; a water battery, planned by Mr. James Alcock, 
was commenced under the superintend ance of Messrs. 
Gricst, Griflith and Lindenberger, captain N. Smith 
commanding the artillery there. 

Three massive chains of wrought iron, passing 
through floating blocks were stretched across the river, 
leaving a small passage only, on the side next the fort, 
and the channel was protected by sunken vessels also. 

In a regiment of regular troops, commanded by Col. 
Smallwood, Messrs. Mordecai Gist, Samuel Smith, 
David Plunkett, Brian Philpot, and William Ridgely 
held commissions and raised men in Baltimore. 

A Bermudian sloop was purchased, armed with ten 
guns, called the Hornet and put under the command of 
captWm. Stone; she joined the expedition under commo- 
dore Hopkins from the Delaware, and on the arrival of 
which at New Providence that place was surrendered,and 
the stores and ammunition brought away; but the Hor- 
net was driven ashore and lost attempting to enter the 
Delaware. Congress had recommended a general fast 
for the 20th July, and it was kept here by the meetings 
of religious societies for worship. 



1776.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. ^^ 

On the 8th March, 1776, the Otter ship of war and 
tenders, made their appeai'ance a few miles below tlie 
town. To a population unaccustomed to war, the alarm 
was great of course, but the Avoracn and children flying, 
were met by volunteers entering to their relief; and cap- 
tain James Nicholson, of the state ship Defence, which 
had been a merchantman recently bought of Mr. John 
Smith, manned partly by captain, now general Smith's 
company, as marines, and volunteers from the town, who 
succeeded, not only in driving away the enemy's flotilla, 
but recapturing some merchant vessels of which they 
had got possession. 

The 5th June, captain Nicholson obtained his com- 
mission from congress, being the first -officer in rank 
in the United States naval service, and soon after took 
command of the Virginia frigate. 

Captain AVilliam Hallock was also commissioned by 
congi'ess 10th October, and commanded the Lexing- 
ton, of 16 guns; in the mean time Mr. Joshua Barney, 
who had been with the expedition at New Providence, 
received a commission, and in the Andrew Doria and 
other vessels, evidenced the utmost courage and address. 

Governor Eden adjourned the assembly from time to 
time, and by his conduct generally appeared averse to 
the ministerial measures; but, upon the interception of 
despatches from the government to him delivered to 
general Charles Lee, at Charleston, the general wrote 
to the Baltimore committee to have him arrested: The 
Chairman, Mr. Purviance, applied to major Gist, com- 
manding the regulars in the town, who sent captain 
Smith with his company to prevent the escape of the 



06 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [l77^. 

governor, and deliver a letter to Mr. Johnson, president 
of the council of safety. The council being called to- 
gether, captain Smith was told that his sermces mere no 
longer necessary. 

Soon after, the Convention, in support of the authority 
of the executive, summoned the chairman and military 
officers to their bar, and some moderate censure was 
passed on the principals ; but, satisfied themselves at the 
time, that the duty of Mr. Eden as governor was in- 
compatible with the interest of the public, they requested 
him to leave the country ,which he did June24,by a vessel 
sent for him by Lord Dunmore, who had commenced hos- 
tilities and been plundering the Virginians a long time. 

Dunmore coming into the Patowmack, obliged 
the convention to order a draft of three thousand four 
hundred militia for a flying camp. Sensible of the gene- 
ral danger, the members became willing to enlist the 
feelings and interests of a community so important as 
that of Baltimore. They now invited the inhabi- 
tants to participate directly in the government of the 
state, by authorising them to choose two delegates for 
the town exclusive of the four for the county. 

Notice of an election of a convention to form a constitu- 
tion of the state, was published the 3d July, to be held 
the 5th August, for the freemen '-'-except such as Juts been 
published as enemies to this country^'' to attend and give 
in their votes. There appears to have been \12 votes 
taken, and Messrs. John Smith and Jeremiah T. Chase, 
were duly elected for the town; and IMessrs. Chailes 
Ridgely, Thomas C. Deye, John Stevenson and Peter 
Slieppard for the county, 853 votes being taken at their 



1776.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORfc. 69 

polls. By a census taken of the Point, the population 
there consisted of S2\ persons of 146 whom were mas- 
ters of families or house keepers. 

In the mean time, that is, on the 22d July, the De- 
claration of Independence was proclaimed at the court 
house, at the head of the independent companies and 
the several companies of the militia, with the discharge 
of cannon, and, says the editor of the Journal, "with 
universal acclamations for the prosperity of the Uni- 
ted States." In the evening the town was illuminated 
and an effigy of the late king which had been paraded 
through the streets, was publicly burned. 

]VIr. Christie who, as sheriff, had the preceding 
month published a writ of the governor for a new elec- 
tion, which the convention had suspended, was notwith- 
standing invited by the committee to read the act of con- 
gress, but refusing from a sense of official duty, that 
respect for his person and character which had produced 
the invitation was as prompt to excuse him. These 
feelings were not universal as it appears, and the com- 
mitteee issued the following resolve dated tiiirtieth July. 

"This committee do declare their utter disapprobation 
of all threats or violence being offered to any persons 
whatever, as contrary to the resolves of congress and 
the sense of the convention of this province: — That 
tliey conceive themselves bound to protect (as far as in 
their power) the civil officers in the discliarge of llieir 
duty. That they do expect of, and call upon every 
good citizen and friend of his country, to assist them 'n\ 
their endeavours to preserve the peace and good order 
of society; and to prevent nil riolS» and tumults and 



70 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1776 

personal abuse ard violeRCe to individuals. That the 
good people of Baltimore, having hitherto been so re- 
gpectfidly attentive to the resolves of this committee, 
6n all occasions, they flatter themselves that due regard 
vrill be paid to this recommendation." 

Never was a ]?eople more united in opinion on any 
subject, than were the Americans, botli natives and em- 
igrants in condemning and opposing the acts of the 
parliament of England taxing the colonists. Some 
however saw in these acts only the selfish design of 
one class of subjects to relieve themselves by thro^ving 
their burthen upon others, and believing the king and 
the English people generally, exempt from such motives, 
thought the evils temporary ; so that when the more en- 
terprising politicians, they who looked to the future in- 
crease of population and wealth which was to take 
place here, and foresaw that ihe separation must some- 
time happen, let the administration of the British gov- 
ernment fall into the purest hands; joined to the Cath- 
olics and dissenters, who had besides the common grie- 
vances, others of a religious and more delicate kind, 
and not likely to be removed at any time; — ^when these 
descriptions of people united, had declared that the 
country should be free of all colonial dependence, many 
individuals of great private virtue and highly esteemed 
by the people, withdrew from the country. Of these 
may be mentioned Robert Alexander Esq. who had 
been a delegate to the convention and to congress; 
Daniel Chamier Esq. late sherilTof the county; doctors 
Henry Stevenson and Patrick Kennedy; Mr. James 
Somcrvel. Merchant, ike. These and others in rcti- 



1776] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 71 

ring determined generally, that if they could not join 
their oppressed fellow subjects, they would not oppose 
them. Some ended their days in peace and obscurity 
abroad; others improved the opportunities which they 
afterwards had to render important services to the sol- 
diers of liberty who fell into the hands of their enemies, 
and returned afterwards to remain here. 

The Maryland regiment under major Gist, the col- 
onel and lieutenant colonel being on couits martial or 
otherwise absent on duty, was engaged with the British 
at their landing on Long Island on the twenty seventh 
of August, and lost in killed, wounded and taken about 
two hundred and fifty men. In the flying camp there 
entered the army from this town and county, Messrs. 
Howard, Hamilton, W. Sterett, James Winchester, G. 
Winchester, Ewing, INIoore, Croxall, Norwood, Oldham, 
Colegate, Cromwell, Wilmott, Toole, Riley and 
INIcCabe, who recruited men in the town and its vicinity. 
The American army obliged to abandon New York, 
were joined by the flying camp, including the Mary- 
land quota, and several companies raised for the defence 
of the state, called independent companies. These com- 
panies with the first reg-iment under colonel Smallwood 
himself at White Plains, occupying a post on the right, 
were attacked on the twenty eighth of October, and lost 
above one hundred men, but the regiment covered the 
retreat of the army to Trenton. 

The organization of the troops was so defective in 
many respects and the terms of enlistment having near- 
ly ran out, they were disbanded; the oflicers of the regi- 
ment and flying camp generally with those of the inde- 



7;g ANNALS OF BALTIMORE, [1776. 

pendent companies entered into the brigade to Avhicli 
colonel Smallwood was promoted the year after. The 
])rigade was formed of iseven regiments. To it was at- 
tached some German and rifle companies ; in the fornier 
of which Messrs. Peter Mackenlieimer, George P. 
Iveeports, John Lohra, Christian Myers, Samuel 
Gerock, John Lindenberger, John Mackenheimerj 
John Ritter and George Cole held commissions-, 
Messrs. Nathaniel Smith, John Fulford and Alexander 
Fiirniv al commanded artillery companies, and Messrs. 
N. R. Moore, D. Plunket, R. Smith of W. and D. 
Hopkins took commissions in the cavalry. 

The convention met on the fomleenth of August to 
form a constitution, allowed to the town its representa- 
tion of two members, as it still enjoys. Mr. Chase 
endeavoured to procure a provision for an increase, 
wJiich he so confidently looked for that he agreed that 
the town should lose the two they allowed it upon be- 
coming less populous by one half than any county, if 
the convention would allow four members when the 
town should have become as populous as any county; 
but it being moved to divide the proposition, the ques- ' 
tion was taken on the first clause and carried without 
a division, and though the last clause was so amended, 
that to have the increased delegation the population of 
the town should be equal to that of the largest county, 
it was negatived by a vote of thirty seven to fourteen. 
It is probable tliat Mr. Chase was so disappointed, that 
he retired, or that advantage was taken of accidental 
absence on the question, and as Mr. Sheppard was sick 
and absent with leave the yeas included only four mem 



1776.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. tJ 

bers of the town and county. Thus we find some of 
that je-jlousy of the town which was manifested by the 
provincial legislature thirty years before, operating with 
a patriotic convention, as it still does with a* republican 
assembly, to exclude the people of Baltimore from 
means which other Americans possess to secure their 
rights and promote their happiness. 

However, the convention finding that the private arm- 
ed vessels of the port, and amongst others the Enter- 
prise, captain Campbell; Sturdy Beggar, McKeel; Har- 
lequin, Handy; Fox, George Buchanan, &c. would 
soon bring in enemy's property for adjudication, estab- 
lished a court of Admiralty, appointing Benj. Nicholson 
Esq. judge, David Stewart Esq. marshal, and Wm. Gib- 
son Esq. register, and beft)re their adjournment suspend- 
ed the levies to reimburse the loans made for the Alms 
house and roads, ordering the sums collected to be cre- 
dited the citizens of the town and county in their 
common county charges. The balance of these loans 
was exhibited by a committee of the assembly, at 
■^18,478 in 1817, notwithstanding the suspension, 
which otherwise, might have been paid in depreciated 
paper, and if any levies remained in the sheriff's hands, 
his property fell to the state under the confiscation act 
afterwards passed and out of the reach of the county 
authorities. 

Congress assembled in Baltimore on the twenty sixth 
of December and occupied Mr. Jacob Fite's house at 
the south east corner of Baltimore and Liberty streets, 
being then the farthest west and one of the largest built 
in the town and was a long time called Congress Hall. 

10 



74 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [lllii. 

Philadelpliia, from whence congress adjourned, was 
then rescued by the capture of the Hessians at Trenton 
on the same day, and the attack of the British at 
Princeton- eight days after, so happily planned by gen- 
eral Washington and so boldly executed by the troops, 
including part of the Maryland line under his command. 

The establishment of the new government was at- 
tended by no internal difficulties of importance. Charles 
Carroll, Esq. Barrister, of Mount Clare, one of the 
late convention and council of safety, was elected a 
member of the first senate of the state, and the town 
and county respectively returned the delegates who 
had represented them in the convention. Mr. Carroll, 
barrister, was also appointed chief justice of the gene- 
ral court but did not accept. 

Most of the gentlemen who were in the commission 
of the county and town were reappointed county jus- 
tices by the new government. Andrew Buchanan Esq. 
being the presiding justice was also lieutenant of the 
county, and in that capacity commanding the militia. 

Seven of the justices were constituted an Orphans 
court and Thomas Jones Esq. register of Wills. — 
Thomas Jennings Esq. was appointed Attorney General, 
but declining, was succeeded by James Tilghman and 
B. Calloway Esq. successively and in 1778 Luther 
Mai'tin Esq. being appointed, settled in Baltimore. In 
the mean time W. Gibson Esq. is appointed clerk of 
the coimty court. Mr. Lawsor> former county clerk, 
retiring to the Eastern Shore, returned after the rcvo 
lution and resided here until his death. Mr. Robert 



I 



1777.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 75 

Christie, appointed sheriff in 1774, was superseded, of 
course, and at the election held agreeably to the consti- 
tution, Henry Stevenson Esq. was returned and duly 
commissioned for that office under the new government 
In the mean time Mr. Christie was compelled to leave 
the town, but, declaring that the public was indebted to 
him, appointed Mr. Moses Galloway to settle his affairs, 
and went to England. 

The jurisdiction of justices of the peace, in matters 
of debt out of court was extended from fifty shillings 
to five pounds or thirteen dollars thirty three and one 
third cents; a new list of Tobacco fees was enacted, 
and the money fixed at seven shillings and six pence per 
dollar, as it was in Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Jersey 
and current here sometime. The vendue or auction 
Ijusiness was carried on by JNIr. James Long and Mr. 
Thomas Brereton acted as a broker, neither of whom 
were subject to license as yet. 

The collection of duties which had been prevented 
by the times was formally suspended in 1777 except 
the duty on imported slaves. Levies were made as 
usual but most of the public expenses being for military 
purposes, were defrayed by paper money of the state or 
confederacy, and in a year or two the money depreciated, 
so that the sums levied bore no proportion to the prices 
of goods and necessary expenditures. 

The committee of observation being superseded by 
the officers of the new government, and fears being 
entertained by some, that the ordinary course of law 
would be inefficient to secure the triumph of liberty, 
there was a private society called the Whig Club, or- 



70 ANJsALS OF LALTIMORE. [1777. 

ganized this year, to detect violaters of the law, as they 
declarec!,wljich vexed the citizens unnecessarily perhaps. 

The pacific doctrine of the Methodists like that of 
the Quakers, caused the English preachers amongst 
them, to he suspected of dangerous political views, and 
My. Asbuiy himself was taken near town and fined, and 
afterwards going over the bay, quit preaching and lived 
in retirement in Delaware some time. The conscien- 
tious scruples of the ministers of the late establishment, 
relative to the fonn of prayer for the new instead of the 
old government, of the Quakers, JMethodists, preachers 
and others, subject them to pay the treble tax imposed 
on non-jurors, or leave the country, as most of the rec- 
tors and ministers of the establishment did. 

Mr. Goddard the printer, became obnoxious for the 
freedom of his remarks, and was constantly alarmed, and 
the interference of the club in his case, was formally cen- 
sured by the legislature during the first session, and Go- 
vernor Johnson issued a proclamation for his protection. 

By the act of April session 1777, the number of 
troops of all arms, to be furnished by the state consisted 
of 2902 men to be taken from each county in proportion 
to its number of militia. Frederick county was to fur- 
nish 309, being the most populous, and Calvert the 
least 74, Baltimore county including the town, was 
to furnish 281, which was between a tenth and 
eleventh part of the whole number from the then eight- 
teen counties of the state. Tt seems that the proportion 
of men and money which the state was required to fur- 
nish for the general defence, was about the same^ that is 
to say, one tenth oi- nearh^ of the whole. 



1777.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 77 

A great part of the Mainland line, under general 
Sullivan, was in the attack on Statcn Island, 22d Au- 
gust, '77, and in some lesser engagements in the Jersie^ 
soon after. 

On the 2 1 st August, I^ord Howe's lleet anchored near 
the mouth of Patapsco river, but proceeded to Turkey 
Point, on Elk river, near which the British army undei- 
Sir William Howe was landed. The governor issued 
a proclamation the next day, ordering two full compa- 
nies of each batallion of militia to march immediately to 
the head of the bay where the continental army would 
meet the enemy. 

The independent company now under captain John 
Sterett, trained as infantry, mounted their own hoi-scs, 
proceeded to watch the enemy on the bay side, and amv- 
ing before them at the head of it, joined the main army 
including the Maryland line near Ndwport, but were 
then ordered back by the commander in chief to assist 
in protecting their homes. 

On the 1 1th September was fought the battle of 
Brandywine, at which the Maryland line was present 
and shared the disasters of the day. 

General Smallwood, with Maryland militia, including 
captains Sterett, Cox and Bailey's companies from Bal- 
more, joined General Wayne the 21st September, im- 
mediately after Grey's sanguinary night attack on 
the Americans at the Paoli. 

Those companies in which many citizens who left nu- 
merous families, dispersed about the country or exposed 
to the depredations of the maritime forces of the enemy 
in the bay, went in the ranks volunteers, shared in the 



78 ANNALS OF BALTIftlORE. [1777. 

route of Wayne and in the more equal conflict at Ger- 
mantown 4th of October, at which place the patriotic 
Cox with several of his townsmen, laid down their 
lives in their country's cause. 

At the same time colonel Smith commanding a small 
detachment of continental troops at fort Mifflin with the 
aid of commodore Hazle wood's flotilla, in which lieuten- 
ant Barney then served, was successfully opposing the 
passage of Howe's fleet, which had returned from the 
Chesapeake into Delaware, for which congress voted the 
colonel a sword ; however, the fort was not long tenable 
and it was abandoned, some days after he had been 
wounded and retired across the river. 

The gloom occasioned by the passage of the fleet 
to Philadelphia was soon reversed, and confidence 
generally and forever restored, by the news which arriv- 
ed here on the 2Tsi October, of the success of General 
Gates at Saratoga and the surrender of General Bur- 
goyne and his whole army four days before. 

It was now found tliat topsail schooners, sailing best 
upon a wind and adapted to the use of sweeps in chas- 
ing, were most likely to escape the heavy ships of the 
enemy. 

Amongst the first of the kind fitted out here was the 
Antelope, built at N. Point creek by Mr. J. Pearce for 
Messrs. John Sterett and others, and armed with four- 
teen guns, under the command of captain Jeremiali Yel- 
lott, who was himself an Englishman lately settled in 
Baltimore, which made a great many naiTo^v escapes 
and some captures, bat alwa3'^s fortunate voyages. The 
Felicity, comnmnded by captain J'rederick Folgei", who 



'1777.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 79 

had been first officer of the Antelope was scarcely less 
successful. However, the ship Buckskin, captain Johns, 
who had the commission of a lieutenant in the navy from 
congress afterwards; the Nonsuch, captain C. Wells 
and some other vessels, safely went to and returned from 
France. 

A part of a committee of congress then at Little York, 
constituting a navy board, of which William Smith, 
Esq. was a member, assembled here. The Virginia fri- 
gate of 28 guns, was built at the point, west side of the 
public wharf, by Mr. Wells, and put under the command 
of captain Nicholson, but being chased by the enemy 
31st December, 1 777, v/as run on the middle ground and 
aken. Capt. Nicholson escaped in the ship's barge, 
but lieutenant Barney with his brother William, who 
was an officer of the marines, and the rest of the crew- 
fell into the hands of the enemy. 

William Buchanan, Esq. was appointed by congress, 
commissary general of purchases for the continental ar- 
my, James Calhoun Esq. his deputy made purchases 
of supplies here andN. Rogers Esq. became an aid 
of General Ducoudrais and afterward of General Dc 
Kalb. 

In this year died at an advanced age, at his seat in the 
county, Cornelius Howard Esq. who laid out that part 
of the town, called Howard's Hill, leaving three sons, 
the eldest of whom was colonel John E. Howard, and 
two daughters. 

Early in 1778, count Pulaski's legion of cavalry and 
infantry, raised partly in this state, was organized here. 



80 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1778. 

The corps sufFered severely in Jersey in the same year, 
and the next lost their gallant commander JnGcoigia. 

On the twenty eighth June the British were unsuc- 
cessfully attacked but finally retired from the fields of 
Monmouth in Jersey, wliere the Mai-yland line shai'ed 
the danger and the glory of the day. 

In the militia of the town Messrs. John McClcllan, 
Benjamin Griffith, George Lindenberger, James Cid- 
houn, Daniel Bowley, Mark Alexander, Stephen 
Stewart, James Young, Isaac Griest, Britm. Dickin- 
son, Henry Schaeffi^i, and George Wells held commis- 
sions, most of whom had been at camp with captains 
Moore, Sterett, Cox, or Bailey. They were often on 
duty, as may be supposed, and on one or two occasions, 
they assembled courts martial in Baltimore for the 
trial of offences against military law, but none capital 
occurred. 

On the organization of the court of appeals Thomas 
Jones Esq. was appointed one of the judges, and AV'il- 
!iam Buchanan Esq. youngest son of doctor George 
Buchanan, deceased, succeeds to the office of Register 
of Wills the next year in the place of Mr. Jones. 

British goods having become scarce, several manu- 
factures, which had been prohibited in the colonies, 
were now established in or near tliis town: Among 
others a bleach yard by Mr. Riddle; a linen factory 
by Mr. IMcFadon; a paper mill by Mr. Goddard; a 
slitting mill by JNIr. Whetcroft; a card factory by 
Mr. McCabc; a wooUeu and linen factory by Mr. 
Charles Carroll; a Nail factory each by JNIr. Geo. 
JMattliows and Mr. Richardson Stewiirt; Mr. Charles 



1778] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 81 

Williams carried on the Dyeing business, and Mr. 
William Stenson, who had sometime kept a coffee 
house near the corner of Ilolliday and East, novrf 
Fayette streets, opened another on a modern and 
extensive scale, at the south west corner of South 
and Baltimore streets. 

In the course of this year too, a treaty of alliance 
was made with France, and, soon after the British left 
Philadelphia a large fleet under count D'Estaing made 
its appearance off Chincoteague on this coast. 

The British appear to have abandoned much of their 
hopes of reducing the States by force and offered terms 
which would have been accepted three years before. 
On the other hand the Americans, who had suffered 
severely for want of camp equipage and materials of 
war as well as in battle, considered themselves relieved 
from gi'eat exertions, by the arrival of the French and 
the certainty of effectual aid of their forces, and a period 
of langour succeeded which was not favorable to general 
improvement,while the depreciation of the current money 
and the absence of IMessrs. Howard, Rogers and other 
gentlemen of landed property, who had gone from our 
town to join the army, contributed, no doubt, to retard 
its progress here. It was, however, in the middle of the 
war arrived and settled hero, Messrs. Richard Curson, 
William Patterson, Robert Gilmor, Charles Torrence, 
Andrew Boyd, Aaron Levering, Henry Payson, Joseph 
Williams, Peter Frick, George Reinecker, Michael 
Diffenderffer, Christopher Raborg, John Leypold, 
Abraham Sitler, George Heide, John Shultze, Baltzcr 

11 



gj2 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1778 

Schaeffer and others, who, by their wealth, credit and 
enterprize contributed to revive the business of the 
place . 

On the 4th February, 1779, Mr. Sterett's extensive 
brewery, with the warehouse on the south west corner 
of Frederick and Second streets, then occupied by Mr. 
Hugh Young, were set on fire designedly as was sup-' 
posed, and both entirely consumed. 

The Episcopal congregation had increased so much 
as early as 17C2, as to require a chapel of ease and 
one was erected at a place called TL, near the head of 
Middle River: about the same time that additional lots 
were purchased in town for the use of the parish. The 
Rev. Mr. Thomas Chase, who was above thirty years 
rector of St. PauFs parish, and tlie last appointed by the 
Proprietary, died the 4th of Apiil 1779, aged 79 years, 
and the Rev. Mr. William West was chosen to succeed 
him by the vestry, when a new chm'ch was erected in 
front of the old one, and a law procured to open the 
street in front of it, called New Church, now Lexington 
street, on the south side of which the vestry leased out 
lots. Early in 1779, the Maryland line was formed 
into two brigades, the second of which was put undei' 
command of colonel Gist, promoted brigadier general, 
and doctor McHenry became a secretary to the com- 
mander in chief. 

Benjamin Nicholson, Esq. colonel of the town mili- 
tia, resigned the command to colonel Sniith. This 
being the only corps kept up after the peace, sustained 
that military spirit which was infused into the 5th and 



1779.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 83 

other regiments and which the militia of Baltimore have 
so lately displayed. 

On the 9th July some of the people, offended at Mr. 
Ooddard for the part he took in favor of general Charles 
Lee after the decision of the court martial which sus- 
pended that officer, Mr. Goddard was persuaded to sign 
a public recantation, Avhich he after^vards disclaimed but 
saved himself by it from personal abuse ; from which, 
however, one or two persons who defended him did 
not escape, as they were put into the cart intended 
for him and carried about the sti*eets. 

A society was formed by the principal merchants, 
and contributions made by them ^ in October to the 
amount of 93,000 pounds to be employed in reducing 
the price of salt by retail, which article they bought 
and sold at about forty five pounds, or 120 dollars per 
bushel, paper money, reserving only the expenses. 

The enemy sent a small force into the bay under 
general Matthews, and the town assembled its forces 
again, under general Buchanan, who was also about 
this time chosen to fill a vacancy in the senate, but did 
not accept. Matthews landed at Portsmouth but c^ime 
not much further then. 

David McMechen and Mark Alexander, Esqrs. suc- 
ceeded Messrs Smith and Chase as delegates and 
Joseph Baxter Esq. is elected sherilf in place of Mr. Ste- 
venson whose time had expired. 

Died here, while on a visit to his relatives, on the 5th 
September, Edward Biddle, Esq. one of the representa- 
tives in congress from Pennsylvania. 



34 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1780 

As LONG as the navigation was obstructed by ice, 
which was until the 9th of March, the winter of 
1779 to 80 being more severe than any noticed at this 
place before, the suffering poor were relieved at their 
own houses by distributions of meal and fuel; a consid- 
erable amount, say LiOOO/. bein§ subscribed by the more 
fortunate inhabitants. 

Hitherto the merchants of Baltimore had been oblig- 
ed to get registers, and enter and clear vessels at Anna- 
polis, but the custom house is now opened, and Thomas 
Sollers, Esq. naval officer, was authorised to grant 
registers for vessels here. 

The two years for which the old customs were sus- 
pended, having elapsed, duties were laid on enumerated 
articles again, in real money, viz. spirits two pence per 
gallon, Madeira wine four pence, other wines two pence, 
coffee and cocoa one shilling per one hundi-ed weight, 
loaf sugar one shilling and six pence, domestic liquor 
one shilling, negroes from other provinces thirteen 
pounds, abroad five hundred pounds, a prohibition; and 
on exports, tobacco five shillings per hhd, pig iron three 
shillings and nine pence, and bar fifteen shillings per ton. 
There appears to have entered in one week in May, 
one brig from France, one ship, three brigs and five 
schooners from the West Indies. 

The legislature also made provision for the defence 
of the bay by equipping one large galley, one sloop or 
schooner and four large barges, and for recruiting the 
army, besides calling out 1200 militia volunteers, which 
forces were encreased the following years by four gal- 
lies and eight barges. The men were to be paid at the 



IT80,] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. S5 

rate of half a dollar per cla}^, in real money, l)y tlie state 
which received itself, the public dues in cattle, grain, 
&c. which were often taken by appraisement at this pe- 
riod. The state provided for its own troops in the con- 
tinental army as well as it could, first by new bills of 
credit, to the amount* of nearly ^1,000,000, besides 
the state's quota of continental at least 20,000,000 more, 
which were redeemed by new bills called bkick money, 
at forty for one. 

Internal improvements received some aid by the sales 
of many valuable lots in town and estates in the neigh- 
borhood confiscated, which were in the first instance to 
1)0 paid for, one fifth in specie and four fifths in the 
black money. Even these bills depreciated to six or 
seven for one, but delays attended the payments, and 
the red money created the next year, for the redemption 
of the black., fell at first to two or three for one, but soon 
recovered, and sustained its credit, because there was 
actually a greater amount of property sold, than the sum 
in circulation. 

Matthew Ridley, Esq. of the house of Ridley and 
Pringle, was authorised to borrow and negociated a 
loan in Holland for the use of the state. 

In consequence of the purchase of FotteralPs estate 
near town, a contest arose for the mill property, which 
had been sold by his administrators forty years before, 
and it was decided after ten years litigation, that the fee 
simple property so disposed of, including the old mill 
on Bath street, should go to the purchasers under the 
confiscation act. 

Of the number of fifty six debtors to British mer- 



86 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1780. 

chants or manufacturers, who paid the amount of their 
debts into the treasury of the state in depreciated mo- 
ney, there were but four or five residents of Baltimore 
town and county, and these werc actuated by feelings 
which their patriotism inspired more than a desire to 
avoid a payment, for the merchants here generally, con- 
demned the measure and memorialised the legislature 
against its adoption. Those few who had not paid be- 
fore prohibited in 1776, paid eventually, the full amount 
without the intervention of the courts of justice to en- 
force- the stipulations of the treaty of peace, on the 
subject. 

Such were the difficulties attending the transition of 
one currency to another, that seizures of provisions, for 
the troops were authorised, which, in ordinary times 
would have been intolerable, and the rate of the levy 
which, in the early part of the ycai', had been fixed at 
one fourth of the whole valuation of taxable property, 
was reduced to one and an half per cent, with the option 
of paying in Wheat at seven shillings and sixpence. 
Tobacco at twenty shillings, &c. and a scale of deprecia- 
tion for the settlement of public and private contracts 
was established on equitable principles. 

General I^inooln had been obliged to surrender 
Charleston 12th. May, 1780, and the three southern 
states seemed to have been entirely lost to the union, 
when general Gates took command of the southern 
army, including all the troops from Delaware and 
Maryland south, and notwithstanding the determined 
valour of these troops, the disasters at Camden and 
•other places, where the Maryland line suffered severely, 



IISO.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 87 

made it necessary to recall major general Gates and 
place that department under the command of major gen- 
eral Nathaniel Greene. The new commander in chief 
of the southern army passed through town with M. 
general baron Steuben 6th of November. On the 27th. 
Mrs. Washington passes to the north and the ladies of 
Baltimore raise contributions for the soldiers, going to 
camp. By an accident which happened in trying can- 
non at Northampton furnace, several persons were 
wounded and captain Fulford of the artillery, Avas 
nnfortunately killed. 

The mercury ranged within doors and in the day time, 
from ninety to ninety seven degrees of Farenheit from 
the fifth to the tenth July, the first day ninety three and 
the last ninety seven. 

Early in 1781, wc learned the joyful news of the 
success at the Cowpens, rendered still more acceptable 
to the people of Baltimore, by the conspicuous part colo- 
nel Howard had in the victory, and for which he was 
voted by congress the compliment of a silver medal. 
In March an association was entered into here to 
circulate the new paper at par value, and in August, a 
committee of the associators exercised the authority 
they had assumed, by holding up to public vieu\ 
through the Gazettes, one of their number who had 
attempted to take for his goods four times the price at 
which the same would be sold in specie. Arnold 
and Phillips landed in Virginia, and the enemy ships 
traversed the Bay to its head, burning and plundering 
on both sides, and on the twenty sixth April-, six ships 



88 ANNALS Ox^ BALTIMORC. [1781 

then at North Point, the citizens assembled and ap- 
pointed Messrs. James IMcHenry, Nathaniel Smith, 
Nicholas Rogers, W. Smith, I. Creist, T. Henderson, 
and Thomas Johnson a committee to prepare for defence. 
On the 1 Ith of June the volunteer troop of cavalry of 
town gentlemen, of which captain N. R. Moore was 
commander, set off to join the army under the Mar- 
quis De Lafayette in Virginia, and having performed 
the tour of duty required, returned to town the fourth 
of August. 

It was in this year Fell's Prospect was first laid ofi" 
by the commissioners, and added to the town, on the east, 
and the eighteen acres of Messrs. INIoale and Steiger ly- 
ing between Bridge, now Gay, and Freiicl) streets, for 
which authority had been given eight years before. 
The weight of Flour per barrel was now fixed at the pre- 
sent standard of one hundred and ninety six pounds 
nett, with some other regulations respecting that sta])le. 

Messrs. John Cornthwait, Gerard Hopkins, George 
JMathews, John and David Brown, and others of the 
society of Friends, who until now had held their meet- 
ings at tlic house on the Harford road, buy a spacious 
lot and build a meeting house between Baltimore and 
Pitt streets, where they inter their deceased members. 

On the eighth of September 1781, was fought at Eu- 
taw, the last severe battle of the war, where part of 
the Maryland trooi)s under Colonel AVilliams, signa- 
lized themselves again. Hero they lost Captains Dob- 
son and Edgerly, and Lieutenants Duvall and Gould, 
killed, and Colonel Howard, Capt. Gibson, Capt. Lieut 
Hugon, Lieuts. Ewing, Woolford and Lynn and ensign 



1781.] ANJTALS OF BALTDIORE. S9 

Moore were wounded, besides a number of Infantry 
and artillery men. Many of our officers including capts. 
Plunket, and Sterett and Dr. McHenry had been made 
prisoners and subjected to the hardships of that state, 
but were duly exchanged or escaped by their address. 
According to the dispensations of a blessed Provi-' 
dence, not one oflicer who had gone into the army from 
this toAvn or county had yet died in the enemy's hands 
or fallen in the field of battle during this sanguinary 
contest. It was only at the moment when peace was 
about to crown their gallant exertions, in an entragement 
at James Island where there were but few men on either 
side, Lieutenant Wilmot of the county, closed an hon- 
orable carreer.* 

Lord Cornwallis continuing his march to the 
northward was met in Virginia by detachments of 
the main army under Generals La Fayette and Wayne, 
some of which passed through Baltimore, and the 
French fleet under the Count De Grasse having entered 
the Cay, General Washington suddenly quit the maiil 
army and arrived before York to"^vn, where the British 
were immediatel)^ invested. General Washington ac- 
companied by the count Rochambeau, general Haicd, 
.major general baron Viomenil, brigadier general Cha- 
telux and Gen. Clinton passed through town the eighth 
September, most of the allied army going by water 
from Elkton to Annapolis. On this occasion the 
town was illuminated and the following address and 
answer was published soon after. 



n 



90 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1781. 

His Excellency George Washington Esq. General 
and commander in chief of the armies of the United 
States of America. 

May it please your Excellency, — The citizens and 
inhabitants of Baltimore, impressed with the warmest 
sentiments of respect and esteem, and with the most 
lively sense of the important services, rendered by you 
to them and their country, beg leave thirougli us, to 
congratulate your excellency upon your arrival in this 
town, and to express the general joy, diffused through 
every breast, at the return of your excellency to this 
place. 

It has been with the highest satisfaction, we have 
found our most sanguine expectations, fi'om your mili- 
tary talents, exceeded by the abilities you have display- 
ed, during a series of various fortune, as well in the day 
of battle, as the hour of distress: your fortitude and 
perseverence under all our cahmiities, the wisdom of 
your counsels, the judicious and mild regulation of the 
army, your sacred attention to the civil powers of the 
respective States, and the great address with whicli our 
military operations have been conducted, under your 
excellency's direction, demand the warmest elTusions of 
gratitude that can flow from the hearts of a free people. 

Permit us also to congratulate your excellency upon 
the man)' signal successes that have lately attended the 
American arms in the southern states, obtained with 
such distinguished honors to our gallant officers and 
soldiers, and on the arrival of the fleet of our magnani 
luous all}^, aided by whose noble and generous exer- 
tions, we look forward, with pleasing hopes, to the day 



1781.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 91 

of peace, when we may freely enjoy the bounties with 
w^hich .all-gracious heaven has enriched our country. 
May your present operations prove successful, and 
may the grand work in whicii you aie engaged, be hap- 
pily terminated. 

Our prayers are for your excellency's preservation, 
that you may continue approved by heaven, esteemed 
by virtuous men, and dreaded by tyrants: and, on the 
restoration of public tranquility, that you may, in 
peaceful retirement, enjoy that satisfaction of mind, 
which the sense of great and noble deeds always in- 
spires; and may posterity, in the full possession and ex- 
ercise of that freedom which "your sword has assisted 
to establish, venerate and do ample justice to your vir- 
tue and character to the latest ages. 

With sentiments of the most profound esteem and 
respect, we are, in behalf of the citizens and inhabi- 
tants of Baltimore, your excellency's most obedient and 
most humble servants, 

Wm. Smith, ^ 

Sam'l Purviance, Jr. | 

John Moale, i Committee. 

John Dorsey, [ 

James Calhoun. J 

To the citizens and inhabitants of the town of Bal- 
timore. 

Gentlemen — With the warmest sense of gratitude 
and affection, I accept your kind congratulations on my 
aiTival in this town. 

Permit me, gentlemen, to assure you, that from the 
pleasure which I feel in having this opportunity to pay 



go ANNx\LS OF BALTIMOKL. [1781. 

my respects to tlie worthy inhabitants of the town of 
Baltimore, I participate in your sensations of joy. 

If during the long and trying period, in wiiich my 
services, as a soldier, have been employed for the in- 
terests of the United States of America, and for the 
establishment of their rights, I have acquitted myself to 
the acceptance of my fellow-citizens: If my various 
fortunes — if my attention to the civil powers of the 
states, have subserved the general good of the public — 
in these things I feel myself happy — and in these con- 
siderations, I rejoice in your felicity. 

The happy and eventful successes of our troops in 
the southei-n states, as they reflect glory on the Ame- 
rican arms, and particular honour on the gallant offi- 
cers and men immediately concerned in that depart- 
ment, fills my heart with pleasure and delight. The 
active and generous part our allies are taking in our 
cause, with the late arrival of their formidable fleet in 
the bay of the Chesapeake, call for our utmost grati- 
tude, and with the smiles of heaven on our combined 
operations give us the happiest presage of the most 
pleasing events — events, which in their issue, may 
lead to an honourable and permanent peace. 

I thank you most cordially, for your prayers and 
good wishes for my prosperity. May the author of all 
blessings aid our united exertions in the cause of liber 
ty and universal peace — and may the particular bless- 
ing of heaven rest on you and the worthy citizens of 
this flourishing town of Baltimore. 

I am, gentlemen, your most obedient servant, 

Geo. Washington. 



1781.] ANXALS OF BALTIMORE. 93 

On conducting our brave defenders to the south- 
ward, the marquiss De La Fayette borrowed a con- 
siderable sum of money of the merchants of Baltimore, 
which he employed in buying materials for clothing 
to be made up in part by the ladies, and of which the 
repayment was duly effected some time after. 

On the 1 9th of October, lord Cornwallis capitulated, 
and his whole ai'my being made prisoners, there re- 
mained no^ longer any doubt but that the independence 
of the states would soon be acknowledged and general 
peace established. The citizens were soon favoured 
with opportunities which they joyfully embraced, to 
offer their congratulations to the commander in chief, 
the marquiss De La Fayette and others, who had had 
a share in the glorious event. 

The 13th of December, was appointed and kept as 
a day of general thanksgiving. 

The land office was opened by an act of assembly 
passed this year, and the price of the lands fixed first at 
7s 6d, and afterwards, as the money became more 
valuable, at half that sum per acre. There were still 
many thousand acres unpatented in the north west part 
of the county, and many considerable vacancies 
were discovered in other parts of the county and taken 
up several years after the peace. 

The period limited for the first senate was now ex- 
piring and at the election held this year, Charles Car- 
roll, Esq. Barrister, was re-elected to the new senate 
with Messrs. John Smith and James M' Henry of this 
town. Thomas C. Deye, John B. Howard, Charles 
Ridgely of William, and Samuel Worthington, Esqrs< 



94 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1781. 

were elected delegates for the county. Henry Wil- 
son, Esq. succeeded Mr. Alexander as one of the mem- 
bers for the town. 

When the news of the surrender of the british army 
at York town reached England, the Parliament refused 
to support the war any longer, Mr. Fox was brought 
into the ministry, to terminate the war, and negotiations 
of the preliminaries commenced by him, were prosecut- 
ed by Mr. Pitt in the spring of 1 182. At tlie first ses- 
sion of this year, colonel Howard laid off part of the tract 
adjoining his father's first addition and that before made 
by Mr. Hall, and annexed to the town all the grounds 
east of the street, to which the colonel gave the name of 
Eutaw street. Beyond that and on the street which he 
called Lexington street, he laid off a spacious lot for 
a public market, which was improved and appropriated 
to that purpose twenty years after. The colonel ap- 
propriated another spacious lot of ground on Baltimore 
street west of Eutaw, for the use of the state, should 
the general assembly accept and make it the seat of 
government within that period; though an effort was 
made to carry the removal in the house of delegates at 
the same session, it was rejected by a vote of twenty to 
nineteen, and lias failed as often as it was proposed as 
well during the twenty years limited, as afterwards; 
and whether it is or is not a matter of less interest to 
the citizens, it is certain that they now view it with 
more indifference than they do the proportion of repre- 
sentation allowed them. 



nS2.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 95 

Until this time none of the streets of Baltimore 
Town except here and there on the side-ways, were 
paved, and the main street especially, from the depth 
of soil, was actually impassable some part of the spring 
and fall seasons, from the market house at Gay street to 
Calvert street. The town commissioners were there- 
fore aided in effecting its improvement, become indispen- 
sable, at the November session, by the creation of com- 
missioners, of whom there were seven, called special 
commissioners, empowered to "direct and superintend the 
levelling, pitching, paving and repairing the streets and 
repairing the bridges," to begin with Baltimore street, 
in part, and then from place to place as circumstances 
required. The owners of lots on streets to be paved^to 
pay ^1 66f per foot front, on lanes or alleys half price. 
An auction duty was laid, major Thomas Fates being 
appointed first and sole auctioneer, a tax on public ex- 
hibitions, to be licensed by the commissioners and 33a 
cents per 100 on the assessed property, with an an- 
nual Lottery towards defraying the expenses. The 
same law prescribed the extent of porches and cellar 
doors, the breadth of carriage wheels and removal of 
nuisances or obstructions in the streets or harbour. 

Tliis Board, which was composed in the first instance 
of IVIessrs. William Spear, James Sterett, Englehard 
Yeiser, George Lindenberger, Jesse Hollingswortb, 
Thomas Elliot and Peter Hoffman, were made a body 
politic and corporate, autliorised to fill their own vacan- 
cies, appoint a Treasurer, collect all fines to the use of 
the city and appoint constables, were also to render 
their accounts to the Town Commissioners, who now 



96 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE, [1782. 

in fact, had little else to perform and little more was 
wanted at that time to make the charter complete. But 
at the ensuing session, it was thought too much power 
had been bestowed on a body of men so constituted and 
provision %yas made for their removal, or others in their 
place, by electors to be chosen every five ycai's. The 
town commissioners at this period xvcre Messrs. "William 
Smith, John Mode, Richard Ridgely, Dar/iel Bowley, 
Hercules Courtcnay and John Sterett. 

Mr. Charles Rigdely of John, and others, at Novem- 
ber session, procured^ the addition to the Town of 
those grounds called Gist's Inspection and Timber neck 
lying south of the former additions and upon the mid- 
dle branch ; and Mr. Benjamin Rogers and others, those 
which lay between Fell's Prospect and Harris's creek. 
These were the last specific additions by act of Assem- 
bly, and the power given to the corporation to admit 
other grounds by the consent of the owners, being ex- 
ercised only in one instance relating to some lots on 
north Howard street, between Saratoga and Mulberry 
streets, no change of limits was effected for many years, 
nor until the population of the precincts had become 
equal to a third of the City itself. 

After repeated conquests and sometimes the conquer- 
ed, captain Barney was made commander of the Penn- 
sylvania ship Hyder Alley, mounting 1 G sixes, and on 
the 5th of June 1782, captured the British ship general 
Monk of 20 nine pounders; on which occasion the Le- 
gislature of that state presented him a sword, and the 
prize being purchased and fitted out by the naval com- 
missioners of the United States, the command of l)or 
then called the JFas/migYo?*, was given to liim. 



1782.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 97 

It was in this year also, that Mr. Gabriel P.Yanhorne 
with Mr. Nathaniel Twining and others, established a 
line of stage Coaches between Philadelphia and Balti- 
more, which was secured to Mr. Yanhorne exclusively 
until 1 794 ; he afterwards extended the line of stages to 
Alexandria. 

Count Rochambeau returning with his army from 
York town halted in Baltimore and some of his troops 
remained until the close of the war. 

Besides the Cavalry and Infantry of the legion of 
the Duke De Lauzun, the division included the regi- 
ments of Bourbonnois, Deux Fonts, Saintonge and 
SoissonnoiS. The officers among whom were Count 
Dillon, Baron Yiomenil, General Lavalette, &c. were 
lodged with private families. The Legion encamped 
on the ground where the cathedral stands, and the rest 
of the troops on that eminence near the York road, 
which the late Mr, John McKim improved and occu- 
pied. The urbanity of the officers and the correct 
deportment of the men, established an intercourse be- 
tween them and the citizens upon terms the most friend- 
ly and cemented that partiality for the French nation 
to which the alliance had given rise, and has been so 
often manifested by the people of Baltimore. Upon 
his departure the merchants presented an address to 
General Lavalette the principal officer then here, ex- 
pressive of the above friendly sentiments. 

The town was then said to contain 8000 inhabitants, 
having eight places of worship, viz. Episcopalian, Pres- 
byterian, Lutheran, Dutch Calvinists, Roman Catho- 

13 



98 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1782. 

lies, Baptists, Quakers and INIetliodists, that is one for 
each society. 

Our Bay was visited by ships of war of France and 
England alternately; some armed barges were particu- 
larly troublesome to the coasters. On the 5th of July, 
Captain Simmons in the Brig Ranger, going out of the 
Patowmack, with his pikes beat of and killed Barry 
and wounded Whaland, two famous barge men, but, on 
the thirtieth of November three of them attacked and 
after killing Captain Whalley, killing and w^ounding 
sixty five out of seventy five men, the brave survivors 
being without small cartridges, which had taken fire 
early in the action, were captured, with the States 
Galley. This was said to be and with great propriety 
no doubt, the most bloody conflict which had taken 
place during the Avar. Most of our vessels were too 
formidable for those sanguinary marauders, and the let- 
ters of marque were numerous and successful . Amongst 
others the Favourite, captain Buchanan; Dolphin, 
Forbes; Matilda, Belt; Three Brothers, Travers; Iris, 
Cole, &;c. 

• The loans obtained abroad and the payment of gold 
and silver to the French troops, procured a supply for 
circulation, and the Bank of North America being 
opened the paper was superseded altogether. 

Lord North was removed and the earl of Shellburne 
and Charles J. Fox first, then Mr. Pitt, his successors, 
made overtures and proposed the acknowledgement of 
the Independence of the United States. Preliminaries 
were signed in November, and Charleston was evacu 



nS2.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 99 

ated in December. In the mean time the command of 
the British army devolved on Sir Guy Carlton. 

Samuel Worthington Esq. was elected in the place 
of Mr. J. B. Howard for the county, and William Fell 
son of Edward, Esq. in the place of Mr. Wilson, late 
delegate for the town, and William M'Laughlin Esq. 
was elected sheriff. 

Samuel Sterett Esq. was appointed secretary to the 
president of congress. 

Died at Annapolis on the 29th of May, aged eighty 
two years, Charles Carroll Esq. who was proprietor of 
that part of Cole's liarbour which the commissioners 
purchased of him forty-two years before, for the first 
town: On the fourteenth of October, in this town, at 
an advanced age Thomas Harrison Esq. one of ^e 
town commissioners in 1745: At Mount Clare near 
town the 23d of March, CharlesCarroU, Esq. barrister, 
one of the framers of the Constitution and senators of 
the state; and on the 30th at his seat in the county, 
Walter Tolley Esq. formerly a member of the house of 
delegates, and of the convention of 1774. 

It may be remarked as of the military, that of the 
characters in civil life who were instrumental in the es- 
tablishment of our town and government none, except 
Mr. Cornelius Howard, were removed by death during 
the eventful period of the w^ar. 

Hostilities were suspended 11th of April 1783, by 

Congress, and the joyful news of peace and independence 

,was celebrated on the 21st, and at night the town was 

illuminated. The first act of the Legislature^ was to 



lOO ANNALS OF BALTlMOKli. [1783. 

admit the entry of vessels from the British dominions, 
and British subjects were, for some months, permitted 
lo hold registered shipping. 

Messrs. Samuel Smith, Samuel Purviance, Daniel 
Bowley, John Sterett, Thomas Russell, Richard Ridge- 
ly, Robert Henderson, Thomas Elliott and William 
Patterson were appointed Wardens of the port of Balti- 
more for five years, to be renewed by election of the 
electors of the special commissioners every five years 
in succession. They elected Mr. Purviance chairman^ 
and were authorised to make a survey and chart of the 
basin, harbour and river Patapsco ; ascertain the depth 
and course of the channel, and provide for the cleaning 
the same ; and a sum of one penny per ton of every 
vessel entering or clearing, which was raised to two 
cents and sanctioned by Congress after the adoption of 
the Constitution, was imposed, to defray the expense. 
They were also authorised to make rules respecting 
wharves and wharfage, and keeping them in repair. 
There was still no public whaif but that of about 100 
feet on Calvert street, and no private wharves extend- 
ed above 200 except those of Messrs. ^pear, Smith and 
Buchanan ; so that the space occupied by the water at 
that time was perhaps equal to double the surface of the 
present basin and docks. 

Messrs. John and Andrew Ellicott purchased the 
water lot and extended a wharf on Light street, for fil- 
ling of which, they used a drag and, with a team of 
horses, drew the oozy sediment from the bottom of the 
river. They also procured iron scoops to be used by 
hand or windlass, with which the same operation is 



1783.] ANNALS OF BALTlMOllT-. lOl 

performed, and was improved by Messrs. Cruse and Col- 
ver, with the use of horses. By this means, any part 
of the upper harbour, called the basin, is made nine feet 
deep; the water of the point and the river, generally 
being double that depth at common tides. 

A company chiefly composed of citizens of Bal- 
timore, was incorporated to make a canal on the Sus- 
quehana. Soon after the Patowmack Canal Company 
was established, and in 1799, another to make a canal 
to unite the Chesapeake and Delaware bays. 

The defects of the original plan of the town now be- 
came more burthensome, and on the petition of a num- 
ber of inhabitants, a law was passed authorising the 
commissioners of the town to make Hanover lane the 
width of sixty-six feet, being an extension to the street 
of that name in Mr. Howard's addition, assessing the 
damages sustained and the benefits from which the 
same should be paid. By the consent of the proprietors 
of the grounds, the commissioners also opened Holliday 
street of the width of eighty feet, Lemmon street thirty- 
three feet. Orange lane eighteen feet, and widened East 
lane, now in Fayette street, from Holliday street to 
Gay street, to forty feet: Holliday street was extended 
northwardly fifty feet wide in 1810. In 1787, Light 
lane was widened to thirty-eight feet and a half, re- 
serving the Jiouse standing on the west side^ corner of 
Baltimore street^ and called Light street, but a street 
called Walnut street, then bounding the town south 
westerly, was entirely closed, and Forrest street north 
of Baltimore street which had been laid out sixty-six 
feet, was limited to a lane of eighteen, in 179;2, when 



102 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1783. 

Tammany and Chatham streets, now part of Fayette 
street, were opened to the width of forty feet. Charles 
street was extended across two or three docks from 
Camden to Barre street in 1796, and the docks filled 
up and from thence Goodman street was opened south. 
Sharping lane was widened to forty-nine and a half 
feet from Gay to South streets, and called Second street, 
of Avhich it was an extension, in 1798 

Most of the gentlemen of the town, who had gona 
into the army and navy, and held commissions, includ- 
ing Messrs. Thomas Yates, James M'Fadon, Young 
Wilkinson, John Deaver, Philip Graybell, and Sabrit 
Bowen, whose names and perhaps others, should have 
been included in preceding lists, returned and settled 
here. 

The following officers of the army of other parts of 
the state or other states, also settled here, besides 
general Williams, viz: Messrs. N. Ram.say, John 
Swann, Rob't Ballard, Tench Tilghman, John Strieker, 
William Clemm, Martin Eichelberger, David Har- 
ris, Frederick Yeiser, Samuel Sadler, John Bankson, 
John Lynch, Clement Skerrett, and John Brevitt; and 
Paul Bentalou, esq. who was first a captain of caval- 
ry in Pulaski's legion, and had become chief officer 
and commander of the survivors of that gallant corps. 

Several French gentlemen established commercial 
houses during or directly after the Avar, viz. Monbos, 
Latil, Zacharie, Pascault, Dumeste, Delaporte; and the 
chevalier D'Anmour, his most christian Majesty's con- 
sul for Maryland and Virginia, fixed himself in Balti- 
more. 



1783.] 



ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 



105 



Captains Plunket and Moore had returned in conse- 
quence of ill health or reform of the corps in which 
they had served, and organized the Baltimore troop, 
the latter acting as lieutenant until declining health 
obliged the former to go to sea. The following gentle- 
men, several of whom had seiTed in the Independent 
Infantry company were amongst those who entered the 
troop — viz: . 



David Plunket, captairty 
Thomas Russell, lieutenant^ 
Lyde Goodwin, surgeon, 
Thomas Hollingsworth, 
William Neill, 
Thorowgood Smith, 
Christopher Johnston, 
Abraham Vanbibber, 
Luther Martin, 
David Williamson, 
John M' Henry, 
James Jaffray, 
Richard Ridgely, 
John M'Lure, 
David Hopkins, 
Archibald Moncrief, 
John Jeffers, 
Francis Grant, 
George TurnbuU, 
John Foster, 



Nicholas R. Moore, lieutenant, 
Mark Pringle, cornet, 
Matthew Ridley, quarter master, 
William Hammond, 
Alexander M'Kim, 
William Patterson, 
Samuel Hollingswoiih, 
Robert Lyon, 
James Sterling, 
John Spear, 
Thomas Yates, 
William Knox, 
John Kirwan, 
^Villiam Taylor_, 
James Rj'an, 
Larkin Dorsey, 
Nathan Levy, 
John Stewart, 
John M'Alister, 
George Hammond. 



General O. H. Williams married and settled in Bal- 
timore, being appointed collector and naval officer, in 
the place of Thomas Sollers, Esq. deceased. 

Directly after the peace several merchants from other 
states or other parts of this state settled hero, among 



104 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [178^. 

whom were Messps, Slubey, James Carey, W. Potts, 
William West, Haxall, Van Wyck, Contee, Dall, Stouf- 
fer, Starck, Kimmel, Isaac Solomon, George Evans, 
Elisha Tyson, Barton, William Young, Henry John- 
son and Johonnot; and a number of European gentle- 
men; among whom were Messrs. S. Wilson, R. Oliver, 
A. Campbell, James Buchanan, Riddell, S. Liggatt, J , 
Salmon, G. Salmon, A. Stewart, A, Robinson, Grundy, 
J. Hollins, Caton, Coopman, Hodgson, Buckler, Nich- 
olson, Neilson, Schroeder, Seekamp, Ghequiere, Ratien, 
Konecke, Labes, M'Causland, Hacket, Zollickoffer 
and Messonier, and established houses of trade; Mr. 
Adrian Valck being consul for the United Netherlands. 
By the Minerva, captain Belt ; Harmony, Lysle; Paca, 
Kell, and other vessels, there were brought a great 
many Irish and German rcdemptioners ; and a society for 
the aid of the Germans not speaking the language of 
the country, was formed. 

But the late emigrants or refugees from the country 
were also returning, and it being feaied disturbances 
would ensue, the inhabitants, imitating other places, 
held a meeting and resolved that they should not 
be admitted, until the meeting of the genei'al Assembly. 

Those justices who resided in or near town and most 
frequently occupied the Bench were A. Buchanan, John 
Moale, W. Buchanan, J. Vanbibber, A. Vanbibber, 
Geo. Lindenberger, James Calhoun, William Russell, 
Thomas Russell, James M'Henry, Peter Sheppard, 
Henry Wilson, Thomas Elliott, John Merryman, Ro- 
bert Lemmon, Thomas Sollers and Jesse Bussey 
Esqrs. and the gentlemen of the Bar, besides the attor- 



1783.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. IO5 

ney general, Samuel Johnson, Richard Ridgely, Aquil- 
la Hall, Robert Smith, Zeb. Hollingsworth, James Car- 
roll, W. H. Dorsey, William Moore, Rinald. Johnson, 
x-irchibald Robinson, Robert Milligan, Robert Golds- 
borough, Henry Ridgely, Peter Carnes and Thomas 
Gittings Esqrs. Resides some of those gentlemen of 
the faculty before mentioned and yet living, the prac- 
titioners at this period were Doctors Johnson, Good- 
win, Troup, Andrews, Coale, Gilder, and not long 
after Doctors Rrown, Littlejohn, Ross, A. Wiesen- 
thall and Ruchanan. 

On the 16th May 1783 Mr. John Hayes commenced 
the publication of the paper entitled, "the Maryland 
Gazette." This paper with the Journal^ then edited 
by Messrs. Goddard & Angel, gave way to others, and 
the number has been increased successively to five 
daily papers; they are chiefly devoted to commerce. 

On the 30th of September,the inhabitants gave a pub- 
lic dinner to Maj. Gen. Greene on his return from 
Carolina. An address to the General congratulating 
him on the successes of the army under his command, 
was received and answered by him in the most obliging 
manner. 

On the 4th of November Mr. Sterett's brewery was 
burned down. Overcome by this second distressing 
calamity in which the citizens warmly sympathized 
with the then venerable sufferer, Mr. Sterett declined 
business during the remainder of his life. Rut Mr. 
Thomas Peters moved from Philadelphia and erected 
the brewery near Water street bridge in the course of 

U 



jQQ ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1783. 

the year, which was also destroyed by fire some years 
after and rebuilt. 

The British army evacuated New York the 20th 
November; the Americans entered it the 25th, and 
the 1 1 th December was a day of thanksgiving through- 
out the United States. 

In the last week in December, there were cleared 
out two ships, three brigs and two schooners; a 
proof of enterprize which did not escape the penetrat- 
ing eye of General Washington, who, in answer to the 
address of the citizens 1 8tli December, at a public din- 
ner ;;iven to him, then on his way to Annapolis to re- 
sign to congress there, that body being threatened at Phil- 
adelphia by the discontented troops of the state about to 
be disbanded, thus expressed his pious good will, a good 
will which Heaven seems to haveblessed in our favour, 
"receive this last public acknowledgment for the repeat- 
ed instances of your politeness, and believe it is my 
earnest wish that the commerce, the improvements and 
universal prosperity of this flourishing town, may if pos- 
sible increase with even more rapidity than they have 
hitherto done." 

In the course of this year, regular lines of stage 
coaches were established to Fredericktown and Anna- 
polis. Col. Howard commenced his improvements at 
Belvidere and William Gibson, Esq. his dwelling on 
Price street, west of the town. 

In May, James McHenry, Esq. was appointed a mem- 
ber of congress in the place of Edward Giles, Esq. de 
ceased; Zachariah Allen, Esq. was appointed Nota- 
ry Public, being the first here; and in October, John 



1783] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 107 

Sterett, Esq. was elected a delegate to the Assembly in 
the place of Mr. Fell. 

The ensuing: winter J3rovedl exceedingrly severe ; the 
bay was closed by ice almost to the mouth of it, and 
the harbour which closed the 2d January, was not 
clear to admit vessels until the 25th March, nor then, 
but with much labour in cutting passages, which was 
sixteen days later than in 1780. At both periods much 
injury was sustained by the shipping in the bay and 
on the coast and considerable sums collected to re- 
lieve the poor. It was stated that the winter had been 
very moderate in Nova Scotia, while at New Orleans, 
the river Mississippi was fast closed by ice, which had 
not been known there before. Happily there has not 
occurred here such severe winters since, the navigation 
being generally open until the 5th of January and sel 
dom closed after the 10th of February, but sometimes 
open all the year. 

In the 5'^ear 1784, the Roman catholic congregation 
having much increased, the Rev Mr. Charles Sewall 
is settled in Baltimore, and a considerable addition is 
made to their church on Saratoga street. 

INIr. James Rumsey of Cecil county, procured an 
exclusive privilege of this state for making and vending 
boats to be propelled with or against currents by steam, 
then lately invented ; and an obscure individual navi- 
gated a large canoe from the Susquehanna into the ba- 
sin, by turning a crank with a water wheel on each 
side, which mechanism, applied to the power above 
mentioned, is like the construction of our present steam 



108 ANNALS OP BALTIMORE. [1784. 

boats. Five years after Mr. Cruse erects a steam mill 
near Pratt street wharf, but the experiment failed. 

Proposals were authoiised and published for es- 
tablishing a Bank, and subscriptions raised to a consid- 
erable amount, but which then shared the fate of the 
one proposed by the state four years before. A com- 
pany was incorporated to cut a canal from the basin at 
Forrest street to the cove in Ridgely"'s addition, and 
which could have been then effected by the brick ma- 
kers of the vicinity, free from expence to the public 
as was believed, if not opposed by some of the proprietors 
of the ground through which the canal would pass. 
William Murphy a Bookseller, succeeded in establish- 
ing a circulating library south side of Market one door 
east of Calvert street, which was soon after purchased 
and continued by Mr. Hugh Barkley, and Peter Carnes 
Esq. exhibited the novel spectacle of raising a balloon 
from the park. 

The Marquis De La Fayette visiting General Wash- 
ington, was entertained hereby a public dinner thr 
first of September, and received and politely an- 
swered a congratulatory address from the citizens; at 
which time the legislature declaimed the Marquis and his 
heirs male for ever, citizens of IMaryland. 

Provision was made for lighting the streets, and the 
town commissioners, clothed with the authority of 
justices, pursuant to law passed this yeor, appointed 
three constables and fourteen watchmen, to guai'd the 
town. A law was passed to license and regulate public 
sales and major Yates appointed sole auctioneer, to pay 



1784.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 109 

iialf per cent on amount sold, to the special commis- 
sioners for the use of the town. 

By the account of the special commissioners there 
was expended and due for paving streets the last year 
99521. 6s. W. and their per diem 149/. 10s. Od. 
of which 2680Z. 8s. 2d. was received for auction dues; 
from individuals at 12s 6d. per foot front 5949/. 17s. Od. 
licences, fines, &c. 703/. 17s. Id. the balance paid by 
the tax of 2s. and 6d. per 100/. on private property, 
which yielded 1105/. 18s. lOd. in the gross. 

At the close of the war congress had stated the debts 
of the confederacy at ^44,000,000, near 8,000,000 of 
which was due in France and Holland, and solicited 
the states to impose duties, as follows, Jamaica Rum 
id. other Spirits 3d per gallon, Madeira Wine Is. other 
6rf. Bohea 6d. other tea 2s. pepper Sd. loaf sugar 2d. 
brown i, others Id. molasses Ic/. coffee and cocoa Id. 
and goods ad valorem five per cent, and this state passed 
an act for the purpose, on condition all other states did 
the same. This was not done, and in 1 784 the follow 
ing duties were levied here; vessels of the state six 
pence, others one shilling per ton ; spirits two pence ; 
Maderia wine six pence; Port and Claret four pence; 
other three pence; coffee five shillings per hundred 
weight; loaf sugar six shillings; brown one shilling; 
green tea nine pence; Souchong six pence; bohea 
two pence; salt eight pence; ad valorem goods two 
per centum ; and on exports tlu-ee years only. Wheat 
flour three pence ; and tobacco two shillings per hogs- 
head, with a deduction for state built vessels. Three 
fourths of the proceeds for the continental treasury. — 



110 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [178^1, 

At the next session the duties upon exports were abo- 
lished, but considerable additions were made to the du- 
ties on imports, and if by British vessels, there being 
no treaty, the duty was doubled. It is probable that the 
nett amount received from the customs here previ- 
ously to the adoption of the federal Constitution 
and the establishment of United States Collectors 
was above $200,000 per annum, which the mer- 
chants of Baltimore advanced then, but is not to be 
compared with the sums collected here since, for the 
Treasury of the United States. 

The old market had become wholly insufficient; great 
divisions took place in locating a new one, and situa- 
tions on Light and Holliday streets were proposed and 
preferred by many, but the executors of Mr. Harrison, 
offering to appropriate the sjmce in Harrison street, in- 
tended originally for a canal or dock, to that purpose, 
the inhabitants of the districts subscribed money to 
erect a market house there. As this would not accom- 
modate the inhabitants on Howard's hill, they also sub- 
scribe to erect one at the north west corner of Hanover 
and Camden streets. The legislature then ordered the 
old one to be sold; the proceeds to be applied, three 
fourths for the Centre market and one fourth for the 
Hanover market to aid them, and extend the old regu- 
lations to each ; the first to hold the markets as before, 
on Wednesda3'^s and Saturdays, the other on Mondays 
and Thursdays. In the mean time the inhabitants of 
the Point proceed to erect a Market house on a space 
appro])riated to the purpose by Mr. Fell, holding theii- 
markets on Tuesdays and Fridays, which the legisln 



1784] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. HI 

ture confirmed the year after. The Lexing^ton market 
was erected pursuant to law by the Western Precincts 
in 1803, and another was provided for the Eastern pre- 
cincts in 1807, on ground given by colonel Rogers, 
though not erected till 1819. 

The proprietors of ground on Calvert street and in 
the meadow, then north of the falls, desirous to extend 
that street, raised a sum of money to underpin the Court 
House by three arches. Having obtained permission 
of the legislature, immediately effected it, removing the 
eaith to the depth of twenty feet; and so it continued to 
stand, a curious monument of the ingenuity of Mr, 
Leonard Harbaugh, the architect, as well as of the en- 
terprise of the contributors, who guaranteed the work- 
manship to stand more than twenty years. 
. A new survey was nc^w ordered to be made of the 
town, and the inhabitants began to discuss the necessity 
of a charter. 

Messrs. Garts and Leypold erected a sugar refinery 
on Peace alley, the east side of Hanover street between 
Conway and Camden streets; and John Frederick 
Amelung, Esq. arrived with a number of glass manufac- 
turers from Germany, and erected an extensive factory 
on the Monococy, which was afterwards, that is in 
1799, established on the south side of the basin by his 
son, and since enlarged by Mr, J. F. Friese. 

As the jurisdiction of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in America remained in the bishop of London, 
the revolution prevented regular ordinations, and the 
Rev. Samuel Seabury, of Connecticut, went there to 
procure higher orders, but encountered many delays 



l\2 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1784. 

and did not return until June of the ensuing year. In 
the meantime, the application of the methodist preach- 
ers produced from Mr. Wesley the appointment of a 
supenntcndant of his own here, in the person of Dr. 
Thomas Coke, in the course of this year. 

On Christmas day the first grand conference of that 
society was held in Baltimore, when the doctor, assist- 
ed by other preachers who came with him, constituted 
a new church, and on the presentation of preachers to 
the number of sixty, conferred the same station on the 
Rev. Mr. Francis Asbury: and, the next year, the socie- 
ty sell the church in Lovely lane and build a new 
Church on Light street. 

According to the Gazette, there were entered at the 
custom house, since Mai'ch 25th, twenty one ships, for- 
ty one brigs and 49 sloops and schooners, and cleared 
twenty seven ships, thirty six. brigs and forty six sloops 
and schooners. 

By the act to raise supplies of 1 785, two boards of 
five gentlemen each, commissioners of tax, were ap- 
pointed ; one for the town, which was to be assessed 
separately from the county ; and in the same law, the 
precincts were described to contain nearly the same 
ground which have been lately added to the city. The 
mode of raising the public charges by -poll^ or masters 
of families and labourers according to their number, 
had been abolished by the Constitution, and the state 
tax or supply which had varied with the value of the 
current money from three-fourths to one and a half per 
centum, by the present act, was one dollar on one hun- 



1785.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 113 

valued by the law, at an average of $3^%, and, being 
the last supply^ the valuation has not been altered, in 
respect to lands. The property in the town and coun- 
ty was assessed at the sum of 1^103,6221 or 4,542,992 
dollars, and the above state tax was ^^ 17,036 and the 
levy of the county for the next year 7s. per 100 dollars, 
5^15,991 60. 

The commissioners principal duty appearing to be 
that of securing the collection of the tax payable to the 
state, the utility of the ofBce may be doubted, as well 
as the propriety*6f fixing the value of property, perhaps 
three fourths less than the actual current value, when 
assessors are renewed, as often as there is a general 
assessment, and all the levies are made by, and all pay- 
ments made to the councils or levy courts specially ap- 
pointed, by acts passed ten years after. 

John 0'Donnell,^Esq. arrived from Canton in the 
ship ^allas, 9th August, with a full cargo of China 
goods, being the first direct importation from thence 
into this port, the value of which he realised here ; and 
regular packets to and from Norfolk (Va.) were estab- 
lished by Capt. Joseph White and others of this place. 
Mr. Harrison's wharf before spoken of, was extended 
each side of South street, by the late Daniel Bowley, 
Esq. one of his executors, and it thence became known 
by the name of Boideifs ivharf; Messrs. Purviance, 
McLure, Thomas and Samuel Hollingsworth, William 
Smith and Jesse HoUingsworth's wharves, and the 
private wharves generally, with Cheapside, were ex- 
tended. Piles, with the machine for driving them, 
were introduced by the bnilders of wharves. 

15 



114 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1785. 

The German Calvinists erect the church at the east 
end of Baltimore street bridge, Mr. Boehme being Pas- 
tor. That part of the congregation attached to Mr. 
Otterbein, erect the church on Conway street, called 
Evangelical Reformed, which was slightly injured by 
lightning the 10th of August, 1792, when a young man 
was killed on Smith's wharf, the opposite side of 
the basin to the church. The other church was sold to 
the Episcoplians in 1 795, and the society erect their 
present church on Second street, which was struck by 
lightning 1 5th July 1 804, on raising the steeple and 
affixing the town clock. 

The plan of a charter for the town, including a 
Mayor's Court, was introduced by bill into the Assem- 
bly; but, placing all power in bodies organised like 
other old corporations, and leaving the citizens but lit- 
tle share in their own government, it was wisely op- 
posed by and as wisely not pressed upon them. Richard 
Ridgely, Esq. who had moved from Anne Arundel and 
been some time a member of the Baltimore bar, was ap 
pointed one of the delegates of this state in congress. 

Col. Howard and George Lux, Esq. presented the- 
commissionei's a lot of ground on the west side of 
the town, for the interment of strangers, which is sanc- 
tioned by act of Assembly. 

No companies were yet chartered for insuring vessefe,. 
and property at sea, but policies prepared by Hercules 
Courtenay,Esq. wore subscribed by merchants and other 
individuals, to very large amounts. Similar insurances 
were effected afterwards on policies prejiared by Capt 
Keeports. . 



1785.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. . 115 

Capt. Philip Gray bell was elected Sheriff for the 
ensuing year^ by a poll for the town and county, of 
984 votes, after a severe contest with Henry Stevenson, 
Esq. who had 859 votes, and Capt. Edward Oldham, 
837, and several other candidates; but no opposition 
was made to the return of the sitting members of the 
Assembly. 

The rigid execution of the British navigation act, 
their regulations for the bank fisheries and occlusion of 
the West India ports, began to be felt seriously by the 
farmers and traders ; and the importation of great quan- 
tities of paper, glass, stoneware, powder and shot, soap, 
and candles, butter, beef, pork, porter, cheese, hats, 
shoes, nails, hoes, scythes, sickles, jewelry, sadlery, cop- 
per and tin ware, and other articles of which the coun- 
try already manufactured considerable quantities, was 
prejudicial to the tradesmen ; made all classes anxious 
for relief, and societies were formed in this and all the 
sea ports northward, some of which urged the necessity 
of refusing to admit British goods; others of creating a' 
paper money, and all, the want of greater federal pow- 
ers in the confederacy. Of the tradesmen, a committee 
composed of Messrs. David Stodder,Adam Fonerden and 
John Gray, commenced a correspondence on the means 
of protecting and promoting domestic manufactures. 

After Mr. Harrison's addition to the town in 1747, 
it became the practice to dispose of lots by leases for 
long terms, mostly ninety nine years renewable forever; 
the rent received before the war being for a few shil- 
lings or even a few pence per foot front per annum, and 

f ■ ^ . 



IIG ANNALS or BALTLMOKL. [1786. 

frequently without any consideration in hand, so tliat 
the landlords derived no adequate compensation when 
the value of money had fell and property risen: On the 
other hand, the rents stipulated after the war were so 
high, that, upon the depression which now took place, 
the lessees or tenants frequently abandoned the lots, 
and the town lost some valuable citizens who fled from 
prosecution, though their only fault or error was an ex- 
cess of enterprise. Similar causes have produced sim- 
ilar effects in later times ; and it v/ould seem adviseablc 
that, in order to avoid the injury which either party is 
exposed to sustain, from the variation of the current mo- 
ney, or in the value of necessaries of life, that some 
commodity of that description, as Wheat or Flour, 
should be made a standard for rents reserved in 
leases hereafter to be made, as was the practice of mer- 
chants and others both in France and America, in rela- 
tion to ordinary contracts, during the depreciation of 
the pajier money in each country. 

On the 17th August, 1786, a new theatre built of 
wood, by Messrs. Hallam and Henry, near Queen, now 
Pratt, and Albemarje streets, was opened by the old 
company. 

On the 5th October there was a great fresh, the ciu- 
rent of the falls being met by the tide, overflowed the 
Centre market space and nearly all the made ground and 
wharves; John Boyce, Esq. lost his life in attemptihg 
to ford the falls below Hanson"'s, now Keller's dam, 
all the bridges which were wooden ones, being carried 
away, and much property and merchandise lost. Bal- 
timore street bridge >vas rebuilt by Mr. Jacob Small, 



1786] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 117 

Senr. of wood, in one arch, of a segment of a circle nine* 
ty feet span, the others in the usual way. On the 24th 
of July, 1788, a storm of wind and rain raised the water 
in the harbour above many wharves, and much proper- 
ty was lost, by being overflowed, but all those wharves 
have been raised and no such damage has been expe- 
rienced since. About ten years after the bridges were 
all rebuilt, with a new one on Pratt street; after the 
lapse of another ten years, stone bridges, of two arches 
each were erected on Baltimore and Gay streets, and di- 
rectly after, another of three arches at Pratt street, the 
abutments and piers restmg on piles; the commission- 
ers not succeeding in an experiment to lay the founda- 
tions in stone at Baltimore street. 

By a considerable freshet on the ninth of August, 
1817, the wooden Bridges on Bath and Water streets 
w^ere floated against the stone ones on Gay and Pratt 
streets, which were considerably injured by the ob- 
structions to the passage of the water, and the Centre 
]Market again overflowed. An entire new stone Bridge 
of one arch, was afterwards erected at Gay street and 
the other repaired. None of those freshets are attend- 
ed by hurricanes, nor has the buildings or shipping 
ever suffered any material injury from wind or Hail at 
this place. 

The consumption of foreign goods had greatly in- 
creased after the war, not only by increase of popula- 
tion in towns, but even in the country, where formerly 
articles of common clothing had been wrought. From 
the great importations of these, with other foreign 
goods, mostly on credit or on foreign account; from 



118 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1786. 

the want of shipping to convey much of our own pro- 
ducts or, so far as concerns this state, any other cui- 
rency than specie, and other causes before alluded to, 
still increasing, the distress of the people increased also. 

Cotton was not then raised for exportation, and the 
prices of the staple articles of flour and tobacco, falling 
very low, that distress became pretty general thi'ough- 
out the Union. The certificates of pay due the army, 
was only worth about twelve per cent for some time, so 
great and deplorable was the discredit of the confed- 
eracy. But the legislature through the perseverance 
of the senate, although much importuned and invited 
by the example of other states, still pressing them to 
unite in a general and efficient tariff of duties on im- 
ports, refused to resort again to the paper money sys- 
tem. The youth of Baltimore intended for the learned 
professions hitherto, were sent abroad and mostly to 
schools in Pennsylvania; but now an Academy was es- 
tablished under the patronage of the Rev. Doctors 
Carroll, West and Allison, on north Chai'les street, 
where Edward Langworthy Esq. taught the classics, 
and Andi^ew EUicott of Joseph, Esq. surveyor of the 
United States, the Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, 
&;C. which unfortunately, was not long continued. 

According to reports in the gazette of this year there 
were entered here fifteen Ships, fifty seven Brigs and 
one hundred and sixty Schooners and Sloops, and there 
were cleared twenty Ships, fifty seven Brigs and one 
hundred and fifty Schooners and Sloops, to and from 
foreign ports and places only. 

The commissioners of the town were authorised to 
appoint inspectors of salted provisions. 



1786.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. l\9 

James McHenry Esq. resigned his seat in the senate 
early in 1786. He was succeeded by Daniel Bowley 
Esq. and at the senatorial election afterwards, John 
Smith Esq. was re-elected, with Richard Ridgely Esq. 
Captain Charles Ridgely, Colonel J. E. Howard and 
Richard Ridgely Esqrs. electors for this county and 
town ; and in 1 788, James Carroll Esq. who had moved 
here from Annapolis, was chosen to fill a vacancy, and 
in November 1789, Daniel Bowley Esq. was again 
chosen to fill another in the senate. 

Jesse Hollings worth Esq. was elected one of the 
delegates in the place of Mr. Sterett. 

. On the twelfth of March 1 786, died at his residence 
in the county, Andrew Buchanan Esq. many years pre- 
siding justice of the county court and Lieutenant of 
the county: and in town, unmarried, on the tenth of 
October, lately a delegate in the Assembly, William 
Fell Esq. son of Edward, who laid out the point. 

In closing the year by noticing the deaths which oc- 
curred, the method of annalists is copied, but in connect- 
ing them with another event which regularly returns, 
the annual elections, reference to the laws frequently 
occurs before the names of those by whom they were 
passed. 

In 1787 Mr. Oliver Evans' newly invented steam 
carriage, elevator and hopper boy were patented by 
the assembly, and the two last generally introduced into 
the mills about Baltimore, not without claims to origi- 
nality, on the part of some of the proprietors of mills 
in this neighbourhood. Me«*srs. Septimus Noel. Isaac 



120 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1787, 

Vanbibber, Robert Henderson, Thomas Johnson, Jer- 
emiah Yellot, James Clarke and Thomas Elliot were 
constituted a board to examine and license pilots, with 
powers of renewal etc, and the rates of pilotage was 
established. 

The Baltimore fire insurance company was incorpo- 
rated, but this was succeeded by another company, call- 
ed, the "Maryland fire insurance Company" four years 
after, and this was succeeded by another, of the former 
name, in 1807. In the mean time, that is in 1794 
the Equitable Society for mutual insurance was incor- 
porated, and in 1816 the Phcenix fire insurance compa- 
ny; but when the first company was chartered, provision 
was also made by law for regulating the transportation 
through the town and storage of Gunpowder. 

The grand jury, Stephen Wilson Esq. foreman, had 
represented the state of the roads as a public grievance, 
and that the usual method of repairs was insuf- 
ficient, two years before. The evil had increased and 
the Frederick, Reisters town and York roads were 
laid out anew, for which special and permanent taxes 
were laid and turnpike gates established with rates of toll 
towards defraying the expense of the county in making; 
and repairing them. In 1790 a turnpike road was au- 
thorised to be made by subscribers of stock, from 
Washington to this city, with corporate rights, tolls, &c. 
But, with others for roads to Frederick and Reister.^ 
town, past the next year, was not carried into effect. 
The two latter roads, with the York and Falls road 
were severally granted to corporate companies created 
in 180i and soon completed, and since that the 



1787.] ANNALS OF BALTLMORE. 121 

Washington, Havre de Grace and Harford road compa- 
nies have been incorporated; indeed all the main roads 
to and fromthe city. It was also in 1 787 that Baltimore 
street was extended westwardly beyond colonel How- 
ard's addition, and an attempt was made to raise a com- 
pany to introduce into the town a copious supply of 
wholesome water by pipes, not effected for several years. 

In December Cokesbury College in Harford county, 
was opened and soon after incorporated. Mr. Asbury 
and the council of the Methodist church make some 
progress in establishing Sunday Schools for pei'sons of 
all descriptions, free of expense. 

To procure the country a greater unanimity in coun- 
cil, the protection of domestic manufactures and securi 
ty to its revenue and intercourse with foreign nations, a 
new form of confederacy was happily resorted to, and 
the constitution of the present general government 
which was formed in 1787, was signed by James 
McHenry esq. of this city, one of the members of the 
convention, though opposed by his colleague Mr. Martin. 
The Grand Jury, James Calhoun esq. foreman, present 
as grievances the number of justices, being twenty; the 
criminal code, and state of the roads; recommending a 
circuit court of one law character with a limited num- 
ber of associate justices, the others to receive fees, &c. 
On the thirty first December Mr. D. Stodder is robbed 
between town and point, but by his pursuit five persons 
were taken and tried, and two, Donnelly and Moony, 
condemned and executed. 

Captain G. P. Keeports is appointed Notary Public. 

16 



\22 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1787. 

Samuel Chase esq. having moved from Annapolis, is 
elected delegate, in the place of Mr. Hollings worth, and 
Gol. Howard appointed member of congress. 

On the 1st of January. 1 787, died, John Sterett, Esq. 
late delegate and formerly captain of the Independent 
company. 

Next year Mr, McHenry and doctor John Coulter 
are returned, by a large majority of voters to the conven- 
tion of the state, which, on the 28th April, 1788, rati- 
fied the new government; after which, on the 1st of 
May, there was a grand procession of artists with the 
ship rigged boat Federalist, which captain Barney navi- 
gated to Mount Vernon afterwards, and presented to 
Gen, Washington on the part of the merchants of Bal- 
timore. 

. The price which the state of Maryland would pay for 
the advantages of a better union, in abandoning without 
reserve, the resources of revenue to arise from her cen- 
tral position and means of trade, could scarcely be an- 
ticipated, and the security of tlie home consumption for 
the products of mechanical lal)our, required by the 
tradesmen and intended by the new government, render- 
'6dits adoption a triumph to them particularly; but care 
should be taken perliaps, that a reaction does not tak^ 
place, and foreign markets be sought for at the expense 
of a more numerous class of citizens, whose labour is 
employed in procm*ing more essential commodities. 

The legislature elect Col. Howard governor of the 
state in November, 1 788, and he was re-elected the two 
succeeding years, as allowed by the contitution ; an honor .] 



1788.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 1^8 

not before conferred on the town; and not since repeated, 
but in the election of Charles Ridgely, of Hampton, Esq. 
in 1815, 181 tj and 1817; in which latter year the for- 
mer governor's son, John E. Howard, Jr. Esq. was 
chosen a member of council and re elected the two suc- 
ceeding years, being the only member selected from this 
town or county, fo that Board. 

Already the port wardens had expended since their 
organization, the sum of 712/. or ^1,898 66f, and 
some progress made in deepening the harbour. 

It appears that the representations of the grand juries 
were duly appreciated, for a criminal court was organis- 
ed for the county and town, consisting of five justices^ 
Samuel Chase, Esq. being appointed chief justice. Male 
persons convicted of felonies and some other offences, 
might be condemned to work on the roads leading to 
the town, on the streets or harbour; the convicts from 
other counties being also sent to the same labour. 
With the chief justice, who received a fixed salary in 
the county levy, were associated four of the county jus- 
tices, paid a per diem as they always had been, and who 
first were, John Moale, William ilusscll, Otho H. Wil- 
liams and Lyde Goodwin, Esqs. and last of whom were 
George Salmon, George G. Presbury, Job Smith and 
Nicholas Rogers, Esqs. William Gibson, Esq. clerk of 
the county, was clerk, and the sheriff for the time being 
sheriff of this court also. This court appointed the con- 
stables and superintended the night watch, and was an 
abridgement of the authority of the special commission- 
ers favorable to the town police, because the court held 



124. ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1788. 

its commission by a more certain tenure and was better 
compensated for time devoted to public duties. 

James McHenry Esq. and Doctor John Coulter were 
elected to the Assembly after a very warm contested 
election, 600 to 500 votes, and Thomas Rutter Esq. 
was elected sheriff. At the entrance of Chester river, 
on the 17th of May, at night, captain John De Corse of 
the packet, was murdered by two ruffians he had taken 
on board here as passengers. The vessel was brought 
back to the middle branch and abandoned. Exertions 
were made to discover the murderers, which resulted 
in the arrest of Patrick Cassidy, who had forfeited his 
pardon for former oifences by remaining in the state, 
and was, with one John Webb another convict, execu- 
ted some time after. 

On the sixth of July the lightning- killed a woman 
and two children between town and point. In March 
Samuel Purviance Esq. formerly chairman of the com- , 
mittee of this town, and member of the convention of | 
1774, whilst descending the Ohio, with others, was 
made captive by the Indians and put to death soon after, 
as was reported and believed. On the twenty fifth of 
October, died in town, aged sixty five years, the Rev. 
John S. Gerrock, first minister of the German Lutheran 
Congregation, being some time assisted and now suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. Daniel Kurtz. 

Early in 1789, William Smith Esq. is elected by 
general ticket, one of the six representatfves of this 
state in congress, and Robert Smith Esq. in the same 



r 



1788.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 125 

manner, one of the eight electors of Pi'esident and 
Vice-President of the United States. 

General Washington having been unanimously cho- 
sen President of the United States, passed through 
Baltimore the seventeenth of April, 1789, on his way 
to congress at ^'ew York. On this occasion he was 
entertained at supper by the citizens, and, to the ad- 
dress delivered him, he replied, "the tokens of regard 
and affection which I have often received from the 
citizens of this town, were always acceptable, because 
I believed them always sincere" &c. adding this decla- 
ration, by the strict adherence to which he secured for 
his memory that reverence which is now and probably 
will ever be paid to true merit by civilized man. "Hav- 
ing UNDERTAKEN THE TASK FROM A SENSE OF DUTY, NO 
FEAR OF ENCOUNTERING DIFFICULTIES, AND NO DREAD 
OF LOSING POPULARITY, SHALL EVER DETER ME FROM 
PURSUING WHAT I CONCEIVE TO BE THE TRUE INTER- 
ESTS OF MY COUNTRY." 

Laws having passed by congress to carry the federal 
constitution into effect, the President appointed 
General O. H. Williams, collector, Robert Purviance 
Esq. Naval Officer, and Colonel Robert Ballard, sun^ey- 
or of this port. High duties were imposed on wine, 
spirits and other luxuries, and duties sufficient to pro- 
tect the domestic manufacture of soap, candles, hats, 
shoes, nails &c, were laid, fifty cents per ton on foreign 
vessels, and on other articles imported , seven and a 
half to ten per cent which were soon after increased to 
twelve and a half and fifteen per cent, ad valwem. 



120 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE, [1789. 

Other appointments were, Thomas Johnson esq. but 
he declining, William Paca esq. judge of the District 
court for Mai-yland; Richard Potts esq. attorney; colo- 
nel Nathaniel Ramsay, marshall, and captain Joshua 
Barney, clerk ; who held their first session in Baltimore 
the first June of the year following, but occasionally, 
at Easton and Annapolis for some years. John White 
esq. agent for the settlement of continental accounts at 
Annapolis, declining, captain A. Furnival is appointed 
post master. 

Alexander McGilvray a well educated half blood 
chief and other chiefs of the Creek Indians, who had 
lately been formidable enemies to the south, pass 
through Baltimore on a visit to the government, and 
fifteen years after a number of Osage chiefs and others 
from beyond the Mississippi visit the town. 

Doctors Johnson, Boyd, Goodwin, Brown, Gilder, 
Buchanan, Wiesenthal, the two last then lately return- 
ed from Europe, and others form a medical society, of 
which the first named gentleman was president. The 
body of Cassidy, lately executed, was obtained for 
dissection but was discovered by the populace an(i 
taken from the gentlemen who were then studying 
anatomy or surgery in the town. However, doctor 
George Buchanan delivered a coui'se of lectures on 
obstetricks. The ensuing year doctor Andrew Wies- 
enthal delivered a course of lectures upon anatomy, 
when lectures upon other branches of medical science 
were also announced; viz. by doctor George Brown on 
the theory and practice of Physic, by doctor Lydc 



1789.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 127 

Goodwin on the theory and practice of Surgery, and by 
doctor Samuel Coale on Chemistry and Materia 
Medica. 

The essay to form a medical school which those 
learned gentlemen so early undertook, failed then, to be 
successfully accomplished by others, when the popula- 
tion had increased with the wealth and wants of 
society. 

A great many persons joined the Methodist congre- 
gation and for the first time, a preacher was stationed in 
the town, and a church built by that society on Green 
now Exeter, near Gay street. 

Messrs. Englehard Yeiser and others owning the 
grounds, cut a new channel for the falls from the 
lower mill at Bath street, across the meadow to Gay 
street bridge; of which channel the bounds are fixed 
by ordinance of the city in 1B03, and the old course of 
the falls by the court house, gradually filled up. After 
which it became a dispute to whom the ground thus 
made belonged, which was finally divided between the 
parties owning the adjoining lands,.where there were dis- 
tinct owners. Mr. Christopher Cruse who had improv- 
ed the mud machine whilst in the employ of the port 
wardens, aided by his son Englehard, erected a grist 
mill near Pratt street, introduced steam power and 
ground corn as now done, but failed after expending a 
considerable sum to effect the completion of his inven- 
tion, for w^ant of capital. 

A society for promoting the "abolition of slavery, and 
for the relief of free negroes, and others, unlawfully 
held in bondage," was organised, of which Philip Kogers* 



128 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1789. 

Esq. was chosen President and Mr. Joseph Townsend 
Secretary ; but some opposition on the part of the state 
legislature in 1 792, caused them to discontinue ; upon 
which they transfen^ed the building they had erected on 
Sharpe street, for an African School, to the religious 
people of colour, who made additions to it. Another 
society called the Protection Society, was formed in 
1817, which was intended nearly for the same objects. 
Of this society the late Mr. Elisha Tyson, of the socie- 
ty of Friends, was a most active member. Actuated by 
motives no less benevolent, but guided by more pru- 
dence perhaps, than their predecessors; many useful 
persons of colour were duly protected, and incorrigible 
servants sold and transported, without interference of 
the magistracy or of the society. 

Samuel Sterett, Esq. was elected in the place of Dr. 
Coulter one of the delegates to the Assembly. 

As a relief to the pecuniary distresses of the inhabi 
tants an association was formed by Messrs. Caton, Yan- 
bibber, A. McKim, Townsend and others to carry on 
the manufacture of cotton upon a small scale, and some 
jeans and velvets were made. The carding was per- 
formed by the newly invented machinery and small 
hand jennies were introduced, and if circumstances had 
required, would no doubt have been extended and con- 
tinued. 

With the commencement of the French Revolution, 
there happened a real or fictitious scai'city in France, 
Portugal and some other European countries, which im- 
mediately raised the price of the staple q^ wheat from 



1790.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. \29 

80 to \25 cents per bushel, and flour in proportion; 
which soon rendered these means of pubHc relief unne- 
cessary. It was indeed at November session 1790, that 
Messrs. Samuel Smith, William Patterson, Jeremiah 
Yellot, Englehard Yeiser, Robert Gilmor, Thorowgood 
Smith, Charles Garts, Thomas Rollings worth, James 
Edwards, James Carey, Otho H. Williams and Nicho- 
las Sluby, were authorised to take subscriptions for the 
Bank of Maryland. ^200,000 were subscribed in 
shares of ^100 each, in fourteen days, being two thirds 
of the capital, which was paid in during the ensuing 
year, and the institution went into operation upon a por- 
tion of the capital. William Patterson, Esq. being 
elected President, and Ebenezer Mackie, Esq. Cashier. 

The entire capital of ^300,000 was afterwards com- 
pleted. The state granted peculiar advantages to this 
institution, which was pei^Dctual, and reserved no part of 
the stock or direction. 

Few of the notes of "the Bank of North America," at 
Philadelphia, had reached Baltimore at the time, and 
none of the Banks of New York or Boston, but the 
officers of "the Bank of the United States," chartered 
by congress in 1 790, thought proper to open a branch 
here early in 1792, of which the parent board appointed 
George Gale, Esq. President, and David Harris, Esq. 
Cashier. 

The exorbitant dividends made by the first Bank hv 
dicated the want of another, notwithstanding the loans 
afforded by the office of the United States Bank ; but liy 

17 



130 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1790. 

their means, a mucli larger sum was obtained, with 
much less difliuclty, for a nevf one. Accordingly 
in 1795, the "Bank of Baltimore" was chartered, af- 
ter an ineffectual attempt to increase the capital of the 
first Bank. The capital of this was ^1,200,000, George 
Salmon, Esq. President and James Cox, Esq. Cashier. 
The charter of this Bank was limited to twenty years 
and the stale reserving tlie right to subscribe for 6000 
shares at 300 dollars each, has actually paid ^106,200, 
and appoints two of seventeen directors annually chos • 
en. The charter has served as a model for others, and 
has been itself renewed. 

By an act passed the same session, 1790, Messrs. 
John Hollins and Joshua Barney arc appointed auction- 
eers, and commence business under the firm of John 
Hollins & Co. after which the limitation was removed 
and, by the charter, the auctions are licensed by the city. 

The Rev. Dr. John Carroll, who, in the early part of 
the revolution had been employed, with others, in a 
political embassy to the Canadians by congress, on the 
application of the Catholic clergy, was consecrated in 
England a Bishop of that church, to reside in Balti- 
more, and returned here in 1790. In 1796 a small 
chapel was built on the Point, which was succeeded 
by St. Patrick''s church, on Point Market street, in 
1807. The German Catholics erected the church on 
Saratoga street, in 1799, and St. Mary's, a Catholic 
church at the College, of which Maximilian Godfrey, 
Esq. was architect, was finished in 1807. Under the 
auspices of the Bishop, the foundation of the Cathedral 
in Charles street, the design of which was furnished by 



1790.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. ISl 

the late Benjamin H. Latrobe, Esq. was laid in 1806; 
and four years after the Bishop became an Arch Bishop. 

Sea vessels paid wharfage one dollar first two days 
each, and four dollars per day afterwards; and three 
pence per cord of cord wood. It appears that the port 
wardens received this year 88/. 19s. 8d. and expended 
the same, and that the amount of taxes received or 
charges paid by the special commissioners, was each 
1,927Z. 17s. Sd. exclusive of paving accounts. The ex- 
pense of the new court of Oyer and Terminer of the 
town and county for the year, was 1,994/. 9s. GcZ. ; forty 
five watchmen and officers, 8167. 3s. Id. total 2,840/. 
13s. Id. The first account was levied upon town and 
county property, viz. 1,424,50,2/. 3s. 9d. at 3s.: 
and Id. per centum; the latter sum was provided for 
in a balance of fines, licenses and special taxes. There 
was besides, the amount of fifty five pounds paid for a 
slave condemned to work on the roads: This might be 
compensated in his labour, and fair enough ; but, the pro- 
priety of taxing the public to pay for slaves executed, as 
still practised, whilst free widows and orphans are de- 
prived of their husbands and fathers, executed pursu- 
ant to law, without compensation, is more than doubtful. 

According to a list published, the sea vessels belong- 
ing to this port, consisted of twenty seven ships, 6701 
tons; one snow, eighty tons; thirty one brigs, 3770 
tons; thirty four schooners, 2454 tons, and nine sloops, 
559 tons, together 102 vessels, 13,564 tons. 



132 



ANNALS OF BALTIIMORE. 



[1790. 



Exports from Baltimore, from 1st October, 1789, to 1st July, 1790. 



Bees Wax 


74 casks 


Gciiseng 


14 casks 


Butter 


25 lirkins 


Pig Iron 


671 tons 


Bread 


5,558 bbls. 


Bar Iron 


4 tons 


Bricks 


16,100 


Meal 


2,954 bbls. 


Beef 


196 bbls. 


Pork 


383 bbls. 


Candles 


23 boxes 


Peas and Beans 4,145 bushels 


Cheese 


2,390 lbs. 


Rice 


1,286 casks 


Corn 


208,195 bushels 


Shingles 2 


,118,724 


Cotton 


134 bales 


Scantling 


516,690 feet 


Deer Skins 


61 packages 


Staves 


874,598 


Flour 


127,284 bbls. 


Tobacco 


9,442 liluls 


Furs 


20 packages 


Tar 


1,140 bbls 


JFlaxseed 


2,152 casks 


Turpentine 


50 bbls 


Fish 


1,344 bbls. 


I \Vheat 


228,062 bushels 



According to the first census taken by the general 
government, the population of the city and precincts in 
1790 amounted to 13,503 persons of all descriptions, 
viz. white males 6,42^ ; females 5,503 ; other free per- 
sons 323; slaves 1,255. 

In the fall of 1789 and spring of 1790, there raged 
throughout the country, commencing at the south, an 
epidemic called the injluenza which was fatal in some 
instances. It was remarked that the summer of the 
former year had been uncommonly warm, the mean 
temperature of the air at Philadelphia for September, 
being seventy five, and for October sixty-three, with 
great drought; and that, like the yellow fever which fol- 
lowed, it was contagious in the atmosphere but not by 
personal communication. It was called by some of the 
faculty an epidemic putrid cold, and was said to be pro- 
duced by sudden vegetable putrefaction, as the other 
disease is thought to be. 



1790.] 



ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 133 



On the 7th of May, 1790, the first session of the cir- 
cuit court of the United States for this district, was held 
here, by John Blair Esq. of Virginia, one of the Judges 
of the Supreme Court, and William Paca Esq. district 
Judge. 

Samuel Sterett Esq. is elected by general ticket, one 
of the six representatives of this state in congress. — 
There was a Chesapeake ticket and a Patawmack tick- 
et, the former of which prevailed, but Mr. Sterett who 
succeeded Mr. William Smith, was on both tickets, and, 
David MclVIechen Esq. late member, and colonel Sam- 
uel Smith were returned to the house of delegates as 
representatives of the town, without opposition. 

On the 28th of June 1790, died at his residence near 
town, captain Charles Ridgely, one of the framers of 
the Constitution and many years a delegate of the coun- 
ty to the general assembly. 

In 1791, Messrs. Robert Gilmor, John O'Donnell 
Stephen Wilson, Charles Ghequiere, John Holmes and 
others erected a Powder Mill on Gwinn's falls, which 
was continued by the same or others, until 1 7th of Sep- 
tember 1812, it was blown up a second time and not 
rebuilt, other mills having been erected in the mean 
time, that is, the Etna works, on the same stream, built 
in 1812, and chartered in 1815; and Bellonaon Jones's 
falls, built in 1802 and chartered in 1814, which last 
has twice exploded, and on each occasion several lives 
lost, but rebuilt and continued. 

The president appoints George Gale Esq. supervisor 
of the internal taxes levied by congress. 



134, ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1791. 

Judge Chase, stilljudge of the Criminal Court, is ap- 
pointed chief justice of the General Court of this state, 
in the place of Thomas Johnson, Esq. appointed one 
of the judges ot the Supreme Court of the United States. 
By a new organization of the courts of justice, the state 
is divided into five districts; this county with Anne 
Arundel and Harford forms the third, and the justices 
(jf the peace cease to hold courts or receive any per 
diem either for civil or criminal matters. The new 
courts are composed of one Chief Justice for each dis- 
trict, paid a certain salary from the Treasury, and two 
associates in each county; a per diem was levied for 
tlie associates in the Levy of the counties, and ccirtain 
taxes imposed towards reimbursing the salaries of the 
Chief Justices, who had the authority of Justices of 
the Peace, except in matters of small debts, which the 
latter justices were still to determine without any fee or 
reward. 

Thomas Johnson, Esq. was appointed Chief Judge of 
this district, but he did not accept; and, the jurisdiction 
of the admiralty court being superseded by the general 
govennnent, Benjamin Nicholson, Esq. is appointed 
Chief Judge of this district early in this year; the asso- 
ciates were General Williams and James Carroll, Esq. 
Judge Nicholson departed this life the year after his 
appointment and Avas succeeded by Joshua Seney, Esq. 
who resigned in 1796, and Henry Ridgely, Esq. suc- 
ceeds. In 1 792 Col. Howard and William Russell, Esq. 
were appointed the associate judges of this Court, and 
successively, Samuel Sterrett, William Owings, Wil- 
liam Winchester, Edward Johnson, and Elias Glenn. 



1791.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 13,5 

Esqrs. the two last, with Judge H. Ridgely forming the 
Court when re-organized in 1805. 

A new Presbyterian Church built on the scite of the 
former one on East street, and is now the north west 
corner of Fayette and North streets, was dedicated by 
the Rev. Dr. Allison on the third of July. The 
plan which is spacious and handsome, was executed by 
Messrs. John Dalrymple and J. Mosher, builders. The 
remains of the dead, who had been interred on part of 
the lot, were then removed to the new cemetry belong- 
ing to the society, Fayette street. The new church 
was struck by lightning on the afternoon of the third 
of August, 1805, but received no material injury. A 
small church was erected on Pitt street, in 1800 by 
the associate Reformed Presbyterians, who were visited 
occasionally by the Rev. Mr. Annan. 

The number of Presbyterians being greatly increased , 
a "second Presbyterian Church," on Baltimore street, 
was built in 1804. Mr. George Milleman architect 
Rev. John Glendy w^as first minister. A church is 
erected on Fayette street, Mr. Robert Watts architect, 
in 1813, also reformed, for which the Rev. JohnM. 
Duncan was appointed minister; the congregation 
disposing of the one on Pitt street to a society of Cove- 
nanters, who chose the Rev. John Gibson for minister. 
The Presbyterians in 1822, erected another called the 
third Presbyterian church, on north Eutaw street, of 
which the Rev. W. C. Walton was first minister. 

An assize of bread was fixed by the special com- 
missioners, the two penny fine loaf to weigh thirteen 
o\inces. This regulation was sucreoded bv another 



13G ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [179J. 

directing loaves to be of one pound eight ounces or 
three pound weight, ten years after, by the corporation. 

Virginia and Massachusetts having ceeded their rights 
to the north western territory, and the settlements ex- 
tending beyond the Ohio, a territorial government was 
organised by congress in 1787, and General Arthui' 
St. Clair appointed governor. But the progress of 
the settlements was viewed by the Indians as a usurpa- 
tion of their territorial rights, if not a prelude to 
their extirpation ; and, countenanced by the fortifica- 
tions of the British within our lines, they formed a 
powerful coalition and commenced their warfare on in- 
dividuals. The general government found it neces- 
sary to raise a small army for the defence of that fron- 
tier, in which several of our citizens took commissions ; 
amongst others, Messrs. William Buchanan, Campbell 
Smith and George Chase. On the 4th November, 1791, 
Gen. St. Clair, Avith a part of the army were suddenly at- 
tacked near the Miami and actually sun'ounded by an 
immense number, who were expert in firing from behind 
trees and bushes. The Americans defended themselves 
with great bravery, and finally fought their way through 
the enemy, but lost in killed and wounded, above 800 
men, ensign Chase was killed and captain Buchanan 
wounded. More troops being placed under the com- 
mand of Gen. Anthony Wayne, he, on the 20th August, 
1791, after a bloody contest in which Capt. C. Smitli 
was dangerously wounded, defeated the Indians near the 
same place and negociatcd a treaty of peace with them. 

On the tenth of August a youth was killed on 
Sniitlis' wharf by liglitning, which also struck 



1791.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 137 

the Gemian church on Conway street. James Cal- 
houn and William Russell Esqrs. and Colonel N. 
Kogers were appointed justices of the Orphans court 
for the ensuing year. Colonel Smith and Mr. RIc- 
3Iechen were again returned to the assembly, and 
Robert Gorsuch Esq. was elected Sheriff on the expi- 
ration of Mr. Rutters time of acting. 

Samuel Sterett, Esq. agent of Messrs, Vanstaphorst 
& Co. procured from the state and -paid them the 
amount loaned during the war of Independence; and 
Jas. Barry, Esq. who had lately came from Portugal, 
was appointed vice consul for Maryland and Virginia. 

At the periodical election of 1791, John O'Donnell, 
Esq. was chosen an elector of the Senate, and John E. 
Howard, Samuel Chase and James McHenry. Esqs. 
were elected members of the Senate of Maryland. Mr. 
Chase declined and Daniel Rowley, Esq. was chosen in 
his place, and he, resigning in 1793, was succeeded by 
Robert Smith, Esq. 

In October, 1792, Mr. Potts resigned the office of 
Attorney of the United States for this district, and was 
succeeded by Zebulon Rollings worth, Esq. The at- 
torneys wdio have succeeded him, were John Steplien, 
Thomas B. Dorsey and Elias Glenn, Esqs. On the 
1st November, 1792, was held in this city, the first re- 
gular general conference of the Methodist church. 
On the 17th September, 1792, the Rev. Thomas J. Clag- 
gett was ordained Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church of Maryland, and the Rev. Joseph G. J. Bend 
succeeds Dr. West, Rector of St. Pauls, deceased. 

13 



138 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [179;^, 

In 1 792, the clergymen and ministers of the different 
gects or churches were incorporated, to receive alms for 
the poor of every society. 

The Roman Catholic clergy were incorporated, and 
in 1795, trustees of that church, when the German re- 
formed congregation was also incorporated. In 1797, 
the German Evangelical Reformed and Presbyterian 
churches, and in 1798, the Baptist congregation and the 
vestry of every parish. In 1800 the Methodist and 
I^utlieran, and in 180S, every christian church in the 
state. 

An act is passed providing for the inspection of pot 
and pearl ashes. An act dividing the state into districts 
to elect members of congress, was passed in 1791, in 
anticipation of the census then to be returned. Con- 
gress having fixed the ratio of representation at one 
member for every 33,000 persons, the general ticket 
system is abandoned and the state divided into eight dis- 
tricts, of which Baltimore town and county was the 5th, 
and elected colonel Samuel Smith one of the eight mem- 
bers to which the state was entitled. 

As the principles of an independent government are 
here combined with those of a confederacy of govern- 
ments, and the constitution of the United States admits 
the senators as the representatives of the states, it is 
necessary that the representatives in congress should 
be elected by the people as direct as possible, and not 
by the body, or by their state governments, or the con 
stitution is not fairly executed and its principles violated. 
Nor can the delegates to the Assembly constitute them- 
selves electors of President, while the constitution pro- 



1792.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 139 

vides for a distinct body to make choice of that officer, 
and to retain the authority to elect or appoint others to 
be electors, which the members of the state government 
are prohibited to be themselves, is an evasion of the con- 
stitution, if not a dereliction of its terms. The dis- 
trict system vras therefore wisely extended to the elec- 
tion of electors, after General Washington's re- 
election, in which Messrs. William Smith and J. E. 
Howard were two of ten electors for this state, and 
before a canvass was commenced for a successor in 
1796. That is in 1795, provision was made for the 
election of electors of President by districts also, and 
for this the state was divided into ten districts, of 
which Anne Arundel county, Annapolis and Baltimore 
town was the fifth and chose one elector. By an act 
passed in 1802, that is after the general census of 1800, 
the state was entitled to nine congressmen and the city 
and county to two members, that is one residing in eac h, 
jointly elected. Part of Montgomery county, with 
Anne Arundel and the cities of Baltimore and Annapo- 
lis, being one of nine districts, elect two electors of 
President and Vice-President. In 1805, regulations 
for the election of senators of the state legislature were 
passed, the city and county of Baltimore electing one 
each. 

Seldom more than three of the justices attended the 
orphans court and the governor and council were di- 
rected to appoint that number only, any two of whom 
to act, and by special commission Colonel N. Rogers, 
G. Salmon and William McLaughlin Esqrs. were ap- 



140 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1792, 

pointed ; Colonel S. Smith was elected member of con- 
gress and John O'Donncll Esq. delegate to the assembly. 

The war which commenced on the continent of 
Europe in 1 792, being extended to Great Britian in the 
commencement of 1 793, it became necessary to protect 
our commerce by a declaration of neutrality, which 
was announced by the President the twenty third of 
April, and the merchants of Baltimore presented him 
an approbatory address soon after. 

The ftgents of the French convention at Cape Francois, 
having tendered their liberty to such slaves as should 
take arms against the former government of Hispaniola, 
General Galbaud and Admiral Gambis attacked the 
town, and it was plundered and burned by the seamen 
and negroes the twenty first of June ; and on the ninth 
of July, fifty three vessels bearing about 1000 white 
and 500 people of colour, flying from the disaster, ar- 
live in Baltimore. Many were quartered in the hou- 
ses of the citizens, who besides, subscribed above 
% 12000, for the relief of such as v.ere destitutCi 
Those more fortunate who brought capitals, entered 
into trade, others introduced new arts or cultivation hi 
the neighbourhood, and with succeeding arrivals from 
the southern and western parts of the Island, contribu- 
ted to encrease the wealth as well as the population of 
the town. 

Philadelphia being visited by an alarming mortality 
from the disease called, "yellow fever," then generally 
supposed to be imported and contagious, Governor Leo. 
interdicts all direct intercourse with that city and th« 



141 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1793. 

admission of infected vessels, appointing Doctors John 
Ross and John Worthington to be health officers, xi 
temporary hospital to be procured for mariners of such 
vessels, and a duty, confirmed by congress, of one cent 
per ton is granted towards the expense. 

Messrs. Thomas Yates and Daniel Bowley commence 
their improvements on the water between the falls and 
Harford run. Messrs. Cumberland Dugan and Thomas 
McElderry commence their wharves below the Centre 
market, extending from Water steeet to the north side 
of the channel, a distance of 1600 feet. Nine years 
after Judge Chase commenced his wharf binding on the 
west side of the falls. 

Since the last notice in 1783, there had been a great 
accession of settlers, amongst whom were Messrs. 
Hugh Thompson, Edward Ireland, William Lorman, 
Thomas Tenant, John Holmes, Joseph Thornburgh, 
Robert Miller, John Donnell, Luke Tiernan, Solomon 
Birkhcad, Solomon Betts, James H. McCulloh, Steuart 
Brown, Leon Changeur, John Carrere, Henry Di- 
dier, A. McDonald, J. P. Pleasants, Barclay and Mc- 
Kean, S. Etting, James Corrie, James Armstrong, &c. 

The subject of a city charter, which had occupied the 
vv^riters in the papers and the citizens generally for near 
ten years, was taken up by the legislature in 1 793, and 
an act passed for consideration, but the inhabitants of 
the Point, and the mechanical, the carpenters and re- 
publican societies, then lately formed for other purposes, 
took part in opposition, and it was not carried into 
effort. 



1793.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 142 

There was an effort made by a number of merchants 
to open an exchange for the transaction of business, and 
the buildings at the south west corner of Water and 
Commerce streets were fitted up and used for the pur- 
pose, but after some time was discontinued. George 
Hammond Esq. having been appointed consul general 
from Great Britain to the United States; Edward 
Tliornton Esq. now Sir Edward Thornton, is appoin- 
ted vice consul for Maryland and comes to Baltimore. 

Several I^odges of free masons had been established 
in Baltimore under the grand lodges of Pennsylvania or 
Virginia, and as early as 1788, D. Stodder, worshipful 
master of No. 1 5, now 6, and officers, obtain a warrant 
from the Grand Lod^e of Maryland^ held at Easton 
at different times since the year 1 783, On the eighth 
of May, 1794, the Grand Lodge, Henry Wilmans R. 
W. G. M. Lambert Smith G. Secretary, assemble in 
this town. 

A company of mounted volunteers had put themselves 
under command of capts. Plunket and Moore again, of 
which Samuel Hollingsworth Esq. who had been an 
officer in the troop, became commander soon after. 
A volunteer company of artillery w^as formed, com- 
manded by captain Stodder, and a company of riflemen 
by captain James Allen. 

The Neutrality being much infringed by the mar- 
ritime powers at war, the President announces a gene- 
ral embargo for thirty days by congress, and the news 
was received here with much satisfaction on the twenty 
eighth of March 1794. On the expiration of which, 
a captain Ramsdall, who in a fit of intoxication, had 



14S ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1794. 

hoisted his colours half mast, at the point, was violently 
seized by the populace andtaiTed and feathered, as well 
as a young man namned Sinton, who had been an appren- 
tice to JMr. Stodder, who was a ship carpenter, for 
which the latter was arrested, and denying intentional 
participation in either case, after much altercation, gave 
bail, and was with Mr. John Steel and others dischai*- 
ged. The extraordinary pretensions and naval power 
of the British rendered them most obnoxious and it 
was thought a war with them could scarcely be avoided ; 
but as the surest means of preserving peace with 
honour, the President invited serious preparation here 
both for offence and defence, whilst his minister Mr. 
Jay, with the terms of accommodation prescribed, was 
waiting in London their acceptance. The fort at 
Whetstone point was repaired and the star fort of brick 
work, added. It was afterwards ceded to the United 
States and called fort McHeiiry. 

Agreeably to the act of congress of the year before 
and the provisions made by the legislature, Governor 
Stone appoints Colonol Smith Major General of the 
third division. Colonel Hall and Howard declining, and 
Col. Swan and Charles Ridgely of Hampton esq. 
Brigadier Generals, the first for the third brigade and 
the latter for the eleventh brigade of Maryland Militia, 
and a general enrolment takes place. Considerable 
amendments were made by the assembly during the par- 
tial hostilities against France in 1798. 

In 1807, a new law was passed, and General Swan's 
declining health obliged him to resign, when Colonel 
Strieker was appointed Brigadier General in his place. 



1794] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. I44 

The cavalry being placed under their own field officers 
in 1809, General Ridgely resigns, when he is succeeded 
by Tobias E. Stansbury, Esq. 

Captain Barney having resigned the office of clerk 
of the district court the year before, took command of 
a merchant vessel, in which he was made prisoner by 
the British. They took hsm to .Jamaica, condemned his 
vessel and affected to try him for piracy ; but he was ac- 
quitted at the moment he was demanded by the Presi- 
dent, and indemnity was received for the vessel after- 
wards. Captain Barney was selected to command one 
of the frigates to be built by the general government, 
but not being satisfied in respect to rank, he declined, 
soon after went to France, and entered into the ser- 
vice of that republic. Commanding in 1797, on the St. 
Domingo station, he visited the Chesapeake, eluded the 
British and returned to the cape in safety. Capt. Bar- 
ney was succeeded by Philip IMoore, Esq. as clerk of 
the District Court. 

The government intending to fit out sev^eral vessels 
of war at this port, captain Jeremiah Ycllot is appointed 
navy agent, and Mr. David Stodder, builder. 

The criminal court was abolished in 1794. The 
justices of the county court being then Joshua Seney, 
Esq. chief justice, William Russell and William Owings 
Esqs. associates, made justices of the criminal court also. 
Judge Seney resigiKxl, being succeeded as before men- 
tioned, by Henry Ridgley, Esq. and in the year 1797, 
the criminal business of the city and county was sepa- 
rated, and so continucnl uulll a new criminal court was 
organisofl in 1800. 



1794.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 145 

The opponents of internal taxes, burn the house of 
Mr. Nevil, excise officer near Pittsburg, and on the 7th 
of August, the President issues a proclamation and or- 
ders out drafts of Militia to go against them; above 500 
leave Baltimore under the command of General Smith, 
Colonels Strieker and Clemm, on the 8th September, 
who return from the westward, on the submission of the 
insurgents, towards the close of the year. Before their 
departure, however, the yellow fever made its appear- 
ance in the town, and Messrs. Gustavus Scott, George 
Salmon, Jos. Townsend, Alexander M'Kim, Jesse Hol- 
lingsworth, Thomas Johnson and Thomas Dixon were 
appointed a committee of health. There were 344 
deaths by the fever and other diseases, during the 
months of August and September; The malady did not 
cease until the 15th October, and Capt. James Alien, 
who had conducted his company of Riflemen as far as 
Frederick, returned invalid, and, with other meritorious 
citizens, fell a victim to the fatal disease. 

The site of the Hospital was then selected by Capt. 
Yellot and others, as a temporary retreat for the Stran- 
gers and Sea-faring people ; which being purchased of 
him in 1798, by the Commissioners of health, for the 
City, and aided by the State, was improved and contin- 
ued to be so used, until in 1808, it was leased oncer 
tain improving conditions, to Doctors Smyth and Mac- 
kenzie, who receive the seamen by agreement with the 
government, or individuals, on terms which tlie respec- 
tive parties make; visitors being appointed by the cor- 
poration which may also send patients at a .stipulatrd 

]9 



146 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1794. 

price ; but the Legislature has assumed the property and 
control of the premises, after the expiration of the 
lease, by their acts of 1797 and 1816. It was also in 
1794, that the same Commissioners purchased for a pot- 
ters field, a lot of ground opposite the hospital ; for 
which purpose other lots have since been pm'chased on 
the East and on the West of the City, at the expense ol the 
corporation. After the interval of three years, the City 
was afflicted with this disease again, and lost many in- 
habitants; also, in 1799 and 1800, and partially in 1819 
and 1820. It was at these periods, and particularly on 
account of the fever, that many citizens fled from the 
town with their families, where it appears the fever 
did not reach them, and some of them erected country 
residences which now ornament the vicinity. 

Notwithstanding these apparent obstacles, Messrs. 
Wignell and Reinagale aided by a subscription of 
shares, completed a small wooden Theatre on Holliday 
Street, which Messrs. Warren and Wood, with like as- 
sistance and during the blockade of 1813, rebuilt of 
brick, by a design of Mr. Robins, artist attached to the 
company; Messrs. Robert C. Long, William Steuart 
and James Mosher, builders. 

George G. Presbury, Esq. was appointed one of the 
Justices of the Orphans Court. Alexander M'Kim and 
Jas. Winchester, Esqs. arc elected delegates to the As- 
sembly, and Henry Stevenson, Esq. is again elected 
Sheriff. On the 9th June, Died John Smith, Esq. one 
of the framcrs of the Constitution, and lately a Senator 
of tlie State Legislature; and on the 15th July, Gene- 
ral Olho II. Williams, collector, late of the Maryland 



1794.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. M7 

line and Adjt. General of the Southern army. General 
Williams is succeeded in the collectors office by Robt, 
Purviance, Esq. Col. Nathaniel Ramsey becoming Naval 
Officer in the place of Mr. Purviance, Jacob Graybcll, 
Esq. is appointed Marshall of this district, and he has 
been succeeded by Messrs. Reuben Etting, Thomas 
Rutter and Col. Paul Bentalou, successively. 

On the 27th July 1795, a town meeting was held at 
the Court House, and a committee chosen to address the 
President on the subject of the treaty with England, ad- 
verse to its ratification. The answer of the President 
referred the citizens to his answer to the select men of 
Boston; in which, being disposed to adopt the treaty, he 
appeals to the principles of conscious rectitude contain- 
ed in his answer to the address of this town, on his first 
election to the Presidency, and hopes that experience 
will justify him. 

In 17 bo an act of Assembly had passed to authorise 
the acceptance of a lot on Saratoga Street presented the 
protestant Episcopal congregation by Col. Howard, for 
a parsonage, which is now finished and occupied by 
Doctor Bend . 

The Vestry of St. Paul's parish, purcliase the church 
at Baltimore Street Bridge, which was erected by Jacob 
Myers and others, Dutch Calvinists, in 1785, and had 
been injured by the fresh of the ensuing year and re- 
paired, for an additional protestant episcopal church, to 
which the Yestry gave the name of Christs Church, 
and in 1801, they raise the steeple and procure a choir 
of six Bells. Upon this acquisition, the Rev. John Ire- 



Ti8 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1795. 

land was appointed associate minister of the parish, 
and ]>lr. Michael Diffenderfler and others, of the Dutch 
Calvinist society, wlio had procured a pars(3nage on Se- 
cond Street for their then minister, the Rev. Mr. 
Boehme, erect their present Church, the steeple of which 
built by Mr. George Rohrbach in 1803, was slightly in- 
jured by lightning at the time of raising. The success- 
ors of Mr. Boehme were, the Revd. Messrs. Pomp, 
Truitenier, Troyer, Baker and Helfenstein their present 
minister. 

The tonnage of the State reported soon after the 
adoption of the Constitution, was 36,305 tons register- 
ed and 7,976 tons licensed and enrolled vessels, but in 
1 795 the former was 4807tons, and thelatterS l,470tons, 
of which the proportion of the district of Columbia 
north of the Patowmack was about one seventh; so that 
in the space of five years only, the proportion of small- 
er vessels, which at the first period had been less than 
a fourth of the larger kind, had become equal to one 
half of the increased tonnage, and afforded a conspicu- 
ous evidence of the great and growing importance of the 
Chesapeake Bay; while the favorable situation of this 
town to reap tiie advantages of its navigation is shown, 
not only by the known increase of the exports and im- 
ports, but by observations made by Judge Jones from 
his then residence at North Point, at which place had 
been counted passing to Baltimore, in 1795, 109 ships, 
162 brigs, 350 sloops and schooners and 5,464 bay craft 
or small coasters. Reference to the increased inspec- 
tions of fish, will exhibit another practical benefit we 
di.'rivc from this great Southern I..ake. According to 



1196.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 149 

the reports published, the value of goods entered at the 
Custom House for exportation from 1st Oct. 1790 to ist 
Oct. 1791, was $1,690,930; to 1792, $1,782,861, to 
1793, $2,092,660; to 1794, $3,456,42 1 ; to 1795, 
$4,42 1,924, together, $1 3,444,796, and the exports from 
Maryland $20 026,126; so that this town already ex- 
ported two thirds of the whole amount exported by the 
State. 

The receipts into the treasury of the U. States for the 
space of five years, amounted to $2,235,914, of which 
however, a deduction is to be made for drawbacks paid 
after the monies were remitted from Baltimore ; and as 
to the reports of exports, it is to be observed, that no 
certain rule is enforced to ascertain the value, and that, 
depending on the discretion of the shipper, it is proba- 
ble that the quantities and value of the shipments exceed 
the entries for exportation. 

At this period Mr. Josias Pennington, who had 
married a daughter of Mr. Hanson, the original owner 
and Mr. John Taggert, obtained the 3d and 4th mills 
on Jones' Falls; and, at great expense in cutting a race 
through a spur of the granite ridge, which there ap- 
proaches the town, united the water power of both, for 
a new and extensive mill, which is now owned by 
Messrs. Keller and Foreman, within a mile of the navi- 
gation. vNot long after, the Messrs. EUicotts, taking 
up the water from Gwinn's Falls a mile and a quarter ) 
above, convey it along the east bank, and obtain an 
elevation sufficient for three mills of above twenty feet 
fall each, in succession, tvhich they build at the place 
'where the great western road by Frederick Town. 



150 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [I795 

passes the stream, and within three miles of the wharves 
in the town. In consequence of these improvements, 
and others of the kind made in the neighborhood by 
Messrs. Tyson, Holhngsworth, &.c. the manufacture of 
flour was greatly increased and little or no wheat was 
exported afterwards ; and it may now be remarked, that 
the introduction of other mechanical improvements, 
which employ an increased population, that are con- 
SHmers, and not growers of wheat or manufacturers of 
flour, has produced a great disparity between the quan- 
tities of this article inspected and that exported, yield- 
ing a certain market for a great proportion of the pro- 
duct of agriculturists and millers labour, independent 
of commerce or the demand abroad, j 

The rule adopted for the General Assessment of pro- 
perty being less than a fourth of the current value, had 
liilherto prevented the difficulties which now occurred 
between landlords and tenants in relation to the pro- 
portion of taxes on grounds and improvements, sepa- 
j^ately assessed. It was found that the taxes upon the 
ground, even at the low valuation of property, absorb- 
ed the rent and sometimes exceeded it, where the pro- 
perty had been leased at an early day, and where in 
fact it had become the most valuable. To avoid this 
for the future. Judge Chase, and other proprietors of 
lots, commenced the introduction into their leases of a 
stipulation that the rent reserved, whatever it might be, 
should be clear and fr^e of all public dues, and the law 
expressly provides for the performance of the contract 
in those cases, but is silent as to the others. To do 
justice in the former cases it seems to be necessary that 



1795.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 151 

the landlords interest in the ground, as far as concerns 
the pajmient of taxes, should be determined by the 
amount of his rent, estnnating the capital upon which he 
shall pay, at the legal rate of interest, reducing tliat 
capital again by the difference between the current and 
the assessed value of the improvements and other pro- 
perty; so long as such difference is suffered to exist, 
only; and that the lessee or tenant, who alone is bene- 
fitted or affected by the rise or fall of the whole premis- 
es, should pay all the surplus of the tax, or so much 
less, when so ascertained, be the same more or less. 

Inequalities in the assessments will not be so appar- 
ent, whilst there is less value assessed, and injustice is 
often suffered even by many who conceive themselves 
favoured. But, what is of more importance perhaps, 
the want of means to enforce the payment of taxes upon 
the unimproved property of absentees or minors, of 
which generous minds refuse to become the purchasers, 
and the taxes upon property of so little value to offer 
no compensation for the expense of collection, gi'eatly 
enhances the amount of taxes upon those who can and 
do pay all, sooner or later. The lien for taxes being 
permanent, there should be an officer designated to as- 
certain and receive them, at the time of alienation or 
any other time, and provision made for disposing cf 
vacant lands and lots for arrears of public dues, at a 
certain time, and with certain exceptions, the same as 
if they had never been surveyed or patented and they 
actually belonged to the State, the county or the city, to 
whichever the arrears are due. 

The Baltimore and Maryland Insurance companion 



152 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1795. 

are formed and incorporated, the first upon a capital 
paid in, and the latter upon a tenth part and the sur- 
plus, in negociable notes received with suitable endor- 
sers, annually. The Chesapeake, Union and Marine 
Insurance Companies are incorporated in 1 804, the two 
last of which have been discontinued, and in 1813, 
the Patapsco and Universal Companies, which are still 
in operation. 

On the 4th of December 1795, Cokeburry College 
erected at Abington in Harford county by the Metho- 
dist Society in 1785, was burned, by design as was 
supposed, and the next year, that is 1796, the same 
society purchased a spacious building erected by the 
proprietor of the Fountain Inn for an assembly or ball 
room, contiguous to the Light-street Church, and es- 
tablished an academy and free school there. During 
divine service on the 4th of December of the same yeai', 
the church was discovered to be on fire, and both build- 
in<^s were unfortunately consumed. The concurrence 
of these destructive fires on the same day of the year 
and within so short a period, not only reduced the means 
of the society, but discouraged them from any similar 
undertaking of the kind for many years. Perhaps it 
wsls a provi lential dispensation to instruct them that 
their well intended munificence might be better applied. 
It may indeed be said, that some of the charities destin- 
ed to create artificial wants and refinements in a num- 
ber of fellow beings who might be otherwise exempt 
from them, would be employed in a way more consist- 
ant with real benevolence, if appropriated to assuage 
the tortured minds of those who were involuntarily 



1795.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 153 

placed in situations more exposed. By extending to 
all, the means of polished life and bringing together 
youth of different circumstances, the one inhales the 
pride of command which defies parental authority, and 
the other a spirit of envy, begetting desires which can- 
not be gratified, and destroying that filial attachment in 
which the parent should find a reward, while society, 
which furnishes no adequate substitute for either, be- 
comes a prey to the want of both. Children of fortune 
fallen heirs to misfortune, oftener occupy the cells of 
the Hospital, while they who would not experience a 
reverse of fortune, without the interference of others 
zeal are forced to the work house of ignominy from 
the many necessary and reputable occupations of 
laborious industry. Alas! how many there are of both 
descriptions, especially in commercial societies, who, 
coming short of real wisdom, envy the child of nature, 
and by the inebriating draft, or other means, premature- 
ly cut the thread of life and hasten to an awful eterni- 
ty. 

There are however, institutions for instruction of 
young and old whose utility is no way equivocal, 
which are an accumulation of means in the hands of 
those destined to be the benefactors of society, and do 
not abruptly interfere with its organization — Amongst 
such a circulating library claims a conspicuous rank; 
and in the same year. 

The Right Revd. Bishop Carroll, the Revd. Doctor's J 
Patrick Allison and Joseph G. J. Bend, Doctor George/; 
Brown, Messrs. Richard Caton, Thomas Foultney, ' 
James Carroll, George W. Field. Robert Gilmorj^Jich- 

' 2Q 



4> 




154- ANNALS OF BALTIIVIORE. [1795. 

olas Biice, David Harris and others, form a Library com- 
pany, which was incorporated the following year, the 
^ above^amed gentlemen being elected officers and man- 
'agers. 

John B. Bernabeu, Esq. now Chevalier De Berna- 
beu, was appointed his Catholic Majesty ""s Consul for 
Maryland, and came here to reside. David M'Mechan, 
Esq. is again elected in the place of Mr. M'Kim, one of 
the delegates to the General Assembly. 

Early in the year 1796 Samuel Chase, Esq. Chief 
Justice of the general court, was appointed one of the 
associate judges of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, and James M'Henry, Esq. Secretaiy of the war 
department. Judge Seney resigned, and Henry Ridge- 
ley, Esq. is appointed Chief Justice of the judicial dis- 
trict. Doctor Andrew Weisenthal is appointed one of 
the Judges of the Orphans Court. The jurisdiction of 
single justices out of Court, in matters of debt, which 
had been extended from /5 to HO, in 1791, was still 
without fees or perquisites ; they then ceased to hold 
courts, and received no per diem of course; their fees 
were regulated at this time, 1 796, as they now contin- 
ue: Though they were at all times lower than any where 
else, and no check to vexatious litigation, the jurisdic- 
tion was increased to ^50 in 1800, without increase of 
fees; but, high or low, justice and peace would be promo- 
ted if the fees were paid into the City Treasury as a 
fund for Justices salaries. 

The house of General Smith on the North Side of 
Water Street, was erected on a plan furnished by him- 



'• 



1796.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 15 j 

self, and executed by Messrs. John Scroggs, Robert 
Steuart and James Mosher, builders. 

The charitable ]Marine Society was formed and in- 
corporated in the names of Thomas Elliot, David^^ 
Porter, Thomas Cole, Daniel Rowland and others^* 
masters of vessels, or their friends. 

The second general conference of the methodists 
was held this year, and repeated ev^ery fourth year suc- 
cessively thereafter. 

The legislature authorise the filling up and wharfmg 
Light street, from Pratt street to the opposite side of 
the harbour, including all the space eastward of Charles 
street. That part of the city would have been benefit- 
ted, had the front of the streets leading from the west, 
been converted to public docks, to secure a greater ex- 
tent of landing, especially as the canal to the middle 
branch, for which new commissioners were now ap- 
pointed, was not opened. 

At length, on the last day of the year 1 796, a law is 
passed to constitute the Town a City, and incorporate 
the inhabitants by the name of "the Mayor and City 
Council of Baltimore;" and that the best means were 
sought by our Legislators, to restrain the errors and 
promote the happiness of a numerous and nuxed society, 
is proved by the enlightened views which they have 
concisely expressed in the following preamble: "Where- 
as it is found by experience, that the good order, health 
and safety of large Towns and Cities, cannot be preser- 
ved, nor the evils and accidents to which they are sub- 
ject, avoided or remedied, without an internal power 

COMPETENT TO ESTABLISH A POLICE ANJ) REGUTATJjONS, 



\5Q ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1796 

fitted to their particular circumstances, wants and exi- 
gences." 

The act of incorporation, which of course abolished 
the port wardens and town and special commissioners 
and transferred their powers and some additional au- 
thority, to a chief executive officer, by the usual title of 
IMayor, having a qualified negative on the city laws, and 
a legislative body or council of two branches; the first 
of two members for each of eight wards, into which 
the city was divided, pursuant to the act, and beginning 
at the west, elected directly by the voters of the ward 
annually, and the second branch of one member for 
each ward and the Mayor, elected by electors chosen 
every second year, two for each ward by the voters 
thereof. A certain residence and a property qualifica- 
tion were required in all, and the Mayor was ex-qfficio<f 
a justice of the peace in all matters, except the recovery 
of small debts and was bound to enforce the acts of the 
city legislature, and upon nominations by the second 
branch, appointing inspectors and other city officers, 
but no bailitTs or means to pay them. 

The surplus received from certain licenses and fines 
granted to the Washington College in 1784, was con- 
tinued to the city, with the duties on tonnage and auc- 
tions, and power to levy a tax upon assessed property, 
not exceeding fifteen shillings in the 100 pounds, or 
seventy five cents per 100 dollars. It required no little 
exertion of the talents and influence of Messrs. McMe- 
chcn, McIIenry, Robert Smith and Winchester, the 
senators and delegates at the time, to reconcile the citi- 
zens to the charter, such as it was, especially those of 



1796.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. |57 

the Point or Deptford Hundred, who were conciliated 
by an exception from any tax towards deepening the 
upper harbour or basin. 

Still the act was introduced as an experiment for a 
year only, and another was passed the ensuing session to 
give it perpetual duration, with an enumeration of some 
of the principal powers. 

Gabriel Duvall, Esq. of Annapolis, and Doctor John 
Archer, of Harford, are chosen electors of President and 
Vice President of the United States. James Winches- 
ter, Esq. was chosen an elector of the Senate for the 
City, and Charles Ridgely of Hampton, and Charles 
Ridgely of W. Esqs. for the County. Col. Howard, 
and Charles Ridgely, of Hampton, Esq. were elected 
members of the Senate of the State, but the Colonel ap- 
pointed a member of the Senate of the United States, 
is succeeded by David M'Mechen, Esq. and Robert 
Smith Esq. was elected to the house of delegates in the 
place of Mr. M'Mechen. 

The elections for city officers under the chartci 
took place early in 1797, and resulted as follows: 

James Calhoun, Esq. Mayor. 

Members of the First Branch of the City Council. 

First Ward. — ^James Carey, Ephraim Robinson — 
Second Ward, Samuel Owings, Doctor George Bu. 
chanan — Third Ward, Zeb Hollingsworth, James Mc- 
Cannon — Fourth Ward, Hercules Courtenay, David 
McMechen — Fifth Ward, Thomas Hollingsworth, Adam 
Fonerden — Sixth Ward, Baltzer Schaeffer, Peter Frick 
— Seventh Ward — ^James Edwards, Frederick Schaef 



15$ ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1797. 

fer — Eighth Ward, Joseph Biays, William Trimble. — 
Her, Courtenay, Esq. was chosen President of this 
branch. 

Members of the Second Branch: 

First Ward — William Goodwin — Second Ward, 
Colonel Nicholas Rogers — Third Ward, John Merry- 
man — Fourth Ward, Henry Nicolls — Fifth Ward, Ro- 
bert Gilmor — Sixth Ward, Richard Lawson — Seventh 
Ward, Edward Johnson — Eighth Ward, Job Smith, 
Esqs. who chose John Merryman, Esq. their Presi- 
dent 

William Gibson, Esq. clerk of the county, was ap- 
pointed Treasurer; Richard H. Moale, Esq. Register? 
and John Hopkins, Esq. Collector, but the duties of 
Treasurer and Register were soon after united ; Mr. 
Moale, who had been clerk to the Commissioners, filling 
both offices. 

One of the first acts of the Corporation was an ex- 
pression of approbation, gratitude and good wishes to^ 
wards General Washington, passing through the city 
homeward after the expiration of the second period of 
his presidential term, in an address dated the 14th 
March of which the following is a copy. 

To George Washington, Esq. — Sh', to partake of the 
prosperity arising from your unwearied attention to the 
welfare of your country — to admire that firmness which 
has never been disconcerted in the greatest difficul- 
ties, and which has acquired vigor in proportion to 
the exigency — to feel that honorable ascendency you 
have obtained in the well founded opinion of your fel- 
low citizens, by a wise administration, and the exercise 



1797.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 159 

of the virtues of a private life, and to suppress our ad 
miration and acknowledgement would be wanting to our 
own individual sensation, and the just expectation of 
those we represent. 

Permit, therefore, the Mayor and City Council of 
Baltimore, amongst the first exercises of their corporate 
capacity, to gratify themselves and their constituents, 
in the sincere expressions of regret for your retirement; 
their lively gratitude for your public services; their af- 
fectionate attachment to your private character; their 
heartfelt farewell to your person and family; and their 
unceasing solicitude for your temporal and eternal hap- 
piness. In behalf of the Corporation of the City of 
Baltimore, JAMES CALHOUN, JHai/o?\ 

To which was retui'ned the following reply. 

To the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore. — 
Gentlemen, I receive with grateful sensibility the hon- 
our of your address. 

To meet the plaudits of my fellow citizens for the 
part I have acted in public life, is the highest reward 
next to the consciousness of having done my duty to the 
utmost of my abilities, of which my mind is susceptible 
— and I pray you to accept my sincere thanks for the 
evidence you have now given me, of your approbation 
of my past services — for those regrets which you have 
expressed on the occasion of my retirement to private 
life, and for the affectionate attachment you have decla- 
red for my person. Let me reciprocate most cordially, 
all the good wishes you have been pleased to extend to 
me and my family, for our temporal and eternal happi- 
ness. fifiORGE WASHINGTON 



160 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1797. 

For some time the French privateers had annoyed the 
American trade in the West Indies and now our vessels 
became a prey even in their own ports. Among others 
the Hope, captain Rodgers, and Plato, Lawrenson, 
were condemned as lawful prizes. 

The frigate Constellation of 36 guns is built at Har- 
ris's Creek, and Thomas Truxton, Esq. appointed com- 
mander. Captain David Porter, Senior, establishes a 
signal house on Federal Hill, opposite but near to and 
in sight of the town, by which the approach of public 
and private vessels to the Bodkin and North Point is 
immediately known. 

A congregation of Baptists attached to the Rever- 
end John Healy, erect a small church on the Point, 
which was succeeded by the one in Fleet street, m 
1811, and all that society being , previously united, is 
called the Second Baptist Church. The society in and 
near Baltimore form an association, called "The Balti- 
more Association," and meet here occasionally, and 
soon after, that is 1798, Trustees of the First Church 
are incorporated. It was also in 1797, a subscription 
was got up for a Hall for dancing, and the building was 
erected in Holliday street, from a design by Colonel N. 
Rogers, Messrs. Robert C. Long, James Donaldson 
Ilessington and Lauder, builders, which was called the 
Assembly Room. 

Mr. George Keating published a small plan of the 
city, and two yeai's after another was published by Mr. 
Charles Varle, which included some of the environs* 
with views of the above building, and Messrs. Dugaw 
and McElderry's improvements, market space. 



1797.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 161 

The criminal business of the city was separated from 
that of the county, but the justices of the county court 
remained justices of both, as before. 

Colonel Howard having completed the Senatorial 
term is re-appointed Senator of the United States for the 
ensuing six years. Adam Fonerden, Esq. is elected a 
delegate to the assembly in the place of Mr. McJMechen, 
and Corns. H. Gist, Esq. is elected sheriff. 

On the 19th March, 1797, died in this city at an ad- 
vanced age, Daniel Dulany, Esq. Barrister, formerly 
secretary of the province and member of council, and of 
the upper house under the proprietary government; and 
on the 2d September, 1792, at Charleston, S. C. where 
he had closed his military career, married his second 
wife and settled, General Mordecai Gist, formerly of 
this place, and first captain of the Independent compa- 
ny- 

The French directory refused to treat with, or re- 
ceive the ambassadors of peace, Messrs. Pinkney, Mar- 
shall and Gerey; the privateers continuing their depre- 
dations upon our commerce, and the government sub- 
jecting individual citizens to great indignities ; congress 
having long since liquidated and paid the former loans 
made by France, revoke the existing treaties with that 
nation and prepare for defence. In July, congress voted 
an addition to the army and naval forces, and author- 
ised the seizure of French vessels which were armed, 
manifesting a philanthropic desire to spare private pro- 
perty by sea as well as by land. In an address to Gen. 

21 



16:3 Annals of ualtimore. 1798.] 

Smith, who had then just succeeded in his re-election to 
congress, a number of the citizens, representing a great 
majority of the voters of the town, pronounce their ap- 
probation of the steps taken by government towards the 
directory. On the 7th November, Gen. Washington 
who had accepted the command of the army again, and 
designated Col. Howard to be one of the brigadier gene- 
rals, if necessary, arrived here and reviewed general 
Svvann's brigade. On this last visit of the Beloved 
Chief and Brother, the R. W. Mr. Vv illiam Bclton, 
Grand Master of the Grand I^odge of Maryland, pre- 
sented a copy of their constitution then just revised, 
and an address, to whicli the General returned an an- 
swer highly commendatory of the benevolent purposes 
of the institution. 

Two new troops of volunteer cavalry were raised, 
one of Point gentlemen, couunanded by Capt. James 
Biays, and one in town by Capt. Bentalou. 

The ships Baltimore and Montezuema, merchant 
vessels of this port, were fitted out with twenty guns 
each, the first commanded by Capt. Isaac Philips and 
the last by Capt. Alexander Murray. On the 16th 
November, the Baltimore having convoyed a nmnber of 
Aiperican vessels near the Havana, was met by a Bri- 
tish squadron under admiral Loring, who invited Capt. 
Philips on board his ship, and, in his absence, had above 
fil'ty men brought away from the Baltimore, as British 
seamen, which captain Philips resented strenuously and 
offered up his ship. Upon this Loring returned all the 
men but five, and captain Philips being without a com- 
mission for his ship, and thinking the government Avould 



[1798. ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 103 

lind some better means of redress, hoisted his Hag and 
proceeded, but was dismissed the service on his reiurn 
without a trial, by an order of the Secretary of the Na- 
vy. John Rodders and Andrew Sterett, appointed 
Lieutenants of the Navy and David Porter Jr. Midship- 
man, were on board the Constellation and contributed 
by their gallant behaviour, to the capture of the Insur- 
gente French frigate, Dth February, 1799. Besides the 
above Baltimore gentlemen, there also entered the navy 
about this period, Messrs. John Ballard, William Peter- 
kin, Charles ilidgely, John and Joseph Nicholson and 
George Levely; and another ship was fitted out called 
the Patapsco, to be commanded by Captain Geddes. 

Notwithstanding the interruptions of the American 
trade by the belligerents, the staple of flour which al 
ready got up to eight dollars, continued rising through- 
out the war, until 1 799, the price here was above ten 
dollars, and the amount of the exports which v. as high- 
er that year than any other, before or since, was neces- 
sarily affected by these high prices, but the country in- 
creased rapidly in wealth as well as population, as was 
to be expected in such a state of things as then existed 
in the commercial world. 

To relieve the county courts from duties not judicia- 
ry, levy courts are organised by law in 1798 and eleven 
justices appointed for this city and county, take charge 
of the property and finances. The tobacco inspectors 
formerly nominated by the vestries, and latterly by the 
the courts of justice, are now by this court as are the 
county constables and overseers of the roads. 

The legislature also pass an act to present abuses in 



164 AiNNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1798 

the practice of medicine and surgery, the Tvant of which 
had been announced ten years before, incorporating the 
faculty, prohibiting any from commencing; practice there- 
after without a license from a board of examiners. This 
restriction was so far modified in 1816, as to permit the 
graduates of reputed seminaries or colleges to practice || 
without other license. 

The form and dimensions of brick for building, or 
sale, were established, and in 1807, wooded buildings 
were prohibited from being erected in the central and 
improved parts of the city, by ordinance, a prohibition 
which has been extended since. 

The property of the city subject to taxes, was valued 
at 099,519/. 9s. 2d. pursuant to a general assess- 
n ent law and five commissioners for the city and five 
for the county appointed. 

At a town meeting on the 7th of September, it was 
resohed, that a subscription should be opened for mo- 
ney to aid tlie distressed inhabitants of Philadelphia, 
then afflicted b}^ the yellow fever, and on the 15th, the 
Mayor suspended the communication between the citi- 
zens. Wm. Wilson and Archibald Buchanan, Esqs. 
are elected delegates. 

On the fifth of July, 1798, John Moale Fsq. many 
years presiding justice of the county court and mem- 
ber of the convention in 1774 for this county, departed 
this life at an advanced age; on the eleventh of Sep- 
tember, also at an advancod age, Alexander Lawson 
Esq. formerly clerk of Baltimore county court; and 
on tlie twentieth of October, at his then residence in 
Queen Annes county, Joshua ^eney Esq. late chief 



1798.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 165 

justice of this district and formerly member of con- 
gress. 



The Rev. William Du Bom'g, now bishop of the 
catholic chm'ch in Louisiana, with other clergymen of 
that society, then lately arrived from France, establish 
an academy near the intersection of Franklin and 
Greene streets in 1791, to which considerable additions 
w^ere made in 1804, aided by a lottery, wih permission 
of the legislature to grant diplomas in any of the facul- 
ties, and incorporated, Mr. Du Bourg being first Presi- 
dent. After which the Rev. Messrs. Nagot, Tessier 
and other clergymen, who had established a theological 
seminary there, added to this establishment a hand- 
some church, the style of which is gothic, from a design 
furnished by Max. Godfroy, Esq. 

The Rev. Doctor Bend and others form the society, 
for the education of poor female children, which is 
incorporated by the name of the Benevolent society, 
and a house built for their reception on Price street, 
near the western limits of the city. The female hu- 
mane association charity school is incorporated in 1 80 1 , 
which was superseded by the Orphaline Charity 
School in 1807. 

The Methodist society established a free school for 
male children, which was incorporated in 1808, soon 
after which, the trustees purchased and improved the 
lot on Courtland street, for its use. 

Capt. J. Yellot who died in 1805, bequeathed the in- 
terest of $10,000 for the free school of St. Peter's Con- 
gregation, as did Mr. J. Corrie, merchant, a large sum 



ltj(j ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [I799 

in 180G, which last however, fell to the heir at law by a 
defect of the will, and Mr. James Dall, merchant, who 
died in 1 808, bequeathed ^5000 towards the education 
of poor boys. 

Agreeably to the powers of the corporation, an addi- 
tion was made to the city, of a small parcel of ground 
situated North of Saratoga street in 1799, and the 
bounds of Harford street and Canal were fixed, together 
with the channel of the basin. 

On the 28th May 1799, a fire broke out on the West 
side of South street, and consumed a number of ware 
houses and much valuable property, between that street 
and Bowley''s wharf. 

In this same year the Revd. John Hargrove, who had 
espoused the doctrines of Baron Swedenbourg, and oth- 
ers of that faith, erect the New Jerusalem Temple at 
the corner of Baltimore and Exeter streets, which was 
dedicated the ensuing year. 

Heretofore the Citizens had witnessed much confu- 
sion and turbulence, by the multitudes of people asse.n. 
blcd at elections for the Town and County, the legisla- 
ture therefore change the constitution in this respect, by 
dividing both into districts, the wards of the city serving 
for districts within the same ; two years after, the man- 
ner of voting was limited to ballots, instead of voice, and 
these seasons ceased to be riotous as they had been. 

At the session of 1799 a new Court of Oyer and 
Terminer is organized for Baltimore City and County, 
and Walter Dorsey, Esq. appointed Chief Justices 
George G, Prcsbury and Job Smith, Esqrs. Associate 
Justices. In 1805, William S. Summers, Esq. is ap" 



1799.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 167 

pointed Clerk of this Court; who, dying in 1807, is suc- 
ceeded by Thomas Ilarwood, Esq. In 1808, Judge 
Dorsey resigns and is succeeded by John Scott, Esq. 
who, dying in 1813, is succeeded by Luther Martin,Esq. 
Ill the same year, 1799, James Winchester, Esq. was 
appointed Judge of the District Court, in the place of 
Mr. Paca deceased. 

The Insurgente French Frigate is captured by Capt. 
Truxton, brought here and fitted out, but was, with Capt. 
Patrick Fletcher and all the crew, lost at sea the en- 
suing winter. 

On the petition of the proprietors, Pratt street from 
Franklin Lane, was directed to be opened to the Falls, 
and it was then opened from Frederick street, and a 
bridge erected by Ordinance of the Corporation, to con- 
nect that street with the one called Queen street. 

Pratt street had been opened westwardly as early as 
1795, and in 1811, a law was passed for extending it 
eastwardly across Cheapside, Hollingsworth and Elli- 
cott's docks, but this was not effected until another was 
passed in 1816, incliiding that part of the new street 
only, which runs from Light street to Pranklin lane ; 
when another law passed to open and extend North 
lane which was called Belvidere, now North street; and 
another, to extend Lombard street eastwardly, not yet 
carried into effect. 

At the Falls, North street diverges and the eastern 

section, still called Belvidere street, is connected with 

the York Road by a wooden bridge of one arch, 170 

eet span, built by Mr, L. Wernwag, at the expense of 

the city. By extending and uniting so many streets 



168 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1799. 

across an unimproved part of the town which lay be- 
tween the improved parts each side of the Falls, two 
towns of the same name, so long separated in fact, an 
important step was taken to render them mutually ben- 
eficial to each other, and promote the ultimate prosperity 
of both. 

Pursuant to an act of 1 820^ Pratt street wa*? continu- 
ed from Gay street, eastwardly, to Frederick street, and 
an act is passed to open Forest, now Hillen street, 
southwardly, from High street to the Falls, not yet 
effected. 

In 1807 an act was passed to open Centre street, 
eastwardly from Howard street to the Falls, and a bridge 
was built there; and in 1811 St. Pauls, now Saratoga 
street, was extended from Charles to Fish street, unit- 
ing those streets. In 1809 Mr. Christopher Hughes 
obtains a license to extend his grounds, south side 
of the Basin, northwardly to Lee street, and from For- 
rest to Johnson street eastwardly, with a reservation of 
the grounds fronting streets for public use, afterwards 
rescinded in whole or in part. In 1814, the corpora- 
tion purchased the water rights, and soon after com- 
menced the public dock, between town and point, di- 
recting the course of the Falls into that dock, and 
putting a draw bridge, exclusive of platform, 60 feet 
long, at the entrance of it, which is 210 feet wide, so 
that a direct communication is formed from Chase's 
wharf and the west side of the town, to the west end of 
the Point. 

The port wardens had determined the width of the 
Falls, before the city was chartered, at GO feet above. 



1799.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 169 

Baltimore street bridge and 80 feet below it, and now 
complete the survey of the harbour, which the corpora- 
tion confirm in .1805 and 1807, and in 1815, a resolution 
is passed to sanction the deepening of the bed and 
walling in the sides of the Falls. 

It was in 179:', Messrs. John Hollins and James A. 
Buchanan, erect those two spacious houses on the west 
side of Washington square, Messrs. James Mosher and 
Jacob Snicdl, builders. 

Archibald Buchanan and George Johonnot, Esqs. 
are elected to represent the Town in the House of Dele- 
gates. , , 

On the 15th of December, we learned the decease of 
General Washington, which happened the day before, 
and on the first January, funeral rites were celebrated. 
The military including the regulars then stationed at 
Fort McHenry, and the citizens, including many from 
the country, formed a procession to the head of Balti- 
more stre3t, where an appropriate address was deliver- 
ed by the Rev. Doctor Allison. From thence the pro- 
cession returned to Christ Church, and when the bier 
had entered, the funeral service was performed by tiie 
Rev. Doctor Bend, before an immense concourse deep- 
ly aflfected at the lass which they had sustained, and 
anxious to manifest the grateful sentiments by which 
they were animated towards the memory of the hero, 
who had so often testified his regard for them, and ren- 
dered the most important services to their country. 

T)n the 15th June 1800, President Adams passed 



170 ANNALS OF BALTIMOHE. [1800. 

through town from ths seat of government, then lately 
moved to Washington, and the corporation presented 
him an address of congratulation. 

Charles Burrcll, Etq. is appointed Post Master ; John 
E. C. Schultze, Esq. his Prussian Majesty's Consul, 
and Peter Colin, Esq. Consul of their Majesties, the 
kings of Denmark and Sweden . 

Doctor John B. Davidge, who had been educated in 
Europe, and some time settled in Baltimore, commenc- 
j ed a course of Lectures on the principles and practice 
/ of Midwifery, to which the next season, he added prac- 
/ tical surgery, and the third season demonstrative an- 
i atomy. Those lectures were deilvcred at his residence, 
and though they were never attended by a dozen stu_ 
dents, the Doctor erected an Anatomical Hall near the 
south east intersection of I..iberty and Saratoga streets, 
being joined by Doctor James Cocke, in the lectures on 
Anatomy and Physiology, and by Doctor John Shaw, 
who delivered lectures on Chemistiy at his own dwel- 
ling. Tiie Anatomical Lectures had scarcely commenc- 
, ed in the new hall, w hen a clamour was raised by some 
j ignorant neighbors; it was demolished b}' the populace, 
I and the Doctor's preparations destroyed; upon which, 
I and for two or three jears after, the Anatomical and 
I Surgical Lectures were delivered at the county Alms 
\ House. 

The Directory having failed in their warfare in Eu- 
rope, as they had in their diplomacy with us, solicited a 
renewal of the Embassy they had rejected in 1798; but 
lost their power, as well as the form of government un- 
der whieli they acted, before tlic arrival of the new Min- 



J 800.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 171 

isters, and eai'ly ia 1800, General Nip.. leon Bonaparte, 
lately made first consul ot t ic Fr-iich repubi c oon- 
eludes a treaty of peace wiJi ihis country; hos-dities 
ceused and the araiy and na\y was reduced hei\i. 

]Mr. Marcus McCausland erects the B.eweiy in Hol- 
liday street, and a new powder magazine is erected jn 
the south side of the riv r, by tlic Corporation. 

The assembly pass a law to authorise the corporation 
to introduce water into the city, which w^as not carried 
into effect. Messrs. Robert G. Harper, William Cooke 
John McKim, John Donneil, Robert Gilmor, and others, 
form a society for the purpose, in 1804, and purchasing 
tlie nnll property next the city, convey the water by 
canal and raise it by water power to elevated reservoirs^ 
being incorporated in 1808. In the same year Messrs. 
Joseph and James Biays procure a license to sink pipes 
and dispose of water from their spring on the point. — 
A number of Gentlemen form a society, which they call 
''•The society of St. George," to relieve emigrants from 
England; and the Rt. Rev, Bishop Carroll, the Rev. 
Dr. Bend, Mr. James Priestly, Doctor Crawford and 
others form a society by the name of "the Maryland 
society for promoting useful knowledge," both of 
which societies were discontinued after a few years. 

By the new census the city, without the precincts, con- 
tain white males, 11294; females, 9G06; other free 
persons, 2771; slaves, 284-3; precintcs supposed, 5000; 
total, 31,514, being an increase of 18,011 persons in 
the last ten years. Gabriel Duvall, Esq. of Annapolis 
is again elected an elector of President and Vice-Presi- 
dent for this district, and Nicholas R. Moore Esq. of thf» 



172 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1800. 

county for tlie sixth district. Owen Dorsey, Esq. is 
appointed a ^ us ice of the orphans coml. Robert 
Smith and James FI. McC'ulloch Esqrs. are elected del- 
egates, and James Wilson, Esq. sherilf. 

/ Innoculation with vaccine matter having been dis- 
covered as a preventc.ti\e for sn.ali pox, by Doctor Jen- 
ner five years before, in ISOl Mr. \\m. Ta\ lor, mer- 
chant, received from his brother Mr. John Taylor, then 
in London, a quantity of matter for propagation, and 
bein<j;deiivereci through Doctor M. Littlejohn physician 
of Mr. Taylor's, to Doctor James Smith, he introduces 
it generally and succesfully. Upon the application of 
Doctor Smith, thi^ legislature of Maryland becomes 
the first to sanction the distribution; and in 1809, he is 
grant 0(1 a lottery to raise a certain compensation for the 
distribution of matter gratuitously, during six years; 
and in 1810, the Rev. Doctor Bend, Wm. Owynn, Esq. 
Doctor Smith and other^., form a society for promoting 
vaccination generally, but this society was discontinued 
and another erected in 1822, of which Doctor James 
Stewart was President. There was at each of these 
periods cause to apprehend the propagation of the 
small pox among the citizens, but when by some exer- 
tions, the occasion happily disappeared, the society 
languished and disappeared also. Many institutions of 
this beneficial kind have failed here, not perhaps, from 
the want of ze il or perseverance, but because there is 
less real or pel nianent want of tlienj, in a country which 
affords so many induct ments to self government, with^ 
the means to procure in ependtnce. Unless a certain 



1801.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 173 

fund is secured at once, by tax or by donation, for fu- 
ture exigences ; it seems that societies of voluntary ben- 
evolence, which are a tax upon charity itself, exhausting 
the means of those wlio are disposed to do most good ; 
which leave the unfeeling miser at liberty to indulge 
his selfish and unsocial propensities, are often apologies 
for good governments, and seldom more than auxiliaries 
to the best; will be of precarious duration, until such 
revolution takes place in the number and circumstances 
of individuals and state of society, generally, as shall 
assimulate us to the Europeans, which happily, must be 
as remote as it is to be depreciated. 

In the same year 180 1, the legislature authorised the 
building of a Lazaretto, which was accordingly put up 
by the corporation, on the point opposite fort McHenry, 
which has lately become one of the bounds of the city 
eastward. 

Messrs. Emanuel Kent, Elisha Tyson, William 
Maccreery, Richardson Stewart, and others, form a soci- 
ety to furnish medicinal relief to the poor gratuitously, 
which in 1807 is incorporated by the name of the "Bal- 
timore general Dispensary," and relief for drowning per- 
sons provided, there having been since the foundation 
and to that time, 6263 patients. This society, for a 
charitable purpose of all others the most interesting 
perhaps, has by great exertions outlived most of its co- 
temporaries, should receive a certain support from go 
vernmcnt, oi be made an appendage of the alms-house 
permanently provided for, as are other public charges 
und tliis itself is in othor places. 



174 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1801 

Robert Smith, Esq. is appointed Secretary of tlie 
navy, the duties of which department had been a short 
time committed to general Smith; aijd pan of ihe jear 
1805, the former held the oilice of attorney general of 
the United States, but returned to the navy departnient, 
and was appointed secretary of state in 180^, having ia 
the mean time, that is in 1800, been appointed chancel- 
lor of the state, and chief judge of this district, but de- 
clined. 

John Scott, Esq. who had lately removed from Kent 
county, and Thomas Dixon, Esq. are elected delegates 
to the assembly, and William Smith, James kL M Ca{- 
loch and J. T. Worthington, Esqrs. members of the 
senate, of which James H. M,Cuiloch, Esq. had been 
chosen elector for the city, and John f. \\ orthingum 
and Tobias E. Stansbury,Esqrs. electors for the couiity. 

Mr. Benjamiiv Henfrey, an Englishman, had lately 
discovered and attempted to bring into use, a species of 
coal from Gen. llidgely''s lands, about six miles north 
east of the town, but did not succeed. JMr. Henfrey was 
however, more successful soon after, in discover- 
ing a method of creating light by gas from wood, exhib- 
ited experiments here and actually lighted Richmond in 
Virginia, before any similar discovery was known. 

On the twenty eighth of August 1802, during a 
storm of hail the Hag staff at fort Mc Henry on whet- 
stone point, and a house in Bridge street, were struck 
by lightning. 

On the cessation of hostilities in Europe after the 
treaty of Amiens, the prices of produce and the amount 



1802] ANNALS OP BALTIMORE. 17.^ 

of exports fell considerably, but this state of things 
was not of sufficient duration to affect the progress o^ 
the city, or of the country generally. 

The island of Hispaniola was reduced by the Frenchi 
but was recovered by the blacks assisted by the eng- 
lish blockading squadron, the next year, when Mr 
Jerome Bonaparte youngest brother of the then first Con- 
sul of France, with General Reubell son of the 
iBte Director Reubell, came here on their way home' 
ward and married. 

The Rev. Dr. James Whitehead succeeds Mr. Ireland 
as associate minister of St. Paul's arid Christ churches? 
and a number of members of that church, attached to 
the Rev. George Dashield, commence the church called 
St. Peters, in Sharpe street, and soon after a free school 
for children of that society. Doctor Whitehead remov- 
ing to Norfolk, is succeeded by the Rev. Dr. Elijah D. 
Ratoone, as associate minister of St. Paul's, &:c. 

Early in 1 802, the prisoners are moved to the now 
commodious and substantial jail on Mill street. Messrs. 
Samuel Owings, James Carroll, John Merryman, James 
Carey and Col. N. Rogers were appointed commission- 
ers to build the jail on the old lot by an act of 1797, but 
they procured authority to select other grounds the next 
session, and then commenced on a plan furnished by 
Col. Rogers, R. C. Long, Esq. builder. The jail 
built of stone and brick, stands near the centre of a five 
acre lot adjoining the falls, from which it is 200 feet. 
The front south west is 1 57 feet, exclusive of two tow- 
ers for sewers of twenty-five feet each ; and thirty five 
feet deep, with projections in rear -of each wing: thcro 



176 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1802 

are twcaty cells, capable of containing twenty persons 
each, or 400 persons in all. 

After the census of 1800, Maryland was entitled to 
nine representatives in congress, and the electoral dis- 
tricts were again altered by act of assembly. Balti- 
more city and county became the 5th, to elect two, one 
to be a resident of each, jointly elected; and general 
Smith and colonel Nicholas A. Moore were elected, 
but the general being appointed a senator of United 
States, William Maccreery, P^sq. is elected to congress 
in his place. James Purviance, Esq. is elected a mem" 
ber of the assembly in the place ot Mr. Scott. 

On the 2 iSt August, departed this life, aged 62 years, 
the Uev. Dr. Patrick Allison, founder of the First Pres- 
byterian church in this city, who was succeeded by the 
Uev. James luglis. Dic::l, nlso in this city, on the 2d 
November, aged 03 yonis, Edvard LaDgworthy, Esq. 
deputy naval oflicer, and formerly member of congress 
from the state ofCeorj.;ia. 

A RBW act having passed for the inspection of tobac- 
co in 1801. The public wan-house on the Point having 
become insufficient for the quantity of that article 
brought to Bidiimore; the levy court had been author" 
ised to license another warehouse in 1799, at the in- 
stance of judge Chase, on terms he disapproved and de- 
clined. But Jamas Calhoun, Esq. obtains anothar 
license on siuiilar terms, erected one at the south west 
corner of Pratt and Light streets, in 1803, when a simi- 
lar license was granted to Messrs. Dugan and CDonnelJ. 
to erect anoUier at tlie end of their wharves. 



1803.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE, l7t 

During the European peace which succeeded the trea 
ty of Amiens, Baltimore became the Metropolitan See 
of the Roman Catholic church in the United States. 
The trustees determined to build a spacious and sub- 
stantial Cathedral churcli, which was commenced three 
years after. It was also in 1803, that the Right Rev. 
Bishop Carroll, Mr. James Priestly, who had been some- 
time principal of a respectably seminary in St. PauFs 
lane and others, procure a charter for the Baltimore Col- 
lege, which by aid of a lottery, was erected on a plain 
but convenient stile on Mulberry street, the Bishop 
being appointed President of the trustees. 

The 7th day of February, 1803, was remarkable in 
this city for a great fog in the atmosphere, and towards 
night, a porter employed at Messrs. Peters and Johnson''s 
brewery, being found in the basin with his horse and 
dray, was supposed to have missed the way, driven over 
the end of Bowly's wharf and drowned. 

Thomas Dixon and Cumberland Dugan, Esqs, are 
elected delegates to the assembly, and Thomas Bailey, 
Esq. sheriflf; Thomas Rutter, Esq. is appointed a jus- 
tice of the orphans court. 

In 1804, that part of the proceeds of ordinary and re- 
tailers licences which should exceed an appropriation 
for Washington and St. John's Colleges, and which 
was given to Baltimore town by the act of 1 784 already 
producing $5000 per annum, was by the legislature, or- 
dered to be paid into the treasury of the State. Fortu 
nately various attempts to deprive the City of the Auc- 

.S3 



178 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1804- 

tioii duties, amounting to somewhat more, have not suc- 
ceeded, and by specific application of these with the 
tonnage duty, to the expense ot deepening the harbour^ 
Deptford hundred is taxed like the rest of the City, with- 
out violating the provisions in the Charter exempting 
that district. 

Experiments having been made in some other places, 
to reduce the number of public offences committed, by 
substituting confinement and labour, instead of public 
and degrading punishment, which it was thought had 
proved successful; the legislature had as early as '801, 
published a plan for a similai* change in the criminal 
law of this Svate, to supersede the "wheelbarrow law," 
as it was commonly called, and now resolve to erect a 
Penitentiary in Baltimore. Messrs. John E. Howard, 
Thomas Dixon, Josias Pennington, Thomas M'Elderry, 
Robert C. Long, Levi Hollings worth, Daniel Conn, 
Samuel Sterett and George Warner, Commissioners, 
purchase grounds and erect buildings on Madison 
Street, near the York road, Mr. Conn being the arch- 
tect and builder; and in i809, anew criminal code was 
adapted to the institution, leaving the commission of 
MiQ-dcr, Arson, Rape and Treason only, liable to the 
punishment of death. In 1801- the Union Bank of Ma- 
ryland is organized and chartered, William AVinches- 
ter Esq. is chosen President and Ralph Higginbothom, 
Esq. Cashier. In 1807 the directors build the spacious 
banking house on North Charles Street, of which Mr. 
Robert C. Long was architect and with Mr. W. Steu- 
art and Col. Mosher, builder. Messrs Chevalier 
An^i'ea and Franzoni performed the sculpture. 



]804.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 179 

The proposed capital was 3,000,000, and 2,312,150 
dols. including 42,400 dols. by the state, were paid, but 
shares to the amount of $224,250 were purchased by 
the corporation itself, and losses sustained previously? 
a law was obtained 1821, reducing the capital 25 per 
cent 

In the mean time, the Mechanics Bank is incorpora- 
ted, a-id in IS 12 they erect their Banking house at the 
S)uth East corner of Calvert and East Streets. The 
capital intended for this Bank was, one Million, of 
which 640,000 dollars were paid, including 94,625 dol- 
lars by the State, all which, in consequence of losses sus • 
tained, were reduced 40 per cent by act of 1821. Edwd. 
Johnson. Esq. is chosen Elector of President, and An- 
drew Ellicott and John Stephens, Esqs. delegates. 

On the 4th March 1804, died here, Robert Carter, 
Esq. aged 76 years, formerly member of the Colonial 
Council of Virginia; and, at New York, in his 69th year, 
Commodore James Nicholson, formerly of this town and 
commander of the public ships Defence, Virginia, Trum- 
bull, &c. in the war of Independence ; and on the 1 9th 
Sept. aged 72 years, William Buchanan, Esq. formerly 
one of the justices of the county and Commissary Gen- 
eral of purchases for tlie Continental Army. 

In 1805 the city government pass an ordinance for 
the inspection of flaxseed, and two years after another 
for the inspection of butter and lard, and in 1814 ordi- 
nances are passed for the inspection of limo and chRr 
coal. 



180 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 1805. 

By a new organization of the courts of justice at the 
session of 1804 and 180.5, the general court was abol- 
ished and the chief justices of the district courts were 
constituted a court of appeals. The state was divided 
into six districts, of which Baltimore and Harford coun- 
ties was the last, Bobert Smith, Esq. was appointed 
chief justice, but he did not accept, and Joseph II. Nich- 
olson, Esq. of Q,ueen Annes county, was appointed and 
came here to reside. 

The associates of this court were gentlemen of the 
Jaw, viz. Benjamin Bumscy and Thomas Jones, Esqs. 
and the counties ceased to have separate associate justi- 
ces. Zeb, Ilollingsworth, E«q. was appointed in the 
place of Mr. Rumsey, who did not accept. Judge Jones 
(lied in 1812, and was succeeded by Theodorick Bland, 
Esq. 

The slate was divided into eight congressional dis- 
tricts, and BiUlimorc city and county being the 5th5 
elect one member for each by joint ticket. Part of Anne 
Arundel coLinly, Annapolis and Baltimore city, being 
the third of niiic districts, elect two electors of Presi- 
dent. 

In the same year the powers of the trustees of the 
poor arc transfered to the levy court. 

Thomas Dixon, Esq. is appointed a judge of the Or- 
phan''s court. 

At the ses§ion of 1805, Messrs. Tho. McElderry, 
Ilcnry Payson, William Jessop, Alexander McKim, 
John McKim, Junior, Thomas Dixon, Thomas Butter, 
Robert Stewart and AVilliam C. Goldsmith, are appoint- 
od commissioners to build a new Court House, and 



1805] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 181 

having decided on erecting the same on part of the old 
public ground, Nrrth Calvert street, tlie same is begun 
according to the designs of Mr. George IMilleman, who 
was builder, and executed the wood work, Mr. William 
Steuart executed the stone work, and Colonel James 
Mosher the brick work. 

The county records were removed and the courts 
held sessions there in 1809, when the old arched court 
house was taken down. The new building is 145 feet 
front on Church, now Lexington street, and on Wash- 
ington Square 65 feet deep; at which end there is a 
courtroom in each of two stories, 60 by 4G feet; the 
Tjasement of the whole is arched in stone and brick 
work, and the Oi'phan's court and clerks rooms, where 
the records are kept, vaulted for safety against fire. 

The grand lodge of Free Masons, of which Doctor 
John Crawford was R. W. Grand Master, was author 
ised to raise a considerable sum, by lottery, to aid them 
in erecting a IMasonic Hall, which was not commenced 
until eight years after. 

The Friends or Quakers complete their new meet- 
ing house on Lombard street, Mr. John Sinclair archi^ 
tect, for the accommodation of the members of that reli- 
gious society on the west side of the city. 

The exports from Maryland, of which nearly all are 
from Baltimore, from October 1805 to 1 806, amounted 
to $3,661,131^ domestic produce, $10,919,774 of for- 
eign goods, or a total of $14,580,905, and the receipts 
into the Treasury of the United States from this city for 
the year 1806, amounted to $1,224,897. 



182 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 1805] 

At the same session, 1805, the corporation are em- 
powered to exclude Rogers's addition, on the east, from 
the operation of city taxes and ordinances, which was 
never carried into effect; but the interests of the proprie- 
tors of those grounds have been protected by the act of 
1816, extending the limits and powers of the City gov- 
ernment, and provichng that the improved parts only? 
should be subject to direct taxation. 

The City Delegates introduced a bill to alter the con- 
stitution of the State so as to give the city an additional 
representation, but on the second reading, it was rejec- 
ted by the vote of every member present in the House of 
D legates^ being sixty two, except the two from the city 
itself. At various sessions afterwards, particularly in 
1819, 1822 and 1823, it has been attempted to procure 
this alteration, for two additional members only, as ne- 
cessary as it is just, by the growth of the city in popu- 
lation and wealtli, creating wants of legislation equal 
almost to all the rest of the State besides; but it 
never has been sanctioned by more than one third of 
the members present. Many of our best citizens are so 
disgusted at this inconsiderate but oppressive treatment, 
that they keep themselves aloof from the service of the 
people, whilst the people altogether are subject to re- 
proaches from the very body which withholds the means 
of good government. The acts of assembly relating to 
our police are defective, sometimes changed without our 
knowledge or consent, and not a few important objects 
passed over entirely; because two gentlemen, if they 
were other Solons or Lycurguses, are physically incom. 
petent to compile, much lesa digest in sessions of 60 or 



i 



1805.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 183 

90 days duration, all the laws required in such a new^ 
miKed and growing community as this; and there exists 
no greater obstruction to that credit and prosperity which 
should result from patriotism and enterprize, than the 
want of good laws. 

0\ the 21st January, 1806, there was a public meet- 
ing of the merchants of Baltimore, at which, in imitation 
of those of New York and Philadelphia, they resolved 
to represent to the general government, the difficulties 
under which commerce laboured from the measures of 
the belligerents, and pray for redress and protection, es- 
pecially for the carrying trade. L^Eole, a French seven- 
ty four, part of a squadi-on co.nmanded by admiral 
Willaumez, which was dispersed by a storm on the coast, 
after eluding two British squadrons, came into the bay 
with other ships under commodore Khrome, and stripped 
of her guns, this seventy-four was brought here a wreck 
and sold. 

Messrs. Sower and Hewes establish a type foundry 
on Lexington street, which becoming the property of 
other gentlemen, was transferred to Biddle street. 

William Pinkney was appointed attorney general on 
resignation of Mr. Martin in 1805, but fixed his resi- 
dence here the next year and resigned, when he was ap- 
pointed Envoy Extraordinary to the court of Great Bri- 
tain; upon which J. T. Mason, Esq. was appointed and 
soon after John Johnson, Esq. Thomas Jennings, Esq. 
son of Mr. T. Jennings, former attorney general, acting 
as deputy here; but in 181 1, John Montgomery, Esq. of 



184 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1806, 

Harford, was appointed attorney general and came to 
reside. 

At Chawan, his residence in the county, departed thisi 
life on the 5th April, James Winchester, Esq. judge of 
the United States District Court, and formerly member 
of the general assembly, and same year, was succeeded 
by James Flouston, Esq. of Kent county; and on the 9th 
October, at an advanced age, died, Robert Purviance, 
Esq. collector of the port of Baltimore. 

liabriel Christie, Esq. of Harford county, is appoint 
ed collector in the place of Mr. Purviance, deceased^ 
and on the death of Mr. Christie, the next year, James 
H. McCulloch, Esq. is apppointed. 

In 1806, the Rev. Doctor Frederick G. Beasley suc- 
ceeds Doctor Ratoone as associate minister of St. 
Paul's and Christ churches; when a number of the 
congregation attached to the former, erect the church 
called Trinity church, in Polly street. Doctor Ra- 
toone is successively succeeded by the Rev. IMr. 
Ralph, the Rev. Mr. Hicks and the Rev. Mr. John 
V. Bartow, the present minister; all the four churches 
remaining under the jurisdiction of the bishop of the 
diocese. 

On the 5th July, 180G, departed this life at Dover, in 
Delaware, aged 70 years, the Rev. Richard Whatcoat 
who was ordained bishop of the Methodist church in 
this city in 1800; in 1808, the Rev. William McKen- 
dree is ordained bishop, and in 1810, the society erect 
their spacious church on north Eutaw street, for the 
accommodation of their members at the west side of the 
city. 



1806] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 185 

On the 6th July, the foimdation stone of tlie Ro- 
man Catholic Cathedral church was laid on a square of 
ground on north Charles street, obtained of Col. Howard, 
on terms which justly entitled him to be considered a 
large contributor ; and the outside wails, of grey granite 
from the vicinity of Ellicott's mills on Patapsco, were 
carried up to the entablature in a few years, when the 
war, with other causes, suspended its progress. 

Alexander McKim, Esq. is chosen elector of senate 
for the city, and Tobias E. Stansbury and Moses 
Brown, Esqs. for the county. James H. ]McCulloch and 
Thomas McElderry, Esqs. are elected senators, and 
next year, Elias Glenn, Esq. in place of Mr, McCulloch 
resigned; and to fill another vacancy in 1808, Thomas 
B. Dorsey, Esq. Robert Steuart and Edward Aisquith, 
Esqs. are elected delegates, and John Hunter, Esq. 
Sheriff. 

Early in 1807 a company is organised, to procure 
regular supplies of Calcutta and China goods, for which 
our traders had become customary of, and indebted to 
the eastern merchants ; Robert Gilmor Esq. is president 
James A. Buchanan, Esq. Vice-President, and Mr* 
Thomas Higginbothom, Secretary. The Ships Lon- 
pon Packet, capt. Solomon Rutter, and William Bing- 
ham, capt. John Conyngham, are sent out; on their 
return during the Embargo, the company divided a 
handsome interest and was dissolved, but it is to be re^ 
gretted perhaps, that such a company was not renewed 
after the last war. 

2i 



186 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 1807^ 

The orders of council in England, made to relieve 
the carrying; trade, as it was alleged, hnt extending the 
blockade of the French coasts, producing the retaliating 
decree of Berliii, and the president rejecting the treaty 
negociated at London by Messrs. jMunroe and Pinkney, 
the neutrality of the Uniled States became more obnox- 
ious there, and the maritime warfare more vexatious 
here in 1807. British seamen taking all opportunities to 
desert their ships of war, the frigate Chesapeake, 
destined to compose part of an American squadron 
against the Barbary powers was attacked otf the capes 
on the twenty third of June, by part of a British squad- 
ron then laying in the bay; and, being overpowered^ 
was searched and some of her crew taken out as deser- 
ters. On the arrival of the- news, a town meeting is 
held and an address strongly reprobating this violence, 
was sent to the President, who soon after interdicted all 
intercourse with the British ships, by proclamation. 

On the 24th August, the ship Othello, captain Glover,- 
from Liverpool, was boarded and taken in Patuxent, by 
an armed boat fitted out from Baltimore by some French 
seamen; but, opposed by contrary winds, they abandon- 
ed her to the captain. As soon as the circumstances 
were knov,-n, connnodore Porter, with captains Samuel 
and Joseph Sterett's companies, accompanied by some 
other volunteers, go in pursuit, and bring back the pi- 
rates. But the act not being committed on the high 
seas or within the body of any county, neither in the 
courts of the general government or of the state, was 
there punishment provided for the case, as it turned out^ 
and they were consequently discharged. However,, the 



1^97.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 187 

jurisdiction of such offences was settled by law the en- 
suing session of the assembly, and the acts may be 
tried in any county where tlic perpetrators may be first 
taken or brought. 

On the 3d of November, soon after the acquital of 
Aaron Burr, late Vice President, charged with treason 
and tried before chief justice Marshall and the district 
judge at Richmond, the populace paraded the streets 
"with the effigies of the Chief Justice, Luther Martin, 
Esq. one of the counsel. Burr and Blennerhasset,*which 
they afterwards commit to the flames, as an evidence of 
their dissatisfaction with the issue of the trial. 

France and Englani continue to increase their re- 
strictions on neutral commerce, the former by tlie exe- 
cution of the Berlin decree, blockading England, but 
partially suspended as to us until now, and the latter by 
her orders to take British subjects from on board neu- 
tral vessels, then just announced in the Gazettes. Con- 
gress lay a general embargo, which is received and en- 
forced here on the 23d of December; it w^as unlimited in 
duration, and continued until 16th March, 1809. 

It is scarcely necessary to remark that foreign goods 
rose and produce fell in price immediately ; of the latter, 
indeed much perished entirely, and the growth of the 
city was checked, with the general sufferings of the 
country. 

Zealous to extend the medical school they had com- 
menced. Doctors Davidge, Shaw and Cocke apply to 
the legislature for the privilege of establishing a col- 
lege and license to raise funds by lottery to erect suit- 
able buildings, which are granted: and their hall in Lorn- 



f 



88 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE [1807 



r 



/ bard street, of which Mr. R. C. Long was architect 
/ and with Messrs. Towson and Mosher, builders, is com- 
menced. 

The college, as originally organised, was composed 
of Doctors Davidge and Cocke, joint professors of anato- 
my, surgery and physiology; Doctor George Brown, of 
the practice and theory of medicine; Doctor Shaw of 
chemistry; Doctor Thomas E. Bond oi^ materia medica^ 
and Doctor William Donaldson of the institutes of me- 
dicine. Doctors Brown, Bond and Donaldson declined, 
and Doctor Nathaniel Potter was elected professor of 
the practice and theory of medicine; Doctor Samuel 
Baker maleria medica, and the institutes were united to 
the professorships-of--anatomy, &c. Soon after entering 
upon their duties, Doctor Shaw departed this life, and 
Elisha Be Butts wtis ekcted professor of chemistry in his 
place. Doctor Davidge resigned part of his professsional 
duties in the college; and Doctor William Gibson, then 
lately returned from Europe, delivered an introductory 
lecture on anatomy and surgery, but did not then pursue 
the course, and the lectures wore suspended for a short 
time. 

The receipts from the customs at Baltimore this year, 
amounted to $1,44-0,527; the postage paid $29,950, and 
the hospital money to be paid to the treasury of the 
United States, for the mariner's fund, 4,504- dollars. 

Thomas B Dorscy, Esq. is elected a member of as- 
sembly in the place of Mr. Aisquith. 

Died, at his residence in the county, at an advanced 
age, on the 7th of IMay, Thomas Cockcy Deye, Esq. for- 
merly a member of the house of delegates, of which he 



1807.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 189 

was many years Speaker, and one of the framers of the 
constitution ; and at Ferley, his residence near town, on 
the 12th of November, Daniel Bowley, Esq. formerly 
one of the members of the senate of Maryland. , 

In 1808, the Lutheran Society dispose of their old 
place of worship, and purchasing the adjacent lot, com- 
modiously situated between, and running from Gay to 
Holliday Street, erect their present spacious and hand- 
some Church, of which Mr. George Roerback was ar- 
chitect; and Robert Oliver, Esq. erects his house on the 
West side of South Gay Street, of which Mr. Robert 
Carey Long was architect, and with Mr. W. Steuart and 
Col. Mosher, builder. 

The City Hospital is leased by the Mayor and City 
Gojincil to Doctors Mackenzie and Smyth, or the survi-- 
vors of them, for the term of 1 5 years, on certain impro- 
ving conditions; which term was extended in 1814 to 
25 years, they erecting additional buildings; and since 
the decease of Dr. Smyth, the uses are confirmed in fa- 
vor of Dr. Macenzie's son, by act of Assembly. The 
Hospital to be used for the treatment of maniacs and 
diseased persons exclusively, those sent by the corpora- 
tion, at fixed rates, and to be subject to inspection by the 
city officers. The Doctors obtained facilities from the 
state, in loans and lotteries, and erected a centre build- 
ing of brick four stories, 64 by 5Q feet, and two wings 
120 by 36 feet each, three stories, so that the whole 
front is above 300 feet from east to west. Messrs. Mil- 
leman and Dail, architects, and with Messrs. W. Steuart, 
Mosher and Allen, builders.. 



y 



190 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 1808 

• 

A polemic or Debating Society had been formed sev- 
eral years before, which held its meetings in the Octa 
gon building, west of the city spring, but was succeed- 
ed by a political club, under the name of "Tammany, ' 
and in 1810, another political society under the name of 
'Washington," was established, the latter maintaining a 
free school for some time, but both societies have ceased. 

On the 17th May 1808, the convention of Bishops, 
Clergy and Laity of the Protestant episcopal church in 
the United States assembled in this city, by adjourn- 
ment from the convention at New York in 1804. This 
convention adjourned to meet at New Haven in 1811, 
and conventions are held trienally, but not since at Bal- 
timore. 

On the 14th March, Judge, a convict, brought from 
the roads to lodge in jail, and several others, by means 
of false keys, open their cells, seize upon the arms and 
wound Mr. Green the keeper and several debtors, one 
mortally, and make their escape. Four of them were 
retaken, condemned and executed in the jail lot a few 
weeks after. 

In 1808, a society is formed to carry on the Manufac- 
ture of cotton goods on a very extensive scale, and works 
are erected for the purpose on Patapsco River, near El- 
licott's INIills, being chartered by the legislature and 
called "the Union Manufiictoring Company," next year 
the Washington company was chartered, their works 
being on Jone's Falls; the "Powhattan works" on 
Gwinns Falls, and the Athenian company for the sale of 
domestic goods, were established, in 1810, 



1808.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 191 

In 1814, Messrs Robert and Alexander M'Kim erect 
works on French Street, by steam power, and the Frank- 
lin company erect works on Gwinns Falls; and m 1816 
the Independent and Warren companies, the latter liav- 
ing erected very extensive cotton works on Gunpowder 
near the York road. 

An additional assessment of city property was made 
this year amounting to 111,11H. 7s. 8ci. making the 
whole subject to city tax at the time /946,326 19s. 10c?. 
or 2,522,870 dollars. The assessment continued to be 
made in the old currency, but the accounts of the city 
were kept in dollars and cents, from the date of the 
charter, those of the county were not altered until 1813, 
w^hen the assessment also was made in the new money. 

On the 4th October 1808, several pipes of gin imported 
from Holland, having been taken to England on the pas 
sage and subjected to new duties there, were by consent 
of the owner taken to the commons and publickly burned. 
On the 18th an English journeyman shoemaker, named 
Beattie, having used some expressions on politicks 
which offended his fellow workmen, they tar and feather 
him, and drive him in a cart from the corner of South 
and Baltimore Streets to the point, and back again, fol- 
lowed by Mr. Smith the Mayor, who, with a number of 
citizens at length aiTest one of the journepiien and sev- 
eral other persons ; some of them after giving bail, were 
tried and condemned to three months imprisonment and 
a fine of ^50 each, but were all pardoned and the fines 
remitted by the Governor of the State. 

Pursuant to an act passed at the last session of the 
Assepibly, confirmed by a special convention of delCr 



192 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1808. 

gates in the City the 8th February, eight gentlemen are 
elected in their respective wards, members of the second 
branch of City Council, as the members of the other 
branch were elected, and sixteen electors of Mayor by 
a general ticket; the property qualifications of the mem- 
bers of the first branch being reduced to 300 dollars, of 
the second branch and of the Mayor to 500 dollars; and 
at the usual time of meeting of electors 

Edward Johnson, Esq. is elected Mayor of the Cit}", 
and also elector of President and Vice President. Alex- 
ander M''Kim, Esq. is elected to Congress and The- 
odorick Bland, Esq. member of Assembly, in place of Mr. 
Dorsey. 

John Scott, Esq. is appointed chief justice of the 
Criminal court in the place of Judge Dorsey resigned. 

It was necessary in the course of this winter, to make 
collections for the relief of the poor, suffering for want 
of employment and adequate assistance from legal estab- 
lishments. On the 16th Mai'ch 1809, Congress raised 
the embargo and trade and prosperity was revived. The 
exports from Maryland, which in 1807 amounted to 
14,308,984 dollars, fell the next year to 2,721,106 dol- 
lars, and rose in 1809 to 6,627,326 dollars. The ton- 
nage at the last period was, 143,392 tons, of Baltimore^ 
102,434 tons. 

The natural springs of water, with which the soil ori- 
ginally abounded, being threatened with destruction by 
other improvements, Jesse Hollingsworth and Peter 
Hoffman, Esqs. solicit and obtain power to purchase the 
ground and spring on North Calvert Street for the cor 



1809.] ANNALS OF BALTIOfORE. l-0g 

poration ; and, with Mr. John Davis, are appointed to 
erect a public fountain there. Eight years after, money 
is appropriated by the city government, for the purchase 
and improvement of the springs in the South and East 
parts of the city, known by the names of Cloppe's and 
Sterett's springs, and soon after a fountain of running 
water, supplied by the water company, is fixed at the Cen- 
tre market at the expense of the city. 

In this year were completed the three great turnpike 
roads, which in are being sixty six feet, by the act of 
1787, and twenty feet wide, stoned twelve inches deep, 
altogether about 150 miles in length, cost, including the 
bridges, above a million and a hal; of dollars, or 10,000 
dollars per mile on an average ; but they added aS pticb 
at least, to the value of the land through or by which 
they passed, while they secured a constant intercourse 
with the city and a supply of fuel and provision for the 
citizens, which, before, was often suspended entirely at 
the commencement and close of the winter seasons. 
Since then, the banks have completed the Cumberland 
road, 58 miles, at an expense of near half a million 
more, and good gravelled roads have been turnpiked iu 
every other direction. 

It was also in 1809, Messrs. John Comegys, James 
A. Buchanan, David Winchester, and others obtain per- 
mission to raise 100,000 dollars by lottery, for the pur- 
pose of erecting a monument to the memory of General 
Washington; and on the 4th of July, 1815, a marble 
pillar was commenced by Messrs. William Steuart and 
Thomas Tov^son, according to a design furnished by Ro- 

25 



194 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1809. 

bert Mills, Esq. on ground given by Col. Howard, at 
the intersection of John, now Monument and Charles 
streets. The base or plynth, fifty feet square, is elevat- 
ed twenty feet; the pillar is twenty feet diameter at base 
and 160 feet feet high and finished. On this is to be 
placed a statue of the patriot whose memory the mon- 
ument is intended to honor and perpetuate. 

A number of private benefit societies, of tradesmen 
and others had been instituted, some of which were dis- 
continued, but in 1809 a charter is granted for ""The 
Carpenter's Humane Society;" another society is char- 
tered in 1811 by the name of "The Humane Impartial 
Society." In 1814 "the Beneficial Society" is chartered, 
and two years after "the Union Beneficial Society," when 
the Saint Andrews Society, formed in 1806, is charter- 
ed; the next year, the Hibernian formed in 1803, and 
German society of which there was one in 1 784, are 
incorporated; the object of the three last being chielly 
intended to assist emigrants lately come into the coun. 
try, or who may hereafter come. 

The charter of the Bank of the United States expiring 
without a prospect of being renewed, pecuniary difficul- 
ties were experienced or anticipated, and the several 
banks, called the Commercial and Farmers, the Farmers 
and Merchants, the Franklin and the Marine banks 
were organized and chartered. 

The capital of these four banks was ^1,709,100 ac- 
tually paid, including 83,150 dollars by the state; and 
two years after, the City Bank Avith 839,405 dollai's all 
private stock. This institution, got up without the 
State's sanction, as some others of the kind had been 



I809.J ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 195 

produced an alarm in the Legislature which was inju- 
rious to them all, and was a presage of its destiny. 

Oil granting it the state tendered the banks an ex- 
tension of their charters until 1835, provided they made 
a turnpike road to Cumberland, with the profits of the 
tolls, &c. which was accepted; next year they are re- 
quired to pay ^200,000 or be subjected to a tax of 20 
cents per $ 1 00 on the capital, which last they also ac- 
cept, even those banks whose capitals are reduced. But 
a proposed consolidation of all the banks contained in an 
act of 1 8 1 5, is rejected . 

In the course of this year, a treaty with England 
agreed on at Washington, was rejected by the British 
government, and the frigate Jlfncaine brought over 
Francis J. Jackson, Esq. to succeed Mr. Erskine as 
minister. Some of the crew deserted the frigate at An- 
napolis,, and coming here, were arrested and imprisoned 
at the instance of the British Consul, but much clamour 
was excited, the seamen were brought before Judge 
Scott upon a habeus corpus Snd discharged. 

General Smith is re-elected a Senator of the United 
Slates; William G. D. Worthington, Esq. is elected a 
delegate in the place of Mr. Steuart; and William Mer- 
ryman, Esq. Sheriff. 

An appropriation of 10,000 dollars was made in 
1808, and the Mayor and City Commissioners directed 
to build a stone bridge over Jones' Falls, at Baltimore 
street. The materials of the first stone bridge remain- 
ing in the bed of the falls it was found impracticable to 
sink a coifre dam which rendered it necessary to pile 



196 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 1810] 

the foundation of the abutments and pier. This bridge 
of two arches, built of common quarry stone from 
Jones' Falls, furnished with side walks and iron lail- 
ings, is 40 feet wide and 80 feet long, cost 22,000 
dollars; Messrs. Lester and Dickenson, builders. 

By the census taken in 1810, it appears that there 
were, white males, 19,045; females 17,147; other free 
persons 5,671; slaves 4,672, total 4!6^555 inhabitants 
here, including 10,971 in the precincts, that is, 4,050 in 
the east and 6,922 in the west precinct. The ratio of 
representation is fixed by Congress at one i-epresenta- 
tive for every 35,000 of free whites and 3-5 of the 
slaves, which produced no alteration of the number of 
Congressmen from this state or district. 

Peter Little, esqr. is elected member of Congress 
for the city and county, in the place of Mr. Moore, and 
James Martin, esq. is elected delegate to the Assembly 
in the place of Mr. Worthington. Cornelius H. Gist, 
esq. is appointed a Justice of the Orphan's Court. 

On the 28th May, died Thomas McElderry, esq. and 
15th July, David McMechen, esq. both formerly mem- 
bers of the Senate of the State ; and on the 1 3th Au- 
gust, Thorowgood Smith, esq. late Mayor of the city, 
and formerly one of the county justices. 

The council determine to proceed in erecting sub- 
stantial bridges, and authority is given to the Mayor 
and City Commissioners to borrow from the banks 
26,000 dollars towards bridges to be built of stone at 
Pratt and Gay streets. The Pratt street bridge was 
undertaken by Mr. Lewis Ilart, for 20,000 dollars; 84 



1811.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 197 

feet long and 50 feet wide, having three arches, made 
and finished as the other was. 

The Gay street bridge erected the year after by Mr. 
John Kennedy, under the direction of the mayor and 
commissioners, was 60leet long and 50 feet wide, with 
two arches, made and finibhed as the above, cost 1 6,000 
dollars. The current revenue sufficed to pay the cost 
of these bridges, including the money borrowed, for as 
yet there was no permanent city debt. 

The two old wooden bridges at Bath and Water 
streets were so low, that in the great fresh of 1817, the 
last was floated against the stone bridge at Pratt street, 
and the former against that of Gay street, by which the 
falls water could not pass under them, the west abut- 
ments were overflowed with the lower part of the town 
adjacent thereto, and the bridges injured; the Gay street 
bridge so much so, that it became necessary to replace 
it by a new one soon after. 

On the 1 6th May, at night, the frigate United States 
and British sloop of war Little Belt had a serious ren- 
counter, and the latter was surrendered to Commodore 
Rodgers, but he refused to receive her, and tendered the 
commander assistance to repair the ship. 

On the 18th November, fifty one convicts were trans- 
ferred from the roads to the Penitentiary, by their own 
option, and on the 24th January following, the lirst 
person is received there pursuant to sentence. These 
buildings consisted of a spacious dwelling about 60 
feet square, fronting towards the south and 50 feet 
from the north side of Madison street, elevated two sto- 
ries and abasement above ground; and a wing on the 



198 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1807. 

west projecting northerly 156 feet, 30 feet wide, with 
}2 vaulted cells 10 by 20 each, in each of four stories, 
connected with the dwelling by a close but spacious 
gallery. The houses are of brick work, executed by 
Mr. John Shaw, the stone cutters work by Mr. S. Hick- 
ley; the buildings and the inclosures, include al- 
together about four acres. These are four feet thick 
and 20 feet elevation. On the 5th March, 1817 at 
night, the wing occupied by the criminals, containing 
-about 300, was set on fire,and nearly consumed, but no 
lives were lost, nor did any person escape, and the 
wing, which may lodge 500 convicts, was immediately 
re built, 22 solitary cells being substituted in the part 
of the wing first appropriated for public worship. On 
the 28th August, 1820, a mutiny took place in the men's 
court, and one convict was killed and two others 
wounded by the guard; of whom four ai'med are station- 
ed on the walls during the day. The want of private 
lodgings is the only defect of the establishment. 

Several unsuccessful attempts had been made to pub. 
lish periodical works of literary character, but in Sep- 
tember 1811, Mr. Hez. Niles established his Weekly 
Register of state papers, and in April 1819, a weekly 
paper devoted to agricultural subjects chiefly, is estab- 
lished by Mr. John S. Skinner, under the title of "The 
American Farmer." 

At the "session of 1811 the legislature deprived the 
corporation of the city, of the appointment of inspectors 
and corders of fire wood, brought by water. 

On the 16th December at night was killed at his re- 
sidence in South near Pratt Street, Vincent LTler- 



1811 ANNALS OF BALTIMORB. 199 

mite, hair dresser, from France, who had realised a con- 
siderable property, notwithstanding eccentricities in re- 
ligion and politics, which rendered his genuine cha- 
racter doubtful. He was without any family, and the 
pei'petrators of the act were never discovered. 

Andrew Clemments an industrious french gardner, at 
the North extremity of Gay street, was killed on the 
25th October 181 7, at night, for which another French- 
man of the name of John Lamarde, who was in his em- 
ploy at the time, was tried convicted and sentenced to 
die, but previous to the time appointed for his execution 
put an end to his own life in prison; and on the 10th of 
December, 1821, also at night, Mr. Claude Jolly, who 
kept a store in South Charles Street, without any family 
or attendants, was murdered, and the perpetrators of the 
crime remain undiscovered. 

William Pinkney, Esq. returned from England leav- 
ing John Spear Smith, Esq. Charge des Affaires. 

On the first of April 1811, Robert Smith, Esq. re- 
signed the office of Secretary of State, and was offered 
the embassy of Russia, but declined. 

Jas. L, Donaldson and William Fechin, Esqs. are 
elected delgates to the Assembly ; Edward Johnson, Esq. 
is chosen by the city an elector of the Senate, and Wm. 
Pinkney, Wm. M'Creery and Levi Hollingsworth, Esqs. 
are elected Sentors; and afterwards, in the places of 
Messrs. Pinkney and M'Creery, N. Williams, Esq. and 
Dr. Thomas Johnson. 

On the 1 7th June, departed this life, aged 70 years, 
Samuel Chase, Esq. one of the associate judges of the 
Supreme Court of the United States, formerly Chief JuB-^ 



200 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE [1811 

tice of the general court, agent of the State in London, 
member of Congress and one of the franiers of the consti- 
tution of the State. 

On the decease of Judge Chase, Gabriel Duvall, Esq. 
of Prince George ""s county, was appointed one of the 
Judges of the Supreme Court of the United States; and 
with the judge of the district, continues to hold the Cir- 
cuit Court of the United States in this city, having late- 
ly obtained for that purpose, the use of the JMasonic 
Hall. Died also, at his residence in Anne Arundel coun- 
ty, on the 22d June, Henry Ridgely, Esq. formerly chief 
justice of the County Court of this district. 

A PROSPECTIVE and conditional repeal of the decrees 
of France, not producing any concessions on the part of 
her antagonist. Congress lay an embargo the 4th April 
for 90 days. On the 16th May a meeting of democratic 
citizens is called, and a numerous committee ofi'ered the 
government a pledge of support in case of war with Eng- 
land or France, or both. War is declared against Eng- 
land on the 18th June 1812. On the 2C'th a collection 
of people, offended at the opposition to the war main- 
tained in their editorial and other meetings, by the edi- 
tori of the Federal Republican newspaper, attack and de- 
molish the office at the N. W. corner of Gay and Second 
Streets with the presses, types, &,c. On the 27th July 
one of the editors A. C. Hanson, Esq. and several 
friends of the establishment, having brought the paper 
from Georgetown, distribute it from a house in South 
Charles Street, which had been the dwelling of Jacob 
W agner, Esq. the otlier editor, and which they propose 



1812 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 20\ 

to defend. In the evening an affray took place, hut after 
killing one person and \\ounding others, one or iv.o 
mortally, who were among the assailants, the house sur- 
rendered to the city officers, and the editor and his friends 
to the numher of twenty -two are conducted in the morn- 
ing by the Mayor, General Strieker and a few of the 
militia, to the prison ; here they are again attacked on the 
ensuing night, and Gen. James M. Lingan of George 
town, is killed, and Mr. John Thompson tarred and 
feathered, carted to the point and otherwise cruelly 
treated; the rest less hurt, but generally beaten and 
wounded more or less. Some citizens, devoted at all 
times to their own peace and pri\ ate affairs, shunned 
those scenes of contention and violence, others, as is 
usual in the summer season, were absent m the country, 
and the rioters having thus, by help of the night and ex* 
ercise of some artifice, eluded the efforts which were 
made to restrain them, conceived then selves masters of 
the city and proceeded to hunt out and expelsuch as were 
obnoxious to them ; but, threatening at last to break 
open the post office, where the offensive paper had been 
sent for distribution again, an imposing force was assem- 
bled, they were dispersed and tranquillity restored. 

Presentments were found against many individuals ot 
each party, but all were acquitted and discharged; those 
who defended the house in Charles Street, at Annapolis, 
where their trial was removed from Baltimore, the others 
in the city. 

The citizens petition to have the jail inclosed, and 
a wall was erected of stone, 1 1 feet high, with a porter's 

26 



202 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1812 

lodge, pursuant to an act of the ensuing session, which 
also provided regulations for the government of the pri- 
sonars, and a tax upon retailers of spirits within the city 
and precincts, tov/ards the expense of the establishment 
and repairs. In 181 7, the levy court cause another in- 
closure with brick, 22 feet liigh, to be made in the rear 
of the jail, to afford the prisoners open air and the use. 
of a pump, at dcscretion of the keeper. On the night 
after Whitsunday, same 5'ear, eight or nine desperadoes 
having procured some powder, blow up the interior wall 
of their cell and rush out, but arc most of them retaken 
and sent to the penitentiary. 

Several gentlemen took commissions in the regular 
army as soon as war was declared, among others Messrs. 
William H. Winder, George E. Mitchell, Jacob Hind- 
man, Nathan Towson, R. C. Nicholas, Benjamin Nich- 
olson, Stephen W. Presstman and Francis Belton ; and 
Capt. Stephen H. Moore marched a company of volun- 
teers to the Canada frontier. 

On the 18th November 1812, Col. Winder effected 
a landing on the enemy's shore, but was recalled, and 
soon after appointed Brigadier General. 

A number of privateers were fitted out directly the 
war was declared; among others were -the Rossie, Capt. 
Barney; Comet, Boyle; Dolphin, Stafford; Nonsuch, 
Levely; American, Richardson; Tom, Wilson, and Re- 
venge, Miller. 

On the 15th September, departed this life the Revd. 
Dr. Jos. G. J. Bend, the zealous and eloquent rector of 
St. Pauls Parish above 20 years, and is succeeded by 
the Revd. Dr. James Kemp, i\'ho in 1814 is consecrated 



18 IS.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 203 

SuflTragan Bishop of Maryland, and the Revd. Dr. Wm. 
E. Wyatt is appointed associate minister of St. Pauls and 
Christ Churches, in the place of Dr. Bcasly moved to 
Philadelphia. 

On the decease of the Right Revd. Bishop Claggett, 
in 1816, Doct. Kemp becomes Bishop of the diocese, and 
the first Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal church resi- 
ding in Baltimore. 

At this last period the Revd. Mr. Dashield renounces 
his connexion with that religious society ,and some of the 
members of St. Peters congregation and others attached 
to him, erect the church in North Liberty Street, called 
St. Johns; upon wiiich the Revd. John P. K. Henshaw 
is chosen rector of St. Peters Church, Sharp Street. 

Mr. John Morion erected an air furnace on the south 
side of the basin ten years before, and now Mr. William 
Barker erects the one on North Calvert street, where 
castings are made for mills, steam engines, &c. 

On the 21st November the extensive and valuable 
brewery of Messrs. Johnson and Company, was destroy- 
ed by fire, but was rebuilt soon after. 

Samuel Owings, of Stephen, esq. is appointed one of 
the Justices of the Orphan's Court. 

Colonel Moore is elected to Congress in the place 
of Mr. Little, and Edward Johnson, esq. is elected one 
ofthe electors of President and Vice President of the 
United States. William B. Barney, esq. was elected a 
delegate in the place of Mr. Pechin, and John Hutchins, 
esq. Sheriff. 

Early in 1813 the bay was entered by part of a 



204, ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1813. 

British squadron under the co.nmand of Admiral War- 
ren, and few vessels were enabled to pass to or from sea 
afterwards. It was not thought proper to wait the pre- 
parations which might be made by government, and the 
corporaU(jn appointed a committee of supply, consist- 
ing of Messrs. Moshcr, Ticrnan, Payson, J. C. White? 
J. \. Buchanan, S. Sterett, and Thorndick Chase, au- 
th )rised to expend the sum of 20,000 dollars in means 
ofdeO^nce; but that being insufficient, a meeting of the 
citizens in their \vards and precincts is called, and forty 
gentlemen selected, who advise a loan not exceeding 
500,000 dollars, with an addition to the committee of 
supply, and Messrs. J. E. Howard, G. Warner, J. Kelso, 
Gilmor, Deshon, Patterson and Burke are appointed. — 
To many readers perhaps, it will appear obvious that 
the creation of such an extra body might be indis- 
pensable in the disorganized state of the country during 
the former war, but at this time betraj^ed a defect in 
tlic charter of the city which cases of less interest had 
already evinced. 

Oa the 27th April, 1813, General Pike took York 
on Lake Ontario, but lost his life, as did Lieutenant 
Nicholson, and Captain Moore was wounded by the ex- 
plosion of the works of the enemy. On the 5th June, 
at night, Generals Chandler and Winder were attacked 
at Stony Creek, in Canada, and after beating off the 
enemy, fell amonjj^st them and were taken prisoners. — 
On this occasion Messrs nindman,Towson and Nicho. 
las, distiniiuislied themselves and were promoted. 

Mr. Fuhon having successfully ap|)licd the steam 
power to water wheels, and had boats constructed upon 



1813.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 205 

this plan for passengers upon the North River, Messrs. 
William McDonald and Co. owners of the line of pack- 
ets to French Town, on Elk River, procure the Chesa- 
peake to be built here for the same purpose, by Mr 
Flanagan, at the end of McEklerry's wharf Mr. 
Charles Gwinn introduces the steam power lor a flour 
mill in his warehouse at the end of Commerce street 
wharf, and Mr. Job Smith, in a saw mill on Chase's 
wharf. 

Messrs. Worthington, Jessop, Cheston and others.pro- 
cure the water rights and taking up the waterof Gwinns' 
falls above four miles west of the city, convey it along 
the East side to within about two miles where they have 
a fall of eighty feet or more,and being appropriated to five 
seats, build as many excellent mills within a few per- 
ches of each other, which they call the Calverton Mills. 

At the session of May 181 S, the Assembly were pe- 
titioned by the city government, to assume the debts 
contracting for public defence; and for leave, in the 
mean time, to levy the necessary amount on the city and 
precincts, both wdiich the Legislature refused. 

Brigadier General Miller encamped a detachment of 
2000 militia to aid in defending the city. 

By the general assessment directed by the act of the 
last session, the property subject to coanty and city 
levies, was valued as follows: 

County 2,9.28,682 

Precincts - 960,798 

City 3,325,8 iS 

Total ,$7,215,328 



1813 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. g06 

The county levy that year upon the whole, was at 
the rate of ^1.03 per cent, and the city tax on the 
^3,3^5,84-8 still limited at 15 cents per cent, but in 
1817, the limitation was removed and afterwards the 
city tax was levied at the rate of ^2 per cent. The 
valuation of the same property made at current rates, 
in pursuance of an act of Congress, was ^3iy276,26y 
aiKl upon this the sum to be levied for the United States 
was ^t8,670. 

Iliiherto the accounts of this county had been kept 
in old money, and the sheriif appointed to collect the 
levy, but on the decease of Mr. Sheriff Hutchins, the 
compiler of these annals was appointed collector, and 
the new money of account which had been already pre- 
scribed by law, was introduced. The office of sheriff 
being also vacant by the death of Mr. Hutchins, John 
Chalmers, Esq. who had been on the return at the pre- 
ceding election, was commissioned by the Governor and 
Council to supply the remainder of the term. 

The splendid hall erected for a medical college being 
prepared, the gentlemen of the faculty procure the in- 
stitution to be converted into an University by act of as- 
sembly, passed at the session of 1812, and the faculties 
of divinity, law and the arts and sciences ai'e annexed to 
that of physic. The most Rev. Archbishop Carroll was 
elected provost, but he declined the office and Robert 
Smith, Esq. was chosen ; not long after, Mr. Smith re- 
signed, and the University elected its present provost, 
tlie Right Rev. Bishop Kemp. Doctor William Gib- 
son, who had then lately returned from Europe, be. 
cume Professor of Surgery iu the University and Doctor 



1813] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 207 

Richard W. Hall, who had divided the duties of theob- 
stetrick chair some time, was elected professor of that 
science. In the mean time, that is on the 1 3th of Octo- 
ber, 1813, Doctor Cocke died, and soon after Doctor 
John Owen was elected professor of institutes; but he 
declined, and Doctor Maxwell McDowell was elected in 
his place ; the Rev. Doctor Wyatt is elected professor of 
divinity; David Hoffman, Esq. professor of law; Doctor 
William Howard then lately returned from Europe, is 
elected professor of natural philosophy; the Rev, John 
Allen, lately from Harford, professor of mathematics; 
the Rev. Archibald Walker professor of Humanity and 
the Rev. Geo. Ralph, professor of polite literature. Doc- . 
tor Gibson removing to Philadelphia, in 1820 Granville 
S Pattison, Esq. who had lately arrived from Scotland, 
was elected professor of surgery. To the University 
Hall built by the aid of several lotteries, has since been 
added a Museum and Infirmary where the attending 
physicians are assisted by sisters of charity, and the stu- 
dents of medicine receive clynical lectures. 

Luther Martin, Esq. is appointed chief justice of the 
criminal court in the place of Judge Scott, deceased. 

Christopher Hughes, Junior, Esq. is appointed a se- 
cretary to the ministers sent to negotiate with Great 
Britain. A Bible Society is formed and chartered, 
James McHenry, Esq. being President, Alexander 
Fridge, Esq, Treasurer, the Rev. Doctors Kurtz and 
Inglis, Corresponding Secretaries, and the Rev. Alexan- 
der McCain Recording Secretary. In 1821, another 
Bible Society is formed, as an auxiliary of The Amen- 
can Bible Society^ of which auxiliai'y society, Robert 



20S ANNALS OF BALTIMORE [1813 

Smith, Esq. is chosen President, Mr. Rosvvell L Colt, 
Treasurer, Mr. T. Parker, Corresponding Secretary, 
and Mr. Charles G. Robb, Recording Secretary. — 
There had been established in the mean time, a Ladies 
and Young Men's Bible Societies, and common prayer 
book and tract societies. 

Mr. Thomas Warner is appointed by the city gov- 
ernment pursuant to. authority granted, an assayer of 
manufactured plate. 

Mr. Rembrant Pealc, having some years before ex- 
hibited the skeleton ofamammouth in Baltimore, fixed 
his permanent resilence here; and, purchasing a small 
collection of natural curiosities of Mr. Jamos Savage, 
commenced the builJing of a museum and gallery of the 
fina arts in Holliday street. 

On the 17th November 1813, departed this life, aged 
87 years, near forty of which he had been the pious and 
respected minister of the German Evangelical Reform- 
ed Congregation, the Rev. William Ofcterbein. Since 
tlie death of Mr. Otterbein the ministers of that church 
have been successively the Rev. Messrs. Schaetfer, 
Iloirman and Snyder, the present minister. 

Ox\ the 2Sth February ISll, a public dinner was 
given to General Winder, who was on his way from 
Canada to the seat of government, to obtain terms of an 
exchange for himself and others, about which the Bri- 
tish had made particular overtures. 

Adtniral Cockburn came into the bay and passed to 
the head of it, intercepting the packets and coasters, and 
landing and plundering at several places. 



1815.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 209 

Messrs. Peter Little, William Steuart, W. Lemmoii, 
Stephen Griffith, William Neilson, Sheppard C. Leakin 
George Keyser, John Buck, Charles Stansbury and 
others, take commissions in the army, and government 
build here, under the direction of Captain Robert T. 
Spence, the sloop of war Erie, which is commanded by 
Captain C. S.llidgely; the Ontario, Captain Jesse D. 
Elliott, and the frigate Java by Commodore Perry, but 
they did not get to sea until after the peace. 

In 1813 Commodore Barney is appointed to the com- 
mand of a flotilla, and is j oined here by Messrs Solomon 
Rutter, R. M. Hamilton, T. Dukehart and others, being 
fitted early in the spring following proceeded down the 
bay to meet the enemy. 

On the 1 6th May, was laid by the Grand Lodge of 
Maryland in presence of I^evin Winder, Esq. Governor 
and R. W. G. JNIaster, the corner stone of the Masonic 
Hall in St Paul's Lane, of which Max. Godefroy, Esq. 
was architect, and Colonel Jacob Small and Colonel 
William Steuart, builders. 

On the 5th and 25th of July ISU, were fought the 
sanguinary battles of Chippewa and Bridgewater, in 
which Cols.Hindman and Towson of the Artillery, con- 
tributed essentially to the success of the American arms, 
and afterwards to defend Fort Erie, whilst in the pos- 
session of the Americans, and long besieged. 

General Winder being exchanged, was appointed by 
the President Commanding Officer of this district, and 
made every preparation which depended on him, to de- 
fend his native State; orders were given the militia to 
hold themselves in readiness, hut few w ere in the field. 

27 



^10 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1814 

On the 22d of August it was ascertained that the Bri- 
tish Fleet under Admiral Cochrane, entered the bay, 
and it was suspected that the army under General Ross, 
intended to attack the seat of government; General 
Stansbury of the 11th Brigade of county militia, march- 
ed a detachment towards Washington, including the oth 
Regiment of BaUimore Volunteers under Col. Joseph 
Sterett; a Battalion of Riflemen under major William 
Pinkney, and two companies of Artillery under Capts. 
Myers and I^'Iagruder. 

The American troops under Gon, Winder, being over- 
powered by the enemy at Bladensburgh on the 24th, the 
latter take and burn the Capitol and return to their ship* 
ping in Patuxent, while tlie detachment return to Bal" 
timore, with the loss of some men. Capt. Miller of the 
Marine corps wa killed, Commodore Barney, Major 
Pinkney, Capts. S. Sterett, W. Cooke, Jas. W. M'Cul. 
loh, W. H. Murray, Charles Earnest, and some others 
being wounded. The Commodore was taken to Bla_ 
densburg, but the place with all the wounded put under 
his charge, being paroUed on the enemy "'s retiring. 

Expecting an attack here, major gen. Douglass, com- 
manding detachments of Virginia militia and volunteers 
with Com. Rogers, Com. Perry, Capt. Spence of the Na- 
vy, and a few dragoons, regulars and seamen under Gen- 
W inder, a company of volunteers each from Ilagers- 
town under captain Quantril; from York, under captain 
Spangler; Hanover,captainMetzgar; Lancaster, C. Ham- 
ilton, 

The corporation is aided by a committee of Vigilance 
and defence of 50 citizens; light intrenchments are 



1814 " ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 211 

thrown up oh the N. E. side of tlie town, with some bat, 
teries, and a redoubt on the South, and several large 
vessels are sunk at the entrance of the harbour opposite 
the fort. 3Iuch valuable property is removed to the 
country for safety, with many of the families of the citi- 
zens and the Banks suspended specie payments. On the 
11th September, the British squadron under Admiral 
Cochrane appear off North Point, and the brigade of mi- 
litia commanded by Gen. Strieker, leave town to meet 
their troops, which they do next day, near Bear Creek. 
Here a battle is fought, in which the enemy lose their 
General, and the Americans Adjutant Donaldson, of the 
27th Regt. and Lieut. Andre and some other valuable 
citizens. Major Samuel Moore, Messrs. Cheston, A. 
and N. Williams, Jas. Gibson and Jas. H. M'Culloch, 
Esq. collector of the port, acting as a volunteer, and 
some others, wounded; Thomas Bailey, Esq one of the 
justices of the peace, Mr. W. Buchanan, of James, and 
a few others, being made prisoners. The i3d brigade 
are followed to within a mile and a half of the lines by 
the enemy's troops, who there await the issue of a bom- 
bardment of Fort M'Henry from their shipping. Major 
Armsteads little garris m, of Capt. Evan's company of 
Artillery, was increased by two companies of sea fenci- 
bles under Capts. Bunbury and Addison ; a detachment of 
the flotilla, under Lieut. Redman ; three companies of 
Volunteer Artillery, under Capts. Berry and Nicholson 
and Lieut. Pennington, and about 600 regulars under 
Lt. Col. Steuart and major Lane, in all about 1000 men; 
there were also two batteries on thi^ main branch of 
the river above the fort, defended by a small detach- 



212 ' AMNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1814 

ment of tlie flotilla and seamen, commanded by Lieuts. 
Nevvcomb and Websier. Shells were discharged during 
24 hours, and the city lost Lieut. Claggelt, Sergeant 
Clemm, and Lieut. Russell and several privates were 
wounded, not being able from the fort to reach the ene- 
mys ships. However, the latter find the fort impassable 
and return down the river, where the land forces are rc- 
embarked on the 14th of the same month, JMajor Arm- 
Strong was brevetted Lieut. Colonel. General ScoU of 
the United States army, take command of the militia 
here, and General Smith resigns, upon which R. G- 
Harper, Esq. wlio had settled in Baltimore and held a 
commission in the volunteer Artillery of the town for 
several jears, is appointed major general of tTie 3d di- 
vision; soon after General Strieker resigns and col. Jos. 

Sterett is appointed Brig. General of the 3d Brigade. 
William Pinkney, Esq. is elected to Congress in place 

of Mr. M-Kim. Cornelius Howard, Esq. i s appointed one 

of the justices of the orphans court. Thos. Kell, Esq. 

was elected a delegate in the place of Mr. Donaldson. 
Cn the btli March, departed this life at his residence 

in the count)', aged (J3 years, William Maccreery, Esq. 

and in town on the 27th, aged .*Sj3x^ars, William Smith, 

Esq. both foniK'rly members of the Senate of Maryland 

and of Congress. 

The 12th of January 1 SI 5 was set apart by the Presi- 
dent, as a day of lasting, humiliation and prayer. 

On the J 8th of February following, the President rat- 
ified the treaty of peace. The news of peace, with the re- 
pulse of the British al New Orleans, was received hero 



1815] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 213 

with every demonstration of joy; the houses being all il- 
luminated on the evening of the 15th of that month, and 
the 13th of April was appointed by the general Govern- 
ment, a day of thanksgiving for the restoration of peace: 

On the 12th of September 1815, the foundation stone 
of the Baltimore Monument, erected to the memory of 
those who fell in defence of the city the year before, was 
laid in the presence of J. A. Buchanan, S. Hollings- 
worth, R. Frisby, Joseph Jamison and Henry Payson, 
Esq. part of the committee of vigilance, the militia, &c. 
The money was raised by a general and voluntary sub- 
scription, and the Monument which was designed by 
M. Godfroy, Esq. executed by Messrs. Baughman and 
Hoare, the figure and griffons by Mr. Capeleno, stands 
on the site of the old court house, now called Washing- 
ton Square. 

After the funds of the city treasury had been exhaus* 
ted, individuals advanced large sums for the public de- 
fence, but the banks were called upon by the committee, 
and loans were made which enabled them to expend 
^79,000 on public account; and this, when assumed by 
the city, became the nucleus of the present debt. It 
was augmented by the purchase of the spring property 
^37,000; dock property 60,000; lands for powder house, 
house of industy, &.c. $19,000; opening of streets, &c 
and improvements^n property increased the debt to 
about $380,000 in 1818. The city accounts, expendi- 
tures and receipts of the next year, 1819, may be thus 
stated in round numbers. The interest of the debt, 
$4^2,000 ; expenses oX the poor, 25,000; of the main- 
tenance of prisoners in jail and criminal jurisprudence 



21^ ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 1815 

^15,000; deepening harbor, 20,000; light and watch 
^20,000; cleaning streets 1 0,000 ; journal of accounts 
^SOOO; fii-e companies ^4,000, salaries of city officers 
and other city charges, 29,000; altogether ^150,000 per. 
annum. This sum is raised from the following sour- 
ces. Ordinaries6,000, auctions 17,000, licenses 17,000 
wharfage and tonnage 8,000, markets 7,000, other rents 
&c. 5,000, direct taxes 90,000; total $150,000. The 
gross revenue and expenses increase with the population. 

The want of general employment for the labouring 
class during the war, and the limited extent of the Alms 
house relief, induced a number of humane and public 
spirited persons, to subscribe funds towards establish 
ing a house of industry, and pursuant to an act ot the 
last session, the corporation authorises a lottery for the 
same object in 1815. The money received has been 
employed in the purchase of the old alms house and part 
of the grounds ; but, the want of additional fund&,and the 
provision made for the relief of the poor since, have pre- 
vented the intended establishment from being carried into 
operation. 

Attempts had been made to regulate the meetings for 
business of the merchants, twenty two years before, and 
the buildings at the S. W. corner of Water and Com- 
merce streets were, for some time occupied as an Ex- 
change; but in 1815 a more decisive plan of effecting 
this object was undertaken by Messrs. William Patter- 
son, Robert G. Harper, Dennis A. Smith, John Oliver, 
Thomas Tcnnant, Robert Smith, Henry Payson, Isaac 
M"'Kin), Henry Thompson, and others, who purchase 
the grounds fronting on Gay Street from Water to Sf- 



1815.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. ^15 

eond Streets, and begin building in solid brick work 
and rough cast, according to a design of Benjamin H. 
Latrobe, Esp. Col. Jacob Small cai'penter, Col. Wm. 
Steuart stone cutter and Mr. T. Henning bricklayer, 
were the builders. A part of the grounds being the N. 
W. corner of Gay and Water Streets, was purchased, 
finished and occupied by the Uuited States, as a custom 
house and the opposite corner onGay and Second streets 
has been in like manner taken by the Bank of the Uni- 
ted states, the whole east front being 250 feet. The ex- 
change itself in the centre, occupying a space, vaulted 
beneath and fire proof, of 141 by 110 feet, with the bu- 
siness room, 86 by 53, and 115 feet high, to the top of 
the dome 53 feet diameter, has been occupied from the 
1st of March 1820. The company was incorporated 
from its origin, and a chamber of commerce was agreed 
upon, and organized in 1821, Robert Gilmor, Esq. Pre- 
sident, William Cooke, Esq. Secretary. 

On the 7th of January a public dinner was given to 
Colonels Mitchell and Towson. After the war, dinners 
were given to Commodore Decatur, Gen. Harrison and 
Gen. Jackson, as they severally visited or passed 
through Baltimore. The gross revenue accruing from 
the customs here, amounted to ^4,200,500, including 
5^28,162 from the t. .mage, of which the quantity of the 
district was 107,137 tons, and from the post office there 
accrued the sum of 54,835 dollars ; amounts which were 
not equalled before nor since. 

Col. William Steuart and Christ. Hughes, jr. Esqs. 
are elected delegates and Matthew ]Murray,Esq. Sheriff. 
General Harper is chosen a Senator of the United States. 



2\Q ANNALS OF BALTIMORE [1815 

but resigns the next year, and is succeeded by Alexan- 
der C. Hanson, Esq. During the last year of the war, 
there had been taken out of the county Clerks office^ 
505 marriage licenses, but in the first year of the peace 
the number was 828. 

On the 3d of December 1815, departed this life, in the 
80th year of his age, the most Revd. Dr. John Carroll, 
who had been 25 years Bishop and Arch Bishop of the 
Roman Catholic chur&h; to whom, to the late Revd. Dr. 
Patrick Allison, who had been the founder and minister 
of the first Presbyterian congregation about 40 years, 
and to the late Revd. Dr. Joseph G J. Bend, rector of 
St. Pauls church above 20 years, the city of Baltimore 
was indebted for the establishment of many institutions 
of piety and learning, which, under providence, created 
some of those sentiments of union and harmony, and 
acts of patriotism and benevolence on the part of the ci- 
tizens, which are recorded in these annals, and which 
have been to many of us, subjects of exultation in times 
of prosperity as well as consolations in times of afflic- 
tion. 

On the 31st of March 1816, departed this life near 
Fredericksburg, aged 12 years, the Rev. Francis Asbu- 
ry, who had been ordained a Bishop in this city thirty 
one years before, and had travelled in England and 
America above fifty years, as an itinerant preacher of 
the Methodist Episcopal church. 

At the conference held here the same year, the Rev. 
Enoch George and Robert R Roberts were ordained 
Bishops of the same church. The society organised a 



1816.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. gj^^ 

respectable seminary of learning by the name of "As- 
bury College," and Doctor Samuel K Jennings is cho- 
sen principal. After two or three years the college 
was discontinued for want of adequate funds, but in 
1818, the society erect their spacious church on Caro- 
line street, for the accommodation of their members on 
the east side of the town . 

In 1816 Messrs. Rembrandt Peale, William Lorman, 
James Mosher, Robert C . Long and William Gwynu 
form a company for which they procure a charter, to 
furnish the city and individuals with Gas light, and erect 
their works on the south west corner of North and Sar- 
atoga streets. Soon after, Messrs. Richard Caton, 
Benjamin and James Ellicott, Levy Hollingsworth and 
olhers obtain licenses from several proprietors, and em- 
ploy John Leadbetter to bore for coal in the neighbor- 
hood, without success. 

Subscriptions to the new Bank of the United States 
are opened for a capital of twenty- eight millions, and 
4,014,100 dollars are subscribed here, in the name of 
15,610 persons, principals and proxies. A branch is 
opened early in the next year, of which James A. Bu- 
chanan, Esq. is appointed by the parent board, Presi- 
dent, and James W. McCulloch, Esq. Cashier,and then 
the banks generally, resume specie payments, which had 
been suspended in 1814. 

At the session of 1816, the limits of the city, are ex- 
tended by an act entitled "-An act to enlarge the bounds 
of Baltimore city," including the old precincts. Those 
limits form a parallelogram of about three and a half 

28 



21S ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. {1816 

miles from North to South, and four and a half from 
East to West, and contains in land "and water, about 
10,000 acres surface, all included within the twelve 
wards of the city. 

In order to prevent future inconvenience from iiTegu- 
lav locations and the expense which might arise from 
changes necessarily made in streets, &lc. thereafter, 
commissioners are authorised by another act, to survey 
and lay off streets, Ir.ncs and alleys on the grounds 
added to the city, viz: Messrs John E. Howard, Wil- 
liam Patterson, Willir.m Gibson, William Lorman, 
Solomon Etting, George Warner, Owen Dorsey, Geo. 
Winchester, James Mosher, W. McMechen, John Hil- 
len, Joseph Townsend and Henry Thompson, most of 
whom accepted, and with other gentlemen, substituted 
to fdl vacancies, commenced the locations according- 

Provision was made for determining what improved 
parts of the late addition to the town should be subject 
to the payment of direct taxes^ 4br the ordinary expen- 
ses of the city government and police; for which pur- 
pose Robert Lyon, Christopher Cai'nan and Isaac Dixon, 
Esqs. residents of the county, are appointed commis- 
sioners ; and, the corporation was deprived of the appoint- 
ment of inspectors of fire wood. 

By the creation of a new criminal court, the busi- 
ness of the county of that description is again separated 
from that of the city and restored to the county court. — 
This new court, called "The Baltimore City Court,'* 
of which one Judge sits daily, is. properly a right police 
court, and preferable to common Mayors' courts on 



1816 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 21 IT 

several accounts; particularly, in that the office is of a 
more certain tenure; the judges are all law characters, 
not encumbered by civil proceedings and have jurisdic- 
tion in capital cases as well as those of less magnitude. 
Nicholas Brice, Esq. is appointed Chief Judge with a 
fixed salary paid by the state, and William McMechen 
and Alexander Nisbet, Esqs. associate judges, paid also 
in fixed but lesser sums, out of the city treasury. The 
city court appoints constables and the Mayor is still au- 
thorised to appoint a certain number of bailiffs, with the 
power of constables. 

To relieve the county court from the pressure of in- 
solvent business, three gentlemen of the bar, viz. Jona- 
than ^leredith, Thomas Kell and D. Hoflnian, Esqs. 
are appointed commissioners during pleasure, with fees 
of office, to examine applicants and grant provisional 
relief; w^iich board is continued still, with other com- 
missioners. Messrs. John B Howard, Tiiomas Ilil- 
len, Thomas Talbot, Thomas Johnson, Henry Ebaugh, 
Abraham Cole, Peter Little, Samuel Ow^ngs and Geo, 
Everhart, are appointed to employ ^^^^^ part of the 
funds arising from a tax on banks for free schools, 
which appertain to Baltimore county. 

The arrivals here from sea this year w^ere 67 foreign. 
and 436 American vessels, but the amount of tonnage 
registered and licensed was 1 04,960 tons. 

Captain George Stiles is elected Mayor of the city.— 
John S. Skinner, Esq. is appointed Post INIaster, and 
the payments into the Treasury of the United States 
from this office in gross, amounted to 51, MO dollars.-— 



gSO' ANNALS OF BALTI-VIORE. 1816 

General Smith is elected to Congress in the place of 
Colonel Mooie 

William Pinkney, esq. is appointed minister to Na- 
ples and Russia, and Colonel P. Little is elected to 
Congress in his place. Edward Jyhnson, Esq. is again 
chosen an elector of President, and Joseph H. Nichol- 
son, Esq. elector of Senate. Colonel Howard and 
George Winchester, Esq. are elected meraber« of the 
Senate of Maryland. The Colonel declined, and Gen- 
eral William H. Winder is chosen; in 1819, General 
Harper is chosen in place of General Winder resigned, 
and J. E. Howard, Junior Esq. in place of Mr. Win- 
chester resigned; and on his resignation in 1820, Rich- 
ard Carroll, Esq. is chosen. James Carroll, Jr. esq. 
is appointed a Judge of the Orphans Court, C. Hughes, 
JiUii(3r, esq. is appointed Secretary of Legation and be- 
comes Charge des .Affaires at Stockholm, and Thomas 
Kell, esq. is elected to the assembly in his place. 

On the IGth of May, departed this life, James Mc- 
Henry, esq. one of the framers of the constitution of the 
United States, a Secretary to General Washington in 
the war of Indcpendcftce and of the Department of war 
in 1798. On the 1 4th of August, at an advanced age, 
James Calhoun, esq. first Mayor of Baltimore, and 
many years one of the justices of the county; and on the 
7th of October, at his residence in the county. Colonel 
N. K. Moore, commandant of Cavalry and late member 
of Congress. 

On the 1 Uh of March 1817, the new Cathedral 
Church erected by the Epi.scopalians, called St. Pauls. 



1817] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 22\ 

being within the church 100 by 15 feet, having a hand- 
some steeple over the vestibule, was consecrated by 
the Right Rev. Bishop Kemp; of this church Mr. R. C. 
Long was architect, and with Mr. J. Wilson, Plasterer, 
Mr. Thomas Towson, stone cutter and Mr. Elijah 
Hutton, brick layer, was builder. The figures in re- 
lief of Christ and Moses, which ornament the pedes- 
tals were executed by Mr. Capellano; the organ was 
made by M. Hall of Philadelphia. The new church 
thus prepared, the belfry first erected, with the church 
built in 1799, were taken down, and the lots sold, 
the remains of the dead being previously removed 
to the burial ground on German street. 

Several gentlemen associated themselves under the 
name of "the Improving Company," to facilitate the 
opening of streets, by purchasing at their own risk, the 
property most likely to be injured. It can be said 
with truth, that, at this period at least, there were not 
purchasers to be found in Baltimore for property con- 
demned by any public act, unless a benefit equally gen- 
eral, was expected from the sale. Nobody, for instance 
would buy the property of the absentee or the minor 
put up at auction for some trifling tax, however tempt- 
ing the prospect of individual gain might be to the pur- 
chaser. 

Some steps were taken towards the formation of an 
Importing Company, to supply our own and the neigh- 
bouring retail merchants, and counteract the injurious 
effect of foreign capital employed in introducing goods 
into other places, but was not prosecuted to effect. 

On the first of June, 1817, President Monroe arriv- 



222 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1817 

ed in town and visited Fort McHenry and the scene of 
the battle of the 12th ot September. He was addressed 
by the corporation and returning a polite answer, de- 
clined an invitation to a public dinner. 

The different Marine Insurance Companies deter- 
mined to have the shoals of the river sounded, and 
buoys fixed to be a guide to the shipping, which was un- 
dertaken by captain Lewis Brantz, and tlie corporation 
caused the soundings to be carried throughout the har- 
bour. But the general government afterwards assumed 
the charge of the buoys, and in 1820, erected a Light 
Tower at the Bodkin and another at North Poiiit, 
which are elevated between thirty and forty feet 
each. 

At this period, Sunday Schools are organized by 
the religious societies generally, and the members of 
the Catholic Church establish a free school for both 
sexes, which was forthwith incorporated. Mr. John 
McKim, deceased this year, had requested his heii*s to 
appropriate six hundred dollars ground rents per an- 
num for the support of a free school, under the direc- 
tion of the Friends Society worshipping in Baltimore 
street, which they did accordingly and it was opened in 
1822, pursuant to an act of assembly; and by the will 
of Mr. John Oliver, deceased in 1823, the interest of 
,^20,000 was appropriated by him for the education 
of poor boys, under the direction of the Hibernian- So- 
ciety, of which he had been President some years, and 
the same was opened pursuant to an act of assembly 
the year after. At the same time, that is in 1823, the 
trustees of the Orphaline Charity School, aided by lib^- 



1817.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. j823 

ral donations from several individuals, purchase of the 
ti'ustees of the Baltimore College a part of their grounds 
on Mulberry street, and erect a spacious school house. 

Messrs. Henry Payson, Amos A. Williams, Isaac 
Phillips, Charles H. Appleton and others, form a socie- 
ty and erect a church at the North West corner of 
Charles and Franklin streets; of which Mr. M. God- 
frey was architect, Messrs. John Ready, Baughman 
and Hoare builders, and which they call "the First In- 
dependent Church," of which the Rev. Jarard Sparks is 
chosen minister. 

The society of the First Baptists erect their commo- 
dious circular church in Sharpe street. Mr. Robert 
Mills, architect, Messrs. Milleman, Booth, Diffendall, 
Rickey and Stubbins, builders. Like too many of our 
best public edifices, this church, which is eighty feet in 
diameter and rough cast, is placed at the intersection of 
two streets, but the ground is elevated, and in other re- 
spects, very eligible. The Rev. Edmond Reis who had 
been assistant of the Rev. Mr. Richards some time, 
becomes minister; but is succeeded in 18^2, by the 
Rev. John E.Finley, and part of the congregation at- 
tached to Mr. Reis, erect the church on North Calvert 
street. On the removal to Sharpe street the church and 
grounds on Pitt street are sold, and the remains of the 
interred there removed to the cemetary south west of 
the city; but soon after, the old church is let to a third 
Baptist congregation, the Rev. James Osborne officiat- 
ing there. 

A society is formed in aid of The Colonisation 
Society* which wa^ established at Washington, to 



224 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE [1817 

procure the voluntary transportation of free blacks to 
the coast of Africa. Colonel Howard, who was a 
Vice President of the parent society, is chosen Presi- 
domt of this; Luke Tiernaa, Esquire, Treasurer, and 
Edward J. Coale, Esquire, Secretary. The society 
have succeeded in inducing a number of the best dis- 
posed people of colour of this city, to accept their pas- 
sages; and, it is to be hoped, that persons of diftercnt 
characters may acquire from the absence of others 
and diminution of numbers, qualifications which will 
render them fit subjects for the future settlements in 
that quarter of the world. 

The duties of the Justices of the I-«evy Court had 
so much increased, tliat it was thought adviseable to 
restore the administration of the public alms of the 
city and county to a new board of Trustees, with dis- 
cretionary power as to the out pensioners and general 
expend iiiues, which had not been the case formerly: 
and, provision being made by law, Messrs. James Elli- 
cott, Robert JN. Moale, Richard Waters, Isaac McPher- 
son and the wTiter hereof, were appointed trustees for 
the ensuing year by the Executive of the State. 

The corporation is deprived of the appointment of 
Inspectors of salted Fish; but, in 1821, to prevent the 
dangerous accumulation of unsound fish within the 
city, the council determine to erect a house for depo it 
and inspection on the south side of the harbour, to 
which ail fish must be carried during the summer 
months; they also provide for the inspection of Ginseng 
and appoint an inspector thereof, agreeable to the gen- 
eral powers of the chartfcr. 



1817.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 225 

Charles W. Hanson, Esquire, is appointed an asso- 
ciate judge of the county court of this district, in the 
place of judge Hollingsworth, removed; soon after, 
Walter Dorsey, Esquire, is appointed chief judge in 
the place of Judge Nicholson, deceased, and Judge 
Bland being appointed one of the Envoys to Buenos 
Ayres, William H. Ward, Esq. is made associate of the 
court in his place. Luther Martin, Esq. is re-appoint- 
ed Attorney General with Nathaniel Williams, Esq. 
assistant; particular attornies being appointed to prose- 
cute in each judicial district, Henry M. Murray, Esq. ap- 
pointed for this district, and Thomas Kell, Esq. attor- 
ney in the Baltimore city court. Henry M. Bracken- 
ridge, Esq. is appointed secretary to the Mission of the 
United States to Buenos Ayres. 

Edward G. Woodyear, Esq. is elected a delegate in 
the place of Col. Steuart. 

On the 18th of June departed this life, at George town, 
aged 70 years, the most Revd. Leonard Neale, Arch 
Bishop of the Roman Catholic Church, and is succeed- 
ed by the Rev. Ambrose Mareshall, who is consecrated 
the 14th December of the following year. 

An evidence of the great health enjoyed here at this 
period is found in the returns. The whole number 
died 1817, was 132.S. That is to say, 746 males and 
577 females ; of whom 430 were under twelve months 
old, and fifty seven are stated to have died of old age, 
including four above ninety, and two above 100 year.s 
old; of the whole number, 390 were coloured persons. 

In the disproportion between the mortality of the dif- 

29 



^2& ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1816 

fereiit sexes is found the melancholy result of habits 
of life in the one to which the other sex is not addicted. 

The hjading of tobacco in the rivers be'ng almost 
wholly discontinued, the quantity brought to Baltimore 



^ 



was greatly increased and a mar ■:< t continually open I 
through intermediary dealers. Messrs. Amos and ^ 
Gcorgo Williams obtained a license to erect an inspec" 
tioii house on O'DonnelPs wharf; the next year the pub- 
lic ware-house at the Point was accidentally burned 
down, and in 1820, Mr. Moses Sheppard had another 
ware-hous ' licensed for him on Light street wharf? 
when the ware-houses of Messrs. 0''Donnell and Wil- 
liams were united under one inspection. The year after? 
Messrs. Samuel R. Smith and Christopher Hughes ob- ^ 
tain licenses to erect a ware-house each, on or near 
Light street wharf, the first of which was built accord- 
ingly, t.n 1 two years after, Mr. William Patterson ob 
tained an t er licen^-e for a ware house on his wharfs 
near Commerce street. These ware houses were con- 
structed to contain about 5QQ()_hogsheads each at a 
time, and some much more. The charge of inspection 
was one dollar per hogshead, including the first yearns 
storage, and twelve and a half cents a year afterwards; 
the other costs were one dollar and twelve and a half 
cents per hogshead But the succeeding session, 1823, 
the assembly determined to hire three of those ware- 
houses, pay the inspectors fixed salaries and apply the J 
profits, which were considered great, to the use of the % 
state with an increase of twelve ?n a half cents cost 
leaving to the county one other warehouse for its otnh 



1818] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 221 

growth only^ but discontinuin<5 the rest. Under this act 
the two old warehouses of Messrs. Calhoun & O'Doii- 
nell aad vVillia ns were selected for the state, and that 
of ivir; Du^aii for the county. 

By a statement published, the quantity of Maryland 
tobacco in 1818, was 32,264^ hogsheads, of which were 
shipped from this port 13,377, and from George town, 
&c. 87 1 5 hogsheads; some is shipped by the notes from 
Patuxent, &-c. and as much of that sold here, both for 
domestic use and exportation, is re-inspected, the returns 
affird imperfect data, bat the stock was increasing at 
that period, no doubt; 11,565 hogsheads were cleared. 

Oa the night of the 11th March, 1818, the eastern 
mail was robbed a few hours after it left the city, and 
Hare and Alexander were convicted of the fact in the 
United States Court, and having put the driver in jeo- 
pardy of his life, were hung in the jail yard. 

On this occasion, the mode of execution from a cart 
was changed here from a laudable respect to humanity 
in the marshall, to a drop or scaffold, with a trap door, 
and so continued. Two years after, the same crime 
was comnaitted on the same road, aggravated by the mur- 
der of the carrier; for which Hutton and Hull were con- 
victed in the county court, and suffered a like ignomeni- 
ous death soon after; and in 1823, the mail was again 
robbed on the same road, for which three persons, em- 
ployed in the neighborhood, were sentenced by the 
United States Court to confinement for several jjears, 
which may or may not be a punishment to them, ac 
cording to their personal habits and inclinations, but cer- 
tainly no indemnity to an injured community; who.on 



^28 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1818 

the contrary, must provide for their subsistence and 
clothing at a considerable expense. 

A number of gentlemen in each county were incor- 
porated as managers of agricultural societies, in- 1807, 
but those of Baltimore never met; and in 1818, a soci- 
ety was formed here for that object, of which Robert 
Smith, Esq. was chosen president, and John E. How- 
ard, jr. Esq secretary. The society held regular an- 
nual meetings, and have established exhibitions of agri- 
cultural products and improvements, with premiums. 
A board of twelve trustees, of which Charles Ridgely, 
of Hampton, Esq. is president, and James Howard, Esq. 
secretary, assemble monthly at their respective farms, 
being incorporated in 1823. 

Richard Caton, Esq. and others, had commenced the 
manufacture of copperas, on Magothy river, in 1812, 
and afterwards, of alum, forming a society, which were 
incorporated in 1818. In the mean time, that is, in 
1816, Messrs. Howard Sims, and Isaac Tyson, Junr. 
erected a laboratory for manufacturing chemical paints, 
and medicine, on Pratt street, which they afterwards 
transferred to the Washington avenue, and were incor- 
poiatel at the session of 1823. 

In order to induce the industrious poor to save for 
future exigencies a part of their present earnings, by 
offering to them a useful employment of small sums 
free of commission, &c. Several societies had been 
established in London, and elsewhere, of whose consti- 
tutions the compiler of these annals procured copies; 
and submitting them to the Right Rev. Bishop Kemp, 
Messrs. Payson, Lorman, EUicott, Appleton, and others, 



1818.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 229 

a society is formed early in 1818; and at the ensuing 
session, incorporated for receiving and placing at inte- 
rest small sums, called "the Savings Bank," conducted 
by tw^enty four managers, of whom Capt Daniel How- 
land was chosen president. Li the first three yriarsi 
there were received, from a n amber of persons, near 
$80,000. 

In pursuance of the act of 1816, extending the limits 
of the city, the old precincts were divided into three 
additional wards; but now the corporation appoint five 
commissioners to divide the whole city into twelve 
wards, which was done as nearly equal as convenient, 
extending every ward from some point of the river, 
northwardly; but the variation in the settlement of dif- 
ferent districts produces a disproportion, which must 
necessarily render a new division necessary from time 
to time. 

The number of public carriages licensed, and in use 
at this time, was, of hackney-coaches, 100; of carts, 
350 ; drays, 200 ; and of scows, or lighters, about 20. 

A society was formed two years before, to distribute 
medical relief to the poor on the east side of the city, 
is now incorporated by the name of "the Second Dis- 
pensary." The seamen had been some time received 
into the hospital, by contract, with the lessees. It is 
stated, that the number admitted this year, was 583, 
and the expense, 14,052 dollars; after which, the relief 
was withdrawn from the aged and incurable, several of 
whom took refuge in the alms-house, and helped to in- 
i^rease the number there, with the expense of that ingti- 



I 



230 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1818 

tution, of which Robert Gilmor, Esq. is appointed one 
of the trustrees, in place of Mr. McPherson. 

Henry M. Brackenridge, Esq. is elected to the As- 
sembly in the place of Mr. Woodyear; and John Ste- 
venson, Esq. is elected Sheriff. 

On the 25th April, departed this life, Lieut. Col. 
George Armistead, of the U. S. Artillery, and the gal- 
lant defender of Fort McHenry in 1814, where he 
eommanded until his death. 

On the first of March, 1819, Gen. Andrew Jackson 
reviewed the 3d and l4th bngades, and accepted and 
answei'ed an address of congratulation from the Mayor 
and City Council. 

The winter of 1818, to 1819, had been very mode* 
rate, but the ensuing summer excessively warm, and the 
yellow fever, of which the city had been almost exempt 
for eighteen years, made its appearance on the eastern 
part of Fell's Point. It became necessary to remove 
from that neighbourhood, and many individuals were 
provided for at the hospital and adjacent rope-walks, at 
the expense of the corporation, aided by the donations 
of the citizens; including the sum of 600 dollars, pre- 
sented for the purpose by the corporation of George- 
town, and some valuable presents from the inhabitants 
of Taney Town and Union Town. The whole num- 
ber of deaths for this year, were reported to be 2287, 
.of which, 350 of malignant fever, 157 of other fevers: 
212 of consumption ; 258 of cholera morbus; 77 of old 
age, including in the whole, 571 coloured persons. 



1819] ANNALS OP BALTIMORE. 231 

The distresses of the citizens were greatly incre'ased 
by the failure of the City Bank, and mismanagement of 
the office of the U. States, and some other banks, ac- 
companied by the fall in the price of flour and tobacco 
in foreign markets, affecting the prices of all kinds of 
property here. 

These annals afford abundant proof, that the citizens 
had not overlooked those kinds of establishments which 
produce the returns of capital and permanent employ- 
ment, though too many, no doubt, employed their capi- 
tals in what should have been fruits of revenue. The 
continental system^ which left the most of Europe with- 
out supplies of tobacco, Sic. being overturned by the 
general peace, confidence was extended in proportion 
to the demand for the produce which succeeded; and 
expenditures were gone into which nothing else would 
excuse. In the mean time, the exactions of the State 
were not relaxed. The Cumberland road, of 58 miles, 
costing the banks near half a million of dollars, pro- 
duced no tolls, while the 20 cents per 100 on their 
capital, amounting to about ^12,000 annually, for the 
schools, were still collected, even after that of the Union 
and Mechanics' Banks was reduced. 

A society was organized for the gratuitous distribu- 
tion of soup to the necessitous, and soon after, another 
one for the prevention of pauperism generally; but, the 
removal of the limitations of the number of out pension- 
ers of the alms-house, which had been at thirty only, 
for both city and county, and the appointment of mana- 
gers of the poor in each ward, empowered, as well as 
*he trustees, to send proper objects to the alms-house. 




222 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE [1819 

which took place this year, appears to have superseded 
the use of private charity for adults, in a great measure, 
and the operations of those societies have been super- 
seded, as well as public collections for charity. 

It was at the same period that the expenses of the 
poor of the city and county were separated, and the 
city relieved from the charges of the county roads alto- 
gether, so that, the repairs of the jail, alms house and 
other joint property altogether a small amount yearly, 
form the chief joint expense. The city had become a 
greater contributor to the alms house and other county 
charges than the county, because the amount of proper- 
ty assessed had not increased in the county as it had in 
town, and while this change placed the administration 
of the alms of the citizens within the controul of their 
representatives in council, the collection of the tax was 
merely transferred from one collector to another: The 
forty cents additional paid the city collector in 1820, 
was only the forty cents which had been paid to the 
county collector the year before, and the county bills of 
1820 so much less in proportion; for instance. 

The limitation of direct tax originally fixed at 15 
cents per 1 00 dollars, was also removed and the collec- 
tion of taxes was authorised to be made by several per- 
sons in the county as well as in the city. 

William Pinkncy, Esq is appointed a Senator of the 
United States in the place of Alexander C. Hanson, 
Esq. deceased; Edward Johnson, esq. is chosen Mayor 
of the city in the place of captain George Stiles, deceas- 
ed, and Thcodorick Bland, esq. is appointed disti'ict 
.Judge in the place of James Houston, esq. deceased. — 



i 



■ ^»?«, 



1819.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. g33 

John Montgomery, esq. is elected one of the city dele- 
gates in the place of VIr. Kell. 

On the fii'st of July, died here, General Levin Win- 
der, late ojocernor of the state; and on the 15th of Au- 
gust, the Rev. learned and eloquent Doctor James Inglis, 
Pastor of the First Presbyterian congregation, who is 
succeeded by tlie Rev. William Nevins. 

By the census of 1 820, there were in the city, in- 
cluding the precincts and a small part of the county, now 
within its limits, of free white males ;23,922, females 
24,133, other free persons 10,324, slaves 3357, total 
62,738 being an increase in ten years of 16,183, and 
from 1790, when the first census was taken, of 49,235 
being about tliree-fifths of the increase of population in 
the whole state in the same period. For the first time, 
the census exhibits an excess of females in Baltimore, 
and is an evidence that the native population is acquir- 
ing the ascendency, producing a proportion of sexes 
usual in the eastern states. Of the free people of co- 
lour the increase, arising chiefly by the arriyalsjronci the 
counties, has been thirty fold, but of slaves, not two for 
one ; though it is found that, latterly, the mortality of 
the former, compared with that of the latter is as five 
or six for one. Although not in the same exorbitant 
proportion perhaps, there is no doubt but that the 
mortality of any description of people whose occupa- 
tion and habits of life resemble those of the above men- 
tioned class, must be much greater than with others 
who are less exposed, more prudent or better provided^ 

30 



^dM^ 



034 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1820 

The number of interments the same year, inchiding 
a few from yellow fever, was 1025, of whom there were 
390 under one year old, 78 are stated to have died of 
old age, <ind of colour d persons 488. The population 
of the county has also increased at the expense of the 
city, from the establishment of mills and factories. — 
The ratio of representation being fixed at 1-0,000, there 
is a large fraction lost to the city. Alexander McKim, 
Esq. is chosen one of tiic electors of President, and 
Thomas Kell, Esq. an elector of the Senate. 

General John Strieker and Isaac McKim, Esq. are 
elected members of the senate, but the Geneial declin- 
ing, Reverdy Johnson, esq. is chosen in his place, and 
upon Mr. McKim's election to Congress in 1822, he is 
succeeded by (General W. H. Winder. 

Reverdy Johnson, Lewis Eichelberger and William 
W. Hall, esqs. are appointed commissioners of in- 
solvents. The distric'6 attornies are abolished, and 
Thomas B. Dorsey, esq. of Anne Arundel, is appointed 
Attorney Genei'al, and prosecutes here. 

Alexander McKiuT, Bealc Randall and ephcn 11. 
Moore, esqs. are appointed judges of the orphans court. 
Mr. James Martin, Doctor Thomas E. Bond, and 
Messrs. George Warner, John S. Smitli and James 
Ellicott, are appointed trustees of the poor house. 

John Montgomery, esq. is elected Mayor of the city, 
and John Barney and John P. Kennedy, esqs. delegates 
to the assembly 

Died at Pittsburg, on the second of December 1820, 
aged sixty-one years, Commodore Joshua Barney, late 
commandant ol the flotilla in this bay. 



1821.] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 2S5 

On the 31st May, 18^1, the Roman Catholic Cathe- 
dral, which was began in 1806, was consecrated by the 
Most Rev. Archbishop Mareschal. This building, sus- 
pended by the war was re-conimenced in 1817, by funds 
arising from a sale of the old cemetery on Charles 
street, part of their grounds obtained for the Cathedral 
itself, on Franklin street, and a Lottery, together with 
individual contributions. The form is a Roman Cross, 
its length on Mulberry street 166 feet, its breadth 77 
feet, and across thetrancepts 115 feet. The diameter 
of the dome is 69 feet and the elevation 116 feet, all of 
mason work, on the outside ofwiiich is another dome of 
wood and coppered, having windows by Vv'hich light is 
admitted to the octagon within. 

After furnishing the plan and designs, B. H.Latrobcj 
Esq. directed the work of this noble edifice ; Mr. James 
Hayden, carpenter; Mr, Scbast. Hicklcy, stone cutter; 
Mr. James Powers, bricklayer; Mr. Peter Baudson 
plasterer, being builders. 

By an act passed in 1819, it was intended to pro- 
cure more select annointments by locating justices of 
the peace in wards, increasing some of the fees, limit- 
ing the number to one or two for each ward, the num- 
ber then acting in town not exceeding sixteen; but 
the provisions of the law were inefficient. County 
justices, of whom there were in town and county, 
above one hundred, continuing to act in the city as oc- 
casion suited them; in 1821, a new law was passed 
limiting the number to thirty six, and retaining a pro- 
vision which assimilated the power of constables to 



236 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 1821 J 

that of sheriffs in instituting suits for debt, but without 
an increase of fees or location of offices. 

The legislature laid a direct tax upon the state to 
the amou'it of ^;30,000, of which Baltimore county 
including the city, had to pay ^9,734, and the next year 
it was doubled, but the last or present tax was reduced 
to ^15,309. The sums received from Baltimore city 
and county for 1819, 20 and 21, for licenses, &c. aver- 
aged $18,696 82. 

Col /!■• 1 William McDonald is appointed Brigadier 
General of the third Brigade, in the place of General 
Sterett, deceased, and Col. John E. Howard, Jr. is 
appointed Brigadier (General of the fourteenth Brigade, 
in the place of General Heath deceased. Sheppard C. 
Leakin, esquire, is elected sheriflf. 

On the twenty first of August departed this life in 
the seventy second year of his age, Gen John Swann, 
formerly Brigadier General of the third Brigade, and a 
meritorious officer of the cavalry of the revolutionary 
army. 

« 
The new bridge on Gay street, is finished ; the width 

of the falls being the span of the arch, is seventy feet, 
rising eleven and an half feet from the spring of the 
arcii. and fifty feet wide; built of granite from the Sus- 
q uehannah, and all the out side work faced, furnished 
with side walks and iron railings. — Cost $20,000 
Messrs. Ring & Frieze, under the direction of the 
Mayor and the city commissioners, were the builders. 

The commissioners completed the location of streets. 
Before this arduous operation was effected, for which 



\$22] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 237 

no pecuniary reward was sought, circumstances obliged 
two gentlemen, who had accepted the office, to resign; 
and IMessrs. Nathaniel Williams, and John McHenry, 
were appointed in their places. So much of the city 
had been laid out in streets running n orth and south and 
east and west, and at right angles with each other, that, 
in laying out the new grounds in the same manner, 
as near as practicable, they consulted the interest of 
the greatest number of proprietors, as well as the 
beauty of the place ; and the extension of the old streets, 
of sixty-six feet width, admitted of intermediate loca- 
tions of lots 150 feet deep, with fronts on such streets 
running to an alley of twenty feet. Where different 
names had been given to continuations of the same 
streets, the name of that part which was already most ''" 
improved, was generally adopted for the whole, as 
Baltimore street, for York and Dulany streets; and 
where two or more streets had similar names, that is 
reserved for one only, and some other name, or names, 
given to the rest, as Greene street, in the twelfth ward, 
named in compliment to General Greene, retains it, 
and the street of the same name, in the fourth ward, 
connected with Exeter street, is called by that name. 

The commissioners employed Mr. T. Poppleton, who 
published a plat of the whole city, harb ur, &c. em- 
bellished by views of all the principal buildings. 

A society is formed to loan useful books to the 
youths of the city, called the Apprentices' Library, of 
which Col. James Mosher is chosen president. 

On Sunday, 23d June, the extensive lumber yards 
on the west side of Jones' falls, and several houses on 



2'^ii ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1822 

M'Elderry's wharf were ccsumed by fire, which it was 
supposed, was the work of some incendiaries, who also 
attempted to set on fire some other lumber yards about 
the same time. 

On the 2d of December, 533 paupers of the city and 
county, were removed to the new Alms House, at Cal- 
verton, two miles west of the city. The centre build- 
ing, of stone rough cast, was erected in 1816 for a pri- 
vate gentleman, R C. I^ong, Esq. architect, now occu- 
pied by the oversee: , physician, &c is 55 feet front and 
53 feet deep ; two wings of brick work, on a plan fur- 
nished by Mr. John Sinclair, W. Mowton builder, arc 
130 by 40 feet, two stories on a basement each, occu- 
pied by the paupers, connected to the centre by two 
covered galleries thirty feet each, makes the whole front 
towards the south '615 feet. A bath house, wash house, 
and spacious court yard are in the rear. 

To this important institution is attached a good body 
of land, on high ground, but having a stream of water 
through it. The average number of poor of the coun- 
ty is now 35, besides 44 out pensioners, and the cost 
^4,456; and that of the city poor 353, besides 94 
out pensioners, and the cost §20,187, together $24,643: 
which includes the expenses of relieving about sixteen 
strangers, admitted in peculiar distress, monthly. 

An act is passed increasing the number of trustees 
of the poor, viz. three to be appointed by the Execu- 
tive, and Messrs. John Kelso, Jacob Councilman and 
Jos. Merryman were appointed, and four by the corpo- 
ration, who were Messrs. George Warner, P. E. 
Thomas, William Carman and Dr. T. E. Bond. 



IS22] ANNALS OP BALTIMORE 239 

Edward Johnson, Esq. is again elected mayor. 

Gen. Smith is elected a member of the senate of the 
United States in the place of William Pinkney, Esq. 
deceased, and Isaac McKim, Esq. is elected to fill the 
vacancy in the house of representatives in the place of 
Gen. Smith, and also for the succeeding two years. 
Robert Purviance, Esq. is elected a delegate to the legis- 
lature in the place of Mr. Barney. 

Col. John Spear Smith is appointed brigadier gene- 
ral of the 14th brigade, in the place of Gen. John E. 
Howard, junr. deceased. ■ 

Died at his seat near this city, at an advanced age, 
Colonel Nicholas Rogers, formerly one of the justices 
of the county and orphans courts, and aid of Major 
General Baron De Kalb, in the war of the revolution; 
also, in town. Levy Hollingsworth, Esq. formerly mem- 
ber of the Senate of Maryland. 

A COMPANY lately incorporated, erect a Shot Tower 
on the west side of North Gay street, which was raised 
more than 1 60 feet above the ground, by Mr. Jacob 
Wolfe, builder, under the direction of Colonel Joseph 
Jamieson, President of the con^pany. 

The name of Mr. John Gill, plasterer, who executed 
the rough and the ornamental work of the Exchan;^c and 
the Unitarian Church, should have been added as one 
of the builders of them. 

A number of gentlemen associate together to establish 
an Atheneum and the institution is commenced by thf 
purchase of books. &c. 



240 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1823 

Stevenson Archer, Esq. of Harford county, is ap- 
pointed chief justice of this district in the place of Judge 
Dorsey deceased. 

At the ensuing session ihe elev^enth brigade is de- 
tached from the third division, and General Stansbury is. 
appointed Major General of a new division called the 
Fourteenth, exclusive of the city militia, and the artil- 
lery of the city constituted one brigade of which Col. 
Matthew McLaughlin is appointed Brigadier General. 

In the list of the troop of horse given in 1 782, the 
name of Daniel Hopkins should be inserted instead of 
David, his brother, and to those names should be added 
Messrs. Daniel Carroll, of Mt. Dillon, Robert Dorsey, 
Math. Patton, W. Buchanan of W. and David Bees. 

The average revenue of the state received from Bal- 
timore city and county for licenses, fines, &c. for the 
last five years was ^31,553,68, and in 1821 was laid a 
State tax collected the ensuing year of which Baltimore 
city and county was to pay ^9,734, and the next year 
^19,478, and to be paid in 1824, $15,309,upon it being 
discovered that the proportion of 60,000 levied on this 
city and county was excessive. Two Accademies in the 
county receive a donation each annually of $400, and 
the city and county receive out of the tax on the banks 
for a school fund about 700 dollars a year each. 

Colonel William Steuart and William G. D. Worth 
ington, esq. are elected delegates to the assembly. 



1824] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 241 

General John Strieker was appointed Navy Agent at 
this port, in the place of Captain Jer. Yellott, in 1801, 
and was succeeded by James Beatty, Esq. in 1809. 

Charles Pinkney, Esq. was appointed Charge at 
St. Petersburg, on the return of his father, late Minis- 
ter at that Court, in 1818. 

W.G. D. Worthington, Esq. is appointed Secretary of 
the Governor of Florida, in 1822, and this year, H, M. 
Brackenridge, Esq. is appointed Judge of West Florida. 

The following natives or residents of this city, receiv- 
ed appointments as Consuls or Agents of the United 
States, at the places annexed to their names successive- 
ly, commencing wi^h the year 1794 and ending with the 
present: T. W. Griffith, (the writer,) Consul at Havre; 
Francis L. Taney, Antwerp; Joseph Foreman, Rot- 
terdam; Nathan Levy, Agent Cape Hayti; William 
Y. Purviance, Leghorn; Alexander Hammett, Consul 
at Naples; Henry Wilson, Nantz; Robert K. Lowry, 
Laguira; Nathan Levy, St. Thomas; James Brice, 
Cape Hayti. Some of the gentlemen declined, or 
did not finally reach the places to which they were 
appointed, and some were transferred to other situ- 
ations. 

Edward J. Coale, Esq. Vice Consul of Russia, be- 
comes Vice Consul of Brazil. Wm. Dawson, Esq suc- 
cessor of Mr. Woods, dying here, John Crawford, Esq. 
is appointed British Consul in 1821. 

On the overthrow of the Monarchy, the Chevalier 
D'Anmour, first Consul from France, was superseded 
by Mr. Moissonnier, Consul of the French Republic, 
31 



24>2 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1824 

then by Mr. Thomas; Mr. Le Villain, who succeeded 
him, died here in 1800, and was succeeded by Messrs. 
Sotin, Dannecourt and Arcambal, who was Consul 
General of the French Empire. Mr. L. F. Le Loup, 
succeeded Mr. Arcambal, as Consular Agent for the 
Empire, and in 1815, after the restoration, the Marquis 
de Fougeres succeeds Mr. Le Loup, Consul for France, 
and this Agency or Consulate has since been com- 
mitted to Messrs. Le Loup, Angeluci, Danneri, 
Theirry, Pelavoine and Henry, in succession. 

F. C. Graff, Esq. is appointed Consul for Hamburg. 

J. F. HoogewerfF, Esq. is appointed Consul of the 
Netherlands, in the place of C. S. Konig, Esq. deceased. 

Messrs. Geo. W. Rodgers, H. E. Ballard, Jos. J. 
Nicholson, Wm. Goodwin, J. Woodyear & T. Coale, en- 
tered the navy in 1804, and afterwards, W. K. Latimer, 
Jno. Galagher,Wm.C. Nicholson, Benj. Goodwin,Thos. 
Rutter, H. Henry, H. Scott, F. Sanderson, G. N. Hol- 
lins, D R. Steuart, Edward C. Pinkney, Franklin 
Buchanan, Wm. H. Campbell, J. G. Rogers, J. P. Wil- 
son, H. Y. Purviance, Henry Pinkney, J. M'Kean 
Buckhanan, W. M. Glendy, C. H. Little, A. K. Long, 
George Adams, J. S. Sterett, C. H. M'Blair, Fre. Cha- 
tard W. Basset, and Wm. M'Blair. 

Congress having created a Navy Board, Captain John 
Rodgers is appointed a Commissioner and President in 
1815, and is continued except when employed in com- 
mand on foreign service. 

Colonel N. Towson was appointed Paymaster Gene- 
ral soon after the war. The following gentlemen 



1824] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 243 

entered the Army at different periods, that is to say, 
in the Artillery, Messrs. J. Schmuck, J. A. Dumes- 
te, J. H. Winder, Joshua Barney and William Turn- 
bull ; and in the Infantry, James H. Hook, T. Mont- 
gomery, Bennet Riley, William Belton, William Camp, 
Reuben Gilder, Thomas Wilson, Henry Thompson, E. 
H. Courtney, Jos. M Baxley and Thomas NoeL 

On the 21st of December, 1823, a town meeting was 
held in the Exchange, for the purpose of obtaining the 
opinion of the citizens on the subject of Canals; not 
that there were any doubts about the advantages of 
them, but to know whether the citizens would prefer 
one to be made first to the Susquehanna, or to the Ohio 
river; supposing the latter to be continued to Baltimore 
eventually, and as was provided for by an act of Assem- 
bly two years after. It appeared that a great majority 
of the persons attending, gave a preference to the first 
project. 

And at the Assembly then in Session, an Act was 
passed to authorise the Corporation of the city to make 
a Canal to the head of tide water on the Susquehanna, 
and from thence to the Conewaga Falls, in Pennsylva- 
nia, if such an extension was permitted by the Legisla- 
ture of that state; and another act to incorporate a com- 
pany to make a Canal from tide water on the Potomac 
to the Ohio, if assented to by the general government 
and the states through which it would pass. G. Winches- 
ter, Esq. Judge Bland and Jno. Patterson, Esq. having 
been commissioned by the state to survey a route for the 
first mentioned Canal, and report an estimate. 

The next year, that is at the Session of 1824, the 



244 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1824 

Assembly adopted and confirmed an act of the Legisla- 
ture of Virginia, incorporating tiie Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal Company; and in 18^5, Stock to the amount of 
the States' interest in the Potomac Canal Company, with 
five thousand additional shares, were to be vested in the 
new company on the part of Maryland. 

The same amount of five thousand shares was to be 
taken in the Susquehanna Company, then again incorpo- 
rated — the old Susquehanna Canal Company's interest 
being secured in this, if the same should be effected. 

Finding the summit on the direct route to be 1000 
feet, the Commissioners proposed a Canal of 93 miles 
from the Falls to the tide, to cost 1,622,000 dollars, and 
from thence across the necks or points of land, to the 
city, '36 miles, to cost 764,000 dollars, and at the Ses- 
sion of 1826, another act is passed, entitled the Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland Canal Company. 

Both this project and that of the Canal to extend to 
the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, were abandoned soon 
after for the introduction of Railways- The city, how- 
ever, authorised by the state, appropriated ^5000 a year 
for ten years, towards* clearing away the obstructions in 
the bed of the river Susquehanna- 

General Andrew Jackson, then a member of the Se- 
nate of the United States, was waited on at Washing- 
ton by Messrs. Winder, Riggen, B- C- Howard and 
R. S Hollms, on the part of many of the citizens, with 
an invitation to a Ball to be held in honor of the victo- 
ry of the 8th of January, at New Orleans, which he po- 
litely declined; but, retiring from the Senate passing 



1824] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 245 

homeward, the ensuing year, a Ball was given him on 
the evening of the 5th March. 

On the 7th October, General Lafayette landed at 
Fort M'Henry, from the steam boat which had been 
sent, with a deputation of the corporate and military of- 
ficers for him, to the head of the bay. He was received 
on landing, by the Governor of the State and the Mayor 
of the city, and by General Smith, Colonel Howard, 
Mr. Carroll, Generals P. Stewart, Reed, Benson, and 
Strieker, Colonel Bentalou, and Mr. Boismartin, as old 
acquaintances whom he had not seen for 40 years, and 
addressed them with sentiments of the purest friendship, 
which was met by like feelings on their part. 

From the fort, the General was accompanied by a mi- 
litary escort, and the same gentlemen in open carriages 
to the city, his own in advance — The General entered 
Baltimore street by Paca street, uncovered, passing un- 
der very handsome triumphal arches at Eutaw street and 
the Bridge — crowds of both sexes saluted him as he 
passed. Returning from Fell's Point he alighted at the 
Exchange, and was again welcomed by the Mayor, who, 
with General Harper, presented to him the civil and 
military officers, and Messrs- S- Hollingsworth, Wil- 
liam Patterson, Alexander M'Kim and Nathan Levy, 
being most of the survivors of the city volunteer troop 
who had served under him in Virginia, in 1781, and 
whom he also received in the most feeling manner. 
That evening the city was brilliantly illuminated in 
honour of the Nation's Guest, and on the next evening 
he was entertained at a splendid ball and supper in the 
Theatre, Holiday street. 



246 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1824 

He was accommodated at the Fountain Inn, Light 
street, at the public expense; and there and at the Ex- 
change, he was every day engaged in receiving the inha- 
bitants of both sexes, finding time with difficulty, to dine 
with the Society of Cincinnati and Free Masons, and to 
call on a few of the families which he recollected of 
former days, until the 1 1 th, when he left town with an 
escort for Washington. 

Having made the tour of the Mississippi and the 
Lakes, General Lafayette visited our city, for the last 
time, probably, on the 31st July, 1825- He referred 
on several occasions and in terms of gratitude, to the 
assistance received here in 1781, as well from the hands 
of the ladies, in working up cloths for his troops, as from 
those of the gentlemen, by lending in specie ^7,256 be- 
tween them, to purchase materials, already noticed in 
these Annals; but it may be proper to record the names 
of those individuals and commercial houses, who were 
Messrs. 

Samuel Hughes, Hugh Young, 

William Smith, William. Neill, 

Stewart & Salmon, Stephen Steward, 

William Patterson, John Smith, jr. 

S. & R. Purviance, Russell & Hughes, 

John M'Lure, Jacob Hart, 

James Calhoun, Alexander Donaldson, 

John Sterett, Russell & Gilmor, 

Richard Curson, James M'Henry, 

Ridley & Pringle, Chas. Carroll, Rarrister, 

Daniel Rowly, Nicholas Rogers and 

Thomas Russell, Nathaniel Smith. 



1824] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 247 

At the Session of the Assembly commencing in De- 
cember, it was proposed to alter the constitution of the 
State in relation to the test, to the oath of the public 
officers and the representation of the city in the House 
of Delegates. The first admitted the Jews to hold 
office, and the second, reducing various oaths to one, 
were duly confirmed the ensuing year; but the last, giv- 
ing the citizens two additional Delegates, was rejected 
in their house by a vote of 36 to 28, though the citizens 
at the solicitation of the writer, had generally, and with- 
out distinction of class or party, petitioned for the 
change. The Delegates from the Southern counties 
on each shore, with few exceptions, voting in the ne- 
gative and against the city. 

The general government procured grounds by assent 

of the state, and erected Light Houses on Pool's Isl- 
and and Thomas' Point, Chesapeake Bay. 

Acts were passed extending the jurisdiction of City 
Justices of Peace in matters of small debts, to one hun- 
dred dollars, and to Justices generally, a new jurisdic- 
tion in actions of trespass, not exceeding fifty dollars 
damage. These might have been extended with advan- 
tage to all cases of rent in arrear, which is yet under 
control of landlords and bailiffs, as in the times of feu- 
dal vassalage. It is due to the promotion of industry, 
that landlords should have more prompt means of expel- 
ling tenants; but, at least, rent should be proved to be 
due before their property is committed to an executing 
officer. Among the evidences of a more liberal jurispru- 
dence than before however, was an Act of the Session 
of 1820, to provide compensation for the maintenance of 



248 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [|824 

debtor's in confinement on Magistrate's judgments, at 
the expense of their creditors; and now another to pro- 
hibit the imprisonment of females for any debts what- 
ever, which many wished extended to both sexes. 

On the 13th February there was a town meeting held 
to protest against the caucus of Congressmen, to nomi- 
nate candidates for President and Vice President, and 
in the course of the summer, ward meetings were held 
by the friends of General A. Jackson and John Q. 
Adams, Esq. 

On the 18th of April the boiler of the Eagle steam 
boat, returning from the Patuxent and Annapolis, ex- 
ploded, and Henry M. Murray, Esq. State District At- 
torney, passenger, and some hands, were severely injur- 
ed- Mr. Murray languished until the 28th, when he 
died from the accident; which was the first fatal explo- 
sion in the Chesapeake. 

There was a thunder storm on the 29th June, and 
one person killed by the lightning, which also extin- 
guished the gas lights corner of Baltimore and Charles 
streets. 

Acts of Assembly are passed granting corporate pri- 
vileges to the Gunpowder Company; the United States 
Beneficial Society, and the Mutual Insurance Compa- 
ny — also to remove an obstruction on the south side of 
Water street; and to open and extend Pleasant street 
to the Falls, so as to make a direct communication with 
Hillen street on the opposite side. In order more ef- 
fectually to promote the intercourse between the east 
and the west, and the general health of that part of the 
city, it were to be wished that provision had also been 



1824] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 249 

made, before too much improved, for regrading and 
raising the pavement of Calvert street, from Monument 
place to Mulberry street; or, at least at the foot of the 
declivities in Pleasant and other cross streets. 

The city expended ^18,000 on the harbor, and re- 
ceived but ^2,300 from tonnage duty allov^^ed by Con- 
gress. Property valued at ^3,000,000 was taxed at 2^ 
per cent; which, with ^22,000 from Auctions, and 
^43,000 from Licences, Rents, Fines, &c. were to de- 
fray the interest of a stock debt of 465,000 dollars, at 
5 and 6 per cent per annum, amounting to 24,000 dol- 
lars; and also to defray the Watching, Lighting, Sala- 
ries of officers, &c. 

Flour inspected 539,900 barrels. Herrings inspect- 
ed 46,575 barrels. Tobacco exported 15,523 hogs- 
heads, leaving 6,287 hogsheads in the warehouses of 
the city at the end of the year. 

Judge Bland was appointed Chancellor of Maryland, 
on the death of W. Kilty, Esq.; Elias Glenn, Esq. is 
appointed District Judge in the place of Mr. Bland, and 
Nathaniel Williams, Esq. is appointed Attorney of the 
District in the place of Mr- Glenn. 

Thomas Kell, Esq. is appointed Attorney General of 
the State. John Barney, Esq. is elected a representa- 
tive to Congress in the place of Isaac M'Kim, Esq. 
John Montgomery, Esq. is elected Mayor- B. C. How- 
ard and J. S. Tyson, Esqs- are elected Delegates to the 
Assembly, and Colonel Standish Barry is elected She- 
riff, At the election of Electors of President and Vice 
President, Messrs. Geo- Winchester and Dennis Claude; 
32 



250 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1825 

candidates favourable to General Andrew Jackson, were 
chosen for the District- On the 24th May, General 
William H. Winder departed this life, after a short and 
severe illness, in the 49th year of his age, and was in- 
tered with civic, military and masonic honours. As 
Senator, General Winder is succeeded by Jno. Scott, 
Esq. A rifle regiment newly organized, had chosen the 
General their Colonel, in which command he was suc- 
ceeded by Colonel Standish Barry, and as master of the 
Grand Lodge of the State, he was succeeded by Colonel 
B. C. Howard. 

On the 19th December, died of a paralysis under 
which he had suffered many years, William Buchanan, 
of Geo. Esq. Register of Wills of this county, and D. 
M. Perrine, Esq- was appointed to the same office soon 
after. 

The whole number of deaths for the year is stated at 
1468, of whom there were 48 slaves and 368 free per- 
sons of colour. 

Among the unproductive expenditures referred to in 
the year 1819, of these Annals, might have been dis- 
tinguished those twelve handsome buildings, erected by 
Messrs. Robert Mills, John Ready, James Hines and 
others, on grounds leased of the Water Company, at the 
intersection of Calvert and Monument streets — And 
those eight commodious dwellings, erected on part of 
the grounds of Lewis Pascault, Esq- by that gentleman, 
M. Rezin Wight and others, on Lexington near Pine 
street; all of which, being considered too distant for 
men of business, as most all of our citizens are, would 



1825] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 251 

not command rent nearly equal to common legal inter- 
est. And here it may be added, that of 185,000 dol- 
lars invested by the State in three Baltimore banks, 
there was a diminution of the stock and a loss, exclu- 
sive of all interest thereon since, of 64,000 dollars. 

The first private house of extent, beauty or cost 
erected afterwards, was that on the N. E. corner of 
Franklin and Cathedral streets, on a plan of Mr- Mills, 
of common quarry stone, stuccoed, for John Hoflfman, 
Esq.; afterwards ceded to and occupied by his brother, 
George Hoffman, Esq. and now, Hugh Birkhead, Esq. 
erects the spacious dwelling on Charles near Lexing- 
ton street, according to designs furnished by Mr- J. W. 
Collins, the builder. It is built of brick, and of that fine 
material and workmanship for which Baltimore is 
justly celebrated, or ought to be, and like Mr. Hoflfman's, 
raised several steps, some of which are within and un- 
der cover. 

The Directors of the Athenaeum having procured a 
charter and the spacious lot on the S- W. corner of St. 
Paul's and Lexington streets, erect a brick building, 80 
feet front on the first and 120 feet on the latter, ac 
cording to the designs of Wm. F. Small, Esq, Archi- 
tect, who superintended the building, which was stuc- 
coed in imitation of free stone, by Mr- John Gill. The 
builders were Messrs, R. A. Shi ply, James Symington 
and D. Trumbo- For this institution the writer was 
appointed Secretary, but the multitude of reading rooms 
opened at the time interfered, and the company rent out 
offices and places of meeting for other societies. 

The same Architect and builders are employed by 



152 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1825 

Messrs. D. Barnum, W. Shipley and J- Philips, jr. to 
erect the house of public entertainment on grounds ob- 
tained of various persons, at the S. W- corner of Cal- 
vert and Fayette streets, running 120 feet on the former 
and 200, including two mansion houses serving for 
private entries and accommodations, on the latter, on a 
basennent of granite, and elevated four stories of brick, 
stuccoed, and an attic of frame work. The whole 
contains above 200 rooms or separate apartments for 
public accommodation. At the instance of the writer, 
who considers the folding sash of Continental Europe 
alone suited to our climate, they were adopted by Mr. 
Small for the basement of this house. 

Early in January, the Chamber of Commerce deter- 
niined that the hundred weight of sugar, hemp, iron 
and other merchandise, which had consisted of 112 lbs. 
should be reduced to the 100 lbs- only, as tobacco, cot- 
ton, rice, coffee, &-c. always were- Some years after, 
the Legislature determined that hay and straw shall be 
weighed in the same manner b}'^ the city inspectors. 

At the session of the present year, the Executive are 
authorized to appoint four Justices of the peace in the 
city, to be called and exercise the duties of County Jus- 
tices, except in the recovery of small debts. Instead of 
reducing the number or locating any, and adding to the 
independence of the office, thirty-six are still appointed 
promiscuously; like the constables, whose fees are in- 
creased at the same session beyond all proportion, 
rendering the former more dependant on the latter than 
they were, for a very inadequate pecuniary compensa- 
tion, degrade the Commission and abandon both small 



1825] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 253 

creditor and small debtor, that is the poor generally, to 
the cupidity of those who should be servants of the office. 

The Legislature resolve to establish houses for the 
inspection of tobacco at the expense and for the benefit 
of the state; and those of Messrs. Dugan, O'Donnell and 
Williams, on the wharf west side of Centre Market 
dock, and that of Mr. M. Sheppard, on Light street 
wharf, are purchased and fitted up extensively for the 
purpose. 

The government of the University of Maryland is 
transferred to a new Board of Trustees, of which the 
Governor of the state is President ex-officio, and twenty- 
one gentlemen named in the law, among whom vacan 
cies are to be filled by the Executive of the State ; and 
this Board, besides common corporate powers, is autho- 
rised to choose a Vice President, appoint and dismiss 
Provosts, Professors, &c. The proceeds of a Lottery are 
appropriated to pay for the infirmary, to purchase che- 
mical apparatus, and for the use of the Faculties of Arts 
and of Law; all very limited in amount, not paid in hand 
but uncertain, and not commensurate with the wants of 
such an institution or the capacities of the State- At 
a meeting of the Trustees next year, Charles H. Han- 
son, Esq. was appointed professor of Political Economy, 
John p. Kennedy, Esq. of History, and Edward C 
Pinkney, Esq. Rhetoric and Belles Lettres; the other 
Professors being continued as they then were. 

A Board of public works, composed of the Governor 
for the time being, and others, is created and assemble 
in this city occasionally; and provision is made for the 
establishment of Public Schools throughout the State; 



25^ ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1825 

but, at the option of the counties, with power in the 
corporation to adopt them in Baltimore; the whole to be 
under the direction of trustrees and a general superin- 
tendent, which is accepted by the city and several 
counties. 

A toll bridge had been authorized and erected over 
Patapsco, at Elkridge Landing, and now others are 
erected at two lower ferries, at the expense of the pro- 
prietors, and the communication with Washington and 
Annapolis thereby secured. The Post Master General 
made a report to Congress on the mail route to Phila- 
delphia, recommending the construction of a Turnpike 
Road 35 miles, to cross the Susquehanna by Port De- 
posit Bridge and connect the Turnpikes already made 
between the cities; this was to increase the distance 
three miles; but from surveys ordered by Congress, it 
appeared that the old route is only 94 miles, and by it 
the post still travels in winter, and when the mails can- 
not be sent by steam boats. 

The government of Hayti send an agent to invite the 
free people of color to migrate to, and offer them means 
of settling on that Island; of which a considerable num- 
ber avail themselves, being also encouraged by a society 
which had been organised the year before by the Mayor, 
Judge Brice, P E. Thomas and others. 

Two revenue cutters are built here and afford some 
relief to a class of tradesmen exceedingly well qualified 
for the construction of fast sailors, but latterly too little 
encouraged by the General Government. 

President Adams and family passed through the city 
in September, on their way to Quincy, but declines the 



1825] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 253 

public civilities which the citizens tendered, as he did 
on their return. 

Horace H. Hayden, Esq. published a very ingenious 
Essay on Geology, including the subject of original 
formations near this city and elsewhere, in 1820. And 
now Daniel Raymond, Esq- publishes a Treatise on 
Political Economy, containing new and interesting prin- 
ciples on accumulation, consumption, &c. 

The Legislature assume for the State the entire con- 
trol of the Flour Inspection, taking from the city au- 
thorities the appointment of the inspectors. Fire wood 
brought by water for sale in the city, is regulated entire- 
ly by the state government; Lumber, Boards and 
Staves, as well as Hay, were all partly under state con- 
trol. Having before taken the tobacco warehouses from 
the government of the county, these measures render 
the quality of the products of the state, though used or 
shipped from this city, wholly exempt from the regula- 
tion or control of the city authorities. The remaining 
articles of Beef, Pork, Potash, Flaxseed, &c. in the qua- 
lity of which the Legislature take no interest, because 
prepared or brought here from other States chiefly, are 
the only objects left to city management. The inco 
herence of these measures, point directly to the right of 
Congress to regulate commerce, and the establishment 
of particular weights, &c. and the revenue drawn by the 
State or City, through licences to inspectors of merchan- 
dise, or otherwise effecting produce, appears to be 
unconstitutional. 

Acts are also passed to give a preference to deeds ac- 
cording to time of record, securing the rights of mort- 



256 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1825 

gagees; to licence limited partnerships, and to determine 
the liability of agents and factors. 

Among other acts more especially interesting to the 
city, are those incorporating the Academy of Sciences, 
R. Gilmor, Esq. President; the Maryland Institute of 
Arts, W. Stewart, Esq. President; the Pennsylvania, 
Delaware and Maryland Steam Navigation Company; 
the Fireman's Insurance Connpany; the Lafayette Be- 
neficial Society; the Patapsco Fire Engine Company; 
the ^tna Company for the manufacture of iron, and 
the Seamen's Union Bethel Society; which last obtains 
a lot and erects a small place of worship on Philpot 
street. Fell's Point, of w^hich they elect the Reverend 
Stephen Williams Chaplain- 

Although the commencement of the Sessions of 
the General Assembly was transferred from the first to 
the fourth Monday of December, in each year, and this 
change took effect at this session, it is intended that the 
Acts of the Session, though passed in the ensuing year, 
shall be considered as Acts of the year in which the Ses- 
sion began generally, as for the ofiicial year and as 
heretofore done in this work- 
Mrs. Iturbide, widow of the late Emperor of Mexico, 
arrives and takes lodgings in this city, and Commodore 
Porter, who had fitted out here the armament against 
the West India pirates, and succeeded in arresting their 
career, being suspended by Court Martial on a charge of 
exceeding his orders, resigned his commission and en- 
tered into the Naval service of the Mexican States, de- 
clared a confederate Republic. 



1825] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 257 

On the 15th of January, General Robert G. Harper 
died suddenly at his town residence, after a very dis- 
tinguished and useful life, and was interred at Oakland, 
his seat in the county with civic and military honors. 
General Strieker declines, and General W. M'Donald 
of the 3d. brigade, is appointed Major General of the 
3d. Division, in place of general Harper; and colonel 
G. H. Stewart succeeds general M'Donald in command 
of the 3d. Brigade. 

Some of the uniformed volunteer militia of the city, 
consisting of a regiment of infantry, riflemen, cavalry 
and artillery each, are formed into a brigade by law, 
and colonel Geo. H. Steuart is appointed their General. 

The summer was long, dry and warm; the ther- 
mometer being frequently as high as 94, but the city 
was not unhealthy. 

Christopher Hughes, Esq. is appointed charge to the 
kingdom of the Netherlands. W. H. Allen is appoint- 
ed land commissioner, and Wm. Pinkney, Esq. collect- 
or at Key West, in Florida. 

Christian Mayer, Esq. is appointed Consul General 
from Wirtemburg, and Ch. Tiernan, Esq. Yice Consul 
for Mexico; Colonel Wm. Steuart of this city, is cho- 
sen a member of the executive council of the State, and 
so continued during three years successively. 

B- C. Howard and J. S. Tyson, Esqs. are elected to 
the General Assembly of Maryland. 

General John Strieker died of a protracted illness, 
much esteemed and regretted, on the 23d day of June, 
and was interred with civic and military honors. 
33 



258 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1826 

For some time the public continued to be entertained 
by different projects for canalling from the Susquehanna 
to the City; but before the proposed companies could 
be formed, accounts were received of the success of the 
Rail Roads in England, and of two small ones made at 
Quincy and Mauch Chunk, giving a new turn to the 
spirit of improvement here entirely in favor of the lat- 
ter mode of transportation- 
It was on the 12th of February following that a num- 
ber of citizens assembled to hear accounts of those 
roads, and agreed to undertake one- 

Accordingly, at the ensuing session of the Legisla- 
ture, a charter was granted to the Baltimore and Ohio 
Rail Road Company, appointing Messrs. Isaac M'Kim, 
Thomas Ellicott, Joseph Patterson, John M'Kim Jr. 
William Steuart, Talbot Jones, R- L. Colt, Geo. Brown 
and Evan Thomas to receive subscriptions for a capital 
Stock of three millions, in shares of 100 dollars each, 
reserving 10,000 shares for the State and 5,000 for the 
corporation of the City. Different from Turnpike Road 
Companies, this has the exclusive right to travel or car- 
ry' on the road; but the price of carriage is limited at 
rates much below the former cost of transportation, 
that is, to four cents per ton eastward and six cents per 
ton westward, per mile; and three cents per mile for 
persons, including carriage and tolls in all cases* 

There were also chartered at the same Session, a 
company to carry on Mining in Mexico, by the name of 
Temascaltepec; and one the next year by the name of 
Tlalcotal, and another the year after, called the Ceral- 
vo Mining Company; each with 300,000 dollars joint 



1826] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 259 

Stock. These hazardous speculations abroad originat- 
ed with the English, and were followed here from the 
want of objects of investment at home, partially sus- 
pended- 
There originated at this time a plan of forming a 
Bank to discount from deposits, which is called the 
Maryland Savings' Institution, and a charter is granted 
for 18 years, prohibiting however, any infringement of 
rights vested in other Banks. 

It was found to succeed as a Joint Stock Company, 
without issues of notes, and an attempt was made to 
establish another, which was successfully opposed by 
the old Banking Institutions. It was discovered, per- 
haps, that individuals with little or no cash, had become 
masters of the currency and public credit through the 
capitals of others, and that the State had been in the prac- 
tice of conveying away, without valuable considera- 
tions, a source of patronage and profit which none but 
the Sovereign should possess. It was accordingly pro- 
posed three years after, to establish a State Bank by 
the capital it possessed in the Banks incorporated, 
and other public institutions; in the Funded Debt 
of the United States and in the general revenue, the 
profits of which should come into the State Treasury 
and supercede the ordinary taxes. And in respect to 
Charters granted, it was proposed to purchase the Stock 
of some one or more of the existing Banks for the 
State. 

Acts are also passed to charter the Maryland Chemi- 
cal Works; The Vulcan Furnace Company, and the 
Independent and Vigilant Fire Engine Companies- 



260 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1826 

The administrations of the civil authorities of the 
City and County are further divided, and half of the 
charges for repairs of the joint property in the Court 
House and Jail to be provided for by each, that of the 
Alms House being so already; the Levy Court and the 
Commissioners of the tax for the city and for the county 
being abolished; three commissioners to be elected an- 
nually, to manage the affairs of the county, exclu- 
sively. Those first elected are George Harryman, Hen- 
ry Snowden, and John T. H. Worthington, Esqs. 

The writer had while county Collector, represented 
the expenses of the Commissioners of tax a useless bur- 
den; but the policy of limiting the number of Adminis- 
trators so much, when it appears that from some influ- 
ence or another, many candidates present themselves, 
may be considered doubtful if not pernicious. 

The fees of officers of Courts had been subject to 
taxation by some late acts, which are repealed at this 
Session, and a general scale of fees established in dol- 
lars and cents, instead of tobacco, including those for 
the City Court. To the several judges of this Court, 
individually, power is given to try all causes where no 
jury is required; and it seems now, that to create more 
independence in the judges and stability to this import- 
ant police Court, it is only necessary to put it on the 
constitutional footing of other Courts in the State. 

The Judges of this Court and of all the County 
courts, are directed by an act of this session and sup- 
plements, to hear complaints against Lunatics; and, on 
the finding of a jury, send them to a Hospital, or to the 
Alms House, if paupers. Sic even commit them as oth- 



1826] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 261 

er offenders, if no bail is given. These, with the pow- 
ers of the Chancellor, may protect society as well as 
the property of the lunatics, for their interests generally, 
but does not go to protect their persons or their pro- 
perty, as the dictates of humanity or the reputation of 
our Jurisprudence would seem to require. Where the lu- 
natic dies under suspicious circumstances, there are 
Coroner's juries, which may indeed bring punishment 
as a terror to other offenders in cruelty, but, for the 
helpless living object, there is no protecting Law. For 
the want of some authorized registry of births and 
deaths, many live and die amongst Americans unknown 
to society generally, or to the Laws of the Country. 

The city authorities provide for the building of a 
dredging machine by steam power for cleaning the har- 
bor, and it is used successfully soon after. 

Of 1,143,544 tons shipping of the United States, it v^ 
appears that 84,905 belong to Baltimore, and upon the 
application of the Assembly, a survey of the harbor is 
made by the general Government, with a view to the 
establishment of a Navy Yard; so far the result has 
been unfavorable, the United States possessing no oth- 
er property here than a Custom House, which cost 
^70,000; hiring a Post Office, Warehouses, Hospitals, 
&.C. But about §85,000 have been received from the gen- 
eral Government since 1816, on account of principal 
and interest on the City's advances during the last war. 

On the 20th of July a procession was fornied, and 
an oration delivered by General S. Smith, attended by 
the public authorities, near the Washington Monu- 
ment, in honor of the memories of John Adams and 



262 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1826 

Thomas Jefferson, who died at their respective homes 
on the fourth, at very advanced ages and much respect- 
ed in their private as well as in their public lives. 

The Legislature re-elect General Smith a member of 
the Senate of the United States this session. There 
was no change in the Delegation to Congress, but the 
time of election was protracted thereafter, so that this 
election now takes place immediately before the meet- 
ing of Congress, and not the year before the members 
elect take their seats, as it did, unless when assembled 
before the annual elections, when the Governor is to 
order an election. 

U. S. Heath and R. Johnston, Esqs. are elected 
members of the 11th Senate of the State, but on the 
resignation of the latter two years after, General J. S. 
Smith is chosen to fill the vacancy in that body. 

Colonel Jacob Small is elected Mayor, John Strieker, 
Esq. is chosen a member of the House of Delegates, in 
the place of B. C. Howard, Esq. W. G. D. Worthing- 
ton Esq. is appointed a commissioner of insolvents, in 
the place of R. W. Allen, Esq. resigned; in 18S0, 
M'Clintock Young and Richard Frisby, Esqs. are ap- 
pointed in the place of Messrs. Eighelberger & Schriver. 

On the 10th of July died at New York, Luther Mar- 
Esq. in the 83d year of his age. The deceased had 
been a member of the National Convention, where he 
opposed the constitution in 1789, and a long time be- 
fore and after had been the talented Attorney General 
of this State. 

At his seat near this city, on the 26th of September, 
Captain R. T. Spence, of the United States Navy; and 



1826] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 26S 

on the 30th, an order was received from the Navy De- 
partment to celebrate the memory of a commander who 
was as distinguished by his literary acquirements and 
the virtues of private life, as in the duties of his pro- 
fession. And in this city, from a fall in a warehouse, 
Colonel Paul Bentalou, Marshall of the district, in 
which place he was succeeded by Thomas Finley Esq. 

Whole number of deaths reported here in the year 
1826, was 1922, of whom 889 were under 10 years, 
and 111 above 70 years of age including 429 free col- 
ored, and 97 slaves ; greatest number 277 in July; least 
115 in November; 306 of Consumption, 224 Fevers and 
2 1 of Intemperance. 

State Conventions are held here by the Advocates 
and by the Opponents of the administration of the gen- 
eral government. 

William Patterson, Esq. gives a lot of his ground, 
part of Fell's Prospect, on the elevation east of the im- 
proved parts of the City, for a public square and the re- 
creation of the citizens, which the Mayor and City Coun- 
cil occupy, and soon after inclosed and otherwise 
improved, according to the liberal intentions of the 
donor. 

On the opening of the subscription here in March, 
there was more stock taken for the Baltimore and Ohio 
Rail Road than required, and the commissioners partly, 
with Mesrs. Carroll, Oliver and others elected directors, 
who chose Mr. Philip E. Thomas their president the 
following month. 



264 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [|827 

According to a report of the managers of the Savings' 
Bank for the year, there were deposits of ^80 000 

Of which were redrawn 44 000 

And there remained invested 36 000 

Besides the dividends paid semi-annually there were 
declared of surplussages, now paid, 2 per cent on one 
year's, 4 per cent on two year's, and 6 per cent on 
three year's deposits. 

A number of elections occurring on the first Monday 
of October, rendered a division necessary, and those for 
the officers of the City are directed to be held on the 
third Monday of the same month for the future. The 
district for electing Electors of President and Vice Presi- 
dent having been so arranged at last session, that the 
City with Annapolis and Anne Arundel county, called 
the 4th district, elect jointly two Electors. At the same 
Session Acts were passed for extending Ensor and 
Monument streets, and now other acts for opening Lom- 
bard street, and for closing Ruxton Lane and French or 
Euhlers Alley, all of which are carried into effect, ex- 
cept the provision relating to the Lane and Alley. 

Subscriptions being raised to aid in the erection of a 
building for a Free School, upon the principles contemp- 
lated by the will of the late John Oliver, Esq. a lot is 
procured on North street by the Hibernian Society, 
and a spacious school House erected, finished and occu- 
pied accordingly. 

In April and May the Ladies of the City got up a 
Fair and an Oratorio in handsome and successful style, 
for the relief of the suffering inhabitants of Greece. 
This method of raising money has since been resorted 



1827] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 265 

to for objects of charity nearer home, and mostly, with 
that successful effect which was to be looked for, where 
so much beauty as our city may justly boast, cannot 
be displayed in public walks and promenades by the 
gay and fashionable, as in older societies and places. 

On the 1 5th of October, President Adams returning 
from the eastward is invited by his friends and accepts 
a dinner at Barnum's Hotel, after a visit to the battle 
ground of the 12th of September. The President ad- 
dressed the company in a speech of much erudition 
and energy, referring to the galantry of the Monument- 
al City, and in the evening was waited on by the Rev. 
Mr. Eccleston, Vice President of St. Mary's College 
with the Students, to whom the President made another 
address, referring the Preceptor to the fact of having 
occupied a similar station himself, and the youth to the 
examples of patriotism furnished by the histories of 
Greece and Rome. 

The Rev. James Brackenridge sometime the associate 
of the Rev. John Glendy, becomes pastor of the second 
Presbyterian Church, and the Rev. F. W. P. Green- 
wood successor of Mr. Sparks, pastor of the Independ- 
ent Church is succeeded by the Rev. G. W. Burnap. 

Dr. Nathaniel R. Smith is appointed to the chair of 
Surgery in the Medical department of the University in 
the place of Professor Pattison who resigned, and on the 
decease of Professor Davidge the ensuing year, Dr. 
John D. Wells succeeds him in the chair of Anatomy, 
who, after the Lectures of the ensuing season, also 
died, and was succeeded by Dr. Benj. Lincoln. 
34 



266 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [18217 

Donations were made and other aid given to a society 
of colored persons attached to the rites of the Protest- 
ant Episcopal Church, and they having built a house 
of worship in North street, Bishop Kemp licensed the 
Rev. William Levington, colored, to officiate thereat. 

Hugh D. Evans, Esq. published an essay on Plead- 
ing, and J. y. L. M'Mahon, Esq. announces his inten- 
tion to publish an Historical View of the Government 
of Maryland. 

At the Session of Assembly of 1827 an act is passed 
similar to the one incorporating the Ohio Rail Road 
Company to incorporate a Company to make a Rail 
Road to the Susquehanna River, as far as the same can 
be authorized by this State, and Messrs. C. Ridgely of 
Hampton, Geo- Winchester, Thomas Wilson, James 
L. Hawkins, R. L. Colt, S. C. Leakin, Jacob I. Cohen, 
Justice Hoppe, J. B. Stansbury, H. W. Evans, Wm. 
Frick, R. Purviance and James Smith were authori- 
zed to receive subscriptions of Stock to the amount of 
14,000 shares of $50 each, two thousand shares each 
reserved for the States of Pennsylvania, Maryland and 
the City of Baltimore, the whole to make a capital of 
^1,000,000. 

At the same Session the Washington and Baltimore 
Turnpike Road Company was authorized to open sub- 
scriptions and make a Rail Road to the District of Co. 
lumbia, but it was not effected, and the Ohio Rail Road 
Company authorized afterwards to make a branch road 
in that direction ; also, to a Company to make a Rail 
Road from Frenchtown towards Newcastle. 

Among other Acts passed relating to the City, are 



1827] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 267 

those for the erection of solitary cells in a new wing 
of the Penitentiary; for the appointment by the Visitors 
of a Warden of the Jail, superceding the authority of 
the Sheriff there, as proposed by the writer hereof ten 
years before; and of the Auctioneers by the Gover- 
nor and Council with a tax of one per cent on sales 
in thecity,frora which ^20,000 are to be applied annual- 
ly if so much is raised, to deepening the harbor. There 
were at the same period, great exertions made by peti- 
tions to Congress, from this City and other ports, to 
restrict the Business of Auctioneers, as injurious to 
trade and manufactures generally,but without success. 

The Legislature appropriate 3,500 dollars per an- 
num towards educating twenty Deaf and Dumb children 
of the City and Counties, and pass Acts of incorpora- 
tion for the Female Penitents' Refuge Society; the 
Young Men's Bible Society; the Maryland Company 
for Insurance on Lives, 8ic. Neptune Insurance Com- 
pany; Mechanical Fire Company, organized before the 
Revolution, and the Lanvale Manufacturing Company, 
which last establishment, situated on Jones' Falls and 
near the City, had been commenced without a charter 
some years before, by other proprietors. 

R. H. Douglass, Esq. is appointed Consul from Saxo- 
ny; Richard W- Gill, Esq. Vice Consul from Colum- 
bia, and Stephen Lawson, Esq. Vice Consul from 
Sweeden; General George H. Stewart and John V. L. 
M'Mahon, Esqs. are elected Delegates to the Assem- 
bly, and William Ball, Esq. Sheriff. 

Colonel Jacob Hindman, of the United States' Army, 
^ied here on the 1 7th of March, and his death was no- 



268 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1827 

ticed in special orders from the Commander in Chief, 
as became the distinguished merit of the deceased, 
Soldier and Gentleman. 

On the 12th of October, Colonel John E. Howard, 
who had been Senator in Congress and Governor, de- 
parted this life at the age of 15 years and was interred 
on the 14th with civic and military honors; leaving five 
children and a child each of two deceased, to divide his 
property in this City, and every citizen a share in the 
glory he acquired in the Senate and in the Field, the 
titles to which have been partly recorded in these 
Annals. 

And on the 26th of the same month the Right Rev. 
Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church, James 
Kemp, D. D- returning from a Convention held in 
Philadelphia, was overturned with a stage coach and 
received injuries of which he died two days after, aged 
62 years, much regretted by his pastoral flock, and 
highly respected by all who knew him for his private 
charities, assiduous piety and public usefulness. The 
Bishop was at the time of his decease. Provost of the 
University and President of the Bible Society of Mary- 
land, and a zealous officer or member of all the general 
Benevolent Societies of the City. After which melan- 
choly event Roger B. Taney, Esq. who had moved 
from Frederick to Baltimore some time before, was 
elected Provost; and sometime after, the Bishop was 
succeeded in the Diocesan Office by the Right Rev. 
William Stone, of Kent County. 

In the meantime, the Rev. Dr. Wyatt becomes Rector 
of St. Paul's, and the Rev- John Johns is chosen Rector 



1827] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 269 

of Christ Church, for which a separate Vestry is crea 
ted by law the next year. 

The winter of 1827-8 threatened to be severe, but 
although there was much frost and some snow in No- 
vember, the weather proved afterwards quite mild for 
the season. Shipping continued to enter and depart 
without intermission, and there was so little ice made 
in the neighbourhood of the City that many of the 
citizens who are provided with ice houses and lay in 
quantities of that useful article in our climate, either 
for their own consumption or for sale, were disappointed 
in getting a supply. Before the summer was half over 
a trade in ice from the Northern States took place for 
the first time, and several cargoes were brought here 
and sold for about a dollar per bushel. 

The Courts of Justice had been resorted to by the 
Clergymen and the Congregations of the First Baptists 
and the Associate Reformed Church, and partial separa- 
tions of the members ensued soon after. The latter 
separatists erect a Church on Courtland street, but those 
of the Baptist Society hire places of Worship from 
time to time. 

There was a division among the German Lutherans 
which resulted in the establishment of a Congregation 
whose services are in the English Language and they 
erect a Church on Lexington street, of which the 
Rev. J. G. Morris is chosen minister. 

In the meantime the Rev, Johannes Ulhorn is asso- 
ciated in the German Services of the Old Church with 
the Rev. Mr. Kurtz. 



270 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [IS28 

Another division took place amongst the Methodists 
on account of the Government of Travelling Preach- 
ers established by Mr. Wesley, and a considerable num- 
ber of the Society both of the Clergy and the Laity, 
adopt a more general form, and purchase the Church 
of St. John in Liberty Street, whose Minister had re- 
moved to the Western Country and his hearers returned 
to St. Peter's generally ; and also the Church of the Cove- 
nanters in which the Rev. John Gibson had oflEiciated, 
in Pitt street, and this Society erect another in Holli- 
day street. And there now happened also a division 
among the Society of Friends or Quakers, on account 
of doctrines introduced as it was said, by Mr- Elias 
Hicks, an old and talented Speaker of their Society on 
Long Island, and the Opponents erect a place of wor- 
ship on Saratoga street. 

On the opening of Subscriptions in March for the 
Baltimore and Susquehanna Rail Road, much more 
than the requisite number of shares were taken in the 
City besides a few Shares at York, although the Legis- 
lature of Pennsylvania had refused to aid or counte- 
nance the undertaking by a continuance of the contemp- 
lated Road within that State. George Winchester, Esq. 
was chosen President of the Board of Directors, who 
forthwith commenced the necessary surveys as far as 
the line of Maryland. 

Having with the assistance of a Board of Engineers 
furnished by the General Government, located the in- 
tended track of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road be- 
yond the Falls of the Patapsco River the work is com- 



1828] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 271 

menced on the fourth of July, by a grand Procession 
of Tradesmen, Manufacturers, Farmers and Merchants 
with their Standards and Implements, and the laying of 
the first stone at the South-west limits of the City 
bounds. This was performed by Charles Carroll of 
Carrollton, Esq. the only surviving signer of the Dec- 
laration of Independence then near ninety-three years of 
age, to whom Congress had just granted the privilege 
of our ex-Presidents of Franking Letters, and who the 
Colonization Society had made its President on the de- 
cease of Judge Washington. 

It was on the same 4th of July the rival enterprize 
of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, in which this State 
and City are both greatly interested, was commenced 
with similar ceremonies. President Adams himself first 
breaking ground. At the Session just terminated Con- 
gress had also renewed to this city the two cents per 
ton duty on vessels entering here, for another ten years. 

Lawsuits between the City and Messrs. Cumberland 
Dugan and Isaac M'Kim had been long pending; the 
first claiming the Wharfage at his property on the 
West side of Centre Market Dock, and the latter as his 
property on the East side of Gay street Dock. More 
recently the owners of Wharf property sue the City for 
Damages to a considerable amount for the obstruction 
of the Navigation on the Eastern part of the Point, by a 
diversion of the washings from the City Dock towards 
their property, none of which suits are yet finally 
decided. 

Benjamin I. Cohen and W. F. Small Esqs. erect 
those two handsome houses at the South-west corner of 



272 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1828 

Charles and Saratoga streets of which the latter was 
Architect. 

Mr. Evan Poultney opens a Banking House in Bal- 
timore street in June, on the principle of the private 
Banks in Europe, discounting and paying interest on 
deposits on his own account, and meets with that suc- 
cess which was to be expected by a person who does 
not become a rival, but lends his own funds and those 
which are voluntarily entrusted to him to the first good 
customer, without other preference or responsibility. 

Messrs. Richard Caton, Charles C- Harper, Evan 
Poultney and others, having estates in the neighborhood 
of the City, form a Society and procure charter privi- 
leges to promote the culture of the Vine which they and 
others had cultivated partially, but successfully, as ex- 
periments. 

A Company is formed and a charter obtained by 
Messrs. Luke Tiernan, R. H. Osgood, Joshua Mezick 
and others, to make a Screw Dock for repairing Ships' 
bottoms, which had been resorted to in other places in 
lieu of careening and the same being erected at Mr. 
Ramsay's Wharf, Thames street. Fell's Point, was 
soon after successfully proved by the raising of a 
vessel of 260 tons. 

Messrs- Francis Price and Eli Moore of New York, 
for themselves; Messrs. Lee, Cooper and others of that 
city, purchase the lands east and west of Harris' Creek, 
with the water rights on the north side of the north 
branch of the Patapsco, from the neighborhood of the 
Point to the Lazaretto, for which they with Messrs. W. 
Patterson, Columbus O'Donnel, Ebenezer L. Finley, 



1828] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 273 

W.Gwynn and others obtain charter rights by the name 
of the Canton Company, of which Mr. Gwynn is cho- 
sen President. The enterprize was intended to make 
an addition to the city, though called Canton, being the 
name of the principal tract, and the company proceed 
to clear the woods, lay out streets, squares and lots cor- 
responding with the plan adopted by the Corporation of 
the City. 

By an Act entitled an Act for the despatch of busi- 
ness in Baltimore County Court, passed at the Session 
of this year, there were to be Terms every month except 
two for Harford county in the months of March and 
August, those of April and November to be county 
Terms exclusively, with separate Juries for City and 
County. The powers of each Judge and their compen- 
sation are extended and the fees of jurymen and wit- 
neases reduced, and separately and appropriately charg- 
ed to the city or county according to the business sever- 
ally. The addition of ^800 a year to our Judges was 
contingent on the receipt of certain fees, and if other- 
wise no way proportionate to the salaries of the other 
Judges of the State Courts, where the attendance re- 
quired is not so great by one half at least, nor is it 
afforded. But it vv^as soon found that the Legislature 
had imposed too great tasks on the Judges and that it 
would be necessary to reduce the Terms to four, which 
took place soon after. 

At the ensuing Session the Courts of each County 
are authorized to appoint Commissioners to take depo- 
35 



274 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [\S2S 

sitions for the parties intending to apply for divorces, to 
be returned by the clerks to the Legislature. 

Among other Laws in which our citizens are inter- 
ested are those chaitering the American Insurance Com- 
pany, the Maryland and Virginia and the Baltimore 
and Potomac Companies; the Baltimore Pittston or 
Coal Company; the Elysville Manufacturing Company; 
the Baltimore Flint Glass Company; the Maryland 
Mining and Maryland Iron Companies; and the Phoenix 
Shot Tower Company, who erect their Tower on the 
North-east corner of Front and Piit streets, built by 
Mr. J. Wolf, circular, and 2Si feet high. It may be 
remarked that the Legislature began to doubt the pro- 
priety of permanent charters, and frequently reserved a 
right in the State to regulate and even to tax those 
Companies during their charters in several instances. 
On some recent occasious too, the long exploded me- 
thod of perpetuating trusts of a public character, by 
power to survivors to fill vacancies is revived, and the 
number of such Trustees more limited than they have 
been latterly, all which may be justly considered im- 
provements in our Legislation. 

A proposition was made in the Assembly to make 
the Assessment of property throughout the State ac- 
cording to the real or current value thereof, as was sug- 
gested by the writer when county Collector, but the 
plan failed; on the other hand more rigid penalties were 
provided against Bull baiting, Cock' fighting and other 
acts of cruelty towards the brute creation, still perhaps 
deficient in practical effect. 

The decent by tlie lliver and water carriage by the 



1828] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 215 

Bay, of Flour, Whiskey, Timber and other products of 
Pennsylvania, have greatly increased and will probably 
continue to increase, with the improvement of the coun- 
try on the Susquehanna. 

Mr. John M'Kim erects a Chemical Factory on the 
South side of the Harbor, and Mr.G- W. Waite, a Manu- 
facture of Chocolate, Mustard, Ginger, Castor Oil, &c. 
on the City Block, so that by them and others, many 
kinds of Medicinal Drugs and Faints are furnished be- 
yond the home demand 

Mr. Isaac M'Kim erects a Foundry for casting and 
rolling Copper by the Steam power prepared for his 
Flour Mill on Gay street Wharf. 

The Ship Building and dependent branches have 
much revived, and several Vessels of burthen and beau- 
ty are prepared for Baltimore merchants, sustaining a 
credit those tradesmen have long enjoyed. It may now 
be added, that new establishments for other vehicles of 
transport, such as Steam Boats and Stage Coaches, 
furnish specimens of workmanship and taste which fairly 
rival the other. 

Charles Walsh Esq. is appointed Secretary of the 
United States" Legation to Spain, and Henry Wilson, 
Esq. Marshal in Florida. 

At the election of Electors for President and Vice 
President in November, there was an aggregate Poll of 
9077 Votes in this City, and an aggregate majority in 
favor of Benjamin C. Howard and I. Sellman, Esqs. 
of 468, which was reduced by the Votes of Anne-Arun- 
del and Annapolis, the rest of the district, to 315 Votes, 
favorable to General Jackson, who was elected. 



276 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1828 

Jacob Small, Esq. Mayor, and General George H. 
Stewart and T. V. L. M'Mahon, Esq. Delegates, are 
all re-elected; and George FI. Richardson, Esq. who 
had recently established himself in this City, is chosen 
a Member of the Executive Council of the State. 

Died on the 29th of January, in the 60th year of 
his age, the Most Reverend Ambrose Marechal, Arch- 
bishop of Baltimore, to whom the Roman Catholic So- 
ciety are indebted for many of the decorations of the 
Cathedral Church, which he consecrated. He was 
the uniform patron of all the Benevolent Institutions 
belonging to his Society, and greatly esteemed by the 
citizens at large for his pious zeal and amenity of man- 
ners. The Archbishop was succeeded soon after by 
the Most Reverend James Whitfield, who had assisted 
several years in the administration of religious duties 
in the Cathedral. 

On the 1 7th of July departed this life aged 63 years, 
John Montgomery, Esq. late Mayor of this City and 
one of the Delegates to the Assembly. The deceased 
had formerly represented the 6th District of this State 
in Congress and as an Officer of the Baltimore Artil- 
lery, distinguished himself by his gallantry at North 
Point. 

According to a report made by the Sunday School 
Union, there are in the City 66 Schools for Children 
and Adults of different sexes and colors, separately held; 
and at the annual Procession of the Children this year, 
the number was estimated at 4300, and not all attend- 
ing. This is an undertaking exempt from objections 



1829] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 277 

which may be raised against Free Schools generally, in 
a Country where it is advisable to cultivate sentiments 
of self-respect and independence in those who are Citi- 
zens, and an inclination to honest labor in those who 
may become Citizens, without a property qualification. 

However commendable such gratuitous teaching 
might be, it is a relief to improvident people, while no- 
thing is done for the succour of those who have been 
carefully educated by prudent parents, but have been 
reduced in circumstances by accident or misfortune, and 
often miserable, when they are too old to begin the 
world again and provide for themselves. 

On the 9th of August, being the Centenary Anni- 
versary of the passage of the Law for laying out the 
Town of Baltimore, the first stone was laid by Col. 
William Steuart, Deputy Grand Master of the Grand 
Lodge, with appropriate ceremony, at the commence- 
ment of the Baltimore and Susquehanna Rail Road, 
which was on the North-west line of the City bounds; 
contracts being made for carrying the road several 
miles along the valley of Jones' Falls, in that direction. 

President Jackson was invited to name the day and 
assist the Managers in the ceremony of opening the 
Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, but he politely de- 
clined and tendered the Company his best wishes- This 
ceremony took place in presence of a great many Stock- 
holders and others on the 17th of October, and the 
Canal became a common route for passengers and mer- 
chandize between the two Bays, affecting in some mea- 
sure the supplies of this City, but increasing the transpor- 
tation and Commission Business to an equal value per- 



278 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1829 

haps;andcertainl} conducing to the comwion defence of 
the Union, if not to the immediate profit of those who 
had contributed to its immense cost. 

On the 14th of December, thirty-seven persons are 
drawn by one horse, in a Car with four friction wheels 
planned by Mr. lloss Winans, of New Jersey, on the 
Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road, at the rate of about ten 
miles per hour, or as fast as the horse could trot or gal- 
lop; which was done in the presence and to the aston- 
ishment of a multitude of spectators, who, not having 
witnessed such an exhibition, could scarcely realize the 
effect. One track of Bar-Iron Rails, imported duty 
free, fastened on pine scantling and supported by cross 
sills of locust and cedar, had been completed from a 
Depot on the West end of Pratt street to Gwinn's Falls, 
after very extensive excavations and fillings on the 
route. There a Bridge 26^ feet wide and 330 feet long, 
the span of the Arch being 80 feet 4 inches, and the 
height 82 feet from the foundation to the top of the 
Parapet, was built by Mr- Lloyd, of granite, faced 
and jointed, and called the Carrollton Viaduct; forming 
one of the best and finest structures among the many 
which ornament our City and Environs- Another track 
partly on sills of Freestone, and niore extended Viaduct 
over Patapsco River from the East to the West mar- 
gin, which are used several miles, are made soon after. 
Thus has the Company's wealth been appropriated to 
present uses, as well as to serve and gratify posterity, 
inasmuch as the workmanship is both durable and hand- 
some; and it is confidently believed the cheap and rapid 



1829] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 279 

conveyance by the road, will render the extremities 
within a reduced and trifling distance, as it were 

On appropriating to State purposes the proceeds of 
licensed Lotteries generally, the Legislature granted 
certain portions amounting, with the profits of former 
Lotteries to g 1 78,000, for the completion of the Wash- 
ington Monument in this City; enacting that the struc- 
ture should be considered the property of the State, and 
that it should have an inscription expressive of the 
gratitude of Maryland to the Hero and Statesman whose 
honor and memory the monument was intended to per- 
petuate. This enabled the Managers to proceed with 
the Artists, and on the 28th of November was raised 
the Pedestrian Statue of the man who was declared to 
be "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of 
his Countrymen." It was cut out of fine white marble 
from the Quarries on the York Road, presented by 
Mrs. F. T. D. Taylor, the owner, and placed on the 
top of the Column in the presence of admiring thou- 
sands of both sexes, from town and Country. The 
Statue is 16 feet high and was wrought in three sepa- 
rate pieces from one block of 36 tons, by Henrico Cau- 
cici, Esq. an Italian Sculptor of merit; each block 
weighing about 5= tons when worked, and elevated suc- 
cessively by means of a pair of Shears attached to the 
Cap of the Column, by Pulleys and Capstan, planned 
and directed by Captain James D. Woodside, of Wash- 
ington, without any delay or accident. 

A plain but commodious residence is prepared for 
the Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Church and his 
successors, which with the enclosure occupies the whole 



280 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1829 

front on Charles street of the Cathedral Lot. It is 
built of brick according to designs furnished by Wm. F. 
Small, Esq. and stuccoed. The present Archbishop 
was a principal contributor to the expense, and has 
caused the surrounding ground to be laid out and plant- 
ed in an appropriate style. 

Wra. Howard , Esq. commences his splendid Mansion 
of Brick painted, at the Corner of Franklin and Charles 
streets, of which he gave himself the plan with that of 
an elegant Portico and Pediment supported by lofty 
Marble Columns, one of which remains an entire piece; 
and Charles Howard, Esq. his handsome and extensive 
dwelling on the North-east corner of Washington Place; 
making with his co-heirs and the sanction of the Legis- 
lature, an arrangement with the Corporation of the City, 
to widen Charles from Centre to Madison street to 150 
feet, and Monument from St. Paul's to Cathedral street, 
to ^00 feet, forming thus two spacious avenues traver- 
sing that Square, and increasing the area around the 
Monument in that proportion. 

Several double rows of Shops had been erected in 
passages opening into Centre Market, but now Mr. Ja- 
cob Daley and Associates complete two-story rows in 
better style, from Harrison street to the Falls, commu- 
nicating with Pitt street on the other side by means of 
a Foot Bridge licensed by the City Authorities; to 
which improvement the proprietors give the name of 
Bazaar. Although it is desirable to have places of 
general and safe resort for business or pleasure, and 
gratifying to find such enterprize and taste rewarded 
by success, where they tend to restrict the open 



1827] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 281 

ground and air at the risk of the general health, or in- 
jurious to the value of property as costly elsewhere, 
the multiplication of such establishments will be dis- 
couraged rather than promoted. 

The house which Mr. Peale had erected for his 
Exhibition of Natural History and the Fine Arts, is 
sold to the Mayor and City Council for their future ac- 
commodation, and from a Museum becomes a City 
Hall; the former establishment being transferred to the 
extensive brick building on the North-west corner of 
Calvert and Baltimore streets. 

The Farmers and Merchants' Banking Company 
erect a Banking House on Calvert street, between the 
above mentioned building and Barnum's Hotel ; and the 
Savings Institution erect a Banking House at the South- 
east corner of North and Fayette streets. 

It was proposed in the City Council and Philip Law- 
renson, Esq. on behalf of a Committee, recommended 
the introduction of Fresh Water for the supply of the 
citizens, by the purchase of the water rights at and be- 
low the Calverton Mills, and canalling a sufficient body 
of Gwinn's Falls to the elevated grounds on the West 
of the City improvements, at the expense of the Cor- 
poration, in preference to the purchase of the Water 
Works and Beservoirs of the Water Company which 
were tendered at cost. This would be as likely to aug- 
ment and perpetuate the draining of the useful and or- 
namental water course of the latter Falls, as the 
project of diverting that stream from its natural bed 
through the centre of the present improvements, an 
36 



2S2 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1829 

advantage which no other of our Sea-ports enjoys, into 
a course which those improvements may reach hereaf- 
ter, as proposed after the Freshet of 1817; but neither 
was agreed to: Nor was another proposition suggested 
by the writer and applied for by many Petitioners, as 
well to improve the Police of our overgrown Market as 
to accommodate the families and tenants in the neigh- 
borhood, to erect a new Market House on or adjacent 
to the property of the Water Company and for which 
that Company offered gratis, a valuable piece of 
ground on Franklin street from Calvert to Holliday 
street. The cost of filling estimated at ^^iOOO was the 
avowed obstacle to the acceptance ; so when he had as- 
certained that a Topographical plan of the County and 
its improvenients much desired, could be furnished for 
about a similar sum, this also produced a failure. At 
no distant day perhaps, these and all such endeavors to 
improve the Government of the City, or promote the 
health of its Inhabitants may be crowned with success; 
in the meantime these Annals record so many measures 
effected eventually which were barely talked of sometime 
before, that the most obscure individual seeking either 
the public good or his own gratification, must find in 
the result ample encouragement to persevere. 

Societies are formed similar to those in the Northern 
and Eastern States, to receive and instruct Children at 
early ages, and others to discourage the excessive use 
of ardent spirits, by total abstinence on the part of the 
members from all such drinks; and another to establish 
a house of Refuge for juvenile delinquents; which last 



i 



1829] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 283 

receives the patronage of the Legislature by a contin- 
gent appropriation of a large sum of money. 

Among the Laws of the last Session interesting to 
us, were those for the inspection of Fire- wood in Wood 
Yards, and the formation of a new Rifle Regitnent. 

Charters are granted for a Congregation of Jews; the 
Theatre and Circus erected on Front street by Messrs. 
Wildey, Gross and others; the Baltimore and Rappa- 
hannock Steam Packet Company; the Sugar Refining 
Company and the Howard Fire Company, increasing 
the number of Hose and Fire Companies in the City 
to fourteen. 

Plans are adopted by the Council of the City for ex- 
tending- or widening Bowly's and South street Wharves, 
which was to increase the Landing at the expense of 
the Navigation, the proprietors accommodated aban- 
doning all claim to Wharfage and paying some part of 
the expense. It would be well to consider at a time 
when the clearing out of the Harbor is so expensive 
and the water in the Falls and the Basin has become 
so stagnant and perhaps unhealthy, if the project of 
walling in and deepening the bed of the Falls and 
opening landings on its banks, as proposed in an Act 
of IST/, and of doing the same with a Canal into the 
Middle Branch, provided for by a Law above forty 
years ago, would not at once relieve and benefit the 
whole City, when carried into effect. 

A convict of the County made his escape from the 
Penitentiary and was, with two strangers lately dischar- 
ged, engaged in some daring but unsuccessful acts of 
Felony and of an attack on the Mail near Philadelphia 



284 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [|829 

where they were tried and one of the latter condemned 
and executed. 

On the night of the 29th of December, the Steam 
Sugar Refinery of D. L. Thomas, Esq. was destroyed 
by Fire, bringing ruin and desolation on a worthy citi- 
zen and family. 

John S. Skinner, Esq. commences the publication of 
"The Turf Register," and soon after transfers "The 
American Farmer" to G. B. Smith, Esq. by whom it 
is continued. 

William Wirt, Esq. late Attorney General of the 
United States, moves to and settles with his family in 
this City where he had often displayed his talents at 
the Bar before. 

Establishments are got up in and near the City for 
making Cotton Canvass and for printing low priced 
Cottons, with some success. Of the first article, how- 
ever, the Jersey Manufacturers, and of the latter, and 
even in plain Cottons of which we manufacture so 
much, the Rhode Island and Massachusetts people 
rival if not surpass us in our own Market. 

It may here be the place to observe in relation to the 
Home Market for our staple of Flour created by the 
number of Manufactures, reducing the Exportation 
of that article, which would appear to be the case 
from a mere comparison of the quantity returned by the 
Public Inspectors with that reported as exported by 
the Custom House, the former being actually about 
double the latter; that such has been the proportion 
thus stated, for many years and certainly long before the 
adoption of a Tariff for the avowed purpose of protec- 



1829] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 285 

tion, or the erection here of extensive Manufactories. If 
there is an increase of consumption among us or of 
Shipments coastwise, in proportion to the increase of 
the article in our Market, it is because there is an 
increase of City population generally and of Shipments 
made as returns by our Northern Navigators, or of 
the cultivation of more Tobacco and Cotton in lieu of 
subsistences by the Southern Planters. The quantity 
of Whiskey entered for exportation at our Custom 
House, bears no proportion to that inspected here an- 
nually; and though it is feared we use our full share 
of the intoxicating liquid, yet it would be as illiberal 
as it would be unjust to charge us with the consump- 
tion of the apparent balance. 

This may also be the place and time to invite the 
attention of the citizens of Baltimore and the State too, 
to the value of the Revenue derived by the Govern- 
ment of the United States from our Custom House. 
It would seem that our advantageous locality for com- 
merce had assisted the State of Maryland to accumulate 
a very respectable Capital from very moderate Imposts. 
And this in the short interval between the recog- 
nition of our Independence with the general peace of 
1783, and the adoption of the Federal Constitution with 
the transfer of this source of revenue to that Govern- 
ment in i 788,which has received from it nearly a million 
of dollars annually ever since; but of which a small 
portion is restored to the State or City by the disburse- 
ments of that Government, perhaps the greatest part of 
that small portion indirectly only, through the expendi- 
tures of the Executive and Congress in that corner of 



286 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1829 

the State ceded to them ; when the whole at the rates 
of duty exacted, might have made the State one of the 
richest in the Confederacy; riches which, liberally or 
impartially distributed by our Legislature, would have 
prevented Baltimore not only from losing the rank it 
once held among its neighbors, but elevated it at least 
as fast and as much as any of them. We have there- 
fore a powerful inducement to strive for an influence in 
the Government of the Union, somewhat proportionate 
not only to the means we contribute, but to the attach- 
ment and fidelity towards it we have sincerely felt and 
constantly manifested. 

Charles Browning, Esq. a sister's son of Frederick 
the last Lord Baltimore, came here and procured suits 
to be instituted in the Court of the United States, 
against some of the largest Proprietors on each shore, 
to recover an alleged interest in arrearages of the Pro- 
prietary's former estate in Maryland, and the State hav- 
ing previously confiscated the Manors reserved, and 
vested the patented lands, including of course the Town 
Lots, in the possessors, free and clear of Q.uit rent or 
any such charge, even to its own use and so far aban- 
doning the right of sovereignty in the people at large 
in favor of the Landholders, took part with them and 
on the petition of the parties sued, furnished council to 
assist in their defence. Upon the cause being carried 
up to the Supreme Court by consent,it was ascertained 
that the claim was barred by a compromise long before 
made between Mr. Browning's parents and the Pro- 
prietary, and so the Couit decided. 

Charles C. Harper, Esq. is appointed Secretary of 



1829] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 287 

the American Legation to France, and follows the new 
Minister Mr. Rives, to Paris. 

Colonel James Mosher is appointed Surveyor of this 
Port in the place of Colonel Lowry; Captain Isaac 
Phillips is appointed Navy Agent in the place of Mr. 
Beatty; Lyde Goodwin, Esq- is appointed one of the 
Appraisers of Imports, and Dabney S. Carr, Esq. is 
appointed Naval OflScer in the place of Major Barney. 

Alfred Bujac, Esq. is appointed Consul from the 
Sicilies; T. I. Bizouard, Esq. succeeds Mr. Cubi, Vice 
Consul from Rome, and Manuel Valdor, Esq. Consul 
from Sardinia becomes Vice Consul from Spain, on 
the removal to Philadelphia of the Chevalier Bernabue, 
appointed Consul General. 

Peter Little and James Harwood, Esqs. are appointed 
Judges of the Orphans' Court by the Executive of this 
State, in the places of Messrs. Randall and Moore ; Mr. 
Little declining, Henry Payson Esq. is appointed to 
the vacancy, but Mr. Randall is restored, and re-enters 
the Court with Mr. Joseph R. Ford early in 1830, in 
the places of Messrs. Harwood and Payson. 

Benjamin C. Howard and Elias Brown, Esqs. are 
elected to Congress for the District composed of the 
City and County, in the places of Messrs. Litttle and 
Barney. 

Jesse Hunt and John Spear Nicholas, Esqs. are 
elected City Delegates to the General Assembly. 

On the 19th of April died Edward Johnson Esq. 
late Mayor of this City and formerly a Judge of the 
County Court, much regretted by his friends and highly 
respected by the public for his amiable deportment and 



288 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1829 

patriotism. And on the 17th of July, aged 69 years, 
Charles Ridgley, of Hampton, Esq. formerly General 
of the 14th Brigade of Maryland Militia, Senator and 
Governor of tlie State; leaving his property except the 
Hampton establishment inherited by the eldest sur- 
viving son, to the younger son, four daughters and the 
children of two others, deceased, and their freedom to 
all his slaves between the ages of twenty-five and forty- 
five. 

Having reached the completion of the hundredth year 
of the Annals of his native place, the Annalist proceeds 
to take leave of the reader by referring him to some ta- 
bles annexed, showing in one view the great and rapid 
growth of Baltimore. To such however as are recent 
settlers and especially to entire strangers, it may be 
necessary to explain a few terms which are peculiar, 
and some matters of greater interest not known to 
others but familiar to us. The streams were called 
Falles or Falls by Governor Smith of Virginia, who 
first explored the Chesapeake Bay, probably because 
the waters fell over rocks or precipices until they met 
the tide, w^here they become and are called Rivers. 
The points of land stretching into the Bay and divide 
them, have been and are still called JVecks. Among 
us the West or upper part of the Harbor is called Ba- 
sin, because it is a pond open on one side only and 
surrounded by hills which preserve much stillness on 
the surface of the water; indeed the ebbing or flowing 
of the tide, which at the entrance of the Bay is about 
five feet, loose their elFects gradually, until here they 
are governed by the wind more than any other percep- 



1829] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 289 

tible cause. FeWs Point on the east of the first Town, 
once ahiiost an island, long separated by an open 
common and still the chief resortof^Seamen, has be- 
come as much a part of the City in which it was 
always included, civilly and politically, as any other 
district. 

Situated in 39 degrees 17 minutes of Northern Lati- 
tude, at about 200 miles by the course of the River and 
Bay, from the sea, somewhat greater distance from the 
Ohio and Lake Erie, about 800 miles from each ex- 
tremity of the Coast of the United States and only 26 
miles from the Capital, our position may be considered 
central. Though the continent is destitute of Volca- 
noes and we have no mountains in the immediate 
vicinity to affect our Atmosphere, we experience as do 
our neighbors , the heat of a parallel Latitude on the 
Continent of Europe and the cold of England, twelve 
degrees further north from the Equator, alternately; the 
changes being also more rapid and violent with us. 
Actual meteorological observations on the Western 
border of the City, recorded by Lewis Brantz, Esq. 
present the general phenomena of our climate in a fa- 
vorable aspect; for instance, in the years 1817 1819, 
inclusive, the first being a year of Locusts and the last 
of Yellow Fevers, there were 2i5 fair days, 206 days 
of wind in the North-west and South-east quarters, the 
opposite quarters being known as the most wet or sultry 
winds; the greatest cold 5 degrees and greatest heat 94, 
the mean temperature, like the spring water, a little 
above 52 degrees of Fahrenheit's Thermometer; tlie 
37 



290 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1829 

range of the Barometer, one inch thirty-nine hundredths, 
and the water fallen 3G and a half inches on au aver- 
age, annually. 

Whatever the extremes may be, the writer is not of the 
number of those who indulge in reports of experienced 
changes in the course of a moderate life; he is of the 
opinion that there neither has been nor will be, from 
cultivation or other common cause, such reduction of 
heat or cold as others fancy there has been, while the 
tropical winds are brought on our Coast with the Gulph 
Stream and the Northern Lakes are covered by ice near 
half the year. Nor does he believe that an exchange 
for the climate of any other habitable part of the Globe 
should be desired, and this for reasons like those 
which follow. 

We have in some measure, the warm summer which 
produces such rapid vegetation in part of Russia sub- 
ject to greater cold, and our Markets present in their 
seasons the hardy Apple and Potatoe and the tender 
Apricot and Cauliflower. The quality of our water 
fowl and fish is excellent, particularly the wild Duck, 
Mackarel and Shell Fish, which last seem to grow in 
quantity with our growth- Long after our Town was 
laid out, the Inhabitants were taxed to raise premiums 
for killing Beasts and Birds of prey, which it was the 
interest of every body to destroy, and with them have 
partially disappeared the Deer, Pheasants or Partridges 
and Quails, but of the latter we have occasionally a 
great abundance even from Baltimore County, as well 
as veal and butter; our venison comes from the upper 
branches of the Potomac, from whence also we receive 



1829] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 291 

the greatest quantity of good Beef and Mutton either 
slaughtered or on the hoof, and though immense droves 
of Hogs are sent here from the borders of the Ohio, we 
esteem the Bacon raised and cured in the neighborhood 
and other side of the Bay equal to the most celebrated 
of France or Germany. Our White Wheat and Yel- 
low Tobacco, both lighter in substance as they are in 
color, command the highest prices. We receive by water 
great quantities of Coal and Fire-wood, of which the use 
is nearly equally divided. All these necessaries and luxu- 
ries are less costly than formerly, for if our agricultural 
improvements have not kept pace with the Town popu- 
lation and consumption our means of communication 
have; and so continuing, with the extent of Country to 
which we have cheap access by the Bay and ^livers 
emptying into it, we should as grateful recipients anti- 
cipate no future deficiency. 

Risen with rapidity as Baltimore has, it was not un- 
til lately that the native Inhabitants out-numbered the 
Foreigners, who are mostly emigrants from Germany 
and Ireland; and whatever difference there was in the 
complexions or figures of the Citizens before, those 
which are now presented more generally among us, 
bear the appearance of Americans, as if all descended 
from a common stock, the prevalence of ruddy faces and 
robust forms has given way to paler tints and lighter 
persons; nor do they appear less favored with health 
and long life, than is known to be enjoyed by the emi- 
grants, while they preserve the temperate and industri- 
ous habits of their ancestors. 



292 ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. [1829 

If there is any excess in the reports of mortality from 
the list of interments published annually, it may be 
accounted for in the facts, that the free people of color 
who compose the greater portion of our common labor- 
ers and family servants, being like those who are better 
instructed and should have more discretion, attracted 
by the facilities, if not the mere novelties of a Town 
life, come here from the Southern Counties, perhaps 
as soon as they are manumitted, and almost infallibly 
when they become aged or infirm; but at no time of 
life, are as provident as those who have never had any 
other dependence than that on their parents or their 
own labor and foresight. 

A view of Baltimore is best taken from the Signal 
House, first established by the late Captain Porter with 
the patronage of the Merchants, on one of the many 
eminences within or bordering our City, called Federal 
Hill, South of the Basin, to which Mr. Nelson, with 
the like patronage has lately added a Telegraphic com- 
munication with the Bodkin Point forming the left or 
South side of the entrance of the River Patapsco from 
the Bay, and from which approaching ships are discov- 
ered long before they are to be seen from the Signal 
House itself From this commanding position are seen 
the Vessels in the Harbor, the remarkable Edifices in 
the City and the handsome Villas adjacent to it, all dis- 
tinctly by the naked eye as if they lay at the foot of the 
observer; and delightful is the prospect, though a sam- 
ple only of Man's ingenuity and industry. How much 
more must the admiration be excited and the veneration 
extended on turning the sight towards those immense 



8129] ANNALS OF BALTIMORE. 293 

White Rocks which seem to have been carried many 
miles beyond this Eddy of a Basin and their fellows of 
original formation, by some tremendous Eruption of 
Fire, Hurricane of Wind or Deluge of Water; and 
beyond them at certain seasons, those illumined Balls of 
day and night, the Sun or Moon, merging as it were 
from a Horizon of Sea, the design, the work of another 
and far different Intelligence and Power!! 

Descending to our Annals, — The writer hopes that, 
whatever may be their value, or however adapted 
to Agriculture or Manufactures the situation of Mary- 
land and the neighborhood of the City may be, the 
Citizens will continue to cherish the Commercial Enter- 
prize to which its rise is chiefly due and, as they hope 
for happiness and prosperity too, they will remember 
that, while they triumph in the increase of numbers 
they will have to contend with the usual growth of vice 
in populous Cities: That Laws being made by Men 
not Men by Laws, especially in a Republic where there 
is neither Test nor established Religion, it behooves 
them to guard against the hypocrisy of Avarice and 
Ambition, and seek their agents for the Government of 
the City and elsewhere, among those who have some- 
times set less value on private than public interest. 
And, with submission it may be added, these will be 
found among such only, as, believing their Works do 
follow them, nor doubting that He who made the 
eye and the ear will see and hear what His creatures 
may not, feel that something may be won or lost besides 
wealth or fame, poverty or obscurity, even here but 
certainly, much more hereafter. 



The Population of Baltimore by the several Census. 



ou 


I'JJjOUJ 




1820. 


1st Ward 4,477 


2d 


7,512 


3d 


6,548 


4th ' 


6,645 


5th ' 


3,091 


6th • 


3,469 


7th ' 


3,460 


8th ' 


3,592 


9th ' 


3,579 


10th • 


6,119 


11th • 


5,882 


12th ' 


8,364 



1800- 



18.30. 


Votes for Mayor 


5,433 


496 


9,263 


824 


9,766 


1050 


8,595 


927 


4,026 


563 


4,146 


552 


3.937 


458 


4,937 


595 


4,686 


537 


7,508 


777 


6 J 17 


763 


11,611 


1175 



62,738 



80,625 



6,717 



The second and third columns show the increase general, and 
the fourth column that, of tlie whole population, more than one- 
tenth are entitled to and exercise the ri^ht of suffraofe. 

The numbers in 1830, classed by sex and color, viz: 
Free White Males 30,021 Free White Females 31,693 
Free Colored Males 6,166 Free Colored Females 8,622 
Male Slaves 1,661 Female Slaves 2,462 

Baltimore CO. census 40,251 State of Md. ditto 446,913 
Of which the number represented in Congress is, 405,752. 

The Houses in the City in 1829, were: — one story, 1,466; 
two stories, 8,189; three or more stories, 2,143; total, 12,798, 
of which above 10,000 are of brick. 

Paupers relieved, monthly City average 409 
" " County " 47 

Strangers " " 67 

Aggregate expense, including Pensions of 156 persons, ^27 33 
cents per head. 

The number of Marriage Licences, City and County, 909; 
but it does not include all the marriages, since it is still lawful to 
marry by publication of banns, and the colored people, bond and 
free, are married without cither formality. 

Interments.— Males 985 Females 864 Total 1S49; includ- 
ing Colored, 529; or 429 Free, and 100 Slaves; of whom there 
were also under 21 years, 993; above 70, 106. 



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Wheat Flour Inspected since the Incorporation of the City. 



Yrs. 


Bbls. 


1-2 Dbls. 


Yrs. 


J3bls. 1-2 bbb. 


1798 


247,046 


17,612 


1815 


381.580 13,525 


1799 


264,211 


18,639 


1816 


387,780 14,392 


1800 


265,797 


15,227 


1817 


392,676 12,215 


1801 


349,749 


19.601 


1818 


434,865 19,052 


1802 


358,705 


21,857 


1819 


454,469 22,468 


1803 


396.178 


21,060 


1820 


570,551 23,004 


1804 


255,232 


11,223 


1821 


469,920 27,766 


1805 


326,988 


17.007 


1822 


413,231 33,461 


1806 


342,425 


16,698 


1823 


427,366 30,204 


1807 


479,429 


21,542 


1824 


529,568 30,(i64 


1808 


255.191 


5,984 


1825 


497,311 25,510 


1809 


413,169 


20,219 


1826 


583,671 25,355 


1810 


354,259 


19,392 


1827 


561,259 22,921 


1811 


516,269 


27,566 


1828 


537.010 18.882 


1812 


537,988 


29,423 


1829 


466,144 15,149 


1813 


£85,466 


11,854 


1830 


587,875 19,865 


1814 


154,816 


2.699 







Other Inspections, from 1811 to 1823, inclusive. 





Pork. Beef. 


Herrings. 


Sliad. 


Lard. Butter. Domestic Spts. | 


Yrs. 


bbls. bbls. 


bbls. 


bbls. kegs & casks kegs. galls. | 


1811 


10.847 2.364 


33.711 


5,338 


5,070 3,437 985,941 


1812 


6,590 5,386 


43,096 


5,556 


5.362 2,439 977.031 


1813 


2,722 1,898 


23,118 


2,706 


2,626 1,872 788,139 


1814 


3.488 902 


18,903 


2,907 


1,461 1,539 726,099 


1815 


3,970 4,284 


25.401 


3,861 


5,465 5,305 767,910 


1816 


8,477 3,315 


45,799 


5,950 


3,933 6.677 994,581 


1817 


7,776 6.631 


51.353 


6,379 


5,105 7;374 954,460 


1818 14,836 4,605 


56,452 


7,028 


4,686 3,504 1,545,720 


1819 


8.746 4.529 


61,365 


11,672 


6,823 4,798 1,487,052 


1820 


8.685 5.001 


41.452 


7,658 


6,130 5,410 1,427,796 


1821 12.964 4,458 


46,C63 


8,771 


5,229 1.641 1,399,647 


1822 


9,992 2,379 


36.526 


6,595 


15,101 7,302 1,578,030 


1823 


7,374 2.709 


47,222 


6,862 


9,027 8,502 1,046.442 









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Stock of Maryland in the Baltimore and Ohio Rail 

Road Company, $500,000 00 

of which 150,000 is paid. 
Ditto do. in Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Co. 500,000 00 

Ditto do. " " deferred paid 174,494 44 

Ditto do. in Baltimore and Suaquehannah Rail 

Road Company, 100,000 00 

Ditto do. in Chesapeake &/ Delaware Canal Co. paid 50,000 00 
Ditto do. in Baltimore and Frederick Turnpike Co. 10,000 00 
Ditto do. in Baltimore and York Turnpike Co. 5,000 00 

Ditto do. in Union Manufacturing Co. 10,000 00 

Ditto do. in Bank of Baltimore 174,000 00 

Ditto do. in Mechanics' Bank 46,000 00 

Ditto do. in Union Bank of Maryland 31,000 00 

Ditto do. in Commercial &< Farmers' Bank of Bait. 26,666 66 
Ditto do. in Farmers' &, Merchants' Bank of Bait. 15,000 00 
Ditto do. in Franklin Bank of Bait. 15,000 00 

Ditto do. in Marine Bank of Bait. 10,000 00 

Maryland it is stated, has Expended in Baltimore, 

on the Hospital 50,400 00 

Ditto do. University 45,500 00 

Ditto do. Penitentiary 184,538 00 

Ditto do. TobaccoWarehousesl70,000 00 
The Treasurer of the Western Shore received, from December 

1st 1829, to December 1st 1830. 

From Auctions 34,010 00 Lotteries 18,437 00 

Tobacco Inspection 27,601 00 Dividends of Banks 31,283 00 

Ordinary Licences 23,000 00 Marriage Licences 7,066 00 

Traders' Licences 18,368 00 Wharfage 1,561 00 
Fmes &. Forfeitures 4,293 00 
Total 165,712 of which at least 7-8 or 144,998 from Baltimore. 

1^9 Imports, 4.128,271 

Exports, American produce in ^ 

American Ships 3,136,053 > 3,561,454 

Ditto Foreign ditto 425,401 ) 

Do. Foreign produce in Am. Ships 895,978 > 

Do. do. in Foreign do. 81,676 ] 977,654 

4,539,108 

1830 Balance of Permanent Registered Tonnage 27,629 ^ 

'• Temporary do. do. 4,953 ^ 

'• Enrolled do. do. 12,767 |f 

" Licences under 20 tons do. 398 ||- 

" Enrolled Steam Vessels do. 4,861 65 

Vessels, American and Foreign cleared for abroad 313 

Hospital Money 2,948 r'j^ 



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S UO d — < O CJ — " 
: C! 1.0 CO >o Ol to i 

) CI CO CO CO CO >-<_ 

r ^" cf cT o' ci' to' 

< CJ 00 O — 00 CI 
) Tt" lO iCl t^ t- 00 



O C3 

-h'CJ 



I I ■ I I I • I 

I I I ■■ I I I I 

— 'CJCO'1'i-OtOt— ooo»o 
!r>C^OTC5C5C50C5CTlO 
- (^ I, f~ t-- 1^ 1^ «~ »- CO 



Annual Receipts into the Treasury from the Post Office of 
Baltimore for 14 years. 

1817 - - . 43,183 43* 1824 - - - 36,069 38 

1818 - - - 45,377 66i 1825 - - - 40,036 48 

1819 - - - 43,541 47 1826 - - - 41,703 30i 

1820 ... 36.201 03 1827 ... 43,038 67i 

1821 - - . 33,402 74 1828 - - - 45.382 25? 

1822 - - . 35,166 66i 1829 - - - 46.795 79^ 

1823 - - - 34,924 30 1830 - - - 48,374 18 



Principal Expenditures of the United States at or for Baltimore, 
being for the following objects. 

Fort M'Henry, on Patapsco ... - 131,00000 
Lazaretto, opposite the Fort ... 11,60000 
Arsenal at Pikeville .... 80,000 00 
Custom House .... 70,000 00 
Frigate Constellation, Ordinance, &c. - - - 314,212 00 
" Insurgente, repaired ... 53,480 00 
Sloop Baltimore .... 56,277 00 
" Montezuma . - - - . 55,732 00 
" Maryland .... 70,000 00 
" Patapsco ..... 73,104 00 
Frigate Java - ♦ . . - (say) 275,000 00 
Sloop Ontario - . - - " 75,000 00 
" Erie ..-.«'• 75,000 00 
Cutters, Gun Boats and Flotillas (estimate) - " 200,000 00 
Light Houses at North Point (2 towers) Bodkin, Pool's Island 
(with a bell) Thomas' and Cove Points, Smith's Island, 
and Floating Light at Hooper's Straights, & Buoys (say) 70,000 00 
Surveys of Harbor, Roads and Canals - . (say) 15,000 00 
Annual expense of repairs and Artillery-men at Fort and Ar- 
senal (per estimate) . - - 35,000 00 
Seamen at Float Light, repairing and furnishing Lights, in- 
cluding Salaries of Keepers ... 10,000 00 
Seamen (say 1830, 35) at Hospital . . - 3,929 00 
Revenue Cutter, Repairs and Crew - - (say) 10,000 00 
Cordage, Canvass, Copper, Bread, Whiskey, and other stores 

bought for the Army or Navy ... 60,000 00 
Mail Carriages, per contracts, estimated at the amount of the 
payments to the Treasury from the Post Office of Bal- 
timore, for 1830 .... 48,374 00 
Revolutionary and other Pensioners paid in the same year (say) 21,500 00 

How far the expenditures of the United States on the great West Road, 
called the Cumberland Road, and on the Canals leading in and out of the 
Chesapeake Bay, may be useful to Baltimore, is not now susceptible of cal- 
culation, and may ever remain wholly conjectural. 



r<- 







FOR THE ANNALS 
Line for 

20, County last, 

■•d, only 4s. 

3, extensively, 

f> yet living/' 

i> part of, 

^3> North, 

B Washington, 

^> dele streets. 

•*", Barre, 



read 

first County, 

only 2s. then 4». 

exclusively. 

yet (1824) living, 

includinff, 

10 £. 

West. 

Monument. 



Front, 

Megan, 

and lost, 

of 146, 

Loupon, 

Hugon, 

declining. 



Pratt, (Earl of 
Camden) 
French. 
Morgan, 
and nearly lost. 
146 of, 
London, 
Hugo, 
dying. 



relerred the citizens, was 

equivalent 



choir, 
4,807, 
Gerey, 
large, 

depreciated, 
now, 

customary, 
successively, 
Cloppe's, 
are 



chime. 

48,007. 

Gerry, 

larger. 

deprecated. 

new. 

customers. 

in this church. 

Clopper's. 

all their width. 

meeting,. <=°l°"'-«<' Persons. 

'^^ thewriterTaSfa 
Armstrong, Armistead. 

top ofp^ge,'for 1816, read 1817. "'^• 
"' Na(l?aniel, ^^^.f^"' 

19, James Braikenridge, S^' 

ft »im ^'^^^- 

' ^°^ '» 1819, 1817 to 1819. 



», 



Page Line 
?9> 12, 



S5, 
37, 
38, 
«», 
60, 

H 



FOR THE SKETCHES 

1738, 
1346, 



\ 

27, 
18, 
21, 

\ 

24, 

9> 
28, 
22. 



were, 

IVicholls, 

Thurlor, 

1763, 

1759, 

1664, 

had, 

1771, 

Protestant, 

inalienable. 

1664, ' 

Pi ey, 

Dudingtoo/ 



read 
1638. 
1646, 
was, 
Sedgwick. 
Thurloe. 
1663. 
1659. 
1663. 
has since. 
1671. 
Royal, 
concomitant. 
1764. 
Pinkney. 
Rock run. 



.4 



: \, 



fK