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Full text of "Annals of Fort Mackinac"

Class 

Book — 



COPYRICHT DEPOSIT 



) 



OF 



Fort 
Mackinac 



BY 



DWIGHT H. KELTON, 



CAPTAIN U. S. ARMY. 



RUGGLES EDITION 




FAIRY ARCH 



ANNALS 



OF 



Fort Mackinac 



BY 



DWIGHT H. KELTON, A. M., 

CAPTAIN U. S. ARMY. 

AUTHOR OF INDIAN NAMES OF PLACES NEAR THE GREAT LAKES. 

AUTHOR OF HISTORY OF THE SAULT STE. MARIE CANAL. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE WISCONSIN STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE CHICAGO HISTORICAL SOICETY. 

MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN FOLK-LORE SOCIETY. 




RUGGLES EDITION, 

18 88. 



t"5T' 



Copyright, 1882, by Dwight H. Kelton. 

Copyright, 1883, by Dwight H. Kelton. 

Copyright, 1884, by Dwight H. Kelton. 

Copyright, 1886, by Dwight H. Kelton. 

Copyright, 1887, by Dwight H. Kelton. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1888, by 

DWIGHT H. KELTON, 
in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 









printed by 
Detroit Free Press Printing Co. 



GREETING. 



I am under obligations to : 

Capt. G. A. Goodale, U. S. A., Lieut. Edward H. 
Flummer, U. S. A., Lieut. Harry F. Hodges, U. S. A., 
Gen. Orlando M. Foe, U. S. A., Hon. Douglas Brymner, 
L. Rose Esq., Commodore David Carter, Capt. E. B. 
Whitcomb, and Major Thomas Williamson. 

This edition is named in honor of Colonel O. W. 
Ruggles, of Chicago, 111. 



CjTWri^jUU^, 



Detroit, Mich., 

July, 1888. 



Beauteous Isle ! I sing of thee, 

Mackinac, my Mackinac; 
Thy lake-bound shores I love to see, 
Mackinac, my Mackinac. 
From Arch Rock's height and shelving steep 
To western cliffs and Lover's Leap, 
Where memories of the lost one sleep, 
Mackinac, my Mackinac. 

Thy northern shore trod British foe, 

Mackinac, my Mackinac: 
That day saw gallant Holmes laid low, 
Mackinac, my Mackinac. 
Now Freedom's flag above thee waves, 
And guards the rest of fallen braves, 
Their requiem sung by Huron's waves, 
Mackinac, my Mackinac. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGK 

Ancient Michilimakinac, 9 

Ancient Names of Rivers and Lakes, 117 

American Fur Company, 71 

American Officers, 82 

Battle on Mackinac Island, in 1814, . ... 50 

British Officers, ... 64 

Capture of Fort Mackinac, in 1812, 42 

Collectors of Customs, 122 

Conspiracy of Pontiac, 38 

County Clerks, 123 

Distances from Mackinaw City, . . . . • . . . 142 

Distances from Mackinac Island, 139 

Early Michigan, 95 

Fort Mackinac, * 76 

French Officers, .64 

Governors of Michigan, 98 

Historical Events, chronologically arranged, .... 20 

Indian Agents, 122 

Legend of Arch Rock, 105 

Legend of the Giant Fairies, 125 

Legend of Lover's Leap, 89 

Legend of Mackinac Island, Ill 

Legend of Misbrai-Makinak 135 

Legend of Robertson's Folly, 67 

Light Houses, 109 

Mackinac Island, Height above Straits, . . . . 139 

National Park, 101 

Postmasters, 123 

Priests, 131 

Probate Court, Judges, 122 

Presidents of Village, 123 

Steamboats, Arrival of 141 

Summer, 140 

Summer Residences, 143 

Winter 140 



AT0&4& 




ANCIENT MICHILIMAKINAC. 



The name Michilimakinac, or, as the Indians pronounce it, 
Mishinimakinang \ properly signifies " The country of the 
Mishinimaki." (Thus, Otawanang, the country of the 
Otawa ; Otchipwenang, the country of the Ojibwa ; Osagi- 
nang [English, Saginaw], the country of the Osaki, or Sac 
Indians). And, in fact, the term " Michilimackinac," or, " the 
country of Michilimackinac," was by the early French applied 
to a large portion of the eastern half of the Upper Penin- 
sula of Michigan. 

By degrees the term was restricted to the French and In- 
dian settlements on either side of the strait, and finally to 
the Island of Mackinac. 

The French La Pointe de St. Ignace had likewise a 
broader signification than the present Point St. Ignace. 

It was applied to the whole of the little peninsula whose 
basis may be defined by a line drawn due west from the 
mouth of Carp River to Lake Michigan. Our map shows 
only the southern half of it. 

EARLIEST INHABITANTS. 

The " Ancient miners " of upper Michigan probably con- 
nected with the " Mound builders " of the Mississippi Yalley, 
and with the Toltecs and Aztecs, may have had an agricul- 
tural out-post at St. Ignace. The vestiges of a mound have 
been traced in the neighborhood of Point La Barbe. No 
tradition, however, referring to that people is found among 
out Indians. The earliest inhabitants known to the latter 



10 



ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 



were the MishinimaM, or, as they now call them, Mishwi- 
makinago. 

According to the statement of a few still surviving at the 
time of the French occupation, that tribe was all but exter- 
minated by the Iroquois, in retaliation for a successful raid 
made by them into the country of the latter. 




ANCIENT MiCHJJLlMAKINAO. 11 



EAKLY FRENCH VISITORS, AND TRANSIENT 
INDIAN SETTLERS. 

John Nicolet, on his remarkable journey from Canada to 
Green Bay — about 1634 — was undoubtedly the first white 
man that saw the Island of Mackinac, and, coasting around 
the little peninsula, entered Lake Michigan. 

From the meagre account left of his journey, nothing can 
be gleaned regarding the inhabitants of the Mackinac country 
at that period. 

But whatever Indian population that intrepid traveler may 
have met there, the whole neighborhood was deserted twenty 
years later, when the ascendancy gained by the Iroquois in 
consequence of their destructive onslaught on the Hurons 
(16*4:9), had compelled all the little Algonquin clans on Lake 
Huron to seek safer quarters on Lake Superior and Green 
Bay. In 1651, or perhaps the year following, the small 
tribe of Tionontate Hurons, on their flight before the Iro- 
quois, reached Mackinac, and deeming the island a safe re- 
treat, held it for about two years ; but being deceived in their 
expectation, retreated to the islands at the mouth of Green 
Bay, and later on, to its head. 

Some of the old clearings which dot the wooded part of 
Mackinac Island may date back to that period, for the Tion- 
ontates were tillers of the soil. In the autumn of 1654, two 
young Frenchmen, convoyed by Indians, passed Mackinac, 
on their way to Green Bay. They repassed the island in the 
summer of 1656, with fifty canoes laden with fur for the 
Canada market, and manned by five hundred Hurons and 
Algonquins. 

The next Frenchman known to have passed the strait was 
Nicolas Perrot, to whose Memoirs we are indebted for a 



12 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC 

portion of what we know of those early times. He made 
his first journey to Green Bay about 1665. From that date 
down to the end of the century, Perrot was a frequent visi- 
tor at Mackinac, and on some occasions played a conspicuous 
part in the transactions between his countrymen and the In- 
dians at that post. At length the Black Gown arrived. 
Father Claude Allouez was the first of the Jesuit mission- 
aries who saw the far-famed island. He had left La Pointe 
du St. Esjprit on Lake Superior in the summer of 1669, and 
started from Sault Ste. Marie, November 3rd, with two French 
companions and some Pottawatomie Indians. From Novem- 
ber 5th to 11th, he lay wind and snow-bound on " Little St. 
Martin's Island," to which he probably gave its name, the 
day of his departure being St. Martin's day. Crossing over 
from " Big St. Martin's Island " to the opposite shore, he 
met two Frenchmen and a few Indians, who endeavored in 
vain to make him desist from his intended visit to Green 
Bay, so late in the season. 

While coasting along the shore, with the island in view, 
the missionary listened with pleasure to the recital, by his 
Indian companions, of some of the legends which the author 
of Hiawatha has put into English verse. Hiawatha is the 
Mena-bosho, or JNena-bosho, of the Algonquins ; and the 
Island of Mackinac was considered as his birthplace ; and 
again, after the flood, as the locality where that civilizer of 
mankind, observing a spider weaving its web, invented the 
art of fishing with gill-nets. Father Allouez reached the 
head of Green Bay after a month's journey full of hardship 
and peril. 



ANCIENT M1CI1IL1MAK1NAC. 13 



THE MISSION OF ST. IGNATIUS— FATHEK MAR- 
QUETTE— HIS CHAPEL. 

In the fall of 1670, Father Claude Dablon, in his capacity 
as Superior of the Jesuits on the upper lakes, selected the 
point north of the strait, then first called La Pointe de St. 
Ignace, as the site of a new missionary establishment in the 
place of the mission at La Pointe du St Esprit, on Lake 
Superior, then on the point of being abandoned. One of 
the fathers, most likely Dablon himself, spent the winter on 
the spot, in all probability within the limits of the present 
village of St. Ignace, and put up some provisional buildings. 

A few Indians only, wintered in the neighborhood, but new 
and permanent settlers were expected ; first of all the wander- 
ing Tionontate Hnrons. Leaving Green Bay, 1656 or 1657. 
that remarkable clan, then consisting of about 500 souls, had 
reached the Upper Mississippi, and after many adventures 
and reverses, finally settled on the Bay of Shagawamigong — 
now Ashland Bay, Wis. — where Father Allouez met them 
in 1665. Since the autumn of 1669, they had been under 
the care of Father Marquette, who was now (1671) to accom- 
pany them back to the Mackinac country. 

The party arrived at St. Ignace towards the end of June, 
at the earliest, for at the great gathering of Indians and 
French in San-It Ste. Marie, June 14th, they had not yet 
reached the Rapids. 

The exact site of Father Marquette's temporary chapel 
and hut (cabane) is not known. It appears, however, from 
some incidental remarks in that Father's report and in a later 
Relation, that those humble buildings stood at some, though 
not a very considerable, distance from the Huron fort near 
which the second church was built. On December 8th. 



14 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

1672, Joliet arrived with orders from the Governor of New 
France and the Superior of the Jesuits in Quebec for Father 
Marquette, to accompany him on his journey of discovery. 

The party spent the winter in St. Ignace, and started May 
17th, 1673. At that time the Hurons in St. Ignace num- 
bered 380 souls. 

Some 60 Otawas of the Sinago clan had lately joined them. 



THE HURON FORT.— SECOND CHURCH. 

In the second year of Marquette's stay, the Tionontates 
began to build their fort or palisaded village. According to 
LaHontan's plan, it occupied about the middle of the level 
ground surrounding East Moran Bay. And there it re- 
mained until the Hurons' departure for Detroit, about 1702. 
Soon after Marquette's departure, Fathers Henry Nouvel and 
Philip Pierson, abandoning the old site, built a substantial, 
though small, church and an adjoining residence, protected, 
after the fashion of the times, by a palisade enclosure. In 
this new church Father Marquette's remains were interred, 
June 9th, 1677. 

There can be no doubt about its position. The Jesuits' re 
port of 1678 places it in close proximity to the Huron fort. 
So does LaHontan, in 1688. His plan shows it south of the 
fort or village, from which he says : " It is only separated 
by a palisade enclosure." 

And there it undoubtedly remained until its destruction 
by fire, about 1706. 



ANCIENT MICHILIMAKINAC. 



15 



ALGONQUIN" TILLAGE AND CHURCH. 

Soon after Marquette's departure, several clans of Otawas 
and kindred tribes — all comprised by the missionaries under 
the name of Algonquins — made their appearance and settled 
on the shore of Lake Huron, a little over two miles from the 
Jesuits' residence, accordingly near the bluff called by the 
Indians the " She Rabbit," south of the " He Rabbit," or 
" Sitting Rabbit " (Rabbit's Back). Here too a church, and a 
dwelling house for the Otawa missionary, were built. Ac- 
cording to Hennepin, who officiated in it, it was covered with 
bark. In 1679, LaSalle honored it with his visit. Of its 
later history nothing is known. Besides a floating popula- 
tion, sometimes not inconsiderable, the "Algonquin village " 
contained, in 1677, as many as 1300 souls, the principal clan 
beino- that of the Kishkako. 




If) ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 



REMOVAL OF THE ALGONQUIN VILLAGE. 

LaHontan, who visited St. Ignace in the spring of 1688, 
is cilent about that church and settlement, but places an 
Otawa village in the immediate neighborhood of the Hurons, 
on East Moran Bay, stating at the same time that during his 
stay, the Otawas, apprehending some trouble with their 
Huron friends, began to fortify themselves on a neighboring 
bluff. From this it would appear that the Algonquins, or 
Otawas — a name then applied to most of the northwestern 
Algonquins — had, within the last few years, moved about 
two miles south. The former presence of an Indian popula- 
tion on the bluff above that part of St. Ignace popularly 
called " Vide Poche" is proved by the numerous articles of 
Indian and French manufacture ploughed up there by some 
of the present settlers. The local tradition also places a fort 
on that higlit. 




ANCIENT MICUILIMAKINAC. 17 



THE OTAWA VILLAGE AT GEOS CAP. 

In 1677, or shortly before, another body of Algonqnins — 
Otawas properly so called — came to swell the Indian popula- 
tion of St. Ignace. 

They settled, it appears, on the shore of Lake Michigan, 
between Point La Barbe and Gros Cap. This assumption 
seems necessary to reconcile the statements, in the Jesuits' 
report of 1678, regarding the respective distances between 
their residence (near the Huron village) and the two Indian 
settlements, the Algonquin village and the " New Otawa 
village." The existence of a large Otawa settlement near 
Gros Cap, in 1699, is certain from the account given by the 
Missionary Buisson de St. Come of his journey from Macki- 
nac to the Lower Mississippi. The party, of which the 
noble Tonty was one, sent their canoes around the point to 
the Otawa village, and walked themselves across the " port- 
age." The village counted then about 1500 souls. 

In 1702, these Otawas followed Cadillac, with the bulk of 
the Indian population of St. Ignace, to his new establish- 
ment on the Detroit river, but soon returned to their old 
quarters, and finally went over to the northwestern shore of 
Lower Michigan, where their descendants are still living. It 
was during their second stay on West Moran Bay that the 
famous trader who left his name to it lived among them. 
The remains of their dead, together with wampum, glass 
beads and other articles of Indian and French manufacture, 
are frequently found in the sandy ground at the head of the 
little Bay. 



18 ANNALS OF FOKT MACKINAC. 



ST. FRANCIS BOKGIA'S CHAPEL. 

For the accommodation of the two settlements — the 
Algonquin Village on Lake Huron, and the new Otawa 
Village on Lake Michigan — Father Henry Nouvel built a 
church of bark at a distance of about two and a half miles 
from the residence and church of St. Ignatius; and, in 
honor of the first general of the society who sent mission- 
aries to America, named it the church of St. Francis Borgia. 
There, with Father Enjalran, he passed the winter of 1677-8, 
in a wigwam adjoining the chapel, receiving and instructing 
daily frequent visitors from both villages. We do not know 
how long that chapel remained in use. 

Duluth, who spent the winter of 1680-1 in St. Ignace, 
still gives Father Enjalran the title of missionary of St. 
Francis Borgia. 

The (surmised) removal of the Algonquins from the Rab- 
bit Buttes must have made the position of the chapel isolated, 
as it was no longer on the thoroughfare between the two 
settlements. 



THE FRENCH VILLAGE. 

The presence of French settlers at St. Ignace, is first men- 
tioned at the occasion of Father Marquette's burial. Accord- 
ing to the report of the following year (1678), the singing at 
the church of St. Ignatius was alternately in Latin, Huron and 
French. The fur and corn trade kept pace with the increase 
of the Indian population. LaSalle's arrival on the Griffon 
(1679), caused quite a stir in the commercial metropolis of 



ANCIENT MICHILIMAKINAC. 



19 



the West, for nothing less than that the village of St. Ignace 
was, and remained, until supplanted by Detroit. Hennepin, 
who wintered at the post: (1680-1), mentions his enrolling 
forty-two traders into a religious confraternity. Lallontan 
locates the houses of the French settlers in two or three rows 
along the bend of the shore, south of the Jesuits' residence. 
As a matter of course, the whole French population, with the 
exception of a few lawless coureurs de hois, disappeared 
with the removal of the Indians to Detroit. 




20 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAO. 



HISTORICAL EVENTS, 



CHRONOLOGICALLY ARRANGED. 



1534:. James Cartier, a Frenchman, discovered the St 
Lawrence River. 

1608. Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec. 

1634. John Nicolet passes the straits on his way to and 
from Green Bay. 

1642. The city of Montreal founded. 

1650-51. The Indian settlers of the neighborhood to- 
gether with large numbers from Manitoulin, Thunder Bay 
and Saginaw, mostly Otawas, intimidated by Iroquois prowess 
retire to Green Bay. 

1653. Eight hundred Iroquois warriors pass the strait. 
Failing to take the Huron fort on Green Bay after a pro- 
tracted siege, they break up, one division marching south, the 
other sailing northward. The former are cut down by the 
Illinois, the latter routed by the Ojibwa, Missisaki and Nigik 
(Otter) Indians, on Lake Huron. 

1654. Two French traders pass St. Ignace, on their way 
to Green Bay, they return in 1656 with a large trading party 

60 canoes) of Hurons and Otawas. 

1665, or earlier. Nicolas Perrot passes on his first visit to 
the Pottawatomi, on Green Bay. 

1669. November 11th, Father Allouez passed Point St. 
Ignace, on his journey from Sanlt Ste. Marie to Green Bay : 
he relates the following Indian tradition : 

They say that this island is the native country of one of their gods, called 
"The Great Hare," who created the earth, and that it was on this 
island that he invented the nets for taking fish, after having attentively 



HISTORICAL EVENTS. 'Zl 

considered a spider while constructing its web for catching flies. They 
believe that Lake Superior is a pond made by the beavers, the banks of 
which were double ; the first, at the place which we call the Sault, the 
second, five leagues lower down. In coming up the river, they say, this 
same god first encountered the second embankment, which he tore entirely 
away ; and for this reason there are no falls or turbulent waters at these 
rapids : as for the first, being in a hurry, he only walked over it and 
trampled it to pieces, in consequence of which there still remain large 
falls and boiling waters. 

This god, they add, while pursuing a beaver in the upper lake, crossed 
at a single step, a bay eight leagues in width. In view of so powerful an 
enemy, the beavers thought it best to change their place and consequently 
withdrew to another lake; from thence they afterward, by aid of the rivers 
that flow from it, arrived at the North Sea, intending to pass over to 
France; but finding the water bitter (salt), they lost heart, changed their 
intentions, and spread themselves among the rivers and lakes of this 
country. 

This is the reason why there are no beavers in France, and why the 
French have to come here in search of them. 

1670-71. Father Dablon, or another Jesuit (possibly 
Marquette), winters at Michilimackinac, laying the founda- 
tion of the Mission of St. Ignatius. 

1671. End of June, or later. The Tionontate Hurons, 
with Father Marquette, arrive from Shagawamigong (Ash- 
land Bay, L. S.) 

Autumn. The Otawas of Manitoulin, on the war-path 
against the Sioux, arrive with a large supply of arms 
and ammunition lately obtained in Montreal. Joined by 
the Hurons of the new settlement, and — on Green Bay — 
by the Pottawatomies, Sacs and Foxes, they march' through 
northern Wisconsin — a well-armed body of a thousand war- 
riors — and confidently attack the Sioux in the St. Croix 
Valley. Utterly defeated, they retreat through the snow- 
covered woods, amidst sufferings and privations that lead to 
acts of cannibalism. The heavy loss sustained by the 
Hurons, who bravely covered the rear, accounts for the 
diminished numbers of the tribe, as stated by Marquette. 



22 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

1672. The Hurons build their fortified village on East 
Moran Bay. December 8th, Joliet arrives and winters at 
St. Ignace. 

1673. May 17th, Joliet and Marquette, with five other 
Frenchmen, start on their voyage of discovery. 

1673 or '74. A large body of Otawas and other Algon- 
quins, principally Kishkakos, coining from Manitoulin and 
the opposite shore settle near Babbit's Back. Father Henry 
Nouvel, Superior of the Otawa Missions, takes charge of 
them. Father Philip Pierson becomes pastor of the Hurons. 

1674-75. The second and permanent church of St. Igna- 
tius and the Jesuits' residence are built at the side of the 
Huron village. 

1675. November 8th, Father Nouvel, with two French 
companions, starts on a journey to Saginaw Bay and the 
interior of Lower Michigan. He arrives near the head 
waters of Chippewa River, December Tth, builds a chapel 
(the first on the Lower Peninsula), and winters with the 
hunters of the Amik (Beaver) Clan. 

1676. or thereabouts. Another large body of Otawas 
arrive and settle near Gros Cap, on Lake Michigan. 

1677. June 7th, The Kishkako Indians, accompanied by 
a number of Iroquois, bring Father Marquette's remains to 
St. Ignace, where they are interred, on the following day, 
within the Jesuits' chapel. 

October. Father Enjalran arrives to assist Father Nouvel 
in the Otawa Mission. 

1677-78. Father Nouvel builds the chapel of St. Francis 
Borgia in the woods, between Rabbit's Back and Gros Cap. 
Himself and Father Enjalran winter there. The French 
and Indian trade begins to assume larger proportions. 



HISTORICAL EVENTS. 23 



LASALLE, HENNEPIN AND HENRY DE TONTY 

ARRIVE AT MICHILIMACKINAO, ON 

THE "GRIFFON." 

1679. LaSalle, on his first expedition to Illinois, arrives 
and spends some days at the settlement. 

The most remarkable character among the explorers 
of the Mississippi Valley, in the latter half of the seven- 
teenth century, was Robert Cavelier de LaSalle. Viewed 
in the light and sense of worldly enterprise, he is to be con- 
sidered as surpassing all others in lofty and comprehensive 
aims, in determined energy and unyielding courage, both 
moral and physical. He faltered at no laborious undertak- 
ing; no distrust by nerveless friends, no jealous envy or 
schemes of active enemies, no misfortune damped the ardor 
of his plans and movements. If there was a mountain in 
his track, he could scale it ; if a lion beset his path, he could 
crush it. Nothing but the hand of the lurking assassin 
could quench the fire of that brave heart. We may briefly 
say, that LaSalle was born in the city of Rouen, France, 
November 22, 1643. The name LaSalle was borrowed from 
an estate, in the neighborhood of Rouen, belonging to his 
family, the Caveliers. Robert was educated at one of the 
Jesuit seminaries, and as one of that order he continued a 
short time ; but in 1666, he came to America, and it is said 
that he made early exploration to the Ohio, and was possibly 
near the Mississippi before Joliet and Marquette's voyage 
hither. We can here only allude to a few items and facts in 
LaSalle's career. It was a marked incident, and so appears 
on the historic page, when LaSalle, in 1679, voyaged to 
Green Bay on the " Griffon," the first sail vessel of the lakes 
above the Falls, and which he had built on the bank of 



24 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

Cayuga Creek, a tributary of the Niagara. But that busi- 
ness trip was a mere pleasure excursion when compared with 
the efforts required of him to engineer and bring about cer- 
tain indispensable preparations, involving ways and means, 
before the keel of that renowned craft should be laid, and 
before she spread her wings to the breeze and departed out 
ward from Buffalo Harbor of the future. And what an 
unhesitating morning-walk was that of his, in 1680, when 
he set out on foot from the Fort which (not him) they termed 
Broken Heart, where Peoria now is, to go, some twelve 
hundred miles perhaps, to Fort Frontenac, where Kingston 
now is, at the lower end of Lake Ontario. His unyield- 
ing purpose was not to be delayed, but accelerated, by 
the avalanche of misfortune which had fallen on him. 
He could not wait for railroads, nor turnpikes, nor civil- 
ization : he could not even wait for a canoe navigation, 
for it was early spring — in the month of March — when 
the ice still lingered by the lake shores, and was running 
thickly in the streams. So, with one Indian and four 
white men, with a small supply of edibles, yet with a 
large stock of resolution, he took his way. The journey 
was accomplished, and he was back on Lake Michigan 
in the autumn ensuing. It has been suggested that his 
own enduring, iron nature, as it might be called — unbending 
as it was in its requirements of others — served, perhaps, to 
create enmities and to occasion the final catastrophe. It 
may have been so ; but whatever view may be taken, the 
doings of La Salle must be called wonderful, his misfortunes 
numberless, and his death sad. The day on which LaSalle 
was killed is said to have been March 19, 1687. 



HISTORICAL EVENTS. 25 



HENKY DE TONTY. 

There is much of romantic interest in the life of Henry 
de Tonty which will ever attract attention to the story of 
his experience in the wilds of America. He was born in 
Naples, Italy, in or near the year 1650. In a memoir, said 
to be written by him in 1693, he says : " After having been 
eight years in the French service, by land and by sea, and 
having had a hand shot off in Sicily by a grenade, I resolved 
to return to France to solicit employment." It was at the 
time when LaSalle had returned from America, and was 
getting recruits and means for his Western enterprise. The 
prime minister of Louis XIY., he that was called the great 
Colbert, knowing the soldier Tonty well, specially provided 
that the important project to be undertaken by LaSalle should 
have the benefit of the personal aid of Tonty, who, though 
maimed and single-handed, was yet ready to go forth to dare 
and to do. Tonty says: "We sailed from Hochelle on the 
14th of July, 1678, and arrived at Quebec on the 15th of 
September following." We can not, of course, attempt to 
follow the brave and capable lieutenant of LaSalle in his 
various movements, even if we had a knowledge of them ; 
yet we may say, that if a trustful agent or manager was 
needed for any adventure by LaSalle, Tonty was the man to 
till the requirement. If a fort was wanted, he was the 
architect and overseer to construct it ; if a peaceable envoy to 
the Indians was required, he was the gifted embassador ; if a 
tribe needed chastisement in battle, he was the able captain 
of the forces. We need not cite examples. Tonty was pro- 
vided with some sort of a metallic arrangement as a substi- 
tute for the loss of part of an arm; and he was known, it is 
said, far and Bear, among the tribes of red men, as " L 



26 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

de Fer," or, The man with the iron arm. If we rightly 
remember, more than one tale has been constructed by novel- 
writers, with its scenes laid in the Far West, presenting Tonty 
as the principal character. In long time past, an island at 
the lower end of Lake Ontario was known as, and called, the 
Isle of Tonty, being named after our hero — the man with 
the iron arm ; but the name was afterward changed to that 
of Amherst. Whatever the deserts of the titled General 
Jeffrey Amherst may have been, Henry de Tonty was the 
greater man of the two. Tonty died at Fort St. Louis, on 
Mobile Bay, in the year 1704. 



LOUIS HENNEPIK 

Louis Hennepin, a Recollect of the order of St. Francis, 
was born at Ath, France, in 1645. He sailed for Canada 
in 1675, on the "Saint Honore." LaSalle was, also a pas- 
senger on the same vessel. 

Hennepin left Quebec in 1678, and set out with LaSalle to 
explore the country lying south and west of Lake Michigan. 

On Cayuga Creek, a tributary of the Niagara "River, into 
which it empties from the American side, five miles above 
the Falls, LaSalle built the " Griffon," upon which they 
embarked, setting sail August 7th, arriving atMichilimackinac 
August 27th, 1679. 

From his minute description of the bay, the shore, etc., the 
Rev. Edward Jacker says : The Bay where the " Griffon " 
anchored is that which is overlooked by two steep and rocky 
bluffs famous in Indian tradition, and called by the Indians 
" He " and " She " Rabbit. The former is known as " Rab- 
bit's Back." The Kiskakon Otawas were there in 1677. 

1679. They arrived at Green Bay September 22d, and 
from there LaSalle sent the "Griffon" back, and it is sup- 




North Sally-Port. 



28 ANNAL6 OF FORT MACKINAC. 

posed to have been wrecked off the entrance to Green Bay, 
as a severe storm arose, and it did not reach Michilmackinac. 
After various mishaps Hennepin reached the Mississippi, 
which he ascended to the Falls of St. Anthony, in the spring 
of 1680. 

1680. Duluth and Hennepin arrive from the Upper Mis- 
sissippi, by way of Green Bay. They winter at St. Ignace. 

1681. LaSalle passes St. Ignace on his second journey to 
Illinois. M. De Villeraye is appointed commandant by 
Frontenac about this time. 

1683. The fur trade declines in consequence of the 
danger of transportation, occasioned by Iroquois hostility. 
Hence distress among the traders, and dissatisfaction among 
the Indians. 

1684. Mons. De La Durantaye in command at Michili- 
mackinac. The French and Indian forces commanded by 
De La Durantaye, with Duluth as lieutenant, and Perrot as 
" manager" of the Otawas, set out to join in DeLa Barre's 
inglorious expedition against the Iroquois. 

The Indian estimation of French power and valor is on the 
wane. During De La Durantaye's absence. M. De La Val- 
trie acts as commandant. 

1685. All the French in the Upper Lake region are placed 
under the authority of the commandant of Michilimackinac 
(M. De La Durantaye). This measure remaining in force 
until the abandonment of the post. Michilimackinac, already 
the commercial emporium of the Northwest, becomes also its 
military centre. 

Nicolas Perrot arrives with orders from the governor, pro- 
hibiting the Otawas to march against the Foxes on Green 
Bay. He succeeds in restoring peace between the two tribes 
through the intermediation of an Ojibwa chief, whose daugh- 
ter (a captive among the Foxes) he saves from the stake and 
restores to her father. 



HISTORICAL EVENTS. 29 

1686. Dissatisfaction among the Indians. Most of the 
clans are leaning towards the Iroquois and the English, as the 
stronger party and better able to supply their wants. The 
English endeavor to bring about a rupture by forwarding 
supplies and liquor to Michilimackinac. 

1687. De La Durantaye sets out with the French force to 
take part in Denonville's expedition against the Senecas. He 
arrests, in the neighborhood of the settlement, thirty English 
traders, and as many more on Lake Erie. The timely arrival 
of Perrot with the Green Bay Indians obviates the necessity 
of the commandant returning with the prisoners, too numer- 
ous for his safety, in a hostile neighborhood. He proceeds 
to Niagara, where the Otawas and Hurons, marching over- 
land from Lake Huron, join him ; they take part in a victori- 
ous attack on 800 Iroquois (July). The capture of those 
English parties probably prevented the massacre of the 
French in Michilimackinac, by the Hurons and Otawas. 

1688. May. LaHontan arrives with a small force (from 
a fort near the outlet of Lake Huron), and spends a month in 
the settlement. He obtains with difficulty a supply of corn. 
The Otawas, distrusting the Hurons, fortify themselves on 
the Bluff, north of East Moran Bay. Joutel, Cavelier, and 
other survivors of LaSalle's expedition to Texas (having 
wintered on Green Bay) pass the settlement on their way to 
Quebec and France. Kondiaronk, or Le Bat, the great 
Huron chief, departs at the head of one hundred men against 
the Iroquois, but plots with them the destruction of the Ota- 
was by stratagem. The plot proves abortive, in consequence 
of Perrot and the missionaries gaining knowledge of it ; 
Le Rat confesses his guilt. Perrot, returning from the Mis- 
sissippi with three female Ojibwa prisoners delivered to him 
by the Foxes, snatches five Iroquois warriors from the stake, 
to which they were condemned by the Otawas, in spite of the 
commandant's and the missionaries' remonstrances. 



30 ANNALS OF FOKT MACKINAC. 

ltfS9-90. The Ota was, at the instigation of the Hurona, 
resume their project of effecting a reconciliation with the 
Iroquois. They send back to the Senecas the prisoners taken 
from them, and make arrangements for a meeting in the fol- 
lowing year. Father De Carheil, being informed of their 
plan, warns the governor by a messenger sent in the winter. 
Frontenac prepares a large convoy to reinforce Michilimack- 
inac. 

1690. Spring. The Otawas take steps towards an alli- 
ance with the Iroquois, and — as a token of good will — medi- 
tate the massacre of the French traders. 

End of June or beginning of July. The post is saved by 
the arrival of M. De La Forte Louvigny (who relieved Du- 
rantaye as commandant), with Perrot, and with an Iroquois 
prisoner, the evidence of a victory gained on the Otawa 
River over a waylaying party (June 2d). The prisoner is 
given, for execution, to the vacillating Hurons, who, dreading 
a final breach with the Iroquois, are disposed to spare him ; 
but yielding to the commandant's peremptory order, brain 
him after a short torture. 

Perrot, boldly haranguing the chiefs, assembled at the 
Jesuits' residence, reproaches them with their treachery, and 
endeavors to show them the folly of doubting the power 
of the French. They promise to amend. 

1691. De Courtemanche and De Repentigny arrive with 
the news of the French victory over the English fleet before 
Quebec. 

1692. Otawa and Huron warriors co-operate in driving 
the Iroquois from the St. Lawrence, and in the invasion of 
their territory by detached parties. 

August. Two hundred Otawas from Michilimackinae 
arrive at Montreal in quest of munition. 

1693. A great amount of fur is waiting transportation ; 
on account of the Iroquois infesting the Otawa, the Indiana 



HISTORICAL NVKNTS. 



31 




South Sally.Port. 



1 > 



32 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

will not venture the journey without a sufficient escort. 
Frontenac being informed, despatches the Sieur d'Argenteuil 
with orders for the commandant to send all the French he 
can spare down with the convoy. 

August 4th. Two hundred canoes from Michilimackinac, 
freighted with 80,000 francs worth of beaver, arrive at 
Montreal, together with the principal chiefs of the western 
tribes. A great council is held, and the Indians return 
charmed with the governor's manner, and laden with 
presents. 

1694. July. De Louvigny leaves for the colony with a 
great convoy of furs. 

The Hurons contemplating a removal, are again suspected 
of treacherous intentions. Opposed in their purpose by the 
commandant and the Otawas, one half of the tribe consent 
to stay; the other half go to live with the Miamis on the 
St. Joseph River. (M. Tilly De Courtemanche commandant 
there, since 1693.) 

De La Porte Louvigny is superseded by De La .Motte 
Cadillac, the last commandant of " Ancient Michilimackinac." 
(Louvigny becomes afterwards [1712] first commandant of 
New Michilimackinac, commonly called " Old Mackinac") 

1695. Cadillac advises the governor of the necessity of a 
grand expedition against the Iroquois in order to prevent 
the defection of the western tribes. Frontenac contents 
himself with harassing the enemy, in which he is aided by 
Michilimackinac Indians, who return with a great number 
of prisoners. 

At a great meeting of western chiefs in Montreal, Fron- 
tenac emphatically gives them to understand that they must 
look upon every French officer, residing among them, as sub- 
ject to the orders of the one in command at Michilimackinac. 

The officers in command at the several posts, at that 
period, are: Tilly De Courtemanche, D'Aillebonst De Mantet,, 



HISTORICAL EVENTS. 33 

D'Ailleboust D'Argenteuil, De Lisle, Yincennes, La De- 
eouverte, and Perrot. 

Le Baron, a Huron chief, concludes a treaty with the 
Iroquois. Cadillac with difficulty succeeds in suspending 
its execution. An Indian deputation goes to Montreal to 
insist (as advised by the commandant) on a reduction in the 
prices of goods. Frontenac partly satisfies them. 

The French court unable to cope with the evils springing 
from the system of trading licenses, ineffectually orders the 
evacuation of the post and the return into the colony of all 
soldiers and traders (ooureurs de bois), in the West. 

1696. The Hurons and some Otawas are already hunting 
with the Iroquois. 

Cadillac dispatches a war party, consisting chiefly of 
Pottawatomies and Algonquins. The Iroquois, though warned 
by the Hurons, lose thirty scalps, and thirty-two prisoners, 
who are brought to Michilimackinac. Some Hurons found 
among them are restored to their tribe. 

In consequence of the Hurons' machinations, but few 
Michilimackinac Indians take part in the campaign against 
the Onondago and Oneida. 

D'Argenteuil starts with 50 Frenchmen, but arrives too 
late. 

Le Baron, with thirty Huron families, goes to settle near 
Albany. Kondiaronk, now permanently gained over to the 
French cause by Father de Carheil, prevents the rest of the 
tribe from following them. 

1697. Frontenac, in reply to the king's order (of 1695, 
received late in 1696), insists on the posts of Michilimacki- 
nac and St. Joseph being retained, with a garrison sufficient 
to keep off English traders (twelve or fifteen soldiers with 
an officer), and on twenty-five canoe loads of goods being 
annually sent to each place. His advice prevails in the king** 
council. 



84 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

Rumors of an impending war with England arriving,. 
Cadillac starts with a great number of Frenchmen, and three 
hundred Sacs, Pottawatomies, Otawas and Hurons. They 
arrive in Montreal towards the end of August. 

1700. September 8th. Kondiaronk and a deputy of the- 
four Otawa clans sign a provisional treaty of peace with the 
Iroquois, at Montreal. 

De Courtemanche and Father Enjalran go to visit the 
other western tribes and persuade them to accede to the 
treaty. 

1701. Otawa hunters fight a party of Iroquois who tres- 
pass on their grounds, and bring the chief to Michilimacki- 
nac as a prisoner. 

De Courtemanche and Father Enjalran, greatly aided by 
Kondiaronk, bring their negotiations with the tribes to a suc- 
cessful issue. Father Enjalran leaves Michilimackinac in 
June, with two liberated Iroquois prisoners. Courtemanche 
starts after the arrival of the Indian delegates, with a fleet 
of 141 canoes. 

Sieur De La Motte Cadillac founded the present city of 
Detroit, building Fort Pontchartrain, near the present Jeffer- 
son avenue, Shelby and Wood bridge streets. 

At the great meeting convened at Montreal, August lst ? 
for the conclusion of peace between the Iroquois, and the 
French and their allies (Illinois, Miamis, Kickapoos, Foxes ? 
Winnebagos, Pottawatomies, Menomonees, Otawas, Ojib- 
was, Hurons, Algonquins, Abenakis and others, being repre- 
sented), Kondiaronk, almost in a dying state, makes a last 
6peech of great effect. He dies the following night, and is 
buried, with great demonstrations of respect, in the principal 
church of Montreal. 

August 4th. At the last general assembly (1,300 Indians 
being present), the treaty is signed by thirty-eight deputies. 

The Otawas of Michilimackinac ask for Father Enjalran 



HISTORICAL EVENTS. 



35 




BEV. FATHER EDWABD JACKEB, 
Discoverer of Marquette's Grave. 



36 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAO. 

and Nicolas Perrot, and insist on the prohibition of the 
liquor trade in their country. 

1702-3. The Hurons and a part of the Otawas, upon 
Cadillac's pressing invitation, remove to Detroit. 

1705. The remaining Otawas having broken the peace, 
DeLouvigny comes to bring them to reason. He returns to 
the colony with Iroquois prisoners given up to him by the 
Otawas. De Vincennes follows with the chiefs. They apolo- 
gize to the Iroquois, and peace is restored. 

Not a single Christian Indian remaining ; the Otawas, 
since the departure of the Hurons proving unmanageable, 
and the licentiousness of the bush-lopers (coureurs de hois) 
exceeding all bounds, the missionaries (De Carheil, Marest, 
and perhaps Enjalran) burn the church and house, and leave 
for Quebec. Governor General de Yaudreuil sends orders 
to all the French at Michilimackinac to come down to the 
colony. 

1712. Governor General de Yaudreuil sent De Louvigny 
to re-establish Fort Michilimackinac, which he did, but on 
the south shore. 

1721. Peter Francis Xavier Charlevoix at Michilimack- 
inac. 

1728. Sieur Marchand De Lignery's expedition at Mich- 
ilimackinac. 

1730. Sieur De Buisson in command at Michilimackinac. 

1759. July 24th. Fort Niagara surrendered to the 
British. 

September 18th. Quebec, the capital of New France 
(Canada), surrendered. 

1760. September 8th. Montreal, and all the French- 
Canadian territory, surrendered to the British. 

1761. September 28th. British troops first arrived at 
Michilimackinac. Captain Belfour, of the 80th Regiment, 



HISTORICAL EVENTS. 37 

arrived from Detroit with a detachment of the 60th and 
80th Regiments. Leaving Lieutenant Leslie, of the Royal 
American or 60th Regiment, with one sergeant, one corporal, 
one drummer, and twenty-live privates of the same regiment, 
Captain Belfour and his party, on October 1st, proceeded to 
Green Bay, Wis. 

Although the British occupied and controlled Canada, it 
was not formally ceded to Great Britain until 1763. 

The preliminaries of peace were signed at Fontainebleau, 
November 3d, 1762, between the courts of France, Spain 
and Great Britain. By the definitive treaty signed at Paris, 
February 10th, 1763, by these three great powers, together 
with Portugal, Canada was ceded to Great Britain. 

Great Britain restored to Spain the territory she had con- 
quered in the Island of Cuba ; and in consequence of this 
restitution, Spain ceded to Great Britain, Florida with Fort 
St. Augustin and the Bay of Pensacola, and all the Spanish 
possessions on the continent of North America, east of the 
Mississippi River. In 1783, Great Britain retroceded Florida 
to Spain. By a treaty made in 1819 (ratified in 1821), be- 
tween the United States and Spain, Florida was ceded by 
Spain to the United States, the latter paying $5,000,000. 

France, by an act passed at Fontainebleau, November 3d, 
1762, ceded the country then known as Louisiana, to Spain. 
The cession was accepted by an act passed at the Escurial, 
November 13th, of the same year. Spain retroceded Louisi- 
ana to France, by a treaty of St. Udefonso, October 1st, 1800. 
France ceded Louisiana to the United States in 1803, the 
latter paying $15,000,000. 



38 ANNALS OF FOBT MACKINAC. 



CONSPIRACY OF PONTIAC. 

1763. Under this conspiracy eleven posts were attacked, 
and eight captured. 

June 2d. Fort Michilimackinac was captured. The gar- 
rison consisted of Captain Etherington, Lieutenants Jamet and 
Leslie, and about thirty-five men. A band of Chippewas, 
while playing a game of ball just outside of the Fort, knocked 
the ball, as if by accident, so that it fell inside the stockade; 
the players rushed after it, and seizing their weapons from 
squaws, who had them concealed under their blankets, and 
had previously entered the Fort as a part of the plot, they 
raised the war-whoop and fell upon the garrison. Lieutenant 
Jamet and fifteen men were killed. Captain Etherington and 
Lieutenant Leslie, who were watching the game of ball, and 
the rest of the garrison were taken prisoners ; they were after- 
wards ransomed by Lieutenant Gorell and his command from 
the Fort at Green Bay. 

1780. July 15th. The British abandon the Fort at " Old 
Mackinac" and transfer the garrison to Mackinac Island, 
where they build the present Fort Mackinac. The history 
of "Modern Mackinac" properly begins at this date. 

1783. By the definitive treaty of peace between Great 
Britain and the United States, made and signed at Paris, Sep- 
tember 3d, 1783, by David Hartley on the part of Great 
Britain, and by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John 
Jay on the part of the United States, the post of Michili- 
mackinac fell within the boundary of the United States, but 
under various pretenses the English refused to withdraw their 
troops, and occupied it with other lake posts. 

1794. By the second article of the treaty of amity, com- 
merce and navigation, between Great Britain and the United 



HISTORICAL EVENT8. 39 

States, concluded at London, England, November, 19th, 1794, 
and signed by Baron Grenville, on the part of Great Britain, 
and by Hon. John Jay, on the part of the United States 
(ratifications exchanged October 28th, 1795, and proclaimed 
February 29th, 1796), it was stipulated that from all posts 
within the boundary lines assigned, by the treaty of peace to 
the United States, the British troops should be withdrawn on 
or before June 1st, 1796. 

1795. By stipulation 13, article 3, of a treaty of peace 
between the United States and the tribes of Indians called 
the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawnees, Otawas, Chippewas, 
Pottawatomies, Miamis, Eel Rivers, Weas, Kickapoos, Pinke- 
shaws and Kaskaskias, made at Greenville, Ohio, on the 3d 
of August, 1795, and signed by General Anthony Wayne, on 
the part of the United States, and by the Sachems and War- 
chiefs of the said tribes, the Indians ceded to the United 
States " the post of Michilimackinac, and all the land on the 
island on which that post stands, and the main land adjacent, 
on which the Indian title has been extinguished by gifts or 
grants, to the French or English Governments ; and a piece 
of land on the main to the north of the island, to measure 
six miles, on Lake Huron, or the strait between Lakes Huron 
and Michigan, and to extend three miles back from the water 
of the lake or strait ; and also, the island " Bois Blanc," the 
latter being an extra and voluntary gift of the Chippewa 
nation." 

1796. October. Two companies of United States troops, 
under the command of Major Henry Bnrbeck, with Captain 
Abner Prior and Lieutenants Ebenezer Massay and John 
Michael, arrived and took possession of the post of Michili- 
mackinac. 

1802. In the year 1800 the Connecticut Missionary So- 
ciety sent Rev. David Bacon (father of the late Rev. Dr. 
Leonard Bacon, of New Haven, who was born in Detroit in 



40 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

1802) as a missionary to our frontier; he arrived at Detroit 
August 11th, 1800, where he was entertained at the house of 
the commandant, Major Thomas Hunt, U. S. A. 

Mr. Bacon left Detroit, with his family, and came to 
Mackinac in June, 1802, where he remained, teaching and 
preaching until August, 1804, when he was recalled. 

Rev. David Bacon was the first Protestant who preached 
at Mackinac. 

1812. June 18th, war with Great Britain was declared by 
the Congress of the United States by a vote of 79 to 40 in 
the House, and 19 to 13 in the Senate. June 19th, war was 
formally proclaimed by President Madison, 



HISTORICAL EVENTS. 



41 




MAJ. WM. WHISTLER, TJ. S. A., 
Commanding Fort Mackinac, 1833. 



4:2 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 



SURRENDER OF FORT MICHILIMACKINAC. 

Detroit, August 4th, 1812. 

Sir— I take the earliest opportunity to acquaint Your Excellency of 
the surrender of the garrison of Michilimackinac, under my command, to 
his Britannic Majesty's forces under the command of Captain Charles 
Roberts, on the 17th ultimo, the particulars of which are as follows: On 
the 16th, I was informed by the Indian Interpreter that he had discovered 
from an Indian that the several nations of Indians then at St. Joseph (a 
British garrison, distant about forty miles) intended to make an imme- 
diate attack on Michilimackinac. 

I was inclined, from the coolness I had discovered in some of the prin- 
cipal chiefs of the Ottawa and Chippewa nations, who had but a few days 
before professed the greatest friendship for the United States, to place 
confidence in this report. 

I immediately called a meeting of the American gentlemen at that time 
on the island, in which it was thought proper to dispatch a confidential 
person to St. Joseph to watch the motions of the Indians. 

Captain Michael Dousman, of the militia, was thought the most suitable 
for this service. He embarked about sunset, and met the British forces 
within ten or fifteen miles of the island, by whom he was made prisoner 
and put on his parole of honor. He was landed on the island at day- 
break, with positive directions to give me no intelligence whatever. He 
was also instructed to take the inhabitants of the village, indiscriminately, 
to a place on the west side of the island where their persons and property 
should be protected by a British guard, but should they go to the Fort, 
they would be subject to a general massacre by the savages, which would 
be inevitable if the garrison fired a gun. This information I received 
from Doctor Day, who was passing through the village when every person 
was flying for refuge to the enemy. I immediately, on being informed 
of the approach of the enemy, placed ammunition, etc., in the Block 
houses; ordered every gun charged, and made every preparation for 
action. About 9 o'clock I could discover that the enemy were in posses- 
sion of the heights that commanded the Fort, and one piece of their artil- 
lery directed to the most defenceless part of the garrison. The Indians 
at this time were to be seen in great numbers in the edge of the woods. 



HISTORICAL EVENTS. 43 

At half-pa9t 11 o'clock the enemy sent in a flag of truce, demanding a sur- 
render of the Fort and island to his Britannic Majesty's forces. This, Sir, 
was the first information I had of the declaration of war; I, however, had 
anticipated it, and was as well prepared to meet such an event as I pos- 
sibly could have been with the force under my command, amounting 
to 57 effective men, including officers. Three American gentlemen, who 
were prisoners, were permitted to accompany the flag : from them I ascer- 
tained the strength of the enemy to be from nine hundred to one thousand 
strong, consisting of regular troops, Canadians and savages ; that they 
had two pieces of artillery, and were provided with ladders and ropes for 
the purpose of scaling the works, if necessary. After I had obtained this 
information, I consulted my officers, and also the American gentlemen 
present, who were very intelligent men; the result of which was, that it 
was impossible for the garrison to hold out against such a superior force. 
In this opinion I fully concurred, from the conviction that it was the only 
measure that could prevent a general massacre. The Fort and garrison 
were accordingly surrendered. 

The enclosed papers exhibit copies of the correspondence between the 
officer commanding the British forces and myself, and of the articles of 
capitulation. This subject involved questions of a peculiar nature; and 
I hope, Sir, that my demands and protests will meet the approbation of 
my government. I cannot allow this opportunity to escape without ex- 
pressing my obligation to Doctor Sylvester Day, for the service he ren- 
dered me in conducting this correspondence. 

In consequence of this unfortunate affair, I beg leave, Sir, to demand 
that a Court of Inquiry may be ordered to investigate all the facts con- 
nected with it; and I do further request, that the court may be specially 
directed to express their opinion on the merits of the case. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, etc., 

PORTER HANKS, 

Lieutenant of Artillery 
His Excellency General Hull, 

Commanding the N. W. Army. 

P. S. — The following particulars relating to the British force were ob- 
tained after the capitulation, from a source that admits of no doubt: 



44 ANNALS OF FOKT MACKINAC. 

Regular troops 46 including 4 officers. 

Canadian militia 260 

Total 306 



Sioux 56 

Winnebagoes 48 

Menomonees 39 

Chippewas and Ottawas 572 

715 Savages. 
306 Whites. 

Total 102 1 

It may also be remarked, that one hundred and fifty Chippewas and 
Ottawas joined the British two days after the capitulation. 

P. H. 



Heights above Michilimackinac, 17th July, 1812. 

CAPITULATION 

Agreed upon between Captain Charles Roberts, commanding his Britannic 

Majesty's forces, on the one part, and Lieutenant Porter Hanks, 

commanding the troops of the United States of America, 

on the other. 

ARTICLES. 

I. The Fort of Michilimackinac shall immediately be surrendered to 
the British forces. Granted. 

II. The garrison shall march out with the honours of war, lay down 
their arms, and become prisoners of war, and shall be sent to the United 
States of America by his Britannic Majesty, not to serve in this war 
until regularly exchanged ; and for the due performance of this article 
the officers pledge their word and honour. Granted. 

III. All the merchant vessels in the harbour, with their cargoes, shall 
be in the possession of their respective owners. Granted. 

IV. Private property shall be held sacred so far as in my power. 
Granted. 



HISTORICAL EVENTS. 45 

V. All citizens of the United States of America who shall not take the 
oath of allegiance to his Britannic Majesty, shall depart with their prop- 
erty from this island in one month from the date hereof. Granted. 

(Signed) CHARLES ROBERTS. 

Captain Commanding H. B. Majesty's Forces. 

PORTER HANKS, 

Lieutenant Commanding the Forces of the 

United States at Fort Michilimackinac. 



Notes. — Dr. Sylvester Day, U. S. A., was the Surgeon at the 
Fort. He and his family resided at the time on Astor street, in 
a house belonging to Samuel Abbott, which stood on the site of 
the house built in 1886 by Patrick Donnelly. Michael Dousman 
went to the house and told the inmates of the presence of the 
British on the island. Dr. Day immediately arose, and taking 
his family (one of whom, his son, is now Gen. Hannibal Day, 
U. S. A.), went to the Fort and warned the garrison of the 
approach of the foe. 

On July 15th, Captain Charles Roberts, of the Tenth Royal 
Veteran Battalion, in command of a detachment of his regiment 
at St. Joseph's Island, St. Mary's River, received letters by express 
from Gen. Brock, informing him that war had been declared, and 
ordering him to " adopt the most punctual measures." 

Leaving an officer and six privates to take care of the build- 
ings, Captain Roberts, at ten o'clock on the morning of the 16th, 
embarked his "few men with about one hundred and eighty 
Canadian engagees half of them without arms, about three hun- 
dred Indians and two iron six-pounders," in ten batteaux, seventy 
canoes, and on the N. W. Co's ship " Caledonia." 

The boat arrived at the place since then known as "British 
Landing," at three o'clock on the morning of the 17th, and 
through the exertions of the Canadians, one of the guns was 
taken to a height commanding the Fort. 

The American troops numbered sixty-three persons, including 
five sick men and one drummer boy. 

There were nine vessels in the harbor, having on board forty- 
seven men. After the capitulation two other vessels arrived, 
with seven hundred packs of furs. 

The prisoners were sent to Detroit, arriving there August 4th, 
thence to Fort Fayette, where Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, now 



4:6 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

stands, where a roll shows them to have been mustered on 
the 17th day of November, 1812. 

Lieutenant Hanks was killed August 16, while still on 
parole, by a shot fired from the Canadian side, while he was 
standing in the vestibule of the quarters occupied by Captain 
Samuel T. Dyson and Lieutenant William Whistler, in the 
fort at Detroit. 

The citizens sought refuge in an old distillery, which was 
situated under the bluff near the old Indian burying ground, 
west of the village. The British sent a guard there immedi- 
ately after landing. 

The three American gentlemen (prisoners) referred to by 
Lieutenant Hanks, went from the distillery to Captain Rob- 
erts' command. They were Samuel Abbott, John Dousman 
and Ambrose R. Davenport, all prominent citizens of the 
village, and well calculated to comprehend the true state of 
affairs. 

Fort Holmes was built while the British held possession of 
the island, in 1812 and 1814. The inhabitants of the village 
were all forced to contribute labor. 

It was called by the British Fort George, in honor of the 
British king ; afterward rechristened by the Americans in 
honor of Major Andrew Hunter Holmes, who was killed 
August 4, 18i4:. 

The old ditches can be plainly seen ; the parapet was pro- 
tected by cedar pickets, so planted as to render scaling im- 
possible without a ladder. The covered ways, constructed 
to shelter the troops, have fallen in. In the centre of the 
enclosure there was a building used as a block-house and 
powder magazine. It was removed by the Americans, and 
is now used as the government stable. 

The platform that now crowns the summit, and com- 
mands a magnificent view of the Straits and the surround- 
ing country, was built in 1886. As you stand on this 
platform, three hundred and thirty-six feet above the 



HISTORICAL EVENTS. 



47 



level of the surrounding water, facing toward the flag-staff 
in the Fort, on your right is Point St. Ignace, four miles 
distant, the southern extremity of the northern peninsula of 
Michigan ; nearly in front of you lies Mackinaw City ; eight 
miles distant, on the northern point of the southern penin- 




Block House. Built in 1780. 



sula, a little to the right, is where old Fort Michilimackinac 
stood, where the massacre of June 2d, 1763, took place ; a 
little farther to the left Cheboygan, eighteen miles distant, 
and off to the left, where the northern shore and the water 
seem to mingle and disappear together, is the mouth of the 
St. Mary's River, thirty-seven miles distant. 



48 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAO. 



NAYAL BATTLE ON LAKE ERIE. 

1813. September 10th, the hostile fleets of Great Britain 
and the United States, on Lake Erie, met near the head of 
the Lake, and a sanguinary battle ensued. The British fleet 
consisted of six vessels, carrying sixty-four guns, under com- 
mand of the veteran Commodore Barclay, and the fleet of 
the United States consisted of nine vessels, carrying fifty- 
four guns, under command of the young and brave Commo- 
dore Oliver H. Perry. The result of this important conflict 
was made known to the world in the following laconic dis- 
patch, written at 4 p. m. of that day : 

" Dear General: — We have met the enemy, and they are ours. Two 
ships, two brigs, one schooner, and one sloop. 

" With esteem, etc., 

"O. H. PERRY. 
"General William H. Harrison." 



HISTORICAL EVENTS. 



49 




Block House, Built in 1780. 



AN.NALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 51 

BATTLE OF MICHILIMACKINAO. 

REPORT OF COL. GEORGE CROGHAN. 

U. S. S. War Niagara, off Thunder bat, ) 
August 9th, 1814. f 

Bib— We left Fort Gratiot (head of the straits St. Clair) on the 12th 
nit and imagined that we should arrive in a few days at Malshadash Bay. 
At the end of a week, however, the commodore from the want of pilots ac- 
quainted with that unfrequented part of the lake, despaired of being able to 
find a passage through the island into the bay, and made for St. Joseph's, 
where he anchored on 20th day of July. After setting fire to the Fort of St. 
Joseph's, which seemed not to have been recently occupied, a detachment 
of infantry and artillery, under Major Holmes, was ordered to Sault St. 
Mary's, for the purpose of breaking up the enemy's establishment at that 
place. 

For particulars relative to the execution of this order, I beg leave to 
refer you to Major Holmes' report herewith enclosed. Finding on my 
arrival at Michilimackinac, on the 26th ult, that the enemy had strongly 
fortified the height overlooking the old Fort of Mackinac, I at once de- 
spaired of being able with my small force, to carry the place by storm, 
and determined (as the only course remaining) on landing and establish- 
ing myself on some favorable position, whence I could be enabled to 
annoy the enemy by gradual and slow approaches, under cover of my 
artillery, in which I should have the superiority in point of metal. I was 
urged to adopt this step by another reason, not a little cogent ; could a 
position be taken and fortified on the island, I was well aware that it 
would either induce the enemy to attack me in my strongholds, or force 
his Indians and Canadians (the most efficient, and only disposable force) 
off the island, as they would be very unwilling to remain in my neighbor- 
hood after a permanent footing had been taken. On enquiry, I learned 
from individuals who had lived many years on the island, that a position 
desirable as I might wish, could be found on the west end, and therefore 
immediately made arrangements for disembarking. A landing was 
effected on the 4th inst., under cover of the guns of the shipping, and 
the line being quickly formed, had advanced to the edge of the field 
spoken of for a camp, when intelligence was conveyed to me, that the 



52 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

enemy was ahead, and a few seconds more brought us a fire from his 
battery of four pieces, firing shot and shells. After reconnoitering his 
position, which was well selected, his line reached along the edge of the 
woods, at the further extremity of the field and covered by a temporary 
breast work ; 1 determined on changing my position (which was now two 
lines, the militia forming the front), by advancing Major Holmes' battal- 
ion of regulars on the right of the militia, thus to outflank him, and by a 
vigorous effort to gain his rear. The movement was immediately ordered, 
but before it could be executed, a fire was opened by some Indians posted 
in a thick wood near our right, which proved fatal to Major Holmes and 
severely wounded Captain Desha (the next officer in rank). This unlucky 
fire, by depriving us of the services of our most valuable officers, threw 
that part of the line into confusion from which the best exertions of the 
officers were not able to recover it. Finding it impossible to gain the 
enemy's left, owing to the impenetrable thickness of the woods, a charge 
was ordered to be made by the regulars immediately against the front. 
This charge although made in some confusion, served to drive the enemy 
back into the woods, from whence an annoying fire was kept up by the 
Indians. 

Lieut. Morgan was ordered up with a light piece to assist the left, now 
particularly galled ; the excellent practice of this brought the enemy to 
fire at a longer distance. Discovering that this disposition from whence 
the enemy had just been driven (and which had been represented to me 
as so high and commanding), was by no means tenable, from being inter- 
spersed with thickets, and intersected in every way by ravines, I deter- 
mined no longer to expose my force to the fire of an enemy deriving 
every advantage which could be obtained from numbers and a knowledge 
of the position, and therefore ordered an immediate retreat towards the 
shipping. This affair, which cost us many valuable lives, leaves us to 
lament the fall of that gallant officer, Major Holmes, whose character is 
so well known to the war department. Captain Van Home, of the 19th 
Infantry and Lieut. Jackson of the 24th Infantry, both brave intrepid 
young men fell mortally wounded at the head of their respective com- 
mands. 

The conduct of all my officers on this occasion merits my approbation. 
Captain Desha, of the 24th Infantry, although wounded, continued 
with his command until forced to retire from faintness through loss of 
blood. Captains Saunders, Hawkins and Sturges, with every subaltern 



HISTORICAL EVENTS. 53 

of that battalion, acted in the most exemplary manner. Ensign Bryan, 
2nd Rifle Regiment, acting Adjutant to the battalion, actively forwarded 
the wishes of the commanding officer. Lieuts. Hickman, 28th Infantry, 
and Hyde of the U. S. Marines, who commanded the reserve, claim my 
particular thanks for their activity in keeping that command in readiness 
to meet any exigency. I have before mentioned Lieut. Morgan's activity; 
his two assistants, Lieut. Pickett and Mr. Peters, conductor of artillery, 
also merit the name of good officers. 

The militia were wanting in no part of their duty. Colonel Cotgreave, 
his officers and soldiers, deserve the warmest approbation, My acting 
assistant Adjutant General Captain N. H. Moore, 28th Infantry, with 
volunteer Adjutant McComb, were prompt in delivering my orders. 

Captain Gratiot of the engineers, who voluntered his services as Adju- 
tant on the occasion, gave me valuable assistance. On the morning of the 
5th, I sent a flag to the enemy, to enquire into the state of the wounded 
(two in number), who were left on the field, and to request permission to 
bring away the body of Major Holmes, which was also left, owing to the 
unpardonable neglect of the soldiers in whose hands it was placed. I 
am happy in assuring you, that the body of Major Holmes is secured, 
and will be buried at Detroit with becoming honors. I shall discharge 
the militia to-morrow, and will send them down, together with two regu- 
lar companies to Detroit. 

With the remaining three companies I shall attempt to destroy the 
enemy's establishment in the head of Naw-taw-wa-sa-ga, River, and if it 
be thought proper, erect a post at the mouth of that river. 

Very respectfully, I have the honor to remain, sir, your obedient 
servant. 

G. CROGHAN, 

Lieut- Col. 2nd Riflemen. 
To Hon. J. Armstrong, 

Secretary of War. 



54: ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 



REPORT OF KILLED, WOUNDED AND MISSING, ON 
AUGUST 4th, 1814. 

On board the U. S. Sloop of War Niagara, ) 
11th August, 1814. i 

Artillery — wounded, three privates. 

Infantry — 17th Regiment; killed, five privates; wounded, two sergeants, 
two corporals, fifteen privates. Two privates since dead. Two privates 
missing. 

19th Regiment — wounded, one captain, nine privates. Captain Isaac 
Van Home, Jr., since dead — one private since dead. 

24th Regiment — killed, five privates; wounded, one captain, one lieu- 
tenant, three sergeants, one corporal, one musician, five privates. Cap- 
tain Robert Desha severely; Lieut. Hezekiah Jackson since dead— one 
sergeant since dead. 

32nd Regiment — killed, one major. Major Andrew Hunter Holmes. 

United States Marines — wounded, one sergeant. 

Ohio Militia — killed, two privates; wounded, six privates — one private 
since dead of his wounds. 

Grand total— one major and twelve privates killed; two captains, one 
lieutenant, six sergeants, three corporals, one musician and thirty-eight 
privates wounded. Two privates missing. 

The above return exhibits a true statement of the killed wounded and 
missing in the affair of the 4th instant. 

N. H. MOORE, 

Captain 28th Infantry, 
Acting Assistant Adjutant- General. 



56 ANNALS OF FORI MACKINAC. 



REPORT OF CAPTAIN SINCLAIR. 

United States Sloop of War Niagara, ) 
Off Thunder Bay, August 9th, 1814. \ 

Sir — I arrived off Michilimackinac on the 26th July; but owing to a 
tedious spell of bad weather, which prevented our reconnoitering, or 
being able to procure a prisoner who could give us information of the 
enemy's Indian force, which, from several little skirmishes we had on an 
adjacent island, appeared to be very great, we did not attempt a landing 
until the 4th inst. , and it was then made more with a view to ascertain 
positively the enemy's strength, than with any possible hope of success; 
knowing, at the same time, that I could effectually cover their landing 
and retreat to the ships, from the position I had taken within 300 yards 
of the beach. Col. Croghan would never have landed, even with this 
protection, being positive, as he was, that the Indian force alone on the 
island, with the advantages they had, were superior to him, could he 
have justified himself to his government, without having stronger proof 
than appearances, that he could not effect the object in view. Mackinac 
is, by nature, a perfect Gibraltar, being a high inaccessible rock on every 
side, except the west, from which to the hights, you have near two miles 
to pass through a wood, so thick that our men were shot in every direc- 
tion, and within a few yards of them, without being able to see the 
Indians who did it; and a height was scarcely gained before there was 
another within 50 or 100 yards commanding it, where breastworks were 
erected and cannon opened on them. Several of those were charged and 
the enemy driven from them; but it was soon found the further our 
troops advanced the stronger the enemy became, and the weaker and 
more bewildered our forces were; several of the commanding officers 
were picked out and killed or wounded by the savages, without seeing 
any of them. The men were getting lost and falling into confusion, 
natural under such circumstances, which demanded an immediate retreat, 
or a total defeat and general massacre must have ensued. This was con- 
ducted in a masterly manner by Col. Croghan, who had lost the aid of 
that valuable and ever to be lamented officer, Major Holmes, who, with 
Captain VanHorn, was killed by the Indians. 

The enemy were driven from many of their strongholds; but such was 



HISTORICAL EVENTS. 57 

the impenetrable thickness of the woods, that no advantage gained could 
be profited by. Our attack would have been made immediately under 
the lower fort, that the enemy might not have been able to use his Indian 
force to such advantage as in the woods, having discovered by drawing a 
fire from him in several instances, that I had greatly the superiority of 
metal of him; but its site being about 120 feet above the water, I could 
not, when near enough to do him an injury, elevate sufficiently to batter 
it. Above this, nearly as high again, he has another strong fort, com- 
manding every point on the island, and almost perpendicular on all sides. 
Col. Croghan not deeming it prudent to make a second attempt upon this 
place, and having ascertained to a certainty that the only naval force the 
enemy have upon the lakes consists of one schooner of four guns, I have 
determined to despatch the " Lawrence " and " Caledonia " to Lake Erie 
immediately, believing their services in transporting our armies there will 
be wanting; and it being important that the sick and wounded, amount- 
ing to about 100, and that part of the detachment not necessary to further 
our future operations here, should reach Detroit without delay. By an 
intelligent prisoner, captured in the "Mink," I ascertained this, and that 
the mechanics and others sent across from York during the winter were 
for the purpose of building a flotilla to transport reinforcements and sup- 
plies to Mackinac. An attempt was made to transport them by the way of 
Matchadash, but it was found impracticable, from all the portages being 
a morass; that they then resorted to a small river called Nautawasaga, 
situated to the south of Matchadash, from which there is a portage of three 
leagues over a good road to Lake Simcoe. This place was never known 
until pointed out to them last summer by an Indian. This river is very 
narrow, and has six or eight feet water in it about three miles up, and is 
then a muddy, rapid shallow for 45 miles up to the portage, where their 
armada was built, and their storehouses are now situated. The naviga- 
tion is dangerous and difficult, and so obscured by rocks and bushes that 
no stranger could ever find it. I have, however, availed myself of the 
means of discovering it; I shall also blockade the mouth of French River 
until the fall; and those being the only two channels of communication 
by which Mackinac can possibly be supplied, and their provisions at this 
time being extremely short, I think they will be starved into a surrender. 
This will also cut off all supplies to the Northwest Company, who are now 
nearly starving, and their furs on hand can only find transportation by 
the way of Hudson Bay. At this place I calculate on falling in with 



58 ANNALS OF FOiiT MACKINAC. 

their schooner, which, it is said, has gone there for a load of provisions, 
and a message sent to her not to venture up while we are on the Lake. 
Very respectfully, I have the honor to remain, Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

ARTHUR SINCLAIR. 
To Hon. Wm. Jones, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

Notes. — Col. Croghan landed with his troops at what is 
now called ' British Landing/ so named from the fact that 
the British landed there on the night of the 16th and 17th 
of July, 1812, when they successfully surprised Fort Mack- 
inac. 

On entering the gate on the road leading to British Land- 
ing, after passing through the narrow belt of timber, you 
come to a slight ridge which crosses the road, passing diagon- 
ally through an orchard, on the left. 

On the south side of this ridge the British troops were 
concealed, having four field pieces ; the line was protected by 
a hastily constructed abattis, and the left by an entrenchment, 
the remains of which can be seen in the orchard some 250 
yards to the left of, and nearly parallel to, the road. 

The British forces were under the command of Lieut.-Col. 
Robert McDouall, Glengarry Light Infantry Fencibles, then 
in command at Fort Mackinac. 

Major Holmes' body was put on board a schooner and sent 
to Detroit, where it was buried in the old cemetery on the 
corner of Larned street and Woodward avenue, on land 
belonging to " The First Protestant Society." In 1834 when 
excavating for the building of " The First Protestant Church " 
the remains of Major Holmes were found with six cannon 
balls in the coffin. The balls were placed in the coffin for 
the purpose of sinking the body if in danger of being cap- 
tured by the British while on its way to Detroit. The 
remains were placed in a box and buried in the Protestant 
cemetery near Gratiot, Beaubien and Antoine streets. r 



HISTORICAL EVENTS. 59 

1815. By the treaty of peace and amity between Great 
Britain and the United States, concluded at Ghent, Belgium, 
December 24th, 1814, and signed by Lord Gambier, Henry 
Goulbourn and William Adams, on the part of Great 
Britain, and by John Quincy Adams, James A. Bayard, 
Henry Clay, Jonathan Russell and Albert Gallatin, on the 
part of the United States (ratifications exchanged February 
17th, and proclaimed February 18th, 1815), the post of 
Michilimackinac was again restored to the United States. 

On March 28th, Lieut. -General Sir Gordon Drummond 
sent a despatch from York (now Toronto), Canada, to Lieut.- 
Colonel Robert McDonall, of the Glengarry Light Infantry 
Fencibles, commanding Fort Mackinac and Dependencies, 
announcing the restoration of peace between Great Britain 
and the United States. This despatch reached Mackinac 
May 1st, and of it Col. McDouall in a letter of May 5th, to 
Colonel Anthony Butler, 2d Rifles, commanding " Michigan 
Territory and District of Upper Canada," said, " this was the 
first official communication I had received from my Govern- 
ment, announcing the termination of hostilities and the res- 
toration of the blessings of peace." 

Upon the receipt of the above despatch, Col. McDouall 
sent a detachment of troops to Drummond's Island to pre- 
pare for the removal thither, of the Mackinac Garrison. 

The efforts made at all times by Col. McDouall to protect 
American citizens and their property from the Indians, 
deserve mention. 

On the same day and by the same conveyance that brought 
General Drummond's despatch, Col. McDouall received a 
letter from Col. Butler, dated Detroit, April 16th, in refer- 
ence to the reoccupation of Fort Mackinac by U. S. troops. 
Col. McDouall's reply, dated May 5th, was conveyed to Col. 
Butler by Lieut. Worley, of the Royal Navy. 

The details connected with the restoration of Fort Macki- 



CO ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

nac to the United States, and of Fort Maiden, Amherstburg 
and Isle aux Bois Blanc to Great Britain, were arranged 
between Col. Anthony Butler, on the part of the United 
States, and Lieut.-Colonel W. W. James, of the British 
Infantry, on the part of Great Britain. 

The United States troops were withdrawn from Fort Mai- 
den, Amherstburg and Isle aux Bois Blanc, at noon on the 
first day of July. 

British troops, Col. McDouall in command, occupied Fort 
Mackinac until noon July 18th, when they were relieved by 
United States troops, consisting of two companies of Rifle- 
men (Captains Willoughby Morgan and Joseph Kean), and 
half a company (Captain Benjamin K. Pierce's), of artillery, 
under command of Colonel Anthony Butler. 

These troops with supplies for six months, left Detroit 
July 3d, in four vessels (commanded by Lieut. Samuel 
Woodhouse, U. S. N)., viz.: the U. S. sloop of war Niagara, 
the U. S. schooner Porcupine, and two private vessels char- 
tered for the trip. William Gamble, Collector of Customs 
for Mackinac, accompanied the troops. 

The British withdrew to Drummond's Island in the St. 
Mary's River, where they established a post. 

Colonel Butler immediately returned to Detroit, leaving 
Captain Willoughby Morgan in command at Fort Mackinac. 

Captain Morgan changed the name of Fort George to Fort 
Holmes, and for a short time garrisoned it with a small 
detachment. He also appointed Michael Dousman, a resi- 
dent citizen, Military Agent for Mackinac. 

Major Talbot Chambers, of the Riflemen, arrived at Fort 
Mackinac, August 31st, and took command, relieving Cap- 
tain Morgan, who was ordered to Detroit. 

1816. Two companies of Rifles left Fort Mackinac, 
under the command of Colonel John Miller, and established 
Fort Howard, at Green Bay, Wis. 



HISTORICAL EVENTS. 61 

1819. First steamboat at Makinac, the " Walk-in-the- 
Water." 

1821. June 21st. In the west end of the basement of 
the cottage on the corner of Astor and Fort Streets (then 
used as the retail store of the American Fur Co.), occurred 
an accident the result of which is known to the medical 
fraternity throughout the world. We refer to the acci- 
dental shooting, in the left side, of Alexis St. Martin, a 
Canadian, eighteen years of age, in the employ of the 
American Fur Company. 

St. Martin was not more than a yard from the muzzle of 
the gun, which was loaded with powder and duck-shot. To 
be brief, a hole was made into the stomach, which healed 
but never closed. Through this aperture, the action of the 
stomach, on various kinds of food, was observed. These 
experiments, extending through a series of years, gave 
much valuable information. Dr. Win. Beaumont, at that 
time the Post-Surgeon, attended the wounded man and 
afterward made the experiments. 

1823. Rev. William Montague Ferry, by direction of the 
United Foreign Missionary Society, established a mission 
for the Indians of the Northwest at Mackinac Island, this 
location being chosen because it was the center of the fur 
trade in the Northwest. 

Mr. Ferry arrived at Mackinac October 19th, and opened 
school November 3d, with twelve Indian children. At one 
time there were twenty-four assistants, and one hundred and 
eighty scholars. The children from the village attended as 
day scholars, and those from the several tribes as boarders. 

They were trained in habits of industry, and taught trades, 
and how to cultivate the soil, besides receiving a common 
school education. The school was first held in the old Court 
House. In 1825, the building now known as the " Mission 
House," was erected for missionary and school purposes. 



62 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

Thomas White Ferry, ex U. S. Senator, was born in the 
Mission House, June 1, 1827. 

The building known as the " Mission Church," was erected 
in 1830. It was consecrated March 4th, 1831. 

Mr. Ferry was relieved August 6th, 1834. He then settled 
at Grand Haven, Mich., where he lived for thirty-three 
years, highly esteemed and eminently useful. He died De- 
cember 30th, 1867. In 1837 the Mission was discontinued. 

1839, October 14th. Fort Mackinac evacuated. 

1840, May 18th. Fort Mackinac reoccupied by Co. H, 
4th Artillery. 

1856, October 12th. Fort Mackinac evacuated. 

1857, May 25th. Fort Mackinac reoccupied by Co. E, 2nd 
Artillery. 

August 2d. Fort Mackinac evacuated. 

1858, June 6th. Fort Mackinac reoccupied by Co. G, 
2nd Artillery. 

1861, April 28. Fort Mackinac evacuated. 

1862. May 10th, the steamer " Illinois" arrived at 
Mackinac from Detroit, having on board Co. A, Stanton 
Guards, Michigan Volunteers, Capt. Grover S. Wormer, of 
Detroit, commanding (afterwards, Lieut.-Col. and Col. 8th 
Michigan Cavalry, and Brevet Brigadier-General United 
States Volunteers,) with First Lieutenant Elias F. Sutton, 
Second Lieutenant Louis Hartmeyer, Chaplain James Knox, 
and Dr. John Gregg, having in charge the following dis- 
tinguished gentlemen from Tennessee, who were State prison- 
ers of war : Gen. William G. Harding, Gen. Washington Bar- 
rows, and Judge Joseph C. Guild. 

For six days after their arrival, the prisoners were allowed 
to remain at the Mission Hotel, under a guard, while quar- 
ters were being prepared in the Fort. The three sets of 
officers' quarters in the wooden building between the stone 
quarters and the guard house, were assigned to them. 

Gen. Harding occupied the set in the west end, or nearest 
the stone quarters, Gen. Barrows, the middle set, and Judge 
Guild, the set in the east end. The rooms were comfort- 
ably furnished by the prisoners, who remained here until 
September 10th, 1862, when the Fort was again evacuated, 



HISTORICAL EVENTS. *>3 

the prisoners taken to Detroit, and thence to Johnson's 
Island, Lake Erie. 

1866, August 3d. Fort Mackinac reoccupied by the 4th, 
Independent Company, of the Veteran Reserve Corps. 

August 26th. Fort Mackinac evacuated. 

1S67, August 22d. Fort Mackinac, reoccupied by Co. B, 
43d United States Infantry. 

1877. Father Marquette's grave discovered at St. Ignace, 
by Rev. Father Edward Jacker. 

1882. The Protestant Episcopal Church on Fort street, 
built through the efforts and under the direction of Rev. 
Moses C. Stanley. 

1883. A cable was laid by the Western Union Telegraph 
Co. to Mackinac Island from St. Ignace. (The latter place 
is connected by cable with Mackinaw City.) The line was 
opened July 13, the first message w r as as follows : 

Mackinac, Mich., July 13, 1883. 
Hon. Andrew Foley, 

Mayor of St. Ignace, Mich.: 

Please accept our congratulations on the completion of the link which 
connects the oldest village in Michigan with the youngest city. 
We wish your city continued prosperity. 

WM. P. PRESTON, 
President of Mackinac Village. 

1885. Three cottages, the first erected on building lots 
in the Mackinac National Park, were built by Mrs. Phebe 
B. Gehr, Mrs. Charlotte R. Warren, of Chicago, and Col. 
John Atkinson, of Detroit. 

The first lease by the government of a building lot in the 
Park was to Mrs. Gehr, the lease bearing date of April 1st, 
L8S5. 



64 ANNALS OF FOKT MACKINAC. 



FRENCH AND BRITISH OFFICERS. 

The following named officers were at Fort Michilimackinac 
on the dates given ; their names are the only ones (of French 
and British officers) which appear in the old and official 
records : 

1742, 12th August. 

MONS. DE BLAINVILLB, 

Commandant of Michilimackinac. 
1744, 6th January. 

MONS. DE VlVEHEVET, 

Commandant of Michilimackinac. 

1744, 11th July. 

DE RAMELIA, 

Captain and King's Commandant at Nepigon. 

1745, 11th July, and 1747, 23d May. 

DUPLESSIS DE MORAMPONT, 

King's Commandant at Cammanettigsia. 
1745, 25th August, and 1746, 29th June. 
Noyelle, Jr., 

Second in Command at Michilimackinac. 
1745, 25th August. 

Louis de la Corn e. 

Captain and King's Commandant at Michilimackinac. 

1747, 7th February, 20th June and 1st September. 

Mons. de Noyelle, Jr., 

Commandant of Michilimackinac. 

1748, 28th February, 1749, 11th March and 21st June. 

Mons. Jacques Legardeur de St. Pierre, 

Captain and King's Commandant at Michilimackinac 

1749, 27th January. 

Louis Legardeur, 

Chevalier de Repentigny, 

Second in Command at Michilimackinac. 



FRENCH AND BRITISH OFFICERS. 05 

1749, 29th August. 

MONS. GODEPROY, 

Officer of Troops. 

1750, 24th March, and 1752, 4th June. 

Mons. Duplessis Faber, 

Captain and King's Commandant at Michilimackinac. 
Knight of the Royal and Military Order of St. Louia. 

1751, 8th October. 

Mons. Duplessis, Jr., 

Second in Command at Michilimackinac. 

1752, 4th June. 

Mons. Beaujeu de Villemonde, 

Captain and King's Commandant at Camanitigousa. 

1753, 18th July, and 1754, 15th August. 

Mons. Marin, 

King's Commandant, Post of La Baie. 

1758, 18th July; 1754, 8th May; 1758, 23d February, 29th June, 16th July 
and 17th October; 1759, 30th January; 1760, 25th May and 8th 
September. 
Mons. de Beaujeu de Villemonde, 

Captain and King's Commandant at Michilimackinac. 

1754, 8th July, and 1755, 25th May. 

Mons. Herbin. 

Captain and King's Commandant at Michilimackinac 

1755 9th January. 

Louis Legardeur, 

Chevalier de Repentigny. 

King's Commandant at the Sault 
1755 34th August, 

Louis Legardeur. 

Chevalier de Repentigny, 

Lieutenant of Infantry. 
1756. e8th April. 

Charles de L'Anglade, 

Officer of Troops. 
1756, l»thJune. 

Mons. Hertelle Beaubappin, 

King's Commandant at • < , 



60 ANNALS OF FOKT MACKINAC. 

1756, 19th July. 

MONS. CODTEROT, 

Lieutenant of Infantry. 
1758, 2d July. 

Mons. DE L'Anglade, 

Second in Command at Michilimackinac. 
1758, 18th July. 

Louis Legardeur, 

Chevalier de Repentigny, 

Officer at Michilimackinac. 
1774 to 1779. 

A. S. De Peyster, 

Major Commanding Michilimackinac and Dependencies. 

1779 to 1782. 

Patrick Sinclair, 

Major and Lieutenant-Governor, 

Commanding Michilimackinac and Dependencies. 

1782 to 1787, 10th May. 

Daniel Robertson, 

Captain Commanding Michilimackinac and Dependencies. 

1784, 31st July. 

Phil. B. Fry, 

Ensign 8th, or King's Regiment 
1784, 31st July, 

George Clowes, 

Lieutenant 8th, or King's Regiment 
1791, 15th November. 

Edward Charleton, 

Captain 5th Regiment Foot, 

Commanding Michilimackinac. 
1791, 15th November. 

J. M. Hamilton, 

Ensign 5th Regiment Foot 

1791, 15th November. 

Benjamin Rocha. 

Lieutenant 5th Foot 

1791, 15th November. 

H. Headowe, 

Ensign 5th Foot 



LEGEND OF "ROBERTSON'S FOLLY." 



Captain Robertson was a gay young English officer and 
a great admirer of the ladies. One pleasant summer even- 
ing, as he was strolling in the woods at the back of the fort 
enjoying his pipe, he suddenly beheld, a few rods before 
him and just crossing his path, a female of most exquisite 
form, feature and complexion ; she seemed about nineteen ; 
was simply dressed; wore her long black hair in flowing 
tresses ; and as for a moment she turned on him her lustrous 
black eyes, her whole countenance lighting up with anima- 
tion, the gallant captain thought he had never before seen 
so beautiful a creature. He politely doffed his cap and 
quickened his steps, hoping to engage her in conversation. 
She likewise hastened, evidently with the design of escaping 
him. Presently she disappeared around a curve in the road, 
and Robertson lost sight of her. 

At the officers' quarters that night nothing was talked of 
but the young lady and her possible identity. She was 
clearly not a native, and no vessel had been known to touch 
at the island for many a week. Who could she be ? Cap- 
tain Robertson could hardly sleep that night. A rigid 
inquiry was instituted in the village. The only effect was 
to engender as intense curiosity in the town as already 
existed among the garrison. 

As the shades of evening drew near, the captain was again 
walking in the pleasant groves enjoying the delightful lake 
breezes and the whiff of his favorite pipe. He was think- 
ing of last evening's apparition, and blaming himself for 
not pressing on more vigorously, or at least calling to the 



68 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

fair spectre. At this moment, raising his eyes from the 
ground, there she was again, slowly preceding him at a dis- 
tance of scarcely more than thirty yards. As soon as his 
astonishment would permit, and as speedily as he could 
frame an excuse, he called to her : " Mademoiselle, I — I beg 
your pardon." 

She turned on him one glance, her face radiant with smiles, 
then redoubled her pace. The captain redoubled his, and 
soon broke into a run. Still she kept the interval between 
them undiminished. A bend of the road, and again she was 
gone. The captain sought her quickly, but in vain ; he then 
rushed back to the fort and called out a general posse of 
officers and men to scour the island, and, by capturing the 
maiden to solve the mystery. Though the search was kept 
up till a late hour in the night, not a trace could be found 
of her. The captain now began to be laughed at, and jokes 
were freely bandied at his expense. 

Two days passed away, and the fantasy of Captain Robert- 
son began to be forgotten by his brother officers, but the 
captain himself maintained a gloomy, thoughtful mood — the 
truth is he was in love with the woman he had only twice 
seen, and who he felt assured was somewhere secreted on 
the island. Plans for her discovery revolved in his brain 
day and night, and visions of romance and happiness were 
ever flitting before his eyes. It was on the evening of the 
second day that he was irresistibly led to walk again in the 
shady path in which the apparition had twice appeared to him. 
It led to the brow of the precipice at the southeastern corner 
of the island. He had nearly reached the famous point 
from which we now look down perpendicularly 128 feet into 
the placid waters of Lake Huron, when, sitting on a large 
stone, apparently enjoying the magnificent scene spread out 
before her, he discovered the object of his solicitude. Escape 
from him was now impossible, silently he stole up to her. 



Robertson's folly. 69 

A crunching of the gravel under his feet, however, disturbed 
her, and turning, her eyes met his. 

" Pretty maiden, why thus attempt to elude me ? Who 
are you ? " There was no answer, but the lady arose from 
the rock and retreated nearer the brink of the precipice, at 
the same time glancing to the right and left, as if seeking a 
loop-hole of escape. 

" Do not fear me," said the captain, " I am commander of 
the garrison at the fort here. No harm shall come to you, 
but do pray tell me who you are, and how you came on this 
island!" 

The lady still maintained a stolid silence, but in the fading 
light looked more beautiful than ever. She was now stand- 
ing within three feet of the brink with her back to the 
terrible abyss. The captain shuddered at the thought of her 
making an unguarded step and being dashed to pieces on 
the rocks below. So he tried to calm her fears lest, in her 
agitation, she might precipitate a terrible catastrophe. 

" My dear young lady," he began, " I see you fear me, 
and I will leave you ; but for heaven's sake do pray tell me 
your name and where you reside. Not a hair of your head 
shall be harmed, but Captain Robertson, your devoted ser- 
vant, will go through fire and water to do your commands. 
Once more, my dear girl, do speak to me, if but a word 
before we part." 

As the captain warmed up in his address, he incautiously 
advanced a step. The girl retreated another step, and now 
stood where the slightest loss of balance must prove her 
death. 

Quick as thought, the captain sprang forward to seize her 
and avert so terrible a tragedy, but just as he clutched her 
arm, she threw herself backward into the chasm, drawing 
her tormentor and would-be savior with her, and both were 
instantly dashed on to the rocks below. 



70 



ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 



His mangled remains were found at the foot of the preci- 
pice, but, singular as it may seem, not a vestige could be 
found of the woman for whose life his own had been sacri- 
ficed. His body alone could be discovered and it was taken 
up and buried in a shady nook near the middle of the island. 
He was long mourned by his men and brother officers, for 
he was much beloved for his high social qualities and genial 
deportment ; but by and by it began to be whispered that 
the captain had indulged too freely in the fine old French 
brandy that the fur traders brought up from Montreal, and 
that the lady he professed to see was a mere ignis fatuus of 
his own excited imagination. But the mantle of charity 
has been thrown over the tragedy, and a commonplace 
explanation given for the name the rocky point has acquired, 
of " Robertson's Folly." 




AMERICAN FUB COMPANY. 71 



THE AMERICAN FUR COMPANY. 

To notice slightly the origin of the American Fur Com 
pany, we will say that John Jacob Astor, a German by birth, 
who arrived in New York in the year 1784, commenced 
work for a bakery owned by a German acquaintance. He 
was afterwards assisted to open a toy shop, and this was fol- 
lowed by trafficking for small parcels of furs in the country 
towns, and which led to his future operations in that line. 

Mr. Astor's great and continued success in that branch of 
trade induced him, in 1809, to obtain from the New York 
Legislature a charter incorporating "The American Fur 
Company," with a capital of a million dollars. It is under- 
stood that Mr. Astor comprised the company, though other 
names were used in its organization. In 1811, Mr. Astor, 
in connection with certain partners of the old Northwest 
Fur Company (whose beginning was in 1783, and perma- 
nently organized in 1787), bought out the association of 
British merchants known as the Mackinac Company, then a 
strong competitor in the fur trade. This Mackinac Com- 
pany, with the American Fur Company, was merged into a 
new association called the Southwest Fur Company. But in 
1815, Mr. Astor bought out the Southwest Company, and the 
American Fur Company came again to the front. In the 
winter of 1815-16, Congress, through the influence of Mr. 
Astor, it is understood, passed an act excluding foreigners 
from participating in the Indian trade. In 1817-18, the 
American Fur Company brought a large number of clerks 
from Montreal and the United States to Mackinac, some of 
whom made good Indian traders, while many others failed 
upon trial and were discharged. Among those who proved 
their capability was Gurdon S. Hubbard, Esq., then a youth 



72 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

of sixteen, later, one of the early settlers of Chicago. He 
was born in Windsor, Vt., in 1802, his parents were Elizur 
and Abigail (Sage) Hubbard. His paternal "emigrant" 
ancestor was George Hubbard, who was at Wethersfield, Ct., 
in 1636. Mr. Hubbard was also a lineal descendant of the 
clergyman-governor Gurdon Saltonstall (named for Bramp- 
ton Gnrdon, the patriot M. P., whose daughter was the grand- 
mother of the governor), who was the great-grandson of Sir 
Kichard Saltonstall, a firm and efficient friend of early New 
England. 

Mr. Hubbard left Montreal, where his parents then lived, 
May 13, 1818, reaching Mackinac July 4th, and arrived at 
Chicago on the first day of November of that year. In 1828, 
he purchased of the Fur Company their entire interest in 
the trade of Illinois. Mr. Hubbard died at his home in 
Chicago, September 14, 1886. 

Having entire charge of the management of the company in the "West, 
were Ramsey Crooks and Robert Stuart. To William Matthews was 
intrusted the engaging of voyageurs and clerks in Canada, with his head- 
quarters in Montreal. The voyageurs he took from the habitants (farmers) ; 
young, active, athletic men were sought for, indeed, none but such were 
engaged, and they passed under inspection of a surgeon. Mr. M. also 
purchased at Montreal such goods as were suited for the trade, to load his 
boats. These boats were the Canadian batteaux, principally used in those 
days in transferring goods to upper St. Lawrence River and its tributaries, 
manned by four oarsmen and a steersman, capacity about six tons. The 
voyageurs and clerks were under indentures for a term of five years. 
Wages of voyageurs, $100, clerks from $120 to $500 per annum. These 
were all novices in the business; the plan of the company was to arrange 
and secure the services of old traders and their voyageurs, who, at the 
(new) organization of the company were in the Indian country, depending 
on their influence and knowledge of the trade with the Indians; and as 
fast as possible secure the vast trade in the West and Northwest, within 
the district of the United States, interspersing the novices brought from 
Canada so as to consolidate, extend and monopolize, as far as possible, 
over the country, the Indian trade. The first two years they had sue- 



AMERICAN FUR COMPANY. 73 

ceeded in bringing into their employ seven-eighths of the old Indian 
traders on the Upper Mississippi, Wabash and Illinois Rivers, Lakes 
Michigan and Superior, and their tributaries as far north as the bound- 
aries of the United States extended. The other eighth thought that their 
interest was to remain independent ; toward such, the company selected 
their best traders, and located them in opposition, with instructions so to 
manage by underselling to bring them to terms. 




Block House Built in 1780. 

At Mackinac, the trader's brigades were organized, the company select- 
ing the most capable trader to be the manager of his particular brigade, 
which consisted of from five to twenty batteaux, laden with goods. This 
chief or manager, when reaching the country allotted to him, made 
detachments, locating trading-houses, with districts clearly defined, for 
the operations of that particular post, and so on, until his ground was fully 
occupied by traders under him, over whom he had absolute authority. 

We will here allude to Mr. Astor's attempt to establish an 
American emporium for the fur trade at the mouth of the 



74 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

Columbia River, which enterprise failed, through the capture 
of Astoria by the British in 1814, and the neglect of our 
government to give him protection. The withdrawal of Mr. 
Astor from the Pacific coast, left the Northwest Fur Com- 
pany to consider themselves the lords of the country. They 
did not long enjoy the field unmolested, however. A fierce 
competition ensued between them and their old rivals, the 
Hudson's Bay Company, which was carried on at great cost 
and sacrifice, and, occasionally, with the loss of life. It 
ended in the ruin of most of the partners of the Northwest 
Company, and merging of the relics of that establishment, 
in 1821, in the rival association. 

Ramsey Crooks was a foremost man in the employ of Mr. Astor in the 
fur trade, not only in the east, but upon the western coast, and has been 
called ' ' the adventurous Rocky Mountain trader. " Intimately connected, 
as Mr. Crooks was, with the American Fur Company, a slight notice of 
him will not be out of place. Mr. Crooks was a native of Greenock, 
Scotland, and was employed as a trader in Wisconsin, as early as 1806. 
He entered the service of Mr. Astor in 1809. In 1813, he returned from 
his three years' journey to the western coast, and in 1817 he joined Mr. 
Astor as a partner, and for four or five years ensuing he was the company's 
Mackinac agent, though residing mostly in New York. Mr. Crooks con- 
tinued a partner until 1830, when this connection was dissolved and he 
lesumed his place with Mr. Astor in his former capacity. In 1834, Mr. 
Astor, being advanced in years, sold out the stock of the company, and 
transferred the charter to Ramsey Crooks and his associates, whereupon 
Mr. C. was elected president of the company. Reverses, however, com- 
pelled an assignment in 1842, and with it the death of the American Fur 
Company. In 1845, Mr. Crooks opened a commission house for the sale 
of furs and skins, in New York City. This business, which was success- 
ful, Mr. C. continued until his death. Mr. Crooks died in New York, 
June 6, 1859, in his 73d year. Mr. Astor died in 1848. 

Washington Irving, in his " Astoria," gives a graphic 
account of the occasional meetings of the partners, agents 
ami employes of the old Northwest Fur Company, at Mont- 



AMERICAN FUR COMPANY. 



75 



real and Fort William, where they kept high clays and nights 
of wassail and feasting ; of song and tales of adventure and 
hair-breadth escapes. But of those lavish and merry halls 
of the old "Northwest," we need suggest no comparison 
with the agency dwelling of the American Fur Company at 
Mackinac, where the expenses charged for the year 1821 
were only $678.49. In that account, however, we notice the 
following entries: 31i gallons Teneriffe Wine, 4| gallons 
Port Wine ; 10 gallons best Madeira ; T0-J- gallons Red Wine ; 
9 gallons Brandy ; one barrel flour. 




76 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 



MACKINAC ISLAND. 

Latitude Jf5° tf' 20" North. 

Longitude 8^° J^T 20" West of Greenwich. 

The island is situated in the Straits of Mackinac, about 
four miles east of the narrowest part, fifteen miles from 
Lake Huron and thirty from Lake Michigan ; it contains 
2,221 acres, of which 911 are in the National Park, 103 are 
in the Military Reservation, and 1,207 are private claims. 

The water around the island is 581 feet above the level 
of the sea. 

A RAMBLE THROUGH FORT MACKINAC. 

There are various ways of reaching the Fort from the 
village ; probably the easiest is " up the steps," the view at 
the top being well worth the breath it costs. 

Now follow us, and we will show you through the Fort : 

This old block-house on our left was built in 1780-82, by 
the British troops ; beyond, to the left, are two buildings, 
officers' quarters, built in 1876 ; passing along toward the 
flag-staff, we come to another set of officers' quarters, built 
in 1835, and another old block-house, the upper part of 
which is used as a reservoir, into which w T ater is pumped 
from a spring at the foot of the bluff, and distributed through 
pipes into various buildings. This innovation on the old- 
time water-wagon was made in accordance with a plan devised 
by, and executed under the direction of, Lieut. D. H. Kelton, 
U. S. A. Water first pumped Oct. 11, 1881. 

While reinforcing the flag-staff in 1869, a bottle was taken 
out of the base, containing a parchment upon which was 
written : 



RAMBLE THROUGH FORT MACKINAC. 77 

Headquarters Fort Mackinac, 

May 25th, 1835. 

This flag-staff erected on the 25th day of May, 1835, by "A" and "G" 
Companies, of the 2d Regiment of Infantry, stationed at this post. 
The following Officers of the 2d Infantry were present: 
Captain John Clitz, - - "A" Company, Com'd'g Post 

Captain E. Kerby Barnum, - "G" Company. 
lst-Lieut. J. J. B. Kingsbury - "G" Company. 
2d-Lieut. J. W. Penrose, - - "G" Company, A.C.S. 
2d-Lieut. J. V. Bomford, - "H" Company. 
Asst. -Surgeon Geo. F. Turner, - U.S.A. 
David Jones, .... Sutler. 
Absent Officers: 
lst-Lieut. J. S. Gallagher, "A" Company, Adjutant. 
2d-Lieut. J. H. Leavenworth, "A" Company, on Special Duty. 
Colonel Hugh Brady, Bvt.-Brig. General, Commanding Left Wing, 

Eastern Department, Headquarters at Detroit. 
Lieut. -Colon el Alexander Cummings, Commanding 2d Regiment, 

Headquarters Madison Barracks, Sacket's Harbor, New York. 
President of the United States, Andrew Jackson. 
Builder (of flag-staff), John McCraith, Private, "A" Company, 

2d Infantry. 

Another document was added and the bottle was re- 
entombed. 

Going down the steps to the right, we are brought face to 
face with one of the old landmarks of this country, the old 
stone officers' quarters, built in 1780, with walls from two 
and a half to eight feet thick ; formerly the windows had 
iron bars across them. In 1812 the basement of this build- 
ing and the old block-houses were used as prisons, in which 
Captain Roberts detained the men and larger boys of the 
village, after the capture of the Fort, until he decided what 
to do with them. Those who took the oath of allegiance 
to Great Britain were released and allowed to return to 
their homes ; the others were sent to Detroit. Mr. Michael 



78 



ANNALS OF FOKT MACKINAC. 




Stone Officers' Quarters, Built 1780. 



RAMBLE THROUGH FORT MACKINAC. 79 

Dousman was permitted to remain neutral and was not dis- 
turbed. 

In 1814, the basement of this building and the block- 
houses were used as a place of refuge for the women and 
children of the village, while the vessels containing the 
American troops were anchored off the island. 

The old wooden building on our right, now used as a 
storehouse, was built for a hospital in 1828 on the site of 
the original hospital, built by the British. 

The long, low wooden building at the other end of the 
stone-quarters, formerly officers' quarters, is now used as a 
storehouse ; facing it are the barracks, a two-story frame- 
building, built in 1859, occupied by two companies of 
soldiers, one on each floor, with mess-rooms, etc., complete 
for each. 

We come next to the guard-house, built in 1828. Turning 
toward the barracks, we have on our right, first, the Com- 
missary, built in 1877, on the site of the old stone-magazine. 

In the small building adjacent to the Commissary are the 
offices of the Commanding Officer and Adjutant, and next 
door, the office of the Post-Quartermaster, which is con- 
nected by a passage-way with the storehouse beyond; built 
on the site of the post-bakery of early days. 

Going up the path from the guard-house we will examine 
the " reveille gun," and take a glimpse at the magnificent 
view from the gun-platform. Below, at the foot of the 
bluff, are the Government stables, blacksmith shop, and gra- 
nary; beyond them, the company gardens, where the build- 
ings of the United States Indian Agency stood in earlier 
days. 

In front of us is Round Island, where, for a long time, 
there was a large Indian village, the only remnant of which 
is an Indian burying ground, on the southeastern part of the 
island. There is also an old burying ground on Bois Blanc 



80 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

Island. It is a singular fact that all these Indian graves were 
dug due east and west. 

Wauchusco, a celebrated spiritualist of the Ottawa tribe, 
lived on Round Island for several years previous to his death,, 
which occurred September 30, 1837. 

To the left of Round Island is Bois Blanc Island. 

The building in our rear is the hospital, built in 1858 ; 
leaving it to our right, we pass another old block-house, and 
over the old north sally-port, just outside of which, on July 
17th, 1812, the British troops stood in line and presented 
arms while Lieuts. Porter Hanks and Archibald Darragh 
marched the American troops out, with arms reversed, to 
receive their parole as prisoners of war. 

Passing on we come to the library and reading room. 

When built, the fort was enclosed by a stockade ten feet 
high, made of cedar pickets, into the tops of which were 
driven irons with three sharp prongs projecting. Formerly 
all the buildings belonging to the fort were within this 
stockade. 

A better idea of the block-houses as they appeared then,. 
and of the stockade, may be obtained from the illustrations,, 
which are reduced from old drawings. 

The old gates still remain in place at the south sally-port,, 
near the guard-house. 

The flags of three great nations have successively floated 
over the post at Michilimackinac, which has been the theatre 
of many a bloody tragedy. Its possession has been disputed 
by powerful nations, and its internal peace has continually 
been made the sport of Indian treachery and white man's 
duplicity. To-day, chanting te deums beneath the ample 
folds of the fleur-de-lis, to-morrow yielding to the power of 
the British lion, and, a few years later, listening to the ex- 
ultant screams of the American eagle, as the stars and. 



RAMBLE THROUGH FORT MACKINAC. 



81 



stripes float over the battlements on the " Isle of the dancing 
spirits." 

The historical reminiscences rendering it classic ground, 




and the many wild traditions, peopling each rock and glen 
with spectral habitants, combine to throw around Mackinac 
an interest and attractiveness unequalled by any other place 
on the Western Continent. 



82 



ANNALS OF FOliT MACKINAO. 



AMERICAN OFFICERS. 

The following named have served at Fort Mackinac. The 
year of their arrival, and their actual rank at that time, are 
given : 



1796. 


Henry Burbeck, 


Major, 


Artillerists and Eng'rs. 


<< 


Abner Prior, 


Captain, 


1st Infantry. 


" 


Ebenezer Massay, 


Lieutenant, 


Artillerists and Eng'rs. 


<< 


John Michael, 


•• 


1st Infantry. 


1800. 


Richard Whiley, 


1st Lieutenant, 


Artillerists and Eng'rs 


1802. 


Thomas Hunt, 


Major, 


1st 


" 


Josiah Dunham, 


Captain, 


Artillerists and Eng'rs 


" 


Francis Le Barron, 


Surgeon's Mate. 




1804. 


Jacob Kingsbury, 


Lieut. -Colonel, 


1st Infantry. 


1807. 


Jonathan Eastman, 


1st Lieutenant, 


Artillerists. 


1808. 


Lewis Howard,* 


Captain, 


<< 


" 


Porter Hanks, 


1st Lieutenant, 


<« 


" 


Archibald Darragh, 


2d 


*< 


1810. 


Sylvester Day, 


Garrison Surgeo 


n's Mate. 


1815. 


Anthony Butler, 


Colonel, 


2d Rifles. 


«« 


Willoughby Morgan, 


Captain, 


Riflemen. 


«« 


Talbot Chambers, 


Major, 


<< 


« 


Joseph Kean, 


Captain, 


«« 


«< 


John O'Fallon, 


" 


t« 


<< 


John Heddelson, 


1st Lieutenant, 


<« 


<< 


James S. Gray, 


2d 


« 


<< 


William Armstrong, 


2d 


« 


" 


William Hening, 


Surgeon's Mate. 




*i 


Benjamin K. Pierce, 


Captain, 


Artillery. 


" 


Robert McClallan, Jr., 


1st Lieutenant, 


•« 


<« 


Lewis Morgan, 


1st 


<« 


<« 


George S. Wilkins, 


2d 


i« 


a 


John S. Pierce, 


2d 


it 


•< 


Thomas J. Baird, 


3d 


*t 


1816 


. John Miller, 


Colonel, 


3d Infantry. 


<« 


John McNeil, 


Major, 


5th " 


<• 


Charles Gratiot, 


ft 


Engineers. 



* Died at Fort Mackinac, January 13, 1811. 



AMERICAN OFFICERS. 



83 



1816. 


William Whistler, 


Captain, 


3d Infantry. 


" 


John Greene, 


<< 


3d 


<« 


<< 


Daniel Curtis, 


1st Lieutenant, 


3d 


it 


" 


John Garland, 


1st 


3d 


tt 


n 


Turby T. Thomas, 


1st " 


3d 


• « 


" 


Henry Conway, Jr 


1st " 


3d 


tt 


tt 


James Dean, 


2d 


3d 


tt 


** 


Andrew Lewis, 


2d 


3d 


tt 


<« 


Asher Phillips, 


Paymaster, 


3d 


tt 


<< 


Edward Purcell, 


Hospital Surgeon's Mate. 


1817. 


Albion T. Crow, 


tt tt 


♦ 


t 


< < 


William S. Eveleth, 


2d Lieutenant. 


Engineers. 


1818. 


Edward Brooks, 


1st 


3d Infantry. 


1819. 


Joseph P. Russell, 


Post Surgeon. 






< « 


Joseph Gleason,f 


1st Lieutenant, 


5th 


Infantry 


it 


William Lawrence, 


Lieut. -Colonel, 


2d 


it 


«< 


William S. Comstock, 


Surgeon's Mate. 


3d 


*t 


n 


Peter T. January, 


2d Lieutenant, 


3d 


n 


tt 


John Peacock, 


2d 


3d 


it 


1821. 


William Beaumont, 


Post Surgeon. 






•< 


Thomas C. Legate, 


Captain, 


2d Artillery. 


< < 


Elijah Lyon, 


1st Lieutenant, 


3d 


" 


f« 


James A. Chambers, 


2d 


2d 


tt 


< < 


Joshua Barney, 


2d 


2d 


tt 


1822. 


James M. Spencer, 


1st 


2d 


it 


1823. 


Alexander C. W. Fann 


tng. Captain, 


2d 


<< 


<< 


William Whistler, 


<< 


3d! 


n fan try. 


<< 


Samuel W. Hunt, 


1st Lieutenant, 


3d 


<« 


tt 


Aaron H. Wright, 


2d 


3d 


a 


tt 


George H. Crosman, 


2d 


6th 


tt 


** 


Stewart Cowan, 


2d 


3d 


tt 


1825. 
<« 


William Hoffman, 
Richard S. Satterlee, 


Captain, 
Assist. Surgeon. 


2d 


tt 


<• 


Carlos A. Wait, 


2d Lieutenant, 


2d I 


nfantry. 


a 


Seth Johnson, 


1st 


2d 


< i 


1826. 


David Brooks, 


2d 


2d 


a 


«« 


Alexander R. Thompson, Captain, 


2d 


tt 


1827. 


James G. Allen, 


2d Lieutenant, 


5th 


tt 



t Died at Fort Mackinac, March 27, 1820. 



84 



ANNALS OF FOKT MACKINAC. 



1827. 



1828. 



1829. 



1830. 
1831. 

1832. 



1833. 



1834. 



Edwin James, 
Ephraim K. Barnum, 
Edwin V. Sumner, 
Samuel T. Heintzelman, 
Charles F. Morton, 
Sullivan Burbank, 
Robert A. McCabe, 
William Alexander, 
Abner R. Hetzel, 
Josiah H. Vose, 
James Engle. 
Amos Foster, 
Enos Cutler, 
Moses E. Merrill, 
Ephraim Kirby Smith, 
Isaac Lynde, 
Caleb C. Sibley, 
"William E. Cruger, 
Louis T. Jamison, 
Henry Clark, 
John T. Collingsworth, 
Robert McMillan, 
George M. Brooks, 
Waddy V. Cobbs, 
Joseph S. Gallagher, 
George W. Patten, 
Thomas Stockton, 
Alexander R. Thompson, 
John B. F. Russell, 
William Whistler, 
Ephraim K. Barnum, 
Joseph R. Smith, 
James W. Penrose, 
Charles S. Frailey, 
George F. Turner, 
Jesse H. Leavenworth, 
John Clitz, X 



Assist. Surgeon. 






1st Lieutenant, 


2d Infantry. 


2d 


2d 


" 


2d 


2d 


<< 


1st Lieutenant, 


2d Ii 


i fan try. 


Captain, 


5th 


<< 


t < 


5th 


<< 


1st Lieutenant, 


5th 


" 


2d 


2d 


(i 


Major, 


5th 


ii 


2d Lieutenant, 


5th 


" 


2d 


5th 


< < 


Lieut. -Colonel, 


3d 


" 


2d Lieutenant, 


5th 


tt 


2d 


5th 


(i 


2d 


5th 


it 


2d 


5th 


" 


1st 


5th 


<< 


2d 


5th 


1 


1st 


5th 


«« 


2d Lieutenant, 


5th 


" 


Assist. Surgeon 


, Medical Department. 


Colonel, 


5th Infantry. 


Captain. 


2d 


<< 


1st Lieutenant, 


2d 


(< 


2d 


2d 


<< 


Bvt. 2d Lieut., 


5th 


<< 


Major, 


6th 


tt 


Captain, 


5th 


" 


Major, 


2d 


tt 


Captain, 


2d 


tt 


1st Lieutenant, 


2d 


" 


2d 


2d 


< < 


Assist. Surgeon 
<i << 


, Medical Department. 

a it 


2d Lieutenant, 


2d Infantry. 


Captain, 


2d 


tt 



X Died at Fort Mackinac, November 7, 1836. 



AMERICAN OFFICERS. 



85 



1835. 


James V. Bomford, 


2d Lieutenant, 


2d Infantry, 


n 


Julius J. B. Kingsbury, 


1st 


2d 


11 


Marsena R. Patrick, 


Bvt. 2d Lieut., 


2d 


1836. 


Erastus B. Wolcott, 


Assist. Surgeon, 


Medical Department. 


" 


James W. Anderson, 


2d Lieutenant, 


2d Infantry. 


1839. 


Samuel McKenzie, 


Captain, 


2d Artillery 


" 


Arnold E. Jones, 


2d Lieutenant, 


2d 


LS40. 


Harvey Brown, 


Captain, 


4th 


" 


John W. Phelps, 


1st Lieutenant, 


4th 


" 


John C. Pemberton. 


2d 


4th 


L841. 


Henry Holt, 


Assist. Surgeon, 


Medical Department 


" 


Patrick H. Gait, 


Captain, 


4th Artillery. 


" 


George C. Thomas, 


1st Lieutenant, 


4th 


" 


George W. Getty, 


2d 


4th 


« « 


Alexander Johnston, 


Captain, 


5th Infantry. 


" 


William Chapman, 


1st Lieutenant, 


5th 


»« 


Spencer Norvell, 


2d 


5th " 


" 


Henry Whiting, 


2d 


5th 


" 


John M. Jones, 


Bvt. 2d Lieut., 


5th 


1842. 


Rev. John O'Brien, 


Chaplain. 




" 


Martin Scott, 


Captain, 


5th 


1843. 


Levi H. Holden, 


Assist. Surgeon, 


Medical Department 


" 


Moses E. Merrill, 


Captain, 


5th Infantry. 


(< 


William Root, 


1st Lieutenant, 


5th 


" 


John C. Robinson, 


2d 


5th 


1844. 


John Byrne, 


Assist. Surgeon, 


, Medical Department. 


1845. 


Charles C. Keeney, 


(< « 


<< <• 


«* 


George C. Westcott, 


2d Lieutenant, 


2d Infantry. 


< < 


Silas Casey, 


Captain, 


2d 


" 


Joseph P. Smith, 


Bvt. 2d Lieut., 


5th 


" 


Fred Steele, 


a (< 


5th 


1847. 


Frazey M. Winans, 


Captain, 


15th " 


" 


Michael P. Doyle, 


2d Lieutenant, 


15th " 


n 


Morgan L. Gage, 


Captain, 


1st Mich. Vols. 


a 


Caleb F. Davis, 


2d Lieutenant, 


1st 


(i 


William F. Chittenden, 


2d 


1st 


1848. 


William K R. Beall, 


Bvt. 2d Lieut., 


4th Infantry. 


< < 


Charles H. Larnard, 


Captain, 


4th 



86 



ANN ALB OF FORT MACKINAC. 



1848. 


Hiram Dryer, 


2d Lieutenant, 


4th Infantry. 


1849. 


Joseph B. Brown, 


Assist. Surgeon, 


Medical Department. 


«« 


Joseph L. Tidball, 


Bvt. 2d Lieut., 


4th Infantry. 


1850. 


Charles H. Laub, 


Assist. Surgeon, 


Medical Department 


1851. 


David A. Russell, 


1st Lieutenant, 


4th Infantry. 


1852. 


Thomas Williams, 


Captain, 


4th Artillery. 


<« 


George W. Rains, 


1st Lieutenant, 


4th 


{< 


Jacob Culbertson, 


2d 


4th 


< < 


Joseph H. Bailey, 


Captain, 


Medical Department 


1854. 


Joseph B. Brown, 


Assist. Surgeon, 


t < it 


1855. 


John H. Greland, 


1st Lieutenant, 


4th Artillery. 


1856. 


Edward F. Bagley, 


2d 


4th 


< < 


William R. Terrill, 


1st 


4th 


<< 


Joseph H. Wheelock, 


1st " 


4th 


" 


John Byrne, 


Assist. Surgeon, 


Medical Department, 


1857. 


Arnold Elzey, 


Captain, 


2d Artillery. 


" 


Henry Benson, 


1st Lieutenant, 


2d 


< t 


Guilford D. Bailey, 


2d 


2d 


1858. 


Henry C. Pratt, 


Captain, 


2d 


" 


Henry A. Smalley, 


2d Lieutenant, 


2d 


<< 


John F. Head, 


Captain, 


Medical Department. 


1859. 


William A. Hammond, 


<« 


" 


«< 


George L. Hartsuff 


1st Lieutenant, 


2d Artillery. 


1862. 


Grover S. Wormer, 


Captain, Stanton Guards, Mich. Vols. 


" 


Elias F. Sutton, 


1st Lieutenant, 


ii <( 


< < 


Louis Hartmeyer, 


2d 


«< <( 


<< 


James Knox, 


Chaplain, 


Mich. Vols. 


<< 


Charles W. Le Boutillier 


, Assist. Surgeon, 


1st Minn. Infy. Vols 


1866. 


Jerry N. Hill, 


Captain, 


Vet. Res. Corps. 


< « 


Washington L. Wood, 


2d Lieutenant, 


(i 


1867. 


John Mitchell, 


Captain, 


43d Infantry. 


" 


Edwin C. Gaskill, 


1st Lieutenant, 


43d 


" 


Julius Stommell, 


2d 


43d 


1869. 


Leslie Smith, 


Captain, 


1st " 


<< 


John Leonard, 


1st Lieutenant, 


1st " 


<< 


Matthew Markland, 


2d 


1st 


1870. 


Samuel S. Jessop, 


Captain, 


Medical Department. 


1871. 


Thomas Sharp, 


1st Lieutenant, 


1st Infantry. 



AMERICAN OFFICERS. 



87 



1872. 


William M Notson, 


Captain, 


Medic* 


il Department 


1873. 


Curios Carvallo, 


<< 


" 


" 


1874. 


Charles J. Dickey, 


Captain, 


22d Infantry. 


" 


John McA. Webster, 


2d Lieutenant, 


22d 


<« 


" 


J. Victor De Hanne, 


Captain, 


Medical Department. 


1875. 


Alfred L. Hough, 


Major, 


22d Infantry 


1876. 


Joseph Bush, 


Captain 


2Sd 


" 


< < 


Thomas H. Fisher, 


1st Lieutenant, 


22d 


n 


a 


Fielding L. Davies, 


2d 


22d 


** 


1877. 


Charles A. Webb, 


Captain, 


22d 


<« 


<< 


John G. Ballance, 


2d Lieutenant, 


22d 


" 


" 


Theodore Mosher, Jr., 


2d 


22d 


«< 


fi 


Peter Moffat, 


Captain, 


Medical Department, 


1878. 


Oscar D. Ladley, 


1st Lieutenant, 


22d Infantry. 


1879. 


Edwin E. Sellers, § 


Captain, 


10th 


44 


<< 


Charles L. Davis, 


" 


10th 


It 


" 


Dwight H. Kelton, 


1st Lieutenant, 


10th 


<« 


" 


Walter T. Duggan, 


1st 


10th 


it 


•' 


Bogatdus Eldridge, 


2d 


10th 


€4 


a 


Edward H. Plummer, 


2d 


10th 


ti 


It 


George W. Adair, 


Captain, 


Medical Department. 


1882. 


William H. Corbusier, 


>< 


< < 


(i 


1883. 


Johu Adams Peiry, 


2d Lieutenant, 


10th Infantry. 


1884. 


George K. Brady, 


Captain, 


23rd 


44 


" 


Greenleaf A. Goodale, 


•• 


23rd 


<« 


<< 


Edward B. Pratt, 


1st Lieutenant 


, 23rd 


n 


.< 


Calvin D. Cowles, 


1st 


23rd 


" 


«• 


J. Rozier Clagett, 


1st 


23rd 


tt 


fi 


Stephen O'Connor, 


2d 


23rd 


a 


<< 


Benjamin C. Morse, 


2d 


23rd 


a 


1886. 


William C. Manning, 


Captain, 


23rd 


ti 


ii 


George B. Davis, 


2d Lieutenant, 


<< 


ti 


1887 


. Charles E. Woodruff, 


1st 


Medical Department. 



§ Died at Fort Mackinac, April 8th, 1884. 



LEGEND OF "LOVER'S LEAP." 



Many years ago, there lived a warrior on this island whose 
name was Wawanosh. He was the chief of an ancient 
family of his tribe, who had preserved the line of chieftain- 
ship unbroken from a remote time, and he consequently 
cherished a pride of ancestry. To the reputation of birth 
he added the advantages of a tall and commanding person, 
and the dazzling qualities of personal strength, courage and 
activity. His bow was noted for its size, and the feats he 
had performed with it. His counsel was sought as much as 
his strength was feared, so that he came to be equally 
regarded as a hunter, a warrior and a counsellor. 

Such was Wawanosh, to whom the united voice of the 
nation awarded the first place in their esteem, and the highest 
authority in council. But distinction, it seems, is apt to 
engender haughtiness in the hunter state as well as civilized 
life. Pride was his ruling passion, and he clung with ten- 
acity to the distinctions which he regarded as an inheritance. 

Wawanosh had an only daughter, who had now lived to 
witness the budding of the leaves of the eighteenth spring. 
Her father was not more celebrated for his deeds of strength 
than she for her gentle virtues, her slender form, her full, 
beaming hazel eyes, and her dark and flowing hair. 

Her hand was sought by a young man of humble parent- 
age, who had no other merits to recommend him but such as 
might arise from a tall and commanding person, a manly 
step, and an eye beaming with the tropical fires of youth and 
love. These were sufficient to attract the favorable notice 



90 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

of the daughter, but were by no means satisfactory to the 
father, who sought an alliance more suitable to the rank and 
the high pretensions of his family. 

" Listen to me, young man," he replied to the trembling 
hunter, who had sought the interview, " and be attentive to 
my words. You ask me to bestow upon you my daughter, 
the chief solace of my age, and my choicest gift from the 
Master of Life. Others have asked of me this boon, who 
were as young, as active and as ardent as yourself. Some of 
these persons have had better claims to become my son-in- 
law. Have you reflected upon the deeds which have raised 
me in authority, and made my name known to the enemies 
of my nation ? Where is there a chief who is not proud to 
be considered the friend of Wawanosh ? Where, in all the 
land, is there a hunter who has excelled Wawanosh ? Where 
is there a warrior who can boast the taking of an equal num- 
ber of scalps ? Besides, have you not heard that my fathers 
came from the East, bearing the marks of chieftaincy ?" 

" And what, young man, have you to boast ? Have you 
ever met your enemies in the field of battle ? Have you 
ever brought home a trophy of victory? Have you ever 
proved your fortitude by suffering protracted pain, enduring 
continued hunger, or sustaining great fatigue? Is your 
name known beyond the humble limits of your native vil- 
lage ? Go, then, young man, and earn a name for yourself. 
It is none but the brave that can ever hope to claim an 
alliance with the house of Wawanosh." 

The intimidated lover departed, but he resolved to do a 
deed that should render him worthy of the daughter of 
Wawanosh, or die in the attempt. He called together 
several of his young companions and equals in years, and 
imparted to them his design of conducting an expedition 
against the enemy, and requested their assistance. Several 
embraced the proposal immediately ; and, before ten suns 



91 

set, he saw himself at the head of a formidable party of 
young warriors, all eager, like himself, to distinguish them- 
selves in battle. Each warrior was armed, according to the 
custom of the period, with a bow and a quiver of arrows, 
tipped with flint or jasper. He carried a sack or wallet, 
provided with a small quantity of parched and pounded 
corn, mixed with pemmican or maple-sugar. He was fur- 
nished with a Puggamaugun, or war-club of hard wood, 
fastened to a girdle of deerskin, and a stone or copper knife. 
In addition to this, some carried the ancient shemagun, or 
lance, a smooth pole about a fathom in length, with a javelin 
of flint firmly tied on with deer's sinews. Thus equipped, 
and each warrior painted in a manner to suit his fancy, and 
ornamented with appropriate feathers, they repaired to the 
spot appointed for the war-dance. 

A level, grassy plain extended for nearly a mile from the 
lodge of Wawanosh along the lake shore. Lodges of bark 
were promiscuously interspersed over this green, and here 
and there a solitary tall pine. A belt of yellow sand skirted 
the lake shore in front, and a tall, thick forest formed the 
background. In the center of this plain stood a high, shat- 
tered pine, with a clear space about, renowned as the scene 
of the war-dance time out of mind. Here the youths assem- 
bled, with their tall and graceful leader, distinguished by the 
feathers of the bald-eagle, which he wore on his head. A 
bright fire of pine wood blazed upon the green. He led his 
men several times around this fire, with a measured and 
solemn chant. Then suddenly halting, the war-whoop was 
raised, and the dance immediately began. An old man, 
sitting at the head of the ring, beat time upon the drum, 
while several of the elder warriors shook their rattles, and 
" ever and anon " made the woods re-echo with their yells. 

Thus they continued the dance for two successive days 
and nights. 



W ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

At length the prophet uttered his final prediction of suc- 
cess; and the warriors dropping off, one by one, from the 
fire, took their way to the place appointed for the rendez- 
vous, on the confines of the enemy's country. Their leader 
was not among the last to depart, but he did not leave the 
village without seeking an interview with the daughter of 
Wawanosh. He disclosed to her his firm determination 
never to return, unless he could establish his name as a 
warrior. He told her of the pangs he had felt at the bitter 
reproaches of her father, and declared that his soul spurned 
the imputation of effeminacy and cowardice implied by his 
language. He averred that he could never be happy until 
he had proved to the whole tribe the strength of his heart. 
He said that his dreams had not been propitious, but he 
should not cease to invoke the power of the Great Spirit. 
He repeated his protestations of inviolable attachment, which 
she returned, and, pledging vows of mutual fidelity, they 
parted. 

That parting proved final. All she ever heard from her 
lover after this interview was brought by one of his success- 
ful warriors, who said that he had distinguished himself by 
the most heroic bravery, but, at the close of the fight, he 
had received an arrow in his breast. The enemy fled, leaving 
many of their warriors dead on the field. On examining 
the wound, it was perceived to be beyond their power to 
cure. They carried him toward home a day's journey, but 
he languished and expired in the arms of his friends. From 
the moment the report was received, no smile was ever seen 
in the once happy lodge of Wawanosh. His daughter pined 
away by day and by night. Tears, sighs and lamentation 
were heard continually. Nothing could restore her lost 
serenity of mind. Persuasives and reproofs were alternately 
employed, but employed in vain. She would seek a seques- 
tered spot, where she would sit and sing her mournful 



LEGEND OF 

laments for hours together. Passages of these are yet 
repeated by tradition, one of which we give : 

THE LOON'S FOOT. 

I thought it was the loon's foot, I saw beneath the tide, 
But no — it was my lover's shining paddle I espied; 
It was my lover's paddle, as my glance I upward cast, 
That dipped so light and gracefully as o'er the lake I passed. 
The loon's foot — the loon's foot, 

'Tis graceful on the sea; 
But not so light and joyous as 
That paddle-blade to me. 

My eyes were bent upon the wave, I cast them not aside, 
And thought I saw the loon's foot beneath the silver tide. 
But ah! my eyes deceived me— for as my glance I cast, 
It was my lover's paddle-blade that dipped so light and fast 
The loon's foot — the loon's foot, 

'Tis sweet and fair to see; 
But, oh, my lover's paddle-blade, 
Is sweeter far to me. 

The lake's wave — the long wave — the billow big and free, 
It wafts me up and down, within my yellow light canoe ; 
But while I see beneath heaven pictured as I speed, 
It is that beauteous paddle-blade that makes it heaven indeed. 
The loon's foot — the loon's foot, 

The bird upon the sea, 
Ah! it is not so beauteous 
As that paddle-blade to me. 

It was not long before a small bird of beautiful plumage 
flew upon the rock on which she usually sat. This mysteri- 
ous visitor, which, from its sweet and artless notes, is called 
Chileeli, seemed to respond in sympathy to her plaintive 
voice. It was a strange bird, such as had not before been 
observed. It came every day and remained chanting its 



94 ANNALS OF FOKT MACKINAC. 

notes till nightfall ; and when it left its perch, it seemed, 
from the delicate play of the colors of its plumage, as if it 
had taken its hues from the rainbow. Her fond imagination 
soon led her to suppose it was the spirit of her lover, and 
her visits to the lonely rock were repeated more frequently. 
She passed much of her time in fasting and singing her 
plaintive songs. There she pined away, taking little nour- 
ishment, and constantly desiring to pass away to that land of 
expected bliss and freedom from care, where it is believed 
that the spirits of men will be again reunited, and tread 
over fields of flowery enjoyment. One evening, her lifeless 
body was found at the foot of the rock, but when death 
came to her, it was not as the bearer of gloom and regrets, 
but as the herald of happiness. 



EARLY MICHIGAN, 



The first European Settlement within the limits of the 
State of Michigan was by the French. 

In 1641, Fathers Charles Raymbault and Isaac Jogues, 
upon the invitation of the Ojibwa, visited the rapids of the 
St. Mary's River. Untoward circumstances prevented the 
establishment of a mission. 

The first white men who passed the rapids, entered Lake 
Superior, and coasted along the whole extent of the south- 
ern shore of Lake Superior, were Des Groseillers (famous 
for his later exploits on Hudson Bay) and another young 
Frenchman. They spent the winter of 1659-60 in Northern 
Wisconsin and Eastern Minnesota, and in the following sum- 
mer returned to Canada with three hundred Indians and 
200,000 livres' worth of fur. 

Father Renatus (Rene) Menard was the first Jesuit who 
labored for some time among the Indians in Upper Michigan. 

His stay on Keweenaw Bay lasted from October 15th, 
1660, to July 13th, 1661. About a month later he perished 
during an attempt to reach the Huron Settlement on the 
headwaters of the Black River (Wisconsin). 

In 1665, Father Allouez coasted along the south shore of 
Lake Superior on his way to Shagawamigong (Chegoime- 
gong), where he founded a mission. Its site was at the head 
of Ashland Bay, Wisconsin. 

In 1668, Father James Marquette reached the Sault, where 
he was joined by Father Claudius Dablon. The settlement 
of Michigan begins at this period. 



96 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

Under fcne French and British dominion, the territory was 
associated with the Canadas, but became part of the territory 
of Virginia at the close of the war of independence, although 
it was not formally occupied by the United States until 1796. 
Virginia had in the meantime ceded to the United States all 
of her territory northwest of the Ohio River, and Congress, 
by the historical u Ordinance of 1787," passed July 13th of 
that year, provided for its government as the "Northwest 
Territory." 

The first seat of government of the Northwest Territory 
was at Chillicothe, Ohio. By act of Congress of May 7th, 
1800, the territory was divided, preparatory to the admission 
of Ohio into the Union as a State, and the " Indiana Terri- 
tory " was erected, with the seat of government at Vincennes, 
Indiana. By act of January, 1805, the Territory of Michi- 
gan was set off from the Indiana Territory, the seat of gov- 
ernment being established at Detroit. By this act, the 
southern boundary of Michigan was fixed by a line drawn 
due east from the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michi- 
gan until it intersects Lake Erie, and the western boundary 
through Lake Michigan and thence due north to the north- 
ern boundary of the United States. This included on the 
south a strip of territory, now forming a part of the State 
of Ohio, and did not include the northern or Upper Penin- 
sula of the now State of Michigan. 

In the year 1835, the people of Michigan took steps for 
forming a State Government. The admission of the State 
into the Union was delayed until 1837, chiefly in consequence 
of a disagreement in regard to the southern boundary; the 
State of Ohio laying claim to the strip of territory previously 
referred to, which it was claimed on the other hand was 
within the Territory of Michigan, and which embraces within 
its limits the present City of Toledo. The dispute at one 
time threatened an armed collision, and military forces were 



EARLY MICHIGAN. 97 

mustered on both sides, in what is popularly known as the 
" Toledo war." The difficulty was settled by the act of 
Congress of June, 1836, fixing the disputed boundary in 
accordance with the claim of Ohio, giving to Michigan, 
instead, the territory known as the Upper Peninsula. 

The seat of government remained at Detroit until 1847, 
when it was removed to Lansing. 

The land area of the State comprises two natural divisions 
known as the Upper and Lower Peninsulas, and the adjacent 
islands. 

The Upper Peninsula contains 14,451,456 acres. 

The Lower Peninsula contains 21,677,184 acres. 

There are 179 islands included within the boundaries of 
the State, varying in area from one acre upward, their total 
area being 404,730 acres. 

Bois-Blanc Island contains 21,351 acres. 

Round Island contains 180 acres. 

Mackinac Island contains 2,221 acres. 



98 ANNALS OF FOBT MACKINAC, i 



GOVERNORS OF MICHIGAN. 

under french dominion. 

Samuel Champlain, 1622-1635 

M. de Montmagny, 1636-1647 

M. d'Aillebout, ........ 1648-1650 

M. de Lauson, . 1651-1656 

M. de Lauson (son), 1656-1657 

M. d'Aillebout, 1657-1658 

M. d'Argenson, 1658-1660 

Baron d'Avaugour, 1661-1663 

M. de Mesey, 1663-1665 

M. DE Courcelle, 1665-1672 

Count de Frontenac, 1672-1682 

M. de la Barre, 1682-1685 

Marquis de Denonville, 1685-1689 

Count de Frontenac, 1689-1698 

M. de Callieres, 1699-1703 

M. de Vaudreuil, 1703-1725 

M. de Beauharnois 1726-1747 

M. de Galissoniere, . 1747-1749 

M. DE LA JONQUIERE, 1749-1752 

M. du Quesnb, ,. 1752-1755 

M. de Vaudreuil de Cavagnac, 1755-1763 

under british dominion. 

James Murray, 1763-1767 

Guy Carleton, 176^-1777 

Frederick Haldimand, 1777-1785 

Henry Hamilton, 1785-1786 

Lord Dorchester, 1786-1796 

territorial governors. 

Northwest Territory. 

Arthur St. Ci-air 1796-1 SOO 



EARLY MICHIGAN. 99 

Indiana Territory. 

William Henry Harrison 1800-1805 

Michigan Territory. 

William Hull, 1805-1813 

Lewis Cass, 1813-1831 

George B. Porter,* 1831-1834 

Stevens T. Mason, ex officio, 1834-1835 

UNDER STATE AUTHORITY. 

Stevens T. Mason, 1835-1840 

William Woodbkidge, . 1840-1841 

J. Wright Gordon,! . .... 1841-1842 

John S. Barry, 1842-1846 

Alpheus Felch, 1846-1847 

William L. Greenly. \ 1847-1848 

Epaphroditus Ransom, 1848-1850 

John S. Barry, 1850-1852 

Robert McClelland 1852-1853 

Andrew Parsons,! 1853-1855 

Kinsley S. Bingham 1855-1859 

Moses Wisner, 1859-1861 

Austin Blair, 1861-1865 

Henry H. Crapo, 1865-1869 

Henry P. Baldwin, 1869-1873 

John J. Bag ley ... 1873-1877 

Charles M. Croswell, 1877-1881 

David H. Jeromk, 1881-1882 

Josiah W. Begole, 1883-18S4 

Russell A. Alger, 1885-1886 

* Died while in office, July 6, 1834, and was succeeded by the then Secretary of 
*<he Territory, Stevens T. Mason. 

t Lieutenant-Governor acting as Governor. 



ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 101 



NATIONAL PARK— ISLAND OF MACKINAC. 

On March 11th, 1873, Hon. T. W. Ferry, Senator from 
Michigan, introduced in the Senate the following: 

Resolved, That so much of the Island of Mackinac, lying in the StraiU 
of Mackinac, within the County of Mackinac, in the State of Michigan, 
as is now held by the United States under military reservation or other- 
wise (excepting the Fort Mackinac and so much of the present reservation 
thereof as bounds it to the south of the village of Mackinac, and to the 
west, north and east respectively by lines drawn north and south, east 
and west, at a distance from the present fort flag-staff of four hundred 
yards), hereby is reserved and withdrawn from settlement, occupancy, 
or sale under the laws of the United States, and dedicated and set apart 
as a National public park, or grounds, for health, comfort and pleasure, 
for the benefit and enjoyment of the people; and all persons who shall 
locate or settle upon or occupy the same, or any part thereof, except as 
herein provided, shall be considered trespassers, and removed therefrom. 

That said public park shall be under the exclusive control of the Sec" 
retary of War, whose duty it shall be, as soon as practicable, to make 
and publish such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary or 
proper for the care and management of the same. Such regulations 
shall provide for the preservation from injury or spoliation of all timber, 
mineral deposits, natural curiosities, or wonders within said park, and 
their retention in their natural condition. The Secretary may, in his 
discretion, grant leases, for building purposes, of small parcels of ground, 
at such places in said park as shall require the erection of buildings for 
the accommodation of visitors, for terms not exceeding ten years; all of 
the proceeds of said leases, and all other revenues derived from any 
source connected with said park, to be expended under his direction, in 
the management of the same and in the construction of roads and bridle- 
paths therein. He shall provide against the wanton destruction of game 
or fish found within said park, aud against their capture or destruction 
for any purposes of use or profit. He also shall cause all persons tres- 
passing upon the same, after the passage of this act, to be removed there- 
from, and generally shall be authorized to take all such measures as shall 



102 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

be necessary or proper to fully carry out the objects and purposes of thia 
act. 

That any part of the park hereby created shall at all times be available 
for military purposes, either as a parade or drill ground, in time of peace, 
or for complete occupation in time of war, or whenever war is expected, 
and may also be used for the erection of any public buildings or works: 
Pi'ovided, That no person shall ever claim or receive of the United States 
any damage on account of any future amendment or repeal of this act, 
or the taking of said park, or any part thereof, for public purposes or use. 

Senator Ferry did not forget his work or neglect his oppor- 
tunities, and on March 3d, 1875, after a two years' struggle, 
he finally procured the passage of the Act for the Mackinac 
National Park. His regard for this spot — his birthplace and 
boyhood home — led him to advocate his park bill at all times 
and places, until his fellow-members dubbed it " Ferry's 
Park." 



The following are the approved Rules and Regulations for 
the Park at Mackinac : 

I. Mackinac Park will be under the immediate control and manage- 
ment of the commanding-officer of Fort Mackinac, who is charged with 
the duty of preserving order, protecting the public property therein, and 
enforcing these rules. 

II. All tenants renting under the Act of Congress providing therefor 
must conform to, and abide by, such rules and regulations as are pre- 
scribed for the care of the park, and will be held responsible for a com- 
pliance with the same on the part of the members of their families, their 
agents and employes. 

III. The sale of wines and malt or spirituous liquors on the park, 
without special authority from the commanding-officer of Fort Mackinac, 
or higher military authority, is prohibited. 

IV. No person shall put cattle, swine, horses or other animals on the 
park, except as follows: 

The cows belonging to the residents of the Island of Mackinac may be 
placed in a herd, under the care of a herder, and be permitted to graze in 



NATIONAL PARK. 103 

such parts of the park as may be designated by the commanding-officer 
of Fort Mackinac. 

V. Racing or riding and driving at great speed is prohibited. 

VI. No person shall indulge in any threatening, abusive, insulting or 
indecent language in the park. 

VII. No person shall commit any obscene or indecent act in the park. 

VIII. No frays, quarrels, or disorders of any kind will be permitted 
in the park. 

IX. No person shall carry or discharge fire-arms in the park. 

X. No person shall injure or deface the trees, shrubs, turf, natural 
curiosities, or any of the buildings, fences, bridges or other structures 
within the park. 

XI. No person shall injure, deface or destroy any notices, rules or 
regulations for the government of the park, posted, or in any other man 
ner permanently fixed, by order or permission of the authorities of the 



XII. No person shall wantonly destroy any game or fish within the 
park, nor capture nor destroy the same for any purposes of use or profit. 

XIII. Any person who shall violate any of these Rules and Regula- 
tions shall be ejected from the park by military authority, and in case 
the person so offending shall have committed any offence in violation of 
any of the statutes of the United States, or of the State of Michigan, 
the offender shall be proceeded against before the United States or State 
courts, according to the laws providing for the same. 

XIV. The commanding-officer of Fort Mackinac may, at any time, 
add to or modify these Rules, subject to the approval of the Secretary of 
War. 

When the Park was surveyed, lots were set apart for build- 
ing purposes in the following places : on the bluff near 
"Robertson's Folly ;" on the bluff on the northwest side of 
the island, and on the bluff extending from the old Indian 
burying-ground along by " Pontiac's Lookout." 

The price of the leases for Park lots has been fixed at ten, 
fifteen and twenty-five dollars per year, according to the 
location. 



LEGEND OF "ARCH ROCK." 



After the Gitche Manitou had called into existence the 
beautiful Island of Mackinac and given it into the care of 
the kindred spirits of earth, air and water, and had told 
them it was only to be the abode of peace and quiet, it was 
so pleasant in his own eyes that he thought, " Here will I 
also come to dwell, this shall be my abode and my children 
may come and worship me here. Here in the depths of the 
beautiful forest they shall come." 

Then calling his messengers, he bade them fly to all lands 
of heat and noise and troublous insects, and tell the suffering 
ones of every race and clime that in these northern waters 
was a place prepared where they could come and rest, leaving 
all care behind. 

In the straits of Mackinac, 
In the clear pellucid wave, 
Sitting like an emerald gem, 
Is the rock-girt Fairy Isle. 

Round its bold and craggy shore 
Sweep the billows far and wide, 
With a gentle sinuous swell, 
And the moan of distant seas. 

Blue its waters, blue the sky, 
Soft the west wind from afar 
Moving o'er the scented grass, 
And the many myriad flowers. 

The cool invigorating breezes shall bring health and elasti- 
city to the weak and weary. Here disease shall not dare 

105 



106 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

invade the pleasant glens or beautiful hilltops. Here let them 
come and receive my blessing. 

" Ye shall also tell the stranger friends, who may come to 
seek me, that my royal landing is on the eastern shore ; there 
shall they draw up the canoes upon the pebbly beach under 
the shadow of the Arched Gateway. Under the Arch 
which they can see from afar, let them come with songs of 
rejoicing — neither night or day shall it be closed to any one 
who may seek me. Let them land before it and pass through 
it and ascend to my dwelling, and worship before me. 

When the great spirit made known his wish to dwell with 
men, all nature seemed to rejoice and to make preparations 
for his abode. 

The tallest trees claimed the privilege of being the poles 
of his wigwam, and sweet balsam firs laid themselves at his 
feet for use. 

The birch trees unsheathed themselves and sent their bark 
in all its soft creamy whiteness to form the outside covering. 

The trees of the forest all vied with each other in seeking 
a place in the future home of the Gitche Manitou. 

Scarcely had the poles fitted themselves into their places, 
and the birch bark unrolled itself and arranged its clinging 
sheets in orderly rows upon the outside, when the noise of 
distant paddles was heard from the lake — swiftly and gaily 
they drew near, guided by the spirits of earth, air and water. 
Never had such a sight been witnessed on this earth. 

The Gitche Manitou, went to meet them, and stood upon 
the Arch and upheld his hands in blessing. 

As his children unloaded their offerings of beaver, white- 
bear and other skins, they marched in procession up to the 
gateway and fell upon their knees and offered their thanks 
to the great spirit for the happy privilege of contributing to 
the comforts of his earthly home. 



LEGEND OF " ARCH ROCK." 107 

" Yes, my children dear, my loved ones, 
I am here in joy and gladness. 
Here to live in peace among you. 
I have come to teach you wisdom 
In the arts of love and living. 
I accept your native offerings, 
These white bear, and fox skins silvery, 
Shall a couch of warmth and comfort 
Make for me when around my fire, 
I am resting from my labors. 
Of the beaver skins and otters 
They shall line the wigwam smoothly, 
So Ka-bi-bo-nok-ka, the north wind, 
Ne'er shall peep or whistle thro' them. 
Enter in my gateway proudly, 
And ascend my staircase slowly, 
And see the home of the Great Spirit, 
Where he dwells among his children." 

They did as he commanded, and when they were about to 
return he thus addressed them: 

" Now, my children, as you leave me, 
Forth to go upon your journeyings, 
Tell to all who know and love me, 
That whenever a chieftain 
Wooes and weds a dark-eyed maiden, 
He shall bring her here before me, 
Gay with garlands, sweet with roses. 
With the sound of music fleeting 
Far and near from every islet 
That lies sleeping in these waters, 
In these glittering, dark green waters. 
Sweetest strains of music blending 
Shall salute them, as the billows 
Of the mighty lake of wonders 
Bears them onward to the portals, 
Where my blessing will await them, 
And as long as they thus serve me 
I will dwell upon this island, 
Henceforth blessing youth and maiden 
Joined in closest bonds of wedlock. 



108 LEGEND OF " ARCH ROCK." 

But, if in the coming seasons, 
Some foul spirit roams among you, 
And destroys my loving children, 
This fair home that I have built 
Shall become a rocky fastness, 
Where they all may fly for shelter 
And be safe in my protection." 

Many, many years have passed. The wigwam of the 
Great Spirit has been transmuted into stone, and is now 
known as the Pyramid. 

The Arched Gateway can still be seen as in ancient times, 
with its portals guarded by tall green sentinels. 



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[109] 



LEGEND OF MACKINAC ISLAND. 



There once lived an Indian in the north, who had ten 
daughters, all of whom grew up to womanhood. They were 
noted for their beauty, but especially Oweenee, the youngest, 
who was very independent in her way of thinking. She 
was a great admirer of romantic places, and paid very little 
attention to the numerous young men who came to her 
father's lodge for the purpose of seeing her. Her elder sis- 
ters were all solicited in marriage from their parents, and one 
after another went off to dwell in the lodges of their husbands, 
but she would listen to 110 proposals of the kind. At last she 
married an old man called Osseo,who was scarcely able to walk, 
and too poor to have things like others. They jeered and 
laughed at her on all sides, but she seemed to be quite happy, 
and said to them, " It is my choice, and you will see in the end 
who has acted the wisest." Soon after, the sisters and their 
husbands and their parents were all invited to a feast, and 
as they walked along the path, they could not help pitying 
their young and handsome sister, who had such an unsuitable 
mate. Osseo often stopped and gazed upward, but they 
could perceive nothing in the direction he looked, unless it 
Was the faint glimmering of the evening star. They heard 
him muttering to himself as they went along, and one of the 
elder sisters caught the words, " Sho-wain-ne-me-shin nosa."* 
" Poor old man/' said she, " he is talking to his father, what 
a pity it is that he would not fall and break his neck, that 
our sister might have a handsome young husband." Pres- 

*Pity me, my father. 

[nil 



112 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

ently they passed a large hollow log, lying with one end to- 
ward the path. The moment Osseo, who was of the turtle 
totem, came to it, he stopped short, uttered a loud and 
peculiar yell, and then dashing into one end of the log, he 
came out at the other, a most beautiful young man, and 
springing back to the road, he led off the party with steps 
as light as the reindeer. But on turning round to look for 
his wife, behold, she had been changed into an old, decrepit 
woman, who was bent almost double, and walked with a 
cane. The husband, however, treated her very kindly, as 
she had done him during the time of his enchantment, and 
constantly addressed her by the term of ne-ne-moosh-a, or 
my sweet-heart. 

When they came to the hunter's lodge with whom they 
were to feast, they found the feast ready prepared, and as 
soon as their entertainer had finished his harangue (in which 
he told them his feasting was in honor of the Evening or 
Woman's Star), they began to partake of the portion dealt 
out, according to age and character, to each one. The food 
was very delicious, and they were all happy but Osseo, who 
looked at his wife and then gazed upward, as if he was 
looking into the substance of the sky. Sounds were soon 
heard, as if from far-off voices in the air, and they became 
plainer and plainer, till he could clearly distinguish some of 
the words." 

"My son — my son," said the voice, "I have seen your 
afflictions and pity your wants. I come to call you away 
from a scene that is stained with blood and tears. The 
earth is full of sorrows. Giants and sorcerers, the enemies 
of mankind, walk abroad in it, and are scattered through- 
out its length. Every night they are lifting their voices to 
the Power of Evil, and every day they make themselves 
busy in casting evil in the hunter's path. You have long 
been their victim, but shall be their victim no more. The 



LEGEND OF MACKINAC ISLAND. 113 

spell you were under is broken. Your evil genius is over- 
come. I have east him down by my superior strength, and 
this strength I now exert for your happiness. Ascend, 
my son — ascend into the skies, and partake of the feast I 
have prepared for you in the stars, and bring with you those 
you love. 

"The food set before you is enchanted and blessed. 
Fear not to partake of it. It is endowed with magic power 
to give immortality to mortals, and to change men to 
spirits. Your bowls and kettles shall be no longer wood 
and earth. The one shall become silver, and the other 
wampum. They shall shine like fire, and glisten like the 
most beautiful scarlet. Every female shall also change her 
state and looks, and no longer be doomed to laborious 
tasks. She shall put on the beauty of the starlight, and 
become a shining bird of the air, clothed with shining 
feathers. She shall dance and not work — she shall sing 
and not cry." 

; 'My beams," continued the voice, "shine faintly on your 
lodge, but they have power to transform it into the light- 
ness of the skies, and decorate it with the colors of the 
clouds. Come, Osseo, my son, and dwell no longer on 
earth. Think strongly on my words, and look steadfastly at 
my beams. My power is now at its height. Doubt not — 
delay not. It is the voice of the Spirit of the stars that 
calls you away to happiness and celestial rest." 

The words were intelligible to Osseo, but his companions 
thought them some far-off sounds of music, or birds singing 
in the woods. Very soon the lodge began to shake and 
tremble, and they felt it rising into the air. It was too late 
to run out, they were already as high as the tops of the 
trees. Osseo looked around as the lodge passed through 
the topmost boughs, and behold! their wooden dishes were 
changed into shells of a scarlet color, the poles of the lodge 



1 14 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

to glittering wires of silver, and the bark that covered them 
into the gorgeous wings of insects. A moment more, and 
his brothers and sisters, and their parents and friends, were 
transformed into birds of various plumage. Some were 
jays, some partridges and pigeons, and others gay singing 
birds, who hopped about, displaying their glittering feathers, 
and singing their song. But Oweenee still kept her earthly 
garb, and exhibited all the indications of extreme age. He 
again cast his eyes in the direction of the clouds, and 
uttered that peculiar yell, which had given him the victory 
at the hollow log. In a moment the youth and beauty of 
.his wife returned; her dingy garments assumed the shining 
appearance of green silk, and her cane was changed into a 
silver feather. The lodge again shook and trembled, for 
they were now passing through the uppermost clouds, and 
they immediately after found themselves in the Evening 
Star, the residence of Osseo's father. 

" My son," said the old man, " hang that cage of birds, 
which you have brought along in your hand, at the door, 
and I will inform you why you and your wife have been 
sent for." Osseo obeyed the directions; and then took his 
seat in the lodge. " Pity was shown to you," resumed the 
king of the star, " on account of the contempt of your 
wife's sisters, who laughed at her ill fortune, and ridiculed 
you while you were under the power of that wicked spirit, 
whom you overcame at the log. That spirit lives in the 
next lodge, being a small star you see on the left of mine, 
and he has always felt envious of my family, because we 
had greater power than he had, and especially on account 
of our having had the care committed to us of the female 
world. He failed in several attempts to destroy your 
brothers-in-law and sisters-in-law, but succeeded at last in 
transforming yourself and your wife into decrepit old per- 
sons. You must be careful and not let the light of his 



LEGEND OF MACKINAC ISLAND. 115 

beams fall on you while you are here, for therein is the 
power of his enchantment; a ray of light is the bow and 
arrow he uses." 

Osseo lived happy and contented in the parental lodge, 
and in due time his wife presented him with a son, who 
grew up rapidly, and was the image of his father. He was 
very quick and ready in learning everything that was done 
in his grandfather's dominions, but he wished also to learn 
the art of hunting, for he had heard this was a favorite 
pursuit below. To gratify him, his father made him a bow 
and arrows, and he then let the birds out of the cage that 
he might practise in shooting. He soon became an expert, 
and the very first day brought down a bird, but when he 
went to pick it up, to his amazement, it was a beautiful 
young woman with the arrow sticking in her breast. It 
was one of his aunts. The moment her blood fell upon 
the surface of that pure and spotless planet, the charm was 
dissolved. The boy immediately found himself sinking, but 
was partly upheld, by something like wings, till he passed 
through the lower clouds, and he then suddenly dropped 
upon a high, romantic island. He was pleased on look- 
ing up to see all his aunts and uncles following him in 
the form of birds, and he soon discovered the silver lodge, 
with his father and mother, descending with its waving 
barks looking like so many insects' gilded wings. It rested 
on the highest cliffs of the island, and here they fixed their 
residence. They all resumed their natural shapes, but were 
diminished to the size of fairies; as a mark of homage to 
the King of the Evening Star, they never fail, on every 
pleasant evening during the summer season, to join hands 
and dance upon the top of the rocks. These rocks were 
quickly observed by the Indians to be covered, in moonlight 
evenings, with a larger sort of Puk Wudj Ininees, or little 
men, and were called Mish-in-e-mok-in-ok-ong, or turtle 



116 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

spirits, whence the island derives is name. Their shining 
lodge can be seen in the summer evenings when the moon 
shines strongly on the pinnacles of the rocks, and those who 
go near those high cliffs at night can hear the voices of the 
happy little dancers. 



ANCIENT NAMES OF RIVERS, LAKES, ETC. 



Lake Ontario. — Champlain called it " Lao St. Louis ; " 
Count de Frontenac, in 1674, called it " Ontario /" on San- 
son's map, 1679, it appears "Ontario on Lao de St. Louis ;" 
it had also the name " Frontenac ; " Hennepin called it 
" Ontario or Frontenac ; " Tonti and Father Membre call it 
"Lake Frontenac;" on De L'Isle's maps, 1700 and 1703, it 
appears as " Lac Ontario." 

Lake Erie. — This name, says Mr. Baldwin, was derived 
from the tribe of Eries, on the south shore ; the same tribe 
was also called the Cat nation. Hennepin called it " Erie" 
also "Conty; " and Sanson's map, 1679, gives it "Erie Lac; " 
Membre called it " de Conty;" De L'Isle's maps give it 
* ; Lac Erie" 

Lake Huron. — Champlain called it " Mer Douce;" 
Father Membre, as well as Hennepin, called it "Lake 
Orleans;" De L'Isle maps, 1703 and 1718, give it "Lac 
Huron ou Michigane ;" on his map of 1700, it appears as 
" L. des Hurons." 

Lake Superior. — Marquette's map gives it u Lac Superieur 
ou de Tracy;" Hennepin called it "Lake Conde ;" on De 
L'Isle's maps it is " Lac Sibjperieur ; " Senex's map, 1719, 
and Coxe's of 1721, call it " Nadouessians" 

Lake Michigan. — Marquette, Dablon, and LaSalle, called 
it the lake of the " llinois ;" Claude Allouez, in 1676, 
reached this lake on the eve of St. Joseph; he said "we 
give it the name of that great Saint, and shall henceforth 

[117] 



118 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

call it " Lake St. Joseph; " Allouez was the first to give 
it the name of "Lake Machihiganing ; " LaSalle and Father 
Membre call it " Lake Dauphin ;" St. Cosme called it 
"Miesitgan" and also " Missigan ;" Marest was one of the 
first to call it Lake Michigan. 

Note. — The name as spelled by Allouez comes nearest the 
Indian pronounciation, which is Mashiiganing or Mishii- 
ganing, the double i being pronounced e-e. 

The term signifies "a clearing," and was first applied to 
the north-western shores of Lower Michigan where there 
were large ancient clearings. 

Lake St. Clair. — Hennepin wrote it "St. Glare ;" on the 
map of De L'Isle, of 1700, it is "L. de Ste. Claire;" on his 
maps of 1703 and 1718, it appears "Lao Ganatchio on Ste. 
Claire" Shea says " it received its name in honor of the 
founder of the Franciscan nuns, from the fact that LaSalle 
reached it on the day consecrated to her." 

Mississippi River. — One or more of the outlets of this 
river was discovered in the year 1519, by the Spanish officer, 
Don Alonzo Alvarez Pineda; he named the river "Rio 
del Espiritu Santo" De Soto named it "El Rio Grande 
del Florida." Marquette, on his map, gave it the name 
"de la Conception;" he also used the name Missipi. 

LaSalle, Membre, Hennepin, and Douay called it the "Col- 
bert;" Joutel said the Indians called it " Meechassippi ; " 
but he called it the "Colbert or Mississippi;" on De L' Isle's 
map it is "Mississippi" and "S. Louis;" Allouez first speaks 
of it as "Messipi " and again as the "Messi-sipi ;" St. Cosme 
calls it "Micissipi." 

Note. — The name of the river, in the principal Algonquin 
dialects, is " Mishisibi" (pronounced Me-she-se-be) meaning 
" large river." 

The translation "Father of Waters" is a poetical license. 



ANCIENT NAMES OF RIVERS, LAKES, ETC. 119 

Missouri River. — Marquette called it the "PekitanoiXi" 
meaning muddy water; the Recollects called it " the River 
of Ozages;" Membre called it the "Ozage;" on De L'lsle's 
maps, 1703, 1718, it is " le Missouri ou de R. Pekitanoni;" 
Coxe called it " Yellow River" or "River of the Massorites." 

Ohio River. — Marquette called the lower Ohio "Ouabous- 
kigou;" Joutel called it "Douo or Abacha;" from the mouth 
of the Ohio to the Wabash and up that stream was known 
as the "Ouabache" so it was called by Membre, St. Cosme, 
and LaHontan. Above the Wabash, the Ohio was more 
particularly known as "Ohio ou Belle Riviere" the river 
is so called on De L'lsle's map, 1703. Evans, in 1755, calls 
it " Ohio or Alleghany or La Belle." 

Illinois River. — Marquette speaks of it, but gave it no 
name ; on Franquelin's map it appears "Riviere des Ilinois 
ou Macopins;" LaSalle called it the "Seignlai;" Fathers 
Hennepin and Membre the " Seignelay ;" Dablon not only 
applied to one of the upper branches of the Illinois (the 
Desplaines) the name "St. Louis" but to the continuation, 
the Illinois itself; Coxe called it the "Chicagou;" De L'lsle's 
map, 1718, gives it " Rio. des Ilinois" 

Des Plaines River. — LaSalle, in 1680, called the Des- 
plaines the "Divine River ;" Membre and Charlevoix did 
the same. La Salle afterward, however, called it the "Che- 
cagou" Dablon called it "St. Louis River" including, 
perhaps, the continuation, the Illinois ; Franquelin's map, 
1684, gives it "Peanghichia." The river was frequently 
called the "Chicagou;" see De L'lsle's map, 1718, and 
D'Anville's, 1755. 

Chicago, and River. — Marquette called it "Portage 
River;" LaSalle applies the name " Checago" to this 
locality, but his Checago River was generally the Des- 



120 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAO. 

plaines; Franquelin's map, 1684, gives to this locality or 
river the name of " Cheagoum,einan" and to another stream 
"R. Chekagou;" Tonty, in 1685, says that he arrived at the 
"Fort of Checagou." St. Cosine calls it " Chikagou," "Chi- 
cagu" "Chicaqw" and also a Chicag8." Lallontan, 1703, 
has it " ChegaJcou." Senex, 1710, gives it "Checagou;" De 
L'Isle's maps have it " Checagou" also " Chicagou ;" Moll, 
1720, gives it " Chekakou;" Charlevoix, "Chicagou" 
Col. De Peyster speaks of it as "Fschecagou" and again 
as "Esehicagou, a river and Fort at the head of Lake 
Michigan/' Popple's atlas, 1733, has it "Fort Miamis 
ou Ouamis;" Mitchell, 1755, U R. and Port Chicagou" and 
Saver & Bennett's map, 1797, says "Point Chicago Elver" 

Sandusky Bag. — On De L'Isle's map, 1718, it appears 
"Lac San-dou-ske." 

Saginaw Bay.— -On De L'Isle's maps, 1703 and 1718, it 
appears "Baye de Saguina" and "Baye Saguinam;" Coxe 
called it the "Sale in am" 

Note. — " Osaginang" or " Osakinang" is the Indian 
name, derived from " Osagi" or " Osaki." 

The Sacs lived on the Saginaw and Titibewasse before 
removing to Wisconsin. 

Patterson's Point. — A rocky point of land on the north 
shore of Lake Michigan, some sixty miles from Mackinac, is 
so-called, from the fact that Mr. Charles Patterson, one of 
the principal members of the Northwest Fur Company, with 
all his crew, was there drowned about the year 178S. 

Marquette River. — On De L'Isle's map, 1703, it is " R. 
Marquet ;" Charlevoix called it "River Marquette" or 
" River of the Black Role." 

Isle Royal, Lake Superior. — Ou De L'Isle's maps, 1700 
and 1703, it appears "J. Monong ;" Coxe calls it "Minong." 
Note. — "Minong" is the Indian name. 



ANCIENT NAMES OF RIVERS, LAKES, ETC. 



121 



Michilimackinac. — Marquette called it " Michilimaki- 
nong;" Hennepin and Membre speak of it as " Missili- 
makinak; " Joutel called it " Micilimaquinay ; " De L'Isle's 
map, 1703, calls it "Isle et Habitation de Missilimakinac" 

Note. — Marquette came nearest the Indian pronunciation 
of the word, which is " Mishinimakinang." 

The change of " n " into " I" by the French, is frequent 
in Indian names. 

Green Bay. — Marquette called it "Bay of the Fetid y ' J 
Hennepin and Membre did the same. Marquette says the 
Indians called it " Salt Bay • " St. Cosme called it " Bay of 
Pxiants /" on De L' Isle's maps, 1700 and 1718, it appears 
as " Baye des Puans." 

Milwaukee River. — Membre calls it " Melleoki / " St. 
Cosme termed it " Melwarik / " on De L'Isle's map, of 1718, 
it is called " Melleki." 

Note. — " Minewag" is the Indian name. 

Fox River of Illinois.- -J outel, on his map, gives it "Pe- 
tescouy;" St. Cosme calls it " Pistrui ;" Charlevoix calls it 
" Pisticoui." 

Wisconsin River. — Father Marquette called it the " Mes- 
consing ;" Hennepin quotes the Indians as calling it the 
u Ousconsin " or "Misconsin." Membre called it the a Mes- 
concing i " St. Cosme, the " Wesconsin." 

Note. — The Indian name is " Wishkdsing" the "o" having 
the nasal sound of the French " onP 



122 



ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 



COLLECTORS OF CUSTOMS, AT MACKINAC 



1801-6 David Duncan. 1843-49 

1806-10 George Hoffman. 1849-53 

1810 Harris H. Hickman. 1853-55 

1810-15 Samuel Abbott. 1855-61 

1815-16 William Gamble. 1861-67 

1816-18 John Rogers. 1867-71 

1818-33 Adam D. Stewart. 1871- 

1833-43 Abraham Wendell. 



Samuel K. Haring. 
Charles E. Avery. 
Alexander Toll. 
Jacob A. T. Wendell 
John W. McMath. 
S. Henry Lasley. 
James Lasley. 



INDIAN AGENTS. 





Agents for 


Mackinac and Vicinity: 


1816-24 


Wm. H. Puthuff. 




1861-65 


D. C. Leach. 


1824-33 


George Boyd. 




1865-69 


Richard M. Smith, 


1833-41 


Henry R. Schoolcraft. 


1869 


Wm. H. Bkockway 


1841-45 


Robert Stuart. 




1869-71 


James W. Long. 


1845-49 


Wm. A. Richmond. 




1871 


Richard M. Smith. 


1849-51 


Chas P. Babcock. 




1871-76 


George I. Betts. 


1851-53 


Rev Wm. Sprague. 




1876-82 


George W. Lee. 


1853-57 


Henry C. Gilbert. 




1882-85 


Edward P. Allen. 


1857-61 


Andrew M. Fitch. 




1885- 


Mark W. Stevens. 



MACKINAC COUNTY, PROBATE COURT JUDGES. 



1823-25 William H. Puthuff. 1860-65 

1825-29 Jonathan N Bailey. 1865 

1829-33 B. Hoffman. 1866-73 

1833-40 Michael Docsman. 1873-77 

1840-44 Bela Chapman. 1877-79 

1844-48 William Johnson. 1879-81 

1848-53 Bela Chapman. 1881-85 

1853-60 Jonathan P. King. 1885- 



Bela Chapman. 
Alexander Toll. 
Bela Chapman. 
George C Ketchum. 
George T. Wendell. 
Benoni Lachance. 
Thomas Chambers. 
Peter N. Packard. 



VILLAGE OFFICERS. 



123 



MACKINAC VILLAGE, PEESIDENTS. 



Wardens or Presidents of the Bo) 
incorpor 

Wm. H. Puthufp. 
George Boyd. 
Wm. H. Puthuff. 
Michael Dous.man. 
Jonathan N. Bailey. 
Samuel Abbott. 
Edward Biddle. 
Samuel Abb >tt. 
Edward Biddle. 
Samuel Abbott. 
Abraham Wendell. 
Bela Chapman. 
Augustus Todd. 



1817-21 

1822 

1823 

1824-25 

1826 

1827-30 

1831 

1832-43 

1844 

1845 

1845 

1846 

1848 



•ough or Village of Mackinac, since its 
ation in 1817: 

1849 Bela Chapman. 

1850-55 Augustus Todd. 

1856 Jonathan P. King. 

1861 John B. Couchois. 

1872 John Becker. 

1873 Wm. Madison. 

1875 Dr. John R. Bailey. 

1875-76 Edwin C. Gaskill. 

187 7-81 Wm. P. Preston. 

1883 Horace A. N. Todd. 

1833-84 Wm. P Preston. 

1885 William Sullivan. 

1886- Wm. B. Preston. 



POSTMASTERS. 

Postmasters at Mackinac since the establishment of Hie Post Office in 1819. 
The Office was known as Michilimackinac, until 1825. 



1819-22 
1822-25 

1835-29 
1829-49 
1849-53 
1853-59 
1859-61 



Adam D. Stewart. 1861-66 

John W. Mason. 1866-67 
Jonathan N. Bailey.* 1867-77 

Jonathan P. King. 1877-80 

James H. Cook. 1880-85 

Jonathan P. King. 18 n5- 
John Biddle. 



James Lasley. 
John Becker. 
James Lasley. 
George C. K etc hum. 
James Lasley. 
James Gallagher. 



* First Postmister at Chicago. Appointed March 31st, 1831. 



The first post-office on this side of the Atlantic was established by 
Gov. Lovelace, at New York, in 1672. 



MACKINAC COUNTY, CLERKS. 

Clerks of the County from its organization in 1818: 



1818-21 


Thomas Lyon. 


1855-58 


John Becker. 


1822-24 


F. HlNCn.MAN. 


1850-63 


Wm. M. Johnston. 


1825-46 


Jonathan P Ktng. 


1864 


Charles O'M alley. 


1847-52 


P C Kevan. 


1865-86 


John Biddle. 


1853-5 i 


Wm. M. Johns ion. 


1880- 


Michael Hoban. 



THE GIANT FAIRIES. 



Long years before the white man came into these regions, 
many fairies lived here, rollicking fairies, who laughed and 
danced and sung their lives away. 

Every flower and bush and tree, every rock and hill and 
glen, was thickly peopled with these canny folk, and on 
moonlight nights all the Indians in their wigwams sat in 
breathless attention — 

Then they hear, now sweet and low, 

Sounds as of a distant lyre, 

Touched by fairy hands so light 

That the trembling tones scarce are heard. 

What the music none can tell, 
So unearthly and so pure, — 
But it seems as if the notes 
Loosened all the magic sounds 
Held within the tinkling grass, — 
In the mosses and the ferns, 
In the vines which climb and creep, 
In the flowers of every hue, — 
In the heavy folded rose, 
In the violets at its feet, 
In the lily's gentle swing. 

Sweeping o'er the lonely streairis, 
Through the sands on deserts low, 
Through the snows on mountains high, 
Through the flowers on the plains, 
Through the sylvan shady bowers, 
Through the forests dark and hoar, 
Through the lofty oaks and elms, 

[1251 



126 ANNALS OF FOKT MACKINAO. 

Through the leaves of tulip trees, 
Through catalpas, white with bloom, 
Through magnolias kingly crowned, 
Through the poplars, amber sweet, 
Through the towering cypresses, 
Pendant with the gray old mosses, 
Patriarchs of the lowlier tribes. 
With the sound of laughing brooks, 
And the notes of singing birds ; 
Softened by the cooing dove, 
By the plover's gentle dip, 
By the lonely, limpid rills, 
By the silence, deep, profound, 
Resting o'er the wilderness. 

With the thunder's distant roar, 
Rolling, rumbling through the sky, 
Over mountains, hills, and plains, 
Over rivers, lakes, and seas; 
Chiming with the overture 
In its massive undertones, 
Mellowing, melting all its chords 
Into dulcet harmonies; 
Into dirge-like requiems; 
Into rhythmic symphonies; 
Gathering all the breath of song 
In its weird and wayward moods; 
In its plaintive, touching strains; 
In its playful laughing trills; 
In its wild and fearful tones; 
Trancing all the insect tribes, 
Hid in thicket, bush, and grove; — 
Butterflies, of every hue, 
Bees, of wondrous skill and lore; 
Beetles, puzzled, lost, and wild; 
Mites and emmets, flies and gnats, 
Maddened, ravished, filled with joy, — 
Frenzied with the flush of song. 



THE GIANT FAIKIE8. 127 

Birds, in forest, tree, and copse, 
In the jungle, in the grass, 
Near the lonely stream and lake, 
On the wing in winding flocks, 
Wildered with the rapturous sounds, 
Pause to listen, still and mute, 
Till the tempest rushes past, — 

O, the music ! O, the sweet ! 
Breathing fragrance, breathing song, 
Mingling all of earth and air 
That can charm the wakened sense. 
Thus with odors rich and rare, 
Music lent its magic power, 
Dirge and requiem, ditty, lay, 
Fugue and march, and waltz and hymn 
Silver-toned, euphonious, grave; 
Chimes of measured step and grace, 
Dulcet strains of sweetest rhythm, 
Overtures of matchless sweep, — 
All that fills the hungry air, 
All that wakes the sleeping sense, 
Blending with the virgin soil; 
With the creeping juniper, 
With the cedar and the pine, 
With the rich magnolia's bloom, 
With the jasmine and the grape, 
With the scent of early fruits; — 
Such the music, such the air, 
Sweeping westward o'er the lakes, 
Such, — the Isle of Mackinac. 

It was upon the eastern rock-bound shore that the 
giant fairies most loved to congregate. There they skipped 
up and down their famous stairway, and, flinging themselves 
into the water, would disappear in its depths, perhaps to rise 
again on the back of some immense sturgeon or whitefish, 
the reindeer of the lakes, for a race through, the sparkling 
water. 



128 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

These genii lived in the many caves in the rocks. In the 
depths of their quiet homes were — 

Tables, crowned with daintiest food, 
Wine of berries, rich and sweet ; 
Beds of eider-down and moss; 
Chambers, opening to the sea, 
Filled with sparkling stalactites ; 
Rubies bright, and amethysts, 
Diamonds Hashing, tilled with light; 
Marble halls and palaces ; 
Corridors, of awful length, 
Stretching westward toward the sun, 
Opening into distant halls, 
Wildering to the aching sight. 
Wide the pavements covered o'er 
With the shells of every hue ; 
Lichens green, and red, and white, 
Spreading wider, flush and fair, 
Sprinkled with the aureate dust 
Found within their hidden caves. 

Their favorite dancing place was the plateau just below 
where the fort now stands, and the entrance to their subter- 
ranean abode was under the immense rock that supports one 
of the corners of the wall. 

Here their mystic ring was kept, and on moonlight nights 
they gathered from far and near — 

At twilight on the lonely Isle, 
'Mid the rustling of the leaves, 
And the chirp of dainty birds, 
And the notes of whip-poor-wills, — 
Oft was heard the mystic dance 
Of Giant Fairies, lithe of step, 
Moving in their sinuous sweep 
To the sounds of lute and string. 
Now, where the rippling waters play, 
Or on the billow's gentle swell, 
Laughing, rollicking and free, 



THE GIANT FAIRIES. 129 

Or clambering Donan's Obelisk, 

With towering leap and sportive romp, 

With heyday pranks, and leer, and jest, 

They reel, and minuet, and waltz, 

In wassail mirth and jollity. 

Upon Ledyard's lofty Cliffs they perch, 

In graceful curves they reach the Arch 

That hangs upon the eastern shore, — 

Now gently tripping round its base, 

They climb upon its rugged sides, 

And sweeping o'er its dizzy height, 

With rapid flight and easy grace, 

They move around the Pyramid, 

And peep within its secret caves, 

Or stand upon its star-lit shaft; — 

And then, away, away, away, 

They sweep around the grand plateau 

That sits enthroned upon the Isle; — 

Within Skull Cave they barely peep, 

Ruggles' Pillar, they lightly touch, 

To Whitney's Point, they hie away, 

Thence, the Lover's Leap they climb. 

Here the tramping feet were heard 
Of the Pe-quod-e-nonge dance, 
When the gathering warriors came 
Plumed and painted for the fight; — - 
And the startling yell was heard 
O'er the Island — o'er the straits, 
O'er the waters, deep and clear, 
O'er the Huron and its shores, 
O'er the breezy Michigan ; 



Suddenly La Salle's morning gun from the " Griffon " rang 
out on the breeze and echoed and re-echoed with many re- 
verberations from the adjacent shores. 

With horrible shrieks and cries and groans they flew from 
all parts of the island, and entering their cave disappeared 
evermore from mortal view. 



130 ANNALS OF FORT MACKTNAO. 

Reluctantly they left the Isle 
When the " pale faces " touched upon 
Their native waters, rocks, and hills; — 
For only will they deign to dwell 
Where the wild hunter seeks his food 
And claims the forest all his own. 

I sing of the fairies fled, 

T know not where they are, 
Whether living, dying, or dead, 

On the earth, or some distant star. 
In the hollow wastes, or the vacant caves, 

In the shadowy, dreamless land, 
Where the river of Lethe gently laves 

Its footless and dusky sand, — 
Far, far away is the spectral band. 

Over the silent moor, 

Over the secret dell, 
Over the waters fresh and pure 

With music's magic spell, 
Hither and thither they went, 

Now rapid, or grave, or slow, 
Till the drowsy hours were spent 

And the morning began to glow. 
But we see them now no more, 

We hear them not at even, 
By river, or lake, or lonely shore, 

Beneath the western heaven. 



And thus have the fairies left our shore, 
Their beautiful forms we shall see no more; 
The caves are forsaken, the mountain and plain, 
Our Island home shall greet them — never again. 



PRIE8T8. 131 



PRIESTS. 

The following Priests of the Roman Catholic Church have 
served at Michilimackinac : 

The dates opposite their names indicate the first and last 
year of their stay ; or, as the case may be, of their visits ; 
for many of them made only occasional visits, having other 
parishes, or missions, in their charge. Their names are 
marked thus *. 

The first church on the main land, north of the Strait, 
was built in 1671 ; the second about 1674; burnt in 1706. 

The present church was built in 1838. 

The first church on the main land, south of the Strait, was 
built about 1712, when the post was re-established ; the 
second, about 1741. 

The first church on the island was built about 1785. It 
occupied a part of the old cemetery on Astor street. The 
second was erected in 1827, on the site of the present one, 
on land donated by Mrs. Magdalene Laframboise. 

The present building was erected in 1873. 

Beneath the altar are the graves of Mrs. Magdalene 
Laframboise, her only daughter, and grandson, Langdon 
Pierce (wife and son of Capt. Benjamin K. Pierce, U. S. A.). 
On the marble slabs over their graves are the following 
inscriptions : 

Magdalene Laframboise. died April 14th, 1846, aged 66 years." 
" Josephine Piekce, died November 24th. 1820." 

In "Ancient Michilimackinac" (St. Ignace). 

1670. Rev. Father Dablon. S. J. (or possibly Marquette.) 

1671-73. Rev. Father James .Marquette, S. J. 
1C73 (?) Rev. Father Philip Pierson, S. J. 



'132 



ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 



1674 (?) Rev. Father Henry Nouvel, S. J. 

1677 (?) Rev. Father J. Enjalran, S. J. 

1680-81. Rev. Father Louis Hennepin, Franciscan.* 

16?? (?) Rev. Father De Carheil, S. J. 

16??-1706. Rev. Father J. Marest, S. J. 



In " Old Mackinac " (Lower Michigan). 

1708 (?) Rev. Father J. Marest, S. J. 

1741-52. Rev. Father J. B. Lamorinie, S. J.* 

1741-65. Rev. Father Du Jaimay, S. J. 

1742-44. Rev. Father C. G. Coquarz, S. J.* 

1753-61. Rev. Father M. L. Lefranc. S. J. 

1768-75. Rev. Father Gibault, Vic. -Gen. of Illinois.* 



On the Island and in Modern St. Ignace. 

1786-87. Rev. Father Payet, of Illinois.* 

1794. Rev. Father Ledru, Dominican, of France.* 

1796. Rev. Father Levadoux, of Detroit, Vic. -Gen. of the Bishop 

of Baltimore.* 
1799-1823. Rev. Father G. Richard, Curate of St. Ann, Detroit, and 

Vicar-General.* 
1801. Rev. Father J. Dilhet.* 

1816-18. Rev. Father Joseph Crevier, of Canada.* 
1825-27. Rev. Father Francis Vincent Badin of St. Joseph's.* 
1827-30. Rev. P. J. De Jean, of Little Traverse Bay.* 
1829-31. Rt. Rev. Edward Fenwick, Bishop of Cincinnati.* 
1830. Rev. Father Mallon, of Cincinnati. 

1830-33. Rev. Father Samuel Mazzuchelli, Dominican. 
1830-38. Rev. Father Frederic Rese, Vic. -Gen. of Cincinnati, Bishop 

of Detroit, 1834* 
1831-65. Rev. Father Frederic Baraga, of Little Traverse Bay. 

Afterwards (1853-68) Bishop of Sault Ste. Marie and 

Marquette.* 
1833. Rev. Father J. Lostrie. 

1833-34. Rev. Father Francis ITatscher, Redemptorist. 
1838-43. Rev. Father Santi Santelli. 



PRIESTS. 



133 



1884-38. Rev. Father F. J. Bonduel. 

1843-45. Rev. Father C. Skolla, Franciscan. 

1845. Rev. Father H. Van Renterghem. 

1845-52. Rt. Rev. P. Lefevre, Bishop of Detroit.* 

1*46-74. Rev. Father A. D. Piret, retired to " Chenaux," 1870. 

1852. Rev. Father Francis Pierz, of Little Traverse Bay.* 

1854-57. Rev. Father E. L. M. Jahan. 

1858-61. Rev. Father Patrick B. Murray. 

1861-67. Rev. Father Henry L. Thiele (two terms). 

1868. Rev. Father Charles Magne. 

1868-71. Rev. Father Matthias Orth. 

1869-70. Rev. Father Philip S. Zorn, of Grand Traverse Bay.* 

1870-71. Rev. Father Nicolas L. Sifferath, of Cross Village.* 

1871. Rev. Father Charles Vary, S. J., of Sault Ste. Marie. 

1871-79. Rt. Rev. Ignatius Mrak, Bishop of Marquette.* 

1871-72. Rev. Father L. B. Lebouc. 

1872-73. Rev. Father Moses Mainville. 

1873-80. Rev. Father Edward Jacker. 

1875-78. Rev. Father William Dwyer. 

1878-79. Rev. Father John Braun. 

1879-81. Rev. Father John C. Kenny. 

1880-81. Rev. Father C. A. Richard. 

1880-82. Rt. Rev. John Vertin, Bishop of Marquette.* 

1881. Rev. Father Bonaventuie Frey, Prov. Cap. Order.* 

1881-82. Rev. Father Kilian Haas, O. M. Cap. 

1881-82. Rev. Father Isidore Handtmann, O. M. Cap. 

1882-85. Rev. Father John Chebul. 

1883. Rev. Father Joseph Niebling. 

1883-84. Rev. Father P. Q. Tobin. 

1884- Rev. Father William Dwyer. 

1885- Rev. Father Francis Xav. Becker. 



LEGEND OF M1SHINI-MAKLNAC. 135 



LEGEND OF "MISHINI-MAKINAK." 

Note : — There is a tradition that many centuries ago while 
a party of Indians were standing on the bluff where St. 
Ignace is now located, and looking out over the straits 
they saw the present Island of Mackinac rising out of the 
water, and beliving it was some animal, from its movements 
and shape they pronounced it to be a turtle. 

The Island was known to the early French visitors as 
u Michilimackinac:" popular tradition says that the meaning 
of the word is " Giant Turtle." 

In the Ojibwa dialect as now spoken, " Mishimikinak " 
signifies u Big Turtle." 

Edisoked. — A story teller; one who repeats and hands 
down the tales of Mena-bosho and other kindred legendary 
lore. 

Eh heh ! Eh heh ! — is the usual refrain of Indian magic 
songs. 

Where the restless currents of Michigan 

The twin-born Huron embrace, 
Along the headland there sat a clan 

Of the wild Ojibwa race. 

In the noontide calm, on the sleepy shore, 

Reposed the lords of the land, 
While the story-teller's mystic lore 

Beguiled the simple band. 

Thus spake the prattling Edisoked; — 

"A wigwam stands in the deep; 
Enchanted lies in the channel's bed 

The Giant Turtle asleep. 



136 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

Around him paddle whitefish and trout, 
The slow worm creeping goes; 

The sea-gull's scream and the rover's shout 
Break not his charmed repose. 

Rise up, rise up, O Turtle grey; 

Rise up, thou chief of the lake, 
Thy cousins call thee, — eh heh! eh heh! 

Enchanted Turtle, awake!" 

The lake lay calm and the wind was hushM, 

But lo! there rose a swell; 
The surges over the pebbles rushed— 

The song had broken the spell. 

It heaves; it eddies. Alack! Alack! 

The breakers tower and fall; 
Unwieldy Mishini-makinak 

Toils up to answer the call. 

Already whitens the flood mid-way 

Twixt shore and shore. On the strand, 

Along the headland, in blank dismay 
The brown Ojibwa stand. 

And slowly, softly the rounded back 

Emerging meets the eye, 
Till all of Mishini-makinak 

Lies basking 'neath the sky. 

He floats, a mammoth in turtle shape, 
An overturned bowl, the back; 

The dragging tail a fleshy cape, 
The jowl a headland black. 

The mighty shell like an island lies, 

At anchor out in the lake. 
'Tis not an isle. O strange surprise! 

Tis the Chief uncharmed, awake! 

Unmoved, alike, by the billow's sweep, 
Bv the tempest's battering shock, 

Severe and calm in the azure deep, 
He stands a towering rock. 



LEGEND OF MI8HINI— MAKINAK. 137 

But alert within that frowning form 

The spirit blithe and gay, 
With fairy sprites, that 'round him swarm, 

Communes by night and day. 

The dappled trout and the whitefish come 

Up-lake, down over the Falls; 
His children all from their silent home 

To the gay carouse he calls. 

The Red Man — eager yet doubtful, while 

The silver tide runs past, 
Enticed, bewitched, to the magic isle 

His birch bark paddles at last. 

And one there comes in robe of black, 

With face so sweet and grave, 
That frowning Mishini-makinak 

Smiles on him from the wave. 

With toilworn feet, a pilgrim quaint, 

The holy cross in his hand 
From la belle France he comes, good saint, 

To sleep on the pebbly strand. 

And over the waves as the chief grows old, 

In storm or sunshine gay, 
The Lily, Lion and Eagle bold 

Their homage come to pay. 

On hoary Mishini-makinak 

Their several flags unfurl, 
While wrestling, each from the giant's back 

The other seeks to hurl. 

Oh! sure is the flight to the mother bee 

Of the humming swarms of the hive; 
But surer, swifter, from land and sea, 

The Chieftain's vassals arrive. 

From prairies far and their burning heat, 

From Hudson's shivering bay; 
From the western peaks, at the Giant's feet 

They flock their wealth to lay. 



]38 ANNALS OF FORT MACKINAC. 

The skiff, the light canoe, the smack, 
The merchant's ship in their wake, 

All bound for Mishini-makinak 
Are plowing river and lake. 

Bright, broken dream! It calls not back 

That gay chivalric time: — 
Wilt thou still honor old Makinak, 

Age of the dollar and dime ? 

Behold the answer! Do not these things 

Arabian marvels eclipse? 
On comes — on comes, — as on eagle's wings, 

A fleet of wingless ships ! 

With panting bosom, — with splashing gait, 

With dull monotonous roar, 
They come, — their frolicsome human freight 

In the Sorcerer's lap to pour. 

There all, in sweet oblivion lost, 
(The touch of witchery's wand) 

Their ailments offer a holocaust 
At Giant Turtle's command. 



MACKINAC ISLAND. LAKE NAVIGATION. 



139 



MACKINAC ISLAND. 

Height above the Straits 
of Mackinac. 

Fort Mackinac— Parade 133 feet. 

Fort Mackinac — Highest gun platform. 16 L " 

Fort Holmes— Platform 330 " 

Top of Pyramid Hock 285 " 

Donan's Obelisk 135 ' ' 

Robertson's Folly 128 " 

Highest Point of Arch Rock . . 150 " 

Top of Arch 140 " 

Buttress facing lake at Arch Rock , 110 " 

Lover's Leap 145 ' ' 

Lower Plateau of Island 150 ' * 

Upper Plateau of Island 295 • • 



LAKE NAVIGATION. 

Distances from Mackinac Island by Water. 

(Steamboat Routes.) 



Miles. 

Alpena 125 

Ashland. L. S 570 

Bayfield, L. S 585 

Beaver Islands 45 

Bois Blanc Island 3 

Cheboygan , Mich 18 

Chenaux Islands 15 

Chicago 375 

Cross Village 30 

Detour 40 

Detroit 370 

Duluth, L. S 675 

Eagle Harbor, L. S 425 

Eagle River, L. S 435 

Grand Island, L. 8 225 



Miles 

Harris ville 155 

L' Anse 335 

Mackinaw City : 7 

Marquette, L. S 200 

Milwaukee 290 

Ontonagon. L. S 495 

Oscoda 175 

Petoskey GO 

Port Huron 300 

Portage Lake. L. S 300 

Round Island 1 

Sand Beach 235 

Sault Ste. Marie 90 

St . Ignace 5 

Traverse City 120 



140 



ANN A l.S OF FoKT MACKINAC. 



SUMMER AND WINTER. 

The highest and lowest temperature at 7 A. M. at Fort Mackinac, dur 
ing the summers and winters specified,— from observations taken 
with a Fahrenheit thermometer. 



Summer 
of 



Degr. .-hove 
Zero. 



1855 September 8 67 

1856 July 26 ...75 

1857 July 26 75 

1858 August 18 74 

1859 July 13 76 

1860 August 3 61) 

1868 July 17 79 

18(5!) August 2 66 

1S70 July 18 6!) 

1 87 1 August 7 75 

1872 July 2 74 

1878 July 23 78 

1874 September 12 71 

1875 September 1 68 

1876 August 14 74 

1877 .... July 28 77 

1878 August 9 76 

1879 July 15 75 

1880 August 8 69 

1881 September 5 78 

1882 July 25.- 71 \ 

1883 August 18 66 

1884 June 27 74 

1885 July 8 72 

1886 July 6 80 

1887 July 27 80 



Winter 
of 

1855-6. 

1856-7. 

1858-9. 

1859-60 

1860-1. 

1867-8. 

1868-9. 

1869-70 

1870-1. 

1871-2. 

1872-3. 

1873-4 

1874-5. 

1875-6. 

1876-7. 

1877-8. 

1878-9. 

1879-80 

1880-1. 

1881-2. 

1882-3. 

1888-4. 

1884-5. 

1885-6. 

1886-7. 

1887-8. 



Deer, below 
Zero. 



.March 9, 
February 8, 
January 9, 
January 31, 
February 7. 
February 27, 
March 4, 
February 21, 
February 5, 
Dec. 20, 
February 23, 
January 30, 
.February 9, 
.February 2, 
January 12, 
.January 7, 
February 27, 
February 1, 
.January 14, 
.January 23, 
.January 22, 
January 21, 
January 27, 
. February 3, 
January 31, 
January 21, 



1856.. 
1857.. 
1859.. 
1860. . 
1861.. 
1868. . 
1869.. 
1870 . 
1871.. 
1871.. 
1873.. 
1874. . 
1875.. 
1876.. 
1877.. 
1878. . 
1879.. 
1880. . 
1881.. 
1882. . 
1883.. 
1884. . 
1885.. 
1886 . 
1887. . 
1888.. 



.19 
.22 
.25 
.10 
.24 
.24 
.10 
10 
.13 
.14 
.17 

.10' 

.24 
.17 
14 
. 8 
.20 
. 8 
.22 
.18 
.10 
.18 
.32 
.24 
.24 
.26 



ARRIVAL OF BOATS. 



14 1 



NAVIGATION— STRAITS OF MACKINAC. 



Arrival of First Steamboat at Mackinac Island. 



1854 April 25 



1855. 
1856. 

1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
I860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872, 



May 
May 
May 

.Apr 
. Apr 
Apr 
.Apr 
.Apr 
. A pr 
.Api 
.Apr 
Apr 
.Apr 
. Apr 
.Apr 
.Apr 
.Apr 
.Apr 



18?:} April 30 

1 1874 \pril20 

2 187-, May 5 

1 1876 \pril 22 

1 6 1877 April 20 

1 4 1878 April 9 

1 10 |187<) April 22 

1 25 ISM) April 3 

1 18 1881 May 3 

1 11 
i •> 



121 
129 
123 
1 19 
123 
1 3 
1 3 
125 



1882 March 9 

1883 April 21 

1884 April 18 

1885 May 1 

1886 April 22 

1887 April 26 

1888 May 4 



i 4:2 



ANNALS OF FORI MACKINAC. 



MICHIGAN CENTRAL RAILROAD 

"The NIAGARA FALLS Route." 

From MACKINAW CITY. 



Vu Miles. 

Albany, N. Y 841 

Alger, Mich 142 

Bagley, Mich 67 

Battle Creek, Mich 340 

Bay City, Mich 182 

Beaver Lake, Mich 122 

Binghamton, N. Y 751 

Boston, Mass 1042 

Brooks, Mich 185 

Buffalo, N. Y 543 

Cheboygan, Mich 16 

Chicago, 111 505 

Cincinnati, O 552 

Cleveland, 463 

Columbus, 474 

Detroit, Mich 201 

Fort Wayne, Ind 395 

Freedom, Mich 6 

Garfield, Mich 207 

Gaylord, Mich 63 

Cray ling, Mich 90 

Hagersville, Ont 463 

Indian River, Mich 34 

Indianapolis, Ind 561 

Jackson, Mich 295 

Kalamazoo. Mich 363 

Kawkawlin, Mich 177 

Lansing, Mich 259 

Lapeer, Mich 230 

La Salle, Mich 327 

Louisville, Ky 662 

Mackinac Island (by water) . . 7 

Met. i mora, Mich 238 



To Miles. 

Monroe, Mich 322 

Mullet Lake, Mich 22 

New York, N. Y 983 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. 521 

Niagara Falls, Ont 517 

Niles, Mich 411 

Ogemaw, Mich 126 

Otsego Lake, Mich 71 

Otter Lake 210 

Owosso, Mich 232 

Oxford, Mich 240 

Pinconning, Mich 163 

Rives Junction, Mich 284 

Rochester, N. Y 613 

Roscommon, Mich 105 

St. Helen's, Mich 117 

St. Ignace, Mich, (by water). . 5 

St. Louis, Mo 737 

St. Thomas. Ont 404 

Saginaw City, Mich 190 

Saratoga, N. Y 846 

Springfield, Mass 944 

Standish, Mich 155 

Summit, Mich 138 

Suspension Bridge, N. Y 519 

Syracuse, N. Y 094 

Toledo, O 350 

Topinabee, Mich 29 

Toronto, Out 526 

Utica, N. Y 746 

Vanderbilt, Mich 55 

Vassar, Mich 203 

Zilwaukee, Mich 192 



ANN AT, S OF F< »KX MACKINAC 



14 



SUMMER RESIDENCES. 



The following persons have cottages on Mackinac Island 



Charles H. Bradley, 

Charles L. Ames, 

Dr. Truman W. Brophy, 

Edward O. Brown, 

Mrs. Phebe B. Gehr, 

Alexander D. Hannah, 

Franklin S. HaDSon, (3) 

Noah P. Harrison, 

David Hogg, 

Mrs. Gurdon S. Hubbard, (2) 

Joseph J. Parker, 

Gen. Geo. W. Smith, 

Major Daniel W. Whittle, 

Hon. Hugh McCurdy, 

Charles C. Bo wen, 

Cornelius Corbett. 

Col. Henry M. Duffield, 

William H. Dunning, 

Jacob S. Farrand, 

Hon. S. B. Grummond, (2) 

Rt. Rev. Samuel S. Harris, D. D., LL. D., 

John Owen, 

Alanson Sheley, 

Montgomery Hamilton, 



Bay City. Mich. 
Chicago. 111. 



Corunna, Mich. 
Detroit, Mich. 



Fort Wayne. 1ml. 



144 



ANNALS OF FOKT MACKINAC. 



William F. Bulkley, 
William 0. Hugbart, 
Thomas J. O'Brien, 
William J. Stuart, 
Edwin F. Sweet, 
Charles W. Caskey, (2) 
Mrs. Amanda BeUleu, 
Frank M. Chirk, (2) 
William H. MeCourtie, 
Theodore P. Sheldon, 
Hon. Francis B. Stockbridge, 
George Stockbridge, 
Mrs. H. G. Wells, 
Dr. D. 0. Holliday, 
Charles E. Anlhony, 
Major Clifford M. Anthony, 
A. Fisk Starr, 

Major George C. Harrington, 
Mis. Eva L. Wheeler, 



Grand Rapids. Mich. 



Harbor Springs Mie 
Kalamazoo, Mic 



New Orleans, La. 
Peoria, 111. 

St. Mary's, Ont. 

Watseka, 111. 

West Bay City, Mich. 




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View of Fort Mackinac from the Southwest. 



E. P. FOLEY. ■■^■■m R p - FOLEY. 

Foley's/\RyGallery 



HEADQUARTERS FOR ALL KINDS OF 



Photographic Views, 

OIL ANO WATER COLOR PAINTINGS. 



Artists will go with parties to any point on or off Mackinac 

Island, to make special views on demand, 

for a reasonable compensation. 



Steam Lapidary Machinery 

In connection, for shaping and polishing Agates, many of 
which are found on this lapideous Island. 

AGATE JEWELRY A SPECIALTY. 



Do not fail to call and examine the many fine specimens of 
Northern Michigan Animals exhibited here free of charge. 

FOLEY BROS., Prop's, 
Cor. Fort and Main Streets. MACKINAC ISLAND. 



J. MURRAY BROWN. WILL J. WILSON. 



Brown & Wilson, 



ARTIST TAILORS 



•AND- 



Importers of Fine Woolens. 



224 WOODWARD AVENUE, 



DETROIT, MICH 



We ATvould be pleased to have you call and inspect our 

Selections. 



All Work First-Class, 



The S ummer T ours 

OF THE 

MlCHIGAN f TENTFAL RR. 

And Connecting Lines to the 

Rivers, Lakes, Mountains, 

Springs and Seaside Resorts 

of the North and East, 

ARE THIS YEAR MORE COMPLETE THAN EVER BEFORE. 



TO BOSTON AND PORTLAND 

Through the WHITE MOUNTAINS. 



to :£t:e"w ^o:r:k: 

VIA TBIIE 

St. Lawrence, Lake Chainplain, Lake George and the Hudson, 

And numerous other Routes, for details of which see our 
Summer Tourist Route and Rate Folder. 



SPECIAL NOTICE.— Passengers ordering Sleeping Car accommodations should 
be particular to give Route, Train, Date and Destination. Write or telegraph to 
W. H. Underwood, Eastern Passenger Agent, No. 80 Exchange Street, Buffalo, 
N. Y. ; C. A. Warren, Passenger and Ticket Agent, 66 Woodward Avenue, corner 
Jefferson, Detroit, Mich., or Central Depot, foot of Third Street; Wm. Gates, Ticket 
Agent, 209 Boody House Block, Toledo, O. ; C. Lincoln, Michigan Central Depot, 
Chicago. 

O. -W- RUGGLES, 

Oen'l Passenger Agent, 

CHICAGO, DLL. 



H ISTORY 



O F 



Detroit and Michigan 

By SILAS FARMER, City Historiographer, 

(By Appointment under Ordinance of 1843). 

Member of American Historical Association, Webster Historical Society, 
Michigan Pioneer Society, etc. 



It contains 1072 pages in double columns, quarto form, with 648 illus- 
trations, consisting of fac-similes of a variety of Old Records, Documents, 
Signatures, Hand-Bills, Noted Localities, representations of Seals, Monu- 
ments, Banners and relics of various kinds, together with a large number 
of maps and plans. 

In range of subjects and fullness of treatment it is the most complete 
local history published in America. Fully one-third of the volume 
is devoted to matters that relate to michigan in general, and 
the information is new and singularly interesting. 

In every library the list of volumes on Michigan and 
Detroit is particularly meagre; this history will amply meet 
tnis want, and, as a work of reference, no other a olume can 
take its place. 

Over ten years of labor were spent upon the work, no expense was 
spared in its preparation, and it unfolds a large amount of authentic and 
surprising information hitherto unpublished and unknown. 

It is printed on seventy pound super-sized and extra highly calendered 
paper, and is elegantly bound in genuine Turkey morocco, with cloth 
sides and appropriate stamps and tool work in gold. 

The price is $10. In order to treat home and foreign customers alike, 
the postage or expressage is paid to any part of the country. 



Beautifully Lefti 



The man who wont use the latest approved methods 
and appliances in the conduct of his business. The 
CALIGRAPH Type-Writer is as much an essential to- 
day as the steel pen was SO years ago ; many then 
clung to the old quill pen. Who would think of doing 
so to-day ? You may flatter yourself that you are 
saving the price of a machine, taut others have made 
the price of theirs over and over again. In this age of 
Steam, Electricity and Pneumatic Appliances, things 



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won't wait for any one ; you must get aboard or be 
left. Over 100,000 consider the CALIGRAPH Type- 
Writer essential. Does it not behoove you to consider 
the question of sparing yourself and higher priced 
labor by using the type-writer? Over 100,000 have 
studied the question and decided in favor of the 
TYPE-WRITER. If you want to look the matter up, 
send for circulars. 



GEO. E. PADDOCK & CO., 

State A^Gx-it&i 

24 Congress St., cor. Griswold. - - DETBOIT, MICH. 



'*£) THE (^m^-j 



Sault Ste. Marie News 

Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. 



It is the oldest and newsiest paper at the Soo. 

It is the representative Republican journal of the Upper Peninsula 

It is the most enterprising weekly newspaper in Michigan. 

It has the largest circulation of any paper in Chippewa County. 

It is a newspaper, first, la*t, and all the time. 

It is the best advertising medium in the North. 

It does not use plate matter. 

It is set up by its own compositors, in its own office. 

It prints live news, in advance of its contemporaries. 

It is a large eight-paee, fifty-six column, paper. 

It leads the procession. 



SUBSCRIPTION, $1.50 PER YEAR, IN ADVANCE. 

ADVERTISING RATES GIVEN UPON APPLICATION 



Book: and Job Printing-, 

Book Binding and Engraving, 

Complete Job Office. 



THli NEWS PUBLISHING CO., 

C. S. OSBORN. M. A. HOYT. A. W. DINGWALL 



IMAM -mi 



I 



MACKINAC ISLAND, MICH. 



HEADQUARTERS OF ARMY AND NAVY OFFICERS. 

Former Headquarters 0/ the American Fur 
Company. 



The Astor House is conveniently located about one hundred yards 
from the wharf where all passengers are landed. Tourists stopping at 
the Astor will save carriage hire to and from all boats stopping at the 
Island. 

No fire traps — 12 easy fire-escapes. 

Fresh eggs and poultry from the Astor Farm. Fresh milk and butter 
from the Astor Jersey Dairy. 

This is the only hotel on the Island which is supplied with pure run- 
ning spring water. By authority of a special Act of Congress, we have 
run a pipe from the noted "Manitou Spring," and the Astor House is 
now supplied for all purposes with the best and purest water on earth. 
It was in their vain but determined attempt to retain possession of this, 
their sacred spring, the ancient tribe of the Mishinimaki were utterly ex- 
terminated. (This is the only spring on this continent, north of the City 
of Mexico, where the natural temperature of the water is twenty degrees 
colder in the summer than in winter. Winter, 55 degrees; Summer, 35 
degrees Fahrenheit.) 

Guests of the Astor have access to the old and original books of the 
American Fur Company. 

In the basement of the Astor House is the celebrated Astor Fire- Place — 
so often referred to by Irving — the largest fire-place in the United States. 



JAMES F. CABLE, Prop'R 




mmmm 

IltseGtFan, 
^£JLSmith&Co. 

pt' MJich. "'Sdle Manufacturers. 

This Fan for the destruction of insects consists of a body entirely of wire 
gauze, having a binding of soft material and provided with a flexible handle. 
To operate the Fan consists in giving a quick, short blow, either when the 
insect is on the wing or at rest. 

This fan is exactly what is wanted for use in restaurants, dining rooms, 
show-windows, and places where flies congregate. 

It fills a place almost indispensable — in consideration of the annoyance 
and liability of contageous diseases by insects (now so well authenticated by 
medical science). It is highly practicable in that the insect is not warned and 
does not fly, or is not blown away, as is the case when struck at by a solid 
surface. 

Endorsed by the leading Surgeons of the Army and Navy, by Hospitals, 
Hunters, Fishermen, Students, School Teachers, Bankers, Book-keepers, 
Lawyers, Judges, Clergymen, Invalids, Nurses, and in fact by all who are 
ever exposed, night or day, to musquitoes, flies or any flying insects. 

SENT BY MAIL, POST-PAID, ON RECEIPT OF 50 CENTS. 



L. _A__ SMITH Sd OO. 

WOODWARD AVENUE, 

DETEOIT, MICH. 



We are also Detroit Agents for DR. JAEGER'S SANITARY WOOLEN CLOTHING. 



KELTON & CO., 

Newspaper Subscription Agency, 

QUINCY (Branch Co.) MICHIGAN. 



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Frank Leslie's Sunday Mag m 2 50 2 15 

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Godey's Lady's Book m 2 00 165 

Golden Argosy w 3 00 2 50 

Golden Days w 3 00 2 50 

Harper's Bazar w 4 00 3 35 

Harper's Monthly . ...m 4 00 3 15 

Harper's Weekly w 4 00 3 35 

Harper's Young People w 2 00 1 65 

Horseman m 4 00 3 25 



Household m $1 00 

Housekeeper m 1 10 

Irish American w 2 50 

Irii^h World w 2 50 

Journal of Education, Boston, w 2 50 

Judge w 4 00 

Kansas City 'limes w 100 



Life 



Lippincott's Magazine m 

Magazine of Americ'n Hist'ry, m 
Magazine of West'n Histoiy. ..m 

M.chigm Catholic w 

Michigan Farmer w 

Nation w 

New Orleans Picay une w 

New York Graphic w 

New York Independent w 

New York Ledger w 

New York Weekly w 

North American Review m 

Our Little Men and Women. . .m 
Our Little Ones and Nursery, m 

Outing m 

Overland Monthly m 

Pansy, Juvenile m 

Peck's Sun w 

Penman's Art Journal m 

Peterson's Magazine m 

Popular Science Monthly m 

Poultry World m 

Prairie Farmer w 

Puck (English or German) w 

Public Opinion w 3 00 

Queries m 1 00 

Rural New Yorker w 2 00 

San Francisco Chronicle w 1 50 

Saturday Evening Post w 2 00 

Saturday Night w 300 

Science w 3 50 

Scientific American w 3 20 

Scribner's Magazine m 

Sporting Life w 

Sporting News w 

St. Nicholas m 

St. Louis Globe Democrat w 

St. Louis Republican w 

Standard (Chicago) w 

Texas Sifting? w 

Toledo Blade w 

Toronto Globe w 

Turf, Field and Farm w 

Vick's Illustrated Monthly m 

Waverly Magazine w 

Wide Awake m 



5 00 

3 00 
5 00 

4 00 

2 00 
1 25 

3 00 

1 50 

2 50 

3 00 
3 00 
3 00 

5 00 
1 00 
1 50 

3 00 

4 00 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

5 00 
1 25 
1 50 
5 00 



3 00 
2 50 

2 00 

3 00 
1 00 

1 00 

2 50 

4 00 
1 00 
1 00 

5 00 

1 25 
4 00 

2 40 



Our 
Ptice. 



75 
2 15 
2 15 

2 15 

3 25 
85 

4 00 

2 25 
4 25 

3 25 
1 65 

1 10 

2 85 
1 15 

1 70 

2 65 
2 50 
2 50 

4 25 
90 

1 30 

2 50 

3 25 
90 

1 75 

80 

1 45 

4 25 
85 

1 20 
4 00 

2 50 
90 

1 65 
1 25 

1 60 

2 50 

3 00 
2 75 
2 60 
2 00 

1 75 

2 65 
85 
85 

2 25 

3 50 
95 
85 

4 65 

1 00 
3 65 

2 10 



Address all orders to 



KELTON & CO., 

QUINCY, MICHICAN. 



MlCHIGAN^ENTRAL 



To 

An island, 

GREEN 

AND 
GRASSY, 

Yonder in the 
Big-Sea-Water 



THE 



DIRECT ROUTE 










Chippewa House 

Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. 

lOO ROOMS. 

Terms, $2.00 and *jjti>.r;o per D«a^r. 



HEADQUARTERS FOR THE ARMY AND NAVY. 

HEADQUARTERS FOR ALL FISHING CLUBS. 



The Chippewa House is conveniently located on 
Water Street, (nearer the river than any other hotel in 
the city), a few yards from where all the passengers 
are landed who arrive by boat ; fifty yards from the 
main entrance to Fort Brady, (the Army Officers 
messing at the Chippewa), and one hundred yards 
from the Canal Locks. 

Electric lights in every room, and the house fitted 
with all modern conveniences. No danger from fires, 
as the rooms are on the ground floor, or up but one 
flight of stairs. 

All passengers arriving by boat ^ahII save carriage 
hire to and from all boats, by stopping at the Chippewa. 

Ferry boats running to the Canada side of the river 
start every fifteen minutes from the wharf opposite 
the Chippewa. 

HENRY P. SMITH, Prop'r & Manager. 




" WALK-IN-THE-WATEB." 

First Steamboat on Lake Huron. At Mackinac in 1819. 
Built in 1818. 



The [Sportsman's Line to the Sportsman's Paradise 
detroit & cleveland steam navigation co. 



CLEVELAND AND DETROIT 

TO 

MACKINAC ISLAND 

AND 

THEIHUNTING and FISHING RESORTS of NORTHERN MICHIGAN. 
Lake Tours! Palace Steamers! Low Eates! QuickTime! 



STEAMERS 



Qity of'/\lpena, Qity of |V|ackinac 

Four Trips per Week Between 

Detroit, Mackinac, St. Ignace, Cheboygan, Alpena, Harrisville, 

Oscoda, Sand Beach, Port Huron, St. Clair, 

Oakland and Marine Ctiy. 

Leave Detroit Mondays and Saturdays - 10 P. M. Wednesdays and Fridays - 9 A, M, 
Arrive MackinacIWednesdays and Mcndays 7 A. M. Thursdays and Saturdays 5.30 P. M. 

Clcse Connections u ith Steamers for 

Chicago, Milwaukee, Traverse City, Charlevoix, Petoskey, Harbor Springs, 

Sault Ste. Marie. Marquette, Portage, Duluth, and with Duluth, 

South Shore & Atlantic R. R. for Marquette 

and the Copper Regions. 



STEAMEES 



City of Cleveland, : City of Detroit 

Every Week Day Between 

CLEVELAND AND DETROIT. 

Leave CLEVELAND - - - 8.30 P.M. I Arrive DETROIT - - - 5.30 A.M. 
Leave DETROIT - - - 10.00 P. M. | Afrive CLEVELAND - - 5.30 A. M. 

Special Sunday Night Trips July and August. 



For Illustrated Book, Rates orTickets, apply to your Ticket Agent or 

Address E^. LB. Vi r HITCOMB, 

G. P. & T. A., DETROIT, MICH. 




-.-.* t^jTzrTA/jrji. ****** 



THE " GRIFFON. 5 



The First Vessel on the Upper Lakes. 
Built by LaSalle, 1679. 



SE^SOUST 1888. 



Cheboygan. Mackinac & Sault Ste Marie 

DAILY LINE STEAMERS. 



The Only Daily Line on this Popular Route. 



Stmr. "Soo City." 


Stmr. "Minnie M." 


BYRON ARMSTRONG, Captain. 


J. 8. M0ND0R, Captain. 


ED A. PLUM, Clerk. 


F. M. HUBBARD, Clerk. 


LEAVES 


LEAVES 


CHEBOYGAN 


CHEBOYGAN 


Mondays.. Wednesdays and Fridays, 


Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, 


6 o'clock a. m. 


6 o'clock a. m. 


MACKINAC ISLAND 


MACKINAC ISLAND 


9 o'clock a. m. 


9 o'clock a. m. 


ARRIVING AT 


ARRIVING AT 


SAULT STE MARIE 


SAULT STE MARIE 


6 o'clock p. m. 


6 o'clock p. m. 


LEAVES 


LEAVES 


SAULT STE MARIE 


SAULT STE MARIE 


Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. 


Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, 


6 o'clock a. m. 


6 o'clock a. m. 


ARRIVES AT 


ARRIVES AT 


MACKINAC ISLAND 


MACKINAC ISLAND 


2.80 o'clock p. m. 


2.30 o'clock p. m. 


CHEBOYGAN 


CHEBOYGAN 


5 o'clock p. m. 


5 o'clock p. m. 



STOPPING AT ALL PLAGES OF LANDING ON THIS ROUTE. 

For further information, call on any of the following agents: 
P. H, HORNE, LAMOND & ROBINSON, A. S. RUSSEL, 

Cheboygan. Mackinaw City. St. Ignaoe. 

GEO. T. ARNOLD, GEO. KEMP, 

Mackinac Island. Sault Ste Marie, or 

W. R. OWEN, Manager, 

33 Metropolitan Block, 

CHICAGO, ILL.. 




ARCH ROCK. 



The New Mackinac 

{Built in 1888, upon the site of the old "Mackinac House" 
which was burned in January, 188/.) 

Mackinac Island, - Mich. 



100 GOOD BED ROOMS. 

Terms, $2.00 and $2.50 F>er Day. 



This house is well arranged for the comfort of tourists, and is con- 
veniently located opposite the end of the only passenger wharf 
on the Island. The furniture, carpets, etc., are all new. 
The house is equipped wiih electric bells, and 
all modern conveniences. 

FRED. R. EMERICK, - - Proprietor and Manager. 



This hotel has been built and arranged for the special comfort and convenience of 
summer boarders. 

On arrival, each guest will be asked how he likes the situation, and if he says the 
hotel ought to have been placed upon Fort Holmes or on Round Island, the location 
of the hotel will be immediately changed. 

Corner front rooms, up only one flight, for every guest. Baths, gas, electricity, 
hot and cold water, laundry, telegraph, restaurant, fire alarm, bar-room, billiard 
table, daily papers, sewing machine, grand piano, and all other modern conveniences 
in every room. Meals every minute, if desired, and consequently no second table. 
English, French and German dictionaries furnished every guest, to make up such a 
bill of fare as he may desire. 

Waiters of any nationality and color desired. Every waiter furnished with a libret- 
to, button-hole boquet, full dress suit, ball tablet, and his hair parted in the middle. 

Every guest will have the best seat in the dining hall and the best waiter in 
the house. 

Our clerk was carefully educated for this hotel, and he is prepared to please every- 
body. He is always ready to sing any song you desire, play upon your favorite 
musical instrument, match worsted, take a hand at draw-poker, play billiards, study 
astronomy, lead the german, amuse the children, make a fourth at whist, or flirt 
with any young lady, and will not mind being "cut dead when Pa comes down." He 
will attend to the telephone and answer all questions in Choctaw, Chinese, Chippewa, 
Volapuk, or any other of the Court languages of Europe. 

The proprietor will always be happy to hear that some other hotel is " the bes 
in the country." Special attention given to parties who can give information as to 
" how these things are done in Boston." 

For climate, beautiful scenery and health, Mackinac Island cannot be surpassed. 
Only one funeral in 1887— the patient called a doctor. 



St. Ignace Republican 

P. D. BISSELL, Editor. 

St." Ignace, Mackinac Co., Mich. 



PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY. 



62. OO A. ^lE^IR. 

tsttxn Union Cclegraplj C0. 

C. CORBETT, Ass't Supt., 

DETROIT, - - - MICH. 



An extra three-conductor cable has been laid this year 
(1888) across the Straits, between Mackinaw City 
and St. Ignace, thus enabling us to give con- 
stant and direct service between 

Detroit and St. Ignace, Mackinac Island, Sault Ste. Marie, Marquette 

and all intermediate places. 



The Handsomest Trains in the World 



THE 

PULLMAN VESTIBULE TRAINS 

NOW RUNNING BETWEEN 

CHICAGO 

AND 

KANSAS CITY 



OVER THE NEW 



"Santa Fe Route." 



Chicago, Santa Fe & California R'y, 



Office 212 Clark Street, Corner Adams Street, 

CHICAGO. 



TH E 



Q ommercial H otel- 

C. W. DABB & CO., Proprietors. 



ACCOMMODATIONS FOR FIVE HONDRED COESTS. 




Corner Lake and Dearborn Streets, 

CHICAGO. 



The location is most accessible to Depots, Steamboat Landings, Theatres, Public Buildings, 

Parks, and all objects of interest. Full South and East Fronts, Passenger 

Elevator, Electric Lights and all Modern Improvements. 



TERMS, $2.00 AND $2.50 PER DAY, INCLUDING MEALS. 

Supper, Lodging and Breakfast, $1.50. Lodging and Breakfast, SI.OO 
Meals, 50 Cents Each. 



A. B. DICKINSON, FRANK H. CARR, '^ 

of Formerly Cashier Boody House, 

Smith's Hotel, Hillsdale, Mich. Toledo, Ohio 

^ BRUMS,,, 




^ KtftdfnttlA •<* 



Cor. of State and Griswold Sts,, 

One Square from City Hall, 

DETROIT. - - • MICHIGAN. 



Location Central. Convenient to the leading stores and places of 
amusement. First-class in all appointments, having passenger elevator, 
heated by steam, hot and cold water in rooms, and all modern improve- 
ments. A large number of very desirable guest and sample rooms have 
recently been completed in the adjoining building on State Street, im- 
mediately in the rear of M. S. Smith & Co.'s jewelry store, making our 
location absolutely central, and giving ample accommodations for over 
one hundred guests. 



RATES, $2.50 and $2.00 PER DAY. 



DICKINSON & CARR, - - Proprietors. 



"THE NIAGARA FALLS ROUTE." 



1M*^ Great Central K^otxte 

To CANADA, 

THE ST. LA WRENCE, 



WHITE MOUNTAINS, 



THE HUDSON 



Now York, Boston, and New England Points, 



HE MICHIGAN CENTRAL is the only real 
"Niagara Falls Route" in the country. It is the 
only railroad that gives a satisfactory view of the 
Falls. Every day train stops from 3 to lO minutes at 
Falls View, which is what the name indicates — a 
splendid point from which to view the great cataract. 
It is right on the brink of the grand canyon, at the 
Canadian end of the Horseshoe, and every part of the 
Falls is in plain sight. Even if one is too ill to get out of 
the car, he can see the liquid wonder of the world from 
the window or the platform. There is but one Niagara 
Falls on earth, and but one direct railway to it. 

O. W. RUGGLES, 

General Passenger Agent. 



MAP OF 



Whitney's) 
Point 



JXlflCKWC IgltflP, 



MICHIGAN. 



Entered according to Act of Congress in 188i. by 
D. H. Kklton. 

Scale, 2 inches to 1 Mile. 



BiltiBh Landing! 



'Ruggles' Pillar 



Early's Farm 



S* 



Battlefield <y*» \ 



trt& X%XA 



\ 



RATIONAL PiTRK 



i/Donans Obelisk/ 



N 
A 



Uubbards Anno 

Lover^^^^^nevira Kit 
Pontiac's WctluTa^ 




BOOKS 



BY 



Dwight H. Kelton 



CAPTAIN U. S. ARMY. 



History oftlie Sault Ste. Mary Canal; 

PAPER, 15 CENTS. 

Annals of Fort Mackinac; 



PAPER, 25 CENTS. 




I' 




ids; 



CLOTH, $I.OO. 



KELTON & CO., 



GiXJIISTOY, MICHIGAN. 




4