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I 



ANNALS 



OF 



The Entomological Society of America 



VOLUME VI, 1913 



EDITORIAL BOARD 

J. H. COMSTOCK, L. o. HOWARD, 

ITHACA, N. Y. Washington, D. C. 

C. J. S. BETHUNE, W. M. WHEELER, 

GuEi,PH, Ontario, Canada. Boston, Mass. 

C. W. JOHNSON, P. p. CALVERT, 

Boston, Mass. Philadelphia, Pa. 

V. L. KELLOG, j. w. FOLSOM, 

Stanford Univ., Cal. Urbana, Ills. 

HERBERT OSBORN, Managing Editor, 
Columbus, Ohio. 



PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE SOCIETY 
COLUMBUS. OHIO 



JAN 10 1914 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME VI. 



PAGE 

An Entomologist in Costa Rica. P. P. Calvert ; 1 

Determining the Flight of Mosquitos. James Zetek 5 

A Revision of the North American Species of the Dipterous Genus Neurigona. 

M. C. VanDuzee 22 

An Interesting Feature in the Venation of Helicopysche, the Molannidae, 

and the Leptoceridae. Cornelius Betten 65 

Homologies of the Wing Veins of the Membracidae. W. D. Funkhouser. ... 74 

The Wing Venation of the Jassidae. Z. P. Metcalf 103 

A New Hymenopterous Parasite on Aspidiotus Perniciosus Comst. D. G. 

Tower 125 

Officers of the Entomological Society of America 127 

Resolutions: On the Death of John B. Smith 128 

On the Death of Thomas H. Montgomery 129 

Proceedings of the Entomological Society of America — Cleveland Meeting. . 130 
A Revision of the North American Species of Megastigmus Dalman. C. R. 

Crosby 155 

The Neuropterous Genus Palpares. Nathan Banks 171 

Stomoxys Calcitrans Linn. Part II. Chas. K. Brain 197 

The Biology of Perla Immarginata Say. Lucy W. Smith 203 

The Life-History of a Bee-Fly (Spogostylum Anale Say) Parasite of the Larva 

of a Tiger Beetle (Cicindela Scutellaris Say Var. Lecontei Hald). 

Victor E. Shelford 213 

A New Application of Taxonomic Principles. Chas. H. T. Townsend 226 

A Study in Antennal Variation. Edith M. Patch 233 

A Study in Variation in the North American Greenbottle Flies of the Genus 
Lucilia, with Systematic Notes on the Species Involved. John 

K. Tothill 241 

Observations on the Chaetotaxy of Calliphorinae. Phineas W. Whiting 257 

A Revision of the Species in Agromyza Fallen, and Cerodontha Rondani. 

J. R. Malloch 269 

The Wing Venation of Fulgoridae. Z. P. Metcalf 341 

The Princeton Collection of Fossil Beetles from Florissant. H. F. Wickham 359 

A Contribution to the Biology of May-Flies. Anna H. Morgan 371 

The External Anatomy of the Squash Bug, Anasa Tristis, De G. Daniel 

G. Tower 427 

The Dipteran Fauna of Bermuda Chas. W. Johnson 443 

The Taxonomic Value of the Characters of the Male Genital Armature in 

the Genus Tetranychus, Dufour. H. E. Ewing 453 

A Synopsis of the Described North American Species of the Dipterous Genus 

Tipula L. W. G. Dietz 461 

Some Pemphiginae Attacking Species of Populus in Colorado. C. P. Gillette. 485 



"^^'^^^ '^^- Number 



ANNALS 



The Entomological Society of America 



MARCH. 191 3 



EDITORIAL BOARD 

J. H. COMSTOCK, L. q. HOWARD, 

ITHACA, N. Y. ^ Washington, D. C. 

C. J. S. BETHUNE, W. M. WHEeIeR, 

GuEi,PH, Ontario. Ganada. Boston, Mass. 

C. W. JOHNSON, P. p. CALVERT 

Boston, Mass. Phii^adelphia, Pa. 

V. L. KELLOGG, j. w. FOLSOM, 

Stanford Univ., Cai.. Urbana, Ii.i,s. 

HERBERT OSBORN, Managing Editor, 
Columbus, Ohio. 



PUBUSHED QUARTERLY BY THE SOCIETY 
COLUMBUS, OHIO 



Entered at second class matter April 1 1. 1908. at the Post Office atColumbu.. Ohio, 
under the Act of Congress of March 3, 1879. 

APR 18 J 



The Entomological Society of America. 

FOUNDEB 1906. 



OFFICERS 1913. 

President — C. J. S. Bethune Guelph, Ont., Canada 

First Vice-President — P. P. Calvert Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Second Vice-President — Wm. M. Marshall Madison, Wisconsin 

Secretary-Treasurer— A. D. MacGillivray Urbana, Illinois 

Executive Committee — The Officers, and Herbert Osborn, C. P. Gillette, 

V. L. Kellogg, J. G. Needham, C. T. Brues, Nathan Banks. 
Committee on Nomenclature — H. T. Fernald, E. P. Felt, T. D. A. Cockerell. 



Price List of Publications. 

Annals, Vols. I, II, III, IV and V, complete, each $3,00 

Annals, Separate Parts except as below, each 1 .00 

Annals, Vols. I and II, Part 3, each 50 

Annals, Vol. IV, Part IV, each 1.50 

REPRINTS FROM VOLUME I. 

Proceedings of first three meetings; Constitution, By-Laws and List of 

Members 26 

Wheeler, Wm. M. — Polymorphism of Ants 30 

Osborn, Herbert — The Habits of Insects as a Factor in Classification 20 

Severin, H. H. and Severin, H. C. — Anatomical and Histological Studies 
of the Female Reproductive Organs of the American-Saw Fly, Cimbex 

Americana, Leach 25 

Felt, E. P. — Some Problems in Nomenclature 10 

Hammar, a. G.^On the Nervous System of the Larva of Corydalis comuta L .25 
Bradley, J. C. — A case of Gregarious Sleeping Habits among Aculeate 

Hymenoptera 10 

Davis, J. J. — 'Notes on the Life History of the Leafy Dimorph of the Box- 
elder Aphid, Chaitophorus negundinis Thos .10 

Hambleton, J. C. — The Genus Corizus, with a Review of the North and 

Middle American Species 25 

Girault, a. a. — Biological Notes on Colorado Potato Beetle 25 

GiRAULT, A. A.— A Monographic Catalogue of the Mymarid Genus Alaptus.. .25 
Severin, H. H. and Severin, H. C. — Internal Organs of Reproduction of 

Male Saw-fly 15 

Smith, C. P. — A Preliminary Study of the Aranag Theraphosae of California.. .75 

Davis, J. J. — Studies on Aphididas 20 

Riley, W. A.— Muscle Attachment of Insects 15 

Needham, J. C. — Critical Notes on the Classification of the Corduliinas 

(Odonata) 15 

Howard, L. O.— A Key to the Species of Prospaltella with Table of Hosts 

and Descriptions of Four New Species 15 

Hood, J. D. — Two New Species of Idolothrips 10 

Address 

ANNALS ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, 
Biological Building, State Univ., Columbus, Ohio. 



ANNALS 



OF 



The Entomological Society of America 

Volume VI MARCH, 1913 Number 



AN ENTOMOLOGIST IN COSTA RICA.* 

By Philip P. Calvert, Ph. D., 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Until the separation of Panama as an independent state 
from Colombia, Costa Rica was the southernmost of the five 
republics of Central America. It lies between Nicaragua on the 
north and Panama on the south, from latitude 11° to 8° North. 
Its general trend is from northwest to southeast, and through its 
entire length runs a series of peaks, many of them volcanoes, 
whose greatest altitude is above 12,000 feet. North of the 10th 
parallel, this chain divides into two branches one of which, 
extending in a more easterly direction toward the Atlantic, is 
composed chiefly of the volcanoes Poas (8786 ft.), Barba 
(9508 ft.), Irazu (11326 ft.) and Turrialba (10965 ft.). The 
other branch, retaining the southeastward trend, is continued 
by the Cordillera of Chiriqui in Panama and includes the highest 
elevations in the country. Along the 10th parallel the distance 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific is 185 miles, but if we measure 
to the eastern shore of the Gulf of Nicoya, that is from the port 
of Limon to Puntarenas, 125 miles. The railroad in making 
this transit climbs to 5000 feet and this ascent together with its 
windings increases the actual distance to 175 miles. 

The prevailing easterly trade winds coming from the Carib- 
bean, laden with moisture, strike against the lofty mountains 
and cause a heavy precipitation on the Atlantic slope throughout 
much of the year. Sheltered by the same peaks the Pacific 
slopes and even some localities on the Atlantic, like Cartago, 
receive a smaller precipitation until southerly winds bring 
moisture from April to November. 



*Abstract of address before the Entomological Society of America, Cleveland, 
Ohio, Jan. 1, 1913. The address was illustrated by a very fine series of lantern 
views from photographs of insects and localities of scientific and scenic interest. 
—Ed. 



2 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Passing from east to west, the average annual rainfall at 
Limon is 126.8 inches, Juan Vinas 85.6, Cartago 60.7, with 
minimal average monthly, precipitations of 5, 2.5 and 1 inch 
respectively (all these on the Atlantic slope), while correspond- 
ing figures on the Pacific slope are 76 inches for Tres Rios, 76.4 
for San Jose and 62.1 for Nuestro Amo, the minimal average 
monthly rainfalls being .12, .43 and inches respectively. 

The abundant rainfall gives rise to many streams of all 
sizes. Erosion and the undermining of the loose soil have cut 
the surface of the land into many deep ravines and canyons, 
producing a rugged topography and making travel difficult 
and time-consuming. Within short horizontal distances are 
great differences of elevation. This, in turn, has affected the 
character of the vegetation and of the fauna. Pronounced 
segregation of many living things is consequently often the 
case, and the richness of the biota, as estimated by the number 
of species, is greatly increased. 

Pittier, in 1908, gave the number of species of flowering 
plants of Costa Rica as 3441 ; the corresponding number for 
New Jersey is 1351 (Stone, 1910). Carriker, in 1910, listed 
753 species and subspecies of birds from Costa Rica, or more 
than half the total number (1196) for America north of Mexico 
in the A. O. U. check list of the same year, and twice as many as 
have been recorded in recent years for Maine (327), Colorado 
(392) or Washington (372) ; the smallest of these three has an 
area at least a third greater than that of Costa Rica which is 
only 23,000 square miles. Rehn, in 1905, gave a partial list 
of 195 species of Costa Rican Orthoptera, as against 154 species 
in the far more thoroughly explored state of New Jersey. 
Godman and Salvin, in 1901, enumerated 236 genera of Costa 
Rican butterflies; Dyar, in 1902, recognized 152 genera for 
America north of Mexico. Schaus has found 150 Costa Rican 
species of the butterfly genus Thecla, as contrasted with 56 
species in America north of Mexico. 

All of these characteristics make Costa Rica a Paradise to 
the naturalist. Its variety of altitude offers variety of temper- 
ature. The short distance from the shores of the Atlantic to 
those of the Gulf of Nicoya, an arm of the Paciflc, and the exist- 
ence of the transcontinental railroad render it possible to pass 
from one to the other in ten hours; a comparison of conditions 
at similar altitudes on the two slopes of the divide may be easily 



1913] An Entomologist in Costa Rica 3 

and quickly made. In the higher parts of the country the cHmate 
is salubrious and invigorating, and with a little care one may 
safely investigate the heated lowlands. Proximity to South 
America, with no intervening barrier, has permitted the invasion 
of many denizens of the Southern Continent, while not a few 
cases of continuous distribution from North America are also in 
evidence. The most orderly of Central American countries 
holds its presidential elections with as much enthusiasm and 
with less disturbance than those of the United States. A 
peaceful and hospitable people and an enlightened government 
render the stranger's visit an event to be remembered by him 
with delight throughout a lifetime. 

In one or other of these qualities, Costa Rica is excelled by 
Mexico, Colombia or Brazil, but by none in the totality of the 
advantages which it offers to the students of all the branches 
of ecology in its widest sense. One shadow, indeed, hangs over 
the fair land — that of the earthquakes which within two centuries 
have thrice destroyed the town of Cartago, lying on the southern 
slopes of the volcano Irazu, the latest destruction being that of 
May 4, 1910, when it was serving as our own headquarters. 

During the year. May 1909, to May, 1910, insects, especially 
Odonata (dragonfiies) were collected and studied at the following 
fourteen groups of places and at intervals, in order to obtain 
data on seasonal distribution. 
On the Atlantic slope : 

Banana River region, 50 feet, November. 

Guapiles, 984 feet, June, November. 

Peralta, 1088 feet, August, March. 

Turrialba, 2000 feet, July. 

Juan Vifias, 2500-4000 feet, June, August, October,, 
December, February, March April. 

Cachi, 3600 feet, March. 

Cartago, 4750 feet, every month. 

Volcano Irazu, 4750-11300 feet, July, September, March- 
On the Pacific slope: 

Tres Rios and La Carpintera, 4260 to 5700 feet, Decem- 
ber, March. 

Alajuela, 3100 feet, September, December. 

Turrucares, 1800-2200 feet, August, December, ApriL 

Surubres, 800 feet, October. 

Puntarenas, 10 feet, February. 

Guanacaste, 0-2200 feet, January. 



4 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Four of these localities are here described briefly. 

Juan Vinas, on the Atlantic slope, was particularly fruitful 
as a collecting ground owing to its combination of many of the 
advantages mentioned above. The railroad station, 73 miles 
from Limon, and at an altitude of 3300 feet, is on the bottom 
of an old crater the rim of which, at the general level of the 
country, is 700 feet higher; the village of Juan Viiias is at this 
latter elevation. From the railway, in half an hour, one may 
reach the Rio Reventazon, 800 feet below. The canyon of this 
river thus has a depth of 1500 feet, and presents a great variety 
of slow- and of swift-flowing brooks, cascades, waterfalls, forest, 
swamp, bare rock and dense vegetation. It was productive of 
material illustrating previously unknown life-histories of inter- 
esting Odonata (Cora, Mecistogaster, Thaumatoneura, Philo- 
genia, Palaemnema, etc.). 

Surubres, on the Pacific side, at an altitude of about 800 feet, 
was a favorite with the late Professor Paul BioUey, where he 
gathered much insect material subsequently sent to entomolo- 
gists in the United States and in Europe. A week was spent in 
the hacienda, which he occupied on several occasions, but at a 
different time of year, to secure data to supplement those which 
he obtained. 

The northwestern province of Costa Rica, Guanacaste, has 
been little visited by entomologists. Thanks to Professor J. F. 
Tristan, the writer accompanied an official educational commis- 
sion thither, and collections and observations were made at 
Filadelfia, Liberia, Santa Cruz, and Hacienda Guachipelin. 
The last named, at an altitude of 1700 feet, is not far from 
the still unexplored Volcano Rincon de la Vieja. 

Cartago, near the top of the Atlantic slope of the railroad, 
was, until its destruction, alluded to above, a convenient center 
for visits to various parts of the country and served as the 
breeding place of living material collected on these excursions. 

(Other aspects of this visit to Costa Rica have been described 
in Entomological News, vol. XXI, pp. 334-337, July, 1910, and 
in Old Penn Weekly Review of the University of Pennsylvania, 
vol. IX, pp. 165-170, Nov. 12, 1910. Some of the results 
obtained from studies on Costa Rican Odonata have been pub- 
lished in Entomological News for 1910, 1911 and 1912, and will 
probably be continued in subsequent volumes of the same 
journal.) 



DETERMINING THE FLIGHT OF MOSQUITOS. 

By James Zetek, Entomologist. 
Isthmian Canal Commission, Ancon, Canal Zone. 

Introduction. 
Description. 

A. General Considerations. 

1. Physical Factors. 

2. Biotic Factors. 

3. Historic Factors. 

B. Detailed Description. 

1. Collection and Care of Larvae and Pupae. 

A. Collection. 

B. Transportation. 

C. The field laboratory. 

D. Breeding-out methods. 

2. Care of Adults. 

A. At the laboratory. 

B. Transporting adults. 

3. Coloring of Adults. 

A. Anilin dyes used. 

B. Staining the adults. 

4. Liberating Colored Adults. 

5. Collection and Examination of Adults found in buildings. 

A. Collection by hand. 

B. Collection by traps. 

C. Collection by tents. 

D. Collection by sweeping nets. 

E. Examination of adults for presence of color. 
Summary. 

Acknowledgements. 
References. 

INTRODUCTION. 

This report presents a method for determining the flight 
factors of mosquitos. The scheme was developed and tried 
out on the canal zone and has given results which warrant its 
publication. Apart from its purely scientific standpoint, the 
knowledge of the flight of Culices enables us to direct better our 
efforts toward the eradication of these insects from our habita- 
tions, and thus greatly reduce the possibilities for transmission 
of such diseases as yellow-fever, malaria, dengue, etc., and to 
a large measure do away with the insect as a pest. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Briefly stated, adult mosquitos are bred, colored with an 
anilin dye and then liberated at stations about the town selected 
for study. Systematic collections of adults are made in the 
buildings of this town, and these adults are tested for the 
presence of color. 



Annals E?itomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



A. GENERAL CONSIDERATION. 

Dispersal includes everything involved in the movements of 
animals from one place to another. It is a more or less eccentric 
movement because the paths taken are usually those of least 
resistence and economy. In mosquitos, dispersal is limited to 
four general means: (1) flight of the adult, (2) the adults may 
be carried by the wind, (3) they may be carried in trains, other 
vehicles, on the clothing of man or on other animals, and (4) the 
eggs, larvae, pupas and to some extent the adults, may be carried 
down stream or across a pond by current or wind action. 

Such mosquitos as transmit diseases to man, especially 
when they serve as intermediary hosts in such transmission, 
are usually limited in their breeding area to the vicinity of 
human habitations. This is well illustrated by Aedes calopiis 
Meigen which transmits yellow fever, and Anopheles albimanus 
Wiedemann, responsible for E. A. malaria. Such mosquitos 
(verified by us in the two cited species) are not distant travellers, 
and if they do come from distant places, it is through gradual 
infiltration. Some species of Culex are powerful fliers; others 
apparantly remain only near their breeding place. 

To merely liberate colored adults is almost futile. The 
study is an ecological one and requires a knowledge of all the 
physical, biotic and historic factors that in any way enter into 
the environment of the species studied. The statements given 
under the three subheads following are not intended to be 
exhaustive, and they must be amplified according to the species 
selected. 

1. Physical Factors. 

A good map of the region selected for experimentation is 
necessary. It must indicate with fair accuracy the topography, 
commercial projects, habitations, streets, roads, and inlets of 
oils or poisonous refuse into streams or ponds and the extent 
of this pollution. 

A recording anemometer should be in operation at the central 
station, and in addition to the velocity per hour intervals, 
should give the eight main directions. If more than one such 
instrument is available, the others may be distributed at stations 
where decided wind deviations take place. Small portable 
anemometers will greatly augment the data. A self-recording 
rain guage is a valuable addition. 



1913] 



Determining the Flight of Mosguitos 



The necessity of a well-kept, tabulated record for the data 
should not have to be mentioned. The following reproduction 
of an arrangement found satisfactory in our work may be of 
help to other investigators. This method gives the investigator 



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Fig. 1. Correlation Chart. 



8 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

at a glance four distinct data, graphically placed in proper 
relation to each other, viz: (1) the velocity and direction of 
the wind per hour intervals, for six or more days, according to 
the size of paper used; (2) the quantity, species, and sex of 
mosquitos liberated, time and place of liberation and the color 
used; (3) the quantity, species, sex, source and color of recovered 
adults, and (4) the total mosquito catch in all buildings. A 
simple system of cross-reference to data sheets containing 
details will save time and energy. 

Tracing cloth, so ruled that the ordinates correspond to the 
above form, can have recorded thereon the quantity and dura- 
tion of rainfall, cloudbursts, fogs, barometric pressure, frosts, 
etc. By superposition on the above tabulated form, the 
relation, if any, of these factors to flight, will be seen. A similar 
tracing, made to correspond to the map, should indicate the 
extent of prairies, forests, forest fires, drainage, marshes, the 
geology of the region, etc. 

Porcelain cup evaporimeters should be installed at many 
stations to determine the relative humidity, 

2. Biotic Factors. 

Weekly or biweekly surveys of the entire area should be 
made for the purpose of locating mosquito breeding areas. 
These should be charted on smaller maps. If portions of this 
area are oiled, treated with larvacides, or subjected to noxious 
fumes, the extent of such pollution should be clearly indicated 
on the maps. It is necessary to know the time interval from 
oviposition to the adults for the species studied. When search- 
ing for Anopheles, particularly the malaria-transmitter, a safe 
rule is to go to unfrequented places, small puddles in grass 
land, etc. 

Most mosquitos, particularly the blood-suckers, are most 
active during and after dusk. It is evident, then, that an 
investigator should be detailed for night observations. A 
sweep-net should be used for beating the grass and shrubbery 
for mosquitos, traps may be set out to intercept or attract 
adults, or the observer may remain quiet, expose his arm, and 
note the ferocity of the biting. 

The abundance or scarcity of such predacious animals as 
dragon flies, robber flies, ants, toads, frogs, fish, bats, etc., 
should be noted. Marked oscillations in the numbers of mos- 



1913] Determining the Flight of Mosqiiitos 9 

quitos will occur through the ravages of these animals. Collec- 
tions of these forms must be made and the stomachs examined. 
The best time for such collection is at or just after dusk when 
they feed upon these dainty morsels. Unless the stomachs 
are examined that evening, they should be preserved in 95% 
alcohol, containing about one percent of thymol, the latter to 
arrest enzymic action. 

Life history studies should be made at the laboratory and all 
possible data bearing on the ecological problem collected. 

3. Historic Factors. 
This includes the geology of the region, the plant and animal 
association and their past history and present trend, past 
human disturbances still exerting an influence on the biota, 
and the past history of the mosquitos studied. 

B. DETAILED DESCRIPTION. 

Mosquitos are delicate organisms, the majority of the 
species unable to endure intense dry heat, absence of water or 
shelter, high winds, heavy rains, etc. They are dainty morsels 
to hosts of alert forms. So far as our experiments are concerned, 
additional factors enter to lessen the number of released adults 
which may be recovered. First, the female almost exclusively 
is able to suck blood. Second, mosquitos are not dependant 
upon human blood alone. We have noted mosquitos sucking 
the blood of horses, mules, dogs, cats, monkeys and fowls. 
The need, then, for releasing large numbers of colored adults 
is evident. Better results will follow if thousands of mosquitos 
are liberated. 

1. Collection and Care of Larvce and Pupce. 

A. Collection: Mature or nearly mature larvae and all 
pupae, of the species selected for study, should be collected. 
Young larvae thrive poorly in the field laboratory. All preda- 
cious larvae must be excluded from the receptacles containing 
larvae and pupae. 

A white enameled or porcelain saucer is very satisfactory in 
"dishing-up" water and algas to note whether mosquito larvae 
are present. The larvae, if there, stand out in bold relief 
against the white back-ground. If the larvae and pupae are 
abundant, a large white enameled dressing bucket (such as is 
used by hospitals) should be used to dip up quantities of the 



10 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

water and algae. This prevents frequent disturbance of the 
water, and allows the frightened mosquitos to regain their 
equilibrium. When dishing-up the water, a shadow should not 
pass over the surface of the pond, as this causes the larvae to 
wriggle away. The alg£e in the bucket should be removed after 
the larvae clinging to them have been dislodged. The contents 
of the bucket may then be strained through a clean piece of 
surgical gauze. In this manner the larvae and pupae are not 
lost, while the very young larv^, small debris, etc., are allowed 
to wash into the pond or stream. The gauze should be inverted 
over a wide-mouthed jar, and water applied very carefully 
with a pipette to the larvse. These are thereby released from 
the gauze and placed in the jars. Small pails are as servicable 
as jars. 

The receptacles containing the larvae and pupae must be 
kept in a cool, shaded spot, otherwise the water will quickly 
foul. Not more than one and a half inches of water should be 
allowed in these jars. The larvae should not be left in these 
containers for more than one half a day. Overcrowding must 
be avoided and at least once each half day the water should be 
aerated. A Paquelin Cautery bulb, with a capillary tube 
attached, serves well this object, and one or two bulbfuls will 
be found ample. 

B. Transportation: The larvae in these wide-mouthed jars 
should be taken each half day to the field laboratory, and here 
emptied into plates or larger receptacles. Prior to transporta- 
tion, the jars should be placed into a basket and separated from 
each other with excelsior or cotton wadding, and while carried, 
shaking must be reduced to a minimum. Constant shaking 
prevents the larvae from reaching the surface of the water to 
breathe and hence repeated unsuccessful attempts to reach the 
surface bring fatigue and a large percent if not all of the larvae 
succumb as a result. Protection from heat and direct light 
must be considered. The jars themselves must be covered 
with a close-mesh gauze to prevent the escape of adults emerged 
en route. If larvae or pupae are transported in trains or vehicles, 
extra precaution should be taken regarding shaking, and 
additional precaution to prevent inquisitive people from hand- 
ling these jars and shaking them "to see the wrigglers wriggle," 



1913] Determining the Flight of Mosquitos 11 

Mosquito larvae and pupae must be considered as delicate 
organisms and rough treatment en route makes nil the whole 
day's work and gives but little encouragement for further work. 

C. The Field Laboratory: The field laboratory is a necessity, 
but it need not consist of more than a small screened house, 
about eight feet square, protected from direct sunlight and heat. 
If located convenient to the breeding places, the collected larvae 
will suffer but little from jarring en route. Several such houses 
may be erected at convenient places, however, for all purposes 
■one such house will suffice. It means a concentration of the 
collected larvae at one place and one attendant can give these 
his undivided attention. No staining of adults should be made 
.at the laboratory as this would involve transferring of colored 
adults and the possible escape en route of some of these. 

D. Breeding-out Methods: As soon as the larvae and pupae 
in the wide-mouthed carrying jars reach the field laboratory, 
they should be transferred into a large pan. The pupae should 
be picked out by means of a pipette and confined in jars, these 
covered with gauze. 

White enameled or porcelain soup plates gave the best 
results as breeding receptacles for the larvee. If the plates are 
tilted slightly, both shallow and deep water is afforded to the 
larvae. Debris and filamentous algae should be reduced to a 
minimum. The food of the larvae should be known; if diato- 
maceous, a few pebbles covered with diatoms will suffice. 
Predacious larvae of all sorts must be eliminated. Some species 
of mosquitos prefer sunlight, others do not, or there is prefer- 
•ence for foul water, etc. These peculiarities must be known. 
Successful breeding depends upon a careful attendance to the 
peculiar environmental factors of each species. 

Unless the water in the dishes is changed weekly, fouling 
will ensue and cause heavy mortality. This is obviated by 
pouring the contents of the dishes over a piece of clean surgical 
guaze and then inverting over a clean plate containing fresh 
water. The larvae when in contact with the water will free 
themselves from the meshes of the cloth. Sudden additions of 
fresh water were found to be detrimental; best results were 
obtained with water which had been standing in the room for 
twenty-four hours. Careful observance to these environmental 
requirements has reduced mortality among our own larvae from 
ten percent to less than one percent. 



12 



Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



The water in the breeding dishes must be aerated twice 
daily. The Paquelin Cautery bulb method referred to on page 
10 does well when the number of places is few. When these 
plates are numerous, it is better to construct an aerating device 
such as shown in figure 2, using old tins, tubing, etc. There 




Fig. 2. Aerating Device. A, water reservoir, open at top; B, air chamber; 
C, stop-cock regulating flow of water into B; R, tee unions made of cork; T, 
terminal capillary tubes. 

should be as many feeders as there are dishes to aerate. To set 
the apparatus into operation, adjust feeders to plates, fill 
chamber "A" with water and open stop-cock leading to the 
air chamber. 

The writer noted on four occasions a large roach drinking 
water from breeding pans, at the same time devouring larvae. 
On seven occasions ants were seen reaching after such larv^ 
as were near the edge of the plates and while under observation, 
two larvae were successfully withdrawn from the water. These 
observations suggest strongly the need of protection against 
these inroads. Keep lookout for mice. 



1913] 



Determining the Flight of Mosquitos 



13 



Frequently through chemical or physical changes in the 
water, produced by excess of heat or food, improper food or 
foreign substances, waste, etc., the larvae become sluggish and 
pupation is greatly retarded. If the cause is not due to fouling 
of the water, then table salt added not in excess of three percent, 
will make the larvae active and accelerate pupation. The 
dead or sick larvae in such pans should be eliminated. 

Pupae should be segregated from the breeding dishes daily, 
preferably morning and evening. They should be confined in 
wide-mouthed jars, the depth of water not exceeding" one and 
one half inches, and the number of pupae not more than two 
hundred and .fifty. The mouths of these jars should be pro- 
vided with paper cones, the tip truncated, and both cone and 
neck of the jar inserted into a screen cage as shown in figure 3. 




Fig. 3. Breeding-out Cage.S, screen cage, hinged back; A, wooden "H" sup- 
ports; R, lofts for wetted waste; T, jar containing pupae; E, truncated paper cone 
trap. 

The cone acts as a trap, thus preventing the adults which enter 
the cage from returning into the jar and being drowned. All 
crevices about the jars and in the cages must be stopped with 
cotton waste. 

It is advisable to place moist cotton on the floor of the screen 
cage, also to fill cavities "A" of the "H" supports with wet 
waste. The top ought to be covered with a wet cloth. These 
simple measures keep the inside of the cage cool and sweet, 
and adults can be kept in good condition for at least six days. 
The cages must be protected from direct sunlight, heat and rain. 
If ants are present, isolation by water barriers is necessary. 



14 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Several times the writer noted roaches in the cages, and the 
crops of the dissected roaches, as well as the appearance of the 
adults in the cages, showed the "why" of their presence. 

2. The Care of Adults. 

A. At the Field Laboratory: It is necessary each morning 
to remove the jars containing pupae from the screen cages. It 
will be found that no few adults remain on the sides of the glass 
jars. These are readily transferred into the screen cage by 
holding the cage in direct sunlight and tapping the jar briskly 
with the hand. When the jars are removed, the holes in the 
cage which served to receive them, must be plugged snugly with 
cotton waste to prevent the escape of any adults. The cage 
must now be placed in a sheltered corner and left for several 
hours, or until the chitinous portions of the exoskeleton have 
hardened and the wings stiffened. Precaution must be taken 
against the invasions by ants and roaches. Avoid rapid evap- 
oration and direct sunlight. 

B. Tra7isporting Adults to Stations: Colored adults should 
not be carried to several localities, the danger of the accidental 
escape of a colored one en route being too great. Adults, 
unstained, are best transported in the morning or evening, and 
each cage should be securely closed and partly encased in a 
damp cloth. The uncovered side should be underneath. An 
oil cloth cover is neccessary during showers. In two instances, 
when no covers were used, and the cages carried through light 
showers, all the adults were killed. Protection from wind was 
found necessary. Air currents cause rapid evaporation which 
the mosquitos cannot withstand. 

3. Coloring of the Adults. 

A. Dyes Used: Aqueous solution of eosin, fuchsin, gen- 
tian-violet, bismarck-braun, methylene-blue and orange-g, were 
used with good success, the proportions of dry stain to water 
being about one gram to fifty cc. It is best to make small 
quantities at a time as stock solutions may deteriorate. All 
stains should be kept locked up. Likewise staining operations 
should be known only to a few. Curiosity too frequently gives 
birth to trouble. 

It may not be amiss to state under this section two other 
"markers" which may be used effectively with larger diptera. 
In our work they were not as serviceable as the dyes. The 



1913] Determining the Flight of Mosquitos 15 

first is a 1 : 20 aqueous solution of phenolphthalein. It was 
found satisfactory on typhoid flies and is detected readily when 
a drop or two of one percent solution of ammonium or sodium 
hydroxide is added to the suspected specimen. A deep red 
color indicates presence of the drug. The second agent is 
corn starch and it is detected by applying tincture of iodin, a 
purple color ensuing in its presence. We had no opportunity 
to give this latter method a fair trial. 

B. Staining the Adults: The mosquitos in the rectangular 
screen cages should be stained preferably toward evening, 
about two hours before they are to be released, and always at 
the station where they will be liberated. A shelter must be 
provided for these cages. The stains must be applied lightly 
and must be dry on the insects before they may be allowed 
freedom. Small globules of water on the wings weight these 
down to such an extent that the mosquito cannot fly, and it is 
then easily captured by ants, roaches or more alert forms. 

The aqueous solution of the anilin dyes is converted unto 
a very fine spray through a vaseline-nebulizer, or a fine atom- 
izer, and this spray is allowed to fall upon the mosquitos. 
Direct and forceful projection of the stain against the sides of 
the mosquito is productive only of death to the insects. Too 
concentrated solutions must be avoided. The idea is not to 
encrust the mosquito with the stain, but to place a minute speck 
only upon the body. Hundreds of tests, using mere specks of 
the stain gave perfect results when tested for color. The 
danger of too-protracted a staining is that spiracles become 
sealed with the stain, mouth parts glued together, sensory 
areas covered, wings folded, etc. ; in other words the mosquitos 
are no good. 

After the mosquitos have been liberated, the cage should be 
washed in clear water to dissolve all superfiuous stain adhering 
to the screening or sides of the cage. Such crusts, if allowed to 
remain, create a foulness about the cage which is detrimental to 
the mosquitos confined therein. It is best, though the statement 
seems hardly necessary, to keep separate cages for each color 
used. 

To remove stains from fingers and hands, received during 
the coloring operations, wash hands in acid alcohol. The best 
way is to use rubber post-mortum gloves when staining 
mosquitos. 



16 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



4. Liberating Colored Adults. 

The experiments conducted on the canal zone suggest the 
advisability of liberating adults at or about dusk, or from then 
on till midnight. The stations selected may be few or many, 
depending upon the complexity of the physical and biotic 
factors presented at the time. All that is necessary for libera- 
tion is for someone to open the lid of the cage containing the 
colored mosquitos. This observer should note the time when 
he liberated the mosquitos, the climatic conditions at the time, 
and the direction taken by the mosquitos. If people move 
about near the place of liberation, particularly after dusk, and 
go to the town from there, this should be carefully noted. The 
person delegated for this duty should be a keen observer, 
and honest, too. 

The habits of the mosquitos vary with the species — not all 
cry for the warm blood of man. Then there are some that 
can't be without it. The writer liberated in the bush, about 
one quarter miles from Corozal, Canal Zone, at eleven a. m., 
about fifty stained Anopheles albimanus Wiede., and noted 
three of these soon clinging to his dark colored trousers, and by 
walking slowly — just as the natives do — he brought these with 
him into the town of Corozal. This illustrates one of the 
avenues of dispersal, practically independant of wind, and we 
must reckon with it, especially since this species is responsible 
for most of the malaria on the canal zone. 

A precaution, based on the above observation, was found 
necessary. Brush your clothing carefully after liberating colored 
mosquitos, and if possible, wear a light colored suit. The latter 
suggestion proved very helpful. Note also if people passing 
along the highways, walk toward or from the townsite, and 
whether they saunter or walk fast, or are quiet or boisterous. 

5. Collection and Examination of Adults in Buildings. 

The recovery of liberated mosquitos in the buildings will 
demand thorough search and great precaution. Unless this is 
done, much fruit cannot be expected for the labors and patience 
expended. 

A. Collection by Hand: Hand collections in the buildings 
are best made at dawn and just at dusk, the mosquitos at these 
two periods trying to get out and into, respectively, of the 



1913] 



Determining the Flight of Mosquitos 



17 



buildings. The men selected for this work should be provided 
with a killing-tube made of a heavy walled test tube, 6 inches 
by IM inches, containing a four inch cotton plug saturated with 
chloroform, over which are a few circular pieces of blotter paper. 
The collector merely superimposes the mouth of his tube over 
the mosquito he sees on the wall or clothing, the chloroform 
vapor, readily generated by the aid of the heat of his palm, 
quickly kills the insect. A few days' work will render the novice 
an expert. All the mosquitos caught in one day in one building 
should be placed by the collector into a circular pill box, of 
which he should have a good supply. This box should be 
labeled, giving the date, house, and the initials of collector. At 
the close of day, these boxes should be turned over to the person 
in charge, who should check them and rectify any existing 
errors. The next step is to examine these captured mosquitos 
for color. (See pp. 19-20). 

B. Collection by Traps: If the buildings are well-screened 
and holes and crevices blocked, mosquito traps may be used to 
excellent advantage. This is being done on the canal zone, 




Fig. 4. Mosquito /m/>, in section, s, inner "V" section; u, middle "V" sec- 
tion; a, slits in the "V" sections; e, semicircular outer envelope; o, sill of build- 
ing. The "V" sections are detachable. 



18 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

and the trap illustrated was developed by Mr. Chas. H. Bath, 
sanitary inspector. Such or similar traps greatly add to the 
data, and if placed to buildings that harbor a large number of 
people asleep, will attract many mosquitos, save them, and in 
regions of malaria, greatly reduce the number of such cases. 
The traps should be numbered and recorded on charts where 
their location with respect to the wind is seen at a glance. 

Traps should be taken down each morning, at about nine 
o'clock was found best, and the adults in these killed and placed 
into pill-boxes, one box for each trap, and each box properly 
labeled. There is no apparent need for blocking up the open- 
ing in the wall when the traps are removed. During five months 
with these traps, the writer never found a single mosquito that 
entered during the daytime. The method used was to place 
a new trap in the place of the one taken out. 

A very satisfactory and quick way to kill the mosquitos in 
the traps is to place the trap into a closed chamber and fumigate 
with sulphur dioxide. The question arises whether or not this 
gas combines with the moisture in the mosquito to form sul- 
phurous acid (H2SO3), and whether or not this will bleach what 
color is on the mosquitos. The data following, of a series of 
tests made, indicate the negative is true : 

50 Culex sp. Stained lightly with eosin, left in SO2 chamber 
for 3 hrs. ; no bleaching. 

100 Culex sp. Stained lightly with eosin; 100 Culex sp. 
with gentian-violet, exposed 13 hrs.; no bleaching. 

30 Culex, 70 Anopheles albimanus et malefactor stained 
lightly with methylene-blue, exposed to burning sulphur and 
generated steam for 33^2 hrs. ; O. K. 

10 Culex sp. each slightly stained with all stains cited, 
exposed 15 minutes; no bleaching. 

Paper and blotters, wetted and colored, exposed for 6 hrs.; 
no bleaching; no acid reaction to litmus. 

Vials containing 1 : 10000 aqueous solutions of bismarck- 
braun, methylene-blue, gentian-violet and eosin, exposed 3^2 
hrs. ; no bleaching; no acid reaction. 

C. Collection in Tents. If patient and honest men are 
procurable, army tents may be pitched at suitable places 
radiating from the releasing point, and these men placed, one to 
a tent, with a lantern, killing tube and boxes, to catch all 
mosquitos that enter the tent. The lamp should burn dimly, 



1913] Determining the Flight of Mosquitos 19 

and the men cautioned to be as quiet as possible, and if they 
must move about, to so do with little commotion. Contrary 
behavior shews mosquitos away. It seems these gnats wait at 
the door till the occupant is quiet. The mosquitos caught in a 
given tent during each hour interval, should be placed in a pill- 
box, and this one properly labeled, containing in addition to 
what had already been indicated, the particular hour's catch 
represented. 

D. Collections with a Beating Net: Important clues bearing 
directly upon the movements of adult mosquitos will be 
obtained by systematic sweeping in the grass and shrubbery, 
using for this purpose a large entomological beating net. The 
adults thus captured should be placed into pill-boxes, these 
labeled to show the place where caught, character of the vege- 
tation, and hour when captured. The note book should 
contain data concerning the temperature, wind direction, 
velocity, humidity, cloudiness, smoke, etc. The writer noted 
from a series of sweepings that Anopheles albimanus Wiede. and 
certain Culices (C qninquefasciatus Say et Mansonia titillans 
Walker) were more abundant in the grass when the winds were 
above four miles per hour, than when these winds were less. Its 
bearing upon the problem can only be determined after a series 
of careful tests. 

E. Examination of Adults: The mosquitos in a single pill- 
box should be emptied upon a piece of glass plate under which 
is a white blotter or paper. With a camel's hair brush these 
are spread over the plate and each specimen is wetted with a 
testing solution containing three parts of glycerine, three of 
alcohol and one of chloroform. If any color is present upon any 
mosquito, it will be revealed as soon as the testing solution 
reaches it, diffusing outward. Thus each colored specimen 
becomes a distinct nucleus of diffusion — hence non-colored 
adults cannot receive through accident some of the diffusing 
color and thus confuse the observer. The number, species, sex, 
date and where captured, of all recovered mosquitos, should 
appear on the data sheets and charts. In addition, a record 
should be kept of the total mosquito catch, properly tabulated. 

It is advisable that only one person be detailed for this 
examination, and care must be exercised to select a man free 
from either amnesic or general color blindness. His working 
table must be kept clean. He should make preliminary tests 



20 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

to note the action and peculiarity of each color when tested. 
Accidental rupture of the abdomen of a mosquito, thus extruding 
the contained blood, should cause no confusion as this blood 
does not diffuse as does a stain, and furthermore, after a few 
minutes in the solution, it turns brown. If a spectroscope is. 
available, all colors recovered should be confirmed. As a pre- 
caution, all tested mosquitos should be destroyed daily. It is 
advisable that each day's catch be examined as soon as possi- 
ble, and whenever delay is necessary, afford protection from ants. 

SUMMARY. 

1. It is essential, first of all, to have a good map of the 
territory, to keep a record of climatic conditions, to know the 
topography and plant associations, the species of mosquitos 
studied, etc. 

2. Larvce and pupae must be collected in large numbers, 
cared for at a field laboratory and the adults that emerge kept 
in first class condition until ready to be colored and released. 

3. These adults must be stained lightly and carefully, 
without injury to the insect, and the stain allowed to dry on 
the mosquitos before they are released. Color at liberating 
station. 

4. Release the adults, noting conditions under which this 
is done. Brush your clothing. 

5. Collect daily as with a fine comb, the mosquitos that 
entered the buildings, tents, and traps. Test these for any 
color present. 

6. Lastly, interpret rightly your results. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

The writer is particularly indebted to Colonel W. C. Gorgas, 
Chief Sanitary Officer, Isthmian Canal Commission, for permis- 
sion to contribute and publish this paper. 

He also extends his gratitude to the following gentlemen 
who favored him in many ways: Mr. J. A. Le Prince, Chief 
Sanitary Inspector; Dr. A. J. Orenstein, Assistant Chief Sani- 
tary Inspector; Dr. S. T. Darling, Chief, Board of Health 
Laboratory, Ancon Hospital; Messrs. A. R. Proctor, C. H. 
Bath, J. B. Shropshire, W. S. Chidester and Geo. Parker, 
Sanitary Inspectors. 

November 25, 1912. 



1913] Determining the Flight of Mosquitos 21 



REFERENCES. 

The titles appearing below will aid the experimentor mainly 
by giving the taxonomy and behavior of mosquitos. 

Darling, Dr. S. T. 1910. Studies in Relation to Malaria. Isthmian Canal Com- 
mission, Washington, D. C. This report contains important observations 
upon the habits, habitats and control of Anopheles spp. 

Dyar, Harr. G., and Knab, Fred. 1906. The Larvae of Culicidae Classified as Inde- 
pendent Organisms. Journ. N. Y. Ento. Soc, Vol. XIV, No. 4. Particularly- 
helpful in separating the larvae. 

Giles, G. M. IQQQ. A Handbook of the Gnats or Mosquitos. N.Y. Wm.Wood&Co. 

Howard, Dr. L. O. 1902. Mosquitos. McClure Phillips & Co., N. Y. 

1906. Key to the Known Larvae of Mosquitos of the United States. U. S. Dept. 
Agric. Bur. Ento. Circ. 72. Washington, D. C. 

Knab, Fred. See D3'-ar Harr. G. and Knab, Fred. 1906. 

LePrince, J. A. 1909. Mosquito Destruction in the Tropics. Journ. Am. Med. 
Asso. Vol. LI., pp. 2203-2208. A good summary to date of anti-malarial work 
on the Zone, and containing valuable data concerning the habits of 
Anopheles spp. 

Orenstein, Dr. A. J. 1912. Sanitary Inspection of the Canal Zone. Am. Journ. 
Public Health. Mar., '12. 



A REVISION OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF 

THE DIPTEROUS GENUS NEURIGONA. 

(DOLICHOPODIDiE.) 

M. C. Van Duzee. 

The Dipterous genus Neurigona was established by Rondani 
in Dipt. Ital. prodromus in 1856, with one species, quadrifasciata 
Fabr., which is therefore the type of the genus. In 1829 
Thomas Say described an American species as Medeterus 
lateralis. Dr. Loew in 1864 pubhshed three others, dimidiata, 
rubella, and tenuis, and in 1869 a fourth, carbonifer. In 1899 
W. M. Wheeler added two more, floridida and lienosa, thus 
giving us seven described species from America north of Mexico. 
From farther south Prof. Aldrich has described decora and 
signijer from Grenada and St. Vincent, and J. R. Schiner has 
given us brasilie?tsis from Brazil. These are all the species 
previously described from America so far as I can learn. 

The genus Neurigona as characterized by Dr. Loew under 
the name Saucropus in his Monograph of the Dolichopodidae of 
North America are: 

"First joint of the antennae without hair on the upper side; arista 
dorsal ; thorax with a sloping area upon the middle of its posterior end ; 
feet very long and slender; hind tibia? elongated, the first joint of hind 
tarsi without bristles, shorter than the second; abdomen elongated and 
narrow, especially in the male; hypopygium disengaged, short and stout, 
inflected, with short very little developed appendages; color of the 
body principally or at least partially yellow; hairs and bristles mostly 
black. " 

The above characters serve to define the genus as I use it in 
the present paper but there are some exceptions that should be 
noted. The bristles of the dorsum of the thorax are always 
black, thus separating the species of this genus from those of 
the genus Chrysotimus where they are yellow, but those of the 
abdomen are often pale as are also the hairs especially in the 
male. There is a group of western species which are entirely or 
almost entirely blackish; the first joint of the hind tarsi is 
sometimes longer than the second, as is the case in siiperbiens 
Loew, which is synonymous with lateralis Say, and fully as 
long in the male of tenuis Loew, also longer in australis n. sp. 

In the table of genera of the Dolichopodidae in Williston's 
Manual of the North American Diptera under No. 28 we have 
to take fourth vein converging towards the third in order to 



1913] North American Dipterous Genus Nenrigona 23 

run a specimen through to the genus Neurigona. In most of 
our species this is true but there are several exceptions. Dr. 
Loew in his Monograph of the Dohchopodidas says that in the 
South African species the third and fourth veins are parallel, 
which is also the case with N. signifer Aldrich, and in one or 
two of the species described in this paper. I might add that 
the abdomen of the female is prolonged into more or less of an 
ovipositor, as this character is of importance in separating this 
genus from Xanthochlorus where the female abdomen is blunt 
or rounded at the tip. 

Fred Kowarz in Wiener Entomoiogische Zeitung, II, p. 51, 
uses the following characters in taking a specimen through to the 
genus Neurigona: "Acrostichal bristles present, in two rows; 
Arista dorsal; Fourth longitudinal vein not forked; hind coxae 
with a single erect bristle on the outside; body color not 
metallic." These characters hold good in all of the species 
included in this paper that I have seen except that in N. albo- 
spinosa n. sp. there are several weak and one stronger bristle on 
the outside of the hind coxae; and the last character given would 
have to be used in a qualified sense. 

There are a few characters which are common to most if not 
all of our species: The lateral and lower orbital cilia are always 
pale, as are also the cilia of the tegulae. The hind coxae have a 
single large black bristle on the outside, except in albospinosa 
n. sp. which has one large and several weaker whitish bristles 
on the outside of the hind coxae. There are two large black 
bristles on the margin of the scutellum, and in most of our 
species there is a pair of weak bristles or hairs outside of these. 
In all of our species that I have examined, and in the two 
European species that I have seen, {4-fasciata Fab. and suturalis 
Fall.), there are one or more pale yellowish bristles above the 
front coxae; and often a black bristle on the middle and hind 
trochanters. The hairs on the legs are arranged in longitudinal 
rows, and the lower surface of the femora are usually bar?. 
The males of many of our species have a ventral extension of 
the fifth segment of the abdomen into which the hypopygium 
partly fits when bent under the abdomen as it is ordinarily 
carried, I have called these extensions sheaths, they are bilobed, 
and form characters that can sometimes be used in separating 
the species. 



24 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Most of our species of Neiirigona are found on the trunks of 
trees but I sometimes take specimens, mostly of the riihella 
group, while sweeping. In most cases these insects will fly to a 
tree and alight instantly and rest in one position until they are 
disturbed or wish to change their location when they make a 
quick short flight alighting generally a little distance higher up 
or sometimes to one side, seldom or never lower down. I have 
often seen them start near the ground and work upwards in 
short flights until they disappeared from view at a height of 
perhaps eighteen feet. The male often comes to a tree and 
flies upward in a perfectly vertical line about two inches from 
the trunk until it disappears from sight or alights about twelve 
feet or more above the ground ; it may be looking for the female 
or possibly seeking its prey. In several instances I have seen 
individuals feeding on Psocid larva. 

I have watched the courtship of the males a number of 
times, they hover over the female for a few seconds and then 
try and alight upon her, but only once did I see the union 
consummated, in all other cases the female darted away. 

As far as I can learn the only species in our fauna that has 
been bred is N. viridis n. sp. Mr. James Angus, of West Farms, 
N. Y., makes the following note on this species: "Larva feeding 
in rotten wood of hickory." We have no description of this 
larva or pupa, but a pupa case is mounted with Mr. Angus' 
specimen in the National Museum collection. 

The sexes of this genus seem to be unevenly distributed. 
At one time I will take nearly all males, at another mostly 
females. One afternoon I took seven males and thirty-five 
females of tenuis, while the next morning in woods a mile and a 
half distant I took twenty-two males and but nine females of 
the same species. At another time I took fourteen males of 
floridula var. injuscata and no female, but with them were sev- 
eral males and females of deformis n. sp. At another time I took 
many males of tarsalis in one spot with females of two other 
species, and a half mile farther on found both males and females. 

The drawings for this paper were made with a camera 
lucida by Mr. William Wild, of East Aurora, N. Y. The draw- 
ings of the hypopygiums give a good idea of the general 
appearance but no attempt was made to go into anatomical 
details. 



1913] North American Dipterous Genus Neiirigona 25 

I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to those who have 
sent me material for study, and thereby made the revision of 
this genus possible. To Prof. J. M. Aldrich for the loan of his 
material, and his help during the preparation of this paper; to 
the authorities of the National Museum for the loan of spec- 
imens, and to Mr. Knab for his help in looking up references in 
the National Museum hbrary; to Mr. Nathan Banks, Prof. C. 
W. Johnson, Prof. A. L. Melander, and Mr. V. A. E. Daecke, for 
the loan of their material; and to Mr. E. T. Cresson for the loan 
of the material of the American Entomological Society. 

TABLE OF SPECIES. 

MALES. 

1. Dorsum of the thorax mostly black, green or blue 2 

Dorsum largely yellow 17 

2. Hypopygium yellow 3 

Hypopygium black or testaceous 7 

3. Dorsum of the thorax bright blue. (West Indies) 16 decora 

Dorsum black or greenish •. 4 

4. Abdomen with black bands 5 

Abdomen marked with green 6 

5. Front tibiae with a row of bristles above, front tarsi plain 27 tibialis 

Front tibiae plain, third joint of front tarsi white, fourth and fifth joints 

black 23 tarsalis 

6. Adbomen marked with brilliant green, appendages of the hypopygium 

small. (Eastern species) 25 lateralis 

Abdomen marked with darker green, appendages long .well developed. 
(Western species) 26 setosa 

7. Abdomen yellow with black bands 8 

Abdomen nearly uniform, color blackish 15 

8. Costa strongly arcuated. (Figs. 17 and 18) . , 9 

Costa normal 10 

9. Front tarsi with the second, third and fourth joints flattened and fringed 

with hairs 18 deformis 

Front tarsal joints not flattened, fifth black and bent at a right angle. 

17 arcuata 

10. Thorax bright shining green. 15 viridis 

Thorax if green dull 11 

1 1 . Front tarsi plain 14 

Front tarsi ornamented 12 

12. Front tarsi black, fringed on each side with short hairs 28 ciliata 

Front tarsi with an oval tip 13 

13. Front tarsi two- thirds as long as their tibiae 20 pectoralis 

Front tarsi about as long as their tibiae 19 tenuis 

14. Plurse and dorsum blackish 21 aestiva 

Plurae and sides of dorsum yellow, most of dorsum black and polished. 

5 nitida 

15. Front tarsi plain 31 albospinosa 

Front tarsi with an oval tip 16 

16. Front tibiae longer than their tarsi 29 perbrevis 

Front tibiae shorter than their tarsi 30 australis 

17. Front tarsi ornamented 18 

Front tarsi plain 19 

18. Front tarsi with an oval tip 4 carbonifer 

Front tarsi with the second joint flattened and widened at the tip, other 

joints cylindrical 12 aldrichii 



2G Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

19. Abdomen yellow with black bands 22 

Abdomen yellow without black bands 20 

20. Fourth joint of front tarsi nearly two-thirds as long as third, last four joints 

infuscated 14 disjuncta . 

Fourth joint only about one-third as long as third, fifth joint black 21 

21. Wings hyaline, tinged with yellow, veins yellow 9 floridula 

Wings with a cloud at tip, tinted with brownish, veins brownish 

10 floridula var. infuscata 

22. Dorsum of the thorax with the flattened space -before the scutellum yellow.. 23 
Dorsum with the flattened space blue or black 24 

23. Dorsum of the thorax yellow, immaculate 14 disjuncta 

Dorsum with two or three black spots 8 maculata 

24. Flattened space before the scutellum a beautiful greenish blue (West 

Indies) 7 signifer 

Flattened space black 25 

25. All the hairs and bristles of the front and middle coxae yellow. . . .3 dimidiata 
Hairs and bristles of the middle coxae mostly black 26 

26. Front tibiae with a row of bristles 27 tibialis 

Front tibiae plain 27 

27. Front metatarsi about one and one-fourth times as long as their tibiae. 

1 rubella 
Front metatarsi about equal to their tibiae 2 perplexa 

FEMALES. 

1 . Dorsum of the thorax largely yellow 16 

Dorsum mostly blue, green, or blackish 2 

2. Dorsum of the thorax bright shining blue. (West Indies) 3 decora 

Dorsum green or blackish 3 

3. Dorsum bright shining green 15 viridis 

Dorsum dull greenish or blackish 4 

4. Dorsum dull greenish 5 

Dorsum black or gray 14 

5. Tip of the fourth vein ending distinctly before the apex of the wing 6 

Tip of the fourth vein ending in the tip of the wing, or nearly so 7 

6. Tergum of the last two segments of the abdomen dull green, middle and 

hind femora each with a bristle near the tip 26 setosa 

Tergum with more or less brilliant green, femora without a bristle near 
the tip 25 lateralis 

7. Abdomen f asciate 9 

Abdomen of nearly uniform color 8 

8. Large species, 4.5 mm. (New Mexico) 30 australis 

Smaller species, 2 mm. (Eastern species) 32 minuta 

9. Wings strongly tinged with yellow on the costal edge 10 

Wings nearly uniform grayish hyaline 11 

10. Wings with distinct clouds at the tips of third and fourth veins. .18 deformis 
Wings evenly tinged along the front, not darker at tip 17 arcuata 

11. Dorsum of the thorax covered with brown pollen which nearly hides the 

ground-color. (Calf.) 24 lienosa 

Dorsum with grayish, or white pollen 12 

12. Pleurae and dorsum without yellow, except the humeri and sometimes the 

lateral edges and posterior angles 13 

Pleurae and dorsum with considerable yellow 19 tenuis 

13. Pleura and dorsum without yellow except the humeri 20 pectoralis 

Dorsum with the humeri, lateral edges to the base of the wings, and the 

posterior angles yellow 23 tarsalis 

14. Dorsum black with the humeri, lateral edges, and two stripes extending 

forward on each side of the flattened space yellow 6 tridens 

Dorsum of the thorax gray 15 

15; Dorsum of the thorax with three metallic brown vittae 31 albospinosa 

Dorsum with two nonmetallic brown vittae 22 bivittata 



1913] North American Dipterous Genus Neurigona 27 

16. Dorsum of the thorax with the flattened space before the scutellum black, 

gray, green, or blue 17 

Dorsum with the flattened space yellow 25 

17. Flattened space on the dorsum a beautiful greenish blue 7 signifer 

Flattened space black, gray, or dull green 18 

18. Flattened space on the dorsum and more or less of the dorsum dull green. 

19 tenuis 
Flattened space black or gray 19 

19. Flattened space and most of the dorsum gray 22 bivittata 

Flattened space black 20 

20. Dorsum of the thorax and the black central line shining 5 nitida 

Dorsum less shining, and without distinct central line 21 

21. Dorsum with the anterior half and three stripes extending backward 

black 6 tridens 

Dorsum with only the flattened space black 22 

22. Front metatarsi only three-fourths as long as their tibiae 4 carbonifer 

Front metatarsi about equal to their tibiae 23 

23. First and second joints of hind tarsi equal 3 dimidiata 

Second joint of hind tarsi longer than the first 24 

24. Posterior cross- vein rectangular 1 rubella 

Posterior cross- vein a little oblique 2 perplexa 

25. Abdomen f asciate with black 26 

Abdomen not distinctly fasciate 27 

26. Dorsum of the thorax without black spots. Length 3 mm 12 aldrichii 

Dorsum with three black spots. Length 4.5-5 mm 8 maculata 

27. Dorsum of the thorax dull with thick yellow pollen 28 

Dorsum shining, only thinly pollenose, pollen whitish 29 

28. Dorsum evenly and thickly pollenose 11 flava 

Dorsum with pollenose vittas 18 transversa 

29. Tips of third and fourth veins widely separated 14 disjuncta 

Tips of third and fourth veins approximated 30 

30. Veins yellow 9 floridula 

Veins brownish 10 floridula var. infuscata 

1 Neurigona rubella Loew. 

Figure 1. 
Saucropus rubella Loew, Neue Beitr., viii, p. 76, 1861; Mon. N. Am. Diptera, 
ii, p. 226, 1864. 

Thorax and abdomen yellow, the former with the flattened space 
before the scutellum black, the latter with black bands; hypopygium 
black; front metatarsi about one and' one fourth times as long as their 
tibife, with bristles below. Length 5 mm. 

Male : Face very narrow, almost linear, and with the palpi silver}^ 
white; proboscis yellow; antennae deep yellow, the first joint paler, 
arista yellowish brown; front and occiput black, the ground color 
concealed by thick white pollen. Dorsum of the thorax reddish yellow 
with the flattened space before the scutellum black and covered with 
whitish pollen; humeri and pleurse pale yellow, the latter with white 
pollen, and with a black spot in front of the halters; metanotum black, 
with the sides yellowish. Abdomen yellow, dorsimi of the second, 
third, and fourth segments with black bands, that on the second near 
the base and narrowing at the extreme lateral edges, that on the third 
at the base and of equal width throughout, the one on the fourth at 
base and narrowed at the sides not reaching the lateral edges, but 
forming a subtriangular spot; fifth segment straight above with the 
front and hind angles square, the upper edge infuscated, and with the 



28 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

ventral sheath black; the hairs on the dorsum of the abdomen appear 
reddish or yellowish when viewed from above, but more blackish when 
seen from the side; hypopygium small, testaceous, rounded above, 
with yellow hairs on the upper part, appendages partly yellowish. Legs 
yellowish; front coxffi with delicate yellow hairs on the front surface 
and yellow bristles near the tip, these bristles brownish in certain 
lights; middle coxse with black hairs and bristles on the front side near 
the tip, and some very minute yellow hairs above; hind coxas with the 
usual black bristles on the outside, there is also a small bristle on 
each middle and hind trochanter; front metatarsi one and one-fourth 
times as long as their tibiae, the remaining four tarsal joints taken 
together somewhat shorter than their tibiae, second and third joints 
brownish; front tibise and tarsi with the hairs long, and with a row of 
longer hair-like bristles on the lower surface of the tibiae and the first 
three joints of the tarsi, these hairs nearly as long as the diameter of the 
tarsal joints, there is also a row of shorter and stouter hairs on the 
upper surface of these joints; middle metatarsi about as long as their 
tibiffi, the remaining four joints together abount one-fifth shorter than 
their tibiee; hind tarsi about as long as their tibicC, second joint a little 
longer than the first; middle and hind tarsi brown from the tip of the 
first joint. Wings hyaline, tinged with yellowish in front of the third 
vein ; posterior cross-vein perpendicular to the fifth vein ; third vein bent 
backward at tip, fourth vein quite sharply arched forward from a little 
beyond the middle of its last section and ending rather close to the tip 
of the third vein ; tip of the fourth vein distinctly before the apex of the 
wing; posterior cross-vein about twice its length from the wing margin 
measured on the fifth vein; veins brownish. 

Female: Differs from the male in having the bristles of the front 
coxse black, these bristles are large and conspicuous; the front tarsi are 
brownish and hardly twice as long as their tibice, the first joint hardly 
as long as their tibite ; middle metatarsi a little shorter than their tibiae ; 
second joint of hind tarsi only slightly longer than the first. 

Dr. Loew says in his description of this species that the 
metanotum is black only on its base and along the center. I 
have specimens before me which exactly agree with this, but 
others have the metanotum almost entirely black, only a very 
little yellowish at the sides. 

I have described the male of this species from two specimens : 
one in the National Museum collection, taken by Mr. Burgess 
at Beverly, Mass., September 6, 1874, and the other (a broken 
specimen) taken at Sea Cliff, N. Y., by Mr. Nathan Banks. 
The males seem to be rare, although the females are taken all 
through the eastern states quite commonly; I have taken them 
around Buffalo, N. Y., and have seen specimens from Con- 
necticut, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, 
and Kansas. Mrs. Slosson reports it from New Hampshire. 



1913] North American Dipterous Genus Neurigona 29 

Note. — The females of the five following species which have 
the dorsum of the thorax yellow, and the flattened space before 
the scutellum black can be separated as follows: nitida differs 
from the other four by having a central shining black line on 
the dorsum; carbonifer has the front metatarsi only three- 
fourths as long as their tibias, while in dimidiata, rubella, and 
perplexa, the front metatarsi are nearly equal to their tibiae; 
in dimidiata it is fully as long, and in the others hardly as long 
as their tibias, dimidiata has the first and second joints of the 
hind tarsi equal, while in the other two the second joint is 
distinctly the longest, in the last two the bend in the last sec- 
tion of the fourth vein is sharper, and the tarsi are darker than 
in dimidiata; the only difference between the females of rubella 
and perplexa that I can see is that in rubella the posterior cross- 
vein is rectangular while in perplexa it is a little oblique, but it 
is difficult to separate them. 

I have compared the female of the European species N. 
quadrifasciata Fab. which is the type species of the genus, and 
closely related to this group, and find that it differs from all of 
our five species mentioned above, by having the third and 
fourth veins more widely separated at the tips, the fourth vein 
ending in the apex of the wing, while in our species the fourth 
vein ends distinctly before the apex of the wing. Fig. 28 is the 
apical part of the wing of quadrifasciata Fab. 

I have also examined N. suturalis Fall, of Europe, and find 
it quite distinct from any of our species. 

2 Neurigona perplexa n. sp. 

Figure 2. 

Thorax and abdomen yellow, the former with the flattened space 
before the scutellum black, and the latter with black bands; hypopygium 
black, small. Hairs and bristles of the front coxae whitish; front 
metatarsi about the length of their tibias. Length 4>4 mm. 

Male : Face very narrow, eyes almost touching on the center of the 
face, leaving only a small triangle above and below, face and palpi 
silvery white; proboscis and antennee yellow, arista brownish; front 
and occiput black, covered with white pollen; frontal and post-vertical 
bristles black; orbital cilia whitish. Thorax yellow; the humeri and 
lateral edges of the dorsum whitish yellow; flattened space before the 
scutellimi black, with white pollen; a dark central line on the dorsum 
between the acrostichal bristles, reaching from the black flattened space 
to the front of the dorsum (this may not be found in all specimens) ; 
pleurcB pale yellow, with white pollen, and the usual black spot in front 
of the halters; scutellum yellow with a black spot at base; bristles of 



30 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

the thorax black, those on the ^posterior part large, a space on each srde 
above the humeri and reaching about half way to the root of the wings 
covered with short black bristles; metanotum black with yellow on the 
sides. Abdomen yellow with black bands at the base of the second, 
third, and fourth segments, these bands narrowed laterally, hardly 
reaching the sides below, and emarginate on the center of the dorsum; 
fifth segment small, with the ventral sheath black; hairs of the abdomen 
black, those on the fifth segment, and a few along the sides yellow; 
hypopygium black or testaceous, small, subquadrate, and rounded 
behind. Legs pale yellow; front coxae with yellow hairs and bristles; 
middle coxae with black hairs and bristles; front metatarsi about the 
length of their tibiae, the four remaining joints together about the length 
of the first, the fourth joint very shghtly flattened, third joint nearly 
twice the length of the fourth; hairs on the front tarsi quite long; middle 
metatarsi about as long as their -tibiae; hind tarsi with the second joint 
longer than the first. Wings hyaline, hardly tinged with grayish; veins 
yellowish brown ; posterior cross- vein somewhat oblique. 

Female; I place with the male described above a single female 
closely related to rubella, but somewhat smaller and with the posterior 
cross- vein a little oblique; it agrees with the male in all but sexual 
characters. 

Described from one male in the National Museum collection, 
taken at Lehigh Gap, Pa., July 23, 1907, by C. T. Greene; and 
one female sent me by Prof. C. W. Johnson and labeled Capens, 
Me., July 21, 1901. 

Note. — This is closely related to rubella and nitida, but the 
male differs from the later by having only a black central line 
on the dorsum of the thorax, the abdominal bands are emar- 
ginate, the front tarsi have shorter hairs below, the fourth 
joint is very slightly flattened, and the posterior cross-vein is 
twice its length from the wing margin measured on the fifth 
vein, in nitida it is less than twice its length from the margin 
and the fourth joint of front tarsi is cylindrical. From rubella 
it differs in having the front of the wing less arched; all the tarsi 
are darkened from the base a little, but the dark part not as 
distinctly marked as in rubella, the front metatarsi are about 
the same length as their tibiae while in rubella they are very 
distinctly longer. In rubella the third and fourth joints of the 
front tarsi are about equal while in this species the third is 
nearly twice as long as the fourth. This species is a little 
smaller than rubella and the posterior cross-vein is a little 
oblique while in rubella it is perpendicular to the fifth vein. 
It differs from dimidiata by having black hairs and bristles on 
the middle coxae, while dimidiata has only yellowish hairs and 



1913] North American Dipterous Genus Neiirigona 31 

bristles on the middle coxae; dimidiata also has pale hairs on 
most of the first four segments of the abdomen while in this 
species they are mostly black, the front of the wing in this 
species is also more arched. 

3 Neurigona dimidiata Loew. 

Figure 3. 
Saucropus dimidiata Loew, Neue Beitr., viii, p. 75, 1861; Mon. N. A. Diptera, 
ii, p. 225, 1864. 

Thorax and abdomen yellow, the former with the flattened space 
and sometimes a central line black, the latter with black bands; 
bristles and hairs of the front and middle coxse all yellowish; front 
metatarsi about the same length as their tibiffi. Length 4 mm. 

Male: Eyes almost touching on the middle of the face; face and 
palpi silvery white; proboscis and antennae yellow, arista brownish; 
front and occiput black, thickly white pollenose, the pollen on the 
occiput, the flattened space before the scutellum, and the metanotum 
appears to be tinged with blue; orbital cilia whitish. Thorax yellow, 
reddish yellow and shining on the dorsum, white pollenose on the pleurae, 
there is the usual small black spot on the pleurae in front of the halters; 
the flattened space on the dorsum black, and a black central line extends 
from this to the front of the thorax between the acrostichal bristles, 
this line seems to be a variable character, in one of the specimens before 
me it is almost wanting; humeri yellowish white; metanotum black; 
scutellum yellow, lighter colored on the disk and somewhat shining. 
Abdomen yellow with rather narrow black bands on the second, third, 
and fourth segments, those on the third and fourth sometimes not very 
sharply defined; the hairs of the abdomen mostly yellowish, the marginal 
row of bristles on the first segment black and rather short; fourth seg- 
ment produced on the venter on the posterior end ; fifth segment higher 
than long, somewhat pointed in front on the dorsum, entirely yellow except 
the brown ventral sheath, and with rather long yellow hair. Hypopygium 
black or testaceous, polished, and rather small with yellowish append- 
ages. Legs pale yellow; front and middle coxae with all the hairs and 
bristles yellowish white; hind trochanters with a small black bristle; 
front tarsi more than twice the length of their tibiae, and with a row of 
long hairs below ; front metatarsi a little longer than their tibiae ; middle 
metatarsi about the same length as their tibiae; hind tarsi a little 
shorter than their tibiae, first joint a very little shorter than the second ; 
all the tarsi infuscated frcm the tip of the first joint. Wings hyaline, 
very slightly tinged with grayish; the bend in the fourth vein rather 
sharp and at the middle of the last section ; tip of the fourth vein before 
the apex of the wing; posterior cross-vein a little less than twice its 
length from the wing margin, measured on the fifth vein. 

Female : A single female that I take to be the female of this species 
has black hairs and bristles on the middle coxae, and black bristles and 
yellow hairs on the front coxae'; the front tarsi twice as long as their 
tibiae, the metatarsi being as long as the tibiae; middle metatarsi as long 
as their tibiae; first and second joints of hind tarsi equal. 



32 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

This seems to be a southern species, Dr. Loew reporting it 
from Florida and Washington, D. C, ; the only specimens I 
have seen (one female and two males) were taken by Mr. 
Nathan Banks at Falls Church, Va., July 10th to Sept. 26th. 

4 Neurigona carbonifer Loew. 

Figure 4. 
Saucropus carbonifer Loew, Diptera Americae Septentrionalis Indigena, ix, 
84, 1869. 

Thorax and abdomen yellow, the former with the flattened space 
in front of the scutellum black, the latter with black bands; hypopygium 
yellow; front tarsi with an oval tip. Length 4-5 mm. 

Male : Face and palpi silvery white, the latter longer and narrower 
than in most species; face rather wide for a male, and with the sides 
nearly parallel; front and occiput black, thickly covered with white 
pollen; proboscis and antennae yellow, the latter with the third joint 
s:nall, arista brownish; orbital cilia and post-vertical bristles yellowish. 
Thorax reddish yellow, flattened space before the scutellum, a large 
spot on the pleurae, another above and in front of the middle coxae, and 
a small spot in front of the halters black; a dark line between the 
acrostichal bristles, and sometimes along the row of bristles on either 
side; humeri yellowish white; bristles of the dorsum well developed, a 
large yellow bristle on the pleurae above the front coxae; scutellum pale 
yellow, slightly darkened at base; metanotum black. Abdomen yellow 
more or less distinctly banded with black on the second and third seg- 
ments; first and fifth segments with yellowish hairs, the large bristles 
on the hind margin of the first, and the hairs on the dorsum of the 
second, third, and fourth segments black; venter yellow with long, 
yellow hairs on the fourth segment, hypopygium, its appendages, and 
the sheath on the venter of the fifth segment yellow. Coxae and legs 
pale yellow, all the hairs and bristles of the front coxae whitish, some- 
times the larger bristles brownish in certain lights ; middle coxse with a 
few black hairs and bristles in front near the tip; front tarsi twice as 
long as their tibiae first joint three-fourths as long as their tibiae, the 
fourth joint whitish and widened at the tip, fifth joint black, flattened, 
forming an oval tip to the tarsi; middle metatarsi about the same 
length as their tibiffi; first joint of hind tarsi shorter than second, wings 
hyaline; veins brown; last section of fourth vein very sharply bent 
forward near the middle, ending before the apex of the wing, rather 
close to the tip of third vein. 

Female: Venation the same as in the male; front metatarsi about 
three-fourths as long as their tibiae; front coxae with yellow hairs and 
black bristles; the bands on the abdomen narrow but sharply defined; 
there are no black spots on the pleurae as in the male except the usual 
one in front of the halters; and no central line on the dorsum; the 
flattened space before the scutellum seems to be black as in the male, 
but is so much injured by the pin that I cannot be sure. 



1913] North American Dipterous Genus Neurigona 33 

Redescribed from eight males and one female, three of the 
males are from Prof. Aldrich's collection, two were taken at 
Battle Creek, Mich., and one at National Park, N. J.; this last 
was taken by Mr. V. A. E. Daecke; two males were in Mr. 
Nathan Banks' material, and were taken by him at Glencarlyn, 
•Va. ; and three were sent me by Prof. C. W. Johnson, and are 
from Buttonwoods, R. I., Hanover, N. H., and Cohasset, Mass.; 
the female is in the American Entomological Society's collec- 
tion and was taken at Manayunk, Pa. The one from New 
Jersey was taken May 20th, the others were taken in June 
and July. 

Note. — I have placed this single specimen as the female of 
this species as it agrees in all the principal characters with 
the male. 

5 Neurigona nitida n. sp. 

Figure 5. 

Thorax and abdomen yellow, the former shining black on the 
dorsum, the latter with three wide black bands. Hypopygium black, 
hairs and bristles of the front coxee whitish. Length, 4>^ mm. 

Male: Face very narrow, white; palpi white; proboscis yellow; 
antennae yellow, arista brownish. Front and occiput black with white 
pollen; frontal and post- vertical bristles black; orbital cilia white. 
Mesonotum reddish-yellow along the lateral margins, black on most of 
the disk and very shining, with a greenish reflection. Pleura; yellow 
with white pollen, humeri more whitish; flattened space before the scu- 
tellum with gray pollen, scutellum yellow with a black base. The 
pleuras with a black spot in front of the halters, and another above the 
hind coxae. Metanotum black, abdomen yellow with wide black bands 
on the dorsum of segments two, three and four, that on the second near 
the base and narrowed laterally, those at the base of the other two 
about equal width throughout; fifth dorsal segment produced anteriorly 
in a blunt, blackish point; the usual bilobed sheath on the venter black; 
hairs of the first four segments black, those of the fifth pale. Hypo- 
pygium not very large, shining black, basal part subquadrate, appen- 
dages pale yellow. Front coxse with white hairs and bristles, middle 
ones with black hairs ; front metatarsi as long as their tibi«, with a row 
of long bristles on the bottom, continued on the next three joints; those 
on the metatarsi a little longer than the diameter of that joint ; second 
and third joints fuscous, fourth and fifth a little lighter; middle metatarsi 
nearly as long as their tibi^; hind tarsi with the second joint longer 
than the first; middle and hind tarsi infuscated from the base. Wings 
hyaline, tinged with brownish, darker on the front; fourth vein bent 
forward, ending not far from the tip of the third vein, and some dis- 
tance front of the apex of the wing. 

Female: Differs from the male in having only the central line 
between the acrostichal bristles and the fiattened space before the scu- 



34 Aymals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

tellum black, the central line is narrowed to a point anteriorly, hardly- 
reaching the front of the inesonotum, the flattened space is thickly 
covered with white pollen; the front coxfe have pale hairs and black 
bristles; the front tarsi a little infuscated on the last four joints, middle 
ones fuscous from the tip of the first joint; abdomen with even black 
bands on the tergum of seginents two to five. 

Described from two males and one female in the collection 
of Prof. J. M., Aldrich taken in Polk Co., Wis., in July, by 
Mr. Baker; and one female in the National Museum collection 
taken at Franconia, N. H., by Mrs. Slosson. 

6 Neurigona tridens n. sp. 

Figure 6. 

Thorax dark reddish yellow, with a large three pronged black mark 
on the dorsum; abdomen yellow with black bands. Length 3 1-3 mm. 

Female: Face silvery white; antennge yellow; arista yellowish 
brown; front and occiput black with white pollen; orbital cilia white. 
Dorsum of the thorax dark reddish yellow on the lateral and posterior 
edges, and the humeri; central portion largely black, the black extending 
to the front of the mesonotum, and on the posterior part fonning three 
vittas, the central one ending in the fiattened space before the scutellum, 
this space being also black, and the lateral vitt« not quite reaching the 
scutellum; pleurse partly black, dorsum somewhat shining, thinly 
pollenose, the pollen thicker on the flattened space; scutellum yellow; 
metanotum black, abdomen yellow with broad black bands at the base 
of the second to fifth segments, these bands occupy more than half of 
the segments on the center of the tergum, but narrow laterally; venter 
yellow; hairs and bristles of the abdomen black. Legs pale yellow; hairs 
and bristles of the front coxae black; front metatarsi four-fifths as long 
as their tibiae, the remaining four joints taken together but little longer 
than the first ; front tarsi blackened from the tip of the first joint ; hind 
tarsi shorter than their tibi^, the second joint longer than the first, last 
four joints black, contrasting sharply with the pale yellow of the first 
joint, but the extreme tip of the first joint brown. Wings brownish 
hyaline; veins dark brown; fourth vein ends in the apex of the wing 
rather close to the tip of the third vein. 

Described from one female in the collection of Prof. J. M. 

Aldrich, and taken on Mt. Constitution, Orcas, Idaho, July 

7, 1905. 

7 Neurigona signifer Aldrich. 

Neurigona signifer Aid. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 
1896, pt. 3, p. 337. 

The following is a copy of the original description, as I have not 
seen this species. 

"Male: Face very narrow, inimediatel}' under the antenna is a 
triangular portion of yellow, below this there is only a narrow groove 
between the eyes to below the middle, from this point the face pro- 



1913] North American Dipterous Genus Neurigona 35 

trades as a narrow whitish wedge, sHghtly wider at the bottom ; pro- 
boscis brownish; palpi yellow; front greenish-brown, a little dusted, 
converging below; antennae yellow, third joint with a short point, 
arista yellow; inferior orbital cilia whitish; occiput green with white 
dust. Thorax dark yellow glabrous, with black bristles, acrostichal 
bristles small, in two rows, on each side of these in front is an area of 
small bristles, bounded by the humeri and the anterior margin. The 
flat bar2 disk is a beautiful greenish-blue color, which extends to the 
disk of the scutellum, sides and border of the scutellum yellow; two 
very large bristles between two very minute ones on the border; a very 
large bristle behind the root of the wing; pleurae deep yellow, imper- 
ceptably dusted, a dark spot above middle coxse; tegulas cilia whitish. 
Abdomen slender, yellow, the segments beyond the second successively 
shorter, the second segment bears near its front margin an opaque 
black band, emarginate behind in the middle, and rounded at each end. 
It is about half as wide as the segment. The following segments have 
similar bands, less emarginate, and occupying more of the width of the 
segments, the fifth is wholly black across the dorsum. Like the others 
it is yellow along the ventral sides; hypopygium shining black, turned 
under, club-shaped, not much exserted, the appendages not distinct. 
All the coxse yellow, front ones long with black hairs and mixed brown- 
ish-yellow bri.stles, middle ones with black hairs, hind ones with a 
single bristle on the outside; legs yellow, simple, the bristles small, tarsi 
a little infuscated towards the tip. Wings a little yellowish, fourth vein 
in its last segment only very gently curved, almost perfectly parallel 
with the third. 

Female : Face narrow, strongly protruding below, yellow, and yellow 
pollenose, palpi larger than in the male; third joint of the antennae 
small, exceedingly short, almost kidney shaped. 

Length 3K mm., wing 3 4/10 mm. 

St. Vincent, 1500 feet altitude. Occurs also in Grenada." 

Note. — N. brasiliensis Schin. is closely related to this species 
agreeing with it in coloration; it was described from a female, 
but it can be distinguished from signifer Aid. by its having a 
central line on the dorsum, extending from the flattened space 
before the scutellum about half way to the front of the thorax,, 
this line is the same color as the flattened space; and by having 
the third and fourth veins much more convergent than in 
signifer. 

I have seen two specimens which I refer to brasiliensis, one a, 
male in the National Museum, and the other a female in the 
collection of Prof. J. M. Aldrich; the former is from Grenada,, 
and the later from Vera Cruz. 



36 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



8 Neurigona maculata n. sp. 

Figure 8. 

Mesonotum reddish yellow, with three black vitta? or spots; pleurae 
with black spots; abdomen yellow with black bands; middle metatarsi 
with a row of long bent bristles below; hypopygium small, shining black. 
Length 4-5 mm. 

Male : Face and palpi white ; eyes narrowly separated at the center 
of the face; proboscis and antenna yellow, arista brownish; front and 
occiput black, thickly covered with white pollen; orbital cilia whitish, 
post-vertical bristles yellowish. Mesonotum reddish-yellow with three 
black vittse or spots, the central one subquadrate (in one of my spec- 
imens this spot is missing) , lateral spots oval and quite variable in size ; 
humeri yellowish white; pleurae pale yellow with white pollen, and with 
a large black spot in the center, a long spot between the front and 
middle coxae sometimes connected with the central spot, a small spot 
above the hind coxae, and the usual small spot in front of the halters; 
scutellum yellow with the extreme base black; metanotum black, a 
little shining, and white pollenose. Abdomen yellow with three wide 
black bands, one near the base of the second segment, and one at the 
base of the third and fourth segments, these bands widest on the center 
of the dorsum; fifth segment with a narrow black dorsal line and some- 
times a very narrow basal band; venter yellow; fifth segment without a 
ventral sheath. Hypopygium and its appendages shining black, pol- 
ished, rather small, and with a few scattering pale hairs. Legs pale 
yellow; front coxae with delicate yellowish hairs in front, and black 
bristles near the tip; front metatarsi about as long as their tibiae, the 
fourth joint short, about as broad as long; middle metatarsi nearly as 
long as their tibiae, and with a row of long bristles on the lower side, 
these bristles more or less bent backwards at tips; this row of bristles 
continued on the tibiae but the bristles scattering and straight; hind 
tarsi, with the first and second joints equal. Wings grayish hyaline, a 
little darker in front; last section of fourth vein bent forward a little 
from a little beyond the center, not very close to third at tip; tip of 
fourth vein a little before the apex of the wing. 

Female: Agrees with the male in all but sexual characters, except 
that it has only short scattering bristles on the lower side of the middle 
metatarsi; and the fourth joint of the front tarsi are longer than in the 
male; in one specimen the lateral spots on the dorsum of the thorax 
are wanting. 

Described from five males and ten females from Canada, 
N. H., Mass., N. Y., Pa., N. C, Mich., and Wis. I have 
taken them in the vicinity of Buffalo, N. Y., and at Toronto, 
and Kearney, Ont., from June 10 to July 9; Prof. J. M. Aldrich 
sent me specimens from Polk Co., Wis., taken in July, from 
Philadelphia, Pa., taken by Mr. V. A. E. Daecke, June 12, and 
from Battle Creek, Mich.; Mr. Nathan Banks sent specimens 



1913] North American Dipterous Genus Neurigona 37 

from Sea Cliff, and Ithaca, N. Y. ; Prof. C. W, Johnson''sent 
specimens from Chester, Mass., taken August 4; Brookhne, 
Mass., June 18; Hampton, N. H., July 10, taken by S. A. Shaw, 
and from Lake Toxaway, N. C, taken by Mrs. Slosson; the 
National Museum collection has a specimen taken at Mt. 
Washington, N. H., by Mrs. Slosson. 

9 Neurigona floridula Wheeler. 

Figure 9. 
Neurigona floridula Wheeler, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. ii, p. 72, 1899. 

Thorax and abdomen yellow; hypopygium with the first half yel- 
low, last half black; front tarsi plain, with the fourth joint of front 
tarsi less than one-half as long as third; wings tinged with yellow. 
Length 5 mm. 

Male: Face rather wide for a male, white; palpi white; proboscis 
yellow; front and occiput black, thickly covered with white pollen, 
thinner on the center of the front; antennee yellow, third joint a little 
infuscated, arista brown; frontal bristles black, orbital cilia and post- 
vertical bristles whitish yellow. Mesonotum yellow, shining; pleurae 
paler, opaque and with a coat of white pollen, with a black line in front 
of the halters; metanotum and scutellum yellow, a little shining; outer 
hairs of the scutellum small but distinct. Abdomen yellow, darker on 
the third and fourth segments; third with a narrow dark band near the 
posterior end, continued across the venter (sometimes this band is 
indistinct) ; dorstim of the fourth segment with a poorly defined wide 
blackish band; fifth light yellow; venter yellow with a transverse row 
of long yellow hairs on the third segment; hairs on the second, third and 
fourth segments mostly black, those on the first and fifth yellow, the 
marginal row of bristles on the first segment black; hypopygium a short 
oval in outline, compressed laterally, the basal part yellow, last part 
black or testaceous, the yellow part nearly two-thirds of the whole. 
Legs light yellow; front cox^ with short yellow hairs on the whole of 
the front and with black bristles near the tip; middle coxs with black 
hairs and bristles; front and middle metatarsi about the same length as 
their tibise; fourth joint of front tarsi less than one-half as long as third; 
second joint of hind tarsi distinctly longer than first; tegulas, their 
cilia, and the halters light yellow. Wings hyahne, strongly tinged 
with yellow in front of fourth vein, third and fourth veins con- 
vergent, fourth vein ending in apex of the wing, not very close to the 
tip of third; veins yellowish; anal angle obsolete. 

The following is a copy of Prof. Wheelers description of the female. 
I give it in full for ths benefit of those who may wish to study the 
synonymy of this species. 

"Female: Length 4>^-5>^ mm., length of wing 4I4 -5 mm. Proboscis 
reddish yellow with pale hairs; palpi and face yellow, thickly covered 
with silvery white dust, the latter of the usual width for a female, and 
with the portion below the transverse suture receding; antennas yellow. 



38 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

third joint lacking; (I find it small and the arista brown) front and 
occiput black, thickly covered with silvery white dust; post-ocular cilia 
white; eyes green. Thorax, scutellum, and abdomen reddish yellow, cov- 
ered with white dust, which is most abundant on the lateral portions 
of the thoracic dorsum and the pleurae ; prescutellar depression shallow ; 
scutellum with two median long bristles and two feeble lateral bristles. 
Abdomen covered with short black hairs; pleuras with a black spot 
below the root of the wing. Coxae reddish yellow dusted like the pleurae; 
anterior surface of the fore coxae beset with short white hairs, and a few 
conspicuous black bristles near their proximal ends; similar bristles 
occur in a corresponding position in the middle coxae; hind coxffi with a 
single bristle on the lateral surface, and a few bristles near the tip. 
Legs and metathoracic epimera light yellow; the femora very slender 
and covered with small black hairs; last joint of all the tarsi black; fore 
tarsi twice as long as the fore tibiae ; middle tarsi nearly twice as long as 
the middle tibiae; hind tarsi scarcely as long as the hind tibiae, hind 
metatarsi distinctly shorter than the succeeding joint. Wings scarcely 
narrowed towards the base, distinctly yellowish, and with yellow veins; 
apical segment of fourth vein rather sharply bent upwards near its 
middle, ending rather close to the tip of the third vein; posterior cross- 
vein about two and one-half times its length from the posterior margin 
of the wing, measured along the distal segment of the fifth vein. Halters 
and tegulae yellow, the latter with yellow cilia." 

In the above description Prof. Wheeler .states that the wings 
are scarcely narrowed towards the base. I find in all the 
species that I have seen that where the wings of the male are 
narrowed at base so as to leave little or no anal angle that the 
wings of the females are normal, and have the anal angle prom- 
inent, as is the case with this species. Male described from 
three specimens, one in the collection of Prof. Aldrich, taken 
by Mr. Daecke, at Philadelphia, Pa.; one received from Mr. 
Daecke and taken by him at Perdix, Pa., on June 10; the 
other in the National Museum collection, and taken on Mt. 
Washington, N. H., by Mrs. Slosson. I have seen females 
from the following states: Me., N. H., Vt., N. J., N. Y., Pa., 
Md., Del., Va., N. C, Ohio, Mich., and Canada. Prof. Wheeler 
also mentions Illinois. 

Note. — In Prof. Aldrich's Catalogue of North American 
Diptera, floridiila is placed as the female of carbonifer, but after 
careful study of the material in my hands I prefer to place 
floridula as a distinct species, and place the male described 
above with it, as they agree in all essential characters, except 
those points which usually form the sexual distinction. 



1913] North American Dipterous Genius Neurigona 39 

10 Neurigona floridula var. infuscata n. var. 
Figure 10. 

Thorax and abdomen yellow, the latter with more or less distinct 
bands; hypopygium black, more or less yellow on the first half; front 
tarsi plain, and with the fourth joint more than one-half as long as the 
third; tip of the wing infuscatad. Length, 5^ mm. 

Male: Face rather wide for a male, somewhat narrowed in the 
middle, silvery white; antennae yellow; front and occiput black, covered 
with white pollen; orbital cilia and post- vertical bristles yellowish 
white. Thorax yellow, shining on the dorsum; flattened space before 
the scutellum dull with yellowish pollen; pleurae paler and covered 
with white pollen, a black line in front of the halters, also a black spot 
in front of the middle coxae; metanotum yellow, more or less infuscated 
close to the abdomen; scutellum yellow, paler below. Abdomen yellow, 
the first segment paler and more or less infuscated at base; second and 
sometimes the third segment with a distinct black band at base; fourth 
segment more or less infuscated, but hardly banded; sometimes the 
third and fourth segments almost entirely yellow; venter yellow, with a 
transverse black line at hind margin of third segment, this line fringed 
with long yellowish hairs; hairs on the dorsum of the second, third, and 
fourth segments black, except on the lower edges where they are more 
yellowish. Hypopygium black, shining, and testaceous or yellowish on 
the first half. Legs pale yellow; front coxas with yellow hairs on the 
front side, and black bristles near the tip; hairs and bristles of the mid- 
dle cox« black; a black bristle on each middle and hind trochanter; a 
few yellowish hair-like bristles at base of middle femora below; one or 
two yellowish bristles above front coxae ; front tarsi hardh^ twice as long 
as their tibiae, the first joint about the same length as the remaining four 
joints together; fourth joint less than one-half as long as the third; 
fifth joint black; middle metatarsi the same length as their tibiae; first 
joint of hind tarsi shorter than the second; middle and hind tarsi infus- 
cated almost from the base. V/ings hyaline, strongly tinged with brown 
along the front, and with a distinct cloud at tip; last section of fourth 
vein bent forward at the middle and ending in the apex of the wing, not 
far from the tip of the third vein; anal angle obsolete; veins yellowish 
brown to brown. 

Female: Differs from the male in the form of the wings, the anal 
angle being well developed; wings a little less tinged with brown in 
front, and without the cloud at tip. Abdomen without distinct bands, 
but sometimes darkened in spots. 

Described from thirteen males, which I took at Little Val- 
ley, N. Y., June 10, 1912; and twenty females from Pa., R. I., 
Mass., N. Y., N. J., Mich., and Wis. 

This may be a distinct species, but I cannot find any struc- 
tural character to separate it from floridula. Both sexes are a 
little larger and more robust than the specimens of floridula 



40 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

that I have seen; the male has the tip of the wing infuscated, 
the hypopygium is darker in color, the pleurae have a black 
spot above the middle coxae, and the wing veins are darker. 
The female is difficult to separate from fioridula, but they are a 
little more robust, and darker in color. 

11 Neurigona flava n. sp. 

Figure 11. 

Yellow, with yellow pollen. Abdomen with lateral brown spots. 
Wings tinged with yellow. Length -i]/^ mm. 

Female: Face and palpi white; antenna? yellow, the first joint 
paler, arista brown; front and occiput black, thickly covered with 
yellowish-white pollen; frontal bristles black, orbital cilia and post- 
vertical bristles yellowish. Dorsum, scutellum, and metanotum 
yellow, evenly yellow pollinose, humeri and pleurae whitish-yellow, and 
yellowish pollenose, a black line in front of the halters. Abdomen 
yellow, with narrow brown lateral spots on segments three and four; 
these spots are at the base of the segments and scarcely form bands; 
hairs of the abdomen mostly black. Legs pale yellow, tarsi scarcely 
darkened at tip, fore coxse with yellow hairs and black bristles; second 
joint of hind tarsi longer than first; front and middle metatarsi three- 
fourths as long as their tibias Wings strongly tinged with yellow, all 
veins bright yellow; fourth vein ends in tip of the wing, a considerable 
distance from the tip of the third vein. 

Described from one female in Prof. J. M. Aldrich's collection, and 
taken at Lewiston, Idaho, on June 17, 1902. 

Note. — This species may be distinguished from transversa 
by the deeper yellow pollen of the dorsum being evenly dis- 
tributed; in this species the acrostichal bristles are very poorly 
developed, while in transversa they are very conspicuous. In 
this, the second joint of the hind tarsi are distinctly longer than 
the first, the wings have a strong yellow tinge and the veins are 
bright yellow, all of which is different in transversa. 

From fioridula it differs by the dense yellow pollen of the 
dorsum, and the third and fourth veins being much further 
apart, the wings are also a brighter yellow, but this character 
is of little use unless the student has both species before him. 

12 Neurigona aldrichii, n. sp. 

Figure 12. 

Thorax and abdomen yellow, the latter with black bands; hj^po- 
pygium black 'and yellow; second joint of front tarsi shorter than the 
fourth, flattened, and widened at tip. Length 3-3^ mm. 

Male: Face and palpi white; eyes contiguous; antenna and pro- 
boscis yellow, arista brownish yellow; front and occiput dark grayish 
green with white pollen; orbital cilia whitish. Thorax yellow, shining; 



1913] North American Dipterous Genus Neurigona 41 

humeri, pleura, scutellum, and the flattened space before paler; scu- 
tellum with a blackish spot at base; pleuree with a black line in front of 
the halters, this line sometimes broken into two spots; metanotum 
black. Abdomen yellow with narrow black bands near the base of 
segments two, three, and four, the first sometimes infuscated at base; 
hairs of the abdomen mostly pale; hypopygium nearly as long as seg- 
ments four and five, but not very thick, first half yellow, last half black 
or testaceous. Legs pale yellow; front coxae with a few yellow bristles 
near the tip; middle cox^e with black hairs and bristles; front metatarsi 
hardly as long as their tibiae, second joint shorter than fourth, and with 
the apex widened and extended in the form of a short spur on top, 
somewhat infuscated at tip; third joint a little longer than fourth, and 
both with a row of short bristles below, these bristles hardly as long as 
the diameter of the joint ; middle metatarsi about four-fifths as Jong as 
their tibiae, fourth joint slightly flattened, fourth and fifth joints fus- 
cous; apical half of middle tibis brown; hind tarsi with the first joint a 
little shorter than the second, and becoming fuscous from the tip of the 
first joint. Wings grayish hyaline; fourth vein bent forward from the 
center of the last section, the tip quite close to the tip of the third vein, 
and some distance in front of the apex of the wing. 

Female: Differs from the male in having the face quite wide; the 
abdomen with the hind margins of segments two and three, and some- 
times the bases of all the segments infuscated; the hairs and bristles of 
the front coxse black; all the tarsi normal and scarcely infuscated; 
metanotum yellow. 

Described from two males and five females, taken by Prof. 
J. M. Aldrich, at Lawrence, Kansas, on June 8th. 

13 Neurigona transversa n. sp. 

Figure 13. 

Thorax reddish yellow, with three pollenose vitt£e; abdomen yellow, 
with the hind margins of the segments pale; a narrow black line above 
the pronotum. Length 5-5 3^ mm. 

Female: Face wide, with the sides parallel; face and palpi whitish; 
antennas deep yellow, first joint paler; palpi with yellow bristles at tip; 
front and occiput black, thickly whitish pollenose; frontal bristles 
brownish yellow, orbital cilia rather long and whitish. Dorsum of the 
thorax reddish yellow, with three vitts formed with yellowish pollen, 
the narrow central one between the acrostichal bristles has the pollen 
more dense, the lateral vitts not so sharply defined. There is a bare 
spot above the root of the wing in each of these vittas; metanotum, 
scutellum, and the flattened space in front thickly covered with yellow- 
ish pollen, which is thinner at the base of the scutsllum, the pollen on the 
lower part of the pleurae more whitish; the usual black line in front of 
the halters; a yellow bristle above the front coxae; front of the meso- 
notum with a black transverse line which is almost interrupted in the 
middle. Abdomen reddish yellow, slightly infuscated, and with dis- 
tinct yellowish white bands on the hind margins of the segments, that 



42 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol, VI, 

on the fifth not as distinct as on the other segments, and that on the 
first widest; halters, tegulae, and their long cilia yellowish white. Hairs 
and bristles of the cox^ black, except the short hairs on the front coxae 
which are yellow and easily overlooked; the front and middle metatarsi 
about three-fourths as long as their tibiae; tips of the tarsi infuscated; 
first and second joints of the hind tarsi equal. Wings grayish hyaline; 
fourth vein ends in the apex of the wing, the tip widely separated from 
the tip of the third vein; veins brown. 

Described from two females taken at Moro Lake, Cal., 
July 23, 1911, by Prof. J. M. Aldrich. 

14 Neurigona disjuncta n. sp. 

Figure 14. 

Thorax and abdomen yellow, the latter sometimes with black 
bands; hypopygium yellow, appendages testaceous; front tarsi plane, 
with the fourth joint nearly two-thirds as long as the third; tip of the 
wing infuscated. Length, 4^-6 mm. 

Male: Face rather wide for a male, and with the sides nearly par- 
allel, only a very little wider below; face and palpi with silvery white 
pollen; antennae yellow, arista brown; front and occiput black, thickly 
white pollenose; orbital cilia and post-vertical bristles white. Thorax 
yellow, somewhat shining on the dorsum, but dulled with white pollen: 
humeri and pleura? pale yellow, and covered with white pollen; pleurae 
with the usual black spot in front of the halters; scutellum and metano- 
tum yellow; the flattened space before the scutellum sometimes slightly 
infuscated. Abdomen yellow with black or brown lateral spots on the 
dorsum of the second, third, and fourth segments, these spots sometimes 
united into bands on the third and fourth segments ; venter yellow, with 
a black transverse ridge on the third segment. This ridge is ciliate with 
long whitish hairs, hairs on the venter yellowish white, those on the 
tergum mostly black; fifth segment short, and with the ventral sheath 
black and polished. Legs pale yellow; front coxa? with short yellow 
hairs on the front side, and large black bristles near the tip; middle 
coxas with black hairs and bristles near the tip ; front and middle meta- 
tarsi about as long as their tibia? ; front tarsi infuscated from the extreme 
tip of the first joint; fourth joint of front tarsi nearly two-thirds as long 
as third; middle and hind tarsi growing darker from the base to the 
tip, second joint of hind tarsi longer than the first. Wings grayish 
hyaline, with the apex more or less infuscated; third and fourth veins 
widely separated at tips; fourth vein ending slightly back of the apex 
of the wing. 

Female : Agrees with the male in most characters, except the sexual 
difference, but the abdomen may lack the lateral spots; and the wings 
are not infuscated at apex, but somewhat tinged with yellow along the 
front. 

Described from five males, and nine females, from Vt,, 
N. Y., and Canada. I have taken them from the vicinity of 
Buffalo, N. Y., and also at Toronto, and Ridgeway, Ont.; 



1913] North American Dipterous Genus Neurigona 43 

Prof. C. W. Johnson sent me one male, taken at Alt. Ascutney, 
July 11, and three females taken at Norwich, July 9; both 
places are in Vermont. The specimens that I took were found 
from June 6 to July 4. 

Note. — -The male of this species in general appearance 
resembles the male of iioridida var. infuscata, but can be readily 
separated by the difference in venation and the greater rel- 
ative length of the fourth joint of the front tarsi to the third. 

I have in my collection seventeen females that seem to be a 
variety of this species, they were taken at East Aurora, N. Y., 
June 15th and 22d, 1912. They are somewhat smaller, (33^-4 
mm.), and paler; some of them have sharply defined black 
bands on the abdomen; the third and fourth veins approach 
each other a very little more than in the typical forms, the 
fourth vein ending exactly in the apex of the wing. 

There are two females in Prof. Aldrich's collection that seem 
to be the same as the above variety. They were taken at 
Battle Creek, Mich., and Ithaca, N. Y. 

15 Neurigona viridis n. sp. 

Figure 15. 

Thorax bright metallic green, sometimes coppery on the dorsum; 
abdomen mostly dark metallic green, with the first two segments 
partly yellow; hypopygium black, polished; front tarsi with the fourth 
and fifth joints a little flattened; wings with the third and fourth veins 
nearly parallel. Length, 3^-4 mm. 

Male : Eyes contiguous on the center of the face for some distance, 
leaving only a small triangle above and below; face and palpi silvery 
white; palpi rather large and with yellowish bristles at tip; proboscis 
yellow ; front and occiput dark metallic green, with white pollen ; antennas 
deep yellow, the third joint a little brownish at tip, arista brown; 
frontal bristles black, orbital cilia and post-vertical bristles whitish. 
Thoracic dorsum bright shining green, sometimes with coppery reflec- 
tions, and a little dulled with whitish pollen; pleurae dark greenish, the 
ground color partly concealed by grayish white pollen ; scutellum bright 
green on the disk, yellow below and usually on the lateral angles; 
metanotum darker green with white pollen. Abdomen with the first 
two segments yellow, a large dark greenish spot on the dorsum of the 
second, which sometimes covers most of it; the following segments 
dark metallic green or greenish black, with the posterior edges yellow 
and thickly covered with white pollen, in some specimens these edges 
very narrow; hairs of the abdomen mostly pale, and those on the hind 
margins of the segments rather long; hypopygium rather large, black, 
polished, and with a pair of long whitish appendages on the posterior 
margin. Legs pale yellowish; the hairs and bristles of the front coxae 



44 Annals Entomological Society oj America [Vol. VI, 

whitish, the bristles more brownish in certain lights; middle coxae with 
black hairs and bristles; front and middle metatarsi shorter than their 
tibiae; fourth joint of front tarsi flattened, fifth also slightly flattened; 
second joint of hind tarsi about one and one-third times as long as the 
first; tegulae, their cilia, and the halters pale yellowish. Wings grayish 
hyaline, last section of fourth vein only feebly bent and slightly 
approaching the third, fourth vein ends in the apex of the wing; veins 
dark brown, yellow at the root of the wing. 

Female : Like the male in general characters but the front tarsi are 
plain, the face narrow, with its sides parallel, the hairs of the front coxae- 
black, and the abdomen with more yellow. 

Described from four males and six females from N. H., 
N. Y., and Va. I took the four males and two females at South 
Wales, Erie Co., N. Y., July 9, 1911; two of the females are 
from Mr. Nathan Banks, and were taken at Glencarlyn, Va., 
July 23; two females are in the National Museum collection, 
one from the White Mountains, N. H., and the other was 
reared by Mr. James Angus from larvse feeding in rotten wood 
of hickory, at West Farms, N. Y., the imago issued May 9, 
1884. 

16 Neurigona decora Aldrich. 

Neurigona decora Aldrich, Kansas University Science Bulletin, Vol. 1, p. 8.3, 
1902. 

"Male: Eyes barely contiguous on the upper part of the face, 
slightly separated above and below; front broad, opaque, dark; antennse 
small, red, the tip of the third joint brownish; orbital cilia pale. Thorax 
bright, shining blue, the concavity before the scutellum more bronze; 
pleurae' green, with thin dust, and the hind margin yellow; tegular cilia 
yellowish. Abdomen rather short, the first two joints yellow^ the rest 
dark green, shining above. Hypopygium rather prominent, exserted, 
yellow. Coxae yellow, the middle ones dark at base; remainder of legs 
and tarsi yellow; a slender hair on the outer side of the second joint of 
fore tarsus at its apex. Wings a little yellowish; the fourth vein con- 
verges toward the third at the end, terminating before the apex of the 
wing. 

"Female: Face linear; eyes not contiguous. 

"Length 2.8 to 3 mm. Two males, two females. One of the latter is 
from vSt. Vincent, but was not mentioned in the previous paper." 

I have copied the above from Prof. Aldrich 's paper on the 
Dolichopodidce of Grenada. 



1913] North American Dipterous Genus Neurigona 45 



17 Neurigona arcuata n. sp. 

Figure 17. 

Thorax greenish; abdomen yellow, with black bands; hypopygium 
small black; wings with the costa much arcuated, and with a brown 
cloud along the front; front tarsi with the fourth and fifth joints black, 
the fifth joint nearly at right angles to the fourth. Length of male, 3^ 
mm. ; of female, 3 ^-3 ^^4 nim. 

Male : Face silvery white, not very narrow for a male, but somewhat 
narrowed in the middle; proboscis yellow; front and occiput greenish, 
thickly covered with white pollen; frontal bristles black, orbital cilia 
whitish; antennas yellow, arista brownish. Mesonotum metallic green, 
somewhat shining but dulled with grayish pollen, the narrow space 
between the acrostichal bristles more shining and without pollen ; humeri 
and posterior angles of the dorsimi yellow; pleurse black, thickly cov- 
ered with white pollen; scutellum yellow; metanotum black, a little 
shining, and with white pollen. Abdomen yellow, dorsum of segments 
two to four with wide black bands; the fifth segment has a narrow 
black band; hairs of the abdomen mostly yellow, including the long 
bristles on the hind margin of the first segment; hypopygium small, 
black or testaceous, polished, appendages lighter testaceous, or sordid 
yellow. Legs pale yellow, front coxas bare with a few yellow bristles 
near the tip; middle coxae with black hairs and bristles; front femora 
with a few long yellow hairs near the tip on the outside; fourth joint of 
front tarsi not much more than one-half as long as third, shorter than 
fifth, and with a few long black hairs at tip, fifth joint and most of fourth 
black, fifth joint nearly at right angles to fourth; front metatarsi fully 
three-fourths as long as their tibise; middle tarsi with the second, third, 
and fourth joints slightly flattened, becoming black from the middle of 
the second joint, and with the metatarsi nearly as long as their tibiae; 
middle tibiae more or less infuscated in the center; first and second 
joints of the hind tarsi about equal. Tegulae and their cilia pale yellow. 
Wings with the costa much arcuated ; posterior margin indented at the 
apex of the fifth vein ; third vein curved backwards towards the fourth ; 
last section of the fourth vein curved forwards from a little beyond the 
middle in such a manner as to be nearly parallel with the third at tip; 
a brown cloud along the front of the wing, from about the tip of the 
first vein to the tip of the third, fading out back of third vein, and widest 
in the middle; veins brown, yellow at the base of the wing. 

Female: Agrees with the male except in the following points; all the 
tarsi becoine fuscous from the middle of the second joint; front femora 
have no long hairs at tip ; wings with the costa less arcuated, and with- 
out distinct cloud, but the front of the wing is slightly tinged with 
yellowish brown; the middle tarsi slightly flattened as in the male but 
less so; front tarsi plain; second joint of the hind tarsi longer than 
the first. 

Described from five specimens taken by me at Kearney, 
Ont., July 3, 1909; and many specimens taken in the vicinity 
of Buffalo, N. Y., June 6th to July 4th. 



46 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



18 Neurigona deformis n. sp. 

Figure 18. 

Thorax black; abdomen yellow with black bands; h^^popygium 
black, small; three joints of the front tarsi flattened; wings with the 
costa and third vein much arcuated, and with a brown cloud along the 
front towards the tip. Length of male 6-6>^ mm., of female 0)4 mm. 

Male : Face not very narrow for a male, but narrowest in the center, 
and silvery white; front and occiput black, covered with white pollen, 
which is thickest on the front and upper part of the occiput; antennae 
yellow, the rather long arista brownish; frontal bristles black; orbital 
cilia and post-vertical bristles yellowish. Thorax black, rather shining on 
the dorsum, thinly dusted with white pollen, this pollen much thicker 
along the front, on the sides, and between the acrostichal bristles; the 
pollen on the flattened space before the scutellum thick and somewhat 
greenish; pleurae covered with white pollen, which almost conceals the 
ground color; humeri, posterior angles of the dorsum, space between 
the front coxae, and metathoracic epimera yellow; scutellum black on 
the disk, yellow beneath, which color extends somewhat onto the edge 
of the disk; metanotum black with white pollen. Abdomen yellow; 
second to fifth segments with black bands at base, those on the second 
and third segments widest on the center of the tergum, narrowing to a 
point on the lateral sides; hairs on the dorsum of the second and third 
segments mostly black, those on the rest of the abdomen and the long 
bristles on the margin of the first segment yellow; hypopygium black, 
polished, and with its appendages more or less testaceous; sheath on 
the venter of the fifth segment corrugated, and opaque black. Legs 
long and slender, pale yellow; front coxcE with minute yellow hairs on 
the front, and several yellow and one or two black bristles near the tip; 
middle coxas with a few black hairs and bristles near the tip; front 
femora with about ten long yellow hairs on the outside near the tip; 
middle femora nearly bare except near the tip; front metatarsi about 
the length of their tibiae; second, third, and fourth joints of front tarsi 
flattened, bare on the sides, ciliate with black hairs on the edges, the 
longer hairs on the top edge longer than the width of the third joint, 
those on the lower edge very short, last two joints of front tarsi infus- 
cated; middle metatarsi about equal to their tibias in length; middle 
trochanters with a black bristle; first and second joints of hind tarsi 
nearly equal; middle and hind tarsi black; hind tibiae infuscated. 
Halters, tegulae, and their cilia pale yellow. Wings narrowed at the 
base, and with the costa much arcuated, the swell starting just before 
the middle ; hind margin indented at the tip of the fifth and sixth veins ; 
third vein much arcuated ; last section of fourth vein nearly in a straight 
line with the basal part; wings hyaline, with a brownish cloud along the 
costa, beginning at the same point as the swell and extending to the tip 
of the fourth vein, fading out behind; a narrow faint cloud may be 
traced along the fifth, and last section of the fourth vein; veins pale 
yellow at the base of the wing, becoming brown on the disk. 



1913] North American Dipterous Genus Neurigona 47 

Female: Wings with the costa nearly straight, the cloud less dis- 
tinct than in the male, the whole wing being tinted with brownish in 
front of the third vein, and slightly clouded along the fifth vein; 
front tarsi plain, otherwise as in the male. 

Described from four males and six females, from western 
N. Y. and Ont. I took the males and five females near Buffalo, 
N. Y., and one female at Kearney, Ont., July 8th; those taken 
near Buffalo were captured between June 6th and loth. 

Note, — This species is closely related to arcuata, but may 
easily be separated by its size, (this being the largest species 
taken so far in North America) the form of the front tarsi, and 
the wings, the latter being almost deformed. 

1 9 Neurigona tenuis Loew. 

Figure 19. 
Saiicroptis tenuis Loew, Mon. N, A. Diptera ii, p. 228, 1864. Described from 
the female. The male was described by Prof. Wheeler in the Proc. Cal. Acad. 
Sci., ii, p. 73, 1899. 

Mesonotum green; abdomen yellow, with black bands; hypopygium 
black, large; front tarsi about the same length as their tibia and with 
an oval tip. Length 3>2— i mm. 

Male: Face and palpi white; eyes contiguous at the center of the 
face; proboscis yellow; front and occiput greenish gray, sometimes 
quite dark, thickly covered with white pollen; frontal bristles black, 
orbital cilia and post-vertical bristles pale yellow; antennas yellow, the 
third joint sometimes brownish, arista brown. Dorsum of the thorax 
light verdigris-green, shining, dulled with thick grayish pollen, that 
on the flattened space before the scutellum a little yellowish ; humeri and 
more or less of the lateral edges yellow; pleurae greenish gray, with more 
or less yellow below, in some specimens nearly all yellow, covered with 
white pollen; scutellum green on the disk, with a rather wide margin of 
yellow; metanotum greenish gray, becoming dark brown in some indi- 
viduals, white pollenose. Abdomen yellow with wide black bands on 
segments two, three, and four; those on the second and third narrowed 
laterally so as to form nearly triangular spots; fifth mostly or entirely 
black ; first more or less brown on the dorsum ; venter yellow on the basal 
segments, more brown or blackish toward the posterior end; hairs of 
the abdomen mostly black, with more pale hairs posteriorly, on the 
fifth segment they are altogether pale; those on the ventral surface of 
the fourth and hind part of third long; hypopygium black, basal part 
somewhat shining but dulled with white pollen, apical part, and 
appendages shining, polished. Legs pale yellow; front coxse long and 
slender, with minute scattering hairs on the front side, and a few yellow 
bristles near the tip ; middle coxae with a very few black hairs or bristles 
near the tip, and a few yellow hairs at tip inside, these hairs curled 
inwards ; hind coxffi usually blackened a little at tip on the inside ; mid- 
dle and hind femora with a few bristles on the inside near the base, 
those on the middle ones black, on the hind ones yellow; front meta- 



48 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

tarsi about three-fourths as long as their tibis, and about one and one- 
fourth times as long as the remaining joints together; second and third 
nearly equal ; fourth and fifth fringed on each side with long black hairs, 
which form a fiat oval tip to the tarsi, this tip a little longer than wide; 
fourth joint except base, and fifth black; first joint of hind tarsi a very 
little longer than the second ; middle metatarsi about three-fourths .as 
long as their tibiae. Tegulaas, their cilia, and the halters pale yellow, the 
latter with a brown dot on one side at the base of the knob. Wings gray- 
ish hyaline; third vein slightly bent backward at tip; fourth vein bent 
forward from just before the middle of the last section, but the tip not 
very close to the tip of the third. 

Female : Agrees with the male except that the front tarsi are plane, 
with the metatarsi a little shorter than their tibis, and more than 
twice as long as second joint ; first and second joints of hind tarsi about 
equal; the mesonotum often nearly all yellow, except the flattened 
space before the scutellum. 

Redescribed from many specimens taken in the vicinity of 
Buffalo, N. Y. This is the most abundant species of Neurigona 
around Buffalo, I have taken nearly one hundred specimens the 
past summer, the first on July 9th, and the latest on September 
8th; the only other specimen I have seen is a male form Mt. 
Tom, Mass., taken July 14th, and sent to me by Prof. C. W. 
Johnson. Loew's Mon. gives Middle States as the habitat. 

Note. — Prof. Wheeler in his description of the male of 
tentas mentions a row of hook-like spines along the lower 
surface of the front tibiae, also curved spines on the front 
matatarsi; I cannot detect these in our eastern specimens, 
although there is a row of very minute bristles or stout hairs on 
the lower surface of the front tibiae that I have not mentioned 
in the description I have given above, because they are so 
easily overlooked that they are of little value in separating the 
species, but in the closely related western species that I am 
describing under the name of pectoralis these bristles are a 
conspicuous character. The males of these two species are 
so nearly alike in general appearance that he may have con- 
fused them. They may be separated by the front tarsi of 
tenuis being nearly as long as their tibiae, while in pectoralis the 
tarsi are much shorter than their tibiae; in tenuis also the front 
legs are infuscated from, or before the middle of the tibiae, in 
pectoralis there is no infuscation of the front legs except the 
.enlarged tip of the tarsi which is black; pectoralis has the first 
and second joints of the hind tarsi equal, while in tenuis the 
first joint is a little the longest; the middle coxae of pectoralis 
have yellow bristles which are not found in tenuis. 



1913] North American Dipterous Genus Neurigona 49 



20 Neurigona pectoralis n. sp. 

Figure 20. 

Dorsum of the thorax metalHc green; abdomen yellow with black 
bands; front tarsi much shorter than their tibife and with the last two 
joints flattened and fringed forming an oval tip; hypopygium black, 
rather large. Length 4 mm. 

Male: Eyes very narrowly separated; face and palpi covered with 
white pollen; proboscis yellow; front and occiput light metallic green, 
the front thinly and the occiput more thickly covered with white 
pollen; antennas yellow, arista yellowish brown; frontal bristles black, 
orbital cilia and post-vertical bristles whitish. Dorsum of the thorax 
light verdigris green, with yellowish pollen; pleuree black with whitish 
pollen; humeri yellowish; scutellum yellow, with the base dark metallic 
greenish blue; metanotum black, with white pollen. Abdomen yellow, 
first segment more or less infuscated, second and third segments \vith 
black bands, which are widest on the center of the dorsum, and are 
narrowed laterally, hardly reaching the lower sides of the abdomen; 
fourth segment with only the hind margin yellow, fifth entirely black 
except a narrow white hind margin, interrupted on the center of the 
dorsum, and reaching about half way to the lateral sides; hairs of the 
abdomen mostly black on the dorsum, those on the lower part of the 
sides pale. Hypopygium black, rather large, rounded behind, the 
first half but little shining, appendages black or testaceous. Legs pale 
yellow; front and middle coxee with only yellowish hairs and bristles on 
the front side; front pair rather long, middle and hind coxae slightly 
darkened on the outside; front tibige about one and one-fourth times as 
long as their femora, and the front tarsi hardly as long as their femora; 
metatarsi a little longer than the four remaining joints together, second 
and third joints nearly equal and very slightly fiattened, fourth and 
fifth black, flattened and fringed on each side with black hairs, forming 
a nearly round tip to the tarsi ; front tibiae and metatarsi with a row of 
small, hook-like bristles below; middle femora with a few black bristles 
near the base below; middle metatarsi. about four-fifths as long as their 
tibiae; first and second joints of the hind tarsi of nearly equal length, 
hind tarsi shorter than their tibiee; halters, tegulae, and their cilia pale 
yellow. Wings grayish hyaline, fourth vein ending in the apex of the 
wing; tips of the third and fourth veins quite widely separated. 

Female : Agrees with the male, except that the hairs and bristles on 
the front of the middle cox« are all black; the middle metatarsi are 
hardly three-fourths as long as their tibiae, and the front tibise are about 
the same length as their femora and much shorter than their tarsi 
which are plane, and have the last joint blackened. 

Described from two males and two females from N. M. in the 
National Museum collection, the two males and one female 
were taken by H. S. Barber, at Las Vegas, N. M., Aug. 7th, 9th 
and 13th; and the other female was taken by Townsend on the 
White Mountains, N. M., at 6500 feet altitude. 



50 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Note. — Under tenuis I have given the characters that sep- 
arate the males of these two species ; the females of these species 
can be distinguished from those of tenuis in having only the 
humeri yellow, the pleurae being altogether black, and the 
dorsum dull greenish, while in tenuis there is more or less 
yellow on the dorsum and pleurae. 

21 Neurigona aestiva n. sp. 

Figure 21. 

Thorax blackish; abdomen yellow with black bands; hypopygium 
black with the upper part more or less yellow; front tarsi plane. Length 
b}4 mm. 

Male: Face narrow, of nearly equal width throughout, face and 
palpi silvery white; proboscis and antenna yellow, the latter with the 
third joint very small; arista brown; front and occiput blackish, but 
the ground color concealed by white pollen; orbital cilia whitish; post- 
vertical bristles yellow. Thorax and metanotum blackish with white 
pollen, shining on the dorsum, pollen thickest on the pleuree and the 
flattened space before the scutellum; humeri, a large spot at the inser- 
tion of the wings, and the scutellum except the base yellow; meta- 
thoracic epimera yellowish white; most of the bristles of the dorsum 
small and weak, the acrostichal bristles can hardly be traced in some 
individuals, but in others they are distinct. Abdomen yellow, the first 
segment more whitish; second segment with a black band near the base; 
third with a black band at the base ; fourth black at base getting paler 
posteriorly; fifth segment dusky yellow, with the ventral sheath large 
and black; hairs of the abdomen and the bristles on the hind margin of 
the first segment yellow, those on the lower part of the fourth segment 
long; hypopygium mostly black or testaceous, shining, sometimes the 
first half parti}' yellowish. Legs yellowish white; hind femora more 
yellowish; hairs and bristles of the front coxae all whitish, those of the 
middle coxa? black; front tarsi more than twice as long as their tibiae, 
their metatarsi hardly as long as the tibiae, and about equal to the 
second and third joints taken together; middle metatarsi four-fifths as 
long as their tibiae; second joint of the hind tarsi longer than the first; 
all the tarsi slightly darker towards the tip. Wings hyaline, slightly 
tinged with yellowish along the front; third and fourth veins quite 
widely separated at the tips ; fourth vein ending in the apex of the wing. 

Described from three males from N. Y., Md., and Vt. I 
took the type specimen at Lancaster, N. Y., June 2, 1912; 
Prof. C. W. Johnson has sent me one which was taken at Nor- 
wich, Vt., July 7, 1908; and there is one in the National Museum 
collection taken on Plummers Island, Md., May 11, 1905, by 
Mr. Schwarz. 



1913] North American Dipterous Genus Netirigona 51 



22 Neurigona bivittata n. sp. 

Figure 22. 

Thorax dark reddish yellow, almost brown, with thick gray pollen, 
and two brown vittae. Abdomen yellow banded with black. Length 
5 mm. 

Female: Face broad, whitish pollenose, the yellow ground color 
showing through in the specimens before me, especially below the suture, 
antennas with the first two joints pale yellow, the third more orange 
yellow, arista brown; front and occiput black, thickly white pollenose; 
orbital cilia whitish. Dorsum of the thorax dark reddish yellow, almost 
brown, and somewhat livid, but so thickly covered with gray pollen as 
to hide the ground color in unrubbed specimens, humeri pale yellow, 
there are two brown vittse running from the front of the mesonotum to 
the flattened space before the scutellum. They are just outside of the 
acrostichal bristles, leaving the space between these bristles gray 
pollenose; these vittffi are wider posteriorly and not so sharply defined; 
pleuree blackish with a reddish or livid tint, and thickly covered with 
white pollen; scutellum pale yellow; metanotum black with white 
pollen. Abdomen yellow with black bands at the base of second to 
fifth segments, these bands narrowed laterally, and emarginate at the 
center of the dorsum; venter yellow; hairs of the abdomen black; the 
long bristles on the first segment have a yellowish color in some lights. 
Legs pale yellow; front coxs with very short hairs on the front side, 
which appear dark colored, and with one yellow and several brown 
bristles near the tip, the brown bristles having more or less of a yellow 
color in certain lights; middle coxae with black hairs and bristles which 
are more abundant than in some species; front femora, tibiae, and 
metatarsi about equal in length, the last four joints of the front tarsi 
together about the same length as the metatarsi; middle metatarsi 
shorter than their tibiae; hind tarsi about equal to their tibiae in length, 
the second joint distinctly longer than the first; last joint of all the tarsi 
slightly infuscated. There are the usual whitish bristles above the front 
coxae. Wings grayish hyaline; veins yellowish brown; anal angle not 
prominent; tips of the third and fourth veins well separated, the fourth 
ending in the tip of the wing. Halters short, with the knob large. 

Described from two females. The type specimen is labeled 
Colorado; the other is from Bear Lake, B. C, and was taken by 
R. P. Currie, July 20, 1903; both of these specimens are in the 
National Museum collection, 

23 Neurigona tarsalis n. sp. 

Figure 23. 

Thorax black ; abdomen yellow with three black bands ; hypopygium 
yellow and black; third joint of front tarsi pure white, fourth and fifth 
joints black and flattened. Length 4^ mm. 

Male : Face narrow in the center, a little wider above and below; face 
and palpi silvery white; proboscis and antennae yellow, arista brown; 
front and occiput black, thickly covered with white pollen; orbital cilia 



52 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

and post-vertical bristles yellowish. Dorsum of the thorax black, and 
thickly covered with white pollen, which generally forms two obscure 
narrow stripes; pleurae black, covered with white pollen; prothorax, 
humeri, and metathoracic epimera yellowish white; scutellum pale 
yellow, black at base; metanotum black. Abdomen yellow, with the 
first seg-ment and the posterior edges of the second, third, and fourth, 
and the venter paler; second, third, and fourth segments with wide 
black bands at base, that on the second narrowed laterally; fifth seg- 
ment yellow with a polished black sheath on the venter; third segment 
with a black transverse line on the venter, this line near the middle of 
the segment and fringed with long whitish hairs; hairs of the abdomen 
mostly pale; the long bristles on the hind margin of the first segment 
black; hypopygium rather large, basal half yellow, the remaining part 
black and polished. Legs pale yellow; front cox^e with delicate pale 
hairs on the front side, and black bristles near the tip; middle coxas 
with black hairs and bristles; middle trochanters with a black bristle 
below, and a black spot above ; front metatarsi a little shorter than their 
tibiae, the third joint as long as the fourth and fifth together, fourth 
nearly twice as long as fifth, third a little enlarged, snow white, and 
with white hairs; fourth and fifth black, flattened, and fringed with 
black hairs; middle metatarsi about the length of their tibice; second 
joint of hind tarsi a little longer than the first. Wings hyaline; tips of 
the third and fourth veins not very close together. 

Female: Differs from the male in having the face quite wide, the 
front tarsi plane, middle trochanters without the black spot, fifth seg- 
ment of the abdomen with a black band, wings tinted with yellowish 
along the front and the dorsum of the thorax more greenish. 

Described from twelve males and twelve females, from 
N. Y., Pa., and Mich. I have taken sixteen specimens at 
East Aurora, Erie Co., N. Y., from June 11-15. Mr. Nathan 
Banks took one at Sea ClifT, N. Y. Prof. J. M. iVldrich sent me 
specimens from Battle Creek, Mich., and Pa. 

24 Neurigona lienosa Wheeler. 

Neurigona lienosa Wheeler, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 3d series, 2, p. 72, 1899. 

Length 43<4 mm., wing 3^^ mm. 

"Proboscis yellow; palpi and face yellow, covered with silvery 
white dust, the latter of the usual breadth for a female; antennse yellow, 
the small third joint with a blunt point, and covered with dark pubes- 
cence; arista distinctly pubescent; front and occiput metallic green, 
thickly covered with white dust; postocular cilia snow white. Thorax 
dull metallic green, the ground color almost hidden under a thick coat- 
ing of brown dust; dorsal bristles prominent along the interior border 
of the thorax; scutellum slightly lighter metallic green, but also with a 
covering of dust, the scutellum bears two strong mesial, and two weak 
lateral bristles; first abdominal segment dark brown, succeeding seg- 
ments black, dusted with white, posterior edges of second, third, and 
fourth segments, and venter yellow, ovipositor yellow at the base, tip 



1913] North American Dipterous Genus Neurigona 53 

black, with delicate hairs; pleura blackish metallic green, thickly cov- 
ered with white dust; metathoracic epimera dark brown. Coxae yellow, 
fore and middle pairs with prominent black bristles on their anterior 
surface near their tips, hairs on upper portion of fore coxae delicate and 
pale, hind coxae with a single black bristle on its outer surface. Legs 
pale yellow, with black hairs, tarsi infuscated towards their tips, fore 
tarsi scarcely twice as long as the fore tibias, middle ones one and one- 
third times as long as the middle tibiae, hind tarsi scarcely as long as the 
hind tibiae, hind metatarsi distinctly shorter than the succeeding joint. 
Wings grayish hyaline with a yellowish tinge, broader in the middle, 
slightly narrowed towards the base; distal seg-ment of fourth vein 
moderately bent forwards near its middle and ending not very close to 
the third vein; distal segment of fifth vein nearly two and one-half 
times as long as the posterior cross-vein. Halters and tegulae dark 
brown, the latter with pale cilia." 

I have not seen this species and have copied this from 
Prof. Wheeler's description, vi^hich was made from a single 
female specimen taken sweeping in pine woods at Monterey, 
Cal., July 22, 1896. 

25 Neurigona lateralis Say. 

Figure 25. 

Medeterus lateralis Say, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Vol. vi, p. 169, 1829; 
Compl. Works, ii, p. 362. 

Saucropus superbiens Loew, Mon. N. A. Diptera, ii, p. 227, 1864; Neue Beitr., 
vol. viii, p. 76, 1861. 

Dactylongia gracilipes Aldrich, Kans. Univ. Quat., vol. ii, p. 151, 1894. 

Thorax verdigris green; abdomen yellow with more or less brilliant 
metallic green; hypopygium yellow; front metatarsi longer than their 
tibiae remaining joints very short; first joint of hind tarsi longer than 
second. Length of male 2-3 mm., female 2^-3^ mm. 

Male: Face narrow, silvery white, its sides nearly parallel; palpi and 
proboscis yellow; antennae yellow, third joint a little infuscated, arista 
dark brown; front blackish, occiput greenish, both thickly covered with 
white pollen; frontal bristles black, orbital cilia whitish. Thorax dark 
verdigris green, somewhat coppery on the sides, grayish pollenose, 
except a narrow central line between the acrostichal bristles; scutellum 
more blue green, thickly gray pollenose; pleurae and metanotum green- 
ish black with whitish pollen; metathoracic-epimera yellow. Abdomen 
yellow on the venter and lateral margins, generally the dorsum of the 
first segment more or less yellow, fifth yellow on the hind margin, and 
usually some of the incisures yellow, the rest brilliant metallic green, or 
blue green, rarely coppery, sometimes the green reduced to lateral 
spots, in one female before me there is scarcely a trace of green, but four 
lateral coppery spots; hairs of the abdomen pale; hypopygium rounded, 
yellow, with whitish appendages. Legs pale yellow; all the fifth tarsal 
joints black; front coxae with long delicate yellowish hairs on the front, 
and a few yellowish bristles near the tip, these bristles blackish in 
certain lights; middle coxae nearly bare; front metatarsi longer than 



54 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

their tibiae, remaining four joints together about one-fifth, or one sixth 
as long as the first, third and fourth not much longer than broad, second 
about the length of the two following, the third with a long hair at tip; 
middle metatarsi about as long as their tibiae; first joint of hind tarsi 
longer than the second. Wings hyaline, little tinged with grayish; 
third vein only slightly curved at tip, last section of fourth vein approach- 
ing third from the cross- vein slightly sinuous, the tip not far from the 
tip of third, ending in front of the apex of the wing. 

Female: Front tarsi normal, with the first joint about three-fourths 
as long as their tibiae, front coxae with yellow hairs and black bristles; 
first and second joints of hind tarsi about equal; otherwise as in the 
male. 

Redescribed from many specimens. Ont., Que., N. H., 
Mass., Fla., Ind., Mich., 111., S. D., and Washington, D. C; 
taken during Jime, July, and September. 

Note. — Dr. Loew in his description of this species says that 
the upper orbital cilia are black, but I can see only pale cilia in 
the specimens I have examined. 

26 Neurigona setosa n. sp. 

Figure 26. 

Thorax dull green; abdomen yellow with black bands; hypopygium 
yellow; middle and hind coxk with a prominent black bristle on the 
outside. Length 3-3 K mm. 

Male : Face narrow, of nearly equal width and silvery white ; front 
and occiput greenish with white pollen; antenna yellow, third joint and 
arista dark brown. Thorax dull greenish with yellowish pollen; the 
flattened space before the scutellum poorly defined, and with a depressed 
line in the center; pleura) black with white pollen; humeri, meta- 
thoracic epimera, halters, and the root of the wing yellow; scutellum 
dull green with yellowish pollen, with the lower edge yellow, and a 
slightly elevated central ridge on the disk ; metanotum black with white 
pollen; acrostichal bristles distinct, in two rows. Abdomen yellow; 
second segment with a very narrow, the third with a wider metallic 
greenish black band on the hind margin; fourth and fifth segments 
entirely metallic greenish black; venter 3^ellow; hairs of the abdomen 
yellow ; the black bristles on the hind margin of the first segment rather 
short; fourth and fifth segments ciliate with long yellow bristles on the 
lower lateral edges, these bristles more brown in certain lights; hypo- 
pygium yellow, brownish on the basal edge, with several yellow and 
two black appendages, the latter curved, mandible like, with a blunt 
triangular tooth on the inner edge near the center, and with long yellow 
hairs on the outside. Cox« and legs yellow; hairs and bristles on the 
front side of the front and middle coxae yellow; middle and hind coxae 
each with a large black bristle on the outside; middle and hind femora 
each with a black bristle near the tip on the outside; middle femora 
ciliate with short yellow bristles on the lower surface towards the 



1913] North American Dipterous Genus Neurigona 55 

base ; tarsi scarcely hifiiscated at tips ; front tarsi longer than their 
tibias; front metatarsi little more than one-half as long as their tibia; 
middle metatarsi two-thirds as long as their tibiae; second joint of hind 
tarsi longer than first. Wings grayish hyaline, veins yellowish brown; 
posterior cross-vein less than twice its length from the wing margin 
measured on fifth vein; fourth vein gradually approaching third, ending 
before the apex of the wing, not far from the tip of third vein. 

Female: Agrees with the male in most of the characters given, 
except in the following points; there are several black bristles near the 
tip of the front coxag ; abdomen with a row of black bristles on the hind 
margin of each segment; fourth and fifth segments of the abdomen, and 
the middle femora without cilia. 

Described from four males and four females in the collection 
of the American Entomological Society, taken at Alamo- 
gordo, N. M., May 8-15, 1902. Type No. 5258. 

Note. — I place this species in this genus for the present, but 
it differs from the other species of the genus by having the 
flattened space before the scutellum less distinctly defined; by 
the greater development of the appendages of the hypopygium;. 
and by the bristles on the outside of the middle coxse, and near 
the tip of the middle and hind femora; also the abdomen of the 
male is shorter and stouter than in most species of the genus. 

27 Neurigona tibialis n. sp. 

Figure 27. 

Thorax yellow, with more or less greenish gray on the dorsum; 
abdomen yellow with black bands ; hypopygium yellow, and very small ; 
front tibiae with a row of bristles above ; wings with the third and fourth 
veins nearly parallel. Length 2)4 mm. 

Male : Face and palpi with white pollen, the fonner very wide for a 
male; antennae yellow, first joint short and with three or four hairs 
above; third joint missing; front and occiput dark greenish gray, with 
white pollen; post-vertical bristles and some of the upper orbital cilia 
black, the lateral and lower orbital cilia whitish. Thorax yellow, with 
dark greenish gray on the center of the dorsum, which almost forms 
three broad vittse, lateral ones abbreviated in front, and all somewhat 
united; pleurse with a black spot above the middle coxse, and another in 
front of the halters; scutellum and metanotum dark greenish gray, 
the former yellowish below; acrostichal bristles rather long but scatter- 
ing, forming two poorly defined rows. Abdomen yellow, incisions black 
on the dorsum, this black extending forward so as to almost connect 
along the center of the dorsum on the second, third, and fourth seg- 
ments; fifth segment all black on the dorsum and with a greenish 
luster; venter yellow; hypopygium dark yellow, very small, and with 
two pair of short, slightly hooked appendages. Legs pale yellow; front 
coxae with pale yellow hairs and bristles, the larger bristles blackish in 
certain lights; middle coxae with black hairs and bristles, one of the 



56 An7ials Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

latter rather long and placed high up almost on the outside; hind coxae 
with one black bristle on the outside; front tibiae with a row of black 
bristles above, these bristles do not reach either the base or apex; front 
tarsi about one and one-half times as long as their tibiae, the metatarsi 
two-thirds as long as the tibiae, second joint half as long as the first; 
middle tarsi a little longer than their tibiae, the first joint one-half as 
.long as the tibiae; middle and hind femora with a black bristle near the 
tip on the outside; hind tarsi fully as long as their tibiae, with the second 
joint longer than the first. Wings grayish hyaline; third and fourth 
veins only very slightly convergent at the tips. 

Described from one male which I took at Lancaster, Erie 
Co., N. Y., on Aug. 15, 1909. 

Note. — This species resembles setosa in having a bristle on 
the outside of each middle and hind coxae, and near the tip of 
each middle and hind femora; also in having bristles on the 
hind margin of all the segments of the abdomen. The hypo- 
pygium is smaller than that of any other species of the genus 
that I have seen. There are three or four bristly hairs on the 
top of the first joint of the antennae near the tip, but this joint 
is hardly hairy on top in the same way that it is in some of the 
genera of Dolichopodidae. 

28 Neurigona ciliata n. sp. 

Figure 29. 

Dorsum of the thorax black ; abdomen yellow with black bands ; 
hypopygium small, black; front tarsi black, fringed on each side with 
short black hairs; wings strongly tinged with brown in front of the 
third vein. Length 4>^ mm. 

Male: Face and palpi silvery white, the former very narrow, the 
eyes almost touching on the center of the face; proboscis and antennae 
yellow, arista yellowish brown; front and occiput greenish gray, with 
white pollen; frontal bristles black, orbital cilia and post- vertical 
bristles whitish. Thorax black, shining on the dorsum, with white 
pollen, this pollen thickest on the flattened space before the scutellum; 
humeri, prothorax, lateral edges of the dorsum, scutellum except 
base, metathoracic-epimera, and a large triangular spot above the 
middle coxae yellow. Abdomen yellow, with poorly defined, wide black 
bands on the dorsum at the base of segments two, three, and four, and a 
small spot at base of fifth; hairs black on the first four segments, pale 
on the fifth and on the venter; venter yellow; hypopygium small black 
shining, appendages testaceous. Legs pale yellow; front coxae with pale 
hairs and bristles, one or two of these bristles black; middle coxae with 
black hairs and bristles; front tarsi black, fringed on each side with 
short coarse, dense hairs, giving them the appearance of being flattened, 
these hairs hardly as long as the diameter of the tarsi; front metatarsi 
about equal to their tibiae in length, fourth joint hardly twice as long 
as wide; middle metatarsi four-fifths as long as their tibiae; middle legs 



1913] North American Dipterous Genus Neurigona 57 

infuscated from the middle of the tibiae, the tarsi becoming black; first 
and second joints of hind tarsi equal, black from the tip of the first 
joint. Halters, tegulae and their cilia pale yellow. Wings brownish 
hyaline, much darker in front of the third vein; veins dark brown; 
third vein bent backwards at tip, fourth vein bent forwards from 
beyond the middle of the last section, the tips of third and fourth quite 
near together. 

Described from one male taken at Doe Bay, Wash., July 16, 
1909, in the collection of Prof. J. M. Aldrich. 

29 Neurigona perbrevis n. sp. 

Figure 30. 

Dorsum of the thorax grayish green, with three brownish vittss; 
abdomen black; hypopygium black, polished, and rather large; front 
tarsi A\dth the last two joints flattened and fringed, fonning an oval tip ; 
front tibi^ longer than their tarsi. Length 3^4 mm. 

Male : Face rather narrow ; face and palpi white ; front and occiput 
seem to be black, but the ground color concealed by whitish pollen; 
orbital cilia white; antennae yellow, the small third joint and the arista 
brownish. Dorsum of the thorax grayish green, thickly covered with 
pollen, (this pollen and that of the head and scutellum has a greenish 
tint). Dorsum with four brown vittae, the lateral ones abbreviated in 
front; scutellum the same color as the dorsum, but the edges a little 
yellowish; pleurae black with white pollen. Abdomen black, covered 
with white pollen which is thickest on the posterior margins of the seg- 
ments; fifth segment with a yellow hind margin; venter yellow; hairs 
on the tergum black, those on the sides of the last three segments 
white; hypopygium shining black, polished, and rather large; append- 
ages shining black. Legs yellow; front and middle coxae with yellowish 
hairs and bristles; middle and hind coxae darkened on the outside; front 
tibiae longer than their tarsi or femora, which are of equal length; meta- 
tarsi longer than the remaining four joints together; fourth and fifth 
joints black, flattened, and fringed on each side, forming an oval tip, 
which is nearly twice as long as wide; middle metatarsi nearly three- 
fourths as long as their tibiae; hind tarsi nearly as long as their tibiae, 
the second joint a little longer than the first; hind femora with a few 
yellow bristles below near the base. Halters yellow ; tegulae and their 
long cilia whitish. Wings hyaline; fourth vein rather sharply bent 
towards the third, ending in the apex of the wing, not very close to 
the tip of the third vein; veins brown. 

Described from two males in the collection of the American 
Entomological Society, which were taken at Alamogordo, N. M., 
on April 20 and May 12, 1902. Type No. 5257. 



58 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



30 Neurigona australis n. sp. 

Figure 31. 

Dorsum of tha thorax grayish green; abdomen with the dorsum 
entirely blackish; hypopygium shining black, large; front tarsi with the 
last two joints flattened and fringed with black hairs, forming an oval 
tip to the tarsi; front tibiee shorter than their tarsi. Length of male and 
female 4J^ mm. 

Male: Face narrow, silvery white; palpi and proboscis yellow; front 
and occiput black, with grayish white pollen, the latter with purple 
reflections; orbital cilia white except a few of the uppermost which are 
black; antenna yellow, third joint and arista brownish. Dorsum of the 
thorax grayish green, with some purple reflections, and grayish pollen- 
ose, with four brown vittse, the lateral ones rather poorly defined; 
pleurse and metanotum black, and covered with white pollen; a small 
yellowish spot below the humeri; scutellum the same color as the dor- 
sum. Abdomen metallic black and covered with grayish pollen, which 
is thickest on the sides; fifth segment glabrous and shining; venter 
sordid yellow; hairs of the abdomen mostly pale, rather scattering, but 
longer and more abundant on the sides and posterior end; hypopygium 
shining black, large, polished, rounded behind, and with black append- 
ages. Legs yellow; middle and hind coxae blackened almost to the tip; 
front and middle coxte with white hairs and bristles; front tibiae and 
tarsi darker than their femora the tibiae a little longer than their femora, 
and the tarsi nearly one and one-third times as long as the tibiae, the 
last four joints flattened, fourth and fifth joints black and fringed on 
each side, fomimg an oval tip to the tarsi; front metatarsi nearly as 
long as the remaining four joints together; middle metatarsi about the 
same length as their tibise; a few weak yellow bristles on the lower side 
of the middle femora near the base ; hind tarsi about the same length as 
their tibiae, and the first joint longer than the second; last four joints 
of the middle and hind tarsi darkened. Halters, tegulae, and their cilia 
yellowish. Wings hyaline, only slightly tinged with grayish; anal angle 
not prominent; fourth vein sharply bent towards the third, ending in 
the apex of the wing, not very near the tip of the third vein. 

Female: Differs from the male as follows: the abdomen is lighter 
colored, more like the dorsum of the thorax; the front tarsi are plane; 
the middle femora without bristles below; and the first and second 
joints of the hind tarsi nearly equal. 

Described from one male, and five females from New 
Mexico. The male and one female are in the collection of the 
American Entomological Society, and were taken at Cloud- 
croft, N. M., June 18, 1902; in the National Museum collection 
are three females, taken at Las Vegas, N. M., Aug. 7, 8, and 11, 
by S. H. Baker; and one female taken on the White Mountains, 
N. M., Aug. 5th, by Townsend, at 6500 feet altitude. Type in 
the collection of the American Entomological Society; type 
No. 5256. 



1913] North American Dipterous Genus Neiirigona 59 

31 Neurigona albospinosa n. sp. 

Figure 32. 

Thorax blackish, with three metalHc brown vittse; abdomen green- 
ish black, segments gray pollenose at base ; hypopygium small, testaceous ; 
hind cox^ with several rather weak whitish bristles. Length of male 
4-4^ mm., female 3 J/2 -5 mm. 

Male : Face not very narrow for a male, and with the sides nearly 
parallel ; face and palpi white. ; proboscis and antennae yellow, the latter 
with the third joint and the arista dark brown; front and occiput dark 
grayish green with white pollen; orbital cilia white. Thorax and scutel- 
lum blackish, more gray on the dorsum, and with three somewhat 
shining metallic brown vittae, the central one between the acrostichal 
bristles most sharply defined ; thorax including scutellum and metanotum 
whitish pollenose, the pollen more brown on the flattened space before 
the scutellum, this brown pollen extends somewhat onto the scutellum. 
Abdomen metallic greenish black with coppery reflections, and a grayish 
pollenose band at the base of each segment; the hairs on these bands 
white, on the posterior part of the segments the hairs are black; the 
first segment wholly gray pollenose, and with the marginal row of 
bristles pale except about four at the top which are black; second seg- 
ment with two transverse rows of black dashes near the base; venter of 
the first segment, and very narrow lateral edges of one or more of the 
others yellow; hypopygium testaceous, polished, and rather small. 
Legs pale yellow ; front coxae whitish with long white hairs on the whole 
front; middle cox« also with white hairs and bristles; hind coxae with 
one long and several weak whitish bristles on the outside; middle and 
hind coxae blackish at base; front and middle metatarsi about two- 
thirds as long as their tibiae; hind tarsi with the first joint shorter than 
the second; middle and hind tarsi infuscated fromi the tip of the first 
joint; hind femora brownish above. Cilia of the tegulee whitish; halters 
yellow with the knob whitish. Wings brownish hyaline, darker along 
the front; third and fourth veins wide apart at tip. 

Females : Agrees with the male in most characters, but the scutel- 
limi yellow, sometimes a little darkened at base; marginal row of 
bristles on the first segment of abdomen black, sometimes one or two of 
the lower ones yellowish; stout bristles on hind coxae brown in some 
lights. Face broad, darker than in the male, and the palpi yellowish. 

Described from seven males and twelve females, from 
Idaho, Wash., and Cal. I received from Prof. Aldrich specimens 
taken at Lewiston, and Juliaetta, Idaho, the latter taken 
May 7th; also specimens taken at Stanford University, Cal., 
Feb. 22 to March 24th. From Prof. Melander I received 
specimens from Wenatchee, Wash., taken May 8th. 



60 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



32 Neurigona minuta n. sp. 

Dark metallic green; arista white; hind coxte with a yellow bristle 
on the outside. Length 2 mm. 

Female: Face, front and occiput greenish black, with but little 
pollen (at least in the type specimen) ; palpi and proboscis yellow, the 
former with minute black hairs on the surface and a black bristle at tip ; 
antennae dark reddish brown, the third joint rounded, hardly pointed, 
and more brown than the basal joints, the arista inserted near the apex, 
white. Thorax rather dark metallic green, covered with gray pollen; 
humeri with only a trace of yellowish; the flattened space before the 
scutellum not very sharply defined; bristles of the thorax strong, acros- 
tichal bristles well developed, in two rows; the outer pair of scutellar 
bristles minute but distinct. Abdomen dark metallic green, with black 
hairs; venter dark. Legs and coxae pale yellow; front coxas with whitish 
hairs and bristles ; middle coxas with brownish hairs ; the large bristle on 
the outer surface of the hind cox« yellow; the hairs on all the legs very 
minute; front and middle tarsi about one and one-half times as long as 
their tibise, their first joint being about half as long as the tibise; middle 
tibias with two black bristles near the base, one on the front side, and 
one on the outer side ; hind tibias with a row of four or five black bristles 
on the posterior surface; hind tarsi a little longer than their tibise, and 
with the first joint only half as long as the second. Halters, tegulae and 
their cilia pale yellow. Wings hyaline, only slightly tinged with grayish; 
venation about as in N. aldrichii (Fig. 12), except that the posterior 
cross-vein is only its own length from the wing margin measured on 
the fifth vein, and the apical half of the last section of the fourth vein is 
nearly straight; veins brown, becoming pale yellow at the root of the 
wing. 

Described from one female from Philadelphia, Pa., which 
was bred from decaying oak, May 23, 1907. Type in the 
collection of Prof. J. M. Aldrich. 

Note. — This is the smallest species of the genus that I have 
seen, and is very distinct from all the others. It can readily 
be distinguished by the pale bristles of the coxae, and its white 
arista. 



1913] North American Dipterous Genus Neurigona 61 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

Fig. L Neurigona rubella Loew, wing and hypopygium of male. 
" 2. " perplexa n. sp. wing and hypopygium of male. 

" 3. " dimidiata Loew, wing and hypopygium of male. 

" 4. " carbonifer Loew, wing, hypopygium, and tip of front tarsi of 

male. 
" 5. " nitida n. sp. wing and hypopygium of male. 

" 6. " tridens n. sp. wing of female. 

" 8. " maculata n. sp. wing and hypopygium of male. 

" 9. " fioridula Wheeler, wing and hypopygium of male. 

" 10. " fioridula var. infuscata n. var. wing of female. 

" IL " flava n. sp. wing of female. 

" 12. " aldrichii n. sp. wing, hypopygium, and front tarsi of male. 

" 13. " transversa n. sp. wing of female. 

" 14. " disjuncta n. sp. wing and hypopygium of male. 

" 15. " viridis n. sp. wing and hypopygium of male. 

" 17. " arcuata n. sp. wing, hypopygium, and tip of front tarsi of 

male. 
" 17a. " arcuata n. sp. wing of female. 

" 18. " deformis n. sp. wing, hypopygium, and tip of front tarsi of 

male. 
" 18a. " deformis n. sp. wing of female. 

" 19. " tenuis Loew, wing, hypopygium, and tip of front tarsi of male. 

" 20. " pectoralis n. sp. wing, hypopygium, and tip of front tarsi of 

male. 
" 21. " aestiva n. sp. wing and hypopygium of male. 

" 22. " bivittata n. sp. wing of female. 

" 23. " tarsalis n. sp. wing and hypopygium of male. 

" 25. " lateralis Say, wing and hypopygium of male. 

" 26. " setosa n. sp. wing and hypopygium of male, the latter is 

stretched out backwards. 
" 27. " tibialis n. sp. wing and hypopygiuin of male. 

" 28. " quadrifasciata Fab. (European) apical part of wing. 

" 29. " ciliata n. sp. wing and hypopygium of male. 

" 30. " perbrevis n. sp. wing, hypopygium, and tip of front tarsi of 

male. 
" 31. " australis n. sp. wing, hypopygium, and tip of front tarsi of 

male. 
" 32. " albospinosa n. sp. wing, and hypopygium of male. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate I. 




JIf. C. Van Duzet. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate II. 




M. C. Van Duzee. 



AN INTERESTING FEATURE IN THE VENATION OF 

HELICOPSYCHE, THE MOLANNIDAE, AND THE 

LEPTOCERIDAE. 

By Cornelius Bettex, Lake Forest College. 

The conclusions recorded in a recent paper by Prof. 
Martynov* regarding the venation of the Trichopterous genus 
HeHcopsyche lead me to anticipate here one of several somewhat 
revolutionary views on the venation of the Trichoptera to which 
I have come during the progress of work on a rather extended 
report on that order of insects. 

For the sake of comparison a figure is here given of the 
venation of the fore wing of Rhyacophila (Fig. 1), representing 
an extremely primitive t3^pe. The homologies indicated in 
this figure are so simple as to require no comment except as 
regards the branches of subcosta (Sc) and of cubitus and the 
anals. None of these is here considered and attention is directed 
only to radius which in this genus appears in absolutely primi- 
tive condition, that is, with Ri running free to the margin and 
with the radial sector (Rs) dichotomously branched. In very 
many Trichoptera there is a cross vein from R3 to R4 setting 
off what is called the discal cell. Near the base of cell R4 (the 
cell bounded by R4 and Ro) there is indicated a very small 
corneous point which is present in the vast majority of Tri- 
chopterous wings. 




luA 



'a 

Fig. 1. Venation of fore wing of Rhyacophila sp. 

Martynov reaches the conclusion that radius is also found 
in practically the typical condition in HeHcopsyche (Fig. 2), 
that is, that cell R4 in both fore and hind wings is not obliter- 
ated by the fusion of R4 and R5 as might at first sight appear 
to be the case. 



*Martynov, A. B. On two Collections of Trichoptera from Peru. Annuaire 
du Musee Zool. de I'Acad. Imperiale des Sci. de St. Petersburg. Vol. 17 (1912), 
40 pp., Figs. 1-59. 

65 



66 



Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



That this view is correct seems to admit of no doubt. In 
the American species {H. borealis Hag.) the relations are entirely 
clear. R5 leaves R4 at nearly a right angle and then again 
turns sharply to the wing margin; the cross vein rm meets the 
vein at the latter angle, and is in a nearly horizontal position. 
One might therefore easily be deceived into thinking that the 
cross vein rm and the distal part of R5 with which it is in direct 
line together constitute a branch of media. A failure to recog- 
nize the true relation has forced most authors to leave this vein 
unidentified in their figures. The exact position of the base of 
R5 varies somewhat within the genus and also within the species ; 




^it-'f 






Fig. 2. Venation of Helicopsyche borealis. 



in specimens of H. borealis (Fig. 2 and Fig. 3a) the cross vein rm 
is left intact though out of the usual position as already shown, 
in Martynov's figure (1. c, Fig. 2, copied in Fig. 3b) of H. 
miiiuscula the angle in R5 just touches M1+2 so that the cross 
vein rm is obliterated and its function is assumed by the base 
of Ro, in Ulmer's figure of H. borealis (Genera Insect. Fasc. 60, 
pi. 11, fig. 98, copied in Fig. 3c) the base of R5 has migrated 
still farther back so as to be still more deceptive in its resem- 
blance to the cross vein which it has displaced. Ulmer has 
recently described some related fossil genera in one of which 
(Palaeohelicopsyche*) the female has the cross vein rm present 
while it has been displaced in the male. 



*Ulmer, Georg. Die Trichopteren des baltischen Bernsteins. Schriften der 
physikalisch-okonomischen Ges. zu Konigsberg. Beitrage zur Naturkunde 
Preussens. Heft 10 (1912), p. 308. 



1913] 



Helicopsyche MolannidtB and Leptoceridce 



67 



Attention has already been called to the small corneous 
point that occurs in the base of cell R4 in almost all Trichoptera. 
Perhaps the position of this point may be given some weight 
in the determination of the veins between which it occurs, as is 
done in the discussion of the venation of the Molannidas and 
the Leptoceridse given later in this paper. In the case of 
Helicopsyche the evidence from this source now available is 
incomplete and apparently contradictory. In Ulmer's figure 
of the closely related genus Tetanonema (Genera Insect. 
Fasc. 60, pi. 12, fig. 100) the corneous point appears in its 
normal position in cell R4 but in his figure of H. sperata (1. c, 
pi. 11, fig. 97) and in the figures of several related genera 




Fig. 3. a, Radius of the fore wing of Helicopsyche borealis. b, The same 

from H. minuscula (after Martynov). c, Another specimen of 

H. borealis (after Ulmer). 



described in his fine work on the fossil forms it is found in cell 
2nd R3, that is, in the cell immediately anterior to the one in 
which it normally occurs. On the other hand this spot is not 
shown in McLachlan's figures of H. sperata and H. borealis, 
Martynov does not find it in H. sperata and the study of a 
large series of H. borealis fails to reveal a single occurrence. 
Since Ulmer's observations are on material in amber there may 
be greater chance for error though it seems unlikely that this 
should happen in several cases. At any rate, Tetanonema and 
Saetotricha, the only closely related modern forms, should be 
re-examined in this connection. If Ulmer's figures are correct 
these cases form the only exception to the rule that the corneous 



68 



Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



point occurs, if it occurs at all, in the base of cell R4. In some 
groups there is a similar spot in the distal part of cell M of the 
fore wing (Fig. 8). This spot which has apparently been but 
little noted, while it is characteristic of fewer groups of Tri- 
choptera is as constant in position as are those of cell R4 in 
the fore and hind wings. 

On account of the reduced number of segments in the male 
palpus Helicopsyche has always been placed in the very hetero- 
geneous family Sericostomatidas though its isolated position 
within that family has been fully recognized. Its venation, 
as interpreted by Martynov, has some resemblance in the 
points here considered to the very abnormal venation of the 
Molannidas and to that of the Leptoceridas. 



-"^ 




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a 


^""^ 


__^^;-_---- 


— ' 
















~T 


— — 


>^' 









5. 


:^^. 




^g 


i:^^^ 


-^ 


^^rn"' 


-^ 


>->___—— 




y'^u 


<u, , 


''^^^"---^ir/ * 


cu^-J: 




^^":::-- 


^^""^ 


~~~-^l'!'' 


.ljf,lT,i,iriA 





Fig. 4. 



a, Apical part of fore wing of Molannodes zelleri. 
h, Same of Molanna cinerea 9 . 



In the Molannidae there has come about a very considerable 
shifting in the position of the veins as a result doubtless of the 
unusual position of the wings — these being rolled more or less 
about the body. In the European genus Molannodes (Fig. 4a) 
the condition with respect to radius is strikingly like that which 
is at least sometimes found in Helicopsyche (Fig. 3c), that is, 
R5 has arched back into M1+2 obliterating the cross vein rm and 
leaving its own base in the regular position of that cross vein. 
There is a further reduction in the fusion of R2 and R3. In 
Molanna cinerea (Fig. 4b) there is a similar condition but 
R2+3 has also fused with Ri. In both genera M3+4 has migrated 



1913] Helico psyche MolannidcE and LeptoceridcE 09 

upon Cui just as R5 has upon M1+2. Radius of the hind wing 
may be similarly interpreted. While the limits of this paper 
preclude discussion of the other modifications, enough has been 
indicated to show that the determination of the homologies in 
the venation of the Molannidae and the Beraein^ need not be 
given up in despair. 

While in the case of the Molannidas the suggestions here 
made may help to bring order out of what has admittedly been 
chaos, it may seem that in extending the same interpretation 
to the Leptoceridse the reverse is true. In this latter family 
there has been uncertainty as to the homology of the veins but 
the entire family is practically homogeneous in this respect and 
everyone seems to have been satisfied to recognize equivalents 
within these limits without determining the larger relations. 
Thus McLachlan (Rev. and Syn. p. 282) states that the applica- 
tion of the notation in this family (his section 3) is "not very 
satisfactory" and he leaves the veins and cells between R3 and 
Cui unidentified except in the genus Triaenodes and in the 
females of Leptocerus. In these latter cases there is appar- 
ently an evident recurrence of the 2nd and 3rd cells (cells R4 
and Ml) respectively, but as will be indicated further on this 
appearance may be illusory. Later authors have followed 
McLachlan's practice and no suggestion has so far been made 
as to the manner by which the evident reduction of the venation 
of the Leptoceridae has come about. 

The venation of a species of Leptocerus (Fig. 5) may serve 
as typical for the family. Attention is directed to radius of 
the fore wing which is similar in appearance in practically all 
members of the family and which apparently differs from the 
typical 5-branched radius only in having R4 and R5 fused. 
The only reason for questioning this interpretation is found in 
the fact that the corneous point then falls behind instead of in 
front of R.5. Exactly comparable conditions are found in the 
hind wing (Fig. 5b). It may possibly not be justifiable to 
discard the obvious interpretation of these veins because of the 
location of a minute structure whose significance is wholly 
unknown and whose position may therefore depend upon 
factors which have nothing whatever to do with the venation. 
It is, however, a most remarkable fact that while these points 
are absent in a few groups, they are never found outside of 
their respective cells no matter what curious modifications 



70 



Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



these cells undergo. In fact a condition like that shown in 
Fig. 6 (Smicridea sp.) suggests that the corneous point submits 
to annihilation in preference to displacement. 




Fig. 5. a, Apical venation of fore wing of Leptocerus sp. cf. 
b, Hind wing of same, c, Fore wing of female of same. 

If then we give any weight to the comparison with Heli- 
copsyche and the Molannidas and to the position of the corneous 
points we should conclude that in the Leptoceridee also R5 has 
arched into Mi-^o its distal end fusing with the latter compound 
vein and that what appears to be the cross vein rm is in reality 
the base of R5. 




Fig. 6. Radial sector in the fore wing of Smicridea divisa. 

In almost all of the Leptoceridse media is reduced to two 
branches but in the subfamily Triplectidinae and in females of 
the genus Leptocerus a more generalized condition obtains, 
that is, media is apparently three branched (Fig. 5c). If the 
view here advocated is correct these generalized Leptoceridae 
are in exactly the same condition as regards the relation of R5 
and media as is Helicopsyche, that is, R5 has arched into Mi+.. 
but has not fused with it distally. There is of course the other 
possibility that it is Mi and Mo that are separate and R5 and Mi 



1913] 



Helicopsyche Molannidce and Leptocerid(E 



71 



that have fused. The alternative interpretations are indicated 
in Fig. 5c. To decide between these possibihties we should 
have to find out which fusion took place earlier in the phylo- 
genetic series and on this question the evidence seems incon- 
clusive. 

While the purpose of this paper is fulfilled in showing that 
the modifications of radius may be similarly interpreted in 
Helicopsyche, the Molannidae, and the Leptoceridas, another 
instance of similar modifications may be added lest the basal 
shifting of a distal branch from one main stem to another 
should seem unlikely in this order. A parallel case is shown in 
media of the fore wing of Oecetis*. Authors from McLachlan 




Fig. 7. Venation of apical part of fore wing of species of Oecetia. a, Oecetia 
fumosa. b, Oecetia incerta. c, Oecetia testacea (after McLachlan). 

on agree in saying that media in Oecetis is absolutely simple or 
unbranched. No one seems to have been disturbed by the 
fact that on such an interpretation an extra branch would have 
to be assigned to cubitus. As a matter of fact media is always 
two branched in Oecetis as it is in most of the other Leptocer- 
idas. In O. fumosa (Fig. 7a) while there is slight variation in 
exact position, M3+4 leaves M14.2 at about right angles; it bends 
sharply and then proceeds to the wing margin. At the latter 
angle it is joined by the cross vein m-cu which is in line with the 
distal end of M3+4 so that the resulting deceptive appearance is 
that of an extra branch on the anterior side of cubitus joined 
to media by a cross vein which is in reality the base of M3+4. 
In O. incerta (Fig. 7b) the cross vein m-cu is very short, in some 

*I include here Oecetina Banks and Oecetodes Ulmer. 



72 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

specimens it is wholly lacking. Finally in such forms as the 
European 0. testacea (Fig. 7c) the base of M3+4 has migrated 
farther back on Cui and in this position its true nature as a part 
of M3+4 is far from obvious. In such a case the vein becomes 
virtually a cross vein and migrates according to the mechanical 
stress in flight without reference to the distal part of the vein 
which is left stranded with a new basal connection. Other 
instances of this sort occur in the Trichoptera and they are not 
uncommon in other orders. 

The facts here presented may be of some significance in 
their bearing on the question of the systematic position of the 
Helicopsychinas. This subfamily has always been placed in 
the Sericostomatidae because of the unequal number of segments 
in the palpi of the male and female, though it has always been 
clearly recognized that it bears no close relationship to any of 
the heterogeneous groups included in that family. Thienemann, 
Ulmer, and Martynov have each suggested that a new sub- 
family should be erected for the genera Helicopsyche, Tetano- 
nema, and Saetotricha, and Ulmer and Martynov have during 
the past year almost simultaneously described the subfamily 
Helicopsychinae, Ulmer's description being slightly the earlier. 




Fig. 8. Venation of apical part of fore wing of Sericostoma sp. 

In his recent work on the fossil forms Ulmer lists the Heli- 
copsychinae among the Sericostomatid^ but in this work (p. 376) 
he makes the first suggestion that these forms may possibly 
show affinities to the Leptoceridae though he gives, so far as I 
can find, no reason for the statement. What has been given 
above certainly confirms the impression which Ulmer has 
stated since in the HelicopsychinEe, the Molannidas, and the 
Leptoceridae, R5 shows an increasing tendency to migrate upon 
Mi+2 — a condition not seen elsewhere in the Trichoptera, 
though the sharp angle in R5 seen in Sericostoma (Fig. 8) and 
other forms might be regarded as a beginning of that tendency. 



191o] Ilelico psyche Molannidce and Leptoceridce 73 

It is interesting to note that there are some other characters 
not found in the Sericostomatidae which Hehcopsyche shares 
with genera of other familes. Thus it has the costal hooks on 
the hind wings which are found well developed only in the 
Leptoceridae, Molannid®, and the Macronematinse (Hydro- 
psychidae) . I find also that //. borealis has the peculiar fenes- 
trated terga in the posterior abdominal segments heretofore 
found only in certain species of Oecetis — a genus of Leptoceridae. 

Taken altogether the facts presented do not do more than 
emphasize the isolated position of the Helicopsychinas and sug- 
gest that this subfamily may be regarded as an early offshoot 
from the Leptocerid stem which in the condition of the palpi 
has diverged from the typical form in the same way as have 
the Sericostomatidce. 



HOMOLOGIES OF THE WING VEINS OF THE 
MEMBRACIDAE.i 

W. D. FUNKHOUSER. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Since in problems of phylogeny and taxonomy of insects the 
homologies of the wing-veins are being taken more and more 
into consideration, it is evident that the available data on this 
subject should be as complete as possible. 

In the work which has been done along this line, certain 
families of the Homoptera have received but little attention 
and of these the Membracidas appear to have been entirely 
neglected. For this reason, and because of a large personal 
interest in this group of bizarre insects, this study has been 
undertaken, hoping that it might be possible to add in some 
measure to the knowledge of hemipterous wings. 

The work was begun two years ago at the suggestion and 
under the direction of Dr. MacGillivray, then of Cornell Univer- 
sity, and has been completed under the supervision of Dr. 
Bradley, of the Entomological Department of Cornell, to both 
of whom I am greatly indebted for their most helpful criticisms 
and suggestions and for access to the specimens in the Cornell 
collection for examination and comparison. 

METHOD. 

Of the various methods of approaching the subject of 
wing-vein homologies, the Comstock-Needham theory^ that 
the study should be based on the ontogenetic consideration of 
the tracheae which precede the veins has been so fully estab- 
lished and is so applicable to the membracid wing that any 
other method of procedure in the examination of this highly 
specialized and complex homopterous type would appear to be 
the merest guess-work. It has been a source of the greatest 
satisfaction in the application of this theory to find that the 
nymphal tracheation has proven in most cases an open index 
to the adult venation, while the variation and peculiarities of 
many veins can be traced directly to the behavior of the tracheas 
which preceded them. 



1. Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory of Cornell University. 

2. The Wings of Insects, Am. Nat. XXXII and XXXIII, 1898, 1899. 

74 



1913] Wing Veins of Membracidce 75 

According to this theory the knowledge of homologies is 
dependent upon two methods of investigation. First, the 
ontogeny of the wing of the individual, as based on the study 
of the tracheation of nymphal. wings traced through their 
successive stages of development, and second, the study of the 
wdngs of adults worked out by careful comparison with forms 
representing known types of venation. Of these two methods, 
the former has been the one used almost entirely and the second 
has been resorted to only for those forms for which the nymphs 
were not available. Since, however, the venation of the 
Membracidae is comparatively uniform, the determination of 
homologies, after the tracheation of the nymphs of the more 
prominent types has been ascertained, has proven a relatively 
simple matter. 

TECHNIQUE. 

The laboratory methods followed have been in the main 
those outlined in the "Wings of Insects"^ with such modifica- 
tions as have been suggested by the condition and shape of the 
individual wings under consideration. 

The wings were dissected from nymphs of various stages of 
development, but it was found that in most cases the last two 
instars showed best the features desired. In these two instars 
the nymphal wings may be pulled out of the wing-pads and are 
thus more easily studied. In the earlier stages, and in all of 
the stages of some of the smaller species, e. g. Vanduzea arquata 
or Micrutalis calva, it is difficult to remove the wing from the 
pad without disturbing the position of the tracheae, and in these 
cases it is necessary to photograph through the pad membrane. 
The wings were carefully dissected out, together with a portion 
of the thorax to show the basal tracheation, and mounted at 
once. It was found that fresh material gave much better 
results than that which had been preserved, even for a short 
time, in formol or alcohol. In many cases, several hundred 
dissections were made for the verification of some particular 
point in question. The greatest difficulty was to preserve the 
tracheae for a sufficient length of time to secure photomicro- 
graphs or careful drawings, since the tracheae fill in a very short 
time with the mounting media and are then invisible. Moreover, 

3. American Naturalist, Vol. XXXII, p. 45. 



76 Amials Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI^ 

in the membracid wing, there is a sharp bend at the point at 
which the tracheae enter the body and it is difficult to secure a 
mount in which the base and tip of the wing are in focus at 
the same time. 

Various mounting media were tried, but for the wings of 
this family glycerin jelly was uniformly the most satisfactory. 
A drop of jelly was placed on the slide, the wing laid in the jelly, 
another drop placed on the cover-slip and the latter placed at 
once over the specimen. The mount was then quickly cooled 
by placing a drop of ether on the cover-slip and fanning it to 
insure rapid evaporation. Some of the mounts made in this 
way have remained in good condition for over a year and bid 
fair to last for a much longer period. 

Photomicrographs were then made of the specimen, using 
whatever combination of objective and bellows were necessary 
to bring out the desired details and to make the image fill a 
5x7 plate. Since many of the nymphal wings are less than two 
millimeters in length, the magnification is necessarily great, 
but negatives can usually be secured sufficiently sharp to show 
the points in question. Artificial light, secured by means of a 
Nernst lamp and series of condensers, seemed to be more 
desirable than sunlight for this work, mainly owing to the fact 
that it was possible to secure a chart of uniform exposures for 
the different magnifications. 

In cases where photomicrographs were not considered 
necessary, careful camera lucida drawings were made, verified 
by repeated comparisons. For the adult wings, the permanent 
mounts (Canada balsam) of the wings themselves were used, 
copied by projection drawings when figures were desired. 

Velox and solio prints from all negatives were made for per- 
manent records in this study. The figures of nymphal wings 
shown in this paper, however, are blueprints inked in with india 
ink and afterwards bleached.'* The figures of adult wings are 
pen drawings made from the permanent mounts with the aid of 
the camera lucida or projection apparatus. 



4. In a saturated solution of Potassium Oxalate. 



1913] Wing Veins of Me?nbracidcB 77 



MATERIAL 

Nymphs 
About twenty species of the Membracidee, representing 
eight genera of fairly wide distribution as regards relationship 
are common to the local fauna of Ithaca, New York, the nymphs 
of most of which are easily obtainable. These have been used 
for the determination of the nymphal tracheation. The choice 
of the various species studied has depended largely upon the 
characters of the adult wings. In cases of closely related forms 
where the venation was practically identical and no special 
problems were involved, the nymphs of a representative species 
only have been thoroughly worked not, except for the solution 
of certain questionable points. Some nymphs, also, owing to 
the form of the wing yield much better preparations than others, 
and these have been more elaborately figured where general 
characteristics only were being considered. Some have been 
discarded because of lack of positive identification and others 
because of the fact that they were less abundant and illustrated 
no features not found in forms more easily procured. The 
bulk of the work has been done from nymphs of the following 
genera: Ceresa (bubalus, diceros and constans), Thelia {bimacii- 
lata), Telemona {ampelopsidis), Vanduzea (arquata), Campylen- 
chia (ciirvata) and Enchenopa {binotata). Altogether several 
thousand dissections have been made and each point in trachea- 
tion has been as carefully verified as possible. No attempt has 
been made to breed the insects since extensive field notes on 
the habitat, hosts, life-history and general biology of the local 
forms has made it possible to procure the nymphs at various 
stages without particular difficulty. 

Adults 
Besides the forms represented in the local fauna, the wings 
of all other species procurable have been studied with the view 
of obtaining a large number of types of venation. The writer 
is greatly indebted to the Entomological Department of Cornell 
for the privilege of examining the wings of all the species in the 
excellent collection of the University, which includes many 
forms that could not otherwise have been obtained. Thanks 
also are due to Dr. J. C. Bradley and to Mr. C. R. Plunket for 
the use of specimens from their collections. 



78 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Six subfamilies are recognized in the Membracidae by the 
systematists in Hemiptera^ and representative genera from all 
sub-families reported from the United States^ have been 
examined. Wings from the following genera are figured in 
this paper as representative : 

Smiliida 

Cerasini 

Ceresa 

Stictocephala 

Acutalis 

Micrutalis 
Telamonini 

Carynota 

Thelia 

Glossonotus 

Telemona 

Telemonanthe 

Archasia 

Heliria 
Smiliini 

Smilia 

Cyrtolobus 

Cyrtolobus 

Atymna 

Xantholobus 

Ophiderma 
Polyglyptini 

Vanduzea 

Entylia 

Publilia 



Darnida 

hoplophorida 

Membracida 

Centrodita 



Stictopelta 

Platycotes 

Campylenchia 
Enchenopa 
Tylopelta 
Philya 

Centruchoides 
Platycentrus 

(The above classification is based on that of E. P. VanDuzee in his "Studies 
in North American Membracidae," Bulletin of Buffalo Society Natural Science, 
1908, Vol. IX.) 



5. Cf. Stal, Hemiptera Africana IV, pp. 82-83. 

Coding, Bibliographical and Synonymical Catalogue of the Described Mem- 
bracidae of North America. Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., Vol. Ill, Art. XIV, 
p. 302. 

VanDuzee, Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 1908, Vol. IX, p. 31. 

6. According to VanDuzee (Studies in North American Membracidae, p. 31) 
the Tragopida are not represented in this country. Moreover in this sub-family the 
fore wing at least is coriaceous and opaque externally, and would probably be of 
little value in the study of venation. 



1913] Wing Veins of Membracid<2 79 

In addition to the species actually examined, careful com- 
parison has been made with as many figured wings of the 
Membracidae as could be located" and it has been a satisfaction 
to note that in practically all cases there is a constant and easily 
worked out agreement with the homologies as herein suggested. 

Since the Membracidae is principally an American family, 
only a few genera being found on the continent of Europe^, but 
two species in Britain'-* and very few^ reported from other parts 
of the world, there seems no reason to believe that our local 
forms in New York should not be typical of the family. More- 
over, the venation is quite uniform throughout the family and 
it appears reasonable to suppose that the homologies as here 
worked out for the representative genera figured will be readily 
applicable to the entire IMembracidae. 

NOMENCLATURE 

Many of the specific, generic and sub-family distinctions in 
the Membracidae are dependent upon the venation, and most 
tables and keys to the family follow the nomenclature of Fowler, 
Coding and others in which the characters of the cells are used 
as a basis of classification. Little attention has been paid to 
the veins except as to their number at the base of the wing or as 
forming the "petiole" of a cell. 

The cells are called "areoles" or "areas" and are described 
as "marginal", "discoidal", "apical", "anterior", etc., and 
their bases as "petiolate", "truncate", etc., but little attempt 
has been made to identify the veins which limit these cells. 
Fowler in his discussion of the Ceresini in the Biologia^° describes 
the "costal", "radial" and "ulnar" veins, and this nomencla- 
ture has been used to some extent by other writers. 

The fore wing is commonly spoken of as the tegmina and 
its venation often designated as the elytral venation. The 
hind wing is referred to as the under wing or the second w4ng. 
The corium is often discussed separately, as is also the clavus 



7. In the plates of Canon Fowler in the Biologia Central! Americana partic- 
ularly, the figures, while representing forms foreign to our fauna, are evidently 
very accurately reproduced and agree to a remarkable extent with our North 
American species, so far as venation is concerned. 

8. Canon Fowler. Bio. Cent. Amer., Insecta: Rhynchota, Homoptera. 
Part II, p. 2. 

9. Cambridge Natural History, Insects Part II, p. 577. 

10. Biologia Centrali Americana, Insecta: Rhvnchota, Homoptera. 
Part II, p. 87. 



80 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

and the membranous margin, and altogether a rather complex 
and imposing accumulation of terms has been built up, not at 
all contradictory, but somewhat confusing. 

It would be entirely unnecessary and out of place at this 
point to enter into the controversy regarding the systems of 
nomenclature of wing-veins and their respective merits, a 
subject which has been thoroughly and repeatedly reviewed^^ 
The nomenclature used in this study is entirely that of the 
Comstock-Needham system, and therefore the veins and cells 
here described conform to those represented in other work 
done according to this system. The names ' ' costa " , " subcosta ' ' 
"radius", "media", "cubitus" and "anal" will be used 
throughout. Thus the "terminal areole" of VanDuzee, the 
"third apical area" of Fowler and the "celule terminale" of 
Fairmaire becomes cell R^ as dependent on the homology of the 
vein R^ and will be so designated in this discussion, and this 
same system will hold for all other veins and cells discussed. 

THE MEMBRACID WING 

The Membracidse is one of those families of the Homoptera 
in the wings of which the corium and clavus are usually mem- 
branous, the veins in most forms are distinct, there is practically 
no thickening at the base of the wing, and both pairs of wings 
are well developed (Fig. 1). These features are better shown in 
the membracid wings than in those of any of the other Hemip- 
tera with the possible exception of the Cicadidce. The wings 
are well adapted for flying and the insects fly well for short 
distances with a whirring noise. 

The fore wings are large, expanded and distinctly veined. 
They are usually membranous throughout, but occasionally 
show coriaceous patches and basal punctures, especially along 
the anterior margin. The clavus^^ is distinct, the claval suture 



11. The historical discussion of the nomenclature of wing- veins is taken up 
in detail by Dr. A. D. MacGillivray in the "Wings of Tenthredinoidea," Proc. 
U. S. Museum, 1906, Vol. XXIX, pp. 570-574. 

Miss Edith M. Patch reviews the terminology of homopterous wing venation 
in "Homologies of the Wing- Veins of the Aphididae, Psyllidae, Aleurodidae and 
Coccidae," Annals Entomological Society of America, 1909, Vol. II, pp. 124-126. 

Cf. also C. W. Woodworth, The Wings of Insects. University of California 
Publications, Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin, Entomology, 
Vol. I, p. 142. 

12. In the hemipterous wing the basal portion consists of two pieces. The 
term "clavus" is here applied to the narrow posterior piece which is next to the 
scutellum when the wing is closed. This is figured in Comstock's "Manual for the 
Study of Insects," p. 124. 



1913] Wing Veins of Membracidce 81 

occurring along the first anal vein. There are few cross- veins 
but those present are remarkably constant. The wing may or 
may not be covered by the pronotum, but in no case is it to be 
considered in the sense of an elytron. 

The hind wing is not nearly so dissimilar to the fore wing as 
is the case in most insects. C. W. Woodworth in the "Wings 
of Insects"^"'' remarks that "the hind wings of most of the 
families of Homoptera have more nearly kept pace with the 
front wings in their specialization, than have those of the 
Heteroptera". This is certainly true of the Membracidas. 
There are fewer veins and cells in the hind wing than in the 
fore but their homologies are evident. 

Both wings are characterized by the strongly scalloped 
margin of the veined surface and the comparatively narrow 
terminal membrane. 

Like most of the other Hemiptera, the wings of the Mem- 
bracidae are specialized by reduction, but the reduction has not 
been carried so far as in most of the other families of this order. 
This reduction has been carried on in two ways, viz. : by atrophy 
and by coalescence. Reduction by atrophy is shown by costa in 
both wings. Coalescence, in turn, has been accomplished by two 
methods- — by coalescence from the base towards the margin, 
as illustrated by cubitus, and by the anastomosis of veins in 
the center of the wing followed by their subsequent divergence, 
as shown in the case of radius four-plus-five plus media one- 
plus-two. No cases have been noted of coalescence from the 
margin proximad. 

However, no hint of the particular veins in which this 
specialization occurs is given by the venation of the adult 
wing, and it is only by following the nymphal structure, trachea 
by trachea, and branch by branch, that the actual solution can 
be reached with any degree of accuracy. 

NYMPHAL TRACHEATION 

A study of the most general characteristics of the nymphal 
tracheation may well be made before proceeding to the consider- 
tion of the minutia. In the fore wing (Fig. 2), it will be noted 
that there are five main tracheae. Beginning at the anterior 
margin, the first is unbranched and extends almost to the tip 
of the wing. The second appears two-branched and the 
posterior branch anastomoses for some distance with the ante- 

13. Univ. of Cal. Publ., Ag. Ex. Sta. Tech. Bull. Ent., Vol. I, No. 1, p. 124. 



82 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

rior branch of the following trachea. There is also a suggestion 
of splitting near the base of the anterior branch. The third 
is two-branched with the anastomosis as noted. The fourth 
is two-branched, the tracheae separating very close to the base 
of the wing. The last is also two-branched with the branches 
coalescing at their extremities. 

The relationship of these treacheae with the corresponding 
wing veins is evident. Their identification as regards the 
homologies of wing veins in general is not so simple a matter. 
For this reason the veins as dependent on these tracheae will be 
discussed in order, beginning at the costal margin. 

FORE WING 

Costa 

Costa never appears as a separate vein in the adult wing. 
It was some time in the course of this study before sufficient 
data was obtained to determine exactly what had become of 
this vein, since most of the preparations failed to show a cor- 
responding trachea in the nymphal wing. Finally however, 
an examination of younger stages of various species furnished 
the solution. In Thelia bimaculata (Fig. 3) it was found that 
costa was represented in the nymphal tracheation but never 
entered the wing for a sufficient distance to have a place in the 
adult structure. In most individuals the atrophy was greater 
than that shown in the figure. In Telemona ampelopsidis 
(Fig. 4) the treachea is twisted around the subcosta and no 
doubt coalesces with it in the vein which afterwards encloses 
them. In Ceresa borealis (Fig. 5) the trachea extends farther 
into the wing but is not so well developed and probably has no 
effect on the venation. In Vanduzea arquata (Fig. 6) much the 
same appearance is shown except that the trachea is stronger 
and lies nearer the margin of the wing. 

To sum up then, the trachea which usually precedes the 
costal vein is represented in the nymphal structure but the vein 
itself is not found in the adult wing. In such genera as Thelia, 
Acutalis and Glossonotus^^ in which a slight membrane is found 
cephalad of subcosta but no thickened ridge is present, the vein 
is probably atrophied^'^. 



14. All forms mentioned are figured either tlirough the text or at the end of 
the discussion. The figures of adult wings are drawn to show the coalescence of 
tracheae to form a single vein when such has been the case. 

15. This is no unusual condition with costa. Comstock and Needham say 
(Wings of Insects, p. 858). "Its (costa's) trachea is often atrophied, probably- 
owing to the disadvantageous position of its base in relation to air supply, as we 
have hitherto indicated." 



1913] Wi7tg Veins of Membracidce 83 

In Ceresa, Micrutalis, Telemona, etc., in which subcosta 
forms the cephahc margin, the tracheae for costa and subcosta 
have coalesced. In Heliria, Vanduzea and Enchenopa the 
trachea has had an influence on the costal margin to form a 
thickening near the base of the wing. 

Subcosta 
Subcosta is constant in character throughout the family. 
It is strong, straight and unbranched and extends the full 
length of the wing (Fig. 2). It is the anterior vein of the wing, 
owing to the atrophy of costa, and as such often forms the 
cephalic margin. In the sub-families Hoplophorida and Mem- 
bracida^'' the vein is usually contiguous to the anterior margin 
for its basal half, and then drops down, leaving a terminal 
membrane anterior to its distal half. Sometimes this membrane 
occurs down the entire cephalic margin. No splitting occurs 
at the end of the vein. It sometimes anastomoses with parts 
of radius as will be shown in the discussion of that vein, but this 
is due to the peculiarities of radius and to no irregularities on 
the part of subcosta. Its base occasionally shows a fulln'ess or 
slack which later straightens out in the vein formation (Fig. 7). 
Altogether, subcosta is always permanent, straight, clean-cut 
and independent, both in its tracheation and in its final 
structure. 

Radius 

The behavior of radius offered one of the most difficult 
problems of the membracid wing. Instead of the typical five- 
branched condition (Fig. 8) we have in the venation of this 
family (Fig. 2) what is seemingly a two-branched condition, 
with what appears to be a cross-vein connecting the cephalic 
branch with subcosta. This, in itself, would offer but little 
difficulty, since if the reduction of the five-branched type were 
carried far enough by coalescence outward, it would give a 
two-branched result. The natural method of reduction of 
radius is by the coalescence of the branches of each half of the 
radial sector, leaving the sector two-branched and the vein as 
a whole three-branched. If the same method of reduction be 
carried further, Ri and the sector only are left, giving a two- 
branched condition of the whole vein. 



16. See figures of Platycotes, Phylia, Campylenchia and Enchenopa. Nos. 
51, 52 and 53. 



84 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

But in the Membracidae several points not compatable with 
this natural method of reduction presented difficulties. In the 
first place, both branches showed constant and unmistakable 
signs of further subdivision at their tips, which would not be 
likely to be true of the cephalic branch if it were Ri. Moreover, 
the vein between the cephalic branch and subcosta was often 
seen to be preceded by a trachea. Again and again in mounts 
of different species this area contained a trachea which was 
evidently a branch from the cephalic branch of radius. If this 
were true, this most anterior branch should be Ri. But Ri 
normally leaves the main stem proximad of the division of the 
radial sector, while this branch seemingly pulls off from one 
half of the sector itself, and this demanded an explanation which 
was not immediately forthcoming. 

The solution was first found in the wings of Vandnzea 
arguata and later this peculiar condition (Fig. 9) was verified 
in other genera. The trachea representing Ri, as will be seen 
from the figure, is weak and apparently greatly reduced. It 
leaves the main stem in the normal postion, but runs in close 
juxtaposition to the radial sector beyond the point at which the 
latter branches. Here it turns cephalad and runs across to 
subcosta where it again turns outward and closely parallels sub- 
costa for some distance in its course toward the tip of the wing. 
The sharp turns made by the trachea in following this course 
(Fig. 10) are remarkable, and in the veins which enclose this 
region of the wing, the bridge from radial sector to subcosta 
(Fig. 11) gives every appearance of a cross-vein. 

While this interesting behavior of Ri is unusual, and per- 
•haps peculiar to the Membracidae, it only illustrates another of 
the vagaries of which radius is capable. In fact, throughout 
the Hemiptera, radius seems to be most unreliable, and Ri 
capable of the most peculiar performances, being, according to 
Miss Patch^^ "the least stable of the hemipterous wing veins". 
It has been shown in the Cicadidse^*^ that Ri has been crowded by 
subcosta until its trachea coalesces for its entire length with 
radial sector and its anterior branch. In the Pentatomidae^^ 
also, it has been supplanted by subcosta and is entirely 



17. Annals of the Entomological vSociety of America, 1909, Vol. 2, p. 119. 

18. Wings of Insects, p. 245. 

19. Wings of Insects, p. 250. 



1913] Wing Veins of Membracidce 85 

atrophied. In the Coreid^e-" Ri is wanting. The weakness of 
the vein has been remarked in the Aphididae-^ and it is entirel}^ 
lacking in the PsylHdae-- and in the Aleurodidas^^. In fact, 
Comstock and Needham state-'* that the complete absence of 
the vein Ri is one of the most characteristic features in the 
venation of the wings of the Hemiptera. 

It is of some phylogenetic interest, then, to note that in the 
Membracidae, while the vein is abnormal, it is not completely 
absent, and in this respect the membracid wings may be con- 
sidered the most generalized of any of the families of Homoptera, 
at least those of which the homologies of wing-veins have been 
determined. 

Most of the genera of the Membracidae show the position 
of Ri as described. In many it has been impossible to find the 
trachea, although the vein is present and constant. Since, 
however, the history of the vein is evidently traceable to the 
trachea representing Ri, it seems necessary to call this vein 
Ri whenever it appears. 

In a few genera, namely, Acutalis, Tylopelta, Enchenopa, 
Campylenchia, Platycentrus, and Centruchoides , the vein comes 
off in its normal position. In the nymphal wings of Enchenopa 
binotata, for example (Fig. 12), the trachea is found in its 
natural place. These genera are, of course, still more gener- 
alized with regard to this special point, but are not so typical 
of the family. 

The course of the rest of radius is evident from the trachea- 
tion. At its base it often anastomoses for some distance with 
media before these two principal veins separate for their 
respective courses through the wing. In Ceresa, Stictocephala, 
etc., this coalescence must be fairly constant, since it has been 
made a basis for classification25. R2+3 usually extends undi- 
vided to the tip of the wing. It is generally connected with 
R4+5 by a cross-vein. R4+5 is represented as one vein and 
coalesces with the anterior branch of media (M1+2) for a more 
or less extended part of its course. The amount of coalescence 

20. Wings of Insects, p. 252. 

21. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 1909, Vol. II, p. 111. 

22. Annals Ent. Soc. of Amer., 1909, Vol. II, p. 119. 

23. Annals Ent. Soc. of Amer., 1909, Vol. II, p. 122. 

24. Wings of Insects, p. 245. 

25. Biologia Central! Americana, Insecta; Rhynchota, Homoptera, Part II, 
p. 87. 



86 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

shown in figure 11 is about the average. In a few species^^ the 
course is more extended, and in some" the veins do not coalesce 
at all but run some distance apart, connected by one or more 
cross-veins. Just before reaching the tip of the wing, however, 
this vein separates from media to make the apical or terminal 
cell, which is thus cell R5. The tips of both branches of radial 
sector show signs of splitting in their tracheal condition. In 
some cases they actually remain separate and form additional 
cells in the wing. This is true of the species Telemonanthe 
pulchella, Cyrtolobus vau and Smilia cameliis (see figures Nos. 
39, 43 and 42). In the first, R2 and R3 are separate. In the 
second, a very small cell R4 appears, showing that R4 and R5 
have not entirely coalesced. 

In this species also, a peculiar condition of R3 is shown, the 
end of the vein still persisting at the margin of the wing, while 
its base has disappeared. In Smilia cameliis, R3 has not entirely 
coalesced with R2, and extends into the cell R2+3 where it is 
perhaps atrophying back toward its base. This means that in 
these forms the reduction has not proceeded so far as it has in 
the majority of the species. 

Summing up, then, radius is typically three-branched in the 
Membracidas. Ri extends from R2+3 to subcosta. R2+3 and 
R4-,_5 usually extend as undivided branches, with the exceptions 
noted, to the tip of the wing, R4+5 ordinarily anastomosing for 
a variable part of its length with M1+2. 

Media 

The course of media (Fig. 13) is quite constant. Starting 
from the base of the wing in close proximity if not in actual 
contact with radius, it follows a relatively straight course for 
about two-thirds of the wing length. It represents the most 
posterior vein of the costa-subcosta-radius-media group, and 
its origin is intimately connected with the stem of these veins 
(Fig. 14). In such forms as Acutalis, Micrutalis, Thelia, and 
Carynota of the Smiliida, this close connection is not shown in 
the adult wing. In others, as Ceresa and Stictocephala, the 
relationship is striking, as has been referred to in the considera- 
tion of radius. 



26. e. g., Cyrtolobus vau and Atyma castaneae. 

27. Platycotis sagittata, Enchenopa binotata, Campylenchia curvata, Centru- 
choides perdita, and Platycenirus acuticornis. 



1913] Wing Veins of MembracidcE 87 

In the distal third of the wing, media branches into M1+2 
and M3+4, the upper branch usually but not always uniting 
with R4+5. This is, in most cases, the end of its branching, 
since the reduction by coalescence outward has obliterated the 
individual veins Mi, Mo, M3 and M4. In a few cases these 
veins persist to the point of forming an extra marginal cell. 
This is true of Archasia helfragei and Ophiderma pubescens, 
where M3 and M4 are separate, and in Micrutalis dorsalis where 
Ml and M2 show a very slight space between them. In the 
latter species this feature, which has been remarked by VanDu- 
zee in a taxonomic sense-^ is not always constant. In Smilia 
camelus, M4 has behaved much as has R2 in the same species 
(see radius) by extending part way into cell M3+4 and probably 
atrophying toward its base. A peculiar condition is shown in 
Xantholobus trilineatiis in which Mi and M2 have not coalesced, 
thus leaving a cell Mi. M3 has coalesced with M2 near the mar- 
gin of the wing to form the unusual combination M2+3. M4 
extends part way into cell M34.4 as was seen in the case of 
Smilia. 

On the whole, media represents a simple, natural reduction 
and is one of the most constant veins in the membracid wing. 

Cubitus 

With the consideration of cubitus comes a perplexing 
problem in interpretation. There is no doubt as to the trachea- 
tion, which is constant throughout the family, but the homolo- 
gies are not at once evident. From the posterior base of the 
wing, and separate from the costa-subcosta-radius-media group, 
come two distinct main stems (Figs. 5 and 15). These must 
represent cubitus and the anals. The upper stem is typically 
two-branched which is characteristic of cubitus; the lower is 
three-branched and seems naturally to be First, Second and 
Third Anal respectively (Fig. 16). Certain features, however, 
make this interpretation unacceptable. The first and most 
important of these is the fact that the point of branching of the 
anterior trachea occurs so far back in the nymphal wing that it 
would not appear, and does not appear, in the adult venation. 
This is entirely inconsistant with the reduction which has taken 
place in all of the other veins of the same wing, and it is incon- 
ceivable that while coalescence outward has been taking place 

28. Studies in North American Membracidae, p. 52. 



88 Annals Entomological Society oj America [Vol. VI, 

in all the rest of the wing, cubitus has been dividing in the 
opposite direction. Moreover, the end of the cephalic -branch 
shows, as did radius and media, unmistakable evidence of a 
doubly tracheated condition (Fig. 17). At first this was 
considered as a mere splitting of the end of the trachea and was 
disregarded. It appeared so constantly, however, and at times 
extended so far back into the wing, that it refused to be ignored. 
Again, it has been shown in other families of the Homoptera, 
that the first and second anal veins may be widely separated- ^ 
the first anal arising from the cubital stem. In view of these 
facts then, it appears that the most anterior branch of the 
upper vein represents both Cui and Cuo. That these veins 
have coalesced outward in the regular manner, forming one 
vein only in the adult wing, although the two tracheae are 
distinguishable in the nymphal condition. This interpretation 
makes the position of the anal fold in the membracid wing agree 
with the position which it assumes in the other Hemiptera, 
namely, along the first anal vein. If the next vein (First Anal) 
were considered as Cuo it would make the Membracidas peculiar 
in this respect, and not in keeping with the conditions in the 
closely related families. 

The trachea runs parallel with media for about half the 
length of the wing and then makes an abrupt turn downward, 
running to the posterior margin. At this point it divides, the 
two branches however never separating but turning together 
outward again toward the tip. The vein which encloses them 
follows this course without deviation. Just after the vein 
makes the sharp turn caudad, a strong cross-vein connects it 
with M3+4. This cross- vein (medio-cubital), as will be shown 
later, may be of varying length but is constant and very charac- 
teristic of the family. It well represents one of the points 
which brings out the importance of the study of tracheation. 
In the adult wing (Fig. 1) it might well be taken for a branch of 
cubitus, but the nymphal wing (Fig. 18) clearly shows that it is 
not preceded by a trachea. A careful search has been made 
through hundreds of mounts to establish this point, and no 
case has yet been found where this condition was not true. On 
the theory that the principal veins are preceded by trachea 
while the cross-veins are not, this would prove that the vein in 
question could not be a part of cubitus. 

29. Wings of Insects, p. 249. 



1913] Wing Veins of Membracida 89 



The Anal Veins 

If the interpretation of the preceding structures has been 
correct, the remaining veins of the wing must represent the 
anals. As a matter of fact, this works out very simply and 
leaves little doubt regarding the homologies of the anal region. 
It is true that the third anal often shows a forking in the nymphal 
tracheation (Figs. 5 and 16), but this is of no particular conse- 
quence since in a very large number of wings, of which that of 
the cockroach may serve as an example'' °, the anal region has 
become filled with many veins branching from or posterior to 
the third anal. In fact, this condition (Fig. 19) homologizes 
perfectly with the tracheation of this vein in the Cicadidae^^ 
which family is as close to the Membracidae as any whose 
venation has been determined, and in which, as in the Mem- 
bracidffi, the specialization has been by reduction. A more 
significant fact is that this condition is by no means a constant 
one and should not be considered as typical of the family. In 
the large majority of cases the anal tracheation is best repre- 
sented by that shown in Figure 2. 

According to this determination, then, the first anal vein 
arises from the base of cubitus with which stem it has been 
brought from the main trunk. If this is true, the first anal is 
very intimately connected with the cubital vein — so intimate, 
in fact, that it seems almost a misnomer to call it an anal with 
reference to the Membracidae — but that it is an anal is shown 
by the fact that it homologizes with the first anal in the wings 
of other insects. It represents the claval suture in the fore 
wing and is in many forms very indistinct in appearance, and 
the wing is weak along the line which it follows. It is straight 
and unbranched throughout its course and is connected with no 
cross-veins. At its tip it unites with cubitus, and the two 
coalesce to form the marginal limiting vein of the cell M4. This 
limiting vein, it must be remarked, is here preceded by three 
tracheae, viz. Cui, Cu2 and 1st anal. 

Second anal and third anal enter the wing together by a 
different stem, posterior to that of the cubitus-first anal. They 
separate at once, forming a large and clearly defined cell, only 
to coalesce again after about one-third of their course has been 



30. Wings of Insects, p. 773. 

31. Wings of Insects, p. 249. 



90 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

traversed (Fig. 20). In this condition they join first anal just 
before that vein unites with cubitus at its distal end. 

This represents the normal procedure. It is not strange 
to find, however, in a reduced wing, that this region is subject 
to more variation than that of any of the other veins. In some 
species, for example, third anal never appears in the adult wing 
and the cell 2nd A is absent. This has been brought about 
either by the atrophy of third anal or by its coalescence for an 
entire instead of a partial length with second anal, the latter 
explanation being perhaps the more reasonable. vSince this 
condition is found principally in the wings of the smaller 
species such as Micrutalis calva, Stictocephala liitea, and Cyr- 
tolohus vau (see figures 33, 31, 43) it is probably due to the 
lack of development of this part of the wing, which causes a 
crowding of the tracheae cephalad. In other forms third anal 
breaks away from second anal after anastomosing for some 
distance, and sends a very short portion out through the 
membrane to the margin of the wing. This is found mainly 
in the larger wings, where there is more surface to be supported, 
being best seen in the fore wings of Thelia bimaculata, Telemona 
ampelopsidis, and Platycotis sagittata. 

Cross-veins 

Of the cross-veins which appear in the fore wing, three only 
are constant and characteristic of the family, the others being 
peculiar to certain genera and species and of little comparative 
importance. 

The first of these characteristic cross-veins is found connect- 
ing R2+3 with R4+5, dividing the cell R3 at about one-third its 
length from the point of branching of radial sector. It is 
fairly constant, but it does not appear in the genera Acutalis 
or Micrutalis in so far as representatives of these genera have 
been studied. In the figured wing of Ophiderma pubescens q. v., 
this cross-vein is forked, a condition which is of course abnormal. 

The second is equally constant but surprisingly variable in 
position. It appears between media and cubitus, usually in the 
basal third of the wing, but often shifts from a position close to 
the base of these veins (cf. Ceresa diceros) to one so far toward 
the tip of the wing that in the case of Smilia camelus (see figure) 
it has actually moved off of cubitus and its posterior end 
rests on the other cross-vein which connects Cu with M3+4. 



1913] Wing Veins of Membracidce 91 

Thus it is the most unreHable cross-vein so far as position is 
concerned, which is found in the wing. In a few species it 
does not appear. In Archasia belfragei, media and cubitus 
dip toward and touch one another at the point where this vein 
is typically found. In Entylia bactriana, which is an interesting 
wing in other respects also, media and cubitus anastomose for 
such a distance as to make this vein unnecessary. The same 
is true of Publilia concava. In certain forms this vein varies 
within a species. The figures shown of Thelia bimaculata and 
Carynota mera show two cross-veins at this point, but this is 
only occasionally found even in those species. 

The third constant cross-vein is that connecting M3+4 with 
Cu. It varies in length from a mere attachment, as in Entylia 
bactriana, to the prominent and important position which it 
assumes in most of the wings of the family. No membracid 
wing has been examined in the course of this study which did 
not show this cross-vein, and as has been suggested in the 
consideration of cubitus, it has been particularly noted as 
being an apparent part of that vein. 

Other cross-veins are found, but with no regularity and of 
no especial significance. R4+5 occasionally does not unite 
with Mi_|-2 and a cross-vein bridges over (e. g. Platycotis sagittata). 
M3+4 sometime moves so far from M1+2 that this part of the 
wing has been strengthened in the same manner and one 
species at least has added cross-veins to such an extent that the 
actual condition of the typical form is only conjectural from 
the material at hand. This species is Phylia ferruginosa, the 
species possessing the most unusual cross-veining of any Mem- 
bracid studied. 

The tracheation of the wing-base 

In their basal structure the wings of the Membracidse refuse 
to agree exactly in structure with those of closely related 
families, and if the determination of homologies in this study 
is correct, they more nearly approach the hypothetical type 
than do any of the other Hemiptera. 

It has been shown in the wing of the Cicada'^- that all the 
trachese in the wing arise from one main trunk''*-\ In the 
closely related family of Membracidae it would naturally be 

32. Wings of Insects, pp. 243-249. 

.33. Wings of Insects, p. 244, Fig. 14 and the accompanying discussion. 



92 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

supposed that this important feature would also hold true, but 
this appears not to be the case. Instead, the tracheas arise 
from two main trunks, the most anterior of which gives rise to 
costa, subcosta, radius and media, while the other furnishes the 
origin of cubitus and the anals. 

The two trunks come from the thorax at different angles, 
and so far as has been observed, are never united (Fig. 21). 
This does not prove, to be sure, that the connection never 
occurs, but it would seem that in the study of a very large 
number of nymphal wings the connection would sometimes 
have appeared if it were present. On the contrary, the study 
of a long series of wings of many genera and species seems to 
show that in this particular family the original hypothetical 
type of two main trunks has been preserved and that in this 
respect at least, the Membracidse can be said to be the most 
generalized of the Hemiptera, being more conservative in this 
particular than even the Cicada. ■''^ 

Marginal Veins 

The scalloped appearance given to the venation by the 
marginal vein inside the membrane, is characteristic. The 
extremities of the longitudinal veins are connected by strong 
regular veins which form a smooth edge for the veined portion 
of the wing (Fig. 1). The origin of this structure is explained 
by the manner in which the ends of the longitudinal tracheae 
branch and overlap when they reach the region under consider- 
ation (Fig. 22). Since the reduction of the wing has left at the 
tip branches of radius two-plus-three, radius four-plus-five, 
media one-plus-two, media three-plus-four and cubitus one- 
plus-two which have not entirely coalesced, it is natural that 
these tracheae, which have probably in the wing of past times 
represented separate veins, should remain more or less distinct. 
This has happened, and the wing tip shows that these tracheae 
tend to pull apart and run along the marginal lines (Fig. 23). 
It seems rather remarkable that any of these tracheae should 
ever actually turn backward, but such is the case. The normal 
method is as follows: subcosta continues along the cephalic 
margin to the extreme tip of the wing; Ri unites with subcosta 

34. Comstock and Needham state, "The conservative Hemiptera that 
retain most perfectly the fashions of ancient times so far at least as concerns the 
venation of the wings, are the cicadas." — Wings of Insects, p. 243. 



1913] Wing Veins of MembracidcE 93 

from the point of its coalescence outward; R2 turns upward to 
meet Sc plus Rr, R3 turns outward and downward and coalesces 
with the tip of R4 ; R4 turns upward to unite with R3 ; R5 contin- 
ues outward to touch the end of Mi; Mi bends upward to R5; 
M2 turns backward to unite with the tip of M3; M3 continues 
forward to meet M2; M4 also turns backward to meet the 
tracheae of Cui+2 and 1st A which have continued outward, 
and the tips of the other trachese have proceeded distad in their 
natural position, extending to points which enable them to 
coalesce with the tracheae ahead. 

In this way a strong marginal vein has been formed along 
the lines laid down by these trachcce which is as strong and 
sometimes stronger than the longitudinal veins themselves, 
since it contains at various places in its course, the tips of two, 
three, and sometimes even four tracheae. 

Variation 

This study would be incomplete if some mention were not 
made, in the consideration of the fore wing, of the variations 
which often occur. The venation which has been outlined has 
been in the main that of the normal structure. Considerable 
variation occurs, however, often within a species, and this 
deserves some mention. 

The wing of Thelia bimacidata has been chosen as an illus- 
tration because this species shows perhaps the greatest range 
of variation found in any one species. In the diagram shown 
(Fig. 24) the dotted lines represent the maximum variation, and 
all stages between the normal and this maximum may be found. 
It will be noted that Ri sometimes leaves radius two-plus-three 
at a point very close to the fork of radial sector. This would 
represent a less specialized condition than the normal. R4+5 
and Mi+2 sometimes approach each other with a wide curve 
and barely touch, instead of coalescing in the usual manner, 
and this does away with the sharp bend of M1+2. M3 and M4 
are occasionally separate, forming an additional cell M3. As 
might be supposed from the discussion of the cross-veins, that 
one between media and cubitus shows the greatest irregulari- 
ties. It ranges from the most proximal position shown by the 
dotted lines at the left, to one very close to the point at which 
media branches, and in some cases even disappears altogether, 
media and cubitus bending toward and touching each other. 



94 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Such variation as this is not uncommon in the Mem- 
bracidse. For this reason it would seem that taxonomic 
characters based on the shape, size and number of cells should 
not be attached with the greatest importance unless it can be 
clearly proven that these irregularities do not occur in the 
forms in question. 

It may be mentioned in passing, that Thelia bimaculata 
shows also a great variation in the length of the pronotal horn. 
An attempt has been made to compare this variation with that 
of the wing but the results were negative, and the variation of 
the two structures seems to be entirely independent. 

THE HIND WING 

As has been stated (p. 81) the hind wing in the Membracidae 
has more nearly kept pace with the fore wing in specialization 
than is usually the case in Hemiptera. An interpretation, 
therefore, of the fore wing leaves little to be determined so far 
as homologies are concerned and in fact the venation, after the 
tracheation has been worked out, is almost self-evident. In 
the hind wing the reduction has gone further than in the fore 
wing as is shown in the nymphal tracheation (Fig. 25). The 
tracheae for costa and subcosta have disappeared. The wing, 
however, shows a thickening or ridge along the cephalic margin 
which is probably due to subcosta or perhaps in some cases to 
costa-plus-subcosta, although the preceding tracheae are not 
distinguishable and the vein itself not prominent. Radius 
behaves much as in the fore wing. The trachea is apparently 
two-branched but high magnification shows that Ri is present, 
running close to R2+3 (Fig. 26). Occasionally also, Ri upon 
reaching the margin of the wing turns backward to meet the 
costal thickening so that in some cases the point at which 
costa-plus-subcosta unites with R2+3 represents what remains 
of Ri (Fig. 27). The most important point of difference 
between the two wings is found in the cross vein r-m connecting 
R4+5 with Mi+2. This difference has been noted by Redten- 
bacher in his explanation of the hind wing of Centrotiis cornutus^'" 
the only Membracid which he figures and which happens • to 
show this character. In the fore wing these longitudinal 
veins (R4+5 and M1+2) usually anastomose. In the hind wing 



35. Redtenbacher, Josef. Vergleichende Studien uber das Flugelgeader der 
Insecten, Ann. k. k. Naturh. Hofmus. I, 1886, p. 187. 



1913] Wmg Veins of Membracidce 95 

they are often some distance apart and connected by a strong 
cross-vein. ^"^ The explanation to the disappearance of costa 
and subcosta which causes this condition — which is of course 
the more generaHzed one — is probably that the median part 
of the wing, having an advantageous blood supply, has devel- 
oped to such an extent as to crowd the cephalic region, causing 
radius to move over into that part of the wing usually occupied 
by costa and subcosta, and forcing these trache£e out of existence. 

Media is typical (Fig. 28), branching in about the center 
of the wing into M1+2 and M3+4 which continue their respective 
courses toward the tip, there to turn along the marginal line 
as in the fore wing. 

Cubitus likewise presents the same condition that it does in 
the fore wing (Fig. 29). At times the tracheae representing Cui 
and Cu2 respectively may be traced side by side for some 
distance back into the wing, but in no case do they separate. 

First anal differs from the front wing in being stronger and 
not paralleling the suture. The wing membrane at this point 
in the hind wing is smooth and firm. 

Second and third anals are usually coalesced to form one 
vein in the adult hind wing, although the individual tracheae 
are to be seen in the nymphal structure. Occasionally these 
two veins separate to form the cell 2nd A as in Ceresa bubalus. 

This is the normal venation. Some slight modifications can 
be found in a few genera. In Smilia, Cyrtolohus, Xantholobus, 
Ophiderma, and others, the characteristic cross-vein between 
R4+5 and Mi+2 is lacking, these two veins anastomosing as in the 
front wing. In other respects the hind wings vary far less 
among the genera and species than in the fore wing, even in 
minor details. In many cases they are identical and it has 
been' hard to find forms with differences marked enough to be 
worth figuring. It will be remarked in the figures that in shape 
and general appearance the agreement is quite noticeable. 

36. See figures of Carynota mera, Thelia himaculata, Glossonolus crataegi, 
Telemona ampelopsidis, Archasia beljragei, and Heliria scalaria. 



96 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI^ 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

The paper which has been the principal basis for this study and which has been 
a source of constant inspiration throughout the work, is Comstock-Needham's. 
"Wings of Insects," pubHshed in the American NaturaHst, Vols. XXXII and 
XXXIII, 1898 and 1899. Other publications and texts used are the following: 

CoMSTOCK. Manual for the Study of Insects. 

Stal. Hemiptera Africana, Vol. IV. 

Coding. Bibliograohical and Synonymical Catalogue of the Described Mem- 

bracidae of North America, Bulletin Illinois State Laboratory Natural 

History, Vol. 3, Art. XIV. 
V.-vnDuzee. Studies in North American Membracidae, Bulletin Buffalo Society 

Natural Science, 1908, Vol. IX. 
Fowler. Biologia Centrali Americana, Insecta: Rhynchota, Homoptera Part II. 

Cambridge Natural History, Vol. VI, Insects, Part II. 
MacCillivray. Wings of Tenthredinoidea, Proceedings U. S. Natural Museum, 

1906, Vol. XXIX. 
Patch, Miss Edith M. Homologies of the Wing Veins of the Aphididae, Psyllidae, 

Aleurodidae and Coccidae, Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 

1909, Vol. II. 
WooDWORTH. The Wing Veins of Insects, University of California Publications, 

Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin, Entomology, Vol. 1,1906. 
Redtenbacher. Vergleichende Studien uber das Flugelgeader der Insecten, Ann. 

k. k. Naturh. I, 1886. 
HoDGKiss. The Apple and Pear Membracids, Geneva Agricultural Station Tech- 
nical Bulletin No. 17, 1910. 
Fairmaire. Revue de la tribu des Membracides, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, 

1846, Ser. II, Tome IV. 
Schmidt. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Membraciden. Stett. ent. Ztg., 1906, Vol. 67. 

FIGURES. 

The figures of nymphal wings, and the diagrams used, are arbitrarily arranged 
in the order in which reference is made to them in the text, without respect to 
relationship of species. 

The figures of adult wings are arranged according to subfamilies to facilitate 
reference. The order of subfamilies is based on Van Duzee's "Studies in North 
American Membracidae." 

The following is the explanation of the figures in order: 

Nymphal wings and diagrams. 

Fore and hind wings of Thelia bimaculata. 

Fore wing nymph — Thelia bimaculata. 

Fore wing nymph — Thelia bimaculata, showing costa. 

Fore wing nymph — Telemona ampelopsidis, showing costa. 

Fore wing nymph — Ceresa borealis, showing costa. 

Fore wing nymph — Vanduzea arquata, showing costa. 

Fore wing nymph — V'anduzea arquata, showing base of costa. 

Diagram showing typical radius. 

Fore wing nymph — Vanduzea arquata, showing Ri. 

Highly magnified portion of fore wing nymph of Vanduzea arquata, 

showing region of Ri. 
Highly magnified portion of fore wing nymph of Telemona ampelopsidis, 

showing region of Ri. 
Fore wing nymph — Enchenopa binotata, showing Ri. 
Fore wing nymph — Ceresa diceros, showing media and the coalescence 

of R 4+5 with Mi+2. 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 



1913] 



Wing Veins of Membracidce 



97 



Fig. 14. Base of fore wing nymph — Ceresa diceros, showing origin of media. 

Fig. 15. Base of fore wing nymph — Thelia bimaculata. 

Fig. 16. Fore wing nymph — Ceresa bubalus, showing anals. 

Fig. 17. Fore wing nymph — Ceresa diceros, showing cubitus. 

Fig. 18. Fore wing nymph — Thelia bimaculata, showing cross-vein. 

Fig. 19. Fore wing nymph — Telemona ampelopsidis, showing anals. 

Fig. 20. Fore wing nymph— Vanduzea arquata, showing 2nd and .3rd anals. 

Fig. 21. Base of fore wing nymph^Thelia bimaculata, showing basal tracheation. 

Fig. 22. Fore wing nymph — Ceresa bubalus, showing branches of longitudinal 

veins. 

Fig. 23. Diagram of tracheation in tip of fore wing, showing formation of 

marginal vein. 

Fig. 24. Diagram of variations in wing of Thelia bimaculata. 

Fig. 25. Hind wing nymph — -Thelia bimaculata. 

Fig. 26. Highly magnified portion of hind wing nymph of Thelia bimaculata 

showing region of Ri. 

Fig. 27. Diagram showing position of the remains of Ri in hind wing. 

Fig. 28. Hind wing nymph — Vanduzea arquata, showing media. 

Fig. 29. Hind wing nymph — Ceresa diceros, showing cubitus. 

Adult fore wings. 

Fig. 30. Ceresa bubalus. 

Fig. 31. Stictocephala lutea. 

Fig. 32. Acutalis tartarea. 

Fig. 33. Micrutalis calva. 

Fig. 34. Micrutalis dorsalis. 

Fig. 35. Carynota mera. 

Fig. 36. Thelia bimaculata. 

Fig. 37. Glossonotus crataegi. 

Fig. 38. Telemona ampelopsidis. 

Fig. 39. Telemonanthe pulchella. 

Fig. 40. Archasia belfragei. 

Fig. 41. Heliria scalari. 

Fig. 42. Smilia camelus. 

Fig. 43. Crytolobus vau. 

Adult hind wings. 

Fig. 58. Ceresa bubalus. 

Fig. 59. Carynota mera. 

Fig. 60. Thelia bimaculata. 

Fig. 61. Glossonotus crataegi. 

Fig. 62. Telemona ampelopsidis. 

Fig. 63. Archasia belfragei. 

Fig. 64. Heliria scalari. 

Fig. 65. Smilia camelus. 

Fig. 66. Cyrtolobus vau. 



Fig. 44. Atyma castaneae. 

Fig. 45. Xanthlobus trilineatus. 

Fig. 46. Ophiderma pubescens. 

Fig. 47. Vanduzea arquata. 

Fig. 48. Entylia bactriana. 

Fig. 49. Publilia concava. 

Fig. 50. Stictopelta marmorata. 

Fig. 51. Platycotis sagittata. 

Fig. 52. Campylenchia curvata.' 

Fig. 53. Enchenopa binotata. 

Fig. 54. Tylopelta gibberata. 

Fig. 55. Phylia ferruginosa. 

Fig. 56. Centruchoides perdita. 

Fig. 57. Platycentrus acuticornis. 



Fig. 67. Xantholobus trilineatus. 

Fig. 68. Ophiderma pubescens. 

Fig. 69. Vanduzea arquata. 

Fig. 70. Stictopelta marmorata. 

Fig. 71. Platycotis sagittata. 

Fig. 72. Campylenchia curvata. 

Fig. 73. Enchenopa binotata. 

Fig. 74. Centruchoides perdita. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate III. 





\V. D. Funkhoustr. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI. Plate IV. 





W. D. Funkhouser. 



ANNALS E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate V. 




'■£".,<. 




W. D. Ftinkhottser. 





Vol. VI. Plate VI. 




II'. D. Funkhouser. 




Vol. VI, Plate VII. 




3'-* A 

W. D. Funkhotiser. 



3--»A '^--M 



THE WING VENATION OF THE JASSIDAE. 

Z. P. Metcalf. 

The present paper was undertaken several years ago at the 
suggestion of Professor Herbert Osborn. At that time it was 
thought that the wing veins of Homopterous insects could be 
identified in the adult stage by carefully comparing them with 
the venation of the Cicadidas as determined by Comstock and 
Needham '98-'99. This, however, was found to be impractic- 
able as it was soon discovered that the wing veins of most of 
the Homoptera have been greatly reduced and much modified 
from the Cicadid type. The study was then discontinued 
until the spring of 1910, when it was resumed by studying it 
from the standpoint of the nymphal wing pads. 

At first the wing pads were removed as carefully as possible 
and mounted in glycerine jelly, as recommended by Comstock 
and Needham '98-'99. Later on many wing pads were mounted 
in xylene damar as recommended by Miss Patch '09. It was 
soon discovered, however, that just as good results could be 
obtained by mounting the wing pads in water. These wing 
pads were then either photographed or drawn with the aid of 
the camera lucida. For most Jassidae it was found more satis- 
factory to draw them with the camera lucida. This is due to 
the fact that the outer covering of the wing pad is very thick 
and frequently dark colored. In addition many of the wing 
pads were so thick that, using the high powers necessary, it 
was found to be impossible to bring all parts of all the tracheae 
into sharp focus at the same time. This lead to some confusion 
as many of the wing pads are provided with long spines which 
make the interpretation of the tracheae difficult, as many of the 
spines are so placed as to appear in photographs as branches of 
the tracheae which are slightly out of focus. 

After the drawings were finished they were carefully com- 
pared many times over with wing pads from nymphs collected 
at later dates. If any marked differences were noted drawings 
were made and these again compared with the pads from 
nymphs collected at later dates. In this way, it is believed 
that all errors that might arise have been corrected or elimin- 
ated. The nymphal wing pads shown in the plates have been 
carefully selected from these drawings or redrawn from pho- 
tographs. 

103 



104 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

The adult wings shown have been drawn with the aid of the 
Edinger drawing apparatus and have been selected, for the 
most part, from adults showing the normal venation. In a 
few cases, however, wings have been used which show the pres- 
ence of unusual cross veins or the absence of usual cross veins. 

In spite of the fact that many different methods of mounting 
were tried, several genera did not yield satisfactory mounts. 
The most conspicuous genera, in this respect, were Kolla and 
Tettigoniella. In spite of the fact that several hundred wing 
pads of these two genera were mounted from specimens collected 
from early spring to late summer, no satisfactory mounts were 
secured. Certain species in other genera show this same 
characteristic. Perhaps the most conspicuous species, in this 
respect, is Diedrocephala versuta Say. Nymphs of this species 
can be found in great numbers at Raleigh, North Carolina, 
throughout the season. Yet in spite of the fact that they were 
collected in large numbers and treated in many different ways 
no satisfactory wing pads of Diedrocephala versuta have been 
secured. 

It is also necessar^^ to secure the nymphs at the proper time. 
Some little time before the insect molts, the wing is very much 
crumpled in its sheath. This is especially true of the last molt. 
This is unfortunate as, in many cases, the older wing pads are 
necessary for determining the homologies of some of the tra- 
cheae and veins. As already pointed out by Comstock and 
Needham '98-'99 the best results can be secured by selecting 
the paler colored individuals. 

In all twenty-five genera of JassidcE have been studied in 
the preparation of this paper. These genera represent such 
forms as could be readily secured in the vicinity of Raleigh, 
North Carolina. They contain representatives of all of the 
subfamilies and tribes of Jassidce commonly found in Eastern 
North America. 

In the course of this study many hundreds of nymphs have 
been collected and their wing pads studied. It has not always 
been found possible to remove the wing pads so as to secure the 
body tracheae. The writer does not consider this important, 
however, as all of the pads have been removed close enough to 
the base to assure him of the homologies of the principal 
trachea. 



1913] The Wing Venation of the Jassidce 105 

This paper is founded upon the work of Comstock and 
Needham '98-'99. It adopts the same system they propose for 
naming the veins and for naming and numbering the cells, as 
the writer believes that this system is the only logical one that 
has been offered. An attempt made to homologize the veins 
of adult Homoptera and a subsequent study of the tracheation 
that precedes venation, has thoroughly convinced the writer 
that the Comstock-Needham system is the only logical one. 

THE FORE WING. 

The type of the fore wing of Jassidce is fairly uniform but in 
order to point out the difference that exists the tracheae will be 
considered in detail beginning at the costal margin. 

The wings of Jassidce show marked specialization by reduc- 
tion. This reduction is usually accompanied by the atrophy 
of one of the branches of one of the main tracheae and the shifting 
of a branch of a neighboring trachea until it occupies the region 
of the atrophied trachea. This is well illustrated in the atrophy 
of Mi+2 of the fore wing which is discussed below. Another 
excellent example of the same thing is found in the Typhlocy- 
bidce where M3+4 occupies the region usually traversed by Cui. 
The atrophy of these trachese with the subsequent shifting of 
other tracheae which take their places gives to the wings of the 
Jassidce their characteristic aspect. 

THE COSTA OF FORE WING. 

The costal trachea is absent in all of the Jassid wings that 
have been examined with the exception of Gypona (Fig. 8). 
Here the costal trachea is long being almost as long as subcosta 
and running parallel with it throughout its length. In no other 
Jassid was any trace of Costa found. In all cases the nymphal 
pad was removed as near the base as possible and the body 
trachea was examined for traces of the costal spur but no trace 
of such spur was found. This was due to the fact, perhaps, that 
it is impossible to get any great length of the body trachea in 
such a dissection. In a few cases, however, a considerable 
length of the body trachea was secured (Figs. 3, 5, 62, 64). 
This indicates that Costa has practically disappeared from 
the Jassidce. 



106 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



THE SUBCOSTA OF THE FORE WING. 

The subcostal trachea in the Jassidce is very anomalous. 
It reaches its greatest length, in the genera examined, in the 
genus Jassus (Fig. 60), where it passes beyond the apex of the 
wing and replaces R2 and R3 in the ambient vein. Subcosta is 
slightly shorter in Gypona (Fig. 8), of about the same length in 
Spangbergiella (Fig. 20), also in Agallia (Fig. 1). In Acinop- 
terus (Fig. 41) it is still shorter barely reaching R2. In Platy- 
metopius (Fig. 26) it is about half the length of the main stem 
of Radius. No further evidence of the presence of Subcosta 
was found although the Subcostal vein on the border of the wing 
is well developed in all of the adult wings which the writer has 
examined and it shows very clearly as a distinctly lighter area 
in all the older nymphs examined. This series undoubtedly 
shows how the subcosta has atrophied in Jassidae. 

THE RADIUS OF THE FORE WING 

The radial trachea in the fore wing of Jassidce is typically 
two-branched although in some forms three and even four 
branches do occur. The two branches of the typical radius 
represent R2+3 and R4+5. Ri has almost completely disappeared 
from the fore wings of the Jassidce. It does occur, as a delicate 
branch, in a few genera but gives rise to a very characteristic 
cross vein between subcosta and radius which is known cur- 
rently as the "nodal vein". The nodal vein, however, is a 
very anomalous one and its characters will be discussed later. 
Ri has been found in the following widely separated genera, 
Oncometopia (Fig. 3), Scaphoideus (Fig. 44) and Typhlocyba 
(Fig. 64). In other genera there remains a distinct cross vein 
connecting subcosta with the main stem of radius, or subcosta 
with R2+3. This vein, which is usually referred to as the nodal 
vein, undoubtedly represents the remnant of Ri or R2. Or it 
may be considered as a vein which merely followed a weak 
lateral branch of R or R2+3, which either happened to be con- 
nected with the main stem of radius, when it resembles Ri, or 
it may have happened to be connected with R2+3 in that case 
it resembles R2. The writer is inclined to think that this is a 
distinct vein representing in some cases Ri and in others R2. 

Trachea Ri is very conspicuous in Oncometopia (Fig. 3), 
Scaphoideus (Fig. 44) and Typhlocyba (Fig. 64). The resulting 



1913] The Wing Venation of the JassidcB 107 

cross vein is attached to radius in some species of Scaphoideus 
(Fig. 53) and in Typhlocyba (Fig. 77), but in Oncometopia the 
resulting cross vein is sometimes absent in the adult wing, and 
is sometimes present as a fairly strong cross vein uniting with 
radius near the point where it branches into R2+3 and R4+5. In 
other cases, it appears as a fairly strong cross vein distinctly 
uniting subcosta with R2+3. The whole question seems to be 
settled by reference to figure 3 which was taken from a half 
grown nymph. This wing pad shows a weak Ri which runs 
parallel to R2+3 for a considerable distance and then bends 
toward the costal margin. All attempts to secure older nymphs 
whose wing pads would show the forming veins along the 
tracheae failed owing to the thickness of the pads and the large 
amount of coloring matter. Inasmuch as trachea Ri does run 
parallel with R2+3 for some distance it would seem to indicate 
that the point of attachment of the cross vein which follows 
the trachea might be at any one of various points along the 
radial vein over a considerable length of that vein. 

In other cases this cross vein is very evidently R2. It 
appears as a weak lateral branch of R2+3 in Parabolocratus 
(Fig. 23), as a somewhat stronger branch in Goniagnathiis 
(Fig. 25), as a still stronger branch in Phlepsiiis (Fig. 48). In 
Acinopteriis (Fig. 41) the trachea gradually diverges but the 
forming vein is set at nearly a right angle to R2+3. In Jassus 
(Fig. 60) trachea R2 reaches its greatest size for any of the 
genera examined and the vein in the adult wing seems to follow 
the course of the trachea rather closely. In Chlorotettix (Fig. 43) 
tracheae R2 and R3 are united for nearly their entire length, 
being separated only at their tips. This character seems to be 
comparatively constant for the genus (Fig. 52). In still other 
genera the nodal cross vein is formed without being preceded by 
any trachea. This is especially conspicuous in certain species 
of Draeculacephala (Fig. 6) which have only one cross vein 
connecting subcosta with R2-f3. In Eutettix (Fig. 46) two 
cross veins are formed, one occupying the position of Ri and 
the other the position of Ro. Neither one of these cross veins 
is preceded by a trachea. There is an interesting question 
involved in the genus Scaphoideus. As pointed out by Osborn 
'00 the nodal vein arises from radius in auronitens and certain 
other species while in jucundus and allied species it arises from 
R2+3. Unfortunately the writer was able to secure nymphs of 



108 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI^ 

only the first group but he believes that the nodal cross vein in 
the juciindus group is the untracheated cross vein between Ri 
and R3 (Fig. 44). In this case the nodal cross vein in Sca- 
phoideiis would be Ri when the "nodal vein arises from discal 
cell" and R2 when the "nodal vein arises from anteapical cell". 
In most of the genera of the Jassidce radius branches once 
and only once, the resulting branches being R2+3 and R4+5 
(Figs. 1, 5, 6, 20, 22, 26, 28, 62), In several cases referred 
to above R2 separates from R,3. In only one genus examined, 
Eutettix (Fig. 46) has R4 and R5 been found separated. In this 
case R4 occurs as a cross vein between R2+3 and R5. R2+.S is 
much atrophied and R4 extends to the margin traversing the 
region usually occupied by R2+3. In a single genus examined, 
Empoasca (Fig. 66), radius extends as a single unbranched 
trachea from the base of the wing pad to the apex. Although 
in the adult wing, in many cases, there is a cross vein con- 
necting radius with the margin of the wing. 

MEDIUS OF THE FORE WING. 

Medius in the Jassidce is typically two-branched. These 
branches embrace Mi and M2, and M3 and M4 respectively. 
Mi+2 is well developed in Chlorotettix (Fig. 43) where it runs 
parallel to R4+5. It is not so well developed in Parabolocratus- 
(Fig. 23) Platy?netopius (Fig. 26) and Gypona (Fig. 8). In 
Deltocephalus (Fig. 28) M1+2 is reduced to a mere spur. In the 
other genera studied medius consists of a single unbranched 
trachea which extends from the base to the apex of the wing pad,, 
although in most cases there is a strong transverse vein connect- 
ing medius with R4+5. The writer believes that the above 
series, as outlined, represents fairly well the development of 
medius from a two-branched condition to a single unbranched 
trachea. If this conception be correct M1+2 must have come to 
lie parallel with R4+5 and has been gradually reduced until the 
present time it is at most merely a cross vein connecting medius 
with R4+5. The vein having persisted in some cases notwith- 
standing the fact that the trachea has been lost. This is 
especially evident in Agallia (Fig. 1), Scaphoideus (Fig. 44) 
and Eutettix (Fig. 46). 

In the Typhlocybida (Fig. 64 and 66) medius is very evidently 
two branched. In Typhlocyba (Fig. 64) R4+5 is greatly reduced 



1913] The Wing Venation of the Jassidce 109 

and resembles a cross vein. ' The usual position of R4+5 is 
occupied by Mi+2. In Empoasca (Fig. 66) Rs coalesces with 
Mi+2 for a short distance and then diverges toward the costal 
border M3+4 being very distinct. 

CUBITUS AND FIRST ANAL OF THE FORE WING. 

In all of the genera of Jassidce examined the cubital and first 
anal tracheae were the most constant and formed one of the best 
landmarks in the study of the relations of the tracheae. They 
are coalesced for some little distance from the base of the wing. 

Cubitus is frequently two branched (Figs. 8, 22, 23, 25, 43, 
48, 60). Here again we can trace almost a complete series from 
a form like Jassus (Fig. 60) or Goniognathus (Fig. 25), where 
Cu2 is equally as important as Cui, through intermediate forms 
like Gypona (Fig. 8), to forms like Phlepsius (Fig. 48) where Cu2 
is reduced to a mere spur. 

In the TyphlocybidcB (Fig. 64 and 66) M34-4 has come to 
occupy the region usually occupied by Cui and cubitus is 
unbranched and diverges strongly toward the anal border 
which gives it the appearance of having lost branch Cui and 
having retained Cu2. 

The first anal vein lies along the anal border of the claval 
suture. It has not been usually recognized as a distinct vein 
owing to the fact that as a vein it is rather inconspicuous while 
the claval suture or fold is very distinct. It is, however, pre- 
ceded by a conspicuous trachea in all of the genera studied. 

SECOND AND THIRD ANALS OF THE FORE WING. 

The second and third anal tracheae in the fore wing are well 
developed and the third anal is frequently two branched 
(Figs.. 3, 5, 6, 20, 23, 25, 41, 46, 60). 

THE HIND WING. 

In all of the Jassidce proper the hind wing is very uniform. 
No costal or subcostal tracheae have been discovered although 
the subcostal vein was well defined in all of the older nymphs 
studied (Figs. 9, 24, 45, 47). 



110 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



RADIUS OF THE HIND WING. 

The radius is typically two branched in the hind wing of the 
JassidcB. Several mounts of Spangbergiella (Fig. 21) failed to 
reveal anything but a single unbranched radial trachea. In 
the adult hind wing (Fig. 35) there is faint indication of a vein 
in the position usually occupied by R24-3. 

R2+3 reaches its greatest development in Draeculacephala 
(Fig. 7) where it forms the tracheae that precedes the whole of 
the ambient vein. In many forms, however, it is very much 
atrophied (Figs. 24, 45, 47, 65) while in Empoasca (Fig. 67) the 
radius is a simple unbranched trachea. The radius of the 
Typhlocybidce coalesces for a considerable distance with Mi +2 
(Figs. 65 and 67). 

MEDIUS OF THE HIND WING. 

Medius of the hind wing is two branched in all of the genera 
that have been examined. In the Typhlocybidce, however, 
Mi+2 coalesces with radius for some distance and M3+4 coalesces 
with cubitus for almost its entire length so as to appear as a 
cross vein in the adult wing connecting medius with cubitus 
(Fig. 80). In the other genera studied M1+2 is connected with 
R4+5 by a short cross vein and M3+4 is connected with cubitus 
by a similar short cross vein. In some cases the latter cross 
vein is greatly reduced and in Jassus (Fig. 69) R4+5 and M1+2 
coalesce for a short distance and again separate before reaching 
the margin of the wing. 

In all of the genera studied cubitus is a single unbranched 
trachea in the hind wing. Its relations with medius in the 
Typhlocybidce have already been discussed. As in the fore 
wing, cubitus and first anal are very closely united. Second 
and third anal are also present in nearly all cases and third anal 
is frequently two branched. The second anal and the anterior 
branch of the third anal generally coalesce for a considerable 
distance near the middle of their course and are usually sepa- 
rated again near the base of the wing (Figs. 16, 38, 57). There 
is always a conspicuous fold just posterior to the anterior 
branch of the third anal. 

HISTORICAL DISCUSSION. 

A comparison of the nomenclature here suggested with the 
nomenclature current in America and with the nomenclature as 
suggested by Edwards '94-96 is given in the subjoined table. 



1913] 



The Wing Venation of the JassidcB 



111 



NOMENCLATURE OF VEINS 



TERMINOLOGY 

SUGGESTED 

Subcosta 

R+M 

Radius 

Ri 

R2 

R2+3 

R3 

R4+5 

R4 

Rs 

Medius 

Mi+2 

M3+4 

Cubitus 

Cui 

CU2 

Anal furrow 
First Anal 
Second anal 
Third anal 
Ambient 



AFTER 
EDWARDS 



CURRENT 
TERMINOLOGY 

Costal border 
Cubital First sector 

Upper branch of cubital Outer branch of first sector 

Nodal 
Angular Nodal 

Anterior branch of outer sector 

Posterior branch of outer sector 



Lower branch of cubital Inner branch of first sector 



Brachial 



claval suture 

anal 
axillary 



Second sector 



claval suture 

outer claval 
inner claval 



NOMENCLATURE OF THE CELLS 



TERMINOLOGY 
SUGGESTED 

Subcosta 

Radius 

Ri 

R2 

First R3 

Second R3 

First R5 

Second R5 

First Medius 

Second Medius 

First M4 

Second M4 

Cubitus 

Cui 



AFTER 
EDWARDS 

costal 
subcosta 

Apical 

subapical 

apical 

apical 

apical 

basal 

superbrachial 

Subapical 

apical 

brachial 

apical 



CURRENT 
TERMINOLOGY 



apical 

anteapical 

apical 

anteapical 

apical 



anteapical 
apical 

apical 



112 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



SUMMARY, 

The present paper homologizes the wing veins of Jassidce 
with the wing veins of other orders. The wing veins of Jassidce 
differ in the following important respects from those of other 
insects. 

1. The costal trachea is practically eliminated from the 
wings of Jassidce. 

2. The subcostal trachea is well developed in some genera 
and absent in others, which indicates that it is disappearing 
from Jassidce. 

3. The radial trachea is typically two branched in Jassidce, 
the branches present being R2+3 and R4+5. 

4. The medial treachea is typically two branched, these 
branches being M1+2 and M3+4. 

5. The cubital trachea is two branched in some cases and 
unbranched in others. 

6. All three anal trachea are present, the first anal being very 
closely connected with cubitus. Third anal is frequently 
two branched. 

7. The ambient vein is a composite vein in Jassidce, being 
formed along the overlapping tips of the principal trachea. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

The writer wishes to express his appreciation to the following 
persons who have assisted in the preparation of this paper: 
Professor Herbert Osborn, Mr. R. L. Webster, Mr. Frankhn 
Sherman, Jr., Mr. C. L. Metcalf and Mrs. Luella Correll 
Metcalf. 

The writer also wishes to express his indebtedness to the 
writings of Osborn and Ball on the Jassidce of North America, 
without which the work of preparing this paper would have 
been much more difficult. 



1913] The Whig Venation of the J assidce 113 



REFERENCES. 

Ball, E. D.— 1901. A Review of the Tettigonidas of North America, North of 
Mexico. Proc. Iowa Acad, Sc. VIII: 35-75. 

Ball, E. D.— 1907. The genus Eutettix. Proc. Davenport Acad. Sc. XII: 27-94. 

Comstock, J. H. and Needham, J. G.— 1898-1899. The Wings of Insects. Amer. 
Nat. Chapter III: 243-249. 

Gillette, C. P. — 1898. American Leaf Hoppers of the Subfamily Typhlocybinse. 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XX: 709-773. 

Edwards, J. — 1894-1896. The Hemiptera Homoptera of the British Islands. 
Parts I-VIII. 

Melichar, L. — 1896. Cicadinen von Mittel-Europa. 

Patch, Edith M. — 1909. Homologies of the Wing Veins of the Aphididae, Psyl- 
lidse, Aleurodidse and Coccidae. Ann. Ent. Soc. of America. II: 101-129. 

Osborn, H. — 1900. The Genus Scaphoideus. Jour. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist. XIX: 
187-209. 

Osborn, H.— 1905. Jassidse of New York State. 20th Rept. State Ent. of New 
York. 498-545. 

Osborn, H. — 1911. Remarks on the Genus Scaphoideus with a Revised Key and 
New American Species. Ohio Nat. XI: 249-261. 

Osborn, H. and Ball, E. D. — 1897. Contributions to the Hemipterous Fauna of 
Iowa. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sc. IV: 172-234. 

Osborn, H. and Ball, E. D. — 1898. Studies of North American Jassoidea. Proc. 
Davenport Acad. Nat. Sc. VII: 45-100. 

Osborn, H. and Ball, E. D. — 1902. A Review of the North American Species of 
Athysanus (Jassideas) Ohio Nat. II: 231-256. 

Signoret, V. — 1878. Essai sur les Jassides. 

Van Duzee E. P. — 1892. A Synoptical Arrangement of the Genera of the North 
American Jassideae with Descriptions of some new species. Trans. Am. 
Ent. Soc. XIX: 295-307. 

Van Duzee, E. P.— 1894. A catalogue of the Described Jassoidea of North Amer- 
ica. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. XXI: 245-317. 

Van Duzee, E. P. — 1908. Observations on some Hemiptera taken in Florida in 
the Spring of 1908. Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sc. IX: 149-230. 



114 



Annals Entomological Society Jo America [Vol. VI, 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 
Plate VI IL 



Fi 


g. 1- 


Fore wing pac 


1 of Agallia J^-punctata Prov. 




' 2. 


Hind 


<i 


' Agallia ^-punctata Prov. 




' 3. 


Fore 


" 


' Oncometopia undata Fabr. 




' 4. 


Hind 


" 


' Oncometopia undata Fabr. 




' 5. 


Fore 


" 


' Diedrocephala coccinea Forst. 




' 6. 


Fore 


<( 


' Draeculacephala mollipes Say. 




' 7. 


Hind 


" 


' Draeculacephala mollipes Say. 




' 8. 


Fore 


" 


' Gypona 8-lineata Say. 




' 9. 


Hind 


" " Gypona 8-Hneata Say. 
Plate IX. 


Fig. 10. 


Fore wi 


ng of A gal Ha cons trie ta Van Duzee. 




' 11. 


Hind 


" Agalia constricta Van Duzee. 




' 12. 


Fore 


" Oncometopia iindata Fabr. 




' 13. 


Hind 


" Oncometopia nndata Fabr. 




' 14. 


Fore 


" Diedrocephala coccinea Forst. 




' 15. 


Fore 


" Draeculacephala mollipes Say. 




' 16. 


Hind 


" Draeculacephala mollipes Say. 




' 17. 


Fore 


" Penthimia americana Fitcli. 




' 18. 


Fore 


" Gypona 8-lineata Say. 




' 19. 


Hind 


" Gypona 8-lineata Say. 
Plate X. 


Fi 


g. 20. 


Fore wi 


ng pad of Spangbergiella vidnerata Uliler. 




' 21. 


Hind 


" 


' Spangbergiella vidnerata Uhler. 




' 22. 


Fore 


" 


' Athysanns sp. 




' 23. 


Fore 


" 


' Parabolocratus viridis Uhler. 




' 24. 


Hind 


" 


' Parabolocratus viridis Uhler 




' 25. 


Fore 


" 


' Goniagnathus palmeri Van Duzee. 




' 26. 


Fore 


" 


' Platymetopius sp. 




' 27. 


Hind 


u 


' Platymetopius sp. 




' 28. 


Fore 


" 


' Deltocephalus sp. 




' 29. 


Hind 


" " Deltocephalus sp. 
Plate XI. 


Fi 


g. 30. 


Fore wi 


ng Xerophloea viridis Fabr. 




' 31. 


Fore ' 


Spangbergiella vidnerata Uhler. 




' 32. 


Hind ' 


Athysanns exitiosns Uhler. 




' 33. 


Fore ' 


Athysanus exitiosns Uhler. 




' 34. 


Fore ' 


Parabolocratus viridis Uhler 




' 35. 


Hind ' 


Spangbergiella vidnerata Uhler. 




' 36. 


Fore ' 


Goniagnathus palmeri Van Duzee, 




' 37. 


Fore ' 


Platymetopius sp. 




' 38. 


Hind ' 


Platymetopius sp. 




' 39. 


Fore ' 


Deltocephalus obtectus 0. & B. 




' 40. 


Hind ' 


Deltocephalus obtectus 0. & B. 
Plate XII. 


Fi 


g. 41. 


Fore wi 


ng pad of Acinopterus aciiminatus Van Duzee 




' 42. 


Hind 


" 


' Acinopterus aciiminatus Van Duzee 




* 43. 


Fore 


(1 


' Chlorotettix viridia Van Duzee. 




' 44. 


Fore 


" 


' Scaphoideus sp. 




' 45. 


Hind 


" 


' Scaphoideus sp. 




' 46. 


Fore 


" 


' Eutettix sp. 




' 47. 


Hind 


li 


' Eutettix sp. 




' 48. 


Fore 


" ' 


' Phlepsius sp. 




' 49. 


Hind 


" ' 


' Phlepsius sp. 



1913] The Wing Venation of the Jassidce 115 



Plate XIII. 

Fig. 50. Fore wing of Acinoptenis aciiminatus Van Duzee. 

" 51. Hind " Acinopterus acuminatns Van Duzee. 

" 52. Fore " Chlorotettix viridia Van Duzee. 

" 53. Fore " Scaphhoideus productiis Osb. 

" 54. Hind " Scaphhoideus productus Osb. 

" 55. Fore " Thamnotettix kennicottii Uhler. 

" 56. Fore " Eulettix subaenea Van Duzee. 

" 57. Hind " Eutettix subaenea Van Duzee. 

" 58. Fore " Phlepsius sp. 

" 59. Hind " Phlepsius sp. 

Plate XIV. 
Fig. 60. Fore wing pad of Jassus olitoritis Say. 
" Jassus olitorius Sav. 



61. Hind 

62. Fore 

63. Hind 

64. Fore 

65. Hind 

66. Fore 

67. Hirid 



" Cicadula sp. 

" Cicadula sp. 

" Typhlocyba sp. 

" Typhlocyba sp. 

" Empoasca mail Le B. 

" Empoasca mail Le B. 

Plate XV. 

Fig. 68. Fore wing of Jassus olitorius vSay. 

69. Hind " Jassus olitorius Say. 

70. Fore " Cicadula slossoni Van Duzee. 

71. Hind " Cicadula slossoni Van Duzee. 

72. Fore " Dicraneura mollicula Bohem., redrawn ivomMelichar. 

73. Hind " Dicraneura mollicula Bohem., redrawn from Melichar. 

74. Fore " En pter yx vanduzei GiW., redrawn, irom Gillette. 

75. Hind " Eupteryx vanduzei G\\l., redrawn irom Gillette. 

76. Fore " Dicraneura crucntata Gill., redrawn ironi Gillette. 

77. Fore " Typhlocyba illinoiensis Gill. 

78. Hind " Typhlocyba illinoiensis Gill. 

79. Fore " Empoasca mali Le B. 

80. Hind " Empoasca mali Le B. 



Annai.s E. S. a. 



Vol. VI, Plate VIII. 




Z. P. Metcalf. 



Annai,s E. s. a. 



Vol. VI, Plate IX. 




Z. P. Metcalf. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate X. 




Z. P. Meicalf. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate XI. 




Z. P. Metcalf. 



Annals E. S. a. 



Vol. VI, I'LATE Xir. 




Z. P. Metcalf. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. Vr, Plate XIII. 




Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate XIV. 




M,+a 



66 



s— 



<5c 






X 



RtM, 






67 






Z. P. Metcalf. 



ANNAI.S E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate XV. 




Z. P. Mttcalf. 



A NEW HYMENOPTEROUS PARASITE ON ASPIDIOTUS 
PERNICIOSUS COMST.* 

By Daniel G. Tower, Amherst, Mass. 

This parasite was reared during October, 1912, from Aspid- 
iotus perniciosus Comst. at Amherst, Mass. Specimens were 
sent to Dr. L. O. Howard, who returned them with the state- 
ment that they were a new species of Prospaltella and could 
safely be described as such. Acting on this advice the following 
descriptions of male and female have been prepared, under the 
supervision of Dr. H. T. Fernald. 

This new species can be inserted in Dr. Howard's key to the 
species of Prospaltella (Ann. Ent. Soc. Am., I, 281, 1908), by 
adding a fourth alternative to section five as follows: "Wings 

with a broad dusky band below marginal vein, 6," 

and by adding to section six the alternative, "Wings with a 
broad dusky band below marginal vein: abdomen nearly 
black" which would lead to this species. 

Prospaltella perniciosi n. sp. 

Female: Length, 0.61 mm.; expanse, 1.73 mm.; greatest width of 
fore-wing, 0.25 mm. General color of living specimens black with the 
meso-scutellum showing as a prominent light dot. In zylol-balsam 
mounts the head and central portions of the thorax are light brown. 
Head: vertex yellowish brown; occiput dark; ocelli dark; eyes black 
and hairy, the hairs about as long as the diameter of a facet. Antenna: 
brownish yellow; bulb twice as long as wide, cylindrical and nearly 
hyaline ; scape nearly five times as long as wide, nearly hyaline at each end, 
more or less cylindrical to spindle shaped; pedicle slightly longer than 
wide, narrow at its base, widest well toward its tip, its inner side much 
farther from the axis of the antenna than its outer side; first funicle 
segment connected with pedicle by a narrow somewhat elongate stalk, 
which is quite hyaline; this segment a trifle more than half the length 
of the next and irregular in outline; second and third segments of the 
funicle nearly equal in size and nearly cylindrical ; segments of the club 
more closely articulated to each other than to the funicle or than are 
the segments of the funicle to each other; club slightly longer than 
funicle; first two segments about equal in length, their greatest diameter 
being at their outer ends; terminal segment elongate, triangular in 
outline, and longer than either of the other segments, bluntly pointed 
at tip; all segments of antenna bearing scattered hairs. 

* Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory, Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College. 

125 



126 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Thorax: Pronotum dark; nicsoscutum brownish yellow, darker 
near the anterior edge, mesoscutar parapsida same color or lighter than 
mesoscutum with a darker spot well forward toward the base of the 
fore-wing; scapula dark; mesoscutellum noticeably paler than meso- 
scutum. Behind the mesoscutellum are two narrow transverse plates 
dark toward their lateral margins and light near the middle, the poster- 
ior plate with a spiracle near each lateral margin. Marginal and sub- 
marginal veins of fore-wing nearly equal in length; end of stigmal vein 
obscurely pointed, not reaching wing margin, its upper side slightly 
emarginated, its anal margin broadly rounded; a broad dusky band 
crosses the fore-wing below the marginal vein; hind wing lanceolate; 
legs pale yellow except the coxse, femora, and basal halves .of the tibiag, 
these being dark, the coxa being the darkest portion of each leg, those 
of the hind legs being the darkest; fore-legs as a whole the lightest and 
the hind legs the darkest; trochanters nearly hyaline. 

Abdomen: Short, broad, nearly quadrangular in outline; quite 
dark with faint transverse lighter bands and a yellowish brown area near 
the genitalia: with spines directed backward evident on the sides 
(above and below also?). 

Male: Length, 0.56 mm.; expanse, 1.54 mm.; greatest width of 
fore-wings, 0.20 mm. Living and mounted specimens appear the same 
as females, except that they are smaller, and the mesoscutellum is not 
as light in color. The antenna differs in that the first funicle segment 
is as long as the second, and its diameter at its distal end is greater than 
the diameter of either of the other two funicle segments. Its base is 
rounded and stalked, and it does not give the effect of a bead as does 
the corresponding segment in the female antenna. The articulation 
between the second and third segments of the club is not as evident as 
between the first and second segments, while in the female both articu- 
lations are very clear and well defined. The thorax as a whole is darker 
than that of the female, the only light portions being the mesoscutellum 
and the portion of the mesoscutar parapsida nearest it. The hind 
margin of the stigmal vein is more angular than in the female. The 
faintly cloudy band below the marginal vein is hardly distinguishable. 
The abdomen is short, much narrower than the thorax, truncate, dark 
and not showing lighter bands, but lighter near the genitalia which 
extrude, the tips of these being nearh' hyaline. 

Described from one female type and forty-three paratypes 
(on twelve slides) and one male type and four paratypes (five 
slides). The male type (one slide) and the female type with 
eleven paratypes (one slide) in the collection of the Massachu- 
setts Agricultural College, Amherst. 

One male and nine female paratypes (two slides) deposited 
in the U. S. National Museum (Type No. 15453). 

The remaining paratypes male and female together with 
some female metatypes, have been retained by the author. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA. 
Organized 1906. 



Officers for 1913. 

President. 
Ch.^rles J. S. Bethune Ontario Ao^r'l College, Guelph, Ontario 

First Vice-President. 
Philip P. Calvert University of Pennsylvania, Philadclphai, Pa. 

Second Vice-President. 
William M. Marshall University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Secretary-Treasurer . 
Alex. D. MacGillivray University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

ADDITIONAL MEMBERS OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Herbert Osborn, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 
C. P. Gillette, Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Fort Collins, Colorado. 
Vernon L. Kellogg, Leland Stanford Jr., University, 

Stanford University, California. 
James G. Needham, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 
C. T. Brues, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
Nathan Banks, United States National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

committee on nomenclature. 
T. D. A. Cockerell, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 1913. 
H. T. Fernald, Massachusetts Agr'l College, Amherst, Mass., 191-1. 
E. P. Felt, New York State Entomologist, Albany, N. Y., 1915. 

councilors for the AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 

Charles J. S. Bethune, Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, Ontario. 
Stephen A. Forbes, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. 

editorial board of annals. 
Herbert Osborn, Managing Editor, Ohio State University, 

Columbus, Ohio. 
J. H. CoMSTOCK, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 
Charles J. S. Bethune, Ontario Agricultural College Guelph, Ontario. 
C. W. Johnson, Boston Society of Natural History, Boston, Mass. 
Vernon L. Kellogg, Leland Stanford Jr., University, 

Stanford University, Cal. 
L. O. Howard, Chief, Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 
W. M. Wheeler, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
Philip P. Calvert, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 
J. W. Folsom, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. 

127 



128 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



RESOLUTIONS 
On the Death of John B. Smith, 

John Bernard Smith, D. Sc. Professor of Entomology 
Rutgers College, Entomologist N. J. Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Fellow and former President of the Entomological 
Society of America, died at his home in New Brunswick, New 
Jersey, on March 12, 1912. 

As an ardent collector, systematist, and morphologist ; 
Editor of Entomologica Americana; Assistant Curator of 
Insects in the National Museum; Professor of Entomology, 
and Entomologist of the Agricultural Experiment Station of 
New Jersey, Dr. Smith's contributions to American Entomology 
have been of such extended and valuable character that his 
name has been and will remain a familiar one to workers in 
Entomology. 

He was a genial friend and companion and remembrance of 
his personal traits will be treasured as among the lasting pos- 
sessions of memory among his associates. 

As a devoted member and officer in this society he labored 
faithfully in promoting its welfare and we now resolve that this 
tribute to his character be printed in the Annals of the Society 
as the public expression of our admiration for the man and our 
sense of loss in his death. 

Committee Herbert Osborn, 

Henry Skinner, 
E. P. Felt. 




JOHN B. SMITH. 



Plate XVI. 




THOMAS H. MONTGOMERY. 



Plate XVII. 



1913] Resolutions 129 



RESOLUTIONS 

On the Death of Thomas H. Montgomery. 

In the death of Professor Thomas H. Montgomery, Jr., on 
March 19, 1912, the Entomological Society of America lost a 
member whose entomological work was concerned mainly with 
the Hemiptera and the Araneina, dealing with various phases 
of the morphology, embryology and ecology of these groups in 
themselves, and as furnishing material for studies on the deeper 
problems of inheritance and sex-determination. He did not 
confine himself to these groups of animals but extended his 
researches to other non-entomological fields of zoology and in 
all he made valuable contributions to knowledge and to theory. 
In appreciation of his accomplishments and in sorrow at 
his early death, we enter this record on our minutes and extend 
to Mrs. Montgomery our deep sympathy in her and our loss. 

Committee Philip P. Calvert, 
Henry Skinner, 
j. h. comstock. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF AMERICA. 



Cleveland Meeting. 

The seventh annual meeting of the Entomological Society 
of America was called to order by President Stephen A. Forbes 
at 10:00 A. M., Tuesday, December 31st, in the Auditorium of 
the Normal School. All the meetings of the Society were well 
attended, seventy-five or more at each session, and it was pro- 
nounced by several the best meeting of the Society that they 
had attended. The following committees appointed previous 
to the meeting, were named: 

Committee to draft resolutions on the death of Dr. John 
Bernhardt Smith — Herbert Osborn, Henry Skinner, E. P. Felt. 

Committee to draft resolutions on the death of Dr. Thomas 
Harrison Montgomery, Jr. — Philip P. Calvert, Henry Skinner, 
J. H. Comstock. 

The chair was directed by motion to appoint the following 
committees: Committee on Resolutions; Committee on Nom- 
inations; Auditing Committee. 

The following papers were then read : 

C. Betten, Lake Forest University; A?i Interesting Feature in 
the Venation of Flelico psyche, the Molannidce, and the Lepto- 
ceridce. (Printed in this number of Annals). 

Discussion: W. A. Riley — Dr. Betten's interpretation of 
the modifications of R5 is especially interesting as still further 
emphasizing the close relationship in wing venation between 
the Trichoptera and the Lepidoptera. The lepidopterous 
wing venation exhibits specialization by reduction and Dr. 
Betten has clearly demonstrated that what has been regarded 
as an accessory vein is really a branch of a primary vein. 

Lucy W. Smith, Mt. Holyoke College: Mating and Egg- 
laying Habits of Perla immarginata. (To appear in June num- 
ber of Annals.) 

Alvah Peterson, University of Illinois: Head and Mouth 
parts of Cephalothrips yuccce. 

A preliminary report on the asymmetry of the mouth-parts of 
Thysanoptera. A detailed description of the anatomy of the mouth- 
parts and head capsiile of Cephalothrips yuccce, a species belonging to the 
suborder Tubulifera, was given. Numerous details and parts hereto- 
fore undescribed as to mandibles, hypopharynx, epipharynx, arms of 
tentorium, etc., were shown. Similar observations were made on 
A nthothrips verbasci in order to verify results found in Cephalothrips yuccce. 



1913] Proceedings of the Cleveland Meeting 131 

Comparing the work done by H. Garman on Limothrips cerealium, 
a species of Terebrantia, with the work done by Muir and Kershaw, on 
a species of Tubulifera, a difference in interpretation exists as to whether 
the asymmetrical parts are mandibles or maxillag. Muir and Kershaw 
interpret the asymmetrical parts as maxillse. Observations made by the 
writer on two species of Tubulifera verify their position in general. 
The writer expects to continue his observations on species of the sub- 
order Terebrantia to determine if possible whether the interpretation 
of H. Garman is correct or not. 

Discussion: R. A. Cooley — It was asked as to whether any 
evidence of glandular secretion from the mouth was found, 
which being answered in the negative, it was stated that in a 
species feeding on terminals of currant and gooseberry we have 
noticed a considerable distortion of the leaves and stem, sug- 
geting the possibility of a secretion introduced while feeding. 

J. E. Wodsedalek, University of Wisconsin: Life History 
and Habits of Trogoderma tarsale, a Museum Pest. Read 
by Title. 

Leonard Haseman, University of Missouri: Life Cycle and 
Development of the Tarnished Plant Bug, Lygus pratensis Lin. 
Presented by the Secretary. 

Owing to the very serious injury to peach and pear in the early 
spring which seemed to be due to the work of the tarnished plant-bug, 
the writer has undertaken a careftil study of the life cycle, habits and 
development of this insect. The work has been carried through the 
late summer and fall months and will be continued throughout the 
following spring and siimmer. 

In this work it has been found that the tarnished plant-bug breeds 
largely upon various flowering weeds such as wild asters, daisies, and 
mare's tail {Erigeron canadensis). The tarnished plant-bug deposits 
its eggs in the blossoms of the host plant and not in the tissue of the 
leaves or stems. These eggs hatch in from five to seven days and the 
insect passes through five distinct nymphal stages in its development 
in the place of four, as other writers have maintained. The insect 
remains in each nymphal stage for about the same length of time and 
completes its growth in from thirty to thirty-five days. 

Discussion: P. J. Parrott — There occurs in New York a 
species (Lygus invitus) Say which is during some seasons quite 
destructive to pears. In feeding on the fruit, the epidermis is 
ruptured by the proboscis and protruding granular areas form 
about the wounds. This species closely resembles pratensis and 
is easily confused with it. In order to establish distinguishing 
characters we have bred the two insects through their various 
life stages. Both species have five nymphal instars and can 



132 . Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

easily be separated by certain characters which we hope to 
explain later. I noted with much interest the remarks on 
oviposition habits of pratensis, and I would also add that we 
have obtained the eggs of this species from ripe strawberries, 
raspberries and blackberries, and for rearing the insect during 
its various nymphal stages we have found nothing more satis- 
factory than the berries of these different fruits. 

Victor E. Shelford, University of Chicago: The Ontogeny of 
Elytral Pigmentation in Cicindela. 

The pigment develops in the form of a faint pattern, somewhat 
variable but with certain lighter areas occurring in the same general 
position in several species. These lighter areas lie between the trachea? 
and in certain transverse bands: their positions correspond to those of 
certain white markings of Ethiopian and Oriental species. 

Discussion: Miss Annette Braun — The question was raised 
as to whether the position of the dark transverse bands on the 
elytra of Cicindela is determined by structural characters of the 
elytra, citing work on the ontogeny of wing pattern in certain 
moths where the position of the tip of the veins decides the 
position of markings, the tip of the vein remaining unpigmented. 

V. E. Shelford. The dark cross bands which separate the 
spots are not correlated with any known elytral structures. 
There is no evidence of metamerism in the wing. The pigment 
develops throughout the elytron, the base does not appear 
oldest. 

N. L. Partridge, University of Illinois: The Tracheation of 
the Pupal Wings of some Saturnians. 

A method of preparing permanent mounts of lepidopterous pupal 
wings was described. The pupal wings were removed in the customary 
manner and the specimens secured, floated upon clean water to straighten 
the wings and remove any dirt which might adhere to them. Then 
they were placed on a clean, untreated, glass slide, smoothed, and allowed 
to dry, without further treatment. The result was a transparent 
mount showing all the tracheoles as well as the tracheae. Some of these 
mounts were used as lantern slides giving clear images on the screen. 

It was shown that a greater amount of variation was found in the 
pupal wings than in the adult wings. The homologies between the 
tracheae and veins of the specimens shown was indicated. 

L. B. Walton, Kenyon College: Studies on the Month-parts 
of Rhyparobia maderice (Blattidce) with a consideration of the 
Homologies existing between the Appendages of the Hexapoda. 

The question as to the homologies existing among the paired append- 
ages of the Hexapoda has received attention from various investigators. 



1913] Proceedings of the Cleveland Meeting 133 

and in particular from Hansen, Heymons, Borner, Verhoeff, and Esch- 
erich, none of whom however have progressed far toward a satisfactory 
solution of the problem. In general it has been accepted that the 
stipes and mentum correspond to the thoracic and abdominal coxas 
while the maxillary and labial palpi were equivalent to the trochanter, 
femur, etc., or the functional leg. 

Studies on Rhyparobia maderice the "giant cockroach " from Panama, 
particularly of 10 mm. and 12 mm. embryos, as well as other investiga- 
tions in connection with the appendages of the Thysanura, make it 
evident that the typical appendage (mouth-parts, thoracic, abdominal, 
caudal) of the Hexapoda consists of seven definite areas best represented 
by the maxillas with the galea, lacina, ectostipe,^ endostipe, ectocardo, 
endocardo, and palpus. Futhermore the palpus should be homologized 
with the stylus of the thoracic and abdominal coxas and not with the 
functional leg, inasmuch as both palpus and stylus are appendages of 
homodynamous areas (ectostipe, ectomentum, meron) while the leg is 
an appendage of the area (endocoxa) corresponding to the endostipes. 

The facts noted suggest the origin of the biramose appendage of the 
Hexapoda directly from the parapodium of the Polychaeta, the noto- 
podium and neuropodium arising in connection with the dorsal and 
ventral bundles of setae and corresponding to the outer (ectal) and inner 
(endal) groups of sclerites as outlined above. It would thus appear that 
the Arthropoda are a polyphyletic group, and that the relationship 
between the appendages of the Hexapoda and Crustacea is a more 
remote one than generally accepted in connection with the studies of 
Hansen and Borner. 

The historical development of the problem as well as the presenta- 
tion of the facts which would seem to establish the views here advanced, 
will appear in the completed paper of which this is a partial summary. 

Discussion: W. A. Riley — I have been especially inter- 
ested to learn that Dr. Walton is swinging away from his earlier 
belief in the double nature of the insect segment. It has 
seemed to me that embryological data afforded no evidence in 
support of the theory though there are indications of the 
biramous nature of the appendages. The theory of the origin 
of the insect appendages from the pleuropodes receives much 
additional support from the work here presented. 

The President announced the following committees : 

Committee on Resolutions — S. J. Hunter, W. A. Riley, and 
L. B. Walton. 

Committee on Nominations— Herbert Osbom, R. A. Cooley, and 
Cornelius Betten. 

Auditing Committee — P. J. Parrot, A. F. Burgess, and W. E. Britton. 

1. The prefixes " ecto " and " endo " have been utilized in an attempt to 
establish a better nomenclature while minor changes have been made in the 
terminology of older parts, e. g. " ectostipes " is a more cumbersome term than 
" ectostipe." 



134 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

The Society then adjourned to meet at 2:00 p. m. when the 
following business was transacted and papers read : 

The Committee appointed to draft resolutions on the death 
of Dr. John Behrnhardt Smith presented their report. It was 
ordered accepted and printed. 

James Zetek, Sanitary Commission Canal Zone: Determin- 
ing the Flight of Mosquitoes. Read by Title, 

William A. Riley, Cornell University: Some Sources of 
Laboratory Material for Worlz on the Relation of Insects to 
Disease. 

The demand for at least elementary courses on the relation of insects 
to disease brings up the question as to available laboratory material. 
There is comparatively little difficulty in obtaining the parasitic mites, 
ticks, lice, house-flies, mosquitoes and fleas in their various stages, but 
it is usually assumed that most of the pathogenic Protozoa are tropical 
species and that nothing can be substituted for them in laboratory 
work. As a matter of fact, a number of insect-borne Protozoa and 
worms occur in this country and together with other blood parasites 
whose life-history is less better known, are available for laboratory 
work. The species discussed were Trypanosoma lewisi a widely dis- 
tributed parasite of brown rats; Trypanosoma rotator ium from the frog; 
the related Corithidia from the "sheep tick"; Herpetomonas from the 
house-fly; Monocystis from the seminal vesicles of the earth worm as 
introductory to the study of the Haemosporidia ; Lankesterella ranarum 
Haemogregarina sp.; Proteosoma, Halteridium, Babesia hilaria in the 
blood of the crow and English sparrow, and Dipylidium caninum, the 
double-spored tape worm of dogs, cats, and man. 

Discussion: F. L. Washburn — It was asked whether Dr. 
Riley had ever found acridids killed by the presence of an 
excessive number of gregarines. Being answered in the nega- 
tive, it was stated that a party in western Oregon had recently 
written him of the occurrence of large swarms of locusts in the 
Willamette valley which did not lay eggs, but perished in large 
numbers and a microscopical examination disclosed a very 
large number of gregarines in each insect and the reproductive 
glands entirely disintegrated. 

, Y. H. Tsoii and S. B. Fr acker, University of Illinois: The 
Homology of the Body Setce of Lepidopterous LarvcE. 

This paper consisted (1) of a statement of the difficulties involved 
in homologizing the body setas of these larvae, (2) of a consideration of 
the serial homology of the setas of the different segments and (3) of the 
specific homology in the larger groups. Greek letters were employed 
to designate the setae in order to obviate the confusion which has arisen 
from the use of numbers in different ways by different authors. The 



1913] Proceedings of the Cleveland Meeting 135 

prothorax of Hepialus was shown to represent the primitive arrangement 
of setae and was used as a type for determining the homology of the seta) 
on the different segments. The authors had studied many species and 
gave figures of four: Hepialus lectus and H. humuH of the Jugatas, Pseu- 
danaphora arcanella of the Tineidse and Mamestra picta of the NoctuidcE. 
Each of these was compared with the type, segment for segment. This 
is the first time the setas of the prothorax have been homologized with 
those of the other segments. 

Discussion: W. A. Riley — I wish to speak in appreciation 
of the important work which Mr, Tsou and Mr. Fracker have 
reported upon — work which is especially difficult to present in a 
non- technical manner. It is quite customary to ridicule work 
upon such a subject as the "hair of a caterpillar" and even 
some entomologists are inclined to question the possibility of 
homologizing such structures. Yet, as Professor Comstock 
sometimes says, "We read that the very hairs of our head are 
numbered, and in the case of lepidopterous larvae this may 
be literally true". That certain hairs or groups of hairs may 
be persistent and may be homologized throughout a wide series 
of forms, is due to the fact that they possess important sensory 
functions. Pioneer work in this country on the homologizing 
of setag was done by Dyer, and the late C. B. Simpson extended 
this by an important study which is deposited as a thesis in the 
Cornell University library. It is gratifying to see the work 
continued under Dr. MacGillivray who is best qualified to 
supervise it. 

Anna H. Morgan, ML Holyoke College: Eggs and Egg- 
laying of May -flies. 

This study of May- fly eggs was made to determine the relative 
fecundity of different species. This led to the study of a series of 
elaborate sciilpturings found upon the chorion. In several species the 
chorion bears long thread like extensions which tenninate in viscid 
spheres or disks. These seem to help buoy up the eggs. Threads two 
and three inches long were found. In nature these threads are probably 
entangled in sticks and vegetation and this prevents the eggs from being 
covered by silt. In the ovaries of half grown nymphs these structures 
are well defined and are of aid in connecting up the life histories where 
rearing is impossible. 

Discussion: Philip P. Calvert — It was remarked that Miss 
Morgan's statements that Heptagenia inter punctella and H. 
piilchella closely resembled each other as adults and lived in the 
same situation as larvae and eggs might seem to indicate an 
exception to Jordan's law that the nearest related species are 



136 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

always separated from each other by some kind of a barrier, 
but in view of the great differences in the eggs of the two 
species, it might be doubtful whether these two species are 
really so closely related. It is therefore evidently necessary to 
know all the stages of two species before one can pronounce on 
their relationships and whether they do or do not contradict 
the law mentioned. 

Herbert Osborn, Ohio State U^iiversity: Notes on Cicadidce 
with Especial Reference to the Ohio Species. 

Cicadas constitute a conspicuous element in an Insect fauna and their 
relation to varied forest conditions was discussed especially for the species 
occurring in Ohio. The origin and function of the tympanal organs 
present problems for study and the suggestion is made that this struc- 
ture is primarily a secondary sexual character functioning in sexual 
excitation and only incidentally a sound producing organ. 

Frank E. Lutz, American Museum Natural Elistory: On the 
Biology of Drosophila ampelophila. 

This insect is remarkably useful in laboratory work since it can be 
kept going throughout the year on bananas as food and its short life- 
cycle (about ten days to two weeks) enables one to get a large number 
of generations. Sexual difference characterizes the insect. Not only 
do the sexes differ in adult color and structure but they differ in the 
duration of the immature stages, in their reactions to light and the 
age at death. 

E. P. Felt, State Entomologist, New York: Observations on 
the Biology of a Blow Fly and a Flesh Fly. 

A study of Phormia regina Meign. and Sarcophaga georgina Wied. 
was undertaken primarily for the purpose of obtaining data which 
could be used as a basis for estimating the period a human body had 
lain exposed to the elements in midsummer. Our knowledge of these 
two species is summarized and original data are given of the habits 
and duration of the various stages under known climatic conditions. 
The egg of Phormia and the three larval stages and puparium of both 
species are described and a bibliography of each appended. 

The Society adjourned at 4:30 p. m., to meet Wednesday, 
January 1st, at 10:00 a. m. 

The annual business meeting of the Society was held upon 
reconvening and the following reports presented : 

.The Secretary presented the following report for the Execu- 
tive Committee, which met at the Hotel Euclid, Tuesday 
evening, December 31. 



1913] Proceedings of the Cleveland Meeting 137 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Your Secretary asks the privilege of departing from the custom of 
former secretaries in reporting the various matters that have been 
submitted to the Executive Committee in the interim between meetings. 
The secretary feels that all these matters should be reported at the 
annual meeting of the Executive Committee and put on record in the 
proceedings of the Society. 

The following matters were considered during the year 1912: 

1. The revision of Bv-Law No. 9 as reported in the Annals, Vol. 
V, p. S3. 

2. The appointment of Professor Herbert Osborn, the retiring 
President, as the second councilor of the Society to the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science. 

3. The following were named as delegates to the second Interna- 
tional Congress of Entomologists, held at Oxford. England, August 
5-10, 1912: 

Professor J. H. Comstock, Dr. Henrv Skinner, Dr, W. J. Holland, 
Professor V. L. Kellogg, Dr. Philip P. Calvert, Dr. L. O. Howard, Dr. 
W. M. Wheeler, Professor Herbert Osborn, Professor S. A. Forbes, 
and Professor J. G. Needham. 

4. The apointment of a committee of three to draft resolutions 
inviting the International Congress of Entomology to hold its next 
meeting, 1915, in America. The following were named: Professor 
S. A. Forbes, Chairman; Dr. Henry Skinner, and Professor J. H. Com- 
stock. The success attending the efforts of this committee are reported 
in another place. 

5. That there be printed at the head of the list of papers on the 
program for each annual meeting the following statement: Each 
paper will be limited to fifteen minutes, second titles will be placed at 
the end of the program and read in the order listed. 

Upon an invitation from the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, the President named the following as delegates to the celebra- 
tion of the centenary anniversarv of the academv: Professor John B. 
Smith, Dr. L. O. Howard, Dr. E^ P. Felt, Dr. W. E. Britton, and Dr. 
W. M. Wheeler. 

The following twenty-seven new members were elected by the 
Executive Committee, June 1, 1912: 

J. Lyonel King. H. R. Niswonger. James McDunnough. 

H. M. Parshly. C. L. Metcalf. Miss E. D. Faville. 

M. M. High. Prof. O. W. Oestlund. N. L. Partridge. 

E. H. Strickland. P. W. Mason. Col. T. L. Casey. 

A. C. Burrill. J. C. Faure. S. C. Bishop. 

J. H. Paine. Harold Morrison. D. L. Crawford. 

D. C. Mote. E. M. Schalck. E. C. Cotton. 

Prof. T. D. Jarvis. R. A. Grizzell. A. W. Baker. 

Lawson Caesar. Prof. R. W. Hegner. A. B. Johnson. 

The following have died during the year: 

Dr. John B. Smith. Prof. G. W. Taylor. 

Prof. T. H. Montgomery, Jr. E. L, Jenne. 



138 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol VI, 

The following resignations were presented, accepted by the 
Executive Committee, and the membership terminated: 

Prof. C. E. Johnson. E. T- Kraus. H. G. Smith. 

E. D. Keith. Prof. F. H. Shoemaker. E. S. Tucker. 

G. Chagnon. 

A list of twenty names of persons who had been dropped for the 
non-payment of dues for two j^ears or within one year of election to 
membership, was presented and adopted. This is in accordance with 
Sections 7 and S of the By-Laws. 

The following twenty-four names were proposed for membership 
and elected by the Executive Committee at its meeting last evening: 

C. J. Drake. C. Carter. H. Fox. 

W. J. Phillips. W. E. Snyder. D. Milton Brumfiel. 

A. G. Vestal. C. E. Hood. J. J. Culver. 

M. M. Wells. Margaret Washington. C. H. Baldwin. 

C. W. Creel. F. W. L. Sladen. P. S. Welch- 

C. W. Long. W. A Ross. E. M. R. Lamkey. 

R. W. Leiby. E. H. Gibson. R. H. Wilson. 

O. C. Bartlett. C. R. Neillie. W. J. Kostir. 

The membership of the society as given in the last volume of the Annals 
contains two honorary fellows, 33 fellows, and 356 members, or a total 
of 391. There is reported above the death of one fellow and three 
members, the resignation of seven members, and the dropping of 20 
others, which reduces the roll to 359. To this number should be added 
the 27 members elected in June and the 24 elected at this meeting, 
which makes the present total membership of the society 410. 

treasurer's report. 
Cash on deposit in the First National Bank of Champaign, Illinois, 

December 19, 1911 % 696.60 

Life Membership Fees deposited in Rothschild Bros. Savings Bank of 

Ithaca, New York, with interest at 4% to May 3, 1912 107.85 

Cash received from Herbert Osborn, Managing Editor of the Annals . . 428.35 
Cash collected as dues 812.56 

$2,045.36. 

Bills Paid $1,904.49 

Life Membership Fees deposited in the Citizens Savings and 

Trust Co., of Cleveland, Ohio 100.00 

Cash on deposit in the First National Bank of Champaign, 

Illinois, December 9, 1912 40.87 

$2,045.36 

If the cash balance for 1 912 is compared with that of 1911, it might 
seem that the .financial condition of the society was not very good. The 
financial conditions on the contrary are the best for any year of which 
your treasurer has made any study of the accounts. He has paid for 
six numbers of the Annals in addition to handling the expense of mailing 
certificates of membership. Certificates have been sent to all persons 
included on the membership roll of the society and if there are any who 
have not received a certificate, the secretary should be notified. The 
net expense of issuing the six above mentioned ntunbers of the Annals 
alone was $1731.93. The only outstanding account is for the Decem- 
ber Annals, which had not been issued when the Treasurer's accounts, 
were closed. 



1913] Proceedings of the Cleveland Meeting 139 

The Executive Committee apointed the Secretary-Treasurer and 
Professor J. H. Comstock at the Washington meeting a committee to 
deposit the fees of Hfe members in a bank that they should consider safe 
at a good rate of interest. After considerable correspondence the 
Citizens Savings and Trust Company of Cleveland, Ohio, was selected 
and the funds deposited there May 3, 1912, where they will draw four 
per cent interest. 

The following amendment to the Constitution submitted at the 
Boston meeting and voted upon at the Washington meeting was referred 
back to the Executive Committee by the latter meeting for further 
consideration : 

Article IV. Section 3. The President shall represent the Society upon the 
Council of the American Association for the Advancement of Science until such 
time as the Society shall be qualified for representation by two councillors, in 
which case the second councillor shall be elected from the fellows by the Execu- 
tive Committee. 

To be amended to read: 

Section 3. Councillors to the American Association. The President and 
the preceding Past-President shall represent the Society upon the Council of the 
American Association for the Advancement of vScience. 

The Executive Committee would recommend the following 
amendment : 

Section 5. Councillors to the American Association: The President and 
the preceding Past-President shall represent the Society upon the council of the 
American Association of the Advancement of Science. In case of the death or 
resignation of either or both councillors, the vacancy shall be filled by the Execu- 
tive Committee. 

The Executive Committee took the following action : It was moved 
that the President and the preceding Past-President should represent 
the Society upon the Council of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science during the year 1913. 

Mr. Edward P. VanDuzee, Librarian of the Grosvenor Public 
Library, Buffalo, New York, who has made a special study of the 
Hemiptera, was by a unanimous vote of the Executive Committee 
elected a fellow of the society. 

The following amendments and additions to the constitu- 
tion are recommended: 

Article V. Section 3. Election of Officers — All officers shall be elected by 
ballot at the annual meeting for the term of one year and shall be eligible for 
re-election. Their term of office shall commence with the first of June following 
their election. 

To be amended to read as follows : 

Article V. Section 3. Election of Officers — All officers shall be elected by 
ballot at the annual meeting for the term of one year and shall be eligible for 
re-election. 

The following additional article to the Constitution, dealing with 
the publication and management of the Annals, to be ntimber VII and 
the present article of that number, to be numbered VIII : 



140 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



ARTICLE VII. 

Section 1. Publication — The official publication of the Society shall be 
known as the Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Each volume 
shall consist of four quarterly fascicles and the first fascicle of each volume shall 
contain the proceedings of the annual meeting. 

Sec. 2. Editorial Board — The publication shall be under the charge of an 
Editorial Board consisting of ten members, one of whom shall be Managing Editor. 
The Managing Editor and his associates shall be responsible for the selection of 
the material to be published. 

Sec. 3. Election of Editorial Board — The members of the Editorial Board 
shall be elected by the Executive Committee. Each member of this board, 
except the Managing Editor, shall serve for three years or until his successor has 
been elected, three members retiring annually. 

Sec. 4. Report Managing Editor — The Managing Editor shall present a 
report at each annual meeting to the Executive Committee and the accounts of 
his office shall be reported upon by the Auditing Committee. 

The Executive Committee took the following action regarding the 
mailing of the Annals, this action is to be printed on page three of the 
cover of each number of the magazine : 

The Managing Editor is provided with the most recent address of all members 
on record in the Secretary's office for mailing the numbers of the Annals and here- 
after members complaining of the non-receipt of numbers must present their 
complaint to the Secretary within four months from the date of the mailing of 
the issue. After that time the numbers will be furnished only at the regular 
published rate. 

The Secretary reported the receipt from Jas. A. Barr, Manager of 
Conventions for the Panama-Pacific Umvcrsal Exposition of an em- 
bossed invitation issued by the president and directors of the Exposition, 
inviting the society to hold its meeting for 1915 on the Pacific coast. 
This meeting is to be held either in the Auditorium provided by the 
Exposition and located about half a mile from the Exposition entrance 
or at the University of California or at Stanford University. The Execu- 
tive Committee offers the following recommendation: That the 
Executive Committee recommend to the Society that a special com- 
mittee of five be appointed, to include two Pacific coast members, to 
consider and report at the next annual meeting concerning the desira- 
bility of holding a meeting in vSan Francisco in the summer of 1915. 

On motion, the report of the Executive Committee was 
adopted. 

The President named the following committee to consider 
the desirability of holding a meeting in San Francisco in 1915: 
E. P. Felt, New York State Entomologist, Albany, N. Y., 
Chairman; Vernon L. Kellogg, Stanford University, California; 
A. J. Cook, Horticultural Commission, Sacramento, California; 
W. M. Wheeler, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. ; 
T. D. A. Cockerell, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. 

The committee appointed to draft resolutions on the 
death of Dr. Thomas Harison Montgomery, Jr., presented their 
report. It was ordered accepted and printed. 



1913] Proceedings of the Cleveland Meeting 141 

The following reports were presented: 

REPORT or THE MANAGING EDITOR OF THE ANNALS. 

The report upon the progress of the Annals for the year 1912 might 
follow very closely the statement for the year previous but I feel that 
we are warranted in counting the past year as one of even more solid 
growth and that we may look with still greater confidence to future 
improvement. 

In the matter of financial support there has been a distinct gain and 
the receipts of the editor which show a total of $551.53 of which $193.40 
were for subscriptions, $176.55 for back voltunes sold and $181.58 for 
reprints, etc., from authors indicates what may be expected as practic- 
ally permanent revenue though we may not be equally successful every 
year in sale of back volumes. 

The editor's expenses have been $63.05 for engravings, $35.20 for 
labor and stenographic service, $24.93 for express and postage, and 
$428.35 has been turned over to the treasurer. 

In this connection it may be mentioned that a little effort by mem- 
bers in helping to place sets of the back volumes in libraries not yet 
supplied will assist materially in increasing income and giving support 
to enlargement and improvement. I am sure that such effort was 
helpful in the past year. 

While we have not published quite as many pages of matter as for 
1911 the volume will reach over 450 pages and includes a very cred- 
itable series of papers. The editor has in hand matter enough to 
practically fil] a good March number and other desirable papers in 
sight. This with the prospect of a somewhat larger fund to devote to 
printing the coming vear assures us I believe an excellent voliune for 
1913. 

The Managing Editor desires to take this opportunity to express 
his gratitude for the many important aids rendered by the members of 
the Editorial Board in securing desirable contributions. He is especially 
indebted to Professors Folsom and MacGillivray for assistance in the 
issuing of the September number. 

He appreciates particularly the cordial and hearty cooperation 
which has marked the relation of the members of the society to this 
enterprise. Respectfully submitted, 

Herbert Osborn, 
Managing Editor. 

REPORT OF THE AUDITING COMMITTEE. 

We, the undersigned, have this day examined the accounts of 
Alexander D. MacGillivray, Treasurer and Secretary of the Entomolog- 
ical Society of America for the year ending December 10, 1912, compared 
the vouchers therewith and found the same correct and properly cast. 

Signed P. J. Parrott, 

A. F. Burgess, 
W. E. Britton. 



142 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



REPORT or THE COMMITTEE ON NOMENCLATURE. 

Your Committee on Nomenclature has to report that no questions 
have been submitted to it for consideration during the past year. 

The discussion of the idea of nomina conservanda has been much in 
evidence of late, and the members of the committee have very decided 
personal opinions upon that subject. They realize, however, that any 
expression of their opinion as a committee would have no more weight 
than the sum total of their individual views, and therefore do not 
present any recommendation on the subject. Attention should be 
called to the point, however, that in the numerous lists of workers 
published, who have expressed themselves on the subject, many are 
morphologists only secondarily interested in questions of nomenclature, 
and rarely doing anything themselves in this subject. It would seem 
that the opinions of this class should hardly be given equal weight with 
those offered by persons constantly engaged in systematic work and 
who are therefore much more familiar with the difficulties constantly 
presenting themselves under either method. 

It may also be appropriate here to call attention to earlier proposals 
nearly forty years ago, for the establishment of nomina conservanda 
which were favorably received at first, and to some extent adopted for 
a few years, but generally abandoned after a time. (Rules of Nomen- 
clature as avithorized to be published bv the Entomological Club, 
A. A. A. S., July, 1877). 

Your committee is inclined to regard the International Code as 
the one to accept in all cases, representing as it appears to, the formu- 
lated opinions of the largest body of scientific zoological workers in the 
world, and therefore presenting the largest number of supporters, to 
serve as a nucleus around which scientific opinion at large should 
concentrate and crystallize. They regret, however, that recent inter- 
pretations of the code seem to imply that a generic name accompanied 
by more or less of a description, but without reference either by name, 
figure, description or otherwise to any described and named species of 
animal, should be held as valid. They do not feel that this is any real 
use of a binomial nomenclature, and would welcome a ruling that any 
generic name to be applicable to any animal must be published in con- 
nection with some described or otherwise clearly indicated species, and 
that all generic names not so pubhshed should be regarded as 
nomina nuda. Signed, 

H. T. Fernald, 
E. P. Felt, 

T. D. A. COCKERELL.- 

The report of the Committee on Nomenclature was accepted 
and ordered printed. 

The following motion presented by Philip P. Calvert and 
seconded by F. L. Washburn was presented : 

Moved that it is the sense of this meeting of the Entomolog- 
ical Society of America that the use of the International Code 



1913] Proceedings of the Cleveland Meeting 143 

of Nomenclature be recommended for the use of Entomologists 
generally. Carried. 

The following report, of the delegates to the International 
Congress, in attendance at the Cleveland meeting, was pre- 
sented: 

REPORT OF DELEGATES TO THE INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS 
OF ENTOMOLOGY, AT OXFORD, ENGLAND. 

While no official report has been called for from the delegates of the 
Society, and while from the fact that the delegate representation was 
not provided for at the Congress, such report may be unnecessary, it 
seems that some statement as to the work accomplished and scope of 
the Congress may be in order. 

The delegates can all report a very enjoyable occasion with delight- 
ful opportunities for acquaintance with Entomologists from various 
countries who were at the Second International Congress. They can 
also report with much appreciation the advantages of the place of meet- 
ing, and the enthusiasm with which the Congress was entertained by 
the local Entomologists. 

In the various sectional meetings there were presented a large 
number of creditable papers and these provoked profitable discussions. 
The sections in Taxonomy and Economic Entomology were particu- 
larly well attended and successful. The questions upon nomenclature 
introduced by the resolution from the Entomological Society of London, 
were the subject of much discussion, and resulted in the provision for an 
international committee to consider the particulars of nomenclature. 
The details for this arrangement will doubtless in time come to the 
Society with a request for the designation of a member of the Society to 
serve on such committee. 

The constitution of the Congress appears to jrour delegates to be 
faulty in that it does not provide delegate representation from the 
different countries or from National Societies, and until such provision 
is made it appears to us that the results of action in the Congress must 
fail to secure any general acceptance. 

The Congress, as at present constituted, is composed simply of 
members who may pay the fee, and such membership is open to all 
persons whether entomologists or not, so it follows that any individual 
subscribing the membership fee has just as much weight in voting as a 
delegate or representative from a country, representing hundreds of 
society members. Further, the constitution of the Executive 
Committee, which seems not to be subject to election by the Congress 
at large, as well as the election of officers and decision as to place of 
meeting, are entirely in the hands of the Executive Committee of 
four members. 

While the arrangement for the committee on nomenclature may 
prove successful, there are certainly many other questions of interna- 
tional importance, which should be considered by such a Congress, 
and we believe that it should be urged upon the Executive Committee 



144 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

that some provision be made for delegate representation from different 
countries, and from different Entomological Societies, and that a 
definite constitution be prepared and submitted to Entomological 
Societies of different countries, with carefully prepared plans for the 
election of officers, the fonnation of the Executive Committee and 
other details of organization not yet provided for. 

As delegates we wish to emphasize the value of the social features 
of the Congress, and to express the belief that such meetings will be of 
great ultimate advantage to entomological science in bringing together 
the entomological workers of different countries. We wish also to 
express our appreciation of the cordiality of the local representatives. 

In accordance with directions from the Society we presented the 
invitation to the Congress to meet in America for its next session, but 
the question of place of meeting, had evidently been determined by the 
Executive Committee, and while our presentation of the case was listened 
to, there was evidently no chance to secure a favorable decision for the 
next Congress. We were assured, however, that the Congress would hope 
to meet in America in the near future, and it seemed well understood 
that an invitation to meet in America in 1918, would receive cordial 
response and favorable action. 

The next Congress is to be held in Vienna in 1915, under the presi- 
dency of Dr. Handlirsch. 

Signed Herbert Osborn, Stephen A. forbes, 

Philip P. Calvert, L. O. Howard. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON NOMINATIONS. 

Your committee begs leave to report the following names as nom- 
inees for the respective offices for 1913: 

OFFICERS. 

President: C. J. S. Bethune, Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, Ontario. 

First Vice-President: Philip P. Calvert, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Second Vice-President: William M. Marshall, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wisconsin. 

Secretary-Treasurer: Alexander D. MacGillivray, University of Illinois, 
Urbana, Illinois. 

ADDITIONAL MEMBERS OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Herbert Osborn, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

C. P. Gillette, Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station, Fort Collins, 
Colorado. 

Vernon L. Kellogg, Leland Stanford Jr. University, Stanford University, 
California. 

James G. Needham, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

C. T. Brues, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Nathan Banks, United States National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

MEMBER OF COMMITTEE ON NOMENCLATURE. 

E. P. Felt, New York State Entomologist, Albany, New York. 

(Signed) Herbert Osborn, 

r. a. cooley, 
Cornelius Betten. 



1913] Proceedings of the Cleveland Meeting 145 

On motion, the secretary was instructed to cast a single 
ballot for the officers named. They were declared elected. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON RESOLUTIONS. 

Resolved, That we express to the authorities of the Western Reserve 
University and of the Normal School our deep appreciation of the 
courtesies extended this society; 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Society be extended to Mr. E. H. 
Edwards for his generous assistance in arranging rooms for our use at 
the Normal School as well as his personal help toward the success 
of this meeting; 

Resolved, That we commend the Editorial Management of the Annals 
of this Societ}'' and hereby recognize the value of Professor Osbom's 
painstaking work in furthering the interests of this publication. 

Signed S. J. Hunter, 

W. A. Riley, 
L. B. Walton. 

On motion the report was adopted. 

Upon the recommendation of the Committee on Resolu- 
tions of and by action of the Society at the Washington meeting, 
the following committee on types was appointed. Their 
report follows: 

report of the committee on entomolotgcal types. 

Your Committee, appointed to report on Entomological Types, 
submits the following: 

Location of Types. According to reports kindly fiunished by the 
Directors or Curators, some of the larger museums of this country 
contain types as follows : 

U. S. National Museum. About 16,000. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology. Over 10,000. 

Philadelphia Academy and American Entomological Society. 
About 7,100. 

Dr. Skinner states that this includes only holotypes and lectotypes. 
It is believed that the combined Philadelphia collections probably 
contain 35,000 "t^'^pes", counting all the cotypical, paratypical and 
typical specimens. 

Carnegie Museum, including Dr. Holland's collection (on deposit). 
About 4,000. 

The number owned by the Boston Society of Natural History 
(several hundreds, at least), American Museum of Natural History and 
Musetmi of the Brooklyn Institute cannot be given at the present 
moment, but will be ascertained later. A list of the types of insects, 
other than Lepidoptera and Formicoidea, in the American Museum 
has just been published (Biill. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. XXXI, pp. 
353-379). The Milwaukee PubHc Museimi has 71 types. Doubtless 
the British Museum has more insect types than any other museum in 



146 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

the world, but there is no catalogue and the number is not known, even 
approximately. The New York vState Museum at Albany possesses a 
large number of types under the care of the State Entomologist. A 
catalogue was published in N. Y. Museum Bulletin 141 (1909) pp. 
119-122, but Dr. Felt informs me that probably about 700 Cecido- 
myiidas are to be added. Stanford University has about 500 types, 
the majority Mallophaga.* 

There are some very large private collections, such as those of Dr. 
William Barnes at Decatur, Illinois, (890 types). Dr. Nathan Banks at 
East Falls Church, Va., (about 1500 types and about 300 cotypes or 
paratypes) and Col. Thos. L. Casey. In the above estimates cotypes 
or paratypes are in nearly every case reckoned as types. 

Opinions on the Location of Types. We have sought to ascertain 
the opinions of representative entomologists regarding the location of 
types, and cite the following as examples : 

"We believe that privately owned types should eventually go to 
some good museum." — H. Skinner. 

"I consider it unwise to make any suggestion as to restricting types 
to certain institutions. " — S. Henshaw. 

"I believe that it should be the policy of authors to place their types 
where they will be cared for in the future. " — W. J. Holland. (See also 
The Conservation of Types, First International Entomological Congress, 
p. 366, where six museums are named as the only ones in the United 
States to which types should be consigned) . 

"I do not believe that types should remain permanently in private 
collections." — ^W. M. Wheeler. 

" I do not see how any fixed rules regarding the distribution of types 
can be made, nor can we prohibit them from being private property. 
With many a zoologist his collection and books are his only assets, and 
while he is working they are probably doing as much good in his own 
collection as in a public museum. When I am through with my col- 
lection I want it to go into the hands of a dipterist. " — C. W. Johnson. 

"It would be of course a very good thing to have the types in a 
limited number of public institutions, or still better in one only, but I 
am afraid this ideal condition will never be reached. In regard to a 
privately owned type, I am of the opinion that as soon as a new species 
is described the type becomes public property, and the author, if he 
keeps it in his own collection, should take great pains to keep the type 
safe and in good condition, and provide sooner or later for a resting 
place in a public institution. " — Chas. Schaeffer. 

"Personally I am inclined to the view, that types ought to be 
restricted to as few institutions as possible. As to the number of these, 
or how they should be selected, I have no opinion. " — S. Graenicher. 

"We deposit all particularly perishable types (such as pinned 
insects) in the U. S. National Museum." — A. G. Ruthven, Head 
Curator, University of Michigan Museum. 

* Since the report was read, the University of Kansas has reported the pos- 
session of 897 types and 36 cotypes, etc. The University of Kansas does not loan 
types. 



1913] Proceedings of the Cleveland Meeting 147 

"It seems to me that the committee ought to strongly urge the 
designation of only one specimen as type, and that all such types should 
be put in institutions easy of access, having fire-proof buildings and 
careful curators." — -F. E. Lutz, American Museum of Natural History. 

"I think that insect types ought to be especially available to the 
men most active in working with the groups represented by them. If 
these men are in or near the greater museums, then the types should be 
in these museums. My belief is that the types should be where they 
can be and will be most effectively used. " — ^V. L. Kellogg. 

"Respecting types in general, I believe that they should be most 
carefully cherished and available for study by any competent party. 
The ideal arrangement would be to deposit all such types at some 
central point, for example, the National Museum, but as matters are 
now I fear this is impractical. Even were I personally willing to deposit 
all my types in the National Museum, I do not believe that the parties 
responsible for the integrity of the Museum and its collections would 
for a moment consider such a proposition. In any event, I should not 
care to part with types until certain that my studies in the group were 
completed. You can readily understand that in many cases it would be 
extremely difficult to fix any such date. It seems to me very desirable 
to segregate, so far as practical, the types of any one group; for example, 
the type of a single species of Coleoptera might much better be deposited 
in a large collection where there are numerous types of allied forms, 
than retained in some other collection possibly equally extensive, with 
practically no other type inaterial in that order. My reason for sug- 
gesting this is that it is so easy by scattering types in widely separated 
groups for them to be lost unless they are in some collection known to be 
valuable because of the large amount of such material it may contain. 
It should at least be possible to deposit co-types with workers in special 
groups or in our larger collections, for example, those of the National 
Museum."— E. P. Felt. 

"In general I do not approve of types being held by private individ- 
uals where the collection is not properly looked after and liable to 
destruction at any time {vide the French collection, which is now 
totally destroyed by Dermestes, types and all). Of course in Dr. Barnes' 
case it is different. His collection has assumed museum proportions 
just as the Walsingham collection in England. " — ^J. McDunnough. 

Location of Types in the Collections. In nearly all collections, so 
far as we have ascertained, the types are placed in the systematic series. 
At the British Museum certain special collections, as the Banks collec- 
tion (types of Fabricius) and the Wollaston collection (Coleoptera from 
the Atlantic Islands) are kept separate; while other types are in the 
accession drawers or in special cabinets, awaiting the rearrangement of 
the groups to which they belong. At the Museum of the University 
of Michigan all types (including cotypes and paratypes) are kept 
together in a fire-proof case on the first floor of the building. They are, 
however, not very numerous. At the Carnegie Museuni the Ulke 
collection of Coleoptera remains in the boxes exactly as received from 
Mr. Ulke, and the Smith collection of Brazilian bees studied by Cockerell 



148 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

is also still as received from that author. At the Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology some recent accessions have not yet been placed in the 
series. 

It is the nearly universal policy not to separate the types from the 
rest of the collection. 

Labelling of Types. It is usual to label the types, and in no case is 
it the regular policy not to do so. In some of the older collections the 
types are not, or not all marked. In several instances the labelling of 
the types has been done by curators after the collections had passed out 
of the hands of the describers. This has of course been necessary, but 
it has not always been carefully done, and we know of cases, in large 
museums, where so-called types are either not of the same species, or 
from the same locality, as the specimens originally described under 
the name. 

Red is the favorite color for type labels, but great diversity prevails. 
Some museums have different labels for types, cotypes, etc. A sheet 
of type-labels is appended for inspection at the meeting. The U. S. 
National Museum has special red labels for slides and alcoholic 
specimens. 

Catalogues of Types. Some institutions, as the American Museum 
of Natural History and the New York State Museum, have published 
partial or complete catalogues of their types. In many, such as the 
U. S. National Miiseum, a manuscript catalogue is kept, and each type 
receives a number. Some institutions have no catalogues; several 
report one in progress. At the British Museum the types are not 
catalogued, except in the published catalogues of the Museum, such as 
that of Sir G. F. Hampson, which will when complete cite all the 
types of moths. 

Loaning Types. The following replies have been received in answer 
to our questions : 

"It has never been legal for a type to leave the building, and the 
rule has been invariably enforced.' ' — G. Meade- Waldo, British Mussum. 

"Recently the rule against the loaning of holotypes has been 
enforced. Cotypes or paratypes are loaned when we have the type or 
others of the same sort. If, however, the cotype or paratype is the only 
type specimen we have it is treated as a holotype, i, e., not loaned. " — 
J. C. Crawford, U. S. National Museum. 

"The American Entomological Societ}^ does not loan unique types. " 
The Philadelphia Academy treats each case on its merits. — H. Skinner. 

"All M. C. Z. rules are elastic, but we do not loan types except there 
is especial reason for so doing. " — S. Henshaw, Museum of Comparative 
Zoology. 

' ' The Society has loaned types ; whether it will continue to do so is a 
question. " — C. W. Johnson, Boston Society of Natural History. 

"There is a rule against sending types out of the Museum, though 
the Director has loaned his private types." — Hugo Kahl, Carnegie 
Museum. 

"It is against our rules to loan types." — C. Schaeffer, Museum of 
Brooklyn Institute. 



1913] Proceedings of the Cleveland Meeting . 149 

"We do not make a practice of loaning type material. " — E. P. Felt, 
New York State Museum. 

"We do not loan holotypes. We do loan cotxqjcs and ]jaratypes. " — ■ 
V. L. Kellogg, Stanford University. 

"We have a rule against loaning types. When, however, all the 
following conditions exist wc do occasionally send them out. The 
borrower must be a trustworthy man who cannot con\^cniently get to 
New York. The specimens must be of such a character that they 
would not be likely to be injured in transportation, and there must be a 
series, all of which are designated "type" by the author. The latter 
seems to be a bad practice, but when there is such a series and the other 
conditions are met we have occasionally sent out one or two s]3ecimens. " 
— F. E. Lutz, American Museum of Natural History. 

"I think the question of loaning types is a delicate one. I believe 
in institutions loaning them to thoroughly accredited persons and under 
very stringent conditions." — W. M. Wheeler. 

The Milwaukee Public Museum has no rules governing the loan 
of types. 

Fireproof Buildings. Experience has shown that so-called fireproof 
buildings are sometimes destroyed by fire. Nevertheless, the following 
information is of value. The new National Museum "is absolutely 
fireproof, the only wood in construction being a skin floor on the top 
floor and wooden window casing on this same floor. The doors are of 
steel. The onh^ thing that would bum is the exhibits, and, in the case 
of insects, we store them in steel cases, making it impossible for them to 
catch fire if anything exposed should burn. " It should be said, however, 
that very large alcoholic collections are kept in the basement. At the 
British Museum the collections of fishes and reptiles (except the public 
exhibits) are in a separate building, on account of the danger from fire. 
It is hardly conceivable that a fire among the alcoholics in the basement 
of the U. S, Museum would effect the insects, which are on an upper floor. 

The American Museum of Natural History "is as completely fire- 
proof as it is possible to be made. " 

' ' The collections (of the New York State Museum) at the present 
time are not in a fireproof building, though we expect to move within 
a few months into a thoroughly, modern fireproof structure. " 

"The Museum of. the Brooklyn Instittite is considered fireproof." 

"The Carnegie Museum building is fireproof." 

The Museum of Comparati\"c Zoology building was considered 
fireproof when examined by insurance experts. 

The Philadelphia Academy building "is built of brick, steel and 
concrete ; the upright steel girders are covered with terra cotta and then 
cemented. The main rooms and floors are all separated by aiitomatic 
fire doors. The floors are concrete with no wood. " 



150 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



RECOMMENDATIONS. 

Location of Types. It is necessary for the progress of entomology 
that specialists should frcquenth' have in their possession collections 
containing many types, and experience shows that so long as these 
collections are in use the types are reasonably safe and well cared for. 
Ultimately, however, these types should find a place in some large 
public museum, where they will be preserved for the use of posterity. 
If entomologists are expected to make arrangements looking toward the 
placing of their types in public museums, they have the right to demand 
that these museums shall be made fully competent to take care of them. 
Not only must the buildings be practically fireproof, and the cabinets 
adequate, but there must be a staff large enough to take care of the 
specimens and keep them in order. Types should never be deposited 
where a continuous succession of competent curators (entomologists) 
cannot be depended uix)n. 

Location of Cotypes and Paratypes. New species of insects are 
frequently described from considerable series of specimens, designated 
cotypes or paratypes. Authors would probably be glad to distribute 
some of these among the principal museums or collections, if convenient 
arrangements existed for doing so. Such distribution would greatly 
facilitate entomological work, and we suggest the desirability of con- 
sidering whether some distributing center cannot be organized. 

Location of Types in Collections. We believe that types are best 
kept in the systematic series, where they can readily be found and 
compared with their allies. 

Labelling of Types. It is highly desirable that uniform labels 
should be used for types. Among those submitted for examination, 
the circular labels with colored margins, from the British Museum, seem 
to have a sufficient degree of distinctness to enable them to be readily 
seen, without the rather offensive conspicuousness of some other labels. 
There should, however, be a place for the type number. 

Cataloguing Types. Every museum should catalogue its types, 
giving each a number. It is very desirable to publish the catalogue, 
Avith supplements from time to time. We also suggest that lists of the 
types received during the year would be useful additions to museum 
reports, and might well replace some of the worthless information 
which these usually contain. 

Loaning Types. We are of the opinion that holotypes, or specimens 
designated as the type should under no circumstances be loaned; but 
cotype or para type material should be loaned under proper restrictions. 

Permanent Committee. We suggest that the type committee be 
made permanent, with changing membership, like the committee on 
nomenclature, and that its members be requested to examine and report 
on museums and collections as opportunity offers. 

Signed T. D. A. Cockerell, 

L. O. Howard, 
Henry Skinner. 



1913] Proceedings of the Clevelajtd Meeting 151 

On motion, the report was ordered accepted and printed, 
and the committee continued for another year. 

The following papers were then read : 

Edith M. Patch and William C. Woods, Maine Agricultural 
Experiment Station: ' A Study in Antennal Variation. Read 
by title. 

Alex. D. MacGillivray, University of Illinois: Propharynx 
and Hypopharynx. 

The pharynx after entering the occipital foramen makes a distinct 
bend toward the mouth. In the region of the clypeus, it divides trans- 
versely, one-half passes to the clypeo-labral side, the other half to the 
labial side of the mouth, while folds extend along each lateral margin 
and unite with the mandibles and maxillae. The name of propharynx 
is proposed for the portion lying adjacent to the clypeo-labral part of 
the mouth and hypopharynx is vised for the portion lining the labial 
portion. The propharynx consists of three parts: frontal lobe, ei^iphar- 
ynx, and fulcrum. The frontal lobe is usually wanting in sucking 
insects, the cpipharynx is modified into a tongue or piercing organ and 
the fulcrum into a cuticular supporting plate. In the muscids the 
epipharynx and fulcrum are located outside of the mouth, the proximal 
end of the fulcrum is attached to the distal margin of the labrum. The 
hyi^opharynx also consists of there parts; lingua, superlingua, and 
pharyngeal sclerites. 

F. L. Washburn, State Entomologist, Minnesota: A few 
Experiments in Photographing Living Insects. 

Thomas J. Headlee, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment 
Station: Some Facts Regarding the Influence of Temperature 
and Moisture changes on the Rate of Insect Metabolism. 

While connected with the Kansas State Experiment Station at 
Manhattan, the writer found by subjection of different groups of the 
Southern Grain Louse {To.voptera graminum Rodani) to various constant 
temperatures under constant atmospheric moisture conditions and other 
groups to various constant percentages of relative humidity under 
constant temperature conditions: (1) that the rate of increase in 
metabolism for each 10°F. increase in temperature, starting at 58°F., 
decreases as the optimum temperature is approached, and that while 
the metabolism of degeneration becomes more rapid after the optimimi 
is passed the rate of growth is retarded; (2) that a variation of from 60 
to 62% in atmospheric moisture does not effect the rate of metabolism 
when the creatures have an abundant supply of succulent food. 

Similar tests of the effect of temperature on the rate of metabolism 
in Lysiphlehiis tritici Ashm, and of the effect of teniperature and mois- 
ture on the rate of metaboli-sm of the Chinch Bug {Blissus leucopterus 
Say) infected and uninfected by the chinch-bug fungus {Sporotrichum 
globuliferum Speg.) gave similar results. 



152 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

/.■ T. Abbott, Washington University: The Strigil in Corixi- 
dce and its Probable Function. Read by Title. 

Edna Mosher, University of Illinois: The Anatomy of Some 
Lepidopterous Pupce. (Presented by Mr. Alvah Peterson). 

Figures of pupae of three species were shown and described. Sthen- 
opis tliule, Archips argyrospila, and Lyniantria leucostigma. Figures of 
the ]ju]jal cases of each of these species were shown, also figures of the 
pupa\ with the cases dissected away so as to show the parts underneath. 
Considerable difificvilty has been encountered in homologizing the pupal 
structures from the external appearance particularl}^ in the case of the 
fixed parts of the head and the ap]3cndages of the head and thorax. 
The leg cases were shown to be a frequent source of error. In.stead of 
showing externally only the cases for the tibiae and tarsi, as Scudder 
claims is the case in the butterflies, certain forms show the femur cases 
and either the whole or part of the coxal cases in certain pairs of legs. 
What Packard calls the para:clypeal pieces, were shown in these forms 
to contain functionless mandibles which had their distal margins 
toothed in the case of Lyniantria. 

This detailed anatomical study is to be made the basis for a phy- 
logenetic and taxonomic arrangement of the Le|:)idoptera based on an 
examination of the characters of the pupge. 

Charles K. Brain, Ohio State University: Some Anatomical 
Studies of Stomoxys calcitrans Lin. (Introduced by Professor 
Herbert Osborn). Printed in part in December Annals. Part 
II will appear in June Annals. 

5. W. Bilsing, Ohio State University: Observations on the 
Food of Spiders. (Introduced by Professor Herbert Osborn) 

Spiders are kn6wn to feed upon insects but exact records of kind 
and quantity of food for particular species are very meager. Extended 
observations and records were made during the summer and fall of 1^)12 
and data from some of these are presented. As an example of the 
records given, grasshoppers constituted 39% of the food of Miranda 
aurantia, 59% of the food of A galena ncevia and 22% of the food of 
Aranea trifolium during the period under observation. 

Herbert Osborn, Ohio State University: Observations on 
Insects of a Lake Beach. 

The Insect fauna of the Cedar Point Beach of Lake Erie is discussed 
with reference to its derivation and adaptation for the conditions 
presented. The in.sect drift, the migrant and tlie resident members of 
the association are separated and records of species in each group given. 

C. II. Tyler-Townsend, Government Entomologist of Pern: 
The Species-Status and the Species-Concept. Read by Title. 

C. H. Tyler-Townsend, Government Entonwlogist of Peru: 
A New Application of Taxanomic Principles. Read by Title. 



1913] Proceedings of the Cleveland Meeting 153 

A smoker was held in a grill room of the Hotel Euclid after 
the annual public address, by a number of the entomologists in 
attendance at the meetings. 

The annual public address of the Society was given on 
Wednesday evening, January 1st in the Auditorium of the 
Normal School by Dr. Philip P. Calvert, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

The following exhibits were shown : 

R. D. Glasgow, University of Illinois. — Apparatus for orienting 
insects under the microscope. 

F. E. Lutz, American Museum Natural History. — Professor T. H. 
Morgan's mutants of Drosophila ampelophila. 

Herbert Osborn, Ohio State University. — Some examples of Cica- 
did£e, especially the Ohio species of the genus Cicada. 

N. L. Partridge, University of Illinois. — Pupal wings of Attacus 
cecropia. 

Victor E. Shelford, University of Chicago.- — Experimental modifica- 
tion of the colors and color patterns of Cicindela. 

Alex. D. MacGillivray, University of Illinois. — The propharynx and 
hypopharynx of a cockroach, a locust, and a hornet. 

F. L. Washburn, State Entomologist of Minnesota. — Snap shots of 
living insects in the field. 

Anna H. Morgan, Mt. Holyoke College. — Drawings of the eggs of 
May-flies. 

On motion, the Society adjourned to meet in one year with 
the American Association for the Advancement of Science at 
Atlanta, Georgia. 

Alex. D. MacGillivray, 

Secretary. 



NOTICE TO MEMBERS AND CONTRIBUTORS. 



The Annals of the Entomological Society of America, pub- 
lished by the Society quarterly, includes the Proceedings of the 
Annual meetings and such papers as may be selected by the 
Editorial Board. 

Papers may be submitted to any member of the Editorial 
Board and should be as nearly as possible in the form desired as 
final, preferably typewritten, and illustrations must be finished 
complete ready for reproduction. Plates must not exceed 5x7 
inches unless intended to fold. In general, papers to be accepted 
must be original, complete and previously unpublished and, 
except in connection with the proceedings, it will not be the 
policy to publish preliminary announcements or notes. Authors 
will be allowed fifty reprints gratis and additional copies at cost 
to the Society. 

The Managing Editor is provided with the most recent address 
of all members on record in the Secretary's office for mailing the 
numbers of the Annals and hereafter members complaining of the 
non-receipt of numbers must present their complaint to the Secretary 
within four months from the date of the mailing of the issue. After 
that time the numbers will be fiunished only at the regular published 
rate. 

Requests for information as to membership and the annual 
subscription and dues of members may be sent to the Secretary- 
Treasurer, A. D. MacGillivray, 603 Michigan Ave., Urbana, 111. 

Communications relating to the Annals, and all orders for 
separate copies or reprints should be addressed to the Managing 
Editor or to 

Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 

Biological Building, State Univ., Columbus, Ohio. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



Calvert, P. P. — An Bntomologist in Costa Rica.. i 

Zetek, James. — Determining the Flight of Mosquitos. 5 
Van Duzee, M. C. — A Revision of the North American 
Species of the Dipterous Genus Neurigona. (Doli- 

chopodidse.) 22 

Betten, Cornelius. — An Interesting Feature in the 
Venation of Helicopsyche, the Molannidae, and the 

Leptoceridae 65 

FuNKHOUSER, W. D. — Homologies of the Wing Veilis 

of the Membracidae 74 

Metcalf, Z. p.— The Wing Venation of the Jassidse. . 103 
Tower, D. G. — A New Hymenopterous Parasite on 

Aspidiotus Perniciosus Comst . . . ., 125 

Entomological Society of America 127 



The regular annual subscription price for the Annals is in 
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Canada, $3.50; other coimtries, $4.00. Checks, drafts or money 
orders should be drawn payable to Annals Entomological 
Society of America, and addressed to Biological Building, 
State Univ., Columbus, Ohio, U. S. A. 



Volume VI. Number 2. 



ANNALS 



OF 

The Entomological Society of America 



JUNE, 191 3 



EDITORIAL BOARD 

J. H. COMSTOCK, L. O. HOWARD, 

Ithaca, N. Y. Washington, D. C. 

a J. S. BETHUNE, W. M. WHEELER, 

GuELPH, Ontario, Canada. Boston, Mass. 

C. W. JOHNSON, P. p. CALVERT, 

Boston, Mass. PHii,ADEr<PHiA, Pa. 

V. L. KELLOGG, j. w. FOLSOM, 

Stanford Univ., Cal. Urbana, Ills. 

HERBERT OSBORN, Managing Editor, 
Columbus, Ohio. ' 



PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE SOCIETY 
COLUMBUS, OHIO 



Entered as second class matter April 1 1, 1908, at the Post Office at Columb*is, Ohio, 
under the Act of Congress of March 3, 1879. 



The Entomological Society of America. 

FOUNDED 1906. 



OFFIOERS 1913. 

President-^C. J. S. Bethune Guelph, Ont., Canada 

First Vice-President — P. P. Calvert Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Second Vice-President — Wm. M. Marshall Madison, Wisconsin 

Secretary-Treasurer — A. D. MacGillivra Y Urbana, Illinois 

Executive Committee — The Officers, and Herbert Osborn, C. P. Gillette, 

V. L. Kellogg, J. G. Needham, C. T, Brues, Nathan Banks. 
Committee on Nomenclature — H. T. Fernald, E. P. Felt, T. D. A. Cockerell. 



Price List of Pubiications. 

Annals, Vols. I, II, III, IV and V, complete, each.. $3.00 

Annals, Separate Parts except as below, each 1 .00 

Annals, Vols. I and II, Part 3, each 60 

Annals, Vol. IV, Part IV, each 1.50 

REPRlKfTS from' VOLUME X. 

Proceedings of first three meetings; Constitution, By-Laws and List of 

Members 25 

Wheeler, Wm. M. — Polymorphism of Ants 30 

Osborn, Heirbert — The Habits of Insects as a Factor in Classification 20 

Severin, H. H. and Severin, H. C. — Anatomical and Histological Studies 
of the Female Reproductive Organs of the American-Saw Fly, Cimbex 

Americana, Leach 25 

Felt, E. P.— Some Problems in Nomenclature 10 

Hammar, A. G. — On the Nervous System of the Larva of Corydalis comuta L .25 
Bradley, J. C. — A case of Gregarious Sleeping Habits among Aculeate 

Hymenoptera 10 

Davis, J. J. — Notes on the Life History of the Leafy Dimorph of the Box- 
elder Aphid, Chaitophorus negundinis Thos 10 

Hambleton, J. C. — The Genus Corizus, with a Review of the North and 

Middle American Species .25 

Girault, a. a. — Biological Notes on Colorado Potato Beetle 25 

GiRAULT, A. a. — A Monographic Catalogue of the Mymarid Genus Alaptus.. .25 
Severin, H. H. and Severin, H. C. — Internal Organs of Reproduction of 

Male Saw-fly 16 

Smith, C. P. — A Preliminary Study of the Aranae Theraphosas of California.. .75 

Davis, J. J. — Studies on Aphididae 20 

Riley, W. A. — Muscle Attachment of Insects 15 

Needham, J. C. — Critical Notes on the Classification of the Corduliina; 

(Odonata) . .15 

Howard, L. O. — A Key to the Species of Prospaltella with Table of Hosts 

and Descriptions of Four New Species 15 

Hood, J. D. — Two New Species of Idolothrips 10 

Address 

ANNALS ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, 
Biological Building, State Univ., Columbus, Ohio. 



ANNALS 

OF 

The Entomological Society of America 

Volume VI J U N E , I 9 1 3 Number 2 

A REVISION OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF 
MEGASTIGMUS DALMAN, 

C. R. Crosby. 

The genus Megastigmus was founded by Dalman in 1820 
(Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handl. XLI, p. 178) as a subgenus of 
Torymus to contain the three species: hipunctatus Swederus, 
collaris and chloronotus. Collaris was described by Boheman 
after Dalman's death in 1833 (Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handl., p. 
332). Chloronotus was never described but Boheman placed 
it under Torymus (Megastigmus) dorsalis Fabricius (1. c. p. 334). 
The type of the genus therefore cannot be M. dorsalis as stated 
by Ashmead (Chalcis-flies, p. 380, 1904) but must be M. hi- 
punctatus Swederus since that is the only one of the three 
species cited by Dalman which was described at that time, 

Megastigmus is distinguished from other Torymidae occur- 
ring in North America by the enlarged and pigmented stigmal 
club and by the presence of a well developed basal vein. The 
posterior tibice have two well developed apical spurs as in other 
Torymidae; Ashmead's table to the subfamilies (Chalcis-flies, 
p. 236, 1904) is in error on this point, and this mistake has 
been copied by Schmiedeknecht in Genera Insectorum, fasc. 
57, p. 118, 1909. The mandibles have three teeth. The 
scutellum has a fine cross furrow as in Symtomaspis. The 
ovipositor, except in two species, is longer than the abdomen, 
slender and gently curved upward. The coloration in the 
American forms is never metallic; usually yellowish brown or 
opaque blackish. 

As far as known the larvae of all our species live in the seeds 
of plants. 

155 



156 An7ials Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

FEMALES. TABLE OF SPECIES. 

1. Ovipositor not longer than abdomen 2 

Ovipositor longer than abdomen 3 

2. Stigmal club oval brevicaudis 

Stigmal club elongate physocarpi 

3. Front wings marked with a brownish spot adjoining the hind margin of the 

submarginal vein albifrons 

Front wing not so marked 4 

4. Stigma surrounded by a clouded area nigrovariegatus 

Stigma not surrounded by a clouded area 5 

5. Mesonotum black with an oblong redd^h orange area covering the posterior 

half of the middle lobe, the inner angles of the scapulse and axillse and 

all of scutellum pinus 

Not so marked 6 

6. Black species 7 

Yellow species 8 

7. Pronotum with two yellow spots tsugae 

Pronotum black without yellow spots lasiocarpae 

8. Axillce yellow; stigmal vein as long as the club is wide spermotrophus 

Axillae black except inner angle; stigmal vein shorter than the width of the 

club aculeatus 

M. flavipes Ash. (1886) was described from males only. 

Megastigmus brevicaudis Ratzeburg. 

Megasligmtis brevicaudis Ratzeburg. Ichneum. Forstinsect., Ill, p. 225. 1852. 
Megastigmus brevicaudis Rodzianko. Comment. Torym., pp. 608-611. 1908. 
Megastigmus brevicaudis Crosby. Cornell Exp. Sta. Bull., 265, pp. 375-377, Figs. 

77-79. 1909. 
Megastigmus brevicaudis Rohwer. U. S. Bur. Ent., Tech. Bull. 20, pt. VI, p. 159. 

1913. 

Female. — Length, 2.4 mm.; abdomen, 1 mm.; ovipositor, .7 mm. 

Face, cheeks and a partial ring around eye yellow. Vertex and 
occiput very dark brown, nearly black. Vertex finely transversely 
rugulose. 

Prothorax yellowish, indistinctly marked with dusky on the sides. 
Rest of the thorax nearly black with a dull yellowish tinge showing 
through on the scapulas and scutellum. Antennae brownish yellow, 
scape and pedicel black above and yellow beneath. Anterior coxas 
yellow; middle and hind coxse brownish; rest of legs light yellowish. 
Wings hyaline; stigmal club not surrounded by a clouded area. 

Abdomen brownish on the sides, nearly black above. Ovipositor 
short, dark brown. 

Described from 1 9 , Ratzeburg' s type. I have three 
females reared by W. N. Rodzianko from the seeds of Sorbus 
aucuparia at Poltawa, Russia, which agree very closely with 
the type. 




Fig. 1. Megastigmus brevicaudis. 



1913] North American Species of Megastigmus. 157 

Through the kindness of Mr. A. G. Hammar I received 
some Sorbus berries from Sweden from which 5 females were 
reared. In these specimens the head is black with the face 
dark honey-yellow. Pro thorax honey-yellow, rest of thorax 
black. Antennae very much darker than in the type. Abdo- 
men black with brownish bars on the sides. Rodzianko states 
that he has never been able to rear the male. 

I have reared this species abundantly from the seeds of 
Sorbus in New York State. The American specimens are 
slightly smaller than those from Europe and vary greatly in 
color, but I have been unable to find any constant character 
by which they may be separated. The darker individuals are 
very close to the typical form. A large proportion of the speci- 
mens are of uniform brownish yellow. The legs are light 
yellow and the antennas and ovipositor are brownish. Between 
these and the typical form all gradations occur. 

Male. — Length, 1.7 to 2.1 mm.; abdomen, .7 to .8 mm. All the 
males reared are much darker than the females. The face and cheeks 
are yellow; the legs dull yellowish and the antennas more yellowish than 
in female. Head and thorax black except a small spot on each side 
between the ocelli and the eyes and an area on the lateral aspect of the 
prothorax, which are brownish yellow. Stigmal club surrounded by 
a very narrow clouded area. 

Abdomen compressed, seen from the side, elongate triangular, 
rounded behind, brown-black above and yellowish brown beneath and 
at apex. 

The larva is white, and its mandibles have four teeth on the 
inner margin. 

In addition to rearing the adult insect at Ithaca, infested 
berries of the Mountain Ash have been found at Weedsport, 
Janiesville and Wayland, N. Y. 

In the' National Museum collection is a female specimen 
from Mt. Washington bearing Ashmead's manuscript name 
Megastigmus slossonce which agrees exactly with the lighter 
specimens reared from Sorbus seeds from New York State. 
In the National Museum there is also a very dark 9 from 
Oswego, N. Y., 1 July, 1897. 

As suggested by Mayr. (Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 
XXIV, p. 139. 1874) this species may be the same as M. bi- 
punctatus Boheman. 



158 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



Megastigmus physocarpi n. sp. 

Female. — Length, l.S mm.; abdomen, .8 mm.; ovipositor, .8 mm. 

Head and prothorax yellow, rest of thorax and abdomen brownish 
yellow, the latter much darker. Head and prothorax delicately trans- 
versely mgulose; mesothorax with a more pronounced sculpture; 
propodeum closely but distinctly reticulate, a distinct median carina 
present. A brownish line connects the ocelli. 

Scape yellow; pedicel dusky above, yellow beneath, rest of antennas 
dusky. Legs including coxee light yellow. Wings hyaline. The stig- 
mal club is narrow "and elongate; not surrounded by a clouded area. 

Most of the females agree with this description but there are three 
specimens in which the ovipositor is not over half the length of the 
abdomen. In these specimens the prothorax has a median black stripe 
narrower behind and the rest of the thoracic dorsum is black except 
the scapulce and the posterior part of the propodeum. 

Male. — Length, 1.6-1.9 mm.; abdomen, .7 mm. 




Fig. 2. Megastigmus physocarpi. 

Similar to the female in color except the abdomen is more or less 
dark brown above, the antennse are paler and the brown line con- 
necting the ocelli is lacking. Stigmal club surrounded by a dark, 
nearly circular clouded area. 

There are three males marked with black like the females with the 
short ovipositor. The abdomen is nearly black above except at tip. 

Described from 15 females and 6 males from Allentown, 
Mo., October, 1893, and 1 male from Kirkwood, Mo., 1 July, 
1895. All reared from Physocarpus opulijolius, probably from 
the seeds. 

Megastigmus nigrovariegatus Ashmead. 

Megastigmus nigrovariegatus Ashmead. Bull. Colorado Biol. Association, I, p. 26. 

1890. 
Megastigmus nigrovariegatus Cockerell. Bull. 15, Ariz. Exp. Sta., p. 69, 1895. 
Megastigmus aculeatus Crosby, (in part.) Cornell Agr. Exp. Sta., Bull. 265, pp. 

377-379. Figs. 82, 83, 1909. 

Female. — Length, 3.4 mm.; abdomen, 1.6 mm.; ovipositor, 2.5 mm. 

Vertex, antennal grooves and a spot above clypeus dark brown; 
face and anterior and dorsal eye margin dull brownish yellow; cheeks, 
posterior eye margin and occiput shining brownish. 

Prothorax bright yellow posteriorly and on the sides, brownish in 
front on the lateral angles and just above the front coxae. Mesonotum 



1913] North American Species of Megastigmus. 159 

brownish yellow, dark brown in front. Mesopleurse brown. Post- 
scutellum yellow in the middle, brown on the sides; scutellum brown in 
front of the furrow, yellow behind. Propodeum brown, finely reticulate 
punctate, with a pair of strongly curved carinas most distinct posteriorly 
marking off a nearly circular central area. 

Scape and pedicel yellow beneath, rest of antennae dark brownish. 
Legs pale yellow; posterior coxa at base brownish; posterior femora 
slightly tinged with brownish. Wings hyaline; stigmal club surrounded 
by a distinct oval cloud. 

Abdomen brownish above, sides brownish yellow, indistinctly 
marked with darker brownish. Ovipositor black. 





Fig. .3. Megastigmus nigrovariegatus . 

Described from one 9 , Vancouver Island, a paratype. 

In some specimens the yellowish band around the eye is 
complete. Sometimes the brownish area above the clypeus is 
lacking and the posterior femora are entirely yellow. 

Male. — Length 2.8-3mm. ; abdomen .9-1.4mm. (Measurements 
taken from alcoholic specimens). The males vary greatly in size and 
color. The lighter males resemble the females closely in color. 
Sometimes the head is all yellow except the upper half of the 
occiput, in others it is black except the face and portions of the ring 
around the eye. In some the thorax is as light as in a female, while in 
others it is nearly black except an irregular area on the disk and two 
greenish yellow spots near the posterior margin of the pronotum. In 
most of the males the propodeum is dark brown to black, but in the 
lightest specimens it is yellow. In the darkest specimens the abdomen 
is nearly black except the yellow tip. In the light specimens the legs 
are yellow, in the dark ones they are more or less brownish on the 
femora and tibiae. Stigmal club much larger and darker than in female 
and surrounded by a clouded area. 

In the National Museum collection in addition to the para- 
type and 4 9 9 from Vancouver Island are the following speci- 
mens belonging apparently to this species. 1 9 , Algonquin, 111., 
June 27, 1894. Labeled "Type, Megastigmus illinoensis Ash." 
3 9, Jamaica Plain, Mass. (J. G. Jack). 1 9, Natrona, Pa. 



160 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

1 9, Pullman, Wash., 30, June, 1898 (C. V. Piper) "Reared 
from Clisiocampa plumalis." This specimen is imperfect, 
having lost the abdomen and may not belong here. 

Cockerell captured specimens of this species on rose hips 
in Arizona and suggested that they may possibly breed in them. 
I have reared this species abundantly from rose seeds from 
Ithaca, White Church, and Wellsville, N. Y., Waukegan, 111., 
Durham, N. H. (Charles Spooner), Boston, Mass. (Ralph 
Curtis), Provo, Utah (R. V. Chamberlin), and Newark, Del. 
(C. O. Houghton). Professor J. G. Sanders sent me specimens 
reared from the seeds of Rosa rugosa, at Madison, Wis. Mr. 
Nathan Banks has sent me 9 specimens reared from rose hips 
at Falls Church, Va. 

Some of these localities are listed under M. aculeatus in 
Cornell Exp. Sta. Bull. 265 because at that time I had not 
separated these iwo species. It is probable that nigrovarie gains 
is the native American species infesting rose seeds and that 
aculeatus has been introduced recently, since I have reared it 
from material collected at Ithaca only. 

Megastigmus pinus Parfitt. 

Megastigmus piniis Parfitt. Zoologist, pp. 5543, 5545, 5629. 1857. 

Megastigmus pinus Roliwer. U. S. Bur. Ent., Tech. Bull. 20, pt. VI, p. 160. 1913. 

Female. — Length, 4 to 5 mm. ; abdomen, 2.3 mm. ; ovipositor, 5 to 
5.5 mm. 

Vertex and occiput black; face, cheeks and a ring around eye 
yellow, the latter broadly interrupted by the black of the vertex which 
attains the eye-margin below the level of the front ocellus; antennal 
furrows black; below the insertion of the antennee there is a circular 
area cut off from the rest of the face by two or four brownish spots, 
very variable in shape and distinctness; hairs on the face light colored, 
above the base of antennae, brown. Vertex and front transversely 
rugulose; cheeks and lower part of occiput smooth; face with lines 
radiating from the clypeus. 

Prothorax black, with the sides and a large posterior dorsal band 
greenish yellow; this band is usually biconvex in front. Mesothorax 
black with an oblong reddish orange area covering the posterior half of 
the middle lobe, the inner angles of the scapulce and axillae and all of 
the scutellum. In some small specimens this orange area is obscured 
by blackish in the center. Sculpture of mesonotum distinctly trans- 
versely rugulose. Scutellum with the transverse stria distinct. Pleuree 
black, scapulae have a large greenish yellow spot in front of tegulee. 
Postscutellum black with a transverse rfiedian band of light yellow. 
Propodeum black, irregularly rugose with a delicate median carina. 



1913] North American Species of Megastigmus. 161 

Scape yellow below, black above; pedicel black above, paler at tip 
beneath; rest of antennas brownish. Front coxae yellow; middle coxae 
yellow in front, black behind; hind coxse black; legs yellowish, the 
middle and hind pairs successively darker; a brownish stripe on outside 
of posterior femora. Spines on posterior tibiae white and small. Wings 
hyaline, no cloud surrounding stigmal club. 

Abdomen strongly compressed. Segments 2, 3 and 4 brownish 
black above, polished; rest of abdomen yellow to \'ellowish brown 
with a row of large brownish black spots on each side; segment 8 and 
ventral keel brownish black. Ovipositor brown and strongly curved. 

Male. — Length, 3 mm.; abdomen, 1.3 to 1.9 mm. 

Head marked as in female but there are no brownish spots below 
the insertion of the antenna. Thorax black; median orange-red area 
lacking; prothorax has the sides yellow and there are two widely sep- 
arated transverse dull yellowish spots near the posterior margin; 
usually the outer angle of the scapulae has a yellow spot in front of the 
tegulcB. Stigmal club surrounded by a very narrow clouded area. 

Abdomen shorter than in the female, somewhat compressed, seen 
from above distinctly clavate, yellow beneath, black above, tip orange 
yellow. 




Fig. 4. Megastigmus pinus. 

This species was first described by Parfitt from females 
only reared from seeds of Picea bracteata, Pinus Abies nobilis, 
and a new species of Thuja from California. In a later article 
he described the male reared from another lot of seeds. Mr. 
Charles O. Waterhouse of the British Museum has very kindly 
sent me four specimens which he had carefully compared with 
Parfitt's types. He also sent me three male specimens of If. 
spermotrophus which he had found to agree with the types from 
which Parfitt drew his description of the male of M. pinus. 
Ashmead seems to have been misled by this description of the 
male of M. spermotrophus as the male of pinus when he states 
(Chalcis-flies, p. 244) that the two species are identical. 

2 9, 2 c^ C. O. Waterhouse (Col. British Museum); 16 9, 
10 cf reared from cones of Abies nobilis, Astoria, Oregon. No. 
5818, Nat. Mus. The following specimens were reared by 



162 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Mr. Herman Borries, of Copenhagen, from seeds from the 
Western United States: 3 9 reared from Abies magnifica 
and concolor; 1 9 , 1 cf from A. grandis; 2 9 , 1 cf from A. 
amabilis. I have also examined the following specimens from 
the U. S. Bureau of Entomology through the kindness of Mr. S. 
A. Rohwer. 15 9 and 12 cf reared from the seeds of Abies 
magnifica from Tahoe, Calif. National Forest. 2 9 and 6 cf 
reared from the seeds of Abies concolor from Sierra, Calif. 
National Forest, 30 May, 1912, collected by J. M. Miller. The 
specimens from A. coticolor are somewhat smaller and generally 
darker in coloration. 

The female reared from A. grandis by Borries may represent 
a distinct species but it is impossible to decide from such scanty 
material. The yellow area on the prothorax is very large, 
covering nearly the whole dorsal aspect and on the vertex 
there is on each side a branch of the circumorbital yellow band 
which curves around behind the lateral ocellus. The male is 
not in good condition for study. 

Megastigmus tsugae n. sp. 

Female.- — Length, 2.5 mm.; abdomen, 1.1 mm.; ovipositor, 1.8 mm. 

Face and cheeks yellow; occiput, vertex and front black; the upper 
posterior orbits and a spot at the upper angle of the eye yellowish 
brown. Antennal grooves black. Prothorax black with two angular, 
widely separated dorsal spots and the anterior half of the lateral part 
yellow. Rest of the thorax shining black. Mesonotum and scutellum 
finely shingled. 




Fig. 5. Megastigmus tsugce. 

Scape and pedicel yellow beneath. Anterior coxee yellow, middle 
coxae brownish yellow, posterior coxae black; rest of legs yellowish; 
base of femora and band at middle of tibise on middle and posterior legs 
brownish. Wings hyaline; stigmal club not surrounded by a clouded 
area. Abdomen black with five more or less distinct yellow bands at 
the sides; tip yellowish. Ovipositor black. 

Described from 2 females reared by Mr. Herman Borries 
from seeds of Tsiiga Mertensiana hookeriana from the Western 
United States. Type in the U. S. National Museum. 



1913] 



North American Species of Megastigmus. 



163 



Megastigmus lasiocarpae n. sp. 

Female. — Length, 3.7 mm.; abdomen, 1.5 mm.; ovipositor, 3. mm. 

Thorax and abdomen black. Face and partial ring around eye 
yellow, a pair of large triangular brownish spots on the face; rest of 
head black. An elongate light yellow spot on the side of the prothorax. 
Transverse lateral spots on the sides of abdomen yellow. Head finely 
rugulose with the lines radiating from the mouth and ocelli. Thorax 
transversely finely rugulose and shingled. 

Antennfe brownish black, scape and pedicel yellow beneath. Legs 
brownish, posterior femora black except at tip. Anterior coxae yellow, 
black at base, the other coxas black. Wings hyaHne; stigmal club not 
surrounded by a clouded area. 




Fig. 6. Megastigmus lasiocarpcB. 



Male. — Length, 2.4 mm. ; abdomen, 1 mm. 

Vertex, upper part of occiput and front half way to base of antennas, 
black; face, cheeks, lower occiput and a narrow spot along upper eye- 
margin, yellow. Whole dorsal aspect of thorax black; the yellow spot 
on side of prothorax is larger than in female. Abdomen black. 

Antennse brownish, scape yellow in front, pedicel nearly black 
above. Front coxag yellow, middle coxse yellow, blackish at base, hind 
coxas black. Legs yellowish, suffused with brownish distally; posterior 
femora brownish on outer surface. Stigmal club darker than in female 
and more nearly circular. 

Described from 2 9 1 cf reared from seeds of Abies lasiocarpa 
kindly sent me by O. S. Mackelfresh, from Rye, Colorado, 5 
June, 1909. 

Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl. 

Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl. Wien. Ent. Zeit., XII, p. 24. 1893. 
Megastigmus piniis Parfitt. Zoologist, XV, p. 5731. 1857 (Male only). 
Megastigmus spermotrophus MacDougall. Trans. Roy. Arbor. Soc, XIX, pp. 

52-65. 1906. Figure and account of habits. 
Megastigmus spermotrophus Crosby. Cornell Exp. Sta. Bull. 265. pp. 379-380. Figs. 

85-89. 1909. 
Megastigmus spermotrophus Rohwer. U. S. Bur. Ent., Tech. Bull. 20, pt. VI, p. 

160. 1913. 



164 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Female. — Length, 3-3.5 mm. ; abdomen, 1 .8 mm. ; ovipositor, 1 .6 mm. 

General color a yellowish brown. Face and cheeks lighter than 
the vertex. Face with fine lines radiating from the clypeus; vertex 
and thorax finely transversely rugulose. Head and thorax clothed 
with stiff black hairs arising from black tubercles. Median area on 
postscutellum, greenish yellow. Propodeum- with a distinct median 
carina. 

Antennas brownish, scape yellow beneath, pedicel nearly black 
above. Legs including the coxae paler than the thorax. The posterior 
coxae clothed with stiff light-colored hairs, arising from black tubercles. 
Wings hyaline ; stigmal club not surrounded by a cloud ; stigmal vein as 
long as the width of club. 




Fig. 7. Megastigmus spermotrophus. 

Male.— Length, 2.9-3.3 mm.; abdomen, 1.2-1.7 mm. (Measure- 
ments taken from alcoholic specimens.) 

Head, thorax and legs a clearer yellow than in the female. On the 
front of the pronotum a dark brown spot is sometimes present which is 
sometimes divided into two. Sometimes the front of the mesothorax is 
black and shows through the posterior edge of the prothorax. Median 
and anterior portion of the propodeum black; sides and posterior 
margin yellow. Stigmal club darker than in female, not surrounded by 
a clouded area. 

Abdomen brownish yellow, black at base above. 

Described from numerous specimens of both sexes reared 
from seeds of the Douglas Fir sent me by Mr. John Crozier, of 
Aberdeenshire, Scotland. 

The egg as obtained by dissection of the female is white, 
smooth and spindleshaped v^ith a very long pedicel at the 
anterior end and the vestige of one at the opposite end. Length 
of body of egg, .36 mm.; tail like process, .9 to 1.2 mm. 

The full grown larva is yellowish white with brownish 
mouthparts; its length varies from 2.5 to 3.5 millimeters. The 
surface is smooth without apparent sculpture and the hairs 
are very sparse and microscopic in size. The inner margin of 
the mandibles is provided with three sharp teeth. 



1913] North American Species of Megastigmus. 165 

The pupa is yellowish white and in the female has the 
ovipositor curved over the back and reaching to about the 
middle of the thorax. Length of female pupa, 3 mm. ; of male, 
2.5 mm. 

While originally a native of the Western United States it 
has been introduced into Europe and has there become a 
serious pest. The male of this species was described by Par- 
fitt in 1857 as the male of M. pinus. Mr. Charles O. Water- 
house of the British Museum has kindly sent me three males 
of this species which he compared with Parfitt's types. Safro 
(Jour. Ec. Ent., VI, p. 283. 1913.) records rearing this species 
from seed of Douglas Fir in Washington. 

The species listed under B in Riley's article (Proc. Ent. 
Soc. of Wash, II, p. 360) also belong to this species. They 
were reared from seeds of Pseitdotsuga douglassi, [taxifolia], 
Abies magnifica, A. grandis, A. amabilis and A. concolor. 

Through the kindness of Mr, S. A. Rohwer I have been 
able to examine specimens from the U. S. Bureau of Entomology 
as follows: 4 9 4 cf reared from seed of Pseudotsuga taxi- 
folia from Yreka, Calif., April and May. 3 9 2 cf reared 
from seed of Abies magnifica from Tahoe, Calif. National 
Forest, June, 1912; 1 9 1 cf from seeds of Abies concolor, from 
Sierra, Calif. National Forest (J. M. Miller, Collector). 

Megastigmus aculeatus Swederus. 

Pteromalus aculeatus Swederus. Vetensk. Akad. nya Handl., XVI, p. 221. 1795. 
Torymus collaris Boheman. Vetensk. Akad. nya Handl., LIV, p. 332. 1833. 
Megastigmus transversus Walker. Ent. Mag. I, p. 117. 1833. 
Torymus punctum Foerster. Beitr. Monogr. Pteromal, p. 29. 1841. 
Megastigmus vexillum Ratzeburg. Ichn. d. Forstinsect. II, p. 182. 1848. 
Megastigmus transversus Reirihard. Berl. Ent. Zeitschr., I, p. 76. 1857. 
Megastigmus flavus Foerster. Verh. Nat. Ver. preuss. Rheinl. XVI, p. 109. 1859. 
Megastigmus collaris Mayr. Verh*. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien. XXIV, p. 137. 1874. 
Megastigmus aculeatus Thomson. Hymen. Scand. IV, p. 1. 1875. 
Megastigmus cynorrhodi Ferris. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1876, p. 222. 
Megastigmus aculeatus Cameron. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 118. 
Megastigmus collaris Wachtl. Wien. Ent. Zeit., Ill, pp. 38, 39. 1884. 
Megastigmus aculeatus Crosby. (In part). Cornell Exp. Sta., Bull. 265, pp. 377- 
379. 1909. 

Female. — Length, 3 mm.; abdomen, 1.5 mm.; ovipositor, 4 mm. 

General color brownish yellow. Face and cheeks yellow; vertex 
brownish yellow; occiput with a narrow band of black above the open- 
ing. Pronotum pale yellow behind, mesonotum black in front where 
it shows through the thin posterior edge of the pronotum, the anterior 
half reddish yellow ; axillse black except the inner angle ; anterior half of 
the propodeum black or dark brown. Median carina of propodeum 
not pronounced. Median part of the postscutellum greenish j^ellow. 



166 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Antenrice very dark brown, nearly black, scape beneath yellow. 
Legs yellow, wings hyaline. Stigmal club oval, not surrounded by a 
cloud, the stigmal vein shorter than the width of club. 

Abdomen brownish yellow on the sides, dark brown above banded 
with yelloAV. Ovipositor longer than body, black and curved. 




Fig. 8. Megastigmus acideatus. 

Described from numerous specimens reared from rose seeds 
at Ithaca, N. Y. In Bull. 265, Cornell Exp. Sta. I have con- 
fused this species with M. nigrovariegatiis . All the other 
localities there given refer to that species. Figures 82 and 83 
are also of nigrovariegatiis . In the collection of the U. S. 
National Museum there is a series of specimens reared from 
rose seeds imported from Peking, China. I have also reared 
several specimens from rose hips from Heilbronn, Germany, 
procured for me by Mr. Carl Ilg from his friend, Mr. Gustav 
Wieland. 

Megastigmus flavipes Ashmead. 
Megastigmtis flavipes Ashmead. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. XIII, p. 128. 1886. 

"Male. — Length, .12 inch. Head and thorax bright golden green, 
face finely reticulately strigose; thorax irregularly, transversely, 
coarsely strigose; antenna clavate, scape and flagellum beneath yellow, 
fiagellum above brown-black; the collar is rather short; the scutellum 
at tip is divided by a transverse suture and with a raised rim at border 
posteriorly; abdomen ovate, black; legs waxy yellow; wings hyaline, 
veins pale, excepting the stigmal vein, which is brown, and ends in a 
circula!r stigma. 

"Described froin one specimen taken in August." 

In the United States National Museum collection there is 
the pin on which the type was originally tag-mounted. Only 
the hind legs and one front wing remain. The stigmal club 
is large, very dark colored and appears to be surrounded by 
a narrow clearly defined cloud. 

In 1888 (Bull. 3, Kansas Agriciiltural Experiment Station, p. Ill) 
Ashmead described another species under the same name, Megastigmus 
flavipes. Through the kindness of Professors T. J. Headlee and G. A. 



1913] 



North American Species of Megastigmus. 



167 



Dean, I have been able to examine the type of this species. It is a male 
Torymus. As the original description is rather brief I will publish 
a more complete description elsewhere. 

Megastigmus albifrons Walker. 
Megastigmus albifrons Walker. Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1869. p. 314. 

Female. — Length, 5 mm.; abdomen, 2 mm.; ovipositor, 4 mm. 
(abdomen contracted in dr^dng) . 

Head yellowish white, with many black punctures from which arise 
black hairs; on the middle of the face the hairs are yellowish; an area 
including the ocelli and extending almost to the eye margin, black. 

Prothorax dull yellowish, the dorsum marked with a wedge-shaped 
black spot from the front comer of which a black line curves around 
along the lateral margin and almost reaches the posterior edge of the 
segment. Central lobe of the mesonotum black except along the lateral 
edge; lateral lobes brownish blackish in the center. Scutellum black 
except along side and at apex where it is yellowish brown. Axillae 
black in the center, surrounded by yellowish brown. Post scutellum 
yellowish white in the center, black on the sides. Propodeum black, 
yellowish white at the sides. Pleuras yellowish white. 




Fig. 9. Megastigmus albifrons, 

Anntenas brownish, scape yellowish at base and below. . Legs 
yellowish brown; tarsi blackish at tip. Front wings hyaline with a 
distinct brownish spot adjoining the hind margin of the submarginal 
vein beyond the junction with the basal vein. Basal vein unusually 
distinct. Stigmal club surrounded by an indistinct clouded area 
scarcely discernible when viewed with a hand lens. 

Abdomen shining black above, spotted with dull-yellowish on the 
sides and below. Ovipositor black, the extreme tip yellowish. 

Male. — Length, 6 mm.; abdomen, 2.5 mm. 

Head similar to female. Thorax dull yellowish marked with a 
black median line, enlarged in front on the prothorax, narrower on the 
median lobe of the mesothorax and again enlarged on the scutellum. 
The lateral black marking on the prothorax of the female is here 
replaced with brownish. 



168 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Mesonotum distinctly brownish. Axillas black along the anterior 

.margin. Legs more distinctly brownish than in the female. In the 

fore wing the brownish spot adjoining the submedian vein is more 

distinct than in the female, and the stigmal club is surrounded with a 

distinct clouded area. 

Abdomen shining black above, brownish yellow below. 

Described from 1 9 and Id". Placerville, Cal., 8 Feb., 1913. 
Reared by J. M, Miller from the seeds of Finns ponder osa. 
Received through the kindness of S. A. Rohwer. 

Megastigmus canadensis Ashmead (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., 
XIV, p. 186. 1887). 

The type in the United States National Museum is a male 
Pteromalid. 

Through the kindness of Dr. Henry Skinner, I have been 
permitted to examine specimens of 'the two following species 
in the collection of the American Entomological Society. 

M. cecidomyicB Ashmead (/. c. XIV, p. 185. 1887). 

Two specimens, male and female, both tag-mounted on the 
same pin, "E. Fla., Ashmead" and labeled with the name in 
Ashmead's hand-writing. They belong to the genus Lochites. 

M. ficigercE Ashmead (/. c. IV, p. 185. 1887). One male. 
The head is glued to the card point separately. The antennas 
are lacking. It is apparently an£.ncyrtid. " E. Fla. Ashmead." 
Name in Ashmead's handwriting. 

These specimens were probably the ones from which Ash- 
mead drew up his description of the species. 

In 1892 C. V. Riley received a series of specimens of Meg- 
astigmus reared from the seeds of various conifers by Mr. 
Herman Borries, of Copenhagen, Denmark. He published 
(Proc. Ent. vSoc. Wash. II, pp. 359-363) an article on the habits 
of this genus in which he gave a list of the specimens reared 
by Mr. Borries and data in regard to the host plants. I have 
examined these specimens in the National Museum Collection 
and for convenience quote the list and indicate the species to 
which each lot belongs. 

"A. Very handsome species marked with black, red, and yellow. 
II and V from Abies magnifica and concolor, somewhat smaller and paler; 
III, from A. grandis, distinctly smaller, much paler; IV, from A. 
amabilis, larger and darker, cf and 9 of all varieties. [M. pinus Parfitt.] 



1913] North American Species of Megastigmus. 169 

"B. Entirely yellow species, also variable; perhaps two species 
mixed. I, from Pseudotsuga douglassi [taxifolia] cf and 9 ; II, from 
Abies magnifica; III, from A. grandis; IV, from A. amabilis; V, from 
A. concolor. [M. spermatrophus WachtL] 

"C. Very small, dark species, very similar to small specimens of 
the European M. strohilobius. From Tsuga [niertensiana] hookeriana. 2 9 

[M. tsiigce n. sp.] 

"D. Entirely black species from Japan. From Abies mariesi 2 9 . 

*[M. borriesi n. sp.] 

"E. M. strohilobius Ratzeb. from Denmark. 5 9." 




Megastigmus borriesi. 



*' Megastigmus borriesi n. sp. 



Female — -Length, about 3.3 mm. 

Head, thorax and abdomen dark brown, nearly black; yellowish around mouth. 
Antennse of the type still in pupal sheaths. Scape brownish lighter beneath. 
Legs brownish yellow, the posterior femora darker. Coxae dark brown like the 
thorax. Wings hyaline, the stigmal club without a surrounding cloud. Ovi- 
positor* as long as abdomen. 

Described from two females in rather poor condition. Reared by Mr. 
Herman Borries from seeds of Abifs mariesi from Japan. 

TABLE OF HOSTS. 

M. aculeatus Swederus — Rose seeds. 

M. albifrons Walker — Seeds of Pinus ponderosa. 

M. brevicaudis Ratzeburg — Seeds of Sorbus. 

A/, borriesi Crosby — Seeds of Abies mariesi from Japan. 

M. flavipes Ashmead — Unknown. 

M. lasiocarpce Crosby — Seeds of Abies lasiocarpa. 

M. nigrovariegatus Ashmead — Rose seeds. 

M. physiocarpi Crosby — Seed capsules of Physocarpus opulifoliiis. 

M. pinus Parfitt — Seeds of " Picea bracteata," Abies nobilis, Abies magnifica, 

Abies concolor, Abies grandis, Abies amabilis. 
M. spermatrophus Wachtl — Seeds of Pseudotsuga taxifolia, Abies magnifica, Abies 

grandis, Abies amabilis, Abies concolor. 
M. tsugce Crosby — Seeds of Tsuga mertensiana hookeriana. 



170 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

My indebtedness to the many persons who have aided me 
in the preparation of this paper by the loan of specimens and 
other material and in other ways is duly acknowledged in the 
preceding pages. My thanks are especially due to the author- 
ities of the United States National Museum and of the Bureau 
of Entomology at Washington for the loan of many specimens 
and to Mr. C. O. Waterhouse of the British Museum for an 
examination of Parfitt's types. 

The drawings were all made by Miss Anna C. Stryke, of 
Ithaca, N. Y. 



THE NEUROPTEROUS GENUS PALPARES. 

By Nathan Banks. 

To the genus Palpares belongs the most magnificent of the 
Neuropterous insects. Their large size and contrasting mark- 
ings has attracted even the collector of butterflies so that now a 
considerable amount of material exists in the various museums, 
a much more representative collection than any other group 
of exotic Neuroptera. 

Having recently seen many of the collections and having a 
number of species in my own, I have endeavored to prepare a 
table with such notes as may be useful in identifying the var- 
ious species. 

Africa is the home of the genus, two species occur in Southern 
Europe, several in India and Persia, and one has been taken in 
the Madeira Islands. Elsewhere there are none, nor even a 
closely allied genus. 

Several attempts have been made to divide the genus. 
Hagen made Stenares for those species in which the costal cells 
were crossed. This character is often variable in development, 
in many Myrmeleonidae, but in Palpares it appears to be more 
constant; the species of Stenares always have two rows of cells 
for most of the costal length, while in the true Palpares it is 
rare to find even one cell crossed. Panexis was created by 
Hagen for certain small, broad-winged species, the type of 
which has a thickened subcosta. Until better characters are 
given, it is best to keep Panexis as only a subgenus. 

McLachlan proposed to divide both Palpares and Stenares 
according to whether the outer margin of the wings were strongly 
sinuated or not. Thus Symmathetes is for species of Palpares 
with sinuated margin and Crambomorphus is for those Stenares 
with a sinuated margin. However as we know- more species of 
Palpares it becomes increasingly difficult to tell whether the 
margin is strongly sinuated or not; thus P. amitinus, P. in- 
sularis, P. inclemens and P. latipennis all have the margin 
plainly sinuated, and other species show this character in a 
slight degree. Lately Navas has proposed various new genera. 
Nosa for P. tigris which has apparently two radial sectors, 
although in reality it has no more longitudinal veins than 
other Alyrmeleonidae. P. tigris is so closely related by other 
characters to species with but one radial sector that I cannot 

171 



172 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

consider it generically different from Palpares, Palparellus 
was made by Navas for P. spectrum, but P. ovampoanus con- 
nects this group with the section of P. flavofasciatus, 

Golafrus was made for P. oneili on account of the emargi- 
nation at base of the fore wing. I suspect this character exists 
only in the male sex, besides P. ojieili is otherwise related to 
P. radiatus. 

If these names are to be used for subgenera, others should 
be created for other sections or groups. In the appended notes 
I have given certain facts regarding the anal vena:tion which, 
although not sufficiently different to divide the genus, are 
fairly constant for each species. The color of the legs is val- 
uable, and I tabulate the black and pale legged species below. 

The color of the vertex and the presence of spots on thorax 
and on abdomen are also very useful. The point of origin of 
the radial sector in the fore wings is also useful; in P. libellii- 
loides it is as far basad as the cubital fork, in many other species 
it is plainly beyond this point. 

The palpi are variable in length according to the species; 
in P. libelliiloides the last joint of the maxillary palpi is much 
longer than the space between the eyes, in P. speciosus, P. 
m,oestus etc., it is shorter. The male appendages also vary in 
length, but little in structure; in P. speciosus and allies they 
are very short, in P. tigris very long and with a basal tooth. 

The markings of the wings, although variable in develop- 
ment, are extremely useful, especially the shape of the apical 
marks. It is doubtful if the character of median band across 
hind wing is of specific value. The size of species does not 
vary much, but the width of the hind wings does vary to some 
extent in the same species. The width of the face between the 
eyes is very narrow in Palparellus and the flavofasciatus group, 
in others wider. In the table I have placed a number of 
names as synonyms, based (in most cases) on my examination 
of the types, but I am quite certain that a still greater number 
should also be placed as synonyms, or at most varieties. All 
the species allied to P. speciosus are probably but forms of 
that species, for the marks are all on the same plan and the 
male genitalia the same. Likewise several species will later 
fall under P. tristis as collections are more extensive. 

P. cognatus Rbr I have not seen, nor been able to place it; 
its habitat is unknown. 



1913] Neuropterous Genus Palpares. 173 

Arranged according to the color of legs they are as follows: 

Legs all black, or pale on part of tarsi. 

speciosus, caffer, digitatiis stuhlmanni, flavofasciatus, festivus, formosiis, aniitimis, 
instilaris, spectrum (and allies) damarensis, tigroides, cataractce, immensus, 
conlrariiis, pardaloides. 

Legs with pale on femora or tibiae. 

lib ell id aides, hipahus, pardus, inclemens, latipennis, nyicanus, cegrotus, tristis, 
tigris, obsoletus, mcBstus, interioris, angustus, oneili, sparsus, radiatus, tessellatus, 
fiirfuraceiis, zebratus. 

The species may be arranged in the following groups: 

voeltzkowi group. 

Includes also obscuripennis. 
mcestus group. 

Includes calaracta, martini and contrarius. 
flavofasciatus group. 

Includes also compositus, formosus, damarensis, bifasciatus, festivus, and 

elegantulus. 
spectrum group. 

Includes also rothschildi, astutus, and ovampoanus . 
luteiis group {Pamexis). 

Includes also translatus and contaminatus. 
speciosus group. 

Includes also digitatiis, caffer, varius, stuhlmanni, and dubiosus. 
libelluloides group. 

Includes also papilionoides , hispanus, percheroni and tessellatus. 
solidus group. 

Includes also walkeri, and angustus. 
tigris group (Nosa). 

Includes also cegrotus, ornatus. 
pardus group. 

Includes also tigroides, zebratus. 
tristis group. 

Includes also interioris, obsoletus klugi, extensus, lentus, similis, pardaloides, 

nigrita. 
sparsus group. 

Includes also sobrinus, furfuraceus , abyssiniciis, nyicanus. 
cephalotes group. 

Includes also inclemens, incommodus, latipennis, radiatus, immensus, o'neili, 

astarte, patiens (infirmus) , and karrooanus. 
insularis group. 

Includes also amitinus. 
gigas group. 

No others known. 

The African species are tabulated below, after which are 
the Indian species. 

TABLE OF AFRICAN SPECIES. 

1. Hind margin of fore wings with a long emargination at base; wings narrow, 

streaked with dark o'neili Per. 

Hind margin not emarginate near base 2. 

2. Anterior apical margin of hind wings straight or slightly concave, tip acute; 

large heavily marked species the outer margin of wings sinuate. . -gigas Dal. 
Anterior apical margin of hind wings convex 3. 

3. Hind wings mostly black on the basal part before cubital fork as elsewhere; 

with only isolated pale spots 4. 

Hind wings largely pale, and pale on basal part before the cubital fork. . . .5. 



174 Aiinals Efitomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

4. Wings slender, acute at tips; hind pair with a pale apical streak 

karrooanus Per. 

Wings broader, not acute; hind pair without apical streak; several isolated 

pale spots vceltzkowi Weele 

5. Vertex dark or blackish, legs wholly black 6. 

Vertex pale, with a median dark stripe, or at least outlined by pale spots. .26. 

6. A large spot at or near the cubital fork in the hind wings 16. 

No spot near cubital fork in hind wings, the base being all pale 7. 

7. In hind wings the dark extends along the costa to base 8. 

In hind wings the dark does not extend to base, at most some isolated dark 

marks 10. 

8. Fore wings with large pale space in the middle, wings rather slender 

ovampoanus Per. 
Fore wings without a large pale space in middle 9. 

9. Both wings with pale post-stigmal bands spectrum Rbv. 

These bands broken into spots rothschildi Weele 

10. Fore-wings dark, with black bands; hind wings with nearly two-thirds 

black with small white spots; expanse over 100 millimeters 

obscuripennis Sch. 
Fore- wings yellowish or hyaline in pale areas 11. 

11. The subcosta of fore wings thickened near the stigma, wings yellow with 

dark bands, hind wings very broad luteus Thunb. 

The subcosta of fore wings not thickened 12. 

12. Median band of hind wings does not reach up to the radius, but from middle 

of wing behind in form of three spots contaminatus Hag. 

Median band of hind wings reaches across the wing from radius to hind 
margin '13. 

13. Apex of fore-wings dark with a distinct pale band before it 14. 

Apex without such marks 15. 

14. Dark baijds of hind wings not connected flavofasciatus McLach. 

Dark bands of hind wings connected .compositus Navas. 

15. Fore and hind wings with apical marks in the form of longitudinal streaks. . 

elegantulus Per. 
These marks not in the form of streaks, but band or spots festivus Gerst. 

16. Small very broad-winged species; greatest breadth of the hind wings much 

beyond the middle; basal band of the fore wings reaches to the hind margin. 

translatus Walk. 

Larger; wings more slender; greatest breadth of hind wings at middle of 

length or before .17. 

17. Hind wings with the stigmal band broad and in front in two parts; wings 

not yellowish; basal band of hind wings nearly across, or in two nearly 

connected spots cataracts Per. 

Hind wings with the stigmal band entire on the front margin 18. 

18. Abdomen pale yellowish red; wings yellowish brown; small species; bands 

of hind wings narrow, apical mark in form of two stresLk?,. .bifasciatus Oliv. 
Abdomen pale on base, darker toward tip ". . 19. 

19. Pronotum with yellow each side; fore wings often more or less yellowish, and 

the median and stigmal bands often only spots with dark borders; thorax 

very hairy, not showing the pale spots, male appendages very short . . .21. 

Pronotum with two yellowish spots on front margin (maybe connected); 

pale median spots on thorax visible 20. 

20. Few spots between stigmal and median bands in fore wings; apical mark in 

form of streaks damarensis McL. 

Many spots between bands; apical mark not in form of streaks. .formosus Bks. 

21. Bands of hind wings connected together; apical mark of hind wings encloses 

but one pale spot stuhlmanni Kolb. 

Bands of hind wings separate 22. 

22. In fore wings the small basal spots are arranged so as to leave two clear 

longitudinal streakg; stigmal and median bands of hind wings reach across 
with two or three fingers each; sides of pronotum more narrowly yellow. 

digitatus Gerst. 

Basal spots of fore wings not arranged to leave clear spaces; sides of pronotum 

broadly yellow 23. 



1913] Neuropterous Genus Palpares. 175 

23. Hind wings tessellate with spots along the hind border 24. 

Hind wings not tessellate with spots along the hind border. . .dubiosus Per. 

24. Bands of hind wings reach across; wings rather more narrow, .speciosus L. 
Bands of hind wings do not reach across 25. 

25. Spots greatly reduced in size varius Nav. 

Spots of moderate size caffer Burm. 

26. A large spot on the forking of the cubitus in the hind wing 51. 

Only a small dot on this forking, but sometimes there are marks near by, 

above or around the forking 27. 

27. Hind margin of both wings narrowly, evenly fumose all along; stigmal spot 

of fore wings hardly reaches the radius; bands of hind wings not reaching 

across the wing 28. 

Hind margin of the wings with at most separated dark spots; not evenly 
fumose all along, always some pale spaces ". . .30. 

28. Fore wings with apparently two radial sectors arising close together; the 

lower of the apical spots is triangular; no band below antaxynsi.. tigris Dalm. 
Fore wings with but one radial sector; a black band below antennae 29. 

29. Stigmal band of hind wings concave within; lower apical mark of fore wings 

hardly in form of two streaks ornatus Nav. 

Stigmal band of hind wings not concave within, often broken; lower apical 
mark of fore wings in form of two parallel, slightly curved streaks. ..... 

cBgrotus Gerst. 

30. Fore wings with many small dark spots, and no large spots or bands. . . .31. 
Fore wings with large spots (perhaps netted) or bands 35. 

31. Hind wings with all small spots 32. 

Hind wings with some moderately large spots 33. 

32. Longitudinal space behind the first branch of radial sector in fore wings pale, 

unmarked sparsus McLach. 

This space with spots as elsewhere sobriniis Per. 

33. Vertex greatly swollen; thorax with fulvous hair; spots in hind wings mostly 

rounded furfuraceus Rbr. 

Vertex not so swollen; some spots in hind wings in the form of streaks. . . .34. 

34. Longitudinal space behind the first branch of radial sector in fore wings 

mostly unspotted abyssinicus K. 

This space with spots as elsewhere; hind wings with median spots, a spot or 

streak beyond and apical streaks nyicaniis Kolbe. 

.35. Apical marks of hind wings in the form of longitudinal spots or streaks. . .36. 
Apical marks not so; transverse 42. 

36. A submarginal line in fore wings 39. 

No such line; bands of hind wings not across 37. 

37. Bands of fore wings usually small and faint; hind margin of hind wings with 

long curved streaks reaching towards the bands; femora not spotted. . . 

obsoletics Gerst. 

Bands of fore wings distinct; hind margin of hind wings not so plainly 

streaked, mostly short spots; femora spotted 38. 

38. Larger, spots not broken up much; face mostly black; abdomen not striped. 

tristis Hag. 

Smaller, spots more broken up; the male appendages shorter; narrow band 

below antennas; abdomen striped interioris Kolbe. 

39. Stigmal mark in the hind wings divided, not reaching across; fore wings with 

an apical cloud klugi Kolbe. 

Stigmal mark in hind wing entire; fore wings with apical streaks'. 40. 

40. Stigmal mark of fore wings in form of a streak; stigmal band of hind wings 

not across immensus McL. 

Stigmal spot of fore wing band-like 41. 

41. Stigmal and median bands of hind wings not across similis Stitz 

These bands reach across reticidatus Stitz. 

42. Median band of hind wings with a projection toward the cubital fork, or else 

a separated spot near by; stigmal band with upper inner projection and 

also one behind .' . . 43. 

No such projection to median band, nor a separated spot near by 44. 



176 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

43. Median band of hind wings has a projection toward the cubital fork; large 

species latipennis Rbr. 

Median band not with a projection, but a large spot near the cubital fork. . 

inclemens Walk. 

44. Fore wings with four distinct bands; hind wings with straight bands; no dots 

along hind border of either wing normalis Nav. 

Fore wings with but three bands; bands of hind wings not straight 45. 

45. Median and stigmal bands of hind wings connected amitinus Kolbe. 

Median and stigmal bands separated 46. 

46. Median band of hind wings reaches across; bands not netted 47. 

Median band does not reach across the hind wing 49. 

47. Stigmal band of two more or less connected bands; apical mark of fore wing 

entire; a large costal sub-basal spot dark; outer margin of wings plainly 

sinuate mcestus H. 

Stigmal band of but one band, perhaps with projections; no large sub-basal 
costal spot in fore wings 48. 

48. Apical mark of fore wings entire; inner projection of stigmal band of hind 

wings directed backward insularis McL. 

Apical mark of fore wings divided; inner projection of stigmal band of the 
hind wings directed upward lentus Nav. 

49. Bands netted; median band of hind wings with emargination on the inner 

side ' nigrita Nav. 

Bands not netted; hind wings rather broader in the middle 50. 

50. Fore wings with many moderate-sized spots; the stigmal band very small; 

no other bands; from Madagascar pardaloides Weele. 

Fore wings with only small dots and bands; median band of hind wings with 
an emargination on inner side; large spot on middle of hind margin. . . . 

geniculatus Nav. 

51. Abdomen yellow, each segment with a broad black transverse basal band; 

no longitudinal stripe; wings broad, fore wings much spotted; in hind 

wings the bands not across, or only by connected spots hispanus L. 

Abdomen with the segments not banded, sometimes lineate or spotted. . .52. 

52. Apical marks of hind wings in the form of two streaks 53. 

Apical mark of hind wings transverse or in spots 57. 

53. Stigmal band of hind wings not reaching across 54. 

Stigmal band of hind-wings reaching across cataractce Per. 

54. All marks in the form of streaks in both wings radiatiis Rbr. 

Some spots or bands 55. 

55. Spots netted; basal band of hind wings not reaching toward base; abdomen 

yellow with dark spots tessellatiis Rbr. 

Spots not netted; basal spot usually reaching toward base 56. 

56. Four stigmal spots in hind wings incommodiis Walk. 

Two stigmal spots in hind wings; a submarginal line in both wings 

immensiis McL. 

57. Two stigmal bands in hind wings (or broken into spots); a submarginal row 

of spots cephalotes Klug. 

But one stigmal band in hind wings 58. 

58. Median band of hind wings reach across; small spots along hind border; 

• abdomen dark, not spotted 60. 

Median band not across; hind wings with many small spots; abdomen yellow, 

lineate with dark 59. 

59. Abdomen with small spots and dots; bands of wings netted. . .percheroni Guer. 
Abdomen lineate, or mostly dark; spots in hind wings not netted 

libelluloides L. 

60. Stigmal and median bands of hind wings connected; apical mark of hind 

wings entire walkeri var. 

These bands separated 61 . 

61. The stigmal band of hind wings is connected or nearly so to the apical which 

extends along the hind border 62. 

The stigmal not connected to apical, and latter not extending along the hind 
border; hind wings very broad in the middle walkeri McL. 

62. Hind wings quite narrow; from North Africa angustus McL. 

Hind wings quite broad in middle; from Madagascar martini Weele. 



1913] Neuropterous Genus Palpares. 177 



Palpares gigas Dalman. 

Figure— Plate XIX, Figure 17, and Drury, PI. 41. 

The fourth anal of f. w. with three or four branches and three 
cross-veins; the third anal in h. w. has a strong oblique vein up to sec- 
ond anal. Male appendages nearly twice as long as the last two 
segments together. 

Palpares moestus Hag. 

Figure — Plate XIX, Figure 15; Hagen, Mozambique paper. 

The fourth anal in f. w. with four or five branches and five or more 
cross-veins; the third anal of h. w. practically runs into the second, 
and with two or three cross-veins before it. The antennee are longer 
than in P. gigas; the thorax with long white hair. Anal appendages 
of male. Fig. 55. 

Palpares obscuripennis Schmidt. 
In general this resembles a very large P. spectrum but the fore 
wings are plainly tinged with pink; the pale basal part of hind wings is 
milky and the black has no complete pale bands, but median and 
stigmal pale bands reaching one-half way across wing, two spots near 
apex, and two to four near the hind border. 



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Fig. 1. Palpares obscuripennis Schmidt. 

I have seen it only in the Stettin (type) and Berlin Museums. 
It may be the P. fulvus McLach; but I was not able to find 
McLachlan's type in his collection nor elsewhere. 

Palpares martini Weele. 

Figure — Van der Weele, Madagascar, Figure 3. 

This species resembles P. walkeri, and in that species the 
apical mark sometimes almost connects to the stigmal band. 



178 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol, VI, 

Palpares cataractae Pering. 

Figure — Peringuey; and Stitz (as ohsciiratiis). 

Third anal in h. w. runs into the second, and is connected once or 
twice to the fourth anal. 

This has been redescribed by Stitz as P. inclemens W. var. 
obscuratus. 

Palpares voeltzkowi Kolbe. 

Figure — Van der Weele, Madagascar, Figure 4. 

A remarkable species, not only on account of the almost 
wholly black hind wings, but also in the very slender abdomen. 
Van der Weele figures (p. 255) the male appendages. 

Palpares insularis McLach. 

Figure — Van der Weele, Madagascar, Figure 6, also the male appendages on 
page 259. 

Fourth anal of f. w. with three branches and one or two cross-veins 
to the third anal. Third anal of h. w. simple, two or three cross-veins 
to second, none to fourth anal. Black band below antenuce present. 

P. hildebrandti is the same species. 

Palpares amitinus Kolbe. 

Figure — Van der Weele, Madagascar, Figure 7. 

Fourth anal of fore wings long, with four branches and four or five 
connections to the third anal ; third anal of hind wings simple, with two 
cross-veins to the second, none to the fourth. The legs are black; 
there is a large interantennal mark reaching much below the antennse 
as well as above from eye to eye; the outer apical margin of the fore 
wings is slightly sinuated, as in several other species. 

Van der Weele also figures (p. 262) the male appendages 
which are short like those of P. speciosus. 

Palpares furfuraceus Rambr. 

Figure — Navas (as equestris), Broteria, X, p. 56. 

Readily known by the greatly swollen vertex and fulvous 
hair on thorax, which was noted by both describers. It occurs 
in West Africa. 

Palpares sobrinus Pering. 

Figure — Peringuey, 1911, p. 33, Figure 3. 

I can find no differences between this species and P. nuda- 
tus Navas; but I have not seen the type of either species; but 
judge from the figures and descriptions. 

Palpares nyicanus Kolbe. 
Figure — Kolbe, original; and Peringuey, 1911, p. 32, Figure 1 (as CEmuliis). 
The third anal of h. w. runs apparently into the second, and with 
four or five cross-veins to the fourth anal. 



1913] Neuropterous Genus Palpares. 179 

P. cemulus Pering is, I think, the same species, and it is also 
figured by Calvert, Proc, Acad., Nat., Sci., Phil. 1899, plate 
X, fig. 2. 

Palpares abyssinicus Kolbe. 

The third anal of h. w. is simple, and no cross vein to fourth. 

This species is very close, if not identical, with P. nyicanus, 
the spots are arranged in oblique streaks. 

Palpares sparsus McLach. 

Figure — Peringuey, 1911, p. 32, Figure 2. 

The third anal of h. w. is simple, and no connection to fourth anal, 
but one to second. The fourth anal in f. w. is once or twice forked, 
and with two cross- veins. No band below antennge. 

Palpares radiatus Rambr. 

Figure — Rambur, original. 

The fourth anal in f. w. with three or four branches, and two or 
three cross-veins; the third anal in h. w. runs into the second anal. 
The male appendages (Fig. 40) are curved and as long as the last seg- 
ment, and enlarged a little at tip. There is no band under the antennae. 

There are but few specimens of this in European collections. 

Palpares incommodus Walk. 

Figure — Plate XVIII, Figure 2, and by Stitz (nibescens) and by Navas (as 
rieli) . 

The third anal of h. w. appears to run into the second, two cross- 
veins behind to the fourth anal. In fore wings there is no line near 
the outer margin parallel thereto, but oblique streaks outward. 

P. costatiis Navas is also this same species as well as P. rieli 
and P. rubescens wStitz. 

Palpares latipennis Rambur. 

Figure— Plate XVIII, Figure 1. 

The fourth anal of f. w. has three or four branches and four or five 
cross-veins to the third anal. The third anal of h. w. is simple, with 
several cross-veins to the second and one or two to the foiuth anal. 

The P. furfuraceus of Walker (not of Rambur) is this species, 
Walker's identification of P. cephalotes is also this species. P. 
prcBtor Gerst. is this species. 

Palpares inclemens Walk. 

Figure— Plate XVIII, Figure 5. 

The third anal of h. w. runs into the second anal and with one or 
two cross-veins to fourth. The fourth anal of f. w. has three or four 
branches and four cross-veins to the third. 

Sometimes the basal spot of hind wings is narrowly connected to 
the median. The wings especially the front pair are slightly sinuated 
on the outer margin. 



180 Amials Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



Palpares immensus McLach. 

Figure— Plate XIX, Figure 22, and Plate XXI, Figure 42. 

Third anal of h. w. with a strong oblique cross-vein up to second, 
and a cross-vein behind to the fourth anal; fourth anal of f. w. with 
three or four branches and as many cross-veins; the third anal has 
but one fork. 

P. kalahariensis Stitz is this species. 

Palpares cephalotes Klug. 

Figure — Klug; original description, and Plate XX, Figure 30 {sollicitus) and 
Figure 29 (siibducens). 

Third anal in h. w. simple, with two or three crOss-veins to the 
second, and one to the fourth anal. No band under antennas. 

Walker's two species, sollicitus and subducens are cephalotes 
(as McLachlan has stated) ; the slight differences are only- 
such as one finds in a series of many species of Palpares, P. 
burmeisteri Hagen (that is P. cephalotes Rambr) is probably 
the same species. 

Palpares karrooanus Peringuey. 
Figure— Peringuey, 1910, Plate VIII, Fig. 1. 

Third anal in h. w. with one or two cross-veins to fourth anal; 
abdomen entirely reddish. 

Although it has the hind wings almost wholly black as in 
P. voeltzkowi it is not related to that species, as all the marks 
are different; it is more nearly related to P. radiatus. 

Palpares oneili Pering. (Golafrus). 

Figure — Peringuey, 1911, p. 35, Figure 4. 

Navas has made a new genus for it on account of the ex- 
cised basal margin of the fore wings, but this is probably 
found only in the male, otherwise the species is related to P. 
radiatus. It was described as a female, but the tip of abdomen 
appears broken and the very narrow wings are similar to those 
of male immensus. 

Palpares similis Stitz. 
Figure— Calvert, (1889), Plate X, Figure 1. 

This species is related to immensus by the submarginal 
line in fore wing, but the median and stigmal bands of hind 
wings are broader behind than in front; there is a spot above 
the cubital fork; in both wings the apical marks are in the form 
of streaks. 



1913] Neuropterous Genus Palpares. 181 

Palpares reticulatus Stitz. 

Figure — Navas, with original description (as extensus). 

The third anal in h. w. has one cross- vein to the fourth 
anal. The description of Stitz seems to have the priority. 

Palpares obsoletus Gerst. 

Figure — Plate XX, Figure 43, and Navas (as nebulo). 

The fourth anal of f . w. has three or four branches and two connec- 
tions to the third; in h. w. the third anal is simple, with one or two 
cross-veins to the second and none to the fourth. There is a black 
band below the antennae. 

Palpares normalis Navas. 

Figure — Navas, with original description. 

I have not seen this species, but it appears to be good, so 
long as species are based on markings. 

Palpares geniculatus Navas. 

Figure — Navas (with description.) 

I have not seen it, but apparently distinct. 

Palpares klugi Kolbe. 

Figure — Klug, Plate, Figure 3 (unnamed). 

Fourth anal in f. w. with two branches and connected three times 
to third; the third in h. w. runs into second and then away, with a 
cross-vein before. 

Palpares tristis Hag. 

Figure — Hagen, Mozambique and Kolbe. Plate XXI, Figure 51, appendages. 

The fourth anal in f. w. has two or three branches, and two or three 
cross-veins; the third anal in h. w. simple, with a soinewhat oblique 
cross-vein to the second anal. Nearh^ always there is a spot beyond 
the cubital fork in the h. w. 

The varieties niansanus Kolbe, and brevifasciatus and ugan- 
danus of Stitz are structurally very similar to the type form, 
but brevifasciatus is perhaps closer to interioris. 

Palpares interioris Kolbe. 

Figure— Plate XXI, Figure 49. 

The fourth anal of f. w. has two or three branches, and two, or 
three cross-veins; the third anal of h. w. is simple, with two connections 
to the second. The marks are very similar to those of obsoletus, but 
that species is larger than interioris, and the body markings somewhat 
different. 

Palpares lentus Navas. 

Figure — Plate XXI, Fig. 47, Navas, original description. 

Third anal of h. w. simple, one cross-vein to the second, none to 
fourth anal. A black band below antenncc. Male appendages short, 
Fig. 36. 



182 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



Palpares pardaloides Weele. 

Figured by Van der Weele, Madagascar, Figure 5; also the male appendages 
on page 257. 

Fourth anal of f. w. with four branches and two cross-veins; third 
anal of h. w. simple, no cross-vein to second. Legs deep black. 

In the Brussels Museum is a long series from Madagascar 
that tends to connect this species to P. insularis. 

Palpares nigrita Navas. 

Figure — Plate XIX, Figure 27, and Navas, original. 

Fourth anal in f. w. with two branches and two cross-veins; third 
anal of h. w. simple, and one straight cross-vein to the second anal. No 
band under antennse. 

P. languidus Navas appears also to go here, but the figure 
of the hind wing is broader than usual. 

This is a species that stands in the Rambur collection 
with the label P. manicatus R., P. tigris Walk. var. de tigris 
Dalm, and also a label "Seneg" Rambur's manicatus according 
to him had two radial sectors like tigris, and with no locality 
label, so I cannot believe that this specimen is Rambur's t3"pe 
of P. manicatus. I figure the hind wing of this specimen, 
(figure 27). 

Palpares walkeri McLach. 

Figure— Plate XIX, Figure 21; Navas, Broteria X, p. 35. 

Fourth anal of f . w. with two or three branches, and two cross-veins; 
third anal of h. w. simple, three or more cross-veins to second, and one 
to fourth. No band under antenna. 

P. dispar Navas seems to be the same species. 
Palpares angustus McLach. 

Figure— Plate XVIII, Figure 7. 

Fourth anal in f . w. with three branches, and four cross-veins ; third 
anal of h. w. has an oblique cross-vein to second and two cross-veins 
before it. Legs all deep black; the stigmal band of the hind wings 
sometimes has an upper inner projection. There is no band under 
antennae. 

The variety oranensis grades into the type. 

Palpares hispanus Linn. 
Figure — Navas, Inseeta, 1911, p. 265. n 

The fourth anal of f. w. has one or two short branches and two 
cross-veins; the third anal of h. w. is simple, with an oblique cross-vein 
to second, but none to fourth. The marks on the abdomen (Fig. 33) 
are very characteristic; as in other species there is much variation in 
the extent of the marks on wings, and in the width of the hind \vings. 



1913] Neuropterous Genus Palpares. 183 

Palpares libelluloides Linn. 

Figure — Many figures in European literature. 

The fourth anal of f. w. is very short and curved, with one or two 
branches and one or two cross-veins. The third anal of h. w. is simple, 
with slightly oblique cross-vein to the second and none to the fourth 
anal. 

P. chrysopterus Navas is the same or a slight variety. 

Palpares tessellatus Rbr. 

Figure — Plate XX, Figure 32 (marks of abdomen), and Stitz (as annulatiis). 

The fourth anal of f. w. has two branches, and one or two connec- 
tions; the third anal of h. w. is simple with one or two straight cross- 
veins. No dark band under the antennae. 

P. annulatus Stitz is a synonym of this species. 
Palpares percheroni Guerin. 

Figure— Guerin, Iconog. Regn. Anim., Plate 62; Gray, Anim. Kingd., Plate 
127, Figure 1. 

The fourth anal of f. w. has two branches and one or no connection 
to third; the third anal in h. w. simple, with a somewhat oblique cross- 
vein to second anal. The male appendages are long and curved. 
The abdominal marks are figured on Plate XX, Figure 31. 

Palpares tigris Dalm. (Nosa). 

Figure — Navas {calceata, leonina, lupina, pardina, and hamatiis). 

The fourth anal of f . w. has two or three branches and two or three 
connections to the third; the third anal of h. w. is simple, connected 
twice to the second and sometimes once to the fourth. 

P. manicatus Rbr. is this species according to his description. 
P. hamata is a male. P. tigris, calceata, hamata, sylphis have 
quite large spots; P. leonina, lupina and pardina have smaller 
spots. Tip of fore wing, see figure 45. 

Palpares aegrotus Gerst. 

Figure — Navas (as longicornis), Kolbe (as submaculatus), and Stitz (as 
paucimaciilatus) . 

The fourth anal of f. w. with one or two branches and two connec- 
tions to the third; third anal of h. w. simple, with one cross-vein to 
second, none to the fourth. 

Variety taborensis Stitz is apparently the same. Tip of the 
fore wing, see figure 46. P. dilatatus Navas has stigmal spots 
united into a band. 

Palpares omatus Navas. 

Figure — Navas (with description). 

Very close to cegrotus and perhaps a form of it, but the 
apical marks are different, and these in cegrotus seem very con- 
stant. 



184 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



Palpares speciosus Linn. 

Figure— Romer, Genera, Plate XXV, Figure 3; De Geer, Mem. Ill, Plate 
XXVII, Figure 9, (as maculatus); also Sulzer, Plate XXV, Figure 3. 

The fourth anal of f. w. with two branches, and two cross-veins; 
the third anal of h. w. simple, with two cross-veins to second, but none 
to the fourth. 

A peculiar variation in marking is seen on Plate XX, Fig. 
37, hind wing; and male appendages Figs. 52, 53. 

Palpares dubiosus Pering. 

I have not seen this species nor is there any figure, but it is 
described as close to P. speciosus, so it is probably but one 
form of what will prove to be one common variable species. 

Palpares caffer Burm. 

Figure— Plate XXI, Figure 50. 

The fourth anal of f. w. with two branches and two cross-veins to 
third; the third in h. w. simple, with one cross-vein to the second, but 
none to the fourth. 

The difference between this and P. speciosus is hardly 
sufficient for a species, and not constant; the wings are usually 
shorter than in P. speciosus, and the fore pair less heavily 
marked. 

Palpares varius Navas. 

Figure — Navas, original description. 

In fore wing the fourth anal has two branches and two connections ; 
in hind wings the third anal is simple with two connections to second, 
but none to fourth. 

Palpares digitatus Gerst. 

Figure — Calvert, Figure 3 (unnamed); Navas (as torridum and pobeguini); 
and Plate XIX, Figure 24. 

In fore wing the fourth anal has one branch and one cross-vein. 
Third anal in h. w. simple, not connected to fourth anal, with two 
veinlets to the second anal. 

The figure I give and that of Navas represent heavily 
marked specimens; that of Calvert is more normal. I think 
P. umbrosus Kolbe is the same ; but the bands are narrower and 
one or more "fingers" are usually separate from the bands, and 
the wings may be a little more slender, in fact it is more like 
P. speciosus, and appears to connect speciosus with digitatus. 
The hind wings of typical umbrosus are shown in figure 44. 



1913] Neuropterous Genus Palpares. 185 

Palpares stuhlmanni Kolbe. 

Figure — Kolbe, Figure 1. 

Closely related to P. speciosus, at least in the male append- 
ages; the marks are similar to those of P. timbrosus; the venation 
is as in P. speciosus 

Palpares damarensis McLach. 

Figure — Plate XVIII, Figure 11, and Stitz (as bifasciatus). 

Fourth anal' in f. w. with two or three branches and two cross- 
veins; third anal of h. w. simple, no connection to the fourth. Black 
hair on clypeus; legs all black; head all dark, except pale clypeus. 

Palpares formosus Banks.' 

Figure — Plate XIX, Figure 23; also Navas in Broteria X, p. 85, Figure 16. 

Fourth anal in f. w. with one short branch, and one cross-vein; 
third anal of h. w. simple with one cross-vein to second and none to the 
fourth. 

Palpares festivus Gerst. 

Figure — Peringuey (as mosamhicus) , and Navas (as latro). 
The third anal of h. w. simple, and no cross-vein to the fourth. 
Legs black. 

Palpares elegantulus Pering. 

Figure — Peringuey 1910, Plate VII, Figure 4. 

This small slender-winged species is apparently very dis- 
tinct; I have not seen it, but it appears related to the fiavofascia- 
tus group. 

Palpares flavofasciatus McLach. 

Figures — Peringuey (as genialis); Stitz (as gtittatus); and Navas (as nyassensis) 
The third anal in h. w. is simple and no connection to the fourth 
anal. Legs black. 

In P. nyassensis the bands are a little wider than in the other 
types, but a series of specimens show^s much variation in this 
point. 

Palpares compositus Navas. 

Figure — Navas (and also as mistus). 

Closely related to flavofasciatus, but with the bands of hind 
wings much broader and connected. P. mistus Navas appears 
to be the same form. It is in the Berlin Museum under a 
manuscript name that I cannot find has ever been published. 

Palpares bifasciatus Oliv. 

Figure— Plate XVIII, Figure 6. 

Fourth anal in f. w. with two branches, and two cross-veins; the 
third anal of h. w. simple, connected about four times to the second and 
twice to the fourth. A broad black band under antennse; abdomen 
pale yellowish red; thorax with two rows of yellow spots. 



186 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

This was considered by Walker as P. pardalinus Burtn. 
McLachlan doubted it, and so named Walker's insect P. 
brachypterus; but Hagen (who saw both) asserts that Walker's 
insect is pardalinus B. It agrees with the Mymeleon bifasciatum 
Olivier. 

Palpares spectrum Rambr. 

Figure — Navas, Rev. Zool. Afric, II, p. 37. 

The fourth anal of f . w. has two branches and two connections ; the 
third anal of h. w. is simple, with one cross-vein to second, but none to 
fourth anal. 

Palpares rothschildi Weele. 

Figure — Stitz, Figure 10. 

The fourth anal in f. w. has two branches and two connections; the 
third anal in h. w. is simple, and one cross-vein to second anal. 

Very closely related to P. spectrum and probably but a 
local variet}^ occuring northward of the range of P. spectrum. 

^ Palpares ovampoanus Pering. 

Figure — Peringuey, 1910, Plate VII, Figure 1. 

This is closely related to P. spectrum and will fall in the 
subgenus Palparellus. I have not seen specimens in European 
collections. 

Palpares translatus Walk. 

Figure— Plate XVIII, Figure 13. 

The third anal in h. w. is simple, and not connected to the fourth 
anal. Antennse close together at base; subcosta not thickened, but in 
general structure is closely related to Pamexis luteus. 

Palpares luteus Thunberg. (Pamexis) 

Figure— Plate XVI II, Figure 9. 

The third anal in h. w. is simple, and connected once to the fourth 
anal. 

P. venosiis Burm. is the same; and Hagen asserts (and he has 
examined both types) that P. conspucatus Burm. is also the 
same species. The subcosta is thicl^ened in both sexes, other- 
wise the species is related to P. translatus. There are specimens 
in the Berlin, Brussels and British museums. 

Palpares contaminatus Hagen. 

Figure— Plate XVIII, Figure 4. 

This name was given by Hagen (Can. Entom. 1887, p. 112) 
for P. pardalinus Rambur, not of Burmeister. I figure the 
hind wing of the type. The subcosta of fore wing is not 
thickened. 



1913] Neuropterous Genus Palpares. 187 

INDIAN SPECIES. 

1. A large spot over the fork of the cubitus in the hind wing 6. 

No such spot 2. 

2. An elongate spot along middle of hind margin of hind wing; median band does 

not reach across tigroides 

No such spot; median reaches across 3. 

3. Fore wings mostly dark, leaving only large and small pale spots, rather small 

species astutus 

Fore wings, mostly pale, with dark bands or spots 4. 

4. Margin of fore wings plainly sinuate; some bands of both wings reach across; 

large species 5. 

Margin of fore wings not sinuate, bands of fore wings not across; hardly across 
in the hind wings papilionoides 

5. Tips of hind wings plainly falcate; stigmal band without projection toward 

median band falcatus 

Tips not falcate; stigmal spot with projection toward the tip of the median 
band contrarius 

6. Two parallel stigmal bands, or spots 7. 

But one stigmal band, or broken into one series of spots 9. 

7. Both median and stigmal bands in hind wings reach across 8. 

Neither median nor stigmal reach across; margins of both wings narrowly 

dark astarte 

8. Median connected to basal spot; latter reaching across hind wing ... pattens 
Median not connected to the basal, which does not reach across. . . .infirmus 

9. Apical mark of hind wings solid; stigma very broad and reaches across.. solidus 
Apical mark with spots, or broken; stigmal band not very broad nor reaching 

across 10. 

10. A spot behind radius above the basal spot on the cubital fork of the hind 

wings; stigmal mark running obliquely inward zebratus 

No spot behind radius; stigmal band extending outward, or curved inward. . 

pardus 

Palpares astarte n. sp. 

Figure— Plate XIX, Figure 18. 

Head yellowish; a row of pale hairs across clypeus, and on margin 
of labrum; a black spot narrowing behind on vertex, continued over 
thorax as a median stripe, widest on the mesothorax, dark stripe on 
sides of pronotum, and stripe on meso and metathorax over base of 
the wings; abdomen yellowish brown, a black spot on apex of the first 
segment; legs and sternum all black. Wings rather yellowish, and with 
yellowish venation; costa black, and with black points out on costals, 
but costals are pale ; outer posterior margin of both pairs of wings dark 
brown; fore wings with five series of spots; a long streak on cubitus 
broader at tip and bending down; a spot above it behind the radius; an 
oblique band beyond the streak reaching from radius to more than one- 
half way across; beyond this are two spots in an oblique row; then three 
spots in a transverse row, one stigmal, the other two in form of streaks; 
the two subapical marks are not quite streaks. In hind wings is a spot 
on cubital fork, a band beyond reaching to beyond middle where it 
is enlarged; a curved band beyond this, not reaching either radius or 
hind margin, larger behind; then two large spots, one stigmal, the other 
close behind it; then a sinuous band before apex. Wings of moderate 
breadth; in fore wing the third anal is connected to the fourth four or 
five times, in hind wings the third anal has an oblique vein running into 
the second anal, and one cross-vein beyond it. Expanse 125 mm. 

From Chapra, Bengal, India (Mackenzie). 



188 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Palpares pardus Rambr. 
Figure — Plate XVIII, Figure 3, and anal appendages, Plate XXI, Figure 54. 
The fourth anal of f . w. has three or four branches and three cross- 
veins; the third anal in h. w. is simple, with two cross-veins to second. 

P. expertus Walk is the same species; it is very common in 
India. 

Palpares zebratus Rambr. 

Figure, Plate XX, Figure 28. 

The third anal of h. w. simple, with two to four cross-veins to second 
and one to three to fourth anal. Abdomen with a median dark stripe 
above. The fore wings are without distinct bands, but with median 
and stigmal spots. 

Palpares contrarius Walk. 

Figure— Plate XVIII, Figure 8. 

The third anal of h. w. simple, with two cross-veins to the second, 
one of which is slightly oblique, in the f. w. the fourth anal has two 
branches ^.nd two or three connections. 

This is a beautiful species not uncommon in Ceylon. In 
Walker's description a line is omitted regarding the second 
band in the hind wings, for it is this band that has a projection 
toward the first band. 

Palpares falcatus McLach. 
Allied to contrarius in markings, but hind wings more 
falcate; I have seen only the type. 

Palpares patiens Walk. 

Figure — Plate XVIII, Figure 10, and Navas in Broteria X, p. 86, Figure 17. 
The third anal of h. w. runs into the second, and a cross-vein 
behind to fourth anal; abdomen dark, unmarked. 

Palpares infirmus Walk. 

Figure— Plate XVIII, Figure 12. 

The third anal of h. w. with an oblique vein to the second, one 
cross-vein before it to second, and one behind to fourth anal. No 
band under antennse. 

This is probably the same species as P. patiens. Fore 
wings with many spots, and streaks and spots along the outer 
hind margin, stigmal and median bands small. 

Palpares papilionoides Klug. 
Figure — Klug, Plate, Figure 2. 

The third anal in h. w. is simple, no cross-vein before the oblique 
one running into second. 

It is not common and is represented in but few European 
collections. 



1913] Neuropterous Genus Palpares. ■ 180 

Palpares solidus Gerst. 

Figure — Plate XIX, Figure 20; and Navas (as klapaleki). 

The fourth anal in f. w. is two or three branched, and with two of 
three connections; the third anal in h. w. is simple, with one cross-vein 
to second. 

Palpares tigroides Walk. 

Figure— Plate XX, Figure 34. 

Third anal of h. w. simple, one cross-vein to the second and none to 
fourth anal. Legs black; fore wings with hardly any marks, rather 
yellowish. 

Palpares astutus Walk. 

Figure— Plate XIX, Figure 19. 

The fourth anal of f. w. with two branches, and two cross-veins; 
the third anal of h. w. simple, with one cross-vein to second. It belongs 
to the subgenus Palparellus. 

STENARES. 
(including Crambomorphus .) 

1. Outer margin of wings strongly sinuate {Cramhomorphus) 2. 

Outer margin of wings not plainly sinuate {Stenares) 3. 

2. Hind wings pale with two large bands well separated, and apex marked. . . . 

grandidieri Weele. 

Hind wings with the bands so large they are connected and cover most of 

surface, leaving only pale spots sinuatum Oliv. 

3. Hind wings with all the bands broad and connected, leaving only pale spots. . 

madagascariensis . 
Hind wings not so heavily marked 4. 

4. No stigmal spot in hind- wings, a streak along outer edge, and sometimes a few 

dots before it; wings very narrow; in hind wings costals at bas^ are crossed. 

hycBna. 
A stigmal spot reaching nearly one-half way across ,5. 

5. A spot on hind wings just beyond the cubital fork, also large median band; 

wings broad; in hind wings the costals are mostly simple irroratus. 

No spot on hind wings near the cubital fork, but median spots (or band) are 
sometimes present; in the hind wings the costals are mostly crossed. . . .6. 

6. Larger; apical mark of the hind wings in the form of two streaks. . . .improbus. 
Smaller; apical mark of the hind wings entire, or partly broken, not in form 

of streaks harpyia. 

In S. hyaena, irroratus, improbus and harpyia the third 
anal of h, w. runs into the second, with one or three cross- 
veins before; all have a pale pronotum with a median black 
stripe, and all have black legs, 

Stenares (Crambomorphus) grandidieri Weele. 
Figure — Weele, Madagascar, Fig. 2. 

Differs much in markings from S. sinuatiis; fully half of the 
hind wing is hyaline; the wings are also much broader than in 
that species, but the hind wing shows the same costal swelling 
at apex. The anal venation is similar to that of S. sinuatus, 
but in the h. w. the third anal has but one cross-vein to the 
fourth anal. 



190 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



Stenares (Crambomorphus) sinuatus Oliv. 
• Figure— Plate XIX, Fig. 14. 

Hind wings black; two pale spots in middle and stigma pale, and 
pale spots on hind border. 

Fourth anal in f. w. has four branches and four connections; in 
h. w. the third anal is long, with an oblique cross-vein to the second 
and others nearly erect, and four cross-veins to the fourth anal. 

Palpares hcematogaster Gerst. is the same species. 

Stenares irroratus Navas. 
Figure — Navas, original. 

'I have seen only the type in the British Museum. 

Stenares improbus Walk. 

Figure — Plate XIX, Figure 16, and male appendages. Figure 25. 

In h. w. the third anal runs into the second, and has two cross- veins 
to fourth; in f. w. the fourth anal has five branches and five cross-veins 
to the third. 

Stenares harpyia Gerst. 
Figure— (Anal appendages) Plate XIX, Fig. 26. 

The fourth anal of f. w. has inany branches and many connections 
to the third anal; in h. w. the third anal runs into the second, and has 
two branches. 

Stenares madagascariensis Weele. 
Figure — Van der Weele, Madagascar, Fig. 1. 

The third anal of hind wing is simple, with an oblique cross-vein to 
second and two or three before it, and four or five cross-veins to the 
fourth. 

Stenares hyaena Dalman. 
Hagen considers the figure 12, plate 86, of the Fourth 
volume of Seba's Thesaurus as representing the species. 



1913] 



Neuropterous Genus Palpares. 



191 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES XVIII TO XXI. 

g. L Palpares latipennis, hind wing. 

g. 2. Palpares incommodus, hind wing. 

g. 3. Palpares pardus, hind wing. 

g. 4. Palpares contaminatus, hind wing. 

g. 5. Palpares inclemens, hind wing. 

g. 6. Palpares bifasciatus, hind wing. 

g. 7. Palpares angustus, hind wing. 

g. 8. Palpares contrarius, hind wing. 

g. 9. Pamexis luteus, hind wing. » 

g. 10. Palpares patiens, hind wing. 

g. 11. Palpares damarensis, hind wing. 

g. 12. Palpares infirmus, hind wing. 

g. 13. Palpares translatus, hind wing. 

g. 14. Stenares sinuatus, hind wing. 

g. 15. Palpares moestus, apex of hind wing. 

g. 16. Stenares improbus, hind wing. 

g. 17. Palpares gigas, apex of hind wing. 

g. 18. Palpares astarte, fore and hind wings. 

g. 19. Palpares astutus, fore and hind wings. 

g. 20. Palpares solidus, hind wing. 

g. 21. Palpares walkeri, hind wing. 

g. 22. Palpares immensus, hind wing. 

g. 23. Palpares formosus, hind wing. 

g. 24. Palpares digitatus, hind wing. 

g. 25. Stenares improbus, male appendage. 

g. 26. Stenares harpyia, male appendage. 

g. 27. Palpares nigrita, hind wing. 

g. 28. Palpares zebratus, hind wing. 

g. 29. Palpares subducens hind wing. 

g. 30. Palpares sollicitus, hind wing. 

g. 31. Palpares percheroni, abdomen. 

g. 32. Palpares tessellatus, abdomen. 

g. 33. Palpares hisparius, abdomen. 

g. 34. Palpares tigroides, hind wing. 

g. 35. Palpares latipennis, and amitinus, anal area of fore wings. 

g. 36. Palpares lentus, male appendages. 

g. 37. Palpares speciosus, variation of hind wing. 

g. 38. Palpares insularis, anal area, fore wing. 

g. 39. Palpares inclemens, anal area, hind wing. 

g. 40. Palpares radiatus, male appendages. 

g. 41. Palpares umbrosus, male appendages. 

g. 42. Palpares immensus, male appendages. 

g. 43. Palpares obsoletus, hind wing. 

g. 44. Palpares umbrosus, hind wings, of two males. 

g. 45. Palpares tigris, apex of fore wing. 

g. 46. Palpares aegrotus, tip of fore wing. 

g. 47. Palpares lentus, hind wing. 

g. 48. Palpares extensus, hind wing. 

g. 49. Palpares interioris hind wing. 

g. 50. Palpares caflFer, hind wing. 

g. 51. Palpares tristis, male appendage. 

g. 52. Palpares speciosus, male appendage, side. 

g. 53. Palpares speciosus, male appendage, above. 

g. 54. Palpares pardus, male appendage. 

g. 55. Palpares moestus, male appendage. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate XVIII. 




N. Banks. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI. Plate XIX, 




N. Banks. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate XX. 




N. Banks. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate XXI. 




N, Banks. 



STOMOXYS CALCITRANS LINN, PART II.* 

By Chas. K. Brain. 

The Circulatory System. 

The circulatory system in Stomoxys calcitrans consists, as in 
other Diptera, of the dorsal vessel or heart, and its anterior 
continuation, the thoracic aorta. The dorsal vessel extends 
as a delicate tube from the posterior part of the abdomen to 
its anterior sixth, that is above the anterior part of the sucking 
stomach, where it becomes narrowed into the thoracic aorta. 
This narrowed portion continues of uniform thickness until 
the proventriculus is reached, where it becomes somewhat 
flattened and wider. Beyond this it becomes narrower, and 
terminates above the esophagus, between the proventriculus 
and the neck. 

It may be noticed that, as found by Professor Minchin in 
his study of Glossina sp., the dorsal vessel ends blindly behind, 
is composed of similar giant cells, and has similar ostia and 
alary muscles. The number of chambers in the heart was not 
determined with certainty, but I think Tulloch was correct 
in supposing that there were four. The dorsal vessel lies free 
in the pericardial cavity, but is supported by the muscular 
pericardial septum. 

Nervous System. 

There are two chief ganglia, viz : the brain and the thoracic 
ganglion, and from these the main nerve-trunks arise. Time 
was not taken to work out the more minute nerves, but the 
following may be mentioned. The chief nerves of the head 
beyond those of the compound eyes, are those which enervate 
(a) the antennae, (b) the ocelli, and (c) the esophagus, pharynx, 
and the pharyngeal muscles. 

The brain is connected with the thoracic ganglion by com- 
missures, between which the esophagus passes. The thoracic 
ganglion is roughly pear-shaped, and is supported by the 
internal chitinous skeleton of the thorax. The main nerves 
given off from the thoracic ganglion are (a) six pairs which 

*The first part of this paper, which dealt with the external mouthparts and 
the digestive system, appeared in Vol. V, No. 4, pp. 421-430 of these Annals, 
December, 1912. 

197 



198 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

supply the thoracic muscles, and (b) the abdominal nerve 
trunk, which arises as a stout continuation of the posterior 
part of the ganglion. This nerve trunk gives off fine branches 
to the abdominal muscles and on reaching the third abdominal 
segment, splits into three. 

These three branches supply the reproductive organs, the 
ovaries or testes, and the ovipositor or the penis. 

Reproductive ' System. 

The male generative organs, (Plate XXII, Fig. 7.) are com- 
paratively simple in structure. They are however not readily 
seen in gross dissection until some of the surrounding and 
over-lying Malpighian tubules are moved. They consist 
of a penis, ejaculatory duct, vesicula seminalis, and testes 
with their ducts. 

The testes are smooth, spherical bodies, enclosed in sacs 
which have deeply pigmented walls, giving them a deep orange 
color. From the lower end of each testis a delicate tube arises, 
short and straight, which runs down to join the duct from the 
opposite side, as the upper limbs of a Y. 

From this junction an exceedingly short length of common 
duct enters the bulbous upper end of the tubular organ, which 
would seem to serve as a vesicula seminalis. This is a flexible 
tube, often seen lying with one or two U-shaped bends in its 
course. At its upper end this vesicula seminalis is bulbous, 
gradually narrowing below to form the ejaculatory duct, (Fig. 
7, e. d.), which crosses the rectum dorsalh^ from left to right, 
to enter the penis in front of it. 

The female reproductive organs, (PI. XXII, Fig. 8) are .of the 
house fly type. There are two ovaries, each consisting of 
some 60 ovarioles. The ovaries vary in size according to the 
degree of maturity of the lowest ova, of which there are never 
more than four in a single ovariole. In some cases the ovaries 
occupy more than half of the whole abdominal space. The 
ovarioles from one side open into a wide tubular duct which 
joins the similar duct from the other side like the arms of a Y. 

As a result of this junction a common oviduct (o. v.) results, 
which runs down forming a long third limb to the Y. Below 
the attachment of the uterine appendages the oviduct con- 
tinues as the uterus. The appendages consist of the uterine 
glands and the receptacula seminis. 



1913] Stomoxys calcitrans Linn. 199 

The uterine glands, (u. g.), are two rather stout tubular 
organs with slightly bulbous extremities. The bulbous end 
is firmly joined to the lateral oviduct by a very short double 
strain of connective tissue. 

The receptacula seminis are two small, black, spherical 
bodies, each with a cellular socket resembling the fitting of an 
acorn cup. From this runs a very fine duct which enters the 
division between the oviduct and the uterus in the mid-dorsal 
line. The receptacula are attached to each other but can be 
separated by dissection. The uterus is a tube of the same 
diameter as the common oviduct above, and runs down the 
middle line into the ovipositor. 

The ovipositor consists of three cylindrical segments of 
thin chitin which usually lie telescoped inside the abdomen. 

Habitat. 
Farmyards and stables are evidently the favorite haunts of 
this fly. It occurs also in fields and open woods, especially 
where cattle or horses are grazing. It is evidently by no 
means uncommon even in large cities, and numbers have 
been seen in quite busy streets. It is fond of resting on sur- 
faces fully exposed to the sun, such as doors, gates, and rails, 
and to a less extent also on stone walls. Painted surfaces 
seem to be specially attractive to it. Its flight is quite in- 
audible at a short distance. When disturbed it frequently 
returns to the same spot, as though it were a favorite resting 
place. It is quite active during the warmer part of the day, 
and at night returns to some sheltered spot such as the beams 
in a shed. In Columbus the numbers of this species dwindled 
towards the end of October in 1912, but a few could be caught 
up to the end of November, and four specimens were taken on 
December 3rd. In captivity these flies live but a short time, 
generally less than a week. They frequently clean their wings, 
performing their cleaning with great precision, the hind pair 
of legs being used for this purpose. The lower surface is 
combed, then the upper, the legs are then rubbed together and 
the process repeated. 

Emergence from the egg. 

The larva makes its escape from the egg by splitting the 
broad end of the groove, leaving it slightly raised, and apparently 
intact on the opposite side, Plate XXII, Figure 1. 



200 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

The Larva. Plate XXII, Figs. 2 and 3. 

Color creamy white to yellowish, shiny, greasy in appear- 
ance. The coiled alimentary tract, when filled with food, 
gives the posterior portion a dark appearance. The longitudinal 
tracheae may be recognized as two submedian white lines 
which show delicate lateral branches. The posterior stigmata 
are black, while the thoracic ones are yellowish in color. 

In form the larva is elongate, tapering towards the head 
but broadly rounded behind. The segmentation is not very 
conspicuous, and the epidermis is bare, not having hairs nor 
bristles. On the head may be seen two large divergent mam- 
miform processes, at the end of which are the minute retractile 
antennae, which are apparently each composed of four sub- 
equal segments. The mouth parts are strongly chitinised in 
the full grown larva and are composed of a number of sclerites 
as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. 

The last seven segments are furnished, on their ventral 
surface, with raised bands of tactile tubercles. The posterior 
stigmata are two in number, circular, and somewhat distant 
from each other. The thoracic stigmata occupy a sub-lateral 
position on the third segment, and each consists of five cir- 
cular orifices, (t. s.). These are connected with a large bilateral 
,air sac which extends along the fourth segment. 
Method of pupation. 

The time taken for pupation is usually about two hours. 
The larva at first becomes quiet, and shortens rapidly, chiefly 
by the contraction of the anterior segments. In this way it 
assumes a form which resembles a barrel in shape. At this 
stage it is still yellowish white and the mouthparts of the larva 
are plainly visible through the soft integument. The color 
then changes to a bright yellow, and in about an hour longer 
it assumes the normal chestnut color of the puparium. 

The puparium is from 5 to 6 mm. in length, only eleven 
segments are visible, the anterior one bearing the minute, 
bilateral, thoracic stigmata, while the broadly rounded posterior 
segment shows the disc-like posterior stigmata. Under opti- 
mum conditions this stage lasts from 9 to 13 days. 
Development of the adult. 

About three days before the emergence of the adult fly, 
the cuticle of the puparium darkens, and eventually splits 
along the lateral and median lines, anteriorly, and trans- 



1913] Stomoxys calcitrans Linn. 201 

versely across the fourth segment. This section falls away 
and the fly escapes. Prior to this the nymph undergoes its 
final ecdysis, pushing its effete skin off backwards into the 
posterior end of the puparium. On its emergence it appears 
as a small dark fly, gray in color, with thick rudimentary 
wings of a dull leaden color. Its head is, at this stage, much 
wider than the thorax, and the abdomen is attenuated. At 
first it is very active, the period of activity evidently serving to 
allow the fly to force its way to the surface before the wings 
are fully grown and stiffened. The frontal sac is constantly 
inflated during this time, and no doubt serves in moving frag- 
ments of earth, etc. out of the way. When liberated the 
insect spends considerable amount of time in combing out the 
hairs on the arista of the antennae. 

During this time the fly constantly changes its position, 
and the frontal sac is -contracted. There are marked changes, 
too, in the abdomen and wings. The abdomen first becomes 
longer, and is constantly expanded and contracted, and grad- 
ually assumes its normal coloring, with the clove spots. The 
wings then begin to expand, a process which is completed in 
less than five minutes. 

The fiy is about its normal size, shape, and color at this time, 
but some time is taken in the final hardening of the integument, 
and in the final combing operations, which seem to be indispen- 
sible before flight. It is during this last process that the 
proboscis is at last raised into its horizontal position. 



REFERENCES. 
See Bibliography given in Part I, and also: 
Newstead, R. 1907. Stomoxys calcitrans Linn. Ann. Trop. Med. and Parasit. 
Vol. I. 1907. Liverpool. 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATE XXII. 

Fig. 1. Egg, greatly enlarged, showing groove, and point of emergence of the 
larva, e. 

Fig. 2. Lateral view of anterior segments of larva, showing ant, antenna; m, man- 
dible; h. s., hypostomal sclerite. 

Fig. 3. Dorsal view of anterior segments of larva of Stomoxys calcitrans. m, 
mandible; t. s., thoracic spiracle. 

Fig. 4. Openings of thoracic spiracle. 

Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4. After Newstead. 

Fig. 5. Semi-diagramatic view of adult fly. See Part I. 

Fig. 6. Salivary glands and left Malpighian tube of adult, see Part I. 

Fig. 7. Male reproductive organs: t, testis; v. s., vesicula seminalis; e. d., ejac- 
ulatory duct; r, rectum. 

Fig. 8. Female reproductive organs: o, ovary; ov, oviduct; u. g., uterine gland; 
11, uterus; r. s., receptacula seminis. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate XXII. 



py-ov. 






...t 



-e.d. 



®^- 







C. K. Brain. 



THE BIOLOGY OF PERLA IMMARGINATA SAY.* 

By Lucy Wright Smith. 

Introduction. Perhaps less is known concerning the Hfe- 
histories and habits of the Plecoptera than of any other group 
of aquatic insects. Hence a more extensive knowledge of stone- 
flies along biological lines is desirable. At the suggestion of 
Professor James G. Needham such a study was commenced 
at Ithaca in the fall of 1910. 

This locality with its many creeks and spring brooks is 
an excellent collecting ground for Plecoptera, and the equip- 
ment of the limnological laboratory of Cornell University 
makes an intensive study of aquatic forms possible. The 
essential factor in rearing stone-flies, as in many other stream- 
inhabiting insects, is running water. This is provided by a 
series of taps in a roof garden aquarium and also in a small 
artificial pond out of doors. 

Methods. With the hope of obtaining truer results by 
keeping conditions as natural as possible, most of this study 
is being carried on out-doors. Some care must be taken in 
transporting stone-fly nymphs from the stream to permanent 
quarters. Full grown nymphs can breathe air directly, and 
have been carried most successfully wrapped in a wet cloth or 
packed in damp moss. Smaller nymphs can be taken safely 
for short distances in collecting jars full of clean, cold water. 

In the artificial pond the nymphs are kept, eight to ten 
together, in cylindrical cages made of galvanized wire screen 
with cheese cloth covers. For small nymphs it is necessary to 
have the lower part of the cage lined with cloth. The cages 
are partially submerged in the current near the taps. With 
flat stones and bits of water weed in the bottom, and a steady 
flow of water, the nymphs can live a natural life. 

The shyness of adult stone-flies makes field observations at 
close range impossible. Consequently they are kept in screen 
cages of about two by three feet. Here again an imitation of 
natural environment is attempted. This is done by keeping 
green twigs, clumps of sod, stones and pans of water in the 
cages. 

*Contribution from the Limnological Laboratory of Cornell University. 

203 



204 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Although these pans of water are but a poor imitation of 
streams they suffice for most purposes. Better aerated water 
is necessary, however, for development of eggs. For this 
reason they are kept in running water in test-tubes closed at 
either end with fine silk bolting-cloth. 

Nymph. 

Habitat. This introductory paper includes only the obser- 
vations made in June, July and August of the past summer, 
upon a single species, Perla immarginata. The nymphs occur 
in moderate numbers in all the larger streams about Ithaca, 
and very abundantly in the spring brook at Coy Glen. This 
abundance may be accounted for by the fact that there is 
less competition for a livelihood in this stream, Perla immar- 
ginata reigns supreme at the height of its season, the middle 
of July, not only as the largest of the stone-flies, but of all the 
aquatic insects. In the other streams are several competitors 
of equal size and strength and many more enemies. 

Early in the spring, torrents of water rush through the glen, 
but in July and August the brook is reduced to a shallow 
stream. The high walls and the narrow, winding course of 
the gorge shut out so much sun-light that in spite of its shallow- 
ness, the water is always cold. Much of the stream bed is 
shale, free from sand and gravel, but well covered with a 
diatomaceous ooze. Here the water flows in a thin sheet. In 
other places are deeper pools strewn with clean, coarse gravel. 
Stones of all shapes and sizes are scattered along the stream. 
At this season, most of the stones, even the fiat ones on the 
rocky bed, are partly out of water. Generally these are the 
haunts of stone-fly nymphs just before emergence. 

Neighbors and enemies. These same stones shelter other 
creatures, fragile may-fly nymphs, chironomid larvae partially 
concealed in their slime tubes, and caddis worms standing 
guard behind their seines. Nearby on the rough floor of the 
stream hang the last stragglers of the mats of black fly larvae. 
In crevices on all sides lurk cray-fish, less welcome neighbors. 

Occurence. Late in June an occasional sprawling, nymphal 
skin clinging to the upper surface of a stone fortells the approach 
of the season for Perla immarginata. About three weeks later 
the casts are very numerous, and the overturning of a single 
stone sends a whole colony of the tiger-striped nymphs 
scampering in all directions in search of hiding places. 



1913] Biology of Perla immarginata Say. 205 

Length of Nymphal Life. Jt is evident at a glance that 
these nymphs are not all of the same size or stage of develop- 
ment. They fall into three groups. One contains very few 
individuals, these are small immature nymphs not more than 
half an inch in length. The second group, also a small one, 
is made up of nymphs about three quarters of an inch long. 
These are immature too, but older than first, larger and with 
small wing pads. The mature nymphs with their black wing 
pads form the largest group. 

As far as is known, the complete life-history of no stone-fly 
has been worked out. Therefore we can only speculate con- 
cerning the length of it, knowing of course that whatever it 
may be, by far the greater part is spent in the nymphal stage. 
From the brief period of incubation of the eggs of some of the 
smaller individuals of the group, Capnia for example, and from 
the appearance of mature nymphs only at the emerging season, 
it seems probable that the life-history of these is completed in a 
year. On the other hand, the three groups of nymphs of 
different size in Perla immarginata and allied species, seem to 
indicate, as in some of the larger may-flies, a longer period, 
probably three years. Just where the nymphs live when it is 
not the transformation season, is not known. 

Adaptations. A closer examination of the mature nymph 
shows that there are no external sexual characters. Never- 
theless, the females can be easily separated from the males 
because the dark brown eggs show through the sides of the 
abdomen. In addition, as one would expect, the males are 
smaller; they vary from three quarters of an inch to an inch in 
length. The females have the same degree of variation, the 
largest being about an inch and a quarter in length and the 
smallest a little less than an inch. The color pattern of the 
nymph, black banded with white or pale yellow, and snowy 
white tufts of the tracheal gills on the thorax behind and above 
each leg, would make them rather conspicuous if they lived in 
the open. (Figs. 3 and 4). 

The form of the nymph — flat-bodied, with flat, sprawling 
legs, and tarsi armed with two strong claws — is strikingly adapted 
for clinging. The legs are fringed with long hairs, which make 
them useful in swimming as well as running, and one need only 
disturb the nymphs to see how swiftly they can escape by 
either method. The shyness of stone-fly nymphs, their splendid 



206 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

adaptations for clinging, running and swimming niake their ex- 
istence fairly easy, especially in this stream where the crayfish 
is the only enemy of any account. 

Food Habits. The long standing supposition that stone-fly 
nymphs devour their weaker neighbors, has been confirmed for 
this species in a study of their food habits. This has been done 
by examining the stomach content of nymphs taken from the 
stream, and also by feeding those in captivity. Dissections of 
mature nymphs show the alimentary canals empty and in many 
cases even so collapsed that they are difficult to find at all. 
Likewise the nymphs kept for rearing refused all food for eight 
or ten days before transformation. 

With growing nymphs it is different; here it is a task to supply 
them with enough food to prevent their eating one another. 
In a single day three or four of these nymphs will dispose of a 
score or more black-fly larvae and half as many small may-fly 
nymphs. Their greed is brought out even more strikingly by 
examining the food mounts of nymphs taken from the' stream ; 
whole specimens of midge larvae are found not uncommonly 
and sometimes a may-fly nymph with even the gills intact. 
The mass of food, however, consists of innumerable shapeless 
scraps of chitin with scattered fragments of abdomens, setae, 
antennae, legs; or claws, whole heads, mandibles, maxillae, and 
labia, making possible the recognition of may-fly and stone-fly 
nymphs, midge and simulium larvae and pupae. 

The only evidence of any herbivorous tendency in this 
species is the presence of an immense number of diatoms in 
food amounts. Of course this is a question of direct or indirect 
eating. One would expect to find diatoms in a food mount 
made up of pieces of may-fly nymphs and chironomid larvae, 
and the natural supposition might be that the stone-fly got 
them second hand. Yet such a statement cannot be made 
without some hesitation, because the number of diatoms in the 
mounts seems to increase with a general decrease in the amount 
of food; and also because diatoms have been found to be the 
chief food of some of the smaller species of stone-flies. 

Transformation. Just before the time of transformation 
when the nymphs cease eating they become sluggish. And as 
the time approaches they crawl further and further toward 
the surface of the water, and flnally entirely out of it where 
they often remain for hours before emergence. The actual 



i 



1913] Biology of Perl a immarginata Say. 207 

casting of the skin has not been seen in this species. Although 
adults are rarely absolutely perfect specimens, the percent of 
individuals lost by inability to complete transformation is 
exceedingly small. Judging from the fact that no newly 
emerged insects have been found, it is thought that they must 
transform during the night, or more probably, in the early 
hours of the morning. 

Adtdts. 

Characteristics. The adult Perla immarginata, (Fig 5), is 
uniformly dull brown and much less conspicuous than the 
nymph. As soon as the insect loses its tracheal gills and 
gains four well developed wings, it is ready for aerial life. 
Unlike many adults with this equipment, some of the nymphal 
tendencies are carried over into this stage. Chief among these 
is the love for hiding. So great is their shyness that, even at 
the height of the emerging season, the adults are rarely found 
in the field. Repeated attempts at sweeping the foliage along 
the stream have met with little success. Careful searching of 
the rocky walls of the gorge has occasionally revealed an adult 
hidden away in a crack or crevice. Similar habits have been 
noticed in the adults kept in cages. They never rest on the 
twigs but crawl into hiding under the edge of the stones, or 
pans, or wherever they can wedge themselves into a tight place. 

Although they avoid day-light, artificial lights attract 
them at night. They have been found crawling along poles 
and fences, or in the road under electric lights in the neighbor- 
hood of streams. 

When disturbed the adults rarely seek escape by flight, but 
usually by running. Here again we see a nymphal trait, and 
a characteristic of the group. They are poor flyers and de- 
pendent upon their legs. Some stone-flies do not fly at all, 
although provided with fully developed wings. 

Food Habits. A striking difference between the nymph 
and adult is found in the structure of the mouth and in the 
food habits. A character long assigned to stone-flies is rudi- 
mentary mouth parts of a biting type. This is true for Perla 
immarginata, but not for the entire order. In this species 
we have the reduction of the strong chitinous mandibles to 
mere fleshy lobes, (Fig. 1). The very appearance of such an 
apparatus indicates its uselessness, and examination of the 



208 



Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



alimentary canal of adults taken in the field, has confirmed 
this. Water seems much more essential than food for these 
adults. If ever found out of hiding in their cages, they were 
almost sure to be on the stones in the pans with their mouths 
buried in water. Entirely deprived of water, ' the average 
length of life is shortened by several days. 






Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



Fig. 1. 

a. Left mandible of the nymph, inner surface. 

b. Left mandible of the adult, same view and magnification. 

Fig. 2. 

a. Abdomen of the female, ventral view showing the modification of the eighth 
sternite. 

b. Abdomen of the male, dorsal view showing the genital armature with the 
penis extruded. 

Both figures drawn -to the same scale. 



The voraciousness of the nymphs is necessary, since the 
adults abstain from food and since enough energy must be 
stored up to last through aerial life and the completion of the 
final function, reproduction. 

Mating. Ordinarily mating begins soon after emergence. 
The readiness with which it takes place in captivity has been a 
great surprise on account of the natural timidity of stone-flies. 
Frequently pairs have been found in copula in the breeding 
cages and have been removed to adult quarters without arousing 
enough alarm to cause their separation. By careful manipu- 
lation copulating pairs can even be held in the palm of the 
hand. This has made a detailed study of mating possible. 



1913] Biology of Perla immarginata Say. 209 

Difference in size and external sexual characters make dis- 
tinguishing the sexes easy. The smallest males measure not 
more than an inch to the tip of the wings, and the greatest 
measurement for a female is one and three-fourths inches. In 
the female the, posterior border of the eighth sternite is thickened 
and slightly emarginate in the middle, (Fig. 2, A). The exter- 
nal sexual appendages of the male, although hidden b}^ the 
wings, are much more prominent. The fifth tergite is pro- 
longed in the form of a fork extending over the sixth and most 
of the seventh tergites. The tip of this meets a groove running 
through the mid dorsal hne on the eighth, and surrounded on 
either side by papillose prominences. The ninth segment is 
shortened, and the tenth is slightly elongate ending in two 
strong recurved hooks, (Fig. 2, B). 

Just how such an apparatus operated was not obvious at 
first or even second glance, in fact not until copulation was 
actually seen. The male rests upon the female grasping her 
wings and abdomen with the legs of one side, and supporting 
himself with the legs of the other side. Then bending the end 
of the abdomen around that of the female, and arching it for- 
ward, the male presses close against the female and pulls down 
the lamina, forcing the recurved hooks up into the vagina. 
After a few seconds, the male starts a slightly rythmic motion 
by alternately pulling to and fro. As the motion becomes 
greater, the hooks are gradually withdrawn, and there is ex- 
posed between them a white, fleshy penis resting in-'the groove 
and supported toward the tip, by the fork on the fifth tergite. 
This rythmic motion seems to be pump-like in action. With 
a quick jerk the recurved hooks are brought up against the 
fork, an act which causes the contraction of the penis and 
forces the seminal fluid up into the vagina. The expansion 
is slower, allowing the penis to become refilled. Undisturbed, 
copulation usually lasts about forty-five or fifty minutes. 
Except for microscopic horny papillae on the tip, the penis is 
entirely fleshy and composed of two telescopic segments. After 
copulation, it is gradually retracted into the body just below 
the anal opening, and entirely hidden inside. 

Egg-laying. As is commonly known, stone-flies do not deposit 
their eggs directly, but carry them around for a time in a 
mass at the end of the abdomen. It is hard to see the reason 
for this. Apparently it is not to be found in the condition of 



210 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

the egg itself, for there seems to be no difference between eggs 
just extruded and those carried for a couple of hours, half a 
day, or longer. There is a constant regularity in the length of 
time that elapses between copulation and extrusion of eggs, but 
not in the length of time eggs are carried. Individuals in the 
same cage eventually deposit their eggs in the same place, but 
one may carry them two hours, and another nearly a day 
under exactly the same conditions. 

I am in doubt as to the normal method of depositing eggs. 
In the field, smaller species, carrying eggs, are often seen on 
the stones in streams as if they were about to crawl down to the 
water. And again they appear flying low along the stream and 
dipping to the surface as if ovipositing. No such observations 
have been made upon the larger species. The few adults of 
Perla immarginata which have been seen dropping their eggs 
in the pans seemed to do it more from accident than from 
intention. They were crawling around the stones and had 
floundered into the water. The instant they came in contact 
with the water the eggs dropped to the bottom of the pan. 
But many masses of eggs have been found in the pans too far 
from the edge, or from the stones, for them to have been dropped 
except from above, or by the individuals having actually crawled 
into, or on the water. 

Concerning the place where the eggs are deposited there 
is no doubt. When the globular mass touches the water the 
eggs begin to separate. In the pans they finally settle down into 
a patch one layer deep, (Fig. 6). Of course this is not the case 
in the streams where the current scatters them broadcast. 
They are not tossed about long, however, for as soon as they 
come in contact with any object they become attached by the 
glutinous cap which surrounds the micropylar apparatus. 
These eggs are about half a millimeter long, dark brown in 
color and oval-shaped. Except for a single circular ridge the 
chorion is without ornamentation, (Fig. 7). 

In following the movement of the different adults from day 
to day it was necessary to have some means of identifying 
them as individuals. As has been previously stated, an abso- 
lutely perfect adult is rare. Consequently it was a very simple 
matter to recognize individuals on such characters as a broken 
antenna 'or seta, a tarsus minus a segment or two, an imperfect 
wing, and so on. In this way during the season thirty-two 



1913] Biology of Perl a immarginata Say. 211 

females and twelve males were kept under close observation. 
It was soon found that all the eggs were not deposited at one 
time. A few hours after the first mass was laid, mating oc- 
curred again, and within twenty-four hours a second lot had 
been deposited. Often there was a third mass, and in a few 
instances a fourth. These followed less rapidly. 

As one would expect each successive mass was smaller 
than the one preceding. A thousand eggs is ample average 
for a first mass and four masses together would not total over 
sixteen hundred. It seems likely that a large number of eggs 
must reach the hatching stage. The chances of fertilization 
are good since copulation occurs more than once, also if one 
mass has fallen in an unfavorable place there is a possibility 
that the others have met with better luck. Yet the number of 
individuals which reach maturity is comparatively small. A 
great loss probably occurs during the early nymphal stage 
when the small white nymphs would be dainty morsels for 
many a larger creature. 

Mating has the usual effect upon the length of life of the 
adults. When males and females are caged together the 
average female dies after six or seven days and the male after 
nine or ten. On the other hand if the sexes are kept apart 
they live twelve or thirteen- days. 

Only a small proportion of the eggs laid in captivity were 
kept for development. These were easily loosened from the 
pan with a pipette, removed to the glass tubes and put into 
running water. They have not yet hatched. 

Ordinarily the one great difficulty which has stood out 
above all others, in attempting to get a com.plete life history 
of a stone-fly has been in the handling of the very young nymphs. 
Although a variety of methods have been tried, nymphs have 
not been kept alive for longer than ten days. Whether this 
is due to lack of proper environment, the right kind of food, or 
both, can not be said. The only possibility of tracing the life- 
cycle of a stone-fly, from egg to adult, seems to hinge upon a 
more complete knowledge of the early nymphal life. 

PLATE XXIII. 
Fig. 3. Dorsal view of the nymph, natural size. 
Fig. 4. Ventral view of the nymph, natural size. 
Fig. 5. Adult female, natural size. 
Fig. 6. Mass of eggs, about 4 times natural size. 
Fig. 7. A single egg, greatly enlarged. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate XXIII. 




Lucy M. Smith. 



THE LIFE-HISTORY OF A BEE-FLY (SPOGOSTYLUM 

ANALE SAY) PARASITE OF THE LARVA OF A TIGER 

BEETLE (CICINDELA SCUTELLARIS SAY VAR. 

LECONTEI HALD.). 

By Victor E. Shelford. 

PAGE 

I. Introduction 213 

II. Life History of the Parasite {Spogostylum') 215 

1. Adult Habit 215 

2. Egg Laying 215 

3. Egg 216 

4. Larva 217 

5. Pupa and Adult 219 

III. Other Species , 222 

IV. Ecological and Geographic Distribution of Parasite and Host 222 

V. Summary 225 

VI . Acloiowledgments and Bibliography 225 

I. Introduction. 

The life histories of the American BombyHidae are imper- 
fectly known and this lack of knowledge is due largely to the 
difficulty of studying parasitic forms. The species in question 
is never abundant and consequently much time has been con- 
sumed in getting together the data for the account here pre- 
sented. Near Chicago it occurs on dry sandy places where 
there is much vegetation and where the sand is slightly blackened 
with humus. The data presented were collected mainly in 
connection with work upon the host which involved collecting 
and rearing to maturity about a thousand host larvse. 

The larva of the parasite was first discovered in 1904 but 
none was successfully reared until 1906; the method of egg 
laying was not successfully observed until 1908 and 1909 while 
attempts to study the adult habits in 1910 and 1911 were only 
partially successful. 

Life History of the Host. 

Cicindela sciitellaris Say var. Lecontei Hald. is found in areas 
of dry sand to which considerable humus has been added by 
decaA^ng vegetation (Wickham '02, Shelford '07, '11). Adults 
are present near Chicago from April to June and again in Sep- 
tember. The fall individuals are those emerging from the 
pupal stage and are not sexually mature. These individuals 
pass the winter in the ground, become sexually mature after 
the warm days in April and deposit eggs in May and early June. 

213 



214 



Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



The young larvae appear in late May and early June. The 
larvae live in vertical burrows which end at the surface in a 
smooth circular opening (Fig. 2; also bh of Fig. 16, p. 221), They 
pass through three instars, the first two of which are about 
one month each in duration. The third and last stage is 
reached in the last part of July, in August and early Septem- 
ber. These stages pass the winter in the burrows, appearing 
at the surface in May, and feeding until from June 20 to July 
20. Each larva then digs a pupal (pch of Fig. 16, p. 221) 
burrow filling the main burrow at the same time. The larva 
remains quiet in this cavity for about three weeks when it 
pupates if it has not been parasitized, and emerges in August, 
making its way to the surface about three weeks later. 




Fig. 1. The adult fly about twice natural size. 

Fig. 2. A burrow of a larva of the second instar of C. scutellaris Lecontei, about 
natural size. 

Fig. 3. General habitat of C. scutellaris Lecontei at a point where the fly was 
observed ovipositing, and the kind of situation in which the parasite 
is most abundant. The burrows of two larvae of the host are in the 
last instar, and are visible above the small arrows. 



1913] Life-History of a Bee-Fly. 215 

II. Life History of the Parasite {Spogostylum). 

1. Adult Habits. 

The adult is a bright shiny velvet black fly with the basal 
two thirds of the wings black and the distal third transparent. 
(Fig. 1). It occurs in July and August, in open spots on sandy 
soil, especially in the kinds of situation shown in Fig. 3, where 
herbaceous vegetation and flowers are numerous. It is com- 
monly associated with other bee flies such as Anthrax impiger 
Coq., Anthrax fulvohirta Weid., and Anthrax molitor Loew. 
which are much more abundant and often visit flowers in 
numbers, also Exoprosopa, which probably lays in the burrows 
of the Bembecid wasps. The habits of the male Spogostylum 
have not been observed. The female usually alights near the 
ground on the lowest plants or on sticks and leaves. In sunny 
weather she starts with remarkable swiftness when a shadow is 
passed over her but appears not to be stimulated by the pres- 
ence of the observer under other conditions. In cloudy weather 
the writer has shaken an insect net within a few inches of one of 
the flies without causing her to move. The food habits have 
not been observed but a single individual lapped sugar and 
water from a piece of paper, while in captivity. 

2. Egg Laying. 

The female flies about two inches above the clear open 
sand in an irregular somewhat zig-zag fashion until apparently 
b\' chance its eyes pass above a hole in the sand, (Figs. 2 and 3). 
When this happens, the fly suddenly halts and moves backward 
and downward in a curved course. At the same time the 
abdomen is thrust forward so that it touches the surface of the 
sand at a point 5 to 10 mm. from the edge of the hole. The impact 
of the abdomen upon the sand is sufficient to perceptibly move 
small particles, some of which appear to fall in the burrow. 
The thrusts are usually repeated a number of times. After 
each movement, the fly returns to approximately, the posi- 
tion at which the thrust began. The sight of the hole 
below the eyes acts as a trigger which sets off the thrusting 
reflex. The host larvae frequently rest in the burrow some 
distance below the surface. On two occasions the fly stopped 
thrusting when the larva appeared near the surface. The size 
and shape of the hole appear not to be of prime importance. 



216 



Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



Burrows of the second instar of Cicindela are most frequently 
visited. This is probably due to the fact that these holes are 
most abundant. The burrows of young spiders {Geolycosa) 
which have a web around the opening, are not rejected while 
holes of the first and third instars of Cicindela as well as par- 
tially covered holes produce the reaction at least once. General 
results of one observation are shown in table I. 

TABLE I. 

A Se\'t:n Minute Observation of the Egg Laying Reaction of a Female 

Spogostylum, July 16, 10:30 a. m. 



Hole Producing 
Reflex 


Stage 


No. of 
Thrusts 


Remarks 


Burrow of — 
C. Lecontei 


2d. 


7 


Larva appeared. 


Geolycosa 


young 


3-5 


Web surrounding opening. 


Large nondescript hole . 






Rejected after halt without thrust 


Burrow of — 
C. Lecontei 


2 d. 


6 


Stick half covering hole. 


C. Lecontei 
C. Lecontei 


2 d. 
1st 


2 
2 


Burrow less than one cm. deep 
due to closing near surface; 
probably during moult. 


C. Lecontei 


2 d. 


5 


Stick across hole. 


C. Lecontei 


3 d. 


3-5 


Partially covered. 



A summary of the observation of egg laying is as follows: 
Egg laying thrusts were executed, by two individuals observed, 
before holes as follows: One first larval stage of the host, 
eighteen second larval stages including one partially covered 
with a stick, and a shallow one (filled below the surface) ; one 
third stage of Cicindela, one small spider hole. One large 
nondescript hole arrested the flight but did not produce the 
egg laying thrust. 

S. Egg, {Fig. 4). 

A female taken while laying was found to contain a very 
large number of eggs, which could be squeezed out by a gentle 
pressure upon the abdomen. The eggs are light brown ellip- 
soids .28 mm. by .12 mm. They are not adhesive. 



19131 



Life-History of a Bee- Fly. 



217 



4. Larva (Fig. 5). 
Young larvae are most commonly found singly on the 
ventral side of the thorax of host larvae of the third instar, 
where they cling between the legs. No second instars have 
been found with parasites. While in the position between the 
legs they cannot be reached by the host and do not come 
readily into contact with the sides of its burrow. There are 
however frequent exceptions to this, for host larvae not infre- 
quently have more than one larva between the legs or single larvae 
on other parts of the body. One host larva had in addition to 
the parasite on the ventral side of the throax, two others on the 
posterior third of the abdomen. Attempts to secure eggs or 
young larvae from sand gathered from the edges of burrows 
about which eggs had been laid or to rear larva from eggs 
squeezed from a laying female, have failed. Neither have we 





Figures 4-10. Early larval stages of Spogostylum anale Say. 
Fig. 4. The egg; enlarged about five diameters. 
Fig. 5. A young larva of the second stage; about five times natural size, in a 

somehwat curved position. 
Fig. 6. The same in position enlarged about nine times. 
Fig. 7. At the time of moving to the abdomen; enlarged about five times. The 

larva has withdrawn its anterior half from the old integument. 
Fig. 8. The larva in position in the thorax, showing the ring of thickened 

chitin(r) in the integument of the host and the long slender mandibles 

in position. 
Fig. 9. The larva after one day on the abdomen of the host: about five times 

natural size. 
Fig. 10. The larva at the end of the second day upon the abdomen. 



218 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol, VI, 

discovered how the larva reaches the body of the host. The 
host larva with the three parasites was placed in a tube of sand 
one inch in diameter together with two other host larvas, one 
bearing tWo parasites and the other uninfested. The double 
and triple infested hosts died leaving five parasitic larvas in 
the tube with the one live host larva. None of the parasites 
reached the host larva. Host larvae dug from the point where a 
female fly was seen, to deposit eggs on July 16 had parasites 
of the first and second instars on the ventral thorax - when 
removed from their burrows Sept. 23d. About 7 percent of the 
host larvae are parasitized. While some catches of fifty host 
larvae were as high as 16 percent infested others were quite free 
from parasites. This is particularly true in the pine area (see 
p. 222), where only one out of several hundred host larvae were 
parasitized. 

The structure of the larva was but little studied on account 
of lack of material. The head segment bears the usual mandi- 
bles, which are long and curved. They pierce the integument 
of the host obliquely; a ring of thickened chitin develgps about 
them and the mouth is brought into contact with the center 
of the ring and thus with the tissues and fluids of the body 
(Fig. 8). The number of larval moults has not been fully 
determined and the following account is not necessarily ac- 
curate. The smallest larvae found are from 0.5 to 0.6 mm. 
in length and are evidently in the first instar. These were taken 
in late summer and autumn and occasionally in spring. Most 
of these larvas moult in the fall; all pass the winter attached 
to the body of the host, those of the first stage moulting in early 
May. When the larva moults, the integument splits in the 
region of the thorax. The anterior end of the body is withdrawn 
from the old skeletal parts, leaving the old mandibular skeleton 
imbedded in the host. The posterior part of the larva apparently 
remains in the old integument until the new integument of the 
head region is hardened when a new attachment to the host 
is affected. When again attached, the larva withdraws the 
abdomen from the exuvium (Figs. 5, 6 and 7). 

The larvas of the second instar, (length 1.2 to 1.6 mm.), 
probably moult again after the host has fed about a month 
(early June) , but this is not certain because exact measurements 
could not be made of the small living larv® while attached to 
the host and they could not be removed without killing them. 



1913] Life-History of a Bee-Fly. 219 

A third moult takes place about the time the host stops feeding 
(late June), but in the cases observed, before the pupal cell is 
constructed. This moult clearly takes place but the larva 
again could not be accurately measured. 

In late June the host constructs the pupal cell {pcli of Fig. 
16, p 221) and becomes relatively inactive but does not normally 
pupate for a month. The parasite does not grow rapidly until 
the host has been in the pupal cell for about three weeks. By 
this time the old organs of the host have for the most part, 
broken down and the internal parts are in a semifluid condition. 
The parasitic larva now moults again and this time leaves its 
former position completely. In the four or five cases observed 
it moved to about the middle of the ventral side of the host, 
(Fig. 9). It will be noted that at the time of the previous 
moults of the parasite the host was active and if the larvae had 
completely released its hold at any of these times the result 
would probably have been its own destruction. At the time 
of this fourth moult, on the other hand, the host is almost 
unable to move. Immediately upon securing the new source 
of food through the abdomen of the host the parasite begins to 
grow more rapidly and more than doubles its length in 48 
hours. The length at the time of the fourth moult is about 
4.5 mm.; after 24 hours the length is 6.5 mm. (Fig. 9), and 
during the next 24 hours the larva reaches . a length of 1 cm. 
(Fig. 10), which is two-thirds the length of the abdomen of the 
host. At the end of 144 hours the parasitic larva is full grown 
(Fig. 11). The length is now 1.8 cm. and all of the later rapid 
growth has apparently taken place without further moulting. 
The full grown larva passes six or seven days in the pupal cavity 
of the host in a quiescent stage before the pupal moult occurs. 

5. 'Pupa and Adult. 

The pupa is of the type common among the diptera. There 
are four curved hooks upon the anterior side of the head united 
at the base in the form of a fan (Figs. 12 and 13). Two smaller 
hooks on the ventral side of the head appear to correspond in 
position to the antennae. There is a circle of long stiff bristles 
on each segment of the abdomen together with U shaped 
bristles on the dorsal side. The pupa upon emerging is un- 
pigmented; the hooks on the head become dark in about five 
days; the head becomes light brown in nine days and dark 



220 



Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



brown in thirteen days; pigment appears in the wings at the 
end of thirteen days in the center of the segments of the abdomen 
in two weeks. Pigmentation is apparently complete in about 
sixteen to eighteen days (July 13 to Aug. 3). 




Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 



Figures 11-14. Late larvee and pupal stages. 
Full grown larva showing the leg buds; enlarged five times. 
Side view of the pupa; enlarged five times. 
Front view of the anterior end of a fly pupa. 
Front view of the posterior end of the same. 

Some time soon after the pigment is completely developed, 
the pupa begins to. use the hooks for digging. In this process 
the numerous long stiff bristles arranged in a ring about the 
segments and projecting backward are of much importance for 
they tend to make simple movements either push the 
body forward or push loose sand backward. The large U- 
shaped bristles along the dorsal side may or may not function in 
this way also. The main digging operations are carried on by 
means of the hooks on the head. The two spines of the poster- 
ior end serve as anchoring organs. The body is curved dorsal- 
ward in the form of a bow with the dorsal side pressed against 
the upper side of the burrow. The U-shaped bristles prom- 
inent upon the dorsal side may function as anchors in this 



1913] Life-History of a Bee- Fly. 221 

« 

operation. The two posterior spines are thrust into the floor 

of the burrow and the curvature is increased, which cause the 
head to move back as shown in Fig. 15. After a number of 
hoeing movements, the pupa usually wriggles backward carry- 
ing the sand with it by means of the bristles and again wriggles 
forward until the head is in contact with the end of the burrow. 
The hoeing movement is repeated or less frequently the body is 
rotated, the hooks serving as a boring organ. 

. 6h 




f^'' 






y-'^'pc/y-^" 1|: 



^■■■'•■■■' \--., '"''^^''\^ -■■■:-:i:- ■.■'■■.■■■:■■'■■■-. I £. . 

r~"=-.-,- . ■ ■■'^.■.,„i^^.':^^- ■ ■.••;:;::.';^-v;:/>/-- J |-:.v.- 

Figures 15-16. Emergence from the ground. 
Fig. 15. Diagram showing the movement of the pupa in digging its way out of 

the ground. Natural size (a). 
Fig. 16. Showing the burrow and pupal cell of the host with the path dug by the 

pupa of Spogostylum. 

The boring movement was observed in the case of one in- 
dividual, the host of which had been confined in a glass tube 
eight inches long and one and one-half inches in diameter. 
The burrow and pupal cell of the host were constructed in 
contact with the glass. Much of the life history of one parasite 
was thus observed. The digging of the parasite pupa began at 
night, and was not noted until the middle of the next forenoon 
(July 15), [began in pch of Fig. 16, p. 221]. During the last eight 
hours the larva progressed at the rate of 1 cm. per hour. It moved 
in contact with the glass and traveled more than once around the 
tube just inside the glass. The total distance through which 
the parasite dug was about 24 cm. Apparently immediately 
upon reaching the surface the fly emerged. It left the pupal 
integument sticking in the burrow. The emergence of the fly 
was not observed as the last centimeter of digging was accom- 
plished in less than 20 minutes and the fly emerged between 
observations. The adult was found resting on a small blade 
of grass near the hole. This adult lived only about two days. 



222 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

A pupa removed to a watch glass with the bottom covered 
with moist filter paper executed the digging movements for a 
day or more, but failed to emerge. One reared in a very small 
amount of sand and between two glass plates dug to the surface 
and then back into the sand again. It emerged in imperfect 
condition within the sand. 

III. Other Species. 
Work on the European species of the family Bombyliidae is 
also far from extensive. Dufour gave an account of the larvae, 
pupae, and adult habit of Bombylius major. He found this 
species in March 1857 on the sloping banks of sand hills with 
southern exposure. He saw the fly light quickly at the openings 
of the burrows of IJymenoptera. In the locality, the burrowing 
hymenoptera were principally Andrenidse and especially Colletes 
hirta. Dufour was never able however to find the egg of the 
fly. Williston '08, p. 213, summarizes the known hosts of the 
Bombylidae. In connection with the study of Spogostylum 
anale (July 30), Artthrox impiger was seen resting on the ground 
touching the abdomen to the surface of the sand. Anthrax 
impiger Coq. (July 16-30), lights on blossoms of horse mint, 
etc. or rests on other objects on the ground. Two, a pair, of 
Exoprosopa fascipennis Say were taken while flitting before a 
burrow of Microbembex monodonta. 

IV. Ecological and Geographic Distribution. 
1 . Ecological Distribution of Parasite and Host. 

Near Chicago, the fly larvae appear to be confined to C. 
Lecontei. - One or two larvae of C. hirticollis which do not 
occur with those of C. Lecontei were found to bear similar 
parasites. Adults of Spogostylum have never been seen near 
the C. hirticollis habitat. C. purpurea limbalis which lives 
on steep clay bluffs is parasitized by a larvae somewhat different 
from that of Spogostylum. 

In 1907 and 1912 I pointed out that the development of 
vegetation upon the sand areas at the head of Lake Michigan 
takes places in an orderly fashion. Cottonwoods are the pio- 
neers and are accompanied by Cicindela lepida. Only one 
Spogostylum anale Say has been seen in these localities and this 
when a strong wind was blowing from a more favorable habitat. 
The cottonwoods are succeeded by pines and Spogostylum is 
rare among them. Cicindela formosa generosa occurs in the 



1913] Life-History of a Bee- Fly. 223 

mixed pine and cottonwood areas but none of these have been 
found with parasites. The large pit and goose-neck burrow- 
probably prevent this species from serving as a host (Shelford, 
'08). Very few parasitized Cicindela Leconti larvae have been 
taken here though the host is only a little less abundant than 
in the oak* area. It is on the margins of the depressions in the 
pine areas that the larvae of C. tranqueharica Hbst. are numerous 
(Shelford '07) but none of those of this species were found 
parasitized, though the number of larvae dug was great. 

Spogostylitm anale and its host species are most abundant 
in the early stages of the black oak forest where cacti occur 
(Fig. 3). The exact landscape aspect is significant only as an 
index of the physicial conditions. The evaporation in these 
open oak forests is about one half that of the cottonwood 
area and less than that of the pine area. The available soil 
moisture is less (Shelford, '12). • 

2. Geographic Distribution. 

American dipterologists have kindly supplied me with 
data on the distribution of Spogostylum anale as follows: 

Prof. D. W. Coquillett: Sandy Hook, N. J.; Indiana; 
Carbondale, 111.; Mississippi; British Columbia; Washington; 
Mesilla, N. M.; St. Louis, Mo.; Shreveport, La.; Georgia; 
Enterprise, Fla. ; Cambridge, Mass. 

Dr. J. S. Hine: Mission, British Columbia; Onaga, Kansas; 
Akron, Ohio; Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Dr. C. T. Brues: Douglas Co., Kansas; Crete, Nebr. ; 
Austin, Texas. 

Dr. C. F. Adams: Jackson Co., Mo.; Lawrence, Kan.; 
Clark Co., Kan.; Fayetteville, Ark. 

Prof. E. P. Felt: South Britian, Conn.; Albany, N. Y. 

Prof. J. H. Comstock: Manlius, N. Y. 

Dr. A. L. Meander: Galveston, Texas; Golden, Colo. 

Map (Fig. 17) shows the distribution area of the host 
(A) generously represented by connecting the more remote 
localities along nearly direct lines where suitable habitats are 
known to occur. The distribution of the parasite is wider 
than that of the host species including all varieties extending 
into Mexico and along the Pacific coast. Accordingly the 
parasite must use another host. Several other species of the 
tiger beetles may no doubt serve this purpose. 



224 



Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



Some of the flies reared in a hot green house lacked the white 
hairs along the abdomen, which characterize the species. Prof. 
Williston tells me that these hairs were absent from specimens 
taken in Mexico and doubtfully referred to this species by 
Osten Sacken. 




Showing the distribution area of the host species. (A of the legend.) 
The area blocked out is generous including all the probable territory. 
The crosses (B of the legend) represent state and country records. 
The round dots (C of the legend) represent some of the definite 
localities from which the fiy has been recorded. 



1913] Life-History of a Bee-Fly. 225 



y. Summary. 

1. The adult fly deposits eggs at the edge of circular 
openings in sand. In the areas inhabited by the flies (near 
Chicago) these openings are usually the larval burrows of C. 
scutellaris Lecontei Hald. p 215. 

2. The sight of the burrow opening, beneath the eyes 
appears to call forth the egg laying reflex, p. 215. , 

3. The larv£e live as ectoparasites upon the tiger beetle 
larvae for a little less than one year, growing slowly and moult- 
ing several times, p. 217. 

4. When the host is ready to pupate, the larva moults, 
moves to the abdomen and grows to adult size in about six 
days, p. 219. 

5. When the pupa is fully mature it digs out by means of 
hooks on its head and backward projecting bristles on the 
abdomen. The digging is sometimes downward for a time and 
lasts for more than 24 hours, p. 221. 

6. The parasite is more widely distributed than its host, 
p. 223. 

VI. Acknowledgments and Bibliography. 

The writer is indebted to Dr. S. W. Williston and Mr. C. A. 
Hart for the identification of the Bombyliidee, and to the 
gentlemen named above for the distribution records. 



Aldrich, J. M. A Catalogue of North America Diptera. Smithsonian Miscl. Coll, 

Vol. XLVI, (No. 1444). Cites work on life histories. 
Dixfour, Leon. '58. Histoire des Metamosphoses du Bombylius major. Ann. Soc. 

Ent. Ser. 3. Tome. 6. pp. 503-511, pi. 13-111. Fig. 1-9. 
Shelford, V. E. '07. Preliminary Note on the Distribution of the Tiger Beetles 

and its Relation to Plant Succession. Biol. Bull. Vol. XIV, pp. 9-24. 
Shelford, V. E. '08. Life histories and Larval Habits of the Tiger Beetles. Linn. 

Soc'y's Journal Zoology, Vol. 30, pp. 157-184. 
Shelford, V. E. '12. Ecological Succession IV. Vegetation and the Control of 

Animal Communities. Biol. Bull. XXIII, pp. 59-99. 
Townsend, C. H. T. '93. The Pupa of Argyramoeba oedipus Fabr. (Spogostylum). 

Am. Nat. Vol. XXVII. No. 313, pp. 60-63. Jan., 1893. 
Wickham, H. T. '02. Habits of North American Cicindelidae. Proc. Davenport 

Ac. of Nat. Sci., Vol. 7, pp. 206-228. 
Williston, S. W. '08. Manual of North American Diptera. New Haven. 



A NEW APPLICATION OF TAXONOMIC PRINCIPLES. 

By Charles H. T. Townsend, Lima, Peru. 

Scarcely more than half a century has passed since the 
belief was generally entertained as indisputable that species 
and other taxonomic categories were fixed and unchangeable 
entities. The basic elements of current taxonomy date a 
century farther back. 

Our taxonomic system was founded on the principle of 
permanency in organic morphology, without any idea of 
change and evolution. In its original concept and application 
it was therefore inelastic and not in accord with the facts. We 
have been constantly endeavoring, however, to apply this 
inelastic system to the elastic morphology of living matter. 
The result is a demonstration of incompatibility between the 
two. 

Any taxonomic system must be arbitrary and fixed in 
certain of its fundamental aspects, but it must also accord 
with phylogenetic facts. A radically new system is not here 
proposed, but merely a modification of the current system to 
fit the phylogenetic facts that we find today. It is not held 
that living matter is morphologically changing with such 
rapidity that it needs a system which will change within a 
lifetime in order to keep up with the progress of evolution. 
But it is held that living forms exhibit distinct phylogenetic 
phases according to the age of the stocks of which they form 
a part, and that this fact must be taken into account in their 
taxonomic treatment. 

No stock is today changing rapidly enough in nature for us 
to note the specific steps of change. But if we pass all stocks 
in phylogenetic review we are struck most forcibly with the 
successive but gradual change of conditions exhibited as we 
proceed from the oldest to the youngest stocks. In such re- 
view we get an instantaneous reflection of the bimorphologic 
changes which take place in time. 

It has fallen to the lot of the writer to make a critical study 
of the morphology and phylogeny of the muscoid flies, which 
undoubtedly comprise some of the youngest stocks of insects, 
and to attempt to establish a taxonomic treatment of them 
which shall accord with their morphology and phylogeny and 

226 



1913] New Application of Taxonomic Principles. 227 

thus prove satisfactory from all practical points of view. In 
this task difficulties have been encountered which can only 
be surmounted by conforming to lines of logical simplicity. 
Phylogenetic facts can not be changed. The logical alternative 
is to change our pseudophylogenetic plan of taxonomy to a 
phylogenetic one. 

The history of muscoid taxonomy furnishes a vivid illus- 
tration of the necessity for such change. The chronologic 
alternation between splitting and lumping has been constant, 
• but always gradually tending toward greater radicalism in the 
former. Brauer and Bergenstamm were the first students 
of the superfamily to recognize the difference in phylogenetic 
conditions existing here and to put the idea into words. Their 
system of taxonomy shows that they approached much nearer 
to the truths of phylogeny than had any former students of 
the group, but they failed in many cases to grasp the relation- 
ships because they had no uniformly true criterion thereto 
in the external adult anatomy. It has been left for students 
since their time to discover criteria in the reproductive system 
and early . stages that furnish unmistakable clues to these 
relationships. 

It was the good fortune of the writer to figure largely in 
the last named investigations, and therefore to obtain facts 
which constitute a definite basis for phylogenetic deductions. 
Once such deductions are authoritative — recognized as unmis- 
takably founded on fact — we are able to proceed with confidence 
in the separation of forms of diverse origin, however similar 
may be their external morphology. This process brings us 
face to face with phylogenetic facts that could never before 
be confidently accepted, and with many which were never 
before suspected to exist. It compels us to draw lines where 
such were never before imagined, and it emphasizes with 
extreme force the shortcomings of current taxonomy if applied 
to young stocks. 

The writer claims in this connection nothing more than a 
clear view and conscientious record of what has come within 
his range of vision. The privilege of applying a phylogenetic 
key to the taxonomy of some of the youngest and most obscurely 
differentiated groups of insects has been his, and it has furnished 
him an insight into the relationships of these groups and into 
the taxonomic needs of young stocks in general that was only 



228 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

dimly comprehended before. The one who uses this key con- 
scientiously and with fair judgment must get this insight. It 
only remains to bring the taxonomy into accord with the 
conditions. This is no simple matter, but it is capable of 
adjustment. 

A careful comparative study of muscoid conditions by the 
writer, extending over the past five or six years and beginning 
before the reproductive and early-stage criteria became available 
has resulted in what may be called the typic-atypic application 
of taxonomic principles. The idea was dimly comprehended 
in 1907 from a study of the external adult anatomy alone and 
published in May, 1908 (Tax. Musd. FHes), while a clearer 
perception of it was gained and the foundation for its practical 
application laid during the next few months and the results 
published in September, 1908 (Rec. Res. from Rear, and Dis. 
Tach.). From that time to the present the typic-atypic idea 
in taxonomy has kept pace with the progress of the investiga- 
tions into the reproductive and early-stage characters of the 
muscoid flies as compared with their external adult morphology. 
The working out of the scheme of application with /the view of 
ultimately bringing it to a point of completeness has been 
laborious in the extreme, and many mistakes and new starts 
have been made. Theoretical phylogeny and a taxonomic 
application to match have been constantly checked up by 
practical and actual phylogeny, thus showing errors that have 
had to be corrected. 

The writer has been still further fortunate in being able to 
spend some time during the past three years, 1910 to 1912, in 
several districts of the Andean montanya in Peru and Ecuador, 
perhaps the most favored biotic region on earth and thus the 
best adapted to illustrate the working out of phylogenetic 
principles in nature. Here he has been tremendously impressed 
with the extreme richness in transitional forms displayed by 
certain of the youngest muscoid stocks, which have furnished 
additional proofs of the soundness of the typic-atypic system of 
treatment. A paper on these forms is forthcoming (New Gen. 
and Spp. Muse. Flies, chiefly Hystriciidae from the And. Mon- 
tanya) . 

The typic-atypic system calls into use the new group-unit 
category, which includes the typic genus and such atypic 
genera as approach more closely to it than to any other typic 



1913] New Application of Taxonomic Principles, 229 

genus. It has gradually become evident that this category is 
a natural prime division of the subtribe, demanded in young 
stocks where transitional forms are numerously present but 
not as a rule called for in older stocks where such transitionals 
are infrequent. 

It may be pointed out by way of illustration that we know 
many insect stocks whose component forms are well differ- 
entiated from each other; we know other insect stocks whose 
forms are less markedly differentiated among themselves, and 
we know still further stocks which comprise masses of closely 
similar forms. The first are old stocks, the second are middle- 
aged stocks practically in their prime; the last are young stocks, 
still undergoing evolution and characterized by the presence of 
many transitional forms. The same system of taxonomy is 
not applicable to all these classes of stocks. The three classes 
mentioned are of course not clearly delimited, for certain 
stocks are bound to be intermediate between them. But each 
stock can always be treated on its own merits. For the first 
class in general, the current system of taxonomy answers fairly 
well — that is to say, the tribes are usually quite easily divided 
directly into genera. In the second class, comprising in 'general 
the stocks of middle age, we need the subtribal category between 
the tribe and the genus. In the youngest stocks we need to 
employ still another category, as an elementary grouping of 
genera, between the subtribe and the genus. This is what has 
been termed the group-unit, for it is both theoretically and 
practically the unit of taxonomic groups. 

So far as it has been possible to work out the status of the 
group-unit to date, its value appears to correspond to a fractional 
part of the contracted subtribal value and the whole or a part 
of the transitional subtribal value, as these values are exhibited 
in young superfamilies and stocks undergoing evolution. The 
group-unit therefore corresponds to the well marked genus in 
the old stocks, plus its intergeneric space which is conceived to 
be a fixed quantity covering certain transitionals that have 
dropped out. The well marked genus itself corresponds to the 
typic genus of the group-unit, while the latter has associated 
with it various transitional or atypic genera which are not 
represented in the old stocks but must here be fitted into the 
taxonomic system. These transitionals or atypic genera are 
not subgenera of the typic genus. They are subordinated to 



230 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

the latter only in consensus of characters and not in value. 
They correspond to the intergeneric space that belongs with 
the well marked genus in the old stocks, but which forms no 
integral part of it. The writer has considered well the possi- 
bility of interpreting the group-unit, as here constituted, to be 
the natural genus, and thus of doing away with the necessity 
for the name group-unit by employing the subgeneric category 
instead of the generic for the group-unit's prime divisions. 
This plan has proved not to be practicable. Subgeneric 
divisions may often be recognized within the typic genus, and 
sometimes in the atypic genera, so neither can be considered 
subgenera. In the sum of their characters the typic and 
atypic genera are too distinct from each other to be considered 
as mere ill-defined groups of species under a genus embracing 
all the forms in the group-unit. Genera are prominently 
distinguishable groups of species, and the atypic as well as the 
typic genera fit the definition. Furthermore, in the young 
stocks there are inter-subtribal groups of transitionals which 
come between the subtribes proper or typic subtribes, and 
which may be termed transitional or atypic subtribal groups. 
The group-unit is capable of representing in their true relation- 
ships and thus accomodating in the taxonomic system these 
transitional subtribal forms, which do not occur in the old 
stocks and can not be fitted into the system of taxonomy 
commonly applied thereto. 

Attention must be drawn to the fact that stocks become 
fixed, and thus easily amenable to delimitation on the old 
plan, only when their evolution is completed. The lives of 
stocks and groups of stocks may well be likened to the lives of 
individuals. They differ in extending over far greater periods 
of time, which is only a relative difference. Like individuals, 
they spring from small and embryonic beginnings, are launched 
upon the outer world, gradually grow, unfold, develop, pass 
through various stages of change and specialization, in time 
reach their zenith and cease evolution, finally wane, become 
senile and eventually extinct. Waning and senile stocks and 
all those that have ceased evolution, that is to say fully matured 
stocks, are easily defined because few or no transitionals are 
present to hinder definition. But stocks that have not yet 
reached their zenith, that is to say adolescent stocks, are filled 



\ 



1913] New Application of Taxonomic Principles. 231 

with transitionals and hence their component categories are 
difficult of deHmitation. 

These facts and the consequent necessity for a fractional 
subtribal category must be apparent to anyone who studies 
these flies assiduously. In many cases the natural tribes and 
subtribes can not be defined on the external characters of the 
adult, nor can they be defined in other than a very complex 
and thus highly unsatisfactory manner on all characters, due 
to the presence of the transitionals, and we are thus forced to 
employ more restricted group categories in order to make a 
taxonomic system fit them. The conditions which we face 
here are those that obtain at any given time during the active 
evolution of new and young stocks. If we had all the indi- 
viduals that have been produced during the evolution of any 
subtribe of insects, arranged before us in the order of their 
descent, we would be totally unable to classify them into 
either group-units, genera, subgenera or species, simply because 
no lines of division would be indicated for such separations. 
They would be found to form a mass of transitionals in a 
gradual and spreading transition from first to last; through 
their roots all would be found to connect by gradual transitions 
with each other. But at any given point in their development 
by excluding their predecessors, the remnant would be amenable 
to separation into categories after the group unit plan. These 
conditions actually obtain in certain young stocks today, and 
it is only due to the fragmentary nature of the material which 
we are able to secure out of their totals of countless individuals 
produced that we are able to attempt a classification of the 
residue. We do not have to fit their predecessors into the 
taxonomic system, since they are all lost to us except recent 
material which agrees with the present. Therefore we are able 
to draw lines of separation, but the transitionals present demand 
that the lines be drawn closely. Here lies the necessity for 
the group-unit category. Its province is to represent the 
transitional subtribal forms in their true relationships to the 
typical divisions of the subtribe proper, in young and new 
stocks now undergoing evolution. 

The term group-unit was chosen because the value of the 
category to which it is applied is bound to be the unit of group 
values. Species and genera are both taxonomic units, since 
both enter into the concept and construction of the binomial. 



232 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

The elemental combinations of genera must thus constitute 
the units of group formations and values. It is proposed that 
the name of the group-unit be formed by adding i(B to the 
root of the name of its typic genus. This does not conflict 
with any of the group endings established by the International 
Code and by general usage. 

The group-unit permits us to arrange with phylogenetic 
fidelity the components of stocks whose transition als are largely 
present, fitting all into a natural taxonomic system. There 
can be not the slightest doubt that this category is an absolute 
necessity to the clear and concise taxonomic handling of the 
forms that comprise the youngest stocks. The further details 
of the new application of taxonomic principles here outlined 
largely remain to be worked out. This must be done by 
applying the principles to the youfig stocks themselves as they 
exist today. 



A STUDY IN ANTENNAL VARIATION.* 

By Edith M. Patch. 

PLATES XXIV-XXVII. 

During the summer and fall of 1912 annulation counts of 
1243 antennae of Schizoneura developing on Ulmus (leaf and 
bark), and Pyrus and Crataegus (bark) were made by Mr. 
William C. Woods and the writer of this paper. 

A detailed record of the annular sensoria present on each 
of joints III, IV, and V of every antenna counted, giving a 
tabulation of 3729 counts in all, is preserved on file at the 
Maine Agricultural Experiment Station and a copy of this 
record will be lent upon request to any one making a par- 
ticular study of the species concerned. The counts in tabular 
form are too bulky to be conveniently printed as they stand; 
and as nearly 100 curves would be necessary to cover the 
various collections adequately that method of presentation 
was also rejected for the time though part of the data may be 
reduced to this form later. 

The drawings of the 90 antennae selected show, however, 
the most significant ranges of variation and give in themselves 
a summary sufficient for most purposes. The antennae are 
all drawn to the same scale with particular reference to the 
number of annulations present on each of the joints III to V 
and where of interest also of joint VI; and the length of each 
joint. No especial attention has been paid to other antennal 
details and the drawings are not to be considered a study of the 
terminal joint except in the two respects indicated. In some 
instances the drawings were made from mounts in which the 
antenna was curved on the slide and an arbitrary correction 
of this for the purpose of getting approximately straight draw- 
ings for plates, gives the peculiar irregularity in contour ap- 
parent. 

Frequent examples of freak antenna in which two joints 
were apparently merged were met and some of these are rep- 
resented by Figs. 32-36 and Fig. 82. 

Appreciative thanks are due to several widely scattered 
entomologists for their kindness in sending material from 
different localities, who are, in part, acknowledged in the 
collection data which follow. 



"Papers from the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station: Entomology No. 62. 

233 



234 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



History of Collections Tabulated. 

39-04. (Fig. 74). Elm rosette. Orono, Me. June 15, 
1904. 

6-05. (Fig. 90). Mixed collection from elm leaf roll and 
rosette. Orono. June 16, 1905. 

95-06. (Figs. 19-21). Elm bark. Orono, Aug. 4, 1906. 

114-06. (Fig. 29). Crataegus bark. Maine. Sept. 17, 
1906. 

115-06. (Figs. 30-31). Apple bark. Maine. Sept. 17, 
1906. 

7-08. (Fig. 22). Elm bark. Orono. June 16, 1908. 

50-09. (Figs. 14-18). Elm leaf collection. Brewer, Me.- 
July 1, 1909. 

63-11. (Figs. 23-26). P3'rM5 sp. bark, (cultivated variety 
of mountain ash). Orono. Aug. 28, 1911. 

64-11. Pyrus sitchensis {R-oem) Vi^eT,h2ivk. Orono. Aug, 
29, 1911. 

6-12. (Fig. 13). Elm leaf roll. Alabama. Received May 
6, 1912. Progeny of this collection lived for a fortnight on 
apple seedlings. 

9-12. (Fig.ll). Elm leaf roh. Columbia, Mo. Received 
May 12, 1912, from Dr. L. Haseman. The winged progenitors 
of 9-12. Sub. 1. (Fig. 27) which were reared in the laboratory 
on apple seedlings. A fuller account of this collection is given 
in Bulletin 203 of the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station. 

9-12. Sub. 1. (Fig. 27). Apple seedling. Laboratory 
bred. Sept. 20, 1913. The progeny of 9-12 which see for 
discussion. 

11-12. (Fig. 12). Elm leaf roll. Knoxville, Tenn. Re- 
ceived May 20, from Dr. Gordon Bentley. Progeny of this 
collection were reared on apple seedlings from May 20 to June 
26. 

12-12. (Fig 10). Elm leaf roll. Marion, S. C. Received 
May 28, 1912, from Mr. W. A. Thomas. 

21-12. (Fig. 89). Mixed collection from elm leaf roll 
and rosette. St. Louis, Mo. Received June 3, 1912, from Mr. 
J. T. Monell. 

29-12. Elm rosette. Orono. June 6, 1912. 

30-12. (Figs. 83-88). Elm leaf roll. Marion, S. C. Re- 
ceived June 8, 1912, from Mr. W. A. Thomas." 



1913] 



Study in Antennal Variation. 



235 



35-12. (Figs 8 and 9). Elm leaf roll. St. Louis, Mo. 
Received from Mr. J. T. Monell, June 14, 1912. 

43-12. (Fig. 2). Elm leaf roll. Orono. June 20. For 
discussion see 113-12. 

(Fig 68). Elm rosette. Calais, Me. June 21, 1912. 

(Figs. 76-82). Elm rosette. Standish, Me. June 

The rosette was old and considerably dried and the 

were smaller than those from fresher and juicier 



45-12 

49-12 
24, 1912. 
migrants 
rosettes. 

53-12 
26, 1912. 

57-12 
1912. 

58-12 
1912. 

60-12. 



Orono. June 
June 26, 



(Figs. 3 and 4). Elm leaf roll 

(Fig. 69). Elm rosette. Caribou, Me 

(Fig. 75). Elm rosette. Berlin, N. H. June 28, 

(Figs. 



roll and rosette. 



32-67). Migrants developed in elm leaf 
Collected June 28- July 12, 1912, from the 
ventral surface of leaves of Pyriis americana (Mountain Ash), 
to which they had migrated. A fuller account of this collection 
is given in Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 5, p. 397. 

61-12. (Figs. 70-73). Elm rosette. Oakland, Me. June 
29, 1912. 

Elm rosette. Orono. June 21, 1912. 

(Fig. 1). Elm leaf roll. Houlton, Me. June, 



65-12. 
68-12. 
1912. 

111-12. 
113-12. 



(Fig. 5). Elm leaf roll. Orono. July 20, 1912. 

(Figs. 6 and 7). Elm leaf roll. Orono. July 23, 
1912. Purposely collected late for comparison with 43-12 
(Fig. 2) which developed June 30 in the same rolls. The 
difference in the actual size of the antennae and in the number 
of annulations of the big, thrift^^ early ones from the juicy leaf 
and the last individuals to develop in the drying roll would 
seem suggestive of the physiological effect of the habitat on the 
size of the individual and the character of the antennae. 
165-12. Pyriis sitchensis Piper, bark. Orono. Sept. 



1912. 

175-12. 

176-12. 
Louis, Mo. 



Apple bark. Orono, Me. Sept. 28, 1912. 
(Fig.28). Crataegus (monogyna) Oxyocantha. 
September 27, 1911. Mr. J. T. Monell. 



24, 



St. 



Note. By elm leaf "roll" is indicated a deformation of a single leaf. By 
"rosette" is indicated a terminal cluster. (Figs. 442 and 462, Bulletin 203, Me. 
Agr. Expt. Sta.). 



236 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



List of Figures With Cross Reference to Collections. 

Fig 1, 68-12; Fig 2, 43-12; Figs. 3-4, 53-12; Fig. 5, 111-12; 
Figs. 6-7, 113-12; Figs. 8-9, 35-12; Fig. 10, 12-12; Fig. 11, 9-12; 
Fig. 12, 11-12; Fig. 13, 6-12; Figs. 14-18, 50-09; Figs. 19-21, 
95-06; Fig. 22, 7-08; Figs. 23-26, 63-11; Fig. 27, 9-12 Sub 1; 
Fig. 28, 176-12; Fig. 29, 114-06; Figs. 30-31, 115-06; Figs. 32- 
67, 60-12; Fig. 68, 45-12; Fig. 69, 57-12; Figs. 70-73, 61-12; 
Fig. 74, 39-04; Fig. 75, 58-12; Figs. 76-82, 49-12; Figs. 83-88, 
30-12; Fig. 89, 21-12; Fig. 90, 6-05. 

Figs 17 and 18 are right and left antennas of same individual. 

Figs. 37 and 38 are right and left antennas of same individual. 

Figs 64 and 65 are right and left antenna of same individual. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate XXIV. 




Edilh M. Patch. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate XXV. 




Edith M. Patch. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate XXVI. 




£>?! r=> 



Edith M. Patch. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate XXVII. 




Edith M. Patch. 



A STUDY IN VARIATION IN THE NORTH AMERICAN 

GREENBOTTLE FLIES OF THE GENUS LUCILIA, 

WITH SYSTEMATIC NOTES ON THE 

SPECIES INVOLVED. 

By John D. Tothill, 
- Division of Entomology, Ottawa, Canada. 

Some few years ago the writer had occasion to make a 
stud}^ in variation of the Canadian species of the genus Lucilia. 
Series of adults were bred, more particularly in the case 
of L. sericata Meig., and from the material thus secured the 
limits and possibilities of variation in certain directions were 
determined. The fact was brought out that none of the char- 
acters made use of by Mr. C. H. T. Townsend in his "Taxon- 
omy of Muscoidean Flies" for the erection of the ten supposedly 
new species of the genus contained in that publication are 
of specific value. 

In 1911 an opportunity was afforded of examining the 
types and cotypes of the above ten species at the U. S. National 
Museum, in Washington, D. C. The conclusion which had 
been previously arrived at namely, that the supposed species 
were only variations of the original four species as recognized 
by Hough was abundantly justified. 

Exarninations of ' the cf genitalia were made and these 
again showed that the conclusion was justified. 

It is hoped shortly to publish the results of the study of the 
<S^ genitalia. 

The present paper consists of the results of the study in 
variation, and of the examination of the U. S. N. M. Lucilia 
material. 

A STUDY IN VARIATION IN THE GENUS LUCILIA. 

That variation in external morphological characters is a 
factor to be reckoned with in systematic entomology is today 
disputed by no working entomologist. At the same time 
there are comparatively an infinitely small number of the vast 
array of insects described to date which have had their limits of 
variation approximated. 

That such approximation is possible or practical in all cases 
cannot be entertained; that it is desirable is beyond question. 
The single historic example of the tachinid fly Exorista {Phryxe) 

241 



242 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

vulgaris Fall, with its five and one-half pages of synonymy in 
the '"Katalog der Palaarctischen Diptera" is sufficient in itself 
to establish the desirability of studies in variation. 

The present study is concerned with three species of the 
genus Lucilia i. e. sericata Meig. sylvarum Hough and ccBsar 
Linn. The method adopted was to breed from isolated egg 
masses series of adults, examine and record certain selected 
characters for each fly from each egg mass, tabulate these charac- 
ters, make synopses of these tables, and finally to draw up from 
these s^mopses resumes or extended definitions for each species. 

Owing to lack of space only these final resumes appear in 
this paper. It was the intention of the writer at the outset 
to keep exact records of at least one hundred examples of each 
species encountered. This intention was however only realized 
in the case of L. sericata in which case several hundred adults 
were reared. The riumber of specimens of each species reared 
and examined is as follows: 

L. sericata, Meig., 158 consisting of 57 9 9 and 101 d' (J". 
L. sylvarum, Hough, 27, consisting of 25 9 9 and 2 cf'cf. 
L. CEesar, Linn., 3, consisting of 1 9 and 2 cf cf . 

In addition to these bred specimens ten collected specimens 
of L. sylvarum and thirty-one L. caesar were also examined, 
the results being included in the following resumes. This 
makes the total assemblage of flies for each species: L. sericata, 
158; L. sylvarum, 37; L. caesar, 34. 

The characters selected for examination were as follows : 

Dorsocentral bristles. 

Postracostichal bristles. 

Humeral bristles. 

Sternopleural bristles. 

Ocellar bristles. 

Width of front. 

Colour of palpi. 

Colour of first abdominal segment. 

Marginal bristles of second abdominal segment. 

Colour of tegulas. 

Width of apex of first posterior cell compared with the length of the anterior 

cross-vein. 
Presence or absence of appendage at bend of vein four. 

These particular characters were chosen for two reasons 
(a) to find if possible new taxonomic characters for the separ- 
ation of the species; (b) on account of the fact that they include 
all the new characters employed by Mr. C. H. T. Townsend* 
in the erection of ten supposedly distinct species. 

* Taxonomy of Muscoidean Flies. Smithsonian Misc. Col., Vol. 41, No. 1803. 



1913] Variation in the Genus Lucilia. 243 

RESUME OF L. SERICATA. 

In all cases there were three strong pairs of dorsocentral 
bristles, no rudimentary fourth pair. 

In 98.1% of cases there were three pairs of postacrostichal 
bristles. One of the variations was an extra spasmodically 
placed bristle of the mesonotum (postsutural). The other 
variation was that of two postacrostichals only on the left 
side; this may indicate a past connection between the forms 
with typically three pairs and those with typically two pairs 
(L. caesar). 

As regards humeral bristles 88.7% of the flies examined 
were supplied with four strong ones on each side. The varia- 
tions ranged between a form with two on one side and three on 
the other and the typic form with four on each side. The 
anterior bristle was always the one to be lost. 

The interior bristle seems to have a taxonomic affinity 
toward the anterior bristle, as in the case of the latter aborting 
it was usually found that the interior bristle was weak (in one 
case it was lost completely on one side). 

There were in 96.9% of cases 3 sternopleural bristles on 
each side. This is a generic character and yet there was 
variation, not in the species as a whole, but in individuals. 
These variations were in an increase and decrease of these 
bristles in both number and strength. In all cases the posterior 
bristles were constant and the anterior alone became modified. 

The ocellar bristles varied according to sex. 

82.5% of the female flies had two well-defined pairs. In 
the great majority of these cases the anterior pair was longer 
and stronger than the posterior pair, but at the same time the 
latter pair was sufficiently strong to warrant the application of 
the term 'bristles'. As to position the anterior pair had their 
insertion within the ocellar triangle and the posterior pair 
had theirs outside of the triangle and immediately posterior to 
it. As to the exceptions to this normal condition of two pairs 
there were a few cases in which the post, pair were weak; one 
case in which the two pairs were both exceptionally strong; 
several instances in which there was an extra bristle developed 
on one side within the ocellar triangle and posterior to the 
normal anterior pair; and finally a few instances in which 
there was an extra pair of bristles developed within the ocellar 
triangle and post, to the ant. pair. 



244 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Of the males 90% had only one pair of ocellar bristles. 
These were proclinate and had their insertion within the tri- 
angle. There was a tendency toward the production of 
two pairs; in some cases this second pair was hardly stronger 
than the surrounding hairs; in 7% of cases they had devel- 
oped into a weak posterior pair; and finally in a solitary 
instance two distinct pairs were developed. 

The width of front affords a secondary sexual character. 
This character was very constant, there being practically 
no variation in all the material examined. 

In the females the width was one-seventh to one-eighth head 
width. Hough in his description of this species gives one- 
sixth to one-eighth head width; this will hold good if that 
portion near the ocellar triangle is taken into consideration, 
as at this extremity there is an expansion. In the present 
study, however, the term width of front is restricted to that 
portion of the front immediately above the base of the anten- 
nae, i. e. the narrowest portion. 

In the case of females the width of front was from one-tenth 
to four-tenths head width. 

It may be stated here that measurements of all these flies 
was not attempted. A small series however of each sex were 
measured in this particular and with these as a guide the other 
specimens were visually compared. This may sound somewhat 
casual, but in reality the method is reasonably accurate as the 
observer very quickly acquires a due sense of proportion. 

The next character lies in the color of the palpi. This 
character was sometimes very difficult to determine because 
the palpi were often retracted into the oral cavity. The wall 
of this cavity varied from an amber yellow color to almost 
black and the palpi, being semi-transparent, appeared in many 
cases to be of this dark color and only by removing them could 
the fallacy be made patent. Again these palpi were covered 
with fine white hairs and thus in certain planes of vision they 
appeared white. 

The prevailing color of these palpi was amber yellow. 
This was however by no means constant, there being but 64.4% 
of the flies with the palpi of this color. The color varied from 
pale yellow through dark amber yellow to almost black; again 
in several cases there was an infuscation or dark area at the 
distal region; and also a black area was occasionally present 



1913] Variation in the Genus Lucilia. 245 

at the base. Thus for this species at least the color of the palpi 
is not constant and the infuscation at the tip has no specific 
value. 

In the color of the first segment of the abdomen was found 
an excellent secondary sexual character. In all cases it is the 
dorsal area of the segment that is referred to and not the 
ventral. 

In all males examined the first segment was, at least super- 
iorly, black. In the females this segment varied from the 
color of the remaining segments (i. e. abdomen unicolorus) to 
a shade darker; there were few examples of this latter condition. 

On the second abdominal segment there was superiorly 
a row in both males and females, of fairly strong marginal 
macrochaetae. These marochaetae were stronger .centrally, 
then became weak and finally became strong again at the 
sides. These bristles varied slightly, but not to any marked 
degree; in a few cases they were strong and in a few cases weak; 
in two instances (1 cf and 1 9 ) the two median bristles stood 
out more prominently thus approaching the condition in L. 
sylvariun. 

The tegulae varied from white to brown. This variation 
was evident in all the series of flies of all species and in one lot 
of L. sylvariim bred from a single egg cluster all intermediate 
stages were found between the pure white and the brown 
conditions. 

Before passing to the next character it may be well to 
observe that all flies killed and pinned soon after the time of 
issuance have pure, or almost pure, white tegulas; and that 
only in flies that have either been collected, or bred through 
and left in a cage for ten days or more, have the brown-tinged 
tegulae been observed. This seems to indicate that the tegulae 
darken as the fly grows older. 

It was found that the width of the apex of the posterior 
cell in comparison with the length of the anterior cross-vein 
was slighth^ or distinctly shorter; the only exception to this 
was in the case of two flies in which the lengths were equal. 
This character has not previously been made use of. It is 
apparently very constant and serves as a sepa;-ating character 
for this species from L. sylvarum. 

The character is best seen when the wing is viewed from 
below. In vein 4 there was in no case any appendage — even 
rudimentary — at the angle. 



246 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

RESUME OF L. SYL VARUM. 

There were in all cases 3 strong pairs of dorsocentral bristles, 
but in 33% of the flies resulting from one egg cluster there was 
a trace of a fourth anterior pair; sometimes this trace exhibited 
itself as a slightly exaggerated hair on one side only and some- 
times it resolved itself into a distinct but weak pair of anterior 
dorsocentral bristles. There were three pairs of strong 
postacrostichal bristles in all cases. 

As regards humeral bristles there were in most cases four 
on each side. The majority of variations ran to an abortion of 
either one bristle on one side only, or of a bristle on both sides. 
This bristle was always the anterior bristle and, as in L. sericata, 
the loss of it carried with it a weakening of the anterior one. 
There was in one case a variation in the other direction, namely, 
the development of an extra bristle, quite strong, on one side 
only. 

Sternopleural bristles were represented by three typical 
pairs, but, as in L. sericata, there was variation, notwithstanding 
the fact that the character has an undoubted generic value. 
This variation appeared in 4 specimens and ran in each case 
to an additional anterior pair, represented either by a bristle 
on one side only or by a bristle on each side; these bristles 
were sometimes weak and sometimes strong. In all cases 
as in L. sericata, only the anterior bristles were subject to 
modification. 

Coming to ocellar bristles it was found that, as in L. sericata, 
these afforded secondary sexual characters. The four males 
had only one strong pair of ocellar bristles. These were proc- 
linate and inserted within the ocellar triangle. 

The females had one strong pair inserted within the ocellar 
triangle and one very weak pair inserted outside the triangle 
and immediately posterior to it. This weak pair was made 
up of somewhat exaggerated hairs but the term bristle is 
perhaps applicable because they stood out from the surrounding 
hairs (of which there were several pairs). There were in the 
specimens of this species as in the specimens of L. caesar a 
few hairs within the ocellar triangle. There was variation 
from the typical condition of one strong pair and one weak in 
two directions, namely, reduction of the posterior pair and the 
addition of another posterior pair of these weak bristles or 
strong hairs. 



1913] Variation in the Genus Lucilia. 247 

The width of front affords a secondary sexual character. 
In the males the front was from one-tenth to one-twelfth 
head width. Hough gives the width as "very narrow" and 
"one-eighth to one-tenth head width. " A better way is perhaps 
to say that the width of front in cf L. sylvarum comes interme- 
diate between that of L. caesar, which is linear, and that of L. 
sericata which is from one-seventh to one-eighth head width. 
Once having examined specimens as to this character in males 
of all three species it becomes a comparatively easy task to 
subsequently reduce any male Lucilia, on this character alone 
to its species. 

The front of the females was found to be somewhat nar- 
rower than in L. sericata and about the same as in L. caesar. 
In actual width it was found to be about 3-10 (measurements 
were made in a number of specimens) of the head width; this 
is slightly less than 1-3 head width. This character serves 
very nicely for separating females of this species and of L. 
caesar from females of L. sericata which have a front measuring 
4-10 head width, or slightly greater than 1-3 head width. 

The color of the palpi appears to be far more constant 
in this species than in L. sericata. This color was dark brown 
or almost black in all but two cases and in these it was black. 
The color of the dorsum of the first abdominal segment was 
not in this case found to afford a secondary sexual character as 
in L. sericata^ In the females the first abdominal segment 
was either blackish or black, and in the males it was black. 

A comparative study of the bristles of the second abdominal 
segment produced some curious results. In the case of L. 
sylvarum one bred male had a strong pair of median marginal 
bristles and no differentiated marginal row. 68% of the females 
in the same lot had a strong central pair of bristles and a weak 
marginal row ; several flies had the central pair no stronger than 
the remaining bristles of the marginal row. Again in another 
lot of bred material of 7 females two exhibited this latter con- 
dition of having the central pair no stronger than the others. 

This variation is important because the presence of a pair 
of strong median marginal macrochaetae has always been 
attributed by writers to L. sylvarum and here it is shown that 
the character may vary to quite a considerable extent. 

In most cases the central pair were of about the same 
strength as the remaining bristles. As a rule, however, these 



248 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

two bristles stood out at right angles, or at least at a considerable 
angle, to the longitudinal plane of the abdomen; whereas the 
remaining bristles were barely elevated and extended over the 
dorsum of the third segment. Thus these central bristles 
stood out as two distinct macrochaetae. It not infrequently 
happened however that these central bristles were not elevated 
and hence they could not be readily distinguished from the 
others of the marginal row and inference was naturally drawn 
that they were not present. Their presence could usually 
be detected by examining the sites of their insertions as com- 
pared with those of the remaining bristles; the central pair 
had their insertions very slightly anterior to the row of marginal 
macrochaetae. 

The tegulae varied, as in L. sericata, from white to smoky; 
in one lot of bred material particularly an excellent gradational 
series, in respect to this character, was obtained. 

The apex of the first posterior cell of the wings was, unlike 
the condition in L. sericata or L. caesar, longer than the anterior 
cross vein. This character is best seen from the under surface 
of the wing. It is apparently one of the best for separating 
this species from L. sericata. There was often a short spur 
at the angle of the fourth longitudinal vein. 

RESUME OF L. CAESAR. 

In all cases there were three strong ■ pairs of dorsocentral 
bristles and there was no rudimentary or vestigial fourth pair. 

In all cases but one, two pairs of postacrostichal bristles 
were found to be present. In this one exception there was 
an extra pair erratically placed. 

The humeral bristles varied considerably. In the bred 
specimens there were two flies with two pairs and one fly with 
three pairs. The most common condition was two pairs, but 
there were a number of specimens with an extra anterior bristle 
on each side, and again others with a complete anterior fourth 
pair. At the other extreme there was a fly with two bristles 
on one side and three on the other. There was thus greater 
inconstancy of humeral bristles in this species than in either of 
the other two. It is interesting to note that it was always, 
as in L. sericata and L. sylvarum, the anterior bristles and of these 
the interior pair that were subject to variation. 



1913] Variation in the Genus Liicilia. 249 

The sternopleural bristles were represented in all cases but 
one by the normal three pairs. In this one exception the 
anterior bristle on one side was reduced to a long hair. It was 
the anterior bristle that became modified. 

The ocellar bristles, as in the other two species, afforded 
secondary sexual characters. 

.The males had in all cases the one strong proclinate pair 
as in L. sericata and L. sylvarum, having insertion within the 
ocellar triangle. The females had the usual one strong pair 
having insertion within the ocellar triangle. The posterior 
pair were in most cases reduced to hairs, thus being less strong 
even than in L. sylvarum. There, was one curious variation 
in which there were one strong pair and two very weak pairs 
of bristles; both these weak pairs were posterior to the strong 
anterior pair; one of them was inserted within and the other 
outside of the ocellar triangle. There were in addition to the 
bristles a number of hairs both within and outside of the 
triangle. 

The color of the palpi was, in the specimens of this species 
examined, very constant. It was without exception amber 
yellow. 

The width of front here again afforded a secondary sex- 
ual character. All the males had the front linear; it was 
considerably narrower than in L. sylvarum, and very con- 
siderably narrower than in L. sericata. In the females the 
width of front varied from three tenths to one third head 
width; the more general condition however was about three 
tenths, or the same as in L. sylvarum. 

The color of the dorsum of the first abdominal segment 
varied from that of the remaining segments (abdomen unicolor- 
ous) to black. Between these two extremes there were numer- 
ous gradational variations; the most common of these was 
that in which the segment was somewhat darker, especially 
centrally, than the remaining segments. 

As to the color of the tegulae there were found to exist 
the same variations as in L. sylvarum and L. caesar. The 
extremes were white and brown and between these were found 
numerous combinations. The more common condition was 
that of 'tinged brown.' 

Regarding the last character, namely, the comparison in 
lengths of the apex of the first posterior cell and anterior cross 



250 A.nnals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

vein it was found that this species comes in this respect midway 
between sericata and sylvarum. In four cases the apical margin 
of the first posterior cell was slightly shorter than the length 
of the anterior cross vein, which is the typical condition in the 
case of L. sericata. In the remaining twenty seven flies it 
was about equal to the length of the anterior cross vein. Thus 
for this species the character will not serve to differentiate 
from the other two species. 

Having completed the resumes for the three species of 
Lucilia the opportunity may be taken to make a few general 
remarks on characters which have not been made use of in the 
tables. 

First, as to size, there was found to be little difference in 
the three species. Possibly caesar is generally somewhat 
larger than the other two. In each species there is however 
a considerable variation. To illustrate this it may be said 
that in over 200 specimens of sericata the smallest fly was 5 
mm. long and the largest 9 mm.; the average length was 
from 7 to 8 mm. 

Then as to general color there was again a great range of 
variation. Hough makes remark* that Tn all the Calliphor- 
ineae of metallic color the shade varies through violet, green, 
blue and copper color.' One' has only to look at a long series 
of Lucilia to find that, in this genus at least, the remark holds 
true. Generally, however, flies of L. sericata are brighter, 
owing to a greater preponderance of the coppery color, then are 
those of L. caesar and L. sylvarum.. 

Lastly a word may be said regarding the positions of the 
dorsocentral and postacrostichal bristles both in relation to 
the respective series separately and in relation to one another 
As to the positions in their respective series it was found that 
they were placed, almost without exception, in the same plane 
longitudinally (cephalad-caudad) although there was variation. 
Then as to the relative positions of the dorsocentrals and post- 
acrostichals there was found to exist a considerable variation: 
taking any four bristles transversely an imaginary line drawn 
through their insertions usually approached a straight line; 
this line was however scarcely ever absolutely straight and the 
deviations from it did not follow any .definite plan. The 

*Synopsis of the Calliphorineag of the U. S., Zool. Bull., Vol. II, No. 6, Sept., 
1899, p. 283. 



1913] 



Vafiation in the Genus Lucilia. 



251 



accompanying diagram showing the positions of these thoracic 
bristles in the case of seven flies all bred from a single parent 
indicate this variation better than can any description. . 

The point is of interest on account of the fact that Mr. 
Townsend (loc. cit. p. 121) in describing a new species of 
Lucilia (L. girauUi) makes use of the relative positions of the 
postacrostichal and dorsocentral bristles. 



\. < 



X. < ^ 



IS e> 



/ 



V.<® 



a e 



/"« ® (a ® 



5. < <- 



I- < 



Diagram 

Showing variation in relative position of dorsocentral and postacrostichal bristles 

in the case of 7 specimens of L. sericata, all bred from the same parent fly. 
Legend: 

Each dot within a circle represents the insertion of a bristle. 

Each bracketed group (of the total 7) represents the dorsocentral and posta- 
crostichal bristles of one fly. 

The two outside rows of bristles are dorsocentrals. 

The two inside rows of bristles are postacrostichals. 

The chief value of this study in variation lies in the fact 
that each species dealt with was found to be subject to con- 
siderable variation in the matter of chaetotaxy, color, size, etc. 
Also in that all the new characters used by Mr. Townsend (loc. 



252 Annals Entomological Society oj America [Vol. VI, 

cit.) for the erection of the ten supposedly distinct species are 
shown to come within the limits of variation of the North 
American species of Lucilia as recognized by Hough. 

NOTES ON THE TYPES AND CO-TYPES OF LUCILIA SPECIES IN THE 

. U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The following notes were made in 1911, through the courtesy of the U. S. N. 
Museum authorities, on the types and cotypes of Mr. Townsend's supposedly new 
species of Lucilia. In some cases the Taxonomy of Muscoidean Flies, Smithsonian 
Misc. Col., Vol. 41, No. 1803, notes refer l^o the original descriptions. The value 
of certain characters employed in these descriptions is discussed in the preceding 
portion of this paper. 

Lucilia morilli. Town. 
The type specimen together with all the co-types are Pseu- 
dopyrellia cornicina Fab. There are no hypopleural bristles 
and the fourth vein is curved and not angular. 

Lucilia nigripalpis. Town. 

The type specimen must be referred to L. sylvarum Meig. 
The width of front is slightly less than one-third head width; 
the palpi are blackish ; the first segment of the abdomen is 
blackish; on the second segment of the abdomen there is a 
well marked pair of median marginal macrochaetae quite as 
strong as are found in most specimens of L. sylvarum. The 
abdomen is however ' dented ' in consequence of which the 
macrochaetae are appressed against it and this is presumably 
the reason that they were overlooked by the author of the 
species; there is a weak pair of extra ocellar bristles just posterior 
to the ocellar triangle and quite typical of sylvarum; in the 
comparative lengths of the apex of the first posterior cell and 
the anterior cross vein the fly is typically sylvarum. 

The co-type is an undeveloped specimen of L. sylvarum 
Meig; the head characters are all typical except in the color 
of the palpi which are distinctly brownish, especially toward 
the base; the lower side however of the abdomen and also the 
legs both show this light color which means that the fly was 
captured soon after issuing; toward the tip the palpi become 
blackish and this is carried down one fourth distance to base; 
as to marginal macrochaetae on the abdomen there is a weak 
pair on the second segment which show up better when the 
fly is examined from the dorsal side; when the specimen is 
viewed laterally there is seen to be one other bristle near the 
center of the same segment; it is about as long as the shorter 
of the central pair but the base is weaker. 



19131 Variation in the Genus Lucilia. 253 



Lucilia angustifrons. Town. 

The type specimen is a cf from England and the single 
co-type is a 9 from Kaslo, B. C, which "seems to be this 
form " (Townsend, Taxonomy of Muscoidean Flies, p. 120). 
An examination of the type shows that a third and anterior 
pair of postacrostichal bristles is present; at the same time 
both these bristles are weaker than those situated posterior to 
them in the same rows and moreover the bristle on one side 
is decidedly less strong than that on the other side (the one on 
left side is weaker). This is the only character that separates 
the fly from typical L. caesar and as in this very character 
there is an irregularity it seems highly probable that the pair 
of bristles is nothing but a sport in which case the form must 
be referred to L. caesar Linn. 

As to the single co-type, the 9 from Kaslo, this fly has 
two postacrostichal bristles on one side and three on the other 
with the anterior one weak; the fly is unquestionably L. caesar 
Linn. 

Lucilia giraulti. Town. 

One cf from Paris, Texas, no cotypes. In the original 
description of this species (Townsend, Taxonomy of MuvS- 
coidean Flies, p. 121) there is only one character mentioned 
that would separate the form from L. sericata Meig. which is 
that "a second pair of ocellar bristles is present." Even 
were this so the character would be insufficient in itself as the 
study of variation for L. sericata, brought out the fact that 
in this species there is occasionally developed a second pair 
of ocellar bristles. An examination of the specimen itself 
however shows that the bristles in question are not developed. 
The fly is therefore L. sericata Meig. 

Another character used in the description of this species 
is the position of the postacrostichal bristles relative to the 
dorsocentrals. The study in variation brought out the fact 
that this character has no determinative value. The above 
specimen is badly mutilated. 

Lucilia barberi. Tow^n. 

A discussion of this supposed species is hardly necessary. 
All the characters employed to separate the form are met with 



254 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

in L. sericata Meig. An examination of the type specimen 
and also of four cotypes shows that the form may be referred 
to L. sericata Meig. 

Lucilia unicolor. 

Five 9 specimens from New Mexico, Mexico and British 
Columbia. They are all L. caesar Linn. The second pair 
of ocellar bristles is fairly strong in the type specimen, but in the 
co-types there is variation and they become less strong, in any 
case all come within the limits of variation of L. caesar. 

Lucilia purpurea. Town. 

There is no character in the description of this form which 
serves to separate it from L. caesar Linn. In the description 
it is stated that "the whole body is purplish, strongly violet 
tinged, especially in the 9." This is certainly somewhat 
of an unusual hue for caesar, but a series can be arranged from 
the U. S. N. Museum material showing all gradations from 
this form to almost pure green. An examination of the type 
and co-type shows that there are no structural characters 
separating the form from L. caesar and the name purpurea 
Town, must therefore sink. 

Lucilia australis. Town. 

Two 9 9 from the southern states and one cf from Alaska. 
The type and one co-type, both from the southern states, 
must be referred to L. pilatei. Hough. The cf from Alaska 
agrees with L. caesar Linn, in everything except the width of 
front which appears to be very slightly greater than in L. 
caesar. This, however, is probably partly optical, as the inner 
margins 'cf the eyes, in the region of the ocellar triangle, are 
blackish, and thus appear to be part of the front. 

Lucilia infuscata. Town. 

From the description (Townsend. Taxonomy of Mus- 
coidean Flies, p. 123) it is evident that the cf cf are L. caesar 
Linn, as all the characters enumerated come within the limits 
of variation of that species. 

The 9 9 of which there are six, "can be told from caesar 
■only by the narrower front and darker basal segment." As to 
the latter of these characters the study in variation for L. 
caesar brought out the fact that in that species the first segment 



1913] Variation in the Genus Liicilia. 255 

of the abdomen is not unicolorous with the other segments, 
but darker. As to the former character, i. e., the 'narrower 
front,' the more general condition met with in caesar as to 
width of front is less than one third head width, or to be more 
specific three tenths head width; inf^iscata is described as having 
the front two-sevenths head width and the difference between 
three-tenths and two-sevenths is one-seventieth, which 
reduces ,the character as a differentiating one to an absurdity. 

An examination of the type and co-type bears out the 
above remarks and proves the form to be L. caesar Linn, 
with the exception of one co-type which is Phormia regina 
Meig. 

Lucilia oculata. Town. 

Six cf cf and two 9 9 . The former are L. caesar Linn. 
and the latter are L. pilatei Hough. The author of oculata 
lays stress on the color of the face and antennae, which are 
described in this instance as brownish yellow instead of black. 
After examining the U. S. N. Museum caesar material the 
writer found that taking three specimens from England, one 
from Mexico and one from Connecticut an excellent gradation al 
series could be made, showing transition from black to light 
reddish brown. In this connection it may be stated that the 
late Mr. D. W. Coquillett collected a specimen of L. pilatei 
Hough, in Washington, D. C, which exhibits some remarkable 
colorational features. The whole fly is quite light, especially 
the legs and venter, but it is distinctly 'shot' with green and 
blue, so that in different lights it takes on different colors; the 
parafacials are pale reddish yellow. It is the experience of the 
writer that, within certain limits, the earlier a specimen of 
Lucilia is captured after issuance the lighter will be the color. 

The synonymy indicated in the above notes on the types 
and co-types of Lucilia species in the U. S. N. Museum may 
be listed as follows; 



Luc 
Luc 
Luc 
Luc 
Luc 
Luc 



lia morilli, Town = Pseudopyrillia comicina, Fab. 

lia nigripalpis Town = Lucilia sylvarum, Meig. 

lia angustifrons Town = Lucilia caesar, Linn, (abnormal fly). 

lia giraulti Town = Lucilia sericata Meig. 

lia barberi Town = Lucilia sericata Meig. 

lia unicolor Town — Lucilia csesar Linn. 



Lucilia purpurea Town = Lucilia cassar Linn. 

Lucilia australis Town = Lucilia caesar Linn. 

Lucilia infuscata Town = Lucilia caesar Linn. 

Lucilia infuscata Town= (1 cotype) = Phormia regina Meig. 

Lucilia oculata Town, male = Lucilia caesar Linn. 

Lucilia oculata Town, female = Lucilia pilatei, Hough. 



256 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

It may be stated that Mr. W. R. Thompson and the late 
Mr. D. W. Coquillett examined independently the above 
material and both gentlemen substantially confirmed the 
above synonymy. Before leaving the subject of synonymy 
the opportunity may be taken of making a few remarks on 
some species listed in Aldrich's catalogue of North American 
Diptera. As regards Lucilia sylphida, Bigot, a copy of the 
original description (Ann. Soc. Ent. de France 1877, p. 45,) 
which was furnished the writer through the courtesy of Prof. 
J. M. Aldrich, is as follows: 

"17. S. Sylphida female (nov. sp?). 
Viridi metallico. (Abdomen?) Antenn. segmento 3.0 secundo quad- 
ruple longiore. Alis, vena 4a usque ad apicem primas spinosa. Cicatrice 
subhumerali nigra. Facie, basi tantum, duobus macrochaetis munita. 
Antennis palpisque pallide testaceis. Fronte grisea, occipite utrinque, 
obscure asnescente, vitta nigra apice fulva, facie albida, genis palli- 
dissime testaceis; calyptris albis; alis hyalinis basi, pallidissime tes- 
taceus; pedibus, fusco-nigra, femoribus, extrinsecus, parum asneis. 
(L'abdomen manquant, est cl bien une espece nouvelle?) " 

In this brief description mention is made of none but generic 
characters and these in a most general way. The form is 
probably not a distinct species, but this can only be ascertained 
by an examination of the type. As to some of the other species: 

Lucilia mollis. Walk. 
Hough refers doubtfully to Phormia regina. 

Lucilia rufipalpis, Jaen. 
Hough refers to Phormia regina. 

Lucilia nobilis, Meig. 
Mr. Austen, of the British Museum , writes that this form 
is now generally considered to be synonymous with L. sericata. 

Lucilia sylphida, Big. 
Probably not a distinct form. 

Lucilia terr^-novae, Des. 
Hough refers to Phormia. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE CH^TOTAXY OF 
CALLIPHORINAE.* 

By Phineas W. Whiting. 
LUCILIA. 

In his "Synopsis of the CalHphorinse (Diptera) of the 
United States" (Zool. Bull. 1899, Vol. 11, No. 6), Garry de 
Neuville Hough defines our species of Lucilia as follows: 

"Two postacrosticals. Front of male linear, of female one-third as wide as the 
head; abdomen unicolorous. cazsar L. 

"Front of male not linear, at narrowest part about one-eighth as wide as the head; 
front of female about one-fourth as wide as the head; abdomen not unicolor- 
ous, first segment and hind margins of second and third blackish, contrasting 
strongly with the remainder pilatei nov. sp. [Hough] 

"Three postacrostalis. Palpi black; front of male very narrow, that of female 
about one-third as wide as the head; abdomen with two stout marginal 
macrochsetas on the second abdominal segment. syl varum Meig. 

"Palpi yellow; front of male varies from one-eighth to one-sixth as wide as the 
head, that of female about one-third as wide as the head; second abdominal 
segment without marginal macrochastse. sericata Meig." 

Moreover, he says, "The chastotaxy is invariable for each 
species except for an occasional evident deformity, and it 
differs in the different species only in the number of achrostical 
bristles." 

Observations w^ere made on this subfamily during the past 
season and especial attention was given to the matter of cheeto- 
taxy in Lucilia. Thus some estimate may be obtained of 
the extent of deformity as it occurs in nature. Female flies 
of this genus, moreover, were obtained alive and set in cages 
containing fish, in order that their offspring might be obtained 
for the purpose of studying the range of variation in the progeny 
of the separate females. Each family probably represents 
the offspring of several males as copulation is frequent. The 
bristles studied comprise only the achrosticals and the dorso- 
centrals posterior to the transverse suture of the thorax, with 
the exception that in L. sylvarum the marginal bristles on the 
second abdominal segment were recorded as they showed 
considerable divergence from the normal condition recorded by 
Hough and are regarded as a specific character. 

*Contributions from the Entomological Laboratory of the Bussey Institution, 
Harvard University, No. 67. 

257 



258 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

The post-sutural dorso-centrals and achrosticals in L. 
sericata form a group of twelve in four rows of three each as 
shown in the diagram (Fig. 1). This arrangement is recorded 
as 3, 3, 3, 3, the separation into rows being denoted by 
commas. 




Fig. 1. Thorax of Calliphora viridescens to show 
typical arrangement of post sutural bristles. 
1. Transverse suture. 2. Supra-alar bristles. 
3. Intra-alar bristles. 4. Dorso-central bristles. 
5. Post acrostical bristles. 6. Scutellar suture. 

When one or two of the anterior bristles of a row are omitted, 
the row is denoted by 2 or 1 respectively. 

In order to denote the omission of the second or third bristle 
when those anterior to it are not omitted, the -normal positions 
of the bristles are recorded as a, b, and c, from anterior to 
posterior. Thus a row lacking the second bristle would be 
called ac. 

Addition of a supernumerary bristle into a row is denoted by 
! inserted in the proper position between or in front of the 
letters denoting the normal bristles. Thus addition of a bristle 
in front of a row would be expressed by calling the row !abc. 
But in some cases the number of bristles alone was recorded 
for each row and the row was called 4 or 5, according to whether 
' one or two bristles were added. 

Insertion of a supernumerary bristle between the normal 
rows is denoted by parentheses enclosing a, b, or c, according 
to the position of the bristle from anterior to posterior. Thus 
a definition as 3, (a), 3, 3, 3, would denote the addition of a 
bristle between the first left post-dorso- central and the first 
left post-achrostical. 

Additional bristles are usually smaller than the normal, 
but range all the way from microchaetse to the size of the 
normal macrochaet£e. A small bristle is denoted by italics. 

The records of wild files are first noted, and these are fol- 
lowed by an account of the breeding experiments. 



1913] Observations on Chcetotaxy of Calliphorinae. 259 

On July 29 the following were taken at meat near the 
Bussey Institution, Forest Hills, Mass. 

L. sericata: 277 individuals— 3, 3, 3, 3. 1 d^ —3, 3, ab, 3. 

1 9 —5, 3, 3, 4. 1 9 —3, 2, 2, 4. 

4 9 9—3, 2, 2, 3. 2 9 9—3, 3, 2,3 . 

2 9 9—3, 3, 3, 4. 19 —3, 4, 3, 3. 
1 9 —3, 3, 4, 3. 1 cf —3, 2, 3, 3. 

The frequent lack of anterior post-achrosticals either on one 
or on both sides is interesting as it denotes approach toward 
L. caesar. The general habitus, however, is typical sericata. 
A single specimen of caesar taken in this lot was 3, ahc, ahc, 3. 
Thus it appears that chaetotaxy alone cannot be relied upon to 
determine the species with certainty. This will appear from 
the following observations and even more clearly from the 
breeding experiments. 

On Aug. 5, at meat at Bussey Institution, were taken: 

L. sericata: 311 indidivuals — 3, 3, 3, 3. 1 cf — 3, ac, 3, 3. 

1 c^— 3, 3, 2, 3. 1 9—3, 3, 2, 3. 

1 9—3, 3, ac, 3. 
L. ccEsar: 1 9—3, 2, 2, 3. 

L. sylvarum: 1 9 — 3, 3, 3, 3, with two bristles on margin of second abdom- 
inal segment (for brevity written 2 ab. br.) 

On Aug. 6, at meat at Bussey Institution, were taken: 

L. sericata: 68—3, 3, 3, 3. 1 0^-3, 2, 3, 3. 

On Aug. 8, at the garbage scow, Boston, were taken at meat: 

L. sericata: 955 individuals — 3, 3, 3, 3. 1 cf — 3, 3, ac, 3. 

1 cf —3, ac, 3, 3. 1 cf —3, 3, 2, 3. 

2 o'cf- 3, ab ! c, 3, 3. 19 —3, abc, 3. 3. 
1 9 —3, 1, 2, 3. 19 —3, ac, ac, 3. 
1" 9 —4, 3, 3, 4. 19 —3, 3, 4, 4. 

1 9 —3, 4, 3, 3. 19 —3, 2, 1, 3. 

5 9 9—3, ac, 3, 3. 2 9 9—3, a6c, 3, 3. 

3 9 9—3, 3, ac, 3. 3 9 9—3,3,2,3. 

4 9 9—3, 2, 3, 3. 

Flies having the habitus of cassar were as follows: 

5 cf 0^-3, 2, 2, 3. 9 9 9—3,2,2,3. 
1 9 —3, abc, 2, 3. 

On Aug, 9 at a short distance from Bussey Institution on leaves near a pond the 
following were taken: 
L. sericata: 1 cf — 3, 3, 3, 3. 
L. caesar: 1 9 —3, 2, 2, 3. 

L. sylvarum: 2 cf cf — 3, 3, 3, 3, with 2 ab. br. 

1 cf —3, 3, 2, 3, with 2 ab. br. 

4 9 9—3, 3, 3, 3, ab. br. lacking. 

On Aug. 10 at same place the following were taken at meat: 

L. sericata: 4 cf cf— 3, 3, 3, 3. 100 9 9—3, 3, 3, 3. 

2 9 9—3, 2, 2, 3. 2 9 9—3, a / be, 3, 3. 
1 9 —3, (a), 3, 3, 3. 

L.ccesar: 3 cf cf— 3, 2, 2, 3. 20 9 9—3,2,2,3. 

L. sylvarum: 1 cf — 3, 3, 3, 3, with 2 ab. br. 
1 9 —3, 3, 3, 3, with 2 ab. br. 
An indeterminate cf Lucilia — 3, abc, abc, 3. 



260 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

On Aug. 12, at same place on leaves were taken: 
L. sericata: 1 9 — 3, 3, 3, 3. 
L. sylvarum: 14 cTcf — 3, 3, 3, 3, with 2 ab. br. 

2 c?cf— 3, 3, 3, 3, with 3 ab. br. 

1 cf ' —3, 3, 3, 3, with 4 ab. br. 

1 d" —3, 3, a / be, 3, with 2 ab. br. 

1 9 —3, 3, a .' be, 3, with 2 weak ab. br. 

On Aug. 14, at same place, on leaves were taken: 
L. sericata: '19 — 3, 3, 3, 3. 
L. ccBsar: 4 9 9—3, 2, 2, 3. 

L. sylvarum: 5 cfcf — 3, 3, 3, 3, with 2 ab. br. 

1 cf —3, 3, 2, 3, with 3 ab. br. 

2 d'cf— 3, 3, 3, 3, with 4 ab. br. 

1 & —3, a ./ be, ab ! c, 3, with 2 ab. br. 

3 9 9—3, 3, 3, 3, ab. br. lacking. 

And at meat: 

L. ccesar: 2 d'o"- 3, 2, 2, 3. 

21 9 9—3, 2, 2, 3. 

L. sericata: 6 cf cf — 3, 3, 3, 3. 

225 9 9—3, 3, 3, 3. 

1 9 —3, 3, 3, .' abc. 

2 9 9—3, a./ be, 3, 3. 
1 9 —3, 3, a ./ be, 3. 
1 9 —3, ac, 3, 3. 

L. sylvarum: 1 9 — 3, 3, / abc, 3, with 2 weak ab. br. 

On Aug. 15, in meadow near Bussey Institution were taken at meat: 
L. ccBsar: 1 d' —3, 2, 2, 3. 

L. sericata: 8 cf 0^-3, 3, 3, 3. 
145 9 9—3, 3, 3, 3. 
1 9 —3, 3, 3, ./ abc. 
19 —3, a .' be, 3, 3. 
19 —Si! be, 3, 3, 3. 
1 9 —3, 3, a .' be, 3. 

On Aug. 29, at Hartland, Vt., by the bank of the Connecticut River at some 
distance from any house were taken at meat: 
L. ccesar: 1 c? —3,2,2,3. 32 9 9—3,2,2,3. 

1 9 —3, 3, 2, 3. 
L. sylvarum: 3 9 9 — 3, 3, 3, 3, with 2 well developed ab. br. 

On Oct. 17, at garbage scow, Boston, were taken at meat: 



sericata: 


28 cfc?— 3, 3, 3, 3. 




351 9 9—3,3,3,3. 




1 o^ —3, 2, 2, 3. 




1 d" —3, 3, 2, 3. 




1 9 —3, 2, 2, 3. 




1 9 —3, 3, 2, 3. 




1 9 —3, 2, abc, 3. 




1 9 —3, 3, ac, 3. 




1 9 —3, ac, ac, 3. 




1 9 —3, 3, 3, ab / c, 




1 9 — .' abc, 3, 3, 


/ abc. 





In all cases habitus rather than chaetotaxy has been taken as 
the criterion of specific determination, and this I believe to be 
more reliable on account of my breeding experiments. By 
habitus I mean general coloration and slight differences of 
form which would be very hard to define verbally. The width 
of the front is also important here. The habits are also some- 
what different, as may be seen from the observations. L. 
sylvarum appears to be the wildest form, being without excep- 



1913] Observations on Chcetotaxy of Calliphonnae. 261 

tion taken at some distance from buildings. Sericata is more 
commonly present either inside or very near buildings, while 
caesar may be taken in either situation, but more frequently 
along with sylvarum. It would be of considerable interest to 
study the distribution of these species over a more extensive 
area. 

In order to get an approximate estimation of the percentage 
of individuals abnormal in chaetotaxy, I have added the seri- 
catas and find them as follows: 

Normal — 2,479 individuals. Abnormal by reduction — 47 
individuals or 2 %. Abnormal by addition — 23 individuals or 
1%. Abnormal by reduction and addition — ■ 1 9 — 3,2, 2, 4, or 
.04%. 

The variants by reduction are here 10 cf d^ and 37 9 9 , 
while the variants by addition are 2 cf cf and 22 9 9 . The 
excess of females is of course due to the fact that the flies were 
taken at meat. 

Some of the flies were bred to show the character of the 
progeny, and these showed results as follows: 

L. sylvarum: 9 — 3, 3, a .' be, 3, with 2 very small ab. br., taken by pond 

near Bussey, Aug. 12, gave all females in progeny as follows: 
9 9 9—3, 3, 3, 3, ab. br. lacking. 

2 9 9—3, 3, 3, 3, with 2 small ab. br. 
1 9 — 3, ! abc, 3, 3, ab. br. lacking. 

3 9 9—3, 3, a / be, 3, ab. br. lacking. 

1 9 — 3, .' abc, ! abc, 3, ab. br. lacking. 
This suggests that an extra post-sutural bristle may be inherited. 
L. ccEsar: 

9—3, 2, 2, 3, from Bussey Pond, Aug. 14, gave 18 d'd'—S, 2, 2, 3. 

13 9 9—3, 2, 2, 3. 1 cf— 3, b, 2, 3. 

9—3, 2, 2, 3, from Bussey Pond, Aug. 10, gave 13 9 9—3, 2, 2, 3. No 
males. 
L. sericata: 

9 — 3,3, 3, 3, from Bussey Institution, July, gave 
51 cfcT- 3, 3, 3, 3. 

35 9 9—3, 3, 3, 3. 1 9—3, 3, a! be, 3. 

9 — 3, 3, 3, 3, from Bussey Institution, Aug. 5, gave 

71 d^c^— 3, 3, 3, 3. 59 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

3 cTcf- 3, 3, a./ be, 3. ' 2 cf cf— 3, a .' be, 3, 3. 

1 cf —3, a .' be, a ! be, 3. 19 —3, a ! be, 3, 3. 

1 9 —3, 3, a .' be, 3. 
9 — 3, 8, 3, 3, from Bussey Institution, July, gave 



32 d'd'—S, 3, 3, 3. 


32 9 9- 


-3, 3, 3, 3. 


3 9 9— .'abc, 3, 3, .'abc. 






1 9 —! abc, .' abc, 3, .' abc. 






1 9 —3, ! abc, .' a ! be, 3. 






1 9 —.'abc, 3, 3, (a), 3. 






1 9 —3, 3, .' abc, 3. 


1 c^ - 


-3, 3, ac, 3. 


1 d" —! abe, 3, 3, .' abc. 


1 d" - 


-3, (c), 3, 3, 3. 


1 d" —3, 3, 2, 3. 


1 o^ - 


-3, 3, 3, / abc. 



262 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI^ 

9 — 3, 3, 3, 3, from Bussey Institution, July, gave 



78 cfc?— 3, 3, 3, 3. 


110 9 9—3, 3, 3, 3. 


1 c^ —3, 3, ab, 3. 


1 d' —3, 2, ac, 3. 


4 cfd'— 3, 2, 3, 3. 


1 d" —3, 2, 2, 3. 


1 c^ —3, (a), 3, 3, 3. 


1 d —3, a / be, a / be, 3. 


1 9 —3, 3, ac, 3. 


1 9 —3, 3, 3, / abc. 


1 9 — / abc, 3, 3, / abc. 


1 9 — / abe, 3, 3, 3. 



1 9 —3, a /be, 3, 3. 
9 — 3, 3, 3, 3, from Bussey, July, gave:* 

30 cf(^— 3, 3, 3, 3. 34 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

1 d —3, ac, 3, 3. 

2 9 9 — 3, 3, 3, 3, taken at Bussey Institution, gave: 

191 0^0^-3, 3, 3, 3. 203 9 9—3, 3, 3, 3. 

2 d^ cf — 3, ac, 3, 3. 3 rf'c?'— 3, 2, 3, 3. 

2 cf d'— 3, 3, 2, 3. \& — 3, ab, 3, 3. 

1 cf —3, 3, ac, 3. 1 9 —3, 2, 2, 3. 

1 & —3, ac, 2, 3. 
1 9 — 3, 3, 3, 3, from Bussey Institution, Nov. 20, gave: 

124 cf 0^—3, 3, 3, 3. 118 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

1 9 —3, 3, 2, 3. 1 o^— 3, 2, 3, 3. 

1 d —3, ac, 3, 3. 

1 9 — 3, 3, 3, 3, from Bussey Institution, Nov. 18, gave: 

25 c^ d^— 3. 3, 3, 3. 34 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

2 9 9—3, 3, ac, 3. 1 9—3, ac, 3, 3. 

19 — 3, a / be, 3, 3. I & —a .' be, 3, 3, 3. 

1 9 — 3, 3, 3, 3, from scow, Boston, Aug. 8, gave: 

17 c? 0^—3, 3, 3, 3. 19 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

1 9 —3, 3, a / be, 3. 

Thus the progeny of normal 9 9 (3, 3, 3, 3.) show consider- 
able variation, and it is readily observed that this variation 
tends in some cases to reduction of bristles, in other cases to- 
addition of bristles, while both tendencies may be observed in 
the same family. Taking the totals of these families we have 
normal cf cf 589, normal 9 9 410, variants by addition, 12 cf cT 
and 16 9 9; and variants by reduction, 21 cf cf' and 699. 
This gives 2.6% variants by addition and 2.5% variants by 
reduction. 

Let us now consider the families of L. sericata produced by 
mothers abnormal by reduction. 

d and 9' — 3, 3, 2, 3, taken at scow, Boston, Oct. 17, put in same box, gave: 
13 d^ c?— 3, 3, 3, 3. 8 9 9—3,3,3.3. 

1 d —3, 3, 2, 3. 1 d^ —3, ac, 3, 3: 

1 d —3, ac, ac, 3. 1 d —3, 3, 2, 3. 

2 9 9—3, 2, 3, 3, 

9—3, 2, 3, 3, taken at scow, Boston, Aug. 8, gave: 

32 d' d'— 3, 3, 3, 3. 22 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

1 d —3, ac, 3, 3. la" —3, 3, ac, 3. 

1 d —3, 3, ab, 3. 1 d —3, 2, 3, 3. 

1 d —3, ac, 2, 3. 



*By reason of an imperfection in the technique at this point, this culture may 
have been contaminated from flies outside. The results are therefore, not 
averaged in with the total. 



1913] Observations, o?i Chcetotaxy of Calliphorinae. 263 

9—3, 3, ac, 3, from scow, Boston, Aug. 8, gave 12 0^0^—3, 3, 3, 3. 

15 9 9—3, 3, 3, 3. 
9 — 3, ac, 2, 3, from Bussey Institution, July, gave: 

18 cfcf— 3, 3, 3, 3. 8 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

9 — 3,' 2, 3, 3, from scow, Boston, Aug. 8, gave: 

10 d'cf— 3, 3, 3, 3. 14 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

1 cf —3, 3, 2, 3. Id' —3, ac, 3, 3. 

1 9 — 3, ac, ac, 3. 
9—3, 2, 1, 3, from scow, Boston, Aug. 8, gave 10 d'c?'— 3, 3, 3, 3. 12 9 9 — 
3, 3, 3, 3. This family was continued into the third generation and 
will be considered below. 
9 — 3, ac, 3, 3, from scow, Boston, Aug. 8, gave: 

7 cfcf— 3, 3, 3, 3. 7 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

19 — 3, 3, a / be, 3. 

Taking the totals of these families of females deficient in 
bristles we find normal cf 6^102, normal 9 9 86, variants by 
reduction 10 cf cf and 4 9 9, variants by addition, 1 9 . Thus 
from^these rather small numbers we see the variants by re- 
duction are 7%, while the variants by addition are 0.5%. 

I Let us consider now the progeny of females abnormal by 
addition of bristles. 

9 — / abc, 3, 3, ! abc, from scow, Boston, Oct. 17, gave: 

30 o^cf— 3, 3, 3, 3. 219 9—3,3,3,3. 

1 d' —3, (a), 3, 3, (a), 3. 
9 — 3, 3, 3, ab ! c, from scow, Boston, Oct. 17, gave: 

9 cfcf— 3, 3, 3, 3. 20 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

1 & —3, 3, 3, (a), 3. . 1 cf —3, ac, 3, 3. 

1 9 — 3, ac, ac, 3. 
9 — 3, 3, a / be, .' abc, from scow, Boston, Aug. 8, gave: • 

40 cfcf— 3, 3, 3, 3. 32 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

3 &&—Z a ! be, 3, 3. 1 cf— 3, 3, a ! be, 3. 

1 cf— 3, (a), 3, 3, 3. 1 d' —3, ac, ac, 3. 

19 — 3, 3, a .' b .' c, 3. 2 9 9—3, a ! be, 3, 3. 

1 9 —3, 3, ac, 3. 1 9 —3, ab, 3, 3. 

1 9 —3, 3, 2, 3. 19 —3, ac, 3, 3. 

9 — a / be, a .' be, 3, 3, from scow, Boston, Aug. 8, gave: 

75 c^c^— 3, 3, 3, 3. 52 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

1 c^ —3, 3, a .' be, 3. 1 cf — 3 (a), 3, 3, 3. 

1 o" —3, a /be, 3, 3. 2 9 9—3, a .' be, 3, 3. 

2 9 9— 3, 3, a.' be, 3. 19 —3, 3, 3, a / be. 

Taking the totals of these families of females abnormal by 
addition of bristles we find normal cf cf 154, normal 9 9 125, 
variants by reduction, 2 cf' cf and 5 9 9; variants by addition, 
10 cf cf and 8 9 9. Thus the variants by reduction are 2.3% 
while the variants by addition are 6%. 

From the averages of the reared stock we see there is a 
tendency to vary both toward reduction and toward addition of 
bristles and that this tendency is evidently of a hereditary 
character, the mean being shifted in the direction of the parental 
abnormality. 



264 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI^ 

The female of L. sericata (3, 2, 1, 3.) taken at the garbage 
scow, Boston, August 8, gave as above recorded 10 cf cf-3, 3, 3, 3, 
and 12 9 9-3, 3, 3, 3. Three pairs of these were segregated 
and gave offspring as follows: 



1st pair gave: 

10 d'd'- 


-3, 3, 3, 3. 


7 9 9- 


-3, 3, 3, 3. 


2d pair gave: 

42 d'd'- 


-3, 3, 3, 3. 


39 9 9- 


-3, 3, 3, 3. 


1 & - 


-ac, 3, 3, ac. 


2 c^d^- 


-3, ! abc, 3, 3, 


1 & - 


-3, 2, 3, 3. 


1 9 - 


-3, ac, ac, 3. 


1 9 - 


-3, ac, 3, 3. 






3d pair gave: 

55 cfcf- 


-3, 3, 3, 3. 


62 9 9- 


-3, 3, 3, 3. 


7 &&- 


-3, 2, 2, 3. 


1 9 - 


-3, 2, 2, 3. 


2 cfcf- 


-3, 3, 2, 3. 


3 9 9- 


-3, 2, 3, 3. 


1 cf - 


-3, 3, 3, ac. 


1 9 - 


-3, abc, 3. 3. 


1 ^ - 


-3, a ! be, 3, 3. 


1 9 - 


-3, abc, 2, 3. 


i 9 - 


-2, 3, 3, 3. 


1 9 - 


-3, 3, ac, 3. 


1 9 - 


-3, ab, 3, 3. 







Of the progeny of the first pair 1 cf-3, 3, 3, 3, was mated 
to 2 9 9-3, 3, 3, 3, and produced offspring as follows: 
163 0^0^—3,3,3,3. 170 9 9—3,3,3,3. 



2 c?cr^— 3, ac, 3, 3. 


2 9 9- 


—3, ae, 3, 3. 


2 o"cf— 3, 3, ac, 3. 


1 9 - 


-2, 3, 3, 3. 


1 c^ —3, 3, 2, 3. 


1 9 - 


— ac, 3, 3, 2. 


1 cf — With very few scat- 


1 9 - 


-ac, 3, 2, 0. 


tered bristles. 


1 9 - 


— ab, 3, ab, 6c. 


1 d^ — 3, a ! be, 3, 3. 


2 9 9- 


-3, a ! be, 3, 3. 


1 cf —3, 3, a ! be, 3. 


2 9 9- 


-3, 3, a ! be, 3. 


1 9 —3, 3, a ! be, 3. 


1 9 - 


— .' abc, 3, 3, / abc, 


19 — a ! be, 3, 3, 3. 







Of the progeny of the second pair 1 cf-3, 3, 3, 3, was mated 
to 1 9-3, 3, 3, 3, and produced the following: 

92 0^6^—3,3,3,3. 85 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

2 0^0^-3, a! be, a ! be, 3. 5 0^0^-3, a ! be, 3, 3. 

4 0^6^-3, 3, a ! be, 3. 3 9 9—3, a ! be, 3, 3. 

1 9 —3, 3, a .' be, 3. 1 9 —3, ac, 3, 3. 

If we take the totals of this inbred stock we find them as 
follows : 

362 cfd'— 3, 3, 3, 3. 363 9 9—3, 3, 3, 3. 

By reduction, 18 d'cf and 18 9 9 or 5%. 
By addition, 16 cT'cT and 11 9 9 or 3.7%. 

In the spring of 1912 a few specimens of Calliphora vomi- 
toria L. and C. viridescens Desv. were taken at Cambridge 
and C. erythrocephala Meig was common all through the sum- 
mer. In the fall vomitoria and viridescens appeared in consider- 
able numbers in the vicinity of the Bussey Institution. The 



1913] Observations on Chcetotaxy of Calliphorinae. 265 

records of chaetotaxy of the wild Calliphorae that was taken 
at Bussey are as follows. The bristles observed are the post- 
achrosticals and post-dorso-centrals as in Lucilia. 

C. erythrocephala: 

33 cf c?— 3, 3, 3, 3. « 134 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

19 — 3, 3, a ! be, 3. 1 9 —2, 3, 3, 3. 
C. vomitoria: 

2 cfcf— 3, 3, 3, 3. 54 9 9—3,3,3,3. 
C. viridescens: 

219 9—3,3,3,3. 19 — 3, ab, 3, 3. 

These records show 3 abnormals out of 247, but the ratio 
is not very significant as the numbers are very small. 

The records of breeding Calliphorae show rather interesting 
results. 

A 9 erythrocephala — 3, 3, 3, 3, gave: 

54 c^ d^— 3, 3, 3, 3. 47 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

2 cf cf— 3, a !bc, 3, 3. 

One of these abnormal males was mated to his sister and the 
pair gave the following offspring: 

131 c^cf— 3. 3, 3, 3. 86 9 9—3,3,3,3. 
1 cf —3, (c), 3, 3, 3. 19 —3, a ! be, aabc, 3. 

4 cf d"— 3, a ! be, 3, 3. 5 9 9—3,-3, a ! be. 3. 

1 d" —3, a ! be, a ! be, 3. 1 9 —3, 3, 3, ab. 

8 cfd'— 3, 3, a ! be, 3. 

1 d" —3, ab, 3, 3. 

Another wild 9 erythrocephala — 3, 3, 3, 3, gave: 

80 d'c^— 3, 3, 3, 3. 74 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

Another wild 9 erythrocephala — 3, 3, 3, 3, gave: 

97 c^cf— 3, 3, 3, 3. 97 9 9—3, 3, 3, 3. 

2 9 9—3, 3, ac, 3. 

A 9 vomitoria — 3, 3, 3, 3, gave: 

47 cfc?— 3, 3, 3, 3. 64 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

4 cfcf— 3, ac, 3, 3. 4 9 9—3, ae, 3, 3. 

2 o'cf— 3, 3, ac, 3. 4 9 9—3, 3, ae, 3. 
1 o" —3, 3, ab, 3. 19 —3, 2, 3, 3. 

1 cT —3, 3, 2, 3. 
Another 9 vomitoria — 3, 3, 3, 3, gave: 

32 c^d^— 3, 3, 3, 3. 64 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

Id' — ab, 3, 3, 3, 2 d'd'— 3, a ! be, 3. 3. 

1 <d —3, 2, 3, 3. 1 9—3, ./ abe, .' abe, 3. 

1 & —3, 2, 2, 3. 
A 9 viridesceyis — 3, 3, 3, 3, gave: 

5 cfd^— 3, 3, 3, 3. 5 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

1 (^ —3, 2, 3, 3. 19 —3, ac, 3, 3. 

Another 9 viridescens — 3, ab, 3, 3, gave: 

4 d'd'— 3, 3, 3, 3. 6 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

1 d^ — 3, ac, ae, 3. 
The totals of the bred stock for the three species are: 

450 c^d'— 3, 3, 3, 3. 443 9 9—3,3,3,3. 

By reduction 14 d'd' and 4 9 9 , or 2%; by addition 18 d'd" and 12 9 9 or 3%. 



266 



Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



In the course of collecting Calliphorse four specimens were 
obtained which I was unable to classify as belonging to any one 
of the three species common in Massachusetts. They appeared 
like inter-grades between erythrocephala and viridescens . 

One small sized male had the beard black, the right cheek 
dark red, and the left cheek somewhat lighter in color. The 
right cheek was dark enough to place the specimen as viridescens 
but the left cheek resembled that of erythrocephala. One small 
and two large sized females answer also to the same description. 
In all four cases the right cheek is considerably darker then the 
left. The flies were examined by Mr. C. W. Johnson who was 
unable to classify them. 

The meaning of these forms is uncertain and I should not 
feel justified in advancing an hypothesis without first performing 
breeding experiments with them. 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. 

A number of meat flies of the Calliphorine genera, Lucilia 
and Calliphora, were collected during the summer and fall of 
1912 and observations were made on the range of variation in 
the chaetotaxy. The bristles studied were the post-sutural 
achrosticals and dorso-centrals of the thorax. Breeding ex- 
periments were also performed in order to study the range 
of variation in the individual families. 

Especial attention was given to Lucilia sericata. The 
following table gives the general results of the work on this 
species. 





Normal 


Abnormal by reduct'n 


Abnormal by addition 


Wild Flies Captured 


2,479 


Number 
47 


Percentage 
2 


Number 
23 


Percentage 
1 




cfc? 


9 9 


cfc^ 


9 9 




c^d^ 


9 9 




Progeny of normal 9 9 


589 


410 


21 


6 


2.5 


12 


16 


2.6 


Progeny of 9 9 abnor- 
mal by reduction 


102 


86 


10 


4 


7 





1 


0.5 


Progeny of 9 9 abnor- 
l4_ mal by addition 


154 


125 


2 


5 


2.3 


10 


8 


6 



1913] Observations on Chcetotaxy of Calliphorinae. 267 

As regards the wild flies captured it will be observed 
that there are twice as many abnormal by reduction as there 
are abnormal by addition. Too much importance should 
not be attached to this fact, as it may be due toian error. In 
a few cases there is reduction in the size of the bristle normally 
present, but as a general thing there is no reduction unless the 
bristle is entirely absent. On the other hand a very small 
bristle is frequently added and it is more rarely the case that 
a supernumerary bristle is of the full size. In looking over 
a large number of flies rapidly, one would then have a tendency 
to overlook the presence of the small additional bristle and 
to record more reduction than addition in number. As these 
flies were examined for the purpose of finding breeding material, 
careful attention was not given to this matter and I am inclined 
to consider the normal range of variation to be somewhat above 
two per cent both in the direction of reduction and in the di- 
rection of addition. This equality of variation in both directions 
is seen in the progeny of normal females. In the progeny of 
females abnormal by reduction and of females abnormal by 
addition, the variation of the offspring is seen to tend in the 
direction of the parental abnormality. 

A single female lacking three bristles, (3, 2, 1, 3), gave ten 
males and twelve females of normal chaetotaxy. Three pairs 
of these gave 215 normal flies, 23 abnormal by reduction, aind 3 
abnormal by addition. A pair and a trio of these normals 
gave in the third generation from the original female, 510 
normals, 13 abnormal by reduction, and 24 abnormal by ad- 
dition. This shows regression away from the abnormal and 
suggests Galton's Law. 

Observations made on Lucilia sylvarum and caesar, and 
on Calliphora erythrocephala, viridescens, and vomitoria lead me 
to believe that these five species are analogous to Lucilia 
sericata in the variation of their chaetotaxy. 

In conclusion I wish to express my thanks for suggestions 
and criticism in the course of the work kindly offered by Pro- 
fessor Wheeler, Professor Castle and Mr. Brues. 



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Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 

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CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



Crosby, C. K.- — A Revision of the North American 

Species of Megastigmus Dalman 155 

Banks, Nathan — The Neuropterous Genus Palpares. 171 
Brain, Chas. K. — Stomoxys Calcitrans Linn., Part II 197 
Smith, Lucy Wright — The Biology of Perla Immar- 

ginata Say 203 

Shelford, Victor E. — The Life-History of a Bee-Fly 
(Spogostylum Anale Say) Parasite of the Larva of 
a Tiger Beetle (Cicindela Scutellaris Say Var. 

Lecontei Hald.) 213 

Townsend, Charles H. T. — A New Application of 

Taxonomic Principles 226 

Patch, Edith M. — A Study in Antennal Variation. . 233 
ToTHiLL, John D. — A Study in Variation in the 
North American Greenbottle Flies of the Genus 
Lucilia, with Systematic Notes on the Species 

Involved 241 

Whiting, Phineas W. — Observations on the Chseto- 

taxy of Calliphorinae 257 



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Volume VI. Number 3. 



ANNALS 



The Entomological Society of America 



SEPTEMBER, 191 3 



EDITORIAL BOARD 

J. H. COMSTOCK, L. O. HOWARD, 

Ithaca, N. Y. Washington, D. C. 

C. J. S. BETHUNE, W. M. WHEELER, 

GuEi^PH, Ontario, Canada. Boston, Mass. 

C. W. JOHNSON, P. P. CALVERT, 

Boston, Mass. Phii,adei,phia, Pa. 

V. L. KELLOGG, J. W. FOLSOM, 

Stanford Univ., Cai,. Urbana, Ii,i^. 

HERBERT OSBORN, Managing Editor, 
C01.XJMBUS, Ohio. 



PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE SOCIETY 
COLUMBUS. OHIO 



Entered at second class matter April 1 1, 1908, at the Post Office at Columbiu, Ohio, 
under the Act of Congress of March 3, 1879. 



'^^^^n.^l Ki^y, 



The Entomological Society of America. 

FOUNDED 1906. 



OFFICERS 1913. 

President— C. J. S. Bethune Guelph, Ont., Canada 

First Vice-President — P. P. Calvert Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Second Vice-President — Wm. S. Marshall Madison, Wisconsin 

Secretary-Treasurer — A. D. MacGillivray Urbana, Illinois 

Executive Committee — The Officers, and Herbert Osborn, C. P. Gillette, 

V. L. Kellogg, J. G. Needham, C. T. Brues, Nathan Banks. 
Committee on Nomenclature — H. T. Fernald, E. P. Felt, T. D. A. Cockerell. 



Pri( 



ice List of Publications. 

Annals, Vols. I, II, III, IV and V, complete, each $3.00 

Annals, Separate Parts except as below, each 1 .00 

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REPRINTS FROM VOLUME I. 

Proceedings of first three meetings; Constitution, By-Laws and List of 

Members 25 

Wheeler, Wm. M. — Polymorphism of Ants 30 

Osborn, Herbert — The Habits of Insects as a Factor fn Classification 20 

Severin, H. H. and Severin, H. C. — Anatomical and Histological Studies 
of the Female Reproductive Organs of the American-Saw Fly, Cimbex 

Americana, Leach 25 

Felt, E. P. — Some Problems in Nomenclature ; 10 

Hammar, a. G. — On the Nervous System of the Larva of Corydalis comuta L .25 
Bradley, J. C. — A case of Gregarious Sleeping Habits among Aculeate 

Hymenoptera 10 

Davis, J. J. — Notes on the Life History of the Leafy Dimorph of the Box- 
elder Aphid, Chaitophorus negundinis Thos 10 

Hambleton, J. C. — The Genus Corizus, with a Review of the North and 

Middle American Species 25 

Girault, a. a. — Biological Notes on Colorado Potato Beetle.. 25 

GiRAULT, A. A. — A Monographic Catalogue of the Mymarid Genus Alaptus.. .25 
Severin, H. H. and Severin, H. C. — Internal Organs of Reproduction of 

Male Saw-fly 15 

Smith, C. P. — A Preliminary Study of the Aranas Theraphosae of California.. .75 

Davis, J. J. — Studies on Aphididee 20 

Riley, W. A. — Muscle Attachment of Insects 16 

Needham, J. C. — Critical Notes on the Classification of the Corduliinae 

(Odonata) 15 

Howard, L. O. — A Key to the Species of Prospaltella with Table of Hosts 

and Descriptions of Four New Species 15 

Hood, J. D.— Two New Species of Idolothrips 10 

Address 

ANNALS ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, 
Biological Building, State Univ., Columbus, Ohio. 



ANNALS 



OF 



The Entomological Society of America 



Volume VI SEPTEMBER, 1913 Number 3 



A REVISION OF THE SPECIES IN AGROMYZA FALLEN, 
AND CERODONTHA RONDANI. (DIPTERA). 

By J. R. Malloch. 
Assistant, Cereal and Forage Insect Investigations, Bureau of Entomology. 

The work on the two genera presented in this paper has 
been undertaken for the purpose of deciding the identity and 
distinctions of several species affecting field and forage crops, 
upon which considerable work has been done by the field agents 
of the division dealing with the insects affecting these crops. 
In some cases it has been found necessary to change the names 
of certain American species, as examination has proved 
that they are either synonymous with other American species 
or with species belonging to the European fauna. In the case 
of some other species it may at some future time become 
necessary to sink the American species as synonymous with 
European forms, but owing to the most unsatisfactory con- 
dition of the knowledge of the species contained in this family 
(Agromyzidae) in Europe, it is not possible to definitely decide 
upon the correct names of their species from the brief de- 
scriptions available. Thus, while I suspect the distinctness 
of certain species in our fauna from others occurring in Europe, 
I consider it the safer plan, and one entailing no material 
disadvantages, to retain those species in our list, rather than 
rank them as synonyms of species which may ultimately 
prove to be absent from our fauna. 

269 



270 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Generic Characters of Agromyza. 

Hea4 of normal size; frons broad, from one- third to a little 
over one-half the head width ; ocelli on a slightly raised portion ; 
the ocellar triangle, so distinct in the Oscinidce, seldom trace- 
able; orbits distinct, 3-5 pairs of orbital bristles present anterior 
to front ocellus; one pair of bristles on ocellar region slightly 
behind anterior ocellus, pointing forward and slightly diver- 
gent, vertical row consisting of two central divergent and 
two outer convergent bristles; postvertical bristles divergent; 
face nearly straight in vertical outline, or slightly concave, 
slightly keeled in center, or unkeeled; mouth margin not pro- 
duced; antennas of moderate size, or third joint enlarged, 
but never elongate or produced at apex; second joint with at 
least one dorsal setula; arista bare or pubescent, never plumose; 
cheeks linear or broadened posteriorly, sometimes one-half 
as high as eye, bristles confined to margin, vibrissa generally 
noticeably differentiated ; proboscis membraneous, not elongated 
noticeably nor geniculate; palpi normal. Mesonotum with 
2-4 pairs of dorso-centrals ; mesopleurce with 1-3 long posterior 
bristles as well as generally a number of setulas; one or two 
bristles above mid coxae and generally numerous setulae; 
propleural bristle strong; squamae distinct. Ovipositor of 
female generally with base chitinized, apex seldom protruding; 
male hypopygium of moderate size, not incurved. Legs 
without preapical bristle on dorsal surface; end spurs weak. 
Wings with subcostal v^in weak, sometimes incomplete, but 
generally complete and ending very near to first vein, or 
fused with first at near apex; costa at end of subcosta uninter- 
rupted, or only slightly so; costal vein with very short hairs 
which are, with exception of two slightly more distinct at 
end of subcosta, of almost equal length to beyond middle 
of wing; cross veins near to wing base, or the outer one 
at, or slightly beyond, wing middle; posterior basal cell always 
complete though small; anal vein (sixth) distinct; costa to 
third vein, slightly beyond it, or to fourth. This last char- 
acter is difficult to distinguish sometimes, and is not of suffi- 
cient importance to permit of the relegation of those species 
having costa to only third vein, to a different genus from 
those with costa to fourth. 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 271 



Synoptic Table of Species in Agromyza. 

1. Halteres white,, or pale yellow; (maculosa has a black spot on outer side). ..2 
Halteres black or brown, never pale yellow 40 

2. Species with the disk of scutellum entirely or partly pale yellow 3 

Species with disk of scutellum colored as mesonotum, and never in part pale 

yellow 11 

3. At least the apical joint of antennas black. 4 

Antennas entirely yellow, or third joint only slightly infuscated ^ C 

4. Frons black, only the frontal lunule yellow 1. xanthophora Schiner. 

Frons yellow, only the ocellar triangle black, and sometimes the posterior 

part of orbits darkened 2. longispinosa, new species. 

-^. No short setulee on disk of mesonotum between the dorso-central bristles. .6 

6. Mesonotum with the disk broadly black, only the lateral margins broadly, 

and the anterior and posterior margins yellow 7 

Mesonotum with black, stripe-like marks, or disk black, the center of disk 
in front of scutellum yellow, owing to the abbreviation of central stripe. .8 

7. Third antennal joint and palpi, at apices, infuscated. .2a. variala, new species. 
Third antennal joint and palpi entirely yellow 7a 

7a. Mesonotum bare except for the dorso-central bristles. .3 JticaZw, new species. 

Mesonotum with discal setulae in addition to dorso-centrals 7b 

7b. Smaller species, 1-1.75 mm., last section of fifth vein 23^ to 3 times as long as 

the penultimate section 4 pusilla Meigen. 

Larger species, 2-2.5 mm., last section of fifth vein 13^ to 2 times as long as 
penultimate section 5 scutellata Fallen. 

8. Only the margins of the discal marks on mesonotum black, the center por- 

tions reddish brown 8 melampyga var. marginalis, new variety. 

Markings on mesonotum unicolorous throughout 9 

9. Markings on mesonotum dull gray black, not glossy. ..6 horealis, new species. 
Markings on mesonotum glossy black 10 

10. Cheeks, posteriorly, about one-half the eye height; arista almost bare. 

7 flavonigra Coquillett. 

Cheeks, posteriorly, much less than one-half the eye height; arista 

pubescent 8 melampyga Loew. 

11. Costa reaching to third vein or slightly beyond 12 

Costa reaching to fourth vein 17 

12. Frons lemon yellow; cross veins very close together 13 

Frons reddish or black, never pale yellow : 14 

13. Lateral margins of mesonotum broadly pale yellow; anterior two pairs of 

dorso-centrals on mesonotum much weaker than the posterior two pairs, 

the front pair not anterior to suture 9. brevicostalis new species. 

Lateral margins of mesonotum colored as disk; anterior two pairs of dorso- 
centrals not much reduced in size, the front pair distinctly anterior to 
suture 10 davisi Walton. 

14. Frons black; cross veins not close together 15 

Frons reddish; cross veins close together 16 

15. Pubescence on arista indistinct; occiput not projecting much on upper half. 

11 abbreviata new species. 
Pubescence on arista distinct; occiput distinctly projecting on upper half. 

12 kincaidi new species. 

16. Slender, slightly shining, black species; mesonotum with four pairs of dorso- 

central bristles 13 parvicella Coquillett. 

Robust, glossy black species; mesonotum with two pairs of dorso-central 
bristles 14 nitida, new species. 

17. Frons entirely yellow, or at least the center stripe mostly yellow or reddish, 

or the orbits yellow posteriorly 18 

Frons entirely black or brown, never yellow on any part; frontal lunule some- 
times white dusted 27 



272 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

18. Mesonotum opaque gray; center of disk between the rows of dorso-central 

bristles with a yellowish-brown, longitudinal vitta, which extends on to 
disk of scutellum; three pairs of orbital, and fours pair of dorso-central 

bristles present 15 immaculata Coquillett. 

Mesonotum shining, or, if opaque grayish there is no indication of a central 
brown vitta 19 

19. Antennae entirely yellow, or third joint only darkened at insertion of arista.* 

20 
Antennae with at least the third joint black, or dark brown, never yellow.. 23 

20. Head, including antenna, clear lemon yellow, only ocellar region, orbits 

posteriorly, and back of head black, or brown; pleurae and legs lemon 
yellow with black or brown marks; lateral margins of mesonotum brown. 

16 citreifrons, new species. 
Frons and face mostly, or entirely, reddish yellow; lateral margins of meso- 
notum pale yellow, or black and concolorous with disk of mesonotum... 21 

21. Five equally strong orbital bristles present; frons one-half as broad as head; 

orbits not differentiated from center stripe; mesonotum with four pairs 

of dorso-centrals 17 pruinosa Coquillett. 

Four orbital bristles present; orbits differentiated from center stripe 22 

22. Lateral margins of mesonotum pale yellow; wings narrow; outer cross vein 

before wing middle; last section of fourth vein three times as long as the 

two preceding sections together 18 indecisa, new species. 

Lateral margins of mesonotum not pale 3'ellow; wings broad; outer cross vein 
at near wing middle; last section of fourth vein twice as long as two 
preceding sections together 19 varifrons Coquillett. 

23. Lateral margins of mesonotum broadly pale yellow 24 

Lateral margins of mesonotum narrowly, or not at all, yellow, the pale color 

conlined almost entirely to the suture, or to the extreme upper margin of 
the pleurae r 25 

24. Frons with the center stripe clear yellow; orbits posteriorly, sometimes, 

blackened; legs black, or brown, the knees never distinctly yellow. . . . 

20 platyptera Thomson. 

Frons with the center stripe more or less blackened; legs with the knees 

distinctly pale yellow 21 coquilletti, new species 

25. Palpi yellow 22 longipennis Loew. 

Palpi black 26 

26. Larger species — 3-33^ mm. — dull gray-black in color; apices of femora and 

iDases of tibiae narrowly yellow 23 coloradensis, new species. 

Smaller species — 1^-2 mm. — shining black in color; apical half of each femur 
yellow, tibiae brownish yellow 24 marginata Loew. 

27. Mesonotum with four, or more, pairs of dorso-central bristles 28 

Mesonotum with two or three pairs of dorso-central bristles 35 

28. The pair of bristles between the posterior pair of dorso-central almost of 

equal strength with them; basal two joints of antennae, legs mostly, 
pleurae, humeri, and abdomen reddish yellow; outer cross vein beyond 

wing middle 25 canadensis, new species. 

The pair of bristles mentioned above much weaker than posterior dorso- 
centrals, or absent; much darker species; only sometimes a narrow side 
line on pleurae, knee joints more or less broadly, and posterior margins 
of abdominal segments narrowly yellow; or entire thorax, abdomen and 
legs black, cross vein generally at or before wing middle or very slightly 
beyond it .29 

29. Third antennal joint in male enlarged, subquadrate, thickly covered with 

short, silky pilosity; in female the third joint is smaller and not so notice- 
ably pilose; frontal lunule distinct, whitish pollinose; center stripe of 

frons brownish 26 laterella Zetterstedt. . . 

Third antennal joint normal in size in both sexes, and not noticeably pilose.. 30 



^'"\ ^Sometimes longipennis has the antennae yellowish, in which case the spec- 
imens will run down to indecisa when a comparison of the descriptions will be 
necessary. 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 273 

30. Halteres pale yellow, with a black spot on outer side of knob; dorso-central 

bristles strong, anterior pairs almost as sti"ong as posterior pairs; last 

section of fifth vein shorter than penultimate section 

27 maculosa, new species. 
Halteres without any dark spot on knob 31 

31. Outer cross vein at about the length of inner cross vein from that vein; third 

and fourth veins very distinctly divergent at apices 

28 waltoni, new species. 

Outer cross vein separated by a greater distance than inner cross vein from 

that vein; third and fourth veins slightly divergent at aoices 32 

32. Small species, at most 2 mm., base of wing, including basal half of first vein, 

upper part of pleurae and mesopleural vertical suture narrowly, a small 
patch below base of .wing, stjuamas, and fringe lemon yellow; general 
color shining black; outer cross vein below, or at very slightly beyond 

end of first vein 29 angulata Loew. 

Species other than above in color, etc 33 

33. Larger species, 3 mm. and over, almost entirely black-browTi ; lower half of 

orbits rather closely set with hairs 30 setosa Loew. 

Smaller species, about 2 mm., not so uniformly colored; lower half of orbits 
sparsely haired 34 

34. Rather robust species; wings broad; cheeks linear; tibiae and tarsi yellowish. 

31 isolata, new species. 
More slender species- wings narrow; cheeks one-fourth as high posteriorly as 

height of eyes; tioiae and tarsi barely paler than femora 

32 fragaricB, new species. 

35. Species with three distinct pairs of dorso-central bristles 36 

Species with 2 distinct parts of dorso-central bristles 39 

36. Glossy black species; base of wing, squamae and small portion of pleurae pale 

lemon yellow; frons not one- third the width of head; anterior pair of 
dorso-central bristles strong; arista as long as from its base to anterior 
ocellus; frontal lunule yellowish, distinctly white pollinose; male with 

apical segments of abdomen conspicuously pale yellow 

' 33 posticata Meigen 

Apex of abdomen in male not yellow; frontal lunule not yellow, not noticeably 

white pollinose 37 

37. Smaller species, less than 2 mm. in length 38 

Larger species, over 2 mm. in length 36 dubitata, new species. 

38. Last section of fifth vein distinctly shorter than penultimate sectioii 

34 neptis Loew. 

Last section of fifth vein distinctly longer than penultimate section 

35 inco7ispicua, new species. 

39. Abdomen black, without any metallic sheen; antennae brownish; aristae 

distinctly pubescent 37 parvicornis Loew. 

Abdomen black, with a metallic, bluish, or greenish sheen; antennas black; 

arista never distinctly pubescent 38 viridida Coquillett. 

" 40. Costa to end of third vein .* 41 

Costa to end of fourth vein 43 

41. Arista short, not more than three times as long as breadth of third antennal 

joint, distinctly pubescent; outer cross vein at its own length from inner 

cross vein; three pairs of dorso-central bristles on mesonotum 

39 salicis, new species. 
Arista bare; mesonotum with two pairs of dprso-centrals 42 

42. Cheeks very short, not higher posteriorly than anteriorly, and about one- 

sixth as high as eye; antennae of moderate size; arista about three times as 

long as width of third joint 40 winnemance, new species. 

Cheeks long, distinctly higher posteriorly than anteriorly, at highest part 
at least one-third as high as eye; antennas rather small, arista about 
six times as long as width of third joint 41 simplex Loew. 



274 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

43. Male with anterior angle of cheek produced, the vibrissse formed of a number 

of bristles, fasciculate, turned upward and generally ending in an acute 
joint; female with the mouth margin produced anteriorly, but without a 
fasciculus 44 

Mouth margin not produced anteriorly in either sex; male vibrissse normal. .47 

44. Large species, over 3 mm. in length; cheeks of almost equal height at anterior 

and posterior margins; antennas brownish; arista shortly and distinctly 
swollen at base; palpi almost entirely bare. . . .42 vibrissata, new species. 
Smaller species, generally less than 2.5 mm. in length; antennse black; arista 
with elongate swelling; cheeks always higher anteriorly than posteri- 
orly 45 

45. Small species, 1.5-2 mm.; frons weakly bristled; discal setulae not carried 

beyond the transverse line of the posterior pair of dorso-centrals, gen- 
erally ceasing distinctly in front of that point 46 

Larger species, 2-2.5 mm.; frons strongly bristled; discal setulae carried at 
least to transverse line of posterior pair of dorso-centrals generally 
beyond that point 43 affinis, new species. 

46. Very small species, barely 1.5 mm.; vibrissas in male not very prominent; 

the anterior angle of cheeks in neither sex much produced 

44 insularis, new species. 

Larger species, about 2 mm.; vibrissas in male prominent; anterior angle of 

cheek in both sexes very distinctly produced ... 45 texana, new species. 

47. Species with four distinct pairs of dorso-central bristles on mesonotum; 

outer cross vein at barely beyond end of first vein; last section of fifth 
vein twice as long as penultimate section. AQ'abtiormalis, new species. 
Species with generally only two distinct, rarely three, pairs of dorso-centrals; 
the outer cross vein at distinctly beyond end of first vein, and the last 
section of fifth never twice as long as penultimate section 48 

48. Eyes bare 49 

Eyes with very distinct pubescence on the upper surface close to frontal 

orbits 47 virens Loew. 

49. Fore tibia with a distinct bristle on the posterior surface at about apical 

third 50 

Fore tibia without any distinct bristle at that point 51 

50. Thorax blue, abdomen bronzy-black; orbits with sparse pubescence and the 

bristles situated at nearer to the eye margin than to the inner margin; 

squamse white, fringe concolorous 48 caridea, new species. 

Thorax black; abdomen bronzy; orbits thickly pubescent, the bristles sit- 
uated on nearer to the inner margin than to the eye margin; squamae 
grayish, margin and fringe brown 49 hurgessi, new species. 

51. Arista with very long pubescence, much longer than basal diameter of 

arista 50 pliimiseta, new species. 

Arista with shorter pubescence, or entirely bare 52 

52. Mesonotum with three distinct pairs of dorso-centrals; large species, 3.5-4 

mm. Larva living in galls on wistaria twigs 51 websteri, new species. 

Mesonotum with only two distinct pairs of dorso-centrals; smaller species, 
not near 4 mm., generally 2.5 to 3 mm 53 

53. Squamae grayish or brownish, margin and fringe always brown or blackish.. 54 
Squamae whitish or yellowish, fringe concolorous 47 virens Loew. 

54. Arista distinctly pubescent, and almost as long as from its base to vertex. . 

52 longiseta, new species. 
Arista much shorter, less distinctly pubescent 55 

55. Large species, 2-3 mm.; outer cross vein at less than its own length from 

inner, inner at distinctly beyond middle of discal cell 56 

Smaller species, distinctly less than 2 mm 57 

56. Mid tibial bristles distinct; larva in galls on lime trees... 53 tilise. Couden. 
Mid tibial bristles absent; larva in galls on poplar trees. .54 schineri, Giraud. 

57. Mouth margin with numerous, rather strong bristles, which form a group, 

though not a fasciculus, at anterior angle... 55 congregata, new species. 
Mouth margin with the bristles as usual, the single vibrissa diflferentiated. 

56 minima, new species. 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 275 



1. Agromyza xanthophora Schiner. 

Syn: Agromyza xanthophora Schiner, Reise d. Novara, Vol. I, 1868, p. 291. 
Agromyza picta Coquillett, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Vol. X, 1902, p. 188. 

Female: Head black; frons opaque, orbits slightly shining, very 
narrow; ocellar region raised, sub-shining, distance between ocelli less 
than the distance from either ocellus to eye; lower orbital bristles 
cruciate, second pair slightly inwardly directed, the upper two pairs 
backwardly directed, the center pair in vertical row divergent, outer 
slightly convergent, post-vertical pair divergent. Frontal lunule 
yellow, with white pollinosity; face brown, sub-opaque, concave, 
unkeeled; cheeks almost linear, narrowest posteriorly, mouth margin 
with numerous hairs, and one strong incurved anterior vibrissa; antennae 
black, third joint of moderate size, rounded, arista thin, slightly thick- 
ened at base, longer than the distance from its base to post-vertical 
bristle, thickly covered with pubescence, which is as long as the diam- 
eter of arista at base. Proboscis pale yellow; palpi black, slightly 
thickened. Thorax yellow; disk of mesonotum shining, but not 
glossy, with a black mark covering all but the margins anterior to the 
suture, which is sharply indented transversely at suture, subquad- 
rately excised centrally on the posterior margin, does not reach to 
scutellum, and has a dentiform longitudinal excision in each lateral lobe 
posteriorly; four pairs of dorso-central bristles present, the anterior two 
pairs reduced in size, the anterior pair just in front of suture; all black 
portion of disk with short hairs, yellow portion bare, except for 5-6 
scattered hairs present on the central posterior excision. Pleur£e with 
the upper half yellow, lower half black; squamae yellow at base, apically 
black, the hairs brown; scutellum yellow, disk bare, margin with 4 
bristles ; postnotum black. Abdomen yellow, third and fourth segments 
with indications of a central and two lateral dark spots, most distinct 
on fourth; fifth and sixth segments glossy black; all segments with 
numerous black hairs which are bristle-like on posterior margins and 
most noticeable on fifth. Coxag and legs entirely shining black; the 
mid tibia with the usual two posterior bristles. Wings slightly infus- 
cated on anterior half; subcostal vein only indistinct at apex, costa 
from himieral vein to end of first vein about two-thirds as long as next 
costal division; second, third and fourth veins slightly divergent; outer 
cross vein as long as penultimate section of fourth, which is distinctly 
shorter than the preceding section of fourth; penultimate .section of 
fifth slightly longer than last section. Halteres pale yellow. 

Length, 3 mm. 

Besides the type specimen of picta from Frontero, Tabasco, 
Mexico (C. H, T. Townsend), there is in the U. S. National 
Museum collection one female from Las Cruces, New Mexico, 
June, 1893, (T. D. A. Cockerell). 

Food-plant unknown. 



276 An7ials Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



2. Agromyza longispinosa, new species. 
Plate XXX, Fig. 22. 

Male and Female: Head yellow, ocellar region, back of head, vertex, 
and third joint of antenna black; frons opaque, very pale yellow, par- 
allel-sided, distinctly broader than the eye; bristles as in xanthophora. 
Third joint of antennas black, sharply contrasting with the pale yellow 
basal joints, regularly rounded and of moderate size; arista black- 
brown, swelling at base of terminal section elongate, almost as long as 
length of third antennal joint, pubescence very short, pale; face almost 
perpendicular, mouth margin not produced, cheeks distinctly higher 
posteriorly than anteriorly, at highest part about one-third as high as 
greatest eye-height, the row of bristles on mouth margin not very strong, 
black, the vibrissa of moderate strength; proboscis and palpi yellow; 
the latter slightly the darker, and weakly bristled. Mesonotum yellow, 
with opaque black-gray mark somewhat similar in outline to that of 
xanthophora but reaching more nearly to scutellum and more elongate 
owing to the species being less robust than xanthophora; the male shows 
some indication of a pale, hnear stripe carried forward from the central 
posterior excision at either anterior angle, which may in some cases be 
so distinct as to cause the disk to present a trivittate appearance. 
Four pairs of very long dorso-central bristles present, the anterior two 
pairs but little reduced, the anterior pair distinctly anterior to the 
suture, and the second pair but little posterior to it; between the dorso- 
centrals there are two slightly irregular rows of setulas, which are 
exceptionally long for this genus, and which are carried back as far as 
the prescutellar pair of dorso-centrals ; humeri yellow, with a black 
spot; pleurae yellow with a brownish spot above and slightly behind 
fore coxse, another large one covering the space between the fore and 
mid coxae, and another one between the mid and hind coxce, squamag 
with narrow black border, and brown fringe; scutellum yellow, bare on 
disk, the four marginal bristles very long; postnotum glossy black. 
Abdomen yellow, with apical segments darkened or with bases of all 
segments brownish; base of ovipositor in female glossy black; hypo- 
pygium in male glossy brownish black, of moderate size; all segments 
with black hairs much as in xanthophora. Legs yellow, tarsi brownish. 
Wings clear, veins 2-3 divergent, 3-4 almost parallel on last fourth; 
second portion of costa about two and one-half times as long as first; 
outer cross vein a little shorter than section of fourth vein anterior to 
it; first and second sections of fourth vein vSubequal; penultimate 
section of fifth vein distinctly shorter than ultimate. 

Halteres yellow. Length, 1.5 mm. 

Type— Cat. No. 15558, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Male: Bear Lake, British Columbia, July 20, 
1903, (R. P. Currie). 

Paratypes: Female — Kaslo, British Columbia, July 18, 
1903, (R. P. Currie); female, same locality, July 7, 1903, 
(A. N. Caudell), and one one male ex. collection, Wm. Brodie, 
without locality, but presumably Canadian. 

Food-plant unknown. 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 277 



2a. Agromyza variata, new species. 
Plate XXIX, Fig. 14. 

Female: Frons lemon yellow, slightly over one-third the width of 
head; ocellar region black; orbits darkened on outer edge on upper half; 
five orbital bristles present ; the anterior three closely placed and decreas- 
ing much in size to front one, which is very weak; an irregular row of 
weak hairs on orbits, laterally, beyond the bristles; antennae of mod- 
erate size; yellow, third joint infuscated on apical half; arista brown, 
base swollen, pubescence very short ; length of arista equal to a little more 
than twice the length of antenna; face and cheeks pale yellow; height of 
cheek posteriorly distinctly higher than anteriorly, at highest point less 
than one-fourth the height of eye, marginal bristles of moderate length, 
the vibrissa differentiated; proboscis yellow; palpi yellow, blackened 
and shghtly dilated apically, occiput not visible on upper half. Meso- 
notum glossy black on disk, lateral margins and a large patch on center 
of posterior margin, which is rounded in front, pale lemon yellow; four 
pairs of dorso-centrals present, the disk except on the yellow parts 
covered with short black setulse; pleurae shining black, yellow along 
sutures and below wing base; squamee yellow, darkened on margins, 
fringe brown; scutellum pale yellow on disk, a black spot on each side 
at base. Abdomen glossy black, posterior margins of segments narrowly 
yellow. Legs yellow, bases of coxae, tibi« except bases, and tarsi 
black; no bristles on posterior surface of mid tibia. Wings clear; inner 
cross vein at below end of first vein and at middle of discal cell; last 
section of fifth vein twice as long as penultimate section. 

Halteres yellow. 

Length, 1.5 mm. 

Type: In collection C. W. Johnson. 
Locality: Calais.. Maine. 
Food-plant unknown. 

3. Agromyza discalis, new species. 

Plate XXX, Fig. 21. 

Female: Frons yellow, opaque, almost parallel-sided, except at 
near posterior margin, where the sides very abruptly diverge, in breadth 
it occupies less than one-third the width of head; orbits very narrow; 
four orbital bristles present ; nearer to eye margin on orbit is an irregular 
row of very short hairs ; ocellar region and back of head black ; antennae 
clear yellow, of less than average size; second joint with short dorsal 
bristle; third joint small, not longer than broad, rounded; arista black, 
yellowish for a short space at just beyond the rather distinct basal 
swelling; pubescence indistinguishable; length of arista equal to from 
its base to second uppermost orbital bristle, face yellow, perpendicular; 
cheeks yellow, twice as high at posterior margin as at anterior, and at 
highest part rather more than one-third as high as eye; marginal 
bristles weak; vibrissa moderately strong; proboscis brownish yellow;. 



278 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

palpi pale yellow, of nonnal size, bare. Mesonotum shining black on 
disk, finely granulose; lateral margins broadly pale yellow; hiimeri 
brown; four pairs of dorso-central bristles present, the posterior pair 
more widely separated and stronger than the others ; in addition there 
is in the type an additional pair of bristles, sHghtly anterior to the front 
pair, which may be abnonnal ; no setulee present between dorso-centrals 
on any part of disk; pleurae glossy black, sutures narrowly yellow; 
squamae pale yellow, fringe concolorous; scutellum pale yellow on disk, 
broadly black on sides; normal bristles four, but the type has an 
adventitious bristle close to base of posterior one on left side; post- 
notum glossy black. Abdomen glossy black; a narrow posterior 
marginal band on all segments, and a narrow longitudinal dorsal line 
on last three segments yellow; base of ovipositor glossy black; all seg- 
ments with dorsal hairs, those on apex of sixth segment bristle-like. 
Legs yellow; blackened more or less on mid and hind coxse; bases of 
femora; apices of tibiae, and all tarsi; mid tibia without posterior 
bristles. Wings clear; first costal division one-half as long as second; 
subcostal vein distinct, outer cross vein at slightly before the end of 
first vein, and at about its own length from inner cross vein; last section 
of fifth vein four times as long as penultimate section; veins 2-3-4 
gradually divergent on their last sections, the cells enclosed by these 
veins of equal width at below apex of second vein. Halteres yellow. 
Length, 1.5 mm. ^ 

Type: Cat. No. 15559, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Adamana, Arizona, May 7, 1903 (H. S. Barber) 
one female. 

This species is so evidently distinct from those of the 
pusilla group that I consider it safe to describe it from a single 
specimen. 

Food-plant unknown. 

4. Agromyza pusilla Meigen. 

Syn: Agromyza pusilla Meigen, Syst. Beschr, Vol. 6, 1830, p. 185, species 60. 

Agromyza pumila Meigen, 1. c. p. 185, species 62. 

Agromyza strigata Meigen, 1. c. p. 186, species 63. 

Agromyza exilis Meigen, 1. c. p. 186, species 64. 

Agromyza orbona Meigen 1. c. p. 186, species 65. 

Agromyza pusio Meigen, 1. c. p. 187, species 66. 

Agromyza pvella Meigen, 1. c. p. 187, species 67. 

Agromyza amoeyia Meigen, 1. c. p. 187, species 68. 
(?) Agromyza blanda Meigen, L c. p. 188, species 69. 
(?) Phytomyza diminuta Walker, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., n. ser. 4, 1857, p. 232. 

Oscinis Irifolii Burgess, Dept. Agric. Rept. 1879, p. 201. 

Oscinis brassicce Riley, Dept. Agric. Rept. 1884, p. 322. 

The above synonomy is I am confident correct, as an 
•examination of a large number of specimens from widely 
separated localities, including Europe, and many states in the 
Union, reared from different food plants proves that all the 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. , 279 

minor diifferences used by Meigen for the separation of his 
species may be found in the same species. Agromyza blanda 
Meigen may be a different species as also may A. annulipes 
Meigen, species 61 of the series quoted in synonomy, but they 
may only be color varieties. The number of examples in 
existence representing Meigen's types of this group are as 
follows: pusilla, 1, (Paris); annulipes, 1, (Paris); pumila, 
3, (Vienna); exilis, 1, (Paris); pusio, 1, (Paris); 2, (Vienna); 
orbona, 1, (Vienna); puella, 1 defective specimen, (Vienna); 
amoena, 1, (Paris); blanda, 1, (Paris). 

Male and Female: Black, shining. Marked in most variable 
degree with yellow. Frons except ocellar region, and sometimes a 
narrow side stripe posteriorly, ^^ellow; remainder of head parts except 
behind vertex, yellow. Mesonotum with a more or less broad yellow 
margin, which never extends distinctly round the anterior nor posterior 
margin; four pairs of dorso-central bristles present as well as numerous 
short hairs on disk; humeri with a black spot. Pleurse with sometimes 
spots much as in xanthophora and at other times almost entirely black, 
with the sutures and upper margin yellow; scutellum entirely yellow, 
or yellow with black basal side spots, which in some cases extend 
almost round the entire margin and on to the disk; postnotinn black. 
Abdomen yellowish with dark brownish bases to segments, black with 
pale apices to segments, or entirel}^ shining black with the apical seg- 
ment whitish, or yellowish, at apex. Legs almost entirely yellow, the 
tarsi only brownish, to legs almost entirely black with knee joints yellow, 
the femora generally less intensely black than other parts of legs Mid 
tibia without distinct posterior bristles. Wings clear; second division 
of costa about two and one-half times as long as first section, third and 
fourth veins divergent at extremities; outer cross vein as long as or 
slightly shorter than the section of fourth anterior to it, basal two 
sections of fourth subequal or the second slightly the shorter; last sec- 
tion of fifth vein about three times as long as preceding section. 

Halteres yellow. 

Length, 1-1.75 mm. 

This is a most variable species in color and is very widely- 
distributed. The following is a list of states from which it 
is represented in the material I have examined. (A full list 
of American localities, with list of food-plants will appear 
in the economic bulletin, now ready for tha press, dealing 
with this species). 

Massachusetts, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Arizona, 
Wyoming, Texas, Colorado, California, Utah, Kansas, New 
Mexico,, Indiana, Idaho, Florida and Virginia. It is probable 
that this species occurs all over the United States. 



280 ^ Afifials Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI ^ 
5. Agromyza seutellata Fallen. 

Syn: Agromyza scvtellata Fallen Dipt. Suec. Agromyza. 1823. 7. 3. 
Agromyza flaveola var. Fallen, 1. c. 6, 11. 
Agromyza pictella Thomson, Fregat. Eugene. Resa, Dipt. 1851, 53, p. 609. 

I have compared examples of the European species with 
those in collection representing pictella and am convinced 
they are identical. I have some slight doubts as to its specific 
distinctness, from the foregoing species, but consider it justi- 
fiable to retain it as separate species until I know something 
of the life history of seutellata, which has not been bred in t"his 
country, *"• 

Male and female: Similar. in coloration to pusilla Meigen, 
except that the femora are generally the most intensely black 
portions of the legs and in no 'examples that I have seen is 
there any appearance of their being inclined to yellow, especially 
at base. In size this species is also larger and the wing neura- 
tion is different. Otherwise, in bristling, etc., the species are 
identical. 

The only American examples I have seen of seutellata are 
five from mountains near Claremont, California (C. F. Baker) 
and one from Williams, Arizona (H. S. Barber). 

6. Agromyza borealis new species. 
Plate XXIX, Fig. 10, Plate XXX, Fig. 23. 
Female: This species is very clo^e to longispinosa, but differs in 
^ being more robust, in having the frons reddish yellow, instead of pale 
yellow; the antennas are reddish yellow; the arista is black, tapering 
from base to near middle, bare, and distinctly shorter than from its base 
to vertex; cheeks more than one-half the eye-height; marginal mouth 
bristles numerous, vibrissa hardly differentiated. Mesonotum with 
the marks dull gray black; the posterior lateral stripes narrow, linear, 
distinctly separated from the inner lateral lobe; the central excision 
carried forward at its angles but not sufficiently to separate the inner 
lateral stripes from the central one on their whole length; four pairs of 
dorso-central bristles present, the anterior two pairs about two-thirds 
as large as the posterior pairs; the thorax is distinctly broader than in 
longispinosa, being almost subquadrate, in longispinosa it is at least 
one-third longer than broad; the small bristles between the dorso- 
centrals are at least four-rowed in borealis. The pleuras and scutelluin 
are bristled and colored as in longispinosa, the scutellum having two 
distinct dark lateral basal spots. Abdomen yellow, basal three seg- 
ments brownish, next two with a brownish spot on each side, sixth with 
a central black spot; base of ovipositor glossy black, longer than sixth 
segment, which is not elognated, bristles as in melampyga. Legs 
yellow, tarsi slightly browned ; mid tibiee as in longispinosa, without the 
posterior bristles. Wings grayish, veins yellowish, except third which 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 281 

is brown; outer cross vein more than its own length from inner cross 
vein, first and second sections of fourth vein equal; first portion of fifth 
two-thirds as long as last portion. Halteres yellow. Length, 1.5 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15560, U. S. N. M. 

Much as I dislike the idea of describing a new species 
from a single specimen, I believe that in this case I am justified 
in doing so, as the specimen is in good condition and presents 
some good characters for its separation from longispinosa 
and its allies. (Compare arcticum Lundbeck) 

7. Agromyza flavonigra Coquillett. 
Plate XXX, Fig. 27. 

vSyn: Agromym flavonigra Coquillett, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Vol. 10, 1902, p. 189. 

Female: Head yellow, ocellar region and back of head brownish or 
blackish; frons distinctly, but not greatly, wider than one-third the head 
width; almost parallel-sided; the orbital bristles strong, black; antennee 
rather small, yellow, third joint rounded in front, arista brown, yellow 
at base, almost bare, and falling just short of reaching to vertex; base 
distinctly swollen, elongate; cheeks broad, one-third higher pos- 
teriorly than anteriorly, and at former place one-half as high as eye- 
height; marginal bristles of moderate length, vibrissa not strong but 
distinctly longer than the other marginal bristles; proboscis and palpi 
yellow; palpi linear, with numerous short, black bristles. Mesonotum 
marked much as in melampyga, but the posterior quadrate excision in 
center has two linear, yellow, anterior prolongations which divide the 
black portion more or less disticntly into three vittse; the posterior, 
longitudinal, yellow, dentiform incision of the outer lobe is also pro- 
longed, and separates the outer portion of the posterior half of the 
black mark, so that it forms a separate black stripe giving the dorsum 
the appearance of having five vittae. Four pairs of dorso-central 
bristles present, the anterior two pairs somewhat reduced in size. In 
other respects the thorax is much as in melampyga, but the fringe of the 
squamae is pale and there is a lateral black spot at base on each side of 
scutellum. Abdomen yellow; first to fourth segments with a dorsal, 
brown, central spot, fifth with a pair of close placed spots on center of 
disk, sixth with a pair at near base which are wider placed than those on 
fourth, and another larger pair more widely placed at about middle; 
sixth segment about four times as long as fifth; base of ovipositor 
glossy black, conical, as long as sixth segment; all segments with 
numerous black hairs, those on apices of last two segments bristle- 
like. Legs yellow, brown on base of fore coxae, bases and apices 
of all femora, as well as the entire tibiae and tarsi of all legs. Wings 
much as in melampyga, but the inner cross vein is rather before 
the end of first vein, the second portion of fourth vein is shorter than 
first, the outer cross vein rather oblique, and the first section of fifth is 
shorter than in melampyga, being only two-thirds as long as last section. 

Length, 3 mm. 

Locality — Beulah, New Mexico, (T. D. Cockerell). Re- 
described from type specimens. Food-plant unknown. 



282 Annals Entomological Society oj America [Vol. VI,. 

8. Agromyza melampyga Loew. 

Plate XXX, Fig. 20; Plate XXXI, Fig. 31. 

Syn: Agromyza melampyga Loew, Dipt. Amer. Sept. Indig. Cent. 8, 1869. 
Agromyza sorosis Williston, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1896, p. 429. 
Agromyza flavivenlris Johnson, Can. Ent. Vol. 34, 1902, p. 242. 

Male and Female: Head yellow, only black behind and on ocellar 
region; frons about one-third the width of head, almost parallel-sided, 
except at just anterior to vertex, where the eyes round ofif and the 
frons becomes rather abruptly wider; bristling normal; cheeks narrow, 
distinctly higher posteriorly, marginal bristles weak, anterior vibrissa 
incurved, of moderate size; antennee rather below the average size, 
third joint rounded, arista brown, tapering, distinctly but shortly 
pubescent, slightly longer than the length of from its base to vertex; 
proboscis and palpi yellow. Thorax colored and marked as in xantho- 
phora; four pairs of dorso-central bristles present; the anterior two pairs 
much reduced in size ; other bristling as in that species ; squamae brown- 
ish from near base, the apex blackish, fringe brown. Abdomen vary- 
ing from yellow to brown, with pale apices to segments; all segments 
with numerous black hairs. Legs generally entirely yellow, sometimes, 
the tibiae and tarsi are darkened somewhat; mid tibias with two yellow 
posterior bristles present. Wings clear, or slightly grayish; first costal 
division about one-half as long as second; second, third and fourth veins, 
divergent on outer third ; outer cross vein distinctly shorter than section 
of fourth vein anterior to it, or almost as long as it, first and second 
sections of fourth vein subequal, or the former slightly the shorter;, 
penultimate section of fifth vein about three-fourths as long ultimate 
section. Halteres yellow. 

Length, 13^-2 mm. 

This species was originally described from District of 
Columbia, (Osten Sacken) by Loew. Coquillett records it 
(Bull. 10 in ser. U. S. Dept. Agric. 1898, p. 77) as bred from 
leaves of a cultivated species of Philadelphicus, collected at 
Washington, D. C. during the latter part of July, 1884, and 
from mines in leaves of Plantago major, collected June 28, 
1888, same locality. He states that the larva pupated within 
the mines. These specimens are in collections at U. S. National 
Museum. Besides these specimens there is one from Biscayne 
Bay, Florida, (Mrs. A. T. Slosson) and I have examined a 
series reared from Plantain, June 26, 1912, Lafayette, Indiana, 
(J. J. Davis). 

Johnson described flaviventris from Niagara Falls, New 
York. Williston's species was from St. Vincent, West Indies. 
Other localities: New Jersey (Smith); White Mountains, 
New Hampshire (Mrs. A. T. Slosson). 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 283 



Agromyza melampyga var. marginalis, new variety. 
Male and Female: This variety differs from the type in being 
rather smaller 13^ mm.; in being comparatively more strongly bristled, 
in having only the margins of the thoracic markings black, the remain- 
der being yellowish, and in having the arista shorter, barely reaching 
to vertex in the only specimen in which it is extant. 

The three specimens, two males, one female, were reared 
from Paspalurii, (Oct. 2, 1912). Locality: Columbia, South 
Carolina, (P. Luginbill) Webster, No. 9711. 

Type: Cat. No. 15561, U. S. N. M. 

It is possible that this is a distinct species, but the material 
is too scanty to give one a basis for a definite opinion as to- 
whether it is so, or whether the eifect of a different food plant, 
is responsible for the variation in color, etc. 

-9. Agromyza brevicostalis, new species. 
Plate XXVIII, Fig. S. 
Female: Frons lemon yellow; one half as broad as head and dis- 
tinctly broader than long; center stripe blackened on anterior half; 
orbits differentiated from center stripe; four orbital bristles present; in 
addition to the bristles there is a row of weak hairs nearer to eye 
margin, which begins at opposite base of antennae and continues to 
beyond upper orbital bristle; ocellar region raised, brown; back of 
head, and a triangular patch at lateral angle of orbits brown, or black- 
brown; lunule yellow; antennse of moderate size, black brown; second 
joint with distinct dorsal bristle; third joint rounded in front, covered 
with short pilosity; arista brown; basal swelling elongate; pubescence 
very indistinct; length of arista equal to from its base to upper orbital 
bristle; face yellow, blackened on depressions below antennas; concave 
in profile; keel slight; cheeks yellow, blackened anteriorly; distinctly 
higher posteriorly than anteriorly; height at highest part less than one- 
half the height of eye; occiput not projecting on upper half; proboscis 
yellow; palpi black, nonnal. Mesonotum gray black, subopaque, 
broadly pale yellow on lateral margins; a small patch on each side 
posteriorly, the pale color extending slightly on to anterior lateral 
angle of scutellimi; four pairs of dorso-centrals present, the anterior 
two pairs reduced in size; no distinct dorso-centrals anterior to suture, 
though the 3 setulas immediately anterior to suture in line with dorso- 
centrals are rather strong; discal setul« upright, not very numerous; 
about 4 irregtdar rows between the dorso-centrals; the pair of bristles 
between the posterior pair of dorso-centrals distinct, and of moderate 
length; humeri yellow, with a dark discal mark; pleurae black-gray, 
subshining; sutures and upper margin narrowly, and a patch below 
wing base yellow; squamae yellow, fringe brown. Abdomen glossy 
black, posterior margins of all segments narrowly pale yellow ; segments 
with numerous hairs, stronger on posterior margins; base of ovipositor 
glossy black, as long as preceding segment. Legs black, glossy, knees 



284 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

pale yellow, fore tibia and tarsi brownish; mid tibia without posterior 
bristles. Wings very similar to those of parvicella; subcostal vein 
incomplete; fourth vein not so indistinct as in parvicella. 

Halteres yellow. 

Length, 2 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15562, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Glacier National Park, Montana, (Hopkins 
No. 5932c.), one female. 

10. Agromyza davisi Walton. 
Plate XXVIII, Fig. 7. 
Syn: Agromyza davisii Walton.. Ent. News Vol. 1912. 

Female: Frons opaque, clear yellow, slightly broader than long, 
slightly more than one-third as wide as head, ocellar region shining 
black, orbits blackened posteriorly, back of head black; four pairs of 
orbital bristles present, the lower pair much the weakest; besides those 
bristles there is a row of short hairs, nearer to eye margin, almost on 
the whole length of orbit; antennae above the average size, deep black, 
third joint subquadrate, covered with very fine short pilosity; arista 
gradually tapering, almost bare, as long as from its base to vertex; face 
brown, almost perpendicular, slightly keeled, mouth margin not pro- 
duced, cheeks opaque, clear yellow, higher posteriorly than anteriorly, 
but at highest part only about one-fourth as high as eye-height; pro- 
biscis yellow; palpi black. Mesonotum opaque gray, four pairs of 
dorso-central bristles present, anterior pairs slightly weaker than the 
posterior two pairs; between the dorso-centrals there are on the anterior 
half of disk ntmierous setulae which are irregularly arranged, but which 
represent at least four rows; anterior pair of dorso-centrals as widely 
placed as posterior pair; all bristles on margins very long; pleurse sub- 
shining gray black, the upper margin narrowly yellow, as well as a 
patch below wing base, and the suture behind middle coxae; squamae 
pale whitish yellow, fringe concolorous; scutellum concolorous with 
mesonottmi, four marginal bristles present; postnotum shining black. 
Abdomen brownish black, apices of segments yellowish, ovipositor 
glossy black, distinctly longer than sixth segment; all abdominal seg- 
ments with scattered hairs, which are strongest on the posterior mar- 
gins. Legs black, knees narrowly yellowish; mid tibia without pos- 
terior bristles. Wings with costa to slightly beyond third vein, outer 
cross vein below one-fourth from end of first costal division, and at 
about one-half its own length from inner cross vein; discal cell shorter 
than lower basal cell; third and fourth veins regularly divergent on 
their last sections; fourth vein indistinct from outer cross vein; last 
section of fifth vein about two times as long as penultimate section. 

Halteres yellow. 

Length, 2.5 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15563, U. S. N. M. 
Locality: Lafayette, Ind. (J. J. Davis). 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 285 

A single specimen of this species stood in the U. S. National 
Museum collection as Napomyza lateralis Fallen. Localit}": 
Missouri, reared from R, ahortivus. 

Food-plant: Ranunculus abortivus. 

11. Agromyza abbreviata, new species. 
Plate XXXI, Fig. 32. 

Male: Frons black; center stripe opaque, brownish in center; 
orbits glossy at base of bristles; five orbital bristles present, the bristles 
situated on near to inner margin of orbits ; beyond them is an irregular 
row of hairs; ocellar region and ocellar triangle glossy, the latter rather 
distinctly defined for this group ; antennas as in kincaidi, but pubescence 
on arista much shorter; face subshining black, slightly concave in pro- 
file, the keel slight; cheeks opaque brown, rather long, distinctly higher 
at posterior margin than at anterior, at highest part a little more than 
one-fourth as high as eye; marginal bristles weak, in a double row, and 
rather niimerous; the vibrissa weakly differentiated; eye comparatively 
larger than in kincaidi the occiput less projecting; proboscis yellow; 
palpi black, normal. Mesonotimi shining black; the surface hairs 
numerous, and rather long; three distinct pairs of dorso-centrals pres- 
ent, the anterior pair reduced, and with a pair of large setulas anterior 
to them ; the pair of bristles between the posterior pair of dorso-centrals 
distinct, about half as large as the dorso-central pair; pleurae glossy 
black, yellowish below wing base; squamee yellowish white, fringe 
white; scutellum and postnotum glossy black. Abdomen concolorous 
with thorax; all segments with numerous surface hairs; hypopygiimi of 
nonnal size, glossy black. Legs piceous; knees yellowish, femora 
black; mid tibia with posterior bristles distinct. Wings clearer and 
comparatively broader than in kincaidi. Halteres yellow, knob white. 

Length, 3.5 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15564, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Las Vegas, Hot Springs, New Mexico, (H. S. 
Barber). One male. 

12. Agromyza kincaidi, new species. 
Plate XXIX, Fig. 12. 
Female: Entirely black, except the halteres and squamae, which 
are white, distinctly shining. Frons shining but not glossy, center 
stripe opaque, breadth of frons slightly more than one-half of the head 
width, slightly divergent posteriorly, orbital bristles on near inner 
margin of orbits, the upper one distinctly lower than anterior ocellus, 
the others close together and decreasing in size as they advance towards 
antennas, besides the strong bristles there are smaller hairs arranged in 
a row nearer to eye margin on the entire length of orbit ; frons in profile 
slightly projecting in front; face concave, with a slight central longi- 
tudinal keel, the upper mouth margin slightly protruding; cheeks 
brownish, posteriorly almost one-half as high as eye-height, anter- 
iorly less than one-half as high as posterior height; mouth margin 



286 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

with a double row of bristles, the upper of which are directed 
forward and slightly upward, and continue to lowest level of eyes 
anteriorly, vibrissa stronger than other bristles, incurved, situated 
lower than anterior bristles on ridge above; antennae rather small, 
second joint with short bristles in addition to the dorsal one, and some 
on under side, third joint rounded except on dorsal surface at apex, 
where it is truncate; arista but little swollen at base, thickly but shortly 
pubescent, and shorter than from its base to anterior ocellus; proboscis 
brownish; palpi black, of moderate size, normal in shape, rather dis- 
tinctly bristled. Mesonotimi with three pairs of dorso-central bristles, 
and one or two long hairs anterior to the third pair; in addition to 
these the disk is covered with numerous short hairs. (The large pins 
used for transfixing the two specimens have practically destroyed the 
thorax and make it very nearly impossible to judge the nature of the 
chaetotaxy, and it may be that in some cases the species has four instead 
of three pairs of dorso-centrals) . Scutellum four bristled, disk bare; 
squamae whitish, fringe pale. Abdomen glossy black; all segments 
with numerous hairs, those on apex of sixth segment bristle-like, base 
of ovipositor glossy black, longer than fifth segment. Legs entirely 
black, the mid tibiae with the pair of posterior bristles present. Wings 
grayish, veins brown, costa carried indistinctly beyond third vein, but 
falling much short of fourth; inner cross vein at end of first vein, outer 
cross vein at slightly beyond center of wing, and at nearly twice its own 
length from inner cross vein; second section of fourth vein shorter 
than first, and rather more than one-fourth as long as last section; last 
section of fifth three-fifths as long as the preceding section. 

Halteres white. 

Length, 3 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15565, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Juneau, Alaska, July 25, 1899, (Kincaid). 

The paratype which is in rather poor condition differs 
slightly from the type in neuration, having the outer sections 
of the veins comparatively longer than in the type. 

The species is named in honor of Prof. Trevor Kincaid, 
who collected it. 

This is the species recorded by Coquillett as A . neptis Loew, 
(Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci. Vol. 2, 1900, p. 463), occuring in 
Alaska. It is very close to the species described by Schiner 
(Fauna Austriaca, Vol. 2, 1864, p. 303) as nigripes Meigen. 
He misidentified Meigen' s species which has the costa to the 
fourth vein. Afterwards -Rondani placed Schiner's species in 
Domomyza and retained the specific name as nigripes Schiner 
(nee Meigen). This generic division has been repudiated by 
various writers, and as no other valid name has been given to 
this species it must be renamed. (See Addenda.) 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 287 



13. Agromyza parvicella Coquillett. 
Plate XXVIII, Fig. 4; Plate XXX, Fig. 17. 

Syn: Agromyza parvicella Coquillett, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Vol. X, 1902, p. 189. 

Female: Black, slightly shining; very slender species. Frons 
brown, yellomsh in front, almost black at vertex, occupying more 
than one-half the width of the head; orbits distinct, darker than frontal 
stripe, each orbit rather more than one-half as wide as frontal stripe, 
the bristles, four on each side from anterior ocellus, situated near 
inner margin of orbit; the upper two stronger than the lower two, post- 
vertical bristles divergent; frons in profile slightly projecting, face 
slightl}' concave, mouth margin not projecting, face sub-shining, black; 
cheeks yellowish, more than one-half as high as eye, and of almost 
equal breadth on their entire length, marginal bristles weak, vibrissas 
l6ng, but not strong; antennas black, second joint with the usual dorsal 
bristle, which is hair-like, otherwise entirely bare, third joint subquad- 
rate, of moderate length, falling short of mouth margin, gently rounded 
at apex, arista thickened at base, very short, barely one and one-third 
times as long as antennse, thickly, but very shortly pubescent; proboscis 
yellow at apex, membraneous; palpi black, slightly projecting beyond 
upper mouth margin; occiput swollen from slightly below upper margin 
of vertex. Mesonotum subshining, four pairs of dorso-central bristles 
present, the pair anterior to the suture, and the anterior pair behind 
sutures slightly smaller than the posterior pairs; two irregular rows of 
setulas between the dorso-centrals ; pleurae concolorous with disk of 
mesonotum, but glossy on lower portion; scutelltim with four marginal 
bristles, disk bare; squamae brownish, fringe long, brown. Abdomen 
concolorous with thorax; first segment elongated, about twice as long as 
second, remaining segments subequal; last abdominal segment glossy 
black; all segments with scattered, rather long hairs, those on apex of 
sixth segment longest. Legs long and slender, brown, trochanters, 
apices of femora and bases of tibia narrowly yellowish; no bristles 
present on mid tibias. Wings brownish, costa reaching only to end of 
third vein, second costal division two and one-half times as long as 
first; subcostal vein indistinct, obsolete on apical fifth; outer cross vein 
slightly before end of first vein, and at about its own length from inner 
cross vein, second section of fourth vein one-half as long as first; section 
of fifth vein between cross veins about one-fifth as long as last section; 
fourth vein indistinct, anal cell distinct, anal vein strong, reaching 
nearly to wing margin. Halteres yellow. 

Length, 2 mm. 

Locality: St. Paul Island, Alaska, (Kincaid). 

Food-plant unknown. 

Redescribed from type specimen in U. S. National Museum 
collection. This species is rather different from most species 
in Agromyza and may be considered by some writers as be- 
longing to some of the other families in the Acalypterate 
Muscidse, but I believe it may be most clearly associated with 
this genus. Like the next species it belongs to the segregate 



288 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

of Agromyza with the costa to third vein only. This char- 
acter is not of such importance that it may be considered 
as of generic value, and I therefore am not using Rondani's 
generic name Domomyza, as species which are very dissimilar 
are thrown together in Domomyza, and thus separated from 
forms to which they are more closely allied in Agromyza. 

14. Agromyza nitida, new species. 
Plate XXVIII, Fig. 1; Plate XXX, Fig. 26. 

Female: Frons reddish yellow, distinctly longer than broad- 
ocellar region black; vertex and orbits posteriorly blackened; upper 
parts of frons shining, lower and central parts opaque; five pairs of 
moderately strong orbital bristles present, w^hich are of almost uniform 
size and situated nearer to inner margin of orbits than to eyes; face 
slightly keeled, brown, in profile a little concave; antennas brownish 
yellow, very short, second joint almost bare, the dorsal bristle weak, 
third joint longer than broad, twice as long as second, regularly rounded 
at apex; arista brcmni, slightly thickened at base, almost bare, not as 
long as half the length of from its base to vertex; cheeks yellow, lower 
margin narrowly shining black, in outline 4ower margin rounded, height 
posteriorly rather less than one-third that of the vertically elongate eye, 
anteriorly not so high; marginal bristles very weak, vibrissa present but 
not strong; proboscis yellowish brown; palpi concolorous, small, not 
dilated, bare. Thorax rounded above; mesonotum about one-third 
longer than broad, glossy black, covered on the disk with short setulose 
hairs, two pairs of rather widely placed, post-sutural, dorso-central 
bristles present, the pair of strong hairs between the posterior pair 
absent; humeri pale yellow, margins of mesonotum brownish; pleurse 
brownish-black, glossy, upper margin narrowly yellow along suture; 
in front of wing base also yellowish; squamas yellowish, the margin and 
fringe brown; scutellum rounded, concolorous with mesonotum, four 
marginal bristles present. Abdomen glossy black-brown, segments 
with an indication of a linear, yellow, posterior margin; ovipositor 
glossy black, barely longer than preceding segment; all abdominal 
segments with scattered hairs, those on the apical segment not much 
longer than the others. Wings grayish; auxiliary vein complete, but 
indistinct; second costal division about two and one-third times as 
long as first; outer cross vein situated directly below end of first vein 
and at its own length from inner cross vein, portion of fourth vein 
anterior to inner' cross vein slightly more than twice as long as section 
beyond it; third and fourth veins regularly divergent on the whole of 
the last section, latter much less distinct than the longitudinal veins 
anterior to it; penultimate section of fifth vein one-third as long as 
ultimate section; costa reaching slightly beyond end of third vein. 
Halteres with yellow stalk and white knob. 

Length, 1.5 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15566, U. S. N. M. 
Locality: Cabin John Bridge, Maryland, April 28, 1912, 
(Knab and Malloch). Food-plant unknown. 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 289 



15. Agromyza immaculata Coquillett. 
Plate XXVIII, Fig. 3. 
Syn: Odinia immaculata Coquillett, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Vol. X, 1902, p. 185. 

Female: Frons yellow, or reddish yellow, almost parallel-sided, in 
breadth distinctly, but not greatly, more than one-third the head width; 
ocellar region black ; orbits whitish ; entire frons opaque ; orbital bristles 
strong, only three pairs anterior to lower ocellus; the lower pair of 
which are incurved; face and cheeks pale yellow, the former almost 
perpendicular and with indistinct keel, the latter distinctly higher 
posteriorly than anteriorly, at middle less than one-third as high as eye 
height; marginal mouth bristles distinct, vibrissa not much longer 
than other bristles; antennas yellow, brownish on upper and outer sur- 
faces, dorsal bristle on second joint distinct, but no other noticeable 
bristles present; third joint of moderate size, more than twice as long 
as second, regularly rounded at apex, distinctly longer than broad; 
arista brown, with almost the basal third swollen, lanceolate, bare, in 
length as long as from its base to vertex; proboscis and palpi yellow, 
the latter with 2-3 weak hairs at apex. Mesonotum opaque gray, the 
space between the dorso-central bristles opaque, yellowish, with the 
appearance of pollinosity; four pairs of strong dorso-centrals present, 
which are in parallel rows, and but little weaker anteriorly, two rows 
of bristles between dorso-centrals, which are regular, equally spaced 
from dorso-centrals and from each other, and are not continued beyond 
middle of disk; besides the other normal bristles there are only 3-4 
small setulas laterally beyond the dorso-centrals; humeri yellow, with a 
black spot, lateral margins of mesonotum yellow; pleurae yellow, a 
longitudinal, elongate spot on middle from propleuree over mesopleurag, 
a large triangular spot between fore and mid coxas, a spot above hind 
coxae, and a less distinct one below wing base; squamse brownish, fringe 
brown; scutellum concolorous \vith disk of mesonotimi, the yellow 
central stripe more distinct and, narrowly, much paler, with more the 
appearance of ground than surface color, in shape the scutellum is sub- 
triangular, flattened on surface; four marginal bristles present; post- 
notum anteriorly yellow, posteriorly shining black. Abdomen brown- 
ish with the posterior margins of basal four segments narrowly, and 
apex of sixth broadly yellow, or the sixth entirely yellow and the others 
broadly yellow at apices; ovipositor glossy brown, shorter than sixth 
segment; all segments with numerous hair-like bristles. Legs yellow, 
marked with brown ,on base of fore coxae, upper surface and base of all 
femora; tibiae and tarsi more or less brownish tinged; mid tibiae without 
the posterior bristles. Wings grayish on anterior half; subcostal vein 
indistinct; first costal division one-third as long as second; outer cross 
vein distinctly beyond end of first vein, and at about twice its own 
length from inner cross vein, first division of fourth vein shorter than 
second, first section of fifth vein about three-fourths as long as last 
section; third and fourth veins subparallel, only distinctly divergent 
at extreme apices. Halteres pale yellow. 

Length, 2 mm. 



290 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Type: Cat. No. 6649, U. S. N. M. 

Type Locality: Mt. Washington, New Hampshire, (Mrs. 
A. T. Slosson). 

Besides the type there are specimens in collection from the 
following locations: Two specimens, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 
(May), (H. S. Barber), one specimen St. Louis, Missouri, 
April 30, 1904 (W. V. Warner) ; and one specimen, Kaslo, 
British Columbia, July 17, 1903, (R. P. Currie). 

Food-plant unknown. 

The type specimen has the yellow thoracic markings on 
disk and scutellum rather indistinct, but in other respects 
is similar. It is a true Agromyza and has very little in common 
with Odinia omata Zetterstedt, which is represented in the 
U. S. N. M. collection by one specimen from Dauphin county, 
Pennsylvania. 

16. Agromyza citreifrons, new species. 

Male and Female: Frons opaque, lemon yellow, distinctly longer 
than broad, one-half as wide as head, parallel-sided; orbits more or less 
blackened or broomed, especially posteriorly; three pairs of long, fine, 
orbital bristles anterior to front ocellus, the upper distinctly in front of 
anterior ocellus, anterior to lower bristle there is a weak hair, othermse 
the orbits are bare; ocellar region and back of head black; antennae of 
moderate size, clear lemon yellow; second joint bare except for the 
weak dorsal bristle; third joint rounded, about three times as long as 
second; arista concolorous with antennse on the swollen base, brown on 
remainder, almost bare, barely as long as from its base to anterior 
ocellus; face yellow, slightly retreating in profile; cheeks concolorous, 
higher posteriorly than anteriorly, at highest part over one-third the 
height of eye; eye slightly longer than high; marginal mouth bristles 
not numerous (4-5) but rather strong, the vibrissa hardly differentiated; 
proboscis and palpi clear lemon yellow. Mesonotum opaque, brown- 
,black; lateral margins and humeri brownish yellow; four pairs of dorso- 
central bristles, arranged in parallel rows, anteriorly reduced in length; 
setulse between dorso-centrals irregularly arranged in 3-4 rows, extend- 
ing to posterior margin; pleurae lemon yellow, a large brown or blackish 
triangular spot between the fore and mid coxae, another smaller one 
over hind coxae and an indistinct longitudinal mark sometimes present 
on mesopleurae on middle; squainae brownish, fringe brown; scutellum 
brown, with four marginal bristles; postnotum black. Abdomen 
shining brown, or blackish, lateral margins yellow in female, ovipositor 
of female glossy brown-black, as long as preceding segment of abdomen; 
hypopygivmi of male brownish, organs knob-like, of moderate size; all 
segments with numerous black hairs, which are noticeably longer on 
lateral margins and apices of last two segments. Legs yellow, tarsi 
browned; mid tibia without posterior bristles. Wings clear or slightly 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 291 

browned; first costal division half as long as second, veins 2-3-4 reg- 
ularly divergent on last sections, outer cross vein at beyond end of first 
vein, and at a little more than its own length from inner cross vein or 
at its own length from it, second section of fourth vein distinctly shorter 
than first; last section of fifth vein about twice as long as penultimate. 

Halteres lemon yellow. 

Length, 1-1.5 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15567, U. S. N. M. 

Type locality: Eureka, California, (H, S. Barber). Seven 
specimens. I have seen one specimen in C. W. Johnson's 
collection from Princeton, Maine, July 12, 1908. 

Food-plant unknown. 

17. Agromyza pruinosa Coquillett. 
Syn: Agromyza pruinosa Coquillett, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Vol. X, 1902, p. 189. 

Male : Frons opaque, center stripe reddish, merging into brown on 
margins and posteriorly, orbits not distinctly differentiated, and, with 
outer margin of center stripe, blackish; breadth of frons one-half as 
wide as head; five orbital bristles present, the lower four pairs incurved, 
the upper one backwardly directed, no distinct orbital hairs present; 
vertical row and postvertical pair strong; lunule not differentiated 
from center stripe; face and cheeks reddish yellow, the former concave 
in profile, keel distinct, and brownish; eye orbits carried back over 
cheeks, blackish, cheeks and orbits at posterior angle of eye as high as 
eye, marginal bristles on mouth opening 4-5 in number, strong, upwardly 
directed, vibrissa hardly stronger, though distinct; proboscis and palpi 
reddish yellow. Mesonotum grayish black, opaque, elongate, about 
one-half longer than broad; four pairs of dorso-centrals present, about 
three irregular rows of setulse between the dorso-centrals; the pair of 
bristles between posterior pair of 'dorso-centrals distinct; pleura sub- 
shining, black-brown, paler below wing base; squamee of moderate size, 
whitish, fringe brown. Abdomen subshining, brownish; hypopygium 
yellowish brown; of moderate size, all segments strongly haired. Legs 
strong; reddish yellow, bases of femora, apices of tibiae broadly, and 
entire tarsi brown; fore femora with distinct, rather long central 
bristles; mid tibia without any distinct posterior bristles. Wings 
slightly grayish; first costal division at least one-half as long as second, 
subcostal vein rather indistinct, complete; inner cross vein at very 
slightly before end of first vein, outer cross vein slightly outward bent 
at middle, at almost its own length from inner, and at very little beyond 
wing middle; veins 2-3-4 distinctly divergent on the outer section; 
second and third sections of fourth vein together half as long as last 
section; last two sections of fifth vein subequal. Halteres whitish yellow. 

Length, 2.5 mm. 

Redescribed from type (Cat. No. 6659, U. S. N. M.). 
Locality: Colorado, (H. K. Morrison). 
Food-plant unknown. 



292 Annals Entomological Society oj America [Vol. VI, 



18. Agromyza indecisa, new species. 

Female: Frons elongate, fully one and one-third times as long as 
broad, two-fifths as wide as head; orbits barely darker than central 
stripe; four equally strong orbital bristles anterior to front ocellus, the 
upper only slightly lower than anterior ocellus; besides these strong 
bristles there are several weak hairs situated nearer to eye margin 
opposite spaces between the bristles; antennae reddish yellow, shaped 
and bristled as in citreifrons, arista entirely brown-black, distinctly 
swollen at base, almost bare, not reaching to anterior ocellus; face 
pale yellow, not produced at mouth margin, slightly keeled; cheeks 
distinctly higher posteriorly than anteriorly, at highest part one-third 
as high as eye; bristles much as in citreifrons; eye as high as long; pro- 
boscis and palpi yellow. Mesonotum black, subshining, disk slightly 
gray polHnose; lateral margins and humeri pale yellow; four pairs of 
dorso-central bristles present; anterior to the one in front of suture 
there is a small bristle which may be abnormal; other bristling as in 
citreifrons; pleurae brown-black, shining; • sutures yellow, squamas 
brown; scutellum concolorous with disk of mesonotum, four bristled; 
postnotum shining black. Abdomen subopaque, brown-black; seg- 
ments narrowly bordered posteriorly with yellow; ovipositor with base 
as long as sixth segment; bristles as in citreifrons. Legs yellowish 
brown; fore coxae, with ventral surfaces and apices of femora yellow; pos- 
terior mid tibial bristles absent. Wings grayish; second costal division 
short of twice as long as first; subcostal vein rather distinct; outer cross 
vein beyond end of first vein, and at about its own length from inner 
cross vein; first section of fourth vein longer than second; last section 
of fifth twice as long as penultimate section. Halteres yellow. 

Length, 1.5 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15568, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Las Vegas, New Mexico, June, 1901, 11,000 
feet level, (T. D. A. Cockerell). 
Food-plant unknown. 

19. Agromyza varifrons Coquillett. 

Syn: Agromyza varifrons Coquillett, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Vol. X, 1902, p. 189. 

Female: Frons parallel-sided, subopaque, center stripe and orbits 
clear reddish yellow on lower half, blackened on upper half; orbits 
differentiated from center stripe, very narrow, each about one-fifth as 
wide as center stripe; four orbital bristles present, which are slightly 
reduced in strength from upper to lower bristle; no hairs on orbits 
besides the bristles; antennas yellow, darkened on third joint at insertion 
of arista ; second joint with dorsal bristle and weak apical hairs; third joint 
rounded in front, of moderate size, not longer than broad, covered with 
thick, but very short, white pilosity ; arista brown, short, about one and 
one-third times as long as antenna, and as long as from its base to between 
upper two orbital bristles ; pubescence very short but close ; face and cheeks 
yellow, paler than frons, the latter gradually becoming higher towards 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 293 

posterior margin, at posterior margin less than one-third the eye height, 
bristles on margin rather weak, vibrissa well differentiated; proboscis 
and, palpi yellow. Mesonotum glossy black, humeri brownish; two 
pairs of dorso-central bristles present; disk with numerous short setulse; 
pleurae glossy black, brownish below wing base, squamae grayish, mar- 
gin and fringe brown; scutellimi and postnotum concolorous with disk 
of mesonotum. Abdomen glossy black; base of ovipositor distinctly 
longer than preceding abdominal segment; posterior marginal bristles 
on last abdominal segment strong. Legs brown, apices of femora 
and bases of tibiae paler, yellowish, mid tibia without distinctly 
differentiated posterior bristles. Wings clear, broad; first costal 
division almost one-half as long as second; inner cross vein beyond 
end of first vein, outer cross vein at below middle of wing, taking its 
upper end as below middle of costa, and at less than its own length from 
inner cross ^'ein; second section of fourth vein less than one-half as 
long as first, first and second sections of this vein together half as long 
as last section; veins 2-3-4 divergent, fourth vein at below apex of 
wing; last two sections of fifth vein subequal. Halteres pale yellow. 
Length, 2 mm. 

Redescribed from type. (Cat. No. 6658, U. S. N. M.). 

Locality: Washington, District of Columbia, (collection 
Coquillett). A male in C. W. Johnson's collection from 
Pottstown, Pennsylvania, differs from the type in having the 
frons and antennae paler lemon yellow, the arista slightly 
longer, and the cheeks distinctly over one-third the height of 
eye. In other respects similar to the female. 

Food-plant unknown. 

20. Agromyza platyptera Thomson. 

Syn: Agromyza platyptera Thomson, Eugene Resa, ISel^lSaS, p. 60S. 

Agromyza coronata Loew, Dipt. Amer. Sept. Indig., Cent. 8, 1869, p. 162. 
Agromyza jiicunda v. d. Wulp., Tijdschr. v. Entom. Vol. X, 1866, p. 161. 
Oscinis malvcB Burgess, Dept. Agric. Rept. 1879, p. 202. 
Agromyza lateralis Williston, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1896, p. 428. 

Male and Female: Frons opaque, lemon yellow; orbits sometimes 
posteriorly blackened, four pairs of orbital bristles anterior to front 
ocellus; frons generally over one and one-half times as long as broad, 
and one-third of the head with; ocellar region and back of head black; 
face slightly concave in profile, yellow, slightly keeled in center; cheeks 
yellow, rather short, higher posteriorly than anteriorly, at highest part 
short of one-third the height of eye; eye higher than long; bristles on 
mouth margin moderately strong, numerous, upper ones upturned, 
vibrissa stronger than other bristles; proboscis yellow; palpi black, 
normal in shape; antennas black; dorsal bristle on second joint weak, 
third joint short, regularly rounded, higher than long, arista brown- 
black, swollen at base, very shortly pubescent; not as long as from its 
base to vertex. Mesonotum shining black; lateral margins, including 
humeri, broadly pale yellow; two pairs of dorso-centrals present, some- 



^TS 



294 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI^ 

times a weaker anterior pair vivsible also ; surface of disk with numerous 
irregularly arranged setulse; pleurae glossy black, with upper margin 
rather broadly and sutures nari-owly yellow; scutellum and postnotiun 
concolorous with disk of mesonotum, the foiTner with four bristles. 
Abdomen shining, brownish-black, segments sometimes narrowly 
yellow on posterior margins; last segment elongate; all segments with 
black hairs. Legs glossy black, only in immature specimens paler on 
knees; mid tibise with the posterior bristles indistinct. Wings clear; 
first costal division one-half as long as second; subcostal vein indistinct 
at apex; outer cross vein at very sUghtly beyond end of first vein, and 
at, or nearly at, its own length from inner cross vein, second section of 
fourth vein about as long as first vein or short of it; veins 2-3-4 diver- 
gent, last section of fifth vein about twice as long as penultimate section. 
Halteres yellow, knob paler. 
Length, 2-3 mm. 

Originally described from California. Loew's specimens 
(coronata) were from Cuba and Pennsylvania. Van der 
Wulp obtained his specimens (jucunda) from Wisconsin. 
Burgess described his specimens {malvce) reared from Malva 
rotundifolia from District of Columbia; while Williston's 
specimens, {lateralis), came from St. Vincent, West Indies. 

I have before me specimens from the following localities: 
Algonquin, Illinois, (collection Coquillet) ; Tempe, Arizona, 
(V. L. Wildermuth), Webster's No. 7286; White Mountains, New 
Hampshire, (Morrison ?) ; Los Angeles, California; (Coquillett) ; 
District of Columbia, from Solidago, (no collector's name) ; Cabin 
John, Maryland, (Knab and Malloch) ; San Rafael, Vera Cruz, 
(C. H. T. Townsend) ; Baracoa, Cuba, (Busck) ; Mayaguez, 
Porto Rico, (Busck) ; and 3 specimens without locality, one 
from aster, one from sunflowers and one from verbena. 

One of the two specimens from Cabin John, Maryland 
(April 28, 1912) is much larger than the average, nearly 4 mm. 
and has the orbital bristles five in number, as well as the 
anterior hairs in line with the dorso-centrals much stronger 
than normal, so that there may be said to be four pairs of dorso- 
centrals. I consider, however, that it is merely an abnormal 
specimen and not a distinct species, because in almost every 
other respect it agrees with the typical specimens. 

I have arrived at the decision as to the synonymy of this, 
species from a careful persual of the various descriptions, and 
consider that it is correct'. 

I have examined specimens from C. W. Johnson's col- 
lection from the following localities: Wollaston, Woods Holl, 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 295 

Dedham, Auburndale, Fall River and Chester, Massachusetts; 
Durham, New Hampshire, Winnipauk, Connecticut; Kingston, 
Rhode Island, and Riverton, New Jersey, which agree well 
with the description given. Three specimens from same 
collection taken in the following localities: Chester and Blue 
Hills, Massachusetts, and Delaware Water Gap, Pennsylvania 
(Mrs. A. T. Slosson), differ in size, 3 mm., and in having an 
anteriorly bidentate, yellow spot, posteriorly on each side of 
disk, the pale color extending on to scutellum at base on each 
side. I consider that this is merely a color variety, due pos- 
sibly to a difference in food-plant, or some other cause which 
could only be determined by rearing the species. 

21. Agromyza coquilletti, new species. 

Plate XXX, Fig. 28. 

Male and Female: Frons lemon yellow, subshining, center stripe 
blackened, most distinctly on anterior margin where it meets the 
lunule, which is exceptionally elongated, the black color generally 
disappears on posterior part of center stripe; ocellar region black; 
orbits black on posterior angle, each orbit half as wide as center stripe 
at anterior ocellus, gradually broadened to anterior margins of center 
stripe where each orbit is almost of equal width with center stripe; 
four orbital bristles present, situated on middle of orbit, laterally 
beyond these there is a row of 5-7 short setulee, which does not extend 
to upper orbital bristle; antennse of moderate size, black, second joint 
brownish; third joint twice as long as second, upper margin flattened 
a little and apex rather acute, not regularly rounded; arista brown,, 
thickened at base for about one-fourth the length of arista, nearly bare, 
and as long as from its base to anterior ocellus; face almost perpendic- 
ular, slightly produced at mouth margin, slightly keeled, yellow; cheeks 
yellow, posteriorly almost one-third the length of eye, anteriorly much 
less; marginal bristles of moderate size, vibrissa strong; proboscis yel- 
low; palpi black. Mesonotum subshining, black, with grayish pol- 
linosity; three pairs of distinct dorso-central bristles, the setulas anterior 
to them stronger than the other discal hairs; lateral margins and humeri 
pale yellow; the pair of bristles between posterior dorso-centrals weak; 
pleurse brown-black, shining, upper margin and central, vertical, suture 
narrowly yellow; squama and its fringe pale yellow; scutellum and post- 
notum black, shining; abdomen brown-black, shining; all segments 
narrowly margined with yellow posteriorly; hypopygium of male yel- 
lowish-brown ; ovipositor of female glossy black, the base as long as 
last abdominal segment. Legs glossy black, knees distinctly pale 
yellow; posterior bristles absent from mid tibia; ventral bristles on fore 
femur rather long. Wings clear, basal part of veins lemon yellow; 
subcostal vein indistinct; outer cross vein a little before wing middle 
and well beyond end of first vein; second section of fourth vein longer 



296 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

than first and twice as long as outer cross vein; third and fourth veins 
almost parallel from outer cross vein, only divergent at extreme apices; 
last section of fifth vein about one-fourth longer than penultimate sec- 
tion. Halteres yellow. 
Length, 2 mm. 

Type: Female. Cat.. No. 15569, U. S. N. M. 

Type locality: Fort Collins, Colorado, Webster's No. 
6G10, (C. N. Ainslie), bred from oats 

Paratypes: Tower City, North Dakota, Webster's No. 
3047, (G. I. Reeves), swept amongst grass; Fort Collins, 
Colorado, Webster's No. 6646, reared from Hordeiim jubatum, 
July, 1910, (C. N. Ainslie); Buckton, Kansas, Webster's No. 
5555; reared from volunteer wheat, June 11, 1909, (C. N. 
Ainslie); Hawkins, Summit County, Ohio (?), August 16, 
1902 (no collector's name) ; Massachusetts (collection Coquillett). 
I have also examined specimens from C. W. Johnson's col- 
lection from the following localities: Fern Rock, Pennsyl- 
vania; Norwich, Vermont, Nantucket, Massachusetts and 
Hanover, New Hampshire. 

This species is named in honor of the late D. W. Coquillett, 
whose work has done much to facilitate an understanding of 
the North American Diptera. 

22. Agromyza longipennis Loew. 

Syn: Agromyza longipennis Loew, Dipt. Amer. Sept. Indig., Cent. 8, 1869, 
species 90. 

Female: Frons pale lemon yellow, incision above lunule slightly 
darkened; orbits blackened posteriorly; ocellar region black; breadth of 
frons equal to over one-third the width of head, in outline the sides are 
almost parallel or a little divergent anteriorly; four pairs of long orbital 
bristles present, in addition to the bristles there is an irregular row of 
weak hairs nearer to eye margins, which begins at base of antennas and 
•extends to opposite the anterior ocellus; antennse brownish yellow, 
darker dorsally, of moderate size; second joint with weak hairs on 
apical margin, and the usual dorsal bristle of moderate length; third 
joint rounded, covered with thick, but short, pilosity; arista brownish, 
swollen at base, very thickly pubescent, the pubescence as long as 
basal diameter of arista, arista as long as from its base to posterior 
ocelli; face and cheeks clear lemon yellow, the former slightly concave, 
and with slight keel; cheeks about twice as high at posterior as at 
anterior margin, at highest part slightly less than one-third the eye 
height; eye distinctly higher than long, marginal mouth bristles weak 
but numerous, vibrissa strong. Mesonotum subshining, black; four 
pairs of almost equally strong dorso-central bristles present; between 
which are 4-5 rather irregular rows of setulae, no distinctly differentiated 
bristles between posterior dorso-central s; lateral margins of inesonotum 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 297 

sometimes brownish, pleurse brown-black, subshining; upper margin, 
central vertical suture, and below base of wing narrowly yellow; scu- 
tellum concolorous with mesonotum, four bristled; postnotum brown- 
black, shining. Abdomen shining brownish or blackish; ovipositor 
glossy black, base slightly longer than last abdominal segment, covered 
with numerous short hairs. Legs brownish; fore coxa, apices of all 
femora broadly, and bases of tibiae yellow ; the basal two pairs of former 
are generally almost black; posterior bristles absent from mid tibiae. 
Wings elongate, clear or slightly grayish; first costal division one-third 
as long as second; inner cross vein at just below end of first vein or very 
slightly beyond it; outer cross vein distinctly shorter than section of 
fourth vein anterior to it, first and second sections of fourth vein sub- 
equal; last two sections of fifth vein subequal. Halteres pale yellow. 
Length, 2.5 to 3 mm. 

Originally described from District of Columbia (Osten 
Sacken) . 

Represented in collection by two specimens from Mount 
Washington and Franconia, New Hampshire, (Mrs. A. T. 
Slosson, collection Coquillett) ; and two from Algonquin, 111., 
(collection Coquillett). Three of the specimens were stand- 
ing as A. xanthocephala Zetterstedt, in collection. This iden- 
tification ' may have been given out by Coquillett, though I 
cannot find any published record of the name. Zetterstedt's 
species differs from Loew's in having the legs entirely black, 
Longipennis comes very close capitata Zetterstedt as under- 
stood in Britain, but I have no specimens for comparison, and 
as Kertesz gives capitata as a synonym of geniculata, which I 
have from Holland, and find distinct, I consider it advisable 
to continue the use of Loew's name, meantime. 

Food-plant unknown. 

23. Agromyza coloradensis, new species. 
Male and Female: Frons opaque, ochreous yellow, about one-third 
longer than broad, sides almost parallel; orbits at lunule not one-half as 
wide as center stripe at same part; five pairs of orbital bristles present, 
the one nearest antennae weakest; these bristles occupy middle of orbit 
and laterally beyond them is an irregular row of short hairs which 
extends from base of antennae to fifth orbital bristle; vsides of orbits and 
back of head blackened; ocellar region shining black; antennae black; 
basal joint and apex of second on inner surface yellow; second joint with 
numerous short hairs on dorsal and ventral surfaces, the dorsal bristle 
distinct; third joint of moderate size, slightty longer than high, regularly 
rounded on the upper margin or apex obtusely angled; arista black, 
sHghtly thickened at base, the pubescence thick but very short, arista 
in length reaching to front ocellus; face and cheeks pale yellow, the 
former concave and very slightly keeled in center; cheeks higher pos- 



298 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

teriorly than anteriorly, at highest part about one-third as high as eye, 
marginal bristles distinct, 6-7, the anterior pair higher than vibrissa; 
vibrissa strong; proboscis yellow; palpi black, distinctly bristled. Meso- 
notum subopaque, gray-black, about one-third longer than broad; 
lateral margins with indications of brownish color, but not yellow; four 
pairs of long dorso-central bristles present, which are in parallel rows, 
the anterior pair distinctly in front of suture; four irregular rows of 
setulas between the dorso-centrals, which are carried to between pos- 
terior pair; no distinctly differentiated bristles between posterior dorso- 
centrals; pleurse marked as in longipennis; squamse yellow, fringe 
brownish; postnotum and scutellum concolorous with disk of mesono- 
tum. Abdomen elongate, shining black, with grayish pollinosity, only 
the last segment with distinct, very narrow, yellow posterior margins; 
ovipositor glossy black, base as long as last abdominal segment, seg- 
ments with numerous short hairs; hypopygium of male rounded, with 
two flap-like protruding, downward directed, apical organs. Legs 
black, shining, knees distinctly, but narrowly, pale yellow; mid tibiae 
without posterior bristles. Wings grayish, rather elongate, venation 
almost as in longipennis. Halteres yellow. 
Length, 3.5 to 4 mm. 

Type: (Male); Cat. No. 15570, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Florissant, Colorado, (7,000 feet level) June 
21, 1907, (S. A. Rohwer). Five specimens, two males and 
three females. Taken amongst grass. There is a female 
from Colorado in C. W. Johnson's collection and a male in 
same collection from Eastport Maine. 

Food-plant unknown. 

24. Agromyza marginata Loew. 

Syn: Agromyza marginata Loew, Dipt. Amer. Sept. Indig. Cent. 8, 1869, 
species 91. 

Male and Female: Frons pale lemon yellow, shining, center 
stripe opaque black, deepest in color at anterior margin above lunule; 
ocellar triangle distinct, black, margins narrowly yellow; orbits of 
nearly equal breadth on their entire length, darkened anteriorly, four 
orbital bristles anterior to front ocellus, these are on middle of orbits, 
there are no additional hairs present on any of the specimens before 
me; antennee brown, of rather less than normal size, dorsal bristles on 
second joint of moderate size; third joint rounded, barely longer than 
broad; arista brown, slightly swollen and tapering at base, almost 
bare, reaching from its base to anterior ocellus in female, slightly 
shorter in male; face brown, concave in profile, the lower margin, at 
mouth, projecting slightly, center keel indistinct; cheeks yellowish 
brown, short, gradually deepening from front to back, where they 
are less than one-fourth the height of the eye; marginal bristles dis- 
tinct, vibrissa strong; eye distinctly higher than long. Mesonotum 
slightly longer than broad, glossy black brown; three pairs of dorso- 
centrals present, the anterior pair weak, disk with niumerous distinct 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 299 

setulae; lateral margins and humeri brown; pleurse glossy brown-black; 
upper margin and central, vertical, suture narrowly, and a patch 
below wing base yellow; scutellum distinctly broader than long, con- 
colorous with disk of mesonotum; postnotum concolorous with pleurae; 
squamse yellow, margin and fringe brown. Abdomen glossy brown, 
or black-bro^¥n, posterior margin of last segment sometimes narrowly 
yellowish; last abdominal segment almost as long as the three pre- 
ceding seginents, ovipositor elongate, glossy black; male hypopygium 
knob-Uke, of moderate size, about one-fourth as long as preceding 
abdominal segment ; surface hairs most numerous on the sides of second 
segment, and longest on apical segments. Legs yellow; basal half 
of each femur brown-black, apices of tibiae and all tarsi more or less 
browned; posterior mid tibial bristles absent. Wings grayish; first 
costal division one-third as long as second, subcostal vein indistinct, 
but complete, inner cross vein at just below end of first vein, outer 
cross vein -at distinctly more than its own length from inner and at 
wing middle; first and second sections of fourth vein subequal; penu- 
timate section of fifth vein slightly shorter than ultimate; outer half 
of last sections of veins 3-4 almost parallel. Halteres clear yellow. 
Length, 1.5 mm. 

Originally described from District of Columbia (Osten 
Sacken) . 

Represented in collection by three specimens, two females 
and one male, from Beverly, Massachusetts (Burgess). These 
specimens bear the dates May 28, 1868; August 28, 1869; and 
May 24, 1874, respectively. 

Food-plant unknown. 

25. Agromyza canadensis, new species. 
Plate XXX, Fig. 19. 
Female: Frons opaque, brown, sides subparallel, in breadth one- 
third the width of head and distinctly longer than broad, orbits shghtly 
differentiated, subshining; orbital bristles five in number, situated near 
to inner margin of orbits, decreasing in size from back to front; no hairs 
on orbits in addition to bristles; ocellar region shining, the anterior 
ocellus separated more widely from posterior ocelli than posterior 
ocelli from each other; antennse yellowish-red, third joint brown; 
second joint with strong dorsal bristle, and weaker apical hairs; third 
joint rather elongate, one-third longer than broad, rounded at tip; 
arista brown, yellow, and with an elongate swelling at base, pubescence 
very weak, distinctly shorter than basal diameter of arista, length of 
arista as long as from its base to between upper two orbital bristles; 
face in profile perpendicular, yellow, with whitish dusting and distinct 
keel, a blackish line on each side of keel, cheeks linear, only slightly 
higher at posterior margin than anteriorly, brown, paler on margins; 
marginal bristles upturned, of moderate strength; vibrissa strong; 
the weak bristles are continued upward beyond the level of vibrissa; 
proboscis yellow; palpi brown, slightly spatulate, with distinct bristles. 



300 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Mesonotum shining, brown-black on disk, with gray dusting, humeri and 
lateral margins reddish yellow; five pairs of dorso-central bristles 
present, the anterior three pairs reduced in size, only the front pair 
anterior to suture; the pair of bristles between the posterior dorso- 
centrals very strong; disk with numerous setulose hairs; pleurae brown, 
shining, sutures and below wing base yellowish; squamee whitish yel- 
low, fringe concolorous; scutellum and postnotiim concolorous with 
disk of mesonotum. Abdomen reddish yellow; last segment not 
elongated; base of ovipositor glossy black, slightly longer than preceding 
abdominal segment; all segments with nuinerovis black bristle-like 
hairs. Legs yellow, stout; posterior side of mid tibia with two bristles. 
Wings slightly grayish; costa thickened at end of first vein, first costal 
division (to near side of first vein) less than one-half as long as next 
division (from end of swollen junction of first vein with costa); upper 
end of outer cross vein below a point in costa beyond middle of wing; 
veins 2-3 distinctly, 3-4 hardly divergent; section of fourth vein beyond 
inner cross vein one and one-half times as long as outer cross vein, 
and distinctly longer than preceding section of fourth; inner cross vein 
below junction of first vein with costa; last section of fifth vein three- 
fifths as long as penultimate section; basal part of wing veins clear 
yellow. Halteres yellow, knob whitish. 
Length 3 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15571, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Cottage Beaulieu, Ottawa, Canada, August 14,. 
1906, (Germain Beaulieu), one female. 
Food-plant unknown. 

26. Agromyza laterella Zetterstedt. 

Syn: Agromyza laterella Zetterstedt, Ins. Lappon, 1838, p. 788, species 7. 

Agromyza grossicornis Zetterstedt; Dipt. Scand. Vol. XIV, 1860, p. 64.56. 
Agromyza magnicornis Loew, Dipt. Amer. Sept. Indig., Cent. 8, 1869, 
species 86. 

Male and Female: Frons about one-half as broad as head, center 
stripe opaque, brownish or blackish, with slight whitish dusting, orbits 
shining, four or five orbital bristles anterior to front ocellus, beyond 
these, laterally, is an irregular row of hairs; frontal lunule whitish 
dusted, very distinct; ocellar region shining black; antennae black; 
in male large, third joint very variable both in size and shape, either 
subquadrate, elongated and truncate at apex, or enlarged and rounded 
at apex, very thickly covered with distinct, pale pilosity; in female 
the third antennal joint is much smaller and rounded; arista black, 
inserted near base of third joint, thickened on basal third, pubescence 
very short and indistinct, length of arista equal to froin its base to second 
uppermost orbital bristle; head of male slightly produced in front, 
the frons slightly buccate; face concave; cheeks short, distinctly higher 
posteriorly than anteriorly, but at highest part not one-fourth as high 
as eye, marginal bristles distinct; vibrissa well differentiated; proboscis 
yellow; palpi black, normal; occiput unprojecting on upper half. Meso- 
notum black, slightly shining, indistinctly gray dusted, lateral margins- 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 301 

brownish yellow; four pairs of dorso-centrals present; discal setulise 
rather strong; the pair of bristles between the posterior pair of dorso- 
centrals distinct, but not large; pleurag glossy black, narrowly lemon 
yellow along upper and medium vertical suture, and broadly below 
wing base; squamae almost white, fringe concolorous; scutellum and 
postnotum gray black. Abdomen glossy black, or black-brown, 
posterior margins of segments generally narrowly yellow, sometimes 
the base of abdomen yellow laterally; hypopygium of male small; 
ovipositor of female glossy black on basal portion. Legs black, or 
black-brown, knees distinctly pale yellow; mid tibia without distinct 
bristles on posterior surface, except in one specimen. Wings clear, 
basal part of thick veins pale yellow; subcostal vein indistinct, but 
complete; second costal division about 23/^ times as long as first; inner 
cross vein at just before end of first vein, and at about middle of discal 
cell; last cell section of fifth vein subequal with penultimate section; 
veins 3-4 slightly divergent on their last sections. Halteres yellow. 
Length 1.5-2.5 mm. 

Localities of specimens examined: Algonquin, Illinois, 
(collection Coquillett); Franconia, New Hampshire, (Mrs. 
A. T. Slosson) ; Biscayne Bay, Florida, (Mrs. A. T. Slosson) ; 
Rosslyn, Virginia, October, 1903, (E. S. G. Titus) ; Beverly, 
Massachusetts, June 1, 1868, (Burgess); another same collector 
and locality, June 2, 1876; Worcester, Mass., "Gall on Iris" 
(no collector's name) ; and South Fork, British Columbia, 
(R. P. Currie). There are specimens in C. W. Johnson's 
collection from Chester and Framingham, Massachusetts. 

This species has been recorded by Thomson,* as feeding 
galls on blue Iris, and although there is no collector's name 
on the Worcester specimen mentioned above, it is very proba- 
bly belongs to the lot reared by him, as Coquillett identified 
specimens. 

This is a very variable species in color, and structure of 
the antennae, and one might be easily led into considering 
some of the forms as distinct species. I am, however, con- 
vinced from my acquaintance with the species in Britain, that 
there is but one species, though it probably feeds upon different 
food plants, as I have met with it in situations where it could 
not have fed upon Iris. 

*Psyche, Vol. XIV, 1907, p. 74. 



302 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



27. Agromyza maculosa, new species. 

Male and Female: Shining black, frontal lunule silvery white 
pollinose; legs with tibiae and tarsi sometimes brownish; halteres white 
with black spot. 

Frons very slightly more than one-third the head width; center 
stripe opaque; orbits glossy, differentiated from center stripe; five 
(and occasionally six), strong orbital bristles present; frontal lunule 
distinct, viewed from above and behind shining silvery white; antennse 
with second joint brownish, dorsal bristle distinct; third joint of moder- 
ate size, rounded at apex, covered with very short, brownish pubescence; 
arista brown, distinctly swollen . and tapering at base, pubescence 
short and close ; length of arista equal to from its base to between upper 
two orbital bristles anterior to ocelli ; face shining in center, subopaque 
on sides, in profile concave; the central keel rounded, not sharp, cheeks 
rather short, twice as high posteriorly as anteriorly, marginal bristles 
rather strong though short, slightly upcurved and continued weakly 
beyond vibrissa; vibrissa strong, well differentiated; proboscis brownish 
yellow; palpi black, of normal size and shape. Mesonotum with four 
pairs of strong dorso-centrals which are slightly reduced in size from 
posterior to anterior pairs; five or six rather irregular rows of setulse be- 
tween the dorso-centrals, the pair of bristles between the posterior 
dorso-centrals slightly differentiated from the discal setulas; pleurse below 
wing base slightly yellowish; squamse of rather large size, white, fringe 
concolorous. Abdomen rather broad, ovate; all segments with short 
dorsal hairs, stronger on margins laterally and posteriorly, noticeably 
longer on posterior margins of last two segments; base of ovipositor 
barely longer than preceding segment. Legs strong, front femur 
with distinct ventral bristles; mid tibia with the posterior two bristles 
distinct. Wings with base slightly yellowish; first vein yellowish 
to end; subcostal vein weak; first costal division one-half as long as 
second; inner cross vein at below end of first vein; outer cross vein at 
slightly beyond middle of wing, and at its own length, or slightly more, 
from inner cross vein ; last section of fifth vein distinctly, but not 
greatly shorter than penultimate section; veins 2 and 3 distinctly, 
3 and 4 slightly divergent. Halteres white, outer surface of knob 
and most of stalk blackened. 

Length, 3-4 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15641, U. S. N. M. 

Type locality: Jamaica, New York, October, 1896. Bred 
from chrysanthemum leaves. Paratypes from Louisville, Ky., 
October 27, 1898; 6 specimens bred from chrysanthemum 
leaves No. 4064; Lafayette, Ind., October 11, 1901, (H. B. 
Dorner), 5 specimens bred from leaves of aster; Jamaica, 
New York, 2 specimens from same lot as type ; and one specimen 
without data from Georgia. One specimen in C. W. John- 
son's collection from Bermuda, West Indies. 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 303 



28. Agromyza waltoni, new species. 
Plate XXVIII, Fig. G; Plate XXXI, Fig. 36. 

Female: Frons black, center stripe opaque, orbits subshining, 
glossy at base of bristles; breadth of frons slightly more than one-half 
the head width, and almost subquadrate; orbits slightly differentiated 
from center stripe, each at broadest part about one-fourth the breadth 
of center stripe at same part, orbital bristles five in number, on one 
side at margin of lunule is another smaller bristle which I take to be 
abnormal; lunule brownish yellow, covered with white poUinosity; 
ocellar region subopaque; posterior ocelli occupying about one-fifth the 
width of vertex; antennas black, rather below average size; second 
joint with apical bristles on outer side, the dorsal bristle distinct; 
third joint rounded, barely longer than broad, not distinctly pilose; 
arista black, paler at base, swollen on basal fourth, almost bare, in 
length reaching almost from its base to upper orbital bristle; face and 
cheeks black-brown; slightly gray dusted; the former in profile almost 
perpendicular, center raised slightly, but not sharply keeled; cheeks 
at posterior margin about one-sixth the eye height, anteriorly becoming 
linear; marginal bristles strong, anterior two higher than vibrissa; 
vibrissa strong; proboscis yellow; palpi black, slightly spatulate, bris- 
tles weak. Mesonotum black, slightly shining, grayish dusted; four 
pairs of dorso-centrals present, these are reduced in size anteriorly; 
the setulce between the dorso-centrals in about 10 irregular rows, the 
two bristles between posterior dorso-centrals distinct, separated from 
each other by almost twice the distance between them and the dorso- 
centrals; pleurae black, shining, sutures brownish; squamae brownish 
yellow, fringe brown; scutellum and postnotum concolorous with 
pleurae. Abdomen shining black. Sixth segment elongated; base of 
ovipositor shorter than preceding segment; all segments with numerous 
hairs, those on apices of segments, and especially the sixth, bristle 
like. Legs black, shining; knees brownish; fore femur with long 
ventral bristles; the posterior bristles on mid tibia present, but very 
short in type. Wings yellowish brown at base ; subcostal vein complete, 
rather distinct; second costal division slightly more than twice as long 
as first; inner cross vein slightly beyond end of first vein, outer at 
length of inner from that vein, and distinctly before wing middle, 
veins 2-3-4 very noticeably divergent at apices; penultimate section 
of fifth distinctly shorter than ultimate section. Halteres yellow, 
knobs whitish. 

Length, 4 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15572, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Long Lake, Adirondack Mountains, (Horvath). 
One female. 

Food-plant unknown. 

Named in honor of Mr. W. R. Walton of the Bureau of 
Entomology. 



304 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



29. Agromyza angulata Loew. 

Plate XXIX, Fig, 16; Plate XXX, Fig. 18. 

Syn: Agromyza angulata Loew, Dipt. Amer. Sept. Indig., Cent. 8, 1869, 
species 87. 

Male and Female: Frons deep black, with sometimes a slight 
indication of paler color very narrowly along the inner margin of orbits; 
central stripe opaque, orbits shining; breadth of frons distinctly over 
one-third the head width, of orbits about one-half the width of center 
stripe; generally 5 orbital bristles present; in addition to the bristles 
there are numerous short hairs nearer to eye margin, forming an ir- 
regular row from opposite insertion of antenna to upper bristle; ocellar 
region glossy black; antennae black, of moderate size; dorsal bristle 
on second joint distinct; third joint rounded at apex; arista brown, 
basal fifth yellowish and swollen, pubescence very short, length of 
arista equal to from its base to between upper two orbital bristles; 
face and cheeks black, or black brown, opaque; the former with a slight 
central keel, and a little produced at mouth margin; cheeks almost 
linear, very little higher at posterior margin than at anterior; marginal 
bristles in a double row, of moderate strength; vibrissa well differ- 
entiated; proboscis yellow; palpi black, of normal size and shape. 
Mesonotum glossy black, lateral margins sometimes brownish; four 
pairs of dorso-centrals present, the posterior pair strong, the others 
gradually reduced towards anterior pair, which are rather weak and 
slightly in front of suture; 7-S irregular rows of short setulse between 
dorso-centrals; no distinctly differentiated pair of bristles between 
posterior dorso-centrals; pleuree glossy black, very narrowly lemon 
yellow along upper margin to humerus, narrowly along vertical 
mesopleural suture, more broadly at upper angles of that suture 
and below wing base; postnotum and scutellum colored as disk of 
mesonotum, squamee whitish yellow, fringe whitish. Abdomen 
ovate, glossy black, sometimes with the segments very narrowly pale 
yellow, or brownish; sixth segment elongated; all segments with numer- 
ous surface hairs; apical margin of sixth segment with moderately 
long bristles; hypopygium of male of moderate size, colored as abdomen, 
base of ovipositor of female glossy black. Legs black, shining; fore 
knees pale yellow, knees of hind pairs, fore tibise and tarsi brownish, 
or yellowish; mid tibia without posterior bristles. Wings clear; bases 
•of thick veins lemon yellow; first costal division one-half as long as 
second; outer cross vein below, or slightly beyond end of first vein; 
subcostal vein indistinct; first two sections of fourth vein subequal, 
or the first slightly the shorter; last section of fifth twice as long as 
penultimate section; veins 2-3-4 slightly divergent. Halteres pale 
yellow. 

Length 1.5-2 mm. 

Originally described from Pennsylvania (Osten Sacken), 
and since recorded from New Jersey, (Smith Cat.). Represented 
in U. S. National Museum collection by four specimens from 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 305 

Lafayette, Indiana, (P. Luginbill) Webster's No. 9700, reared 
from timothy grass, and two specimens with the No. 6719, 
July 13, 1895, District of Columbia. There is one specimen 
in C. W. Johnson's collection from Auburndale, Massachusetts. 

"30. Agromyza setosa Loew. 
Syn: Agromyza setosa Loew, Dipt. Amer. Sept. Indig., Cent. 8, 1869, species 83. 

Male and Female: Frons "black or black-brown; center stripe 
opaque; orbits shining; width of frons equal to slightly over one-third 
the width of head; orbits about one-half as wide aS center stripe; five 
orbital bristles present, situated nearer to inner than outer margin of 
orbits; in addition to the bristles there are nimierous short hairs pres- 
ent, between the eye margins and the bristles, which are particularly 
numerous on the lower half of 'orbit and terminate in an irregular row 
at about level of upper orbital bristle; ocellar region shining; ocellar 
triangle slightly indicated, shining; antennae black, moderately large; 
second joint slightly over the average size, with numerous hairs, the 
usual bristle distinct; third joint rounded at apex, barely longer than 
broad, covered with short brownish pilosity; arista brown, for a short 
space paler beyond the distinctly thickened base; pubescence short 
but distinct, very close; length of arista equal to from its base to the 
second uppermost orbital bristle; face and cheeks black -brown; the 
former perpendicular and with a rounded central keel; cheeks increasing 
in height from anterior to posterior margin, where they are about one- 
fourth the height of eye; marginal bristles of moderate length, in two 
rows, and rather numerous, the upper row upwardly directed; vibrissa 
differentiated; probocis brown; palpi black, of moderate size, rather 
numerously bristled; eyes microscopically haired. Mesonotum sub- 
shining black; thickly covered with hairs and with four pairs of dorso- 
central bristles, the anterior pairs much reduced and the front pair 
not much stronger than the other dorsal hairs; the pair of bristles 
between the posterior dorso-centrals distinct, and of moderate length; 
pleurae concolorous with disk of mesonotum, only brownish below 
wing base; squamae brown, fringe concolorous; postnotum and scutellum 
colored as pleurae. Abdomen concolorous with thorax; the surface 
rather thickly covered with hairs; sixth segment with some bristle- 
like hairs on posterior margin; hypopygiiun of male almost similar to 
that of parvicornis; ovipositor of female with base thickly covered with 
hairs. Legs black, tibiae and tarsi black brown; posterior bristles on 
mid tibiffi very weak. Wings grayish, veins brown; first costal division 
nearly one-half as long as second; subcostal vein indistinct, almost 
coalescent with first at its apex; costa thickened at end of first vein; 
inner cross vein at slightly beyond end of first vein or at just below it; 
outer cross vein at slightly beyond wing middle, and at slightly more 
than its own length from inner cross vein ; last section of fifth vein about 
one-half as long as pentdtimate section; veins 3-4 only slightly diver- 
gent at apices. Halteres yellow, stalk darkened at base. 

Length 3-4 mm. 



(306 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Originally described from District of Columbia (Osten 
Sacken). Represented in U. S. National Museum collection 
by 3 specimens, one from Monroe, Michigan, no other data; 
one with the number 2464 — , and the third with label to the 
effect that it was reared from wild rice {Zizania aqa^ntica) 
August 8, 1891, District of Columbia, (T. Pergande). The 
other records given by Coquillett for this species in Bull. 
No. 10, n, ser. 1898, Dept Agric, Div. Ent. refer to fragaria 
and maculosa. 

There is a male specimen in the U. S, National Museum 
collection which represents probably a distinct species, but 
its condition is not good enough to permit me deciding the 
question, as the species of the group are all very closely allied. 

Locality: San Mateo County, California (C. F. Baker). 

31. Agromyza isolata, new species. 

Female: Frons black-brown; center stripe opaque, orbits shining; 
breadth of frons a little over one-third the width of head; orbits slightly 
differentiated from center stripe, and each about one-fourth as wide; 
four long orbital bristles present, situated about on middle of orbits; 
the short hairs sparse and in a short irregular row; ocellar region raised, 
shining; ocellar triangle not distinguishable ; antennae black-brown; 
second joint with numerous short, apical marginal hairs, and the dorsal 
bristle distinct, third joint slightly longer than broad; the upper extrem- 
ity less distinctly roimded than the lower, covered with rather distinctive 
pile, which is brownish in color, and most distinct on dorsal surface 
at apex; arista brown, the swelling at base short and glossy; pubescence 
very short; length of arista equal to from its base to upper orbital 
bristle; face brown-black, perpendicular, almost without a- central 
keel; cheeks nearly linear, brown-black; marginal bristles in two rows 
of moderate strength; vibrissa distinctly differentiated, the bristles 
continued above level of vibrissa; eye apparently bare, about one and 
one-half times as high as long; proboscis yellow; palpi black. Meso- 
notum black, shining, but not glossy; four pairs of distinct dorso- 
centrals present, the posterior pair most widely placed and strongest, 
the anterior pair of moderate strength, distinctly longer than discal 
setulse, and appreciably in front of suture; about 7 irregular rows of 
setulas between the rows of dorso-centrals; the pair of bristles between 
the posterior dorso-centrals as long as anterior dorso-central pair; 
pleurse black-brown, glossy, narrowly paler along upper margin and 
sutures, yellowish beneath wing base; squamas yellowish white, margin 
and fringe brown; postnotum and scutellum concolorous with disk 
of mesonotum. Abdomen ovate in shape, glossy black, apical segment 
yellowish brown at apex, base of ovipositor longer than preceding 
segment; hairs on ovipositor yellowish, on abdomen and thorax brown- 
ish. Legs yellowish brown, the femora blackened; all legs with num- 



1913] Agromyza aftd Cerodontha. 307 

•erous hairs, which are yellowish in color; mid tibia with the posterior 
bristles small. Wings clear; second costal division about two and one- 
half times as long as first; subcostal vein distinct, evidently coalescent 
with first at apical fourth; inner cross vein at slightly before end of 
first vein; outer at slightly beyond wing middle, and at one and one- 
half times its own length from inner; veins 3-4 slightly divergent at 
apices; last section of fifth vein rather over two-thirds as long as the 
penultimate section. Halteres yellow, knob whitish. 
Length 2 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15573, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Eureka California, May, (H. S. Barber). 

Food-plant unknown. 

32. Agromyza fragariae, new species. 

Plate XXVIII, Fig. 5. 

Male and Female: Frons dark brown, or black brown; center 
stripe opaque; orbits subopaque; breadth of frons distinctly over one- 
third the width of head; orbit one-fourth as broad as center stripe; 
four orbital bristles present, the hairs on orbits not ntimerous; ocellar 
region shining, black, raised, frontal triangle not distinguishable; 
antennse black, sometimes with indications of paler color at apex of 
second joint on inner surface; rather below the average in size; second 
joint with weak apical hairs, and the dorsal bristle distinct, third joint 
not longer than broad, rounded in front, and covered with short brown- 
ish pile; arista brown, thickened on basal fourth, the pubescence close, 
but very short ; length of arista, equal to from its base to slightly beyond 
second uppermost orbital bristle; face shining black, perpendicular, 
keel very slight; cheeks pale brown, linear at anterior margin, about 
one-third as high as eye at posterior margin; marginal bristles in a 
double row, numerous, of moderate length, extending above level of 
vibrissa, which is distinctly differentiated; proboscis yellow; palpi 
black. Mesonotum subopaque, black, with slight indications of gray- 
ish dusting; four pairs of dorso-centrals present, which become shorter 
towards front, the anterior pair slightly in front of suture; 6-7 irregular 
rows of setulce between the dorso-centrals; the pair of bristles between 
the posterior pair of dorso-centrals distinctly differentiated from the 
discal setulas, about as long as anterior pair of dorso-centrals; pleurse 
shining black-brown, the suture yellowish brown; squamae whitish, 
fringe brownish-yellow; postnotum and scutellum black, subshining. 
abdomen shining black, subovate in female, elongate in male; covered 
with hairs, those on posterior margins of segments bristle-like; the dor- 
sal hairs on abdomen and mesonotiun are brownish yellow. Legs 
rather slender, black-brown, tibiee and tarsi paler; posterior mid tibial 
bristles minute. Wings elongate, grayish; first costal division one- 
third as long as second; subcostal vein rather distinct, almost coalescent 
with first at its apex; inner cross vein at slightly before end of first vein, 
and at middle of discal cell; outer cross vein at about one and one-half 



308 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

times its own length from inner and at wing middle; last section of 
fifth vein about two-thirds as long as penultimate section; veins 3-4 
gradually and slightly divergent. Halteres yellow. 
Length 1.5-2 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15574, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Placer County, California, November, mining 
leaves of strawberry, (A Koebele). 
Three specimens. 

33 Agromyza posticata Meigen. 
Plate XXXI, Fig. 29. 
Syn: Agromyza posticata Meigen, Syst. Beschr., Vol. VI, 1830, p. 172, 
species 16. 
Agromyza terminalis Coquillett, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1895, p. 318. 
Agromyza taeniola Coquillett, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. VI, 1904, p. 191. 

Male and Female: Frons black, >3enter stripe opaque, orbits 
shining, breadth of frons less than one-third the head width; four 
orbital bristles below anterior ocellus, small hairs on orbits microscopic 
in male, strongest in female; lunule silvery white poUinose; antennae 
brown, of normal size; dorsal bristle on second joint distinct, apex 
of same joint with ntmierous short hairs, which are most distinct on 
the under side; third joint rounded, covered with short, pale pilosity; 
arista brown, pale yellowish on basal elongate swelling, very thickly 
covered with short pubescence, which is not longer than the basal 
diameter of arista; arista as long as from its base to beyond upper 
orbital bristle; eyes microscopically haired, cheeks and face bro-wTi; 
the latter concave in profile, keel slight; cheeks linear at anterior mar- 
gin, at posterior margin very slightly broadened, marginal bristles, 
5-7, of moderate strength; vibrissa strong; proboscis yellow; palpi 
brownish yellow, normal in size, with weak end bristles'. Mesonotum 
glossy brownish-black, margins and humeri pale brown, with an in- 
dication of yellow along suture between margin of disk and pleuras; 
three distinct pairs of dorso-centrals present, in one specimen an ad- 
ditional bristle is visible on one side anterior to the front pair; 5-6 
irregular rows of setulee between dorso-centrals, the pair of bristles 
between posterior dorso-centrals distinctly differentiated from setulse 
but much weaker than dorso-centrals; pleuree glossy brown, yellowish 
along suture and below wing base ; scutellum and postnotum concolorous 
with disk of mesonotum; squamae whitish, fringe white. Abdomen 
glossy black-brown; apical three segments and hypopygium of male pale 
yellow, of female posterior margin of sixth segment distinctly pale yel- 
low; apical segments brownish, ovipositor glossy black; last abdominal 
segment in male slightly elongated; all segments with numerous short 
black hairs, the apical segments with unusually weak posterior mar- 
ginal bristles. Legs brown-black, glossy, knee joints paler; mid-tibia 
with posterior bristles present, in some cases those number three, in- 
stead of the normal two. Wings yellow at base; first costal division 
almost one half as long as second; inner cross-vein at below, or slightly 
beyond, end of first vein; subcostal vein indistinct, but complete; 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 309 

outer cross vein at slightly beyond wing middle, and at rather more than 
its own length from inner cross vein; last section of fifth vein about 
two-thirds as long as penultimate section; veins 2 and 3 distinctly, 3 
and 4 slightly divergent at apices. Halteres yellow, knob whitish. 
Length 3-4 mm. 

Localities of male specimens in collection: Delaware coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, July 23, 1893 (collection Coquillet), the type 
of terminalis Coquillett; Franconia, New Hampshire, (Mrs. 
A. T. Slosson) ; White Mountains, New Hampshire (Morrison) ; 
District of Columbia, June (collection Coquillett) ; Oswego, 
New York, July 7, 1897; and Athens, Tennessee, August, 
(H. S. Barber). 

The female has the apical abdominal segments so much 
less* distinctly pale than the male, that it is with difficulty 
one associates it with that sex. So dissimilar are the sexes 
that Coquillett in describing terminalis failed to associate 
with the male two females taken at the same time and place. 

It was this sex which he recorded* as neptis Loew, from 
Chicago. There are females in collection from Delaware 
county, Pennsylvania, Plummers Island, Maryland, August 
3, 1912 (J. R. Malloch); Georgia (no other data); and a speci- 
men reared from mine in leaves of Solidago, July 20, 1884, 
Virginia (T. Pergande). I have also seen a male and female 
taken by W. L. McAtee, on Plummers Island, Maryland; 
and specimens in C. W. Johnson's collection from the following 
localities: Hanover, New Hampshire; Machias, Maine; East- 
port, Maine; Chester, Massachusetts; Winnipauk, Connecticut;, 
Danbury, Connecticut, Rowayton, Connecticut; Buttonwoods, 
Rhode Island; Norwich, Vermont, and Cornish, New Hamp- 
shire. The type specimen of taeniola Coquillett is a male of 
this species. 

A peculiarity about this species is that after death the eyes 
are red, whereas in practically all the other species they become 
brown or black. 

34. Agromyza neptis Loew. 

Syn: Agromyza neptis Loew, Dipt. Amer. Sept. Indig., Cent. 8, 1869, species 93. 

Male: Frons black, one-third as wide as head; center stripe opaque 
brown-black; orbits glossy, each orbit about one-third as wide as center 
stripe; four orbital bristles present, the hairs on orbits in an irregular 
row between bristles and eye margin; ocellar region raised, glossy 
black; antennee black, rather above the average size; second joint 

*Bull. 10, n. ser., 1898, Dept. Agric. p. 78. 



310 A nnals Entomological Society of A merica [Vol . VI , 

with rather weak dorsal bristle, and weak apical marginal hairs; third 
joint large, distinctly longer than broad, covered with distinct pale 
pile; arista brown, tapering, distinctly and thickly covered with short 
pubescence, which is about as long as basal diameter of arista; length 
of arista equal to three times the length of third antennal joint; face 
subshining, black, rather long, concave in profile, central keel slight, 
but sharp; cheek black, almost linear, slightly higher at posterior mar- 
gin. Marginal bristles weak; vibrissa weakly differentiated, eye 
distinctly higher than long; proboscis yellow; palpi black, normal. 
Mesonotum glossy black, thickly covered with rather long setulas, 
three pairs of dorso-centrals present, the anterior pair weak; the pair of 
bristles between the posterior dorso-centrals as long as second pair 
of dorso-centrals; pleurae glossy black, with a slight indication of pale 
color along upper margin, and distinctly pale below wing base; squamae 
yellowish white, fringe white; postnotum and scutellum concolorous 
with mesonottrai, the apical pair of bristles on scutellum as strong as 
basal pair. Abdomen glossy black, similar in shape to that of par- 
vie ornis. Wings clear; first costal division almost one-half as long as 
second, inner cross vein at slightly beyond middle of wing and at dis- 
tinctly more than its own length from inner; last section of fifth vein 
distinctly shorter than penultimate section. Halteres white. 
Length 2 mm. 

Originally described from District of Columbia (Osten 
Sacken). Aldrich gives it as from Nebraska, but probably 
refers to another record of the species. I have before me 
only one specimen which is referable to this species. 

Locality: Plummers Island, Maryland, August 3, 1912 
(J. R. Malloch). 

Food-plant unknown. 

35. Agromyza inconspicua, new species. 

Male: Frons slightly over one-third the width of head; black, 
center stripe opaque, orbits and ocellar region shining; four orbital 
bristles present, orbits otherwise almost entirely bare; antennas black, 
brownish at base; third joint small, rounded, not as long as broad, 
arista slightly swollen and tapering at base, pubescence very short, 
length of arista equal to from its base to upper orbital bristle; face 
black, concave in profile, slightly produced at mouth margin; center 
keel rounded; cheek brownish yellow, twice as high at posterior as at 
anterior margin, at highest part one-third as high as eye, marginal 
bristles of moderate strength, vibrissa slightly differentiated; proboscis 
yellow; palpi black; occiput linear on upper half. Mesonotum shining 
black, three pairs of dorso-centrals present, the anterior pair weak and 
anterior to the suture a setula which may, in other specimens, be strong 
enough to be classed as a dorso-central ; disk very sparsely covered 
with setulas, only three irregular rows between the dorso-centrals; 
no distinct bristles between the posterior pair of dorso-centrals; pleurae 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 311 

glossy black, median vertical suture narrowly pale yellow; scutellum 
sub-opaque, brownish-black; apical pair of scutellar bristles strongest. 
Abdomen rather narrow; shining black-brown; hypopgium normal in 
size. Legs black-brown, knees distinctly yello\y; tarsi yellowish 
brown, no distinct bristles on posterior surface of mid tibia. Wings 
narrow, clear, veins on basal half pale yellow; costa brown, first division 
about half as long as second; inner cross vein at distinctly anterior 
to end of first vein and middle of discal cell; outer cross vein at dis- 
tinctly more than its own length from inner and very slightly before 
middle of wing; veins 3-4 on last sections almost parallel; last section 
of fifth vein about one-fourth longer than penultimate section. Hal- 
teres yellow, knob whitish. 

Length slightly over 1 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15575, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Fort Collins, Colorado, reared from mine in 
Agropyron, July 28, 1910, (C. N. Ainslie). Webster's No. 
6611. 

36. Agromyza dubitata, new species. 

'Female: Frons black, center stripe opaque, orbits shining at 
base of bristles; breadth of frons a httle over one-third the width of 
head, of each orbit about one-half the width of center stripe; four 
rather weak orbital bristles present, situated on near to inner margin 
of orbit; the orbital hairs less numerous than in calif orniensis; ocellar 
region shining black, raised, the ocelli in an equilateral triangle; an- 
tennse black, rather smaller than in preceding species, the third joint 
not so regularly rounded at apex on upper surface; arista similar to 
calif orniensis, but slightly shorter; face brown-black, opaque, concave 
in profile; cheeks brown, almost as in preceding species; proboscis 
yellow; palpi spatulate, with several moderately strong end bristles; 
occiput narrow on upper half. Mesonotum shining black, bristled as in 
preceding species, but the pair of bristles between posterior pair of 
dorso-centrals shorter and more widely placed; pleurae, squamae, post- 
no tum and scutellum as calif orniensis. Abdomen shining black; ovate; 
last segment with the hind marginal bristles moderately strong. Legs 
almost entirely black, the knees brownish, or the tibias and tarsi brown. 
Halteres yellow, knob paler. 
Length 3-4 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15576, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Beverly, Massachusetts, July 19, 1869, (Bur- 
gess). Other localities: Cottage Beaulieu, Ottawa, and He 
de Montreal, Ottawa, Canada, June and July, 1906. Nine 
specimens. 

Food-plant unknown. 



312 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

37. Agromyza parvicornis Loew. 

Plate XXIX, Fig. 11; Plate XXXI, Figs. 35, 37. 

Syn: Agromyza parvicornis Loew. Dipt. Amer. Sept. Indig., Cent. 8, 1869, 
species 92. 

Male and Female: Frons black or black-brown, opaque, orbits 
slightly shining, black, four orbital bristles present; orbits difleren- 
tiated from center stripe, bristles situated nearer inner than outer 
margin of orbits, a few weak hairs in an irregular row laterally beyond 
them; antennas brown or brownish black, rather below the normal size;, 
third joint short, rounded in front, thickly covered with soft, short, 
whitish pilos'ty; arista brown, generally yellowish near base, except 
on the short thickened portion which is glossy black; pubescence very 
close, generally distinct; length of arista equal to from its base to upper 
orbital bristle; face brown, nearly perpendicular in profile, the central 
keel slight ; cheeks brown, or yellowish brown, very much higher poster- 
/ iorly than anteriorly, at highest part one-third as high as eye; marginal 
bristles numerous; vibrissa differentiated, but not very strong; proboscis 
brown; palpi black, very slightly dilated, weakly bristled. Mesonotum 
glossy black; disk thickly covered with short setulas; two pairs of 
dorso-centrals present; the bristles between the posterior pair distinct; 
pleurae, scutellum and postnotum concolorous with disk of mesonotuin, 
pleural sutures rarely, and beneath wing bases generally yellowish; 
squamae whitish yellow, fringes brown. Abdomen colored as thorax; 
hypopygium of male as Fig. 35, Plate XXXI. Legs black, the tibi« and 
tarsi sometimes paler, brownish yellow, most distinct on knee joints; 
mid tibia with the posterior bristles distinct. Wings clear, slightly 
grayish on anterior half; venation as in figure, halteres yellow, 
the knob whitish. 

Length 3-4 mm. 

Originally described from District of Columbia, (Osten 
Sacken). Larva lives in mines in leaves of corn; occurs in the 
following states: Florida, District of Columbia, Indiana, 
Vermont, Maine, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hamp- 
shire, Wisconsin, Alabama, South Carolina, Illinois and Texas. 
Probably generally distributed throughout the United States. 
A full list of localities will be given in the bulletin in preparation 
dealing with the economic importance of this species and several 
others affecting field and forage crops. 



1913] ' Agromyza and Cerodontha. 313 



38. Agromyza viridula Coquillett. 

Syn: Agromyza viridula Coquillett, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Vol. X, 1902, p. 190. 

Female: Frons black, center stripe opaque, orbits distinctly 
differentiated, shining; breadth of head one-third, or slightly over one- 
third, the head width; each orbit about one-fourth as wide as center 
stripe; four strong orbital bristles present, and beyond these, laterally, 
an irregular row of short hairs; lunule white pollinose; oc^llar region 
shining black; antennee of moderate size, second joint with distinct 
dorsal bristles and very weak apical hairs; third joint rounded, not 
as long as broad, covered with very short, whitish pile; arista thickened 
at base, tapering on basal third, bare, as long as from its base to an- 
terior ocellus; face black, opaque, concave in profile, mouth margin 
slightly produced, keel very slight; cheek linear at anterior margin, 
at posterior margin about one-sixth as high as eye, marginal bristles 
moderately strong, increasing in length towards anterior margin; 
vibrissa differentiated; occiput not visible on upper half; proboscis 
yellow; palpi black, of moderate size, the bristles distinct. Mesonotum 
glossy black; the pair of bristles between posterior pair of dorso-centrals 
well defined; pleurae glossy black, brownish below wing base; squamas 
whitish, fringe white; bristles on scutellum subequal. Abdomen 
glossy black, with a distinct brassy sheen, ovate, bristled as in par- 
vicornis. Legs shining black; tarsi brownish; mid tibia with posterior 
pair of bristles distinct. Wings clear, veins black-brown; second 
costal division 2 3^ times as long as first; subcostal vein distinct; 
fused with first at its apex; inner cross vein at slightly before end 
of first vein, and distinctly before middle of discal cell; outer 
cross vein at wing middle, and l}/^ times its own length from 
inner cross vein; last section of fifth vein little over one half as long as 
penultimate section, sixth vein distinctly short of wing margin. Hal- 
teres with yellow stalk and white knob. 

Length 2.5-3 mm. 

Redescribed from type specimen (Cat. No. 6660, U. S. N.M.) 
Locality: District of Columbia, June, (collection Coquil- 
lett). The other specimens in collection are from District 
of Columbia, July; Maryland, June; Georgia; Beverly, Mass.; 
June 29, 1876, (Burgess) ; and three specimens from the West 
Indies in poor condition that probably belong to this species, 
Aguadilla, and Mayaguez, Porto Rico, (A. Busck), and St. 
Domingo, (A. Busck). These specimens are slightly smaller 
than the type, but have no distinctive characters by which 
they may be separated. I have also seen one specimen sub- 
mitted by Prof. Chittenden of the Bureau of Entomology, 
from Piano, Texas, June, 1907 (E. S. Tucker) No. 561. There 
are three specimens in Prof. Webster's material labelled "Reared 
from blotch mine red oak leaf, June 20, 1912." Lafayette, 
Indiana, (J. J. Davis). 



314 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI,. 



39. Agromyza salicis, new species. 
Plate XXIX, Fig. 15. 

Male: Frons black, center stripe opaque brown-black, orbits 
and ocellar region shining; width of frons about one-half the head 
width; each orbit about one-half as broad as center stripe; five distinct 
orbital bristles present, the hairs between these and the eye margin 
rather conspicuous and numerous; ar|,tennse black; rather small; third 
joint rounded, distinctly shorter than broad; arista brown; swollen 
on basal fourth; pubescence very short, but distinct; length of arista 
not as long as from its base to second uppermost orbital bristle; face 
black, subopaque, retreating towards mouth margin; cheek brown- 
black, distinctly higher at posterior than at anterior "margin, at highest 
point more than one-half as high as eye; marginal bristles of moderate 
strength; vibrissa hardly differentiated; proboscis yellow; palpi black, 
of moderate size. Mesonotum shining black; three distinct pairs 
of dorso-centrals present; the anterior pair distinctly weaker than the 
other two pairs, and close to suture; the pair of bristles between the 
posterior pair of dorso-centrals weakly differentiated; pleura shining 
black, brownish along sutures and below wing base; squams grayish, 
fringe dark brown; scutellum and postnotum concolorous with disk 
of mesonotum, the former with the bristles subequal. Legs black; 
mid tibia without distinct posterior bristles. Abdomen black-brown, 
shining, covered with short setulas; hypopygium glossy black, small. 
Wings rather narrow; second costal division 2)^ times as long as first; 
subcostal vein distinct; fused with first at its apex; inner cross vein at 
about apex of junction of first vein with costa; outer cross vein at 
distinctly, but not greatly, before wing middle, and at slightly more 
than its own length from inner cross vein; last section of fifth vein 
subequal with penultimate section; sixth vein indistinct. Halteres 
black. 

Length 2 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15577, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Reading, Massachusetts, May 16, 1908. New- 
York State Collection, from Willow, (E. P. Felt). One male. 

40. Agromyza winnemanae, new species. 

Female: Deep black, glossy; abdomen with an indication of 
metallic bluish sheen. Frons deep black, center stripe opaque; orbits 
glossy; width of frons slightly more than one-third the head width;, 
each orbit a little less than one-fourth the width of center stripe; four 
orbital bristles present; an irregular row of weak hairs between eye 
and orbital bristles; antennae of moderate size; second joint with dis- 
tinct dorsal bristle; third joint barely longer than broad, rounded at 
apex; arista swollen at base, tapering, bare, in length equal to from its 
base to second uppermost orbital bristle; face brownish black, opaque; 
almost perpendicular in profile, with slight, rounded keel; cheek very 
short, almost linear, not over one-eighth as high as eye, marginal 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 315 

bristles weak; vibrissa distinctly differentiated though not very strong; 
proboscis brown; palpi black, normal; occiput linear, the eyes very 
large and occupying nearly the whole side of head. Mesonotum with 
two pairs of dorso-centrals ; disk covered with short setulas; the pair 
of bristles between the posterior dorso-centrals not differentiated 
from the other discal setulce; squamae yellowish brown, fringe brown; 
apical bristles on scutellum weaker than the basal pair. Abdomen 
with segments covered with short setulce, those on the posterior mar- 
gins slightly stronger; sixth segment slightly elongated; base of ovi- 
positor not as long as preceding segment. Legs shining black; posterior 
surface of mid tibia, in type, without any bristles. Wings clear; 
second costal division a little over twice as long as first; subcostal 
vein indistinct, coalescent with first at its apex; outer cross vein at 
distinctly before wing middle, and at its own length from inner; fourth 
vein rather indistinct from outer cross vein to apex; last section of 
fifth distinctly, but not greatly, longer than penulate section; costa not 
reaching beyond end of third vein. Halteres black. 
Length 3 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15578, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Plummers Island, Maryland, June 27, 1909^ 
(W. L. McAtee), one female. 
Food-plant unknown. 

41. Agromyza simplex Loew. 

Syn: Agromyza simplex Loew, Dipt. Amer. Sept., Cent. 8, 1869, species 84. 

Male and Female: Entirely shining black. Frons occupying 
distinctly more than one-third the width of head ; center stripe opaque ;. 
orbits glossy; ocellar region glossy; the frontal triangle distinguishable, 
but not separated from center stripe by an impressed line; five orbital 
bristles present, in addition to those there are numerous soft hairs 
covering the entire surface, laterally, beyond the bristles, and stretching 
from opposite base of antennas. to upper orbital bristle; antennae rather 
small, second joint with moderately long dorsal bristle; third joint 
rounded, with very short, whitish pile; arista bare, the base swollen, 
length of arista equal to from its base to between uppermost two or- 
bital bristles; face slightly keeled, concave in profile, opaque, brown- 
black; cheeks opaque brown; orbits carried almost to hind margin of 
eye, shining; height of cheek at anterior margin less than at posterior, 
where it is about two-fifths as high as eye; marginal bristles rather 
weak, upturned; vibrissa weakly differentiated; proboscis brown ^ 
palpi black, normal. Mesonotum covered with short setulas; two 
distinct pairs of dorso-centrals present, and in addition to these there 
are generally 2-3 setulae anterior to them stronger than the discal 
hairs; squamas black-brown, fringe concolorous; scutellum with the 
apical two bristles weaker than the basal two. Abdomen broadly 
ovate in female, somewhat narrower in male; no metallic sheen visible; 
last abdominal segment in female elongate; apical bristles on seg- 
ments not conspicuous; base of ovipositor not longer than preceding. 



316 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

segment; male hypopgium exposed, rather small. Legs entirely 
black; mid tibia with the posterior bristles present, but weak. Wings 
grayish; veins black; subcostal vein indistinct, joining first vein 
near its apex; first costal division half as long as second; inner 
cross vein at below end of first vein; outer cross vein at about 
one-half its own length from inner; last section of fifth vein slightly 
longer than penultimate section. Halteres black. 
Length 2.5-3 mm. 

Originally described from the Middle States. Recorded 
in the Smith Catalogue for New Jersey, and from New York 
in Bull. 189, N. Y. Exper. Sta. 1900. Represented in col- 
lection by two specimens from Berlin, Germany, (C. Schirmer) 
labeled Agromyza schineri Loew, in Coquillett's handwriting. 
The only other specimen I have ever seen was reared from 
asparagus by I. J. Condit, Portsmouth, Virginia, submitted 
by Prof. Chittenden of the Bureau of Entomology. 

This species attacks asparagus and in the New York Bul- 
letin above mentioned is an account of its life history. Giard* 
has found it in France, and Collinf in England, associated 
with the same plant. 

42. Agromyza vibrissata, new species. \ 
Plate XXVIII, Fig. 2; Plate XXX, Figs. 24, 25. 

Male: Frons opaque brown -black, only the orbits and ocellar 
triangle slightly shining; breadth of frons nearly one-half the head 
width; six orbital bristles present, the lower, or anterior, two lying 
close to surface of the frons, which is rather buccate, and pointing back- 
ward and slightly inward; numerous closely placed short hairs on orbits 
between bristles and eye margin; lunule depressed; face sunk in and with 
a central keel, which is raised on a level with eye orbits; antennas 
brown, rather snjall and half hidden in face cavities; arista yellowish 
brown, distinctly swollen at base, bare, not three times as long as 
third antennal joint; face black, a yellowish brown patch on center 
of epistome; epistome much produced; cheeks brown; eye orbit dis- 
tinct; cheek, including orbit, two-fifths as high as eye; marginal bristles 
weak, vibrissa formed of a fasciculus of bristles, which is about two- 
fifths as long as length of cheek; proboscis yellowish-brown; palpi 
black, shghtly spatulate, and weakly bristled. Mesonotum shining 
black; covered with short setulas and with two pairs of dorso-central 
bristles; the pair of bristles between the posterior dorso-centrals not 
differentiated; pleuree glossy brown-black, the sutures, and below wing 
base paler; the normal bristles present, squamas yellowish, fringe 
brown; scutellum, and postnotimi concolorous with disk of meso- 
notum; the former with the posterior pair of bristles slightly reduced 

*Bull. Soc. Ent. France, 1894, p. 179. 
tEnt. Mon. Mag., Vol. XXII, 1911, p. 254. 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 317 

in size. Abdomen glossy black; all segments with numerous short 
hairs on dorsum; those on lateral margins of segments longer; the 
posterior margin of last abdominal segment not noticeably bristly; 
last segment slightly elongated; hypopygium small. Legs black- 
brown, shining, tibiae and tarsi paler; posterior bristles on mid tibia 
present, but not large. Wings clear; veins brown; first costal division 
fully one-half as long as second; subcostal vein indistinct, fused with 
first at near apex; inner cross vein below swelhng caused by junction 
of first vein and costa; outer cross vein at wing middle, and at nearly 
its own length from inner; last section of fifth vein shghtly shorter 
than penultimate section. Halteres black. 

Length 3.5 mm. 

Female: Similar in color and size to the male, but the cheeks 
as in figure 25; the last segment of abdomen has the bristles at apex 
stronger than in the male; and the ovipositor is glossy black. 

Type: Cat. No. 15579, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Georgia, no other data on specimens. Two 
males, one female. 

Food-plant unknown. 

43. Agromyza affinis, new species. 

Female: Frons black, center stripe opaque, orbits shining; breadth 
of frons slightly over one-third the head width; orbits less than one- 
half the width of center stripe: four strong orbital bristles present, on 
both sides there is a weaker bristle close under the front one; hairs 
on orbits, between bristle and eye margin, short, but ntmierous, on 
front half of orbit; antennas black, of moderate size; second joint with 
distinct dorsal bristle; third joint rounded, pilosity very short, dark; 
arista black, basal swelhng slight and tapering, pubescence very short 
and close; length of arista equal to from its base to a little beyond 
second uppermost orbital bristle; face black, opaque, concave in pro- 
file, mouth margin produced, keel distinct ; cheek black, brown on lower 
half, higher anteriorly then posteriorly, vibrissa very clearly differ- 
entiated from the inarginal bristles; proboscis brown; palpi in type 
retracted. Mesonotum shining black; two distinct pairs of dorso- 
centrals present; disk covered with short setrdse, which are carried 
back beyond the transverse line of the posterior pair of dorso-centrals; 
pleurce shining black, brownish along sutures and below wing base; 
squamas brown-black, fringe almost black; scutellum concolorous with 
disk of mesonotum. Abdomen glossy black; all segments with discal 
setulae; those on posterior margin of sixth segments most noticeable, 
but not strong; base of ovipositor distinctly longer than preceding 
segment, its surface covered on the sides and apex with short hairs. 
Legs entirely black, shining; posterior surface of mid tibia without 
distinct bristles. Wings grayish, veins brown; outer cross vein at dis- 
tinctly less than its own length from inner, and at wing middle; last 
section of fifth vein distinctly shorter than the penultimate section. 
Halteres black. 

Length 2 mm. 



318 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Type: Cat. No. 15580, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Glen Echo, Maryland, June 3, 1898 (R. P. 
Currie). This species comes very close to the European 
curvipalpis Zetterstedt, but the two males of that species in 
collection (Bonhill, Dumbartonshire, Scotland, May, 1907- 
1908, J. R. Malloch) have the arista bare, the basal swelling 
much more pronounced, and elongate; the frons half as broad 
as width of head; the last section of fifth vein about equal 
to the penultimate section, and the outer cross vein before 
wing middle. It may be well to indicate here that the name 
curvipalpis (Dipt. Scand. Vol. 7, 1848, p. 2782, species 44) 
was given to this species because of a misapprehension on the 
part of Zetterstedt, who mistook the vibrissae for a prolongation 
of the palpi. Schiner in Fauna Austrica followed him in this 
respect. The species was afterwards described by Kaltenbach 
as bicornis (Pflanzenf. 1873, p. 330, species 33). 

In the collection are three specimens which may be males 
of affinis, but their condition is so poor that I do not con- 
sider it desirable to either place their description on record as 
such, or describe them as belonging to another species. 

The localities are. Key West, Florida, January 1 and Feb- 
ruary 6, 1869, (Hubbard-?) and one from North Carolina, 
without other data. 

Food-plant unknown. 

44. Agromyza insularis, new species. 

Plate XXXI, Fig. 38. 

Male and female: Frons black; center stripe opaque, orbits and 
the weakly defined ocellar triangle shining; breadth of frons in female 
barely one-third as wide as head, in male slightly wider; each orbit 
equal to about one-fourth the width of center stripe; four rather weak 
orbital bristles present; in addition to the bristles there is an irregular 
row of very short hairs nearer to eye margin; frons in profile declevitous, 
not projecting; antennse brown-black, small; third joint not as long as 
broad, rounded in front, distinctly pilose; arista black, basal fifth 
thickened, tapering, almost bare, length equal to from its base to 
second uppermost orbital bristle; face black, concave, mouth margin 
slightly produced; cheek black-brown, narrow, almost linear at posterior 
margin, distinctly higher anteriorly, but not very much produced; 
vibrissa in male fasciculate in form, the length not equal to that of 
cheek, and not very conspicuous; in female the vibrissa is distinct 
and almost as long as in male, but consisting on only one bristle; mar- 
ginal cheek bristles much weaker then vibrissa; proboscis brownish 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 319 

yellow at apex; palpi black, rather short and slightly spatulate, the 
bristles weak; occiput linear. Mesonotum shining black; two pairs 
of dorso-centrals present; the discal setulae very sparse behind anterior 
pair of dorso-centrals, and not carried to level of transverse line of 
posterior dorso-centrals; pleurse glossy brown or blackish, margin and 
fringe black-brown; scutellum concolorous with disk of mesonotum, 
the bristles subequal. Abdomen glossy black; ovate; segments with 
numerous short setulge, posterior margins with more distinct bristle- 
like setulas; base of ovipositor glossy black. Legs black. Wings 
grayish; veins black-brown; second costal division slightly more than 
twice as long as first; subcostal vein indistinct, coalescent with first 
at its apex; inner cross vein at below end of first; outer at its own 
length from inner, and at slightly before wing middle, last section 
of fifth vein barely longer than penulimate section; veins ^-A slightly 
divergent on last sections. Halteres black. 
Length barely 1.5 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15581, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Cayamas, Cuba, December (E. A. Schwarz). 
Male and female, taken in cop. 

45. Agromyza texana, new species. 

Male and Female: This species is very similar to insularis in gen- 
eral appearance, but differs as follows: The arista is not so much 
swollen at base, nor for such a long distance; the cheek is much more 
distinctly produced in both sexes, and comparitively higher anteriorly; 
the vibrissa is much more conspicuous in the male, and as long as 
cheek length, in female the vibrissa is comparatively weak and not 
nearly so long as in male, consisting of one hair only; the thorax is 
more densely covered with setulce, which are carried at least to level 
of transverse line of posterior dorso-centrals; the legs are black in both 
species and the posterior bristles are absent from mid tibis; the wings 
have the outer cross vein at wing middle, or very slightly beyond it, 
and the last section of fifth vein slightly shorter than penultimate 
section. 

Length L5-2 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15582, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Brownsville, Texas, January 27, 1909 (Mc- 
Millan and Marsh), reared from Roripa. One male. 

Paratypes: Cabin John Bridge, Maryland, April 28, 1912, 
two females (Knab and Malloch) ; Brownsville, Texas, Jan- 
uary 27, 1909, one female, same data as type; and one female 
Veitch, Virginia, June 9, 1912 (F. Knab). 



320 Annals Entomological Society oj America [Vol. VI, 



46. Agromyza abnormalis, new species. 
Plate XXIX, Fig. 9. 

Fentale: Frons black-brown; center stripe opaque; orbits black, 
shining; breadth of frons over one-third that of head; orbits at widest 
part one-third as wide as center stripe at that part; five strong 
orbital bristles present, and in the type a weak one anterior to the 
lower strong one; upper two bristles situated near to inner margin of 
orbits, the others nearer to center; besides the bristles there are scat- 
tered short hairs present on the orbits nearer to eye margin than bristles; 
ocellar region raised, shining black; ocellar triangle not defined; frons 
in profile slightly protruding anteriorly; antennae black-brown, of 
moderate size; dorsal bristle on second joint distinct; third joint rounded 
in front, slightly longer than broad, pilosity very short; arista rather 
thick, swollen more distinctly on basal fifth, pubescence short, but 
distinct; length of arista equal to from its base to upper orbital bristle; 
face shining black, slightly retreating, mouth margin not produced, 
center keel very slight; cheek opaque brown, half as high anteriorly as 
posteriorly, where it is half as high as eye ; marginal bristles of moderate 
length; the vibrissa slightly differentiated; proboscis yellow; palpi 
black, normal; occiput slightly projecting. Mesonotum black, sub- 
shining; four pairs of dorso-centrals present, the anterior pair in front 
of suture, discal setulas numerous and rather regularly arranged in 
rows, of which there are about five between the dorso-centrals; no 
differentiated bristles between posterior pair of dorso-centrals; pleurae 
shining black, the sutures and below wing base brown; squamae gray- 
brown, margins black-brown, fringe brown; scutellum concolorous with 
disk of mesonotum, the bristles subequal. Abdomen black, glossy; 
segments rather strongly setulose; ovipositor very glossy black. Legs 
black, tibiae and tarsi brownish; mid tibia without posterior bristles. 
Wings grayish; first costal division distinctly over one-half as long as 
second; subcostal vein indistinct, but complete, not fused with first 
at its apex; inner cross vein distinctly, but not greatly in front of end 
of first vein, and at or shghtly beyond middle of discal cell; outer cross 
vein at about its own length from inner and very slightly beyond end 
of first vein; veins 3-4-5 gradually and slightly divergent on their last 
sections; last section of fifth vein twice as long as penultimate section. 
Halteres brown. 

Length 3 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15583, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Washington, District of Columbia, June, 1903, 
No. 9727— "on Aphid"— "On roots of Amaranthus." 

Paratype: labeled "Twilight" Lawrence, Kansas, (E. S. 
Tucker). 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 321 



47. Agromyza virens Loew. 

Dipt. Amer. Sept. Indig. Cent. 8, 1869, species 84. 

Male and Female: Frons black, orbits and ocellar triangle glossy, 
center stripe opaque; breadth of frons slightly over one-third that of 
head; breadth of orbits over one-third that of center stripe; five orbital 
bristles generally present, the orbits densely covered with short, fine, 
hairs ; frons generally slightly buccate ; antennae brown-black, of moder- 
ate size; third joint rounded; arista shghtly swollen at base, very thickly, 
but shortly pubescent; as long as from its base to upper orbital bristle; 
face concave in profile, brown-black; cheeks higher at posterior than 
anterior margin, at highest part about one-fourth as high as eye; 
marginal bristles of moderate strength;. vibrissa differentiated; proboscis 
brown; palpi black, normal; occiput slightly projecting; eyes generally 
distinctly and thickly pubescent above. Mesonotum glossy black, 
with sometimes a bluish or greenish tinge; squamae white, or yellowish, 
the margin yellowish, fringe pale yellowish, or white. Abdomen 
glossy black, generally with a metallic tinge, either bluish, greenish, 
or bronzy; in shape and vestiture as in tilicE. Legs as in tilice; the poster- 
ior mid tibial bristles distinct. Wings grayish, or almost clear, veins 
brown; venation almost as in tilice.. 

Length 1.5-2.5 mm. 

vSpecimens from Lafayette, Indiana (F, M. Webster). Mining 
in roots of clover. There are five other specimens in collection with 
Webster's No. 10,073, from Lafayette, Indiana; one from Glad- 
brook, Iowa, February 14, 1890, (No. 4608) mining in stems of 
Ambrosia artimisaejolia (A. M. Sharp); two from Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, "mining in stems of a weed" (H. G. Hubbard); 
one marked 3042o, referred to as a Tachinid in notes, from 
stem of a weed in which some, species of Cecidomyid was 
mining, April 18, 1883 (locality doubtful) ; two specimens labeled 
"Parasitic on Cecidomyid on aster with yellow flowers," May 
23, 1884 (locality doubtful) ; two from stems of Ambrosia, 
March, 1895, District of Columbia, one from Nabalus albus, 
May 14, 1883 (locality doubtful) ; two from California (Ala- 
meda and Los Angeles) , collection Coquillett ; one from Georgia, 
no other data; one from Flag-staff, Arizona, July, (H. S. Bar- 
ber). One from Plummers Island and four from Washington, 
D. C. are in the collection of W. L. McAtee and a series of 
13 specimens from the Brodie collection are in the U. S. National 
Museum collection, locality Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 

In some cases, I believe with specimens which have been 
on the wing, it is not very easy to see the hairs on the eyes, 
but in freshly emerged examples these are very noticeable on 



322 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

the upper surface of the eyes close to the orbits. A single 
specimen from Claremont, California (Baker), may belong 
to a distinct species. 

48. Agromyza caerulea, new species. 
Plate XXIX, Fig. 13. 

Female: Frons black; center stripe opaque brown-black, orbits 
and ocellar triangle glossy black; width of frons equal to slightly over 
one-third that of head; each orbit slightly less than one-fourth the 
breadth of center stripe; four strong orbital bristles present, the orbital 
pubescence not very conspicuous; frontal triangle fairly well defined, 
reaching over three-fourths of the way to lunule; lumile shining, brown- 
ish, with indications of whitish pollinosity; antennae small, black; 
dorsal bristle on second joint long; third joint not longer than broad, 
roimded at apex, pilosity pale, very short; arista thickened and tapering 
on basal fourth, pubescence distinct, slightly longer than basal diameter 
of arista, length of arista equal to from its base to upper orbital bristle; 
face short, black, concave in profile; cheek short, shining black, mar- 
ginal bristles very numerous, strong, and irregularly arranged, not in 
a single row, carried upward beyond the level of the weakly differ- 
entiated vibrissa; proboscis yellow at apex; palpi black, niunerously 
bristled; occiput not produced. Mesonotum glossy blue-black, more 
inclining to brown-black on lateral margins; two distinct pairs of dorso- 
centrals present; disk covered with numerous short setulse; no distinct 
bristles between the posterior dorso-centrals; pleurae glossy blue- 
black, sutures and below wing base brown; squamse white, fringe con- 
colorous; scutellum concolorous with disk of mesonotum, the marginal 
bristles subequal. Abdomen ovate, bronzy blue-black; first two seg- 
ments short, the others subequal, all segments with short discal setulae, 
those on posterior margins of segments strong; base of ovipositor not 
longer than preceding segment. Legs strong, especially the femora, 
which are thickened; black, shining, tibiae at base brownish; fore tibia 
with a strong bristle on posterior surface at below middle; the pair of 
bristles on posterior surface of mid tibia strong. Wings clear, veins 
brownish yellow; second costal division about twice as long as first; 
subcostal vein indistinct; outer cross vein at slightly below wing middle, 
and at a little more than its own length from margin to wing on fifth 
vein, and from inner cross vein; veins 2-3 divergent, 3-4 slightly con- 
vergent at apices; inner cross vein at below junction of first vein with 
costa, and at middle of discal cell. Halteres black, pedical yellowdsh brown. 

Length 3-4 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15584, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: The specimen bears the M. S. label "S. J. 
Allende, Mexico," and the numbers 11-29, which probably 
means that it was taken on November 29. I cannot find on 
the available maps of Mexico any locality in accordance with 
that on the label. No collector's name is given. One specimen. 

Food-plant tmknown. 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 323 



49. Agromyza burgessi, new species. 
Plate XXXI, Fig. 34. 

Female: Frons black; center stripe brown-black, opaque, orbits 
glossy black ; breadth of frons distinctly, but not greatly, over one- 
third the width of head; breadth of each orbit about equal to one- 
fourth the width of center stripe; generally six strong orbital bristles 
present, in one specinem five only; the bristles situated on nearer to 
inner than outer margin of orbits; the space between eye margin and 
bristles thickly covered with short hairs; ocellar triangle poorly defined 
anteriorly, the gloss on surface not continuing to its apex; lunule whitish 
pollinose; frons projecting slightly anteriorly, giving the head a some- 
what buccate appearance; eye orbit continued to almost hind angle 
of eye; glossy black; antennae small, brown; third joint not longer than 
broad, regularly rounded at apex; arista swollen at base, bare, as long 
as from its base to between second and third uppermost orbital bristles ; 
cheek brown, distinctly higher at posterior than at anterior margin, 
and at highest point distinctly over one-third the height of eye; marginal 
bristles of moderate strength, not numerous; vibrissa well differentiated; 
proboscis brown; palpi black, slightly spattilate, weakly bristled at 
apex; occiput distinctly visible on upper half. Mesonotum black, 
glossy, without any distinct bluish fringe; bristles as in ccerulea; pleurae 
brown-black, the sutures and below wing base pale brown; squamae 
grayish, margin black-brown, the fringe brown; scutellimi black, 
glossy, bristles subequal. Abdomen glossy black or brown-black, 
with, in some lights, a bronzy luster; second segment not so distinctly 
shortened as in ccsndea; in other respects similar to that species. Legs 
similar to previous species, but the bristle on fore tibia is weaker. 
Wings in most respects similar to ccendea, but the third and fourth veins 
are distinctly divergent on their outer sections. Halteres brown. 

Length 3.5-4 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15585, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Beverly, Massachusetts, June 2, 1876 (Bur- 
gess). 

Specimens of this species are in collection from Tower 
City, North Dakota, (G. I. Reeves), Webster's No. 3122, 
2 females; and Colorado, No. 1563, no collector's name, 1 
female. I have named this species in honor of the late Edward 
Burgess, who collected the type specimen 37 years ago, I 
haive seen one specimen in C. W. Johnson's collection from 
Lancaster, New York, which has the^ bristles on fore tibia 
indistinguishable. 

Food-plant unknown. 



324 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



50. Agromyza plumiseta, new species. 

Female: Frons black, center stripe opaque, orbits, ocellar region, 
and the well defined ocellar triangle glossy black; breadth of frons 
one-third the head width, ocellar triangle reaching three-fourths of the 
way to luniile, which is whitish pollinose ; orbital bristles four in number, 
moderately strong; hairs on orbits numerous and irregularly arranged; 
■each orbit one-fourth the width of center stripe; the bristles situated 
■close to inner margin; antennas of moderate size, deep black; third joint 
rounded in front, not as long as broad; second joint with distinct dorsal 
bristle; arista brown, swollen at base, pubescence very distinct, longer 
than basal diameter of arista, length of arista equal to from its base 
to upper orbital bristle; face black, concave, mouth margin slightly 
produced; cheek very short and low; marginal bristles rather weak, 
vibrissa well differentiated; proboscis yellow at apex; palpi black, 
slightly spatulate, and weakly bristled at tips; occiput not projecting. 
Mesonotum blue-black; two pairs . of dorso-centrals present; setulas 
numerous on disk, continued posteriorly beyond transverse line of 
posterior dorso-centrals; pleuras black, shining, with a bluish sheen, 
the sutiu-es, and below wing base brown; squamae yellowish white, 
fringe concolorous; scutellum colored as disk of mesonotum, apical 
pair of bristles very slightly smaller than basal pair. Abdomen black, 
with a distinct, metallic blue sheen; basal segment brown; all segments 
with very niimerous discal setulcE, those on apices of segments most 
distinct; sixth segment very slightly elongated; base of ovipositor 
not longer than preceding segment. Legs black, shining, strong; 
posterior surface of mid tibia with the pair of bristles distinct. Wings 
clear; veins brownish yellow; first costal division barely more than one- 
third as long as second; inner cross vein at below end of first vein and 
at middle of discal cell; outer cross vein at very slightly beyond wing 
middle, and at more than its own length from inner; veins 2-3-4 grad- 
ually divergent on their last sections; last section of fifth vein about 
two-thirds as long as penultimate section. Halteres black. 

Length 2 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15586, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Bayamon, Porto Rico, January, 1899, (A. Busck) 
Along with the type there is a male from Fajardo, Porto Rico, 
February, 1899 (A Busck), which belongs here. It differs 
only in having the frons slightly less than one-third the head 
width and though in poor condition is evidently, in other 
respects, identical with the female. 

Food-plant unknown. 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 325 



51. Agromyza websteri, new species. 

Male and Female: Frons deep black; center stripe opaque, orbits 
and oceilar triangle glossy; width of frons almost one-half that of 
head, narrower at anterior margin than posteriorly ; width of each orbit 
about one-fourth that of center stripe; five orbital bristles generally 
present, but sometimes there are six in aberrant specimens; besides the 
bristles, which are situated on close to inner margin of orbit, there 
is an outer irregular row of short black hairs; antennae of moderate 
size, black with sometimes whitish pollinosity; second joint with dis- 
tinct dorsal bristles, and weak apical hairs; third joint rounded, dis- 
tinctly shorter than broad, pilosity very short, whitish; arista with a 
•distinct, elongate thickening at base, which occupies almost one-third 
the length of arista; pubescence very indistinct; length of arista equal 
to from its base to middle of orbit; face opaque black; concave in 
profile, the mouth margin slightly produced; cheek opaque black; 
of almost equal height on its entire length, which is equal to about 
■one-fourth the eye height, marginal bristles in a double row, the upper 
slightly upturned, of moderate length; vibrissa distinctly differentiated; 
proboscis yellow-brown at apex; palpi black, slightly spatulate, weakly 
l>ristled. Mesonotimi subshining black, with slight indications of 
grayish pollinosity, especially on sides; disk very thickly covered 
with short, upright, black setulae; three pairs of dorso-centrals present, 
the anterior pair weak, and occasionally there are 2-3 setulse in line 
with those, which are distinctly longer than the other discal setulae, but 
which are clearly not macrochaeta; no differentiated bristles between 
the posterior dorso-centrals; pleurae black, siibshining, sutures brownish; 
squamas brown, or gray, the margin blackish, fringe black-brown; 
scutellimi concolorous with disk of mesonotum. Abdomen shining 
black; broadly ovate; segments with distinct dorsal setulae, those on 
posterior margins, and especially on sixth segment, in female, longer; 
sixth segment slightly elongated; base of ovipositor glossy black; 
male hypop^^gium small, shining black. Legs black, shining; femora 
strong; no bristles distinguishable on mid tibia in any of the specimens 
before me. Wings grayish; veins brown-black; first costal division 
distinctly more than one-half as long as second; subcostal vein distinct; 
fused with first at apex; inner cross vein below end of first vein; outer 
cross vein not upright, its upper extremity nearer to wing tip than its 
lower, situated at generally less than its o-wti length from inner cross 
vein, and its upper extremity just before wing middle; veins 3-4 dis- 
tinctly divergent at their apices; last section and penultimate section 
-of fifth vein subequal. Halteres black. 

Length 3.5-4 m.m. 

Type: Cat. No. 15587, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Seattle, Washington, issued January 21, 1913, 
from galls on twigs of pink wistaria from Japan, (F. M. Rhoder). 
Another specimen from same lot, in poor condition January 



326 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI,. 

19, 1913 from same lot of galls. There are four specimens 
representing both sexes marked Ex. galls on pink wistaria, 
Japan, B. B. Whitney, No. 745. 

This species has been recorded as Agromyza schineri Gi- 
raud,* on the authority of Aldrich. Schineri was reared from, 
poplar by Giraud in Europe,! and is a much smaller species. 
The description of Giraud 's species is brief but does not 
permit of one identifying it with the Japanese species. 
I include this imported species in my paper because it evi- 
dently has every chance of becoming established in this 
country. One striking peculiarity of the specimens before me 
of this species is the amount of variation in the number of 
bristles on head, thorax and scutellum. In many cases the 
normal bristle is duplicated and the number on any one part 
is not so consistent as in the other species of Agromyza. The 
distance between the cross veins of the wing is also very var- 
iable. In the figure of the wing given in the California pub- 
lication the costa is carried only to the third vein whereas in 
all my specimens it is continued to the fourth. 

52. Agromyza longiseta, new species. 

Plate XXXI, Fig. 30. 

Female: Frons deep black; center stripe opaque; orbits, and 
ocellar region shining; oceliar triangle not defined; width of frons 
barely one-third that of head; orbits ill defined, each one not one-fifth 
as wide as center stripe; four strong orbital bristles present; only a 
few short hairs on orbits besides the bristles; frons unprojecting, but 
head somewhat buccate in profile; antennas rather small, black; third 
joint regularly rounded in front, about as long as broad, covered with 
short pilosity; dorsal bristle on second joint distinct; arista very slightly, 
and shortly, swollen at base, distinctly pubescent, the pubescence as 
long as diameter of base of arista, length of arista as long as from its 
base to vertex; face opaque black, almost perpendicular in profile j 
cheek black, of almost equal height on its entire length, and not over 
one-sixth the height of eye, marginal bristles numerous and of moder- 
ate size, carried higher in front than level of the differentiated vibrissa; 
proboscis brown; palpi black, very slightly broadened at ends, and 
weakly bristled; occiput not projecting. Mesonotum glossy black, 
with a slight greenish or bluish tinge; two pairs of dorso-centrals present; 
squamge very dark, the margin almost black, fringe blackish. Abdomen 
concolorous with mesoUotum; the posterior margin of sixth segment 
with rather long bristles; base of ovipositor highly glossy, the surface 

*Bull. Cal. State Com. Hort., Vol. I, No. 10, p. 730, 1912. 
tVerh. zool-bot. Ges. Wien., Vol. II, 1861, p. 484. 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 327 

bare except apically on sides, as long as the elongate sixth segment. 
Legs shining black; the posterior bristles on mid tibia distinct. Wings 
grayish; veins black-brown; subcostal vein distinct, fused with first 
at its apex; outer cross vein at wing middle, and at its own length from 
inner cross vein; inner at distinctly beyond middle of discal cell; last 
section of fifth vein not two-thirds as long as penultimate section; 
veins 3-4 slightly divergent at apices. Halteres black. 
Length 2 mm.. 

Type: Cat. No. 15588, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Frontera, Tabasco, Mexico, March, (C. H. T, 
Townsend). One female. 
Food-plant unknown. 

53. Agromyza tiliae Couden. 

Syn: Agromyza tilicB Couden, Proc. Wash. Ent. Soc, Vol. IX, 1907, p. 34. 

Female: This species is very similar to A. websteri, but differs 
as follows: The antennse are smaller, the third joint being rather 
below the average size; the arista is not so distinctly thickened at 
the base, nor for such a long distance, the thickening tapering gradually; 
the mesonotum is shining black; with two pairs of dorso-centrals ; 
the pleuree, scutellum, and abdomen glossy black; the squamas and 
legs are similar in color to websteri, but the mid tibiae has the posterior 
bristles distinct, though small; and in size tilice averages less, 2-3 mm. 
The venation in both species is rather variable, but the outer cross 
vein is generally at less than its own length from the inner. 

The type series which is in rather poor condition, was 
reared from the galls on twigs of lime trees. Locality: Jen- 
nings, Missouri, March-April, 1907, (Mrs. Hickey). 

The twig in collection shows the galls arranged on the 
surface, independent of the position of the leaf buds, whereas 
in websteri the galls are apparently confined to the bases of the 
buds. There are two specimens in collection, one male Veitch, 
Virginia, June 9, 1912, (F. Knab), and one female, Delaware 
County, Pennsylvania, July 23, 1892 (no collector's name), the 
former at least of which belongs to this species. 

54. Agromyza schineri Giraud. 

Syn: Agromyza schineri Giraud, Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, Vol. II, 1861, 
p. 484. 

Male and Female: This species is very similar to tilicB but difters 
as follows: The frons is distinctly broader, being over one-third as 
wide as head; the orbits are broader, the ocellar triangle is broader 
and shorter than in tilice, the ocelli not forming an equilateral triangle 
as in that species, the distance between the posterior pair being dis- 
tinctly greater than that between those and the anterior one; the 



328 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

I 

arista is comparatively shorter and more distinctly swollen in schineri 
than in tilice; and the posterior surface of mid tibia in schineri has no 
distinct bristles. 

Length 2-2.5 mm. 

Originally described from Europe. 

Locality of specimens in U. S. National Museum collection: 
Toronto, Canada, (collection W. Brodie) ; I have seen two 
specimens reared from galls on Poplar by C. A. Frost, Framing- 
ham, Massachusetts, submitted by C. W. Johnson. 

55. Agromyza congregata, new species. 

Male: This species is very similar to tilicB, but differs as follows: 
The orbital bristles are four in number, strong and equally spaced; 
the cheeks are comparatively higher, being at center rather more than 
one-third the height of eye; the marginal mouth bristles are strong, 
and form a group at the anterior angle of cheek, amongst which the 
vibrissa is hardly distinguishable; the entire color of insect is a deep 
black; the legs are strong and there is no trace of the posterior bristles 
on the mid tibia; the wing venation is similar to tilicB. 

Length L75 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15589, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Williams, Arizona, May, (H. S. Barber), one 
male. 

Food-plant unknown. 

5G. Agromyza minima, new species. 

Male: Frons black, center stripe opaque, orbits and frontal 
triangle glossy; breadth of frons one-third that of head; orbits narrow, 
•each not one-fourth as wide as center stripe; four rather weak orbital 
bristles present, the orbits with additional short hairs; face black, 
opaque, concave in profile, mouth margin produced; cheek black, 
short, highest at center, where it is about one-fourth as high as eye; 
marginal bristles of moderate strength, the vibrissa weakly differen- 
tiated; occiput not projecting; antennas of moderate size; third joint 
regularly rounded, distinctly shorter than broad; arista not much swollen 
at base, tapering, almost bare, its length equal to from its base to almost 
upper orbital bristle. Mesonotum glossy black, with a slight bluish 
tinge; two pairs of dorso-centrals present; pleurae concolorous with 
disk of mesonotum; squamae gray, margin and fringe brown. Abdomen 
glossy black, with a distinct metallic bluish tinge. Legs black; the 
posterior mid tibial bristles distinct, though small. Wings grayish; 
inner cross vein at slightly beyond end of first vein, and at slightly 
beyond middle of discal cell; outer cross vein at about its own length 
from inner, and at slightly beyond wing middle; last section of fifth 
vein barely more than one-half as long as penultimate section; veins 
3-4 almost parallel on their last section. 

Length slightly over 1 mm. 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 329 

Type: Cat. No. 15590, U. S. N. M. 

Locality: Trinidad, West Indies, June, (A Busck). 

Paratypes: Three females. Those are identical with the 
male in all essential characters. Localities: Mayaguez, Porto 
Rico, January, 1899 (A. Busck) ; Utica, Mississippi, August 
(no other data) ; and one specimen taken on flowers of Bige- 
lovia graveolans, Mescalero, Mexico, October 2, 1896 (T. D. A. 
Cockerell). Food-plant unknown. 

Williston's description of Agromyza anthrax. 

Trans. Ent. Soc. Lon'd. 1896, p. 430. 

"Agromyza anthrax, n. sp." 

"Male: Black, but little shining. Front very broad, nearly 
square, its width rather exceeding its length; opaque black, on its 
lower margin yellowish. Antennas black, third joint rounded, large, 
pubescent, arista very short pubescent. Face receding, excavated, 
not at all visible from the sides; cheeks linear, with black bristles 
along the oral margin, and a rather stout vibrissal bristle in front. 
Palpi projecting beyond the oral margin, yellow. Mesonotum and 
scutellum a little shining. Abdomen opaque, oval. Halteres ye) low. 
Knees and tarsi yellow, the distal joints of the latter brownish. Wings 
lightly tinged; the third vein terminates in the apex of the wing; 
penultimate section of fourth vein about one-third as long as the 
ultimate section of fifth." 

"Length 1_3^ mm." 

"One specimen, St. Vincent." 

Owing to the omission to mention the number of dorso- 
central bristles in this species, and some other essential char- 
acters, I cannot place this species in my synoptic table, but in 
general appearance it must approach very closely to varifrons 
Coquillett. 

Williston's description of Agromyza innominata. 

Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1896, p. 443. 

"Agromyza innominata, n. sp." 

"Male: Head yellow, a blackish spot at the ocelli; front broad. 
Antennas yellow; third joint longer than broad; arista finely pubescent. 
Face short, gently excavated in profile; cheeks rather broad. Palpi 
elongate, dilated. Thorax obscurely reddish yellow; mesonotum 
with black hairs. Scutellum large, with two stout, remote, black 
bristles. Abdomen brown or blackish, yellowish at base. Legs light 
yellow; hind femora black at the immediate tip. Wings cinereous 
hyaline; basal cells complete; penultimate section of fourth vein a 
little longer than the posterior." 

"Length l\i mm." 

"One specimen . ' ' 

"Locality: St. Vincent, West Indies." 



330 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

I have not seen this species, and cannot place it in my 
synoptic table from the characters given in the description. 
No species of Agromyza that I have seen has only two scutellar 
bristles, and the palpi are remarkably large for a species of this 
genus. The head, with the exception of the palpi, as figured, 
looks like an Agromyza, but the arista is rather strongly pubes- 
cent, for most of the species in that genus. I suspect that it 
does not belong here, and the head figured on page 292 in 
Williston's Manual, which is quite evidently a reproduction 
of his figure 158 on Plate 14 of the original publication of the 
description, being given as "Agromyza (nov. gen.?)" in the 
Manual, would seem to indicate that Williston also thought 
so in 1903, whatever he may have thought in 1896. No 
indication is given as to the specific identity of the species, 
or source from which figure came in the Manual. 

Lundbeck's description of Agromyza arctica. 

Vidensk. Meddel. Copenhagen, 1899, p. 304. 

" 148. A. arctica n. sp. Fig. 4." 

" Brunneocinerea, thorace opaco, abdomine subnitido, lateribus 
thoracis maculis flavis ornatis, lateribus abdominis fiavis, segmentis 
abdominis margine posteriore anguste flavescente. Fronte sordide 
flava, lunula supra antennas flava; antennis fiavis, basi et margine 
exteriore articuli tertii brunnescentibus, arista nigra. Epistomate 
flavo. Alis hyalinis, leviter flavescentibus, nervo longitudinali quarto 
in apice alse excurrente, costa ad apieem nervi longitudinali quarti 
producta. Halteribus fiavis. Pedibus cinerascentibus, geniculiset 
lateribus inferioribus femorum fiavis. cf 9 . Long. 2 mm. 

"A. geniculatas affinis. Mas. Brunneocinereus, thorax opacus, 
abdomen subnitidum, thorax longe sed parce pilosus. abdomen brevius 
pilosimi, scutellum in margine posteriore quattour setis longis instruc- 
tmn; latera thoracis dilute cinerea, maculis fiavis ornata, latera abdo- 
minis tota flava, margines posteriores segmentorum anguste flaves- 
centes (saepe obsolete), metanotum sub scutellimi linea flava omatum. 
Frons sordide flava, supra antennas lunula flava. Antennas flavse, 
basi et margine dorsali articuli tertii brunnescentibus, arista nigra. 
Epistoma flavum, occiput brunneogriseimi. Alas hyalinae, leviter 
flavescentes, nervus longitudinalis secundus et tertius leviter arcuati, 
ad apieem reflexi, nervus longitudinalis quartus rectus, in apieem alas 
excurrehs, costa ad apieem nervi longitudinali quarti producta, nerve 
transversali appropinquati, posterior ante mediam alam situs. Hal- 
teres flavi. Pedes cinerei, geniculis et femorum lateribus inferioribus 
flavis sive refuscentibus. Fem. Mari similis, abdomen ovipositore 
conico, nigrobrunneo, valde nitido, daubus lamellis nigris, parvis 
terminato. " 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 331 

"Individua plures adsunt colore toto et praesertim abdominis 
dilutiore versimiliter immatura. " 

"Synes at forekomme temmelig almindelig langs hele Vestkysten 
idet mindste op til 69° N. Br.; traeffes isasr i Pilekrattet, Larven lever 
maaske i Pileblade. Igaliko-Fjord, Tunugdliarfikfjord, Tassiusak 
Kristianshaab, Sydostbugten (Forf.). 

This species bears a resemblance to borealis described on a 
previous page, the venation being almost identical in Lund- 
beck's figure with that given in this paper for borealis, but his 
description is lacking in several essentials, so that it is not 
possible to say definitely whether the species are really the 
same or not. 

Cerodontha Rondani. 

Syn: Cerodontha Rondani, Dipt. Ital. prod. Vol. IV, 1861, p. 10. 

Odontocera Macquart, Suit a BufiEon, Vol. 11,1835, p. 615 ''Preocc). 
Ceralomyza Schiner, Wien. entom. Monatschr. Vol. VI, 1862, p. 434, 

Characters of the Genus. 
Similar in most respects to Agromyza, but the third antennal 
joint terminates, on the upper surface, in a thorn-like point. 
The frontal and thoracic bristling is similar in nature to that 
of Agromyza, but in no case have I seen more than two scutellar 
bristles on the species I have examined; nor do I know of any 
species in which more than two are present. The mid tibia 
has no posterior bristles, and the costa always reaches to the 
fourth vein. 

Cerodontha dorsalis Loew. 

Plate XXXI, Figs. 33, 39. 

Syn: Odontocera dorsalis Loew, Dipt. Amer. Sept., Indig., Cent. 1.. 1861, 
species 99. 

Male and Female: Frons yellow, opaque, in breadth about one- 
half that of head; orbits sometimes blackened, very narrow, on upper 
half each not over one-sixth as wide as center stripe; three distinct 
orbital bristles present, and on lower portions a few short hairs; procli- 
nate ocellar bristles parallel, or slightly divergent, separated at base 
by as wide a space as posterior ocelli; antennae yellow, third joint 
black, one and one-half times as long as broad, ending in a thorn- 
like point on upper side; arista black, distinctly thickened at base and 
tapering to near its middle, pubescence indistinguishable, length of 
arista short of twice the length of antennas; face yellow, slightly concave, 
central keel rounded; cheeks yellow, higher posteriorly than anteriorly, 
and at highest point about one-half as high as eye, marginal bristles 
distinct; vibrissa strong, differentiated from marginal bristles; proboscis 
and palpi yellow; occiput unprojecting on upper half. Meson otum 
with disk entirely glossy black, with sometimes an indication of grayish 



332 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI,. 

pollen, or with the central portion in front of scutelltim yellow, more- 
rarely with two narrow black stripes on sides, and the central yellow 
portion carried forward at its anterior margin, slightly beyond middle, 
as narrow lines which more or less distinctly intersect the broad discal 
black mark, giving the disk the appearance of having five stripes, or a 
pattern somewhat similar to that of Agromyza we/aw/'yga; lateral margins 
of mesonotum broadly yellow; humeri with a black spot; four pairs 
of dorso-central bristles on mesonotum; no setulee on disk; pleurae 
yellow with black varigations; squamae yellow, the fringe brownish 
or grayish; scutellum all black or with the disk yellow, two scutellar 
bristles present. Abdomen from almost entirely yellow to almost 
entirely black, posterior margins of segments narrowly yellow. Legs 
slender, yellow, sometimes with fore tibife and tarsi blackened, all 
tarsi brownish. Wings as figure. 
Length 2-2.5 mm. 

The following is a list of the States from which I have seen 
specimens: Connecticut, Massachusetts, low^a, Florida, Geor- 
gia, District of Columbia, Kentucky, Indiana, Nevada, New 
Mexico, Texas, Utah, Washington, Tennessee, Nebraska, 
Michigan, Illinois and California. 

I have also seen specimens from Mexico and Porto Rico. 
The larva mines the stems of grains and grasses. 

ADDENDA. 

Agromyza quadrisetosa, new species. 

Female: Back subshining. Head yellow, ocellar spot, upper 
third of orbits, back of head, 3rd antennal joint, palpi and upper mouth 
margin black. Mesonotum with lateral margins broadly pale, whitish 
yellow, humeri with a black spot; pleurae with upper margin concolorous 
with margin of mesonotiim; scutellum yellow, margined on sides with 
black, squamas yellow. Abdomen black, glossy, the segments with 
narrow, yellow, posterior margins. Legs entirely shining black. Wings 
clear, basal portion of veins pale yellow, outer portions brownish. 
Halteres yellow. 

Frons about one and one-third times as long as broad at vertex;, 
orbits glossy, six orbital bristles present, incurved, situated on middle 
of orbit and of good length; orbits otherwise bare; antennae of moderate 
size, third joint rounded, second joint with dorsal bristle distinct; 
arista tapering, bare, brown in color, equal in length to from its base 
to second uppermost orbital bristle; cheeks at anterior margin about 
equal in height to breadth of third antennal joint, at posterior margin 
equal to slightly more than half of the height of the eye. Mesonotum 
with 4 pairs of dorso-centrals, between which are 2-3 irregular rows of 
setulae which do not extend to posterior dorso-centrals; scutellar bristles 
(4) subequal. Abdomen with apices of all segments anned with 
rather strong bristle-like hairs. Legs with mid tibial posterior bristles 
absent or very weak. Wings with costa to fourth vein; veins 3-4 



1913] Agromyza and Cerodontha. 333 

divergent; outer cross vein at less than its own length from inner and 
but little beyond end of first vein; last section of fifth vein twice as long 
as penultimate section 
Length 2 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 15957, U. S. N. M. 

Type locality: San Antonio, Texas, April 8, 1907 (F. C. 
Pratt). Nothing recorded of early stages. 

This species belongs to the pusilla group, but may readily 
be separated from any of those in this paper by the black 
palpi, third antennal joint and legs. It is distinct from any 
of the European species I have examined. 

Agromyza melampyga Loew. 
This species has been bred by C. R. Jones at San Antonio, 
Texas, from root of Plantago media. 

Agromyza citreijrons Malloch. 
I had some doubt as to the distinction of this species from 
hilarella Zetterstedt, but I have since examined specimens 
belonging to the National Museum in Budapest, and consider 
them quite distinct. Hilarella has the frons darker than 
citreijrons, the antennae darkened on upper surface of third 
joint, the face less receding, the eyes longer than high, the 
wings narrower, the inner cross vein distinctly before middle of 
discal cell, and the last section of fifth vein very distinctly 
longer than the penultimate section, 

Agromyza longipennis Loew. 
I have examined specimens from Europe, of geniculata since 
writing the above, and find they are -distinct from longipennis 
in having the legs less broadly yellow on joints, the arista 
almost bare, as against the distinct pubescence of longipennis, 
and the last section of fifth vein distinctly shorter than penul- 
timate section. 

Agromyza angulata Loew. 
Two specimens submitted as luctuosa Meigen from Buda- 
pest represent two distinct species, one of which is very close 
to angulata Loew. Under the circumstances I consider that it 
is not desirable to question the retention of angulata as the name 
for the American species. 



334 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Agromyza ahnormalis Malloch. 
This species differs from obscuritarsis Rondani in being 
more robust, darker in color throughout, and particularly 
in that the frons and halteres, and in neuration, the last section 
of fifth vein in obscuritarsis being about one and one-half 
times as long as penultimate section. Both species have 4 
pairs of dorso-centrals. 

Agromyza kincaidi Malloch. 

On comparison of the type of this species with specimens 
submitted from Budapest museum as nigripes, I find that the 
European form has over all a more glossy black color, the 
frons is much narrower, being barely wider than width of 
either eye, and narrowed anteriorly, the arista is almost bare, 
the squamae are darker, with brown fringes, and the last 
section of fifth vein is almost as long as the penultimate section. 

An example from Hampton, N. H. (S. A. Shaw) agrees in 
almost every particular with those from Europe so that this 
species may be added to the American list and the name 
changed to subnigripes n. nom. for the reasons stated in this 
paper. 

Agromyza pruinosa Coquillett. 
This species has been reared from larvae mining under 
bark on birch trees by C. T. Green of the Division of Forest 
Insects, at Falls Church, Va. I have examined two males 
which agree in every particular with the type, except in being 
rather larger. 

Agromyza ccerulea Malloch. 
I have examined a series of 8 specimens reared from Ipomoea 
sinuata and 5 ' from Ipomoea lacunosa, at Victoria, Texas, 
in September, 1907, and 7 from same locality August, 1907, 
labelled Ipomoea, by J. D. Mitchell. They agree with the 
Mexican specimen in all particulars. 

Agromyza texana Malloch. 
Two pairs taken in copula at Kerrville, Texas, June 19, 
1907 (F. C. Pratt). 



1913] 



Agromyza and Cerodontha. 



335 



INDEX TO GENERA AND SPECIES. 

Names in italics are synonyms. 



abbreviata (Agromyza) 285 

abnormalis ( " ) 320, 334 

affinis ( " ) 317 

Agromyza 270 

Agromyza) 278 



amcena 

angulata 

anthrax 

arctica 

bicornis 

blanda 

borealis 



304 
329 
330 

318 

278 
280 



brassiccB (Oscinis) 278 

brevicostalis (Agromyza) 283 

burgessi ( " ) 323 

cserulea ( " ) 322 

canadensis ( " ) 299 

capitata ( " ) 297 

Ceratomyza 331 

Cerodontha 331 

citreifrons (Agromyza) 290, 333 



coloradensis ( 

congregata ( 

coquelletti ( 

coronata ( 

curvipaplis ( 

davisi ( 



295 
328 
297 
293 
318 
284 



diminuta (Phyllomyza) 278 

discalis (Agromyza) 277 

Domomyza 286 

dorsalis (Cerodontha) 331 



dubitata 

exilis 

flaveola 

flaviventris 

flavonigra 

fragariae 

geniculata 

grossicornis 

immaculata 

inconspicua 

indecisa 

innominata 

insularis 

isolata 

jucunda 

kincaidi 

lateralis 

laterella 

longipennis 

longispinosa 

longiseta 



Agromyza 



311 

278 

280 

282 

281 

307 

333 

300 

289 

310 

292 

.... 329 

.... 318 

.... 306 

293 

285 

.... 293 
.... 300 
.296, 333 
.... 276 
326 



maculosa (Agromyza) 302 

magnicornis ( " ) 300 

malvcB (Oscinis) 293 

marginalis var (Agromyza 

melampyga) 283 

298 

....282, 333 

328 

309 

286 

288 



marginata (Agromyza 
melampyga ( 
minima ( 

neptis ( 

nigripes ( 
nitida ( 

Odinia 289 

Odontocera 331 

orbona (Agromyza) 278 

ornata (Odinia) 290 

parvicella (Agromyza) 287 

parvicomis( " ) 312 

Phy tomyza 27 " 



picta 

pictella 

platyptera 

plumiseta 

posticata 

pruinosa 

puella 

pusilla 

pusio 

quadrisetosa 

salicis 

schineri 

scutellata 

setosa 

simplex 

sorosis 

strigata 

subnigripes 

tceniola 

terminalis 

texana 

tilias 

trifolii (Oscinis) 

variata 

varifrons 

vibrissata 

virens 

viridula 

waltoni 

websteri 

winnemannae 

xanthocephala( 

xanthophora ( 



Agromyza) 



Agromyza) 



275 
.... 280 
.... 293 
.... 324 
.... 30g 
.... 291 
.... 278 
.... 278 
.... 278. 
.... 332 
.... 314 
.... 327 
.... 280 
.... 305 
.... 315 
.... 282 
.... 27S 
.... 334 
.... 30S 
.... 308 
.319, 334 
.... 327 
.... 278: 
.... 277 
.... 292 
.... 316 
.... 321 
.... 313 
.... 303 
.... 325 
.... 314 
.... 297 
.... 275 



336 



Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 









> LIST OF 


FIGURES 








Plate XXVIII. 




Plate XXIX. 


Fig. 1. 


Wing of A . nitida. 


Fig. 9. 


Wing of A . abnormalis. 


Fig. 2. 


« 


' vibrissata. 


Fig. 10. 


" 


' borealis. 


Fig. 3. 






' immacidata. 


Fig. 11. 


u 


' parvicornis. 


Fig. 4. 






' parvicella. 


Fig. 12. 


" 


' kincaidi. 


Fig. 5. 






' fragarice. 


Fig. 13. 


" 


' ccerulea. 


Fig. 6. 






' waltoni. 


Fig. 14. 


(I 


' variata. 


Fig. 7. 






' davisi. 


Fig. 15. 


a 


' salicis. 


Fig. 8. 


" " brevic OS talis. 


Fig. 16. 


" " angulata. 




Plate XXX. 




Plate XXXI. 


Fig. 17. 


Head of A . parvicella. 


Fig. 29. 


Hypopygium of A. posticata. 


Fig. 18. 






' angulata. 




male. 


Fig. 19. 






' canadensis. 


Fig. 30. 


Head of A . longiseta. 


Fig. 20. 




1 


' melampyga. 


Fig. 31. 


Mesonotum of A. melampyga. 


Fig. 21. 






' discalis. 


Fig. 32. 


Wing of A. abbreviata. 


Fig. 22. 






' longispinosa. 


Fig. 33. 


Wing of Cerodontha dorsalis. 


Fig. 23. 






' borealis. 


Fig. 34. 


Head of A . burgessi. 


Fig. 24. 






' vibrissata, male. 


Fig. 35. 


Hypopygium of ^. parvicornis, 


Fig. 25. 






' " female. 




male. 


Fig. 26. 






' nitida. 


Fig. 36. 


Head of A . waltoni. 


Fig. 27. 






' flavonigra. 


Fig. 37. 


" " parvicornis. 


Fig. 28. 


" " coquilletti. 


Fig. 38. 


" " insularis. 










Fig. 39. 


u 


' Cerodontha dorsalis 



The Plates were drawn by W. R. Walton, with the exception of Figures 14, 
15, 30, 34, and 38, which are by the author. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate XXVIII. 










J. R. Malloch. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate XXIX. 






J. R. Malloch. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate XXX. 





17 



18 




19 






20 



22 




23 





25 




26 




28 



27 



J. R. Malloch. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate XXXI. 



'/fM 






29 



30 




J. R. Malloch. 



THE WING VENATION OF THE FULGORID^. 

Z. p. Metcalf. 

The present paper is a continuation of my work on the 
homologies of the wing veins of Homopterous insects, a paper 
having previously been published on the wing venation of the 
Jassidee.* 

The present paper is based upon a study of the wing pads 
of eleven genera of Fulgoridae. These eleven genera are dis- 
tributed among seven of the eleven commonly recognized 
sub-families of Fulgoridae. Two of the sub-families not repre- 
sented in this study are not found in our territory and I have 
not been able to secure representatives of the two remaining 
sub-families, Achilida and Fulgorida. The venation of these 
two sub-families presents no special difficulties when viewed 
in the light of our knowledge of other Fulgoridae which have 
been carefully studied. 

The same technique has been used in preparing the material 
for studying the wing venation of the Fulgoridae that was 
used for studying the Jassidas. The nymphal wings being 
removed as carefully as possible were mounted in water. The 
wing pad was then either drawn with the aid of a camera 
lucida or a photomicrograph made. Afterward a pen and ink 
drawing was made from the photomicrograph uniform with the 
camera lucida drawings. The drawings of the adult wings 
were made from balsam mounts with the aid of the Edinger 
drawing apparatus.' The magnifications used in both cases 
varied greatly being adapted as far as possible to the needs 
of individual cases. 

The relation of the main tracheae of the wing pads to the 
body tracheae is an interesting one and one upon which much 
stress has been laid in the past. The relationships of the main 
trachea of the wing pads can be much better understood if 
they can be traced back to their origin from the main body 
tracheae. 

Unfortunately, however, the wing pads of most insects 
are. so placed that the body tracheae lie very deep. This makes 
it practically impossible to secure . the body tracheae by the 



*Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Vol. VI, No. 1. 

341 



342 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

ordinary methods of dissection. If the wing is carefully 
removed, however, the relationships of the main tracheae 
need not be disturbed. Some emphasis has also been placed 
on the fact that in some families the tracheae of the wing pads 
arise from a single basal trachea, whereas in certain other 
families the radio-medial group of tracheae arises from a cephalic 
body trachea while the cubito-anal group arises from a caudal 
body trachea. In certain cases this character has been used 
to indicate that one family is more primitive structurally 
than another. That such a position is untenable is clearly 
shown in at least two genera of the Fulgoridae in which I was 
so fortunate as to secure enough of the body tracheee as to 
determine this point. In Thionia (Figs. 27, 28) the tracheae 
of the fore wing pad arise from a single body trachea while the 
tracheae of the hind wing pad arise from a cephalic and a caudal 
body trachea. In Amphiscepa (Figs. 5, 6), on the other 
hand, the tracheae of the fore wing arise from two body trachese 
whereas the tracheae of the hind wing arise from a single body 
trachea. 

THE FORE WING. 

Unlike the fore wings of the Jassidae, the fore wings of the 
Fulgoridae are exceedingly variable. As is well known, the 
adults of many Fulgoridce occur in two forms, a long-winged 
or macropterous form, and a short-winged or brachypterojis form. 
This is especially true of certain genera. While the problem 
of the origin and significance of this variation is an exceedingly 
interesting one, it has not been taken into consideration in 
this paper, and as a rule, only macropterous forms have been 
considered with the exception of a few cases where the brachyp- 
teroiis forms are the usual ones. 

The wings of the Fulgoridae show two marked forms of 
specialization from the hypothetical type, the one by the ad- 
dition of accessory branches to the main veins and the other 
by the reduction of the number of branches of the main veins. 
The one may be known as specialization by addition, and the 
other as specialization by reduction. An almost perfect 
series can be traced from the one extreme to the other. Forms 
like Ormenis (Fig. 13), show as great specialization by addition 
as is found in any insect of any order, while forms like Briich- 
omorpha (Fig. 33), show a great deal of specialization by re- 



1913] Wing Venation of Fulgoridce. 343 

duction. While the wing venation of most of the insects 
that have been studied extensively so far can be reduced to a 
more or less uniform type for the family, in the Fulgoridag 
no such typical form can be given. In the following discussion 
of the individual tracheae the differences in the characters of 
the same trachea in different genera will not be emphasized 
so much as their resemblances. 

The Costa of the Fore Wing. 
The costa of the fore wing is usually present in the Ful- 
goridae, in fact it was found in practically every genus studied. 
Typically, costa is a single unbranched trachea usually of 
somewhat less extent than subcosta. In Ormenis (Fig. 3), 
however, there are many small lateral tracheae formed along 
the entire length of the costal trachea, and in Amphiscepa 
(Fig 5), the tip of the costal trachea breaks up into several 
smaller tracheae. In Thionia (Fig. 27), the costal trachea 
shows a strong lateral branch near its base. This branch 
runs parallel with the main branch of costa and seems to be 
included in the same forming vein. 

The Subcosta of the Fore Wing. 
The subcosta has been found present in all of the genera 
studied. In many of the genera subcosta is a larger and 
more important trachea than radius. In nearly all cases 
it lies parallel with radius for the greater part of its length, 
while in Scolops (Fig. 23), it lies parallel with radius for its 
entire length. Subcosta is typically two branched in the 
Delphacida (Figs. 43, 45), and in the Cixiida (Fig. 47), while in 
Amphiscepa (Fig. 5), and Ormenis (Fig. 3), the tip of the sub- 
costa breaks up into several small tracheae. 

The Radius of the Fore Wing. 
Radius in the Fulgoridae occupies a much less important 
position than in the wings of most other insects which have 
been studied in detail up to the present time. In most cases 
the radial trachea lies parallel with the subcostal trachea and 
usually only a single vein is formed in the region occupied by 
these two tracheae. In Stobcera (Fig. 45), radius is a single 
unbranched trachea lying parallel with subcosta for more 
than half of its length then diverging and running parallel 
with one of the branches of medius for a short distance it 



344 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI,. 

diverges toward the costal border. Radius occupies a 
somewhat similar position in Myndiis (Fig. 47), except that 
there are three or four small branches near the tip and the 
trachea does not coalesce with medius in any part of its course. 
The condition of the radial trachea in Dictyophara (Fig. 25), 
is almost identical with that in Myndus, except that there 
are small lateral branches toward the tip. In Thionia (Fig. 
27) and Scolops (Fig. 23), the radial trachea is quite similar in 
appearance to that in the genera discussed above except that sep- 
arate veins are formed along these two trachea in Thionia. In 
both of these genera the lateral branches near the tip are much 
weaker and more uncertain in their position and are not the 
fore-runners of typical and fairly constant longitudinal veins, 
but of rather uncertain cross veins which are fairly common 
in these genera. In Amphiscepa (Fig. 5), and Acanalonia 
(Fig. 1) radius is a single unbranched trachea. In Ormenis 
(Fig. 3), the radial trachea consists of two main tracheae which 
separate into several smaller branches before reaching the 
tip. 

The Medius of the Fore Wing. 

In all the genera studied the medial trachea is the most 
important trachea of the fore wing and its branches occupy 
more area than the branches of any other trachea. In the 
genera studied medius seems to be typically four branched 
only in Amphiscepa (Fig. 5). Each one of these branches, 
however, branches one or more times before reaching the tip 
of the wing. In Ormenis (Fig. 3), medius divides into twO' 
branches each branch again dividing into two branches. Each 
of these branches, however, is several times divided before 
reaching the tip of the wing pad. In Acanalo?iia (Fig. 1), 
medius is three branched, these branches representing medius 
one, medius two and medius three plus four. In Scolops 
(Fig. 23), Dictyophara (Fig. 25) and Thionia (Fig. 27), medius 
is typically two branched, although these branches may divide 
one or more times before reaching the tip of the wing pad. 
The veins which form along these secondary branches are not 
at all constant in position and relative importance. In Stobcera 
(Fig. 45), medius divides into two main branches. These 
branches represent medius one plus two and medius three 
plus four, medius one and medius two separating before reach- 



1913] Wing Venation of Fulgoridce. 345 

ing the tip of the wing pad. In Myndus (Fig. 47), medius is 
typically four branched with an accessory branch between 
medius one and medius two. 

The Cubitus and the First Anal of the Fore Wing. 
As in the Jassidce the cubital-first anal group forms the 
most characteristic land-mark in the tracheation of the Ful- 
goridas. These two trachea are united for a short distance 
from the body trachea and cubitus is usually two branched. 
In Thionia (Fig. 27), Dictyophara (Fig. 25) and Acanalonia 
(Fig. 1), cubitus is unbranched, while in Phylloscelis (Fig. 7), 
cubitus is two branched and in Stobcera (Fig. 45), there is an 
accessory branch between cubitus one and cubitus two. 

The Second and Third Anal of the Fore Wing. 
The second anal trachea is a simple unbranched trachea 
and usually lies parallel with the first anal trachea. The third 
anal trachea is nearly always present in Fulgoridee and is usually 
two branched. The second branch when present usually 
forms the anal border of the fore wing. 

THE HIND WING. 

The hind wing of the Fulgoridas is almost as variable as 
the fore wing, very little similarity being observed in the 
different genera of some of the sub-families. Quite a little 
variation is frequently observed in different individuals of the 
same species. 

The Costa of the Hind Wing. 
The costal trachea is present in the following widely sepa- 
rated genera: Myndus (Fig. 48), Scolops (Fig. 24), Dictyophara 
(Fig. 26), Thionia (Fig. 28), Acanalonia (Fig. 2), and Phyllos- 
celis (Fig. 8). In Thionia, -Phylloscelis and Myndus it is united 
with subcosta for some distance from the body trachea. In 
Scolops it is present only as a weak trachea at the base of 
the wing. 

The Subcosta of the Hind Wing. 

The subcostal trachea was found in all the wing pads 

studied. In most of the genera it runs parallel with radius 

for almost its entire length and diverges at the tip. The 

radial and subcostal trachea are included in a common vein 



346 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI,, 

except at the tip where subcosta diverges and the vein which 
forms along this tip in the adult resembles a branch of the radial 
vein. This condition is especially apparent in Stobcera (Fig. 
46), Myyidus (Fig. 48), Dictyophara (Fig. 26) and Amphiscepa 
(Fig. 6). In Scolops (Fig. 24), subcosta appears merely as 
a weak trachea lying parallel with radius along its base. 

The Radius of the Hind Wing. 
In nearly all cases radius of the hind wing is a single un- 
branched trachea. In certain genera, however, such as Scolops 
(Fig. 24), Dictyophara (Fig. 26) and Acanalonia (Fig. 2), radius 
shows more or less tendency to branch near the tip. These 
branches are rather variable as an examination of different 
individuals of the same species clearly shows. Therefore I 
have made no attempt to homologize these branches. 

The Medius of the Hind Wing. 
A typical medius of the hind wing of Fulgoridae is two 
branched, but frequently these branches show a decided 
tendency to branch again before reaching the tip of the wing 
pad. In Stobcera (Fig. 46) and Thionia (Fig. 28) medius is a 
simple unbranched trachea which in Stobcera runs parallel with 
cubitus for a considerable distance, the veins of the adult 
coalescing at this point. 

The Cubitus of the Hind Wing. 
In many genera cubitus of the hind wing occupies the 
greatest area and bears somewhat the same relationship to the 
other tracheae of the hind wing that medius bears to the other 
tracheae of the fore wing. In Myndus (Fig. 48) and Phylloscelis 
(Fig. 8), cubitus is unbranched. In Stobcera (Fig. 46), Thionia 
(Fig. 28) and Scolops (Fig. 24) cubitus is typical. In the other 
genera studied cubitus has two principal branches, each of 
which bears one or more accessor}^ branches. 

The Anals of the Hind Wing. 
The first anal of the hind wing bears the same relation 
to cubitus that it does in the fore wing. The second anal 
trachea is usually simple and unbranched, and lies parallel 
with the first anal. The third anal trachea has been found 
in all of the genera studied and is usually branched. Although 
in some cases Thionia, Dictyophara and Scolops the third 
anal trachea is three branched. 



1913] Wing Venation of Fulgoridce. 347 



SUMMARY. 

Owing to the fact that the aduh wings of the Fulgoridas 
vary so much it has seemed best to summarize the homologies 
of adult wing veins by giving a discussion of the characters 
of the adult wings of the various subfamilies. 

Sub-family Fulgorida. 
Both the fore and hind wings of this sub-family are char- 
acterized by a large amount of reticulation. Nearly all the 
members of this sub-family are characterized by having a 
large number of accessory veins. These accessory veins 
may be added to radius, medius or cubitus, but in some cases, 
as in Poiocera (Fig. 9) all three of these veins bear accessory 
veins. In the hind wing radius and medius do not usually 
bear many accessory veins, but cubitus usually has several 
accessory veins. Another characteristic of the hind wings is 
the fact that the cross veins are apt to be connected together 
forming false veins between the principal veins. These false 
veins usually lie along the folds of the wing. 

Sub-family Flatida. 
The chief characteristics of this sub-family are: First, 
that the costal vein is remote from the costal border of the 
wing and connected with it by means of a number of cross 
veins; second, that radius and medius are provided with a 
large number of accessory veins; and third, that these accessory 
veins are usually connected by a definite series of cross veins at 
a uniform distance from the apical border of the wing. The 
hind wing is chiefly characterized by the great development 
of the anal area of the wing, and by a large number of accessory 
veins attached to cubitus. 

Sub-family Acanaloniida. 

The fore wings of the members of this sub-family are 
characterized by having a large number of cross veins between 
the branches of the principal veins. They are also characterized 
by having radius simple and unbranched, and the larger area 
of the wing occupied by the branches of the medius. In some 
cases, Amphiscepa (Fig. 15), medius is typically four branched 
with the addition of accessory veins to some of the branches. 
In other cases, Acanalonia (Fig. 17), medius is three branched,. 



348 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

the branches representing medius one, medius two and medius 
three plus four. The hind wing is characterized by the great 
development of cubitus, and the fact that in certain cases, 
Amphiscepa (Fig. 16), radius and medius coalesce for a con- 
siderable distance from the base of the wing. 

Sub-family Achilida. 
The fore wings in this sub-family are characterized by the 
fact that subcosta and radius are coalesced for a considerable 
distance from the base, and the fact that there are usually 
several cross veins between subcosta and the costal border 
of the wing". Radius and medius offer no special characters 
and cubitus is typically two branched, although there are 
frequently accessory cross veins between cubitus two and the 
anal border of the wing. 

Sub-family Dictyopharida. 

The chief characteristics of this sub-family are to be found 
in the complete or all but complete coalescence of silbcosta and 
radius. In Scolops (Fig. 29), they are completely coalesced. 
In Dictyophara (Fig. 31), nearly completely coalesced, but in 
Phylloscelis (Fig. 22), are not coalesced except for a short dis- 
tance at the base. Medius is typically two branched, but 
in Scolops (Fig. 29), there are several accessory branches. 
In Scolops (Fig. 29), and Dictyophara (Fig. 31), cubitus is 
typically two branched, but in Phylloscelis (Fig. 22), cubitus 
bears several accessory branches. 

Sub-family Issida. 
I have studied only a few genera in this sub-family. In 
Thionia (Fig. 35), all of the branches of the principal veins 
are reduced, medius alone being typically two branched. 
All of the veins are connected by a number of cross veins. 
In Bruchomorpha (Fig. 33), a study of the adult wing alone 
seems to indicate a condition closely approximating the con- 
dition found in the Delphacida, in which radius and medius 
are coalesced for a considerable distance, radius diverging 
strongly and coalescing with medius throughout the middle of 
its course, and then diverging strongly toward the costal border 
of the wing. In all of the Issida that I have examined second 
and third anal are coalesced for nearly half of their course at 



1913] Wing Venation of FulgoridcB. 349 

the tip. In Thionia (Fig. 36), the anal area of the hind wing 
is larger than the preanal area, and third anal is characterized 
by the addition of a large number of acce'ssory veins. In 
Bruchomorpha (Fig. 34), the hind wing is greatly reduced in 
area, and the principal veins only are represented by simple 
unbranched veins. 

Sub-family Derbida. 
In this sub-family, also, subcosta and radius are coalesced 
for a considerable distance from the base, and both are typically 
two branched; although in some cases, Otiocerus (Fig. 39), there 
are a number of cross veins between subcosta and the costal 
border. Medius is typically four branched with a number of 
accessory veins added to medius one. In Anotia (Fig. 37), 
and Otiocerus (Fig. 39), there is an accessory vein between 
medius three and four. In Lamenia (Fig. 41), there are no 
accessory veins between medius three and medius four, and 
only a single accessory vein between medius one and medius 
two. Cubitus is typically two branched, but in Otiocerus 
and Anotia these branches do not extend to the anal border 
of the wing, but unite with the coalesced anals at some little 
distance from the border of the wing. In the hind wings, 
subcosta and radius are coalesced, and medius is two branched 
in Anotia (Fig. 38) and Otiocerus (Fig. 40), but unbranched 
in Lamenia (Fig. 42) . Cubitus of the hind wing is two branched 
in all of the members of this sub-family which I have examined. 

Sub-family Cixiida. 

This sub-family also is characterized by the fact that 
subcosta and radius are coalesced for some distance from the 
base. Subcosta is typically two branched, although in Both- 
riocera (Fig. 60), Oliarus (Fig. 58) and CEcleus (Fig. 62) super- 
numerary veins are added between subcosta one and subcosta 
two. Radius is typically three branched, although these 
branches are somewhat variable in their relationships. Medius 
is typically four branched with an accessory vein between 
medius one and medius two, although in Oliarus (Fig. 58), 
both medius one and medius two bear accessory veins. Cubitus 
of the fore wing is typically two branched, and second and third 
anals are coalesced at the tip. In the hind wing subcosta and 
radius are coalesced for a considerable distance from the base, 



350 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

and radius has two branches except in Myndus (Fig. 56). 
Medius is typically three branched except in CEcleus (Fig. 63), 
where it is onl^ two branched. Cubitus is unbranched in 
Myndus, and two branched in all of the other members of 
this subfamily that I have examined. 

Sub-family Delphacida. 

In the fore wing, subcosta is typically two branched. Radius 
is coalesced with subcosta for about half of its length, when it 
diverges suddenly, then coalesces near the middle of its course 
with medius one plus two. It then diverges toward the costal 
border of the wing. Medius is typically three branched, 
the branches represented being medius one, medius two and 
medius three plus four. Medius three plus four frequently 
coalesces for a short distance with cubitus one, as in Liburnia 
(Fig. 53) and Stenocranus (Fig. 49). In Stobara (Fig. 51), 
these two veins are connected by a short cross vein. Cubitus 
is three branched an accessory vein being developed along 
the anal side of cubitus one. In the hind wing, subcosta and 
radius are coalesced for more than half of their length and 
medius is unbranched. Cubitus is typically two branched, 
cubitus one coalescing for almost its entire length with medius, 
being separated only at its tip. The anal area of the hind wing 
is considerably enlarged and the third anal is frequently three 
branched. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. 

The writer wishes to express his appreciation for the kindly 
advice of Professor Herbert Osborn, and for the helpful criti- 
cisms of C. L. Metcalf, who furnished, also, the specimens of 
Myndus radicis, Osb., the only species of the subfamily Cixiida 
available for study. C. S. Brimley and Rev. A. H. Manee 
have furnished some material, but Luella Correll Metcalf 
has collected most of the material which was used as a basis 
for this paper. 



1913] 



Wing Venation of Fulgoridcs. 



351 



REFERENCES. 

Ashmead, W. H. 1889. A Generic Synopsis of the Fulgoridae. Ent. Amer., V, 1-6 

and 21-28. 
Edwards, J. A. 1896. The Hemiptera Homoptera of the British Islands. 
Melichar, L. 1896. Cicadinen von Mittel-Europa. 
Melichar, L. 1898. Monographic der Ricaniiden. 
Melichar, L. Monographic der Acanaloniidcn und Flatiden. 
Melichar, L. 1906. Monographic der Issiden. 
Metcalf, Z. P. 1913. The Wing Venation of the Jassidae. Ann. of the Ent. Soc, 

of Amer. VI, 103-115. 
Osbom, H. 1903. A Subterranean Root-infesting Fulgorid. Ohio Nat. IV, 42-44. 
Osbom, H. 1904. Note on Alate form of Phylloscclis. Ohio Nat. IV, 93-94. 
Swezey, O. H. 1903. Life History Notes on Two Fulgoridae. Ohio Nat. Ill, 

354-357. 
Swezey, O. H. 1904. A Preliminary Catalogue of the Described Species of the 

Family Fulgoridae of North America North of Mexico. Bull. No. 3. Ohio 

Dept. of Agr. ' 

Van Duzee, E. P. 1897. A Preliminary Review of the North American Delphacidae. 

Bui. Buf. Soc. Nat. Sci. V, 225-261. 
Van Duzee, E. P. 1908. Studies in North American Fulgoridae. Proc. Acad. 

Nat. Sci. of Phila. December, 1907. 
Westwood, J. O. 1840. Observations on the Genus Derbe of Fabricius. Trans, of 

the Linn. Soc. XIX, 1-21. 



Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

Plate XXXII. 
Fore wing pad of Acanalonia sp. 



Hind 
Fore 
Hind 
Fore 
Hind 
Fore 
Hind 



Acanalonia sp. 
Ormcnis septentrionalis Spin. 
Ormenis septentironalis Spin. 
Amphiscepa bivittata Say. 
Amphiscepa bivittata Say. 
Phylloscelis atra Germ. 
Phylloscclis atra Germ. 



Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 



Plate XXXII I. 

9. Fore wing of Poiocera fuliginosa Uhl. 

10. Hind " Poiocera fuliginosa Uhl. 

11. Fore " Cyrpoptus belfragei Stal. 

12. Hind " Cyrpoptus belfragei Stal. 

13. Fore " Ormenis septentrionalis Spin. 

14. Hind " Ormenis septentrionalis Spin. 

15. Fore " Amphiscepa bivittata Say. 

16. Hind " Amphiscepa bivittata Say. 

17. Fore " Acanalonia latifrons Walk. 

18. Fore " Elidiptcra opaca Say. 

19. Hind " Elidiptcra opaca Say. 

20. Fore " Catonia sp. 

21. Hind " Catonia sp. 

22. Fore " Phylloscelis atra Germ. 



352 



Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



Plate XXXIV. 

Fig. 23. Fore wing pad of Scolops sp. 

Fig. 24. Hind " " Scolops sp. 

Fig. 25. Fore " " Dictyopha: 

Fig. 26. Hind " " Dictyophai 

Fig. 27. Fore " " Thionia sir 

Fig. 28. Hind " " Thionia sir 



Scolops sp. 
Dictyophara sp. 
Dictyophara sp. 
Thionia simplex Germ. 
Thionia simplex Germ. 



Plate XXXV. 

Fig. 29. Fore wing of Scolops perdix Uhl. 

Fig. 30. Hind " Scolops perdix Uhl. 

Fig. 31. Fore " Dictyophara florens Stal. 

Fig. 32. Hind " Dictyophara florens Stal. 

Fig. 33. Fore " Bruchomorpha oculata Newm. 

Fig. 34. Hind " Bruchomorpha oculata Newm. 

Fig. 35. Fore " Thionia bullata Say. 

Fig. 36. Hind " Thionia bullata Say. 

Fig. 37. Fore " Anotia sp. 

Fig. 38. Hind " Anotia sp. 

Fig. 39. Fore " Otiocerus coquebertii Kirby. 

Fig. 40. Hind " Otiocerus coquebertii Kirby. 

Fig. 41. Fore " Lamenia vulgaris Fitch. 

Fig. 42. Hind " Lamenia vulgaris Fitch. 

Plate XXXVI . 

Fig. 43. Fore wing pad of Stenocranus sp. 

Fig. 44. Hind " " Stenocranus sp. 

Fig. 45. Fore " " Stobsera tricarinata Say. 

Fig. 46. Hind " " Stobaera tricarinata Say. 

Fig. 47. Fore " " Myndus radicis Osb. 

Fig. 48. Hind " " Myndus radicis Osb. 

Plate XXXVII. 

Fig. 49. Fore wing of Stenocranus lautus V. D. 

Fig. 50. Hind " Stenocranus lautus V. D. 

Fig. 51. Fore " Stobaera tricarinata Say. 

Fig. 52. Hind " Stobaera tricarinata Say. 

Fig. 53. Fore " Liburnia ornata Stal. 

Fig. 54. Hind " Liburnia ornata Stal. 

Fig. 55. Fore " Myndus sp. 

Fig. 56. Hind " Myndus sp. 

Fig. 57. Fore " Cixius sp. 

Fig. 58. Fore " Oliarus 5-lineatus Say. 

Fig. 59. Hind " Oliarus 5-lineatus Say. 

Fig. 60. Fore " Bothriocera pro-signoretti. 

Fig. 61. Hind " Bothriocera pro-signoretti. 

Fig. 62. Fore " CEcleus decens Stal. 

Fig. 63. Hind " CEcleus decens Stal. 



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28 



Z. p. Melcalf. 



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Z. P. Melcalf. 



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Z. P. Metcalf. 



THE PRINCETON COLLECTION OF FOSSIL BEETLES 
FROM FLORISSANT. 

By H. F. WiCKHAM, Iowa City, Iowa. 

Through the kindness of Professor Gilbert van Ingen, 
of the Department of Geology of Princeton University, I have 
been allowed to study the collection of Florissant fossil beetles 
in his care. The series is of particular interest since it forms 
a part of the material used by Scudder in working up two 
of his principal papers on the Tertiary insects* and contains 
many of his types and cotypes. He studied the present col- 
lection with special reference to the Adephaga, Clavicornia 
and Rhynchophora and in these groups described practically 
all of the novelties which were in sufficiently good condition 
for that purpose. With the exception of Atcenius patescens, 
for the determination of which I am responsible, all of the species 
attributed to his authorship in the following list were identified 
by him and the specimens represent the originals which served 
as the bases of his descriptions. Those attributed to myself 
are either lately published or now in press elsewhere. Ten 
are described as new. The drawings are made with a camera 
lucida and represent only what actually remains of the specimens, 
there being no attempt to restore lost parts or to idealize any of 
the characters. 

As in all collections of fossil insects, a good many of the 
specimens are in too poor preservation to repay study, but 
it is possible to recognize the forty-two species listed below. 



Carabidse. 
Bembidium tumulorum Scudd. 
Pterostichus walcotti Scudd. 
Amara danas Scudd. 
sterilis Scudd. 
Harpalus whitfieldii Scudd. 

Staphylinidce. 
Staphylinus lesleyi Scudd. 
Philonthus abavus Scudd. 
-Xantholinus tenebrarius Scudd. 
Lithocharis scottii Scudd. 
Bledius morsel Scudd. (?) 
osborni Scudd. 



Coccinellid^. 
Coccinella sodoma n. sp. 

Cryptophagidae. 
Antherophagus megalops n. sp. 

Dermestidae. 
Dermestes tertiarius Wickh. 
Attagenus aboriginalis n. sp. 

Byrrhidae. 
Byrrhus romingeri Scudd. 

Buprestidse. 
Melanophila handlirschi Wickh. 



*Monographs of the United States Geological Survey, Vols. XXI and XL. 



360 



Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI ^ 



Lampyridas. 
Podabrus wheeleri Wickh. 

cupesoides Wickh. 
Telephorus humatus n. sp. 
Trypherus aboriginalis n. sp. 

Ptinidae. 
Xestobium (?) alutaceum n. sp. 

Scarabasidae. 
Ataenius patescens Scudd. 
Aphodius aboriginalis Wickh. 

Cerambycidae. 
Callidiopsites grandiceps n. sp. 
Leptura leidyi n. sp. 

Chrysomelidse. 
Crioceridea dubia Wickh. 



Cistelidae. 
Cistela antiqua n. sp. 
Capnochroa senilis n. sp. 

Rhynchitidae. 
Paltorhynchus narwhal Scudd. 
Trypanorhynchus depratus Scudd. 

Otiorhynchitidae. 
Evopes occubatus Scudd. 
Eudomus robustus Scudd. 
pinguis Scudd. 

Curculionidae. 
Geralophus occultus Scudd. 

fossicius Scudd. (?) 

lassatus Scudd. 
Cleonus priinoris Scudd. 
Cremastorhynchus stabilis Scudd. 
Anthonomus arctus Scudd. 
Tychuis evolatus Scudd. 
Aulobaris damnata Scudd. 



Coccinella Linn. 

C. sodoma n. sp. (Plate II, Fig. 1). Outline subcircular, of the 
ordinary fonn of Coccinella if allowance be made for flattening. Sculp- 
ture extremely fine, consisting only of the alutaceous roughening 
common in the genus. Scutellum a little larger than in the recent 
North American species of Coccinella. Length, 7.75 mm. 

Type in the Museum of Princeton University, number 
6561. 

An extended description seems unnecessary, since the 
figure will show the proportions of the different parts of the 
body. While it is safer to consider the generic reference 
as applying in the Linnaean sense, there is nothing about 
the specimen which would seem to throw it out of Coccinella 
proper. It is a little larger than the average C. transver- 
soguttata, the common species of the Rocky Mountains today. 
No definite color pattern can be distinguished. 



Antherophagus Latr. 

A. megalops n. sp. (Plate I, Fig. 1). Form subparallel and 
moderately elongate, the entire surface devoid of any distinct sculpture 
though there are faint signs of shallow, broad, elytral sulcations, a 
few small punctures towards the sides of the pronotum and what seem 
to be hair marks on the prothorax and elytra. Head large, about one 
and one-half times as long as the pronotum, slightly longer than wide, 
sides a little convergent anteriorly, front margin indistinctly preserved, 
but apparently about truncate. Eyes submedian in position, large 
and rounded, separated above by less than the width of one of them. 



1913] Fossil Beetles from Florissant. 361 

Antennas submonjliform, slightly incrassate exteriorly, first joint 
large, second short, third longer than the fourth, though not much so, 
fourth to eighth subequal, the remaining three forming a weak club. 
The eleventh joint is damaged in this specimen, so that the exact form 
cannot be made out. Prothorax ver}^ short, about twice as broad as 
long, the form of the sides distorted, one appearing to be straight 
with the anterior angle distinct while the other is arcuate with the 
angles nearl}' obliterated. Scutellum absent or not defined. Elytra 
about one and one-half times as long as broad, apices, in life, probably 
conjointly rounding through as preserved they are separately sub- 
cuminate at tip. Legs wanting. Length, 4.30 mm. 

Type in the Museum of Princeton University, obverse and 
reverse, numbers 6564 and 6535. 

The head is larger than in the modern species of Antheropha- 
gus that I know and the eyes are of much greater size in the 
fossil. It may be necessary, some day, to erect a new genus 
for this insect, but for the present, it seems better to allow 
it to remain in Anther ophagus. 

Dermestes Linn. 

D. tertiarius Wickh. (Plate II, Figs. 2 and 3). A specimen con- 
tained in this collection is in much more perfect condition than the 
type and shows a few additional features. The head is of normal 
size and punctured a little more strongly than the prothorax. The 
right antenna is displayed in sufficiently good preservation to show 
that it is very similar to that of the recent D. marmoratus except that 
the two joints immediately preceding the club are a trifle broader. 
The vestiture, punctuation and size are as described for the type. 

On account of the imperfection of the type, which was used 
for the original figure, new drawings from the Princeton speci- 
men are given herewith. The generic reference seems to 
be completely sustained by this example. It carries the 
Princeton Museum number 6613. 

Attagenus Latr. 

A. aboriginalis n. sp. (Plate II, Fig. 4). Form elongate, sub- 
elliptical. Head of moderate size, deeply inserted in the prothorax, 
ininutely sparsely punctulate, eye rather small. Prothorax along 
middle a little less than one-half the basal width, sides arcuate, dis- 
similarly so in the specimen, front and hind angles well defined, apical 
emargination moderately deep, base rather strongly lobed at middle 
and sinuate each side, disk minutely punctulate or nearly smooth. 
Scutellum small, triangular. Elytra about three and three-fourths 
times the length of the prothoracic median line, not striate, punctuation 
minute, surface with signs of a fine hairy vestiture. Length, 5.00 mm. 



362 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Type in the Museum of Princeton University, number 
6290. 

The form, size, thoracic outline (especially the shape of the 
base), the proportions of the abdominal segments and the 
vestiture all point to this generic assignment. The sculpture- 
seems to have been finer than that of any of the recent North 
American species with which I am acquainted, and this char- 
acter will separate it from the fossil A. sopitus. 

Telephorus Schaff. 

T. humatus n. sp. (Plate I, Fig. 2). Form subparallel, rather 
narrow. Head crushed so as to appear excessively large, particularly 
since the basal antennal joints are thereby merged with the genae. 
Eye moderately large, rounded. AntenricE equal to a little more than 
one-half the body length, first joint not distinguishable, second small,, 
third shorter than the fourth, remainder subequal in length, all except 
the distal three with the inner angles produced so as to appear moder- 
ately serrate. Prothorax transverse, sides and apex rounded. Scutel- 
lum of nonnal size, triangular. Elytra four times the length of the 
prothoracic median line, rounded at apices. Legs rather short. Lengthy 
7.50 mm. 

Type in the Museum of Princeton University, number 
5984. 

In form and size this insect resembles the recent T. bili?ieatus 
quite closely. The sculpture is of the fine alutaceous type 
common in the genus. 

/ Trypherus Lee. 

T. aboriginalis n. sp. (Plate I, Fig. 3). Form similar to that 
of the recent T. latipennis. Head a little distorted, but evidently 
of moderate size. Antennas slender, filiform, the joints net serrate, 
but too poorly preserved to describe as to their relative lengths. Pro-- 
thorax about as wide as the head, transverse, apex narrower than the 
base, sides moderately strongly rounded. Elytral length equal to 
twice the prothoracic width, apices narrowed, but rounded, sculpture- 
strongly scabrous. Abdomen with several segments exposed beyond 
the elytral tips, without visible terminal appendages. Legs wanting, 
except one femur, which is rather slender. Length, 8.75 mm. 

Type in the Museum of Princeton University, number 
6527. 

There is little doubt that this insect is closely allied to- 
Trypherus if not an actual member of the genus. It has the 
size, form, sculpture and general appearance of the recent 
T. latipennis, common in the eastern half of North America.. 



1913] Fossil Beetles from Florissant. 363 

The hind wings are spread and exposed, showing the basal 
portions of the venation quite well. A comparison of the 
figure of the fossil with the accompanying one of the wing of 
T. latipennis will show the close general correspondence be- 
tween them. The dotted lines in the latter figure show as 
transparent markings on the general ground, but in the fossil 
the upper one of these is not visible while the lower one seems 
to have been strongly pigmented. 

Xestobium Motsch. 

X. (?) alutaceum n. sp. (Plate I, Fig. 5). Form nor very elongate. 
Head large, deflexed, eye about circular and rather small compared 
with that of most recent Anobiini. Pronotum somewhat gibbous 
dorsally at about the middle, projecting anteriorly over the head. 
Elytron with a rather weak epipletiral lobe within which is a fine but 
distinct stria, apex apparently rounded. Legs short and only moder- 
ately stout. Length, from front of pronotum to abdominal apex, 
6.65 nun. 

Type in the Museum of Princeton University, number 
6575. 

In a general way, this species slightly resembles the Floris- 
sant fossil Xylobiops laciistre, but the proportions are different 
and the sculpture of the present species is very fine. The 
entire upper surface shows traces of a minute scabrosity, 
but the abdomen is almost entirely smooth. The elytra 
are not striate except inside the epipleural margin. By the 
small eyes, the size, sculpture and general form, this seems 
to approach Xestobium, but the generic reference must be 
considered provisional, the most dubious character being the 
large head. 

Callidiopsites n. gen. 

This generic name is proposed for a Cerambycid fossil 
which shows affinities with Callidium in the broad short form, 
short stout antennse, heavy legs, transverse and nearly or 
quite confluent front coxal cavities, and coarse elytral scuplture. 
It differs in the mesosternum, being much narrower between 
the middle coxse and the head very much larger. It is not 
entirely in agreement with any of the recent genera of Callid- 
ioides known to me and it seems better to give it a separate 
generic assignment. The type is C. grandiceps, described 
below. 



364 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

C. grandiceps n. sp. (Plate III). Form rather short and stout, 
outline, as preserved, not unlike some species of Patrobus in the Car- 
abidae. Head large, nearly as long as broad and decidedly longer than 
the prothorax. Eyes not definable. Antennae extending a little 
beyond elytral two-thirds, moderately stout, the first joint large and 
thick, third not greatly elongate, tenth and eleventh distinctly shorter 
than the two preceding. The joints are apparently carinate along 
their faces. Prothorax very short, a little wider than the head. Elytra 
(likely enough from abdominal distention due to maceration) not 
completely covering the dorsal segments, their apices separately rounded, 
surface coarsely closely punctured mth some indication of striae at 
the outer margins. Thighs heavy, somewhat cla\ate, especiall}^ the 
middle and hind pairs. Apex of abdomen extruded, displaying a 
simple, straight sex organ. Length, to extended tip of abdomen, 
15.25 mm.; of elytra, 8.25 mm. 

Station number 13B. One specimen, collector not speci- 
fied, was received from Professor Cockerell. The type is 
in the Museum of the University of Colorado. Another is 
contained in the Princeton collection, with the number 6543, 

This looks like a Carabid, but what can be seen of the struct- 
ure of the underside together with the large antennas incline 
to the assignment given above. The antenna figured is a 
trifle too slender, since it is a camera lucida drawing and the 
edges of the organ were- not entirely freed from the matrix. 

Leptura Serv. 
L. leidyi n. sp. (Plate I, Fig. 6). Fonn, judging from the remains, 
subparallel, as in the recent L. sphaericollis. Head apparently in- 
complete in front of the eye, which is reniform, distinctly emarginate 
and of rather small size. Antennae not preserved, except a few of the 
basal joints which are relatively shorter than usual in the living forms. 
Prothorax a little damaged, but apparently not strongly campanulate. 
Elytra subparallel to apices which are separately rounded and not 
much narrowed, f^urface sculpture everywhere very fine, the elytra 
seemingly with a delicate pubescence. Legs moderately long. Length, 
from front of head to abdominal apex, 7.50 mm. 

Type in the Museum of Princeton University, number 
6512. 

The small size will at once separate this from any of the 
other described species of Florissant Lepturas, and the fine 
sculpture serves to differentiate it from L. antecurrens which 
comes nearest in length. Like the other fossils from Florissant 
ascribed to this genus, it must be considered a Leptura in the 
wide sense only. It is named after Joseph Leidy, zoologist 
and palaeontologist. 



1913] Fossil Beetles from Florissant. 365 



Cistela Fabr. 

C. antiqua n. sp. (Plate IV). Form fairly stout. Head finely 
rather densely punctulate and hairy. Eyes, as shown by their sockets, 
moderately large. Antennee slender, the basal two joints not definable, 
the remainder sub-equal, scarcely serrate, the distal ones not incrassate; 
if directed backwards, the antenna would reach nearly to the basal 
fourth of the elytra. Prothorax broad at base, narrowed at apex, 
sides gently arcuate, surface finely punctulate and hairy like the head, 
but more distinctly. Scutellum of moderate size, sculptured like the 
thorax. Elytra not alike in outline on account of the specimen being 
crushed askew, but the left one, which seems to be the better preserved, 
is a little more than four times the length of the prothoracic median 
line, tapering to the rather sharply rounded apex. Elytral sculpture 
and vestiture like that of the pronotimi. Legs wanting. Length, 
from front of head to elytral apex, 13.10 mm. 

Type in the Museum of Princeton University, number 
6534. 

The appearance of this insect is that of a Cistela with 
estriate elytra and slender antennae. Compared with the North 
American species known to me, it comes closest to C. pinguis 
from Colorado, It is about the size of the fossil Capnochroa 
senilis, but that insect has striatopunctate elytra. 

Capnochroa Lee. 

C. senilis n. sp. (Plate II, Fig. 5). Form elongate, subparallel 
as far as shown, but the el^^tral apices are broken off. Head rather 
large for this genus, transversely finely subrugose. Eyes, as displayed, 
transversely elliptical and of good size. Palpus (probably the maxil- 
lary) with the terminal joint roughly triangular, moderately dilated. 
Antenna relatively less elongate than in the recent C. fuliginosa, not 
serrate, second joint shorter than the third, which is not so long as the 
fourth. Prothorax narrowed anteriorly, the more perfect side about 
straight, anterior coxee narrowly separated by the presternum. Scu- 
tellum of moderate size. Elytra long, if complete they would be about 
six and one-half times the median prothoracic length, rather coarsely 
striate and punctate. Legs moderate or rather short, not excessively 
slender, the tarsi, as far as shown, a little shorter than the tibise, claws 
large, the front ones apparently pectinate. Length of fragment, 12.40 
mm. ; if entire, the insect would reach about 14.00 mm. 

Type in the Museum of Princeton University, number 
6902. 

While the generic reference must be considered somewhat 
doubtful, it seems safe to assume that the fossil represents 
a large Cistelid belonging in the same neighborhood as Cap- 
nochroa. The texture is very like that of the Cistelidae, the 



366 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

prosternum being strikingly like that of Capnochroa and set- 
ting up strongly in the same way. The arrangement of the 
coxae is as in that genus and the front tarsi correspond very 
well. The form of the palpus is similar. Under high power, 
the claws show transverse markings, which I think are the 
somewhat obscured pectinations. The strength of the elytral 
sculpture is indicated by its showing through, although the 
specimen is preserved as an underside. A disturbing element 
is introduced by the antennae, which are shorter and less serrate 
than in the modern species, but I dislike to found a new 
genus upon this character alone. Our living Capnochroa 
fuliginosa occurs in the Atlantic district and as far west as 
the Mississippi Valley. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

Plate L 

Fig. 1. Antherophagus megalops n. sp. 

Fig. 2. Telephorus humatus n. sp. 

Fig. 3. Trypherus aboriginalis n. sp. 

Fig. 4. Trypherus latipennis, (recent), hind wing. 

Fig. 5. Xestobium (?) alutaceum n. sp. 

Fig. 6. Leptura leidyi n. sp. 

Plate IL 
Fig. 1. Coccinella sodoma n. sp. 
Fig. 2. Dermestes tertiarius Wickh. 
Fig. 3. Dermestes tertiarius, antenna. 
Fig. 4. Attagenus aboriginalis n. sp. 
Fig. 5. Capnochroa senilis n. sp. 

Plate IIL 
Callidiopsites grandiceps n. 'sp. ^ 

Plate IV. 
Cistela antiqua n. sp. 



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H. P. Wickham. 



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Vol. VI, Plate XXXIX. 




H. F. Wickham. 



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Vol. VI, Plate XL. 




H. F, Wickham, 



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Vol. VI. Plate XLI. 




H. F. Wickham. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE BIOLOGY OF MAY-FLIES,* 

Anna H. Morgan. 

CONTENTS. 

I. Introduction 371 

II. Historical 372 

III. Life Cycle 377 

Embryo, Nymph, Sub-imago, Imago. 

IV. Modifications of structures of the nymph 380> 

Habitat, Shape of body. Gills, Food, Mouth-parts, Legs. 

V. Modifications of Adult Structures '. . . . 392: 

Mating, Alimentary Canal, Legs, Genitalia. 

VI. Eggs 397 

VII. Bibliography of the Order 401 

I. INTRODUCTION. 

This is a study of the habits and structure of May-flies. 
It describes the situations in which they Hve and some of the 
adjustments which they have made to the conditions in them. 
The two problems which face every organism are those of 
maintaining its own life and continuing its race. Its youth is 
devoted entirely to satisfying its individual needs for food and 
safety; its adult life is devoted to the race, but the necessities 
of the individual are still satisfied though they may be secured 
in an entirely different way. The immature life of May-flies 
is aquatic, and to it all adjustments concerned with food 
or safety are exclusively confined. The mature or adult life 
is aerial. It is solely devoted to reproduction. There is no 
provision for food or for other means of lengthening its 
life. It gives an opportunity for studying ways of getting 
a living which have been completely isolated from ways of 
reproducing. The study which follows has been divided 
into five sections. 

1. The historical sketch, in which the more important 
papers which have dealt with May-fly biology are briefly 
discussed. 

2. The life cycle which consists of a brief statement 
of the characteristics of the three stages of life. 

3. The evolution of the nymphs in which progress from a 
generalized to a specialized condition is shown in changes of 
shape and function of gills, mouthparts, and legs. 

*Contribution from the Limnological Laboratory of Cornell University. 
This work was done under the direction of Professor James G. Needham, of whose 
kindly criticism and stimulating interest I wish to express my appreciation. I 
wish also to thank Miss Anna C. Stryke for her many helpful suggestions regarding 
the drawings and the photographs from which some of the drawings have been 
taken. 

371 



372 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

4. The evolution of the adult in which specialization is 
shown by changes of function and developments for the fur- 
therance of reproduction. 

5. Adjustments for aquatic situations shown in the struc- 
tures of the eggs. 

6. A Bibliography of biological, morphological, and the 
more important systematic works dealing with this group. 

II. HISTORICAL. 

In the following historical sketch I have tried to select 
the more important papers of biological significance. In 
many cases, however, systematic, morphological, and biological 
work have been so closely related that such a separation has 
been impossible. 

Swammerdam. 1661. The foundation study of the bio- 
logy of May-flies was made by Johann Swammerdam, at 
Culenburg, on the Rhine, in 1661. As a field naturalist, 
he learned the most important facts concerning the life of 
Ephemerus, (probably Palingenia longicauda Oliv.). As an 
anatomist he dissected and studied its internal and external 
structure with great care. He described the emergence of 
the nymph, the sub-imago stage in males, and the final or 
imago stage in which he believed that the eggs and the sperm 
were deposited separately in the water. He concluded that 
no food was taken during aerial life, and that copulation did 
not occur. He examined the eggs and tested their power of 
dispersal by letting them fall into the water from the end of a 
knife. His work is a remarkably truthful and interesting 
record. Later works have added and corrected, but none 
have contributed better biology. 

Reaumur. 1742. In Memoires des Insectes, 1742, Reaumur 
reviewed much which had already been told by Swammerdam, 
and illustrated more profusely the life history of a burrowing 
May-fly, probably also Palingenia. Some of Reaumur's obser- 
vations were made upon nocturnal species. After he had 
noticed them swarming about a light near the river bank, 
he placed a tub of water in his own garden. By holding a 
light above this, in the evening, he was able to gather great 
numbers of May-flies and to watch their transformation from 
the sub-imago to the imago stage, and to see them lay their 



1913] Biology of May-flies. 373 

eggs in the water. He counted the eggs which he found pro- 
truding from the abdomens and determined the average num- 
ber to be 750 to 800 for each female. He disagreed with 
Swammerdam regarding the fertihzation of the eggs, and stated 
that the males and females probably did mate, and that the 
forceps of the male were evidently for the purpose of seizing 
the female. 

DeGeer. 1748. In 1748 DeGeer saw the mating* ac- 
tually take place. Two years later he again saw the mating 
flight and the mating, and this time was able to give more 
facts concerning it. The swarm consisted mostly of males. 
In mating the male was beneath the female with his abdomen 
recurved upward so that its tip rested against the two openings 
of the oviducts, between the eighth and ninth segments. Cop- 
ulation lasted but an instant, and De Geer was not able to 
observe the process in detail. He described several different 
varieties of May-flies, distinguishing them by descriptive 
color names. The double eyes of a diurnal May-fly (possibly 
a Leptophlebia) were mentioned, the larger eyes being named 
the turbinate eyes.f 

G^offroy. 1764. Geoffroy, 1764, saw great swarms of May- 
flies near Paris and noted that there they were called "manne 
de poissons," because great numbers fell down into the streams 
to the fishes. He accurately figured and described as a Crus- 
tacean,'! "the May-fly, later determined by Vayssiere as Pro- 
sopistoma, which he found in the riffles of a stream near Paris. 

Newman, 1836. In discussing the transformations of in- 
sects, Newman, 1836, wrote of May-flies as follows: "Here 
then we have the strange fact of an insect's flying before it 
reaches the imago; that is, flying in the penultimate state. 
It thus appears that although until the final ecdysis, no insect 
arrives at perfection; yet before that period, even in the state 
immediately preceding, it may feed, run and even fly; or it 
may swim, crawl, barely move, or be without motion." 

Bowerbank, 1833. Bowerbank studied the circulation of 
the blood in young nymphs of Ephemera marginata. He 
carefully examined the dorsal vessel with its valves and de- 
scribed the circulation of the blood. He was the first to see 



*DeGeer, 1748, T. II, p. 644. 
fDeGeer, 1748, T. II, p. 651. 
JGeoffroy, Tom. II, p. 658. "Le Binnocle a queue en plumet." 



374 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI^ 

in the setae the two currents of blood which have since been 
carefully studied. 

Westwood, 1840. In 1840 Westwood discussed the classi- 
fication of May-flies, following the discussion with some bio- 
logical facts mostly gathered from previous writers. 

Burmeister, 1848. Burmeister made the first real con- 
tribution to May-fly embryology. . While sitting in his room 
one evening, many females of Palingenia horaria flew through 
the open window and began depositing eggs upon his table. 
Burmeister described these eggs and figured them. He placed 
some of them in water on July 22 and on August 2 he freed 
an embryo from the shell. He studied this stage carefully 
and figured it showing the mouth-parts, legs and gills. 

Leuckart, 1858. Ten years later Leuckart carefully de- 
scribed the eggs of three May-flies. This work was f ^)llowed by 

Grenacher, 1868. Grenacher's short, but important paper, 
"Beitrage zu Kenntniss des Eies der Ephemeriden." . He 
studied eggs similar to those cited by Leuckart and showed that 
the polar knobs described by him were to be found in various 
stages within the ovary. So far as known, Leuckart and 
Grenacher have been the only authors who have made any 
careful study of these egg structures in May-flies. 

Pictet, 1843. The first general study of this group was 
the monograph in the ''Historic Naturelles des Insectes Neu- 
ropteres" by Pictet. He classified preceding biological and 
systematic studies and gave a history of each, reviewing all 
of the most important contributions from Aristotle to 1840. 
He described the habits of his four classes of nymphs, fossorial, 
flattened, swimming and crawling. He discussed the emergence 
of the nymph and features of the sub-imago and imago stages, 
but he gave many details less satisfactorily than Swammerdam 
or Geoffroy. 

Dufoiir, 1849. In 1849 Leon Dufour published a memoire 
on the different kinds of respiration in insects. In this he 
classified May-flies with insects breathing by means of external 
organs. This study was followed by the similar ones of Mueller, 
1851, and Milne Edwards, 1857. 

Lubbock, 1863-6. After the first contribution to May- 
fly embryology by Burmeister in 1848, no further investigations 
were made until 1863-6, when Sir John Lubbock published 
two papers, "On the Development of Chloeon dimidiatum." 



1913] Biology of May-flies. 375 

In these two studies he followed individuals through twenty- 
three successive moults, tracing them to the adult stage. He 
did not, however, begin his observations at the actual time 
of hatching as Burmeister had done. 

Hagen, 1849-1890. The foundation for the study of 
May-flies in North America was made largely through the 
inspiration and contributions of Prof. Hermann Hagen. Al- 
though the greater part of his work was systematic, the notes 
which he sent to Eaton in 1873 show that he made valuable 
additions to the knowledge of their biology. Hagen identified 
the nymph of Baetisca which B. D. Walsh described in 1864. 

Walsh, 1864. Walsh concluded his paper on Baetisca 
with a description of the swimming habits of the nymphs which 
he kept for some time under observation. 

Eaton, 1870. About the end of 1870, Rev. A. E. Eaton 
submitted to the Entomological Society of London the most 
important work done upon the group since Pictet's monograph. 
In 1883-86, the completed work was published in the Trans- 
actions of the Linnean Society. 

Eaton, 1883. In this work the world fauna was reclassified 
and a great number of forms were described and figured with 
such accuracy that it at once became and has remained the 
most important work upon the order. The introduction 
contained . a general account of the biology which included 
several of Dr. Hagen's* field notes. 

N. Joly, 1876. Joly, '76, studied the embryology of Pal- 
ingenia virgo. He kept eggs in dishes of water and recorded 
the structures of the developing embryo on the 5th and 6th 
day. This work was followed by another by N. and E. Joly, 
which dealt mostly with the structure of the systems in the 
nymphal and imago stages of certain species. 

Vays sieve, 1882. Vayssiere published the first extensive 
study of the nymphs. This paper was written almost entirely 
from a morphological view point, but it contains many refer- 
ances to short biological papers. 

The papers of Zimmerman, '79, Eaton, Hagen, Joly, Palmer, 
'83, Creutzburg, '85, and others were mainly morphological. 



"1873. Hagen Notes on the Ephemeridae. Compiled by Eaton. 



376 'Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Fritze, 1889. Fritze, '89, studied the structure of the 
alimentary canal. He described and figured a muscular 
apparatus in the oesophagus, and discussed its changes of 
function in the adult. 

Heymons, 1896. In a paper upon the embryology of Ephe- 
mera vulgata, Heymons, '96, stated that the eggs hatched 
eleven days after they were laid. He traced the development 
of the nymphs up to the age of four days. He discussed the 
ancestry of May-flies, and concluded that their life was ori- 
ginally entirely aerial and that the closed tracheal system of 
the nymphs is an accomodation to aquatic life. 

Causard, 1896. Causard noted the birth of living young 
in Ephemera vivipare and briefly described the development 
of the nyrnphs. 

Hubner, 1902. Hubner, '02, tested the regenerative powers 
of nymphs of Cloeon dipterum. Certain nymphs regenerated 
the last abdominal segment with its appendages. The ali- 
mentary canal became functional, and the insect lived for 
one month. 

Tumpel, Needham and Betten, 1901. In the same year 
two general papers were published. "Die Geradflugler Mittel- 
europas" by Tumpel and several complete life histories in 
"Aquatic Insects of the Adirondacks" by Needham and 
Betten. 

A similar but much more extensive work by Needham 
followed in 1905 and 1908. In the introduction to this study 
May-fly nymphs were described as "perhaps the dominant 
insect herbivores of fresh water." Their herbivorous diet 
and their importance in the economy of aquatic life were for 
the first time emphasized. 

Sternfeld, '07. Sternfeld, '07, worked upon the atrophy of 
the mouth-parts and the changes in function of the alimentary 
canal. He reviewed Fritze's paper and considered the bio- 
logical significance of the structures much more fully. He 
concluded that the alimentary canal in imago May-flies is 
by no means rudimentary and that a muscular apparatus, 
which is under voluntary control, regulates the supply of air 
in it. The decrease of specific gravity caused by this "swim- 
ming bladder" aids the insects in the mating flight and hence 
indirectly influences their multiplication. 



1913] ' Biology of May-flies. 377 

Drenkelfori, '10. Drenkelfort wrote a general account 
of the biology of Siphlurus lacustris. 

Wodsedalek, '11. Wodsedalek experimented upon nymphs 
of Heptagenia interpunctata Say and found that they were 
repelled by light, but that these reactions could be reversed 
by the addition of certain chemicals to the water, 

III. LIFE CYCLE. 

The life cycle of May-flies includes the embryonic period 
within the egg, and the active life which is divided into nymphal, 
sub-imago and imago stages. 

Almost the earliest studies of the embryos were made by 
Burmeister, '48, who described those of Palingenia horaria 
twelve days after laying. He noted the rudiments of the mouth 
parts and legs. According to Joly, '76, embryos of Palingenia 
virgo take about two months for development. Heymons, '96, 
found that eggs of Ephemera vulgata kept in a temperature 
of 20-25 C would hatch in ten to eleven days. At hatching 
they measured 1 mm. with setae inclusive. The antennae 
and setas were respectively five and four segmented. " External 
gills were not yet present, but all of the systems were com- 
plete except the reproductive. On segments two to seven of 
the abdomen was a series of lateral hypodermal thickenings. 
Heymons believed that the gills which arouse four days later 
were outpushings of these thickenings. He held the gills 
to be lateral projections homologous with the legs and not of 
dorsal origin as often considered. From the structures in the 
embryo he concluded that a homology between gills and wings 
is unfounded. 

By nympha] stage is meant the period of life between 
hatching and emergence from the water. The exact limits 
of its duration are unknown. Lubbock, '66, followed a Chloeon 
dimidiatum through twenty-three moults to_ the imago stage, 
but his data does not begin at time of hatching. Hexagenia 
variabilis lays its eggs in April and May, but I have found 
large and small nymphs abundant in the same locality in 
the March preceding, so that they must require at least two 
years to mature. Nymphs of Callibaetis fiuctuans mature 
in about six weeks in mid-summer. As already noted, May-flies, 
quit the egg in a fairly advanced state of development. They 



378 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

are very active and nearly all are voracious herbivores. The 
nymphal period is one of extreme competition and during 
it the nymph must find safety, and get food sufficient for 
its entire life. With the exception of the Diptera, May- 
flies are the dominant aquatic insect herbivores. They have 
attained this position by utilization of a vegetable diet and 
by remarkable adjustments to particular situations. The 
population about them is divided into two classes, competitors 
and . enemies. Their competitors are mostly insects, which, 
like the May-flies, live upon herbivorous or nearly herbivorous 
diet; among them are the larvcC of Caddis-flies (except the 
Hydrosychidas) , Crane-flies and most of the smaller Diptera. 
Their enemies are wholly or in part carnivorous. Important 
among them are the nymphs of Dragon-flies, Stone-flies, many 
beetles and the Hemiptera and Neuroptera. The adolescence 
of the nymph is evidenced internally by the development of the 
reproductive organs, and externally by the growth of rudi- 
mentary wings. This stage is terminated by a gradual change 
in organs of locomotion, respiration and digestion and by 
the final casting off of the nymphal skin. 

The first winged or aerial stage is known as the sub-imago. 
The general form of body differs little from that of the actual 
adult insect. The wings are fully expanded and direct respira- 
tion through open spiracles is established. All surfaces are 
dull and in most cases the wings have a prominent marginal 
fringe of hairs. A few May-flies (females of Palingenia and 
Cam'psurus, Eaton '83) never lose the sub-imago skin, but 
in nearly all it is shed. The duration of the sub-imago stage 
varies from a few minutes in the most ephemereal species to 
several days. Needham,* '08, has given this account of Caenis 
diminuta. "It is the most ephemeral of all Ephemera. It 
emerges from the water at nightfall, leaving its nymphal 
skin floating on the surface, and, alighting on the flrst support 
that offers, sheds its skin again, and the sub-imago stage is 
ended." 



*N. Y. State Bull. 124, p. 178. 



1913] Biology of May-flies. 379 

The following data upon some of the longer lived species 
shows its average length: 

Heptagenia interpunctata cf 2 days = length of sub-imago life 

a a ^ 1 « __ « u u 

U « 1"=;: " " « 

U U g 1 « = « « " 

Siphlurus alternatus 9 2"= " « « 

(( « ^ 2 « __ « « « 

Iron fragiHs cf 2 " = 

« " ff Q 2 " = " " " 

U U ^ g 2 " ^ " " " 

Sub-imagos are very inactive and in nature spend the 
day-time resting in the shade, often upon the under side of 
leaves near the stream from whence they emerged. In cap- 
tivity they are just as inactive, but if confined in very narrow 
quarters, they almost invariably fail to transform successfully. 
During this stage the legs, especially the front ones, and setae 
are elongated and the reproductive system matures. 

That this sub-imago stage is peculiar to May-fiies is a well 
known fact. Little light, however, has been thrown upon 
its actual significance and analogy to the stages of other orders. 
Boas, '99, suggested that the sub-imago stage once had a wide 
distribution among Orthoptera which have now died out; 
that this corresponds to the pupal stage of holometabolous 
insects; and that the Ephemeridas show a transition toward 
perfect metamorphosis. He believed that there was nothing 
in the form of Neuropterous pupse which contradicts the 
theory that they have been developed out of such sub-imago 
stage. 

The single molt of aerial life is followed by the mature 
or imago stage. At the beginning of this stage the eyes, 
legs and setae attain full size. All surfaces of the body are 
shiny and the wings are transparent. The duration of this, 
like the sub-imago stage, varies greatly with the species. It 
varies also with the individual. Males which have mated 
are said to live a much shorter time than those kept in cap- 
tivity. 

Imagos are usually active at special times. Those of 
diurnal species fly freely at all hours of the day, but oftenest are 
seen in mating flights during the late afternoon. The nocturnal 



380 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI ^ 

May-flies must swarm in like manner at night is testified by 
the great numbers often caught in webs in the early morning. 
The important functions of this stage are the fertilization 
and laying of the eggs. 

IV. MODIFICATIONS OF STRUCTURES OF THE NYMPH. 

Nymphs of Ephemerinae and Heptagenin^e (Needham) 
live fairly within the limits of two ecological situations. The 
Ephemerinee inhabit mud or muddy water exclusively. Most 
of the Heptagenince live in riffles of streams or upon the wave 
washed shores of lakes. The B^etinse inhabit gentle currents 
or open waters and intermingle with the mud and cascade 
dwellers as well. They have become adjusted to very dif- 
ferent situations and they show a wide range of specialization. 

All of the Ephemerinae which have been found here live in 
the same situation and are very similar in their habit of life. 
Ephemera and Hexagenia are true burrowers in the mud;, 
Polymitarcys occasionally adopts the digging habit and Pot- 
amanthus crawls upon silt covered stones and muddy bottoms- 
in the same locality. 

The members of the Heptageninas are also very homo- 
geneous habit. They live in running water, clinging or moving 
about upon the under sides of stones. Iron and Epeorus 
dwell in the swiftest water of the current, in riffles and falls;. 
Ecdyurus and Heptagenia live in the gentle currents along 
the borders of the stream and sometimes beneath the stones 
in quiet pools. 

The Baetinae dwell in a variety of situations. Siphlurus 
and Callibaetis clamber upon the aquatic plants or dart about 
on the alga covered bottoms of still pools and inlets, while 
Ameletus more often frequents moving waters and nymphs 
of Blasturus hide among decayed leaves in ponds and brooks. 
Leptophlebia and Habrophlebia cling closely to the surface 
of stones, usually upon the under side and often in fairly 
rapid water. Most members of the genus Ephemerella have 
a similar habit, but there is a wide divergence among the species 
of this genus. Two genera, Baetis and Chirotonetes, are 
dwellers in water falls, and the latter has become remarkably 
well adjusted to its habitat. Tricorythus and Caenis are 
adjusted to life in mud and sand and show structures especially 
well fitted to their surroundings. These two extremes of. 



1913] Biology of May-flies. 381 

specialization are examples which show the variety of ad- 
justments within this family. As later discussions will point 
out, they also show what diverse structures may fit an organism 
equally well for life in the same of similar situations. 

Since the outside of an animal is the first to be influenced 
by environment, the most important adjustments must be 
looked for in external structures. In this study only the 
three most important sets will be considered; those which 
have to do with respiration, food and motion. 

SHAPE OF BODY IN THREE SUBFAMILIES OF MAY-FLIES. 

Before attempting to trace the adaption in the three sys- 
tems just named, it is necessary to briefly describe the general 
shape of the nymphs in the three subfamilies. 

The bodies of the Ephemerinae are elongate, more or less 
cylindrical and tapering at either end. Those of Ephemera 
(PI. XLIV, Fig. 8) and Hexagenia are almost perfectly cylindri- 
cal. The heads are wedge-shaped with the mandibular tusks 
projecting sharply in front. The bodies of Polymitarcys and 
Potamenthus (PI. XLIV, Fig. 7) are flattened. The head of 
the latter is short and broad with the mandibular tusks barely 
showing beyond the labrum. A comparison of Ephemera 
(Plate XLIV, Fig. 8), with Potamanthus, will immediately show 
Ephemera to be the burrower. 

In the Heptageninas, the head, the body and all its append- 
ages are depressed. In Iron and Epeorus (PI. XLII, Fig. 4),. 
which inhabit the swiftest water, this depression is greatest,, 
but in Heptagenia and Ecdyurus, it is also very pronounced. 

The form of the Bastinae is various. The most represen- 
tative is the slender compressed body and rather small rounded 
head which is characteristic of the active nymphs like Callibsetis, 
Ameletus, (PI. XLIII, Fig. 5 and PL XLII, Fig. 3). All of these 
nymphs have long legs for running and jumping, but in another 
type, the body is shortened, more or less flat upon the ventral 
side, and thickened through the metathorax. Such a form is 
represented by the majority of the Ephemerellas. It is most 
marked in the very short stubby bodies of Casnis and Tri- 
corythus, which have become exclusively mud dwellers. In 
Blasturus (PL XLII, Fig. 1) there is a tendency to a depressed 
form. This is more pronounced in Choroterpes, which is strik- 
ingly similar to the Heptageninae. 



382 Annals Entomological Socie.y of America [Vol. VI, 



ADJUSTMENT TO ENVIRONMENT SHOWN IN THE STRUCTURE OF 

THE GILLS. 

The gills of May-flies are especially susceptible to mod- 
ification by the character of their surroundings. They are 
usually large and prominent. In other aquatic insects gills 
are less directly exposed. Those of stone-flies are generally 
tucked behind the legs upon the ventral side of the thorax, 
and those of damsel flies at the hind end of the body. Most 
May-flies have seven pairs of gills, one borne at each postero- 
lateral angle of the first seven tergites. They are usually 
large, sometimes unweildy and always a conspicuous feature 
of the body. Situated as they are, they extend along the whole 
side of the abdomen and brush against everything with which 
it comes in contact. 

The gills of Leptophlebia are the most generalized of any 
which have been examined. They appear to lack modi- 
fications both for respiration in any particular situation or 
for protection. The seven pairs are identical in shape and 
nearly so in size. Each one is entire at the base, but deeply 
cleft into two long narrow divisions which lie in one plane. 
Their surfaces are without markings or local thickenings. 
One large trachea enters the gill and sends a branch to each 
of its divisions. In these there is but a scanty supply of 
tracheoles. The attachment to the abdomen is exposed 
above and below so that the only protection for the gill is in 
the ease with which it may be detached and regenerated. 

In Blasturus the first pair of gills are like those of Lep- 
tophlebia, but the other six pairs are broadened so that a much 
greater respiring surface is provided. At the base a trachea 
enters and splits once, but each arm gives off a good number 
of branches which supply the whole surface of each gill division 
or lamella. The two lamellae do not lie in the same plane, 
but the outer one is twisted over at the base and lies on top of 
the inner. A 'do.uble gill made of two overlapping lamellee 
is thus formed. A variation of this same kind of development 
is shown in the gills of Choroterpes. These gills have neither 
ribs, nor bands upon their margins. In consequence of this 
they hang limply from the sides of the body, but the main 
tracheae provide some leverage for the muscles, and the gills 



1913] Biology of May -flies. 383 

can be moved a little. The breathing movement is, however, 
slow and feeble. The nymphs are thus provided with large 
breathing organs, but also burdened with an unweildy load. 

In Siphlurus the gills are double and are stiffened by strong 
tracheae and moved by muscles at the base, so that they can 
be held upright and can also be vibrated with great rapidity. 
In addition there are narrow spinous bands upon the inner 
sides of the upper lamellae. Those of Callibaetis (PL XLIII, 
Fig. 5), are held in upright position, and can be rapidly vibrated 
like those of Siphlurus. They are much smaller and lie 
farther dorsad when pulled down close to the body. They 
are better protected because less conspicuous, and better breath- 
ing organs because their rapid vibration enables them to absorb 
as much oxygen as if they were broad and bulky. 

In the gills of Baetis the marginal bands are hardly in- 
dicated, but those of Ameletus are broadly bordered by thick 
spinous bands of chitin. In them the single lamella is fairly 
supplied by tracheae. Its base is inserted into a shallow 
notch in the posterior margin of the tergite. Its attach- 
ment is thus slightly protected and at the same time it is 
allowed to swing freely. Adjustment to the conditions 
in water falls is always marked by an increase in the tracheal 
supply. - In Chirotonetes (PI. XLVI, Fig. 13), this has been 
made by a great increase in the number of fine tracheoles 
which supply the lamella and by the development of a fimbriate 
gill at the base main trachea of which is a branch of the main 
trachea of the lamella. The margins of the lamella are bor- 
dered with thickened spinous bands similar to those of Amele- 
tus, but it has also a stiff rib extending from base to tip. 

A second group of Baetinas in which the gills are much 
specialized includes those which have been adjusted to an 
environment of mud and sand. Nearly all of these nymphs 
have the number of gills reduced. In Ephemerella excrucians 
there are but five pairs of gills and these cover but two ab- 
dominal segments. The attachments are in every case pro- 
tected by lateral spinous extentions of the abdomen. In 
Ephemerella rotunda and E. excrucians a wide hollow shelf 
is -formed from these spines, upon which the gills rest. Each 
gill consists typically of a thickened lamella, which completely 
overlies the delicate fimbriate-lamelliform division beneath. 



384 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

The thickening of the upper lamella is greatest upon the front 
gills. This thickening and the reduction in number of the 
gills is most marked in the two mud dwellers, Caenis and 
Tricorythus. In these, gills are present upon segments two 
to six only. In all species of both genera the upper lamella 
of the first gill is modified into a cover which conceals all of 
those behind it. They are further protected by a shelf -like 
extension similar to that just described in Ephemerella. In 
the slight concavity of this shelf lie the delicate gills of seg- 
ments 4, 5, 6, protected from the harsh gravel through which 
the nymphs crawl. When breathing actively the stiff covers 
are raised enough to allow water to circulate upon the gills 
beneath, which vibrate freely and create a current. 

The gill covers of Tricorythus are scoop shaped, with the 
concavity beneath, so that even when the cover is closed down 
the gills are not under pressure, but are enclosed in a pro- 
tecting box. The edges of the cover and those of the gills 
beneath are margined with short hairs. This brush of inter- 
mingled hairs makes an effective sieve which strains out 
particles of mud from the incoming current of water. En- 
trance of water at the base of the gill is prevented by a small 
triangular extension of the second abdominal segment which 
fits closely to the inner side of the elytroid cover. 

Gills of the EphemerincB. 

The most homogeneous series of gills is found in the Eph- 
emerinse which in Fall Creek were represented by Potamanthus, 
Polymitarcys, Ephemera and Hexagenia. They are single 
and rudimentary upon segment one, (PI. XLIX, Fig. 27) and 
double upon segments 2-7 (PI. XLIX, Fig. 26). They are long 
and generally narrow, but this varies slightly with the genus. 
The upper and lower lamella are both fringed with filaments 
into which run branches of the trachea. The attachments 
are not protected and the base of the gills appears to be an 
unbroken continuation of the body wall, which is very flexible 
and tough. The gihs of Potamanthus (PL XLIV, Fig. 7) 
are the most generalized. They are nearly linear, lie limply 
extended from the sides of the body and except for the scanty 
fringe of filaments are almost identical with the gills of Lep- 
tophlebia. 



1913] Biology of May-Hies. 385 

In the true burrowers, Ephemera (PI. XLIV, Fig. 8) and 
Hexagenia (PI. XLIX, Figs. 26, 27) both lamellae are broader 
and the number of the marginal filaments is more than doubled. 
Each lamella is stiffened by a mid-rib of chitin which overlies 
the main trachea. By the aid of this rib the gills can be 
held up over the back where they are not exposed to the con- 
stant friction as they would be when trailing from the sides. 

Gills of the HeptagenincB. 

The gills of the Heptageninae (PI. XLV, Figs, 10, 11, PL 
XLVI, Fig. 12) show a series of slightly less homogeneous ad- 
justments. They are fitted for breathing in different degrees 
of rapid water, and at their maximum specialization, they are 
important aids to the nymph in clinging to surfaces. The 
gills are double except the last one which in Heptagenia is 
rudimentary. (PL XLV, Fig. 10). The upper division is plate- 
like and shows greater modification and the lower part is 
fimbriate-lamelliform or fimbriate, and varies slightly in size 
and position among different genera. The gills of the Hep- 
tagenia and Epeorus have the characteristic abundant trachea- 
tion of swift water inhabitants. In Epeorus the lamellae are 
large, richly tracheated and lie obliquely recumbent along 
the sides of the body, (PL XLII, Fig. 4), so that the tips and 
outer edges touch the surface upon which the nymphs rests. 
Along this edge is a chitinized band thickly beset with spines. 
When clinging to stones in the rapid current this edge is pressed 
tightly down to the surface. The bases of the gills are pro- 
tected by sharp extensions of each tergite, which project 
backward .over them. On the inner margin of each lamella 
near the base is a shallow notch. When the lamellae are 
held close to the body the fimbriate gill projects through this 
notch and receives the full wash of the water. The first pair 
of lamellae are scoop-shaped and curve inward back of the hind 
legs so that little water flows beneath the body. 

In Iron fragilis there is a similar, but more perfect adhesive 
apparatus. The outer margins of the lamellae are likewise 
banded and their position is identical with that just described 
The first pair of lamellae are much larger, (PL XLVI, Fig. 12), 
and their tips are held almost in contact. The last pair are 
folded and slightly curved so that the tips of these also nearly 
touch. When the margins of these lamellae are closely pressed 



386 



Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



against the surface a sucking disk is formed. In the lamellae 
and in the fimbriate gill above, the tracheae absorb oxygen 
from the water constantly flowing over them. An adhesive 
apparatus is thus coupled with an efficient respiratory organ. 

The Food of the May -fly Nymphs. 
May-fiies are almost entirely herbivorous. Their food 
consists chiefly of fragments of higher plant tissue, algae and 
diatoms. The following table contains the record of an ex- 
amination of the stomach content of several nymphs. With 
the exception of Siphlurus and Chirotonetes the examinations 
were made upon fresh material: 

Stomach Contents of Nymphs Examined Through April and May. Crosses 
(X) Represent Substances Found in More Than Ten 
Specimens of a Genus. 



1. Fragments of Plant Tissue. 

Stems, decayed leaves. 

Epidermis 

Epidermis, moss 

Epidermis, roots 

2. Filamentous algas. 

Vaucheria 

Spirogyra 

Mougeotia 

Ulothrix 

Zygnema 

3. Diatoms. 

Navicula 

Fragellaria 

Tabellaria 

Cocconema 

Meridion.. .• 

Gonphonema 

Synedra 

4. Animal. ^ 

Mayflies 

Other insects 



X 



ffi 



m 



ffi 



X 



X 



The kinds of algse and diatoms found in the stomach 
varied a good deal with the locality and date of collection. 
In certain parts of Cold Brook during March, 1911, every 
available object was brown with Meridion and the stomachs 



i9i: 



Biology of May-flies. 



387 



of nymphs collected there contained little else. Nymphs 
taken in the same place a month later contained no fragment 
of Meridion. May-fly food is most abundant in April and 
May, especially for the running water forms. Later the thick 
mats of Meridion, Cladophora arid Spirogyra begin to decay, 
there is a diminished supply of water and consequently greater 
competition for food. 

In the summer of 1911, a few experiments in feeding were 
made upon Callibaetis fiuctuans, one of the most abundant 
local May-flies in pools and open waters. Six pails about 
one foot deep and seven inches in diameter were made from 
strong muslin. A ring of wire was placed at top and bottom 
to extend them. A string was tied into the upper one for a 
bale and the pails were fastened to a frame and suspended 
in a pool where the water was kept constantly fresh. They 
were numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and a different food placed in 
each respective pail. 

On June 28, twelve nymphs of equal size were measured 
and freed in pail. On July 1, nymphs were taken from each 
pail and the stomach contents examined. For ten days more 
the same food was given at intervals of two days. Occasionally 
the pails were rinsed free of stale food. This was especially 
necessary for the corn meal w^hich soured quickly. 



June 28 
12 Nymphs in each Pail 


July 1 

Alive 


Julyl 
Stomach Content 


July 10 
Alive 


1. Fruiting chara 


All 

All 
All 

None 

7 
All 


Not much food, fragments 
chara 






All 


2 Corn meal 


Half full of meal. 


6 


3. Alfalfa (ground) 


Not much food, fragments 
alfalfa. . 






9 


4. Spatter-dock (ground) 

5. Green grass (groimd) 

6. Fruiting chara (control) . . . 


Full of spatter-dock tissue .... 
Half full, green grass 


7 


Full of chara 


All 







The mouth-parts of May-fly Nymphs. 
Bcetince 
The most generalized mouth-parts occur among the Baetinae 
in the species which bite or tear fragments from roots and 
stems. They consist of labrum, labium, mandibles, maxillae, 
hypopharynx, and the epipharynx which is borne upon the 
labrum. Those of Callibaetis fiuctuans (PI. XLVII, Fig. 14), 



388 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

are typical of this generalized condition. On the concave 
inner surface of the labrum are two patches of incurving hairs, 
and these are supplemented by a set of long marginal hairs. 
When gathering food the edge of the labrum is pressed against 
a stem or leaf and moved rapidly back and forth. After a few 
movements its tip is pulled close to the mouth and brushed 
by the maxillary palpi. The labium sweeps food in from behind 
as the labrum does trom the front. On the maxillae which lie 
in front of the labium the lacinia and galea are fused. The 
lacinia is represented by two teeth on the tip; the galea by the 
lobe like part behind them. The teeth of mandibles are 
separated into two distinct groups, the canines (c) and the 
molars (m). In many cases both of these are very asym- 
metrical. Both maxillag and mandibles may be freely ex- 
tended side wise, but the latter is used less often for biting than 
for grinding. The epipharynx (cf. PI. XLVII, Fig. 14b) is an 
inconspicuous elevation which is borne on the inner surface 
of the labrum. It is densely covered by short incurved hairs 
probably sensory. It often extends on to the clypeus and in all 
the nymphs examined lies a little to the right of the center. 
Mouth-parts of the type described above are found in nymphs 
of Siphlurus, Blasturus, Baetis and Leptophlebia. The food 
getting habits of any of these can be easily observed. They 
pull off fragments from the stems and leaves by sticking the 
laciniae or less often the canines into the tissue, then bracing with 
the front feet and pulling backward. Upon flat surfaces, they 
keep the labrum and labium moving rapidly and thus sweep 
the food into the mouth. 

In nymphs of Ameletus ludens a broad plankton rake upon 
the maxillae formed by a series of arched, regularly grad- 
uated, and pectinated hooks borne upon the distal end of 
the galea and lacinia. When eating, the nymph extends 
these rakes forward and backward, exactly as one would 
use a hand rake and by the help of the labium and hypopharynx 
the food is pulled into the mouth for grinding. 

Nymphs of Chirotonetes gather their food upon ledges 
washed by dashing water. The outer surfaces of the mouth 
parts are armed with very long bristles. The distal segment 
of the labial and maxillary palpi are flattened out into broad 
blades. These blades are used as scrapers upon the algae cov- 
ered stones. In the swift current this nymph must of necessity 



1913] Biology of May-flies. 389 

cling to the rocks with its head upstream. In doing this 
it uses its fore legs little, but they are held up and straight 
forward close beneath the labium. Armed with long bristles 
as they are, they help to form an efficient plankton basket 
which catches the food carried along in the water. 

In Caenis, Tricorythus and Ephemerella the mouth-parts 
are often reduced. In all these the mandibles are stout with very 
strong canines (PI. XLVII, Figs. 16, 19, and PL XLVII. Figs. 
20, 21). Structures like the palpi which extend out from the 
mouth are much shorter. In Tricorythus (Fig. 22), the body 
of the labrum is strong, but the palpi are weak and stubby. 
This reduction is carried to the limit in the maxillae of Eph- 
emerella deficiens in which the palpi have disappeared, leaving 
only a little peak of chitin at their attachment place (Fig. 18). If 
one observes nymphs of Tricorythus or Ephemerella forag- 
ing, they will see them continually thrusting their heads 
through harsh gravel where such appendages would be in the 
way. 

The Bcetiuce have the most generalized mouth-parts ex- 
amined. This group includes species in which there have been 
modifications of the mouth-parts for rakers and plankton 
baskets, and great reduction of palpi. 

EphemerincB 

Nymphs of Potamanthus, Polymitarcys and Hexagenia 
all gather their food in the same places and by the same means. 
Their relative specialization has been closely correlated with 
the extent to which they have been modified for burrowing. 
The mandibles of Potamanthus (PI. XLVIII, Figs. 23 and 24) 
show the beginning of this modification. The canines are 
here in their usual position at the tip of the mandible (c), 
but upon the outer side of each is a stout pointed process. 
These processes are not long, and when the mandibles are in 
natural position only their tips show beyond the labrum. 
These processes are similar in shape and identical in position 
with the tusks of the true burrowers. Ephemera and Hexa- 
genia (PI. XLIX, Figs. 31, 36). In these the processes are long, 
slightly incurving tusks which are the most conspicuous features 
of the head. The canines are on the median side of these near 
the base, and when the mandibles are in natural position, 
they extend downward and can thus most efficiently grasp 



390 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI ^ 

food. From them the food is passed inward to the grinding 
surface of the molars. Upon the left molar (PI. XLIX, Fig. 34) 
are eight deep transverse gutters. The upper ends of these 
are enclosed by irregular teeth and the floors are marked by 
transverse striations. The right riiolar (Fig. 35) surface 
bears seven overlapping ridges, all but one of which is bluntly 
toothed and enclosed at one end by a prominent jagged process. 
When in position the ridges of the right molar fit down into 
the gutters of the left and the terminal teeth fit into the free 
ends of the gutters. The food brushed into the mouth by the 
labium and maxillae is ground in this mill. 

In the Ephemerinse the greatest modification has occurred 
in the mandibles which have become the strongest structures 
of the head, important alike to feeding and burrowing. 

Heptagenince. 
In the Heptageninae which have scraping mouth-parts, 
the labrum is entirely hidden from above. It is freely movable 
upon the clypeus and has a row of very dense, slightly incurved 
hairs extending along its margin. The inner surface of the 
labrum is slightly concave, and bears the epipharynx. When the 
labrum is extended forward the short hairs upon the inner 
surface rake in the food and are closely followed by the thick 
brush upon the margin. Food thus gathered in the concavity 
of the labrum falls directly between the maxillae and mandibles. 

Legs of Nymphs. 
The legs of May-fly nymphs consist of a coxa, trochanter, 
tibia, tarsus and a tarsal claw. These parts vary in relative 
size and structure according to the habit of the nymph. The 
surfaces may be bare, scaly, spinose or hairy. In all of the 
legs which have been examined there is a small but distinct 
plate on the inner side at the distal end of each tibia. 

Bcetin(B. 
The Bastinae includes nymphs which have the most general- 
ized legs, such as those of Siphlurus, Callibastis, Ameletus and 
Chirotonetes. All of these nymphs can move about upon a 
heterogeneous footing (Figs. 3 and 5). The legs of Siphlurus 
are of the most generalized type. They are long and slender 
and the three pairs are of equal length. The surfaces are 
sparsely covered with inconspicuous hairs. The tarsal claw 



1913] Biology of May-flies. 391 

is long, slender and without teeth. The tibial plate is well 
developed, consisting of a thick, flattened projection of the 
tibia, which bears transverse ridges. The attachment of the 
legs allows free movement and the nymphs are capable of 
running very swiftly. The middle and hind legs of Chiroton- 
etes are similar to those which have been described, but the 
first pair has been modified for food gathering and respiration. 
At the base of the coxa, there is a large tuft of forked gill 
filaments. From the tibia an elongate flattened spur extends 
for more than half the length of the tarsus, and along the inner 
margin of femur, tibia, and tarsus is a regularly arranged 
Vow of very long, stiff hairs. When the legs are sharply bent, 
these hairs, together with the tibial spur form the bottom of 
the plankton basket already referred to. 

In Casnis, Tricorythus and Ephemerella the legs do not 
lift the bodies at all. Nymphs of Caenis and Tricorythus clamber 
upon very uneven surfaces so that the legs do not extend straight 
out from the body as they do in some of the Ephemerellas later 
noted. The strain of pulling and climbing comes evenly upon 
every segment of the leg and there is little difference in their 
size. In both of these genera the tarsal claws are in constant use 
and are correspondingly well developed. The same evenly 
distributed development may be seen in the legs of certain 
Ephemerellas, which constantly crawl over mud, dead leaves, 
and small debris. In others in which there are well established 
clinging habits (PI. L, Figs. 39, 43), the fore femora are enor- 
mously developed by the constant pulling incident to their 
position. In these legs the hinder part of the femora is greatly 
thickened by the muscular development, but the front edge 
is thin and blade-like and often jaggedly toothed or serrate. 

EphemerincB. 

Two stages of modification are shown in the legs of Pota- 
manthus and Ephemera. In Potamanthus, which crawls 
upon the bottom in a manner similar to the Heptageninee, 
the legs sprawl out from the body in the same way. The 
tibia . is prolonged into a flat spine which overlaps the first 
third of the tarsus. The structure of this fore leg appears 
to be the fore-runner of the greater modification shown in the 
fore legs of Ephemera, (PI. XLIV, Fig. 8), which are perfect 
digging tools. 



392 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



V. MODIFICATIONS OF ADULT STRUCTURES. 

Reproduction is the sole end of the imago life. Parts 
of the body which have no function connected with it are 
reduced or atrophied. 

It is probable that, with but few exceptions, May-fiies 
engage in some kind of mating flight. The character of this 
flight and the time when it occurs vary. The following 
records show some of these variations. On June 25th 
a swarm of three or four hundred individuals of Choroterpes 
basalis were swarming over the water of Fall Creek at about 
four o'clock on a sunny afternoon. Their average rise must 
have been thirty feet. From the swarm both males and females 
were captured, but mating was not observed. On June 29th, 
at 7:30 in the evening, a female Ephemera varia was captured 
from a swarm which was rising and falling in flights of thirty 
to forty feet. Often they descended to within five feet of the 
ground. Their dance continued until darkness hid them. 
Mating flights of Leptophlebia pr^epedita have been seen 
in the middle of a sunny forenoon, and at two, four and five 
o'clock of bright afternoons in May and June. None of these 
rose higher than fifteen feet and two of the swarms did not 
fiy more than six feet above the ground. One entire swarm 
which was captured contained forty males and one female. 

Actual mating has been observed but a few times. The 
most satisfactory observation was made in May, 1911, upon 
a swarm of Bsetis, which were flying near Cascadilla Creek 
just after a shower. Most of the time they were not flying 
much above the level of the eye so that they could be clearly 
seen. Large numbers continually settled on bushes and upon 
my clothing, and there appeared to be about equal numbers 
of males and females. Many matings occurred, but in only 
seven could the positions of the insects be seen at all. The 
male of one of the couples flew up and attached himself beneath 
a female, pressed the dorsal side of his head against the ventral 
side of her thorax and extended his fore-legs upward, in order 
to clutch her prothorax. The setse of the female extended 
straight out posteriorly, but those of the male were pointed 
forward over his back so that their tips projected between 
the heads of the two insects. The position of the abdomen 
could not be clearly seen, but judging from that of the setse, it 



1913] 



Biology of May -flies. 



393 



must have been recurved in order to insert the penes inside 
the egg valve. Copulation did not last more than half a minute. 
When in copula, each pair was borne diagonally downward to 
the ground, but always separated immediately upon touching 
it. 

So far as known flight is a necessity for copulation and 
egg-laying in May-flies. The alimentary canal and the legs 
play a part in flight which is peculiar to this group. It is a 
well known fact that adult May-flies take no food and that 
the alimentary canal is inflated with air or gas. Sometime 
before emergence the nymphs cease to eat and just before it, 
they push their heads above the surface and appear to be 
rapidly gulping in air. If dissected at this stage the alimentary 
canal is found much inflated. It remains thus inflated through- 
out life. The structure of the alimentary canal of adults 
was studied by Fritze, '06 and by Sternfeld, '07. Sternfeld 
found a complicated muscular dilator apparatus in the esoph- 
agus. This he concluded to be a pump by which the mid- 
gut was filled with air and by which its supply could be vol- 
untarily controlled. He did not discover whether any change 
occurred in the air taken in. No suggestion was made as to 
when this pump was used, but it is probable that it functions 
when the canal is first inflated by the nymph and afterward 
in controlling the specific gravity during flight. This change 
of the alimentary canal from its normal function to that of 
a balloon is very important to flight. The lessening of the 
specific gravity made possible by this modification makes the 
work of the wings much easier. Since it is more important 
that adults mate, than that they live a long time, this function 
of the alimentary canal exceeds the former one in value. 




Fig. 1. Legs of male imago of Hexagenia bilineata. A, first leg; B, second 
leg; C, third leg; 1, opposite side of legs showing tibial spur. 



394 



Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



It has already been noted that adult May-flies use their 
legs little or none in walking and in many instances the fore 
legs are not even used for support. In most males the fore 
legs are enormously lengthened and when the insects are at rest, 
they are often extended out from the head (PI. XLIV, Fig. 9). 
The middle and hind legs brace the body, but they usually 
lift only the front part, while the abdomen rests upon the sup- 
porting surface (PI. XLIII, Fig. 6). The fore legs are necessary 
structures in copulation and males of Palingenia which have 
very short legs mate not in mid-air, but close to the surface 
of streams. (Eaton). The legs' of • some May-flies have been 
enormously specialized. The fore-legs of a South American 
Campsurus are very long, (see Fig. 3), while the middle and hind 
ones are but short stubs. In the fore legs there is a twist in 




Fig. 2. Male imago Campsurus (South America) showing rudimentary- 
middle and hind legs. The setse not represented at full length here, are about 
three times the length of the body. 

the joint which articulates the tarsus with the tibia. This 
admits the supination of the tarsus and is evidently a modifica- 
tion for clutching the female. 



1913] 



Biology of May-flies. 



395 



External Genitalia of the Male. 
The external genitalia of the male consists of a pair of 
forceps, jointed except in Csenis and Campsurus, and two 
penes, each with a distinct opening. The forceps are incurved 
appendages of the tenth segment, by which the male grasps 
the abdomen of the female. The genitalia of Hexagenia 




Fig. 3. A, external genitalia of Hexagenia sp.? cf; p, penis; o. s. d., 
■opening of seminal duct; f, forceps. B, ventral view of rear abdomen of Hexa- 
genia sp.? 9, showing ov, outline of oviduct seen through body-wall; o. 6v., 
opening of oviduct; e. v., egg-valve; 7, 8, 7th and 8th sternites. 

sp.?* are of the simple type. The forceps are three 
jointed, with a stout basal piece. The two distal seg- 
ments are concave on the inner surface and tip. These con- 
cavities, the flap like extension upon the main segment and 
the inner surface of the basal piece are thickly covered with 
small papillae, which are characteristic of nearly all forceps ex- 
amined. The roughened surface produced by them probably 

This is a species Hexagenia recurrata in manuscript which I have to be pub- 
lished. 



396 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

helps to hold the female. The penes are the intromittent 
organs. In Hexagenia they consist of two chitinous funnels 
whose larger ends open inside the body, and whose smaller 
ends are slender tubes bent down ventrally. Between the 
penes is a t^in chitinous plate, and beneath they are supported 
by the tenth sternite. In each penis the seminal duct can 
be clearly traced to its termination at the end of the bent tube. 
Of the more complicated condition which exists in most 
May-flies, the genitalia of Siphlurus alternatus is fairly typical 
(PI. LI). The forceps are similar to those of Hexagenia. 
Their origin from the ninth sternite is shown in Figures 48 
and 49. The penes (P) are wholly hidden from beneath 
by the tenth sternite, but they are attached only at their 
bases, and in copulation may be freely projected within the 
(Fig. 50, EV) egg valve, while the tenth sternite remains 
outside it. Essentially they consist of the funnels just de- 
scribed in Hexagenia with secondary structures added. Th6 
larger ends of the funnels open into the body (Fig. 49, A). 
In Figure 49 the penes are shown in dorsal view, separated off 
from the dorsal part of the abdomen with the large ends of 
the funnels exposed (A). The small end of the funnel (B) 
extends outside the body and turns downward as in Hexagenia, 
but the opening of the seminal duct is enlarged and trumpet- 
shaped. From the dorsal side only the backs of these trumpets 
can be seen, but when the penes are completely removed 
from the ninth sternite and turned with their ventral sides 
up, one can look directly down into their openings, (Fig. 52, O. 
S. D.) and the seminal ducts can be traced from the testes 
directly to them. Lying dorsal and lateral to each seminal 
tube are two prominent, heavy chitinized processes (Fig. 49). 
The raised apex of the upper process (C) is pointed toward 
the middle, that of the lower (D) is pointed outward toward 
the side and the prominent spines upon each are directed in 
different directions. If the supposed position of the penes 
in copulation, be correct, the dorsal or spinose surface of these 
processes must be in contact with the inner surface of the egg 
valve (E. V. Fig. 50). When inserted they would thus hook 
over its soft lip and pull it down, allowing the seminal tubes 
to discharge their contents at the mouth of the oviducts. 



1913] Biology of May-flies. 397 

Genitalia of the Female. 

In the simple condition each oviduct lies> well to the side 
of the abdomen and opens between the seventh and eighth 
sternites (Hexagenia). Each opening is perfectly distinct 
(see dotted line Fig. 3, B) and there is no sign of an open 
passage or vestibule between the two. 

In Siphlurus alternatus (PL LI, Figs. 53, 55) the lower 
ends of the oviducts approach each other and open into a 
common vestibule (C. V.) just inside the egg valve. Opening 
into this vestibule is a soft membraneous sac (S. R). In fresh 
specimens this sac shows prominently between the bases of 
the oviducts (Figs. 53, 55). In figure 55 the sac and oviducts 
are shown viewed from the inside; the nerve chain has been 
severed so as to fully expose the sac. In the specimens thus 
far examined, no spermatozoa have been found within this sac. 
It is extremely probable, however, that this is a true seminal 
receptacle, and that this is a specialization which nearly ap- 
proaches the unpaired opening found in other insects. 

VI. THE EGGS. 

Under the ordinary conditions of their life a large pro- 
portion of May-fly nymphs regularly perish before reaching 
maturity. A great excess of young must be produced in order 
to meet this loss and the success of different groups in main- 
taining their existence becomes more than usually dependent 
upon the number of eggs produced and the structures which 
aid in their dispersal and safety during incubation. 

In insects whose lives are so brief as these, the eggs are 
well developed even at emergence, and may then be readily 
counted, the difference in size between the developed eggs 
and the egg rudiments being very marked. It is easy, there- 
fore, in mature nymphs, sub-imagos or imagos to determine 
the actual fecundity. 

. The first count of May-fly eggs was made by Reaumur* to 
determine the fecundity of some specimens which he captured 
in his garden. He found egg masses protruding from the 
abdominal openings, counted the eggs and found about 400 
in each mass. His results have been several times quoted 
by later workers, but no references has been found to any 

*Reaumur 1742. T. VI, Mem. XII, p. 495. 



398 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

other actual determination of the fecundity of May-flies since 
that time. 

In this study the eggs of seventeen May-flies have been 
counted and examined. They were taken from imagos which 
had been kept in cages until they showed signs of old age. 
Usually a count was made of the eggs in several individuals 
and an average taken. They were examined and counted 
upon a glass slide in a mixture of water and glycerine which 
formed a convenient medium in which to manipulate them. 
The results of the counting are given in a table which follows. 

All of the eggs are viscid. When laid in dishes they ad- 
here to the bottom, as do those of Bsetis to stones. When 
twigs or algae are introduced, they become attached to them. 
There are two kinds of structures found upon them ; micropylar 
structures and knob or thread-like extensions of the chorion, 
both of which are important to the egg; and there is also a 
variety of chorionic sculpturings which have no apparent 
significance. 

Examples of the more important structures were long 
ago pointed out. Polar knobs (micropylar structures) were 
figured by Burmeister '48, and described by Leuckart '55. 
The latter believed that the knobs were composed of masses 
of spermatozoa and it remained for Grenacher, '68, to find 
many stages of them upon developing eggs in the egg-tubes 
and to point out their true nature. Micropylar structures 
w^ere also shown in Palingenia virgo by Joly, '71 and '76, 
and in Bastis sulphurea by Joly, '76. Grenacher, '68, also 
pointed out (upon an unnamed May-fly egg) some little threads 
"which were continuous with the chorion and which bore tiny 
spheres upon the ends. He figured these with remarkable 
accuracy. Of the eggs here figured, three bear a micropylar 
apparatus, five have thread-like extensions of the chorion 
and nearly all are more or less elaborately sculptured. 

The eggs of closely related forms may be very different. 
This is well shown by a comparison of those of Ephemerella 
excrucians and E. rotunda (PI. LIV, Figs, 66, 67). The 
eggs of Ephefnerella excrucians are pure white, and slightly 
dumb-bell shaped, with a disftinctly sculptured chorion, but 
with no micropylar apparatus. Those of Ephemerella rotunda 
are yellowish and oval with a prominent mushroom shaped 
cap about the micropyle. If examined in the body or when 
first extruded, two small knobs may be seen upon either side 
of the egg, near its lower pole. Each knob is attached to the 



1913] Biology of May-flies. 399 

distal end of a thread-like extension of the chorion, which 
lies beneath it, tightly coiled like a watch spring. Upon 
coming in contact with the water these threads spring out 
like elaters. The little knobs thus extended probably act 
as floats or anchors for the egg. An even greater difference 
between the eggs of closely related forms may be seen in the 
eggs of Heptagenia interpunctata (PI. LIII, Fig. 65) and Hep- 
tagenia pulchella (Fig. 64). The former has a pure white 
oval egg without sculpturings or extentions of any kind. The 
latter is white and slightly rounder with small regularly ar- 
ranged bosses upon the chorion. At each pole there is a skein 
of fine bright yellow thread. These skeins are also prominent 
upon the poles of developing eggs, even in the tips of the 
egg-tubes. Upon a glass slide they are easily seen with the 
naked eye and the threads may be pulled out with needles 
to a length of two or three inches. As soon as the eggs float 
free in water the skeins begin to unroll and if shaken a little 
they quickly uncoil altogether and become entangled with 
any object near them. In nature the eggs are deposited 
upon the surface of moving water. The threads just described 
probably wind about sticks or plants and thus anchor the 
eggs and keep them from being buried with silt during incu- 
bation. 

Similar extensions of the chorion are found upon the eggs 
of Tricorythus allectus and Ecdyurus maculipennis. The 
eggs of Tricorythus (PL LII, Fig. 60) are bright green and 
oval with a prominent shingle-like surface. Upon each side 
of the egg toward the lower pole are two threads very similar 
to those of Ephemerella rotunda, but without any knobs 
upon the ends. At the other pole is a prominent smooth 
yellowish micropylar apparatus. The eggs of Ecdyurus (PI. 
LIII, Fig. 62) are roundly ovate and pure white. Their entire 
surface is covered with minute pits and scattered between 
these are numerous short blunt projections. When the egg 
is first removed from the body, a small coil of thread -may 
be seen in the depression on the top of each projection. As 
soon as the egg has been in the water a little while, each coil 
unwinds with a sudden spring. At the end of each thread 
is a tiny viscid button. 

The eggs of Leptophlebia sp.? (PI. LII, Fig. 58) are elongate 
ovoid, distinctly brownish and thickly covered with short 
hairs, so that they look like ciliated protozoans. Those of 
Choroterpjes basalis (PL LIII, Fig. 63) which are laid in the same 



400 



Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



or similar situations have no extensions of the chorion. They 
are pure white, elongate, with an elaborate design in the sculp- 
turing. The eggs of Blasturus cupidus (PI. LIV, Fig. 68) are 
slightly flattened and tablet-like. Upon these flattened areas 
are irregularly scattered pits and bosses which appear shining 
white in the glycerine and about the longitudinal circumference 
is a shelf-like extension which bears a large number of strap- 
shaped pegs. The eggs of Polymitarcys albus (PI. LIV, Fig. 69) 
are roundly ovate and white. The body of the egg is nearly 
smooth, but the prominent yellow micropylar apparatus has 
a distinctly shingle-like surface. The eggs of Callibagtis 
fluctuans and Chirotonetes albomanicatus were perfectly 
smooth and pure white. 

Nymphs of Hexagenia variabilis and Polymitarcys albus 
live in the same situations but the eggs of the former are only 
a little roughened, while Polymitarcys has the prominent 
micropylar apparatus just described. The roughness due 
to chorionic sculptures may be of some slight service in helping 
to lodge the eggs, but its significance is probably slight. The 
extensions of the chorion, on the other hand, are no doubt of 
much importance in the dispersal and safety of the eggs. The 
anchors upon Ephemerella rotunda and Tricorythus allectus 
hang the eggs upon sticks and stems and prevent them from 
being buried in the mud; the many viscid threads upon those 
of Leptophlebia and Ecdyurus maculipennis accomplish the 
same result in a different fashion. Those which probably 
have the most important function are the long threads upon 
the eggs of Heptagenia interpunctata. A number of these 
were shaken about in water strewn with chara and the threads 
immediately became closely entangled upon its stems. Eggs 
thus hung upon stems in natural conditions would be safe- 
guarded and prevented from being buried in the mud. 



Ameletus ludens 

Blasturus cupidus 

Callibaetis fluctuans 

Chirotonetes albomanicatus 

Choroterpes basalis 

Ecdyurus maculipennis 

Ephemerella excrucians 

Tricorythus allectus 



Number of 

egg in both 

ovaries 



670 
3700 

500 
2500 

1000 

1950 

750 



Color of 



Length 

(Fresh e 

'tired in gl 



Light brown' 

White 

White j 
Pale green ! 

White i 

White 

White 

Green j 



.276 mm. 
.177 mm. 

.200 mm. 
.174 mm. 
.170 mm. 
.200 mm. 
.189 mm. 



Width 
ggs meas- 
ycerin) 



.153 mm. 
.093 mm. 

.138 mm. 
.085 mm. 
.133 mm. 
.125 mm. 
.122 mm. 



1913] Biology of May-flies. 401 



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H. interpunctata. Journal of Am. Behavior, Vol. II, No. 1. 
1912. Wodsedalek, J. E. Palmen's Organ and its Function in Nymphs of the 

Ephemeridae H. interpimctata and Ecdyurus maculipennis. Biol. 

Bull, Vol. XXII, No. 4. 
1881. Young, C. F. Larva of Ephemera vulgata. Sci. Goss. XVII. 

1904. Zaitschek, A. Versuche uber die Verdaulickeit des Chitins und den Nahr- 

wert der Insecten. Arch. geo. Physiol. Bd. 104, pp. 612-623. 

1905. Zacrel, Jan. Palingenia longicauda. Prag. Cas. Ceske Spol. Entomolog., 

Vol. 2, pp. 97-99. 
1880. Zimmerman, O. Uber eine eigenthumliche Bildung des Buckengefafses 

bei einigen Ephemeridenlairven. Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftliche 

Zoologie. Leipszig, pp. 401-406. 
1897. Zimmer, Carl. Die Facettenaugen der Ephemeriden. Zs. wiss. Zool. 

Leipzig, Bd. 63, Hft. 2, p. 236-262. Ausz. von. R. Heymons, Zool. 

Centralbl. Jahrg. 5, No. 3, pp. 87-89. 



412 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI ^. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 
Plate LXIL 
Fig. L Mature nymph of Blasturus cupidus. 
Fig. 2. Male imago of Blasturus cupidus just after transforming. The cast 

sub-imago skin shows the dark wing-pads. 
Fig. 3. Ameletus ludens. 

Fig. 4. Nymph of Epeorus humeralis. The hind wing-pads may be seen through 
the transparent front ones. 

Plate XLIIL 
Fig. 5. Nymphs of Callibaetis fluctuans, climbing about in their natural habitat. 
Fig. 6. Male sub-imago of Callibaetis fluctuans just emerged. 

Plate XLIV. 
Fig. 7. Half grown nymph of Potamanthus bettini. 
Fig. 8. Mature nymph of Ephemera. 

Fig. 9. Male imago of Hexagenia bilineata showing a posture of the fore legs 
characteristic of the males of many May-flies. 

Plate XLV. 
Fig. 10. Right gills of Lleptagenia interpunctata. The first gill is turned with 

the lower side up and the fimbriate division is fully exposed; in the 

others it is indicated through the transparent lamella. 
Fig. 11. Right gills of Epeorus humeralis, upper surfaces. When in the natural 

position the spinose border is in contact with the surface upon which 

the nymph rests. 

Pl.\te XLVL 
Fig. 12. Right gills of Iron'fragilis, upper surface, gills turned backward in natural 

position. 
Fig. 13. Right gills of Chirotonetes albomanicatus, under surface, gills turned 

forward. 

Plate XLVIL 
Fig. 14. Mouth-parts of Callibaetis fluctuans. a, right, and d, left mandible; 

b, labrum; c, hypopharynx; e, right maxilla; f, labium. 
Fig. 15. Maxilla of Tricorythus allectus. 

Figs. 16 and 19. Right and left mandibles of Ephemerella lata. 
Fig. 17. Left maxilla of Ephemerella serrata. ' 
Fig. 18. Left maxilla of Ephemerella deficiens. 

Plate XLVIIL 
Figs. 20 and 21. Right and left mandibles of Tricorythus allectus. 
Fig. 22. Labium. 
Figs. 23 and 24. Right and left mandibles of Potamanthus bettini. 

Plate XLIX. 
(Structures of nymph of Hexagenia). 
Fig. 25. Maxilla. 
Fig. 26. Second right gill. 
Fig. 27. First right gill. 

Fig. 28. Labrum (La) and Clypeus (CI), outer aspect. 
Fig. 29. Labrum (La) and Clypeus (CI), inner aspect, showing the epipharyn.x. 

lying partly upon the clypeus and partly upon the labrum. 
Fig. 30. Antenna. 

Fig. 31. Right mandible, outer aspect. 
Fig. 32. Right mandible, inner aspect. 

Fig. 33. Hypopharynx, under side, showing lingua and superlinguae. 
Fig. 34. Grinding surface of left molar. 
Fig. 35. Grinding surface of right molar. 
Fig. 36. Left mandible, inner aspect. 
Fig. 37. Left mandible, outer aspect. 
Fig. 38. Labium outer aspect. 



1913] Biology of May-flies. 413 

Plate L. 
Fig. 39. Right legs of Ephemerella lata. 
Pig. 40. Right fore leg of Ephemerella serrata. 
Fig. 41. Right fore leg of Ephemerella rotunda. 
Fig. 42. Right leg of Ephemerella deficiens. 
Fig. 43. Right fore leg of Ephemerella tuberculata. 
Fig. 44. Right fore leg of Ephemerella cornuta. 

Plate LI. 

(Genitalia of imagos of Siphlurus alternatus.) 
Rear abdomen of male, F, forceps, ventral view. 
Right forceps, showing roughened inner surfaces. 
Rear Abdomen, dorsal view, showing c. s., caudal setae; pp, penes and 

10s. 10th sternite. 
Rear of abdomen, side view. 
Dorsal view of penes resting upon the 10th sternite. The white surface, 

c. e., represents the cut surface of the body wall. The large bases of 

the penes, a, lying inside the body have been exposed by cutting away 

the dorsal part of the abdomen. 
Part of the abdomen of the female, e. v., egg-valve, with the opening 

of the vestibule directly beneath. 
Inner view of the 7th and 8th sternites with the oviducts, o. v., and the 

seminal receptacle turned backward to show the ventral side of the 

receptacle. 
Penes removed from the 10th sternite and viewed from the ventral side. 

o. s. d., opening of seminal duct. 
Egg valve, common vestibule and outline of receptacle and oviducts, from 

without. 
Rear abdomen of female, dorsal view. 
Dorsal view of dissection of oviducts and vestibule. The top of the 

vestibule has been cut away and pulled off with the 7th sternite, so as 

to expose the inner surface of the common vestibule, c. v., and seminal 

receptacle, s. r. 
Rear abdomen, female, ventral view. 
Rear abdomen of female, side view, e. v., egg valve. 

Plate LI I. 
Fig. 58. Egg of Leptophlebia. 
Fig. 59. Egg of Ameletus ludens. 
Fig. 60. Egg of Tricorythus allectus. 
Fig. 61. Egg of Chirotonetes albomanicatus. 

Plate LI 1 1. 
Fig. 62. Egg of Ecdyurus maculipennis. 
Fig. 63. Egg of Choroterpes basalis. 
Fig. 64. Egg of Heptagenia pulchella. 
Fig. 65. Egg of Heptagenia interpunctata. Needham. 

Plate LIV. 
Fig. 66. Egg of Ephemerella rotunda. 
Fig. 67. Egg of Ephemerella excrucians. 
Fig. 68. Egg of Blasturus cupidus. 
Fig. 69. Egg of Polymitarcys albus. 
Fig. 70. Egg of Siphlurus alternatus. 



Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 


45, 
46. 

47. 


Fig. 
Fig. 


48. 
49. 


Fig. 


50. 


Fig. 


51. 


Fig. 


52. 


Fig. 


53. 


Fig. 
Fig. 


54. 
55. 


Fig. 
Fig. 


56. 
57. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate XLII. 




Anna H. Morgan. 



Annals E. S. A. 

5 



Vol. VI, Plate XLIII. 




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^^-^^ 




Anna H. Morgan, 



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Vol. VI, Plate XLV. 




Anna H. Morgan. 



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Vol. VI, Plate XLVI. 




Anna H. Morgan. 



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Vol. VI, Plate XLVII. 




Anna II. Morgan. 



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Anna H. Morgan. 



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Vol. Vli Plate XLIX. 




Anna H, Morgan. 



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Vol. VI, Plate L. 







Anna H. Morgan. 



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Vol. VI, Plate LI. 




Anna H. Morgan. 



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Antia H. Morgan. 




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6 3 



1% 








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Annals E. S. A. 

66 



Vol. VI, Plate LIV. 







69 



5^. ■■ 



rK 



t^. 



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Anna H. Morgan. 





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Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 

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CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



Malloch, J. R. — A Revision of the Species in Agro- 

myza Fallen, and Cerodontha Rondani. (Diptera). 269 

Metcalf, Z. p. — The Wing Venation of Fulgoridse. . 341 

WiCKHAM, H. F. — The Princeton Collection of Fossil 

Beetles from Florissant 359 

Morgan, Anna H. — A Contribution to the Biology of 

May-Flies 371 



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Volume VI. Number 4. 



ANNALS 



The Entomological Society of America 



DECEMBER. 191 3 



EDITORIAL BOARD 

J. H. COMSTOCK, L. O. HOWARD, 

Ithaca, N. Y. Washington, D. C. 

C. J. S. BETHUNE, W. M. WHEELER, 

GuELPH, Ontario, Canada. Boston, Mass. 

C. W. JOHNSON, P. p. CALVERT, 

Boston, Mass. Phii,adei,phia, Pa. 

V. L. KELLOGG, J. W. FOLSOM, 

Stanford Univ., Cai<. Urbana, Ii,i^. 

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Coi,UMBus, Ohio. 



PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE SO 
COLUMBUS, OHIO 




Entered as second class matter April 1 1, 1908, at the Post Office at Columbus, Ohio, 
under the Act of Congress of March 3, 1879. 



The Entomological Society of America. 

FOUNDED 1906. 



OFFICERS 1913. 

President— C. J. S. Bethune Guelph, Ont.v Canada 

First Vice-President— F. P. Calvert Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Second Vice-President — Wm. S. Marshall Madison, Wisconsin 

Secretary-Treasurer — A. D. MacGillivray Urbana, Illinois 

Executive Committee — The Officers, and Herbert Osborn, C, P. Gillette, 

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Committee on Nomenclature — H. T. Fernald, E. P. Felt, T. D. A. Cockerell. 



Price List of Publications. 

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REPRINTS FROM VOLUME I. 

Proceedings of first three meetings; Constitution, By-Laws and List of 

Members 25 

Wheeler, Wm. M. — Polymorphism of Ants 30 

Osborn, Herbert — The Habits of Insects as a Factor in Classification 20 

Severin, H. H. and Severin, H. C. — Anatomical and Histological Studies 
of the Female Reproductive Organs of the Americlan-Saw Fly, Cimbex 

Americana, Leach 25 

Felt, E. P. — Some Problems in Nomenclature 10 

Hammar, a. G. — On the Nervous System of the Larva of Corydalis comuta L .25 
Bradley, J, C, — A case of Gregarious Sleeping Habits among Aculeate 

Hymenoptera 10 

Davis, J. J. — Notes on the Life History of the Leafy Dimorph of the Box- 
elder Aphid, Chaitophorus negundinis Thos 10 

Hambleton, J. C. — The Genus Corizus, with a Review of the North and 

Middle American Species 25 

GlRAULT, A. A. — Biological Notes on Colorado Potato Beetle 25 

GiRAULT, A. A. — A Monographic Catalogue of the Mymarid Genus Alaptus.. .25 
Severin, H. H. and Severin, H. C. — Internal Organs of Reproduction of 

Male Saw-fly ^ 15 

Smith, C. P. — A Preliminary Study of the Aranas Theraphosae of California.. .76 

Davis, J. J. — Studies on Aphididae. 20 

Riley, W. A. — Muscle Attachment of Insects 15 

Needham, J. C. — Critical Notes on the Classification of the Corduliinae 

(Odonata) 15 

Howard, L. O. — A Key to the Species of Prospaltella with Table of Hosts 

and Descriptions of Four New Species 16 

Hood, J. D. — Two New Species of Idolothrips 10 

Address 

ANNALS ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, 
Biological Building, State Univ., Columbus, Ohio. 



ANNALS 



OF 



The Entomological Society of America 



Volume VI DECEMBER, 1913 Number 4 



THE EXTERNAL ANATOMY OF THE SQUASH BUG, 
ANASA TRISTIS DE G:' 

' By Daniel G. Tower, B. S. 

Amherst, Massachusetts. 

INTRODUCTION 

In writing this article the chief aim is to endeavor to supply 
a reference work on the external morphological characters of a 
typical Heteropterous insect. For this reason the common 
squash bug has been selected as it is widely distributed, well 
known as a pest, and is readily obtainable for study. 

In order to make the paper as complete as possible the 
morphologists' and systematists' terms have both been used, 
except in referring to the wing venation (the systematists' terms 
being lacking in the fore-wing and the morphologists' in the 
hind wing). 

At this point I wish to express my gratitude to Dr. H. T. 
Fernald and Dr. G. C. Crampton for their many helpful sug- 
gestions and assistance in preparing this paper. 

ANATOMY 

Head 
The sclerites of the head capsule of the squash bug are 
solidly fused together making it impossible to do more than to 
describe the general regions of which the head is composed. Of 
these the occiput (occ), (PI. LV, f . 1.) lies behind the ocelli (oc) and 
forms the posterior portion of the head surrounding the occipital 
foramen. It is marke(i off by a shallow transverse groove, from 

* Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory, Massachusetts Agricul- 
tural College. 

427 



428 A7inals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

the vertex. The vertex or cranium (ec) comprises the dorsal 
region in front of the occiput and bears the ocelli. This area 
is not marked off from the frons (f), which lies above and 
between the bases of the antennae (ant). The anterior margin 
of the frons is united with the base of the clypeus or tylus (c). 

Below and on either side of the compound eyes (e) lie the 
genae (g) while the ventral posterior portion of the head capsule 
forms the basal plate or gula (gu). The clypeus, as has been 
previously stated, is fused at its base with the frons, and at this 
point is narrow, but as it curves forward and downward it widens 
at its tip to form the base of attachment for the labrum (Ibr) 
from which it is separated by a narrow membranous ring. 

The labrum is an elongate triangular sclerite. Its anterior 
surface is convex, while its posterior surface is flat and contains 
a groove which lies above the groove on the basal half of the 
anterior surface of the labium (lab). 

On either side of the clypeus is a narrow prolongation of the 
frons called the fulcrum, jugum or zygum (fr). The fulcra lie 
close to the lateral walls of the clypeus, hiding them, but are not 
united with them except at their bases, where they fuse with the 
head capsule. The fulcrum is shorter than the clypeus, its 
anterior margin lying behind the swelling of the tip of the 
clypeus. Its ventral margin extends to the base of the antenna 
where it fuses with the base of the maxillary laminae (ml) . 

The maxillary laminae or gena postica lie below the base of 
the antennae. Their bases are fused with the genas and their 
ventral . margins are united with the bucculee (bu) , which are 
chitinous plates projecting from the anterior ventral side of the 
head on either side of the base of the labium. The bucculce 
serve to protect the posterior membranous portion of the base 
of the labium. 

The rostrum, vagina or labium (lab) articulates with the 
anterior ventral region of the head between the bucculas and is 
made up of four segments, the terminal segment at its tip bear- 
ing numerous sensory organs. The labium contains, as stated 
above, a dorsal groove in which lie the setae (s). The edges of 
the groove, distal to the overlying labrum, overlap, forming a 
closed tube, thus giving the enclosed setae more support (PL 
LVI, f. 8 s.). At its basal end the groove becomes very shallow; 
the labium becomes filled with muscles, tracheas and nerves, 
and the setae in this portion of the labium gradually come to lie 



1913] Anatomy of the Squash Bug. 429 

within the labrum, whose edges meet beneath and confine the 
setas (PL LVI, f. 8 s. and PI. LVI, fs. 21-24's). They then pass 
back through the articulating membrane, which lies between the 
labrum and clypeus, and between the lateral walls of the clypeus. 
The walls of the clypeus at its tip, turn under, and their edges 
interlock forming a narrow pair of supporting lobes above which 
the set^ pass. Upon emerging from these lobes the maxillary 
seise (m) spread apart to receive the tip of the pharynx and the 
canal from the salivary pump, both of which enter the setae at 
this point. 

The setae represent the mandibles (md) and the maxillas (m) . 
The maxillae are fluted and interlocked so as to form two tubes, 
these being the upper or suction canal, and the lower or salivary 
canal (PL LV, f. 2). The mandibles are slightly shorter than the 
maxillae and their tips are barbed. Their function is that of 
piercing the plant tissue and holding the setae in place, while the 
tips of the maxillae, which are acute and fluted, probe the plant 
tissues, take up the plant juices, and eject the saliva. The 
setae, as stated, pass back into the head capsule and separate 
at their junction with the pharynx, going to either side of it. 
Their bases widening out form points of attachment for the con- 
trolling muscles. 

The antenna (ant) are composed of six segments. The 
third and fifth are ring joints (PL LVII, f. 16, r.), or reduced 
segments; therefore the antenna as a whole appears to be com- 
posed of only four segments. The fifth segment, or second ring 
joint, allows great freedom of motion to the terminal segment. 
The second and fourth segments are long and slender. The 
proximal segment is called the scape or radicula (sa). It is 
large and has a stalked base, which enlarges at its connection 
with the head to form a universal joint. The terminal segment 
is. spindle shaped and covered with numerous sensory hairs. 
The other segments possess sensory hairs, but not as specialized 
as those of the terminal segment. 

The compound eyes (e) are large and composed of many 
facets, and project prominently from the head. The ocelli are 
two in number. 

The posterior portion of the head or the coUum is set into the 
collar of the prothorax and is joined to it by a membranous neck. 



430 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



Thorax 

Prothorax. — The prothorax is a large chitinous segment whose 
sclerites are solidly fused together, with the exception of the 
episternum and epimeron which are separated for a short dis- 
tance by the coxal cleft (b) . 

The notum (no) overlaps the prescutum, scutum, and a por- 
tion of the scutellum of the mesothorax dorsally ; and the pleural 
region projects over a portion of the anterior part of the meso- 
thorax laterally (PI. LV, f. 1 and 4). The tergum or notum is 
of one piece, its sclerites being indistinguishably fused together. 
Its anterior portion is more or less irregular due to the attach- 
ments of the muscles of the fore leg to its inner surface. The 
union of the notum and pleuron forms a well defined ridge. 

The Pleuron (pi) is divided, as stated above, by the coxal 
cleft into the epimeron (epm) and episternum (eps). The cleft 
extends only a short distance into the pleuron terminating in a 
groove. Above this the pleuron bulges out forming a larger 
cavity for the expanding muscles of the fore leg. This region of 
the pleuron is called the omium (om). 

The sternum (st) is a small area lying between, and anterior 
to the coxal cavities, and is indistinguishably fused with the 
pleuron. The portion of the sternum projecting backward 
between the coxal cavities is called the mucro (mu) . The anter- 
ior portions of the coxal cavities are formed by the inner surfaces 
of the epimeron, episternum, and the sternum; and are closed 
posteriorly by the extensions of the prothorax epimeron and 
sternum, together with the anterior portion of the mesosternum. 

The legs show the usual five divisions into the coxa (co), 
trochanter or fulcrum (fr), femur (fe), tibia (t), and tarsus (ta), 
(PI. LVI, f. 13). Since the fore legs are typical, although they 
are proportionately smaller, one description will be sufficient. 
At the base of the coxa hidden within the coxal cavity is a nar- 
row plate called the trochantin (PL II, f. 9 ti). The coxa is 
a large swollen segment lying largely within the coxal cavity 
and is freely movable. The trochanter or fulcrum is a small 
segment which forms a ginglymus articulation with the coxa 
and is obliquely joined to the side of the femur. The femur is 
long and more or less spindle shaped; the tibia articulates with 
it by a ginglymus joint and is long and slender. The tarsus 
is composed of three segments. The first segment is called 



1913] Anatomy of the Squash Bug. 431 

the Metatarsus (meta), and the terminal segment the ungula 
(u). This bears divergent claws called unguicula (ua) beneath 
each of which lies a pulvillus (pu) modified to form a concave 
adhesive pad (PL LV, f. 3). 

Mesothorax. — The mesothorax is attached to the prothorax 
by the intersegmental membrane, and the two segments are 
easily separated, thus uncovering the anterior area of the 
scutellum and the scutum and prescutum. The covered areas, 
or the scutum and prescutum, are also called the dorsulum. 

The scutum (sc) is divided longitudinally by a wide median 
furrow. In the scutum, on either side of the median furrow are 
two irregular longitudinal impressed lines (d) , which are possibly 
homologous with the parapsidal furrows of the Hymenoptera. 
If this be the case, then the area lying between the two last 
mentioned impressed lines would be the prescutum (psc), 
while the areas lateral to the lines would be the scutum (PL 
LVI, f. 10). 

Lying posterior to the scutum and separated from it by a 
transverse ridge is the scutellum (set), which is triangular in 
outline and projects posteriorly over the metathorax and the 
first abdominal segment. On the lateral edge of the scutellum 
is a ridge called the frenum (fm) (PL LVI, f. 10). 

The postcutellum (psct) of the mesothorax forms the anterior 
wall of the phragma (phr) situated between the meso and the 
metathorax, while the prescutum (psc) of the metathorax forms 
its posterior wall. Both of these sclerites are only slightly 
visible externally (PL LVI, f. 10). 

The fore wings are characteristic of the suborder Heteroptera 
being partly membranous and partly coriaceous. Their bases 
articulate with the mesonotum by means of small chitinous 
plates called ossicula or axillaries. 

The 'membranous and coriaceous portions of the fore wings 
are separated by a more or less broken oblique suture called the 
sutura membranae (s-m). The coriaceous portion is marked 
off into three areas by two longitudinal sutures (PL LVIII, f. 19). 
These areas are as follows : the clavus (cl) , which lies next to the 
mesoscutellum when the wings are in repose; the corium (cr) 
which lies between the two sutures; and the embolium or costal 
area (em), which lies beyond the second suture. The first suture 
or the one which marks off the clavus is called the sutura clavi 
or anal furrow (s-c) . The suture separating the corium from 



432 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

the embolium is called the median furrow (m-f). The margin 
of the clavus, which when the wing is at rest lies along the lateral 
edge of the mesoscutellum, is called the margo scutellaris (m-s), 
while the margin of the clavus beyond the tip of the meso- 
scutellum, is called the commissura (cm). 

There are three angles in the coriaceous portion, used in 
classification. These are as follows: the internal angle, angulus 
internus (a-i) formed by the meeting of the sutura membranae 
and the sutura clavi ; the angulus clavi (a-c) , which lies between 
the sutura clavi and the commissura ; and the angulus scutellaris 
(a-s), which is formed by the meeting of the commissura and the 
margo scutellaris. 

The coriaceous portion of the wing has an inconspicuous 
venation to which the following names have been given. The 
costa (ca) is the longest vein, lying nearly parallel to the costal 
margin of the wing. The subcosta (sea) and radius (ra) lie 
posterior to the costa, their basal halves being coalesced. Behind 
or posterior to the coalesced subcosta and radius, lies the median 
vein (me) connected by a short cross vein (r-m) near its tip 
with the radial sector. The cubitus (cu) lies within the clavus; 
and the first anal vein (a) lies along the margo scutellaris except 
at its base where it extends into the clavus. 

The anterior part ©f the mesopleuron is hidden under the 
prothorax. It is partially divided into two sclerites, the epime- 
ron and the episternum, by the coxal cleft over the insertion of 
the mesocoxa. A third plate which is a marked off portion of 
the epimeron lies at the base of the fore wing and is wholly 
hidden by the prothorax. It is called the basalar plate (ba). 
A chitinous plate called the prealar bridge (o) connects the 
pleuron and the scutum near the juncture of the mesothorax 
with the prothorax. Below this plate lies the mesothoracic 
spiracle (sp) in the intersegmental membrane between the meso 
and prothorax. Posterior to the basalar plate is an invaginated 
triangular apodeme (ap) whose position is. indicated externally 
by a cavity. A continuation of one of the angles of this cavity 
marks off part of the dorsal border of the pleuron causing it to 
appear as a sclerite. A membranous area extends from the 
base of the fore wing to the prealar bridge, and separates the 
scutum from the pleuron and its plates. 

The sternum is of one piece solidly fused with the episternum. 
The coxal cavities are formed by the inner surfaces of the 



1913] Anatomy of the Squash Bug. 433 

epimeron, episternum and sternum anteriorly, and posteriorly 
by the anterior margin of the metastern'um and metcepisternum. 

Metathorax. — The notum of the metathorax is well developed 
and is composed of three sclerites. The prescutum (psc), 
which has already been described, forms the posterior wall of 
the phragma between the meso and metathorax, and in its 
normal position is only slightly visible from the exterior. The 
scutum (sc) and scutellum (set) are fused and the visible por- 
tions appear as an elongate triangular sclerite on either side of 
the mesoscutellum which hides the middle portion. The 
postscutellum (psct) lies behind this sclerite and is fused with 
it, its central portion being hidden beneath the projecting 
mesoscutellum. 

The pleuron (pi) is partially divided by the coxal cleft into a 
large epimeron or pleurum and a very small episternum, the 
latter being indistinguishably fused with the sternum. At the 
upper end of the cleft lie the two light yellow scent glands (sg) 
separated by a pit which extends into the body cavity and into 
which flows the fluid secreted by the glands. Lying above the 
scent glands and hidden in the folds between the meta and meso- 
thorax is the metathoracic spiracle. On either side of the dorsal 
margin of the metapleuron is a longitudinal grooved area called 
the cenchrus (PI. LV, f . 4, cc and PI. LVI, f . 10, cc), in which there 
lies a ridge, located on the ventral side of the costal margin of 
the fore wing. 

The hind wings or alse (hw) are joined to the metathorax 
although their bases appear to lie mostly above the mesopleuron 
when viewed laterally. Their bases articulate with the fused 
scutum and scutellum, whose posterior margin is continuous with 
the posterior margin of the wing. The alae articulate with the 
metanotum by means of numerous small chitinous plates called 
ossicula or axillaries. 

The wing is wholly membranous and distinctly veined. The 
venation given is the purely systematic one. The costa prima- 
ria (ca-p) is the large vein lying just posterior to and parallel 
with the costal margin in the basal half of the wing (PI. LVIII, 
f. 20). The costa subtensa (ca-s) lies below the costa primaria 
and is more or less parallel with it. Near the distal end of the 
costa subtensa is a short incomplete transverse vein which nearly 
reaches the costa primaria. This is called the Hamus (ha). 
The distal ends of the costa primaria and subtensa are connected 



434 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

by a short vein, the costa connectens (ca-c). From the union 
of the costa primaria and costa connectens the costa apicaHs 
(ca-a) extends outward toward the apex of the wing. Behind 
the costa apicaHs and nearly parallel with it lies an unnamed 
vein which is usually unbranched although in an abnormal 
specimen a short branch vein has been noticed arising from it 
and extending outward between it and the costa apicalis. 
From the union of the costa subtensa and the costa connectens 
extends the costa decurrens (ca-d), a strongly curved vein. 
Behind the costa decurrens lie two nearly straight, short veins 
called the costa lineatas (ca-1). Behind the costa lineatee lie 
three veins in the anal area, the costa radiantes (ca-r). The 
first is not attached to the base of the wing while the second and 
third are so attached. 

A bdomen 

The abdomen is broadly joined to the thorax and its anterior 
portion is overlapped by the metathorax to such an extent that 
the spiracle situated in the pleural region of the first abdominal 
segment is completely hidden beneath the metapleuron. The 
first six segments of both male and female bear a pair of spira- 
cles. 

The first four and part of the fifth segments of the abdomen 
show clearly the marking off into four typical regions. The 
notum (no) is the flat, black, dorsal portion on which the wings 
rest. The pleural areas or connexivum which form the sides of 
the trough in which the wings lie when at rest are situated one 
on either side of the dorsal region, and extend to the prominent 
lateral edges of the abdomen. The sternal area is that forming 
the ventral and lateral portions of the abdomen. The spiracles 
(sp) are located near the dorsal edges of the sternum. The 
sclerites of the posterior portion of the fifth segment, and of the 
segments following, are more or less closely fused together and 
are specialized for reproduction in both males and females. 

There are nine segments in the abdomen of the male. The 
seventh is not visible under normal conditions, but together 
with a large part of the eighth segment, is retracted within 
the sixth segment. The seventh segment is highly specialized 
for this purpose, being merely a collar of chitin which telescopes 
over the base of the eighth segment. The eighth or genital 
segment is also highly specialized, its sclerites being solidly 



1913] Anatomy of the Squash Bug. 435 

fused together, except dorsally where the chitin is almost mem- 
branous just anterior to the rectal cauda (re). Its shape is 
also greatly modified. The dorsal aspect presents a large pit 
or cavity, above which lies the rectal cauda and the genitalia. 
The chitinized tip of the rectal cauda is the much modified ninth 
segment. The rectal cauda projects posteriorly from the dorsal 
wall of the eighth segment, which is called the pygidium (pg). 
The basal half of the rectal cauda is membranous above and 
below, but slightly chitinous laterally. Its posterior half, which 
lies folded and hidden within the basal portion, is membranous 
except the tips which are chitinized, and open and close as do the 
edges of a purse. Beneath the basal portion of the rectal cauda 
lies the oedeagus, those chitinized portions of the male genital 
organs through which pass the membranous structures connected 
with the ejaculatory duct. Posterior to the oedeagus lie two mov- 
able appendages or styli (la) . The ventral portion of the eighth 
segment which bears internally the lateral appendages and 
contains the oedeagus is called the hypopygium (pp). 

Dorsally, the abdomen of the female presents ten segments. 
The tenth, which forms the chitinous lips of the rectal cauda, 
is hidden within the ninth, except when extruded, and is widely 
separated from the ninth by the membranous rectal cauda. 
The dorsal portion of the ninth segment is called the pygidium. 
Ventrally, the ten segments are not so easily recognizable, 
especially when the abdomen is extended, as the segments 
are variously modified for protective and reproductive purposes. 
Attached to the insides of the dorsal and ventral portions of the 
eighth abdominal segment are two pairs of chitinous appendages, 
the lateral appendages or styli, armed with stiff spines or hairs. 
These lie above and protect the soft portions of the genitalia 
when in repose. These appendages may function as claspers 
in copulation, but actual observation of this function will be 
necessary to determine this point. The ventral portion of the 
eighth abdominal segment is called the hypopygium. 



436 



Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

1861. Fieber, Franz Xaver. Die Europaischen Hemiptera. 

1883. Geise, Otto. Die Mundtheile der Rhynchoten, Archiv f. naturg. vol. 

XLIX, pp. 315-373, pi. x. 
1885. Wedde. Hermann. Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Rhynchotenrussels, Archiv 

f. naturg. (2) LI. pp. 113-143, pL vi and vii. 
1890. Sharp, David. On the structure of the Terminal Segment in Some Male 

Hemiptera. Trans, of the Ent. Soc. of Lond. pp. 399, pi. xii, xiii, xiv. 
1892. Smith, John B. The Structure of the Hemipterous Mouth. Science vol. 

XIX, No. 478, pp. 189, fig. 1-5. 
1896. Marlatt, C. L. The Hemipterous Mouth. Ent. Soc. of Wash. vol. 3, pp. 

241-250, fig. 21-23. 
1899. Heymons, Richard. Beitrage zur Morphologie und Entwicklungs- 

geschichte der Rhynchoten, Nova. Acta. vol. LXXIV, pi. xv-xvii. 
1908. Comstock, J. H. and Needham, J. G. The Wings of Insects. Amer. Nat- 
ural, vol. XXX n, P- 252. 
1908. Chittenden, F. H. The Common Squash Bug. U. S. D. A. Bureau of Ent., 

cir. 39. 
1911. Muir, F. and Kershaw, J. C. On the Homologies and Mechanism of the 

Mouth-parts of Hemiptera. Psyche, vol. XVIII, No. 1, p. 1, pi. 1-5. 

1911. Bugnion, E. and Popoff, N. Les Pieces Buccales des Hemipteres (Premiere 

Partie). Arch, de Zoo. E.xp. et General. 5e Serie, Tome vii, pp. 
643 a 674, pi. xxv a xxvi. 

1912. Muir, F. and Kershaw, J. C. The .Development of the Mouthparts in the 

Homoptera, with Observations on the Embryo of Siphanta. Psyche, 
vol. XIX, No. 3, p. 77, fig. 1-4. 



LETTERING OF FIGURES. 



Numbers 1-10 denote number of the 


e 


eyes. 


segment. Subscripts 1, 2, 3, pro-, 


em 


embolium. 


meso- 


metathorax, respectively. 


epm 


epimeron; mesothoracic epm = 


a 


anal vein. 




scapula; metathoracic epm = 


a-c 


angulus clavi. 




pleurum. 


a-i 


angulus internus. 


eps 


episternum. 


a-s 


angulus scutellaris. 


f 


frons. 


ab 


abdomen. 


fe 


femur. 


ant 


antenna. 


fm 


frenum. 


ap 


apodeme. 


fr 


fulcrum, jugum or zygum. 


b 


coxal cleft. 


fw 


fore wing. 


ba 


basalar plate. 


g 


gi*i«r ^evvo. •^^a.^^a\o^' 


be 


bulb of antenna. 


hw 


hind wmg, ala. 


bu 


bucculas. 


la 


lateral appendages, styli. 


c 


clypeus or tylus. 


lab 


labium, rostrum, vagina. 


ca 


costa. 


Ibr 


labrum. 


ca-a 


costa apicalis. 


m 


maxillary set^. 


ca-c 


costa connectens. 


m-f 


median furrow. 


ca-d 


costa decurrens. 


m-s 


margo scutellaris. 


ca-1 


costa lineatae. 


md 


mandibular setae. 


ca-p 


costa primaria. 


me 


median vein. 


ca-r 


costa radiantes. 


ml 


maxillary laminEe, gena postica. 


ca-s 


costa subtensa. 


mta 


• metatarsus. 


cc 


cenchri. 


mu 


mucro. 


cl 


clavus. 


n 


salivary canal. 


cm 


commissura. 


no 


notum. 


CO 


coxa. 


o 


prealar bridge. 


or 


corium. 


oc 


ocelli. 


cu 


cubitus. 


occ 


occiput. 


d 


parapsidal furrows. 


om 


omium. 



1913] Anatomy of the Squash Bug. 437 



p 


/ 

suction canal. 


s-m 


sutura membranae. 


pg 


pygidium. 


sa 


scape. 


phr 


phragma. 


sc 


scutum. 


pl 


pleuron; abdominal pleuron = 


sea 


subcosta. 




connexivum. 


set 


scutellum. 


PP 


Hypopygium. 


sg 


scent glands. 


psc 


prescutum. 


sp 


spiracles, stigmata. 


psct 


postscutellum. 


St 


sternum. 


pu 


pulvillus. 


t 


tibia. 


r 


ring joints. 


ta 


tarsus. 


r-m 


connecting vein between ra 


ti 


trochantin. 




and me. 


tr 


trochanter, fulcrum 


ra 


radius. 


u 


ungula. 


re 


rectal cauda. 


ua 


unguicula. 


s 


setae. 


V 


vertex, cranium. 


s-c 


sutura clavi, anal furrow. 







Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 


1. 
2. 
3. 


Fig. 


4. 



EXPLANATION OF PLAJTES. 

Plate LV. 
Lateral view of head, thorax and first segments of the abdomen. 
Cross section of the mandibular and maxillary setas. 
Lateral view of a tarsal claw and the adhesive pad or modified pulvillus 

lying beneath it. 
Lateral view of the meso- and metathorax, as seen looking obliquely 

backward, the prothorax being removed and the wings raised and 

the abdomen abnormally extended to show the spiracle on the 

first segment. 
Fig. 5. Dorsal view of the abdomen. The female genitalia are not extended. 

Plate LVL 
Fig. 6. Maxillary setae showing fluted and piercing tips; (see fig. 2 cross section 
of maxillary setae). 
Mandibular setae showing barbed and piercing tips. 
Cross section of labium at the tip showing how the setae are supported. 
Coxa and trochantin. 

Dorsal view of the meso- and metathorax with the wings extended. 
Lateral view of the male genitalia extended. 
Ventral view of the male genitalia normally retracted. 
Typical leg. 
Lateral view of female genitalia normally retracted. 

Pl.\te LVIL 
Dorsal view of male genitalia extended. 
Antenna. 

Ventral view of the insect showing female genitalia. 
Lateral view of female genitalia extended. 

PL.ATE LVIIL 

Fig. 19. Fore wing. 

Fig. 20. Hind wing. 

Figs. 21-24. More or less diagrammatic. 

Fig. 21. Cross section of second segment of the labium, showing the position of 
the setae. 

Fig. 22. Cross section at the tip of the first segment of the labium, showing the 
position of the setas. 

Fig. 23. Cross section at about the middle of the first segment of the labium, 
showing the position of the setae.' 

Fig. 24. Cross section at the base of the labrum, showing how the setae are sup- 
ported. 



Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 



Annals E. S. A. 




D. G. Tower. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI. Plate LVI. 




D. Q. Tower. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI. Plate LVII. 




2). G. Tower. 



Annals E. S. A. 



Vol. VI, Plate LVIII. 




D. O. Tower. 



THE DIPTERAN FAUNA OF BERMUDA. 

By Charles W. Johnson. 

Since publishing a list of the Diptera of Bermuda in 1904, 
(Psyche, vol. XI, pp. 76-80), I have received a number of 
specimens from Professor Trevor Kincaid, collected in the 
summer of 1905, and from Mr. Frank Morton Jones, collected 
December, 190S-May, 1909, and Dr. Reynold A. Spaeth, 
collected in the summer of 1910. The material thus obtained 
at various seasons of the year together with the notes kindly 
furnished by Mr. Jones, greatly increase our knowledge of 
the Diptera of the Islands. The study of this material has 
brought out many interesting points in distribution, some 
of the species derived from the mainland having become 
either slightly or decidedly differentiated. 

The previous list contained about fifty species. Little 
of the data has been repeated, although all of the species are 
included in the following list, which contains about ninety- 
five species. 

TiPULIDAE. 

Tipula costalis Say. "This fly was abundant at Paget Marsh in 
February and March, but seemed to completely disappear later." 
(F. M. Jones). 

Dicranomyia liberta Osten Sacken. July 7, at light, (Kincaid), Feb. 
U (F. M. Jones). 

Gonomyia (Leiponeura) pleuralis Will. This seems to be the most 
common Tipulid and the one previously recorded as Dicranomyia 
distans, Osten Sacken. It was taken by Professor Kincaid, July 
5 and 20, and by Mr. F. M. Jones, Feb. 19 and May 6 and 8. 

Limnophila insularis sp. nov. Fig. 2. 




*ri 



v^. \ 



'^^V ^' 



This species has a general resemblance to L. recondita Osten Sacken. 
The antennae in both sexes are of equal length, light yellow, flagellum 
dark brown, the verticilli much shorter than in L. recondita. Head 
blackish, covered with a greyish bloom. Thorax shining brown, 
pleura dull yellow with a greyish bloom. Abdomen darlc brown, 



443 



444 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

genitalia yellow. Halteres yellow, knob somewhat infuscated. Legs 
3^ellowish, tarsi brownish toward the ends. The wings are noticeably 
shorter and broader toward the base than in L. recondita, the prsefurca 
is shorter and the marginal cross vein at the middle of the anterior 
branch of the second vein is close to the tip of the first longitudinal 
vein. Length, cf 6mm. 9 7mm. 

Two specimens, cf , March 10, 9 , May 1, 1909, (F. M. Jones). 

PSYCHODIDAE. 

Psychoda alternata Say. Nine specimens were received from Mr. 

Jones. These were collected by Mr. Mowbray, May 15. 
Psychoda sp. A larger species was collected by Prof. Kincaid and 

retained by him for study. 

Chironomidae 
Chironomus cristatus Fabricius. July 26 (Kincaid); Paget Marsh, 

March 10, (F. M. Jones); near Hamilton, June 26 (Spaeth). 
Orthocladius sp. July 15 (Kincaid). 
Metriocnemus knabi Coquillett. Eight specimens, February 1 (F. M. 

Jones) . 
Ceratopogon fur sp. nov. Fig. 1. 

Female: Head black, proboscis brown, palpi black, antennae 
black, covered with a thick grayish pubescence, apparently with 
fourteen joints. Thorax black, subshining, hairs grayish, scutellum 
dark brown, abdomen dull black, thickly covered with grayish hairs. 
Legs brown, tip of the tarsi and claws black, posterior metatarsi as 
long as the following joints. Halteres black, the stalks short and 
thick, the knobs proportionately large. Wings smoky, strongly 
pubescent, venation as shown in the figure, the third and fourth longi- 
tudinal veins obsolete toward the basal portion of the wing. Length, 
1mm. 

Two species, Warwick Marshes, April 16 (F. M. Jones). 

The two specimens were attached to a small dragon fly, (an 
Agrionid), with the mouth parts extended into the sutures near the 
base of the wings apparently in the act of biting. This is the second 
time that the writer has seen a Ceratopogon attached to an insect. 
The first example was also taken by Mr. Jones, the flies being attached 
to the wings of a Chrysopa. This specimen was loaned to Dr. E. P. 
Felt in connection with his studies of the Cecidomyiidce, as a species 
of the latter family has been recorded by Mrs. Annie T. Slosson as 
also attaching itself to the wings of a Chrysopa. (Ent. News, VH, 
238, 1896). 
Ceratopogon sp. July 12 and 29 (Kincaid). 

CULICIDAE. 

Stegomyia calopus Meigen, {Stegomyia fasciatus Fabr.) The "yellow 

fever mosquito," June 25-29 (Kincaid); Jan. 22 and Feb. 18, 

May 6, and 10, 1909 (F. M. Jones). 
Aedes soUicitans Walker, {Culex sollidtans Walk.). The salt marsh 

mosquito, July 6-12 (Kincaid); Walsingham, Feb. 16, Apr. 8 

(F. M. Jones). 



1913] The Dipteran Fauna of Bermuda. 445 

Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann. {Culex taeniorhynchus Wied.). 

July 7-23 (Kincaid). 
Culex quinquefasciatus Say, (C. fatigans of Theobald not Wiedemann; 

C. cubensis Bigot). Record bv Theobald from collections made 

by Dr. Eldon Harvey, July 1899. 

Mycetophilidae. 
Sciara sp. June 25 (Kincaid). 

Cecidomyidae. 
Cecidomyia sp. June 25 (Kincaid). 
Cecidomyia sp. June 25 (Kincaid). 

BlBIONIDA^. 

Dilophus breviceps Loew. Warwick Swamp, April 16, (cf 9). "In 
sweep net, in great numbers on one occasion only. " (F. M. Jones). 
Scatopse pygmaea Loew. June 28 and 30 (Kincaid). 
Scatopse atrata Say. Recorded by Prof. Verrill. 

Stratiomyidae. 
Hermetia illucens Linne. July 1 (Kincaid); May 13 (F. M. Jones). 
Odontomyia bermudensis sp. nov. 

Female: This species is closely related to 0. cincta Oliv. and 
might be considered by some only a variety, but the apparent con- 
stancy of the seven specimens before me seems to warrant their 
separation. The two principal characters which readily distinguish 
this species are the conspicuous black stripes extending from the humeri 
to the base of the wings, dividing the green lateral stripes of the thorax 
from the green pleura, and the dark brown color of the larger vein, 
this color also extending over the costal and marginal cells and the base 
of the Wing. Minor characters are the greater amount of black on the 
head, the black of the vertex being often connected with the large 
black orbital spots of the front, from which extend narrow curved lines 
to the frontal suture, and a narrow frontal stripe, which is also often 
present. The black markings of the abdomen are much larger, covering 
fully two thirds of the surface, while in 0. cincta the black rarely 
exceeds one half. Six of the specimens have a dark yellow scutellum, 
but this may be a discoloration, as it occasionally appears in 0. cincta. 
Length 10 to 12mm. 

Six specimens. May 9 and 11 (Jones); one specimen, July 26 {Kin- 
caid). "Not rare on the flowers of wild carrot, especially along the 
borders of the Warwick Marshes" (F. M. Jones). 

Tabanidae. 
Tabanus atlanticus sp. nov. 

Female: Face white with white hairs, above the base of the 
antennas slightly yellowish; front with grayish pollen and brown hairs, 
callosity large, shining black, with a short, slightly roughened line 
extending upwards; palpi Hght yellow with black hairs, proboscis 
brown; antennge yellow, with tufts of black hairs on the upper and 
of white hairs on the under sides of the first and second joints, third 
joint not angulate, annuli brown. Thorax gray with four obscure 



446 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol, VI, 

brown stripes, hairs whitish; pleura mottled with bluish-black and 
covered with whitish pollen and hairs; scutellum grayish. Abdomen 
brown with a lighter posterior margin on each segment, the entire 
surface with a white pubescence. Legs yellow, under side of the 
posterior femora and tips of all the tibiae and tarsi brown, front coxae 
with long, white hairs; halteres light yellow. Wings hyahne, stigma 
and cross-veins clouded with brown. Length, 13mm. 

The cf differs but little from 'the 9 , except that the facets on the 
upper two-thirds of the eye are double the size of those on the lower 
third. The stripe^ on the thorax are obsolete. Length 10mm. 

Three specimens collected by Professor Kincaid, July 10 and 30. 
Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart. 

In writing to Mr. Jones regarding a larger horse-fly than this 
species, he says: "This is undoubtedly the 'large horse-fly' you asked 
me to look out for; the carriage-drivers assured me that no larger 
species occurs here. It is said to be locally abundant in the summer 
time, but up to May 20 I saw only one living example; the other speci- 
men I got from a local collector who confirmed the drivers' statement. " 
It seems, therefore, probable that the reference to a larger species, 
(Psyche vol. XI, p. 77) applies also to this species. 

SCENOPINIDAE. 

Scenopinus nubilipes Say. One specimen. May 15 (F. M. Jones). 

ASILIDAE. 

Asilus? sp. Recorded by Professor Verrill. 

DOLICHOPODIDAE. 

Sciapus chrysoprasius Walker. Not rare, March 20, 30 and May 

12 (F. M. Jones). 
Sciapus pallens Wiedemann. Three specimens, April 17, May 18 
and 19, resting on the white walls. (F. M. Jones). 
Diaphorus contiguus Aldrich. Seven specimens, June 30 to July 

26 (Kincaid). 
Chrysotus picticornis Loew. Three specimens July 15 (Kincaid). 

Common. vSpanish Point, July 5 (Spaeth). 
Chrysotus bermudensis sp. nov. 

Front shining green, face with silvery white pollen; antennas black, 
small. Thorax and scutellum shining green, slightly covered with a yel- 
lowish pollen; pleura greenish black, with whitish pollen.. Abdomen 
shining with a narrow bronze band at the base of each segment. 
Legs including the front coxas yellow, middle and posterior coxae 
black; a preapical band on the posterior femora, and the extreme 
tips of the tarsi dark brown. Halteres, tegulas and cilia light yellow, 
wings grayish hyaline. Length, 2mm. 

Three females, June 20, July 26 (Kincaid). Holotype in the 
author's collection; one paratype in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology. This species is closely related to C. pallipes Loew, but seems 
readily separated from that species by the dark preapical band on the 
posterior femora. 



1913] The Dipteran Fauna of Bermuda. 447 



PiPUNCULIDAE. 

Pipunculus insularis Cresson, (Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 36, p. 317, 
1911). Hamilton parish, May (S. Brown); July 29 (Kincaid); 
Af^^ars Island, June 18, and Spanish Point, July 5 (Spaeth). 

Pipunculus albiseta Cresson, (Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 36, p. 318,. 
1911). Hamilton Parish, May. (S. Brown); Jan. 27 (F. M. Jones). 

Allograpta obliqua Say.^ "Abundant throughout the winter," Dec. 
1 1 to Jan. 25 (F. M. Jones) ; Agar's Island, June 18 (Spaeth). 

Toxomerus marginatus Say. {Meso gramma marginatum Say, of 
the previous list). "Very abundant and present throughout the 
winter and spring (Dec. 8 to May 3). .A specimen was bred April 
1, from a larva found in the flowers of the Bermuda blue-eyed 
grass." (F. M. Jones). On the road from Hamilton to Grasmere 
(Spaeth). The larvae are aphidivorous. 

Eristalis tenax Linne. "The first specimen was taken February 18; 
afterwards not rare on flowers, but never abundant. " (F. M. Jones). 

Eristalis aeneus Scopoli. (Lathyrophthalmus miens Scop.). "Most 
abundant on flowers along the cliffs of the south shore, where it 
was present throughout the winter" (F. M. Jones). Specimens 
bear the following dates: December 14, 24; January 19; February 
6 and March 4. 

Sarcophagidae. 

Sarcophaga georgina Wiedemann? Both Professors Walker and Verrill 
referred the large flesh fly of the Island to S. carnaria Linne. 
Among the series collected by Messrs. Davis, Kincaid and Jones 
there is not a specimen referable to that species. They represent 
the large species with reddish genitalia which I have referred doubt- 
fully to S. georgina. 

Sarcophaga assidua Walker. Numerous specimens agree with the 
description of this species. Feb. 24, April 16 and May 5 (F. M. 
Jones); Spanish point, July 5 (Spaeth); July 6 (Kincaid). 

Sarcophaga sp? Probably two closely related species. The present 
unsatisfactory condition of our Sarcophagidae precludes the possi- 
bility of accurately determining the species. 

Helicobia helicis Townsend. Common, April 18 and 26 (F. M. Jones). 
Spanish Point, July 5 (Spaeth). 

Sarcophagula sp. Recorded by Dr. Dahl. I was in hopes of finding 
the common S. imbecilla v. d. W. of the West Indies among the 
niaterial studied. 

MUSCIDAE. 

Musca domestica Linne. The common house-fly is abundant through- 
out the year. June 20 (F. M. Jones); Agar's Island, June 18, and 
Spanish Point, July (Spaeth). 

Stomoxys calcitrans Linne. The biting house fly or cattle fly. 
Abundant with the common house-fly, June 20 (F. M. Jones); 
Agar's Island, June IS (Spaeth); July 11 (Kincaid). 

Synthesiomyia brasiliana B. & B. July 29 (Kincaid). 

Calliphora vomitoria Linne. Recorded by Prof. Verrill. 



448 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Lucilia sericata Meigen. Abundant. Dec. 25 to May 12 (F. M. Jones); 

July 12-29 (Kincaid); Spanish Point, July 5 (Spaeth). L. latifrons 

Schiner is a synon\Tii. 
Lucilia caesar Linne. Recorded by Prof. Verrill. 
Lucilia problematica sp. nov. 

Male : Front linear as in L. caesar, black, orbits whitish pollinose ; 
face black, whitish pollinose, the oral margins and antennae reddish 
brown, arista black. Thorax and abdomen bronze black shining, 
with a slight whitish pollen especially on the sides and on the pleura. 
Two ppst-acrosticals. Femora and tibiee brown and the tarsi blackish. 
Squamas and halteres yellow, wings brownish hyaline. Length 7mm. 

Female: Similar to the male, front, as in L. caesar, one-third the 
width of the head. 

Holotype June 30 (Kincaid); allotype March 1899 (Montgomery), 
in the author's collection. This interesting species has been in my 
collection for some time awaiting more material. The first specimen 
( 9 , antennae wanting) was collected by Mr. Thomas L. Montgomery 
in March, 1897. A teneral specimen (cT) was taken by the late C. 
Abbott Davis, July 11, 1903. These were submitted to the late D. 
W. Coquillett at the time I was preparing my previous list, but he 
declined to name them without more material. The third specimen 
(cf ) was taken by Prof. Kincaid, June 30, 1905, and a fourth specimen 
( 9 teneral) by Mr. Frank M. Jones, March 1, 1909. It is close to L. 
caesar in every respect but color; the entire absence of green or blue, 
however, seems to preclude placing it in that species. I had hoped 
that a larger series would show variations approaching that species, 
but while L. caesar was mentioned by Prof. A., E. Verrill, the large 
series of Lucilia brought from the Islands by Messrs. Montgomery, 
Davis, Kincaid and Spaeth, contained only L. sericata. j 

Anthomyidae. 

Ophyra aenescens Wiedemann. July 6 (Kincaid) ; Deceinber 26 

(F. M. Jones). 
Fannia pusio Wied. {F. femorata Loew) May 9 (F. M. Jones); July 

6 (Kincaid). 
Fannia polychaeta Stein. This is based on Anthomyia lepida Meig., 

recorded by J. Matthew Jones in 1876. It is a doubtful species, 

referred with a question to this species. 
Limnophora narona Walker. (L. cyrtoneurina Stein) collected by 

C. A. Davis, July 14. 
Mydsea sp? One imperfect specimen, July 17 (Davis). 
Phyllogaster cordyluroides Stein. June 30 and July 12 (Kincaid). 
Phorbia fusciceps Zetterstedt. Common, December 26 (F. M. Jones) ; 

June 30 and July 29 (Kincaid); Agar's Island, June 18; on the 

road from Hamilton to Grasmere, June 26; Spanish Point, July 

5 (Spaeth). This species infests onions and other vegetables, 

and is undoubtedly the fly referred to by Verrill as ^^ Anthomyia 

ceparum," "onion fly." 
Coenosia sp? July 6 (Kincaid). 



1913] The Dipteran Fauna of Bermuda. 449 

Lispa albitarsis Stein? Spanish Point, July 5 (Spaeth). A female 
agrees with this species except that the palpi are blackish. 

Fucillia marina Macquart {F. fucorum of authors, not Fallen). In 
great number on piles of sea-weed, March 6 (F. M. Jones). 

SCATOPHAGIDAE. 

Scatophaga sp? Recorded. 

BORBORID^. 

Leptocera fontinalis Fallen, {Limosina fontinalis). July 2 (Kincaid). 
Leptocera venalicia Osten Sacken. May 3 (F. M. Jones). Supposed 

to have been introduced into Cuba by the slave trade. 
Leptocera illota Williston. Spanish Point, July 5 (Spaeth). 
Leptocera sp. Three specimens of a smaller species from a pile of sea- 
weed, Febuary 4 and March 6 (F. M. Jones). The specimens are 
imperfect. 
Borborus minutus sp. nov. 

Male: Front covered with light brownish pollen, two dark brown 
stripes extending upward from the base of the antennas flnd over the 
vertex, the stripes bearing a narrow whitish line above the antennse, 
face bro\vn, cheeks whitish pollinose, antennee black. Thorax light 
brownish pollinose with three dark brown stripes, the middle one double 
the width of the others, scutellum light brown, the disc and apex slightly 
darker, pleura brownish pollinose. Abdomen dull grayish black. Legs 
black, the posterior metatarsis about double the width of the folloudng 
joint. Halteres yellow. Wings grayish hyaline, veins dark brown. 
Length 2mm. 

Holotype, Spanish Point, July 5 (Spaeth), in the author's collection. 
Two paratypes, Horse Neck Beach, Mass., July 8, 1896, in the collection 
of the Boston Society of Natural History. The latter were collected 
-by Dr. Garry de N. Hough, and were in my collection for a number of 
years. I have adopted a manuscript name proposed by Dr. Hough. 

SCIOMYZlbiE. 

Tetanocera kincaidi sp. nov. 

Male: Face and inferior orbits white, with a brown stripe on the 
cheek extending from the eye to the oral margin ; front yellow, the frontal 
vitta and a transverse stripe extending from the base of the antennse to 
the orbits brown, frontal orbits narrow, white; antenna yellow, the 
bristles and hairs on the second joint and the arista black. Thorax 
yellow, with two narrow dorsal lines and broad lateral stripes of brown ; 
pleura light yellow with a broad brown stripe; scutellum yellow with 
four black marginal bristles. Abdomen brown, lateral margins and the 
genitaha yellow. Halteres light yellow. Legs yellow, a spot on the under 
side of the middle and posterior femora somewhat beyond the middle, 
tips of the tibiae and the tarsi blackish, due in part to the blackish hairs, 
middle coxse with a tuft of black bristles below, front of the anterior 
coxae bearing three bristles. Wings similar to T. spinicornis Loew, but 
proportionately broader and the reticulations less profuse, mth five 
unequally arranged square hyaline spots in the marginal cell beyond 
the end of the first vein. Length, 5mm. 



450 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Female: Similar to the male, but with an obsolete dorsal line on 
the abdomen. Length 6mm. 
Ten Specimens. Holotype, July 29, allotype June 26, 1905 (Kincaid) 

and three paratypes. May 30 (Mowbray) ; January 12 and February 

5 (F. M. Jones) in the author's collection. Paratypes also in the 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, and in the Collections American 

Entomological Society. 

With only two poor specimens before me this was referred to T. 
spinicornis in my previous list. It closely resembles that species but 
can be readily separated by the wings as described above, the single, 
not double spots on the under side of the posterior femora and the larger 
and less acute third joint of the antennae. It is also slightly larger. 

The species also resembles T. setosa Coq. but the spots on the under 
side of the posterior femora and the five unequally arranged hyaline 
spots in the marginal cell beyond the end of the first longitudinal vein 
distinguish it from that species. 
Tetanocera (Dictya) umbrarum Linne (T. pictipes Loew, Monog. N. 

Amer. Diptera, I, 111, 1862). Two specimens, March 20 (F. M. 

Jones); July 15 (Kincaid). 

SAPROMYZID^. 

Sapromyza saroria Williston. July 6 and 11 (Kincaid); Jan 6, April 10 
and Mav 4 "On the under side of palmetto leaves in a sw^amp." 
(F. M. Jones). 

ORTALID^. 

Euxesta abdominalis Loew. June 30 (Kincaid). Sweep net, Warwick 

Marshes, December 11, also March 5 (F. M. Jones). 
Euxesta annonae Fabricius. June 26 (Kincaid). 
Euxesta pusio Loew. June 26 (Kincaid). 

Chaetopis fulvifrons Macquart (Urophora fulvifrons Macq. Dipt. Exot., 
Suppl. V, 125, pi. VII, fig. 8, 1855). July 29 and 30 (Kincaid) ; March 
20 (F. M. Jones). This is probably the same as the C. aenea of 
my previous list, as recorded by J. Matthew Jones in 1876. It 
differs from the true C. aenea in lacking the frontal cross-bristles 
and in having only three or four frontal orbital bristles. 
Chaetopsis debilis Loew. Spanish Point, July 5 (Spaeth). This may 
prove to be only a variety of C. fulvifrons Macq. as the color of the 
basal segments of the abdomen and the bands on the wings, are both 
apparently variable characters. 
Ceratitis capitata Wied. ' ' Fruit fly . " 

This fly which was introduced sometinie prior to 1870 is still on the 
Islands but in very limited numbers owing to the vigorous campaign 
that has been waged against it. The authorities deserved great credit 
for their perseverance in endeavoring to exterminate this insect and we 
hope that in the near future they may again be able to resume the 
raising of the various fruits affected. There is little doubt that this 
vigorous action has for many years checked the western movement of 
this great fruit pest. 



1913] , The Dipteran Fauna of Bermuda. 451 

Having written to Mr. F. M. Jones in May, 1909, to ascertain if the 
fruit fly was still on the Islands, he replied: "In regard to the fruit fiy 
(Ceratites) ; several years ago a regular crusade against this insect was 
undertaken and is being continued. All of the Surinam cherry trees 
were cut down, also most of the sweet orange trees and peach trees. 
Inspectors were appointed in each parish and authorized to visit every 
tree and strip off the unripe fruit, — oranges, lemons, sapadihas, loquats, 
sugar-apples, etc. ; pawpaws were ordered to be gathered before turning 
yellow, under the penalty of having the trees chopped down. All this 
was in an effort to entirely exterminate the insect, it has undoubtedly 
greatly reduced its numbers for I failed to find a specimen, though I 
searched all kind of fruits where I could find any which had escaped 
inspectors. I heard of the fly as still present this spring. The crusade 
has not the support of the people and trees are concealed from the inspec- 
tors when possible, so that probably when the vigilance is relaxed the 
insect will appear again. There are several wild fruits which should be 
examined as possible breeding places. Sorry I could not get yovi some 
specimens." 

Expressing to my friend Dr. R. A. Spaeth a desire to obtain some 
specimens of the "fruit fly" he spoke to Col. W. R. Winter who bred 
some specimens which I received though the kindness of Professor E. 
L. Mark. The letter accompanying the specimens contains so much of 
interest pertaining to the habits of the fly that I have taken the liberty 
of publishing it in part. 

"With reference to the experiments, several punctured peaches 
placed in isolation cages, developed flies in from seven to ten days from 
the time in which the larvse entered the soil, as I had not the actual date 
•of the depositing of the eggs, I did not trouble to keep an exact record 
beyond noting the dates of the lar^^ae leaving the fruit and the appear- 
ance of the fly." 

"Two peaches in perfect condition were left on an exposed branch 
of the tree and watched, but owing to the scarcity of flies it was not until 
4 P. M. on the 13th of July that a fly appeared and punctured one of 
them; after ten minutes I killed the fly. The peach was carefully exam- 
ined and one puncture only was found. On the 17th the fruit was found 
to be soft around the puncture and was gathered. It was placed in a 
gauze covered glass jar on two and a half inches of clear, dry sand. On 
the 24th at 10 A. M. the maggots were observed going into the sand, 
many of them being visible through the sides of the glass, they having 
gone down between the sand and the glass. On the 27th the peach was 
removed and examined. Two dead maggots were found in it. The 
pupas were carefully separated from the sand and twelve more were 
found, these were placed in dry soil in an isolation cage made especially 
for this experiment. The flies appeared as follows: two on the 1st of 
August at 7 and 10 A. M. Three on the 2nd, before 4 P. M. Two on 
the 3rd, before 7 P. M., and on the 4th, before 9 A. M. Carried no 
further as all flies fed on arsenate of lead which was placed in the cage 
and were found dead on the 5th at 7 A. M. ' Weather very hot and dry, 
no rain, temperature averaging 82°, 



452 Annals Entomological Society of America [Vol. VI, 

Aciura insecta Loew. June 2G (Kincaid) ; Spanish Point, July 5th 
(Spaeth) . 

Ensina picciola Bigot, {Trypeta humilis Loew). Abundant in sweep- 
net, December 8 and 29 and May 17 (F. M. Jones). Road from 
Hamilton to Grasmere June 26 and Spanish Point July 5 (Spaeth). 

SEPSID^. 

Sepsis violkcea Meigen. "Common January 21 and April 29 (F. M. 
Jones) ; Jime 30 and July 29 (Kincaid) ; Spanish Point, July 5 (Spaeth). 
Piophila casei Linne. The cheese fly. Recorded by Prof. Verrill. 

EPHYDRIDiE. 

Mosillus