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64 1 07 

o ^ 







Aknals of the Scots. ' ^^°^' 

Introduction, I 

Annals, ••...., 25 

Appendix, . . , . , ^ ^ 222 

Annals of Strath-Clyde. 

Introduction, joi 

Annals, .07 

Annals of Cujiberland. 

Introduction, ion 

Annals, 196 

Appendix, . . . . . . .239 

Annals of Galloway. 

Introduction, 243 

Annals, 251 

Appendix, . . , . . , 3Qg 

Annals of Murray. 

Introductioo, 325 

Annals, 001 

Annate oi tje ??ict0* 


The Scots are mentioned by no historian earlier 
than Ammianus Marcellinus, under the year 360. 
It has, indeed, been frequently asserted that Por- 
phyry, a celebrated pagan philosopher, about the year 
267, in a work against the christian religion, now 
lost, declared that '* neither Britain, a province fer- 
tile of tyrants, and the Scotish nations (^Scotticce 
gentes), and all the barbarous nations thereabout as 
^ far as the ocean, had known Moses and the pro- 
phets :" but, as some copies of saint Jeromes epistle 
to Ctesiphon against Pelagius, in which the passage 
is preserved, read (not Scotticce, but) ScythicoB 
gentes, which seems most likely to be Porphyrys 
genuine expression, this instance cannot be relied 



on.* In the panegyric of Latinus Pacatus Drepa- 
nius, addressed in Rome, to the emperor Theodosius 
the elder, in the year 36l, they are again noticed : 
" Redactum ad paludes suas Scotum loquar ?" (Shall 
I speak of the Scot driven to his marshes ?) The 
name, likewise, occurs in the poet Claudian, about 
the year 400, where, speaking of the count Theo- 
dosius, he says, 

" Ille leves Mauros, nee falso nomine Pictos 
Edomuit ; Scotumc^e vago mucione secutus 
Fregit Hyperboreas remus audacibus undas." 

Again : 

' " Scotorum cumulos flevit glacialis rime" 

• Hieronymus adversus Pelagium ad Cte$iphontem (Opera^ 
Parisiis, 1534, to. 2, fo. 91, 6). Innes, however, maintains 
the passage not to be of Porphyry, but of saint Jerome him- 
self; which seems a mistake : but, clearly, had Porphyry in- 
tended the Scots of Ireland or Britain, he would have written 
Scotica gens ; whereas there were many Scythian nations, with 
which the Greeks had been acquainted even from the time of 
Herodotus ; but it is highly improbable they should ever have 
heard of so obscure and comparatively modem a people as the 
Scots ; and, in fact, no synonimoas term for either Scotus or 
Scotia is to be found in the Greek. The word Scythicat, in 
the verses of Floras, upon the emperor Hadrian, preserved 
by Spartian, and before quoted, has, likewise, been conjectu- 
red to mean Scoticas ; though it apparently means no more 
than Borealu. 

Again : 


" Venit et extremis legio preetenta Btitannis ; 
Qute Scoto dat psna truci " 

'■'■ «— — totam quum Scatut leraen 
Movit et infesto sputnavit remige Tethvs." 

St Jerome, in his 83d epistle, says, " Scottorum 
et Atticorum [r. Atticotoruni] ritu, ac de republica 
Platonis, promiscuas uxores, communes liberos ha- 
beant ;" and, in his second book against Jovian, as- 
serts that, when a youth, in Gaul, he had himself 
seen the Scots, a British nation, eat human flesh : 
" Quid loquar de caeteris nationibus, cum ipse ado- 
lescentulus in Gallia viderim Scotos, gentem Bri- 
tannicam, humanis vesci camibus ?"* These Scots 
appear to have settled, or established themselves, 
during the third century, in Hibernia, or Ireland, 
to which, in process of time, they gave the new 
name of Scotia, or Scotland.f This country, it ap- 

* Leiand appears to have seen " a picture upon glass, which 
was in the cloister of Strenshall [abbey, a little above Whit- 
by], shewed the Scots who inhabited near the confines of the 
Engles, to have been, even to the times of William the bastard, 
and this barbarity to have been punished by the Williamites." 
(Collectanea^ III, 40.) 

-f- It is called lernis, by Orpheus of Crotona, in his Argo- 
nauticks, 526 years before Christ ; rerne, by Aristotle, Strabo, 


pears, was already inhabited by the Hiberni, or Hi- 
beriones, of whose origin, any more than that of the 
Scots, nothing is known, but by conjecture, that the 
former were a colony from Britain.* The distinc- 

Stephen of Byzantium, and Claudian ; Iris, by Diodorus Si- 
culus ; louernia, by Ptolemy and Marcianus ; Juverna, by 
Mela, Juvenal, and Solinus ; Hibernia, by Caesar, Pliny, Ta- 
citus, Orosius, Bede, &c ; Hiberione or Hiberia, by saint 
Patrick, and in the itinerary of Antoninus ; Iren, by the bio- 
grapher of saint Gildas ; and Scotia, or insula Scotorum, by 
Isidore, Ceolfrid, Bede, Eginhard, &c. &c. The inhabitants, 
apparently from the name of the island, have been called by 
ancient writers, Hiberni, Hiberionet, Iti,Ire7tses, and Scotti 
or ScoH. 

The name of Scotia, however, seems not to be peculiarly 
appropriated either to Ireland or to the north of Britain : " An- 
no DCC.XIII, Pipinus moritur. Franci vero denuo in Scotia 
silva, in Theobaldum et Austrios inuerunt ; et post multam 
hinc inde strage m, Theobaldus vix fugae consilio evasit." (Ger- 
vase of Tilbury, Otia imperialia.) (Leibnitz, Scrip. Bruns. I.) 
(De regno Francorum, &c.) King Alfred, likewise, in his 
translation of Orosius, has a Scotland in the JMediterranean, to 
the westward ; but without any countenance from his originaL 
See B. 1, c. 1. 

" Propertius, who died some years before the birth of Christ, 

" Hibernk^i Gette, pictoque Britannia curru ;" 
which Ware, or Harris, takes to allude to the Hiberni of Ire- 
land. It is, however, nothing more than an epithet {wintry) 
to the Getae or Goths, who lived in northern regions. Gildas 
calls the Scots " Hiberni giassatorcs ;" and even Eumenius, 
in 2flC, where he joins the Hiberni with the Picti, seems to 
mean the same people. 


tion between these tvro nations is manifested in an 
ancient treatise, supposed to have been written by 
saint Patrick, and entitled his Cotifession or Apo^ 
logy, in which the Scotti, as being the conquerors, 
masters, and military men, appear as the nobility, 
or gentry ;Jilu Scottorum etjilioe regulorum ; which 
he repeats, joining, in both places, the Scotli and 
regtdi, as being synonimous equivalent terms ; and 
adding, generally, to the name Scottus, that of re~ 
gulus or nobilis ; whereas he never calls the native 
Irish any thing but Hiberionce, as being the com- 
mons and ordinary people.* This new race of the 
Scots is brought, as usual, from Scythia, or Scati" 
dinavia, the officina gentium, or manufactory of na- 
tions, t In support of this hypothesis, it is pretend- 

• Innes, p. 517. 

+ Nennius, ftom the information of the most learned Scots 
(peritissimi Scotorum), relates, that, when the Egyptians, pur- 
suing the children of Israel, were drowned in the red sea, there 
was, in those days, a nobleman of Scythia among the Egyp- 
tians, expelled from his kingdom, who would not go in pursuit 
of the people of god. Being, therefore, banished, and wan- 
dering through various countries, he arrived at length in Spain, 
whence, after inhabiting there for many years, he came to Hi- 
bernia, 2000 years after the drowning of the Egyptians in the 
red sea. This noble Scythian was also son-in-law to Pharaoh, 
t. e. the husband of his daughter Scota, from whom, as was 
reported, Scotia (L e. Ireland) was called. (C. !>.) As* i5ede 


ed, that the names Scotus and Scytha are not only 
synonimous, but that the former is a mere corrup- 
tion of the latter ! 

" Dicitur a Githia Geticus, seu Gothia Gothi ; 
Dicitur h Sithia Sithtcus, sic Scotia Scoti."* 

Ralph de Diceto, about the year 1210, accounts for 
this perversion in the manner of a modern etymo- 

does not say that the Scots came from Scythia, the notion seems 
to have no better foundation than this tidiculous Irish fable of 
Nennius. He has already, in another, equally absurd, brought 
them from Spain : " Novissime," he says, " Last of all came 
the Scots from the parts of Spain to Ireland (cc. 6 and 7)'* 
He brings them, however, from time to time, and then says, 
" Last of all (.Novissim^) came Clamhocter, and there inha- 
bited, with all his nation, unto this day :" though, after all, 
he, or his interpolator, allows that " no certain history of the 
origin of the Scots is to be found." (C. 8.) " The Britons," 
he says, " came in the third age of the world to Britain, and 
the Scythians, that is, the Scots (Scythse autem, i. e. Scoti) in 
the fourth age of the world obtained Ireland." His third age 
is from Abraham to David ; his fourth from David to Daniel. 
See also Polycfironicon, B. 1, p. 185. Bertram says, that a 
MS. Herodotus reads iKoloa-HtiBat. What Herodotus is that ? 
" The Irish writers," according to mr. Pinkerton, " uniformly 
say that the Scots were Scythians, and so Nennius tells us ex- 
pressly .... If we deny," he adds, " the Scots to have been 
Scythians, we must reject all the Irish accounts, ancient and 
modern." {Enquiry^ II, 46.) There is, however, no Irish 

• phro. rythmicum (Innes.) 


logist : *' A regione quadam quae dicitur Scitia, di- 
citur Scita, Sciticus, Scoticiis, Scotus, Scotia, Si- 
militer a regione quadam quae dicitur Geiia, dici- 
tur Geta, Geticus, Goticus, Gotus, Ostrogotus, Wit- 
sigotus : which serves to remind one of the ludi- 
crous etymology of Golden Pippin : " Hooper, 
cooper, diaper, napkin, pipkin, king Pepin, golden 
Pippin." Q.E.D. Nennius, it is true, who brings 

writer of any antiquity or repute, -who maintains this opinion ; 
and with respect to Nennius, who seems to be the father of it, 
his work is justly characterized by rar. Pinkerton himself " as 
the weakest that ever bore the name of history : Its fables" 
being " so childish and grotesque as to disgrace the human 
mind." (II, 288.) He calls the Scots Scythes, and brings them 
from Egypt and Spain ! The remark of Reinerus Rinectius, 
" that at this day the name of the Scythians survives in that 
of the Scots," is a false and absurd conceit. Mr. Pinkerton, 
who says that " in person the Lowlanders are tall and large, 
with fair complexions, and often with flaxen, yellow, and red 
hair, and blue eyes : the grand features of the Goths [as all, 
or most of them, are likewise of the Celts], in all ancient wri- 
ters," adds, that " The Highlanders are generally diminutive, 
with brown complexions, and almost always with black curled 
hair and dark eyes." {Enquiry, II., 340). These Higlilanders, 
or Irish Scots, cannot, therefore, upon his own hypothesis, be 
a race of Scythians, as he elsewhere asserts, and pretends to 
prove, that the Scythee and Scoti, and the Scythae and Gothi, 
are one and the same people : consequently, if such an ab- 
surd system could have been supported, there would be no 
Celts in either Britain or Ireland. 


the Scots from Spain, uses promiscuously the names 
of ScythcB and Scott for the same people : but it is 
by no means clear that Gildas calls the passage, 
through which the Scots used to invade the provin- 
cial Britons, Scythica vallis ; the word Scylhica 
being, in fact, to be found in no ancient MSS. : all 
which, on the contrary, read Styticam, and Tilhi- 
cam ; for which Gale and Bertram propose Theti~ 
cam ; but the true emendation is undoubtedly Te- 
thicam : the word Tethys being repeatedly used by 
Claudian (an author very likely to be consulted by 
Gildas) for the British sea : 

" totam quum Scotus lernen 

Movit et infesto spumavit remige Tethys." 

Again : 

'♦ Domito quod Saxone Tethys 

Mitior aut fracco secura Britannia Picto." 

It is, at the same time, utterly improbable that 
Ammianus Marcellinus, and the other writers of 
his age, had they meant to call this people Scythce, 
would have written it Scott : for why should they 
call one branch of the Scythce Scoii, and not the 
whole ? Orosius, too, who wrote in the 5th century, 
has much about the ancient Scythce, but calls the 
inhabitants of Hibernia and Menevia Scotonim gen- 


tes.* It is, therefore, a solema and notorious fact, 
that no ancient or respectable writer ever calls the 
Scots of Ireland Scythce, or the Scythians them- 
selves Scoti. 

Richai'd of Cirencester, in opposition to Bede, 
who affirms the Scots to be strangers, supposes 
them to have had their origin from Britain ; and 
says, most certain it is that the Damnii, Voluntii, 
Brigantes, Caugi, and other nations [of Ireland] 
were of British origin, which passed over thither 
after either Devitiacus, or Claudius, or Ostorius, 
or other successful commanders, had disturbed them 
at home ; alleging, by way of further argument, 
their ancient tongue, which, he says, agrees not a 
little with that of Britain and Gaul. This reason- 
ing, however, will apply better to the Hiberni than 
the Scoti. He enumerates, among the inhabitants, 
the Ibernii, the Brigantes, the Menapii, the Cau(;i 
(both of Teutonick origin), the Eblanae, the Volun- 
tii, the Damnii, the Coriondi, and the Scoti ; but 
of what age his materials were cannot be precisely 
ascertained. Ptolemy, indeed, names the Auteri, 

• King Alfred, in his translation of this author, has Sceottat 
(not Scyttas) and Scotland (i. e. Ireland). He calls the Scy- 
thians Sciththicon. In his translation of Bede he has Scottas, 
Scotta, Scottunu It is not, therefore, true, as mr. Pinkerton 
pretends, that he ever writes Scythe for Scottise. 


Brigantes, Cauci, Coriondi, Darnii, or Darini, 
Eblani, or Blanii, Erdini, Gargani, Menapii, Mag- 
natae, or Magnati, Robogdii, Udiae,or Vodiae, Uterni, 
Vellubri, or Velliberi, Vennicnii, and Voluntii, or 
Usuntii : to which Orosius adds the Luceni ; and 
Richard, the Ibernii, and Scotti. But why these 
Roman names should be given to people whom the 
Romans never conquered, nor even visited, or what 
authority Ptolemy had for the geography of the 
country, one is at a loss to conceive. 

That the Scots, Scoti, or Scotti, were a Celtic 
race,* is proved by their language, which, from the 
names, words, fragments, and even entire works, of 
the 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th, centuries still 
preserved, f appears to be not only radically, but 

• They called themselves Ga'M, Gaitheli : " Anegathel di- 
citur quasi margo Scottorum seu Hybernensium : quia omnes 
Hyhernenses & Scotti generaliter Gaitheli dicuntur, a quodam 
eorum primaevo duce Gathelglas vocata" Desitii AlhanioE 

•\ Usher, from an ancient life of St Albe, quotes a couplet 
in Scotish or Irish rime, by saint Patrick. See, also. Wares 
Irith ■writers, as improved by Harris. They cannot indeed pro- 
duce original MSS. any more than other people, neither is their 
production necessary to establish the fact. An excellent Irish 
scholar, Theophilus O'Flanagan, in 1785, discovered and de- 
cyphered an inscription in the Irish language, and the Ogham 
character, upon the sepulchral stone of Conan, a warrior, who 
was slain the year preceding the battle of Gabhra in 296, and 


identically, the same with that of the native Irish 
of the present day, which is universally acknow- 
ledged to be a dialect of the ancient Celtic. Ire- 
land, after its conversion to Christianity, in the 
5th century* was the seat of religion, literature, 
and science ; inviting the studious from all quar- 
ters, and supplying the neighbouring nations, even 
England itself, with learned priests. 

Little more need be said about the Scots. They are 
never mentioned, at least under that name, by either 
Ptolemy, Dio, or 'Herodian, much less by Tacitus ; 
and the SCOTTI, which appear, in large charac- 
ters, in Richards Roman map of Ireland, as a people 
occupying a considerable extent of country, may be 
fairly presumed to have been introduced on his own 
authority. A colony of these Scots, under the con- 

which was expressly referred to in an ancient Irish poem on 
that battle. This inscription could be read five different ways, 
as this very ingenious gentleman has satisfactorily proved. See 
The Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, Volume I. 
Mr. Pinkerton, it is true, " from perusal of the Annals of Ul- 
ster," is " fully convinced that the names of not only the Irish 
monarchs but of most of the provincial kinglets, are Gothic." 
(Enquiry, II. 47). An opinion, to make use of his own words, 
" absolutely false, ignorant, and childish." (I. 163.) 

• St Palladius, according to Bede, was first sent by pope 
Cdestin, in 431, to the Scots that believed in Christ. (B. I. c. 
13.) He never mentions saint Patrick, who is supposed to 
have arrived thitlicr in the same year. 


duct of Riada^ or Reuda, is supposed, hy Bede and 
others, to have settled in the west part of Albany^ 
or modern Scotland, at sttoe uncertain period, pro- 
bably in the 4th or 5th century ;* but being, it is 

• Mr Pinkerton has placed the Scots in Britain A. C. 258, 
a fact for which he quotes Beda, L. I, c. 6, and O'Conor. 
Bede, however, says nothing, from which a settlement of that, 
or, indeed, any other specific period, can be inferred ; and O'- 
Conor is a weak and credulous writer, of no authority, in a 
matter of ancient history, nor is either Kennedy, or Toland, 
a whit better ; for, although mr. Pinkerton pretends of the 
former that " he generally quotes MS. page and column," 
the only one he actually cites is the book of Lecan, taken, it 
seems, out of the Psalter of Cashel, a fabulous compilation 
of no antiquity. In every other respect he is perfectly ig- 
norant and contemptible, following the romantic lies of Bois 
and Buchanan with the most implicit servility. Even mr. 
Pinkerton himself, who has recourse to the evidence of these 
incredible witnesses, allows they may be thought " but poor 
supports of Beda's authority." In fact, they are no support at 
all, any more than Geoffrey of Monmouth, or Geoffrey Keat- 
ing, and do not deserve to be quoted, or even read. No such 
expedition, nor even such a person as Riada or Reuda, is ever 
noticed by Tigernac, or Flannus d monastcrio (or Flan of 
Bute), as quoted by Usher and O'Flaherty, or in the Ulster 
Annals, or any otlier ancient, in short, or authentic monument : 
it remains, therefore, on the sole authority of Bede. There 
are, at the same time, many passages in no modern writers to 
countenance a settlement of the Scots in Britain, anterior to 
that of Fergus ]\IacErc, in 496, 498, or 503. " In Britain 
also," as we are told by Nennius, " Historeth the son of Isto- 
rinus held Dalrieta with his people" (c. 8). " The Scots from 


conjectured, not long after, driven out by the Picts, 
another still more formidable and populous, under 

Ireland," according to an ancient but anonymous life of saint 
Patrick, cited by Usher (p. 306), " under their king Neill 
Nseigiallach [whose reign O'FIaherty makes to commence 379] 
wasted much divers provinces of Britain against the Roman 
empire, in the reign of Constantius, the son of Constantine ; 
beginning to waste the north part of Britain : and, afterward, 
by battles and fleets, the Hibernians expelled the inhabitants 
of that land ; and inhabited these themselves. Saint Patrick, 
therefore," it adds, " was led captive to Ireland in the first 
year of the reign of the emperor Julian the apostate, who 
reigned after Constantinus [A. C- 361] ; and in the ninth year 
of the reign of Neill Naeigiallach, king of Ireland, who reigned 
powerfully 27 years, and who much wasted Britain and Eng- 
land, as far as the sea which is between Gaul and England, 
and there fell in battle." This Neil [Nellus magnus] possess- 
ing the monarchy of Ireland, the six sons of Mured king of 
Ulster, as we learn from Giraldus Cambrensis, " in no small 
fleet, occupied the northern parts of Britain, whence, also, a 
nation by them propagated, and called by a specific word 
Scotish, inhabit that comer to this day." (Topo. Hiber. Dis- 
tinc. 3, c. 16.) This, however, seems to allude to the establish- 
ment, in 496 or 503, by three of the six (or twelve) sons of 
Ere, of the royal family of Ireland, and chief of the Dalriads 
in the north of that island. See O' Flaherty's Ogygia, p. 465. 
It may be proved, at the same time, by both Gildas and Bede, 
that the Scots were settled in the north-west of Britain before 
the year 450 ; and, from Ammianus Marcellinus, and others, 
that they had even infested those parts from the middle of the 
preceding century : but, it must be confessed, they are alto- 
gether unnoticed by Tacitus, Ptolemy, Dio, Herodian, and 
Eutropius, as well as in the Roman topography of Richard of 



the command of Fergus, or of himself and his two 
brothers Loarn and Angus, three of the sons of Ere, 
a petty king or lord of Ireland, arrived in the year 
496, or, according to some, in 498, and, to others, 
in 503. These Scots possessed, under the name of 
Dalriada, or Dalrieta (that of their ancient seat), 
the whole of Argyle, a province of much greater 
extent, at that period, than the present sheriflTdom,* 
together, it is probable, with the Hebrides, or west- 
ern isles ; and had their proper sovereigns till the 
year 843 ; when Kenneth MacAlpin, by whatever 
means, obtained the Pictish crown, and left the 
united kingdoms to his successors.f 

The ancient history of the Irish, as well as that 
of the British Scots, is obscured and polluted by a 
number of the most extravagant and absurd fables, 

• See Maq)herson8 Geographical illustrations. " The king- 
dom of the Scots in Britain, called sometimes RegnumDalrietce^ 
or Dalriedw, according to Innes, " included in those times all 
the western islands, together with the countries of Lorn, Ar- 
gyle, Knapdayl, Cowell, Kentyre, Lochabyr, and a part of 
Braid-Albayn." Critical Essay, p. 87- They and their terri- 
tory were divided from the Pictish dominions by two branches 
of the Orampian hills, or Drum-Alban ; the one to the north, 
from Athole to Knoydart, or Aresaick ; and the other to the 
south-east, from Athole, through Braid-Albayn, by Loch-Lo- 
mond, toward the mouth of Clyde. Ibid. 

• See the '* Introduction" to The Annals of the Picls. 


in which even their best modern writers, with an 
exception of Ware and Usher, seem to place implicit 
belief ; and which, though, in all probability, of very 
recent date, they cite as of immense and impossible 
antiquity. The only genuine documents they have 
are certain ancient annals ; those of Tigernac, for 
instance, who died in 1080, of Ulster, and of Innisfal- 
len ; the Chronicon Scotorum, and the synchronisms 
of Flannus a monasterio, or Flan of Bute, who died 
in 1056 ; together with a few passages in the ear- 
liest lives of some of their saints ; all which, as they 
afford no countenance to the lying legends, and an- 
tediluvian peregrinations of this ignorant, bigotted, 
and barbarous people, are neglected and despised.* 

• Even the latest writer upon the antiquities of Ireland, 
and, undoubtedly, an Irishman himself, though so sceptical as 
to dispute the very existence of saint Patrick, takes, like mr. 
Pinkerton, the Fins, Firbolgs, and Tuath-de-Danans, of Irish 
romance, for real and authentic history : which, in the words 
of the evangelist, is to " strain at a gnat, and swallow a 

General Vallancey, in his " Critico-historical dissertation 
concerning the laws of the ancient Irish," (being Number IV. 
of the " Collectanea de rebus Hibernicis") says, " I hope I 
need not make [those who interest themselves in Irish anti- 
quities] any apology, for delivering into their hands, in its 
original simplicity, what I have found in the Codex MomO' 
mUfuis, concerning the kings of Dal-cassian race, from the Ild 
eentury to the b^inning of the IX. : after which I shall pur. 


The name of Scotia, or Scotland, as elsewhere 
observed, was never attributed to the country now 
so called, before the eleventh century, when the 
Scots, being in the full and peaceable possession of 
the whole, thought proper to substitute that appel- 
lation in lieu of its more ancient name of Albania, 
or Albany ; their primitive dialect continuing in 
use, with both prince and people, till the reign of 
Malcolm III. surnamed Can-more, in 1057 i* from 

sue their history, connected with that of the £ugenian princes, 
and other kings of the different provinces of Ireland, accord- 
ing to the authority of the best anxals, particularly those 
of Inufallen, Tighernach, and his continuator, with those of 
Magradan, the Chronicon Scotorum, and of Clotimacnoiss, 


COPIES." (P. 425.) How far the veracity of this Phoenico- 
Chaldaic-Anglo-Hibernian antiquary may be relied on, is ma- 
nifest from his private letter to a friend at Dublin, dated some 
day in October, or November, 1798, (as appeared by a trans- 
mitted extract,) in which he said, " I have ncver seen the 
Chron. Scot, and what extracts I have given were from 
OTHER BOOKS :" SO that all this pretended history is mere 
fable and romance. A copy, however, of the Chronicon Sco- 
torum was in the collection of Charles O'Conor esquire, which 
is said to have been purchased by the marquis of Buckingham. 
See also p. 479. 

• That the proper tongue of this monarch was the Scotish 
or Irish Gaelic is proved by the testimony of a contemporary 
historian, Turgotus, that is, or Theodoricus, author of the life of 
saint Margaret, his wife, who, speaking of certain ecclesiastical 


which time the Saxon or English, from a variety of 
causes, seems to have gradually usurped its place ; 
so far, at least, that it is, at present, confined to part 
only of the north and west highlands, and to the 
Hebrides, or Western-isles. 

councils, in which the queen presided, adds, " Sed in hoc con- 
flictu REX IPSE adjutor et praecipuus residebat ; quodcumque 
in hac causa jussisset, dicere paratissimus et facere. Qui, quo- 
nmm perfect^ Anglorum llnguam, jEQue ut propriam, nove- 
rat, viGiLANTissiMUS in hoc concilia, utriusque partis in- 
TERPRES EXTiTERET :" that is, king Malcolm explained 
the queens English, or Saxon, to the Scotish clergy, and the 
Gaelic jargon of the latter, to the queen. The names of many 
Irish nobles oi bishops occur in the charters of this king, and 
his two or three immediate successors, who seem, from their 
situation as witnesses, to have been about the court : as, for 
instance, Macduffe and earl Duncan, under Malcolm ; Beth 
and Dufagan, under Alexander I. ; Cormac, Macbeth, Malise, 
Maldoweni, Macocbeth, Gillepatric, Macimpethin, Alwyn 
Maclerkyl, under David ; Duncan, the son of Amaledy, 
Malcolm, Gylmychel, Machedolf, Duncan, the son of Gilchrist, 
Newyn Blackessan, Maldoven, Maocdawy, Hector Macsvukyn, 
under Alexander III. {Additional case of E. countess of Su- 
therland, p. 6.) 

Irish patronymics, in fact, appear, at that period, to have 
been so common, that they were sometimes applied by way of 
distinction of the old Scotish peerage. " A.D. 1139 [David] 
rex Seotie et Henricus filius ejus, cum omnibus suis, extunc 
quamdiu viverent, Stephano regi Anglie per omnia pacifici, et 
fidelissimi debebant : et ut iidelitate eorum securior esset, filium 
Cospatrici, comitis, et filium Hugonis de MoiviUa, et filium 


The Scots, whether of Ireland or North-Britain, 
appear to have been held in great contempt by the 
ancient English. The old capitulist of Gildas, 
about the twelfth century, calls them " gens scabra 
Scotorum" ; William of Malmesbury speaks of the 
*' rubiginem Scottice barbariei" (158); and says, 
** tunc Scottus familiaritatem pulicum . . . reliquit" 
(133). Henry of Huntingdon, archdeacon of that 
bishopric, and a learned historian of the same age, 
speaking of this people, adds, "quos \^Angli}yii,\s- 
siMOS habebant" {S50f). Gervase of Tilbury, like- 
wise, not a much later writer, having observed that 
" Scotland was formerly inhabited by the Scots, 
men," he continues, "viLissiMiE conversationis" 
{ptia imperialia, apud Scrip. Bruns. I, 917.) See, 
also, Bromton, co- 909* 

Walter Espec, a great baron of Yorkshire, who 
had come over from Normandy with William the 
bastard, in his harangue delivered to the English 
army, previously to the battle of Cowtonmoor, ha- 
ving already described certain successful exploits of 

Fergusi comitis, et filium Mel, et filium Mac : scilicet, quin- 
que comitum de Scotia, ei obsides dare debebant." (R. Ha- 
guttal de gestis Stephani, apud Decern scrip, co. 330.) Mel, 
a bishop, and disciple of saint Patrick, and Macca, the dis- 
ciple of himself and bishop Melchu, are mentioned by Usher 
(from an old biographer), 33(>. 


the Anglo-Normans in Scotland, goes on to ask, 
'* who would not laugh, rather than fear, that, 
against such Qmen], the vile Scot, with half- 
naked buttocks, should come foreward to fight ?" 
He says, likewise, " to our lances, to our swords, 
and our darts, they [the Scots] oppose their naked 
hide ; using a calf-skin for a shield :" and mentions, 
also, '* the too great length of those spears, which 
we," he says, " behpld from high :" but " the wood," 
he adds, " is frail, the iron blunt ; while it strikes, 
it perishes; while it is hit, it is broken, scarcely 
being sufficient for one blow. Receive it only with 
a stick, and the unarmed Scot will Stand still" 
(Ethelred, co. 340). Nevertheless it is said to have 
been ordained, by Ina, king of the West-Saxons, 
who died, at Rome, in 725, *' that the English 
might take wives of the illustrious blood of the Bri- 
tons, and the Britons, wives of the illustrious blood 
of the Engles. Some Engles received wives of the 
NOBLE BLOOD OP THE ScoTs." (Lelauds CoUec* 
tanea, I, 408.) 

It has been asserted by the late George St^evens, 
esquire, that " the crown of Scotland was originally 
not hereditary. When a successor," he adds, '' was 
declared in the lifetime of a king (as was often the 
case) the title oi prince of Cumberland was imme- 
diately bestowed on him as the mark of his desig- 


nation. Cumberland," he says, " was, at that time, 
held by Scotland of the crown of England, as a fief" 
{Note on Macbeth, Shak. VII, 368). 

But it is manifest that he knew nothing of the 
real history of that people, having contented him- 
self, like most other readers, with the legends of 
Fordun, Bois, or Buchanan, retailed by HoUynshed 
or Speed. That the crown of Scotland descended 
regularly from father to son, appears clearly from 
the old authentic lists far anterior to Fordun ; in 
which we find Malcolm III, in 1057, the lineal de- 
scendant of Fergus in 496. 

In the case of the infancy of the heir, it seems to 
have been usual for the next brother of the deceased 
monarch to ascend the throne, which it is probable 
he might not be always ready to part with ; and 
this monarchy, no doubt, like all others, was liable 
to usurpation and violent convulsions : but, never- 
theless, in settled times, and when left to itself, it 
constantly descended from ancestor to heir, like 
those of France or England ; and there is no in- 
stance of any interference, on the part of the people, 
either to elect a sovereign, or to change the succes- 

He seems, however, to have had no authority for 
these assertions but the absurd fables of Hector 
Bois ; by a quotation from whom, mr Malone sage- 


ly observes, " mr Steevens's remark is supported." 
*' An extract or two from Hector Boethius," he says, 
" will be sufficient relative to these points." There 
is, however, no instance, in the genuine history of 
Scotland, of a successor being designed in the life- 
time of a reigning king : and that the title of prince 
of Cumberland notified such designation is altoge- 
ther utterly false and groundless ; nor could Cum- 
berland possibly be a^ef at the time it was in the 
possession of the Scots ; many years, that is, before 
fiefs were known in these countries. 



CCCCXCVI. Fergus filius Eric fiiit primua 
qui de semine Chonare, suscepit regnum Albaniae, 
i. e. a monte Drumalban usque ad mare Hiberniae 
et ad Inche-Ga]l. Iste regnavit tribus annis.* 

" Cronica regum Scottorum, Innes's Critical Essay, Ap. 
Num. IV. and Pinkertons Enquiry, I. Ap. Num; IX. " Fer- 
gus filius Eric ipse fuit primus qui de semine Chonare susce- 
pit regnum Albaniae, i. e. A monte Brunallan usque ad mare 
Hibernise & ad InchegalV De situ Albanian, Innes, Ap. Num. 
I. " Fergus filius Erth primus in Scotia regnavit tribus annis 
ultra Drumalban usque Sluagh muner [1. Sluagh more'] & 
usque ad Inchegal." Nomina regum Scot, et Pict. Innes, 
Ap. Num. V. " Feargus moi mac Earca (i. e. Fergussiut 
magnus Erici Jilius) cum gente Dalraidd partem Britanniae 
tenuit ; & ibi mortuus est." Tigemac, Ushers Britan. cccle- 
Harum antiquitates, 1687, fo. p. 320. This gens Dalraida 
was the Dalreudini or Dalriads, Scotish or Irish subjects of 
Ere, king or lord of Dalrieda, in the province of Ulster (since 
called Reuta or Routs), a territory comprehending a good part 
of the county of Antrim : so that they seem to have brought 
the name, which they gave to their new settlement, along with 
them ; and Bede, who derives it from Daly a portion, and 



CCCCXCVI. Fergus, son of Ere, was the first 
who, of the seed of Chonare, assumed the govern- 

Eeuda, the leader of a prior colony, is, probably, mistaken in 
his etymology. " Clanna Eachach ghabsad Albain iar naird> 
ghiaidh. Clanna Chonaire an chaomh fhir Toghaide na tien 
Ghaodhil ; Tri mic Eire, mhic Eachach ait . . . Ghabsad Al- 
bain ard a ngus ; Loam, Fergus, is Aongus. Dech mbliadhna 
Loam ler bladh I bhflaitheas iarthair Alhan Tanes Loairn fhel 
go ngus Seach mbliadhna a ficheat Fergus^' (i. e. The children 
of Eochy possessed Albany after [the Picts] by their high 
power. The children of Chonaire the gentleman raised the 
strong Irish ; three sons of Ere, the son of Eochy the great, 
possessed Albany the great likewise ; Loarn, Fergus, and 
Angus. Ten years Loam flourished in the government of 
West-Albany. After Loarn a space likewise seven and twenty 
years Fergus.) Duan (a Gaelic or Irish poem of the time of 
Malcolm III. 1057 — 1093), Pinkertons Enquiry, 11. Ap. 
Num. II. Chonaire was chief king of Ireland about 215, anC 
the father of Carbre-Riada, who is said to have establishes 
himself in the same district about 258. See Ushers Antiqui- 
iatet, p. 320. " A. M. MMCCCXX [^. C. 320]. Ductu 
regis Fergusii in Brittaniam transeunt Scotti ; ibique sedeip 
figunt. Ricar. Cori. 1. 2, c. 1. Fergus, by the Irish account 
followed by Kennedy, died in 529 (p. 172) ', or, according to 
Walsh, who calls ffim, erroneously, brother to Mairchertach 
mar mliac Erca (i. c. Muredach, or Murtoch, the great, the soa 
of (his mother) Erca, the daughter of Loarn : See Ware and O'- 
Flaherty) monarch of Ireland, in 530 (Prospect, p. 20) ; and, 


ment of Albany, that is, from the mount Drumal- 
ban unto the sea of Ireland, and to the western isles. 
He reigned three years. 

with his two brothers, Loarn, and Enegus, was interred in the 
island Yona. {Nomina regum.) Their father Ere, the son 
of Eochy Munrevar, died in 474 (Usher, p. 321) ; and Eochy 
himself before 439 (Kennedy, p. 140). The settlement of 
Fergus in Britain is placed by Tigemac under the pontificate 
of Symmachus, who ascended the papal throne in 498 (though 
mr Pinkerton, who has examined sir James Wares copy of this 
annalist, now in the Bodleian library, says that he '^ does not 
positively date the power of Fergus in the first year of Sym- 
machus") ; and the ancient Irish author of the synchronisms 
as well of the kings and provincial princes of Ireland as of the 
kings of Scotland (i. c. Flannus a monasterio, or Flan of Bute), 
reckons twenty years from the battle of Och€, in which Ailill 
(or Oilill) Molt, king of Ireland, was slain, to the coming into 
Albany of the six sons of Ere, of whom, he says, two were 
called Angus, two, Loarn, and two, Fergus : a circumstance 
mentioned also by Joceline, in the life of St Patrick, who gave 
his blessing to Fergus, the youngest brother, and prophesied 
that he should be the father of kings, who should reign not 
only in their own country, but in a distant and foreign region. 
See Usher, p. 320. Kennedy, likewise, from the book of 
Lecan, observes that Ere left twelve sons, " most of them 
grown up before the fathers death." (P. 145.) The battle 
of Och^ appears, from the Ulster Annals, to have happened 
in 483 ; for which reason Usher (p. 320) places the arrival of 
Fergus and hia brethren in 503 ; a computation in which be 


CCCCXCIX. Domangrat filius ejus quinque 
annis [regnavit.3 

has been followed by others, but which cannot, possibly, be 
reconciled to subsequent and well-authenticated events, from 
the Ulster Annals, which require either this expedition to be 
placed at an earlier period, or the acknowledgment of some 
error in the intermediate dates. Father Walsh says, the "Irish 
monuments fix on the year of Christ 498, the time of Fergus 
Mot (son to Ercho, nephew to Eochadh Muinreamhar), and 
of his five brothers with him, invading the north of Britain" 
(p. 367) : and Lynch dates the battle of Ochd in 478 ; which 
still preserves the old synchronists period of twenty years. 
O'Flaherty, with the assistance of Hector Bois, or Boethius, 
an ill-informed, inventive, and mendacious writer of the six- 
teenth century, makes the reign of Fergus to commence in 513, 
and to last 16 years ; which, admitting two, and not 32 or 23, 
to be the period of Gavran, is utterly inconsistent with the 34 
years of Comgal, and his death in 538. The supputation here 
adopted is, no doubt, erroneous, but cannot, it seems, be recti- 
fied without conjectural violence, and greater sacrifices. At 
any rate 603 cannot be right, nor will any date be found so 
consistent and unexceptionable as 496. That Gavran died 
in 560, after a reign of 23 years, and Comgal, in 538, after 
one of 34, are facts as well attested as any in Greek or Roman 
history ; the Irish annals concurring with the two old Scotish 
lists ; and that Domangart reigned 5 years, and Fergus no 
more than 3, is asserted by both the latter. The Duan, it is 
true, extends the reign of Fergus 27 years, after that of 10 
allotted to Loam, which is manifestly impossible and absurd ; 
as it is not only most probable that the three brothers reigned, 
if at all, at the same time, in separate districts, but the term of 
37 years would carry the expedition back to 466, when Fergus, 


CCCCXCIX. Domangart his son reigned five 


DIV. Congel filius Domangrat triginta tribus 
p. triginta quatuor]] annis regnavit.* 

the youngest of the 6, if not 12, sons of Ere, must, if actually 
born so soon, have been a mere child. That he died in 529 
or 530 is no less false and impossible. If, indeed, it could be 
proved, or fairly inferred, that any two of these sovereigns, 
Congal and Gavran, for instance, had, like Loam, Fergus, 
and Angus, reigned at the same time, the accession of Fergus 
in 503 might, doubtless, be easily reconciled with the death of 
the former in 538, or that of the latter in 560 : but there is 
not, in fact, the least ground for such a supposition. It is 
much to be regretted that the shade of St Patrick, or St Co- 
lumb-cilla, cannot be raised, by some witch of Endor, to decide 
this difficult question. 

• Cro. regum Scot. — " Dovenghart fil. Fergus quinque 
ann. regnavit." Nomina regum, &c. " Domhangart mac 
Fheargus ard Aireamh chuagh mbhadhau mbiothgharg (i. e. 
Domangart, son of Fergus the great, reckoned five years in 
troubles"). Duan. " Domangart Mac Nisse rex Scotice obiit 
507." IMSS. Sloane, Num. 479. He is again surnamed Mac 
Niesl, in No. 479. Nise might possibly be the name of his 
own mother, as Mise was of his fathers, or N"ise and Mite 
may be the same name, and he called after his grandmother. 
The wife of this Domangard was Fedelmia tlie daughter of 


DIV. Congal the son of Domangart reigned 
thirty-four years. 

DXXXVIII. Mors Comgail Mac Domangairt 
(ri Alban) 35 anno regni. 

DXXXVIII. The death of Congal, the son of 

Eochy Mogmedon king of Ireland. (O'FIa. p. 473.) Loam, 
the elder brother of Fergus, appears, from O'Flahertys account, 
to have left a numerous progeny, none of whom, however, is 
known to have reigned in Britain, unless it be Fercha-fada, 
or Farquhar the long, whom he makes the 8th in descent from 
that monarch. See Ogygia,^. 471, 479. He has left his name 
to a considerable territory in Argyle, which retains it to this 
day : but no further mention is made in any of the old Scotish 
documents of Angus, the third brother. O'Flaherty, on what- 
ever authority, says that Ilay, Calaros, Rosfenan, Airdeas, 
Loicrois, Aifcaifil, Kinel-noengusa, and Teallach-caillin, 430 
families (this is the dimension of the lands) fell to the lot 
of the whole tribe or sept of this Angus {Cinel nangusa) ; and 
that Muredach, or Murdoch, his son, was the first cultivator 
of Ilay, an island of the Hebrides. (P. 470.) The shire of 
Angus, however, could not well receive its name from this 
prince, being on the eastern coast, and continuing, apparently, 
in the possession of the Picts. 


Domaugart, king of Albany, in the 35th year of 
his reign. 

Goveran frater Congel triginta [1. viginti duo] 
annis Qregnavit].* 

Gavran, the brother of Congal, reigned twenty- 
two years. 

DLX. Mors Gauvrani filii Domangardi.t 
Conal filius Congel quatuordecim annis [regna- 


DLX. ThedeathofGavran,thesonofDomaugard. 

• Cro. regum Scot. " Gauran fil. Dovenghart 22 an. regn." 
Nomina regum, ^c. " Doblliad hain . . . Tar eis Chomhgharll 
do Ghabhran," (i. e. Two years after Congal to Gavran). Duan. 

-f- Tigernac ; OTlaherty, p. 472 ; and An. Ul. ad an. 658. 
A modern hand in MS. Sloan, 1493, fo. 84, says 559. 

X Cro. legum Scot. " Conal fiL Congal 14 an. regn." 
Nomina regum, ^c. " Tri bliadlma fochuig, gan roimn, Ba 
righ Conall mhic Comhghaill," (i. e. Three years by five with- 
out division was Icing Conall the son of Comgall). Duan. 


Conal, the son of Congalj reigned fourteen years. 

DLXIII. Post bellum Culedrebene, duobus trans- 
acts annis, quo tempore vir beatus [S. Columba] 
de Scotia peregrinaturus primitus enavigavit ; qua- 
dam die, hoc est, eadem hora qua in Scotia com- 
missum est bellum quod Scottice dicitur Ondemone, 
idem homo dei, coram Conallo rege, filio Comgil, in 
Bryttania conversatus, per omnia enarravit, tam de 
bello commisso, quam etiam de illis regibus quibus 
dominus de inimicis victoriam condonavit.^ 

DLXIII. Two years after the battle of Culedre- 
bene, in which time the blessed man [[St. Colum- 
hsQ, being about to travel, first of all sailed from 
Scotland [j. e. Ireland^ ; on a certain day, that is, 
in the very same hour in which was fought in Scot- 

• Adamnanus, Vita S. Colunibos, L. 1, c 7- The battle ot 
Cuildremtne is placed by the Annals of Ulster in 659 [5C0]. 
The battle of Ondemone is supposed by Usher to be the same 
with that of Mimdore [or Mona Dair], noted, in those annals 
as the year 562 [563]. Both places were in Ireland. St Co- 
lumba, according to the Irish writers, was a relation of Conal ; 
being the 4th in descent from Loam. (O'Fla. p. 642.) 



land the battle which in Scotish (z. e. Irish) is called 
Ondemone, the same man of god, conversing, in 
Britain, before king Conal, the son of Congal, re- 
lated tliroughout, as well concerning the battle 
fought, as also of those kings to whom the lord 
granted victory over their enemies. 

DLXXIV. Mors Conail Mac Comgail, anno regni 
sui 16 Ql. 15D, qui obtulit Hy Columcille.* 

Edan filius Goveran triginta quatuor annis [[reg- 

• An. Ul. Bede, by mistake, makes Bnidei king of the 
Picts the benefactor of the saint on this occasion. Conal was 
his relation. 

•f- Cro. regum Scot. " Edhan lil. Gauran 34 an. reg." 
Nomina regum, ^c. " Cethre bliadhna ficheat thall Ba righ 
Aodhan," (i. e. Four years twenty over was king Aidan). Duan. 
In 575 Aidan was present at the great council of Drumceat in 
Ireland. See Adam. L. 1, c. 60. In 577 he appears, in com- 
pany with Gwenddolau, or Gwendolavus, another prince, it is 
supposed, of some part of modern Scotland, at the battle of 
Arderyth (or Atterith), against Roderick the munificent (Rhyd- 
derch Haet), king of Cumbria, or Cambria, i. e. Strath-Cluyd, 
in which the latter obtained the victory. See Williams's notes 
on the MrcE Cambro Brit, at the end of Llwyds Britan. de- 
scrip. Com. 1731, p. 142. Geoffrey of Monmouth, who, in 



DLXXIV. The death of Conal the son of Con- 
gal, in the fifteenth year of his reign, who gave Hy 
to Columbkil. 

Aidan, the son of Gavran reigned thirty-four 

DLXXVI. Bellum de Loco in Kintire, in quo 
cecidit Duncath Mac Conail Mac Comgail ; et alii 
muJti de sociis filiorum Gawran ceciderunt.* 

DLXXVI. The battle of Loco in Kentire, in 
which fell Duncan the son of Conal, the son of Con- 
gal ; and many others of the allies of the sons of 

DLXXX. The ^battle ?3 of Ouc with Aodan 
Mac Gavran.f 

his metrical life of Merlin Caledonius, alludes to this battle^ 
sajs of CKiennolous, 

•• Scotia qui regna regebat ;" 
without mentioning Aidan. 

* An. Ul. This seems to have been a war about the suc- 
cession. O'Flaherty calls it the battle omealgan. 

•\ An, Ul, A blank is left by the copyist 


DLXXXII. Bellum Manan, in quo victor erat 
Aodhan Mac Gawran.* 

■ JM. This is, as usual, at 681 : At 582 is, again, " Bel- 
lum Manan per Aodan. In tempore alio, hoc est, post mul- 
tos a supra memorato bello [Caledebene set. seu Ondemone] 
annorum transcursus, cum esset vir sanctus [Columba] in Hyona 
insula, subito ad suum dicit ministratorem, Cloccam pulsa : 
cujus sonitu fratres incitati, ad ecclesiam ipso sancto prassule 
prseeunte ocius currunt, ad quos ibidem flexis genubus iufit : 
Nunc intentepro hoc populo, et Aidano rege dominum oremus, 
hac enim hora ineunt bellum. Et post modicum intervallum 
egressus oratorium, respiciens in coelum, inquit : Nunc bar- 
bari in fugam vertuntur: Aidano que quamlibet infaelix, 
tamen concessa est victoria. Set et de numero de exercitu 
Aidaniinterfectorum, trecentorum et trium virorum, vir beatus 
prophetice narravit." Adorn. L. 1, c. 8. This battle, called 
in the title of the chapter, helium Miathor^m, is nowhere else 
mentioned, unless it should be the bellum Manan of these an- 
nals, which O'Flaherty conjectures to be the battle of £,e<Ari^A, 
690. *' Alio quoque in tempore, ante supradictum bellum 
sanctus Aidanum regem interrogat de regni successore. Illo re- 
spondente, se nescire quis esset de tribus filiis suis regnaturus : 
Arcurius, an Echodius Find, an Domingartus : Sanctus con- 
sequenter hoc profatur modo : Nullus ex his tribus erit reg- 
nator, nam in bellis cadent ab inimicis trucidandi. Sed nunc 
si alios juniores habeas ad me veniant, et quem ex eis elegerit 
dominus subito super meum irruet gremium. Quibus aocitis 
secundum verbum sancti, Echodius Buide adveniens, in sinu 
ejus recubuit, statimque eum osculatus benedixit, et ad patrem 
ait : Hie est superstes, et rex post te regnaturus, et filii ejus 
post eum regnabunt. Sic omnia post suis temporibus plene 
adimpleta sunt. Nam Arturius, et Echodius Find, non longo 


DLXXXII. The battle of Manan^ in which Ai- 
dan the son of Gavran was conqueror. 

DXC. TheHbattle of Leithvedh CQ. Leithredh]] 
by Aodan Mac Gauran.* 

DXCV. Mors Eogain Mac Gawran.f 

DXCV. The death of Eochy the son of Gav- 

post temporis intervallo, Micitorum superius memorato in bello 
trucidati sunt. Domingartus vero in Saxonia [t. e. Anglia] 
bellica in strage interfectus est. Echodius autem Buide post 
patrem in regnum successit.'*— Adorn. L. 1, c. 9. 

• An. Ul. 

•f- Ibi. This was the brother of Aidan, whom Adomnan 
calls logenanus. It should be Eochoidh, Eochadh, or Eoga- 
nan, not Eogan, which is distinguished in Keating as a different 


DXCVI. Jugulatio filiorum AodhaiD, Brain et 

DXCVI. The jugulation of the sons of Aidan, 
Brain and Doman. 

DXCVIII. Domangard in Kirkinn praelio ceci- 
disse, anno post S. Columbae obitum^ refert codex 
Cluan, et ciim eo Tigernachus.t 

DXCVIII. That Domangard fell in the battle 
of Kirkinn, in the year after the death of St. Co- 
lumba ; the book of Cluan relates, and therewith- 
all Tigernach. 

* Ibi. These names are, probably, errors for Arthur or 
Eochy-Jind, and Domangart, mentioned in the preceding note 
from Adomnan. According, however, to O'Flaherty, the book 
of Cluan and Tigernach report Domangart to have fallen in the 
battle of Kirkin (see at the year 598) ; and we find, in the lat- 
ter, that Conad or Conangus, another son of king Aidan, was 
drowned in the sea (see, afterwards, A. 622). 

•f O'Flaherty, p. 475. He was one of the sons of Aidan. 


DCI. Pausa Cotngail.* 

DCI. The death of Comgal. 

DCIII. Histemporibus regno Nordanhymbrorum 
praefuit rex fortissimus, et gloriae cupidissimus ^- 
dilfrid, qui plus omnibus Anglorum primatibus 

gentem vastavit Brittonum Nemo enim in 

tribunis, nemo in regibus plures eorum terras, ex- 
terminatis vel subjugatis indigenis, aut tributarias 
genti Anglorum, aut habitales fecit , . . Unde mo- 
tus ejus profectibus vEdan rex Scottorum qui Brit- 
taniam inhabitant, venit contra eum cvun immenso 
ac forti exercitu ; sed cum paucis aufugit victus. 
Siquidem in loco celeberrimo qui dicitur Degsastan, 
id est Degsa lapis, oAinis pene ejus est caesus exer- 
citus. In qua etiam pugna Theobald frater jEdil- 
fridi, cum omni illo quem ipse ducebat exercitu 
peremptus est . . . Neque ex eo tempore quisquam 
regum Scottorum in Brittania adversus gentem 
Anglorum usque ad banc diem in prselium venire 

• An. UL ad. an. 601 ; 601. Quiet Comgail. 

•f Beda, L. 1, c. 34. The place of action is unknown : 
bishop Gibson conjectures it to be Daltton near Carlisle ; 
bisliop Nicolson Dawxlon near Jedburgh. 


DCIII. In these times presided over the king- 
dom of the Northumbrians a king most brave and 
most desirous of glory, Ethelfrid, who, more than 
all the chiefs of the English, harassed the nation 
of the Britons • . . For no man among commanders, 
no man among kings, made more of their lands, the 
natives being exterminated or subjugated, either tri- 
butary or habitable to the nation of the English . . . 
Whence, moved by his proceedings, Aidan, king of 
the Scots who inhabit Britain, came against him 
with an immense and strong army; but, being 
conquered, he fled with few. Forasmuch as, in the 
most famous place which is called Degsastone, al- 
most all his army was cut to pieces : In which fight 
also Theobald, brother of Ethelfrid, with all that 
army which he himself commanded, was killed : 
Nor from that time did any of the kings of the 
Scots dare to come to battle against the nation of 
the English in Britain unto this day. 

DCVIII. Mors Aodhan MacGawran* Eo- 

• An. Ul. ad. 605. According to O'Flaherty, he was 
78 years of age, died in Kentire, and was interred in Eilcheran, 
anno 606. (P. 476.) The Welsh antiquaries assert that Aidan, 
whom they also call Aidantu perfidut (i^ddan Tradawg), had 


chid flavus lilius Edan sexdecim annis [regna- 

DCVIII. The death of Aidan the son of Gar- 
ran. Eochy-buide, or the yellow Cthe son of Aidan^ 
reigned sixteen years. 

DCXXII. Couangus regis Aidani filius mari 

a son named Gafran ap Mddan^ who married Lleian, the 
daughter of Brychan^ a nobleman of Irish extraction : but 
then they likewise assert that Aidan himself was the grand- 
nephew of Maximus the tyrant. See M. Williams's notes to 
the j^rae Canibro Brit, at the end of Llwyds Britan. descrip. 
Com. (p. 143.) The proper English name for Aodhan is not 
known. Aodh (didus) is Hugh ; but not Aodhan (Aidanus). 

• Cro. regum Scot. " Heoghed bude 16 an." Nomina 
regum, ^c. " Dech mbliadhna fo sheact, .... Ibh flaitheas 
Eachach buidhe," (i. e. Ten years by seven reigned Eochy the 
yellow). Duan. The numbers of the annals are always pre> 
ferred, with, at least, the slight addition of a unit, for the rea- 
son elsewhere given. 

•{• Tigernach, as quoted by O'FIaherty, p. 475. 


DCXXII. Gonad the son of king Aidan drown- 
ed in the sea. 

DCXXIX. Mors Achaii fiavi regis filii Aidani, 
postquam viginti annos \^. annis]] regnasset.* 

Kinat sinister filius Conal tribus mensibus [reg- 
navit] .f 

• An, Ul. and Tigernach (O'Flaherty, p. 477), ad. an. 629. 
628. ..." Bell. Duin Cethim, in quo Congall Caoch fugit, 
et Daniell Mac Hugh victor [erat] ; et in quo cecidit Guaire 
Mac Fintain, Diont etiam nepotis Hugonis GuUon Faidva. 
Cecidisse Echdao buidhe regis Pictorum [1. Scotorum] per 
filios Aodhain : sic in libro Cuanach inveni." An. Ul. Ac- 
cording to Pinkerton, who had misprinted it, " Buidhe regis 
Pictorum ;" the original MS. in the Bodleian library reads, 
" Echdach Buideh regis Pictorum filii Adhain, prout in libro 
Cuan inveni, vel script, in libro Duib Dalyenar." The error, 
therefore, of Pictorum for Scotorum occurs in both. The per- 
son meant, however, is clearly the Achaius flavus rex Jilius 
Aidani, or Eochy-buide the son of Aidan, of the above text. 

-f- Cro. regum Scot. " Kinath [1. Conadh] ken iil. Conal 
3 mens." Nomina regum, ^c. " Conchad cean raithe reil 
blath," (i. e. Connad (not Kenneth) a quarter ruled happily). 
Duan. See O'Fla. p. 477, who says, upon the authority of 
Tigernach and others, that he was the eldest son of Eochy, or 
Achaius, who had 7 more, Donald Brec, Donald Don, Conall 
Cranndhamhna, Conal Bregg, Falbe, Domangard, and mother- 
less Kay (Caius sine matre). Falbe, he adds, from Tigernach, 
was slain in the battle of Trea>oin, along with Rigallan the son 
of Conad, both grandsons of king Aidan. 



Connadius Ker Fiachnaum filium Demani Ulidise 
regem in praelio ad Ardcoram devictum interemit.* 

Bellum Fedha-EviDj in quo Maolcaich Mac Shan- 
lain, rexCruithne, victor fuit : ceciderunt Dalriada : 
Coind Ceni [1. Gonad ceir] rex Dalriada cecidit.t 

Fercar filius Eu [[MS. eu, i. e. ejus sci. Kinat 
sinistri seu Connadii-Ker] sexdecim annis regna- 

Dovenald varius filius Eochid quatuordecim annis 

• Tigemach (O'Flaherty, p. 477). 

•f An. Ul. " Anno 630, Mors Connadii Ken anno primo 
r^ni sui, qui victus est in praelio ad Fea-oin." Tigernach 
<0'Flaherty, p. 477). 

X Cro. regum Scot. " Ferchar fil. Ewin 16 an ' No- 
mina regum, ^c. •' Ase deg dia mhac Fearchar," (». e. Six- 
teen after, the son of Farquhar). This Ewen may mean 
Eugain Mac Gaurain, who died in 595. It is, however, no- 
thing more than a conjectural explanation of (e«, i. e. enos), 
since we are positively assured by the Ulster annals, that 
Farquhar was the son of Conad-Ker. See at the year 694. 

§ Cro. regum Scot. " Dovenald Brec fil. Heoghed bude 
14 an." Nomina regum,- ^c. " Tar-eis Fearchair, . . . Cethre 
bliadhna d«'^ Domhnaill," (i. e. After Farquhar, four years ten 
Donald). Duan. Gonad, and, after him, Farquhar, seems to 
have reigned at the same time, though, perhaps, over distinct 
territory, with Donald Brek. There are, however, other in- 
stances of two or more kings reigning at once, and apparently 
in the same kingdom : a practice which likewise prevailed in 
Ireland. See Wares Antiquitatesy c. 4. 


DCXXIX. The death of king Eochy-buide, the 
son of Aidan, after he had reigned twenty yeai's. 

Connad-ker, i. e. left-handed [[tlie son of ConalU 
reigned three months. 

Connad Ker slew Fiachna, the son of Deman, 
king of Ulster ^whora he had^ defeated in a battle 
at Ardcoran. 

The battle of Fea-Oin, in which Malachiah, the 
son of Skanlain^ king of the Cnithens (i. e. Irish 
Picts), was victor : the Dalriads fell : Connad Ker, 
king of Dalriada, fell. 

Farquhar his son (i. e. of Connad Ker) reigned 
sixteen years. 

Donald-brec (?. e. speckled), the son of Eochy, 
reigned fourteen years. 

DCXXXV. Rex Oswald . . . denique omnes 
nationes et provincias Brittanise quae in quatuor 
linguas, id est, Brittonum, Pictorum, Scottorum, 
et Anglorum, divisae sunt, in ditione accepit.* 

DCXXXV. King Oswald . . . finally received 
• Beda, L. 3, C. 6. 


in his rule all the nations of Britain^ which are di- 
vided into four languages^ that is^ of the Britons, 
Picts, Scots, and English. 

DCXXXVII. Bellum Rath, et bellum Saltire, 
in uno die facta sunt. Caol Mac Maolcova, socius 
Donaldi, victor erat de genere Eugain.* 

• An. UL " Cummeneus Albus, in libra quern de virtu- 
tibus sancti Columbae scripsit, sic dixit :" " Quod sanctus 
Columba de Aidano, et de posteris ejus, et de regno suo pro- 
phetare csepit dicens : Indubitante credo, 6 Aidane, quod nuU 
lus adversariorum tuorum tibi poterit resistere ; donee prius 
fraudulentiam agas in me, et in posteros meos. Propterea 
ergo tu iiliis commenda, ut et ipsi iiliis, et nepotibus, et pos- 
teris suis commendent, ne per consilia mala eorum sceptrum 
regni hujus de manibus suis perdant. In quocumque enim 
tempore malum adversum me, aut adversus cognatos meos, 
qui sunt in Hibemia, fecerint, flagellum, quod causa tui ab 
angelo sustinui per manum dei super eos inm^num ilagitium 
vertetur, et cor virorum auferetur ab eis, et inimici eorum ve- 
hementer super eos confortabuntur. Hoc autem vaticinium 
temporibus nostris completum est in bello Roth, Domnaldo 
Brecco nepote Aidani sine causa vastante prov'inciam Dom- 
nail nepotis Amureq. £t ^ die ilia usque hodie adhuc in pro- 
clivo sunt ab extraneis ; quod suspiria doloris pectori incutit." 
Adorn. L. 3, C. 5. St. Columba, refusing to consecrate Aidan 
king (loving bis brother better), was visited in the night by an 
angel who struck him with a whip or scourge ; the mark of 


DCXXXVII. The battle of Rath and the battle 
of Saltire were fought in one day. Caol Mac Maol- 
cova, the ally of Donald, was conquered of the sept 
of Ewen. 

DCXXXVII I. Bellum Glime-Marison, in quo 
exercitus Domnaldi Brec in fugam versus, et Etain 

DCXXXVIII. The battle of Glen-Morison, in 
which the army of Donald Breck was put to flight, 
and Etain was besieged. 

DCXLII. Mors Domnail Mac Aodha regis 
Hiberniae, in fine Januarii. PosteaDomnail [^Brec]] 
in bello Fraithe Cairrin [[1. Straith-cair-maic^, in 

which continued all his life. This flagellation brought the 
saint to reason, and in the act of consecration it was that he 
uttered this prophecy. See Cumimius, c. 5. St. Columba, as 
already observed, was a distant relation of Aidan ; both being 
descended from Ere, the father of Loam and Fergus. 
• Tigernach (O'Fla. p. 478), Ati. Ul. 


fine anni, m. Decembri, interfectus est Qab Hoan 
rege Brittonum^ ; et annis quindecim regnavit.* 

Maldiun filius Dovenald Durn [1. Duin] l6 
annis [regnavit]. f 

DCXLII. The death of Donald Mac- Hugh, in 
the end of January. Afterward Donald []]Breck3 
in the battle of Straith-cair-maic, in the end of the 
year, in the month of December, was killed |^by 
Owen king of the Britons]] ; and reigned fifteen 

Malduin the son of Donald-Duin reigned l6 

* An. Ul. Tigernach (m. *.) and Usher, p. 372. It is ob- 
servable that, if Donald Breck reigned 14 years, he must have 
succeeded to Connad-ker, in 629 ; and, consequently, that 
Fergus, or Farquhar, Mac Ewen, (if genuine) was his rival, 
and, probably, possessed part of his territory. 

•f- Nomina regum, &c. " Maolduin rahic Conaill ne ge- 
reach Aseach deg go dlightheach (i. e. Maolduin the son of 
Conall of the hostages seven ten — lawfully). Duan. O'Fla- 
herty says that in G42 Conal Cranndhamhna, the son of £o- 
chy-buidhe, and Dungal (of whom he knows nothing) succeed- 
ed to Donald Breck, reigning together, and that the former died 
in 660. (Ogy. p. 478.) 


DCL. Mors Cathusaidh Mac Domail Bricc* 

DCL. The death of Cathusaidh the son of Do- 
nald Breck. 

DCLXXIII. Jugulatio Domangairt Mae Da- 
niell Bricc, regis Dalriada.t 

DCLXXIII. The jugulation of Donald the 
son of Donald Breck, king of Dalriada. 

DCLXXVI. Congal Mac Maol-duin et filii 
Scanvill et Arthaile jugulati sunt.:j: 

Fergus longus viginti duo [annis regnavit.] § 

• An. Ul. Again at 688. 

-f" /6i. and Tigernach (O' Flaherty, p. 479). 

$ Ihi. Idem. 

§ Cro. regum Scot " Ferchar-foda 21 an." Namina re-, 
gum, &c Fearchair fada chaith bliadhain ar ficheat" (i. e. 
Farquhar the long spent one year on twenty). Duan. 


DCLXXVI. Congal the son of Mail-duin, and 
the sons of Scanvill and Aithaille have their throats 

Farquhar the long reigned twenty-two years. 

DCLXXVIII. Interfectio generis Loairn apud 
Ferrin. Mors Drosto [1. Drosti] filii Domnail. 
Bellum I Calatros, i. apud Calaros, in quo victus 
est Domnail Brecc* 

DCLXXVIII. The slaughter of the sept of 
Loairn at Ferrin. The death of Drost the son of 
Donald. The battle at Calaros, in which Donald 
Breck was defeated. 

DCLXXXI V. Sende Ecgferth here on Scottas 
& Briht his ealdor-man mid. & earmlice hi godes 
cyrican hyndan & baerndon.f 

• An. Ul. This Donald Breck seems a different person 
from the one slain at Straith.cair.maic in 642. 
\ Chro. Sax. 

THE SCOTS. . 49 

DCLXXXIV. Egferth sent an army against 
the Scots, and Bright, his general, along with 
them ; and they, miserably, wasted and burned the 
churches of god. 

DCLXXXV. Man of-sloh Ecgferth cining be 
northan sse. & mycelue here mid him on xiii kl. 

DCLXXXV. Men slew Egferth the king, by 
the north sea, and a great army with him, on the 
13th kalends [l9th day] of June. 

DCLXXXVI. Talorg Mac Acithen, and Daniel 
Breoo [1. Brecc] Mac Eacha mortui sunt.t 

DCLXXXVI. Talorg the son of Acithen, and 
Donald Breck the son of Eochy died. 

• Chro. Sax. t An. Ul. 

VOL. II.. D 


DCXCIV. Mors Ferchair Mac Conaoth Cirr.* 

DCXCIV. The death of Farquhar the son of 
Conaad Kerr. 

DCXGV. Ck>mnat uxor Ferchair moritur.f 
DCXCV. Comnat the wife of Farquhar dies. 

DCXCVI. Jugulatio Domnaill filii ConaiU.} 

DCXCVI. The jugulation of Donald the son 

DCXCVII. Ferchar fada, i. e. longus, mortuus 


* An, UL f Ibi. t ^^ % /W- 


Eochal habens currum nasum filius Donegarth 
filii Dovenal varii, tribus an. Cregnavit.^* 

Arimchellac Ql. Ainbkellach]] filius Ferchar longi 
tredecim annis [regnavit.]f 

DCXCVII. Farquhar-fada, that is^ the long, 

Eochy hook-(or wry)-nose, the son of Doman- 
gart, the son of Donald Breck, reigned three years. 

Ainbchellach the son of Farquhar the long reign- 
ed thirteen years. 

DCXCVIII. Bellum at Fermna, ubi cecidit 
Concuvar Macha Mac Maileduin, et high Hugh 
king of Dalaraidhe. Expulsio Ainfcella filii Fer- 
chair de regno; et vinctus ad Hibemiam vehitur.ij: 

• Cro. regum Scot. " Heoghed Rinnavel fil. Dovenghart 
fil. Dovenald Brec, 3 an." Nomina regum, ^c. 

f Hi. " Annkelleth fil. Findan. 1. an." Nomina regum, 
4"C. He and Eochal seem to have reigned together ; at least 
there is no arranging the succession consistently with subse- 
quent events. 

± An.UL 


DCXCVIII. A battle at Fermna, where fell 
Concuvar Macha the son of Maileduin, and high 
Hugh king of Dalriada. The expulsion' of Ainf- 
cella the son of Farquhar from the kingdom ; and 
he is carried in chains to Ireland. 

DCC. Fianamoil nepos Duncha rex [1. regis3 
Dalriada, et Flan Mac Cinfoala Mac Suivne jugu- 
lati sunt.* 

DCC. Fianamoil the grandson of Duncan king 
of Dalriada, and Flan Mac Cinfola Mac Suivne, 
have their throats cut. 

DCCI. The destruction of Dunonlai by Sel- 

• An. Uh 

•f- JbL The original MS. now in the Bodleian, reads, ac- 
cording to Pinkertons Advertisement, 1794, " Destructio Dun- 
onlaig ap. Seal vac." 


DCCXI. Congressio Britonum et Dalriada apud 
Longecoleth, ubi Britones devicti.* 

DCCXI. An engagement of the Britons and 
DaJriads at Longecoleth, where the Britons were 

DCCXII. Obsessio Abente apud Selvacura.t 
- DCCXII. The siege of Abente by Selvach. 

DCCXVII. Congressio Dalriada et Britonum, 
in lapide qui vocatur Miniuro^ et Britones devicti 

DCCXVII. An engagement of Dalriads and 

• An. Ul. 

•f Ibi. So, at 713, " Dun 011a construitur apud Selvaon 
[1. Selvach], and destroyed by his daughter Alena." See also 
the preceding note. O' Flaherty makes Selvach the other son 
of Fenliar-fada, and says he succeeded his brother {Anbkellach) 
in 719. (P. 479.) 

t Ibi. 


Britons at the stone which is called Mininro, and 
the Britons are defeated. 

DCCXIX. Bellum Fingline inter duos filios 
Ferchair Fada ; in quo Anfcellach jugulatus est. 
5. feria idus Septembris. Maritimum Ardanesse 
inter Duncha Beg, cum genere Loairn ; et versum 
est contra Selvacum, pridie nonas Septembr. die 6. 
feria : in quo quidam comites cornnerunt [1. corrue- 

Ewen filius Ferchare longi tredecim annis C^reg- 

DCCXIX. A battle at Fingline, between the 

• An,Ul. The ides (or 13th) of September fell upon the 5 
feria, or thursday, in 725 ; as the pridie nonas (or 4th) of the same 
month did on the G feria, or friday. Neither date, of course, 
will suit 719, nor any intermediate year. Tigemach (O'Fla- 
herty, p. 479) says this naval action happened '■'• quinto nonas 
Octobris Die tertia feriae," i. e. on tuesday the 3d of October). 
At 722, as mr Pinkerton pretends, the MS. of the Ulster an- 
nals has Clericatus Selvaich : which is false. The whole pas- 
sage runs thus : " Jurestach Mac Muirca rex Conaght mortuus 
clericatu Selvaich Sinach Failten moritur :" so that ckricatu 
manifestly belongs to Jurestach. 

f Cro. regum Scot. " Heatgan fil. Findan." Nihnina 
regum, Sj;c. 


two sons of Farquhar the long ; in which Anfcel- 
lach had his throat cut, on thursday the ides of 
September. A sea-fight at Ardanesse between 
Duncan the little and the sept of Loam ; and it 
turns against Selvach, the day before the nones of 
September, or friday : in which certain earls fell. 
Ewen the son of Farquhar the long reigned thir- 
teen years. 

DCCXXI. Little Duncha king of Cintire mo- 

DCCXXVII. Airgialla inter Selvacum et fami- 
liam Egchtagh nepotis DomnaiLf 

DCCXXVII. [;A battle in;] Argyle, between 
Selvach and the sept of Egchtagh, the grandson of 

• An. Ul. t Ibi. 


DCCXXX. Bran filius Eugain, et Selvach, 
mortui sunt.* 

DCCXXX. Bran, the son of Ewen, and Selvach, 

DCCXXXIII. Achaius filius Achaii rex Dal- 
riadae mortuus est.f 

Murechat filius Arinchellac tribus annis [[reg- 

Dongal MacSelvaich dehonoravit Forai [1. To- 
raic] cum Brudonem ex ea traxit ; et eadem vice 
insulam CCulren] Rigi invasit.^ 

• An. Ul. 

+ Tigemach (O'Flaherty, p. 480). JUr Pinkerton makes 
the reign of this Eochy commence in 726, but without autho- 

X Cro. regum Scot. " Murdochus fil. Armkelleth 3 an." 
Nomina regum, ^c. " Anno 733, Muredachus, filius Anb- 
kellacht, regnum generis Loami [L Loarni] assumit" Tiger- 
nach (O'Flaherty, p, 480). Eodem anno, •' Muircoch Mac 
Imfcella regnum generis Loarn asseruit." An. Ul. 

§ An. Ul. See Pinkertons Advertisement, 1794 • also, 
Tigemach (O'Fla. p. 480) ubi Tora^ (Torinis in Tirco- j 
nallia in Ultonia insula). 


DCCXXXIII. Eochy, the son of Eochy king 
of Dalriada, died. 

Murechat, the son of Arinchellac, reigned three 

Dongal, the son of Selvach, dishonoured Toraic, 
when he drew Brudo thereout ; and, at the same 
time, invaded the isle of [Culren] Rigi. 

DCCXXXVI. Aongus Mac Fergusa rex Pic- 
torum vastavit regiones Dalriada ; et obtinuit Du- 
nat, et combussit Creio ; et duos filios Selvaich 
catenis alligavit, viz. Dongal et Ferach. Bellura 
Twini Ouribre [at Calaros] inter Dalriada et For- 
trin ; et Talorgan Mac Fergusa Mac Aimcellai 
fugientem cum exercitu persequitur. In qua con- 
gressione multi nobiles conceciderunt.* 

Ewen filius Murcedach tribus annis [regnavit].f 

"An. Ul, " For Creio, read Creic ... for Dongal et Ferach 
read Dongal, Fadach ... for Twini Ouirbre, read Cnuicc Coir- 
pre I calatros uc atq. Hndu." Pinkertons Advertisement, 1794. 
It would seem that Murdoch was slain in that pursuit, having 
reigned 3 years ; so that Ewen his son should succeed in 736. 

•f Cro. regum Scot. " Heoghan fil. Murdach San." JVio- 
mina regum, ^c. Either Ewen reigned more than 3 (say 13), 
or his immediate successor is lost ; or Aodh>fin (i. e. Hugh the 
white), named as such, must have reigned upwards of 30 (i. e. 



DCCXXXVI. Hungus, the son of Urgust, 
king of the Picts, wasted the country of Dalriada ; 
and obtained Dunat, and btirned Creic ; and bound 
with chains the two sons of Selvach, viz. Dongal 
and Ferach. The battle of Twini-Ouribre (at 
Calaros) between Dalriada and Fortrin (e. e. the 
Scots and the Picts) ; and Talorgan, the son of 
Urgust, pursued Fergus, the son of Aimcellai, fly- 
ing, with his army. In which engagement many 
noblemen fell. 

Ewen the son of Murdach reigned three years. 

DCCXLI. Bellum Droma Cathvaoil, inter 
Cruithne et Dalriada, a Jurechtach. Percussio 
Dalriada ab Eneas Mac Fergusa.* 

DCCXLI. The battle of Droma-Cathvaoil, be- 
tween the Cruithens (or Picts) and Dalriads at 

37) years, as the date of his death, in 778, cannot be disputed. 
O'Flaherty, from the book of synchronism, places here, instead 
of Ewen, Achaius II. or £ochy>anguidh, who was king at the 
death of Hugh-Ollan, king of Ireland in 743, and reigned 5 
years to the commencement of his successor Hugh the white. 
• An, UU 


(or by) Jiirechtaich. An invasion of Dalriada by 
Hnngus the son of Urgust. 

. DCCXLVII. Mors Dunlaing Mac Dunchon, 
king of the cept of Argal.* 

DCCXLVIII. Edalbus filius Eochal curvi nasi 
triginta [^annis regnavit].f 

DCCXLVIII. Ed-tin (i. e. Hugh the White) 
son of Eochy-Rinnavel (or Wry-nose) reigned SO 

DCCLXVIII. Battle at Fortren, between Aod 
and Cinoah {u e. Hugh and Kenneth).^ 

• An. Ul. 

•\ Cro. regum Scot. " Hethfin fil. Heoghed Rinnevale, 30 
an." Nomina regum, ^c. ♦' Triochod do Aodh na Ard fhlaitb 
(i. e. Thirty to Hugh the high king). Duaru 

X An. Ul. Who this Kenneth was nowhere appears. 


DCCLXXVIII. Aldus Finn rex Dalriadae, eo- 
dem anno quo Niellus Frasacb rex Hiberniae obiit, 
ad finem pervenit.* 

Fergus filius Edalbi tribus [^annis regnavit^.f 

DCCLXXVIII. Ed-fin (i. e. White Hugh), king 
of Dalriada, in the same year in which Niell Fra- 
sach, king of Ireland, died, came to his end. 

Fergus the son of White Hugh reigned three 

• Codex Cluan (O'Flaherty, p. 480), " 769. My author 
sayeth that king Neale Frassagh and Hugh Fynn, king of Dal- 
riada or Redschalnckes, died this year." Mageoghanans HiS' 
tory of Ireland^ 1627 (Sloan MSS. Num. 4817). Neil, long 
before his death, had become a monk in the isle of Hy, or 
lona. .See O'Fl^erty, p. 433. Why these Scots are called 
Redshanks (unless it be from their naked legs) is not clear ; it 
ia, however, a vulgar name for the highlanders, in the north 
of England, to this day. Twyne, the translator of Humphrey 
Llwyd, gives it to the Picts. 

-f- Cro. regum Scot. " Fergus fil. Heth fin 3 an." No- 
mina regum, ^c. This monarch is not named in the Dtian^ 
which, in his stead, has Domhnall, or Donald, to whom it as- 
signs 24 years : a reign totally incompatible with every other 


DCCLXXXI. Fergus Mac Eachach king of 
Dalriada died.* 

Dha Cliadhna Conaill.f 
Two years Conal. 

DCCLXXXIII. Ceathair ConaUl ele. 

DCCLXXXI 1 1. Four another Conal. 

DCCLXXXIX. Battle between the Pightes 

• An. Ul Mac Eachach seems an error of the transcriber 
for Mac Aodhjionn. 

■f- Duan. These two kings occur in no other list ; and it is 
evident, from the Ulster annals, if there actually were two, 
that the reign of one or other must be inaccurately number- 
ed. It is impossible also, if they be rightly placed, that either 
should have been Conallc Cranndhamhna, the son of Eochy- 
buidhe, whom O'Flaherty makes joint successor, with Dun- 
gal, to Donald Breck, in 642 ; and says he died in CGO. (Ogy. 
p. 478, 479.) 


[and Scots], where Conall Mac Ferge was van- 
quished, yet went away ; and Constantin was con- 

DCCXCII. Doncorcai king of Dalriada died.f 

Naoi Mbliadhna Constantin chain.:}: 

" An. Ul. This is under 788. They add, " 789. The 
battle of Conall and Constantin is 'v^ritten here [i. e. at this 
year] in other books." Conall Mac Ferge is printed by mr. 
Pinkerton Donall Mac Teige'; thereby increasing the obscu- 
rity and confusion under which he pretends this period to la- 

•f Ibu The name of this monarch occurs in no other autho- 
rity. Mr Pinkerton, in contempt of authority, and without a 
reason, alters 791 to 782. (P. 12T.) 

j: Duan, These names, likewise, occur in no other list ; 
unless this Aodha, Ed, or Hugh, be confounded in the two 
chronicles published by Innes, with Edalbus, Aodh-^n, or 
Heth-Jin (i. e. White Hugh), who died in 778. It is by no 
means improbable that different kings had the same epithet ; 
as Philip and Charles, dukes of Burgundy, were both called 
{he hardy ; and as, even in the old Albanic Duan, there is a 
Domhnaill duin, and a Dunghal, and DuhJwda, den (both 
Irown), an AiiibeheaUach and a Mureadhaigh, maith,or mhaith 
(good), and two, if not three, Constantines chain (eloquent). 

Nine years Constantin the eloquent. 

DCCC. Belliolum inter genus Laoire [LLaoim] 
et genus Ardgail, in quo cecidit Fiangalach Mac 
Dunlaing: Conel Mac Nell, et Congalach Mac Aon- 
gus victores erant.* 

DCCC. The action between the sept of Lorn 
and the sept of Argyll, in which fell Fiangalac Mac 
Dunlaing : Conal Mac Nell, and Congalac Mac 
Angus were victors. 

DCCCI. A naoi Aonghus. 
DCCCI. Nine Angus (or iEneas). 

DCCCVII. The killing of Conall Mac Aoain at 

• An. Ul. It is not Laoire^ but Loighaire^ in the originiil 
MS. in the Bodleian, 
t An. Ul. 


DCCCX. Ceithre bliadhna Aodha ain. 

DCCCX. Four years Hugh the musical. 

DCCCXII. Aongus Mac Dunking, king of kin- 
dred Ardgail, died.* 

DCCCXIV. Tre deg Eoganain.t 

DCCCXIV. Thirteen Eochy-annuine (or the 

• Jbu 

•f Duan. " Eochal venenosus fil. Edalbi XXX." Cro. re- 
gum Scot. " Heoghed annuine fil. Hethfin 30 an." Nomina 
regum, &c. " Echach f. Edafind." R. de Diceto, co. 027. 
" Ethacxxs filius Ethafind." Scotus montanus (Fordun, p. 759. 
Eoganain is, clearly, either a contraction or corruption of 
Eochoidh-anguibh (Eochal venenosus, or Heoghed annuine, or 
perhaps, nothing more than Eogan or Eochy. O' Flaherty (p. 
474) caUs Eochy-find, son of Aidan, Eogauanus ; and Adorn- 
nan, Eochy, or Eogain, MacGairan, logananus. All these 
Eochy s, a favourite Irish name, were so called, after Eochy - 
Munrevar, the father of Ere). " Anno DCCC.XXXIV. obiit 
Eokal [venenosus, ad. an. 804] rex Scottorum." Chro. de 
Mailros. 0*Flaherty, likewise, gives the name of Alpin, in 
Irish, " Ailpinmac Eocpid," {Ogy. p. 481.) 


DCCCXXVII. Seachtm bliadhna flaith Bangui 

DCCCXXVII. Seven years the chief Dungal 
the brown. 

DCCCXXXIV, Alpin filius Eochal Venenosi 
tribus [annis regnavitj.f 

• Ducm. " Dunegal^/. Selvach [1. Eochal] vii." Cor. 
regum Scot. " Dungal//. Heoghed annuine 7 an." Nomina 
regum, 8[c. " Anno DCC.XLI. obiit Oungal rex Scottorum 
[filius Eokal, ut ad an. 834]." Chro. de Mailros. 

•\ Cro, regum Scot. '* Alpin fil. Heoghed annuine 3 an." 
Nomina regum, &c " Elpin f. Echah." R. de Diceto. 
" Alpinus filius Ethaci." Scotus montanus. " Alpinus filius 
Eokal." Chro. de Mailros. " The name of the father of Al- 
pin, father of Kenneth," mr. Pinkerton " will venture to say, 
is lost beyond all recovery :" — " the genealogy of Kenneth," 
he exclaims, " is so utterly lost, that the name of his grand- 
father can never be ascertained :" — " the father of Alpin is 
totally unknown to every domestic monument of our history." 
(Enquiry, II. 132, 134.) " Aochy Rinneval," he says, "lived 
703, and thus might be the father of Aod-Fin. But Aod-Fin 
reigned 743, so could not be the father of Achy annuine 726 ; 
nor could Achy annuine, 726, be father of Alpin, 837." {Ibi. 
128.) This is true : but the confusion arises from his taking 
Achy-annuine (or Eogunan), 814, to be the Achy of 726, who, 
by the way, is never once sumamed Anguihh or annuiney by 

VOL. ri. £ 


DCCCXXXIV. Alpin, the son of Eochy-annu- 
ine (t. e. the poisonous), reigned three years. 

DCCCXXXVII. Hie occisus est in Gallewathia, 
postquam earn penitus destruxit et devastavit. Et 
hinc translatura est regnum Scotorum in regnum 

DCCCXXXVII. He was slain in Galloway, af- 
ter he had utterly destroyed and wasted it : and, 
hence, the kingdom of the Scots was transferred 
into the kingdom of the Picts. 

any old Irish writer. To prove his consistency, however, he 
suspects " tl^iat this Eoganan was the father of Alpin, and that 
his name was from similar sound confounded with Echoid An- 
nuine, as in Irish pronunciation the names can hardly be dis« 
tinguished. If so," he adds, " Alpin was son of Eoganan, or 
Uven, king of the Piks, who was son of Ungust, king of the 
Piks, who was son of Vergust, called Fergus by the Celtic 
writers." (/M. 131.) This, however, is to amend obscurity 
by falsehood, and still worse to confound confusion. There 
was never a Eoganan king of the Picts, nor is that the same 
name with Uven, or anything like it. Eoganan (properly 
Eochoidh'Anguibh) the father of Alpin, was, notoriously, king 
of the Scots. 

" Nomina regutn, &c The chronicle of ISfailros absurdly 
places the death of Elpinus in MS. 


DCCCXXXVII. Cinadius filius Alpin primus 
Scottorum rexit feliciter istam annis xvi. Picta- 
viam. Pictavia autem a Pictis est nominata, quos* 
Cinadius delevit. Deus enim eos pro merito suae 
malitiae alienos ac otiosos haereditate dignatus est 
facere : quia illi non solum deum, missam, ac prae- 
ceptum, spreverunt, sed et in jure aequitatis aliis 
aequi pariter noluerunt {J. aequi parari voluerunt^ . 
Iste vero biennio antequam veniret Pictaviam Dal- 844. 
rietae regnum suscepit.f Septimo anno regni reli- 
quias S. Columbae transportavit ad ecclesiam quam 
construxit 4 et invasit sexies Saxoniam ;§ et con- 

* After quos is added ut diximut, but the fact is nowhere 
previously mentioned. 

•f- If Alpin began to reign in 834, and reigned but 3 years, 
Kenneth must necessarily have succeeded in 837, and so been 
4 years, instead of 2, before he became king of the Picts. But 
it is impossible to preserve the numbers and the chronol(^y 
together. Another authority, however, supposes him to have 
reigned 7 years over the Scots alone. See Innes, p. 812. 

$ These relicks seem to have been false and forged. In 
828 (or 829), according to the Ulster annals, Diarmaid, abbot 
of Aoi, went into Scotland with Columcilles relicks, with which 
he returned into Ireland, in 830 (or 831). They say, also, that, 
in 848 (or 849) " Jurastach, abbot of Aoi, came into Ireland 
with Colum-cilles oathes, or sanctified things." The king had, 
therefore, been imposed upon. 

§ This Saxony is, most probably, Lothian, or the territory 
between the Tyne and the Forth, which was then part of the 
kingdom of Northumberland, but had formerly belonged to 


cremavit Dunbarre, atque Malros usurpata p. 
usurpavit]].* Britanni autem concremaverunt Dul- 
blaan;t atque Danari vastaverunt Pictaviam ad 
858. Cluanan et Duncalden. Mortuus est tandem tu- 
more ani id. Febr. feria tertia in palacio Fothuir- 

the Picts, and was now, it would seem, claimed by Kenneth, 
as sovereign of that people. 

• It appears from this passage that both Dunbar and Mail- 
ros were, before this expedition, in the hands of the Anglo- 
Saxons. In 680 the former place (Dyunbaer), if not the 
whole of Lothian, was actually within the dominions of Eg- 
frid king of Northumberland (see Eddius, Vita S. Wilfridi, 
c 37) ; which extended from the Humber to the Forth. Lo- 
thian, however, viz. that part of the ancient kingdom of Nor- 
thumberland between the Forth and the Tweed, which had 
formerly belonged to the Picts, being afterward given up to 
Kenneth IV. by king Edgar, about the year 970 (see J. de 
Wallingford, p. 545), we find, by Simeon of Durham, that 
Malcolm III. soon after 1072 gave " Dunbar, cum adjacen- 
tibus terris,''^ to Cospatrick, late earl of Northumberland, who 
had sought refuge in his court. 

•)- These Britanni, or Britons, were the inhabitants of Strath- 
Clyde, who had made a spirited inroad into Menteith. 

J Cronica Pictorum. Upon the supposition that this an- 
cient chronicle is accurate, in making the ides (or 13th) of Fe- 
bruary fall upon a Tuesday (which is the meaning of feria 
tertia), the death of Kenneth must necessarily be referred to 
the year 860 ; 854,-in which it is placed by Fordun, and which 
bears the same sunday-lctter, being much too early. No do- 
cument, however, mentions 860 as the year of Kenneths death ; 
and little reliance, in fact, can be placed on the computation 


Dunevaldus |^1. Duvenaldus]] frater ejus, tenult 
idem regnum quatuor annis. In hujus tempore jura 

of this chronicle. See before. " Banath Mac Alpin 16 an. 
super Scotos regnavit, destructis Pictis ; mortuus in Forte- 
vioth ; sepultus in Yona insula, ubi tres filii Ere, scilicet, 
Fergus, Loarn, and Enegus sepulti fuerant. Hie mira calli-. 
dilate duxit Scotos de Argadia in terram Pictorum." NomU 
na regum, ^c. " Kinedus fil. Alpini primus rex Scottorum." 
Cronica regum, S[C. " Triocha bliadhain Chionaoith chru- 
aidh" (i. e. Thirty years Kenneth the hardy). " Duan. 857» 
Cinaoh Mac Alpin king of Pights, and Adulf king of Saxons, 
mortui sunt." An. Ul. {JEthelwulph, here called Adulf, ap. 
pears, from the Saxon Chronicle, to have died in 858.) " An. 
no DCCC. LIX. obiit ELinedus rex Scotorum." Chro. de MaiU 

" Primus in Albania fertur regnasse Kinedhus, 

Filius Alpini, praelia multa gerens. 
Expulsis Pictis regnaverat octo bis annis, 

Atque Forteviet mortuus ille fuit." 

Chronicon elegiacum. 

The Chronicon ekgiacum, now so called, of which this is 
the first specimen, was originally printed by dr. Gale, from 
the MS. Chronicle of Mailros. It is also preserved in some 
MSS. of Wyntown, and has been inserted in the printed copy. 
John abbot of Peterborough, speaking of king Edgar, who died 
in 975, refers, for a more full account of his times (among 
other authorities) to the liber " sancti Alredi abbatis, qui inti~ 
tulatur Epitaphium regum Scotorum )" meaning, as mr. D. 
Macpherson conjectures, this elegiac chronicle: in the frag- 
ments of which, however, now extant (supposing it not to be 
entire), we find nothing of Edgar, ot any other Saxon or Eng- 
lish king. 


ac leges regni, Edi filii Ecdach, fecerunt Goedeli 
cum rege suo in Fothiur-thabaicht.* 

DCCCXXXVII. Kenneth the son of Alpin, first 
of the Scots^ ruled happily Pictland for sixteen 
years. Now Pictarid is named from the Picts, 
whom Kenneth destroyed. For god, for the reward 
of their malice, designed to make them alien, and 
idle, in his inheritance : because they not only des- 
pised god, the mass, and the commandments, but 
also in the law of justice would not be equal with 
others. But he took the kingdom of Dalriada two 
years before he came to Pictland. In the seventh 
year of his reign he transported the reliques of St 
Columba to the church which he built : and inva- 
ded Saxony (t. e. Lothian, or England) six times, 

♦ ♦« Forteviot near the river Em, south of Perth, [was] the 
chief residence of the Pikish kings, after their recovery of 
Lothian in C84. Before that time, as appears by Adomnan, 
they resided near Inverness." Pinkertons Enquiry, II. \^^, 
Malmaria (or Maolma), the [6rst] wife of Kenneth, was the 
daughter of Flan king of Ireland ; by whom he had a daugh- 
ter of the same name, married to Hugh Finiiliath, king of that 
country. See O'Flaherty, p. 434, 435. The most amiable 
Oormlaith, therefore, must have been his second, and, appa- 
rently, also, the mother of Oormlaith, wife to Niel Glundubh 
king of Ireland, slun in 919, whom O'Flaherty, speaking of 
Ligacha, calls " e diverse toro soior." (P. 435.) 


and burned Dunbax, and took possession of Mail- 
ros. Now the Britons burned Dunblane, and the 
Danes wasted Pictland to Cluanan and Dunkeld. 
He died of a fistula, on the ides of February, tues« 
day, in the palace of Forteviot. 

Donald, his brother, held the same kingdom four 
years. In his time the Gael (i. e. Scots) with their 
king in Forteviot made (i. e. re-enacted) the rights 
and laws of the kingdom of £d the son of Ecdach. 

DCCCLX. Gormlaih, daughter to Donogh, 
amenissima regina Scotorum, post penitentiam, 

DCCCLXII. Obiit QDuvenaldus;] In palacio 
cum CI. suoU Belachoir, id. April.f 

Constantinus filius Cinadi regnavit annis xvl. 
Primo ejus anno Mael Sechnaill, rex Hybernen- 

• An. m. 

•f Cro. Pic. " Duvenald Mac-AIpin 4 an. mortuus in 
Rath in Veramont, sepultus in Yona insula." Nomina re^ 
gum, ^c. " Dolfnal fil. Alpini iv." Cro. regnm., ^c, 
" A cheathair Dhomhnaill dhreachruaid," (». e. Four Donald 
of ruddy countenance). Duan. " 861. Donal Mac Alpin, 


sium, obiit,* & Aed filius Niel tenuit regnum : 

864, & post duos vastavit Amlaib, cum gentibus suis, 
Pictaviam, et habitantes earn a kal. Januarii usque 

865. ad festum S. Patricii. Tertio iterum anno Amlaib, 
876. trahens cetum, a Constantino occisus est. Paulo 

post ab eo bello, in decimo quarto ejus facto, in Do- 
lain inter Danarios et Scottos occisi Scotti in Coach- 
cochlam. Normanni annum integrum degerunt in 

DCCCLXII. Donald died in his palace of Bela- 
choir, on the ides of April. 

Constantine, the son of Kenneth, reigned sixteen 
years. In his first year Maol Sechnaill king of the 

king of Fights, died." An. Ul. " Anno DCCC.LXIII. Obiit 
Dovenaldus rex Scotorum." Chro. de Mailros. 

" Rex Dovenaldus ei successit quatuor annis 

In bello miles strenuus ille fuit 
Regis prsedicti frater fuit ille Kinedi ; 

Qui Sconse fertur subditus esse neci." 

Chro. ele^iacunu 

The royal palace of Belachor (according to Innes) is men. 
tioned in the life of St. Cadroe. 

• Mael-seachlin rex Hybemiae obiit A.D. 863." Innes. 

•f Cro. Pic. " Constantin Mac-Kinath 16 an." Nomina 
regum, ^c. " Constantinus fil. Kinet. xx." Cro. regum, ^c. 
" Triotha bliachaindo Constantin," (i. e. Thirty years to Con- 
stantino). Duan. 


Irish died, and Hugh the son of Niel held the king- 
dom ; and, after two years, Anlaf with his gentiles 
wasted Pictavia, and those inhabiting it, from the 
kalends of January until the feast of St. Patrick. 
Again, in the thii'd year, Anlaf, leading an army, 
was slain. A little after that battle, made in his 
fourteenth year in Dolair, between the Danes and 
the Scots, the Scots were slain in Coaeh-cocham. 
The Normans remained a whole year in Pictland. 

DCCCLXXXII. Interfectus a Norwigensibus 
in bello in Jlfcrefo-(alwerde);^Aa; sepultus in lona 

Edus tenuit idem uno anno. Ejus autem bre- 
vitas nil historiae memoriae commendavit : sed in 
civitate Uturim QUlurim^ est occisus.t 

• Nomina regum, ^c. " 875. Constantin Mac Cinach rex 
Pictorum, mort." An. Ul. " Anno DCCC.LXXVIII. Oc- 
dditur Constantinus rex Scottorum." Chro. de Mailros. 

*■*■ Fil Constsndnus, post hunc, rex quinque ter annis. 

Regis Ktnedi filius ille fuit 
In bello pugnans Dacorum corruit armis ; 

Nomine Nigra Specus est ubi pugna fuit." 

Chro. elegiacum. 

•\ Cro. Pic. " Ed Mac-Kinet uno anno. Interfectus in 
bello in Strathalin a Girg filio Dungal. sepultus in lona." 


DCCCLXXXII. Slain by the Norwegians, in 
the battle in Merdo-fa^ia } interred in the island 

Hugh held the same one year*: But the shortness 
[[of his reign3 has left nothing to memory : but he 
was slain in the city of Ulem. 

DCCCLXXXIII. Eochodius autem, filius Kun 
regis Britannorum, nepos Cinadei ex filia, regna- 
vit annis undecim. Licet Ciricium filium alii di- 
cunt hie regnasse, eo quod alumnus ordinatorque 

Nomina regum, ^c. " Het filius Kinet uno anno." Cro. 
regum, ^c. " Da bliadhain Da brathari do Aodh flionus 
gothach," (i. e. Two years to his brother, to Hugh the fair- 
haired). Duan. " 877. Aod Mac Cinaoth rex Pictorura h 
sociis suis occisus est." An. UL The Chronicle of Mailros 
places the death of Hed, the brother of Constantine, in the 
same year (i. e. 878). 

*' Ejusdem frater regnaverat Albipes [1. Alipes] Edhus, 

Qui Grig Dofnalidse saucius ense perit. 
Hie postquam primum regni compleverat annum, 

In Stratalum vitam vulnere finierat." 

Chro. elegiacum. 

IJlrimy Sir James Dalrymple takes to be a place in the 
county of Murray, near Burgie or Kinlos. See Col. p. 99. 
It is remarkable, if this be the true reading, that Malcolm I. 
was slain at the same place. 


Eochodio fiebat. Cujus secundo anno Aed filius 884. 
Neil moritiir ;* ac, in nono anno, ipso die Cirici, 891. 
eclipsis solis facta est.f Echodius cum alumno sub 
expulsus est nunc de regno, j: 

• £dan VI. son of Neal, called Finliat, king of Temoria, 
died in 879. Ware. 

•f If die Cerici mean the feast of St. Cyriacus, which is the 
9th of August, there was certainly an eclipse of the sun on 
that day in the year 891 : hut if they mean that of St. Cyr, 
or Cyricusy which is the I6th of June, there was no eclipse on 
this day subsequent to 885 ; though there actually was one on 
the l^th of that month, 893. See L^art de verifier le$ dates, 

$ Cro. Pic. Neither this Eochy, nor his father Kun, is 
mentioned anywhere else. The Nomina regum, instead of him, 
have " Grig MacDunegal [the Ciricius, it would seem, of the 
Pictish chronicle] 12 an. Mortuus est in Dundum, et sepul- 
tus in lona. Hie subjugavit sibi Hybemiam totam, et fere 
Angliam. Et hie primus dedit libertatem ecclesiae Scoticanae, 
quae suo servitate erat illud tempus ex constitutione et more 
Pictorum." The Cronica regum has, also, " Grig fil. Dun- 
gal xii. ;" and the Chronicle of Mailros, at 897, " Obiit Grig." 
He likewise appears in the Chronicon elegiacum ; which evi- 
dently follows the Nomina regum : 

" Grig sua jura gerens annis deca rex fit et octo. 

In Dunduren probus morte retentus erat ; 
Qui dedit ecclesiaB libertates Scoticanse, 
Quae sub Pictorum lege redacta fuit. 
Hujus ad imperium fuit Anglia tota peracta ; 
Quod non leva dedit sors sibi bella terens. " 
This conqueror of almost all England is, however, totally un- 
known to the old English historians. 


DCCCLXXXIIT. Eochy, now, the son of Kun, 
king of the Britons, [[and^] grandson of Kenneth, 
by his daughter, reigned eleven years. Although 
others say, that his son Grig reigned here, for that 
he was foster-father and manager to Eochy. In 
whose second year Hugh the son of Niel died : and, 
in his ninth year, on the very day of St. Cyrick (or 
Cyriack) there was an eclipse of the sun. Eochy, 
with his foster-father, was now expelled from the 

DCCCXC. Gens Scottorum, innumerabili exer- 
citu coadunato, inter csetera suae crudelitatis faci- 
nora, Lindisfarnense monasterium saeviens et ra- 
piens invasit : contra quos dum rex Guthredus, per 
sanctum Cuthbertnm confortatus, pugnaturus sta- 
ret, subito terra dehiscens hostes vivos omnes absor- 
buit, renovato ibi miraculo antiquo, quando aperta 
est terra et deglutivit Dathan, et operuit super 
congregationem Abiron. Qualiter autem gestum 
sit, alibi constat esse scriptum QQ. ubi ?2* 

DCCCXC. The nation of the Scots, having 
gathered together an innumerable army, among the 

* S. DuneL (His. de DuneL ec.) Co. 22. 


rest of its deeds of cruelty, raging and plundering, 
invaded the monasteryof Lindisfarne; against whom 
whilst king Guthred, encouraged by St. Cuthbert, 
was about to fight, of a sudden the earth opening 
absorbed all the enemies alive ; the ancient miracle, 
when the earth was opened and swallowed Dathan, 
and closed upon the congregation of Abirou, being 
there renewed. But how it was done, appears to be 
written elsewhere. 

DCCCXCIV. Donivaldus [1. Dovenaldus] fi- 
lius Constantini, tenuit regnum xi. annis. Nor- 
manni tunc vastaverunt Pictaviam. In hujus reg- 
no bellum autem factum in Vifidcollan [f. in urbe 
Cullen] inter Danarios et Scottos : Scotti habue- 
runt victoriam. Opidum Fother [1. Fores] occi- 
sum [1. occisus] est a gentibus.* 

• Cro. Pic. " Dovenal Mac-Constantin 1 1 an. Mortuus 
est in Fores, & sepultus in lona." Nomina regum, ^c. 
" Duneval [1. Dovenal] fil. Constantin xi." Cro. regum, ^c. 
'*• Domhnall, mhic Constantin chain bliadhain fa cheathair, 
(». e. Donald, the son of Constantin e the eloquent, spent years 
one and four). Duan. " Anno 900. Quies Domnaldi filii 
Constantini regis Albaniae." Tigernach (O'Flaherty, p. 485). 


DCCCXCIV. Donald, the son of Constantine, 
held the kingdom eleven years. The Normans then 
wasted Pictland. Now, in his reign, there was a 
battle in Vifid-collan, between the Danes and the 
Scots : the Scots had the victory. At the town of 
Fores he was slain by the gentiles. 

DCCCCI. Edwardus filius Alfredi . . . Scottos, 
qui aquilonarem insulse partem inhabitant . . > bellis 
profligatis, suae ditioni subegit.* 

DCCCCI. Edward the son of Alfred . . . brought 
under his dominion the Scots, who inhabit the north 
part of the island, [whom he had] routed in battles. 

** 899. Daniel Mac-Constantin, king of Scotland, died." 
An. m. 

'' Post hunc in Scotia regnavit rex Dovenaldus, 

Hie Constantino filius ortus erat. 

In villa fertur rex iste perisse Forensi, 

Undecimo regni sole rotante suL" 

Chro. elegiacum. 
• W. Malmes. L. 2. c 6. 


DCCCCIV. Constantinus filius Edii tenuit 
regnum quadraginta annis : cujus tertio anno Nor- 
manni praedaverunt Duncalden, omnemque Al- 907. 
baniam : in sequenti utique anno occisi sunt in 908. 
Fraith {^I. Sraith]] heremi Normanni : ac in sexto 
anno, Constantinus rex et Cellachus episcopus, leges 910. 
disciplinasque fidei, atque jura ecclesiarum eran- 
geliorumque, pariter cum Scottis, in colle credu- 
litatis, prope regali civitate Scoan devorerunt cus- 
toditur CI' custodiri^. Ab hoc die collis hoc me- 
ruit nomen^ i. e. collis credulitatis. Et in suo viii. 912. 
anno cecidit excelsissimus rex Hybernensium, et 
archiepiscopus apud Laignechos, i. e. Cormac filius 
Culenan :* et mortui sunt, in tempore hujus, Do- 
Tenaldus rex Britannorum, et Dovenaldus filius Ed 
rex eligitiu" ; et Plana filius Mael Sethnail,f et 
Niall filius Ede qui regnavit tribus annis post 
Flannu, &c.+ 

DCCCCIV. Constantine, the son of Hugh, 

* O'Flaherty fixes the battle of Mugna, and the death of 
Cormac the bishop, and the king of 3Iunster, to the I6th of 
August 608. Ogygia, p. 422. 

-|- Flan, son of Melsechlin, king of Temoria, died 916. 

X Cro. Pic. The real name of these two British (i. e. Strath- 
Clyde) kings was, probably, DunrcaUo ; Donald being a Scot- 
ish or Irish, and not a Welsh name. 


held the kiDgdom forty years ; in whose third year 
the Normans plundered Dunkeld, and all Albany. 
In the following year also the Normans were kill- 
ed in Strath heremi ; and in the sixth year, Con- 
stantine and Cellach the bishop devoted the laws 
and discipline of the faith, and the rights of the 
churches and gospels, equally with the Scots, in the 
hill of credulity, near the royal city Scone, to be kept. 
From this day the hill merited this name, that is, 
the hill of credulity. And, in his eighth year, fell 
the most high king of the Irish ; and the archbishop 
at Laignechos, that is, Cormac the son of Culenan : 
and, in his time, died Donald king of the Britons, 
and Donald, the son of Ed, was elected king ; and 
Flan the son of Mael-Sethnaill, and Nial, the son of 
Ede, who reigned three years after Flan. 

DCCCCXIII. Maolmor Mac Lanirke, daughter 
to Cinaoh Mac Alpin, [[died]].* 

" An. Ul. She was the wife of Flan, king of Ireland, and 
had by him a daughter, Ligacha, the mother of Congal. See 
O'Flaherty, p. 435. The original at Oxford reads Maclmrke. 


DCCCCXVIII. The gentiles of Locheachaoch 
left Ireland, and went for Scotland. The men of 
Scotland, with the assistance of the north Saxons, 
prepared before them. The gentiles divided them- 
selves into four battles, viz. One by Godfrey Oh 
Ivar ; another by the two earls ; the third by the 
yoiing lords ; and the fourth by Ranall Mac Bio- 
loch, that the Scots did not see. But the Scots 
overthrew the three they saw, and they had a great 
slaughter of them about Ottir and Gragava. But 
Ranall gave the onset behind the Scots, that he had 
the killing of many of them ; only that neither king 
nor ' thane' was lost in the conflict. The night 
discharged the battle.* 

DCCCCXX. Rex Scottorum cum tota gente 

sua, et Regnaldus rex Danorum, rex etiam 

Streddedunelorum Ql. Stredcleduvalorum]] cum 
suis, regem Eadwardum seniorem sibi in patrem et 
dominum elegerunt, firmumque fcedus cum eo pe- 

" An Ul. For Scotland the original reads Alban. 
t S. Dunel. 



DCCCCXX. The king of Scots, with all his na- 
tion, and Reynold king of the Danes, . . • the king 
also of those of Strath-Clyde, with his people, chose 
king Edward the elder for their father and lord, 
and contracted with him a firm league. 

DCCCCXXII. Bellum Tinemore factum est in 
decimo octavo anno [Constantini] inter Constanti- 
num et Regnall, et Scotti habuerunt victoriam.* 

DCCCCXXII. The battle of Tinemore was 
fought in the eighteenth year of Constantine, be- 

■ Cro, Pic. " Regenwaldus rex venit cum magna multi- 
tudine navium, occupavit terram Aldredi filii Eadulfi qui 
erat delectus regi Eadwardo . . . Fugatus igitur Eldredus in 
Scotiam ivit, Constantini regis auxilium quaesivit, ilium con- 
tra Regenwaldum regem apud Corobrige in prselium adduxit. 
In quo praelio, nescio quo peccato agente, paganus rex vincit, 
Constantinum fugavit, Scottos fudit, Elfredum, et omnes me- 
iiores Anglos interfecit, prseter Ealdrcdum, et fratrem ejus 
Uhtred." S. Dunel. Co. 73. He gives no date, nor is such 
a battle mentioned by any other historian, but the anonymous 
continuator of Bede. Reynold, or Reginald, the son of Gud- 
ferth, or Guthred, was a Danish king of Northumberland, 
who took York in 923, was baptised in 942, and expelled by 
Edmund in 944. See Chro. Sax. 


tween Constantine and Reynold, and the Scots had 
the victory. 

DCCCCXXIV. Aethelstanus filius Edwardi, 
Ludwalem regem omnium Wallensium, et Con- 
stantinum regem Scottorum cedere regnis compu- 
lit. Quos tamen non multo post, miseratione in- 
fractus, in antiquum statum sub se regnaturos con- 
stituit, gloriosius esse pronuncians regem facere 
quam regem esse.* 

DCCCCXXIV. Athelstan, the son of Edward, 
compelled Ludwal, king of all the Welsh, and Con- 
stantine, king of the Scots, to yield their king- 
doms : whom, nevertheless, not long after, affected 
with commiseration, he appointed to reign under 
him, according to their ancient state, pronouncing 
it to be more glorious to make a king than to be a 

" W. Malmes. L 2, c. 6. " Omnes etiam r^es totius Al- 
bionis, regem scilicet .... Scottorum Constantinum, regem- 
que Wentorum Wuer praelio vicit et fugavit." S. Dunel. 
CO. ] 54. See also Chro. Sax. ad annum. 


DCCCCXXVI. Rex Ethelstanus . . . regem 
Scottorum Constantinum praelio vicit et fugavit. 

DCCCCXXVI. King Athelstan . . . defeated 
and put to flight Constantine, king of the Scots. 

DCCCCXXXIV. Strenuus rex Ethelstanus, 
quia rex Scottorum Constantinus fcedus quod cum 
eo pepigerat, dirupit, classica manu pervalida, et 
equestri exercitu non modico, ad Scotiam proficis- 
citur. Qui Scotiam usque Dunfoeder et Werter- 
morum terrestri exercitu vastavit, navali vero usque 
Catenes depopulatur. Unde \i compulsus rex Con- 
stantinus fliium suum obsidem cum dignis muneri- 
bus illi dedit.* 

DCCCCXXXIV. The brave king Ethelstan, 
because Constantine, king of the Scots, broke the 
league which he had made with him, with a very 
strong fleet, and no mean army of horse, went to 

* S. Dunel. co. 154. Sec also co. 134 ; and Chro. Sax. 
ad annum. 


Scotland ; and wasted Scotland, with his land-army, 
as far as Dunfoeder and Wertermorum, but with 
his naval one, depopulated it as far as Caithness : 
whence, compelled by force, Constantine gave to 
him his son as a hostage, with suitable presents. 

DCCCCXXXVII. Bellum Dumbrunde [1. 
Brunburg] in tricesimo quarto ejus anno ; ubi ce- 
cidit filius Constantini.* 

DCCCCXXXVII. The battle of Bmnburg, ia 
his thirty-fourth year ; where fell the son of Con- 

DCCQCXXXVIII. Mortuus est Dubican filius 
Indrechtaig mormair Oengusa.+ 

• Cro. Pic. See more of this battle in " The Annals of 
Cumberland," ad. an. 93a " Cecidit ibi," says W. of 
Malmesbury, " rex Scottorura Constantinus, perfidae animo- 
sitatis at vivacis senectae homo, aliique reges quinque, comites 
duodecim, omnisque pene barbarorum congeries, pauci qui eva- 
serant pro fide Christi suscipienda conservati." (L. 2, c. 6, p. 

f Cro. Pic. 


DCCCCXXXVIII. Dubican, the son of In- 
drechtaig, thaue of Angus, died. 

DCCCCXL. Adelstan filius Aduar [1. Ead- 
wardi] rig Saxan [f. Saxonum regis], et Eochaid 
filius Alpin mortui sunt.* 

DCCCCXL. Athelstan, the son of Edward, 
king of the Saxons, and Eochy, the son of Alpin, 

DCCCCXLIII. In senectute decrepitus bacu- 
lum cepit [^R. Constantinus] et domino servivit; 
et regnum mandavit Mael p. Maelcolaira] filio 

DCCCCXLIII. King Constantine, in a decre- 

• Ibi. If this Eochaid, or Eochy, were a younger son of 
king Alpin, he must have been a hundred years old at the 
time of his death. The name of this son, at the same time, 
aiFords another proof that it was also that of Alpins father. 

t Ibi. 


pid old age, took the staff, and served the lord, and 
committed his kingdom to Malcolm, the son of 

DCCCCXLIV. Maelcolaim filius Domnail xi. 
annis regnavit. Cum exercitu suo Maelcolaim 
perexit in Moreb, et occidit Celach.* 

DCCCCXLIV. Malcolm the son of Donald 
reigned eleven years. Malcolm, with his army, 
went into Murray, and slew Cellach. 

DCCCCXLV. Magnificus rex Anglorum Ead- 
mundus terram Cumbrorum depopulatus est, illam- 
que regi Scottorum Malcolmo eo tenore dedit, ut 
terra marique sibi fidelis existeret.f 

DCCCCXLV. Edmund, the magnificent king 
of the English, depopulated the land of the Cum- 

• Ibi. t S. DuneL co. 156. 


brians, and gave it to Malcolm, king of the Scots, 
upon this condition that he should be faithful to 
him by land and sea. 

DCCCCXLVI. Edredus tertius ex filiis Ed- 
wardi, regnum suscipiens, rexit abnis 9 et dimi- 
dio. Ejus magnanimitas, a patre et fratribus non 
degenerans, hanc summam dedit, Northanimbros 
et Scottos, facile ad sacramentum suae fidelitatis 
adactos, et mox fcedifragos ; quodam Iricio rege 
super se statute, pene ex hominibus delevit, tota 
provincia fame ferroque foedata.* 

DCCCCXLVI. Edred, the third of Edwards 
sons, receiving the kingdom, reigned nine years and 
a half. His magnanimity, not degenerating from 

• W. Malmes. I. 2, c. 7- H. Hunting. 1. 5, p. 365. In 

he life of St. Cadroe, he is conducted from the city Loida (ap> 
parently Carlisle) " ad regem Erichium in Euroacum [f. 
Eboracum] urbem : qui scilicet rex habebat conjugem ipsius 
domini Kaddroe propinquam." This Ericius, or Ericus, was 
a Dane, or of Danish extraction, who, being made king of the 
Northumbrians in 947, was banished in the following year. 
See R. de Hoveden, p. 423. 


his father and brethren, gave this opinion, that the 
Northumbrians and Scots were easily brought to 
their oath of fidelity, and presently broke it. A 
certain king Iricius being set over them, he almost 
destroyed it of men, the whole province being pol- 
luted (or rent) with famine and the sword. 

DCCCCLII. [Malcolm rex] in septimo anno 
regni sui praedavit Anglos ad amnem Thesis ; et 
multitudinem rapuit hominum, et multa armenta 
pecorum ; quam praedam vocaverunt Scotti praedam 
Albidosorum i. e. Nauudisi.* Alii autem dicunt 
Constantinum fecisse banc praedam, quaerens a rege, 
i. e. Maelcolaim, regnum dari sibi ad tempus hebdo- 
madis, ut visitaret Anglos. Veruntamen non Mael- 
colaim fecit banc praedam, sed instigavit eum Con- 
stantinus, ut dixi.f 

DCCCCLII. King Malcolm, in the seventh year 
of his reign, made a prey upon the English at the 
river Tees, and carried off a multitude of men, anb 
many herds of cattle ; which prey the Scots called 

" Inexplicable corruptions. -j- Cro. Pic. 


the prey of the Albudi, that is, Nauuidisi. Others, 
however, say that Constantine made this prey, 
seeking from the king, that is, Malcolm, the king- 
dom to be given to him for a week, that he might 
visit the English. Nevertheless Malcolm did not 
make this prey, but Constantine instigated him, as 
I have said. 

DCCCCLIV. Mortuus est Constantinus in deci- . 
mo ejus anno [sci. Malcolmi] sub corona pceniten- 
ti, in senectute bona.* 

DCCCCLIV. Constantine died in his (Mal- 

• Ibi. " Constantln Mac-Edha 40 an. Hie dimisso reg- 
no sponte deo in habitu religionis abbas factus Keledeorum S. 
Andrese 5 ann. et ibi mortuus est et sepultus." Nomina re- 
gum, ^c. " Constantin. fil. Hed. xxv." Cro. regum, ^c. 
" Constantin . . . chaith a se is da f hicheat" (i. e. Constan- 
tine spent six and forty). Duan. " 951. Constantine Mac Aod 
king of Scotland [died]." An. Ul. " Anno dcccc.xlih. 
" Obiit Constantinus rex Scottorum." Chro. de Mailros. 

*' Constantinus idem, cujus pater Hed fuit Albus, 
Bis deca rex annis vixerat, atque decern : 

Andrece sancti fuit hie quinquennis in urbe, 
Rcligionis ubi jure frucns obiit." 

Chro. ekgiacum. 


colms) tenth year, under the crown of repentance, 
in a good old age. 

DCCCCLV. Occiderunt viri Na Moerne Mal- 
colaim in Fodresack, i. e. in Claideom.* 

Indulfus tenuit regnum octo annis. In hujus 
tempore oppidum Eden vacatum est, ac relictum 
est Scottis in hodiernum diem. Classi [f. classici] 
Somarlediorum occisi sunt in Bucham.J 

• Cro. Pic. " Malcolm Mac-Dovenald 9 an. interfectus in 
Ulum a Moraviensibus ; sepultus in lona." Nomina regum, 
^c. " Malcolm fil. Dunevald [L Duvenald] ix." Cro, re- 
gum, ^c. " Maolcholum ceithre bliadhna" (i. e. Malcolm 
four years). Duan. " Anno 953, Malcoluim mac Domnail 
rex Albaniae a suis occisus est." Tigernach (O'Flaherty, p. 
486), " 953. Maolcolum Mac Donal king of Scotland kill- 
ed." An. Ul • 

" Huic \ rex Malcolmus successit in tribus annis, 

Regis Donald! filius ille fuit. 
Interfecerunt in Unlun hunc 3Ioravienses, 
Gentis apostaticse fraude doloque cadit." 

Chro. elegiacum. 

See Sir James Dalrymples Collections, p. 99. 

X Cro, Pic. Perhaps it should be Classi [advenientes] 

Somarlediorum [numeri] occisi sunt. These Somarleds, or 

Sumraerlids, were Danish or Norwegian pirates, who may 

t i. e. Constantine. 


DCCCCLV. The men of Moerne slew Malcolm 
in Fodresack, that is, in Claideom. 

Indulf held the kingdom eight years. In his 
time the town of Eden was vacated, and left to the 
Scots unto this day. The seamen of the Sumerleds 
were slain in Buchan. 

DCCCCLXI. Indulph rex Albaniae raortuus 

only have made their appearance in summer (from liod Sax- 
on). In the Saxon chronicle, an. 871? we read, " efter thys- 
sum gefeoht com micel sumor-lida to Readingum," (i. e. 
after this fight came much Summerlids to Reading) ; which 
bishop Gibson has improperly rendered " magna quies aesti- 
va," though he might have found it correctly explained by 
Ethelwerd, " aestivus exercitus" (1. 4, c. 3). Sumerlede also 
was a common name among the Saxons or Danes. See S. 
Dunel. CO. 82 ; Historia ecclesiae Eliensis (apud Galei Scrip- 
tores XV.) 1. 1, c. 15 : J. Bromton, co. 809 ; R. de Hoveden, 
p. 493 ; and Torfcei Orcades, p. 66. As this, therefore, ap- 
pears to have been a name assumed by themselves, it by no 
means, as mr. Finkerton absurdly maintains, " shews that the 
Irish was never that of Scotland, being a Pikish or Gothic, 
and yet common appellation." (Enquiry., II, 186.) 

* Cro. Pic. " Induff Mac-Constantin 9 an. interfectus a 
Norwagensibus in Inverculan ; sepultus in lona." Nomina 
regum, S[c. " Indolf fil. Constantin. ix." Cro. regum, ^c. 
** Indolph B hocht" (i. e. Indulf eight). Dtian. Tigernach 


Niger filius Maelcolaim regnavit quinque anuis.f 
Fothach episcopus pausavit.J 

DCCCCLXI. Indulph king of Albany died. 
Duf, the son of Malcolm, reigned five years. 
Fothach the bishop died. 

DCCCCLXIV. [Bellum] inter Iger [1. Niger, 
i. e. DuflF, et] Caniculum \_i. e. Culen] super dor- 

(O'Fla. p. 486.) " Anno dcccc.lxi. Rex Scottorum In- 
dulfus occiditur." Chro. de Mailros. 

" Post hunc* Indulfus totidem regnaverat annis, 

Ens Constantini filius Edsajdse. 
In bello pugnans, ad fluminis ostia Collin, 
Dacorum gladiis protinus occubuit." 

Chro. elegiacum. 
•\ Cro. Pic. " Duff Mac Malcolm 4 ann. et 6 mens." 
Nomina regum, ^c. " Duf fil. Malcolm iv an. et vi mens." 
Cro. regum, Sj;c. " Seach mbliadhua Dubhoda den (i. e. 
seven years Duff the brown). Duan. Mr. Pinkerton calls this 
monarch Odo Duff, because Fordun says he succeeded in the 
24th year of the emperor Otho. 

X Ibi. This is the prelate, of whom Fordun says he found, 
in the circumference of the silver cover of the gospels, pre« 
served in St. Andrews, this engraving : 

"■ Hanc evangeli thecam construxit Avilus 
Fothad, qui primus Scotis episcopus est." (P. 551.) 

* Malcolmum. 


sum Crup, in quo Niger liabuit victoriam ; ubi ce- 
cidit Duchad abbas Duncalden, et Dubdou satrapas 
Athochlach. Expulsus Niger de regno, et tenuit 
Caniculus brevi tempore. Domnall filius Canil 
mortuus est.* 

DCCCCLXIV. A battle, between Duif and Cu- 
len, upon Drum-Crup, in which Duff had the vic- 
tory ; where fell Duncan, abbot of Dunkeld, and 
Dubdou, thane of Athol. Duff was expelled from 
the kingdom, and Culeu held it a short time. Do- 
nald the son of Canil died. 

DCCCCLXV. Culen-ring quinquo annis regna- 
vit. Marcan filius Breodalaig occisus est in eccle- 
sia S. Michaelis. Leot et Sluagadach exierunt ad 
Romam. Maelbrigd episcopusf pausavit. Cel- 
lach filius Ferdulaig regnavit.J Culen, et frater 
ejus Eochodius, occisi sunt a Britonibus.|| 

* Ibi, "963. Battle between Scotsmen about Etir[r,Etain, 
or Edin], where many slain about Donoch abbot of Duncald< 
en." An. Ul. 

•f i. e. S. Andreas, dictus et Malisiur. Innes. 

$ i. e. rexit, sive gubernavit, loco sci. Malisiur sive Mael- 
brigd. Idem. 

II Cm. Pic. " Culin Mac-Induff 4 an. et (5 mens. Inter- 


DCCCCLXV. Culen-rig reigned five years. 
Marcan, the son of Breodalaig, was killed in the 
church of St. Michael. Leot and Sluagadach went 
to Rome. Maolbrigd, the bishop, died. Cellach, 
the son of Ferdulaig, governed [in his stead]. Cu- 
len, and his brother Eochy, were slain by the Bri- 

DCCCCLXVII. Duff Mac Maolcolum, king of 
Scotland, killed by Scots men themselves.* 

fectus ab Andarch filio Dovenald propter filiam suam In Lau- 
donia." Nomina legum, ^c. " Culen fil. Indulf iv an. et 
vi mens." Cro. regurri, ^c. " Agusa ceathair Culen" (i. e. 
and four Culen). Duan. " Cuilen Mac Innulbh rex Alba- 
niae a Britonibus incensa domo perditus." Tigernach (O'Fla. 
p. 487.) " 970. Culen Illuilc king of Scotland killed by Bri- 
tons in open battle." An, Ul. " Anno dcccc.lxix. Rex 
Scottorum Culenus perimitur." Chron. de Mailros. 
" Filius Indulfi totidem quoque rex fuit annis, 

Nomine Culenus vir fuit insipiens. 
Fertur apud Lovias ilium truncasse Radhardas, 
Pro rapta nata quam sibi rex rapuit." 

Chro. elegiacum. 

" An. Ul, Original : " Duv Mac Mselcolain ri Alban." 

" Interfectus in Fores, et absconditus sub ponte de Kinlos, et 


DCCCCLXX. Cinadius filius Maelcolami reg- 
navit [xxiv] annis. Statim prsedavit Britanniam, 
ex parte pedestres Cinadi occisi sunt maxima caede 
in Moniuacornar. Scotti praedaverunt Saxoniam 
et ad Stamraoir Q. StanmoirH* et ad Cluiam, et ad 
Stang na Deram. Cinadius autem vallavit ripas 
vadorum Forthin. Primo p. proximo] anno per- 
exit Cinadius et praedavit Saxoniam, et traduxit 
filium regis Saxoniun. Hie est qui tribuit mag- 
nam civitatem Brechne dominO'f 

sol non apparuit, quamdiu ibi latuit. Sepultus in lona." 
Nomina regum, ^c. " Anno dcccc.lxv. Rex Duf Scotto- 
rum interficitur." Chro. de Mailros. 

" Quatuor et semis rex Duf regnavit aristis, 

Malcolmo natus regia jura gerens. 
Hunc interfecit gens perfida Moraviensis, 
Cujus erat gladiis caesus in urbe Fores. 
Sol abdit radios, ipso sub ponte latente, 
Quo fuit absconsus, quoque repertus erat" 

Chro. elegiacttm. 
* Saxonia is England. Stanmore is in Westmoreland. 
•|- Cro. Pic. " Kinath Mac-Malcolm 24 an. et 2 mens." 
Nomina regum, ^c. " Kinet fiL Malcolm xxii an. et ii 
mens." Cro. regum, ^c. " A seacht fith cheat os gach- 
cloinn, Do Chionaoth mhic Maoilcholuim" (». c. Seven and 
twenty, over each clan, to Kenneth the son of Malcolm). 
Duan. Here ends the Cronica Piciorum, which appears, 
from that circumstance, and the phraseology " Hie est qui, 
Ac' to have been written in the lifetime of Kenneth. 


DCCCCLXX. Kenneth the son of Malcohn 
reigned 24 years. Forthwith he harried Britain 
(/*. e. Strath-Clyde), and on the side of Kenneth 
his foot-soldiers were slain in a very great slaugh- 
ter in Monivacornar. The Scots harried Saxony 
to Statemake, and at Cluyd, and the lake of De- 
ram ? Now Kenneth walled the banks of the fords 
of Forth. In the next year he went and harried 
Saxony (?. e. England, or Lothian), and carried oft' 
the son of the king of the Saxons. This is he who 
gave the great city of Brechin to the lord. 

DCCCCLXXI. Rex Eadgarus * barones Nor- 
thumbrenses in consilium convocans apud Ebora- 
cum,capitula multa ad regni negotia spectantia bene 
ordinavit. Inter qua; etiam Osulii comitatum, quern 
avunculus ejus Eadredus toti North umbriae sub 
nomine comitis praefecerat, in duos di visit comita- 
tus. Ipso Osulfo jam mortuo, noluit sub nomine 
haereditatis rex earn partem terrse alicui provenire 
soli, ne adantiquam libertatem aspirantest North- 

• Edgar succeeded his brother Ed wig, as king of all Eng- 
land, in 959 and died in 975. 

-|- Here is a considerable defect, occasioned, it would seem, 
by the recurrence of the word Northimhrice. The sense of 
the entire passage must have been, that, lest the Northum< 


imbriae, hoc est, ab Humbria usque ad Theisam, 
Oslachj et comitis gladio eum cinxit. A Theisa 
vero usque ad Mireforth* sub nomine etiam comi- 
tatus, partem videlicet maritimam Deiree, dedit 
Eadulf cognomento Ewelthild. Sicque duo regna 
ad duos comitatus devenerunt, permanseruntque 
omni tempore regum Anglorum sub ditione et do- 
natione eorundem. Loutbion vero semper patuit 
excursibus Scotorum et Pictorum, et idcirco parum 
curae fuit regibus haec pars terrae. Porro rex Sco- 
torum Kineth audiens ex fama et commendatione 
duorum comitum Oslach et Eadulf, et episcopi 
Dunelmi Elfsi,f Eadgari regis magnificentiam, de- 
siderio videndi petivit conductum veniendi Lon- 
doniam, ut cum eodem colloqueretur, et impetravit: 
Conduxeruntque eum ex precepto regis duo comi- 
tes predicti et episcopus. Venit Londonias Kineth 
rex Scotorum, ubi a rege Eadgaro honorifice sus- 
ceptus est, et honori habitus; cumque amice fa- 
miliariter et jocunde colloquerentur ; suggessit rex 
Kineth regi Eadgaro liOuthion ad suum jus debere 

brians, aspiring after their ancient liberty, should endeavour 
to restore their monarchy, he gave the southern part of Nor- 
thumberland, that is, from the Humber to the Tees, to Os- 

* L e. the water or firth of Forth. 

f ElfHff, or /llfiii-, bishop of Chester on the street, from 968 
to 990. 


pertinere, et haereditari^ a regibus Scotorum pos- 
sideri.* Rex nolens aliquid abrnpte facere, ne 
post factum pceniteret, regis Kineth causam curiae 
suae intimavit. Proceres vero qui a progenitoribus 
erant eruditi, nisi sub nomine homagii regi Anglo- 
rum a rege Scotorum inpensi,-|' et praecipue quia 
ad tuendum terram illam difficilis est accessus, et 
harum proficua ejus dominatio, assensit autem 
assertion! huic Kineth, et sub nomine homagii eam 
petiit et accepit, fecitque regi Eadgaro homagium 
sub cautione multa promittens, quod populo par- 
tis illius antiquas consuetudines non negaret, et 
sub nomine et lingua Anglicana permanerent. 
Quod usque hodie firmum manet.:}: Sicque deter- 
minata est vetus querela de Louthion, et adhuc 
nova saepe intentatur. Subjectus est ergo Eadgaro 
rex praedictus praedicta causa, sed et rex Cum- 
borum Malcolm, et Oriccus [Maccus] plurimarum 

• Lothiaa had undoubtedly been part of the Pictish terri- 
tory, conquered by the Northumbrian kings, but never posses- 
sed by a Scotish monarch. Kenneth, no doubt, pretended to 
be representative of the Picts. 

•f These passages seem to have been rendered imperfect by 
the transcriber. 

:{: Not in the writers time, but in that of the more ancient 
author whose words he uses. 


rex insularum, et Orcadum diversi reges. Qui 
omnes Eadgaro homagii nomine tenebantur.* 

DCCCCLXXI. King Edgar, convoking the 
Northumbrian barons to a council at York, wisely 
ordained many laws touching the affairs of his 
kingdom : among which also the county of Osulf, 
whom his uncle Edred had, under the name of 
earl, set over all Northumberland, he divided into 
two counties. This Osulf being now dead, the 
king was unwilling that this part of the land 
should come to any one under the name of inheri- 
tance, lest, aspiring to ancient liberty, ... of North- 
umberland, that is, from Humber as far as Tees 
Qhe gave to]^ Oslach, and girded him with the 
sword of earl. But, from Tees as far as Mireforth, 
under the name also of a county, to wit, the mari- 

• J. de Wallingford, p. 646. " Demum sub Eadgaro rege 
Oslac preficitur comes Eboraco etlocis pertinentibus, et Eadulf 
cognamento Weleild a Teisa usque JMyreforth preponitur 
Northymbris. Isti duo comites cum Elfsio qui apud sanctum 
Cuthbertum episcopus fuerat perdu xerunt Kyneth regem Scot- 
torum ad regem Eadgarum. Qui cum illi fecisset hominium 
dedit ei rex Eadgarus Lodoneium et multo cum honorc re- 
misit ad propria." — Chronicon vetus Simeoni Dunelmcnsi ad- 
scriptum, Caligula, A. VIII. See also M. West, ad an. 975, 
and afterward under 1018. 


time part of Deira, he gave to Eadulf surnamed 
Ewelthild : and so two kingdoms came down to 
two counties, and remained, in all the time of the 
kings of the English, under their dition and dona- 
tion. But Lothian always lay open to the excur- 
sions of the Scots and Picts, and therefore little of 
care was this part of the land to the kings. More- 
over the king of Scots, Kenneth, hearing from the 
report and commendation of the two earls, OslacJi 
and Eadulf, and of the bishop of Durham Elfsi, 
the magnificence of king Edgar, with the desire of 
seeing him, requested a conduct of coming to Lon- 
don, that he might converse with him, and obtained 
it : and the two earls and bishop aforesaid conduct- 
ed him by the kings command. Kenneth, king of 
the Scots, came to London, where he was honor- 
ably received by king Edgar, and treated with ho- 
nour ; and as they conversed in a friendly, familiar^ 
and jocund, manner, king Kenneth suggested to 
king Edgar that Lothian ought to belong to his 
right, and to be possessed hereditarily, by the kings 
of the Scots. The king, unwilling to do any thing 
abruptly, lest he should after repent the deed, in- 
timated the cause of king Kenneth to his court. 
But the nobles, who were instructed by their pro- 
genitors, unless under the name of homage done to 
the king of the English by the king of the Scots, 


and, especially, because the approach was difficult 
to defend that country, and its dominion of little 
profit, Kenneth, however, assented to this asser- 
tion, and, under the name of homage, asked and ac- 
cepted it, and did homage to king Edgar under 
caution, promising many things, that he would not 
deny to the people of that part their ancient cus- 
toms, and that they should remain under the Eng- 
lish name and language : which remains firm until 
this day : and so was determined the old quarrel 
concerning Lothian, and yet a new one is often 
threatened. The aforesaid king was, therefore, 
subject to Edgar, for the cause aforesaid, but also 
the king of the Cumbrians Malcolm, and Maccus 
king of a great many isles, and the different kings 
of the Orkneys : who were all bound to Edgar in 
the name of homage. 

DCCCCLXXIII. [Eadgarus rex Angliae] re- 
gem Scottorum Kunadium, archipiratam Maccu- 
sium, omnesque reges Wallensium,... ad curiam co- 
actos, uno et perpetuo sacramento sibi obligavit.* 

• W. Malmes, p. 56. See also Chro. Sax. which speaks of 
six kings, but mentions none by name. " Rex Anglorum 
paeificus Eadgarus . . . cum ingenti elasse, Britannia circum- 


DCCCCLXXIII. Edgar, king of England, 
bound to himself Kenneth, — king of the Scots, the 
archpirate Maccus, and all the kings of the Welsh, 
...assembled at his court, in one and a perpetual 
oath. ^^_____ 

navigata, ad Legionum civitatem [hodie Chester] appulit. 
Cui subieguH ejus octo, Kynath, scilicet, rex Scottorum, 
Malcolm rex Cumbrorum, Maccus plurimarum rex insula- 
rum, et alii V. Dufnald, Siferth, Huval, Jacob, Nichil [Ju- 
chil or Inchil], ut mandaverat, occurrerunt, et quod sibi fide- . 
les et terra et mari cooperatores se vellent juraverunt Cum 
quibus die quadam scapham ascendit, iUisque ad remos loca- 
tis, ipse clavum gubernaculi arripiens, eam per cursum flumi- 
nis De perite gubernavit, omnique turba ducum et procerum 
simili navigio comitante, a palatio ad monasterium sancti 
Johannis Baptistae navigavit." S. Dunel. co. 159. See also 
Flo. Wigor. J. Bromton, et Chro. de Mailros, ad annum. It 
appears, from this passage, and several others, as well in 
these annals, as at later periods, that the Scotish monarchs 
did occasional homage to the Saxon kings, if not for their 
whole kingdom, at least for Lothian, which, though it had 
been formerly possessed by the Picts, was certainly, for seve- 
ral centuries a part of the kingdom of Northumberland, and, 
consequently, after the termination of that monarchy, within 
the kingdom of England. William king of Scotland did 
fealty and homage to king Henry II. in 117o, for all his pos- 
sessions, and particularly for Scotland and Galloway (Bene- 
dictus, 113); and, though the Scotish monarch did, after- 
ward, for a valuable consideration, obtain a release of some 
unusual conditions from Richard I. still it was with an ex- 
press reservation of what Malcolm, his brother, had of right 
done, and ought to do, to that kings ancestors (Idem^ 581.) 


DCCCCLXXVII. Amlaus, filius Indulphi re- 
gis Albaniae, a Kinetho filio Malcolmi capite plec- 

DCCCCLXXVII. Anlaf, son of Indulph king 
of Albany, is beheaded by Kenneth, the son of Mal- 

DCCCCXCIV. Interfectus in . Fotherkern a 
suis, per perfidiam Finellae filiae Cunechat comitis 
de Angus, cujus Finellae filium unicum prsedietus 
Kinath interfecit apud Dunfinoen.f 

• Tigemach (O'Flaherty, p. 487). " Aulaiv MacAlaiv, 
king of Scotland [r. Gentilium] killed by Cinaoh MacDonell 
[r. MacMalcolm]." An. Ul. This Anlaf, Aulaf, or Olave, 
was king of the Dubh-gall, or pagan Danes, who had posses- 
sed himself, it would seem, of some part of Scotland. 

•f Nomina regum, &c. " Anno 995, Kinethus filius Mal> 
colmi a suis occisus est." Tigemach (O'Fla. p. 487)> " 994. 
Cinaoh Mac Maolcolum, king of Scotland, killed per dobinu'^ 
An. Ul. " Anno DCCCCXCIV. Rex Scottorum Kined 
occiditur." Chro. de Mailros. 

*' Inclytus in Scotia fertur regnasse Kinedus, 

Malcolmi natus, quatuor et deca bis. 
Iste ForthcrkernaD tclis fit ct arte percmptus, 
?Car^ Cuncari Fimberhcle fraude cadens.'* 

Chro. ekg. 


Constantin MacCulin uno anno et sex mensibus 

DCCCCXCIV. Slain in Fotherkern, by his 
own people, through the perfidy of Finella, daugh- 
ter of Cunechat, earl of Angus, the only son of 
which Finella the aforesaid Kenneth slew at Dun- 

Constantin, the sou of Culin, reigned one year 
and six months. 

DCCCCXCVI. Interfectus a Kinat filio Mal- 
colnii Q. Malcolmo filio Kinat] in Rathveramoen, 
et sepultus in Iona.t 

• Nomina regum, &c " Constantin fil. Culen uno an. ct 
dimid." Cro. regum Scot. " Seaght mbliadhna constantin" 
(». e. seven years Constantin). Duaiu 

■\ Nomina rcgum^ &c. " Anno 997, Prajlium inter ipsos 
Albanos ; in quo Constantinus rex Albaniae, Culeni sc filius, 
et alii ceciderunt." Tigernach (O'Flaherty, p. 487). "Anno 
DCCCC. XCV. Rex Scottorum Constantinus [calvus filius 
Culeni] necatur." Chro. de Mailros. 

" Rex Constantinus, Culeno filius ortus, 

Ad caput amnis Aven ense peremptus erat, 
In Tegalere ; regens uno rex et semis annis, 
Ipsum Kinedus Malcolonida ferit." 

Chro. ele. 


Girgh Mac-Kinat Mac-DufF octo anuis [regna- 


DCCCCXCVI. Killed by Malcolm, the son 
of Kenneth, in Rathveramoen, and interred in 

Grig, the son of Kenneth, the son of Duf, reign- 
ed 8 years. 

As Kenneth Mac Malcolm died 18 months before the death 
of Constantin his name seems to be put by mistake, both in 
the 'text and the elegiac Chronicle, for that of Malcolm Mac 
Kenneth. See under 1004. 

• Nomina regum, &c. " Chinet fil. Duf uno an. et dimid." 
Cro. regum, &c. " Agus a ceathair Macduiph" (i. e. and 
four JMacduff). Duan. " 1004. A battle between Scots at 
Monedir, where the king of Scotland, Cinaoh IMac-Duiv, was 
slain." An. Ul. "Anno M.III. Rex , Scottorum Grim 
[sive, ut ad an. 995, Kinedus filius Duff] necatur." Chro. 
de Mailros. 

" Annorum spatio rex Grim regnaverat octo, 

Kinedi natus qui genitus Duf erat. 
Quo truncatus erat Bardorum campus habetur, 

A nato Kined nomine Malcolomi." 

Chro. clcgi. 

It appears, likewise, from O'Flaherty (p. 488), that the 
proper name of Grim, or Macduff., was Kenneth. 


MIV. Interfectus a filio Kinet in Moghananard. 
Sepultus in lona insula. 

Malcolm Mac-Kinath, rex victoriosissimus, tri- 
ginta annis [regnavit].* 

MIV. Killed, by the son of Kenneth, in Mo- 
ghananard. Interred in the island lona. 

Malcolm the son of Kenneth, a most victorious 
king, reigned 30 years. 

MV. Battle between Scotsmen and Saxons, 
where Scotsmen were discomfitted, with a great 
slaughter of their good men. 

MXVIII. Ingens bellum apud Carrum gestum 
est inter Scottos et Anglos, inter Huctredum filium 
Waldef comitem Northymbrorum, et Malcolmum 
filium Cyneth regem Sc^ttoruum. Cum quo fuit 

• Nomina regum, inc. " Malcolm fiL Kinet XXX." 
Cro. regum, &c. "■ Triocha bliadhain Ba righ Maolcholaim" 
(i. e. thirty years was king Malcolm). Duatu 


in bello Eugenius Calvus rex Lutinensium [1. Clu- 

• Simeon Dunel. co. ITJ. " Hie [Slalcolm] magnum bel- 
lum fecit apud Carrum.-|- Ipse etiam multas oblationes tam 
ecclesiis quam iliso ea die distribuit." Cro. regum. It ap- 
pears from the Saxon chronicle that Uchtred was killed in 
1016. " Anno ab incarnatione domini DCCCC. Ixix. reg- 
nante rege Anglonim Ethelredo, Malcolmus rex Scottorum 
filius Kynedi regis congregato totius Scotia exercitu provin- 
ciam Northanimbrorum casdibus et incendibus devastans, 
Ddnelmum obsidione circumdedit. Quo tempore Alduno 
episcopatum ibidem regente, Waltheof qui comes fuerat Nor- 
thanimbrorum sese in Bebbanbuc incluserat . . . Cujus filio, 
scilicet Ucthredo, magnse strenuitatis juveni et militi aptissi- 
mo filiam suam nomine Ecgfridam Aldunus episcopus dederat 
uxorem . . . Videns juvenis praefatus terrorem ab hostibus de- 
vastatam, et Dunelmum obsidione circumdatam, et contra hoc 
patrem suum nihil agere, adunato exercitu Northimbrorum et 
Eboragensium non parva manu, Scottorum multitudinem 
pene totam interfecit ipso rege vix perfugam cum paucis eva- 
dente. Interfectorum vero capita elegantiora crinibus, sicut 
tunc temporis mos erat, perplexis fecit Dunelmum transpor- 
tari, eaque a quatuor mulieribus perlata per circuitum muro- 
rum in stipitibus prsefigis mulieribus autem quae ea laverant 
mertcdem dederant vaccas singulis singulas. His auditis, rex 
Ethelredus vocato ad se juvcne prajfato, vivente adhuc patre 
Waltheof, pro merito sua? strenuitatis et bello quod tam viri- 
liter peregerat, dedit ei comitatum patris sui, adjungcns etiam 
Eboracensium comitatum." S. Dunel. co. 80. If there be a 
word of trutli in this relation, certainly the date is not merely 
t " Carrum hodle Wcrk." It U not fVark, but to the west of it. 


Quo [Ucthredo] occiso [per regem Cnut], fra- 
ter ipsius Eadulf cognomento Cudel, ignavus valde 
et timidus, ei successit in comitatum. Timens au- 
tem ne Scotti mortem suorum quos frater ejus, ut 
supradictum est, occiderat, in se vindicarent totum 
Lodoneium, ob satisfactionem et firmam concordi- 
am eis donavit. Hoc modo Lodoneium adjectum* 
est regno Scottorum.* 

MXVIII. A great battle was fought, at Car- 
ham, between the Scots and the English, between 
the son of Waltheof earl of the Northumbrians, and 
Malcolm the son of Kenneth, king of thci Scots : 
with whom in battle was Owen the bald king of 
the Clutinians (i. e. Strath -Clyde-Britons?) 

Which Uchtred being slain by king Cnut, his 
brother Eadulf surnamed Cudel, very slothful and 
timid, succeeded him in the county. But, fearing 
lest the Scots should revenge upon him the death 
of those whom his brother, as is above said, had 
slain, gave all Lothian, for satisfaction and firm 

false but absolutely impossible, as Etheldred did iint ascend 
the throne before 978, nor Malcolm before 1001. These par- 
ticulars also are mentione<l by no other writer. 
* S. Dunel, co. 81. See before under 970. 


concord. In this manner was Lothian added to 
the kingdom of the Scots. 

MXX. Finlogh Mac Roary, king of Scotland, 
a suis occisus.* 

- MXXXII. Cnuto decimo quinto anno regni sui 
Romam profectus est. Ibi aliquantis diebus commo- 
ratus, navigio Angliam rediit. Et mox Scotiam 
rebellantem, regemque Malcolmum, expeditione il- 
luc ducta, parvo subegit negotio.f 

• An. Ul. This Finlogh, or Fir.leg, was the father of Mac- 
beth. " King of Scotland" can only mean prince or ruler 
of some part of it : probably Murray. Torfseus, from an old 
saga, calls him Scottoruvi comes Finnleicus. (Orcades, p. 
270 Roary is a contraction or diminutive of Roderick. He 
is called in the original MS. at Oxford, " Finloec Mac Ruai- 
dri, ri Alban." 

•t W. Malmes. L. 2,c 11. "An. MXXXI. Her for Cnut 
cyng to Rome. & thy ylcan geare tha hi ham com he for to 
Scotlande. & Scotta cyng him to beah Mselcolm. & twegen 
othre cyningas. Mselbaethe & lehmarc." (t. e. In this year 
Cnut the king went to Rome ; and in the same year, in which 
he came home, he went to Scotland, and the Scotish king 


M XXX 1 1. Cnut, in the fifteenth year of his 
reign, went to Rome. Having stayed there some 
daySj he returned in a ship to England : and pre- 
sently, with little trouble, subdued Scotland, being 
in rebellion, and its king Malcolm, in an expedi- 
tion conducted thither. 

Gilcomgan MacMaolbryde, miu-mor of Murebe, 
burnt with 50 men about him.* 

MXXXIII. The son of Mac Boete Mac Cinaoh 
killed by Maolcolum Mac Cinaoh.-|- 

MXXXIV. Malcolm rex Scottorum obiit.J 

Malcolm, was subject to him, and two other kings Maolbeth 
and Jehraarc). Chro. Sax. This Maslbaethe, or Maolbeth, 
was, in all probability, the famous usurper Macbeth, whose 
father Finlogh was slain in 1020. Caradoc, however, says 
they were kings of the Orkneys and Ewist. 

" An. Ul. Mr. Pinkerton, by either negligence or design, 
omits the words Gilcomgan Mac. 

-|- An. Ul. Unless this be a repetition, or different state- 
ment, of the death of Gillcomgain, burnt in the preceding 
year, the person intended must have been his brother. Maol- 
bryd himself was Mac Boet (or Bodhe). 

X Simeon Dunel. co. 178. He adds, by mistake, " cui 


Donchath Mac-Trini [1. Mac-Crini] abbatis de 

Machethad successit." — " Blortuus in Glamis, et sepultus in 
lona insula." Nomhta regum. Sec "Anno 1034, Malcolmus 
filius Kinethi, supremum ordinum, Albaniae caput, obiit." 
Tigeraach (O'Flaherty, p. 488). " 1034, Malcolm Mac Cina- 
oh, king of Scotland, died." An. Ul. " Anno M.XXXIV. 
Obiit Malcolmus rex Scottorum." Chro. de Mailros. 
" In vico Glannis rapuit mors libera regem, 

Sub pede prostratis hostibus ille perit. 
Abbatis Crini, jam dicti filia regis, 
Uxor erat Bethoc nomine digna sibi." 

Chro. elegia. 

According to general Vallancey, an old anonjrmous manu- 
script, which he had seen, "' mentions that a daughter of 
Brian Borumh, monarch of Ireland [slain in 1014] was mar- 
ried to [this] Malcolm the Second, son of Kinneth, king of 
Scotland." Collectanea, I. 547- 

Bethoc (or Beathach, O'Flaherty, p. 488) appears to have 
been the only child of fllalcolm. Fordun, probably without 
any good reason, says that "Crynyne. ahhas de Dul," which 
he had found in certain annals, should be " Abthamis de 
Dul," which he derives from abba, pater, &c. " But who," 
exclaims Plnkerton, " ever heard of an dbthane ?" {Enquiry, 
II, 193.) " The nature and antiquity of this office," observes 
the ingenious and accurate D. Macpherson, " is unknown to 
me ; but that there was such an office, and that it remained 
for ages after this time is unquestionable. David II. granted 
to Donald Macnayre the lands of Easter-Fossacke with the 
Abthansie of Dull in Perthshire [Roll D. 2. K. 21. in MS. 
Harl. 4069.] The baillierie of Abthane of Dull, and the lands 
of the Abthane of Kinghorn, occur in other grants in the same 
MS. in Roll D. 2. F." See also Robertson's Index of char- 
ters, p. 46, 53, 90. 


Dunkeld et Bethoc filise Malcolm Mac-Kiaat sex 
annis Cregnavit^.* 

MXXXIV. Malcolm king of Scots died. 

Duncan, the son of Crinan, abbot of Dunkeld 
and of Bethoc daughter of Malcolm, the son of 
Kenneth, reigned six years. 

MXXXV. Dunecanus rex Scottorum, cum im- 
mensis copiis adveniens,, Dunelmum obsedit, et ad 
eam expugnandam multum quidem sed frustra la- 
boravit. Nam magna parte equitum suorum ab 
his qui obsidebantur interfecta, confusus aufugit, 
fugiens pedites omnes interfectos amisit, quorum 
capita in forum collata, in stipitibus sunt suspen- 

MXXXV. Duncan, king of the Scots, coming 
with immense forces, besieged Durham, and to 

• Nomina regum, &c. " Se bliadhna Donnchadh ghlain 
gooith" (i. e. Six years Duncan of clean breath). Duaiu He 
is omitted in the Cronica regunu 

t S. Dunel. co. 33. 



take it laboured much^ indeed, but in vain. For, 
a great part of bis horsemen being slain by those 
who were besieged, he, in confusion, fled, and, fly- 
ing, lost all his foot, who were slain, whose heads 
being brought into the market-place, were sus- 
pended upon stakes. 

MXL. Interfectus a Macbeth Mac-Finleg in 
Bothgonanan, et sepultus in lona.* 

. " Nomina regum, ^c. " Anno 1040, Donchadh mac Cri- 
nan supremus Albaniae rex immatura aetate a suis occisus 
est." Tigemach (O'Flaherty, p. 488). " 1040. Doncha Mac 
Crinan, king of Scotland, a suis occisus." An. UU " Anno 
MXXXIX. Obiit Dunecanus rex Scottorum." Chro. de 
Mailros. Simeon of Durham, having related the siege of that 
city by Duncan, in 1035, adds, " Nee multo post ipse rex, 
cum jam in Scotiam rediisset, a suis occisus, interiit." Co. 33. 

'*£x ilia' genuit' Duncanum nomine natum 

Qui senis annis rex erat Albaniae. 
A Finleg natus percussit eum Macabeda, 
Vulnere lethali, rex apud Elgin obit." 

Chro. elegiacum. 
King Donald-bane, the younger son of Duncan, had also a 
daughter named Bethok (Foedera, II, 577) ; and mr Pinker- 
ton quotes a charter of K. William, to the canons of Jed- 
burgh, engraven at Edinburgh 1771) which contains the words, 

1 Bethoc. s Criuan. 


Macbeth Mac-Finleg septemdecim annis [regna- 


" Ex dono Radulfi fil. Dunegani et uxoris ejus Bethoc." 
(Enquiry, II, 192). 

* lU. " Macbeth /Z. Findleg xvii are." Cro. regum^ &c 
" Seachtmbliadna deg mac Fionlaoich" (i. e. Seventeen years 
the son of Finleg.) Duan. Tigemach, as cited by O'Flaherty, 
calls him " Macbeothadgh mac Finnlaoich," (p. 498.) It is 
doubtful whether he were named after his mother, or grand* 
mother, Bethoc, or Beathach, or from some Irish saint, ac- 
cording to the fashion of those times.-]- Macbeth, however, 

f It was, by no means, uncommon, in, and long before, the 
age of this usurper, for a son to be called after his mother, 
or, even, his grandmother : thus Fergus, the son of £rc, is 
surnamed Mac-Mise ; and another Fergus was sometimes called 
Mac-Boigh. See MacCurtins nndication, p. 158. Domangart, 
son and successor to the first of those Ferguses, is, in one of 
the Clarendon MSS. in the Museum (Ayscoughs Co/o/o^e, Num. 
4791, fo. 84), called " Domangart Mac Nisse rex Scotia;" appar- 
rently from the name of his grandmother. In Num. 4793, fo. 
SI, he is " Domangart Mac Niesi." In Wares Antiguitates Hiber- 
nke, 1654, 8vo. p. 36, we have an " ^ngus Mac Nise, cujus cog- 
nomento 4 matre tractum ;" and Muriertac, or Murdac, king 
of Ireland, who died in 534, was also (as we learn from the 
same authority) named Mac-Erca, after his mother. Bethoc, or 
Beathach, seems the same name with Beatha, or Beothadgh ; and 
we, likewise, find, among the fables of Geoffrey Keating " Eana 
son of Baath," and Jobhath " son of Beothach," (p. 50). The 
names of Macbride, Maolbridc, Meet Patrick, Maol-choluim, GiUcom- 
gain, &c. are all from Irish saints ; and there actually was one 
who may very probably have furnished that of Macbeth : St. 
Boecius {Bead, or Boet, in Irish), who died in 513, and whose day 
is the 7th of Deceml>er. Beodus or Boetius was, likewise, the 
father of St. Kieran. Usher, p. 526. The son of Kenneth, we 
find, was called Bodlie, and Maolbryd, his son, Mac Boete, whiclt 


MXL. Slain by Macbeth, the son of Finleg, in 
Bothgonanan, and interred in lona. 

Macbeth, the son of Finleg, reigned seventeen 

MXLV. A battle between the Scots themselves, 
where fell Cronan [r. Crinan] abbot of Duncail- 

ML. Rex Scotiae Macbethad Romae argentum 
spargendo distribuit.f 

was a common Irish name before he was born. See Chro. 
Sax. ad an. 891. In a charter also of Alexander I. we find 
" Betli comes''^ (Dalrymples Collections, p. 373). Mcclhcth 
is, apparently, the same or a similar name. 

• An. Ul. See before. 

-|- JMarianus ; S. DuneL R. de Hoveden, Flo. Wigor. Chro. 
de Mailros. Lord Hailes, who did not know that this fact 
was mentioned by Marianus, or any writer, in short, but Flo- 
rence of Worcester, ridicules the idea of Macbeths going to 

may be the same name with that of Macbeth, wbo might be so 
called out of compliment to Bodhe or MaoWryd, the father and 
brother, as It came to pass, of his wife Oruoch. A nobleman, 
however, named Macocbelh, or Mackbeth, is a witness in two 
charters of Mag David I. 


ML. Macbeth king of Scotland distributed sil- 
ver at Rome, by throwing it about. 

MLII. Osbernus cognomento Pentecoste, et 
socius ejus Hugo, sua reddiderunt castella, et co- 
mitis Leofrici licentia per suum comitatum Sco- 
tiam adeuntes a rege Scottorum Macbeotha suscepti 

MLII. Osbern, sumamed Pentecost, and his as- 
sociate Hugh, gave up their castles, and, by leave 
of earl Leofric, going through his country into 
Scotland, were received {i. e. taken into pay) by 
Macbeth, king of the Scots. 

Rome ; and pretends the original only insinuates that he bribed 
the court there. A journey to Rome, however, was so little 
extraordinary for a monarch in that age, that we find Canute 
the Great taking it in 1031, and Dunwallo, the little king of 
Strath-Clyde, died there in 974 : beside other instances ad- 
duced by mr. Pinkerton. This anecdote, at the same time, is 
remarkable as the only instance of liberality in a Scotish mo> 
narch ; very few of Macbeths successors having ever had any 
money to distribute. 


MLIV. Strenuus dux Nortliymbrorum Siwar- 
dus jussu regis Eadwardi, et equestri exercitu et 
classe valida Scottiam adiit, et cum rege Scotto-- 
rum Macbeothk praelium commisit, ac multis milli- 
bus Scottorum et Normannis omnibus quorum 
supra mentionem fecimus occisis, ilium fugavit, 
et Malcolmum regis Cumbrorum filium, ut rex 
jusserat, regem constituit. In eo tamen praelio, 
suus filius et multi Anglorum et Danorum cecide- 

" S. Dunel. Co. 187 ; R. de Hoveden, p. 443 ; and Flo. 
Wigor. p. 629. '' Sanctus Edwardus filius Ethelredi . . . 
quamvis vel reges vel simplex putaretur, habebat comites, qui 
eum ex humili in altum conantem erigerent : Siwardum Nor- 
thanimbrensium, qui ejus jussu cum Scottorum rege Mac- 
betha congressus vita regnoque spoliavit, ibidemque Malcol- 
mum filium regis Cumbrorum regem instituit." W. Malmes. 
L. 2, c. 13. This engagement is thus recorded in the Ulster 
annals : " 1054. A battle between Scots and Saxons, where 
3000 of Scots, and 1500 of Saxons, were slain, with Dolfin 
Mac Finlor." Simeon, it is observable, does not say that IMac- 
beth was slain in this battle. Siward, according to that histo- 
rian, as well as to the Saxon chronicle, Florence of Worces- 
ter, Roger de Hoveden, and the chronicle of Mailros, died in 
1055 ; Ralph de Diceto alone says 1058. Duncan, the father 
of Malcolm, is presumed to have been king of Cumberland in 
the lifetime of his grandfather. Dolfin Mac Finlor is, pro- 
bably, the Dolftnusfdius Torftni, father-in-law to Cospatrick, 
mentioned by Simeon of Durham (Co. 80) ; and Finlor, of 
course, a mistake for Fintor^ or Torjln. 


MLIV. Siward, the valiant duke (or general) 
of the Northumbrians, by the command of king 
Edward, with both an army of horse, and a power- 
ful fleet, went into Scotland, and fought a battle 
with Macbeth, king of. Scots, and many thousand 
of the Scots, and all the Normans, of whom we have 
above made mention, being killed, put him to flight, 
and constituted king Malcolm, son of the king of 
the Cumbrians, as the king had commanded. In 
that battle, however, his son and many of the Eng- 
glish and Danes fell. 

MLVII. Interfectus in Lunfanen a Malcolm 
Mac-Donchat et sepultus in lona.* 

• N'omina regum, ^c. " Anno 1058 . • . Macbeothadgh 
mac Finnlaoic supremus Albaniae rex a Malcolmo filio Donn- 
chadi trucidatus est :" So Tigernach (O'Flaherty, p. 498) ; 
but, according to the Annates Ultonienses, under the same 
year, " Magbethai Mac Finloich, archking of Scotland, [was] 
killed by Melsechlin Mac Doncha [another son, it is presumed, 
of king Duncan], in battle." The chronicon elegiacum says 
of him, 

" Rex Macabeda decem Scotiae septemque fit annis, 

In cujus regno fertile tempus erat. 
Hunc tamen in Lufnant truncavit morte crudeli 

Duncani natus nomine Malcolmus." 


Lulach fatuus quatuor mensibus [regnavit].* 

ML VI I. Slain in Lunfanan, by Malcolm, the 
son of Duncan, and interred in lona. 
Lulach, the foolish, reigned four months. 

As Lulach, his successor, reigned four mondis and a half, and 
was slain the 1st of January 1058, Macbeth must have been 
killed about the 15th of August 1057, and not, as lord Hailes 
asserts, upon the testimony of Fordun, on the 15th of Decem- 
ber 1056. Mr. Pinkerton absurdly strives to prove Malcolm 
iMaol-Choluim, the servant or devotee of St. Columba) a 
Pikish, and Macbeth (the son of Beth), a Gothic name. 

• Nomina regum, ^c, " Lulach nepos filii Boide iv men- 
sibus et dimidio." Cro. regum, ^c. " Seach mbliadhna 
ibhhiaitheas Lulaigh" (i. e. Seven years [r. months] in power 
Lulach). Duan. " Dulach [r. Lulach] quatuor menses et di- 
midium regnavit." Chro. de Mailros. " Anno 1058 (Ka- 
lendis Januarii in feriam 5 incidentibus [i. e. Thursday, the 
1st of January ; the Sunday letter being D]), Lulachus Al- 
banise rex a Malcolmo iilio Donchadi occisus." Tigemach 
(O'Flaherty, p. 498). " 105a Lulach Mac Gillcomgain, 
archking of Scotland, killed by Maolcolumb Mac Duncha in 
battle." An. Ul. 

'" Mensibus infelix Lulach tribus extiterat rex : 
Armis ejusdem Malcolomi cecidit. 
' Fata viri fuerant in Strathbolgin, apud Esseg : 
Heu sic incaute rex miser occubuit !" 

Chro. elegiacum. 


ML VIII. Interfectus est in Essei in Strathbolgi, 
et sepultus in lona.* 

ML VIII. He was slain in £ssei> in Strathbolgi, 
and interred in lona. 

If the above dates be correct, which is highly probable, it 
would seem that both Macbeth, and Lulach, his successor, 
had kept possession of some (most likely the northern) parts 
of the kingdom, for two or three years after the invasion of 
Malcolm, and the defeat of the former by Siward, 

Lulach had a son, named Maolsnechta, who was king, or 
earl, of Murray, and slain in 1085. He had, likewise, a 
daughter, the mother of Angus, or ^neas, earl of Murray, 
slain at Strucathrow, in 1130. (See An. Ul. Chro. de MaiU 
ros, Chro. S. Cruets, Fordun, L. 5, C. 33.) Blacbeth had no 
issue : though a certain editor of Shakspeare asserts, and 
quotes as his authority, " Fordun. Scoti-Chron. L. V. c viii" 
(where no such thing is to be found), that " Macbeth had a 
ion alive." 

• Nomina regum, ^c. 



496. Fergus I., son of Ere. 

499* Domangart, son of Fergus. 

504. Congal, son of Domangart. 

538. Gavran, son of Domangart. 

560. Conal I., son of Congal. 

574. Aidan, son of Gavran. 

6O8. Eochy I., surnamed Euide (or the yellow), 
son of Aidan. 

629' Conad, surnamed Kerr^ son of Conal. 

. . . Farquhar, son of E. 

. . . Donald I., surnamed Brek (or the spotted), 
son of Eochy-Buide. 

642. Malduin, son of Donald-Duin. 

. . . Donald-Brek. 

. . . Farquhar, surnamed Fada (or the long). 

697- Eochy II., surnamed Dinnavel (or Hook- 
nose), son of Domangart, son of Donald-Brek. 


697. Armchellac, son of Farquhar-Fada. 

. . . Selvacli. 

7 . . Ewen I., son of Farquhar-Fada. 

. . . Eochy III., son of Eochy. 

733. Murchard, son of Armchellac. 

736. Ewen II., son of Murchard. 

748. Ed-fin (or Hugh the white), son of Eochy- 

778. Fergus II., son of Hugh. 

781. Conal II. 

783. Conal III. 

7. . Doncorcai. 

792. Constantine I. 

801. Angus. 

810. Ed-ain, or Hugh (surnamed the musical). 

814. Eochy IV., surnamed Annuine (or the poi- 

827. Dungall, son of Eochy-annuine. 

834. Alpin, son of Eochy-annuine. 

841. Kenneth, son of Alpin. 

858. Donald II., son of Alpin. 

862. Constantine II., son of Kenneth. 

882. Hugh, son of Kenneth. 

883. Grig, son of Dungall. 

894. Donald III., son of Constantine. 
904. Constantine III., son of Hugh. 
944. Malcolm I., son of Donald. 


955. Indulf, son of Constantine. 

961. Duf, son of Malcolm. 

965. Culen-rig, son of Indulf. 

970. Kenneth, son of Malcolm. 
1004. Malcolm II. 
1034. Duncan, son of Crinan, by Bethoc, daughter 

of Malcolm. 
1040. Macbeth, son of Finleg. 
1057* Lulach, son of Gilcomgain. 
1058. Malcolm III., son of Duncan. 

%* It must be admitted that there is some dif- 
ficulty in the origin and antemonarchical history of 
Malcolm III. The old Scotish lists, the Elegiac 
chronicle, and the Irish annals, uniformly agree 
that he was the son of Duncan ; who had, likewise, 
another son, Donald-bane, afterward king of Scot- 
land. To this Malcolm, says Wyntown, the father, 
as soon as he was crowned, gave the region of Cum- 
berland ; of which, it is to be presumed, as, in fact, 
it is asserted by the same writer, he had himself 
been king : but still it is altogether unaccountable 
that the old English historians should uniformly 
call Malcolm the son of the king of the Cumbrians, 
and never once, the son of the king of the Scots, 
nor ever once mention his name. Upon the suppo- 
sition that Duncan had been actually king of Cum- 
berland, before his accession to the Scotish throne, 


they may be permitted to mean, that this Malcolm 
was the son of one who had been formerly king of 
the Cumbrians ; but a similar instance of sucli ob- 
scurity is nowhere to be met with. That, however, 
he really was the son of Duncan, is manifest from 
his age ; for supposing him to have been 20, at the 
death of his father, in 1037, he was only 56 at the 
time of his own, in 1093. Upon the usurpation 
of Macbeth, according to Fordun, Malcolm, who 
should have succeeded, fled into Cumberland, and 
his brother Donald into the isles. Afterward, he 
says, Malcolm, by the advice of, and in company 
with, Siward, went to the court of king Edward, 
to obtain his friendship and promised assistance ; 
where he resided about fourteen years : a circum- 
stance never mentioned by any more ancient or au- 
thentic English historian. Andrew of Wyntown, 
however, says that the two legitimate sons of Dun- 
can fled on this occasion ; and that Malcolm, a bas- 
tard, " noucht gottyn of lauchful bed," the third 
son, passed to saint Edward in England. Of his 
birth he gives a very particular account. The king 
often resorted to the house of a miller, who had a 
fair daughter, whom he took for his concubine : 

" In-lo bede wyth hyr he lay, 
And gat on hyr a sowne or day 
That wes Malcohne, of Scotland, 
Thare-cftyre crownyd kyng regnand.'* 


That Duncan had three sons^ if not more, is con- 
firmed by an extract from the Scala chronica : 
" Malcolin/' says the author, " causid one of his bro- 
thers to be behedid, and put out the eyes of another 
of his hrethern, and kept hym in Gedworth-castel 
yn pryson, fering lest they should put him from 
his kingdom. He that was blynd got a mayd childe 
of a launder, that wold never leve ontyl he had 
maried her. This doughter was after given, with 
landes, yn mariage, by Malcoline onto a sunne of 
the countie Comyn of Fraunce, the which young 
Comyn, at that tyme, duellid with king Malcoline." 
(Lelands Collectanea, I, 529*) According to the 
Nomina regum, Donald was taken by his nephew 
Edgar (after IO98), deprived of sight,* and died 
in Roscoepin. 

• According to Ordericus Vitalis, king David, (youngest 
son of JMalcolm,) had a son older than Henry. A certain per- 
son, in holy orders, murdered a priest, while officiating at the 
altar. In consequence of ecclesiastical immunity, his life was 
spared. His eyes, however, were put out, his hands and feet 
cut off. He procured crooked irons, or hooks, to supply the 
use of hands. Thus destitute, maimed, and abhorred, he at< 
tracted the compassion of David, who then resided in England 
as a private man. From him this outcast of society obtained 
food and raiment. David had a son two years old ; the un- 
grateful monster, under pretence of fondling the infant, crush- 
ed it to death in his iron fangs. For this crime he was torn to 
pieces by wild horses. (B. 8, p. 702.) 


Mr. Piakerton, indeed, says, that " Duncan, fa- 
ther of Malcolm, was married to a daughter (more 
likely am/er)of Siward, as all agree," (^Enquiry, 
II. 204). Fordun, however, that " gross forger and 
falsificator," is the only ancient writer who men- 
tions such a marriage, and, according to him, the 
lady was neither daughter nor sister of Siward. He 
also strives to prove that Duncan, king of Cumber- 
land, father of Malcolm-Canmore, was himself the 
son of Duncan king of Scotland : an idle and brain- 
sick whim, to which no author, ancient or modern, 
affords the slightest countenance. 

Annals ot ^tvntl)=€l^^t. 

VOL. n. 


The kingdom of Cambria, Cumbria, Stratclud, 
Strath-Cluyd, or Strath-Clyde,* in the west of 
modern Scotland, appears to have consisted of the 
territory at present included in the shires of Ren- 
frew, Kyle, Cuningham, and the sheriffdoms of 

• Strath, in British, signifies a valley ; so that Strath-Clyde 
is synonymous with Clydes-dale, or Clydes-vale. It is, like- 
wise, called, in the Cronica Pictorum, Britannia, and by the 
Welsh writers, (according to mr. D. Macpherson) REGED 
SCOTIA ; as the inhabitants are, by the Saxon, or other an- 
cient historians, Strae-cled-wealds, Strat-clud-wallani, Stret- 
gled-wali, Stretclutcenses, Britones, Britones-Albaniae, Wa- 
lenses, and Bretti, or Brets. Lhuyd, however, complains that 
the Welsh are at a loss now for the modern name of Reged 
(Irish preface) ; which no one, who is any way acquainted 
with tliose sagacious anticiuaries, will be at all surprised at. 


Lanerk, Dunbarton, and Stirling. The capita of 
this little kingdom is called, by Bede, Alcluith 
(Ad Cludam), and described as a " civitas Britio- 
num. munitissima," which, in their language, he 
elsewhere says, signifies " Petram" (i, e. rupem), 
Cluyth, or Clyde, being near the river of that name 
(B. I, c. 1, 12). It is called, likewise, by Adomnan, 
Petra-Cloithe, and, by other ancient writers, Are- 
cluta, Alcwith, Aldclyhit, and Alcluth ; all imply- 
ing a rock, or elevation, upon the Clyde, now Dun- 
barton, a corruption of Dunbritton. The founda- 
tion of the monarchy cannot be ascertained. If, 
however, we may credit the life of saint Ninian 
(written in the twelfth century), it existed so early 
as the fourth ; whence it can be traced, with suffi- 
cient certainty, down to nearly the close, at least, 
of the tenth. 

According to Richard of Cirencester, the Atta- 
coti inhabited the banks of the Clyde, a nation, 
sometimes, formerly terrible to all Britain : a very 
great lake, he says, is here seen, the name of which 
was, formerly, Lyncalidor, at the mouth whereof 
Alcluith, a city built by the Romans, in a short 
time, had this name [Valentia, or Valen- 
tiana] by lot, from the general Theodosius, 
who had recovered the province, possessed by the 
bai'barians ; with this none could be compared, as 


that which, after the other circumjacent provinces 
were lost, resisted the government of the enemy. 
But not so long, he adds, the Romans held it, un- 
der the eagle, at their pleasure, that its names and 
subjection became known to posterity.* 

• B. I, c. 6. § 49, 50. Theodosius was here in the year 
361. The Roman name of the people was Damnii ; being 
bounded, it would seem, from the words of Joceline, toward 
the north by the Roman wall, between the Forth and the 
Clyde, originally erected by the emperor Antoninus Pius, and 
repaired by jEtius. 

Lhuyd, in his catalogue of British MSS. {^Archceologia p. 
258, CO. 2,) registers a work intitled " Kyvoese Myrdhyn a 
Guendhydhichuaer:" i.e. The synchronism of Merlin and his 
sister Gwendidia ; or, a dialogue of the future princes of Cum- 
bria : by an unknown author ; who appears to have written 
about the year 948, not, truly, concerning the future, but the 
past (as he, expressly, designs them) : in the red book of 
Hergest This book, if genuine, and capable of translation, 
promises to afford information of a curious and interesting na- 
ture. It is, likewise, inserted in the Myrxyyrian archaio- 
logy of Wales (I. 138). 

John of Tinmouth, in his life of saint Petroc, calls him 
*• B. Petrocus, natione Cumber, ex regali ortus prosapia." 
Ushers Antiquitates, 292. If the name Petrocus have been 
formed from Petra [cluithe], it may fix his birth to Alcluyd ; 
but, in fact, it is very uncertain whether the Cumbria, or Cum- 
berland, south of the river Esk, or Sol way. firth, was, in the 
sixth century, included within the kingdom of Cambrioy Cum- 
bria., or Strath'Clyde. 


The inhabitants^ no doubt, were, for the most part, 
the remains of the ancient British, who, driven from 
the north and east by their indefatigable and victo- 
rious enemies, the Scots and Picts, in this corner, 
either by their own valour, or the natural defences 
of the country, were able to protect themselves for 
the space of six hundred years. 



CCCXC. In insula, quae quondam a Bruto, ut 
dicitur, Britanniaj nomen accepit, in ipsius nominis 
gente, baud ignobili familia, beatus Ninianus exti- 
tit oriundus ; in ea, ut putatur, regione, quae in 
occiduis ipsius insulae partibus (ubi oceanus quasi 
brachium porrigens, et ex utraque parte quasi duos 
angulos faciens, Scotorum nunc et Anglorum regna 
dividit) constituta, usque novissima ad Anglorum 
tempora proprium habuisse regem, non solum hys- 
toriarum fide, sed et quorundarum quoque memoria 

Ninianus in opus quo fuerat demissus a spiritu, 
duce Christo, festinavit. Quo in patria recepto, 
sit magnus populorum concursus, et occursus, in- 
gens cunctis laetitia, mira devotio, laus ubique re- 

• Vita Niniani, autore Ethelredo Rievalensi (^Vitce antU 
qucE SS. Scoiite), c 1. He professes to make use of a " liher 
de vita et miraculis ejus, harbario scriptus" probably the one, 
in Irish, quoted by Usher. Since, however, he mentions 
Brutus, and, consequently, must have been familiar with 
Geoffrey of Monmouth, the author can scarcely be St, Ethel- 
red, unless very late in life. 


sonat Christi : quidam sicut prophetam eum ha- 
bebant. Mox strenuus agricola domini sui agrum 
ingressus, cepit male plantata evellere, male collec- 
ta dispergere, male aedificata destruere. Purgatis 
deinde ob [1. ab] omni errore fidelium mentibus, 
cepit in eis sincerse fidei jacere fundamenta ; super- 
aedificans aurum sapienti8e,et sciential argumentum, 
bonorumque operum lapides ; quae omnia fidelibus 
agenda, et verbo docuit, et exemplo monstravit, 
cum multis et magnis miracuHs confirmavit.* 

Elegit autem sibi sedem in loco qui nunc Witer- 
na dicitur ; qui locus super litus oceani situs, dum 
seipsum mare longius porrigit ab oriente, occidente, 
atque meridie, ipso pelago clauditur ; a parte tamen 
aquilonali, via ingredi volentibus tantum apperitur. 
Ibi igitur jussu viri dei cementarii, quos secum ad- 
duxerat, ecclesiam construunt ; antequam nullam 
in Britannia de lapide dicunt esse constructam. Et 
jam quidem sanctissimxun Martiuum, quem miro 
semper renerabatur affectu, a terris ad coelos didis- 
cerat transmigrasse, ipsam ecclesiam in ejus honore 
studuit dedicare.f 

Fuit in regione eadem rex quidam (nam tota in- 
sula diversis regibus dirisa subjacuit), Tuduvallus 
nomine, quem divitiae, potestas, et honor erexerant 

• Vita Niniani, 4fc. c 2. + IM. c 3. 


in superbiam ; quem concupiscentia carnis, et con- 
cupiscentia oculorum, et divitise mundi, elacionis 
suae et superbiae incentivum ; dum quantum quis- 
que habet tantum se posse presumit, tantum sibi et 
licere confidit. Hie viri dei monita contemnens, 
et clam doctrinse ejus, et moribus ejus derogabat, 
et sanae doctrinae ejus in facie resistebat : ita ut 
terra videretur reproba et maledicto proxima, ut- 
pote quae semper super se venientem bibens imbrem, 
spinas et tribulosj non herbam opportunam^ germi- 
nabat. Quodam autem tempore cum plus solito 
molestus esset viro dei, non ultra passus judex 
coelestis servi sui inultam ire injuriam, intolerabili 
morbo superbum percussit in capite, confregitque 
verticem capilli perambulantis in delictis suis. 
Tantumque praevaluit aegritudo, ut elatos oculos 
caecitas repentina obduceret ; et qui lucem impug- 
naverat veritatis, lucem amitteret carnis ; nee frus- 
tra neque ad insipientiam ei. Jacebat enim miser 
pressus dolore, privatus lumine, sed externis obtene- 
bratus, internis illustratus, dum rediens ad cor con- 
fitetur excessum, ab illo sperans remedium, cui se 
semper exhibuerat inimicum. Vocatis postremo 
amicis, accepto ab «is consilio, quoniam ipse deten- 
tus infirmitate ire non potuit, nuncios mittit ad 
virum dei, obsecrans ut non in tret in judicium crjm 
servo suo, nee retribuat ei secundum opera sua; 


sed, ut imitator divinae benignitatis, retribueret ei 
bona pro malis, et dilectionem pro odio. Audiens 

haec vir beatissimus, premissa ad dominum 

oratione, ad aegrotum cum summa humanitate et 
devotione perrexit : et primum quidem leni incre- 
patione virum corripit, deinde medica manu caput 
tangit aegroti, caecisque luminibus signum vitae sa- 
lutaris impressit. Quid plura ? Fugit dolor, caeci- 
tas luce superveniente fugatur. Sicque factum est, 
ut morbus corporis morbum animi curaret, morbum 
ver6 corporis viri dei virtus expelleret. la utroque 
igitur, corpore scilicet et mente, sanatus, coepit 
deinceps sanctum dei omni afFectu colere et vene- 
rari, sciens expertus quod dominus erat cum eo, et 
omnia opera ejus dirigebat, praestans ei virtutem 
super omnem hominem extollentem se adversus 
scientiam Christi, cum impromptu haberet ulcisci 
omnem inobedientiam et injuriam illatam famulis 

" Vita Niniani, ^c. C. 4. It is not expressly said that this 
Tuduvallus, or Tudwal, was a pagan ; he appears, rather, to have 
been an irreligious, or immoral, though believing christian. The 
Britons are asserted by Gildas to have received the light of reli- 
gion in the time of Tiberius Caesar, that is, before the year 37, 
and, by Bcde, at the desire of king liucius, in 1 50 : both eras 
being, probably, erroneous ; but the fact, that they were chris- 
tians so early, at least, as the fourth century, cannot, possibly 
be disputed : We cannot, certainly, infer, from this life, that 



CCCXC. In the island, which formerly, from 
Brutus, as it is said, received the name of Britain, 

there were any Picts in Galloway, at this period. Ninian, as 
will be elsewhere seen, goes from Whithem into the country 
of the Southern Picts to convert that idolatrous people. (^An. 
of the Picts, 394.) "That Whithem," as mr. Pinkerton as- 
serts, " was the see erected by Ninian over the Piks [Picts] he 
converted," is a childish and ridiculous error. " Aildred," he 
adds, " tells us that it was his proper British see, long before 
he went to convert the South Piks, who lived, as Beda shews, 
south of the Grampian hills, or in Fifeshire, &c." {Enquiry, 

I, 74.) He elsewhere says, that " The southern Piks, be- 
tween the Forth and the Grampian hills, or of present Fife, 
Stirling, Dumbarton, Perth, Angus and Mearns, by far the 
most populous tract of Pikland, were converted to Christianity 
by St. Ninian, about 412, as Bede shews." (I, 25G ; see, also, 

II, 260 ; and Usher, p. 350.) 

"There is extant," says Usher, "among our Irish, a life 
of the same Ninian : in which, by reason of the importunate 
and frequent visitation, as well from his mother, as from his 
relations, Whithem being deserted, that, to him and his quiet, 
with his disciples, he might be at leisure to study, is reported 
to have sought Ireland, and there, a place suitable and plea- 
sant being obtained from the king, called Cluayn-coner, to 
have builded a great monastery ; and there, after many years 
passed, to have died. To have had, also, a brother, saint 
Plebeia by name, as we read in his life by John of Tin- 
mouth." (Antiquitatcs, p. 506.) Ninian, according to Bale, 

142 iiNNALS OF 

in the nation of the same name^ of no ignoble family, 
the blessed Ninian was born ; in that region, as it 
is thought, which, placed in the western parts of 
the same island (where the ocean as an arm stretch- 
ing forth, and of either part making, as it were, 
two angles, now divides the kingdoms of the Scots 
and the English), until the latest times of the Eng- 
lish is proved to have had its proper king, not only 
by the faith of historians, but also by the memory 
of certain persons. 

died in 432, under Theodosius the younger. Alcuin, about 
780, in a letter to the brethren of Whithem, mentions a me- 
trical life of this saint, which had been sent him from York. 
(W. Malmes. p. 272.) It is unfortunately lost. Bishops, in 
these times, seem to have resembled the methodist preachers 
of the present, much more than their successors who live in 
idleness and luxury, at the rate of fifteen or twenty thousand 
a>year. St. Ninian, it is probable, like his master, subsisted 
upon alms, or even by the produce of his own labour. 

Saint Gildas, the author of a querulous treatise Dc cxcidio 
Britannia:, is said, in his life, by an anonymous monk of 
Ruys, in Britany, about 1040, to have been born at Al-cluyd, 
or, as he calls it, in the most fertile region of Arecluta [A. C. 
520] ; liis father, according to his other biographer, Car^doc 
of Llancarvan, a writer of the following century, called Nau, 
[r. Kau,] and being the king of Scotland, the most noble of the 
northern kings ; meaning, it is presumed, that he was a king 
or prince of Strath-Clyde. The monk of Ruys, however, only 
calls the father " nobilissimus et catholicus vir," though he 
says that " Cuillus" (Uucil, Car&doc) " post mortem patris, 
ei in regao successiu" 


Ninian hastened about the work to which he had 
been sent by the spirit, under the command of 
Christ ; and being received in his country, there 
was a great concourse, and running together of the 
people, much joy in all, wonderful devotion, the 
praise of Christ everywhere resounds : some took 
him for a prophet. Presently the strenuous hus- 
bandman entered the field of his lord, began to root 
up those things which were badly planted, to dis- 
perse those badly collected, and to destroy those 
badly built. The minds of the faithful being final- 
ly piu-ged of all error, he began to lay in them the 
foundations of sincere faith ; building upon the gold 
of wisdom, and the argument of knowledge, and the 
stones of good works ; all which things to be done 
by the faithful he both taught by word, and shew- 
ed by example, and with many and great miracles 

Now he chose his seat in a place which is now 
called Whithern ; which place, situate upon the 
shore of the ocean, while the sea stretches far from 
the east, west, and south, is inclosed by the sea itself; 
from the north part a way is opened for those only 
who are willing to enter. There, then, by the com- 
mand of the man of god, the masons, whom he had 
brought with him, erect a church ; before which 
they say there was none in Britain built of stone ; 


And having now learned that the most holy Martinj 
whom he always venerated with wonderful affection, 
had transmigrated from earth to heaven, he deter- 
mined to dedicate the same church in his honour. 

There was, in the same country, a certain king 
(for the whole island was divided among several 
kings), named Tudwal, whom riches, power, and 
honour, had exalted into pride ; whom the lust of 
the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the riches 
of the world, the incentive of his elation and pride, 
whilst so much as any one has, so much he presumes 
himself able to do, so much, also, he trusts to be 
valued at. He, contemning the warnings of the 
man of god, and, secretly, of his doctrine, dero- 
gated from his morals, and resisted his wholesome 
doctrine to the face : so that the land seemed repro- 
bate and next to a curse, inasmuch as, drinking the 
rain, always falling upon it, it grew thorns and 
brambles, not seasonable grass : At which time, 
when he more than usual molested the man of god, 
the celestial judge, no further suffering the injury 
of his servant to go unrevenged, smote him in the 
head, and bruised the hairy crown of him who walk- 
ed in his oflences. So much prevailed the sickness, 
that sudden blindness came over his lofty eyes ; and 
he who had combatted the light of truth, lost the 
light of the flesh ; neither in vain, nor to folly to him. 


For the wretch lay oppressed with paiu, deprived of 
sight, but, darkened in external things, enlightened 
in internal, while, returning to his heart, he con- 
fessed his error, hoping a remedy from him to whom 
he had always shewed himself an enemy. 

Calling, last of all, his friends, and receiving 
from them advice, forasmuch as he, detained by in- 
firmity, could not go, he sent messengers to the man 
of god, beseeching that he would not enter into 
judgement with his servant, nor recompense him 
according to his works ; but, as imitator of the 
divine benignity, would reward him good for evil, 
and love for hatred. The most blessed man hear- 
ing these things, . . . having first said a prayer to 
the lord, went forward to the sick man with the 
greatest humanity and devotion : and, at first, 
truly, reproves him with a gentle check, thenj 
with a healing hand, touches the head of the sick 
man, and impresses on his blind eyes the sign of 
life. Why more words ? The pain fled, the blind- 
ness by returning light is banished : and so it was 
done, that the disease of the body should cure the 
disease of the mind, but the virtue of the man of 
god should expel the disease of the body. In each, 
therefore, to wit, in body and mind, being made 
whole, he began thereafter to worship and venerate 
the saint of god, with all affection, knowing, by 



experience, that the lord was with him, and direct- 
ed all his works, giving to him virtue over every 
man lifting himself up against the knowledge of 
Christ, and being ready to revenge all disobedience, 
and injixry, offered to the servants of Christ. 

DXL. Sanctus Kentegernus, in loco [qui tunc 
Cathures, nunc Glasghu, vocatur] degens . . . in- 
stinctu divino rex et clerus regionis Cambrensis, 
cum ceteris christianis, licet perpauci essent, in 
unum convenerunt ; et de statu ecclesiae reparan- 
dae, quae jam pene deleta fuerat, tractantes, una- 
nimi consensu accedentes ad sanctum Kentegernum, 
ipsum in pastorem et episcopum animarum suarum, 
licet plurimum retinentem, et plura objicientem, 
elegerunt . . . Imprecantes ergo ei prosperam, et in 
nomine sanctse trinitatis benedicentes, et spiritui 
eanctificatori, . . . committentes, ilium inthroniza- 
yerunt : accitoque uno episcopo de Hybernia, more 
Britonum et Scotorum, tunc temporis, in pontifi- 
cem consecrari fecerunt. . . . Sanctus ver6 Kente- 
gernus, quanquam hoc modo consecratus fuerit, cor- 
rectioni omnimodse hujus ritus, de qua postmodum 
dicemus, satisfecit. Cathedralem sedera suam in 
villa dicta Deschu, quod interpretatur cara familia. 


quae nunc vocatur Glaschu, constituit : et pluri- 
mam servorum dei continentium, et secundum for- 
mam primitivae ecclesiae sub apostolis, in proprie- 
tate, in disciplina sancta, et divino obsequio viven- 
tiunij clarani et caram deo famiJiam adunavit. Dio- 
cesis vero episcopatus illius secundum limites Cam- 
brensis regni extendebatur : Quod utque regnura, 
sicut vallum quondam a Severo principe, a mari 
usque ad mare ; postmodum auxilio et consilio le- 
gionis Romanorum, ob arcendam irruptionem Pic- 
torum, in eodem loco murus habens in latitudine 
octo pedes, in altitudine duodecim pedes construe- 
batur : et usque ad flumen Fordense pertingit ; et 
Scotiam ab Anglia disterminando dividit.* Hsec 
autem regio Cambria, cui jam Kentegernus episco- 
pali honore praefuit, quondam tempore Eleutherii 
papae, principante rege Lucio, sicut et tota Britan- 
nia, fidem christianam susceperat ; f sed paganis 
diversis temporibus iusulam infestantibus, et in ea 
dominantibus, insulani susceptam fidem in aposta- 
siam lapsi abjecerant.;}: 

• The wall of Severus is here, as in Nennius, confounded 
•with that of Antoninus. 

•f" In 156, according to Bede. 

$ Vita Kentegerni, c. 1 1. In chap. 9, we have an account 
of the sickness, death, and funeral, of a man of venerable life, 
named Fregus, who lived in a town called Kemach, near Glas- 


DXL. Saint Kentegern dwelling in the place 
which was then Cathures, and is now called Glas- 
gow ... by divine instinct the king and clergy of 
the region of the country, with the rest of the 
christians, although they were very few, assembled 
together ; and treating of the state of the church, 
to be repaired, which was now almost destroyed, 
approaching with unanimous consent to saint Ken- 
tegern, elected him, although much holding back, 
and objecting many things, to be the pastor and 
bishop of their souls . . . Praying, therefore, for his 
prosperity, and blessing him in the name of the 
holy trinity, and committing him to the holy ghost 
the sanctifier, they enthroned him : and one bishop 
being sent for from Ireland, in the manner of the 
Britons and Scots, at that time, they caused him 
to be consecrated bishop . . . But saint Kentegern, 
although he were in this manner elected, perform- 
ed every kind of correction of this rite, whereof we 
shall afterward speak. His cathedral-seat he pla- 
ced in the town called Deschu, which is interpreted 
The dear family, which is now called Glasgow : and 

gow ; and in the following chapter, mention is made of his 
two brothers, Telleyr and Anguen, who resided in the same 
place. The author asserts that the mother of his saint " cu- 
jusdam regis, secta paganismi in Septentrionali p1ag4 Cambrii 
[regno sci. Stratcludensi], filia fuit.'' (C. 1.) 


brought together a very numerous family of the 
servants of god, chaste, and living according to the 
form of the primitive church under the apostles, 
famous and dear to god. Now the diocese of that 
bishopric was extended according to the limits of 
the kingdom of Cambria : which kingdom, certainly, 
as the wall formerly erected by Severus the prince, 
was from sea to sea ; afterward, by the aid and ad- 
vice of the legion of the Romans, for preventing the 
irruption of the Picts, in the same place a wall was 
constructed having in breadth eight feet, in height, 
twelve feet : and it reaches unto the river of Forth, 
and, separating, divides Scotland from England. 
But this region Cambria, over which Kentegern 
presided with episcopal honour, formerly in the 
time of pope Eleutherius, king Lucius reigning, 
as, also, all Britain, had received the christian 
faith ; but the pagans at divers times infesting the 
island, and lording it therein, the islanders fallen 
into apostacy, had cast away the received faith. 

DXLIII. Quidam tirannus, vocabulo Morken, 
Cambrensis regni solum ascendQer^at : cui potes- 
tas, honor, et divitiae ambulare in magnis et in mi- 
rabilibus super sc pcrsuaserant. Sed cor illius, sicut 


elevatum erat in superbiam, ita e reglone contrac- 
tum et execatum extitit per avaritiam. Hie viri 
dei vitam atque doctrinam sprevit, atque despexit, 
occulte ei detrahens, in facie quandoque resistens, 
signa ejus magicis figmentis deputans, omnia facta 
ejus pro nichilo duxit. Vir vero domini cum qua- 
dam vice annona ad victualia fratrum monasterii 
jndigeretj adivit regem, penuriam suam, et suorum, 
insinuans : et petens ut suam inopiam illius ha- 
bundantia, juxta apostoli monita, subveniendo sup- 
pleret. Ille vero elatus et inflatus preces profun- 
denti refudit contumelias, et aliquam subventionem 
roganti irrogavit injurias. Deinde ore blasfemo 
yronice ait ad eum ; " Jacta curam tuam in domi- 
no, et ipse te enutriret, sicut saepe caeteros ammo- 
nuisti, quum nichil deest timentibus deum, inqui- 
rentes autem eum non minuentur omni bono. Tu 
ergo, cum timeas deum, et mandata ejus observes, 
victu etiam necessario indiges ? Ego autem, qui 
nee regnum dei quero, nee justiciam ejus, omnia 
mihi adjieiuntur prospera ; omnium rerum arridet 
affluentia." Ad ultimum autem intulit, " inanis 
est ergo fides tua, falsa praedicatio tua." At vir 
sanetus contra allegans astruebat testimoniis sanc- 
tarum seriptarum, et vivis rationum assertionibus, 
etcxemplis, multos justoset sanctos, et siti et eges- 
tate multipharia, in hoc saeculo affligi : reprobos re> 


rum opulentia, deliciarum afflueutia, et honorum 
fastigiis, sublimari. Et cum efficaciter et evidenter 
doceret pauperes patronos divitibus fore, quorum 
beneficiis sustentantur, divites vero pauperum pa- 
trocinio indigere, sicut vites ulmi sustentaculo. Bar- 
barus non potuit resistere sapienti, et spiritui qui 
loquebatur per instrumentum suum, sed stoma- 
chando respondit : "Quid multa ? Si confidens in 
deo tuo absque manu humana, omne far meum quod 
in horreis meisque acervis continetur, ad mansionem 
tuam transferre possis, animo libenti tibi concedo 
et dono, et de csetero postulationibus tuis devotus 
obtemperabo." . Haec dicens laetabundus recessit, 
quasi qui tali sponsione virum sanctum deluserit. 
Vespere autem facto Sanctis elevatis oculis, ac ma- 
nibus in caelum profluentibus lacrimis, orationem 
devotissime fudit ad dominum. Eadem autem hora, 
cum ex imo pectore sancti emergentes lacrimae per 
oculos profluxerunt, flumen Clud, subtus defluens, 
.... subito ibat, et intumescebat ; ripasque suas 
transcendens, achorrearegisinibi constituta circum- 
ivens, et adlambens in alveum suum traxit. Et cum 
impetu magno usque ad locum nomine Mellingde- 
vor, ubi sanctus tunc degere solebat, in aridam 
transposuit. . . Rex autem praefatus Morken, licet 
locuples valde, et magnus in oculis hominum, vile 
tamen mancipium Mammonis, egre tulit amissio- 


tiem, ut sibi videbatur, anuonse suae, que de signo 
quod divinitus acciderat. . . . Turbato ergo prae fu- 
rore oculo ejus multa convicia in sanctum preesu- 
lera evomuit, magum et maleficum inclamitans. 
Eique mandavit ut si ulterius in conspectu suo ap- 
pareret, gravissimas paenaSj utpote qui illi illusisset, 
luei'et. Instigaverat nam ilium in odium et inju- 
riam sancti pontificis quidam pessiraus, qui erat a 
secretis regis, nomine Catheli, quia odiosa et onerosa 
solet esse pravis vita bonorum ; et facile persuaso- 
rem admittit ad id quod amplectitur animus procli- 

vus ad malum Vir vero dei, sapientia volens 

vincere maliciam, in spiritu mansuetudinis potius 
quam in virga severitatis adivit principis prsesen- 
tiam ; et more benignissimi patris instruendo, com- 

raonendo, corrigere studuit filii insipientiam 

Vir autem Belial, instar aspidis surdae et obturan- 
tis aures suas ni audiret vocem incantantis sapienter, 
rerbo commonendo consilio salutis non adquievit. 
Immo majori dementia instimulatus irruit in ilium, 
et calce percussit, et solotenus resupinavit. . . . In- 
centor hujus sacralegii Cathen cachinnans equum 
ascendit, et quasi qui de sancto triumphasse sibi 

videbatur, gratulabundus abscessit Nondum 

longius processit a turba constituta in loco, et so- 
nipes cui insedit nescio in quem obicem pede of- 
fendens corruit, et ascensor ejus retro ante januam 


regis, domini sui, fracta cervice,quam adversiis epis- 
copum domini superbe extulerat, exspiravit. Regis 
autem pedes praeoccupavit tumor, tumori successit 
dolor, dolorem mors subsequitur. Mortuusque in 
villa regia,qu8e vocatur ex nomine ejusThorp-Mor- 
ken,* funerabatur. Nee tamen morbus ille a stir- 
pis ejus successione succisus sepelitur. Ab initio 
nam temporis illius usque ad futurum seculum lan- 
guor non desiit, sed podagra in posteros parentat ; 
et licet non vultu vel corporis habitu, morbo tamen 
hujuscemodi prosapia patris sat. Genus namque 
regium, illius hoc genera morbi extinctum, testi- 
monia mortis suae denunciat [1. denunciant] qua- 
liter zelotes suorum, et ulciscens dominus visitet 
peccata patrum in filios in multas generationes, et 
qualem retributionem superbis retribuat.f 

DXLIII. A certain tyrant, by name Morken, 
had ascended the throne of the kingdom of Cam- 
bria : whom power, honour, and riches had persua- 
ded to walk in great and wonderful things above 
himself. But his heart, as it was elevated into 
pride, so out of the region was it contracted and 
blinded by avarice. He spurned and despised the 

• A Saxon name among Britons ! 
f Vita Kentegeriii, d JoccUno, CC. 21, 22. 


life and doctrine of the man of god, privately de- 
tracting him, and sometimes resisting him to his 
face ; reputing his signs to be magical tricks, he 
held all his deeds for nothing. But the man of the 
lord, when, at a certain time, he wanted an allow- 
ance for the victuals of the brethren of the monas- 
tery, went to the king, insinuating the penury of 
him and his ; and beseeching that his want the 
kings abundance, according to the apostles advice, 
helping, would supply. But he elated and inflated 
to the putter up of prayers returned contumely, and 
to the asker of help he bestowed injury. At length 
with a blasphemous mouth he ironically said to him, 
" Cast thy care in the lord, and he shall nourish 
thee, as thou hast often advised others, since no- 
thing is wanting to those fearing god, but those 
asking him are not deprived of any good. Thou, 
therefore, as thou fearest god, and observest his com- 
mandments, dost thou even want necessary food ? 
Now I, who neither seek the kingdom of god, nor 
his justice, all prosperous things are cast to me; the 
affluence of all things laughs." At last he conclu- 
ded, " foolish therefore is thy faith, false thy preach- 
ing." But the holy man, replying, superadded from 
the testimonies of the holy scripture, and the li- 
ving assertions of reasons, and by examples, that 
many just and holy men were afflicted with both 


thirst and manifold want, in this life : and the re- 
probate elevated with the opulence of riches, the 
affluence of delights, and the degrees of honour. 
And when he efficaciously and evidently taught 
th at the poor were patrons to the rich, by whose 
benefits they are supported, but that the rich need- 
ed the patronage of the poor, as the vine the sup- 
port of the elm. The barbarian could not resist the 
sage and the spirit which spoke by his instrument, 
but peevishly answered : " Why many words .'' If 
confident, in thy god, without human power, all my 
corn which in my barns and heaps is contained, 
thou art able to transfer to thy mansion, with a 
willing mind I to thee grant and give, and for the 
future will devoutly comply with thy requests." 
Having said this, he departed very joyful, as one 
who, by such a promise, had deluded the holy man. 
Now the evening being come, the saint, with eyes 
and hands lifted up toward heaven, shedding tears, 
poured forth most devoutly a prayer to the lord. 
Now, in the same hour, when rising from the low- 
est breast of the saint tears flowed through his eyes, 
the river Clyde flowing below, .... suddenly rose 
and swelled, and overflowing its banks, and sur- 
rounding and licking up the kings barns there 
placed, drew them into its channel ; and, with great 
violence, unto the place named Mellingdevor, where 


the saint then went to dwell, transplaced it upon 
the dry land. . . . Now the aforesaid king Morken, al- 
though very rich, and great in the eyes of men, yet 
a vile slave of Mammon, bore hardly the loss, as it 
appeared to him, of his provision, and of the sign 
which had happened from god. . . . His eye, there- 
fore, rolling with fury, he vomited many reproaches 
against the holy prelate, calling him a magician and 
enchanter, and sent him word, that if he any more 
appeared in his presence, he should suffer the most 
grievous punishments, as one who had mocked him. 
For a certain very bad man, who was of his privy 
council, named Catheli, had instigated him into 
hatred and injury of the holy bishop, because the 
life of the good is wont to be odious and trouble- 
some to the bad ; and he easily admitted a persua- 
der to that which his mind prone to evil embraced. 
But the man of god willing by wisdom to conquer 
malice, in the spirit of gentleness rather than with 
the rod of severity, went into the presence of the 
prince ; and in the manner of a most kind father, 
by instructing, and advising, studied to correct the 
folly of his son. . . . But the man of Belial, like to 
the adder, deaf, and shutting his ears lest he should 
hear the voice of the wise charmer, did not acquiesce 
in the word advising the counsel of salvation. Yea, 
rather, stimulated with greater madness, he rushed 


upon liim, and kiclied him with his heel, and laid 
him on his back. The incentor of this sacrilege, 
Cathen, laughing, mounted his horse, and as one 
who seemed to himself to have triumphed over the 
saint, departed rejoicing. . . He had not yet proceed- 
ed very far from the crowd assembled in the place, 
and the horse on which he sat hitting with his foot 
against 1 know not what obstacle, fell down, and 
his rtder behind, before the gate of the king his 
lord, the neck, which against the bishop of the lord 
he had proudly lifted up, being broken, expired. Now 
a tumour seized the kings feet, to the tumour suc- 
ceeded pain, death followed the pain : and, dead, 
l^he]] was buried in the royal town, which is called 
from his name Thorp- Morken. Nor yet is that dis- 
ease, cut off from the succession of his race, buried. 
For from the beginning of that time until the next 
age the weakness ceased not, but the gout took re- 
venge upon his descendants ; and although not in 
countenance, or habit of body, yet in this kind of 
disease the progeny resembled the father. As for 
the royal family extinguished by this sort of dis- 
ease, the testimonies of their death declare, after 
what manner, jealous of his own, and revengeful, 
the lord visits the sins of the fathers upon the chil- 
dren into many generations, and what kind of re- 
tribution he gives to the proud. 


DLX. Rex Rederecli [quern dominus suscita- 
verat super regnum Cambrinum]* videns christia- 
nam religionem in regno suo pene deletam, mag- 
nam operam adhibuit quomodo repararet earn. Et 
diu apud se tractans, et cum aliis christianis qui 
erant ei a secretis, non invenit salubrius consilium, 
quo id posset perducere ad efFectura, quam si desti- 

• " Qui a discipulis sancti Patricii in Hibernia baptizatus 
fide christianissima." (C. 29.) The father of this Rederech, 
or Roderc, according to mr. Pinkerton, " was Morken, as," he 
says, " Jocelin shows." (Enquiry, I, 74.) Jocelin, how- 
ever, says no such thing, and what he does say implies that 
there was no relationship between them. Adomnan, on 
the contrary, has an express chapter (L. 1, c. 15), " De rege 
Roderco filio Totail, qui Pctra Cloithe regnavit, beati viri 
[Columbae sci.] prophetia," and in an old Welsh genealogy, 
quoted by Williams, in his notes upon the jErce Camlrdbrit. 
at the end of Llwyds Commentarioluni (p. 142) he is called 
" Rhydderch Hael \i. e. munificus] ah Tudtval Tudglud ;" both 
which passages are actually cited by this veracious and consis- 
tent enquirer. That Totail or Tudwal, the father of Rcdcrech 
or Rodc?ch, was the TudnvalUis of yElred is sufficiently pro- 
bable : But why Morken intervenes, or Roderch succeeds, 
cannot be explained. From a subsequent chapter it appears, 
that his residence was " in Villa regia quse Pcrttnct nuncu- 
patur." He is supposed to be mentioned by Nennius, in the 
following passage : " Hussa regnavit annis septem ; contra 
illos [Adda, scilicet, jEddric, Deodric, Friodolguald, et Hus- 
sa, reges Saxonum] quatuor reges, Urhgen [1. Urlcn\ et Ry- 
Aerthen [1. Rydderch'\ ct Guallane^ et Morcant dimicaverunt." 
(c 64.) 


naret nuncios ad sanctum Kentegernum, ob ilium 
ad priorem cathedram revocandum* . . . Direxit ergo 
rex nuncios ad beatum presulem, cum literis suis 
deprecatoriis, et coramonitoriis, obsecrans, exhor- 
tans, et obtestans, per nomen domini ne pastor oves 
pascuae suae diu desolatas, et destitutas, ulterius de- 
serendo, curam eis sui subtrahat . . . Indicavit etiam 
vindice dec defunctos esse qui querebant animam 
ejus ; juravitque se in omnibus, velut patri filium, 
obtemperaturum voluntatis doctrinae, et preceptis 

Cum audisset rex Rederech, et populus ejus, 
quod Kentegernus advenisset de Wallia ad Cam- 
briam, de exilio ad propriam patriam, rex cum in- 
genti letitia, et plurima multitudo laetabunda et 
laudans processerunt ei obviam.ij: 

Rex itaque Rederech, cernens manum dei bonam 
secum, et prae voto operantem, gaudio multo re- 
plebatur. Quantaque devotione interius ferveret 
foras ostendere non cunctabatur. Vestibus tamen 
regiis se exuens, genibus flexis, et manibus incu- 
tiens, cum consensu et consilio magnatum suorum, 
hominium suum sancto Kentegerno obtulit ; eique 
dominium et principatum super universum regnum 
suum tradidit, illumque regem se patre rectorem sub 

• He had been hitherto residing at Caerleon in Wales. , 
•f- Vita Kentegerni, c 31. $ Ibi. 


ipso, nominari voluit, sicut magnum quondam Con- 
stantinum imperatorem sancto Silvestro fecisse 
cognovit. Unde nios inolevit ut per multorum 
annorum curricula, quamdiu regnum Cambrinura 
in suo statu perduravit, semper princeps episcopo 
subditus fieret.* 

Regina, Languoreth nomine,f diutinae sterilita- 
tis opprobrio depressa, benedictione et intercessione 
sancti episcopi, concepit, et peperit filium ; ad to- 
tius parentelae consolationem et gaudium : quem 
sanctus baptizans vocavit Constantinum, ob memo- 
riam facti paterni .... Crevit itaque puer egregiae 
indoHs, etate et gratia, dilectus deo et hominibus, 
effectus qui jure hereditario, postquam pater in 
fata concessit, ei in regnum successit; episcopo 
autem, sicut et pater, semper subjectus. Et quia 
dominus erat cum eo, omnes barbaras nationes vici- 
nas genti suae, sine sanguinis efFusione compressit. 
Omnesque reges qui ante se in regno Cambriae 
principabantur, divitiis et gloria, dignitate, et quod 
praestantius est sanctitate, antecessit. Unde et me- 
ntis preclarus, consummans in bonum dies suos de 
seculo triumphari, et in celo et honore meruit co- 
ronari, sanctusque Constantinus usque in prajsens 
solet a pluribus appellari. 

• Vita Kentcgerni, c. 33. -f- Afterward Latiguelh. 


Sanctus praesul Kentegernus in Holdelino eccle- 
sias construens, presbiteros et clerum ordinaDS, se- 
dem episcopale aliquanto tempore, certa de causa, 
ibi constituit. Postea divina revelatione commoni- 
tus, illam ad civitatem suam Glasghu, aequitate 
exigente transtulit.* 

DLX. King Rederech (whom the lord had rai- 
sed over the kingdom of Cambria) seeing the chris- 
tian religion in his kingdom almost destroyed, ap- 
plied great labour [to know] in what manner he 
should repair it. And long treating the subject 
with himself, and with other christians, who were 
in his confidence, he found no counsel more salubrious, 
by which he might bring it to effect, than to send 
messengers to saint Kentegern, for recalling him to 
his former chair . . . The king, therefore, directed 
messengers to the blessed prelate, with his letters, 
excusative and commonitory, beseeching, exhorting 
and conjuring, by the name of the lord, that the 
shepherd, further deserting the sheep of his pasture, 
long desolate and destitute, may not withdraw from 
them his care . . . He showed also, that, god being 
the avenger, those were dead who sought his life ; 
and swore that he in all things, as son to father, 

* Vita Kentegerni, c 33. 


was ready to act according to his will, doctrine, and 

When king Rederech and his people had heard 
that Kentegern was come from Wales to Cambria, 
out of exile to his own country, the king with much 
joy and a very great multitude joyful and singing 
praises proceeded to meet him. 

King Rederech, therefore, perceiving the good 
hand of god with him, and operating beyond his 
wish, was filled with much joy : and did not delay 
to show outwardly with how much devotion he was 
inwardly heated. But divesting himself of his royal 
garments, with bent knees, and smiting with his 
hands, with the consent and counsel of his gi*eat men, 
he did his homage to St. Kentegern, and delivered 
to him the dominion and principality over his whole 
kingdom, and willed that king to be named ruler 
under him, being his father, as, he knew, that Con- 
stantine the great, formerly emperor, had done to 
St. Silvester : whence the custom grew up that, for 
the space of many years, as long as the Cambrian 
kingdom endured in its state, the prince was always 
subject to the bishop. 

The queen, named Languoreth, depressed by the 
opprobrium of long sterility, by the benediction and 
intercession of the holy bishop, conceived and 
brought forth a eon ; to the consolation and joy of 


all the family: whom the saint baptizing called 
Constantine, in memory of his fathers act . . . The 
boy, therefore, of an excellent disposition, increa- 
sed in age and favour, beloved by god and men, 
become one whole hereditary right, after his father 
had yielded to the fates, succeeded him in his 
kijj^gdom ; but always, as well as his father, subject 
to the bishop. And because the lord was with him, 
all the barbarous nations neighbours to his people, 
he kept under without effusion of blood : And all 
the kings who before him reigned in the king- , 
dom of Cambria, in riches and glory, and in digni- 
ty, and, what is more excellent, in sanctity, he ex- 
celled : whence also right famous by his merits, 
spending his days in good, he deserved to triumph 
'in this life, and to be crowned with honour in hea- 
ven, and is hitherto wont to be called by many Saint 

The holy prelate Kentegern having constructed 
churches in Holdelin, and ordained priests and 
clergy, his episcopal seat for some time, from a cer- 
tain cause, there made. Afterward, warned by di- 
vine revelation, he translated it to his city of Glas- 
gow, as justice required. 


DLXXVII. Prselium apud Arderydd.* 

• Mrm Camhrohritannicce, ad calcem H. Llwyd Britannu 
cce descriptionis commentarioli (a Gulielmio), p. 142. " Ar- 
derydd est nomen loci alicubi in Scotia ; forte an Attnrith vel 
Atterith, VI. M. P. ab aestuario Solvathiano distans, [Aite- 
rith, apud Usserium, 71]- Inlibro Triadum, qui mille fere 
abhinc annis editus fuit, prselium hoc idee fertur esse ui^um 
ex tiibus nugatoriis insulae Biitannise prseliis qui a nulla de 
causa, vel saltern inepta et frivola, nido scilicet alaudae, factum 
fuerit. Decertabant autem ex una parte (ut scribit Merlinus 
Caledonius) Aidanus perfidus (Aeddan Fradawg) et Gwendo- 
lavus F. Ceidiavi (Gwenddolau ab Peidjaw) duo principes ex 
boreali parte Britannia; : Ex altera vero parte Rodericus mu- 
nificus (Rhydderch Hael) Cumbriae rex, qui victoriam ibi adep- 
tus est Rodericus autem ille ab auctore libri Triadum inter 
tres munificos viros insulse Britannia recensetur. Tritavum 
ciebat Maximum tyrannum, ut liquet ex antiquo tractatu cui 
titulus, a Bonedd Gwyr y Gogledd, i. e. Genealogia nobilium 
septentrionis, ubi inter alia haec legere est, Rhydderch Hael 
ab Tudwall Tudglud, ab Cedig, ab Dysnal Hen, ab Ednyfed, 
ab Macen Wledig. Hujus etiam mentio fit a Merlino Cale- 
donio, Telesino, auctore veteri genealogiarum Saxonicarum ad 
calcem Nennii, uti etiam in antiquo cod. membranaceo legum 
Hoelinarum, et in vita S. Kentigerni et S. Asaphi." Ihi. The 
Triades, of which there is a copy and imperfect translation in 
the Harleian library (Num. 4181), are manifestly not older 
than the 13th (and probably the 14th, or even 16th) century, 
and of little or no authority. The work referred to, of Merlin 
Caledonius, would, if genuine, be a much more important 
publication on the subject of British history than any that has 
yet appeared. It seems to have been of great use to Geoflrey 


DLXXVII. The battle at Arderyth. 

of Monmouth, in his metrical romance of Merlin, in which he 
has introduced a relation of this great battle. Roderic, how- 
ever, though called king of the Cufnlri, appears, in fact, to 
have been king of Strat-Clwyd, or Strath-Clyde : whether the 
two kingdoms were anciently united, under the name of Cum- 
bria or Cambria, or have been supposed to be so, or the one 
mistaken for tTie other, cannot, perhaps, at such a distance of 
time, and under such unfavourable circumstances, be satisfac- 
torily ascertained.* " The ancient Cumbria" according to a 
late Welsh writer, " is not to be understood as comprehended 
within the limits of the province now called Cumberland ; but 
it was so much of the northern country as the Cynmry retain- 
ed at that period, extending into Scotland." (" Some account 
of the life of Lly warch Hen," prefixed to " The heroic elegiet, 
^c." of that bard, with a translation by W. Owen.) Joceline 
says that the diocese of St. Kentigerns bishopric was extended 
according to the limits of the kingdom of Cambria : which, 
like the former wall by prince Severus, was from sea to sea. 
" Caradoc," according to mr. Pinkerton, ••' says, ' the northern 

« Geoflfrey, In his life of Merlin, calls this Roderic (.Rodar- 
chus) sometimes Cambrorum, sometimes Cumbrorum rex. He mar- 
ried Ganieda the sister of Merlin. 

" Bodarchus moritur, postquam discordia longa 
Scotos et Cumbros per longum tempus habebit 
Donee crescenti tribuatur Cumbria denti. " 

The words Kambria and Cambri, also, frequently occur, and ap- 
parently with the same sense. 


DLXXXIV. Gwrgius et Peredurus interfecti 

Britons of Strat-Clyde and Cumberland :' thus clearly dis- 
tinguishing between these countries." {Enquiry, I. 88.) It is 
not Caradoc, however, who says so, but some of his modern 

" JEra Camhrobrit. p. 145. Hi duo cum sorore sua Cein- 
drech Penas gell tergemina proles audiebant. Pater horum 
fuit Oliverus Gosfordd fawr (i. e. magnum habens satelli- 
tium) in boreali Britanniae plaga. In diebus istis et longo post 
tempore Britanni sive Cambri Dunclidum (i. e. Caer Alclud 
vel Arclud, nunc Dunbritton sive Dunbarton) et omnes re- 
giones inde ad oras occidentales Cumberlandias et Westmor- 
landia; tenuere. Harum autem regionum nobiles in nostris 
antiquis codd. MSS. Britannicis vocantur Teymedd y Gogledd, 
id est, Reges septentrionis, qui licet plures fuerint, omnes ta- 
men Cumbriae regis imperio obtemperabant. Matrem autem 
hi gemini fratres liabuere Eurrdul filiam Conmarci F. Marci- 
ani (Gn sarch Amheirchjawn) et sororera Urieni Regediae do- 
mini et Cumbriae regis, qui unus erat ex Artliuri regis militi- 
bus. JMentionem facit hujus Urieni vetus auctor genealogia- 
rum Saxonicarum qua; in nonnuUis Nennii exemplaribus ex. 
stant. Hi patres, cum constituissent diem pugnandi adversus 
Eddam Glinmawr Saxonicum regem, ad civitatem Caergreu 
dictam in septentrione contenderunt cum magno amicorum, 
propinquorum, et sociorum, exercitu, qui inde, pridie quam 

» Morkcn was king of Cambria during: tbe first settlement of 
St. Kentegern in ttie see ot Glasgow, and died of a mortification 
In the foot wltli wliicli lie bad kicked that holy man (Vita, c. ai, 
22), who, liavlng after his death, retired into Wales, was recall- 
ed by Kederecb, or Kodric (c 25). 


DLXXXIV. Gwrg and Peredur were killed. 

pugnaturus erat clam se subduxlt, et deseruit dominos suos, 
qui ibi inimicorum gladio percussi sunt Ihi. {nota editoris.) 
The passage referred to as in the interpolated copies of Nen- 
nius is in the following words : " Contra illos [Adda, jEddric, 
Deodric, Friodolguald, et Hussa] quatuor reges, Urbgen [1. 
Urien], et Ryderthen, et Guallane, ctMorcant, dimicaverunt. 
Deodric [1. Rodric] contra ilium Urhgen [Urien] cum filiia 
dimicabat fortiter." (Editio Bertrami, p. 141 .) In a curious 
fragment of the life of St. Kentegern, bishop of Glasgow, and 
St. Asaph, extant in the Cotton library, he is said to have been 
the natural son of Ewen, the son of Erwegende, sprung from 
a most noble family of Britons, but who, in the gests of the 
minstrels, was called Ewen the son of king Ulien [r. Urien]. 
(Vitce antiques SS. qui hahitaverunt in Scotia, p. 203.)" 
Among the printed poems of Lly warch Hen is an elegy on his 
death. Wynne, in his augmentations of Caradocs History of 
Wales, {London, 169T, p. 12), mentions " Eneon Bhrenin or 
Anianus, king of the Scots, .... son to Owen Danwyn, the 
son of Eneon Yrth, son to Cunedha Wledig king of Cambria, 
and a great prince in the north, and cosin-german to the great 
Maelgwn Gwyneth king of Britain, who died about the year 

* " Caradoc," according to mr. Pinkerton, " mentions that 
Kentlgern, who lived about 600, was grandson to Urien king 
of Cumbria, and son of Owen, regent of Scotland" {Enquiry, I. 
96) : but this is another of his misrepresentations ; nothing of 
the kind being to be found in Caradoc. The Welsh, however, 
have a fabulous history of this Ouen ab Yrien. See Lhuyds Ar-> 
chwologia, p. 265, 


DCI. Beatus Kentegernus plenus dierum, cum 
esset centum octoginta quinque annorum, meritis 
maturus, signis et prodigiis et praesagiis praeclarus, 
transivit ex hoc mundo ad patrem.* 

Eodem anuo quo sanctus Kentegernus rebus ex- 
emptus humanis ad caelos migravit, rex Rederech, in 
villa regia quae Pertmet nuncupatur, diutius solito 
commoratus est. lu cui'ia ejus quidam homo fatuus^ 

686." Unless by Cambria is intended Strath-Clyde, as Joce- 
line uses it, it may possibly be a mistake for Cumbria. In 
fact, however, the Welsh historians, from their secret and sus- 
picious authorities, which they want either sense or honesty to 
quote in the established manner of all other modem writers, 
are not much to be relied on. Langhorn, an author of the 
same stamp, gives a list of the Reges Cumbrice et Arcludec, in 
which he enumerates (among others) " Angusellus, Lothi et 
Uriani pater, Evenus, Uriani filius, Rodericus Cereticus, Ho- 
anus, sive Oenus, Donaldum Breccum Scotorum regem inter, 
fecit, Deovama, Edberto Northumbrensi contemporaneus, 
Anonymus, Hiberno Northumbrensi contra Scotos focderatus, 
Constantinus ejus filius h Gregorio Scotorum rcge occisus, He- 
bertus Constantini frater." Chro. rrgum Anglo. .IG79. One 
Nicholas, in a letter to Eadmer bishop elect of St. Andrews 
(about 1120), calls the bishopric of Glasgow " Cumbrenscm^" 
adding " quam Johannes modo tenet." {Anglia sacra, 1 1, 236.) 
The same prelate, in the Saxon chronicle, is called bishop of 

* Vita Kentegernif c 44. John of Tinmouth also states him 
to have died at the same age. (See Usher, 370.) 


vocabulo Laloicen,* degebat, qui ibi victualium et 
vestitus necessaria, ex regis munificentia, recipie- 
bat. Solent enim optimates terrae, filii regni, va- 
nitati dediti, homines hujusmodi secum retinere ; 
qui et ipsos dominos, et familiam, verbis et gesti- 
bus fatuis possint in jocos et cachinnos commovere. 
Hie homo post depositionem sancti Kentegerni gra- 
vissimis lamentis se afficiebat ; nee aliquam conso- 
lationem ab aliquo accipere volebat. Qui cum per- 
quireretur eur tam ineonsolabiliter lugeret, respon- 
dit regem Rederech dominum suum, et quemdam 
de primoribus terrae, nomine Morthec, non posse 
post mortem sancti episcopi diutius in hac vita 
morari, sed illo anno praesenti in fata cecessuros.t 
Eodem ergo anno quo pontifex sanctus decessit 

• This Laloicen, or Lailoken, as we learn from the inter- 
polated Scotichronicon (L. 3, c. 31), was the celebrated Welsh 
prince, prophet, and poet, Blerlin, sumamed Caledonius, or 
Sylvester, who, according to his life, in Latin metre, by Geof- 
frey of Monmouth, went mad in consequence of the prodigious 
slaughter, and particularly the death of the three brothers of 
Peredur duke of the Venedoti (or North- Welsh), in a great 
battle between that prince and Guennolous king of Scotland, 
where both Merlin and Rederech (or Rodarc) appeared on the 
part of Peredur; and not, as ' dr.' Leyden says, " on account 
of the slaughter of his nephew." (Complaynt of Scotland, 
" preliminary dissertation," p. 199.) 

•^ Vita Kentegerni^ c. 45. 


Kentegernus, et rex, et princeps praedicti, obierwnt; 
et in Glasghu sepulti sunt.* 

• Vita Kentegerni, c 45. In the life of St. Columba, by 
Adomnan, is a chapter, entitled " De rege Roderco filio To- 
tail, qui Petra Cloithe regnavit, beati viri prophetia." At ano- 
ther time, it relates, as he was the friend of the holy man, he 
sent to him a certain secret message by Lugbe Mocumin, wish- 
ing to know if by his enemies he were to be killed or not. But 
Lugbe, being interrogated by the saint, concerning the same 
king, and his kingdom and people, answering, as one sorrow- 
ful, says, " Why dost thou enquire concerning that wretch, 
who can, in no wise, know in what hour he shall be killed by 
enemies ?" The saint then, afterward, says : " Never shall 
he be delivered into the hands of enemies : but shall die in his 
house, upon his feather-bed." Which prophecy, concerning 
king Roderc, was completely fulfilled ; for, according to his 
word, he died in his house an easy deatli. (L. 1, c 15.) This 
monarch (who, as elsewhere mentioned, deservedly obtained 
the surname of Had, or the munificent,) was, as we are told 
by Joceline, greatly magnified by the lord, because he adhered 
to him with faith and the service of good works, and obeyed 
the will of St Kentegern. Glory and riches in his house, libe- 
rality in his heart, urbanity in his mouth, munificence in his 
hand, so that the lord had blessed the works of his hands. 
Whence not only in the borders surrounding his land, but even 
beyond sea into Hibernia went out the fame of his bounty. For 
which cause by a certain king of Hibernia a juggler (or min- 
strel), skilled and dexterous in his profession, is sent into Cam« 
bria, to the court of the said king, that he might see if the 
truth would answer to fame so far and widely diffused. The 
juggler, admitted into the palace, played on the tympanum and 
cithara ; and rejoiced the king and his palatines all the feast 


DC I. The blessed Kentegern, full of days, being 
of one hundred and eighty [^five] years, mature in 

days of the lords nativity (i. e. during the Christmas holidays). 
The solemnity of the most holy epiphany of the lord being ful- 
filled, the king commanded gifts to be brought and given to 
the juggler, as suited his royal magnificence : all which the 
minstrel rejecting, said he could have enough of such things 
in his own country. Being asked by the king what he would 
accept, he answered that of gold or sUver, garments or horses, 
with which Hibernia abounded, he was in no want. " But," 
says he, " if thou wilt that I depart from thee remunerated, 
let there be given to me a dish full of fresh mulberries." Those 
who heard this expression proceed from the mans mouth, burst 
into laughter, because they supposed him to have uttered it in 
jest. He, however, affirmed with an oath that he demanded 
the mulberries not in jest but in earnest ; neither prayers, 
nor promises, nor offers of the most ample gifts, could in any 
wise bend him from this determination ; and, rising up from 
the midst he declared, that he would depart, and expect, as is 
wont to be vulgarly said, the kings honour. Now this the 
king took in sufficient discontent, and that he might not be 
dishonoured, enquired of his nobles what thereupon was ex- 
pedient to be done. For it was winter, and no mulberries could 
be anywhere found. Advised therefore by the counsel of his 
nobles he went to St. Kentegern, and humbly besought that he 
would by prayer obtain from god what was required. The man 
of god, although he did not think it grateful to spend his prayer 
in such trifles, yet as he knew the king to have great devotion 
toward god and the holy church, resolved to condescend to his 
petition. Deliberating, therefore, a little within himself, and 
briefly praying, he said to the king, " Dost thou remember in 
what place, in the summer time, thou cast away the garment 


merits, famous by signs and prodigies and presages, 
passed from this world to the father. 

thou hadst on, on account of the too great heat, when thou 
went a-hunting that thou mightst more expeditiously follow the 
dogs : forgetting or little caring to take it, whither thou hadst 
unburthened thyself thou didst not return ?" The king an- 
swered, saying, " I know, my lord the king and bishop, the 
time and place." — " Go," said the saint, " quickly to the 
place, and thou wilt find that vestment yet entire, and spread 
upon a bramble-bush, and underneath plenty of ripe mulber- 
ries, still fresh and fit to take- Take them, and satisfy the 
jugglers demand ; and by all means be careful that god who 
does not permit thy honour to be mutilated or diminished in 
so light a cause, thou more and more honour." The king did 
as the bishop commanded, and found all things as he foretold. 
Taking therefore a dish, and filling it with mulberries, he gave 
it to the minstrel, saying, " Lo, what thou hast demanded re- 
ceive ; for, by the hand of god operating with us, thou shalt 
not be able to hurt the fame of my bounty in any respect ; and 
that I may not appear more covetous to thee than to others, 
stay with us as long as thou shalt please." The minstrel see- 
ing the dish full of mulberries, contrary to the season, won- 
dering, was afraid ; and when he had known the order of the 
thing done, he exclaimed and said, " Truly there is none like 
to thee in the kings of the earth, munificent in bounty, and 
there is none like to Kentegern magnificent in sanctity, praise- 
worthy and working miracles, who effects in my sight such 
things against expectation. Now I will not depart from thy 
house, and from thy service ; but will be to thee an everlast- 
ing servant so long as I shall live." The minstrel therefore 
remained in the kings palace ; and served him in the juggling 
art a great many days. Afterward setting before his face the 


In the same year in which saint Kentegern, ta- 
ken out of human affairs, migrated to heaven, king 
Rederech, in the royal town which is called Pertmet 
remained longer than usual. In his court dwelled 
a certain foolish man, named Laloicen, who there, 
from the kings munificence, received the necessaries 
of victuals and raiment. For the great men of the 
land, the sons of the kingdom {i. e. pripces), given 
up to vanity, were wont to retain with them men of 
this kind ; who, by their foolish words and actions 
might move both the lords themselves and the fa- 
stimulus of divine fear, he renounced the profession of minstrel, 
and entering the ways of a better Jife, gave himself to divine at- 
tendance. (C. 37.) The author, Joceline, who wrote about the 
year 1180, professes to have made use of two more ancient 
lives, one of which was in Scotish (or Irish, " stilo Scotico . . 
aut sermone barbarico"), and the other made use of in the 
church of Glasgow. Ralph archbishop of Canterbury, in a 
letter to pope Calixtus, about the year 1122, refers, in all pro- 
bability, to the latter of these lives, where he says, " verunta- 

men sicut in gestis sanctorum virorum, Columbae, viz et 

venerabilis Cantugerni episcopi, qui primus Glasguensi eccle- 
siae praefuit invenitur." Decern scrip, co. 1746. In the Cot- 
ton library (Titus A. XIX.) is a fragment entitled '• Libellus 
de vita et miraculis S. Kentegemi," written, it appears, at the 
instance of Herbert bishop of Glasgow (1147-1164). His life 
is, also, in the collection of John of Tinmouth, probably after 
Joceline. He is mentioned, however, neither by Bede, nor by 
Nennius, nor, in fact, by any writers more ancient than Ralph 
and Joceline. 


mily into jest and laughter. This man, after the de- 
position of saint Kentegern, afflicted himself with 
the most grievous lamentations ; nor would receive 
consolation from any one : and when he was asked 
why he did so inconsolably lament, he answered, 
that ting Rederech his lord, and one of the chiefs 
of the land, named Morthec, could not after the 
death of the holy bishop longer remain in this life, 
but were about to yield to fate in that present year. 
In the same year, therefoi'e, in which the holy bi- 
shop Kentegern departed, both the king and the 
prince aforesaid died, and were buried in Glasgow. 

DCXLII. Bellum Offa apud Britones. 

DCXLII. The battle of Offa among the Bri- 

DCLVIII. Mors Guiret regis Alocluothe. 
DCLVIII. The death of Guiret king of Alcluyd. 


DCXCIV. Daniell M'Avin rex Alocluathe mo- 

DCXCIV. Daniel, the son of Owen, king of AI- 
cluyd dies. 

DCCXI. Congressio Brittonura etDalriada^apud 
Longecoleth, ubi Britones devicti. 

DCCXI. An engagement of the Britons and 
Dalriads, at Longcoleth, where the Britons were 

DCCXVII. Congressio Dalriada et Britonum, 
in lapide qui vocatur Minmro, et Britones devicti 


DCCXVII. An engagement of the Dalriads and 
Britons, at the stone which is called Minmro, and 
the Britons were defeated. 


DCCXXII. Bile Mac Eilphin rex Alocluathe 

DCCXXII. Bili the son of Elphin king of Al- 
cluyd dies. 

DCCXLIV. Factum est prselium inter Pictos 
et Brittones.* 

DCCXLIV. [[A battle was fought between the 
Picts and Britons.]] 

DCCL. Bellum Cato inter Pictores Ql. Pictones]] 
et Brittones, in quo cecidit Talorgan Mac Fergu- 
sa, frater Aongusa.f 

DCCL. QA battle between the Picts and Britons, 

• S. Dunel. co. 104. 

f An. UL See also Caradoc, p. 16. 


in which fell Talorgan Mac Fergusa, brother of 

DCCLVI. Eadbert rex, xviii anno regni sui, et 
Unust rex Pictorum duxerunt exercitum ad urbem 
Alcwith. Ibique Brittones inde conditionem rece- 
perunt,* prima die mensis Augusti.t 

DCCLVI. Edbert king, in the 18th year of his 
reign, and Unust king of the Picts led an army to 
the city of Alcluyd, and there the Britons thereof 
received («. e. surrendered upon) condition > the first 
day of August. 

DCCLXXX. Combustio Alocluathe in kalen. 

DCCLXXX. The burning of Alcluyd in the 
calends of January. 

• " In deditioncm (Kilm.)" Usher, p. 427- 
-|- An. UL ad an. 657, &c. All the dates in that part of 
those annals being a year behind. 
% Ibu 



DCCCXV. Conan M'Ruorach, kinge of Britons, 

DCCCXLVIII. Britanni concretnaverunt Dul- 

blaan. * 

DCCCLXIX. Hoc anno urbs Alclud, ab olim 
tarn famosa, quae ad occidentalem extremitatem il- 
lius famosi muri sita est per Dacos funditus est 

DCCCLXIX. In this year the city of Alcluyd, 
so famous of old, which is situate at the western 
extremity of that famous wall, was utterly de- 

• Vetus chronicon, apud Jnnesy p. 783. 

+ J. de Bromton, co. 807- ObsessioAilcluahe^ Nordman- 
nis ; id est, Aulaiv et Ivar, duo reges Normannorum, obside- 
runt arcem ilium ; et destruxerunt, in fine IV mensium, ar- 
cem, et prasdaverunt Ati. UU The date in these annals agree- 
ing with Bromton may seem to prove, that the former are not 
in every instance a year behind the true account. Higdin 
of Beverley, however, places this destruction in 870. See Le- 
lands Col II. 371, 397- 


DCCCLXXI. Aulaiv and Ivar came again to 
Dublin, out of Scotland ; and brought with them 
great booties^from Englishmen, Britons,and Pights, 
in their two hundred ships, with many of their peo- 
ple captives. 

DCCCLXXII. Artga rex Brittonum Strath- 
Cluohe, consilio Constantini Mac Cinaoch occisus 

DCCCLXXII. Artga king of the Briton« of 
Strathcluyd, by the counsel of Constantine Mac 
Kenneth, was killed. 

DCCCLXXV. Exercitus [[paganorum sive Da- 
norum]] Hreopedune deserens, in duas se di visit tur- 
mas ; cujus altera pars cum Healfteno in regionem 
Northanhymbrorum perrexit, et ibi hyemavit juxta 
flumen, quod dicitur Tine ; et totam Northanhym- 

• An. UU 


brorum regionem suo subdidit dominio ; necnon et 
Pictos et Stratduttenses [}. Stratcluttenses] de- 
populati sunt.* 

DCCCLXXV. The army [of the Pagans or 
Danes] leaving Repton, divided itself into two bat- 
talions ; of which one part marched with Healften 
into the region of the Northumbrians, and there 
wintered by the river which is called Tyne ; and 
subjected the whole region of the Northumbrians 
to his dominion ; they, also, depopulated both the 
Picts and the Strathclydians. 

DCCCLXXVI. After the death of Roderic the 
great [king or prince of Wales], the Northern 
Britainsof Stratclwyd and Cumberland were might- 
ily infested and weakened through the daily incur- 
sions of the Danes, Saxons, and Scots, insomuch 
that as many of them as would not submit their 

* Asserius, p. 27- The Saxon chronicle, upon this occasion, 
calls these StratduUeiues Streecled [1. Straetcled] Wealas, ». e. 


necks to the yoke, were forced to quit their coun- 
try, and to seek for more quiet habitations.* 

DCCCLXXVII. Roary Mac Murrain, king of 
Britons, came into Ireland, for refuge from Black 
gentiles. An. Ul. 

" Caradoc, by Wynne, 1697» ?• 37- " Constat has regiones 
[Damnii sci. seu Westmarios, et Cumbriam] cum Gallovidia 
usque ad Cludam amnem ad annum nostras salutis DCCCLXX 
a Britannis possideri, quo tempore a Scotis, Dam's, et Anglis 
multis bellis lacessiti, et tandem Constantino eorum rege ad 
Lochmaban in Anandia occiso, in Cambriam ad contributes 
suos migrare coacti sunt" Llwyd, p. 41. The name and 
death of this Constantine, king of Strath-Clwyd or Cumber- 
land, are mentioned by no other vriter.-{* 

f An ancient chronicle, published by Innes (p. 784) calls Eo- 
chodius, king ot Scotland, the successor of Ed, in 883 " Alius Ku 
regis Brltanorum nepos Kinadi ac til ;" which seems to b« mr. 
D. Macphersons sole authority for concluding that the kings of 
Strath- Clyde were "sometimes, perhaps always, of the Scottish 
royal family. " Mr. Pinkerton, likewise, asserts that " Eochoid, 
the son of a king of Strat-Clyde, came to the Pikish [;'. e. Scot- 
ish] throne, by inheritance, in 883" {Enquiry, I, 78, 80). 


DCCCLXXVIII. Roary son of Murmin, king 
of Britons, killed by Saxons. Ibi. 

DCCCXGIX. Eadwardus, cognomento senior, 
[Angul-Saxonum rex] Scottorum, Cumbrorum, 
Stretgledunalorum, omnesque occidentalium Brit- 
tonum reges in deditionem accepit.* 

DCCCXGIX. Edward, surnamed the elder, 
king of the Anglo-Saxons, received the submission 
of all the kings of the Scots, Cumbrians, Strath- 
Clyde-Welsh, and Western Britons. 

DCCCCXXI. Rex Scottorum cum tota gente 
sua, et Regnaldus rex Deinorum, cum Anglis et 
Danis Northymbriam incolcntibus, rex etiam Stred- 
deduualorum p. Stredcledimalorum] cum suis, re- 

Simeon DuncI* 


gem seniorem sibi in patrem et dominum elegertmt; 
firmumque foedus cum eo pepigerunt.* 

DCCCCXXI. The king of Scots with his whole 
nation, and Reginald king of the Danes, with the 
English and Danes inhabiting Northumberland, 
the king also of the Strath-Clyde-Britons with his 
people, chose the elder king for their father and 
lord, and contracted with him a firm league. 

DCCCC . . . Mortui sunt in tempore hujus 
[Constantini scilicet, filii EdiiJ Dovenaldiis rex 
Britannorum, et Dovenaldus filius Ede rex eligi- 

DCCCC . . . Died in the time of Constantine 
Mac Hugh Donald king of the Britons, and Donald 
the son of Hugh is elected king. 

• Simeon Dunel. See also Chro. Sax. 924 : "AeacStraeded- 
Weala cyning. & ealle Strsecled-Wealas." 
•\ Cro. Pictorum. 


DCCCCXLIV. The Englishmen did enter 
Wales with a strong armie, and spoiled Strad- 
Clwyd, and returned home.* 

DCCCCLXX. Culen [rex Scotorum] et frater 
ejus Eochodius occisi sunt a Britonibus.t 

DCCCCLXX. Culen, king of Scots, and his bro- 
ther Eochy were slain by the Britons. 

DCCCCLXXV. Daniel Mac Owen king of 
Wales [diedj in pi]grimage.| 

• Caradoc, by Lhoyd, p. 68. See also Llvyds Commenta- 
riolum, by Williams, p. 41. 

•f- Chro. Pictoriim, Innes, p. 788- " Culen Illuile, king of 
Scotland, killed by Britons, in open battle." An. Ul. ad 

$ An. Ul. " At that time [between 972 and before 976] 
Dwnwalhon prince of Strad Clwyd tookehis journie to Rome." 
Caradoc, p. 64. See also Llwyds Commentariolumy p. 41, 87* 


MXVIII. Ingens bellum apud Camim* gcs- 
tum est inter Scottos et Anglos, inter Huctredum 
filium Waldef comitem Northymbrorura et Malcol- 
mum filium Cyneth regem Scottorura. Cum quo 
fuit in bello Eugenius CaJyus rex Lutinensium [1. 

• Near Wark, in Northumbrid, but not the same place, 
•f Simeon DuneL There never was a people called Luti- 
nenses. The MS. of Simeon (according to mr. D. Macpher- 
son, Q. uli ?), as well as Lelands extract {Col. II, 354) reads 
" Clutinensium" which mr. M. supposes to mean " the peo- 
ple of Strathcluyd." Mr. Pinkerton, absurdly, says that this 
rex Lutinensium " seems a titular king, whom Malcolm sup- 
ported against the earl of Northumberland, in his claim for the 
English Lothen, or present Northumberland [which never was 
so called]," {Enquiry, II, 212) ; and elsewhere, that " Eu^ 
genius Calvus, or Owen the bald, kinglet of Lothian, [a king- 
dom never before heard of], assisted Malcolm." (Ibi. 189.) 
It should, at the same time, be observed that the word Cluti- 
nenses, if genuine, is to be found in no other writer ; that Si- 
meon himself calls this people Stredgledunalorum, (co. 151) 
Streddedunalorum [1. Stredcledunalorum'], (co. 153), and 
Stretduccenses [1. Stretclucenses'\ (co. 127) > and that the more 
legitimate name would have been Clutenses (or, as Asser, 
Slratcluttenses) and not Clutinenses, To this may be added, 
that, according to Llwyd, Dunwallo, who died at Rome, in 
974, was the last king of Strath-Cluyd ; and that Huchtred 
appears, from the Saxon chronicle, to have been assassinated 
in 1016. 

186 ANNALS, &c. 

MXVIII. A great battle was fought at Carrum 
between the Scots and the English, between Huch- 
tred the son of Waltheof earl of the Northumbrians 
and Malcolm, the son of Kenneth, king of the Scots : 
with whom was in the battle Owen the bald, king 
of the Strath-Clyde-Welsh. 

^nm\» xif Cumi&edantj* 


Westmorlandiae ad occasum prsejacet Cumbria, 
vvJgo Cumberland, ultima in hac pai'te Angliae pro- 
vincial utpote quae ipsam Scotiam ab arcto attingit, 
ab austro et occidente Hibernico oceano pulsata, ab 
ortu, vero, super Westmorlandiam, Northumbriae 
contigua. Nomen ab incolis traxit, qui veri, et ger- 
mani Britanni fuerunt, et se sua lingua Kumbri et 
Kambri indigitarunt. Britannos enim diu hie in- 
sedisse, fremente Saxone, historiae testantur, ipse- 
que Marianus, qui banc regionem Cumbrorum ter- 
rain dixit ; ut taceam Britannica passim locorum 
nomina, cujusmodi sunt Caerluel, Caerdronoc, Pen- 
rith, Penrodoc» &c., quae hoc planissime loquimtur, 
et assertion! meae probationem praestant vel aper- 

• Prtefatio Camdeni. Britannia, Londini, 1587, p. 521. He 
places it under the Brigantes. Richard of Cirencester, however, 
calls the inhabitants on the west of the Penine Alps (i. e. Stane- 


To the west of Westmoreland lies Cumbria, vul- 
garly Cumberland, the last province in this part of 

more) the Volantii and Sistuntii, (L. I, c. 6.) ; and, according to 
Llwyd, " Cumbriam dim habitabant Selgovii et Otadeni [rec- 
tius Selgovae et Otadini]. Com. p. 40. Bromton says that the 
counties of Lancaster, Westmoreland, and Cumberland, were 
part of the kingdom of Northumberland, which extended from 
the Humber to the Scotish Sea, (Co. 801) ; and it would seem, 
from Simeon of Durham, that Cumberland and Cornwall were 
not, in his time, enumerated among the shires of England. See 
likewise Polychroniccm, p. 201. This county, as well as 
Northumberland, Durham, and most part of Westmoreland, 
is omitted in Domesday-book, not, perhaps, as is generally 
surmised, by reason of the turbulent or impoverished state of 
those parts, but from some accident, or precipitancy, which 
prevented the completion of that part of the survey, part of 
Westmoreland being confusedly inserted in the description of 
Yorkshire ; and even London and Winchester excluded for 
the same, or some similar, reason. See also the preface to the 
Annals of Strath-Clyde, and those annals, under the years 
577 and 584. It were to be wished that the identical words 
here imputed to Marianus had been more particularly referred 
to. He is elsewhere quoted by this great topographer, (whose 
memory seems to have occasionally deceived him), instead of 
Henry of Huntingdon. Cumbri, in all probability, is the same 
as Cambri, both meaning Welsh. No instance, however, of 
the existence of either term, or of the name of Cambria, or 
Cumbria, can he found before the tenth century, when Cum- 
ber -land is first mentioned in the Saxon chronicle. The Cum- 
bri are likewise noticed by Ethelwerd, before 1090, (p. 844) 
but no where, with submission to Camden, by Marianus, or 
any earlier writer, none of which he was able to quote. 


England, as that which touches Scotland Itself from 
the north, is beaten by the Irish ocean from the 
south and west, and from the east, above Westmore- 
land, is contiguous to Northumberland. The name 
it drew from the inhabitants, who were the true 
and natural Britons, and called themselves, in their 
own language, Cumbri and Cambri. For that the 
Britons, while the Saxon raged, seated themselves 
here for a long time, histories bear witness, and 
Marianus himself, who called this region the land 
of the Cumbrians i not to mention the numerous 
British names of places, of which kind are Caerluel, 
Caerdonoc, Penrith, Penrodoc ; &c.,* which speak 
this most plainly, and afford even the most open 
proof to my assertion. 

The new History of Cumberland throws no light 
upon the pristine state of that county. The author, 
being little acquainted with old historians, and a 
total stranger to ancient manuscripts, supplies his 
want of knowledge with the lying relations of mo- 
dern writers : 

" As geographers, on barren downs, 
Place elephants, for want of towns." 

" Certainly Caer, in British, means ciUj^ and Pen, head, 
how, or when, ever those names might be given. 




DCLXXXV. [Rex Egfridus, et Theodorus ar- 
chiepiscopus], villain Crecam, et tria in circuitu ip- 
sius villae milliaria, ' Cuthberto' dederunt. . . . Et quia 
ilia terra minus sufficiens erat, Lugubaliam, quae 
Luelvocatur, in circuitu quindecim milliaria haben- 
tem in augmentum suscepit. Ubi etiam sanctimo- 
nalium congregatione stabilita^ reginam dato ha- 
bitu religionis consecravit, et in profectum divinae 
servitutis scholas instituit.* 

* S. Dunel. Historia de Dunel. ecclesia, p. 5. See the charter 
in Ap. ad Bedoc Opera, Nu. 22. Bede, in his life of Cuthbert, 
mentions two visits of that saint, in this and the following 
year, " ad Lugubaliam civitatem, quae a populis Angloram 
Luel vocatur" (c 27, 28). It is evident, from the above grant, 
that Cumberland was in the hands of the English at this pe- 
riod. The kingdom of Strath-Clyde continued to, at least, the 
year 971 ; but even in the time of Bede, Whithern, in Gal- 
loway, was included in the Saxon kingdom of Northumberland, 
which certainly extended from the Ilumber to the firth of Forth. 



DCLXXXV. King Egfrid, and Theodore, the 
archbishop, gave to Cuthbert the town of Craike, 
andthreemiles round the same .... and because this 
land was insufficient, he received Lugubalia,. which 
iff called Luel [Carlyle] being fifteen miles round, 
in augmentation. Where, also, having founded a 
society of nuns, he consecrated the queen, giving her 
the habit of religion, and instituted schools for the 
benefit of divine service. 

DCCCLIV. Eardulfus, vir magni meriti, ca- 
thedra: pontificalis gubernacula, [[ecclesiae Lindis- 
farnensis]]* suscepit, nee rainorem quam proximis 
Lindisfarnensium, quibusque longe positis episco- 
patussui locis pastoralis curae soUicitudinem impen- 
debat : quorum Luel, quod nunc Carleol appellatur, 
non solum proprii juris sancti Cuthberti fuerat, sed 
etiam ad sui episcopatus regimen ab Egfridi regis 
temporibus semper adjacebat.* 

• S. Duncl. Hist, de Dnncl. cccksia, co. 13. In the ilfo- 
nasticon AngUcanum (II, 845), are two writs from William 
the bastard, one to " W. filio Thcodcrici ct omnibus fidelibus 


DCCCLIV. Eardulf, a man of great merit, un- 
dertook the government of the pontifical chair of 
the church of Lindisfarn, nor did he bestow less so- 
licitude of pastoral care, than to the nearest places 
of Lindisfarn, to those situated at a distance from 
his bishopric, of which Luel, which is now called 
Carleol, not only of proper right pertained to saint 
Cuthbert, but moreover always lay contiguous to 

suis de Carkolo" the other to " G. vicecomiti et baronibus 
suis de Caerleil^^ commanding them to be obedient, in religious 
matters, to the bishop of Durham, and his archdeacon, a de. 
cisive proof that Cumberland was, at that period, under the 
dominion of the English croWn. According to William of 
Malmesbury, there was in his time (about 1 140) in the city of 
Lugubalia, (now Carlisle), a bed of stones vaulted with arches, 
which no spite of tempests, nor even wood placed by it out of 
design, and set on fireyhad ever availed to ruin. The country, 
he says, is called Cumberland, and the men are called Cum- 
brians, and an inscription is read in the front of the bed : 
MARII VICTORIjE (to the victory of Marius). " What it 
is," he adds, " I am at a loss to conjecture, unless, perhaps, 
part of the Cimbrians had settled in these places, when they 
were driven out of Italy by Marius" (Z)e gestis pontijicum pro. 
L. 3). " Here," observes the sagacious plagiarist Randal Hig- 
den, " Williamof Malmesbury was deceived, thinking this title 
of the stone to belong to Marius, the Roman consul. Nor is it to 
be wondered at, since he had not read the British book [Geof- 
frey of Monmouth] where it treats of king Marius." (Polychro. 
L. 4. c. 9). See Ushers Antlquitates, that, however, the in- 
scription was not MARII VICTORI.E, but MARTI VIC- 
TORI, see the introduction to the Annals of the Picis, § 1. 


the jurisdiction of his bishopric from the time of 
king Egfrid. 

DCCCLXXV. Barbari in sortes sibi duas di- 
vidunt regnum : partem sumpsit dux barbarorum, 
Healfdene nomen Northanhymbriorum ; hyberno 
ibi sedilia tempore cudit juxta nominatura fluvium 
Tinam, ibidemque vastant territoria passim. Ast 
crebrius inducunt Pihtis bellum, Cumbrisque.* 

DCCCLXXV. The barbarians divide the king- 
dom among themselves in two lots. The general of 
the barbarians, named Healfdene, took the part of 
the Northumbrians ; there he takes up his seat, in 
the winter-time, near the river called Tyne, and 
there they waste the country on every side. But 
they more frequently make war upon the Picts and 

* Ethelwerdus, p. 844. " Anno dominicse incarnationis 
DCCLXXV. supra memoratus saepe exercitus [Paganorum] 
Ureopedune deserens, in duas se divisit turnias ; cujus altera 
pars cum Healftene in regionem Northanhymbrorum perrcxit, 
et ibi hyemavit juxta flumen quod dicitur Tine ; et totam North- 
anhymbrorum regionem suo subdidit dominio; nccnon ct 
Pictos ct Stratduttenses [1. Stratcludenses] depopulati sunt." 
Asserius, p. 27. V. etiam Chro. Sax: p, 83, Aluiedum Be- 
verlacensem, p. lOi, and_F. Wigor. p. 681). 


DCCCLXXVI. After the death of Roderic the 
great Cking, or prince, of Wales^, the noi'thern 
Britains of Stratclwyd and Cumberland were 
mightily infested and weakened through the daily 
incursions of the Danes, Saxons, and Scots, inso- 
much, that as many of them as would not submit 
their necks to the yoke, were forced to quit their 
country, and seek for more quiet habitations.* 

DCCCXCIX. Edwardus rex, iElfredi filius, 
Scottorum, Cumbrorum, Stretgladuvalorum, om- 
nesque occidentalium Brittonum reges in deditio- 
nem accepit.f 

• Caradocs History of Waks, augmented and improved by 
Wynne, 1697, p- 37. " Constat has regiones [Cumbriam 
sci.] cum Gallovidia usque ad Cludam amnem ad annum 
DCCCLXX a Britannis possideri, quo tempore k Scotis, 
Danis et Anglis, multis bellis lacessiti, et tandem Constantino 
eorum rege ad Lochmaban in Anandia occiso, in Cambriam 
ad contribules suos migrare coacti sunt." (H. Llwyd Britan. 
descrip. com. p. 41). Tlie name and death of this Constantino, 
king of Cumberland, or Strath-CIuyd, are mentioned by no 
other writer. See, as to this Rederech, or Roderick, in the An- 
nals of Strath-Clyde, under the year 660. 

•|- S. DuneL Historia, p. 151. " Invictissimus rex Anglo- 


DCCCXCIX. [King Edward the son of Alfred] 
received the submission of the kings of the Scots, 
Cuinbriansj people of Strath-Clyde, and of all the 
western Britons. 

DCCCCXXXIV. iEthelstanus rex Scotiam 
' tendens' cum totius Britannia; exercitu ; fugato 
' Ewino' rege Cumbrorum, et Constantino rege 
Scottorum, terrestri et navali exercitu, Scotiam 
sibi subjugando perdomuit.* 

DCCCCXXXIV. King Athelstan marching into 
Scotland, with the whole army of Britain . . . Ewen, 
king of the Cumbrians, and Constantine, king of the 
Scots, being put to flight, by his land and sea army 
subjugating Scotland, was everywhere victorious. 

rum Eadwardus senior, qui cunctis Britanniam incolentibus 
Anglorum, Scottorum, Cumbronim, Danorum, pariter et 
Brittonumpopulis gloriOsissime pr{efuit...ex hac vita transiens, 
&C. [924]." Ihi. p. 154. V. etiam R. de Uoveden Annates, 
p. 421 ; and Cronica de Mailros, p. 147. 
* & DuneL His. cc. Dunel. c 25. 


DCCCCXXXVIII. Apud Weondunc, quod alio 
nomine Etbrunnanwerch, vel Brunnanbyrig, appel- 
latur, pugnavit {[iEthelstanus rex] contra Onlaf, 
Guthredi quondam regis filium qui DC. et XV. 
naribus advenerat, secum habens contra Ethelsta- 
num auxilia regum praefatorum, scilicet Scottorum 
et Cumbrorum. At ille . . . prostrata multitudine 
infinita reges illos de regno suo propulit.* 

" S. Dunel. &c. c. 26. Ingulph, likewise, mentions, by 
name, Constantine king of Scots, and Owen (Eugenius) king 
of the Cumbrians, as present with Anlaf at this battle (//w- 
toria, p. 37). " Ethelstanus rex, apud Wendune pugnavit, 
regemque Onlafum cum DC. et XV. navibus, Constantinum 
quoque regem Scottorum, et regem Cumbrorum ; cum omr 
eorum multitudine in fugam vertit" (S. Dunel. Historia de 
gcstis regum Anglo, c. 134.) Ingulph calls the place of ac- 
tion " Brunford in Northanhumbria," and Ethelwerd, " Bru- 
nandune ;" but it is Brunan-burh in the Saxon chronicle ; 
and is idly supposed, by Camden, to be Bromeridge in 
Northumberland, and still more erroneously and absurdly, 
by Heame, " Brunesburgh nunc Seton, prope Axminstre in 
Devonia" (Lelands Collectanea, I, 194). Bishop Gibson, 
however, more correctly, from the passage of Florence of Wor- 
cester, " Hibemiensium multarum insularum rex paganus 
Anlafus a socero suo rege, Scotorum Constantino incitatus, 
ostium Humbri fluminis valida cum classe ingreditur. Cui 
rex j'Ethelstanus fraterque suus Eadmundus, in loco qui dici- 
tur Brunanburgh, cum exercitu occurrerunt, &c." thinks it 
probable that the battle was decided rather in Lincolnshire, 
or Yorkshire, than in Northumberland : and it is observable, 
that either Peter Langetoft, or Robert of Broime, his translator, 


Fugit Analafus, filius Sicthrici, in Hyberniam, 
et frater ejus Godefridus in Scotiam ; subsecuti 
sunt ^ vestigio regales missi ad Constantinum, et 
Eugenium regem Cumbrorum, transfugam cum de- 
nunciatione belli repetentes. Nee fuit animus bar- 
baris^ ut contra obmutirent, quin potius sine re- 
tractione, ad locum qui Dacor vocatur venientes, 
se cum suis regnis Anglorum regi QAdelstano]] 

DCCCCXXXVIII. At Wendon, which by an- 

who was sufficiently conversant in that part of the country, 
says expressly, 

" At Brunesburgh on Humber they gan bim assaile." 

That no such place now exists is an idle objection, as it may 
have been easily swallowed by the higre, as is well known to 
have been frequently the case. 

There seems to be an omission in Simeons text : Anlaf was 
the son of Sithric, and Reginald the son of king Cuthred 
(M. West p. 187). In fact Simeon himself, in another place, 
expressly calls Onlaf the son of Sihtric The name of this 
pagan is constantly written Analafus, or Analavus, by W. of 
Slalmesbury, as it is, by others, Analaphus, Anlavus, Anlaf^ 
or Onlaf. Bromton, in one place, has Aulaf in another Han- 
laf; R. of Gloucester, Analaf; J. Wallingford, Olaf; Cara« 
doc, Lhoyd, or Powel, Ilawlaf. Olavus, however, seems to 
have been generally regarded as a different name. 

• W. Malmes. Dc g. r. A., L. 2, p. 50. Dacor is, probably, 
OVD Dacre-cattky in Cumberland, still in good preservatioiu 


other name is called Etbrunnanwerch, or Brunnan- 
burgli, king Atbelstan fought against Anlaf, son of 
the late king Guthred, who had come over with 
61 5 ships, having against Athelstan the aid of the 
aforesaid kings, to wit, of the Scots and of the 
Cumbrians. But he, an infinite multitude being 
prostrated, drove those kings out of his realm. 

Anlaf, son of Sicthric, fled into Ireland, and his 
brother Godfrey into Scotland ; the royal messen- 
gers closely followed their track to Constantine, 
king of the Scots, and Owen, king of the Cum- 
brians, demanding the fugitives, with denunciation 
of war. Nor had the barbarians resolution to be 
silent, but rather, without delay, coming to a place 
which is called Dacor, surrendered themselves, with 
their kingdoms, to Athelstan, the king of the Eng- 

DCCCCXL V. Eadmund cyning ofer-hergode call 
Cumbra-land et hit let to eal Malculme. Scotta 
cyninge. on that gerad that he wajre his mid-wyrhta 
segther ge on sae ge on lande.* 

• Chro. Sax. p. 116. *' Magnificus rex Anglorum Ead- 
mundus terram Cumbrorum depopulatus est, illamque regi 
Scottorum Malcolmo eo terrore dedit, ut terra marique sibi 


Cum Eadredus, frater, ct successor Eadraundi, 
h rege Cumbrorum juramentum fidelitatis accepis- 

fidelis existeret." (S. Dunel. co. 156. R. de Hoveden, p. 423.) 
" Provincia, quae vocatur Cumberland, regi Scottorum Mal- 
colmo, sub fidelitate jurisjurandi commendata est." (W. 
Malmes. Dcgestls regum Anglo. Li. 2, c. 7, p. 53, ad. an. 942). 
" Rex fortissimus Eadmundus . . . totam Cumberland, quia 
gentem provinciae illius perfidam at legibus insolitam ad ple- 
num domare nequibat, praedayit et contrivit, et commendavit 
earn Malculmo regi Scotise hoc pacto, quod in auxilio sibi 
foret terra et rnari." (H. Huntindo. Histo. L. 6, p. 355). 
" Anno gratias 946 .... rex Eadmundus, adjutorio Lcolini 
regis Demetiae fretus, Cumbriam totam cunctis opibus spolia- 
vit, ac duobus filiis Dummaili ejusdem provinciae regis, ocu- 
lorum luce privatis, regnum illud Malcolmo Scotorum regi, 
de se tenendum concessit, ut aquilonares partes, terra, marique, 
ab hostium adventantium incursione tueretur." (M. West. 
p. 188.) This Dummail, who is mentioned by no writer, ex- 
cept this monk, who flourished in 1307, may, possibly, be here 
confounded with Dunwalhon, or Dunwallo, the last king of 
Strath-Clyde, who, in 971, went to Rome, and there died. 
(See The Mstorie of Cambria, p. 64 ; Llwyds Britan. dcscrip. 
com. by Williams, p. 87, 41.) It must be observed, however, 
that, in the life of saint Cadroe, we read that he came " usque 
terram Cumbrorum, Dovenaldus rex," it continues, •' illi prae- 
erat plebi, et quia erat propinquus viri, cum omni gaudio oc- 
currit, et secum aliquandiu rctinens conduxit usque Loidam 
civitatem, qua; est confinium Normannorum [/. Northanhym- 
brorum] atque Cumbrorum ; ibique excipitur a quodam viro 
nobili Gundcrico, i quo perducitur ad rcgem Erichium in 
Euroacum [I. Eboracum] urbem : qui scilicet rex habebat 
conjugem, ipsius domini Kaddroc propinquam. Unde egres- 


set, et partes illas insecuritate posuisset, versus 
austrum cum suis contendit.* 

DCCCCXL V. King Edmund wasted all Cumber- 
land, and gave it to Malcolm, king of Scots, on this 
condition, that he should be his ally both by sea 
and land. 

When Edred, the brother and successor of Ed- 
mund, had received the oath of fidelity from the 
king of the Cumbrians, and put those parts in se- 
curity, he returned with his army to the south. 

DCCCCLXXIII. Se cyng [Eadgar] geleadde 
ealle his scip-here to Saege-ceastre. & thaer him co- 
mon on-gean vi. cyningas. & ealle with trywrodon 
that he woldon efenwy [^r^^hton beon on sae. & on 

SU8 Lungdinam civitatem expetiit," &c. This Dovenald, ac- 
cording to the BoUandist editors, was the Dummail of Matthew 
of Westminster : Dovenaldus, Domnaldus, or Domnalus, be- 
ing one and the same name. Loida is, probably, intended for 
Leeds in Yorkshire. Ericius, a Dane, or of Danish extrac- 
tion, was made king of the Northumbrians in 947, but banish- 
ed in the following year. See R. de Hoveden, p. 423. 

• M. of West. 

f Chro. Sax. p. 122. " [Eadgarus rex Anglia] regem 
Scottoium Kuuadium, Cumbrorum, Malcolmum, arcbipira- 


DCCCCLXXIII. The king Edgar led all his 
naval force to Chester ; where he was met by six 
kings ; all of whom pledged their faith that they 
would be his allies by sea and by land. 

DCCCCXCVII. Malcolmus filius Domnaldi, 
Britonum aquilonarium (hoc est Cumbrorum) rex, 
mortuus est.* 

tarn Maccusium, omnesque reges Wallensium, quorum no- 
mina fuerunt Dusual, Gifreth, IJunal, Jacob, Judcthil, ad 
curiam coactos, uno et perpetuo sacramento sibi obligavit." 
(W. Malmes. p. 56.) " Rex Anglorum pacificus Eadgarus 
.... cum ingenti classe, Britannia circumnavigata ad Legio- 
num civitatem appulit. Cui subreguli ejus octo, Kynath, 
scilicet, rex Scottorum, Malcolm rex Cumbrorum, Maccus 
plurimarum rex insularum, et alii quinque, Dufnald, Siferth, 
Huxial, Jacob, Nichil [aliter luchil, vel Inchil], ut mandave- 
rat occurrerunt et quod sibi fideles et terra et mari cooperatores 
se vellent juraverunt. Cum quibus, die quadam, scapham 
ascendit, illisque ad remos locatis, ipse clavum gubernaculi 
arripiens, eam per cursum fluminis De perite gubernavit, 
omnique turba ducum et procerum simili navigio comitante 
i palatio ad monasterium sancti Johannis baptistas navigavit." 
(S. Dunel. p. 15!) ; see, also, Flo. Wigor. Chro. Jorvalcnsisy 
and Cro. dc Mailrot, ad annum.) 

This Malcolm, king of the Cumbrians, appears to have been 
the son of Donald : there was no king of Scotland of either 
name between i>54 and 1004. 

• Tigemac, Ogygia, p. 407- O'Flahcrty supiwscs this 


DCCCCXCVII. Malcolm son of Donald, king 
of the northern Britons (that is, the Cumbrians), 

M. Se cyng Q^thelred]] ferde into Ciuner- 
lande. & hit swithe neah call for-hergode.* 

M. The king Ethelred went into Cumberland, 
and almost totally wasted it. 

Malcolm, king of Cumberland, who is mentioned by no Scot- 
ish or English writer, to have been the grandson of Malcolm I. 
king of Scotland. It is, at any rate, certain that this Malcolm 
had two sons, Odo-Duf and Kenneth IV., and that Malcolm II. 
son to the latter, succeeded his cousin Kenneth V. in 1001. 
Malcolm I., who succeeded in 944, was himself the son of 
Donald II., who died in 904. Donald, the father of Malcolm, 
king of Cumberland, could not, therefore, be either king of 
Scotland, or the king of Scotlands son. Could he be the Do- 
venald, who visited saint Cadroe, or (if a different person) the 
Dummail of Matthew of Westminster, whose two sons were 
deprived of their eyes ? See before, under 945. 

• Chro. Sax. p. 130. " Exinde rex Edelred ivit in Cumber- 
land, cum exercitu gravissimo, ubi maxima mansio Dacorum 
erat : vicitque Dacos bello maximo, totamque Cumberland pi as- 
dando vastavit." (H. Huntindoniensis Ilistoricc, p. 358.) See, 
likewise, Simeon Dunelmensem, co. 1C4 ; Rogerum de Hore- 
deo, p. 429 { and Florentium Wigomensem, ad. an. 


MLII. Concessit rex Siwardo Westmerlandiam, 
Cumberlandiam, et Northumbriam ; quas quidem 
terras potenter pacificavit, regis inimicos contrivit, 
et Osbernum Bulax filium suum in Scotiam con- 
quirendam misit.* 

MLII. The king granted to Siward Westmore- 
land, Cumberland, and Northumberland ; which 
provinces he powerfully pacified, broke the kings 
enemies, and sent Osbern Bulax his son into Scot- 
land to conquer it. 

MLIV. Siwardus Ccomes]] Northanimbren- 
sium, jussu Hregis, S. Edwardi]] cum Scottorum 
rege congressus vita regnoque spoliavit ; ibidera- 
que Malcolmum filium regis Cumbrorum regeni 

• Chro. J. Broraton, c. 94(J. Bromtou is an inaccuraU;, 
and even fabulous writer, of the 15th century. His account 
of Siward is a perfect romance. 

•|- W. flialniesburiensis. " Strcnuus dux Northymbrorum 

Siwardus jussu regis Eadwardi, ct equestri cxercitu et classe 

valida Scotiam adiit, et cum rege Scottorum Macheotha prse- 

liutn commisit, ac . . . . ilium fugavit, et Malcolmum regis 



MLIV. Siward earl of tlie Northumbrians, by 
command of king Edward, encountered with the 
king of Scots, whom he deprived of life and king- 
dom ; and, at the same time, appointed Malcolm, 
son of the king of Cumbrians, king. 

MLXX. Infinita Scottorum multitudo ducente 
Malcolmo rege per Cumbrelant traducta, versus 
orientem divertens, universam Tesedale et ejus fi- 
nitima loca ultra citraque feroci vastavit popula- 
tione. Inter has Scottorum vastationes ac rapinas, 
Gospatricius comes (qui arege Willielmo comitatum 
Northanhymbrorum precio assecutus fuerat)accitis 
auxiliatoribus strenuis atroci depopulatione Cum- 
breland invadit. Erat enim eo tempore Cumbre- 

Cumbrorum filium, ut rex, jusserat, regem constituit." S. 
Dunel. c 187. V. etiam R. de Hoveden, p. 443 ; et Chro- 
nica de Mailros, p. 158. " Siwardus dux Northanhymbrorum 
jussu regis Edwairdi Machetum [1. Macbethum] regem Scoto- 
rum de regno privavit, et Malcolmum legem Cumbrorum re- 
gem Scotorum constituit." Chronicon J. dbhatis S. Petri de 
Burgo, p. 43. This last writer is the only one who calls 
Malcolm himself king of the Cumbrians ; perhaps inadvert- 



land sub regis Malcolini tlominio, non jure pos- 
sessa, sed violenter subjugata.* 

MLXX. An infinite multitude of Scots, headed 
by king Malcolm, being brought through Cumber- 
land, turning toward the east, wasted all Teesdale, 
and its neighbourhood, on every side with ferocious 
ravage. Among this devastation and plunder of 
the Scots, earl Gospatrick (who had obtained, by a 
bribe from king William, the county of Northum- 
berland) having called together strenuous auxilia- 
ries, invaded Cumberland with atrocious depopula- 
tion : For, at that time, Cumberland was under the 
dominion of king Malcolm, not possessed by right, 
but subjugated by violence. 

MLXXII. Illis temporibus regebat comitatum 
Carlioli QCumbriae sci.]] comes Ranulphus de Mi- 
cenis, qui efficax auxilium piaebuit regi Gulihelroo 

• S. Dunel. Hirtoria, c 200. V. eliam R. de Hoveden An- 

nakty p. 452. 


in conquestu suo Angliae. Hie urbem Carlioli coe- 
pit aedificare, et cives ejusdem plurimis privilegiis 
munire. Sed rediens rex Gulihelmus d Scotia per 
Cumbriam, videns tam regale municipium, abstu- 
lit illud a Ranulpho comite, et dedit illi pro eo co- 
mitatum Cestriae, multis honoribus privilegiatum. 
Carlioluntij vero, praecepit rex Gulihelmus turribus 
propugnaculisque muniri firmissimis.* 

■ MLXXII. In those times, earl Randal de 
Meschines, who afforded efficacious assistance to 
king William in his conquest of England, go- 
verned the county of Carlisle Qi. e. Cumberland^. 
He began to build the city, and to endow the citi- 
zens thereof with numerous privileges. But king 
William, returning from Scotland through Cum- 
berland, beholding such a royal corporation, took it 
away from earl Randal, and gave him for it the 
county of Chester, privileged with many honours. 
But Carlisle king William commanded to be fortified 
with the strongest towers and ramparts. 

• M. West, p. 227. See before. 


MLXXXVI. WiUielmus rex Angliae, W. filia 
Theoderici, et omnibus fidelibus suis de Carleolo, 
et omnibus qui manent ultra Loedriam, salutem. 
Praecipio vobis ut recipiatis christianitatem de 
episcopo Dunelmensi, et de archidiacono suo, et 
praedicto episcopo sitis obedientes de christianitatis 
.egibus, sicut juste debetis obedire vestro episcopo : 
et videte, sicut me diligitis, ne amplius faciatis inde 
aliquam molestiam ministris episcopi injuste. Tes- 
tibus Roberto filio Giraldi, (&c.)* 

MLXXXVI. William king of England to W. 
son of Theoderic, and all his faithful of Carlisle, 
and all who live beyond the Lowther, greeting. I 
command you that you receive Christianity of the 
bishop of Durham, and of his archdeacon, and to 
the aforesaid bishop be ye obedient to the laws of 
Christianity, as you justly ought to obey your \A- 
shop : and see ye, as you love me, that you no fur- 
ther do thereof make any molestation to the mini- 
sters of the bishop unjustly. Witnesses Robert son 
of Girald, &c. 

* Monattkon Anglkanum., II, 845. 


MXCII. Se cyng Willelm mid mycelre fyrde 
ferde north to Cardeol & tha burh geaethstawelede. 
& thone castel arerde. & Dolfin ut-aedraef the aeror 
thaer landes weold. & thone castel mid his mannan 
gesette. & siththan hider suth gewende. & mycele 
maenige Eyrlisces [^Englisces^ folces mid wifan. & 
mid orle thyder sende, thser to wunnigenne that 
land to tillianne.* 

* Chro. Sax. ad an. " Rex Willielmus ivit in Nord apud 
Cardeol, et burgum aedificavit, et castellum incepit, et Dolfi- 
num fugavit, cujus terra ilia fuit, et misit homines suos in 
castello, et postea reversus est Sud, et misit illuc multos ho- 
mines villanos cum uxoribus suis, et animalibus, ut in ilia 
terra manerent" {Annales Waverleienses, p. 138.) " Interea 
Melcolm rex Scottorum prsedatum veniens in Angliam, vali- 
dissime vexavit earn : venientes, igitur, in Angliam rex, et 
cum eo Robertus frater suus, direxerunt acies in Scotiam. 
Itaque Malcolm nimio timore perstrictus homo regis eifectus 
est, et juramento fidelitatis ei subjectus. Succedente anno rex 
reaedificavit Carleol, et ex australibus Angliae partibus illuc 
habitatores transmisit" (H. Huntindoniensis,p. 373.) "Rex 
in Northimbriam profectus, civitatem quae Britannice Cairleil, 
Latine Lugulalia vocatur, restauravit, et in ea castellum aedi- 
ficavit. Haec enim civitas, ut illis in partibus aliae nonnuUaj, 
h Danis paganis ante CC annos diruta, et usque ad tempus id 
mansit deserto." (S. Dunel. c. 217- V. plura R. de Hoveden 
Annates, p. 462, 463. V. etiam Aluredi Beverlacensis Annales, 
p. 139, Chro. W. Hemingford, p. 463, Chro. de Mailrog, 
p. 162.) There were several Dolphins : one, the son of Cos- 
patric, and brother of Waltheof and Cospatric ; another, the 
son of Torfin, {Historia de Ucthredo, c. 80) ; a thud, the son 


MXCII. King William, with a great army, 
went north to Carlisle, and reedified that city, and 
built a castle ; and expelled Dolfin, who, before, was 
governor of that territory ; and placed his men in 
the castle ; and on his return to the south, sent thi- 
ther a great multitude of English, with their wives 
and cattle, there to reside, and to cultivate that 

MCXXII. Rex Henricus . . . intrans regiones 
ab Eboraco divertit versus mare occidentale, con- 
sideraturus civitatem antiquam quae lingua Brit- 
tonum Cairleil dicitur, quae nunc Carleol anglice, 
Latine, vero, Lugubalia appellatur, quam data pe- 
cunia castello, et turribus praecepit muniri.* 

of Alward (.Monasticon Anglicanum, 1, 400), ( V. S. Dunel.) ; 
^fourth, the son of Utlired, to whom in 1130 the prior and 
monks of Durham granted Staindrop (Lelands CoL I, 390). 
The former seems to be the one here meant. Cospatriciut 
fratcr Dclj)hini is named among the witnesses in the instru- 
ment of inquisition of the possessions of the church of Glas- 
gow, in Cumberland, about the year 1118, printed in the ap- 
pendix to sir James Dalrymples Collections, and elsewhere ; 
and Ulfutfilius Doffini is, likewise, mentioned by Florence of 
M'^orcester, under the year 1065. 

• S. DuneL c 240. 


MCXXII. King Henry, . . entering the country 
from York, turned toward the western sea, to be- 
hold the ancient city which, in the language of the 
Britons, is called Cairleil, but which now, in Eng- 
lish, is called Carlisle, and in Latin Lugubalia, and 
giving money, commanded it to be fortified with a 
castle and towers. 

MCXXXII. Rex Henricus fecit episcopatum 
apud Carleolum, in limbo Angliae et Galwalliae, et 
posuit ibi primum episcopum, nomine iEthelulphura, 
sancti Oswaldi priorem, cui peccata sua solebat 

MCXXXII. King Henry erected a bishopric 
at Carlisle, in the march of England and Galloway, 
and placed there [the] first bishop, Ethelwulph by 
name, prior of Saint Oswald, to whom he used to 
confess his sins. 

• M. West. p. 241. " Adulfus prior de Nostlia ad urbem 
Karleol, quam rex Henricus initiavit ad sedem episcopalem, 
datis sibi ecclesiis de Cumberland et Westmerland, quae ad- 
jacuerunt archidiaconatui Eboracensi." (HUtoria J. prioris 
Hagustaldensis, c. 257') 


MCXXXVI. David rex Scotise . . . continuo insur- 
rexit in regnum Angliae, et citius munitiones Cum- 
berlandiae et North imbriae, cum populis adjacentibus 
optinuit usque Dunelmum, praeter Babhanburch . . . 
Occurrit ei rex Stephanus . • . apud Dunelmum, 
ibi commoratus diebus xv. David quoque rex in 
Novo castello se recepit. Habita igitur coUocutione 
de pace inter eos, Henricus filius regis Scotiae, fecit 
homagium regi Stepbano apud Eboracum, in aug- 
mentum honoris de Huntedundatis ei Dunecastra 
et Karleol.* 

• J. prior Hagustaldensis, c 258. " David rex Scotiae in 
provincia Northanhyrubronun quinque oppida, scilicet, Lu- 
gubaliam, quod Anglice Carlel dicitur, et Carrum quod ab 
Anglis Werch dicitur,* et Alnwic, et Norham, et Novum 
castellum, mox circa natale domini cum magno exercitu prse. 
occupavit ac tenuit." (IJistoria R. prioris Hagustal. co. 312.) 
" Henricus filius David regis Scotiae homagium Stephano regi 
apud Eboracum fecit. Deditque rex illi, cum consulatu patris 
sui, Iluntadun, Cartel, et Donacastram, cum omnibus qua^ 
ad ea pertinent'* (/6i.) " Stephanus rex, cum venisset in 
fine natalis domini ad Oxcnford, audivit nuncium dicentem 
sibi : Rex Scottorum simulans se pacifice venire ad te gratia 
hospitandi, veniens in Karloil et Novum castellum, dolose 
cepit utraque : cui rex Stephanus : Qute dolose cepit victories^ 
recipiam. Promovit rex iropiger exercitum tantum erga Da- 
vid Scottorum regem, quantum nuUus in Anglia fuisse memo- 

4k They are not one and the same place. See Armstrongs 
map of Northumberland. 


Norhimbria et Cumbria redditae sunt regi Scot- 
torum David ; sed statira pacificati sunt rex David 
et rex Steplianus, et Norhimbria reddita regi Ste- 
phano, et Cumbria regi David remansit.* 

MCXXXVI. David, king of Scotland, rushed 
all at once into the kingdom of England, and soon 
took the strong places of Cumberland and Northum- 
berland, with the neighbouring people, as far as 
Durham, except Bamburgh . . . King Stephen 
met him ... at Durham, where he stayed fifteen 
days. King David, also, betook himself into New- 
rare potuit Occurrens igitur ei rex David circa Dunelmiam 
concordatus est, ei reddens Novum castellum, Karloil vero re- 
tinuit concessione regis StephanL" (H. Huntindoniensis, p. 
387.) Vide etiam R. de Hoveden, p. 482. 

" Northumbyrland and Cwmbyrland 

Til the king Dawy of Scotland 

War gyvyn agayne that ilke yhere : 

And eftyr swne frendyt were 

The kyng Dawy of Scotland 

And Stewyn kyng than of Ingland ; 

Northwmbyrland be that trette 

Til Stewyn the kyng wes gyvyn fre ; 

Bot Cumbyrland all halyly 

Remanyd wyth oure lord the kyng Dawy." 

Wyntownis Cronykil, I, 298. 
• Chro. de Mailros. 


castle. A conference of peace being, therefore, had 
betw^een them, Henry, son of the king of Scotland, 
did homage to king Stephen at York; Doncaster 
and Carlisle being given to him in augmentation of 
the honor of Huntingdon. 

Northumberland and Cumberland were yielded 
to David king of the Scots ; but straightway king 
David and king Stephen were pacified, and Nor- 
thumberland yielded to king Stephen and Cumber- 
land remained to king David. 

MCXXXVni. Rex David intrans in ter- 

rara S. Cuthberti, ... ex ejus edicto Picti et Cum- 
bri,et homines de Carlel et de circumjacente regione 
ad eum convenerunt.* 

MCXXXVin. King David, entering into the 
land of St. Cuthbert (t. e. the bishopric of Dur- 
ham), at his summons^ the Picts and Cumbrians, 

• R. prior Hagustal. co. 319. " [Post bellum de Cuton- 
morel per Northymbriam et Cumbarland quarto die ante fes- 
tum sancti Michaelis ad Cartel pervenit [ W. Cumin regis Sco- 
tiae cancellarius], ibique regcm Scotia; cum episcopis, abbati' 
bus, prioribus, baronibus, suae teirse reperit." (Ibi.) 


and men of Carlisle, and of the circumjacent coun- 
try came together to him. 

MCXLI. Henricus comes [filius regis Scotiae] 
cum coDJuge sua ad regem Angliae profectus est. 
Insurrexit in inimicitias in eum Ranulfus comes 
Cestriae, propter Karlel et Cumberland quam jure 
patrimonii sibi reposcebat, voluitque eum in reditu 
cum armata manu involyere.' Rex vero reginae pre- 
cibus commonitus ab intentato periculo tutatim eum 
patri et patriae restituit, transpositaque est indig- 
natio haec in insidias regiae salutis.* 

MCXLI. Earl Henry [son of the king of Scot- 
land] came with his wife to the king of England. 
Randal, earl of Chester, rose in enmity against him, 
on account of Carlisle 'and Cumberland, which, by 
right of patrimony, he asked for himself; and want- 
ed to entrap him in his return with an armed force. 
But the king, being moved by the prayers of the 
queen, restored him safe, from the threatened dan- 
ger, to his father and country, a,nd this indignation 

• J. prior HagustaL c 268. 


was transferred against the treachery of the royal 

MCL. Henricus filius Galfridi comitis Andegav- 
iae et Adelae [^Matildis^ iraperatricis ad Pentecos- 
ten venit Karleol. Excepit eum rex David cum 
reverentia magna et sumptuosa praeparatione opu- 
lentae munificentise. Militiae enim cingulo do- 
navit eum, cooperantibus sibi Henrico filio suo et 
Ranulfo comite Cestriae. Remisit autem idem Ra- 
nulfus indignationem qua Karleol sub patrimoni- 
al! jure reposcere consueverat, fecitque homagium 
eidem regi David. Convenit enim sermo inter eos 
ut pro Karlel haberet honorem de Lancastre ; iili- 
usque Ranulfi comitis ducturus foret uxorem unam 
de filiabus Henrici filii regis Scotiae.* 


* J. prior HagustaL c. 277- (The proposed match did not 
take place ; but, in 1190, David, brother of "William king of 
Scotland, married [Maud] sister of Randal [Blundeville] earl 
of Chester [grand-son of the earl Randal here spoken of.] 
Bencdictus abbas, p. C29.) " Aquilonalis regio, quae in po- 
testatem David regis Scottorum usque ad Tesyam cesserat, per 
ejusdem regis industriam in pace agebat, ad quern Henricus 
ex nepte ejus, id est Matilde olim imperatrice, Andegavensis 
comitis filius, et Anglite rex futurus a raatre missus jam 
pubcs accessit : et ab eo ad Luguballiam (quae vulgo Car- 


MCL. Henry, the son of Geoffrey earl of Anjou, 
and of Adela [Maud] the empress, came at Whit- 
suntide to Carlisle. King David received him with 
great reverence, and the sumptuous preparation of 
opulent munificence. For he gave him the belt of 
knighthood ; Henry his son, and Randal earl of 
Chester, assisting him. Now this Randal remitted 
the indignation with which he had been used to 
claim Carlisle, under the right of patrimony, and 
did homage to the same king David. For it was 
agreed between them in conversation that for Car- 
lisle he should have the honour of Lancaster ; and 
that the son of earl Randal should take to wife one 
of the daughters of Henry son of the king of Scot- 

MCLHI. Henricus Eboracensis archiepiscopus 
. . . querelam fecit apud Kai'leol regi David, super 
forestam suam quam vastaverunt homines regis qui 
operabantur in argentaria.* 

kit dicitur) oBgulum militare accepit, prsestita prius (ut dici- 
tur) cautione quod nulla parte terrarum, qus in ejusdem regis 
ex Anglia ditionem transissent, ejus ullo tempore mutilaret 
haeredes." (W. Neubrigensis Historia, p. 75. V- etiam Chro- 
nica W. de Hemingford, aj)ud V. script, p. 492.) 
* J. prior HagustaL c 280. 


MCLIII. Heury archbishop of York . . . made 
complaint at Carlisle to king David, on account of 
his forest, which the kings men who worked in a 
silver mine wasted. 

MCLIV. David rex Scotiae apud Karlel pressus 
infirmitate, ix. kal. Junii obiit.* 

Regi Scottorum, qui aquilonales Anglise regi- 
ones, scilicet Northumbriam, Cumbriam, Westme- 
riam, nomine Matildis dictae imperatricis et heredis, 
ejus olim a David Scottorum rege adquisitas, tan- 
quam jus proprium possidebat, mandare curavit 
[[rex Henricus^ ; Regem Aiigliae tanta regni sui 
parte non debere fraudari, nee posse patienter mu- 
tilari, justum esse reddi quod suo fuisset nomine 
adquisitum. Ille vero prudenter considerans re- 
gem Angliae in hac parte cum potentia virium me- 
rito causae praestare, quamvis posset ostendere ju- 
ramentum quod avo suo David praestitisse diceba- 
tur, cum ab eo cingulum acciperet militare, prae- 
Dominatos fines repetenti cum integritate restituit, 

* Idem, c. 281. The church of Hexham had certain char, 
ters, whereby " David rex Scotiee, et Henricus filius ejus, de. 
derunt cis unum mansum in Cartel, et in cadem villa aliud 
mansum." K. prior Hagustal. c. 307. 


et ab eo vicissim comitatum Huntedunensem pris- 
co jure sibi competentem recepit.* 

MCLIV. David, king of Scotland, oppressed 
with infirmity, died at Carlisle, the 9th of the ca- 
lends of June (24th of May.) 

King Henry took care to send to the king of 
Scots, who possessed the northern regions of Eng- 
land, to wit, Northumberland, Cumberland, and 
Westmoreland, formerly acquired by David king of 
the Scots, in the name of Maud called the empress 
and her heir, as his own right : That the king of 
England ought not to be defrauded, nor could pa- 
tiently be mutilated of such a part of his realm, 
and that it was just that what had been acquired 
in his name should be restored. Now he, prudently 
considering the king of England, in this respect, to 
supply the merit of his cause with the power of 
his forces, although he could have shown the oath 
which he was said to have taken to his grandfather 
David, when he received from him the belt of 
knighthood, restored the beforenamed boundaries 
to him who demanded them, and from him, in re- 

" W. Neubrigensis Hiitoria, p. 115. 


turn, received the county of Huntingdon, desirable 
to him of ancient right. 

MCLVII. Henricus rex Anglorum transfretavit 
in Angliam, et Melchomus rex Scotorum reddidit 
ei civitatem Cai'leol, castrum Baenburg, Novum cas- 
trum super Tinam, et comitatum Lodonensem.* 

MCLVII. Henry, king of the English, passed 
over into England, and Malcolm king of the Scots 
delivered up to him the city of Carlisle, the castle 
of Bamburgh, New-castle upon Tyne, and the coun- 
ty of Lothian. 

MCLVIII. Rex Angliae Henricus et Malcolmus 
rex Scottorum apud Carlel convenerunt, sed non 

• R. de Diceto, c 531. V. etiam M. West. p. 247. " Rex 
Henricus, fortuna sibi gratius anridente, regetn Scotorum sic 
arctavit, ut omnes terras Aquilonares scil. Northumberland^ 
Cumberland^ et Westmerland, quas tempore hostilitatis injuste 
occupaverat, resignaret.*' {Chro. T. Wikes, p. 30.) 



bene pacificati ab invicem discesserunt, Ideoque rex 
Scottorum non adhuc miles factus est.* 

MCLVIII. Henry king of England and Mal- 
colm king of Scots met at Carlisle, but they depart- 
ed from each other not perfectly reconciled ; and 
therefore the king of Scots was not yet made a 

MCLXXIII. Rex Scottorum [; Willielmus] 
agnito, quantum rex Anglorum [^Henricus] in 
Normannia laboraret, cum gentis barbara) et sitien- 
tis sanguinem immanissimis copiis Anglorum fines 
ingressus, civitatem Carduliensem obsidione cir- 
cumdedit totamque adjacentem provinciam csedibus 
et rapinis foedavit.f 

MCLXXIII. The king of Scots [William] be- 
ing apprised how much the king of the English 
[[Henry] was distressed in Normandy, with most 
incredible numbers of a barbarous and blood-thirsty 
people, having entered the borders of the English^ 

• Chro. de Mailros. He received this honour from the hand 
of Henry, at Tours, in the following year. 

t W. Neubrigensis, p. 205, 707 


laid siege to the city of Carlisle, and polluted all 
the adjacent province with slaughter and rapine. 

MCLXXIV. Rex Scotia5 cum exercitu suo ob- 
sedit Carleolum, quod Rodbertus de Vallis in cus- 
todia habuit : et cum per paucos dies ibi moram fe- 
cisset, dimisit ibi partem exercitus sui circa castel- 
lum, et ipse cum reliqua parte exercitus sui ivit per 
Northumbriam...Et postea rediit ad exercitum 
suum quem dimisit circa Carleolum, et tamdiu ibi 
moram fecit, donee Rodbertus de Vallis, victu sibi 
et burgensibus, qui intus erant deficiente, cum eo 
pacem fecit in hunc modum, quod, ad festum sancti 
Michaelis sequens, redderet ei castellum et villam 
Carleoli, nisi interim haberet succursum a domino 
rege AnglijB : et super hoc fecit ipse regem Scotise 
securum fide et sacramentis et obsidibus.* 

MCLXXIV. The king of Scotland, with his 
army, besieged Carlisle, which Robert de Vallis had 

• Benedictus abbas, p. ^^. In the circuits for the judges 
of assise, 1176, Eboracessirc, Rkhcmundcnre, Coxepelanda, 
Westtnuilanda^ Notth\mberlanda,sai. Cumlerlanda, arc allot. 


in custody. And when he had stayetl there for A 
tew days, he left part of his army there about the 
castle, and he himself, with the rest of his army, 
went through Northumberland... And afterward he 
returned to his army, which he had left about Car- 
lisle, and stayed there so long, till Robert de Vallis, 
provisions for himself and the burgesses who wei'e 
within failing, made peace with him after this man- 
ner, that, at the feast of St Michael following, h6 
would render up to him the castle and town of Car- 
lisle, unless, in the meantime, he should have suc- 
cour from his lord the king of England : And here- 
upon he himself made the king of Scotland secure 
by faith, and oaths, and hostages. 

MCXCIII. Quinta die mensis Aprilis rex Ang- 
liae et rex Scotiae venerunt ad Maltonam, ubi rex 
Scotiae petiit a rege Angliae dignitates et honores 
quos praedecessores sui habuerunt in Anglia. Pe- 
tiit etiam comitatum Northumbriae et Cumberland 

ted to Robert de Vallis, Randal de Glan villa, and Robert Pike- 
not ; which clearly proves that all those provinces must have 
been equally in the peace and jurisdiction of the king of Eng- 


et Westmerland, et comitatum de Loncastre sibi 
reddi de jure praedecessorum suorura. Cui rex re- 
spondet, se satisfacturum ei per consilium comitum 
et baronum suorum.* 

MCXCIII. On the fifth day of April, the king 
of England and the king of Scotland came to Mal- 
ton, where the king of Scotland demanded from the 
king of England the dignities and honours which 
his predecessors had in England. He demanded 
also the county of Northumberland, and Cumber- 
land, and Westmoreland, and the county of Lancas- 
ter, to be restored to him of the right of his prede- 
cessors : To whom the king answered, that he would 
satisfy him by the counsel of his earls and barons. 

MCCLXXV. Rex Willielmus cognomine bas- 
iardus, dux Normanniae, conquestor Anglise, dedit 
totam terram de comitatu Cumbriae Ranulpho de 
Meschincs, et Galfrido Irectius, Hugoni]] fratri 
ejusdem Ranulphi totum comitatum Cestrise, et 

R. de Hoveden, p. 730. 


Willielmo * fratri eorum terram de Copland, inter 
Duden et Darwent. Ranulphus de Meschines 
feoffavit Hubertum de Vaux, de baronia de Gilles- 
land, et Ranulphum fratrem ejus de Sowerby, Car- 
Jaton, et Habbrughtly, et Robertum fratrem eorun« 
dem, de baronia de Dalston, et feoffavit Robertum 
de Strivers de baronia de Burgo, et Richerum de 
Boyvile, de baronia de Lemyngton, et Odardum de 
Logis, de baronia de Staynton, et feoffavit Walde- 
vum filium Cospatricii de Dunbar, comitem in 
Scotia, de tota baronia de AUerdale, inter Wathen- 
pole et Derwent. Predictus Willielmus de Me- 
schines, dominus de Coupland, feoffavit Waldevum 
filium Cospatricii de tota terra inter Cocar et Der- 
went, simul cum quinque villis, scilicet, Brigham, 
Eglysfeld, Dene, Bramthwaite, Gisothon, et duo 
Cliftons, et Stainburne, et feoffavit Odardum le 
Clerke de quarta parte de Crostwhait pro custodia 
asturcorum suorum. Galfridus [_r. Hugo] de 
Meschines conies Cestria;, obiit sine haerede de 
corpore suo, et Ranulphus de Meschines fuit 
comes Cestriae, et reddidit domino regi totum 
comitatum Cumbriae, tali conditione ut singuli 
feoffati sui tenuissent terras suas de domino rege 

• Fundator de WederhalL King Henry the first gave him 
the castle of Egremont. 


in capite. Praedictus Waldevus filius comitis Cos- 
patricii feoflfavit Odardum de Logis de baronia 
de Wygton, Dondragt, Waverton, Blencogo, et 
Kirkebrid, qui fundavit ecclesiam de Wigton, et 
dedit Odardo tilio Liolfe, Talentire, et Castlerige, 
cum foresta inter Caltre, et Greca; et priori et 
conventui de Gisburne, * Appleton, et Briorkirke, 
cum advocatione ejusdem ecclesiae : et dedit Ada?, 
filio Liolfe, Uldell [[et]] Gilcruce : et dedit Gamello, 
filio Brun, Bothill : et dedit Waldevo, filio Gilemi- 
uii, cum Ethreda, sorore sua, Broughton, Ribton, 
et parvam Broughton, et Duuwaldofe ac Bowaldofe, 
ad unam logeam : et dedit Ormo, filio Ketelli, Se- 
ton, Camberton, Flemingbi, [ef] Craiksothon, cum 
Gurwelder, sorore sua ; et Dolfino, filio Alwardi, 
cum Matilda sorore sua, Applethwaite, et parva 
Crosby, Langrige, et Brigham, cum advocatione 
ejusdem ecclesia;: et dedit Melbeth, medico suo, 
villam de Bromefield, salva sibi advocatione ejus- 
dem ecclesia;. Alanus, filius et haeres ejusdem 
Waldevi, dedit Ranulpho Lyndesey, Blencrhasset, 
et Uckmanby, cum Etheldrcda sorore sua : et dedit 
Ugtliredo,f filio Fergus, domino Galwcdia;, cum 
Guyiiolda sorore sua, Torpenhow, cum advocatione 

• This priory was founded in 112a. 
t Aluideied 1174. 


ecclesiae : et dedit Catello Despenser Threpland : 
et dedit Hereberto villain de Thoresby, pro tertia 
parte unius villse : et dedit Cospatricio, filio Ormi, 
altam Ireby, pro tertia parte unius villae : et dedit 
Gamello le Brun Rugthwaite : et dedit Radulpho 
Engaine Issaell, cum pertinentiis, Blencrakern, 
cum servitio de Newton : et idem Alanus habuit 
unum fratrem bastardum, nomine Cospatricium, 
cui dedit Bolton, Bastinthwaite, et Esterholme : 
et dedit tribus venatoribus suis, scilicet, Sleth, et 
sociis suis Hayton : et dedit Uctredo unam caru- 
catam terras in Aspatrike, ut esset summonitor in 
Allerdale : et dedit Dolfino sex bovatas terras in alta 
Crosby, ut esset serviensdomini regis in Allerdale: et 
dedit Simoni de Sheffelyngs medietatem de Derom, 
et Dolfino, filio Cospatricii, aliam medietatem : et 
dedit Waldevo, filio Dolfini, Brakanthwaite : et de- 
dit prioratui S. Begaj* Stainburne : et dedit prio- 
ratui Karliolijf cum corpore Waldevi, filii sui, cru- 
cem sanctam quam adhuc possident, et Crosby, cum 
advocationeejusdem ecclesiae, et cum servicio Uctre- 
di, et advocatione ecclesiae de Aspatrike, cum servicio 
Alani de Bray ton, cum advocatione ecclesiae de Ireby, 

* Founded by Randal de Meschines, in the time of Henry 
the first 

•f Begun by Walter, a priest, finished and endowed by 


cum servicio Waldevi de Longthwaite. Idem Ala- 
nus filius Waldevi dedit domino Henrico regi landas 
forestse de AUerdale, una cum venatione quando 
hospitavit apud Holmcoltrane : cui Alano successit 
Wilielmus filius Doncani, comes de Murrayse, ne- 
pos ipsius Alani et haeres, procreatus ex Ethreda, 
sorore Waldevi patris sui. Idem Wilielmus filius 
Doncani desponsavit Aliciam, filiam Roberti de 
Romeli, domini de Skipton in Craven : qui Rober- 
tus quondam desponsaverat filiam William de Me- 
schinis, domini de Coupland. Idem Willielmus 
procreavit ex eadem Alicia, uxore sua, Wilielmum 
puerum de Egremund, qui infra aetatem obiit, et 
tres filias : quarum prima nomine Cecilia mari- 
tata fuit, cum honore de Skipton, Willielmo le 
Grossus, comiti Albemarliae, per dominum Henri- 
cum regem Angliae. Item secunda, nomine Ama- 
billa, maritata fuit Reginaldo de Lucy, cum honore 
de Egremund, per eundem regem : ct tertia, nomine 
Alicia, maritata fuit Gilberto Pipard, cum Aspa- 
trike, et baronia de AUerdale, et libertate de Co- 
kcrmoutli, per eundem regem ; et, iterum, per re- 
ginam, Roberto de Courtenay, et obiit sine hserede. 
Willielmus Grossus, comes Albemarliae, gcnuit, ex 
ea, Ceciliam, ct Hawysiam : Cui successit Williel- 
mus de Fortibus : comes Albemarlia; : cui successit 
alter Willielmus de Fortibus : cui successit Avelina, 


quae fuit desponsata Edmondo fratri domini regis E. 
et obiit sine herede, &c.* Reginaldus de Lucy genuit, 
ex Amabilla, Amabillam et Aliciam ;+ et successit 
Amabillse Lambertus de Multon : :}; cni successit 
Thomas de Multon de Egremond ; || et successit 
Aliciae Thomas de Lucy; cui successit Thomas 
filius ejus ; cui successit Antouius filius ejus. § 

• She died in 1269, being the year of her marriage. King 
Edward succeeded his father in 1272. 

-|- Amabil and Alice were the daughters of Richard (son 
of Reginald) de Lucy, by Ada, daughter of Hugh de Mor. 


II Died 1271. 

§ Cronicon CumbricE, ex registro de Wederhale, apud Monas- 
ticon Anglicanum, 1, 400. This account, which appears to have 
been written soon after the accession of Edward the iirst, is 
very inaccurate. In the first place, there never was an earl of 
Chester named Geoffrey, much less Geoffrey de Meschines ; 
secondly, Hugh Lupus, to whom William the conqueror ac- 
tually granted the earldom and county of Chester (who, by the 
way, was only to Randal de Meschines), left a 
son Richard, who was drowned at sea in 1119 ; and, upon his 
death it was, that Randal de Meschines, alias de Bricasard, 
succeeded to that earldom, by right of inheritance, being the 
son of Randal de Meschines, by Blaud, the sister of Hugh Lu- 
pus. (See Leycesters Historical Antiquities, p. 118.) It can- 
not, therefore, be relied on, and was by no means a sufficient 
authority for Camden, who makes use of it in the edition of 
1695, p. 845. 


MCCLXXV. King William, surnaraed the bast- 
ard, duke of Normandy, conqueror of England, 
gave the whole land of the county of Cumberland 
to Randal de Meschines, and to ' Hugh,' the bro- 
ther of the same Randal, the whole county of Ches- 
ter, and to William their brother the land of Coup- 
land, between DudenandDerwent. Randal de Mes- 
chines enfeoffed Hubert de Vaux of the barony of 
Gilliesland, and Randal his brother of Sowerby, Car- 
laton, and Habbrughtly, and Robert their brother of 
the barony of Dalston, and enfeoffed Robert de Stri- 
kers of the barony of Burgh, and Richard de Boyvile 
of the barony of Lemyngton, and Odard of Logis of 
the barony of Staynton, and enfeoffed Waldeve, the 
son of Cospatric, of Dunbar, earl in Scotland, of the 
whole barony of Allerdale, between Wathenpole and 
Derwent. The aforesaid William de Meschines, 
lord of Coupland, enfeoffed Waldeve, son of Cospa- 
tric, of the whole land between Coker and Derwent, 
together with five vills, namely, Brigham, Eglys- 
field. Dene, Bramthwaite, Gisothen, and two Clif- 
tons, and Stainburne, and enfeoffed Odard le Clerk 
of the fourth part of Crostwhait, for the custody of 
his hawks. Hugh de Meschines, earl of Cheshire^ 
died without heir of his body, and Randal de Mes- 
chines was carl of Chester, and rendered to the 
lord the king the whole county of Cumberlandi by 


this condition that all his feoffees should hold their 
lands of the lord the ting in fee. The aforesaid 
Waldeve, the son of earl Cospatric, enfeoffed Odard 
de Logis of the barony of Wigton, Dondragtj Wa- 
verton, Blencogo, and Kirkebri, who founded the 
church of Wigton, and gave to Odard, son of Li- 
olfe, Talentiue, and Castle-ridge ; and to the prior 
and convent of Gisburne, Appleton, and Briorkirke, 
with the advowson of the same church ; and gave 
to Ada, son of Liolfe, Uldell, and Gilcruce : and 
gave to Gamel, son of Brun, Bothill : and gave to 
Waldeve, son of Gilemini, with Ethelreda, his sis- 
ter, Broughton, Eibton, and Little Bfoughton, and 
Dunwaldofe and Bowaldofe, to a lodge : and gave 
to Orm, son of Ketel, Seton, Camberton, Fleming- 
bi, and Craiksothon, with Gurweld, his sister ; and 
to Dolfin, son of Alward, with Maud, his sister, 
Applethwaite, and Little Crosby, Lang-ridge, and 
Brigham, with the advowson of the same church ; 
and gave to Melbeth his physician, the vill of Brome- 
field, saving to him the advowson of the same 
church. Alan, son and heir of the same Waldeve, 
gave to Randal Lyndesey, Blenerhasset, and Uck- 
manby, with Ethelreda, his sister ; and gave to 
Ugthred, son of Fergus, lord of Galloway, with 
Guynolda, his sister, Torpenhow, with the advow- 
son of the church : and gave to Catel Despenser 


Threpland : and gave to Herbert the vill of Thores- 
by, for the third part of a vill : and gave to Cospa- 
tric, son of Orm, High-Ireby, for the third part of 
a vill : and gave to Gamel le Brun Rugthwaite : 
and gave to Ralph Engaine Issaell, with the appur- 
tenances, Blencrakern, with the service of Newton : 
and the same Alan had a bastard brother, by name 
Cospatric, to whom he gave Bolton, Bastinthwaite, 
and Esterholme : and gave to his three huntsmen, 
namely, Sleth, and to his fellows Hayton : and gave 
to Uctred a carucate of land in Aspatrike, that he 
Cmight be^ summoner m Allerdale : and gave to Dol- 
fin six oxgangsof land in High Crosby,that he might 
be sergeant of the lord the king in Allerdale : and 
gave to Simon de ShefFelyngs a moiety of Derom, 
and to Dolfin, son of Cospatric, the other moiety : 
and gave to Waldeve, son of Dolfin, Brakanthwaite : 
and gave to the priory of saint Bees, Stainburne : 
and gave to the priory of Carlisle, with the body 
of Waldeve, his son, the holy cross, which they yet 
possess, and Crosby, with the advowson of the same 
church, and with the service of Uctred, and the ad- 
vowson of the church of Aspatrike, with the ser- 
vice of Allan of Brayton, with the advowson of the 
churcli of Ireby, with the service of Waldeve of 
Longthwaitc. The same Alan, son of Waldeve, 
gave to the lord Henry the king the lands of the 


forest of Allerdale, togetlier with right of hunting 
when he lodged at Holmcultram : to wliich Allan 
succeeded William, son of Duncan, earl of Murray, 
nephew and heir of that Allan, begotten of Ethre- 
da, sister of Waldeve his father. The same Wil- 
liam, son of Duncan, espoused Alice, daughter of 
Robert de Romeli, lord of Skipton in Craven : which 
Robert had formerly espoused, the daughter of 
William de Meschines, lord of Coupland. The 
same William begot of the same Alice, his wife, 
a boy, William of Egremont, who died under age, 
and three daughters : of whom the first, by name 
Cecilia, was married, with the honor of Skipton, 
to William le Gross, earl of Albemarle, by the lord 
Henry king of England. Also, the second, by 
name Amabel, was married to Reginald de Lucy 
with the honor of Egremont, by the same king : 
and the third, by name Alice, was married to Gil- 
bert Pipard with Aspatrike ; and the barony of 
Allerdale, and the liberty of Cockermouth, by the 
same king ; and again, by the queen to Robert de 
Courteney, and died without an heir. William the 
gross, eai-1 of Albemarle, begot of her Cicily, and 
Hawys : to whom succeeded William de Fortibus, 
earl of Albemarle: to whom succeeded another 
William de Fortibus : to whom succeeded Aveline, 
who was espoused to Edmund, brother of the lord 


king Edward, and died without an heir, &c. Regi- 
nald de Lucy begot of Amabel, Amabel and Alice ; 
and succeeded to Amabel Lambert de Multon : to 
whom succeeded Thomas de Multon de Egremont : 
and succeeded to Alice Thomas de Lucy ; to whom 
succeeded Thomas his son ; to whom succeeded An- 
thony his son. 

C S39 ] 



919- ) 

934-. > Ewen, or Owen, son of Donald.* 
938. 3 

945. Malcolm, king of Scotland. 
■ 947. Donald. 
970. Malcolm, son of Donald, died in 997't 

* This E'iven may, possibly, have been the son of Donald 
III, king of Scotland, who succeeded in 894, and died in 944 ; 
and there were two Ewens in 719 and 73G. Owen, however, 
seems rather a Welsh name, though Donald is Scotish. Do- 
nald MacAlpin, or the 2d, king of Scotland, reigned in 858. 
Fulman, who published " Rcrum Anglicarum scriptores ve- 
teres t^ Ox. 1684, fo. dates the battle of Brunanburgh in 948 
(p. 37). 

•j- Malcolm I, king of Scotland, slain in 955, was the son of 
Donald III, already named ; so that, though not the same so- 
vereigns, Donald and Malcolm, kings of Cumberland, might 
be descended from the Scotish race. 


J 031. Duncan, father of Malcolm Canmore ?* 

• Duncan, slain by ]\Iacbeth, son of Crinan, by Bethoc, 
daughter of Bfalcolm I. It is impossible to ascertain how or 
when he became king of Cumbria ; neither does William of 
Malmesbury, nor any other ancient English historian mention 
the name of Duncan. Mr. Pinkerton, who says that " Duncan, 
grandson of Malcolm II, was put in possession of Cumber- 
land by him, before his death," quotes " Wil. Malms." but, 
in fact, Fordun is the only historian who mentions that cir- 
cumstance. (See Enquiry into ilie History of Scotland, II, 
203.) In a subsequent page (220) he again cites this respect- 
table monk, as asserting, " that Malcolm only permitted Dun- 
can, his grandson and heir, who was possessed of Cumberland, 
to pay homage for that province ;" adding, that " this plain 
account sufficiently refutes the usurpative style of the Saxon 
chronicle." This, however, is a misrepresentation ; in point of 
fact, William of Malmesbury never once names either MaU 
colm or Duncan. The enquirer also asserts that " Duncan, 
father of Malcolm, was married to a daughter (more likely to 
a sister) of Siward, as all agree," (II, 204). In fact, how- 
ever, no one writer mentions such a marriage, except Fordun, 
who neither mentions daughter, or sister, but expressly calls 
this pretended wife " Consanguin ea Syveardi comitit," (L. 
4, c. 44, editionc Hearnii). 

To complete his absurdity, he pretends that ]\Ia1colm III, 
king of Scotland, son of Duncan, was his grandson, by ano- 
ther Duncan, also king of Cumberland, n nonentity of his own 

^nnnl» i^t ^aXio^n^. 



The province of Galloway,* in ancient times, that 
is, in, and before the twelfth or eleventh century, 
comprehended, not only the modern shire of that 
name (now the stewartry of Kircudbright), but 
several others, in its neighbourhood ; those, for in- 
stance, of Wigton, Annandirdale, Kyle, and Cun- 
inghara, if not also Renfrew, Clydesdale, Teviot- 

* This name is generally thought to' have been attributed 
by the Irish ; in whose language, according to mr. Pinkerton, 
" Gall implies an alien ; as the Galwegians," he says, " long 
an independent people, were to the present Scots. It is obser- 
vable," he adds, " that, in Galway of Ireland, there were also 
Cruthens or Piks." (Enquiry, I, 337.) It would, therefore, 
seem to require a different etymology. Gall, with the ancient 
Irish, certainly implied foreigners, as, in the Ulster Annals, 
the Danes are called, the black galls {Dubh-gall), and the En- 
glish, the white galls (Fin-gall). The Picts, however, were 
no foreigners, at the time this name is supposed to have been 
given, in the eye of the Scots ; the two nations having been 
familiarly connected for many centuries preceding. 


dale, Nithisdale, and others ; all whicli appear to 
have been occasionally taken out of it.* Galloway, 
and Lothian, seem, at that period, to have included 
the whole of that part of Scotland which lies to the 
south of the two firths, of Clyde and Forth.t It 
appears, likewise, to have been then looked upon as 
distinct from Scotland, and to have had a govern- 
ment, laws, and customs, peculiar to itself.;]: That 
this province was, at least, part of the seat of the 
southern Picts is an incontrovertible fact, for which 
we have, amongst others, the express testimony of 
venerable Bede.§ Even so late as the twelfth cen- 

• See Innes'a Critical Essay, p. 160, sir J. Dalrymples 
Collections, p. 217, and D. Macphersons Geographical illus- 
trations. In an old charter, Iivin is said to be in Galloway. 
(Pinkertons Enquiry, I, 330 ; quotes Goodalls Intro, to For-, 
dun, c 10; Dalrymples Annals, an. 1160.) " The Galwei- 
enses vel Picti," he says, " reached from Solway to the frith 
of Clyde." (/Ji. 200). 

•j- Innes, Critical Essay, p. 160. 

$ Idetn., Hi. The kings of Scotland, in the twelfth century, 
usually addressed their charters, " Francis et Anglicis, Scolis 
et Galwensibus, et Walensibus ;" having, actually, so many 
nations or people among their subjects. {Ihi. p. 38.) 

§ B. 4, c. 26. See, also. The Annals of the Picts. Saint 
Constantine, king of Cornwall, went into Galloway to preach 
the gospel to the Picts and Scots, and was martyred in Ken- 
tyre about 570. See his life in the Acta SS. 11 Martii. This 
anecdote, however, is liable to suspicion : the Picts and Scots, 
in the sixth century, were as good christians as the Britons, 


tury, its inhabitants, though mixed, at that time, 
it is probable, with invaders, were still distinguish- 
ed by this appellation ; and Joceline, a monk of Fur- 
ness, about the year 1118, expressly calls Galloway 
the country of the Picts : " Piclorum patria, quae 
modo Galwethia dicitur :"* as Ralph, archbishop of 
Canterbury, in a letter to pope Calixtus, about the 
year 1122, calls the bishop of Glasgow, " Pictorum 

To the early history of this province, anterior to 
the year 1100, we are almost total strangers. The 
government, at that period, was in the hands of a 
powerful Irish family, surnamed Macdonall (sub- 
ject, it is presumed, to the feudal superiority of the 
Scotish, or English, crown), which continued to 
rule, with incessant disturbance, barbarity, and 
bloodshed, for near a century and a half : but the 
origin and descent of Fergus, the first prince or lord 

and would hardly, therefore, have put to death a missionary who 
came to preach their own dogmas. 

• Vita S. Eentegerni, c. 34. Girald Barry asserts that the 
Picts, haying taken their wives from Ireland, which they could 
not have from the Britons, enticed the Irish nation into alli- 
ance with them, and granted them the maritime part of the 
land they had seized, near to their own country, where the sea 
is narrow, and it is called Galloway (Galweidia), to inhabit. 
(Liber distinct. Julius, B. xiii.) This writer, by the way, is 
no more to be credited than Geoffrey of Monmouth. 


of this family upon record, are, at present, beyond 
the reach of enquiry. 

The most ancient inhabitants of these parts, du- 
ring the predominance of the Roman arms, were 
the Novantse, or Novantes, whose principal city was 
Leucopibia, afterward Candida casa, and, in Saxon, 
as in old English, Whithern (a name the site still 
preserves) ; all three signifying The white house. 
The mull of Galloway, now in the shire of Wigton, 
was then termed the Novantum chersonesus. The 
sera of the original settlement of the Picts, effected, 
no doubt, by conquering, and driving out, the old 
British inhabitants, as had been already the case in 
the north, is altogether uncertain ; but had pro- 
bably taken place long before the year 400. Their 
more early history, however, is confusedly blended 
with that of the other Picts ; no distinct series of 
the Pictish monarchs having been preserved, or 
being now possible to frame. 

The primitive language of the southern, or Gal- 
loway, Picts seems to have yielded, at an early pe- 
riod, to that of their Irish invaders ; no ancient 
author, however minute in his description of their 
barbarous manners, ever noticing any peculiarity 
in this respect. The patrio sermone of Buchanan 
was, unquestionably, Irish, there being no other 
language than that, and the English, spoken in 


Scotland even in the time of Fordun, to his know- 
ledge. So well warranted was Henry of Hunting- 
don, about the year 1138 in his assertion, that the 
language of the Picts was then totally destroyed.* 
It has, indeed, been pretended, that " The wild 
Scots of Galloway [^a. proverbial expressionj, who 
spoke Irish, were a colony permitted to settle there 
in the Jifteenth century, while a constant inter- 
course, and mutual aid, prevailed between Scotland 
and the north of Ireland. They are unmentioned 
before that tiihe ; and have nothing to do with the 
old Galwegians :" t but this assertion is made with- 
out the slightest voucher or authority. 

• " The speech of Galloway," according to mr. Pinkerton, 
" has in general a good deal of the Welch accent, which is 
vulgarly tliought the Irish ; for the Celtic dialects," he adds, 
" are much the same" (Enquiry, I, 81) ; so that it may be 
Irish after all. He elsewhere says that *' The rest of that vast 
tract, anciently called Galloway, speak the broad Scolish, or 
Piko-Gallic" (Ihi. 337) ! 

•f Critical review, for January, 1795, p. 51. 



DCCCCXXI. Rex Scotorum, Reginaldus rex 
Northanhumbrorum ex natione Danorum, f^t] 
dux Galwalensium, ad regem Eadwardum venien- 
tes, subjectionem fecerunt, et cum eo fcedus firmis- 
simum pepigerunt.* 


DCCCCXXI. The king of Scots, Reginald, king 
of the Northumbrians, of the nation of the Danes, 
and the earl of the Galwegians, coming to king 
Edward, made subjection, and entered into the 
most firm league with him. 

DCCCCXXIV. Rex Anglorum Eadwardus, cog- 
nomento senior, qui cunctis Britanniam incolenti- 

• Mat. West., Flo. Wigor., and S. Dunel. more ancient wri- 
ters, have " Rex etiam Streatgledwalorum and Streddedunah- 
rum'^ [I. Slredcledunahruni]. 


bus Anglorum, Walanorum, Scotorum, Cumbrorum, 
Galwalensium> Danorum, populis potenter prsefuit 
.... diem clausit extremum.* 

DCCCCXXIV. Edward, king of the English, 
surnamed the elder, who powerfully presided over 
all the people inhabiting Britain, of the Welsh, 
Scots, Cumbrians, Galwegians, and Danes, closed 
his last day. 

MXCVIII. Magnus rex Norwegiae . . . Gal- 
wedienses ita constrixit, ut cogeret eos materias lig- 
norum caedere, et ad littus portare, ad munitiones 

MXCVIII. Magnus, king of Norway, so bridled 
the Galwegians, that he compelled them to cut 

* Idem. Perhaps, in both instances, it should have been 
Stretgludwalctuium, or the like : no other ancient English 
author ever mentioning the Galwegians, at so early a period. 
The same writer, among the eight petty sovereigns, who rowed 
king Edgars barge up and down the river Dee, in 974, names 
" Jacobo regc Galwalliae," by whom, also, he, probably, 
intended, Strath-Clyde, if, in fact, that kingdom had then 


down timber, and carry it to the shore, for the con- 
struction of fortresses. 

MCII. Olavus, filius Godredi Crouan [|rex 
Manniae] accepit in uxorem Affricam filiam Fer- 
gusii de Galewedia, de qua genuit Godredum.* 

MCII. Olave, son of Godred Crouan, king of 
Man, took to wife AfFrica the daughter of Fergus 
of Galloway, on whom he begat Godred. 

MCXXXVIII. Willielraus filius Dunecan ne- 
pos David regis [Scotiae] cum parte exercitus 
ipsius David castellum quod Carrumf dicitur in 
terra regis Angliae antelucanis insidiis invasit, de- 
praedataque circumquaque regione, illud expug- 
nare coepit. Deinde ipse rex cum Henrico filio suo 
et cum majore exercitu illuc adveniens, et omnium 
virium suarum conatus explorans, balistis et aliis 
machiuis et variis assultibus oppidum expugnare 

" Chro. regum Mannice. 
•f Near Wark, in Northumberland. 


aggressus est, ac deinde illud iil. ebdomadis obsedit. 
Sed nihil profecit, immo deo auxiliaute omnis ejus 
conatus in contrarium illi conversus est. . . . Cernens 
autem rex laborem suum illic cassari, et sibi suisque 
grave dampnum de die in diem crescere, indigna- 
tions et ira inflamraatus, tandem oppido relicto ad 
Northymbriam devastandam cum omni multi- 
tudine sua properavit. Igitur ille detestandus exer- 
cituSj omni paganorum genere atrocior, nee deo nee 
hominibus reverentiam deferens, tota provincia de- 
prsedata, utriusque sexus cujusque setatis et con- 
ditionis homines passim trucidavit, villas, eeelesias, 
domos destruxit, spoliavit, aeeendit. Namque lan- 
guentes in grabatis, ae mulieres praegnantes et par- 
turientes, et in eunis infantes, et alios innocentes 
inter ubera et in sinibus matrum suarum eum ipsis 
matribus, et decrepitos senes et defectas anus et 
caeteros qualibet oceasione debiles, ubicunque in- 
veniebant, in ore gladii trueidaverunt, vel lanceis 
suis confixerunt. Et quanto miserabiliore mortis 
genere illos disperdere poterant, tanto plus gratu- 
labantur...Coadunatus autem erat iste nefandus ex- 
ereitusde Normannis, Germanis, Anglis, de North- 
3rmbranis et Cumbris, de Teswetadala, et Lodonea, 
de PiCTis,qui vulgo GALLEWBiENSEsdicuntur, et 
Scottis; nee erat quieorum numerum sciret.... Igitur 
per provinciam discurrentes ct nemini parcentes. . .. 


fere totam Northymbriatn usque ad Tinam fluvium 
. . . ferro et flamma vastaverunt ... In hac autem pro- 
cellosse tempestatis rabie illud nobile monasterium 
Haugustaldense, quamvis in medio concursu et 
quasi in via illius nefandi exercitus et supradictorum 
malorum situm undique ab eis coangustaretur, 
tamen . . .deo auxiliante^ suis et omnibus ad illud re- 
fugientibus pacem firmissimam exbibuit^et omnibus 
illis contra omnes hostiles impetus tutissimum asi- 
lum extitit. Verumptamen primo Picti ad Tinam 
fluvium juxta eandem villam fluentem cum maximo 
impetu irruentes, ipsam sicut et alia destruere pro- 
posuerant. Sed mox antequam praedictura amnem 
transirent, a compatriotis duo de numero illorum 
sunt interfecti. Quod caeteri cernentes, exterriti 
retrorsum abierunt. Praeterea duo de eadem gente 
Pictorum devenerunt ad quoddam oratorium sancti 
Michaelis archangeli ex eadem boreali parte Tinae 
fluminis situm, quod ad praedictam Haugustalden- 
sem ecclesiam pertinebat. Frangentes igitur ejus 
hostium, quod ibi repererunt secum abstulerunt. 
Sed vindicta dei non defuit. Nam mox dsemoni tra- 
diti, sensu privantur, et prout furor illos exagitabat, 
in conspectu omnium per nemora et rura nocte et 
die passim discurrentes, alter ipse sibi os primo 
lapidibus conterens, deinde a quodam abscisis fe- 
moribus, alter seipsum in Tina submergens, uterque 


miserabiliter utraque morte dampaati perierunt... 
Interea circa purificationem S.Marise Stephanusrex 
Angliae .... cum maximo exercitu equitum et pe- 
ditum venit. Quod ubi rex Scotiae cognovit, relic- 
ta Northymbria, cum exercitu suo ad terram suam 
properavit...Verum peracta paschali sollempnitate, 
mox in proxima ebdomada feria vj. Saepe . dictus 
rex Scotiae cum nefando exercitu suo iterum in 
Northumbriam rediit, deinde maximam par- 
tem terrae S. Cuthberti in orientali plaga inter Dun- 
elmum et mare, non minore furore et crudelitate 
quam supradictum est destruxit .... Sed sanctus 
Cuthbertus tandem suorura misertus est. Nam 
dum sui haec agerent, rex cum suis militibus baud 
procul a Dunelmo perbendinabat. Ubi gravi sedi- 
tione propter quandam feminam orta, Picti ipsum 
regem cum suis extinguere minabantur. Quo pa- 
vore dum valde anxiaretur, ecce falso rumore divul- 
gatur magnum exercitum de Suthanglia adrentare. 
Igitur cibis suis relictis qui tunc parati erant, ne- 
mine persequente versus terram suam cum omnibus 
suis fugit, et ad oppidum de Northam .... divertit, 
illudquc obsidens, variis modis et macbinis expug- 
nare et capere temptavit. Dumque ibi in obsidione 
moraretur, Willielmum filium Dunecan nepotem 
suum cum Pictis et parte exercitus sui in cxpe- 
ditionem ad Eboracenseni scyram transmisit. Quo 


perrenientes et propter peccata populi victoriam 
optinentes, possessiones cujusdam nobilis coenobii 
quod in Suthernessa situm est, et provinciam quae 
Crafna dicitur, ex magna parte ferro et flamma 
destruxerunt. Igitur nuUi gradui, nuUi taeati,* 
nulli sexui, nuUi condition! parcentes, liberos et 
cognatos in conspectu parentum suorum, et do- 
jninos in conspectu servorum suorum et e converso, 
et maritos ante oculos uxorum suarum quanto flii- 
serabilius poterant prius trucidaverunt, deinde, 
proh dolor ! solas nobiles matronas et castas vir- 
gines mixtis cum aliis feminis et cum praeda pariter, 
abduxerunt. Nudatas quoque et turmatim reticulia 


* Parvuli jactati in aera, et aculeis lancearum except! de- 
lectabile spectaculum Galwensibus praebuerunt ; praegnans mu- 
lier per medium secabatur, tener foetus extractus ab utero, 
impia manu ad saxum allidebatur. Lassati innocentium caede, 
illotis cultellis quibus miserorum effuderant viscera, carnes 
quas Tofatent incidebant, humanumque sanguinem miscentes 
aqua, crudeli poculo sitim sedabant, dicentes se felicissimos 
quos in illud tempus fortuna servaverat quo Gallorum [i. e. 
Normannorum] sanguinem bibere potuissent. Casu inventi 
sunt in eadem domo plures parvuli. Stabat Galwensis, et 
unum post unum utroque pede arripiens caput allidebat 
ad postern. Quos cum in unum coegisset acervum, ridens 
versus socium, ecce, inquit, quot hodie Gallos solus occidi. 
Ethelredus abbas Rievallis de bello standardii. co. 341. {OraUa 
Walteri Espec) 



et corrigiis colligatas et copulatas lanceis et tells 
suis compungentes, ante se illas abegerunt .... 
Deinde illis cum praeda dispartitis, quidam eorum 
misericordia commoti aliquas ex eis ecclesiae sanctae 
Mariae in Carlel liberas tradiderunt. Verum Picti, 
et multi alii, illasque eis obvenerunt secum ad pa- 
triam suam duxenint. Denique illi bestiales homi- 
nes adulterium et incestum ac cetera scelera pro 
nichilo ducentes, postquam more brutorum anima- 
lium illis miserrimis abuti pertaesi sunt, eas vel sibi 
ancillas fecerunt, vel pro vaccis aliis barbaris vendi- 
derunt*. . . . Rex igitur David, duobus tegnionibus, 
id est baronibus suis, cum gente eorum obsidione 
Carrum commendata, cum maxima parte sui ex- 
ercitus ad oppidum quod Bahanburg dicitur pfo- 
fectus est ... . Intransque in terram S. Cuthberti, 
quae nondum ad eum venerat sui exercitus partem 
expectavit. Nee mora, ex ejus edicto Picti, et 
Cumbri} et homines de Carlel, et de circumjacente 
regione ad ilium convenerunt. Congregate igitur 
toto exercitu suo, quia nimius et insuperabilis ei 
videbatur, revera enim grand! erat, plusquara- 
xxvj. milia hominum habens, nimio cxultavit 

" Hoc bellum factum est inter Anglos, Pictos et Scottos 
apud Clitherhou feria vj. die XV. ante nativitatem sancti Jo- 
hannis baptistsc, anno . . . M. G xxxviij. (J. prior Hagustal> 
densis, co. 261.) 


gaudio .... His autem infra octabas nativitatis 
sanctae Marise ita gestis, rex cum suo exercitu 
Dunelmum prseteriens usque ad Tesam fluvium 
segetes depopulari, villas et ecclesias quas alia vice 
intactas reliquit, more suo frangi, depraedari, suc- 
cendi fecit. Pertransiens quoque Tesam idem fac- 
titare coepit. Verum divina pietas lacrimis innu- 
merabilium viduarum orphanorum et miserorum 
pulsata, ilium tantam irapietatem diutius impune 
exercere non est passa. Quippe dumque se suos- 
que ad hujusmodi nequitiam praepararet, oranis 
ejus apparatus et quid agere et quo tendere propo-i 
suerat, et fama prseconante et certis nuntiis inter* 
currentibus, homines Eboracensis scyrae non latuit. 
Igitur barones illius provinciae . . . Eboracum con- 
venerunt, et quid consilii in hac tempestate habere 
deberent, inter se diligenter tractaverunt. ... At 
illi ad opidum quod Tresc vocatur iverunt.* . . . 

* Rodbertus de Brus et Bernardus de Baillolio ad regem 
Scottiae super Teisam pTofecti sunt, Henrico filio ejus comita- 
tum Northymbriae pollicentes, et eum ab hac impugnatione 
cessare commonentes. Noluit acquiescere rex. Iccirco Rod- 
bertus absolvit se ab homagio quod ei fecerat pro baronia quam 
tenuit de eo in Galewegia. (J. prior Hagustaldensis, co. 261.) 
In the harangue made by this baron to king David, he tells 
him, " Nova tibi est in Waknsibus ista securitas, qui eos 
hodie armis petis per quos hactenus amabilis Scottis, terribilis 
Galxccnsibus imperasti." (Ethelredus, co. 343.) 


Dum itaque adventum Scottorum expectarent> 
ecce . . . regem ciim exercitu suo jam Tesam flu- 
vium pertransisse, et more suo jam suam provin- 
ciam destruentem cognoscunt. Ergo cum summa 
festinatione eis occurrunt. Pertranseuntesque vil- 
1am quae Alvertun dicitur, ad campum* qui duobus 
miliariis ab ea distabat sumrao mane pervenerunt. 
Mox autem aliqui eorum in medio cujusdam ma- 
chinse quam ibi adduxerant^ unius navis malum 
erexerunt, quod Standard appellaverunt. . . . De-i 
inde vix se bellicis arm is instruxerant, cum ecce rex 
Scotiae cum toto exercitu suo ad praeliandum para- 
tissimo ac proraptissimo cominus adesse nunciatun 
Itaque maxima pars equitum, equis relictis, fiunt 
pedites. . . . Similiter vero ex parte adversariorum 
ipse rex, et pene omnes sui sunt effecti pedites. . . i 
In fronte belli erant Picti, in medio rex, cum mili- 
tibus et Anglis suis ; caetera barbaries undique cir- 
cumfusa fremebat.f . . . 

Rex, interim, coactis in unum comitibus, opti- 
misque regni sui proceribus, coepit cum eis de belli 
rationc tractare ; placuitque plurimis, ut quotquot 
aderant armati milites et sagittarii cunctum prae- 
irent exercitum quatenus armati armatos impete- 

• Co«ton<inoor, where, though it has been long inclosed, 
the Scot'pii-Jieldt are well known at this day. 
•)- Ricardus, prior Hagustal. co. 315, &c. 


rent, milites cpngrederentur militibus^ sagittae sa- 
gittis obviareut. Restitere Galwenses, dicentes 
sui esse juris primam constituere aciem, primum 
in hostes impetum dare, sua probitate reliquum 
.animare exercitum. Periculosum dicebant alii, si in 
primo aggressu inermes armatis occurrerent, quo- 
niam si belli vim non sustinens, primus currens la- 
.beretur in fugam, etiam fortium corda facile solve- 
j'entur. Galwenses, nichilominus insistebant, jus 
suum sibi concedi postulantes. " Quid, enim," in- 
quiunt, " o rex, formidas, et tunicas illas ferreas quas 
eminus cernis nimium expavescis? Nobis, certe, 
sunt latera ferrea, pectus sereum, mens timoris va- 
cua, quorum nee pedes fugam, nee uraquam vulnus 
terga sensere. Quid Gallis apud Cliderhou * pro- 
fuere loricae ? Nunquid non inermes isti, ut dicunt 
illos et loricas projicere, et negligere galeas, et 
scuta relinquere coegerunt ? Videat igitur pruden- 
tia vestra, o rex, quale sit in his habere fiduciam, 
quae in necessitate magis sunt oneri quam consola- 
tioni. Nos apud Cliderhou de loricatis victoriam 
reportaviraus, nos hodie et istos animi virtute pro 

" William MacDuncan had, a short time before, with a 
body of Picts and Scots, defeated the English, or Normans, 
who are here called Galli or French, with great slaughter ; 
obtaining much plunder, and many prisoners. Many English 
or Normans were also in the Scotish army. 


scuto utentes lancels prosternemus." His dictis, 
cum rex militum magis consiliis adquiescere vide- 
retur, Malisse comes Stradarniae plurimum indig- 
natus, " Quid est," inquit, " o rex, quod Gallorum 
te magis committis voluntati, cum nuUus eorum 
cum armis suis me inermem sit hodie praecessurus 
in bello?" Quae verba Alanus de Perci, magni 
Alani filius nothus,* miles strenuissimus et in mili- 
taribus negotiis probatissimus, segre fei'ens, «on- 
versus ad comitem, " Grande," inquit, " verbum 
locutus es, et quod hodie pro vita tua efficere non 
valebis." Tunc rex utrosque compescens, ne tumul- 
tus hac altercatione subito nasceretur, Galwensium 
cessit voluntati.f 

Igitur, in octabis assumptionis sanctae Mariae, 
undecimo kalendas Septembris, feria secunda, inter 
primam et tertiam, hujus praelii conflictus initus 
et finitus est. Nam statim in prirao congressu,^ 

* William de Percy, the elder, or legitimate brother of this 
Allan, a powerful baron of Yorkshire, was on the other side. 

•\- Ethelredus abbas, Dc hello standardi, co. 342. 

4^ At Galwensium cuneus more suo ter ululatum dira: vocis 
emittens tanto impetu irruunt in australcs, ut primos lancea- 
rios stationem deserere compellerent, sed vi militum iterum re- 
pulsi, in hostes animum viresque recipiunt. . . . Videres ut 
hericium spinis, itaGalwcnsem sagittis undique circumseptum, 
nichilominus vibrare gladium, et ca;ca quadam amentia pro- 
ruentem nunc hostem caidere, nunc inanem aerem cassis ictis 
vcrberare. (Ethelredus abbas, co. 345.) 


innumeris Pictis interfectis, cseteri, projectis armis, 
turpem fugam inienint.* Campus cadaveribus re- 
pletur, quamplurimi capiuntur, rex, et alii omnes, 
terga dederunt. Denique de tanto exercitu, om- 
nes aut csusi sunt, aut capti, aut sicut oves, 
percusso pastore, dispersi. . . . Namque Angli, et 
Scotti, et Picti, et cseteri barbari ubicumque casu 
se inveniebant, quicumque praevalebant alios mutuo 
vel trucidabant, vel vulnerabant, vel saltern spoHa- 
bant, et ita, justo dei judicio, seque a suis sicut ab 
alienis opprimebantur.f 

• " Scotti igitur et Picti vix h prima hora initi conflictus 
usque ad tertiam perstiterunt, videntes se confodi et consui sa- 
gittis, et obrui, et opprimi. Qui omnes a campo dilapsi sunt 
sarcinas suas a se rejicientes. In ignominiam hujus rei voca- 
tus est locus ille Baggamor." (J. HagustaL co. 3G2.) " Tunc 
Galwenses imbrem sagittarum, gladios militum ulterius non 
sustinentes, fugam ineunt, occisis prius duobus, eorum ducibus 
Wlgrico et Duvertaldo." (Ethelredus, co. 345.) 

Wlgric has some similarity to the Saxon Uchtred (the 
name of the second son of Fergus, lord of Galloway, who died 
in IIGI) ; Duvenald, is synooimous with Donald, and is, no- 
toriously, Irish. 

•f Ricar. prior Hagustal. co. 315, &c. Anglorum sane pro- 
ceres diu insequentes innumerabiles tam Scottos quam Gal- 
wenses interfecerunt. (Ethelred, co. 34G.) Ipsae etiam acies 
Scottorum et Pictorum ubi ad invicem in reditu concurrerunt 
infelici hostilitate concertantes sese sufFocaverunt. Rex igitur 
in regnum suum receptus convocatus ad se Scottos et Pictos 
multa massa pccuniarum multavit, acceplis obsidibus et sacra- 


MCXXXVIII. WiUiam, the son of Duncan, 
nephew of David king of Scotland, with part of the 
army of the same David, assailed, with nocturnal 

mentis ab eis, quod in omni conflictu et periculo fideliter cum 
eo et pro eo persisterent. (J. Hagustal. co. 262.) Scottos 
quoque et Pictos in hoc sibi acquiescentes habuit, ut infra fes- 
tum sancti Martini omnem captivitatem ad Karlel reducerent 
et libertate donarent, nullusque eorum ecclesias violare, femi- 
neo sexui, vel pueris, vel senibus, caedem inferre ulterius prae- 
sumeret. (Idem, co. 264.) 

An ancient poet, Serlo, a monk, brother of Radulfus abbas 
de Farcho, says, of the Scots who returned home alive, from 
the battle of Cowton>moor : 

'' Quidam tamen lento pede renerunt ad propria, 

Sed nil secum attulere nisi fata tristia. 

Quam ob causam singulorum uxor cum familia, 

Luxit virum cladem passum, nee adeptum spolia. 

Prohibentque viros suos praeliari denuo, 

Maloht PcEtric imprecantes Anglis et Standardio." 

Decern Scrijp. co. 331. 
This abbey is unnoticed in Tanners Notitia. 
In this battle, says Lambarde, " After that the bishop of 
Durham [r. Orkney] had exhorted the soldiers to fighte, the 
Scottes cryed out Albany ! Albany I after their own maner, 
as thoughe al had bene theires. But the Englishe souldyours 
sent amongest them suche hayle of shott, th»t after a whyle 
they turned their backes, and, in fine, theare was slayne of 
theim to the numer of 11,000, and they wcare, for their brag 
of Albany, mocked with Vry, Vry, Standard ! a terme of 
great reproache at that time, as Alatthew Paris witnesseth ;" 
in whose work, however, no such thing is to be found. 

6ALL0WAY. Z65 

treachery, the castle which is called Carrum, in the 
land of the king of England, and, destroying the 
country all round, began to attack it by storm. 
Afterward, the king himself, with Henry his son 
and a greater army, coming thither, and trying the 
endeavours of all their force, attempted to carry the 
town by engines which throw stones, and other 
machines, and, by various attacks, and thereafter 
besieged it three weeks. But he profited nothing, 
nay rather, god assisting, each of his attempts was 
turned against himself. Now the king, perceiving 
his labour there to be fruitless, and a grievous loss 
to him and his from day to day to grow, inflamed 
with indignation and anger ; at length, leaving the 
town, hastened, with all his multitude, to destroy 
Northumberland. Therefore that detestable army, 
more atrocious than every kind of pagans, carrying 
reverence neither to god nor to men, having plun- 
dered the whole province, everywhere killed per- 
sons of each sex, of every age and condition, de- 
stroyed, pillaged, burned towns, churches, houses. 
. For men sick in bed, and women pregnant, and in 
•the act of delivery, and infants in cradles, and other 
innocents, between the breasts and in the bosoms of 
their mothers, with the mothers themselves, and 
decrepid old men, and worn-out old women, and 
all other feeble persons from whatever cause where- 


ever they were found, they killed with the point of 
the sword, or thrust through with their lances: 
And by how much the more miserable kind of 
death they could destroy them, by so much the 
more they rejoiced. . . . Now this abominable army 
was composed of Normans, Germans, English, of 
Northumbrians and Cumbrians, from Teriotdale 
and Lothian, of Picts, who are vulgarly called Gal- 
wegians, and Scots ; nor was there any one who 
knew their number. 

Therefore, running up and down through the 
province, and sparing no one, they wasted almost 
all Northumberland, as far as the river Tyne, 
with sword and fire. Now, in this madness of 
stormy time, that noble monastery of Hexham, al- 
though being placed in the middle concourse, and 
as it were in the way of that abominable army, and 
of the abovementioned evils, it were straightened 
by them on every side, yet, god assisting, it offered 
to its own people and all flying to it, the most iSirm 
peace, and remained to all those a most safe asylum 
against all hostile attacks. Nevertheless, at first 
the Picts making an irruption, with very great vio- 
lence, to the river Tyne flowing hard by the same 
town, had proposed to destroy the same like other 
places. But by and by before they could pass the 
aforesaid river, two of their niunbcr were killed by 


the country people : wliicli the rest perceiving, they 
departed back terrified. Moreover two of the 
same nation of Picts came to a certain oratory of 
St. Michael situate on the same north part of the 
river Tyne, which belonged to the aforesaid church 
of Hexham. Breaking therefore the door thereof, 
what they there found they took away with them. 
But the vengeance of god was not wanting. For 
presently, being delivered to the devil, they are de- 
prived of sense, and as madness agitated them, run- 
ning up and down in the sight of all through the 
Avoods and country by night and day, one of them 
at first bruising his mouth with stones, afterward 
his thighs being cut off by some one, the other 
drowning himself in the Tyne, each damned by 
either death miserably perished. In the mean 
time, about the purification of st. Mary, Stephen 
king of England, with a very great army of horse 
and foot, came [down into the north] : which when 
the king of Scotland knew, leaving Northumber- 
land, he hastened with his army to his own land . . . 
But, the paschal solemnity being accomplished, pre- 
sently in the next week on Saturday, the often- 
mentioned king of Scotland with his abominable 
army returned again into Northumberland, and, 
afterward, destroyed the greatest part of the land 
of St. Cuthbert in the eastern part between Dur- 


ham and the sea, with no less fury and cruelty than 
is above said. But the holy Cuthbert, at length, 
had compassion on his people. For, while his sol- 
diers did these things, the king, with his knights, 
remained not far from Durham : where, a serious 
sedition having arisen, on account of a certain wo- 
man, the Picts threatened to destroy the king with 
his attendants : with which fear while he was great- 
ly troubled, behold by a false rumour it is publish- 
ed that a great army is approaching from South- 
England. Therefore, leaving his victuals, which 
were then ready, no one pursuing, he fled with all 
his people to his own country, and turned aside to 
the town of Norhara, and laying siege thereto, 
tried, by various means and machines, to conquer 
and take it : And while he there stayed in the 
siege, he sent William MacDuncan his nephew, 
with the Picts, and part of his army, on an expe- 
dition into Yorkshire : whither arriving, and by 
reason of the sins of the people, obtaining a victory, 
the possessions of a certain noble monastery, which 
• is situated in Furness, and the province which is 
called Craven, for a great part, they with sword 
and fire destroyed. Therefore, sparing no rank, no 
age, no sex, no condition, children and relations in 
the sight of their parents, and lords in the sight of 
their servants, and vice versa, and husbands before 


the eyes of their wives by how much the more mi- 
serably they were able, they at first slew, then, 
alas ! noble matrons alone and chaste virgins mix<r 
ed with other women and at the same time with 
the plunder they carried off. Naked also and in 
troops, tied and coupled together with ropes and 
thongs, and pricking them with their lances and 
darts, they drove them before them. Afterward, 
these being divided with the booty, some of them 
-moved by compassion delivered certain of them 
free to the church of st. Mary in Carlisle. But 
the Picts and many others led those which came to 
them along with them to their own country. Fi- 
nally, those bestial men, esteeming adultery, and 
incest, and all other crimes, for nothing, after, in 
the manner of brute animals, they were weary of 
abusing those most wretched creatures, either made 
them hand-maids for themselves, or sold them to 
other barbarians for cows. Now king David, ha- 
ving committed the siege of Carnim to two of his 
thanes, that is, barons, with their followers, with 
the greatest part of his artny marched to the town 
which is called Bamburgh ; And, entering into the 
land of St. Cuthbert, waited for that part of his 
army which had not yet come to him : And pre- 
sently, at his proclamation, the Picts and Cum- 
brians, and the men of Carlisle, of the circumjacent 


region, came together to him. Therefore his whole 
array being assembled, because it appeared to him 
exceeding great, and unconquerable, for, in truth, 
it was considerable, having more than 26,000 men, 
he rejoiced with exceeding great joy. Now these 
things being done before the octave of the nativity 
of St. Mary, the king, with his army, passing by 
Durham to the river Tees, caused the corn-fields 
to be destroyed, the towns and churches, which on 
another occasion he left untouched, after his man- 
ner, to be broken, plundered, and burned. Passing 
also over the Tees, he began to do the same thing. 
But divine piety, affected by the tears of number- 
less widows, orphans, and wretched persons, did not 
suffer him longer to exercise such impiety. For, 
whilst he was preparing himself and his followers 
to this sort of wickedness, all his preparation, and 
what he proposed to do, and whither to go, both by 
proclaiming fame, and by certain messengers run- 
ning between, was not concealed from the men of 
Yorkshire. Therefore the barons of that province 
assembled at York, and diligently considered 
amongst themselves what council they ought to 
take in this crisis . . . But they went to the town 
which is called Tiiirsk. While, therefore, they 
waited for the approach of the Scots, behold they 
learn' that the king, with his army, has already 


passed the river Tees, and is now, in his manner, 
destroying their province. Therefore with the ut- 
most haste, they go to meet them : and passing 
through the town which is called North-AUerton, 
they came early in the morning to a field which 
was distant therefrom two miles. Presently some of 
them erected in the midst of a certain machine 
which they had brought thither the mast of a ship, 
which they called Standard. Afterward they had 
scarcely instructed themselves in warlike arms, 
when behold the king of Scotland, with his whole 
army well prepared and most ready to fight, is an- 
nounced to be near. Therefore the greatest part of 
the horsemen, leaving their horses, became footmen. 
In like manner, on the part of the adversaries, the 
king himself, and all his people, became footmen. 
In the front of the battle were the Picts, in the 
midst the king with his knights and English, the 
rest of the barbarians, dispersed round about on 
every side, roared like beasts. 

The king, in the meantime, the earls and best 
men of his realm being assembled together, began td 
treat with them concerning the order of the battle, 
and it pleased a great many, that, as many as had 
come up, the armed men, knights, and bowmen, 
should precede the whole army, inasmuch as armed 
men would attack armed men, knights encounter 


with knights, and arrows with arrows. The Gal- 
wegians resisted, saying, that it was their right to 
construct the first battalion, and give the first as- 
sault unto the enemy, to animate by their bravery 
the rest of the army. Others said, it would be 
dangerous, if, in the first attack, the unarmed 
should meet with the armed, forasmuch as, if the 
first battalion, not sustaining the shock of war, 
should fall into flight, even the hearts of the brave 
would be easily dissolved. The Galwegians, never- 
theless, insisted, requiring their right to be grant- 
ed to them : " For why," they said, " o king, dost 
thou fear, and art too much frightened, at those iron 
coats which thou percei vest at a distance ? To us, cer- 
tainly, are iron sides, a breast of brass, a mind void 
of fear, whose feet have neither felt flight, nor, ever, 
their backs a wound. How far did these mail-coats 
profit the French at Clithero ? Whether did not 
these unarmed, as they call them, compel them to 
cast oflf their hauberks, and neglect their helmets, 
and abandon their shields.^ Let your wisdom, 
therefore, o king, see how little confidence there is 
in these things, which, in need, are more for burthen 
than for comfort. We at Clithero carried off the 
victory from these mail-coats, and we shall prostrate 
them to-day with our lances, using the valour of the 
mind for a shield." These things being said, when 


the king seemed to acquiesce iu the counsels of the 
knights, Malisse, earl of Strathern, very much en- 
raged, said, *' Why is it, o king, that thou rather 
committest thyself to the will of the Normans, 
when none of them with his arms is about to sur- 
pass me unarmed to-day in battle ?" These words 
Allan de Percy, bastard son of the great Allan, a 
most brave knight and very much approved in mili- 
tary affairs, hardly bearing, says, turning to the 
earl, " A grand word hast thou spoken, and which, 
to-day, for thy life, thou wilt not be able to perform." 
Then the king, appeasing both, lest a tumult should,, 
suddenly, be born of this altercation, yielded to the 
will of the Galwegians. 

Therefore, in the octave of the assumption of 
saint Mary, on the eleventh of the calends of Sep- 
tember, on monday, between the first hour and the 
third the conflict of this battle was begun and 
ended. For, immediately, on the first encounter, 
numberless Picts being slain, the rest, their arms 
being thrown away, took to flight. The field is 
filled with carcasses, a great many are taken, the 
king, and all the others, turn their backs : Finally 
of such an army, all being either killed or taken, 
or scattered like sheep without a shepherd. For 
the English, and Scots, and Picts, and the other 
barbarians, wherever they accidentally found them- 

VOL* II. s 


selves, whosoever prevailed, either killed, or wound- 
ed, or, at least, plundered each other, and so, by 
the just judgment of god, were equally oppressed 
by their own people as by strangers. 

MCXLII. [Tres filii Haraldi fratris Olavi], 
congregata classe, transfretaverunt ad Galwediam, 
Yolentes sibi subjugare. Galwedienses, autem, con- 
globati, et magno impetu facto, congressi sunt 
cum eis. Illi, statim, terga vertentes, fugerunt 
cum magna confusione ad Manniam, omnesque Gal- 
wedienses, qui in ea habitabant, quosdam jugula- 
verunt, alios expulerunt.* 

MCXLII. The three sons of Harold the brother 
of Olave, a fleet being assembled, passed over to 
Galloway, willing to subdue it. The Galwegians, 
however, forming a circle, and a great effort being 
made, encountered with them. They, immediate- 
ly, turning their backs, fled with great confusion to 
Man, and all the Galwegians, who inhabited there- 
in, some of whom they slew, others they banished. 

• Chro. reg. Man. 


MCXLIL Fundata est abbatia de Dundraynan 
in Galwaya.* 

MCXLII. The abbey of Dundraynan, in Gal- 
loway, was founded. 

MCLVI. Dovenaldus filius Malcolmi apud Wit- 
terne captus est, et incarceratus in turre de Rokes- 
burc cum patre suo.f 

MCLVL Donald, the son of Malcolm, was taken 
at Whithern, and imprisoned in the tower of Box- 
burgh with his father. 

" Chronica de Mailros. The founder was Fergus, prince 
or lord of Galloway, the first whose name is preserved. He 
was most probably of Irish extraction, and his family surname 
Macdotiall. (SeeDugdales3/ona«<icow, andNisbets JETeraWry.) 
" In Galloway," according to sir James Dalrymple, " the most 
ancient ' surnames' were Mackdoieall, Mackculloch, Mackie, 
and Macklellan," all Irish. 

•f IbL This Malcolm, surnamed MacHeth, but whose true 
name was Wimund, was, in fact, an English monk, but pre« 
tended to be the son of Angus, earl of Murray, slain in 1130. 
(See G. Neubrig. p. 79, &c. or lord Hailes's Annals, I, 86.) In 
1157 he made his peace with the king. (Chro. S. crucit.) 

9.76 Annals of 

' MCLX. Malcolmus [quartus] rex tribus vici- 
bus cum magno exercitu perrexit in Galweiana, et 
tandem subjugavit earn sibi.* 

Fergus princeps Galwaiae liabitum canonicum in 
ecclesia Sanctse crucis de Ednesburch suscepit ; et 
eis villam quae dicitur Dunroden dedit.f 

MCLX. King Malcolm the fourth, three times, 
•with a great army, marched into Galloway, and, at 
length, subjugated it to himself. 

Fergus, prince of Galloway, took the canonical 
habit in the church of the Holy rood of Edinburgh ; 
and gave to them the town which is called Dunro- 

MCLXI. Obiit Fergus princeps Galwaise quarto 
idus Maii.ij: 

MCLXI. Fergus, prince of Galloway, died on 
the fourth of the ides of May (I2th). 

* R. de Hoveden, p. 492. Rex Malcolmus duxit exercitum 
"in Oalwaiam tcr, et ibidem, inimicis suis devictis, foederatus 
est cum pace et sine damno remeavit. (Chro. S. crucit.) 


MCLXIV. Suraerledus, regulus Eregeithel, Jam 
per annos xii. contra regem Scotiae Malcolmum do- 
minum suum naturalem impie rebellans, cum copio- 
sum de Hibernia et diversis locis contrahens apud 
Renfriu applicavisset, tandem ultione divina cum 
filio suo, et innumerabili populo, a paucis compro- 
viacialibus ibidem occisus est.* 

MCLXIV. As Somerled, kinglet of Argyle, 
now for 12 years impiously rebelling against Mal- 
colm king of Scotland, his natural lord, drawing 
■together a numerous army from Ireland and divers 
places, had arrived at Renfrew, at length, by diving 
vengeance, with his son, an innumerable people, by 
a few provincialists, he was there slain. 

MCLXIX. Husbandus, prior de Wenelok, ad- 
duxit conventum apud Passelet, qui est juxta Ren- 

• Chro. de Mailros. 

•j" Ibi. That the modem shire of Renfrew was anciently 
part of Galloway, see Innes's Critical essay, p. 160. The p. 
c. in both places reads, corruptly, Renfrin, 


MCLXIX. Husband, prior of Wenlock, brought 
a convent to Paisley, which is near Renfrew. 

MCLXXIV. Statim post clausum Pascha, rex 
Scotiae promovit exercitum suam in Northumber- 
landiam, et ibi per Scottos et Galvalenses suos ex- 
ecrabiliter egit. Mulieres enim praegnantes finde- 
bant, et foetus extractos super lancearum acumina 
jactabant. Infantes et pueros, juvenes et senes utri- 
usque sexus, a mt^imo usque ad minimiim, sine 
ulla redemptione et misericordia interfecerunt. Sa- 
cerdotes vero et clericos in ipsis ecclesiis super al- 
taria detruncabant. Quaecunque igitur Scotti et 
Galvalenses attingebant, omnia erant honoris plena 
et immanitatis.* Interim rex Scotiae . . . cum ex- 

* Rex Scottorum Willelmus quae in provincia Northan- 
hymbrorum, avo suo regi David fuerant donata, tradita, car- 
ds confirmata, quse etiam fuerant ab ipso tempore longo pos- 
sessa, repetens h, rege patri [Henrico sci. II.] sed repulsamin- 
veniens, congregavit exercitum, habens multitudinem infinitam 
Galwalensium, agilem, nudam, calvitie multa notabilem, si- 
nistrum latusmunientem cultellis, armatis quibus libetformi- 
dandis, jaculis jaciendis, ct dirigendis in longinquum manum 
habentem aptissimam, lanceam longam cum ad bellum progie- 
dituT erigentem pro signo. Per fines itaque Hugonis episcopi 
Dunelmensis secuhim transitum habens, rex Scotis coepit An* 


ercitu suo obsedit Carleolum . . . Et inde recedens, 
obsedit castellum de ' Prudeau' Odenclli de Dun* 
franvilla ; sed illud capere non potuit. Nam ex-* 
ercitus Eboracensis-siriie [L scirse] super eum ve- 
nire parabat. . . . Duces autem liujus exercitus erant 
Rodbertus de Stutevilla, et Willelmus filius suus, et 
Willelmus de Vesci, et Randulfus de Glanvilla, et 
Randulfus de ThilH, . . . et Bernardus de Baillol, et 
Odenellus de Dunfranvilla. Quod cum nuntiatum 
est regi Scotiae, castellum illud, quod obsiderat, re- 
Hquit, et fugiens inde, venit usque Alnewic, et illud 
obsedit ; et misit inde comitem Dunecauum, et co* 
mitem D'anegus, et Ricardum de Morvilla fere cum 
toto exercitu suo per circumjacentes provlncias ad 
devastandum eas ; et rex Scotiae ibi remansit cum 
privata familia sua. Comes vero Dunecanus statim 
exercitum iterum in tres partes divisit : unam se- 
cum retinuit, et reliquas duas misit ad comburen- 
dum villas circumjacentes, et ad homines interficien- 
dos a maximo usque ad minimum, et ad praedas ad- 
ducendas. Et ipse cum parte exercitus quam sibi 
elegit iutravit villam de Werkeurd, et eam combus- 
sit, et interfecit in ea omnes quos invenit, viros et 
mulieres, magnos et parvos ; et fecit satellites suos 

gliam depopulari, succendere villas, innumerabiletn congre- 
gare prsedam, captivas abducere mulierculas, a praegnantium 
uteris infantes semivivos ab&trahere. (R. de Diceto, co. 40. 573.) 


frangere ecclesiam sancti Laurentii, qiiae ibi erat> 
et interficere in ea, et in domo clerici villae illius> 
plus quam 100 viros, preeter mulieres et parvulos, 

proh dolor ! Sed deus omnipotens eadem die 

vindicavit injuriam et violentiam ecclesiae martiris 
sui illatam ; nam praedicti duces exercitus Eboraci- 
siriae, cum audissent, quod rex Scotiae recessisset 
de Prudebau, et obsedit Alnewicum, et ita misisset 
exercituni suum ab eo, cum festinatione secuti sunt 
eum ; et ex improviso invenerunt eum ante Alne- 
wic ludentem cum militibus suis, tanquam secuioun 
et nihil timentem. Ipse enim cum illos vidisset a 
longo venientes, arbitratus est, ipsos esse comitem 
Dunecanum, et qui cum eo erant. Sed cum appro- 
pinquassent ei, irruerunt in eum, et statim cepe- 
runt ilium ; et milites suos, relicto illo, fugerunt.* 
Erant in illo exercitu Qsci. Willielmi Scotise re- 
gis^ duo fratres, Gilbertus scilicet et Uctredus GaU 
wadensis provinciae domini, cum gentis propria; tur-r 
ma numerosa. Hi nimirum Fergusi, olim principis 
ejusdem provinciae, filii fuerant: et patri in fata 
concedeuti, rege Scottorum, qui illius terrae princi- 
palis est dominus, hereditatem inter eos dividente, 
successerant. Varum Gilbertus natu major, par 
terni juris integritate fraudatum se dolens, fratrem 

• Bencdictus abbas, p. 72, &c. 


semper in corde suo oderat, cum tamen concept! 
furoris impetum metus regius cohiberet.* 

Huctredus filius Fergus, et Gillebertus frater 
ejus, cum audirent quod dominus suus rex Scotiae- 
caperetur [ad Alnewic], statira redierunt cum 
Galualensibus suis in patrias suas, et statim ex- 
pulerunt a Galueia omnes ballivos et custodes quos 
rex Scotiae eis iraposuerat, et omnes Anglicos et 
Francigenas, quos apprehendere poterant, interfe- 
cerunt ; et omnes munitiones et castella, quae rex 
Scotiae in terra illorum firmavit, ceperunt et de- 
struxerunt, et omnes quos iutus ceperant interfe- 

Huctredus et Gillebertus, filii Ferregus, conten- 
dentes, ut illorum dominus alterius esse deberet, 
et habere dominium super Galwalenses, magnum 
odium inter se habuerunt : ita quod uterque illorum 
alteri insidiabatur ad interliciendum. Et proce- 
dente tempore, Gillebertus, filius Ferregus, homi- 
nes suos congregavit, et cum eis consilium iniit, ut 
Huctredus, frater suus, caperetur et occideretur : 
et statuto tempore convenerunt, ut eum caperent 
et occiderent. Et venit Malcolumb, filius Gille- 
berti, filii Fergus, et obsedit insulam, in qua Huc- 
tredus frater patris sui, et consanguineus Henrici 

" G. Neubrigensis, p. 216. -f Benedictus abbaa, p. 76. 


regis Angliae, filii Mathildis imperatricis,* moraba- 
tur, et eura cepit, et mittens carnifices suos, prae- 
cepit, ut oculos ei eriperent, et testiculos et lin- 
guam absciderent : et ita factum est. Et, relicto 
illo semi-vivo, abierunt : et ipse paulo post, vitam 
finivit. Duraque haec fierent, dominus rex misit 
in Angliam unum de clericis suis, Rogerum de Ho- 
vendune nomine, ad Rodbertum de Vallis, ut illi 
duo Huctredum et Gillebertum filios Fergus con- 
venirent, et allicerent eos ad servitium ejus. Cum- 
que venissent circa festum sancti Cleraentis ad col- 
loquium inter ipsos et Gillebertum iBlium Fergus, 
ipse Gillebertus et ceteri Galwalenses obtule- 
runt eis, ad opus regis, duo millia marcarum ar- 
genti, et quingentas vaccas, et quingentos porcos, 
de redditu per annum : hac conditione, quod rex 
eos in manu sua reciperet, et a servitute regis Sco- 
tiae eriperet. Sed praedicti nuntii regis Angliae 
hunc finem cum Galualensibus facere noluerunt, 
donee locuti fuissent cum rege. Et cum indica- 
tam esset regi, qualiter Huctredus, filius Fergus, 

* The nature of this consanguinity does not appear. It is, 
however, to be inferred, that Gilbert and Uchtred were the 
sons of different wives, and that the latters mother had been 
somehow or other related to the king of England. No author 
ever mentions the name of either Fergus's wife or Gilberts. 


consanguineus suus interficeretur, noluit cum Ga- 
LUALENSiBUS ilHs paccm aliquam facere.* 

lUustris rex Anglorura Henricus II. . . . in ex- 
tremes regni fines adversus Rolandum Galwadiae 
principem duxit exercitum. Quippe idem Rolan- 
dus mortuo Gilbert, qui, capto a nostris rege Scot- 
torum, fratrem Uctredum nefarie peremerat, in 
filios ejus sorte bellica praevalens, totam illam sibi 
provinciara vendicaret. Interpellatus ab eis rex 
Anglorum, Rolando mandavit, ut hereditatem pa- 
ternam propriis redderet ^consobrinis; qui cum 
sprevisset mandatum, iratus rex cum ingentibus 
equitum et peditum copiis partes illas adiit.f 

MCLXXIV. Immediately after the close of 
Easter, the king of Scotland marched his army 
into Northumberland, and there, by his Scots and 
Galwegians, acted execrably. For they divided 
pregnant women, and threw the extracted foetuses 
upon the points of their lances. They slew infants 
and boys, young and old of each sex, from the 
greatest to the least, without any ransom or mer- 

• Benedictus abbas, p. 92. V. etiam G. Neubrigensis his- 
toriam, p. 216, Chro. J. Bromton, co. 1092, et R. de Hove- 
den Annales, p. 541. 

•f G. Neubrigensis, p. 281. 


cy. They also mangled the priests and clerks. In 
the very churches, upon the altars. Whatever 
things, therefore, the Scots and Galwegians reach- 
ed, all were full of horror and cruelty. In the 
mean tirpe the king of Scotland with his array be- 
sieged Carlisle. . . . And thence departing, besieged 
the castle of Prudehou, of Ordenel de Dunfran- 
ville ; but was not able to take it : For the army 
of Yorkshire made ready to come upon him. Now 
the leaders of this army were Robert de Stuteville, 
and William his son, and William de Vesci, and 
Randal de Glanville, and Randal de Thilli; and 
Bernard de Baillol, and Odenel de Dunfranville. 
When this was announced to the king of Scotland, 
he left the castle, which he had besieged, and fly- 
ing thence came to Alnwick, and besieged it, and 
sent thence the earl Duncan, and the earl of An- 
gus, and Richard de Morville, with almost all his 
army through the circumjacent provinces to waste 
them ; and the king of Scotland remained there with 
his private attendants. The earl Duncan straight- 
way divided his army again into three parts : one 
he retained with him, and the remaining two he 
sent to burn the circumjacent towns, and to kill 
the men from the greatest to the least, and to bring 
off booty. And he with the part of the army 
which he had chosen for himself, entered the town 


of Warkworth, and burned it, and killed therein 
all whom he found, men and women, great and 
small ; and made his guards break open the church 
of St. Leonard, which was there, and kill therein, 
and in the house of the clerk of that town, more 
than 100 men, beside women and children, alas for 
pity J . . . But almighty god on the same day aven- 
ged the injury and violence offered to the church 
of his martjrr ; for the aforesaid leaders of the army 
of Yorkshire, when they had heard that the king 
of Scotland had retired from Prudhoe, and besieged 
Alnwick, and so had sent his army from him, fol- 
lowed him with haste ; and unawares found him 
before Alnwick playing with his soldiers, as if se- 
cure and fearing nothing. For he himself, when 
he had seen them coming from afar, thought them 
to be the earl Duncan and those who were with 
him. But when they had approached him, they 
rushed upon him, and straightway took him ; and 
his soldiers, leaving him, fled. 

There were in this army two brothers, Gilberty 
that is, and Uchtred, lords of the province of Gal-- 
loway, with a numerous body of their proper na- 
tion. These were the sons of Fergus, formerly 
prince of the same province, and had succeeded to 
their father, yielding to the fates, the king of 
Scotland, who is the chief lord of that land, divi- 


ding between them the inheritance. But Gilbert, 
the elder by birth, being displeased that he was 
defrauded of the entirety of his paternal right, had 
always hated his brother in his heart, while, how- 
ever, the fear of the king restrained the violence of 
his conceived fury. 

Uchtred the son of Fergus, and Gilbert his bro- 
ther, when they heard that their lord the king of 
Scotland was taken [at Alnwick], straightway re- 
turned, with their Galwegians, into their country, 
and forthwith expelled from Galloway all the bai- 
liffs and wardens which the king of Scotland had 
put over them, and killed all the English and 
French, whom they were able to apprehend ; and 
took and destroyed all the fortresses and castles 
which the king of Scotland erected in their land, 
and killed all those whom they had taken within 

Uchtred and Gilbert, the sons of Gilbert, con- 
tending that each of them should be lord and have 
dominion over the Galwegians, had great hatred 
between themselves : so that each of them lay in 
wait to kill the other : And in process of time, Gil- 
bert, the son of Fergus, assembled his men, and 
went to council with them, that Uchtred his bro- 
ther should be taken and killed : and at the time 
fixed they came together, that they might take and 


kill him : and Malcolm, the son of Gilbert, the son 
of Fergus, came and besieged the island, in which 
Uchtred the brothei* of his father, and the cousin 
of Henry king of England the son of Maud the em- 
press, dwelled, and took him, and sending his exe- 
cutioners, commanded that they should pluck out 
his eyes, and cut off his testicles and his tongue : 
and it was so done : and, leaving him half alive, 
departed : and he, a little after, ended his life. 
While these things were done, the lord the king 
sent into England one of his chaplains, named Ro- 
ger de Hoveden, to Robert de Vaux, that they two 
should agree with Uchtred and Gilbert, and entice 
them into his service. When they had come about 
the feast of st. Clement to a conference between 
them and Gilbert the son of Fergus, the same Gil- 
bert and the other Galwegians offered them, for the 
use of the king, 2000 marks of silver, and 500 hogs, 
rent by the year, upon this condition, that the king 
should receive them in his hand, and take them 
from the servitude of the king of Scotland. But 
the aforesaid messengers of the king of England 
would not make this end with the Galwegians, un- 
til they had spoken with the king : and when it 
was shown to the king, how Uchtred, the son of 
Fergus, his cousin, was killed, he would not make 
any peace with those Galwegians. 


The illustrious king of the English Henry 11. 
Jed an army into the extreme borders of his king- 
dom against Rowland prince of Galloway. Foras- 
-much as the same Rowland, on the death of Gil- 
-bert, who, after the king of Scots was taken by our 
people, had nefariously killed his brother Uchtred, 
prevailing over his sons by the chance of war, claim- 
ed all that province for himself. The king of Eng- 
land, required by them, commanded Rowland that 
he should restore the paternal inheritance to his 
proper cousins, who despising the command, the 
enraged king with huge forces of horse and foot 
went into those parts. 

MCLXXV. Dominus rex [Henricus II.] dedit 
et concessit regi Scotiae licentiam promovendi ex- 
ercitum in Galveiam, ad debellandum Gilebertum, 
£lium Fergus, pro eo, quod ipse a fidelitate sua re- 
cesserat, et fratrem suuni Huctredum nequiter in- 

MCLXXV. The lord the king [Henry IL] 
gave and granted to the king of Scotland license to 
• Benedictus nbbas, p. 120. 


march an army into Galloway, to subdue Gilbert, 
son of Fergus, for this reason, that he revolted from 
his fealty, and maliciously killed his brother Uch- 

MCLXXVI. Rex [HenricusH circa festum 
sancti Dionysii venit usque Fecheham : et ibidem 
venit ad eum Willelmus rex Scotiae : et duxit se- 
cum Gilebertum filium Fergus qui fratrem suum 
Huctredum interfecerat. Et ipse Gilebertus, facta 
pace cum domino rege de morte fratris sui, qui 
cognatus regis erat, devenit homo ipsius, et fideli- 
tatem ei juravit contra omnes homines; et pro 
amore ipsius habendo, dedit ei mUle marcas argenti 
[et Dunicanum filium suum in obsidem de pace 
servanda]. Et sic facta pace sua, domum venit; 
et praecepit, quod omnes aliegenae, qui in Galweia 
per regem Scotiae tenementum aliquod habebant, 
exulerent [1. exularent] : et qui huic diffinitioni 
consentire nollet, capitalem subiret sententiam.* 

MCLXXVI. The king CHenry;] about the 
feast of St. Dennis came as far as Feckham : and 
* Benedictus, p. 154. R. de Hoveden, p. 555. 


there came to him William king of Scotland ; and 
brought with him Gilbert the son of Fergus, who 
had killed his brother Uchtred. And this Gilbert, 
having made peace with the lord the king concern- 
ing the death of his brother, who was the kings 
cousin, became his man (i. e. did him homage), and 
swore fealty to him against all men ; and for having 
his good will, gave him a thousand marks of silver 
fand Duncan his son as a hostage for keeping the 
peace] : And so, his peace being made, he came 
home, and commanded that all foreigners, who held 
any tenement in Galloway by the king of Scotland 
should be banished : and he who would not submit 
to this proclamation, should suffer capital punish- 

MCLXXXV. Die circumcisionis, morte sua obiit 
Gillebertus, filius Fergus, princeps Galuualensium, 
inimicus regis Scotise domini sui ; cujus filium et 
heredem Dunecanum dominus rex Anglia; in cus- 
todia Hugonis de Morwic tenuit obsidem, super 
pactis inter illos contractis, de pace servanda.* 

MCLXXXV. On the day of the circumcision, 
died Gilbert, the son of Fergus, prince of the Gal- 
* Benedictus, p. 435. 


wegians, enemy pf the king of Scotland, his lord ; 
whose son and heir, Duncan, the lord the king of 
England held in the custody of Hugh de Morwic, 
upon the engagements contracted between them, 
for keeping the peace. 

MCLXXXV. Rollandus, filius Uctredi, filii 
Fergus, statim post obitum Gilleberti, fratris pa- 
tris sui, collecta sibi in auxilium copiosa equitum 
peditumque multitudine, invasit terram praedicti 
Gilleberti ; et interfectis universis, qui sibi resistere 
volebant, totam terram illam sibi subjugavit : nee 
non et omnes potentiores et ditiores totius Galwaiae 
interfecit ; et terras eorum occupavit ; et in eis cas- 
tella et munitiones quamplures fecit, firmans reg- 
num suum.* 

" Benedictus abbas, p. 438. Bellum fuit in Galwela inter 
Rolandum et Gillepatricium iv. non Julii feria v. in quo plures 
occubuerunt ex parte Gillepatricii. Ipse vero inteiiit cum 
multis aliis. Chro. de Mailrot. 

Bowmaker, abbot of Inchcolra, the continuator of the 
Scotichronicon, says that the wife of Uchtred, and mother of 
Rowland, was Alariota, daughter of a " dominus de AUerdes" 
(L. 14, c 12). We find, however, in the Monasticon Angli- 
canum, that " Alanus filius et hceres Waldevi [filii Cospa- 
tricii\ dedit Ugthredo filio Fergus, domino Galwediae, cum 


Rolandus bellum habuit contra Gillecolmum, in 
quo frater Rolandi occubuit, et Gillecolmus periit.* 

MCLXXXV. Rowland, the son of Uchtred, 
the son of Fergus, immediately after the death of 
Gilbert, his fathers brother, having collected to his 
assistance a copious multitude of horse and foot, 
invaded the land of the aforesaid Gilbert ; and, 
killing all that willed to resist hira, subjugated that 
whole land to himself; he, likewise, killed all the 
more powerful and rich inhabitants of all Galloway ; 
and occupied their lands ; and made therein a great 
many castles and fortresses, in order to strengthen 
his government. 

Rowland had a battle against Gillecolm, in which 
the brother of Rowland fell, and Gillecolm perish- 

Gujmolda sorore sua Torhenhow [in Cumbria] cum advoca- 
tione ecclesiae." (To. I, p. 400). Bowmaker, at the same 
time, asserts Genilda, another daughter of this lord of Allerdes, 
to have been the wife of David earl of Huntingdon ; who, how- 
ever, actually married Maud, daughter of Hugh Cyveliok earl 
of Chester. The above Cospatrick, according to the Chronica 
de Mailros, died in 116G. 
• Chronica de Mailrot. 


In the moneth of August, at Cairluel, Rouland 
Talvaten, lord of Galway, did homage and fealtie 
to king Henry, withe al that held of hym.*. • 

MCLXXXVI. Willelmus rex Scotise et David 
frater ejus, per mandatum regis [Henrici] ad cu- 
riam suam venerunt, adducentes secum Jocelinum 
episcopum Glascuensem, et abbatem Arnaldum de 
Mailros, et comites et barones de regno Scotiae; 
quos dominus rex honorifice suscepit. . . . Et post 
paucos dies, accepta a supradictis comitibus et ba- 
ronibus Scotiae securitate de fide sibi servanda, et 
acceptis ab eis obsidibus, misit eos in patriam suam, 
et praecepit eis, ut debellarent Rolandum filium 
Uctredi ; nisi ad curiam suam venire vellet, et juri 
stare super hoc, quod [contra] prohibitionem illius 
et justiciariorum suorum, terram Gilleberti filii 
Fergii, et aliorum baronum Galveyae, cum hostili 
manu intraverat, et sibi subjugatam occupaverat, 
vel obtinuerat. Cumque praefatus Rolandus haec 
audisset, collecta equitum peditumque multitudine 
copiosa, introitus Galveyae et vias ejus quantum 
potuit, impedivit, semitruncatis et caesis arboribus 
positis secus vias. Nee mora, Henricus rex Angliae, 
" Lelands Coilectattea^ II, 6. 


magnum congregavit exercitum de universis pro- 
vinciis Anglise ; et veniens usque Karleolum, misit 
inde Willelmum regem Scotiae et David fratrem 
suum, ut Rolandum ad eum ducerent. Sed ipse 
cum illuc venire noluit, misit iterum pro illo eos- 
dem nuntios, et cum illis Hugonem Dunelmensem 
episcopum, et Ranulfum de Glanvilla justiciariiun. 
Qui, datis prsedicto Rolando obsidibus, et securitate 
ei facta, de salvo conductu eundi et redeundi, eum 
duxerunt ad regem, usque ad Karleolum. Qui pa- 
cem fecit cum domino rege, in hunc modum, scili- 
cet. Quod terra, quae fuit Uctredi filii Fergis patris 
8ui, sibi quieta remaneret, sicut eam habuit die qua 
fuit vivus et mortuus. Et de terra, quse fuit Gille- 
berti filii Fergis patrui sui, quam Duncanus tilius 
praefati Gilleberti calumniatus est adversus eum, 
staret recto in curia domini regis Angliae ad sum- 
monitionem suam. Et super his pactis servandis, 
juravit Rolandus, et tres filios suos obsides dedit. 
Juravit etiam fidelitatem regi Angliae, et heredibus 
suis, per praeceptum regis Scotiae, contra omnes ho- 
mines. Juravit etiam Willelmus rex Scotiae et 
David frater ejus, et omnes comites et barones 
Scotiae, quod si Rolandus a prsedicta conventione, 
et a rege Angliae resiliret, ipsi cum rege Angliae 
fideliter tenebunt ad confundendum ipsum Rolan- 
dum, donee inde satisfacerct domino regi Anglia?. 


Jocelinus autem, episcopus Glascuensis, promisit 
in verbo veritatis coram omnibus, et sanctorum re- 
liquiis, quod nisi Rolandus praedictam conventionem 
inconcussam servaverit, ipse in eum, et in terram 
suam, sententiam cxcomraunicationis promulga- 

MCLXXXVI. William, king of Scotland, and 
David, his brother, at the command of the king 
[Henry], came to his court, bringing with thera 
Josceline bishop of Glasgow, and Arnold abbot of • 
Melros, and earls and barons from the kingdom of 
Scotland : whom the lord the king honourably re- 
ceived : and after a few days, having taken from 
the abovesaid earls and barons of Scotland security 
for keeping faith to him, and taken hostages from 
them, he sent them into their own country, and 
commanded them, that they should subdue Row- 
land the son of Uchtred ; unless he would come to 
his court, and stand to right upon this, that against 
the prohibition of Jiimself and his judges he had 
entered the land of Gilbert the son of Fergus, and 
other barons of Galloway, with a hostile hand, and 

* Benedictus abbas, p. 447> V. etiam R. de Hoveden, p. 



had occupied or obtained it subject to himself. 
When the aforesaid Rowland had heard these things, 
collecting a large multitude of horsemen and foot- 
men, he rendered unpassable, as much as he could, 
the entrances of Galloway, and the ways thereof, 
cut and half-cut trees being placed across the ways. 
Without delay, Henry king of England assembled 
a great army from all the provinces of England ; 
and coming as far as Carlisle, sent thence William 
king of Scotland and David his brother, that they 
might bring Rowland to him. But when he would 
not come, he sent again for him the same messen- 
gers, and with them Hugh bishop of Durham, and 
Randal de Glanville the justiciary : who, giving 
hostages to the aforesaid Rowland, and making him 
security for safe conduct in going and returning, 
brought him to the king, unto Carlisle : which 
Rowland made peace with the lord the king, in this 
manner, to wit. That the land which was of Uch- 
tred the son of Fergus his father, should remain to 
him in quiet, as he had the same on the day in 
which he was alive and dead. And concerning the 
land, which was of Gilbert the son of Fergus his 
uncle, which Duncan the son of the aforesaid Gil- 
bert claimed against him, he should stand to right 
in the court of the lord the king of England at his 
'summons. And for keeping these conditions Row- 


land swore, and gave his three sons hostages. He 
also swore fealty to the king of England and his 
heirs, by the command of the king of Scotland, 
against all men. William king of Scotland and 
David his brother, and all the earls and barons of 
Scotland likewise swore, that if Rowland should go 
back from the aforesaid convention and from the 
king of England, they themselves with the king of 
England would faithfully hold to confound the same 
Rowland, until he should thereof satisfy the lord 
the king of England. Josceline also bishop of Glas- 
gow, promised on the word of truth before all and 
on the relicks of the saints, that unless Rowland 
kept the aforesaid convention unshaken, he himself 
against him and his land would publish the sentence 
of excommunication. 

MCXCIII. Dunecanus, filius Gileberti de Gal- 
weia, dedit deo et sanctae Mariae et monachis de Melros 
quandam partem terras suae in Karic, quae dicitur 
Maybothel, in perpetuam eleemosynam, pro salute 
animae suae et omnium parentum suorum, coram 
episcopo Jocelino et aliis multis testibus, sicut ejus 
carta testatiu-.* 

• Chro, de Mailros. 


MCXCIII. Duncan, son of Gilbert of Galloway, 
gave to god and st. Mary, and the monks of Mel- 
ros, a certain part of bis land in Carrick, which is 
called Maybottle, in perpetual alms, for the welfare 
of his soul, and of all his relations, before the bishop 
Josceline, and many other witnesses, as his charter 

MCC. Mense Decembris, Rollandus, princeps 
Galweiae, obiit iu Anglia, apud Northamptun. 14. 
Kal. Januarii, feria 3. et ibidem sepultus est apud 
abbatiam S. Andrese.* 

Eodem anno Dunecan filius Gileberti filii Fergus 
rapuit Avelinam filiam Alani, filii Walteri, domini 
de Rainfriu, antequam Willielmus rex Scotiae redi- 
ret de Angliam terram suam. Unde idem rex 
plurimum iratus cepit de Alano filio Walteri vi- 
ginti quatuor plegios de pace sibi, et terras suae 
servando, et de jure faciendo super calumnia illa.f 

<* R. de Hoveden, p. 813. *' Rolandus Macdonal [1. Mac- 
doual], princeps Oallovidia;, fundavit abbathiatn Vallis lucis 
vulgo Glenluce, in Gallovidia." Monasticon Aiiglicanum, to. 
II, p. 1057. In Leiands CoUcctanai, II, 6, he is called, 
« Rouland Taluaten." 

t R. de Hoveden, p. 813. 


MCC. In the month of December, Rowland, 
prince of Galloway, died in England at Northamp- 
ton, the 14th of the kalends of January, on Tues- 
day, and was there buried at the abbey of st. An- 

In the same year Duncan, son of Gilbert, son of 
Fergus, ravished Aveline, daughter of Alan, son 
of Walter, lord of Renf/ew, before William king 
of Scotland returned out of England : Whence the 
same king, greatly enraged, took from Alan the son 
of Walter 24 pledges for keeping the peace to him 
and his land, and doing right upon that calumny. 

MCCIX. Obiit episcopus Johannes Candidse 
casae, cui successit Walterus camerarius Alani filii 

Alanus [|magnus de Galweya^ filius Rolandi 
duxit filiam David comitis Qde Huntingtona]] 
fratris regis Scotiae in uxorem [^apud Dunde.]]-J- 

MCCIX. John, bishop of Whithern, died, to 
whom succeeded Walter, chamberlain of Alan, the 
son of Rowland. 

■ Chro. de Mailros. -f lU. 


The great Alan of Galloway, the son of Rowland, 
married the daughter of David, earl of Hunting- 
don, brother of the king of Scotland, at Dundee. 

MCCXVI. In occidentali parte Scotiae, quae 
Galewia dicitur, secundum quod scripsit dominus 
Willielmus abbas de Glenlus, . . . domino priori et, 
sacro conventui de Melros, apparuit visibiliter stu- 
penda supra modum et nostris seculis iuaudita lunee 

Minati sunt Philippus de Ullecotes et H. de Bal- 
liol, ut terram domini regis Scottorum ultionis 
causa devastarent; quo audito dominus rex cum 
summa festinatione generali exercitu, Anglorum 
scilicet et Scottorum et Galweiorum, III. nonas 
Julii versus ' Northumbriam* iter iterato arri- 

MCCXVI. In the west part of Scotland, which 
is called Galloway, according to what the lord 
William, abbot of Gleuluce, wrote to the lord prior 
and sacred convent of Melros, appeared, visibly, an 

• Chro. de Matlros. The Abbots letter is inserted. 
t Ibi. 


eclipse of the moon, stupendous above measure, and 
unheard of in our times. 

Philip de Ullecotes, and H. de Baileol, threaten- 
ed that they would, for the sake of revenge, waste 
the land of the lord the king of Scots ; which being 
heard, the lord the king, with the utmost haste, 
with a general army, of English, to wit, and Scots, 
and Galwegians, the 3d of the nones of July, took 
his journey toward Northumberland. 

MCCXVII. Obiit domina Eva de Galweia III. 
idus Junii.* 

MCCXVII. The lady Eve of Galloway died the 
3d of the ides of June. 

MCCXXIV. Reginaldus [rex Insularum] as- 
sumpto secum Alano domino Galwediae cum Man- 
nensibus ad insulanas partes profectus est : ut par- 

• Chro, de Mailros. This lady Eve was the widow of Row- 
land, lord of Galloway. 


tem terrae quam dederat Olaro fratri suo auferret 
ab eo, et earn suo dominio subjugaret. Sed quia 
Mannensibus contra Olavum vel insulanos pugnare 
C^non]] libuit, e6 quod diligerent eos, Reginaldus, 
et Alanus dominus Galwediae, nihil proficientes, ad 
propria reversi sunt. Post modicum temporis Re- 
ginaldus, sub occasione eundi ad curiam domini re- 
gis Angliae, accepit a populo Manniae centum mar- 
cas, et profectus est ad curiam Alani domini Gal- 
wediae. Eodem tempore dedit iiJiam suam lilio 
Alani in matrimonium. Quod audientes Mannen- 
ses indignati sunt valde, et mittentes propter Ola- 
vum constituerunt eum sibi regem.* 

MCCXXIV. Reginald [king of the Isles], ta- 
king with him Allan lord of Galloway with the 
Manks, proceeded to the insular parts : that the 
part of the land which he had given to Olave his 
brother he might take from him, and subjugate it 
to his own dominion. But forasmuch as the Manks 
did not choose to fight against Olave or the island- 
ers, because they loved them, Reginald and Allan, 
doing no good, returned home. After a short time 
Reginald, under pretence of going to the court of 
the lord the king of England, received from the 
• Chro. regum Mannia. 


people of Man one hundred marks, and proceeded 
to the court of Allan lord of Galloway. At the 
same time he gave his daughter in marriage to the 
son of Allan : which the Manks hearing were very- 
angry, and sending for Olare constituted him their 

MCCXXVIIl. Olavus cum omnibus optimati- 
bus Manniae et fortiori parte populi transfretavit 
ad insulas. Paulo post Alanus dominus Galvediae, 
et Thomas comes Ethioliae, et Reginaldus rex ve- 
nerunt ad Manniam cum magno exercitu, totam 
australem partem Manniae vastaverunt, et eccle- 
sias spoliarerunt, et viros quotquot capere pote- 
rant occiderunt, et redacta est australis pars Man- 
niae fere in solitudinem. Et per haec reversus est 
Alanus cum exercitu suo in terram suam, et reli- 
quit ballivos suos in Mannia qui redderent ei tri- 
buta patriae.* 

MCCXXVIIl. Olave, with all the great men 
of Man, and the braver part of the people sailed to 
the Isles. Shortly after Allan lord of Gallowffy, 

• Chro, regum Mannia:. 


and Thomas earl of Athol, and Reginald tlie king 
came to Man with a great army, wasted all the 
southern part of Man, and plundered churches, and 
killed as many men as they could take ; and the 
southern part of Man was reduced almost into a de- 
sart : And after this Allan returned with his army 
into his own land, and left his bailiffs in Man, who 
should render him the tribute of the country. 

MCCXXXIII. Alanus de Galweia dedit filiam 
suam uxorem Johanni de Bailiol, et sororem suam 
Walter© Biseth.* 

MCCXXXIII. Allan of Galloway gave his 
daughter in marriage to John de Baileol, and his 
sister to Walter Bisset. 

MCCXXXIV. Oblit Alanus filius Rolandi do- 
minus Galwethiae, et constabularius Scotiaj, et se- 
pultus est apud Dundraynan ; et reliquit III. filias 
hseredes, et filium unicum bastardum. 

• Chro, de Mailros. The daughters name was Dervorgill. 


MCCXXXIV. Alan, son of Rowland, lord of 
Galloway, and constable of Scotland, died, and was 
buried at Dundraynan ; and left three daughters 
his heirs, and an only bastard son : who, while his 
father lived, married the daughter of the king of 







CCCXCIV. AustraJes Picti, qui intra Qarduos 
et horrentesl] montes [[quibus a septentrionalibus 

• Hwit-herne, Saxon, implies the ivhite-house ; the signifi. 
cation, likewise, of Aovxo a-tC«x, and CandidU'Casa. This fa- 
mous mansion was situate upon the continental peninsula of 
Galloway, now Wigtonshire, where, or near which, Fergus, 
lord of Galloway, between seven and eight centuries afterward, 
founded a priory of the same name ; and not (as has been as- 
serted) upon the little island at the point of it. " Candida 
casa Tocatur locus in extremis Anglicc juxta Scotiam finibus, 
ubi beatus Ninia requiescit, tiatione Brilto, qui primus ibidem 


eorum regionibus sequestrati sunt^ habent sedes, 
■ut perhibent, relicto errore idolatriae, fidem verita- 
-tis acceperant, praedicaate eis verbum Nynia epis- 
copo reverentissimo, et sanctissimo viro, de natione 
Brittonum, qui erat Romae regulariter fidem et 
mysteria veritatis edoctus ; cujus sedem episcopa- 
lem sancti Martini episcopi, nomine et ecclesia 
insignem, ubi, ipse etiam corpore una cum pluribus 
Sanctis requiescit jam nunc {jxnno, scilicet, 731]] 

'Christ! prsedicationem evangelizavit. Sanctum hunc Niniam 
prseclarum virtutibus experta est antiquitas. Scribit Akuinus, 
in epistola ad fratres ejusdem loci dicens: Deprecor vestrae 
pietatis unanimitatetn ut nostri nominis habeatis memoriam in 
ecclesia sanctissimi patris vestri Ninis episcopi, qui multis 
claruit virtutibus, sicut mihi nuper delatum est per carmina 
metricse artis, quae nobis per fideles nostros discipulos Ebora- 
censis ecclesise scholastica directa sunt, in quibus et facientis 
cognovi eruditionem, et facientis miracula sanctitatem." (W. 
Malmes. De ges. pon. L. 3, p. 272.) His name is corrupted 
into Rinian, Trinian, and even Ringaru It is to this saint 
that frier John addresses his matins : 

" Awake, O Reinian ; ho, awake. 

Awake, O Reinian, ho : 
Get up, you no more sleep must take, 

Get up ; for we must go." 

Rabelais, by Sir T. Urquhart, London, 
1653, B. 1, p. 184. 


Anglorum gens obtinet : qui locus ad provinciam 
Bernicioi'um pertinens, vulgo vocatur Ad candi- 
-dam casam, eo quod ibi ecclesiam de lapide, inso- 
lito Britonibus more, fecerit.* 


CCCXCIV. The southern Picts, who have their 
seats on this side of the high and dismal mountains, 
by which they are divided from the northern region 
of those people, as they report, having abandoned 
the error of idolatry, received the faith of the truth ; 
Nynian, the bishop, a most reverend and holy man, 
of the nation of the Britons, who was regularly 
taught at Rome the faith and mystery of the truth, 
preaching to them the word : whose episcopal seat 
of saint Martin the bishop, famous by its name and 
church, where himself, also, in body, together with 
many saints, resteth, the English nation now pos- 
sesses ; which place, belonging to the province of 
the Romans, is vulgarly called Whithern, for that 

" Beda, L. 3, c. 4. Bishop Keith says, that, after Ninian, 
Bede places one Octa, as bishop of this see, which is not true. 
No such name or circumstance is mentioned by Bede ; and 
Ninians successor, if he had any, is utterly unknown. 


he there made a church of stone, in a manner un- 
usual to the Britons. 


DCCXXXI. Provinciae Nordanhymbrorum, cui 
rex Ceoluulf praeest, quatuor nunc episcopi prsesu- 
latum tenent : Vilfrid in Eboracensi ecclesia, Edil- 
uald in Lindisfarnensi, Acca in Hagustaldensi^ 
Pecthelm in ea quae Candida-casa vocatur, quae 
nuper multiplicatis fidelium plebibus, in sedem 
pontificatus addita, ipsum primum habet antisti- 
••■. fJ.'.'J JU 

* Beda, L. 5, c. 34. This is a decisive proof that tbeie 
had been no bishop of this see since the departure of Ninian ; 
and that Pecthelm was the first of the new foundation. It is, 
in fact, the perfection of folly and falsehood to assert Trum- 
win, whose see was at Abercorn, to have been bishop of Whit- 
hern ; because some simpleton has placed him at the head 
of a list in the continuation to Florence of Worcester, whence 
it has been inadvertently transcribed by Leland ; because, for- 
sooth, both Ninian and Trumwin had been bishops of the 
Picts at opposite sides of the island. See before, Annals of the 
Ficts, under the year 681. 

" Rex Northumbriae tenuit totam terram Northumbrice^ 
videlicet k flumine de Humhra, usque ad mare Scocise [xstu- 



DCCXXXI. Of the province of the Northum- 
brians, over whom king Ceolwulf presides, four bi- 
shops now hold the prelacy : Wilfred in the church 
of York, Edilwald in that of Liudisfarn, Acca, in 
that of Hexham, Pecthelm in that which is called 
Whit-hern, which lately, the people of the faithful, 
being multiplied, annexed to the pontifical see, 
hath himself its first bishop* 

DCCXXXIII. QSanctus Acca episcopus]] epis- 
copatus sui vigintesimo quarto de sede sua fiiga- 
tus est, et, ut quibusdam videtur, postea octo annis 
vixit. Nam anno dominicse incarnationis 740, si- 
cut historiae testantur, tredecim kalendas Norem- 

arium, scilicet, Bodotrice, ad Agricolae et Taciti tempora, hodi^ 
le ^rth of Forth], cum territorio, sive comitatibus, Lancas- 
trian, Westmorlandia, et Cumherlandice: et habuit in regno 
8U0 archiepiscopatum Ehoracenscm, . . . et habet episcopatum 
Dunolmice^ . . . et eciam isti regno episcopatus Candida cascc, 
sive Galeweya est subjectus." J. Bromton, co. 801. 

APPENDIX. 311 : 

bris de present! seculo sublatus est. . . . Sunt ta- 
men qui dicunt, quod, eo tempore, episcopalem 
sedem in Candida Ccasa^ inceperit et praeparare- 

DCCXXXIII. Saint Acca the bishop in the 
twenty-fourth year of his episcopacy was banish- 
ed from his see, and, as it appears to some, lived 
eight years afterward : for in the 740th year of the 
lords incarnation, as histories witness, on the 13th 
of the calends of November he was lifted up from 
this present life . . . There are, nevertheless, those 
who say, that in that time, he had begun and pre- 
pared an episcopal seat in Candida-casa. 

DCCXXXV. ' Pectelmus' Candidae-casae prsesul 
obiit, cui Frithwaldus in pontificatus regimine 

* Richardus prior Hagustaldensis, co. 297, 298. Bede, it is 
true, mentions an Acca, who went to Rome with Wilfrid, and 
was bishop of Hexham, in 731, when he finished his history. 
Richards hearsay is no authority for so remote a fact 

t Flo. Wigor, 57a 


DCCXXXV. Pecthelm, bishop of Whit-hern: 
died, to whom Frithwald succeeded in the regimen 
of the bishopric. 

DCCLXIII. Frithewoldus Hwitternensis eccle- 
siae antistes nonis Maii defungitur : pro quo Pecht- 
winus, 16 calendas Augusti, in regione quae dici- 
tur ^Ifete consecratus episcopatu fungitur.* 

DCCLXIII. Frithwald, bishop of the church of 
Whithern, departed on the nones of May: for 
whom Pechtwin being consecrated, on the l6th of 
the calends of August, in the region which is called 
^Ifete, performs the functions of the bishopric. 

DCCLXXVII. Pecwine episcopus Candidae-. 
casae migravit ad dominum, cui Ethelbricth suc- 

" Flo. Wigor. 574p. Mlfete is conjectured to be that part of 
the city of Durham which is now called Old and New Elvet. 

-f- R. de Hoveden, 404. H. of Huntingdon calls the former 
bishop Witwine, and places his death in 774. . •< '<■■'■* f 


DCCLXXVII. Pectwine, bishop of Whit-hem, 
migrated to the lord, to whom Ethelbert suc- 

DCCLXXXIX. Ethelbert episcopus, sua sede 
relicta, sancto Gilberto defiincto, episcopatum 
Haugustaldensem in propriam accepit domina- 

DCCLXXXIX. Bishop Ethelbert, his see being 
left, saint Gilbert being defunct, received the bi- 
shopric of Hexham into his own domination. 

• R. de Hoveden, 404; W. of Malmesbury, having eniune. 
rated, beside Ninian (as before) and Pethelm, Frethewald, 
Pecwine, Ethelbrith, Beadulf, says, " nee prssterea plures 
alicubi reperio, quod cito defecerit episcopatus, qui extrema 
Anglorum in ora est, et Scottorum vel Pictorum depopulatione 
opportuna." {De gcstis pontiJicHm, L. 3, p. 273.) In the ig- 
norant and sophisticated list inserted, by some monk, in, or 
after, the continuation to Florence of Worcester, as Trumwin 
is the first, so Heathored is the last ; Trumwin being bishop 
of Lothian, and Heathored bishop of Hexham (where, it is 
true, he had succeeded Ethelbert) ; and neither having ever 
had anything to do at Whit>hern. See R. prior Hagustal, C. 
. 18. 


DCCXC. Baldwlf ad Candidam casam ordlnatur 
episcopus, in loco qui dicitur Hearrahaldh, quod 
interpretari potest locus dominorum. 

DCCXC. Baldulf is ordained bishop at Whit- 
hern, in a place which is called Hearrahaldh, which 
may be interpreted the place of lords. 

MCXXIV-MCXXX. " Honorius episcopus ser- 
vus servorum dei dilecto filio electo de Candida- 
casa salutem, et apostolicam benedictionem. Cui 
alii a domine praeesse conceditur, nulla suis digne 
subesse prelatis superbia communicantur ; ideoque 
per presentia scripta tibi mandamus, ut ad carissi- 
mum fratrem nostrum Thomam Eboracensem ar- 
chiepiscopum, tanquam ad proprium metropolita- 
num tuum consecrandus accedas ; et ab ipsius ma> 
nu, presente sancti spiritus gratia cum humilitatis 
devotione consecrationem accipias. Data Laterani 
quinto idus Decembris." 

Mo. Aug. Ill, 145. 


MCXXXIV. Vir venerabilis Thurstlnus arcbie- 
piscopus [[Eboracencis] ordinavit 'episcopum/ Gil- 
aldanum Candidse casae, hoc est Herwicernensi [I* 
Hwiternensi] ecclesiae.* 

MCXXXIV. The venerable man Thurstan arch- 
bishop of York ordained a bishop, namely, Gilaldan 
of the church of Whit-hern. 

MCLIV. Christianus in episcopum Galwaiae 
eodem die, quo, et rex Angliae Henricus, ab archi- 
episcopo Rotomogensi, apud Bermundeseiam, con- 
secratus est.f 

MCLXXXVI. « Obiit piae memoriae Christi- 
anus episcopus de Candida casa, nonas Octobris, 
apud Holmcultram.":}: 

* Stubbs, CO. 1720 ; Monasticon Anglicanutn, III, 148. 

•f Chro, Sancice-crucis JEdin. 

:}: Chronica de Mailros. II76. " Cardinalis Vivianus 
... ad castellum Puellarum [scL Edinburgh castlel veniens, 
concilium ibi cum episcopis et viiis ecdesiasticis regni Scotis 


MCLXXXVI. Christian, bishop of Whithern, 
of pious memory, died on the nones of October, at 

MCXC. Apud abbathiam de Pipewell, die do- 
minica, xvii. die Septembris, Johannes, electus 
Candidas casae, consecratus est in episcopum a Jo-, 
hanne Dublenensi archiepiscopo.* 

MCXC. At the abbey of PipeweU, on the lords 
day, tlie 17th day of September, John elect of 
Whit-hern, was consecrated bishop by John arch'^ 
bishop of Dublin. 

de statutis ecdesise celebravit : in quo concilio Christ'ianum 
episcopum Candida: casce ab officio episcopali suspendit, eo 
quod ipse ad illud concilium venire recusavit. Dicebat enim, 
idem episcopus episcopatum suura ad legantiam Eboracensis 
[archijepiscopi qui eum in episcopum consecraverat, secun- 
dum antiquam pra;decessorura utriusque consuetudinem per- 
tinere : et ipse Rogerus Eboracensis archiepiscopus . . . epis- 
copatus CaiididcE cascc juri suo et sute ccclesia; vendicabat." 
(J. Bromton, CO. 1111.) 

" J. Bromton, co. 1162. He was suffragan of the church, 
of York in the same year. (R. de Diceto, co. 653.) . ha)) 


MCCVI. Johannes Candidae casae episcopus, ab- 
jecta sindone curse pastoralis, ut expedicitius mun- 
dum ftigeret, apud Sanctara Crucem, juxta castrum 
puellarimi, habitum religionis suscepit.* 

MCCVI. John, bishop of Whit-hern, the suN 
plice of pastoral care being thrown away, that he 
might the more expeditiously fly the world, at 
Holy-rood, near Maiden-castle, took up the habit 
of religion. 

MCCIX. Obiit episcopus Johannes Candidae 
casae, cui successit Walterus, camerarius Alani filii 

MCCIX. John bishop of Whit-hern died, to 
whom succeeded Walter, the chamberlain of Allan, 
the son of Rowland. 

MCCXXXV. Obiit dominus W. episcopus Can- 
" Scotichronicon, T, 520. f Chro. de Mailros. 


didse casse : dominica prima quadragesima electus 
est dominus Gilbertus magister de Melros,et quon- 
dam abbas de Glenlus, in episcopum, tam a clero, 
quam ab universe populo Galwethiae, excepto priore 
et conventu de Witerne. Dominica autem qua can- 
tatur Oculi met, supradictus prior, cum suo con- 
ventu, scilicet, Odonem, quondam abbatem de De- 
retonsal, et protinus cum eo ad archiepiscopum 
Eboracensem, Walterum, scilicet. Gray, postulans 
ab eo munus consecrationis, sed minime percepit. 
Audierat, enim de prima electione ; unde causis ex 
utraque parte excussis Odonem reprobavit, et su- 
pradictum G. monacbum Melrosensem in episco- 
pum consecravit.* 

MCCXXXV. The lord Walter, bishop of Whit- 
hern, died ; on the first Sunday of quadragesima 
was elected Gilbert master of Melros, and, former- 
ly, abbot of Glenlus, to be bishop, as well by the 
clergy, as by the universal people of Galloway, ex- 
cept the prior and convent of Whit-hern. On the 
Sunday, however, on which is sung Oculi mei, the 
aforesaid prior, with his convent, namely, Odo, 
formerly abbot of Deretonsal, and next with him 

• Chro. de Mailrof. 


to the archbishop of York, Walter Gray that is, 
requiring from him the reward of consecration, but 
by no means received it : For he had heard of the 
first election ; whence, the reasons, on each side, 
being discussed, he reprobated Odo, and consecra- 
ted the aforesaid G. monk of Melros bishop. 

MCCLIII. Obiit dominus Gilbertus episcopus 
Candidas casae ; post quem electus est dominus Hen- 
ricus electus ... a Waltero Eboraci archiepiscopo.* 

MCCLIII. Gilbert, bishop of Whit-hern died ; 
after whom was elected the lord Henry by Walter 
archbishop of York. 

MCCCIX. Thomas, bishop of Galloway, in 
1296, was bishop here in this year: they were, 
apparently, diflferent titles of the same bishoprick.f 

MCCCXXI. Simon, " divina miseratione Can- 
dida; casae humilis minister." X 

" Chro. de Mailrog. f Keith, 162. 

± Chro. de Mailros. 


MCCCXXXIV. Henry is bishop Candidae 

MCCCLIX. Michael bishop of Galloway.* 

MCCCLIX. Adam de Lanark " episcopus Can- 
didae casae." He is, likewise, called " Magister 
Adam de Lanark de Galloway in Scotia ;" which 
further proves Whitern and Gallorvay only different 
denominations for one and the same bishoprick.* 

MCCCLXn. Thomas is bishop of GaUoroay.* 

MCCCLXVHI-IX. Andrew is bishop Candida 

Keith, p. 162. 


MCCCCV. '* Elisseus episcopus Candidas 

MCCCCXV. "Thomas episcopus Candidse 

MCCCCXXVI. " Alexander episcopus Candidas 

MCCCCLI. Thomas Spenfce bishop of Galloway, 
or Candida casa, is indiscriminately so called.* 

MCCCCLIX. Ninian "episcopus de Galloway."* 

MCCCCLXXXIX. George Vaus.* 

• Keith, p. 162. 
vols. II. X 


MDVIII. James Bethune, prior of Whit-hern, 
became bishop of the see of Galloway.* 

MDXIX. David Arnot, bishop of Galloway, is 
designed " Davide Candidai casae, &c. episcopo."* 

MDXXVI, Henry was bishop of this see, and 
stiled bishop of Galloway, though one of his officers 
is designed " officialis Candidse casae."* 

MDXLI. Andrew Drurie was the last popish 
bishop of Galloway ; but the title of " episcopus 
Candidae casae" neither appears to have been used 
by him, nor was ever so afterward.* In a short 
time, after, there was no longer a bishop in Scot- 
land, and it is much to be wished there were none 
anywhere else. 

• Keith, p. 162. 

^nnaljs at ilHuttai)* 


Mr. Thomas Innks, in his Critical essay on the 
ancient inhabitants of the northern parts of Britain, 
or Scotland (p. 159), having observed that " Though 
the name [of Picts] came to be disused, yet the peo- 
ple themselves, of the Pictish race, still subsisted 
under the name of Galweyenses, from the province 
where they dwelt," adds, "■ so it probably happened 
in other provinces of Scotland, such as Moravia, 
Murray, whence the Picts of these parts have been 
called Moravienses, as those in Galloway were call- 
ed Galweyenses ;* and perhaps, from the Rets in 
Murray being so called may have taken rise that 
tradition mentioned by some writers of the Murray 
men, Moravienses, their coming into Albany at first, 

• There is, at least, this difference in the two instances : the 
natives of Galloway are by ancient writers expressly called 
Picti as well as Galweyenses, which is by no means the case 
with respect to those of Munay. 


under one Rodricus, and giving origine tOj as some 
say, or rather joining the Picts in ancient times." 
The writers, or authorities, he quotes are " Boeth. 
1. 4, f. 54, 55, 56, n. 38 ;* Usser, p. 303 ;" and 
" Math. Westm. ad an. 75, p. 55." Pinkerton, 
also, in his Enquiry iiito the history of Scotland (vo- 
lume I, p. 348) asserts that " The Moravians were 
Piks, as," he says, " Fordun tells, lib. II, c. 30." 
And, again (volume II, p. 231), that " the Mora- 
vienses or inhabitants of the large province of Mo- 
ray, .... were not Scoti but Picti, down to the 
thirteenth century, as appears from Fordun and 
others." The original author, however, of this opi- 
nion, whom Matthew of Westminster implicitly 
transcribes, and whom Fordun expressly quotes, is 
no other than the notorious romancer Geoffrey of 
Monmouth, whose credit is not, at present, what- 
ever it might be in the times of Bois, or Fordun, 
and Matthew of Westminster, a sufficient voucher 
even for a historical fact much nearer his own age, 
and of still less importance, than the establishment 
or continuance of Picts in Murray. See his Bri- 
tannic regum origo, &c. Paris, 1508, L. 4, c. 17- 

" In p. 176, however, he says, " The inhabitants of Mur- 
ray arc supposed by Bocce himself to be of a different extrac- 
tion, both from the Picts and Scots ;" and quotes " Boeth. lib. 
12. fol. 56, edit. I." He is not worth looking into. 


How far it is supported or countenanced by the few 
events recorded of the above province by authentic 
historians will be seen in the following extracts. 
The fact, however, that the Picts were actual pos- 
sessors of this territory at an earlier period, is no 
way affected by the present enquiry, nor intended 
to be called in question.* 

" " Moravian! et Rossiam Cants? .... habitavere. Quod 
vero scribit Boethius, Moravos tempore Claudii imperatoris 
[ex Moravia, Pannonias regione quadam juxta Danubii flu- 
men] in Scotiam classe devectos, falsissimum esse ex historiis 
liquet. Nam Slavorum gens, e quibus Moravi initium sum- 
sere, mundo usque ad tempus circa annum domini DC. incog- 
nita erat ; et Marcomanni et Quadi ilia loca incoluere, quae 
postea anno DCCCC. sub Amulpho a Zuentebaldo, Slavorum 
rege, Moravise regnum appellari coepere." Llwyd, p. 62. 



DCCCCI V. ' Doveualdus' filiua Constantini . . . 
opidum Fother occisum Ql. Fores occisusj est a 


DCCCCIV. Donald, the son af; Constantine, 
was killed at the town of Fores by the gentiles 
(i. e. pagan Danes.) 

DCCCCXLV. Cum exercitu suo Maelcolam pe- 
rexit in Mobeb, et occidit Celach.f 

• Excerpta ex veteri chronica de regibus Scotorum, apud 
Innes, Critical essay, Ap. Num. III. " Dovenal Mac-Con- 
stantin . . . Mortuus est in Fores." Nomina rcgum Scottorum 
(Ex registro prioratus S. Andrece), Ibi. Num. V. 
" In villa fertur rex iste perisse Forensi." 

Chronicon elegiacum. 
" In MuRRAWE syne he murthrysyd was 
In-til the town is calld Foras." 

Wyntown, (B. VI. c. ix.) 
•f Excerpta^ ^c. ut supra. Cellach is an Irish name. 


DCCCCXLV. Malcolm, with his army, march- 
ed into Murray, and killed Kellach. 

DCCCCLIII. Occiderunt viri na Moerne Mal- 
colaim in Fodresach. i. in Claideom.* 

DCCCCLm. The men of na-Morne slew Mal- 
colm in Fodresach, that is, in Claideom. 

DCCCCLXV. Duff Mac-Malcolm interfectus 
in Fores, et absconditus sub ponte de Kinlos; et 
sol non apparuit quamdiu ibi latuit.f 

" Excerj>ta, ^c. ut supra. " Malcom Mac-Dovenald . . . 
Interfectus in Ulum a Moraviensibus [per dolum]." Nomina 
regum Scottorum, ut supra. 

Interfecerunt in Wlru Moravienses 
Gentis apostatice fraude doloque cadit 

Chro. elegiacum. 
Fodresach is, possibly, a corruption of Fores ; as, according to 
mr. Macpberson, ilfoefnc.( which is also twice mentioned in the 
ancient tract De situ Albanian) may be of Murray ; rather, 
perhaps, of JIfar, or Morven, as coupled with Angus. 

•f NonUna regum, 4°c.— 966. Duv Mac Maolcolum, king of 


DCCCCLXV. Duff, the son of Malcolm, was 
killed in Fores, and hid under the bridge of Kinlos ; 
and the sun did not appear so long as he lay there. 

MXXXII. Gilcomgan MacMaolbryd, murmor 
of Mureve, burnt with 50 men about him.* 

MXXXVII. Donchath Mac-' Crini' abbatis de 
Dunkeld et Bethoc filia Malcom-Mac-Kinat .... 
Interfectus a Macbeth-Mac-Finleg in Bothgoua- 

Scotland, killed by Scotsmen themselves. Annales ITltoniemes, 

Hunc interfecit gens perfida Moraviensis, 
Cujus erat gladiis casus in urbe Fores. 

Chro. elegiacum, 
• An. UL Murmor is thane or earl. See O'Flaherty, p. 
383. Gilcomgan Mac Maolhryd is an Irish name, meaning the 
servant of st Comgan, the son of the devotee of st. Bridget, 
•f- Nomina rcgum, ^c. 

A Fynlake natus percussit eum Makabeda ; 
Vulnere letali rex apud Elgyne obit. 

Chro. elegia. 
IVIacbeth, as appears from Wyntown, was at this time " thayne 
of Morave,^'' 


MXXXVII. Duncan^ the son of Crinan abbot 
of Dunkeld, and of Bethoc daughter of Malcolm, 
the son of Kenneth . . . was killed by Macbeth the 
son of Finleg in Bothgouanan {jaear Elgin]- 

MLXXXV. Maolsnechta Mac-Lulay king of 
Mureb [sic f. mortuus est].* 

MLXXXV. Maolsnechta Mac-Lulach king of 
Murray, died. 

MCXVI. Logman Macdouald, sons son to the 
king of Scotland, killed by the men of Murray .f 

MCXXX. Angus, comes Muravensis, interfectus 
est, cum gente sua, a Scottis.J 

• An. Ul. Lulach, the father of this Maolsnechta, was 
king of Scotland, and the immediate successor of Macbeth. 

t Ihi. 

%. Cronica dr. Mailros " 1130. A batde between ScoU- 

men and the men of Morcb, where 4000 of the men of Moreb, 

MURRAY. 335 

MCXXX. Angus, earl of Murray, was slain, 
with his people, by the Scots. 

MCLXXXVII. Willelmus, rex Scotiae, magno 
congregate exercitu, profectus est in Moraviam, ad 
debellandum quendam hostem suum, qui nomina- 
batur Mach-Willam : qui etiam dicebat se regia 
stirpe genitum ; et de jure parentum suorum (ut 

with their king, were slaio. Eneas, son to Lulays daughter, 
killed 1000 Scots in a retyre." A7u Ul. — According to Orde- 
ricus Vitalis, under this year, while king David, in the court 
of king Henry, warily sought after judgement, and, about the 
guUt of perfidy, which Geoffrey de Clinton, as they say, had 
agitated against the king, diligently discussed, Aragois [An- 
gus] earl of Murray, with Melcolfus [Malcolm, bastard son 
ef Alexander] and 5000 of armed men entered Scotland, and 
studied to subject the whole region to himself. Bloreover Ed- 
ward, the son of Sy ward, who, under king Edward [the con- 
fessor], was earl of the Mercians, chief of the militia, and cou- 
sin of king David, collected an army, and suddenly met that 
of the enemy. At length, the batde being fought, he slew 
Aragois [Angus] the earl, atid prostrated, took, and put to 
flight, his forces. Afterward, with his cohorts, now elated 
with triumph, he eagerly followed the fugitives, and entered 
Murray, wanting its defender and lord : and obtained, god 
assisting, the whole dUchy of that spacious region. (P. 702.) 
Lord Hailes, who professes to know nothing of this Malcolm 
the bastard, might easily have discovered something more about 
him in Ethelreds description of the battle of the Standard. 


asserebat) regnum Scotiae calumpnabatur : et multa 
et incoramoda faciebat saepe Willelrao regi Scotiae, 
per consensum et consilium comitum et baronum 
regni Scotiae. Considerans itaque praefatus Willel- 
mus rex, quod oporteret eum regnum Scotiae amit- 
tere, vel praedictum Mach-Willam interficere, vel 
etiam a finibus regni sui expellere ; in Moraviam 
profectus, constituit super exercitum suum tri- 
bunos et centuriones. Dixitque ad populum,* 
Egrediar et ego vobiscum ; et respondit populus, 
Non exibis : Melius est enim, ut sis nobis in urbe 
praesidium. Ad quos rex ait. Quod vobis videtur 
rectum, hoc faciam. Et remansit rex in castello 
quod dicitur Ylvernis ; et misit comites et barones 
suos, cum Scottis et Galwensibus, ad debellandum 
praedictum hostem suum. Cumque profecti essent, 
orta est inter principes seditio ; quidara vero illo- 
rum regem diligebant minime, quidam vero dilige- 
bant. Et hii procedere volebant, sed ceteri non 
permiserunt. Cumque contendissent, placuit eis, 
quod principes exercitus remanerent, et prsemitte- 
rent exploratores, ut cibum caperent. Elegerunt 
ergo juvenes bellicososfere tria millia, quos miserunt 
ad quacrendum praefatum regis inimicum. Inter 
quos familia Rolandi, filii Uctredi, erat ; ad cujus 

• 2 ■S'flwi. xviii, 2, 3, 4. 


nutum omnium pendebat sententia. Cum vero ap- 
propinquasset exercitura praefati Willelmi, insul- 
tum fecerunt in illos, et interfecerunt ipsum Wil- 
lelmum, et multos de exercitu suo; et reliquam 
partem fugere compulerunt ; et eorum spolia inter 
se diviserunt ; et caput praedicti Willelmi abscis- 
sum detulerunt secum, et praesentaverunt illud 
regi Scotia;. Et sic prostrate illo, pax magna facta 
est in regno Scotiae.* 

MCLXXXVII. William, king of Scotland, ha- 
ving assembled a great army, went into Murray, 
to subdue an enemy, who was called Mac- William ; 
who also said that he was born of the royal family; 
and in the right of his parents (as he asserted) 
claimed the kingdom of Scotland: and did often 
many and troublesome things to William king of 
Scotland, through the consent and counsel of the 
earls and baronsof the realm of Scotland. The afore- 
said king William, considering, therefore, that it 
would behove him to lose the kingdom of Scotland, 
or to kill the aforesaid Mac- William, or at least to 
expel him from the bounds of his kingdom ; being 
come into Murray, constituted over his army tri- 

* Benedictus abbas, p. 469. 
VOL. II. y 


bunes and centurions : and said unto the people, 
" I will surely go forth with you myself also :" 
But the people answered, " Thou shalt not go forth; 
for it is better that thou succour us out of the city :" 
To whom the king said, " What seemeth you best 
I will do." And the king remained in a castle, 
which is called Inverness ; and sent his earls and 
barons, with the Scots and Galwegians, to subdue 
his aforesaid enemy. And when they were depart- 
ed, a sedition arose among the chiefs ; for some of 
them loved the king not at all, but some did love 
him. And these wished to proceed, but the rest 
permitted it not. And when they had contended, 
it pleased them, that the chiefs of the army should 
remain, and should send before scouts, that they 
might take food. They, therefore, chose almost 
three thousand warlike youths, whom they sent to 
seek the aforesaid enemy of the king : among whom 
was the family of Rowland, the son of Uchtred ; 
on whose will depended the opinion of all. Now, 
when he had approached the army of the aforesaid 
William, they made an attack upon them, and kill- 
ed William himself, and many of his army ; and 
the remaining part they compelled to fly ; and they 
divided their spoils among themselves ; and, having 
cut off the head of the aforesaid William, they 
brought it with them, and presented it to the king 

MURRAY. 339 

of Scotland: And so, he being prostrated, great 
peace was made in the realm of Scotland. 

MCXCVII. Ortum est praelium in Morevia, 
juxtacastrum Invernis, inter homines regis, et Ro- 
dericum, et Thorphinum filium comitis Haraldi ; 
sed,deo procurante, regis hostes in fugam versi sunt, 
et praedictus Rodericus, cum multis aliis, caesus in- 
teriit. . . . Postmodum idem rex Willielmus, cum 
exercitu suo, profectus est in Mureviam, et in ce- 
teras remotiores terrse suae partes, ubi Haraldum 
comitem cepit, euraque in castello de Rokesburch 
observari fecit, donee Thorfinus, filius ejus, se pro 
patre suo obsidem daret.* 

MCXCVII. A battle was arisen, in Murray, 
near the castle of Inverness, between the icings 
men, and Roderick and Thorfin, son of earl Ha- 
rold ; but, god superintending, the kings enemies 
were turned into flight, and the aforesaid Roderick, 
with many others, being wounded, perished. Af- 
terward, the same king William, with his army, 

" Chro. de Mailros. 


marched into Murray, and into the other more re- 
mote parts of his land, where he took earl Harold, 
and caused him to be kept in the castle of Rox- 
burgh, until Thorfin his son should give himself a 
hostage for his father. 

MCCXV. Intraverunt in Moreviam hostes do- 
mini regis Scotise, scilicet, Dovenaldus filius Mac- 
willielmi, et Kennauhtmacht, et filius cujusdam 
regis Hiberniae, cum turba m align antium copiosa : 
in quos irruens Machentagar, hostes regis valide 
prostravit, quoriun capite detruncavit, et novo regi 
munera praesentavit, XVII. l^alendas Julii, prop- 
ter quod dominus rex novum militem ipsum ordi- 

MCCXV. The enemies of the lord the king of 
Scotland entered into Murray, to wit, Donald the 
son of Macwilliam, and Kennahmacht, and the son 
of a certain king of Ireland, with a copious multi- 
tude of malignants : upon whom Machentagart 
falling furiously, he stoutly prostrated the kings 

* Chro. de Mailros. He was, afterward, aeated earl of 

MURRAY. 841 

enemies, whose heads he cut off, and presented as 
gifts to the new king, the 17th of the calends of 
July, for which the lord the king created him a 
new knight. 

TH£ £ND. 










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