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3 1833 03640 7788 

GENEALOGY 

974.302 

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ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 



I / 




^iC^Jow-Jc^A/ /W-<e^v^^^^^^ 



Annals of Brattleboro 

1681-1895 

Compiled and Edited by 
Mary R. Cabot 



With Many Illustrations 



God gave all men all earth to love, 
But since our hearts are small, 

Ordained for each one spot should prove 
Beloved over all. 

— R. Kipling 



In Two Volumes 
Volume II 



Brattleboro, Vermont 

Press of E. L. Hildreth & Co. 

1922 



Copyright, 1922, 
By Mary R. Cabot. 



1162736 

CONTENTS 



/^ 



^ 



FOURTH PERIOD 
■^, WESSELHOEFT WATER-CURE— THE ESTEY ORGAN— 

PRIVATE SCHOOLS 
\J 1844-1861 

PACE 

Cj 

^ Chapter L. The Wesselhoeft Water-Cure .... 563 

■•") Wesselhoeft Water-Cure. Doctor Robert Wesselhoeft— Doctor Wilhehn 
I'O Wesselhoeft (William H. Klinge) — John H. Gray— Wesselhoeft Water- 

Cure — Letter from Doctor Wesselhoeft to Horace Greeley setting forth 
! the advantages of location — Buildings — Paths along the Whetstone — Doctor 

j. Charles W. Grau — First doctor's prescription in Brattleboro — Rules and 

regulations — Process of cure — Amusements — Christian F. Schuster, musi- 
'■''-' cian — Southern guests — Death of Doctor Wesselhoeft — Children — Published 
'\ works. 

Lawrence Water-Cure. Bayard H. Clark — William H. Klinge — Emil Apfel- 

V; baum— Doctor Grau— C. R. Blackall— William Wier— "The Lawrence" as 

a summer hotel, Mr. Apfelbaum and Ernest HeiTe, proprietors — Both "Cold 

-' Water" establishments sold to Theodore Cole, Parker B. Francis and Leroy 

Salisbury — Mr. Francis proprietor of the "Wesselhoeft House" — Fanny 

.»'^'^ Fern's praise of Brattleboro drives — Bliss Farm — Scott Farm — Boating — 

\ \ List of guests — The Lawrence made into tenement houses by S. W. Kimball 

^. — Henry B. Duclos — Mrs. Duclos — Their animals — Letter "from Miss Far- 

^ ley, December 12, 1890. 

The Traveling Musician. Alonzo W. Hines — Lewis Higgins — Musical organi- 
zations. 



5S1 



Chapter LI. Guests of the Water-Cure Who Became Resi- 
dents .......... 

Guests of the Water-Cure who became residents — General Simon B. Buckner 
— John Stoddard — Captain Henry Devens — William H. Fuller — Joseph N. 
Balesticr — James Dalton — Azor Marshall — Professor Elie CharUer. 

Mrs. Richard Howland — Miss Martha Howland — The Howland School. 

Chapter LII. The East Village 595 

The East Village in 1844 — The paper mill — The Vermont Savings Bank. 



vi CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Chapter LIII. The Semi-Weekly Eagle .... 602 

The Semi-Weekly Eagle — Broughton D. Harris, William B. Hale, editors — 
Notes from the Eagle of the Brattleboro Thief Detecting Society — The 
Brattleboro Shade Tree Association. 

Chapter LIV. The Post Office ...... 605 

The Post Office. Major Henry Smith, General Franklin H. Fessenden, Sam- 
uel Dutton, Asher Spencer, George Kellogg, Daniel Kellogg, Junior, Ran- 
slure W. Clarke, Charles H. Mansur, Frederick W. Childs, postmasters. 
The Brattleboro stamp — Frederick N. Palmer. 

Chapter LV. Hotels 607 

The Revere House, built by James Fisk in 1849 — Henry Field, Asa W. Sander- 
son, J. J. Crandall, Edwin H. Chase, Colonel H. P. Vanbibber, Henry C. 
Nash, Fred B. Thompson, George R. Gushing, O. F. and M. K. Knowlton, 

Stevens, L. H. Crosby, George A. Boyden, Henry Harris, proprietors. 

The Brattleborough House, 1850-1861 (The Central House)— Liberty Rice, 
Colonel Paul Chase, Lemuel Whitney & Company, William C. Perry, 
Charles G. Lawrence, proprietors. 
Stage-Drivers : Elliot Swan, Sylvanus Wood — John L. Ray's livery stable. 

Chapter LVI. The Coming of the Railroad — Formal Opening 611 

Chapter LVII. First Telegraphy. James H. Capen, Junior, 

Welcome I. Capen ........ 615 

Chapter LVIII. The First News Agency . . . . 619 

The First News Agency, established by Edward J. Carpenter — The Brattle- 
boro Book Club — The New Book Club. 

Chapter LIX. The Medical Profession ..... 6'33 
Doctor T. B. Kittredge — Doctor Charles W. Grau, Doctors Loewenthal and 
Carley, Doctor C. R. Blackall, Doctor George P. Wesselhoeft, Hydro- 
pathists — Doctor J. P. Warren, Doctor James G. Murphy, Doctor E. C. 
Cross, Doctor Charles W. Horton, Doctor George F. Gale, Doctor J. H. 
Stedman — Doctors Ezekiel and George H. Morrill, Homeopathists — Doctor 
S. W. Bowles. 

Chapter LX. Organ Manufacture . . . . . 635 
Organ Manufacture — Samuel H. Jones — Joseph L. Jones — Riley Burdett — 
S. H. Jones & Company— Jones & Burdett — John Woodbury — Austin K. 
Jones — Jacob Estey — E. B. Carpenter & Company — Isaac Hines & Com- 
pany — Jones, Carpenter & Woods — Silas M. Waite — J. Estey & Company — 
R. Burdett & Company — Burdett inventions — Elmer Bliss — Burdett Organ 
Company, Chicago. 



CONTENTS v;; 

PAGE 

Chapter LXI. Jacob Estey .... q^i 

Honorable Jacob Estey. The Estey Organ. General Julius Estey-Colonel 
J. Gray Estey— J. Harry Estey. 

Chapter LXII. Skilled Mechanics 
John Gore — Edwin Putnam. 



640 

643 

646 
649 



Chapter LXIII. The Town Hall. Agricultural Exhibition 
ON THE Muster Field .... 

Chapter LXIV. St. Michael's Episcopal Church. List of 
Clergy ■•-... 

Chapter LXV. St. Michael's Roman Catholic Church . 
St. Michael's Roman Catholic Church. Priests-Young Ladies' Sodality-St 
Michael's Parochial School— Sisters of St. Joseph. 

Chapter LXVI. The Windham County Bank, 1856 . 653 

June 30, 1864, The First National Bank. 

Chapter LXVII. The Howe Photograph Gallery . . 654 

The Howe Photograph Gallery— Caleb L. Howe (J. L. Lovell)— John C. 
Howe — Howe family. 

Chapter LXVIII. Private Schools 6.5S 

Private Schools— The Melrose Seminary— Fremont School for Young Ladies 
Reverend Addison Brown-Select School for Young Ladies, Miss Sarah 
Hunt— Elm Hall, Mrs. Lucy M. Chase— Burnside Military School Colonel 
_ Charles Appleton Miles-New Brattleborough Academy-Glenwood Ladies' 
Seminary, Hiram Orcutt-Laneside Boarding School for Young Ladies, 
Miss Louisa A. Barber. 

Chapter LXIX. Biographical Sketches . . . .670 

Biographical Sketches— Pratt family (Wheeler & Pratt)— D. Stewart Pratt— 
Alfred H, Wright-Oscar J. Pratt— Oscar D. Esterbrook— Silas M. Waite, 
the Organ Case— The Vernon cannon— Frederick A. Nash— Charles C 
Waite-Bethuel Ranger-Charles F. Thompson— Reverend James Herrick 
—Draper family: Reverend George B. Draper, William H. Draper, M.D., 
Francis E. Draper. Francis Goodhue, II— Honorable Broughton D. Harris 
—Fred H. Harris— Charles A. Harris— Honorable Ranslure W. Clarke- 
Timothy Vinton— William F. Richardson— Isaac N. Thorn— Barna A 
Clark— Edward Crosby— Crosby family (Charles B. Rice, Leroy F Adams 
C. W. Wyman, Edward C. Crosby)-John J. Retting-William Alonzo 
Hopkins— Davenport & Mansur : Alonzo C. Davenport, Charles H. Mansur 
Philip Wells— William S. Newton— Honorable George Howe (George E 
Howe)-Judge Daniel Kellogg-Kellogg family (Judge Asa O. Aldis 



viii CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Henry A. Willard) — John Burnham — Henry Burnham— Burnham family — 
Larkin G. Mead, Junior — The Snow Angel — William Ruthcrfurd Mead — 
William Morris Hunt — Richard Morris Hunt — Colonel Leavitt Hunt — 
Bradley family continued: William C, II — S. Rowe — Richards Bradley — 
Arthur C. (Richards M. — J. Dorr). Walker family: Reverend Charles 
Walker— Stephen A. Walker— Reverend George Leon Walker (Professor 
Williston Walker)— Henry F. Walker, M.D. Norman F. Cabot (William 
Brooks Cabot) — Honorable George W. Folsom — Honorable Hampden Cutts 
— Miss Mary Cutts — George Chandler Hall — Honorable Charles Kellogg 
Field — Thomas Thompson — Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson — Item of Thompson 
will. 

FIFTH PERIOD 

THE CIVIL WAR— ORGANIZATION, INDUSTRIAL, 

PHILANTHROPIC AND SOCIAL 

1861-1895 

Chapter LXX. The Civil War 761 

The Civil War — First Regiment of Vermont Volunteers — Captain John W. 
Phelps — Enlistment of first company to go from Brattleboro — Lists of 
officers and men — Record of Captain Edward A. Todd — Major Elijah 
Wales — George M. Colt — Benjamin F. Davis — Charles B. Rice — Fred W. 
Simonds— Silas W. Richardson — George F. Britton — James Everett Alden 
— George W. Hooker — Herbert E. Taylor — Isaac K. Allen — Captain Ed- 
ward Carter— Benjamin R. Jenne— Wallace Pratt— William C. Holbrook— 
Frank H. Emerson — George E. Selleck — Robert G. Hardie — Major David 
W. Lewis — Lieutenant-Colonel Cummings — Captain Robert B. Arms — John 
M. Joy — Major George H. Bond — Henry C. Streeter — Lorenzo D. Keyes — 
Almon B. Gibbs — Luke Ferriter, detailed to execute sentence on William 
Scott. Casualties, J. Warren Hyde — Lieutenant-Colonel John Steele Tyler 
— Lieutenant-Colonel Addison Brown. 
Officers and Soldiers from Brattleboro, 1861-1865. Alonzo Granville Draper 
— The Military Hospital — Memorial stone — War relief. 

Chapter LXXI. Goternor Frederick Holbrook . . . 788 

Chapter LXXII. General John W. Phelps . . . .797 

General John W. Phelps. Emancipation Proclamation — Tribute to General 
Phelps from General Rush W. Hawkins— Mrs. Almira Hart Lincoln Phelps. 

Chapter LXXIII. Further War Records .... 808 
Further Records. Colonel William Austlne — Colonel William Cune Holbrook 
—Colonel Herbert Edward Taylor— Colonel George White Hooker- 
Colonel Nathaniel C. Sawyer— Doctor George F. Gale — Doctor Charles P. 
Prost — Doctor Benjamin Ketchum — Colonel John Hunt — George E. Greene. 
The Na\-y — Commodore Theodore P. Greene. 



CONTENTS ix 

PAGE 

Chapter LXXIV. The Big Flood of April, 18G-i . . . 823 

Chapter LXXV. The High School 825 

The High School. Benjamin Franklin Bingham— Assistant teachers— Later 
principals — Alumni Association. 

Chapter LXXVI. The Lyceum 829 

Chapter LXXVII. Vermont Record and Farmer . . . 832 

Vermont Record and Farmer. Daniel L. Milliken— Henry M. Burt, "Attrac- 
tions of Brattlcboro"— Reverend Mr. Ketchum— George E. Crowell— E. P. 
Ackerman— C. Horace Hubbard— F. D. Cobleigh— J. M. Tyler— Reverend 
Augustus Chandler (Reverend Joseph Chandler— Reverend John Chandler). 

Chapter LXXVIII. After the War 834 

Chapter LXXIX. The Household — George E. Crowell— 

Crowell Water Works 841 

Chapter LXXX. A Flood of the Whetstone . . . .844 

Chapter LXXXI. Fire Department— The Great Fire of 1869 847 



853 



Chapter LXXXH. Development of Job Printing and Pub- 
lishing ........•• 

Development of job printing and publishing. George Eaton Selleck. The 
Brattleboro Times— Edward Bushnell— Daniel Selleck— L. L. Davis. Fred- 
erick C. Edwards— George H. Salisbury. The Tramp Printer, T. P. James 
—'The Mystery of Edwin Drood"— Edwin L. Hildreth & Company— Mrs. 
Esther T. Housh— Woman at Work— Edward Bushnell— The Leisure Hour 
— Charles Spencer — The Brattleboro Evening Times. 

Chapter LXXXni. Industries— Banks 860 

Industries. Brattleboro Woolen Mills— Sewing machines, 1859 to 1882— 
Knitting-machine needles, J. B. Randoll, 1876 — Furniture, 1865-1873 — Cigar 
industry, John D. Roess, 1869— Stencil dies, S. ^L Spenser, E. M. Douglas- 
First gas house, Brattleboro Gaslight Company— Organ reeds, J. D. Whit- 
ney & Son, 1876— Baby carriages, Smith & Hunt, 1873- Children's toys, 
S. A. Smith & Company, 1889— Brattleboro Furniture Company— E. P. Car- 
penter Organ Factory — Corser & Hidden, overalls, 1890. 
Banks. Brattleboro Savings Bank — Peoples National Bank. 

Chapter LXXXIV. Organizations, Philanthropic and Social 868 
Organizations. Philanthropic and social — Freedman's Aid Association, 1867 — 
Windham County Suffrage Association, 1870— Anti-Monopoly and Equal 



X ■ CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Taxation, 1874 — Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 1877 — 

Brattleboro Liberal Association, 1877— Professional Club, 1879 : presidents, 

subjects discussed— Woman's Relief Corps, 1885 — Windham County Lodge 

of Free and Accepted Anti-Masons, 1887 — Village Improvement Society, 

1886— Woman's Educational and Industrial Union, 1889— Natural History : 

Society, 1888— Associated Charities, 1892— Home for the Aged and Disabled 

— Daughters of the American Revolution, 1893. , 

Temperance and Profanity— Brattleboro Temperance Society, 1866 — Good | 

Samaritan Society, 1870— Sacred Pledge, 1875— St. Michael's Temperance | 

and Benevolent Society — Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 1877 — | 

Juvenile Total Abstinence Society, 1880. | 

Young Men's Christian Association. J 

Chapter LXXX\'. Protective Grange — Farmers' and Me- 
chanics' Exchange ........ 876 

Chapter LXXXVI. The Estey Guard— Fuller Battery . .878 

■ 
Chapter LXXXVII. Musical Organiz.a.tioxs .... 880 \ 

Musical Organizations. Brattleboro Orchestra— Choral Union — First Regi- '. 



ment Band — Philharmonic Society. 



> 



Chapter LXXXVIII. Brattleboro Clubs and Associations . 884 I 

Brattleboro Clubs. Forest and Stream, 1875— Brattleboro Bicycle Club— ^ 

Vermont Wheel Club, 1885- Windham County Park Association— New 
England and Vermont State Fair of 1866 — Valley Fair Association, 1886 — 
Valley Fair parade of 189-4— Board of Trade, 1887— Order of Red Men, 
1888— New England Trout and Salmon Club, 1889. 

Chapter LXXXIX. The Brick Church in West Brattleboro 891 
Brick Church in West Brattleboro— Purchased from Universalists by Estey 
& Company— CIerg>-— Salvation Army, 1885— Swedish Lutheran Church, 
1894— Advent Church, 1896. 

Chapter XC. The Reformer 893 

The Reformer. Charles N. Davenport— Charles H. Davenport— E. H. Crane. 
The Vermont Printing Company— Brattleboro Daily Reformer. 

Chapter XCI. The Brooks House— Brooks Library . . 895 

The Brooks House— The Brooks Library— George Jones Brooks. Mrs. Kirk- 
land's House. 

Chapter XCII. The Post Office 902 

The Post Office, 1886. Free Delivery— Carriers— Doctor Daniel P. Webster- 
Colonel Herbert Taylor— Colonel Kittredge Haskins- Michael Moran— 



CONTENTS • xi 

PAGE 
Charles W. Wilcox, assistant postmaster fifty-one years — The Listing De- 
partment. 
Road to Wantastiquet — Wells Fountain, 1890. 

Chapter XCIII. Windham County Politics. (By Honorable 

Kittredge Haskins) 906 

Chapter XCIV. Governor Levi Knight Fuller . . . 909 

Chapter XCV. Biographical Sketches ..... 912 

Physicians. Biographical. Honorable James M. Tyler — Honorable Kittredge 
Haskins — Henry C. Willard — Peleg Barrows — Reverend Lewis Grout — 
Reverend Allan D. Brown, LL.D. — Francis W. Brooks — Doctor David P. 
Dearborn — Henry D. Holton, M.D. Davenport family: Charles N. Daven- 
port — Charles H. Davenport — Herbert J. Davenport. The Childs family : 
Walter H. Childs— Rollin S. Childs— Major Frederick W. Childs. William 
H. Rockwell, Junior — Miss Helen M. French — "Sally Joy White" — Madame 
Georgianna Mondan — Franklin H. Sawyer (Doctor Charles E. Severance) 
— Mary E. Wilkins — Lieutenant-Commander George W. Tyler — Newton L 
Hawley — Joseph Draper, M.D. — Reverend Charles H. Merrill — Honorable 
Parley Starr — Jonathan G. Eddy — Honorable Edgar W. Stoddard — James 
Conland, M.D. — Reverend William H. Collins — Honorable Dorman B. 
Eaton — Judge George Shea — Reverend Samuel M. Crothers — Reverend 
George B. Gow — -Judge James L. Martin — Judge Hoyt H. Wheeler — Doctor 
Daniel P. Webster — Reverend Charles O. Day — ^Reverend James H. Babbitt 
— Judge Eleazer L. Waterman — William Eaton Foster — Robert Gordon 
Hardie, Junior — Oscar A. Marshall — Russell A. Bigelow — Doctor William 
Bullock Clark — Frederick Holbrook, H — Wolcott Balestier — Rudyard Kip- 
ling— Wilford H. Brackett— Clarke C. Fitts— Ora E. Butterfield— Professor 
Starr Willard Cutting — Mary Howe — Madame Brazzi-Pratt. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Governor Holbrook, 1861-1863 . 

Doctor Robert Wesselhoeft, Wife and Daughter 

Wesselhoeft VVater-Cure, 1845 . 

Lawrence Water-Cure .... 

Map of Brattleboro and Vicinity 

Showing Aqueduct and Gardiner Paths along Whetstone 
Brook. 

Christian F. Schuster ...... 

Cornet Band ........ 

Left to right : Lewis Higgins, Ambrose Knapp, Frank Bas- 
sett, George Tolle, George Clark, Horace Meacham, Ira Bur- 
nett, unidentified, Charles Dickinson, Albertus Smith, Harry 
Rowe, Charles Stewart, Ben Perry, Herbert Evans, Albert 
Rogers. 

Charles N. Davenport ...... 

Richardson Brothers ...... 

Standing : John H., Charles J., William F., Fred G. Seated : 
A. J., Oscar W. 

Brown's Woods. Whipple Street. Flat Street . 
Residence of John Stoddard ..... 

Richard Upjohn, architect. Captain Henry Devens second 

owner and resident. 

Henry Clark .... 

William P. Cune 

D. Stewart Pratt 

Residence of Norman F. Cabot 

Residence of Mrs. John Wells . 

Residence of Doctor Higginson 

Built in 1834 by Asa Green, from whom the name Green 
Street. Doctor Francis J. Higginson lived here from 1842 to 
1866, when sold to Doctor O. R. Post. 



Frontispiece 

facing page 564 

" 564 

" 565 

on " 568 



facing " 584 
" 584 



585 
585 



586 
586 



587 

587 
587 
587 
587 
59-2 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Residence of Commodore Greene, Green Street . 

Residence of Lovell Farr, Elliot Street 

Residence of Ferdinand Tyler, Asylum Street 

Residence of Judge Kellogg, High Street . 

Sold by John Phelps to Judge Daniel Kellogg in 1855, to 
Edward Crosby in 1885. 

Elliot Street 

Stump of Old Elm ....... 

Planted in 1825 by J. W. Blake, injured in fire in 1869, cut 
down in 1870. Remarkable for size and beauty. 

The Omnibus ...... 

Tenement house, on road to Cenfetery Hill. 
Cemetery Hill from Roof of Van Doom House 
From Hinsdale Road .... 

Main Street ...;.. 
Main Street, East Side .... 

Dickinson Hall, Main Street, Looking North 
Main Street, Looking South 

Right : Dickinson's stove store ; Revere Hall, second floor 
Joseph Clark, apothecary and hardware; Alfred Simonds & 
Company, leather and shoe findings; E. J. Carpenter, Wind- 
ham County periodical depot ; Ben Butler, barber ; Alexander 
Capen, paint shop upstairs ; A. Worthington, harness and 
trunk maker ; Samuel Pike, gunsmith ; bell tower on S. 
Gates's furniture shop ; Hinsdale Arms & Sons, machinists 
(in front, open door). 

Left: Residence of Anthony Van Doom; Dunklee's grocery 
store ; Nathan Woodcock's residence, second floor. Warren 
Briggs's street sprinkling cart in center of street, 1853. 

Drawing: Brattleboro Postage Stamp 

Blake Block, 1855, on site Blake Mansion . 

Revere House ....... 

Built in 1849 by James Fisk, destroyed by fire in 1877. 

Main Street ........ 

Law office of Honorable Jonathan Hunt. Residence of Gard- 
ner C. Hall, 1826. Residence of Joseph Goodhue. Residence 
of William P. Cune. Unitarian Church. At extreme right : 
Residence of Judge Lemuel Whitney, first settler, later of 
Asher Spencer, occupied later by Charles F. Thompson, 
who took it down, and built on site house sold to George 
Dowley. 



facing page 592 

" 593 

" 593 

" 593 

593 

" 593 

" 593 

593 

" 593 

" 594 

" 594 

" 595 

" 595 



facing " 



606 
606 
606 

607 



7 



ILLUSTRATIONS xv 

Residence of William P. Cune from 1860 . . . facing page 607 

Judge Samuel Knight built first house in village here, about 

1773. 

Residence of Uriel Sikes ......"" 607 

Last owner, Charles F. Thompson, Taken down in 1914 to 

give place to Federal Building. 

John Hyde ........"" 614 

Conductors of the Vermont & Massachusetts Railroad . " " 614 

Jacob Bangs, Henry D. Carroll, John Hare. 

Citizens of the Forties ......"" 614 

Left to right, sitting : William E. Ryther, Luther Sargent, 
Ruf us Pratt. Standing, right to left : Jarvis Crandall, Keith 
White, George C. Lawrence. 

John L. Ray " " 614 

Valley Mills Company ......"" 615 

Old Gas House " " 615 

Estey Organ Company ......"" 615 

Brattleboro Melodeon Company ...."" 615 

Howland School. Miss Barker ...."" 615 

Residence of Samuel Button ....."" 615 

Honorable Jacob Estey ......"" 630 

General Julius J. Estey ......"" 630 

J. Estey & Company Cottage Organ Manufactory . " " 631 

Estey Guard . . ..... . " " 631 

Estey Organ Building, South Main Street . . . " " 632 

Van Doom & Dvvinell Furniture Shop . . . " " 632 

Bridge over Whetstone Brook at South Main Street. At 

left : Jacob Estey, "Lead Pipe & Pumps." At right, in front : 

"Van Doom's" furniture warehouse. 

Estey Guard and Fuller Battery Rooms, second story . " " 633 

Peg Shop and Tannery Dam, Centerville . . . " " 633 
Jacob Estey's Shop, 1847, Jacob Estey, "Lead Pipe & 

-Pumps" ........"" 640 

Estey Organ Factory, 1850 ....."" 640 

Mountain from Esteyville ....."" 641 

The Whetstone at Esteyville ....."" 641 

St. Michael's Episcopal Church, 1858 . . . " " G46 

The Same, Later Period ......"" 646 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Florence Terrace. Residence of General Julius J. Estey 
Buckner Place ....... 

Land purchased of heirs of lames Frost. House built in 
1859 by General Buckner of New Orleans as a summer resi- 
dence for his son-in-law, lames B. Eustis. Purchased by 
Professor Elie Charlier of New York in 1871 and sold to 
George E. Crowell. 

Burnside Military School ..... 

Built by ludge Samuel Wells, purchased by Reverend Wil- 
liam Wells in 1794. Ebenezer Wells sold to Colonel Charles 
A. Miles in 1859. Remodeled for school in 1861. 

Officers of the School in 1865 

Cold Spring ........ 

The Kane Pine 

Doctor Kane, the Arctic explorer, when a guest at the 
Water-Cure, was in the habit of taking a daily walk as far 
as this noble pine, where he rested under its shade. His name, 
carved in the bark, could be seen many years after his death. 

East Hall, Glenwood Seminary, Built in 1860 . 

Glenwood Classical Seminary for Young Ladies, Hiram 
Orcutt, Principal, West Brattleboro 

Old Academy Building ...... 

Walnut Street, Looking East . . . . . 

Residents : Edward R. Kirkland, Mrs. C. V. May, Judge 
Daniel Kellogg (sixties). Governor Frederick Holbrook, 
Colonel Francis Goodhue, Peleg Barrows at left ; Doctor 
H. D. Holton at right. 

Walnut Street, Looking West ..... 
House of Jeremiah Haywood, C. L. Howe at right, Barna 
Clark at left; Miss E. M. Brooks in white house, "The 
Martin Box," on site of present Roman Catholic Rectory. 

Walnut Street Corner ..... 
Old Fountain Engine, 186G. Frost Mansion 
Brattleboro Melodeon Company. Steeple of Univer 

salist Church 
Bridge over Little River . 
Main Street . 
East Side Main Street 
Charles F. Thompson 
Samuel Button 
John W. Frost 



facing page 647 
" 647 



660 



660 
661 
661 



664 

664 
664 
665 



665 



665 

674 

674 
675 
675 
675 
678 
678 
678 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Edward Crosby ..... 
Charles C. Frost ..... 
George E. Crowell ..... 

Henry D. Holton, M.D 

Residence of Francis Goodhue, II 

Main Street 

Beechwood, Residence of J. N. Balestier, 187i 
Maplewood, Balestier Farm 

Rosvvell Sargent first settler here. 
Residence of Peleg Barrows 
Dutch Cottage, R. G. Hardie, Junior . 
Eaton Place ...... 

Built by Holland Pettis; residence for several years of 
Major John Tyler ; purchased and remodeled by Honorable 
Dorman B. Eaton in 1876 and occupied as a summer residence 
until his death in 1899. 



facing page 078 
679 
G79 
679 
683 
682 
683 
683 

683 
683 
683 



Designed by William Rutherfurd Mead, gift of William 
Henry Wells of New York to his native town, stands on spot 
where Larkin G. Mead, Junior, modeled "The Recording 
Angel." The father and sisters of Doctor George Holmes 
Hall in 1806 lived in a little house on this point, afterwards 



Francis Goodhue, II . . . 






" 684 


George J. Brooks .... 






" 684 


B. D. Harris 






" 684 


George C. Hall .... 






" 684 


Francis W. Brooks .... 






" 685 


Doctor George F. Gale 






" 685 


Norman F. Cabot .... 






" 685 


From Prospect Street 






" 703 


From Cemetery .... 






" 702 


Village from Island 






" 703 


"The Patch" 






" 703 


Irish settlement on Vernon Street. 








Snow Angel ..... 






" 718 


Larkin G. Mead, Junior, January 1, 1857 






" 718 


Burnham's Shop .... 






" 718 


William Rutherfurd Mead 






" 719 


Wells Fountain .... 






" 719 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



owned by Doctor J. L. Dickerman. The house in background 
built by Charles H. Crosby, sold to Frank W. Harris in 
1874; at the death of Mr. Harris to E. P. Carpenter, and by 
him to Doctor Fremont Hamilton. 

Bradley House, Richards Bradley, 1859 

Folsoni House, on Site of House of J. D. Bradley, The 

Common 
Residence of Judge Charles Royall Tyler, 1857 
Terrace Street 
Judge Daniel Kellogg 
Honorable Charles K. Field 
Honorable George Howe . 
Thomas Thompson . 
Mrs. Thompson 

United States Military Hospital, 1863 
Colonel William Austine . 
Colonel George W. Hooker 
Colonel John Steele Tyler 
Colonel Addison Brown . 
Colonel N. C. Sawyer 
Colonel William C. Holbrook 
Ex-Governor Holbrook . 
The Flood of April, 1863 . 
Floods of the Whetstone . 
Fire of 1869 . 
Benjamin F. Bingham 
High School . 
Main Street . 
Pratt, Wheeler & Company 

Building erected by John H. Wheeler, 1835 
High Street . 
Centre Congregational Church, 1864 

The church in 1843. Interior of church, 1882. 
The Baptist Church, 1870 
St. Michael's Roman Catholic Church, 1864 
The Methodist Church . 
The Universalist Church, 1851 ; remodeled, 1871 



facing page 730 



730 
731 
731 
750 
750 
750 
751 
751 
761 



809 
809 
809 
809 
809 
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833 
833 
834 
834 
835 
835 

825 
828 

839 
829 
829 
839 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Universalist Parsonage, Canal Street . 

Clark Farm 

View of Village .... 

Village from Prospect Street . 

West River at Entrance to the Connecticut 

Mountain from West River 

Log Drives ..... 

Decorated for Valley Fair 

Fair Grounds ..... 

Views of the Fair .... 

Brooks House, George J. Brooks, 1871-18' 

Brooks Library, 1886 

Unitarian Church .... 

Dedicated October 13, 1875, on site of first church, which was 

moved back and became Wells Hall. 

Soldiers' Monument 

The Common ........ 

Land deeded by Grindall Ellis on condition church should be 
built on it; church lost claim in 1842 by neglecting to keep 
fence, etc., in repair. 

On Top of Wantastiquet . 

Highland Park 

New High School . 

View from Retreat Tower 

High Street . 

Franklin H. Wheeler's Garden 

Land purchased by Mr. Wheeler in 1838. 

Governor Levi K. Fuller . 

Fuller Battery 

Left to right : Doctor D. P. Webster, Assistant Surgeon 
E. H. Putnam, Lieutenant and Adjutant; A. T. McClure, 
First Lieutenant; A. D. Weld, First Lieutenant; P. F. 
Connors, Second Lieutenant; Thomas Hannon, Quarter- 
master; L. K. Fuller, Lieutenant Colonel. 

Governor Fuller and Staff ..... 

Left to right : F. C. Platts, Second Lieutenant ; Doctor 
Charles S. Pratt, Assistant Surgeon; E. H. Putnam, First 
Lieutenant and Adjutant; George H. Bond, Colonel First 
Regiment; Thomas Hannon, Colonel on Governor Fuller's 



facing page 840 

" 840 

" 841 

" 841 

" 876 

" 876 

" 877 

" 886 

" 886 

" 887 

" 894 

" 894 

" 895 



903 
902 



903 
903 
904 
904 
90.5 
905 



908 
909 



909 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Staff ; W. H. Gilmore, Quartermaster General ; Captain 
Tutherly, United States Army ; Levi K. Fuller, Governor of 
Vermont; Colonel J. H. Goulding, Governor's Military 
Secretary; A. D. Weld, Captain Fuller Battery; H. H 
Burnett, First Lieutenant and Quartermaster ; P. F. Con- 
nors, First Lieutenant; Pearl T. Clapp, Second Lieutenant 

Honorable James jSI. Tyler 

Judge Hoyt H. Wheeler . 

Judge James L. Martin . 

Honorable Kittredge Raskins 

Judge Ranslure W. Clarke 

Judge William S. Newton 

East Side Main Street, Looking South 

East Side Main Street, Looking North 

South Main, Looking North 

Main, Looking North 

Hawley Store, 1877-1904 . 

Newton I. Hawley . 

Park House . 

Two upper stories were a house on Newfane Hill, owned by 
Chester Pomeroy, who in 1833 bought the land on which it 
stood here of Doctor Philip Hall of Northfield, who had it 
from Judge Lemuel Whitney. The identity of this picture 
has been questioned. 

Overall Factory 

Canal Street School 

Town Hall, 1855 . 

Auditorium, 1896 . 

View of Island 

Colonel Charles A. Miles 

Doctor James R. Conland 

Robert Gordon Hardie, Junior 

Belles of the Sixties 

Reverend George Leon Walker 

Reverend William H. Collins 

Reverend Charles O. Day 

Doctor Joseph H. Draper . 

Allan D. Brown, Commander U. S. Navy (retired) 

Reverend Lewis Grout 



facing page 912 


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" 


' 912 


" 


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" 


' 913 


" 


' 913 


" 


' 930 


" 


' 930 


" 


' 931 


" 


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" 


' 940 


" 


' 940 


" 


" 940 



940 
941 
941 
941 
941 
946 
946 
946 
947 
948 
948 
948 
949 
949 
949 



ILLUSTRATIONS 


xxi 


Oscar A. Marshall ...... 


facing page 974 


Wilford H. Brackett . . . . . 


" 974 


Doctor William B. Clark 


" 974 


Frederick Holbrook, II . 


" 974 


Mary E. W'ilkins ...... 


975 


Wolcott Balestier ...... 


" 975 


Rudyard Kipling ...... 


" 975 


Naulahka ....... 


" 980 


Residence of Rudyard Kipling, 1892-1896. 




Scott Farm ....... 


" 980 


Rufus Scott settled here in 1840. 




Red School House ...... 


" 981 


Bliss Brook, afterwards Wilder Brook 


" 981 


Bliss Farm ....... 


" 981 


Captain Nathaniel Bliss here before 1800. 




Mary Howe ....... 


" 99-3 


Madame Brazzi-Pratt ..... 


" 993 


Goodhue Stove ...... 


" 993 



FOURTH PERIOD 

WESSELHOEFT WATER-CURE 

THE ESTEY ORGAN-PRIVATE SCHOOLS 

1844-1861 



CHAPTER L 

THE WESSELHOEFT WATER-CURE 

Wesselhoeft Water-Cure. Doctor Robert Wesselhoeft— Doctor Wilhelm Wessel- 
hoeft (William H. Klinge)— John H. Gray— Wesselhoeft Water-Cure— Letter 
from Doctor Wesselhoeft to Horace Greeley setting forth the advantages of 
location— Buildings— Paths along the Whetstone— Doctor Charles W. Grau— 
First doctor's prescription in Brattleboro— Rules and regulations— Process of 
cure— Amusements— Christian F. Schuster, musician— Southern guests— Death 
of Doctor Wesselhoeft— Children— Published works. 

Lawrence Water-Cure. Bayard H. Clark— William H. Klinge— Emil Apfelbaum— 
Doctor Grau— C. R. Blackall— William Wier— "The Lawrence" as a summer 
hotel, Mr. Apfelbaum and Ernest Heffe, proprietors— Both "Cold Water" estab- 
lishm'ents sold to Theodore Cole, Parker B. Francis and Leroy Salisbuo— Mr. 
Francis proprietor of the "Wesselhoeft House"— Fanny Fern's praise of Brattle- 
boro drives— Bliss Farm— Scott Farm— Boating— List of guests— The Lawrence 
made into tenement houses by S. W. Kimball— Henry B. Duclos— Mrs. Duclos— 
Their animals— Letter from Miss Farley, December 12, 1890. 

The Traveling Musician. Alonzo W. Hines— Lewis Higgins— Musical organizations. 

About 1816, in a little village of Austria, named Graefenberg, Vin- 
cent Priessnitz, the son of a farmer, at tfie age of seventeen suffered 
an accident, resulting in two broken ribs. He was a boy with a natural 
gift of observation, who lived mostly in the open air. He noticed that 
animals, when wounded, or otherwise hurt, bathed their bleeding mem- 
bers in cold water and got well. There was also a miller in a neighbor- 
ing village who had set broken ribs without- the aid of a doctor. So 
the boy pressed himself against a wall, trying to set his ribs in place, 
and to his surprise and satisfaction, succeeded; he then put on cold 
bandages, wrapped himself in a wet linen sheet and blanket to produce 
a sweat, and by frequent changes over a considerable period of time, 
and by drinking freely of the spring water of his native hillsides, 
completed the cure. 

The report of his recovery spread through the surrounding country, 
until people came from a distance to consult this worker of miracles, 
as he seemed to be. Then he conceived the idea that other diseases 
could be cured with cold water, and he invited the poor to be the objects 
of experiment. As early as 1839, and in the face of bitter opposition 



564 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO . | 

and even persecution at the hands of the regular profession, there were : 

nearly two thousand patients under the treatment of Vincent Priessnitz \ 

at Graefenberg, and establishments founded on the water system of I 

cure sprang up throughout Germany, and extended as far as America. j 

The third water-cure in this country was started by Doctor Robert . t 

Wesselhoeft in 1843-1844, in Brattleboro. He was born February 13, I 

1797, in Chemnitz, Saxony, where his father had a printing and publishing | 

house which was moved to Jena when Robert was still an infant. His | 

first studies were conducted at home by a tutor, De Wette, who became \ 

an eminent theologian ; he was afterwards sent to Rosleben, a school of i 

the character of the English Rugby or Eton, and returning to Jena, passed i 

his examination for the doctorate of law in 1821, and was appointed assist- j 

ant to the criminal court at Weida in the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar, in 
January, 1823. ! 

Free thinking on political questions, tending to democratic idealism, 
was rife among students in the universities at that time, and under this 
influence Karl Ludwig Sand, a young man of unbalanced mind, took the 
life of Kotzebue, a writer of note, whose pen was employed in sup- 
port of autocracy. Because Sand was a member of the Jena Burschen- 
schaft in 1819 when the murder was committed, the state assumed the ; 

existence of a conspiracy and the guilt of other members of the society, j 

including Wilhelm and Robert Wesselhoeft, who were arrested and l 

tried by a special commission appointed by the government for the | 

purpose. I 

Three years later, Wilhelm Wesselhoeft was at Marseilles prepared to I 

embark in service for the Greek cause as a volunteer physician when the I 

French, assured of the futility of further effort in a lost cause, enjoined \ 

the ship from sailing. Passing through Switzerland on his way home, | 

Wilhelm qualified as docent in medicine at the University of Basel and {; 

received an appointment which he held until 1824, in which year the extra- 1 

dition of political refugees was demanded. His correspondence, which I 

contained acquaintance with Karl Follen,^ one of the "dangerous cases," ! 

was confiscated, and as he had also been a member of a revolutionary 
association, he at once took ship and arrived in New York November 
26, 1824. 

Discharged from his position at the court of Weida, although at the 
same time receiving praise for his exemplary conduct and valuable ser- 
vices, Robert Wesselhoeft in 1822 invested a small amount of capital in 
the increase of an oil mill and fishery in Erfurt and devoted himself to 
this venture until his arrest and imprisonment in January, 1824, as a 
member of the Jiinglingsbund, a society of youth supposed to have been 

1 Afterwards professor in Harvard University. 




DOCTOR WESSELHOEFT. WIFE AKO DAUGHTER 




WESSELHOEFT WATER CUXE 




lE®^' 



LAWRENCE WATER CURE 




LAWRENCE WATER CURE 



ROBERT WESSELHOEFT, M.D. 565 

launched by an adult organization, the Mannerbund, a secret society of 
avowed revolutionary purpose, whose ultimate aim was the establishment 
of representative government in place of the patriarchal autocracies of 
the German States. 

Wesselhoeft refused to confess connection with the Mannerbund, as it 
was an association unknown to him, even though he might have shortened 
the period of his own detention by so doing. Seven years were consumed 
by the state in examinations, particularly as to the membership of the 
Mannerbund. Finally he was sentenced to fifteen years in the Fortress 
of Magdeburg as the mitigation of the death penalty, which might legally 
have been imposed upon him for high treason, read by the state into his 
admission of membership in the Jiinglingsbund. The King of Prussia 
reduced the term of imprisonment to seven years, accepting the already 
long years of his trial as part of the punishment. 

The reigning grand duke, Karl Friedrich, was, however, of a more 
liberal mind than the royal Prussian, and in August, 1831, Robert Wessel- 
hoeft received an appointment as registrar to the Grand Ducal Chancery 
at Weida. In 1833 he was appointed to a similar post in Weimar. 

But the grand duke's liberality of view in reappointing Wesselhoeft to 
ofifice was not shared by members of the Grand Ducal administration, nor 
by Wesselhoeft's superior in the judiciary. Faithful to the discharge of 
his official duties, some time passed without any prospect of finding a 
genuine reason for Wesselhoeft's dismissal. 

Finally a charge of legacy-hunting and forgery was brought by his 
enemies, until in 1839 a verdict acquitting the accused was rendered by 
the Supreme Court of Appeal. The complaint of insubordination re- 
mained and secured his dismissal for disciplinary reasons. Not having 
violated the terms of his reappointment, Wesselhoeft was entitled to a 
pension, which at his own request was paid in full and which enabled 
him to join his brother Wilhelm in America. 

A famous physician who attended him at the Magdeburg castle took 
him occasionally to the bedside of patients, interested him in the study of 
pathology and discovered in him a great gift for successful diagnosis. In 
Weimar another physician, friend of the Wesselhoeft family, corroborated 
the opinion of the Magdeburg physician as to Wesselhoeft's native power 
as a diagnostician. A serious attack of bilious and rheumatic fever in the 
summer of 1840 led him to visit Graefenberg, where he was under the 
personal direction of Vincent Priessnitz. These experiences were doubt- 
less one reason why Robert Wesselhoeft thought seriously of studying 
medicine as soon as he decided to join his brother in America. 

In August, 1840, accompanied by his wife, — Ferdinanda Emilie 
Hecker, whom he had married after an engagement of fourteen years, 



566 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

his children, and William H. Klinge/ a native of Hanover, and Sophie 
Ditchmar (whom Klinge married in 1841), he sailed from Bremen for 
America, and on their arrival joined his brother Wilhelm. 

Wilhelm Wesselhoeft had been investigating, practicing and teaching 
the principles of homeopathy since his arrival in America and when Doc- 
tor Konstantin Hering, a pupil of Hahnemann in Leipsic, came to Penn- 
sylvania in 1832, they founded a homeopathic institute in Allentown. Wil- 
helm Wesselhoeft had also formed the Northampton County Society of 
Laymen and Physicians, the first homeopathic society in the country. 

Robert studied under Wilhelm in Allentown, pursued courses in the 
University of Pennsylvania leading in the year 1841 to the doctorate of 
medicine, and in 1843 received a degree from the University of Basel 
upon presentation of a dissertation on his observations in connection with 
the epidemic of scarlet fever in the summer and autumn of that year. 

An examination of the spring water in the vicinity of Allentown failed 
to encourage him to attempt in that region his experiments in hydro- 
therapeutics. He therefore removed from Allentown and began the 
practice of homeopathy with his brother Wilhelm in Cambridgeport, 
Massachusetts, and later in Boston. Here he occasionally made applica- 
tion of water with satisfactory results. Among his patients was Mrs. 
Lovell Farr^ of Brattleboro, who had been given up by her physicians, 
but was restored to health under the new system. She persuaded Doctor 
Wesselhoeft to visit Brattleboro, in the hope that he would find conditions 
favorable for founding an institution here. 

In a letter to Horace Greeley Doctor Wesselhoeft sets forth the advan- 
tages of Brattleboro as a location for the enterprise : 

The temperature is milder than at Graefenburg, or even on the sea- 
shore of New England. About two thousand inhabitants are settled 
around and above a hill bordered by the Connecticut River. Fresh 
springs issue from all the hills. The water is the purest I could find 
among several hundred springs I have- visited and tested, from Virginia 
to the White Mountains, within two hundred miles from the seacoast. 
It is only here that I have not found them impregnated with sulphate 
of lime. . . . Most beautiful natural walks lead to each spring within a 
mile. Hills and green woods invite the patient on every side. 

Mr. John H. Gray, a wealthy Bostonian then living in Brattleboro, who 

1 Mr. Klinge died July 5, 1902, aged ninety-one years six months. Children : 
Ferdinand of Holyoke, Massachusetts; William of Baltimore, born 1848; Mrs. 
F. B. Walker. 

2 Lovell Farr and wife, Mrs. Lucia Farr, removed to Galena, Illinois, in 18S8. 

Children: Elizabeth L., married Lucius L. .Day; Lucia T., married Nitchie; 

Augusta; Robert. 



THE WESSELHOEFT WATER-CURE 567 

had recovered his health in a water-cure of Europe, became interested and 
with other gentlemen of fortune furnished the capital required. 

In 1844 two adjoining buildings, located on Elliot Street, were pur- 
chased of Ashbel Dickinson for $3000. Early in 1845 they were 
remodeled and additions were made. Mr. Gray came from Boston, 
bringing Mr. Klinge, whose business was to make mattresses and gen- 
erally furnish the bedrooms. Klinge engaged boys and girls to pick 
hair, at two cents a pound. As he was already familiar with the treat- 
ment as practiced by Doctor Wesselhoeft in Boston, he undertook the 
superintendence of the water and bathing department. 

Arrangements and appliances were necessary which were unheard of 
in a rural community. Rubbing baths, as massage was unknown, light 
gymnastics for women and the training of nurses and assistants needed 
for the work were, at first, under the instruction and supervision of Mrs. 
Wesselhoeft. Wood stoves were required in the bathrooms for adjusting 
the temperature to the patients. 

From the time it was opened. May 29, 1845, with fifteen patients, 
there was an almost immediate increase to one hundred and forty and 
one hundred and fifty. The west building owned by Lovell Farr was 
bought the following winter and forty-five rooms opened "exclusively 
to the gentlemen," the east building, which was known as "Paradise 
Row," being given to the ladies. The buildings were connected in front by 
a salon for music and dancing, and in the rear by an additional building, 
having between them a spacious yard with a fountain.^ 

In the spring of 1846 there were three hundred and ninety-two 
patients, and the influx of strangers was so great that they overflowed 
into the hotels and boarding houses of the village, until all were filled.^ 
Doctor Samuel G. Howe and Julia Ward Howe, his wife, with their 
children, were among them. Doctor Howe pronounced it "finer than 
any German Spa." 

In a letter from Julia Ward Howe to Mrs. Louisa (Ward) Craw- 
ford (Biography of Julia Ward Howe, Vol. I, pp. 118-119), Mrs. Howe 
says: 

We left dear old Brattleboro on Sunday afternoon, serenely packed 

1 Captain Nathaniel Bliss was the carpenter who built the Wesselhoeft Water- 
Cure buildings. He built a bridge over the Connecticut River and two over the 
West River, the "Church on the Common," the American House, the Holbrook 
house on the Common, the residence of N. B. Williston, the Brown house on 
Chase Street, the "Long Building" on Main Street and many others. He was 
possessed of unusual skill and faithfulness in all of his undertakings, and was 
a man of integrity, with remarkable habits of industry. 

- The receipts in some years amounted to $25,000. 



THE WESSELHOEFT WATER-CURE 569 

in our little carriage; the good old boarding-house woman kissed me 
and presented me with a bundle containing cake, biscuit and whortle- 
berries. Chev. and I felt well and happy, the children were good, the 
horses went like birds, and showed themselves horses of good mettle by 
carrying us over a distance of one hundred miles in less than two days. 
Very pleasant was our little journey. 

A <- 1 1 1 c 1 c Julia Ward Howe. 

August 14, 1846. ■' 

In 1847, a building in the rear of the establishment was erected, 
containing a dining-hall for one hundred persons, a culinary depart- 
ment, laundry, carpenter's workshop, icehouse, more bathing rooms, and 
offices for medical and clerks' staff. 

Each house in 1849 contained, besides rooms for patients, large 
plunges of running water twenty-five feet long by forty-five wide and 
four deep, all sorts of tub baths, etc. At a distance of less than half a 
mile were out-of-door baths among the trees under the high bank on 
the borders of the Whetstone. A footbridge was built across the Whet- 
stone, south of the Water-Cure to the springs under the bank, along 
Canal Street, and in 1847 the patients, under the direction of Mr. 
Robert H. Gardiner of Maine, constructed a path to the woolen mill 
and another on the opposite side of the brook to the Aqueduct, from 
Elliot Street to a point near Centerville and from there back on higher 
ground to the starting point. The former was named "The Gardiner 
Path," in honor of Mr. Gardiner, and the latter "Aqueduct Path." 

A rule was made that each patient coming to the Wesselhoeft should 
contribute a dollar toward keeping the paths in repair. A regular 
account was kept of receipts and expenditures and each contributor, 
becoming a stockholder, had the right of suggesting improvements. 
Bathhouses were built at different places, near the springs, along the 
Gardiner Path, and on Aqueduct Path there was made a thatched sum- 
mer house, provided with seats, which received the suggestive name of 
"Eagle's Nest." This was a favorite place of resort in pleasant weather. 
These paths, winding along the hillside, through the woods, beside run- 
ning water, and in so secluded a place, added greatly to the pleasure 
of the patients, and to the prestige of the place as a summer resort. 

The thoroughness, intelligence and enthusiasm with which the problems 
of the experiment were met, gave it, from the outset, a unique position and 
importance among all similar experiments in America. 

In 1848 when the number of patients proved too many for the super- 
vision of any one man. Doctor Wesselhoeft was fortunate in securing 
the services of Doctor Charles W. Grau as assistant physician. 



670 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

In natural endowment, general culture and varied experience Doctor 
Grau was a remarkable man. There seemed to be few departments of 
life with which he was unfamiliar, as he was a great reader of books 
in seven languages. 

His ancestors were peasants in Germany, and gained a livelihood by 
tilling the soil. The Duke of Hesse-Cassel had been out hunting, and, 
losing his way, his horse encountered a morass. Finding it impossible 
to extricate himself from the perilous position, he called for help. A 
plain, honest peasant, named Grau, came to his rescue and pulled him 
out of the mud. In gratitude for this act of kindness the duke pro- 
posed to make him a noble, but the sturdy old man refused the offer; 
he however accepted the title of "First Commoner," with a coat of 
arms which consisted of two crossed whips. The duke also requested 
the peasant to send his son to him to be educated. He finally consented 
and the son went to the university, where he became distinguished 
as a scholar. After his graduation he rose rapidly until he received 
an important office under the government. The duke, pleased with the 
brilliant progress made by the former peasant boy, decreed that hence- 
forth the eldest son of the Grau family having male issue, should have 
a free education at the University of Marburg. A brother of Doctor 
Grau received the benefit of the duke's bequest and he himself was 
educated at the same institution. 

After Doctor Grau graduated he started for Berlin, where he pro- 
posed to continue the study of medicine. On his way he was induced 
to stop at Jena and attend a course of lectures to be given by an eminent 
botanist. Having studied medicine and surgery he was appointed to 
attend the duels that took place between the students at the university, 
and so long as he was there, at two o'clock of each day a red carriage 
appeared at his door to carry him to the dueling ground. Some eight 
or ten duels took place each day between the students, and as they 
fought with two-edged swords, the doctor generally found use for his 
plasters, thread and needles. At the close of the lectures he continued 
to make botany a study, and was finally appointed professor in the uni- 
versity from which he graduated. He was sent to Asia Minor by the 
university to study the palm in all its varieties. 

At a later period he took part in some of the German revolutions and 
through the influence of his father-in-law, Herr Seibert, a government 
official, he was induced to leave Germany for America. 

He remained with Doctor Wesselhoeft several years, and afterwards 
went into private practice in the town. 

Doctor Grau made the first doctor's prescription ever seen here, and 
the clerk was so proud of his share in the effort that he numbered the 



THE WESSELHOEFT WATER-CURE 571 

prescription one thousand and one, instead of one. He was the author 
of the map of drives around Brattleboro which served its purpose 
for more than fifty years, and editor of The Brattleborough Hydro- 
pathic Messenger, a monthly journal commenced in 1858 in the interests 
of the Water-Cure, but which was discontinued in 1860. A Green Moun- 
tain Spring Monthly Journal, edited and pubHshed by Doctor Wesselhoeft 
himself, had reached a circulation of 30,000 copies in 1851. "Medical 
Gymnastics," with illustrations, by Charles William Grau was published 
in 1859. After the death of Doctor Grau, October 19, 1861, his wife 
and four children returned to Germany. His son graduated from the 
University of Marburg under the provisions made by the Duke of 
Hesse-Cassel, as his brother died without issue. The remains of Doctor 
Grau are buried near the brow of the hill in Prospect Hill Cemetery, 
where a broken column marks his resting place. 

Native ability amounting to a genius for his profession and devotion 
to the welfare of patients, beyond any question of personal or material 
reward, were the main elements in Doctor Wesselhoeft's success. Pa- 
tients were never allowed to deviate a hair's breadth from rules and 
regulations laid down by their physician, on principles he believed to be 
sound. A disciplinarian by conviction and temperament, he sometimes 
offended, for the moment, a patient who did not perceive the true and 
kind' heart that beat underneath a certain brusqueness of speech or 
manner. But no one was ever refused or turned away from lack of 
money, and although "medical advice, board, lodging and attendance 
at baths" were offered at only $10 a week, there were cases when that 
expense could not be met. 

Of the process of cure employed by Doctor Wesselhoeft he gives the 
following detailed account: 

The patient is waked about four o'clock in the morning, and wrapped 
in thick woollen blankets almost hermetically; only the face and some- 
times the whole head remains free; all other contact of the body with 
the air being carefully prevented. Soon the vital warmth streams out 
from the patient, and collects round him, more or less according to his 
own constitution and the state of the atmosphere. After a while he 
begins to perspire, and he must continue to perspire till his covering 
itself becomes wet. During this time his head may be covered with cold 
compresses and he may drink as much fresh water as he likes. Windows 
and doors are opened in order to promote the flow of perspiration by the 
entrance of fresh, vital air. As soon as the attendant observes that 
there has been perspiration enough, he dips the patient into a cold bath, 
which is ready in the neighborhood of the bed. As soon as the first 



572 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

shock is over he feels a sense of comfort, and the surface of the water 
becomes covered with clammy matter, which perspiration has driven 
out from him. The pores, which have been opened by the process of 
perspiration, suck up the moisture with avidity, and, 'according to all 
observations, this is the moment when the wholesome change of matter 
takes place, by which the whole system gradually becomes purified. In 
no case has this sudden change of temperature proved to be injurious. 

In the summer "packing," one of the principal baths given, com- 
menced even earlier in the morning. As soon as the patient came out 
of his bath he was sent out to walk and to drink of the pure spring 
water. Meals were all plainly prepared and consisted of only a few 
varieties. At breakfast the principal articles of food were bread and 
butter, mush and milk; at dinner, soup, one kind of meat, — either beef 
or mutton, — vegetables and a plain pudding ; at supper, the same as at 
breakfast with the addition of fruit. No tea or coffee was permitted. 

But Doctor Wesselhoeft was no blind devotee of any system. In 1848 
he wrote : "I shall also direct my attention to cases in which the adminis- 
tration of certain medicines seems to me called for by the symptoms. . . . 
I shall not hesitate to employ medicines during a water cure. . . . Because 
one thing is good the other does not become bad. The misuse is all of 
which we may accuse each other." 

Again : "I profess only the homeopathic system and do not use any 
other remedies than such as are tried according to its principles, but I am 
far from prescribing the old principles of administering medicine contra- 
rio contrarius." 

This spirit of electicism was maintained in the face of bitter reproaches 
from the lay public and from the strict apostles of Priessnitz. 

The art of life lived in the open air as practiced by Europeans, still 
unknown in this country, was introduced to his patients by Doctor Wes- 
selhoeft ; breakfast and luncheon on the verandas, needlework and read- 
ing aloud by groups in sequestered nooks, walking at all times and in 
all directions, archery and picnics in favoring weather were features of 
his curriculum. By means of open wagons, stagecoaches and horse- 
back, where nature was most alluring picnickers would gather. A feat 
of the many who enjoyed mountain climbing was the building of a 
log house of three stories on the summit of Wantastiquet ; projections 
on each story were wide enough to stand on. 

Simple games were played by patients of all ages, and Wednesday and 
Saturday evenings were set apart for dancing, with Christian F. Schus- 
ter at the piano, the evening concluding with a German dance, "The 
Nine-Pin," a kind of perpetual motion being its chief merit. 



THE WESSELHOEFT WATER-CURE 573 

Many of the Germans driven to this country by the Revolution of 
1848 on their arrival turned to Doctor Wesselhoeft for counsel and 
assistance ; among them was the talented musician, Christian F. Schuster, 
born in Mainz, Germany, a master of many instruments, who, as a 
member of the Germania Band, gave the first trombone solo heard in 
New York. Doctor Wesselhoeft brought him to Brattleboro to take 
charge of the music at the Water-Cure. Mr. Schuster soon acquired 
large classes of pupils in this village and the smaller villages of the 
county for instruction in pipe organ, piano and violin playing, and was 
himself organist of the Centre Church nineteen years. The annual 
concert given by his pupils drew a large audience of summer visitors 
and leading citizens. 

To Mr. Schuster this community owed its remarkably discriminating 
taste and the many associations for the cultivation of music which, 
during nearly fifty years, gave a special aroma to the life. He married in 
1853 Ann E., the daughter of Reverend Addison Brown, by whom he 
had four children. After her death, and a second marriage, he moved 
with his family to Greenfield and died there June 12, 1904. 

Amateur theatricals were very popular and patients and guests of 
the Water-Cure were assisted by the best talent from the village, the 
Burdett (Riley) and Miller Glee Club acting as orchestra. Fourth of 
July was a favorite day with the Doctor, and it was never permitted 
to pass without appropriate observance. The^ Declaration of Independ- 
ence was read, and speeches were made. Fireworks and a dance in the eve- 
ning closed the festivities. 

The spacious buildings, with billiard-rooms, bowling alleys, parlors 
for music and conversation, and an open piazza three hundred feet in 
length, with romantic paths along the streams and through woods near 
at hand, and a beautiful country beyond, brought to this resort, apart 
from its remedial agency, some of the best and most refined people of 
this and other lands. Parents were attracted by boarding schools for 
their children in a village, as the prospectus of the old Academy had it, 
"presenting a state of society in an unusual degree enlightened and 
polished, making it a highly favorable seat of education." "Hydropathic 
Balls" became a fashionable function to which society was attracted from 
afar. 

Almost every state in the Union was represented among the guests. 
It was especially popular with Southerners before the war. Of the 
lists of guests available, nearly one-third were registered from the South. 
In September, 1849, ex-President Martin Van Buren, his son, and two 
sons of John C. Calhoun were here. In 1851 Mr. and Mrs. John Stod- 
dard and their five children came from Savannah, and were so charmed 



574 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

by the situation that he erected on School Street, as a summer home, 
the house whose last owner was General Julius J. Estey. General 
Buckner of New Orleans, who was chief of General Johnston's staff 
at the time of his surrender to Major-General Sherman, also bought 
land in 1859, to be used as a summer residence for his son-in-law, Mr. 
J. B. Eustis, United States senator from Louisiana. This is the place 
at the upper end of High and Green Streets now owned by Mrs. Crowell. 
Doctor Wesselhoeft was taken ill in 1851, went to Germany, and 
died there in 1852. His estate was settled by L. G. Mead and N. B. 
Williston. Mrs. Wesselhoeft, with the cooperation of her son. Doctor 
Conrad, attempted to carry on his work until, through other changes 
in the personnel of the institution and the gradual decline in popularity 
of the treatment, the Cure was given up. She then went to Boston with 
her sons, Doctor Conrad and Doctor Walter, who became practicing physi- 
cians in that city. 

Madame Wesselhoeft was greatly beloved by the people of Brattle- 
boro, who cherished only happy memories of the old "Establishment,"^ 
as it was commonly called, and of the noble family to which it owed 
its life. 

Their family residence in Brattleboro was the brick house on the corner 
of High and Bullock Streets, purchased from Mr. Gray. 
Children born in Germany : 
Doctor Conrad, married, 1840, Miss Elizabeth (Foster) Pope of Dor- 
chester, Massachusetts; died December 18, 1904. 
Minna, born 1835; married, 1851, Morrity Otto; died March 10, 1913. 
Reinhold, born 1837 ; commissioned second lieutenant in the Twentieth 
Massachusetts Regiment ; was drowned in the Potomac during the 
disaster of Ball's Bluff October 21, 1861. 
Doctor Walter, born 1838; studied at Halle and Jena, 1855-1858; Har- 
vard Medical School, 1859 ; married,186S, Miss Mary Eraser of Hah- 
fax, Nova Scotia; she died in 1886 leaving 
Children : 

Ferdinanda Emilie, married Reverend Willard Reed. 
Selma, died. 
Mary Eraser. 

Amy, married Robert von Erdberg. 
Eleanor, married Percy Hutchinson. 

Robert of New York, a civil engineer, married Miss Lucile Mach- 
ado. 
Doctor Conrad of Boston, married, second, Frances, daughter of Pro- 
fessor Kittredge of Harvard University. 
1 fitablissement des Bains. 



THE LAWRENCE WATER-CURE 575 

Doctor Walter married, second, in 1874, Miss Mary Alford Leavitt of 
Cambridge, Massachusetts. He died July, 1920. 
Children born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to Doctor and Mrs. Robert 
Wesselhoeft : 

Bertha, born September 9, 1841; married, 1863, Humphrey H. Swift; 

died 1911. . 1162736 

Emma, born January 9, 1843 ; married, 1874, Arthur Searles. 

Selma, born in Boston June 29, 1846. 

The writings of Doctor Wesselhoeft were, one and all, called forth by 
some personal experience or by the reaction of his mind on the questions 
of the time. In papers controversial in aim, the prevailing tone is tem- 
perate and judicial. His style is always characterized by simplicity and 
directness. He sometimes wrote under the name Kahldorf. 

His published works were : 

Karl Ludwig Sand as seen through his Letters and Journals. 1821. 
Altenburg. 

Various Essays in Rotteck's Political Annals, Bran's Mining, etc., be- 
tween the years 1822 and 1831. 

German Youth in former Student Societies and Magdeburg. 1828. 

Johannes Wit, named von Darring and his later Writings. 1829. Jena. 

On the Intelligence of the Time and the Possibility with a Liberal Ma- 
jority to control the State. 1830. Leipzig. 

Letters on the Nobility to Count von Moltke, with a Preface by Hein- 
rich Heine— (being a criticism of Von Moltke's Justification of the insti- 
tution of hereditary nobility). Nuremberg. Hamburg. 

Golden Jubilee of the Rector Benedict Wilhelm of Kloster Rosleben. 
(A biographical sketch of his old teacher.) 1838. Weimar. 

Berlin and Rome : Non-partisan Reflections on the Conflict of the Prus- 
sian Goyernment with the See of Rome by Kahldorf. 1838. Leipzig. 

Essay, Some Remarks on Dr. O. W. Holmes' Lectures pn Homeopathy 
and its Kindred Delusions. 1842. 

Monaldi : a Romance by the American Artist Washington Allston — a 
translation into German by von Kahldorf. 1843. Leipzig. 

Dissertation, On the Scarlet Fever Epidemic in the United States in the 
Summer and Autumn of 1842. Basel. 1843. 

Description of the Brattleboro Hydropathic Establishment with a Re- 
port of 563 cases treated there during the years 1845, 1846. 1847. 

The Lawrence Water-Cure 

There were other attempts to continue the water treatment in Brattle- 
boro. Bayard Clark, a wealthy gentleman from New York who had 
been restored to health while under treatment at the Wesselhoeft, desir- 



576 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

ing to assist William H. Klinge, superintendent of the bathing depart- 
ment, who had been of service to him, purchased the house opposite 
the Water-Cure, owned by Zelotes Dickinson, and let Mr. Klinge open 
it as a boarding house for the accommodation of those unable to get 
rooms at the Wesselhoeft. Mr. Dickinson presented Mr. Klinge with a 
spring of water and the latter prevailed upon Mr. Clark to loan him 
more money for the purpose of opening a water-cure on a small scale. 
Doctor Grau was admitted to partnership and the house was opened 
in July, 1853. The enterprise promised success, and in a short time 
the house was filled with patients. Desiring to do even better, a plan 
was formed to enlarge, and in the fall and winter the old house was 
moved away and a new one built, that part of the present building west 
of the tower. It was opened in May, 1853, and received the name of 
Lawrence Water-Cure, in honor of the family of Mrs. Clark. For three 
years the establishment prospered but by an unexpected change in financial 
matters, Mr. Clark disposed of his interest to Darius Davison of New 
York, who mortgaged it to William Browne of the same city. A further 
enlargement was made, — the tower and the dining-hall being built. Mr. 
Davison agreed to meet the expense, but failed to do so ; Doctor Grau and 
Mr. Klinge were compelled to take current receipts for that purpose. 
This embarrassed them and impaired their business. The nominal owner- 
ship was then transferred to Joseph Davison and later to a sister. Miss 
Davison. Finally Doctor Grau and Mr. Klinge relinquished their connec- 
tion with the establishment. 

In 1857 Emil Apfelbaum came to the Lawrence Water-Cure to be 
superintendent of the house. He was a Prussian, born in 1829, who had 
studied law until his health failed, when he took the position of traveling 
salesman for a wine merchant ; four years later, on the death of his father, 
he came to America, and studied hydropathy with Doctor Jjmes C. 
Jackson of the Glen Haven Water-Cure. 

He had a powerful singing voice, and had received a good musical edu- 
cation in his'native country, which gave him a place in the musical circles 
of the town, where he was always conspicuous on account of his imposing 
stature, — being seven feet in height — with a very long black beard in due 
proportion to his figure. He married here Miss Augusta Apfel, who had 
taught German and French in Miss Willard's School in Troy, New York, 
and in Miss Stone's School in Greenfield, Massachusetts, before giving 
the same lessons in Brattleboro. In 1870 he entered the employ of the 
Estey Company as bookkeeper. Mrs. Apfelbaum died in 1899, when he 
entered the Gill Odd Fellows Home, and died there in January, 1913. 

In 1859 Doctor Grau and Doctor C. R. Blackall, assisted by Doctor 
William Wier, leased the Thomas place on Birge Street for patients, but 



THE WESSELHOEFT WATER-CURE 577 

it fell into the possession of William Browne in 1861 and was kept 
as a summer hotel or boarding house by Mr. Apfelbaum and H. Ernst 
Heppe of New York until 1868-1869, when one of the Knowltons bought 
the house. The buildings of both "Cold Water Establishments" were sold 
to Theodore Cole, Parker B. Francis and Leroy Salisbury, who used them 
as summer hotels, attracting between six hundred and eight hundred 
guests annually. 

Until 1851 visitors to Brattleboro had arrived by stages and private 
carriages, but in that year the railroad was finished and the place became 
more accessible. From that time visitors were met at the "depot" by the 
village coach driven by Tom Miner. There was no baggage-express, 
and the piles of trunks on the back were amazing in number, as was the 
vigor with which Tom swung them on. His familiar figure has remained 
in the memory of the generation that still misses the greeting with which 
he met his patrons, — the rumble of the coach and the cracking of his 
whip, which could be heard from the start the length of Main Street. 

In 1860 it was more crowded than at any time in its previous history 
and as late as 1865 The Phoenix stated that "strangers throng our village, 
hotels and boarding-houses are crowded, and private houses are urged to 
take boarders." In 1867-1868 more than thirteen boarding houses adver- 
tised in the local paper. 

This was a sort of aftermath to the former Water-Cure days, under 
the inspiration of Parker B. Francis, who in 1864 became proprietor 
of the "Wesselhoeft House and Cold Water Establishment." He had 
been a patient of Doctor Wesselhoeft, and his zeal for the hydropathic 
method was the motive that induced his purchase, and the effort to again 
make a sanitarium in the old buildings. His quick perceptions of the 
temperamental requirements of individuals, with a kind heart, fine man- 
ners and a native intelligence cultivated by contact with men of the 
world, made him the ideal host. He looked every inch a gentleman, and 
his patrons were glad to include him among their friends. Guided by 
firm convictions of right and wrong, his interest in questions of national 
import led him into the advocacy of many reforms, and as an abolitionist 
he was the /riend of Theodore Parker and Wendell Phillips. Yet an open 
mind and spirit enabled him to listen with sympathy to opposing views, 
which he weighed with deliberation and candor. His tact with the young 
gave him a share in their interests and pleasures. 

The Civil War was a great grief to Mr. Francis, chiefly because of his 
abhorrence of war as a means of settling disputes, but also as alienating 
old friends, while it proved a serious financial loss through the withdrawal 
of patronage by the southern people, resulting finally in his closing the 
Establishment. He continued to live here, but spent much time with his 



578 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO • 

married daughter in Hartford until 1886, when he bought a house in Lex- 
ington, Massachusetts, and in 1890 removed to his home town, Danvers. 
His first wife was Miss Asenath O. Marshall, who died October 8, 1873, 
aged fifty. He married, second, January 29, 1882, Miss Eleanor C. Van 
Amringe, who died in 1886. A son by this marriage was born June 1, 
1886. 

Adding greatly to the charm of the life was the good feeling that 
existed between the residents of the village and the stranger within its 
gates. They met on a high level of social sympathy, which created an 
atmosphere favorable to individual joy and expansion. 

Mrs. Henry B. Angell, who, as Martha Bartlett of Boston, was at the 
Water-Cure in 1851, remarked to the editor of these Annals at the end of 
a long life, — ninety-one years, — that she had not found any resort in 
Europe comparable to Brattleboro in that respect. Another traveler has 
spoken of the "magnetism of old Brattleborough." 

Many New Yorkers brought with them horses and carriages, and expen- ■ 
sive turnouts with liveried coachmen, and tested the reputation of the 
town for having a new and delightful drive for every day in the month. 
On summer afternoons the line of carriages in waiting for their owners 
extended from the Water-Cure buildings on Elliot Street to Main. 

Fanny Fern wrote of these drives: "It is strange to me that every one 
doesn't live in Brattleborough. There is not an ugly walk or drive in 
the whole town. I'm exhausted admiring things. I sat on the coachman's 
box yesterday, and forbade him, as we drove along, to tell me of any 
more 'Broad Brook roads,' and 'Cascades,' or 'waterfalls,' 'till I was able 
to bear it. That's the state I am in, and Vermont is answerable for it." 
Left a widow in 1851 with two little girls, Fanny Fern wrote for The 
New York Ledger an article every day for sixteen years, beginning in 
1856. Seventy thousand copies of her "Fern Leaves" were sold in the 
United States. "Little Ferns for Fanny's Little Friends" sold to the 
number of sixty-two thousand in the United States, and forty-eight 
thousand in England. She was a noble-looking woman who walked like 
a queen and was far removed from the type of the authoress of that day. 
When a girl in Catherine Beecher's school, Hartford, her habit, was to curl 
her hair on leaves torn out of Euclid. 

More often enjoyed than any other was the drive to Bliss Farm, as 
within a radius of a few miles it included so much of the natural beauty 
characteristic of the Vermont landscape, — mountain and river, fields and 
woodlands carpeted with wild flowers, the trailing arbutus not yet up- 
rooted from the natural soil, the shaded roads along a cool, stony, trout 
brook on whose banks ferns and maidenhair loved to grow and, at the 
crown of the hill, the backward look on the supreme view. 



THE WESSELHOEFT WATER-CURE 579 

Another objective in the same general direction was the Scott Farm, 
where Rufus Scott settled in 1840. At the height of the Water-Cure's 
prosperity and for many years afterwards, suppers of brook trout and 
waffles with maple syrup were served at his house to order. The names 
of those who partook of that delectable fare were registered in the Scott's 
Visitors' Book, — still in existence, — the beaux and belles of the elite, 
with comments attached in verse or by penciled sketch ; many an old 
romance unknown to the present generation, or long since forgotten, is 
therein revealed. 

The river was utilized for boating, as it has never been since the Water- 
Cure period, by summer guests drawn thither by the moving beauty of 
the landscape; for the same river that loiters past meadows above and 
below Brattleboro, here enters a narrow and winding valley clothed with 
a luxurious greenness, and rushes between a densely wooded mountain 
and terraces irregular in height and direction made by the West River and 
Whetstone Brook in conjunction with the Connecticut, at the entrance of 
the valley north and south. The Wickopee Club was one among several 
boat clubs. 

An invitation to a boat race we have here : 

JULY FOURTH 1 



Pic-Nic, Regatta, Archery, Wherry Race, &c. 



A general invitation is extended by the Committee of Arrangements, 
to all whose tastes would lead them to a quiet and social enjoyment of 
the Anniversary, to join in a Pic-Nic at the Grove on the west bank of 
the Connecticut, near Norcross' Ferry. 

The arrangement, so far as perfected, proposes a three mile Regatta 
between the race boats, "Buckner Brothers," "Surprise" and "Eureka," 
at 10 A. M., for a Prize Flag and pair of Boat Hooks. 

At 11 o'clock, the Ladies will compete in Archery, the victor to receive 
a laurel wreath and Silver Arrow. 

At 12 o'clock the contents of the individual baskets will be partaken of. 

At 1 o'clock, a Wherry Race, for a champion flag, open to all competi- 
tors. 

This poem was written for the Boat Club Levee, March 31, 1859, by 
an unknown author. 

Where the swift waters flow 
In the soft summer's glow; 



580 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

On the bright tide, 
Down toward the sunny sea 
Light breezes blowing free, 
Cheerily, merrily, 

Gently we glide. 

Where the strong currents sweep 
Down by the mountain's steep. 

And the winds roar. 
And the chafed waters chide 
Up 'gainst the opposing tide, 
Will we with manly pride 

Bend to the oar. 

So when life's current flows 
Rippling 'neath skies of rose. 

Mid mirth and song. 
With the bright heaven above 
Onward we gently move. 
O'er the soft tide of love 

Floating along. 

And when the torrent strong 
Of passion, woe, and wrong 

Against us pours. 
Will we with hearts as high. 
Gallantly, manfully 
Struggling for victory. 

Bend to our oars. 

Among the patients and guests at the Water-Cure were the poet Long- 
fellow and his brother Samuel; Miss Katherine Beecher; Doctor Kane, 
the Arctic explorer^ (his name, carved on the trunk of a mighty pine' 
beyond the Miles School, was legible as late as 1865 ; under the shade of 
this tree he would rest after the long walk and enjoy his favorite view 
of the West River Valley) ; Mr. and Mrs. James Parton, the nom-de- 
plume of the latter being "Fanny Fern" ; Count Gurowski ; Baron van 
Limburg, minister from The Hague, and his wife, a daughter of General 
Cass; James Russell Lowell; Professor Jared Sparks of Cambridge; 
Major E. G. Halpine, known as "Private Miles O'Reilly" ; Helen Hunt, 

1 After the Grinnell expedition in search of Sir John Franklin spent some months 
here. 

^ The American Forestry Association has nominated the Kane Pine to a place 
in their Hall of Fame for Trees. 



THE WESSELHOEFT WATER-CURE 581 

afterwards Mrs. Jackson; Count La Porte, Harvard professor, who in 
1830 was minister of finance under Charles X of France; Alfred 
Schemerhorn, Philip Hone, George T. Strong, Meredith Howland, Robert 
L. Cutting, Richard H. Dana of New York and his sister Juliette, who 
married General Viele; from Boston, F. Hunnewell, S. B. Slesinger, 
James Lodge, E. T. Loring, F. W. Perkins, H. Amory, Captain John Cod- 
m'an and others; from New Haven, several members of the Trowbridge 
family and Edward H. Townsend; Mr. and Mrs. Rufus King and George 
Ward Nichols from Cincinnati; Miss Caroline Keyes of Putney; Mrs. 
Isaac H. Hornblower and her daughter Emily, who married one of the 
Williamson family of New Jersey, and returned as a summer visitor from 
time to time as long as she lived; Francis Boott and his sister, Mrs. 
Frances B. Greenough of Boston, with her children ; the Misses Parker ; 
Miss Myra Finn, who became the wife of Colonel Charles A. Miles, and 
her sister Caroline ; Charles O. Simpson and his daughter Anna, who 
came year after year (Mr. Simpson gave the name Staubbach, after the 
famous German waterfall, to the nearly perpendicular drop of sixty feet, 
where the water of Fall Brook on its way to West River, beyond West 
Dummerston, runs over an abrupt ledge of rock) ; Edward Yorke and 
his two accomplished daughters. Miss Sarah, who married Cornelius 
Stevenson of Philadelphia, and Miss Mary, who taught French in Brat- 
tleboro and later married Maurice, son of Charles Kingsley, the author 
of "Westward Ho !" ; Senator Fessenden of Maine ; ex-Governor Seymour 
of New York, and — after the war — General George McClellan, General 
William T. Sherman, General Charles Devens, William D. Howells, Count 
and Countess Esterhazy of the Austrian legation; and of those who 
became permanent residents. Captain Henry Devens and a sister; Mrs. 
Richard Howland and her sister, Miss Martha Barker; Mr. and Mrs. 
Joseph N. Balestier; Doctor and Mrs. Francis J. Higginson; Honorable 
George Folsom and his family; Mr. James Dalton and his sister. Miss 
Caroline Dalton; Professor Elie Charlier; Mr. and Mrs. William H. 
Fuller and their five daughters. 

Mrs. Walden Pell, a widow with six interesting daughters, was living 
in the Blake mansion in 1848-1849. She had a French governess for her 
children, and a dancing school to which a few favored children of friends 
were admitted. She moved to the house where Miss Peck had her school, 
southwest of the Common, and finally to a brick house, corner of High 
and Bullock Streets. 

Very early in the history of the town, there were families in Brattleboro 
whose minds and manners were those of citizens of the world. Nothing 
provincial could be associated with the names Wells, Blake, Tyler, Hunt, 



582 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Hall, Chapin, nor of many more who carried forward a like standard into 
succeeding generations. Coming to maturity in times favorable for de- 
velopment along natural lines, when the clergyman and the lawyer was 
also a farmer; the man of trade versed in theology; when charity was 
personal ; when there was time to assimilate experience, and each event 
as it passed under observation was retained by the memory, their human 
foundations were deep and strong, and their abounding wit had the tang 
of the soil. 

In the Water-Cure period, familiarity with the ways of people of other 
lands and kinds permeated the common consciousness and the prevailing 
attitude became one of hospitality to strangers and interest in their diver- 
sity; and for this reason, while Brattleboro was never a typical summer 
resort, — dependent for its economic existence on a transient population, — 
few inland towns have had a spirit so cosmopolitan without losing the 
local flavor and the simplicity of village life. This it was that gave the 
town its peculiar charm and gathered here, as by natural gravitation to an 
atmosphere conducive to individual expansion, men of various talents. 

No rigid line of separation was drawn between the men who maintained 
its business activities, the native-born whose careers were made elsewhere, 
and those who came summer after summer for one-half of the year. All 
belonged to Brattleboro. At no time in the history of the town has the 
growth in population equaled that of the years between 1850 and 1860. 

With the material prosperity that followed the Civil War there was a 
rapid increase of summer resorts at the seashore, and fashion turned 
away from the hill country. Then began the gradual decline of Brattle- 
boro as a place of summer visitors. In 1851 Stephen W. Kimball, who 
• was a native of Salem, Massachusetts, became an apprentice to a tanner 
in Braintree from fourteen until he was twenty-one. In 1860 he came 
to West Brattleboro and bought, with a Mr. Potter, the tannery owned 
by Jeremiah and Benjamin Beals. He carried on a tanning and currying 
business there until the tannery was destroyed by the freshet of 1869. 
In 1872 he moved to this village and bought an interest in the Lawrence 
Water-Cure. He had charge of converting the buildings into tenements 
in 1873 and occupied, one of them until 1882. 

The Wesselhoeft was sold by Mr. Francis in 1875 to his son-in-law, 
Henry P. Duclos, a Vermonter born in Sheldon in 1840, who, being mus- 
tered out here on his return from the war, married Mary B. Francis. 
They moved to Hartford, Connecticut, where he was superintendent of 
agencies of the Hartford Life and Annuity Company and was largely the 
cause of its prosperity; he died there in 1885. 

A quixotic devotion to animals, strangely out of relation to other char- 
acteristics of Mr. and Mrs. Duclos, was evinced by their wills. His 



THE WESSELHOEFT WATER-CURE 583 

money, after the death of his wife, was given to trustees for the care of 
two favorite horses, a white and yellow cat, and two dogs : when these 
animals were dead the money was to be given to the Massachusetts Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 

Mrs. Duclos lived on many years, absorbing her life more and more m 
pet animals, for whom she built a refuge at Valencia near Albany, New 
York, and whither she moved fifteen Mexican dogs, a "magnificent mas- 
tiflf," an Irish setter, several birds, cats without number, and fine blooded 
Jersey cows. She left by will $10,000 for the care of two miniature dogs. 
Midget, a tan toy terrier and Tiny, a Mexican Chihuahua, weighing less 
than two pounds, which were to be seen on the streets taking their daily 
exercise at the end of a leash, under the supervision of the Misses Miller 
(Misses Phila, Minnie and Gertrude) until released to the happy hunting 
grounds of the canine species. 

Mrs. Duclos gave her horses to William E. Putnam of Boston, with 
$33,500 in trust for their care. 

This letter by "Miss Farley" to The New York Star touches with life 
the memory of the days of Brattleboro's glory: 

It was about twenty years ago that I remember seeing Mrs. Helen Hunt 
at the old Wesselhoeft Hotel in Brattleboro, Vermont, though I had 
probably seen her earlier, as she, as well as my family, were in the habit 
of spending the autumn at that place. 

In those days Brattleboro was a lively place when the leaves were fall- 
ing, for it was a resort for many gay people, and the old hotel that was 
built for a water-cure establishment, was the scene of private theatricals, 
tableaux, Jarley's wax works, hops, and a starting point for picnic parties. 
I have a faint recollection of some of these gay afTairs, probably because 
it was the first time in my life that I was permitted to be present at any 
such entertainments; but, although I remember many names and faces 
that were foremost in these gayeties, I do not remember that Mrs. Hunt 
took an active part in any of them. Partly from my own recollections, 
and partly from what I have since learned from my relatives in talking 
over the occurrences of that autumn, it seems that the New Yorkers 
must have taken the lead. Miss Kitty Parker, who had a superb voice, 
and who has 'since married an Englishman [Osgood Field] was there 
with her sister, Mrs. J. N. Balestier, Mrs. Wells [William Henry] and 
the Misses Finn. Mrs. Hunt was the sensation. They say that she could 
not speak without saying something entirely different from what any 
other woman would have said. 

There were two other women at the hotel for a few days, who, if they 

have not become as famous as Mrs. Hunt, have earned enviable reputa- 

■ tions. One was Sallie Joy, who recited one evening, and who is now the 



584 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Mrs. White who is the president of the New England Woman's Press 
Association. The other was Miss Helen Folsom, whose plain black gown 
I well remember, with a cross at her side, who devoted her large fortune 
and her energies to founding in this city the Sisterhood of St. John 
Baptist, and who died some few years ago. Just previous to the time of 
which I write, her brother, George W. Folsom, had married one of the 
beautiful Fuller sisters, nieces of Margaret Fuller. 

I have been in Brattleboro only once since that autumn, and found the 
place much changed. The old Wesselhoeft is a tenement house, and 
fashion moved away from that part of the town to a part that seemed far 
less attractive in my eyes. The old rambling walks by the stream of 
water, where seats were placed beneath the trees, were all destroyed to 
give place to factories of various kinds. What it is now socially I do not 
know, only it must still be beautiful; for no changes can destroy its 
natural beauties. 

December 12, 1890. 

The Traveling Musician 

Alonzo H. Hines was born January 11, 1839, the son of Isaac and 
Hannah (Joy) Hines. Isaac Hines lived in the house on Green Street 
now known as the Samuel S. Hunt house and later built the house in 
which his son lived the greater part of his life. He was the carpenter 
who built most of the houses at the west end of Green Street and in the 
near-by neighborhood. 

Alonzo Hines upon finishing his studies entered the employ of his 
father and learned the trade of a carpenter, which he followed for a 
number of years, until he decided to devote his entire time to orchestral 
work. His early instruction on the piano was received from Professor 
Christian F. Schuster, his lessons with this famous musician continuing 
several years. 

Mr. Hines's career as a piano and organ player at dances extended over 
a period of fifty-two years. For about thirty years he used a quaint 
specimen of the folding organ of that period which he carried thou- 
sands of miles on his trips through the country. The instrument stood 
on four legs, on which were pointed nails to keep it from slipping about. 
A reminder of this old instrument is to be found on the platform of the 
hall at Jacksonville where the floor is punctured, in perhaps a hundred 
places. This is not to be wondered at when one is told that Mr. Hines 
played at the Thanksgiving Eve ball in Jacksonville for thirty consecutive 
years. 

The predecessor to the Philharmonic orchestra of this town was the 
Burnett and Higgins band organized in 1860 with Mr. Burnett violinist. 




CHRISTIAN F. SCHDSTER 




CORNET BAND 




HONORABLE CHARLES N, DAVENPORT 




RICHARDSON BROTHERS 



TRAVELING MUSICIANS 585 

Mr. Higgins cornetist, Mr. Norcross clarinetist, and Mr. Hines organist 
and prompter. For twenty-five years it furnished all the music for dances 
in the towns of Vernon, Whitingham, Dover, Wilmington, Readsboro, 
Wardsboro, Jamaica, Londonderry, Walpole, Westmoreland, Chesterfield, 
Hinsdale and Winchester. Countless stories are told of perilous trips 
made by those hardy musicians, among which is one Mr. Hines used to 
relate of a drive to South Londonderry in 1869 to play for a dance ; the 
West River had gone on a rampage and every bridge between Brattleboro 
and the destination of the musicians had been swept away ; the route 
followed by Mr. Hines and his companions was forty miles, but the orches- 
tra arrived on time. There was no way to cancel a date a few hours 
before the scheduled time and dance managers never attempted to do so 
on account of weather. If an orchestra had been hired to play on a certain 
evening, the musicians were expected to be there regardless of weather 
or any other conditions. Mr. Hines was never known to break an engage- 
ment, though his friends have told of numerous incidents in which harness 
and vehicle suffered damage before he arrived at the ball. On one occa- 
sion Mr. Hines and his associates left Brattleboro for a long drive into 
the West River country with the thermometer registering thirty-two 
degrees below zero. 

Mr. Hines was one of the most companionable of men, and it is related 
of him that he never found fault concerning the numberless inconven- 
iences which fell to the lot of traveling musicians in this part of the 
country from twenty-five to fifty years ago. That his old organ has seen 
use may be noted from the condition of the ivory, which has been entirely 
worn away on the keys in the center of the keyboard. 

He was organist of the old Baptist Church for a number of years and 
for a short time in the present church. For about fifteen years he played 
the organ in the Universalist Church. 

He died in December, 1911. 

Lewis S. Higgins came to Brattleboro as a stage driver in the Water- 
Cure days, worked at carpentering later, was in the employ of the Stanley 
Rule Company eighteen years, and for many years had a livery stable on 
Oak Street. 

Almost from the time of his appearance here, he sang bass and played 
either the violin or the bass viol, and he played and prompted at dances 
all through this section. In this capacity he was known to the younger 
generation as "Uncle" Lewis Higgins. 

Musical organizations of the fifties were: 

The Cotillion Band, formed December 12, 1849. Lewis M. Burdett, 



586 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

first violin; George Fowler, second violin; Oscar Sargent, cornet; A. 
Farr, ophicleide; A. Goodenough, prompter. 

The Brattleborough Brass Band, 1850. 

Brattleborough Musical Society, in the early fifties. 

A Quartette Club, 1856. Mrs. Henry Burnham, Riley Burdett, Robert 
G. Hardie, C. L. Whiting. 

Brattleborough Drum Corps, H. H. Hadley, leader, twenty-five pieces, 
in 1857. 

The earliest Cornet Band had Charles E. Ellis as leader, and J. F. 
Steen, clerk. Alonzo Bond of Boston, leader, 1858. 

Brattleborough Quadrille Band, 1859. 




BROWN'S WOOD WHIPPLE STREET FLAT STREET 



^IP* 



-.^<:' 



'♦-^ 










^^ 




RESIDENCE OF JOHN STODDARD 




HENRY CLARK 



It' 





WILLIAM P. CUNE 



D. STEWART PRATT 





RESIDENCE OF 
NORMAN F. CABOT 



RESIDENCE OF 
MRS. JOHN WELLS 



CHAPTER LI 

GUESTS OF THE WATER-CURE WHO 
BECAME RESIDENTS 

Guests of the Water-Cure who became residents — General Simon B. Buckner — 
John Stoddard— Captain Henry Devens — William H. Fuller — Joseph N. Balestier 
— James Dalton — Azor Marshall — Professor Elie Charlier. 

Mrs. Richard Rowland — Miss Martha Rowland — The Rowland School. 

General Simon B. Buckner was born on a Kentucky farm ; he gradu- 
ated at the United States Military Academy in 1844 and joined the 
Second Infantry. He was brevetted first lieutenant for gallant and 
meritorious conduct at the battle of Churubusco, Mexico, in August, 
1847, and captain for similar conduct three weeks later at MoHno del 
Rey. He resigned from the United States Army in March, 1855. He 
became brigadier-general in the Confederate Army in September, 1861, 
was a prisoner of war from February to August, 1862, and became lieu- 
tenant-general in 1864. General Buckner was governor of Kentucky 
from 1887 to 1891, and was candidate for vice-president of the United 
States on the Gold Democratic ticket in 1896. . 

John Stoddard was a native of Northampton, Massachusetts, and 
brother of Charles Stoddard, a well-known publisher of Boston. Pre- 
vious to the Civil War he was a planter of great wealth, owning the whole 
or a large part of the sea cotton- and rice-growing islands off the Georgia 
coast, but war stripped him of his possessions. 

In 1853 he built a house, designed by Richard Upjohn of New York, 
at a cost of $10,000, expending as much on the ground ; this was sold to 
Captain Henry Devens, by him in 1871 to Henry A. Willard of Washing- 
ton, and to General Julius J. Estey in 1873. 

Mr. Stoddard died in Savannah July 18, 1879, aged ninety. He was 
remembered by the older generation as a man of generous and admirable 
character. 

Captain Henry Devens was a member of an old and honorable family 
of Charlestown, Massachusetts, and a native of that town. His eldest 
brother, Thomas, always lived in the old family mansion in Charlestown ; 



588 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Richard, a younger brother, was for many years engaged in business in 
China ; Edward attained distinction in the United States Navy during 
the Civil War. 

Captain Devens, of Gossler & Company, Boston, New York and Ham- 
burg, was in the China trade in his younger days, saihng between Boston 
and China as captain and supercargo for twenty years, and was for many 
years the resident partner of the firm in China. For a long time this was 
the principal firm in this country that imported mattings. He was a very 
brave and able officer, and was said to have been the quickest man to 
dispose of a cargo who appeared on the wharves of his day. 

He came to Brattleboro in the early sixties, first to visit old family 
friends. Doctor Charles Chapin and his sister, Mrs. Harris, and stopped 
for a short time at the Wesselhoeft Water-Cure, when he bought the 
Stoddard place, and soon afterwards the building known as the Devens 
Block on Main Street. After coming here he furnished money to develop 
the Curtis screw machine business, Langdon & Curtis, and sent Mr. 
Curtis with it to Europe and to the Paris Exposition. He afterwards 
invented a paint for the purpose of keeping the bottoms of vessels free 
from barnacles. 

He married January 4, 1865, Cornelia, daughter of William H. Fuller 
of New York. When business compelled his return to China for a time, 
he sold his place in 1871, and bought the Judge Asa Keyes place on North 
Street. He died March 11, 1897, in the Bermudas, where he is buried. 
After his death his wife and children lived in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and 
the Bermudas, and traveled extensively in Europe, where Mrs. Devens 
died August 26, 1901, in Lucerne, Switzerland. 

Children : Frances F., married Colonel Charles Hamilton Vesturme- 
Bunbury' ; Cornelia ; Henry, born September 23, 1868, and died ; Winifred, 
born 1869, died 1874. 

William H. Fuller, son of Timothy and Margaret (Crane) Fuller, 
was born in Cambridgeport, Massachusetts, in 1817, a brother of Mar- 
garet Fuller, Countess d'Ossoli. He was at one time member of the 
firm of McDonald & Fuller, provision brokers in New York, and lived 
for a time in Cincinnati. He married Frances E., daughter of Daniel 
and Deborah (Hammond) Hastings, born December 23, 1819, who died 
May 18, 1885. He died January 5, 1878, aged sixty-one. Mrs. Fuller 
and her daughters, remarkable for their beauty, lived in the house above 
the Congregational Church on Main Street in the sixties. 
Children : 

Cornelia, married Captain Henry Devens. 

1 English Army. 



JOSEPH NER£E BALESTIER 589 

Margaret F., married October 26, 1865, William Frothingham; died 
December 9, 1873. A son, Samuel, born April 3, 1868, married April 
27, 1896, Elinor Gertrude, daughter of George Augustus Meyer of 
Boston. They live in Lenox. 

Frances, married George W. Folsom. (See p. 745.) 

Emily R., married April 10, 1871, Augustus A. Hayes. He was born at 
Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, in 1837, graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege in 1857, and spent some time in Brattleboro in the sixties. He 
went to Shanghai, for sixteen years was a member of the house of 
Olyphant & Company, and served at the defense of Shanghai against 
the Taiping rebels. Returning to Boston in 1874, he took up his resi- 
dence in New York. 

He was editor of The Hour, author of "New Colorado and the 
Sante Fe Trail," "The Denver Express," "Ranch of the Holy Cross," 
"The Jesuit's Ring," etc. He died in Paris in April, 1892. Their 
daughter, Emily, born in China, married, first, John Alvord of New 
York ; married, second, D. Br>-ant Turner of Denver. She died July 
4, 1916, leaving daughters Florence and Evelyn. 

Florence, married April 2, 1888, Joseph S. Whistler. He died . 

William H., died December 21, 1870, at Omaha, aged twenty-three. 

Julian. 

Joseph Neree Balestier was born on the island of Martinique, West 
Indies, April 1, 1814, and was brought to this country in infancy ; his 
boyhood was passed in New York City with the family of an elder 
brother. He graduated at the Columbia Law School and studied in the 
law office of Robert Sedgwick. He met, as a guest of Mr. Kinzie in 
charge of the Indian reservation at what is now Chicago, Caroline Starr 
Wolcott, daughter of Doctor Henry and Mary A. Starr Wolcott of Middle- 
town, Connecticut, whom he married in 1837. 

He was one of the pioneer settlers of Chicago, practicing law there 
from 1835 to 1841, and writing for The Chicago-American, a Whig 
daily. He became largely interested in Chicago real estate, having suffi- 
cient insight to prophesy its present greatness in an address delivered 
when it was a town of only five thousand people. He took an active part 
in the campaign for General Harrison in 1841, and was a speaker at cele- 
bration meetings in Chicago which followed the election of "old Tippe- 
canoe." An ardent Republican, he was sent as delegate to the conven- 
tion which nominated Abraham Lincoln. He was a charter member of the 
Century Club. He was a member of All Souls' Church in New York and 
an intimate friend of its pastor. Reverend Henry Bellows. 

Mr. and Mrs. Balestier spent a year and a half in European travel. 



590 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

which developed his natural passion for art into a discriminating taste. 
They had a valuable collection of paintings and engravings. 

]\Irs. Balestier was a direct descendant of Roger Wolcott, colonial gov- 
ernor of Connecticut, 1751-1754, and Oliver Wolcott (her grandfather), 
governor in 1796-1797, signer of the Declaration and brigadier-general at 
Saratoga. One of her uncles, the second Oliver Wolcott, was auditor 
of the treasury under Washington, and secretary under John Adams. Dur- 
ing the war Mrs. Balestier joined the Sanitary Commission as a regular 
nurse. She was in appearance, manners, intellectual capacity and charac- 
ter, worthy of her ancestry, a lady of true distinction. Attracted by the 
scenery at Brattleboro while on a visit to the Water-Cure, they bought 
land three miles from the village and in 1873 built a permanent residence 
there. Mr. Balestier died September 15, 1880 ; Mrs. Balestier died June 
1-4, 1901. 
Children: 

John A., lawyer in New York City, has a son, Elliot, who married 

December 5, 1894, Miss Agnes Jones of Cranford, New Jersey. 
Henry Wolcott, married in 1860 Anna, daughter of Honorable Peshine 
Smith of Rochester, New York, an international lawyer of interna- 
tional fame ; was adviser in that capacity to the Mikado, being prac- 
tically secretary of state for Japan covering a period of five years; 
he coined the word "telegram." Mr. Balestier died in 1870, aged 
thirty; Mrs. Balestier died March 22, 1919, aged eighty-one. Chil- 
dren: 

Charles Wolcott, born December 13, 1861 ; died in Dresden, Sax- 
ony, December 6, 1891. (See p. 979.) 
Caroline Starr, married January 19, 1892, Rudyard Kipling. (See 

p. 981.) 
Josephine, married February 18, 1897, Doctor Theodore Dunham of 

New York. Children: Theodore, Wolcott, Beatrice, Josephine. 
Beatty S., born March 6, 1867; married September 13, 1890, Mary 
Woodman, daughter of George A. Mendon; she died August 6, 
1909. A daughter, Marjorie, married Arthur Randall. 

Robert S., of Unadilla, New York, married Miss Fannie M. . 

Joseph N., married Miss Anna Ireland of Philadelphia. 

James Dalton was born in Boston January 10, 1828, the son of James 
and Elizabeth Tilden Dalton. He attended the public schools, and at 
seventeen went as sailor before the mast to India. After a second voyage, 
he engaged in a commission business in Calcutta for eighteen years, was 
in India at the time of the Sepoy Mutiny, and for two years subsequent 
to 1863 was in the tea culture in Assam; but having contracted jungle 



JAMES DALTON— AZOR MARSHALL 591 

fever he was obliged to return home in 1867. He came to Brattleboro 
for treatment in the Water-Cure, accompanied by his sister, Miss Caroline 
Dalton, and while here became part owner in the Guilford Springs prop- 
erty, of which he was manager and treasurer. Later he entered the office 
of the Northeastern Mutual Life Insurance as secretary. Mr. Dalton, 
being a man of general cultivation, was in later life of assistance in cata- 
loguing books for the Brooks Library, and in other similar interests for 
the benefit of the community. 

He married October 28, 1869, Mary, daughter of Franklin H. Wheeler. 
He died December 13, 1901. 

Their daughter, Stella P., married August 19, 1896, Richard M. Dodge, 
professor of geography in the Teachers College, Columbia University, 
New York. Children : Stanley, Margaret, Philip, Edward. 

Ethel Dalton, daughter of Samuel F. — a brother of James Dalton — and 
Tacro Hall Dalton, born August 20, 1863, married Frederick W. Swift 
of New York. She lived as a girl in Brattleboro with her aunt, Miss 
Caroline M. Dalton, in the Cutts house, and attended the High School. 
Miss Dalton died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, April 6, 1917, aged eighty. 

AzoR Marsh.\ll, born in Beverly, Massachusetts, February 1, 1830, 
was the son of Captain Azor Marshall, engaged in the East India trade. 
He came to Brattleboro in the Water-Cure days, — his sister being the 
wife of P. B. Francis. He married February 19, 1855, Ann E., daughter 
of Daniel Esterbrook, and went to Wisconsin for five years with a small 
colony of people from Brattleboro. They returned in 1861, and he was 
for a few years an owner of the Stanley Rule and Level Company, and 
was afterwards in the stove and tinware trade with A. E. Wood, the firm 
being Wood & Marshall. He sold his interest to his partner in 1879. 

Soon after the flood of 1869 Mr. Marshall, in company with his 
brother-in-law, O. D. Esterbrook, erected the "Marshall and Esterbrook 
building" on the west side of Main Street, near the bridge. He served 
as lister for twenty-one years, was an incorporator of the Brattleboro 
Savings Bank and a director of the Grange Store. He was a lifelong 
Democrat of the conservative school. He died April 29, 1906, aged 
seventy-six. 

Mr. Marshall had a great love of nature and the outdoor life. He 
built, in 1880, on the north shore of Spofford Lake, the first cottage erected 
for recreation. While his son lived, father and son were constant com- 
panions in tramping excursions. Mr. Marshall was also a man of general 



592 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

intelligence, which his modest and quiet manner of life concealed from 
everyone except his intimate friends. 
Children : 

Stella, married Fletcher Barrows. (See p. 918.) 

Oscar (see p. 974), born in August, 1858; died May 24, 1893; married 
September 25, 1883, Miss Katherine R. Brooks; she died July 29, 
1906. Children : Elizabeth G., Oscar B. 

Professor Elie Charlier was the son of a French Protestant clergy- 
man who was one of a long line of Huguenot ancestors. He was born 
in the north of France in 1827, came to this country in 1852 with a cash 
capital of $36, when he landed at Castle Garden, and with two letters of 
introduction, one to Mayor James Harper, the other to Richard C. Morse, 
editor of The New York Observer. Acting on the advice of the former, 
he began work at the first thing that offered, giving lessons in his native 
language. Full of energy, courage and ability, he soon had a school of 
small boys. 

He was original in his methods and a strict disciplinarian ; by 1862 he 
was in possession of a highly successful school in 24th Street, New York, 
which grew to such proportions that in 1873 he erected and equipped 
in West 59th Street, at a cost of $500,000, a fine large building named the 
Charlier Institute. For ten years this school was one of the foremost 
in the country, attracting to the boarding department many boys of for- 
eign origin, especially boys from Cuba and South America. His son, 
Elie Stacy Charlier, had the management of the school from 1885 but 
it gradually declined, was given up, and the building was sold to La Salle 
Institute in 1887. 

In 1856 he married Jeannette, daughter of Davis Bevins Stacy of Phila- 
delphia ; her mother, Sarah Van Dyke Stacy, was a native of Holland 
and of Huguenot descent, but married an American gentleman resident 
for many years in Chester, Pennsylvania. She died in Brattleboro August 
31, 1873. 

About 1866 Professor Charlier came to Brattleboro to spend his sum- 
mers at the Water-Cure, and purchased, late in 1871, the "Buckner place," 
where he lived with his large family until 1886. In 1875 he bought a 
farm on the borders of Spofford Lake, known as the "Colony place." He 
was a man of intense and dominant feelings. Personal troubles and pro- 
tracted ill health led him to spend ten or twelve of his last years in travel. 
He sold his residence in Brattleboro to George E. Crowell in 1887. 

The Charlier home was a most hospitable one, in which a large circle 
of friends were ever welcome and where the six sons and daughters 
attracted many young people. Mrs. Charlier was a lady of much charm. 




RESIDENCE OF 
DOCTOR HIGGINSON 



RESIDENCE OF 
COMMODORE GREENE 




RESIDENCE OF LOVELL FARR 




RESIDENCE OF 
FERDINAND TYLER 



RESIDENCE OF 
JUDGE KELLOGG 




ELIOT STREET 



- — •..■•Si ] ^••ffV 

ll{i:i^jj-j-j-i-a|FT3|L 




STUMP OF OLD ELM 




THE OMNIBUS 



ELIOT STREET 




CEMETARY HILL FROM ROOF 
OF VAN DOORN HOUSE 



FROM HINSDALE ROAD 



THE ROWLAND SCHOOL 593 

Her gracious manners, sense of humor and kind heart made her greatly 
beloved. As Jeannette Stacy she was born of a well-known family in the 
Society of Friends at Chester, Pennsylvania, where she passed the last 
ten years of her life, and where she died at the home of her sister, Mrs. 
Eyer, in the spring of 1912, at the age of eighty-five. 
Children : 
Winona de Clyver, married June 23, 1881, Doctor J. Tracy Edson of 
New York. Children : 
Elie Stacy. 

Constance de Clyver, a professional violinist, married December 22, 
1911, Charles L. Seeger, Junior, of New York, a musical composer 
and conductor ; later professor in the university at Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia. 
Elie Stacy, married November 3, 1885, Miss Ella Ridgway Howell of 
Philadelphia. A daughter, Jeannette, married Henry Davison of 
Philadelphia and has two children. 
Jennie S., married Charles Forward of Colon ; died at Colon May 8, 

1886. 
Daniel H., died of yellow fever in Panama August 17, 1886, aged 

twenty-one. 
Van Dyke E., married Miss Augusta Miller of New York; married a 

second time. He died, leaving four children. 
Marie Van Dyke, married, first, November 16, 1881, Haughwort 
Howe; second, November 23, 1888, Frederick A. Brown; third, 
Captain Templin Potts, a naval attache at Berlin, later in charge of 
the Bureau of Navigation at Washington. 

The Rowland School 

Martha Barker was the youngest of nine children of Judge Josiah and 
Elizabeth Folger Barker, and was born in Nantucket June 8, 1806. She 
first came to Brattleboro to place an invalid sister at the Wesselhoeft 
Water-Cure, and subsequently bought Deacon Dwinell's house on Asylum 
(now Linden) Street where, with another sister, Mrs. Richard G. How- 
land (born September 14, 1813, died April 30, 1880), she opened a board- 
ing and day school for girls. Their mother was a Quaker preacher who 
made several pilgrimages to Europe in the interests of her faith, and it 
was a family whose scholarly and literary instincts had been inherited 
through many generations. 

The school was patronized for years by parents who were glad to 
entrust their daughters to the nurture of gentlewomen of their traditions 
and education. The first catalogue specified that "a simple style of dress" 



594 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

would be adopted by the pupils. Mrs. Rowland's daughter, Elizabeth B. 
Howland (born September 14, 1843), taught in the school from an early 
age and continued it until her death, July 2, 1893, at the age of forty-nine. 

Martha Barker died March 5, 1896, aged ninety. 

Others of that family living here were: Josiah Barker, died November 
11, 1860, aged seventy-one ; Eliza Barker, died September 23, 1860, aged 
seventy; Sarah Barker, died November 10, 1877, aged eighty-one. 




MAIN STREET 




MAIN STREET 




X DICKINSON'S HALL 



MAIN STREET LOOKING NORTH 




MAIN STREET LOOKING SOUTH 



CHAPTER LII 

THE EAST VILLAGE 

The East Village in 1844 — The paper mill — The Vermont Savings Bank. 

In 1844 the East Village, of one thousand five hundred inhabitants, 
was of the distinctly rural type, rows of wooden buildings on the main 
street being used for business and in part for private purposes. 

Beginning at Whetstone Brook, the first building on the east side of 
Main Street was Nathan Woodcock's large, two-story, white painted 
dwelling house, only the well-to-do at that time having painted houses. 
In the rear of this house was the machine shop of Hines & Newman, 
looking very much as at the present time. Next came the brick house of 
Anthony Van Doom, which is still standing, and the only men's ready- 
made clothing store, kept by Fred F. Franks : this was a small, two- 
story building with high basement in which was the Brattleboro market. 
The Phoenix House, afterwards the American, which looked much the 
same to the end of its existence, barring the pillars which were added, 
came next. Then came a block of four stores, the front of all being some 
twenty or thirty feet farther back than at present. These stores were 
occupied by G. and C. Lawrence for general merchandise, a bookstore, 
the Esterbrook tin shop and Jonas Cutler's bakery. At the north end 
of this block was another large white dwelling house, owned and occupied 
by John H. Wheeler, one of the successful merchants. 

The store now owned by Goodnow, Pearson & Hunt was occupied by 
Horace D. Brackett, a skilled jeweler for those days. Next came John 
H. Wheeler's general store, over which was the historic Wheeler's Hall, 
then the stores of Zelotes Dickinson, W. P. Cune, dry goods, and A. E. 
Dwinell, dry goods. Just in front of this block of stores stood a mag- 
nificent elm, which remained until the store fronts were brought for- 
ward in their present form. Most of the merchants kept everything that 
was sold in a general store, including liquors, which at that period were 
principally old Santa Cruz rum, new rum, Holland gin, and brandy. 

North of this building was the old wooden building called Ryther's 
Arcade, where the only negro in town, named Bradshaw, kept the only 
barber shop, and in addition a restaurant where the first ice cream was 



596 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

made for the "first" families. Mrs. Bradshaw was a famous cook and this 
restaurant was liberally patronized. Adjoining this on the north was a 
long, two-and-one-half-story wooden building called "Hall's long build- 
ing," standing where the Hooker brick block now stands. In this building 
was a millinery shop, Thompson & Ranger's jewelry store, two shoe- 
maker's shops, one of which was that of the self-made botanist, Charles 
C. Frost, carried on in the same place for fifty years: the post office was 
also in this building, Franklin H. Fessenden, postmaster. 

After quite an open space came the wooden store of Hall & Townsley 
(C. Townsley & Son advertised in 1844 "Braiders wanted for Palm leaf 
hats to be paid in goods on receipt of hats"), the stone store of N. B. 
Williston (hardware, drugs, etc.), about half as large as at present, which 
was flanked on the north by his own home and farther on by the famous 
Vermont House, whose proprietor. Captain Lord, commanded the crack 
military company. This hotel, subsequently destroyed by fire, was about 
on the. site of the Town Hall. A little farther up the street was the Clapp 
brick house. Then we come to the only bank of any kind in town, kept 
in a small, two-story yellow brick building, — Epaphroditus Seymour, presi- 
dent, and Horatio S. Noyes, cashier. 

Above was the Congregational Church, next a house owned and occu- 
pied by Mrs. Francis Goodhue, then the fine, large, brick house built by 
Deacon John Holbrook, the houses of Wells Goodhue, Major Henry 
Smith and Judge Lemuel Whitney. There were no other buildings until 
at the top of a slight hill stood the house of Joseph Steen, then came the 
Waite house, removed to add to the residential property of J. Harry 
Estey. Beyond this was a little, one-story house used by the Congrega- 
tionalists as a parsonage, and the house of Asa Keyes on the site of 
the Devens house, which completed the buildings in that direction. Judge 
Keyes's house was a little two-room structure, a sample of many such in 
various parts of the town. 

On the triangle between North Main Street and Linden Street were 
but five houses, one on the northeast corner being that of the Tyler 
family. South of this was the residence of Doctor Dickerman, said to 
have been the first physician to reside in the East Village. Crossing over 
the Common to Linden Street we are reminded that in 1844 this place, 
now beautiful with shade trees and shapely walks, was then a sandy plain 
traversed in every direction by teams. On the northwest corner stood 
the district schoolhouse, the first one built in this village. Harris Place, 
Walnut and Terrace Streets were owned by Spencer & Kingsley and 
afterwards by Edward Kirkland. As late as 1852 Van Amburgh's circus 
and caravan showed about where the Childs and Cabot houses now stand 



THE EAST VILLAGE IN 1844 ' 597 

on Terrace Street. North and Tyler Streets were owned by N. B. Willis- 
ton; Chapin, Williston and Grove Streets were a part of Wells Goodhue's 
farm, and were in each case open pasture land. Oak Street was unknown. 
C f' Thompson and Augustus M. Shepherd of New York set out the 
rows of elms which form the chief beauty of Oak Street today, and 
Mr. Thompson was one of three workers who transformed a barren 
stretch of land into the village Common. 

Facing the Common was a house occupied by J. D. Bradley, which was 
moved to North Street^ to make way for the spacious house afterwards 
built by George Folsom, then United States minister to The Hague. 
Proceeding south from the schoolhouse, the first dwelling was built by 
Nathaniel Bliss— an old-fashioned structure standing on 'the site of the 
Cutts place, then the house of Deacon John Holbrook, which is now stand- 
incr then only two houses before reaching the High School lot, upon which 
st^ a poor apology for a High School house, the principal being Profes- 
sor Mellen Chamberlain of Boston. 

Next came the house and shop of John Burnham, a worker in silver and 
brass whose handmade silver spoons, made from six Spanish mill dollars, 
won him a great reputation. Next came the old Unitarian church buildmg 
and from there four houses, one of which was the original Knight 
. place, which brought one down to the house built by Honorable Jona- 
than Hunt, whose last occupant was Colonel Hooker. A one-story build- 
ing stood on one corner of this lot which was occupied by lawyers of the 
town. The last house on High Street and the Avenue, on that side, was 
the Hannibal Hadley house. The upper end of Green Street was so 
remote that it was thought barely safe for children to go there alone. 

The brick store on the corner opposite to the Hunt house had two or 
three tenants before Joseph Steen occupied it as a bookstore. Next came 
the house and ample grounds of Mrs. Mary Chapin, who owned all the 
lands south of the old Stage-House and upon which were two small build- 
ings used for stores. The Stage-House, with its high, two-storied portico 
and large fluted pillars, was the most conspicuous building in the village. 
Around it with its ample grounds and stables centered daily much public 
interest, for it was the starting place for the five lines of stages leading 
to various points, and every morning as many coaches started off with 
four or six horses. This was five years before the coming of the railroad 
and at a time when Silas M. Waite acted as stage agent, having a little 
office in one corner of the hotel. John R. Blake had a fine residence with 
extensive grounds guarded by a high fence on the corner of Elliot and 
Main Streets. Crossing the street and on the site of the Peoples Bank 
1 Taken down by George Dunham to make way for residential site. 



598 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

was one of those little, one-story, two-room buildings, occupied first by 
Samuel Elliot, afterwards by L. G. Mead as a law office and later as a 
millinery shop. Next came Ashbel Dickinson's store, on the site of the 
Cox block, which he occupied as a tinsmith; then the old yellow build- 
ing, for many years occupied by Thomas Judge. Below this was a row 
of open horse sheds and a large barn belonging to the Phoenix House. 
Crossing Flat Street, there was a small shoe store occupied by the Frosts, 
then Button & Clark's hardware and drug store and A. Van Doom's 
large furniture factory, where Mr. Conant began the manufacture of 
violins, and this brought one to the brook. Jacob Estey had a small build- 
ing for his plumbing business on the site of the Brattleboro House. 
South Main Street ran directly toward and up Cemetery Hill, the road- 
way being steep and without sidewalks. There were four or five houses 
before reaching the top of the hill, one of which was the Root homestead, 
now standing. On Prospect Hill the old part of the cemetery occupied 
the brow of the hill on one side of the road to Guilford; on the other 
side stood just two houses — the Thomas house, later built over into a two- 
story dwelling, and the one next beyond. All the rest of the broad 
plateau was covered with gray and white oak, chestnut and a few pines 
and maples; partridge shooting was good up there in its season. Lewis 
Putnam built the first houses. 

On Flat Street there were the Barber tannery, Hyde & Hardie's hat 
manufactory, two or three houses and a blacksmith shop, the street 
extending about half its present length and turning abruptly up into 
Elliot Street. Elliot Street extended but a little way west of the Simonds 
house, owned by Lovell Farr, a famous stage proprietor. Samuel Elliot's 
fine house, as it then was, now standing,' and his grounds, together with 
the Blake property, took about all the north side of the street, though 
the Baptist Church occupied the corner where the old building now 
stands. On the south side of the street were three or four houses, 
together with the Congregational chapel, one of the houses being occupied 
by Mr. Bridge, another stage contractor. Western Avenue, now having 
houses its whole length to West Brattleboro, had at that time not over 
five or six dwellings ; the land on either side from the top of the hill, 
including Forest Square, was yielding to its owners good returns of corn, 
oats, potatoes and pasturage. Careful mothers thought it not safe for 
their children to stray too far away in that direction in search of blue- 
berries. Orlin Clark & Company and Dunklee & Clark were the mer- 
chants in West Brattleboro. 

The Universalist Church stood on the corner of Canal and Clark 

1 Taken down in 1920. 



THE PAPER MILL 599 

Streets, the same building later owned and occupied by the Alexanders. 
Elliot and Canal Streets were country roads running out through country 
spaces. The noted John Wilson about this time ran an old-fashioned 
steam sawmill on the site of the engine house just below the railroad 
station. 

One of the oldest houses stood upon the site of the Brooks Library 
and was for many years owned and occupied by Colonel Joseph Goodhue, 
a director in the bank and prominent in all matters pertaining to the 
welfare of the town. 

William E. Ryther published The Phoenix and Mr. Nichols The Wind- 
ham County Democrat at this time, Mrs. Nichols, the wife of the pub- 
lisher, being the managing editor. These with The Asylum Journal, 
published at the Vermont Asylum, had but one competitor in the county, 
the Bellows Falls paper. 

The Paper Mill 

From 1844 the "old paper mill" has been devoted exclusively to the 
manufacture of paper. 

In 1848 Nathan Woodcock, the former partner of Elihu Thomas, and 
Timothy Vinton, his brother-in-law, took the mill on a lease of five years. 
In September, 1857, the mill was again burned, but immediately rebuilt 
on the present site. It was operated by Woodcock & Vinton until the 
death of Mr. Woodcock, when Mr. Vinton bought out the heirs and car- 
ried on the business until his death in 1890. 

In the early days of the Woodcock-Vinton partnership the product of 
the mill was entirely a stiff paper used for cards, and during the life of 
Timothy Vinton the output amounted to 500 pounds a day. He also 
started making newspaper sheeting and furnished most of the local print- 
ers with their supply. 

With the death of Timothy Vinton in 1890, the property went to his 
son, William H. Vinton, who installed more modern equipment and 
machinery, and increased the output of the factory to about 1500 pounds 
a day. 

About 1893 the B. O. Meyers Company, later called the Sutphin Paper 
Company, sent a man to England to secure the formula for matrix paper 
used entirely in stereotyping. Upon his return the contract for making 
the paper for the Meyers Company was given the Vinton paper mill. In 
the course of time the formula was somewhat changed by W. H. Vinton, 
and it was said that the resultant product was the best matrix paper made 
in the world. All other paper making was abandoned and the only output 
was matrix paper. For a number of years it was the only mill in the 
country producing matrix paper, although there are at present five or 



600 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

six other mills. There was little or no competition, under the skilled 
management of W. B. Vinton, yet the output of the company was increased 
to from 3500 to 4400 pounds per day. His sudden death in 1919 followed 
soon after that of his father, W. H. Vinton, in 1916. 

The business of manufacturing matrix paper is still being carried on 
by the Vinton Company. 

The Vermont Savings Bank 

Larkin G. Mead, who was president of the Typographic Company, 
realizing the need of a place where the employees of that company could 
deposit earnings above those necessary for their support, established the 
first savings bank, which was chartered October 24, 1846, as the Wind- 
ham Provident Institution for Savings. Its first incorporators were 
prominently identified with the professional and commercial interests of 
the town. Among the number were Gardner C. Hall, Larkin G. Mead, 
H. S. Noyes, Asa Keyes, Henry Smith, Joseph Steen, N. B. Williston, 
Samuel Button, Ebenezer Howe, Wells Goodhue, Calvin Townsley, 
W. H. Rockwell and C. F. Thompson. 

The first meeting for organization was held in Mr. Mead's law oflfiice 
December 2, 1846, when he was chosen president. A month later, how- 
ever, January 1, 1847, N. B. Williston was elected president ; Daniel 
Kellogg, vice-president ; L. G. Mead, treasurer, and Joseph Clark, secre- 
tary. The first annual report, January 18, 1848, showed three hundred 
and thirty-four depositors, whose combined deposits amounted to 
$43,180.30. The amount withdrawn during that year was $3,486.78. Mr. 
Williston continued to discharge the duties of president for ten years, 
till 1857, when he was succeeded by Daniel Kellogg, who served one year 
and in turn was succeeded by Samuel Dutton, who served six years. 
Lafayette Clark was president for four years till 1868, when George 
Newman was elected and served one year, at the expiration of which 
time he was chosen secretary and treasurer and Mr. Mead was again 
elected to the presidency. Ex-Governor Frederick Holbrook was made 
president of the bank in 1870. Mr. Newman continued as treasurer from 
January 18, 1869, till his death in 1872, when Norman F. Cabot succeeded 
to the office. The institution grew under his supervision until it became 
second in financial strength in the list of savings institutions in the state, 
the amount of its deposits being $3,108,323.43, with a reserve fund of 
$158,000, and other surplus amounting to $150,000. In 1867 Malcolm 
Moody^ became the bank's assistant treasurer, holding the office for 
twenty-three years, until his removal to California. 

^ Malcolm Moody married Miss Dora I. Wyman, who died August 24, 1874, aged 
twenty-seven years five months. A daughter, Dora, married May 20, 1901, Doctor 



THE VERMONT SAVINGS BANK 601 

An annual meeting of the directors, instituted by Mr. Cabot, was 
usually well attended by about thirty residents of Brattleboro, Newfane, 
Guilford and Vernon, when the treasurer's report was delivered, "inter- 
spersed with a detail of information, which was cleverly robbed of all 
monotony by the pungent and characteristic wit of the Treasurer who 
presided at a dinner which followed at the Brooks House, younger men, 
worthy successors of former officers and depositors, adding to the number 
of those present." ^ 

The bank bought the Main Street site on which stands the three-story 
brick banking house, February 14, 1868. The first bank building stood 
on the ground just in front of the present Congregational chapel. The 
bank's first depositor was Stephen Sargent, who brought down from his 
Westminster home his first savings of $30 to be placed in what was then 
considered the strongest institution in the state : on the same day Charles 
S. Frost, later a resident of Wooster, Ohio, opened account Number 12 
with a deposit of $10. 

Charles H. Pratt attended the High School, and was employed before 
and after school hours in this bank, to which he devoted his entire busi- 
ness life. After his graduation he became bookkeeper in the institution 
June 1, 1873. November 1, 1890, on the resignation of Assistant 
Treasurer Malcolm Moody, Mr. Pratt was made assistant treasurer. He 
became treasurer January 1, 1902, succeeding Mr. Norman F. Cabot, 
and in June, 1909, he became president, succeeding ex-Governor Fred- 
erick Holbrook. On the death of Mr. Pratt, November 9, 1917, Harry 
P. Webster became president and Fred C. Adams, treasurer. 

Thomas M. Williams. Children: Rhona, Betty. Mr. Moody died in California 
February 1, 1904. 
1 Vermont Phoenix. 



CHAPTER LIII 

THE SEMI-WEEKLY EAGLE 

The Semi-Weekly Eagle — Broughton D. Harris, William B. Hale, editors — Notes 
from the Eagle of the Brattleboro Thief Detecting Society- — The Brattleboro 
Shade Tree Association. 

The Semi-Weekly Eagle was started, owned and edited by Broughton 
D. Harris (see p. 685) and William B. Hale, both very young men at the 
time the first number appeared, August 10, 1847, and they continued its 
publication about three years, the paper having a circulation of approxi- 
mately fifteen hundred copies. 

The Semi-Weekly Eagle under the editorship of these young men was 
a great advance, in the variety of subjects presented and the intelligence 
with which they were treated, on the papers that preceded it. European 
news held a conspicuous place, as did the movements of royalties and 
foreign statesmen, and there were frequent letters from European corre- 
spondents. The main issues of our own political situation were reported 
and commented on. There was a column of literary and one of religious 
intelligence. Agriculture was a subject considered in almost every num- 
ber of the paper. With the exception of the notices of marriages and 
deaths and advertisements, the paper might have been published in any 
other New England town ; there was no local news or flavor. Among the 
death notices were those of men living in other parts of the country, 
eminent in public life. 

The announcements of marriage were often accompanied by comments 
on the bride and groom or their circumstances. This had been the custom 
from the earliest time. As an example we give one from 1778 : 

Mr. Solomon Phelps of Marlborough in the State of New York was 
married to the amiable Miss Patty Hunt a young Lady of Pious Life 
and genteel Fortune. 

In some localities, especially in the South of that time, the politics of the 
families were mentioned. 

But "personals," as we have them, were unknown until late in the 
sixties, and not until the seventies did the mania for publicity sweep the 



THE SEMI-WEEKLY EAGLE G03 

country. Verses by "home talent" appear in almost every issue of news- 
papers from 1830 to 1865. They are saturated with a kind of sentimen- 
tality long out of fashion : "Lovely Woman" as inspirer, guide, the source 
of all man's happiness, or, when fickle and heartless, the cause of "ever- 
lasting misery" ; "Lines suggested at the time of the marriage of " ; 

"Thoughts for Mrs. C. as she views the photograph of her lost Minnie" ; 
"Lines suggested by meditating on what a departed friend might be sup- 
posed to say, were she permitted from her abode of bliss, to address the 
objects of her fondest earthly regard" ; "Verses Written by a Gentleman 
on receiving a pair of slippers from a Lady" ; "Tell him I love him yet" ; 
"Death-bed scene of Mrs. L." ; eighteen verses by Mrs. B. "respectfully 
inscribed to her beloved father, brother, and sister expressive of her 
gratitude and afifectionate remembrance, on receiving from them, in May, 
a box of flowers, some wild, and some cultivated." These- are printed 
side by side with poems of merit by well-known writers, such as Mrs. 
Hemans and Mrs. Sigourney. 

When the position of secretary of the Territory of Utah was accepted 
by Mr. Harris, Mr. Hale went as cashier of the bank to Winchester, New 
Hampshire, and the paper was sold to a group of men in the country, 
interested in having the patronage of a paper to express their political 
preferences ; the management was given to Pliny H. White, a young law- 
yer residing in Wardsboro. He rerhained in charge only about a year, 
as the task was an uncongenial one to his literary talents, and Mr. Harris, 
returning from Utah, enlarged the paper, changed it to a weekly and 
conducted it until 1855, when owing to changes in politics it had served 
its purpose, and was united with The Vermont Statesman, O. H. Piatt, 
manager. 

(From The Semi-Weekly Eagle, September 3, 1847) 
Brattleboro Thief Detecting Society 
The members of this society held their annual meeting on 2nd inst. 
By the directors' report it appeared the amount of bonds in the hands of 
the treasurer was $57.79. C. Townsley, C. Chapin and E. Seymour were 
appointed a committee to nominate officers for the ensuing year, who 
reported the following, who were afterwards unanimously elected. 

President : Joseph Goodhue ; directors : L. G. Mead, Joseph Steen, Geo. 
Newman; treasurer: Zelotes Dickinson; secretary: Joseph Clark; pur- 
suers : Nathan Miller, Lovell Farr, D. P. Kingsley, David Goodell, E. W. 
Prouty, Geo. C. Lawrence, Samuel Dutton, Frederick Franks^ J. H. Esta- 
brook, T. C. Lord, Geo. Bugbee and Ferdinand Tyler. 

Reuben Spaulding, A. E. Dwinell and J. H. Wheeler were appointed a 
committee to obtain new members. 



604 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Voted : That the Directors be instructed to offer a reward of $10.00 
for the detection of the persons who recently destroyed the fruit and 
fruit trees of Mr. Rufus Clark. 

J. Clark, Secretary. 

September 3, 1847. 



THE BRATTLEBORO SHADE TREE ASSOCIATION 

The articles of agreement of the association were : 

The members of this association, believing that shade trees are orna- 
mental and beneficial, and that our village is deficient in this particular, 
have formed themselves into an association for the purpose of planting 
and maintaining shade trees in our village and mainly and more especially, 
at present,' upon the village common, and any other improvement deemed 
advisable. Any person, by paying the sum of $1.00 becomes a member 
of this association, all moneys to be expended by a board of three directors 
according to their best judgment and discretion, the directors to be chosen 
annually by the association on the last Tuesday in June. 

Directors : C. F. Thompson, B. K. Chase, John M. Comegys, August 
1, 1856. 

Among the subscribers were such well-known names as those of Joseph 
Goodhue, Joseph Steen, Riley Burdett, O. R. Post, Ferdinand Tyler, 
L. G. Mead, S. Root, Frederick Holbrook, Edward Kirkland, James Fisk 
(father and son), Wells Goodhue, Richards Bradley, George Baty Blake 
and T. P. Greene. 

Annual subscriptions to the funds of this association were kept up as 
late as 1870, and payments for work done are entered each year up to 
1877. 



CHAPTER LIV 
THE POST OFFICE 

The Post Office. Major Henry Smith, General Franklin H. Fessenden, Samuel 
Dutton, Asher Spencer, George Kellogg, Daniel Kellogg, Junior, Ranslure W. 
Clarke, Charles H. Mansur, Frederick W. Childs, postmasters. 

The Brattleboro stamp — Frederick N. Palmer. 

The first building to be occupied exclusively by the post office was built 
in 1849, during the second term of Franklin H. Fessenden, located, as 
near as can be determined, just north of the Blake dwelling, now Crosby 
Block. He had been postmaster from March 23, 1842, to July 3, 1845, 
when the office was filled by Frederick N. Palmer, who was followed 
November 22, 1848, by Henry Smith. Postmaster Dutton in 1853 
removed the office to a store vacated by Hayes & Woodard, clothiers, in 
Central Block. About ten years thereafter the office was moved by Post- 
master D. Kellogg, Junior, to a room in the south side of the Town Hall 
building, where it remained until October, 1886, when a new and commo- 
dious office, fitted up by the town, was established on the opposite side of 
the building, having nine hundred lock and six hundred call boxes of 
improved pattern, with a floor space of nearly one thousand square feet. 

Henry Smith was postmaster from November 22, 1848; Franklin H. 
Fessenden, June 9, 1849 ; Samuel Dutton, May 9, 1853 ; Asher Spencer, 
June 3, 1857; George Kellogg, April 2, 1861 ; his brother, Daniel Kellogg, 
Junior, August 28, 1862, who held the office during the war ; Ranslure W. 
Clarke, 1869-1877, followed by Charles H. Mansur, December 11, 1877, 
and Frederick W. Childs, January 27, 1886. 

In 1845 Frederick N. Palmer was appointed postmaster by President 
Polk. The salary of the postmaster was based on the receipts of the 
office and the Brattleboro official conceived the idea of a strictly local 
stamp for the purpose of enlarging his income, but the scheme failed 
to produce a profit for the office; the Brattleboro people would not pay 
sufficiently for an outgoing mail, and as by 1847 the national stamp law 
became operative and Doctor Palmer ceased to be a government official 
in 1849, the balance of an original issue of five hundred stamps was 
destroyed. Thomas Chubbuck from Boston, who made his appearance in 
Brattleboro in 1846, was the engraver of the stamp. 






606 



ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 



BBAXTIEEbRQVtl 



The lettering of the stamp was black on brown paper ; 
it was a small oblong, at top the words "Brattleboro, Vt.," 
at the bottom the words "5 cents," at each side respec- 
tively, "P," "O," and in the center the initials "F. N. P." 
in facsimile. 
Collectors are willing to pay fabulous prices for it, and vie with each 
other in a struggle to add it to their collections. In 1874 it sold in London 
for iSOO. 

Street letter boxes were conveniently located in the village May 1, 1886, 
and one collector provided, and under the act of January 3, 1887, authoriz- 
ing extension of carrier deliveries to places having $10,000 gross postal 
revenue, the first free delivery system was fully established, with four 
carriers, July 1, 1887. Dennis E. Tasker, William E. Barber and Spencer 
W. Knight have been continuously in the service thirty-two years ; Thomas 
A. Austin, beginning as a substitute, has been a regular carrier thirty-one 
years ; John A. Lindsey, twenty-six years, and Sidney H. Farr, twenty 
years. 




BLAKE BLOCK 




REVERE HOUSE 



"T'S^-SSfltJ^ 




MAIN STREET 




RESIDENCE OF W. PITTS CONE 



URIEL SIKES 



. CHAPTER LV 

HOTELS 

The Revere House, built by James Fisk in 184^— Henry Field, Asa W. Sanderson, 
J. J. Crandall, Edwin H. Chase, Colonel H. P. Vanbibber, Henry C. Nash, Fred B. 
Thompson, George R. Cushing, O. F. and M. K. Knowlton, Stevens, L. H. 

• Crosby, George A. Boyden, Henry Harris, proprietors. 

The Brattleborough House, 1850-1861 (The Central House)— Liberty Rice, Colonel 
Paul Chase, Lemuel Whitney & Company, William C. Perry, Charles G. Law- 
rence, proprietors. 

Stage-Drivers : Elliot Swan, Sylvanus Wood— John L. Ray's livery stable. 

The Revere House, 
on the southwest corner of Main and ElHot Streets, was built by James 
Fisk in 1849. Two upper floors of the adjoining stone building on 
South Main Street were used in connection with the hotel, the second 
floor as a dining-room, and the third as Revere Hall, where public meet- 
ings were held before the erection of the Town Hall in 1855. 

Mr. Fisk was the first manager in 1850-1856. It was opened by him as 
a temperance house, with a great banquet, and speeches by pastors of the 
churches and other leading citizens, showing forth in fervid oratory the 
triumph of Mr. Fisk's principles. 

Henry Field, Asa W. Sanderson and J. J. Crandall were succeeding 
managers and proprietors. Mr. Fisk leased the house in 1853 to Edwin 
H. Chase, and sold the house and stables to Colonel H. P. Vanbibber in 
1861. On the death of Mr. Vanbibber it was again sold, to Henry C. 
Nash— Fred B. Thompson, George R. Cushing, Orrin F. a-nd Morey K. 
Knowlton, Mr. Stevens, L. H. Crosby and George A. Boyden, with some 
others, being proprietors. Henry C. Nash was owner and Henry Harris 
proprietor (beginning October 1, 1876), at the time of its destruction by 
fire in 1877. Afterwards a portion of the land in front was purchased by 
the town to widen the street. 

The Brattleboro House — Originally the Stage-House 
Liberty Rice had this house in 1850. Colonel Chase again took it for 
three years, when Lemuel Whitney & Company changed the name to the 
Central House. It was enlarged in 1855 and again became the Brattle- 



608 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

boro House. William C. Perry was the landlord from 1861 until it was 
taken by Charles G. Lawrence, who kept it to the time of its destruction in 
the great fire of October, 1869. Henry Campbell came from Deerfield 
and was clerk under the last two landlords, and in other hotels in this 
state, in New York and Washington and later in the Brooks House. 

Francis Goodhue owned the property at one time, and he it was who 
erected the front gable. At the time of the fire it was the property of the 
Blake Brothers of Boston, who sold the land after the destruction of the 
buildings to Edward Crosby, and Crosby Block now stands on the site 
of the old Brattleboro House. It was for two-thirds of a century a 
famous hotel in this part of New England. 

Stage-Drivers 

Elliot Swan of Worcester was the master of the finest line of staging 
in the state and leaving here at six o'clock in the morning with six horses 
he would make the distance, seventy-seven miles, besides stopping for 
dinner and changing horses six times on the way, at four to four-thirty 
in the afternoon. It was lively traveling, about a mile for each eight 
minutes, and there were few steps that the horses took in a walk either 
up hill or down. Dinner was always taken at Barre on the way down 
and at Petersham on the return, and Swan used to do the carving at the 
former place, serving thirty-two passengers when he had as many on his 
coach. He often had to run several coaches over the line, particularly 
in the old Wesselhoeft Water-Cure days, when there were full coachloads 
at a time for that institution. It vi^as always a team of six beautiful grays 
which he drove from Petersham to Barre, and old men along the line long 
told of the beauty and dash of it, when they saw it as children at the road- 
side go plunging by under the never failing guidance of its driver. 

Mr. Swan commenced driving this stage July 1, 1840, and continued to 
handle the ribbons over this long stretch for eleven years. General 
Twitchell of 'Boston then owned the line, but Mr. Swan bought him out 
a few years later, and ran it alone or in partnership for a number of years. 
When he first began to drive there Silas Waite was a boy at work in the 
office ; Waite and Swan were in partnership for a while, but Swan saw 
that Waite was going to command the whole thing before long, and so 
he sold out to him. Swan also ran the line to Townshend for ten years, 
and one of his partners was Royal T. Hall, who was afterwards in the 
livery business at Townshend. 

Mr. Swan retired as the stagecoach era was superseded by that of the 
railroad. He was for a while interested in a hotel where the Bay State 
now is at Worcester, was on the railroad for a year or two and then 



STAGE-DRIVERS 609 

opened the famous Swan's Hotel on the spot where the Worcester depot 
now stands and kept it for twenty-one years. From that time he enjoyed 
life on a farm. 

Regularly Mr. Swan carried packages of from $3000 to $20,000 for 
the bank, which Mr. Seymour or Mr. Noyes would bring to him to 
keep overnight before starting. He received thirty-seven cents a trip 
for the service and the trust, while the Greenfield and Orange banks 
always sent a special messenger with their money. 

Mr. Swan was the son of Colonel Ballou Swan, who died in March, 
1891. Elliot Swan died October 31, 1896. 

Sylvanus Wood was another popular driver and veteran expressman, 
and was famous for being always on time. He drove for many years from 
Fitchburg to Brattleboro and brought the first passengers from up the line 
who made the trip over the railroad. He had a fund of stories of the old 
stage days, and used to relate that a party of nabobs of Brattleboro arriv- 
ing by train from Boston were very anxious to get home: mounting the 
stage, they reached Athol, where they changed to a team of four white 
horses "as ugly as sin and that would go like the evil one." Squire Brad- 
ley of Brattleboro bet a supper for the party that \Vood would drive to the 
next town, six miles distant, in half an hour; the party had stopped at 
each road house and had "Tom and Jerry" or hot flip, and were ready for 
any fun or excitement. Wood drew up his lines, cracked his whip and 
away they went at a breakneck speed, and in just twenty-eight minutes 
arrived at the place named. At Brattleboro that night the party had their 
supper and a jovial time. 

John L. Ray, the Veteran Liveryman. John Ray's first work as 
sub-contractor in building the Vermont & Massachusetts Railroad brought 
him to Brattleboro when he was about twenty-five years of age ; Sidney 
Dillon was the main contractor in charge and Ray was one of his most 
active and efficient aids. He engaged in one or two other business ven- 
tures before beginning the livery business at the old barn opposite the 
American House, built by the Goodhues in 1858. 

He married June 15, 1850, Miss Addie V. Pratt of Vernon, who died in 
1899. He died July 14, 1901, leaving one son, J. J. Ray, in the men's 
furnishing business, Boston. 

John Ray conducted the model livery of this part of New England and 
his reputation as a judge of horses extended far and wide, so that an im- 
portant feature of his business was buying horses for rich men in New 
York and Boston. He was a dictator in his province, withholding horses 



610 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

from ignorant or reckless drivers or from anyone who overworked his 
animals. 

The livery and boarding stable is the last reminder of the stagecoach 
period. The Ray stable was an irregular and unsteady structure, of wood, 
on two levels. Above, with an entrance on Main Street, was a small office, 
holding a desk, a safe and an airtight stove encircled by spittoons of vari- 
ous shapes and sizes, and on the walls colored prints of famous racers and 
rigs in fashion. At the desk, John Ray on a chair tipped back to the last 
degree of security, a high-topped, Alpine-shaped hat set on his head at 
another angle from the tilt of his chair, his feet on the window sill in two 
hollows made by years of the same feet in this habitual position — a final 
authority to hostlers and a privileged character to his patrons in all matters 
relating to horseflesh. 

Below on Flat Street was the stable proper, a hayloft above. An open 
entrance the length of the stable offered standing room and an occasional 
chair to the "barn crowd" that dropped in to enjoy the incessant activity 
of the place, often until late into the night, — the sound of restless hoofs 
in the stalls ; the crunching of oats at the mangers and the whinny of 
response to comfort or attentions from the hostler ; the jangling of bits ; 
horses harnessing and led hurriedly out to buggies brought forward when 
calls were urgent for trains or doctors or drummers, four-horse teams for 
picnickers, smart turnouts for smart customers. Every harness was tested 
and the soundness and suitability of carriages with their furnishings ex- 
amined in detail by Ray himself before they were allowed to leave the 
stable. There was a favorite horse for a favored boy or girl when a flavor 
of romance was detected, and a plodder for the elderly and cautious ; 
between the carrying out of orders, there were horses on exhibition for 
sale, horse talk and the tricks of a trade. 

From casual comers to horse thieves, John Ray understood a situation 
at a glance, and the salt of his wit, in stable dialect, contributed light and 
leading to many a village question. In the small town, public opinion was 
dropped in the livery stable with liveryman and hostler as by a natural 
law of gravitation. 

From out this pungent atmosphere he would emerge with a mind and 
manners for the people of quality, who rewarded his best efforts by their 
patronage, as a unique type of the model livery man. 



CHAPTER LVI 
THE COMING OF THE RAILROAD— FORMAL OPENING 

July 14, 1836, an assembly of citizens met to consider the construction 
of a railroad from this town to a suitable market. 

A committee was appointed with Deacon John Holbrook, president; 
Doctor Charles Chapin, secretary; J. D. Bradley and J. C. Holbrook. 
January 1, 1844, a meeting was held here with citizens of Franklin County, 
Massachusetts, for pushing the Fitchburg road through Greenfield to 
Brattleboro. 

The formal opening of the last section of the Vermont & Massachusetts 
Railroad, from Vernon to Brattleboro, took place on Tuesday, the twen- 
tieth of February, 1849. The citizens had made such arrangements for 
entertainment of the expected crowd of visitors as circumstances would 
admit, and all were looking forward to the day as the dawn of a new era 
upon the resources and enterprises of Brattleboro and the surrounding 
country. Notwithstanding the very cold weather and uncomfortable 
snowstorm, before twelve o'clock the depot grounds and high banks above 
were covered by thousands of men, women and children, assembled to 
witness the arrival of the cars — to many a novel spectacle — and to wel- 
come the visitors to the hospitality of Vermont. 

About two-thirty o'clock the long train of sixteen cars, literally packed 
with fully fifteen hundred passengers, arrived at the depot amid the 
cheers and shouts of the multitude and such other demonstrations of joy 
as characterize similar occasions. The crowds on the surrounding heights, 
the crowds from the cars, the ringing of bells, the clangor of music, the 
thunder tones of cannon, the cheers of the citizens, and the returning 
vivas of the visitors, made it quite a lively affair. 

An immense procession was immediately formed under the direction 
of Chief Marshal Doctor Charles Chapin, which, escorted by the uni- 
formed firemen and Flagg's Band from Boston, marched to the head of 
Main Street, then countermarched to the depot buildings, where a bounti- 
ful repast had been prepared for them by the citizens. Ten cars came in 
from the south filled with prominent officials and others. Lockhart H. 
Barrett was engaged to make the coffee for the multitude, and six barrels 
of this delicious beverage were served so acceptably that the officials 
instructed the superintendent to give a first-class job to the man who 



612 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

made that coffee. But the maker had no desire to change his trade. At 
that time the members of old Mazeppa Engine Company, of which young 
Barrett was one, acted as waiters. It was estimated that not less than 
fifteen hundred dined at the first table and a much larger number subse- 
quently. The committee appointed to superintend the arrangements for 
the dinner — Colonel Paul Chase, Captain T. C. Lord, Colonel Arnold J. 
Hines, Henry Reed and E. Saelzer — had discharged their duties in a most 
efficient and acceptable manner. 

After the inner man was duly cared for, the procession was re-formed 
and marched to the Congregational Church for the intellectual part of 
the entertainment, the house being densely crowded. 

Doctor William H. Rockwell, the president of the day, welcomed the 
guests to the hospitalities of the place on an occasion so important to its 
interests and its history, with a fervor of feeling and a flow of language 
seldom exceeded. Colonel Alvah Crocker, the president of the railroad 
corporation, then entered into a brief history of the original design of the 
advocates and managers of the road, their perseverance under many 
trials, and their final success under the many and, at times, almost insur- 
mountable obstacles which had beset their path. He said he came to 
Brattleboro seven years previous to persuade its people to help him and 
others in building a road from Boston towards them ; that he had already 
visited other large towns without success, and came in his desperation 
to Brattleboro as his last hope. For a fortnight he could not procure a 
dollar, but rather than let him go away altogether emptyhanded, two 
gentlemen subscribed for two shares apiece, and others, to prevent the 
reproach of so trifling a contribution going from among them, enlarged the 
amount until it grew to $8000 ; that this example acting on other towns 
had caused an alteration in their opinions, and he returned to his despair- 
ing brethren in Boston with $30,000 additional and unexpected stock 
from the country, and this was the turning point of their success and the 
dawning of their brightness. 

His address and those that followed, by Reverend Thomas Whittemore 
of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Mr. Chapman of Greenfield and Mr. Gra- 
ham of Northampton, served to satisfy the friends of the road that its 
construction had been well and skillfully done, amid great and perplexing 
embarrassments, and that the stock of the road would eventually pay full 
dividends. All the speakers took strong grounds in favor of an exten- 
sion of the road toward the Hudson River and the north. 

Ossian E. Dodge of Boston then sang the following impromptu ditty, 
written by him on the way up, to the tune of "The Cork Leg," receiving 
great applause: 



THE COMING OF THE RAILROAD 613 

I'll sing of a time when we all took a ride 

To old Brattleborough by the Green Mountain side ; 

February the month, on the twentieth day, 

We jumped in the cars, and came whizzing away. 

We're a bold, merry crew, who came from the city. 

Too many, in fact, to be named in this ditty ; 

All kinds of traders to make up the passengers. 

With a dog or two that hadn't been cut up for sassengers. 

With doctors and lawyers and State Street shavers, 
With D. C. Hitchcock,^ the prince of engravers ; 
With ministers also to share in our joys, 
And shake the warm hands of the Green Mountain boys. 

Of Reporters from Boston, we've got a strong host, 
From the Olk'e Branch paper, the Signal and Post; 
With the bright little Bee, which never can fail. 
The Pathfinder, Herald and crank Daily Mail. 

Some raised their objections to building this road; 

For they said the cars never could get half a load ; 

But the Green Mountain farmers will make these men flutter. 

For they'll crowd the cars full of their cheese, pork and butter. 

Objections were raised by some other tracks, 
In hopes to throw Green Mountain boys on their backs; 
But a road to the moon couldn't be made to fall 
With Bradley and Townsley and Gard'ner C. Hall. 

Our colors now hoisted, we'll nail to the mast, 
With the Whittemore Trumpet to blow forth the blast ; 
Dr. Rockwell and Blake, who are both full of glory, 
We have now got the long and the short of the story. 

I heard a good story of a wrinkled old maid. 
Who thought the road crooked, and too full of grade ; 
But now, as it's finished, I hope it won't shock her, 
For it's bound to succeed, when managed by Crocker. 

^ Hitchcock took sketches while coming up the road. 



614 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

In the evening a ball was given in Wantastiquet Hall, and to the 
bewitching music of Flagg's Band the lads and lassies danced till the 
morning's early gray, the company in their merriest mood and the accom- 
paniments all in the best style. 

Though every house had open doors for all that could be accommodated, 
there were still large numbers that could not obtain lodgings, and most 
of these were furnished with buffalo robes, wrapped in which they reposed 
in the pews of the church, which was properly warmed and lighted for 
the purpose. (The chairman of the committee of these arrangements was 
Larkin G. Mead.) 

Wednesday morning a substantial breakfast was provided at the depot 
buildings, and about nine o'clock a train of thirteen cars left the depot, 
in which most of the Boston visitors and others on the line of the road 
took passage for home, the remainder leaving on the afternoon train. 

The first train ran in June, 1851. 

The railroad brought the first Irish immigrants to Brattleboro. A.mong 
them were Timothy Moran, who laid the last rail before the first train 
from Boston came through and worked in the local section eleven years ; 
Joseph Fenton, who built the first dam across the Connecticut at Holyoke 
before serving as one of the construction gang of the Vermont Valley 
Railroad ; as the construction proceeded the Fenton family followed the 
work, their first shanty being built where the Bradley house now stands ; 
Eugene Ferriter, employed as section hand for nearly twenty years ; John 
Cavanaugh, employed in the work of building the railroad; and Martin 
Martin. 

The tasks allotted to the Irish of Brattleboro on the railroad, in civic 
enterprises and in domestic service have been performed to the credit of 
their race and their religion, as they have proved, in the main, to be 
industrious, honest, thrifty, moral and loyal. 




CITIZENS OF THE FORTIES 



JOHN HYDE 





COKDCCTORS VT. AND MASS. R. R. 



JOHN L. RAy 





VALLEY MILLS COMPANY 



OLD GAS HOUSE 



-^ 





ESTEY ORGAN COMPANY 



BRATTLEBORO MELODEON CO. 





HOWLAND SCHOOL 
MISS BARKER 



RESIDENCE OF 
SAMUEL DUTTON 



CHAPTER LVII 

FIRST TELEGRAPHY. JAMES H. CAPEN, JUNIOR, 
WELCOME I. CAPEN 

The telegraph line began at Springfield and followed the Connecticut 
River as far as White River Junction, thence by direct line to Montreal, 
while another branch turned off through New Hampshire to Boston. It 
was built by George Benedict of Burlington and some two hundred 
shares of stock were owned by Brattleboro people. The system was 
known as the Vermont & Boston Telegraph Company, and its construc- 
tion was largely due to the efforts and public spirit of Mr. Benedict, who 
wanted a line to Boston and believed in its ultimate success. The 
operators used the old Bain system, the machines or instruments being 
somewhat ingenious, consisting of a metal disk about ten inches in diame- 
ter, covered with sealing wax, on top of which was a smaller brass 
grooved disk. From its center protruded a post sustaining a brass arm 
with a wire pan which followed the grooves as the plates revolved. The 
telegraph wire was connected with the post underneath the table, con- 
tributing the current to the pen, which threw off a little of the metal and 
left the character on paper covering the disk. The key was similar to 
those now in use, as was the relay, though the relay was not so distinct 
as those of today. 

People knew little of the telegraph at that time, and were somewhat 
afraid of the mysterious fluid. Finally everything was ready, the wire 
having been quietly run into the business block on the corner of High 
and Main Streets, when the lessee, Joseph Steen, "caught on," and 
ordered the infernal thing removed forthwith. He declared it would 
attract the lightning and absolutely kill his insurance, so Mr. Capen 
(James H., Junior) moved across the street into a back room, where he 
rather timidly began business, and sent the first telegraph message from 
Brattleboro to Boston in 1850. So strong was the local prejudice against 
the new invention and so general the fear, that some of the oldest citizens 
refused to receive a message till it had first been opened and read by the 
operator himself, who delivered all the messages. Charles Waite was the 
operator, but he used the old Morse system on the line between New York 
and Boston. This system was not always strong enough to get a message 



G16 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

through to Boston on wet days, so it occasionally became necessary to use 
the "clotheshne," as the Vermont and Massachusetts line was called. 

"This," said Mr. Capen, "could always be depended on, for no matter 
how hard it rained, the old Bain would work, though it was mighty faint 
at times, and the only way the operators, one at Brattleborough, another 
at White River and still another at Nashua, could tell, was by close 
watching." 

"Waite would call me up," said Mr. Capen, "and ask if the 'clothesline' 
was working, and I invariably answered, 'Yes.' It was necessary to call 
me, this being the center of the line, and I would stand over my repeater, 
constantly adjusting it, until the message was finished, rf it took all night. 
When Springfield said 'Good-night,' then I would get out. The repeaters 
were always used in sending messages from Springfield to Boston. Some 
days when I could not hear the machine click I could get the message 
just the same, for the pen would make a green mark on the blue paper no 
matter how weak the current." The operator was in his office from 
8 a.m. to 9 p.m., though he was able to carry on his printing business in 
connection with the telegraph. Mr. Capen was paid $150 a year, his 
salary for several years exceeding the receipts of the office. The tariff 
for ten words was one dollar to New Y.ork, fifty cents to Boston and forty 
cents to Springfield and Greenfield. There was no press to handle, and 
the daily average of messages received would not exceed three, and there 
were any number of days when there were none. 

The longest message ever received by Mr. Capen was one of 1800 words 
from President Lincoln to Governor Holbrook. This was in answer to a 
letter from the Governor recommending the President to call out 500,000 
volunteers. It was in the dark summer of 1862, and the Governor's sug- 
gestion was to have the loyal governors pledge themselves to favor the 
call, the Vermont governor adding that the Green Mountain State would 
quickly respond. This resulted in a call for 300,000 three years' men, 
and 300,000 nine months' men. General Draper came to Brattleboro to 
confer with Governor Holbrook, and the paper was prepared here for 
the signatures of the governors. After the long dispatch had been 
received and read by the Governor, young Capen's heart almost failed 
him, for it was repeated to Peter T. Washburn, adjutant-general, who 
left Brattleboro for his home in Woodstock a short time before its receipt 
here. 

During the war Brattleboro people were accustomed to "chip in" and 
get the news from the front. "Sometimes we got humbugged," continued 
Capen, with a hearty laugh ; "Richmond was taken on the wire several 
times, and once or twice the victory was lustily celebrated by the towns- 



THE FIRST TELEGRAPHY 617 

people. I remember one occasion when we got a dispatch to this effect, 
and W. C. Perry, the old landlord, got out his cannon and fired it several 
times in the hotel yard in the rear of the house. This was Sunday. Silas 
Waite got the news about as soon as it came, and he bolted for the 
churches to inform the congregations. He rushed to the Centre and Uni- 
tarian Churches, where the news was announced by the clergymen from 
their pulpits. I went out Elliot Street to the Baptist Church, where the 
news was enthusiastically received, and my enthusiasm grew apace till I 
arrived at the church in West Brattleborough, where I forgot to remove 
my cigar when I went down the broad aisle to give the pastor the news. 
The congregation applauded the happy announcement, and 1 returned to 
my office only to learn a few hours later that it was all a hoax, and I felt 
cheap enough, though it was not my fault." 

Mr. Capen was not only the operator, but the lineman as well. He was 
obliged to go out in case of trouble ten miles either north or south, the 
Greenfield operator coming to Vernon. They used the old-fashioned 
sickle-shaped climbers with stirrup attachment, and once up a pole it was 
easier to slide or fall down than to attempt to use the climbers. Among 
those who served apprenticeships in Capen's office was Levi K. Fuller. 

James H. Capen was a descendant of Bernard Capen of Dorchester, 
Massachusetts, who died November 8, 1838 ; he came to Brattleboro in 
1808, locating with his family in a one-story house on Main Street. He 
died December 19, 1839, ageck fifty-three. Mrs. Rhoda Piatt Capen died 
December 1, 1868, aged eighty-one. 

His son, James H. Capen, Junior, born February 9, 1828, was a 
printer for some years and the manager of the telegraph office for twenty- 
five years. He married June 16, 1852, Miss Maria E. Livermore of 
Groton, Massachusetts, who died June 1, 1861, aged thirty-eight. He 
married, second, Miss Marie D. Pellerin of St. Gregory, Canada, who was 
born March 9, 1836 ; died September 20, 1914. In 1876 Mr., Capen entered 
the employ of the Estey Organ Company. He bought of Thomas Man- 
ning, April, 1862, twenty-five acres and buildings north of the Miles 
School for a residence. 
Children : 

Welcome I. Capen, born in Brattleboro July 25, 1854, learned the rudi- 
ments of telegraphy from his father, began as a messenger here with 
the Vermont, Boston & Montreal Company, becoming an operator 
with that company ; entered the service of the Western Union Com- 
pany, then became acting manager for the Automatic Telegraphic 
Company in Baltimore. Soon after he went to Cincinnati and set up 



618 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

automatic machinery; returned to the service of the Western Union 
as wire chief, resigning to accept the position of manager of the 
Cincinnati, Baltimore & Ohio Telegraph Company. He then entered 
the service of the Postal Telegraph-Cable Company, and was made 
manager of its Cincinnati office in 1885, superintendent in 1890, and 
was advanced to the general superintendency of the Western Division 
with headquarters in Chicago in 1906. In 1912 he was appointed 
vice-president in charge of construction and was the executive in the 
general offices of the company in New York. He married Arietta E., 
daughter of Doctor G. H. Rogers of New Haven, who died April 16, 
1919. Son: Roger I. Capen. 
Moritz P., born July 30, 1864 ; married Sarah, daughter of Edwin H. 
and Sarepta H. Sawyer, who married, first, Fred Pellerin and had 
daughters, Marie, Sarah. Children of Moritz P. and Sarah Capen: 
Alma, Louise. 



CHAPTER LVIII 

THE FIRST NEWS AGENCY ' . 

The First News Agency, established by Edward J. Carpenter — The Brattleboro Book 
Club— The New Book Club. 

Edward J. Carpenter was born in Bernardston, August 4, 1825, the 
eldest son of Doctor E. W. and Valonia Slate Carpenter. He early went 
to Greenfield to learn cabinetmaking of Miles & Lyons, with whom he 
served an apprenticeship of seven years. 

In 1851 Mr. Carpenter located in Brattleboro, establishing the first 
news agency in the town, with Major Tyler of Greenfield as his partner. 
The railroad had then been open but four months, and the town had 
just begun to adopt, in a limited way, metropolitan ideas ; hence the 
demand for a news stand. Mr. Carpenter established himself in Joseph 
Goodhue's store on Main Street, and the hunt for subscribers was begun, 
Mr. Carpenter adding a small stock of Yankee notions, the profits from 
which helped pay the rent. \The new firm started in with twenty-five 
copies of the daily Republican and some forty copies of the Boston dailies 
and a few of the leading New York papers. The business did not at that 
stage warrant the employment of a newsboy, so the young agent, who was 
then but twenty-four, delivered his own papers, making his regular daily 
rounds after the arrival of the mail train from the south. He continued 
as his own newsboy through the prosperous days of the old Water-Cure. 
This establishment, with its scores of fashionable patrons from all parts 
of the Union, gave the news agency a liberal patronage, thus assuring its 
permanent success. 

In 1855 Mr. Carpenter moved the business to Blake Block, where, on 
the corner of Main and Elliot Streets, he continued until the big fire in 
1869, which destroyed this block, and the store was from that time in 
Market Block on Elliot Street. In 1892 Mr. Carpenter sold out to 
George E. Fox and F. W. Childs, Mr. Fox assuming the active manage- 
ment for eleven years, when P. F. Connors bought Mr. Fox's interest. 

Mr. Carpenter retired from business in 1894. 

He married February 14, 1849, Miss Mary J. F'sk of Greenfield, who 
died May 16, 1900, aged seventy-three. 



620 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

He died June 6, 1900. 
Children : 

Clarence E., of Topeka, Kansas. 

Edward W., of Amherst, of the firm Olmstead, Olmstead & Elliot, 
landscape architects, Brookline, Massachusetts, married April 25, 
1882, Miss Esther M. Hastings. 

Maud, married February 24, 1896, Malcolm A. Carpenter, born 1869, 
a landscape gardener, son of Dwight N. and Mary (Mowry) Car- 
penter of Leyden, Massachusetts; died in Greenfield April 29, 1917. 
They had two children. 

The Brattleboro Book Club 

An association for profit and pleasure, which has outlived in the number 
of years of its existence all other associations, is the Brattleboro Book 
Club, the oldest organization of its kind in Brattleboro. k was founded 
in 1849 by Larkin G. Mead and Madame Higginson, the latter being the 
first president. The 'annual book sales were always held at Madame Hig- 
ginson's and Doctor Chapin was the auctioneer. The literary members 
of the club evidently delighted in simplicity, for at the sales the regulation 
refreshment was apples and gingerbread. The first year of the club's 
existence ministers were not allowed to become members, because the 
club was to give the ministers the free reading of its books at the end of 
the year. The minister^ rebelled at this, however, and the second year 
were admitted to membership. 

Among the magazines then taken were Blackwood's, The Knicker- 
bocker, Edinboro Review, Littell's Living Age, and the Westminster Re- 
view. The latter two have been continuously taken by the club. 

The following were the members in 1850 : Miss Elizabeth Smith, Mrs. 
John R. Blake, Reverend M. I. Motte, Mrs. Zelotes Dickinson, Wells 
Goodhue, L. G. Mead, Mrs. Royall Tyler, Reverend A. Huntington Clapp, 
Miss EHza Keyes, J. D. Bradley, Doctor Chapin, Miss Sophia Fessenden, 
Reverend Addison Brown, Mrs. N. B. WilHston, Mrs. Daniel Kingsley, 
Mrs. C.'C. Hall, Roswell Hunt, Miss Malvina Brooks, Reverend C. R. 
Moor, Madame Harris, Madame Higginson, Madame Channing, Doctor 
Higginson, Mrs. Admiral Green, Miss Clark, William H. Wells, Mrs. 
Wells and Miss Tilden. 

The New Book Club was organized in December, 1859, by Mrs. George 
B. Kellogg, with the following members: Mrs. O. R. Post, Mrs. A. N. 
Smith, Miss Ellen M. Brooks, Mrs. Henry Burnham, Mrs. Charles F. 
Thompson, Mrs. W. Pitt Cune, Mrs. Welcome Felton, Mrs. Zelotes 
Dickinson, Mrs. Riley Burdett, Mrs. S. M. Waite, Mrs. N. F. Cabot, 



THE BRATTLEBORO BOOK CLUB 621 

Mrs. Francis Goodhue, Mrs. Bethuel Ranger, Mrs. Alfred Wright, N. 
Pearson, D. W. Lewis, Mrs. Larkin G. Mead and Mrs. N. P. Sawyer.^ 

1 When this club disbanded in 1899 Mrs. Charles F. Thompson and Airs. X. F. 
Cabot were the only original members living. 



CHAPTER LIX 

THE MEDICAL PROFESSION 

Doctor T. B. Kittredge — Doctor Charles W. Grau, Doctors Loewenthal and Carley, 
Doctor C. R. Blackall, Doctor George P. Wesselhoeft, Hydropathists — Doctor 
J. P. Warren, Doctor James G. Murphy, Doctor E. C. Cross, Doctor Charles W. 
Horton, Doctor George F. Gale, Doctor J. H. Stedman — Doctors Ezekiel and 
George H. Morrill, Homeopathists— Doctor S. W. Bowles. 

Physicians of this period were: 

Doctor T. B. Kittredge, who came in 1849. 

The hydropathists connected with the Water-Cure, Charles William 
Grau, M.D., Doctors Loewenthal and Carley, Doctor C. R. Blackall and 
Doctor George P. Wesselhoeft in 1861. 

J. P. Warren, M.D., was born in Wardsboro August 20, 1795. Pie 
studied medicine, first with Doctor W. R. Ranney, and afterwards with 
Doctor Jonathan A. Allen of Brattleboro, and graduated from the Dart- 
mouth Medical College in 1820. He continued in practice in Wardsboro 
until 1842, earning an excellent reputation as a physician and being called 
to nearly every part of the county. He represented the town in the 
Legislature in 1839 and 1840. Leaving Wardsboro, he removed to Ches- 
terfield, New Hampshire, where he remained a few years. He afterwards 
resided several years in Fayetteville, taking the place of Doctor Olds, and 
finally removed to Brattleboro. In 1820 he married Lucy Maynard 
Wheelock, who died September 15, 1880, a sister of Judges Emery and 
Henry Wheelock, who were both prominent men in the county. 

Doctor Warren was a man of presence and dignity ; while familiar with 
the best works in literature, he devoted much time to reading in the line 
of his profession. He was particularly fond of botany, mineralogy and 
chemistry, and made one of the best collections of minerals in southern 
Vermont. His educational advantages, supplemented by a tenacious 
memory, practical judgment, vigor and strength of mind, made him one 
of the important men of the county. He died at his residence on Green 
Street September 14, 1878. 

His family numbered nine sons and three daughters. Five of the sons 



THE MEDICAL PROFESSION 623 

were in the Civil War. His oldest son, Charles, died in this village in 
early manhood, September 30, 1841. 

His son, HoNOR-ABLE Edward Jenner Warren, born in Wardsboro 
December 23, 1824, graduating at Dartmouth College in 1846, went the 
following year to Washington, North Carolina. After teaching school for 
a time, he studied law and was admitted to the bar of North Carolina and 
for some years was a judge of the Supreme Court. He took a prominent 
part in the affairs of his adopted state and during the Rebellion was a 
firm adherent of the Union cause. He was several times elected to the 
lower house of the Legislature, and served one term in the Senate, being 
made its presiding officer at the time of the impeachment of Governor 
Holden. In 1872 he was prominently named for governor. The Wash- 
ington Express of that time said of him: "North Carolina has not in her 
borders a worthier man than Judge Warren. His learning and ability, his 
patriotism, all fit him to govern a great commonwealth just emerged from 
a revolution and still agitated by her recent disorders." He died at his 
residence in Washington, Beaufort County, December 10, 1876, leaving 
a wife and two children. 

Lieutenant John Wheelock Warren, a veteran of the first Wiscon- 
sin Cavalry, was several times wounded and for some months a prisoner 
of war in a rebel prison. He died in this town March 27, 1875. Captain 
Frank E. Warren, a veteran of the Eighth Vermont Volunteers, took 
part in all the engagements of his regiment, and was wounded at the 
battle of Winchester, Virginia. Fred H. Warren, of Montgomery, Ala- 
bama, died September 19, 1892. His youngest son, Charles Herbert, 
was killed in action October 23, 1864, aged twenty-two. His second 
daughter, Jennie, died in Michigan in 1880. A daughter, Fannie, died 
in June, 1914, aged eighty-two. 

James G. Murphy, M.D., was born in Alstead, New Hampshire; 
graduated at Norwich University and at the Vermont Medical College, 
Woodstock, in 1848 ; in 1850 he settled at Ludlow. He came to Brattle- 
boro in 1853, and died June 6, 1855, aged thirty-one. He had an exten- 
sive practice here and was greatly respected. 

Doctor E. C. Cross was a native of Bradford, this state, where he 
grew up and studied for his profession. He settled first in Leyden, Massa- 
chusetts, removed from there to Guilford and then to Brattleboro. In 
1858 he moved to Rochester, Minnesota, where he acquired a high stand- 
ing in his profession. He was married in Leyden to Miss Fanny E. 
Marcy, who died September 25, 1891, aged seventy-four. He died in 
Rochester July 4, 1894, at the age of seventy years. Children: Henrietta; 
Maria L., died in Brattleboro at the age of seventy-one ; Albert. 



624 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Charles W. Horton, M.D., was born in Brandon, Vermont, April 18, 
ISOO ; graduated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 
For some years he practiced in the hospitals of that city. He settled at 
Brandon and had a large practice there, also in Sudbury, Vermont. He 
came to Brattleboro about 1855, his office being in the southeast side 
(second story) of the old Blake Block. He died in February, 1875, leav- 
ing a son, Henry. 

Doctor George F. Gale came to Brattleboro in 1S58. (See p. 817.) 

J. H. Stedman, M.D., son of Salmon Stedman and Lucina Hotchkiss, 
was born in Durham, New York, April 7, 1809 ; graduated at the Medical 
College, Pittsfield, in 1831, and practiced in New York State twenty years. 
He married in Ashland, New York, Miss Elvira Strong. He came from 
Cummington, Massachusetts, to Brattleboro in 1859. Doctor Stedman 
was one of the pioneer abolitionists, working with Gerrit Smith, Frederick 
Douglass and others in New York. Between 1846 and 1860, he edited The 
True American, an antislavery paper, at Cortland, New York, and took 
an active part in the underground railway for fugitive slaves. He was 
also a pioneer worker for temperance, and spoke often for these causes. 
He died August 29, 1894. Mrs. Stedman died December 13, 1895, in the 
eighty-sixth year of her age. She left by will $2000 to each of the follow- 
ing objects — the Congregational Home Missionary Society, the American 
Board of Foreign Missions, the American Missionary Association, the 
Brattleboro Home for the Aged and Disabled. 

Children : Daniel B. ; Clara M., died July 21, 1892, aged forty-one ; Mrs. 
Lucina Bartlett; Frances O., married December 25, 1873, Ezra Fisher; 
Maria L., of West Brattleboro; W. P. Stedman, of Bristol, Connecticut. 

Daniel Bissell, born in Richford, New York, July 13, 1840, married 
January 37, 1866, Miss Mary F. Browne, who died September 10, 
1916. He learned printing on The Hampshire Gazette, under H. S. 
Gier of Northampton, from 1858 to 1861. He enlisted in the Sixteenth 
Vermont Volunteers August 26, 1862, and was discharged at the expira- 
tion of a term of nine months, having been wounded at Gettysburg. In 
1868 he became editor and proprietor of The Vermont Phanix and was 
connected with that paper until 1888, when he moved to Rockville, 
Connecticut, and to Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1892. Children: Dr. 
Harry W., of Meeker, Colorado ; Fred C, married October 3, 1895, Miss 
Mary Frances Shaw of Springfield, Massachusetts. 

In the sixties two able homeopathic physicians (1S61), Ezekiel Morrill 
and his brother, George H. Morrill, practiced here with success. 

Doctor S. W. Bowles, 1867-1868. 



CHAPTER LX 

ORGAN MANUFACTURE 

Organ Manufacture — Samuel H. Jones — Joseph L. Jones — Riley Burdett— S. H. 
Jones & Company — Jones & Burdett — John Woodbury — Austin K. Jones — Jacob 
Estey — E. B. Carpenter & Company — Isaac Hines & Company — Jones, Carpenter 
& Woods — Silas M. Waite — J. Estey & Company — R. Burdett & Company — 
Burdett inventions — Elmer Bliss — Burdett Organ Company, Chicago. 

Samuel H. Jones. The story of Brattleboro's organ industry from its 
birth must include the names of the men from whose small beginnings 
have sprung the growth of later years, and foremost among these is the 
name of Samuel H. Jones, the oldest reed organ maker in, New England, 
and probably in the country, who was born in Berlin, New Hampshire, 
March 30, 1822, the son of William and Sally Merriam Jones, one of 
ten children. He was educated in the common schools and in the acade- 
mies of Keene and Jaffrey. He learned the cabinetmaker's trade at 
Keene, and as a boy showed the inventive mind, devising a valuable im- 
provement to the rotary engine. 

In December, 1842, just out of his apprenticeship, and not of age until 
the following spring, he went to work at Winchester, New Hampshire, 
making melodeons for Joseph Foster and Albert Thayer. Mr. Jones had 
never seen but one melodeon, and when he arrived at the works in Win- 
chester the only indications of the business he could see were a few 
patterns, the manufacture of pipe organs for church and parlor being the 
real business then carried on by the firm, Foster & Thayer. The melodeon 
business remained yet to be developed, though in 1831 Mr. Foster had 
constructed a reed instrument. The first melodeon was made to be held 
in the player's lap or upon a table, the bellows being worked with the 
elbow. It could be folded and carried under the arm with as much ease 
as could an ordinary bass viol, and was often so taken to church and 
other meetings. The compass of the keyboard was usually three octaves; 
the keys were of ivory, similar to those now in use. The reeds were of 
common sheet brass, the sockets beiiig stamped into form so as to fit 
slots made with a saw. The tongues, or vibrators, were made of the 
same soft metal, cut into suitable strips, and with hammer and anvil 



626 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

brought to the required form and temper. These were fitted and riveted 
to the sockets and brought to the proper pitch by hand tools. 

In 1844, by mutual consent, the firm of Foster & Thayer dissolved 
partnership, Mr. Foster removing to Keene, New Hampshire, where he 
established the organ and melodeon business. Mr. Jones remained in 
Winchester, manufacturing instruments in a small way on his own 
account. 

The factory was a modest affair, without machinery, except a small 
foot lathe, their prospects hardly warranting the employment of more 
than two hands, Joseph L. Jones, a brother of Samuel H., and the 
youngest of -the family of children, and Walter Jewell, a Whitingham 
boy, with the proprietor at the head of the small force. Occasionally 
they would go up to the Graves Brothers' brass instrument factory, to 
do a little work by power, the ivory for the melodeon keys, which came 
to them in the tusks, being sawed there. Graves Brothers were, at the 
time, the largest brass instrument manufacturers in New England. 

In the meantime Mr. Jones, having made the acquaintance of Riley 
Burdett, who went to Winchester from Brattleboro fortnightly to teach 
singing school, decided to move the business to the latter place and to 
form a partnership with Burdett and John Woodbury, then in the music 
trade and the manufacture of violins. John Woodbury was a native of 
Dummerston, but came to Brattleboro at an early age. He was a very 
ingenious machinist. He was advertised as a "manufacturer of Superior 
Ba-ss & Double Bass Viols & Viohns" in 1847, and "Melodeons, Sera- 
phims. Reed Organs," advertised by Jones & Burdett in the same year. 
Mr. Woodbury went afterwards to Keene and engaged in engraving, and 
died there November 6, 1871, aged sixty-three, leaving a son who is lieu- 
tenant in the regular army. 

And thus it came about that June 15, 1846, the Jones Brothers loaded 
upon a hayrack all their factory and personal belongings, including two 
workbenches, and with two horses started for their destination. They 
rented quarters in the gristmill of Smith & Woodcock,- Centerville, which 
was first built for a paper mill, having three rooms on the upper floor. 
They procured machinery and work was resumed under the firm name of 
S. H. Jones & Company; but in May, 1847, this firm dissolved, Wood- 
bury retaining the violin business and Jones & Burdett continuing with 
the manufacture of melodeons. The first specimens of the manufacture 
were completed in November, 1846, and were taken to Boston, where 
arrangements for selling were effected with E. H. Wade, then a prominent 
dealer in musical merchandise at 176 Washington Street. 

The new firm of Jones & Burdett soon removed to the unoccupied 



ORGAN MANUFACTURE 637 

office of J. R. Blake, Esquire, at the corner of Main and Elliot Streets, 
upon the site afterwards occupied by the Revere House. In November, 
1848, they moved to the second floor of the ell of the paper mill or rule 
factory building on Canal Street (the Typographic building), with a few 
additional hands, including Asa Field, Patrick White and Charles Well- 
man. The force was gradually increased, one of the new men being 
Austin K. Jones, employed as bell ringer at Harvard College from 1858, 
and who for fifty years rang the bell in Harvard Hall without missing 
a stroke — arousing the students from their sleep to summon them to 
chapel, which was then compulsory ;^ others were George Field, John 
Hoyt and George Wilder of Walpole. In September, 1850, S. H. Jones 
sold his interest to E. B. Carpenter,' a farmer in the town of Guilford, 
who had been devoting some of his leisure time to selling the instruments, 
and for the next two years was in the South, at Emmettsburg, Maryland, 
and Winchester, Virginia, with Mr. Crossett of Bennington, handling a 
patent machine for cutting barrel staves. 

February 1, 1852, Jacob Estey bought Riley Burdett's half interest of 
this new firm, whose name became E. B. Carpenter & Company, Mr. 
Burdett remaining as head tuner and superintendent of the new company 
(at the time of the transfer Burdett & Company had twenty-five men in 
their employ), which a year later, February, 1853, upon the entrance of 
Isaac Hines into the business, changed to Isaac Hines & Company. They 
put up the first pipe organ with four sets of reeds. November, 1853, 
Samuel Jones returned from Maryland to engage in the manufacture of 
melodeons, organizing the firm of Jones, Carpenter & Wood, their shop 
being on the south side of Whetstone Brook near the railroad crossing. 
George Wood retired February, 1856, and in July Samuel Jones sold 
out and went to Boston. 

■ In 1844 Samuel H. Jones married Minerva Jewell, born in Whitingham 
in 1825, died June 15, 1913. Mr. Jones died at Saint Lucie, Florida, 

1 Only by the exercise of the utmost care and the practice of wily strategy was 
Mr. Jones (bom in Brattleboro April 24, 1826) able always to ring the bell on 
time. Countless students tried to foil him in the performance of his duty — and 
none ever succeeded. On his retirement the college presented him with a handsome 
armchair in recognition of his completion of fifty years of "honorable service to 
Harvard University," and an engrossed sheepskin signed by President Eliot and 
Dean La Baron R. Briggs, setting forth his service as "an example of fidelity and 
punctuality to all members of the university." 

Mr. Jones died in 1914, survived by his daughter, Mrs. Walter C. Wardwell, 
and four grandchildren : Edwin Davis, an electrical engineer for the Interborough 
Rapid Transit Company of New York, Austin K. Wardwell, Georgia and Grace 
Wardwell. 



638 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

January 19, 1883. There were seven children; and a grandson, Fred 
Kingsley. 

Joseph L. Jones was born in Marlboro, New Hampshire, May 30, 1825. 
He continued with the new firm of Burdett & Green (H. P.) when his 
brother, Samuel H., sold his interest in the business and went to Boston; 
was with them when the big fire destroyed their factory in July, and 
assisted in rebuilding the factory. In 1858 and 1859 he was employed 
in carpentering and in the furniture shop of Retting & Brown for about 
a year. 

He probably worked longer upon reed instruments than any other man 
in this country. 

He was with the Estey Organ Company at the time of his death in 
1901, leaving a record of fifty-seven years of almost continuous service 
in the manufacture of musical instruments. During his service with this 
company he was employed in making keys and keyboards, and for thirty- 
one years was a bellowsmaker, finally being put on pedal work. 

He married September 3, 1854, Harriet E. Fowler, who died in 1880. 

Riley Burdett was born on Putney West Hill December 29, 1819. 
His family moved to Brookline and then to Newfane, but at nine years 
of age he began life as chore boy on the farm of Warren Richmond in 
Westminster, Vermont, and was given three months' schooling each 
year. He returned to Putney as clerk in the store of Isaac Grout at 
sixteen, and, armed with a violin by which to test voices, taught a singing 
school in the winter season, which he continued and in which he was 
successful for many years. He also had a mechanical bent and at eighteen 
began to learn the machinist's trade of Jonathan Cutler, and two years 
later went to Paterson, New Jersey, and worked for a year or more in 
Colt's pistol factory. 

It was at the Putney singing school that he met Miss Sophia H. Wilder, 
born April 4, 1820, whom he married May 22, 1844. In 1841 he came to 
Brattleboro and engaged in the manufacture and sale of violins, 'cellos 
and double basses with John Woodbury. 

In 1846, when Samuel H. Jones came to Brattleboro and with Riley 
Burdett began manufacturing melodeons, John Woodbury and Riley 
Burdett being half owners, he managed the sales department at their 
music store in Steen's building where the Brooks House now stands. In 
November some specimens of their manufacture were sold in Boston. 
During that winter Mr. Burdett gave his attention to learning the art of 
voicing and tuning. 

He had in the meantime invented a reed board and secured a patent 



ORGAN MANUFACTURE 629 

on it, which he finally sold to Silas M. Waite. This patent was the cause 
of the famous law suit between the Estey Organ Company and Silas M. 
Waite. (See p. 675.) Among the other inventions made and introduced 
by Air. Burdett were "Reed Caps for Pressure Reeds," the "Bass 
Damper," the "Knee Swell," a "Combined Melodeon and Piano," the 
"Harmonic Coupler," the "Manual Sub-Bass" (the first ever made) and 
above all, "a new mode of Repairing and Voicing Reeds," which latter 
invention made his reputation as a reed "Voicer" world wide. 

In 1865 a new company was formed by Jacob Estey, S. M. Waite, 
Riley Burdett and Joel BuUard under the firm name of J. Estey & Com- 
pany, with a branch establishment in Chicago, Mr. Burdett in charge. 
This partnership continued until April, 1866, when it was dissolved by 
mutual consent, Estey retaining the firm name and the property in the 
village of Brattleboro, Burdett and Waite taking the Chicago branch 
and the exclusive right of sale west of Ohio and forming the firm of R. 
Burdett & Company, and manufacturing the "Burdett organ." 

Mr. Burdett again began inventing and in five years offered to the 
musical world forty valuable inventions in Reed Organs, a list of some 
of the most important being "Vocal Tremolo," "Sub-Bass," Harmonic 
Attachment, Orchestral Swell, "Violoncello Voice Reed," "Perfection 
Voice Reed," "Harmonic Celeste," "Improved Tri-Reed Socket," "Du- 
plex Bellows," "Double Reed Celeste," "New Manual Sub-Bass," "Im- 
proved Sub-Bass Socket Board." 

The Brattleboro Melodeon Company was organized in 1867 with 
S. M. Waite, president; vice-presidents. Doctor Charles P. Frost, Rev- 
erend A. C. Stevens, Reverend F. W. Smith ; corresponding secretary, 
O. B. Douglas ; recording secretary, George H. Clapp ; treasurer, J. J. 
Estey; executive committee, A. C. Davenport, A. H. Wright, W. H. 
Rockwell, Junior, A. A. Cheney. 

Elmer Bliss, who had previously been in the furniture business in 
Brattleboro as a member of the firm of Dwinell & Bliss, and was also a 
member of the Brattleboro Melodeon Company, became a member of the 
Burdett Organ Company of Chicago in 1868 and remained with them 
until the great fire burned the plant, and the business was moved to Erie, 
Pennsylvania, 1871, where a large factory was built and a prosperous 
business established, which continued until 1885, when Mr. Burdett 
retired from business and lived in Chicago. 

Other Brattleboro men who went with Mr. Burdett were George and 
Charles Heywood, Mr. Smith who married the Heywoods' sister, a Mr. 
Church and others. 



630 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Mr. Burdett was known in every town in the United States by his 
musical instruments, and yet there was scarcely to be found a man so 
modest and unassuming. A man whose word was never questioned, 
gentle and guileless ; one who never wronged a fellow being — and so 
retiring that only the few who knew him intimately appreciated that he 
was one of Nature's noblemen. From an early age he was a consistent 
Christian. During his forty years of business life in Brattleboro he was 
a devoted member of the Centre Church and was deacon from 1865 to 
1868. 

He died in Chicago January 26, 1890. Mrs. Burdett died November 
10, 1892. A daughter, Lilla, married Ralph Metcalf of Newport, New 
Hampshire, August 4, 1868. 

Riley Burdett had six brothers; one of them, Lewis M., died in Brattle- 
boro February 20, 1870. • 





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THE ESTEY GUARDS 



CHAPTER LXI 

JACOB ESTEY 

Jacob Estey. The Estey Organ. General Julius Estey— Colonel J. Gray Estey— 
J. Harry Estey. 

Jacob Estey was born in Hinsdale, New Hampshire, September 30, 1814, 
and was the son of Isaac and Patty Forbes Estey. The Estey ancestry 
came from England in the early part of the seventeenth century and 
settled in the Massachusetts colony. From there Isaac Estey moved to 
Hinsdale in the early part of the nineteenth century. His farm, on which 
Jacob was born, was on the east road leading to Chesterfield. There were 
seven children in the family. In Jacob's early childhood financial reverses 
overtook his father and at four years old he was adopted by Alvm 
Shattuck, a Hinsdale neighbor. For a time he was the pet of the family, 
but as the years went on harsh treatment and positive cruelty took the 
place of kindness, and at thirteen years of age, when he could endure it 
no longer, the boy Jacob deliberately ran away. With his bundle of 
clothes under his arm and two dollars in his pocket, a few days later he 
brought up in Worcester, Massachusetts, where an elder brother was 
living. For the next four years he worked at farming in various towns 
in the vicinity, earning the generous wages of six dollars a month, after- 
wards increased to twelve or fifteen dollars. During the winters he con- 
trived to get a little schooling by doing chores for his board. 

At seventeen young Estey went to Worcester and learned of Thomas 
Sutton what would now be called the plumber's trade. At that time this 
consisted of the making and putting in of lead pipe and copper pumps. 
By the primitive methods of those days lead pipe was made by pouring 
the melted lead into a mould and then drawing it out to any desired size 
over a steel rod. Three years later, December 31, 1834, when Jacob was 
twenty, his father died and he went to Hinsdale to the funeral. From 
thence he came over to Brattleboro and naturally sought out Stephen 
Parker, who had a lead pipe and pump shop here. Parker said he was 
tired of the business ; he would sell it for half what it was worth. Mr. 
Estey took possession April 1, 1835, a few months before he was twenty- 
one, and thus became a resident of Brattleboro. His shop was in what 



632 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

was then the old tannery building, known to a later generation as the 
Valley Mill building, which fell a victim to the flames in December, 1886. 

For the following fifteen or twenty years Mr. Estey did a successful 
business in the lead pipe and pump trade. His sales extended over all 
the region round about, including New Hampshire, Massachusetts and 
eastern New York. His goods were largely made in the winter, and the 
summers were spent in laying aqueducts as called for. In Townshend 
Deacon William A. Dutton formed a partnership with Mr. Estey, the 
latter furnishing capital. From Townshend the business was moved to 
Brattleboro about 1847, and was conducted in a shop which stood where 
Whetstone Block stood later. Mr. Estey afterwards sold his interest to 
Mr. Dutton's brother-in-law, John H. Kathan. About 1850 he built a 
two-story shop which stood by the brook just south of the Main Street 
bridge, on the site of the building which was washed away by the Decem- 
ber freshet some years later. A portion of this shop was rented to Bur- 
dett & Carpenter, who were engaged in the manufacture of melodeons in 
a small way. About this time the modern methods of making lead pipe 
began to come into use in manufacturing centers, and Mr. Estey grad- 
ually gave up his pipe and pump business, buying, February 1, 1852, Riley 
Burdett's interest in the firm of Burdett & Carpenter ; later the firm 
became I. Hines & Company. It was while the California gold fever was 
at its height, and his partners became anxious to get out of the business. 
Mr. Estey was no musician, but his insight told him that the musical 
instinct was just awakening in the American people, and that the business 
had in it promising possibilities. He bought the interest of his partners, 
paying for the whole business $2700, and soon after took in company with 
him H. P. Green, later of Jacksonville, Florida, who had some knowl- 
edge of music. At this time the firm employed only some six or eight 
workmen, and the annual output was six or seven melodeons a month. 
D. B. Bement related that when he first came to work for the concern, in 
1853, he did all the filing and fitting of the reeds and Mr. Burdett did all 
the tuning — and neither of them thought himself overworked. 

With the home business of manufacturing satisfactorily established, 
Mr. Estey took on himself the duties of salesman, and for several years 
he personally sold the whole product of the modest factory. He used to 
load his wagon with melodeons and strike out, it might be across the 
mountain into eastern New York, then through northern Vermont into 
Canada, and come home through western New Hampshire, varying his 
beat as the trade prospects might indicate. "I didn't know a note of 
music," he was wont to say, "and so I didn't waste any time playing on 
the melodeons. Sometimes I took a boy along to play on them, and some- 




ESTEY ORGAN BCTILDING SOUTH MAIN STREET 




VAN DOORN AND DWINELL FURNITURE SHOP 




ESTEY GUARD AND FULLER BATTERY SECOND STORY 




PEG SHOP AND TANNERY DAM CENTERVILLE 



HON. JACOB ESTEY 633 

times I found someone in the vicinity to come into the farmers' houses 
and show them off. If I could get an instrument into a neighborhood 
there was pretty sure to be a call for others." The price of the instru- 
ments varied from $75 to $225 ; sales were rarely made for cash down ; 
the terms were usually a note at twelve months. Often the trade was 
in barter, — cheese, butter or other farm produce, horses from Canada, 
young cattle, anything that the shrewd Yankee knew could be readily 
turned into cash. 

In 1857 the shop was burned and a new and larger one was built where 
the Brattleboro House stood; this in its turn was burned in 1864. Re- 
building, he continued in successful operation until 1866, when he received 
into partnership his son-in-law, Levi K. Fuller, and his son, Julius J. 
Estey. The business steadily grew, and in the same year the large factory 
at the corner of Frost and Elm Streets, later occupied by Smith & Hunt, 
was built. 

JosiAH Davis Whitney was born in Ashby, Massachusetts, Novem- 
ber 7, 1818. When old enough to use tools (perhaps fifteen or sixteen) 
he began to work in the shop of his father, Jonas P. Whitney, who was 
a manufacturer of church organs. When twenty-one years of age he 
■ was taken into partnership and continued to make church organs until 
1844, when he removed to Springfield, Massachusetts, and engaged in the 
manufacture of melodeons, pianos and church organs. In 1851 he 
removed to Fitchburg, Massachusetts, where he was employed by his 
father in making melodeons or reed organs. He removed to Worcester, 
Massachusetts, in 1853, where he formed a partnership with Messrs. 
Rice and Robinson for the manufacture of organ reeds. He remained 
there only one year, then went back to Fitchburg, and soon after got up 
a set of reed machinery and commenced making reeds. In 1865 J. Estey 
& Company purchased the machinery and hired Mr. Whitney to run it. 
He remained with them until 1874. 

In October, 1869, a flood swept away a part of their buildings on Frost 
Street, many thousands of dollars worth of lumber being carried off, 
involving slight embarrassment, but not entire cessation of work. The 
firm now bought a tract of sixty acres, on higher ground, and erected 
new buildings. The number of these has since been increased until they 
now number, of factory buildings proper, seven, fronting on Birge Street 
on land previously owned by Frank H. Farr, each one hundred feet long 
by from thirty to thirty-eight feet wide and three stories in height, with 
several more in the rear. There is also a large dryhouse one hundred 
and forty feet long by fifty feet wide, together with other buildings in 



634 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

which all the wood that makes up the cases is thoroughly dried, after a 
long seasoning in the open air, by a process patented by Colonel Fuller. 
Of black walnut alone four carloads a week have been required for the 
cases. There are also a storehouse, one hundred feet square ; an engine 
house containing several large boilers and a Corliss engine of one hundred 
and fifty horse-power ; and other outhouses for various purposes, includ- 
ing a building in which are kept, for ready use, two steam fire-engines, 
the property of the firm, which are manned by a company of the em- 
ployees who are regularly exercised in their use twice a month. Each 
building is also supplied with fire buckets and extinguishers. 

Mr. Estey represented the town of Brattleboro in the Vermont Legis- 
lature in 1869 and 1870, and was a member of the Senate for the first 
biennial term, 1872-1874. In 1876 he was one of the presidential electors 
who cast the vote of Vermont' for Rutherford B. Hayes. 

The firm is now the Estey Organ Company, having been incorporated 
by an act of the Legislature approved November 26, 1872 : Jacob Estey, 
president ; Levi K. Fuller, vice-president, and Julius J. Estey, secretary 
and treasurer. 

In 1872 Joseph White came. to Brattleboro and began work for the 
Estey Organ Company. In 1879 he went to New York City, where he 
spent six months working out and patenting a self-playing organ attach- 
ment. This was one of the first automatic players invented, the sheets 
of music having raised notes. Returning to Brattleboro, Mr. White 
worked for the Estey Organ Company until 1888, when the family moved 
to Huntington, Quebec, where Mr. White made actions in an organ fac- 
tory. He was there five years, and afterwards became foreman of the 
action department at the Estey plant, inventing and patenting several 
improvements which are embodied in the actions now made by the firm. 

On the eleventh of March, 1853, was begun the first large reed organ 
made in Brattleboro, which was finished the eighteenth of the following 
month. It had two sets of reeds in the usual position below the keyboard 
and two sets above the keys, in an inverted reed board, about three feet 
above the keyboard and operated by rods reaching up from the rear end of 
the keys. Some idea of the increase in the business may be estimated from 
the fact that up to March, 1884, Mr. Estey had manufactured nearly one 
hundred and fifty thousand instruments; to September, 1891, two hundred 
and thirty-six thousand; to August, 1892, two hundred and fifty thousand 
instruments. 

Organ making calls for a special and fine quality of workmanship: it 
follows that the majority of men in the employ of the Estey Organ Com- 
pany have been able, intelligent, industrious, owning their own well- 



HON. JACOB ESTEY 635 

ordered homes, and taking their share as valued citizens in the common 
life. 

It is to the far-seeing wisdom and practical beneficence of Jacob Estey, 
carried on through the management of his successors, that this great in- 
dustry has proceeded for nearly seventy years without obstacle from 
labor agitations. Many have given all of their working days to the Estey 
organ, — thirty and forty years; one, fifty-six; another, fifty-nine years, — 
becoming veterans in the service. 

Deacon Estey was a staunch supporter of the Brattleboro Baptist 
Church for exactly fifty years, from the date of his transference of 
membership by letter to this church in 1840, to the day of his death. It 
was largely through his active influence that the church has grown to be 
the largest of its denomination in the state. His help in building up 
churches of this faith elsewhere and his benefactions to weak and strug- 
gling churches were constant and generous. Besides the aid given Baptist 
churches in Montpelier, Hinsdale, Putney, West Brattleboro and at other 
places, Mr. Estey's firm gave largely toward the establishment of Ver- 
mont Academy at Saxtons River, and his gifts to Shaw University, a 
school for colored youth at Raleigh, North Carolina, were generous. 
In addition to the positions of public trust held by him, as mentioned, he 
served on the board of selectmen, was connected with both of the savings 
banks, and, with the Honorable Parley Starr, was the founder of the 
Peoples National Bank, erecting with Mr. Starr the building in which that 
institution is now housed and of which his son. Colonel Julius J. Estey, 
became president. In connection with Judge Hoyt H. Wheeler and Hon- 
orable Broughton D. Harris, Mr. Estey was one of the commissioners 
on the part of Brattleboro to build the new Chesterfield bridge and to free 
the Hinsdale bridge. 

He died April 15, 1890. 

Emily J. Hines, first wife of Jacob Estey, died August 13, 1836, aged 
twenty. 

Mr. Estey married, second, May 2, 1837, Desdemona Wood, daughter 
of David Wood of Dover and Brattleboro, the ceremony being performed 
by Reverend Charles Walker. They immediately began housekeeping in 
the Parker house, bought two years before, and lived there until their 
permanent residence was built in 1854. This union was an exceptionally 
happy one, and to this blessing were added the love and admiration of 
their children. 
Children : 

Abby E., born September 21, 1842; married May 8, 1865, Levi K. 
Fuller. (Seep. 909.) 



636 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Julius J., born January 8, 1845. 

A brother of Jacob Estey, James F. Estey, who married Miss Emily 
Hall of Rutland, lived in Brattleboro. 

In the early part of 1901 the Estey Company began to build pipe organs. 
At the time no facilities were available other than those which the cabinet 
organ factories afforded. Their idea was to build a line of small organs 
to supply the practically unlimited demand of comparatively small 
churches in the country, but the success of the Estey pipe organs was so 
instantaneous and the demand so immediate that the company was forced 
to accept orders for large instruments. The first organ completed and 
sold was placed in the Methodist church in this village in the early fall of 
1901. In 1902 a large erection building was built and occupied. Two 
large buildings adjoining the first were erected in succeeding years. 

The Second Brattleboro House 

In 1857 the shop where Jacob Estey began making melodeons was 
burned with sixteen other buildings south of Flat Street and a larger shop 
was erected where the Brattleboro House stood. That building was 
burned in 1864 and another was built which was the Brattleboro House. 
Jacob Estey & Company continued to occupy the building as an organ 
factory until 1866, when they moved to a new factory on the site of the 
S. A. Smith Company factory on Frost Street. (The original Brattleboro 
House, first known as Chase's Stage-House, was on Main Street.) 

Four years later, in 1870, Isaac Sargent fitted up with all the then 
modern improvements this new Brattleboro House. Mr. Sargent's means 
became exhausted by reason of his large expenditures and the hotel prop- 
erty returned to the possession of J. Estey & Company. 

The Estey Company retained the ownership of the property until in 
the nineties, when it was bought by Frank L. Hunt,^ who rebuilt the 
veranda, added a balcony and also repaired the interior thoroughly, putting 
in steam heat. 

Many diflFerent persons conducted the hotel.' Perhaps the best-known 
proprietors were Dunton & Campbell, who were conducting it in 1880. 
They were Colonel Augustus T. Dunton, who afterwards went West, 
and Henry Campbell, who became a prominent hotel man in Washington 
city. Other proprietors were Morey Brothers of Massachusetts (H. A. 
Morey, 1873), Charles Bowles of Newfane, Henry Kilburn of Newfane 
and Evans & Son of Townshend. In more recent years the best-known 
proprietors have been T. Frank Turner, O. H. Ellis, Miss Sadie Turner, 
Cecil G. Turner and Miss Jennie E. Bushee, all of Brattleboro. 

^ When Brattleboro voted license in 1903 Mr. Hunt sold the hotel to the Spring- 
field Breweries Company. 



GEN. JULIUS J. ESTEY 637 

General Julius J. Estey 

Julius J. Estey received his education in the pubhc schools of his native 
town and at the Norwich MiHtary Institute, graduating in 1864. On 
attaining his majority he became associated with his father as junior 
member of the firm of Estey & Company. When the Estey Organ Com- 
pany was incorporated he became the treasurer, and occupied that posi- 
tion until 1890, when he became president, with his sons, J. Gray Estey 
and J. Harry Estey, respectively, as vice-president and treasurer. Besides 
directing the business of this corporation, Mr. Estey was also actively 
interested in various other commercial and financial institutions, and 
was president of the Peoples Bank of Brattleboro, president of the 
Estey Piano Company of New York City and a director in the Estey 
Manufacturing Company of Owosso, Michigan, 1890-1902. 

He was zealously interested in the maintenance of the military estab- 
lishment of the state, to which he aflforded his personal efforts and 
means. His connection with the National Guard dates from 1874, when 
he organized the Estey Guards of Brattleboro, of which he was chosen 
captain. In 1876 he was appointed as aid-de-camp, with the rank of 
colonel, on the staff of Governor Horace Fairbanks. In 1881 he was 
elected lieutenant-colonel of the Vermont National Guard, and served 
with that rank until 1886, when he was elected colonel ; October 13, 
1892, he was made brigadier-general and served until 1898. 

General Estey was an active Republican, and was repeatedly a delegate 
to state conventions, and in 1888 was a delegate-at-large to the national 
convention. He was elected to the Legislature in 1876, and to the State 
Senate in 1882, affording his aid to the formation and enactment of 
various salutary laws relating to the National Guard and to educational 
and industrial interests. He was for many years a trustee of Mount 
Hermon (Massachusetts) School for young men, and of Northfield 
Seminary for young ladies, both founded by Mr. D. L. Moody, the evan- 
gelist, as well as treasurer of the latter named institution and of Vermont 
Academy at Saxtons River, 1890-1892. In religion he was a Baptist, 
exemplary in life and earnest and liberal in the support of his church and 
its allied interests. He was for a number of years president of the board 
of managers of the Vermont Baptist State Convention and president of 
the Baptist State Sunday School Association. He was also deeply inter- 
ested in the work of the Young Men's Christian Association ; he was 
president of the Brattleboro body from its organization, also serving as 
chairman of the state executive committee and presiding at various state 
gatherings. 

General Estey married, October 29, 1867, Florence Gray, a daughter 



638 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

of Doctor Henry C. Gray of Cambridge, New York, born August 24, 
1848, and a descendant in the seventh generation from Matthew (1) and 
Joan Gray, who were among the Scotch-Irish immigrants that landed in 
Boston August 4, 1819, and of Doctor Joseph Gray, surgeon in the 
American Revolutionary Army. 

General and Mrs. Estey became the parents of three children : Jacob 
Gray, Julius Harry and Guy Carpenter Estey ; the last was born June 4, 
1881, died November 18, 1897. General Estey died March 7, 1903. 

J. Gray, the eldest son, was born August 3, 1871. He began his educa- 
tion in the public schools of Brattleboro, and pursued advanced studies 
at Vermont Academy and the Massachusetts School of Technology. At 
the age of twenty he entered the Estey Organ Company's factory and 
worked his way through all of its various departments, acquainting him- 
self intimately with all the details of the business, mechanical as well as 
administrative. He served for a time as superintendent of the manufac- 
turing department, later became vice-president, and succeeded to the 
presidency after the death of his father. 

He early became connected with the National Guard of Vermont, in 
which he enlisted as a private, and the Estey Guards, of which he after- 
wards became captain, eventually rising to the rank of colonel command- 
ing the regiment. He is president of the Peoples Bank of Brattleboro. 
Colonel Estey was married October 29, 1893, to Mattie H., daughter 
of Leverett Poor, a leather manufacturer of Peabody, Massachusetts. 
Of this marriage were born two children: Jacob Poor; Joseph Gray. 

Julius Harry Estey, second son of General Estey, was born July 9, 
1874. He graduated from the High School in 1892, and in the same year 
took a position in the office of the Estey Organ Company, becoming later 
its treasurer and also treasurer of the Estey Piano Company of New 
York. 

From the death of his father in 1903 he had shared with his older 
brother the management of the Estey Company, and his sound business 
judgment and constant application were invaluable factors in the growth 
of that great business. His knowledge of music was not confined to the 
mechanical, as he had a discerning taste for good music which made 
for joy in his work, and so he gave it the very best that was in him. 

In 1881, when a boy of seven years, he first accompanied his father to a 
muster, as "marker" and orderly to the regimental commander ; at eleven 
he enlisted in Company I, November 28, 1889, and January, 1894, he 
ranked as captain on the staff of his father, then brigadier commander. 
In February, 1898, he was commissioned first lieutenant, mustered into 
the United States service May 16, 1898, and served at Chickamauga dur- 



GEN. JULIUS J. ESTEY ' 639 

ing the war with Spain. September 30, 1899, he was mustered out of the 
Federal service and commissioned captain and adjutant for his brother, 
Colonel J. Gray Estey. July 26, 1905, he resigned from the National 
Guard, after six years of work done in a thorough and soldierly manner. 

He took an intense interest in America's part in the Great World War, 
and as head of the local canteen served for months with a self-abnegation 
that gave comfort and cheer to hundreds of weary doughboys. He was 
chairman of the committee of the Brattleboro War Chest, and of the 
executive committee of the Soldiers' Memorial, a member of the Vermont 
Society of Colonial Wars and of the Spanish War Veterans. 

A remarkable gift for imitation and native wit made him the drawing 
character in amateur theatricals — which was one of his recreational pleas- 
ures; but it was with his family in their home or in outdoor enjoyment 
that he found his happiness and the truest expression of his nature. 

He married June 19, 1895, Allethaire, daughter of Colonel Edwin H. 
and Sue (Cowan) Chase of Louisville, Kentucky. Children: Paul; Alle- 
thaire. He died February 7, 1920. 



CHAPTER LXII 
SKILLED MECHANICS 

John Gore — Edwin Putnam 

John Gore, a mechanic and inventor of genius, died in this village, 
March 15, 1880, at the age of seventy-five. Mr. Gore came to Brattleboro 
in early life, and for several years Vf3.s in business here as a steam boiler 
maker. Following this, under the patronage of Chester W. Chapin, he 
engaged in a similar business in Springfield, Massachusetts, building both 
engines and boilers for steamboats on the line then plying between Spring- 
field and Hartford. He also, under Mr. Chapin's patronage, went to 
Newbern, North Carolina, where he built machinery for boats in which 
Mr. Chapin was interested. At a period later than this Mr. Gore was 
again in business in this town. In 1856 and 1857, partly for the relief 
of a lung difficulty, he went to Fredonia, New York, where he assisted in 
the development of one or more patents. In the course of his life Mr. 
Gore made several important mechanical inventions, some of which were 
of great practical value. Foremost among them was the invention of the 
adjustable mowing machine box, an appliance which lies at the foundation 
of the successful manufacture and operation of mowing machines, but 
for which he never received any adequate pecuniary return. In his gen- 
eral knowledge of mechanics and subjects connected therewith, Mr. Gore 
was surpassed by but few men in the country. He was an accomplished 
mathematician and had a very considerable knowledge of astronomy. 

Mr. Gore was born in Halifax. Older residents recalled, with lively 
interest, the fact of his construction of a steam road wagon, about the 
year 1835, which was the local wonder of the day. 

It was a practical steam vehicle which in most respects resembled a 
single-horse wagon, yet it had a good boiler and a two-cylinder engine, 
with cylinders approximately three inches in diameter. This boiler was 
made of U-shaped tubes one and one-half inches in diameter and so placed 
that the lower ends of these tubes served as a grate, while the flame fol- 
lowed them toward the top. "Thus does Vermont establish its right to 
priority in the field of automobile pioneering, between the Atlantic and 
the Pacific." 

It was built at a cost of about $600 and was in existence nearly ten 







JACOB ESTEYS SHOP 




ESTEY ORGAN FACTORY 




MOUNTAIN FROM ESTEYVILLE 




THE WHETSTONE AT ESTEYVILLE 



SKILLED MECHANICS 641 

years. Its speed on an ordinary carriage road was a dozen or more miles 
an hour. So many horses were frightened that, during the latter part of 
its career, the selectmen forbade its appearance on the public highway 
unless a boy ran ahead blowing a horn. 

Edwin Putnam was the son of Lemuel Putnam, born in the town of 
Guilford in the year 1820, and at nine years of age came to Brattleboro 
to work for Mrs. Patty Fessenden, where he remained a few years, 
going to Boston for a year or two, and returning with the intention of 
apprenticing himself to Hines & Newman, machinists, for the purpose 
of learning that trade. He afterwards worked for John Gore, in build- 
ing steam engines and boilers, and upon the completion of an engine for a 
steamboat then building at Springfield, Massachusetts, he assisted in 
putting it into the boat and in the capacity of engineer took it to North 
Carolina, where it plied as a river boat, young Putnam serving as engineer 
for a considerable period. 

Upon the completion of this service he returned to Brattleboro in the 
employ of Mr. Gore, and afterwards of L. H. Crane, one of the most 
skillful mechanics that ever lived in this town. The extraordinary skill 
which afterwards gained for Putnam his reputation here found active 
play. He was for several years engaged in the construction of the 
machinery used by E. A. Stearns & Company for making rules, the most 
accurate then in use in America, and undoubtedly much of the great repu- 
tation of that firm for accurate work was due to Mr. Putnam for the care 
and skill shown by him when so employed. He was employed in building 
some of the finest tools in use in the sewing machine industry in Brattle- 
boro as well as in some of the leading shops of the country. His skill was 
called into use with great effect in the celebrated surveying instruments of 
Professor Lyman. Some of the finest machines at the Estey organ works 
came from his hands ; he was also an adept at paper machinery. For 
many years he took an active part in the fire department of this town, and 
mainly to him is Number 6 Engine Company indebted for its fine engine 
and its reputation among hand engines. He never lost his interest in mat- 
ters of this kind, but was an authority among firemen to the day of his 
death. 

He was the most skillful machinist Vermont ever produced. He was 
not only accurate in all that he did, but he had the eye of an artist and 
displayed his taste to an extraordinary degree. When a piece of fine work 
left his hands you could trace with unmistakable certainty the cunning 
hand of the skilled artisan and the clever imagination of the artist. He 
led a quiet and modest life, and in later years was a constant attendant 
and firm friend of the church. 



642 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Conscientious in all that he undertook, painstaking in everything, he 
left a record worthy of imitation by the young mechanic. As a man 
he was just, as a mechanic skillful, as a workman faithful, as a friend 
steadfast. 



CHAPTER LXIII 

THE TOWN HALL 

AGRICULTURAL EXHIBITION ON THE MUSTER FIELD 

A special meeting was called for February 20, 1854, to see, among other 
things, what measures the town would take to provide a suitable hall for 
holding town and freeman's meetings. When the day came, the voters 
were rallied and went to West Brattleboro, where those of the west part 
were on hand. After much opposition, including a speech by Samuel 
Clark, the meeting voted that the town erect a suitable building for a town 
hall and other municipal purposes, to be located in the East Village, and 
that a committee of five be chosen by ballot to devise, plan and erect such 
a building. Edward Kirkland, Timothy Vinton, Lafayette Clark, George 
Newman and Francis Goodhue were chosen such a committee, and author- 
ized to borrow $15,000. This was taken to mean that all town meetings 
were to be held here and no more at West Brattleboro. Temporarily they 
were held in Revere Hall. 

Before much had been done towards a new hall a meeting was called 
there to have the vote rescinded, but the articles were promptly dismissed. 
The Vermont House, kept by Captain Lord, Townsley's store and Wan- 
tastiquet Hall had already gone up in flame and smoke to make room for 
the new building which was built in 1855. A meeting was held in it Decem- 
ber 12 to hear a report from the building committee, and to see if the town 
would authorize them to borrow a sufficient sum for remaining expenses 
of finishing and furnishing it, but still there was opposition. Finally, 
after much debate, the committee was authorized to borrow $8500 for 
finishing and furnishing the house and it was built by Joel Bullard. 
When done it was an appropriate and handsome structure, admired by 
outsiders, and a source of pride to the town. For forty years it stood 
without alteration, repair or sign of decay on the outside, and but little 
alteration within. 

Its use during those forty years was not confined to municipal purposes ; 
but state conventions, concerts and theatrical shows were held in the great 
hall, and the county clerk's office, lawyers' offices, bookstores, dry goods 
stores, and the post office were at times kept below. 



644 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

In December, 1895, it was voted to renovate the Town Hall to the 
amount of $33,000, which would include a Festival Hall and Opera House. 
Through the influence of Colonel George W. Hooker, the Abbey Theater 
of New York was taken as a model for the latter. It was dedicated 
February 1, 1896, and is called the Auditorium. 

Agricultural Exhibition on the Old Muster Field 

In October, 1846, the Windham County Agricultural Society, Judge 
Daniel Kellogg, president, held its annual meeting and exhibition in Brat- 
tleboro. The Common was the exhibition ground for live stock, the little 
old schoolhouse on Chase Street for farm products and garden vegetables, 
the High School house for manufactures and the Unitarian Church for 
committees of departments and other business. 

On September 12, 13, 14, 1854, the Vermont Agricultural Association, 
of which Governor Holbrook was then president, held its fourth annual 
fair in Brattleboro. The location of the exhibition was the "Muster 
Field," owned by George H. Clark, which included thirty-five acres 
enclosed with a board fence ten feet high. The event was one of great 
importance for Brattleboro, and The Brattleborongh Eagle, which devoted 
very little space to local events, gave a page and a half to the exhibition. 

On the right of the area stood floral hall, twenty-six by sixty feet. 
South of this was the mechanics' and manufacturers' hall, two hundred 
and thirty feet long by forty wide ; on the opposite side was the horse 
barn, one hundred and eight feet by twenty-eight feet ; near the center 
of the ground and of the half-mile track was the "gallery" for the accom- 
modation of spectators ; this building was two hundred feet long and 
seated two thousand persons. The speaker's stand stood in a grove at one 
side, and the ticket office and judges' stand were properly located. 

The citizens of Brattleboro contributed $2000 for the purpose of the 
fair, and arrangements were made with all the railroads in the state to 
carry animals and articles for exhibition to and from the fair free 
and to carry persons at half fare. At least twenty-five thousand people 
visited the grounds during the second day, and there were no accidents 
and no disturbances. Luther A. Ham, assistant chief of police of the 
city of Boston, was specially employed to keep the rogues in awe. The 
Germania Band of twelve pieces was engaged to furnish music, under 
the directorship of Wolf Fries and the leadership of Mr. Heinicke. 

It was a superior exhibition in all the departments. The exhibition 
of working cattle was avowedly the best ever seen in the state, there being 
over two hundred yoke, forty-eight of which were from West Brattleboro. 
Among the Morgan horses were the original Black Hawk and Green 



AGRICULTURAL EXHIBITION 645 

Mountain Morgan. Honorable Charles Theodore Russell of Boston 
(father of Governor William E. Russell) delivered an address upon The 
Enfranchisement of Labor on the closing day. 

Taking his own idea of the proportions of the Woodbury and Sherman 
Morgan horses as guide, Larkin G. Mead, then a promising young artist, 
furnished two full-sized pictures in chalk of members of these families, 
both of which were framed and hung one at each end of the spectators' 
gallery. At the instigation of a few friends he also drew a crayon por- 
trait of President Holbrook, which was placed over the judges' stand 
unknown to Mr. Holbrook. 



CHAPTER LXIV 

ST. MICHAEL'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH 
LIST OF CLERGY 

The state of Vermont separated from the Eastern Diocese in May, 1832, 
and Right Reverend John Henry Hopkins was the first bishop, with 
residence in Burlington. 

St. Michael's Church is the child of Christ Church, Guilford, Vermont. 
Mr. Alfred Baury, who had been appointed lay reader in 1818 to take 
charge of the newly consecrated church in Guilford, was ordained priest, 
and he was the first clergyman of the Episcopal church permanently ap- 
pointed to officiate in this part of the state of Vermont. That his official 
acts took in Brattleboro is evident from the fact that at the first marriage 
he performed after his ordination and the second marriage performed in 
Christ Church one of the interested parties in this ceremony, the bride- 
groom, was from Brattleboro. The entry in the old register reads thus : 
"Jan. 1, 1821, Rev. Alfred Baury, officiating minister, Samuel Whitney 
of Brattleborough and Amelia Hyde of this town were married." The 
second reference to Brattleboro which we find in the old register was made 
by the Reverend Jacob Pierson. It reads thus: "Tuesday, Nov. 25, 1834, 
Bishop visited this church, preached and confirmed three persons. In the 
evening of this day he preached at Brattleborough, where the prospects 
of a church are seemingly brightening." It is quite evident from this 
that services had been held in this town previous to 1834. 

Regular Episcopal services began to be held in Brattleboro, at "Dickin- 
son's Hall," in 1836, when a society was formed under the name of St. 
Peter's with some hopes of permanency. Reverend David S. Devens, a 
talented, promising young man, acting as rector. Honorable John Phelps 
and family, prominent actors in commencing this enterprise, moved to 
Maryland soon after its organization, thus withdrawing an influence the 
infant society could ill afiford to lose. After about two years, services were 
held only occasionally, and then usually conducted at some place hired for 
the purpose by the rector, who was three miles distant, at East Guilford. 
In 1852 accessions to the population of believers in this faith began to 
increase ; summer visitors contributed largely to the Sunday services and 
to their financial support, a group of church people from Hartford raising 







S. MICHAELS EPISCOPAL CHDRCH 




SAME LATER PERIOD 




STODDARD PLACE RESIDENCE OF GENERAL JULroS J. ESTEY 




BUCKNER PLACE RESIDENCE OF PROFESSOR ELIE CHARLIER 



ST. MICHAEL'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH 647 

a substantial amount towards a church building. In 1853 St. Michael's 
Church was organized, taking away from Christ Church many who for- 
merly had gone for services from Brattleboro or who had moved here 
from Guilford, services being at first conducted by Reverend G. C. East- 
man, in a lower room of the Town Hall. Reverend Mr. Eastman resigned 
his charge April 15, 1851. At this time there were between twenty and 
thirty communicants, and a Sunday school was organized. Mr. Eastman's 
salary was $400. On the third day of September, 1855, Royall Tyler, 
Ashbel Dickinson, Walter Rutherford, Charles Roberts, William E. 
Nichols, Collingwood Barclay, E. W. Batchelder and Philip Wells organ- 
ized under the name of the "Parish of St. Michael's Church, Brattle- 
borough, Vermont." On the eighth day of September, 1855, Bayard 
Clark, Samuel Hoffman, Joseph Houghton, William E. Nichols, Ashbel 
Dickinson, Royall Tyler and Philip Wells were chosen vestrymen. The 
vestry, at a subsequent meeting, elected Royall Tyler and Ashbel Dickin- 
son as senior and junior warden. The vestry site was secured for a 
church edifice, and in the following year, September 29, 1858, on the Feast 
of St. Michael's and All Angels, the first public services were held. It 
was not until several years later that the church was free from debt and 
in a position to be consecrated, which event took place September 29, 1864, 
the Right Reverend Henry Hopkins officiating. To encourage the church 
towards freeing itself from debt, $300 was raised in 1857 by the action of 
a few church people in the town and the liberality of visitors to the Water- 
Cure. 

Reverend William Southgate, brother of Bishop Southgate, officiated 
from 1S54 to April, 1860. Reverend Adolphus P. Morris, an Englishman, 
a graduate of Oxford, was invited to accept the rectorship October 10, 
1860. Reverend Edmund Rowland occupied the desk in the summer pre- 
vious to the advent of Mr. Morris, 1860-1861. Reverend Mr. Morris 
was from Hamilton, Canada West, and was rector of this church dur- 
ing most of the time, 1861-1864, of the Civil War. October 14, 1864, 
Reverend G. W. Porter was invited to become rector of the parish. 
He accepted, resigning on account of insufficient salary after about two 
years' service, February 13, 1866. Reverend Charles Fay, son-in-law of 
Bishop Hopkins, was succeeded by Reverend Francis Smith, who accepted 
an invitation to fill the vacancy, April 3, 1867, and resigned December 30, 
1868. March 19, 1869, Reverend Charles Clarke Harris, son of Reverend 
Roswell Harris, principal for many years of the Brattleborough Academy, 
accepted a call in a letter to F. A. Nash, but asked "at the next parish 
meeting, will you present the matter of having the church opened Sunday 
^evenings ? It has appeared to me that such an arrangement will be for the 



648 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

good and for the growth of the parish." His salary was $1000. He 
resigned here in 1873, going to Christ Church in Guilford as rector for 
two years, and from November, 1874, until his death in 1899, Reverend 
William H. Collins was rector. 

The tradition is that on Richard M. Hunt's return from Europe he 
made the plan for the church building, in imitation of a small country 
church he had seen in England.^ Its position indicates that it was designed 
as a chapel, in the expectation that a church would be placed in front 
and nearer the street. Asahel Clapp laid out the grounds. It is a frame 
and brick structure, and was built in 1854; since then, however, it has 
received many repairs and much improvement. In 1867 the society pur- 
chased a rectory, situated on Green Street. In 1871 they sold this rectory 
and purchased a lot on Tyler Street, upon which during the same year a 
new rectory was built at a total cost of $6813.96. 

Those who have served as wardens are: Royall Tyler, Ashbel Dickin- 
son, Daniel Kellogg, Frederick A. Nash, William H. Rockwell, Junior, 
Kittredge Haskins, Henry Devens. Others who have been actively 
connected with the church are : Asa Keyes, Henry C. Willard, N. C. Saw- 
yer, Francis W. Brooks, Colonel William Austine, etc. 

Honorable George W. Folsom, his son George W., and his daughter 
Helen were especially liberal and active for twenty years. There are 
memorial windows to George W. Folsom and Margaret C. Folsom, the 
gift of members of the Folsom family. 

Francis E. Draper of New York contributed generously and gave a 
memorial corona, lectern, altar rail, etc. 

Since the death of Mr. Collins the rectors have been: Reverend Edward 
T. Mathison, 1899-1907 ; Reverend William J. Hamilton, September 10, 
1907; Reverend Andrew D. Harper, 1908-1913; Reverend Nelson Kel- 
logg, 1913, to September 1, 1916; Reverend J. Fredrik Virgin, 1916-1918; 
Reverend Walter Bernard. 

1 There is no authority for this tradition. 



CHAPTER LXV 
ST. MICHAEL'S ROAIAN CATHOLIC CHURCH • ' 

St. Michael's Roman Catholic Church — Priests — Young Ladies' Sodality — St 
Michael's Parochial School — Sisters of St. Joseph. 

The first inhabitant of Catholic antecedents was, as far as is known, 
a Clancy, who came in IS-tS ; the first practical Catholic, however, was a 
man named Garvey, who died here in 1847 or 1848. The construction of 
the Vermont & Massachusetts Railroad in 1847 brought the first notable 
Catholic immigration. 

Mass was celebrated for the first time in Brattleboro in the early 
autumn of 1848, by Reverend Joseph Coolidge Shaw of Boston, under a 
tree on the Wood farm in the presence of fifty or sixty worshipers. 
Father Shaw had come to take the water-cure. We are told that Father 
Daly, the missionary, said mass about the same time, in the woods at 
Broad Brook. 

Fathers Daly and O'Callaghan visited Brattleboro at irregular intervals 
between 1840 and 1853, officiating sometimes in a hall of the old Revere 
House, at other times in the Alexander dwelling on Canal Street and 
occasionally in a small brick building on Green Street. 

Soon after the organization of the Burlington diocese Reverend Zephy- 
rin Druon, whose services had been loaned by Bishop Rappe of Cleveland, 
began to visit Brattleboro regularly, coming at first from Burlington and 
subsequently from Bennington and Rutland. 

In 1854, there being about fifty Catholic families in town, he purchased 
an old paint shop and fitted it up as a chapel. Reverend Charles O'Reilly 
came as first resident pastor in 1865. His mission territory included all 
Windham County, and as far north as Ludlow and as far northeast as St. 
Johnsbury. 

The present church lot was acquired in 1863 by Stephen O'Hara, a 
coachman in the employ of Honorable George Folsom. Without revealing 
the purpose for which the lot was to be acquired, he entered into an agree- 
ment with Mr. Hunt, the owner, and bought, for $450, the site on which 
the present church was erected. O'Hara, not having the available money, 
enlisted the sympathy of Catharine Daly, a domestic in the Folsom 



650 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

family, who devoted her savings to settling the purchase, the matter being 
finally arranged by subscriptions of money among Catholics. Work on 
the church was commenced shortly afterwards, and in about another year 
the edifice was completed. Father O'Reilly was enabled to hold services 
in St. Michael's before his departure, though he did not complete the 
edifice, the work being continued by his successor. Reverend Joseph 
Halpin, who came in 1869 and died in 18T2. 

'In 186J: title to the tract of land occupied by the Catholic Cemetery was 
acquired by Thomas O'Connor. 

Father Halpin bought a house from Mr. Charles Warder for rectory 
purposes. He was succeeded by Reverend L. N. St. Onge, who remained 
a year and nine months and was followed by Reverend Henry Lane. 
Father Lane's administration was signalized by the completion of the 
church, the building of a parochial school, the introduction of a com- 
munity of Sisters of St. Joseph as teachers, the purchase of another house 
for rectory uses and the conversion of the old parochial residence into a 
convent. He remained seven years, and was succeeded in May, 1861, by 
Reverend Patrick Cunningham, who enlarged and remodeled St. Michael's 
Church, adding forty feet to the rear of the edifice, and building a spire. 
Father Cunningham had many friends beyond the bounds of his parish, 
as he was generally respected for his cooperation with Protestants in 
moral reforms and as a good citizen and a good man. 

The following stained glass windows in the church were donated by 
various members and organizations : St. Gabriel, gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
A. H. Ryan; St. Michael, gift of P. M. Baker; St. Catharina, in memory 
of Catharine Austin; St. Brigitta, in memory of Johanne Ahern; St. 
Patricius E. P., gift of Mr. and Mrs. B. O'Reilly; St. Peter, in memory 
of Eugene Moran; Mater Dei, gift of Sodality Blessed Virgin, 1889; St. 
Joannes E. V., gift of Mrs. John Kaine, Senior; St. Paul, in memory of 
Thomas Manning; St. Cecilia, gift of choir in 1889; St. Angelus, gift of 
school; St. Michael, gift of Mr. and Mrs. William Moran. 

The Young Ladies' Sodality of the church, with two hundred members 
on the roll, formed in 1875, meets in the schoolhouse the first Sunday of 
every month, and is dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. The Altar Society, 
which is composed of one hundred and fifty members, looks after the 
decorations of the church altars and raises funds to defray the expense of 
flowers, etc., for special occasions. The Living Rosary Society is another 
organization attached to the church. Other Catholic organizations are 
the Knights of Columbus, the Catholic Order of Foresters and the Ladies' 
Benevolent Society. 

In 1896 Father Cunningham purchased for burial purposes land ad- 



ST. MICHAEL'S ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH 651 

joining the old cemetery, remodeled the school building and put into the 
tower of the church a set of tubular bells. 

Reverend Michel J. Carmody expended $10,000 in improving the church 
building and installed an Estey organ. He was active, greatly interested in 
the young men of his church and in the educational development of the 
town; he was a trustee of the Brooks Library. 

He was ably assisted by Father Fountain, a French Canadian. 



CHAPTER LXVI 
THE WINDHAM COUNTY BANK, 1856 
June 30, 1864, The First National Bank 

The Legislature of 1856 incorporated, by special charter, the Windham 
County Bank. Its capital stock was to be $150,000, to be divided into 
three thousand shares of $50 each. Asa Keyes, Edward Kirkland, Fer- 
dinand Tyler, Oramel R. Post of Brattleboro, William Harris, Junior, of 
Windham, Marshall Newton of Newfane, George W. Grandy of Ver- 
gennes, Jarvis F. Burrows of Vernon, William H. Jones of Dover and 
Thomas White of Putney were appointed commissioners for receiving 
subscriptions, and for calling the first meeting for the election of directors. 
Its capital stock was fully subscribed for, and on January 13, 1857, the 
bank was duly organized by the election of N. B. Williston, Ferdinand 
Tyler, O. R. Post, Edward Kirkland and Alfred Simonds of Brattleboro, 
J. P. Burrows of Vernon, George Perry of Rockingham, John Campbell 
of Putney and Dan Mather of Marlboro as directors. On the same day 
N. B. Williston was chosen president and Silas M. Waite cashier. Mr. 
Simonds declined to serve as a director, and on March 5, 1857, Franklin 
Sawyer of Newfane was elected in his place. At the annual meeting in 
1859 the same board of directors was chosen, with the exception of S. M. 
Waite in place of Mr. Perry, and Simeon Adams of Marlboro in place 
of Dan Mather. 

The next change in the board was in 1862, when W. P. Richardson of 
Putney was elected in place of John Campbell. In March, 1864, the 
stockholders agreed to convert their stock in the Windham County Bank 
into shares of capital stock in a banking association to be organized under 
the national bank act. Articles of association were signed, and filed with 
the comptroller of the currency, forming a banking association under the 
laws of Congress, to be called the First National Bank of Brattleboro, with 
a capital of $300,000. The assets of the Windham County Bank were 
to comprise $150,000 of the aforesaid capital, and the balance was to be 
subscribed in money. Books of subscription were opened and the requisite 
amount of stock subscribed for. May 17, 1864, the stockholders met and 
organized by the election of the following board of directors ; namely : 



THE FIRST NATIONAL BANK 653 

N. B. Williston, Ferdinand Tyler, Edward Kirkland, O. R. Post and 
S. M. Waite of Brattleboro, J. F. Burrows of Vernon, W. P. Richardson 
of Putney, Simeon Adams of Marlboro and Franklin Sawyer of Newfane. 
N. B. Williston was chosen president and S. M. Waite cashier. Edward 
Kirkland declined the election for the reason that he was ineligible, not 
owning ten shares as required by law, and May 26 Jacob Estey was elected 
to fill the vacancy. 

The directors all qualified by taking the oath of office prescribed by the 
laws of Congress, making their certificate to the effect that the association 
was fully organized and that $100,000 of its capital stock had been paid in, 
and on June 30, 1864, the comptroller of the currency authorized them to 
commence business. Their capital stock was increased to $200,000 Sep- 
tember 14, 1864, and to $.300,000 December 19, 1864. Bonds to the 
amount of $300,000 were therefore deposited, from time to time, with 
the treasurer of the United States, and in return national bank currency 
to the amount of $270,000 was furnished them for issue. The same board 
of directors was continued in 1865 and 1866, but in 1867 Jacob Estey, 
J. F. Burrows and Simeon Adams were retired, and Charles F. Thomp- 
son, Francis Goodhue and D. S. Pratt were elected in their places. 

In June, 1871, at midday, when no one was in the bank except Colonel 
Sawyer, the assistant cashier, the bank was robbed of some $30,000 in 
currency and United States bonds, by thieves supposed to belong to a 
gang of New York desperadoes. No part of this fund was ever recovered. 
At the annual election in 1872 F. A. Nash and H. C. Willard were elected 
directors, in place of Messrs. Sawyer and Pratt. The next change in the 
board was made in 1873, when J. M. Tyler and Addison Whithed were 
elected directors in place of Charles F. Thompson and Francis Goodhue, 
who declined further service. In 1874 Mr. Post declined a further elec- 
tion, and Warren Parker of Putney was put in his place. In January, 
1879, Mr. Williston resigned and Mr. Waite was elected president as well 
as cashier. 

The bank became involved, and was closed in 1881. 



CHAPTER LXVII 

THE HOWE PHOTOGRAPH GALLERY 

The Howe Photograph Gallery — Caleb L. Howe (J. L. Lovell) — John C. Howe — 
Howe family. 

Caleb Lysander Howe was a farmer in Dover who taught singing 
schools in the winter. One day in the summer of 1852 there came to 
Dover a traveling daguerreotype artist ; he did not make the photo- 
graphs of today mounted on cards and embodying the skill of an artist; 
they were daguerreotypes, the forerunner of the ambrotype and ferrotype, 
which preceded the photograph of today. 

Caleb Howe was fascinated with the art of reproducing the likenesses 
of people and hung about the man's cart, where the "artist" made pictures 
on what looked like silver plates. The next day he visited the cart again, 
and again on another day. The proprietor of the traveling studio noticed 
that Mr. Howe was interested in the process and within an hour or two 
proposed to sell out to the Dover farmer. Mr. Howe asked the traveHng 
artist what he wanted for his outfit, and the traveler offered to sell for 
$300 and would instruct Mr. Howe how to make pictures. It looked easy 
to Mr. Howe and the transaction was closed. 

Mr. Howe found that he could not solve the mystery of preparing the 
mercurial bath for the old-fashioned daguerreotype plate. He knew of a 
man in Brattleboro who professed to have some knowledge of the picture- 
making art and came from Dover to Brattleboro to talk with him.^ The 
Brattleboro artist did not know any more about the troubles which beset 
Mr. Howe than the latter did, and Mr. Howe decided that he would go to 
Boston to learn what he could about the business in which he had em- 
barked. He visited the studio of J. M. Black, then the leading establish- 
ment of its kind in Boston, and came away, three or four days later, with a 
sufficient knowledge of the art of making pictures to overcome his diffi- 
culties. Deciding that Wilmington, whither he had moved from Dover, 
was too small a field for his operations, Mr. Howe went to North Adams, 
but at that time the building of the Hoosac Tunnel brought to the place an 

1 Elihu H. Thomas, Junior, is said to have been the first to take daguerreotypes 
in Brattleboro. 



THE HOWE PHOTOGRAPH GALLERY 655 

element of population that did not appeal to the photographer and he 
came to Brattleboro in 1856, purchasing the J. L. Lovell studio. 

J. L. Lovell of Amherst, Massachusetts, began making daguerreotypes 
at Ware, Massachusetts, in 1849, and three years later in 1852, came to 
Brattleboro. Mr. Lovell prepared the pictures for a geological work 
arranged by Doctor Dean of Greenfield, and later took tvt'enty thousand 
photographs for a similar undertaking under the direction of President 
Hitchcock of Amherst. "A Memoir of the Fossil Footprints of the 
Connecticut Valley," published by the Smithsonian Institute, was illus- 
trated by him. In 1883 Mr. Lovell went with Professor Todd of Amherst 
College to take charge of the photographing of the transit of Venus at the 
Lick Observatory in California. These one hundred and forty-five views 
are the finest ever made of a transit, one of them receiving a special 
mention in the diploma awarded Amherst College for its exhibit at the 
World's Fair. While in Brattleboro Mr. Lovell had many men more or 
less known to fame sit for the old-fashioned daguerreotype, among them 
being Henry Ward Beecher, who was on a lecturing tour. 

Opening his studio in Brattleboro Caleb Howe followed the profes- 
sion until his death in 1895. Mr. Howe's son, N. Sherman Howe, was 
associated with him in business here until 1870. In 1880 another son, 
John C. Howe, became associated with him and the business was moved 
from the studio in Union Block, which he opened in 1865, to quarters in 
the Peoples Bank block, the firm becoming C. L. Howe & Son. . 

When John C. Howe became interested in the photograph business in 
1868 the operator thought of little but getting an image of the sitter on his 
plate ; there was always a small table with a book on it ; the person 
to be photographed was placed facing the camera and given the book; if 
the sitter preferred he could rest one of his arms on the table. In those 
days few homes in this part of the country failed to have a photograph 
album. Having bought a big album it became necessary to fill it, and as 
the records of the Howe studio show that from twenty to forty sittings 
were made daily, it is to be presumed that but few of the inhabitants 
escaped having their picture taken. From 1860 to 1864 the studio averaged 
about twenty sittings daily and in those days patrons generally paid in 
advance. 

Caleb Howe employed two and sometimes three men, and many of the 
photographers of New England were pupils of this pioneer in the photo- 
graphic business. 

Mr. Howe traveled through all parts of Windham County and over 
into Bennington County as well as into New Hampshire, stopping a week 
or two in a place, making pictures. The old-fashioned daguerreotype, 
one and one-half inches by two inches, in a gilt frame with a glass, sold 



656 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

for one dollar, while the size that corresponds to the cabinet photograph 
of the present day brought five dollars. During twenty years, from two to 
four thousand sittings were made annually in the Howe studio. In the 
early days of the photographic business in Brattleboro, Caleb Howe and 
his employees worked from 7 a.m. till 6 p.m., and generally came back 
for two hours in the evening. 

Until about 1875 the studio did not send out proofs of a negative 
that a person might make a choice; but one sitting would be given 
to any person; the studio guaranteed its work and it was rarely that 
it had to be done over because of any imperfection. During the years 
that Caleb Howe traveled about making pictures the wet plate pro- 
cess was used and it was necessary to have a dark room in which to 
prepare the plates for exposure. This dark room was on wheels and was 
drawn about the country. The cameras used by Mr. Howe, Senior, were 
equipped with lenses of no greater capacity than those in some of the 
cheap cameras used by amateurs today. 

John C. Howe is one of the very few photographers in New England 
who has made pictures by every process known to the profession. He has 
seen the ambrotype give way to the ferrotype or tintype and both of these 
processes succeeded by the photograph of today. When Mr. Howe was a 
boy in his father's studio all the paper used for printing was imported, and 
when received by the photographer it had to be treated to remove the 
sizing. Today such paper comes from the manufacturer prepared for use. 
The old-time photographer bought his glass in sheets for use in framing 
daguerreotypes and cut it to fit the different frames selected by his 
patrons. Black and white effects were the only ones sought in the early 
days of the profession and the artist had but little idea of the effect of 
light in taking a picture other than to know that light was absolutely 
necessary. 

Caleb Lysander Howe was born in Dummerston September 23, 1811 ; 

he married Cynthia, daughter of Deacon Nathan Sherman of Dover. 

He died March 14, 1895. 

Children : 
■ Nathan Sherman Howe was born in Dover, August 1, 1838. He left 
his father's studio in 1870 and went to Chicago, where he was con- 
nected with the Fassett Gallery for a year or more. After his return 
to Brattleboro he was in the insurance business with Malcolm Moody, 
the assistant treasurer of the Vermont Savings Bank, and in 1884- 
1887 was connected with the management of Madison Square Hotel, 
New York; later he became manager of Mizzentop Hotel at Pawling, 
New York, and the Princess Hotel in the Bermudas. He married. 



TPIE HOWE FAMILY 657 

1901, Miss Anna Hillyer of New York, and died February 22, 1907. 

Janette a. was born in Dover October 20, 1840. When the family 
moved to Brattleboro in 1857, she attended Glenwood Seminary, and 
afterwards had private lessons in French. She taught one or two 
years in the Academy at Peacham and several terms in the "little red 
schoolhouse" of the Waite District in Brattleboro. About the year 
1873 she was engaged as teacher of English literature, American his- 
tory, botany and French in the High School, which position she held 
for fifteen years, resigning on account of ill health. She afterwards 
spent winters with her brother in Bermuda until the death of her 
father, when she devoted her time to her stepmother. She was a 
natural student, and had a superior mind and a charming personality. 
She gave the best years of her life to the service of others in the 
home, and in school, where she had the respect and affection of her 
pupils while imparting to them something of her own enthusiasm 
for study. She died March 27, 1902. 

Mr. Howe married, second, 1847, Martha B. Simonds, daughter of 
Deacon David Simonds of Peru, born October 12, 1823; died August 
7, 1901. 
Children : 

John C, photographer, married Miss Florence J. Fisher. 

Alice, married January 10, 1887, E. E. Holloway of Indianapolis. Chil- 
dren: Dorothea, Edward Howe. 

LuciEN, musician, composer. 

Fred, successful proprietor of the Princess Hotel, Bermuda, and Aspin- 
wall Hotel, Lenox, Massachusetts, married Miss Alice Shea; died 
August 9, 1931. Children : Stanley S., Martha. 

Mary L., the singer (see p. 991), married November 30, 1891, William 
J. Lavin, tenor singer; married, second, October 24, 1905, Edward O. 
Burton of Lancaster, Massachusetts. 

Arthur D. Wyatt, who learned photography in Caleb Howe's "Gallery," 
had a studio in the Cutler building from 1882 to 1915 where, with an 
artist's eye and feeling, he achieved results which gave to his work a dis- 
tinctive place and an extended reputation. 



CHAPTER LXVIII 
PRIVATE SCHOOLS 

Private Schools — The Melrose Seminary — Fremont School for Young Ladies, 
Reverend Addison Brown — Select School for Young Ladies, Miss Sarah Hunt — 
Elm Hall, Mrs. Lucy M. Chase — Burnside Military School, Colonel Charles 
Appleton Miles — New Brattleborough Academy— Glenwood Ladies' Seminary, 
Hiram Orcutt — Laneside Boarding School for Young Ladies, Miss Louisa A. 
Barber. 

The Melrose Seminary 

The Melrose Seminary was a Universalist school. The building, erected 
in Marlboro on the boyhood home of Edward Crosby, was moved to West 
Brattleboro in 18-47 and used as a seminary. The first principal, in 1847, 
was Reverend J. S. Lee, D.D., afterwards of Canton, New York: the 
first preceptress was Miss Almira Bennett, who soon after became the 
wife of Mr. Lee. The seminary opened with two hundred and fourteen 
students. Joseph Tucker, son of Doctor Tucker of Marlboro, taught one 
or two terms; A. W. Putnam was principal in 1850, succeeded by A. B. 
Boardman, afterwards a prominent lawyer of Boston. 

About 1860 A. E. Leavenworth started a boys' school in the building, 
supported by funds given by Samuel Clark, afterwards lost in the First 
National Bank failure^ When the war broke out Mr. Leavenworth en- 
listed and the school was given up. In its prosperous days there were 
about ninety pupils. 

Among the pupils of the old Seminary who entered the ministry were : 
S. H. McCollester, D.D., later of Marlboro, New Hampshire ; Reverend 
S. Goodenough, Oakland, California; Reverend Joseph Crehare, Peabody, 
Massachusetts; Sumner Ellis, D.D., Chicago; Reverend R. A. Ballou, 
Boston. In secular pursuits: Judson Fisher and Henry G. Spaulding; 
Congressman Halbert S. Greenleaf of Rochester, New York; Ozro Miller, 
a well-known soldier; C. N. Davenport; Horace Haskins, Boston. 

The New Brattleborough Academy 

was designed to meet the want, at least, of this and all the immediately 
surrounding towns, being situated centrally within a radius of twenty 
miles more or less in extent, where the graduates from the district schools 



THE NEW BRATTLEBOROUGH ACADEMY 659 

might receive a supplementary education that would enable them to 
teach creditably in such schools, or pursue successfully other than the 
agricultural calling — surveying or mercantile life, or fit them for a colle- 
giate course. 

Extensive repairs were made in 1842 resulting in a new academy build- 
ing. The first chemical apparatus was installed in the institution in the 
year 1848 at a cost of about $30. 

In 1851 an effort was made to raise a fund of $10,000 with which "to 
provide buildings on an ample and commodious scale for the accommoda- 
tion of 250 scholars," with corresponding extension of the curriculum of 
study. The sum of $5036 was secured and expended in the present school 
building, then situated to the east of the original one ; in this was included 
the bequest of William R. Hayes, Esquire, of $1000. After the erection 
of the new building, in 1853, another effort was made to secure the addi- 
tional $5000, for the following purposes, to wit : 

1. To furnish the new building. 

2. To provide apparatus and books. 

3. To erect a boarding house. 

4. To provide a permanent fund for the maintenance of the school. 

0. To establish a female department on the basis of the Mount Hol- 
yoke female seminary. 

Only about $2000 was secured for these purposes, and of this sum 
Samuel Clark, Esquire, contributed for himself and sons $1000, and was 
thereupon voted "two permanent scholarships for himself and his heirs 
forever." 

The dedication of the new academy was largely attended. Prominent 
speakers were present and an excellent program was arranged. The struc- 
ture was considered one of the best in town and for several years was 
used for public gatherings and entertainments. The area of the academy 
was fifty-six by forty feet. The upper story was improved and used as a 
town house. In the spring of 1854 the first school was held in the new 
academy, and the old academy was converted into a boarding house and 
used for that purpose in connection with the school until it was torn down. 

In 1859 the trustees leased the premises to Mr. Hiram Orcutt, who the 
following year erected at his own expense the east building, now situated 
between the new academy building and the Congregational Church. This 
lease was for a term of ten years, in consideration of his making it "a 
young ladies' school, and also maintaining, apart from the same, but in 
the same village, a school for lads, in which the like facilities should be 
afforded as had been afforded by the old academy prior thereto." 

In 1861 the school received a fund of $1000 by bequest of Samuel 
Clark, Esquire, the income from which was to go toward the education of 



660 ■ ANXALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

boys. The school for boys was discontinued by consent of the trustees in 
1863, but in 1S71 the accumulated income of the Clark fund was appro- 
priated to a class taught by Miss Annie Grout, at a fixed rate of tuition 
for each. 

The ten years' lease to Mr. Orcutt having expired, one for five years 
was given to Mr. Ralph E. Hosford on similar terms. This was sur- 
rendered by him to the trustees in 1873. In 1874 Mr. V. T. Lang became 
principal and continued until his death in 1876. Soon after Mr. C. L. 
Linsley secured the lease for one year, it was transferred, with consent of 
trustees, to J. W. Cross, Junior, who held it till the expiration of the year. 

In 1879 the trustees agreed to lease the premises for ten years to Mr. 
C. E. Blake on condition that he purchase the East Hall, and that he keep 
"a school of the academy grade, for the instruction of youth of both 
sexes," according to its original design. 

April 15, 1881, the trustees granted Mr. Blake permission to transfer 
his lease to any party who could fulfill the following conditions : 

1. He must be a Christian man, interested in Christian work, and his 
life and example such as a Christian man's should be. He must conduct 
the school in a manner identified with the interests of the Congregational 
Church of this place, with the understanding that this latter clause shall 
be construed in no sectarian spirit. 

2. He must have the power to a reasonable degree of drawing in 
pupils, instructing and retaining them. 

Pursuant to these expressed conditions, August 1, 1881, the trustees 
permitted the transfer of Mr. Blake's lease to Mr. H. H. Shaw of North- 
field, Vermont, for the remainder of its specified term. 

In 1884 the old academy building was taken down and disposed of. 

Other principals were: Henry M. Grout, B.A.; Professor C. H. Chan- 
dler; Arthur Folsom, B.A. 

Fremont School for Young Ladies 
Brattleboro's pride in the reputation of her private schools, their high 
educational status, and in the character of the pupils was further justified 
in the Fremont School for Young Ladies, a family boarding school, con- 
ducted by the Reverend Addison Brown in his own home on the south 
side of Chase Street at the edge of "Brown's Woods," as they were 
called, with a house for pupils opposite. The school was advertised in 
1850 for day scholars as "A High School for Young Ladies." With Mr. 
Brown was associated Miss Lucretia Cramer of Middle Granville, New 
York, a graduate of Castleton Seminary in this state, who brought the 
highest testimonials of character and qualifications for teaching. 




BDRNSIDE MILITARY SCHOOL 




OFFICERS OF THE SCHOOL IN 1865 




COLD SPRING 




THE KANE PINE 



BURNSIDE MILITARY SCHOOL 661 

The school was designed to be of "an elevated character — to afford 
the means of a thorough education, special attention to be paid to health 
- — to physical as well as intellectual and moral culture." The school was 
located in a retired and beautiful spot, furnished with ample playgrounds 
for exercise and every way admirably fitted for the purposes of education. 
Board was furnished in the farrtily of Mr. Brown for ten young ladies, 
of whom Miss Cramer had the special care and direction. 

Terms for board, and tuition in all the branches except Music and Oil 
Painting, 150 dollars per year of 44 weeks, or 40 dollars per quarter of 
11 weeks. For day scholars, 5 dollars per quarter for English branches, 1 
dollar extra for each of the Ancient and Modern Languages, 1 dollar for 
Drawing, 1 dollar for Vocal Music and 2 dollars for Painting in Water 
colors. For instruction on the Piano and in Oil Painting 10 dollars each, 
both for day scholars and boarding pupils. 

In 1850-1856 Miss Sarah Hunt of Pittsfield, Massachusetts, a pupil of 
Mrs. Almira Lincoln Phelps, conducted a "Select School for Young 
Ladies," corner of the Common and Asylum Streets, where Miss Rebecca 
Peck had the first private school. 

In 1857 Mrs. Lucy M. Chase, who had also been a pupil of Mrs. Phelps, 
took the Select School of Miss Hunt, gave it the name Elm Hall Semi- 
nary and had a large and successful day school until 1871. 

As Miss Lucy M. Rawson, she had taught in the town previous to her 
marriage in 1853 to Utley Chase, a clerk in the local post office. When 
they removed to Bernardston she became a correspondent of Brattleboro 
and Greenfield papers. Mrs. Chase was a devoted communicant of St. 
Michael's Episcopal Church. 

BuRNsiDE Military School 
Colonel Charles Appleton Miles was born in Boston in March, 1834, 
and was a descendant of two of the old and distinguished New Eng- 
land families, the Mileses and Appletons. The first representative of 
the Miles family in this country was John Miles, who came from the 
north of England and settled in Concord, Massachusetts, in 1637, arid was 
one of the largest landowners among the original proprietors of that town. 
The line of descent was John 2d, John 3d, Noah, Reverend Noah and 
Solomon Pierson, father of Colonel Charles A. Miles. The grandfather. 
Reverend Noah Miles, graduated with honors from Dartmouth College 
in 1780 and preached with eminent success in Temple, New Hampshire, 
fifty years. Solomon Pierson Miles, father of Colonel Miles, was a lead- 



662 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

ing educator of this country, ranking with such men as Horace Mann and 
George B. Emerson, and was well known in the best circles of Boston, 
where he labored many years. He graduated from Harvard University 
in 1819, was an instructor there some years and then became head master 
of the Boston High School, where he put into practice many of his ad- 
vanced theories. After conducting that school twenty years with marked 
success he opened a private school for the instruction of girls in Boston, 
where he was even more successful than in his public school work. 

He married Sarah Elizabeth Appleton, eldest daughter of Nathaniel 
Walker Appleton and Sarah (Tilden) Appleton. He died August 22, 
1812. She died January 3, 1877, aged sixty-nine. Nathaniel Walker 
Appleton was a prosperous Boston merchant and treasurer of a large 
manufacturing corporation in Lowell. His father. Doctor Nathaniel 
Walker Appleton, was a Harvard graduate and a physician who won 
distinction in his professional work. 

From his father's position Colonel Miles was brought under the influ- 
ence of some of the most cultivated people of Boston. He prepared for 
college at the Roxbury Latin School and entered Harvard University, 
from which he graduated in 1853, at the age of nineteen, among his class- 
mates being ex-President Eliot and Professors Hill and Pierce of Har- 
vard. While in Harvard Colonel Miles belonged to many of the college 
fraternities. He was a member of the first Harvard crew, which in 1852 
battled for supremacy with Yale. Deciding to enter upon a business career, 
he took a position as clerk in an East India house, where he remained until 
his twenty-first year. Soon after he went to Lowell, Massachusetts, and 
was superintendent in a manufacturing establishment. He also went west, 
but the financial crisis of 1857 caused him to return east. He opened a pri- 
vate school in Northfield, Massachusetts, which he conducted with such 
success that he was engaged as head master of the Brattleboro High School, 
where he continued a short time. Reverend Charles Morris, an English- 
man, brother of Reverend Adolphus P. Morris, rector of St. Michael's 
Episcopal Church, had a small school for boys, which Colonel Miles ' 
assumed, as Mr. Morris wished to return to England, and from this 
beginning he established the Burnside Military School, which he conducted 
seventeen years. 

Colonel Miles founded his school for boys in 1859. It derived its name 
from General Ambrose E. Burnside, a personal friend of the founder. 
As it was one of the earliest military schools in the United States it drew 
students from all over the country. 

The school was established in a spacious building about a mile north 
of the village on the West Dummerston road. The main building, built 



BURNSIDE MILITARY SCHOOL 663 

by Judge Samuel Wells in 1773, was remodeled by Colonel Miles in 1861. 
In those days a long corridor ran the length of the building, and the cadets' 
rooms opened from it on each side. Colonel Miles's room was at one end 
of the corridor in full view of the large general washroom (as it was 
called), and he could easily see that the boys did not neglect their morning 
ablutions. The school was under strict military discipline when discipline 
implied more rigid regulations than at the present time. The roll of the 
drum at six o'clock was the signal for prompt rising and dressing, after 
which all stood outside their doors while their rooms were inspected. The 
roll was called at reveille, sunset and taps, which latter meant for the 
younger boys 8.30 p.m., and for the older ones 9.30. 

Colonel JMiles was one of the first educators to recognize physical de- 
velopment as of primary importance in the education of the young and 
as an important factor in their intellectual growth. A well-equipped 
g}'mnasium afforded the opportunity for enforced physical culture, thus 
insuring the health of the students. They were also taught fencing and 
boxing, and baseball was a constant source of recreation. Regular drill 
was a part of each day's schedule, occupying a full hour, and every Satur- 
day there was dress parade on the drill ground. These occasions brought 
hundreds of people of the town, and strangers as well, to witness the 
dress parade, which had a fascination of its own. One of the punish- 
ments most dreaded was that of being placed at the extreme left of the 
column at dress parade, especially as all the young ladies understood 
perfectly well its significance. The uniform of the cadets was navy blue, 
with red stripes. 

Through the kindness of Doctor Rockwell, the founder of the Ver- 
mont Asylum for the Insane, the students were given the freedom of the 
outlying grounds belonging to the institution, with the sole provision that 
if the privilege was abused it would be withdrawn. Rifle practice and 
hunting were encouraged, and many of the cadets became excellent marks- 
men. The school year was divided into two terms, beginning the first of 
January and July, with intervening vacations of six weeks. Camps were 
formed and tents pitched for two weeks every summer at various places. 
One of the most popular locations was Indian Pond on Wantastiquet 
Mountain. 

With an attendance of from seventy-five to one hundred pupils, it was 
possible to introduce company organizations, with full equipment of offi- 
cers and arms ; battalion drill was also conducted. Skirmishes and sham 
fights took place frequently, and thus the cadets came in touch with mili- 
tary life and maneuvers. They also became very proficient in the manual 
of arms. Exhibition drills were often given in Greenfield and in other 
towns in the vicinity. 



664 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Two courses of study were provided, the classical and mathematical. 
The former comprised Caesar, ALneid, Virgil, Cicero, Livy, Horace, Xeno- 
phon. Homer, Herodotus and other Latin and Greek classics. The mathe- 
matical course, under the personal supervision of the principal, included 
arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry (plane and spherical) and 
other branches. They were very severe and comprehensive courses, and 
placed the Burnside School far in advance of almost any preparatory 
school of that day. None but the best the country afforded were allowed 
in the faculty, and there was a large teaching force — special teachers for 
French, for German, for the classics, Colonel Miles himself in charge of 
mathematics, and a woman teacher in charge of the younger lads. 

At the breaking out of the Civil War very few of the citizens of the 
state or country knew even the rudiments of military drill, and Colonel 
Miles and his cadets rendered invaluable service in drilling a company of 
raw recruits, and their officers as well, in Brattleboro and surrounding 
towns. Even the Second Vermont Regiment was indebted to the same 
school for early training, as was Colonel Hunt's company of heavy artil- 
lery. Colonel Miles himself had seen service in the volunteer militia of 
Massachusetts. 

Colonel Miles went to Europe in 1873 and studied two years in Heidel- 
berg, Gotha and Paris. Returning to this country, he accepted the posi- 
tion of head master of the Anthon Grammar School in New York City, 
1877, afterwards establishing the Arnold Preparatory School at 100 West 
Forty-third Street in that city. Desiring to withdraw somewhat from 
the strenuous activities of his profession he returned to Brattleboro in 
1885, rented the Franks house on High Street, where he and his sister, 
Miss Katharine Miles, kept house, and for some time Colonel Miles 
engaged in private instruction. As a teacher his work was not only 
thorough but progressive, which won for him an excellent reputation in 
his profession. He married January 5, 1880, Josephine Myra T. Finn, 
daughter of Archibald Finn of New York; she died November 6, 1882. 
On August 8, 1889, he married Fanny Glover Train of Sheffield, Massa- 
chusetts, a daughter of Mrs. Horace Train and of a prominent family in 
that town. Children : Appleton Train Miles, bom June 12, 1894 ; gradu- 
ate Dartmouth College, 1916.^ 

1 Lieutenant Appleton T. Miles was the first Brattleboro boy to go overseas 
in 1916, enlisting in the ambulance corps with the French Army. When the 
United States entered the war he was transferred to Section 8, later 628, of the 
American Field Service. He was decorated with the CroLv de guerre with star and 
finally a palm was added by General Petain for distinguished service during heavy 
bombardment, when he took the place of a French colonel of a sanitary service after 
the colonel was killed. After his return home the Legion of Honor was conferred on 
him by the French government. 




GLENWOOD SEMINARY (FROM PROSPECTUS) 




GLENWOOD SEMINARY 




GLENWOOD SEMINARY OLD ACADEMY BUILDING 




WALNUT STREET LOOKING EAST 




WALNUT STREET CORNER 



GLENWOOD LADIES' SEMINARY 665 

Colonel Miles had two sisters : Jane, born in Boston October 17, 1838, 
married September 1, 1875, Judge James M. Tyler, died May 14, 1919; 
and Katharine, born December 21, 1S40 ; died September 16, 1912. 

In early life Colonel Miles joined the Masonic fraternity, and in the 
several branches of the order in Brattleboro he served with deep interest 
and becoming dignity. He was the first commander of Beauseant Com- 
mandery, Knights Templars, past high priest of Fort Dummer Chapter, 
Royal Arch Masons, past master of Columbian Lodge, F. and A. M., past 
grand high priest of the grand chapter of Vermont and a member of 
Bingham Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star. For many years Colonel 
Miles was treasurer of the board of trustees of the Brattleboro Free 
Library, speaking in behalf of the institution in the annual town meetings, 
and his work for the library was of a very painstaking and effective 
character. He was a prominent member of the Unitarian Church, serving 
efficiently on the board of trustees. He also took a leading part in the work 
of the Brattleboro Professional Club. 

In the communities in which he lived Colonel Miles was always recog- 
nized as a man of broad culture and untiring energy, unselfishly devoted 
to every position in which he was placed. He died July 3, 1911. 

To no institution in the town has he given so freely during these dozen 
years of his time and thought and energy as to the library. To his wide 
knowledge of books, his judicial and catholic temper and his genuine 
sympathy with all that is good in literature our excellent selection of 
books and periodicals is a lasting monument. In his departure the library 
loses a faithful servant, the board of trustees a genial and stimulating 
member and the town a public spirited citizen. — From Resolutions by the 
Board of Trustees, on the death of Colonel Miles. 

Glenwood Ladies' Seminary 

Hiram Orcutt had been principal of the Thetford Academy and North 
Granville Seminary, when he came to West Brattleboro in 1860 and 
leased the buildings and property of the Brattleborough Academy. He 
also purchased an adjoining lot and erected a large seminary building. 
The old buildings were repaired, grounds graded and ornamented, and 
the whole valued at $20,000. 

It vfcfas opened to pupils September 29, 1860,^ as Glenwood Ladies' 
Seminary, Mr. Orcutt, principal, Miss Mary E. Cobb, vice-principal. 

1 Between 1860 and 1865 Reverend William Clark, after thirty years as mis- 
sionary in Armenia, came as assistant. After his connection with Glenwood 
ceased, he established a college for girls in Florence, Italy. In 1862 his nephew, 
Edward Clark, came to teach music here. Miss Cobb, after her marriage to 
H. S. Hayes, opened a school for young ladies in Boston in 1872. 



666 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Twelve assistant teachers, men and women, were permanently employed. 
He was the first to introduce systematic physical culture in the schools of 
Vermont. In 1862 there were eighty pupils. The average attendance was 
one hundred and twenty-five. In five and one-half years more than six 
hundred pupils had studied in this highly prosperous school, of whom 
one hundred and ten were graduated. While in Brattleboro Mr. Orcutt 
was superintendent of the public schools, and editor and proprietor of 
The Vermont School Journal. 



GLENWOOD LADIES' SEMINARY 



Principals and Superintendents 

HiR.'\M Orcutt, A.M., Principal. 

Miss Mary E. Cobb, Vice-Principal. 

Miss Valina Wallace, Superintendent East Hall. 

Mrs. M. M. Woodward, Superintendent West Hall. 

Ralph E. Hosford, Esq., Financial Agent. 



Board of Instruction 

Hiram Orcutt, A.M., 
Evidences of Christianity and Moral Science. 

Miss Mary E. Cobb, 
History and English Literature. 

Miss Helen M. Bromley, 
Higher Mathematics and Astronomy. 

Miss Anna Stevens, 
Latin and Botany. 

Miss Fanny M. Webster, 
Arithmetic and Algebra. 

Miss L. S. Ferguson, 
English Branches. 

Miss Helen S. Crampton, 
French. 

Prof. Ch. F. Schuster, 
Instrumental Music. 

Miss A. T. LeMoyne, 
Vocal and Instrumental Music. 



LANESIDE BOARDING SCHOOL G67 

Miss Mary F. Hunter^ 
Piano. 

Miss Lizzie E. Tenney, 
Piano. 

Miss Mary E. Hayes, 
Piano Assistant. 

Miss Kate Newhall, 

Oil Painting, Penciling and Crayoning. 

Miss Mary C. Kimball, 
Gymnastics. 

The Scholastic Year consists of three Sessions. 

Summer Session begins fourth Monday in April; Fall Session, 
fourth Monday in September; Winter Session, the first Monday in 
January, 1867. 

Expenses vary from $210 to $300 per Academic Year, for Board and 
Regular Tuition in all Departments. 

Apply to the Principal. 

During six or seven weeks of Summer Vacation, the Seminary will be 
open to City Boarders. 

Apply to R. E. HosFORD. 
West Brattleboro, March, 1866. 



Laneside Boarding School for Young Ladies 
Miss Louisa A. Barber 

Louisa A. Barber was born April 13, 1828. She was the daughter of 
Deacon Anson Barber, who died February 19, 1873, at the residence of 
his son in West Townshend, and Louisa Potter his wife, who died June 
6, 1886, at the age of eighty-five. 

When a young woman she went, to Maryland as governess and teacher, 
in the place where her brother, Reverend Theodore Barber, was rector. 
There she became an earnest and devout Episcopalian. Returning to 
Brattleboro, from 1860 to 1870 she conducted a young ladies' boarding 
and day school, called "Laneside," on Keyes's Lane, now North Street, 
where Miss Sawyer's school afterwards was in 1871. She was greatly 
beloved by a fine class of pupils, especially by those who lived in her 
house. 

November 19, 1870, she married Thomas Doane of Charlestown, 
Massachusetts. He was chief engineer of the Burlington & Missouri 



668 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

River Railway, Nebraska, 1869-1871, and built that road. From 1874 he 
was consulting engineer for Troy and Greenfield, Hoosac Tunnel and on 
the Boston Park Commission; also president of the Boston Society of 
Civil Engineers and consulting engineer of the Northern Pacific Railroad 
in 1879. He founded Doane College, Crete, Nebraska. Mrs. Doane died 
in Charlestown, IMassachusetts, September 29, 1908. 

Her brother. Reverend Theodore P. Barber, was born January 27, 
1822 ; went to school at the Brattleborough Academy in the West Village 
under the "beloved Preceptor," Roswell Harris, and graduated at Yale 
in 1842. The following year he tutored in Virginia; in 1844 was a candi- 
date for holy orders, studying theology with Doctor Wyatt of Baltimore; 
in 1846 he was ordained deacon at Salisbury, Maryland, was sent as 
missionary to Laurel, Maryland, and built a new and flourishing church 
there the next year. In 1848 he was ordained priest in Baltimore. In 
1849 he became rector of Great Choplank, a parish in Cambridge, Mary- 
land, where he continued in active service forty-four years. He was a 
frequent deputy to the general convention as dean of convocation and on 
important church committees of the state. In 1855 he received D.D. from 
St. John's College. 

He married in 1856 Miss Annie C. Hooper of Cambridge. . 

Children : 

Henry Anson, Lieutenant First Cavalry, U. S. A. 

William Wyatt, a tutor in St. Mark's School, Southboro, Massachusetts. 

Miss Florence Sawyer's School 

Miss Sawyer taught in the Dickinson High School, Deerfield, three 
years, the Prospect Hill School, Greenfield, Glenwood Classical Seminary 
and at Shelburne Falls, where she established an evening school that had 
a large patronage, before coming to Brattleboro in 1871. 

The school opened with seven scholars. One hundred was the average 
attendance in 1894, when she had thirteen teachers. 

She was a remarkably stimulating and thorough teacher, who exacted 
the best her scholars could give, in work and time, — and her school was 
the most largely attended of any of the private schools in this town, from 
1871 to 1897. 

A paper, Tlie School Dial, was published by a flourishing debating 
society. 

Saint Helen's School for Boys and Girls opened in the school building 
of Miss Tyler in 1876, and again after two years in the Park House, was 
conducted by Mrs. Emma J. Ives from 1879 to 1887, Miss S. A. C. 



SAINT HELEN'S SCHOOL 669 

Thomas, preceptress. They were assisted by Miss Louise Chappell, a 
sister of Mrs. Ives. Mrs. Ives was born in Rochester. She came here 
from New York with her sons, Ralph, PhiHp, who died here, and 
Kenneth. 



CHAPTER LXIX 
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Biographical Sketches— Pratt family (Wheeler & Pratt)— D. Stewart Pratt— 
Alfred H. Wright— Oscar J. Pratt— Oscar D. Esterbrook— Silas M. Waite, the 
Organ Case — The Vernon cannon — Frederick A. Nash — Charles C. Waite — Bethuel 
Ranger — Charles F. Thompson — Reverend James Herrick — Draper family: Rev- 
erend George B. Draper, William H. Draper, AI.D., Francis E. Draper. Francis 
Goodhue, II — Honorable Broughton D. Harris — Fred H. Harris — Charles A. 
Harris — Honorable RanslureW. Clarke — Timothy Vinton — William F. Richardson 
— Isaac N. Thorn — Barna A. Clark — Edward Crosby — Crosby family (Charles B. 
Rice, Leroy F. Adams, C. W. Wyman, Edward C. Crosby) — John J. Retting — 
William Alonzo Hopkins — Davenport & Mansur: Alonzo C. Davenport, Charles 
H. Mansur — Philip Wells — William S. Newton — Honorable George Howe 
(George E. Howe) — Judge Daniel Kellogg — Kellogg family (Judge Asa O. Aldis, 
Henry A. Willard) — John Burnham — Henry Burnham — Burnham family — Larkin 
G. Mead, Junior — The Snow Angel — William Rutherfurd Mead — William Morris 
Hunt — Richard Morris Hunt — Colonel Leavitt Hunt — Bradley family continued : 
William C, 11— S. Rowe— Richards Bradley— Arthur C. (Richards M.— J. Dorr). 
Walker family : Reverend Charles Walker — Stephen A. Walker — Reverend George 
Leon Walker (Professor Williston Walker) — Henry F. Walker, M.D. Norman 
F. Cabot (William Brooks Cabot) — Honorable George W. Folsom — Honorable 
Hampden Cutts — Miss Mary Cutts — George Chandler Hall — Honorable Charles 
Kellogg Field — Thomas Thompson — Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson — Item of Thomp- 
son will. 

The Pratt Family 
Rufus Pratt,^ born July i, 1799, married July 31, 18-33, Maria E., daugh- 
ter of Major James and Polly Stewart Esterbrook, born September 7, 
1800; died October 19, 1857. He died November 28, 1877, aged seventy- 
eight. 
Children : 

Lucius G., who spent his early life in Brattleboro, and was of the firm 
Wheeler & Pratt. He later went to West Newton, Massachusetts, 
and engaged in wholesale silk and finally in the wholesale grocery 
business. He married Maria C, daughter of James Hastings, who 
died September 4, 1858, aged thirty. He died in 1905, aged eighty. 
They had a son, Herbert G., who married February, 1890, Miss 
Frances E. Sawyer. 
1 Pratt & Bullock, 1844. 



DANIEL STEWART PRATT 671 

Lucy J., married July 19, 1864, Frederic S. Plimpton of Boston. She 
died in San Diego, California, December 28, 1889; by a second mar- 
riage she had three sons and one daughter. 
In 181:1 Franklin Hoar Wheeler, who had been a clerk for his brother, 
and Lucius G. Pratt (son of Rufus), bought out John H. Wheeler and 
combined the business, which had become a general dry goods and grocery 
business, the firm being Wheeler & Pratt. In 1849 the partnership was 
dissolved and Lucius G. Pratt became the senior member of the firm of 
Pratt, Wheeler (Leonard) & Company, D. Stewart Pratt, the younger 
brother of Lucius G., being the. "company." They continued to do busi- 
ness successfully for four years, their sales the last year aggregating 
$100,000. 

Daniel Stewart Pratt was born August 3, 18'26, on what is known 
as the Thomas Betterley farm in the west part of the town. He went 
to school in West Brattleboro until he was fifteen years old, then 
went to work in his father's market which was situated on Main 
Street where the Ullery Building now stands. He remained there 
until he was twenty-one years old and entered the employ of Wheeler 
& Pratt, who conducted a general dry goods and grocery store. He 
married February 14, 1850, Caroline P., daughter of Edmund and 
Betsey Wright Hoar, born in Bedford, Massachusetts, December 9, 
1830 ; she died March 14, 1896. 

While D. Stewart Pratt was well known in this town and county 
as a highly successful merchant, he achieved a wider preeminence as 
a breeder of Shorthorn cattle and Southdown sheep. Many of the 
Shorthorn herds in the South and West descended from foundation 
stock bred by Mr. Pratt. In the early nineties he shipped to Illinois 
what was considered the finest Shorthorn cow that ever stood in that 
state. He was able to get high prices for his fancy-bred stock, being 
credited with selling one for $9000. He was also interested in horse 
breeding and had owned many valuable animals. In 1884 Mr. Pratt 
became interested in the Vermont Live Stock Company and served 
as vice-president and later as president of the corporation. He be- 
came a corporator of the Vermont Savings Bank in 1878 and served 
on its board of investment until 1908. 

Owing to his mercantile interests Mr. Pratt did not enlist at the 
time of the Civil War, though he furnished a substitute and was 
active in recruiting Company B, Sixteenth Vermont Volunteers. At 
the close of the war Mr. Pratt was made quartermaster of the First 
Vermont Regiment. Mr. Pratt was always a staunch Republican, 
though he took no active part in politics. The only town office he 
ever held was that of selectman in 1879. He was made the chairman 



672 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

of the board and it was under his direction that the roads and bridges 
of the town were repaired and rebuilt after the great freshet of 1869. 
From 1859 he lived in the house on Western Avenue in which he died 
January 8, 1912. When Pratt, Wright & Company were succeeded 
by O. D. Esterbrook in 1873, Mr. Pratt practically retired from the 
mercantile field and devoted himself to his live-stock breeding opera- 
tions. 
Children: 

Edmund R., born October 2, 1857; married November 27, 1886, 
Harriet Brasor (Mile. Stella Brazzi), daughter of Egbert and Mar- 
garet Holland Brasor. (See p. 992.) 
Mary Alice, born November 23, 1859 ; married September 10, 1891, 
Charles W. Dunham. They had one child, Stewart Pratt Dunham, 
born October 6, 1900. She graduated from the Brattleboro High 
School in 1877 and v/as for four years in Miss Stearns's Private 
School, Amherst. She died July 28, 1912. Mr. Dunham was 
born in North Paris, Maine, July 1, 1857, worked two years in the 
general store of his father in West Paris and engaged in the flour 
and grain business under the name C. W. Dunham Company, 
before coming to Brattleboro in 1885 and engaging in the shoe 
business. He was instrumental in inducing the development of the 
water power at Vernon and was president of the Connecticut River 
Power Company. He died April 5, 1910. 
Walter Stewart, born July 25, 1870; married Alice Fisher, daugh- 
ter of Charles F. Paige of Athol, Massachusetts. 
At the expiration of the Pratt, Wheeler & Company partnership it 
became evident that a radical change must ensue in the manner of con- 
ducting their business, as the trade demanded that the different lines of 
goods should be carried in greater variety and in separate stocks. In 
1854 the dry goods and millinery departments were sold to Oscar J. Pratt, 
who had previously, in 1850, established himself in a dry goods store of 
his own. He then assumed the dry goods department, later giving up the 
millinery, while the firm of D. S. Pratt & Company conducted a men's 
custom and ready-made clothing business in the adjoining store on the 
north; this firm was dissolved in 1860 and that of Pratt (D. S.), Wright 
(Alfred H.) & Company was formed. In 1873 Mr. Pratt sold out to 
Oscar D. Esterbrook, but the firm name was retained. He continued in 
the general clothing trade until 1889, when the firm name disappeared 
owing to his death in March of that year, he having been for a number 
of years sole proprietor. 

Oscar James Pratt was born October 22, 1828. Early in his business 
career he was associated with his older brothers, Lucius Pratt and 



OSCAR JAMES PRATT 673 

Daniel Stewart Pratt, and saw the numerous changes of their firm 
and in the hues of business which they conducted. 

In 1848 he went to Worcester, Massachusetts, to learn the dry- 
goods business in the store of H. B. Claflin and remained there two 
years. On his return he established himself, in 1850, in the O. J. 
Pratt store on Alain Street, where he kept the conservative and 
substantial dry goods store of the town, never lowering his high 
standards of quality to suit the moods of changing fashion. 

When O. J. Pratt started in business alone his store was twenty- 
five feet square with a driveway in the rear. In the late fifties Mr. 
Pratt made an addition by building on to the rear part, and in 1869, 
O. J. Pratt having bought the north part of the real estate of his 
brother, D. S. Pratt, the entire building was enlarged and rebuilt. 
George S. Pratt, the son who survived him, was for many years a 
bookkeeper in his father's store and had the active management of the 
business. The various stores with which the Pratts were connected 
were located where Goodnow, Pearson & Hunt are now in business. 
He married, first, December 25, 1854, Miss Sarah S. Woodcock 
of Brattleboro. She was an active member of the Unitarian Church. 
She died August 22, 1883. He married, second, July 29, 1886, Alice 
May, daughter of Charles and Mary E. (Woodcock) Brownell, of 
Colerain, Massachusetts. 
Children by first marriage: 
George S., born February 14, 1857; married July 20, 1882, Miss 

Mary C. Cooke. 
Arthur J., born July 7, 1863 ; married November 27, 1884, Katharine, 
daughter of Samuel B. Houghton ; died January 4, 1891, aged 
twenty-seven years six months. From the time of his graduation 
from the High School he was clerk in his father's store. She 
married, second, William Gray. She died at Pittsfield, Maine, 
July 12, 1920. 
Oscar D. Esterbrook, son of Daniel S. Esterbrook, was born in West 
Brattleboro April 20, 1833, and died here March 8, 1899. The family 
moved to the East Village when he was fifteen years of age; a year later 
he became a clerk in Deacon Dwinell's store. 

Oscar D. Esterbrook was with Pratt, Wheeler & Company and with 
the successive partnership, becoming partner of Pratt, Wright & Com- 
pany. When E. R. Pratt succeeded to the interest of A. H. Wright, Mr. 
Esterbrook became sole owner of the store. 

In company with his brother-in-law, Azor Marshall, he built the Mar- 
shall and Esterbrook building near the bridge. He was one of the original 
incorporators and trustees of the Brattleboro Savings Bank. 



674 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

June 15, 1876, he married Ella C, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Ebenezer 
P. Wetherell of Chesterfield, born October 4, 1845, who married, first, 
December 28, 1870, Frederick Shumway. Mrs. Wetherell was Laura, 
daughter of Captain Reuben and Mary Wetherbee Marsh ; she was born 
August 20, 1817, and died in 1897. 
Children : 

Edith, graduated from Smith College in 1898. 



Waite Family — Silas M. Waite 

Silas M. Waite was the son of Thomas F. Waite born June 17, 1797, 
died July 2, 1846, and Evelina Sophia Waite, who was born June 30, 
1800, and died November 20, 1878. He was born in Fayetteville in 1825. 
About 1835 the Waite family' moved to Brattleboro and here, with the 
exception of a short time in his teens as messenger in a Springfield bank, 
his life was spent. Leaving that bank he began life as stage agent in 
this place, a position he efficiently filled some years. A man of a remark- 
able grasp of business affairs, of wide general information and of unusual 
facility in all mathematical operations, he was also a man of great public 
spirit, whose services in connection with every movement for the advance- 
ment of the town's life gave him a position of influence and leadership 
which he held for more than thirty years. 

An exceptional quickness of sympathy and loyalty to friends won for 
him also a strong personal following. 

Mr. Waite married April 2, 1850, Miss Sophia L. Eager of Newfane. 

In 1857 he became cashier of the Windham County National Bank. 

In 1857 gas was introduced and he was the organizer and president 
of The Brattleboro Gas Company; manager of the Elliot Street carriage 
works and owner of the Hinsdale bridge. 

Having worked with energy and enthusiasm for the common good, in 
September, 1864, he was elected town representative by the largest vote 
ever cast. From 1865 Mr. Waite was engaged in the manufacture of 
melodeons as member of the firm J. Estey & Company, later of R. Burdett 
& Company, and as president of the Brattleboro Melodeon Company. He 
rebuilt the Connecticut River bridge in 1870, and with D. L. Harris of 
Springfield reorganized the Vermont Valley Railroad in 1871 and for a 
year was sole manager. 

April 22, 1870, "a large number of citizens called at the residence of 
S. M. Waite accompanied by the Brattleboro Band for the purpose of 
showing their appreciation of his efforts in forwarding enterprises for 
the promotion of the prosperity and welfare of the village, and especially 




OLD FOUNTAIN ENGINE 



FROST MANSION 




BRATTLEBORO MELODEON CO. 




BRIDGE OVER LITTLE RIVER 




MAIN STREET 



'^ V 




THE BURDETT-ESTEY ORGAN CASE 675 

for his energy and perseverance in completing the Connecticut River 
bridge in the face of serious difficulties. They carried with them presents 
contributed by one hundred individuals, which were presented to Mr. 
Waite in behalf of the donors by Colonel Charles A. Miles. "^ 

In 1873-1874 there was an S. M. Waite Hose Company whose cart 
Number 1 was named "Waite." He was chief engineer of the Fire De- 
partment from 1873. He was first bailiff in 1874. In that year he engaged 
in raising poultry on a very large scale on the Island. He was chairman 
of the board of bailififs, chairman of the school board and public library 
committee for many years, and chairman of the board of trustees of the 
Congregational Society. He built the road along the western base of 
Wantastiquet in 1875, and in 1878 rebuilt the toll bridge and made it free. 
Among his public improvements were the building of the arch over Whet- 
stone Brook, the Putney culvert, etc., which have stood so firmly the test 
of time. 

Mr. Waite's public career terminated with the failure of his bank in 
1881, under circumstances which need not be considered here. In 1886 
the Waite family removed to Omaha, Nebraska, where he died March 11, 
1895. 
Children : 

William Eager, married Miss Amelia Morris ; died September 1, 1914, 
aged sixty. Children : Evelyn Morris ; Mildred E. ; Arthur W. 

Frank W., died November 25, 1880, aged twenty-three. 

Louise S. 

Alice Vinton. 

BuRDETT-EsTEY Organ Case. Long-standing litigation attended the 
Burdett-Estey Organ Case, which was made even more notable by such 
distinguished counsel as Honorable E. J. Phelps for Mr. Waite and 
Honorable William M. Evarts for Mr. Estey. 

Litigation was begun in 1871. The suit grew out of the alleged in- 
fringement of a reed board patent granted Riley Burdett who, with Mr. 
Waite, had been partners of Jacob Estey. The litigation was long de- 
layed, owing to the illness of Judge Smalley of Vermont and the death 
of Circuit Judges Woodrufif and Johnson. The case was first argued 
before Judge Johnson of New York in March, 1876, but he had not 
decided it at the time of his death nearly two years later. Judge Blatch- 
ford and Judge Wheeler heard the case in May and June, 1878, sitting in 
New York, the arguments occupying a week. 

It was decided by them substantially in Burdett's favor the next No- 

1 The Vermont Phccnix. 



676 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

vember, and ex-Governor Stewart of Vermont was appointed a special 
master to take an accounting of the profits due the plaintiffs. These 
profits were found by the master to amount with interest to about 
$161,000, for which a decree was entered April 6, 1880. Estey & Com- 
pany promptly took an appeal, furnishing the required bond for $300,000. 
When the case was finally argued before the United States Supreme 
Court in November, 1883, the previous decision was revoked in favor of 
the Estey Organ Company. 

The Vernon Cannon 

The Vernon cannon was a twenty-four cylinder revolver invented by 
Cyrus Dodge of Vernon. The proprietors were Colonel F. J. Burrows 
of Vernon, Colonel George B. Kellogg and Colonel Silas M. Waite of 
Brattleboro. It was cast by Cyrus Alger of Boston and made at the 
machine shop of George Newman & Son of Brattleboro, under the super- 
vision qf Jacob Marsh, and put together at Vernon in 1859. 

It was tested by a committee of investigation (sent by Congress under 
the direction of Jefferson Davis, chairman of the Military Committee of 
the Senate of the United States, and Governor Floyd, Secretary of War), 
consisting of Major Thornton, Captain Manerdin and Lieutenant Balch. 
It cost $6000, and weighed over twenty tons. 

Frederick A. Nash was born in Ballston Springs, New York. He prac- 
ticed law in Akron, Ohio, and during the Civil War was provost marshal 
at Cleveland. He moved to Brattleboro from Akron about 1867, with his 
family, consisting of his wife, who had been Mrs. Sarah Leavenworth 
Watrous of Waterbury, Connecticut ; two stepchildren, John and Mary 
Totten Watrous ; his son by a first marriage, Frederick Nash, and a daugh- 
ter by the second wife, Sarah L., who married Reverend John A. Todd 
of Tarrytown, New York. 

Mary Totten Watrous was married in Brattleboro April 3, 1877, to 
Reverend Anson R. Graves, born April 13, 1842, at Wells, Rutland 
County, Vermont, missionary, bishop of Nebraska, and author of "The 
Farmer's Boy who became a Bishop." Children : Frederick D. ; Gertrude ; 
Margaret, married Reverend G. G. Bennett ; Eliot V. ; David W. ; Paul. 

Mr. Nash had interests in a gold mine in Canada which proved un- 
profitable, so that he entered into some activities in Brattleboro in the 
capacity of assistant to S. M. Waite and was president of the North- 
western Mutual Life Association and director of the Vermont National 
Bank. In 1883 he removed to Waterbury, and died in JNIontreal July 23, 
1886. 



CHARLES C. WAITE 677 

Charles C. Waite 

Charles C. Waite was born in Newfane in June, 1830, but his boyhood 
was spent in this village. At sixteen, having been for two years a clerk 
in the post office under Frederick N. Palmer, he went to Springfield as 
telegraph operator and became one of the most expert in the country. 
Subsequently he was conductor on the Hartford & New Haven Railroad. 

He married Julia, adopted daughter of Elihu Burritt, and lived in New 
Haven, engaged as secretary in the City Fire Insurance Company of 
Hartford. About the time of the opening of the Civil War he went to 
Chicago and for a number of years was chief manager of the Sherman 
House — his partners being D. A. Gage and John Rice — winning distinc- 
tion as the proprietor by his executive abilities and agreeable personal 
traits. Ambitious of a larger field, he returned to the East about 1866, 
bought a large interest in the Brevoort House, Fifth Avenue and Eighth 
Street, New York City, and maintained a quiet and elegant Jiotel with the 
general characteristics of an English hotel which gave it a fine reputation 
among European travelers. He was more successful than any man in the 
country in making a hotel homelike and comfortable. Many diplomatists 
made the Brevoort headquarters, as did the generals of the Civil War, 
and some of the presidents of railroads, our larger capitalists and men 
famous in art and literature. A few years before his death, February 
2, 1880, he became a member of the firm which conducted the Windsor 
Hotel. 

He left a widow and five children : Charles Burritt W'aite, married 
October 18, 1876, Lizzie Noble, daughter of Mrs. Harmon Noble of Essex 
County, New York; William Henry; Albert; Julia, lost on the Ville de 
Havre; Minnie L., died March 6, 1887. 

Other children of Thomas F. and Evelina S. Waite were : 
Lucretia, born December 28, 1823 ; died January 16, 1897. 
Alfred F., born in Wardsboro December 27, 1827 ; married November 
27, 1865, Martha S., daughter of Martin and Clarina Grout of Mon- 
tague, Massachusetts ; bought the farm known as the "Waite Farm" 
on the Putney Road in 1863 ; he died May 16, 1896 ; she died March 
14,1916. Children: 

Fred M., born January 1, 1860; married June 6, 1883, Miss Anna F. 
Houghton; died August 23, 1901. Children: Florence, married, 
second, Houghton Seaverns ; John Alfred, born December 21, 
1885, married June 28, 1907, Miss Ellen S. Marcy ; Louise A. 
Harriet G., married February 26, 1890, Horatio Knight of Dummers- 
ton. Children : William W. ; Ruth. 
Elizabeth S., born June 8, 1837 ; died September 15, 1881. 



078 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Frances S., married, 1865, E. Bliss Vinton of Springfield, Massachu- 
setts; died February 22, 1869. 
Henry, of Cleveland, Ohio. 

Bethuel Ranger 

Bethuel Ranger was born in Colerain, Massachusetts, October 8, 1822, 
the youngest of nine children of Bethuel and Elizabeth Peck Ranger. 

His parents moved to Monroe, Michigan, in 1831, living there five 
years. In 1836 Mr. Ranger came to Brattleboro to learn the jeweler's 
trade with Deacon D. B. Thompson and took such an interest in his work 
that on Deacon Thompson's death, in 1876, he became head of the firm, 
and Henry H. Thompson succeeded to his father's interest. The firm of 
Thompson & Ranger was dissolved in January, 1896. 

Mr. Ranger married June 26, 1851, Abby S., daughter of Austin and 
Charlotte Knowlton Wheeler. She was born in Broome, Province of 
Quebec, September 23, 1827. They lived on Elliot and Green Streets, and 
then for forty years on Williston Street. Mr. Ranger died January 14, 
1895. Mrs. Ranger died in West Brattleboro January 8, 1916, aged eighty- 
eight. She was an intellectual woman and retained her faculties in old 
age to a remarkable degree; she had some knowledge of languages and of 
painting and was a reader of extended tastes. She was also a woman 
of high principle. She was a member of St. Michael's Episcopal Church. 

Mrs. Sarah G. Smiley (Mrs. John B.), who died November 1, 1872, 
aged fifty-six, leaving a son, James F. Smiley, and Mrs. Arabella N. Smith 
(Mrs. Calvin), who died December 17, 1872, Mr. Ranger's sisters, lived 
in Brattleboro. Another sister, Miss Ellen S. Ranger, died December 
20,1872. . - 

James F. Smiley was in the real estate business in Toledo, removed to 
Chicago, where he died in .1911. 

Charles F. Thompson 

Charles F. Thompson was born in Seymour, Connecticut, December 8, 
1830, and was one of four children of Reverend Charles and Hannah 
(Miner) Thompson. His father was a leading Congregational minister 
of his time and from 1833 to his death in 1885 was pastor of the church 
at Salem, Connecticut. 

Mr. Thompson came to Brattleboro April 1, 1846, to be clerk in Willis- 
ton & Tyler's hardware store, the firm being Nathan B. Williston and 
Ferdinand Tyler, in 1853 Tyler & Thompson and afterwards C. F. 
Thompson & Company. The latter firm failed in 1879, but, in company 





CHARLES F. THOMPSON 



SAMUEL DUTTON 





JOHN W. FROST 



EDWARD CROSBY 




CHABLES C. FPOST 





t 



'Y 



GEORGli E. CROWIiLL 



HEURY D. HOLTON 



CHARLES F. THOMPSON 679 

with Captain S. E. Howard^ of Jamaica and from 1885 with Frank D. 
Fisk, Mr. Thompson continued the business until 1893. 

During the years of his active interest in the hardware trade, Mr. 
Thompson was associated in other enterprises. He was one of a com- 
pany of men who built the Centerville factory, and manufactured there 
furniture of a high grade, under the name of the Brattleboro Furniture 
Company. Subsequently he was a member of the Brattleboro Knitting 
Machine Company, which made knitting machines in the same factory. 
Still later he had an interest in the Brattleboro Tool Company, which 
made skates, planes and bits in the Carpenter Organ Company's building. 

He married Elizabeth Cune, daughter of Charles Cune of Brattleboro, 
May 15, 1855. For eight years they lived with her mother, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Sikes Cune, in the Sikes homestead, where Mrs. Thompson was born. In 
1863 Mr. Thompson bought the Judge Whitney place on Main Street, 
and five years later moved the old house and built the commodious new 
house which was sold in 1885 to George S. Dowley,— the Thompson 
family returning to the Sikes house where they continued to live until 
the government appropriated the site for a Federal Building. 

He was an early friend, promoter and finally president of the Brat- 
tleboro & Whitehall Railroad, and treasurer of the Brattleboro Gaslight 
Company. A man of public spirit and tireless energy, although of deli- 
cate physique, he entered into a variety of the town's activities with enthu- 
siasm and efficiency. He was one of three workers who transformed a 
barren plain of sand in the north part of the village into what is now the 
village Common, and raised between $600 and $700 in 1856 for laying out 
and fencing the Common, which was originally enclosed with a fence of 
low posts and rails, three rails to each section. This fence gradually fell 
into decay. He and a young friend, Augustus Shepherd of New York, 
set out the row of elm trees that have made the beauty of Oak Street. 

He was for forty-one years, from 1865, on the Board of Deacons of 
the Centre Congregational Church ; treasurer of church benevolence, 
superintendent of the Sunday school and teacher from 1856 to 1877, 
active in every work of the church for over fifty years, director of the Mis- 
sionary Society and corporate member of the American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions from 1869, and added thousands of 
dollars to their treasuries by his personal efforts. 

He was a ready speaker and writer and was the means of converting 
the sentiments of the people, through these gifts, into important public 
movements. His heart was, however, centered in the religious life of the 

1 From 1880 Captain Howard, of the Eighth Vermont Infantry, was of Stoddard 
& Howard Cattle Company, Wyoming; member Massachusetts Legislature, 1896; 
married Miss Helen Marsh. Children: Pauline; Marjorie, died. 



680 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

community. No layman of the Centre Church was as constant as he in 
attendance upon its services, or contributed more to her influence, by his 
fervent personal appeals and by his interest in the well-being of each 
member of the church. He died May 11, 1906. Mrs. Thompson died 
in July, 1917. 
Children: 

Helen E., graduated from Vassar College in 1878, and gave the salu- 
tatory oration. She was for many years head of Burnham House, in 
the Burnham Classical School, and later established a girls' school in 
Northampton, of which she is principal. 
Mary F., born January 13, 1862 ; died September 22, 1889. She grad- 
uated from Smith College in 1883, taught two years at Stamford, 
Connecticut, and at Northampton, Massachusetts, four years. 
Frederick M., born October 31, 1866; graduated from Amherst College, 

1887; died November 26, 1887. 
Charles H., born February 11, 1870 ; married June 9, 1896, Ruth H., 
daughter of Charles D. and Lelia (Fletcher) Noyes. A daughter, 
Lelia. 
Until her removal to Northampton in 1917, Mrs. C. H. Thompson, ever 
active and influential in her home church in Brattleboro, was treasurer 
of the Vermont Branch of the Woman's Home Missionary Union, per- 
forming the duties of her office with a care, judgment and infinite tact 
that won her the place of friend and adviser of auxiliaries throughout Ver- 
mont. 

Reverend James Herrick 

The Herrick family is believed to have descended from Ericke, a Danish 
chief, who came to Britain about the year 911. Henry, the son of Sir 
William, the first of the family who came to this country, settled in Salem 
in June, 1629. Joseph, youngest son of Henry, came from Concord, 
Massachusetts, to Vermont, lived awhile in Townshend, and finally settled 
in Brattleboro; his son, Jonathan, the grandfather of Reverend James 
Herrick, was born in 1743 ; Jonathan's son, Nathaniel, the father of James, 
was born March 7, 1782 ; in 1806 he married Miss Lydia Eastman, and 
lived for a time where A. W. Crouch lived later, near LeRay's ; from there 
he went to Broome, Canada, where James was born March 19, 1814. On 
his return from Canada he lived a year or two in a cottage northwest of 
the Sargent place. 

It was here that James began his schoolboy studies, at about the age 
of five years, in the schoolhouse in the so-called Miller district. He earned 
a prize of five cents, a "reward of merit," with which, and another five 



REV. JAMES HERRICK 681 

cents his sick mother put with it, he bought a copy of the New Testa- 
ment, and this he kept and used always. From here his father moved 
to a farm near the southeast corner of Newfane, where the mother of 
James died when he was about ten years old. From this place the father 
and children moved to a farm afterwards occupied by a half-brother of 
James, in West Dummerston. ♦ 

It was from this farmer's home and life that James began to attend 
school, at the age of eighteen or twenty years, during fall terms, at the 
Brattleborough Academy, and taught district school in the winter to pay 
his way in preparing for college. 

He was often employed as assistant teacher in the Academy and some- 
times took entire charge of the school. His religious life was one of 
marked activity, devotion and fidelity. Having completed his preparations 
for college, he went to Williams, where he graduated in 1841, and after 
teaching a year went to Andover, where he graduated in 184.5. He was 
ordained in Brattleboro October 10, married Miss Elizabeth H. Crosby 
November 2, in the old Academy building where the church was then 
worshiping and where he was ordained to go as missionary to India, and 
embarked November 12, under the auspices of the American Board, for 
Madura, Southern India, and there gave himself to mission work, teach- 
ing, preaching or visiting villages, as duty required, till failing health 
called for a season of rest. For this purpose he came on a visit to America 
in 1864, whence, at the end of two years, he went back to India and there 
remained till 1883. From that time his home was in West Brattleboro. 

Mr. Herrick was the father of ten children, all of whom were born in 
India, six of whom, with his wife, survived him; four died in India, 
where they were buried. 

He died December 1, 1891. 
Children: 

James Frederick Herrick, the oldest son, born in Madura, India, came 
to this country with his parents in 1864, was left here for an education, 
and with his sister Emily found a home in the family of Reverend H. B. 
Blake of Belchertown, Massachusetts. He graduated from W^illiston 
Seminary in 1871, from Williams College in 1875, and immediately began 
newspaper work, and for three years was a member of the editorial staff 
of The Rutland Herald, going from that paper to The Springfield Republi- 
can, where he did faithful work for eight years. In 1886 he went to New 
York as night agent of the New England Associated Press, was promoted 
and did his most efficient work as manager of that organization. His 
health suffered, and by advice of physicians he went abroad. Later he 
entered the employ of The New York World, where he remained until 
his final illness. 



683 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Mr. Herrick was married in June, 1884, to Christine, daughter of Rev- 
erend Doctor Edward P. Terhune and his wife, better known as "Marion 
Harland," when Doctor Terhune was pastor of the First Church in 
Springfield. Mrs. Herrick survived him with two sons. 

He died February 10, 1893, in New York. 

Other children of Reverend James Herrick: 
William H., with Lord & Taylor, New York. 

Doctor Joseph T., a practicing physician in Springfield, Massachusetts. 
Reverend David Scudder, graduated from Williams College in 1884 

and taught in India some years ; returned to enter LTnion Theological 

Seminary, fitting himself for more missionary work; of Bangalore, 

India. 
Henry, died in Green River, Utah. 
Mary E., born in Madura October 2, 1847 ; married June 11, 1868, John 

H. Dunklee, who died in 1892. Children : Helen, married John M. 

Phelan of Brooklyn; Laura M., matron of Mount Holyoke College; 

Charles R. ; Harry W. F. of Ilion, New York. 
Emily J., married June 1, 1882, Reverend George E. Martin. 

Draper Family 

George Draper was a merchant of Brattleboro, who, with his wife, 
Lucy Barnard of Lancaster, New Hampshire, moved to New York about 
1835. 
Children: 

Reverend George B. Draper was born in 1827, studied at Trinity School, 
graduated at Columbia College, 1845, at the General Theological 
Seminary, 1849. He was rector of St. Andrew's Church, New York, 
1850-1876. He married November 25, 1850, Lucy Blake Goodhue, 
daughter of Wells Goodhue, and had six children. He died Septem- 
ber 24, 1876, aged fifty. 
William H. Draper, M.D., was born October 14, 1833. He graduated 
at Columbia College in 1851, and in 1855 at the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons ; he continued his medical studies in London and Paris. 
He was connected with the College of Physicians and Surgeons 
twenty-nine years, becoming Clinical Professor of Diseases of the 
Skin, Professor of Clinical Medicine and finally Professor Emeritus. 
He was identified with the New York Hospital forty-one years, and 
was consulting physician of St. Luke's, Presbyterian and RoosEvelt 
Hospitals. He was president of the New York Academy of Medicine. 
Doctor Draper had a cultivated musical taste and was a promoter 




RESIDENCE OF FRANCIS GOODHDE 




MAIN STREET 




BEECHWOOD 
RESIDENCE OF J. N. BALESTIER 



MAPLEWOOD 
BALESTIERS FARM 




RESIDENCE OF 
PELEG BAKROWS 



DUTCH COTTAGE 
R. ,G. HARDIE 




PETTIS FARM 
SUMMER RESIDENCE OF DORMAN B. EATON 



FRANCIS GOODHUE, II 683 

of musical institutions, a large stockholder and director of orchestral 
organizations in New York. 

He married, first, Elinor Kinnicut of Worcester. Children : Mar- 
tha ; Doctor William K., who married Helen Hoffman. He married, 
second, Ruth, daughter of Charles A. Dana, the editor of The New 
York Sun, who died August 16, 1914, in her sixty-fifth year. Chil- 
dren : Charles D. ; Dorothea ; Ruth ; Paul, a noted German lied singer. 
Frank Ellis Draper, born in New York in October, 1836, grew up in 
New York City and for a term of years was clerk in the store of 
Brooks Brothers, well-known clothing dealers. He afterwards en- 
tered business for himself in the firm of Brown, Draper & Company 
(Joseph H. Brown and William H. Owen), importers and dealers in 
tailors' furnishings. 

He married September 17, 1863, Mary Goodhue, daughter of Wil- 
liam P. Cune, who died May 11, 1879, aged thirty-seven. 

Mr. Draper was an active supporter and treasurer of the Church 
of the Holy Communion of New York City and of St. Michael's 
Episcopal Church in Brattleboro, and was for many years one of its 
vestrymen. Among many memorial gifts to the church have been 
the lectern given by him in memory of his wife, the corona and brass 
altar rail in memory of her sister, Julia Cune Bartlett. He possessed 
a peculiarly genial and gentle nature. He was a gentleman, in the 
finest sense of the word — cultured, modest, faithful and true. He 
died December 8, 1896, aged sixty-one. Children: 
Julia, married December 6, 1894, I. Chauncey McKeever of New 

York. Children: Edith, married Boughton Cobb; Marianne; 

Frances. 

Francis Goodhue, II 

Francis Goodhue was born at the old Arms farm August 28, 1822, one 
of the five children of Colonel Joseph and Sarah Edwards Goodhue. 

He was a pupil of the old Academy and upon leaving school entered the 
employ of John R. Blake & Company, where he worked as a clerk for 
seven years, and after leaving that concern was with the firm Cune & 
Goodhue. This store was where F. W. Kuech was afterwards located. 
He later entered into partnership with John W. Frost and for thirty-five 
years was engaged in the grocery business on the site occupied by the 
Brooks House Pharmacy. A broken leg prevented him from enlisting in 
the service, but he was active as a recruiting officer and was commissary 
of the military hospital during the latter part of the Civil War. The fire 



r 



684 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

of 1869 destroyed his store, and he was out of active business from 1869 
until 1875. 

It was upon the urgent solicitation of his brother-in-law, George J. 
Brooks, who had built a hotel for his native town, that Mr. Goodhue 
assumed the management of the Brooks House in 1875, which he con- 
tinued for thirteen years. Under his judicious direction and by his per- 
sonal associations, many former residents and a constant stream of travel- 
ers en route to and from the White jMountains and Canada were brought 
to Brattleboro. Finding here a hotel among the best in New England, 
they returned annually for some part of the year. It became a favorite 
winter resort for elderly people and families wishing to lead a quiet life 
in a northern climate ; and not a few remained in permanent residence, 
notably the family of William Menzies of New York, 1887-1896 ; James 
Menzies, Mrs. Menzies-Miller and her son Clarence; Mr. and Mrs. Isaac 
H. Williamson of New Jersey with their children, Lelia, who married 
January 29, 1896, Edward A. Tyler, manager of the house, Benjamin, 
May and Martha. William O. Chapin, Colonel Austine and others native- 
born passed their last years here. Mr. Goodhue was a director of the 
Vermont & Massachusetts Railroad from 1865. 

Mr. Goodhue received the title of colonel by appointment upon the staff 
of Governor Frederick Holbrook. He was a member of the Lafayette 
Light Infantry of Brattleboro and for over twenty years was a member 
of the old volunteer fire department of this village, and was first assistant 
engineer under Silas Waite. In politics he was originally a stalwart Whig 
and upon the formation of the Republican party became identified with it, 
although he never took an active part in politics. In his prime Mr. Good- 
hue was a handsome man and had a tall, well-proportioned figure. In- 
heriting a position of influence, his opinions — always independent and 
fearlessly expressed — were made acceptable to majorities by his social 
instincts and keen wit, and were felt in various interests of the community's 
life. 

Mr. Goodhue married October 26, 1847, Mary E. Brooks, daughter of 
Captain William S. and Eleanor (Forman) Brooks. She died August 4, 
1901. He died February 8, 1910. 

Six children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Goodhue, four of whom died 
in infancy. The two surviving are : 

Ellen B., who married September 26, 1878, Henry Van Kleeck, a law- 
yer of New York and in Denver, Colorado, of the Van Kleeck-Bacon 
Investment Company. He was born January 3, 1851 ; graduated 
from the College of the City of New York in 1872, and from the 
Colorado Law School in 1876. Henry Van Kleeck has made a gift 
to the Nation of ten acres of historic ruins in southern Colorado, 



w^ .< 




fT'^ 




FRAWCIS GOODHUE 11 



GEORGE J. BROOKS 





BROOGHTON D. HARRIS 



'=^f:C//^c^ 





FRANCIS W. BROOKS 



DOCTOR GEORGE P. GAIE 




^UVn^c^^^^CU c^:. 



NORMAN F. CABOT 



HON. BROUGHTON D. HARRIS 685 

consisting of the remains of structures once forming an extensive 
village inhabited by prehistoric people, and called The Yucca House 
National Monument. 
Francis Goodhue, Junior, born December 3, 1867 ; was a student of the 
Brattleboro High School, 1883; St. Mark's, Southboro, Massachu- 
setts, 1884-1886; Institute of Technology, Boston, 1887-1889; mar- 
ried June 15, 1893, Elizabeth W. Cope Evans, daughter of John 
Wistar and Eleanor J. Stokes Evans of Germantown, Pennsylvania. 
Children: Mary Brooks; Francis, III; Wistar Evans; Elizabeth; 
Margaret. 
He has been a manufacturer of lumber in North Carolina, Virginia and 
Tennessee; and of plumbing specialties; is president of Sanitary Special- 
ties Company; president of Building Loan Association and vice-president 
of the Germantown and Chestnut Hill Improvement Association ; director 
of Robert Morris Trust Company. 

He has been active in political reform in Pennsylvania ; treasurer of the 
Reform Party of Germantown ; on the Supreme Council of Boy Scouts 
in Philadelphia ; scoutmaster Troop 133. 

Honorable Broughton D. Harris 

Honorable Broughton D. Harris was one of the four sons of Wilder 
and Harriet Davis Harris. The first Harris ancestor in this country was 
Arthur Harris of Duxbury, Massachusetts, who came in the seventeenth 
century from England. Abner Harris, the great-grandfather of Brough- 
ton D. Harris, moved to Chesterfield from Woodstock, Connecticut, in 
1777. Wilder Harris, his grandson, was an enterprising and respected 
farmer of Chesterfield. After the sale of his farm in that town, he moved 
to this village and his later years were spent in the leisure of a good old 
age. He married, second, Mrs. Mary J. Walker of Springfield, July 21, 
1871. He died March 30, 1887, aged ninety. 

Broughton D. Harris was born in Chesterfield, New Hampshire, Au- 
gust 16, 1833 ; he prepared for college at the Chesterfield Academy and at 
Kimball Union Academy at Meriden, New Hampshire ; entered Dart- 
mouth College in ISil and graduated with honors in 1845. The class was 
one of distinguished ability, and nearly all of its members have been men 
of prominence, either in the professions, in politics, in business or military 
affairs. 

Immediately after his graduation Mr. Harris began the study of law in 
the office of Judge Asa Keyes of Brattleboro and subsequently continued 
it in that of Edward Kirkland. Esquire. While pursuing his law studies 
he acted as editor of The Vermont Phcenix for twelve months. In August, 



686 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

1847, Mr. Harris and William B. Hale began the publication of The Semi- 
zveekly Eagle. Mr. Harris's connection with the paper continued until he 
went to Utah in 1851. On returning from that territory Mr. Harris con- 
tinued its publication until 1855, when it was united with The Vermont 
Statesman. 

In the fall of 1850, on the unsolicited recommendations of Senators 
Collamer and Foote, he was honored by President Fillmore with appoint- 
ment as first secretary of the Territory of Utah. In March, 1851, Mr. 
Harris and his wife, then a bride, started on their long, tedious and perilous 
journey across the plains. There was no white settlement west of the 
Missouri River, and the journey from that point to the Great Salt Lake 
occupied sixty-five days, through a country inhabited by numerous tribes 
of Indians. 

Brigham Young was the first governor of the territory. The sentiments 
and aims of the two appointees were wholly incongruous and antagonistic. 
The faithful manner in which Air. Harris discharged his duties soon 
brought him into collision with Brigham Young. In the opinion of Mr. 
Harris the territorial government, as organized by the governor and his 
associates, was not in harmony with the enabling act of Congress; indeed, 
they ostentatiously disregarded the plain provisions of that act. He 
therefore refused to disburse the money lodged in his hands by the United 
States government for the benefit of the territory, and in a letter assigned 
unanswerable reasons for his refusal. The Mormon Legislature passed a 
series of resolutions requiring him to deliver to the Mormon United 
States marshal of Utah the public money in his possession, and threatened 
him with arrest and imprisonment in case he refused to comply. 

Under angry threats of personal violence and even of assassination, he 
returned to Washington and promptly restored to the United States treas- 
ury every dollar of the appropriation. The administration fully approved 
of his action. Two federal judges who had been appointed to office in 
Utah returned to Washington with Mr. Harris. The three presented a 
formal report to the President, setting forth the reasons for their return 
and the condition of affairs in the territory. 

Soon after this Mr. Harris was appointed secretary and acting governor 
of New Mexico, but he declined to accept these positions. 

Mr. Harris was always deeply interested in state affairs, although 
actively engaged in business. In 1847-1848 he was register of probate. 
He was elected to the State Senate in 1860 and served on the committee 
on railroads. He was reelected in 1861 and was chairman of the impor- 
tant committee on military affairs at a time when nearly all of the ses- 
sional legislation related to matters of a warlike nature. The members 
of this senate were probably the ablest body of legislators ever assembled 



HON. BROUGHTON D. HARRIS 687 

in Vermont. Among Mr. Harris's associates were such men as George F. 
Edmunds, Paul Dillmgham, Asahel Peck, John W. Stewart, C. W. Wil- 
lard, F. E. Woodbridge and Thomas E. Powers. He was assistant quar- 
termaster in the Regular Army in 1862. 

Governor Fairbanks appointed Mr. Harris to serve with ex-Governor 
Hiland Hall, General H. H. Baxter, L. E. Chittenden and Levi Under- 
wood in the Peace Congress which assembled in Washington, on invitation 
from the State of Virginia, just before the outbreak of the Civil War. 

Mr. Harris was for years engaged in the construction of railroads, and 
in this work made a fortune, being the senior member of the firm of 
Harris Brothers & Company. The list of railroads constructed in whole 
or in part by this firm includes the Wisconsin Central in Wisconsin ; part 
of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy in central Illinois ; the Buffalo & 
Suspension Bridge, New York; part of the Buffalo, New York & Phila- 
delphia ; the Chenango & Alleghany, Pennsylvania ; the Brattleboro & 
Whitehall narrow gauge railroad ; the St. Louis, Jerseyville & Springfield, 
Illinois ; and the Pittsburgh, McKeesport & Youghiogheny, Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Harris was a man of mental strength and his keenness and inde- 
pendence of thought and conviction were expressed in clean-cut, incisive 
English. His native ability and this inborn habit of mind and character 
made him the recognized companion, intellectually and socially, of the 
men who gave Vermont her fame in the eventful days after 1860. With 
both Senator Morrill and Senator Edmunds he enjoyed intimate personal 
friendship. He came to his young manhood when aggressive political con- 
troversy was in its palmiest days, and the columns of The Phoenix and 
The Eagle of that time prove how trenchant was his pen and how easily 
he was equal to the situation. In the local discussions and controversies 
of later years he was a contributor with equal force and incisiveness. In 
a company of his peers few men were so quick of wit, so brilliant in 
repartee, or possessed such a ready fund of information or of apt and 
amusing anecdote with which to illustrate a point or enforce an argvmient. 
His erect, well-knit frame and personal bearing admirably complemented 
his intellectual force. 

After retiring from business activity Mr. Harris lived quietly at his 
home in Brattleboro, he and Mrs. Harris often spending the winters in the 
South. He maintained a lively interest in all community affairs, and his 
main business activity was in connection with the affairs of the Brattle- 
boro Savings Bank. Of this bank he was an original incorporator, was 
always a member of the board of trustees and for a long term of years a 
member of the board of investment. He was president of the bank from 
1881 until his death. He was an attendant at the Congregational Church, 
gave liberally for the support of that church, and was wise and generous 



688 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

in the support of every public enterprise that commended itself to his 
judgment and sympathy. 

Mr. Harris married March 2-i, 1851, Sarah Buell HoUister, daughter of 
Edwin M. and Gracia (Buell) Hollister, who moved from Windham, 
Connecticut, to Brattleboro in 1839 and were residents until 1853. Their 
daughter, Mary Buell, married September 15, 1880, John Seymour Wood 
of New York, a lawyer, grandson of Deacon David Wood, author of 
"Gramercy Park," and other novels. George F. and Cordis D. Harris of 
Keene were brothers associated with Mr. Harris in railroad building. Mr. 
Harris died in 1899. 

Mr. Harris's property remains intact for the use of his daughter during 
her lifetime, with the following eventual bequests : $5000 to the Home 
for the Aged and Disabled; $2500 to the Vermont Missionary Associa- 
tion, the income to be expended in this state; $2500 to the Associated 
Charities of Brattleboro. 

From Brattleboro the family of Edwin M. Hollister went to Brooklyn, 
New York, in 1853. He died in New York March 25, 1870, aged seventy. 
Mrs. Hollister died March 7, 1888, aged eighty-five. 

Mrs. Harris retained her home for several years after the death of Mr. 
Harris, dividing her time subsequently between New York City, the 
home of her brothers and sisters, and the South. Her personal attrac- 
tions, social gifts and affectionate relations with the people of Brattleboro 
were a contribution to the sphere in which she moved. She published an 
account of the journey with her husband to Utah in a small volume en- 
titled "Deseret, an Unwritten Chapter of Salt Lake in 1851." She died 
in New York January 7, 1908. 
Other children of Edwin M. Hollister : 

George Hollister of Rutherford, New Jersey, married in 1860, Miss 

Phoebe M. Conklin; died November 19, 1917, aged eighty-five. 
Henry H. Hollister of New York, of HolHster & Babcock of the Stock 
Exchange; was treasurer of the National Horse Show Association. 
He married Miss Louise Howell ; married, second, Annie W., daughter 
of John Hubbard Stephenson, who died July 6, 1918. He died in 
1904. Children : Louise, Henry H., Buell. 
Helen, married Effingham Maynard of New York; died January 25, 

1916. Children : Mary H., Helen, Louise, Walter E. 
Mary, married Walter A. Pease of New York, son of Albert Pease of 
Troy, New York. He was one of the first members of the Produce 
Exchange and later of the New York Stock Exchange ; he served as 
member of the Seventh Regiment, Company H, through three of the 
most critical campaigns of the Civil War. Children: W. Albert, 
Henry Hollister. 



HON. RANSLURE W. CLARKE 689 

As long as Mrs. Harris kept the home in Brattleboro the different mem- 
bers of the HolHster family were frequent guests and friends of the towns- 
people. 

From another branch of the Harris family resident in Brattleboro have 
been the children of Erastus and Mary (Stone) Harris of Chesterfield: 
Frederick H. Harris, born January 26, 1836, went to California in 1853, 
remaining three years. He married October, 1858, Miss Abbie A. M. 
Daggett of Westmoreland, New Hampshire. He came to Brattleboro 
in 1860 as a builder and contractor, and was at one time with his 
brother Frank W. of the firm of Harris Brothers, railroad contrac- 
tors. He died November 27, 1890, aged sixty-seven years ten months. 
His son, Charles A. Harris, married October 29, 1881, Lizzie, daugh- 
ter of T. B. Morris, is treasurer of the Brattleboro Savings Bank. 
Children: Fred H., Dartmouth, 1911; Mildred, who died; Evelyn. 
Frank W., born April 31, 1828, married January 1, I860, Jane A., 
daughter of Reverend and Mrs. Otto Warren, born in Williamsville 
April 21, 1837. Immediately after their marriage they came to Brat- 
tleboro. He died May 13, 1876, aged forty-eight. She went to 
Boston to live in 1883 and died there in July, 1900. Their daughter, 
Emily Warren, married September 6, 1898, Henry Tilton Coe. A 
son, Harvey W. Harris, died in Denver in 1882, aged twenty-nine. 
Ellen A., born August 13, 1830 ; married September, 1850, Charles E., 
son of Willard H. Alexander. 

HONOR.^BLE RaNSLURE W. Cl.'\RKE 

Ranslure W. Clarke, son of Flam and Cynthia Clarke, was born at Wil- 
liamstown, Vermont, in 1816. His studies preparatory to entering college 
were pursued at Black River Academy, at Ludlow, \^ermont, and at Ran- 
dolph Academy, Vermont. He entered Dartmouth College in 1838 and 
graduated in 18-15, after which he became principal of Black River Acad- 
emy for three years. In the meantime he read law with Governor P. T. 
Washburn, completing his law studies in the office of J. Dorr Bradley 
of Brattleboro, and was admitted to the bar at the September term 
of Windham County Court, 1846, and afterwards practiced his pro- 
fession in Brattleboro. He held the office of state's attorney in 1851-1853 
and 1854; was state senator in 1858-1859 ; was a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention in 1858 ; was register of probate for the district of 
Marlboro in 1861-1862, when he resigned that office, and in June, 1863, 
was appointed assistant quartermaster of United States Volunteers, and 
remained in the United States military service till October, 1865. His 
official ranks in military service were those of captain, major and colonel. 



690 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

He purchased over four thousand horses for the cavalry and artillery 
service. He was one of the presidential electors of Vermont in 1868. 

In 1867 he formed a law partnership with Kittredge Haskins, which 
continued until in 1870 he was appointed postmaster, which office he held 
from January, 1871, to January, 1879. He was for several years president 
of the Brattleboro Savings Bank. For more than twenty-five years he held 
the offices of United States commissioner and master in chancery. In 
1883 he was elected assistant judge of Windham County Court. 

May 9, 1849, Mr. Clarke married Lucy C, daughter of Judge John 
Wilder, of Weston, Vermont. She died August 9, 1864:, and in 1868 he 
married Susan O. Wilder, a sister of his first wife; she died November 9, 
1886, aged fifty-one. 

He died January 27, 1899, at Hornell, New York. 
Children : 

By the first wife, Mary W., graduated from the Brattleboro High 
School in 1874, from Vassar College in 1878, and was class proph- 
etess ; was teacher at Miss Dana's School, Morristown, New Jersey ; 
was also lady principal of the High School of New Brunswick, 1882- 
1885, and teacher of English and history in the Gardner School, New 
York City. She married October 9, 1890, Honorable Milo M. Acker, 
a lawyer of Hornell, New York, who was Republican leader in the 
lower branch of the New York Legislature. 
By the second wife, Francis E. 



Timothy Vinton 

The death of the venerable Timothy Vinton, January 4, 1890, removed 
not only a landmark in the business life of this community, but one who 
occupied a unique place in other respects, especially in the history of Odd 
Fellowship in this state, and who was, without doubt, the oldest paper 
manufacturer in active business in this country. He began as a master 
paper maker in 1828 and had been in business in Brattleboro since 1847 — 
his period of business life in Brattleboro being longer than that of any 
man of his time with a single exception, that of Mr. Bethuel Ranger, who 
began in 1843. 

Mr. Vinton was born in South Reading, Massachusetts, now Wakefield, 
January 5, 1803. When two years old his parents moved to Shirley, 
where he lived till he was twenty years of age. His education was such 
as could be had in the common schools of that day, and one term in Groton 
Academy. He had also been employed in a cotton factory and paper mill 
up to this time, when he went to Framingham and gave two years to 



TIMOTHY VINTON 691 

perfecting his knowledge of paper making by hand. For several years 
he worked at his trade in Leominster. In November, 1828, he was 
married to Miss Caroline Woodcock, who bore him five children, three 
sons and two daughters, of whom only one survived the father, William 
H. Vinton, and it was in his home that the closing years of Mr. Vinton's 
life were spent, the death of his wife having taken place April 17, 1878. 

Soon after his marriage Mr. Vinton moved to Fitchburg, Massachusetts, 
and there was engaged in the manufacture of paper with the late Alvah 
Crocker, of wide repute in the trade, until 1843, when the mill was burned. 
In 1845 he moved to Pepperell, Massachusetts, where he was engaged in 
the same business for two years, when, in 1847, this mill was also burned. 
He then removed to Brattleboro and in company with his brother-in-law, 
Nathan Woodcock, became the owner of the paper mill in 1854, the firm 
being Woodcock & Vinton. In this business he continued until his death, 
maintaining a careful daily oversight of the main details, although the 
general management had been for some years in the hands of his son, 
William H. Vinton. 

He became an Odd Fellow in 1845, being initiated into Groton Lodge, 
Number 71, of Groton, Massachusetts. In this lodge he passed the chairs 
of secretary, vice grand and noble grand, and on his removal to Brattle- 
boro he withdrew therefrom to become a member of Wantastiquet Lodge, 
Number 5. He was elected a member of the latter lodge February 28, 
1848. The following June he was elected vice grand, and before the time 
ended (October 9), the noble grand having been absent three meetings, 
the lodge declared the chair vacant and elected Mr. Vinton to that office. 
In January, 1849, he was elected one of the trustees, which ofifice he held 
for many years. From that date until within two or three years of his 
death, he constantly held some position in this lodge, as inside guardian, 
warder, conductor, chaplain or secretary, always serving cheerfully and 
with ability in all positions he was called upon to fill. As recording secre- 
tary he served for twenty-five terms, and as permanent secretary nine 
terms. The office of chaplain he held nearly or quite twenty-five terms, 
or until about the year ISSS. He was also interested in other branches 
of the order. He was one of the charter members of Oasis Encampment, 
of which he was a past chief patriarch, and assisted in organizing, the 
grand encampment of Vermont, and for several years was its grand 
master. In 1870 he served as representative to the sovereign grand lodge. 

In the dark days of the order in this state, Mr. Vinton did much by his 
example and work to keep the order alive. In August, 1865, at the meet- 
ing of the grand lodge, there were only five lodges in the state, and only 
two of these were represented at this session, there being present seven 



692 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

brothers. The other three lodges, being discouraged, had voted to sur- 
render the charter of the grand lodge. Sevvall Morse, grand master, and 
Timothy Vinton, two of the seven, said there must be no "surrender," and 
became responsible for the assessment of the grand lodge, carried the 
day and saved the order in Vermont. 

As a citizen Mr. Vinton was a man of strong, determined convictions, 
of honest and sincere purposes and of unblemished repute in all relations 
of life. He seemed to have in him, in sympathy and interests, the fountain 
of perennial youth, and his gracious and kindly personality, in later years, 
was like a benediction to younger men as they met in business or in social 
relations. He was a man of the strictest temperance principles, and an 
earnest believer in and supporter of the Universalist faith. In middle life 
he took an active interest in public affairs, and was a member, with John 
W. Burnap, of the board of selectmen which laid out and built Elm Street 
and the first Elm Street bridge, opening direct communication between 
Elliot and Canal Streets. He was a lister for several years and served as 
justice of the peace for a term of years. 
Children : 

Sarah E., died April 7, 1876, aged forty-six. 

William H., married Emma Amelia Samuel, who died December 13, 
1888, aged forty-eight. Their son, William Bartlett Vinton, was born 
December 25, 1862. In 1883 he took a position in his father's paper 
mill. He married May 19, 1891, Lillie E., daughter of Samuel W. 
and Mary (Walker) Brown. He died September 30, 1918. Children : 
Beatrice E., graduated at Mt. Ida College, Newton, Massachusetts ; 
William Howard. 

William F. Richardson 

William F. Richardson was born in West Brattleboro in 1816, the eldest 
of ten children of Isaiah and Betsey (Stearns) Richardson, and lived on 
the home farm until April, 1841. He married April 20, 1840, Sophia R., 
daughter of John Plummer. He bought his grandmother's interest in the 
old Stewart farm, where he lived six years, then moved to West Brattle- 
boro, buying Edward Crosby's soap and candle business in Centerville ; 
three years later he again moved, to the farm on the hill above the Carroll 
place, which he afterwards exchanged for the fine farm in Guilford later 
owned by Charles E. Alexander. In 1859 he bought Simond's meat mar- 
ket in Blake Block, which he moved to Chapin's Block on the site of the 
Brooks House. This was destroyed by fire in 1869 and he then moved to 
the Leonard Block and finally bought Market Block. 

He died January 14, 1897. 



ISAAC N. THORN 693 

Children : 

Lucius H., born in 1845, following his father's business ; married March 
16, 1868, Mary A., daughter of William H. Esterbrook. His son, 
Charles W., married in November, 1897, Vinnie May, daughter of 
Lucien A. Elmer. Children : Howard, Marion. 

Lucy M., married O. O. Ware of Wilmington. Children : Ellen, mar- 
ried James S. Smith ; Katherine S., married Herbert Boyden Newton 
of Holyoke, Massachusetts. 

Cassius M. C, born in 1855 ; married September 11, 1883, Leonora, 
daughter of John Hunt. He died May 2, 1901. A daughter, Leonora. 

Fred A., with Lucius in business ; married January 31, 1878, Miss Helen 
J. Wilcutt. Children : Annie E., William H., Errol W. 

Edwin B., born January 31, 1860; married October 4, 1887, Miss Clara 
L. Pierce of Putney, who died in 1894. He died August 28, 1899. 

Charles J., John H., Fred J., Henry L, Oscar W., were other sons of 
Isaiah Richardson. In his young manhood Charles went to California, 
where he was a successful gold hunter ; later he and Fred J. made money in 
St. Louis, furnishing supplies to the government after the Civil War broke 
out. He was president of the board of directors of the Princeton Library. 
His wife, Victoria M. Richardson, died April 10, 1910, aged seventy-two. 
He died in Princeton, Illinois, January, 1913, aged eighty-seven, leaving 
two married daughters and one son. 

Isaac N. Thorn 

Isaac N. Thorn was born in Leyden, Massachusetts, March 1, 1823. 
His great-grandfather, Isaac Thorn, was English, and came to this coun- 
try during the old French and Indian War, settling in Westerly, Rhode 
Island. 

Henry, the father of Isaac Thorn, was a tanner and currier; he erected 
a large building for his business, and also ran a sawmill and gristmill. 
He got heavily in debt in the erection and alteration of his mills and was 
urged by his friends to go into bankruptcy and cancel his obligations ; he 
said no, he owed the money and would pay it if it took his lifetime. After 
many years of struggle, he, with the aid of his sons, had the satisfaction 
of paying every dollar he owed, principal and interest. He died March 
4, 1885, aged eighty-eight years seven months. 

I. N. Thorn had three or four years' experience as a clerk in country 
stores in Illinois, and in Colerain, Massachusetts, prior to the summer of 
1848, when he came to Brattleboro in the employment of Button & 
Clark. The firm kept a general assortment of goods, but made drugs 
and medicines a specialty. In this branch of the business Mr. Thorn 



G94: ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

became greatly interested and applied himself to becoming a thorough drug- 
gist. At the end of ten years' service he made a beginning for himself 
in the old Fisk Block, where by his skill and reliability as a druggist and 
by untiring industry he built up a large and profitable business. His trade 
during the war was very large. When George E. Greene returned from 
the army he became a partner in the firm of I. N. Thorn & Company, in 
Crosby Block, and continued the business there until Mr. Greene's retire- 
ment in 1878, when Mr. Thorn took his son, Edwin C, into partnership. 
The firm of I. N. Thorn & Son did an extensive business until the fall of 
1884, when, on account of Mr. Thorn's failing health, the business was 
sold out to C. M. Colburn & Company. 

On account of his retiring disposition he perhaps did not pass for all 
that he was intellectually worth except with those who knew him well. 
His natural abilities were of an excellent order, and he improved his mind 
by extensive reading of newspapers, magazines and books, especially 
biography and history. The number of books which he read during the 
long years of his illness was very large. His interest in public men and 
in the political affairs of the country was intense and was maintained 
until near his death. At the presidential election in 1884 he was carried 
to the polls to vote for Mr. Blaine, for whom he had a warm personal 
admiration. 

He had a strong will, won success by his almost resistless energy, was 
impatient of opposition, but was withal a kind-hearted, honest man. His 
first wife was a daughter of Cyrus C. Miner of Leyden, Angeline Miner, 
who died March 27, 1856, aged twenty-four. 

Mr. Thorn married, second, October 25, 1858, Miss Elizabeth A. Jack- 
son of Newfane. He died January 12, 189-4. 
Children: 

Isaac B., formerly a druggist here; at one time assistant apothecary on 
the United States war steamer Franklin. He married June 3, 1878, 
Emma G., daughter of Edwin F. Brooks. 
Henry C, of Flint, Michigan. 
Edwin C, married Miss Carrie Horton. Children: 

Dr. Edwin C, born December 29, 1875 ; graduated Brattleboro High 
School, 1893, Baltimore Medical College, 1897; married Miss 
Luanna Franklin. Children: Holton, Elizabeth, Edwin, Franklin, 
Florence, Walter. 
Florence, married Doctor A. Louis Pettee. A son, Thornton. 
Doctor Frank A., born July 30, 1860 ; a graduate of a medical college 
in Chicago, practiced in Seattle; married Miss Elinor Ingersoll, a 
graduate of Oberlin; he died November 26, 1904. 



BARNA A. CLARK 695 

Barna A. Clark 

Barna A. Clark was born in Westminster West June 28, 1835. He was 
one of the five children of Mark Clark, a farmer and an active man of 
his day. The ancestry of the family dates back to the Pilgrim Fathers of 
Plymouth in the person of Thomas Clark, the reputed mate of the May- 
flower, who lived to be the patriarch of the Plymouth colony, dying at 
the age of almost one hundred years. Barnabas Clark, who founded the 
Westminster branch of the family, was the fourth in descent from 
Thomas Clark and B. A. Clark was the fourth in descent from him. Mark 
Clark died when his children were young, and soon afterwards the mother 
bought the house in Westminster West, now well known as The Parsonage, 
which was her home until her removal to Brattleboro twelve or fifteen 
years later. 

When a lad of fifteen B. A. Clark came to Brattleboro to enter the drug 
and hardware store of Williston & Tyler in the Williston stone building. 
He remained with this firm as a faithful clerk for twelve years, leaving 
that position in 1863 to engage in the drug business with Henry C. Wil- 
lard, later of Greenfield, Massachusetts, under the firm name of Clark & 
Willard. The firm was first in the Blake building, where the Vermont 
National Bank now stands, and for the last two years in the store now 
occupied by the Brooks House Pharmacy. The partnership was discon- 
tinued after eleven years, Mr. Clark buying the hardware and drug 
business of Joseph Clark. Mr. Clark sold out the drug department and 
devoted his whole time to the hardware business, then located on the 
present site of W. J. Pentland's store. This business was moved to 
the Tyler building near the bridge when that structure was completed, 
and Mr. Clark moved from there to Crosby Block, where he continued in 
business until April, 1893, when he sold to Mellen & Proctor. Mr. Clark 
had an interest in lumbering operations, and bought the Luther Adams 
farm in Halifax. He was thirty years in trade in this town. 

Mr. Clark married November 17, 1859, Helen C. Bullock, daughter of 
the late William Bullock of Brattleboro. She was born March 8, 1836, 
and died December 3, 1899. 

Mr. Clark was chosen at different times to the offices of selectman, 
bailiff, town grand juror and overseer of the poor. He joined the Centre 
Congregational Church in May, 1854, and was one of its regular attend- 
ants and supporters. He was made deacon of the church January 1, 
1882, and held that honorable office at his death. He had also served as 
trustee of the Centre Congregational Society. 

He died September 30, 1895. 
Children : 

William Bullock Clark. (See p. 976.) 



696 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Edward Crosby 

Edward Crosby was born in West Brattleboro August 2, 1815, in the 
house the first at the right as one leaves the village and climbs the hill 
by the old Marlboro South Road. His family, of English origin, came 
here from Cape Cod. His father, Godfrey Crosby, was a school-teacher 
in the early part of the nineteenth century, but after marrying Sylvia 
Cune he went into trade in Dummerston, assisted by Deacon John Hol- 
brook, his former employer, who held him in high esteem. The venture 
was unsuccessful and he went from there to West Brattleboro. 

He had three children : Fanny C, married September 16, 1839, William 
Gaines, who died December 30, 1859, aged forty-six; Enos and Edward. 
He moved to Marlboro when Edward, the youngest, was only two years 
old, and died suddenly of heart disease October 18, 1817, at the age of 
thirty-three. 

The mother was left wholly without means, but her indomitable energy 
and determination asserted themselves and she made a stout and winning 
fight to keep her family together and bring her children up to useful and 
honorable lives. She had $50 a year for keeping the tollhouse on the old 
Bennington turnpike road, the gate of which was at the junction of the 
county road at the foot of the hill this side of Marlboro village on what is 
now known as the old stage or "South" road. Straw braiding for the 
ample-sized hats worn by the women of that time was then the leading 
rural industry, and to this work the fingers of the children were put as 
soon as they were grown big enough. There was little time for play, 
and Mr. Crosby was fond of telling, in his later years, how many 
long yards of straw he had braided in his childhood. As he grew into his 
teens he worked out for various farmers, staying at home in the winters 
to help his mother and get such schooling as he might. At seventeen he 
came to Brattleboro as errand boy in the old Chase tavern. Afterwards 
he was promoted to be clerk and office assistant. 

In the meantime the John Strong farm on the top of the hill above the 
tollhouse had been bought, and at nineteen Edward returned home and 
took charge of it, his brother Enos not wishing to remain there. At 
twenty-two, September 25, 1839, he married Lucia, a daughter of Oshea 
Smith, but she lived only a year after her marriage and died July 29, 1840. 
In 1843 Mr. Crosby married Betsey Jones, daughter of Deacon Laban 
Jones of Dover, who died November 23, 1890. In January, 1847, he sold 
the Marlboro farm and moved down to the Benson Jones farm, now the 
Akley farm, in West Brattleboro. Before leaving Marlboro the two elder 
children were born, Fanny B. (Mrs. Rice) and Edward C. In this connec- 



EDWARD CROSBY 697 

tion it is interesting to note that the house in which they lived on the hill 
farm was afterwards taken down and moved to West Brattleboro, where it 
was for a time Melrose Academy, standing on the main street of the village. 
The active young farmer began at once to improve his land. He started 
the culture of peaches, which has ever since been continued by the farmers 
of that vicinity, and by various means brought his farm to a high state 
of productiveness. 

In the meantime his brother-in-law, William Gaines, had bought the 
mill at Centerville, and in 1850 Mr. Crosby entered into partnership with 
him in this business. A set of flouring machinery was put in, and here 
the young man of thirty-five began in a very small way the business which 
finally developed into the success of his life. While still keeping his farm 
he acted as the buyer and general business manager of the mill. It was 
then that he began to go "west" to buy wheat, that term meaning 
Albany and Troy, New York. Soon his trips extended to Rochester and 
the Genesee Valley and then to Buffalo, the journeys being made by the 
Erie Canal packet boats. Some of his early shipments of wheat were by 
rail to Greenfield and thence by teams to Brattleboro, and most of his own 
business travel in those times in all this section was by horse. The wheat 
was transported and delivered in bags. Elevators were unknown and the 
bags were carried to the top of the mill on men's backs, Mr. Crosby doing 
his own share of this laborious work. About 185-i he sold his farm and 
moved to Centerville, establishing besides his mill business a retail flour, 
grain and provision business in this village in the store afterwards occu- 
pied by Mr. Geddis. After two or three years he bought the Haven place 
in West Brattleboro, and moved there, still continuing his business at this 
village and Centerville. In 1856 he sold his mill interest to Mr. Gaines, 
bought what is now the old tannery property, and began the manufacture 
of shooks. A freshet washed out the dam, and the result of it was that 
he sold out to Boston parties who put in a tannery, and after he had paid 
all his debts he had just $1000 left to show for his thirty-five or forty 
years of work. 

In 1857 he reentered the flour and grain business with Mr. Gaines, act- 
ing as the buying and selling partner. In the latter part of that year he 
sold his West Brattleboro house and became for the first time a resident 
of the East Village, moving into the house later owned and occupied by B. 
Ranger. About the same time a partnership was formed for more exten- 
sive operations in his chosen line of business, the style being E. Crosby & 
Company, with Mr. Gaines, Nathaniel Sampson and I. G. Chandler as 
the partners. The firm bought the building on Whetstone Brook then 
used as a planing mill. This building was afterwards burned. A first- 



698 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

class flouring mill was put in and the firm ran it for two years when, Mr. 
Gaines's health having failed, it was sold to S. M. Waite, Jarvis Burrows 
and W. E. Eason. In 1859 Mr. Crosby and I. G. Chandler established a 
business in flour, grain, potatoes and groceries in the old Blake building. 
In 1860 Mr. Crosby sold out to take the agency for the Chamberlain 
flouring mills of Akron, Ohio, situated in what was then the center of 
the flouring district of the country. In this move Mr. Crosby's remark- 
able sagacity as a business man was illustrated. He saw the drift of the 
times ; saw that the East could no longer compete with the West in the 
milling business and that the thing to be done was to adapt himself to 
the changed condition of things. His office was in the northwest corner 
of the old Revere House. 

In 1861 Charles B. Rice, son of J. B. Rice, came to him from Charle- 
mont, Massachusetts, as a clerk, and married his daughter, Fanny B., 
April 12, 1866. The wai; broke out, he enlisted, went to the front, was 
wounded at Bull Run, came home, and soon after was admitted as a part- 
ner with Mr. Crosby. When Herrick and Wyman erected their Main 
Street building, Crosby & Company had an office there. Their business 
increased, the agency of new mills was added, and all the time the center 
of the flouring industry moved west until it reached Minneapolis. In 
1864 E. C. Crosby, then a boy of eighteen, came in as a clerk, and the 
next year was admitted as a partner. Still the business grew, and long 
before November, 1869, when the great fire swept away the entire west 
side of Main Street, the firm was known as one of the leading flour com- 
mission houses of New England. 

The smoking ruins and the big gap in the midst of what had been the 
center of the town's business activity made a hard fact to face. In July, 
1870, Mr. Crosby made an offer for the site now occupied by Crosby 
Block ; it was accepted, he secured the necessary financial backing, began 
the erection of the building and pushed the work with such vigor that the 
commodious structure was under rental by the next April, 1871. The 
financial burden involved was such as few men of Mr. Crosby's then 
limited means would have cared to assume. In 1873 Market Block was 
built, and this was followed in 1874 by the erection of Harmony building. 

In 1871 L. F. Adams came as a clerk, and in 1876 he was admitted to 
partnership, Mr. Rice leaving at that time to establish a business in the 
same line in Worcester with A. M. Thompson. About this time the now 
famous Minneapolis flour, made under the new roller process, began 
to come into the market. The business of the concern steadily grew and 
required an additional number of travelers — one with headquarters at 
Schenectady and one at Springfield — to take charge of it. In 1878, Mr. 



EDWARD CROSBY 699 

Rice's health failing, his Worcester business was brought back into the 
concern and in 1880, his health being still further impaired, Mr. Crosby 
bought Mr. Rice's interest in the three buildings — Crosby, Market and 
Harmony Blocks — which he had held up to that time, having been asso- 
ciated with Mr. Crosby in 1870 and thereafter in his real estate transac- 
tions. In jNIay, 1888, Charles R. Crosby, Mr. Crosby's youngest son and 
child, was admitted to the firm, having then recently reached his majority. 
The business under his management has kept pace with the development 
of the town and the times. 

In 1887 Mr. Crosby bought the old foundry building on the bank of the 
river and built in its place the large and substantial storehouse, in a por- 
tion of which E. Crosby & Company have done a successful wholesale 
and retail business in grain, meal and feed, handling these goods from all 
points in the West. The total amount of the firm's business for years 
approached or equaled $1,000,000 annually, a volume reached by few 
concerns in the same line of trade in New England. 

In 1860 Mr. Crosby bought what was then the Seymour place on 
Western Avenue, enlarged and repaired the building, and moved there, 
occupying it until in the summer of 1886 he removed to the Kellogg place 
on High Street, which he had bought and remodeled. 

All his life he was distinctly a builder. Besides the new buildings 
erected by him already mentioned, he built in 1869 for his son, E. C. 
Crosby, the house afterwards occupied by Judge Hoyt H. Wheeler, and in 
1889 the cottage in the rear of his own residence for the occupation of 
his son Charles. During the time he was engaged in the shook business 
at Centerville he built the present schoolhouse in that district. 

Though always actively interested in public affairs and in the discus- 
sion of questions of general interest, he had no disturbing ambition for 
public ofifice, and his only noteworthy service in this direction was when, in 
1871, he was elected a member of the Legislature. He was an early and 
constant friend of the Brattleboro & Whitehall road and took an active 
part in the discussion and agitation which attended the inception of that 
enterprise. His determined eiTorts in behalf of the Wilmington railroad 
project did credit to his large public spirit. 

In his early religious faith Mr. Crosby was a Congregationalist, and 
united with that church while living in Marlboro; later, however, he 
found himself at variance with the creed of the church and as a result 
he was finally dropped from the roll of membership while living in West 
Brattleboro. He used to relate, with quiet satisfaction, that when the 
little tempest attending this event had subsided he said to Parson Joseph 
Chandler, "You have had a good deal of trouble on my account ; come 
down and I will give you the best barrel of flour I have got." 



700 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

In politics Mr. Crosby was thoroughly and genuinely a Republican. 
No man in Brattleboro, or in Vermont, was more enthusiastically, actively 
and helpfully interested in the Harrison campaign, and it was to him a 
source of the greatest pride and satisfaction that his vote, which helped 
to elect the grandson in 1888, had also helped to elect the grandfather in 
1840. 

While Mr. Crosby's domestic life was of the happiest character his 
sorrows were many. Of eleven children born to him only four survived : 
Mrs. Charles B. Rice, Edward C, Mrs. L. F. Adams and Charles R. 

Charles B. Rice accepted the position of treasurer of Talladega College, 
Alabama, in the hope that the climate of Alabama would prove beneficial. 
He died November 2, 1885, aged forty-seven. Mrs. Rice, born June 25, 
1844, died March 16, 1907, after a life of human helpfulness, faithfully 
and trustfully lived. Children: Howard C, born September 16, 1878, 
editor of The Brattleboro Reformer, and Marion M. Howard married 
May 21, 1902, Amy, daughter of Wells P. and Marion Stetson Jones. Chil- 
dren : Howard, Eleanor F., Marion S. 

Three adopted children of j\Ir. Crosby died. While enduring all these 
afiflictions with unusual patience and fortitude, a crushing blow came to 
him in the death of his daughter, Ella H., who was born July 6, 1853, 
married in October, 1872, Leroy F. Adams and died January 27, 1890. 

Mr. Crosby had a peculiarly nervous and sometimes excitable tempera- 
ment inseparable from a man of his ceaseless activity, and that his views 
were sometimes radically different from those of his fellows was, there- 
fore, inevitable ; but however sharp the temporary disagreement, to what- 
ever length his impetuous zeal carried him, when the event was over there 
was never a trace of bitterness or estrangement, or even of disagreement 
left. The man's independence, sincerity and large-heartedness had wiped 
that all out. On his integrity and uprightness there was never a blemish 
or stain. He died April 2, 1890, aged seventy-four. 

Edward C. Crosby was born on the seventh of July, 1846, in Marlboro, 
Vermont, attended the public schools of West Brattleboro, subsequently 
entering the High School at Brattleboro. In 1863 he graduated from 
the Seminary at Springfield, Vermont, became a clerk in the general 
store of Cyrus W. Wyman, and later for two years assisted his father 
in the grain business. When Mr. Rice sold his interest in the business 
to Edward Crosby, and a few years later Leroy F. Adams became con- 
nected with the firm, among the investments of Messrs. Edward C. 
Crosby and Leroy F. Adams was the purchase in 1888 of the Brooks 
House property. In 1896 Mr. Crosby disposed of the grain business to 
Messrs. Leroy F. Adams and his brother, Charles R. Crosby, having 



EDWARD C. CROSBY 701 

become active with M. A. Coolidge of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, in the 
construction of street raihvays. In 1894 Messrs. Crosby and Coolidge 
built the Brattleboro street railway. 

In 1890 at the earnest solicitation of his party, Mr. Crosby consented 
to enter the lists as a candidate for the State Legislature, but withdrew 
when three contestants appeared in the field. ■ He is a member of the Con- 
gregational Church, and was for twelve years vice-president of the Young 
Men's Christian Association at Brattleboro. 

Mr. Crosby married August 25, 1868, Emma F. Wyman, daughter of 
Cyrus W. Wyman," born January 1, 1849; she graduated from the High 
School in 1866; died March 28, 1912. He married, second, Mrs. Julia L. 
Parker. 

Children of Edward C. Crosby: 

Henry H., who married October 18, 1894, Miss Bessie Couch Van 

Doom ; engaged in the flour business. A daughter, Betsey. 
Francis W., an architect, married September 14, 1892, Jennie E., daugh ■ 

ter of Warren Doolittle; married, second, October 18, 1902, Miss 

Nellie Teake of Dallas, Texas. Children : Dorothy, Francis, Edward. 
Frederic C, a physician, married December 2, 1899, Miss Agnes C. 

Cosgrove; died April 27, 1900. 
Allyn J., married Maud Coudry and has a daughter, Alene Maude. 
Thomas Warren, graduate of Norwich University, now manager of the 

Mohawk garage. North Adams, Massachusetts; married, 1909, Miss 

Anna J\I. Landry of Winnipeg. 
Edward, Junior, died November 6, 1883, at the age of three years. 
Helen F., a graduate of the New England Conservatory of Music, 

Boston, married John F. Brasor. A son, Winston C. 
Edna S., born October 19, 1884 ; married Harry A. Bingham ; died April 

7, 1916. Children : Mary C, Allen Irwin. 

Charles R., married September 6, 1888, Miss Mattie A. Bemis. Chil- 
dren: Marjorie, married Lyman E. Smith; Edward, born December 22, 
1891, died October 1, 1908; Godfrey, married Miss Marion Clemens; 
Sylvia; Richard; Charles. 

Cyrus W. Wyman was born in Rockingham, December 18, 1823, came 
to Brattleboro in 1856, had a grocery store and was in the grain business 
later with James F. Estey. He was treasurer of the Brattleboro Savings 
Bank from January 16, 1879, to January 20, 1887. 

He was a man of strong convictions and active in unpopular movements. 
He was treasurer of the Woman's Suffrage Association of Vermont, 



708 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

president of the National Law and Order League, and prohibition nominee 
for governor with S. N. Herrick. He built Union Block. 

He married January. 1, 1848, Charlotte M. Bruce, daughter of Pre- 
served and Eleanor Bruce of Marlboro; she died January 3, 1895 ; he died 
February 23, 1904. Children : Emma F. ; Helen W., married December 
31, 1874, Nathan D. Allen, warden of the House of Correction, Franklin 
County, Massachusetts ; of the State Prison at Concord, New Hampshire, 
and afterwards (1914) of the Massachusetts State Prison in Charlestown, 
where he made many original and humane reforms ; Annie L., married 
Fred J. Coudrey of Wethersfield, Connecticut. 

Leroy F. Adams was born in Marlboro, Vermont, April 23, 1846, and 
was educated in the district schools of that community and of Wil- 
mington. At his majority he entered the employ of C. H. Smith at 
Smiths Ferry, Massachusetts, with whom he was associated for three 
years. In 1870 he located at Brattleboro, where he became associated with 
the clerical force of Mr. Edward Crosby. 

The early life of Mr. Adams was filled with many vicissitudes and 
struggles, but he fought his way to a competence with the Crosby firm, 
performing the manual labor about the house for a period, then receiving 
promotion to the position of bookkeeper. His intimate knowledge of the 
methods used by the firm, coupled with an aptitude which developed in the 
salesroom, led to his being given an interest in the firm and his subsequent 
selection as its traveling representative, and in this latter position he 
operated with great success for a number of years. 

In October, 1872, he married Ella H., daughter of Edward Crosby. 

In the year 18S4 a company was formed by business men of Brattle- 
boro, of which Mr. Edward Crosby was president and the leading spirit, 
to carry on a cattle business in Dakota, and !Mr. Adams acted in the 
capacity of general manager of this company for three years, with head- 
quarters at Sturgis, South Dakota. In 1887 Mr. Adams resigned his posi- 
tion and returned to his native state, where he resumed his active connec- 
tion with the firm of E. Crosby & Company. The hotel venture was 
undertaken, under the firm name of Crosby & Adams. During his part- 
ner's absence from Brattleboro in connection with railroad interests, Mr. 
Adams had general rpanagement of the hotel interests. 

Mr. Adams served three years as chairman of the board of education. 
In political affiliation he acted with the Republican party, and on the all- 
absorbing topic of the liquor question was, with his partner, fearless in 
opposition to high license, a significant proof of which was the firm's 
refusal to take out license for the hotel under the new law. Mr. Adams 
was a valued member of the Congregational Church of Brattleboro, and 
one of the society's board of trustees. 




FROM PROSPECT STREET 




FROM CEMETARY 




VILLAGE FROM THE ISLAND 




■THE PATCH" IRISH SETTLEMENT 



JOHN J. J. RETTING 70:3 

Mr. Adams removed to Springfield in 1907, engaging there in the flour 
and grain business with his son George, under the name of Springfield 
Flour & Grain Company, and there he died February 4, 1910. Mr. Adams 
married for his second wife, in 1899, Helen i\I., daughter of S. B. Emer- 
son of Brattleboro. A daughter, Edith. 
Children : 

Fred C, born January 31, 1879 ; married Ruth, daughter of Frank L. 
Hunt of Brattleboro; teller of the Peoples National Bank.^ Children : 
Lyman, Eleanor. 

George E., married Margaret, daughter of George C. Averill. Children: 
Marion, Rosamond, Averill. 

Ruth L., married Guy W. Downer. 

Crosby, a graduate of Norwich University, married Miss Ruth Fox. 

Ella C, married Doctor George L. Schadt. 

For others of the Crosby family living in Brattleboro, see Appendix. 

John Johann Jacob Retting 
■ John Johann Jacob Retting was born in Kliitz, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, 
Germany, February 6, 182-4, the son of Frederick Retting. It was the plan 
of his parents to have him enter the ministry, but he had learned the 
trade of journeyman furniture maker before preparing for college, and 
after teaching school several years, he spent seven years working at his 
trade in the cities of his native land. 

In order to avoid being drafted into the revolution of 1848, he and his 
young wife set out for America in a sailing vessel which was thirteen 
weeks crossing the Atlantic owing to the condition of the captain, who was 
under the influence of liquor a considerable portion of the voyage. They 
finally arrived in New York January 29, 1849, and on October 2, 1850, 
came to Brattleboro. Here for seven years he followed his trade. He 
was employed by Van Doom & Sons. 

When the new state house was built at Montpelier in 1857, he worked 
on Larkin G. Mead's statue of Ethan Allen there, and fashioned from 
wood the Goddess of Liberty which surmounts the state capitol. 

In 1858 he entered business with C. L. Brown, under the firm name Ret- 
ting & Brown. In 1861 Mr. Retting began business for himself in a 
building at the corner of Main and High Streets. He continued there 
until the fire of October 30, 1869, when he took a store in the old Masonic 
building on High Street and remained there until February 28, 1878, 
when he sold the store to his sons, John and Leopold J., and a store in 
Bellows Falls to his son Charles. Mr. Retting began the making of furni- 
ture on Flat Street in the seventies. 

^ Now Treasurer Vermont Savings Bank. 



704 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

He was a prominent member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
and was the oldest past grand patriarch in the grand lodge in Vermont. 

He married in 1848 Miss Marie Klein of Meriden-on-the-Elbe, and he 
attributed all his success in life to her. She died April 12, 1900, aged 
seventy-eight. He died December 7, 1912, aged eighty-eight. 
Children : 

Leopold ]., born in New York, December 17, 1849, after leaving school, 
began work in his father's store and at twenty-one became a partner ; 
married January 23, 1879, Elizabeth L., daughter of Henry O. Leon- 
ard of Brattleboro, who died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, October 
1, 1915, aged seventy-six. He took an active interest in the Brattle- 
boro Young Men's Christian Association and was leader of the men's 
class in the Baptist Bible School. He moved to Mt. Clemens, Michi- 
gan, and died there in December, 1919. A daughter, Florence Leonard. 

Emma. 

Charles, of Pasadena, California. 

Mary. 

John H., of Grand Rapids, Michigan, married January 5, 1881, Miss 
Hattie L. Rice. 

Minna, who married Walter S. Bishop of New Haven, Connecticut. 

Fred, of Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Matilda, married Fred Veet of Springfield, Massachusetts. 

William Alonzo Hopkins 

William Alonzo Hopkins, son of Weston and Laura Butterfield Hop- 
kins of Chesterfield, was born in Brattleboro. At the age of thirteen, in 
1854, he entered Joseph Clark's drug store where he remained as clerk 
until he was twenty-four. He went to New York in 1865. In 1867 he 
established the Bronze Hardware Works, Hopkins, Dickinson & Company, 
with factories in New Jersey. In 1876 he went to Europe on account of 
ill health, traveled extensively, and lived in Paris, spending his summers 
in Dinard, where he founded the Dinard Hospital, for which he was made 
Knight of the Legion of Honor, and also started the Dinard New Club; 
in Paris he founded the American Relief Society, and also Le Matin, 
which journal was under his control many years. 

He married a daughter of Doctor Janes of Philadelphia, who brought 
him a large fortune. He died at Dinard, France. 
Children: 

Weston. 

Henry, one of the first to enlist, died in 1864 from a wound received 
in the Civil War. 

Laura Butterfield. 



ALONZO C. DAVENPORT 705 

Mary C, who married Stewart. Their son, Alonzo Hopkins 

Stewart, was deputy sergeant-at-arms of the Senate in Washington. 

Alonzo C. Davenport 
(Davenport & Mansur) 

Alonzo C. Davenport was born at Sunderland, Vermont, November 17, 
1836, the son of Pardon and Jerusha (Flint) Davenport; he was a direct 
descendant of Charles Davenport of Dummerston, one of the pluckiest of 
the Americans at the Westminster massacre. 

Mr. Davenport came to Brattleboro in the early fifties, and was for 
above a quarter of a century in the grocery trade in partnership with I. G. 
Chandler, afterwards with C. H. Mansur, and for a dozen years alone 
until he sold out to Simonds & Pullen. After leaving the grocery business 
he was connected with W. R. Geddis in the book and stationery trade. He 
was treasurer of the Free Library from its organization, and devoted 
much of his energy, during the last fifteen years of his life, to its upbuild- 
ing, cataloguing being his special work. In the old lecture days he was 
prominently identified with the local management and some seasons car- 
ried the burden alone. He was always active and prominent in the Metho- 
dist Church, where he did his full duty, as was his wont everywhere in 
life, with a kindness of heart and manner that endeared him to his fellow 
citizens. He married May 25, 1862, Miss Elizabeth B. Simpson of Phila- 
delphia. He died April 18, 1899. 

Charles H. Mansur was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1835. He 
became, when a youth, a clerk in his father's hardware store, was a 
favorite among his fellows and for a time an officer in the Watson Light 
Guard of the Massachusetts militia. In 1857 he went west as clerk on a 
Mississippi River steamer plying between New Orleans and upper points 
on the river. In 1859 he went back to Lowell and into partnership with 
his father, remaining there until 1863, when he came to Brattleboro and 
entered the grocery trade with A. C. Davenport, having bought the interest 
of Mr. Chandler in the firm of Chandler & Davenport, the style of the 
firm changing to Davenport & Mansur. He remained in the store five 
years, selling out at the end of that time because of the development of 
the nervous trouble, seriously impairing his general health, from which 
he was never afterwards entirely free. At the end of about two years 
his health was so far restored that he entered the post office as assistant 
postmaster under Captain Ranslure W. Clarke, holding the place during 
Postmaster Clarke's incumbency of eight years. At the end of that time 
he received the appointment as postmaster, which office he held for two 
terms, making sixteen years of continuous service. His record during the 
time was marked by thorough efficiency. 



706 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

He was married in 1862 to Elizabeth, daughter of John Tripp of 
Lowell.^ He died August 15, 188G, aged fifty. 

Charles A. Tripp, a brother of Mrs. Mansur, who married September 
9, 1858, Mary E. Bugbee, daughter of George Bugbee, came to Brattleboro 
in 1856 and was a jeweler here for forty-six years. He died in 1903. 

Philip Wells 

Philip Wells was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, December 20, 1823 ; 
his early days were spent in that town and he was a merchant there. 

In 1850 he came to Brattleboro and was for seventeen years cashier of 
the Vermont National Bank. During the difficult times of the panic in 
1857 and the general financial unrest which prevailed through the Civil 
War, the Vermont National was fortunate in having at the helm a man 
of unusual banking ability, who kept it strong and enabled it to render 
great service to the country when other banks went to the wall. 

He built a house which stood north of the present High School prop- 
erty, with many locust trees in front, and with an "S" curved walk from 
the house to the gateway in a rustic fence (built by Sewall Morse in the 
sixties). This house, afterwards owned by General Phelps, was removed 
to the south side of Grove Street in 1882-1884 in order to enlarge the High 
School property. 

He married October 28, 1858, Elizabeth E., daughter of Jared E. Harri- 
son of Salisbury, Connecticut. She died February 8, 1860, aged twenty- 
nine. He was a typical gentleman of the old school, and a faithful com- 
municant of St. Michael's Episcopal Church. 
Children : 

Philip, born September 18, 1859; editor of a newspaper (Connecticut). 

Harriet Electa, born November 14, 1857 ; married Judge Tinknor 
Warner of Connecticut. 

Captain Frank Wells, a brother of Philip Wells, was teller of the Ver- 
mont National Bank. 

Judge William S. Newton 
William S. Newton, born in Marlboro, Vermont, June 26, 1822, was the 
second of three sons of Captain William and Betsey (Harris) Newton. 
The eldest son was Roswell H. Newton, who was born in West Brattle- 
boro September 13, 1819, married December 18, 1843, Miss Eleanor H. 
Samson, and died September 8, 1897; he had two sons: William D. and 
Roswell Hill. The youngest son of Captain Newton was Levi Newton of 
North Dana, Massachusetts. 

1 Their daughter, Grace Mansur Bell, who was born December 30, 1873, died 
February 4, 1895, leaving a daughter, Eleanor, born May 2, 1891. 



WILLIAM S. NEWTON 707 

Mr. Newton was of the seventh generation in descent from Richard 
Newton who came from England and settled in Southboro, Massachusetts. 
Cotton Newton, of the fifth generation, grandfather of WiUiam S. New- 
ton and a soldier in the Revokitionary War, was one of the early settlers 
in Marlboro, going to that town from Berlin, Massachusetts, in the fall 
of 1798. His son. Captain William, who died of paralysis September 27, 
1878, at the age of a little more than ninety years, succeeded to the owner- 
ship of the home farm. Captain William Newton was captain of a mili- 
tary company in Marlboro. His wife, who was Betsey Harris of West 
Brattleboro, lived in Marlboro after her husband's death, but went to New 
Salem, Massachusetts, to visit shortly before her death and died there 
December 2, 1882, at the age of eighty-two. She ^yas a sister of Roswell 
Harris, principal of the Brattleborough Academy. 

After attending the district school in i\Iarlboro and Brattleborough 
Academy, William Sawyer Newton became a clerk in Jesse Cone's coun- 
try store in Alarlboro. He was then seventeen years old. A few years 
later he was clerk in Gardner C. Hall's general store in Brattleboro, 
which stood about where the town building stands. After two years 
he went back to Marlboro on account of illness, but returned to Brat- 
tleboro in 1852 to take a position as clerk in the Vermont & Massa- 
chusetts Railroad ticket office with Nathaniel Guptil, who was one of the 
first local station agents. In a short time he became under Postmaster 
Samuel Button the only clerk in the post office, and remained there five 
years. About 1859 he and Nathaniel Cheney engaged in the grocery busi- 
ness. After a few months Mr. Newton bought Mr. Cheney's interest and 
conducted the store until 1887. The store stood on the west side of Main 
Street, near Whetstone bridge. 

At this time Mr. Newton retired from business to devote himself to 
official duties. He was elected town clerk March 3, 1863, and at the free- 
men's meeting in September of the same year he was elected a justice of 
the peace. Gradually he came to be considered the trial justice of the 
town, and hearings before him took up a good portion of his time. He 
tried hundreds of cases, some of them of great importance, up to a short 
time before' the municipal court was established, and he came to be called 
"Judge." 

There has been a wide range of work for town clerks in Vermont, 
from making holes with a punch in the ears or skins of animals in order 
that the man who killed the animal may receive the bounty, up to seeing 
that the right phraseology is used when the town is authorizing a loan, 
and diverging within these limits to many issues. 

One of the cases in which Mr. Newton presided was that of Rudyard 
Kipling against his brother-in-law, Beatty S. Balestier. There was much 



708 ANXALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

wit as well as interest in the case, and Mr. Newton secured his share of it 
while carrying the responsibility of arriving at the right judicial decision. 

In January, 1882, Mr. Xewton was elected a trustee of the Vermont 
Savings Bank and in January, 1891, he was elected vice-president of the 
institution. In politics he was at first a Whig. He voted for Abraham 
Lincoln for president, and after that he acted with the Republican party. 
He was a member of Columbian Lodge of Masons and of the Centre 
Congregational Church. He was a constant attendant at church from 
boyhood, and he could remember when his father's family walked from 
their farm in Marlboro to church in the village two miles west, carrying 
luncheon and listening to two sermons every Sunday, each an hour or 
more in length, one in the forenoon and one in the afternoon. 

March 30, 1858, Mr. Newton married Lucinda Wells Harris of Brattle- 
boro, widow of Noyes Harris and daughter of David and Salome 
(Wheeler) Goodrich of Chesterfield, New Hampshire (a brother was 
George W. Goodrich). They had no children. Mrs. Newton died Janu- 
ary 29, 1903, at the age of eighty-four years, after having been an invalid 
forty-seven years. 

Mr. Newton died January 14, 1914. 

He left a stepdaughter, Anna L., widow of Charles D. Brooks, who 
lived with him. 

The death of Judge Ne\%-ton marked the passing of a man whose rugged 
characteristics and record will forever remain a part of the history of the 
town. With possibly one or two exceptions he held the office of town 
clerk longer than any other person in New England, having given to it 
fifty-one years of service. 

In his term as town clerk Mr. Newton had been present to read the call 
and report the proceedings in all but two meetings. In both instances he 
was kept at home by illness, but on the last occasion he appeared on the 
scene before the meeting was through and exercised the right of franchise. 

Before the establishment of the system of municipal courts and in the 
days of the old prohibitor}' law, Judge Newton was prominently before 
the public. 

Honorable George Howe 

Honorable George Howe, eldest son of Honorable Ebenezer Howe, 
Junior; great-grandson of Captain Moses Howe, who was taken by the 
Indians when a lad ; great -great-grandson of Caleb Howe, killed by In- 
dians July 27, 1755, and the husband of the "fair captive"; great-great- 
great-grandson of Josiah Sartwell (the builder of Sartwell's Fort, 1737), 
was born in Vernon July -4, 1824. 

He studied law in Brattleboro with Honorable Asa Keyes. In 1845 he 



JUDGE DANIEL KELLOGG 709 

entered the law department of Harvard University and graduated in 1847 
with the degree of Bachelor of Laws, closed his preparatory studies as a 
law student in the office of Honorable W. C. Bradley at Westminster and 
was admitted to the bar of Windham County in 1847. He spent several 
years in California and on his return located at Brattleboro and com- 
menced the practice of law in 1853, in partnership with Judge Keyes. He 
was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of the United States in 
185G; was state's attorney, 1858-1859; was appointed United "States attor- 
ney for the district of Vermont by President Lincoln in 1861. He repre- 
sented Windham County in the State Senate, 1874-1875, and held many 
other offices and positions of trust; was a delegate to the Republican 
National Convention of 1876. Obtaining an appointment in the Pension 
Department of the government, he removed from Brattleboro about 1880. 
He died February 21, 1888. 

His wife, Alary Ann Willard, born December 16, 182.3, died March 24, 
1905. She was a daughter of Joseph Willard and Susan Dorr Clapp of 
Westminster and they were married June 13, 1850. 
An only child : 

George E., born February 5, 1862, graduated at Harvard College Sep- 
tember, 18S3 ; Harvard Law School, 1885 ; practiced law in Boston 
in partnership with F. W. Kittredge and Nathan Matthews, Junior; 
married June 23, 1891, Nelly, daughter of Alfred H. Wright. He 
died December, 1920. Children: 
Frank S., born in Natick July 10, 1892. 

Calma W., graduated at Wellesley, 1915 ; married June 7, 1916, Rev- 
erend James Gordon Gilkey of New York, graduated at Harvard, 
1912. 
George Wright, born October 9, 1895 ; graduated Harvard College, 

1921. 
Henry M., of San Francisco. 
Clifford B., of Boston. 
Mr. Wright came to Brattleboro as a clerk, to the firm Pratt & Wright, 
clothiers. He married September 8, 1858, Miss Mary Bemis, born in 1835 
and died in 1914. He was made deacon of the Centre Church December 
15, 1871, was on the church committee from 1867 to 1872 and was superin- 
tendent of the Sunday school in 1863. He moved to Natick, Massachu- 
setts, in 1881. 

Honorable Daniel Kellogg 
Judge Daniel Kellogg was born in Amherst, Massachusetts, February 
13, 1791. He fitted for college at the old grammar school on Newfane 
Hill; graduated at Williams College in 1810; studied law with Gen- 



710 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

eral Martin Field of Newfane and was admitted to the Windham 
County bar at the December term of 1813. He commenced the practice 
of his profession in the winter of 1813, at Rockingham, where he remained 
until he removed to Brattleboro in December, 1855. He was elected judge 
of probate for the northern district of Windham County, 1819-1820, and 
for two or more years he was elected state's attorney for the same county. 
He was private secretary for Governors Van Ness and Butler from 1823 
to 1828. In 1828 he was a member of the Council of Censors of that year. 
For twelve years, 1829-1841, during the entire administration of General 
Jackson and Mr. Van Buren, he held the office of United States district 
attorney for Vermont. In 1843 he was president of the Constitutional 
Convention. For some years he was adjutant inspector-general of the 
militia of Vermont. He represented the town of Rockingham in 1845, 
and while a member of the House was elected judge of the Supreme Court, 
which office he held for seven consecutive years, 1845-1851. He received 
the honorary degree of LL.D. from the University of Vermont in 1853 
and was presidential elector in 1864. He was one of the board of trustees 
of the Vermont Insane Asylum. 

For a long period Judge Kellogg was the candidate of the Democratic 
party for governor. In 1853 he was nominated by the Democratic legisla- 
tive caucus as candidate for United States senator, and for forty succes- 
sive ballots led his competitors, at one time lacking only two votes of an 
election. This long term of service gave him the acquaintance of the 
earlier public men of the state, of whom he was wont in later years to 
narrate interesting reminiscences and anecdotes. 

When Lafayette visited Vermont in 1825 Governor Van Ness was ill, 
and upon Judge Kellogg devolved the duty of welcoming him to the state 
and extending its hospitalities. He met Lafayette at the state line of 
New Hampshire and escorted him through the state, introducing him to 
the people at the public receptions given in several towns through which 
they passed. After his removal to Brattleboro he was elected senator 
from the county for two years. He was chosen president of the Bellows 
Falls Bank after its organization in 1832, and held the position for many 
years, and was a director of the bank at the time of his death. During 
the sixty years of his public life he maintained a reputation for thorough- 
ness, fidelity and integrity. In manners he was a gentleman of the old 
school, erect, dignified, urbane ; in private life a kind neighbor and friend. 

He married, first. Miss Jane McAffee of Rockingham ; second. Miss 
Merab Ann Bradley; third, Miranda M. Aldis, daughter of Chief Justice 
Asa Aldis of St. Albans. 

They purchased the estate of Honorable John Phelps on High Street 
about 1854, and erected thereon a place of residence. A lot of land. 



JUDGE DANIEL KELLOGG 711 

near the foot of High Street, was deeded by them, May 19, 1869, to 
the Library Association for the purpose of erecting a library building 
thereon — this New Library Association having been formed April 10, 
of the same year, with Richards Bradley, president; S. M. Waite, vice- 
president; N. B. Williston, treasurer; Malcolm Moody, clerk, and a num- 
ber of directors. 

He died May 10, 1875, aged eighty-four. 
Children : 

Henry, born August 23, ] 823 ; graduated at Williams College in 1843 ; 
engaged in the study of law with Honorable William C. Bradley of 
Westminster, Vermont, and was drowned while bathing in the 
Connecticut River at that place June 18, 1844. 
George B., born in November, 1825; studied law with Honorable Asa 
Keyes of Brattleboro. He commenced the practice of his profession 
at Rockingham in 1846, soon after his father was elected judge of 
the Supreme Court ; removed to Brattleboro in 1855, was appointed 
postmaster in 1861 ; was state's attorney for Windham County three 
years; adjutant and inspector-general for the state from 1854 to 
1859, and represented Brattleboro in the General Assembly two years. 
He was the law partner of J. Dorr Bradley. When the war broke 
out he was postmaster, but resigned his office to enter the army. He 
was active in raising and enlisting the Vermont Cavalry Regiment, 
and was lieutenant-colonel thereof during the Civil War, at the con- 
clusion of which he resumed the practice of his profession at St. 
Louis, where he died November 15, 1875, aged fifty. He married 
March 15, 1847, Mary L. Sikes, daughter of Uriel Sikes. Mrs. Kel- 
logg died in St. Louis January 15, 1907. Their daughter, Jane L. 
Kellogg, married Victor Fisher of St. Louis ; they have two daughters. 
Sarah B., born in August, 1831, married November, 1855, Henry A. 

Willard of Washington, District of Columbia. (See p. .713.) 

Daniel, born April 9, 1835; married May 3, 1861, Margaret W. May, 

daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John May of Westminster. Mrs. May was 

born in Boston June 18, 1808. Her parents died in her youth, and she 

was left to the guardianship of an uncle who placed her in the care of 

a friend at Westminster. Mr. !May was a farmer of that town who 

died in 1854. In 1861 she removed to Brattleboro and died at the 

home of her daughter, Mrs. Daniel Kellogg, March 5, 1884. A son, 

John E. May, died in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in 1862. Mrs. Margaret 

W. Kellogg died November 30, 1892. 

Daniel Kellogg, Junior, was postmaster at Brattleboro from 1862 to 

1869, and was proprietor of the Bates House, Rutland, several years, and 



712 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

of the Crocker House, New London; he was assistant judge of Windham 
County Court. He died October 8, 1918. Children : William M., died, 
1915 ; Susan, married George C. Wright of Westminster ; jMerab, married 
John Williams of Bellows Falls. Children : John H., Junior ; Merab 
Bradley; Alice B. (Mrs. Harvey Parkhurst), died March 25, 1916; 
Stephen. 

Mrs. Miranda M., wife of Judge Daniel Kellogg, was born in St. 
Albans, Vermont, June 20, 1803. .After availing herself of the common 
school advantages of her native place, she was sent to Mrs. Emma Wil- 
lard's School, then located in Middlebury, and also to the same school 
when moved to Waterford and Troy, New York. From the first she was 
a favorite pupil of Mrs. Willard and in after years they became intimate 
friends. Returning to St. Albans when her school days were over, she 
became warmly interested in the Episcopal Church, an interest which 
she retained through life. 

She was a woman of remarkable mental endowment, with an inborn 
love of books; her library was of unusual extent and excellence and her 
love of reading continued to the last. She also had rare conversational 
powers and an active memory, and for some years her home was the 
center for the best intellectual life of the place. 

Her support of the church was instant, active, generous, and it was her 
influence that kept it broad and efficient during her lifetime. She was ever 
ready to help the poor and all those who were in distress of mind or body. 
She died May 10, 1885, aged eighty-two. 

Her mother, Madame Amy Aldis, born July 12, 1770, died in Brattle- 
boro July 4, 1867. 

Honorable Asa Owen Aldis, a brother of Mrs. Kellogg, was born in St. 
Albans in 1811 ; graduated from the University of Vermont in 1829, 
studied law at Harvard College in 1831, was admitted to the bar and 
became a law partner of his father in 1832. He made his mark as an able 
lawyer and had an extensive practice, till in 1857 he was elected to the 
Supreme Court of Vermont. He retired from the bench in 1865 largely 
in consequence of deep affliction from the loss of two daughters and 
of the delicate health of others of his family, and accepted an appoint- 
ment as United States consul at Nice, which office he held with high credit 
for five years. Returning to this country in 1870, he was in 1871 appointed 
a member of the commission to settle the claims of southern citizens 
against the government, arising from the Civil War. Of this important 
commission he was president and a valuable member for nine years, when 
the work of the commission was brought to a close. In 1880 he was 
appointed a judge of the French and Alabama Claims Commission, which 



JUDGE DANIEL KELLOGG 713 

office he held until 188-1. His duties in these offices required his presence 
at Washington, and he made his home for twenty years in that city, where 
many Vermonters and others enjoyed his hospitality. He was trustee of 
the University of Vermont 1853-1865. He died June 24, 1891. 

His wife, Rlary Townsend Taylor, was a granddaughter of Micah 
Townsend and great-granddaughter of Samuel Wells of Brattleboro. 
Judge and Mrs. Aldis were in Brattleboro with their children many sum- 
mers as guests of Madame Kellogg. 
Of their five children: 

Helen, married, 1871, Bryan Lathrop of Chicago, who died in 1916. 
Owen Franklin Aldis spent much time in Brattleboro as a young man. 
He was on the editorial staff of The Yale Literary Magazine in 1873 ; 
graduated from Yale in 1874, from the Columbia Law School, and 
practiced law, 1879-1890. Of the real estate firm, Aldis, Northcote & 
Aldis of Chicago. He married, in 1878, Miss Leila Houghtaling of 
Chicago, who died, leaving a son, Owen, who died April 30, 1903 ; 
married, second, in 1913, Marie Madeline, daughter of the Comte de 
Mas. He has given six thousand volumes to Yale University, first 
and notable editions, manuscripts, and letters of American authors, 
making what is probably the largest and most nearly complete collec- 
tion of its kind. The collection is known as the "Yale Collection of 
American Literature." 
Cornelia J. 

Arthur T., a student at Miss Amelia Tyler's School ; St. Paul's, Concord ; 
Harvard Special, 1880-1882 ; the Law School of Harvard College. 
He was engaged in ranching in Wyoming, 1885-1889, when he be- 
came a partner in the real estate firm of Aldis, Northcote & Aldis. 
He is governing member of the Art Institute of Chicago. He mar- 
ried June 8, 1892, Miss Mary Reynolds. A son, Graham. 
Amy, born in St. Albans April 2, 1865, passed much of her young girl- 
hood in Brattleboro ; married March, 1892, Richards Merry Bradley. 
She died December 15, 1918. 

Henry A. Willard was born in Westminster, Vermont, May 14, 1822. 
He was descended from Major Simon Willard, who came from Horse- 
monden, Kent, to Boston in May, 1634, removing later to Concord, Massa- 
chusetts, where he had a distinguished career. A great-grandson. Rev- 
erend Joseph Willard, was killed by the Indians near Rutland, Vermont, 
in 1723. His son, William, was a soldier and frontiersman in Vermont 
who made himself disliked by defending the New York "court party" 
in its claims to the Hampshire Grants, being involved in the Westminster, 
Vermont, massacre in 1775. 



714 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Henry Willard worked on the farm in Westminster and attended school 
till the age of seventeen, when his father consulted William C. Bradley 
regarding his future career. Two opportunities offered, one to settle in 
Brattleboro, the other to work in Horace Baxter's store in Bellows Falls 
as a general clerk. The latter was accepted. 

The turning incident in young Willard's career came when Sidney 
Baxter, son of the proprietor of the store, requested the Westminster boy 
to black his boots. He immediately relinquished his place and set out 
for Brattleboro, where he became night clerk in Chase's Stage-House. 
Here the youth remained until his brother Joseph, of Troy, New York, 
induced him to accept the position of steward on the Hudson River boat 
Niagara. Here Henry's business ingenuity asserted itself and he began 
saving his pennies, which he invested in books and which he kept on the 
boat for the use of its passengers for a small fee. He soon gained the 
confidence of the company, as well as the good will of the patrons. Large 
sums of money were carried by him between the banks in Troy and those 
of New York City. 

Going to Washington in 18 i? he leased the City Hotel and rechristened 
it Willard's Hotel : a little later he was able to purchase the property and 
was sole owner and proprietor until 185.3, when he took in his brother 
Joseph as half partner. He was a host 'to many of the notable men and 
women of the time and amassed the fortune which was shared wherever 
a real need presented itself. 

During the early part of the Civil War, Mr. Willard proved his patriot- 
ism by keeping in close touch with the Union Army, and many a northern 
soldier was the recipient of his bounty and hospitality. At one time the 
Union flag on the top of Willard's Hotel was the only Union flag flying 
on any except a government building in the District of Columbia. 

When Abraham Lincoln came to Washington preparatory to his inau- 
guration he stopped at the Willard Hotel. That night Mr. Lincoln called 
for a pair of slippers ; his foot could not be readily fitted, owing to its size, 
but Mrs. Willard suggested that "Papa" William C. Bradley, who was 
visiting them, had a large pair of slippers, and these were procured, and 
worn by Mr. Lincoln, who wrote a note of thanks for their use. 

Mr. Willard's sister, Mary Ann Willard, became the wife of the Hon- 
orable George Howe. 

Mr. Willard died December 4, 1909. He left one son, Henry Kellogg 
Willard, who married Miss Helen Taylor; two grandsons, Henry Augus- 
tus and William Bradley Willard, and one granddaughter, Sarah Kellogg 
Willard. 



JOHN BURNHAM 715 

BuRNHAM Family — John Burnham 

John Burnham was born March 16, 1816, the son of John Burnham, 
who died in Florida May 3, 1S70, aged seventy-eight, and Rachel, nee 
Rossiter, who died April 19, 1863, both of whom were natives of Connect- 
icut. The handmade silver spoons of John Burnham, Senior, won him 
a great reputation, and every newly married couple was expected to have 
a half-dozen, made from six Spanish mill dollars. He devoted the last 
part of his life to horticultural pursuits. He was a descendant of Thomas 
Burnham, who emigrated from England and settled in Hartford, Connect- 
icut, about 1640. Their children, John, Henry, Amelia, Amanda and 
Edward B., were born in Brattleboro. 

John's educational advantages, very limited in extent, were such as the 
common schools of his native place would afford. He developed a 
fondness for the reading' of philosophical works and kindred subjects, 
but at an early age was obliged to abandon his studies and assist his father, 
who was a worker in gold and silver, and also a brassfounder and copper- 
smith. Three years he traveled through New Hampshire, Massachusetts 
and Maine selling and fitting trusses. Going to Ellington, Connecticut, 
he there engaged with Henry McGray in the pump business, and soon 
began the sale of the now well-known "hydraulic ram." He continued in 
this business until he was nearly thirty years of age, and during that time 
found so many who wanted running water, where they had not fall enough 
to use the ram, that his attention was diverted to the wind as a motive 
power. 

There was at that time no manufactory of small windmills in this coun- 
try, and probably none in the world, the reason for which Mr. Burnham 
divined to be the difficulty in producing a machine that could stand strong 
winds, and he felt that if this difficulty could be obviated the success of 
such a machine would be certain. Feeling that he had but limited abilities 
as an inventor, he applied to Daniel Hallady, then conducting a small 
machine shop in this village, and after several times calling his attention 
to the subject, received from him the following reply : "I can invent a self- 
regulating windmill that will be safe from all danger of destruction in 
violent wind storms, but after I should get it made, I don't know of a 
single man in the world who would want one." 

Being assured by Burnham that he would find men who wanted them, 
he began and soon produced a self-regulating windmill. The two now 
united in the enterprise and soon organized a joint stock company in 
South Coventry, Connecticut, with Mr. Hallady as superintendent and 
Mr. Burnham as general agent. When the machine was first entered at a 
'state fair for a premium, it had to be entered as a miscellaneous article, 



716 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

as no such thing had ever been entered on a fair ground for a premium. 
Since then they have become of almost universal use, while millions have 
been invested in their manufacture. 

In 1856 Mr. Burnham removed to Chicago, where he resided eight years. 
He there made the acquaintance of John Van Nortwick, Esquire, a noted 
western capitalist and railroad manager, who, after examining Mr. Hal- 
lady's invention, induced some of his friends to join him in forming a 
joint stock company, entitled "The United States Wind Engine and Pump 
Company," with himself as president and general manager, Daniel Hal- 
lady as superintendent and Mr. Burnham as general agent. 

From the beginning of railroads, civil engineers deemed the tank house, 
fuel and attendance, at water stations in northern climates, indispensable. 
This became a serious objection to the use of the windmill, as large tanks 
had to be provided to hold water sufficient to last through unusual calms ; 
and to remove this objection, Mr. Burnham began experimenting, with a 
view of producing a frost-proof tank. For some time he met only with 
discouragement, as he could not induce a road to allow him to even try 
his experiment, but he finally accomplished his purpose through a director 
of one of the railroads, who was a stockholder in the windmill company. 
Of four patents which he obtained, this last he considered by far the most 
important. 

Mr. Burnham attributed the success of his life not only to perseverance, 
untiring industry and an extensive business acquaintance throughout 
almost every state in the Union, but also to the superior mechanical and 
financial abilities of the men with whom he was associated in business. 

Mr. Burnham married, in 1846, Delia A. Damon, daughter of Reverend 
David Damon, Unitarian clergyman of Arlington. 

He died in Orange, California, March 20, 1S98. 

Children: Julia, died at the age of ten years; William H. 

Henry Burnham 

Henry Burnham was born in 1818, married April 3, 1850, Caroline S. 
Perkins, daughter of Ignatius Perkins of Colerain, Massachusetts, who 
was born in 1839. 

He early joined his father's firm of silversmiths and brassfounders, but 
in the changes brought to the trades by the development of the times 
Burnham & Sons gradually changed to brass founding, pump manufactur- 
ing and plumbing. When his brother John went west, Henry took in as 
partner Masa Willis, a son of John M. Willis of Colerain, who began his 
active life in Hines & Newman's shop as an expert moulder in brass and 
iron. He was also a man of special reading, and of knowledge of national 
politics — an ardent Whig. 



HENRY BURNHAM 717 

Under a quiet, unassuming exterior, Mr. Burnham was possessed of a 
strong and original mentality. He did not depend on his neighbors for a 
sound philosophy of life, but listened modestly to their opinions, with a 
humor and kindness of heart which could always be depended on. And 
his knowledge was as varied as it was thorough. With a remarkably 
retentive memory, his mind became a storehouse of fact and anecdote 
pertaining to the history of Brattleboro, and he published in book form, 
in 1880, "Brattleboro. Early History with Biographical Sketches of some 
of its Citizens." 

He was also a natural horticulturist. He made a terraced garden back 
of his residence on jNIain Street, and grew there the finer fruits and grapes 
that would have done credit to an Italian vineyard. 

He died March 9, 1900. Mrs. Burnham died in 1909. 
Children : 

Emma, died November 9, 1862, aged eight. 

Harry Perkins, died August 17, 1870, aged five. 

Mary Hammond Burnham, married February 2-1, 1904, Doctor Albert 
H. Moore. She is an accomplished musician and before her mar- 
riage had for some years, from 1892, a music school in New York 
City, and in Greenacre, Maine, 1896, in connection with Miss Farm- 
er's summer work. 

The elders of the Burnham family had minds of marked individuality 
that moved forward with the progress of ideas as naturally and fearlessly 
as if barriers and ruts had no existence for them. They were always in 
the movement of their time. Ageless in this respect, they retained the 
playfulness of youth with its flexibility, which was an animating influence 
in the life of the community. 

Edward Burnham 

Edward Burnham spent his youth and early manhood in Brattleboro. 
Having received the education afforded by the public schools, he entered 
the employ of his brother Henry, with whom he continued for some time. 
He then accepted the position of superintendent of the Hall & Bradley 
Paint Works in Brooklyn, Long Island, leaving them to become a mem- 
ber of the firm of Burnham, Hopkins & Bates in New York City. From 
there he removed to St. Louis, where he carried on the manufacture of 
white lead and paints. In 1875 he took up his residence in San Francisco, 
California, and for more than twenty years was the chief manager of the 
firm of Whittier & Fuller of that city. 

May 8, 1867, he married Miss Mary Cornelia Page of New York, who 
survived him. He left three children. 



718 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

A sister of Mrs. Henry Burnham was Miss Sarah A. Perkins, who had 
a very successful kindergarten school for five years, during the seventies, 
in the old Unitarian church building (Wells Hall). She married Novem- 
ber 3, 1881, Lucius Bradley, born in New Haven in 1836. He went to 
Massillon, Ohio ; later he was of the bag manufacturing firm of William 
B. Asten & Company of New York, afterwards Bradley, Kurtz & Com- 
pany. He died May 38, 1896. 

Others of that generation were : 

Margaret M., sister of Henry Burnham, who died February 38, 1912. 
"To the old-time delightful social life Miss Margaret Burnham contributed 
her full share. She was gifted with a bright mind, a retentive memory 
and an attractive personality, and her genial spirit endeared her to a wide 
circle of friends, especially to those of the Unitarian Church, of which 
she was an active, earnest and always helpful member." 

Amelia S., born 1830 ; died May 26, 1893. 

Amanda S., born in December, 1831 ; married February 38, 1850, Lewis 
B. Atwater of New Haven. He died in 1857 and she lived with her un- 
married sister, jMiss Margaret Burnham. She died November 13, 1890. 
Her son, Otis E., was a graduate of Yale College, 1879. He died in 1897. 

Larkin G. Mead, Junior 
Tpie Snow Angel 
Larkin G. Mead, Junior, was born January 3, 1835, in Chesterfield, New 
Hampshire, and moved with his parents to Brattleboro in 1839. As a boy 
he was modest, retiring and bashful in the extreme. He early displayed, 
however, a taste for art, and frequently made drawings of natural and 
other objects, sometimes trying his hand at sculpture. A pig cut in marble 
attracted the attention of an artist who was stopping at the Water-Cure. 
In accordance with the advice of this gentleman, the young artist, less than 
nineteen years of age, left the store of Messrs. Williston & Tyler, hard- 
ware merchants, where he had been clerk, and entered the studio of Henry 
K. Brown of Brooklyn, New York, where he soon began to develop 
rapidly. He remained with Mr. Erown about two years and returned to 
Brattleboro in 1856. His studio was in the old Town Hall building, where 
he had a drawing school. It was in December, 1856, the last night of the 
old year, that he gave evidence of his progress in art by constructing an 
image of snow, a "Recording Angel," closing the record of the year, and 
located the figure at the junction of North Main and Linden Streets. 
Here, close by what was then the old John Burnham foundry, Mead and 
his companions labored for hours, in a snowdrift, that last bitterly cold 
night of the dying year. Mead's friends were Edward and Henry Burn- 




THE SNOW ANGEL 




lAKKlN G. MEAD, JR. 




JOHN BURKHAMS SHOP 




WILLIAM RUTHERFURD MEAD 




v;XLLS FOUrJTAIN DESIGNED BY W. R. MEAD 



THE SNOW ANGEL— LARKIN G. MEAD, JUNIOR 719 

ham, and while Henry kept a hot fire burning in the old foundry, his 
brother Edward assisted Mead in moulding the image. Occasional trips 
indoors and a seat by the blazing fire enabled them to render more plastic 
the expressive portion of the figure, and joining these to the rough figure 
outdoors, the hands and fingers of the youthful genius kneaded and 
moulded them until they hardened, and his assistant occasionally poured 
on water, which almost instantly froze and finally gave the whole an 
almost adamantine covering. 

New Year's day dawned bright and clear, and not long after the sun 
cast its dazzling rays over the mountains, the inhabitants of the village 
discovered "The Snow Angel," in the prismatic glow of the morning sun's 
reflection. The early risers and pedestrians about town were amazed, 
when they drew near, to see what appeared at a distance like a school- 
boy's work turned to a statue of such exquisite contour and grace of 
form, with such delicate mouldings and dimplings in detail as to suggest 
the use of a chisel, and that only in a master hand. There was a serious 
face, rounded arms, neck and bust and waving drapery. It was a noble 
conception ; the young sculptor had evidently endeavored to embody the 
serious thought which visits us while we look backward and forward from 
the line which separates a dawning and a dying year. The passing school- 
boy was awed for once, as he viewed the result of adept handling of the 
elements with which he was so roughly familiar, and the thought of 
snowballing so beautiful an object could never have dwelt in his mind. 
It is related that the village simpleton was frightened and ran away, and 
one eccentric citizen, who rarely deigned to bow to his fellow men, or 
women either, lifted his hat in respect after he had gazed a moment upon 
Mead's work. 

Another report from The Vermont Pha-nix was: 

The denizens of "Toad Hill" in our village were agreeably surprised, 
when coming down from breakfast Tuesday morning to find a beautiful 
statue at the forks of the roads opposite the schoolhouse. It was about 
eight feet in height and represented the Recording Angel that may be 
supposed to wait upon Time, making up her record at the close of the 
year. In her right hand was a style, while in her left she held the tablet 
on which the events were noted. It was modeled in snow the previous 
evening by Larkin G. Mead, and in a manner which was of itself sufficient 
evidence of his superior claims as an artist. It was visited by hundreds 
of people all of whom were more than pleased at this novel specimen of 
home talent. 



720 ANNALS OF BILA.TTLEBORO 

Protected by the cold weather and the respect generally accorded to 
genius, the image stood on the street until the usual "January thaw" set 
in, to which it naturally succumbed. During a fortnight, however, many 
people came from surrounding towns and some from distant cities to visit 
it. The Nezv York Tribune and The Springfield Republican had interest- 
ing descriptions of the twice seven days' wonder, and the exploit was con- 
sidered worthy of notice even in the newspapers of foreign lands. One 
of the city papers said of it : "As a first work — the genius to conceive and 
the art to express the spirit of the recording angel — this is a success. The 
record of the year is made up, is finished, and the angel seems lost in 
meditation." 

Soon after this Mr. Mead received several commissions: one from 
Nicholas Longworth, Esquire, of Cincinnati, for a duplicate in marble 
of the snow image and one from Richards Bradley for a marble bust of 
his grandfather. Honorable William C. Bradley. A full-length, colossal 
statue of Ethan Allen was made by him for the state of Vermont in 1860, 
and is now in the state house at Montpelier. In this he was assisted by 
Signor Gagliardi, an Italian marble cutter living in Brattleboro. In the 
summer of 1859 a plaster model of the statue of Ethan Allen stood where 
the "Recording Angel" was made, corner of Main and Linden Streets. 

Two statuettes, "The Green Mountain Boy" and "The Green ]\Iountain 
Girl," were made in his Town Hall studio in 1869, and an advertisement in 
one of the village newspapers that year was as follows : "Tom Brown's 
School Days at Rugby, illustrated by Larkin G. Mead, Junior, — for sale 
at Felton's Book Store." 

When the Civil War broke out Mead went to the front for six months 
as an artist for Harper's Weekly, receiving forty dollars a week, and while 
making a drawing of a southern fort for the government barely escaped 
with his life, being within range of a sharpshooter, who spied him and 
sent a ball whizzing past his ear. 

After his Civil War experience Mead went to Italy and received a cor- 
dial welcome from the sculptor, Hiram Powers, also a Vermonter. For 
a long time he lived in Venice as an attache of the American consulate, 
the consul being W. D. Howells, who married his sister Elinor. How 
the brilliant, artistic and aristocratic Elinor Mead crossed the seas with 
her brother Larkin to marry the poor young author who could not afford 
to make the voyage to her, has been one of the romances which her con- 
temporaries in Brattleboro have liked to relate to their children. Many 
of Howells's vivacious, capricious girl heroines of his earlier novels have 
been recognized as drawn from the Mead sisters. But his permanent 
home was made in Florence, where his studio was in the Via degli Artisti. 



LARKIN G. MEAD, JUNIOR 721 

For more than half a century he was a well-known figure in 'that city with 
a wide acquaintance among the distinguished people of the time. 

The story of Mead's marriage was romantic enough to match his excep- 
tional career. While left in charge of the United States consulate at 
Venice during the wedding trip of Mr. Howells to America, the young 
sculptor saw in the piazza of San Marco a beautiful Italian girl with 
whom he fell in love at first sight, without knowing who she was. Mr. 
Howells, while in America, accepted an editorial position on The Atlantic 
Monthly, and a new consul was appointed. Mead returned to Florence, 
where he had for some time been living, but he could not forget the 
beautiful young Venetian, and returned to search for her. Through the 
services of the new consul a meeting was arranged, and the young woman 
was found to be all that could be asked, in family and in culture. Neither, 
so the story goes, could speak a word of the other's language, so that the 
love-making had to be carried on through an interpreter, which was 
unusual considering Mead's somewhat extended residence in Italy, but it 
is certain that the beautiful Marietta di Benvenuti had no -EngHsh. She 
was almost as prompt as her admirer to fall in love, and a civil marriage 
was arranged, the religious ceremony being impossible because the bride 
was a Roman Catholic and Mr. Mead a Protestant. The Pope was 
appealed to in vain for a dispensation in their favor. The marriage was 
celebrated February 26, 1866, and in March he brought his beautiful 
Italian bride to Vermont on a visit to his parents. 

While in this country there was an exhibition of his work in New York, 
H. K. Brown, William Cullen Bryant and H. W. Beecher, committee. A 
bust of General George McClellan was executed by him in 1862. But the 
first work of importance was a group, "The Returned Soldiers," of the 
date 1866. The next works of any magnitude were "Columbus's Last 
Appeal to Queen Isabella"; among other groups were "Cavalry," "Infan- 
try," "Artillery," "Navy," the allegorical and ideal pieces "Venice," 
"Sappho," "Echo" and "The Mississippi." St. Johnsbury ordered a 
statue of "America" for its soldiers' monument, and for Springfield, 
Illinois, he executed a statue of Lincoln. In 1868 he was again at home, 
and obtained the order for the Lincoln monument at Springfield, Illinois, 
which was unveiled in a partial state of completion October 15, 1874. 

In 1879 he was appointed to a professorslyp in the Academy of Fine 
Arts of Florence. 

Among Mead's works not already referred to may be noted "The Re- 
turn of Proserpine from the Realms of Pluto," which stood over the main 
entrance to the agricultural building at the Chicago Exposition of 1893, 
a large group representing the Stanford family for Leland Stanford, 



723 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Junior, University, "La Contadinella," and high rehef busts of Henry 
James, W. D. Howells and John Hay. He died in 1910. 

His last visit to Brattleboro, the first in thirty years, was made in 1907. 

A long life in a foreign country and contact with men and women of 
various nationalities never lessened Larkin Mead's attachment to the 
place of his birth. The same characteristic loyalty was expressed in his 
personality: he was always a native of New England. 

WlLLI.\M RUTHERFURD MeAD 

McKiM, Mead & White 

William Rutherfurd Mead was born August 20, 1846. He prepared 
for college at the Brattleboro High School, and entered Norwich Univer- 
sity in 1861, graduating in 1864. He graduated from Amherst College 
in 1867 and received LL.D. from that institution in 1902 and A.B. from 
Norwich University in 1910. In 1863 he was appointed state drillmaster. 
Company B, Fourteenth New Hampshire Volunteers, and drilled and 
instructed this company at Walpole and Concord. 

He studied architecture with Russell Sturgis and studied in Europe, 
1868-1871. In 1872 he began the practice of his profession in New York, 
with Charles F. McKim. In 1874 he formed a partnership with McKim 
and William B. Bigelow, under the name McKim, Mead & Bigelow. From 
1879 he was one of the firm of McKim, Mead & White of New York. He 
married November 13, 1883, Olga Kilyeni, daughter of Mor Kilyeni, M.D. 

He has been president of the Amherst Alumni Association of New 
York since 1899. 

He is president of the New York chapter of the American Institute 
of Architects; a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters; 
and associate member of the National Academy of Design. 

The work of McKim, Mead & White has been remarkable for variety, 
embracing as it does cottages at Newport and Lenox and many other 
summer resorts; the Boston Public Library; Madison Square Garden, 
New York City; the New York Life Insurance Company's buildings in 
Omaha and Kansas City ; the Tiffany house in Madison Avenue, New 
York City ; St. Paul's Church, Stockbridge, Massachusetts ; St. Peter's 
Church, Morristown, New Jersey; the American Safe Deposit Company's 
buildings. New York City ; the casinos at Newport and Narragansett Pier ; 
the Music Hall at Short Hills, New Jersey ; the Goelet building at Twenti- 
eth Street and Broadway, New York City ; the Algonquin Club house 'of 
Boston ; the Freundschaft Club house of New York ; the Columbia Uni- 
versity buildings; the state capitol of Rhode Island; the Brooklyn Insti- 



WILLIAM MORRIS HUNT 723 

tute of Arts and Sciences; the Walker Art Gallery of Bowdoin College; 
the building of the Department of Agriculture at Harvard ; the Music 
Hall at Boston ; the Agricultural Building and the New York State build- 
ings at the World's Columbian Exposition; the University and Harvard 
clubs' houses and the Century Association of New York; the Library and 
Hall of Fame of New York University; also the University of Virginia, 
Knickerbocker Trust Company, National City Bank, Tiffany Building, 
Gorham Building, Bellevue Hospital, Pennsylvania station. New York 
City, etc. 

Mr. Mead is president of the American Academy at Rome. 

William Morris Hunt 

William Morris Hunt was born March 23, 1824, and was a pupil 
in Miss Amelia S. Tyler's School, where he said he learned his first 
lesson in art by making a patchwork quilt. In 1832, the year of his 
father's death, the family left the Brattleboro homestead and removed 
to New Haven, for the sake of the superior schools in the latter city. 
When about ten years old William evinced a decided taste for drawing, 
and he received his first lessons in the art from an Italian, then resi- 
dent in New Haven, Signer Gambadella, who had fled from Italy during 
the troublous times of Silvio Pellico. Under his instruction the youthful 
artist copied several crayon subjects, one of which, a head of Jennie 
Deans, was preserved by his sister. Miss Jane Hunt. When about a 
dozen years of age Mr. Hunt's artistic ambition manifested itself in the 
direction of sculpture, and he began to cut heads out of marbles, and also 
out of a hard, yellowish substance obtained from the bleaching vats at 
Lowell. In this latter material he often attempted portraits of his friends. 
This talent was cultivated even after he went abroad to prosecute his 
studies, and at Elmsholme, the country seat of his brother Leavitt, there 
is a life-size portrait bust of his mother which W^illiam executed in Paris. 

The winter and spring of 1843-1844 were spent in Rome, where he 
applied himself to the study of drawing and sculpture. During the sum- 
mer he traveled through Switzerland on horseback, visited Paris and 
many places of interest in Englaiid, and in the spring of 1845 went to 
Athens and Constantinople. In 1845 he entered the Art Academy of 
Diisseldorf, where he devoted himself exclu^-ely to anatomy and draw- 
ing, but not liking the style of this school, he did not join the class in 
painting. While in Diisseldorf he lived in the family of Leutze, the artist, 
and held most friendly relations with Lessing, Sohn, Schroedter and other 
notable men of that school. 

Though he had most agreeable friends there, he determined to go to 



724 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Paris, where he soon chanced to see a picture by Couture, "The Falconer," 
which made such an impression on the young artist that he entered Cou- 
ture's atelier and very soon became the cleverest painter of the class. But 
the power and sincerity of the work of Jean Frangois Millet took posses- 
sion of him as no living artist had yet done. He came to know Millet, 
bought many of his pictures at a time when the great artist needed help 
and encouragement and always remained his friend. 

Returning to America in 1856, he married Louise Dumaresq, daughter 
of Thomas Handasyd Perkins of Boston, and passed a year in Brattleboro. 
He leased the old Hunt house and a room in the Town Hall opposite for a 
studio ; here he finished "The Violet Girl," begim by him in Europe, and 
thence went to reside in Newport, Rhode Island, spending, however, the 
winter of 1857-1858 with friends in the Azores. 

In Newport he influenced, among others, the work of John La Farge, 
then a very young man. Later Hunt went to Boston and at first took a 
studio in Roxbury, and still later engaged an atelier in the Commercial 
building in Boston and began his long Boston career. He exercised much 
influence in shaping American art by leading students to study new art 
work as practiced in Paris,, and by introducing here more clear percep- 
tions of the principles of art. Among his portraits, those of Chief Justice 
Shaw, Charles Sumner, William M. Evarts and Mrs. Charles Francis 
Adams may be named; of his landscapes, -"Gloucester Harbor"; single 
figures treated with breadth and vigor, "The Drummer Boy," "Fortune- 
teller," "The Bathers," "Marguerite." 

The "Return of the Prodigal Son," which was bequeathed to the 
Brooks Library, Brattleboro, by his sister, Miss Jane Hunt, was painted 
in Paris in the studio which Hunt occupied conjointly with Thomas Cou- 
ture, and for impressiveness and vigor of treatment is, perhaps, the strong- 
est example extant of the artist's early method, as it unquestionably is the 
most important work of that period. 

The feeling in New York as well as Boston was so strong against him 
that when his "Prodigal Son" was first exhibited it was condemned by 
almost everj'one, and his mother, to prevent his being utterly discouraged, 
bought the picture and hid it away in Brattleboro, declaring that nobody 
should ever see it so long as she lived. 

When his brother, Colonel Leavitt^Hunt, was in Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, in 1846, he was impressed with the idea that the Eg>-ptian moon- 
goddess, Anahita, would be available as the literary companion of Guido's 
"Aurora," and, having suggested the idea to his brother William, he was 
requested to write out full descriptive lines which follow : 



WILLIAM MORRIS HUNT . 735 

ANAHITA 

Enthroned upon her car of light, the moon 
Is circling down the lofty heights of heaven; 
Her well-trained coursers wedge the blindest depths 
With fearful plunge, yet heed the steady hand 
That guides their lonely way. So swift her course, 
So bright her smile, she seems on silver wings, 
O'er-reaching space, to glide the airy main ; 
Behind, far-flowing, spreads her deep blue veil, 
Inwrought with stars that shimmer in its wave. 

Before the car an owl, gloom-sighted, flaps 
His weary way, with melancholy hoot 
Dispelling spectral shades that flee 
With bat-like rush, affrighted, back 
Within the blackest nooks of caverned Night. 
Still Hours of darkness went around the car, 
By raven tresses half concealed ; but one. 
With fairer locks, seems lingering back for Day. 
Yet all with even measured footsteps mark 
Her onward course. And floating in her train 
Repose lies nestled on the breast of Sleep, 
While soft Desires enclasp the waists of Dreams, 
And light-winged Fancies flit around in troops. 

These graphic lines were the source and guide of the painter's inspira- 
tion when he first attempted the composition called "The Flight of Night," 
which formed one of the mural paintings in the capitol at Albany, and 
they are in several points of detail an admirable description of that mag- 
nificent work. 

Mr. Hunt was drowned September 9, 1879, at the Isles of Shoals, off 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire. In compliance with an oft-expressed de- 
sire, he was buried in Brattleboro, Vermont, where funeral services were 
held in the Unitarian Church. 
Children : . 

Mabel C, married September 17, 1891, It&ratio Nelson Slater. Chil- 
dren : Horace N. ; Paul ; Esther, married B. Sumner Welles ; Ray 

Morris Hunt, died in 1916. 

Enid, married Samuel Slater. 

Elinor M., married Diedrich. Children : Hunt Diedrich, a sculptor 

of distinction. 



L 



726 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

In the fall of 1879, a loan exhibition of many of Mr. Hunt's paintings 
and charcoal drawings opened at the Boston Art Museum and was visited 
by sixty thousand persons. 

Considered apart from his artistic achievements, he was one of the 
most notable men of his time. The seal of a richly endowed nature was 
as plainly stamped upon his physiognomy as it is plainly wanting in the- 
majority of mankind, and the personal resemblance he was said to bear 
to portraits of Da Vinci is only a fresh illustration of the theory of Scho- 
penhauer, that men of genius throughout the world possess a family like- 
ness. A marked dramatic element in his composition, united with great 
vivacity, sympathy and delicacy, allied him closely to the Gallic type, and 
in many ways seemed to belie his Anglo-Saxon origin. Unlike most of us, 
who assert our nationality by a perverse inability to rest content with light, 
passing interests, with "half-happiness in small things," he knew how to 
make joys out of trifles, how to put away care in the fleeting sunshine of 
the moment, and to find the keenest pleasure in the bright colors of a 
soap-bubble. 

An appreciative critic has said : "He was a beautiful example of what 
the American nature can come to when it is filled with sweetness and light. 
He had — what some Americans lack — a richness of blood, a passion of 
spirit which seems frozen out of many of us by the modern cold-storage 
condition in which we live. He was thoroughly American. His sayings 
are racy of the soil. But that acridity, sourness, crudeness which herald 
themselves in the national voice, seemed burned out of him by the fire 
of passion for art and life." 

His art-talks, as reported by Helen M. Knowlton, reveal something of 
the quality of his individuality. 

William Morris Hunt is the only native of Vermont whose name is in 
the Hall of Fame, New York City. 

A bas-relief of his grandmother, Mrs. Thaddeus Leavitt, made by Wil- 
liam Morris Hunt, is now in the possession of her great-granddaughter, 
Elizabeth Leavitt (Mrs. Daniel) Calder, formerly of Brattleboro. 

Richard Morris Hunt 
Richard Morris Hunt was born October 31, 1828 ; he was educated with 
his brothers in this country until 1843, when the family went to Europe 
and he began the study of architecture with Samuel Darier at Geneva; 
later he entered the School of Fine Arts in Paris, and became the pupil 
of Hector Lefuel. He also traveled extensively over Europe and as far 
as Asia Minor and Egypt, and on his return to Paris in 1854 was appointed 



RICHARD MORRIS HUNT 727 

by the government inspecteur des travaux, immediately directing his 
energies to the construction of the buildings uniting the Tuileries with the 
Louvre, and was also placed by Lefuel in charge of the library pavilion, 
Pavilion de la Bibliotheque. His European experience was unique in the 
annals of American architecture. 

He returned to the United States in 1855, and immediately engaged in 
assisting Thomas U. Walter in preparing plans for the completion of the 
capitol at Washington. 

In New York he became leader of the Guild of Architects, had a class 
of architectural students, held a prominent place in the foundation of the 
American Institute of Architecture, was president of the Institute, mem- 
ber of the Architectural League and many other kindred associations, and 
was one of three foreign architects belonging to the Academy St. Luke, 
an ancient Italian society. 

He was a member of the Jury of Fine Arts for the Paris Exposition of 
1867 ; in 1882 he was made Knight of the Legion of Honor ; was a member 
of the Central Society of French Architects and the Society of Architects 
and Engineers of Vienna, and a member of the Royal Institute of British 
Architects. 

In 1893 he received the Queen's gold medal, presented to the one who 
had done most for the advancement of the history or practice of archi- 
tecture. 

He built the Administration Building of the Columbian World's Fair 
at Chicago, which brought him the gold medal of tlie Royal Institute of 
British Architects, which is regarded as one of the chief prizes of archi- 
tectural merit in the world; the Lenox Library; the first buildings of the 
Presbyterian Hospital ; W. K. Vanderbilt's houses in New York and New- 
port ; the United States Academy building and gymnasium at West Point ; 
the Naval Observatory, Washington; the New York Tribune building; 
Honorable Levi P. Morton's house, Rhinecliff , New York ; Coal and Iron 
Exchange, New York ; Yorktown Monument ; mausoleum of W. H. Van- 
derbilt ; pedestal for the Statue of Liberty ; Fogg Museum of Fine Arts, 
Harvard College; the chateau of George W. Vanderbilt at Biltmore, 
North Carolina; W. K. Vanderbilt's house. Central Park entrance, etc. 
He was Associate of the Academic des Beaux-Arts, Chevalier de la Legion 
d'Honneur, associate member of institute de France, president of the 
American Institute of Architects. 

He received the degree of LL.D. at Harvard College in 1892. 

Mr. Hunt died in 1895. 

He married Miss Catherine C. Howland. Children : Richard Howland, 
married, first, Miss Pearl Carley, second, Miss Margaret Livingston 



mS ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Watrous ; Catherine Howland, married Livingston Hunt, who was minis- 
ter to Russia ; Esther, married Woolsey ; Joseph Howland, married 

Miss Mazie N. La Shelle ; Herbert L. 

Colonel Leavitt Hunt 

Colonel Leavitt Hunt, born February 22, 1830, was educated at a mili- 
tary school in Switzerland, and there laid the foundation of his proficiency 
in philology — for Colonel Hunt was thoroughly versed in half a score of 
languages and was offered a professorship at Princeton College. After 
leaving Switzerland he traveled extensively, going to Egypt in 1850, where 
he photographed the ruins of that region, together with those of Nubia, 
Petra' and Baalbec. His photographs were the first ever taken in those 
countries, and when he returned with them to Europe they formed the 
subject of many interesting interviews between their possessor and Baron 
von Humboldt and Professor Lepsius, the famous Orientalist. They 
were shown to the emperor by Humboldt, and that potentate was so 
pleased with them that he would have decorated Colonel Hunt, could the 
latter have accepted such a mark of royal favor. He was traveling abroad 
on a prolonged wedding tour when the Civil War broke out and on his 
return home he was commissioned a colonel in the adjutant general's de- 
partment, serving both with the army in Virginia and in the bureau at 
Washington. His hospitable mansion at the capital was open to, among 
other habitues, the prominent members of the diplomatic corps,' several 
of whom had formed the acquaintance of their host in their native 
countries. 

He married July 11, 1860, Miss Katherine L. Jarvis. The father of Mrs. 
Hunt was known as Consul Jarvis,^ he having been consul-general and 
charge d'affaires at Lisbon in the beginning of the eighteenth century. 
He purchased the estate known as Weathersfield Bow,^ on the Connect- 
icut, in the Vermont town of Weathersfield, as a desirable place for the 
reception of the merino flocks which he had secured in the Spanish Junta. 
These merinos, with their native shepherds and dogs, were the first of any 
account imported into this country, as previously the exporters of those 
sheep from Spain were punished by death. Consul Jarvis also imported 
the first herd of Holstein cattle ever brought to the United States, and 
in Colonel Hunt's spacious stables could be seen the black-and-white pure- 
blooded descendants of the-o«ginal herd, together with descendants of 
thoroughbred English horses and Arab ponies, imported by Consul Jarvis 
more than a century ago. This enterprising gentleman also brought the 
first tomatoes from Spain to the New World, and seed from the product 

1 Consul Jarvis was the father of Mrs. Hampden Cutts of Brattleboro. 

2 From Francis Goodhue when the latter removed to Brattleboro in 1811. 



^ 



WILLIAM C. BRADLEY, II 729 

of his vines was gradually distributed throughout the country. The intro- 
duction of the strange plant in St. Albans is remembered by a former 
generation, where it was cultivated some time for purely ornamental pur- 
poses, and went by the strangely sentimental name of "love plant." 

The house and grounds are situated on a strip of level meadow, in 
full view of Mt. Ascutney. Here William Hunt spent the last summer 
of his life. Its numerous attached offices are supplemented by half a 
score of detached buildings within a radius of one hundred rods, so that 
the general appearance is not unlike that of a fine English manor house — 
for which reason, doubtless, Consul Jarvis was not uncommonly desig- 
nated the "Last of the Barons." Its interior has been so replete with 
artistic treasures that — to apply Steele's observation upon Lady Elizabeth 
Hastings — an acquaintance therewith is a liberal education. Of William 
Hunt's paintings there were at least a dozen, one of the most important, 
until it was removed to Brattleboro, being the "Return of the Prodigal 
Son." Besides this picture, there hung for many years in the lower hall 
nine family portraits by Hunt and Harding. In the parlors is a full- 
length portrait of WilHam M. Hunt, painted by Leutze (Diisseldorf) in 
1864. The figure is in the costume of Francis I — large lace collar, velvet 
mantle, slashed sleeves, sword, etc., — and is a very good likeness of the 
subject at the time it was executed, as is shown by a daguerreotype taken 
in Paris the following year. It was in Diisseldorf that Lessing took Mr. 
Hunt for the model of his portrait of John Huss. 

In one room are two of the most delicate and highly finished portraits 
of children, in pencil by Hunt. 

Mrs. Hunt died in 1916. 
Children of Colonel Leavitt and Katherine Jarvis Hunt: 

Clyde du Vernet, major in the United States Army, has shown unusual 
constructive ability in the Philippines ; he was chosen to carry the 
message to Garcia; married Miss Louise Piatt Dickey. 

Jarvis, architect, living in Chicago; married Miss Louise Coleman. 

Maud Dacre, married October 11, 1917, Reverend William Reid Patter- 
son. 

Nino K., married, first, Francis B. Hayes ; married, second, H. S. 
Taintor. 

Leavitt J., lawyer, living in New York, married Miss Virginia Sowers 
Redfield. 

Bradley Fam«:y (continued) 
William C. Bradley, II, oldest son of Honorable Jonathan Dorr 
Bradley, graduated at Harvard College in 1851, and wrote the class poem. 
He entered the Harvard Divinity School, but his health became seriously 



730 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

impaired and he was never able to follow his chosen profession. The 
death of his roommate, John N. Mead, eldest son of Larkin G. Mead, was 
the final cause of Mr. Bradley's nervous breakdown. As his health grad- 
ually strengthened, he occupied himself with books and literary pursuits, 
acted as tutor to young men fitting for college, and for a time taught 
Latin and Greek in the High School. 

He v.'as appointed librarian of the Brooks Library in 1887, and held 
the position fifteen years, retiring on account of increasing infirmities. 
He had an extensive knowledge of books and a remarkable memory. To 
the misfortune of gradually growing deafness there was added that of 
failing eyesight, and for the last one and a half years of his life he was 
entirely blind, an afBiction which he accepted with patience and cheerful- 
ness. He died May 2, 1908. 

He had a beautiful and gentle nature. A considerable number of his 
poems and verses are of genuine merit. 

RiCH.\RDS Bradley 

Richards Bradley was born in a house on the site of the Town Hall. 
For a brief time in early life, he engaged in a mercantile enterprise in 
New York, but on his marriage, April 9, 1856, to Sarah A. W. Merry, 
daughter of Robert D. C. and Sarah Ann Williams Merry of Boston, who 
was born January 26, 183-1, and who had inherited a large fortune, he 
retired to the life of a country gentleman which was congenial to his 
tastes, as he had no liking for public life. In 1876-1878, however, he 
consented to be on the staff of General Horace Fairbanks. 

The West River and Rice farms were added to their extensive and 
beautiful residence property in the northern part of the village, and to the 
management and development of these farms Mr. Bradley gave his per- 
sonal attention. He succeeded his father as trustee of the Asylum for 
the Insane and for many years took an active oversight of that institu- 
tion's farm. 

For a number of years Mr. and Mrs. Bradley owned and occupied a 
winter residence on Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, but the last five or 
six years, on account of Mr. Bradley's health, they spent the entire year in 
Brattleboro on the place which had been built up from a pasture by their 
long superintendence and where associations with their children lingered. 

Mr. Bradley possessed a most genial and winning personality. A 
mellow nature was his, and to a preeminent degree. The native wit of 
his Bradley inheritance added-to his other delightful mental and social 
qualities. He died October 1, 1904; Mrs. Bradley died December 13, 
1914. 




RESIDENCE OF GEORGE W. FOLSOM 




FOLSOM HOUSE 




RESIDENCE OF JUDGE CHARLES ROYALL TYLER 




TERRACE STREET 



RICHARDS BRADLEY _ 731 

Children : 

Richards, born February 10, ISGl, was a student at St. Paul's, Concord, 
and graduated from Harvard College in 1882; was at the Harvard 
Law School one year. He was for ten years of the firm of Bradley & 
Storer (John H.), now Bradley & Tyson, Boston and Chicago, in 
real estate. 

He married, March 29, 1891, Amy Owen, daughter of Honorable 
Asa Owen Aldis, who was born in 186-1 and died December 15, 1918, 
in Boston. Children : Amy Owen ; Helen Aldis ; Walter, died March 
18, 1901, aged five years; Sarah Merry; Mary Townsend; Edith 
Richards ; Ruth, died at one year. 

Before her marriage, Mrs. Bradley for two or three years studied 
sculpture in Paris. She was interested and active in a great many 
departments of the life of the city in which she lived, notably the 
Women's Municipal League, of whose executive board she was a 
member. Friends wrote to The Boston Transcript at the time of 
her death : 

It were as easy to appraise the perfume of a rose as to specify the 
gifts of heart and mind that blended in the charming personality of 
this rare woman. Well born and well bred, alert and discriminating, 
spontaneous and responsive, she will remain to those fortunate 
enough to enjoy her friendship the embodiment of a refined excel- 
lence. Her home was delightful, her hospitality unfailing, yet she 
gave herself willingly and helpfully to a series of organized move- 
ments for civic and social betterment, vitalized them by her enthu- 
siasm and guided them with sagacity. Her domestic virtues, her 
public spirit, her natural and her cultivated tastes, above all, her 
generous sympathies, made of her all-too-short life a poem set to 
wonderful music. 

In 1901 Mr. Bradley was appointed trustee of the Thomas Thomp- 
son Trust. Under his administration : 

The Brattleboro Memorial Hospital (memorial to Thomas and 
Elizabeth Thompson) has been. built and maintained. 

The Mutual Aid Association (the pioneer of the Visiting Nurses 
or Household Nursing Association) has been established, with spe- 
cially trained public health, maternity, and child welfare nurses, hold- 
ing clinics for babies ; the Thompson Scliool for Attendants. 

A Public School nurse has been introduced. 

A Camp for tuberculosis patients has been followed by an Associa- 
tion for the care of tuberculosis patients in their own homes. 

Assistance has been given each vear to the Kindergarten. 



732 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Four hundred and fifty-eight sewing women and other women 
wage-earners have received direct aid. 

A Vacation House for Sewing Women has been purchased, fur- 
nished and carried on. 

An Emergency Hospital was organized and conducted during the 
influenza epidemic of 1918-1919. 

Susan, married February 13, 1890, Richards Bradley Grinnell of New 
York. 

J. Dorr, born February 10, 186-1; graduated from Harvard College. In 
1886 he married Miss Frances Kales of Chicago. He was of the firm 
of Aldis & Company, now Bradley & Tyson, Chicago. Children : 
Alice Pritchard; Elinore Pritchard. 

Emily, married June 30, 1877, Doctor William F., son of Doctor Wil- 
liam P. Wesselhoeft of Boston. Children : Margetta, married Doctor 
George H. Bigelow ; Susan, married Renouf Russell ; Alice, married 
Leverett Saltonstall; Emily. 

Sarah M., married June 17, 1891, Russell Tyson of Chicago. _ 

Walter W-, born August 24, 1870 ; died September 17, 1880. 

Stephen Rowe Bradley, H 
Stephen Rowe Bradley, H, began his business career as clerk in the 
Putnam Manufacturing Company, Fitchburg; later he was with Jones, 
Pratt & Christie, wholesale grocers, Boston. He was finally of the firm 
of Hall, Bradley & Company (George C, Addison B. and John L. Hall 
of Brattleboro), extensive manufacturers of white lead. He married 
Miss Augusta Tremaine, born January 2-1, 1848, and died August 7, 1905. 
He died August 6, 1910. Children : May ; William C, married Miss Isabel 
Galloway; Augusta, married George Lewis Chapman; Stephen Rowe. 

Arthur C. Bradley 

Arthur C. Bradley prepared for college at the Burnside Military 
School, Brattleboro, graduated from Amherst in 1876 and from the 
Columbia Law School. He received the degree of Bachelor of Arts from 
Amherst College and the LL.B. degree from Columbia University in 1872. 

Mr. Bradley became famous by discovering a quick process for the 
manufacture of white lead and litharge. He married at Newport, New 
Hampshire, April 12, 1881, Miss Lticy E. Nettleton. He died November 
2, 1911. She died in 1919. They lived at Newport for many years, but 
he was very widely known for his scientific attainments, and in his native 
town and state for his generous nature. He was a life member of the 
London Society of Psychological Research, of the American Association 



REV. GEORGE LEON WALKER 733 

for the Advancement of Science and of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and 
Sciences; fellow of the American Geographical Society, Boston Society 
of Natural History, Bibliophile Society, New Hampshire Historical So- 
ciety ; a Son of the American Revolution; member of the University Club, 
New York City ; member of St. Augustine order of Elks and of the 
Entomological Society of Ontario. 

Reverend Doctor George Leon Walker 
Doctor Walker was eighth in descent from Richard Walker, who set- 
tled at Lynn, Massachusetts, in 1630, fought in the early Indian wars, 
and was a member both of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company 
of London and of its Boston namesake. His great-grandfather, Phineas, 
of Woodstock, Connecticut, was a soldier in the old French and Revolu- 
tionary wars. His grandfather, Leonard, like many another son of 
Connecticut, emigrated to \'ermont just as the eighteeenth century came 
to a close, and settled at Stratford. His father, Charles, born in 1791, 
before the emigrant left the Woodstock home, graduated at Andover 
Theological Seminary in 1S31, received honorary A.M. from the Univer- 
sity of Vermont in 1823, from Middlebury and Dartmouth in 1825, and 
D.D. from the University of Vermont in 1847. He was trustee of Middle- 
bury College from 1837. He married Lucretia Ambrose, daughter of 
Stephen Ambrose of Concord, New Hampshire, a woman of unusual 
talents, whom her son George was markedly to resemble in character and 
features, who died December 3, 1883, in Pittsford. 

Their first child, Anne Ambrose, born in 1825, was a woman of remark- 
able intellectual and artistic endowment. She married, 1854, Reverend 
George N. Boardman, D.D., LL.D., who was born in Pittsford, Ver- 
mont, December 25, 1825, son of Deacon Samuel Boardman, a man widely 
known in western Vermont for pronounced views against war and in 
favor of peace. In memory of his father Doctor and Mrs. Boardman 
founded the Deacon Boardman peace prize in Middlebury College. Upon 
graduation from Middlebury he was chosen tutor; after a course at An- 
dover he returned to Middlebury as professor of rhetoric and English 
literature from 1853 to 1859 ; then spent eleven years as pastor of the 
First Presbyterian Church at Binghamton, New York. For the next 
twenty-two years he was professor of systematic theology in Chicago 
Theological Seminary, and in this position he achieved national promi- 
nence. ^^ 

He was the author of many books and articles, among which perhaps 
the best known is "A History of New England Theology." It was as a 
representative of the theology of New England that Doctor Boardman 
was distinguished. He received the degree of D.D. from the University 



734 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

of Vermont in 1867, LL.D. from Lafayette College in 1889, and Lit.D. 
from Middlebury College in 1910. 

Mrs. Boardman died January 2, 1914, in her eighty-eighth year. 

The Reverend Charles Walker was settled at Rutland in the first pas- 
torate of a ministry conspicuous for more than half a century in Vermont, 
and here George Leon was born April 30, 1830. The changes frequently 
incident to ministerial service led the father to Brattleboro, where he 
was installed pastor of the Centre Church January 1, 1835. George was 
then four years old, and this town in which he was to live till his seven- 
teenth year was always dear to him as his boyhood home. The early 
education of the boy was in the schools of Brattleboro, and he was accus- 
tomed in later life to recall with pleasure the inspiration he drew from 
the teaching of a young head of the village High School, afterwards emi- 
nent as a librarian of the Boston Public Library, the Honorable Mellen 
Chamberlain. But the boy's home, with its intellectual and earnest parents 
and its four keen-minded children — two brothers and a sister — was the 
most fruitful early influence that came to him. In a published letter he 
paid this tribute to his own early associations : "Was not the atmosphere 
of my own youthful home, — that of an underpaid minister's family, — one 
which took its coloring from the brightest and most beautiful which 
ancient and modern letters had to show ?" A pastorate of twelve years' 
duration at Brattleboro was followed by the removal of the father to 
Pittsford (see p. 353), which henceforth became the family residence. 

It was the boy's ambition to go to college ; but even before leaving Brat- 
tleboro a spinal curvature from which he was to suffer all his days had- 
developed, and his prospect of life seemed so precarious that the college 
course had to be forborne. To one of Mr. Walker's energy and strength 
of will, however, such a deprivation was a challenge rather than a deter- 
rent ; and the studies which he would have pursued had he been able to 
obtain the coveted college training were followed out alone, with the aid 
of the older sister, Anne, whose intellectual equipment and devotion fitted 
her other brothers for college, so that he acquired not merely a knowledge 
of Greek and Latin, but a very thorough acquaintance with philosophy, 
mathematics and especially English literature, toward which his mind 
was always strongly drawn. The classic English poets, most of all, were 
the companionship and delight of his youth and early manhood. 

In 1850 an appointment as clerk in the Massachusetts state house, pro- 
cured by an uncle, the Honorable Amasa Walker, brought the young man 
a change of scene ; and the next three years were spent in Boston in the 
duties of his office and in the vigorous study of law during all leisure 
moments, for Mr. Walker was then determined to make the legal profes- 



REV. GEORGE LEON WALKER 735 

sion his own. But a change in the poHtical control of the state cost him his 
clerkship, and a subsequent attack of typhoid fever deprived him for some 
months of the use of his eyes and left a more permanent witness of its 
inroads on his feeble frame in a lameness that -necessitated the use of 
crutches for several years. The young student of law went back to the 
Pittsford home in broken health, his prospects frustrated, and his friends 
discouraged. But he had attained to one certainty in his own mind. He 
was determined, if possible, to become a minister; and to this end, as 
soon as strength permitted, he began to study theology with the help of 
his father's library. This lengthened period of feebleness and disappoint- 
ment, though it failed to break Mr. Walker's courage, left upon him 
always its impress in a sense of the seriousness and the struggle of life, 
and of the nearness of its sorrows to its joys. 

In August, 1857, Mr. Walker was licensed to preach by the Rutland 
(Vermont) Association, and soon after entered Andover Theological 
Seminary as a "resident licentiate," studying in that institution for a year. 
A chance opportunity to take the place as pulpit supply of a professor 
incapacitated by illness led to a call to the pastorate of the State Street 
Church in Portland, one of the most important in the commonwealth of 
Maine. On September 16, 1858, Mr. Walker married Maria Williston, 
daughter of Nathan B. Williston of Brattleboro, Vermont, and on the 
thirteenth of the following October he was ordained to his new charge. 

The time of his pastorate was eventful. ^lost actively of any of the 
Portland ministers he espoused the Union and the antislavery causes in 
the discussions preceding the Civil War, and at the cost of considerable 
criticism ; but his remarkable power in the pulpit and his ready sympathy 
and helpfulness, with all in suffering and bereavement speedily won him 
the afifection of the Portland congregation in a marked degree. Here two 
sons were born to him, Williston on July 1, 1860, and Charles Ambrose on 
September 27, 1861, the latter dying on July 22, 1869, and here on August 
31, 1865, he lost his wife by diphtheria. The death of his wife and his 
own exertions in connection with the great Portland fire of July 4, 1866, 
broke down his never robust health. By the spring of 1867 he was once 
more on crutches and compelled to return to his father's home at Pitts- 
ford. It being evident that his ill health would be somewhat protracted, 
his people reluctantly released him from the Portland pastorate in Octo- 
ber, 1867. ^^ 

A year later, when somewhat improved in health but while still obliged 
to use crutches and to preach sitting in a chair, Mr. Walker was invited 
to supply the pulpit of the First Church in New Haven, from which the 
Reverend Doctor Leonard Bacon had then recently retired. He was 



736 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

settled over his new charge on November 16, 1868. Here his ministry 
met with great acceptance, as at Portland, — a favor that was witnessed by 
the bestowal upon him of the degree of Doctor of Divinity by Yale Uni- 
versity in 1870. On September 15 of the last year mentioned, Doctor 
Walker married Amelia Read Larned of New Haven, the youngest daugh- 
ter of George and Maria (Read) Larned of Thompson, Connecticut. 

Mrs. Walker was born January 3, 1831, at Thompson. Among her 
ancestors were Thomas Hooker, John Pratt, Joseph Talcott, James Pier- 
pont and others among the leaders of Connecticut in colonial days. Los- 
ing her mother when a child, she spent her early years in the household 
of her maternal grandparents at Thompson. In young womanhood she 
removed to New Haven and resided with her uncle, Mr. Ezra C. Read 
of that city, until her marriage. 

Afflicted by years of invalidism before and after her arrival in Hartford, 
Mrs. Walker's rich temperament and loving sympathy entered heartily 
into the lives of her parishioners, arousing, especially, the young people 
who gathered around her as a center, to an interest in the study of the 
Bible and missions, for which she had a special enthusiasm. Identifying 
herself with her husband's life in every direction, she gave unstinted 
affection to his son, from whom she inspired an equal devotion. 

But Doctor Walker soon found that he had been unwise in assuming the 
burdens of a pastorate once more before his health had been fully reestab- 
lished, and on May 19, 1873, he had to relinquish the pulpit for a second 
time. From October, 1873, to November, 1874, Doctor Walker sought 
renewed strength in Europe, living chiefly at Stuttgart and Rome. At 
the close of the year 1874 he returned to Brattleboro. For the next four 
years he dwelt with his father-in-law, Mr. Williston, in the town of his 
boyhood home, in the house in which he was accustomed to spend the 
summers thereafter as long as he lived. During much of these four 
years of continuous residence here he acted as pastor of the Congrega- 
tional Church, without ever being formally inducted into its pastorate. 

From Brattleboro Doctor Walker was called, early in 1879, to the First 
Church, Hartford, and was installed in ministry on February 27. The 
time of his coming was one of considerable significance in the history of 
this ancient church. The shifting of the population which was to make 
its situation essentially "downtown" had begun to affect the congregation, 
a considerable debt rested upon^hie society, and a strong and molding 
leadership was desirable. Under Doctor Walker's efforts the debt was 
speedily paid, the house of worship renovated, a new organ procured 
by the gift of a generous member of the church, and a renewed interest 
and pride were awakened in its history, especially in connection with the 



REV. GEORGE LEON WALKER .,^787 

celebration of the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the organiza- 
tion in October, 1883. In connection with that event Doctor Walker pre- 
pared a most painstaking and valuable "History of the First Church" 
that was published in a volume of five hundred and fifteen pages in 1884. 
Assured early of the respect and affection of his congregation, Doctor 
Walker grew to a position of influence in the city, especially in what con- 
cerned the preservation of its memories, illustrated, to specify a single 
instance, in his interest in the rescue of the ancient burying ground and 
the associated Gold Street improvement. 

In the larger affairs of the Congregational body Doctor Walker was a 
recognized leader. Thus, he served as one of the commission of twenty- 
five that prepared what has been known from the year of its publication 
as the "Creed of 1883," now widely accepted as a statement of Congrega- 
tional belief. In 1885, at the seventy-fifth anniversary of the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, he preached the com- 
memorative sermon. The doctrinal discussions which turmoiled the 
board aroused his interest and enlisted his participation as an advocate 
of moderation, notably at the meetings of the board at Springfield in 1887 
and at New York in 1SS9, and led to his appointment, in the year last 
mentioned, as chairman of the "Committee of Nine" which formulated 
the altered policy now pursued by the board in making missionary ap- 
pointments. From 1887 to 1889 he was one of the corporators of Yale 
University. In 1888 he became a member of the "Board of Visitors" of 
Andover Theological Seminary — being during the latter part of his in- 
cumbency the president of the board. As a "visitor" he had to pass upon 
the concluding features of the trial of President E. C. Smyth and the 
questions raised by the Andover theology. 

In all the controversies in which he was engaged Doctor Walker showed 
himself a fearless, incisive debater; but he carried a judicial mind and 
an irenic spirit, so that his judgment was widely trusted and his wisdom 
generally acknowledged. And as he grew in age, without abating a whit 
of his fire and energy of convictions, his sympathies steadily broadened 
and his spirit sweetened, so that those who were his sharpest opponents 
in controversy were largely won by personal friendship. 

Doctor Walker's Hartford pastorate, though a period of good health 
compared with his earlier ministry, was not without its serious physical 
disadvantages. In him the spirit dominated~-over the flesh, as when just 
before preaching a discourse commemorative of the Reverend Doctor 
Leonard Bacon, in 1882, he broke his leg by a fall on the icy pavement, 
yet insisted on performing the appointed service seated in a chair. A 
journey to Carlsbad in 1886 brought him some improvement, but a ten- 



738 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

dency to attacks of angina pectoris at length attained to such severity 
and frequency that in June, 1892, he was compelled to lay down the pas- 
toral charge of the First Church altogether, though retaining the title of 
pastor emeritus and performing occasional service as strength permitted 
him. A year before his resignation, in 1891, he published a life of Thomas 
Hooker, and after his retirement he gave himself more than ever to his- 
torical studies, especially to the investigation of New England religious 
history, in which he had always had a deep interest. The first of these 
labors was embodied in a series of lectures on "Aspects of the Religious 
Life of New England," which he gave before the Theological Seminary in 
the winter of 1896. These were published in 1897 in a volume that has 
met with decided acceptance. 

On August 23, 1896, at his summer home in Brattleboro, Doctor Walker 
was stricken with apoplexy, resulting in a complete deprivation of speech 
and an almost total paralysis of his right side. These disabilities con- 
tinued to the end. His mental clearness was not impaired. He continued 
to enjoy meeting his friends, and the reading of books. A great blow 
came to him in the death of his devoted wife on October 30, 1898 ; but 
he bore his trials and limitations with singular courage and patience, 
till he was set free from his long imprisonment by the angel of death 
March 14, 1900. 

His tastes were strongly attracted in several artistic directions. He 
had much acquaintance with engravings and was in a. very modest degree 
a collector of prints. He knew much of colonial furniture and loved to 
finish or repair an antique piece with his own hands. He was interested in 
colonial literature, especially that which bore on the history of Congre- 
gationalism, and collected an excellent working library on the theme. He 
wrote readily and well, and published, besides the three volumes already 
indicated, a large number of sermons, papers and articles. 

Doctor Walker was undoubtedly at his best in the pulpit. With few 
of the characteristic graces of the orator, he had the rare faculty of being 
able to make men listen to what he had to say. His message invariably 
bore the stamp of earnestness, directness and conviction. Its form was 
fresh and striking, its development clear and convincing. And through 
the sermon there ran a vein of feeling, sometimes of pathos, sometimes 
of entreaty, always of positive faith, which touched the heart of the hearer 
no less than the matter of the discourse appealed to the intellect. 

His son, Williston, graduated from Amherst College in 1883, and 
from Hartford Theological Seminary in 1886; he married, June 1, 1886, 
Alice, daughter of Professor Richard H. Mather of Amherst College. 
Children : Amelia, Elizabeth. He received Ph.D. from Leipsic Univer- 



REV. GEORGE LEON WALKER 739 

sity in 1888; D.D. from Western Reserve University in 1894, from 
Amherst in 1895, Yale in 1901 and from the University of Geneva- 
Loritz in 1909. He was associate professor of history at Bryn Mawr, 
1888-1889; associate professor of church history at the Hartford Theo- 
logical Seminary, 1889-1892 ; professor of Germanic and western church 
history, 1892-1901 ; trustee of Yale College from 1895 ; since 1901, profes- 
sor of ecclesiastical history at Yale Theological Seminary ; secretary of 
Board of Trustees of Amherst College ; president of the New Haven 
Colony Historical Society and a member of several historical and anti- 
quarian societies.^ 

He is author of the following: 

On the Increase of Royal Power under Augustus, 1888. 

The Creeds and Platforms of Congregationahsm, 1893. 

The History of Congregational Churches in the United States, 1894. 

Reformation. 

Ten New England Leaders. 

John Calvin. 

Great Men of the Christian Church. 

French Trans-Geneva. 

The Church. 

Other sons of Reverend Charles and Lucretia A. Walker were Stephen 
Ambrose, born in 1835. He graduated from Burr and Burton Seminary 
at Manchester, and from Middlebury College in 1858. After teaching 
school for a time in Ohio and in Binghamton, New York, he began the 
study of law and was admitted to the bar in Broome County, New York, in 
1861. When the war broke out he entered the war as paymaster of volun- 
teers and served in Virginia and in the department of the Gulf. At the 
close of the war he resumed law practice in New York City. He was 
president of the Board of Education of New York from 1879 to 1886; a 
trustee of the "Tilden Trust" and United States attorney for the southern 
district of New York from 1886 to 1889. He was elected a trustee of 
Middlebury College in 1870 and held the place at the time of his death. 
The college gave him the degree of Doctor of Laws in 1882. Mr. Walker 
was regarded as one of the ablest lawyers of New York City, was a man 
of broad and accurate knowledge and a speaker of much ability. He 
was a member of the University Club, the Lawyers' Club and of the Bar 
Association. He was a bachelor and lived with his brother, 

Henry Freeman Walker/]\LD., who graduated at Middlebury Col- 
lege, 1861, New York Medical College, 1865. For forty years he was a 

1 Provost Yale University, 1919. 



740 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

practitioner in New York City, with a large practice among the best and 
most conservative New York families. His summer home was at Pitts- 
ford, Vermont, where he had already built and endowed a library and 
where he died August 13, 1917. 

Doctor Walker left $100,000 to Middlebury College to establish the 
Henry Freeman Walker furlough and emergency fund, and between 
$25,000 and $30,000 to the town of Pittsford for different objects. 

Norman Franklin Cabot 

was born in Hartland, Vermont, January 20, 1821, the fifth son in a family 

of nine children. His father was Rlarston Cabot, whose first ancestor 

in this country, George Cabot, came with brothers about 1699 from St. 

Helier's, Island of Jersey, to Salem, Massachusetts, where he married 

Abigail, daughter of Benjamin JNIarston. Their descendants settled along 

the Connecticut River and this branch of the Cabot family has been known 

as the Connecticut River Cabots ; his mother, Mary Rogers, was daughter 

of Jonathan and Polly (Maes) Rogers of Londonderry, New Hampshire ! 

— Scotch-Irish — of the same family as that of John Rodgers, the martyr. i 

Norman was an ambitious boy who loved work and play equally well, | 

and had a high spirit that did not know the meaning of fear. i 

Marston Cabot made no success of the farm he inherited from his ] 

father Marston, and the boy Norman at the age of fifteen, with a desire j 

to assume his share of the family burden, went forth in search of what 1 

the world had for him, and he set out after the manner that characterized | 

his long life, intrepid, filled with a buoyant strength that overrode obsta- \ 

cles, never shirking the task before him, always advancing the interests ' 

of others with his own. He traveled alone from Vermont to Georgia, a ' 

long and thrilling journey in those days, to enter the employ of Bailey & ; 

Hamilton, merchants at Elberton, Georgia. i 

The first year with this firm as clerk, he rode on horseback one thousand - 

miles through the Gulf States, in the promotion of their interests. In s 

1839, three years later, the youth of eighteen was ready to enter upon a j 

business of his own, and in the face of inducements to remain in Elberton, \ 

he decided upon a mercantile business in Wetumpka, Alabama, the most 
important inland town in the South at that time, situated at the head of 
navigation on the Coosa River, fourteen miles from Montgomery, and a 
great cotton mart. Here the merchants of the place had a large and fertile 
field for operations, the town being the medium of supply and exchange 
for the surrounding plantation country, and here Mr. Cabot achieved the 
largest financial success in the history of the town. 

He met with reverses also : at one time by fire, and again by flood, but 



NORMAN FRANKLIN CABOT 741 

with a remarkable recuperative power and cheerfulness in the face of 
•disaster, they were accepted by him as incidents to larger opportunity. 

For seventeen years he was a merchant in Wetumpka, under three dif- 
ferent partnerships. Francis W. Brooks, son of Captain William S. 
Brooks of Brattleboro, went to Alabama in 1844 to settle a business claim; 
in 1847 he and Mr. Cabot entered into a partnership under the name, 
Cabot, Tullis & Company, which was the beginning of what proved a life- 
long connection between the families of Cabot and Brooks. 

This firm dissolved partnership in 1850, and Mr. Cabot, in company 
with George J. Brooks, went to California, walking across the Isthmus of 
Panama. It was the year of 1851 and California was still astir with the 
gold fever of 1849. He returned, however, to Wetumpka in 185'3. 

His marriage to Miss Lucy T. Brooks, who after the death of their 
mother, joined her brother Francis in Alabama, took place in Wetumpka, 
December 13, 1853. 

Houghton, Allen & Company, his last partnership, included Alfred F. 
Houghton, one of the founders of the publishing house of Houghton, 
Osgood & Company of Boston. 

He had a deep and abiding love for the Southern people with whom his 
youthful attachments were made and his best years spent, although his 
political sympathies, always active, were with the North. He at no time 
concealed his views regarding the evil of slavery, or his belief in the 
Union; but, while consistently and fearlessly holding the attitude of a 
Union man in the bitter antebellum days, he succeeded, where most failed, 
in keeping his friendships secure — behind dauntless bearing and candid 
speech he was a man with a kind and honest heart. 

Oppressed by unstable conditions in the South, and cherishing a very 
loyal sentiment for his native state, in 1857 he came to Brattleboro, the 
home of Mrs. Cabot's people, and built the house on Terrace Street which 
became their permanent home ; he also purchased for a farm the land on 
the opposite side of the Connecticut River known as "the Island," which 
he brought to a high state of cultivation and fertility; this was swept 
away by the freshet of April, 1863; at the same time he began to feel 
heavily the losses from unpaid debts in the South consequent upon the 
breaking out of the war, and it became' necessary for him to go into active 
business life again. For the second time he went to California, on this 
occasion to become manager of the wholesale paper house of George J. 
Brooks & Company in San Francisco. He succeeded so well in this under- 
taking that he was able to return to Brattleboro in 1865, and for seven 
years rested from his labors. 

Again reverse of fortune, caused by the great fires in Chicago and Bos- 
ton, induced him to accept the position of treasurer of the Vermont Sav- 



742 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

ings Bank in the autumn of 1872. For a few months over twenty-nine 
years, or until his eighty-second birthday, he held this position. Under his. 
guidance the bank grew from one of $1,200,000 to an institution of more 
than $3,500,000 deposits, eventually becoming the second largest in the 
state. This growth was maintained through panics elsewhere and in spite 
of the multiplication of eleven other banks in the immediate vicinity of 
Brattleboro, and was due to the concentration of mind and time devoted 
to his work. 

The love of family was a power in his life and, doubtless, led to the 
interest in efforts to safeguard the rights and property of women, which, 
with the execution of estates, occupied much of his time after banking 
hours. He took delight in a spirited horse and when an old man could 
handle the ribbons with skill born of long practice and of the sympathy 
existing between man and beast. Gardening was another favorite recrea- 
tion. The years after he retired from the Savings Bank were filled with 
home activities and in study of the history and biography of the times 
in which his long life had been passed and which were interpreted by him 
with his habitual tolerance and humor. 

Mrs. Cabot died April 5, 1912. 

Fie died May 6, 1913, in the ninety-third year of his age. 
Children : 

Mary Rogers. 

Horace E., died at three years of age. 

William Brooks. 

Grace, married April 12, 1887, Frederick Holbrook. (See p. 977.) 

William Brooks Cabot was born February 2, 1858. He went through 
the grades of the public schools in his native town, graduating from the 
High School in 1874. In the autumn of that year he entered Williston 
Seminary, Easthampton, and finished his preparatory studies at the Hop- 
kins Grammar School, New Haven. His Freshman year at the Sheffield 
Scientific Department of Yale College was interrupted by typhoid fever ; ^ 
while convalescent from typhoid, he fell ill with scarlet fever. The con- 
sequences of two serious illnesses in one year caused him to abandon 
his plans for continuing his education at Yale and to enter the Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York; he graduated in 1881. His edu- 
cational course was characterized by a very high rank in study and a corre- 
sponding activity in athletics. He was president of his class, captain of the 
R. P. I. crew, on the football team, etc. 

In June, 1881, immediately after graduation, he entered the employ of 
the Union Pacific Railroad and beginning as topographer in Omaha, was 
soon promoted to assistant engineer, in which capacity he was sent to 



NORMAN FRANKLIN CABOT 743 

Montana, to Silver Bow Junction on the Utah & Northern Railroad, and 
to Idaho in connection with the Oregon Short Line. 

September, 1883, he returned east to accept the position of engineer 
of the Everett Iron Company, Everett, Pennsylvania, and remained with 
that company until the summer of 1886, when he was again in Omaha with 
the Union Pacific Railroad. In 1887 he came east and built the City 
Hall, Public Library and Industrial School of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
for the Rindge Estate and was on the committee of the Industrial School, 
1890-1891, with William E. Russell, Samuel L. Montague, Thomas Went- 
worth Higginson and Harry Ellis. In July, 1895, he became a partner 
in the construction firm, Holbrook, Cabot & Daly, and later, of Holbrook, 
Cabot & Rollins, engineers and contractors. 

While a member of this firm the operations in which he was actively en- 
gaged were the separation of grades at Brockton, Massachusetts ; the 
masonry on the separation work at Newton and Natick ; on the Albany 
railroad, and grade separation work on the Dedham and West Roxbury 
branches of the New Haven railroad; the drawbridge from Newport to 
Tiverton, Rhode Island; double-tracking of bridge at Warehouse Point; 
dam on the Chicopee River for the Ludlow Manufacturing Company at 
Red Bridge. A section of the original Rapid Transit Subway in New 
York City was built by this firm while he was partner. 

He resigned from the above firm in the summer of 1908. 

He was a member of the Constitutional Convention of New Hampshire, 
1919. 

A love of nature led him very early, during vacation time, to explore 
the country around the headwaters of the Connecticut River and some of 
the lakes of Northern Canada and British America. Five trips to Labra- 
dor in later years have made the subject matter of a book, "In Northern 
Labrador," published by him in 1912. He had previously contributed the 
Introduction to Mrs. Leonidas Hubbard's "A W^oman's Way through 
Unknown Labrador," and a chapter for Doctor Grenfell's book on 
Labrador. 

He married jNIay 29, 1886, Elizabeth L., daughter of Colonel Francis J. 
and Anna Lyman Parker of Boston, and has had six children : Dorothy, 
died January 4, 1896; Anna L., married July 30, 1914, J. Randolph 
Coolidge, III, of Boston ; Eleanor F. ; Katherine L. ; Norman, born Febru- 
ary 20, 1900 ; Mary Minot. ^~- 

He has lived in or around Boston since his marriage and has a summer 
home in Dublin, New Hampshire. He is a member of the St. Botolph, 
Papyrus, Boone and Crockett, and Travellers' Clubs, Union Boat and 
Engineers' Clubs and Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, England. 



744 • ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Honorable George Folsom 

Honorable George Folsom was born in Kennebunk, Maine, May 23, 
1802, a descendant of John Foulsham of Foulsham, England, who came 
to Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1638. This ancestor settled in Exeter, 
New Hampshire. 

Mr. Folsom's boyhood was passed at Portland, Maine, to which city 
his parents had removed when he was very young. He graduated at 
Harvard College in 1822, and soon afterwards entered the office of Ether 
Sheppley, Esquire, Saco, Maine, for the purpose of studying law. 

In 1830, while studying under Mr. Sheppley, he wrote a "History of 
Saco and Biddeford, with Notices of other early Settlements and of the 
Proprietary Governments in Maine, including the provinces of New 
Somersetshire and Lygonia." 

The practice of his profession began in Worcester, Massachusetts, 
where he was able to gratify still further his taste for historical research, 
publishing, as chairman of the Committee of Publication, a volume of the 
Transactions of the American Antiquarian Society. 

In 1837 he removed to New York, which was to become his permanent 
home, and here he married Margaret Cornelia, daughter of Benjamin 
Winthrop, through whom he became possessed of great wealth. 

The cares of a large estate obliged him by degrees to abandon the prac- 
tice of law, but he continued to find leisure for his literary pursuits. He 
gave time and energy to the interests of the New York Historical Society 
and published the best volume of historical collection relating to the 
Dutch ever published in this country. He made a translation from the 
Spanish of the Despatches of Hernando Cortez published in 1843 in this 
country and in England ; also, a small volume, "Mexico," to which is added 
an account of Texas and Yucatan, and of the Sante F^ Expeditions. 

On his return in 1844 after a year in Europe, Mr. Folsom was elected 
to the state senate : a tribute of the day says that "he compelled the 
deference and respect as a statesman which as a gentleman and a scholar 
he had never failed to command." He was actively concerned in the con- 
vention which was the means of electing General Taylor to the presidency 
of the United States. 

In 1850 he received the appointment of United States Minister to Hol- 
land, and for three years filled this office in a way that reflected credit on 
his native country and which was recognized by the royal family and by all 
classes of The Hague. 

Three years of travel followed, and in 1856 he and his family returned 
to this country. He came to Brattleboro in 1857-1858, bought the Bradley 
house on the Common and moved it to North Street to give place to a 



HON. HAMPDEN CUTTS 745 

beautiful summer residence. In Brattleboro he took a lively interest in 
the Vermont Historical Society. From 1859 until his death he was presi- 
dent of the Ethnological Society. 

Mrs. Folsom died in the spring of 18G3. 

In the autumn of 1868 he again embarked for Europe, and died in Rome 
in March, 1869. 

His private library is said to have been the most extensive in this 
country. As a liberal promoter of science, literature, and the fine arts he 
was an influential citizen of New York, but the guilelessness and unselfish- 
ness of his nature were regarded as the source of his personal attractions. 
He contributed largely to St. Michael's Episcopal Church, where, after 
his death in March, 1869, windows memorial of him and his daughter 
Margaret were placed by members of his family. 
Children : 

Margaret Winthrop, born in 1843, became an invalid in 1869 ; died in 

1907. 
Helen Stuyvesant, who wrote "Chronicles of the Nursery" in 1871. 
She entered a sisterhood in England in that year and returned to 
New York to assist in founding the Sisterhood of St. John Baptist. 
George W., born in August, 1849; graduated from Columbia College; 
was president of the Lenox Club. He married October 1, 1867, 
Frances E. H. Fuller, daughter of William H. Fuller of New York. 
He died March 29, 1915. They lived in New York and Lenox. Chil- 
dren: Helen S., Mrs. Churchill Satterlee ; George Winthrop, died; 
Maud, Mrs. Clark G. Voorhees; William Fuller, died; Georgette, 
Mrs. Francis Fitzgibbon; Ethelred F. Folsom; J. Constantine Fol- 
som, Mrs. Cleveland Bigelow; Marguerite, Mrs. Sidney Haight; 
Winifred, Mrs. Edward H. Delafield. 

Honorable Hampden Cutts 

Honorable Hampden Cutts was born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
August 3, 1803, the son of Edward Cutts, a shipping merchant engaged in 
the West India trade, who came from an old and distinguished family 
resident in that neighborhood for five generations. 

Hampden was a student at Phillips Exeter Academy from 1818, and 
graduated at Harvard College in 1823. He was distinguished in college 
for his elocution and for his taste for military tactics. He studied law 
with the Honorable Jeremiah Mason of Portsmouth, "a giant in stature, 
a giant in mind," one of the most eminent lawyers of that period. In 1824 
he delivered the Fourth of July oration to a great number of enthusiastic 
citizens of Portsmouth. He practiced law in the office of Honorable 



746 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Ichabod Bartlett until 1828, when he opened an office by himself. He was 
chosen colonel of the First Regiment of New Hampshire militia and aid 
to the governor, in the latter capacity being one of the delegates to meet 
General Lafayette and escort him to Portsmouth. ■ During the contested 
election between Adams and Jackson, jMr. Cutts was selected by some of 
the leading men in Portsmouth to edit a paper called The Signs of the 
Times, established to sustain the cause of John Q. Adams. 

In September, 1829, he married Mary Pepperell Sparhawk Jarvis, eldest 
daughter of Honorable William Jarvis of Weathersfield, Vermont, who 
was consul at Lisbon and acting charge d'affaires of the United States 
for Portugal from 1803 to 1811. 

In November, 1833, Mr. and Mrs. Hampden Cutts moved to Hartland, 
Vermont, in compliance with the wishes of her father, to improve a 
landed estate which he had acquired, and there Mr. Cutts became probate 
judge, 1849-1851, and represented Hartland in the State Legislature, j 

1840, 1841 and 1858, and Windsor County in the State Senate, 1842-1843. j 

They came to Brattleboro in 1861, moved by the solicitations of their ■ | 

friend, Honorable George W. Folsom, and built a fine residence in the I 

latter's neighborhood, where ancestral treasures were gathered, — among 
them portraits of Samuel and Anna Holyoke Cutts by Blackburn, a por- 
trait of Lady Sparhawk and a pastel of President Holyoke by Copley, and 
a full-length portrait by Smibert of General Sir William Pepperell, — and ; 

where the atmosphere was fragrant of a past of breeding and culture. j 

He also purchased a farm three miles from the village which was, at his i 

death, sold to J. N. Balestier. He was president of the Woolgrowers I 

Association, 1865, and vice-president of the Vermont State Agricultural I 

Society. | 

Mr. Cutts was a student of Shakespeare and read his plays with re- ] 

markable understanding and effect. He was vice-president of the New j 

England Historic-Genealogical Society of Boston and lectured on his- i 

torical subjects. He died at North Hartland April 27, 1875. His wife • ^ 

died April 12, 1879, at their home in Brattleboro, where her later years 
were devoted to writing the life of her father, entitled "Life and Times 
of William Jarvis." Mrs. Cutts was vice-regent of Mount Vernon. ■ 
Children, besides four who died in infancy, were : 

Captain Edward H., born in 1831, graduated at Norwich Academy in 
1850; married Miss Annie Sherw-^od, lived at Faribault, Minnesota, 
and died there October 11, 1887. Children: Mary Sherwood, died in 
1877 ; Katie Anna, died in 1878. 

Anna Holyoke, born June 7, 1835 ; married August 24, 1861, A. Trum- 
bull Howard of Brooklyn ; died June 28, 1889. Children : 



HON. HAMPDEN CUTTS 747 

Cecil H. C, born in Brattleboro September 5, 1863; married Sep- 
tember 12, 1894, Effie Mae, daughter of Samuel Boore Bartley of 
Beebe, Arkansas, who died November 2, 1915. He is author of the 
following: Life and Public Services of General John Wolcott 
Phelps. Brattleboro in Verse and Prose. The Cutts Family in 
America, 656 pages, Munsells Sons, Albany. The Sparhawk Fam- 
ily, Salem, Mass. Pepperell Portraits, Salem, Mass. The Pep- 
perell Family in America, Salem, Mass. Sketch of Chief, Justice 
Samuel Sewall, Salem, Mass. A son, Elwyn. 
Mary Howard, married April 23, 1889, Robert W. King of Montclair, 
New Jersey. A son, Eliot Charles, living in California, has a 
daughter, Frances Holyoke. 
Elizabeth Bartlett, born April 13, 1837; married A. R. Bullard, M.D.; 

died February 2, 1864. 
Charles J., born March 21, 1848; died September 13, 1863. 
Harriet L., married January 8, 1879, Underbill A. Budd, born Decem- 
ber, 1849, died December, ISSO. She died August 7, 1914. A son, 
Major Kenneth P. Budd, 30Sth Infantry, received the distinguished 
service cross for extraordinary heroism in the Great War. 

Miss Mary Cutts was born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, April 4, 
1801. In 1832 she left Portsmouth and went to Hartland, Vermont, to 
reside in the family of her brother, and came with them to Brattleboro, 
where she remained until 1879, when she went to Brooklyn to reside with 
her niece, Mrs. Howard. 

Miss Cutts was a lady of the old school, in intellectual endowment 
and many accomplishments. She was an authoress and issued two 
volumes of verse. The first was a sprightly miscellaneous collection 
called "The Autobiography of a Clock" ; the second was a larger work, 
a romance entitled "Grondalla," which was founded on incidents in the 
history of her own family in the early days of Portsmouth. In her youth 
she had the good fortune to enjoy the first and best society of the times. 
Among her early churchgoing impressions was that of seeing the large 
black eyes of Daniel Webster gazing at her, before the days when he had 
become famous. At the age of eighteen she attended a brilliant ball given 
in honor of the arrival of Lafayette in Portsmouth. In the family of 
her uncle. Senator Charles Cutts, she spent some time in the distinguished 
circles of Washington society; and during a period passed by her in 
Boston she enjoyed with special satisfaction the frequent meeting, at her 
aunt's table, with President John Quincy Adams. 

With a mind stored with pleasant recollections and extensive reading, 
her society was very interesting to those who knew her during the twenty 



748 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

years spent by her in Brattleboro. Miss Cutts died in Brooklyn, New 
York, May 20, 1882, at the age of eighty-one years. 

George Chandler Hall 

George Chandler Hall, son of Gardner C. Hall, was born in this village, 
in a house on the site of the Baptist Church, February 17, 1828. Up to 
the commencement of his sixteenth year he was kept constantly in the 
village schools. In 1844 his father placed him with the firm of Carruth 
& Whittier, Boston, wholesale dealers in drugs, oils, paints, etc., where he 
served a long apprenticeship, and commenced to form those habits of 
system, energy and strict personal attention which marked his after life 
and led to fortune. 

In 1851 Mr. Hall, then about twenty-three years of age, removed to 
New York and soon engaged in the manufacture and sale of paints, deal- 
ing mainly in white lead, and subsequently established the now well- 
known firm of Hall, Bradley & Company, than which no business house in 
the city enjoyed a higher reputation for liberality, commercial integrity 
and financial sovmdness. He continued in this firm as its senior partner 
until his death, April 26, 1872. 

In 1860 he purchased land of George H. Clark for a residence in Brat- 
tleboro. In September, 1871, he purchased the Dummer farm for $27,000. 

In 1868, after much solicitation on the part of Colonel Fisk and his 
associates in the management of the Erie Railway, who had personal 
knowledge of his especial fitness for the place, Mr. Hall consented to 
accept the responsible and laborious position of purchasing agent for that 
road, wherein his strong will, personal independence, thorough knowledge 
of men and business, and especially his eminent executive ability, found 
full scope, and soon made themselves felt in results so favorable to the 
financial condition of the company as to render his services a necessity 
thereafter, and to compel him to continue in the position, despite his 
repeatedly expressed wish to retire, up to the time of his death. He had 
also been a director of the road for nearly three years ; but, fully occupied 
by the special duties of his own department, he gave little attention to, 
and assumed no responsibility for, the general management and policy of 
the company. These, it was well understood, were in the exclusive con- 
trol of an "inner circle" of the directory, to which Mr. Hall and several 
of his associates neither sought nor xobtained admission, and of whose 
intentions and plans, until disclosed and developed by acts, they knew 
nothing. In the final overthrow of Jay Gould and the notorious "Erie 
ring," however. Colonel Hall played an important part, and was one of 
the three directors in the old board who commanded the full confidence 
of the rightful owners, and was consequently retained by them, both in 



GEORGE CHANDLER HALL 749 

his position as director and purchasing agent. It was, however, his firm 
purpose, at a near period, to withdraw entirely from his connection with 
the company, with a view to devoting the leisure thus secured to duties and 
pursuits more congenial to his personal tastes. 

Though avoiding all active participation in public life, Colonel Hall 
occupied a prominent social position in Brooklyn, where he resided, and 
took a lively personal interest in many of the enterprises intended to 
improve and adorn that city. He was the most active projector of the 
Prospect Park Association, was a member of the Art Association and 
of several other clubs and associations. 

June 1, 1854, he married Anna O'Connor, born November 11, 1834, in 
Dublin, Ireland, the daughter of £)ennis O'Connor, a distinguished pro- 
fessor of the classics at Cork University and one who refused a post at 
Trinity and at Cambridge, because an acceptance would involve a change 
of his religion from Catholic to Protestant. She died April 28, 1899. He 
died at his residence on Clinton Avenue, Brooklyn, New York, April 26, 
1872, at the age of forty-four. 

He was moulded on a large scale. His physical structure — large, com- 
pact, powerful — was a type of the whole man, and was the fitting abode 
of a head and heart of like proportions, all obedient to a will that yielded 
to no common obstacle. Endowed thus bountifully with all the strong 
elements of manhood, he did nothing weakly. Earnest and tenacious in 
the pursuit of desired ends, he rarely failed in attaining them. To his 
great strength was joined a remarkable quickness of perception and 
promptness in execution, qualities seldom found in one of his mould. 
He was essentially a fair-minded and just man, hating all shams and all 
forms of hypocrisy and meanness with a hatred that knew no bounds. 
Like most men of strong feeling and will, he was often impatient and 
sometimes imperious ; but his strong sense of justice restrained him, even 
then, from serious wrongdoing, and those who knew him best realized that 
his occasional brusqueness of manner seldom had a rough purpose, and 
not infrequently concealed the kindest thoughts and intentions. His 
open-handed liberality was known to all. His tender affection for his 
family, and especially for his widowed mother, from whom he inherited 
many of his marked physical and mental traits, was deep and enduring 
and found constant expression, more in deeds than words. To his 
younger brothers and sisters, on the death of his father many years ago, 
he acted a father's as well as an elder brother's part, and their preparation 
for and establishment in life, as their circumstances required, was his 
especial care. Among the strongest characteristics of his strong nature 
were his remarkable local attachments and his never changing affection 



?50 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

for his friends. Though he went out from Brattleboro while yet a boy, he 
never ceased to regard the place of his birth and the scene of his youthful 
trials and pleasures as the one spot on all the earth most to be desired and 
cherished. No project having in view the interests and welfare of his 
native town ever appealed to him in vain. He had already done much 
for her material advancement, and he looked forward with peculiar pleas- 
ure to other and greater benefits he might bestow. 

His widow married George A. Powers of Brooklyn, New York. 
Children : 

Three children died young. 

Margaret, married June 5, 1883, Robert Minton Burnett of South- 
boro, Massachusetts, son of Joseph Burnett ; she died August 26, 
1914. Children : Leila, married Lyman Delano ; George H., born in 
March, 1894; Harry. 

Francis Holmes Hall, born November 28, 1860; died May 3, 1883. 

Edna, married Vicomte de Jotemps and lives in France. 

Addison B. Hall was born August 30, 1833. At twenty-one he was 
associated with his brother, George C. Hall, and a Mr. Cornell in the 
manufacture of white lead, the firm's name being Hall & Cornell. In due 
time the younger brother, John Hall, became a member with S. Rowe 
Bradley, the firm being Hall, Bradley & Company. 

May 17, 1860, he married Fannie, daughter of John A. Pullen of New 
York, a former resident of Guilford and Brattleboro. She died in 1873 
and in 1874 he married Agnes Randall, widow of Charles Tomes of New 
York, who had children : 

Charles F., married Miss Emma Lafitte of New Orleans. 

Agnes Adelaide, married October 28, 1885, Arthur W. Childs. 

Emily R., married Frederick G. Flagg of Troy, New York. 

About 1879 he and his brother John sold their interest in the business 
and made their residence in Brattleboro, where Addison B. served in vari- 
ous official capacities, on the board of bailiffs, being clerk of that corpora- 
tion from 1890 ; he was a member of the board of selectmen, a trustee of 
the Vermont Savings Bank and an officer and active worker for the Valley 
Fair. 

He died February 22, 1894. 
Children : \ 

Jane, married June 14, 1898, George E. Foster, born August 13, 1872. 
Their son, Addison Hall Foster, died January 10, 1911, aged six 
years. 

John Leavitt Hall was born October 4, 1837; he married in 1861 




JUDGE DANIEL KELLOGG 





HONORABLE CHARLES K. FIELD 



HONORABLE GEORGE HOWE 



HON. CHARLES KELLOGG FIELD 751 

Katherine Cecilia Swits, daughter of Nicholas Swits, a banker of Sche- 
nectady, who surveyed the first steam railroad between Albany and Sche- 
nectady. She was born December 4, 1839, and died June 24, 1900. 

Mr. Hall bought the Salisbury house on High Street in January, 1876, 
and made his residence in Brattleboro. 

He died November 12, 1882. 
Children : 

Julia, married, first, June 9, 1886, Doctor William Austin Tomes ; mar- 
ried, second, Ebenezer E. McLeod of Evanston, Illinois. 

Addison B., born in 1863 ; married Miss Sarah Cowenhoen of Brook- 
lyn, New York; died in 1894. 

Honorable Charles Kellogg Field 

Honorable Charles Kellogg Field came of a distinguished family, 
his lineage being traceable to John Field, the astronomer, who was born 
in London about 1550, and who died at Ardsley, England, about 1587. 
His grandson, Zechariah Field, came to Massachusetts and settled in 
Dorchester about 1630, but a few years later moved to Hartford, Connect- 
icut, and died in Hatfield, Massachusetts, in 1666. From him the line is 
easily traced to Martin Field, the father of the subject of this sketch, 
who was born in Leverett, Massachusetts, February 12, 1773, graduated 
at Williams College in 1798, studied law with his uncle, Lucius Hubbard, 
at Chester, Vermont, and settled at Newfane at the opening of the nine- 
teenth century. He was a man of rare natural ability, of varied and 
extensive acquirements, and for thirty years was eminent in his profes- 
sion and one of the leading men of the state. His wife was sister of 
Honorable Daniel Kellogg of Brattleboro. Their younger son, Roswell 
M. Field, was one of the most brilliant and able men Vermont ever pro- 
duced. The famous romance between him and Mary Almira Phelps, 
daughter of Doctor Phelps of Windsor, Vermont, removed him to St. 
Louis in 1839, and he soon became the compeer of the most eminent 
lawyers of the West. For years before his decease, in 1869, he was 
called the Nestor of the bar of the Southwest. He married May 18, 1848, 
Miss Frances Reed of St. Louis, whose parents were from Windham 
County, Vermont. Their son Eugene, the poet, was born September 2, 
1850; another son was Roswell M., born September 1, 1851, who studied 
law in the ofiice of his uncle, Charles K. Field. He was a newspaper man, 
and the author of many books and stories. 

Charles K. Field, the oldest son, was born in Newfane April 24, 1803, 
fitted for college at Amherst, Massachusetts, entered Middlebury College 
at the age of fifteen, and graduated in 1822. After studying law three 



752 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

years in the office of his father, he was admitted to the bar of Windham 
County and commenced the practice of his profession in Newfane; in 
1828 he removed to Wilmington, where he resided for ten years, repre- 
senting that town in the Legislature in 1835-1838; he was a delegate from 
that town to the State Constitutional Convention in 1836. In 1838 he 
returned to Newfane, where he resided until 1861, representing that town 
in the Legislature in 1853-1855 and 1860, and also representing it in the 
Constitutional Convention in 1813, 1850 and 1857. In 1861 he moved 
to Brattleboro, where he resided until his death. He formed a partnership 
with James M. Tyler, 1864, under the firm name of Field & Tyler, which 
continued until his death. He was elected a member of the Council of 
Censors in 1869, and chosen president thereof at its first session, and in 
1870 represented Brattleboro in the Constitutional Convention. Thus it 
will be seen that he had large experience in legislative bodies, where he 
always exerted great influence and did much toward shaping the legisla- 
tion of the state. 

Mr. Field inherited many of his father's characteristics, especially his 
sarcasm, humor and faculty for relating stories, of which he possessed 
an inexhaustible store. He was a great reader, and the best ancient and 
modern authors were as familiar to him as were his village neighbors. 
His memory was remarkable ; he remembered all of value that he ever 
read or heard, and had it at instant command ; this, with his quick per- 
ception, originality, powers of description, wit and humor, made him a 
most entertaining man in conversation, a brilliant public speaker and a 
formidable adversary in forensic debate. His judgment of men was 
unerring; a distinguished jurist of this state once said of him that it made 
little difference what men said to him, he seemed to look right into their 
minds and read their thoughts. He was a skillful lawyer; few men 
wielded a keener rapier than he, and he apparently possessed every requi- 
site of a most effective jury advocate ; but though he always commanded 
a large practice, he mainly left the trial of jury cases to others, regarding 
that as an uncertain and unsatisfactory field of enterprise. He was widely 
known throughout this state and highly respected for his brilliant abilities. 
He possessed a kind, sympathetic heart, retained the strongest attachments 
for his friends and was an honest man. He was the last of that genera- 
tion of men composed of the Bradleys, the Kelloggs, the Shafters and 
the Fields, who for more than half a century gave eminence to the bar of 
Windham County and whose names will always shine in the galaxy of 
Vermont's distinguished men. 

Mr. Field was married June 28, 1828, to Julia A. Kellogg of Coopers- 
town, New York; she was a descendant of Joseph Kellogg, who came 



THOMAS THOMPSON 753 

from England to Boston in 1625 and finally settled in Hadley, Massa- 
chusetts. She died April 9, 1886, at the age of seventy-seven. 

He died September 15, 1881. 
Children : 
Julia K., married January 15, 1861, Colonel Elisha P. Jevvett of Mont- 
pelier ; died December 30, 1890, aged sixty-one. Their daughter, 
Ruth Payne, married September 2, 1885, Professor John W. Burgess 
of Columbia College. 
Henry K. Field, born in 18-18, graduated at Amherst College 1869; 
admitted to the bar in 1871 ; married November 25, 1872, Kate L., 
born in 1851, daughter of Lorenzo Daniels of Hartford, Connecticut, 
was associated with C. J. Gleason of Montpelier in the practice of 
law. Mr. Field moved to California in 1881. He was general agent 
on the Pacific coast of the Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance 
Company. Children : 

Charles K., born in 1873 ; graduated at Leland Stanford, Junior, Uni- 
versity; he published a book of very clever college verses in 1895 
under the nom de plume, Carolus Ager, with a preface by David 
Starr Jordan, and is editor of The Sunset Magazine, pubHshed in 
San Francisco. 
Martin, born February 1, 1875 ; died April 21, 1906. 
Willard, born in Montpelier, and a daughter, Kate. 
Mary, born August 6, 1839; died June 12, 1909. She taught in the 
schools of Miss Barber and Miss Howland in Brattleboro, and in the 
South. She married June 1, 1868, Henry C. Willard, born March 23, 
1836; died December 2, 1899. (See p. 916.) 

/ 
Annah R. Kellogg, a daughter of Henry Kellogg of Boston (brother of 
Mrs. Charles K. Field), from the death of her mother when she was only 
two years of age, lived in the Field family in Brattleboro. She married, 
September 18, 1884, Doctor Charles W. Drew of Burlington, whom she 
met when he was assistant physician at the Brattleboro Asylum. They 
moved to Minneapolis, where he became a chemist and founded the 
Minnesota Institute of Pharmacy. Children : Julia Kellogg, Charles. 

Thomas Thompson 
Thomas Thompson was born in Boston August 27, 1797. He was a 
graduate of Harvard College (1817), studied divinity under Reverend 
William Ellery Channing, but abandoned it to devote himself to the fine 
arts. He made a collection of pictures, said to have been the finest in 
Boston at the time, which was destroyed by fire in 1852 ; another collec- 



754 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

tion followed, valued at $300,000. He moved to New York about 1860 
because of the exorbitant taxes in Boston. He was very eccentric; before 
he left Boston he would not travel by steamboat or railway train. 

He first met the woman who was to become his wife while traveling 
in Vermont. She was very handsome and so impressed Thomas Thomp- 
son, that he sought her acquaintance in Boston in 1843, and in December 
of that year they were married. 

Elizabeth Thompson was the daughter of a farmer, Samuel Rowell, of 
Lyndon, Vermont, who lived to be ninety-nine. He was a descendant of 
Thomas Rowell, who came from England to Salisbury, Massachusetts, in 
1638, and was an early proprietor. Members of the Rowell family were 
among the first settlers of New Hampshire. 

Mrs. Thompson was also a descendant of Hannah Dustin, who was 
captured by the Indians and carried into captivity but who escaped under 
circumstances which have given her a permanent place among the pioneer 
mothers of the nation. Her mother, who was Mary Atwood, married at 
sixteen, had six children, all boys, before she was twenty-five, when 
Elizabeth was born in their log cabin February 21, 1821. The mother 
lived to be ninety-five. Brought up under hardships and privations, 
Elizabeth's school advantages were very slight. At nine she went out to 
domestic service, receiving as wages twenty-five cents a week. 

Having a nature sensitive to suffering wherever she came in contact 
with it, her first impulse was to help all who appealed to her, and she 
early made the high resolve to live for the good of others, — but she brought 
to this purpose a mind that was bent on seeking and removing the sources 
of human misery and misfortune instead of founding institutions for 
their alteration. Her own life was lived with the utmost simplicity and 
quiet. Her husband sympathized with her tastes and desires and co- 
operated with her benevolences. He died March 28, 1869, after a married 
life of pure happiness. 

Mr. and Mrs. Thompson were boarders at the Bliss Farm, Brattleboro, 
the summer of 1861 and in the winter of 1861-1862, with Mrs. J. J. Cran- 
dall, at the Holbrook house on the Common. It was here that they be- 
came interested in the sewing women of the village. 

During their life together large sums of money were given by them to 
charitable objects, and his will was made in accord with Mrs. Thompson's 
wishes and advice. She became a widow at forty-eight, with an annual 
income of $100,000. This income was left to her for life, the principal 
to be divided at her death between the towns of Brattleboro, Vermont, 
and Rhinebeck, New York, to be used for the benefit of poor sewing 
women, of whom it is not probable that either of the towns named had as 
many as half a dozen. 



MRS. THOMAS THOMPSON 755 

In the summer of 1879 or 1880 Mrs. Thompson made a second visit 
to Brattleboro, staying as before at the Bliss Farm. With her were Steele 
MacKaye and his family, too numerous to be received in the Bliss house, 
but room was found for them at the neighboring Wilder Farm. 

In a small cottage on the Bliss property where Mr. MacKaye sought 
the quiet and solitude necessarj' for his literary work, he wrote "Paul 
Kavver," a play which was produced with notable success and has recently 
been published in a volume entitled "Representative American Plays." 

Mrs. Thompson's gifts to public institutions after the death of her hus- 
band were numerous and money was bestowed upon private individuals, 
much of which she afterwards had reason to believe had done more harm 
than good. Among her benefactions were $10,000 to investigate the 
causes of yellow fever; $100,000 to assist in providing business pursuits 
for heads of families. She founded the town of Long Mont at the foot 
of the Rocky Mountains, and gave six hundred and forty acres of land, 
with $300, to each colonist in Saline County, Kansas. She contributed 
largely to purchasing a telescope for Vassar College, and gave a building 
to the Concord School of Philosophy in 1885. She gave $25,000 to the 
advancement and prosecution of scientific research, and incurred large 
expense in providing a song service for the poor. She also made large 
gifts to the Free Medical College. Greatly interested in the temperance 
cause, she wrote a tract, "Figures of Hell," filled with statistical informa- 
tion, which was widely circulated. Twenty-eight families were entirely 
dependent on her in the town where she lived. Among the movements 
with which she was prominently identified were woman's suffrage, found- 
ing of kindergarten schools, amelioration of the condition of child widows 
in India and every reasonable effort poinding towards the establishment of 
right relations between capital and labor. 

She purchased Carpenter's painting of the signing of the Emancipation 
Proclamation by Lincoln in the presence of his cabinet, at a cost of $25,000 
and presented it to Congress. 

Her home was in East Tenth Street, New York City, and she continued 
to reside there after Mr. Thompson's death, but finally went to Stamford, 
Connecticut, where she lived with her nephews, Doctors Charles E. and 
Edward E. Rowell. 

Mrs. Thompson would have been a remarkable woman in any sphere of 
life; her personal attractions and influence wherever she was placed were 
notable. 

In December, 1890, she suffered a severe attack of apoplexy which was 
followed by paralysis. She died in Littleton, New Hampshire, July 30, 
1899. 



756 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

The Thompson Will (Provision) 
Item : I give, devise and bequeath all my lands, tenements and heredita- 
ments and all my estate and property, real and personal or mixed, of which 
I shall die seized or possessed, or to which I may have any claim or be in 
any way entitled to at the time of my decease, not otherwise herein given, 
j devised or bequeathed, to William Minot, Junior, and James Connor, both 

j of said Boston, to hold the same as joint tenants in fee, but upon the fol- 

j lowing trusts, viz : To take, hold and manage the real and mixed estate and 

to invest the personal, and after paying for repairs, taxes, insurance and 
all other necessary charges, including the annuities herein-before given, to 
pay over the net income of the trust fund so constituted to my aforesaid 
wife, Elizabeth, during her natural life, to her sole and separate use and 
benefit, upon her personal receipt or written order only, quarterly, or 
oftener if more convenient to my said wife, upon the last day of each and 
every quarter. And after the decease of my said wife, to apply the net in- 
come of the trust fund, after making the deductions aforesaid, for or 
I toward the relief and support of poor seamstresses, needle-women and 

i shop girls who may be in temporary need from want of employment, sick- 

I ness or misfortune, in the towns of Brattleboro, Vermont, and Rhinebeck, 

j Dutchess County, New York, the amount being equally divided between 

! the two towns. And I direct and empower my said trustees to employ 

from time to time such agents as they may judge best for the practical 
application of the income of the trust fund whether town officials of said 
towns, or corporations, associations or individual resident in said town or 
elsewhere, it being my wish that such agents shall be selected, if practicable, 
as will serve gratuitously. And I empower my said trustees, if the whole 
; income appropriated to either one of said towns is not needed for the relief 

of the class of persons above named in that town for one year, to apply the 
surplus to the relief of the same class in the other town if needed, and if 
not to apply such surplus to such kindred charitable purposes in said town 
or elsewhere, but not, however, in the city of Boston, as shall be deter- 
mined by my said trustees, or in their discretion to be added to the capital. 
And it being my wish that the fund shall be for the immediate relief of the 
suddenly needy, whether from casualty, imprudence or improvidence, I 
I direct that there shall be as speedy action taken upon all applications as may 

be consistent with ascertaining the reality of the alleged need of assistance. 
And in order that the attention of the persons to be benefited may be called 
to this source of relief I direct my trustees to publish three times a year in 
that newspaper which has the largest circulation therein among the work- 
ing classes the facts of the existence of this trust fund, its objects and the 
means to be taken to obtain relief from it, and in addition to take such 



THE THOMPSON WILL 757 

other measures for extending the knowledge of it and increasing its use- 
fulness as may seem to my said trustees best. 

This fund was made available in Brattleboro, January 11, 1901. 



FIFTH PERIOD 

THE CIVIL WAR. ORGANIZATION- 
INDUSTRIAL, PHILANTHROPIC 
AND SOCIAL 

1861-1895 




m 



CHAPTER LXX 
THE CIVIL WAR 

The Civil War — First Regiment of Vermont Volunteers — Captain John W. Phelps — 
Enlistment of first company to go from Brattleboro — Lists of officers and men — 
Record of Captain Edward A. Todd — Major Elijah Wales — George M. Colt — 
Benjamin F. Davis — Charles B. Rice — Fred W. Siraonds — Silas W. Richardson 
—George F. Britton — James Everett Alden — George W. Hooker — Herbert E. 
Taylor — Isaac K. Allen — Captain Edward Carter — Benjamin R. Jenne — Wallace 
Pratt — William C. Holbrook — Frank H. Emerson — George E. Selleck — Robert G. 
Hardie — Major David W. Lewis — Lieutenant-Colonel Cummings — Captain Robert 
B. Arms — John M. Joy — Major George H. Bond — Henry C. Streeter — Lorenzo 
D. Keyes — Almon B. Gibbs — Luke Ferriter, detailed to execute sentence on Wil- 
liam Scott. Casualties, J. Warren Hyde — Lieutenant-Colonel John Steele Tyler — 
Lieutenant-Colonel Addison Brown. 

Officers and Soldiers from Brattleboro, 1861-1865. 

Alonzo Granville Draper — The Military Hospital — Memorial stone — War relief. 

The First Regiment of Vermont Volunteers, consisting of Brandon, 
Middlebury, Rutland, Northfield, Woodstock, Cavendish, Burlington, St. 
Albans and Swanton Companies of the militia, were placed under the 
command of Captain John W. Phelps of Brattleboro as colonel April 27, 
1861. General Scott, who had known Colonel Phelps in the Mexican War 
and the record of the Vermont men in 1812, wanted him and his regiment 
for the garrison of Fortress Monroe. Colonel Phelps soon made his regi- 
ment a model in drill and good order, and an admirable school of military 
training and discipline for those of its members who became officers of 
regiments subsequently organized. 

They left Rutland May 9 and arrived in New York the next morning; 
the regiment marched from the Hudson River station down Fifth Avenue 
and Broadway to City Park, the officers being entertained at the Astor 
House by the patriotic host. The effective appearance of the regiment 
in its gray uniform, each man wearing in his cap an evergreen sprig, a 
memento of the Green Mountains, and the unusual size of the men com- 
posing it were matters of special remark on the part of the people and 
press en route, — Colonel Phelps at the head of the regiment, "tall and of 
massive form, with an immense army hat and black ostrich plume, drew 
the inquiry, 'Who is that big Vermont Colonel ?' The prompt answer was, 
'That? Oh, that is old Ethan Allen resurrected!' " 



76:2 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

They were landed at Hampton, Virginia, by the steamer Alabama, 
joined General Butler's command and were stationed there and at New- 
port News, of which he took possession, for the rest of their stay in 
Virginia. A number of negroes soon fled to the regimental quarters, anx- 
ious to know what would be done with them, and were informed by 
Colonel Phelps that they were free, probably the first instance of emanci- 
pation as a consequence of war. 

Circumstances Attendant upon the Enlistment of 
THE First Company to Go from This Town 

The date fell upon Tuesday. The meeting, which was held upon the 
Common, aroused the young patriots, as was shown a week later when 
Francis Goodhue, the recruiting officer, had enrolled for enlistment 
seventy-five men ranging from eighteen to thirty-six years and whose 
average age was a little less than twenty-three years and six months. 

A newspaper account of the meeting chronicled it as "a representation 
of the 'live men' from every part of the town." Elijah Wales, who after- 
wards commanded Company C of the Second Vermont Volunteers, 
headed the list which the recruiting officer made up the first week in May, 
1861. Air. Wales was a machinist and was thirty-two years old when 
he enrolled for enlistment. It is quite likely that his patriotism was 
largely responsible for the names of eight other Brattleboro machinists 
being added to the recruiting officer's list. The other machinists were 
Levi E. Knight, 22; George W. Pierce, 23; Henry L. Franklin, 22; 
George A. Frankhn, 24; Henry L. Cooley, 19; James R. Coolidge, 21; 
William Gore, 24, and Elisha L. Keables, 18. Of the first list of seventy- 
five men enrolled by Mr. Goodhue forty-nine were Brattleboro men. 

At the meeting on the Common it was decided to begin drilling imme- 
diately, and the Town Hall was considered large enough for drill purposes. 
Colonel Charles A. Miles, then at the head of the boys' school in which 
military instruction was a part of the curriculum, John S. Tyler, a law 
student, and E. A. Todd, a medical student, were the drilling officers. 

Not only was the patriotism of the young men at fever heat but that 
of the boys was manifested in various ways. During the first week after 
Recruiting Officer Goodhue received his papers and called for recruits, 
two youngsters appeared before him to enlist. When they came to be 
measured in their stocking feet it was discovered that they had stuffed 
their handkerchiefs into the heels of their stockings to bring their height 
up to the five feet four and a half inches required. They were turned 
away much chagrined. 

Brattleboro took early steps to care for the families of her loyal men 
and a special town meeting was held May 8, at which it was voted to 



BRATTLEBORO IN THE CIVIL WAR 763 

raise a tax of ten cents on the dollar of the grand Hst to be paid to the 
town treasurer not later than June 15. This fund was to be distributed 
by the selectmen in aiding volunteers and to provide for the families of 
volunteers while the head of the family might be in the service of his 
country. 

With the announcement that Fort Sumter had been fired upon, and the 
news three days later that the garrison had surrendered, the loyalty of 
the men of Brattleboro was manifested. The display of flags, conversion 
of supporters of secession to union principles by methods not particularly 
diplomatic, and the burning of effigies of Jefferson Davis the week follow- 
ing the beginning of hostilities, naturally aroused the enthusiasm of the 
inhabitants of this village. There was a delay of over a week before the 
recruiting officer received his commission after President Lincoln issued 
his first call for volunteers, but with the announcement that the documents 
had arrived, it required but a few hours to raise a company of men from 
which was made up the first company to go south from the town of 
Brattleboro. 

The first troops left here June 6, 1861. The old Mazeppa Engine 
Company, which preceded the Phcenix Engine Company and which had its 
headquarters "over the brook," as South Main Street and Canal Street 
were then called, acted as escort to the members of Company C. Rain 
came down in torrents, but the firemen headed the procession and 
marched to the station where the leave-taking was extremely touching. 
The few lines printed in a newspaper the following week tell briefly of 
the sorrow-stricken throng of mothers, sisters and sweethearts, who 
gathered to bid good-by to the flower of Brattleboro's young manhood — 
the first pick of the loyal men of the town^the men of Company C of the 
Second Vermont. 

When it left town, the Brattleboro company bore no letter of designa- 
tion. The men had been quartered at Fayetteville (Newfane) and 
received orders to march to Brattleboro Tuesday, June 4. The command 
marched from Wakefield's hotel at Fayetteville, a distance of twelve 
miles, in three hours. When the march from Brattleboro to the camp- 
ground in Newfane was made, the men were on the road about four hours. 
In connection with the stay of the recruits at Fayetteville it will be inter- 
esting to know that the hotel charged the soldiers $3.10 a week for board. 

When the men received orders to return to Brattleboro from Fayette- 
ville the uniforms for the new company were ready, having been made 
by two local firms, Pratt, Wright & Company, and Cune & Brackett. Each 
firm was given a contract for forty uniforms. They were shipped by 
express to Burlington Tuesday, June 6. They consisted of frock coat, 
pantaloons and cap of gray "doeskin" with blue cord. It appears that 



764 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

there were in those days of trouble unscrupulous Vermonters who were 
willing to take advantage of the state's necessity by unloading a large 
quantity of poor material upon the quartermaster's department. No 
sooner had the uniforms made by the local firms from cloth bought of a 
government contractor, Mitchell & Company of Felchville, been received, 
than a protest was raised. Criticism of the Felchville manufacturer was 
upon everyone's lips and it was claimed that the uniforms furnished the 
men of the Second Regiment were composed of cloth nearly half cotton 
and of coarse, harsh texture. The statement was made that here in 
Brattleboro all-wool uniforms could have been bought for $1 more than 
the shoddy uniforms were sold to the state for. Each of the forty uni- 
forms made by Cune & Brackett carried a Bible in the coat pocket when 
the suits were forwarded to Burlington. The young women who made 
the suits paid for the Bibles. 

George C. Hall presented, in May, 1861, to each private and non- 
commissioned officer, a rubber blanket of superior manufacture, a rubber 
mattress to each commissioned officer and a regulation sword. Philip 
Wells presented the company a Newfoundland dog named Tiger. 

In addition to the many little articles presented to the men, each soldier 
was given a havelock. During the last few weeks that the soldiers 
remained in Brattleboro and Newfane, local photographers were busy 
making sittings and but few of the men of Company C left home without 
having their pictures taken. 

The following were the officers of the company which marched down 
Main Street from the Common: Captain, Edward A. Todd; first lieuten- 
ant, John S. Tyler; second lieutenant, Forester A. Prouty; sergeants, 
Elijah Wales, Francis A. Gleason, Levi E. Knight, Henry H. Prouty and 
Nelson S. Cole; corporals, Russell Benjamin, Charles B. Rice, Frederick 
S. Miller, Charles S. Gould, Henry L. Franklin, Charles R. Briggs, Elisha 
L. Keables and Royall O. Fife. 

The company was composed as follows : Elijah Wales, machinist, Brat- 
tleboro, 33; Levi E. Knight, machinist, Brattleboro, 22; George W. 
Pierce, machinist, Brattleboro, 23; Rinaldo N. Hescock, farmer, Brattle- 
boro, 25 ; Russell Benjamin, hostler, Brattleboro, 32 ; Warren V. Hough- 
ton, farmer. Putney, 22 ; Henry L. Franklin, machinist, Brattleboro, 22 ; 
George A. Franklin, machinist, Brattleboro, 24; Albert Mason, farmer, 
Newfane, 21 ; Albert W. Metcalf, farmer, Westminster, 21 ; Daniel S. 
Franklin, painter, Brattleboro, 24; Danford A. Bugbee, farmer, Dover, 
21; Royall O. Fife, farmer, Halifax, 23; Charles R. Briggs, hostler, Brat- 
tleboro, 23; Charles B. Rice, truckman, Brattleboro, 22; Frank V. Ladd, 
painter, Brattleboro, 23 ; Henry C. Campbell, farmer. Putney, 24 ; Waldo 
D. Russell, farmer, Brattleboro, 21 ; Joseph R. Wheeler, painter. Brattle- 



BRATTLEBORO IN THE CIVIL WAR 765 

boro, 32; Robert P. Lord, farmer, Brattleboro, 22; William F. Willard, 
farmer. Putney, 22 ; Edwin W. Bugbee, farmer, Dover, 22 ; Charles S. 
Gould, farmer, Ludlow, 24; Argy N. Samson, farmer, Putney, 21 ; Albert 
D. Kendall, farmer, Brattleboro, 24 ; George P. Butterfield, farmer, Brat- 
tleboro, 27 ; Joel P. Butterfield, farmer, Brattleboro, 30 ; James W. Ben- 
nett, carpenter, Brattleboro, 29 ; Francis Miller, harness maker, Brattle- 
boro, 36 ; James C. Ripley, farmer, Brattleboro, 21 ; Dorr Blood, hostler. 
Putney, 24 ; William Foster, farmer, Brattleboro, 20 ; James E. Holbrook, 
farmer, Marlboro, 23 ; George M. Colt, farmer, Brattleboro, 31 ; John P. 
Ripley, farmer, Brattleboro, 22 ; E. A. Todd, medical student, Brattleboro, 
21; John S. Tyler, law student, Brattleboro, 19; William B. Thomas, 
painter, Brattleboro, 26; Edward A. Stearns, clerk (superintendent), 
Brattleboro, 21 ; Henry A. Richardson, farmer, Brattleboro, 19 ; Kirk 
Rand, blacksmith, Brattleboro, 81 ; Francis A. Gleason, carpenter, Brat- 
tleboro, 27; Charles L. Gould, farmer, Brattleboro, 21; Henry L. Cooley, 
machinist, Brattleboro, 19 ; John M. Lamphere, blacksmith, Brattleboro, 
18 ; George B. Prouty, farmer, Brattleboro, 19 ; Rufus Emerson, black- 
smith, Brattleboro, 26; Elbridge Emerson, farmer, Brattleboro, 25; 
Charles J. Stockwell, farmer, Brattleboro, 25 ; Nelson S. Cole, painter, 
Brattleboro, 22 ; Madison Cook, farmer, Brattleboro, 18 ; James R. 
Coolidge, machinist, Brattleboro, 21 ; Martin L. Fox, farmer, Brattleboro, 
22; Samuel E. Harrington, farmer, Wardsboro, 18; Albert L. Graves, 
farmer, Vernon, 19 ; Philander A. Streeter, carriage maker, Vernon, 20 ; 
Edward P. Gilson, paper maker, Brattleboro, 19 ; Frederick A. Stoddard, 
student, Townshend, 19; William Gore, machinist (sup), Brattleboro, 
24; Henry H. Prouty, printer, Brattleboro, 19; Forester A. Prouty, har- 
ness maker, Brattleboro, 35; Edwin P. Baldwin, farmer, Marlboro, 18; 
Austin A. Harris, farmer, Vernon, 22 ; William H. Foster, farmer, Dum- 
merston, 22; Elisha L. Keables, machinist, Brattleboro, 18; Uriel J. 
Streeter, farmer, Dummerston, 24; Edgar E. Adams, clerk, Brattleboro, 
18 ; Dennis Chase, farmer, Townshend, 23 ; George A. Rice, farmer, 
Wilmington, 18 ; Walter S. Barclay, clerk, Brattleboro, 19 ; Frank F. 
Miller, clerk, Newfane, 24; Leonard C. Bemis, farmer, Newfane, 24; 
Frederick B. Felton, farmer, Townshend, 21 ; Robert Bradley, machinist, 
Brattleboro, 22 ; William W. Clark, farmer, Brattleboro, 19 ; Edmund P. 
Howe, clerk, Newfane, 22 ; Henry L. Lamb, Newfane, 22 ; R. Morton 
Pratt, farmer, Newfane, 22 ; Thomas J. Leonard, farmer, Whitingham, 
25 ; L. Fay Bowker, farmer, W^ilmington, 19 ; Charles W. Brown, shoe- 
maker, Brattleboro, 24 ; Leonard W. Simonds, drummer, Brattleboro, 16 ; 
Fred W. Simonds, fifer, Brattleboro, 20 ; Eri G. Baldwin, painter, Brat- 
tleboro, 26 ; Benjamin F. Davis, hostler, Brattleboro. 

The officers mentioned above were the unanimous choice of the men. 



766 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

When Captain Todd and his company reached Burlington he was in- 
formed that the Brattleboro men would be known as Company C. The 
regiment remained in camp at Burlington until June 24, when it received 
orders to leave for Washington and left the same day for the capitol. 

Colonel Phelps was promoted to be brigadier-general about the time the 
regiment left Newport News to return home, and remained in command 
of that post after its departure. The regiment arrived in Brattleboro at 
midnight August 7. The next morning they pitched camp at "Camp 
Phelps," and remained there eight months. Seventeen sick men were 
placed in a temporary hospital in the upper story of the Brattleboro 
House. Two hundred and fifty of the regiment afterwards received com- 
missions. 

The Second Regiment of Volunteers was a notable one; the first of 
the three years' regiments, it was longer in the service than any other 
Vermont organization except one. It had a share in almost every battle 
fought by the Army of the Potomac from the first Bull Run to the sur- 
render of Lee. Seven hundred and fifty-one, or forty per cent of the 
men, were killed and wounded in action. 

Captain Edward A. Todd' was the youngest captain in the line in the 
first battle of Bull Run and received a ball in the throat ; he resigned in 
January, 1862, but subsequently enlisted in the Eleventh Vermont and 
served through the war. He was again wounded at the battle of Win- 
chester. 

In the battle of the Wilderness Colonel Stone was killed, and the com- 
mand devolved upon Lieutenant-Colonel John Steele Tyler of Brattle- 
boro, Company C. 

Of this company Major Elijah Wales came to Brattleboro from Dor- 
chester, Massachusetts, at twenty years of age, and was in the employ 
of the Woodcock & Vinton paper mill when Sumter fell. He was the 
first man to enlist from Brattleboro in Captain Todd's company. Com- 
pany C, Second Vermont Volunteers. 

The following is a list of battles in which he took part : Bull Run, Lee's 
Mills, siege of Yorlstown, Williamsburg, Gaines's Mills, Golding's Farm, 
Savage Station, White Oak Swamp, Malvern Hill, second Bull Run, 
Crampton's Pass, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Marye's Heights, Bank's 
Ford, second Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Funkstown, Rappahannock 
Station, Mine Run, Locust Grove, the Wilderness, Opequan, Winchester, 
Fisher's Hill, Cedar Creek, Petersburg. 

He was four times wounded, twice severely. He left Brattleboro as 
sergeant orderly, was soon made second lieutenant, March, 1862, and first 

1 Captain Todd lived while in Brattleboro in the house which Doctor Holton 
owned for many years. 



BRATTLEBORO IN THE CIVIL WAR 767 

lieutenant in the fall of the same year ; he had uncommon bravery and 
devotion to the cause. He was in command in the battle of Cedar Creek. 
He was made brevet major near the close of the war, for conspicuous 
bravery, and was mustered out July 14, 1865. 

George RI. Colt enlisted May 1, 1861, in Company C, Second Regiment, 
Vermont Volunteers, with whom he served until June 29, 1864. He was 
wounded at Salem Heights May 4, 1863, and at Funkstown, Maryland, 
July 10, 1863 ; also severely wounded in the battle of the Wilderness May 
5, 1864. 

Benjamin F. Davis enlisted in Company C, Second Vermont Infantry, 
and was rejected on account of nearsightedness. In January, 1862, he 
was wagoner for Company I, Eighth Regiment, and was discharged on 
account of disability July 15, 1862 ; he enlisted again, December, 1863, 
in Company F, First Vermont Cavalry; mustered out June 9, 1865. He 
was a brave soldier. 

Charles B. Rice enlisted in Company C, Second Vermont Volunteers, 
May 18, 1861. He was severely wounded in both legs in the battle of 
Bull Run, was captured at Sudley Church and was in prison in Richmond 
for six months, becoming very ill and emaciated, so that he was discharged 
November 29, 1862, when he returned to Brattleboro. 

Fred W. Simonds enlisted in Company C, Second Vermont Regiment, 
as fifer, and was afterwards transferred to the brigade band, where he 
played tuba. He was three years in the army. 

Silas W. Richardson enlisted in Company A, Second Vermont Volun- 
teers, August 16, 1862, and served three years. He was severely wounded 
in the fight at Marye's Heights May 3, 1863, was transferred to the 
hospital at Brattleboro, and after recovery was detailed as orderly for 
Colonel William Austine, transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps and 
mustered out July 1, 1865. 

The organization of the Third Regiment began at the same time as 
that of the Second, but was not as quickly completed. 

George F. Britton of Brattleboro served during the war as a sharp- 
shooter in Company H, and was in twenty-two battles. 

The regiments mustered in Brattleboro were the Fourth, Eighth, Ninth, 
Tenth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, 
and the First Light Battery. 

The Fourth Regiment, under the command of Colonel E. H. Stoughton, 
aged twenty-three, went into "Camp Holbrook," Brattleboro, September 
12-14, and left for the seat of war September 21, 1861. The preceding 
regiments had been uniformed by the state, in gray; but the uniforms of 
the Fourth were furnished by the general government, and were of army 



768 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

blue (dark blue blouses and light trousers) with hats of black felt. The 
arms were Enfield rifles. The standard bearer was six feet seven and a 
half inches tall. Most of the field and staff officers were younger than 
those of the other regiments. 

The Fourth was in a brigade with four other Vermont regiments and 
took part in nearly twenty-five battles, including Fredericksburg, Gettys- 
burg, the Wilderness and the twelve-day^ battle at Cold Harbor. Its 
total killed and wounded was five hundred and fifty-six. Seventy-seven 
of its members died in Confederate prisons ; practically every member 
of the company sustained one or more wounds during the war. 

Major John C. Tyler, Captain Dennie W. Farr, Captain Edward W. 
Carter and William C. Holbrook, first lieutenant of Company F, were 
from Brattleboro. 

James Everett Alden was a member of Company F, Fourth Vermont 
Volunteers, and was taken prisoner at Ream's Station, Virginia, by the 
Eighth Regiment, Alabama Infantry. He was confined first in Libby 
Prison, but that being overcrowded (the maximum number during Mr. 
Alden's stay was thirty-eight thousand), he was transferred to the Pem- 
broke and another prison in Richmond, then to Danville and Anderson- 
ville ; later for short periods to stockades at Savannah, Georgia, Mellen, 
Virginia, and in Florida. This policy of moving the prisoners from place 
to place was to frustrate raids by United States cavalry in the effort to 
liberate Union soldiers. While fighting at Bank's Ford, Mr. Alden was 
hit on the left shoulder by a piece of a shell which had burst within a few 
feet of him. He was rendered unconscious, and for a time it was feared 
that he had been fatally injured. 

George W. Hooker enlisted as private in Company F, Fourth Vermont, 
and was promoted successively to be sergeant major and second lieuten- 
ant ; he served on the staffs of General Stoughton and of. General Stan- 
nard, then was appointed by President Lincoln assistant adjutant-general 
of volunteers and served until mustered out with rank of lieutenant- 
colonel in 1865. 

Herbert E. Taylor enlisted September, 1861, in Company F, Fourth 
Vermont, served three years, and was twice severely wounded in the 
battle of the Wilderness. 

Isaac K. Allen, who lived in Brattleboro after the war, enlisted Septem- 
ber 19, 1861, in Company F, Fourth Vermont Regiment. On a seven 
days' retreat in front of Richmond he was awarded the sergeant's stripes 
by Colonel Houghton for an act of bravery. 

Captain Edward Carter enlisted in the Fourth Vermont, and was pro- 
moted through the various grades, on account of gallant service, until he 
received the rank of captain. He participated in many battles, including 



BRATTLEBORO IN THE CIVIL WAR 769 

those of Hampton, Yorktown, Young's Mills, Fort Magruder, Cold Har- 
bor, before Richmond, Seven Days' Battles, Cedar Mountain, second Bull 
Run, Chantilly, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Rappahannock, 
Harper's Station, Wilderness, Winchester and Charleston. In the battle 
of the Wilderness he received three wounds within an hour, being shot 
through the abdomen, which made his case one of the most famous in 
the history of medical science. 

In the Fifth Regiment were Lieutenant-Colonel Addison Brown, 
Junior, who died March 3, 1865, from disease contracted in the service, 
Adjutant Charles F. Leonard, Eli Collins and Henry H. Huntley, soldiers. 

Benjamin R. Jenne recruited a company at Rutland and was mustered 
in as captain of Company G, Fifth Vermont Volunteers. He participated 
in several battles in which the Army of the Potomac was engaged, and in 
the latter part of 1863 was assigned as commander of the camp at Brat- 
tleboro, where recruits were drilled for the army. At the close of the 
war he was brevetted major. 

Lorenzo Elmer, Erastus Simonds and Solomon W. Wilder were of 
the Sixth Regiment, Vermont Volunteers. 

Wallace Pratt, when sixteen years of age, enlisted in Company E, Sixth 
Regiment, Vermont Volunteers, and served until the end of the war, being 
mustered out June 26, 1865. 

The service of the first six regiments was confined to the theater of 
war within one hundred and fifty miles of the national capital, but the 
field was now changed from Virginia to Louisiana. 

In 1861 in his message to the Legislature Governor Holbrook an- 
nounced that two more regiments would be required, in addition to the 
six three-year regiments already raised, to fill the quota of Vermont 
under existing calls for troops. The Seventh Regiment was therefore 
recruited under an act to raise and equip a regiment to serve until the 
expiration of three years from June 1, 1861. William C. Holbrook, son 
of the governor, though not yet of age, had seen a year's service as first 
lieutenant of Company F, Fourth Regiment, and was appointed major of 
the Seventh, and George E. Selleck, second lieutenant ; the chaplain, 
Reverend Francis C. Williams, was also from Brattleboro. The Seventh 
Regiment was assigned to General B. F. Butler's division at Ship Island 
and, on their arrival at their destination, were glad to be under the com- 
mand of Colonel Phelps, the old commander of the First Vermont. He 
had already made friction between himself and General Butler and the 
government at Washington — which finally resulted in his resignation — by 
issuing his famous proclamation, declaring slavery incompatible with 
free government. 



770 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

August 26, 1863, Major Holbrook was appointed colonel, and the regi- 
ment returned to Brattleboro on a thirty days' furlough in August. Two 
officers and fifty-seven men were mustered out. Three hundred and fifty 
members of the regiment were left buried on the banks of the Mississippi 
and in Florida. Two hundred were discharged in shattered health. Only 
one-half returned to the seat of war, the Department of the Gulf, in the 
campaign against Mobile. Colonel Holbrook resigned June 2, after four 
years of service. 

Frank H. Emerson, John Jenkins and Frank Matto were among the 
soldiers. Frank H. Emerson enlisted as drummer boy in Company H, 
Seventh Regiment, Vermont Volunteers, October 21, 1863 ; he was mus- 
tered out May 22, 1865. He was taken prisoner at Harper's Ferry, and 
soon after was sent to Chicago and exchanged. He was selected as the 
model for the figure of the drummer boy on the Lincoln monument in 
Springfield, Illinois. 

The battles of the Seventh Regiment were : the siege of Vicksburg, 
Baton Rouge, Gonzales Station, Mobile campaign, Spanish Fort, Whistler. 

The Eighth Regiment was the next to go into camp here, being mus- 
tered into service February 18, 1862. Doctor George F. Gale was 
appointed surgeon of the Eighth, December 10, 1861. At Ship Island the 
Eighth Regiment was assigned to the command of General John W. 
Phelps, who had begun to organize and drill negroes, for which he was 
reprimanded by General Butler. June 6, 1862, Doctor Gale resigned 
and returned home. 

George E. Selleck enlisted in the Eighth Vermont Regiment as a pri- 
vate. He was sergeant, promoted to second lieutenant and first lieutenant, 
and was in command of Company I in the Shenandoah Valley under 
General Sheridan in the fall of 1864. He was honorably discharged in 
February, 1865. 

The twenty-first of May, 1862, Governor Holbrook was directed to 
raise an additional regiment of infantry. Recruiting stations were estab- 
lished, and Francis Goodhue was appointed recruiting officer for Brattle- 
boro. 

Captain S. E. Howard enlisted. as a private and rose to be captain in 
the Eighth Vermont Infantry. 

July 1, 1862, Governor Holbrook had issued a stirring proclamation: 
"Let no young man capable of bearing arms in defense of his country, 
linger at this important period. Let the President feel the strengthening 
influence of our prompt and hearty response to his call. Let Vermont be 
one of the first states to respond with her quota." 

The Ninth Regiment was mustered July 9, 1862. 



BRATTLEBORO IN THE CIVIL WAR . 771 

The twelfth of August, 1862, a general order was given by Governor 
Holbrook calling into active service all militia companies in the state, 
including the Brattleboro company from Brattleboro, Putney, Dummers- 
ton, Guilford and Westminster, organized August 28. 

Robert G. Hardie served for two years in the Ninth Regiment and 
was taken prisoner at Harper's Ferry. On his return home, he took a 
position in the quartermaster's department. 

Major David W. Lewis enlisted June 4, 1862, in Company K, Ninth 
Vermont Regiment, for three years, and on July 3 of the same year was 
promoted to captain. His whole term of service was active field duty 
in Virginia and North Carolina, commencing in the Shenandoah Valley .'^ 
He was in command of his regiment several times and led two companies 
at Yale's Creek and Red House, North Carolina. He was taken prisoner 
at Winchester, Virginia, and confined in a private house there from Sep- 
tember 2, 1862, to the last of October, when he was paroled and ex- 
changed. He was honorably discharged in September, 1864, at Newbern, 
North Carolina, for disability. 

The recruiting officer of the Ninth Regiment was Colonel John Hunt. ■ 
The camp at Brattleboro was named Camp Bradley after Honorable Wil- 
liam C. Bradley, then in his eighty-first year. 

Thomas Morse was the only soldier from Brattleboro in the Tenth 
Regiment, which was mustered September 1, 1862, the same date on 
which the Eleventh was mustered. 

Doctor Benjamin Ketchum went to the front as surgeon of the Tenth 
Vermont Regulars. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Cummings, editor of The Phoenix, and for a year 
the popular clerk of the Vermont House of Representatives, enlisted in 
the Eleventh Regiment, Vermont Volunteers. He was chosen first lieu- 
tenant of Company E, and a month later, lieutenant-colonel of the Six- 
teenth. He was killed while commanding that regiment in battle at Poplar 
Grove Church, in front of Petersburg. 

The Twelfth Regiment went into "Camp Lincoln" at Brattleboro Sep- 
tember 25, with Colonel E. H. Stoughton, commandant, and on October 4 
was mustered into service by Major William Austine, U. S. A. Edward 
N. Ladd and Henry A. Reynolds were the Brattleboro boys in this 
regiment. 

Barney F. Pratt enlisted as a private in Company B, Twelfth Vermont 
Regiment. Although only a little more than nine months in the service 
Mr. Pratt served as mounted orderly to General Stoughton, was in Libby 

1 His sword, picked up by a Confederate on the field of battle, was returned to him 
fifty years later. 



772 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

prison sixteen days and fought in the battle of Gettysburg. On the night 
of March 9, 1863, at Fairfax Court House, Mr. Pratt, General Stoughton, 
and twenty-three others were taken prisoners by Colonel Mosby and a 
squad of twenty-five picked men of his command. Mr. Pratt was side by 
side with Henry H. Miller of Brattleboro in support of a battery at the 
top of the ridge when Pickett's men made their famous charge. It was 
here that he was mustered out with the regiment. 

The Thirteenth Regiment was mustered October 10, 1863. 
The Fourteenth Regiment was mustered October 21, 1863. 
The Fifteenth Regiment was mustered October 32, 1863. 

The Sixteenth Regiment companies were recruited in Windham and 
Windsor Counties, and were mustered October 33, 1863. 

Captain Robert B. Arms, a native of Brattleboro, the son of Hinsdale 
and Theda (Butterfield) Arms, was instrumental in raising Company 
B, Sixteenth Regiment, Vermont Volunteers, enlisted August 11, 1863, 
and was mustered into service as captain October 33 of that year. By 
reason of the expiration of his term of enlistment he was discharged 
October 10, 1863, and was soon afterwards appointed quartermaster with 
headquarters at Burlington. November 1, 1866, Captain Arms was ap- , 

pointed inspector of customs under Stannard for the port of Burlington. i 

He also acted as treasurer at the custom house for many years, holding \ 

the post as a most trusty and efficient man under all the collectors, both 1 

Republican and Democratic. At his death he filled the position of deputy | 

collector and acting disbursing agent. He was a' member of Stannard j 

Post, G. A. R., and was registrar of the Vermont Commandery of the | 

Loyal Legion. ' 

Lieutenant John F. Vinton, Lieutenant Charles A. Norcross and Lieu- j 

tenant Charles F. Simonds were from Brattleboro. Fred T. Stewart j 

enlisted August 3, 1863. Oman Prescott, Junior, enlisted in Company | 

B, Sixteenth Vermont Volunteers, was mustered in October 23, 1863, j 

and was mustered out August 10, 1863. He was in the battle of Gettys- ' 

burg. John M. Joy enlisted in Company B of the Sixteenth Vermont ; 

(nine months' men) September, 1862; was at the battle of Gettysburg; : 

July 2, 1863, was shot in the left thigh and was sent home to be mustered 
out with the company August 10. Edwin H. Putnam enlisted in Company 
B of the Sixteenth Vermont August 10, 1863. Major George H. Bond, 
at the age of sixteen, enlisted in Company I, Sixteenth Vermont Regi- 
ment, Second Brigade; served under Veazey and Stannard in defense of 
Washington and Ge'ttysburg till his discharge in 1863. In 1864, at the time 
of the St. Albans raid, he enlisted in the State Militia for two years. In 
June, 1873, he reenlisted in the National Guard as private in Company I. 



BRATTLEBORO IN THE CIVIL WAR 773 

The duty of this faithful officer in the National Guard was almost 
continuous for a period of over thirty-five years, and he served in all the 
grades from private to a general officer by brevet, except that of corporal 
and second lieutenant. While serving as a major in 1886, he was in com- 
mand of a pi-ovisional, or separate, battalion. Charles R. Briggs enlisted 
in Company B, Sixteenth Vermont Regiment ; mustered October 23, 
serving nine months. He was promoted to corporal February 14, 1863; 
he was in the battle of Gettysburg. D. S. Pratt was active in recruiting 
Company B, Sixteenth Vermopt Volunteers, and at the close of the war 
was made quartermaster of the First Vermont Regiment. 

Jerry Connell and John Kellry were soldiers from Brattleboro in the 
Seventeenth Regiment, Vermont Volunteers. 

Henry C. Streeter enlisted and was enrolled in Company F, First Ver- 
mont Cavalry in 1860. This was the only regiment of cavalry raised in 
the Civil War which participated in seventy-five engagements, in forty- 
two of which he, as private, sergeant, second and first lieutenants and 
captain had his part. The regiment was present at the surrender of 
General Lee at Appomattox. He was severely wounded through the 
body, receiving at the same time a wound in the left arm, but was absent 
only three months, when he rejoined his command. He was mustered 
out August 9, 1865. Lorenzo D. Keyes enlisted with Company F, First 
Vermont Cavalry, and served three years and six months. He was taken 
prisoner at the battle of Cedar Creek and confined two months in prison 
on Belle Island, then transferred to Winchester prison for two months. 
A physical wreck, he served out the remainder of his time as a wagoner 
for officers. Almon B. Gibbs served in the First Vermont Cavalry, Com- 
pany F, being with the ambulance corps most of the time. He carried the 
only flag that waved over General Banks's retreat in the Shenandoah 
campaign. 

Franklin F. Holbrook, son of Governor Holbrook, during the last three 
years of the war, as commissioner for the care of sick and disabled 
soldiers, visited and attended to the wants of twelve thousand Vermont 
soldiers in over one hundred hospitals. 

William Scott was the Vermont soldier in the war of the Rebellion 
who was found asleep at his post at midnight and was condemned by a 
court-martial to be executed on a certain day. Through the herculean 
efforts of the governor, public officials and others. President Lincoln 
heard his case — -twenty-two years old, always faithful — and granted a 
pardon. But President Lincoln became so anxious lest it should arrive 
too late that he drove to brigade headquarters himself. 

Luke Ferriter of Brattleboro was on picket duty at the same place in 



774 ANNALS OF BJRATTLEBORO 

the early part of the night, and William Scott relieved him at eleven o'clock 
seeming all right in every way. The officer of the guard found him 
leaning against a tree unconscious, and took his gun from him. 

Mr. Ferriter was obliged to testify against him, and was one of twelve 
men detailed as the firing squad. They were drawn up in a position to 
fire upon the prisoner, who stood seventy feet away blindfolded, awaiting 
his fate. All at once excitement was caused by a cloud of dust and the 
arrival of the President, who thus made sure the young soldier's salvation 
from a death of disgrace. 

Luke Ferriter, whose parents would not consent to his entering the army 
at seventeen, ran away and under the name Charles Smith enlisted at 
Springfield, Vermont, May 12, 1861, in Company A, Third Vermont In- 
fantry under Colonel Veazey, and was mustered into the service July 16. 

He fought in the battles of Lee's Mills, Yorktown, Williamsburg, Gold- 
ing's Farm, Savage Station, White Oak Swamp, Crampton's Gap, Antie- 
tam, Fredericksburg, Marye's Heights, Salem Heights, Gettysburg, Jenks- 
town, Rappahannock Station, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, in which battle 
he was wounded May 13, 1863; Petersburg, Charlestown, Opequan, 
Fisher's Hill, Cedar Creek. 

Soldiers, 1861-1865 
The town of Brattleboro furnished officers and soldiers in the late Civil 
War as follows : 

Officers 
Brigadier-General John W. Phelps, U. S. Volunteers. 
Colonel John S. Tyler, 2d Vt. Volunteers. 
Colonel William C. Holbrook, 7th Vt. Volunteers. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Addison Brown, Jr., 5th Vt. Volunteers. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Cummings, 16th and 17th Vt. Volunteers. 
Lieutenant-Colonel George B. Kellogg, 1st Vt. Cavalry. 
Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel N. C. Sawyer, Ad'l P. M., U. S. Volunteers. 
Major J. C. Tyler, 4th Vt. Volunteers. 
Major Robert Schofield, 1st Vt. Cavalry. 
Brevet Major Elijah Wales, 2d Vt. Volunteers. 
Brevet Major R. W. Clarke, A. Q. M., U. S. Volunteers. 
Surgeon George F. Gale, 8th Vt. Volunteers. 
Surgeon Henry Spohn, 17th Vt. Volunteers. 
Chaplain Francis C. Williams, 8th Vt. Volunteers. 
Adjutant Charles F. Leonard, 5th Vt. Volunteers. 
Adjutant George W. Gould, 9th Vt. Volunteers. 
Lieutenant M. H. Wooster, R. C, 1st Vt. Cavalry. 
Lieutenant Samuel H. Price, R. Q. M., out of State. 
Lieutenant J. Warren Hyde, out of State. 



BRATTLEBORO IN THE CIVIL WAR 

Captain Charles F. Rockwell, U. S. A. 
Captain Henry H. Prouty, 2d Vt. Volunteers. 
Captain Edward A. Todd, 2d Vt. Volunteers. 
Captain Dennie W. Farr, 4th Vt. Volunteers. 
Captain Edward W. Carter, 4th Vt. Volunteers. 
Captain David W. Lewis, 9th Vt. Volunteers. 
Captain A. E. Leavenworth, 9th Vt. Volunteers. 
Captain Robert B. Arms, 16th Vt. Volunteers. 
Captain Charles D. Merriam, Vt. Sharpshooters. 
Captain Clark P. Stone, 1st Vt. Cavalry. 
Lieutenant James G. Howard, 2d Vt. Volunteers. 
Lieutenant H. L. Franklin, 2d Vt. Volunteers. 
Lieutenant F. A. Gleason, 2d Vt. Volunteers. 
Lieutenant Rufus Emerson, 2d Vt. Volunteers. 
Lieutenant George E. Selleck, 8th Vt. Volunteers. 
Lieutenant Henry H. Rice, 9th Vt. Volunteers. 
Lieutenant John F. Vinton, 16th Vt. Volunteers. 
Lieutenant Charles A. Norcross, 16th Vt. Volunteers. 
Lieutenant Charles F. Simonds, 16th Vt. \'olunteers. 
Lieutenant Fred Spaulding, Vt. Sharpshooters. 
Lieutenant N. E. Haywood, 1st Vt. Cavalry. 



775 



Soldiers fo 
Adams, Edgar E. 
Baldwin, Eri G. 
Barclay, Walter S. 
Barrett, John W. 
Benjamin, Russell 
Bennett, James W. 
Bradley, Robert 
Briggs, Charles R. 
Brown, Charles W 
Butterfield, George 
Butterfield, Joel P. 
Clark, William W. 
Cole, Nelson S. 
Colt, George M. 
Cook, Madison 
Cooley, Henry L. 
Donavan, Timothy 
Emerson, Elbridge 
Foster, William 



;■ the Second Regiment, Vc 
Franklin, Daniel S. 
Franklin, George A. 
Gilson, Edward P. 
Griffin, James 
Gore, William 
Gould, Charles S. 
Hescock, Rinaldo S. 
Hill, George 
Holbrook, James E. 
Holman, Frederick B. 
Hopkins, Henry W. 
Keables, Elisha L. 
Kendall, Albert D. 
Knight, Levi E. 
Ladd, Frank V. 
Lamphere, John M. 
Lord, Robert P. 
Paddleford, F. G. 
Pierce, George W. 



H. 



P. 



nnoiit Volunteers 
Prouty, George B. 
Rand, Kirk L. 
Rice, Charles B. 
Richardson, H. A. 
Ripley, James C. 
Ripley, John P. 
Russell, Waldo N. 
Simonds, Fred W. 
Simonds, L. W. 
Smith, Timothy J. 
Stearns, Edward A. 
Stockwell, Charles J. 
Thomas, William B. 
Tyler, Rufus C. 
Webber, Joshua C. 
W'heeler, Joseph R. 
Wood, William 



776 



ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 



For the Third Regiment, Vermont Volunteers 

Alexander, Caleb H. Elmer, Edward S. Ober, Henry 

Barr)-, George W. Fairfield, Alvin D. Ober, Joseph R. 

Britton, George F. Ferriter, Luke Peabody, Ariel 

Brockway, John R. Herney, John Putnam, William E. 

Carpenter, Fred A. Manning, John Smith, Charles 

Carter, Wright C. Mason, Almon Witt, Lucien A. 

Davis, Noyes J. Newall, Lucien D. 



For the 
Alden, James E. 
Allen, Isaac K. 
Arms, Edwin H. 
Blake, John 
Bradley, Samuel, Jr. 
Carter, Albert A. 
Cassey, Daniel 
Chamberlain, C. H. 
Cummings, C. W. 
Fisher, Ezra 
Fisher, Roscoe 
Gibbs, Elijah 
Gould, Charles L. 



Fourth Regiment, Vcrmo 
Graves, Albert A. 
Graves, Henry D. 
Graves, Willard R. 
Haley, Charles O. 
Haley, John H. 
Hall, Charles E. 
Harris, Charles H. 
Hosley, Wayland N. 
Houghton, James S. 
Kendall, Luke W. 
Keplinger, Edward 
Klinger, Ferdinand 
Mahoney, Dennis 



nt Volunteers 
Mills, Daniel B. 
Parker, Alvin J. 
Powers, Oscar N. 
Rodgers, George M. 
Russell, William R. 
Ryther, D. Jewett 
Slate, Charles S. 
Stearns, George A. 
Turner, Theodore J. 
Weatherbee, A. R. 
Wheeler, John 



Collins, Eli 



For the Fifth Regiment, Vermont Volunteers 
Huntley, Henry H. 



For the Sixth Regiment, Vermont Volunteers 
Elmer, Lorenzo Simonds, Erastus Wilder, Solomon W. 

For the Seventh Regiment, Vermont Volunteers 
Emerson, Frank H. Jenkins, John Matto, Frank 



For the E 
Akley, Clark B. 
Akley, Willard H. 
Bartlett, C. A. 
Bingham, Albert H. 
Connelly, Michael 
Davis, Benjamin F. 
Fletcher, Joseph W. 
Haynes, Edward W. 



Ighth Regiment, Vermont 
Howard, Ariel 
Howard, James W. 
Howard, William E. 
Howe, John C. 
Martin, Daniel 
Moyenhein, Humphrey ' 
Plummer, George F. 
Prouty, Emerson F. 



Volunteers 
Richardson, O. W. 
Ward, Austin H. 
Wheeler, Allen M. 
Wheeler, Edward L. 
Wood, Chester N. 
Wood, Lewis A. 
Woodman, John F. 



BRATTLEBORO IN THE CIVIL WAR 



111 



For the Ninth Regiment, Vermont Volunteers 

Baker, Charles E. Jones, Robert G. Sears, Michael 

Burt, George E. Marcy, Thomas E. Smith, George 

Butler, Charles P. Martin, William H. Stygles, Minard 

Butler, William P. Potter, John C. Wandell, Nelson 

Butterfield, William H. Powers, Martin K. Ward, Gilbert M. 

Hardie, Robert G. Randall, James P. B. Wright, Edwin S. 

For the Tenth Regiment, Vermont Volunteers 
Morse, Thomas B. 



For the Elei^enth Regiment, Vermont Volunteers 
Chamberlin, D. J. Ferry, Charles N. Kellogg, Aaron 

Colburn, Warren Herney, James M. Nichols, George W. 

Crandall, John J. Holding, Frank H. Pellett, John C. 

Eels, Henry Kelley, Michael 



For the 
Allen, Alexander G. 
Baker, Chandler A. 
Clark, Charles A. 
Clark, Eugene 
Cole, Harrison A. 
Covey, Clark S. 
Davis, John 
Edwards, Horace B 
Elliot, WiUiam H. 
Ellis, William T. 
Fisher, Ezra E. 
Fisher, Oscar A. 
Fisher, Stanford M 
Gray, Fred S. 
Gray, James F. 



Twelfth Regiment, Vermoi 
Gray, John H. 
Hescock, Warren A. 
Howard, Albert M. 
Joy, John M. 
Lawrence, Richard 
Miller, Henry H. 
Miller, Thomas J. 
Newman, John L. 
Pratt, Barney F. 
Putnam, Edwin H. 
Ranney, Peter 
Remington, Charles H. 
Rice, William K. 
Richardson, L. S. 
Rood, Nathan G. 



it Volunteers 
Root, Frederick D. 
Sargent, Rodney B. 
Stedman, D. Bissell 
Stockwell, Fred 
Stockwell, George S. 
Stowe, Alonzo T. 
Thomas, Chester W. 
Walker, George A. 
Weatherhead, Drury 
Wheeler, George B. 
White, Abner G. 
White, Albert S. 
Yeaw, Fred J. 



For the Seventeenth Regiment, Vermont Volunteers 
Connell, Jerry Kelley, John 

For the Vermont Sharpshooters 
Cooper, Abraham C. Priest, Milo C. Walton, David S. 

Hammond, N. B. . Sprague, Watson N. Worden, Elisha A. 

Knowlton, F. N. Streeter, Fred F. 



778 



ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 



For the 
Aldrich, James D. 
Bartleff, Thomas E. 
Church, Benjamin O. 
Crosby, George R. 
Cune, Dexter 
Dinsmore, Charles A. 
Ellis, James W. 
Farr, Charles R. 
Fisher, William H. 



First Regiment, Vermont Cavalry 



Forbush, Charles W. 
Forbush, George H. 
Gale, Charles 
Gevaris, Henry 
Gibbs, Almond B. 
Hildreth, Austin O. 
Howe, Nathan B. 
Keyes, Lorenzo D. 
Prouty, Forester A. 



Remington, F. E. 
Saunders, James 
Smith, Hervey 
Strong, Calvin D. 
Wallen, Harrison 
Wellman, Samuel F. 
Whipple, John E. 



For the United States Colored Volunteers 
Green, Daniel S. Loney, Benjamin Matthews, H. 

For the Tzvelfth Regiment, United States Infantry 
Smith, Charles Stone, Levi 

For the United States Navy 
'Brineck, Charles Flynn, Patrick Simonds, Charles H. 

Buckley, Addison McGrath, James Sullivan, John 

Conner, Harvey Meyers, John 

Duncan, Adam Richardson, William 

For Other State Organisations 
Clark, John Manning, Michael Warner, Henry 

Estey, James R. Moore, Patrick 

Long, Job Robinson, Daniel S. 

Substitutes furnished not named above, 55 

Citizens paying commutation $300, each, 22 

Recapitulation of Men Actually Furnished 

Officers, 40 

Second Vermont Regiment, 55 

Third Vermont Regiment, 20 

Fourth Vermont Regiment, 37 

Fifth Vermont Regiment, 2 

Sixth Vermont Regiment, 3 

Seventh Vermont Regiment, 3 

Eighth Vermont Regiment, 23 

Ninth Vermont Regfiment, 18 

Tenth Vermont Regiment, 1 

Eleventh Vermont Regiment, 11 

Twelfth Vermont Regiment, . 2 



BRATTLEBORO IN THE CIVIL WAR 779 

Sixteenth Vermont Regiment, 43 

Seventeenth Vermont Regiment, 2 

Vermont Sharpshooters, 8 

First Vermont Cavalry, 25 

United States Colored Volunteers, 3 

Twelfth United States Infantry, 2 

United States Navy, 10 

Other State Organizations, 7 

Substitutes furnished, 55 

Total, 370 

Casualties 

Colonel John S. Tyler, died May 23, 18G4, from wounds received in the 
battle of the Wilderness, Virginia, May 5, 1864. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Addison Brown, Junior, died March 3, 1865, from 
disease contracted in service. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Cummings, killed in battle before Peters- 
burg, Virginia, September 30, 1864. 

Captain Dennie W. Farr, killed in the battle of the Wilderness, Vir- 
ginia, May 5, 1864. 

Lieutenant Samuel H. Price, Junior, died April 8, 1863, from disease 
contracted in service. 

Lieutenant Francis A. Gleason, died May 30, 1863, from wounds 
received in the battle of Salem Heights, May 4, 1863. 

Lieutenant J. Warren Hyde, died July 25, 1863, from disease con- 
tracted in service. 

Captain Charles F. Rockwell, died November 13, 1868. 

Benjamin, Russell H., killed at Bull Run July 21, 1861. 

Clark, William W., killed at Savage Station June 29,. 1862. 

Cook, Madison, killed at Bank's Ford May 4, 1863. 

Cooley, Henry L., died in service from disease January 11, 186^. 

Gilson, Edward P., died at Richmond, Virginia, August 6, 1861. 

Keables, EHsha L., died at Richmond, Virginia, September 6, 1861. 

Lamphere, John JM., killed at Bank's Ford May 4, 1863. 

Lord, Robert P., killed at Fredericksburg May 3, 1863. 

Paddleford, Frank G., died January 1, 1867, of disease contracted in 
service. 
. Kendall, Luke W., killed .at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864. 

Ryther, D. Jewell, died of disease contracted in service. 

Slate, Charles S., died November 5, 1862, of disease while in service. 

Howard, James W., died June 24, 1863, of wounds received in battle. 

Wood, Lewis A., died August 17, 1863, of disease while in service. 



780 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Colburn, Warren, died at Andersonville, Georgia, October 4, 1864. 
Keliey, Michael, died March 39, 1863, of disease while in service. 
Covey, Clark S., died October 8, 1864, of disease contracted in service. 
Cooper, Abraham C, killed at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 2, 1863. 
Bartlett, Thomas B., died of wounds received in battle June 1, 1864. 
Forbush, George H., died at Richmond, Virginia, October 11, 1863. 
Manning, John, died December 11, 1862, while in service. 
Estey, James R., died January 1, 1863, at Newbern, North Carolina. 
Clark, John, died September 15, 1864, while in service. 
Sullivan, John, died March 14, 1866, while in service. 
Franklin, George A., died December 2, 1862, while in service. 

(From The Vermont Plicenix, July, 1863) 

Lieutenant J. Warren Hyde, the only son of William Hyde, Esquire, 
of this village, died July 2.5, 1863. Many will remember him as the fair- 
faced active lad, the first and foremost in every feat of strength and 
daring, and filling acceptably at an early age, a responsible position in the 
Bank of Brattleboro. Those who have followed his career since have 
learned that his early manhood has not belied the promise of his youth, 
as he accepted and discharged with distinguished ability an honorable and ; 

responsible place in Chicago, winning the regard and respect of all who = 

knew him. He left it freely and asked only a private's place in the mer- j 

cantile battery of that city — where true men were needed. Frequent | 

letters to his friends here have breathed of manliness, courage, and patriot- | 

ism, when his battery lay under the strong walls of Vicksburg. . . . We j 

do not know how he died — by shot or shell — or by western fever which | 

is depleting so many of our regiments. We are sure that whether it was i 

on the field or in the hospital he died like a man — and that his friends j 

have an invaluable legacy in his character, which was brave and true j 

and noble. I 

i 
i 

Lieutenant-Colonel John Steele Tyler 

(From The Vermont Phtrnix, June, 1864) 

It is our painful duty to record the death of another of our brave 
young men, who has lost his life in the service of his country. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel John S. Tyler was wounded in the thigh at the great battle 
of the Wilderness, May 5, when in command of the Second Vermont 
Regiment after the fall of Colonel Stone. His wound was supposed to 
have been made by a minie ball, until the operation of ^Doctor Willard 
Parker of New York, who discovered that a small ball, probably a buck 



BRATTLEBORO IN THE CIVIL WAR 781 

shot, had perforated the femoral artery. He died from the effects of 
this wound at the RIetropoHtan Hotel in New York, on Sunday night. 
May 22. When he received the wound he expected it would be mortal, 
but forbade his men to leave the ranks to attend to him, cheering them 
on against the enemy. 

He enlisted as a private about three years ago in the Second Regiment 
and, by gallant conduct and fidelity to duty, worked his way up through 
every grade to the second rank in his regiment. His age was only 
twenty-one, a boy in years, but a man in heroic thought and deed. His 
body was brought here for burial ; during Wednesday it lay in state in the 
Town Hall, where many of our citizens were permitted to look upon that 
well-known face, and at the evening hour the burial service was read 
in the Episcopal Church by Reverend Mr. Morris, and his remains 
were conveyed to the cemetery, escorted by the military band from the 
barracks, Mr. Miles's company of cadets, the two fire companies of the 
village, and a large concourse of friends and citizens, and consigned to 
the silent dust with the usual religious service and with military honors. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Tyler was one of our excellent and promising young 
men, and his loss will be deeply f elt.^ 

Lieutenant-Colonel Addison Brown 

Armed with the rudiments of a good education, impressed with the 
mora! and religious teachings of his home, and with the spirit of enter- 
prise not uncommon to American youths, young Brown left the paternal 
roof at an early period in life and sought his fortune in the western 
states. At Rock ford, Illinois, and on the upper Mississippi in Minnesota, 
he prosecuted business with an industry and intelligence that gave promise 
of future success. Returning to visit his friends in Vermont, he was 
induced to remain in the East for a time, and the breaking out of the 
War of the Rebellion in April, 1861, found him in the city of New York. 

Filled with an ardent love of country, and true to the principles of 
Republican liberty, he volunteered at the first beat of the drum, and 
enlisted as a private in the Twelfth Regiment, New York Volunteer 
Militia, a three months' regiment commanded by Colonel (afterwards 
Major-General) Butterfield. The regiment took part in Patterson's cam- 
paign in the Shenandoah Valley. 

After the muster out of said regiment. Private Brown returned to 
Brattleboro, assisted in raising a company and in September, 1861, again 
entered the service as captain of Company F, Fourth Vermont Volun- 
teers. 

1 A portrait of Colonel Tyler was a gift from his family to the Brooks Library. 



782 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

In the winter of 1861-1862, one of great mortality to Vermont troops, 
Captain Brown fell a victim to disease and for several weeks remained 
in a critical condition, but before the opening of the spring was able to 
be with his command. 

In March, 1862, he accompanied his command to Fortress Monroe 
and up the Peninsula to Warwick Creek, where the first engagement of 
note took place, April 16, 1862, on which occasion Captain Brown, though 
not in the most active part of the engagement, displayed, under heavy 
fire and trying circumstances, the calm and deliberate enthusiasm for 
which he was afterwards so justly distinguished. At the battles of 
Williamsburg, Golding's Farm and Savage Station he bore an honorable 
part with his regiment. 

At the battle of Crampton's Gap (Smith Mountain), September 14, 
1862, in the charge that drove the rebels from their chosen position, the 
Fourth Vermont scaled the heights and captured a Virginia regiment 
almost entire. In this brilliant affair Captain Brown bore an active and 
distinguished part. 

At the battles of Antietam, Fredericksburg, Bank's Ford, Gettysburg, 
Funkstown, Orange Grove, Opequan and the Wilderness, Captain Brown 
was always where duty called him, and showed quick comprehension and 
great presence of mind and justly won great praise. 

September 20, 1S64, the term of service of the Fourth Vermont ex- 
pired. His commission as lieutenant-colonel of the Fifth Regiment had 
not reached him ; under these circumstances, in obedience to existing 
orders, he had but one course to pursue, and that was to return to Ver- 
mont with that portion of the regiment ordered there to be mustered out. 
Arriving in Vermont with the Fourth Regiment, Colonel Brown spent a 
short time with his friends, and, upon receiving word that his commission 
as lieutenant-colonel of the Fifth Regiment had been forwarded to the 
army in the field, he left home for active service again. 

At the time Colonel Brown left for Vermont with the Fourth Regi- 
ment, his health was considerably impaired, but it was not anticipated 
that it was seriously so. He returned to the field with renewed hope and 
zeal, it is true, but unrestored. A leave of absence was granted him, and 
he left his command December 8, 1864, for Rockford, Illinois, to regain 
his strength. But he had ended his last campaign, he had fought his last 
battle. The severity of the service had been too much for his physical 
system, and he who had stood firm while others quailed at last yielded 
to disease. Acting upon medical advice, he started with his devoted wife, 
whom he had married in 1862, for the coast of Florida. He had not 
proceeded far when it became evident that his strength was too rapidly 



THE MILITARY HOSPITAL 783 

failing for so long a journey, and he stopped for the night at Harrisburg, 
Pennsylvania, where he died March 3, 1865. 

In the death of Colonel Brown, Vermont lost one of her noblest sons, 
a true soldier and an honest patriot. 

Alonzo Granville Draper was born in Brattleboro September 6, 1835 ; 
he died in Brazos, Texas, September 3, 1865. 

Early in life he settled in Boston; graduated from the English High 
School in 1854. He moved to Lynn, where he edited Tiic Nczv England 
Mechanic and held office in the city government. 

He recruited a company of volunteers for the Fourteenth Massachu- 
setts Regiment and was commissioned captain May 6, 1861. In January, 
1863, he was promoted major, and after being transferred to the Second 
National Colored Regiment, was made colonel in August, 1863, and 
afterwards attached to the Twenty-fifth Corps, where for a month he had 
charge of a brigade in Major-General Paine's division and where he won 
the title of brevet brigadier-general October 38, 1864. A few months 
previous to his death he left Virginia in command of a brigade and died 
from wounds received in Texas. 

The Military Hospital 
By Governor Frederick Holbrook 

In December, 1862, the writer, in his official capacity as governor of 
Vermont, accompanied by his staff and Surgeon Edward E. Phelps (of 
Windsor, Vermont), visited Washington on a special mission. He had 
observed with pain the anxiety of many families in Vermont, occasioned 
by the numbers of our troops who were disabled and confined to the hos- 
pitals in and around Washington and in the camps, wasting away from 
their sufferings, from homesickness and from the influence of a malarious 
climate. The casualties of army life by sickness were perhaps propor- 
tionately larger among our Vermonters than among those from other 
sections. 

This was due to the greater change experienced by our men, from the 
bracing air and pure water of the Green Mountains, to the damp and more 
or less malarious districts where our armies operated. 

Then again the Vermonters were so often put to the front in important 
movements and engagements that they were exposed to frequent casualties 
from gim-shot wounds. Under these circumstances numbers of our 
citizens made long and trying journeys, at an expense which many could 
ill afford, to look after their disabled soldier boys. 

To allay the anxieties of friends and save the lives of the soldiers, the 



784 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

writer felt that effective measures must be taken. He therefore at this 
time appealed to the United States authorities to establish a military 
hospital in Vermont for the treatment and care of sick and wounded 
Vermont soldiers. When the plans were first submitted to the President 
and the secretary of war they were regarded as inexpedient and imprac- 
ticable of execution. 

It was thought that many of the disabled men would die under the 
fatigue and exposure of such long transportation back to their state; and 
it was suggested that possibly some might be lost by desertion. It was 
said, also, that the plan would be an unmilitary innovation. The surgeon- 
general of the army interposed the objection that the expenses of the 
medical department had already much exceeded the appropriation pro- 
vided by Congress, and it would, therefore, even if desirable, be impossible 
to incur the expense of furnishing a hospital in Vermont. 

After repeated meetings and discussions, the writer made an official and 
formal proposition to take the barrack buildings, of which there were 
many, owned by the government on the camp grounds at Brattleboro, 
remove them to a sheltered situation at one end of the grounds, placing 
them in a hollow square, and to fit them up with plastered walls, good 
floors, chimneys, provisions for ventilation, an abundance of pure spring 
water and all needed appliances and facilities for hospital purposes. This 
was to be done under the care and supervision of Surgeon Phelps, of 
established army experience and reputation, and at the expense of the 
state of Vermont ; when finished it should be to the acceptance of such 
medical inspectors as the government should appoint. It was, however, 
provided that the secretary of war should authorize the transfer of all 
sick and wounded Vermont soldiers needing hospital treatment to the 
hospital at Brattleboro, the governor to appoint a suitable and acceptable 
state military agent to look up the men, wherever to be found, in govern- 
ment or camp hospitals, said state agent to have written authority from 
the secretary of war to enter said hospitals and to take such men for 
transportation to Vermont. 

Secretary Stanton, always courteous, considerate and obliging to the 
writer, and expressing a desire to accommodate the state of Vermont 
in all practicable ways, considering the valuable services the state was 
always ready to render to the government, and the excellent quality of 
the troops from Vermont, finally consented to this proposal. He re- 
marked, however, that it was an unusual experiment, likely, he feared, to j, 
prove impracticable in execution, and that the order for transferring 
the men might have to be revoked within six months. 

To this the writer replied: "Well, Mr. Secretary, my faith in the sue- 



THE MILITARY HOSPITAL 785 

cess of the enterprise is such that I will take all chances of its failure 
and risk all outlay of money in creating the necessary hospital accomnio- 
dations." 

He smilingly replied : "Well, Governor, I cannot but admire your 
earnestness and faith in this matter, and hope your expectations of good 
results may be realized." 

Directly on returning to Brattleboro the work of moving the buildings 
and fitting them for hospital use according to agreement was begun, and 
by the middle of February was completed. The whole was accepted 
by the government medical inspector and the disabled men began at once 
to arrive. 

Before the end of the following summer the hospital was full, some 
men having been sent from neighboring states to occupy rooms not needed 
by Vermonters. During the summer and autumn, hospital tents were 
erected to enlarge accommodations, and these were occupied by men from 
several other states, so that from fifteen hundred to two thousand patients 
were treated at a time, those who had recovered being sent to the front 
again and new cases taking their places. 

The hospital was soon credited by the United States medical inspector 
with perfecting a larger percentage of cures than any United States mili- 
tary hospital record elsewhere could show. 

The recovery of the men in many cases was very rapid. Patients taken 
from camp hospitals often steadily improved from the time they were 
placed on the cars and started on their homeward journey. The prospect 
of again seeing their state and greeting their friends was a more powerful 
tonic than any prescribed by the doctors. When they arrived, skillful 
treatment combined with cheerful surroundings usually wrought a 
complete cure. 

After the favorable report of its inspectors the government willingly 
assumed the .hospital, and reimbursed the state for all expenses in fitting 
up and providing the same. The ladies of Vermont, with most com- 
mendable zeal, patriotism and philanthropy, furnished mainly the equip- 
ment for beds and other necessaries, as well as many luxuries. 

The experiment of establishing this hospital proved so successful that 
similar hospitals were provided in other northern states. Thus was 
inaugurated in Vermont an example in the healing art, which led to the 
saving of the lives of thousands of brave men who had given so much 
to their country. 

Reverend J. A. Crawford was chaplain for the hospital. 

In March, 1863, the United States authorities, after due examination 
and investigation with reference to the natural healthfulness of our 



786 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

climate and the purity of the water that flowed from our mountain 
springs, caused to be established and erected upon these grounds a gen- 
eral hospital, which was thoroughly officered and equipped for the treat- 
ment of the sick and wounded. As originally constructed it would easily 
accommodate six hundred men. In the summer of 1864, following the 
advance of our army under General Grant toward Richmond, there were 
sent here sick and wounded soldiers, so that at one time there were 1,100 
patients under treatment. This enormous overflow, beyond the capacity 
of the hospital proper, was cared for under large tents constructed for 
hospital purposes. At one time soldiers of every loyal state in the Union 
were inmates of this hospital. Between the date of its establishment and 
1865 over 4,500 sick and wounded soldiers received treatment within its 
walls, and of this large number but ninety-five died. Twenty-one of 
these were buried in "Soldiers' lot," purchased and now owned by the 
government, in Prospect Hill Cemetery. The remains of two have since 
been removed by friends or relatives, and nineteen now remain whose 
graves are marked by suitable marble headstones, representing many 
different states. 



A memorial stone has been erected on the site of the Military Hospital, 
with the following inscription on one side : 

Upon this ground during the war for the Union, A. D. 1861-65, ten 
thousand two hundred volunteers in the 4th, 8th, 9th, 10th, Uth, 12th, 
13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th Vermont regiments and the 1st Vermont light 
battery encamped and were mustered into the Union service before depart- 
ing for the field. Upon this ground also four thousand six hundred and 
sixty-six veterans, survivors of the great struggle, were successively 
mustered out. In commemoration of their patriotic devotion this monu- 
ment was erected by the citizens of Vermont, A. D. 1906. 

The bronze tablet states that on these grounds were mustered into the 
United States service 10,200 men. That statement is correct as far as it 
goes. The organizations mentioned as originally mustered were com- 
posed of that number; but there were subsequently recruited, mustered 
in and sent forward from here 3656 additional men, who were attached 
to those several organizations named, making a total of 13,856. Further 
than this, in 1863 Brattleboro became the general rendezvous of military 
operations within the state, and large numbers of recruits were assembled 
here from time to time until the close of the war mustered into service 



WAR RELIEF Wt: 

and sent forward to fill up the ranks of our several regiments in the field. 
The exact number may never be known. ^ 

War Relief 

Of the Soldiers' Aid Society, working under the Sanitary Commission, 
Mrs. M. P. S. Cutts was an efficient and enthusiastic president. Relatives 
who hastened to sick or dying soldiers, on their arrival in the hospital 
were received as guests in the homes of the town. 

To Company C the ladies furnished undergarments ; namely, each, a 
flannel shirt, flannel drawers, woolen hose, two pocket handkerchiefs, bag 
containing sewing articles, a havelock. 

In 1865 Mrs. Dennie W. Farr was appointed agent of the Sanitary 
Commission for Windham County. 

In addition to fitting out their own boys, and constant service of fur- 
nishing food and other comforts for Vermont soldiers moving south 
through Brattleboro, in the long trains that extended from above Walnut 
Street to the freight yard below the railroad depot, they had the very 
personal task and privilege of attentions to the wounded and convales- 
cent, often fifteen hundred or eighteen hundred at a time, in the Military 
Hospital. 

Few surgical supplies were available, there were no trained nurses, the 
housewives' store of linen was the main dependence for pads and band- 
ages. Quilts had to be made for protection against the cold of the long 
winters. The work of weekly collections, cutting, sewing and knitting, 
preparations of broth, jellies and other delicacies was lightened by the 
inspiration of direct contact with the men. 

Recruits were drilled on the Common, and invalided soldiers, able to 
come as far away from the hospital, were to be seen there, sunning them- 
selves on the long wooden benches, or sauntering along the village streets 
long after the war was over. 

Brattleboro's quota paid for expenses of the war, through selectmen, 
and outside of all voluntary contributions to agencies of relief, was 
$54,848. 

A reunion of Vermont soldiers was held in Brattleboro August 17, 18 
and 19, 1875. Several hundred were present at the three days' encamp- 
ment. There were many speakers at the various gatherings, Vice- 
President Wilson, Honorable William M. Evarts, Senator Edmunds, 
Judge Asa O. Aldis, General Stannard, General Franklin, Governor Peck 
and others less distinguished. 

1 Colonel Kittredge Haskins. 



CHAPTER LXXI 
GOVERNOR FREDERICK HOLBROOK 

Frederick Holbrook, son of Deacon John Holbrook, was born in Ware- 
house Point February 15, 1813, the youngest in the family of ten children. 
At the age of about sixteen years he was sent to the Berkshire Gymna- 
sium at Pittsfield, Massachusetts, then the best school for boys and young 
men in the country; here ' he remained two years in the study of 
mathematics and the higher English branches. Professor Chester Dewey 
of Williams College was the principal of the gj'mnasium and Mark 
Hopkins, afterwards president of Williams College, was vice-principal. 
He thus enjoyed the best possible instruction, and with both teachers 
warm personal friendships were made — friendships which were of value 
in after life. 

It was soon after the young man's return from this school that an 
interesting incident occurred in his election as captain of the Floodwood 
company. The captain of the company had resigned, and the young bucks 
of the village, bent on having a lark, ignored the pompous young lieu- 
tenant, who thought he had a cinch on the place and made a grandiloquent 
speech preliminary to his expected election ; and when the first sergeant 
held out a stovepipe hat and the company marched by to cast in their 
ballots, it was found that Fred Holbrook, a boy of eighteen was elected 
by a practically unanimous vote. The election took place in front of the 
Meeting-House in the West Village. 

"I studied up tactics a little," Governor Holbrook said when relating 
the incident years afterwards, "before the next training day, and so the 
company whacked around the West Village street and Common, and made 
out to blunder through some evolutions not commonly done by a militia 
company. In an aside, he confessed that the captain set out the customary 
half-barrel of punch, and it was reported that in consequence several of 
his men went home "badly wounded." After this election he was famil- 
iarly known as "Captain Holbrook," even up to the time he became 
governor. 

In the autumn of his eighteenth year he went to Boston, where he 
became interested in the bookstore of Richardson, Lord & Holbrook, 
remaining there about two years. He became a member of the Handel 



GOVERNOR HOLBROOK 789 

and Haydn Society and of Lowell Mason's church choir, and his associa- 
tions were such that he enjoyed unusual advantages for cultivating his 
natural musical taste, with the result that for forty years after his return 
to Brattleboro he was the choir leader of the Centre Church. It was, in 
fact, not man/ years before his death that Governor Holbrook appeared 
before the Brattleboro public as the able and gracious leader of an "Old 
Folks' " Concert. 

At the age of twenty he crossed the Atlantic for the benefit of an 
extended European tour. 

When the young man was twenty-one and the bride a little less than 
eighteen, he was married to Harriet Goodhue, the daughter of Colonel 
Joseph Goodhue. It was within three or four years after this time that 
the change in the family fortunes and the death of his father, Deacon 
John Holbrook, led Frederick Holbrook to take up in earnest the pursuit 
to which the years of his mature life were devoted. His natural taste 
for agriculture had been given practical form by work on his father's 
farm. During some months spent in Great Britain at the age of twenty 
he had carefully observed farm methods there, and since his marriage 
he had taken up the cultivation of two considerable tracts of land by 
his own hands. He had read widely on agricultural topics, especially 
their scientific side, and soon began to have a reputation in this direction. 
He was solicited to write for the agricultural press and, though under- 
taking the work with hesitation, he finally entered into a contract with 
The Albany Cultivator of Albany and The New England Farmer of 
Boston, both then monthly journals, by which he was to furnish each of 
them a leading article each month. He studied carefully for the literary 
side of his work, and consulted his old friend and tutor, jMark Hopkins, 
as to the best models and other means to be used. His writings were 
largely copied by the Vermont papers and it was by this means that he 
first came to public prominence. 

For many years he wrote editorial articles for The Country Gentleman. 
Among his agricultural contributions to the Brattleboro papers were the 
following: In The Brattleboro Eagle, September 9, 1853, "Plow Deep, 
Tiller"; in the same paper, October 28, 1853, "Fall Plowing"; in The 
Phoenix of August 27, 1859, "Cultivation of Corn and Oats." 

In the years 1849 and 1850 Governor Holbrook was elected a member 
of the Vermont State Senate. At the session of 1849 a joint committee 
was appointed to enquire into the expediency of recommending the estab- 
lishment of a national bureau of agriculture, and Governor Holbrook 
drew up a memorial to the President and Congress stating in detail the 
reasons for establishing such a bureau. Those who read that memorial 



790 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

today will find that it contains in its argument and suggestion the 
"promise and potency" of substantially all the work which the govern- 
ment has since undertaken in that direction. It attracted much favorable 
notice, and was followed by a definite recommendation, in President 
Taylor's annual message of that year, for the formation of such a bureau. 
This was undoubtedly the primary movement which has led up to the 
department of agriculture as it exists today. 

From the organization of the Vermont State Agricultural Society in 
1850 up to the time of his election as governor, Governor Holbrook was 
the president of the society. Its fairs were held in the several larger 
towns of the state in rotation, and through his appearance at these exhi- 
bitions Governor Holbrook became well known both to the farmers and 
the public men of the state, so that, by the year 1860, when the war 
broke out, there were few men "who ever went out of their own door- 
yards," as the ex-Governor himself expressed it, who did not know him 
personally through some one or more of the means here suggested. There 
is probably no doubt, at least, that at the time of his election he had a 
wider personal acquaintance in the state than has ever been enjoyed by 
any other Vermont governor. 

The Republican convention of 1861 was held at Montpeher in the 
brick church which stood on the site of the present Bethany (Congre- 
gational) Church. The call for it was broad, to fit the patriotic spirit 
of the time, and embraced "all who are in favor of supporting the Con- 
stitution and the Union, and of sustaining the Federal government in 
its efforts to suppress rebellion and put down treason." It was a mass 
convention, and its nominating committee brought in, as its state ticket, 
for governor, Frederick Holbrook of Brattleboro; for lieutenant-gover- 
nor, Levi Underwood of Burlington ; for treasurer, John A. Page of Rut- 
land. This ticket was unanimously nominated and its election by an over- 
whelming majority followed in September. Governor Holbrook had been 
a Whig, but at the formation of the Republican party he joined its ranks 
and was a member of the first Republican convention ever held in Ver- 
mont. It was conceded that the head of the ticket of 1861 was to come 
from Windham County, and Governor Holbrook and John E. Butler of 
Jamaica each had his supporters. 

The duties to which the new governor was introduced, upon his inau- 
guration in October, 1861, were such as had fallen to none of his prede- 
cessors. The country was in the midst of times when the governor of 
every loyal state was called upon to act on the most important questions 
with no precedent and no law to guide him, and with nothing to fall back 
upon but his own best judgment and the patriotic determination of the 



GOVERNOR HOLBROOK 791 

people. In some of the states an element of rank disloyalty had to be 
fought, but in Vermont, fortunately, there was very little of this spirit 
to complicate the situation. Governor Holbrook's first official act was 
to suggest to the Legislature the policy of paying off one-half of the 
war expenses of the state by direct taxation, and of funding the other 
half in state bonds, to be paid by those of another generation who would 
reap equally the benefit of the sacrifices of the time. The Legislature 
approved this suggestion and enacted laws in conformity with it. The 
result was that at the close of the war Vermont's debt was less than 
that of any loyal state in proportion to aid furnished and percentage 
of population, and was the first state war debt to be paid in full. 

Ex-Governor Holbrook recalled with amused satisfaction the dismay 
with which the state treasurer contemplated the issue of $1,500,000 of 
state bonds during the autumn of 1861. That official had no idea that 
the bonds could be floated at anything like their face value, even if they 
could be sold at all; other prominent men sympathized in this belief. 
Governor Holbrook calmly said that he would himself undertake to nego- 
tiate the bonds. On his return to Brattleboro he accordingly wrote to his 
boyhood and lifelong friend, George Baty Blake, the Boston banker, 
asking him to come to Brattleboro. On his arrival the Governor explained 
to Mr. Blake the situation, mentioned to him the well-known stability 
of character of the people of Vermont, the even distribution of wealth 
among them and their reputation for paying their debts. To all this 
Mr. Blake assented, and with a letter from the Governor embodying these 
points he returned to Boston, and within a fortnight had sold the issue 
at a handsome premium. 

In a speech at a Grand Army campfire many years after the close of 
the war, ex-Governor Holbrook briefly related the part which he had in 
suggesting to President Lincoln the calling out of a large body of addi- 
tional men in the early summer of 1862, after the Union reverses in 
Virginia and when the whole North was in a state of despondency. It 
is not necessary to repeat the facts about this important war measure, 
but the incident is mentioned as showing the intimate relations which 
existed between Mr. Lincoln and Governor Holbrook, and the confidence 
which the former reposed in the Governor's good judgment. He often 
urged Governor Holbrook to write to him frankly and fully, saying to 
him that in Washington he was so surrounded by discordant elements, by 
self-seekers, by men of half-hearted loyalty, or "secesh" proclivities, 
as well as by extremists on the other side, that it was difficult to form 
a clear and correct judgment, and he was, therefore, always glad to hear 
from the "plain people." 



792 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Governor Holbrook's letter suggesting the calling out of 500,000 men 
was received one Tuesday morning, and as soon as he had read it Mr. 
Lincoln exclaimed to Secretary Stanton that he had there a solution of 
the whole difficulty. Provost-Marshal General Draper was immediately 
dispatched to Vermont to consult with Governor Holbrook, bringing from 
President Lincoln a request that such an endorsement of the proposed 
call be formulated as Governor Holbrook and the other loyal governors 
would be willing to sign. A statement was agreed upon and was signed 
by Governor Holbrook and by as many other governors as could be 
seen by General Draper on his way back to Washington, while the assent 
of others was secured by wire. In a few days came the call for 300,000 
three years' men, and later 300,000 nine months' men were called into 
the field. Although this was nearly three years before the war closed, 
the act was the beginning of the end. 

Under the President's call the nine months' men were to be drafted, 
but Governor Holbrook protested that a draft would dampen the enthu- 
siasm of the people of Vermont, and by his request the state was allowed 
to raise its quota by volunteer enlistment. 

It was just at this time that Governor Richard Yates sat in the guber- 
natorial chair of Illinois. He was an intimate friend of Lincoln and 
had become greatly depressed at the dubious outlook for the northern 
cause, and had written a despondent letter on the subject to President 
Lincoln. To this Mr. Lincoln answered by telegraph, in his characteristic 
way, "Wait a little, Dick, and see the salvation of the Lord." Within 
a day or two Governor Yates received the call for more volunteers. 

Governor Holbrook was elected in 1861 by a Republican majority of 
24,167; in 1862 he was reelected by 25,65i majority, serving two full 
terms during the most trying time of the war. His official residence 
was at the old Brattleboro House, where Crosby Block now stands, and 
the days and nights were filled with duties and responsibilities such as 
the present generation knows nothing of. It required a clear head and a 
cool heart to steer a straight course, with so many conflicting influences 
pressing on every side, but the duties of the two years were performed 
in a way that won for Governor Holbrook the lasting love and respect, 
not only of the officers and soldiers whom he personally met by the 
thousand, but of all the loyal people of the state. 

Throughout his administration Governor Holbrook incited the people 
to active loyalty with tongue and pen and in all his intercourse with 
men. Some of his utterances were epigrammatic and deserve to become 
historic, as when he wrote, in his Fast Day proclamation, April, 1862, 
"He has already lived too long who has survived the ruin of his country." 



GOVERNOR HOLBROOK 793 

One of the most valuable services performed by Governor Holbrook 
for the people of Vermont was in securing the establishment of the 
military hospital at Brattleboro. 

It may be said that during Governor Holbrook's administration the 
Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh Regiments, and First and 
Second Batteries of Artillery, the First, Second and Third Companies of 
Sharpshooters, and the First Vermont Cavalry, all three years' men, 
besides some twelve hundred recruits to fill vacancies in old regiments, 
were sent to the field, together with the Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, 
Fifteenth and Sixteenth Regiments of the nine months' men. When 
to this it is added that during the war Vermont sent to the front over 
ten per cent of her total population, including both sexes and all ages, 
and that she paid her soldiers seven dollars per month throughout their 
entire service in addition to their pay from the United States, some idea 
may be formed of the burdens so nobly borne by our people in defense 
of the Union. 

Governor Holbrook's staff during the war consisted of H. H. Baxter 
of Rutland, S. M. Waite and R. W. Clarke of Brattleboro and Bradley 
B. Smalley of Burlington, whose duties, in those stirring times, were 
often of far other than an ornamental character. 

On laying down the cares of office Governor Holbrook dropped quietly 
back into the ranks of private life, taking up the various duties which 
thus befell him. He kept up his interest in agricultural affairs, and 
resumed his connection with the firm of Ruggles, Nourse, Mason & Com- 
pany of Boston and Worcester, for whom he had designed agricultural 
tools on scientific principles. An incident in this connection is worth 
relating. It was well toward the seventies, and a week of special trial of 
implements for working the soil had been set by the directors of the New 
York State Agricultural Society to be held at Utica early in September. 
Among the prizes offered was a gold medal for a plow to be drawn by 
three horses abreast, which should turn up stiff clay soil from a furrow 
a foot deep and ten inches wide, pulverizing it and not laying it over in 
a slab. Ruggles, Nourse, Mason & Company were anxious to win this 
prize, ahd sent for Governor Holbrook, who held himself always subject 
to their call. He had brought the shape of the mould-board of a plow 
to an exactly mathematical basis, and readily set himself to solve the 
New York society's problem. A new mould-board was quickly designed 
and cast, and the plow completed and shipped with all haste to Utica. 
Mr. Nourse had a skillful plowman, a heavy, brawny man, whom he 
always employed to hold the plow at any public test ; but as fate would 
have it the weather was excessively hot, the Utica water was very bad, 
and when the day of the plow trial came the plowman was flat on his back 



794 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

with a deathly sickness, and both he and Mr. Nourse refused to be 
consoled. "Never you mind," said the undaunted ex-governor, "I am 
going to hold the plow myself," and in spite of all protestations, hold it 
• he did. He bought a straw hat, stripped himself to shirt, trousers and 
boots, seized the handles and began turning the straight, well-pulverized 
furrows, though the hard clay soil was completely baked by sun and 
drought, and to do the work required the best efforts of both team and 
plowman. It quickly became noised over the field that the "War Gover- 
nor of Vermont" was holding the plow, and the crowd thronged about 
the testing ground in the broiling sun. They pressed up so closely that 
there was scarce room for the work, and the committee constantly cried 
out, "Fall back, gentlemen, fall back and give the Governor a chance to 
plow out to the ends of his furrows." 

The plow is now a relic in Governor Holbrook's family. 

Many of the older farmers will recall the Governor's invention of a 
much earlier date— the "Holbrook plow" — which was a swivel, success- 
fully designed to use on level land and avoid the dead furrows in the 
center of the field which had been an eyesore and a nuisance under the 
old method of plowing. 

It was during this visit to Utica that ex-Governor Holbrook met ex- 
Governor Seymour and formed a pleasant acquaintance with him. As 
they walked through the streets of the city upon some errand Governor 
Holbrook noticed that Governor Seymour, a man of great affability of 
manner, was constantly busy with salutations to every sort of people 
whom he met. When Governor Holbrook mentioned this Governor 
Seymour replied, "Yes, I always do it ; it doesn't cost me anything and it 
gratifies them." Herein was the secret in large part of his great personal 
popularity. Of Governor Holbrook also, it may be said, that his native 
suavity of manner and his courtesy and kindness toward every class of 
his fellow citizens had not a little to do with the love and esteem in which 
he was held, and with the loyal support and confidence which was always 
awarded him. It was Charles K. Field, a friend and companion from 
boyhood, who said to him after his election as governor: "Why, damn 
it, Fred, it's that cussed suavity that made you governor. You speak 
to everybody you meet, but I don't see half of them!" 

Another personal attribute not to be overlooked is the caution and 
conservatism with which he always tempered his ability and energy in 
every public work. This suggests a shrewd warning which Epaphroditus 
Seymour, president of the old Brattleboro Bank, gave Mr. Holbrook about 
the time of his election to the State Senate. Calling him into the bank 
one day Mr. Seymour said : "I am an older man than you ; I foresee that 
you are likely to receive further public preferment, and I wish to make 



GOVERNOR HOLBROOK 795 

one suggestion. You can say almost anything to a man face to face and 
he will understand you as you mean ; but go and put that same thing on 
paper and it may be construed to mean almost anything. So what I 
want to say is, be very careful what you put on paper." "This," the 
Governor said, "I have often remembered, and observance of the caution 
has proved very beneficial to me." 

Governor Holbrook's wife died in September, 1887, after a brief illness. 
The union of husband and wife had continued for fifty-three years and 
had been a happy and fortunate one. Mrs. Holbrook was a woman of 
strong character and of fine presence; on the domestic side it was particu- 
larly true of her that "She looketh well to the ways of her household, and 
eateth not the bread of idleness." Their home from 1862 was on Walnut 
Street. 

Governor Holbrook was a trustee of the Brattleboro Retreat from 
1852 until his death; he was also a trustee of the Vermont Savings Bank 
from 1856 and its president from 1870 until the time of his death. 

In 1875 Governor Holbrook received from President Grant an un- 
solicited appointment as United States Consul to Odessa, Russia, but he 
declined it. 

He died April 28, 1909, at ninety-six years of age. 
Three sons were born to Governor and Mrs. Holbrook: 
Franklin Fessenden Holbrook, born March 1, 1837 ; married September 
17, 1861, Anna, daughter of Joel iSourse of Boston. He was military 
commissioner of Vermont with rank of colonel; after the war, head 
of the firm of F. F. Holbrook & Company, manufacturers of agri- 
cultural implements. He died December 6, 1916. Children: 
Frederick. (See p. 977.) 

Emerline F., married Edward Cooke Armstrong, professor of Ro- 
mance languages in Princeton University. A son, Percy. 
Harry, died at ten years of age. 
Percy, married Mrs. Alice Patton of Kentucky. 
Judge William C. Holbrook, born July 14, 1842. (See p. 809.) 
John Holbrook, died October 5, 1901, in Pennsylvania where he had 
lived many years. 

The Honorable James M. Tyler wrote of "Governor Holbrook," at the 
time of his death : 

Mr. Holbrook was, in the years of his mature manhood, a man of 
striking and impressive presence. He was a little more than six feet 
in height, broad-shouldered, weighed about one hundred and ninety 
pounds, well-proportioned, erect, dignified, yet unassuming, his head large 
and perfectly formed, his handsome face always wearing a pleasant smile, 



796 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

his manner courteous and deferential; but under his affability he carried 
an unbending will. Some of our citizens well remember his appearance 
on the street, while governor, as he walked from his home to the executive 
chamber in the old Brattleboro House on Main Street, as the ideal of 
manly form and strength and of intellectual vigor. 

His was the "simple life." He disliked ostentation, lived plainly but 
well, loved his garden and believed that his work in it, continued till hfe 
was past ninety, prolonged his life. 

He was an intense lover of music and for forty years carefully trained 
the Congregational choir, of which during all that time he was the leader. 
He was never absent from his place on Sunday while he was governor. 
He sometimes remarked smilingly to his friends that it was in the choir 
that he first met Miss Goodhue, who became his wife. 

Mr. Holbrook was always deeply interested in agriculture. In early 
life he worked upon the farm and well knew what was meant by manual 
labor. A few old men remember him, with coat off, holding the plow and 
tilling the land through which Oak Street now runs. He invented several 
plows and many improved devices, and the "Holbrook plow" was known 
throughout the country. 

He was not a learned man in the scholastic meaning of the term, but 
he was exceedingly well read and well informed. He had no taste for 
current light literature, but he was fond of poetry, and the leading Eng- 
lish and American poets and prose writers were his constant companions. 
It was a pleasant incident of his old age, when his sight had become dim, 
that a circle of his lady friends met at his house weekly and read to him 
Shakespeare, Dickens and other works of his favorite authors. He was 
master of English composition, having formed his style, as he often said, 
from his study of Addison. All his letters and public documents were 
written with ease and elegance, and his commonest conversation was 
faultless. 

Governor Holbrook was for more than half a century a trustee of the 
Brattleboro Retreat, succeeding his father, Deacon John Holbrook, one 
of the original trustees. For years he took especial oversight of the 
farming department. The meadow was an object of great pride with him, 
for under his direction it was redeemed from a mere swamp and by a 
system of drainage converted into land of great fertility and productive- 
ness. His interest in the welfare of the institution was intense, and by 
his wisdom and long experience he rendered it valuable service. His 
mind was constantly upon the welfare of the patients. It was a common 
remark of his that the question is "not how cheaply but how well we can 
provide for them." 



CHAPTER LXXII 

GENERAL JOHN W. PHELPS 

General John W. Phelps. Emancipation Proclamation — Tribute to General Phelps 
from General Rush W. Hawkins — Mrs. Almira Hart Lincoln Phelps. 

Charles Phelps, the great-grandfather of General John Wolcott Phelps, 
was a lineal descendant of William Phelps, one of the first settlers of 
Dorchester, Massachusetts, who afterwards removed to Windsor, 
Connecticut, where he was a man of large influence and judge of the first 
court ever held in that State. Charles Phelps was born in Northampton, 
Massachusetts, was educated to the profession of the law and settled in 
Hadley, Massachusetts, when the town was almost a wilderness. From 
there he removed to JSIarlboro, then a part of "Cumberland County, New 
York." He was the first lawyer who ever came to reside within the limits 
of what is now the state of Vermont. He brought with him two sons, 
Solomon and Timothy, leaving a third in Massachusetts. Timothy in due 
time came to be a prominent man and was made sheriff of Cumberland 
County under the jurisdiction of New York. He stoutly upheld the 
authority of New York in the quarrel which arose over the "New Hamp- 
shire Grants," and it is related that when the superior court of Vermont 
first went to hold a session in Marlboro, which had been made a half 
shire, he entered the room and ordered them to disperse by authority of 
the state of New York. He had two sons, John and Charles, both of 
whom were lawyers. Charles went to West Townshend, and was the 
father of Honorable James H. Phelps, a resident of that place, who left 
a collection of books, manuscripts and journals to the Brooks Library. 
John removed to Guilford, settling first at or near the center of the town, 
but removing afterwards to Algiers, where he built the Phelps homestead 
which still stands on the left as one enters the village from the north. 
Across the street was his law office, which also is still standing. Whether 
John Wolcott was born here, or during the family's residence at the 
center is not certain, but probably at the former place. His birth took 
place on November 13, 1813. 

It may be added that the father of General Phelps was twice married, 
his first wife being Miss Lucy Lovell of Rockingham, by whom he had 



798 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

eight children, and who died March 28, 1831, aged fifty-two. Of these 
the General was the last survivor. A daughter, Lucy, died August 8, 
1833, aged sixteen. By his second wife, Mrs. Almira Hart Lincoln, the 
celebrated teacher and author, whose death took place July, 1884, at the 
advanced age of ninety-one years, he had two children, Charles Edward 
and Elmira of Baltimore, the former a judge of one of the courts of that 
city. 

Young Phelps's education began in the public schools of Guilford and 
Brattleboro, supplemented by a few terms of study in a select school 
taught in this village by a Mr. Sanborn, where he was fitted for entrance 
to the United States military academy at West Point. Entering West 
Point Academy in 1832 he was graduated with the rank of second lieu- 
tenant in 1836, a short time before the outbreak of the war with the 
Creek Indians. Assigned to the Fourth Artillery, for the ensuing two 
years he took an active part in the operations against the Creeks and 
Seminoles in Florida. After the war he was put in charge of the emigra- 
tion of Indians to the West, his quarters being with the Cherokee nation. 
He had not finished this work when another outbreak in Florida recalled 
him there, where he remained until the trouble was over. For these 
services he was promoted to a first lieutenancy and was put in charge of 
the camp of instruction. This peaceful detail lasted but a few months, 
for when the Canada border disturbances began, in the fall of 1839, he 
was sent to Detroit and remained on duty on the border for about three 
years, serving at Detroit, Fort Mackinac, Fort Brady and Buffalo. From 
1842 until 1846 he was on garrison and recruiting duty. He went to 
Mexico with the first force sent there after the declaration of war, and 
there won the name of being one of the bravest and most efficient artillery 
officers in the service. He was at the battle of Monterey, and was 
stationed before Vera Cruz during the siege of that place in the spring 
of 1847. Then, under General Williams, he was at the battles of Cerro 
Gordo, of Contreras and of Molino del Rey, and was present at the 
assault and capture of the city of Mexico. For gallant conduct at Con- 
treras and Churubusco he was brevetted captain, but declined the nominal 
promotion. Three years later, in March, 1850, he received a reg^llar 
promotion. Meanwhile he served in garrison and was a member of the 
board appointed by order of Congress to devise. a complete set of instruc- 
tions for siege, garrison, seacoast and mountain artillery. For eight years 
afterwards he was away from civilization and had the hardest kind of 
border experiences. His first detail was at Fort Brown, Texas, at a time 
when border ruffianism was at its height. Military duty there consisted 
of unremitting vigilance and frequent raids upon schemers and cutthroats, 
whose ambition looked only to the overthrow of government authority 



GEN. JOHN W. PHELPS 799 

that they might hold the newly acquired country under a rule of terror. 
To this end a filibustering expedition was organized and acquired strong 
headway. Captain Phelps distinguished himself by moving against it 
with his little force and overthrowing it. In 1855 he marched from Fort 
Brown to San Antonio, with orders to suppress lawlessness along the 
route and at San Antonio. This march was successful, and for a few 
months afterwards he was given a respite as a member of the Artillery 
Board at Fortress Monroe. In 1857, however, he went again on frontier 
duty at Fort Leavenworth, and accompanied the Utah expedition of 1857, 
under General Albert Sidney Johnston, as chief of artillery; but becoming 
dissatisfied with the course pursued by Buchanan's administration in its 
conduct of affairs in that territory, he resigned November 2, 1859, after 
an active military service of nearly twenty-three years. 

He then took up his residence in Brattleboro, but his period of retire- 
ment to civil life was destined to be brief. Bitter in his hatred of slavery 
— an institution whose ruling oligarchy, as he had come to see it, virtually 
controlled the government — he looked with eager interest upon the steps 
which led to the outbreak of the slaveholders' rebellion. 

When Vermont raised her regiment of three months' volunteers in 
response to President Lincoln's first call for troops. Captain Phelps was 
commissioned a colonel of volunteers (May 2, 1861) and given command 
of the regiment. "He was not only a trained soldier, but a man of most 
humane sympathies. The affection he so frequently expressed for the men 
of his regiment they soon realized to be perfectly sincere, and after two 
months' service under him there was not a man who would not have risked 
his own life to save that of Colonel Phelps."' Joining General Butler's 
command at Hampton Roads, May 23, Colonel Phelps, himself on foot 
as well as other officers, marched the regiment into the town of Hampton, 
Virginia, making the first reconnoissance upon Virginian soil by United 
States troops, and distinguished himself by taking possession of Newport 
News. It was here he received his commission as brigadier-general, dated 
November 17, 1861. Accompanying Butler's expedition to the Gulf of 
Mexico, shortly after, he took possession of Ship Island, where, December 
4, 1861, he issued his famous proclamation to the loyal citizens of the 
Southwest, in which he declared slavery incompatible with free institutions 
and free labor and its overthrow the end and aim of our government. 
This pronunciamento, though it caused a feeling of amazement and dis- 
satisfaction not only in official quarters but throughout the country gen- 
erally, both South and North, was a noteworthy forerunner and prophecy 
of that other proclamation, from a higher authority, which two years 
later declared liberty to four million slaves. The public sentiment of the 

^ Honorable Roswell Farnham. 



800 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

country was not prepared for such a policy as announced. General 
Phelps was two years ahead of the times. We give in full below this 
interesting historical document : 

Headquarters Middlesex Brigade, 

Ship Island, Mississippi, Dec. 4, 1861. 

To the Loyal Citizens of the Southwest : 

Without any desire of my own, but contrary to my private inclination, 
I again find myself among you as a military officer of the government. A 
proper respect for my fellow countrymen renders it not out of place 
that I should make known to you the motives and principles by which my 
command will be governed. 

We believe that every state that has been admitted as a slave state 
into the Union since the adoption of the constitution has been so admitted 
in direct violation of that constitution. We believe that the slave states 
which existed as such at the adoption of our constitution are, by becoming 
parties to that compact, under the highest obligations of honor and 
morality to abolish slavery. It is our conviction that monopolies are as 
destructive as competition is conservative of the principles and vitalities 
of republican government ; that slave labor is a monopoly which excludes 
free labor and competition ; the slaves are kept in comparative idleness 
and ease in a fertile half of our arable national territory, while free white 
laborers, constantly augmenting in numbers from Europe, are confined 
to the other half, and are often distressed by want; that the free labor of 
the North has more need of expansion into the Southern states, from 
which it is virtually excluded, than slavery had into Texas in 1846 ; that 
free labor is essential to free institutions ; that these institutions are natu- 
rally better adapted and more congenial to the Anglo-Saxon race than 
are the despotic tendencies of slavery ; and, finally, that the dominant polit- 
ical principles of this North American continent, so long as the Caucasian 
race continues to flow in upon us from Europe, must needs be those of 
free institutions and free government. Any obstruction to the progress 
of that form of government in the United States must inevitably be 
attended with discord and war. 

Slavery, from the condition of a universally recognized social and 
moral evil, has become at length a political institution, demanding polit- 
ical recognition. It demands rights to the exclusion and annihilation of 
those rights which are insured to us by the constitution; and we must 
choose between them which we will have, for we cannot have both. The 
constitution was made for free men, not for slaves. Slavery as a social 
evil might for a time be tolerated and endured, but as a political institution 



GEN. JOHN W. PHELPS 801 

it becomes imperious and exacting, controlling, like a dread necessity, all 
whom circumstances have compelled to live under its sway, hampering 
their action, and thus impeding our national progress. As a political insti- 
tution it could exist as a coordinate part only of two forms of government, 
namely, the despotic and the free ; and it could exist under a free govern- 
ment only where public sentiment, in the most unrestricted exercise of a 
robust freedom, leading to extravagance and licentiousness, had swayed 
the thoughts and habits of the people beyond the bounds and limits of 
their own moderate constitutional provisions. It could exist under a free 
government only where the people, in a period of unreasoning extrava- 
gance, had permitted popular clamor to overcome public reason, and had 
attempted the impossibility of setting up permanently, as a political insti- 
tution, a social evil which is opposed to moral law. 

By reverting to the history of the past, we find that one of the most 
destructive wars on record — that of the French revolution — was orig- 
inated by the attempt to give political character to an institution which 
was not susceptible of political character. The church, by being endowed 
with political power, with its convents, its schools, its immense landed 
wealth, its associations, secret and open, became the ruling power of the 
state, and thus occasioned a war of more strife and bloodshed, probably, 
than any other war which has desolated the earth. Slavery is still less 
susceptible of political character than was the church. It is as fit at this 
moment for the lumber-room of the past as was in 1793 the monastery, 
the landed wealth, the exclusive privilege, etc., of the Catholic Church in 
France. 

It behooves us to consider, as a self-governing people, bred and reared 
and practiced in the habits of self-government, whether we cannot, 
whether we ought not to, revolutionize slavery out of existence, without 
the necessity of arms like that of the French revolution. Indeed, we feel 
assured that the moment slavery is abolished, from that moment our 
Southern brethren — every ten of whom have probably seven relatives at 
the North — would emerge from a hateful delirium. From that moment, 
relieved from imaginary terrors, their days would become happy and their 
nights peaceful and free from alarm ; the aggregate amount of labor, under 
the new stimulus of fair competition, becomes greater day by day ; property 
rises in value, invigorating influences succeed to stagnation, degeneracy 
and decay ; and union, harmony and peace — to which we have so long 
been strangers — become restored, and bind us again in the bonds of 
amity and friendship, as when we first began our national career under 
our glorious government of 1789. 

Why do the leaders of the rebellion seek to change the form of our 
ancient government? Is it because the growth of the African element of 



aOf, ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

your population has come at length to render a change necessary? Will 
you permit the free government under which you have thus far lived, 
and which is so well suited for the development of true manhood, to be 
altered to a narrow and belittling despotism in order to adapt it to the 
necessities of ignorant slaves and the requirements of their proud and 
aristocratic owners ? Will the laboring men of the South bend their necks 
to the same yoke that is suited to the slave? We think not. We may 
safely answer that the time has not arrived when our Southern brethren, 
for the mere sake of keeping Africans in slavery, will abandon their long- 
cherished free institutions and enslave themselves. It is the conviction 
of my command as a part of the national forces of the United States that 
labor — manual labor — is inherently noble ; that it cannot be systematically 
degraded by any nation without undermining its peace, happiness and 
power; that free labor is the granite basis on which free institutions must 
rest ; that it is the right, the capital, the inheritance, the hope of the poor 
man everywhere; that it is especially the right of five millions of our 
fellow countrymen in the slave states, as well as of four millions of 
Africans there, and all our efforts therefore, however small or great, 
whether directed against the interference of governments abroad or 
against rebellious combinations at home, shall be for free labor. Our 
motto and our standard shall be here and everywhere, and on all occa- 
sions "Free labor and workingmen's rights." It is on this basis, and this 
basis alone, that our munificent government — the asylum of the nations — 
can be perpetuated and preserved. 

J. W. Phelps, 
Brigadier General Volunteers Commanding. 



While stationed at Ship Island General Phelps cooperated with Com- 
modore Farragut in the capture of the forts below New Orleans and of 
the city, after which he was stationed some ten miles above the city, at 
Carrollton, where he was the first to organize negro slaves as soldiers. 
For this act he was declared an outlaw by the rebel authorities. As indi- 
cating the character of the man and the bitterness with which he was 
hated by the rebels of that section, the story is told that General Butler, 
when upon one occasion remonstrated with for carelessness in exposing 
his person to the risk of assassination while going about upon his various 
duties as commander of the department, dryly remarked that the rebels 
would never assassinate him while Phelps stood next in command ! 

It is natural to suppose that General Phelps, as a graduate of West 
Point, felt more or less antipathy to Butler from the first ; at all events 
their views upon the slavery question, and the proper manner of treating 



GEN. JOHN W. PHELPS 803 

the "contrabands" were at variance, and Phelps's naturally intolerant 
spirit chafed at what he considered the folly of the policy pursued by 
Butler and the authorities at Washington. In the controversy which fol- 
lowed General Phelps's efforts to enlist and arm the negroes who flocked 
to his lines, the ability and foresight which characterized him are well 
displayed. After repeated attempts to obtain permission to organize 
colored troops he at length wrote to the adjutant-general of the depart- 
ment as follows, at the same time tendering his resignation : 

Headquarters, Department of the Gulf, 

New Orleans, July 30, 1862. 

Captain R. S. Davis, A. A. A. General: 

Sir — I enclose herewith requisitions for arms, accoutrements, clothing, 
camp and garrison equipage, etc., for three regiments of Africans, which 
I propose to raise for the defense of this point. The location is swampy 
and unhealthy, and our men are dying at the rate of two or three a day. 
The Southern loyalists are willing, as I understand, to furnish their share 
of the tax for the support of the war; but they should also furnish their 
quota of men; which they have not thus far done. An opportunity now 
offers of supplying the deficiency, and it is not safe to neglect opportuni- 
ties in war. I think that, with the proper facilities, I could raise the three 
regiments proposed in a short time, without holding out any inducements 
or offering any reward. I have now upwards of three hundred Africans, 
organized into five companies, who are willing and ready to show their 
devotion to our cause in any way that it may be put to the test. They 
are willing to submit to anj-thing rather than slavery. 

Society in the South seems on the point of dissolution, and the best 
way to prevent the African from becoming instrumental in a general 
state of anarchy is to enlist him in the cause of the republic. If we 
neglect his services, any petty military chieftain, by offering him freedom, 
can have them for the purpose of robbery and plunder. It is for the 
interests of the South as well as the North that the African should be 
permitted to offer his block for the temple of freedom. Sentiments 
unworthy of the man of the present day, worthy only of another Cain, 
could prevent such an offer from being accepted. I would recommend 
that the cadet graduates of the present year should be sent to South 
Carolina and this point to organize and discipline our African levies, 
and that the more promising non-commissioned officers and privates of 
the army be appointed as company officers to command them. Prompt 
and energetic efforts in this direction would probably accomplish more 
towards a speedy termination of the war, and an early restoration of 



804 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

peace and amity, than any other course which could be adopted. I have 
the honor to remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. W. Phelps, Brigadier-General. 

To this application General Butler responded that he had no authority 
to enlist colored soldiers, and, refusing to accept his resignation, ordered 
him to set the negroes at work on the fortifications and doing camp duty. 
General Phelps's persistency at length induced a final appeal to the 
authorities at Washington, which resulted, in his resignation being 
accepted August 21, 1862. 

General Phelps returned to Brattleboro, where he remained until the 
following winter. The rapid progress of events had by this time pre- 
pared the country for President Lincoln's proclamation of emancipation, 
and made manifest the absolute necessity of doing the very thing that 
General Phelps had been censured for attempting and prevented from 
carrying out — namely, increasing our armies by organizing and arming 
the freedmen. In December, 1862, on the occasion of a visit of Governor 
Holbrook and staff to Washington to arrange for the establishment of 
military hospitals in Vermont, General Phelps accompanied them, and at 
the end of an interview with President Lincoln and Secretary Stanton, 
both of whom spoke in the highest terms of the General's military ability 
and personal character, Mr. Lincoln directed that a commission as major- 
general of volunteers be made out and given to General Phelps — the 
understanding being that he was to hold this commission as chief officer 
in command of the black troops. A few days later Governor Holbrook 
was surprised to see General Phelps back in Brattleboro, and upon inquir- 
ing of him as to what this meant the General said that, when it came to the 
arrangement of details, he had insisted on certain things which Mr. 
Lincoln did not see fit to grant, and he had therefore thrown up his com- 
mission and returned home. From this time on he was always severe 
and even bitter in his estimate of Mr. Lincoln, regarding him in that 
urgency as a timeserver. 

He was admitted to the bar in September, 1863. 

His private life was spotless. From his boyhood to his death there 
was nothing which even savored of vice, dishonesty or impurity. Always 
a disbeliever in secret societies, his hatred of such institutions, from 
Freemasonry down to college societies, amounted in his later years to a 
monomania. In his mind every theme of thought or conversation led 
almost inevitably to this topic or to the way in which he conceived our 
modern society to be honeycombed and undermined by the malign influ- 
ence of Freemasonry. 



GEN. JOHN W. PHELPS 806 

Besides a work on secret societies, which he translated from the 
French, he was the reputed author of a volume entitled "Sibylline 
Leaves," published by Joseph Steen in 1858. Other works were a book 
designed for the young on "Good Behavior,"' and a work on "Madagas- 
car." He was one of the leading officers of the Vermont Historical So- 
ciety, and wrote the history of Guilford for Miss Hemenway's "Historical 
Gazetteer." He was also an occasional contributor to the leading literary, 
educational and scientific periodicals of the day. He was deeply inter- 
ested in educational matters, and for several years was president of the 
Vermont Teachers' Association. His prominence as an anti-Mason led 
to his becoming the nominee for president in 1880. 

April 30, 1883, in the seventieth year of his age, he was married to Mrs. 
Anna B. Davis, daughter of Thomas and Susan jMattoon of Northfield. 
A son, John W., married Grace Joselyn Sankey and they have a daughter, 
Victoria. 

For nearly a year prior to his death, February 5, 1885, General Phelps 
lived with his wife and child in the house in Guilford where his death took 
place. During that time he took an active interest in the affairs of that 
community and kept up an almost ceaseless literary activity. He was an 
earnest advocate of the metric system, and one evening just before his 
death delivered an interesting and instructive lecture in the village school- 
house on weights and measures. Among his latest papers and memoranda 
was found a list of questions on the same subject for the school children. 

A Tribute to General Phelps from an Intimate Military Friend 

To the Editor of The New York Times: 

General John W. Phelps of Vermont, whose death was announced in 
your issue of this morning, was one of the most notable officers of the 
army. He was an accomplished soldier of the highest and best type, a 
patriotic citizen with an unblemished reputation, a scholar well versed in 
mathematics, science, history, theology, several of the dead and four or 
five of the living languages. As a soldier he was all that the best authori- 
ties demand, and even more, for it might be said of him that he possessed 
an inner sense of duty which no written formula could prescribe. 

It was his faithful care, intelligence and attention to his whole duty as 
a commanding officer, which made his command one of the best-disci- 
plined, best-drilled and most efificient in the whole army. He was not 
much of a believer in the extra-unofficial-off-duty dress parade business 

' I. N. Choynski, antiquarian bookseller of San Francisco, ordered 1000 copies of 
"Good Behavior" and Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson (of the Thompson Trust Fund) 
1200 copies to send South, in 1881. 



806 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

which to many officers who were mere poseurs seemed to be of so very 
much importance. Neither was he a martinet. He had the rare good 
sense to accept the volunteer army for exactly what it was. He weighed 
its defects and measured its virtues, and governed the performance of his 
duties accordingly. He knew he could trust its patriotic sense of duty to 
imitate a good example, and its willing:iess to follow where it could not 
be driven ; and there never was a commanding officer more implicitly 
obeyed or more confidingly trusted. It was my good fortune to have been 
ordered to his command at Newport News, Virginia, soon after the 
breaking out of the rebellion in the spring of 1861. When I reported to 
him with my regiment, I was given to understand that we were engaged 
in a most serious undertaking, involving as it did the national life, and 
that we could only hope to overcome our foes by taking advantage of all 
our resources (he was the first to urge the organization of negro troops) 
and moulding our raw material into a well-disciplined army; that the 
accomplishment of the latter was the immediate work in hand ; and work 
he made of it, such as many of us had never dreamed of before; but we 
saw the necessity for labor and the good sense involved in his orders and 
criticisms, and all worked with a will, officers and men, to reward the 
great industry of a commander who had won our affection, admiration 
and deep respect. 

We went to him as children go to a school, and left him after three 
months' tuition a thoroughly well-disciplined regiment, of whose after 
record he was justly proud. To that kind-hearted, quaint, honest old 
man, with his perfect sense of justice, the officers and men of my regiment 
owe a debt of gratitude which can only be effaced from their memories 
when the last survivor of that command shall have passed away. This 
little statement, inadequate as it is, is the tribute I bring to the grave of an 
honored friend of a quarter of a century. I could not do less; I wish I 
could do more. Take him for all in all, I have never known a man so free 
from the hypocrisies, sins and vices which make humanity despicable as 
was John W. Phelps. 

Rush C. Hawkixs. 
New York, February 3, 1885. 

Mrs. Almira Hart Lincoln Phelps was born in Berlin, Connecticut, July 
15, 1793, the daughter of Samuel and Lydia Hinsdale Hart, and the 
youngest of seventeen children, one of whom was Mrs. Emma Willard. 

She married, first, in 1817, Simeon Lincoln of Hartford, an educator, 
who died in 1823. After his death she was associated with Mrs. Willard 
in her seminary in Troy. Judge John Phelps had a daughter in that 
school and through that medium became interested in Mrs. Lincoln. 



MRS. AOIIRA H. LINCOLN PHELPS 807 

She married Judge Phelps in 1831, and they Hved in Guilford five years 
before coming to Brattleboro. In 1838 she took charge of a school in 
West Chester, Pennsylvania ; from there, irr 1841, she went to the 
Patapsco Institute, Ellicott City, Maryland. 

Mr. Phelps died in 1849, and Mrs. Phelps became head of the school 
in 1856. She was the second woman elected a member of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science. 

The following are her publications: Familiar Lectures on Botany. Dic- 
tionary of Chemistry. Botany for Beginners. Geology for Beginners. 
Chemistry for Beginners. Lectures on Natural Philosophy. The Female 
Student, or Lectures to Young Ladies on Female Education. Lectures on 
Chemistry. Hours with My Pupils. The tales, Caroline Westerly, Ida 
Norman, Christian Household. 

She edited "Our Country in its Relation to the Past, Present and Fu- 
ture" (1865) for the benefit of Christian and Sanitary Commissions. Her 
manual of botany attained a circulation of more than one million copies. 



CHAPTER LXXIII 
FURTHER WAR RECORDS 

Further Records. Colonel William Austine — Colonel William Cune Holbrook — 
Colonel Herbert Edward Taylor — Colonel George White Hooker — Colonel Na- 
thaniel C. Sawyer — Doctor George F. Gale — Doctor Charles P. Frost — Doctor 
Benjamin Ketchum — Colonel John Hunt — George E. Greene. 

The Navy. Commodore Theodore P. Greene. 

Colonel William Austine 

Colonel William Austine was born in Stonington, Connecticut, January, 
1815, his name being William A. Brown ; on account of some litigation, 
his name was changed to William Austine soon after his enlistment in the 
army. 

He was appointed cadet from Connecticut to West Point September 1, 
1833, and graduated July 1, 1838. Immediately after graduation he was 
appointed second lieutenant of the Second Dragoons, in which regiment 
he remained until November, 1839 ; at that time he was promoted to the 
rank of first lieutenant and assigned to the Third Artillery, a regiment 
distinguished for the number of its officers who became famous in the 
Civil War. 

He served in the Florida war against the Seminole Indians from 1838 
to 1843 as adjutant of the Third Artillery; he was at Fort Moultrie, 
South Carolina, from 1842 to 1846. During the war with Mexico he took 
part in the siege of Vera Cruz, the capture of San Antonio, in the battles 
of Cerro Gordo, Contreras and Churubusco, as well as in the skirmish of 
Amazoque. 

For signal ability and gallantry in this campaign he was promoted to 
be captain of the Third Artillery, August 13, 1847, and a short time 
afterwards given the rank of brevet major. 

After the Mexican war he was in garrison at Fort Adams, Rhode 
Island, for several years, with the exception of a short time in Florida 
during the Indian hostilities of 1849 and 1850. Later he was stationed 
at Fort Constitution, New Hampshire, and Fort Wood, New York. On 
account of ill health he was granted leave of absence from 1854 to 1861, 
and spent part of that time in travel in Europe. 




■sSiMSfeSt— -*■' 










COLONEL JOHN STEELE TYLER 



COLONEL ADDISON BROWN 




COLONEL N. C. SAWYER 




COLONEL WILLIAM C. HOLBROOK 




EX-GOVERNOR HOLBROOK 



COL. WILLIAM CUNE HOLBROOK 809 

In 1861 he assumed active duty in the garrison at San Francisco harbor, 
where he was appointed major of the Third Artillery; his services here 
were performed with great ability and warmly commended by the depart- 
ment at Washington. 

He retired from active service in 1862, but continued to serve as 
superintendent of the mustering and volunteer recruiting service of Ver- 
mont at Burlington for three months after his discharge, and was in 
Brattleboro in the same line of duty until November, 1866. 

September, 1865, he was given the rank of brevet lieutenant-colonel, 
and brevet colonel for long and faithful service. 

Colonel Austine never married. 

After his retirement from army life he lived at the Brooks House, 
Brattleboro, until his death September 4, 1904. He was promoted to be 
lieutenant-colonel, his commission from President Roosevelt bearing the 
date of May 23, 1904. 

The will of Colonel William Austine made special bequests amounting 
to about $160,000. The principal beneficiary and residuary legatee was 
Howard M. Eustis of Mobile, Alabama, a nephew, who was Colonel 
Austine's nearest relative. The public bequests included $50,000 to the 
town of Brattleboro, in trust, for the establishment of a hospital "for 
the temporary treatment of strangers or local residents peculiarly situ- 
ated." His will provided for the erection and governing of the hospital 
by five trustees, all residents of the town, three of them to be reputable 
physicians. The first selectman of the town was to be also a member 
of the board, of which he desired Doctor George F. Gale to be president, 
with Doctor A. I. Miller, Doctor George R. Anderson, Colonel Charles 
A. Miles and George C. Averill as other members, and they were em- 
powered to fill any vacancies that might occur. Ten thousand dollars 
was willed in trust to the prudential committee of the school district 
Number 2 for a permanent fund, the income of which was to be given 
each year to the best scholar in the graduating class of the High School. 
The sum of $5000 in permanent fund was left for the benefit of indigent 
women and girls of St. Michael's parish of the Episcopal Church in 
Brattleboro, to be expended under the direction of Miss Clara M. Gale, 
Mrs. C. A. Miles and Miss Laura Pentland. 

An interesting journal, kept by Colonel Austine during the Mexican 
War from February 28, 1847, to July 25, 1848, is now in the Brooks 
Library. 

Colonel William Cune Holbrook 

Colonel William Cune Holbrook was born July 14, 1842, and was edu- 
cated at the village schools of Brattleboro ; while a mere boy, he went as 
a clerk to Boston and there joined the "Tigers," a noted military company. 



810 ANNALS OF BR.A.TTLEBORO 

He returned to Brattleboro at nineteen, and assisted in raising Company 
F, Fourth Regiment of \'ermont Volunteers, going to the front as first 
Heutenant of the company, and soon afterwards was appointed adjutant. 
Subsequently, August, 1862, he was commissioned major of the Seventh 
Regiment, which position he held until he was sent to the Department of 
the Gulf. 

After the death of Colonel Roberts of the Seventh, he was commis- 
sioned colonel, which position he held until the close of the war. He was, 
with one exception, the youngest colonel in the United States Army, 
being a few weeks over twenty at the time of his commission. 

His regiment was stationed at Fort Pensacola and Fort Parrancas 
adjoining and Colonel Holbrook was afterwards in command of the 
northern district of Florida. He also served as brigadier-commander of 
the Thirteenth and Nineteenth Army Corps. 

He actively participated in the battles of Vicksburg, Grand Gulf, Baton 
Rouge, Jackson's Bridge, Gonzales Station, Spanish Fort, Blakely, Whis- 
tler and Mobile. The Seventh Regiment was part of the land force 
participating with Admiral Farragut in the capture of Mobile. 

In 1882 he published a history of the Seventh Regiment. 

At the close of the war he returned to Brattleboro and entered the Har- 
vard Law School; he was graduated in 1869, and immediately began the 
practice of law in New York City. In 1895 he was appointed judge of the 
Court of Special Sessions. 

He married, January 17, 1872, Anna M. Chalmers, daughter of Doctor 
Thomas and Margaret Chalmers, who died September 29, 1898. He died 
March 25, 1904. 
Children: 

Margaret C, married June 15, 1903, John K. Clark, a graduate of Yale 
College and a lawyer in New York. Children : Anna, John, Marion, 
William, Holbrook, Margaret, Maxwell. 

Marion Goodhue, born July 20, ISSO; died November 23, 1904. 

Reverend Chalmers, born July 5, 1887; graduated from Yale, 1910; 
graduated from Union Theological Seminary in New York, 1913 ; 
married May 13, 1912, Rachel Alorton, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
Walter S. Morton of New York. He was ordained in 1913, and has 
been pastor of the Congregational Church, Deerfield, New Hamp- 
shire, 1913, and of Cheshire, Connecticut. 

Richard Knowlton, died January 28, 1876. 

Colonel Herbert Edward Taylor 
Colonel Herbert Edward Taylor was born in Guilford, Vermont, Octo- 
ber 13, 1837, the son of Jeremiah and Mary (Edwards) Taylor. He 



COL. HERBERT EDWARD TAYLOR 811 

came of Revolutionary stock, his ancestors moving to Vermont from 
Rhode Island. He was a great-grandson of Captain John Stovvell of 
Guilford, who commanded a company of men from that town in Seth 
Warner's regiment at the battle of Bennington. He attended the schools 
of his native town, the Wilmington High School and the Powers Insti- 
tute at Bernardston, Massachusetts, and in the late fifties taught near 
Moline, Illinois, for about two years. 

At the breaking out of the war he was promised a commission if he 
would enlist in an Illinois regiment, but he preferred to enlist from his 
native state. He returned to Guilford and enlisted as a private in Com- 
pany F, Fourth Vermont Infantry, August 31, 1861, and was mustered 
into service at Brattleboro, September 21 of that year. He was soon 
promoted to the rank of sergeant, and when wounded had been promised 
further promotion. He participated in every engagement in which his 
company took part up to and including the battle of the Wilderness, in 
which he was seriously wounded. Struck in the back and wounded by a 
piece of shell May 5, 1864, he was sent to a field hospital, and it was 
thought best to send him home without trying to remove the piece of 
iron. Doctor Gale of Brattleboro located and removed the jagged piece 
of iron some time after the war. . 

Colonel Taylor took part in the engagements at Lee's Mills, Williams- 
burg, Marye's Heights, Salem Heights, Gettysburg, Crampton's Gap, An- 
tietam, Funkstown, Rappahannock and the Wilderness. He was brought 
back to his home in Guilford on a stretcher, and it was believed by the 
army surgeons that he could not live, but the spring of 1865 found him 
sufficiently recovered to engage in the clothing business, buying out H. A. 
Goodrich, in which business he continued until 1875. Colonel Taylor's 
store was located at first where the Brattleboro Savings Bank is. 

He received his rank of colonel as an aid on the staff of Governor 
William P. Dillingham, in 1888. Colonel Taylor was a captain and pro- 
vost-marshal of the Vermont National Guard from 1886 to 1888, and in 
the latter year was elected department commander of the Vermont Grand 
Army of the Republic. For many years he was a trustee of the Soldiers' 
Home at Bennington, holding the position at the time of his death. 

From the time he went out of the clothing business in 1876 Colonel 
Taylor almost continually held some public office until 1887, when he 
engaged in the insurance business with his brother, J. G. Taylor, and 
in 1893 with his son, L. D. Taylor. In 1900 H. E. Taylor & Son bought 
out A. W. Childs & Company. From 1879 to 1885 he was deputy collec- 
tor of internal revenue for the district of Vermont, was appointed deputy 
sheriff for Windham County in 1886, and was tax collector for Brattleboro 



812 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

for five successive terms, from 1885 to 1889. He was appointed door- 
keeper of the House of Representatives in the Vermont Legislature of 
1888 and the following year received an appointment as special inspector 
of customs, with headquarters at St. Albans. While holding this position 
Colonel Taylor was actively interested in the apprehension of smugglers, 
and much of his time was devoted to apprehending Chinese attempting to 
cross the Canadian border into the United States. He resigned this posi- 
tion November 1, 1893. 

He was appointed postmaster of Brattleboro March 14, 1904, following 
the death of Doctor D. P. Webster, and a reappointment was given him 
May 1, 1908. He was a member of Sedgwick Post, and was the second 
commander of that organization. He had filled all the offices of the post 
and was a faithful attendant at the national encampments of the Grand 
Army of the Republic. 

Colonel Taylor served as aid on the staffs of different national com- 
manders. He was a familiar figure at these national gatherings of Union 
veterans and had taken an active part in the deliberations of various 
encampments for a number of years. 

In Masonic circles Colonel Taylor had taken an active part, and he was 
one of the corporators of the Masonic Building Association. He was a 
member of the Vermont Society, Sons of the American Revolution, and 
of the First Universalist Church of Brattleboro. 

Colonel Taylor married October 7, 1867, Emeline, daughter of Stephen 
and Electa (Sargent) Button of Dummerston, who died February 8, 
1877. 

A son, Linn D. Taylor, born February 6, 1869, married October 5, 
1892, Minnie A., daughter of Doctor David P. Dearborn. Their son, 
Brainerd D. Taylor, was born January 9, 1894. 

Colonel George White Hooker 

Colonel George White Hooker was born in Salem, New York, Febru- 
ary 6, 1838, of English descent, his parents being Samuel and Esther 
(White) Hooker. When an infant he was taken to Londonderry and was 
brought up in the family of his mother, attending the common schools 
in that town, and afterwards supplementing his education with a course 
in the West River Academy. After working as clerk in the towns of 
Jamaica, Londonderry and Bellows Falls, young Hooker, in 1860, entered 
the employ of W. & J. Flint of Boston, dealers in teas and coffees, and 
acted as traveling salesman for that concern until the outbreak of the 
Civil War. 

Colonel Hooker enlisted as private in Company F, Fourth Vermont 



COL. GEORGE WHITE HOOKER 813 

Regiment, September 16, 1861, under Colonel Edwin H. Stoughton, who 
was the youngest officer to take a regiment from Vermont. The regi- 
ment was mustered in at Brattleboro, September 20, started for Washing- 
ton the next day, and five days later joined the other Vermont troops in 
Virginia at Camp Advance. Colonel Hooker was promoted to sergeant- 
major a few days after his enlistment, and in April of the next year was 
made second lieutenant of Company E, being promoted to first lieutenant 
the following August, and holding this rank all through the Peninsular 
campaign. He was present in action at Lee's Mills, Williamsburg, Gold- 
ing's Farm, Savage's Station and White Oak Swamp, Virginia, Cramp- 
ton's Gap, South Mountain and Antietam, Maryland. At the first battle 
of Fredericksburg Colonel Hooker served as aid-de-camp on the Third 
Brigade, Second Division, Sixth Corps, and also acted as assistant adju- 
tant-general on the stafif of Brigadier-General Edwin H. Stoughton com- 
manding the Second Vermont Brigade at Fairfax Court House. When 
Brigadier-General Stannard assumed command of this brigade, Colonel 
Hooker was assigned to his stafif and served in this position through the 
three days' fighting at the battle of Gettysburg. For gallantry in action 
at Gettysburg he was recommended for promotion to captain and assistant 
adjutant-general. 

In the campaign of 1864 he was adjutant-general of the First Brigade, 
Second Division, Eighteenth Army Corps, and led nine regiments into 
battle at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864, where he was severely wounded 
five times, twice in the legs, twice in the body, and once through the left 
shoulder, the last wound shattering the collar bone and leaving the sub- 
clavian artery entirely bare. Upon his recovery Colonel Hooker was 
assigned to duty in the Third Division, Twenty-fourth Corps, and served 
in the trenches in front of Richmond with the First Brigade of this 
division. On the morning of the capture of the city of Richmond, the 
organization of the leading column of the Union troops was in charge of 
Colonel Hooker, who did not fail to "put the Vermonters ahead." 

After the surrender of the rebel capital. Colonel Hooker's division 
comprised all the troops in and about Richmond. Later he was ordered 
to Charleston, South Carolina, as adjutant-general of that department, 
but, as the war had closed, he tendered his resignation, although it was 
twice refused. 

Colonel Hooker probably received more wounds than any other Ver- 
mont officer in any section except Colonel Edward C. Carter, and is said 
by his comrades to have been one of the bravest soldiers that ever lived. 
He received a medal of honor from Congress for distinguished gallantry 
in action at the battle of South Mountain, where he captured a whole 



814 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Confederate regiment with four companies. He had been ordered by 
General Stoughton to take the four companies, and flank and capture a 
Confederate battery which had given much annoyance. On the way to 
the battery Colonel Hooker, then a lieutenant, was some distance ahead 
of his men and came suddenly upon the rebels. Without any parley the 
Confederate colonel handed his sword to Lieutenant Hooker, and sur- 
rendered before the Union companies came in sight. On his way back 
Colonel Hooker was ordered by a Pennsylvania general to deliver the 
prisoners to him ; he refused, and after some words Colonel Hooker 
told the Pennsylvania commander that he couldn't take the prisoners 
away from these four companies of Vermonters with his whole brigade. 

At the close of the war Colonel Hooker traveled through the eastern 
and western states in the interests of Carr, Chase & Raymond, wholesale 
.grocers, and later became junior partner of the firm of William A. Belden 
& Company, bankers and brokers, which was organized in 1868 and did 
a successful business in New York for years. He came to Brattleboro 
to make his home in 1876. 

In 1876 he was appointed chief of stafif with the rank of colonel by 
Governor Proctor. In 1880 he was delegate-at-large to the National 
Republican Convention in Chicago and the same year was chosen a mem- 
ber of the National Republican Committee ; by the latter body he was 
chosen a member of the executive board and was made its assistant secre- 
tary, having charge of the presidential campaign in 1880, with Governor 
Marshall Jewell and S. W. Dorsey. His department of labor comprised 
the eastern states and New York. In 1886 he contested the nomination 
for congressman from the second district with General W. W. Grout. 

Colonel Hooker was elected sergeant-at-arms at the beginning of the 
forty-seventh Congress. In 1880 he was chosen to represent Brattleboro 
in the State Legislature and was reelected in 1882. During his first term 
he was unanimously elected judge-advocate-general and in his second 
term was made chairman of the ways and means committee, working 
hard in the interests of a corporation tax bill. Colonel Hooker served 
Brattleboro locally as selectman, bailiff and road commissioner, and Was 
closely identified with all the interests of the community. 

He served twice as department commander of the Grand Army and 
declined the nomination of a third term, an almost unheard-of honor. He 
had been president of the Vermont Agricultural Society, the Vermont 
Horse Breeders' Association and had held the office of president of the 
Valley Fair Association from its formation in 1886. Colonel Hooker was 
instrumental in forming the association and raised most of the subscrip- 
tions for stock. Every year he gave the fair his personal supervision. 



COL. NATHANIEL CHANDLER SAWYER 815 

and he delighted to claim that the bright skies which nearly always 
favored the association were due to an arrangement which he had with 
the "clerk of the weather." In fact, "Hooker weather" came to be 
synonymous with sunshine. 

Colonel Hooker was a regular attendant at the Universalist Church 
and a member of the West River Lodge, F. and A. M., of Londonderry. 
During the last years of his life he was actively interested in the 
Hooker, Corser & Mitchell Overall Company. 

Colonel Hooker married January 28, 1S6S, Minna G., daughter of James 
and Love (Ryan) Fisk of Brattleboro. 
Their son : 

James Fisk Hooker, born in New York City May 1, 1873, prepared 
for college at Phillips Exeter Academy; and graduated from Yale 
College with the degree of B.A. in 1895; studied at the Columbia 
Law School and at the New York Law School ; was admitted to the 
Massachusetts bar in 1897 and to the New York bar in 1900, and 
practiced in Springfield and New York, at the latter place as assistant 
to District Attorney Asa Bird Gardner. In 1901 he began practicing 
in Brattleboro with Robert C. Bacon, the firm being Bacon & Hooker. 
He was delegate to the National Republican Convention at Chicago 
in 1904; chairman of the Republican town committee; president of 
the Republican League of Vermont ; chairman of Brattleboro's 
selectmen for two terms; president of Hooker, Corser & Mitchell 
Overall Company. 

He married December 30, 1902, Anna jNIaud Essex, daughter of 
Professor Ed Charles Essex of London. Children : Abby ; Katherine ; 
Minna; James Fisk, born in April, 1913. 
The family moved to Schenectady, New York, in 1909. 

Colonel Nathaniel Chandler Sawyer 

Colonel Nathaniel Chandler Sawyer was born in Lancaster, Massachu- 
setts, August 15, 1822, a son of Esquire Ezra and Eliza H. Sawyer, his 
father being one of the prominent men in the town. He attended school in 
Lancaster, and when still a boy moved with his parents to South Lancaster,' 
now known as Clinton. He continued his studies in the schools of that 
town until his graduation, when he took up his life work, that of an ac- 
countant, remaining in Clinton until his marriage, jNIarch 4, 1856, to 
Martha Palmer, born April 8, 1835, in Hallowell, a daughter of Nathaniel 
Palmer of Clinton, when he came to Brattleboro and began work for Fisk 
& Cheney's Canadian Express. Soon afterwards he took a position as 
teller in the First National Bank. 



816 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

When the war broke out Mr. Sawyer wished to enlist, but the bank 
officers wanted him to stay at home, and they paid for a substitute to go in 
his stead. Then came Lincoln's call for 500,000 more men, and Mr. 
Sawyer laid down the pen, paid the bank the money they had given his 
substitute and enlisted July 21, 1863. He was major and paymaster of 
the United States Volunteers, his commission being signed by President 
Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. He was stationed in Washington and was 
accompanied there by Mrs. Sawyer, who also did valiant duty during 
the war. Living expenses were so high in Washington that they were 
compelled to live in Baltimore, and the secessionist feeling was so strong 
in that city that Mr. Sawyer was compelled to dress in civilian attire 
instead of in the uniform of his country. While stationed in Washington 
he disbursed more than $3,000,000 to the men of General Sheridan's army. 
On March 13, 1865, he was breveted lieutenant-colonel of United States 
Volunteers for conspicuous bravery and meritorious service in rescuing 
a pay trunk, containing $250,000, from Mosby's band of guerrillas. 
Shortly after this he was ordered to the Pacific coast and, with Mrs. 
Sawyer, made the trip by the Isthmus of Panama. 

On reaching San Francisco he was ordered to pay the soldiers in many 
of the western forts. The work was particularly hard and dangerous, 
not only because the Confederates were dangerous enemies, but the In- 
dians had taken advantage of the country's difficulties and were upon 
the warpath. Mr. Sawyer traveled from fort to fort, through all sorts of 
adverse weather and many dangers, and never faltered in his work for his 
country. On July 20, 1866, he was mustered out of service. 

He returned to Brattleboro and once more entered the employ of the 
bank, where he remained until the institution was wrecked, in 1881. In 
1883 he went to Washington as a clerk in the pension bureau, and became 
special examiner for the bureau and held that position until removed for 
political reasons by President Cleveland. He was again appointed to the 
bureau during President McKinley's administration. In 1907, his health 
being so poor that it was impossible for him to remain in Washington, he 
went to Plymouth, Massachusetts, where he lived until September 28, 
1909, when he and Mrs. Sawyer came back to Brattleboro, which had been 
the home of their younger days, and here he died October 25, 1910. Mrs. 
Sawyer died December 3, 1919. 

He was a staunch Republican, who kept informed of political develop- 
ments and current events as long as he was able to read the daily papers, 
when Mrs. Sawyer with an equal mind for public affairs read to him. 
His motto may be said to have been exemplified truly in his life. It was 
"Semper fidelis,"— always faithful. 



GEORGE F. GALE, M.D. 817 

Colonel and Mrs. Sawyer left a son, G. Edwin Sawyer of Buffalo, New 
York, born April 28, 1869 ; married Miss Genevieve Trust, who died De- 
cember 5, 1898. 

Doctor George F. Gale 

Doctor George F. Gale, a practitioner of high attainments, especially in 
surgery, and a man of strong, virile, positive characteristics, was the 
youngest and last survivor of the eleven children of Jesse and Hannah 
(Holland) Gale, and was born in Petersham, Massachusetts, May 19, 
1887. He attended Petersham Academy, pursued a course of study in 
Middlebury College and, after somewhat varied experiences in California 
and elsewhere, entered Berkshire Medical College in Pittsfield, Massachu- 
setts, a famous institution in its day, from which he received his degree of 
M.D. in 1855. While in California, he was superintendent of a smallpox 
hospital a year or more. He practiced medicine in Cummington and 
Deerfield, Massachusetts, and Janesville, Wisconsin, previous to coming 
to Brattleboro in 1858. 

He was the first surgeon of the Eighth Vermont Regiment in the Civil 
War. The regiment rendezvoused in Brattleboro early in 1862, went to 
New York City and there embarked in two transports under sealed orders 
and, after a voyage of twenty-seven days, landed at Ship Island in the 
Gulf of Mexico and a little later was called to New Orleans, where the 
Union troops who occupied the city were under command of General 
B. F. Butler. June 24, 1863, Surgeon Gale resigned and returned home, — 
but afterwards went south when an emergency call came for more sur- 
geons. 

Doctor Gale was closely associated in his early practice in Brattleboro 
with Doctor C. P. Frost. One of the pioneers in specializing in surgery. 
Doctor Gale performed many major operations and showed great skill in 
this work as well as in the treatment of fractures. He was called to 
testify in important court cases as a medical expert, and his statements on 
such occasions were given with remarkable lucidity, easily understood 
by jurymen. He was interested in microscopic research and possessed 
powerful lenses for this work. He was also the owner of one of the 
largest telescopes owned privately in New England, a gift to him through 
the will of his friend, Governor Fuller. . With standard instruments he 
had kept a careful meteorological record for thirty-seven years, making 
his observations three times daily. 

Doctor Gale believed that it was his duty to his profession to keep in 
fine physical condition. With this idea in mind he was accustomed to 
take one month's vacation each year, and for a long series of years he 
was a regular visitor in June at Moosehead Lake, where fly-fishing for 



818 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

trout was his favorite diversion. He also made fishing trips to the lakes 
and streams of New Brunswick, and to the Lake St. John region of 
Canada, when it was first opened to tourists. He was a genuine sports- 
man, and his love for outdoor life predominated over the mere pleasure 
derived from the sport of fishing. 

He was a corporator in both the Vermont and Brattleboro Savings 
Banks ; president of the Prospect Hill Cemetery Association ; at one time 
was president of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals ; 
was president of the proposed Austine sanitarium through the will of 
Colonel Austine, and was on the consulting stafif of the advisory board 
of the Memorial Hospital. 

Doctor Gale found time for many activities outside his professional 
work. He was a member of the first board of village bailitifs chosen in 
Brattleboro. 

Doctor Gale married in 1849, in Cummington, Massachusetts, Vesta 
Richards Orcutt, daughter of John and Hannah R. Orcutt, who was 
born February 4, 1831 ; she died in May, 1903. Doctor Gale died April 
14, 1907. 
Children : 

Martha Clara Gale. 

Mary Holland, married November 6, 1890, George A. Briggs, born in 
1858. She died October, 1920. 

George Frederick, died December 6, 1874, aged seventeen. 

Charles P. Frost, M.D. 

Doctor Charles P. Frost was born in Sullivan, New Hampshire, in 
1830 ; he graduated at Dartmouth College in 1852, and at the Medical Col- 
lege in 1857. 

He practiced medicine in St. Johnsbury until 1862, when he enlisted 
in the service of the United States government as surgeon, continuing for 
three years; for nine months he was surgeon of the Fifteenth Vermont 
Regiment and the remainder of the time surgeon of the board of enroll- 
ment. 

He met Doctor George F. Gale and C. B. Rice of this town while in the 
army, and the former persuaded him to come to Brattleboro where, for 
a part of the time, he was Doctor Gale's partner. He was deacon of the 
Centre Congregational Church. 

In 1869 he accepted a position in the medical department of Dartmouth 
College as professor of the science of the practice of medicine. He be- 
came president of Vermont and New Hampshire medical societies, and 
received the degree of A.M. from Dartmouth in 1865, and LL.D. in 1893. 



BENJAMIN KETCHUM, M.D. 819 

He was a trustee of Dartmouth in 1890 ; and trustee of the New Hamp- 
shire Insane Asylum. He married Miss EHza P. Dubois of Randolph; 
she died August 22, 1867. He died May 24, 1896. 
Children : 

Oilman D., professor of anatomy at Dartmouth Medical College. 
Edwin B., born July 14, 1866, professor of astronomy at Dartmouth 
College, and University of Chicago, — observer at Potsdam, Prussia, 
and Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, Wisconsin, connected with 
University of Chicago. 

Doctor Benjamin Ketchum 

Doctor Benjamin Ketchum was born in Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania, De- 
cember 25, 1837. He graduated at the University of New York. 

He married August 7, 1861, Eliza Gray, daughter of Doctor Henry C. 
Gray of Cambridge, New York. 

In 1862 he went to the front of war as surgeon of the Tenth Vermont 
Regulars; he assisted Doctor Edward Phelps in organizing the military 
hospital at Brattleboro ; was surgeon of the Twelfth Vermont Regiment, 
and afterwards brigade-surgeon on the staff of General Stannard. He 
established the hospital of the Twelfth Vermont at Fairfax Court House, 
and rendered notable service at Gettysburg. 

After the war was over he moved to Brattleboro and lived here until 
1870, when he purchased a large plantation near Knoxville, Tennessee, 
but within three or four years returned to his boyhood's home, Cambridge, 
New York, and practiced medicine there. He came to Brattleboro again 
in 1888 and formed a partnership with his brother-in-law. Doctor Charles 
A. Gray of Hinsdale. He died January 9, 1897. 
Children : 

Henry Gray, died January 4, 1879, aged thirteen. 

Kate, married Henry Smith, lives in Cambridge, New York. 

Liston G., a lawyer of Baltimore, married Miss Laura Richardson ; mar- 
ried, second, . 

Doctor Frank G., a graduate of Baltimore Medical College, married 
Miss Mary Myers. 

Colonel John Hunt 

Colonel John Hunt was one of eight children of Arad and Sally Newell 
Hunt of Vernon, where he was born and where he attended school. He 
also went through the West Brattleborough Academy, attended the Whit- 
ingham Academy for a time, and graduated in 1848 from Quabug Semi- 
nary in Warren, Massachusetts. 

In 1851 Colonel Hunt married Miss Leonora Johnson of Vernon. 



'82,0 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO ' 

In August, 1862, he was given a commission as recruiting officer by 
Governor Holbrook for the Eleventh Vermont Volunteers and was made 
captain of Company E. The regiment drilled for three weeks in Camp 
Bradley, when it was ordered south, and for a year was in and about 
Washington in the defenses, going out from the forts only once. Colonel 
Hunt resigned at the end of the year. 

He was commander of a volunteer militia regiment raised at the time 
of the St. Albans raid, and received his rank as colonel. This regiment 
was not called on for duty but kept up its organization with Colonel Hunt 
at its head. 

In 1872 he bought a place on Walnut Street, lived there three years and 
bought of Mrs. David Goodell the Dummer farm on Vernon road, which 
was one of the largest and finest in Windham County, comprising some 
eight hundred acres. For many years he carried on the farm, devoting his 
attention wholly to it. 

Colonel Hunt was representative from Vernon two terms in the Ver- 
mont Legislature. He died January 24, 1907. 
Children : 

Ellen, married January 1, 1873, Chelsea W. Hubbard of Vernon, who 
died May 15, 1900; she died in March, 1900. Children: 
Lavinia, who married William H. Bond and died. 
Marjory H., married John W. Atwood and died. 

Leonora, married September 11, 1883, Cassius M. C. Richardson. A 
daughter : Leonora. 

Arad, married June 21, 1891, Miss Minnie E. Herrick, and has children. 

George E. Greene 

George E. Greene was born in Lebanon, New Hampshire, August 5, 
1830, a son of Amos and Hepsibah (Hoffman) Greene. When a young 
man he went with his parents to East Bethel, where he became superin- 
tendent of a woolen mill. He married Bessie M. Paul, daughter of 
Darwin Paul of that town in 1856 ; she died in 1858. He married, second, 
February 13, 1865, Miss Addie Esther Root of Brattleboro. 

Soon after the death of his first wife George E. Greene came to Brat- 
tleboro and studied medicine. He enlisted in Company I, Sixteenth Ver- 
mont Volunteers, October 9, 1862, and intended to go to the front, but on 
account of his knowledge of medicine and the care of the sick. Doctor 
Edward H. Phelps, upon his own initiative, secured Mr. Greene's dis- 
charge from the volunteer army February 17, 1863, for enlistment on the 
same date as hospital steward in the United States Army, and Mr. Greene 
was chief hospital steward at Brattleboro during nearly the entire period 



COMMODORE THEODORE P. GREENE 821 

of the war, being discharged September 14, 1865. He made frequent trips 
to New York to accompany sick and wounded soldiers to Brattleboro. 

In 1865 he formed a partnership with Isaac N. Thorn in the drug busi- 
ness, and for several years their store was where F. H. Holden & Com- 
pany's drug store afterwards was. Mr. Greene opened a drug store inde- 
pendently in the Herrick and Wyman building in 1878, and continued in 
business there. On June 20, 1905, he celebrated the compounding of the 
two hundred thousandth prescription in that store. 

Mr. Greene was president for some years of the Vermont Pharmaceu- 
tical Association. At the time of his death he was a director of the 
Peoples National Bank, a trustee of the Vermont Savings Bank and presi- 
dent of the Prospect H'ill Cemetery Association, a man respected in every 
relation of life. 

He was a member of the Congregational Church; of Brattleboro Lodge 
of Masons; of Wantastiquet Lodge of Odd Fellows, and of Sedgwick 
Post. Mr. Greene died February 11, 1908. 
Children: 

By the first wife, Louis D. Greene^ born October 11, 1857; was in 
business with his father; married May 11, 1882, Miss Annie N. 
Spencer of Rutland ; he died March 10, 1897. Children : 
Doctor Harry Paul Greene, born June 10, 1883. 
Raymond Louis Greene, born July 16, 1885 ; married September 10, 
1908, Ellen M., daughter of Frank L. Hunt. Children: Louis, 
George, Harriet, Gertrude. 
A son by the second wife : 

Charles W., died February 19, 1880, aged thirteen. 
An adopted daughter, Edith, married September 19, 1905, Doctor 
Charles R. Aldrich of Brattleboro. 

The Navy 

Commodore Theodore P. Greene 

Theodore P. Greene was born in Montreal. After the death of his 
father, he was adopted when quite young by his uncle, Asa Green. He 
received his early education in the schools of this town. He was appointed 
a midshipman November 1, 1826, commissioned a lieutenant March 19, 
1838, and was acting master and lieutenant during the Mexican War. He 
married October 17, 1849, Mary Minot, daughter of William and Mary 
Morse Ainsworth of New Ipswich, New Hampshire. She was born 
February 24, 1822, and died June 9, 1890. 

He was promoted to commander September 14, 1855 ; appointed light- 
house inspector First District October 24, 1857 ; promoted to captain 



:;828 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

July 16, 1862; ordered to command the Shenandoah May 22, 1863; May 
28, 1863, detached from the Shenandoah and ordered to command the 
Santiago de Cuba, per sloop Ticonderoga; April 1, 1864, ordered to com- 
mand the San Jacinto; ordered to command the Richmond, West Gulf 
blockading squadron, December 21, 1864; ordered to ordnance duty, 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, October 18, 1865 ; promoted to commodore 
July 24, 1867; member of Board of Visitors, Naval Academy, May 4, 
1868; ordered to command Navy Yard, Pensacola, October 15, 1868. In 
1871 he was placed on the retired list. July 5, 1876, he was commissioned 
a rear admiral on the retired list from May 24, 1872. He had been in the 
service of his country nearly sixty-one years, forty-five years in active 
service. 

He died August 30, 1887, at Jaffrey, New Hampshire, aged seventy- 
seven years. 
Their only child was : 

Reverend Frederick W. Greene.^ He graduated from Amherst College 

in 1882, and from Hartford Theological Seminary in 1885. He was 

for nine years pastor of the West Parish Congregational Church, 

Andover, Massachusetts, and for twenty-five years pastor of the South 

Congregational Church in Middletown, Connecticut. He married 

Miss Lily Waters. Children : 

Theodore, assistant pastor of the Brick Church, New York City. 

Walter, teacher of Syrian in the Protestant College at Beirut. 

Anna, graduate of Pratt Institute, domestic science teacher to de- 
fectives on Randalls Island. 

Frederick, farmer. 

Ainsworth. 

Dorothy, teacher of art in the Young Women's Christian Association. 
Reverend Frederick W. Greene died at Jaflfrey, New Hampshire, Jan- 
uary 4, 1920. 

1 In 1876 he united with the Centre Congregational Church in Brattleboro, and 
went forth from this church to college and into the ministry. 




THE FLOOD APRIL 1862 




APRIL 1862 




FLOODS OF THE WHETSTONE 1869 






FLOODS OF THE WHETSTONE 





FIRE OF 1869 



CHAPTER LXXIV 
THE BIG FLOOD OF APRIL, 1862 

From records made in old diaries it is supposed that the island opposite 
this village was under water in 1770 and in 1785. Just how much damage 
was done at that time is not known though it could not have been very 
great, as the island was in a high state of cultivation when the waters of 
the Connecticut River submerged it in April, 1863, and reduced the area 
from twenty-two to eight acres. 

There were from two to four feet of snow in the forests of the Connect- 
icut Valley from the Massachusetts line to the Canadian border, when the 
temperature began to climb early in April. For a week the sun shone 
every day and the snow of the foothills made tiny rivulets into good-sized 
brooks. On April 17 thermometers registered 74 degrees in the shade in 
this village and it became apparent that, unless there was a sudden drop 
in the mercury, there would be a flood through the Connecticut River Val- 
ley, but the change in temperature failed to arrive. 

Old records state that the water of the Connecticut River on April 17, 
1862, was the highest it had been in fifty years. 

It was a sight that confronted the citizens of Brattleboro on the 
morning of April 19 — Sunday; From the railroad bank on the Vermont 
side of the river to the foot of Wantastiquet on the New Hampshire 
shore, the river was a turbulent stream of flotsam and jetsam. The only 
thing visible above the waters was the big bridge across the main river. 
The "Little River" bridge, like its neighbor from the town of Westmore- 
land, had been carried from its abutments. The oldest and best-built 
houses on the island had toppled over and been swept away. The West- 
moreland bridge, which for several days rested on the head of the island, 
had disappeared. There were five feet of water in the foundry building 
of George Newman & Son, which stood near the big bridge on the 
Vermont shore. One may get an idea of the force of the waters when 
told that while the big bridge, across the main river, withstood the rush 
of the flood, each span of the structure was bent more than a foot down- 
stream. 

The waters began to subside Sunday morning. About noon the two- 



824 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

story tollhouse, occupied by J. L. Putnam, near the west end of the big 
bridge, swung from its foundations and was swept downstream. A house 
owned and occupied by Mr. Ehhu Bingham, which stood near by, soon 
followed its neighbor. The previous night the West River bridge, which 
had clung tenaciously to one abutment after the waters had lifted one end 
of the structure Wednesday, toppled over into the stream and was crashed 
against the bridge of the Vermont Valley Railroad, where it remained until 
Sunday morning, when men with ropes towed it into the little cove or eddy 
to the north of the highway bridge and made it fast, thus saving the 
structure, which was afterwards placed upon its old abutments. 

While the damage from the flood of 1862 has never been estimated, it 
amounted to many thousands of dollars. The absence of ice in the Connect- 
icut River and near-by tributary streams doubtless prevented much 
greater damage. It was estimated that the Hinsdale Bridge Company 
sustained a damage of $4000 by the loss of its bridge across "Little River" 
and its tollhouse on the Vermont shore. It cost about $10,000 to rebuild 
the highway across the island and along the Hinsdale shore of the 
Connecticut. Twenty-two acres of fertile soil under the highest state of 
cultivation was reduced to eight acres. The land — thirty-five acres at 
the time — had only a short time before been bought by N. F. Cabot of 
Brattleboro for about $5000. When the waters subsided only a barn, 
recently erected, remained on its foundations. A new channel had been 
cut the entire length of the island ranging from eight to twelve rods wide 
and from ten to twelve feet deep. This channel was caused by the West- 
moreland bridge which diverted the rushing current of the stream across 
the island. 



<.-?S«iL~ 




B. F. BINGHAM 




HIGH SCHOOL 




HIGH STREET 



CHAPTER LXXV 

THE HIGH SCHOOL 

The High School. Benjamin FrankUn Bingham — Assistant teachers — Later princi- 
pals — Alumni Association. 

Benjamin Franklin Bingham — "The Old Schoolmaster" 

Benjamin Franklin Bingham was born in Cornwall, April 7, 1824. His 
grandfather, Deacon Jeremiah Bingham, one of the original settlers of 
Cornwall, moved there with his family in the spring of 1784. 

Mr. Bingham's father, Deacon Asahel Bingham, was the second son of 
Jeremiah Bingham and was himself a prominent citizen of the town, being 
for twenty years its town clerk, and representing the town in the Legisla- 
ture for three successive years. He spent his life on the old homestead 
of his father, and here his four children were born. 

Mr. Bingham's boyhood was like that of other farmers' boys. He 
helped in the farm work and got his early education in the public schools. 
His brother, Joel S., was a teacher before entering the ministry, and Ben- 
jamin F. attended for three years the academy taught by him at Ferris- 
burg, and for the two years following a similar school taught by him at 
Shelburne. Mr. Bingham taught his first school when a boy of eighteen, 
Up to this time he had no thought of becoming a teacher, his purpose 
being simply to obtain such an education as opportunity afforded. But 
after the conclusion of the examinations which closed the fall term 
of his brother's school at Ferrisburg in 1842, a gray-haired man from 
Charlotte asked him to teach the winter school in that place; the young 
man replied that he "didn't think he knew enough to teach it"; "I will 
risk that if you will try it," was the old man's answer, and the result was 
that young Bingham agreed to engage himself and taught a successful 
term. 

Mr. Bingham was married July 1, 1846, to Frances Elizabeth Pease, 
who was ever his faithful helpmeet and a friend of every good work in 
the communities in which she and her husband lived. For three years 
following his marriage Mr. Bingham taught a select school in the fall 
and winter in Charlotte. From there he went back to the home farm 



826 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

and assumed its management, but for five or six years he taught the fall 
and winter terms of the village school in Cornwall. During this time he 
was not without public honors, for in 1855 he was chosen town clerk 
and was elected a selectman in 1854, 1855 and 1856, being chairman of 
the board the latter year. 

His reputation as a teacher of ability gradually went abroad, and it was 
in the year 1856, while engaged in the alternate work of teaching and 
farming, that two gentlemen from West Rutland persuaded him to under- 
take the charge of the select school in that place. His work there con- 
tinued some eight years and was very successful. There was a decided 
objection to the position, however, from the fact that the school was 
supported in part by public funds and in part by tuitions, and in conse- 
quence the means of its support was more or less precarious — for this 
reason Mr. Bingham frankly let it be known to his personal friend, J. S. 
Adams, secretary of the state board of education, that he was ready to 
accept a position in one of the graded schools of the state if one should 
ofifer; Mr. Adams was in Brattleboro when he received Mr. Bingham's 
letter and met on the street Charles L. Mead, who asked him if he could 
not recommend someone to teach the High School. The result was that 
Mr. Bingham was approached by the committee and asked to come to 
Brattleboro for a consultation ; this was early in April, 1863 ; the pruden- 
tial committee of that year were Deacon A. E. Dwinell, Deacon George 
Newman and Horace Hastings, with the Reverend Addison Brown as 
advisory committee. Mr. Bingham came down by the afternoon train at 
an early day. 

Mr. Bingham began his first term here on Monday, April 13, 1863, 
and here he remained. 

It was no easy task which Mr. Bingham found before him. In several 
instances the committee had been unfortunate in its selection of teachers, 
— for then, as ever, the material out of which good teachers are made was 
scarce, — and in consequence the school had fallen largely into a state of 
turbulence and misrule. But at the outset the new teacher let his pupils 
know that he was there to command, and that he was also there to awaken 
their energy and aspiration, to teach them self-confidence and self-respect, 
to treat them like reasonable beings of whom something was expected in 
return, and to help them to grow up to be men and women. The result 
of his influence was marked from the first. A new atmosphere breathed 
through the school ; order reigned where disorder had been the rule before ; 
the boys and girls felt that a new force was working over them and in 
them, and from that day the school has grown steadily in strength, effi- 
ciency, and as a power for good in this community and in the state. 

His forte was mathematics and the natural sciences. His mind seemed 



BENJAMIN FRANKLIN BINGHAM 827 

to have a rare clarifying power and whatever was presented to his pupils 
was in a way to be understood and to make a vivid impression. He always 
went to the root, the reason of things, and his way of teaching was the 
best way of all, training the pupil to think. His aim was, in his own 
words, to "get hold" of his pupils. He was always studying their charac- 
ter with this view and to find how best to inspire them with self-confidence 
and self-respect ; the result was enthusiasm, a natural enjoyment of 
acquisition on the part of the scholars, intensity and earnestness. Perhaps 
the best work of his long service was that before his early classes in 
Wells's "Science of Common Things"; it was a dull pupil indeed that 
could go through these classes with him without having his or her mind 
expanded by the contemplation and study of the meaning of nature. 

Mr. Bingham had a striking personality. He was of a massive physique, 
with fine head, broad, full brow of vigorous action. His intellect was 
strong, logical and original. His emotional powers were unusual, and 
were expressed in the suffused eye and sympathetic voice. He was re- 
markable in the positiveness of his consciousness that teaching was with 
him by divine election. He hated cheap ultilitarianism in education, and 
tried to awaken the whole man. He was a schoolmaster, and all the new 
methods and machinery of modern times could not crush out of him the 
qualities which this term implies. 

Faults the man certainly had, but they were such thoroughly human 
faults, he was so conscious of them and so free from assumption of good- 
ness or superiority, that they served as warnings and not as examples, and 
they were overlooked and forgotten in a genuine love for the man behind 
them. 

The boys who came under his tuition in that memorable first term in 
April, 1863, tell us how the moral tone of the boys and girls, of the 
street, of the whole community, improved in those twenty-seven years 
and grew clean and pure to a remarkable degree. 

Every year there came up under Mr. Bingham's hand a new class of 
boys and girls, many of them timid and shrinking and watching with half- 
scared eyes his quick, alert movements and his ominous eyebrow. On 
some of these he inflicted severe discipline; some he admonished with 
all a father's tenderness; the obstinacy and conceit of others he pierced 
with a ridicule that was worse than blows ; but everyone was loyal to the 
High School where truth and honor were taught by precept, discipline 
and example in the original methods employed by Benjamin F. Bingham 
to develop the mental character of his pupils. 

Miss Stella C. Elmer, later (1869) Mrs. James P. Elmer, was for thirty 
years an assistant teacher in the High School and held a place of impor- 



828 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

tance in the advancement of the school only second to that of the principal, 
as also in the respect and affection of the pupils.^ 

Among the assistant teachers have been, Miss Mary Brown, 1860-1862 ; 
Mrs. Howard, 1862-1863 ; Miss Josephine Hyde, 1864-1865 ; Miss Stella 
Elmer, 1865-1869 ; Miss Rebecca Crosby, Miss Mary L. Tuttle, Miss Anna 
Blanchard, 1869 ; Miss Janette Howe, Mrs. James P. Elmer, 1882, 1883, 
1884; Mrs. Elmer, Miss Howe, Miss Preston, 1885; Mrs. Elmer, Miss 
Howe, Miss Janette C. Morse, 1886 ; Mrs. Elmer, Miss Howe, Miss A. 
Louise Clark, 1887-1888 ; George Rugg, Mrs. Elmer, Miss Anna Greene, 
1889. 

Later principals of the High School: 1889-1891, E. H. McLachlin ; 
1891-1894, James D. Home; 1894-1905, Hobart K. Whittaker; 1905-1918, 
Edgar Burr Smith. 

Mr. Bingham died June 11, 1889. Mrs. Bingham, who was born March 
11, 1825, died March 12, 1899. 
Children : 

Louise, born July 18, 1847 ; married December 24, 1867, Edwin H. 
Putnam; she died March 7, 1912. A son, Frank B. Putnam. 

Eugenia, married January 1, 1877, Doctor F. G. Pettee, son of Doctor 

A. L. Pettee, who married June 25, 1852, Mary Ann, daughter of 
William A. Conant. He died in 1915. Children: Doctor A. Louis 
Pettee; Ralph B. ; Clinton F., died December 10, 1912, aged seven- 
teen. 

Charles F., married May 4, 1886, Dora A. Allen, daughter of Major 

B. R. Allen of Newport. Children : 

Harry A., born October 8, 1887; married Miss Edna Crosby. 
Benjamin F., born November 5, 1893. 
Frederic, born August 2, 1912. 

A High School Alumni Association was formed in 1907, with Henry H. 
Thompson, first president. The annual meeting has been heralded by a 
procession of former pupils, who have afterwards gathered in the High 
School building for an address by one of their number and a social hour 
for reminiscence. The large attendance at every annual meeting is signifi- 
cant of loyalty to the memory of the Old Schoolmaster, and to the influ- 
ences of the school as he brought it into being. 

1 Children of Mr. and Mrs. Elmer : James P., second lieutenant United States 
Volunteer Infantry in the Philippines, where he rendered conspicuous service. En- 
listed in the Regular Army, 1893; died, 1918. Lula, married July 30, 1901, George 
S. Wright, son of George H. Wright of Middlebury. Raymond S. of Bellows Falls. 




T~r 



CHURCH IN 1843 



..-_J 



St Mlchie!iiR C ChiSr^ 
Branleboro Vl.S8-"3 




UNIVERSAXIST CHURCH 



CHAPTER LXXVI 
THE LYCEUM 

The lyceum became well-nigh a necessity in every considerable town 
and village throughout the land where anything like adequate attention 
was paid to intellectual culture and innocent amusement. 

The first legitimate effort to arrange a course of lectures under this 
system in Brattleboro, was made in the autumn of 1864, and during the 
winter and spring following the citizens of Brattleboro had the pleasure 
of listening to lectures by Reverend John S. C. Abbott, Miss Anna 
Dickinson twice, J. B. Gough, Professor Kellogg of Middlebury, and 
Frederick Douglass. The lectures were tolerably well attended. Miss 
Dickinson alone receiving anything like an enthusiastic reception. The 
leading spirit in the enterprise was Henry C. Willard, Esquire, who was 
its practical manager, and evinced in a remarkable degree the peculiar 
and not easily attainable qualities and capabilities imperatively needed 
to carry it through successfully. The next season, 1865-1866, the experi- 
ment was tried again under the same direction, with very encouraging 
results. The speakers were John B. Gough twice. Miss Anna Dickinson, 
Frederick Douglass, Wendell Phillips, Major J. B. Merwin, U. S. A., 
S. M. Hewlett, Reverend Octavius Brooks Frothingham, Oliver Wendell 
Holmes and Henry Ward Beecher. Good audiences were the rule and 
general satisfaction was expressed. 

There was an extensive total abstinence revival during the winter of 
1866-1867, the last of its kind, and the only lectures here were on that 
subject, delivered by E. H. Uniac and Doctor Charles Jewett. On 
Wednesday evening, March 13, 1867, Mr. Willard introduced Horace 
Greeley, and the veteran editor, in spite of the most execrable weather 
and traveling, met with a large reception. The lyceum system was again 
ignored in 1867-1868, and the people were entertained with a series of 
discourses from local and adjacent clergymen. 

In 1868-1869 the Young Men's Christian Association took the matter 
in hand and got up a very interesting course of lectures by Governor 
J. L. Chamberlain of Maine, Professor H. R. Nye of Springfield, Rev- 



830 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

erend J. O. Peck of Worcester, Reverend \V. H. Milburn, the blind 
preacher, Professor G. N. Webber of Middlebury, Colonel Thomas W. 
Higginson of Newport, Professor R. I. H. H. Lincoln of the Lyman 
School, Boston, and D. R. Locke (Petroleum V. Nasby). jMr. Willard 
managed the course for the Association, and it succeeded so well that a 
series was arranged for the season of 1869-1870 as follows: Wendell 
Phillips, Kate Field, Doctor L L Hayes, John G. Saxe, Reverend Stephen 
H. Tyng, Reverend W. H. Milburn and the Hutchinson Family. This 
popular course was supplemented by a series of lectures from Professors 
L. Clark Seelye, Mather, Hitchcock, Snell, Clark and J. H. Seelye of 
Amherst College. 

In 1870-1871 Mr. Willard fairly inaugurated a Citizens' Lyceum and 
engaged the following lecturers on his own responsibility: General J. S. 
Hawley, Professor J. H. Seelye, Justin McCarthy, Professor W. C. 
Richards, Petroleum V. Nasby and R. J. De Cordova. The result was 
sufficiently encouraging to stimulate fresh endeavor, and in 1871-1873 the 
people were entertained by Mark Twain, Professor E. L. Youmans, R. J. 
De Cordova, P. B. Du Chaillu, Louise Woodworth Foss, Honorable C. N. 
Golding, Miss Minnie Svvrayze and the Barnabee Concert Company 
assisted by Arbuckle, the great cornet player. It will be noticed that 
musical entertainments of a high order were here introduced for the first 
time. The season was made more memorable by the appearance of Char- 
lotte Cushman, under Mr. Willard's management, on the evening of 
December 22, 1871. This was one of the red-letter nights in the history 
of Brattleboro's amusements. The seats in the Town Hall were arranged 
on an inclined plane so that all could have an unobstructed view of the 
stage, and the audience was very large, and deeply impressed by the 
magnificent histrionism of America's greatest tragedienne. 

The season of 1876-1877 opened Thursday evening, October 36, with a 
lecture by Mrs. Mary A. Livermore, on "Superfluous Women." Subse- 
quent announcements included Bayard Taylor, the Hyers Sisters' Com- 
bination, Miss Minnie Swayze, Boston Lyceum Opera Company and Miss 
Helen Potter. Two additional entertainments were contemplated, ar- 
ranged upon a novel plan. Circulars containing a list of some twenty 
names and combinations were distributed among the patrons of the Ly- 
ceum and they were requested to designate their preferences and return 
the ballot to the management. The result evinced great interest in the 
enterprise and brought back votes representing at least five hundred 
tickets. The entertainments announced were selected as nearly as possible 
in compliance with this vote, Wendell Phillips and the Heine Concert 
Company only, among the favored ones, being unavailable. Soon after- 



THE LYCEUM 831 

wards, public interest in lectures seemed to subside almost entirely and 
without any apparent reason. 

The Citizens' Lyceum in Brattleboro was never conducted as a specula- 
tion; further, it was conducted at an aggregate loss from the start; but 
the degree of intelligence in the town is indicated by the subjects chosen, 
in this course as in that of the Professional Club^ which was organized in 
1879. 

i See p. 869. 



CHAPTER LXXVII 
VERMONT RECORD AND FARMER 

Vermont Record and Farmer. Daniel L. Milliken — Henry M. Burt, "Attractions of 
Brattleboro" — Reverend Mr. Ketchum — George E. Crowell — E. P. Ackerman — 
C. Horace Hubbard — F. D. Cobleigh — J. M. Tyler — Reverend Augustus Chan- 
dler — (Reverend Joseph Chandler — Reverend John Chandler). 

In July, 1863, Daniel L. Milliken, editor of The Brandon Monitor, a 
local paper, changed the name and character of his paper, with the view 
of better adapting it to the wants of the whole State, and styled it The 
Vermont Record. Mr. Milliken removed to Brattleboro January 1, 1865; 
here he had with him for a time Henry M. Burt, who founded The Free 
Press at Northampton and The Transcript at Holyoke, who was publisher 
of the paper, Aiiwng the Clouds, printed on Mount Washington, and 
"Attractions of Brattleboro," and who was connected with The Nezv Eng- 
land Homestead, a paper which went out of existence after he moved to 
Springfield, Massachusetts. Reverend Mr. Ketchum was also associated 
with the editor of The Record for a limited time. Soon after the removal 
to Brattleboro, another department was added, with a separate heading, 
entitled, "The Vermont Farmer." In 1866, because the Vermont state 
fairs were held here September 4, 5, 6 and 7, he published this paper as a 
daily morning paper, the first daily in this town. It contained four pages, 
was twenty inches long and fourteen and one-third inches wide, with 
five columns to a page. In 1866 George E. Crowell came to be on the 
stafif. At this time it had the largest circulation of any weekly paper in the 
state. In April, 1867, Mr. Milliken sold out to E. P. Ackerman of New- 
ark, New Jersey, who conducted the paper for nearly two years. In 
January, 1868, the two departments were united under the title, The Ver- 
mont Record and Farmer, ^nd C. Horace Hubbard, Esquire, of Spring- 
field conducted an agricultural department for a number of years. In 
March, 1869, Mr. Ackerman sold to F. D. Cobleigh, a Brattleboro printer, 
who had a job office in connection with The Record and Farmer. In May, 
1874, Mr. Cobleigh died, and for the following year The Record and 
Farmer was under the editorial charge of J. M. Tyler, Esquire, adminis- 
trator of Mr. Cobleigh's estate. In April, 1875, Reverend Augustus 



VERMONT RECORD AND FARMER 833 

Chandler purchased the paper of Mr. Tyler, and in January, 1879, H. L. 
Inman of Ballston, New York, formerly one of the proprietors of The 
Ballslon Democrat, purchased a half interest, the name of the firm now 
being Chandler & Inman. The last issue of the paper appeared April 23, 
1880. 

While in Brattleboro D. L. Milliken published also a school journal, a 
monthly publication. He subsequently removed to Boston, Massachusetts, 
and started The Cottage Hearth, a literary and family magazine, which 
was continued until it was merged into The Golden Rule, W. H. H. Mur- 
ray's monthly. Mr. Ackerman, on leaving Brattleboro, went to New York 
and was engaged in different kinds of business. 

Reverend Augustus Chandler was born in December, 1830, in Wood- 
stock, Connecticut, the youngest of nine brothers, among whom were 
Reverend Joseph Chandler, pastor of the West Brattleboro church, 1845- 
1870, and Reverend John Chandler, missionary at Madura, India. Rev- 
erend Augustus graduated at Williams College, and at Andover in 1859, 
in the meantime acting as principal of Westbrook (Connecticut) Acad- 
emy ; he was ordained at Saxtons River, and had other pastorates, includ- 
ing Dummerston, but in 1869, his health failing, he turned to secular 
pursuits and in 1875 bought The Record and Farmer. He died in 1880. 

His wife was Miss Lucy I. Lord of Norwich. Children : Mary, who 
married Frank Toplifif of South Coventry, Connecticut ; John L. of Guil- 
ford; Benjamin F. Chandler of Detroit, educated at Terre Haute Poly- 
technic Institute and Boston School of Technology, has been in the em- 
ployment of electrical companies in Detroit. 



CHAPTER LXXVIII 

AFTER THE WAR 

Among Chief Justice Royall Tyler's papers were found these Hnes 
inscribed to Mrs. Sally Holbrook, giving a first impression of the valley 
in which Brattleboro was then nestled : 

There is a wild sweet valley, hid among the mountains blue, 
And fairer, brighter vales methinks are "far between and few." 
'Tis cradled in the granite arms, and 'neath the Sky serene 
Of all New England's lovely spots, the loveliest, I ween. 

When morning looks with dewy gaze from o'er Monadnock's crest 
On foliage, flowers, and fields beneath, and hills pil'd in the west. 
And gleams on Whetstone's silver brook, now lost, now seen again, 
Soft murmuring as it winds adown this wild green Mountain glen. 

Or when Eve's stellar lamps burn bright in heaven's star-flowered field 

O'er Hill and Tree and River dark at the base of Chesterfield, 

Oh ! then is wrapt in beauty rare, the sylvan mountain scene 

The spot of all the Pilgrims' land, where Beauty's home hath been. 

Oh ! if fond nature ever wakes the spirit's thrill of bliss, 

And stirs within the heart, a thought of gushing happiness, 

'Tis when she groups with wayward hand the woodland hill and dale 

A scene so true, yet romance like, as Brattleboro Vale. 

Terraces rising above the river to the west of this valley, offered an 
unrivaled situation for the further growth of a village in harmony with 
the Spirit of Beauty that seemed to preside here. It was a slow and 
modest growth, following natural lines; in fifty years from the writing 
of these verses, less than 2000 had been added to the number of its inhabit- 
ants, who in 1860 amounted to only 3555 ; yet, during that time Brattle- 
boro had become a place of renown, for the character of its people as for 
the untouched beauty of the scenery. To be a native of Brattleboro gave 
one a certain mark of distinction. 

Changes in the course of economic progress following the Civil War, 
and the development of the Far West, were first felt in New England on 
the farms, which were, in a comparatively short time, drained of their 
young men. From the towns also many of the energetic and ambitious 



BRATTLEBORO AFTER THE WAR 835 

answered the same call, and yet for twenty years after the war Brattle- 
boro retained its original individuality. 

This was due in part to a location remote from the centers of human 
life; to the stability of the residential population, and to the return for 
the summer season of those who were making careers elsewhere, but who 
cherished the associations of their native town. Operatives in the various 
industries were of pure American stock, with the same general purposes 
in view. 

It was still a village of white houses and with but few exceptions, build- 
ings of every kind were painted white ; all property was surrounded by 
fences ; sidewalks were made of the natural soil or Guilford slate ; 
there were crossings of slate at intervals the length of Main Street. 
Less care was given to grounds than at present — there were no velvety 
lawns — and more to gardens. Cows, pigs and hens were kept within the 
village limits. 

The first conspicuous alteration in the external features of the village 
was made in the seventies by the building of Crosby Block and the Brooks 
House, which gave a solid brick front to the west side of Main Street, in 
place of the Brattleboro House and row of wooden structures of varying 
shapes, used as shops, and destroyed by the fire of 1869. x^bout the same 
time the weathersheds over the sidewalks on the east side of the street 
were removed. There was another innovation when the horsesheds 
attached to the churches were taken down, and the farmer's horse and 
wagon, during religious services, were hitched for ten cents in the livery 
stable. 

When piazzas made an appearance on summer residences, and women 
began to take recreation in the open air, modern porticoes or piazzas were 
added to many of the old houses, and being at variance with them archi- 
tecturally, no other so-called "improvement" has proved more destructive 
of the harmonious effect of the early village. Day laborers and factory 
hands owned their cottage homes. The "Omnibus" on South Main Street 
was the only tenement house. 

The general merchandise store had had its day, and trade was about to 
be specialized, although neither the department store, nor the ready-made 
had come into existence. The butcher's cart made the rounds of kitchen 
doors every morning; no other purchases were delivered. 

The village coach, yellow, round bodied and high hung, carried travelers 
and baggage to and from all trains. The railroad station was known by 
the name "depot" ; after 1863 the train known as the "owl" was put on, but 
before this no train of any kind arrived after five o'clock in the afternoon 
and but one passenger train went out in the morning. There were no post 
boxes or delivery of mail outside the post office. 



836 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Fire companies were manned by private and leading citizens, in whose 
families are still cherished gaily decorated fire buckets as trophies signifi- 
cant of a simpler past. 

Little attention was directed towards "public health" ; the family physi- 
cian was the final resort. There were few surgeons or specialists ; there 
were no trained nurses. 

The Miles School was given up in 1873. Boarding Schools for girls 
which had made Brattleboro's reputation as an educational center, declined 
with the coming of women's colleges to the fore. The hours of study 
in the public schools were from 9 a.m. until noon, with a recess of fifteen 
minutes from 10.30, and a second session from 1.30 to 4.30 p.m. In the 
first division of the High School, reading, writing, arithmetic and geog- 
raphy composed, for many years, the modest curriculum used to develop 
the mentality of youth ; Latin was the only foreign language studied ; no 
class associations or organizations were thought of. 

There were native French and native German teachers residing here, 
with many pupils, teachers also of drawing and painting, and of the 
piano, violin and voice. In 1836. when Doctor Frederick N. Palmer, the 
inventor of the Brattleboro postage stamp, came to this town as a music 
teacher, there were already a number of professional musicians settled 
here, and so much competition that the young man, notable as a teacher, 
turned his attention to the law, and was afterwards appointed postmaster. 

Musical talent, for which Brattleboro has been remarkable, being dis- 
tributed among all classes, was a pervasive influence, creating a musical 
atmosphere which attracted greater talent, and good concerts were chief 
in importance among the pleasures of that time ; singing schools were in 
existence as late as 1882. 

Dramatic and literary societies flourished, and that noteworthy New 
England institution, the Book Club. 

Sunday was kept as a day of religious observance. Churchgoing was 
well-nigh universal, — the Young Men's Christian Association being the 
only other organization for uplift ; walking was permissible, but it was 
not considered consistent fot a church member to drive on Sunday. A 
reverential attitude towards God and man was reflected in the ways and 
manners of the time, — and yet, there was more profanity and intemper- 
ance, and undoubtedly more hypocrisy. 

There were few very rich or very poor and therefore less envy of the 
prosperous; fifty thousand dollars was accounted a fortune. Life was 
centered in the home, and social customs were of the homemade variety. 

Individuality was the fundamental note of the age, and not only inde- 
pendence of thought, but a larger liberty of self-will was enjoyed, — men 
cultivated their own eccentricities and other men were amused by them. 



BRATTLEBORO AFTER THE WAR 837 

There was little organization in the conduct of public affairs, and indi- 
vidual opinion had an opportunity for free and informal expression. 

Before the mania for publicity took possession of the country, beginning 
with the seventies, there were no "personals" in the newspapers, and the 
wits of a community could turn their inventive talent on the life around 
them and escape resentful consequences. 

Competition for material rewards was less keen and a margin of leisure 
around the daily task made for quality rather than quantity, giving lime 
for the amenities of life and for friendships of an intimate and enduring 
character. 

Living at this time were many descendants of the early settlers, and 
many more in whose memories the faces and forms of the founders of the 
town, their customs and manners, were an influence from which there 
was no inclination to break away. Boys and girls were growing up and 
being trained according to these traditional standards. Of the generation 
that was passing were families whose intellectual superiority was recog- 
nized beyond the limits of locality, and individuals endowed with special 
talents or undoubted genius, whose widely dissimilar contributions to 
Literature, Art, Science and the Professions have given Brattleboro a 
lasting fame. 

Chief Justice Royall Tyler had left this world in which he had been an 
interesting figure, as well as author of the first comedy played on an 
American stage, the first novel written in America, and other romances, 
essays and poetry of importance to early American literature. His wife, 
of equal personal distinction, lived to be nearly one hundred, and wrote 
for her children towards the end of her long life, an autobiography (in 
manuscript) which, beginning with her father's implication in the Boston 
tea party, the relation of her parents to the patriots of the Revolution 
whose names are known to every true American, covers the history of our 
country to the Civil War. A more vivid and intimate picture of New Eng- 
land life in that period cannot be found. Her long letters and diaries, filled 
with details of private and public interest, have been preserved, a descrip- 
tion of Guilford as she found it when the Chief Justice brought her there, 
a bride, and an account of their removal to Brattleboro, with all that 
followed in lives given to activities of head and heart and hand. 

Six of their eleven children — two died young — devoted their talents to 
educational, humanitarian and religious advancement, each an honor to 
the generation that brought them into being. Of those who continued to 
live in Brattleboro, Miss Amelia S. Tyler was principal of the Tyler 
School ; Reverend George P. Tyler, for sixteen years pastor of the Centre 
Church ; and Judge C. Royall Tyler, a judge in whom justice was tempered 
with mercy. 



838 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

The -Tylers were lovers of nature and the land. All the land from 
Terrace to North Street was at one time owned by Judge C. Royall 
Tyler. Their home place, overlooking the river and the mountain opposite, 
was laid out with the taste of landscape artists, and Mrs. Tyler's flower 
garden, extending from the Tyler house back as far as the present St. 
Michael's rectory, was the last to disappear, of the spacious gardens made 
and nurtured by the daily care of the owner. 

The Bradley family has been compared by students of history with the 
Adams family of Massachusetts as another example in America of genius 
in three consecutive generations. 

The Honorable William C. Bradley, son of General Stephen Rowe 
Bradley, had been agent of the United States under the Treaty of Ghent 
for fixing the Northeastern Boundary, and as member of Congress had 
been acknowledged by his compatriots the peer of the great men of his 
time, before coming from Westminster to Brattleboro to live with his son, 
Jonathan Dorr Bradley, whose talents in the practice of law and as a 
leader of the people were second only to those of his illustrious father. 
The wisdom of the elder Bradleys was tempered by a wit which was an 
illuminating factor in the life of their time. 

Miss Anna Higginson was the last of the Higginsons living here, from 
a family whose benevolence and patriotism, made more effective by culti- 
vated minds and gentle breeding, have become widely known in the per- 
sonality. Civil War record, and writings of Colonel T. Wentworth Higgin- 
son, who was ever a welcome guest in the town of his mother's adoption. 
We are fortunate in possessing a fitting tribute ■ to Miss Anna by her 
friend and neighbor, Doctor Walker. (See p. 552.) 

Literature and Art were represented by comparatively few people in 
those days. Art less than Literature, yet artists were a natural product of 
Brattleboro's rich human soil. 

William M. Hunt had a studio in the Town Hall building in 1856, and 
returned at intervals, to the year of his death, to visit his friend Richards 
M. Bradley. He it was who planted the elms on the old Hunt place, 
which for half a century were, an ornament to the village street. 

The Snow Angel made by Larkin G. Mead, Junior, was a noble concep- 
tion for a youth of twenty-one without previous instruction ; but the Mead 
children, with hardly an exception, drew or modeled by instinct. 

It is worthy of attention that three American architects of the first rank, 
Richard M. Hunt, William R. Mead and Bertram Goodhue, have had their 
family roots within sight of each other's homes on the main street of 
Brattleboro. Unquestioned knowledge and taste have characterized the 
remarkably varied and beautiful architectural product of McKim, Mead 



BRATTLEBORO AFTER THE WAR 839 

and White, in which partnership William Rutherfurd Mead has been so 
long associated. 

Larkin JMead never entirely outgrew the rusticity of speech which was 
common among the boys who were his schoolmates here. It was a unique 
sensation for the American visitor to his Florentine studio where every- 
thing was indicative of an old civilization, to hear a Yankee colloquialism — 
long out of use in the place of its origin — woven with the casualness of 
intimate acquaintance, into the conversation of an artist who had passed 
the most of his life in Italy. 

The charm of the Mead women is said to have been the inspiration of 
W. D. Howells' vivacious girl heroines ; it is certain that the story of 
Elinor Mead crossing the seas with her brother Larkin to marry the poor 
young author, — and his succeeding fame, — was a Howells romance. 

The simplicity and human kindness in the daily lives of these families, 
and absence of self-consciousness, as they shared the common burdens 
and pleasures of existence, made them sources of joy and pride to their 
fellow townsmen, stimulating to wholesome ambitions, and accepted as 
the standard of comparison by which talent, character and manners were 
judged. 

The Honorable George Folsom, previously ]\Iinister to The Hague, 
added by his summer residence to this galaxy of interesting families, and 
persuaded his friend Honorable Hampden Cutts to come and build on the 
other side of the Common from the Folsom House. Mr. Folsom had a 
taste for historical research, was the author of published works in that 
direction, and a promoter of science, literature and the fine arts. 

An intimate knowledge of the classics and minds that held them in store 
was the natural acquisition of these people. Mr. Cutts was a student of 
Shakespeare and gave Shakespearian readings in his own home and in 
public. He was actively interested in the Vermont Historical Society. 

Judge Daniel and Mrs. Kellogg were of the same cultural association, as 
were Mrs. Miles and her two daughters. Miss Jane P. Miles (afterwards 
Mrs. James Tyler) had a mind cultivated by the best associations with life 
and literature and a keen sense of humor. Positive convictions of right 
and wrong were held by Mrs. Tyler, but they never chilled the warmth of 
her womanly sympathy and love, which gave her for fifty years a place pre- 
eminent in the hearts of the people of Brattleboro, whose welfare and 
happiness were as her own. 

Beginning with Judge Samuel Wells and Micah Townsend there had 
been an unbroken line of incorruptible judges and lawyers of ability. 

Charles K. Field was living at the time we are considering, from a 
family of men eminent in the legal profession, in which his profound and 
original mind and incisive wit found a fitting medium of expression. He 



840 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

was also a man of marked eccentricity by nature and intention, an eccen- 
tricity that appeared in every phase of his personal life. His recreational 
hours were given to satirizing individual idiosyncrasies and social incon- 
gruities in the life around him: no boy or girl in the village could escape 
his scrutinizing eye and teasing comments. 

General John W. Phelps made his residence here after the war, as did 
Commodore Theodore P. Greene, — Commander Allan D. Brown, later in 
life President of Norwich University, and Commander George W. Tyler, 
were returning from voyages undertaken in the services of their country, — 
four Christian soldiers. 

The Brooks House was ready for occupancy in 1872 and, being well 
equipped and well kept, promoted the continuance of the interest in old 
Brattleboro, as former residents and their friends made of this hostelry 
a meeting place in favorite seasons. 

Honorable Dorman B. Eaton, stopping at the Brooks House en route, 
was so charmed with the country that he returned as a summer resident, 
and here wrote his last published work on "Municipal Government." 

Judge George Shea, coming often to visit members of his wife's family, 
purchased the Wright house on Oak Street, which became his home, given 
to a generous hospitality. 

From 1875 to 1877 Reverend George Leon Walker was preaching, in 
the Centre Church, powerful sermons such as are seldom heard in churches 
situated in the great centers of human life. 

Robert G. Hardie, Junior, was at the beginning of his career of artist; 
Mary Wilkins was writing her first stories ; Reverend Samuel M. Crothers 
was pastor of the Unitarian Church (1882-1886) ; Mary and Lucien Howe 
and Harriet Brasor were giving promise of the distinction they afterwards 
achieved as musical artists. 

Charles C. Frost was still at work in his shoe shop, — better known in 
Europe for his scientific attainments than in his native town. 

Levi K. Fuller had become an authority in acoustics and was making 
many important inventions, on his way to other honors; 

In 1892 Rudyard Kipling came to Brattleboro and for four years sent 
forth from Naulahka the best of the work of his second period, stories, 
poems and the two "Jungle" books, which added to his reputation as the 
literary genius of his time. 

These were shining examples of Brattleboro's contribution to the world 
in this period. But the character of a town is not in the keeping of the 
exceptional man, — every man and woman of good will, and sincere effort 
in any direction, has added an essential element to the fullness of life 
which is the Brattleboro heritage. 




UNIVERSALIST PARSONAGE CANAL STREET 




CLARK FARM 





VILLAGE FROM PROSPECT STREET 



CHAPTER LXXIX 

THE HOUSEHOLD— GEORGE E. CROWELL— 
CROWELL WATER WORKS 

George E. Crowell 

George Emerson Crowell, son of Nathaniel Crowell and Esther Stone 
Day, was born in Massachusetts, at Manchester, on the twenty-ninth day 
of September, 183-1, and was but two years old when he was taken by his 
parents to Concord, New Hampshire ; a short time afterwards the family 
removed to a farm in Hopkinton, where he spent the greater part of his 
youth. In the district schools of the neighborhood he received his educa- 
tion, developing those quick perceptive powers and a taste for good 
literature which distinguished him in later years. At the early age of 
thirteen he left school and took up the active duties of life, working on 
the farm during the summer months and in a shoemaker's shop in the 
winter. He did not, however, forego an interest in intellectual pursuits, 
but joining the Philomathic Club, an organization in his town patterned 
after the old Spectator Club which flourished in the days of Addison, he 
spent his spare moments in the preparation of work which had not a 
little to do with the growth of his literary faculty. He was still living on 
the farm at the opening of the Civil War, when, in response to the Presi- 
dent's call for troops, he enlisted for nine months' service in the Sixteenth 
Infantry Regiment of New Hampshire. Going with his company to the 
Gulf, he did valiant fighting in the Louisiana campaign. 

About this time, on the death of his father, he inherited the home 
farm and with it, unfortunately, a heavy mortgage. It was to remove 
this encumbrance that, after returning from the war, he decided to em- 
bark upon a literary career, came to Brattleboro in 1866 and readily 
secured a position on the editorial staff of The Vermont Record and 
Farmer, published by Daniel L. Milliken. With courage and determina- 
tion he went to work, and on a salary of fifteen dollars a week was 
enabled to place in the bank fifty dollars a month toward paying off the 
mortgage. While Mr. Crowell was engaged upon The Vermont Farmer, 
he saw that there were plenty of papers filled with practical, helpful sug- 
gestions for the farmer, but none for the farmer's wife; and in 1867, he 



842 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

decided to resign his position, and to start a paper which should be a real 
help to the working housekeeper throughout the country. His idea was 
not to publish a "ladies' magazine," but something far more practical in its 
nature, something that should tend to elevate the labor of caring for the 
family, known by the general term of "housework," from a mere drudgery 
to a science, and at the same time to assist the homemaker in her attempts 
to make the home a more attractive place in which to live. The first 
number was published in January, 1868. The Household was the result 
which seemed in every way to meet the demands of the people, and 
met with encouragement from the start, but unfortunately, its advance- 
ment was at first retarded by want of ready capital. Mr. Milliken 
sold his interest to Mr. Crowell after the first issue, the latter thus 
becoming its sole owner. The original journal numbered sixteen pages, 
and by the offer to add four more when the circulation should reach 
twelve thousand copies, he greatly enlarged the number of subscrip- 
tions. Later he offered to every newly married couple a year's free 
subscription, and in this way received many thousand subscribers, who 
continued to take the paper. In 1871, after three years of publication, 
there were fifty thousand subscribers, — in fact, the periodical paid far 
beyond the wildest dreams of the originators, securing the largest circula- 
tion of any similar journal in the country. He also erected a Household 
building. In 1890-1891 The Household was sold and merged in The 
Cottage Hearth. The Household had but thirteen paid subscriptions 
when it was started, while in 1890, when it was sold to Pettingill and 
W. N. Hartshorn of Boston, there were eighty thousand. When Mr. 
Crowell became the sole owner, it was by agreeing to give the proceeds 
from 33,333 yearly subscriptions for his partner's half interest, the sub- 
scriptions to be secured by the latter. 

The business and editorial rooms of The Household were in Crosby 
Block, and the pressroom in the basement of Harmony building. 

Mr. Crowell owned an interest in the Carpenter Organ Works, the 
Brattleboro Jelly Company, and originated and had control of the Water 
Works System of the town of Brattleboro, receiving a charter from the 
Legislature with a capital of $250,000, nearly all of which was owned in 
his family. He also invested largely in real estate, purchasing one hun- 
dred and fifty acres in the west side of the town, and putting up houses 
for people in moderate circumstances. With notable public spirit Mr. 
Crowell, in 1882, opened a tract of thirty acres of woodland on Hines Hill, 
which he renamed Chestnut Hill, and built a cottage on it as a shelter 
for park visitors. For four seasons it was used by the children of The 
Tribune Fresh Air Fund and working girls from Brooklyn, and for five 



CROWELL WATER WORKS 843 

following seasons it was at the disposal of the Judson Memorial Church 
of New York, and four hundred invalids, orphans and others needing the 
benefits of the country were sent there. 

Mr. Crowell married in 1872 Miss Mary Spenser of Brattleboro. He 
died October 15, 1916. 
Children : 

Christie B., born January 24, 1873, married Miss Elsinore Robinson of 
California. A son George. 

Herbert, born February 24, 1874; died May 6, 1896. 

Esther L. 

Ralph W., died April 26, 1883. 

Percy V., born January 21, 1884. 

Crowell Water Works 

In 1882, when Mr. Crowell bought the Isaac Hines property, he put on 
a large force of men to complete the aqueduct which Mr. Hines began. 
This included the Chestnut Hill reservoir, of 8,000,000 gallons capacity, 
which was Brattleboro's main source of water supply for domestic and 
fire purposes until Mr. Crowell constructed and added to this water sys- 
tem an immense reservoir in Pleasant Valley, 120,000,000 gallons capacity. 
The question of public ownership of this system came up in 1905 and 
subsequently was carried to the Legislature, but the village finally voted 
not to buy it and it has remained in the ownership of the Brattleboro 
Water Works Company, of which Mr. Crowell was the head and which 
has been managed by his son, Christie B. Crowell. 



CHAPTER LXXX 
A FLOOD OF THE WHETSTONE 

The most destructive flood ever known in Brattleboro occurred on 
Monday, October 4, 1869. The weather on Saturday, October 2, and for 
•several days previous, had been mild and pleasant, but on Saturday night 
the storm gathered, and the rain commenced, continuing without inter- 
mission for thirty-six hours, some of the time coming down in torrents. 
Whetstone Brook, which always rises suddenly, kept rising until about 
noon Monday it became higher than ever before known, and carried 
everything before it — bridges and houses and lumber. 

All the bridges across the brook between the railroad bridge and 

the covered bridge at West Brattleboro were carried away, besides several 

above the West Village. This covered bridge stood, a monument of good 

, workmanship ; although considerably washed on each side it was only 

moved a trifle at one end, and usual traffic over it was soon resumed. 

The current of the brook was so powerful that it swept across the 
Connecticut River, striking the eastern bank near the further abutment 
of the bridge to the island and partly demolished it, so that the current 
kept weakening it as the river rose, and finally soon after two in the after- 
noon the east end of the bridge commenced falling, and with a mighty 
crash it tumbled over and went down the river. 

At ten minutes past eleven the people living and doing business on Flat • 
Street, began to move their goods and furniture out, as the water had 
risen in their cellars and basements. With such rapidity did this dense 
volume of liquid rise, that everything floatable was moving in less than 
ten minutes, and a struggle for the salvation of human life was made, for 
the time being all thoughts of property being annihilated. John L. Ray's 
livery stable floor was completely covered with water. Many ready and 
willing hands were there to seize his horses by the bridle and lead them 
to a place of safety ; all his buggies and horses were taken to high ground 
on Main Street. So suddenly did the waters spring upon the workmen in 
the blacksmith shop of Mr. Hall, that the floor was afloat and the work- 
men were obliged to break through a back door and climb up a stone wall 
and take shelter upon Elliot Street. A frame workshop just beyond the 



A FLOOD OF THE WHETSTONE ' 845 

smithy was washed from its foundation and swung completely around. 
Mr. Dunklee, occupying the first house on the right-hand side of Flat 
Street, had just begun to gather up his things on the first floor of his 
tenement when he was obliged to call for help for the rescue of himself, 
wife and two other females. Help was promptly given him by Mr. John 
Rogers of the Revere House, who did yeoman's service and saved them, 
although they were all pretty well drenched. In the next house resided 
Mr. Frank Holding, whose wife had been for four weeks dangerously ill 
with typhoid fever; their lower floor was completely inundated. Ropes 
and boats were procured by the spectators, who numbered hundreds, and 
after much peril and great exertion, the family were taken out alive. 
The house of Willard Frost, on the lower side of the street, was in 
a peculiarly exposed situation. Fences were broken down by the 
ferocity of the current, the woodshed was veered around, the barn 
was shaken on its foundation, and inevitable destruction seemed im- 
minent. The house was occupied by the female members of Mr. Frost's 
family together with Mr. Eugene Frost, Mr. Wells Frost and his 
mother. They all went to the upper chamber of the house and there made 
signals of distress from the windows to the assembled multitude on Elliot 
Street. The rapid current which eddied and whirled around the house on 
air sides made it next to impossible for a boat to live in the waters. 
Several attempts were made to reach the house, but without success and 
these people suffered agonies untold for many minutes, until at last the 
timbers which had floated between the buildings formed a raft, on which 
they safely passed to the shore. 

The large dam at B. M. Buddington's gristmill was washed away, 
and the tannery which stood below was demolished and two thousand 
hides taken down the stream. Spenser & Douglas's shop was entirely 
swept away and the road all along ruined. The bridge near the old 
woolen factory went down, on which two ladies had stood a moment 
before, barely escaping with their lives. The swollen stream then 
swept over Frost meadow reaching Estey & Company's organ factory, 
doing no damage to the buildings, but carrying off thousands of feet 
of lumber and tearing up the road badly. On the south side of the brook. 
Woodcock Sr Vinton's canal for about two hundred rods was torn out and 
one of the buildings and some paper injured. The flood swept away in a 
moment, Dwinell's furniture shop with all its contents, furniture, tools, 
stock and account books, the Main Street bridge, A. F. Boynton's shoe 
shop, office of L K. Allen, lumber dealer, and Boyd's fish market. Several 
men were in the market, among them the proprietor — he felt the building 
tremble and singing out "Run for your lives," quickly followed his flying 



846 ■ ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

guests. He sprang out of the door, turned around to look and saw noth- 
ing but a mass of water where a second before had stood his place of 
business. On the other side the planing mill of Smith & Coffin was cleaned 
out of its machinery, tools, etc. ; the machine shop of Ferdinand Tyler 
was struck by the timbers and a part of the underpinning knocked away, 
the sawmill near the bridge and the foundry below were swept into the 
Connecticut with all their contents. 

The saddest part of this flood was the drowning of Adolph Friederich, 
who was carried on a raft over the falls, and Kittie Barrett, sixteen, daugh- 
ter of John Barrett. 

The total loss was estimated at about $300,000. All the neighboring 
towns suffered intensely. 



CHAPTER LXXXI 
FIRE DEPARTMENT— THE GREAT FIRE OF 1869 

Although the early records are somewhat obscure and unreliable, it is 
quite authentic to say that Charles Chapin was the first chief engineer of 
the fire department, 1860, followed by Silas M. Waite, 1861-1874 ; John 
W. Burnap, 1874 ; Major Elijah Wales, 1875-1877 ; Silas M. Waite, 1877 ; 
Major Elijah Wales, 1878-1881; L. L. Davis, 1881-1882; Jonathan C. 
Howe, 1SS3-18S7 ; Cecil C. Turner, 1887-1903 ; Harvey W. Sanders, 1902- 
1915. A change in the village charter placed the appointment of chief ■ 
engineer with the village commissioners and they appointed the present 
incumbent, Frank C. Streeter. 

The rolls of the old-time fire companies are exceedingly interesting, 
as they contain many names of men once prominent in the town, all of 
whom took great pride in belonging to an engine company. The parades 
of these several companies were occasions of great local importance, and 
the townspeople were out in force whenever they were held. Most of the 
firemen were dressed in red, white and blue blouses with helmets, while 
their machines reflected in the floral decorations, the taste of the wives 
and daughters of the firemen. 

After the parade through the principal streets came the trials of the 
engines, held for many years on Main Street, taking water from a reser- 
voir near the Town Hall, playing through 300 feet of hose horizontally up 
the street ; this was varied occasionally by playing a perpendicular stream 
parallel with the Congregational Church spire. These trials were in later 
years held on Frost's meadow. Intense rivalry was engendered by these 
annual "play-outs" and they were the chief topic of conversation among 
the firemen for weeks and months afterwards. 

The order of an annual parade in the early seventies was : 

Chief Engineer Wales, followed by five assistants. 

The Brattleboro Cornet Band. Fifteen pieces. 

Hydropath Engine Company, W. D. Perry, foreman. Sixty men. 

Machine drawn by four bay horses, in rear of which, hose carriage of the 

S. M. Waite Hose Company, No. 1. 
Steamer of J. Estey & Company, J. H. Holden, foreman. Twenty-six 

men. Steamer drawn by black horses. 



848 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Fuller Drum Corps, Frank Putnam, drum major. Twelve pieces. 
Fountain Engine Company, No. 4, Machine drawn by four horses. Hose 

cart in rear. C. B. Fairbanks, foreman. Eighty-five men. 
Western Engine Company, No. 1, Cyrus L. Reed, foreman. Forty-five 

men. Machine drawn by four horses. 
Mechanics Drum Corps. 

Phcenix Engine Company, No. 6, D. W. Brosnahan, foreman. Sixty men. 
Protector Hook and Ladder Company, No. 1, J. L. Jones, foreman. 

Thirty-one men. Truck drawn by four horses. 

After the parade a collation was served in the Town Hall, with singing 
by Maxham, followed by playing of engines in Frost's meadow. Phcenix 
No. 6 played 221 feet J^ inch ; Fountain No. 4, 220 feet ; Hydropath No. 
3, 215 feet 9}^ inches. 

The line of march was up Main to Walnut Street, through Walnut and 
Terrace and across the Common to Chase Street, through Chase and Oak 
— after this street was opened- — to High, down High to Main Street, down 
Main and out Canal to Birge Street, through Birge and Elliot Streets to 
Main, and thence to the meadow on Flat Street. 

Several very successful firemen's tournaments were held in the days 
of the old volunteer fire department when many visiting firemen from 
New England and New York State participated. 

An annual ball was given by the fire companies beginning in 1853, 
which was attended by a large number of guests from Brattleboro and 
surrounding towns. The invitations were after this fashion : 

You are respectfully invited to attend the Anniversary Ball of Hydro- 
path Engine Company, No. 3, at the Town Hall, in Brattleboro, Friday 
Evening, December 31, 1858. Music by the Brattleboro Quadrille Band. 
Carriages will be in waiting at six o'clock P. M., precisely. 

G. B. Kellogg, F. Goodhue, G. C. L.\wrence, C. F. Simonds, 
S. A. Miller, F. H. Franks, Committee of Invitation. 

The firemen were paid by the town one dollar a year for their services, 
in addition to their exemption from a poll tax. Some of the companies put 
the fund thus secured into a supper, served at one of the hotels. 

Among those who took a deep interest in the fire department were 
Henry Newman, S. M. Waite, William Nichols, who was killed at the 
burning of the Estey organ factory on the site of the Brattleboro House, 
E. M. Bliss, William Vinton, Colonel Frank Goodhue, William Rockwell, 
Fred H. Franks, Wells S. Frost, O. J. Pratt, W. H. Alexander, Joel F. 
Willard, Jonas Putnam, George W. Esterbrook, Fred Edwards, Elijah 
Wales, Henry Nash, E. Apfelbaum, Eugene Frost, Oscar Wheelock and 



FIRE DEPARTMENT 849 

Charles Chapin, the last-named being Brattleboro's first chief engineer. 
In the early days there were fire wardens armed with wands, which were 
carried as a badge of office. The firemen were formed in lines from the 
machine to the nearest brook, from which buckets of water were passed 
to the machine. At the time of the great fire which destroyed nearly one- 
half of Main Street, the women of the town did good service by passing 
the buckets, and thus assisted in saving considerable property. 

Hydropath Number 3 was for a long time one of the leading companies 
of the fire department and had many of the representative citizens of the 
town as active members, including G. B. Kellogg, Francis Goodhue, Kit- 
tredge Haskins, J. W. Burnap, L. L. Davis, D. W. Tenney, W. D. Perry, 
Dana R. Perry, Ben Perry, F. B. Walker, Noyes H. White, Fred T. 
Perry, D. E. Tasker, and many others who were prominent as "fire 
fighters." This company won a $400 prize at a firemen's tournament in 
Rutland, July 4, 1872. They were assigned the first steamer purchased by' 
the village and occupied the Central engine house jointly with the hand 
engine company, Phcenix Number 6. This engine was formerly known as 
Mazeppa Number 4, and was rebuilt largely under the supervision of 
Edwin Putnam, a local expert machinist, who took great pride in caring for 
this machine. Many of the members of the old Mazeppa Number 4 joined 
Phcenix Number 6, including Major Elijah Wales, George Esterbrook, 
Edwin Putnam, G. A. Hines, Theodore Turner, and later Elijah Wales, 
Junior, and until the "evolution" of the fire-fighting apparatus by the 
purchase of steam fire engines were a valuable asset to the department. 
Later, when Fountain Number 4 was sold, the company moved into the 
Central fire station, taking the second steam fire engine, and hand engine 
Phoenix Number 6 moved over the brook, occupying the house vacated by 
the Fountain Number 4 company. 

The first Number 4 Engine Company had Colonel Hines for foreman 
and he was succeeded in turn by Captain Harvey Simonds, Captain 
Alonzo Joy and Captain J. W. Simonds, who was the foreman when 
"Fountain" was bought. Following him as foreman were, J. A. Taylor, 
C. B. Fairbanks, L. H. Dearborn, Jonathan C. Howe, James B. Coffin, 
L. S. Higgins, C. R. Briggs and George A. Hines, nearly all of whom 
commanded at some of the machine's famous victories, which were always 
celebrated with enthusiasm. 

"Fountain" came from Lynn, Massachusetts, where she was used in the 
regular service and as a sporting machine. When the old Number 4, 
afterwards rebuilt into Number 6, was played out, S. M. Waite heard 
about the Lynn machine being on the point of being discarded for a 
steamer, and in his characteristic way slipped down and bought her, 



850 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

paying $800, and the first the people knew of it was when the machine 
appeared. This was in 1866, and in 1869 she won her first victory, tak- 
ing first money, $400, at Rutland; next at Greenfield she took -$350; 
then at Orange, where "Western" won a prize too, and afterwards at 
North Adams, where Number 6 Hose also took first money, and at Keene 
where she played 225 feet three times and first money was divided 
between her and the Gardner machine which made the same and refused 
to play it off. Fountain's best play was at the firemen's parade in 1877 — 
226 feet 2 inches, when the steamer beat her by two feet. She was sold 
to go to Milford after the steamers were bought, and to the Pioneer Com- 
pany, Winchendon, for $300 in 1880. 

Among the men who served in this company, many of them through 
a long series of years, were Governor Fuller, Colonel G. H. Bond, Deacon 
H. E. Bond, W. H. Alexander, Jonas Putnam, Joel Willard, Joe Jones, 
N. W. Loomis, L. H. Barrett, William Bardwell, Deacon A. A. Stearns, 
H. R. Rose, C. B. Dickinson, Fred Root, George F. Root, Warner and 
Edwin Atwood, E. C. Crosby, Perry Sherwin, Horace Meacham, M. T. 
Van Doom, John Stebbins, James Bowler, William Cunningham, John 
Vinton, David Downer, Leander Thomas, E. H. Thomas, D. N. Tolles, 
Theodore Turner, P. S. White. J. C. Wilcox, A. F. Wilder, Henry Wil- 
cutt, I. A. Williams, Doctor F. A. Woodbury, W. E. Combs, Jerome 
Corbett, Otis Edgerton, John Joy, George W. Esterbrook, E. A. Foster, 
Thomas Hannon, E. W. Harlowe, HilandHaskins, R. N. Hescock, L. S. 
Higgins, M. O. Hodgkins, L. M. Howe, L. J. Johnson, A. E. Knight, E. L. 
Knowlton, F. L. Childs, E. L. Cook, O. H. Butterfield, F. A. Bagg, Milton 
Bement, E. L. Parker, H. C. French, John Orton, I. K. Allen, C. L. Piper, 
C. W. Stewart, C. F. Reed, S. W. Richardson, W. H. Roleau, Oscar 
Smith, C. L. Spear, N. L. Staples, Frank Stockwell, Alanson Stone, R. H. 
Timson, C. A. Waitman, Drury Weatherhead, Hosea Jones, L. A. Witt, 
H. M. Wood, C. H. Woodward. 

The old Protector Hook and Ladder Company Number 1 truck is still 
in existence, but will soon be relegated to the "scrap heap." 

Colonel Silas M. Waite, as chief engineer, made important improve- 
ments, fires under his management being quickly controlled so that they 
did not extend beyond the buildings where the fires originated. In 1870 
there were three engines and a hook and ladder company, three hundred 
citizens were enrolled in the engine companies, the village had four thou- 
sand feet of hose and was protected by water from the Whetstone. For 
ten years William Dorr Perry was hoseman.^ In 1871 there was an 
Independent Hose Company named S. M. Waite. • 

^ In Hydropath Company, Number 3. 



THE FIRE OF 1860 -851 

In 1873 a wave of incendiarism aroused the voters to the need of better 
fire protection and, as a result, the old hand engine belonging to Mr. 
Perry's company was sold to the town of Barton and a steam engine 
bought to replace the old tub. JMarch 1, 1874, John W. Burnap became 
chief engineer. 

There was a Union Engine Company in West Brattleboro previous to 
1868. March 6, 1871, the Western Engine Company, Number 1, was or- 
ganized with an engine of Hunnsman type, using forty-eight men. 

The Fire Department, reorganized as a paid department in 1886, con- 
sisted of seventy men, divided as follows : chief engineer and four assist- 
ant engineers ; one hook and ladder company of sixteen men ; two 
steamer companies of seventeen men each, and one hose company of fif- 
teen men. The chief engineer was elected annually by the village, and the 
four assistant engineers were appointed by him, subject to approval of the 
village bailiffs. All members of the Fire Department were first approved 
by the board of bailiffs and board of engineers, and required to sign the 
rules and regulations governing the Fire Department. The apparatus 
consisted of one hook and ladder truck, two steamers,^ each capable of 
pumping three hundred and fifty gallons of water per minute, a hose 
cart and three thousand feet of first-class modern fire hose. 

The Estey Organ Company also had a steam fire engine, with a well- 
organized company of their workmen. 

The improved and greatly enhanced gravity system of water pressure 
has gradually evolved the later and more modern fire-fighting apparatus, 
motor driven, and its added efficiency has largely superseded the steamers 
which are only held in reserve, and used only for some special purpose. 

The Gre.iiT Fire of 1869 

Closely following the great calamity of the flood came a most disastrous 
fire. About 2.30 o'clock on Sunday morning, October 31, Night Watch- 
man "Vet" Burlingame discovered fire in the kitchen of the saloon of 
A. E. Eayrs in Central Block, and the watchman, in those days of crude 
system of fire alarm sounding, had to run to the lower Main Street shop 
of Estey & Company to have the whistle blown, which was delayed for 
some minutes, and after more delay two bells were rung. The fire start- 
ing in Eayrs's saloon soon worked both north and south, and within 
three hours all of the buildings on the west side of Main Street between 
High and Elliot Streets were consumed by the devouring element. The 
large building on the corner of High and Main Streets, occupied by John 
Retting as a cabinet shop, the great market occupied by W. F. Richardson, 

1 Of Clapp & Jones (New York) make. 



852 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

the grocery and flour store occupied by J. W. Frost & Company, with a 
large portion of the stock of goods, the building used by E. A. Eayrs 
as an eating saloon, and by B. N. Chamberlain as a hat store, with lodging 
apartments above, — all were destroyed. 

The raging mass of flames then swept across an alleyway on the south, 
and in an incredibly short time the three-story Brattleboro House, then 
managed by Charles G. Lawrence, was completely enveloped. Super- 
human efforts were made to save property, but very little was saved. 

Across another alley and next building south of the hotel, stood Blake's 
Block, for the saving of which hopes were entertained, occupied by Clark 
& Willard's drug store, A. C. Davenport's grocery store, E. J. Carpenter 
as news dealer and village librarian, and Felton & Cheney, booksellers and 
stationers. The flames were subdued at this point, leaving the lower 
portion of the south wall standing. On the second floor of Blake Block 
were the offices and dwellings of Doctor Charles W. Horton and Dentist 
A. L. Pettee. 

The recent destruction of the dams, etc., by the freshet of October 4, 
the water wheel at the machine shop. used to pump water from the brook 
to the central part of the village for fire protection, having been disabled 
by the flood, the bridge across the brook being gone, taking a longer time 
for the Fountain Number 4 engine to reach the fire, with the then 
insufficient means of sounding fire alarms, and the tampering by some 
evil-disposed persons with the engine and hose of Phoenix Number 6, 
all conspired to favor the spread of the fire and hinder its being earlier 
subdued. It took a long time to remove carefully placed obstructions in 
the leading hose of the Phcenix engine and put it in working order, while 
had this machine been available from the first it was thought the fire 
would have been arrested before much progress had been made. 

There was a strong northwest wind blowing, carrying cinders and 
pieces of various combustibles to a great distance, setting fire to the roofs 
of many buildings on the south side of the brook. The Revere House, 
across Elliot Street, was in imminent danger for a while, taking fire many 
times, and most of the furniture being removed. 

The buildings on the east side of Main Street, opposite the fire, were 
in dangerous proximity to the flames, — the street then being eight feet 
narrower than now, — and were on fire several times. 

The barn and stables in the rear of Retting's shop were saved by the 
timely arrival and exertions of Rapid engine Number 2 from West 
Brattleboro. by whose efforts alone were saved Masonic Hall on High 
Street, Wilder Smith's livery stable, and three small houses on "Laundry 
Lane" in the rear of the Frost store. 



CHAPTER LXXXII 

DEVELOPMENT OF JOB PRINTING AND PUBLISHING 

Development of job printing and publishing. George Eaton Selleck. The Brattle- 
boro Times — Edward Bushnell — Daniel Selleck — L. L. Davis. Frederick C. Ed- 
wards — George H. Salisbury. The Tramp Printer, T. P. James — "The Mystery 
of Edwin Drood" — E. L. Hildreth & Company — Mrs. Esther T. Housh — Woman 
at Work — Edward Bushnell — The Leisure Hour — Charles Spencer — The Brattle- 
boro Evening Times. 

George Eaton Selleck 

George Eaton Selleck, born in Middlebury June 24, 1834, learned the 
trade of printer in his native town and was employed for a time on The 
Middlebury Register. Later he worked in Burlington, came to Brattle- 
boro in June, 1855, and was employed for some months on The Vermont 
Republican. He established a job office in 1857, buying out James H. 
Capen, then located in "Hall's Long Building" and continuing in business 
until 1881, when he admitted L. L. Davis as partner. In 1861 The Brat- 
tleboro Times, a small sheet, was published by George E. Selleck for 
twenty-five cents a year. 

He went to the war in the Eighth Vermont, first as sergeant and then 
as lieutenant, leasing his office to Edward Bushnell, and, when the latter 
went to the front, to his brother, Daniel Selleck. For several years the 
office was located where Hackley & Moran were for a number of years, 
and after the Marshall and Esterbrook block was built it was moved there, 
first on the second floor and then to the first, and remained there for more 
than twenty years. 

Mr. Selleck sold to his partner in 1898 and from that time, on account 
of poor health, worked only at intervals in different printing offices in 
town. He had been at the printer's trade for forty-seven years, and in 
business for himself forty-two years. 

Mr. Davis, who took the business alone, was a veteran of fifty years at 
the printer's tra-de. He began as an apprentice with B. D. Harris on The 
Semi-Weekly Eagle in 1850. Four years later The Eagle was bought by 
Piatt & Ryther, who had been running The Pharnix, and who gave the 
name of The Republican Statesman to the consolidated sheet and moved 



,854 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

the business to where the Retting Block stood later. Then Charles Cum- 
mings started Tlie Phanix, "New Series," and a year or two later bought 
out Piatt and the old name of "Phcenix." His workmen at the time were 
Mr. Davis, Charles S. Prouty and James A. Swigley. The last-named went 
to Missouri and for a period was register of probate. Another of their 
comrades at the case was Captain Henry H. Prouty, later of Kimball, 
Nebraska, county judge and for several years postmaster. 

Cummings went to the war, was lieutenant-colonel of the Sixteenth and 
colonel of the Seventeenth, and lost his life in his country's service. The 
Phmiix passed to Mr. Prouty, with Reverend Addison Brown and later 
D. B. Stedman as partners, until finally in the early seventies O. L. French 
became connected with it. Mr. Davis, through these changes, was em- 
ployed on it, except for three years spent at Hyde Park, Montpelier, Lee, 
Pittsfield and Springfield, Massachusetts, until in 1871 he became fore- 
man on The Record and Farmer under F. D. Cobleigh and Reverend A. 
Chandler, and then after a few months in the office D. Leonard became 
foreman of The Reformer office, where he remained for four years, until 
in October, 1881, he bought an interest in the Selleck business. 



Frederick C. Edwards 
George H. Salisbury 

Frederick C. Edwards, whose native place was Northampton, Massachu- 
setts, came here in his youth to learn the bookbinder's trade. It is not 
known with whom he worked the first year or two, but it is probable that 
he had acquired a place of his own in the early fifties, for it was he who 
taught George H. Salisbury the trade at about that time. After a year or 
two Salisbury, who was a native of this town, bought out the business and 
established himself as a printer and bookbinder. Salisbury was a versatile 
sort of a fellow, always looking for an opportunity to expand his business. 
At one time he purchased a water power privilege on the Green River and 
built a dam, with the intention of erecting a paper mill there. This plan, 
however, was abandoned, for a freshet swept the dam away and stopped 
the enterprise. 

In 1858 Mr. Salisbury sold back his business to Mr. Edwards, who 
continued it until his death in 1881. 

Early in the war Mr. Salisbury went south as a sutler, going from camp 
to camp, selling merchandise to the soldiers. At the close of the war he 
went to New York to go into business as a baker. After having accumu- 
lated a considerable amount of money, he returned to Brattleboro, and later 
opened a bakery and restaurant here. 



THE TRAMP PRINTER. T. P. JAMES 855 

The Tr,\mp Printer and T. P. James 

There was perhaps no better known character than the tramp printer 
of the early sixties who traveled from town to town, stopping in one place 
perhaps a week or, if conditions were particularly propitious and the 
work not too hard, staying on for as long as six months. He saw the 
country, he had no responsibilities, he earned good money which he spent, 
and while he saved none, perhaps he did not need to, for he could always 
get a job. 

T. P. James was perhaps the best known tramp printer who ever came 
to Brattleboro, and he stayed here until he became very much of a 
local character, and more than a local character, for it was he who 
claimed to be the spirit pen of Charles Dickens. He arrived with his 
alleged wife, sometime in the early seventies, claiming also to be a master 
printer. After having been employed in one or two printing shops, he 
withdrew from the trade for a time, announcing that he was about to 
retire to the deepest seclusion in order that he might, as the medium for 
Dickens, complete the unfinished story, the "Mystery of Edwin Drood." 
There was considerable interest and excitement attendant upon this an^ 
nouncement, not only in Brattleboro, but all over the country. Reporters 
from great metropolitan dailies came to interview and study the case, and 
most of them went away puzzled. The Springfield Union, in the summer 
of 1873, gave as the results of its interview that there were only two 
possibilities, either some person of genius was using the young man as a 
go-between and to bring out a book in a novel way, or else the work was 
really that of Charles Dickens. The reporter from The Union stayed in 
town several days and went away, as he said, "absolutely stumped." 

The book finally appeared, after many postponements, on October 31, 
1873, was favorably commented upon by many Dickens critics, and for a 
time was widely sold in this country and in England. 

James, flushed and encouraged with the notoriety and success of his 
"Edwin Drood," decided to continue as a Dickens medium. In June of 
the following year, he published the first, and, we believe, the last issue 
of a monthly paper. The Summerland Messenger, which was to be devoted 
not only to the future works of Dickens, but to spiritualism in general. 
He started several other projects of this nature which did not receive quite 
the reception that he had anticipated, so they were dropped. A story 
called the "Life and Adventures of Bockley Wickelheep" certainly has the 
Dickens flavor, if one may judge it merely by the title. A former em- 
ployer of his in Lowell spoke of him as a "first class journeyman printer, 
a free and easy fellow — good tempered, well dressed with his boots always 
blaicked and smoking his cigar with the ease of a lord." He, however, 
went on to say that James was possessed of no literary taste, had not writ- 



856 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

ten a sentence previous to going to Brattleboro, and had neither the brains 
nor the stabihty of purpose to carry out such a project, unless he actually 
was under spirit control. In one interview James declared that he 
had never read the first part of the book. The mystery of the "Mystery 
of Edwin Drood" has never been definitely settled, and it probably never 
will be. Impostor or not, James was an interesting character ; according 
to the testimony of some who knew him a brilliant fellow, but one whom 
people absolutely refused to take seriously. 

In the late sixties Brattleboro was the center of a large printing and 
publishing business. James H. Capen had a small job printing office and 
at the same time acted as Brattleboro's first telegraph operator. In 186S 
he sold his printing outfit to D. B. Stedman, who was one of his employees. 
George E. Crowell, in connection with his brother-in-law, D, L. Milliken, 
was making a beginning on the monthly paper. The Household. The 
Phcenix, a weekly newspaper, was being published, and Milliken & Burt 
were getting out The Vermont Record and Farmer. 

On January 1, 1868, D. B. Stedman sold out his job printing establish- 
ment to Frank D. Cobleigh, and he himself went into The Phcrni.v office. 

Frank Cobleigh was a man of unusual ability, who saw that the future 
of printing in Brattleboro was unlimited. Unfortunately his health was 
poor, and as a result his business suffered. 

His first big printing contracts were with Hunter & Company, who had 
a mail order house in Hinsdale, New Hampshire. This house originated 
during the early years of the war and specialized in notions for soldiers 
at the Front. As an advertisement, Cobleigh printed for them a four- 
page sheet which was called The Star-Spangled Banner. This was con- 
tinued a great many years, even after Cobleigh's death. He also printed 
for them catalogues, sales letters and all the other matter necessary for 
a considerable mail order business. He soon took over The Vermont 
Record and Farmer, from the Ackerman brothers, Ed P., and Aaron A., 
who had bought from Milliken & Burt. Cobleigh continued as editor and 
publisher of this paper until his death though for some time Mr. Charles 
W. Wilcox had much of the responsibility of the paper. While here he 
also took on the publishing of George E. Crowell's The Household. 

The business was in a bad way, and Judge J. M. Tyler, who was the 
administrator, to meet the demands of the creditors, decided to continue 
the business under the old firm name and under the management of the 
very able foreman, L. L. Davis, afterwards a partner of George Selleck. 

Late in March of 1875 Judge Tyler sold to De Witt Leonard of Fair 
Haven, Vermont, the job printing part of the business. The Vermont 



E. L. HILDRETH & COMPANY 857 

Record and Farmer went to Reverend A. Chandler, a retired clergyman 
of Dummerston. 

De Witt Leonard, who as well as being the successor to Cobleigh had 
bought out the small job print shop of O. A. Libby, was a very 
dilTerent type of business man from Cobleigh. He had, as a boy, been 
much interested in printing, picking up his knowledge by himself in a 
printing office in a village neighboring to Fair Haven. He set up in 
his father's parlor an office with presses, type and equipment, largely of 
his own make, and there carried on quite a thriving business. After the 
war, he was associated with several business concerns both in his own 
town and elsewhere, before coming to Brattleboro. He was a man of 
exemplary habits, sound business judgment and an attractive personality. 
He carried on the printing plant for a period of twelve years, from 1875 
to his death in 1887, following rather conservative lines, and never 
branching out into larger fields. In 1882 he built the Leonard Block on 
Elliot Street now occupied by Horton D. Walker. 

Edwin L. Hildreth 

Edwin L. Hildreth came to Brattleboro from Hinsdale in 1881 to learn 
the trade of printer with De Witt Leonard. After the death of Mr. Leon- 
ard in 1887, the shop was purchased by Hildreth & Fales and in 1890 
Mr. Fales's, interest was bought by Mr. O. L. French, the firm name being 
changed to E. L. Hildreth & Company. In October, 1910, Mr. French's 
interest was bought by Mr. Hildreth. The latter has been the active man- 
ager of the business since 1887 and from that date it has developed and 
expanded until it is one of the larger printing establishments in New 
England, doing some of the finest and best work for a critical clientele. 

In the early nineties came the real beginning of the "out of town" busi- 
ness. One satisfied customer was followed by another, until at the present 
time three-fourths of the yearly output goes outside the state. The rela- 
tions of the office with its clients has always been friendly and intimate 
and many visitors to the printing office have gone away impressed with 
the character and efficiency of the entire organization. 

The firm's connection with the Yale University Press began in Novem- 
ber, 1910, with the printing of a small book of forty-four pages. From 
that time the list has steadily increased, until now a greater part of the 
titles issued by these publishers are printed at "Hildreth's." The typogra- 
phy and presswork of these Yale books are often referred to as examples 
of the highest excellence. During these years the office has also done most 
of the "Northfield work," including The Record of Christian Work. 

The American Physical Education Association, the Association Press, 
the Womans Press, the Brick Row Book Shops, the International Young 



858 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Men's Christian Association College, the Exporters' Encyclopaedia Cor- 
poration, the Congregational Church Building Society and many other 
organizations and individuals in New York, New Haven, Springfield and 
elsewhere also know of Brattleboro chiefly as the home of the Hildreth 
Press. 

Woman at Work 

Mrs. Esther T. Housh established in 1880 at Louisville, Kentucky, the 
magazine, Woman at Work. In the early part of 1883, Mr. George E. 
Crowell, learning of Mrs. Housh's desire to move the publication to some 
eastern locality, wrote, urging her to come to Brattleboro, and offered 
her special inducements. After jMr. Crowell's success with The House- 
hold, he was ambitious to make Brattleboro a publishing center. Mrs. 
Housh arrived here May 30, 1883, with her son, Frank E. Housh. 

The first few numbers of the magazine were set up in the composing 
room of The Household, and the presswork and binding were done by D. 
Leonard. It was not long, however, before the magazine was established 
in connection with a general job printing business in a part of the Car- 
penter Organ Company building on Elliot Street. Here the magazine was 
printed and bound by Frank Housh, while Mrs. Housh was the editor. 

The magazine was devoted to the higher and general interests of women 
and reflected to a marked degree the brilliant mind and superior qualities 
of its editor. Mrs. Housh also edited The National W. C. T: U. Bulletin 
and the organ of the state W. C. T. U. called The Home Guards. About 
1885 the name, Woman at Work, was changed to The Woman's Magazine. 

Mr. Housh not only printed the magazines edited by his mother, but 
he did a considerable job printing business as well. About 1888 Mr. 
Crowell became a partner in the general publishing and printing business, 
under the firm name of Frank E. Housh & Company. They printed The 
Holstein-Friesian Register, conducted by F. L. Houghton, and a small 
book called "Brattleboro in Verse arid Prose." During the most prosper- 
ous period, the company employed about twenty-five persons. 

Early in 1892 the magazine was discontinued and the partnership be- 
tween Housh and Crowell dissolved. The plant was kept busy with orders 
for general printing, however, until the latter part of 1892, when Mr. 
Housh sold the larger part of his business to Charles Spencer. 

On May 30, 1893, just ten years after their arrival, Mr. Housh with 
his mother removed to Boston, where he has since been engaged in an 
extensive business. 

The Leisure Hour 
Edward Bushnell was employed by Mr. Crowell for a period of nine- 
teen years as foreman of the composing room of The Household. He 



CHARLES SPENCER. THE EVENING TIMES 859 

was practically in charge of the publishing end of the business during this 
period, and was a very skillful printer. At one time he formed a partner- 
ship with Mr. Durfee, under the firm name of Durfee & Bushnell. They 
published for a short time, under the patronage of Mr. Crowell, a magazine 
called The Leisure Hour. The magazine might have prospered but for 
the fact that Mr. Durfee suddenly left town, leaving the financial and 
editorial responsibility entirely upon Mr. Bushnell. Mr. Bushnell imme- 
diately suspended publication of the magazine. 

Charles Spencer and The Brattleboro Evening Times 

In the eighties there was a country-wide wave of amateur printing, 
influencing girls as well as boys, and in ditiferent communities small 
papers appeared in weekly, semimonthly or monthly form, but oftener 
when the spirit moved. So important was the movement that a National 
Amateur Printers' Association was formed, with branches in almost every 
state. These associations met annually in conventions. The movement 
is sigfnificant in that it served as a training school for boys and girls who 
were later to be printers, publishers and editors. It is said that Mark 
Twain (Samuel L. Clemens) was among the most enthusiastic of the 
amateurs. 

The movement reached Brattleboro as early as 1885, and several boys 
of the town were getting out papers, among them Charles Spencer, who 
published for several years a small paper called The Advance. Its pri- 
mary distinction perhaps was the fact that each issue was printed on a 
different sized paper. ■ Having become interested in. printing and the 
Vermont branch of the Amateur Printing Association, which he helped to 
found, he started in the job printing business May 1, 1890, in Miner's new 
building on South Main Street, now the Park block. During the following 
year he began printing a monthly magazine. Literature and Art, which was 
edited by a former Brattleboro boy, Cecil H. C. Howard, and managed 
by another Brattleboro boy, W. B. Goodrich. For lack of subscription 
this paper did not last long. 

April 28, 1891, appeared the first issue of Brattleboro's first daily 
paper. The Daily Evening Times. The publisher and owner was Charles 
Spencer, and the editor was H. R. Dawley. At the time of this issue both 
young men were under twenty years of age. It was a most ambitious 
undertaking and deserved larger support than it received. For three 
months Spencer and Dawley continued to publish this quite readable little 
sheet. 

June 1, 1891, when Mr. Spencer bought out Frank E. Housh & Com- 
pany, he moved his business to the Hooker Block. 



CHAPTER LXXXIII , : . 

INDUSTRIES— BANKS 

Industries. Brattleboro Woolen Mills — Sewing machines, 1859 to. 1882 — Knitting- 
machine needles, J. B. RandoU, 1876 — Furniture, 1865-1873 — Cigar industry, John 
D. Roess, 1869 — Stencil dies, S. M. Spenser, E. M. Douglas — First gas house, 
Brattleboro Gaslight Company — Organ reeds, J. D. Whitney & Son, 1876^— Baby 
carriages. Smith & Hunt, 1873 — Qiildren's toys, S. A. Smith & Company, 1889 — 
Brattleboro Furniture Company — E. P. Carpenter Organ Factory — Corser & 
Hidden, overalls, 1890. 

Banks. Brattleboro Savings Bank — Peoples National Bank. 

In 1847 the Brattleboro Woolen Mills, Birge Street, were owned by P. T. 
Clark, F. A. Wheeler, agent ; in 1865 they were owned by Whittemore & 
Davis, Springfield, and run by Frost & Goodhue, Brattleboro. In 18G6 
the Brattleboro Woolen Company was owned by Jordan, Marsh & Com- 
pany, Boston, J. W. Frost, agent. Balmoral skirts were made a specialty. 

Sewing Machines 

Leavitt R. Sargent^ came from Dummerston to Brattleboro in 1847; in 
1849 he formed a partnership with H. P. Green, taking the Frost Street 
building of the Estey Organ Company, and began the manufacture of 
furniture. After a few years this partnership was dissolved, and in 1861 
Mr. Sargent formed a partnership with Frank W. Harris for the manu- 
facture of hand sewing machines, which he continued six years, employ- 
ing about forty men. 

In 1859 Charles Raymond came from Bristol, Connecticut, and estab- 
lished here the business of manufacturing sewing machines; but in 1863 
he gave up the enterprise and removed to Canada. He secured many 
patents on sewing-machine appliances in this country, Canada and Great 
Britain. 

Colonel Levi K. Fuller established the second sewing-machine factory, 
immediately after Mr. Raymond's removal, but his shop was burned at the 

1 In 18S2 Mr. Sargent married Miss Maria Lawton, who died May 2, 1887, aged 
sixty; he died December 24, 1883, aged sixty-one. Their daughter, Jennie M., mar- 
ried Prescott White. Children : Elizabeth ; Harry Keith White, of Wilder & White, 
architects. New York, married Miss Blossom Fitz-Randolph. Son : Leavitt Sargent, 
born August 10, 1915. 



INDUSTRIES 18G5-1890 " "861 

time of the Estey fire, June 4, 1864. He then started a new factory, but 
sold out the business and the works were removed to Lowell, Massachu- 
setts, in 1866. 

In 1864 Alessrs. Leavitt Sargent and Charles Dennison started a third 
sewing-machine factory ; in 1865 John and David Abbott started another ; 
in 1867 J\Ir. Davis still another; but, failing to make satisfactory arrange- 
ments with the sewing-machine monopoly, which had at this time secured 
the control of the leading machine patents, all of these parties retired from 
the business. 

A fresh impetus was given to the sewing-machine industry in 1870 by 
the invention of the Green Mountain machine by David A. Abbott. He 
came to Brattleboro from Putney. Associated with him was his brother, 
John Abbott, and later Charles F. Thompson and S. L. Miner. He 
retired from active business about 1874-1875. 

J. B. Randoll's knitting-machine needle factory, established in Center- 
ville in 1876, was moved to Harmony Block in 1880, where twenty men 
were employed and one million five hundred thousand needles made per 
year. 

Dana Bickford, John L. Simonds, B. D. Harris, Frank \V. Harris, 
J. Estey & Company and C. F. Thompson & Company formed a joint stock 
company, with a capital of $150,000, for the manufacture of the Bickford 
Knitting Machine in this town, January 1, 1875. 

Mr. Simonds, whose experience in the manufacturing of sewing ma- 
chines eminently qualified him for the position, had immediate charge of 
the business. In 1876 they sent one thousand machines to Russia. In 
1879 they left Harmony Block and bought the shop at Center^'ille which 
had been erected by the New England Furniture Company. In 1883 
Colonel Levi Fuller came to the head of the Bickford Company and im- 
mediately set about designing a new model machine which should take the 
lead of all the machines before the public. 

The Higbee Sewing Machine was manufactured here for a time, be- 
ginning with 1883. It involved an entirely new idea, the running of the 
whole, the feed and needle bar, by one eccentric motor, — invented by 
Luther E. Higbee. 

Furniture 

The Brattleboro Manufacturing Company, for the purpose of manufac- 
turing furniture under a charter granted November 3, 1865, and over 
$18,000 having been subscribed to its capital stock, offered an opportunity 
to additional subscribers, January 13, 1873. By January 19, $30,000 had 
been subscribed, and work began at Centerville under the immediate 
charge of Leavitt R. Sargent and H. P. Green. 



^62 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

In February, 1872, the Douglas & Hawley Company was reinforced 
by the following officers, under the name. The New England Furniture 
Company: President, D. S. Pratt; secretary and treasurer, L. W. Hawley; 
directors, D. S. Pratt, E. Wing Packer, R. W. Clarke, O. B. Douglas, 
S. M. Spenser. The capital stock was $50,000. 

Hollender, Henkel & Stellman made furniture from 1871 to 1873 in 
West Brattleboro in an old building built in 1837 for the manufacture of 
Jaquith rifles. 

Cigars 
John D. Roess 

John Diedrich Roess was born in Bremen, Germany, May 16, 1829, a 
son of Christian and Elizabeth (Rummelman) Roess. He learned the 
cigar-making trade in Germany and came to New York City in Novem- 
ber, 1853. In April of the following year he went to Feeding Hills, 
Massachusetts, which was then a center of the cigar industry, and was 
employed there until he came to Brattleboro November 27, 1868, to form 
a partnership with his brother-in-law, William Leonard. 

Leonard & Roess began making cigars in Brattleboro in 1869-1870,^ in 
the old Arcade. At the opening of the year 1873 they were employing 
between thirty and forty men, Germans, who made thirty thousand cigars 
a week, and later in the same year fifty thousand. For a number of years 
they had a retail store where Robbins & Cowles's hardware store now is, 
having a shop in Harmony building, where they employed sometimes as 
many as seventy-five hands. They moved into the Leonard & Roess store 
in the Hooker building as soon as the building was completed, the store 
and workshop overhead being specially designed for them. After the 
death of Mr. Leonard, in February, 1890, Mr. Roess continued in business 
alone until July, 1901, when his son, John L. Roess, bought a half interest 
in the business. 

Mr. Roess married, first, October 18, 1862, Miss Delia Leonard of Feed- 
ing Hills. She died September 19, 1896. He married, second, November 
13, 1898, Mrs. Ascherman of Westfield, Massachusetts. She died July 7, 
1901. Mr. Roess died June 23, 1904. 

Two of the seven children by the first marriage, John L. Roess and 
Herbert C. Roess, with a half brother, Albert A. Smith, of Brattleboro, 
survived their father. Three children died of scarlet fever in four days, 
1879. 

John L. Roess married September 6, 1893, Miss Hattie L. Morse. 

1 Charles H. Pratt made cigars here from 1853, the first manufacturer in the 
state. 



INDUSTRIES 1865-1890 863 

William Leonard, born in Feeding Hills, Massachusetts, March 31, 
1839, was the eldest of three children of William and Lucy (Wait) Leon- 
ard. He was a member of Company G, Fifth Regiment Massachusetts 
Volunteers. He came to Brattleboro in 1867; married, 1871, Flora, 
daughter of Nelson \Y. Willard of West Dummerston. He died February 
10, 1890, aged fifty-one. 

S. M. Spenser, who for several years previous had engaged in manu- 
facturing stencil dies and outfits, moved to Boston late in 1872, when the 
business was continued by E. M. Douglas. 

The First Gas House 

The first gas house was built by Silas M. Waite shortly after the big 
freshet of 1869. He charged $3.50 and $4.00 a thousand feet for gas, 
and as there were but few patrons he was obliged to keep up the price. 
In 1880 he sold his plant to George J. and Frank W. Brooks. 

The Brattleboro Gaslight Company, a corporation organized in 1881 
with Henry D. Holton, president, and Charles F. Thompson, treasurer, 
bought the plant of the Brooks brothers. During the early eighties, the 
Estey Organ Factory owned and operated a small gas plant for its own 
use. The gas house stood near the top of the Birge Street hill west of 
Whetstone Brook. This plant *was sold to the Brattleboro Gaslight Com- 
pany in 1892. In 1896 the Gaslight Company built the electric light station 
of the Twin State Company. For two years prior to the last date the 
company operated a small electric plant in the Fletcher mill near the iron 
bridge at the junction of Elliot and W^illiams Streets. It was in this small 
plant that George Niles invented a dynamo which interested electricians 
from other parts of the country ; representatives from the General Electric 
Company came to Brattleboro and studied the machine. The inventor 
was unable to so operate his machine as to keep the lights steady, but the 
General Electric representatives offered, if Niles would tell them how he 
wound his dynamo, to provide a steady light from the lamps ; this Niles 
would not do and the machine, after it had been exhibited in Thorn's drug 
store for several days, was not further perfected. The current furnished 
by this plant was sold by contract ; there were only a few customers and the 
company estimated what it would cost to light a certain number of lamps a 
certain number of hours, and a contract was made upon such an estimate. 

In 1901 the Gaslight Company began to acquire the Dummerston water 
power, and two years later built and equipped the W^est Dummerston plant 
at a cost of approximately $80,000. In 1905 negotiations were begim by 
the Brattleboro Gaslight Company to sell their electric and gas plant to a 



864 



ANNALS OF BR.-\TTLEBORO 



corporation organized for the purpose under the name of the Twin State 
Gas & Electric Company. The sale was consummated in September, 
1906, the purchaser taking the stock of the gas company at par and assum- 
ing the liabilities of the gas company. The par value of the stock of the 
Brattleboro Gaslight Company was $200,000. 



( ILTIKKVILLK 




The gas and electric development in this town, from its inception by 
Silas M. Waite until the Twin State Company, in 1906, acquired the 
plants, was the result of local capital almost exclusively. There were 
only three nonresident stockholders and one of these was Theophilus 
Hoit of Saxtons River, father-in-law to Doctor Henry D. Holton, a 
heavy stockholder. Doctor Henry D. Holton served as president and 
Charles F. Thompson was treasurer and manager. 



INDUSTRIES 1865-1890 865 

The Stanley Rule and Level Company moved to New Britain in 1870, 
with about twenty mechanics. 

Organ Reeds 

About 1876 J. D. Whitney^ commenced a new set of machinery, with 
which he began to make organ reeds in 1878, in Harmony Block. 

July 1, 1879, he took his son, Edwin D. Whitney, into partnership, 
under the firm name of J. D. Whitney & Son. They manufactured over 
half a million organ reeds a year, which were almost entirely used by the 
Wilcox & White Organ Company of Meriden, Connecticut. 

Alvah Smith was a manufacturer in Guilford, 1863-1864, where the 
son, S. A. Smith, began making baby carriages about 1867, the factory 
being in Weatherhead Hollow although the business was maintained at 
both places. It was moved to Algiers and enlarged, the firm being Ed- 
wards & Smith. 

The firm Smith (S. A.) & Hunt was formed in 1873. The business 
outgrew additions and new buildings and in 1880 it was moved to Brat- 
tleboro. The firm name was changed to S. A. Smith & Company in 1889, 
when children's toys were manufactured ; S. A. Smith, F. L. Smith, C. A. 
Smith, S. L. Hunt and F. L. Hunt were the five partners. 

The Brattleboro Furniture Company on Flat Street had for directors: 
F. W. Brooks, Jacob Estey, John Retting, Francis Goodhue, Frank W. 
Harris ; clerk and treasurer, C. F. Thompson. 

The E. p. Carpenter Organ Company 
E. B. Carpenter of Guilford came to Brattleboro October 2, 1850, and 
bought an half interest of Jones & Burdett, organ makers, taking the place 
of Jones, the new firm being Burdett & Carpenter. In 1853 Burdett sold 
to Jacob Estey and Carpenter to Isaac Hines. 

After being connected with various organ companies throughout the 
country, E. B. Carpenter located in Mendota, Illinois. His son, E. P. 
Carpenter, inherited a capacity and liking for the business, located in 
Worcester, and was largely known in the trade for many years. During 
the winter of 1883-1884 he was induced to come to Brattleboro, where he 
organized, in the spring of 1884, the E. P. Carpenter Organ Company, for 

1 Josiah D. Whitney married Miss Lucy Day Chapin in 1842; she died in Brattle- 
boro January 1, 1866, aged seventy-four. Children: Jennie L. ; Edwin D., married 
April 27, 1881, Julia S., daughter of Simon Brooks ; born in 1857 ; died in 1911. Chil- 
dren: Harold E., married Miss Marguerite S. Benedict; graduate of High School, 
Amherst two years; admitted to Vermont bar, 1907; of firm Harvey & Whitney, 1918. 
Edwina A., married in 1914, Doctor E. R. L>'nch ; Alice L., married John Leonard ; 
Merrill Brooks, married March 6, 1918, Miss Jennie C. Lind. 



866 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

the manufacture of organs and organ sections. W. E. Carpenter became 
manager in 1894. In 1885 they made the "Grandissimo Organ." 

Mr. and Mrs. E. P. Carpenter^ purchased the former residence of 
Charles H. Crosby at the junction of Linden Street and Putney Road. 

E. B. Carpenter died September 4, 1891, aged seventy-two. Mrs. Car- 
penter died in January, 1920. 



Corser & Hidden came froiri St. Albans and established a factory in 
1890 for making overalls. Requiring more capital. Colonel Hooker was 
taken into the firm in the course of a few months. At first only thirty 
hands were employed, but almost steadily from the beginning the force 
has been increased. 

Mr. Hidden soon sold out to establish the Brattleboro Overall Com- 
pany, and Mr. Mitchell was taken into the firm and the firm name was 
Hooker, Corser & Mitchell. (Webster Clay Mitchell, who moved here 
from Saxtons River in 1890, remained in the business ten years and sold 
his interest in 1902. In 1907 he bought back into the business with Henry 
R. Brown and W. H. Proctor, retiring in three years.) In 1905 there were 
two hundred and eighty employees. 

The business has been handled with courage, foresight and ability 
which have brought it to the second place, in the number employed and 
profits made, of all the industries .previously organized in Brattleboro. 

The paper mill of 1811 was in active operation under the able manage- 
ment of W. H. Vinton. 

B.\NKS 

The Brattleboro Savings Bank 

The Brattleboro Savings Bank was chartered in November, 1870, and 
commenced operations January 1, 1871. The first president was Colonel 
John Hunt ; vice-president, B. D. Harris ; secretary and treasurer, Seth 
N. Herrick; succeeding presidents have been Parley Starr, 1874-1875; 
R. W. Clarke, 1876-1880; B. D. Harris, 1881-1890; E. L. Waterman, 

1890-1906 ; F. K. Barrows, 1907 . Treasurers : S. N. Herrick ; C. W. 

Wyman, 1879-1886 ; Charles A. Harris, from 1887. The bank was first 
located where Donnell & Davis's millinery establishment now is ; in 1879 
it was moved to the present building on Elliot Street. 

» Children: Blanche, married October 16, 1894, Emil Pollak-Ottendorf of Vienna, 
and of Peytonsville, Pittsylvania County, Virginia, born in 1863; Mildred Porter; 
Ruth Welch. 



THE PEOPLES NATIONAL BANK . 867 

The Peoples National Bank 

The Peoples National Bank was organized in 1875, with a capital of 
$100,000. Parley Starr and Jacob Estey were primarily interested in its 
formation. Mr. Starr was the first president; W. A. Faulkner was the 
first cashier. 

Business was begun on the second floor of Crosby Block; immediately 
on the completion in 1880 of the Bank Block on the site of the old Revere 
House, the bank was moved. Julius J. Estey succeeded to the presidency 
in 1884. In 1886 Oscar A. Marshall became cashier; in May, 1893, on 
the death of Mr. Marshall, W. H. Brackett was made cashier. 

After the death of General Estey in 1902, O. L. Sherman was elected 
president and held the office until his death, when Colonel J. Gray Estey 
was elected president, and on the death of Mr. Brackett, July, 1916, John 
R. Ryder became cashier. 



CHAPTER LXXXIV 
ORGANIZATIONS, PHILANTHROPIC AND SOCIAL 

Organizations. Philanthropic and social — Freedman's Aid Association, 1867 — Wind- 
ham County Suffrage Association, 1870 — Anti-Monopoly and Equal Taxation, 
1874 — Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 1877 — Brattleboro Liberal 
Association, 1877 — Professional Club, 1879: presidents, subjects discussed — 
Woman's Relief Corps, 1885 — Windham County Lodge of Free and Accepted 
Anti-Masons, 1887 — Village Improvement Society, 1886 — Woman's Educational 
and Industrial Union, 1889 — Natural History Society, 1888 — Associated Charities, 
1892 — Home for the Aged and Disabled — Daughters of the American Revolution, 
1893. 

Temperance and Profanity — Brattleboro Temperance Society, 1866 — Good Samaritan 
Society, 1870 — Sacred Pledge, 1875 — St. Michael's Temperance and Benevolent 
Society — Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 1877 — Juvenile Total Absti- 
nence Society, 1880. 

Young Men's Christian Association. 

When the larger movement of the time reached Brattleboro it was in 
the form of group enterprises, industrial, philanthropic and social, which 
began to flourish in seemingly unlimited variety. 

In 1866 Patrick A. Collins, afterwards mayor of Boston, came to Brat- 
tleboro and organized a branch of the Fenian Brotherhood. 

December 23, 1867, a -Freedman's Aid Association was organized: 
Reverend F. Frothingham, president ; Miss Anna Higginson, secretary ; 
Philip Wells, treasurer. 

March 18, 1870, the Windham County Woman's Suffrage Association 
was formed. President, Reverend Addison Brown; vice-president. Doc- 
tor J. H. Stedman of West Brattleboro ; second vice-president, Hosea F. 
Ballou of Wilmington ; secretary and treasurer, D. B. Stedman. There 
was a large executive committee ; among the women were Mrs. Asenath 
Francis, Mrs. Lydia Putnam, Miss Maria Person and Mrs. Mary Ann 
Adams. 

In May, 1870, one hundred and eighty women in the town of Brattle- 
boro signed a petition to the Legislature asking for the ballot for women. 



THE PROFESSIONAL CLUB 869 

1874. Anti-Monopoly and Equal Taxation Society. Charles N. Daven- 
port, Charles K. Field, W. H. Alexander. At an anti-exemption meeting, 
John S. Cutting of West Brattleboro was nominated town representative. 

The Brattleboro Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was 
formed through the influence of Miss Ellen B. Goodhue, and was organ- 
ized January 9, 1877, with the following: Doctor George F. Gale, presi- 
dent ; twelve vice-presidents ; twenty directors. The secretary was Miss 
Goodhue; the treasurer, Henry C. Willard; special agent, Warren E. 
Eason. This society was the pioneer in the protection of animals in the 
state of Vermont, and by the efforts of Miss Goodhue a law was passed 
to this end. The daughter of Captain Carter, Mrs. Jennie B. (Carter) 
Powers, was agent for many years of the Brattleboro Society for the Pre- 
vention of Cruelty to Animals, and is now at Keene in the same capacity. 
For her great courage, judgment and determination she has become known 
as "the woman who dares." 

The Brattleboro Liberal Association was formed in February, 1877, for 
the purpose of the discussion of philosophical and religious subjects. The 
membership was mainly made up of Spiritualists and Freethinkers. The 
president was J. A. Stevens ; vice-presidents, L. M. Howe, G. B. Kirwan, 
Edward Crosby, E. J. Carpenter; secretary, D. B. Stedman; treasurer, 
E. F. Brooks. 

The Professional Club 

The Professional Club was organized in 1879 by the initiative of 
Reverend Doctor George B. Gow, Reverend Doctor George E. Martin 
and Reverend J. B. Green, then local clergj-men officiating in the Baptist, 
Congregational and Unitarian Churches, respectively. The meetings were 
first held in Wells Hall, later in the restaurant of E. L. Cooper, and still 
later in the parlors of the Brooks House. From a modest beginning the 
club grew in usefulness and interest until it included in its membership 
the professional men in town, who assisted in its development and con- 
tributed to its support. 

Generally the club meetings were accompanied by a good supper, a 
paper by some one of its several members following, with five-minute dis- 
cussions pertaining to the subject. The membership of the club was open 
to men of the liberal professions, and in cases where the line was not clear, 
decided by vote on the individual application. The meetings brought out 
some very able papers, full of research and thought, and were even 
credited with having stimulated public sentiment and assisted in the un- 
folding of many a useful scheme. 

A paper by Reverend Doctor Gow on "Free Public Libraries" was 



870 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

immediately followed by the establishing of the Brooks Free Library, its 
donor, the late George J. Brooks, accepting Mr. Gow's suggestions as 
reasonable conclusions why he should build and present to the town the 
Brooks Free Library building. Again, a paper by Judge J. M. Tyler on 
road building was followed by a successful move in town to establish 
macadam roads. 

One especially good paper, full of Vermont inventions and given by 
Levi K. Fuller, was widely read and commented on. 

The presidents of the club were men prominently identified with the 
best interests of the town, including Reverend George B. Gow, Doctor 
Joseph Draper, C. N. Davenport, Doctor Henry D. Holton, Reverend 
Lewis Grout, Doctor O. R. Post, J. M. Tyler, Doctor J. W. Gregg, O. L. 
French, Reverend F. J. Parry, Reverend Charles O. Day, Reverend F. L. 
Phalen, Reverend J. H. Babbitt, C. H. Davenport, George A. Hines, 
Doctor S. E. Lawton, Governor Levi K. Fuller, Reverend Fred E. Marble, 
Reverend E. Q. S. Osgood, Professor H. K. Whitaker and Reverend 
L. AL Keneston. 

Among the subjects presented by the Professional Club have been : 
The Spoils System, by Dorman B. Eaton; The Struggling Idea of Human 
Society, Doctor George B. Gow; Freemasonry, J. N. Balestier; A Visit 
to London, Reverend J. B. Green; The Newspaper as a Factor in Ameri- 
can Education, O. L. French; A Plea for the Study of Nature, Reverend 

E. W. Whitney ; Trial by Jury, E. W. Stoddard ; Some Phases of the 
Chemistry of Common Life, Doctor Drew; The Origin of Language, 
Reverend Lewis Grout ; The Secular Aspects of the Sabbath Question, 
Reverend Charles H. Merrill ; Cultivated Perception, Doctor O. R. Post ; 
Civil Service of the United States, James AL Tyler; The New England 
Village as a Center of Influence, Reverend S. M. Crothers; How to Use 
the Free Library, Reverend E. W. Whitney; The Influence of Mental 
Incapacity in Rulers upon some of the Great Events of History, Doctor 
Joseph Draper; The Expediency of a Natural Law Restricting Immigra- 
tion, E. W. Stoddard; The Psychological Effects of Alcohol, Doctor 
Shailer E. Lawton; What does Brattleboro most need? Doctor Henry 
D. Holton; Intelligent Suffrage, Honorable James M. Tyler; The Last 
of the Normans, Reverend Charles O. Day ; The Need of a Navy and 
Army, Commander Allan D. Brown; Witchcraft, Reverend H. H. Shaw; 
Republicanism in France, Reverend J. H. Babbitt ; Ireland's History and 
Political Problems, Reverend F. J. Parry ; The Social Question, Reverend 

F. L. Phalen; Alexander Hamilton, Judge George Shea; The Law of the 
Land, Judge Hoyt H. Wheeler; A Second Term: A Temptation to Presi- 
dents and a Peril' to the Country, Dorman B. Eaton; Some Formative 



WOMEN'S EDUCATIONAL AND INDUSTRIAL UNION 871 

Influences in American Life and Character, Doctor George Leon Walker; 
Physical Basis of Superstition, Doctor Shailer E. Lawton; Vermont's 
Undeveloped Resources, Honorable James M. Tyler ; Surnames, Doctor 
James Conland ; Taxation, Honorable James L. Martin ; Our Age, our 
Country, our Duty, Reverend A. H. Webb. 

A Woman's Relief Corps was organized February 4-5, 1885. Mrs. 
Minna G. Hooker was elected department president ; Mrs. A. L. Putnam, 
treasurer; Mrs. L. W. Howe, secretary. The finance committee: Mrs. 
A. E. Dowley, Mrs. L. J. Retting, Mrs. K. iM. Burchard. Delegate at 
large to the National Encampment, Mrs. Harriet Leonard. 

The Windham County Lodge of Free and Accepted Anti-Masons, June 
9, 1887. General John W. Phelps, president ; Royal G. Wood, secretary. 

A Village Improvement Society was organized in 1885. President, 
N. I. Hawley; vice-presidents, Frederick Holbrook, Jacob Estey, George 
J. Brooks, Edward Crosby, Reverend Charles O. Day, Reverend E. W. 
Whitney, Reverend Samuel M. Crothers, George F. Gale, Dorman B. 
Eaton, Henry D. Holton and other leading citizens ; treasurer, Malcolm 
Moody ; secretary, Oscar A. Marshall ; corresponding secretary, O. L. 
French ; executive committee, L. K. Fuller, R. Bradley, G. E. Crowell, 
J. M. Tyler, G. W. Hooker, Francis Goodhue, C. H. Davenport, W. H. 
Childs, E. L. Putnam, Mrs. B. D. Harris, Mrs. J. J. Estey, Mrs. Henry 
Tucker, Mrs. J. H. Ryder, Mrs. C. E. Allen and Mrs. W. A. Faulkner. 

The Women's Educational and Industrial Union 

A preliminary meeting of women to consider a plan for a Woman's 
Educational and Industrial Union in Brattleboro was held in the Meth- 
odist Church June 6, 1888, when Miss Eliza C. Higginson of Brookline, 
Massachusetts, gave an informal account of the workings and success of 
the Boston Union. At the second meeting, June 13, the constitution of 
the Boston Union was adopted. 

At a third meeting, June 30, the following officers were elected : Mrs. 
Mary C. Warder, president ; Mrs. George E. Crowell, first vice-president ; 
Mrs. Royall Tyler, second vice-president ; Mrs. Joseph Draper, third 
vice-president; Mrs. Julius J. Estey, fourth vice-p °sident; Mrs. E. P. 
Carpenter, first director; Mrs. Edward Clark, secLxid director; Mrs. 
Henry Devens, third director; Mrs. O. L. Miner, fourth director; Mrs. 
Sara Chatfield, corresponding secretary; Miss Agnes D. Gale, recording 
secretary ; Mrs. A. C. Davenport, treasurer. 

On June 28, the following committees were appointed : finance : chair- 



872 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

man, Mrs. Frank Wells, Mrs. H. M. Burchard, Mrs. F. N. Whitney; 
social : Mrs. B. F. Bingham, Miss Katherine Miles, Mrs. C. M. C. Rich- 
ardson; educational, moral and spiritual interests: Mrs. C. B. Rice, Miss 
Clara Gale, Miss Mary E. Horton; printing: Mrs. Cora Leonard, Mrs. 
Edwin Whitney. 

Other committees were added on Home Avocation, Befriending, Food, 
Art, Hygiene, Industries, Entertainment and Room. Cooking classes 
were formed, teas were given and special sales at Christmas and other 
festal seasons. 

The Women's Educational and Industrial Union was given up in 1894 
because of the failure to find a president to take the place of Mrs. Warder, 
who resigned on account of ill health. Her initiative and devotion to the 
Union and success in keeping together the various committees had been 
the mainstay of the organization during the six years of its active life as a 
valuable factor in the community. 

The Natural History Society was organized by Professor William B. 
Clark in the autumn of 1888 with Hoyt H. Wheeler, president; Joseph 
Draper, J. M. Tyler and Reverend William H. Collins, vice-presidents ; 
George Rugg, recording secretary; W. B. Clark, corresponding secretary; 
George S.. Dowley, treasurer ; Doctor Henry D. Holton, Levi K. Fuller, 
George L. Clary, L. M. Howe and Miss Janette Howe, executive com- 
mittee. 

The Associated Charities of the churches were started in 1892. They 
were not intended to take the place of church charities, each society being 
supposed to attend to its individual members to whom want or suffering 
had come, but for the people who belong to no church, or who have drifted 
into the town and had no time to form affiliations before being overtaken 
by illness. To such as these the churches formerly lent a helping hand ; 
but it was found that owing to want of cooperation these people would 
sometimes have more than needed aid, sometimes far too little. The plan 
decided on was to elect one representative each from the Baptist, Congre- 
gational, Universalist, Methodist, Episcopal and Unitarian churches to 
form a committee to care for such cases. Each church took up a contribu- 
tion to form a small sum with which to carry on the work. The ladies 
chosen on the committee were Mrs. George E. Crowell, Mrs. Frank Wells, 
Mrs. G. W. Hooker, Mrs. E. W. Harlow, Mrs. G. F. Gale and Mrs. J. M. 
Tyler. Mrs. Tyler was elected treasurer. 

By the will of Kate Driscoll, who left the interest from her property 
to be used for the poor of the town without distinction of sect, they 
receive about forty dollars annually. 



HOME FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED 873 

Brattleboro Home for the Aged and Disabled 

In 1892, owing to agitation for a home for disabled persons, C. F. 
Thompson wrote an article for The Reformer on this need. September 
19 a committee was appointed to draft a charter. 

A gift of $5000 from Elisha D. Smith of Menasha, Wisconsin, a native 
of Brattleboro, enabled the committee to purchase a house with land on 
Western Avenue from the heirs of William H. Esterbrook. 

A $3000 gift from Doctor and Mrs. J. H. Stedman ; $5000 from George 
H. Newman of Boston; and $10,000 from Russell F. Lamb of St. Louis 
made possible the conveniences of the present building, which was dedi- 
cated December 29, 1897. 

The first officers of the institution were: President, Doctor H. D. Hol- 
ton; vice-president, B. D. Harris; treasurer, George S. Dowley; secretary, 
A. C. Davenport; executive committee: H. D. Holton, A. C. Davenport 
and James M. Tyler; finance committee: B. D. Harris, Richards Bradley; 
admissions : George E. Crowell, Reverend J. H. Babbitt and F. W. Childs. 

The Home contains twenty-five rooms for inmates, and five bathrooms ; 
an elevator ; an infirmary containing four beds which, with other furnish- 
ings, are the gift of the Brattleboro Branch Number 1 of the Interna- 
tional Sunshine Society. 

To become an inmate one must have attained the age of sixty years, 
and preference is given to the inhabitants of Brattleboro. The terms, 
fixed by the directors, vary according to the age of the applicant. 

While taking advantage of the best features of institutional life in its 
regularity, order and wise restraints, no residence for a similar purpose 
could be more truly a home than has been the Brattleboro Home for the 
Aged and Disabled, where physical comfort and care are combined with a 
social freedom and variety that are unusual. 

A large visiting committee has brought to those shut in by the infirmi- 
ties of age whatever resources of entertainment are alTorded by the vil- 
lage; churches and their choirs have contributed Sunday services; 
birthday parties and Christmas trees have had their promoters. 

The number of elderly people who look forward to the age at which 
they can be eligible to this Home is a witness to its happy influence. 

A Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution was organized 
October 4, 1893, with the following officers : Regent, Mrs. Annie G. Cobb; 
vice-regent, Mrs. Levi K. Fuller; treasurer, Mrs. Julius J. Estey ; secre- 
tary. Miss Delia Sherman ; registrar. Miss Mary R. Cabot. 

Mrs. F. W. Weeks was chairman of the executive board. 

There were fourteen charter members. 



874 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Temperance and Profanity 

The Brattleboro Temperance Society was organized in 1866 and tem- 
perance continued to be a subject of vital importance in Brattleboro in the 
seventies. 

In 1867 (January 3) the citizens of Brattleboro met at the Town Hall 
to consider the subject of profanity and the way by which it could be 
checked. 

The Good Samaritan Society was organized July 8, 1870. Charles N. 
Davenport, president; vice-presidents, Doctor George F. Gale, E. B. 
Campbell, J. M. Tyler; secretary and treasurer, H. M. Currier. Doctor 
C. P. Frost, B. F. Bingham, O. B. Douglas, Peleg Barrows and O. L. 
Miner were the executive committee. Eight hundred people were present 
at the meeting of this society December 1, 1870. 

This society was very active for several years, but died a natural death 
in 1875, and was followed by The Brattleboro Temperance Reform Club 
in 1876, which organization established a reading room in Union Block, 
opened September 6, 1876. 

The Sacred Pledge Society was started by James Fisk October, 1875. 

The Brattleboro House was a temperance hotel in 1875. 

There was a St. Michael's Temperance and Benevolent Society (Ro- 
man Catholic). President, D. N. Brosnahan. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union became the permanent 
temperance organization in 1877. The first officers were: President, Mrs. 
George H. Clapp; vice-president, Mrs. A. V. Cox; secretary and treas- 
urer, Mrs. D. P. Dearborn; committee of ways and means, Mrs. Charles 
Van Doom, Mrs. C. P. Barrett, Mrs. J. A. Taylor, Mrs. M. H. Harris; 
executive committee, Mrs. Ira Pierce, Mrs. E. Hastings, Mrs. Fred 
Harris, Mrs. C. W. Wyman, Mrs. D. N. Tolles, Mrs. A. J. Stearns, Mrs. 
George Fisher. 

The constitution of the Juvenile Total Abstinence Society was adopted 
December 4, 1880. 

The Young Men's Christian Association 

Only fragmentary reports of the Young Men's Christian Association 
are available ; they point to the existence of some definite work under 
that name before 1864, as a Woman's Auxiliary was formed in October 
of that year and a Board of Managers chosen from each of the evangelical 
churches. 

June 5, 1867, there was a meeting called to organize the Young Men's 
Christian Association. May 20, 1869, O. B. Douglas was elected president 
and Reverend N. Mighill vice-president. April 16, 1883, General Julius 



YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 875 

J. Estey was elected president and held that office until his death March 
7, 1902, — A. W. Nichols and George H. Clapp, vice-presidents. Rooms 
were opened in the Fisk Block. October 2, 1884, the Association moved 
to the Hooker Block where a gymnasium was installed, the gift of 
General Estey. 

In 1886 there were two hundred and fifty members. In 1892 Edward 
C. Crosby was chosen vice-president and held the position ten years. 
George C. Wilson was secretary from 1893 to 1903. 

In 1893 there were gymnasium classes, a reading room and parlors, a 
library of three hundred and fifty volumes, and fifty papers and maga- 
zines taken. 

In 189-4 a Boys' Battalion was organized under the auspices of the 
Association, Burton Austin, secretary. October 9, 1895, the Association 
moved to Leonard Block. In 1902 Edward C. Crosby was elected presi- 
dent, George L. Dunham, vice-president, Victor S. Reed, secretary. In 
1906-1907 there was a total membership of two hundred and seventy- 
seven, one hundred and forty-eight of that number being active members. 

On September 9, 1907, activities were suspended and the rooms closed, 
although the organization was retained, and it was voted to so modify the 
test of active membership as to admit members of other than evangelical 
churches at that time excluded by the Portland resolutions. 



CHAPTER LXXXV 

PROTECTIVE GRANGE— FARMERS' AND 
MECHANICS' EXCHANGE 

Protective Grange 

On May 31, 1873, Protective Grange was organized by Eben Thompson 
in the brick schoolhouse in West Brattleboro known as District Number 
7, with twenty-three charter members. They were : Mr. and Mrs. H. K. 
Chamberlain; Mr. and Mrs. T. P. Goodenough; Mr. and Mrs. J. P. Lis- 
com; Mr. and Mrs. G. B. Taft; Mr. and Mrs. Dwight Goodenough; Mr. 
and Mrs. E. R. Smith ; Mr. and Mrs. E. F. Reed ; Mr. and Mrs. L. M. 
Fisher; E. S. Horton; Simon Brooks; T. W. Eason; D. M. Mather; 
G. B. Horton; C. F. Esterbrooks and D. W. Newton. 

H. K. Chamberlain was first master and held the position three years, 
1873-1875, 1878; Charles W. Sargent, 1879-1883; J. P. Goodenough, 
1881-1885; D. T. Perry, 1886-1888; Oscar T. Ware, 1891-1893; Carl S. 
Hopkins, 1899-1900 ; A. W. Roel, 1902 ; H. W. Sargent, 1903-1906 ; Philip 
Franklin, 1909-1910 and Mrs. Lucy Sargent, 1912. 

The Farmers' and Mechanics' Exchange 

The Farmers' and Mechanics' Exchange had its beginning in 1873, 
when a number of citizens organized the "Sovereigns of Industry" and 
opened a small store in the basement of O. A. Alvord's house on the 
corner of Elm and Frost Streets. The business was continued in a small 
way, the trade being large for its membership, which was limited, until 
they moved to the Market Block on Elliot Street. In April, 1877, the 
Grangers took hold of the business. It was reorganized under the name 
of the Farmers' and Mechanics' Exchange and H. K. Chamberlain was 
the manager for the first six months, until succeeded by E. W. Harlow, 
to whose able management the Exchange owed in a large degree its stand- 
ing. In November, 1882, the Exchange was incorporated by a special 
act of the Legislature, and in December of the same year moved into 
Leonard's Block on Elliot Street. There were twelve original Brattleboro 
stockholders and an equal number from the neighboring towns. 




WEST RIVER AT ENTRANCE INTO THE CONNECTICUT 



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MOUNTAIN FROM WEST RIVER 



;■" " •- w^'"' "■ ■•■'?5?^?3'"^;?''s"f?-' 




LOG DRIVE 



FARMERS' AND MECHANICS' EXCHANGE 877 

The trade the first year, when the capital stock was but $555, amounted 
to $7553, while the total for 1893 was $82,400, and the total trade for 
seventeen years $815,119. The original members of the "Sovereigns' " 
store were counted among the 'four hundred and sixty shareholders of 
the Exchange, of which three hundred and seventy-five were residents of 
Brattleboro, the others living in Guilford, Dummerston, Chesterfield and 
other adjoining towns. In order to be a member of the Exchange and 
share in its profits one must either be a member of the "Sovereigns of 
Industry" or a member of the Grange. The shares were five dollars each 
and no one member was permitted to hold more than $500 in stock. The 
shareholders got six per cent interest on the amount of their stock, one 
price was paid to everybody for the mutual profit of all, and at the end of 
each year the profits were divided in dividends, pro rata, on the share- 
holders' trade. The average dividend paid in seventeen years, on mem- 
bers' trade, was eleven per cent, ranging from three to twenty per cent, 
while the total amount paid in dividends and interest was $41,830. 



CHAPTER LXXXVI 
THE ESTEY GUARD— FULLER BATTERY 

The Estey Guard 

Julius J. Estey organized the Estey Guard in 1874 and was chosen 
captain. 

At the reorganization of the militia of the state of Vermont in 1871, 
Company I was officered as follows: Captain, William M. E. Adams; first 
lieutenant, Robert G. Hardie, Junior; second lieutenant, Herbert D. An- 
drews; with commissions dated October 31 of that year. On September 
10, 1872, Timothy W. Eason was elected first lieutenant vice Hardie, re- 
signed ; Frank H. Holding, second lieutenant, vice Andrews removed 
from the state. May 22, 1873, T. W. Eason was elected captain; F. H. 
Holding, first lieutenant; Edwin C. Thorn, second lieutenant. May 30, 
1874, on resignation of T. W. Eason, Julius J. Estey was elected captain ; 
also, on the same date, by vote of the company the name "Estey Guard" 
was given the organization, and by this title it has since been known. June 
29, 1875, on resignation of F. H. Holding, Sergeant Fletcher K. Barrows 
was elected first lieutenant. February 17, 1876, on resignation of E. C. 
Thorn, Fredk. W. Childs was elected second lieutenant. February 2, 1878, 
on resignation of F. K. Barrows, Sergeant George H. Bond was elected 
first lieutenant. 

July 18, 1881, upon the promotion of J. J. Estey to lieutenant-colonel, 
G. H. Bond was elected captain; Fredk. W. Childs, first lieutenant ; Collins 
R. Stevens, second lieutenant. July 7, 1886, on resignation of C. R. 
Stevens, Moses B. Savory was elected second lieutenant. January 4, 1887, 
upon promotion of G. H. Bond to major, Fredk. W. Childs was elected 
captain; Moses B. Savory, first lieutenant, Thomas A. Austin, second lieu- 
tenant. March 12, 1889, on resignation of Moses B. Savory, Thos. A. 
Austin was elected first lieutenant ; George E. Ober, second lieutenant. 
August 12, 1890, on resignation of Geo. E. Ober, J. Gray Estey was elected 
second lieutenant. December 12, 1892, on resignation of Fredk. W. 
Childs, J. G. Estey was elected captain; William T. Haigh, second lieu- 
tenant. January 3, 1893, on resignation of Thos. A. Austin, W. T. Haigh 
was elected first lieutenant ; Charles F. Bingham, second lieutenant. Feb- 



FULLER BATTERY 879 

ruary 9, 189S, on promotion of J. G. Estey to major and W. T. Haigh to 
captain, J. Harry Estey was elected first lieutenant; Frank B. Putnam, 
second lieutenant. 

Company I has always been noted for its efficiency in military tactics 
and for gentlemanly deportment. It has taken part in many public celebra- 
tions, among them the Fourth of July celebration at Philadelphia, 1876 ; 
Yorktown, June, 1881 ; the Battle of Bennington Centennial, August, 1877, 
and the Dedication of the Monument, August, 1887 ; the Centennial of 
Washington's Inauguration at New York, April, 1 889, and President Mc- 
Kinley's Inauguration at Washington, March, 1897. 

Company I enlisted in the Spanish War, for two years, or during the 
war. They left Brattleboro May 6, 1898, were mustered into service at 
Burlington May 16, and left for the South May 21. After the cessation of 
hostilities, they arrived at Camp Olympia, Burlington, August 21. 

Fuller B.vttery 

"The Fuller Battery Light Artillery" was organized September- 24, 
1874. Their first public parade was on November 7. In 1875 there were 
seventy-five men and four' guns; the Fuller Drum Corps was a feature 
of its development. Levi K. Fuller equipped and supported it for two 
years, when it was turned over to the state, continuing until 1899. 

In addition to the street parades, exhibition drills and June trainings, 
there was annually, for many years, a Guard and Battery Military Ball. 
The Estey Guard Dramatic Club and Estey Guard Glee Club were also 
active, and contributed much to the social life of the town, as well as to 
that of the members of these organizations. 

Both organizations represented splendid types of young manhood, re- 
flecting the ideals of their honorable commanders, who spared neither 
means, expense, time nor personal effort in perfecting their patriotic 
spirit and military efficiency. The fact that their efforts were eminently 
successful was repeatedly shown in frequent selection of the companies 
for official escort and other important military service. 

Not until the state troops were reorganized — about the time of the 
Spanish-American War — did the several companies throughout the state 
drop the names of their original commanders, substituting letters for iden- 
tification. Captain Julius J. Estey retired with the commission of General ; 
Captain Bond, with that of Colonel ; Captain Childs. with a Major's com- 
mission; while Captain Fuller was elected Governor of the state and, as 
such, became Commander-in-Chief of its military forces. 



CHAPTER LXXXVII 

MUSICAL ORGANIZATIONS 

Musical Organizations. Brattleboro Orchestra — Choral Union — First Regiment 
Band — Philharmonic Society. 

The Brattleboro Orchestra 

First violin, E. B. Marble, Ambrose Knapp, Chauncey Knapp. 
Second violin, F. T. Shearer, O. F. Bailey, S. Arthur Woodbury. 
Viola, F. L. Burnett, C. L. Brigham. 
Violoncello, David Abbott, Fred Brasor. 
Contrabass, James Hancock. 

The Choral Union 

In the year 1870 the persons actively interested in musical matters in 
Brattleboro were Governor Frederick Holbrook, who led the choir in the 
Congregational Church; Colonel N. C. Sawyer, leader of the choir in the 
Episcopal Church; H. K. White, leader of the Baptist choir; C. L. Howe, 
for many years a leading tenor singer ; Miss Mary Sprague, soprano, Mrs. 
Henry Burnham, Mrs. Sawyer, G. Myron Taylor, a bass singer. Colonel 
Francis Goodhue and others. 

March 3, 1871, the Brattleboro Musical Society was formed, of between 
eighty and one hundred singers under the leadership of Professor L. O. 
Emerson, and he held a musical convention in Brattleboro which was an 
event of some importance. 

In the early seventies Mr. Taylor and Mr. L. W^ Hawley, a budding 
conductor, aspired to ptitting upon the boards in the Town Hall George 
F. Root's cantata "The Haymakers," which was a success musically and 
financially, netting a few hundred dollars which were invested in a fine 
piano, thus giving promise of a permanent instead of spasmodic interest 
in things musical. This was followed by "Esther, the Beautiful Queen," 
which, like its predecessor, was acted and well staged as well as sung, and 
drew a very generous patronage. 

The next season "Ruth, the Moabitess," was given with most liberal 
support. Under the same leadership more pretentious works were given. 



MUSICAL ORGANIZATIONS 881 

and in 1874 the Brattleboro Choral Union was formed. "The Holy City," 
by A. R. Gaul was sung, and in subsequent years, "Stabat Mater," by Ros- 
sini, "Hymn of Praise" and "Elijah," by Mendelssohn, and miscellaneous 
opera choruses. 

In March, 1887, an association was formed for the express purpose of 
projecting a musical festival. This festival was held in May, 1887, under 
the direction of S. Brenton Whitney, for many years organist of the 
Church of the Advent, Boston, and who conducted choir festivals in New 
England, for the improvement of singing, especially in Episcopal churches. 
A chorus of two hundred voices was gathered from Brattleboro and the 
surrounding towns for a three days' festival. The soloists were Mrs. E. 
Humphrey Allen, soprano ; Miss Hattie McLain, contralto ; J. C. Bartlett, 
tenor, and Jacob Benzing, bass. The Lotus Glee Club, of fragrant mem- 
ory, were in attendance throughout the whole period, Misses Belle Clark 
(Mrs. John L. Knowlton) and Izetta Stewart were the accompanists. 

With so much favor were these efiforts met that another festival was 
held in June, 1888, under the superb leadership of Professor H. R. Palmer, 
a composer of note. The soloists were Miss Ella Earle (later Mrs. Toedt) 
of New York, Miss McLain, contralto ; George J. Parker, tenor, and Wil- 
liam L. Whitney, bass, and again the popular Lotus Club with Miss Clark 
and Miss Stewart for accompanists, and a chorus of surprising size and 
ability. 

After quite a long interval, a fresh interest was created in 1904, result- 
ing in the first concert under the leadership of Mr. Nelson P. Coffin, 
February 10, 1904, with Mrs. Grace Bonner W^illiam, soprano, and Mr. 
Edwin H. Miller, bass, as soloists, Miss Izetta Stewart and Miss Lula 
Cressy, accompanists. 

Mr. Coffin's leadership was continued for two or three years with never 
failing success, but the town of Brattleboro never quite rose to the proper 
financial support and the singers finally abandoned their efforts, although 
Brattleboro was then rich in musical talent and might easily have proved 
a rival to her neighboring city of Keene, which town with Worcester and 
Fitchburg have held Musical Festivals under his direction. 

The first entertainment in Brattleboro's Auditorium was an Old Folks' 
Concert, which was given with perfection of costume and musical detail, 
and was a success. 

A Cornet Band was organized here in 1873. Charles L. Newman was 
leader, followed by George W. Clark. The nineteen members were all 
mechanics, met twice a week, and had new and handsome uniforms ; Ira 
Burnett was leader in 1875. It was reorganized in 1878-1879 under Fred 
W. Leitsinger as leader. 



■883 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

The First Regiment Band 

In the Centennial year, inspired by martial sounds, a few of the boys 
who could drum, organized the Brattleboro Cornet Band. The member- 
ship was limited to fifteen, and made up of the following members: F. C. 
Leitsinger, leader ; A. D. Wyatt, secretary and treasurer ; J. R. Rand, C. K. 
Jones, W. D. Miller, J. A. Lindsey, F. Williams, W. Stuart, Ed. Leitsinger, 
F. Veet, F. H. Brasor, W. W. Putnam, A. E. Knight, J. C. Timson, F. 
Knight. The early rehearsals were held in Lewis Putnam's barn on 
Cemetery Hill. In April of the next year they reorganized and the follow- 
ing new men joined: G. H. Clapp, G. T. Lundberg, O. W. Bartlett, James 
Jones, Harry Rowe, Ben Perry, A. B. Hastings, E. M. Applin, drum 
major, F. W. Bridges, C. A. Wheeler, Abe Stewart, E. Wales, Junior, 
C. M. Cobb, Frank Houghton, A. Wright, Conrad Schneider, Arthur 
Wheeler. About this time X. I. Hawley and Henry Willard were elected 
honorary members, and later J. J. Estey, L. K. Fuller, F. Goodhue and 
Colonel Hooker. These honorary members filled a very important posi- 
tion in the early history of the band, as they were paying instead of play- 
ing members. 

The band played at musters many years. When it played at the first 
muster the band was made up as follows : Fred C. Leitsinger, leader, G. H. 
Clapp, A. D. Wyatt, E. F. Leitsinger, Bert Leitsinger, S. W. Knight, 
Walter E. Sturges, Ben Perry, F. T. Shearer, C. F. Nichols, Harry Rowe, 
C. L. Higgins, Abe Stewart, W. H. Smith, A. G. Wheeler, E. L. Hicks, 
J. A. Jones, Luther H. Barber, B. F. Hoyt, E. M. Applin (drum major). 

In 1883 the band was engaged to play at St. Johnsbury for the First 
National Guard muster, and changed the name to the First Regiment 
Band, by which name they have since been known. They served with the 
National Guard for seven years, were at the laying of the corner stone 
of the battle monument at Bennington, and assisted in the dedication. 
They also played for three years at the White Mountains for the big 
coaching parade. 

This band has ranked as one of the leading bands of New England, and 
their success has been due to F. C. Leitsinger, bandmaster. 

From 1881 Band Concerts have been given weekly on Main Street or 
on the Common to an increasing number of people of all classes. The 
Band has been supported by voluntary contributions and by proceeds from 
amateur entertainments. 

A Philharmonic Society was formed November 16, 1883. In 1886 the 
following officers were : President, Levi K. Fuller ; vice-president, George 
W. Hooker; .treasurer, D. A. Abbott; secretary, C. F. Jenne; executive 



MUSICAL ORGANIZATIONS 883 

committee : C. A. Miles, E. F. Brooks, J. F. Barney, G. Dowley. This 
orchestra was composed of sixteen instruments and from, the orchestra 
was formed a Philharmonic Quartet. 



CHAPTER LXXXVIII 

BRATTLEBORO CLUBS AND ASSOCIATIONS 

Brattleboro Clubs. Forest and Stream, 187S — Brattleboro Bicycle Club — Vermont 
Wheel Club, 1885 — Windham County Park Association — New England and Ver- 
mont State Fair of 1866 — Valley Fair Association, 1886 — Valley Fair parade of 
1894— Board of Trade, 1887— Order of Red Men, 1888— New England Trout and 
Salmon Club, 1889. 

The Forest and Stream Club was organized in April, 1875. Doctor 
George F. Gale, president; Richards Bradley, vice-president; S. M. Waite, 
secretary and treasurer. The executive committee : Doctor Gale, Richards 
Bradley, S. M. Waite, Warren E. Eason and F. W. Hines. 

The Brattleboro Bicycle Club was organized May 1, 1880. Oscar A. 
Marshall, president; W. S. Underwood, captain; E. G. Monroe, lieuten- 
ant; A. W. Childs, secretary and treasurer. 

The Vermont Wheel Club 

The Vermont Wheel Club had its origin in the old Brattleboro Cycle 
Club that had quarters in Crosby Block, and the Taurus Club, a social 
organization of young men that maintained clubrooms about three years 
in Market Block, and was organized November 10, 18S5. 

The following were charter members : F. H. Allen, E. H. Atherton, 
A. W. Childs, C. R. Crosby, J. W. Drown, C. W. Dunham, H. L. Emer- 
son, W. E. Gordon, F. H. Houghton, S. W. Kirkland, T. W. Kirkland, 
O. R. Leonard, O. A. Marshall, E. R. Pratt, W. H. Proctor, F. T. Reid, 
F. L. Shaw, Leslie Scott and George E. Fox. 

The clubrooms were in Market Block from November, 1885, to July 
29, 1895, when attractive quarters in the Grange building were opened. 
The merribership at first was limited to fifty. Not all of the original 
members were wheelmen, for the constitution was so devised that any 
young man of good character and standing could become a member on 
paying an admission fee of five dollars. A uniform was adopted, the pro- 
curement of which was optional to the members, November, 1886. Appli- 
cants to be eligible to membership must be at least eighteen years of age. 



THE VERMONT WHEEL CLUB 885 

The first president was Harry L. Emerson, 1885-188G ; F. L. Shaw, 
vice-president; F. T. Reid, captain; C. R. Crosby, lieutenant; W. E. 
Gordon, color bearer; and the club committee included O. R. Leonard, 
S. W. Kirkland and F. H. Houghton. 

Other presidents of the club were: O. A. Marshall, 1886-1889; S. W. 
Kirkland, 1889-1890; G. E. Fox, 1890; F. W. Reed, 1890-1891; Martin 
Austin, 1891; E. D. Whitney, 1891-1892; L L. Dickinson, 1892-1893; 
E. D. Whitney, 1893-1897; W. H. Erackett, 1897-1899; C. R. Crosby, 
1899-1900; C. A. Harris, 1900-1902; G. F. Barber, 1902-1903; George E. 
Foster, 1903-190-4; Charles H. Pratt, 1904-1906; M. J. Moran, 1906-1907; 
Charles O. Robbins, 1907-1908 ; William A. Shumway, 1908-1909 ; Frank 
B. Putnam, 1909-1910; Frederick A. Thompson, 1910-1911 ; Doctor F. R. 
Newell, 1911-1912; Doctor A. L. Pettee, 1912-1913; O. F. Benson, 1913- 
1917; A. D. Wyatt, 1917-1919; E. J. Fenton, 1919-1920; W. H. Richard- 
son, 1920 . 

The offices of secretary and treasurer were at first filled by one person, 
J. W. Drown, one of the principal movers for the club's formation, he 
being the incumbent in 1885-1886, and Leslie Scott from 1886 to 1895. 
The secretaries and their terms have been as follows: Martin Austin, 
1895-1898; C. F. Bingham, 1898-1902; A. H. Pettee, 1902-1904; John C. 
DeWitt, 1904-1907; L. Guy Tasker, 1907-1912; Fred W. Hall, 1912-1913; 
W. A. Shumway, 1913 to date. C. W. Richardson was treasurer from 
1904 to 1913, and was followed by Lawrence K. Barber. 

The Vermont Wheel Club has always been more or less actively con- 
nected with the social life of Brattleboro. In the winters of 1886, 1887, 
1888 and 1889 a series of balls was given. Dramatically the club's early 
triumphs were on two occasions, March 6, 1896, when the Vermont Wheel 
Club minstrels held sway at the Auditorium, and June 3, 4 and 5, 1897, 
when the extravaganza "Zephra" was given under the auspices of the club. 
The banquets of the club have always been occasions of good fellowship, 
particularly that following the election of 1888, furnished by the Demo- 
cratic members, and the return compliment by the Republicans in 1892. 

Aside from the tournaments of the old Brattleboro Cycle Club in 1884 
and 1885, the Vermont Wheel Club has held five race meets. Those of 
1886 and 1887 were participated in mainly by local riders, and in the latter 
prizes were exceeded in value only by those of Hartford and Cleveland. 
, In August, 1890, an extremely successful meet was held, the prizes aggre- 
gating $600 ; on this occasion F. H. Allen of Springfield, Massachusetts, 
lowered the track record to 2.16%. The tournament of 1895 outshone its 
predecessor; "Eddie" Bald wheeled an exhibition half in 58%; Nat 
Butler circled the track twice in the record time of 2.04, and C. R. Newton 
made a mile in competition in 2.1iy^. The last meet was held in August, 



m ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

1896, and was highly successful although no record performances took 
place. 

In the days of high wheel racing the Vermont Wheel Club was repre- 
sented by riders who won the bulk of the prizes at the local meets. S. W. 
Kirkland won the half-mile state championship in 1886, and at Mont- 
pelier the following year he won the three-mile state championship. C. R. 
Crosby won the half-mile state championship in 1887 and several other 
races. Formerly the club held runs at intervals throughout each summer, 
but after enthusiasm for the bicycle disappeared these were no longer 
fixtures and the offices of captain and lieutenant were dropped from the 
list. 

The Windham County Park Association was formed in 1866 with 
Charles Chapin, chairman; C. F. Thompson, S. M. Waite, T. Vinton and 
David Goodell were a committee to draft a constitution and by-laws. 

The thoroughbred horse was a lively interest with gentlemen of sporting 
instinct from the time of John R. Blake and Epaphro Seymour to George 
C. Hall ; large sums of money were exchanged in their purchase and 
sale, and auctions were attended by rich men from distant cities ; a train- 
load of these men came from New York to one of the auctions. A very 
valuable horse was sent across the sea by Major J. J. Crandall to one of 
the ducal sports of England. 

Mr. Hall and Mr. Richards Bradley were interested in breeding horses 
for racing purposes. That racing was under the control of men of charac- 
ter brought to the Fair representative men of New England from every 
walk in life. 

Items from the daily newspaper concerning the New England and Ver- 
mont-State Fair held in Brattleboro September 4, 5, 6, 1866. 

That "10,000 persons saw the trotting. One of the show horses was the 
celebrated Morgan stallion, Ethan Allen, and the paper says : 'The im- 
mense crowd complimented the old veterans with three rousing cheers.' " 

That "the drivers of the horses fooled away more than half an hour 
in attempting to start for the first heat, until the patience of even the 
Judges was worn out, when the horses got a standing start." 

An abstract of the address of Doctor George B. Loring of Salem, 
Massachusetts, president of the New England Agricultural Society, is 
given, also mention of the exhibits in Mechanics' Hall, the poultry, swine 
and sheep. Among the plows mentioned are some which are the result 
of long and patient investigation on the part of ex-Governor Holbrook of 
Brattleboro. Colonel F. F. Holbrook, son of the Governor, is agent for 
these superior plows at Boston, Massachusetts. The list of exhibitors 




DECORATED FOR VALLEY FAIR 




FAIR GROUNDS 






VIEWS AT THE FAIR 



THE VALLEY FAIR ASSOCIATION 887 

of live stock contains names of prominent men from various towns in this 
section. 

In the evening at eight o'clock there was an address on the tariff, by 
Senator Justin S. Morrill of Vermont. Other paragraphs mention some 
of the prominent men present or expected : Honorables Luke E. Poland, 
Justin S. Morrill and Frederick E. Woodbridge, Mr. Poland as the guest 
of Captain R. W. Clarke, and Messrs. Morrill and Woodbridge as guests 
of B. D. Harris, at the Wesselhoeft; Trenor W. Park, Esquire, of Ben- 
nington, one of the wealthiest men in the state, and Reverend William 
Ford of Brandon, the poet preacher and horticulturist ; Senator Ed- 
munds, also a guest of B. D. Harris, and Honorable John W. Stewart of 
Middlebury. 

"The Governors of the New England States — Governor Bullock of Mas- 
sachusetts, with staff. General Burnsides, Governor of Rhode Island, Gen- 
eral Hawley, Governor of Connecticut, Governor Cony of Maine, Governor 
Smyth of New Hampshire and Governor Dillingham of Vermont, will 
arrive today." 

One of the attractions of the fair were the Siamese twins, Chang and 
Eng, and their children, and they are pictured by a woodcut. 

The Valley Fair Association 

The Valley Fair Association, having been incorporated under the laws 
of the state of Vermont in 1886, with a capital stock of $10,000, taken 
largely by the residents of Brattleboro and near-by Connecticut Valley 
towns, the first fair held in Brattleboro since the state fair of 1867 was 
on October 13, 1886. 

The officers of the Association were: Colonel George W. Hooker, 
president; Fred M. Waite, vice-president; General Julius J. Estey, treais- 
urer. These men held their offices until their deaths in 1902. C. W. 
Sargent was secretary. 

The average number of visitors has been twenty-five thousand. 

The capital stock paid for the site of the fair on the old camp ground 
and for part of the buildings. From year to year new buildings have been 
added. Without financial help from the state, the Association has been 
free from debt, while these annual festivals have been the chief agricul- 
tural attraction within the state. The board of directors has included 
men of prominence from nearly all sections of New England. 

There has been a steady improvement in all the departments, in horses, 
cattle, dairy products, sheep, swine, poultry and agricultural products. 
Each year the exhibits of grain, fruit and vegetables have been larger and 
better, until the Agricultural hall has become a show by itself. The farmer 



888 ' ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

is taught how to save labor and time by practical exhibitions of farm 
machinery. Floral hall is given up to domestic products, useful and 
ornamental. A school exhibit has been a recent feature of the fair. For 
some years the kennel exhibit was conducted under American Kennel 
Club rules. The amusements, athletic, vaudeville and musical, have been 
greatly varied from year to year. The management has offered substan- 
tial inducement for horse races, and the track record has been lowered 
continually by some of the best horses in New England. 

Thus the object of the Association, the stimulation of the farmer and 
farming community, has been attained to a remarkable degree. 

A troop of United States Cavalry from Fort Ethan Allen gave drills 
for some years. 

For many years the parade through the main streets of the town, of 
decorated coaches and carts, was one of the attractive features. A de- 
scription of the parade of 1894 from The Phcenix is as follows: 

At the first gleam of light the townspeople were astir in busy prepara- 
tion for the last and biggest day of the fair. Even before seven o'clock 
the highways leading in every direction were choked with vehicles of 
almost every kind and description, all coming to the fair, and when, just 
before ten o'clock, sixty-one gaudily decorated bicycles with handsomely 
costumed riders of both sexes swung out from Walnut Street and headed 
the great procession of horsemen with the Estey Guard, escorting Gov- 
ernor Fuller and staff, and followed by scores of beautiful carts, carriages 
and floats, all the handiwork of the young women of the town, there was 
a mass of cheering people lining both sides of Main Street and reaching 
almost the entire length of the route of parade to the fairgrounds. The 
Brattleboro Military Band set the pace for the parade, which was from 
the Common through North Main to Main Street, thence through Canal to 
the grounds, where there was a great throng to applaud the procession 
as it passed around the race track. A new and novel feature of the parade 
was the presence of one hundred business men and mechanics marching in 
columns of fours and each bearing a twelve-foot stalk of corn, to which 
was attached a corn-colored streamer, while the men wore a badge of the 
same color on their lapels. They marched with precision to the music of 
a drum corps. At the head of the line were Mr. and Mrs. William Rich- 
ardson in a quaint chaise, while in the center Farmer Mixer and his wife, 
in ancient costume, rode in a four-wheeled vehicle trimmed with pump- 
kins, corn and other farm produce, including a basket of large eggs, which 
hung from the axle. It was a taking feature of the parade, and was re- 
ceived with much enthusiasm. 

The Brooks House tallyho was a charming representation, and the 



CLUBS AND ASSOCIATIONS 889 

eflfect of its decorations of laurel, from wliich peeped the faces of several 
well-known guests of the house, was extremely good. C. A. Richardson 
of Brooklyn handled the reins. The boat float of the High School class 
of 1895, in green and white, with eight horses, was attractive, as was the 
tallyho of Miss Sawyer's North Street School. One of the prettiest carts 
in the parade was that representing music, draped in white with silver 
ornaments, on which a bevy of young women in white, grouped about a 
huge harp, held silver horns. Another no less striking was a canopied 
cart with trimmings of popcorn. The procession moved in the following 
order: The Wheel Club with decorated bicycles; marshal and aids; Brat- 
tleboro Military Band ; Estey Guard in white trousers ; Governor Fuller 
with staff, mounted; cavalcade; Mrs. Colonel Hooker, two-horse carriage 
trimmed in white and lilac; and carts driven by the young ladies of the 
town. 

The Brattleboro Board of Trade 

The Brattleboro Board of Trade was organized February 10, 1887. 
James M. Tyler was president; George W. Hooker, vice-president; 
George C. Averill, secretary and treasurer. Executive committee : George 

E. Crowell, Julius J. Estey, O. L. Miner, A. V. Cox, I. B. Taft, D. Good- 
enough, O. D. Esterbrook, T. J. B. Cudworth, N. I. Hawley. 

It was reorganized in 1906, Charles O. Robbins, president. Denison 
Cowles was president, 1909 ; Major C. Houghton, 1911 ; George L. Dun- 
ham, 1914 ; Horton D. Walker, 1915 ; W. L. Hunt, 1917 ; Arthur Roberts, 
1919. 

The Improved Order of Red Men 

In 1888 there was organized in Brattleboro a tribe of the Improved 
Order of Red Men in the state of Vermont, Quonekticut Tribe, Number 
2, who number two hundred and fifty-eight (1917). 

The first council fire of Quonekticut Tribe, according to the official 
records, "was kindled in Grand Army Hall by Past Great Sachem William 
Scampton and O. D. Robertson, chief of records pro tem, from the reser- 
vation of Massachusetts, on the eighth run of the Setting Sun April 20, 
1888," when the Adoption degree was conferred on thirty-two palefaces 
by Ascutney Tribe, Number 1, of Bellows Falls. 

There were thirty-three charter members, as follows : Joseph G. Taylor, 

F. G. Pettee, M. L. Harris, H. C. Pettee, L. D. Mitchell, George De- 
Putran, Fred Cressy, L. H. Fales, C. M. C. Richardson, John Retting, 
Junior, W. S. Moore, C. R. Crosby, C. A. Miles, H. R. Lawrence, F. H. 
Whitney, J. E. Mellen, G. I. Bishop, C. S. Stockwell, I. K. Allen, F. M. 
Waite, W. H. Childs, Ira F. Burnett, F. B. Gleason, George S. Pratt, 



890 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

A. L. Pettee, F. C. Gale, H. G. E. Pratt, B. L. Sargent, J. C. Howe, C. C. 
Tyler, J. G. Cook, E. S. Bowen and F. J. Lewis. 

Colonel Charles A. Miles, the first sachem of the tribe, served in that 
office for thirteen consecutive years. H. R. Lawrence served as chief 
of records for ten years. 

The tribe has paid in sick and death benefits nearly $5000 during its 
existence. 

1889. New England Trout and Salmon Club. Marlboro South Pond. 
George W. Hooker, president; Levi K. Fuller, vice-president; C. H. 
Pratt, secretary ; W. S. Moore, treasurer. F. J. Holman, P. F. Amidon, 
H. R. Lawrence, George S. Dowley and five others, trustees. 



CHAPTER LXXXIX 

THE BRICK CHURCH IN WEST BRATTLEBORO 

Brick Church in West Brattleboro — Purchased from Universalists by Estey & 
Company— Clergy— Salvation Army, 1885 — Swedish Lutheran Church, 1894 — 
Advent Church, 1896. 

One day in the spring of 1872, Deacon Jacob Estey and his son-in-law, 
Levi K. Fuller, were riding past the Brick Meeting-House in West Brat- 
tleboro, built for the Universalist Society, and noticed upon the door a 
sign, "For Sale." Upon talking over the matter it was thought best to 
buy it, and these brethren, with Julius J. Estey, comprising the firm of 
Estey & Company, purchased and repaired the house. On July 14, 1872, 
at two o'clock the house was opened for religious services. A very large 
audience gathered and listened to the dedication sermon by Reverend 
L. J. Matteson, pastor of the First Baptist Church of Brattleboro. Levi 
K. Fuller also spoke and Deacon Estey gave an account of the origin and 
purchase of the house. He was followed by several other brethren. Doc- 
tor O. R. Post, George E. Higley, L. W. Hawley and Julius J. Estey, with 
words of cheer, bidding the work Godspeed and assuring the friends of 
hearty cooperation. At the close a Sunday school was formed of sixty-one 
members, L. K. Fuller being chosen superintendent and Stanford Miller 
assistant. A prayer meeting was established on Wednesday evenings. In 
December a series of meetings, continuing about four weeks, was held by 
Reverend H. G. DeWitt, an evangelist from New York State, with excel- 
lent results. 

The congregation having increased and being desirous that regular 
preaching should be maintained, the people subscribed a substantial sum 
toward it and the balance was guaranteed by individuals from the Brat- 
tleboro church for one year to support this mission. In April, 1873, 
Reverend Charles A. Votey of Phelps, New York, began his labors as 
pastor. Mrs. Votey, in a letter, gives a picture of their first arrival at 
the church to hold a service. There were no street lights, no chapel and 
no furnace. The church was lighted with kerosene and heated by two 
smoky wood stoves. The pews were of the old high-backed style, and the 
pulpit was a large, square one with a great window behind it. 



892 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

In 1874 it was decided to organize a church, and on the fourteenth day 
of April a httle band of Christians, numbering nineteen persons, joined 
themselves together. The first covenant meeting was held Thursday, 
April 30. Shortly afterwards an ecclesiastical council was convened to 
recognize the new church and extend the fellowship of the churches repre- 
sented. The ministers from the towns around came in to assist. Rev- 
erend Mark Carpenter from Townshend preached the sermon, and told 
them of the Brattleboro that was to be, of the horse cars that would run 
to and from the East Village, and how important it was that West Brat- 
tleboro should have a strong Baptist Church. 

Some good men have ministered to its welfare as regular pastors : Rev- 
erend Charles A. Votey, 1873-1879; Reverend H. S. Davis, 1879-1880; 
Reverend Samuel A. Read supplied for eight months until July ; he died 
in 1910; Reverend Charles R. Powers, 1881-1885; Reverend Albert D. 
Spaulding, 1886-1889; Reverend F. S. Smith, 1889-1898; Reverend 
Newell A. Wood, 1899-1905 ; Reverend J. A. Mitchell, 1905-1907 ; Rever- 
end Alhson M. Watts, 1907-1909; Reverend E. S. Harrison, 1910-1913; 
Reverend I. M. Compton, 1913 . 

.The Salvation Army 
The Salvation Army was incorporated Ntivember, 1885, by Captain 
Drealand. 

The Advent Church 
The Advent Church was organized in 1889. For several years the 
society worshiped in the lower Town Hall, and later in the Esteyville 
schoolhouse. In May, 1896, a chapel was finished and dedicated in the 
growing part of Esteyville. 

A Swedish Lutheran Church 
A Swedish Lutheran Church was completed in 1894, in a locality where 
Swedish families had gathered for some years, since known as Swedeville. 



CHAPTER XC 

THE REFORMER 

The Reformer. Charles N. Davenport — Charles H. Davenport — E. H. Crane. The 
Vermont Printing Company — Brattleboro Daily Reformer. 

In the summer of 1876 The Reformer was started, as a temporary 
campaign sheet, its name coming from the slogan of the candidate it was 
designed to serve — "Tilden and Reform." Charles N. Davenport, a bril- 
liant lawyer and one of the leading Democrats of the state, was the 
founder. He edited the sheet during that busy fall, while De Witt Leon- 
ard printed it for him. After the excitement and commotion over the 
famous Tilden-Hayes contested election had died down, Mr. Davenport 
was intending to let The Reformer die a natural death, but just at this 
time his son, Charles H., left Amherst College in his Junior year, and his 
father decided to continue the paper. A company was formed and Charles 
H. Davenport was put in as editor, with T. P. James as assistant. Mr. 
James's connection with the paper was short, as his connection with any 
permanent job was short! At one time Davenport issued a state edition of 
The Reformer as well as a county edition. The state edition was called 
The Brattleboro Reformer and contained news from the towns through- 
out the state, while the county edition was called The Windham County 
Reformer. He also published a Greenfield edition of the paper and a 
Bennington edition. 

Charles H. Davenport was fearless as an editor and a very ardent 
Democrat. Naturally, while supporting the Democratic cause, he had 
many violent clashes with the local Phccnix, which was as staunchly Re- 
publican as The Reformer was Democratic. For some months there was 
a spirited controversy between Davenport and the editor of The Sifter 
in South Londonderry, who called himself "Sifter John." He was as 
fearless as Davenport, and did not hesitate to attack personalities if he saw 
an opportunity ; and he saw many, not only in Davenport, but among other 
prominent Brattleboro business men and politicians. During the course 
of this controversy, Brattleboro capital purchased the building in which 
The Sifter was printed. "Sifter John" was summarily turned out into 
the street, but this did not deter him from printing his paper. The forms 



894 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

were set up and brought down the West River to Brattleboro and printed 
by D. Leonard for some weeks. The affair resulted in the arrest of 
"Shanks,"^ though the case was never brought to trial ; and "Shanks," once 
released, was able to reestablish his business in South Londonderry and 
to continue his attacks unmolested. 

The personal traits of Davenport were evident in his business. He was 
a man of fine physique, tall, with broad shoulders, but he paid little atten- 
tion to his personal appearance. In his office there was no sort of system ; 
papers and supplies were strewn about in dusty disorder. It was said that 
he refused to have a wastebasket, and used, instead, the floor and his own 
desk. It is believed that he was once offered an important post on The 
New York World at a salary of $10,000. It is also in keeping with the 
character of the man that he should prefer to remain as the editor of a 
country newspaper. It has been the opinion of many throughout the state 
that Mr. Davenport was one of the most brilliant editors that the state has . 
ever produced. The paper was, however, not a financial success and 
continued a heavy drain upon Davenport's means, inherited from his 
father, until his sale of the paper in 1901 to J. G. Ullery, who conducted it 
for a period of two years. - 

In 1903 The Reformer, no longer a Democratic paper, was sold to Mr. 
E. H. Crane of Ludlow; in 1905 to the Vermont Printing Company. In 
1913 The Reformer appeared as The Brattleboro Daily Reformer, having 
been acquired by the Brattleboro Publishing Company. 

1 Another name for Sifter John. 

-In 1908 Mr. Davenport became an editorial writer on The Worcester (Massachu- 
setts )Po.r^ and held that position until he took a similar post on The Albany (New 
York) Argus. 




BROOKS HOUSE 




BROOKS LIBRARY 




UNITARIAN CHURCH 




WELL'S HALL FIRST UNITARIAN CHURCH BUILDING 



CHAPTER XCI 

THE BROOKS HOUSE— BROOKS LIBRARY 

The Brooks House — The Brooks Library — George Jones Brooks. Mrs. Kirkland's 
House. 

Within the memory of people living here at the time it was opened, not 
so large, convenient and elegant a hotel could be found outside our cities. 
All the rooms were in telegraphic communication with the office, heated by 
steam, and mostly arranged in suites. 

In the summer of 1877 the President of the United States, Rutherford 
B. Hayes, with his wife visited Brattleboro, the home of his fathers, and 
was met by the citizens in the spacious rooms of the Brooks House. He 
addressed the people from the balcony in front on the morning of his 
departure and said his grandfather was a blacksmith in this town about one 
hundred years ago. 

The proprietors or managers of the Brooks House have been Colonel 
Francis Goodhue, from 1875 to 1888 ; George H. Jefts ; Tyler & Pence, 
1892-1896; Henry D. Carlisle; William Carlisle & H. W. Eddy; H. W. 
Eddy; F. H. Chester; T. J. Heaphy; John Brasor; G. E. Sherman. 

The Brooks Library 

The people of Brattleboro early appreciated the importance of good 
books for general distribution, and in 1823 there was a circulating library 
housed in a bookstore. 

The old Brattleboro Library Association was organized in 1842, and 
existed for nearly forty years. It was maintained from a special fund 
of $2500 and by the payment of membership fees and a small annual 
assessment levied on each member. In 1858 this association had two thou- 
sand volumes. C. F. Thompson was secretary and treasurer ; E. J. Car- 
penter, librarian. The superintending committee was L. G. Mead, F. T. 
Higginson and D. W. Lewis. Through the active exertions of Honorable 
George Folsom and Philip Wells, Esquire, a reading room was opened 
July 30, 1859. The Honorable Daniel Kellogg, who occupied an office 



896 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

on the same floor, very kindly consented for those who had access to the 
reading room to use his very extensive law library. 

In 1883 the members of this association proposed to turn over to the 
town the books and other properties in their possession, provided the town 
would establish and maintain a public library which should be free to all. 
This proposition was formally accepted by the town March 7, 1883. At 
an adjourned meeting held April 8, 1883, by-laws were adopted and a 
board of trustees elected. From that time to the present, the town has 
made appropriations for the support of the library. 

The library of the old association had a migratory history. It was 
moved several times from one store to another. When it was received by 
the town it numbered about two thousand seven hundred volumes, which 
were moved to the lower Town Hall, set apart for its use. Doubtless many 
of our citizens supposed that it was permanently located. But public- 
spirited residents were devising liberal gifts, and better things were in 
store for it. 

When the library came into possession of the town, Charles N. Daven- 
port made provision that the sum of $1000 should be set apart from his 
estate, the yearly interest of which should be expended in the purchase of 
books of an historical and political nature, preference being given to local 
history. This provision was fulfilled after his death by his two sons. 
William H. Wells of New York, a former resident of Brattleboro, placed 
$1000 in the hands of the trustees in 1886. Another former resident, 
Lucius G. Pratt of West Newton, Massachusetts, contributed later a like 
amount. The ladies of Brattleboro raised a fund of $1000 and from 
other sources several smaller gifts have been received. 

In 1886 George J. Brooks erected on the site of the Joseph Goodhue 
house on Main Street the building which is the present home of the library. 
His sudden death, a few days before the time appointed for dedication, 
revealed his plans, completed even to the preparation of his address of 
presentation. 

At the dedication it was formally transferred by the executors of his 
estate to a board of trustees chosen by the donor, by them to be held in 
trust "for the use and benefit of the town for the purpose of a Public 
Library." Later, the heirs of Mr. Brooks placed in the hands of these 
trustees the sum of $15,000 for the maintenance of the building and its 
accessories, to be known as "The George J. Brooks Memorial Fund." 

In the opening provision of Mr. Brooks's will it gives and devises to 
B. D. Harris, Joseph Draper, James M. Tyler, Julius J. Estey and Hoyt ■ 
H. Wheeler, in trust, the piece of land on which the library building 
stands. . . . 



GEORGE JONES BROOKS 897 

Said library building, when completed, shall be called the "Brooks 
Public Library," and shall always be for the use and benefit of said town 
of Brattleboro and its inhabitants, and shall never be used for any other 
purpose than a public library. Said library, when constructed, shall 
always be under the management and control of the five trustees above 
named and their successors. 

On the completion of the library said trustees shall decide by lot which 
of the number shall hold the office one, two, three, four and five years 
respectively, and within thirty days of the expiration of one year from 
that time they shall elect a successor to the trustee whose term is about to 
expire, and they shall in each succeeding year thereafter elect one trustee 
to succeed the retiring members, each newly elected member to hold his 
office for the term of five years, and no retiring member to be eligible to re- 
election until he shall have been out of office two years. In case of the 
death, resignation or removal from town of any trustee, the remaining 
trustees shall thereupon fill the vacancy so occasioned. 

May 15, 1882, Mrs. Annie E. Fulton was engaged to catalogue the 
books and to be librarian when the library was opened to the public, 
September 18, 1883. She remained until April 12, 1883, when Miss Kate 
Austin (now Mrs. T. A. Austin) was appointed librarian, as Mrs. Fulton 
"refused to accept the proposition of the board" in regard to salary. 

April 4, 1887, William C. Bradley was appointed librarian and served 
in that office until March 5, 1902, when a Miss Perry was appointed 
librarian; she resigned April 28, 1902, when Miss Mary Shakshober was 
appointed assistant librarian for six months, and October 16, 1902, was 
appointed regular librarian, and Mr. Bradley was made Librarian Emeri- 
tus. Miss Shakshober held this position until 1917.^ 

George Jones Brooks 

George Jones Brooks was born August 28, 1818, in Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, where his father, Captain William S. Brooks, was then a resi- 
dent. He was the fourth in a family of eight children, and when he had 
reached the age of three years his father removed to Chesterfield, New 
Hampshire, where his boyhood was spent. He attended the district 
school at Factory Village, and his education was continued at Chester- 
field Academy, and the well-known school of J. W. Fairfield at Hudson, 
New York. His first experience in business was obtained in Brattleboro 
in the store of Gardner C. Hall and Hall & Townsley. In 1S3S he went 

' Miss Shakshober, daughter of John Shakshober of Arlington. Vermont, married 
October 26, 1917, Franklin S., son of Howard A. Pratt, expert accountant, now of 
firm Barrows & Pratt. 



898 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

to Hillsboro, Illinois, opposite St. Louis, and engaged in practical farm- 
ing on a somewhat extended scale. Leaving there some twelve years later 
he went to Alabama, where his brother-in-law, Mr. N. F. Cabot, was then 
located, intending to engage in business in that locality, but at the urgent 
solicitation of his brother, Horace Brooks, he returned to New York and 
almost immediately left for San Francisco to engage in the paper trade, 
being accompanied on the journey by Mr. Cabot. This was in May, 1850, 
the year following the breaking out of the gold excitement of '49. At 
that time the firm of Persse & Brooks of New York was one of the 
largest in the paper trade in this country. Besides their large wholesale 
house in that city they were extensive manufacturers of printing papers 
and were the builders and owners of the first great paper mill erected at 
Windsor Locks, Connecticut. The idea was for the San Francisco house 
to be established as the selling agency on the Pacific coast for the New 
York house, and it was this idea which Mr. George J. Brooks carried into 
practical effect with remarkable success, under the style of George J. 
Brooks & Company. 

When Mr. Brooks reached Frisco the city was a strange collection 
of tents and all sorts of makeshifts for a shelter, the like of which had 
probably never before been seen. Hotels, stores and private dwellings 
alike consisted of four poles planted in the ground, with strips of cotton 
cloth stretched around them for walls and more cotton cloth for roofs. 
It was in such a place that Mr. Brooks set up his store, and here he con- 
tinued until the building which the New York house had shipped in sec- 
tions around Cape Horn arrived and was set up. It was located on Clay 
Street, and in this building of eastern make all the large business of the 
firm was transacted. It would be easy to fill columns with descriptions 
of the scenes and incidents of those early days — of the strange and rough 
and often lawless conglomeration of people who made up the infant city ; 
of the days when Wells, Fargo & Company's famous express was the main 
source of supplies ; when New York daily papers were cheap at a dollar a 
single copy, and when, on steamer days, marking the arrival of letters 
from home, a line, often a mile Jong, of men of every sort and condition 
in life, waited and struggled by turns to get their chance at the delivery, 
two days sometimes elapsing before the last was served, or, mayhap, 
sent away disappointed and heartsick because no letter came. 

The firm of George J. Brooks & Company grew steadily in strength and 
importance. It had the most abundant and reliable base of supply of any 
in the trade, and its methods were those of a strict integrity, which com- 
manded and held the confidence of every patron. Mr. Brooks used to 
relate, with a sly twinkle of satisfaction, how once, soon after he began 
business in San Francisco and when things were in their most uncertain 



GEORGE JONES BROOKS 899 

and unsettled condition, for a full month he held in his store every sheet 
of paper that was for sale on the coast. His own stock was scant, and 
newspaper men were put to every conceivable shift to issue their papers 
and keep along. "My sales were small for that month," he said in relat- 
ing the incident ; "they only amounted to $10,000, and my profits were only 
$7000." With this single exception, however, no money was ever made 
for his firm by corners or booms or speculative methods of any sort. 
The firm controlled the trade of the whole Pacific coast while it remained 
in business, fixed the prices of papers of all grades, and gave small coun- 
tenance to any concern which attempted to break the market or send 
things "kiting." After two years Mr. Brooks was joined in the business 
by his brother, Mr. F. W. Brooks. As the country grew their business 
increased, and their papers were sold in Arizona, Oregon, Washington 
Territory, Vancouver Island and the Sandwich Islands. Their supplies 
were shipped from New York around Cape Horn, and in this way it hap- 
pened that as a rule the firm had stock of the value of $100,000 to $200,- 
000 always afloat. Twice after the war broke out they had cargoes of 
paper destroyed by rebel cruisers. 

In 1862 Mr. Brooks sold his interest in the concern to Mr. Cabot, and 
permanently retired from trade in the enjoyment of an ample fortune. 
During these twelve years he had seen the city of tents and shanties grow 
to one of the first commercial importance, and he was himself largely iden- 
tified with its solid business and social interests. He was one of the 
original members of the Unitarian Church of San Francisco, and from the 
first his ample means were used without stint in promoting its interests. 
In his hands was finally placed the delicate and important task of convey- 
ing in person to T. Starr King the final message from the San Francisco 
church which compelled his acceptance of the call to its pastorate, and 
gave that young man of matchless genius his wonderful and brilliant 
career of usefulness on the Pacific coast, which not only promoted and 
upbuilt the cause of religion in California but saved the state to the Union 
in the stormy days of '61 and '62. 

Besides his ownership of real estate in San Francisco Mr. Brooks was 
one of the original promoters of the system of cable street railways, which 
have reached their greatest success in that city. He built the water works 
at Santa Cruz, California, and had other large interests in that vicinity. 
After his release from the exacting cares of business in the paper ware- 
house his attachment for the East and the scenes of his youth reasserted 
itself, and in due time he established his legal residence in Brattleboro, and 
thereafter, saving a year spent in Europe, he divided his time between 
Brattleboro and San Francisco. 

In 1871-1872 he showed his public spirit and his interest in the good 



900 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

name and permanent welfare of Brattleboro by erecting the Brooks House 
at a cost of about $150,000. Without expecting to reaHze any return from 
it as an investment, he spared no money in making it a superior among 
the hotels of New England. His home in Brattleboro was in the Brooks 
House in apartments especially arranged and fitted up for the accommo- 
dation of himself and his sister. Miss Ellen Malvina Brooks. 

In October, 1885, Mr. Brooks bought the old Goodhue homestead on 
Main Street, and about that time he made known to a few intimate friends 
his purpose to build upon a portion of the lot a building to receive and 
permanently hold the Brattleboro Free Library. In due time the scheme 
took definite shape, and before his departure for San Francisco for the 
winter he had decided upon the general plan, named his trustees, and 
left the details to be worked out and all needed arrangements to be made 
ready to begin work on the building at the opening of the season in 1886. 
His sudden death from a disease of the heart occurred in Brattleboro 
December 23, 1886. 

In his personal character Mr. Brooks was a man of purity and sim- 
plicity of thought and of singleness of purpose. His success in life was 
due to solid, substantial qualities of mind, which showed him things in 
their true perspective ; he refused to be carried away by any passing 
whim, and sought the end in view by methods of directness. From his 
earliest beginning in business he scorned the ways of those who seek 
to accomplish their own ends by indirection or by circumventing and 
breaking down the interests of others. He was slower than most men in 
reaching a conclusion ; but, the conviction once reached, he held by it with 
the absolute frankness and sincerity of one who had nothing to conceal. 
And this was as true of him in matters of religion, politics and personal 
friendship as in affairs of business and the world at large. He was ready 
and helpful in his devotion to the church in Brattleboro, and his activity 
had its source in sincere personal conviction. He believed in the principles 
of liberal Christianity as taught by Channing and Ware and King; on 
them his personal conduct was founded, and in him these principles found 
a sturdy, unflinching advocate at every suitable time and place. In poli- 
tics his devotion to the principles of the Republican party was equally 
warm and pronounced. 

In recognition of his gifts to the town he was elected representative to 
the State Legislature in the autumn of 1886. 

Mrs. Kirkland's House 
The lingering illness of Mr. Kirkland left his widow and three young 
sons with no resources for their maintenance, and no capital except an 
attractive house and a well-chosen library. 



MRS. KIRKLAND'S HOUSE 901 

With a resolution and energy that never faltered, Mrs. Kirkland set 
about to keep a home for her children and give them an education. She 
opened her house, centrally located, with the advantages of cheerful 
rooms, open fireplaces and piazzas, to paying guests, and by a large view 
of the requirements of desirable people, not only succeeded in her purpose," 
but made a place for her "boarders" unique in homelikeness and social 
atmosphere. 

Mrs. Kirkland's activities, with the same sound judgment and enthu- 
siasm which characterized her domestic life, extended to the Congrega- 
tional Church, and its various organizations, of which she was a faithful 
member. She was for several years president of the Ladies' Association ; 
she was also president of the Woman's Auxiliary of the Young Men's 
Christian Association. 

Among the families who came to her house for so many years that they 
seemed to belong to the town was that of Mr. Simon Mendelson of New 
York, which included Mr. August Lewis, who married Mr. Mendelson's 
daughter,— both men of broad culture and travel. Lovers of mankind, 
they were, as ardent believers in democracy, steady supporters of the 
single-tax cause, and personal friends of Henry George ; Mr. Lewis also 
devoted much of his life to music. A spirit of kindness and helpfulness 
animated all their relations in Brattleboro as elsewhere. 

James Freeman Coleman was another member of Mrs. Kirkland's per- 
manent family, a native of Salem, son of Reverend Henry Coleman of 
that city, author of "European Life and Manners," who graduated at 
Harvard College in 1834, in the same class with Judge Charles Royall 
Tyler. He was a man of bright mind and of much general cultivation 
increased by extensive travel. He had an old-fashioned courtesy of man- 
ner, joined to a most kindly nature, was very fond of the society of young 
people, constant in his friendships and full of unostentatious charities. 
Early in life his eyesight became impaired and during the last years he was 
almost blind. He bore this heavy deprivation quietly and cheerfully 
although he had no relative to support his declining years, and died at Mrs. 
Kirkland's December 6, 1887. 

In the latter part of her life Mrs. Wolcott Balestier found a home with 
Mrs. Kirkland. Mr. William C. Bradley, H, after the death of his mother, 
and Mrs. Anna S. Filsen and her daughter for twenty-five years came and 
went from this hospitable house. Mrs. Kirkland died June 16, 1913, and 
with her passed away a house which had been one of the social resources 
of the village. 



CHAPTER XCII ' 

THE POST OFFICE 

The Post Office, 1886. Free Delivery — Carriers — Doctor Daniel P. Webster — 
Colonel Herbert Taylor — Colonel Kittredge Haskins — Michael Moran — Charles 
W. Wilcox, assistant postmaster fifty-one years — The Listing Department. 

Road to Wantastiquet— Wells Fountain, 1890. 

The post office remained in the south side of the town building for 
twenty-two years and nine months, or until October, 1886, when the need 
of additional room, light and mail boxes became so insistent that a trans- 
fer was made to quarters on the north side. The original quarters in that 
building contained six hundred square feet of floor space, lighted by one 
window on an alleyway. There were twelve hundred lock and call boxes. 
The new quarters gave thirteen hundred square feet of space and three 
hundred additional boxes. In 1895 more room was added to provide for i 

the constant and rapid increase in the postal business of Brattleboro. The j 

town building continued to house Uncle Sam's postal service until March 
4, 1917. 

Major Frederick W. Childs was appointed to the office of postmaster 
by Grover Cleveland in 1886 and held the office until 1898, by the ex- 
pressed wish of the people and by Republican appointment. 

Street letter boxes were conveniently located in the village May 1, 1886, 
and one collector provided, and under the act of January 3, 1887, authoriz- 
ing extension of carrier deliveries to places having population of $10,000 
gross postal revenue, the first free delivery system was fully established, 
with four carriers, July 1, 1887. Dennis E. Tasker, William E. Barber 
and Spencer W. Knight have been continuously in the service thirty- 
two years ; Thomas A. Austin, beginning as a substitute, has been a regular 
carrier thirty-one years; John A. Lindsey, twenty-six years, and Sidney 
H. Farr, twenty years ; Miss Frances E. Guild and Julius E. Leach, mailing 
clerk, have often worked from ten to twelve hours a day. 

Doctor Dan P. Webster succeeded Major Childs and held the office 
from 1898 to 1904; Colonel Herbert Taylor, 1904-1911 ; Colonel Kittredge 
Haskins, 1911-1915. Colonel Haskins was active in the extension of the 
free delivery; through his influence the Federal building was secured for 
Brattleboro. Michael. Moran became postmaster in 1915. 




SOLDIERS MONUMENT 



^^'*S^y^^^rsfe,^fe ^^^ ,./ r^> 










THE COMMON 




ON TOP OF WANTASTIOUET 




HIGHLAND PARK 



THE TOWN'S LISTING DEPARTMENT 903 

Charles W. Wilcox entered the office as clerk in 1868 and was there 
two years. He again entered the office in 1880 as assistant postmaster, 
and has served a term of fifty-one years, under seven postmasters, the 
first being Daniel Kellogg. 

When Mr. Wilcox entered the employ of the government, and for some 
time thereafter, there were only two clerks besides the postmaster to do 
all the work. The gross receipts were about $6000 annually. There are 
now thirty-one connected with the office, and the receipts are about 
$83,000. 

The efficiency of the postal service has been largely due to the intelli- 
gent and steadfast devotion of JMr. Wilcox to the duties of his office. 

The Town's Listing Department 

Previous to 1880 three listers were required by law. The lists were 
then taken on one common memorandum book by simply setting down 
the name of the taxpayer, his school district and all his taxable property. 
No oath was required. After all taxpayers were seen, their lists were 
copied into the personal and grand list book. 

In 1880 the Legislature passed a law, at the suggestion of Governor 
Levi K. Fuller, by which forms on which to take tax inventories came into 
use and each taxpayer was required to make oath. This law went into 
effect in 1881, and as a matter of course its provisions increased the work 
of the listers. That year Governor Fuller was chosen lister with George 
A. Boyden and John S. Cutting, and they were obliged to employ two 
clerks in order to complete the grand list within the time required by law.^ 

From 1881 to 1894, inclusive, only three listers were chosen by this 
town. In 1895 it was thought wise to elect five listers, as it was taking 
five men to do the work and it would cost the town no more for two addi- 
tional listers. From 1895, five listers have been chosen by the town, 
and as the work of listing has become more complicated, building has in- 
creased and lots have been cut up, the listers have had all they could do to 
complete the grand list within the legal time limit. 

Some of the real estate changes since 1880 are notable. Buildings have 
been erected on Reed Street and on Vernon Street, with changes in lots 
and the erection of new manufacturing plants. On South Main Street 
the Kidder property has been cut into forty-eight lots that have been laid 
out and houses have been erected east of the electric car line. Nearly all 
of the houses on Pine Street have been erected since 1880, and new dwell- 
ings have gone up on Blakeslee Street, while the Oak Grove section, which 

iThe grand list in 1880 was $22,909; in 1914, $75,770.60. The ta.xable polls in 
1880 were 1470 ; the voters, about 1450. 



904 . ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

was formerly a mowing, is now laid out into two hundred and forty-seven 
subdivisions with scattered houses. Belmont Avenue, a few years ago 
one parcel of real estate, is now divided into eighty-eight lots, and similar 
changes have taken place on Maple and Fairview Streets. Within ten 
years the D. S. Pratt mowing on the south side of Western Avenue has 
been almost entirely built up, several new houses have been built on North- 
ern Avenue, and Chestnut Hill has five dwellings upon it. In many other 
sections new residences have been erected, without mention of the business 
structures that have been put up on Main, Elliot and High Streets. 

The Road to Wantastiquet 

The idea of having a road to the summit of Wantastiquet was con- 
ceived in the summer of 1S89, and persons interested began putting the 
idea into execution, Walter H. Childs being especially active in the project. 
In the fall of that year George A. Hines made a survey to determine 
the most feasible route. 

In the spring of 1890 articles of agreement for the construction of the 
road were drawn up by Judge James M. Tyler in behalf of the Brattle- 
boro Retreat, owner of the land, and other citizens interested. These 
articles gave the right to build and use the road, with such restrictions' 
as were proper and necessary. The Retreat agreed to contribute as its 
share of the work the removal of all wood, timber and undergrowth from 
the proposed route. It gave the right to a roadway twenty feet wide, 
stipulated that no wooden buildings should be erected along the route, 
that proper precautions should be taken against forest fires, that no adver- 
tising signs or placards of any kind should be put up, and that the only 
structure to be erected on the summit should be a tower that could be 
seen from the village of Brattleboro. The Retreat retained the right to 
erect a gate at the entrance of the road, which was to be in all respects 
a private way. 

These provisions were carried out, except that no tower was erected, 
there being a wind gauge station on the summit, where now stands a 
monument erected to the memory of Mr. Childs. The road was built by 
D. T. Perry and was of a permanent nature, with only two places where 
the grade was too steep. It was opened for public use in 1891. 

Wells Fountain, October 11, 1890 

The fountain, designed by William Rutherfurd Mead, was given to 
the village by William Henry Wells, the donor acting in the persons of 
three representatives with the village authorities on all questions of main- 
tenance. The original representatives were : Richards Bradley, Doctor 




NEW HIGH SCHOOL 




VIEW FROM RETREAT TOWER 




HIGH STREET 




HOUSE AMD GARDEN OF FRANKLIN H. WHEELER 



WELLS FOUNTAIN 905 

Joseph Draper, Doctor Henry D. Holton. The land was given August 6, 
1890, by Edwin P. and AHce P. Carpenter "for a water fountain of artis- 
tic design or some other work of art which shall beautify and adorn said 
plot and remain an ornament to the said village and evidence of the good 
taste of its inhabitants, and maintain a concrete or graveled curb walk at 
least six feet wide on the land conveyed." It was given by Mr. Wells "to 
be maintained by the village and in the protection and care of the same by 
the authorities in conference with the representatives named herein, who 
are to be self perpetuating and to fill all vacancies in case of the death 
or resignation of either of them." 



CHAPTER XCIII 
WINDHAM COUNTY POLITICS 
By Honorable Kittredge Haskins 

Only one senator out of the twenty-six the state has had has gone from 
this county. He was Stephen R. Bradley of Westminster, great-grand- 
father of Colonel Richards Bradley, who was also grandson, on two sides, 
of congressmen, and whose father, J. Dorr Bradley, was repeatedly a 
Democratic candidate, but unsuccessfully, because it was in the days 
when the Democracy, after ruling the state beneficently for a quarter of a 
century, had gone into an eclipse. 

The earlier congressmen belonged to a wonderfully brilliant coterie of 
young Democrats that furnished the chief intellectual life of this section 
for many years. Stephen R. Bradley, who served three terms in the 
Senate, 1791-1795 and 1801-1813, was in his day the biggest Democrat 
of New England, five times president pro tern, the close friend and adviser 
of Jefferson and Madison and repeatedly chairman of the congressional 
caucus which in those days used to nominate presidential tickets, before 
the system of national conventions had been devised. The senate sessions 
in his time were secret, and there is no record of his part in debates, but 
it is conceded by the historians that it was a most influential one. The 
nearest approach to any other senator from this county was Samuel Pren- 
tiss, 1831-1842, who was one of the great Whig leaders of his day and 
who, in his youth, while his home was at Northfield, Massachusetts, 
studied law in Brattleboro with John W. Blake. 

In the House have been James Elliot, 1803-1809 ; John Noyes, 1815- 
1817 ; Jonathan Hunt, 1827-1832 ; and James M. Tyler, 1879-1883. The 
others from the county were William C. Bradley, 1813-1815 and 1823- 
1827 ; Mark Richards of Westminster, 1817-1821 ; Phineas \yhite of Put- 
ney, 1821-1823; and William Henry of Bellows Falls, 1847-1851— all 
serving too short a time to make a great mark in the Legislature. William 
C. Bradley, a son of the senator, was in Pliny White's estimate "all things 
considered, the greatest man Vermont ever produced," and was certainly 
equipped intellectually in the same rank with Webster and Clay, but he 
retired because of a strong distaste for public office and had his fun the 



WINDHAM COUNTY POLITICS 907 

rest of his life in literature, law practice and leadership of the state De- 
mocracy, whose candidate for governor he was four times, twice forcing 
the choice into the Legislature; but the tendency of the times, after the 
anti-Masonic rage had overthrown Democratic rule in the state, together 
with the remarkable adroitness of Horatio Seymour as the Whig manager, 
made it a losing game for the brilliant Bradley, and as the slavery issue 
got uppermost he became first a Free-soiler in 1848 and then a Republican 
when the new party was formed. Mark Richards, a Revolutionary sol- 
dier, enlisting at the age of sixteen and seeing some of the hardest of 
fighting under Washington, in later life lieutenant-governor of the state, 
sheriff of the county and a business man of large interests^ and James 
Elliot were both members of this young Democratic coterie. 'Elliot, the 
son of a sailor, had to shift for himself from the time he was seven, came 
to Guilford a lad of fifteen, and moved to Brattleboro in 1803, the year 
that he was elected to Congress. He was then only twenty-eight years 
old but by the force of his intellect he had become a Democratic leader in 
the southeastern part of the state. After his six years in Congress he 
published a paper in Philadelphia for a while, and then returned to Brat- 
tleboro and later moved to Newfane, representing both towns in the 
Legislature. 

John Noyes, who served only one term, was an extensive merchant, in 
partnership with General Mann, grandfather of the wife of General 
McClellan. 

Jonathan Hunt was rapidly making a career in the House when death 
cut him off. His father was Governor Hunt and his mother a pupil of 
John Adams; his sons, William Morris, the artist, and Richard M., the 
architect, were famous men. 

Phineas White served only one term. He had before been judge of the 
County Court, besides holding most of the other local offices. After his 
return from Congress he devoted himself to agriculture. William Henry 
was one of the fathers of Bellows Falls village, and for many years the 
bank cashier there. He was a close personal friend of Lincoln. James 
M. Tyler, later of the Supreme Court, made a creditable record for a two- 
term man, but the life was distasteful to him and he declined a renomina- 
tion. 

Besides the Democratic candidates, Mr. Bradley, Charles N. Davenport 
(several times the nominee, and who refused the nomination when he 
probably could have been elected, in 1874, the year of Poland's defeat) 
and Doctor Daniel Campbell, the roll of defeated aspirants in this county 
is a long one, and includes Colonel Calvin Townsley, who tried several 
times back in Whig time ; Doctor W^ R. Ranney of Townshend, who made 
a vigorous effort in the fifties ; Judge C. Royall Tyler, who made one 



908 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

attempt; Judge Hampden Cutts, Judge A. Stoddard and B. D. Harris, 
who all tried it together in 1866, and George Howe, who joined with 
Harris and Haskins in another three-cornered fight in 1878. In fact, the 
trouble with Windham County candidates has always been a home split. 
For thirty years the county never went up to a convention united for 
any one man for any office. 




c;0^^ /u v^^-^i^^^r 



--^■/■A'^/irr /^ ^.. -/' -^.. 



LEVI K. FULLER GOVERNOR 1892-1894 




FDXLER BATTERY CIRCA 1865 




FULLER BATTERY 




GOVERNOR FULLER AMD STAFF AT NEWPORT VT. 



CHAPTER XCIV 
GOVERNOR LEVI KNIGHT FULLER 

Levi K. Fuller, second son of Washington and Lncinda Constantine 
Fuller, was born February 24, 1841, at Westmoreland, New Hampshire. 
The progenitor of the American branch of the family was Doctor Edward 
Fuller, who, accompanied by his wife and son Samuel, set sail from Eng- 
land in 1620, in the Mayflozver. His maternal ancestry was German. 

In 1845 his parents removed to Bellows Falls, where young Levi 
attended the public schools until the age of thirteen years, when, with only 
twenty-five cents in his pocket, he left his father's house, determined to 
make a place for himself in the world. Coming to Brattleboro he entered 
the employ of James H. Capen to learn the printer's craft, was retained 
by Mr. Capen in the position of telegraph operator, and in his leisure 
hours studied and practiced the science of electricity. His talent for 
mechanics was shown very early in life ; while in his teens he constructed 
a steam engine, operated by a new valve movement, which received a 
premium at the Windham County Agricultural Fair. 

In 185C he applied himself to mechanics and in order to become familiar 
with this line of work served an apprenticeship to a machinist in Boston, 
where he also attended an evening school, and was for some time night 
telegraph operator at the Mechanics Exchange, Boston. In 1857 he was 
a telegraph operator in Burlington, Vermont. In 1860 he returned to 
Brattleboro and became actively connected with the Estey Organ Com- 
pany's factory, as machinist and mechanical engineer, started a machine 
shop of his own for the manufacture of wood-planing machinery, and 
within a short time began the manufacture of sewing machines ; he demon- 
strated his value to the company in so large a degree that six years later 
he was admitted as a member of the corporation, being vice-president for 
thirty years. 

His resources as inventor were great, and over a hundred patents have 
been issued to cover his many devices : among them the invention of rail- 
way recorders for registering the condition of the roadbed; important 
improvements in ventilators and dust arresters in application to cars; 
improvements in hydraulic engines, in car couplings; devices relative to 
artificial drying of timbers. 



910 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

On May 8, 1865, Mr. Fuller was united in marriage to Abby Emily 
Estey, daughter of Jacob and Desdemona (Wood) Estey, born September 
1, 1843. 

In 1873 President Grant appointed Mr. Fuller commissioner to the 
Vienna Exposition, but he declined the honor as his business interests at 
home demanded all his time and energy. 

In 1874 he founded what was known as the Fuller Battery, serving as 
its commander until 1899 ; he equipped and otherwise supported it for 
two years, when it was turned over to the state. Vermont, through him, 
was the first state to be supplied with rifled guns. This battery was 
nationally noted for its efficiency. He was brevetted colonel in 1887 for 
long and meritorious service in the Vermont National Guard. 

He served as state senator in 1880-1882, taking an active part in pass- 
ing the new tax law, was chairman of the committee on finance and mem- 
ber of the committee on military affairs and on railroads. In 1886 he was 
nominated and elected lieutenant-governor of the state of Vermont, and in 
1893, by an increased majority, he was elected to the position of governor. 
As governor he was particularly effective in relation to the founding and 
organization of state institutions, and in the question of roads was 
instrumental in developing public sentiment for good roads not only in 
Vermont, but in the country at large. His administration was regarded as 
a model of efficiency. 

He was president for many years, and up to the time of his demise, 
of the board of trustees of Vermont Academy, and its central building, 
known as Fuller Hall, was his gift to that institution, which was the 
recipient also of numerous other donations by him. He took a lively 
interest in the upbuilding of the colored people of the South, and served 
for some years as a member of the board of trustees of Shaw University, 
and the firm of which he was a member erected one of the structures of 
that institution for the education of colored women, known as Estey Hall. 

Among his scientific attainments. Governor Fuller was recognized 
as an authority on acoustics; and, incidental to his interest in this direc- 
tion, he collected, at an expense approximating ten thousand dollars, 
the historic tuning forks of the world, including those of many of the 
great master composers and musicians. He it was, too, who largely by 
individual effort succeeded in establishing a national pitch. No less dis- 
tinguished an authority than Professor Koenig accorded to Governor 
Fuller the very first rank of attainment along this line. To the study of 
astronomy he gave much time and he owned one of the finest equatorial 
telescopes in the eastern states. 

Governor Fuller's inventive genius was remarkably fortified by a clear- 
sighted understanding of practical issues; an unremitting habit of study 



GOVERNOR FULLER 911 

in search of truth was another important element in estimating the sources 
of his large general capacity, for, whether in the realm of science as 
applied to music, in financial concerns, in statecraft or philanthropy, the 
fruit of his efforts was immediate and bears the test of time. 

As a youth Mr. Fuller united with the Ruggles Street Baptist Church. 
He continued to be connected with that denomination throughout his life, 
and was a liberal contributor to its benefactions. 

He was a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers ; 
of the American Society for the Advancement of Science; the Astronom- 
ical Society of the Pacific; the American Society of Electrical Engineers; 
the American Society of Associated Science; the Sons of the American 
Revolution, serving as its presiding officer in the state of Vermont, and an 
associated member of the Military Service Institution of the United 
States. 

The University of Vermont conferred upon him the degree of A.M. in 
1893, and Norwich University the degree of LL.D. in 1895. 

He died October 10, 1896. 



CHAPTER XCV 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

Physicians. Biographical. Honorable James M. Tyler — Honorable Kittredge Has- 
kins — Henry C. Willard — Peleg Barrows — Reverend Lewis Grout — Reverend 
Allan D. Brown, LL.D. — Francis W. Brooks — Doctor David P. Dearborn — Henry 
D. Holton, M.D. Davenport family : Charles N. Davenport — Charles H. Daven- 
port—Herbert J. Davenport. The Childs family: Walter H. Childs— Rollin S. 
Childs — Major Frederick W. Childs. William H. Rockwell, Junior — Miss Helen 
M. French — "Sally Joy White" — Madame Georgianna Mondan — Franklin H. Saw- 
yer (Doctor Charles E. Severance) — Mary E. Wilkins — Lieutenant-Commander 
George W. Tyler — Newton L Hawley — Joseph Draper, M.D. — Reverend Charles 
H. Merrill — Honorable Parley Starr — Jonathan G. Eddy — Honorable Edgar W. 
Stoddard — James Conland, !\LD. — Reverend William H. Collins — Honorable Dor- 
man B. Eaton — Judge George Shea — Reverend Samuel M. Crothers — Reverend 
George B. Gow — Judge James L, Martin — Judge Hoyt H. Wheeler — Doctor 
Daniel P. Webster — Reverend Charles O. Day — Reverend James H. Babbitt — 
Judge Eleazer L. Waterman — William Eaton Foster — Robert Gordon Hardie, 
Junior — Oscar A. Marshall — Russell A. Bigelow — Doctor William Bullock Clark 
—Frederick Holbrook, H — Wolcott Balestier — Rudyard Kipling — Wilford H. 
Bracket! — Clarke C. Fitts — Ora E. Butterfield — Professor Starr Willard Cutting 
— Mary Howe — Madame Brazzi-Pratt. 

Physicians, 1864-1895 

Doctor Benjamin Ketchnm, 1864-18?0; Doctor Charles P. Frost, 1865- 
1868 ; Doctor David P. Dearborn, 1865-1888 ; Doctor Henry D. Holton, 

1S67-1917; Doctor Henry Tucker,^ 1874-1888-1896 ; Doctor Martin 

L. Bruce, 1874-1913 ; Doctor James W. Gregg, 1876-1916 ; Doctor James 
Conland, 1878-1903 ; Doctor Ansel I. Miller, 1886 ; Doctor Daniel P. Web- 
ster, 1883-1889 ; Doctor Charles E. Severance, 1888-1907 ; Doctor Charles 
S. Pratt, 1884; Doctor Edwin S. Bowen, 1888; Doctor Fremont Hamilton, 
1893. 

Honorable James M. Tyler 

James M. Tyler, son of Ephraim Tyler of Guilford, Vermont, who died 
August 24, 1878, at the age of eighty-seven, was born at Wilmington 
April 27, 1835; he was educated at the Brattleborough Academy; gradu- 
ated at the law university of Albany, New York ; was admitted to the bar 
of Vermont in September, 1860. He was a member of the State Legisla- 

1 Health Officer from 1909-1918. 



.„jg2:fe^-^^^. ■■■■ 




HONORABLE JAMES M. TYLER 





JUDGE HOYT H. WKEELER 



JUDGE JAMES L. MASTIH 




HONORABLE KITTREDGE HASKINS 




JUDGE RANSLURE W. CLARKE 




JUDGE WILLIAM S. NEWTON 



HON. KITTREDGE HASKINS 913 

ture in 1863 and 18G4 and a special session of 1865, and was state's attor- 
ney in 18G6-1S67 ; since 1875 he has been one of the trustees of the Ver- 
mont Asykim for the Insane. He was elected to the Forty-sixth Congress, 
and was reelected to the Forty-seventh Congress, as a Republican, receiv- 
ing 15,960 votes against 6698 votes for Campbell, Democrat, and forty- 
one for Mead, Republican, 1879-1883. For years he was superintendent 
of village schools and chairman of the school board. He was associate 
justice of the Supreme Court of Vermont, 1887-1908. The verdict of his 
contemporaries has been "a learned lawyer, a faithful Representative in 
Congress, an able and xipright Judge." 

He married December 11, 1861, Miss Ellen E. Richardson, who died 
January 22, 1871, aged twenty-eight. He married, second, September 1, 
1875, Miss Jane P. Miles, who was born October 17, 1837, and died May 
14, 1919. 

Mrs. Tyler was a devoted member of the Unitarian Church, and treas- 
urer of the Freme Circle until it was merged into the Woman's Alliance. 
For twenty-seven years she was treasurer of the Associated Charities and 
an active member of other organizations of relief for the sick and aged. 
From 1888 she was manager for this county of The Home for Destitute 
Children in Burlington. In all these agencies for good her wisdom and 
tact were unfailing. 

Honorable Kittredge Haskins 

Kittredge Haskins, son of Asaph and Amelia Ward Haskins, was born 
in Dover, Vermont, April 8, 1836. He began the study of law with 
Shaffer & Davenport in Wilmington and was admitted to the Windham 
County bar April 14, 1858. He was in partnership with Charles N. 
Davenport until 1861. He married July 1, 1860, Esther jNI. Childs, daugh- 
ter of Major Adna B. and Hannah Lamb Childs of Wilmington. They 
went to Williams ville, where Mr. Haskins succeeded to the law office 
of Charles K. Field, remaining there until August, 1862, when he en- 
listed in Company I, Sixteenth Vermont Infantry, and was commissioned 
first lieutenant September 20, 1862, but on account of a physical disability 
was forced to resign March 19, 1863 ; but he served to the close of the 
war as a clerk in the office of the assistant quartermaster doing duty at 
Brattleboro, St. Albans and Montpelier. 

In 1866 he was elected Captain of Company I, Twelfth Regiment Ver- 
mont Militia, and served with the rank of colonel on the staf? of Governor 
Peter T. Washburfi. In November, 1863, he came to Brattleboro where 
he began the practice of his profession. He was early admitted to the 
bar of the United States Courts of Vermont, and in 1883 to the bar of the 
Supreme Court of the United States. 



914 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

For many years he was the senior member of the law firm of Haskins 
& Stoddard, his partner being Edgar W. Stoddard. On November 1, 
1897, he formed a partnership with Anthony F. Schwenk, who studied law 
in his office, and this partnership continued until he was appointed post- 
master. As a lawyer he was regarded by both bench and bar as one of 
the strongest in the state. 

At first a Democrat in politics, he joined the Republican party in 1861. 
He was state's attorney of Windham County, 1870-1872 ; represented 
Brattleboro in the Legislature, 1872-1874, 1896-1900, serving as speaker, 
1898-1900; he was state senator, 1892-1894, United States attorney for 
Vermont from October, 1880, to June, 1887. 

He was chairman of the Vermont Board of Commissioners on the 
boundary line between Vermont and Massachusetts, 1892-1900 ; on the 
Republican State Committee for Second Congressional District, 1901- 
1904, serving on committees of elections, agriculture, labor, and was 
chairman of war claims. 

Elected as Republican to the Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth, Fifty-ninth 
and Sixtieth Congresses March 4, 1901, to March 3, 1909. As member of 
Congress he was chairman of the committee on war claims, and he did his 
work in such a satisfactory manner that the House not only adopted his 
report without change, but the leaders at the time pronounced it the best 
report ever presented by that committee. 

He was one of the most influential members of the house committee 
on agriculture. An exhaustive report made by him resulted in the estab- 
lishment and maintenance of quarantine districts and the regulations and 
restrictions for the transportation of cattle and other live stock. 

He was instrumental by his support of Senator Proctor's work in the 
Senate in securing the payment of Vermont's claim of $280,000 for arms 
and equipment furnished volunteers during the Civil War. 

December, 1910, he was appointed judge of the municipal court, Brat- 
tleboro, which he resigned February 1, 1911, to be postmaster, serving 
until April, 1915. 

He secured the Federal building at Brattleboro ; when he entered Con- 
gress there were but three rural free delivery routes in the entire second 
congressional district of this state. Colonel Haskins was very active in 
securing the extension of the free delivery systems and when he retired 1 

mail was being carried daily from important centers to people in small j 

towns all over the district. He also secured an appropriation of $50,000 I 

for the government breeding station for Vermont's Morgan horses. | 

President McKinley tendered him the position of Judge Advocate 
General during the Spanish War, which honor he declined on account of 
his age. 



HON. KITTREDGE HASKINS . 915 

Mrs. Haskins died January 15, 1912. Colonel Haskins married, second, 
September 23, 1912, Maud Arvilla Jane Elmore, daughter of Herbert 
Frederick Hay Elmore, who was born in Peru, Vermont, and Cecilia 
Louisa (Deacon) Elmore, born in Islington, London, England. 

Colonel Haskins was senior warden and vestryman of St. Michael's 
Episcopal Church for many years ; he was lay deputy to the General Con- 
vention of the Church, 1886, 1889, 1892. In 1908 Norwich University 
conferred on him the degree of doctor of laws. 

He devoted considerable time to historical research and on numerous 
occasions gave historical addresses notable alike for their interest and 
accuracy. 

From the time he attained his majority until his death Colonel Haskins 
was one of the most enthusiastic Freemasons in Vermont, and he was 
honored with almost every position in the gift of the fraternity. He 
received his Master Mason degree in Social Lodge of Wilmington in 
1857, at the age of twenty-one, and before coming to Brattleboro served 
as master of that lodge. He was for eight years master of Columbian 
Lodge and at various times had been at the head of the local chapter, 
council and commandery, and in addition served the latter body for a long 
term of years as prelate. In the state organizations he had been grand 
master, grand high priest and grand commander and lieutenant com- 
mander of the Vermont consistory, thirty-second degree Scottish Rite 
Masons. He was also one of the few Masons of the state who had 
received the thirty-third, or highest degree of the Scottish Rite branch. 
He died August 6, 1916. 

Hiland Haskins, son of Asaph and Amelia (Ward) Haskins, was born 
in Dover April 11, 1841. 

He was living in Worcester, Massachusetts, when he married December 
29, 1869, Ellen, daughter of Simeon and Philaney (Stafford) Yeaw of 
West Guilford. They soon came to Brattleboro. He was a casemaker 
for the Estey Organ Company and later for the Carpenter Organ factory. 
He has also been of the firm Haskins & Davis, cabinet makers. 

Children : 

Minnie, who married Clarence L. Stickney. 

Doctor Frank E. Haskins of Boston. 

Henry C. Willard 

Henry Cushman Willard, born March 22, 1836, came from old Green- 
field stock, his father being David Willard, who wrote a history of the 
town and was town clerk for many years ; his mother was Sara N. Wil- 



916 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

lard. His grandfather, Thomas Dickman, was the first printer in Green- 
field and first postmaster. 

Mr. Willard learned the drug business at an early age, and in 1863 came 
to Brattleboro and formed a partnership with the late Barna A. Clark. 
Their first store in the Blake Block, was burned in 1869. After a few 
years Mr. Willafd bought Mr. Clark's interest in the business, and when 
the Brooks House was completed a handsomely furnished store was 
opened in the quarters now occupied by the Brooks House Pharmacy. 
Mr. Willard sold the business here in 1885 to Henry A. Chapin, and for 
several years was proprietor of a similar store in Great Barrington, Massa- 
chusetts, going from that place to Greenfield. 

Mr. Willard was a vestryman of St. Alichael's Episcopal Church and 
was actively identified with its interests. He was also prominent in the 
Masonic fraternity. From 1864 to 1877 he was the practical manager of 
the yearly lecture course and other entertainments for the public benefit 
which were of a high order, and under his supervision always successful. 

He married June 1, 1868, Mary H. Field, daughter of Charles K. Field, 
for many years a prominent figure at the bar and in the political life of 
this county. She died June 1, 1908. He died December 2, 1899. Their son, 
David Willard, was born March 2, 1871. His education began in 
a private school of his native town and was continued through the 
High School. He was graduated from Trinity College, Hartford, and 
took a postgraduate course at Harvard. It was at the time when social 
problems were receiving special consideration from the young men of his 
generation, and so it happened that the genius of his Field ancestors, their 
keen insight into human nature and humorous application of the wisdom 
of the ages were concentrated in him towards the uplift of the "sub- 
merged tenth." He went to live in the slums and began work in connec- 
tion with the University Settlement, New York, by supervising ten or 
twelve Boys' Clubs at the Children's House, 129 Chrystie Street, an over- 
flow from the settlement. 

Here he conducted a City History Club for Italian boys. Every Friday 
he held a reception at the house in Chr\-stie Street, which was supported 
by voluntary contributions and for which he was largely instrumental 
in raising money. 

In 1895 he became interested in prison reform and held a school for 
criminal boys in the Tombs, over whom he soon became master, which ' i 
was conducted with such marked efficiency that, with William T. Jerome, | 

he originated the first probation work in New York City in connection ! 

with the Court of Special Sessions and for which he became the first j 

probation officer. His acquaintance covered between two thousand and | 



PELEG BARROWS 917 

three thousand such boys— out of six hundred and eighty-five cases only 
one hundred and seventy-five remained for disposition by the court — and 
this enormous and important work was done without a salary. Later the 
Public Education Association placed him in charge of the boys sentenced 
to the workhouse on Blackwell's Island. He was the means of establish- 
ing the Boys' Reformatory on Hart's Island. In 1907 he resigned his 
position as probation officer.^ 

His methods have been his own and of such value that they have been 
recognized as models in the philanthropic world. During the years of 
activity in New York he was making addresses on the subjects and for 
the causes in which he was interested. We find among them the follow- 
ing: 

Methods and Results in Child Saving, before the National Congress 
of Mothers. The Causes of Crime among Boys. Good and Bad Boys, 
before the Saturday Morning Club, New York. Probation Work in New 
York City, before the Hartford Motherhood Club. Means of Rescue in 
Town and Country, before the Ladies' Auxiliary of the Charity Organiza- 
tion Society. Young Criminals, before the Society for the Study of Life. 
Truancy and How to Prevent It. Boys' Clubs as a Means of Elevating 
the Standards of the Street, and Life and Work on the Bowery. The 
Indeterminate Sentence of Youthful Offenders, before the Medico- 
Legal Society. The Boy, at the Quaker Hill Conference. 

He has written articles for the press and magazines of the day : 

In The Times — On the Need of a Boys' Lodging House in New York. 
In The Ethical Record — The Problem of the Black Sheep. Studies of 
Boy Life in New York. The Newsboy. The City Wilderness : — A Settle- 
ment Study. Charge of Cruelty at Elmira. 

Peleg Barrows 

The Barrows family came originally from Carver, Cape Cod, where 
they owned a large tract of land. 

Peleg Barrows was born in Wareham, Massachusetts, March 8, 1832, 
and died in Brattleboro April 28, 1890. His wife, who was Miss Sybil 
Lavinia Fletcher, born in Cornish, New Hampshire, October 2, 1826, 
died in Brattleboro October 20, 1872. 

1 In November, 1918, the imperial order, "Cavaliere della Corona d'ltalia," was 
bestowed on David Willard by the Italian Government, in recognition of his work 
as international secretary of the Surgical Dressings Relief. This order carries with 
it the title of Knight. 



.918 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Mr. and Mrs. Barrows came to Brattleboro for his health in 1863 from 
Martha's Vineyard. From that time until his retirement in 1876, he 
kept a dry goods and novelties store on Main Street. He was a man of 
spotless integrity, and when a vote was asked for the most honest man in 
the community, it was given by a large majority to Peleg Barrows. 

He was trustee of the Brattleboro Savings Bank from 187-4 and assist- 
ant treasurer from 1887, clerk and treasurer of the village, and clerk of 
the Universalist Society. 
Children : 

Fletcher, born at Martha's Vineyard in 1852. He attended the Brat- 
tleboro High School and was in the class of 1873 at the Massachu- 
setts Agricultural College, but before the time of graduation returned 
to Brattleboro and entered the coal business, and later took the dry 
goods store of his father, making a remarkable success therein. For 
eight years he was a member of the Vermont National Guard, and 
he was first lieutenant of Company I for four years. He married 
June 21, 1887, Stella E., daughter of Azor Marshall. He has been 
from 1884 a member of the board of trustees of the Brattleboro Sav- 
ings Bank and from 1899 vice-president ; he is also a trustee of the 
Brooks Library. 
Harriet L., married Charles Cox of Boston and Newton, who died De- 
cember 21, 1885, aged forty-five. Children : Sybil ; Mary ; Charles 
Barry, manager of the Mabton Valley Fruit Company, Mabton, 
Washington. Mrs. Cox married, second, June 17, 1889, John D. 
Barrows. 
Edward B., married June 11, 1884, Adaline J. Putnam. Children : 
Mabel F., married Professor Arthur W. Peach of Norwich; Harriet 
E., married Reverend Frederick Leining of Providence, Rhode Island; 
Emma, in the Egyptian Archaeology Society, New York ; Fletcher. 
Mr. Barrows married, second, March, 1874, Mrs. Sarah E. Baldwin. 
Her son, Frank L. Baldwin, died March 25, 1883, aged twenty-three. 
Mrs. Barrows died in 1919. 

Reverend Lewis Grout 

Reverend Lewis Grout was the son of Deacon John Grout, who was in 
the fifth generation from the son of Captain John of Waterbury and 
Dudley, who came over from England to America about 1634. Deacon 
John Grout was born in Westminster, Vermont, August 17, 1788 ; he 
went to live in Newfane about 1810, moved to West Brattleboro in 1836 
and died there October 16, 1851. He married Azubah, daughter of Jona- 
than Dunklee of Brattleboro, May 28, 1811, and had nine children, of 



REV. LEWIS GROUT 919 

whom eight were sons. His wife, Azubah, died in West Brattleboro 
July 24, 1866, aged seventy-three years. 

Lewis, the eldest of the children, was born in Newfane January 28, 
1815. He fitted for college in part at Brattleborough Academy, 1834- 
1837, and in part at Burr Seminary, Manchester, Vermont, 1838, and 
graduated at Yale in 1842. Having taught nearly two years at West 
Point, New York, he studied theology at New Haven two years, 1844- 

1845, graduated at Andover (Massachusetts) Theological Seminary in 

1846, and was ordained October 8, the same year, as a missionary to 
South Africa. He was married to Miss Lydia Bates in Springfield, Ver- 
mont, whence he and his wife started, the same day, for mission work, 
under the auspices of the American Board, among the Zulus in Natal. 
Two months' sailing brought them to the Cape of Good Hope, where they 
spent six weeks, then set sail for the rest of the voyage and reached their 
desired haven February 15, 1847. 

Mr. Grout's mission life was one of much activity, labor and study, of 
a pioneer character, full of sordid reality, yet not a little diversified with 
what, in America, would be regarded as wild and romantic. He gave 
much time and attention to the study of African languages, especially the 
Zulu, of which it became his duty, by appointment of the mission of which 
he was a member, to prepare a grammar. He translated the Scriptures 
and prepared other books in the Zulu tongue, for the natives, having 
charge of the printing press for a time at his station, Umsunduzi. He 
was also engaged in teaching and preaching, traveling and exploring; 
establishing a station and organizing a church where there never had been 
a trace of civilization or Christianity, and so obliged to be, for himself 
and his people, architect and carpenter, brickmaker and mason, wheel- 
wright and blacksmith, tamer and trainer of oxen and horses, physician 
and dentist, farmer and magistrate — to say nothing of finding and build- 
ing roads, fording rivers and trapping leopards, and nothing of incidental 
studies in natural history, of preparing a sketch of the native tribes, of 
having now and then a controversial bout with the Colonial Government 
in behalf of aboriginal rights, or with Bishop Colenso on Biblical teaching, 
moral science and the proper way of treating polygamy among a heathen 
people, in their coming to embrace the Christian faith and enter the church 
of Christ, — all which manifold duties and vocations left no time for idle- 
ness, or even for that needful rest which a tropical clime makes all the 
more imperative for the foreigner of a cooler sky. Yet here he labored 
fifteen years, or till March 12, 1863, when, with impaired health, he 
returned, reaching Boston June 7, 1862. 

Having rested for a time, September 21 he took charge of the Congre- 
gational Church in Saxtons River for a year; was then settled as pastor 



920 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

of the Congregational Church in Feeding Hills, IMassachusetts, two years, 
after which, October 1, 1865, he entered on an agency for the American 
Missionary Association in New Hampshire and Vermont, an office which 
he continued to hold, having his home in West Brattleboro, till 1884, 
when he gave a year to collecting funds for Atlanta University. He then 
took charge of a church in Sudbury, Vermont, for three years, or till 
September, 1888. 

Lydia Bates, youngest of twelve children of Deacon Phineas Bates, 
was born in Springfield, Vermont, August 16, 1818. Descended from the 
Lincolns of Lincolnshire, England, and John Rogers, the martyr, she 
inherited an independence of thought and expression which she exercised 
over eighty years. When a schoolgirl she was an anti-Mason, an aboli- 
tionist and a teetotaler. Being given, by her father, a choice as to her 
education, she studied in the district school of her native town and a 
boarding school in Greenfield, Massachusetts, taught by a daughter of 
Noah Webster. After this, two years were spent by her as governess in 
the family of a wealthy Marylander, and then, desiring a higher educa- 
tion, she went in 1843 to Mount Holyoke Seminary, of which Mary 
Lyon was then principal. 

In Zululand, for fifteen years, she was a helpmeet for her husband in 
the truest sense. She made of their humble cottage a refined home, where 
many guests of distinction were entertained : she learned the Zulu lan- 
guage and came close to the natives in their every day life, teaching the 
women and children, how to sew, how to cook, how to live decent lives, 
besides conducting Sunday School classes and in every way assisting the 
mission work. 

She was a devoted student of botany and natural history, and a woman 
of unusual general intelligence. 

She died in West Brattleboro April 28, 1897. A son died in Natal. 

Their daughter, Annie L. Grout, was born July 28, 1847, at Umlazi 
Mission Station, in Natal, South Africa. Previou? to leaving Natal, as 
she did, with her parents, March 13, 1862, for this country, she assisted 
her mother in her school for the natives. Soon after reaching this country 
she started on a course of study for a liberal education, entering Professor 
Orcutt's Glenwood Seminary in the autumn of 1862 ; after which, in 1864, 
she went to Mount Holyoke Seminary for two years; then returned to 
Glenwood for two years more ; after which, in 1868, she went to Abbott 
Academy, Massachusetts, where she graduated in 1870. In 1871 she 
established a select boarding school, Belair Institute, in her father's house 
in West Brattleboro. After four years of teaching here, being obliged 
by the state of her mother's health to give up this school, she taught a 



REV. LEWIS GROUT 921 

year in Philadelphia, and then, in September, 1875, went to teach in 
Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia. At the end of two years impaired 
health compelled her to return home and rest. With health partially 
restored she eventually resumed teaching again for a time, and took 
a position as clerk in George E. Crowell's Household printing and pub- 
lishing office. When this work was transferred to Boston, she went 
with it and continued there, still serving as clerk, till the enterprise was 
well established in its new quarters; after which she returned to her home 
in West Brattleboro, where she devoted herself, in large measure, to those 
nature studies in which she had begun to take a deep interest before she 
left Natal. It was in the prosecution of these studies, on one of her 
botanical rambles, that she discovered a fern, the "Asplenium trichomanes, 
var. incisum," not before known to have been found in this country. She 
was a member of the Vermont Botanical Club, and at its second annual 
meeting in Burlington, in February, 1897, she read an essay on "Some 
Ferns that Grow in Brattleboro," which was reported in the papers at 
that time as "one of the most interesting and instructive of the many 
valuable papers presented at the meeting." 

Miss Grout made several large and choice herbariums, which, in accord 
with a memorandum found among her effects after her decease, were 
given to the Brattleboro High School, together with all her books and 
pamphlets relating to the subject of botany. She was secretary and treas- 
urer of the Bird Club from the time it was organized till her departure. 
On the fourth of January, 1901, only a few months before her death. The 
Vermont Phcenix published an article from her pen which gave a list of 
more than one hundred and fifty Brattleboro birds. She was for many 
years teacher in the Congregational Sunday school. She was collector 
for the JMcIntosh School for colored people. 

She died March 13, 1901. 

John M. Grout, brother of Reverend Lewis, a business man of Boston, 
was born in West Brattleboro; he married Sarah, daughter of Seth N. 
Herrick. There was a daughter, Mary Grout, who died at Medford, 
Massachusetts, in 1916, aged eighty-one. 

A Partial List of Writings of Reverend Lewis Grout 

The Isizulu : A Grammar of the Zulu Language, Svo. Natal : printed at 
Umsunduzi and other places in Africa. London: Truber & Com- 
pany, 1859. 

History of the Zulu, and other Tribes, in and around Natal. Printed by 
the Colonial Government for His Honor, the Lieutenant Governor. 
• Natal, 1853. 



922 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Reply to Bishop Colenso's Remarks on the Proper Treatment of Cases of 
Polygamy as found existing in Converts from Heathenism. Pieter- 
maritzburg, 1855. 

An Answer to Dr. Colenso's "Letter" on Polygamy. Pietermaritzburg, 
1856. 

Zulu-Land; or Life among the Zulu Kafirs of Natal and Zulu-Land. 
Philadelphia, 1864. 

Translations of Psalms, Acts and other Portions of the Bible into the 
Zulu Language. Natal. 

Reminiscences of Life among the Zulu Kafirs : Boston Review, 1865. 

Colenso on the Doctrines : Congregational Review, September, 1869. 

Essay on the Zulu and other Dialects in South Africa : Journal of Ameri- 
can Oriental Society, 1849. 

Plan for Effecting a Uniform Orthography for the South African Dia- 
lects : Journal of American Oriental Society, 1851. 

Essay on the Phonology and Orthography of the Zulu and Kindred Dia- 
lects of South Africa : American Oriental Society, 1853. 

Observations on the Prepositions, Conjunctions and other Particles of 
the Isizulu and its Cognate Languages : American Oriental Society, 
1859. 

The Church Membership of Baptised Children : Bibliotheca Sacra, April, 
1871; and thirty-five others concerning Africa. 

Several sermons preached on special occasions. 

A Discourse on the Early History of the Congregational Church of West 
Brattleboro. 

A second Discourse, 1876. 

The Olden Times of Brattleboro, April, 1899, etc., etc. 



Reverend Allan D. Brown, LL.D., 

Commander, United States Navy (retired) 

The Reverend Allan D. Brown, LL.D., Commander of the United 
States Navy (retired), was the eldest child of Joshua Lawrence and Diana 
(Osborne) Brown. He was born on September 3, 1843, in Batavia, New 
York. His preliminary education was in public and private schools, one 
of them being the noted rectory school in Hamden, Connecticut, a military 
institution. He was appointed a midshipman from New York and entered 
the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis September 23, 1863. He 



COMMANDER ALLAN D. BROWN 923 

was immediately appointed ensign, his first duty being on board the sloop- 
of-\var Iroquois, then on blockade at Wilmington. In the spring the ship 
was ordered to foreign waters and made an extended cruise to the English 
Channel, the South American coast, the Cape of Good Hope and the 
Dutch East Indies, returning in October, 1865, having covered forty-five 
thousand miles in fifteen months. After a short leave he was ordered to 
the Rhode Island, the flagship of the Home and West India stations, hav- 
ing been promoted to master in the meantime. A year later he received his 
promotion to lieutenant and was assigned as executive officer of the 
Unadilla, a gunboat destined for the China station. During the cruise 
the gunboat captured a Chinese pirate junk, and also visited Bangkok in 
Siam, the first American man-of-war that had ever entered the river 
Menam. 

Returning to the United States by way of San Francisco in 1869, he 
was detailed for duty at the Naval Academy, where he served as instructor 
in mathematics for three years, having been promoted to lieutenant-com- 
mander in 1868. At the expiration of this tour of duty, he was ordered 
as navigating officer of the Omaha, serving on her a year on the Pacific 
station, and was then transferred to the flagship. In September, 1873, he 
was on shore duty at Panama for two weeks, protecting the property of 
the Pacific Mail Steamship and Panama Railroad Companies, with a de- 
tachment of officers and men from the ship, during one of the periodic 
revolutions which were then the plague of that country. As a result of 
this enforced sojourn on shore, the greater part of the officers and men 
were stricken with Panama fever of a severe type, Lieutenant-Com- 
mander Brown among the number. He served out his full cruise, how- 
ever, and was relieved from duty while the ship was at Honolulu, whither 
she had conveyed King Kalakaua after his visit to this country. 

In 1876 he was a second time ordered to the Naval Academy, where he 
was assigned as instructor in the department of astronomy, navigation 
and surveying. April, 1879, while at Annapolis, he received a prize for a 
thesis on "Naval Education for Officers and Men." He remained four 
years, one of which he was at the head of the department. He received 
his promotion to commander during this time. In the summer of 1880 
he was on duty at the torpedo station in Newport, and in January, 1882, 
was placed in command of the ship Jamestozvii, then at Mare Island 
Navy Yard. His instructions were to bring his ship to Newport, where 
she was to be put in the training service. The passage from the Golden 
Gate to Block Island was made in one hundred and twelve days, without 
sighting land in the meantime. For a year and a half he was engaged in 
training apprentices, receiving an official letter of thanks from the Bureau 
of Equipment upon his detachment in 1884. After a short time at the 



934 ANNALS OF BR.\TTLEBORO 

Naval Home in Philadelphia, he was ordered to the Naval Observatory in 
Washington as assistant superintendent. His special charge was the 
nautical department, including the time service. He was instrumental 
in the establishment of time balls at several points along the Atlantic 
cpast and in the extension of the time service to the railroads of the 
country, being assigned to duty as the representative of the observatory 
at the General Time Convention in New York in 18S7. He was the first 
to urge upon the Western Union Telegraph Company the adoption of the 
present system of distributing time. In the fall of 1888 a recent seizure 
of American property in Hayti caused the president to direct a man-of- 
war to be sent at once to Port au Prince. The only vessel available was 
the historic Kearsarge, then at the navy yard at Portsmouth, New Hamp- 
shire. Commander Brown was selected for this important service and 
was given private orders to hasten the preparation of the ship for duty. 
Thanks to the activity of his executive officer. Lieutenant Charles E. Bel- 
knap, Commander Brown was enabled to leave the navy yard wharf on 
the fourth day after the officers and men reported, three years' stores and 
a full supply of coal having been taken on board. Eight days after the 
hoisting of the pennant the ship was at Hampton Roads. In the meantime 
another vessel, cruising in the West Indies, had been caught by cable and 
sent to Hayti, and the orders of the Kearsarge were modified, she being 
directed to take a relief crew to the Tallapoosa, then at Montevideo. This 
commission was accomplished and the Kearsarge returned to Hampton 
Roads in April, 1889. 

During this trip the malaria, which had given Commander Brown the 
Panama fever fifteen years before, and which had been intensified by four 
years' service in Washington, showed its effects most plainly and by the ad- 
vice of his surgeon, who had him "constantly under treatment," he applied 
for a medical survey. He was detached from his command and granted 
a year's leave of absence for recuperative purposes. A year later he was 
ordered before the Retiring Board, who recommended a year's sick leave, 
but with little avail, for in 1891 he was found still "incapacitated for duty" 
and was recommended for retirement. He then came to Brattleboro to 
reside permanently, as his physicians advised the New England climate. 

Positive religious convictions were the determining influence through- 
out his public career of service to his country, as in his private life, and 
they led him finally' to become a candidate for orders (he was lay reader 
from June to November, 1889) under Bishop Bissell, by whom he was 
ordained deacon November 30, 1892, in St. Michael's Church, Brattleboro, 
and assigned to Christ Church, Guilford, under the rector of St. Michael's. 
He administered there until June, 1894, when he volunteered to go to 
Barre to take charge of the mission there. He remained in that place two 



L 



COMMANDER ALLAN D. BROWN ,925 

years, during which time the numbers of the mission were largely in- 
creased and, by the help of Bishop Hall and the diocese at large, part of a 
handsome stone church was erected. In June, 1895, he was advanced to 
the priesthood in St. Paul's Church, Burlington, by Bishop Hall. 

November 10, 1896, he was elected president of Norwich University 
and was inaugurated December 8. He served until January, 1904, when, 
owing to failing health, he resigned his office. 

President Brown proved an efficient head of the University, his ad- 
ministration being one of the most successful in its history. During his 
term of office Dewey Hall was secured ; much needed land was purchased ; 
the military department was more fully recognized by the United States 
War Department ; the University was recognized by the state as its Mili- 
tary College ; steps were taken to secure the Alumni Hall. 

He contributed several professional articles to Harper's Magazine and 
was the frequent contributor to the editorial pages of The Army and Navy 
Journal. He won the gold medal of the United States Naval Institute 
in the prize essay competition of 1879 on "Naval Education," and pre- 
pared a paper for the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia on "The Elec- 
trical Distribution of Time," which was republished in The Scientific 
American as a valuable contribution to the literature of the subject. 

Commander Brown married, December 29, 1863, Gertrude, daughter of 
Honorable Royall and Laura (Keyes) Tyler of Brattleboro, who died 
September 18, 1877, at Annapolis, Maryland. 
Children : 
Helen Tyler. 

Ethel Ruth, born at Annapolis, Maryland ; married June 30, 1896, 
Reverend George J. Sutherland of Drummondville, Province of 
Quebec. 

Mr. Sutherland had a college and divinity course at Bishop's Col- 
lege, Lennoxville, Province of Quebec; was ordained in 1891; was 
missionary in Labrador for two years ; rector in Northfield, Vermont, 
Waynesville, North Carolina, and in Oxford, Connecticut. Children : 
Allan Donald, born October 15, 1897 ; Margaret G., born November 
9, 1898; died June 28, 1908; Dorothy E. 
On October 20, 1880, he married Adeline Shannon, daughter of the 
Honorable William Shannon and Elizabeth (Irwin) Peirce of Philadel- 
phia. A son: 

William Peirce, born November 19, 1888, was a student at Nor- 
wich University ; graduated from the United States Naval Academy 
in 1910, and was assigned to duty on the U. S. S. Vermont. He mar- 
ried, March 11, 1914, Helen Percival, daughter of Omer A. Nel- 



';936 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

son of Denver, Colorado, and was officer there at the recruiting sta- 
tion for the navy, during the Great War. 
Commander Brown died in Waynesville, North Carolina, April 3, 1904. 

Francis W. Brooks 

Francis W. Brooks was born in Boston May 14, 1821, during the resi- 
dence of his parents in that city. In the following August the family 
removed to Chesterfield, New Hampshire. In 1839, however, they took 
up their residence in Brattleboro, and it was probably at about this time, 
or a year or two before, that the boy "Frank" went to Putney, where he 
was the active, efficient clerk of Mr. Pe}4on R. Chandler, later of Chicago. 
After a few years spent at Putney, the young man went to New York 
City as a clerk in the large mercantile house of Persse & Brooks. His 
health, however, never robust, soon showed signs of breaking down and 
he was sent by the firm on a voyage to Europe. Soon after his return 
the firm showed their confidence in him by sending him, in the fall of 
1844, to Alabama to settle a bankrupt estate in which they had a large 
interest. The climate proved exactly suited to him. Here it was that he 
first met Norman F. Cabot, the two becoming at that time, and remaining 
through life, warm and intimate friends. In 1847 Mr. Brooks entered 
into business with Mr. Cabot in the firm of Cabot, TuUis & Company, in 
the city of Wetumpka. Three years later the firm was dissolved, although 
Mr. Brooks remained there until 1852, when he came north, and soon 
afterwards, in the same year, went to San Francisco and became a member 
of the firm of George J. Brooks & Company, in the business house which 
Mr. George J. Brooks had established there two years before. 

Mr. Brooks made as frequent visits to the East as the transportation 
facilities of that day would permit, and it was on one of these visits, on 
June 20, 1855, that he was married to Matilda C, daughter of Floyd 
Smith of New York. The death of one of their two sons took place 
during the trying steamer voyage from Panama, while Mr. and Mrs. 
Brooks were on their way back to the East in 1865, after the San Fran- 
cisco business had been given up. 

On his return to the Atlantic coast Mr. Brooks came to Brattleboro and 
resided, living for some time in the Holbrook house on Linden Street, 
and afterwards buying the Folsom estate on the Common, where the last 
fifteen years of his life were spent in leisurely enjoyment of his domestic 
life, which was of the happiest kind. 

His fellow townsmen knew him as a genial, companionable man, inter- 
ested in everything which concerned the community. Characteristics of 
quick wit, keen insight, clean-cut ways and general good-fellowship were 
all summed up in his personality. To his family he was all that a devoted 



DAVID P. DEARBORN, M.D. 927 

husband and father, with an honest pride in wife and children, could be. 
He died February 6, 1885. 
Children : 

Katherine, born June 8, 1850 ; married September 25, 1883, Oscar Azor 
Marshall, who died in 1893. (Seep. 974.) Children : Elizabeth G., 
Oscar B. She married, second, J. G. Ullery, born in 1864. Children : 
Matilda, married October 18, 1916, Donald Pickering Trotter. Mrs. 
Ullery died in Dresden, Saxony, June 29, 1906. 
Matilda, married November 2, 1885, Francis G. Ryan, born September 
28, 1856 ; died in California in 1898. Children : Alice Brooks, married 
January 14, 1914, A. Stanley Partridge of Leicester, England; Eliza- 
beth. Mrs. Ryan married, second, Horace Dudley, living in Santa 
Monica, California, of which city Mr. Dudley is mayor. 
Alice Mendon. 

Mabel, born May 12, 1869; married September 5, 1889, Erwin Hoy, 
born April 25, 1869 ; she died January, 1919, in Dresden, Saxony. 

Doctor David P. Dearborn 

Doctor David P. Dearborn, son of Reverend D. M. Dearborn, a Bap- 
tist minister, was born in 1837 in Sanbornton, New Hampshire. His early 
education was received in New Hampton, and he began the study of medi- 
cine at Weare, New Hampshire, from which place he enlisted at the out- 
break of the Civil War in the Fourth New Hampshire Regiment. He 
served a term of four years as surgeon, and for a year afterwards was 
health officer of the city of Raleigh, North Carolina. On his return to 
the North he married Harriet S. White, daughter of Nathaniel White of 
Concord, who survived him. 

Doctor Dearborn settled in Brattleboro in 1865, and very soon found 
himself in the enjoyment of a large medical practice, which grew con- 
stantly. His rides covered not Brattleboro alone, but all the surrounding 
towns. 

"Doctor Dearborn gave himself to the welfare of his patients, sparing 
no item of his strength. He learned the lesson that the good physician 
soon learns — that he doesn't belong to himself. He belonged to this town 
and a wide region round about. The needs of people were his imperative 
orders. He never disobeyed, and his sympathetic qualities were such as 
won for him a faithful following in the families he" visited." He died 
April 2, 1888. 
Children : 

Minnie A., married October 5, 1892, Linn D. Taylor. A son, Brainerd 
D. Taylor. 



928 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Harriet G., married November 3, 1891, Charles A. Smith; married, 

second, L. J. Daniels. 
Charles E., chief engineer of Davenport, Rock Island & Northwestern 

Railroad; married Miss Bessie Bennett. Children: Gordon Bennett, 

Allen Bennett, Charles. 

Henry Dwight Holton, A.M., M.D. 

Henry Dwight Holton, A.M., M.D., was born in Rockingham, Vermont, 
July 24, 1838, and from 1867 was a resident and a most prominent and 
public-spirited citizen of Brattleboro. He was a son of Elihu Dwight 
and Nancy (Grout) Holton, for many years residents of the village of 
Saxtons River in the town of Rockingham. 

A predilection for the study of medicine led him to adopt that profes- 
sion upon completing his English education, which was obtained in the 
local public schools and the academy of his native village. He also studied 
under Doctor J. H. Warren of Boston, and later under Valentine Mott of 
New York. Pursuing the regular course in the medical department of 
the University of New York, he was graduated in 1860 with the degree 
of Doctor of Medicine. His earliest practice was as physician to the 
Williamsburg (now part of Greater New York) Dispensary. Drawn 
back to his native state by ties of affection as well as of interest, he estab- 
lished himself in practice at Putney, whence, in 1867, he removed to 
Brattleboro. 

Quite early in his career he was chosen a member of the Connecticut 
River Medical Association, and, after serving five years as its secretary, 
was elected its president in 1867. He joined the Vermont Medical Society 
in 1861, and twelve years later was honored with its presidency. In 1864, 
as a young physician and surgeon of prominence, he was elected a member 
of the American Medical Association. This highly representative body 
sent him, in 1875, as a delegate to the International Medical Congress at 
Brussels, and in 1900 elected him to the office of vice-president. 

In 1873 Doctor Holton was called to the chair of materia medica and 
general pathology in the medical department of the University of Ver- 
mont. When he entered upon the duties of this professorship the medical 
class numbered but forty students. After thirteen years of assiduous and 
single-hearted labor in the building up of this medical school, having had 
the cordial cooperation of Professor James INI. Little of New York, and 
that of other distinguished medical men. Doctor Holton resigned his pro- 
fessorship. During his connection with the school its classes had steadily 
increased in number, and at the time of his retirement two hundred and 
sixty students were enrolled. More than thirteen hundred matriculants 



HENRY DWIGHT HOLTON, M.D. 929 

had pursued their studies successfully and had been graduated with the 
degree of Doctor of Medicine within this period. 

Elected by the State Legislature, in 1873, a trustee of the University of 
Vermont and State Agricultural College, he was retained in this office by 
successive reelections for a period of eighteen years. In the year men- 
tioned he was also appointed medical examiner to the Vermont Asylum 
for the Insane. For twenty-five years he was a member of the school 
board of Brattleboro, serving as its chairman during fifteen years. He 
also served as a trustee of the Brooks Library. 

A Republican in politics, Doctor Holton was elected to the Vermont 
Senate in 1884, and as chairman of the committee on education labored 
zealously in behalf of the schools and colleges of the state. While in the 
Senate he served also as chairman of the committee on the Insane Asylum, 
and as a member of the joint committee on the House of Correction. In 
1888 he was elected representative from Brattleboro to the Vermont Gen- 
eral Assembly, and served on the committees on education, ways and 
means, and public health. In 1892 Doctor Holton was appointed com- 
missioner from Vermont to the Nicaragua Canal Convention, held in 
New Orleans ; and in the same year he was elected treasurer of the Ameri- 
can Public Health Association at the meeting held in the city of Mexico. 
In the following year he was named one of the Vermont commissioners of 
the Columbian Exposition. He was active in the organization of the 
Pan-American Congress, which met in Washington in 1893. As chairman 
of the executive committee and president of its board of trustees, he had 
a leading part in shaping and carrying out the work of the Congress. 
Doctor Holton was a delegate at large from Vermont to the National 
Republican Convention at St. Louis in June, 1896, which nominated 
President McKinley, and was active in the campaign which secured his 
election. 

He was a director of the Vermont National Bank of Brattleboro from 
1881 ; and president of the Brattleboro Gaslight Company from 1883. He 
was president of the Brattleboro Home for the Aged and Disabled. He 
was a member of the Boston Gynecological Society ; of the Rocky Moun- 
tain Medical Society; of the Vermont State Board of Health; of the 
British Medical Society; of the American Association for Advancement 
of Science; of the American Academy of Medicine; an honorary member 
of the Maine Academy of Medicine ; member of the executive committee 
of the New England Education League; and member of the executive 
committee of the American Invalid Aid Society. In 1897 he was made 
president of the board of trustees of Leland and Gray Seminary at Towns- 
hend, Vermont, an endowed institution in which both sexes are prepared 



#30 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

for college. A later appointment was that of commissioner to the Mexico 
National Exposition of Mechanical Arts, held in the city of Mexico. 

Numerous and important as were Doctor Holton's other activities, by 
far his most valuable work was as secretary of the Vermont State Board 
of Health. In 1873, while president of the Vermont Medical Society, he 
advocated a state board of health. In accordance with his suggestion a 
committee of three physicians, of whom he was one, was appointed to lay 
the plan before the Legislature. Not until 1886, however, did the. idea 
become a law. Ten years later Doctor Holton was appointed a member 
of the state board, and from 1900 to 1912 he held the position of secretary 
and executive officer. He resigned this office in October, 1912. but re- 
mained on the board and received a reappointment in 1915. 

When the Austine Institution for the education of the deaf and blind 
of the state was founded and established in Brattleboro, which he was 
largely instrumental in securing, Doctor Holton was elected its president, 
and he held that office at the time of his death. 

In 1880 he published "The Posological Tablet," a compact pocket vol- 
ume, now in its second edition, which contains the doses of all well-known 
remedies by both the apothecaries' and metric systems, and antidotes for 
poisons. This was probably the first work in which the two standards 
were presented together. Cases in practice were published by him from 
time to time in various medical journals. Some of his published addresses 
and articles are: "Medical Legislation," the president's address before 
the Vermont Medical Society; "Bacteria of Enteric Fever," delivered by 
invitation before the Virginia Medical Society; "Obituary of Doctor 
Joseph Draper"; "Oration on State Medicine" (by election), before the 
American Medical Association ; "Progress of Medicine" ; "Diphtheria as it 
has occurred in the United States" ; "A new Apparatus for Retaining a 
Dislocated Clavicle in Place" ; "Cancer" ; "Causes and Prevention of 
Tuberculosis," the president's address at the American Congress on 
Tuberculosis, New York, June 2, 1902 ; and "Problems in Sanitation," 
presidential address before the American Public Health Association, New 
Orleans, December 9, 1902. 

The University of Vermont conferred upon him, in 1881, the hon- 
orary degree of Master of Arts. His "Address on State Medicine," de- 
livered before the American Medical Association at Baltimore in May, 
1895, is one of the ablest presentations of this subject ever made, and 
abounds in valuable suggestions. 

Doctor Holton was a deacon of the First Baptist Church and had been 
president of the Vermont Baptist State Convention. He rendered his 
home church valuable service, and for many years he taught a large and 




EAST SIDE OF MAIN STREET 




EAST SIDE OF M.UN STREET 




SOUTH MAIN STREET LOOKING NORTH 




MAIN STREET LOOKING NORTH 



CHARLES N. DAVENPORT 931 

interested class of men in the Bible school. He was a charter member 
of Brattleboro Lodge, F. and A. M., and was its treasurer several years. 
He was president of the Vermont Branch of the American Red Cross 
Society, surgeon of the Sons of Colonial Wars and member of the Ver- 
mont Society of Sons of the American Revolution, serving as president of 
the last-named organization in 1906. 

Doctor Holton was married November 19, 1863, to Ellen, eldest daugh- 
ter of Theophilus and Mary Damon (Chandler) Hoit of Saxtons River, 
Vermont, who died May 14, 1909. He died February 13, 1917. 

Edith, an adopted daughter, married April 35, 1889, Clifton L. Sher- 
man. Children: Ellen, married Sanford B. Perkins; Dorothy, married 
T. E. Lommen. 

Charles N. Dav-enport 

Calvin M. Davenport, a native of Leyden, Massachusetts, where he was 
a farmer and dealer in cattle, married Miss Lucy W. White ; they had nine 
children, of whom three died in infancy. Their sons were: 

George W. Davenport, born in Leyden, educated at Powers Institute, 
Bernardston ; admitted to the bar in 1865, practiced law in Brattleboro and 
was for three years in partnership with his brother, Charles N. 

Edgar H. Davenport, married November 13, 1873, Emily E., daughter 
of Benjamin L. Barnard of Wilmington. Their daughter, Clara A., mar- 
ried Reverend E. Stacy Harrison of Orange, Massachusets, son of Doctor 
and Mrs. J. East Harrison, whose first pastorate was in the Baptist 
Church, West Brattleboro. 

Charles N. Davenport was born in Leyden October 20, 1830, and died 
in Brattleboro April 13, 1882. He was educated in the common schools 
of his native town, at the Shelburne Falls Academy, and at the Melrose 
Seminary in West Brattleboro. He entered the law office of Honorable 
Oscar L. Shafter of Wilmington, Vermont, as a student March 10, 1851, 
and was admitted to the bar April, 1851. He immediately formed a co- 
partnership with Mr. Shafter, which continued until November 10, 1855, 
when the latter removed to California. Mr. Davenport continued to prac- 
tice in Wilmington until 1868 when he moved to Brattleboro; while there 
he was partner of Colonel Kittredge Haskins, 1858-1861. In 1875 he took 
as partner Jonathan G. Eddy, and this partnership lasted until January 1, 
1883, when, on account of ill health, he disposed of his practice to James 
L. Martin. 

Mr. Davenport married December 13, 1854, Miss Louisa C. Haynes of 
Lowell who bore him six children, four of whom died young. Mrs. 
Davenport died September 30, 1870, aged forty-one. 

His son, Charles H., was editor of The Windham County Reformer. 



938 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

He married, first, November 30, 1877, Eva Bowker of Williamsville ; she 
died February 5, 1878, in her twrenty-second year, and he married, second, 
June 17, 1884, Miss Annie Laughton of Biddeford, Maine, born in Dover, 
New Hampshire, February 1, 1848. Her father, Eben Laughton, built the 
first telegraph lines in New England. In her girlhood Mrs. Davenport was 
a telegraph operator. She was supervisor at the Brattleboro Retreat under 
Doctor Rockwell and Doctor Draper and filled a similar position in 
Worcester and at Bloomingdale. In 1880 she entered the office of The 
Windham County Reformer as bookkeeper, where she met Mr. Davenport. 
She was a woman of literary ability, and efficient in much that was for the 
good of the community, being secretary and treasurer of the Home for 
the Aged and Disabled, and active in the Sunshine movement. She died 
in June, 1905. 
Children : 

Louisa. 

Charles Holton, born April 6, 1892 ; he was admitted to the bar Febru- 
ary 23, 1915 ; is on the staff of The Worcester Evening Post; married 
Dorothy, daughter of Charles Manley Day of Worcester, Massachu- 
setts. 

Jeannette, married May 22, 1916, Earl Clifton Monroe of Albany, New 
York. 

Herbert Joseph Davenport, from 1886-1889 of the firm Eddy (Jona- 
than G.) & Davenport, real estate, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, studied 
two years in Paris from 1889 ; he has been a professor of economics in 
the University of Chicago, is now a professor at Cornell, and is the author 
of an elementary textbook on Economics, entitled, "Outlines of Economic 
Theory," published in 1896, and also of "Value and Distribution," a 
critical and constructive study. He was at one time principal of the Sioux 
Falls High School. He married January 6, 1911, Miss Harriet Crandall. 
Children: Martin W., born March 31, 1913; John B., born September 
15, 1914. 

Charles N. Davenport married, second, Mrs. Roxanna Dunklee, born 
in 1833; died May 22, 1881. A daughter: Mabel Davenport. 

The Childs Family 

Benjamin Childs of Roxbury, Massachusetts, was the first ancestor in 
this country of Major Jonathan Childs, who was born in Hardwick, 
Massachusetts. He left Massachusetts when quite young and settled in 
Wilmington, Vermont. A true patriot, he took a most decisive and effi- 
cient stand for the liberties of the American colonies; He died July 31, 
1819. 

Adna B. Childs, fourth son of Major Jonathan Childs, was born in 



CHILDS FAMILY 933 

Wilmington February 3, 1799 ; married March 19, 1826, Hannah Lamb, 
daughter of Major Jonathan and Hannah Hoyt Lamb. 

He was the first merchant of the village, a prominent Freemason for 
fifty-three years, postmaster under every Democratic administration, be- 
ginning with President Jackson, holding the office twenty-four years. He 
was one of the original founders of the Universalist Church. Mrs. Childs 
died August 28, 1870. He died January 8, 1874. 
There were twelve children. Of these the eldest: 

John Murdock, was born April 16, 1827 ; married, November 20, 1849, 
Miss Martha A. Winchester. Their son: 

Walter Henry Childs, born August 5, 1852, lived in Brattleboro 
and was in the employ of the Estey Organ Company as bookkeeper 
from 1869 to 1904. He married May 1, 1875, Clara Davis, daugh- 
ter of John G. and Sarah L. Rice Davis, who died January 16, 
1899. He died March 2, 1906. Children : 

Charles F., born February, 1876; graduate of Yale, 1899; of C. F. 
Childs & Company, Chicago ; married Miss Edith Newell of 
Chicago. 
George A., born March 29, 1881 ; graduated from Yale Scientific 
School. 
Millie, married E. S. Adsit of Burlington, Vermont. 
Helen, married John E. Clary. Son : George Louis Clary. 
Others of that generation who have lived in Brattleboro or spent much 
time here are : 

Asaph Parmalee, born June 10, 1840 ; married July 8, 1893, Miss 

Sarah Cady, who died ; married, second, 1898, Mrs. Clara Stone 

Sherman, born July 30, 1855, died . 

Esther Maria, born March 9, 1843; married July 1, 1860, Kittredge 

Haskins; died January 15, 1912. 
RoLLiN Skinner, born October 11, 1845; married May 2, 1872, Julia 
A. Esterbrook, daughter of George W. and Ann G. Esterbrook, born 
September 1, 1847, died in January, 1908. He was with his brother, 
A. P., in insurance before coming to Brattleboro, having been an 
agent for the New York Life Insurance Company more than forty 
years. . 
Sarah Martha, born August 13, 1847; married February 11, 1876, 
Charles D. Kidder of Springfield, Massachusetts. A daughter: 
Charlotte (Kidder) Kent, the pianiste, received her first instruction 
on the pianoforte from Mrs. A. D. Wyatt of Brattleboro. She 
afterwards spent two years of study in Paris with Harold Bauer 
and six in Vienna, appearing in concerts in Austria, Hungary and 
Bohemia. 



934 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Frederick Willard^ born September 16, 1849 ; married January 8, 
1878, Miss Emma Maria Fullerton. Their daughter : 
Ruth Wentworth, married November 25, 1918, Ernest Clifton Young. 

Arthur Winchester, born March 29, 1859 ; married Miss Agnes Ade- 
laide Tomes. They lived in Brattleboro for many years, but finally 
moved to Manchester, New Hampshire. Children : 
Walter, born April 5, 1888; graduated from Dartmouth College, 
1913; Helen Louise; Randall, graduated from Dartmouth College. 

Major Frederick W. Childs was born in Wilmington September 16, 
1849. At sixteen he came to Brattleboro as a student in the Burnside 
Military Academy. He afterwards attended the Brattleboro High School 
and Williston Seminary at Easthampton. In the winter of 1869-1870 he 
served as railway postal clerk for Gustavus Hoyt between Shelburne Falls 
and Fitchburg. The following spring Captain R. W. Clarke appointed 
him a clerk in the Brattleboro post office, a position which he filled for 
several years and in which his activity, efficiency and agreeable manners 
won him the good will of the patrons of the office. He finally resigned 
this position, entered the insurance business in partnership with T. J. B. 
Cudworth and continued there until 1886, when, in accordance with the 
wishes of a very large majority of the local public, President Cleveland 
gave him his first appointment as postmaster. It was at a time when the 
postal service was rapidly developing and new methods were being adopted. 

Mr. Childs was quick to appreciate the public needs and to see the possi- 
bilities of the service, and he had a quiet but effective way of urging upon 
the officials in charge of the department the improved facilities which he 
desired to secure. In this way the improvement in the local service be- 
came very marked, and at the expiration of his term a majority of Brat- 
tleboro Republicans asked President Harrison for his reappointment, 
which was granted, and was counted a triumph for the principle of civil 
service reform. He was appointed for a third term by President Cleveland 
on petition of his townspeople. 

When Mr. Childs began his clerkship at the Brattleboro office he was 
the only clerk employed, C. H. Mansur, afterwards postmaster, being 
assistant, and the two doing the bulk of the work under Captain Clarke's 
supervision, whose service as postmaster covered twelve years. 

Major Childs has seen an extended term of service in the state militia, 
having been elected a lieutenant in the Estey Guard in 1876 under Captain, 
later General, Julius J. Estey. He was subsequently elected captain of the 
company and held this position until 1892, when he resigned and was com- 
missioned a major and placed on the retired list under the new law of the 
state, as a recognition of his long term of faithful service. In addition to 



DR. WILLIAM H. ROCKWELL, JUNIOR 935 

his military service Major Childs has served on the board of listers for 
three years and is an incorporator of the Vermont Savings Bank, as wrell 
as of the Wilmington Savings Bank, of which his father was the presi- 
dent. He was the local correspondent of The Springfield Republican for 
thirty years, as well as the representative of the Associated Press. 

He has also been clerk of the war claims committee of the National 
House of Representatives, and later was clerk of the Philippine commis- 
sion. He is the only Vermont member of the Ancient and Honorable 
Artillery Company of Boston, and during the memorable trip to England, 
when the organization was entertained by Queen Victoria and King 
Edward, then Prince of Wales, he was in command of the color company. 

For thirty years he has been with R. S. Childs in the insurance business. 

He built the Childs Tavern in Wilmington and gave the town the 
Memorial Hall. 

Doctor William H. Rockwell, Junior 

Doctor William H. Rockwell, Junior, was born March 3, 1840, attended 
the village schools and afterwards the Brattleborough Academy. He was 
educated for his profession at the College of Physicians and Surgeons 
in New York, where he graduated in 1862. He then entered the office of 
Doctor Willard Parker in New York. It was the young doctor's inten- 
tion and wish to continue in general practice, but his father required his 
services, and he accepted the position of assistant physician at the asylum 
in 1863, holding it until 1874. At his father's death he was appointed 
superintendent, accepting the position on condition that the trustees 
should as soon as practicable find another man for the place. Accordingly 
Doctor Joseph Draper, who had previously been assistant here five years, 
but was then in charge of the asylum in Trenton, New Jersey, was made 
superintendent. Doctor Rockwell became a trustee in 1874 and continued 
in that office until his death. He married June 16, 1864, Ellen E. Mowe, 
daughter of Robert Mowe of Eastport, Maine. 

In 1878 he represented Brattleboro in the Legislature, serving on im- 
portant committees. He was a man of a noble heart, loyal to his friends, 
and generous to everyone. 

He was elected a director of the Vermont National Bank in January, 
1870, and vice-president in 1874, thus serving the board fourteen years. 
Doctor Rockwell died October 20, 1911. Children : 

Doctor William H., Ill, born September 21, 1867; married Miss Mary 
J. W. Haight. 

Charles Farnam, born July 10, 1869, enlisted for the war with Spain 
in 1896, and died in Cuba, 1897. 

Alice, married Arthur H. Smith of New York, and has two sons. 



936 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Miss Helen French 
Principal of Mount Holyoke Seminary 

Nathaniel French was born in Billerica, Massachusetts, February 2, 
1720, and died June 8, 1801. 

The French family in 1769 resided in Fort Dummer, and the name of 
Nathaniel French appears in the Brattleboro census of 1771. In 1784 his 
house was the most northeastern dwelling in the town. He was the father 
of William, who was shot in the "Westminster Massacre." ' Four genera- 
tions of the French family have lived on his farm. 

Asa French bought of Samuel Stoddard, in 1795, land on which may 
still be seen remnants of old growth pines in a stump fence on each side 
of the road to Norcross Ferry, near the river. He died October 16, 1839, 
aged seventy-nine. Marcy, his wife, died June 20, 1847, in the eighty- 
seventh year of her age. 
Their son : 

Chester, born January 14, 1805, died April 4, 1872. He married, first, 
November 26, 1828, Miss Polly Cobleigh, born November 14, 1802; 
she died August 14, 1840. He married, second, April 11, 1814, Miss 
Mary Foster. Children : 

Foster F., died March 10, 1888, aged fifty-eight; his wife, Mary B., 
died April 10, 1851, aged twenty. He married, second, July 28, 
1852, Miss Sophia S. Doolittle of Vernon. 
Helen M. French was born November 25, 1832; she graduated from 
Mount Holyoke Seminary in 1857 ; was elected principal June 27, 
1867, after teaching at the Seminary from her graduation. 

During her leadership in that Seminary a debt of $25,000 was 
paid on the gymnasium and a new library built. Miss French was 
compelled, on account of ill health, to be absent in 1870-1871, and 
was obliged to resign in 1872 for the same reason. She was a 
woman of personal grace as well as ability. 

She married, 1872, Lemuel Gulliver, a cashier in Boston, and 
lived in Somerville, Massachusetts. She died August 14, 1909. A 
bronze tablet in memory of Mrs. Helen French Gulliver was 
erected in Mary Lyon Chapel, Mount Holyoke Seminary, by the 
class of 1857, of which she was a member, and it bears the follow- 
ing inscription: "In loving memory of Helen French Gulliver, 
1832-1909, apt student, skillful teacher, wise principal in this col- 
lege 1854-1872, consecrated and beloved. Erected in 1909 by her 
class of 1857." 
Mary J., wife of George D. INIorse, born October 6, 1838, died Feb- 
ruary 18, 1869. 



SALLY JOY WHITE 937 

"Sally Joy White" 

Sarah Elizabeth Joy was the daughter of Samuel S. and Rhoda Joy. 

Mrs. Joy was a granddaughter of the poet, Silas Ballou, and grand- 
niece of Hosea Ballou, the great Universalist leader. She married Sam- 
uel Sargent Joy of Brattleboro, and their entire married life was spent in 
this town. They lived first on Main Street, where the Library now stands, 
later on Walnut Street in the house owned for many years by Barna A. 
Clark, and afterwards in West Brattleboro. Mr. Joy died in 1865, and 
for several years thereafter Mrs. Joy continued to live in Brattleboro, but 
in 1873 she married Abel Hammond of Winchester, New Hampshire, 
whose death occurred in 1876. She remained in Winchester until the 
spring of 1898, when she went to the home of her only daughter, Mrs. 
White, in Dedham, Massachusetts. 

Sarah Elizabeth graduated at Glenwood Seminary in 1865 and soon 
after entered Loring's Circulating Library. In 1869 she was assigned to 
report on the suflFrage campaign for The Boston Post, and held a position 
on that paper for four years. She was the first woman journalist to have 
a position on a Boston paper. From her maternal great-grandfather 
down, there were journalists in the family: her great-uncle, Nathan Sar- 
gent, under the nom de plume "Oliver Oldschool," being the first Wash- 
ington correspondent. 

She married, June, 1874, Henry K. White, an amateur musician. 
Shortly after this marriage she returned to journalistic work on The 
Boston Advertiser. For ten years before 1885 she had a position on the 
staff of The Boston Herald, and was a frequent contributor to the maga- 
zines. She was president of the New England Woman's Press Associa- 
tion. The last part of her life her home was in Dedham, Massachusetts, 
where she died. Her two daughters are : Mrs. Granville Darling, Mrs. 
Chester Pratt. 

Madame Georgianna Mondan 

Madame Georgianna Mondan was a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. A. H. 
Freeman of Keene, New Hampshire. 

A natural student and very ambitious, she became when in her teens 
a governess in a Virginia family, and later taught in Norwich, Connecticut. 

She studied music with Moscheles, in Leipsic, and was a graduate of 
the Leipsic conservatorium. She married Monsieur Camille Mondan, a 
journalist of Paris. He died four years later, and she edited his journal 
for some time, but finally returned to this country and for several years 
from 1877 lived with her brother-in-law, O. L. FVench, after the death of 



938 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

his wife and for the purpose of caring for his son. She taught French, 
German and music to a large number of pupils in Brattleboro. 

Leaving Brattleboro in August, 1883, she became the head of St. 
Catharine's Hall, Augusta, Maine, and for years previous to her death 
in 1904 she was the teacher of languages in the Bridgeport, Connecticut, 
High School. 

While in Brattleboro she assisted the editor of The Phctnix on special 
occasions when her wit and gift of expression were of value to the public. 

She was the editor of a small sheet called The Blunderbuss, published 
for a Fourth of July celebration, which was made a feature of the political 
campaign of that year in the local field. 

Franklin H. Sawyer 

Franklin H. Sawyer was born in Newfane in 1815 and lived in that 
village, engaging in mercantile pursuits until 1869,^ when he moved to 
Brattleboro. He was highly esteemed for his enterprise, correct business 
habits and nice sense of honor. 

He married in July, 1S41, Nancy Taft, daughter of Nathaniel and 
Olive Willard Taft of Dummerston, a woman of cultivated mind, whose 
home was made the headquarters of aid for the soldiers during the Civil 
War, by her untiring solicitude and energy. 

Mr. Sawyer was for ten years a director in the First National Bank 
of Brattleboro, and treasurer of the Northfield Life Insurance Company. 
He lived, on coming to Brattleboro, in the Keyes house on North Street, 
but purchased the Barber place on the same street in 1871. Mr. Sawyer 
died December 27, 1871, aged fifty-six. Mrs. Sawyer died January 12, 
1892, aged seventy. 
Children : 

Florence, died February 6, 1918. (See p. 668.) 

Evelyn, married May 14, 1875, Doctor Charles E. Severance, born in 
Leyden, Massachusetts, August 7, 1834, son of Chester and Martha 
(Smith) Severance; after an education in the public schools and two 
academies of his native state, he took a full course in the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, New York, graduating in 1856, did postgradu- 
ate work there, and spent a year in London, Dublin and Paris in further 
preparation for his medical career. From 1861 to 1865 he practiced in 
Shelburne Falls, Massachusetts, and was rated one of the best surgeons in 
that state. In 1888 he came to Brattleboro, broken in health, but in two 
years opened an office in Williston Block. He died June 23, 1907. 

iBirchard (Honorable Austin) & Sawyer, 1841-1850; Sawyer & Miller, 1850- 
1853 ; Sawyer & Smith, 1853-1858 ; F. H. Sawyer to 1869. 



MARY E. WILKINS 939 

A son, Reverend Kendall Severance, of Pyramid Lake, Nevada; rector 

of St. Paul's, Kenton, Ohio, 1914 ; canon of the Cathedral of SS. 

Peter and Paul, Chicago. 

Mrs. Severance removed from Brattleboro to follow the fortunes of 
Reverend Kendall Severance. 



Mary E. Wilkins 

Mary E. Wilkins was the daughter of Warren E. and Ellen L. Wilkins 
of Randolph, Massachusetts, where her father was an architect. She 
was born in Randolph January 7, 1852, and was educated there and at 
Mount Holyoke Seminary. Her parents moved to Brattleboro, and Mr. 
Wilkins had a dry goods store in this town with Orrin Slate — the firm 
being Slate & Wilkins — from 1870 to 1873. A very gifted sister, Anna 
H., died here May 27, 1876, aged seventeen. Her mother died December 
9, 1880, aged fifty-three. Her father died in Gainesville, Florida, where 
he had gone in search of health, April 10, 1883, aged fifty. 

She began when very young to write verses and short stories which she 
carried to Reverend George Leon Walker for advice and correction. His 
encouragement led to her first publications in magazines and journals 
of the day, and in 1886 to publishing in book form the story, "A Humble 
Romance"; this was followed in 1887 by "A New England Nun." 

Young Lucretia was published in 1891; Jane Field, 1892; Giles Corey, 
1893 ; Pembroke, 1894. Other publications are : Madelon, Jerome, Si- 
lenel, Evelina's Garden, The Jamesons, The Love of Parson Lord, The 
Heart's Highway, The Portion of Labor, Understudies. 

Miss Wilkins left Brattleboro on the death of her parents to be among 
. relatives, returning occasionally for several years.. As a girl, the delicate 
beauty of her features and wealth of golden hair were very effective in 
the part of angel always assigned to her when tableaux were a feature of 
amateur theatricals in vogue. She was very shy and reserved and made 
only intimate friends. 

Speaking of his children to a friend, Mr. Wilkins has been quoted as 
saying that his daughter Annie was a good musician and would be able 
to take care of herself, but, as Mary had no talent, he did not know what 
she would do to make a living. 

She married, January 1, 1902, Doctor Charles M. Freeman of Me- 
tuchen. New Jersey, where she has since lived. 

She has continued to write: Six Trees, 1903; The Wind in the Rose 
Bush, 1903; The Givers, 1904; Doc. Gordon, 1906; By the Light of the 
Soul, 1907. 



MO ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Lieutenant-Commander George W. Tyler 

Lieutenant-Commander George W. Tyler was born in New Haven, 
Connecticut, November 2, 1847, the youngest child of Reverend Edward 
and Sarah Boardman Tyler. His early education was received in New 
Haven ; in 1864 he was appointed to the Naval Academy, where he grad- 
uated with credit in the large class of 1868. Subsequently he served in 
various grades, his record of promotion being as follows: to rank of 
ensign, April 19, 1869; of master, July 12, 1870; of lieutenant, April 18, 
1873 ; of lieutenant-commander, July 31, 1894. His sea service was 
fourteen years, and his waiting orders two years. That his work was ap- 
preciated at the navy department was shown by the considerate treatment 
which he received during the last two years of his life, for the greater part 
of which he was kept "on duty" in the war records office, which is under 
the direct supervision of the secretary, though unable to do more than 
occasional work therein ; the general practice in such cases being to place 
officers on sick leave, with reduction of pay. 

His sea service was of a varied and extensive character, the vessels to 
which he was from time to time attached being in the European, Asiatic, 
Pacific and North Atlantic squadrons respectively. His last cruise was as 
navigator of the Mohican on the Pacific station, whence he returned to 
Brattleboro in November, 1891. During the last year of the cruise he was 
for the first time in his twenty-six years' service on the sick list, having 
been attacked with grippe, from the effects of which he never wholly 
recovered. He was for three years attached to the coast survey and 
passed two tours, or seven years of his shore duty, as instructor at the 
Naval Academy. He spent the winter of 1891-1892 in Brattleboro, having 
been assigned to special duty in the war records office, the work then 
being of such a character that it could be performed at home. In the 
summer of 1892 he moved to Washington, where two years later the ill- 
ness that proved fatal began to develop. 

He married April 19, 1872, Florence Brown, sister of Commander 
Allan D. Brown, and daughter of Honorable Joshua Lawrence Brown of 
Batavia, New York, whose widow had become the wife of Reverend 
Thomas P. Tyler, D.D., and from that time he considered the Tyler Street 
house in Brattleboro as his home. A daughter, Faith. 

He died February 17, 1896, at the Naval Hospital, Washington, District 
of Columbia. 

Newton Isaac Hawley 
Newton Isaac Hawley was the son of Isaac, who died at Homer, New 
York, November 5, 1855, at the age of seventy-six years, and Persis Ball 
Hawley. He was born in Hadley, Massachusetts, January 10, 1841. His 




NEWTON I. HAWLEY 




PARK HOUSE 



OVERAXl. FACTORY 



Cnnal Slraet School Du 




CANAL STREET SCHOOL HOUSE 



^5^^ 



'■ 9 




AUDITORIDM 



NEWTON ISAAC HAWLEY 941 

parents moved to Homer about 1851, and he attended school at the Homer 
Academy. At sixteen he became a clerk in a dry goods store in Homer. 

He enlisted early, April 30, 18G1, for service in the war, but was honor- 
ably discharged on account of inflammatory rheumatism, in July, when he 
returned to Homer and was employed in the dry goods store of Price & 
Wheeler in Syracuse, New York. During the closing two or three years 
of the war he was in General Meigs's Bureau of the War Department 
in Washington. 

He married September 6, 1866, Miss Frances M. AIcKnight of Spring- 
field, Massachusetts. In 1867 they moved to Springfield and he became 
a partner in the dry goods firm, W. H. McKnight & Company, afterwards 
McKnight, Norton & Hawley. He was active in public affairs in Spring- 
field and in 1876-1877 was alderman of ward five. The failure of Mc- 
Knight, Norton & Hawley caused him to move to Brattleboro in 1877, 
where he again entered into the dry goods business. 

Mr. Hawley, awake to the signs of changing times, introduced to Brat- 
tleboro the "ready-made" in women's attire ; when a great variety of effec- 
tive but inexpensive costumes and novelties began to make their appear- 
ance in Mr. Hawley 's capacious show windows, it seemed a departure 
from former ways too radical to be endorsed by a town as conservative as 
Brattleboro claimed to be. He was also the first to make a department 
for a special line of goods. 

Business as a means of livelihood was conducted by Mr. Hawley on 
original and progressive lines which were an indication of the time and 
thought given to it, but his leisure was devoted to the cultivation of tastes 
that expressed the scope and quality of a nature ever seeking the best in 
people, in books, in music, in nature. 

He appreciated good literary work, read extensively, and was a wel- 
come visitor of the Authors' Club, New York. His friendships were 
enthusiastic and enduring; his citizenship was of the same character. No 
one called on strangers as consistently as he, or remembered the obscure 
and unfortunate with his courtesy. There was always an open door to 
his house and heart. It is for his social traits, human sympathy and hos- 
pitality that Mr. Hawley will be longest remembered in Brattleboro. 

The Village Improvement Society was started by him ; he was the first 
president and for some time directed its operations. The coaching 
parades of the Valley Fair were often of his planning. 

An aflfection of the heart, the sequence of exposure during the Civil 
War, terminated his Hfe May 7, 1904. 
Children : 

Grace, married July 2, 1889, George L. Dunham, born in Paris, Maine, 
who, at eighteen, graduated from Hebron Academy at the head of his 



H2 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

class. He graduated from Colby College in 1882, again at the head of 
his class, having worked his way through college. He became prin- 
cipal of Paris Academy, and later, for three years, was at the head 
of the classical department of the Portland High School, during 
which time Colby College conferred upon him the degree M.A. 

On July 1, 1885, Mr. Dunham came to Brattleboro to engage in 
the shoe business with his brother, Charles, under the firm name of 
Dunham Brothers. For the first ten years their business was prin- 
cipally retail. Then they began to furnish shoes and rubbers for the 
small dealers about the country. L. L. Dunham became a member 
of the firm and the business was incorporated under the firm name 
of The Dunham Brothers Company, with George L. Dunham, presi- 
dent, C. W. Dunham, treasurer, and L. L. Dunham, secretary. 

The amount of business transacted by this firm has not only made 
it one of the most important business enterprises in the history of the 
town, but they are also the largest wholesale rubber jobbers in the 
world. Children : 
Evelyn Marion, married March 11, 1918, Harold E. Mason of 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 
Marion, born in Boston March 2, 1899 ; died June 14, 1912. 
Ruth M., married June 13, 1899, Lewis Morse, Junior, of Philadelphia. 
They have a daughter, Marion. 

Joseph Draper, M.D. 

Doctor Joseph Draper was born in Warwick, Massachusetts, February 
16, 1834. 

He grew up as a farmer's boy among the Warwick Hills where his 
father Ira had lived, was- educated at the common schools, and studied 
further at the Academy in West Brattleboro, and in Deerfield. He also 
studied medicine with Doctor James Deane of Greenfield ; attended lec- 
tures in New York ; took a course in Jefferson Medical College, Philadel- 
phia, graduating in 1858. He practiced in Northfield, Vermont, but went 
to Greenfield on the death of Doctor Deane. There he became interested 
in the care of the insane, which led to his coming to Brattleboro to study 
insanity, October, 1859. He was made assistant to Doctor Rockwell until 
1865, but left the Asylum to become assistant surgeon at the military 
hospital in Brattleboro. 

He was assistant at the Insane Hospital in Worcester and superintend- 
ent for the year 1870. From there he went as assistant to the New Jersey 
Asylum. In 1873 he returned to Brattleboro as superintendent. He was 
a very efficient officer, erecting during his administration the north and 



REV. CHARLES H. MERRILL, D.D. 943 

south wings of the buildings ; he introduced steam heat, erected a new 
gymnasium, built a boiler house and carpenter's shop, developed the ex- 
tensive woodland owned by the institution into a park, made two Summer 
Retreats for the patients where a change might be given those who could 
receive benefit by diverse surroundings in an accessible and beautiful 
country, reconstructed the sewerage system, built the stone tower. 

His expert opinion was widely sought for in courts of law. 

His contributions to the literature of his profession were frequent. He 
published in 1887 the Annals of the Vermont Asylum for the Insane. He 
delivered numerous papers or addresses before local societies and as he 
was always a reader of good books, his addresses showed solid thought 
and some literary finish. To every helpful enterprise he gave liberally. 
No man of this town has ever been broader in his sympathies. 

He was also a public benefactor, laying out the road to the summit of 
Wantastiquet. 

A man of wisdom in all the relations of life, he escaped criticism from 
his patients, by whom he was generally beloved, and he was universally 
respected. 

He married January 23, 1863, Miss Mary J. Putnam, who was born De- 
cember 25, 1835. He died March 17, 1892. 

Reverend Charles H. jMerrill, D.D. 

Reverend Charles H. Merrill came to Vermont in the early spring of 
1873 from two years' missionary service in Minnesota, and accepted a 
call from the Congregational Church in West Brattleboro. The local 
conditions were not promising at the time, and made the young pastor's 
task an especially trying and delicate one. But he soon had all elements 
working harmoniously together, and his fifteen years' pastorate was an 
almost ideal one. The preaching was strong and stimulating; the pas- 
toral work was most acceptable and helpful; the administration of the 
Society was judicious and progressive. At the end of his pastorate he left 
a strong united church, trained to habits of generous giving for mission- 
ary work, and worshiping in a house completely renovated at a cost of 
several thousand dollars. 

During his pastorate in West Brattleboro Doctor Merrill's usefulness 
was by no means confined to his own parish. He took all of a good citi- 
zen's proper interest in town aflFairs, and for several years served as 
superintendent of schools as efficiently as was possible under the system 
then existing. He was active in the local fellowship of the churches and 
rendered especially valuable service in a celebrated ecclesiastical legal con- 
test of the time. From 1877 to 1889 he served as secretary of the State 



944 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

General Convention, and as its chief permanent officer did work which as 
a rule receives little recognition from the public, but which is highly im- 
portant. It was often remarked that the success of the annual state 
meetings was due in large measure to the quiet little man at the table in 
the corner. 

In 1888 Doctor Merrill was chosen secretary of the Vermont Domestic 
Missionary Society succeeding Reverend C. S. Smith, who was obliged to 
retire from office on account of ill health and advancing years. The 
aiifairs of the society were in a somewhat depressed and demoralized con- 
dition when he became its executive head, but they soon began to feel the 
impulse of a new life. New methods were adopted for raising the money 
needed for missionary purposes in the state, the needs of the field were 
carefully investigated, and new agencies set at work to meet the needs. 
The publication of the very useful little Vermont Missionary was begun. 
The Vermont Domestic Missionary Society is a strong aggressive body 
on a thoroughly firm business basis, which is chiefly due to Doctor 
Merrill's administrative qualities. 

Apart from his direct service through the Missionary Society his ability 
to "size up" men and situations made him a most valuable counselor of 
ministers and churches, and the strongest as well as the weakest came 
to him for advice. This was one reason why there seemed to be no place 
in the state for the work of a ministerial bureau. An unofficial word from 
Doctor Merrill was much more influential than the formal recommenda- 
tion of an official board. Without any ecclesiastical millinery he was a true 
bishop to the churches of his denomination. 

The annual reports of the Domestic Missionary Society for the last 
twenty-two years are strong, statesmanlike papers, full of insight and 
helpful suggestion. 

Dartmouth College, from which he graduated with honor in 1867, gave 
him the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity. 

Honorable Parley Starr 

Honorable Parley Starr was born in Colchester, Vermont, August 20, 
1813. His early life was spent in Milton, Vermont. At twenty-one, he 
entered the employ of Houghton & Hunt, Guilford Center, to learn the 
tanner's trade. In 1837 he bought the tannery of Dan Dean of Jackson- 
ville, which developed until it became the leading industry of the county in 
connection with other similar industries in Boston. 

He took an active interest in public affairs, was a benefactor to the 
community, being a strong factor in the social, religious and educational 
life of Jacksonville. A Universalist, he gave liberally to the support of 



JONATHAN G. EDDY 945 

other denominations, a bell to his own church and to the public school 
and he contributed largely to building the Methodist Church. 

He represented Whitingham in the Legislature in 1852-185G, 1872, and 
the State Senate, 1859, 1860. He was for eleven years justice of the 
peace; twenty-four years, town auditor; seventeen years director of the 
Brattleboro Bank and five years trustee of the Windham Provident 
Institution. 

In 1862 he opened a recruiting office for volunteers, and was appointed 
state agent to look after and provide for the families of soldiers absent 
in the war. He moved to Brattleboro in 1873 and lived on Western 
Avenue. 

He married May 17, 1840, Miss Clarissa Blanchard of Whitingham. 
He suffered a stroke of apoplexy in 1883 and died November 12, 1889. 
Children : 

Mrs. Alta C. Cressy of Hartford, Connecticut. 

Alice H., married September 21, 1876, William A. Faulkner, son of 
Shepherd D. and Miranda (Greene) Faulkner, born in Whitingham 
September 14, 1848. She died, March, 1891. He married, second, 
Miss Lillian Leonard of Brookline, Massachusetts. He was edu- 
cated at Powers Institute, Bernardston, and Eastman Business Col- 
lege, Poughkeepsie. He was at first clerk in a dry goods store in 
Shelburne Falls, Massachusetts ; next, bookkeeper in Shelburne Falls 
National Bank, then teller in the First National Bank, Chicopee ; he 
was cashier of the Peoples National Bank of Brattleboro, 1875-1886, 
when he resigned to become cashier of the National Hide and Leather 
Bank, Boston; he was president of the Traders' National Bank, 
Boston, 1890, but in 1893 resigned on account of ill health. He was 
assistant treasurer of the Woodstock, New Hampshire, Lumber Com- 
pany. He died February 1, 1914. 
Nettie E., married September 20, 1889, D. K. Clement of Clement & 

Stockwell, paper dealers, New York. 
Arthur P., cashier of First National Bank, Tama City, Iowa. He mar- 
ried in that city, October 25, 1882, Miss Florence Murray. Their son, 
Leon Parley Starr, a graduate of Chicago University, married Miss 
Anna Burgess, and died three weeks after his marriage, April .5, 1917. 

Jonathan G. Eddy 

Jonathan G. Eddy was born in Jamaica, Vermont, August 27, 1844. 
He was reared on a farm, educated in the common schools and in 1865 
entered the law office of Hoyt H. Wheeler. Four years later Mr. Eddy 
was admitted to the bar and for the six years following he practiced law 



946 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

in Jamaica. In 1875 he came to Brattleboro, and became a partner of 
Charles N. Davenport, under the firm name of Davenport & Eddy, which 
became one of the strong, successful law firms of the state and enjoyed 
a big practice throughout New England. It continued until January, 
1882, when ill health compelled Mr. Davenport to retire from the 
practice. , Mr. Eddy then formed a partnership with James L. Martin ; 
this partnership continued for four years. In July, 1886, Mr. Eddy went 
to Sioux Falls, South Dakota, and formed a partnership with Herbert J. 
Davenport under the firm name of Eddy & Davenport. jNIessrs. Eddy and 
Davenport soon became interested in real estate and during a number of 
years were large operators,, not only in real estate there, but in southern 
lands. They built the Temple Court which at that time was the finest 
building on Main Avenue, Sioux Falls. The firm's holdings were hit by 
the long panic which began in 1893 and did not end until 1897. Mr. 
Davenport went into educational work and Mr. Eddy into various specu- 
lations and investments which he continued until ill health prevented. 
With the untiring assistance of his devoted wife, Mr. Eddy was able to 
accumulate a substantial property in spite of the almost insurmountable 
handicaps in his path. 

He was an interesting man, strong in his friendships, unafraid in 
his opinions and uncompromising in his convictions. He never ceased 
to talk of his early experiences at the Vermont bar, and during his long 
sickness his dearest memories were of his legal battles and successes in 
the old New England days. He was three times elected to the Vermont 
Legislature, where he rendered a fine type of service to the state. In 
1879 he was married to Miss Anna M. Burke at Greenfield, Massachusetts. 
He died January 23, 1917. 

Honorable Edgar W. Stoddard 

Honorable Edgar W. Stoddard was born in Grafton June 20, 1846. He 
was the son of Abishai Stoddard, who was for almost forty years judge 
of probate for the Westminster district, and one of the most honored and 
valued citizens of the county. The family removed from Grafton to 
Townshend in 1855, and here the son Edgar grew up, receiving his pre- 
liminary education in the public schools and at Leland and Gray Seminary. 
He took his college course at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Is- 
land, graduating in the class of 1868. He then studied law in the office 
of his father at Townshend and was admitted to the Windham County 
bar at the September term, 1870. In February, 1874, he was admitted to 
the bar of the Vermont Supreme Court. He began the practice of the 
law in Brattleboro. For a year, in the early part of his professional 




COLONEL CHARLES A. MILES 





DOCTOR JAMES R. CONLAND 



ROBERT GORDON HARDIE. JR. 






BELLES OF THE SIXTIES 



JAMES CONLAND, M.D. 947 

career, he was in partnership with Charles K. Field, afterwards prac- 
ticing alone until in August, 1882, he formed the partnership with 
Kittredge Haskins. He was appointed register of probate in August, 
1880, succeeding Honorable Asa Keyes in that office. In the same year he 
was elected a member of the school board of this village, and held the 
office until he declined reelection in July, 1896. He was justice of the 
peace for a long term of years. He was trustee of the Brattleboro Sav- 
ings Bank, a member of the board of investment, and one of the most 
trusted advisers of that institution, legal and otherwise. 

He had always felt a deep interest in the success of the school of his 
boyhood, Leland and Gray Seminary of Townshend, and was the presi- 
dent of its board of trustees. For a time, while studying law with his 
father, he was principal of this school. After the disastrous Townshend 
fire of April, 1894, he worked actively to secure the erection of the com- 
modious new school building which replaces the one then burned. He 
was a member of the State Senate for the term of 1SSG-18S8. At the 
Windham County Republican Convention held in June, 1896, he was 
nominated for judge of probate to succeed Honorable C. Royall Tyler. 
He also held numerous offices of private trust. 

Mr. Stoddard was married May 19, 1874, to Miss Elizabeth McCracken 
of Brooklyn, New York, the wedding taking place at the home of the 
bride's mother in Batavia, Illinois. Mr. Stoddard died July 24, 1896. 
Children : 

Edgar A., born February 8, 1875; married June 24, 1911, Miss Elsie 
Dwight Orne of Springfield, Massachusetts. A daughter, Elizabeth 
Virginia. 

Mortimer J., born February 8, 1875 ; married January 1, 1902, Miss 
Florence A. Brown. A daughter, Dorothy. 

Maud M. 

Ralph W., born December 7, 1878. 

J.VMES CoNLAND, M.D. 

Doctor James Conland was born in Brooklyn, New York, in 1851, of 
Irish parentage. His parents died when he was an infant, and at the age 
of seven years he went to work on a farm on Cape Cod. At the outbreak 
of the Civil War, Doctor Conland, then a boy of ten, went to Boston and 
found work in a naval office. He became interested in sea life, and for 
several years afterwards served on fishing vessels, coasters and East India 
traders. His cruises took him to various parts of the world and he was 
frequently in Cuba during the terrible scenes of the rebellion. Doctor 
Conland's early education was secured at country schools which he was 



948 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

able to attend winters by using his summers' earnings as a sailor. He was 
always an omnivorous reader and spent much of his spare time in improv- 
ing his mind in this manner. 

He came to Brattleboro in 1875 and began the study of medicine with 
Doctor Henry D. Holton, working as a clerk in the Willard drug store and 
there mastering the elements of pharmacy. He worked his way through 
the medical department of the University of Vermont, graduating in July, 
1878. He then returned to Brattleboro, and for one year practiced medi- 
cine with Doctor Holton, at the end of that period going to Weston, Ver- 
mont, and then to Cornwall, Connecticut, where he remained in practice 
the following two years. 

He married in August, 1880, Miss Matilda McGuirk at Cornwall, and 
immediately after his marriage returned to Brattleboro, and entered into 
partnership with Doctor Holton. From that time he continued steadily 
in practice here until his death. 

In the case of Doctor Conland the professional life was but one side in 
the development of a strong, full nature; his interests and his sympathies 
were bounded by no lines of sect or race or creed. 

He was sent to the State Legislature in 1884, the first Democrat who 
was honored by such an election in many years, and the only one who had 
represented the town in the memory of that generation, with the exception 
of Oscar Marshall, who served one term. A sturdy Democrat, he refused 
absolutely to follow the free silver theories of Bryan and other leaders 
of the party in 1896 and 1900. It was not his wish to be a candidate in 
1903, but he finally consented to receive the support of both Democrats 
and Republicans, who believed him to be the most representative man of 
the town on the local option issue, which was the leading question before 
the Legislature. He introduced what was known as the Conland bill, a 
large part of which was adopted into the local option law. 

As a member of the Legislature Doctor Conland proved a man of 
legislative ability, during his last term serving on the committee of banks 
and on the joint committee on temperance. Although he seldom spoke 
at any length, his opinions carried weight. 

He was for many years a member of the local board of pension exam- 
iners, and a trustee of the Brooks Free Library. 

With a natural bent for everything of a historical nature, he found 
diversion as an enthusiastic antiquarian, particularly in the collection of 
early Vermont pamphlets and publications. His private collection con- 
tained many rare copies and he owned many old documents bearing the 
signatures of noted public men. 

A warm, intimate friendship existed between Doctor Conland and Rud- 
yard Kipling while the author and his family lived in Vermont. Doctor 




REVEREND GEORGE LEON WALKER 



ti^'-'-' 




REVEREND WILLIAM H. COLLINS 




REVEREND CHARLES O. DAY 




DOCTOR JOSEPH H. DRAPES 








ALLAN D. BROWN 
COMMANDER U. S. NAVY 



REVEREND LEWIS GROUT 



REV. WILLIAM HENRY COLLINS 949 

Conland was the family physician. It was an open secret among the 
closer friends of Doctor Conland that Mr. Kipling gained his first idea 
of "Captains Courageous" from the stories of his sea life told by the 
doctor, in hours of intimacy, before the open fire at Naulahka. 

Mr. Kipling presented the doctor with the original manuscript of this 
story and also dedicated the published volume to him. Doctor Conland 
was summoned to New York City in consultation with the eminent spe- 
cialists who treated Kipling during his illness with pneumonia, which for 
some days threatened to terminate fatally. 

He had the confidence of all classes of varying opinions, and in times of 
division of public thought he became, as it were, the town's chosen arbi- 
trator — the one man by whose judgment all were satisfied to abide, sure 
that it would be honest, reasonable, unbiased. 

In an unusual way his life was an inspiration to goodness. He was not 
aggressive, though strong and independent in his convictions, but he was 
sincere, straightforward, manly; and in his very nature, he shamed dis- 
honesty and pretense. 

He had great personal charm, but his power was the compelling power 
of a great kindliness — and he received in return the aiifection of all the 
people among whom he lived. 

Doctor Conland died May 3, 1903. 

His son, Harry H., born May 11, 1882, left Brattleboro in May, 1914, 
to assume management of a department of The Hartford Coiirant; mar- 
ried Miss Carroll Henschel of New York. 

Reverend William Henry Collins 

Reverend William Henry Collins was born in Warren, Rhode Island, 
October 26, 1836, the son of William Collins of that town. He grew up 
and was educated in Warren, studied for the ministry and was ordained 
by Bishop Clark of Rhode Island, September 21, 1859. 

After several years of service to the churches in Rhode Island, he had 
a pastorate in Lewiston, Maine, and one in Vergennes, Vermont, before 
coming to Brattleboro in 1875. For a long term of years he was one of 
the clerical delegates to the General Convention of the Episcopal Church, 
and was a member of various important committees in the diocese. 

In Brattleboro he was an efficient member of the High School board, 
and on the Book Committee of thp Brooks Library ; he was also town 
superintendent of schools, but resigned July 1, 1887. 

He received the degree of A.M. from Trinity College. 

Reverend Mr. Collins was a gentle-man in every relation in life. His 
tender sympathy for those in sorrow, or distress of any kind was universal 
— as was his consideration for all mankind. A humble Christian, he yet 



950 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

entered into the simple pleasures of the world with a cheerful heart and 

with an unfailing sense of humor, which gave him a warm place in the 

hearts of his fellow citizens. 

He married November 2, 1870, Emily Graves, daughter of George 

Graves of Rutland, Vermont. 

He died September 14, 1900. Mrs. Collins died February 7, 1902. 

Children : 

William F. Collins, graduated from the Brattleboro High School in 
1889, and from Trinity College in 1893; he was first prize man in 
history and political science, and won the Holland scholarship of 
$600. He was on the staff of The Springfield Republican; later city 
editor of The Worcester Evening Gazette, and city editor of The 
Newark Evening Neius, Newark, New Jersey, a war correspondent, 
1914-1915. He married Miss Derflea Howes of Utica, New York. 
A son, William. 

Honorable Dorman Bridgeman Eaton 
Honorable Dorman B. Eaton was born in Hardwick, Vermont, June 
27, 1823. He was the son of the Honorable Nathaniel Eaton and Ruth 
Bridgeman Eaton. The earliest American Eaton was John of that name, 
who, coming from England in 1635, settled in the Massachusetts Colony. 
Dorman B. Eaton graduated at the University of Vermont in 1848 and 
at the Harvard Law School two years later, taking the prize for the 
prize essay upon his graduation. A member of the committee for the 
award was Judge William Kent, of New York City, son of Chancellor 
Kent, the author of the "Commentaries." Judge Kent immediately 
offered young Eaton employment in New York as his assistant in editing 
the "Commentaries" of the elder Kent. Mr. Eaton was admitted to the 
New York bar in 1857, and eighteen months after graduation became 
the partner of Judge Kent. He at once attracted attention by his legal 
ability, and entered upon a distinguished career, not only in active prac- 
tice, but as a writer upon legal and civic subjects. 
He married in 1856 Miss Annie S. Foster of Boston. 
He drafted the health laws which inaugurated the administration of 
that department in New York City. He was also counsel for the Erie 
Railway and for the Boston, Hartford & Erie. The sharp contests in 
which railroad administration was involved at that time brought Mr. 
Eaton into opposition to the administration of Fisk and Gould. His 
success in the legal contention with these men brought about active enmity . 
upon their part toward him. On the night before an important action in 
the courts an attempt was made upon Mr. Eaton's life on Fifth Avenue 
by unknown persons, and he was seriously injured. This painful incident 



HON. DORMAN BRIDGEMAN EATON 951 

did not deter Mr. Eaton from opposition to wrongdoing, but, upon his 
recovery, he entered upon his life work in municipal reform and for the 
reform of civil service. 

In 1871 Mr. Eaton stopped at the Brooks House en route and was so 
much impressed by the beauty of the surrounding country that he bought 
the Pettis farm at the junction of the West and Connecticut Rivers, in 
1876, and made it over into a summer residence, coming to Brattleboro 
regularly from that time till his death. 

At the request of Congress he prepared a code of laws for the District 
of Columbia. He drafted a law for the paid fire department, and the 
establishment of police courts in New York City, fearlessly advocating 
them before the Legislature and meeting opposition and insult from the 
disreputable advocates of the old system with characteristic calmness and 
dignity, which brought success to his efforts. 

He was possessed of a sober mind. His extraordinary intellectual 
powers seemed but the practical expression of a certain moral energy 
which might be described as public spirit touched by emotion. When the 
moral note was struck he instantly grew eloquent. He was the farthest 
possible from the fanatic or the reformer with one idea. While civil 
service reform was to him the supreme present duty of the republic, all 
questions that concerned the welfare of states or the health of single 
souls were interesting to him ; and he discussed no question without find- 
ing somewhere in the vast range of his clearly ordered knowledge the 
illuminating fact, the convincing point of view. This combination of 
ethical passion with intellectual resource was his most remarkable charac- 
teristic. He never lost the moral purpose, nor failed to furnish his con- 
science with solid knowledge and logical argument. In his character, as 
in his personal appearance, there was something Roman, with that touch 
of rusticity which the greatest Romans always had. He was equally at 
ease in the forum, debating the safety of the republic, and on his pleasant 
Brattleboro farm, discussing crops and cattle. He was of the fashion 
which is a wholesome model for any generation. 

In religion he was a loyal Unitarian, broad and profound in thought, 
but adhering reverently to the Christian tradition and name. He was a 
warm friend of Doctor Bellows, and cordially sustained the succeeding 
ministers of All Souls' Church. His gifts to the church were large, and, 
in proportion to his means, unequaled. His private charities were con- 
stant, cheerful and judicious. "Take him for all in all," he was a great 
soul. A few such men, "if peradventure there be fifty found," can avert 
destruction from any city in which they live. 

As an educator of public opinion Mr. Eaton has had few equals; for it 



952 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

must be remembered that every one of the important statutes which he 
brought forward represented a distinctly new idea, and that pubHc 
opinion had to be educated up to the point of supporting it before it could 
become a law. That he did so educate opinion is proved by the enactment 
of these laws. Nor can it be doubted that his personal example had its 
effect in developing that higher standard of citizenship which found its 
expression in later years in numerous civic movements. Few men have 
so impressed themselves upon the statute laws of their country, and as 
evidence of his broad and wise statesmanship these enactments are his 
enduring memorial. 

In private life he was a man of singular kindliness, and his manners 
had the courtesy as well as the dignity that we associate with the old 
school. 

In connection with civil service reform Mr. Eaton made two ex- 
tended tours in Europe for the study of the subject, both in England and 
on the Continent. In 1873 President Grant appointed him chairman of 
the National Civil Service Commission at Washington, in which place 
he succeeded the Honorable George W. Curtis. When the reform was 
practically abandoned by the government in 1875 Mr. Eaton renewed his 
efforts in its behalf, speaking and writing with such good effect that, 
after making a report for President Hayes, in 1880, upon the condition 
of the civil service in the post office and custom house in New York 
City, the government returned to the serious consideration of the civil 
service. In 1883 Mr. Eaton was appointed again upon the commission 
by President Arthur, and was reappointed by President Cleveland in 
1886. The national law for the administration of the civil service was 
drawn by Mr. Eaton, and remains practically unchanged today. How 
well Mr. Eaton exemplified his own theory respecting civil service may 
be seen in the fact that he served under four administrations as commis- 
sioner. 

His public service was rendered, for the most part, outside of official 
life, as a private citizen, working for the public good. In 1870 he gave 
up a lucrative practice and all private business, and for thirty years de- 
voted himself to the high vocation of a publicist and student of municipal 
conditions. His last published work, "The Government of Municipali- 
ties," issued from the press only a few months before his death, and was 
the best fruit of his ripe wisdom and rich experience. 

He died at his home in New York, after a brief illness, on the morning 
of December 23, 1899, and was buried in the burial ground of his family 
at Montpelier, Vermont, on December 26. Mrs. Eaton died January 
29, 1903. 



HON. DORMAN BRIDGEMAN EATON 953 

By the will of Dorman B. Eaton support was given to chairs of the 
science of government at Columbia and Harvard Universities, and he 
says: 

The problem of municipal government is one of great difficulty and 
peril, and there is little in our early constitution to aid in its solution. A 
true and safe municipal system is yet to be created in the United States. 
Nowhere is patriotic and wise leadership on such a subject more needed, 
or can it be more useful, than in the city of New York. 

To determine a definite sphere within which cities and villages shall 
substantially control their own affairs ; to fairly mark the limits of co- 
operation between them and the states beyond the sphere; to provide the 
best methods of municipal administration; to create councils in cities and 
villages which shall, in substance, exercise their local authority and repre- 
sent their public opinion rather than their party opinion; to greatiy reduce 
the number and frequency of elections in municipalities ; to prevent the 
control of their affairs by parties and factions, and to make good munici- 
pal government the ambition and the endeavor of the worthiest citizens — 
these seem to me to be great problems of statesmanship, toward the solu- 
tion of which I trust this professorship will largely contribute. 

Through it I hope municipal wisdom, gathered from the most enlight- 
ened cities of other countries, and from all the best governed municipali- 
ties of the Union will find effective expression. 

I do not attempt to prescribe the specific instruction through this pro- 
fessorship ; but I may say that I have endowed it not only in the faith that 
it will always be filled by an able and patriotic citizen, zealously devoted to 
its purpose, but in the hope that through its teaching the great principles 
upon which our national constitution is based, and in conformity to which 
administration should be carried on, will be vindicated and strengthened ; 
that the fit relations between parties and government will be made plain ; 
that the obligations of the moral law and of patriotic endeavor in party 
politics, and all official life will be persuasively expounded; that the just 
relations between public opinion, party opinion, and individual independ- 
ence will be set forth ; that an effective influence will be exerted for mak- 
ing public administration and legislation in the United States worthy of 
the character and intelligence of their people ; and that not only the salu- 
tary lessons of history will be presented, but that the most appropriate 
and effective means of practical wisdom in our day will be considered for 
preventing corruption and partisan despotism in politics and government 
and for inducing and enabling the most worthy citizen to fairly exercise a 
controlling power in the republic. 

It seems to me that these lessons — and especially such as may be drawn 



954 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

from the history of the ancient Italian and Dutch republics and from that 
of England — have been by no means adequately expounded in the teach- 
ings of our political science. 

The Columbia bequest is made with similar provision as to the use 
only of the income. 

Judge George Shea 

Judge George Shea was born in Cork on June 10, 1827, and came of a 
family some of the members of which attained high rank abroad, notably 
the families now represented by Count Dillon Shea in France, and Henry 
O'Shea, Duke of San Luca, in Spain. His father came to this country 
when the Judge was an infant and became attached to the press in Wash- 
ington in the days of The National Intelligencer under Gates and Seaton, 
after which he established a literary journal in Philadelphia, The Ath- 
ensum. From there he went to New York, where he died in 1846. The 
Judge, who was brought up to his father's occupation of printer, was 
attracted to the law while setting up the type for a new edition of Kent's 
"Commentaries," and being brought, through the reading of proofs, into 
contact with Judge Kent, who edited his father's "Commentaries," was 
accepted by him as a student, and his legal studies were completed in the 
office of Kent & Tallman in New York. 

When admitted to the bar he went to Oswego, and there became the 
legal adviser of that municipality, but shortly afterwards returned to 
practice his profession in New York. He filled the office of corporation 
attorney there in the years 1865 and 1866, and in 1870 he was elected a 
judge of the Marine Court, of which he became chief justice, and in which 
court he continued for twelve years. On leaving the bench he returned 
to the practice of his profession, devoting himself mainly to the organiza- 
tion of corporations for the establishment of railroads or industrial ob- 
jects, in which he became especially successful. 

He went abroad annually for many years, and few Americans had so 
wide an acquaintance with distinguished men in England, France and 
Italy as he. He was a man of a most social nature and a brilliant conver- 
sationalist. In 1853 he married Angelica Barracleough, a daughter of 
Floyd Smith, for many years president of the Manhattan Gas Company, 
of whose large family of children four at least, besides Mrs. Shea, have 
been residents of Brattleboro, Mrs. Judah, Mrs. Mendon, Mrs. F. W. 
Brooks and Cushman Smith. For several years the family were summer 
visitors to Brattleboro, but in 1883 Judge Shea bought the Alfred Wright 
house on Oak Street, which was remodeled and enlarged into a summer 
place, and which became the center of a generous hospitality. 



JUDGE GEORGE SHEA 955 

He was a prolific writer, mainly upon subjects connected with the early 
constitutional and religious history of the country. His publishers, 
Houghton, Mifflin & Company, regarded him as a writer who possessed a' 
rare knowledge of the English language, and a style of peculiar elegance, 
which belonged rather to an old English period than to the more concise 
and pointed manner of expression which our time demands. Those who 
knew Judge Shea well for a long term of years were impressed with the 
fact that he was a man of genuine goodness of heart. 

In politics he was a Democrat of the Jeffersonian school, having little 
sympathy with the course and principles of his party as developed in 
latter years. It is related of him that when he retired from the marine 
court judgeship in 1882 he did so because Tammany Hall demanded as the 
price of his reelection a year's salary of the office, $15,000. To this he 
answered, with true Roman scorn, that, if his services to the city had not 
been such as to warrant his reelection on his own merits, he did not desire 
the office. In securing the discharge of Jefferson Davis he was associated 
with Charles O'Conor and Horace Greeley, with whom he had life- 
long intimacies. The confidence which was reposed in him by promi- 
nent men during and following the war is shown by the fact that he held 
among his treasures the power of attorney of Horace Greeley, Cornelius 
Vanderbilt and Gerrit Smith to put their names upon Jefferson Davis's 
bail bond, or to take any course in the matter which his judgment dictated. 

He wrote a life of Alexander Hamilton, which passed through two edi- 
tions and has been justly praised ; also an erudite account of Duns Scotus, 
the mediaeval metaphysician and scholar, and other publications, theo- 
logical, archjeological and artistic. The company of men who listened to 
Judge Shea's paper on the life and times of Alexander Hamilton, de- 
livered before the Professional Club here, were impressed with the real- 
istic way with which he had identified himself with the life of the forma- 
tive time of our government, and with the personality of the leaders of 
that day ; it was as if a friend and companion of Hamilton and Jefferson 
and Washington was speaking. It was largely through these early con- 
stitutional studies that he had come into intimate relations with the French 
families of Talleyrand, Rochambeau, Lafayette and their descendants. 

Judge Shea died January 15, 1895. Mrs. Shea died in Brattleboro 
February 19, 1909. 
Children: 

Mary Ritter, died January 1, 1916. 

Alice, married September 8, 1893, Charles Erastus Glidden; bom in 
1860. She died January 30, 1911. Their daughter, Elizabeth, mar- 
ried October 28, 1914, William McGreevy of Baltimore, Maryland. 

George, Junior, died January 18, 1895. 



9'56 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Reverend Samuel McChord Crothers 

Reverend Samuel McChord Crothers was born in Oswego, Illinois, 
June 7, 1857, the son of John M. and Nancy Foster Crothers. His early 
education was obtained at Springfield, Ohio, and he graduated at Prince- 
ton in 1874. He studied theologj- at the Union Theological Seminary, 
1874-1877; the Harvard Divinity School, 1881. 

, He married September 9, 1883, Miss Louise M. Bronson of Santa 
Barbara, California, and came direct to Brattleboro. 

His pastorates have been at Eureka, Nevada, Santa Barbara, Brattle- 
boro, where for the first time he was settled over a Unitarian Church, 
from October 17, 1882, to 1886. He went from Brattleboro to St. Paul, 
where he remained until 1894. He is now pastor of the First Church of 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, and is university preacher to Harvard College. 

He is the author of twelve or more books of essays, among them the 
following: "Members of One Body"; "Miss Muffet's Christmas Party"; 
"The Gentle Reader" ; "The Understanding Heart" ; "The Pardoner's 
Wallet"; "The Endless Life." 
Children : 

Katherine Foster. 

Bronson McChord, born July 10, 1884. 

Marjory Louise, born in St. Paul. 

Helen McChord, born in Cambridge. 

Gordon, born May 3, 1902. 

Reverend Doctor George B. Gow 

Reverend Doctor George B. Gow, son of Eliphalet and Serena Merrill 
Russell Gow, was born in Waterville, Maine, January 11, 1832. His 
father was of Scotch and English ancestry, a tin-plate worker and hard- 
ware dealer, honest, industrious, prudent and successful in business. He 
was a student of books, a friend of the educated men of the town, and the 
little library of standard works in history, science, philosophy and litera- 
ture which he collected, became the nucleus of his son's large private 
library and starting point of that son's education. 

Doctor Gow attended the Coburn Classical Institute and Colby College 
of his native town. Left fatherless at the age of five years, he was for- 
tunate in the frequent presence in his mother's home of many men who 
became illustrious as educators and preachers. From a boy he was always 
interested in the opinions and occupations of his fellow men. He was 
fond of boyish sports and knew every rock and rapid and shoal in the 
Kennebec River for miles. He was equally alive to every form of handi- 
craft. He learned to use carpenter's tools and the paint brush, and to set 



REV. GEORGE B. GOW, D.D. 957 

type in the printing office. While he watched the shoemaker, harness- 
maker and blacksmith, his interest in public affairs made him a no mean 
audience for their harangues on political subjects. From such a youth 
there followed naturally the large and varied activities of his richly 
useful life. 

Graduating from the college at the age of twenty, he was first a teacher 
at the Littlefield Academy and the Waterville Classical Institute. While 
principal of this school he married Miss Lucy Ann Marston of Waterville. 
He next studied for three years at the Newton Theological Seminary, 
graduating in 1858, was ordained September 28, 1858, pastor of the Bap- 
tist Church of Ayer, Massachusetts, where he remained until 1861, became 
principal of Colby Academy in 1861, resigning the position in 186-1, and 
returned permanently to the ministry. After a three years' pastorate in 
Gloucester, Massachusetts, he settled in Worcester, where his energies 
were largely directed to reviving the Worcester Academy, while pastor of 
the Main Street Baptist Church. In 1873 he resigned his pastorate to 
become, for two years, financial agent of the academy and to raise the 
$100,000 which set it on substantial foundations. From 1874 to 1880 
during a pastorate in the near-by town of Millbury, he was chairman 
of the executive committee of the academy. It was at Millbury that the 
mother of his children died in 1875 and where some years later he married 
Miss Ellen Gow, professor of moral philosophy at Wellesley College. 

In 1880 Doctor Gow accepted the pastorate of the First Baptist Church 
in Brattleboro, in which he remained until January 1, 188.3. Here he 
was a member of the Board of Trustees of the Vermont Academy at Sax- 
tons River, the founder of the Professional Club, promoter of the Free 
Library. He was greatly respected and beloved by as many outside as 
within the limits of his parish. 

Doctor Gow's great work was, however, chiefly wrought at Glens Falls, 
New York, as pastor of the Baptist Church from 1883 to 1895 and as 
pastor emeritus until the time of his death, January 17, 1913. 

A new and beautiful church edifice, a new chapel and a parsonage 
freed from debt were the more material result of his labors. 

Failing health severed his active relation with the church ; for a few 
years he lived in the homes of his sons, and then returned to spend his 
last years in Glens Falls, cared for by his sister-in-law. Miss Virginia 
M. Gow. 

He was for many years a trustee of the Newton Theological Institution. 
In 1881 he received the degree of D.D. from his alma mater, Colby Col- 
lege. Whether as pastor, teacher, independent thinker, promoter of public 
works. Doctor Gow went about doing good, and winning the respect and 
love of his fellow men. 



958 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

Children : 

John Russell, born in Waterville, jMaine, October 20, 1855. 
Alvah Hovey, born in Ayer, Massachusetts, died in infancy. 
George Coleman, born in Ayer, teacher of Piano Harmony and Theory, 
Smith College, is now professor of music at Vassar College. 

Reverend John Russell Gow graduated from the High School in 
Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1872, pursued his collegiate course at Brown 
University, receiving his degree in 1877 ; graduated from Newton (Massa- 
chusetts) Theological Seminary, 1882; received D.D. from Colby College; 
was ordained to the ministry in Fair Haven, Vermont, in July, 1883, and 
was pastor of the Baptist Church there three years; other pastorates: 
Bridgeport, Connecticut, 1886-1891; Hyde Park, Chicago, 1891-1895; 
Somerville, Massachusetts, 1895-1908; Brattleboro, 1908-1913. 

Doctor Gow was a member of the board of trustees of Newton Theolog- 
ical Seminary, president of the board of trustees of Vermont Academy. 

He married September 10, 1884, Harriet L. Hovey, daughter of Rever- 
end Alvah Flovey, president of Newton Theological Seminary, who died 
in March, 1904. Children: Lucy Augusta, married William Thomas 
Chase ; Arthur Coleman Gow, a Dartmouth graduate, with the Ambursen 
Hydraulic Construction Company of Boston ; Dorothy ; John Russell 
Gow, Junior. 

On March 18, 1909, Doctor Gow married in Cambridge, Mrs., Rosa 
Howes Bevins, a member of his former Somerville parish. 

Judge James Loren Martin 

The first ancestor of James L. Martin in this country was Ebenezer, 
who came from Scotland and settled in Londonderry, New Hampshire. 
John Martin, his grandfather, was born in Providence, Rhode Island, 
where he remained until he was twenty-three years of age ; he then re- 
moved to Landgrove, Vermont, was a farmer, regarded by his neighbors 
as a prosperous man and occupied local offices of trust. 

James Martin, father of James L. Martin, was born at Landgrove, 
where he passed the early part of his life. He spent one year in Virginia, 
but returned to Vermont, locating in Londonderry, where he lived up to 
the time of his death. Mr. Martin was a farmer, but practiced law in his 
native state, where he was an active partisan of the Democratic party. 
He was for many years justice of the peace, town clerk and served several 
terms as assemblyman. He was state senator for Vermont, and while 
acting in that capacity became known as the "Lion of the Senate" on 
account of his marvelous oratorical talent, which he used to the best ad- 
vantage in the interest of those he represented. Mr. Martin was captain 



JUDGE JAMES LOREN MARTIN 959 

of a company of militia, a member of the Universalist Church, and promi- 
nently identified with the Masonic order. As a counseIor-at-la\v his 
advice was constantly sought, owing to his wide and varied experience in 
judicial matters. His wife was Lucy Gray, daughter of Henry Gray. 
Six sons were born of this union. 

James Loren Martin, second son of James and Lucy IMartin, was born 
September 13, 1S4G, in Landgrove, Bennington County, six miles from 
South Londonderry, in the house where his father was born. 

Brought up on the paternal farm, he was thoroughly inured to habits 
of industry and independence, and at the age of fourteen was presented 
twenty dollars and the control of his own time, which constituted the sole 
outfit with which he faced the future. He worked his way through school, 
and when not in school engaged in the bracing toil of chopping wood by 
the cord and in peeling bark for tanneries. He received his preliminary 
education in the district schools of Londonderry, and this was later sup- 
plemented by a course at the Marlow (New Hampshire) Academy, where 
he later became a teacher ; he also taught in the public schools of London- 
derry for about seven years. At intervals he read law and in 1867 he 
entered the law office of Judge Hoyt H. Wheeler, then of Jamaica, whom 
he was destined to succeed as United States Judge. In 1868 he entered 
the Albany Law School, finishing his studies there in May, 1869. 

Admitted to the Bennington County bar at the June term, 1869, Mr. 
Martin opened an office in South Londonderry in the fall of the same 
year. Until September, 1879, he practiced professionally without any 
associate, and then formed a partnership with Addison E. Cudworth of 
South Londonderry. That partnership continued a year. 

In January, 1882, with J. G. Eddy as an associate, he purchased the law 
business of Charles N. Davenport of Brattleboro and moved to Brattle- 
boro. In 1888 he formed a partnership with Eleazer L. \\^aterman, who 
became one of the superior judges of Vermont, and later George B. Hitt, 
a native of Wallingford, Vermont, became a member of the firm, their 
office being in the bank building at the corner of Main and Elliot Streets. 
Mr. Hitt was a natural lawyer and devoted to his profession ; was elected 
state's attorney of Windham County in 1890, county senator in 1897, and 
became chairman of important committees. He died at thirty-four years 
of age. 

Mr. Martin's political career began with his. election as representative 
from Londonderry in the Legislature of 1874. He served on the com- 
mittee of education, having charge of the bill to abolish the board of edu- 
cation, and for the appointment of a state superintendent. In 1876 he was 
returned to the Legislature from Londonderry, serving as chairman of 



960 ANNALS OF BRATTLEBORO 

the committee on elections and as a member of the judiciary committee. 
He was sent a third time in 1878, and was chosen speaker of the House 
on the second ballot. In 1880, being returned for the fourth time, he 
received the compliment of a unanimous election to the speakership. Such 
an event had never occurred before in the history of Vermont. In 1883 
he was again returned and the popular appreciation of his services was 
further signified by a third election to the speakership. 

He represented Brattleboro in the Legislature of 1893, but declined to 
be a candidate for speaker. He was made chairman of the judiciary 
committee and was second on the ways and means committee. He was 
appointed state tax commissioner in 1888 and again in 1892. 

Mr. Martin became active in Republican politics, and in 1897 President 
William McKinley, in whose interest Mr. Martin was very influential, 
appointed him United States District Attorney for Vermont. He was 
serving his third term when in October, 1906, the late Judge Hoyt H. 
Wheeler of this town having retired as United States judge, Mr. Martin 
was named as his successor by President Theodore Roosevelt. 

While holding the office of district attorney he was particularly aggres- 
sive against the illegal immigration of Chinamen over the Vermont border, 
completing wiping out a business that had once flourished. For this work 
he was highly complimented by the department of justice. 

During his tenure of office as United States judge, Judge Martin's 
reputation grew apace. He was called on to preside at some exceptionally 
important cases, and his fairness and legal acumen were widely com- 
mented upon. 

"In connection with his handling of the famous sugar fraud cases in 
New York in 1910 he demonstrated that he knew the law and was 
prompt in its upholding. But few outside of the immediate circle in 
constant attendance upon the hearing had recognized it. His charge 
to the jury, and his exposition of the law bearing upon criminal con- 
spiracy will be quoted for a generation to come in the estimation of 
the most successful attorneys in practice at the New York bar. Ordi- 
narily the judge's charge is welcomed with hovering pencils by the 
attorneys on either side. At every opportunity they note exceptions for 
use in demanding a retrial. When Judge Martin read his charge the 
lawyers sat with useless pencils between their fingers. Soon they began 
to close their notebooks. Then they put their pencils away. When 
he concluded, every lawyer on both sides went forward to the bench to 
congratulate him upon the most masterly exposition of law in their recol- 
lection. Not an exception was noted on either side — and this in a trial 
marked by its bitterness, and in which the most persistent fighters of the 
bar were engaged." 



JUDGE HOYT HENRY WHEELER 961 

In 1914 Judge Martin received the degree of doctor o