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Full text of "Annals of Iowa"

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REYNOLDS HISTORICAL! 

GENEA._- -„.._;_.JT10N 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01736 1327 



ENEALOGY 
"911,1 

miA 

1915-1921 



Annals of Iowa 



volume 12 



1915-1921 



V ; 



'^•"20S 



Annals of Iowa 



vol. 12 April 



1915 



Annals of Iowa. 



Vol. XII, No. 1. Des Moines, Iowa, April, 1915. 3d Series 
PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION OF ARCHIVES.^ 

BY ETHEL B. VIRTUE. 

[In pursuing her work as an assistant in the Historical De- 
partment, Miss Virtue, who lias the responsibility of indexing the 
Public Archives of Iowa, carried out, at our request, an extensive 
investigation of the science of administration of Public Archives. 
From the results of this investigation she prepared this paper for 
the conference of archivists held during the last meeting of the 
American Historical Association. Because the proceedings of the 
Association are necessarily delayed in appearance, and because of 
repeated requests from many sister states for immediate access to 
Miss Virtue's paper, we are courteously allowed to publish it in 
the present number of the Anxals. — Editok.] 

The science of archives is indeed a mere infant in the 
family of modern sciences and her underlying principles are 
far from being- fully developed. In many respects she re- 
sembles her sister science of library theory and practice but 
in others she is very different. Nowhere is this difference 
more plainly seen than in principles of classification. 

The modern library has developed a system of subject clas- 
sification, which has made the contents of its shelves easily 
accessible to the average reader. But the close application 
of a similar system to collections of archives has not met with 
success. A strictly logical arrangement was tried in the 



i"The Public Archives Commission of tlie American Historical Associa- 
tion is engaged with the preparation of a 'Primer of Arcliival Economy 
for the use of Ainerican Archivists.' Knowing of the good work that is 
being done for the archives of Iowa by the Historical Department of that 
State, the Commission invited Miss Ethel B. Virtue to present a paper on 
'Principles of Classification for Archives.' She presented this subject at 
the sixth annual conference of archivists, held under the Commission's 
auspices in the Auditorium Hotel, Chicago, on December 31, 1914. She 
showed that the system in use in Iowa follows the sound principle of 
classifying the archives with respect to their origin, as advocated and 
practiced by the best archivists of Europe, where the business of arrang- 
ing, cataloging and administering public archives is an accepted profes- 
sion of a high order. Miss Virtue illustrated her able exposition of the 
technical phases of her subject by a goodly number of charts, which gave 
a clear idea of the different steps in the process of the Iowa scheme. I 
am very glad to certify my appreciation of her paper and the value it 
will have to others who are interested in the subject. 

VICTOR HUGO PALTSITS, Chairman, 

Public Archives Commission." 

New York City, 
January 2 8, 1915. 



2 ANNALS OP IOWA 

Swedish Royal Archives some twenty-five years ago, but was 
later given up and the papers, which had been removed from 
their original collections, were restored to the same.' A simi- 
lar attempt was once made in the National Archives of France 
and this also ended in confusion and failure.'' In our own 
country we find in the early arrangement of archives that 
papers have been grouped in special collections such as revo- 
lutionary^ papers, military papers and papers concerning 
lands. Such an arrangement destroys the original files of the 
offices, which carried on the processes of government in the 
early days, hides the gaps in the files and makes it almost 
impossible to know what kinds of papers are missing. In 
short the records with which the political anatomy of those 
days could be reconstructed, have been taken out of their 
original places and scattered so wddely that it is almost a 
hopeless task to replace them." 

It is generally agreed by archivists in both Europe and- 
America that the "summum bonum" to be desired in the 
classification of archives is that they shall reflect the political 
organism of their time. Whatever information they may 
contain upon special subjects or whatever light they may 
throw upon certain individuals or events, is a side issue and 
should not be the determining factor in their arrangement. 
They are the recorded image of the state and should be pre- 
served as such. Special information concerning men and 
events can be brought out by special indices without inter- 
fering with the arrangement. 

This opinion regarding the classification of archives has 
given rise to the principle known as the "respect des fonds," 
which has been briefly and clearly defined by Dr. Miiller, of 
Utrecht, as "the method of classifying archives according to 
which each document is placed in the collection and in the 
series of that collection to which it belonged when that collec- 
tion was a living organism."" 

=Amanclu.s Johnson, The I^essons of the Swedish Archives, Annual Re- 
port of the American Historical Association, 1909, p. 366. 

'Waldo G. l,eland. The National Archives, American Historical Re- 
view, XVIII, p. 24. 

■ !^- '^■-.^i '^"^^ Laer, The Work of the International Consrress of Archi- 
vists and Librarians at Brussels, August 28-31, 1910, Annual Report of 
tlie American Historical Association, 1910, p. 285. 

'■Annual Report of the American Historical Association, 1912, p. 260. 



CLASSIFICATION OP PUBLIC ARCHIVES 3 

A. J. F. van Laer, archivist of New York, has defined it in 
more detailed terms as "a system of arrangement of public 
archives whereby every document is traced to the govern- 
mental body, administrative office or institution by which it 
was issued or received and to the files of which it last be- 
longed when these files were still in the process of natural ac- 
cretion."" 

European archivists are almost unanimous in their support 
of this principle. The uniform rules and regulations for clas- 
sification in Belgium read as follows : 

' ' The archivists take as a rule in the work of classification : 

"1. To assemble the documents with respect to their 
sources; that is to say, to form a particular collection of all 
the titles, which belong to the same body, the same institu- 
tion, the same administration or the same locality, without 
mixing the acts of one body with those of another. 

"2. To classify the documents in each source according to 
their nature or contents, arranging the material as the case 
may be, chronologically, topographically or alphabetically. 

"It is necessary to respect the source, or. as the Germans 
say, the principle of the origin, and give in the inventory an 
exact image of the organization or the institution, the archives 
of which one wishes to make known.'" 

In France the depanmental archives are kept in the va- 
rious departments and carefully arranged and classified in 
each.^ The records in the National Archives "are grouped 
according to the nature of the public institutions with which 
they are concerned."" 

The Royal Privy Prussian State Archives in Berlin are 
arranged by departments and, for the most part, chronolog- 
ically within each department."^ 

The creed of the archivists of the Netherlands is so heartily 
in accord with this principle that it maintains that no archi- 
vist, who has not studied carefully the organization to which 
. the archives he is working with originally belonged, is fitted 
to classify them." 

"Annual Report of the American Historical Association. 1910, p. 285. 

"First Report of the Royal Commission on Public Records, Lonuon, 
1912, I, Pt. II, 129b-130a. ^ , 

sPirst Report of the Royal Commission on Public Records, London, 
1912, I, Pt. II, 134. ^ ^ , 

''First Report of the Royal Commission on Public Records, Lonaon, 
1912, I, Pt. II, 132a. 

"aLeamed, M. D., Carnegie Publication, No. 150, p. 17. ^ 

^oAnnual Report of the American Historical Association, 191-, p. -•'"••• 



4 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

From Italy also comes the word of Signore Pagliai of Flor- 
ence rsaying that the "respect des fonds" is "the only scien- 
tific and natural principle, which should be followed to ren- 
der intelligent the researches of the historian.'"^ 

Sir Henry Lyte, Deputy Keeper of the Public Record Of- 
fice of England, describes the records of that office as being 
"kept pretty much according to the courts or offices from 
which they came, more than according to the subject. They 
are classified according to the place of origin. "^^ 

In our own country Mr. Leland, secretary of the American 
Historical Association, writes : ' ' The principle of the ' respect 
des fonds' should be adhered to. In accordance with this 
principle records should be so grouped that they at once make 
clear the processes by which they have come into existence. 
Archives are the product and record of the performance of 
its functions by an organic body and they should faithfully 
reflect the workings of that organism. No decimal system of 
classification, no refined methods of library science, no purely 
chronological or purely alphabetical arrangement can be suc- 
cessfully applied to the classification of archives."" 

Dr. Dunbar Rowland, director of the Mississippi Depart- 
ment of Archives and History, maintains that "the object to 
be attained in the arrangement of all governmental archives 
is to classify them in such a manner that the documents "will 
tell the story, in an historical way, of the progress and de- 
velopment of the state and its people from the beginning. ' '^* 

Dr. Thomas Owen, of Alabama, has adopted the source 
principle in the arrangement of the archives of that state and 
says that thus far he has never had any question as to the 
Avisdom of this course." 

Professor Eugene C. Barker of the University of Texas cites 
the following incident, which shows a decided legal disad- 
vantage which would result from a departure from this 
method of classification: "We found that in a lawsuit that 
came up recently, a man wanted to prove a claim by a certain 
document that had been transferred from the state depart- 

"Annual Report of the American Historical Association, 1912, p. 260 
'-First Report of the Royal Commission on Public Records, London, 

"American Historical Review, XVIII, 24. 

"Annual Report of the American Historical Association, 1912, p 270 

i''Owen, T. M. to Harlan, E. R., October 23, 1913. 



CLASSIFICATION OP PUBLIC" ARCHIVES 5 

ment to the library and before that document could be pro- 
duced in evidence, the defendant had to prove the historj^ of 
the document. The judge, in other words, wanted to know 
how that document came to be in the library; wanted to be 
perfectly sure that it was the identical document. "'° 

At the international Congress of Archivists and Librarians 
held in Brussels in 1910, the following resolution was 
adopted: "Resolved, that the 'prineipe de la provenance' 
(respect des fonds) be adopted for the arrangement and in- 
ventorying of archives, with a view to the logical classifica- 
tion of separate documents as well as in the interest of com- 
prehensive historical study."" 

The principle 'respect des fonds' we may say then is the 
established principle of archival classification today. In "A 
Report on the Public Archives" submitted to the trustees of 
the State Library and Historical Department of Iowa in 
1906," Prof. Benjamin F. Shambaugh presented the follow- 
ing outlines as leading up to a proper classification of the 
archives of that state. These outlines are a verj" simple and 
concrete illustration of the principle 'respect des fonds' 
adapted to the archives of Iowa. 

Outlines of Classification for the Archives of Iowa. 
By B. F. Shambaugh." 

I — Primary classification for Iowa. 

r State 
Public Archives <j 

[ Local 

II — Formal classification for Iowa. 

r Printed 
Public Archives -j 

[_ Manuscript 

III — Historical classification for Iowa. 

r Period of the Territory 
Public Archives ^ Period of the 1st Constitution 
[ Period of the 2d Constitution 

They present four classifications of the records. The first 
or primary classification provides for the separation of state 

"Annual Report of the American Historical A.ssociation, 1910, p. 307. 
'"Annual Report of the American Historical Association, 1910, p. 285. 
"Reprinted from the Annals of Iowa, Vol. VII, pp. 561-91, January 
1907. 

i^Shambaugh, Benjamui F., A Report on the Public Archives, p. 35. 



ANNALS OF IOWA. 



and local archives. Thus far Iowa has no local records in the 
files of her archives department. A few private papers have 
been overlooked l\y state officers and left with the official .files 
but no account of these has been taken in the classification. 

The second or formal classification makes the distinction 
between printed and manuscript records. Practically no 
printed archives are retained in this department. There are a 
few exceptions in the case of military orders in the governor's 
office and some printed insurance schedules in the auditor's 
office. These are filed side by side with the manuscript 
records. 

The printed reports and documents of Iowa are in the Law 
Library which purposes to have a complete collection of the 
same. Many of these are to be found also on the shelves of 
the library of the Historical Department, but none are kept 
in the archives. 

The historical classification defines the three distinct pe- 
riods of the history of Iowa. This classification has been made 
in some of the series of the various offices but not in all. 

IV — ^Administrative Classification for Iowa.=" 



Public Archives ' 









^838 




1839 




' Commissions 


1840 




Journals 


1841 




Letters 


1842 


' 


Pardons 


_Etc. 




Governor 


Proclamations 
Requisitions 
Etc. 
.Etc. 




Secretary of State 


state ■ 


Auditor 




Treasurer 




Superintendent of Public Instruction 




Etc. 




Etc. 




Etc. 


- County- 
Local \ Township 




[City 







=''Shambaugh, Benjamin F., A Report on Public Archives, p. 36. 



CLASSIFICATION OF PUBLIC ARCHIVES 7 

The fourth or administrative outline practically combines 
the three classifications just described. You will note here 
again the separation of state and local archives. The dis- 
tinction between printed and manuscript records is not 
made but these may be filed together in the proper series. 
The chronological arrangement of the series defines the limits 
of the different historical periods. 

Turning now to the heading, state, we find the division 
into the of^ces of governor, secretary of state and so on 
down through all the offices and departments of the com- 
monwealth, the concrete illustration of the classification of 
records according to their origin. 

The records of the governor's office are further divided 
into the series of commissions, journals, letters, proclama- 
tions, etc., divisions which the functions of that office have 
created. 

The following floor plan and pictures of the Iowa Hall 
of Archives as it is now arranged will serve to visualize 
this classification. 

Yon will readily see that in general the outlines of Dr. 
Shambaugh liave been followed in this classification. In 
some of the subdivisions the chronological arrangement 
has been departed from and a subject or alphabetical ar- 
rangement substituted as the series seemed to demand. 

The Avorking out of the classification has been largely in 
the hands of Mr. C. C. Stiles, superintendent of the classi- 
fication department. A study of his outlines for the of- 
fice of governor wnll illustrate the principles which he has 
found useful in the classification of the records of that of- 
fice. 



ANNALS OF IOWA. 



TABLE I— GOVERNOR'S OFFICE. 
MAIN SERIES.=^ 



I. 


Commissions 


II. 


Correspondence 


in. 


Elections 


IV. 


Extraditions 


V. 


Legislative 


VI. 


Petitions 


VII. 


Proclamations 


VIII. 


Reports 


IX. 


Vouchers 


X. 


Bonds 


XL 


Executive Journals 


XII. 


Criminal Records 


XIIL 


Miscellaneous 



Subject 



Years 

Subject 



In Table I we have the thirteen main series of the office, 
the ma.jority of which represent particular functions of 
the administrative officer. You will notice that out of the 
thirteen series, eleven are subdivided according to class or 
subject and two are arranged strictly by years. 

A more detailed outline, such as we have in Table II, 
will better illustrate this subdivision. 

TABLE II— GOVERNOR'S OFFICE. 
SUBDIVISIONS." 



I. Commissions. . 



Notarial 



J 1866 J Adams, James 



OflBcers of 

State 

Institutions 



College for 
the Blind . 



Adams, James 



This table represents two typical arrangements of the 
series of commissions. One of the most important divisions 
of this series is that of notarial commissions. These are ar- 
ranged first by years and then alphabeted by the names of 

'igtiles, C. C, Public Archives of Iowa, Annals op Iowa^, Vol. X, p. 171, 
October, If) 11. Some changes will be noted in the table above. These 
have been made since the publication cited. 

"Stile.?, C. C, Public Archives of Iowa, Annals of Iowa, Vol. X, p. 172, 
October, 1911. 




HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT OF IOWA — Floor plan of Division of Public 
Archives, sliovi^ing location of cases containing records of the state officers. 
A, Auditor ; B, Board of Health ; G, Governor ; S, Secretary of State ; T, 
Treasurer ; M, Maps ; St., Storage. 




OFFICE AND CATALOGUING ROOM — Cases contain records of the Auditor. 




WORK ROOM — Cases contain records of the Auditor. 





-«-|| 


r 


|:j 


"i i' 


^ 4 ^ 




^ - r !■*•-, 1 





FILINO ROOM — Cases, from left to right around the room, contain records 
respectively of the offices of Governor, Secretary of State, Auditor. 



CLASSIFICATION OF PUBLIC ARCHIVES 9 

the commissioners. Here we see, then, first a subject or 
class arrangement (notarial), then a chronological (1866) 
and lastly an alphabetical (Adams). 

In the second subdivision of commissions we have those 
of the officers of state institutions. These commissions are 
arranged first by the name of the institution (College for 
the Blind), and then hy the name of the commissioner 
(Adams). No account is taken of the year of appoint- 
ment. 

The largest series in the governor's office is that of cor- 
respondence. This series in Iowa has been arranged first 
by subject and the further subdivisions run by subject, 
year or name as the material seems to require. Table III 
illustrates four typical classifications of this series. 

TABLE III. 

GOVERNOR'S OFFICE 

••■ SUBDIVISIONS.^^ 

Appoint- ( Commission- j Ala- j Adams, James 
ments ) er of Deeds ) bama 



II. CORRE- 
SPONDENCE 



Criminal f 
Cases I Adams, James 



Trans- f Railroads ( 1856 

porta- < } 

tion ( Waterways ( 1851 



Temper- f ^^^g 



ance 



Under the subdivision of appointments we find the most 
detailed type. This correspondence is arranged first by the 
office, in this case that of commissioner of deeds, second by 
the year of appointment, then by the state for which the 
commissioner is appointed and lastly by the name of the 
commissioner. 

In the subdivision of the correspondence concerning 
criminal cases, we have a purely alphabetical arrangement 
by the name of the criminal, all papers pertaining to each 
case being kept together. 

23Stiles, C. C, Public Archives of Iowa. Annals of Iowa^ Vol. X, pp. 
179, 187, October, 1911. 



10 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

Correspondence concerning transportation is divided into 
two subject headings of railroads and waterways, each of 
which is then arranged by years. 

All letters concerning temperance are arranged by years 
and alphabeted under each year by the name of the writer. 

Turning to Table VII and series XI, that of Executive 
Journals, we find the simplest classification possible, that 
of a straight chronological arrangement. 

TABLE VII. 

XL Executive Journals, 1857 

1858 

1859 

etc. 

This series consists of bound records only, and any other 
arrangement is practically impossible. A separate series 
has been made of criminal records as soon as they have 
become bulky enough to be boinid in separate volumes, 
and the earlier criminal records in the executive journals 
are listed on the index cards of the journals. 

These tables have presented to j^ou. all of the types of 
the classification of subdivisions \ised in the archives of 
Iowa. The reasons for the adoption of these different forms 
of classification will be best brought out, I think, in the 
discussion of the same. 



RECIPROCITY IN HISTORICAL MATERIALS 11 

RECIPROCITY IN HISTORICAL MATERIALS. 

BY LAWRENCE J. BURPEE. 

In discussing with various archivists and librarians the 
general question of restrictions on the use of historical ma- 
terials, in connection with a paper for the Chicago meeting 
of the American Historical Association, several points in- 
evitably arose as to the facilities that are or should be af- 
forded for historical research. I was particularly struck 
with a statement made by Mr. Edgar R. Harlan, curator of 
the Historical Department of Iowa, as to the policy he con- 
templated adopting looking to the reciprocal exchange of 
historical material with similar institutions in other parts 
of the country. Speaking of various classes of documents 
that from time to time come into the possession of the His- 
torical Department of Iowa, he said: ''As this sort of ma- 
terial comes out of the repositories of business men, literary 
men, soldiers, politicians and others, some connected with 
other governments and other states, and not connected with 
Iowa itself, I propose the eventual exchange of such ma- 
terials so that they will finally find a resting place in the 
region to which they properly belong." 

This seems to me a very progressive and commendable 
suggestion, and one the general adoption of which would 
be of almost incalculable value to historical students. One 
can readily conceive how such a scheme for the reciprocal 
exchange of historical material would work out in prac- 
tice. For instance, documents drift into the Historical De- 
partment of Iowa having no bearing on the history of 
Iowa, but of vital importance to the student of the history 
of Michigan, or Missouri, or California, or perhaps Ontario 
or Manitoba. Iowa hands them over to the appropriate re- 
pository in the state or province to which the}^ relate, under 
such conditions as may be agreed upon, as a free gift, or 
for a nominal sum, or in exchange for similar documentary 
material relating to Iowa, or if no such material were at 
the moment available, on some system of credit under which 



12 ANNALS OP IOWA. 

the beneficiary would respond in kind when the opportunity 
arose. It might even be feasible to arrange, through some 
such national institution as the Library of Congress in the 
United States, or the Dominion Archives in Canada, for the 
establishment of a clearing house for such documentary 
material, which might there be classified and listed, and 
eventually find its way to the institution where it would 
be of the most direct benefit to research workers. The suc- 
cess of such a movement would, of course, depend largely 
upon the extent to which state and provincial institutions 
and learned societies agreed to the principle of exchange. 
National institutions such as the Library of Congress and 
the Dominion Archives could not be expected to transfer 
original documents to other depositories, as their field of 
interest is at least national in scope, but they could un- 
questionably supply copies of documents in their posses- 
sion relating to any particular state or province. The chief 
benefit of such an exchange of original material would be 
to state or provincial depositories, historical societies whose 
interests are confined to a particular area, and public or 
university libraries. So far as these are concerned, one 
can hardly overestimate the mutual benefit that the general 
adoption of a system of reciprocity in the exchange of his- 
torical material of local value would be to all concerned. 
And there does not seem to be any good reason to suppose 
that, given time to appreciate the advantages of the idea, 
any fair-minded custodian of historical material would re- 
fuse his support to such an arrangement. 

With this idea of getting each document into the reposi- 
tory where it will be of the widest service, one may well 
consider the question of institutions supplying facsimile or 
other copies of their manuscripts to sister institutions. One 
rarely finds an archivist or librarian who openly declines to 
accept the principle that one depository should be prepared 
to assist another in rounding out its collections of docu- 
mentary material, but in practice most of us know of insti- 
tutions, north, south, east or west, where the policy may not 
unfairly be described as that of the dog-in-the-manger. 
The question is, of course, a broad one, and there may be 



RECIPROCITY IN HISTORICAL MATERIALS 13 

some legitimate reservations to the application of the prin- 
ciple. For instance, the Chief of the Mamiscript Division of 
the Library of Congress mentions an instance where an in- 
stitution asked for several copies of a rare manuscript, with 
the avowed object of using the extra copies for purposes of 
exchange with other depositories. Then there is the case of 
an institution reserving material either in course of publi- 
cation, or which it proposes to publish in the near future. 
Other points will occur to anyone having practical ex- 
perience of the subject. 

There is also the question of conditions. It is open to 
any institution to offer other institutions copies of any of 
its documents, without restrictions as to their use, and 
without cost; but it is not usual, nor frankly is it desirable. 
It is a fair stipulation, for instance, that any institution re- 
ceiving a copy of a document from another should credit 
the original depository in its own records, and also see that 
students using the manuscript in any publication should 
also give due credit to the original source. It is equally 
reasonable that an institution should pay the actual cost 
of any copy, whether photographic or by hand, or give 
copies of its own documents in exchange. There can be no 
question, however, that apart from the advantages to the 
recipient institution and to those v/ho use it of such a sys- 
tem of exchange, the whole world of scholarship is vitally 
interested in the widespread adoption of a policy of reci- 
procity in historical material. One has only to think for a 
moment of the irreparable losses of original manuscripts, 
by fire, or through carelessness or neglect, or the mere in- 
fluence of time, to realize the tremendous importance of plac- 
ing copies, particularly photographic copies, of at least the 
more important of those that remain, in one or more other 
institutions, and thus reducing the chances of the total loss 
of some vital link in the history of a nation oi- some part 
of it. 



14 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

PTjBLIC ARCHIVES OF IOWA. 

BY C. C. STILES, 
Superintendent of Public Archives. 

III. 

In the former articles on the subject of Public Archives, 
the -writer gave a brief sketch of the archives, the method of 
handling, classifying, etc., of the oi^ces of Governor^ and 
Secretary of State." In this article is presented the office of 
the Auditor of State. 

The office of the Auditor of State was established January 
7, 1840, and designated "Auditor of the Territory." The 
constitution of 1846 provided for the continuance of the office 
under the title of "Auditor of Public Accounts." The con- 
stitution of 1857 continued the office under the titular head of 
"Auditor of State." 

From the nature of the business transacted by this branch 
of the State government, the documents are not generally con- 
sidered so valuable historically as are the documents in some 
of the other branches. This, in part, is true, but a large num- 
ber of documents are in themselves of great historical interest. 
The business of the different State departments has been so 
closely connected that documents in the office of Auditor 
must be found to corroborate facts gleaned from other de- 
partments. Thousands of documents in this department, how- 
ever, have no connection with any other. 

To a student of history the growth of the State is more 
clearly portrayed in this department than in the others. For 
example, the tax lists in the early forties of the then or- 
ganized counties were written out on a few sheets of foolscap, 
the totals of each county amounting to only a few dollars. 
At present the collections by the same counties are counted 
by the thousands and tens of thousands. We find that the 
documents for any one year in the earlier history of the 
State are numbered by hundreds while for the same period 
of time at present there are thousands. This growth of the 
State is al so clearly portrayed by the increase each year in 

^Annals of Iowa, Vol. X, pp. 166-193, Oct., 1911 
^Annals of Iowa, Vol. X, pp. 273-319, Jan.-April, 1912. 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF IOWA 15 

the number and amounts of the claims filed and paid and 
by the character of the claims. 

The number of documents now on file in the Hall of Public 
Archives from the office of the Auditor of State is far in 
excess of that from any other branch of the State government. 
The total number of documents is estimated to be 700,000 and 
the bound records 1,000. These have all been examined and 
classified in the manner shown by the outline of classification 
following. 

One of the main objects aimed at in the classification of the 
documents is the reduction to the minimum of the time and 
labor required to find a certain document, by any one seek- 
ing information. This can best be accomplished by classifying 
them, first by divisions, these into sub-divisions, and so on 
until the lowest sub-division is the subject. This in turn is 
arranged in chronological order and then either by numbers 
or in alphabetical order according to the character of the 
documents. In this manner the great mass of documents is 
eliminated from the course of the investigator and compara- 
tively few upon the subject remain with the document sought. 

It may be appropriate here to repeat that the proper care 
and preservation of Iowa archives Avas first proposed by 
Charles Aldrich, founder of the Historical Department of 
Iowa; that Dr. Benjamin F. Shambaugh, under direction of 
the Board of Trustees of the Historical Department, after an 
exhaustive investigation, made a report upon the subject and 
recommended a plan of handling and of classification; that 
thereafter the execution of the plan was transferred to the 
Executive Council, whose secretary, Hon. A. H. Davison, de- 
signed the cases, receptacles and folders now in use; that 
the working force under Mr. Davison was organized and for 
two years directed by Hon. John H. Kelley. The writer has 
been in charge since Mr. Kelley retired and has endeavored 
to develop the system of classification. 

Our work has been referred to by nearly all writers on the 
subject of public archives in America, usually with commenda- 
tion. In a field still new, but of recognized importance, initial 
steps have all been vital, and credit in Iowa is due those who 
took them. 



16 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

OFFICE OF AUDITOR OF STATE— CLASSIFICATION. 
MAIN DIVISIONS. 



Series 


I 


Certificates 


Series 


II 


Corporations 


Series 


III 


Correspondence 


Series 


IV 


Notices 


Series 


V 


Oaths of Office 


Series 


VI 


Reports 


Series 


VII 


Voucliers 


Series 


VIII 


Miscellaneous 






SERIES I. CERTIFICATES. 


Bound Records. 


Documents 


. 






County judges 






County officers 






Election and qualification 






Elections 






State institutions, Officers of 






State officers, members of boards, etc 






Miscellaneous 



County judges 

School Fund Commissioners, in regard to 
giving bonds 

County officers 

Miscellaneous 
Election and qualification 
Attorneys, District 
Judges 

Circuit 
District 
Elections 

General elections 

Auditor of State 
County officers 
Judges of district court 



^Experience has shown that the formal page heads used in outline of 
the office of Governor (Annals, v. X, p. 176-193), and of the Secretary 
of State (Annals, v. X, p. 273-319), are confusing to some workers, and 
a simpler form has been substituted in this outline. 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF IOWA 17 

State institutions, Officers of 

College for the Blind 

Hospitals for Insane 

Industrial schools 

Iowa State College of Agriculture and Me- 
chanic Arts 

Iowa State Teachers' College 

State bank, Officers of 
Commissioners 
Directors 
State Institutions, Officers of 

College for the Blind 

Hospitals for the Insane 

Iowa State Teachers' College 

State Bank, Commissioners 

State University 

State officers, members of boards, departments, etc. 

Auditor 

Bank Examiner, Appointment of 
Control, Board of 
Governor 

Agricultural College, In regard to 
buildings at 
Health, Board of 
Parole, Board of 
Pharmacy, Commission of 

Fines, Collection of 
Railroad Commissioners 

Qualification of 
Secretary of State 

Library Board, Amount to be drawn by 

Railroads, Assessment of, for R. R. 

Commissioners' fund 

Miscellaneous 

Bank cashiers 

Deposits made by county treasurers. In 
regard to 
Lots, Sales of 

Iowa City 

Monroe City 
Unclassified 



18 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

SERIES II. CORPORATIONS. 

Bound Records. 

Agents' records 
Annual statements 
Cash books 
Fee books 
Journals 
I^eclsei's 
Miscellaneous 

Documents. 

Banks 

Building and Loan 

Express 

Insurance 

Loan & Trust and Investment 

Telegraph 

Telephone 
(All documents are arranged in alphabetical order by name 
of corporation.) 



Banks 

Incorporation 
Articles of 
Miscellaneous 
Oaths of directors 
Publication notices 
Incorporation 
Reports on call 
Reports 

Condition 

Bank examiners 
Bank officers (on call) 
Committee 
Miscellaneous 

Schedule B. (list of stock and stock- 
holders) 
Unclassified 

Building and Loan 

Certificates 
Incorporation . 

Articles of 

By-laws 

Miscellaneous 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF IOWA 19 

Building and Loan — Continued. 

Miscellaneous (general) 

Notices 

Official bonds 

Receipts 

Reports 

Annual 

Examiners 

Miscellaneous 
Statements 
Express 

Reports 
Insurance 

Appointment of agents 
Bonds 

Official bonds of officers 
Certificates 

Authority 

Deposit 

Valuation 

Miscellaneous 
Incorporation 

Articles of 

By-laws 

Miscellaneous 
Miscellaneous (general) 
Notices 

Miscellaneous 

Publication 
Power of Attorney 
Receipts 
Reports 

Condition 
Annual 
Examiners 

Miscellaneous 
Requisitions 

For securities on file 
Statements 

Loan & Trust and Investment 

Incorporation 

Articles of 
* Miscellaneous 
Oaths of directors 



20 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

Loan & Trust and Investment — Continued. 
Publication notices 
Incorporation 
Reports on call 
Reports 

Condition 
Examiners 

Officers (on call) 
Committee 
Miscellaneous 

Telegi-aph 
Telephone 



SERIES III. CORRESPONDENCE. 

Bound Records. 

Letter copying books 
Volumes of correspondence 

Documents. 

Affairs outside the State 
Assessment 
Claims 
Corporations 
County affairs 
Lands 

Municipal accounting 
'•^ Revenue 

School fund 

State institutions 

State officers, members of boards, departments, etc. 

Taxation 

Wari-ants 

Miscellaneous 



Affairs outside the state 

Foreign (correspondence with Ambassadors, 
Consuls, Ministers, etc. and miscel- 
laneous) 

National (correspondence with Depart- 
ments of Agriculture, Interior, Justice, 
Navy, Post Office, State, War, Treas- 
ury, U. S. Senate, House of Represen- 
tatives and Miscellaneous) 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF IOWA 21 

Affairs outside the state — Continued. 

Other States (with Executive Departments, 
Secretaries of State, Librarians, etc., 
concerning conventions, statistics, con- 
ditions, etc., and miscellaneous) 
Assessment 

Counties 
Railroads 

Telegraph, Telephone and Express 
Miscellaneous 
Claims 

Corporations (arranged in alphabetical order by the 
names of the corporations also a miscellaneous 
division for each class) 
Banks 

Building and Loan 
Express 

Insurance (fire, life and miscellaneous) 
Loan & Trust and Investment 
Miscellaneous 
Railroads 

Telegraph and Telephone 
County affairs 

Lands 

Agricultural College 

Des Moines River 
Railroad 
Saline 
School 
Swamp 
University 
Miscellaneous 
Municipal accounting 

Revenue 

Counties 
Miscellaneous 

School fund 

Counties 
Miscellaneous 
State institutions 

College for the Blind 
Industrial School for Boys at Eldora 
Industrial School for Girls at Mitchellville 
Institution for Feeble-minded Children 
Iowa Soldiers' Home 



22 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

State institutions — Continued. 

Iowa Soldiers' Orphans' Home 

Iowa State College of Agriculture and Me- 
chanic Arts 

Iowa State Teachers' College 

Penitentiaries 
Anamosa 
Ft. Madison 

School for the Deaf 

State Hospital for Inebriates 

State Hospital for Insane 
Cherokee 
Clarinda 
Independence 
Mt. Pleasant 

State Sanatorium for the Treatment of Tu- 
berculosis 

State University 
State officers, members of boards, deiiartinents, etc. 

Adjutant General 

Agricultural Department 
County and district 
Farmers Institute 
Stat-e 

Attorney General 

Auditor of State 

Commissioner of Public Buildings 

Control, Board of 

Custodian of Public Buildings and Property 

Dental Examiners, Board of 

Director of Weather and Crop Service 

District Attorney, District, Circuit and Pro- 
bate Judges 

Educational Board of Examiners 

Executive Council 

Fish and Game Warden 

Food and Dairy Commissioner 

Geological Survey 

Governor 

Health, Board of 

Historical Department 

Horticultural Society 

Inspector of Boats 

Iowa State Library 

Labor Statistics, Bureau of 

Library Commission 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF IOWA 23 

State officers, nieinbers of boards, (lei)artineiits. etc. — 

Continued. 

Parole, Board of 

Pharmacy, Commission of 

Railroad Commissioners 

Secretary of State 

State Binder 

State Historical Society 

State Land Office 

State Mine Inspectors 

State Oil Inspectors 

State Printer 

State Veterinary Surgeon 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Superintendent of Weights and Measures 

Supreme Court (judges) 

Supreme Court (reporter) 

Territorial Agent 

Treasurer of State 
Taxation 
Warrants 
Miscellaneous 

Applications and Appointments 

Bonds 

Census 

Certificates 

Commissions 

Crop Statistics 

Dictionaries 

Documents 

Elections 

Expositions 

Laws 

Legislative 

Litigation 

New Buildings 

Peddlers' license 

Supplies and stores 

Unclassified 



SERIES IV. NOTICES. 

Bound Records. 
Documents. 

Resignations, appointments, qualifications, etr. 
Miscellaneous 



24 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

Resignations, ai)pointments, qualifications, etc. 

Commissioners, Agents, etc. 

Capitol Commissioners, Board of 

Centennial Exposition, Assistant man- 
ager 

Code Commission 

Code Supplement 

State Hospital for Insane 

Southern Battlefields 
State Institutions, Officers of 

College for the Blind 

Industrial schools 

Institution for Feeble-minded Children 

Iowa State College of Agriculture and 
Mechanic Arts 

Iowa State Teachers' College 

Penitentiaries 

School for the Deaf 

State Hospital for the Insane 

State University 
State officers, members of boards, depart- 
ments, etc. 

Adjutant General 

Attorney General 

Control, Board of 

Dental Examiners, Board of 

District Attorney, District, circuit and 
probate judges 

Educational Board of Examiners 

Fish and Game Wardens 

Food and Dairy Commission 

Health, Board of 

Historical Department 

Inspector of Boats 

Iowa State Library ; 

Labor Statistics, Bureau of ; 

Pharmacy, Commission of ' ; 

Public Buildings, Custodian of 

Railroad Commissioners i 

Secretary of State J 

State Historical Society ' 



State Mine Inspector 
State Printer i 

State Veterinary Surgeons 
Superintendent of Public Instruction 
Superior Court, judges 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF IOWA 25 

Resignations, appointments, qualifications, etc. — 

Continued. 

Supreme Court, judges 

Supreme Court, clerk 

Supreme Court, reporter 

Voting Machine Commissioners, Board 

of 
Weights and Measures, Superintendent 
of 
State officers, members of boards, etc.. 
Deputies, secretaries, etc. of 
Adjutant General, Assistant 
Control, Board of, Secretary- 
Food and Dairy Commission, Assistant 
Governor, Private secretaries 
Iowa State Library, Assistant librarian 
Labor Statistics, Bureau of, Deputy 

Commissioner 
Parole, Board of. Secretary 
Railroad Commissioners 
Secretary of State, Deputy 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
Deputy 
Miscellaneous 

Capitol, Contracts for building, in regard to 
Employees of State Institutions, fixing sal- 
aries of 
Stationery, Bids for furnishing 



SERIES V. OATHS OF OFFICE. 

Bound Records. 
Documents. 

Commissioners, agents, etc. 

State Institutions, OflBcers of 

Stat« officers, members of boards, etc. 



Commissioners, agents, etc. 
Commissioners 

Cedar Rapids River Front 
Code Supplement 
Floyd Monument 
Iowa Columbian 
Iowa Soldiers' Home 



26 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

Conimissioners — Continued. 

Iowa State College of Agriculture and Me- 
chanic Arts 

Louisiana Purchase Exposition 

New Capitol 

Penitentiaries 

School for the Deaf 

Southern Battlefields Monument 

State Hospitals for the Insane 

Warehouse, erection of 
Visitors 

State Hospitals for the Insane 
State Institutions, Officers of 

College for the Blind 

Industrial Schools 

Institution for Peeble-Minded 

Iowa Soldiers' Home 

Iowa Soldiers' Orphans' Home 

Iowa State College of Agriculture and Me- 
chanic Arts 

Iowa State Teachers' College 

Penitentiaries 
Anamosa 
Ft. Madison 

School for the Deaf 

State Bank 

State Hospitals for the Insane 
Cherokee 
Clarinda 
Independence 
Mt. Pleasant 

State University 
State Officers, members of boards, dei>:n"tments, etc. 

Adjutant General 

Control, Board of 

Dental Examiners, Board of 

District Attorney, District, circuit and pro- 
bate judges 

Educational Board of Examiners 

Fish and Game Warden 

Pood and Dairy Commissioner 

Geological Survey 

Health, Board of 

Historical Department 

Inspector of Boats 

Iowa State Library 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OP IOWA 27 

State Officers, members of boards, departments, etc. — 

Continued. 

Labor Statistics, Bureau of 

Library Commission 

Pharmacy, Commission of 

Public buildings, Custodian of 

Railroad Commissioners 

Secretary of State 

State Binder 

State Historical Society 

State Mine Inspectors 

State Oil Inspectors 

State Printer 

State Veterinary Surgeons 

Supreme Court Judges 

Weather and Crop Service, Director of 



SERIES VI. REPORTS. 

Bound Records. 
Documents. 

Commissioners and agents 

County officers 

State Institutions, Officers of 

State officers, members of boards, etc. 

Miscellaneous 



Commissioners and agents 

Commissioners of Immigration 

Commissioners of Public Buildings 

Loan Agents 

Territorial Agents 
County Officers 

County Auditors, Clerks, Judges and School 
Fund Commissioners 
Assessments, Abstracts of 
Banks, Assessment of 
County auditors and treasurers elected 
County indebtedness 
County officers, Compensation of 
Insane and convicts. Expense of con- 
veying to institutions 
Lands conveyed 
Laws, codes, etc., Sales of 



28 ANNALS OP IOWA. 

County Officers — Continued. 

Railroads, Aid to 
School fund 
Interest 
Permanent 
Assets 

Contract notes 
Lands unsold 
Losses 
Mortgages 
Sales and re-sales 
Settlements 
Taxes 

Collections by "Tax Ferrets" 
Delinquent lists 
Levies 

Semi-annual settlements 
Special 

Valuation and tax reports 
Telephone lines in counties 

County Treasurers 

State revenue, Collections 
State Institutions, Officers of 

College for the Blind 
Expenditures 
Mechanical department 
Institution for Feeble-minded Children 
Iowa Soldiers' Orphans' Home 

Inmates, By superintendent 
Penitentiary at Anamosa 

Clerks, Report of funds 
Wardens, Monthly 
Penitentiary at Ft. Madison 
Wardens 

Biennial 
Monthly 
* Record of convicts 

Miscellaneous 
Committees 

Appraisements of property 
Investigations 
Clerks 

Warrants paid, monthly receipts 

for 
Miscellaneous 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF IOWA 29 

State Institutions, Officers of — Continued. 
School for the Deaf 

Receipts and expenditures 
State Hospital for Insane, Cherokee 

State and county patients 

Miscellaneous 
State Hospital for Insane, Clarinda 

State and county patients 

Miscellaneous 
State Hospital for Insane, Independence 

State and county patients 

Miscellaneous 
State Hospital for Insane, Mt. Pleasant 

State and county patients 

Miscellaneous 
State officers, members of boards, departments, etc. 

Adjutant General 

Arms and stores. Sales of 

Receipts and disbursements 

Miscellaneous 
Attorney General 

"Orwig matter" 
Executive Council 

Financial report, Quarterly 
Governor 

Contingent fund 

Spirit Lake Expedition, Claims 

Miscellaneous 
Iowa State Library 

Expenditures 

Quarterly report by librarian 
Pharmacy, Commission of 

Expense account of members, quarterly 

Secretary 

Annual reports of fees collected 
Monthly report of fees collected 
Railroad Commissioners 

Expense of Commission 
Secretary of Territory 

Warrants issued 
Secretary of State 

Contingent fund 

Codes and laws, distribution of 
Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Laws, Distribution of 

Permanent School fund, Condition of 

Youths of school age. Enumeration of 



30 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

State ofHcers, members of boards, departments, etc. — 

Continued. 

Treasurer of State 
Funds, quarterly 
Settlements, quarterly 
Warrants cancelled, Weekly 
General revenue 
Special revenue 

Iowa State College of Agri- 
culture, etc. 
Iowa State Teachers' College 
State University 
Miscellaneous 

Accountants 

Bonds, Sale of, by state loan agents 
Code Commission 
Farmers' Protective Association 
Northwest Relief Commission 
Rankin defalcation, Commission to investi- 
gate 
State Oil Inspection 
State revenue. Bank cashiers in regard to 

deposits of 
State University losses 



SERIES VII. VOUCHERS. 

Bound Records. 

Balance books 
Claim registers 
Journals 
Ledgers 

Warrant i-egisters 
Miscellaneous 

Documents. 

An-est and return of fugitives from justice 

Charitable institutions 

Collateral Inheritance Tax, Expense of Collection 

Commissions, commissioners and agents 

Expositions 

Farmers' institutes 

Legislature 

Printing and publishing 

Public buildings and offices 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF IOWA 31 



Documents — Continued. 



Receipts 

State institutions 

State offices, boards and departments, etc. 

TeiTitorial scrip and state warrants 

Miscellaneous 



Arrest and return of fugitives 
Charitable institutions 

Benedict Home 
Boys' and Girls' Home 
Florence Chittenden Home 
Dubuque Rescue Home 
House of the Good Shepherd 
Woman's and Babies' Home 

Collateral Inheritance Tax, Exjjense of Collection 
Conuuissions, commissioners and agents 

Allotment 

Beef and Porli Combine Convention 
Capital, To locate 
Capitol Improvement Commission 
Capitol Commission 
Code 

Code Supplement 
County Uniformity 
Des Moines River Lands 
Directors, State bank 

Drainage, Waterways and Conservation Com- 
mission 
Eads settlement 
Educational Commission 
Floyd Memorial Association 
Immigration, Board of 
Insane, Special 
Insurance 

Iowa and Missouri Boundary Line 
Iowa State Tax Commission 
Penitentiary, To investigate 
Reform School, To investigate 
Revenue laws, To revise 
Russian Thistle Convention 
School Fund Commissioners 
School Law Commission 



32 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

Conuiiissions, conunissioners and agents — Continued. 
School laws, To revise 
Soldiers' Home, To locate 
Soldiers and Sailors' Monument 
Southern Battlefields Monument 

Andersonville 

Chattanooga 

Lookout Mountain 

Shiloh 

Vicksburg 

Miscellaneous, dedication, etc. 
State agents 

Agricultural College lands, To select 

At Washington, To collect war claims, 
etc. 

Five hundred thousand acre grant. To 
select 

Loans, To negotiate 

School fund commissioners. To settle 
with 

School lands. To select 

Seminary lands. To select 
" State Banks, To examine 

State Revenue Agents 

Swamp lands. To select 

Territorial Agents 

University lands. To select 
State offices, To examine 
Expositions 

Centennial at Philadelphia 
Columbian Exposition, Chicago 
Louisiana Purchase Commission, St. Louis 
National Educational 
New Orleans Exposition 
Semi-Centennial, Burlington 
Trans-Mississippi, Omaha 
Farmers' Institutes 
Legislature 

Per diem and mileage, members and em- 
ployees 
Miscellaneous 
Printing and Publishing 
Job printing 

Lithographing and engraving 
Publishing laws 
Publishing notices 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OP IOWA 33 

Public Buildings and Offices 

Building and repairing, materials and labor 

Employees, Custodian, Janitors, etc. 

Express 

Freight and cartage 

Fuel 

Historical building 

Ice 

Improvement of Capitol grounds 

Laundry bills 

Lights 

New Capitol, labor and materials 

Paving and curbing 

Postage 

Rent 

Repairs, furniture, etc. 

Supplies by custodian 

Supplies, general 

Telegraph and Telephone 

Water 

Miscellaneous 



Receipts 



Codes, For 

County Auditors, for tax levy 

Farmers' Institute Fund 

Five per cent apportionment of school fund 

Insane, miscellaneous 

Laws, For 

Money advanced for New Orleans Exposition 

Permanent school fund 

Received by State Treasurer 

Agricultural College, Endowment fund 

Agricultural College, Morrill support 

Apportionment of permanent school 
fund 

Apportionment of railroad tax to 
counties 

Pharmacy, enforcement fund 

Swamp land indemnity fund 

Transfer of permanent school fund by 
counties 
Registered Letters, For 
State Treasurer's receipts 

Agricultural College, Endowment fund 

Collateral Inheritance Tax 

County taxes 



ANNALS OF IOWA. 

Receipts — Continued. 

Equipment Car Company 
Fees 

Building and Loan 
Oil Inspection 
State officers 
Fish and Game protection 
Institutions 
Insurance 

Foreign 
Iowa 

United States 
Interest on deposits 
Stipulated premium and assessment 

Insurance Associations 
Swamp land indemnity 
Teachers' examination fees 
Telephone tax 
Miscellaneous 

Express tax 

Freight line and equipment tax 

General, not classified 

License, itinerant physicians 

Refund 

Mileage 
Warrants 
Revenue 
Support fund 
Telegraph tax 
Temporary school fund 
Transfer of funds by counties 
Transfer of permanent school fund 
Warrants, For 
Miscellaneous 

State Institutions 

College for the Blind 

Building fund 

Clothing account 

General expense 

Industrial Home for the Blind 

Requisitions for support 
Industrial Schools 

Building fund 

General expense 



^ '"0?2o^ 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF IOWA 

State Institutions — Continued. 

Institute for Feeble-minded Cliildren 

Clothing account 

Miscellaneous 

Per diem and mileage 

Support fund 
Iowa Soldiers' Home 

Building fund 

General expense 
Iowa Soldiers' Orphans' Home 

General expense 

Providential fund 

Requisitions for support 
Iowa State College of Agriculture, etc. 

Building fund 

Contingent 

Experimental fund 

Financial agent 

Purchase of land 

Requisition for support 

Salaries and per diem 

State Entomologist 
Iowa State Teachers' College (Normal 

School) 

Building fund 

Per diem and expense 

Providential fund 

Requisitions for support, etc. 
Penitentiary, at Anamosa 

Current expense 

Requisitions for support 

Salaries, officers and employees 

Miscellaneous 
Penitentiary at Ft. Madison 

Current expense 

Requisitions for support 

Salaries, officers and employees 

Miscellaneous 
School for the Deaf 

Building fund 

Clothing 9,ccount 

General expense 

Requisitions for support 
State Hospital for Inebriates 



ANNALS OF IOWA. 

State Institutions — Continued. 

State Hospital for Insane, Cherokee 
Current expense 
Requisitions for support 
Salaries, officers and employees 
Miscellaneous 
State Hospital for Insane, Clarinda 
Current expense 
Requisitions for support 
Salaries, officers and employees 
Miscellaneous 
State Hospital for Insane, Independence 
Current expense 
Requisitions for support 
Salaries, officers and employees 
Miscellaneous 
State Hospital for Insane, Mt. Pleasant 
Current expense 
Requisitions for support 
Salaries, officers and employees 
Miscellaneous 
State Sanatorium for Tuberculosis 
State University 

Per diem and mileage of officers 
Requisitions for support 
Miscellaneous 
State Offices, Boards, Departments, etc. 
Adjutant General 

Army vote (mileage, etc. of com- 
missioners) 
Arsenal building 
Contingent 

G. A. R., Department of Iowa 
Gray uniforms 
Iowa Volunteers 
Militia 
National Guard 

Armory rent, etc. 
Clothing allowance 
Expense of encampment 
Expense while on duty 
Inter-state competition 
Inspection 

Medical examination 
Military code 
Miscellaneous 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OP IOWA 37 

State Offices, Boards, Departments, etc. — Continued. 
Muster and pay rolls 
Postage and incidentals 
Rifle ranges 
Schools of instruction 
Transportation 
Worlds Fair dedication 

Quarter Master General's department 

Salaries 

Soldiers' Roster 

Spirit Lake Military Expedition 

"War and Defense 
Agriculture, Department of 

District and county 

State 

Building and Improvement 
Contingent 

Salary and Clerk Hire 
Attorney General 

Expense account, supplies, etc. 

Legal assistance and clerk hire 

Salary, fees, etc. 
Auditor of State 

Bank examinations 

Building and Loan 

Contingent, supplies, etc. 

County accounting 

Insurance examinations 

Municipal accounting 

Salary and clerk hire 

Control, Board of 

Expense account 

Requisition for support of Institutions 

Salary and clerk hire 
Dental Examiners, Board of 

Expense account 

Per diem and mileage 
Director of Weather and Crop Service 
District Attorney, district, circuit and pro- 
bate judges 

Salary, etc. 
Employers' Liability Commission 

Expense account 

Salary and clerk hire 



ANNALS OF IOWA. 

State Offices, Boards, Departments, etc. — Continued. 

Executive Council 

Arcliives department 

Census 

Clerk hire 

Expense account 

Expert accountant 

General expense and supplies 

Providential contingent 
Fish and Game Warden 

Salary and expense 
Food and Dairy Commission 

Expense account 

Per diem and expense 

Salary and clerk hire 
Geological Survey 

Expense account 

Salary and clerk hire 

Governor 

Contingent 

Salary and clerk hire 
Health, Board of 

Antitoxin department 

Bacteriological laboratory 

Embalmers' department 

Nurses department 

Salary and expense account of members 

Salary of secretary and contingent ex- 
penses 

Small pox epidemic (Tama Indians) 

Traveling expense of delegate 

Vital statistics 

Historical Department 

Expense account 

Salary and clerk hire 
Horticultural Society 
Iowa State Library 

Expense account 

Salary and clerk hire 
Labor Statistics, Bureau of 

Expense account, supplies, etc. 

Salary and clerk hire 
Library Commission 

Expense account 

Salary and clerk hire 



i 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF IOWA 39 

State Offices, Boards, Departments, etc. — Continued. 
Optometry Examiners, Board of 

Per diem and expense of members 
Salaries, clerk hire and contingent ex- 
pense 
Parole, Board of 
Contingent 

Per diem and expense accounts 
Salary and clerk hire 
Pharmacy, Commission of 
Per diem and expense 
Salary, clerk hire and contingent 
Railroad Commissioners 

Expense account and supplies 
Salary and clerk hire 
Secretary of State 
Census 

Contingent, supplies, etc. 
Land office 
Salary and clerk hire 
State Binder 
State Board of Education 

Per diem and expense accounts 
Salary and clerk hire 
State Fire Marshal 
Expense account 

Fees and expense, reporting fires 
Salary and clerk hire 
State Historical Society 
State Mine Inspectors 

Expense account, supplies, etc. 
Per diem and mileage of board of ex- 
aminers 
Salary and clerk hire 
State Oil Inspectors 
State Printer 
State Veterinary Surgeons 
Superintendent of Public Instruction 
Board of Educational Examiners 
Contingent, supplies, etc. 
Salary and clerk hire 
Teachers' Institute 
Miscellaneous 
Superintendent of Weights and Measures 



40 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

State Offices, Boaids, Departments, etc. — Continued. 

Supreme Court 

Bailiff and sheriff fees 

Clerk 

Contingent, supplies, etc. 

Reporter 

Salaries of judges 
Treasurer of State 

Contingent, supplies, etc. 

Salary and clerk hire 

Territorial Scrip and State Warrants 
Miscellaneous 

Battle flags 

Binding 

Condemnation of real estate 

Court seals 

Elections 

Clerks of canvassing hoards 

Contested elections 

Messengers 

Presidential electors 

Primary elections 
Escaped Inebriates 
Escaped insane 
Expense of impeachment 

Miscellaneous hills 

Suhpoenas 

Witnesses 
General, Not classified 
Inaugurations 

Indemnity, for purchasers of land 
Inspection of hospitals for Insane, etc. 
Interest on state loans 
Islands and lake beds 
Kate Shelly, medal 
Linnie Haguewood 
Lots at Des Moines and Iowa City 
Memorials, funerals, etc. 
Miscellaneous costs in civil suits 
Miscellaneous costs in criminal prosecutions 

Court 

General, not classified 

Sheriffs 

Sheriffs and others 
Monuments, statvies, etc. 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF IOWA 41 

Miscellaneous — Continued. 
Motor Vehicle Tax 
National Soldiers' Orphans' Home 
Non-resident insane, Transfer of 
Northwest Relief Fund 
Paroled prisoners 
Permanent school fund costs 
Portraits 

Prisoners aid Association 
Public lands 

Des Moines River Lands 

Saline 

School 

Swamp, etc. 
Recording deed 
Refunds 
Relief, for accidents while in employ of the 

State 
Relief of F. M. Hull 
Relief of Joseph Metz 
Rewards 

Silver service, battleship Iowa 
Special appropriations 
State roads 

Stone for Washington Monument 
Subscriptions for newspapers 
Supreme Court Reports 
Taxes 

Toll bridge tickets 
Visitors to the penitentiaries 
Visitors to the Institution for Feeble-minded 

Children 



SERIES VIII. MISCELLANEOUS. 

Bound Records. 
Documents. 



Abstracts 

Assessment 

Equalization sheets of real and personal 

property in the State 
General election, 18 84 
Land entries 



42 ANNALS of IOWA. 

Abstracts — Continued. 

Railroad assessments 

State and Savings banks in Iowa, January 

10, 1899 
Tax levies 
Abstracts of title 
AflSdavits 

County treasurers 

Public money, In regard to use of 
Lots in Iowa City 

Lost certificates of purchase, In regard 
to 
Miscellaneous 
Bonds, Contracts, etc. 

Articles of agreement 

Adjutant General, In regard to amounts 

to be paid to Mrs. N. B. Baker 
Silver service for battleship Iowa, To 

furnish 
Southern Battlefields Monument Com- 
mission (contractors) 
Bonds 

Adjutant General, Official bond 
Bank examiners 
Bonds on contract 
Indemnity bonds 
Loan agents 

Northwest Relief Fund Commission 
Paymaster General 
Quartermaster General 
Railroad companies 
Secretary of State 
Secretary of State, (deputies) 
Southern Battlefields Monument Com- 
mission (contractors) 
State bank officers 
State bonds 
Lists of 
State institutions. Officers of 
Contracts, bids and specifications 

Bushnell claim, In regard to assignment 
Capitol Building, Building and repairing 
College for the Blind, Building 
Iowa State College of Agriculture, etc., 
Financial agent 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF IOWA 43 

Bonds, Contracts, etc. — Continued. 

Loan of money to Territorial Agent 

by Wesley Jones, etc. 
Penitenitiary building, repairs 
Sales of lands and lots 
Soldiers' Orphans' Home, Building and 

repairing 
Southern Battlefields Monument Com- 
mission 
State Printer, Publishing of Geological 
Report 
Claims 

Old Claims not allowed 
Claims of State, Authorization of Witlidrawal 
Commissions 

Adjutant General 

District Attorney, district, circuit and pro- 
bate judges 
Fish and Game Wardens 
Industrial School 

Trustees 
Iowa State Library, Librarian 
Labor Statistics, Bureau of, Commissioner 
Penitentiaries, Wardens of 
State Binder 
State Mine Inspectors 
State Printer 

State Veterinary Surgeons 
Compilation of cost of State printing and binding, 

1879-1883. 
Craig investigation 
Crop Statistics 
Deeds 

Defalcation, Documents and records, "Eads case" 
Escheat, Records, etc., In the matter of estates 
Imijeachment of J. L. Brown, State Auditor, docu- 
ments and records 
Inventory of Stock and Material, Iowa Penitentiary, 

1850 
Investments by insurance companies. Approval of 
Legislative 

Members, officers and employees, Lists of 
Resolutions 
Miscellaneous 
Letters of administration 



44 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

Litigation 

Judgments, Mortgages, etc. 

Papers in relation to the case of 
Allyn, Frank 
Boget, Tlios. A. B. 
Mellinger & Forney 
Orwig, R. G. 

Parsons, Galusha, collections 
Shaw, W. H. 
Wilkinson, John, et al 
Wisehart, J. 
Original Notice, Subpoena 
Lots in Iowa City, Applications of churches for 
Opinions of the Attorney General 

Orders 

Iowa State Library, Trustees 
Monument Commission 
Permanent school fund 
Apportionment 
Transfers 
School for the Deaf 
Patent, Mary S. Scott for land, Papers in regard to 
Permanent School fiuid interest, Apportionment 
Petitions and remonstrances 

C. Swan, school fund commission vs. E. M. 
Bissell 
Power of Attorney 
Requisitions and orders 

County Auditors 
Crop Statistics 
Revenue laws 
County Clerks 

Dictionaries 
Secretary of State 
Stationery 
Resolutions by Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument Com- 
mission 
School fund, Trial balance sheets 
State revenue. Collections of delinquent by John 

Foster 
Swamp land claims of Mitchell county 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS 45 

IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS. 

A CONTRIBUTION TOWARD A BIBLIOGRAPHY.* 

By Alice Marple. 
(Continued.) 
Gih-uth, James Henry, 1840 — 

Eternal purpose. '04. George P. Houston, Cin. 

God's guide for man's faith and practice. '77. N. Y. 
Nelson & Phillips. 
Gilson, Roy Rolfe, 1875— 

Ember liglit; a novel. '11. Baker. 

Flower of youth. '04. Harper. 

In the morning glow. '02. Harper. 

Katrina. '06. Baker. 

Legend of Jerry Ladd. '13. Doubleday. 

Miss Primrose. '06. Harper. 

Mother and father, from In the morning glow. '03. 
Harper. 

When love is young. '01. Harper. 

Wind of dreams. '06. Harper. 

Wistful years. '09. Baker. 
Gist, W. W. ^ 

Selections from the writings of George Bancroft, with 
a biographical sketch. '86. Chic. G : Sherwood & co. 
Given, Welker 

Further study of Othello. '99. Shakespeare press. 

Tariff riddle. '92. Phil. 
Glaspell, Susan (Mrs. Geo. Cram Cook), 1882 — 

Glory of the conquered. '09. Stokes. 

Lifted masks. '12. Stokes. 

Visioning. '13. Burt. 
Glazer, Simon 

Jews of Iowa. '04. Des Moines. Koch bros. 
Goldie, Mrs. George Pirie 

Light out of darkness. '95 Sioux City. Goldie bros. 

*This list of Iowa authors and their works is herewith published, to 
continue until complete, for the purpose of recording all that is at present 
known or tliat can be ascertained upon the subject. Criticism and sug- 
gestions are invited. — Editor. 

fAbbreviation of publishers' names follows the usage of The Cum- 
ulative Book Index. The H. W. Wilson Company, Publishers, White- 
Plains, New York. 



46 • ANNALS OF IOWA. 

Goldthwait; N. E. 

History of Boor.e comity, la. 3 v. '14. Chic. Pioneer 
pub. 

Goodyear, Lloyd E. 

Farm aeconnting for the practical farmer. '11. Good- 
year-Marshall pub. 

Progressive business accounting. '09. Waterloo. Sys- 
tems CO. 

Goodyear, Samuel Horatio 

Bank accounting, text. Goodyear-Marshall pub. 

Bookkeeping by single and double entry. '92. 

Business practice in jobbing and commission. Good- 
year-Marshall pub. 

Community business practice. Goodyear-lMarshall pub. 

Goodyear 's advanced accounting, with business practice 
by office and tablets methods. '09. Goodyear-Mar- 
shall pub. 

Intercommunication business practice, text -and equip- 
ment. ■ Goodyear-Marshall pub. 

Lumber accounting, pamphlet and equipment. Good- 
year-Marshall pub. 

Progressive business accounting, text. Goodyear-Mar- 
shall pub. 

Sixty lessons in business, text. Goodyear-lMarshall pub. 

Standard accounting, text. Goodyear-Marshall pub. 

Theory of accounts. '90. Goodyear-Marshall pub. 

— and Goodyear, Lloyd E. 

Higher accounting, text. '07. Goodyear-lMarshall pub 

— and Marshall, Carl Goran 

Modern inductive bookkeeping with business practice 
by office and tablet methods, text. Goodyear-Mar- 
shall pub. 

— and Whigam, Wallace Hugh 

Progressive commercial arithmetic with or without an- 
swers. Goodyear-Marshall pub. 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS 47 

Gordon, Henry Evarts, 1855 — 

Vocal expression in speech. '11. Ginn. 
Winning speeches in the contest of the northern ora- 
torical leagne. '09. Am. bk. 

Gordon, John 

Three children of Galilee. '95. Page. 
Graham, John 

Autobiography and reminiscences of. '70. Phil. W: 
S. Rentonl. 

Graham, Mrs,. Margaret Collier (Mrs. Donald M. Graham), 
1850-1910 

Gifts and givers. Shepard, Morgan. 

Stories of the foothills. '00. Houghton. 

Wizard's daughter and other stories. '05. Houghton. 

Graham, Thomas W. 

Universal foot ball and hand ball. '08. Dubuque. The 
author. 

Green, Charles R. 

Early days in Kansas. 3v. '13. Olathe, Kan. The 
author. 

Early days in Kansas in Keokuk's time on the Kansas 
reservation. '12. Olathe, Kan. The author. 

Family historj^ and genealogy of the Dryden Barbonr 
family. Traer, Iowa. '11. Olathe, Kansas. The 
author. 

Mission school and other matters pertaining to the In- 
dians on the Sac and Fox reservation in Kansas, 1858, 
1860. '12. Olathe, Kansas. The author. 

Green, Thomas Edward, 1857 — 

After fourteen years. Torch press. 

Hill called Calvary; addresses for Good Friday. '99. 

Young ch. 
In praise of valor. '07. Torch press. 
Mantraps of the city. '84. Re veil. 
Serubbin ' did it ; little parables of cleanliness. Toreli 

press. 
Socialism in faith and practice. '13. Nat. rip-saAv 

pub. CO. 



48 ANNALS OP IOWA. 

Greene, Wesley 

Preliminary list of hardy herbaceous plants for the gar- 
dens of Iowa. Davenport. The author. 
Greenwood, William 

Auxilium; helpful summary of Latin essentials. '07. 

Des Moines, la. The author, 
(tr. & ed.) Horace, the greatest of lyric poets. '07. Des 
Moines, la. The author. 

Touch typewriting in a nutshell. '10. Des Moines. 
Park pub. 
Gregg, Eva L,, 1858— 

Studies in English grammar. 3d. ed. Torch press. 
Gregory, Charles Noble, 1851 — 

Federal treaties and state laws. Reprint from Michigan 
law review. '07. 

Samuel Freeman Miller. '07. Iowa state hist. soc. 
Griffin, Lucia B. 

Why not"/ '92. Osceola, la. 
Griffith, Helen Sherman 

Borrowed luncheon ; farce. Dennison. 

Burglar alarm; comedy. Penn. 

Case of duplicity; farce. Penn. 

Dumb waiter; farce. Baker, W. H. 

Fallen idol; farce. Penn. 

For love or money; comedy. Penn. 

Help wanted; comedy. Penn. 

Her father's legacy. '04. Penn. 

Her wilful way ; story for girls. '02. Penn. 

Large order; sketch. Baker, W. H. 

Letty and the twins. '10. Penn. 

Letty of the circus. '13. Penn. 

Letty 's new home. '11. Penn. 

Letty 's treasure. '13. Penn. 

Maid to order; farce. Baker, W. H. 

Man's voice; comedy. Baker, W. H. 

Minister's wife; farce. Penn. 

Patty of the circus. '09. Penn. 

Psychological moment; farce. Baker, W. H. 

Reflected glory. '09. Penn. 

Rosemary for remembrance. '11. Penn. 

Scarlet bonnet; comedy. Baker, W. H. 

Sewing society; farcical drama. Baker, W. H. 

Social aspirations; comedy. Dick. 

Wrong Miss Mather; comedy. Baker, W. H, 

Wrong package ; comedy. Baker, W. H. 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS 49 

Grinnell, Josiah Bushnell 

Cattle industries of the United States. '82. Agricul- 
tural review. 

Men and events of forty years. '91. Lothrop. 

Sermon on the occasion of the death of William H. 
Mowry. '50. Troy, N. Y. Johnson & Davis. 

Speech delivered in the house of representatives, 
March 5, 1864. '64. Wash. W. H. Moore. 

Sermon on the occasion of the opening of the first Con- 
gregational church, Washington, D. C. '51. 
Grinnell College — Class of Ninety-eight ; S. L. Whitcomb, ed. 

On a western campus ; stories and sketches of under- 
graduate life. '97. Moulton. 
Griswold, Mrs, Alice Steele 

(jt. eomp.) Marple, Alice. Index to the Annals of Iowa, 
Third series, v. 1-8, '93- '09. 

Grow, Oscar, 1882— 

Antagonism of races. '13. Waterloo, la. The author. 
Gue, Benjamin F., 1828-1904 

History of Iowa from the earliest times to the beginning 

of the twentieth century. 4v. '03. Century hist. 
Homestead manual. '81. Des Moines. Homestead. 
Gunning, William D. 

Easter ethics and religion. Banner of It. 
Is it despair of science? Banner of It. 
Life histor}^ of our planet. Banner of It. 
Ministry of war. '87. Keokuk, la. 
Gurney, C. W. 

Opening exercises. '89. Welch. 
Guthe, Karl Eugen, 1866— 

Definitions in physics. '13. Macmillan. 

Heat. '10. Blakiston. 

Laboratory exercises with primary and storage cells. 

'03'. Wahr. 
New determination of the electromotive force of Wes- 
ton and Clark standard cells by an absolute eleetro- 
dynameter. '06. U. S. stand. 
On fibers resembling fused quartz in their elastic prop- 
erties. '05. U. S. stand. 
4 



50 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

Guthe, Karl Eiig-en — Continued. 

Silver coulometer. '05. U. S. stand. 
Study of the silver voltameter. '05. U. S. stand, 
(jt. aiith.) Read, John Oren. College physics. '11. Mac- 
millau; Manual of physical measurements. 2d. ed. 
'07. Wahr. 

Haines, Aaron W. 

Makers of Iowa Methodism. '00. Jennings. 

Hale, Charles R. 

Eucharistic office of the Christian Catholic church of 

Sw^itzerland. '82. Am. ch. rev. 
Mozarabie collects, tr. and arranged from the ancient 

liturgy of the Spanish church. '95. N. Y. James 

Pott. 

Hale, Edward Everett, Jr. 

(ed.) American essays. '02. Globe school bk. 

(ed.) American stories. Globe school bk. 

Ballads and ballad poetry. '02. Globe school bk. 

Constructive rhetoric. '96. Holt. 

Dramatists of to-day. 6th ed. rev. & enl. '11. Holt. 

(ed.) English essays. '02. Globe school bk. 

(ed.) English stories. '02. Globe school bk. 

(ed.) Franklin, B: Autobiography. 

(ed.) Greek myths in English dress. '02. Globe 

school bk. 
James Russell Lowell. '99. Small, 
(ed.) Longer narrative poems. '02. Globe school bk. 
"William H. Seward (Am. crisis biographies). '10. 

Jacobs. 

—and Sterling, Adaline Wheelock 

Hawthorne readers, lst-5th. Globe school bk. 

Hallam, Mrs. Julia Kirkland (Clark), 1860— 

Relation of the sexes from a scientific standpoint. '95. 
Story of a European tour. '01. Sioux City. Perkins 

bros. 
Studies in child development; a manual for mothers 

and mothers' clubs. '13. Row, Peterson & co. 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS 51 

Hamilton, Edward John 

Modalist : or, The laAv of rational conviction. '91. Ginn. 
Moral law; or, The theory and practice of duty. '02. 

Funk. 
Perceptionalist ; or, Mental science. '12. Funk. 

Hamilton, John Judson, 1854 — 

Government by commission; or, The dethronement of 

the city boss. 3d. ed. '11. Funk. 
Plea for the business freedom of the American press. 

'06. Des Moines. Homestead co. 

Hammond, William Gardiner 

Blackstone's commentaries on the laws of England, 

from the author's 8th ed. 4v. '90. San Francisco. 
Digest of the decisions of the Supreme court of Iowa. 

'66. Des Moines. 
Equity jurisprudence. '75. Iowa City. 
Institutes of Justinian. First American ed. from Fifth 

London. '76. Chic. 

Hancock, Ellery M. 

Past and present of Allamakee county, Iowa. 2v. '13. 
S. J. Clarke. 

Haney, Lewis Henry 

Business organization and combination. '13. Mae- 

millan. 
Congressional history of railways in the United States. 

'08- '10. Univ. of Wis. 
History of economic thought. '11. Maemillan. 

Hanna, James W. 

Baptism and the Christian church. Emporia, Kan. Ee- 

publican steam ptg. 
Celestial dynamics; a new theory with discoveries in 

astronomy. '76. Cedar Rapids. Steam print. 
Revised astronomy. '91. Revell. 

Harbert, Elizabeth Morrison Boynton, 1845 — 

Amore. '92. New era. 

Out of her sphere. '71. Des Moines. Mills & co. 



52 ANNALS OP IOWA. 

Hardy, Arthur Sherburne, 1847 — 

Analytic geometry. Ginn. 

But yet a woman. Houghton. 

Elements of quaternions. Ginn. 

Elements of calculus. Ginn. 

His daughter first. '03. Houghton. 

Life of Joseph Hardy Neesima. Houghton. 

Passe Rose. Houghton. 

Songs of two and other poems. '00. Scribner's. 

Winds of destiny. 

(tr.) Argand, R. Imaginary quantities. 
Harlan, Edgar R., 1869— 

(ed.) Annals of Iowa, v. 9-11, 1909— 

Execution of William MacCauley. Priv. ptd. 

Location and name of the Mormon trail across Iowa. 
Priv. ptd. 

Proposed improvement of the Iowa state capitol 
grounds. '13. Priv. ptd. 

Van Buren county court house. Priv. ptd. 

Van Buren county group of famous men. Priv. ptd. 
Harrah, C. C. 

The road ; the ever-existent, universal and only relig- 
ion. '02. Des Moines. Scott Heights bk. co. 
Harrington, Kate 

Centennial and other peoms. '76. Phil. 

Lionel Lightfoot. '7G. Keokuk, la. Constitution bk. 
& job office. 
Harrison, Elizabeth, 1849 — 

Bead stringing. '04. Chic, kindergarten college. 

Christmastide. '02. Chic, kindergarten college. 

How little Cedric became a knight. Flanagan. 

In story-land. Chic. Central pub. 

Kindergarten building gifts. Central pub. 

Misunderstood children; stories taken from life. Cen- 
tral pub. 

Some silent teachers. '03. Central pub. 

Two children of the foothills. '99. Central pub. 

Vision of Dante (for children). '00. Chic, kindergar- 
ten college. 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS 53 

Hart, Irving H. 

History of Butler county, Iowa. 2v. '14. S. J. Clarke. 

Hartsock, E. E. 

I'se waitin' fer de wlioop-per-will song. '89. Sioux 
City, la. Perkins bros. 

Hartzel, Jonas 

Bible vindicated; a series of essays on American slav- 
ery. '58. Cin. 

Harwood, William Sumner, 1857-1908 

Life and letters of Austin Craig. '08. Revell. 

New creations in plant life ; an authoritative account of 

life and work of Luther Burbank. new ed. ]\rac- 

raillan. 
New earth. '06. Macmillan. 

Hassell, Susan Whitcomb 

Old home. '11. San Diego, Cal. Frye & Smith. 

Hatcher, John Bell, 1861-1904 

Diplodoeus Marsh ; its osteology, taxonomy, and prob- 
able habits, with a restoration of the skeleton. Car- 
negie museum. 

Genera and species of the Trachodontidae Marsh. Car- 
negie museum. 

Mounted skeleton of Titanotherium Dispar Marsh. Car- 
negie museum. 

Narrative of Princeton publication to Patagonia. '03. 
University publication. 

Osteology of Haplocanthosaurus and additional re- 
marks upon diplodoeus. Carnegie museum. 

Structure of the fore limbs of and manus of bron- 
tosaurus. Carnegie museum. 

Hatfield, Clarence E. 

Echo of Union chapel ; a tale of the Ozark low hill coun- 
try. '12. Broadway pub. ■ 

Hathaway, Esse V. 

Little Corsican. '09. Rand. 

Cromwell — England's uncrowned king. '12. Rand. 



54 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

Hawley, Mrs. Carrie W. 

(jt. auth.) Windsor, Eutli. Your future foretold. '99. 
Des Moines. Kenyon press. 

Hayes, Samuel, 1842 — 

Justice practice of Iowa, civil and political. '09. Flood, 
T. H. 

Hays, Willet Martin, 1859— 

Agriculture, industry and home economics in our pub- 
lie schools. '08. Nat. educ. assn., Wash., D. C. 

Breeding plants and animals. State agric. college, St. 
Anthony Park, Minn. 

Education for country life. U. S. Agric. Supt. of doc. 

Farm development '10. Judd. 

Functions and needs of our great markets. '13. Am. 
acad. 

Plant breeding. '01. Supt. of doc. 

Variation in cross-bred wheats. U. S. Agric. 

— and Parker, Edward C. 

Cost of producing farm products. '06. Supt. of doc. 

Hazen, Edward Hamlin, 1834 — 

NcAv findings in ophthalmology and otology. 2d. ed. '1] . 
Des Moines. la. E : H. Hazen & son. 

Heath, Daisy A. 

Boarding school life. 'n2. Brooklyn, la. 

Heidel, William Arthur 

Necessary and contingent in Aristotelian system. Univ. 
of Chic, press. 

Heinz, Flora and Sanborn, Martha 

Art and love. '11. Ginn. 
Hempstead, Junius Lackland, 1842 — 

After many days and other stories. '97. Neely. 
Brain rambles. '05. Ben-Franklin pub. 
Chequered destiny. '05. Ben-Franklin pub. 
Deschanos ; a thrilling romance. '05. Ben-Franklin pub. 
Musings of morn. 'OS. Neely. 
Parnassian niches. '92. Moulton. 
Thompson, the detective. '03. Abbey press. 



, IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS 55 

Henderson, M. A, & Henderson, E. A. 

German pronouncer; a new method of learning the Ger- 
man language. '76. Salem, la. 

Hendrixson, Walter S. 

Course in qualitative analysis. '87. Xenia, 0. Gazette 
office. 

Henshaw, Helen Hmman, 1876-1908 

Passing of the word. '10. Torch press. 

Herr, Horace Dumont 

Country and riverside poems. '10. Humboldt, la. The 
author. 

Herrick, M. W. & Doxsee, J. W. 

Probate law and practice of loAva. 3d. ed. 2v. '12. 
Callaghan. 

Herringshaw, Thomas William, 1858 — 

(ed.) Herringshaw 's national library of American bi- 
ography. 5v. '09- '10. Am. pub. assn. 
Mulierology. Am. pub. assn. 
Poems and poetry of Jowa. '94. Am. pub. assn. 
Poetical quotations. Am. pub. assn. 
Poets of America. Am. pub. assn. 

Herriott, Frank I. 

Constitution of 1857 and the people. '07. Hist. dept. 
of Iowa. 

Des Moines; Iowa's capital city (in Historic towns of 
the West). '01. Putnam. 

Development of charitable and correctional Avork in 
Iowa since 1898; president's address to state con- 
ference charities and correction at Des Moines, 1908. 

Did emigrants from New England settle loAva? '06. 
Hist. dept. of Iowa. 

Frazier collection. '95. Drake univ. 

Germans of Davenport and the Chicago convention of 
1860. '10. S. J. Clarke. 

Germans of Iowa and the "two year" amendment of 

Massachusetts. '13'. Deutscli-Amerikanischen Gesell- 
schaft von Til. 



56 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

Herriott, Frank I. — Continued. 

Introduction to the history of corporation taxes in 

Iowa. '02. 
Institutional expenditures in the state budgets of Iowa. 

'02. Board of control. 
Iowa and Abraham Lincoln. '10. Hist. dept. of Iowa. 
Nature and origin of crime; president's address to Iowa 

state conference of charities and correction. '06. 
Occupation, general health and diseases in insanity. '03. 

Board of control. 
Preservation of Iowa's public documents. '02. Hist. 

dept. of Iowa. 
Publicity in local finance in Iowa. '03. Hist. dept. of 

Iowa. 
Senator Stephen A. Douglas and the Germans in 1854. 

'12. Springfield, 111. State hist. soc. 
Sir "William Temple on the origin and nature of gov- 
ernment. '92. Am. acad. 
Some of Iowa's ability. '05. Hist. dept. of Iowa. 
State versus county care of dependents in Iowa. '04. 

Board of control. 
Statistics of population and finance of charitable and 

correctional institutions state of Iowa, 1903, 1905, 

1906, 1908, 1910. 1912, 1914. Des Moines. State 

printer. 
Vital statistics of Iowa. '05. Iowa medical jl. 

Herron, George Davis, 1862 — 

Between Caesar and Jesus. Alliance. 

Call of the cross. 4th ed. Alliance. 

Christian society. 5th ed. Alliance. 

Day of .iudgraent. '04. Kerr. 

From revolution to revolution ; address in memory of 

Paris commune, 1871. '07. Kerr. 
Larger Christ. 6th ed. Alliance. 
Message of Jesus to men of wealth. Revell. 
New redemption. Alliance. 
Plea for the gospel. Alliance. 

Social meanings of religious experiences. Alliance. 
Why I am a socialist. '00. Kerr. 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS 57 

Hexom, Charles Philip 

Indian history of Winneshiek. '14. Decorah, la. A. 
K. Bailey & son. 

Hill, G. W. E. 

Hand-book of Good Templary. '94. Des Moines. Iowa 
ptg. CO. 

Hiil, Gershom H. 

Prevention of insanity. '89. Keokuk, la. 

Hiil, James Langdon, 1848 — 

Crowning achievement; early exploits of the Iowa band. 

Immortal seven ; Judson and his associates. Am. bap- 
tist pnb. son. 

Seven sorts of successful services. '04. Treat. 

Two tributes to Helen Grinnell Mears. '13. Salem, 
Mass. The author. 

Hillis, Mrs. Cora Bussey 

Madame Desiree's spirit rival; story. Des Moines, la. 
Midland mo. 

Hillis. Newell Dwight, 1858— 

Across the continent of the years. '01. Revell. 

All the year round ; an outlook upon its great days. '12. 

Revell. 
Battle of principle. '12. Revell. 
Bruised reed and the broken heart. 
Contagion of character; studies in culture and success. 

'11. Revell. 
David, the poet and king. '01. Revell. 
Faith and character. '02. Revell. 
Foretokens of immortality; new ed. Revell. 
Fortune of the republic, and other addresses upon 

America of today and tomorrow. '06. Revell. 
Great books as life's teachers. '99. Revell. 
Henry Ward Beecher ; a study of his life and influence. 

'1.3. Revell. 
How the inner light failed. Revell. 
Influence of Christ in modern life. '00. Macmillan. 
Investment of influence. Revell. 



58 ANNALS OP IOWA. 

Hillis, Newell Dwight — Continued. 

Lectures and orations by Henry Ward Beeclier. '13. 

Kevell. 
Man's value to society. Kevell. 

Message of David Swing to his generation. '13. Revell. 
Noble thoughts. '13. Barse & Hopkins. 
Master of the science of right living, Revell. 
Quest of happiness. '02. Grosset. 
Quest of John Chapman. '04. 
Right living as a fine art. '04. Revell. 
School in the home. '02. Revell. 

Story of Phaedrus; how we got the greatest book in 
the world. '13. Macmillan. 

Hinds, Peter M. 

Lamoni illustrated. '92. Lamoni. Herald pub. 

Hinkhouse, J. S. 

The beloved. '09. Fairfield, la. Fairfield ledger. 

Hinshaw, William 

Doctor's confession. '03. Des Moines. Baker-Trisler. 

Hirschl, Andrew Jackson, 1852 — 

Combination, consolidation, and succession of corpora- 
tions. '96. Callaghan. 
Law of fraternities and societies. '83. Central law. 
Legal hygiene. Sprague pub. 

Hobson, Jonathan Todd, 1850 — 

Footprints of Abraham Lincoln. '09. Un. breth. 

Lincoln year-book. Un. breth. 

Master and his servant; comparative outline sketches 

of the Redeemer of mankind and the emancipation 

of a race. 

Hoeve, J. H. 

Anatomy of the head and neck. Des Moines. The 
author. 

Hofer, Andrea 

Child's Christ tales. '92. Chic. Woman's temple. 

Hofer, Ernst, 1855— 

American primary system. '96. Kerr. 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS 59 

Hofer, Ernst — Continued. 

Jack Norton. '12. Badger. 

Strawberry culture in the Pacific northwest. '03. 
Salem, Ore. Hofer bros. 

Hoifman, Oskar U. 

Geschiehte von Sioux City. '90. Sioux City. Volks- 
freunds. 

Holden, Perry Greely, 1865— 

A. B. C. of corn culture. '06. Simmons pub., Spring- 
field, 0. 
Cam secrets disclosed. '10. Atkinson. 
Successful corn culture. '07. 

Holmes, Calvin Pratt 

Probate laAv and practice of Iowa. '00. Flood, T. H. 

Holmes, Samuel 

Opening rose. '12. Hamburg, la. The author. 

Holmes, Samuel 

Township laws of the state of Iowa. 2d. ed. '89. Bur- 
lington. 

Hoist, Bernhart Paul 

Poems of friendship, life, home, love, religion, humor 

and other poems. '13. Hoist pub. 
(ed.) Practical American encyclopedia. 2v. '11. 

Conkey. 
Practical home and school methods of study based on 

the new teachers' and pupils' encyclopedia. '10 

Hoist pub. 
Unrivalled encyclopedia. 5v. in 1. '11. Conkey. 

— and Roark, Ruric Nevel, 1859 — 

New teachers' and jDupils' encyclopedia. '10. Hoist 
pub. 

Herewith appear names, and character of books or pam- 
phlets, of Iowa writers not heretofore listed by us. Fuller in- 
formation will appear in a completed list to be published 
later. 

Anderson, J. P., Botany. Ball, Carleton Roy, Agriculture. 

Anderson, W. Warren, Sociology. Ball, Otho Fisher, Medicine. 

Ary, Lester C., Peace. Barnes, A. R., Journalism. 

Bakke, A. L., Botany. Beach, Allen, Poetry. 



60 



ANNALS OP IOWA. 



Belknap, William W., Address. 

Bloomquist, Churley, Peace. 

Briggs, J. E., History. 

Buchanan, Robert Earle, Bac- 
teriology. 

Burns, Elmer Ellsworth, Elec- 
tricity. 

Campbell, Glenn H., Peace. 

Carr, D. M., Biography. 

Carter, B. F., Travel. 

Carter, Charles Frederick, 
Transportation. 

Cha Ka Ta Ko Si, Manuscripts. 

Clement, Ernest Wilson, Japan. 

Cokenower, James W., Surgery. 

Combs, Robert, Botany. 

Condra, George Evert, Geology. 

Conley, John Wesley, Bible. 

Cosson, George, Law. 

Cotton, William Wick, Law. 

Crossley, Bruce W., Agriculture, 

Curtiss, Daniel S., Travel. 

Daggett, Samuel Locke, History. 

Darling, Jay Norwood, Cartoons. 

Davis, John Allen, Engineering. 

De Kay, John Wesley, Essays. 

De Puy, Emerson, Banking. 

De Voe, Walter, Essays. 

De Wolf, Frank Walbridge, 
Yearbook. 

Dexter, Walter F., Peace. 

Deyoe, Albert M., Schools. 

Dickson, Leonard Eugene, Math- 
ematics. 

Dimond, John R., Finance. 

Doggett, Laurence Locke, His- 
tory. 

Dolliver, James, Child Labor. 

Drew, Oilman Arthur, Zoology. 

Drouet, Robert, Drama. 

Dunn, Samuel Grace, Transpor- 
tation. 

Durant, H., Education. 

Eckles. Clarence Henry, Animal 
Husbandry. 

Effinger, John Robert, Language. 
Eg,a;ert, Carl Ed2;ar, Language. 
Ensign, S. J. Russell, Immigra- 
tion. 

Everest, Frank F., Fiction. 
Farwell, Asa, Address. 
Faurot, F. W., Botany. 
Fawcett, H. S., Botany. 
Fay, Edwin Whitfield, Education. 
Fields, John, Chemistry. 
Folsom, Moses, Essays. 



Foster, Mrs. Judith Ellen, Tem- 
perance. 
Fox, Dorus M., Politics. 
Fuller, A. C. Jr., Schools. 
Fuller, Burton, Socialism. 
Gabrielson, Ira N., Ornithology. 
Galland, Isaac, History. 
Gillin, John Lewis, Charities. 
Gilpin, T. C, History. 
Gladson, William Nathan, En- 
gineering. 
Gordon, C. Ira, Peace. 
Gordon, Charles H., Geology. 
Gordon, Henry Evarts, Drama. 
Gorham, Wallace A., Poetry. 
Gorrell, J. R., Fiction. 
Gow, J. E., Fiction. 
Granger, J. T., Biography. 
Gregg, Asa, History. 
Grow, Loretta M., Poetry. 
Guthridge, Walter, Civil govern- 
ment. 
Hadley, Elbridge Drew, History. 
Haggard, Alfred Martin. 
Hall, Newton Marshall, Bible. 
Hamilton, Edward John, His- 
tory. 
Hamilton, John McLean, Travel. 
Hanny, W., Cartoons. 
Harbour, Jefferson Lee, Fiction. 
Harsh, J. B., Banking. 
Harsha, William Justin, His- 
tory. 
Haworth, Erasmus, Geology. 
Haynes, P. E., Child labor. 
Hayward, W. C, History. 
Hebard, Grace Raymond, His- 
tory. 

Hedge, Manoah, History. 
Hedrick, Ulysses Prentiss, Hor- 
ticulture. 
Hendricks, Joel E., Mathematics. 
Henn, Bernhart, Address. 
Hertzler, Arthur Emanuel, Sur- 
gery. 
Hickenlooper, Frank, History. 
Hildreth, Azro Benjamin Frank- 
lin, Biography. 
Hillock, A. Elizabeth, Fiction. 
Hinrichs, Carl Gustav, Chemis- 
try. 
Hixson, A W., Geology. 
Hoen, A. B., Geology. 
Hoenshel, Eli J., Language. 
Hofer, Mari Ruef, Drama. 
Hollister, Horace Adelbert, Edu- 
cation. 



PIONEERS IN IOWA ARCHIVES CONSERVATION 




BENJAMIN F. SHAMBAUGH 



CASSIUS C. STILES 



CHARLES ALDRICH 



HORACE E. DEEMER 
ARTHUR H. DAVISON 



ANNALS OF IOWA 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 



IOWA ARCHIVES LAW AND ADMINISTRATION. 

The Annals in this issue devotes most of its space to the 
subject of public archives because of the special interest in 
that subject lately awakened throughout the country, and 
because of a recent change of responsibility in the admin- 
istration of the archives of Iowa. 

The evolution of the plan and provisions for the preserva- 
tion, custody and use of the archives accumulations of our 
State has been detailed heretofore in the Annals and other 
publications of our Department. It embraces chapters upon 
the prevision of Hon. Charles Aldrich, founder of the De- 
partment; the investigation, report, and recommendations of 
Dr. B. F. Shambaugh, Superintendent of the State Historical 
Society of Iowa, at Iowa City ; the reduction of these recom- 
mendations through a maze of intricate working details to a 
working system of receptacles and other devices by Hon. A. 
H. Davison, Secretary of the Executive Council; the labor- 
ious and painstaking initiatory administrative steps wrought 
out by the common efforts of Mr. Davison and a corps of 
workers employed by the Executive Council and directed by 
Mr. John H. Kelley, and of the further effectuation of all 
these plans and policies by Mr. C. C. Stiles who has been in 
charge under the Executive Council for nearly eight years. 

When, after years of consideration of ways and means for 
not only saving our State archives from destruction, but also 
for rendering the materials easy of access, Mr. Aldrich, Dr. 
Shambaugh, Hon. Horace E. Deemer, of the Board of Trus- 
tees- of the Historical Department of Iowa, and others, pre- 
pared and there was passed by the Thirty-First General 
Assembly of Iowa, one of the early statutes of American 
commonwealths upon this subject. It was designed to trans- 
fer from the custody of the various State officials to that of 



62 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

our Board of Tustees, the accumulated materials then more 
than ten years old to be put in order and tiled. On mature 
consideration the Thirty-Second General Assembly decided 
that while the vast bulk of the materials was undergoing 
preparation, it would be better if their actual custody and 
the oversight of the work should be retained by the Executive 
Council but that thereafter they should be turned over to our 
Board of Trustees. So the Executive Council, consisting of 
the Governor, the Secretary of State, the Auditor of State, 
and the Treasurer of State, directed that the archives in their 
respective custody, embracing all the materials originating 
under territorial and State government, and from scores of 
now obsolete offices and commissions, be prepared for de- 
livery, and by Januaiy 1, 1915, the bulk of the preparatory 
work had been finished upon the materials of all these offices. 
There had been some uncertainty as to the point at which 
the technical delivery to the Board of Trustees — whether of 
a single document, a single office, or all the offices — should 
be tendered or accepted. In January last there came a suh- 
poena duces tecutn for the reports of a banker for 1909 to 
1912, and the court was uncertain on whom, as the proper 
custodian, service should be made. There were existing and 
multiplying problems of custodianship. Lines of authority 
and responsilnlity seemed indistinct. A resolution was 
adopted by the Executive Council which tendered to our 
Board of Trustees co-operation in the simplification of all 
the difficulties, which was approved by a proper resolution 
by our Board of Trustees. The curator of the Historical De- 
partment was directed to draft a bill to codify existing laws 
and so amend them as to accord with the resolutions men- 
tioned. Such a bill, published elsewhere in this issue, pre- 
sented to the legislature by Hon. Herbert C. Ring, member 
of the House of Representatives, was passed and on July 
1, 1915, will become the Iowa law. The future policy with 
respect to care, custody and use of the public archives of Iowa, 
will, while the writer is in the office of curator and can 
have the consent of our Board of Trustees, be based upon 
the theory that the curator succeeds, in his responsibilities, 
the officials from whom the materials are derived. No use 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 63 

will be denied and no authority will be exercised over them 
other or different from that which the Secretary of State, 
for instance, might or should have exercised while the ma- 
terials derived from him were in his possession, except as the 
statute recently enacted directs. As the reason for their ex- 
istence is primarily an official one, and although as time 
passes the volume of official use may diminish and that of 
other uses may increase, yet however small the one or great 
the other, they shall forever be reserved as the original 
records of government rather than exploited as the souce ma- 
terials for the student, and whenever demands justify, we will 
publish such as have public interest. 



THE NEW IOWA ARCHIVES STATUTE. 

Be it Enacted by the General Assembly of the State of loica: 

Section 1. That sections twenty-eight liundred eighty-one-j 
(2881-j), twenty-eight hundred eighty-one-k (2881-k), twenty-eiglit 
liundred eighty-one-1 (2881-1), twenty-eight hundred eight-one-m 
(2881-ni), twenty-eight hundred eighty-one-n (2881-n) of the Sup- 
plement to the Code, 1913, be and they are hereby repealed and the 
following enacted in lieu thereof: 

(a) That for the care and preservation of the public archives 
the curator of the historical department of Iowa is hereby given 
the custody of all the original public documents, papers, letters, 
records and other official manuscripts of the state executive and 
administrative departments, offices or officers, councils, boards, 
bureaus and commissions, ten years after the date or current use 
of such public documents, papers, letters, records or other official 
manuscripts. Provided, that the executive council shall have the 
power and authority to order the transfer of such records or any 
part thereof at any time prior to the expiration of the limit of 
ten years herein before provided or to retain the same in the re- 
spective offices beyond such limit according as in the judgment of 
the council the public interest or convenience may require. 

(b) That the several state executive and administrative .depart- 
ments, officers or offices, councils, boards, bureaus and commis- 
sioners, are hereby authorized and directed to transfer and deliver 
to the historical department such of the public archives as are 
designated in Section 1-a, of this act, except such as in the judg- 
ment of the executive council should be longer retained in the 
respective offices. 

(c) That the curator of the historical department is hereby 
authorized and directed to receive such of the public archives and 
records as are designated in section 1-a of this act and provide 



64 ANNALS OP IOWA. 

that the same be properly arranged, classified, labeled, filed, cal- 
endared and indexed, all under the direction of the board of trustees 
of the state library and historical department. 

(d) That for the care and permanent preservation by the cura- 
tor of the historical department of the public archives herein be- 
fore designated, the executive council is hereby authorized and 
directed to furnish and equip such room or rooms in the historical, 
memorial and art building as may be deemed necessary for the 
purpose of this act, and the room or rooms thus provided for shall 
be known as the division of public archives. 

(e) Upon and after the receipt by the historical department into 
its division of public archives of any such public archives, copies 
thereof may be made, certified and authenticated by the curator 
in the same manner and with the same validity as the officer from 
whom the same were secured. The curator shall have and exer- 
cise the same custody and control over said public archives as had 
theretofore been exercised by those from whose offices they were 
received, but they shall not be removed from the historical depart- 
ment except by the consent of the curator and upon the subpoena 
of a court or the order in writing of the person from whose office 
they were originally derived. Said curator shall charge and col- 
lect for certified copies the same fees as are allowed by law to 
the secretary of state for certified copies which fees shall be 
turned into the state treasury. Such certificates signed by the 
curator shall have the same legal effect as like certificates issued 
by the secretary of state. 



THE CARE AND USE OF DOCUMENTARY I\IATERIALS. 

One of the valuable papers presented at the recent meet- 
ing of the American Historical Association at Chicago was 
that read by Mr, Lawrence J. Burpee, of the International 
Joint Commission, Ottawa, Canada, entitled "Restrictions 
on the Use of Historical Materials." The discussion and 
exhibits are particularly interesting to many here in Iowa 
immediately charged with the administration of Depart- 
ments or Libraries containing extensive collections of pub- 
lic archives and documentary materials ; for he presents not 
only the problems, perplexities and practices of the custo- 
dians of documents but he assembles the opinions and sug- 
gestions of numerous archivists and librarians. 

Preservation, publicity and prudence seem to be the grand 
objectives and the grand perplexities. Shall the custodian 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 65 

stand guard over the precious document, armed to the 
teeth, aleri with suspicious eye, presuming that the searcher 
after data will misuse or abuse, will damage or mutilate or 
steal that which he uses ; or shall he be a Chesterfield and 
assume that every comer is a gentleman and presume him 
to be intelligent and honest and careful and give him the 
right of way without let or hindrance, indulging the belief 
that the greater number of users the greater the good? 
Principles and practice swing between these two extremes 
and always will. Philosophers and saints alike will be sorely 
perplexed to discover the golden mean whereon sense and 
sensibility coincide. 

^Ir. Burpee deals with sundry complexes of problems 
which librarians are constantly called upon to solve. 

Are Departments or Libraries wherein archives and rare 
documents are found, to be regarded merely as depositaries 
for the sole use of the Government, or for the use of the gen- 
eral public? The better opinion or the weight of opinion 
seems to incline to the latter view. 

Is i)reservation or publicity the major consideration? 
Preservation is a basic necessity and must be a paramount 
consideration, but much and almost perfect publicity may 
be attained or assured by means of publication and photo- 
' graphic reproduction. Freedom of access accorded general 
and special users and exemption from supervision and pre- 
cautionary measures have often resulted in serious losses 
and abuses. These losses are not always due to the heed- 
less or perverted layman with "unscientific" notions; but 
now and then they are chargeable to the misconduct of "his- 
torians" of reputation, of professors and "research" ex- 
perts. Prudence enjoins greater or less restriction to pre- 
vent such losses or misuse. 

Another sorry perplexity, alas ! is that the fmcx pas and 
gaucheries of the honest, well-meaning, untutored and 
stupid are no less fatal than the perversions of the malev- 
olent and unscrupulous — as many a bibliophile has discov- 
ered to his amazement and chagrin. 

In the scores of responses to Mr. Burpee's questionaire 
we find a general agreement that the greatest freedom of 
5 



66 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

use sliould be accorded to the "competent;" to all persons 
engaged in "genuine historical research;" to "serious- 
minded students," and to "all qualified users." Such re- 
sponses suggest a host of exasperating queries. Who is a 
"competent," "qualified," "serious-minded" student? 
"What is "genuine historical research?" 

Discriminations, like comparisons, are difficult, often deli- 
cate, more or less dangerous and anon odious. Is a cranky 
old man in pursuit of an idea, especially if vouched for by 
some notable, or a "cub reporter" of an influential news- 
paper in search of some sensational or scandalous exhibits 
"qualified" and "serious-minded" and engaged in "gen- 
uine historical research?" If not, how, precisely, by wdiat 
stigmata, is the custodian of archives and rare documents, 
anxious to be generous and careful, to discriminate the hon- 
orable and sensible from dubious characters and obnoxious 
persons and those "research" students and "historians" 
who may impudently or stupidly misuse documents, espe- 
cially private correspondence and personalia, in utter disre- 
gard of the just feelings of contemporaries and relatives. 

Another interesting cluster of problems touched upon by 
Mr. Burpee relates to the reproduction and loan of docu- 
ments. Should all, or any, applicants be allowed freely to 
copy or reproduce documents by photographic processes? 
The considerations are contradictory. If the menace of loss 
or misuse is inevitable or imminent, freedom should not be 
conceded. If publication can afford a satisfactory substi- 
tute, then promiscuous copying or photographic reproduc- 
tion should not be permitted. If the Society or Management 
of the Library has substantial plans for publication, reser- 
vation and denial of liberal use of documents is not unrea- 
sonable. The real rub, and the most difficult problem, arises 
when two or more rival students, especially those represent- 
ing emulous associations or bodies and now and then hostile 
societies, or rather, officers and promoters thereof, seek to 
make generous use of documents exclusively for their sepa- 
rate advantage and distinction, and directly or by subtle 
suggestion and insinuation seek to secure a monopoly of 
use, or first use. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 67 

A satisfactory treatment of the latter problem is not easy. 
A privately-founded and supported institution can perhaps 
draw finer lines more easily than a public institution sup- 
ported by the taxpayers. With the latter all — at least all of 
the same class — expect and can exact equal treatment, equal 
consideration. The Sherman Anti-Trust law or the Com- 
mon law enjoins conspiracy in restraint of trade and sound 
public policy would apply its injunction in commerce with 
the precious collections of our libraries. 

In the last analysis we shall have to depend upon the 
courtesy and charity that control the conduct of gentlemen 
and a foriiori should control the relations of scholars and 
historians to each other. If a student, after laborious search, 
has discovered a rare and important document that throws 
a flood of light upon some important point, a librarian acts 
well within his authority if he exercises his discretion and 
maintains silence for a reasonable time to enable the dis- 
coverer to assemble his materials and secure the credit and 
distinction the publication of his discovery may give. Cir- 
cumstances and the rule of reason alone can determine when 
his silence should cease. Scholars and "research" students 
are certainly as much in need of discipline, education and 
grace in these respects as the unregenerate layman. 

Mr. Burpee deals with another interesting phase of li- 
brary work when he discusses the nature and amount of co- 
operation feasible among libraries in respect of loans of 
documents one to another. Policy and practice differ radi- 
cally. Some are generous ; others refuse absolutely to allow 
their rare possessions to leave their precincts. The pros and 
cons are about evenly balanced. Those who have benefited 
greatly by such liberality are enthusiastically in favor of 
its continuance. Those who have been generous and lost 
valuable documents, as the founder of this Department did 
some years before his death, gravely doubt the wisdom of 
liberality. When a document is lost it is lost. Philosophy 
and philanthropy constitute no guarantees of preservation. 
Mr. Burpee's responses contain some interesting and in- 
structive exhibits showing that students and even historians 
and the conductors of scholastic enterprises, even within 



68 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

the sacred precincts of universities, are given to peculiar, 
not to say reprehensible practices in the use of documents 
obtained on loan. 

The nature and degree of censorship and supervision ac- 
tually enforced by librarians are interesting portions of Mr. 
Burpee's exhibits and discussion. Courtesy prompts to 
generosity and liberality; prudence and adverse experience 
prompt to close scrutiny and alert watchfulness on the part 
of the custodian. The degree of acquaintanceship between 
the custodian and the student or examiner for the most part 
seems to determine whether or not the examination is closely 
supervised by attendants. An analysis of human relation- 
ships must needs convince that this is the major premise of 
sensible procedure. The mechanical arrangements for 
supervision of those examining the collections in the Divi- 
sion of Manuscripts of the Library of Congress afford us an 
excellent illustration of a successful working scheme that 
"splits the difference" between the extreme policies advo- 
cated. 

— F. I. H. 

USE OF OUR PUBLIC ARCHIVES. 

A survey of the written requests for the use of Iowa pub- 
lic archives which were required by the Curator of the His- 
torical Department, shows that from June, 1914, to April, 
1915, 133 requests for material have been taken care of. Of 
these, eighty-one have come from the various State offices: 
fifty-eight from the Board of Health ; three from the Gov- 
ernor; one each from the Secretary of State and Treasurer 
of State ; seven from the Auditor of State ; one from the 
Attorney General; three from the Executive Council; one 
from the Law Library ; two from the Insurance Department ; 
two from the Board of Education; one from the Railroad 
Commission and one from the Board of Control of State 
Institutions. 

Of the remaining inquiries, eighteen have been of a purely 
historical character, such as recpiests for information from 
persons making historical research with a view to publication 
of historical books, theses and articles for periodicals. Legal 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 69 

inquiries have numbered thirteen, and cover a variety of 
cases from pension claims to bank controversies and settle- 
ment of land titles. Business interests have consulted the 
archives on thirteen different occasions, the last request com- 
ing from a stone quarry wishing to know the test made of 
its product at the time of the erection of the present capitol. 
Eight miscellaneous requests complete the total which shows 
the varied field of inquiry which this Department is called 

upon to serve. x^ t^ ^r 

— E. B. V. 



NOTES. 

What are public archives or public records? 

* * * * "the words 'public records' shall, unless 
a contrary intention clearly appears, mean any written or 
printed book or paper, or map., which is the property of the 
State, or of any county, city, town, or village or part thereof, 
and in or on which any entry has been made or is required 
to be made by law, or which any officer or employee of the 
State, or of any county, city, town or village has received or 
is required to receive for filing." — Laws of New York, 1913, 
ch. 424, sec. 1194. 



Archives have been housed in various places, from attics 
and storage vaults, old castles, judicial buildings, museums 
and libraries to the modern archives building specially 
equipped with iron and steel cases, fireproof vaults and ce- 
ment floors. 

In Europe, in former years, the most valuable papers were 
stored near the front of the building that they might be easily 
removed in case of fire or flood. 

At Neuwied, Germany, where the archives were endangered 
by the overflow of the Rhine, papers were placed on shelves 
in portable boxes which could be easily removed during high 
water. 

The enterprising Dutch archivists have planned and erected 
some of the best models of modern archives buildings and the 
cost of these structures has been very moderate. The Ger- 
mans also, though still utilizing a number of old castles and 



70 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

public buildings, have erected a few modern structures of 
the best type. 

A movement has been started in the United States to build 
at "Washington, D. C, a home for the National Archives which 
shall serve as a model of archival architecture for similar 
buildings in the various states. 



The Public Record Office of England in the year 1912, 
contained the records of 63 courts and departments. These 
records consisted of 2,321 classes; 511,466 pieces, rolls, vol- 
umes or packages and over 3,000,000 documents. 



The Patent Office of England has a subject index of rec- 
ords covering a period of 60 years. This index has been pub- 
lished from time to time and in 1912 consisted of over 500 
volumes. From 200 to 300 trained indexers besides clerical 
assistants work upon this index. It is compiled and published 
annually. 



The card index to rolls on file in the United States "War 
Department contains over 50,000,000 cards. This index was 
created to answer inquiries from the Pension Bureau and 
furnishes the military record of each and every soldier. 



In the Vatican collections in Rome, the division known as 
the Archivio Vaticano, has nearly 700 indexes or inventories 
compiled upon various plans and principles. They are kept 
in one room where they may be consulted by students. One 
writer has remarked that these indexes "probably form the 
most interesting body of material in the world for the study 
of the history of library methods." 



A manual of principles and practices of archives classifi- 
cation and administration has been prepared by three Dutch 
archivists. The treatise has proven so useful that it has been 
translated into German and French. 

The Public Archives Commission of the American Histor- 
ical Association is at present preparing a similar treatise for 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 71 

the use of archivists in the United States. The work is in 
charge of Victor H. Paltsits, chairman of the commission. 
It will outline principles and methods of classification and 
indexing of archives materials and also discuss sites and 
plans of buildings, proper heating, lighting and furnishing 
of the same ; preservation, repair and restoration of manu- 
scripts and the public use of the records. 



The city of Brussels maintained a current archives depot 
where all the current records of the various city offices were 
filed by the archivist as soon as the business to which they 
related was finished. Every document received by the city 
offices, was entered in a general register and referred to the 
proper department for consideration. After its considera- 
tion, the document was put in a properly labelled cover and 
turned over to the archives. Here it was suitably catalogued 
and filed for reference. Each year something like 30,000 pa- 
pers and 400 volumes were received by the city archivist. 



The French national archives in Paris, numbering over 
400,000 documents, are preserved in the old palace, Maison 
Soubise, a part of which was built in 1371. At the time of 
the French Revolution the palace became the property of the 
State and the archives were placed there by order of Na- 
poleon. Because of the great age of the building and the 
priceless value of its ancient records, there is no heating 
process or artificial light allowed so it would not be well to 
tarry long on a dark or cold day. The director and two other 
officials reside permanently in the palace and thus help to 
protect its treasures. 

Among the most interesting old manuscripts are the will 
of Napoleon, Marie Antoinette's last letter to the Princess 
Elizalieth, written on the night before her execution, and a 
journal of Louis XVI, 1766-1792. Splendid facsimilies of 
many interesting papers have been made and reduced to the 
post card form and these are on sale in the archives for a 
nominal price. 



72 ANNALS OF IOWA 

A very iini(|ue department of these archives is the depart- 
ment of seals. Here every seal that is found in the course 
of the arrangement of the records, is scientifically described 
and then reproduced by means of casts. These casts are 
catalogued and the most interesting ones placed on exhibition 
in the museum. 



EDWARD F. WINSLOW. 
By Wm. Forse Scott. 

Edward Francis Winslow was born in Augusta, Maine, 
Septembe 28, 1837 ; he died at Canadaiqua, New York, Octo- 
ber 22, 1914. He was a descendant of Kenelm Winslow, one 
of the Pilgrims on the first voyage of the Mayflower. His 
only school education was in the public schools of Augusta. 
When nineteen he sought his fortune in Iowa in the construc- 
tion of railways, then just beginning in that state. He was 
engaged on the Burlington & Missouri River road, living 
chiefly at Mount Pleasant when the Civil War began ; and 
had just then been married, his wife being Miss Laura 
Berry, daughter of Rev. Dr. Lucien H. Berry, a dis- 
tinguished educator 

When troops were called for to maintain the Union, he 
stopped all other affairs and enlisted a company, which 
joined the Fourth loM'a Cavalry as Co. F, with him as cap- 
tain. He led his company with the regiment in its long 
and adruous marches through Missouri and Arkansas as 
part of the army of the Southwest, and after several en- 
gagements was stationed at Helena, Arkansas, where he was 
provost-marshal of the army. Promoted to major in Janu- 
ary, 1863, he obtained the assignment of his regiment to 
Grant's command in the campaign against Vicksburg, the 
only cavalry regiment in that army. He soon distinguished 
himself in action, and during the siege of A^icksburg made 
many marches in the interior, against Johnston's forces. He 
was severely M^ounded in an engagement at Mechanicsburg 
in May, was promoted to colonel of his regiment July 4, 
1863, and appointed by Sherman chief of the cavalry forces 
of the Fifteenth Army Corps, several other cavalry regi- 
ments having been in the meantime added to the army. He 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 73 

led the regiment in Sherman's campaign against Jackson, 
in July, 1863, and in August made a raid, with a selected 
force of cavalry, through Mississippi from Vicksburg to 
Memphis, with splendid success. During the remainder of 
the year he was occupied in keeping the enemy in check be- 
tween Big Black river and Pearl river, from Vernon to 
Natchez. 

In February, 1864, in command of the cavalry, he led 
the advance of Sherman's army in the campaign of Meri- 
dian, nearly every day for two weeks in active conflict with 
the retreating forces of Gen. Leonidas Polk. Meantime he 
had joined with the majority of his regiment in re-enlisting 
for three years as "Veterans." In April he was ordered, 
with the regiment, to Memphis, and during the next four 
months was very actively employed in a succession of cam- 
paigns in west Tennessee and Mississippi, commanding 
sometimes a brigade, sometimes a division of cavalry. In 
this service he fought, with minor engagements, the battles 
of Guntown (Brice's Cross-roads), Tupelo, and Old Town 
Creek. In the disastrous battle of Guntown his was the 
only brigade to come out unbroken and without the loss of 
a gun. 

In September he led a brigade of cavalry from Memphis 
to the relief of General Steele at Little Rock. Thence he 
marchd with it up into Missouri, which state had just been 
invaded by General Sterling Price with three divisions of 
cavalry. At Big Blue river, near Kansas City, with two 
brigades, he attacked and routed Price's right wing, thus 
turning Price's invasion into a hurried retreat to the Ar- 
kansas river. In this battle he was again severely wounded. 
In December following, while still disabled by this wound, 
he commanded a brigade making a raid from Memphis to 
Vieksurg for the destruction of railways and depots of 
supply. 

Meantime. Decemer 12, 1864. he was brevetted brigadier- 
general bv a special order of the president, "for gallantry 
in the field." 

In January, 1865, he was assigned to the command of the 
First Brisrade. Fourth Division, Cavalry Troops of the 
Military Division of the Mississippi, which brigade included 



74 ANNALS OP IOWA 

the Third Iowa, Fourth Iowa and Tenth Missouri Cavalry, 
and ordered to Eastport, Miss. From there, in March, he 
led this brigade on the great Selma campaign, made hy 
13,000 cavalry under Major-general James H. Wilson, in 
which General Winslow took an extremely active part, with 
great success. Selma and Columbus, Georgia, heavily forti- 
fied and strongly defended, were both captured by assault, 
by the cavalry dismounted, Columbus being taken by Wins- 
low's brigade alone, in a night attack. In recognition of his 
services he w^as placed in command of both cities in succes- 
sion. 

On the surrender of the eastern Confederate armies, in 
April, General Winslow was posted at Atlanta, in command 
of the Fourth Division of the Cavalry Corps, and had a 
consp'cuous position in the control of the country by tlie 
army, M'hile he pushed with great energy the reconstruction 
of the railroad to Chattanooga. 

The war being over and these services completed, the 
Fourth Iowa and General Winslow, as its colonel, were 
mustered out at Atlanta, August 10, 1865, and discharged 
at Davenport August 24th, after four years of unceasing 
activity as volunteer soldiers. 

General Winslow quickly engaged in the construction of 
railways, first on the Vandalia, then the Cairo & Vincennes, 
later on the St. Louis &. Southeastern, the West Shore and 
the St. Louis & San Francisco. He was also inspector for 
the United States of the Union Pacific, receiver of the Bur- 
lington, Cedar Rapids & Northern, superintendent of the 
elevated railways in New York, and president of the New 
York, Ontario & Western, the Atlantic & Pacific, and the 
St. Louis & San Francisco roads. 

On retiring he traveled much in Europe with his wife and 
established a, home in Paris, though making many visits to 
America. 

While temporarily visiting at Canadaigua, New York, he 
passed away and his body was buried there. 

He was a man of unexcelled purity of character and 
vigor of mind, of burning and unbounded patriotism at all 
times, a most loyal and helpful friend and a devoted hus- 
band. Iowa cannot set his name or fame too high. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 75 

NOTABLE DEATHS 



Lorenzo S. Coffin was born in Alton, New Hampshire, April 
9, 1823; he died at his home, "Willow Edge," near Fort Dodge, 
Iowa, January 17, 1915. He received all possible education from 
the rural schools of his boyhood day, and then attended Wolfboro 
academy. When twenty-four years of age he went to Oberlin, 
Ohio, and entered the preparatory department of Oberlin College. 
After an attendance of eighteen months, he taught in Geauga 
Seminary, Geauga county. In 1855 he removed to Iowa, settling 
near Fort Dodge. For years he was a circuit rider. For some time 
he was editor of the agricultural department of the Fort Dodge 
Messenger. At the outbreak of the Civil war he enlisted in Com- 
pany I, Thirty-Second Iowa Infantry, and served as private, sergeant 
and chaplain until the close of the war. He returned to his farm 
near Fort Dodge and there made his home until his death. From 
1883 to 1888 he was a member of the Iowa State Railroad Com- 
mission and ever maintained an interest in railroad men and their 
welfare. In 1891 he built Hope Hall for the benefit of convicts 
recently released from prison, but the project was abandoned when 
the penitentiary at Anamosa was changed into a reformatory. The 
property was transferred to the W. C. T. U. and used as a home 
for unfortunate girls until the buildings were accidentally burned 
to the ground. Mr. Coffin was for many years an active member of 
the State Agricultural Society and prominent in agricultural and 
stock-breeding pursuits. In 1906 he was candidate for Governor of 
Iowa on the Prohibition ticket. His greatest work was the securing 
of Iowa legislation compelling equipment with automatic brake and 
coupler equipment the railroad cars in Iowa, and of national law of 
the same nature. He founded a railroad men's home near Chicago 
and was the originator of the temperance movement among rail- 
road men, working always actively in its behalf. 



LoBEN S. Tylee was born in Boston, Mass., April 21, 1845; he 
died in Los Angeles, California, October 13, 1914. He removed to 
Keokuk in 1856. At the outbreak of the Civil war he enlisted as 
drummer boy in Company H, Fifteenth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, 
and was mustered out at Vicksburg, December 31, 1863. He re- 
enlisted as veteran in Company H, Fifteenth Veteran Infantry, and 
participated in all the battles in which his regiment engaged. He 
was mustered out on July 24, 1865. He returned to Keokuk 
and engaged with his father in the furniture business. In 1875 
he engaged in the auction and commission business with I. L. 
Brown, under the firm name of Brown & Tyler. In 1872 he was 
mustered into Torrence Post, No. 2, G. A. R., and held various offices 



76 ANNALS OF IOWA 

in that organization. He served as assistant adjutant general of the 
Department of Iowa, G. A. R.; as adjutant and commander, with 
rank of first lieutenant, of the Second regiment of Infantry, Iowa 
State Guards, and in 1878 was appointed major and assistant in- 
spector general of the First Brigade, First Division of the Iowa 
State Guard. He was active and popular in Grand Army circles and 
state military organizations. For a number of years he had spent 
the winters in California, but continued to call Keokuk his home. 
A collection of photographs and negatives of every citizen of Iowa 
who attained the rank of lieutenant colonel or higher rank, in full 
rank or by brevet, or of captain of a battery of light artillery, in 
his service in the War of the Rebellion, was gathered and arranged 
by Major Tyler, and is now in the possession of the Historical De- 
partment, known as the Loren S. Tyler collection. His immense 
correspondence and all his souvenirs and mementos became the 
property of the Historical Department of Iowa upon his death. 



Albeet Martin Adams was born April 16, 1843, at Orange, Ver- 
mont; he died at Humboldt, Iowa, January 4, 1915. He worked on 
a farm and was educated in the common schools until the age of 
nineteen, when he enlisted in Company F, Forty-second Massachusetts 
Infantry, participating in the engagements about New Orleans. In 
August, 1863, he returned to his home in Vermont, but soon removed 
with his father's family to Humboldt, Iowa. At the president's call 
for 300,000 more troops, Mr. Adams re-enlisted in Company F, 
Second Iowa Cavalry. He participated in the battles around Nash- 
ville, was taken prisoner at Hollow Tree Gap and spent four months 
in Andersonville prison. In March, 1866, he returned to Humboldt 
county, and for a number of years engaged in various lines of busi- 
ness. In 1874, after three years' service in various newspaper 
oflftces, he boueht the HumhoMt Independent, then located in Dakota 
City. In 1890 the paper was removed to Humboldt. From the time 
of its purchase until his death, Mr. Adams was sole editor and pro- 
prietor of the paper, which was Democratic until 1896, but since 
that time has been Republican. Mrs. Adams was associated with 
him in the publication of the paper until her death, in 1909. Mr. 
Adams taught the first term of school in Avery township and was 
the first mayor of Dakota City. He was county treasurer for two 
terms, a prominent worker in several social and fraternal organi- 
zations and ever interested in all matters of public improvement. 
He was one of the chief promoters of the Upper Des Moines Edi- 
torial Association, and at one time member of the executive com- 
mittee of the National Editorial Association. 



Lewis Albert Reiley was born in Nashville, Ohio, March 1, 184.5; 
he died at Wapello, Iowa, December 26, 1914. He removed with his 
parents to Louisa county in 1853, and attended the common schools 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 77 

of that county and the high school at Mt. Pleasant. He ran. away 
from the high school to join the army and remained in the South 
six months. He afterward spent a year in school in New York and 
a year in Knox College, Galeshurg, Illinois. He hegan teaching at 
nineteen years of age, and five years later was elected county super- 
intendent of schools. He studied law with Judge D. N. Sprague of 
Wapello, was admitted to the bar in April, 1871, and formed a 
partnership with Judge Sprague which lasted for some years. In 
1885 he was elected representative from Louisa county and served 
through the Twenty-first and Twenty-second General Assemblies. 
He devoted himself to revising the judiciary system of the State 
and perfecting the grand jury law. He was one of the managers 
of the impeachment trial of John L. Brown, auditor of state. He 
took active interest in legislation affecting the blind people of the 
State, and was appointed by Governor Larrabee a member of a 
commission to visit institutions for the blind in the United States 
and Canada. 

Smith McPherson was born in Morgan county, Indiana, Feb- 
ruary 14, 1848; he died at Red Oak, Iowa, January 17, 1915. He 
worked on his father's farm and attended the district school and 
the academy at Mooresville until 1869, when he removed to Iowa 
and entered the law department of the State University of Iowa, 
graduating therefrom the following year. He immediately began 
the practice of law at Red Oak and continued therein until 1899, 
except when filling public office. From 1874 to 1880 he was district 
attorney of the Third Iowa Judicial District. From 1881 to 1885 
he served as attorney general of the state. For some years he was 
general attorney for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railway. 
He was elected representative in the Fifty-Sixth Congress, but 
after a year's service, resigned to accept the appointment of United 
States District Judge for the Southern District of Iowa, and served 
in that capacity until his death. Judge McPherson was a stand-pat 
Republican, an active politician and a staunch advocate of measures 
for the best interests of his party and of the community. He held 
many terms of court at Kansas 'City and St. Louis in the Missouri 
District, and presided frequently in the federal courts of Kansas. 



ViNNiE Ream Hoxie was born in Madison, Wisconsin, Sep- 
tember 25, 1847; she died at Washington, D. C, November 20, 1914. 
She removed when a child with her parents to Washington, D. C, 
and several years later to Missouri, where she attended Christian 
College. During the 'Civil war the family again removed to 
Washington and Miss Ream for some time filled a clerkship in the 
Postoffice Department. She took up the study of art and when 
still a young girl made sketches of President Lincoln for a statue. 
Before her clay model was executed the President was assassinated. 



78 ANNALS OP IOWA 

Receiving from Congress a commission to execute a statue of Lin- 
coln, she went with her parents to Rome to liave the clay model 
duplicated in Carrara marble. This statue is at present in tne 
rotunda of the national capitol. She subsequently gave her entire 
time to sculpture, studying under Bonnat in Paris and Majoli in 
Rome. A statue of Admiral Farragut, ideal statues of Miriam, 
'•'The West," "The Indian Girl," busts or medallions of Gen. G. B. 
McClelland, Thaddeus Stevens, John Sherman, Horace Greeley, 
Peter Cooper, Gen. U. S. Grant, and a bronze statue of Governor 
Samuel J. Kirkwood are among her best known works. 



Nathaniel S. Ketchum was born in Hackettstown, New Jersey, 
July 25, 1839; he died at Marshalltown, Iowa, January 16, 1915. 
His early education was obtained at Hopewell, Hoboken, and he 
later studied civil and mechanical engineering at Princeton Uni- 
versity. He removed to Iowa with John I. Blair and worked with 
the corps of engineers constructing the Chicago, Iowa & Nebraska 
Railway. In 1862 he entered the grain, stock and implement busi- 
ness, beginning at Marshalltown and extending to various towns 
as the railroad was completed. In 1872 he built the Eureka imple- 
ment works at Sterling, Illinois, which he sold in 1874. In 1879 he 
built the Moline wagon works at Moline, Illinois, and a year later 
the Ketchum wagon works at Marshalltown, which he conducted 
for ten years. In 1890 he incorporated the Ketchum & Johnson 
Company, wholesale and retail dealers in wagons and implements, 
but, after ten years' management, retired. He was a Republican 
in politics, and was for several years a member and director of 
the State Agricultural Society. He was a member of the Iowa State 
Railroad Commission at the time of his death, having served since 
January 1, 1905. 

Samuel Forrey was born in Columbia, Lancaster county, Penn- 
sylvania, February 11, 1826; he died April 28, 1914, at his home in 
Leon, Iowa. He was of French and German ancestry. His educa- 
tion was obtained in the public schools and in Wyoming Seminary, 
Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. He studied law in the office of Hon. 
Thaddeus Stevens at Lancaster and after admission to the bar 
practiced his profession two years in Chambersburg. In the sum- 
mer of 1855 he came west and located at Leon, Decatur county, 
Iowa, where he immediately began a successful professional career. 
While acting as county judge he organized Decatur county into 
and gave names to most of the sixteen townships. He took an 
active interest in promoting the development of his town and 
county, and was a pioneer Republican who practically organized the 
party in his section of the State. In 1870 he was appointed circuit 
judge by Governor Samuel Merrill and afterward was elected twice 
as district judge, serving eight years in all as circuit and district 
judge. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 79 

Chaeles Wesley Doer was born in Kewanee, Illinois, January 

18, 1856; he died in Seattle, Washington, December 8, 1914. His 
early manhood was spent in Des Moines, Iowa, where he practiced 
law for a number of years. In 18S8 he removed to Washington Ter- 
ritory, locating on Bellingham bay. In 1894 he was elected to the 
State Senate from the Bellingham district and served through two 
sessions. During the formative period of the state he was one of 
the most active and influential citizens of the Puget Sound country, 
in 1900 he served as chairman of the Republican state convention. 
Mr. Dorr made a special study of the salmon fishing and canning 
industry and its legal phases, and was recognized as one of the 
foremost authorities on the salmon business on the coast. In 1901 
he went to San Francisco as general counsel of the Alaska Packers' 
Association, became vice president and general manager and re- 
mained there eight years. Returning to Washington, he renewed 
his previous partnership with Judge Hadley in the practice of law, 
and settled in Seattle. 

Robert Joxes Burdette was born in Greensboro, Pennsylvania, 
July 30, 1844; he died at Pasadena, California, November 

19, 1914. When eight years of age he removed with his parents 
to Peoria, Illinois, and was educated in the common schools of 
that city, graduating from the high school in 1861. He enlisted in 
the Forty-Seventh Illinois Volunteers and served from 1862 to 
1865, participating in the siege of Vicksburg and the Red River 
campaign. Returning to Peoria, he engaged in newspaper work 
and was on several papers in that place. In 1872 he began con- 
tributing to the Burlington Haick-Eye, in 1874 became managing 
editor and soon made a reputation as a humorist. He afterward 
served in editorial capacity on the Brooklyn, N. Y. Eagle for some 
time, and was contributor to the Los Angeles Times from 1900 until 
his death. He was ordained minister of the Baptist church in 
1903 and served as pastor of the Temple Baptist Church of Los 
Angeles from 1903 to 1909 and was thereafter pastor emeritus. He 
was famous as a lecturer and author. 



WiELiAji L. DisTiN was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, February 9, 
1843; he died at Chicago, November 20, 1914. He removed to 
Keokuk, Iowa, in 1857 and was connected with the Des Moines 
Valley Railroad until 1863. On February 3, 1864, he enlisted in 
Company C, Seventeenth Iowa Volunteer Infantry. He was taken 
prisoner in October, 1864, and confined in Andersonville prison for 
six months. After the war he returned to Keokuk and was em- 
ployed in the railroad and express business for a year or more. He 
located in Quincy, Illinois, and founded a produce house, which 
afterwards became known as the W. L. Distin Produce Com- 



80 ANNALS OP IOWA 

pany. In 1897 he received from President McKinley the appoint- 
ment of surveyor general of Alaska. His work was so efficiently 
done that he continued in that capacity through succeeding adminis- 
trations until his resignation in 1913. Colonel Distin was one of 
the early members of the Illinois National Guard and at one time 
department commander of the Illinois Division, G. A. R. 



Right Reverend Monsignor Anton Niermann was born near 
Munster, Westphalia, Germany, August 9, 1831; he died in Daven- 
port, Iowa, December 10, 1914. He was educated at the gymnasium 
at Munster and in the university of the same place. On January 
20, 1858, he sailed for New Orleans. He was sent for training to 
the Carondelet seminary, was recalled in 1859 and ordained in 
Dubuque on March 27th of that year. He was assigned to St. 
Kunigunde's, afterward St. Joseph's parish, with which he was 
connected until his death. When he became pastor he was the 
only German Catholic priest in the vicinity, and was called upon 
to make long, toilsome trips in Iowa and Illinois. Under his direc- 
tion the new St. Joseph's church was completed and dedicated on 
September 16, 1883. In April, 1909, his golden anniversary as 
pastor was celebrated, and in recognition of his piety and faithful 
service he was made Monsignor. 



Frank W. Eichelherger was born in Piqua, Ohio, August 7, 1841; 
he died at Ottumwa, Iowa, October 11, 1914. He was educated in 
the common schools of Ohio and Muscatine, Iowa, where he removed 
in 1854. When twenty years of age he obtained employment on the 
Muscatine Journal and was city editor from 1861-1863, and later 
correspondent for the Chicago Tribtme. In 1866 he removed to 
Ottumwa, studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1868. He 
began the practice in Bloomfleld the same year and continued until 
January 1, 1895, when he became judge in the Second Judicial 
District of Iowa. His service as district judge had lasted nearly 
twenty years when his death occurred. His remains were taken to 
his old home and interred in the I. O. O. F. cemetery at Bloomfleld. 



Alonzo C. Parker was born in Greene county, Indiana, March 22, 
1853; he died at Des Moines, November 7, 1914. His early education 
Avas obtained in the public schools of Indiana and Buchanan county, 
Iowa. He graduated from the law department of the Iowa State 
"University with the class of 1876. He began the practice of law at 
Oelwein and remained there two years. He removed to Spencer and 
practiced there fifteen years. In August, 1894, he removed to Des 
Moines, soon taking high rank at the bar and maintaining leader- 
ship until he died. 



[\-<.l} :-,hKiKi. VOL. XII. NO. 2 



JULY. 1915 



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.\ HISTORICAL .:, .-.KTERLY 



n:S:MR]CAL DEPARTMENT OF JOWA 

EDGAR K. ILKULA'S. Cr.ia'or 



KiCt $i.i;:' L'„: ■ SINCJLE NUMBER 25 CUNTS 



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ANNALS OF lOAV.V. 
Contexts for July; liMT). 



Miscellaneous. 
The Story of an Emigrant Tiain -.1 

J. \V. ClIEXEY r 

Evolmtion of the Geiieral Eoek Scheme in low^i 9:^ 

Charles Keves 

■"The Little Brown CliurcU in the Vol''": jr.s Authof 
and Its Inspiration l!»i 

Is \.bt;[ L.v Powers 

Tue Writings ot Jndg'e Geor<rf' G. TVrig:ht (ContiiiiieJ; • • -11" 
Iowa Authors and Their "Works (Continued,' V.\'l 

AlJCE ]\L\RPLE. 



EdUurial D' p.irhiu i)'. 
^Jotiou Pietui-i^'Filras as Ili.^torieal 3.[at<-riaJ .141 

Co-operatio?! in Aoquiring Historic (:!rui!iids ;nul ^Markin:: 

Historic Sites 144 

Notes 146 

Notable D.aths l^'^ 



<» (1 III ifsfriitii>ns. 

-t^'^~ Hose Frontispifc- 

Mrs. Alpha Bj-owu. Sallic Fox. 2\ii-s. E/.v-.i .Joti.'s .>1 

AVilliam C. Stidir.-r >^ 

L<!vvai-d M<vy ''T 

Fv.)lntion ot the (imcral J»"fi< Si-heine in Iowa 1>-' 

Dr. W: S. Pitts 1"' 

•'Little Brown Cliureii iu^tljc \'ai.'"'. aiitOL',ranh copy [t':i>- 

simile) '"' 

l^.nidford Fongrciational <'iii!rch, I'riidfufil. Irova ....'... I'"' 
.Motion Pi--iure ImIiii as n!>;--nca! M:dcria[ IF- 




L. J. Rose, a pioneer of Van Buren County, Iowa, and of Southern California 
an ill-fated expedition by the soutliern route to California in 1858. 



head of 



Annals of Iowa. 

Vol. XII, No. 2. Des Moines, Iowa, July, i9l5. 3d Series 

THE STORY OF AN EMIGRANT TRAIN. 

BY J. W. CHENEY. 

In the spring of 1858 the L. J. Rose emigrant train left 
Iowa for California, but it failed to reach its destination. 

It is difficult, if not impossible, for the present generation 
to realize that less than one hundred years ago the country 
west of the Mississippi was in a wilderness condition. At this 
writing, in 1915, I am only in my 70th year, but can remem- 
ber seeing an old map, which located a "Great American 
Desert" east of the Rocky Mountains. It is said that when- 
Daniel Webster was a newly-fledged statesman he described 
that stretch of country as "a worthless region, which will 
never be settled by white men." But the great states of Ne- 
braska, Kansas and Oklahoma have crowded the "Great 
American Desert" off the map, and now embrace a richer ag- 
ricultural region than any New England man ever saw — until 
he came west. But this transformation did not take place in 
a decade or two. 

Iowa was not in that "Desert" region, yet Iowa was net 
opened for white settlers until 1833 — eighty-two years ago; 
and she had not reached her "teens" in statehood at the time 
of my story — 1858. At that time her population averaged 
only about 10 to the square mile, and she had less than 400 
miles of railroad, the longest single line of which did not ex- 
tend half-way across the State. It is safe to say that not one- 
half her lands were then owned l)y actual settlers and a very 
small fraction of their holdings was under cultivation. It 
seems very strange to us now that for ten years prior to that 
lime many of her settlers had been "pulling up stakes" ami 
going still farther west, the most of them to the Pacific coast. 
When the Rose train passed through in 1858, only a narrow 
strip of Kansas was thinly settled. The "Desert" beyond 
had undergone no change, and further on were the mountains 
and more desert country. 



82 ANNALS OP IOWA. 

Emigrating frcin Iowa to California in the fifties was a 
very serious undertaking. The long journey was usually made 
in heavy, covered wagons^ — ''Prairie Schooners" — drawn by 
slow-footed oxen, and from four to five months were con- 
sumed in making the trip,- depending on the starting pcint, 
the route taken and good or ill fortune on the w^ay. I know 
of one train, in 1864. that was six months in reaching San 
Beriiardino. In addition to the great length of the journey 
and the many natural difficulties to be overcome, there was 
always dargcr of meeting disaster at the hands of Indians. 
Some trains did meet that fate and it befell the Ros? expedi- 
tion, on the bank of the Colorado River, just where the mem- 
bers could look "beyond the swelling flood" and see their 
''promised land." 

My story begins at the good old town of Keosauqua, which 
is not now of so much relative importance as it was when the 
geography of my school days said it was one "of the principal 
towns of the State." My purpose is not, even incidentalh', tj 
glorify the town as having been the nursery cf great men. 
which has often been done and perhaps overdone. I can ap- 
preciate the neat turn made by a waggish friend Avho said : 
"Keosauqua is celebrated for her great men ivho don't live 
there." 

L. J. Rose was a Jew, who had forsaken the ways of his 
fathers. About the year 1848 he came from Quincy, Illinois, 
to Keosauqua and engaged in the mercantile business. He 
was then only 22 years old but already in good financial cir- 
cumstances, and in the next ten years he greatly increased his 
riches. In 1851 he m,arried the daughter of Ezra Jones, who 
with his wife went with Rose on the attempted trip to Cali- 
fornia. 

Next to Rose, Alpha Brown was one of the principal charac- 
ters in this expedition. In 1845, when he was 33 years old, he 
came to Keosauqua with his wife and two children. His wife 
died in the following summer and in the winter of 1847 he 
married the widow Fox, who was the sister of that pioneer, 
Charles Baldwin'. Mrs. Brown and her daughter, Sallie Fox. 

' 'A character sketch of Charles Baldwin by Judge Robert Sloan appeared 
m the ANNALS, Vol. XI, pp. 286-90, Jan., 1914. 



THE STORY OF AN EMIGRANT TRAIN. 83 

were also prominent characters. Alpha Brown was always 
a poor man, but a noble man nevertheless, and was highly re- 
spected. He went to California with the "forty-niners" or 
soon afterward, but fortune frowned on him as she did on the 
majority of the gold-seekers and he soon returned to his fam- 
ily in Iowa, richer only in the experience of a ''round trip 
across the plains." 

In the winter of 1856-57 he and Mr. Rose determined to 
emigrate to California and settle at or near San Francisco. 
Rose, having abundant means, was to finance the venture. 
Browm, because of his practical knowledge, was to be the exe- 
cutive head of the expedition. The whole of the next year 
was spent in preparation by Rose in disposing of his large 
holdings in and about Keosauqua; by Brown in "buying up," 
assembling and organizing the outfit which was to include a 
herd of 150 head of stock cattle to be driven along and sold 
at the end of the journey. For his purpose he established a 
rendezvous on Little Fox river, 12 miles from Keosauqua and 
two miles south of the present town of Cantril, where he 
moved his family to a little farm in the midst of a great ex- 
panse of country still in its natural state. 

Some 5'oung men were engaged to drive teams and the herd 
of cattle on the expedition. For this service they were to be 
"boarded" on the trip, but paid no money. Thus thej^ were 
"grub-staked" in the most literal sense, and "jumped at the 
chance," for they thought that fortunes were waiting for 
them in the land of gold. Among those young men may be 
mentioned Billy Stidger, then only 19 years old ; Will Harper, 
20; Ed Akey, 26, and Lee Griffin, age unkno-s'VTi, but old 
enough to have Avanderlust in its chronic stage, for besides 
several minor trips he had already been once to California 
and once to Texas. 

"About the middle of April," 1858, the caravan started. 
There were four heavy wagons, each drawn by six strong 
oxen — that is, "three yoke" in the parlance of that day. Three 
of the wagons were loaded with supplies. In the fourth were 
Mrs. Brown, the five children and some family belongings. 
Mr. Rose, his wife and their two little girls, and Mr. Jones 
and wife rode in a spring vehicle of some sort, which IMr 



84 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

Rose called an ambulance. The young men of the party habi- 
tually referred to it as "the avalanche." The drivers of the 
teams walked by the side of their oxen, but Mr. Brown and 
the young men who drove the herd of cattle were on horse- 
back. 

On account of the ]\Iormon troubles in Utah, the emigrants 
decided to take the next route south of that territory, which 
would make their journey about 500 miles longer. At Kansas 
City they were joined by "a Dutch family," with their wagon 
and mule team. Farther on they annexed another party with 
two or three wagons and teams. With this party there was 
"a preacher from Missouri," who later on gave a good ac- 
count of himself. At Albuquerque in New Mexico, they were 
joined by a company with three wagons and 50 head of stock 
cattle. The caravan then included five or six families, "about 
thirty men," two rigs drawn by mules, ten wagons drawn by 
60 oxen, and a herd of 200 stock cattle. They spent a week 
at Albuquerque, resting and refitting. 

Hitherto they had passed through much virgin country, 
but cvfr a fairly well-defined trail. From Albuquerque west- 
ward a trail had been explored onlj^ the previous summer by 
a small party of U. >S. engineers and soldiers which was called 
"The Beale and Whipple Route." And as far as it was per- 
mitted to go, the Rose aggregation w^as the first emigrant train 
to pass over that trail. On this account a guide was engaged 
to pilot them. At that time New Mexico Territory included 
the Arizona of toda3% and extended to the Colorado River, 
which was the California boundary. Arizona Territory was 
not created until five years later — 1863. 

From Alburiuerque to the Colorado, a distance of about 
500 miles, the emigrants saw only two settlements — if they 
might be called such; for one was a herder's station of a few 
"shacks," and the other only the ruins of the old Spanish 
town of Zuni, where some friendly Indians lived. Very early 
on this new trail the emigrants began to experience their 
great trials. The mountain travel made the cattle foot-sore, 
and beyond the mountains they often had to make forced 
marches in the heat cf mid-summer, sometimes through a day 
and night, and even into the next day in order to camp where 





L 




Mrs. Alpha Brown, Sallie Fox and Mrs. Ezra Jone.s, pioneers of Van Buren County, 
Iowa, and of Southern California, members of the Rose Expedition. 



THE STORY OF AN EMIGRANT TRAIN. 85 

there was grass and water enough for so many animals. The 
teams grew thin and weak. Somewhere on this stretch they 
saw the first wdld Indians; a tribe few in number, small in 
stature, degi^aded and miserably poor, living on insects, small 
game and roots. They Avere the Digger Indians, objects of 
pity rather than of fear. Unfortunately the emigrants took 
them to be samples in that respect, and concluded that wild 
Indians in general were not very dangerous. They were scon 
to pay dearly for that mistake. 

When about 18 miles from the Colorado Kiver, the teams 
of three families "gave out" — became temporarily unable to 
draw their loads, the Dutch family's mule team being one of 
them. Knowing that the train would be detained several days 
at the river, the men left their families and wagons and took 
their teams along with the train, intending to come back for 
their families as soon as their teams were sufficiently re- 
freshed with water, grass and some rest at the river. 

Now, the habitat of the wild Mohave Indians was along 
the river in that region, and they numbered about 4,000 souls. 
When the train w^as within 3 or 4 miles of the river a small 
party of Mohaves appeared and went along with it. 

As they drew near the river, and Mr. Eose and his wife 
were walking at the side of the trail, a stout Indian suddenly 
stepped forward and laid hands on Mrs. Rose, who was so 
badly frightened as to forget for the moment that her hus- 
band was her natural protector. She screamed and broke 
away from the Indian in the same instant, then ran and 
climbed upon the tongue of a wagon, behind the moving oxen. 
Mr. Rose was very angry, but wisely refrained from resent- 
ing the insult for fear of serious consequences. The caravan 
camped by the river and remained in that camp "about a 
day and a half." 

Jn the meantime the Dutchman's mules seemed sufficiently 
''rested up" to justify him in going back for his family. After 
he started it was decided to move camp, farther down the 
river, to a perfectly clear space of "about half an acre" in 
extent. There, beginning at the river bank, the wagons were 
drawn up in two parallel rows, with quite a space between 
the rows. Thus the river practically closed one end of the 



86 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

camp, while the other end was left open for egress and ingress. 
On the sides of the camp there were some trees and much un- 
derbrush, but opposite the open end of the camp there were 
very few trees and no underbrush. The chief problem at 
this time was how to get over the river, which was "about 500 
yards wide," with "a movable bottom" of alternate depths 
and shallows, caused by the sand and silt constantly "boil- 
ing U]) and settling again." Of course there was no ferry 
boat, and it would have been madness to attempt hauling the 
wagons through with the teams. It was decided to unyoke 
the oxen, turn them loose, and drive them through with the 
herd cattle, and to ferry the women, children and wagons 
over on a raft. "About half a mile" below the camp suitable 
timber was found, near a good place for launching the logs 
and constructing the raft. 

From the time of their first appearance, the Indians had 
been coming and going at intervals, and increasing in num- 
bers and imj)udence. They got in the way, they begged, they 
pilfered, and became an intolerable nuisance. Soon after 
making the new camp, in the afternoon, they became so 
troublesome that a rope was stretched across the camp, shut- 
ting in a space for the women, children and such things as 
were often needed, and the Indians were not allowed to enter 
it. Their looks and actions at once showed that they were 
deeply offended. They loitered about for a while, .then went 
away. 

The next morning, August 30, a small party of men went 
down the river to cut logs for the raft and not an Indian 
came near the camp through all the forenoon. That fact fore- 
boded evil. The guide correctly sensed it, and said: "We're 
going to have trouble with them Indians, and we'll have it 
before night." It seems very strange that the emigrants did 
not heed his warning. But they afterward confessed that 
they classed the Mohaves with the Diggers, and thought there 
was no real cause for alarm. 

At noon the usual frugal meal was eaten. Meanwhile the 
way-worn emigrants comforted themselves wdth the hope of 
being over the river in a few days, with teams refreshed, and 
moving along on the last 500 mile stretch of their journey. 



I 



THE STORY OF AN EMIGRANT TRAIN. 87 

Immediately after the dinner hour, Billy Stidger and a 
man named Young were sent on horseback to the site of the 
first camp and farther, if necessary, to meet the expected 
Dutch family and guide it to the new camp. Griffin and 
Akey, on foot, went down the river to resume work on the 
raft. Brown soon followed them on horseback, and later on 
men and a team were to go and drag the logs to the M'ater. 
Some distance from the camp the oxen and herd cattle were 
browsing on the brush or eating grass in the open places, and 
were being herded by three or four men. 

Presently the herders saw some Indians on their way to the 
camp, and although they were in their war-paint, the herders 
were not alarmed, for when first seen the Indians were al- 
ready passing by without disturbing the herders or the cat- 
tle. But that was an Indian trick, and good strategy withal, 
their purpose being to first surprise and overcome the greater 
numbers at the camp, after which it would be an easy matter 
to turn back and get the herders and the cattle. 

When the Indians were out of the herders' sight, they de- 
ployed and began their stealth}^ advance upon the camp. They 
flitted from tree to tree, or glided noiselessly through the 
brush, vigilantly watching to avoid discovery, peering from 
behind a tree or over the brush before making another for- 
ward movement. There was really no need of so much cau- 
tion, as no sentinels had been posted to discover approaching 
danger and sounci the alarm and within the camp a sense oi 
security seemed to prevail. The men and women were en- 
gaged in the usual duties of camp life, or resting and convers- 
ing, and the children were playing. 

Nearer and nearer came the Indians, until thej" were almost 
close enough to let fly their arrows and then rush in and finisli 
matters with the war-club. What happened to prevent the 
death or capture of every person in that camp? Just one oi 
those little things, which are nothing in themselves alone, but 
sometimes of immense importance in their relation to greater 
things. At the critical moment just described, Sallie Fox, a 
little girl of twelve years, gleefull}^ climbed upon a wagon. 
She happened to look out from the camp and in that instaiit 
her joy changed to terror. She sprang to the ground, scream- 



88 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

ing: "0, the Indians are coining! And they're going to kill 
us ! " A flight of arrows followed her cry, and the war-whoop 
rang out. The white men seized their guns, and the battle 
was on. 

Having failed to completely surprise the camp, the Indians 
promptly retired to a safer distance and from the cover of 
trees and brush continued the fight with bow and arrow. Hear- 
ing the din of battle, the herders wisely forsook the cattle and 
by adroit manoeuvering, reached the camp alive, able and 
willing to fight. Before the struggle began Stidger and 
Young had reached the site of the first camp., and had no need 
of going any farther. The Dutch family had arrived. There 
stood their wagon, but the mules, their owner and his wife 
were nowhere to be seen. And, so far as known, white men 
never saw them again. There on the ground lay the bodies 
of the three children, apparently clubbed to death. One was 
a little boy, another a girl about twelve years old, the third 
almost a young woman. Each of them had been stripped of 
every article of clothing. One glance at the revolting scene 
was enough for the young men, and it may be that the sound 
of battle was borne to their ears at the same moment. They 
turned and rode fast for the beleaguered camp, reached it un- 
unscathed and bravely took a part in the fray. 

Akey and Griffin arrived at the place where the raft was 
to be made, and Brown soon joined them. At that moment 
rifle shots were heard in the direction of the camp, and one 
of the young men exclaimed: "What does that mean?'' 
BroMTi's face blanched as he replied: "My God! It means 
Indians!" In the same breath he wheeled his horse about 
and rode away at full, speed to command his men and defend 
his family. Akey and Griffin followed him and as they ran 
they drew their Colt revolvers and held them ready for in- 
stant use. 

Brown's brief experience is not fully known, but evidently 
he had nearly reached his goal, and was leaning well forward 
in the saddle to urge on his horse or to present a smaller mark 
to any foe, when an Indian, who must have been but a few 
yards away, sent an arrow into his back. It ranged forward 
and upward, inflicting a mortal wound. There are two ac- 




William C. Stidger, in his uniform as a ,«°l^ier in the Fifteen^^ 
Iowa Infantry, about 1863, a member of the Rose Expedition. 



THE STORY OF AN EMIGRANT TRAIN. 89 

counts of his death : One, that he rode into the camp and said, 
"Boys, I'm done fcr. Help me down!" and was dead by the 
time he reached the ground ; the other, that he rode to his 
family and said, "Mother, where is my gun?" and died in the 
act of getting off his horse. 

As Akey neared the camp, and was roundii:g a clump of 
brush he came face to face with an Indian, whose arrow was 
on the bow-string. Akey's ready revolver sped its bullet into 
his breast, and as he fell his arrow Avent feebly up into the air. 
A minute later Akey came upon another Indian and shot him. 
At the edge of the brush, between which and the wagons 
there was a narrow strip of open ground, he found Griffin 
standing in a half-dazed condition and swaying unsteadii.y 
en his feet. Akey aroused him with the question, "What 
are you standing here for?" Griff'in partly extended his 
right arm with two arrows fast in it, and replied, "That's 
w^hat for." One arrow had gone almost through the arm, 
just above the wrist, the other one had struck near the same 
place and ranged along the bone nearly to the elbow. Akey 
gave Griffin a vigorous push and said "Run!" As they ran 
across the open strip there came after them a shower of ar- 
rows — "it seemed like an armful of them." Not just then, 
but when his face was toward the foe, an arrow struck Akey 
just below the left collar-bone, passed between it and the 
tendon below and out at the arin-pit. 

For some reason Mr. Brown 's wagon was a little inside the 
camp and next to the river. One Indian sneaked along under 
the river bank and was climbing up by the aid of that wagon 
tongue when he was promptly shot. That was probably at 
the very beginning of the fight, and no doubt other warriors 
were with him, but warned by his fate they sneaked back 
again. 

The Browi] wagon had little in it and early in the fight some 
of the men unloaded it, took the wagon-box off and leaned it 
against another wagon. Mrs. Brown then made the children 
cuddle into and against it, in a sitting position, and leaned a 
feather bed against them as a sort of breast work. One arrow 
went through that feather bed and through Sallie Fox from 
side to side, at the waist line, fortunately too far forward to 



90 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

strike a vital part, but making a very serious wound. In ad- 
dition to those already mentioned, Mrs. Jones and a few 
others were slightly wounded during the fight which lasted 
"about three hours." 

It appears strange that there were so few casualties among 
the emigrants, but it may be accounted for. The white man 
is the Indian's superior in genuine fighting qualities and in 
this instance he had much better weapons. At long range the 
rifle is more effective than the bow, and at short range the bow 
is inferior to the revolver. By instinct and training the 
Indians were over cautious. They would not take much risk 
of getting hurt. Therefore they were generally too far away 
for accurate and effective shooting with bow and arrow. Ow- 
ing to the absence of cover near the open end of the camp, 
they could not get close enough to enfilade it, without expos- 
ing themselves to a deadly rifle fire. 

In numbers the advantage was altogether with the Indians. 
When all the men got into the camp, there were about twenty- 
five able to fight. They estimated the Indians at 300. This 
may have been too high, as estimates are very apt to be in 
such cases. If there had been only half that many, one con- 
certed and determined rush by them would have quickly over- 
come the camp, but it would have been at a heavy cost to 
themselves, and Indian-like, they were not willing to pay the 
price. 

The emigrants realized that their case was a desperate one 
but they fought with coolness and calculation. To be saving of 
their precious ammunition, and, if possible, make every shot 
count, they fired only when an Indian exposed himself in the 
act of letting fly an arroAV or flitting across some open space. 
Even with that precaution the ammunition was running low 
at the end of two hours fighting, and hope had almost for- 
saken them, when an incident occurred which turned the tide 
of battle in their favor. Either to animate his warriors, or 
to increase his fame, and confident that no rifleman could hit 
him at such a distance, the Indian chief stepped boldly into 
the open, "about 200 yards from the camp," and stood there 
making defiant gestures, especially by patting himself on the 
breast, plainly inviting a shot. 



THE STORY OF AN EMIGRANT TRAIN. 91 

Now, "the preacher from Missouri" was known to be a good 
marksman, and some one said to him, "Look there! Shoot that 
Indian!" Pie shook his head and replied, "My gun won't 
carry up true that far. ' ' Near him there was a man who had 
been shot with an arrow just above the right eye, into which 
the blood ran so that he could not see to shoot. He said, 
"Here, take my gun ; you can hit him with it. " The preacher 
took the proffered gun, but he was tired and nervous from 
the strain of battle, and the heavy gun wavered as he rested 
it against a wagon and tried to take aim. He let it down and 
said, "I can't hold the gun on him." The owner of the gun 
then said, "If you could keep the blood out of my eye, I 
could hit him; but you'd better try again." And "the 
preacher from Missouri" did try again. He summoned all 
his powers and it may be breathed a prayer. Then he lifted 
the rifle, laid it in rest and took a careful aim. That time the 
heavy weapon didn't waver, the preacher's finger pressed 
upon the trigger, and at the crack of the rifle the chief 
measured his length upon the ground. 

Like a flash a stout warrior darted out of the brush, shoul- 
dered the dead chief and ran to cover. Very soon after that 
the Indians fell back a little farther, but continued to fight in 
a desultory way about an hour longer, then "made off down 
the river." According to Indian custom, they carried off their 
dead and wounded, so their less was never definitely knoAvn ; 
but long afterwards, at Fort Yuma the Indians themselves re- 
ported that they had "heap warriors" killed and wounded 
in that fight. Of the emigrants, including the Dutch family, 
two were captured, four killed and ten or twelve wounded. 

As soon as it was known that the Indians were gone, the 
emigrants held a council to determine the burning question, 
"What shall we dof" They were yet about 500 miles from 
San Francisco, and in that direction the first white settle- 
ment was more than 150 miles away, much of which stretch 
was Indian country. First and worst of all, there was the 
river to cross. It would take several days to build a raft and 
effect a crossing in which time the Indians were almost sure 
to return in greater numbers and attack them under un- 
favorable conditions, not the least of which was the insuffi- 



92 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

c'iency of ammunition for another battle. They could not gO' 
forward. Then ''What about trying to go to Ft. Yuma?" 
That was 200 miles distant down the river and through 
]\Iohave country all the way — almost certain disaster lay in 
that direction. 

There was only one ray of hope left, and it was so faint as 
almost to invite despair. That ray pointed back along the 
trail over which they had come, and they determined to fol- 
low it. That course would soon take them out of the Indian 
country, and there was the probability of meeting another 
emigrant train before going very far. 

But they were in poor plight for traveling. The Indians 
had driven off the whole herd of stock cattle and nearly all 
the work oxen. Only six oxen, just enough to make a team 
for one wagon, had escaped capture and were found near the 
camp. Mr. Rose had his mule team, and there were two or 
three saddle horses. One wagon, therefore, was loaded with 
the most necessary things. All else had to be left, save what 
might be carried on the person. Mr. Brown's body was 
wrapped in blankets, and log-chains wound around it, and it 
was then committed to tlie turbid waters of the Colorado, so 
that the Indians might not find and mutilate it. The oxen were 
hitched to the wagon, the mules to the ambulance, and the sad 
remnant of the once large and well-equipped train began its 
retrograde journey, nearly all its people having to walk. 

At dark, and only ' ' about half a mile ' ' from the camp, they 
reached a "low table mountain." There they halted, because 
the way was too rough to travel in the darkness. They dared 
not use a torch or lantern for fear of the Indians, whom they 
expected to follow them. Not many minutes later pande- 
monium broke locse at their lately deserted camp. There were 
triumphant yells and clanging of pots, pans and kettles. The 
Indians were there, rejoicing over their plunder, too cautious 
to make a light of any kind, but their signal fires could be 
seen far up and down on the other side of the river. 

Why the Indians did not pursue and attack the fugitives 
must ever remain something of a mj^stery. It may have been 
because they were well-satisfied with the large booty already 



THE STORY OF AN EMIGRANT TRAIN. 93 

in their possession and afraid of the bloody cost of an effort 
to get the little yet left to the white men. Fearful and almost 
hopeless, the poor emigrants could only cower in the darkness 
and listen to the horrid din at the camp, which seemed to 
grow more furious, probably because more Indians came and 
joined in the revelry. Or, a sufficient explanation is sug- 
gested by a recent remark of one of the emigrants : "I would 
like to have seen the Indians when they broke into the medi- 
cine chest and got hold of Rose's eight-dollar brandy." The 
revelry was still going on at the camp when, "about mid- 
night," the moon came up and enabled the emigrants to re- 
sume their march. 

Late the next afternoon the mule team began to lag. Griffin, 
being weak from the shock of his wounds and loss of blood, 
had been taken into the ambulance at the camp on the river, 
and it may have been otherwise overloaded with things too 
valuable to leave for the Indians. The mules would stop 
often and rest a few minutes before they could be made to 
move on. To relieve them the Rose family and Mrs. Jones 
got out and walked on, leaving Mr. Jones, who was a very 
lame man, to drive and bring the rig and Grift'in into camp 
at the convenience of the mules. But the mules rapidly grevv- 
more Aveary and more mulish. They stopped oftener, staj'ed 
longer, and each time were harder to start. Finally they 
stopped and refused to budge another step, in spite of much 
whip-lashing and tongue-lashing. Then Jones unharnessed 
them and turned them loose, left the rig and Griffin there 
and limped into camp long after dark. Akey volunteered to 
go back for his chum, and after a long walk he found the rig, 
got Griffin out oi it, and by allowing him to lean heavily on 
his shoulder as they walked along, and by resting often, he 
at length brought him into camp. That was the last of the 
mules and "the avalanche" — Mr. Rose never saw them again. 

The emigrants camped that night where the three families 
and wagons had been left, while their men and exhausted 
teams went on with the train to the river. As we know, there 
were now only two of the families there, who had been anx- 
iously expecting the return of their men and teams to take 
them to join the caravan at the river. Their men came that 



94 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

night, but not tlieir teams. Yet we can imagine how thankful 
those reunited families were to have escaped the terrible fate 
of the Dutch family, even though they lost nearly all their 
worldly goods; for they had to leave their Avagons and effects 
standing there, excepting only the few things they could carry 
as they walked with those who had lost as much or more than 
themselves. 

The next morning, with only the one wagon, but two more 
families^ the unfcrtunate company continued its journey. To 
meet a train, and that very soon, was their great need and 
only hope, and fortunately they were not disappointed. It 
had so happened that two small parties also left Van Buren 
county for California later than the Rose outfit. One, from 
the northwestern part of the county, Avas headed by "Cal" 
Davis, and with it was the noted early settler and Indian 
trader, Jim Jordan ; the other partj^ was from the neighbor- 
hood of Bonaparte, and headed by a Mr. Cave. Before or 
after leaving the county the two parties united. 

Having only four or five wagons and not being hampered 
with a herd of cattle, they traveled faster, and met the Rose 
people returning a feAv days after their trouble Avith the 
Indians. When they saAV the sad condition of the fugitives 
and heard their story, the,y Avere afraid to go on, and also 
turned back, generously sharing their supplies Avith the Rose 
people all the Avay back to Albuquerque. 

When the combined parties had placed about 100 miles be- 
tAveen themselves and the scene of the late disaster, and all 
danger from the Indians Avas over, it Avas thought best for 
the 15 or 20 young men to leave the train and push forward 
on foot. They Avere given an ox " that was so poor you might 
say you had to hold him up to knock him doAvn." They 
slaughtered the ox and dried the meat in the sun, Avhich did 
not take long in that arid climate, especially Avhen it had al- 
ready been partly dried on the hoof. To hasten the process it 
was salted. 

"About noon" they started, with Avhat flour and "jerked 
ox" they could carry, but did not take much water, as they 
expected by dark to reach a canyon. AAdiere there had been 



THE STORY OF AN EMIGRANT TRAIN. 95 

water on their outward trip. Tliey got there after dark and 
found the water had dried up. They knew then that they had 
no time to spare in camping, for it was a long march to the 
next watering place. They started on at once, and walked all 
night, all the next day and the next night, growing weaker 
and making slower progress the farther they went. The salted 
meat aggravated their thirst and they suffered terribly, but 
they pressed on with parched lips, swollen tongues and weary 
feet. The last few hours of that dreadful march they stag- 
gered like drunken men, and had to stop for rest every few 
mJnutes. 

In the morning of the second day they came to a water 
hole that was so foul they smelled it before they got to it. yet 
it was living water, for it was alive with "a kind of white 
worm an inch or so long.'' It had one redeeming quality — 
it ivas tvet. So they strained that animated soup through 
their handkerchiefs and drank it eagerly. One of them now 
says, "It seemed to me the best water I ever tasted." They 
stayed by that water-hole half a day, resting and drinking, 
before resuming their march. Before reaching Albuquerque 
they met two more trains, which also turned back when the 
young men told them their story. 

We may now go back to the train we left behind. As the 
w^agons were few and the teams growing weak, even the 
women and children had to walk much of the time. Mrs. Rose 
afterward related that she wore out her shoes and then walked 
with bare and bleeding feet. On this return trip Mrs. Brown 
early lost her husband's horse and had to walk, and of all that 
company she was the greatest sufferer. The tragic death and 
unchristian burial of her husband ever weighed upon her 
mind, and for some time she was worried about her severely 
wounded daughter. Then her youngest child, her only son. 
sickened, died and was buried by the wayside. Her worldly 
goods were gone and the future looked very dark for her and 
her four children. In after years she said that, ' ' to keep from 
going crazy," she would unravel a stocking and reknit it, over 
and over again, as she rode or wearily walked along. 



96 ANNALS OP IOWA. 

After six or seven weeks of wearisome travel the Rose party 
and its escort reached Albuquerque and halted for the win- 
ter. Mr. Brown had been a Free-Mason and got in touch 
with the lodge at Albuquerque on the outward trip. The 
fraternity there helped Mrs. Brown and her children through 
the winter. In the spring a train was made up, and a kind- 
hearted Mr. Smith took the Brown family through to Cali- 
fornia at his own expense. Mrs. Brown's brother and two 
sisters had been in California for several years, and they paid 
Mr. Smith for his trouble and expensCn 

Sallie Fox became a teacher in the San Francisco schools 
In 1870 she came to town on a visit and brought with her a 
souvenir of the battle with the Indians. It was the little 
apron she wore when the Indian arrow went through it and 
her body. She kept the apron clean but never mended the 
ragged arrow holes. On a later visit she told this story : She 
was once relating her adventures to some school children, and 
when she described how she had been wounded and how she 
suffered, one little fellow was so carried away that he excitedly 
asked, "And did you live?" 

Of course Mr. Rose was a very heavy loser by his venture, 
but he probably had some ready money left, and had not lost 
his Hebrew faculty for buying, selling and getting gain. Soon 
after getting back to Albuquerque he went to Santa Fe, and 
there engaged in hotel keeping — together with the side-lines 
then customary in a frontier town, and made money rapidly. 
When the Civil AVar was brewing, early in 1861, and making 
trouble in Santa Fe, he moved with his family and the Jones' 
to California and settled on a ranch near Los Angeles. For 
some twenty-five years he seemed to prosper greatly. He 
built a palatial residence, said to have been finished inside 
with woods from various countries, and erected correspond- 
ing outbuildings. Eventually he met with serious financial 
reverses and died poor. Mrs. Jones outlived all her family 
and died at the great age of 105 years. 

From the time of leaving Iowa to ' ' work their passage ' ' to 
California, the young men of the Rose expedition were seven 
months without earning money. At the end of that time, at 
Albuquerque they hired to the United States government to 




Edward Akey, May, 1915, a pioneer of Van Buren County, Iowa, survivor of the ill- 
fated Rose Expedition, whose narrative is incorporated in the 
account of Mr. J. W. Cheney. 



THE STORY OF AN EMIGRANT TRAIN. 97 

drive mule teams and haul supplies to forts and scouting 
parties. In the spring or summer of 1859 Harper and Stid- 
ger returned to Iowa, and at the beginning of the Civil War 
in 1861, Harper was a teacher and Stidger a student in Rev. 
Daniel Lane's justly celebrated Keosauqua Academy. 

Harper enlisted in the first company raised in Van Buren 
county, Company F, 2d Iowa Infantry, and was its second 
lieutenant when killed in his regiment's famous charge at Fort 
Donelson, February 15, 1862. Stidger enlisted as a private in 
Company E, 15th Iowa Infantry, was slightly wounded in the 
side at Shiloh, and severely wounded in the leg and thigh at 
Corinth. He served nearly four years and was promoted un- 
til he became adjutant of his regiment. He died at Red Oak, 
Iowa, in 1880. 

In the Civil War, Lee Griffin became a Confederate "bush- 
whacker," was captured, made his escape and armed himself, 
was pursued and overtaken, refused to surrender and was shot 
down, but continued to fight as long as he could handle his 
two revolvers. 

After getting l)ack to Albuquerque Mr. Akey remained in 
the southwest a year or two before returning to Iowa. He is 
now 83 years old and well-preserved for that age.- 

^I am largely indebted to Mr. Akey for the material which I have woven 
into this .=tory. Quotation marks indicate many \erbal statements made by 
him to me. 



AVHEAT. 

Statistics show that Scott 'county harvested during the year 
1856, 536,631 bushels of wheat — a considerably larger amount 
than any other county in the State. Clinton, Lee, Jackson, 
Cedar, Dubuque and Muscatine follow in amount as they 
are named. 

Sigourney— L*7e in the West, Mar. 19, 1857. 



98 ANNALS OP IOWA. 



EVOLUTION OF THE GENERAL ROCK SCHEME 
IN lOAVA. 

BY CHARLES KEYES. 

In at least one of the great branches of science Iowa hap- 
pens to play a singularly unexpected but important role. On 
the historical side of earth-study our State chances to occupy 
a quite unique place. In three grand advancements of this 
science in this country the same western commonwealth takes 
an initial and leading part, and each time precedes sister 
states of the Union by a full generation. This in itself is a 
noteworthy fact concerning us. The purely scientific aspects 
of these circumstances need not be dwelt upon here ; but from 
a strictly historical angle the incidents really deserve more 
than passing notice. 

The first of these great forward steps in American earth- 
science took place in Iowa more than a quarter of a century 
before she had become a state and long before even her nam» 
had been proposed.- 

Chance sent an Englishman, Thomas Nuttall by name, to 
our shores, to the banks of the Mississippi river, where the 
principles of the then new modern science of geology were ap- 
plied for the first time on the American continent. 

As is quite generally known, the modern science of geology 
is yet scarcely more than a hundred years old. Its birth dates 
only from the opening days of the Nineteenth century, the 
time when it first became possible to read in the rocks a se- 
quence of geologic events and to parallel the rock records of 
different parts of the world. This "Rosetta Stone" is Wil- 
liam Smith's famous discovery that the relative age and na- 
tural succession of rock-layers were, by means of their con- 
tained organic remains, susceptible to accurate determination. 

Before it was generally applied to the rock sequences o^ 
England, the land of its birth, before it was recognized in 
Germany, the original home of mining and earth-science, be- 

iAnnals of Iowa^ v. XI, p. 401, July, 1914. 



98 ANNALS OF IOWA. 



EVOLUTION OF THE GENERAL ROCK SCHEME 
IN IOWA. 

BY CHARLES KEYES. 

In at least one of the great branches of science Iowa hap- 
pens to play a singularly nnexpeeted but important role. On 
the historical side of earth-study our State chances to occupy 
a (luite unique place. In three grand advancements of this 
science in this country the same western commonwealth takes 
an initial and leading part, and each time precedes sister 
states of the Union by a full generation. This in itself is a 
noteworth}^ fact concerning us. The purely scientific aspects 
of these circumstances need not be dwelt upon here ; but from 
a strictly historical angle the incidents really deserve more 
than passing notice. 

The first of these great forward steps in American earth- 
science took place in Iowa more than a quarter of a century 
before she had become a state and long before even her name 
had been proposed.- 

Chance sent an Englishman, Thomas Nuttall by name, to 
cur shores, to the banks of the Mississippi river, where the 
principles of the then new modern science of geology were ap- 
plied for the first time on the American continent. 

As is quite generally known, the modern science of geology 
is yet scarcely more than a hundred years old. Its birth dates 
only from the opening days of the Nineteenth century, the 
time when it first became possible to read in the rocks a se- 
quence of geologic events and to parallel the rock records of 
different parts of the world. This "Rosetta Stone" is Wil- 
liam Smith's famous discovery that the relative age and na- 
tural succession of rock-layers were, by means of their con- 
tained organic remains, susceptible to accurate determination. 

Before it was generally applied to the rock sequences o" 
England, the land of its birth, before it was recognized in 
Germany, the original home of mining and earth-science, be- 

'Annals of Iowa^ v. XI, p. 401, July, 1914. 































































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EVOLUTION OF THE ROCK SCHEME IN IOWA. 99 

fore it was grasped in France, where paleontology long prior 
had taken its rise, the Smithian law was, in a remarkable 
way and under still more remarkable circumstances, skillfully 
and successfully put into practice in the remotest part of the 
youngest of the continents, where the doctrine of the older 
science had not yet penetrated. 

It is the second great forward movement in geological sci- 
ence in this country that recently awakens attention anew. 
This is the introduction, in the middle of the last century, 
but for the first time happily and accurately in this country, 
of the then new English system of classification of the rock 
formations of our globe. The resolution of the old Werneriau 
medley of transition rocks into an orderly arrangement of 
naturally succeeding groups was distinctly an English 
achievement. Through the unremitting labors of the great 
English geologists of the first half of the Nineteenth century, 
the main subdivisions of the enigmatical Paleozoics were first 
differentiated and delimited in a manner that has stood the 
test of time. 

It was Dr. David Dale Owen, who, with a nicety that 
would do ample credit to any savant of todaj^, first trans- 
ferred the English scheme to America, selecting Iowa wherein 
to fit the plan. This was during the years 1840 to 1850. 

Several unusual circumstances conspired to introduce and 
to adapt satisfactorily the English scheme of rock classifica- 
tion in the wild, unsettled interior of the North American 
continent before it was accomplished anywhere else even 
within the borders of the more thickly populated Atlantic 
states. Among these factors the early work of Nuttall gave 
singular and telling impulse to the movement. The lateness 
of settlement of the region made the latter too remote to re- 
ceive at an earlier time any influence of the passing "Wenier- 
ian conceptions which were already long potent east of the 
Appalachians. The great importance of Dubuque as a min- 
ing center, then the most productive camp in the whole 
country, where annually were produced nine-tenths of all the 
lead of this country and one-tenth of the entire world sup- 
ply, marked Iowa a region for immediate and special scien- 
tific investigation by the Federal government. The principal 



100 ANNALS OP IOWA. 

workers in the western field chanced to be English-trained 
men, and hence were practically familiar with the latest ad- 
vancements in the science in England and the continent. 
Singularly enough the general rock-succession in the upper 
Mississippi valley is strikingly like that of England; and this 
fact could not fail to impress investigators fresh from that 
tield. Lastly, the so-called New York System had begn found 
to be faulty. In reality it represented a conception that was 
already a superseded notion. In the attempt to establish it 
in the east the true taxonomic relationships of the formations 
themselves were completely lost sight of. 

The expansion of the Iowa scheme has, therefore, more 
than state-wide bearing. Its interest is even more than con- 
tinental in extent. It is. indeed, of world-wide significance. 
The development of the idea is concisely expressed in the ac- 
companying diagram. Nuttall's great discovery is represented. 
The introduction aixl growth of the European scheme is 
shown. There is also foreshadowed the third great advance 
which, although initiated a couple of decades ago and is only 
today just beginning to be accepted throughout the world, 
may stand forth, fifty to one hundred years hence, as a recent 
writer states, as one of the half dozen great new thoughts 
characterizing Twentieth Century science. 



JOHN L. BURNS. 



On Wednesday after the battle commenced, John L. Burns, 
an old citizen of this place, shouldered his musket and went 
out by himself to meet the rebels. He advanced to the hot- 
test of the scene and blazed away with his old musket until he 
fell wounded in the leg, side and arm. He reached his home, 
and though severely wounded, it is hoped he will soon re- 
cover. Patriotism and bravery like this is worthy of record 
in the annals of this war. — Gettysburg, Pa. — Star and Banner, 
July 9, 1863. 

[The above paragraph is doubtless the record of the incident 
which prompted Bret Harte to write the popular poem, "John Burns 
of Gettysburg." — Editor.! 




7r~^ '^'^■^ 



'LITTLE BROWN CHURCH IN THE VALE." 101 



THE LITTLE BROWN CHURCH IN THE VALE": ITS 
AUTHOR AND ITS INSPIRATION. 

BY ISABELLA POWERS. 



THE AUTHOR 

"You might read his beautiful biography written in the 
hearts of his friends; and heart biographies are the only true 
ones we know." Certainly this is true of Dr. William Savage 
Pitts, who long will live in the memory of all whom he has 
striven to help either by his music or his profession. He is 
descended from New England ancestry. His grandfather 
came from Bristol, England, and served as a soldier under 
Burgoyne. His father was born in Massachusetts, and served 
as a soldier in the war of 1812. From his mother he received 
a trace of Scotch. Her native state was Connecticut. 

Of these parents Dr. Pitts writes: "My parents were 
typical New England people, strictly brought up in Puritan 
ways, which was a dominant force in their characters. They 
were strong and vigorous and free of any deleterious taint 
physically. My father died at the age of 80 years. jMy 
mother at 85." Into the home of Charles Pitts and Polly 
Green (Smith) Pitts on August 18, 1830, there came a tiny 
bit of humanity, the eighth child in a family of nine, who 
was to become known throughout the world as the author of 
"The Little Brown Church in the Vale." From childhood his 
musical ability was evident. His mother was a sweet singer 
and had much literary ability so she encouraged these God- 
given talents in her son. "Music is God's best gift to man, 
the only art of heaven given to earth, the only art of earth that 
we take to heaven. But music, like all our gifts, is given as 
in the germ. It is for us to unfold and develop by instruc- 
tion and cultivation." This "germ" developed day by day 
through his boyhood in crude attempts to write the sounds by 
devices of his own. At the age of nineteen he began the 
"cultivation" with J. C. Ide, a graduate of the Handel and 



102 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

Hayden Society of Boston. His studies included thorough 
bass, harmony and counterpoint. Today the doctor is still a 
student and lover of the art which "makes us feel something 
of the glory and beauty of God. ' ' 

At nineteen he came to "Wisconsin, and at twenty he began 
teaching vocal and instrumental music. He taught singing 
schools and brass bands, composing the music for the bands. 

At the age of twenty-nine he married Ann Eliza Warren, 
daughter of Asahel and Eliza Ann (Kobinson) Warren at 
Union, Wisconsin. From this union there came five children. 
Two died in infancy. The three living are Alice M., William 
Stanley and Kate B. 

In 1857 he visited Iowa, and stopping in Bradford, Chicka- 
saw county, the beautiful scenery of the Cedar Valley proved 
the inspiration for the widely known song, "The Little 
Brown Church in the Vale," the church at Bradford. 

In 1862 he removed to Fredericksburg, where he remained 
forty-four years. The writer well remembers the cordial 
hospitality of that Fredericksburg home where the "latch 
string" was out to the homesick girl of nineteen, who began 
her career as school ma'am in this same village. 

The profession of doctor appealed to him, and in February 
of 1868 he graduated from Rush Medical College, and con- 
tinued in active practice until October, 1906. He was a hard- 
worked, sympathetic country physician. He knew his patients, 
their histories, their strength and weakness, physical and 
mental; as perhaps no city physician can know his own, and 
withal he loved them. A quotation from Sarah Orne Jewett's 
"The Country Doctor" applies extremely w^ell to the comfort 
Dr. Pitts took to the sick room. "There was something 
singularly self-reliant and composed about him ; one felt that 
he was the wielder of great power over the enemies, disease 
and pain." 

In August, 1886, his first wife died, and in September, 1887, 
he married Mrs. M. A. Grannis of Earlville, Iowa. In 1906 
Dr. Pitts and wife moved to Clarion, Iowa, where Mrs. Pitts 
died, June, 1909. In October, 1909, Dr. Pitts went to Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., to spend the "sunset days" with his son, William 





















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"LITTLE BROWN CHURCH IN THE VALE." 103 

Stanley, chief clerk of the Transportation War Department 
in the Army Building. 

Dr. Pitts is a Master Mason. He joined Bradford Lodge 
No. 129 A. F. and A. M. in the year 1864 or 1865. He holds 
a membership now in Mt. Horeb Lodge A. F. and A. M. No. 
333, at Fredericksburg. Of this he was a charter member. 

Besides the songs Dr. Pitts has written a Biographical His- 
tory of Fredericksburg Township, and for years has corre- 
sponded for newspapers. He was mayor of Fredericksburg 
for seven years and was school treasurer for twenty-six 
years. 

His sterling qualities he inherited from his farmer father. 
These caused him to join the Baptist church in Fredericks- 
burg in 1871. In 1906 he joined the Congregational church 
of Clarion, because he believed in having a church hoine. Now 
he is a member of the Dyker Heights Congregational church, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. In May of this year, 1915, this church 
honored him by making him the delegate to the General State 
Conference of Congregational churches. 

Being librarian at New Hampton, Chickasaw county, Iowa, 
I asked Dr. Pitts for an autograph copy of the song," then later 
for his story of the writing of the song. The former hangs 
on the wall of the reading room of our library together with 
Dr. Pitts' picture and that of "The Little Brown Church 
in the Vale." The story in Dr. Pitts' handwriting has been 
bound and, with the introduction also written by him preced- 
ing it, is given below : 

STORY OF THE SONG. 

In the Cedar river valley, at the old town of Bradford, stands a 
little storm-beaten church, known as the "Little Brown Church in 
the Vale." Beautiful in situation, surrounded by and embowered 
with natural oaks, frescoed with memories, hallowed by associations, 
immortalized in song and story, it stands a monitor proclaiming 
the heaven-born song, "Glory to God in the Highest, and, On Earth, 
Peace, Good Will Toward Men." 

For nearly fifty years the bell in its low-set tower has broken the 
Sabbath day stillness, its vibrant tones starting the echoes from 
wooded vale and prairie, calling the old man and his descendants 



^See fac simile on opposite page. 



104 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

to this house of worship dedicated to "Him who doetli all things 
well," there to listen to the great truths that lead one's feet in the 
paths of righteousness; there to sing the songs that warm the heart 
like a day in June. 

The majority of the first worshippers at this church in the vale 
have gone out of life. The few who remain are walking near the 
line of the Borderland, catching glimpses, through faith, of that 
"Land O' the Leal," that home of the soul. 

Where are the children — those boys and girls who began their 
Sabbath school work in this little church? They are scattered like 
leaves on the tide. We meet some of them now and then. They 
have passed the meridian mark in life. We notice the silver threads 
in their hair. Do they love that little church? Ask them. With a 
light on their face that is worth remembering, they say, "I shall 
never forget the dear place." 

Dear little, storm-beaten church, we grieve to think that thou 
must molder and decay; that the time will come when thy form 
will no more cast a shadow, when birds will chant requiems above 
thy dust. 



"No man is born into the world whose work 
Is not born with him; there is always work 
And tools to work withal for those who will; 
The man who stands with arms akimbo set. 
Until occasion tells him what to do, 
And he who waits to have his task marked out, 
Shall die and leave his mission unfulfilled." 

In the writing of this little brochure, it will be consonant to 
acknowledge that I believe in inherent gifts, gifts implanted by 
the Creator for special work along definite lines, and that the general 
character of the individual to whom these gifts are given will be in 
consonance with the work to be done. 

"What are the wild waves saying. 
Sister, the whole day long. 
That ever amid our playing 
I hear but the same low song." ' 

As a boy, I was like the boy who ever amid his playing heard but 
the same low song. In the lap of the waves of the blue Ontario 
underneath the low pine on the shore, in the grand old woods, by 
the fireside, on the prairies, where the shadows come and go, in the 
golden sunset, in the twilight hour, in the whispering winds, in the 
silent watches by night, in the every-day toils of life, a thread of 
words and music was ever spinning, spinning some low sweet song. 



"LITTLE BROWN CHURCH IN THE VALE." 105 

"In the hush of the valley of silence 
I dream all the songs that I sing, 
And the music floats down the dim valley 
'Till each finds a word for a wing. 
That to men, like the dove of the deluge, 
The message of peace they may bring. 

"But far out on the deep there are billows 
That never shall break on the beach, 
And I have heard songs in the silence 
That never shall float into speech. 
And 1 have had dreams in the valley 
Too lofty for language to reach." 

This period of poetical and musical incubation had its time, then 
this gift, this inherent gift, righted itself for tangible work. Then 
perfected songs came forth, fresh and vigorous, came forth as the 
waters that for years have worked their way through earth and 
rock-crevice, 'till at last they burst forth from their secret chambers 
into the outer world, clear, pure and sparkling for the use of man. 

Now do you ask how I came to write the song, "The Little Brown 
Church in the Vale"? How I came to write the songs, "Little Fred," 
"The Isles Beyond the River," "The Old Musician and His Harp," 
"Ally Ray," "Nellie Wildwood," "Angels Took Her Home," "Lilly 
Bell," "Our Brave Boys In Blue," "Sabbath Bells," "Nellie is Sleep- 
ing by the Rill," "Bonnie Katie," "Jimmie is My Name," and 
others? They are the legitimate children born of poesy and song. 

Prophecy is said to be a declaration of something to come. I 
remember, when still a boy, of trying to write music before I knew 
how to divide melodies into proper measures or understood the 
rules of harmony sufficiently to write out simple chords. I was 
struggling with a simple melody, trying to get it into shape, but 
could not, and, laying the paper down, I said to myself, "The day 
will come when my music will be sung around the world." The 
song, "The Little Brown Church in the Vale," has made good the 
prophecy. 

In the summer of 1857 I visited the town of Bradford, Iowa, and 
spent a week or more there. It was then a veritable bee-hive, in 
the way of business. 

The town did not win me as much as the path along the ridge 
leading to Greenwood. It was the month of June and all nature 
was at her loveliest. 

The day that I arrived I walked to Greenwood. It was near the 
close of the day, as the sun was going down behind the trees along 
the Cedar river. The oak trees were in full leaf and the prairie 
flowers were in bloom. 

Nature's carpet of green was on every side, making the landscape 
beautiful to look upon. Nearly every day I strolled along over the 
same path, sitting down now and then, looking about to more 
thoroughly enjoy the scenery. 



106 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

The grove where the "Little Brown Church" now stands was an 
attractive and lovely spot. Never from that day to this has it 
faded from my memory. The valley where Bradford had nestled 
down was then, and ever has been, a lovely spot to me. Even now, 
as I rise to the crest of the hill one mile or so to the east of the 
town, I gaze with enraptured vision, my eyes sweeping the valley 
from the "Little Brown Church" to enchanted nook, "Greenwood." 

After going back to Wisconsin, I wrote the words and music of 
the song, "The Little Brown Church in the Vale." I made no use 
of it in public in Wisconsin. In the spring of the year of 1862 1 
came to Iowa, to Fredericksburg. I brought the song in manuscript 
with me. 

The winter of 1864, through the earnest solicitations of the music- 
loving people of Bradford, I went there to teach a class in vocal 
music. We met at the brick building called the "Academy." Rev. 
J. K. Nutting was one of the class. Near the close of the term we 
went one evening to the building now known as the "Little Brown 
Church." The building was enclosed, but not finished. We im- 
provised seats with boards. It was there I sang the song, the 
"Little Brown Church in the Vale," for the first time in public. 

In the spring of 1865 I took the manuscript to Chicago and sold 
it to H. M. Higgins, on Randolph street. 

The church was dedicated in 1865, just about the time the song 
was given to the world. The song at once became immensely popular 
and spread itself over the world like a benediction from on high. 
It was not long before the church at Bradford, as it now stands, 
began to be known and called the "Little Brown Church in the 
Vale," the church of the song. It has been so called, and ever will 
be, until time shall level it with the dust. Even then the loved spot 
will be revered. The song was the "Little Brown Church," the 
church was painted brown. 

Under the circumstances, what more natural than that the little 
church at Bradford, Iowa, painted brown and the song, "The Little 
Brown Church in the Vale," should be wedded and known as one 
and the same. Some people may try to rob the little church of its 
fame, but as long as it stands it will be known as "The Little Brown 
Church in the Vale." 

HISTORY OF BRADFORD CHURCH. 

"The Iowa Band has supplied for the country' the romance 
of home missions." While this Congregational church is not 
the direct outgrowth of this band, it is the outgrowth of the 
same staunch character which believed in the church home, 
and believed in building it out of the pittance that came from 
long hours of hard labor, the lot of the pioneer. 



"LITTLE BROWN CHURCH IN THE VALE/' 107 

The church was organized November 4, 1855, Rev. 0. Lit- 
tlefield being the first pastor. 

Sanford Billings was elected the first clerk and held that 
office until his death in 1886. 

The following were the constitution and articles of incor- 
poration : 

Constitution. 

Art. 1st. This Society shall be called the First Congregational 
Ecclesiastical Society of Bradford and have perpetual succession. 

Art. 2d. The Object of this Society shall be to maintain the 
institution of the Gospel in connection with the First Congregational 
Church of Bradford. 

Art. od. Any person who is a regular attendant upon public 
worship and annually contribute to the society for the support of 
the Gospel shall become a member by Subscribing to the Constitu- 
tion and by laws. 

Art. 4th. The officers of the Society shall consist of a Clerk and 
three Trustees to be chosen annually. Two of the trustees shall be 
members of the Congregational Church. 

Art. 5th. The officers shall be chosen by ballot at the annual 
meeting. Should a vacancy occur it can be filled at any regular 
meeting. 

Art. 6th. The Clerk shall keep the records of the Society and 
call all meetings of the Society by giving at least ten days' notice 
and at the expiration of his term of office he shall deliver up the 
Books to his successors. 

Art. 7th. The Trustees shall hold all the property of the Society 
both personal and real. In their Corporate name they can sue and 
be sued. They shall dispose of the income of the Society according 
to the vote of the Society. They shall regulate and order the renting 
of the pews and report the condition of the Society at each annual 
meeting and whenever called for by the Society. 

Art. 8th. Annual Meeting shall be on the 2d Tuesday of January. 

Art. 9th. At the request of any five members with reasons for the 
same the clerk shall call a special meeting giving the object for 
which the meeting is called in his notice. 

Art. 10th. The basis of Union between the Church and Society 
shall be to this intent. The Society shall hold the property, receive 
the income and make all pecuniary engagements, appropriation and 
payments. In calling a pastor the Society and the Church shall act 
as concurrent bodies, a majority of each being necessary to consti- 
tute a call. The Church nominating and the Society confirming or 
rejecting the nomination. 

Art. 11th. This Constitution may be altered or amended by a 
vote of two-thirds present at the annual meeting, provided the 



108 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

notice of the proposed alteration or amendment has been given in 
writing at any previous meeting. 

Articles of Incorporation. 

Art. 1st. The undersigned, Orrin Humeston, Walter Smith, 
L. C. Smith, J. E. Smith, Elmore Smith, Wm. D. Pomroy, S. A. 
Eastman, E. N. Palmer, S. S. Thomas, C. D. Johnson, E. H. Haskell, 
and their associates, hereby form themselves into a body Corporate 
for religious purposes under the name of The First Congregational 
Ecclesiastical Society of Bradford. 

Art. 2d. Said body Corporate shall have Perpetual Succession. 
Art. 3d. Said body may sue and be sued by its corporate name. 
Art. 4th. The private property of the Members of said Corporate 
body shall not be liable for its Corporate debts. 

Art. 5th. Said Corporate body shall have power to make con- 
tracts, acquire and transfer property, possessing the same power 
in such respects as private individuals may enjoy. 

Art. 6th. Said body Corporate shall have power to establish 
by-laws and make all rules and regulations deemed expedient for 
the management of their affairs in accordance with law and not 
incompatible with an honest purpose. 

L. S. THOMAS, 
J. E. SMITH, 
L. C. SMITH, 
C. D. JOHNSON, 
E. H. HASKELL, 
ELMORE SMITH, 
S. A. EASTMAN, 
W. SMITH, 
ORRIN HUMESTON, 
E. N. PALMER." 

The church building was l)egun in 1862 and was finished 
and dedicated December 29, 1864. Rev. J. K. Nutting built 
the church and was pastor for eight years, resigning in 1870. 
He has a record as a church builder and in his eighties built 
a "Little Brown Church in the Glade," at Crystal Springs, 
Florida. 

This is his account of the work:^ 

In the year 1859, when I became the youthful Missionary Pastor 
of the weak but very, interesting Congregational Church at Bradford, 
Chickasaw County, Iowa, the vast network of railways, w^hich now 
furnishes ready transportation to almost every farm in Iowa, was 

^A of Miscellaneou.? Records. Countv Recorder's office, Chickasaw 
County, Iowa. Filed for record December 7, 1859. 

^Nutting's Two Little Brown Churches in Story and Song. 1914. 



"LITTLE BROWN CHURCH IN THE VALE." 109 

in its infancy. One line had reached as far inland as Iowa City — 
only to see the state capital quickly removed to its present normal 
location. Weak local companies had also made beginnings from 
various points on "The River;" but these had hardly more than 
reached the edge of the vast prairies which make up the now popu- 
lous and wonderful empire called Iowa. In general, all transporta- 
tion was dependent upon horses or oxen; in consequence, all interior 
commerce was heavily handicapped, except that which supplied the 
need of the constant influx of new settlers, who brought money, 
and who must have food and the other necessities. 

Up to, and until in 1857, this sort of trade, with the sale of land, 
had induced boom conditions. Everybody had money, and many 
seemed to become wealthy. 

Then, Avithout warning,, came the great financial crash of that 
year — an experience never to be forgotten by any one who passed 
through it. Money disappeared as by magic. Credit expired. We 
were thrown back upon mere barter — the clumsy method of half- 
civilized peoples. Many who had supposed themselves wealthy, 
now often found themselves hard pressed to obtain daily food. 

The next year had been worse rather than better. Not only 
were the effects of the "crash" felt more than ever, but the season 
proved extremely unfavorable. Rain fell in torrents almost daily 
from January until July. Very little planting or sowing could 
be done, and what was sown brought almost nothing. Low ground 
became submerged, high land a mere sponge. Only here and there 
some small field, favorably situated, ripened a little early corn. 
I saw men trying to cultivate corn in which the weeds were higher 
than the corn. They had provided their horses with guards of 
leather for their breasts and fore-legs, because the great weeds had 
worn through their hides and formed dangerous sores. 

There was no money to import supplies. If there had been, the 
undrained roads and the unbridged streams made transportation 
almost impossible. The staple living of most families was corn 
meal, with very poor, sour sorghum-syrup. In after years the mere 
mention of either would bring wry faces. To many, even shoes 
and stockings were a luxury not to be thought of. Men often wore 
"packs" of raw-hide, stripped from the hind-legs of butchered cattle, 
in lieu of boots. In the first year of my pastorate, I received from 
my people, in money, exactly four dollars — from a lady who had 
just come from the East. 

Yet by that time there was no serious suffering. Crops in 1859 
were good, and we lived well. My salary was paid in kind, as 
were also all fees and perquisites. I never desired any funeral fees, 
but when on one occasion, after a trip of fifteen miles, and a whole 
day with my team, I was presented with four large pumpkins as a 
fee I accepted them — the humor of it overcame reluctance. Wedding 
fees were paid in beans, in beef, or rarely, in apples, which had to 



110 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

be wagoned from Missouri — we laad none as yet in our part of Iowa. 
(There is still one bushel of such fruit due me — the wedding having 
been performed on credit.) 

In making change, owing to tlie absence of small coin, we used to 
write the amount, "five cents," or "ten cents," on a scrap of paper, 
and sign the debtor's name. Merchants used pasteboard "coins," 
punched out with a gun-wad punch. 

Yet, as I said, we lived well. My salary was paid in kind, at 
prices of which I could not complain. Wheat at thirty-six cents per 
bushel — mill close at hand. Best cuts beef, six cents per pound. 
Potatoes never more than twenty-five cents per bushel — after plant- 
ing time in spring often given away. Other farm products on the 
same scale. In winter, pork, in the carcass, frozen, could sometimes 
be had at one cent per pound. A threatened thaw would generally 
overwhelm the parsonage with "spare-ribs." Many (I with the rest) 
had sugar-camps in the forest, and made our own sugar. Others 
raised sorghum. 

We lived well. But how should we ever build a church, which, 
besides all that we could do in the way of labor or material, must 
cost at least a round thousand in cash? 

That we greatly needed one, there was no question. We had 
never any permanent place of worship. A log-house, a lawyer's 
office, a hotel dining room, a school house far to one side; an aban- 
doned store, without windows or door, and which had been occupied 
all winter by a flock of sheep; we thought of the labors of Hercules, 
and wished we had his river to turn through the room. But we got 
it fairly clean, and used it till the cold drove us out. And all these 
things made it more and more evident that WE MUST HAVE A 
CHURCH! 

Expecting such emergencies, I had made architecture part of my 
preparatory studies. I now drew plans, which were pronounced 
satisfactory, and began to "talk church" in good earnest. Some dis- 
couraged the attempt. "We haven't the first dollar to do it with," 
was their lament. But I showed them that we had the big forest 
close at hand, stone and lime within reach, and all the labor that 
would be needed. All that we lacked was courage and faith. 

The courage and faith began to come. I have always been sorry 
that I did not keep memoranda of dates along then — but I did not. 
I only remember the order in which the several steps of our progress 
were made. 

Mr. Joseph Bird gave us the first definite advance, by donating 
the village lots on which we built. His gift was promptly accepted, 
and a "bee" was called for, to quarry and deliver stone for the 
foundation. That accomplished, we all became for the nonce "free 
and accepted masons," for the building of the wall. Only one of us 
had ever laid stone — Brother Leander Smith had built stone fences. 
His work can yet be identified, at the rear of the building — as he 



"LITTLE BROWN CHURCH IN THE VALE." Ill 

laid every stone "slanting," as he had done in laying stone fence. 
But all our work has stood firm for fifty years. 

Mr. Joseph Bird again gave us a new start by offering us some of 
his fine rock-elm trees for sills. They were procured, hewn, and 
placed upon the walls. Alas — there they lay, for many long months. 

The reasons for this I cannot quite recall, but I think it was due 
to the diversion of attention by the rolling thunders of coming war. 
For — how little we realized it — we were beginning the horrible four 
years of the Civil War. All else was for the time forgotten. 

How patriotic we were! All men and boys — with very few ex- 
ceptions — were for enlisting on the moment. A military company 
was formed, and we proceeded to learn the art of war. Only one 
person among us had any, even slight, knowledge of the manual of 
arms — the venerable Captain John Smith. How he had come by his 
title, I never knew — we supposed, by way of service in the War of 
1812. At that time he was living near Malone, N. Y., and may have 
had some hand in the fighting on Lake Champlain. The Company 
chose him for drill-master. But when he gave the order "Shoulder- 
your firelocks!" the uproarious laughter with which the company 
responded so hurt the dear old man's feelings that he threw up the 
task, and the drill went no farther. A few weeks later, however, 
many of the same persons were enrolled in earnest, and marched 
away; and several of them gave their lives for their country. Able- 
bodied men became rare in .our village and county, and only at the 
very last of the war was the draft resorted to, and then, only to raise 
two or three men to fill out our quota. Our local physician died, and 
all the other doctors in the county (I think) went to the war. I, 
perforce, became not only a spiritual adviser, but an authority as 
well in medicine. I watched with many a soldier returned from the 
front in dangerous illness, some of whom I buried. I sometimes dug 
graves, and then officiated at the burial; and twice I helped to make 
coffins. 

I think it was the fall after our boys marched away, that Mr. 
Eastman, who always "raised the minister's salary," came to me 
with a sad countenance, to say that he had done his best, but that 
instead of being able to offer me the same (or more) for the coming 
year, the church must offer me fifty dollars less. This meant that 
while prices had already risen at least one-half, I must try to live on 
$450 instead of $500. 

Here was certainly ground for serious thought. With an invalid 
wife, needing expensive help, and with reason to expect family ex- 
penses to increase naturally — I knew that not only had the cost of 
living risen one-half already, but that it would certainly rise higher 
and higher as long as the war should continue. Gold would continue 
to "go up," and by great strides. Yet 1 was asked to accept lesa 
salary than ever before. 



112 ANNALS OP IOWA. 

(Looking back, 1 often wonder how it was that in those days we 
never spoke or thought of our paper money as falling in value — hut 
always of gold as rising. Was this a trick of those in power, or did 
it merely happen?) 

I finally asked my friend just one question: "Do the people really 
wish me to remain their pastor?" 

"No question about that," was the reply. "And every one wishes 
we could raise your salary, instead of lowering it." 

"In that case I will stay — on one condition — that you shall take 
hold with me — in spite of everything — to build our church." 

To this he gladly assented. And not long after, I took him in 
my cutter to interview Mr. Watson, who owned a large tract of the 
best timber in the great forest adjoining the village. Mr. Watson 
was not a member of the church, but I felt sure, on account of cer- 
tain circumstances connected with the illness and death of a beloved 
daughter of his, that he would feel kindly toward myself and the 
church. 

At once, learning my errand — I seem to see him as he takes his 
axe, and plows through the deep snow, leading the way to the forest. 
And arrived there, instead of selecting a few trees for us, as I had 
modestly suggested, he eagerly marked enough of the very finest, — 
splendid red-oaks, straight as an arrow, and without a limb for (I 
should think) fifty feet up — enough to supply all the dimension- 
timber and rough boards for the whole church. 

We went home rejoicing; and as soon as the news spread. Deacon 
Sanford Billings and his son-in-law, Mr. John Heald, mustered a 
force of choppers, and felled and cut to proper lengths the marked 
trees. Walter and Elmer Smith, sons of Captain John Smith, owned 
the saw-mill, at the edge of the woods. But their yard was so 
crowded already, that it was June before they could receive our 
trees. Then William Fomroy and I, with two yoke of oxen, drew 
the logs in, and they were sawn to order, free of all charge. 

Soon the lumber was on the ground, and a fresh force of men, 
with Newton Palmer as foreman, quickly had the frame up and 
roughly inclosed. I remember that I was so foolish, when I saw 
the building up and roofed, that a lump came in my throat and my 
eyes got full. And so far we had not expended a single dollar of 
money— all had been freely given. 

' But now we were up against it, surely. All the rest of the needed 
material must be paid for in money, and at war prices; and must 
be wagoned from the River at McGregor, a distance of eighty miles. 
And while most of us now had some money, such as it was, the cost 
of living had so increased that we were really poorer than ever. We 
gave, to our power and beyond; but the aggregate made no show 
as compared with the need. 

Was it mere chance? Just then I happened (?) to think of a 
certain famous divine and author, by name the Reverend Doctor 



"LITTLE BROWN CHURCH IN THE VALE." 113 

John Todd, at that time pastor of a very wealthy church at Pittsfield, 
Mass. Doctor Todd's first pastorate had been at Groton, my early 
home, and my parents and grandfather had been his loving friends 
and helpers. And his last public act (as I had been told) in closing 
his work there, had been to baptize me, the youngest of my father's 
twelve children. I remembered once hearing him, on a visit of his 
to his old parish, a wonderful sermon, full of word-pictures — I can 
never forget it. 

I wrote him. I told him whose son I was, how much my parents 
had told me of him, and how he had put upon me the seal of baptism. 
The babe he had named was now himself a pastor, and — well, I told 
him what we were doing, how far we had gotten on, and the straits 
we were now in. Then I asked Our Father to give us "favor in the 
eyes of this man." 

Very soon, I received a letter from him — I have it still — full of 
feeling, full of kind remembrance of my parents — and inclosing a 
check for one hundred and forty dollars — with a hint of more to 
follow. This money, he wrote, was "honey from white clover, very 
precious — the gift of the children of his Sunday School." 

And so began a friendship between the famous doctor and the 
obscure backwoods preacher, which ended only with his death. 
And it came about, strangely, that in his last sickness he called 
me to care for him, and for many days and nights I had the privi- 
lege at least of showing him my love and gratitude. 

Later than the first gift came others, and he helped us besides 
to secure aid from our Church Building Society, which was then 
in its infancy. And so we finished the building. And just then, 
being a delegate to the First National Council of our Church (at 
Boston, in 1865) the good doctor sent money to have my wife come 
with me. 

We spent a delightful week at his home. He called together 
his friends, and in a beautiful little service, baptized my little 
daughter, as he had baptized myself more than thirty years before. 
Among many kindnesses, he suggested to his people that "there 
was an excellent place for a good bell," in our little church tower. 
Accordingly, Mr. Thomas Cole, then a wealthy manufacturer of 
paper collars, and "Catherine, his wife," (as the inscription reads 
on the bell,) sent me over to Meneely's famous bell foundry at 
Troy, N. Y., to select such a bell as I wished. There was then no 
church bell in Chickasaw County, and its coming was an event. It 
was rung almost continuously all the way from Dubuque until it 
reached its destination. It still hangs in its tower, and is beloved 
of all the country-side. 

The Dedication. 
This took place in December, 18G4 — the exact date is lost. In 
those days the dedication of a small country church was not a great 



114 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

occasion. And, of course, none of us dreamed that our little churcli 
would ever become in any oense famous. The neighboring churches 
and ministers were invited, and the different parts were assigned. 

But the day proved extremely unfavorable, and of those invited, 
only one minister was able to attend. This was Rev. D. N. Bordwell, 
then pastor at Charles City, about twelve miles up the Cedar River — 
the nearest important town. He preached the sermon, to a small 
audience. I think he also offered the Dedicatory Prayer. I have 
been able to find no record — probably the church clerk considered 
it a failure, of which the less said the better. 

I continued as pastor about four years longer, during which 
not only my pastoral work went on happily, but I succeeded in 
establishing Bradford Academy, bringing with me on my return 
from New England, my nephew. Prof. W. P. Bennett, as its princi- 
pal. Beginning in a small way, this school grew until the people 
provided for it a good brick building, in which it did a notable work 
for many years, elevating the standard of education in all the 
region, so that it is claimed that from no equal district in Iowa 
have so many young people obtained a college education. And the 
impetus so given has continued, though the competition of the free 
high schools in the end took away its constituency, as it had no 
endowment. The semi-centennial of the Academy was celebrated 
by its friends and alumni, in connection with that of the church, 
though it had long ceased to exist. I speak of it, because it grew 
out of the church. 

By 1867 it had become evident that the hoped-for railway would 
not touch Bradford, but would build up the newer town of Nashua, 
about a mile and a half distant, on the main Cedar— Bradford lying 
on the Little Cedar, which there flowed through the same "vale." 
The old town had two possible mill-sites, one of which had long 
been in use. But Nashua had a larger water-privilege, on the main 
stream. After a pastorate of nearly nine years, I reluctantly re- 
signed my charge. One of my latest acts was to assist in organizing 
a church at Nashua, where I had from the first also preached regu- 
larly. This church gradually absorbed the older organization. 

Other pastors succeeded me at Bradford, but gradually the popula- 
tion decreased, until in the course of years the little church stood 
almost alone in the fields, and finally its sweet bell became silent, 
except when some old settler was to be buried from the church, or 
upon some extraordinary occasion. 

It is remarkable that both men connected with this histori- 
cal spot, Rev. J. K. Nutting, the builder, and Dr. W. S. Pitts, 
the author of the song, are both alive and both over "eighty 
years young." Both sent greetings to the jubilee celebration 
in June, 1914. 



"LITTLE BROWN CHURCH IN THE VALE." 115 

During the early life of the church the following pastors 
were leaders in the work, following Mr. Nutting: Rev. R. J. 
"Williams, Rev. Alpheus Graves, Rev. J. M. Hudson, Rev. L. 
D. W. Boynton, Rev. T. J. Reed and Rev. N. L. Packard. Mr. 
Packard resigned in 1887, since which time no regular pastor 
has preached, although the pulpit has been supplied much of 
the time by the pastors of the Nashua Congregational church, 
which is only two miles away. A Sunday school has been 
maintained with the exception of very short intervals during 
all these years. 

One by one the members of the church withdrew their 
memberships or went to their rewards until Mrs. Sanford 
Billings alone remained. She would never take her member- 
ship from this church, and her friends would laughingly say 
to her: "Why grandma, you are the Little Brown Church 
in the Vale." But in May of 1911 she, too, was crowned. 

In June, 1913, the church took on new life and was again 
placed on the map. of Congregational churches with a mem- 
bership of thirty. It is now known as the Bradford Branch 
of the Nashua Congregational church. 

In June, 1914, a jubilee celebration was held. Near the 
church had stood a building known as Bradford Academy. 
So the jubilee included a reunion of the former students, as 
Avell as the children of the old members and of the old con- 
stituency of the church. A large crowd came together, some 
thirteen different states being represented. People who had 
not met for forty years renewed old friendships. 

An interesting program was carried out. Wednesday eve- 
ning, June 10th, Supt. P. A. Johnson of Grinnell preached 
on the theme, "The Vitality, Fertility and Fruitfulness of 
the Church." Mrs. Rena Bowers gave some very interesting 
reminiscences. On the following day the church yard was 
the scene of the picnic dinner. This was followed by an address 
by J. F. Grawe, editor of the Waverli/ Independent, on "In- 
fluence of Old Academy Teachers." Mrs. Irving Fisher of 
Allison recounted the struggles of early days in connection 
with church and school. Hon. J. H. Trewin of Cedar Rapids, 
a student of early academy days, told of the influence which 



116 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

had been exerted by the Academy, which though now past 
history, still lives in immortal influence. 

In the evening Rev. Arthur Graves, a grandson of a former 
pastor of the church preached on "Making Christ King," and 
Dr. W. W. Gist, of Cedar Falls, closed the celebration by 
pointing out the opportunities which still open to this church 
in serving the religious interests of the community. The 
splendid music was furnished by the Nashua church. 

The Lord passes on the blessings as well as the iniquities of 
the fathers unto the third and fourth generation, for the cen- 
tral tigure in the activities of "The Little Brown Church" 
in this year of 1915, is James Manly Heald, the grandson of 
the first clerk. San ford Billings, and the last member, Mrs. 
Sanford Billings. 



SIGOURNEY— HOW PRONOUNCED. 

The county seat of the adjoining county of Keokuk is the 
namesake of one of the most gifted of American women, and 
the common i^ronunciation as if it Avere spelled Si-gur-ney, 
placing the entire accent on the second syllable, has always 
sounded harsh and unpleasant. Wishing to correct this error, 
we recently addressed a note to Mrs. Sigourney in relation 
to the matter, intimating our impression that the accent should 
be entirely on the first syllable. The following is her answer: 

Hartford, Conn., March 18th, 1858. 
My Dear Sir: 

In reply to yours of the 6th ult. with regard to the pronunciation 
of the name of Sigourney, I assure you that your own opinion and 
usage are right in placing the accent entirely on the first syllable. 
I have sometimes heard the stress of voice laid on the second, as 
you mention often occurs at the West, but it is incorrect. 

With best wishes for the success of your periodical and the pros- 
perity of your beautiful State, I am, 

Respectfully yours, 

L. H. S. 
(From Osknioosa Herald.) 

Sigourney, Iowa, Life in the ^Ycst, Feb. 17, 1859. 



WRITINGS OF JUDGE GEORGE G. WRKUIT. 117 

THE WRITINGS OF JUDGE GEORGE G. WRIGHT. 

V. 

ASSOCIATES IN TH£ LEGIc^LATUKE. 

In the senate of 1848-49 and 1850-51, I remember my col- 
leagues Dr. J. P. Sanford (first session), and Dr. J. B. Spees, 
(second). Sanford was then and after among the ablest and 
most distinguished surgeons of the West, and was for a long 
time connected with the medical college at Keokuk. He was 
a man of keen intellect — the quickest perceptions — confident 
of his own ability — a ready talker and proud of his profession. 
Dr. Spees was of most modest demeanor — but little familiar 
with legislative w^ork — honest and true to every obligation. 

Then, too, was Francis Springer. We called him by direc- 
tion of John P. Cook "Sir Francis Burdette". He was one 
of eight Whigs in a body of twenty-six (Cook, Wheeler, 
Springer, Sanford, Sprott, Browning, Jay, Wright). Had 
been President of the Territorial Council, afterwards Dis- 
trict Judge and President of Constitutional Convention of 
1857. [He is] still in life, approaching if he has not reached 
the fourscore line. Is with his son and daughter in Louisa 
county part of the time (and there he settled fifty years 
since), and part with his two sons in New Mexico, — noble 
children, honoring him and honored by him. Their mother 
was a daughter of Judge Coleman, a true-hearted old Whig 
and a splendid gentleman of the old school, — few such in 
Iowa. [Springer] was even more level-headed than Burdette, 
safe, cautious, clear-headed, the perfection of the gentleman 
in all his habits, with few if any enemies, and friends every- 
where. 

Dr. John J. Selman was president of one session and Dr. 
Enos Lowe of the other ; both from Indiana. I knew the 
latter in his early manhood and the former in Van Buren 
county where he first settled, — going to Bloomfield in Davis 
county of which county he was senator. He was Territorial 
elector on the Cass-Butler ticket of 1848. Lowe was delib- 



118 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

erate — slow in his movements — somewhat timid in express- 
ing his opinions — not much of a talker but a good presiding 
officer. Selman was quick — struck at random — extreme in 
his political views — depended upon the "light of reason in 
the common courts" — was genial — a little erratic in his hab- 
its — -but withal acquitted himself well. Both had been mem- 
bers of constitutional conventions — Selman of the Second, 
and the former (Lowe) member and president of the first. 

John P. Cook was the always happy, genial man of the 
senate. Few men in the State had manners more popular. 
He was the friend of everybody and everybody was his friend. 
Always the life of every social circle, — he could sing a song 
or tell a story, whether in Irish, Dutch or English, equal to 
any man (unless it may have been Judge Joseph Williams, 
of whom more perhaps hereafter). An early settler — among 
the first in the Cedar valley, he was of a family (Ebenezer, 
William, Ira) which has most happily impressed itself upon 
Iowa. His son Edward (Davenport) is among the leading 
lawyers of the State. John P. was in congress in 1853, I think. 
Was a leading lawyer, and few men were ever stronger, more 
invincible before a jury "of twelve good and lawful men." 
Not a student, he nevertheless had a tact and intuitive per- 
ception of legal principles and a faculty for grouping and 
grasping facts, — and too, of judging human actions, making 
him quite as dangerous an antagonist as one who read books 
more and the affairs of the world less. He loved his friends — 
was attached to good men, and worshipped the happy, jolly 
side of life, and had a most profound contempt for pretenders, 
shams or hypocrites. 

Warner Lewis was from Dubuque. A southerner (Vir- 
ginia, I believe), was the soul of honor and the highest type 
of the old-school gentleman. Not the most fluent talker, he 
was nevertheless always listened to with attention, j'or his 
friendships were so sincere, his amiability so admired, his 
sincerity so admitted that he always commanded respect. He 
was as chivalrous as a "prince of the royal blood" and al- 
ways stood for home and all that word implies and includes. 
Adhering to old views and ideas he was at first opposed to 
any extension of the rights of women — as to separate prop- 



WRITINGS OP JUDGE GEORGE G. WRIGHT. 119 

erty or the like — but after reflection — and he was a man who 
listened and thought well, — he changed his views and actu- 
ally aided in the little gained, as will appear in the code of 
1851. He was as far from any and all vices as any man then 
or since in public life. And living to a good old age, he died 
poor, without (as far as I know) a stain upon his record pri- 
vate or public. 

John T. Morton and Evan Jay were from Henry [county] 
at different sessions. John liked his ease — preferred a dog 
or fishing tackle to book or work. Then in the prime of youthful 
manhood, he was good-looking — indifferent to dress — a royal 
Whig — worked on committee when necessary — in his place if 
it was important — had a keen sense of the ludicrous and 
ready to get any one into a harmless scrape if thereby fun 
could be found. He is in Kansas now — has been clerk of the 
Federal court, — police judge, — and is thus well-known. He 
was ever true to "High Henry" and had scores of friends 
and especially with the young people, — the active, enterpris- 
ing people of his county. 

Evan Jay was in many respects just the opposite. A farm- 
er, he was not much of a talker — plain in his habits and 
dress — didn't take much to dogs or fish hooks, but more to 
good horses and the pleasures of the farm. And yet he was 
a shrewd chap — good size — an adroit politician — strong, vig- 
orous, common sense — not able to grasp all sides of a difficult 
(especially legal) proposition — but drove to his conclusion 
directly and usually with correctness. Evan was from In- 
diana, I think, and loved to talk of the early days and scenes 
of his "Hoosier" life. We have had brighter men — more 
able in law or in legislation but few more faithful to a trust. 
He was a most jolly laugher — told and liked a good story — 
not always exactly the most particular that it was in color. 
Had something of the Quaker vein, and thus had additional 
strength in that county. And yet he was not in reality much 
of a Quaker, though a good, plain, perpendicular citizen and 
legislator. 

George Hepner — an odd bird from Parke county, Indiana. 
George took naturally to politics and was a most intense, old- 
fashioned Jackson Democrat. Without much education, he, 



120 • ANNALS OF IOWA. 

nevertheless, having a good presence and fair assurance, im- 
pressed himself well. He was chairman of committee on cor- 
porations, and had all the old-time distrust and hostility to 
everything like exclusive rights and special legislation on 
the subject of corporations, whether successful or otherwise. 
I remember that Freeman Alger of Muscatine, also a Demo- 
crat, wanted some special legislation to help out some defect 
in the unsatisfactory working of their ferry privilege at the 
old town of Bloomington (Muscatine). His constituents were 
clamorous and he was very anxious. Hepner stood in his way 
and more than once reported against the relief asked. Time 
went on, and near the close of the session a very sturdy dele- 
gation appeared from Des Moines county ( Hepner 's county) 
seeking much the same relief and the committee changed 
fast. Alger was a plain man — unusually quiet — and had said 
but little — few thought it was in him, but I never knew any 
one receive such an unmerciful scoring as he gave Hepner. 
Enos Lowe (Hepner 's colleague) had called Hepner to the 
chair and took charge of the bill, and Hepner asked for 
mercy until he could get the floor. It was of no avail. Alger 
had his revenge. Des Moines county succeeded and so then 
did Muscatine. Alger ranked very high after that, and espe- 
cially since it occurred that night that a traveling troupe of 
burnt corkers were given the use of the Senate chamber (free 
tickets to Senators and officers ! ) and in their local hits two 
of them took off Hepner and Alger to perfection, — imitated 
them in speech and action (and I always thought that John 
P. Cook, with possible assistance, put them up to it ! They 
certainly were well instructed). 

Hepner lived at Augusta — settled there at a very early 
day — had had prior legislative experience and stood well with 
his party in his county. This is evidenced in the fact that he 
was a member of the First and Second Territorial Council, 
of the Fourth and Fifth Territorial House, of the First Con- 
stitutional Convention and Third and Fourth State Senate. 
As I have said, he was rather fine looking — dressed well — 
loved society and was somewhat vain. 

M. D. Browning of Des Moines [county] was a member of 
the Third Territorial House and of the First, Second and 



WRITINGS OF JUDGE GEORGE G. WRIGHT. 121 

Fourth State Senate [also Fifth]. His ability and happy, 
cheerful nature no one denied. He was a good lawyer — not 
so much from reading as from readiness to elicit and apply 
— almost by intuition — rules and principles to facts. Had 
the most wonderful tact before a jury — repeated the Bible 
with more facility than any lawyer I ever knew, and could 
beat, or circumvtMit oftener, those of more laborious habits 
and greater application by his happy manner and adroit 
statement of his proposition and argument. (Was a brother 
of 0. H. Browning of Quincy in Johnson's cabinet.) He 
and Billy G. Haun of Clinton in the House, Fourth State 
Assembly (the latter had a distillery), were much together, 
for Haun had for himself and friends always a good supply 
of the "original package." (Boarded at Crummys', I think.) 
Browning had a most intense dislike of shams, as also of 
long-winded and prosy speakers. Alwaj^s wanted to hurry 
things to a vote and adjourn. He was a Whig then, after- 
wards district attorney under Johnson and died a Democrat. 
Was in the habit of talking to himself — making the most 
humorous and amusing comments on the speeches of others 
while they had the floor, and as my seat was next his I could 
not but hear and enjoy the fun. He was seldom still. If not 
walking about, he was talking, commenting, making carica- 
tures on paper, moving in his chair — for Milton could not be 
still — listen quietly. Even if he took part in a debate, he 
was in advance to himself, amusing his antagonist, spitting 
out his sarcasm or anticipating his speech or arguments. Some 
men he loved to guy and put on the rack and would go out 
of the line of debate to do it. Gen. T. S. Espy, senator from 
Lee, was an intense Democrat — loved to talk — took part in 
everything, almost. On stating all his propositions he was 
wont to say, ''I apprehend, Mr. President" — and oh, how 
Browning ridiculed his "apprehensions" and loved to lay 
bare what he esteemed and termed his sophistries. Browning 
was of much more than average ability — not of the best habits 
— good brain — wdth study and application he could and would 
have been, if true to himself, among the strongest and lead- 
ing men of the State. A Kentuckian — his old notions and 
love of slavery shadowed at least his political life. 



122 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS. 

A CONTRIBUTION TOWARD A BIBLIOGRAPHY.* 

By Alice Marple. 

(Continued.) 

Holyoke, Marie Ballard 

Violets, early and late. '86. Chic. Mills & Spring. 

Hook, Wallace A., 1874^ 

Primer of agriculture. '12. Packard, la. The author. 

Horack, Frank Edward 

Constitutional amendments in the commonwealth ot 

Iowa. '99. Iowa City. 
Government of Iowa. '11. Scribner. 
Primary elections in Iowa (Iowa applied history ser., v. 

1, no. 4). '12. Iowa state historical soc. 
Organization and control of industrial corporations. 

'03. Taylor, C. F. 

Hornaday, William Temple, 1854 — 

American natural history. '04. Scribner. 

Brief directions for removing and preserving skins of 
mammals. U. S. uat. museum. 

Camp-fires in Canadian rockies. '06. Scribner. 

Cafnp-fires on desert and lava. '08. Scribner, 

Classification of collection to illustrate art of taxidermy. 
U. S. nat. museum. 

Destruction of our birds and mammals. '01. N. Y. 
zoological soc. 

Extermination of American bison; with sketch of dis- 
covery and life history. '87. U. S. nat. museum. 

*This list of author.? and their worlvs is herewith published, to continue 
until complete, for the purpose of recording all that is at present known 
or that can be ascertained upon the subject. Criticism and suggestions 
are invited. — Editor. 

tAbbreviation of publishers' names follows the usage of The Cumulative 
Book Index, the H. W.- Wilson Company, Publishers, White Plains, New 
York. 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS. 123 

Homaday, William Temple — Continued. 

How to collect mammal skins for purposes of study and 
mounting. '86. U. S. nat. museum. 

Notes on mountain sheep of North America. '01. N. Y. 
zoological soc. 

Our vanishing wild life ; its extermination and preserva- 
tion. 'IS. Scribner. 

Popular official guide to the New York zoological park. 
11th ed. '11. N. Y. zoological soc. 

Taxidermy and zoological collecting; with chapters on 
preserving insects. Scribner. 

Two years in the jungle. Scribner. 

Hostetler, Harvey 

Historical sketch of the presbytery of Fort Dodge. '89. 

Vail, la. Observer ptg. house. 
Minutes of the presbytery of Sioux City, Iowa, Apr. 23- 

25, 1891. '91. Sac City. 

Houchuly, J. 

Christianity, the safe-guard of the republic. '87. 

Hough, Emerson, 1857 — 

54-40 or fight. '09. Bobbs. 

Girl at the halfway house. Appleton. 

Heart's desire. '05. Macmillan. 

John Rawn. '12. Bobbs. 

King of Gee- Whiz. '06. Bobbs. 

Lady and the pirate. '13. Bobbs. 

Law of the land. '04. Bobbs. 

Mississippi bubble. Bobbs. 

Purchase price. '10. Bobbs. 

Singing mouse stories. '10. Bobbs. 

The sowing; a "Yankee's" view of England's duty to 

herself and to Canada. '09. Vanderhoof-Gunn co. 
Story of the cowboy. Appleton. 
Story of the outlaw. '10. Burt. 
Way of a man. '11. Burt. 
Way to the West, and lives of three early Americans, 

Boone-Crockett-Carson. '03. Bobbs. 
Young Alaskans in the Rockies. '13. Harper. 
Young Alaskans on the trail. '11. Harper. 



124 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

Hoy, Oscar H. 

Origin of organic life. '12. Cedar Falls, la. Monist 
pub. 

Hrbek, Jeffrey Dolezal, 1882-1907 

Ldnden blossoms; poems. Torch press. 

Hubbard, Joseph Welton 

Presbyterian church in Iowa 1837-1900. '07. Cedar 
Rapids, la. Jones & Wells. 

Hudson, Lillie Row 

School stories of little things. '83. Des Moines. Mills 

& CO. 

Huebinger, Melchoir 

Maj) and guide for river to river road. '10. Des Moines. 
Iowa pub. CO. 

Hughes, R. P. and J. W. 

Young people's entertainments. '12. Council Bluffs. 
Monarch ptg. co. 

Hughes, Rupert, 1872— 

Amiable crimes of Dirk Memling. '13. Appieton. 

Colonel Crockett's co-operative Christmas. '06. Jacobs. 

Contemporary American composers. '00. 

Dozen from Lakerim. '99. Century. 

Excuse me! '11. Fly. 

Famous American composers. Page. 

Gift-wife. '10. Moffatt. 

Gyges' ring. '01. Russell. 

Lady who smoked cigars. '13. FitzGerald. 

Lakerim athletic club. '99. Century. 

Lakerim cruise. '10. Century. 

Love affairs of great musicians. 2v. Page. 

Miss 318; a story in season and out of season. '11. 

Revell. 
Mrs. Budlong's Christmas present. '12. Appieton. 
(ed.) Music lovers' cyclopedia. '13. Doubleday. 
Musical guide. 2v. '09. Doubleday. 
Real New York. Saalfield. 
Riley album and other songs. Schuberth. 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS. 125 

Hughes, Rupert — Continued. 

Songs by thirty Americans, high or low voice. Ditson. 
What will people say? a novel. '14. Harper. 
Whirlwind; a novel. '02. Lothrop. 
Zal; an international romance. '05. Century. 

Hughs, George Shelley- 
Ancient civilizations. '96. G: S. Hughs, 915 E. 55th 

St. Chic. 
Boken (poems phonetically spelled). '03. G: S. Hughs, 

915 E. 55th St. Chic. 
Grammar of English ; on the theory that this is the 

first. '10. G : S. Hughs, 915 E. 55th st. Chic. 

Hull, John M. 

Ventilation, n. d. 

Hull, Mattie E. 

Spirit echoes. '01. Sunflower pub. co. 
Spiritual songsters. Banner of It. 
Wayside jottings. Banner of It. 

Hull, Moses 

All about devils. '90. Banner of It. 
Christs of past and present; rev. of "Jesus and me- 
diums." '01. Sunflower pub. 
Contrast. '91. Banner of It. 
Death and its tomorrow. Peebles. 
Devil and the Adventists. Banner of It. 
Irrepressible conflict. '90. Banner of It. 
Jesus and the mediums. Banner of It. 
Letters to Elder Miles Grant. Banner of It. 
Mystery solved. Banner of It. 
Old and new. Hull. 
Old nest. '12. Century. 
Our Bible; who wrote it? Hull. 
Question settled. '91. 
Real issue. '92. Banner of It. 
Spiritual Alps. Banner of It. 
Spiritual birth or death. Banner of It. 
Swept away; sermon. Banner of It. 
Talmagean inanities, incongruities, etc. '00. Hull. 



126 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

Hull, Moses — Continued. 
Two in one. Hull. 

Yonr answer or your life ; or, The riddle propounded 
by the American sphinx. Banner of It. 

—and Hull, Mattie E. 

New thought. Hull. 

Hume, Thomas Milton 

Hume produce code. '14. Burlington, la. The author. 

Hunter, Samuel John, 1866— 

Elementary studies in insect life. '02. Crane. 

Huntington, Ida M. 

Christmas party for Santa Claus. '12. Rand. 
Garden of heart's delight. '11. Rand. 
Peter Pumpkin in Wonderland. '08. Rand. 

Hurd, Marion Kent and Wilson, Jean Brigham 

When she comes home from college. '09. Houghton, 
(jt. auth.) Stokely, Edith Keely. Miss Billy; a neigh- 
borhood story. '05. Lothrop. 

Hussey, Tacitus 

Biography of Edwin Ruthven Clapp. '06. Des Moines. 

Register & Leader. 
History of steamboating on the Des Moines river, 

1837-62. 
River bend and other poems. '96. 
Six Bonaparte dam elegies. '02. 

Hutchinson, Woods, 1862 — 

Animal chivalry. '00. Tucker. 

Common diseases. '13. Houghton. 

Conquest of consumption. '12. Houghton. 

Exercise and health. '11. Outing pub. 

Gospel according to Darwin. Open ct. 

Handbook of health. '11. Houghton. 

Instinct and health. '08. Dodd. 

Overworked children on the farm and in the school. '09. 

National child labor. 
Preventable diseases. '09. Houghton. 
Studies in human and comparative pathology. Putnam. 



J 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS. 127 

Hutchinson, Woods — Continued. ' 

Typhoid fever; the story of the fly that doesn't wipe its 
feet. '08. Merchants' assn. of N. Y. 
' "We and our children. '11. Doubleday. 

Ivins, Mrs. Virginia Wilcox 

Pen pictures of early western days. '05. Keokuk. The 
author. 

Jackson, W. T. 

Seneca and Kant. '81. Un. breth. 

James, Edmund Janes, 1855 — 

Chairs of pedagogics in our universities. Am. acad. 
(ed.) Charters of the city of Chicago, 3 pts., pts. 1 & 

2. Univ. of Chic. 
Commercial education. '11. Am. bk. 
Commercial education in Europe, particularly in Aus- 
tria, France and Germany. '97. U. S. educ. 
Early essay on proportional representation. '96. Am. 

acad. 
Examination of Bryce's American commonwealth. '96. 

Am. acad. 
(tr.) Federal constitution of the Swiss confederation. 

Univ. of Pa. 
First apportionment of federal representatives in the 

United States. '97. Am. acad. 
Government of a typical Prussian city, Halle. '00. Am. 

acad. 
Growth of great cities in area and population. '99. 

Am. acad. 
Municipal administration in Germany, as seen in the 

government of a typical Prussian city, Halle. '01. 

Univ. of Chic. 
Newspapers and periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879 ; rev. 

& enl. ed. by Franklin W. Scott. '10. 111. state hist. 

soc. 
Origin of the land grant act of 1862. '10. Univ. of 111. 
Place of the political and social science in modern edu- 
cation. '97. Am. acad. 
Railway question, Am. economic assn. 



128 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

James, Edmund Janes — Continued. 

Relation of the modern municipality to the gas supply. 

Am. aead. 
University extension lecturer. '92. N. Y. state library. 

— and Haupt, Le^vis Muhlenberg 

Papers on the canal question. Am. economic assn. 

James, James Alton, 1864 — 

Constitution and admission of Iowa into the union. '00. 
Johns Hopkins. 

English institutions and the American Indian. Johns 
Hopkins. 

Indian diplomacy and the opening of the revolution in 
the West. '10. State hist. soc. Madison, Wis. 

(ed.) Readings in American history. '14. Scribner. 

(ed.) Seignobos, C. ; History of contemporary civiliza- 
tion. History of mediaeval and of modern civilization. 
— and Sanford, Albert Hart 

American history. '09. Scribner. 

Government in state and nation, rev. ed. '11. Scrib- 
ner. 

Our government, local, state and national. Scribner. 

Jarvis, Mrs. F. M. 

Hydrogen absorption by man. '90. Oskaloosa. Globe 
steam book and job ptg. house. 

Jessup, Walter Albert 

Social factors affecting special supervision in the public 
schools of the United States. '11. Teachers college. 

Jones, Alice Ilgenfritz (Ferris Jerome, pseud.) 

Beatrice of Bayou Teche. McClurg. 
Chevalier of St. Denis. '00. McClurg. 
High-watermark; a novel. '79. Lippincott. 

Jones, Christopher Tompkins 

Iowa supreme court practice; being the rules re2rnlitiug 
• practice in the cufreinc court of Iowa. '04. Dot 

Moines. 

Jones, J. W. 

What is man? '91. Carbondalc, la. 



\ 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS. 129 

Jones, Lynde 

Development of nestling feathers. '07. Oberlin, 0. 

The author. 
Introduction and analytical keys to birds of Ohio. '03. 

Columbus, 0. Wheaton pub. eo. 

Jones, Marcus Eugene, 1852 — 

Montana botany (Univ. of Montana, Bui. 61). '10. Uni- 
versity of Montana, Missoula. 

Utah (Tarr & IMcMurray's geographies, supplementary 
volume). '02. Macmillan. 

Jones, Margaret Patterson 

Tlie other side; a book of travels. '03. Des Moines. 

Kenyon. 
Scribblings in verse. '95. 

Jones, Richard C. 

Arthurian legends. '96. Lond. Fischer. 

Ethical elements in literature. Public school. 

Growth of idyls of the king. Bardeen. 

Literature as a means of culture and other addresses. 
'91. Bloomington, 111. 

Peasant rents. Macmillan. 
Jones, Samuel Calvin, 1838 — 

Keminiscences of the 22d Iowa volunteer infantry. '07. 
S. C. Jones, 1219 Nebraska st., Sioux City, la. 
Johnson, Allen, 1870 — 

Stephen A. Douglas; study in American politics. '08. 
Macmillan. 
Johnston, Hov/ard Agnew, 1860 — 

Bible criticism and the average man. '02. Revell. 

Famine and the bread. '08. Y. I\r. C. A. 

God's methods for training workers. '00. Y. ]\I. C. A. 

Scientific faith. '10. Doran. 

Studies for personal workers. '03. Y. M. C. A. 

Victorious manhood. '09. Revell. 

Judd, Francis Emerson 

Owl's eve and other poems. '88. Marshalltown. Web- 
ster & Burkart. 
9 



130 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

Junkin, C. M. 

Cruise of the JMorning Star; log of a journey on the 
Mississippi river from St. Paul to New Orleans. '11. 
Fairfield, la. Ledger ptg. house. 

Kagy, Amos H. 

Iowa probate guide. '70. St. Louis. 

Kasson, John Adam, 1822-1910 

Evolution of the constitution of the United States of 
America and history of the Monroe doctrine. '04. 
Ploughton. 

Kavanagh, Marcus A. 

Proof of design in creation, tested by the established 
rules of evidence. '10. Flanagan. 

Kaye, John Brayshaw 

Songs of Lake Geneva and other poems. '82. Putnam. 

Sweet lake of Geneva. '75. Putnam. 

Trial of Christ iu seven stages ; a poem. '09. Sherman, 

French & co. 
Vashti ; a poem in seven books. 3d. ed. '04. Putnam. 

Kaye, Percy Lewis 

Colonial executive prior to restoration. '00. Johns 

Hopkins. 
English colonial administration under Lord Clarendon. 

'05. Johns Hopkins. 
Readings in civil government. '10. Century. 

Keane, John Joseph, 1839 — 

Father Sorin-; sermon preached at the unveiling of his 
monument. L^niv. of Notre Dame. 

Man, the Christian, the worker. Univ. of Notre Dame. 

Onward and upward ; a year compiled from the dis- 
courses of Archbishop Keane, by Maurice Francis 
Egan. '02. IMurphy. 

Providential mission of Pius IX. Murphy. 

Sodality manual of Holy Ghost. ]\Iurphy. 

Kearny, Martha Eleanor 

Pattie ; or, Leaves from a life. '92. Lamoni. Herald 
.job office. 



I 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS. 131 

Keayes, Hersilla A. Mitchell (Copp) (Mrs. Charles Henry 
Keayes), 1861— 

He that eateth bread with me. '04. Doubleday. 

I and my true love. '08. Small. 

Marriage portion ; a novel. '11. Small. 

Mrs. Brand; a novel. '13. Small. 

Eoad to Damascus. '07. Small. 

Work of our hands. '05. Doubleday. 

Kelsey, Carl, 1870— 

Evolution of negro labor. '03. Am. aead. 

— and others 

Kace improvement in the United States. '06. Am. acad. 

Kempker, John F. 

History of the Catholic church in Iowa. '87. Iowa City. 
Rep. pub. CO. 

Kent, C. H. 

Chart of Bible history. Pilgrim press. 

Manual for young ladies. '81. Davenport. Author. 

New commentary; a manual for young men. '81. Dav- 
enport. The author. 

Texas; the future home of the emigrant. '78. Daven^ 
port. Gazette co. 

Kephart, Cyrus Jeffries, 1852 — 

Jesus, the Nazarene. Un. breth. 
Life of Jesus for children. Un. breth. 
Public life of Christ. Un. breth. Revell. 

Kerr, Alvah Milton, 1858— 

Diamond key and hoAv the railway heroes won it. '07. 

Lothrop. 
Two young inventors. '01. Lothrop. 
Young heroes of wire and rail. '03. Lothrop. 

Kershaw, W. L. 

History of Page county, Iowa. 2v. '09. S. J. Clarke. 

Ketchum, Mrs, A. C. 

Benny; a Christmas ballad. '70. N. Y. 



132 ' ANNALS OF IOWA. 

Keyes, Charles RoUin, 1864— 

Annotated bibliography of Iowa geology and mining. 

(Reports and papers, v. 22). '13. Iowa Geol. S. Des 

Moines. 
Bibliography of North American paleontology, 1888-92. 

'94. U. S. Geol. S. Supt. of doc. 
Geology and underground water conditions of the Jor- 

nado del Mnerto, N. M. '05. Supt. of doc. 
See List of the scientific writings of Charles Rolim Keyes. 

'09, John Hopkins. 

Kincaid, Frank Hayward 

Register of the society of the Sons of the American 
Revolution in the state of Iowa. '12. Davenport. 
Edward Borcherdt. 

King, Irving, 1874 — 

Development in religion. '10. Macmillan. 

Differentiation of the religious consciousness. '05. 
Psychological review. 

Education for social efficiency. 'IS. Appleton. 

Psychology of child development. '03. Univ. of Chi- 
cago. 

Social aspects of education. '12. Macmillan. 

King, Lincoln 

Poems. '86. Marshalltown. 

King, W. W. and Hobbs, Alvin I. 

Theological discussion held at Des JMoines, June 22, 
1868. '68. Dubuque, la. J. L. McCreery. 

King, William Fletcher 

Inaugural address of, president of the Iowa state teach- 
ers' assn., delivered at Des Moines, Iowa, Dec. 28, 
1885. '85. Cedar Rapids. 

Baccalaureate sermon delivered to the graduating class 
of 1883. '83. Cedar Rapids. 

Kinne, La Vega George, 1846-1906 

Iowa pleading, practice and forms. 2d. ed. 2v. '98. 
Callaghan. 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS. 133 

Kinney, H. A. 

Geography, outlines and notes. '88. Woodbine, la. 

Kirbye, J. Edward, 1873— 

Puritanism in the south. '08. Pilgrim press. 

Kirkpatrick, Edwin Asbiiry, 1862 — 

Fundamentals of child study, new ed. '07. Maemillan, 

Genetic psychology. '09. Maemillan. 

Individual in the making; a subjective view of child 
development with suggestions for parents and teach- 
ers. '11. Houghton. 

(ed.) Studies in development and learning. '09. Sci- 
ence press. 

Kleckner, Emma Robinson 

In the misty realm of fable. '01. Flanagan. 
Sioux Cit3^ n. d. The author. 

Knapp, Mary Clay (Mrs. T. Y. Kayne) 

Whose soul have I now? '69. Rand. 

Kneeland, Abner, 1774-1844 

(ed.) Investigator. '30. Bost. 

(ed.) Messenger. '18. Phila. 

(ed.) Olive branch. '25. N. Y. 

(ed.) Philadelphia Universalist magazine and Christian 

messenger. 
Child's first book. 
Letters from Salubria. '39. 
My philosophic creed. '33. 

New Testament ; a version in Greek and English. 
Speech in his defense. '36. 
Valedictory address on leaving Boston. '39. 

Knox, George H., 1871— 

Leadership. '09, Des Moines, la. Personal help pub. 
Ready money. Des Moines, la. Personal help pub. 
(comp.) Thoughts that inspire. 2v. Des Moines, la. 
Personal help pub. 



134 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

Koren, John, 1861 — 

Census statistics of special classes; with Coman's negro 
as a peasant farmer. Am. statistical assn. 

Some statistics of recidivism among misdemeanants in 
Boston. '01< Am. statistical assn. 

Statistics; report. '07. National conf. of charities. 

Summaries of laws relating to the commitment of and 
cure of the insane in the United States. '13. National 
com. for mental hygiene. 

(jt, auth.) Wines, Frederick Howard. Liquor prob- 
lem in its legislative aspects. Houghton. 

Kratz, Henry Elton, 1849— 

Naturalism in pedagogy. '91. Wooster, 0. Herald 
ptg. CO. 

Studies and observations in the school-room. '07. Edu- 
cational. 

Lacey, John Fletcher 

Address Apr. 7th, 1912, at Shiloh battle ground, Ten- 
nessee, on fiftieth anniversary of battle. 

Address on Henry Clay before the Grant club of Des 
Moines, May 19, 1903. 

Aguinaldo and his supporters. '99. Wash. 

Digest of railway decisions; American cases. '75- '84. 
Chic. 

Early bench and bar of Iowa. Oskaloosa. n. d. 

Persistent influence of John Marshall. '07. Oskaloosa. 

Lambert, J. R. 

What is man? '91. Lamoni. Patriot office. 

Lamson, Ward 

Self -worship ; or, Idolatry. '79. 

Lanphere, Mrs. L. 

Common school compendium. '85. Chic. 

Larrabee, William 

Railroad question. '93. Schulte. 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS. 135 

La Tourette, Clara, 1880 — and McDaniel. Charles Foster, 
1883— 

Commercdal art typewritinsf. '10. Cedar Rapids. C : F. 
McDaniel. 

Lazell, Frederick John 

Down the Cedar river. Torch press. 
Isaiah as a nature lover. '10. Torch press. 
Some autumn days in Iowa. '06. Torch press. 
Some spring days in Iowa. '08. Torch press. 
Some summer days in Iowa. '09. Torch press. 
Some winter days in Iowa. '07. Torch press. 

Lee, Franklin Warner 

Dreamy hours. '90. St. Paul, Minn. 

Finlay Aaron's fate. '85. Des Moines, la. 

Hearts. '97. Rush City post. 

Lenten verses. '97. Rush City post. 

Senator Lars Erikson. '91. St. Paul, Minn. 

Shred of lace. '91. St. Paul, Minn. 

Sphinx of gold and other sonnets. '97. Rush City post. 

Whispers of wee ones. '86. Rush City post. 

Lee, J. W. 

History of Hamilton county, Iowa. 2v. '12. S. J. 
Clarke. 

Leffingwell, C. W. 

(ed.) Lyrics of the living church. '91. McClurg. 

Leffingwell, William Bruce 

Art of wing shooting. Rand. 

(ed.) Shooting on upland, marsh and stream. '90. 

Rand. 
Wild fowl shooting. '88. Rand. 

Leland, Samuel Phelps, 1839— 

Peculiar people. '91. Cleveland. Aust & Clark. 
World making; a scientific explanation of the ])irth, 

growth and death of worlds. 17th ed. '06. S: P. 

Leland. Seabreeze, Florida. 



136 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

Letts, Mrs. Albina Marilla (Brockway) 

By grandsire's well and other poems. '09. Kansas City, 
Mo. Kellogg-Baxter ptg. co. 

Lewis, George H. 

National consolidation of railways of the United States. 
'93. Dodd. 

Lillibridge, William Otis, 1878-1909 

Ben Blair. '05. MeClurg. 

Breath of prairies, and other stories. '11. IMcClurg. 

Dissolving circle. '08. Dodd. 

Dominant dollar. '09. McClurg. '11. Burt. 

Quercns alba ; the veteran of the Ozarks. '10. McClurg, 

Quest eternal. '08. Dodd. '10. Burt. 

Where the trail divides. '07. Dodd. 

Lockhart, Clinton 

Principles of interpretation. '91. Des Moines. Chris- 
tian index pub. co. 

Long-, Joseph Schuyler, 1869 — 

Out of the silence ; a book of verse. '09. Council 

Bluffs. The author. 
Sign language. '10. Council Bluffs. The author. 

Loos, Charles Louis, 1823 — 

First general Christian missionary convention held at 
Cincinnati, Ohio, Oct. 22-27, 1849. Standard pub. - 

Loos, Isaac Althaus, 1856 — 

Political philosophy of Aristotle. '97. Am. acad. 
Studies in the politics of Aristotle. '99. Univ. of Iowa. 

Lothrop, Charles H. 

Malaria. '81. Lyons, Ta. Beers & Eaton. 
Remedial properties of Hot Springs, Arkansas. '81. 
St. Louis. 

Lucas, D. R. 

Paul Darst. '86. St. Louis. 

Lynch, Samuel Adams 

(jt. auth.) McNeill, Isaac C. Introductory lessons in 
English literature. '01. Am. bk. 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS. 137 

Lynch, Virginia 

Dr. Tom Gardner. '00. Neely. 

McBride, Matilda B. 

No sheaves. '83. Des IMoines. 

Macbride, Thomas Huston, 1848 — 

Fossil plant remains in the Iowa herbarium. Davenport 

academy of sci. 
Key to native plants. '98. Allyn. 
Lessons in elementary botany for secondary schools. 

Allyn. 
New flora. Allyn. 
North American slime-monlds. '99. Maemillan. 

McCabe, Olivia 

Rose fairies. '11. Rand. 

McCarthy, Dwight G. 

History of Palo Alto county, Iowa. '10. Torch press. 

History of the tariff in the United States. '09. Emmets- 
burg, la. Tribune pub. co. 

Territorial governors of the old northwest. '10. Iowa 
City. Iowa state hist. soc. 

McCay, Robert 

Principles of English pronunciation for grammar 
schools, high schools and academies. '92. Burling- 
ton, la. Acres, B^ackmar & co. 

McClain, Emlin, 1851— 

Annotated statutes. 4v. Chic. '80- '88. 

Cases on carriers. 2d. ed. Little. 

Cases on constitutional law. '00. Little. 

Constitutional convention (Iowa) and the issues before 
it. Torch press. 

Constitutional law in the United States. '10. Long- 
mans. 

Criminal law. 2v. '97. Callaghan. 

Digest of the decisions of the supreme court of Iowa 
from its organization to May, 1908. 4v. '08- '09. 
Callaghan. 

Outlines of criminal law. '82. Iowa City. 



138 ANNALS OP IOWA. 

McClain, Emlin — Continued. 

Outlines of criminal law and procedure. '83. Iowa 
City. 

Statutes of Iowa relating to railways and notes of deci- 
sions thereunder. '91. Des Moines. 

Synopsis of bailments and pledges. '90. Iowa City. 

Synopsis of lectures on remedial law. '89. Iowa City. 

McClelland, Adam 

History of our Lord. '98. Dubuque. Presb. pub. 

McCord, James Peter 

Poems. '89. The author. 

McCowan, H. S. and Everest, F. F. 

(eds.) Under the scarlet and black; poems selected from 
the undergraduate publications of loAva college. '93. 
Grinnell. 

McCown, Alfred B. 

Down on the ridge ; reminiscences of the old days in 
Coalport and down on the ridge. IMarion county, 
Iowa. 

McCreery, J. L, 

Songs of toil and triumph. '83. Putnam. 

McCulla, Thomas 

History of Cherokee county, Iowa. '14. S. J. Clarke. 

McDonald, William, 1820-1901 

After death, what? Christian witness. 

Bank of faith. Christian witness. 

John Wesley and his doctrine. Christian witness. 

Life of John S. Inskip. Christian witness. 

New Testament standard of piety. Christian witness. 

People's Wesley. Meth. bk. 

Saved to the uttermost. Christian witness. 

— (Germ.) Vollig erlost. Christian witness. 

Scriptural way of holiness. Christian witness. 

Spiritualism. Meth. bk. 

McFarland, W. M. 

Address at the opening of the Iowa building, Columbian 
exposition. Chic. May 1, 1893. 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS. 139 

McGee. W J, 1853—1912. 

Field records relating to subsoil water (Bu. of soils, 

bul. no. 93). '13. Snpt. of doe. 
Geography of Virginia. '04. Univ. pub. 
Index to proceedings of Davenport acad. of sciences, 

V. 1-5. Davenport academy of sci. 
Soil erosion (Bu. of soils, bul. no. 71). '11. Supt. of 

doc. 
Wells and subsoil water (Bu. of soils, bul. no. 92). '13. 

Supt. of doc. 
(jt. auth.) Thomas, Cyrus. Indians of North America 

in historic times (History of North America, v. 2). 

'03. Barrie. 

McGovern, Anna E. 

Nature studies and related literature. '02. Flanagan. 
Stories and poems, with lesson plans for primary and 

intermediate schools. '07. Educational pub. 
Type lessons for primary teachers in study of nature, 

literature and art. '05. Flanagan. 

McGovern, John 

Pastoral poems and other pieces. '82. Chic. 

McKibbin, Julia Baldwin 

Miriam. '05. IMeth. bk. 

McKinley, Charles Ethelbert, 1870— 

Educational evangelism. Pilgrim press. 

McKinney, Ida Scott (Taylor) (Mrs. William E. McKinney) 

(comp.) Yearbook of American authors; new ed. '09. 
Caldwell. 

MacLean, George Edwin, 1850 — 

Chart of English literature. Macmillan. 
Old and Middle English reader. Macmillan. 
Present standards of higher education in the United 
States. '13. Gov. ptg. 

Maclean, Paul 

History of Carroll county, Iowa. 2v. '12. S. J. Clarke. 

McLennan, Evan 

Cosmical evolution. '90. Donohue. 



140 



ANNALS OF IOWA. 



Herewith appear names, and character of books or pamph- 
lets, of Iowa writers not heretofore listed by us. Fuller in- 
formation will appear in a completed list to be published 
later. 



Allison, William B., Politics. 

Bancroft, Charles, Political 
economy. 

Beckman, J. W., Fiction. 

Blackmar, E. C, Biography. 

Blackmar, Mrs. H. W., Biography. 

Briggs, John E., Political 
economy. 

Brooks, William M., History. 

Carpenter, C. C, Surveying. 

Drees, Clara, Poetry. 

Elarton, J. W., History. 

Elliott, Francis Perry, Fiction. 

Fairchild, D. S., Medicine. 

Gatch, C. H., History. 

Haddock, William J., History. 

Harlan, James, Civil government. 

Hollister, Horace Adelbert, Edu- 
cation. 

Hoover, Charles Lewis, Geogra- 
phy. 

Hoover, Herbert Clark, Engi- 
neering. 

Hoover, Theodore Jesse, Engi- 
neering. 

Hopkins, Louise Virginia Martin, 
Fiction. 

Houser, Gilbert Logan, Biology. 

Howard, Frank, Songs. 

Howe, Anna Belknap, Bibliogra- 
phy. 

Howe, Samuel Storrs, History. 

Hoxie, Vinnie Ream. 

Hudspeth, Rosa, Fiction. 

Huff, Sanford W., History. 

Hughes, Edwin Holt, Religion. 

Hughes, Matthew Simpson, Re- 
ligion. 

Hunt, Kittle, Essays. 

Hurst, John Fletcher, Religion. 

Hyde, S. C, History. 

Ingersoll, Lurton Dunham, His- 
tory. 

Ingham, Dorcas Helen, Fiction. 

Jackson, Charles Tenney, Fiction. 

Jackson, Harry Albert, Account- 
ing. 



Jacobi, Putnam, Insanity. 

Jacobson, Abraham, History. 

James, Edwin, History. 

James, Elijah, Biography. 

Johnson, Allen, Politics. 

Johnson, B. W., Geography. 

Jones, Eliot, Geology. 

Judy, Arthur Markley, Ethics. 

Kaufmann, Charles Beecher, 
Political economy. 

Kawakami, Klyoshi Karl, Po- 
litical economy. 

Kay, George F., Geology. 

Kellogg, C. F., History. 

Kellogg, Harriette S., Botany. 

Kenyon, William S., Biography. 

Keve, J. S., Genealogy. 

King, Charlotte M., Botany. 

Kissick, Robert, History. 

Knight, Nicholas, Chemistry. 

Kretchmer, E., Bees. 

Kuntz, Albert, Zoology. 

Landers, Frank E., History. 

Langton, Mrs. Mary Beach, Arts 
and Crafts. 

Langworthy, Lucius H., History. 

Lathaam-Norton, M. F., Fiction. 

Lathrop, Henry Warren, Biogra- 
phy. 

Laure, M. J., Law. 

Lea, Albert Miller, History. 

Le Claire, Antoine, Biography. 

Lee, Henry Washington, Re- 
ligion. 

Lees, James H., Geology. 

Leffler, Lydia Anne Vale, Gene- 
alogy. 

Lemm, H. J., History. 

Leonard, Arthur G., Geology. 

Leverett, Frank, Geology. 

Longwell, Oliver Henry, Lan- 
guage. 

Lonsdale, Elston Holmes, Geol- 
ogy. 

Lucas, C. L., History. 

Lush, Charles K.. Fiction. 

McArthur, Henry Clay, History. 



■ ¥»5€'; 



m^^-^^ W ^* ^ 



IW'"^ » 





cc ,„^ 



ANNALS OF IOWA 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 

MOTION PICTURE FILMS AS HISTORICAL 
MATERIAL. 

In the collecting of historical materials one finds himself 
too often inclined to lean upon proof rather than to rely 
upon prophesy. The historical value of an ancient object 
or of a manuscript is easy to judge Avith the light of years 
upon it but by the same light one observes the absence of 
other equally important things. Our best museums overlook 
matters of present moment which will be indispensable in 
future, yet in future impossible to procure. All materials 
wisely collected establish or illustrate historical matters. It 
takes little imagination or courage to select for such pur- 
pose materials to illustrate principles or processes now ob- 
solete but known to have been important. But to attempt 
to select such literature or object material of today as will 
suitably and sufficiently reveal in the remote future all the 
probable wants for understanding our own time is much 
more difficult but none the less the collector's obligation. To 
choose Avell, to acquire no waste material and ignore no essen- 
tial, calls for a species of talent akin to that which in writing 
guides the author to the selection and treatment of themes 
at once vital and popular. 

When Lew Wallace Avrote of Ben Hur's life at the oar as 
a galley slave, he is said to have reluctantly omitted a de- 
scription of the mechanical device we now call an oarlock 
for he could neither imagine nor ascertain hoAV the sea was 
kept from the hold when the waves lashed the gunwales. 
As important mechanical devices in our own day are to be 
examined in the patent office, but what is not sho^vn there 
and is to be found nowhere else unless in collections of objects 
and associated materials, is the effect produced by a given 
device upon the evolution of life. Though the model of the 



142 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

electric lamp and each of its improvements may there be 
seen, one is driven to the remotest places for the full demon- 
stration of its effect upon mankind. 

The motion picture is one of the more recent revolutionary 
mechanical improvements. From popular and technical press 
one finds adequate information upon all its phases. But the 
collector is obliged now to anticipate its effect, and preserve 
in the present, for the use of the future. It will not be enough 
that from the current of press evidence it shall be seen that 
a single decade of the motion picture has stripped from legiti- 
mate theatricals the whole of that patronage which in Shakes- 
peare 's time was known as the pit; nor may the average in- 
tellect of our day be fairly compared with that of the Eliz- 
abethan age by such circumstances as that the stage then pro- 
duced much sound, less action and little scenery and now no 
sound, much scenery, and more action. It is incumbent upon 
us to select such exact original mechanical parts and such 
typical programs and such pictured personages and events 
as will fairly reveal in future both the mechanics and the 
influence of this present day phenomenon. 

We have begun for Iowa by acquiring some fifty thousand 
feet of negative film made of Iowa scenes and persons during 
the years 1913 and 1914 by the Superior Film Company of 
Des Moines. Since such scenes are intended to be selected 
by the company as are of interest in a popular sense, nega- 
tives are made and preserved by them, to be multiplied into 
service films, in such numbers as is required by popular de- 
mand. Gauging the value of a film by its "run" precisely 
as a play is tested on the stage, the company considers its 
negatives of more or less value, and as is true of the vaude- 
ville stage, such parts of the series of scenes or acts on a reel 
as prove of mere momentary interest are cut from the film and 
new parts are substituted. Thus the commercial value soon 
vanishes as to some parts, persists, as to others, but disap- 
pears as to the whole very shortly. Whether, after some years 
it will have a new and different value, such as the writer 
would characterize as a reminiscent popularity, is unknown. 
Rut whatever value it may possess, the company does not wish 
to part with nor the Historical Department need to acquire. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 143 

The junk value of old films constantly tempts it away from 
the company, so the best service is where the Historical De- 
partment acquires title and possession, and reserves exclusive 
commercial use to the company for a reasonable future period. 
The Department, however, by taking and keeping possession, 
is depriving the company of only the money value in the film 
roughly fixed by the silver content. 

We handle the negatives in our collections by the routine 
administrative processes usually given a manuscript, except 
that the tin, airtight shipping container, sealed with adhes- 
ive tape, is regarded as the cover or binding, and carries such 
library marks as would be found upon or within the binding 
of an ordinary book. As the negative and its container re- 
main separable, the designation on the container is also 
placed on the film itself, the injury being negligible, while 
the chance of lost identity is eliminated. In subsequent 
treatment we may find it of advantage to cut a film into as 
many parts as there are distinct subjects photographed, or 
we may make a calendar of the contents of each reel, depend- 
ing upon whether the company in future demands it for its 
own use. The physical care-taking is simple and without 
risk. The inflammability of the negative which is composed 
principally of celluloid is completely neutralized by its 
insulation in the airtight, sealed container. In our steel, 
locked cases in fireproof quarters, maintained at a temperature 
and humidity suitable for books and papers the negatives are 
removed from the realm of danger. 

The field of serious and important possibilities to the 
scenario producer broadly overlaps that of the collector of 
historical or other important information. Hints to him are 
as practical as to the photographer, so that co-operation be- 
tween the producer of commercial film and collector of his- 
torical materials may be no less in its creation than its pres- 
ervation. 

An Iowa sculptress asserts that after full preparation and 
some years in her actual career, she needs most to see the 
almost superhuman dexterity of Rodin ; to see his very hands 
and fingers manipulating plastic material into harmony with 
his thought. In resemblance is the manual marvel of an Iowa. 



144 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

surgeon in. one of his most difficult and successful opera- 
tions with hands, instruments and affected tissues photo- 
graphed in motion. 

We have a daguerreotype portrait of the first short horn 
bull brought upon Iowa soil. He was imported by Timothy 
Day from the herd of Brutus J. Clay, of Lexington, Kentucky, 
in 1852, and was the object of enormous interest at the earliest 
Iowa agricultural fairs. And we have a negative picturing in 
motion Gov. George W. Clarke conferring in 1913 the 
first medals upon the successful competitors among Iowa prize 
babies. 

These instances suggest the precedents and the probability 
of historical value peculiar to present day motion picture neg- 
atives. 



CO-OPERATION IN ACQUIRING HISTORIC GROUNDS 
AND MARKING HISTORIC SITES. 

The State of Iowa has certain assets not of pecuniary na- 
ture that have remained undeveloped or are going to waste. 
Some of these seem fairly within the scope of the responsi- 
bility of the Historical Department of Iowa yet not under 
the special attention of any other person or public interest. 
Under the heading of "Notes" in this issue are two such 
groups of assets respectively entitled "Acquiring Titles to 
Historic Areas" and "Marking Historic Sites". 

While there is something of a feeling that a state should 
bear all the responsibility for preserving and utilizing these 
opportunities, such feeling is not universal nor sound. For 
these are not solely and often not mainly assets of the state, 
but are or should be part of the natural interest of the peo- 
ple of the localities, or of individuals attached by kinship 
or associated by other interest. There is a distinct disadvan- 
tage to the present and to posterity in this mutuality of in- 
terest. ' ' What is everybody 's business is nobody 's business. ' ' 

Nearly every one wishes these assets recognized, retrieved 
and realized upon. The Historical Department was allowed 
by the Thirty-sixth General Assembly certain sums and by 
implication certain authority to participate with others in 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 145 

efforts at doing things in addition to talking and writing 
about them. The proportionate interest of persons, the lo- 
cality and the state may not always be discernible. Indeed 
the proportion of sentimental interest may not be the same 
as the pecuniary interest of the respective parties, for that 
would be assuming that sentiment is defined in money value ; 
that a gravestone, for instance, or even a grave has only a 
money measure, which is absurd. But it is not absurd for 
all who are concerned in doing any of these worthy things 
to plan together. Nor will it be unfair nor unpleasant for 
the Historical Department to contribute more proportionally 
toward the realizing on a prospect of interest historically, but 
remote from centers of settlement, than to such as are within 
the thickly populated portions of the State. 

The legislature received these ideas with favor, and assigned 
to the use of the Historical Department certain small amounts 
to be used in stimulating co-operative interest. It is not much 
money, but no more was requested. For the purpose of an 
effort of the next two years it is adequate. 

We would appreciate suggestions as to what areas are 
thought to have sufficient interest to be reserved and marked ; 
what persons, societies, institutions or public officers would wel- 
come the co-operation of the liistorical Department in authen- 
ticating historic or scenic areas or establishing markers at 
historic sites. 



ORIGIN OF THE TERM "NEWSPAPER." 

In Haydn's Dictionary of Dates it is stated that news is 

not, as many supposed, derived from the adjective "new." In 

former times (between the years 1795 and 1830) it was the 

prevalent practice to put over the periodical republications of 

N 

the day, the initial letters of the compass, thus : e+w, import- 
ing that these papers contained intelligence from the four 
quarters of the globe, and from this practice is derived the 
term "newspaper." — Keokuk, Rickey & Allyn's Beal Es- 
tate Bulletin and Commercial Advertiser, Sept. 2, 1867. 
10 



146 ANNALS OF IOWA. 



NOTES. 



All appropriation by the Thirty-sixth General Assembly 
of mutual interest to our institution and to others is in the 
following terms : 

To the Historical Department. 

For examination and reservation for scientific purposes, of liis- 
toric, prelaistoric and notable scenic areas within the State, where 
any necessary fund is provided otherwise to the extent of three- 
fourths of the total amount necessary, and where the title to any 
such areas is transferred to the State, the sum of two hundred 
dollars ($200.00). 

The intention is to stimulate the cities and towns, public 
and private institutions of learning, patriotic and learned 
societies to get together and accomplish something tangible 
toward- saving to the future at least a few groups of prehis- 
toric mounds. There are also numerous sites of first settle- 
ments or other sentimental association, which, were thev but 
acquired and held for the -enjoyment of the people, would be 
invaluable in many ways. In the two-score years of his active 
life, the writer has walked the full length of both banks of 
most of the constant and many of the intermittent streams 
of the First Congressional District, beginning when the lands 
were "open" and had a valuation of from ten to twenty-five 
dollars an acre, and were used as "commons" for grazing, 
hunting, fishing, bathing and nutting. In 1914 he walked 
some fifty miles along the banks of one stream that was open 
in 1880, was originally legally a navigable stream, but which 
has now not a continuous distance of a hundred feet in all 
the fifty miles where he or any of his descendants may ever 
go except on invitation or as a trespasser. The sites of a 
dozen towns and the grave of at least one noted Indian lie 
on those banks. As farm lands now they are valued at from 
seventy-five to one hundred dollars per acre, and wire en- 
tanglements protect shorthorn aristocracy against human in- 
trusion. The owners are blameless for they are ideal in their 
thrift and character as citizens, and from the ancient play 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 147- 

ground reap profits wherewith they build our roads and 
schools. But the public may through our proposed co-opera- 
tion compensate the individual in at least a few instances 
and save some sites in the name of history and for the general 
weal. 



Another appropriation was in the following terms : 

For the Historical Department. 

For marking of historic sites where tliree-fourths of any neces- 
sary fund is otherwise provided, the sum of six hundred dollars 
($600.00). 

Here is a way for the common interests of State, county, 
town, patriotic society, appreciative friend or descendant as 
an individual, to be pooled, and their joint pride and pe- 
cuniary power made to produce tangible and lasting testimon- 
ials to the truth of things as they were. 



A third appropriation is as follows : 
For the Historical Department. ' 

For the use of the Iowa flag commission for payment of competi- 
tive awards for designs of a proposed Iowa flag, provided such 
competition be held by said commission, and report of their recom- 
mendations be made to the Thirty-seventh General Assembly, the 
sum of Five Hundred Dollars ($500.00). 



About three weeks previous to the fire of February 21, 
1915, which gutted the old Register and Leader builcling on 
the corner of Fourth and Court Avenue, Des Moines, Mr. 
Jay N. Darling, cartoonist on that .paper presented to the 
Historical Department of Iowa a collection of the original 
drawings for his famous cartoons which we immediately re- 
moved to the Historical, building. The fire destroyed prac- 
tically everything in the Register and Leader building, includ- 
ing all Mr. Darling's cherished early drawings which hung 
on the walls of the office. The collection so fortunately re- 
ceived includes the drawings of Mr. Darling's most noted 
cartoons, both of national and State import. They will in- 
crease in historical as well as art value in years to come.. 



Some time ago a request was received from a gentleman 
in Albany, New York, for copies of the Annals published in 



148 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

1907 and 1908. When complying with his request, inquiry 
was made as to the nature of the information sought, with a 
view to testing the usefulness of the publication. This inquiry 
brought out the following interesting facts illustrating how 
closely Iowa men and institutions of an earlier day were con- 
nected with those of the east and something of the services 
of Charles Aldrich and of Dr. L. H. Pammel, author of the 
article in question : 

Albany, N. Y., March 8, 1915. 
Mr. Edgar R. Harlan, Curator, 

Historical Department of Iowa, 
Des Moines, Iowa. 

My Dear Sir: I have your letter of the 27th inst. * * * _ 
As to my reason for asking for the ANNALS: The Albany Female 
Academy, or, as it is now known, Albany Girls' Academy, was 
founded in 1814, and is the oldest institution of its kind in the 
world. As its centennial approached, efforts were made to gather 
facts and likenesses of its early instructors. Among those who 
served the Academy about a century ago was one Edwin James, 
later a physician or surgeon. It seemed impossible to get any line 
upon James, no one here remembering him. Finally, in a medical 
annals, published in Albany forty or fifty years ago, I found mention 
of him, stating that his birthplace had been a small town in Ver- 
mont. A reference to that small hamlet showed that a town cele- 
bration was in progress many years before and that Dr. James had 
written a letter from Burlington, Iowa, his apparent home, con- 
gratulating his former neighbors and friends upon the occasion. I 
then addressed a physician in Burlington, but he had never heard 
of James. This led me to write to the Public Library of Burlington. 
The librarian there "did something," and found in your "modest 
quarterly" a most interesting and complete article upon Dr. James, 
which also included his likeness. Thus, not only I, but women of 
some note, who obtained their education in the Girls' Academy 
here, are grateful to the Historical Department of Iowa for pre- 
serving the memory and features of one of Albany's early teachers. 

Very truly yours, 

HENRY SAGE DERMOTT. 



Iowa Day was celebrated at the Panama-Pacific Interna- 
tional Exposition, June 25, 1915. Appropriate ceremonies 
were held in the Iowa Building. Gov. George W. Clarke and 
his staff were guests of honor. During the day telephonic 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



149 



communication was made between San Francisco and Des 
Moines, and conversation with the Governor and his party 
carried on. 

Iowa made a noteworthy showing on agricultural exhibits 
at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. We append 
a list of the prizes awarded to the State and its citizens. 
LIST OF lOWANS WINNING MEDALS AT PANAMA EXPOSITION. 



GRAND PRIZE. 

STATE OF IOWA. 
Collective exhibit. 

3IEDAL, OF HONOR. 

STATE OF lOW^A. 

General collective exhibit 

(cereals). 
Collective of corn. 

GOLD MEDAL. 

FAV^^CETT, W. T., Mt. Vernon. 
Corn. 

FELTER, VICTOR, DeSoto. 
Corn. 
Corn (sweet). 

HETHERSHAW. FRED, Des 
Moines, R. R. 3. 
Potatoes. 

IOWA STATE COLLEGE, Ames. 
Oat display. 

IMIG, WALTER. Cedar. 
Corn. 

JUSTICE, JOHN, Ankeny. 
Corn. 

KRIZER BROS., Eddyville. 
Corn. 

M'CULLOCH, FRED, Hartwick. 
Oats. 

MALONE, C. E., Atlantic. 
Sheaf German millet. 

NEAL BROS.. Mt. Vernon. 
Corn. 

POLK, W. W., Sidney. 
Corn. 

SHETTERLY, S. A., Hartford. 
Sheaf wheat. 

ZELLER, WILLARD, Cooper. 
Corn. 



SILVER MEDAL. 

STATE OF IOWA. 

Corn. 

Potatoes. 

Potatoes. 

Wheat, Turkey Red winter. 

Flax. 

Corn. 

Corn. 

Corn. 

Corn. 
BAILEY, AMOS, Ottumwa. 

Corn. 

BAKEHOUSE, D. C, Sigourney. 
Sheaf barley (Manchuria). 
Sheaf barley (black). 
Sheaf red clover (Mammoth). 
Corn. 
Corn. 
Sheaf med. red clover. 

BELL, J. W., Underwood. 

Corn. 
BENNETT, RAY, Ames. 

Corn. 
BRUNS & SON, Sigourney. 

Sheaf wheat, Turkey Red winter. 

Sheaf speltz. 

Sheaf alsike clover. 

BRUNS, ARMEIN, Sigourney. 
Corn. 

COVERDALE, R. E., Maquoketa. 

Corn. 
DAGGY, GUY, Ankeny. 

Oats. 
FELTER, VICTOR, DeSoto. 

Corn. 

Rye, winter, threshed. 

GEIL, ARTHUR, Des Moines. 
Wheat, Turkey Red Winter. 

HEATHERSHAW, FRED, Des 

Moines. 

Corn. 

Broom corn millet. 

Corn. 

Buckwheat. 

Sheaf oats. 

Wheat (sheaf.) 

IMIG, WALTER, Cedar. 
Corn. 



150 



ANNALS OP IOWA. 



JUSTICE, JOHN, Ankeny. 

Oats. 
Corn. 

KROEGER, EMIL, Princeton. 
Corn. 

LYONS, W. F., Hartford. 
Sheaf barley. 
Sheaf red top. 
Sheaf med. red clover. 
Sheaf red clover (Mam.) 

MALONB.- C. E., Atlantic. 
Sheaf wheat (Macaroni). 
Sheaf wheat, Turkey Red winter. 
Sheaf barnyard millet. 
Sheaf rye winter. 

MALONE, RAY, Atlantic. 
Sheaf wheat, Macaroni. 

M'CULLOCH, FRED, Hartwick. 
Sheaf alsike clover. 
Med. red clover seed. 
Oats, Daubeney. 
Sheaf blue grass. 
Wheat. 

M'ELERY, FRED, Crawfordsville. 
Corn. 

MAXWELL, J. M. & SON, Craw- 
fordsville. 

Corn. 
NEAL BROS., Mt. Vernon. 

Corn. 
OTCHECK, GUS, Grinnell. 

Oats. 
OTCHECK, W. F., Grinnell. 

Barley. 

Wheat. 

Corn. 

Sheaf Med. red clover. 

Wheat. 

Sheaf alsike clover. 

Sheaf sweet clover. 

Sheaf sweet corn. 

PLOWS, WALTER, Chariton. 
Sheaf barley. 
Sheaf alsike clover. 
Sheaf sweet clover. 
Sheaf red clover. 
Sheaf- red top. 
Sheaf wheat. 

SHETTERLY, S. A., Hartford. 
Sheaf oats. 
Native grasses. 
Sheaf alsike clover. 
Sheaf speltz, black. 
Sheaf sweet clover. 
Sheaf Med. red clover. 
Sheaf Mam. red clover. 
Sheaf barley. 

SHOTEN, SANCHU. 
Buckwheat. 

SNATBR, REICHO, Ackley. 
Oats. 



TROBRIDGE, S. A., Des Moines. 

Corn. 
UTTERBACK, WILL, Sigourney. 

Oats. 
ZELLER, EARL, Cooper. 

Corn. 
ZELLER, IVAN G., Cooper. 

Corn. 
ZELLER, WILLARD, Cooper. 

Corn. 

BRONZE MEDAIi. 

STATE OF IOWA. 
Corn, Legal Tender. 
Corn, Silver Mine. 
Coi-n, C^alico Dent. 
Sheaf oats. 
Sheaf barley. 
Corn. 

Sheaf wheat. Early Iowa. 
Corn. Calico Dent. 
Sheaf oats. 
Rye, winter. 

BAILEY, AMOS, Ottumwa. 
Corn. 
Corn. 
Corn (Boone Co.) 

BAKEHOUSE, D. C, Sigourney. 
Oats. 
Wheat. 

Sheaf oats, Kherson. 
Sheaf oats. Silver Mine. 
Sheaf oats, Big Four. 
Sheaf oats, Swedish Select. 
Sheaf red top. 
Sheaf speltz. 
Sheaf wheat, Turkey Red. 

BENNETT, RAY, Ames. 
Oats. 
Wheat. 
Corn. 

BRUNS, ARMBIN, Sigourney. 

Corn. 
BRUNS & SON, Sigourney. 

Sheaf oats. 

Slieaf wheat. 

Sheaf oats. 

Sheaf wheat. 

pbp-if barley. 

Sheaf oats. 

Sheaf Med. red clover. 

cbgqf orchard grass. 

Slienf blue grass. 

Sheaf oats (side oats). 

Fhpaf oats No. 103. 

Sheaf red top. 

COVERDALE, R. E., Maquoketa. 

Corn. 
DAGGY, GUY, Ankeny. 

Corn. 
FELTBR, VICTOR, De Soto. 

Corn. Ideal White. 

Gorn, Reid's. 

Corn, rice popcorn. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



151 



FRED, Des 



HETHERSHAW, 

Moines. 

Pheaf .'jpeltz. 

Sheaf timothy. 

Beet.s, mangel wurzel. 

Slieaf oats, blaclv. 

Corn, striped rice pop corn. 

Corn, red rice pop corn. 

KRIZER BROS., Eddyville. 

Corn, R. Y. Dent. 
Oats, Silver Mine. 

LYONS, W. F., Hartford. 

Sheaf wheat, Turkey Red. 
Sheaf timothy. 
Sheaf wheat. 

Sheaf oats, Swedish Select. 
Sheaf oats. Big Four. 
Sheaf oats, Kherson. 
Sheaf flax. 
Sheaf speltz. 

M'CULLOCH, FRED, Hartwick. 
Sheaf timothy. 
Sheaf Med. red clover. 
Sheaf red top. 

Sheaf wheat, Turkey Red winter. 
Sheaf barlej', Manchuria. 
Corn, R. Y. Dent. 
Sheaf speltz. 

Wheat, Turkey Red winter. 
Sheaf wheat. 
Sheaf oats. 
Sheaf oats. 

MALONE, CHAS., Atlantic. 
Sheaf oats. 
Sheaf wheat. 
Sheaf oats. 

MALONE, C. E., Atlantic. 
Sheaf Med. red clover. 
Sheaf oats. 
Sheaf timothy. 
Sheaf flax. 

Sheaf Hungarian millet. 
Sheaf oats. Big Four. 
Sheaf barley. 

Sheaf oats (Black Tartarian). 
Sheaf oats, Swedish. 
Sheaf oats. President. 
Broom corn. Evergreen. 
Sheaf wheat. 
Sheaf speltz. 
Sheaf blue grass. 

MALONE. RAY, Atlantic. 
Sheaf red top. 
Sheaf oats. 
Sheaf rye, spring. 
Sheaf Oerman millet. 
Sheaf flax. 
Sheaf oats. 
Kaffir corn. 
Sheaf barley. 
Sheaf barley. 
Sheaf speltz. 
Sheaf wheat. 
Sheaf rye. 
Sheaf timothy. 
Sheaf Med. red clover. 



MAXWELL, J. M., Crawfordsvillo. 
Oats, Silver Mine. 



OTCHECK, W. F., Grinnell. 


Sheaf 


wheat. Cruiser winter. 


Oats, 


Daubeney. 




Sheaf 


oats, Scottish Chief. 


Sheaf 


Early Champion. 


Sheaf 


barley. 




Sheaf 


barley. 




Timothy seed. 




Sheaf 


timothy. 




taeaf 


speltz. 




Corn. 






Oats. 






Wheat. 




Oats. 






Millet. 






Oats. 






Oats. 






Wheat 






Oats. 






PLOWS, 


WALTER, 


Chariton. 


Shoaf 


oats. 




Sheaf 


wheat. 




Sheaf 


oats (Potato). 


Sheaf 


oats July. 




Sheaf 


oats. Silver 


mine. 


Duro 


corn heads. 




Sheaf 


wheat red 


cross. 


Sheaf 


barley. 




Sheaf 


speltz. 




Sheaf 


white Med. 


clover. 


Sheaf 


blue grass. 




Sheaf 


timothy. 





POLK, W. W., Sidney. 

Corn, single ear. 
ROLLINSON, HENRY, Des Moines. 

Beets. 
SHETTERLY, S. A., Hartford. 

Sheaf rye. 

Sheaf oats. 

Sheaf orchard grass. 

Eai'lv amber cane heads. 

Sheaf blue grass. 

Sheaf timothy. 

Sheaf wheat. 

Sheaf German millet. 

Sheaf wheat. 

Sheaf oats. 

Shf-a-f oats, Kherson. 

Sbeaf wheat. 

Sheaf Hungarian millet. 

Sheaf flax. 

SMITH, F., Des Moines. 

Wheat. 
SNATER, REICHO, Ackley. 

Oats. 
UTTERBACK, WILL, Sigourney. 

Wheat. 

Oats. 

Timothy. 

Clover. 

Blue grass. 

T^Hieat, Turkey Red. 

Oats. 

Rye. 

Oats, Silver Mine. 



k 



152 ANNALS OF IOWA. 



NOTABLE DEATHS 



Alonzo Abeknethy was born in Sandusky, Ohio, April 14, 1836; 
he died at Tampa, Florida, February 21, 1915. In 1839 he removed 
with Ms father's family to Bellevue, Ohio, where his early boy- 
hood was spent working on a farm and attending school. In 
1854 they removed to Illyria, Iowa, where he taught school. Later 
he attended Burlington Academy and Chicago University. In 1861 
he left his studies of the senior year to enlist as a private in Comr 
pany F, Ninth Iowa Infantry. He participated in the battles of 
Pea Ridge, Chickasaw Bayou, Jackson, Lookout Mountain, Mis- 
Siionary Ridge and many other important engagements, and was 
rapidly promoted to lieutenant colonel. He was mustered out July 
18, 1865. He represented Fayette county in the House of the 
Eleventh General Assembly, and was especially active in the revi- 
sion and perfecting of the school laws. In 1869 he removed 
to Denison and engaged in farming. The following year he be- 
came principal of the University of Des Moines. After nine months' 
energetic service he accepted the position of state superintendent 
of public instruction. He was twice re-elected and served until 
1876 when he resigned to accept the presidency of the Chicago 
Uniiversity which he held for two years. Following a European trip, 
he returned to his farm at Denison. In 1881 he accepted the 
presidency of the Cedar Valley Seminary at Osage to which he 
gave twenty-one years of service, leaving it transformed to- a 
well-located, well-endowed permanently useful institution. In 1909 
he located in Des Moines, spending part of each year in Florida 
where he had business interests. Colonel Abernethy received the 
degree of A.B. from the University of Chicago in 1866 and of Ph.D. 
from Lenox College in 1886. He took great interest in the edu- 
cational interests of the Baptist denomination in Iowa, and was 
constantly in demand as a speaker before institutes of farmers, 
teachers, etc. He was secretary of the Iowa Lookout Mountain 
and Missionary Ridge Monument Commission, and a member of the 
board of regents of the State University of Iowa from 1890-1909. 
He was the author of "Iowa under Territorial Government and 
the Removal of the Indians," "History of Iowa Baptist Schools," 
"Glimpses of Abraham Lincoln," and editor of Whitman's "Early 
Life of Jesus and New Light on Passion Week." 



Emlin McClain was born in Salem, Ohio, November 26, 1851; he 
died at Iowa City, Iowa, May 25, 1915. He removed with his parents 
to Tipton, Iowa, in 1855. His early education was supplemented 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 153 

by a year in Wilton Academy. He then entered the State Uni- 
versity of lov/a and graduated with the class of 1871. The next 
year he taught in the Iowa City Academy, which was established 
by his father, and continued his studies in the university. Later 
he entered the law department of the State University and graduated 
in 1873. He removed to Des Moines and pursued his study of law 
in the law office of Wright, Gatch & Wright, became private 
secretary for Senator Wright, and served two terms as clerk of the 
United States senate committee on claims, of which Senator Wright 
was chairman. In 1877 he returned to Des Moines and practiced 
law for five years, also prepared and published McClain's Annotated 
Statutes of Iowa. In 1881 he was appointed professor in the law 
department of the State University of Iowa, and removed to Iowa 
City. In 1890 he was made dean of that department, with the title 
of Chancellor, and held the position until 1900. He was elected to 
the supreme bench in November, 1900, and in 1906, his two terms 
of service extending to 1913. He was chief justice for 1906 and 1912. 
In 1913 he removed to California, as professor of law in Leland 
Stanford, Jr., University. Returning to Iowa in 1914, he was again 
appointed dean of the college of law in the State University, in which 
position he was serving at the time of his death. He served as 
Iowa commissioner on uniform legislation, 1894; was one of the 
commissioners appointed to prepare the Iowa Code of 1897, and 
also prepared the annotations for that Code. Judge McClain was a 
member of the American Bar Association, the Iowa State Bar Asso- 
ciation, Beta Theta Pi, Phi Beta Kappa and Phi Delta Phi, and an 
honorary member of the State Bar Associations of Illinois and 
Kentucky, American Society of International Law and American 
Geographical Society. He was the author of Outlines of Criminal 
Law and Procedure, Synopsis of Elementary Law and Law of Per- 
sonal Property, Digest of Iowa, Reports and Supplements thereto, 
Constitutional Law in the United States and many other works of a 
legal nature. 



Cyrus Bussey was born in Hubbard, Ohio, October 5, 1833; he 
died at. Washington, D. C, March 2, 1915. When but four years of 
age he removed with his father to Indiana. At fourteen he became 
clerk in a drygoods store at Dupont, Indiana, and two years later 
began business for himself. All his spare time was spent in hard 
study. In 1855 he removed to Bloomfield, Iowa, where he conducted 
a flourishing business and took active part in political and civic 
affairs. He represented Davis county in the Senate of the Eighth 
and Eighth Extra General Assemblies. He was a delegate to the 
Charleston convention and to the Baltimore convention which nom- 
inated Stephen A. Douglas for president. Although a Democrat 
in politics he supported Governor Kirkwood in all war measures 
and was appointed aide-de-camp on his staff. He organized a com- 



154 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

PKiiy of riflemen to protect the southern border of Iowa, and owing 
to his energy and ability a raid into Iowa from Missouri was 
defeated. In August, 1861, lie raised a regiment of cavalry which 
was mustered in as the Third Iowa Cavalry, and became its colonel. 
He was rapidly promoted to brigadier general and later major 
general by brevet. He won wide recognition for bravery and mili- 
tary skill at the battle of Pea Ridge and was very prominent in 
the siege of Vicksburg. He commanded the largest division of 
the Seventh Army Corps at Little Rock and in 1865 commanded 
the third division of the Seventh Army Corps in western Arkansas 
and Indian Territory. At the close of the war he engaged in the 
commission business in St. Louis and New Orleans and was presi- 
dent of the New Orleans chamber of commerce for six years. In 
1881 he removed to New York and engaged in business, maintained 
his interest in politics and in 1884 stumped New York and New 
Jersey for Blaine. In 1889 he was appointed Assistant Secretary 
of the Interior by President Harrison. In 1893 he removed to 
Washington, D. C. and practiced law in that city until his death. 
He was buried in Arlington. 



Henry Clay Caldwell was born in Marshall county, Virginia, 
September 4, 1832; he died at Los Angeles, California, February 
15, 1915. His father removed with his family to the Black Hawk 
Purchase in 1836, locating at what is now Bentonsport, Van Buren 
county, Iowa, and removing about a year later to a tract of land 
near lowaville which became the farm. Here the boy worked on 
the farm and attended the pioneer schools in winter when possible. 
In later years he gave most interesting accounts of their relations 
with the Indians during this period. Of an unusually studious 
nature, he commenced to read law at the age of sixteen years, 
entering the law office of Wright and Knapp, Keosauqua. In 1851 
he was admitted to the bar and became a member of the firm, and 
at the age of twenty-four was elected prosecuting attorney. In 
1859 he represented Van Buren county in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, Eighth General Assembly, and was appointed chairman 
of the judiciary committee. At the outbreak of the Civil war he 
resigned his seat in the legislature and enlisted in the Third 
Iowa Cavalry, and served successively as major, lieutenant colonel 
and colonel, participating in the battle of Moore's Mill, the capture 
of Little Rock and other engagements. He resigned June 25, 1864, 
and the same month was appointed judge of the United States 
District court of Arkansas. He held this position until 1890, when 
he was appointed judge of the Eighth Circuit, comprising Arkansas, 
Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota, North and South Dakota, Wyo- 
ming and Colorado. In 1903 he retired to private life. He re- 
ceived the degree of LL. D. from Little Rock University. After his 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 155 

retirement he resided in Los Angeles until he died. His body was 
taken to Little Rock where his residence had been for the greater 
part of his active life and there was buried. 



James Irving Manatt was born in Millersburg, Ohio, February 
17, 1845; he died at Providence, R. I., February 14, 1915. He removed 
with his parents to Poweshiek county, Iowa, in his boyhood and 
received his early education in the district schools of that county. 
At the age of nineteen he enlisted as a private in the Forty-sixth 
Iowa Volunteer Infantry. He served from May 10 to September 
23, 1864, as clerk in the regimental headquarters of Col. David B. 
Henderson. He returned to Iowa and graduated from Iowa College, 
Grinnell, in 1869, with the degree of A. B. He received the degree 
of Ph.D. from Yale University in 1873; attended the University 
of Leipzig, 1876-1877; received the honorary degree of LL, D. from 
Iowa College in 1886, and from the University of Nebraska in 1902. 
He was professor of Greek at Denison University, Ohio, 1874-1876, 
and at Marietta College, 1877-1884. From 1884 to 1889 he was 
Chancellor of the University of Nebraska. In 1889 he received the 
appointment as United States Consul to Athens and occupied that 
post until 1893. He returned to America and served as pro- 
fessor of Greek literature and history at Brown University, Provi- 
dence, R. I., from 1893 until his death. He was a delegate and 
attended the first international congress of archaeology at Athens 
in 1905, and was a member of the managing committee of the 
American school at Athens and of various scientific societies. In 
1897 was published his "Mycenaean Days," Dr. Chrestos Tsountas, 
joint author, and in 1913, "Aegean Days." His work as editor and 
contributor to various magazines was well known and a compilation 
of his addresses on different occasions, under the title "Some Brown 
Studies,"' is soon to be published. 



George Lute Godfrey was born at Hard wick, Vt., November 4, 
1833; he died at Des Moines, Iowa, April 24, 1915. He was educated 
in the public schools and at Barre Academy. In 1855 he removed 
to Iowa, teaching school the first winter at Dubuque, going to Des 
Moines the next spring, and soon after to Sioux City, where he 
assisted for some time in the work of the then recently opened land 
office. He returned to Des Moines in 1859 and took up the study 
of law. At the beginning of the Civil War he enlisted as corporal 
in Company D, Second Iowa Volunteer Infantry. He participated in 
the engagements at Fort Donelson, Shiloh and Corinth, and was com- 
missioned major of the First Alabama Cavalry on October 18, 1863. 
During the siege of Atlanta he was promoted to lieutenant colonel. 
He was with Sherman on his march to the sea. He was mustered 
out on October 20, 1865, at Huntsville, Ala., and while there was 



156 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

elected representative from Polk county to the Eleventh General 
Assembly. He took active part in the proceedings of the legislature, 
secured the passage of a bill for the erection of a state arsenal and 
adjutant general's headquarters and was the author of a bill for the 
erection and maintenance of a soldiers' orphans' home, which is now 
located at Davenport. Colonel Godfrey served for four years as re- 
corder of the land office at Sioux City, as city attorney and city solic- 
itor of Des Moines, and as assistant U. S. district attorney for four 
years. He was a member of the Utah commission from 1882 to 
1913. From 1903 until his death he was surveyor of customs at 
Des Moines. He was a Republican in politics and a member of the 
G. A. R. and Loyal Legion. 



Washington Galland was born at "Lower Yellow Banks," near 
the present city of Oquawka, 111., July 20, 1827; he died at Fort 
Madison, Iowa, April 22, 1915. His father. Dr. Isaac Galland, a 
year or two later established an Indian trading post at Ah-wi-pe-tuk, 
now in Lee county, Iowa, and removed his family to that point. 
Washington attended the first school in Iowa, which was taught by 
Berryman Jennings, and, subsequently, other schools of the locality, 
and in St. Louis, Mo., and Akron and Chillicothe, Ohio. He studied 
law and was admitted to the bar in 1856. He enlisted in Company 
A, Third Missouri Mounted Volunteers, and served two years in 
the Mexican war. At the outbreak of the Civil war he raised and 
organized Company H, Sixth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, and was 
mustered in as captain. He participated in the battles of Corinth 
and Shiloh and was held prisoner for seven months. On account of 
ill-health he resigned on June 20, 1862, and returned to Montrose, 
Iowa. In 1863 he was elected representative from Lee county in 
the Tenth General Assembly. For a few years he practiced law in 
Lee county, but, being possessed of a wandering spirit, he spent 
two years in Texas and afterward four years in California. In 
1878 he was in Washington, D. C, and later entered the lecture 
field and toured the eastern states. He returned to Iowa to spend 
the last years of his life. He was a man of literary taste and con- 
siderable ability as a humorist and poet. His residence in Iowa 
was probably longer than that of any other man. 



. Lauk Larsen was born at Christiansand, Norway, August 10, 
1833; he died at Decorah, Iowa, March 1, 1915. His father was 
an army officer and his mother a daughter of one of the framers 
of the Norwegian Constitution of 1814. He received a liberal edu- 
cation and graduated from the theological department of the uni- 
versity of Ciiristiania in 1855. For two years he was a teacher 
of languages in Christiania. In 1857 he emigrated to America and 
spent two years in missionary work in Wisconsin among the Nor- 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 157 

wegian immigrants. In order to educate young men for the minis- 
try, tlie Norwegian pioneers founded a professorsliip at the Con- 
cordia Seminary in St. Louis in 1859. Doctor Larsen filled this chair 
until Luther College was organized at Half-way Creek, Wiscon- 
sin, in 1861, when he was appointed president. ■ The school was 
moved to Decorah, Iowa, in 1862, and Doctor Larsen continued as 
president and president emeritus until his death. He was vice 
president of the Lutheran Synod from 1876 to 1903, and served as 
pastor at various times and upon important occasions. From 1868 
to 1888 he was editor-in-chief of the Kirketiclende. Doctor Larsen was 
one of the oldest educators among the Norwegians in America and 
was widely known as a teacher, pastor and editor. He received 
the degree of D.D. from Concordia Seminary, and in recognition of 
his life work was made a knight of the Order of St. Olaf by the 
king of Norway. 



Alfred Hurst was born in Hull, Lincolnshire, England, Novem- 
ber 19, 1846; he died at Hurstville, Iowa, March 25, 1915. At the 
age of six years he emigrated with his parents to America, land- 
ing at New Orleans and coming immediately to Davenport, Iowa. 
Soon after their arrival the father died, leaving his wife and three 
boys to make their own way in the world. Although but fifteen 
years old, at the outbreak of the Civil war he enlisted in the trans- 
portation service, was engaged for nineteen months with the Mis- 
sissippi fieet, was present at the battles of Paducah, Ft. Donelson 
and Shiloh, and also accompanied General Banks on the Red River 
expedition. In September, 1863, he was captured by the Confeder- 
ates and for some time forced into the service of the South. During 
the raid of Memphis he succeeded in escaping, returned to St. Louis 
and engaged in steamboating on the upper Mississippi river until 
1866, when he returned to his home at Davenport and learned the 
stone mason's trade which he followed in that city for some years. 
He purchased forty acres of land in Jackson county suitable for 
the manufacture of lime, developed a fiourishing business and the 
town of Hurstville grew rp about the Hurst quarries and kilns. 
Mr. Hurst was always active in the interest of public welfare and 
was twice elected county supervisor. He served two terms as sena- 
tor from Jackson county, continuing in office from January, 1892, 
until April, 1898. 



Richard T. Wellslager was born in Washington county, Mary- 
land, April 18, 1834; he died at Des Moines, March 15, 1915. When 
he was two years of age his parents removed to Richland county, 
Ohio, where his boyhood was spent working in the forest and on 
the farm in summer and attending the common schools in winter. 
In 1852 he began teaching school, alternating that with his farm 



158 ANNALS OP IOWA. 

work. He removed to Oskaloosa, Iowa, in February, 1855, and 
served as deputy postmaster and postmaster until 1861. He also 
published the Gskaloosa Times for a year during this period. In 
1861 he located in Des Moines and after a few years in the bank- 
ing business joined Wesley Redhead in founding the book and sta- 
tionery house of Redhead & Wellslager which continued until 1883. 
For several years after withdrawing from this prominent estab- 
lishment Mr. Wellslager was obliged to rest and recuperate. In 
1887 he again entered the banking business and continued his inter- 
est therein until his death. He was connected with the Des Moines 
National Bank from 1888 to 1894, serving as president, and in 1895 
became stockholder and director of the Central State Bank. He 
also helped organize and maintained connection with other bank- 
ing institutions. He was 'instrumental in securing an order from 
the Comptroller of the Currency, making Des Moines a reserve city 
for national banking institutions. 



Nicholas Williams McIvob was born in Cheraw, S. C, April 
30, 1860; he died at Tokyo, Japan, February 10, 1915. He was a grad- 
uate of Trinity College, Hartford, Conn., in 1882. From 1882 to 1885 
he attended Harvard Law School. In 1885 he began the practice 
of law in Cedar Rapids. He was associated with the Democratic 
party and served as city counsel during the years 1891 and 1892. 
He was prominent in the campaign for Horace Boies as governor 
and served as a member of the Governor's military staff 
for both terms. In 1893 President Cleveland appointed him United 
States Consul General and Judge of the United States Court at 
Yokohama, Japan. After retiring in 1897 he returned to America 
and soon thereafter was commissioned by the Educational Society 
of the Congregational church to negotiate with the Japanese gov- 
ernment regarding title to valuable properties owned by them in 
Japan. Since that time he has been counsel and director of various 
American, English and Japanese corporations. He was appointed 
holder of the protectorate over the Chinese in Japan during the 
Chinese-Japanese war in 18?4 and 1895, and received from the 
empress of China the decoration of the Chinese Order of the Dou- 
ble Dragon. 



Cyrus S. Ranck was born in Union county. Pa., March 31, 1845; 
he died May 25, 1915, at Battle Creek, Mich., while temporarily 
absent from his home in Iowa City. He removed with his parents 
to Illinois in 1855, shortly thereafter to Iowa and then back to 
Illinois. He attended the public schools of Illinois and Iowa, 
studied four years in the Baptist college at Burlington, graduated 
from the law department of the State University of Iowa in 1871 
and was admitted to the bar the same year. He began the practice 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 159 

of law in Iowa City in 1874. In 1886 he associated in partnership 
with M. J. Wade, later for a time with Stephen Bradley, and at 
the time of his death was associated with Frank F. Messer. Until 
1896 he was a Democrat in politics and served as city attorney for 
two terms and as chairman of the Democratic State Central Com- 
mittee in 1895 and 1896. Since 1897 he had supported the Re- 
publican ticket. He served as representative in the Twentieth, 
Twenty-first and Twenty-fifth General Assemblies and as senator in 
the Twenty-sixth, Twenty-sixth Extra and Twenty-seventh General 
Assemblies. He was trustee of the Iowa School for the Deaf for 
seven years. 



SAiiuEL Druet was born in Piqua, Ohio, August 20, 1844; he died 
at Anamosa, Iowa, May 2, 1915. He was left an orphan at an early 
age, and in 1856 removed with his brother's family to Bloomfield, 
Iowa, where he was educated in the common schools. As a young 
man he learned the tinner's trade. At the outbreak of the Civil war 
he returned to Ohio, and in May, 1864, enlisted in the 161st Ohio 
Infantry, serving until his regiment was mustered out. In 1865 he 
returned to Bloomfield and engaged for a time in the tin and hard- 
ware business. After taking a regular course in medicine he began 
the practice in 1874 and followed that profession for twenty-two 
years at Marysville. In 1895 he was elected state senator from the 
Monroe-Marion district and served through the Twenty-sixth, Twen- 
ty-sixth Extra and Twenty-seventh General Assemblies. In June, 
1898, he was appointed prison physician for the penitentiary at 
Anamosa and held that position for twelve years. He returned to 
his practice at Anamosa, but about a year ago failing health forced 
him to retire. 



George Hartley Purdy was born in Ontario, Canada, August 27, 
1866; he died at Mason City, Iowa, April 24, 1915. He removed in 
1869 to Mason City, where he attended the public schools. He also 
took the course in civil engineering at Cornell College, Mt. Vernon. 
After leaving college he removed to Spencer and engaged in the 
grocery business for ten years. In 1899 he returned to Mason City 
and took charge of his father's farm, to scientifically develop it. 
About four years before his death he purchased a farm near Rock- 
ford and gave his attention to fruit and stock raising. He served 
as mayor and councilman of Rockford. He was elected representa- 
tive from Floyd county in the Thirty-sixth General Assembly; 
was appointed chairman of the committee on horticulture and to 
membership on the committees on appropriations, agriculture and 
other committees of importance. Ill-health forced him to return to 
his home before the close of the session and his death occurred 
soon after its adjournment. 



160 ANNALS OF IOWA. 

John Cliggitt was born in Montgomery county, New York, August 
25, 1840; he died at Muscatine, Iowa, June 17, 1914. His early edu- 
cation was received in the common schools of Burlington, Vermont. 
In 1850 he removed to the West, locating for some time in Ken- 
dall county, Illinois. There he worked on a farm and attended 
school and later taught. He entered the Chicago law school in 1868, 
completed the course and was admitted to practice in the Supreme 
court of Illinois in 1869. He removed to Mason City, Iowa, in 1871 
and continued the practice of law in that city for over forty years. 
He served at various times as justice of the peace, town recorder, 
secretary of the school board and mayor. He was a Democrat in 
politics and was delegate to the National Convention in 1886 which 
nominated Grover Cleveland. 



Edward B. Cook was born in Scott county, Iowa, August 13, 
1843; he died at his home near Buffalo, June 16, 1914. He was edu- 
cated in the schools of Washington. D. C, Rochester, Albany and 
Geneva, New York, and Griswold College at Davenport, Iowa. He 
read law and was graduated from the Albany law school in May, 
1863. He returned to Davenport and began the practice of law 
in his father's office. With different associates in the firm, he 
maintained his office and practice in Davenport from 1863 until 
his death. He acted as attorney for the Chicago, Rock Island & 
Pacific Railway Company, and other large corporations of the city 
and State. He was a Democrat in politics but never a candidate 
for office. He was prominently identified with the best interests of 
Davenport for many years. 



Gerhard Henry Schulte was born in Clayton county, Iowa, Jan- 
uary 21, 1866; he died at his home in Elkader, June 17, 1914. His 
education was begun in the common schools and he commenced teach- 
ing at the age of nineteen years. In 1890 he graduated from the Iowa 
State College at Ames with the degree of B. S., and the next year at- 
tended the law department of the State University of Iowa. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1894 and practiced in Elkader. He was 
elected mayor of Elkader in 1902 and served continuously for 
twelve years. He represented Clayton county in the Thirty-second, 
Thirty-second Extra and Thirty-third General Assemblies. In 1912 
:he was elected county attorney and had been re-elected for a sec- 
ond term just previous to his death. 



THIRD SERIES VOL. Xil, NO. 3 



OCTOBER, 19.1; 



-TT 



ANNALS OF iOWA 



A HISTORICAL QUARTERLY 






fUCI-iSilKU BY THC 

lilSTORICAL DEFARTMENT OF IOWA 

FDG.vR R. \1AV.LX^I. Ci.'.it.or 



'T.iCE S1.0'! PER YE.Aii SINGLE NUMBER 25 CENTS 



DES MOINES, IOWA 



Entered aa second class mail matter at the Pest Office at Difs ."-folms. loiva 



ANNALH OF lOATA. 

CONTEXTS iOR OCTOBER, lOi:.. 

Miscellaneous. 
Scientific Studies of Dr. Asa Horr 161 

JaMLS 0, CliOSBY. 

Id Commemoration- of Hon. Richard C. BaiTett iG5 

xVppreciation of Eieliard C. Barrett — F. F. Faville. 

Dignity of the State Superinteadoncy in the State's 
Development — Albekt M. Detoe. 

Great States the Creatures of Great Ivleu — E. R. 
Harlan. 

OpinioiLs of Hon. Smith ^ifcPherson, District Judge, in 
the Case of tiie United States vs._ David S. r\lorrls'ju. . 17L.' 

A. J. Small. 

The Writings of Judge .Gtorge G. AYright (continued) 191 
Siiepherd Leffler. 
S. C. Hastings. 
Josepli Williams. 

Fublie Arcliives of Io\\a— R"^ t... 200 

(\ C. Stiles. 

Jud!.:^' r;t^oi-..;e G. Greene 210 

B. L. AViCK. 

Iowa Authoi's and Tb.eii- Works (coritinued) 214 

Arrci: r\l.M'FLi:. 



Kditorial })< pariuu '-i . 

The Devie.- r,f Our Fii-^t Oriieial Seal 22') 

Custody and I^se of Historical .ALaterials 230 

Proposed Grand Army lAU'ridor . 288 

Notes 23:^ 

Xotahle Deaths 2:^ 

11 'list rat ions. 

Dr. Asa Horr Frouti>pi.ce 

Onivi; ' :■'.'. i.i" Hi^Tori^•al Dt-paT'tmcnl of Iowa 22' 





(r>'~/-, 



Annals of Iowa. 

Vol.. Xll, No. 3. Des Moines, Iowa, October, i9i5 3d Series 

SCIENTIFIC STUDIES OF DB. ASA HORR. 
By James 0. Crosby. 

After the capital was removed from Iowa City to Des 
Moines, it was a long journey from Clayton county to attend 
the sessions of the supreme court. In December, 1857, Elijah 
Odell and I attended the first term of the court held at Des 
Moines, and our journey by stage took five days, including 
three all night rides. 

Later the general assembly established argument terms to 
be held at Davenport in April and October, for the presenta- 
tion of cases from the eastern part of the State, and in 1868 
established similar terms at Dubuque. These argument terms 
were discontinued in 1872, when all cases were transf^ rred to 
Des Moines. I attended all the Dubuque terms. About the 
first term Judge Murdoek accompanied me and introduced me 
to Dr. Asa Horr,^ the eminent physician, surgeon and scientist, 
at his office. In our conversation the judge stated that he 
had recently read that at this particular season Saturn was 
making the finest show of the year with its rings. 

In the rear of his office Dr. Horr had built a private 
astronomical observatory in which was placed a meridional 
telescope. With a watch, by use of the telegraph, he kept 
Washington time. By the Nautical Almanac he found the 
meridian time of the planet, and said if we would arrange 
with a policeman to wake us at 2.00 a. m. and would go to his 
house and wake him, we could come with him to the office and 
interview Saturn with the telescope from the observatory. At 
3.00 a. m. we were all on hand, and while Saturn crossed the 
object lens of the telescope we each had time for a good look 

iDr. Asa Horr was bom at Worthington, Franklin County, Ohio, 
September 2, 1817. He studied medicine and surg-ery at the town 
of Baltimore and city of Columbus, Ohio, and spent his professional 
life at Dubuque, Iowa. 

11 



162 ANNALS OP IOWA 

at the planet in a clear sky, with its rings bright and plainly 
to be seen. 

After Saturn parsed the range of the telescope, the Nautical 
Almanac gave the meridional time of other stars at which we 
gazed till daylight obscured them. Then we left the observa- 
tory and in the office took up the microscope and played with 
it until breakfast time. It was of good size and had six sets 
of object lenses of different magnifying powers. 

One slide he had prepared from fine sand, swept from rocks 
on the coast of Florida. To the naked eye it seemed like buck- 
wheat flour ; magnified, it was a collection of beautiful, conical 
sea-shells, about a quarter of an inch long, with spines begin- 
ning with a light burnt-umber color at the shell and deepen- 
ing to black at the points. 

Another object he had prepared was an itch-mite taken from 
the person of a patient. An enlarged picture of the animal 
is an illustration in the Century dictionary. 

At another visit Dr. Horr told me something of his early 
history, and as I, too, had had an early history, I was very 
much interested, so much so that it is very clearly retained in 
my memory and I will give it as of his own statement : 

At the age of 19 I was working about 20 miles from Columbus, 
Ohio, learning the carpenter's trade. One day I rode horseback to 
Columbus to purchase a text book on botany for beginners, as 
I had a desire to study plant life. I called at a bookstore and 
made my purpose known to the proprietor, and he laid upon 
the counter a number of books. 

After an examination of them I was unable to make a selec- 
tion, and I asked the advice of the merchant, who said he couldn't 
tell, but pointing to a gentleman seated in the room, said that 
that man could advise me. Turning to the gentleman, he said: 
"Mr. Sullivant, will you step here? Here is a young man who 
wishes to purchase a Botany for beginners. Please advise him 
which to select." 

The gentleman came to the counter and asked if I wished it 
for myself. I answered that I did, and he very soon made a 
selection. Then he asked if I felt an interest in such matters. If 
I did he had a collection that he thought would please me, ana 
if I liked he would take me in his buggy, which was standing 
in front of the store, and show it to me. 

I very gladly accepted his kind offer and I found his home 
and collection of plants large and interesting. The plants in 



SCIENTIFIC STUDIES OF DR. ASA HORR 163 

quantity and variety were larger and finer than I ever had seen, 
and his explanations and descriptions gave me an increased in- 
terest in botany. He took me back to the city and I returned 
to my carpenter work. 

About three weeks after that, Mr. Sullivant sent to me a mes- 
senger on horseback, with a letter stating that a party of his 
friends, ladies and gentlemen, at a time named, were going with 
him camping on a week's outing for pleasure and research, and 
extending to me an urgent invitation to join their party, and re- 
questing an answer by the returning messenger. I was a great 
awkward boy, and knew from my former visit to his home that 
his company would be of a class with which I had not been ac- 
customed to associate. Bashfulness came over me like a blanket. 
If he had sent his letter by mail, I could easily have answered 
it by mail, declining the invitation with thanks; but he had sent 
a messenger specially to bring it and there could be no mistake. 
The invitation was not merely formal and he surely desired me to 
join the party, doubtless for my benefit, and I could not do other- 
wise than send an answer of acceptance. 

At the appointed time, at his home, I joined the company of 
cultured ladies and gentlemen by whom I was politely and kindly 
received. Though it may have been imaginary on my part, I 
thought I detected a slight air of condescension on their part. 

After we had been out a couple of days, a discussion arose 
respecting some action related in the Iliad. The controversy was 
growing somewhat heated when, to avoid unpleasant feeling, one of 
the gentlemen proposed to end the discussion by referring the 
matter to "our young friend" and letting his decision end the mat- 
ter; to which they agreed unanimously. It so happened that I 
had just finished reading a translation of the Iliad the week be- 
fore, and very mucli to their surprise I promptly related Homer's 
account of the matter. The imaginary condescension disappeared 
and their cordial treatment made me forget that I was ever bash- 
ful. 

One day as Mr. Sullivant" and I were alone in a boat on a 
lily pond, gathering lilies and searching for other water plants, 
he related to me the incidents that led him to the study of 
botany. He said: "When a young man, by inheritance, I became 
the owner of the farm on which my present home is situated. I 
had no plan of life and was rather inclined to be gay and as- 
sociate with young men fond of a good time. One day i naa 
four of them at my home for dinner and a little jollification. 
Looking out of a window that showed the pasture in the landscape, 
I saw a man walking slowly along, closely watching the ground, 



•"William Starling Sullivant was born near Columbus, Ohio, January 
15, 1803, and died there April 30, 1873. He was an American student ot 
nature who became distinguished as a bryologist. 



164 ANNALS OP IOWA 

occasionally stooping down as if to pick up something, stopping 
to examine it and then putting it in a tin case which was sus- 
pended by a shoulder strap at his side. 

I wondered what the man found of so much interest in the 
pasture, and said to my company: 'Boys, excuse me for a little 
while! I see a man down in my pasture and I must go down 
and see what he's doing there.' So I left them and went to the 
pasture. I found a man somewhat advanced in years who ex- 
plained that he was studying the flora of the state, and had al- 
ready found in my pasture some new plants not yet described, 
that he would add to the list. I staid with him till near dinner 
time, asked him to take dinner with me and he consented. I 
wanted to see more of him, and if he were not accustomed to 
our style of living, it might be some fun for the boys as his 
clothing was suited to his work. When seated at the table, his 
dignified bearing and intelligent conversation kept my other guests 
as attentive listeners, with no thought of making fun at his ex- 
pense. I asked his permission to accompany him the rest of the 
day, and adjourned the frolic with my gay young friends. That 
afternoon opened a new world to me and led me to become a 
student of nature." 

The week's outing was a delightful one and opened wide to me 
the book of nature of which I became an earnest student. After 
I had acquired the profession of medicine and surgery and came 
to form a plan of life, I resolved to be a faithful student in the 
line of my profession, and in addition, to study and keep up with 
the growth of the natural sciences; that if days of leisure came 
after my professional labors were ended, I would have the love 
of nature to cheer my declining years. 

In 1847 Dr. Horr came to Dubuque and entered upon the 
practice of medicine and surgery and successfully carried out 
his plan of life. 

He died in his seventy-ninth year at Dubuque, leaving a 
wife, a son, Edward W., of Blandville, Ky., and a daughter, 
Mrs. Charles G. Stearns, of Waterloo, Iowa, all of whom are 
still living. 



IN COMMEMORATION OP RICHARD C. BARRETT 16t 



IN COMMEMORATION 
OF HON. RICHARD C. BARRETT. 

[On the 12th day of June, 1915, there was installed on the 
corridor walls of the Historical, Memorial and Art Building of Iowa 
a portrait medallion in bronze of Richard C. Barrett. The presenta- 
tion address was delivered by Hon. F. F. Faville, of Storm Lake, 
Iowa, and Hon. A. M. Deyoe, a successor to Mr. Barrett in the office 
of State Superintendent of Public Instruction, presiding, delivered 
an address. In the place of Governor Geo. W. Clarke, chairman of 
the Board of Trustees of the Historical Department of Iowa, Edgar 
R. Harlan, curator, accepted the medallion. — Editor.] 



AN APPRECIATION OF RICHARD C. BARRETT. 
By F. F. Faville. 

The story of the life of Richard C. Barrett is the story of 
a successful Iowa farm boy who was blessed with ideals. His 
was the good fortune to be reared amid the simple and 
rugged surroundings of an Iowa iniral community of a half- 
century ago, having been born in Bremer county in 1858. . 

This was before the advent of the automobile, the telephone 
and the rural delivery of mail. It was at a time when life 
on an Iowa farm had its large measure of isolation and its 
full round of genuine hard work. The neighboring village 
was then visited only for purposes of trade or worship and 
the "county-seat town" was a distant metropolis seen only 
at "fair time" or on a similarly rare occasion. 

The country school was not then regarded as a "social cen-, 
ter," and was by no means the modern "consolidated" insti- 
tution with its course of study and its up-to-date appliances. 
It was the little one-room white edifice on the section corner, 
with its heterogeneous collection of pupils and its "curricu- 
lum" embracing the entire range from the primer to Ray's 
Higher Arithmetic. 

Mr. Barrett lived at a time when farm boys spent their 
evenings at home. The family life was developed. Books, 



166 ANNALS OF IOWA 

magazines^ and games served to while away the long winter 
evenings and the duties of summer brought a literal exemplifi- 
cation of the motto ''early to bed and early to rise." The 
old-fashioned custom of family prayers had not yet become 
obsolete. 

In such a home, and under such circumstances was Richard 
C. Barrett reared. The work of the farm did not destroy his 
ambition and its isolation did not stunt his ideals. He plowed 
corn none the less well because he recited Thanatopsis to the 
team that he drove. He followed the ceaseless and unending 
monotony of the daily grind of farm drudgery with its pinch- 
ing limitations and was not narrowed nor dwarfed. He looked 
beyond his daily task. He saw art in the changing panorama 
of the prairie, and he heard a symphony in the sublime "music 
of the spheres." 

Richard Barrett was never the egotist, but he believed in 
himself. And he determined with himself that he should try 
himself out. And so he went to school. He was not sent to 
school. He went. No wealthy father purchased him member- 
ship in some fashionable college club. No fond and fearful 
parent turned him over to a college faculty with the vain 
hope that he might learn something. No such misfortune be- 
fell him. He was privileged to ' ' work his way. ' ' Opportunity 
did not open the door for him with "soft and lily fingers" — 
but he opened the door himself. 

Like most ambitious young men he debated long and seri- 
ously as to his life work. The ministry, law and medicine 
were all attractive to him and he was tempted to follow one 
of these professions, but with rare good judgment and com- 
mon sense he decided that he would be a teacher. 

Some one has said, "The first essential of a successful 
teacher is love for the profession." If this be true Mr. Bar- 
rett was essentially successful. 

What was his ideal ? "Was teaching with him a mere mat- 
ter of salary-drawing or making provision for a present need ? 
Long afterwards he thus described "The Teacher's Greatest 
Ambition" : 



IN COMMEMORATION OF RICHARD C. BARRETT 167 

To help a child to become unselfish, self-reliant, kind, thought- 
ful, considerate, honest and independent; to train to habits of 
usefulness; to promote purity of thought and life; to have even 
some small- part in awakening" loftier purposes and holier aspira- 
tions; to arouse in the minds of boys and girls an honest and 
sincere hope to be able to some extent to make happier the school, 
the home, the community, the state, the nation and the world — 
should be the greatest ambition of every teacher. 

With such an ambition Richard C. Barrett began his life 
work as a teacher. He commenced in a country school of the 
type he had attended as a small boy. An insignificant begin- 
ning it was, but a most valuable asset it became when in after 
years as State Superintendent of Public Instruction he did 
so much to establish the consolidated school, which is working 
such a revolution in the ,counti*y schools of Iowa today. 

After six years in the school room, in which he was very 
successful, he was called to the office of county superintendent 
of Mitchell county and held that position for fourteen years 
and until his election to the state superintendency. 

During this time he became widely known in educational 
circles. He was a lecturer and an instructor at the leading 
teachers' institutes of the State, a contributor to various edu- 
cational publications throughout the country, and a promi- 
nent member of the National Educational Association. . He 
was recognized as an expert on "the rural school problem." 
He brought to the office of State Superintendent a splendid 
equipment and a broad comprehension of the needs of the 
schools of the State, particularly those of the country dis- 
tricts. 

Without any pretense at revolutionizing affairs, but actuated 
by a sincere desire to help the schools of the State, he gave to 
the duties of this office his best, most conscientious efforts. 
When he assumed the office of State Superintendent, Iowa 
was one of the very few states of the Union without a law 
requiring the attendance of children at school. He made a 
most careful study of the question of compulsory education, 
examined and abstracted the laws of all of the. states on the 
subject, corresponded extensively with educators regarding 



168 ANNALS OF IOWA 

the matter, and investigated conditions in states where such 
laws had been adopted. 

He strongly urged the adoption of such a law upon the 
Twenty-eighth General Assembly. He submitted a model bill 
for the consideration of the legislators and worked unceas- 
ingly to secure the passage of such a statute, and finally the 
Twenty-ninth General Assembly passed the law practically 
as suggested by him. The credit for the enactment of this 
very important legislation was due in no small degree to his 
efforts, and it will always be associated with his work as State 
Superintendent. 

Richard Barrett was one school man who was not given to 
fads nor hobbies, but nevertheless one thing was uppermost 
in his work, and that was the improvement of the country 
schools. He knew their every need. He had learned their 
requirements at first hand. He saw that the inefficiency of 
the isolated country school could be largely eliminated by 
reducing the number of schools, and by transporting the 
pupils to one central school which should be graded and which 
should have better-equipped teachers. 

The proposed change became known as the ' ' Consolidation ' ' 
movement. It necessarily met with intense opposition, an 
opposition that has by no means yet entirely disappeared. 
The question of expense was, and still is, the paramount one 
with many school patrons. The idea of disposing of existing 
school houses, incurring the expense of a new modern build- 
ing, buying conveyances and paying to have the children 
transported to and from school, and the employing of ex- 
perienced and trained teachers at better wages, was so revo- 
lutionary, that it was viewed as an invasion of the inalienable 
rights of the rural taxpayer. 

Mr, Barrett firmly believed that the plan would work out 
successfully. He gave much study to all the arguments ad- 
vanced against the proposition, set them forth frankly and at 
length in his official reports and discussed them with perfect 
candor and convincing logic. In 1903 he said: 

It was a great day in the history of Iowa when it was de- 
clared that the State should have a free public school system. It 



IN COMMEMORATION OF RICHARD C. BARRETT 169 

will be a greater one when, in the course of time, it is ordered 
that all children shall have equal school privileges — that the child 
in the remotest district — the child of the humblest poor, in the 
backwoods and on the prairie, — shall have educational advantages 
unexcelled in the best school in the largest and best city in the 
land. 

With this in his mind and on his heart he worked unceas- 
ingly to bring about the great result, not only by legislation 
that would make it possible, but by endeavoring to educate 
the public to understand the real merits of the proposition. 
He was greatly interested in the first practical experiment that 
was tried in the State. He personally visited this school and 
studied at first hand the objections that had been ur^^ed of 
increase of taxes, impracticability of transporting children 
and similar matters. 

He was thoroughly convinced that the "Consolidated 
School" would eventually be the solution of the "rural school 
problem." How wonderfully is his prophecy being fulfilled 
in the many such schools that have been and are being rapidly* 
established all over the State. I think his untiring labors for 
the betterment of the rural schools of Iowa, the most im- 
portant single service that he rendered the commonwealth. 

Mr. Barrett was a believer in "higher education," He 
took commendable pride in the Master of Arts degree which 
Cornell College conferred upon him. But he was essentially 
a believer in things practical, especially in education. He 
once said : 

The schoolmaster who attempts to teach art, music, painting, 
French, stenography, pharmacy, etc., to a boy who cannot spell 
the common words in daily use, write a legible hand, keep the 
simplest accounts, compose a letter, recite the principal events of 
American history, and explain the elementary principles of science, 
will soon lose caste with the business world. 

In 1903 he said to the General Assembly in the official 
report, regarding the teaching of agriculture in the public 
schools : 

There has been considerable discussion of the teaching of the 
elements of agriculture in rural schools and more recently the 
introduction of the study in hie:h schools has been proposed. If 
into the school life there should be introduced the subjects with 
which pupils are to deal in life, no mistake is being made by 



17:0 ANNALS OP IOWA 

those who urge the value of the practical. If it can be urged that 
agricultural subjects should be introduced into schools in cities 
wUere only a small part of the patrons are engaged in agricul- 
ture or gardening, it can be more strongly urged for rural schools 
where agriculture is the chief business of all the people. Each 
succeeding year high schools teach more of the practical, and as 
laboratories multiply and professionally trained teachers increase, 
there is likely to be still less of theory and more instruction in 
how to do the work of the world. 

He did not live to see the enactment of our present statute 
requiring that agriculture and domestic science must be taught 
in the schools of the State, but he paved the way for that 
legislation and aided its oncoming in no small degree. 

During his administration of the office of State Superin- 
tendent great progress was made in manual training in the 
public s^ihools. Mr. Barrett aided greatly in this work. He 
issued an extensive outline on the subject, particularly to aid 
teachers in learning where and how to equip themselves to 
give manual training. 

He also especially urged that the teachers of the State 
should have better opportunities for training in their profes- 
sion. He believed that Iowa should supplement her great 
Teachers' College with others of like character, where more 
teachers could receive adequate and scientific training for 
their important work, and he unhesitatingly advocated the 
paying of better wages to the teachers of the State. 

His work in the office of State Superintendent covered six 
very important years in the history of education in Iowa. At 
all times industrious, patient and tactful, keeping constantly 
in mind the greater good, and working ever for the better- 
ment of conditions, he contributed largely toward furthering 
those things that hasten the coming of a better day. 

After his retirement from the office of State Superintend- 
ent he completed a course in law and received the degree of 
LL.B. but he made no attempt to practice law as a profession, 
and almost immediately accepted a position on the faculty 
of the State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts at 
Ames, occupying the chair of Civics. This place was par- 
ticularly pleasing to him, not only because it brought him in 



IN COMMEMORATION OF RICHARD C. BARRETT 171 

eormeetion with the work of this great school in which he was 
deeply interested, but more particularly because it gave hird 
an opportunity to get in close touch with a multitude of young 
men and women who were seeking an education. 

I am confident that no position in which he was ever placed 
brought as much real satisfaction to Mr. Barrett as to be 
on the committee on classification of students at Ames. No 
man could have been better adapted for this position than he. 
He delighted to meet the boys, especially, who had come from 
farm homes to enter the great school, and who needed just 
then a little sympathy and good advice. No austere official 
confronted them in the person of Mr. Barrett. He was their 
friend. He knew exactly their difficulties and their ambitions. 
"With a genuine and sincere sympathy he became their con- 
fidant and their counsellor. And what joy he found in this 
service ! 

In all the thousands of teachers and students that came in 
contact with Mr. Barrett none ever applied to him for sym- 
pathy or assistance a«id applied in vain. He never had such 
urgent business that he could not find time to hear of the 
troubles of some inexperienced teacher or to listen to a recital 
of the difficulties of some farm boy who needed encourage, 
ment and help. How many such lives has he touched in this 
State and always with kindly sympathy ! He was never the 
misanthrope. He was always an ambassador of helpfulness 
and good cheer. 

In the midst of his activities at the College, in the very 
prime of life, he was suddenly stricken with an infection of 
the mastoid and died March 3, 1909. 

Thus lived and died this kindly, helpful, hopeful man. I 
can pronounce no greater encomium upon him than to say he 
was a Christian gentleman in the full and true meaning of 
that term. He was from early childhood a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. His interest in young people 
and his desire to help them caused him to render years of 
service in the Sunday School, as superintendent and teacher. 
He made no spectacular parade of his religion. There was no 
ostentation about it. It was an abiding and essential part of 



172 ANNALS OF IOWA 

his daily life. Some people profess their religion. Richard C. 
Barrett lived his. He neither boasted of his faith nor apol- 
ogized for it, but no man who knew him at all intimately ever 
had any doubt of his religious convictions, whether he ever 
heard him mention the subject or not. Clean, upright, pure- 
minded, conscientious, he was a splendid example of that type 
of Christian citizen whose "daily walk and conversation" 
"make for righteousness." 

Emerson said, "The only way to have a friend is to be 
one." If the Sage of Concord was right Richard Barrett's 
friends were truly "numbered by his acquaintances." At his 
death it was said of him that "he was loved by more people 
than any other man in Iowa. ' ' No man ever had a more loyal 
friend than he was. He was not "one thing to the face and 
another to the back" of any friend. He was always depend- 
able. I once heard a friend praise him with the homely ex- 
pression, "he will stand without hitching." 

Mr. Barrett had no ambition to acquire wealth. Amid the 
struggles of this money-making era be caught the larger 
vision and found his compensation in giving rather than in 
getting. To touch young life, to inspire to better efforts and 
nobler things, in a word, to be of service was more of joy to 
him than the accumulation of money. He was content to 

Sit in the house by the side of the road 
And be a friend to man. 

He was a great lover of books and of travel, but he found 
his greatest pleasure in his own home and in the society of 
those he loved best. 

While teaching at Riceville, Iowa, Mr. Barrett married 
Janet Dean, who was also a school teacher. Their home life 
was ideal. No task was undertaken, no plan formulated, no 
success achieved, no disappointment suffered, that was not 
shared equally by them. Saddened by the loss of one daughter 
in infancy, they were also blessed with one whose beautiful 
life has been a constant comfort and joy. 

His dust rests in the little cemetery at the Iowa State Col- 
lege, beneath the graceful elms and rugged oaks of his native 
State. 



IN COxMMEMORATION OF RICHARD C. BARRETT 173 

It is most fitting that on the walls of the Historical Building 
should be placed a medallion to perpetuate the memory of 
this good and true man and useful citizen. 

With becoming modesty, Mr. Barrett, in concluding his last 
report as State Superintendent, said : 

If the discouraged teacher has been encouraged, if the heavy- 
hearted has been made to rejoice, if the weak has been strength- 
ened, if the pathway of life has been made to appear smooth, 
the skies brighter and the days happier by anything I may have 
said or done, the inspiration for the word or deed came from the 
encouraging words of helpfulness spoken by teachers. 

And he gave this characteristic message to the teachers of 
the State : 

To you who have been my co-laborers and have given your 
strength to promote the true cause of education, I am debtor be- 
yond ability to repay or words to express. I could not if I would, 
have you freed from the burdens of the schoolroom, but were the 
power mine I would give to each of you added strength to bear 
all of the trials and to overcome all of the difficulties. I would 
have you remember that while such power is not mine, the Great 
Teacher has said, "I am with you alway, even unto the end of the 
world" and from Him you can have help. 

He needs no greater eulogium. 

In the very prime of life, without a murmur of complaint, 
with a firm and abiding faith, Richard C- Barrett turned the 
prow of his frail bark out from the shores of Time, upon the 
trackless sea ' ' that has never borne the shadow of a returning 
sail." 

Let us be assured that his voyage was in peace, his anchor- 
age in the Harbor of Eternal Joy. 



174 ANNALS OF IOWA 



THE DIGNITY OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENCY IN THE 
STATE'S DEVELOPMENT. 

By Albert M. Deyoe. 

We live in a great State, rich in promise for the future. 
. Bounded on two sides by two of the largest rivers of our con- 
tinent, with a soil whose fertility wearies not in yielding 
abundant harvests, and with continental systems of railways 
to bear our products to the markets of the world. But Provi- 
dence gave to Iowa a choicer blessing than river or soil or 
railroad. From the states located to the eastward came the 
best men and women to settle our State. The privilege is ours 
to prove true to our vantage ground, not only to perpetuate 
their heroic vigor, but to build for larger and better things. 
Iowa holds the creditable and enviable position of having the 
lowest percentage of illiteracy of any state in the Union. The 
laurel was hers by inheritance as she entered statehood; it is 
E legacy for succeeding generations to merit as a distinction of 
priceless value. Fortunate, indeed, are we because of the char- 
acter of the pioneers who settled here, in the quality of the 
immigrants who have come to us, and in the physical and occu- 
pational conditions in our State. The continuation of com- 
paratively so high a standard of thrift and intelligence among- 
our people will depend first and foremost upon the policy and 
efficiency of our system of education. Unless the individual 
is well trained for some occupation in life he is lacking in an 
essential element in the making of the best class of citizenship, 
viz., the ability to become self-supporting and capable of sup- 
porting those dependent upon him. 

But education for efficiency must not take into account 
merely the utilitarian idea. It must be inspired with ideal- 
istic, ffisthetic, philanthropic, and spiritual incentives, without 
which life will not rise to its highest level. The purpose or 
the function of education appeals to us in this great common- 
wealth to put within reach of all the children the most gen- 
erous means for development into useful manhood and woman- 



IN COMMEMORATION OF RICHARD C. BARRETT 175 

hood. Young men and young women endowed with the ability 
and the disposition for work need none of our solicitude con- 
cerning the welfare of the State. The world owes no man a 
■living, but every man owes it to the world to make a living 
•for himself and those dependent upon him. When we can 
bring together, embodied in the same individual, right think- 
ing and right doing, sound theoi'y and successful practice, we 
'shall have the well-educated man and the ideal citizen. 

Better schools should mean better citizenship. Our boys and 
• girls should not only be prepared to do something well but 
they should be desirous of doing something well. The disposi- 
tion, to do something well represents the moral side of educa- 
' tion. Not only the boy who comes from the slums, but the 
boy who turns the automobile crank is to be dealt with in the 
training for citizenship. The question of training the boy 
raised in luxury is just as difficult a problem of solution as 
the training of the boy raised in poverty. It is just as injur- 
ious and unbecoming for a youth to puff out his vitality 
through a cigarette or a pipe-stem on the college campus as 
it is in the back alley. Not money, not social caste, not fame, 
not even scholarship will make men and women worthy of re- 
ward. Let us not forget that sympathy for others, purity of 
living, honesty, industry, reverence, obedience, and respect for 
law are among the determining forces that will count most in 
estimating the worth of a life. 

The development of the State industrially, and the hope of 
its citizenship intellectually and spiritually, depends upon the 
training of the child. This then represents the responsibility, 
the dignity of the work of those to whom have been committed 
the task of shaping the educational policies of the State, 

There was a propriety in the selection of the Hon, James 
Harlan to lay the corner-stone of the beautifully designed His- 
torical, Memorial and Art Building, perhaps not thought of at 
the time. Many years before the ceremonies connected with 
the first steps taken toward the erection of the building, James 
Harlan had been chosen as the first State Superintendent of 
Schools after the admission of Iowa into the Union in 1846. 
To this man — one of Iowa's greatest noblemen — was entrusted 
the duty of laying the corner-stone of our State's great educa- 



176 ANNALS OF IOWA 

tional system, maintained today at the enormous annual ex- 
pense of over seventeen million dollars. The amount expended 
is a large sum. But what of it, when we estimate that nearly 
two and one-eighth times as much money is expended annually 
in the nation for intoxicating liquors and tobacco as for the 
public schools, and almost one and one-half times as much as 
for education of all kinds. Educational advantages of a gen- 
eration ago can not best meet the needs of today, much less the 
needs of generations to come. 

It would be interesting to speak of the development of our 
State's educational system under the administration of each 
of the successors to Mr, Harlan, on down through those of 
Thomas H, Benton, Maturin L. Fisher, Oran Faville, Alonzo 
Abemethy, and others, but time permits mention only of the 
one in whose memory we are assembled on this occasion. 

Kichard C. Barrett lived but half a century. His was a life 
of wonderful activity and usefulness. In studying the lives of 
successful men, we are constantly being impressed with the 
thought that they make the most of their opportunities. They 
do not wait for a good chance to succeed ; they take advantage 
of such chances as they can get, and make them good. 

Mr. Barrett excelled as an instructor and as a school admin- 
istrator. A teacher of teachers — he never ceased to be a stu- 
dent. He was not satisfied with a superficial knowledge of 
the subject he attempted to teach. He drank deep from the 
fountain of information. Some years ago it was my privilege 
to be a co-worker with Mr. Barrett in a teachers' normal in- 
stitute in one of the counties in the State, In discussing a 
disputed question in physiology, Mr, Barrett quoted Gray's 
Anatomy as his authority. He had consulted the best text; 
one used by students in surgery and medicine. His study of 
the principles of education was thorough and exhaustive. 

It was his will to work, his purity of living, his Christian 
fortitude, and his love for humanity that made Superintend- 
ent Barrett beloved by all who became acquainted with him. 
He knew no such thing as failure. He had faith that the 
mission of the teacher was one of the greatest callings in the 
world. No wonder that his presence among a body of teach- 
ers was an inspiration to them. 



IN COMMEMORATION OF RICHARD C. BARRETT 177 

It was through State Superintendent Barrett's efforts that 
the compulsory attendance law and the law providing for 
the founding of school libraries were passed by the legisla- 
ture. Both laws are of special importance and far-reaching 
in their influence. 

Regular and continued effort in school is essential in the 
education of the child. 

It is well that the State through the school attempts to en- 
courage the study of the pure and life-ennobling in literature 
by children. A squad of boys arrived in one of the small 
towns in Iowa recently bent on an adventurous deed of some 
.sort. They engaged in a contest among themselves as to 
who should be chosen leader of the "gang." They settled 
upon the plan of "fighting it out" among themselves and in 
this manner decide who should be made captain. It was 
found upon inquiry that the reading of bad books prompted 
these boys to leave home to begin lives of crime. To teach 
the children how to read without providing them with proper 
reading material, may prove a dangerous experiment if we 
apply the test that the kind of literature read by the boy 
or the girl has a strong influence in shaping his ambition for 
future activity. More important than the ability to read well 
is the use made of that ability in contributing to the destiny 
of the child. In other words, it is more important what a 
child reads than how well he reads. There are but few schools 
in Iowa today without a library of at least a few well-se- 
lected books. 

From Superintendent Barrett's reports I quote the follow- 
ing as exemplifying his ideals in education : 

The great need in Iowa is not more schools, but better schools; 
not more teachers, but better teachers; not a school that fits for 
teaching, for business, for college, but one that aids students in the 
preparation for life and its manifold duties. That from right edu- 
cation, the youth may be happier, the home more sacred, the citizen 
nobler and truer, and the nation stronger. 

Truly, Superintendent Barrett dignified the office to which 

he had been chosen. 



12 



178 ANNALS OF IOWA 



GREAT STATES THE CREATURES OP GREAT MEN. 
By Edgab R. Harlan. 

Great states are largely the mere creatures of great men. 
Although nature did her portion of the building of our com- 
monwealth and had removed most of her waste materials be- 
fore the coming of white men, and although she put into our 
physical foundations most all essential minerals, into our 
soils and atmosphere enough desirable elements from which 
to make a state, there yet remained the handiwork of men, 
for its completion. 

Still it was not the mere assembling here of men and women, 
not the coming merely of those in ample numbers to occupy 
the lands, produce and then consume its fruits, or multiply 
and replenish the earth. There yet was to have been gathered 
beneath the Iowa skies those who might divine the needs, the 
possibilities of institutions ; those who through almost match- 
less courage, tireless labor and prophetic vision so wrought 
out the social fabric as to almost vie in finished social form, 
with the natural Iowa masterpiece of the Creator. They who 
in our earliest statehood welded the southern with the north- 
em streams of thought into one Iowa impulse indeed were 
master builders. They who thereafter brought and built in 
the finest materials from the realms of Holland, Great 
Britain, France, Germany, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, 
by so strengthening our social structure also were master 
craftsmen. They who led almost as one man these various 
step-sons with the native of our State through the shambles 
of the south, and they who neither wrote our laws and consti- 
tutions, amalgamated our various stocks, nor led our hosts to 
battle, but placed the tracery of culture upon our social walls, 
also were masters, were leaders in their day. 

The life of none of our statesmen, nor soldiers, nor civic- 
leaders but should be noted by this State. No lesson nor ex- 
ample of which we are and those after us shall be the bene- 
ficiaries should be forgotten. 



IN COMMEMORATION OF RICHARD C. BARRETT 179 

It is to note these lives, these lessons ; to symbolize in bronze 
and marble, and thus in language read of all men for all time, 
upon the classic and imperishable walls of this memorial hall 
the workers in this institution are commanded by our State 
to bend all effort. 

One life and character that welled forth beyond the con- 
fines of the individual, that became discernibly a public 
benefaction, has been well and most beautifully delineated by 
other speakers here, and it is both a duty, and delight for 
me, in place of a member of our Board of Trustees, on be- 
half of the State to accept and to install this sculptured 
semblance in the name and to the honor of Richard C. Bar- 
rett. 

OPINIONS OF HON. SMITH McPHERSON, DISTRICT 

JUDGE, IN THE CASE OF THE UNITED STATES 

vs. DAVID S. MORRISON. 

By a. J. Small. 

[Prom the vast accumulation of materials of the late Hon. John 
F. Lacey of Oskaloosa, first a lawyer, but also a soldier, and a con- 
gressman, was selected almost at random a manuscript illustrative 
of the type of litigation in which Major Lacey reveled. The manu- 
script consists of two opinions in a case decided by Hon. Smith 
McPherson, Judge of the United States District Court, for the South- 
ern District of Iowa, one a holding upon a demurrer and the other 
upon the trial of facts wherein the jury was waived. — Editor.] 

OPINION. 

November 22, 1900, on an ex parte application, the court 
granted leave to the United States attorney to file an informa- 
tion against the defendant, accusing him of a violation of the 
laws prohibiting the giving of aid to the bringing of aliens to 
this country under contract. The information filed is in two 
counts. The first count, in substance charges that defendant, 
a resident of Grinnell, Iowa, did in June, 1900, aid in bring- 
ing from Prague, Austria, one Adolph Zuza, a cutter of ladies 
kid gloves, who was then a native, resident, and citizen of 
Prague, Austria, and then a subject of the emperor of Austria. 
Zuza was not a singer, lecturer, minister of the Gospel, actor, 
artist, professor of a college, and not a member of defendant's 
family or his secretary. He was a cutter of ladies' kid gloves. 



180 ANNALS OF IOWA 

and had no other occupation or profession, and did not, and 
was not to, sustain any other relation in this country, either 
to the defendant or any other person, than as such cutter for 
defendant. 

The information also charges that, while Zuza was still in 
Austria, he and defendant entered into an agreement by 
which Zuza was to perform labor in this country, and under 
which agreement he came to the United States with money 
furnished him by defendant for his transportation ; that the 
agreement preceded furnishing the aid, and- preceded Zuza's 
coming to America pursuant to the agreement; that Zuza 
did come from Austria to the United States under said agree- 
ment, and after having received the aid in transportation 
from defendant, to perform in the United States the services 
and labor of cutting ladies' kid gloves. 

And the information then charges : 

"And the said Adolph Zuza was not * * * then and 
there a skilled workman under any contract and agreement 
to perform labor and services in the United States in or upon 
any industry not then established in the United States, and 
not established in the United States February 26, A. D. 
1885." 

The second count of the information is in the same lan- 
guage as the first, excepting as to the name of the other per- 
son of Austria to whom aid was furnished, and who came to 
the United States. The information was duly verified by the 
United States attorney. A warrant for defendant's arrest was 
issued, and he has demurred to the information. There is no 
claim but that the information is in due form, and that it has 
all allegations and recitals necessary to constitute a crime, 
if a person who is a ladies' kid glove cutter is such a person 
as is prohibited from being brought to this country under 
agreement and with aid furnished him to enable him to come. 

The grounds of the demurrer are that a ladies' kid glove 
cutter is an expert mechanic ; that he is not a person engaged 
in common or ordinary manual labor; that the business re- 
quires skill; that February 26, 1885, the business of making 
ladies' kid gloves was not an established industry in the 
United States; that the trade of a ladies' kid glove cutter 



OPINIONS OF HON. SMITH McPHERSON 181 

requires skill and intelligence, and is an art or profession 
known to but very few persons in the world. On demurrer 
the court will consider only such matters as are alleged and 
of which judicial notice is taken. 

The acts of congress under which the information has been 
filed are highly penal, and as a criminal statute, are to be 
strictly construed. In this country no person is ever sub- 
jected to fine or imprisonment because of the common law, 
but only when there is a plain statute clearly condemning the 
acts complained of as being a crime. 

It is conceded by counsel for both the Government and the 
defendant that this Government has the power to regulate or 
prohibit immigi^ation of foreigners. Generally the policy has 
been to encourage it. This went on for many years, until 
quite a per cent of our best citizens were people of foreign 
birth. But selfish men took advantage of the opportunities 
offered to laboring men, and it is said that as far back as 
1859 alien iron moulders were brought over to take the place 
of workmen then on strike in Troy, in the state of New York. 
After the Civil War the Pacific Coast states were overrun 
by the Chinese, until the traffic in coolies became a scandal, 
and almost or quite destroyed the opportunities of our own 
people on the Pacific Coast for getting work at remunerative 
prices. 

The evil so grew that it became necessary for Congress to 
enact the most stringent legislation against Chinese immigra- 
tion; and Congress did enact such legislation against the 
Chinese, partly because that people would not assimilate with 
our people, partly because they only intended to remain in 
America a short time, partly because of their immoralities, 
but largely because from their methods of living they could 
underbid American workmen. The Pacific Coast condition 
after a short time became largely the condition of Eastern 
states, and particularly in those states having coal and large 
manufacturihg interests and lumber interests. 

The records show that about the year 1883 bills were intro- 
duced in large number in both the Senate and the House to 
correct the evil. In December, 1883, for the first time, the 



182 ANNALS OF IOWA 

House of Representatives provided for a committee of labor 
to which all bills upon the subject were referred. 

The question of immigration of laborers became one of 
great public concern. Political parties took up the question, 
and it became one of general public discussion. The labor 
committee of the House and the appropriate committee of 
the Senate, took much evidence and made elaborate reports 
strongly urging legislation. 

From these matters, which are now general history, as well 
as that which is in the recollection of all, it is known several 
evils existed, which Congress undertook to correct ; and exist- 
ing evils are always considered as having great and convinc- 
ing force in the construction of a statute. 

The labor organizations of the country appealed to the 
political parties and to legislatures and to Congress for help, 
by way of correction of the evils. They furnished the proof, 
if proofs were needed, that when a strike in this country 
occurred, or one was threatened or impending, or when labor 
was in great demand, the large concerns, with much capital 
behind them, sent agents to Europe, and sometimes to Asia, 
for laborers to take the place of workmen. They were brought 
over under contract. Many of them lived while here, but little, 
if any, better than animals. They lived together in large 
numbers in small rooms. Many lived together regardless of 
sex, and often regardless of the marriage relation. They lived 
on nearly nothing, and that nearly nothing was often food 
of the most disgusting kind ; and so living, they only asked 
and only received wages on which an American could not live. 
They gave their children no education. They never intended 
to make this country their home, and yet tens of thousands 
of them went through the form of being naturalized. They 
debased and prostituted the right of suffrage. 

All these things appear in most graphic language in the re- 
ports of committees to Congress, — one by Senator Blair to the 
Senate, June 28, 1884, and one by Mr. Faron, of Ohio, to the 
House, February 23, 1884. On these reports the act of Feb- 
ruary 26, 1885, Avas enacted by Congress, supplemented later 
by other laws. Under these statutes the defendant is now 
prosecuted. 



OPINIONS OF HON. SMITH McPHERSON 183 

But immigration was not prohibited. Immigration under 
contract was not prohibited. But certain kinds of immigra- 
tion were prohibited, and immigration of certain kinds under 
contract was prohibited. And the question is whether the 
immigration of the two ladies' kid glove cutters who were 
brought over under contract with defendant are prohibited. 
Before discussing this question, as the question of the case, 
I think another matter one of importance. 

It is a matter of general knowledge that, during all the 
times the foregoing matters were under discussion before the 
country and before congress, a question which was ever be- 
ing asked was, why enact protective tariff laws, to protect 
American laborers against the paupers of foreign countries, 
and yet allow the pauper laborers of foreign countries to be 
brought here to labor? The difference was that, with the for- 
eign pauper here, the little he ate and the little he wore was 
furnished him by our own producers and manufacturers; but 
the fact remained that in either case the foreign pauper was 
in direct competition with the American laborer. But there 
was this other difference : Generally the pauper laborer who 
remained was a skilled workman, while the one who came or 
was brought to this country under contract was unskilled. 
Generally he was the common, cheap, ignorant, and unskilled 
workman. 

But the truth is that the protective tariff laws and the 
laws against importing an alien laborer are upon the same 
subject and have the same purpose in view, which is that of 
protecting the laboring man of our country from the competi- 
tion of the laboring man of foreign lands. And the subject 
of "kid gloves," as it is found in the schedules of the last 
four tariff laws of the United States, will show the ever- 
increasing concern of congress to not simply raise a revenue, 
but to bring about the manufacture of such gloves in this 
country. 

The practical effect of all this, and especially the result of 
the tariff act of 1897, is of great interest. But so far as this 
ease is concerned, the difficulty is, not to get information, but 
to get information of which a court will take judicial notice, 
I have much information from merchants and those manufac- 



184 ANNALS OF IOWA 

turing other gloves. I have read much from the Glovers' 
Journal. I have correspondence with men who claim to have, 
and no doubt do have, knowledge of the subject. But, on de- 
murrer to specific allegations of fact to the contrary in the 
information, can I, and am I allowed to, use such facts, and 
on such facts thus acquired, determine the demurrer? Am I 
not confined to the record, supplemented only by such facts 
as courts can judicially notice? And can a court judicially 
notice those things not in the laws, nor in the official rec- 
ords, nor facts of history and generally known ? 

I have made the most diligent and tireless search in the 
reports of the departments for data and facts germane to 
the imports of ladies' kid gloves, and the manufacture thereof 
in this country, and received practically no information. It 
is plain to me that the tariff laws, and especially the one now 
in force, had for one of its objects either the creation of the 
industry, if not already established, or its maintenance, if 
already established. And this, perhaps, is the one question 
in this case: Is the manufacture of ladies' kid gloves an 
established business in the United States? If established, 
when was it established? 

I cannot resort to evidence in passing upon a demurrer, 
and yet information in the nature of evidence is all I have. 
I know, and perhaps it is of general knowledge, that there are 
some ladies' kid gloves manufactured in this country. But it 
is claimed that such gloves have not been so manufactured 
until since the passage of the tariff act of 1897, and then not 
to the extent of making it an established industry. But as 
yet they are manufactured in limited quantities, and in but 
three or four places in the United States, and possibly at 
but the one place west of the Mississippi river, and that at 
Grinnell, Iowa, by defendant. 

The exact facts as to these matters I do not know. But if 
the foregoing is substantially a correct statement of the facts. 
then I take it no one would claim that defendant is guilty 
of the crime charged, because the statute provides: 

"Nor shall this act be so construed as to prevent anj- 
person or persons, partnership, or corporation from engag- 
ing under contract or agreement, skilled workmen in for- 



OPINIONS OF HON. SMITH McPHERSON 185 

eign countries to perform labor in the United States in or 
upon any new industiy not at present established in the 
United States". 

It will be kept in mind that this statute was approved 
February 26, 1885. It will be kept in mind also, that the 
statute recites "not at present established". Do the words 
"at present established" mean the date the act was ap- 
proved by the President, or the date of the acts complained 
of in the accusation against defendant? Counsel have not 
argued this point, and I am not prepared to decide it. The 
United States Attorney, in preparing the information, 
charges it both ways. He says that both February 26, 1885, 
and in 1900, when defendant did the things complained of, 
the manufacture of ladies' kid gloves was established in 
the United States. 

Such is his information, or that of the otficer directing 
him to present the charge. But such is neither my informa- 
tion nor belief. But he makes it an allegation of fact, and 
most specifically charges it as truth, and they are facts con- 
cerning which the court cannot take judicial notice. Evi- 
dence to sustain the allegations of the United States attorney 
must be furnished, and a jury will determine the facts. 
But, as the case will be tried, it will be as well to present 
the rulings of the courts, and of the Departments. 

The case of Holy Trinity Church vs. United States, 143 
U. S. 457, was one arising under the statute invoked in the 
case at bar. The person brought to this country under con- 
tract was a minister of the gospel. The statute as it then 
stood did not except a minister. But Justice Brewer, in 
speaking for the entire court, urges two propositions worthy 
of being kept in mind, not only because it is the duty of 
this court to observe the holdings of that court, but because 
his arguments are so pertinent to the case now under con- 
sideration. Among other things he says : 

"Another guide to the meaning of a statute is found in 
the evil which it is designed to remedy; and for this the 
court properly looks at contemporaneous events, — the situ- 
ation as it existed, and as it was pressed upon the atten- 
tion of the legislative body". 



186 ANNALS OF IOWA 

He then quotes with approval the opinion of Justice 
Brown when, as district judge, he decided the case of the 
U^iited States vs. Craig, 28 Federal Reporter 795, who pre- 
sented the historical facts preceding and attending the pass- 
age of this statute, and he sets out much of the House re- 
port which clearly shows the evil struck at and the only- 
evil ; and this report so often referred to, in my judgment 
contains the key to the meaning of the statute, wherein it 
recites : 

"It (the bill) seeks to restrain and prohibit the immigra- 
tion or importation of laborers who would have never seen 
our shores but for the inducements and allurements of men 
wJiose only . object' is to obtain labor at the lowest possible 
rate, regardless of the evil consequences," etc. 

I have underscored certain words. Another thing Justice 
Brewer presses in his opinion is that statutes should be so 
construed as not by intendment to hold one guilty of a 
crime, but give the statute, not a literal, but a sensible, con- 
struction, and such a construction as will reach the evils com- 
plained of when the statute was enacted. 

In case of United States vs. Laivs, 163 U. S. 258, the per- 
son brought over under contract was a chemist for a sugar 
plantation. A sugar plantation was certainly an old, estab- 
lished industry, and chemists in this country are numbered 
by the thousands ; and the supreme court held that the stat- 
ute had not been violated. Justice Peckham, in writing the 
opinion, among other things, said: 

"The fact that the individual in question by his contract 
had agreed to sell his time, labor and skill to one employer 
and in one prescribed branch of science does not in the 
least militate against his being a professional chemist, nor 
does it operate as a bar to the claim that while so employed 
he is nevertheless practicing a recognized profession. It 
is not necessary that he should offer his services to the 
public at large, nor that he should hold himself ready to 
apply his scientific knowledge and skill to the business of 
all persons who applied for them, before he would be en- 
titled to claim that he belonged to and was actually prac- 
ticing a recognized profession. As well might it be said 



OPINIONS OF HON. SMITH McPHERSON 187 

that the lawyer who enters into the service of a corporation 
and limits his practice to cases in which the corporation is 
interested thereby ceases to belong to the profession. The 
chemist may confine his services to one employer so long as 
the services which he performs are of a professional nature. 
It is not the fact that the chemist keeps his services open 
for employment by the public generally which is the cri- 
terion by which to determine whether or not he still be- 
longs to or is practicing a recognized profession. So long 
as he is engaged in the practical application of his knowl- 
edge of the science, as a vocation, it is not important whether 
he holds himself out as ready to make that application in 
behalf of all persons who desire it, or that he contracts to 
do it for some particular employer and at some named place. 
We have no doubt that the individual named comes within 
one of the exceptions named in the statute". 

This question was elaborately discussed by the circuit 
court of appeals, for the Sixth circuit in the case of United 
States vs. Gay, 95 Federal Reporter 226. In that case the 
person brought over was ' ' a draper, window dresser and dry 
goods clerk," who was to receive about $2.00 per day for 
his work. In that case the holding was that the statute only 
prohibited the bringing of cheap, common and unskilled 
laborers. I do not so believe. Glass blowers, iron moulders, 
locomotive engineers, telegraphers, and men of many other 
vocations are neither cheap, common, nor unskilled; but 
they have been so long recognized as workmen in established 
industries, and are in America numbered by the hundreds 
of thousands, that I believe it would be an unlawful act to 
bring a man of such a vocation to this country under eon- 
tract. Just what is required of a window dresser I do not 
know, and I neither approve or disapprove of what the 
court actually decided. But I do not agree with much 
of the argument of the opinion. 

The statute in question is enforced under general regu- 
lations of the Secretary of the Treasury. November 26, 
1900, the commissioner general of immigration, Hon. T. V. 
Powderly, filed an opinion touching the right to land in 
this country of certain lace makers. The fact need only 



188 ANNALS OF IOWA 

pbe stated tLa!, as the reports show, Mr. Powderly perhaps 
had more to do with bringing about this legislation than 
any other man or number of men. For years he has been 
aggressive, earnest and tireless in seeking protection to 
American laborers; but he held that lace making was a new 
industry in this country, and yet I suspect that lace has 
been made by ladies from since the time the needle and 
thread were first used. 

But that did not seem to be the test with Mr. Powderly, 
and without doubt he was right. It is fair to say that the 
opinion was in part because of the fact that thread was im- 
ported with which to make the lace, and the persons were 
also thread makers. But his opinion was not alone grounded 
upon that fact. This opinion was approved by Secretary 
Gage. 

Such, briefly stated, have been the holdings of the courts 
and of the departments having the matter in charge. But 
the United States attorney charges in the information, and 
charges it most specifically, that Febiiiary 26, 1885, as well 
as in the year 1890, the manufacture of ladies' kid gloves 
was an established industry in the United States. This 
allegation calls for proof, and the Government must furnish 
it. And it follows that the demurrer must be overruled be- 
cause of the allegations in the information. I have a belief 
touching them; but it may be that the Government will 
furnish evidence, of which I know nothing. At all events 
I cannot judicially notice the facts, and the material facts 
lire practically all in dispute. 

What are the duties of a ladies' kid glove cutter? Is it 
skilled labor? Can it readily be procured in this country? 
Is it an occupation, or profession? Is it an established 
business in this country? If so, when was it established? 

Some of these questions, possibly all, are involved. So I 
will submit the case to a jury to find the facts. We will 
then know the services of a ladies' kid glove cutter. 

We will then know whether he is a common, unskilled and 
cheap laborer. We will then know whether he must sort, 
and prepare the skins, from which the gloves are made. 
We will learn whether ladies' kid glove cutters can be ob- 



OPINIONS OF HON. SMITH McPHERSON 189 

tainecl in this country. We will learn whether any one 
working at glove making can cut ladies' kid gloves, and 
whether it is done only from a pattern furnished. We will 
learn how extensively ladies' kid gloves were manufactured 
in the United States February 26, 1885, and how exten- 
sively they were manufactured in 1900. We will learn when, 
if at all, the manufacture of ladies' kid gloves became an 
established industry in this country. All this is for the 
Government to show. We will ascertain whether it is true 
that there are but few such cutters in the United States, and 
possibly but the one, or but few at most, of such manufac- 
tories west of the Mississippi river, and but few in the 
country. 

And it is claimed by defendant's counsel that for every 
cutter a number of persons residents in this country are 
employed to make the gloves, and if the cutters are deported, 
that such makers are thrown out of employment. We will 
learn as to the truth of this, and the statute will be con- 
strued so as to give aid to American laborers, and not such 
construction as to throw them out of employment. 

The Government having alleged to the contrary, as against 
all of defendant's claims, and they being matters of which 
the court cannot take judicial notice, issues of fact are 
raised, and the Government will be required to furnish the 
evidence to sustain its allegations ; and on the evidence for 
and against the law can be applied without difficulty. 

Des Moines, Iowa, May 14, 1901. 

OPINION, 

This case has been tried to the court, the defendant hav- 
ing filed a writing signed by him waiving a jury. 

On demurrer to the information, I filed a written opin- 
ion, which is published in the Federal Reporter in Vol. 109, 
page 891. 

I adhere to the views then expressed. I conclude that 
defendant should be discharged for three reasons : 

1. The two Austrians named in the information, are 
ladies' fine kid glove cutters. They borrowed the money 
from a gentleman then in Austria, and who had been there 



190 ANNALS OF IOWA 

for quite a time. That man was the agent of defendant 
Morrison, in purchasing kid skins and shipping them to Mr. 
Morrison. But there is no evidence that he was the agent 
of Mr. Morrison, in procuring kid glove cutters. The two 
glove cutters came to Chicago, where one had a sister living. 
After remaining there about a week, one of them made ar- 
rangements by telegram for both to go to Grinnell, Iowa, 
where defendant resides and work for him. Defendant ad- 
vanced the railroad fares from Chicago to Grinnell. That 
was refunded by retaining it from their wages. No other 
contract than that appears from the evidence. And no 
other money was taken from their wages , And neither the 
United States attorney nor the inspector claims that to be 
in violation of law. Some admission was made by defend- 
ant to the inspector, but' by inference only can that be con- 
strued into a confession of guilt. And if it could, it only 
need be stated, that a confession never establishes guilt. 
The crime must be established by other evidence. "When the 
crime is established by independent evidence, then the con- 
fession would be comipetent and sufficient to connect defend- 
ant therewith. But in this case the crime is not established. 

Both of the Austrians were present and testified on behalf 
of the Government. Each of them denied that he came to 
this country under contract. So under any view of the laAV, 
and under any view of what the evidence shows, as to the 
art or science of making ladies' fine kid gloves, the guilt of 
defendant does not appear. 

2. Much of the evidence, and the arguments of counsel 
were directed by the way ladies' kid gloves are made and by 
the kind of persons making them, and to the extent the in- 
dustry is now, and was heretofore established. A fair esti- 
mate is, that more than ninety per cent of all ladies' and 
gentlemen's kid gloves made in the United States are made 
in and around two towns in North Eastern New York state, 
named Johnstown and Gloversville, and I am not certain 
but that the per cent is more nearly ninety-nine per cent. 
And the increase of the manufacture at those two towns has 
been very marked since the enactment of the present tariff 
law by Congress called the "Dingley Law". But even now,. 



OPINIONS OF HON. SMITH McPHERSON 191 

from the best estimates of the witnesses, and the informa- 
tion obtained from the records and reports of the Treasury 
Department, shows that less than twenty per cent of such 
gloves worn in this country are made in the United States. 
More than eighty per cent are imported, and are the fruits 
of European labor. And on such a statement, which from 
the evidence cannot be doubted, how can it be said, that 
the manufacture of fine kid gloves is now, or was, when 
these two Austrians came over in June, 1900, an established 
industry? Perhaps the best informed witness who testified 
upon the subject was the secretary of the organization of 
glove makers. For several years he has been in Johnstown 
and Gloversville. He impressed me as being candid. He 
has had much to do with bringing about this prosecution. 
But he could only locate a very few, and very small estab- 
lishments outside of the two New York towns above named. 
And the few he mentioned are insignificant because of the 
small volume of work done. It is a very narrow view to 
take, because kid gloves are made in two small towns in 
New York, that thereby the business is an established in- 
dustry in this country. I know of no reason for holding that 
two small towns in one state shall be allowed to dominate 
the business, and by closely bound organizations, freeze out 
all similar industries in all other parts of the country. It is 
not for the interest of the manufacturers of those two small 
towns to have a monopoly of the business, particularly as 
they can supply but a small part of the demand. It is not 
for the interest of the glove cutters of the country to supply 
such a small part of the demand. And it is not in harmony 
with the laws of Congress which were enacted for all of the 
United States, and not for one county in the state of New 
York. A glove cutter is a skilled workman. Any one can 
soon learn to do the cutting. But he must be skilled in pre- 
paring the skins. In this case the Government undertook to 
show that this can be done by machinery. In part it is so 
done. But when so done, the skin is fired, or burned, and 
thereby weakened, and the glove made much inferior, and. 
the purchaser thereby imposed upon. 



192 ANNALS OF IOWA 

It can serve no purpose to discuss the matter further. And 
especially so, in view of the fact that this is a criminal case. 
And all penal statutes must be strictly construed as against 
the Government, and liberally construed on behalf of one 
charged with crime. 

3. On authority, the defendant should be acquitted. The 
statutes governing this case are to prevent the importation 
of foreign laborers under contract. The statutes are for 
two purposes. The one purpose is in the interest of good 
morals by keeping out the ignorant and the criminal and 
vicious. It is not pretended that the two Austrians are to 
be so classed. 

The other purpose is in the interest, and on behalf of la- 
boring people in this country. Every kid glove cutter 
thrown out of employment brings about the discharge of 
from five to eight glove makers. Every additional kid glove 
cutter that can be obtained, gives employment of from five 
to eight other people. And yet I have been pressed by evi- 
dence to hold that it is in the interest of labor to declare 
that just as few as possible of glove makers shall find em- 
ployment, and that all such people shall go into other ave- 
nues and compete with other laborers, and allow the impor- 
tations of kid gloves to go on. 

The Supreme Court has held in the case of United States 
vs. Laws, 163 U. S. 258, that a chemist for a sugar plantation, 
could be brought to this country from Europe, under con- 
tract, and there be no violation of law. In 95 Federal Re- 
porter 226, in case of United States vs. Gay, the circuit court 
of appeals, for the Sixth circuit, held it to be no violation 
of law to bring over under contract "draper, window 
dresser, and dry goods clerk". 

As late as November 26, 1900, Hon. T. V. Powderly, Uni- 
ted States commissioner of immigration, held it not to be in 
violation of law to bring over under contract "a thread and 
lace maker". 

And in that decision, Mr. Powderly, was sustained by the 
Secretary of the Treasury. These three decisions are per- 
suasive and have much weight with me. In principle I think 
they are in point. 



OPINIONS OF HON. SMITH McPHERSON 193 

If a ''lace and thread maker"; or "a window dresser and 
draper"; or "a chemist for a sugar plantation", can be 
brought from Europe under contract, but not violate the 
immigration laws, then surely one who prepares and selects 
and dowels a kid skin for fine kid gloves can be brought 
over, and such act be neither against good morals, nor good 
government, nor against the industry of making ladies' fine 
kid gloves. 

For every of the three reasons, the defendant will be dis- 
charged. 

Letter From S. C. Hastings.. 

Dear Brother: Sacramento City, September 21, 1849. 

I am now fixed at the city having lately returned from the 
south. I visited all those parts of the country which I think 
worthy of attention. Every thing M'hich has been written of 
this country seems to be mainly correct, except the reputa- 
tion of its agricultural resources. For agriculture alone, I 
would not exchange the county of Linn, Iowa, for all Cali- 
fornia. 

I am now getting into a good practice, I believe. I have 
opened a Deposit office and have received within three days 
.«20,000 in deposits. 

My health has been in the main good; altho' (strange, too) 
I had the chills and fevers in my travels south which I trav- 
eled. I now Aveigh more than I have for 20 years. Mr. Olds 
arrived here about 15 days ago, in excellent health, so fleshy 
you would not recognize him. He left his team and packed 
from near the Sink of Mary's river. Jeray is following with 
the teams. Great distress is reported back, but we have sent 
them relief. Stuart, Pratt, Buker, Daniels, &c., I understand, 
went by Salt Lake, and will probably pack through this fall, 
or in the spring. McCormick and Smith are said to be in the 
upper mines. Our Iowa folks are coming in well so far as I 
can learn. Richman has not yet got in, but will be out of 
danger; for if his cattle give out, he will be met by a train 
of pack mules. The families will receive the first attention 
from the relief trains. I brought up from Monterey 70 mules 
with some Government officers and men who go to the relief 
of the emigrants. 

* * * I received $75, yesterday for one case, and $16, 
today from our friend Sawyer Jenner, as a retainer in a suit 
before the Alcalde, which is settled. I have .iust loaned 
$1000 for ien per cent for one month. * * * * 

Yours, truly, S. C. Hastings. 
Andrew, Western Democrat, Sept. 28, 1849. 
13 



194 ANNALS OP IOWA 



THE WRITINGS OF JUDGE GEORGE G. WRIGHT. 

VI. 

SHEPHERD LEFFLER. 

Virginian. I knew him at school at Indiana State Univer- 
sity. He was very prominent in early Iowa polities. Lived 
near Burlington in Des Moines county. Belonged to a family 
of great influence. Democrat, — his brother Isaac a Whig. Was 
U. S. Marshal in 1841-5. Other brothers and relatives stood 
remarkably well as farmers and business men in earlier Iowa. 
Shepherd was elected on the Democratic ticket at large with 
S. C. Hastings to Congress in 1846, — three competitors — Jo- 
seph H. Hedrick of Wapello county and G. C. R. Mitchell 
of Scott. He was president of the First Constitutional Con- 
vention. He was a terse talker — no surplusage — quick — a 
born politician — admirable presiding officer — had a desirable 
home near Burlington — was a lawyer, I believe, but never 
practiced — made a fairly popular canvass — not especially 
profound on political views and yet not a parasite of 
his party. How true this, when the record shows that 
he was a member of the House, Second [and Third] 
Territorial Legislature; of the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth. 
Seventh and Eighth Territorial Council, and having presided 
over the First Constitutional Convention, he was a member of 
the Second, — elected each time from Des Moines county — 
and then in Congress, 1846. With more energy — had life 
been spared he would have had still further honors if in the 
power of his party to confer them. He was one of the men to 
whom the State may well refer with pride and pleasure. 

S. C. Hastings. 

His colleague above referred to (S. C. Hastings) was very 
prominent. Legislator, presiding officer, member of congress 
— Chief Justice of our Supreme Court — Chief Justice in Cal- 



WRITINGS OF JUDGE GEORGE G. WRIGHT 195 

ifornia — a leading capitalist there — a money maker^ — owner 
of large ranches — few men were more actively connected witli 
either Iowa or California politics and affairs. His home was 
at Muscatine (first called Bloomington). Among his towns- 
men were Judge Joseph Williams, Stephen Whicher, Ralpli 
P. Lowe, W. G. Woodward, Jacob Butler, Scott Richman, 
Henry O'Connor, D. C. Cloud, John G. Deshler and others. 

He was of the shrewd men of the world. His motto was to 
"win." Tall, straight as an arrow — dark complexion — fine 
looking — adroit and plausible in all his movements — a manner 
that captivated and led others to do and think as he did — he 
was a formidable antagonist whether at the bar, in legislative 
halls or at the huskings. He succeeded not so much by his 
strength of statement or argument as by personal influence 
or giddress or quiet private appeals of which he was perfect 
master. His habits were such in those early days that he 
was a leader of men, especially of young men, and few suc- 
ceeded better in accomplishing their ends. There were many 
greater men, and yet by his diplomacy, frank assertiveness 
and fine presence, he had success beyond many of his fellows. 

Joseph Williams. 

His long-time colleague, Joseph Williams, was among the 
unique characters of this early age. 

He was from Pennsylvania — a Methodist — a Democrat — the 
best teller of stories I ever knew — could play the fiddle, or, 
as far as I know, any instrument — could sing any song, 
whether in English, Dutch, Irish or Indian — lead a prayer 
or class meeting — talk as few others to a Sunday school or 
Bible society — and among the most interesting temperance 
talkers I ever heard. In the midst of hearing arguments he 
would write poetry. I remember that one afternoon in Ot- 
tumwa — he, chief justice — when the court was held in dis- 
tricts — he was apparently listening and taking notes of all 
arguments — that night made a temperance speech in the old 
court house, opening it with singing a song composed while 
listening — to the tune of "Lucy Neal" — the title "Little 
Billy Neal," and with which he captured the audience at 



196 ANNALS OF IOWA 

once and held entranced for an hour. The Judge was near- 
sighted — wore glasses — ^was of medium size — sinewy and well- 
calculated for pioneer life. His influence was always on the 
side of temperance, good morals, obedience to the law, good 
government, the church and the school. His manners were 
genial — his hold upon the people such that whether talking 
to a jury or to a mixed audience (and many were the evenings 
that he thus talked on temperance or to Bible societies or of 
agriculture in Iowa) — he was always aiding in giving us 
better society, better citizens and in the upbuilding of the 
State. 

I never thought him a great student or lawyer, and yet 
his opinions (he did not write many) compare very favorably 
with those of his associates and compeers. For one of his 
organization — so ready to drop the pen and engage in some- 
thing else, and especially in a social way — he had strangely 
enough the fault of prolixity in his opinions and especially 
unusual detail in his statement of a case. This may have 
grown out of early associations and the habit of following 
old-time judges in the other states. But he was very system- 
atic in his statements. The young men of the bar all liked 
him. He never knowingly offended the tyro at the bar any 
more than the nestors. Though fairly dignified, he never let 
an occasion pass for a good joke whether in court, consulta- 
tion, social circle or elsewhere. Had wonderful powers as a 
mimic and few his equals as a ventriloquist. He was at home 
in the most polite circles and could command respect and 
attention in the hardest and most boisterous crowd. 

I have said he could play the violin. So could Jerry Church 
who lived in his cabin below Des Moines. They had lived 
and played together in Pennsylvania — had not met for twenty- 
five years. Williams came here to hold his fall term. Learn- 
ing before reaching "The Forks" where Jerry's cabin was, 
and directed to him, [he went] by path to it. Jerry did 
not know him. He talked to him of lands and land 
buying until they got to the cabin. Getting off, and 
still unknown, he observed Jerry's violin — asked to look 
at it — handled it — tuned the strings — Jerry watched him, 
and presently Williams struck up "Arkansas Traveler" — 



WRITINGS OF JUDGE GEORGE G. WRIGHT 197 

Jerry walked around, looked at him, and finally exclaimed, 
"Ain't your name Joseph Williams?" The Judge nodded 
his head, kept on playing, and Jerry said: "I kneM' 
it, by thunder, for no man living or dead, plays that tune that 
way but Joseph Williams and myself." And thus their ac- 
quaintance was renewed. 

We had spent an evening over an elegant lunch of quail, 
venison, etc., and after that in the rooms of the Des Moines 
Improvement Company (Johnson, General Clarke and others 
representing the Company) in the Clinton. Williams told 
stories and sang songs. He was stopping at the Parke, three 
or four squares away. This was in 1857, I think. Ed. John- 
stone, Coolbaugh, Grimes, Gillaspy, Neal, Woodward, Stock- 
ton, Lyman Cook and others present. We left Williams there. 
Very cold and ice eveiywhere. The next day it was told that 
Williams at twelve o'clock proposed to leave, when General 
Clarke, a most polite and courteous gentleman, insisted that 
he should remain all night. Williams gave reasons why he 
should return to the Parke. Clarke [said:] '"If you go, I go 
with you, for I cannot permit one who has contributed so 
much to our amusement to return alone,'' and against the 
Judge's protest, go he did, and they started to walk arm in 
arm. Arrived at the Parke, the Judge says : ' ' What is this I 
see, — a gentleman whose hospitality I have enjoyed about to 
brave the inclement night alone ? Never, and you will allow 
me to return with you." And return he did, and when the 
Clinton was reached Clarke made a like speech, took the 
Judge's arm and escorted him back to the Parke. How often 
their politeness led to these trips I know not, but the tradi- 
tion is that they finally separated half way, each going to his 
lodgings alone. I can well believe this, for it is perfectly 
characteristic of both. 

In an early day at the old capital (Iowa City) there was 
an exquisite, long-mustached, lily-fingered pianist from the 
East — music teacher, Professor ! At every social gathering, 
the Professor, if there was a piano, was called out, and he 
handled the keys with eyes upraised, head thrown back — 
sang in the most dramatic manner, and threw his hands, 
arms and head with all the spirit and abandon of the quack. 



198 ANNALS OP IOWA 

whether in music or in anything else. One evening Judge 
Williams took the piano, — the Professor present — and so per- 
fectly did the Judge mimic him in tone, manner and touch 
that he refused to play, and soon after left the city for other 
worlds to humbug and conquer. 

[Judge Williams] had an old friend — of the best circles and 
habits, who fell into dissipation. Finding him one day by the 
wayside, outside the city in a drunken stupor in the gutter, he 
raised him up, worked with him, seated on a log until he was ' 
fairly restored. At once he commenced the work of leading hijyi 
to a better life. After some time, he said : "Judge, it is no use, 
there is not enough left of me to talk about, to trouble over 
or make a man of." Quick as thought, the Judge said: 
"John, there is! there is plenty, and by the grace of God 
you can be restored in all your former happiness to home, 
family, society and church." John said, "I will try," and 
promised he would come to the Judge's pew the next Sunday. 
Come he did, reform he did, and was soon and for years re- 
mained among the best and most influential of their citizens. 

And thus it was he was always doing good. I know he was 
laughed at and made fun of by many who called him a 
mountebank and wanting in dignity, men who did not imi- 
tate him in sobriety, work as he did for temperance and the 
church, — men who were jealous of his hold on the people, — 
I say I am not unmindful of these things, and yet hesitate 
not to say that while he had faults and perhaps quite too 
many, he nevertheless was useful beyond many of his com- 
peers, and was certainly helpful to the State far more than 
many of those critics and fault finders. 

It was my privilege to be present at his funeral, and the 
affection and esteem in which he was held at his home (Mus- 
catine, where buried) was most gratifyingly evidenced, in 
that high and low, rich and poor, black and white, were there 
by hundreds — almost by thousands — and the humblest were 
the most affected, lingered longest at his coffin and seemed to 
feel that their loss was personal and greatest. He was so 
generous in his nature — never accumulated much — he 
was always as kind and ready an adviser and helper 
to those ever so poor as to those in all circles — that 



WRITINGS OF JUDGE GEORGE G. WRIGHT 199 

all felt that they had lost the most valued friend. I give it 
as my opinion that few public men in Iowa — though he had 
his faults and weaknesses — ever made a better impress upon 
the moral and material interests — did more in laying those 
foundations which now afford such good ground for praise 
and commendation. 



IMass Meeting at Dunleith. 

Kev. Henry Clay Dean, 
Of Burlington, will address the people of Jo Daviess county, 
at Dunleith, on Monday Evening, November 1st. 

Mr. Dean is one of the most distinguished clergymen of 
the state of Iowa, as he is one of the soundest and most elo- 
([uent speakers in the West. He is a clergyman but never 
preaches politics in the pulpit. As old ministers of Revolu- 
tionary days, when the clouds of war gathered dark in their 
country, donned the armor of battle, seized the weapons of 
blood, and went into the fight with the Bible in one hand 
and the sword of the patriot in the other, so goes Mr. Dean 
into the political struggle, with the Constitution as the Bible 
•of his political faith, and reason as his weapon. With these 
he assails the sophistry and falsehoods of error, and demol- 
ishes the fabrics of bigotry and sectionalism. 

Let the Democracy of Dubuque — nay, let every man in 
Dubuque, who wishes to listen to Mr. Dean's stirring appeal, 
turn out on Monday next, and pay the good people of Dun- 
leith a friendly visit. 

Ample preparations will be made for the occasion by the 
Democracy of Dunleith. 

Remember, Monday evening, at Ti/o o'clock. 

Dubuque, Express and Herald, Oct. 28, 1858. 



Enlightened IMinnesota. 

The Legislature of Minnesota afford striking proof of their 
wisdom in passing a direct vote instructing the secretary- to 
subscribe for all the newspapers published in the Territory- 
and to cause the same to be bound and filed for future refer- 
ence. The legislature of every state should take the same 
course, and thus place in the archives of the state day by day 
a chronicle of passing events as selected from mirrors that 
show every hue of opinion. 

Fort Dcs Moines Star, November 23, 1849. 



200 ANNALS OF IOWA 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF IOWA. 

BY C. C. STILES. 

IV. 

Articles on this subject have heretofore been published in 
the Annals, treating of the archives of the offices of Gov- 
ernor, Secretary of State and Auditor of State.' In this 
article is presented similar information upon the office of 
Treasurer of State. 

This department of the <iovernment was established Jan- 
uary 24, 1839, and designated "Treasurer of the Territory." 
The office was appointive and the first incumbent was Thorn- 
ton Bayless, appointed by Governor Lucas. By the provi- 
sions of the Constitution of 1846 the department was con- 
tinued under the title of "Treasurer." This constitution 
made the office elective and at the next election Morgan 
Reno was elected. The Constitution of 1857 continued the 
department under the titular head of "Treasurer of State." 

The documents and records of the department mainly per- 
tain to the receipt and disbursement of the revenues of the 
State. But many of a different character result from legisla- 
tive changes in the duties of the office. This variety in the 
duties of the office appears in the classification of the docu- 
ments. 

There are also found in this department many historical 
documents not classed as public archives. These are mainly 
letters and documents of temporary commissions, not of statu- 
tory character, such as "Johnstown Flood" and "Russian 
Famine," where the Treasurer's office has been made the 
voluntary depository of gratuitous funds. 

One of the most important of the additional duties as- 
signed by law to this department is the collection of the col- 
lateral inheritance tax. Much material has accumulated in 
this division since its establishment in 1896. The office ol 



'Office of Governor, Vol. X, p. 166-103: Secretary of State, Vol. X, 
p. 273-319; Auditor of State, Vol. XII, p. 14-44. 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF IOWA 201 

State Treasurer retains all this under its control for the pres- 
ent, but there was obtained through the courtesy of Mr. 
Quincy C. Willis, Deputy Treasurer of State, who has been in 
direct charge of this division of the administrative work for 
a number of years, information necessary to enable an out- 
line to be made for its classification when transferred to the 
Historical Department. 

;lassification. 



OFFICE OF TREASURER OF STATE 






MAIN DIVISIONS. 


Series 


I 


Bids. 


Series 


II 


Bonds. 


Series 


III 


Certificates. 


Series 


IV 


Collateral laheritance Tax. 


Series 


V 


Contracts, Agreements, etc. 


Series 


VI 


Correspondence. 


Series 


VII 


Notices. 


Series 


VIII 


Orders. 


Series 


IX 


Reports. 


Series 


X 


Vouchers. 


Series 


XI 


Miscellaneous. 



SERIES I. BIDS. 

Documents. 

State Warrants, Purchase of 



SERIES II. BONDS. 

Documents. 

Administrators 
Official 



SERIES III. CEHTIFICATES 

Documents. 

Bonds 

Deposit 

Election 

Indebtedness 

Purchase 

School fund, Interest on 

Swamp land indemnity 

Miscellaneous 



202 ANNALS OF IOWA 

SERIES IV. COLLATERAL INHERITANCE TAX. 

Bound Records. 

Estates reported, By counties 
Register of estates 
Register of receipts 

Documents. 

(All documents are filed in the following order under each 
estate. The estates are arranged in chronological and alpha- 
betical order.) 

Appraisement 

Notices 

Release from appraisement 

Reports 

Miscellaneous 



SERIES V. CONTRACTS, AGREEMENTS, ETC. 

Documents. 

Miscellaneous 



SERIES VI. CORRESPONDENCE, 

Bound Records. 

Letter books 

Collateral inheritance tax 

County attorneys 

General 

State institutions 

Letters. 

Agricultural College loans 
Checks and drafts 
County officers 

County attorney 



Lands 



County superintendent 

Des Moines river 

General , 

Iowa State College of Agriculture and Me- 
chanic Arts I 
Railroad j 

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 

Des Moines & Fort Dodge 

Des Moines Valley 

Iowa Falls & Sioux City 

Miscellaneous 



I 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OP IOWA 20c 

Lands — Continued. 
Saline 
School 
Swamp 
University 

Revenue • 

Counties 
Miscellaneous 

School fund 
State institutions 

College for the Blind 
Industrial Home for the Blind 
Industrial Schools 

Boys, at Eldora 

Girls, at Mitchellville 
Institution for Feeble-minded Children 
Iowa Soldiers' Home 
Iowa Soldiers' Orphans' Home 
Iowa State Teachers' College 
Penitentiaries 

Anamosa 

Ft. Madison 
School for the Deaf 
State Hospital for Inebriates 
State Hospitals for Insane 

Cherokee 

Clarinda 

Independence 

Mt. Pleasant 
State Sanatorium for Tuberculosis 
State University 

State Offices, Boards, etc,. 

Adjutant General 

Attorney General 

Auditor of State 

Control, Board of 

Custodian of Public Buildings 

Dental Examiners, Board of 

Executive Council 

Fish and Game Wardens 

Food and Dairy Commission 

Geological Survey 

Governor 

Historical Department 

Iowa State Library 

Labor Statistics, Bureau of 



204 ANNALS OF IOWA 

State Officers, Boards, etc. — 'Continued. 
Library Commission 
Medical Examiners, Board of 
Pharmacy, Commission of 
Railroad Commissioners 
Secretary of State 
State Mine Inspectors 
State Oil Inspectors 
State Printer 
Treasurer of State 

Taxes 

Collateral inheritance 

Davenport and Dubuque Street Railway 

Company 
Express 

Continental 

Pacific 

United States 
Insurance 
Lands 
Railroads 

Companies 

Counties, to aid in building 

United States 
Refining companies 
Refrigerator transit companies 
Telegraph 
Telephone 
Warrants 
Miscellaneous 

Warrants 
Miscellaneous 

Banks 

Bids and contracts 

Bonds 

Centennial Exposition 

Claims 

Dictionary fund 

Grey uniforms 

Johnstown flood 

Laws 

Licenses 

Itinerant peddlers 

Peddlers 

Miscellaneous 
Notices 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF IOWA 20.') 

Miscellaneous — Continued . 
Refunds 

Columbian Commission 

Legislative 

Miscellaneous 
Reports 

Russian Famine 
Vouchers 
Unclassified 



SERIES VII. NOTICES. 

Documents. 

Appointments 

Fines collected 

Interest due on Agricultural College loans 

Investments 

Protests 

Banks 

Insurance companies 

Postal telegraph 

Warrants 
Publication 
Revocation 
Suspension 
Miscellaneous 



SERIES VIII. ORDERS. 

Documents. 

Auditor of State 

Transfers 
Board of Control 

Transfer, credit, etc., of the funds of State 
institutions. 



SERIES IX. REPORTS. 

Bound Records. 

Auditor 

Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts 

Miscellaneous 

Documents. 

Commissions, Commissioners, etc. 

Iowa Trans-Mississippi and International Ex- 
position 



206 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Commissions, Commissioners, etc. — Continued. 
Public Buildings 
School Fund Commission 

County Officers 

County Superintendent of Schools 

Fees 
County Treasurers 

Revenue 

State Institutions 

College for the Blind 
Industrial Home tor the Blind 
Industrial (or reform) Schools 

Boys, at Eldora 

Girls, at Mitchellville 
Institution for Feeble-minded Children 
Iowa Soldiers' Home 
Iowa Soldiers' Orphans' Home 
Iowa State Agricultural College, etc. 
Penitentiaries 

Anamosa 

Ft. Madison 
School for the Deaf 
State Hospital for Inebriates 
State Hospitals for Insane 

Cherokee 

Clarinda 

Independence 

Mt. Pleasant 

State Officers, Members of Boards, etc. 

Adjutant General 

Sales of ammunition 
Sales of arms and stores 
Auditor of State 
Fees 

Banks 

Building and Loan 
Insurance 

Municipal examinations 
Miscellaneous 
Warrants issued 

Des Moines River Improvement 

fund 
General revenue 
War and defense 
Clerk of Supreme Court 
Fees 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OP IOWA 207 

State Officers, Members of Boards, etc. — ^Continued. 
Custodian of Public Buildings 
Dental Examiners, Board of 
Educational Board of Examiners 
Food and Dairy Commission 
Governor 
Health, Board of 

Embalmers Department 

Maternity hospital 

Medical Examiners, Board of 

Nurses department 

Veterinary Medical Examiners, Board 
of 
Iowa State Library 
Library Commission 
Pharmacy, Commission of 
Secretary of State 

Fees 
State Land Office 
State Mine Inspectors 

Fees 
State Oil Inspectors 

Fees 
Treasurer of State 

Monthly 

Quarterly 

Railroads 

Warrants endorsed 

Warrants redeemed 
Miscellaneous 

General Land Office 

Swamp Land indemnity 



SERIES X. VOUCHERS. 

Bound Records. 

Balance Books 

Invoices 

Journals 

Ledgers 

Registers 

Bonds 

Checks 

Drafts 

Deposits 

Warrants 



208 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Bound Records — Continued. 
stub Books 

Checks 
Express 
Fees 

Institutions 
Insurance 
Revenue 
Miscellaneous 
Documents. 

Labor and materials on Capitol 
Notes paid and cancelled 
l{eceipts 

Dictionary fund 
Deposit of bids on Capitol, etc. 
Distribution of laws 

Expense of prosecutions by Pharmacy Com- 
mission 
Express companies 

Interest of Agricultural College loans 
Salaries 

Auditor of State 

Members of General Assembly 
Sales 

Iowa City lots 

Land sale notes 

Railroad lands 
Sitate revenue (by counties) 
Swamp land indemnity fund (by counties) 
Warrants 
Miscellaneous 



SERIES XI. MISCELLANEOUS. 

Bound Records. 

Abstracts 

Memoranda 

Miscellaneous 

Documents. 

Acts of General Assembly 

Affidavits 

Approval by Executive Council of Investigation of 

Agricultural College Funds 
Checks (see list) 
Deeds 

Distribution of 5% School Fund 
List of lots at Iowa City 



PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF IOWA 209 



Documents — Continued. 

Opinions of Attorney General 

Release of railroad lands 

Statements 

Banks 

Bond agents 
State Treasurer 

Transcripts 

Unclassified 



Brussels Carpet Manufactory in Muscatine. 

Our down river sister city Muscatine is a live place. Its 
people are not asleep, as its rapid improvement and its un- 
tiring energy in extending its railroads, and in making itself 
a commercial center, abundantly prove. 

Muscatine does not, like Davenport, go a-begging for other 
people to build its roads. Its people do not advocate either 
county or state debt, in their behalf. 

But the spirit of the people of that town is manifested in 
various ways and in many things they have taken the lead. 

It would hardly be believed that there is at present a man- 
ufactory of Brussels Carpets in the state of Iowa ; yet such 
is the fact, and that manufactory, too. is in Muscatine, as we 
learn from the Journal of last Friday. It states that "Mr. 
James Kitley has engaged in the business of carpet weaving, 
and there is to be seen in his shop a piece of Brussels Royal 
Velvet, of his own make, equal to any imported carpet. We 
can from personal knowledge say that he is master of his 
trade. His place is at east end of Eighth St." 

We look upon this single fact as the beginning of an im- 
portant era in the history of the State. Let Iowa manufac- 
tures prosper, say we. 

Dubuque, Express and Herald, Nov. 4, 1858. 



Greene & Merritt, 

Attorneys-at-Law and Solicitors in Chancery. 
George Greener and Edward Merritt, having associated 
themselves for the practice of law at Dubuque, Iowa, will 
punctually attend to professional business in the several 
counties in the Territory, and will also act as general land 
agents, Dubuque, April 24, 1844. 

Dubuque, loiva Transcript, November 1, 1844. 
14 



210 ANNALS OF IOWA 

JUDGE GEORGE GREENE. 

BY B. L. WICK. 

At the Founders Day gathering at Coe College on Decem- 
ber 3, 1914, considerable new material came to light con- 
cerning the life and services of George Greene, one of the 
founders of that institution. 

George Greene was a pioneer along many lines in the de- 
velopment of the State. He was born at Staffordshire, Eng- 
land, April 15, 1817, and was the eldest of three sons, George, 
William and Joseph, all of whom settled, lived and died in 
Cedar Rapids. 

Robert Greene, the father, emigrated with his wife and 
family to America in 1820, locating in Buffalo, New York, 
where he became a contractor and engaged in building the 
locks on the Erie Canal. He died in 1831, and George Greene, 
then barely fifteen years of age, became the sole support of 
the family. About 1836 he went to England for a time, but 
soon made his way back to America. He obtained some 
schooling in Buffalo and attended Aurora Seminary, French 
Institute at Geneva and Caryville Academy. As clerk and 
assistant he entered the office of George Baker, a well-known 
lawyer. He soon went to live with a Dr. Chapin, and for a time 
was imbued with the idea of becoming a doctor. He did study 
medicine for awhile but later gave it up and began the studj^ 
of law, aiming to settle down at Buffalo in the practice of law. 

On May 30, 1838, he married Harriet Merritt of Buffalo. 
She was the daughter of a physician of that city and a sister 
of Colonel Merritt who later figured as a newspaper man and 
a politician in Iowa. Shortly after his marriage he migrated 
to Davenport, Iowa, where he intended to locate. There he 
met David D. Owen, son of Robert Owen, who was at that time 
making a geological survey of the new Territory for the gov- 
ernment. He joined Mr. Owen in this work which lasted six 
months and gave him an opportunity to become acquainted not 
only with a new country but with most of the settlers. He be- 



JUDGE GEORGE GREENE 211 

came a friend of Dr. Owen who no doubt helped the young 
man in many ways. 

From Davenport Mr. Greene removed to Linn county, lo- 
cating at a little trading village known as Ivanhoe, on the 
Cedar river near where Mt. Vernon is now situated. It was 
at that time supposed to be the future metropolis of that sec- 
tion of the country, but is now known only by name. Here he 
brought his young wife and established the first store in Linn 
county. He also taught school during the winter. The coun- 
ty seat being located at Marion, some distance from Ivanhoe, 
in the spring of 1840 he removed to that place and began the 
practice of law which he continued for five years. He had 
scarcely been in the county a year before he was elected as a 
representative to the Territorial legislature where he served 
two sessions. 

Before leaving New York Mr. Greene had been appointed 
by Governor Seward as lieutenant in one of the New York 
regiments raised to put down the so-called Patriots' Eebel- 
lion. After removing to Iowa he was appointed a lieutenant 
colonel by Governor Chambei's. However, he never became 
imbued with the military spirit and never entered active mili- 
tary service. 

In 1842 he was sent as a special delegate to Washington to 
secure the location of the land office at Marion, In this he 
was successful. 

Perceiving the advantage of a water power to operate grist 
and saw mills, during the summer of 1841, with N. B. Brown 
and others, he purchased the water power on the Cedar river, 
locating the town site first called Rapids City and later 
Cedar Eapids, 

Being of a restless disposition, and finding little if any law 
practice in this new portion of the Territory, he removed in 
the spring of 1845 to Dubuque, seeking a more extensive field. 
He associated with J. J. Dyer, afterwards judge of the United 
States district court. In connection with the legal business, 
which was not over-lucrative even at Dubuque, he became the 
editor of the Miners' Express, one of the first newspapers of 
the Territory, and edited it for three years. His talents and 



212 ■ ANNALS OF IOWA 

legal knowledge soon became recognized, and in October, 
1847, he was appointed jndge of the supreme court of the 
new State, on the resignation of Judge Thomas S. Wilson. In 
December, 1848, he was elected justice by the general as- 
sembly, and served out his entire term of six years. It was 
during this period of his life that he edited the Iowa Reports 
known as Greene's Reports, consisting of four volumes. The 
opinions in these reports all bear evidence of his marked 
ability. 

In April, 1850, his wife died and in 1851 he removed with 
his two children to Cedar Rapids. From that time until his 
death except for a short stay in Chicago where he was a mem- 
ber of the law firm of Greene and Bently, he was a resident 
of the county which he assisted in many ways to develop. In 
January, 1855. he married Frances R. Graves, daughter of 
Calvin Graves of Cooperstown, New York. 

Judge Greene, with John "Weare, started the first bank in 
Cedar Rapids, known as Greene & Weare. Branches of this 
bank were established at Des Moines, Council Bluffs, Omaha, 
Fort Dodge, Sioux City and other centers of population. The 
panic of 1857 wiped out most of them and the firm dissolved, 
the partners liquidating. 

Judge Greene later became interested in railroad building. 
He was one of the organizers and directors of the Chicago, 
Iowa & Nebraska railroad, w'hich was completed to Cedar 
Rapids in the summer of 1859. In this connection he was 
associated with John I. Blair. He was also engaged in build- 
ing a short line of railroad sixty miles long, known as the 
McGregor Western, now a part of the Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St. Paul railway. He was likewise connected with the build- 
ing of the Roekford, Rock Island & St. Louis railway along 
the eastern bank of the Mississippi river, and with building 
the St. Louis, Hannibal & Keokuk and the Memphis, Kansas 
& Colorado and the Muscatine Western railways. While as- 
sisting with others in building the above-named railways, be 
was really one of the main promoters of what was known as 
the Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Minnesota railroad, a system 
which, with its branches, made Cedar Rapids a city of con- 
siderable commercial importance. At the time, these railroad 



JUDGE GEORGE GREENE 21S 

enterprises from a financial standpoint, were a failure, but 
Judge Greene did not give up, and after many disasters in 
railway building, succeeded in putting the last-named road on 
its feet, so that it became one of the best paying propertiefi 
in the State. 

Railway building was iiot Judge Greene's only interest. 
He was largely responsible for the purchase of a river steam- 
er called "Cedar Rapids" which ran between Cedar Rapids 
and St. Louis just before the advent of the railroad. This 
steamer met with an accident and the owners lost heavily. 
This was the first and last steamboat venture on the Cedar 
river. He was also interested in one of the first stores opened 
in Cedar Rapids, as well as in the first newspaper, called the 
Progressive Era, edited by Dan Finch. He was the first 
president of the Republican Printing Company, a corpora- 
tion still in existence. He early saw the need of a publie 
water supply for the use of the fast-growing city, and or- 
ganized the Cedar Rapids Water Company, which has lately 
been taken over by the city. He built the first street car line 
and erected the first opera house. Many of these enterprises 
did not pay, but Judge Greene early saw that these things 
were essential to the growth of a city. 

His broad mind also comprehended the need of other than 
the material things of life. ?Te M'as one of the organizers of 
the Episcopal church, of St. Luke's Hospital and of Coe Col- 
lege, and helped in many of the city's charitable organiza- 
tions. 

Judge Greene passed away June 23, 1880, in the sixty- 
fourth year of his age. He had twelve children, seven of 
whom survived him. His widow passed away December 13, 
1911, in the eighty-first year of her age. 

The industry and perseverance of Judere Greene entitled 
him to a high place in the history of the State. His acquaint- 
ance over the country was ex+ended and he associated with 
men of wealth and induced them to invest their money in 
Iowa. He- was a sound lawyer, a logical judge and a far- 
sighted financier. His infiuenee in every way was elevating 
and his contribution to the histnrv of the develonment of the 
State in the early days cannot be too highly commended. 



214 ANNALS OF IOWA 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS. 
' a contribution toward a bibliography.* 
By Alice Marple. 

(Continued.) 

McLoney, Ella M. 

Historical sketch of the Des Moines public library. '93. 
Kenyon press. 

MeLuen, William 

Looking forward; or, Glimpses by an observer of the 
past, present and probable future of our country, 
politically. '91. Perry, la. Chief steam ptg. 

McMillen, Listen 

Alathiasis; or, Principles of Christian hygiene. '95. 
Oskaloosa, la. Nicholson & Wilson. 

MacMurray, Arthur 

Practical lessons in public speaking. '10. Ames. The 
author. 

Macombe, Joseph E. 

History of grand lodge of Iowa A. F. and A. M.. v. 1. 
'10. Cedar Rapids, la. 

Macomber, J, K. 

Lightning rod humbugs. Des Moines. Kenyon press. 
Matter and force. '76. Ames. 

McVey, Frank Le Rond, 1869— 

Government of Minnesota. 2d. ed. '08. Maemillan. 
Making of a town. '13. Maemillan. 
Modern industrialism. '04. Appleton. 
Populist movement. Am. economic assn. 

♦This list of authors and their works is herewith published, to continue 
until complete, for the purpose of recording all that is at present known 
or that can be ascertained upon the subject. Criticism and suggestions 
are invited. — Editor. 

tAbbreviation of publishers' names follows the usage of The Cumulative 
Book Index, the H. W. Wilson Company, Publishers, White Plains, New 
York. 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS 215 

McVey, Frank Le Rond, 1869— Continued. 

Railroad transportation; some phases of its history, 
operation and regulation. '10. Cree pub. 

(ed.) Minnesota academy of social sciences. Papers and 
proceedings, 1st annual meeting on taxation; 2d. an- 
nual meeting on Minnesota. 

Macy, Jesse 

English constitution. Macmillan. 

— Same, pt. 1. The nature of the constitution. '11. 

Macmillan. 
First lessons in civil government. '94. Ginn. 
Government text-book for Iowa schools. '91. Ginn. 
Institutional beginnings in a western state. (Iowa). 

'84. Johns Hopkins. 
Our government, rev. ed. Ginn. 
Parliamentary procedure. '92. Am. acad. 
Party organization and machinery. '04. Century. 
Political parties in the United States, 1846-61. '00. 

Macmillan. 
Political science. '13. Chic. ci\acs soc. 

— and Geiser, Carl Frederick 

Government of Iowa; based on Macy's Iowa govern- 
ment. '06. Ginn. 

Macy, Mrs. Maude Little and Norris, Harry Waldo 

General physiology for high schools. '00. Am. bk. 

Macy, S. R. 

Outline course of theoretical pharmacy and laboratory 
work. '91. Des Moines. A. J. Lilly. 
Madison, W. C. 

God's crowning work and other sermons. '86. Roches- 
ter, N. Y. C. Venton Patterson & co. 
Magee, J, C. 

Apostolic organism. '90. Meth. bk. 
Maggard, James H. 

Rough and tumble engineering; a book of instructions 
for operating farm e»gines. Iowa City. The author. 
Traction engine, its use and abuse, including gas and 
gasoline engines. '05. McKay. 



216 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Magoun, George F. 

Asa Turner and his times. '89. Cong. Sunday-school 
pub CO. 

Magoun, Herbert William, 1856 — 

Asuri-Kalpa; a witchcraft practice of the Atharva- 
Veda. '89. Bait. Isaac Friedenwald. 

Glacial epoch and the Noachian deluge. '10. H. W. 
Magoun, 70 Kirkland st., Cambridge, Mass. 

(ed.) Denison, T: S. Mexican Aryan sibilants. 

Mahood, John Wilmot, 1864— 

Art of soul winning. '01. Meth. bk. 
Lost art of meditation. '11. Revell. 
Make Jesus king, and other messages to men. '08. 

Meth. bk. 
Master workman. '10. Praise pub. 
Renaissance of Methodism. '05. Meth. bk. 
Victory life. Meth. bk. 

Main, J. H. T. 

Locative expression in the Attic orators. '92. Bait. 
John Murphy co. 

Manatt, James Irving, 1845 — 

Aegean days. '14. Houghton, 
(ed.) Xenophon, Hellenica. 

(jt. autli.) Tsountas, Chrestos. Mycenaean a^e. Hough- 
ton. 

Mangold, George Benjamin 

Child's problems. '10. Macmillan. 
Church and philanthrophy. '07. Am. aead. 
Labor argument in the American protective tariff dis- 
cussion. '08. Univ. of "Wis. 

Manning, Mrs. Carrie C. 

Heart echoes. '90. Charles City. 
Manning, Jessie Wilson 

Passion of life. '87. Cin. Robert Clarke & co, 

Markey, Joseph Ignacious 

From Iowa to the Philippines. '00. Red Oak, la. T. D. 
Murphy co. 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS 217 

Marple, Alice 

Reference use of public documents ; a paper read before 
the joint meeting of the Iowa and Nebraska library 
associations held at Council Bluffs and Omaha, Oct. 
8th-llth, 1907. '07. Des Moines, la. 

— and Grisv/old, Mrs. Alice Steele 

(comps.) Index to the Annals of Iowa, third series, v. 
1-8, 1893-1909. 

Marshall, Carl Coran and Goodyear,' Samuel Horatio 

Inductive commercial arithmetic. '10. GoodyearTMar- 
shall pub. 

Marston, Anson, 1864 — 

History of engineering. '12.' Ames. The author. 
Sewers and drains. '09. Am. school of correspondence. 

— and Anderson, A. 0. 

Theory of loads on pipes in ditches, and tests of cement 
and clay drain tile sewer pipe (Engineering exper. 
sta. bul. no. 31). '13. Iowa state college of agric. 

Martin, C. 0. 

Harness-makers' complete guide. '91. Jefferson Jack- 
son. Chic. 

Marvin, Merze 

MeCauslands of Donaghanie and allied families. '11. 
Shenandoah. The author. 

Mason, William Ernest, 1850 — 

John the unafraid (anon.). '10. McClurg. 
John the unafraid calendar. '13. McClurg. 

Mathews, Harvey 

Carrier's address to the Daily herald tribune. '85. 
Matthews, Washington, 1843-1905 

Catlin collection of Indian paintings. '92. Gov. ptg. 
Ethnology and philology of the Hidatsa Indians. '77. 

Gov. ptg. 
Nava.jo gambling songs. '09. Judd & Detweiler. 
Navajo legends. Houghton. 
Navajo myths, prayers and song. '07. Univ. of Cal. 



218 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Matthews, Washington — Continued. 

Night chant; Navajo ceremony. '07. Am. museum of 

nat. hist. 
Part of the Navajo's mythology (Reprint from the 

American antiquarian for April, 1883). 
Prayer of a Navajo shaman. '88. Wash. Judd & 

Detweiler. 
Study in hutts and tips (from the American anthro- 

poloi:rist for Oct., 1892). 

Mazzuchelli, Samuel, 1807-1864 

Memorio d'un Missionario Apostolico. '44. Milan. 

Maxwell, Sara B. 

Manners and customs of to-day. '90. Des Moines. Cline 
puh. house. 

Medbury, Charles S., 1865— 

From Eden to the Jordan ; series of lessons in the Pen- 
tateuch. '09. Standard pub. 

From the Jordan to the throne of Saul; for advanced 
teacher-training classes, adult Bible classes, etc. '10. 
Standard pub. 

From the throne of Saul to Bethlehem ; for advanced 
training classes, Bible classes, etc. Standard pub. 

Meeker, Ezra, 1830— 

Ox team and the old Oregon trail. '06. 

Pioneer reminiscences of Paget Sound. '05. Seattle, 

Wash. The author. 
Story of the lost trail to Oregon. Seattle. The author. 
Ventures and adventures ; or, Sixty years of frontier 

life. '08. Seattle. Rainier ptg. co. 

Meese, William Aug-ustus, 1856 — 

Abraham Tiiucoln ; incidents in his life relating to water- 
ways. Moline. 111. The author. 

Mehan, J. M. 

Chart of political history, with key. '85. Des Moines. 

Merriam, Charles Edward, 1874 — 

History of American political theories. '03. Macmillan. 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS 219 

Merriam, Charles Edward — Continued: 

History of theory of sovereignty since Rousseau. '00. 
Longmans. 

Investigation as a means of securing administrative ef- 
ficiency. '12. Am. acad. 

Primary elections. '08. Univ. of Chic. 

Report of investigation of municipal revenues of Chi- 
cago. City club of Chic, 

Meredith, IVLrs. Maude (pseud, for Mrs. D wight Smith) 
Parson's sin. Donohue. 
Rivulet and clover blossoms. '81. N. Y. 
St. Julien's daughter. '83. Chic. 

Merrill, S. B. 

Paradise restored and improved. '81. Des Moines, la. 

Metcalf, Arthur, 1864— 

Green devil; a romance of Thornton abbey in the days 
of John Wyclif. '12. Pilgrim press. 

Metcalf, H. J. 

Riverside echoes. '04. La Crosse, Wis. Spicer & Busch- 

man. 
True garden of eden. n. d. 

Meyer, Frederic Louis, 1875 — 

Twentieth century manual of railway and commercial 

telegraphy. '05. Rand. 
Twentieth century manual of railway station service. 
'06. Rand. 

Meyerholz, Charles H. 

History and government of Iowa. '12. Educational pub. 

Miller, Daniel F., Sr, 

Rhetoric as an art of persuasion. '80. Des Moines 
Mills & Co. 

MUler, Emory, 1834-1912 

Evolution of love. rev. ed. '07. Meth. bk. 
Fact of God. '01. Meth. bk. 
Future probation. '87. Des Moines. 



220 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Miller, Emory — Continued. 

Memoirs and sermons. '11. Meth. bk. 
Thoughts. Des Moines. Kenyon. 

Miller, Irving J. A. 

Fireside poems. '87. Marshalltown, la. Miller bros. 

Miller, Mrs. Mary Farrand (Rogers), 1868— 

Brook book. '02. Doubleday. - 
Outdoor work. '11. Doubleday. 

Miller, Mrs. Sylvia Penn 

Genealogical record. '13. Englewood, 111. The author. 

Miller, WiUiam Edward, 1823-1896 

New revised and annotated code of Iowa. Des Moines. 

'80, '85, '88. Supplement. '92. 
Probate law and practice in Iowa. '90. Des Moines. 
Treatise on pleading and practice in Iowa. 5th. ed. 

Des Moines. '88. 

— and Field, Washington 

Federal practice. Des Moines. '81. 

Mills, Charles Francis Henry, 1875— 

Voice and vocalism. '09. Lincoln, Neb. The author. 

Mills, F. M. 

Home-made jinglets, cast in the rough at odd times. '14. 
Sioux Falls, S. D. Sessions-Mannax co. 

Index-digest of the American trotting register; digest 
of first ten volumes published in 1892. Mills pub. co. 
Sioux Falls, S. D. 

Mills family and its collateral branches with autobi- 
ographical reminiscences. '11. Sioux Falls, S. D. 

Mills, William Wirt, 1867— 

King's views of the Panama canal in course of con- 
struction ; text by W : Wirt Mills. '12. King, M. 

Miner, S. E. 

Creation ; or, The power behind evolution. '87. Burling- 
ton, la. 



I 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS 221 

Miner, William Harvey, 1877— 

Contributions toward a bibliography of writings con- 
cerning Daniel Boone. Torch press. 

Iowa Indians; a sketch of their history. '10. Torch 
press. 

Mitchell, S. F. 

Historical sketch of Iowa Baptists. '86, Burlington, 
la. 

Monlux, George 

Early history of Lyini county. '09. Rock Rapids, la. 
The author. 

Moore, Al 

Cab, coach, caboose. '02. Des Moines. Welch ptg. co. 

Moore, Henry Clarke 

Nihilism and other isms of the day. '82. Chic. 

Moore, S. A. 

History of Davis county, Iowa. '76. Bloomfield, la. 
Moore & Ethell. 

Moorhead, Frank Graham 

Unknown facts about Avell-kno\^Ti people; a biograph- 
ical dictionary and directory. '95. St. Louis. Nixon- 
Jones. 

Morgan, E. G. 

Centennial history of Webster county. '76. Fort 
Dodge. Times job ptg. 
Morley, Margaret Warner, 1858— 
Bee people. '99. McClurg. 
Butterflies and bees ; insect folks. 
Carolina mountains. '13. Houghton. 
Donkey John of Toy valley. '09. McClurg. 
Down north and up along (Nova Scotia). Dodd. 
Few familiar flowers. Ginn. 
Flowers and their friends. Ginn. 
Grasshopper land. '07. McClurg. 
Honey makers. McClurg. 
Insect folks. '03. Ginn. 
Life and love. McClurg. 



222 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Morley, Margaret Warner — Continued. 

Little Mitchell ; story of a mountain squirrel. '04. Mc- 

Clurg. 
Little wanderers (seeds), Ginn. 
Renewal of life ; how and when to tell the story to the 

young. '06. McClurg. 
Seed-babies. Ginn. 
Song of life. McClurg. 
Spark of life. '13. Eevell. 
"Wasps and their ways. '00. Dodd. 
Will o' the wasps. '13. McClurg. 

Morris, R. Anna 

Physical education in the public schools. '92. Am. bk, 

Morris, Robert, 1818-1888 

Level and the square. '97. Priv. ptd. 

Lights and shadows of freemasonry. Macoy pub. 

Poetry of freemasonry. Macoy pub. 

— and Mackey, Albert Gallatin 

Lights and shadows of the mystic tie. Macoy pub. 

Morrison, M. V. B. 

Orphan's experience; or, The hunter and trapper. '68. 
Des Moines. Mills & co. 

Moscrip, F. A. 

(jt. auth.) Battin, William. Past and present of .Mar- 
shall county, Iowa. 2v. '12. Indianapolis. B. F. 
Bowen eo. 

Mosely, Moses 

Colored man of America as a slave and as a citizen. '84. 
Mount Pleasant, la. 

Mueller, Ign. 

Communism. '92. Des Moines college. 
Gymnai^ium ; an educational institution of Germany and 
Austria-Hungary. '90. Des Moines. Kenyon. 

Murphy, Thomas Dewier, 1866 — 

British highways and byways from a motor car. '08. 
Page.' 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS 223 

Murphy, Thomas Dowler — Continued. 

In unfamiliar England ; a record of a seven thousand 
mile tour by motor of the unfrequented nooks and 
corners, and the shrines of especial interest in Eng- 
land with incursions into Scotland and Ireland. '10. 
Page. 

On old world highways; a book of motor rambles in 
France and Germany and the record of a pilgrimage 
from Land's End to John 'Groats in Britain. '14. 
Page. 

Three wonderlands of the American west. '12. Page. 

Myers, Harriet Williams 

Birds' convention. '13. Western pub. co., Los An- 
geles, Cal. 

Neff, Mary Lawson 

Brief manual of prescription writing in Latin or Eng- 
lish. '01. Davis. 

Neidig, Mrs. Clara Adele 

As the seasons come and go; a cantata. '06. Clara 

Adele Neidig library. 
Methodical music master; an operetta. '07. Bost. 

White, Smith music pub. 

Nelson, Aven, 1859 — 

Analytical key to some of the common flowering plants 
of the Rocky Mountain region. '02. Appleton. 

Red desert of Wyoming and its forage resources. (Plant 
ind. bul.) '98. Supt. of doe. 

(ed.) Coulter, J: M. New manual of botany of the 
Central Rocky Mountains. 

Newcomer, M. S. 

Golden gleanings. '91. Cedar Rapids. Republican ptg. 
Lectures on preaching. Central bk. 

Newhall, John B. 

Sketches of life; or. The emigrant's guide. '41. Colton. 



224. ,, ANNALS OF IOWA 

Newton, Joseph Fort 

Abraham Lincoln; an essay, '10. Torch press. 
David Swing ; poet-preacher. '09. Unity pub. co. 
Eternal Christ; studies in the life of vision and service. 

'12. Revell. 
Lincoln and Herndon. '10. Torch press. 
Ministry of masonry. '13. Cedar Rapids. The author. 

Nichols, James Thomas, 1865 — 

Lands of sacred stor3^ '10. Des Moines. Christian 
union. 

Noble, Charles, 1847— 

Story of English speech. '13. Badger, R: G. 
Studies in American literature. '01. Macmillan. 

Noble, Frank H. 

Taxation in Iowa. '97. St. Louis, Mo. Nixon-Jones 
ptg. CO. 

NoUen, John, 1828-1914 
Die afcheiding. 
Spectre of the brocken. '79. Pella, la. A. T. Betzer. 

Nollen, John Scholte, 1869— 

(corap.) Chronology and practical bibliography of mod- 
ern German literature. '03. Scott. 

Fellowship ; the church and the college ; addresses de- 
livered at the opening of the academic year, Lake 
Forest, 111., Sept. 18 and 22, 1907. Priv. ptd. 

(ed.) German poems, 1800- '50. '12. Ginn. 

Prinz Friedrich von Homberg. "00. Ginn. 

Norris, Harry Waldo 

(.it. auth.) Macy, Mrs. Maude Little. Physiology for 
high schools. '00. Am. bk. 

Norton, Roy, 1869— 

Garden of fate. '10. Watt. 
Mediator. '13. Watt. 
Plunderer. '13. Watt. 
Toil of the sea. '09. Appleton. 
A^'anishing fleets. '08. jj^ppleton. 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS 225 

— and Hallo well, William C. 

Guilty; magazine gun tragedy. Laird. 

Nourse, Charles Clinton 

Autobiography. '11. Priv. ptd. 

Iowa and the centennial; the state address. '76. Des 
Moines. State register print. 

Nourse, Laura A. Sunderlin 

Lyric of life. '92. Moulton. 

Pencilings from immortality. '76. Maquoketa. Swi- 
gart & Sargent. 

Noyes, William Albert, 1857— 

Atomic weight of hydrogen. '08. LT. S. stand. Supt. 
of doc. 

Chemistry for the laboratory. Chem. pub. 

Elements of qualitative analysis, 6th ed., rev., in col- 
laboration with the author, by G. McP. Smith. '11. 
Holt. 

Organic chemistry for the laboratory. 2d. rev. & enl. 
'11. Chemical. 

Textbook of chemistry. '13. Holt. 

Textbook of organic chemistry. '03. Holt. 

— and Weber, Henry Charles Paul 

Atomic weight of chlorine. '08. U. S. stand. Supt. 
of doc. 

Nutting-, Charles Cleveland, 1858 — 

Alcyonaria of the California coast. U. S. Nat. museum. 

American hydroids. '00. '04. U. S. Nat. museum. 

Descriptions of alcyonaria coll. by U. S. bureau of fish- 
eries steamer Albatross in vicinity of Hawaiian is- 
lands. '02. U. S. Nat. museum. Supt. of doc. 

Hydroids from Alaska and Puget Sound. U. S. Nat. 
museum. 

Hydroids (in Harriman Alaska ser., v. 13). '10. Smith- 
sonian, 

Hydroids of Hawaiian islands collected by steamer Al- 
batross in 1902. '05. U. S. Fisheries. Supt. of doc. 
15 



226 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Nutting, Charles Cleveland — Continued. 

Hydroids of the Woods Hole region. '01. U. S. Fish- 
eries. 
On local museums. Davenport acad. of sci. 

Nutting, John K. 

Rocky hill and rolling prairie. 70. Congregational 
pub. 

Oehich, Henry 

Cityless and eountryless world; an outline of practical 
co-operative individualism. '93. 

Osborn, Herbert, 1856— 

Descriptions of new forms of jassidae. Davenport acad. 

of sci. 
Economic zoology. '08. Macmillan, 
Hessian fly in the United States. (Entom. bu. bul.) 

Gov, ptg. 
Insects affecting domestic animals. (Entora. bu. bul.) 

Supt. of doc. 
Partial catalogue of the animals of Iowa. '92. Ames. 
Pediculli and mallophaga affecting man and the lower 

animals. (Entom. bu. bul. old ser.) '91. Supt. of doc. 

— and Ball, Elmer Darwin 

Genus pediopsis. Davenport acad. of sci. 
Studies of North American jassidae. Davenport acad. 
of sci. 

Osmond, Samuel McCIurg 

Sulamith; a metrical romance. '92. Phil. James B. 
Rogers ptg. co. 

Otis, William Bradley- 
American verse, 1625-1807. '09. Moffat. 

Ott, Edward Amherst, 1867— 

Good recitations. Christian pub. 
How to gesture, new ed. Hinds. 

How to use voice in reading and speaking. '01. Hinds. 
Phillip Gerard, an individual. E. E. Ott, Waukegan, 111. 
Sour grapes; or, Heredity and marriage. '09. Lycue- 
mite press, 617 Steinway Hall, Chic. 



IOWA AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS 227 

Overton, D. Y. 

Annotated code of civil practice for Wisconsin and 

Iowa. 75. Chic. 
Treatise on the law of liens, as common law, equity, 

statutory and maritime. '83. Banks & co. 

Page, Charles N. 

Histor}^ and genealogy of the Page family from the year 

1257 to the present. '11. The author. 
Parrots and other talking birds. '10. Des Moines. The 

author. 

Paine, Albert Bigelow, 1861 — 

Arkansaw bear. "03. Altemus. 

Beacon prize medals and other stories. '99. Baker. 

Bread line. '00. Century. 

Captain Bill McDonald, Texas ranger. '09. W. J. Mc- 
Donald, Austin, Tex. 

Commuters ; the story of a little hearth and garden. 
'04. Taylor. 

Dumpies. Russell. 

Elsie and the Arkansaw bear. '09. Altemus. 

From van dweller to commuter. '07. Harper. 

Great white way. '01. Taylor. 

IIolloAV tree and deep woods. '01. Harper. 

Hollow tree snowed-in books ; being a continuation of 
the stories about the hollow tree and deep woods peo- 
ple. '10. Harper. 

In the deep woods. Russell. 

Life and letters of Thomas Nast. '10. Harper. 

Little garden calendar for boys and girls. '05. Altemus. 

Little lady, her book. '01. Altemus. 

Lucky piece. Baker. 

Sailor of fortune ; personal memoirs of Captain B. S. 
Osbon. 2d. ed. Doubleday. 

Ship-dwellers ; a story of a happy cruise. '10. Harper. 

Tent-dwellers. '08. Harper. 

Thomas Nast, his period and his pictures. Harper. 

"Wanderings of Joe and little Em. Altemus. 



I 



228 



ANNALS OF IOWA 



Herewith appear names, and character of books or pam- 
phlets, of Iowa writers not heretofore listed by us. Fuller 
information will appear in a completed list to be published 
later : 



Adams, Elmer, Biography. 

Anderson, O. A., Poetry. 

Antrobus, Augustus M., His- 
tory. 

Barker, W. T., Economics. 

Bartholomew, Charles L. , Car- 
toons. 

Basquin, Olin Hanson, Geom- 
etry. 

Bennett, E. G., Economics. 

Benton, Elbert J., History. 

Bessey, Ernst Athearn, Botany. 

Bliss, Ralph Kenneth, Agricul- 
ture. 

Bowles, Gilbert, Missions. 

Brigham, Arthur A., Useful 
Arts. 

Brown, Charles E., Biography. 

Burge, William, History. 

Callender, William, History. 

Claggett, Thomas, Politics. 

Clark, J. Fred, History. 

Clark, Lincoln, Politics. 

C^ark, Olynthus B. , History. 

Clark, S. M. , Pensions. 

Cleveland, W. F. , History. 

Conkling, William W., Geneal- 
ogy. 

Copeland, Katharine Guild, Gene- 
alogy. 

Corey, S. A., Mathematics. 

Curtis, Samuel R., Politics. 

Deane, Ruthven, Ornithology. 

Drowning, J. B., History. 

Dunn, L. V., History. 

Edey, E. C, Economics. 

Elrod. Morton John, Ethnology. 

Ethell. Henry C, History. 

Farwell, Sewell, Politics. 

Freer, Hamline, Religion. 

Gallatin, Albert, History. 

Gear, John H. , Economics. 

Gjerset, Knut, History. 

Harding, Wilber J., Genealogy. 

Harrison, Viola, Travel. 

Hartley, Joseph, Genealogy. 

Hodson, E. R. , Agriculture. 

Holbrook, John C. , Biography. 



Horn, Hosea B. , Travel. 

Hueston, Ethel, Fiction. 

Hughes, Thomas, History. 

Hull, John A. T., History. 

Jackson, A. W. , History. 

Keigwin, Albert Elwin, Religion. 

Kelley, William H. , Religion. 

Keller, Buda, Poetry. 

Kendall, N. E., Ethics. 

Kerby, William Joseph, Soci- 
ology. 

Kirkwood, Samuel J., Politics. 

Kissell, Mary Lois, Useful Arts. 

Langridge, W. B. , Biography. 

Laylander, O. J., Orthography. 

Lenher, Victor, Chemistry. 

Lewis, R. R. , Arithmetic. 

Lloyd, Frederick, Biography. 

Loetscher, Frederick William, 
Religion. 

Loomis, C. H., Nature. 

Louis, John J. , Sociology. 

Lyon, Milford Hall, Religion. 

McArdle, Fred, Engineering. 

McCrary, George W. , Politics. 

McCrory, Samuel Henry, Engi- 
neering 

McRoberts Harriet Skinner, 
Biography. 

Magoun, George F., Addresses. 

Mahin, John Lee, Advertising. 

Mall, Franklin Paine, Anatomy. 

Mansfield, Robert E., Travel. 

Mason, Charles, Address. 

Merriam, Charles Edward, Eco- 
nomics. 

Michael, William H. , History. 

Moore, Henry Hoyt, Sociology. 

Morcombe, Joseph E., History. 

Mosher, L. O. , History. 

Neidig, William Jonathan, Lit- 
erature. 

Noble, C. E., Religion. 

Nutting, John K., History. 

O'Connor, Henry, History. 

Ortlepp, E. E., Religion. 

Otto, Ralph, Law. 



ANNALS OF IOWA 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 



THE DEVICE OF OUR FIRST OFFICIAL SEAL. 

The Thirty-sixth General Assembly empowered the Curator 
to certify copies of such of the public papers as he receives 
from State offices for perpetual care and custody in the Di- 
vision of Public Archives in the Historical Department. Such 
certification implies an official seal. 

Study for the device of such a seal reveals nothing appear- 
ing to so well combine a symbolism of Iowa history, art and 
patriotism wdth that permanence, dignity and beauty of de- 
sign requisite to a seal, as does the classic visage of the founder 
of the Historical Department. 

There is immeasurable satisfaction in authenticating the 
most formal and imperishable communications of the Depart- 
ment by affixing a visual reminder of that unselfish service 
to which Iowa is indebted for an aroused respect for her 
historical interests. Formal documents with this impress in a 
sense will be inspirited. They will have with them something 
like the presence as well as the thought of Charles Aldrich. 



2:10 ANNALS OP IOWA 



THE CI.TSTODY AND USE OF HISTORICAL 
MATERIALS. 

The historical materials of Iowa under the custody of the 
Historical Department at Des Moines, consist of all that we 
can obtain of the genuine, original objects, books, newspapers, 
maps, manuscripts and other things that evidence or illustrate 
the lives of men as notable individuals or their movement in 
groups or in procession in our community .development. Our 
materials are derived by gift, bequest, purchase, legislation, 
discovery or production by our workers and associates. 
How and to what extent the collections are available for the 
use of others than the Historical Department, w^e will en- 
deavor to define. 

It appears that institutions such as ours are bound to their 
respective traditions and environment, and that no com- 
mon basis of co-operation between institutions and public, or 
institution and institution obtains. A few custodians have 
forced their way through obstructions and by a sort of comity 
have worked out a species of ethics similar to that obtaining 
in the practice of the law, thus exchanging views, borrowing 
and lending collections and otherwise expanding their tradi- 
tional boundaries. But as has been stated by Mr. Lawrence 
J. Burpee and others, no system nor science controls.^ Hence 
the writer's views upon this phase of the responsibility of 
custody of historical materials and the policy of the Historical 
Department wdth respect thereto are here presented in re- 
sponse to numerous requests of heads of other institutions. 

Whatever one's desire to use or allow the use of materials 
under his charge, he is responsible directly through law, con- 
tract, presumptions and rules of ethics to the person or source 
from which possession or title to each item in his trust is de- 
rived. The public archives being derived through law, from 
state officials, are to be held and used by the curator as if 
he were in fact a composite of the persons who have from 
time to time as incumbents of the office had personal re- 

iAnnals, v. XII, No. 1, April, 1915. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 231 

sponsibility for the papers. Wherein the}' or any of them 
should have held to any rule of use, that rule the curator is 
()l)liged to discover and regard in the formulation of his 
])olicy and rules. Materials derived by gift or bequest are 
held by a right wholly different from that by which public 
archives are held, and the curator is presumed to know and 
10 enforce compliance with each condition going with title or 
possession. Such materials as are discovered or produced by 
us are subject to all the considerations of good conscience 
that bear upon the performance of any other public trust, 
'i'lie curator escapes no charge or complaint that is or may be 
lodged against the persons formerly in possession. 

The Iowa statute on libel suggests one extreme of liability 
and is as follows: 

A libel is the malicious defamation of a person, made public by 
any printing, writing, sign, picture, representation or effigy, tending 
to provoke liim to wrath or expose him to public hatred, contempt 
or ridicule, or to deprive him of the benefits of public confidence 
and social intercourse; or any malicious defamation, made public 
as aforesaid, designed to blacken and vilify the memory of one who 
is dead, and tending to scandalize or provoke his surviving relatives 
or friends. 

No printing, writing or other thing is a libel unless there has been 
a publication thereof. 

The delivering, selling, reading or otherwise communicating a 
libel, or causing the same to be delivered, sold, read or otherwise 
communicated, to one or more persons or to the party libeled, is a 
publication thereof. 

Every person Avho makes, composes, dictates or procures the 
same to be done, or who wilfully publishes or circulates such libel, 
or in any way knowingly or wilfully aids or assists in making, pub- 
lishing or circulating the same, shall be imprisoned in the county 
jail not more than one j'ear, or be fined not exceeding one thousand 
dollars. 

This lia])i]ity would arise probably not once in a thousand 
times in collections of archives and personal manuscript ma- 
terials, but it reveals the difficulty with which one contem- 
j^lates the holding of deposits loaded with public and private 
explosives ^vhich may be as readily touched into instant life by 
tlie deliberation of the scholarly stranger as the careless jani- 
tor. Eegardless of the date of a circumstance or of a paper 
• lisclosing it. injury is actionable at law and repulsive in 



232 ANNALS OF IOWA 

morals, not as of the date it became possible but of its ef- 
fect. Between this extreme and that of the original dis- 
covery and publication of highly creditable but forgotten 
facts regarding men and events of former days, lies thS field 
of discretion on the part of the curator. 

The writer advocates the acquisition and preservation of 
every scrap of paper that originates with or comes from the 
hand of any man of note. He believes the supreme test for 
such item was when it passed in review of the attention of 
the mind of the person through whose hand it was derived. 
If at that instant that mind reserved it, every other mind fol- 
lowing is put upon inquiry whether all the functions for which 
it Avas originally reserved have been performed. Few of us 
have the temerity to say a man once high in military or social 
affairs, knew or felt less accurately the meaning of an item 
related to his problems than can thereafter become known 
without our own exhaustive study. Few of us have time even 
if we had the ability to judge whether all the functions for 
which an item was reserved have been performed. So the 
custodian of historical materials should both acquire, and con- 
trol the use of all that exists which tends to throw light upon 
the working out of the destiny of man within his sphere. 

The writer holds that the curator must therefor know the 
qualifications and purposes of applicants for the use of his- 
torical materials precisely as the banker must know the 
things necessary to protect and produce dividends upon the 
funds of his depositors which as an agent he lends to his 
clients. Nor is it unnecessary hardship upon the user to 
cause him to make himself known in this respect. To estab- 
lish himself in the acquaintance and confidence of the curator 
is to clothe his naked right with a good will and convert 
passive into active energy. He gains access to the whole of 
the record and all the local color with which the curator is 
possessed. Often this is vital to success. For instance, if a 
student observe from available sources that the current of a 
life or of public affairs suddenly swirls al)out something he 
senses but cannot see, he confers with the curator and finds 
there is some explanatory tradition or "inside evidence." 
The student proceeds with knowledge or at least with notice, 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 233 

where, unassisted, or without the confidence of the curator, his 
course must have been at random or at the least uncertain. 
The ^vi'iter has entrusted matter in confidence to investigators 
under assurance of honor against untoward use of facts and 
has had the pleasure of seeing rocky channels thereby safe- 
ly navigated and accurately charted without inviting wreck. 
The curator as a trustee is entitled to personal safety and to 
obtain it is entitled to establish rules and exact guarantees 
so long as he exercise good faith, diligence, and the maximum 
of his intelligence in dealing with applicants. But after all 
it is for him to determine in every instance of applicant and 
purpose ; of item and its bearing. There is probalily no field 
of scholarly endeavor Avhere as highly trained men on as 
important missions meet (and by the way, present) so great 
a lack of unifonnity, not to say low order, of ethics as that 
where the inquiring mind presents itself to the keeper of 
historical material. There is no institution where the con- 
tending considerations of this complex trust is better illus- 
trated than in the Historical Department of Iowa. There is 
nothing better supported than our rule that everything pos- 
sessed is for the public use, yet whether a proposed use is of 
public or private character is for the decision of the curator. 



PROPOSED GRAND ARMY CORRIDOR. 

Officials and leaders of the Iowa Department, Grand Army 
of the Republic, plan for an eventual testimonial to the valor 
of loyal soldiers of Iowa in the War of the Rebellion. The 
idea is best outlined in resolutions adopted at the 4lst annual 
encampment of the Iowa Department, Grand Army of the 
Republic, Sioux City, June 8-10, 1915 : 

Whereas, Many of our Grand Army Posts and individual comrades 
and their families possess valuable records, correspondence, pictures, 
trophies and books which illustrate our service for the Union, and 
which are likely to be lost, Be it 

Resolved, That all comrades of this department are urged to send 
or provide for the sending of all such material to the office of the 
Assistant Adjutant General at Des Moines for safe keeping, particu- 
larly all unused Post records, correspondence, pictures, flags and 
wall pieces, and all letters, commissions, weapons and uniforms that 
relate to the Federal service of the soldier or sailor, that are still 
in existence. 



2:34 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Resolved, That we urge the next General Assembly to erect a 
suitable addition to the State Historical, Memorial and Art Build- 
ing, to be known as the Grand Army Corridor, or some suitable 
designation, where all Civil War material the State possesses or 
may acquire may be assembled. The same to be the sole repository 
of the Civil War history of Iowa, to be owned by the State of Iowa 
forever. 

From tliis it is inferred that by a sort of gravity there may 
come into the keeping of the principal officials of the Grand 
Array in our State all that exists outside the State's collec- 
tions, of writings, relics, trophies, records and literature be- 
tokening the contribution in blood and treasure of Iowa peo- 
ple to the Union cause; that when the Grand Army so de- 
sires, its official headquarters shall be bj'' them established 
in an apartment designed by and for them, and for the con- 
venient, permanent and public exhibition of all material re- 
lating to soldier service of Iowa citizens. 

Nothing so inspires our youth as the bullet-shredded stan- 
dard of our country. Nothing stirs the emotion of new" citi- 
zens from foreign countries or sister states as the ser>'iee- 
stained uniform or accoutrement of tlie Iowa volunteer sol- 
dier soiled in his struggle for human rights. Probably no 
portion of the Iowa field of scholarly study will in future 
be covered with greater diligence or more devotion tha:i that 
wherein were planted, grown and garnered the seeds of civil 
strife. 

Iowa soldiers and their families at home or removed e!se= 
where could not now so honor their names as to respond 
to this resolution. Our Department has no higher office 
than the co-operation with the Iowa Department Grand Army 
of the Republic, in its great purj^ose. Iowa has no better 
tribute remaining, since it has nmrked with bronze and gran- 
ite the battle grounds and burial places of her troops in 
southern lands, than to raise a fitting structure central to all 
Iowa historical, memorial and art collections, as her Grand 
Army Corridor. We have had no "Little Corporal." We 
recall no St. Helena. We need no Invalides. But without a 
temple or imperial tomb, in response to this resolution, Iowa 
should in justice and may in modesty provide a monument 
less imposing and yet as eloquent. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 235 

NOTES. 
LOCATION OF A MORMON TRAIL MONUMENT. 

Mrs. D. W. Buslmell, for the Iowa D. A. E., seeking as- 
surance for a correct location within the city of Council 
Bluffs for a monument marking the route of overland travel 
across Iowa upon the Monnon Trail, was advised by the 
writer as follows : 

The flow of immigration from eastern Iowa tlirougli Council 
Bluffs and onward was like that of the water through Lake Pepin 
on the upper Mississippi. We can say with precision where it en- 
tered and with certainty at what point it left. But within the, 
city there was the same phenomena of current and quiet, of swirl 
and stillness, of sweeping and of settling, as the excitement in 
the East and in the West ebbed and flowed; as the ground and the 
grass, the warmth and the coldness of the air affected the sensibilities 
of those bound west. Technically it is safe only to say that the 
main thread of travel entered Council Bluffs where the road from 
Lewis passes the state School for the Deaf; then its fraying fibers 
spread all about the hills and bottom-lands; that they were again 
gathered into one thread now reaching across the Missouri at one 
place at a ferry, then at another as the ferry was changed up or 
down stream. Absolute precision in the location of a marker is 
immaterial so long as it is found with ease by whoever seeks it 
and it states the essential facts in accurate language. 



I 



FROM THE ANDREW WESTERN DEMOCRAT, January 25, 1850. 
A NEW FERRY ACROSS THE MISSOURI RIVER. 

The subscribers having obtained from the General Assembly of 
the State of Iowa, a charter to keep a Ferry across the Missouri 
river at Council Bluffs, and a permit from the Indian agent at 
Council Bluffs Agency to land in the Indian Territory, are pre- 
pared with new and safe boats and tried watermen to attend faith- 
fully to the duties of said Ferry. For those going to Oregon or 
California, this is decidedly the best crossing place. Aside from 
being over three hundred miles nearer than by Independence, it 
saves the difficult and dangerous crossings of the two forks of the 
Kansas river, the Platte river and several others, and insures the 
protection of the United States troops, as well as the Agency of the 
Ottoes, the Omalios and Pawnees being at the Fluffs. 

The roads to this Ferry from the various crossings on the Mis- 
sissippi through the interior of Iowa are good, well supplied with 



236 ANNALS OF IOWA 

wood and water, and every other article needed by the emigrant, 
and at St. Francis and Council Bluffs all articles of food, furniture, 
&c., that will be needed in crossing the mountains, can be had on 
reasonable terms, as well as good and experienced guides and 
mountaineers; in fact it is designed to be prepared with all such 
articles as the traveler may need to add to his comfort or safety. 
Those who wish to spend the winter here in order to cross the 
mountains early, can find abundance of all that they require for 
themselves and teams. This ferry being on the direct line from 
Chicago to the South Pass, gives it a decided advantage over the 
old route. All North of the Iowa should pass through Iowa City, 
via Trading House, 25 miles, (Bob Hutchenson's residence,) Snook's 
Grove, 24 miles; to Newton, 34 miles; this is the county seat of 
Jasper county; to Fort Des Moines (Raccoon Forks) 30 miles; 
here goods and stores of every kind needed can be had on fair 
terms. From this place the road is the best of any in the state. 
To Brown's ford on North river, 18 miles; Happy grove, 6 miles; 
to Marvin's grove, 6 miles ;to Tucker's grove, 10 miles, (% mile 
off the road;) to Allen's, 9 miles, at the bridge across Middle river; 
to east fork of the Nodawa, 13 miles, good ford; to west fork of 
the Nodawa, Campbell's grove, 15 miles, stream bridged — plenty of 
timber; to east fork of the Nishnabotany, 12 miles, Ferrin's ferry 
at the old Indian village. Here the northern road intersects the 
Mormon trail; to Mt. Scott, 17 miles; to west fork, 5 miles; to 
Silver creek, 10 miles; to Keg creek, 6 miles; here the road forks, 
the right hand leads to Kanesville, the principal Mormon town, the 
left to St. Francis, opposite Council Bluffs Agency in Nebraska 
Territory. 

SOUTHERN ROUTE. 

Eddyville is the principal crossing place of the southern road — 
emigrants would do well to lay in their supplies here as there are 
some five or six large stores, flouring mills, &c.; to Clark's Point, 
13 miles; to Prather's, 12 miles; to Chariton Point, 13 miles, center 
of Lucas county; to Watson's. 20 miles; to Pisgah, 40 miles, to 
Ferrin's ferry at the junction of the northern and southern roads, 
60 miles. The distance from Iowa City to St. Francis, can be trav- 
eled in 12 days with good ox teams. From Eddyville in 14 days. 

CLARK, TOWNSEND, WHEELING & CO. 

St. Francis, July, 1849. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 237 

THE GETTYSBURG SPEECH IN THE IOWA NEWSPAPERS OF 

THE TIME. 

Our file of the Ottumiva Courier for November 26, 1863. 
contains the following editorial upon Lincoln's Gettysburg- 
speech on the dedication of the battle ground on November 
19, 1863 : 

The consecration of a Cemetery on the Battle Ground of Gettys- 
burg on the 26th, [19th] was one of the most solemn and impres- 
sive occasions ever witnessed in this country. — Over 50,000 people, 
including President Lincoln, several heads of Departments, Gov- 
ernors of States, and other persons high in civil and military life, 
were present. A very impressive prayer was made by Rev. Mr. 
Stockton, the eloquent Chaplain of the U. S. Senate. Hon. Edward 
Everett delivered an oration occupying 2 hours and 4 minutes, 
which is pronounced among the most eloquent of his discourses. 
Speeches were made by Col. Forney, and the best one of the occa- 
sion by Lieut. Gov. Anderson of Ohio. President Lincoln spoke 
as follows: 

"Four score and seven years ago, our fathers established upon 
this continent a Government subscribed in liberty and dedicated to 
the fundamental principle that all mankind are created equal by a 
good God, and (applause) now we are engaged in a great con- 
test. We are contesting the question whether this nation or any 
nation so conceived, so dedicated can longer remain. We are met 
on a great battle field of the war. We are met here to dedicate 
a portion of that field as the final resting place of who have given 
their lives to that nation that it might live. It is altogether fitting 
and that we should do this. But in a large sense we cannot dedi- 
cate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The 
brave men lying dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far 
above our poor power to add or to detract. (Great applause) — The 
world will little heed, nor long remember, what we say here; 
but it will not forget what they did here. (Immense Applause.) 

It is for us rather, the living, to be dedicated here to the un- 
finished work that they have thus far so nobly carried forward. 
It is rather for us here to be dedicated the great task remaining 
before us; for us to renew our devotion to that cause for which 
they gave the full measure of their devotion. Here let us resolve 
that what they have done shall not have been done in vain. That 
the nation, shall, under God, have a new birth. That the Govern- 
ment the people founded, by the people shall not perish." 

The National Cemetery adjoins the Gettysburg Cemetery, sloi> 
ing northwards, towards the long line of hills from which the foe 
made their attack. The old cemetery has been beautifully improved, 
though not all the monuments and iron fence demolished by shot 
and shell have been restored. — It is an elevated and commanding 
site, sloping down handsomely all around, except to the eastward, 
where a slight descent brings up to the hill, where the earth de- 
fenses of two batteries are as they were constructed. 



238 ANNALS OF IOWA 



NOTABLE DEATHS 



Lorenzo Frank Andrews was born in Atliol, Massachusett;;, 
March 8, 1828; he died at Des Moines, July 8, 1915. When two 
years of age his parents removed to Brandon, Vermont, remained 
there for ten years, and then returned to Massachusetts. He at- 
tended the common schools and had one term in Troy Conference 
Academy at Poultney, Vermont. From sixteen to eighteen years 
of age he was an apprentice in the office of the Barre (Mass.) 
Patriot. In 1850 he removed to Kalamazoo, Michigan, and worked 
in the office of the Telegraph. Later lie established the Western 
Union at J^iles, Mich., Avhich was destroyed by fire; a weekly 
paper at Girard, Pa., which he sold; served as city editor of the 
Daily Is orthwe stern at Oshkosh, Wis., for a year and as assistant 
editor of the Daily Courier at La Fayette, Ind., for two years. 
In 1863 he removed to Des Moines and entered the office of Mills 
& Company, publishers. While working there he read law, en- 
tered the first class of the Iowa Law School, graduated in 1866, 
was admitted to the practice and appointed United States Com- 
missioner for Iowa. He was State correspondent of the Chicago 
Evening Journal for thirty years and at times for the Chicago 
Tribune, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, St. Paul Pioneer Press and 
New York Tribune. He was night editor of the Daily Register 
under Mills & Company and city editor of the Daily Republican 
and Daily State Journal. In 1880 he was appointed the first sec- 
retary of the State Board of Health. A new law requiring the 
secretary to be a physician was passed the next year, and he 
became assistant secretary, serving for eighteen years and assist- 
ing in the passage of numerous important laws conducive to pub- 
lic health and safety. He reported the proceedings of the legis- 
lature for more than twenty years. In recent years Mr. Andrews 
devoted his time to collecting and recording facts and biographies 
of early days and early settlers in the city and State. In addi- 
tion to his numerous special articles he was the author of "Pio- 
neers of Polk County," a two-volume work published in 1908. 



Clarence S. Wilson was born in Louisiana, November' 11, 1840; 
he died in Des Moines, August 18, 1915. He came to the North 
when a young man, and as a rider on the Overland Pony Express 
carried mail across the plains for some years. He went to Win- 
terset, Iowa, about 1861 and obtained employment as a printer. 
He enlisted in Company D, First Iowa Cavalry, on June 13, 
1861, and after eighteen months' service, received his discharge 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 239 

on account of disability on February 14, 1863. He returned to 
Iowa and in tlie winter of 1864-65 located at Pella, where he estab- 
lished the PcUa Blade. In 1866 he was appointed a clerk in the 
House of Representatives. In 1871 he removed to Des Moines and 
for six years was city editor on the loica State Register. In 1878 
he served as Representative from Polk county in the Seventeenth 
General Assembly and was instrumental in passing the law to 
establish the board of railroad commissioners. In 1887 he became 
one of the founders and first editor of the Bes Moines Daily 
News. He afterward disposed of his interests in this paper and 
Avas city editor on the Des Moines Daily Capital for a time and 
did similar work in St. Joseph and Atchison. He removed to Cali- 
fornia several years ago on account of his health, returning to 
Iowa for special treatment about a year before his death. He 
was considered an ideal reporter and his editorials were widely 
read and quoted. 



Chakles Edwin Bessey was born at Milton, Ohio, May 21, 1845; 
he died at Lincoln, Nebraska, February 25, 1915. He was brought 
up on a farm and received his early education in the common schools 
and in the academies at Seville and Canaan, Ohio. He was grad- 
uated from the scientific course in the Michigan Agricultural Col- 
lege at Lansing, in 1869, and studied at Harvard under Prof. Asa 
Gray, 1872-1873 and 1875-1876. From 1870 to 1884 he was professor 
of botany in the Iowa Agricultural College, then in its pioneer days, 
and served as acting president during the year 1882. In 1884 he 
was appointed to the chair of botany in the University of Nebraska 
and filled that position until his death, also acting as chan- 
cellor 1888-1891, 1899-1900 and 1907, and as head dean since 
1909. He was editor of the department of botany of the American 
Naturalist from 1880 to 1897 and of Science since that date. He 
was probably the most noted botanist in the country, an investigator 
of international repute and had served as president of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, 1910-11; Botanical 
Society of America, 1895-96; Society Promotion of Agricultural 
Science, 1889-91; Department of Natural Science, National Educa- 
tional Association, 1895-96; American Microscopical Society, 1902. 
He was the author of many text books on botanical subjects and 
a contributor to the leading scientific periodicals. 



I 



Melvix H. Byers was born in Noble county, Ohio, January 
12, 1846; he died at Des Moines, July 27, 1915. He removed with 
his father's family to Glenwood, Iowa, in 1853. He worked on a 
farm and attended the public schools until 1864 when he en- 
listed in Company B, Twenty-ninth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, and 
participated in several important engagements. He was mustered 
out with his regiment at New Orleans, August 10, 1865. He re- 



240 ANNALS OF IOWA 

turned to Mills county and assisted his father upon the farm for 
several years, and afterward opened a general store at Glenwood 
which he conducted for ten years. Later he engaged in the real 
estate and abstract business. He was elected county recorder of 
Mills county and held that office six years. He was also mayor 
of Glenwood for three terms. In 1879 he enlisted in the Iowa Na- 
tional Guard and in 1898 received from Governor Shaw the appoint- 
ment as Adjutant General of Iowa. The outbreak of the Spanish- 
American War called for special effort and he organized four regi- 
ments of infantry to serve in that war. He was re-appointed Ad- 
jutant General by Governor Cummins and his whole service ex- 
tended from 1898 to 1905. At the expiration of this period he 
engaged in the life insurance business at Des Moines. In 1909 he 
v/as appointed state oil inspector and filled that position until his 
death. 



Ckaig L. Wkicjht was born in Keosauqua, Iowa, December 5, 
1846; he died in Los Angeles, California, August 6, 1915. He 
was the son of Judge George G. and Hannah M. (Dibble) Wright. 
He attended the public schools of Keosauqua and was graduated 
from the State University of Iowa at tlie age of 19. He received 
his diploma from the Law Department of the University, at Des 
Moines, the next year, and was admitted to the bar in 1868. He 
removed to Sioux City the same year and entered into a partner- 
ship with William L. Joy which continued until 1887. From 1887 
to 1890 he practiced alone. Then with Senator E. H. Hubbard 
he formed the law firm of Wright & Hubbard which continued until 
1896 when a third partner, A. F. Call, was taken into the firm. 
In 1905 Mr. Hubbard withdrew, and the firm became Wright & 
Call. Mr. Wright's special field was corporation law and he was 
recognized as the leading lawyer of Sioux City. He was always 
greatly interested in politics and took a prominent part in work- 
ings of the Republican party. 



Rice H. Bell was born in Marshall county. West Virginia, 
September 7, 1859; he died at Keokuk, Iowa, July 26, 1915. He 
worked on a farm and attended the public schools and was gradu- 
ated from West Alexandria Academy in 1880. He removed to Keo- 
kuk the same year, began the study of law with John H. Craig 
and was admitted to the bar in 1882. He served as justice of the 
peace and judge of the superior court. He was city clerk of Keo- 
kuk for a number of years. He was a Republican in politics and 
had served as chairman of the Lee county central committee. 
Memorial services • were held by the Keokuk Bar Association of 
which he was a member. 



THIRD SERIES 



VOL XII, No. 4 



APRIL, 1920 

(Owing xu the World War tlivre were no copies issued from October, 1915 
until April, 19i'0;. 






I 



A KISTORIGAL QUARTERLY 



% I 



PUBMSIIEO BY THE* 



HISTORICAL DEPARTiMENT OF IOWA 



EDGAR R. HARLAN, Curator 



PRICE $1.00 PER YEAR SINGLE NU.MBER 25 CENTS 



DES MOLXES, IOWA 



Appliciitiun /ui entry uy stconU cl.ia inoner is.p'jriiling 



ANNALS OF lOAVA 

CONTENTS FOR APRIL. 1920. 



M'lscelhiiieoits 



Major William AVilliani.s' Journal of" a Trip to Iowa iu 

1849 2-11 

Rev. Daniel Lane aud his Keo>^au(|na Aeadeniv 283 



Ed'tor'ud D' pari )ne/if 

Suspension and Resumption of the Anaials 307 

Tot\-a Board of Conservatiou 30!) 

Aecomplishnient of State Board of Couservatidu to April, 

1920 311 

Governor Shaw's Portrait 318 

David C. I^Fott, Assistant Editor of the Aniuds 318 

Notable Deaths 319 



Uliislnitioiis 

(Governor Slur.v's Portrait Froutisi)iece 

Portrait of Major WiJIiani Williams 264 

C. F. Clarkson's Sons oi! Temperanee Traveling Card.. 310 




LESLIE MORTIER SHAW 
Governor of Iowa 1898-1902 



Annals of Iowa. 



Vol. XII, No. 4. Des Moines, Iowa, Aprii,, 1920 3d Series 



Mj\JOR AVILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL OF A TRIP 
TO IOWA IN 1849. 

[William Williams, brother of Judge Joseph Williams, 
chief justice of Iowa, journeyed from his home in West- 
moreland county, Pennsylvania, to the West with a view to 
taking up land for future settlement. No record of the first 
part of the trip has been found, but this journal relates his 
experiences and impressions from St. Louis, Missouri, to Fort 
Snelling", ]\Iinnesota, and on the return trip to his home. 
The original journal is in a leather-covered book, 4 by 6 
inches in size. The notes were originally made in pencil and 
later traced in ink. The journal contains many sketches of 
plants, flowers, animals, Indians and scenes particularly no- 
ticed by him. These were likewise done in pencil and later 
traced and colored. He very soon returned to Iowa, remained 
for some time in Muscatine, and in August, 1850, was ap- 
pointed sutler of the new military post at Fort Dodge. Upon 
the removal of the troops in 1853, he planned a town on the 
site of the post and in 1854 located and surveyed the town 
of Fort Dodge. At the time of the Indian depredations in 
1857, Major Williams commanded the Spirit Lake Relief Ex- 
pedition. , He Avas continuously identified with the interests 
of Fort Dodge until his death in 1874. 

Through the courtesy of his daughter, Mrs. John F. Dun- 
combe, who has possession of the original journal, and of 
Mr. II. M. Pratt of Fort Dodge, who kindly assisted in copy- 
ing and editing, we are enabled to publish the journal. — 
Editor.] 

[May 19. 1S^9, -J o'clock, Sat.l, took passage on Steam Boat Kate 
Karney, Capt. Wickley, for Keokuk, Iowa, about 60 passengers on 
board, the improvements on the Missouri Side for Some Miles up 
from St Louis, very fine, on the Illinois Side it Continues low, 
Subject to overflow. Some beautiful Islands, — passed the Mouth of 
the Missouri River which presents a Singular appearance, that 



S4i ANNALS OF IOWA 

Water forces itsself half way across the Mississippi; its Water is 
very Muddy and the Mississippi very Clear, the two Waters keep 
their own Side, dont mix untill they get nearly down to St Louis 
distance — miles. Wisconsin River has two mouths, a long Island 
between, distance to upper mouth . 

Arrived at Alton, Illinois, this is a fine Town, beautifully Situated 
and appears to be a place of importance, arrived here after dark, 
find a Well paved Levee — and Steam Boats moored, a great Crowd 
at the wharf, population Said to be 1,800. took on Several pas- 
sengers. Went to bed, passing in the Night Grafton, Illinois River 
(mouth), Gilead, Harrisburgh, Clarksville. in the morning found 
we were Near Louisiana, Missouri. 

Louisiana, Missouri Side, is a very thriveing little place on an 
elevated Bank with gentle Slope from the Water, just above it a 
high Mound Shaped hill, buildings Some of them quite new & 
good, brick, built in good Style — The population is about 250 to 300. 
a good landing here and room for quite a City, from this place up 
to Hannibal the River is beautifull, Studded with Islands — 

Hannibal, Missouri, Marion Co. — is a most beautifull town, Situa- 
tion on the River & the County seat Palmyra is 12 miles distant — 
Hannibal is the best built town I have Seen of the Size — population 
3,000 — It is Situated on a rising ground, gradually riseing from 
the River, flanked on the upper Side by a high bluff. Streets wide 
& well paved, buildings generally Brick — Modern style, the people 
look inteligent & Active — this is a great point for the Shipment of 
Pork — the banks for Some distance above this place on the Mis- 
souri side are high ground, The Illinois side low and inundated, 
the River here is about % mile wide. 

Marian, Missouri Side, a small & poor place about 150 inhabitants, 
'tis situated on a very extensive flat all subject to inundation; here 
both sides of the river low, The Illinois side generally low from 
St Ivouis up, Missouri side varying — generally high banks. — this 
day, Sunclaii. May 20th, passed 2 Steam Boats Sunk, fine day, high 
stern wind, River rough. Sailing nearly North. 

Quincy, Illinois, County seat of Adams County now in view, 
about 4 miles distant, this is one the the largest towns in the 
State; except Chicago, tis largest, population 6,500. stopped here 
to put out freight & passengers, the town situated on a beautiful 
Bluff— 6 flouring Steam Mills & 2 Steam Saw Mills, an Odd Fellows 
Hall, a Masonic Hall, trade Pork, flour & the produce of the 
Country — Land in this quarter is worth from $15 to $30. Said to 
be the garden of the State from this point to the Illinois River, 
this place has sprung up tis said in the last 12 years — I think it 
would be hard to find in the U. S. a more desirable place to live 
than this is. The town is most beautifully arranged, the buildings 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL 243 

all in fine Style — the Streets wide & Superbly paved & Sanded & 
Shade Trees throughout, generally Locust, now in full bloom. The 
Country in the rear for many Miles nearly level, beautifully im- 
proved, a very fine Levee here on the first bank, on second bank 
on which the town Stands is faced by a ridge of Mounds or eleva- 
tions presenting a fine View of the River, and at this time are 
seated under the Shade trees groups of well dressed Gentlemen & 
Ladies looking on at the arrival & departures of the Steam Boats 
below, from this place they have a View of the River both up & 
down for many miles, tis Certainly a beautiful place, the people 
appear Orderly and intelligent. This is one of the best Pork Mar- 
kets in this Country. 

there has been Since January 20 or 30 Cases of Cholera here — 
LaGrange, Missouri Side, a small town, population about 200, situate 
on the bank of the river, high bluffs in rear, this appears to be a 
Shipping point — 

Canton, Missouri, Situate on an extensive bottom, a Small place 
about 150 population, a great many Negroes here. River wide 
here, great excitement, Crow^ds at the landing enquireing about 
the fire at St. Louis^ — so at all points along the River. Cholera 
here. 

Tully, Situated about one mile above Canton on same flat, popu- 
lation about 400. some good buildings here, large Pork houses 
here. Negroes numerous. Here two Indians came on board who 
belonged to Wisconsin Bull falls, they came down Wisconsin River 
with a raft, are fine looking fellows. Speak tolerable English, 
names I. B. Dubee & Basel Dubee — They Say they are all going to 
move this fall to the Winnebago Country, they are Minomenies. 
Alexandria, Missouri Side, Situated on a level Bank, population 
about 400. rather an ordinary looking place, put out some freight 
here, nearly opposite on the Illinois Side Stands Warshaw — 

Warshaw, Illinois, is a fine looking town Situated on a high Bluff 
on second bank from the Mo. side where we are. I suppose it to 
contain about from 1,000 to 1,500 inhabitants, buildings look very 
well — a good looking Levee & Warehouses down on the first bank, 
from this point we have a view of Keokuk 4 miles ahead, along 
here the Illinois Side is the more elevated. Here the Des Moines 
River empties into the Mississippi on the Missouri Side, tis about 
as Wide as the Connemaugh, Pa — or Kiskeminetas but is navigable, 
arrived at Keokuk, feel unwell. 

Keokuk, Iowa, is situated on a high bluff say 100 feet high, tis 
piled up on a number of knoles, the top of the bluff being uneren. 

*A terrible fire has devastated St. Louis. It is supposed to have 
been the work of incendiaries. Six squares of the business portion 
of the city are in ashes. ***** Several steamboats were 
burned at the wharf — among- them the Montauk. Red Wins? !>n>t 
Alex. Hamilton. Blooinington— 7oit;a Democratic Enquirer, May 19, 1849. 



244 ANNALS OF IOWA 

the number of inhabitants about 2500. The river here is wide. 
I am obliged to stop here as the Packet Boat Stops, will take Boat 
Time & Tide (if not too many German Emigrants on board) to 
night, very unwell, this town is at the foot of the rapids, lower 
rapids on the half breed tract formerly belonged to the Sacks & 
Fox Indians — four Churches, viz. — Methodist, Presbyterian, Catho- 
lic & Baptist. 2 divisions of Sons of Temperance, 1 section of 
Cadets, a Masonic Lodge, Odd Fellows Lodge, 2 printing presses, 
One Steam flouring Mill. The Pork trade is great. 36,000 head of 
hogs Slaughtered here last Winter^ 

The River Des Moins is the line between Missouri & Iowa — went 
to bed very unwell, will go on Time & Tide when she comes up — 
Symptoms of Cholera, very uneasy. 

Monday Morning. May 21st. got up, found the Time & Tide gone 
up. Several who set up to watch for her Still here, they found 
when she arrived that She was literally filled with Dutch Emigrants 
and several cases of Cholera on board— they refused to go on her & 
did not rouse those of us who depended on them, expect the Oragan 
up to day. 

9 oClock in Company with three others hired a Waggon and Set out 
by Land for Fort Maddison by Way of Mont Rose — passed through 
a most Splendid Country of Prairie Land called the Half Breed 
Tract, this is the first Sight I have had of the Prairie lands, tis 
beautiful. Arrived at Mont Rose, dont feel Well this Morning, 
this place is a small place purhaps 200 Inhabitants, on the opposite 
Side, Illinois, Stands Navou The Famous Morman City of Jos. 
Smith, tis quite a large place and a very pretty situation on a high 
blulT, Containing tis said now about 5,000 inhabitants, formerly did 
contain 7,000 Mormans. buildings are generally good. I have a fair 
view of the famous Morman Temple, tis a splendid looking pile 130 
feet by 90 feet and 80 feet high, tis good Work. Built of White 
Coloured Marble, altho very much injured it still presents a fine 
appearance. Walls uninjured, all here agree that the Mormans 
were an injured & abused people — Say all difficulties arose from 
their numbers being great and able to Controul Election, &c &c. 
between Keokuk and Madison 24 miles I passed through the most 
beautiful country, Prairie Lands with timber groves interspersed, 
tis a perfect garden — for the first time I Saw Prairie Hens, they 
are as large & plump as our large Sized fowls — they fly very much 
like our Pheasants — Saw a great number of other birds new to me. 
they are about the Size of the Cow Bird, in colour Something like 
our Thrush except they have 2 Black Stripes on each side of the 
head — the Prairies are here Covered with flowers of Red, Yellow, 
Blue & White Colours. I am already satisfied this is the best & most 
beautiful Country in the World. We have had a delightful breeze all 
forenoon, arrived at Madison, Lee County, Iowa — ■ 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL 245 

Madison, Lee Co, Iowa, is Situated on an elevated piece of table 
Land backed by a bluff of Some 150 feet high, there is better than 
1500 inhabitants, buildings generally tolerably good Appearance, 
on a point above town (upper end of the Town is where Fort Madi- 
son formerly Stood) — They are building the State Penitentiary here; 
tis about half finished, built of very handsome Free Stone neatly 
faced, above the Main entrance is very neatly cut in relief a heavy 
Chain Work, it does not appear to be a place of great business, pur- 
haps to near Burlington & Keokuk being about 14 miles from K. & 
18 miles from B. — the half Breed Tract including from this place 
to Keokuk is in dispute which no doubt retards its improvement, 
the Country is beautiful, the Bank on which Madison Stands is 
very extensive & would afford room for a large City — I am obliged to 
Stay here untill to-morrow noon for the Stage unless a boat Should 
come up. 5 oClock in the evening, sitting at the Window at the 
Eagle Hotel (W. C. Steepe proprietor) from which I have a view 
of the river for Miles, two pretty Islands in front of me about the 
middle of the River which appears here to be considerably over a 
mile Wide. It looks here more like a Lake, being to the eye in the 
distance land bound all around, the Illinois bluffs stand up in bold 
releif on the oposite Shore — a very heavy Storm is approaching in 
the West, tis gathering & comeing up the River which runs nearly 
due West from this point — it looks very black and angry, thunder 
loud and flashes of forked lightning playing with greai rapidity. 
Wind becomeing Very Strong, the Waves on the river very high, 
topped with White Caps — The Scene terrible & Sublime — a ferry 
Boat is on her way, makes for the Island, is caught in the Storm, 
she is tied up, the Clouds break — The torrents of rain forced on by 
wind is comeing up the River, raiseing a white foam on the face of 
the Water — the distant hills or bluffs are no longer Visable on the 
back ground, tis Close upon us, Wind, Rain, thunder and lightning 
is terrific, in the Street are Some people moveing, 2 waggons, 4 or 
5 Women, Some Men & boys driving Cattle & Sheep, great efforts 
are Making by the Citizens to Save them from the Storm — they are 
barely saved from its force — but the poor Horses, Cattle & Sheep 
are left to its force — tis on us, tis terrible — we have no such Storms 
in Penna. it is over — Lasted about 15 minutes, all calm again. 
Clear in the West a beautiful Sunset — 

I find a Masonic Lodge here, 2 divisions of Sons of Temperance — 
One Section of Cadets of T — one of daughters, not a liquor selling 
Establishment in the place, tis the most uniformly Temperate place 
I was ever in. the further I ascend the Mississippi the more Tem- 
perate. No Cholera here. 

Tuesday, May 22. fine Morning, no Boat up yet — I feel anxious 
to get lip to Burlington as I am informed my brother Jos. is there 
holding Court, the Supreme Court met there yesterday. I find 



246 ANNALS OF IOWA 

every person is acquainted with him. Steam Boats — Archer and 
Wisconsin has just passed down, rafts of Logs — laths — boards & 
Shingles are now arriving here, all from the Wisconsin River, the 
raft men are fine, hearty looking fellows, they are originally from 
different States & some half breed Indians, — half Indian, Half 
French. The Sons of Temperance here are Sweeping all before 
them. I am informed they have Initiated as Many as 30 of a Night. 

I am wearied lying here, have put in my time talking to a German 
from the City of Navou — 

The Mormans have all left. Sold out all their property to a French 
Company- who will no doubt make it a great place. He tells me they 
are establishing all Mechanical branches, about 700 have arrived in 
all there, there is to be 25,000 made up of French & Germans from 
the Rhine, they are buying Lands all around Navou on the Illinois 
Side. 

Our Landlord W. C. Steepe is a W.-W. Ward, a little pompous Eng- 
lishman — 1 oClock took the Stage for Burlington by way of Skunk 
River ferry. My Traveling Companion Since I left St. Louis, Mr. 
Keith, Mercht. of St Croix, Wisconsin — a very clever Fellow & a 
Mason & Odd Fellow — We Stick together — left after dinner in Stage 
for Burlington, about 32 Miles by Land, felt very unwell — very much 
debilitated, passed through a most beautiful and rich Country par- 
ticularly between Skunk River & Madison. I think the Prairie 
called Green Bay Bottom is the most beautiful Sight I ever have 
seen, tis a Prairie about 9 or 10 Miles in length & from 3 to 4 Miles 
Wide. Skunk River bottom is well timbered, the River is a Stream 
about like the Loyalhanna. Country rolling from this River to 
Burlington, arrived at Burlington about 5 oCclock P. M. where I 
found my Brother. The Supreme Court was sitting (Judges Greene 
and Kinney, associates) Burlington, Des Moines Co — stopped at The 
Barrett House, proprietor Fletcher, met Jas. Clarke & his brother 
from Greanbe 

This town Originally called Flint Hill — The Indian name was 
Shoquokon, Flint or Rock Hill, beautifully elevated Situation on 
the West Side of the Mississippi River, a place of very considerable 
business, the town is very well built, houses are very good, gen- 
erally tasty. Brick dwellings, a great many handsome residences 
on the More elevated part of the bluff, the number of inhabitants 
between 3,000 & 3,500. a splendid country back of this South & 
West. I find a great many people Crossing at this place, with them 
Ox teams, eight Oxen to a waggon & the Waggons built to float over 
Rivers, they are generally from Michigan & Indiana & Illinois — all 
bound for California — entire families. Men Women & Children — all a 
hardy looking people. — this place is situated on the West Bank of 



^'The Icarian Community, founded by Etienne Cabet, settled in Nauvoo 
in 1849, afterwards i-emoved to Adams county, Iowa. 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL 247 

the Mississippi River. Was the first Seat of Government after the 
formation of the Territory of Iowa, the view of the City is ex- 
tremely picturesque from the River, the Main part of the City is 
situated like an ampitheatre formed by the surrounding hills, beau- 
tiful buildings & private residences on the eminances around, from 
the location of Burlington it must always be a place of Considerable 
trade, the City is well built on modern Style, a very inteligent pop- 
ulation, there are a number of Churches — ^Presbyterian, N. School 
& Old School, Baptist, Congregational, Catholic, Episcopal, Methodist, 
a goodly number of Steam Saw Mills, flouring Mills, founderies, &c, 
a Masonic Lodge, 0. F. Lodge, two Devisions of Sons of T. Cadets 
Sisters, &c, &c. people remarkably Temperate. 

I found my Brother Joseph holding Court here, him & his asso- 
ciates, Judge Kinney & Greene, both young Looking men — the Law- 
yers in attendance appear to be able & respectable looking men. 
About 40 Lawyers in attendance, the great half breed Tract Cases 
are on hand involving at least $1,000,000 worth of property— great 
interest manifested. 4 or 5 excellent Hotels. The Barret House 
where I stop is an excellent house, Fletcher, proprietor; w^ould be a 
Credit to any eastern City — tis a very extensive Concern & the ar- 
rangement very extensive, excellent — I have been here 2 days & 2 
nights — was treated by being present at the practiseing of an ex- 
cellent Band — Brass Band Composed of the Young Gentlemen of the 
City. Met with Lieut Buoy of the 16 Regt. a young Lawyer who 
knew Wm. in Mexico; — The River here is over % of mile wide and 
Steam ferry Boats constantly plying between this and the Illinois 
Shore — the Illinois Shore lies low opposite this for some miles up 
& down the River. 

Thursday the 2^ May. left for Bloomington which is 60 Miles 
above, took Steam Boat, Anthony Wayne,^ 11 oClock forenoon. 
James Golden, Blacksmith, formerly of Hollidaysburgh died at Bur- 
lington the day before I arrived — Several Citizens have died within 
a few days, all of Cholera, among whom was a Mr. Jones just re- 
turned from St. Louis, one of the most extensive Merchants here — 
Country along from this place up to Bloomington generally along 
the River high Bluffs on the Iowa Side and low prairies on the 
Illinois Side — 

Oquawka, County Seat of Henderson County, Illinois. 13 Miles above 
Burlington is a pretty looking little place. Containing over 500 in- 
habitants, buildings look fresh, a very good Court house, looks 
well from the River, tis located on the Margin of a Very extensive 
Prairie which extends as far as I can see. I am informed, with the 

3THE BOATS. THE BOATS. — Our favorite, the Bon Accord, regularly 
supplies us with papers from below. She always passes here on her 
downward trip on Tuesday. 

The Time and Tide for like attentions has our thanks. 
The Anthony Wayne also is entitled to our thanks for liko favors. 
Bloomington — Iowa Democratic Enquirer, June 9, 1849. 



248 ANNALS OF IOWA 

interuption of one bluff that it runs in about 7 or 8 miles from the 
town, that the Prairie extends back for near 50 Miles, our passen- 
gers are Composed of the Lumbermen from Wisconsin, St Josephs, 
Turkey River, &c, and one young Lawyer by name Brown — from D. 
of Columbia bound for Minasote, St Pauls, — in all about 30 passen- 
gers, the Lumbermen are Composed of Shrewd Scotchmen, Yankees 
& half breed Indians— Menomonies — Oquaka is built on the Site of 
an Old Indian Town — Saw here a Very beautiful Indian Bark Canoe 
very prettily modeled & painted in their way. Keithsburgh. 

Keithsburgh, Illinois, a small town commenced about two years 
ago, perhaps 200 inhabitants, rather a promising town — some good 
houses, it has the appearance of an Active business place Situated 
on the upper end of a bluff on a level or flat, this town is the Coun- 
ty Seat of Mercer Co. Illinois — 

New Boston, Illinois Side, is situated on an elevated Bank which 
Stretches or lies along the River for some distance above and below 
the Town. The population about 200 to 250 — oposite this on the 
Iowa side is the mouth of the Iowa River which empties into the 
Mississippi by two mouths, an Island between. The Iowa River is a 
beautiful River, clear & rapid and navigable, with good Stage of 
Water up as far as Iowa City, 90 miles from its mouth. — a great 
many Islands in the Mississippi from Burlington up, and the Banks 
of the River on both Sides generally lined with thick growth of 
timber. The Iowa River is about 300 Yds wide, a good deal of lum- 
ber Comes down it — 

Point Louisa or Wallace's Old Landing, 15 miles below Blooming- 
ton, a Small place, a shipping Point— from this point up to Bloom- 
ington there is a great many Islands, about 7 Miles below Blooming- 
ton the most beautiful Prairies open out on the Iowa side and the 
Island called Muskatine Island is splendid land formed by a slough 
that puts out from the River, this slough is full of Wild Ducks, 
Geese, &c. & on the Prairie Snipe, Prairie Hens & Woodcock — as 
most of the Slough & Island along here are. — I arrived at Blooming- 
ton at Seven oClock. find it to be a very considerable town, excel- 
lent Landing, a great crowd on the Wharf. 

Stopped at the American House, Borelands. Mr. Boreland accom- 
panied me up to My Brother's, found Mary & the family all well 
and very glad to see me. found Kennedy, Wm. & Joseph to be fine, 
promising Young men. Georgianna is a charming girl. Set up late 
talking with the family — 12 oClock retired to bed. 

Friday morning May 2.J [;35]. after a good Sleep got up and after 
breakfast took a look at the town, very much pleased. Joseph's 
residence is on an elevated site which commands a view of the River 
for Miles up & down — 

Called to see Ann Brown, Black Girl, found she was married & 
has three very pretty little Black Children. She was the most de- 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL 249 

lighted creature. Showed me her children, boasted of her husband & 
She calls her Oldest child Mary after sister Mary & little Mary, & 
her son she calls William after myself, & She Says She often has 
told her husband that she would like to give us one of them we 
took such good Care of her. She looks Well, dont See that She has 

changed Much. Met with Col. Thos. Isett. called to See , 

also Mr. and Mrs. Wallace, Mr. and Mrs. Boreland, Miss Culbertson. 
The town all in mourning caused by the death of Some of their most 
worthy citizens, particularly Miss Parvin,"' whose remains was brot 
up from St Louis this morning in the Osxcego}'^ 

Bloomington is a fine town, one of the most important points in 
the State, its Situation on one of the great bends of the Mississippi 
• has great commercial advantages; is the seat of justice of Muscatine 
County. Contains about 2000 inhabitants, is the Natural depository 
for a vast amount of trade from the Surrounding Country, has many 
neat Residences & Several Spacious Brick Mercantile Establish- 
ments — a large Steam Mill, One Smaller One, two printing Establish- 
ments, 6 churches, 4 Physicians, 8 Lawyers, a neat Court house & 
Jail, Masonic Lodge, &c., with a due proportion of Merchts., Me- 
chanics, &c. and 2 Divisions of Sons of Temperance, 1 Section of 
Cadets, Odd Fellows Lodge, the town is very prettily situated, in 
part on a level on the river for two streets back, when the ground 
rises and the remaining Street is elevated in benches, the whole 
Standing in a rise enclosed by a range of high bluffs which runs 
around it in a Semicircular form, forming beautifuU Sites for resi- 
dences, from the bluffs there is a beautifull View of the town below 
and of the Mississippi for Miles up and down, all steam Boats land 
here, passing up & down and as the Country improves above and 
back of it, it must increase the trade & importance of the place, 
wrote home to Wm. * 

Saturday, May 26. cloudy, some rain in the Morning, promised to 
clear up about 10 o'clock, walked about, took a view of the Town. 
Several Steam Boats arrived, everything appears new. find Several 
of the Citizens are yet but Strangers. I like the appearance of 
things very well, much yet to do in gradeing Streets, &c. &c. 

Sunday, 27 May — Another Cloudy day & cold. Went to Presbyter- 
ian Church in the forenoon, herd Mr. Pratt preach, rather a prom- 
ising preacher, rather diffident (young). Evening went to Methodist 

••In St. Louis, of cholera, on Sunday 20th inst., at the residence of J. 

P. Mulford, Miss Lydia Harris Parvin, daughter of John A. and • 

Parvin, of this place, in the 18th year of her age. Bloomington — loua 
Democratic Enquirer, May 26, 1849. 

^"REGULAR PACKET, — From St. Louis to Burlington, Bloomington 
and Roc k Is land. The staunch and elegant passenger and freight steam- 
boat, OSWEGO, Thomas S. Battelle, Master, will run as a regular packet 
from St. Louis to the above named ports during the season. Blooming- 
ton — loica Democratic Enquirer, May 26, 1849. 



250 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Church, herd Mr. Harris^ preach, he is an Englishman, rather a 
Strong man, fine Voice and preaches with great Confidence. 

Mr. Pratt's text 5 Ch/ Math.— Ye are the light of the World. Mr. 
Harris' text 24 Ch. Math. 29 to 35 V. inclusive. The Methodists are 
the largest Congregation here & Very respectable, the Presbyterians 
has a Small Congtn. but very respectable — The town appears very 
Orderly on Sabbath day. 

Monday, May 28. morning Clear promise of a pleasant day. rode 
out today with Mr. Wallace to look at the country lying between 
Bloomington & Ceder River, for the first 1% Miles the broken 
river bluffs continue well timbered; passing this we enter upon the 
Prairie, a most delightful region, an undulating Prairie for twenty 
Miles all arranged in Squares or oblong Sections, half Sections or 
quarter Sections of Land, Some of which are handsomely improved. 
Joseph's Tract lies in this Prairie, a very pretty place, the lanes 
wide & beautiful, as we approach Cedar River tis more broken & 
again Timbered. Saw two Prairie Chickens and a great variety of 
flowers on the open part of the Prairie; the whole is a perfect gar- 
den. Visited the Odd Fellows Lodge this evening. Reed a letter 
from William, greatly relieved to hear from home. 

Tuesday, 29 May. 10 oClock, clear & pleasant Morning. Started 
with Kennedy for Tipton, Ceder County, passed through a beairtiful 
Country, Woodland & Prairie alternately, 25 Miles to Tipton. Saw 
a number of Prairie Hens and Quails also a Species of Squirrel pre- 
cisely like our Common Gray Squirrel — Something less in size and 
head a little longer, Colour Same, they Burrow in the ground in 
the Prairies. — we passed through a Very extensive Prairie — some- 
thing near a Circular form — would I think Measure in Circumfer- 
ence 70 or 80 Miles, a beautiful View, undulating, with Small groves 
interspersed, about 7 miles wide, some places purhaps 10 Miles. 
Surface undulating and the Shadows of the Clouds passing over 
them gives the whole the appearance of a Vast Lake ruffled by the 
wind. Some places you have a View for 20 Miles without interup- 
tion, the whole enclosed in the distance by the distant bluffs of the 
Surrounding Streams Covered with timber untill Colour is lost in 
the distance, the whole Covered with flowers of deep red, yellow, 
Purple & White, wish my friends at home could be here to enjoy 
the sight. 

Arrived at Tipton, 2 oClock. Stopped with Jno. Culbertson. found 
here also J. C. Betts & family, J. Ennis & son. Tipton is a very 
pretty little Town, the County town of Ceder County, Situated in the 
center of the County & the seat of Justice; Contains about 3 or 400 
Inhabitants, the town is Situated on a beautiful Prairie, about the 
Centre of it. Prairie about 6 Miles wide — purhaps 10 in length. 



BJohn Harris, pastor Methodist Cliurch, 1847-48, 1855, 1857. His turn 
of Muscatine Co. West. Hist. Co. 1879. 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL 251 

timbered all around it; about 5 Miles from Cedar River, the town 
is all frame buildings painted white, which gives it a very neat & 
airy appearance, tis very healthy — people very Orderly & plain. 
Majority, Methodists & Congregationalists. good Schools all through 
this country, filling up Very fast. 

rode out this evening with a Mr. Friend to look at some unentered 
Prairie Land, he Conducted me to Some delightfull locations about 
2% Miles from town, fixed on three quarter Section — Worthy of at- 
tention, intend going to the East of this about same distance, 2i/4 
Miles, to Morrow where he thinks I will like it better. I find diffi- 
culty in getting as much together as I want, being cut up in 40 & 80 
Acre tracts, also in getting timber & water on the tracts. I go to 
morrow with a hope I shall be able to include a good Stream of 
Water, no prettier Country in the World, — a perfect garden, my 
greatest trouble is I find that Speculators have every where Secured 
the best of the Woodland, the only plan is to select good Prairie 
Land, well watered & buy 20 or 40 acres of Wood Land to Supply it. 
any quantity can be bought at $5 p Acre. The Woodland is gen- 
erally on bluffs. The Prairie Land is far preferable for farming 
purposes — you can Select the most beautiful farms of 160 — 280 or 
even a whole Section that will every foot of it be like a garden. 

Wednesday, 30 May. after breakfast Started in Company with Mr. 
Friend, Kennedy & ,Jas. Ennis to view some government Land, trav- 
eled East about 3 Miles to the great Prairie, very much pleased 
with the Land, Selected % Sections, if I cant please myself better. 
Swamped in a slough today, dined with Jeremiah Betts & family. 
Started for home to Bloomington 1 oClock. Saw a great many 
quails, large snipes & Rabbits today. The land Selected here is 
about to the Eastern line 2^4 Miles, to Western Boundary 1 % Miles, 
lying on and including Sugar Creek. 

Started for Bloomington at 2 oClock. reached home for tea. 
Thursday, Jiine 1st. rode out with T. Isett to look at the Country. 
Isett has put me on a plan of finding all the Government Land in 
Musketine County, intended to ride out North to look at a peice 
\i Section with Mr. Boreland but was prevented by rain — rained all 
evening — Telegraphed home, not being able to do it sooner the Bat- 
tery being out of order. 

Friday, June 2d. rode out with T. Isett, Selected 2 qr. Sections 6 
Miles from Town, on the Prairie, caught in a Storm, got wet, re- 
turned by one OClock, remained in the house, evening wet. — Rev'd 
Johnston* called, agreed to go to Iowa, City in the morning — if 
clear — this night is a fine clear night, have a fine view of the river 
from Joseph's door; two Steam Boats in view, their fire & smoke as 
they sail along has a fine effect, the scene before me is very fine. 



«Rev. G. J. Johnson was pastor of the Burlington First Baptist Church 
at Its organization, April 1, 1849. History of Des Moines Co. West Hist. 
Co. 1873. 



252 ANNALS OP IOWA 

Saturday, June 3d. Foggy morning, set out at S oClock in compy 
with Rev'd Mr. Johnston of Burlington, having heavy rains yes- 
terday, found the roads bad, partecularly in the neighborlaood of 
Ceder River. 

Ceder River is about as large a Stream as the Kiskeminetas. 
Steam Boats are now running up it for some distance, passed 
through a most Splendid Country, Prairies from 10 to 15 Miles Wide, 
rather more flat than the Prairies in Ceder County, fine roads from 
Ceder River to Iowa City, arrived at the City about 4 oClock, 33 
miles, put up at Mr. Crummy's^ Hotel; a very excellent House & 
very pleasant Landlord. 

The City is laid out on the margin of a very extensive Prairie 15 
Miles Wide, Situated on a lovely rise on the Iowa River, a Stream 
Something like the Conemaugh in Pa. The City is well built up but 
Scattered, — a number of very fine Churches, Baptist, Old School 
Presbyterians, New School Presbyterians, Universalist, Catholic, & 
a very fine building called the Mechanics Association Hall in which 
Schools are kept and in which the Sons of Temperance & Masons 
meet. The State House is a splendid Stone Edefice not yet finished, 
and a very extensive Enclosure or grounds enclosed around it. the 
Streets are Wide & beautifully laid out. population over 1,500. a 
great many beautifull building scites around it and a number of 
Very handsome residences & improvements, have here also Two 
Methodist Churches, The Episcopal & Radicals, 8 Lawyers, 7 or 8 
Physicians, found the Crummy family exceedingly kind & interest- 
ing, they are particular friends of Mary & Joseph's. I like the peo- 
ple here better than any part I have been in. everything looks more 
like home, found many of the first men here very kind & friendly, 
perticularly Doctor Lowe,^ Secretary of State Bunn,° Col Williams,'" 
late Secretary, both Masons, attended this evening their Masonic 
Lodge, a very good one. there is also here an Odd Fellows Lodge. 

Sunday mortiAng, June ^th. a fine Morning — went with the Ladies 
Mrs. Clarke & the Miss Crummys to Methodist Church, Text 2d 
Chronicles, 4 Chapter two last verses of the chapter, a very good 
Sermon preached. 

Afternoon went to Baptist church, heard a very good preacher, Mr. 
Braybrook of Gelena. at 7 oClock in the evening went again to hear 
Mr. Johnston of Burlington, Baptist, had a very elequent discourse, 
text in Ecclesiastes upon the duties of Preachers & hearers. 

Monday. June 5. rode out through the Country over the Iowa Riv- 
er opposite to the city in Company with Mr. Clarke," a young Law- 
yer, son in law of Mr. Crummy, do not like the Land so well as that 



'.Tohn Crummey, landlord of Crummey House. 

"Dr. Enos Lowe was Receiver of Public Monies at Iowa City, 1849. 

"Josiah H. Bonney was Secretary of State, 1848-50. 

i^Col. Jesse Williams was Secretary of the Territory of Iowa, 1845. 

"William Penn Clarke. 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL 253 

in Ceder Co. & that in Muskatine between Bloomington & this City 
altho tis all good, afternoon attended to business at the Land office • 
then turned in with the Ladies, Mrs. Fails, Mrs. Lowe, Mrs. Clarke, 
Mrs. Brown & the two Miss Crummys in Compy with Doctor Lowe, 
Col. Jesse Williams and Mr. Clarke & Mr. Fails, spent the evening 
with them and went again with them to hear Mr. Johnston preach, 
heard an eloquent sermon, text was John, 3d Chapter, 18 V, Con- 
demn'd already, after sermon in Company with the preacher, Mr. 
Johnston, we all went to the Crummy House and was very agreeably 
entertained. They have an excellent choir here Composed of a Union 
from the several Churches. Mr. & Mrs. Fails^^ are the leaders, they 
use Bass Viol & Violins. I have so far been very much pleased with 
the people; they are plain, cheerfull and hospitable. 

Tuesday, June 6. took Breakfast with Mr. and Mrs. Fails. Mrs. 
Fails is a fine Woman, a Yankee, a great Manager & leader, formerly 
a teacher at Fort Atkinson, I believe of Domestic Econemy. a great 
friend of Mason Williams. She is a perfect Major, can entertain 
Company with any Woman I ever saw. i/^ past 9 oClock started 
with Rev'd Johnston, Rev. Archibald & wife of Devenport for Bloom- 
ington. had a Very pleasant ride, reached Bloomington 4 oClock. 
found all well, reed William's letter of the 22d May, very much re- 
lieved to hear all is well at home. 

Wednesday, 7 June, fine morning, when at Iowa City I located 
for Wm. of Land % of a Section near Tipton, Ceder Co. and V4 Sec- 
tion Near Bloomington, about 5% Miles out on the Tipton road. 

Went to the Court House to day to hear their proceedings in 
Court. Judge Grant^-' of Devenport presides. No associate Judges 
in this State, the Bar here rather thin, best Lawyers are Mr. Wood- 
ward, Whitaker and Butler, balance, 2 or three. Very ordinary in- 
deed. Woodward is the best read man by far. not much business in 
any of the Courts. Agencies & Collections principle business and 
Speculateing a pretty good opening for a young Man. a very heavy 
rain this evening. 

Thnrsday, June 8th. clear & cool Morning after a very heavy 
rain last Night, Sun Warm, Streets drying fast, as I have to re- 
main till Joseph can return I have Concluded to go up to Galena in 
the first Boat & see that part of the Country. — 

Thursday, June Sth. Cont'd at & spent the Evening at Joseph's 
with Mr. and Mrs. Senat and Mrs. Popp, a German Lady, was en- 
tertained by Mrs. Popp playing on the Guitar & Singing. She Sings 
well, has Sung in the Operas, has a fine Voice indeed. Sings well. 

6 oClock in the evening took passage on the Oswego Boat, Capt. 
Battelle, for Devenport, Rock Island & during the night passed 



"Mr. and Mrs. Joseph T. Fales. 

"1847. In April, James Grant was elected District Judge of the Sec- 
ond Judicial District. Wilkie's Davenport Past and Present. 1858. 



254 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Rockingham, arrived at Devenport between 11 & 12 oClock in the 
night, after touching at Stevenson, took Lodgeings at the Le Clare 
House," Landlord Mr. Gayle.'' a Splendid house. 

Friday morning, June 9th. very clear, warm morning, took a 
look at the town and Surrounding Country. Devenport is Situated 
on the Iowa Side of the River on a Very extensive flat of Land, 
gently riseing from the River Mississippi for a Mile back, when the 
bluffs rise to considerable hight affording most beautiful! Scites for 
improvements. This is a charming place; buildings good but in 
Some parts Scatterd; Streets very Wide and beautified with Trees 
on each side; Some very pretty residences; a great deal of taste 
displayed, we have a fine View of the River both up & down, the 
population is about from 1,100 to 1,200. the town has the appear- 
ance of a More Ancient town than any I have seen on the Mississip- 
pi, directly opposite on the Illinois Side lies Spread out in full 
view Rock Island and Fort Stevenson, a Town that appears to be a 
place of business, containing a population of 1,800 or 2000. has a 
clean neat appearance from this Side. Devenport is the County Seat 
of Scott county. Supports two Lawyers, four Doctors, has Seven 
Churches — Presbyterian, Methodist, Congregationalist, Baptist, 
Campbelites, New Presbyterians, Catholic, Episcopal. Catholic & 
Congregationalists & Methodists are the most numerous. No Cholera 
here — a healthy place, in Sight a little above is Fort Armstrong 
Situated on Rock Island, a very delightful place 3 Miles long & bet- 
ter ttan a mile wide. Thomas Drum lives at the Fort, also Doctr 
Hewett of Williamsburgh lives there. Hiram Price lives in Deven- 
port. Met with John Rouser here, he is a Justice of the peace; Hi- 
ram Price, Acting Recorder. 

Rock River enters four Miles below on the Illinois Side, this 
River is navigable for 50 to 70 Miles up from Mouth, two large 
Steam flouring Mills that Manufts 620 Bals of flour per Week, One 
Steam Saw Mill, abundance of Iron back of this, 40 Miles in Jack- 
son County, liveing, everything, cheaper in this Country than in 
Penna. Eight or ten stores here, good ones, Some groceries, 3 Drug 
Stores, One Regular Hotel, — 2 Doggaries. One Odd Fellows' Lodge. 
One Masonic Lodge, One Devision of Sons of Temperance, a very 
Temperate place, more so than Stevenson, in Stevenson One Mo 
sonic Lodge, One Chapter, One Odd Fellows Lodge, One Division 
Sons of T— 



"Le Claire House. It was built in 1839, at a cost of $35,000, by 
Antoine LeClaire, and was at the time a marvel of beauty and magnitude; 
and was not excelled anywhere in the Mississippi Valley. It was for 
a time Davenport proper, — inasmuch as it was the rallying point for 
all residents of the city, and during the summer was a resort for vis- 
itors from St. Louis and other southern cities, who came here with 
their families to ruralize, hunt, escape warm w^eather and yellow fever. 
Wilkie's Davenport Past and Present. 1858. 

»*Mr. Gayle's name not given in the list of landlords. A William H. 
dayle was a Davenport pioneer of 1840. — Ed, 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL 255 

a very fine college^® at Devenport under the Direction of the Con- 
gregationalists ; a Very fine building, beautifully situated on the 
bluffs in rear of the town. 

rained this evening. Steam Boat Wisconsin" came up this even- 
ing, too much Crowded, did not take passage. 10 oClock Steam 
Boat Dr. Franklin," Packet, came up bound for falls of St Anthony, 
took passage on her for Galena. Boat Crowded with passengers, 
passed in the Night Parkhurst at the head of the Rapids, Camanche 
— Iowa Side. 

Saturday, June 10. Sun rise arrived at Albany, Illinois, a small 
place, apparently new; Some good buildings, good warehouse, popu- 
lation about 100, fine country back of it. passed Fulton City on the 
Illinois side, situated on an extension flat, a promising looking place 
about 250 inhabitants; — & Lyons, Iowa Side, a small place, popula- 
tion about 75 to 100, pretty situation, country along here very 
pretty on both sides — 

Sabula, Jackson Co. la. situated on an Island on the Iowa Side of 
the Main channel. Situation is high & beautifull; Town scattered, 
one or two Warehouses, a Hotel & a very pretty situation. Island 2 
or 3 miles long & appears to be over one Mile Wide, two Miles to 
Sevannah. 

Sevannah on Illinois Side, situated on the River bank on a narrow 
strip of flat land which puts out into a beautifull valley where the 
town stands; about % mile wide, rather low for health, town has 
rather a dull appearance, building very common frames, but one 
brick building in this place, population I suppose to be about 300. 
took in 3 or 4 passengers & about 50 sacks of corn here, a great 
place for Wooding. 

about 11 oClock cleared up & sun came out after a dull cloudy 
morning, very pleasant, amused myself in looking at the country 
on each side of the River, the Iowa side is decidedly preferable; 
the bluffs put in closer to the River here & a great many Islands, 
the Illinois side for Some distance is a high bluff of bare Sand 
banks, the Iowa Side covered with a luxuriant growth of timber. 
I have all this forenoon amused myself in looking at the fish jump- 
ing out of the Water, Pike, Salmon & Sturgeon. I have seen Stur- 
geon four feet, I think, long and Pike from 2 to 3 feet. Salmon gen- 
erally appear to be from a foot to 18 inches long, passed Apple 
River, a small River on the Illinois side, took 40 bals. of flour in. 



i"Iowa College. The first building was erected (near Western Avenue, 
between Sixth and Seventh Streets) * * * *. It was a small, one- 
story brick edifice, with a plain cupola. * * * * The trustees were 
incorporated under the statute, June 4, 1S47. Wilkie's Davenport Past 
and Present. 18.58. 

^'The officers of the Wisconsin favored us with St. Louis dates of the 
ISth. Muscatine — Iowa Democratic Enquirer, July 21, 1849. 

i"Dr. Franklin, No. Two. — A new, fast and elegantly furnished boat. 

* * * * y^tq advise those who travel to try the Dr. Franklin, No. 
Two. Bloomington — loiou Democratic Enquirer, June 9, 1849. 



•J56 ■ ANNALS OF IOWA 

a great many passengers on Board, we have Representatives of 
every state nearly on Board, Several Scotchmen, half breed Indians 
& traders, we have 4 Pennsylvanians bound for Minnesota. All in- 
teligent, hardy young men & very orderly & decent in their deport- 
ment. The scenery here is beautiful. Some beautiful locations on 
the Iowa Side, we are sailing now along Jackson County in that 
State. 

Bellview, Jackson Co., Iowa, a flourishing town 12 miles from 
Galena, this is a choice location; tis situated on a high bank & 
flanked by the highest bluffs I have seen in the State, the scenery 
around the town is very romantic, the Rocks jut out & are piled 
up in grand Confusion, in the rear of the town is most beautiful 
ridges coverd with a fine groth of timber, there is here a Splendid 
flouring mill. Some Warehouses, Taverns, Stores, & population I 
suppose about 350, a good ferry and a number of Waggons & people 
Crossing from tiTe Illinois Side into Iowa to settle, there is now 
on the Bank 6 or 7 Waggons and Something like fifty Emigrants. 

Fever River, ascended this River 8 miles to Galena, this River 
is about as wide as the Schuylkill but much deeper, there is a 
great many Islands in the Mississippi at the Mouth of this River, 
along this River on the right side the hills put into the River in 
the Shape of Mounds bare of Timbers, as we ascend, both Sides of 
the River assumes the Same appearance, this River is Very 
Crooked, arrived at Galena 1 oClock. 

Galena is Situated on the two sides of Fever River with a draw 
Bridge Connecting, the Town is built on Steep bluffs on both sides 
of the River resembling Mounds, one towring over the other & 
forming numerous revines & Mounds, the River Street narrow & the 
buildings fronting it generally built with their back Walls to the 
hill, the Town off the river St presents a Scattered appearance for 
a Mile & an half along the River. Many of the highest hills are 
beautifully improved, buildings generally good with a great Many 
Splendid residences overlooking the Town. Many of the Streets 
are very Crooked as they follow the revines amid the hills. The 
population over 6,000. there is five Presbyterian Churches, 1 Metho- 
dist, - Baptist, One Lutheran, 2 Catholic, the business of the place 
is brisk; a great Many drays and Ox teams hauling Lead, a Mer- 
chant informed me the principle trade is the Lead. Over 700,000 
Bars of Lead is Shipped from this place annually, the surrounding 
Country is full of the ore and furnaces all around at the distance of 
14 to G & 8 Miles. 

regular lines of Steam Boats run up this far. the River is not 
Navigable above this place.— their wharf here has quite a business 
appearance; the pig lead is piled up Very neatly as high as my 
hed and Stands all along the wharf in Squares of about 20 piles in a 
Square, and in the sun presents a fine appearance. I walked out % 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL 257 

Mile lO a furnace, while our Boat was dischargeing & takeing oa 
freight & procured Some Ore. I am much pleased with the City of 
Galena. Their Churches are Splendid; indeed, there is as fine 
Blocks of four-Story buildings here as are in any City Eastward, 
their business houses arranged in Complete City Style, the City may 
be said to be located in a trough with the River in the Center and 
amid the hills on each Side, half concealed & half disclosed, you see 
that the various Streets follow the revenes among the hills. — 5 
oClock P. M. Boat turned & put down again, then up the Mississippi. 

There is an Excellent Temperance Hotel here, a large Devn. of 
Sons, Masonic Lodge, — 0. F. Lodge, good Schools under the School 
Laws of Illinois, arrived at Debuque after dark, this appears to 
be a considerable place, the County 'Seat of Dubuque Co., Iowa, 
after discharging some freight proceeded up the River. 10 oClock 
went to bed. 

Sunday morning, June 11th. Morning Clear & fine, begins to 
feel a change of Climate, tis much cooler, a pure, Sharp breese. 
now about 3 miles above French Town, an old French Settlement 
about 15 miles below Prairie DuChein. passed in the night Peru, 
Cassville & Prairie Le Porte, small and unimportant places — likely 
to go down Since the removal of the Indians, the River & Sur- 
rounding Country is beautifull here, immediately on the River 
along here there is on both sides from One to two Miles of Bot- 
tom and that backed by high bluffs piled up in the form of Cones, 
bare of timber except here & there a Solita;'y one or two hills all 
green & beautiful, passed Mouth of Turkey River in the night 
near Cassville. we now have Wisconsin on the right hand & Iowa 
on the left, the Country on both sides is beautifull. 

landed at McGregors^" Ferry, Iowa side, Clayton Co. directly 
opposite we have in View Prairie Du Chein and Fort Crawford. 
The Fort looks exceeding well from this point; very extensive im- 
provements, the buildings painted white as chalk, the Town above 
— both are Situated on a very extensive Prairie that runs up & 
down the River as far as the eye Can reach and from One to two 
Miles broad, on the back ground a continued range of high bluffs 
from 200 to 300 feet high and perfectly green with but littfe timber 



^"The following note was made by the writer in the back of the jour- 
nal : — Ed. 

"Alex McGregor of McGregors Landing, Clayton county, Iowa, I found 
on visiting it the second time, to be a decendant of Rob Roy McGregor. 
He has settled there and Several of the Old Clan are gathering around 
him. He showed to us the original Seal and Signet of Rob Roy, T. W. B. 
Heming. One of which is the ancient Clan Seal. The inscription is in 
Gaelic. 

Triogal Ma Dh'ream. or 
I am of royal descent, & 

Een dhn bait spair nocht. or 
Slay and spare not. 

engraved on a blood stone from Loch Lomond in Perthshire. Helen 
McGregor, his daughter, is a fine bouncing girl, a little proud of her 
ancestry." 



258 ANNALS OF IOWA 

on them, the timber is in Small groves of Cedar & Oak which dots 
the hill sides, the bluff Slopes towards the Prairie by falling off 
in broken ridges or Mounds nearly the shape of Cones, growing 
smaller & change to the form of an Oven as they close in upon the 
Prairie, the whole Scenery is delightfull. This is an ancient 
French town or Settlement. 

crossed the River to Prairie Du Chein and took in 400 Bals. of 
Flour, a fine Steam Mill here, on approaching the Shore I saw 
the first Indian, he came down to the bank of the River and took 
his seat on the Grass to look at the Boat landing, after landing he 
came on board with his interpreter, the famous old man Reed, a 
native of Kentucky who has been a great many years with the 
Indians, Married to a Squaw and in the employment of the Amer- 
ican Fur Company. The Indian is a chief of the Winnebagoes; 
Name, Ouna-kot-a-ka, or Big Bear; a large fine looking Indian 
dressed in Calico, Short Buckskin leggons, Red Blanket over his 
shoulders; a very pleasant looking yet degnified fellow, immedi- 
ately opposite to this place in Iowa on Turkey River was their late 
residence, they were not long since removed pretty much by force 
to the West Side of the Mississippi near St Peters and are very 
much dissatisfied, say they have no good hunting ground there. 
Many of them have returned to their former home and this chief's 
business is to gather them up & induce them to go home. He says 
tis hard to leave their former hunting grounds & the homes of 
their Fathers but he wishes to have no trouble with his great 
Father, the Presdt. Poor Indians! I have had a long talk with 
this Chief through his interpreter, he is a noble specimen of the 
Red Man. he says the last winter has been very hard on them. 

The Town Prairie Du Chein is Scattered over the Prairie, popu- 
lation over 500, made up principally of French Creoles, half Indians 
& negroes, a mixed race generally. The American Fur Compy. has 
a large Store here. 

The Fort Crawford stands on a rise in the Prairie & is a very 
tasty improvement. The English of Prairie Du Chein is "The land 
of Dogs," being originally inhabited by the Dog chief, Dog. Village 
formerly in great numbers, a few very pleasant French Families 
here.^ The Wisconsin River empties in below this place about 4 
miles. 

5 oClock afternoon, from P Du Chien up to the line of Iowa 
State, (upper Iowa Rivers mouth), the bluffs have been growing 
higher & higher, presenting to the River the appearance of the 
Gable end of houses and a Solid Rock front, the hills here look 
generally like a Cone cut in two with the flat side presented to the 



^Carver found a considerable town on the Mississippi near the mouth 
of the Wisconsin, called by the French "La Prairie les Chiens", which 
is now Prairie du Chien, or the Dog Prairie, named after an Indian chief 
who went by the dignified name of "The Dog." Plandrau's History of 
^Minnesota. 1900. 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL 259 

River, on the Wisconsin the Shores are generally low & the hills 
about a mile back continue to have the appearance they have at 
P Du Chein.^ discription of the bluffs on the Iowa side along 
Allamakee Co. for 20 miles below the Minnesota Line, Iowa River." 
the flags-* represented mark the Graves of distinguished Winnebago 
Indians, they are flying on the hills, that are, I suppose 350 feet 
high. Allamakee & Winnesheek Counties was the great Settlement, 
also Clayton Co., of the Indians, passed here Capila Rock=^^ where 
there Stands a Singular Rock, an Indian God painted up by the In- 
dians & worshipped by them, the Capila Mound or Rock stands a 
short distance above on the Iowa side."^ on the Wisconsin side 
stands the Old Indian Village Winnesheek. Winesheek. innumer- 
able pidgeons here on the low grounds & Islands, arrived at the 
mouth of Bad Axe,^ the old Battle ground of Black Hawk on the 
Wisconsin Side.-^ 

we now have Minnesota territory on the left side and Wisconsin 
on the right. I flnd a great change in the temperature of the atmos- 
phere, our course all day has been from N. W. to North, the coun- 
try back from the River, both sides, is level, a great part of it put- 
ting off into rolling Prairies, to me tis a very interesting country, 
the scenery & general features of it entirely new to me. never could 
a country be better adapted to the life the Indian leads, the hills 
and revenes furnishing shelter for them during the winter and the 
country back the finest hunting grounds, good Timber all through 
this country along the streams. A great many Islands in the River 
from Bad Axe up for some distance, the sun is setting and a beau- 
tifull sunset it is. Our course now is nearly due North, close to 
our Boat a Cat 3 feet long just jumped Clear out of the Water, a 
great many fish in the River here, Sturgeon, Pike, Pickerel, Hass, 
&c. passed Coon Slough here, the River is very narrow & rapid, 
the Country back on both sides of the River is a Mineral Region, 
about 40' Miles back on the Wisconsin region is a Copper Mine & 
on the Iowa Side Lead all through it, also Iron, went to bed 10 
oClock. 

Monday, 12th June, this morning cloudy, looks like haveing rain, 
found myself on getting up approaching Wabbisha, an Indian town. 
Sous or Sioux, tis situated on a very extensive Prairie, looks as 
the it was 15 miles long & 4 or 5 Miles Wide, there is a Village of 
Some twenty five Bark Lodges or houses and above it a short dis- 



^Original journal shows sketch giving the appearance of the hills 
around Prairie du Chien. 

--Original .lournal has sketch showing shape of the mounds around 
Prairie du Chien. 

=2Referring to sketch in original journal, probably of Ft Crawford. 

-^Painted Rock, Allamakee county. 

^^'Original journal shows sketch of Caplin Rock and Indian God ravines 
filled with fine springs. 

^Battle of Bad Axe. August 2. 1832. 

-'Original journal shows sketch of battle ground of Bad Axe. 



260 ANNALS OF IOWA 

tance about 10 or 12 Teuts. the little Indians are running about the 
lodges the old ones sitting about, some few by pairs are seen in 
the distance apparently hunting their Ponies, and Cattle are graze- 
ing in flocks over the Prairie, the Prairie is a beautifull One, be- 
longs to the Sioux yet, not purchased of them, about a Mile above 
the Village there is an enclosure of Pickets and a Mound, the Grave 
of one of their Principal Chiefs.-** passed in the night mouth of 
Black River — Wisconsin & Root River. River of the Mountain 
passed this morning, on the Minnesota Side the White Wolf River. 

Indian Graves along the Shores built over with logs and a port 
set at the head painted white & red with a round head Striped red 
& white — marked in Picture writeing. the Sous or Sioux Indiana 
are a noble looking race, in this district what they call the lower 
Band reside, passed Zumbra or Drift River Minnesota Side, imme- 
diately above the mouth of this River is an Bncamnment of Sioux 
and has the appearance of a Sugar Camp, the young Indians appear 
to be naked, jumping, clapping their hands & hooping at us as we 
pass. Men and Squaws setting about their lodges looking on. 

the river is very full of Islands for some distance above Drift 
River, indeed, untill we approach Lake Pepin the bluffs still have 
the same appearance that they have from Prairie Du Chein up to 
Bad Axe, but stand back further from the River. The Musquetoes 
are very bad here when we approach or lay to the Shore to Wood, 
they are very anoying in the timberlands along the river, also what 
they call Buffalo Gnats are bad. I feel sensibly the change of Cli- 
mate; the air is quite cool and braceing. very pure & delightfull 
Water in this country, must be a very healthy Country. 

I find all kinds of people pushing up for the new territory, we 
have on Our Boat French, Germans, Pennsylvanians, Ohioans & from 
Illinois, N. York, Massachusetts, Maryland & Virginia. Majority 
from Penna. & Illinois, (now Wooding 12 miles below Lake Pepin). 
Young Davis of Chester Co. Pa. defeated here — his retreat to the 
Boat, fie.'" passed Wabasha, The Half breed Village, built up in 
French Style, a great many Indians on the bank of the river look- 
ing at the boat, here I see the first Indians on horse back scamper- 
ing over the Prairie below the village, and above, droves of Indians 
comeing over the hills in Indian file with great loads on their backs. 

The Half breed tract includes all on the Minnesota Side from 
Drift River up to Red Wing, the neighborhood of this village is 
the most beautifull Country in the world for beauty of location, the 
Prairie on which the Village is, together with the surrounding 
hills, cant be excelled. This tract runs along the river for 50 miles 



^^Original journal shows sketch of Sioux village and the surrounding: 
hills. 

^"Evidently a note made by the writer which he intended to elaborate 
and did not. 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL 2r)l 

and includes all the Territory for a day's journey back, tis not yet 
purchased of the Indians, when it is it will afford the best oppor- 
tunity for speculation, tis just at the entrance of Lake Pepin, it 
commences & runs down the River for 50 Miles, all the country 
back is a Mineral Region, the Prairie on which the Village stands 
affords a scite for a City that would contain 1,000,000 of a popula- 
tion, with a most splendid Bank that never will overflow, and on 
the back ground a beautifull range of hills covered with splendid 
groves of timber of beautifull foliage. The half breed Indians are 
a mixture of French & Indians, they are generally lighter coloured 
than the full bloods, there is a great many full bloods in here, 
men, Squaws & children, lying about on the bank of the River the 
young lads are very lively, cut a great many capers and generally 
very fantastically dressed. 

as we enter the Lake Pepin the Water is very rapid. Lake Pepin 
is an enlargement of the River; it opens out to the width of from 
2% to 4 or 5 miles wide, passed mouth of Chippaway River just 
before entering the Lake, it comes in on the Wisconsin side. Lake 
Pepin is 22 miles long & from 4 to 5 miles wide, some splendid 
country on each side, perticularly on the Minnesota side, the most 
beautiful Cornelion is found on the bank of this Lake, at the head 
of this Lake on the Wisconsin side Stands the famous Rock called 
the Lovers Leap, or Maiden Rock, the tale of the Lovers leap or 
Indian girl jumping off of it is founded here, tis said to be a fact. 
her People wanted her to marry a Trader, and rather than do it 
she threw herself off this rock, tis a perpendicular Rock 300 feet 
high, at the termination of a bluff that puts into the river, stands 
close to the River or Lake, face smothe as follows:'^ 

on the Minnesota side the half breed tract continues, on the 
Wisconsin side is the tract of Country known by the name of the 
Carver Claim.^- passed Mouth of Rush River on the Wisconsin side. 
I am indebted to a Mr. James McPhail, long a trader & resident of 
this Country, now lives on the Willow River Lake St Croix, for 
names of places, &c. 

The Islands for 5 or 6 Miles above the Lake are alive with Pid- 
geons. there are millions of them on all sides. A very heavy rain, 
— the river is riseing very fast, passed the Crow Wing Village of 
Indians, they appear to be cultivating considerable ground.'' a 



^■^Original journal shows two sketches — side view of Maiden llock, 
and front view showing the Lover's Leap. 

"-Tlie first traveler and author visiting and describing Minnesota af- 
ter France lost her American possessions was Jonathan Carver. Start- 
ing from Boston in June, 1766, Carver traveled to the strait of Macinac 
and Green Bay, and then by the canoe route of the Fox, Wisconsin and 
Mississippi rivers to the area of IMinnesota. Here he spent the follow- 
ing winter with tribes of the Sioux. At his return east, begun in the 
.spring of 1767, he made a treaty, as it may be called, with two of the 
Sioux chiefs, who formally granted to him a large tract of land on the 
east side of the Mississippi, including the area of the present site of 
St. Paul. Minnesota in Three Centuries, p. 281. 1908. 

:j30riginal journal shows a sketch of Red Wing, a Sioux village. 



262 ANNALS OF IOWA 

great many men, Squaws & young children & dogs on the bank of 
the river looking at our Boat, two young Indians courseing their 
ponies, all the grown Indians have their blankets over their 
shoulders but many of the young ones are naked, tis a novel sight 
to me. there is 22 Lodges and a Missionary House, Catholic, in this 
Village. 

this evening's clear, a very beautiful sun set. we have left the 
Mississippi and entered the St Croix River, now sailing up St 
Croix Lake after passing up a narrow neck from the mouth or out- 
let. This Lake is about from ly^ to 2 miles wide & about 30 miles 
long; the most beautiful sheet of Water I ever saw. tis as smoothe 
as glass and as clear as Crystal, with rock bound shores nearly all 
the way up. the bluffs are about one hundred & fifty feet high with 
a gradual slope to the water's edge, tis the intention to run up to 
Still Water & Marine Mills above the head of the Lake 12 miles.— 
the point where this River empties into the Mississippi must be- 
come an important point, a fine location for a town, there is now 
there a very good settlement, a store, warehouse, &c. &c. 

in ascending this Lake our course is due West it runs from West 
to East, the night is cool & clear, cant sleep, the Boat is full of 
musqnetoes, haveing received a large supply where we last Wooded 
on the Mississippi, passed Willow River's mouth 6 miles below 
Stillwater, a warehouse & some buildings here, arrived at Still- 
water, discharged freight & passengers here. Stillwater is at the 
head of the Lake, a very brisk place; is the rival of St Paul's, 
population is from 3 to 500. buildings very good, frame, all painted 
white, a large warehouse, good wharf, &c. &c. discharged freight 
& passengers here. 

pushed up the river St Croix 12 miles fruther to Marine Mills, 
discharged more freight here & some passengers, good Saw Mills 
here; a place of some business, particularly in the lumber trade, 
returned down to the Mississippi, haveing run up the St Croix 
about 50- miles. The Marine Mills are owned by a Compy., built 
on what was called by the Chippawas, Fall River; fine water power, 
tis 25 miles from this point by land across to St Peter's on the 
Mississippi, above this place 20 miles is the Falls on the St Croix, 
good water power above the falls not yet taken up. this River is 
the devideing line between Wisconsin & Minnesota, Minnesota on 
the West and Wisconsin on the East bank, this is certainly one 
of the. finest regions in the world, tis the best watered country I 
ever saw, perticularly the Minnesote side, water of the purest kind 
appears to be gushing out of every hill side, the whole country 
is beautifully deversified with hills & valleys or Prairies, beautiful! 
Lakes all through it and fin-e water power. Bear Lake is a most 
delightfull country; indeed, all the country lying between the St 
Croix & the Mississippi is delightful. 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL :i6:; 

Tuesday, June 1.3th. foggy morning, found the Boat moored at 
the Marine Mills, discharging a great portion of her freiglit and 
about 50 of our passengers, this is a great Lumber Country — very 
large rafts floating down this morning, all kinds of lumber, left 
the mills for the Mississippi again, at 8 o'clock a. m. returned to 
Still Water. 

Stillwater is the County seat of St Croix Co., Minnesota, situate 
one mile below the head of Lake St Croix, a very thriveing town, 
they are building very fast, there is now about 60 houses, popula- 
tion about 500, 2 large Hotels, the Minnesota House & the St Croix 
Hotel, they are putting up a good Court House, building all frame, 
neatly painted White; location a hill side riseing gradually from 
the lake with an Eastern exposure.^* 

The Signification of Minnesote is troubled or Muddy Water, a 
Sioux Name.^ 

fine fish in the Lake, Specked Trout, Pike, Pickeral, Herring, Bass, 
Sturgeon, &c. &c. along the shores of this Lake & White Bear Lake, 
9 miles from this, in low Water the most beautifull Cornelion are 
found in great quantities. I have procured a few but the Water 
being now unusually high the shores are too much coverd. this is 
a Mineral region. Iron, Copper & Lead found in the Country on 
each Side. See some very rich Specimens of Copper Ore at Still- 
water, proceeded 20 to 40 miles back on the Minnesote side, ar- 
rived at foot of the Lake St Croix 9 oC'lock night, after lingering 
all day since 11 oClock towing out a number of rafts becalmed in 
the lake, put up the Mississippi for St Peters. 

Rush River — ^below the Mouth of this Lake is a splendid Stream 
of Clear Water fed by Springs and is said to be the greatest Trout 
Stream in the World, they catch Trout here weighing from 1 to 9 
pounds, the Country along this Stream is also said to be one of 
the best districts in Wisconsin as to soil & timber, there is in 
the East a wrong impression of this Climate, it is in about the 
same Latitude with Albany, N. Y. from what I see every thing is 
as far forward as Penna. I believe I would prefer it to that part 
of Missouri I have seen. Certainly is a much more healthy region, 
but Iowa in my estimation is the Star State, went to bed. 

Wednesday, June I'fth. awoke early, found our Boat landed at 
St Pauls discharging flour. I took a walk up the steep bluff and 



-'^Original journal shows a sketch of Stillwater and a map of Lake St. 
Croix. 

''^The word is composed of two Sioux words, "Minne," which means 
water, and "Sota," which means the condition of the sky when fleecy 
white clouds are seen floating- slowly and quietly over it. It has been 
translated, "sky-tinted," giving to the word Minnesota the meaning of 
sky-tinted water. The name originated in the fact that, in the early 
days, the river now called Minnesota used to rise very rapidly in the 
spring, and there was constantly a caving in of the banks, which dis- 
turbed its otherwise pellucid waters, and gave them the appearance of 
the sky when covered with light clouds. Flandrau's History of Minne- 
sota. D. 48. 



264 ANNALS OF IOWA 

took a view of the town generally, the upper or new town is laid 
out on a wild looking place situated on high bluffs which have a 
steep face to the River & Rocks projecting, the lower, or Old 
French town, is composed of about 10 or 15 houses, some of the 
bark roofs, in this part is found Half breed Indians '& French and 
Canadian French, this part stands on a lower ground just above 
a revine where Carvers Cave is. site of the upper town is more 
broken & it stands on a succession of benches of land, there is a 
great many people here, many of them have for a covering their 
Waggons & tents, there is two large frame Hotels going up & a 
great many small frame buildings scattered among the bushes, for 
the greater part of the ground where the new Town stands is not 
yet grubbed out, full of Hazel bushes & Scrub Oak. they are asking 
as high as $500 for lots. I think they will have a great deal of 
work to do here before they will have things as they should be. 
there is a Slough 100 yeard wide between the town and the river, 
over which they have built a causeway to get from the River to 
the town, between the River & the Slough there is barely room for 
three or four Warehouses, two are here erecting. 

the great objection to this place is that the bluffs are too high, 
100 feet high generally & almost perpendicular, so with the excep- 
tion of about 100 to 150 yd. opposite the upper town, & there tis 
quite Steep, perticularly at the Second bank, they are building fast. 
I suppose there is now in an unfinished state at least 40 small, 
frame buildings, the population is a very mixed one some of the 
most inteligent & some mixed with the Indian French. I -would 
judge from appearance that the active, shrewd population that is 
putting in here will soon expel all the old inhabitants, they are 
like oil & water, wont mix. I think they cant live together, wont 
mix. I am surprised to see the inteligent lady-like appearance of 
all the females here, liveing many of them in huts, cheerful! & 
happy, the Majority of them are from St Louis, Illinois, N. York, 
Maine, Massachusetts, Virga. & Ohio. 

Gov. Ramsey & Judge Meeker™ inform me tis a most splendid 
country all the way down on the opposite side of the River till it 
joins State of Iowa. Latitude about the same as Plattsburgh, N. Y. 
a great many Indians here, tradeing. the country around is not 
yet settled to any extent, have to get all provisions from the 
lower Country, everything high here, boarding $3 p. week & that 
generally pork & beans, the town has sprung up principally since 
the opening of navigation this spring; population said to be about 
1300. the place has a new & scattered appearance, it will even- 
tually be a place of importance but it will be sometime hereafter, 
not till the country around fills up and improves the fine Land & 



^Judge Bradley B. Meeker was Associate Justice of tlie Territory of 
Minnesota. 




MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL 265 

add support to the Town, at present everything is on the Swell 
& reaction must take place. — 

1 oClock left for St Peters which is Seven Miles above. Carvers 
Cave just below town is an interesting place, there is also a large 
Cave about a mile above town, the River from this up to Fort 
Snelling is high bluffs & Rock bound shores. Water now very high. 
St Peters,"' opposite or rather below Fort Snelling, is a small place 
with a tradeing house, &c. of the Fur Company, here also three 
or four good Stone buildings in one of which Governor Ramsey 
has his residence.'" at present the Town is situated on a bluff at 
the mouth of the St Peters River, population about 100 to 150. 
a great many Winnebagoes and Chippaway Indians here, about 400. 
tis quite an interesting sight, men. Squaws & children encamped 
all about this region, the squaws in Canoes rowing about, catching 
pine logs & lumber that has come down the river washed off from 
the owners by the high water, for which they get 50 cts a log from 
the owners, the Men & young children sitting along the banks of 
the River, wrapped up in their blankets, giveing their directions to 
the Squaws, here We have them young & old; the quite young 
ones are naked, some of the men well dressed, fine looking fellows. 
all are wrapped up in their blankets with feathers in their heads 
& generally red legons. the squaws have on generally Blue Skirts 
with a Calico garment very much like the Josey's'" worn by our 
Ladles. I think the Chippawa's are better looking Indians than 
the Winnebagoes. 

crossed over to Fort Snelling and all our passengers went into 
the Fort, was very kindly received by the officer of the day, Capt. 
Page, there is 3 Companies of the 6 Reg. of Infantry here, a fine 
looking body of men. Col Loomis, Commdt.^" was treated to music 
by their excellent Band in Number 16. they play'd several Marches, 
Waltzs & wound up with "there is No Luck about the House" With 
variations, tis a splendid Band; I never herd so good a Kent Bugler 
as their leader is. 

left the Fort, run up to Falls St Anthony, the Mississippi & St 
Peters is high, great sport to see the squaws rowing for life to 
get out of the way of the Steam Boat, & the Indians along the 



37* * * a point called "St. Peter's," (since known as IMendota.) On 
May 27, [1849] Hon. Alex Ramsey, of Pennsylvania, who had a short 
time previously been appointed Governor of the Territory, arrived with 
his wife, but being unable to secure proper accommodations at St. Paul,' 
went by invitation of Hon. H. H. Sibley to the mansion of that gentle- 
man at Mendota, where he remained a few days. Williams' History of 
St. Paul. pp. 39, 216. 1876. 

38In 1834 * * * Mr. Sibley commenced his residence at Mendota 
* * * It was a large comfortable dwelling, constructed of the blue 

limestone found in the vicinity, with commodious porticos on the river 
front. Flandrau's History of Minnesota, p. 45. 1900. 

39Joseph, — a name given in the ISth century to a lady's riding habit 
or great coat, buttoned down the front, and with a broad cape. Josey, — 
a curious diminutive and degraded form of the word and garment, was 
used in the middle states. Earle's Costumes of Colonial Times. 

""Gustavus Loomis, I.t. Col. 6th Regiment, Sept. 22, 1840, to March 9, 
1851. — Heitman. 



266 • ANNALS OP IOWA 

shore shouting and waveing their red Handfs, the crew of the Boat 
answering. I never had an idea what an Indian Shout was before, 
they are all a merry set of fellows & the engineer can start them 
to shouting when he pleases by letting off his shrill whistle from 
the engine. It tickles them exceedingly, tis truely an interesting 
sight to see them sitting along the shore, fishing, others hunting 
in the low ground, and again from two to 6; 8 & 10 in Indian file 
winding their way over the bluffs & hills, then on the Prairies 
that open out along the River you see them on hourseback, some 
paceing along, others going as hard as their ponies can go. tis a 
wild & romantic scene. See the men where you will, on foot or on 
horse back, they have their blankets around them, nearly all the 
inhabitants I have seen from the mouth of Lake Pepin up to St 
Paul are mixed French & Indian or Indian, poor Indians! their 
burying Grounds are to be seen all along the shores, tis a delight- 
full country, tis no wonder they think hard and are unwilling to 
leave it. fine Prairie Land and a much greater proportion of 
Timber Land. 

there is the finest Timber on both sides of the Mississippi from 
the mouth of Lake St Croix up to St Peters & on to falls of St 
Anthony, the falls of St Anthony 7 miles above Fort Snelling is 
a very wild and romantic Country, there is rapid water for some 
distance above the main Falls which is 16 feet perpendicular, it 
appears to come from a country considerable higher than that be- 
low the falls, it puts off immediately below into an extensive 
Prairie there where just above the falls is a Grist Mill, Saw Mill 
and again a few other Scattered buildings, principly inhabited by 
Half breeds, Canadian French & some few Yankes from Maine. 

5 oClock retd from Falls, took the Boat again & put down the 
River for St Pauls, the finest country lies along the St Peters 
River, perticularly on the West side, the opposite side is a good 
deal cut up with Lakes & Sloughs and not so well timbered as tis 
on the Iowa or West side, arrived at Point Douglass, a very pretty 
situation at the mouth of the St Croix River where it empties into 
the Mississippi, about 15 houses, three very fine buildings, inhab- 
itants principly Scotch. Stopped to Wood; took 30 cords of Wood, 
persecuted dreadfully by the musquetoes; did not get any relief 
untill a hard thunder storm came up when all the staterooms & 
doors & windows were opened & the wind blew them off. passed 
Steam Boat Senator upward bound, went to bed 10 oClock. 

Thursday, June 15t1i. fine morning, found we were in Lake 
Pepin taking in tow several Rafts, in all eight large Rafts of Lum- 
ber & Logs, this Lake is very hard on the Lumbermen. When 
calm there is no current and when the wind is up they are in 
danger of haveing their rafts broke up. we are now towing eight 
large rafts, two on each side & four in the rear of the Boat, running 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL 267 

at the rate of from 2 to 3 miles pr. hour, there is about 300 men 
on these rafts, the whole makes quite an imposeing appearance, 
the Raftsmen have everything raised on their Raft that will catch 
the wind, Boards, Blankets, &c. &c. 

The Famous Pilot & Rafter is in command of the Fleet, Name 
Joe Peron, a half breed. He is a noble fellow, keeps all his men 
in fine order; will not suffer any man to drink liquor, no body of 
soldiers are better drilled, he commands with the air of a Coma- 
dore. The Wind is very high and Lake very rough, he has his 
canoe & occasionally rows from raft to raft, directing & examining 
them, some danger of Logs seperating, they are so bound about by 
the waves, the timber is very heavy, most of the Logs 3 feet 
diameter, the rafts attached to us & under his controul is worth, 
all judges agree, $20,000. over 2,300,000 [feet], there is an immence 
Lumber trade on these rivers all off U. S. Land, most of the men 
on these Rafts have been up in the Pineries for 6 months past. 

tis evening, Sun setting, have been all day laboring .on this Lake 
(Pepin), saveing Rafts & towing them through, we are now within 
two miles of the mouth, gathered some Corneloin to day when the 
Boat run in near to shore, the water, however, is too high over 
the beach; too high to get at them, the country along this Lake 
is certainly the finest in the world as to Scenery, soil and mineral 
productions as lead, copper, on the Iowa side, perticularly along 
Minnesota Side, for some distance you will have the bluffs close to 
the river in all variety of forms that fancy could invent, Mounds, 
squares, oblong, comes, and riseing gradually from the Lake, then 
open out into a lovely Prarie, coverd with a carpet of green, deco- 
rated with every variety of flower, reaching back from one to two 
or three Miles back from the Lake, and 5 or 6 miles Land with 
another line of beautifull bluffs in rear of it. all over these beauti- 
full Prairies & bluffs there is to be seen spots of one, two or 4 Acre 
of Timber so arranged as to look as tho art had placed them there, 
altho there is no improvements on the Land, being the Indian 
Reservation, One cannot dismiss the idea that it is all cultivated 
& beautified by men of taste, yet tis all nature's handywork. no 
white man is on it. all that is to be seen of mankind is the noble 
& dignified Sioux Indians on their fine horses, galloping over the 
Prairies, 2 3 & 4 in a company, they are about to propose a sale 
to the U. S. this season. If this Land be purchased of them by the 
U. S. & put into market, it will be worthy of attention, tis of all 
countries I have seen the most beautifull along this Lake, and I 
am informed tis all so from the Iowa line up to Minnesota for many 
miles back from the River; indeed all the Land between the St 
Peters & Iowa. 

We have several Catholic Priests on board. I have been struck 
with wonder at the number I have seen of them along the upper 



268 • ANNALS OF IOWA 

^Mississippi from Cairo up. tliey are in every town; and every 
point you recognize tlieir presence by the erection of a Cross, in 
every Indian town you see them and the cross erected on some 
liouse built by them, they are from all countries, German, French, 
Spanish &c. but the French appear to be most numerous, by con- 
versing with them I find some of them have only been 6 mo. or a 
year in the Country, tliey all wear black, long-tailed frocks, single 
breasted and buttoned up close to the chin, they appear to have a 
general meeting place at Prairie Du Chein, as I find them traveling 
up & down to that point; down from the Winnebagoes above the falls 
of St. Anthony, from the Chippawas up the St. Croix & from Fort 
Snelling & St. Peters among the Sioux, very stormy. Boat cut 
loose from the Rafts after moveing them about a mile above outlet 
of the Lake. Lake very rough, the Boat rocked about very much, 
went to bed 12 oCloek. 

Friday, June 16th. got up, found a very cold morning, must have 
been very heavy rain North of this, found we were at the mouth 
of Black River, Wisconsin side, a very fine Stream, not so large as 
Chippawa but deep Water, a great deal of lumbering done up this 
River; the best lumber Country In this region is up this River. 
Prairie La Cross is a most splendid Prairie, the scite of an Indian 
Town formerly, now settled by whites, about 8 or 10 houses here, 
the sun is comeing out, 7 oclock, we will yet have a fine day. saw 
the first drunken man this morning I have seen since I left Rock 
Island, he is an Englishman, a miner. Captain refused him a 
passage, arrived at Bad Axe. One of the best districts in Wiscon- 
sin lies between Bad Axe and Coon River and Kickapoo. 

Particles of gold found in the sand at Prairie La Porte, Cassville 
& Beleview had been washed & proved sufficient quantity to in- 
dicate its presence in this region, the search had been made from 
a small bag of buckskin containing some grains of gold about as 
large as a grain of wheat. It was found oh the Island opposite 
Prairie Du Chein, on the site of an old Indian town, which give 
rise to the supposition that the Indians found it some place near 
landing below the mouth of upper Iowa River. 

Ca.peli former home of the Winnebagoes, many of whom are re- 
turned from their new home on the St Peters and are loitering 
around the graves of their Fathers, some, tis said, have raised the 
bones of their dead & took them with them. Capeli is a French 
name; English is Cape of Garlic, first settlement of the French 
they found garlic here on the low ground around it. 
Prairie Du Chein. bought two pair mocossins of Pur Company, 
passed mouth of Wisconsin River below P. D. Chein. it winds 
around the Prairie bluffs & empties in about 4 or 5 miles below, 
tis at mouth from y^ to I/2 mile wide. Clayton County, Iowa, op- 
posite is over run with speculators in Land Warrants, they have 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL 269 

recently located nearly all the wood Lands with warrants, the 
settlers are very much enraged, say Actual settlers who are come- 
ing in are driven away by them. 

arrived at Prairie La Porte (or Door Prairie) situated on a beau- 
tifull Prairie on the Iowa side, Clayton Co., 20 miles below Prairie 
Du Chein, population about 200. this is a delightful situation for 
a large town; tis elevated 20 feet above high Water and a fine 
landing, immediately back of this for miles is a fine mineral 
region, arrived at Cassville, Wisconsin — Iowa side, situated on an 
elevated flat about % mile wide, backed by a long range of high 
bluffs faced with limestone Rocks, tis a very pleasant situation, 
population about 200, one very large 3 story Brick Tavern, appears 
to be a place of some business, a depot for the lead region back of 
it. a great quantity of Bar Lead ])iled up here, took 150 bbls. flour 
and 25 tons of Lead, delayd here from 2 oclock till dark. 9 oClock 
went to bed. 

Saturday, June 11'. awoke this morning, found we were lying at 
the wharf in Galena, a beautiful morning, promises a warm day. 
several cases of cholera here, one or two deaths, alarming ac- 
counts of cholera at St. Louis. 

New Albany on the Illinois side, a very pretty situation, below 
for some distance affords most lovely scites for building.^^ river 
very wide here, has the appearance of a Lake, passed Wapsapinican 
River, division between Scott and Clinton Counties, Iowa, fine Land 
up this River, well timbered, on the Illinois side is situate 
Maridocia, Baire & Yellow Bank, a little below Mr Brackenridge of 
Pa. has settled & enclosed 3 miles square on the Iowa side in Scott 
Co. Camanche above this in Clinton County, Iowa, there is a large 
Prairie along the River, tis said you can from this point travel 
through to the Rockey Mountains (by winding a little) without 
passing through 100 yds of timber Land all the way. passed Cor- 
dovia, or City of Rocks, Illinois side, small place very prettily 
situated on a point of "limestone Rock.*= this appears to be a soli- 
tary Rock as a beautifull Prairie commences a short distance from 
it in its rear, on the rock it looks as if there was scarcely soil 
enough to work, the Rocks or Stratas lie horizontally, falling off 
gradually to the River thus^= 

opposite is a beautifull, rolling Prairie where formerly stood the 
great Town of the Iowa Indians, tis said they were there during 
the summer season, thousands of them congregated at this place" 
and along the Wapsepinecan River, passed Parkhurst Iowa side, a 
small place, 10 or 15 houses, directly opposite, Illinois side, stands 
Port Byron, quite a brisk looking place, some good Brick Ware- 



^'Orisinal .iournal shows sketch here. 

^-Original journal shows sketch of village. 

^'Original journal shows sketch. 

^^Original journal shows sketcli. 



270 ANNALS OF IOWA 

houses, population about 300. this place, owing to its being a better 
landing, has riveled Parkhurst. both are situated above the head 
of the rapids, 20 miles above Rock Island. 

La Clere, Iowa side, a new town at the head of the rapids about 
a mile below Parkhurst, is building up very fast and generally of 
Brick, population now I suppose about 150 and several New build- 
ings under Way. Situation beautifull. 

Moline, on Illinois side, at the head of Rock Island, is a beauti- 
full place, contains a population of about 700. the buildings are 
very good, tis truely a Temperate Town; the proprietor who laid 
it out has from the beginning made it a condition in the sale of 
every lot that no spiritous liquors shall be sold, the purchaser or 
his assigns penalty the forfieture of the property — Consequently tis 
said there is no liquor sold in or about the place, everything about 
the place looks neat and orderly. 

Arrived at Rock Island & Devenport. parted with some friends 
there, took on some passengers & pushed on. arrived at Blooming- 
ton at 9 oClock. found all well, But quite uneasy lest something 
had happened me. 

Sabbath, June 18. fine morning went to Methodist church with 
Mary and Mrs. David & herd a very good sermon, Text Exods. 
20c. 8v. "Remember the Sabbath day". Met Col. Jesse Williams, 
had more perfect understanding with him. hard rain this evening, 
kept the house. 

Monday, June 19. fine morning after the rain, bad news from 
St Louis. Cholera greatly on the increase; deaths from 60 to 100 
pr day. people comeing up from St Louis hunting boarding, flying 
from the cholera, very warm day. Joseph arrived at home this 
evening, spent the evening at Mr. Boreland's, present D. Lowe & 
wife, Mrs. McCormick, Mrs. David, Mary, Joseph & myself. News 
that Mrs Battelle has retd from St Louis & was dying with the 
Cholera.''^ Jos & Mary sent for. party dispersed. 
Tuesday, June 20. promised to be a very warm day, little moveing. 
to day exceedingly warm, all engaged in the preperation for Mrs. 
Batelle's funeral, the Capt. being away from home a great deal 
of sympathy for the family expressed, wrote home to day. I am 
again thrown back from a start for home owing to Capt Batelle's 
absence & the . distress of him & his family when he does arrive. 
I begin to feel very anxious to get off. a Mr Dewart arrived here 
to day on the Boat, had not more than settled down at the Hotel 
when a despatch by Telegraph from St. Louis reached him, calling 
him to hasten home, that his brother was just dying with the 
cholera, poor fellow, he is in great distress. 



*'Died, on Tuesday morning last, the 19th, in this place, Mrs. Grace 
Ann, consort of Capt. T. S. Battelle, aged about 30 years. Muscatine — 
Iowa Democratic Enquirer, June 23, 1849. 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL ir71 

Wednesday, 21st. This day spent in the house pretty much, it hal 
been so very warm that I all day kept in. in the evening went 
with Jos. & Wm. & Georgiana to singing society, herd some good 
singing, returned home & went to bed about 10 oClock. 

Thursday, 22d. Another very sultry day. most pleasant place to 
be found is at home, at Joseph's, preparing to start for home 
to morrow. Mrs Popp give us some music this evening, this day, 
if possible, has been the warmest yet. 

Friday, June 23d. this morning looks for rain, tis something 
cooler, bad news from below, they Telegraph from Burlington 
that the Uncle Toby is comeing up, full of Emigrants & that they 
have buried 8 between Navou & Burlington & have over 20 more 
Cases on board when they left Burlington, the deaths reported 
in St Louis during the last week is 528. tis asserted the truth 
would say nearer 1000. 

The Uncle Toby Boat arrived about 11 oClock. did not Land, 
kept off to the oposite shore. A melencholly sight to see her pass, 
full of desease & death, she has lost 27 passengers between St 
Louis & this place. The Capt. was either dead or dying when they 
passed this place, they stopped on the Island below town & I 
suppose was engaged burying dead. 

4 oClock in the evening took Boat Doctr. Franklin No 2 for 
Albany, arrived at Devenport. there found the Boat Uncle Toby 
had put on shore all her passengers, tis said when she arrived 
there ten were dead & two had died after they were landed, 
balance of two hundred & fifty were lying on the beach below Deven- 
port in the open air, many of them sick and dying, horrible Scene! 
a child died this evening on our Boat, three or four affected with 
Cholera. I have delayd for fear of getting on Cholera Boats, but 
after all I have found it on board of the Franklin, tis extremely 
warm on the Boat this evening, don't intend lying down as I get 
off about 2 oClock. Spent the evening very pleasantly with a Mr. 
Douglass, Madam Cazeneau,^"' wife of -a Mexican Genl. Cazeneau, 
taken at Mel Reno Del Rey; a very accomplished Lady, traveling 
with a party of Ladies & Gentlemen, keeping out of the way of 
Cholera, they are on their way to N. York by way of the Lakes, 
several persons on board complaining this evening, strong symp- 
toms of Cholera prevailing amongst them, went to bed 12 oClock. 

Saturday morning, found the Boat tied up to the Shore, being 
obliged to stop owing to the very dense fog. could (not) see to run. 
I fear I will miss the stage in consequence of it. 8 oClock. Boat 
started, the fog haveing in some measure dispersed, folks who 
were complaining generally better this morning. I arrived at 



^"On another page of the original journal appears the note — "Jane M 
r'a'/.neau, wife of Gen'l Cazneau, Mexican Array, taken at Mel Reno Del 
Rey." 



272 ANNALS OP IOWA 

Albany, Illinois, there left the Boat, found the ill fated Boat 
Uncle Toby at the wharf, the citizens very much excited. 

took the stage for Chicago, passed through Coma, Sterling and 
arrived at Dixon after dark for supper, suffered this day very 
much from heat. Coma is a good looking village, situated on a 
delightfull Prairie, good water power here on one of the tribu- 
taries of Rock River. There is a very extensive flouring mill, be- 
longing to an Eastern Company, here. Sterling is a very promise- 
ing Town, County Seat, Situated on Rock River, population about 
600, situation a very pleasant one. Dixon is a very beautifull town 
situated on Rock River, population I suppose to be about 1500. 

found myself about S oClock landed at the Hotel kept by Wm 
Latshaw & Welty. met here Rachel Latshaw, Mary Latshaw & 
Rachel's Sons and daughters, Wm. Jos. & two sisters. Rachel looks 
well. She has become very large & fat. She & Mary was very 
much astonished & very glad to see nie. I found her sons to be 
very clever business doing young men. the daughters are fine 
young women. One of them favours Nancy Cooper very much. 

about lloClock took the stage again, and after a very tedious & 
cold ride all night arrived at Breakfasting house on the Margin of 
a lovely prairie on Indian Creek, next arrived at Aurora on Fox 
River for dinner. Aurora is a very promiseing place. The Fox 
River here affords great Water power, there are many fine Mills 
and manufactures here, at present nearly compleated a very large 
Woolen Factory, the place promises to be a place of some im- 
portance. The Country around it is a lovely country & well im- 
proved, passed this morning through a very fine country. Sunday 
morning. 

Sxinday, June 25. this day promises to be very warm, roads very 
dusty, oppressed with heat and dust all day. the country through 
which we have passed to day were generally low Prairie. I think 
the Land inferior to the North & Western part of the State. 
arrived at the City of Chicago 10 oClock at night. Avent to bed. 
found it exceedingly warm, could not sleep for the cries and lamen- 
tations in some families not far from the City Hotel where I 
lodged, between their lamentations & the heat & the idea that I 
was in the midst of those dieing with Cholera, I was kept froiu 
sleeping nearly all night. 

Monday Morning^ June 2G. got up. morning very warm, find 
■ there is a good deal of Cholera in the City, took passage on the 
splendid Boat, Key Stone State, for Erie, Pa. met John Denniston 
at Breakfast, took a walk with him through part of the City, tis 
a beautifull City, very level, they are building & extending it very 
fast. The population at present is said to be about 25,000. the 
trade is very extensive, the greatest objection to the City I find 
to be their plank streets & side walks. I discover in many places 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL 27S 

the water lodges under the plank walks and in this warm weather 
I can smell it. the streets are wide and arranged beautifully with 
young trees, take it all in all, tis a beautifuU City. 

Boat sailed 9% oClock. very soon we found ourselves far out in 
the delightful! Lake Michigan, the most splendid sheet of Water I 
ever beheld; tis clear, of a bright sea green Colour & but gently 
ruffled this morning by the most refreshing breeze. I have not felt 
so comfortable this two weeks as I do on this floating palace, 
glideing along on this delightfull Lake, cheered by the delightfu},- 
cooling breeze and the music of a fine Band of Musicians, good 
Company and the thoughts of home. I feel that when I ilext step 
on shore at Erie I will be in hailing distance of home, which I 
long to see. arrived at Little Port, 40 miles distant from Chicago, 
Situated on the Lake Shore; a place of considerable business, popu- 
lation about 2000. next passed South Port, 10 miles, in Wisconsin, 
also a place of considerable business in the Lumber & Grain busi- 
ness, population about from 1800 to 2000. 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is situated on the western Shore of the 
Lake, tis a beautifull place, the only objection is the landing is 
not so good, the Boat cannot get 200 yds off the shore, all Boats 
of any Size have to receive and discharge freight at the termination 
of piers or causeways run out into the Lake, there is a beautifull 
Prairie of Velvet green runs into the Lake in front of a good part 
of the City, the City stands principally on high ground on rear of 
this flat with a gentle slope as it recedes from the Lake. It is a place 
of great business. I think from appearances better business place 
than Chicago, its situation for beauty & health is decidedly better: 
tis not so flat, on the back ground the country is rolling & beau- 
tifull, studded with pretty improvements and residences as far as 
the eye can see. the City has a great many large & fine public 
buildings in it. the population is over, I am disposed to think, 
20,000. I like it better than Chicago, the country above & below 
the City along the Lake Shore for a great distance is beautifull. 
The River Milwakee puts in to the Lake here, which I find Is the 
cause of the difficulty in getting in close to the city. I think by 
rutting through the narrow strip of Prairie connecting the River 
and the Lake would enable Boats to get up closer. 

Lake Michigan is a beautifull sheet of Water, tis 400 miles 
long, 60 miles on an average Wide & 900 feet deep by the deepest 
soundings, so reported by the engineers of U. S. after supper 
the Band took their seats in the Gents Cabin and commenced play- 
ing on Violins, Bass Viol & Guitar, when the Danceing commenced, 
between each sett of Cottilion they give us a song in full chorus, 
the evening till eleven oClock was spent in this way very pleas- 
antly indeed, our company are composed of the best Society of 
Ladies & Gentlemen. The Band is Composed of Bight Black fel- 



274 ANNALS OF TOWA 

lows, most excellent Musicians, they appear to have been selected. 
Seldom can you find so good looking, polite & orderly young Men. 
they dress extremely neat, white Linen Roundabouts, Blue panta- 
loons, Black Silk vest & Stock, with a Blue Silk Velvet cap with 
gold lace Band, Star & tassals. indeed everything about the Boat 
is done up in superior style, no Hotel in any City can excel it in 
neatness & Style and the furniture & all from one end of the Boat 
to the other is perfect neatness & Elegance, we have in the Cabin 
about 150 passengers and about the same number in the lower 
Cabins, these lower Cabins are equal to most Steam Boats upper. 

arrived at SJieboigin on the Wisconsin side, a small town, popu- 
lation purhaps from 700 to 1000. — This is a promising place, there 
are a great many best class of Germans settling around it. tis all 
along this Lake so far quite an interesting country, this evening 
is quite clear and cool, the Lake is very calm, yet tis cool enough 
for fire, took in some passengers here & passed on. 12 oClock 
went to my berth. 

Tuesday, June 2li. fine morning, sun very bright, morning quite 
cool, find a great change since I left Chicago, found we were 
nearly on the opposite side of the Lake this morning, now running 
nearly due East between the South Manitou Island & the Sleeping 
Bear, the Sleeping Bear is on the East Shore of the Lake, on an 
extensive Bluff of sand, contains purhaps an acre of ground, tis a 
high mound, coverd with vegetation & looks in shape like a large 
bear lying down, there is no vegetation on the Bluff near, it being 
all a sand bank.^' Manito Island is a high Island, very well tim- 
berd, about 100 miles from this point to Mackina. we now have 
Michigan on both sides of the Lake, opposite is South Monitou 
Island.** passed North Manitou Island, 100 miles to Mackina." 
passed South Fox Island and North Fox Island.^" passed Beaver 
Island." lost sight of Land untill we reached the light Ship, which 
is moored or anchored in the entrance of the Straights, the current 
is strong here and the wind high. 

Too cool to stand out. as we approach Mackina, the Indian Vil- 
lages and Lodges are seen along the Shores, they are many of 
them out fishing along shore. Mackina is in View, the Fort is 
situated on a high bluff above the town and makes quite an im- 
poseing appearance, tis a bleak, cold looking place; vegitation is 
far back. The Town is a scattered, poor looking place; one or two 
good hotels in it, buildings all of frame, there is about 800 to 
1,000 inhabitants I suppose, there is a great many Indians here, 
lounging about the Streets, the town is Situated on a Sterile 

"Original journal shows sketch of Sleeping Bear. 
■'■'^Original journal shows sketch of South Manitou Island. 
^Original journal shows sketch of North Manitou Island. 
"Original journal shows sketch of South Fox Island. 4 5 miles to Mac- 
kina, and of North Fox Island. 

'^'Original journal shows sketch of Beaver Island. 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL 275 

beach below the Fort and is shelterd from the N West winds by 
the Bluffs. 

We took in a number of passengers here, amongst the number 
Jas. Potter Sr. and Genl. Jno. Potter of Mifflen Co. Pa. after entering 
Lake Huron It was so cold & windy I lay down & slept till supper 
was ready, after supper the Cabin was cleared & the Band toolc 
their station, when the dance again commenced, Waltzes & Cottil- 
lions. Music & songs until 12 oClock, when they all retired to their 
berths, there is a very fine Piano in the Ladies' Cabin and during 
this day a great many attempts at playing, but I have not herd any 
one attempt it that can play even tolerably well, we have run all 
this day from 15 to 20 miles pr. hour, out of sight of Land, at sun 
down, this Lake appears to be much ruffer than Lake Michigan, 
Water darker green. I saw at Mackina to day a great many fish, 
White Pish and Mackina Trout. I saw trout from 3 to 3% feet 
long; a most beautifull fish, plump and heavy, went to my birth % 
past 12 oClock. find it quite cold; a very different climate from 
that I have left, two day ago I was oppressed with heat, now op- 
pressed with cold, no Cholera in this quarter. 

Wednesday, June 21. found when I got up this morning about 
sun rise that we were at Saginaw Bay. this morning a beautifull 
morning, quite calm and mild compared with yesterday. I have 
caught a severe cold, find I am quite hoarse from being run from 
extreme heat to extreme cold climate, (found at Mackina a Brother 
of Nick Biddle, a merchant, quite an Old Man, nearly blind, he 
came there at an early day and Married a Squaw. — his sons are 
quite inteligent, good looking men but quite dark.) some of the 
Chippawa Indians are very good looking, Clean & tastey, perticu- 
larly those who come in from a distance, all Indians located near 
the white settlements are a poor degraded set of beings, those who 
have but little intercourse with the whites are a noble looking set 
of people, the Chippawa Squaws here as in Minnesote are very 
good looking & dress very neatly; short gown of Calllco and skirt 
of Blue Cloth, Blue Cloth leggons neatly ornamented with porcu- 
pine quills & Beads, and Moccosins beautifully worked, then a 
Mantle of fine Blue Cloth edged with Beads thrown over their head 
and Shoulders. Some of them here talk French and English. 

Morning, 28 June, delightfull. approaching the mouth of St 
Clair River, passed Fort Gratiot & the Light House on the Ameri- 
can side, the Fort is very handsomely situated at the point on 
the mouth of the River, passed, about one mile below. Port Huron 
a town of considerable trade, appears to have a population of about 
2,000, trade Lumber principaly. nearly opposite on the Brittish 
side is the Town called Port Sarnia, also a considerable town of 
about 1,500 or 1800 inhabitants, the River is very narrow here, 
not wider than our Kiskiminitas. have a fine view of all on both 



276 ANNALS OF IOWA 

the American and Canadian Sides, tlie improvements on the Ameri- 
can Side is mucli the best; everything wears a more lively & 
thriveing appearance, on both Sides is low ground and very level, 
the timber on the American Side is entirely Pine and on the 
Brittish Side Oak. extensive openings of Prairie on the Brittish 
Side, great numbers of Indians and French liveing along the 
Canada Side, great numbers of young Indians standing on the 
Banks looking at us as we pass. 

this is a beautifull River, the two sides would be brot into close 
contact in case of a War. Fort Gratiot completely commands the 
Entrance or mouth of this River and have a fine plain for exercise 
of Cavelry or Artillery, about 10 miles below Port Huron on the 
American side, the Oak timber commences, also some very fine 
farms are now in View on both sides of the River, but much the 
best on the American side. The French and Scotch are not famous 
for good improvements on the Canada Side. Occasionally there is 
an American or English settlement in View, the difference can be 
at once discovered, the buildings & improvements are at once to 
be seen. 

16 miles below Port Huron on the American side is the Town 
called St Clair, population about 1500. the situation is a beautifull 
one. considerable business done here, the Wharfs are lined with 
Schooners and tradeing Boats, this river all the Way presents a 
lively & beautiful appearance: tis filled with Vessels in full sail 
& both shores lined with scatterd houses and pretty lying farms, 
the scenery is very beautifull. 

Arrived at the Town of China, met Steam Boat Niagara full of 
passengers just leaving the wharf as we were putting in. our Boat 
& the Niagara come in Colission. we could not avoid her. She 
putting out when our Boat capt. considered she was going to lie 
until] we got in. The Crash was terrible, notwithstanding the great 
exertions to avoid it on both sides, the Shock was so great that 
it knocked down most of our passengers, the Confusion was very 
great amongst the Ladies & Children, perticularly. terrible Scream- 
ing & many fainting. Our Boat received but little injury but the 
Niagara was very seriously injured; broke in her bulwark & other- 
wise badly injured, on our Boat it was sometime to reconcile the 
Women & Children who continued crying & excited for two hours 
at least, after examining the Boat & taking in some passengers 
we again proceeded on our Way, pleased with our fortunate escape. 
China is a pretty little village, situated on the American side, popu- 
lation about 5 or 600. 

passed another town on the American side, situated in a delight- 
full Bank of the River near the entrance into Lake St Clair, popu- 
lation about 500. one very neat church in it. opposite on the the 
Canada side a very extensive Island & Prairies. Canada side low, 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL 277 

wet Prairie, and the American side more elevated & well timberd 
with good farms all along the shore, on the lower part of the 
Islands, on Peninsulas, on the Canada side tis beautifull & some 
fine improvements, we are now in sight of the Lake St Clair, 
length of River said to be 39 miles, as we approach the Lake the 
River branches off in Branches or Sloughs, forming a great number 
of Islands, principly Prairies, which have great numbers of Cattle 
grazeing on them, here as we approach the Lake it wears the ap- 
pearance of the River & Lake being considerably higher than the 
surrounding Country. Some of the Prairies here very extensive & 
perfectly level with the Waters edge. We meet a great number of 
sloops and Propeller Boats coming up from the Lake, principly 
loaded with Lumber, Coal & Grain. 

We enter the Lake with Prairies very extensive on both sides, 
and in a great distance on both sides we can discern the fringe of 
timber land, the View on entering the Lake is splendid. Lake 18 
miles Long & about 25 miles wide, tis studded full of vessals under 
full sail as far as the eye can see. they appear to be running in 
every direction, the view is fine, the Prairies of which I speak 
are, I am informed by the Capt., called the St Clair Flats, the 
Sloughs at the entrance of this Lake are so numerous tis difficult 
to get out of it after night. 

We are now passing out of the Lake St Clair, the surrounding 
Country around us is very similar to that at the entrance except 
that the Prairies or flats are better and drier land and more thickly 
settled on both sides, perticularly on the Canada side, there the 
French are very closely settled, we have just passed a very pretty 
Island called Hog Island, now we have Detroit in sight, beautifull 
groves of timber on the American side. Detroit has from this point 
the appearance of a large City, passed into Detroit River, tis 
about such River as the Monongahela. 

arrived at Detroit, the City is beautifully situated below the 
outlet of the Lake & has the appearance of quite a Commercial City. 
Contains a population of from 20,000 to 21,000. its situation is on 
a very extensive flat of land which very gradually rises back from 
the River, on the opposite shore is a small town called Windsor, 
I suppose containing a population of 6 or 800. tis scattered along 
the shore for a mile, situated on a high bank, (the Canada side 
here is a beautifull country!) appears to be all frame, in Detroit 
and around it a great proportion brick, a great many windmills 
along the Canada shore, also below along both sides of the River a 
great many very pretty residences, the Michigan Central R. R. Co. 
has erected a very elegant & extensive pile of buildings at Detroit, 
the Road is owned by Bostonians. 

a tremendous Storm, very high wind. Thunder & lightning & a 
tremendous fall of rain mixed with hail came up the River on us 



278 ANNALS OF IOWA 

about the time we were two or three miles from Detroit, which 
prevented me and all others from looking out. the Storms here 
may be called storms indeed. The Boat has stopped, in danger of 
running foul of Vessels. Storm abateing. Boat got under way. 

the country on both sides down to the entrance of Lake Erie is 
a delightfull country. Amherstburgh Is the last town, situated just 
above the mouth of the River, tis a dingy, dark looking town, 
altho the situation is a beautifull one on the Bank of the River, 
on a lovely plain of level land, the only redeeming feature about 
the town is the fine Shade Trees which they have preserved, large 
Elms with the richest foliage. I judge the population in and about 
the town to be about from 800 to 1,000. the buildings nearly all 
frame, the greater part of them not painted, there is several 
church & one large frame Flouring Mill, Saw Mill &c. appears to 
be a very dull place. 

immediately above and adjoining the Town Stands Fort Maiden, 
on position commanding the River, and immediately opposite stands 
on an Island a Block House calculated to rake the American Shore 
on the opposite side of the Island, and prevent any landing on the 
Island. The Fort is far inferior to any of the American Forts or 
Barracks; greater part of the buildings are frame, paiiited Lead 
CoUour, what appears to be a modern addition, two or three build- 
ings, officers quarters are small & built of Brick, it stands on an 
elevated Bank and embankment thrown up around it, the whole 
surrounded with Pickets, there Is not more than one Company of 
troops here, so the British have the command of Detroit River at 
one end & the Americans by Fort Gratiot at the other, right be- 
tween them would be the place to invade Canada, steal a march 
round Maiden & push on up the Thames River to London, & cut off 
communication by taking possession of the district of country lying 
between the Thames River & Lake Erie. 

all is quiet in this quarter, .5 oClock, after tea I find we have yet 
sight of the Canada shore, steering S. S. E. to the North of Point, 
a play Island, we are in view of the 3 Sister Islands, they are 
about one mile to the N. W. of us, that is, the Southern one. between 
the South & Middle one. Commodore Perry conquored the Brittish 
Fleet about 3 miles distant from it. when Perry came down the 
Brittish Fleet was about where we now^ are sailing between the 
Southern Sister & the Canada shore. He conquored them & saild 
for Put in Bay which lies N. W. of us near Sandusky. 

the sun is setting clear behind us, clouds very black in front of 
us, the effect is splendid, a whole fleet of Sloops, Schooners in view 
& in their rear a splendid Rainbow, the canvas of the Vessal in full 
sail with the dark clouds behind them, & the sun shineing on them 
from the West, causes them to look as white as snow, all the whole 
overhung by a splendid Arch or Rainbow presents a most enchant- 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL 279 

ing Scene, truly a fine subject for the pencil, at dark the music 
commenced as usual & the dance followed till we began to near 
Cleveland. 10 oClock, Light house in view, evening very pleasant, 
arrived at Cleveland, left several passengers & took some on. too 
dark to see anything of the City, made but a few minutes stay, put 
out for Erie, went to bed 12 Oclock. 

Thursday, June 28th. when I got up found the morning warm & 
overcast, from the head way we are making will reach Erie by 
8 oClock, Capt. says, the Ohio & Penna. shore in sight, arrived at 
Erie 7% oClock, very glad to get to it. I feel very much wearied 
& unwell, haveing caught cold & Lake Erie being very rough I feel 
sick this morning. Lake Erie is about 400 miles long & from 40 to 
50 wide, being much shallower than any of the others tis more 
easily moved by winds. Erie is prettily situated on quite a high 
Bank overlooking the Lake but the harbour is not good, the Town 
contains a population of over 6,000, some very good buildings, gen- 
erally frame & scattered, as a business place it looks dull com- 
pared with the thriveing young Cities & Towns of the West & North. 
Erie has a considerable character abroad, but I am disappointed, a 
dull place, went to bed afternoon, slept, I feel quite revived. 

Friday, 29 June. 9 oClock took Canal Packet Boat, Queen City, 
for Beaver, met with Robert M'Kee here. He is asst. supervisor on 
the Canal from this to Beaver, says he is doing very well, also 
met with Judge Patton & Josiah King, fine rain this morning which 
has cooled the air. arrived at Girard, 16 miles from Erie, a very 
pretty village on the Canal, population 500. great excitement here, 
the National Circus is in town, this country along the Canal is a 
very heavily timberd country, principly Poplar, Oak, horse chesnut, 
Pine & some Mulberry, passed during the evening several thrive- 
ing villages, viz. Lockport, Cranesville, Powerstown. 

went to bed about 10 oClock but could not sleep for the noise 
and confusion on the Boat, there is on board the greatest fool of 
a chambermaid that ever lived, she has in the Cabin two or three 
young girls & to help her out with her folly & nonsence three other 
fools with their beaus came on board about 12 oClock, as they said 
going home from a pleasure trip; and they made out to anoy us on 
board till 3 oClock in the morning with their fool talk, plays & 
giggleing & laughing, untill all passengers rose up in rebellion, 
remonstrated & made the whole party stope. I take the majority 
of the folks along this canal to be of a very low order from their 
conduct and conversation. 

Saturday Moryiing, June 30, J8^9. a very dense fog this morning, 
passed during the night Lake Conneaught & French Creek Cut, 
passing Big & little Shenango. in the forks between these two 
Creeks there are some very fine farms, arrived at West Greenville, 
Mercer Co. This is truely a very beautifull & thriveing town, popu- 



280 ANNALS OF IOWA 

lation over 2,000. there are 5 large Furnaces adjoining the town. 
Lot Irwin's Furnaces are close above the Town, the Canal runs 
through the middle of the town, great abundance of fine stone, coal 

6 iron ore in this neighborhood, every thing looks lively, the ap- 
pearance of the people are much better than further up the Coun- 
try; you'l find here intelligent looking people, from the junction of 
Big & little Shenangos down, the appearance of things improves. 
Indian mound at W. Greenville.''^ this mound stands on a perfectly 
level meadow on the Banks of the Shenango. this day has been 
very warm, passed a number of Villages to day in passing through 
Mercer, Lawrence & Beaver Counties, amongst the number New 
Castle this evening; a very considerable town, population about 
2,000, Several Manufts. Establishments here. 10 oClock went to bed. 

Sunday Morning, 1st July, got up this morning, found myself at 
Rochester at Beaver Point. The Steam Boat that takes us up to 
Pittsburgh not yet arrived. Sun comes out very warm, the River 
Ohio riseing fast, great number of Locusts in Mercer, Lawrence & 
Beaver Counties; they are killing the leaves on all the Trees; make 
a great noise, left Beaver in Steam Boat, Michigan, at 2 oClock 
for Pittsburgh. I consider Beaver a poor place. 

Arrived at Pittsburgh about 3 oClock. looks very black compared 
with the fine, fresh looking towns & cities of the West. This even- 
ing, Sunday, find the River filled with Boats with pleasure parties 
returning from the Gardens below, some distance along the Banks 
under Shade trees see several Card Parties busy playing cards, no 
such sights have I seen in the West, also see a good many drunk, 
took lodgings at the St Charles Hou^e. after supper, 7 oClock, to 
the Canal Boat, Capt. Greeley, after leaving the Suburbes of Al- 
legheny town went to my berth. 

Monday Morning, 2d July, when I got up, found myself at Free- 
port, morning fine & pleasant, day throughout very pleasant, about 

7 oClock in the evening arrived at Blairsville. set on deck of the 
Boat untill late night, very pleasant. 

Tnesdmj Morning, July Sd. took the Cars at Johnstown about 
daylight and arrived at home about 10 oClock. found all Well and 
I very much pleased to get home, Haveing traveld through parts of 
Kentucky, Missouri, Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota and through 
nearly all of Iowa. part of Missouri I like very much and a part 
of it I do not like. Illinois from Fox River North is a delightful 
Country. South of Fox River tis too flat & low, soil not to good, 
same with Wisconsin. I like the Northern part best. Minnesota 
is a beautiful Country, well watered and some parts of it the scenery 
is very romantic, perticularly along the Mississippi & the St Croix 
Rivers, no more beautiful country can be found than that lying 



^^Original journal shows sketch of Indian mound at West Greenville. 



MAJOR WILLIAM WILLIAMS' JOURNAL 281 

along Lake Pepin, what is known by the name of the Sioux half 
breed tract or reservavtion. 

But take it all through, Iowa is decidedly the best State for uni- 
form richness of soil, beauty of scenery, Water and Health, tis in 
my opinion destined to be the greatest Agricultural State in the 
Union. 



NOTES IN CONNECTION WITH SKETCHES. 

Painted Rock or Capeli above Prairie Du Chein on the Iowa Side 
formerly belonged to the Winebagoes, now Allemakie County. 

The Painted boulder represented on the bank is painted and was 
the Indian God to which their great Medicine men repaired to Con- 
jure, the Rock above is Smothe faced & has a great many animals 
with Picture writeing on it 

Sious Squaws pushing their Canoes across the Mississippi returning 
with their Children (papoose from the Fort after receiving their 
rashions &c) 

BATTLE GROUND AT BAD AXE. 

Black Hawk & his Indians were encamped on the River bottom, the 
Regulars came on them by passing through the defiles in the bluffs 
& forced them through the River to the Island, a Steam Boat was 
run up and a fire opened on them & the Sioux Indians attacked them 
as the(y) reached the opposite shore or Island. 

A VIEW ON LAKE PEPIN FROM MAIDEN ROCK. 

all the Indian Tribes have the tradition of this Rock and have a 
great dread in approaching it. tis said to be 300 feet high, the 
Indian Maid Winona threw herself off this rock. 

BOAT TOWING RAFTS THROUGH LAKE PEPIN. 

Red Rock opposite Side of River to Little Crow Village. This 
place is named from a red rock, a Rock painted red which stands 
on the Prairie on the Bank of the River, tis Red and Striped with 
Black & white paint in Picture writing which is Worshiped by the 
Sioux tis said. 

Little Crow Village of Sioux on the West Bank of Mississippi be- 
low St Pauls, Mlnnesote. ^ 

Indians encamped on the Shore below Fort Snelling. 

Fort Snelling from the beach below the Fort Stands on a Sand 
rock white as chalk. 

Jane M. Cazneau, New York, wife of Genl Cazneau, Mexican Army, 
taken at Mel Ren Del Ray. 



2S2 ANNALS OF IOWA 

PRAIRIE SQUIRREL,. 

Coloured very much like a gray squirrel with a redish or brown 

stripe along the side. 

Rosin Weed or Compass plant, leaves point due N. & S. cure for bite 

of Rattle Snake, grows on the Prairies of Iowa. 

Iowa or loa, English this is the place or no such place. 

Minesota, troubled Water or disturbed Water or Water agitated. 

Mine Water 

Seta troubled, disturbed 



SIOUX LANGUAGE. 
Indian Names — 
Baptieste Winnebego Chief 
Crow D— =2 D — 

Capt Jim D — D — 

Broad face D — D — 

Muscatine in English is Fire Island 

Indian Names — 
Ouns cot a ca — Big Bear a Winnebago Chief 
Hole in the day — Chippaw Chief 
Wabasha Sioux Chief 

Six D— D— 

Whirling Thunder D — 
Black Dog D— 

Hard Fish Winnebego 
Little Hill D— 

Little Owl Chippawa Chief 
Wineshiek Sioux D — 

Yellow Thunder Winnebego 
White Cloud D— 

Black Cloud D— 

Little Dick D— 

Winnesheck Winnebego Chief 
Snake Chippawa 
Melting Snow Chippawa Squaw 
Wapello D — D — 



"D indicates ditta 



REV. DAJ^IEL LANE AND HIS KEOSAUQUA ACADEMY 283 



REV. DANIEL LANE AND HIS KEOSAUQUA 
ACADEMY 

BY J. W. CHENEY 

On his mother's side Dauiel Lane was a descendant of 
John and Priscilla Alden, memlbers of the Mayflower hand of 
Pilgrims. He was Iborn in Leeds, Kennebec County, Maine, 
March 10, 1813. His father kept a country store, and, evi- 
dently, was in very moderate financial circumstances. Daniel 
was the only child of ihds mother, who must have died when 
he was a mere balby, for when he was only four years old his 
father also died, leaving to the little Daniel a step-mother and 
a half -sister. He then foamd a home with his own mother's 
brother, a Mr. Brett; not that his step-mother lacked in 
affection for him, but because she was left with insufficient 
means to properly support herself and the two children. She 
lived until after Mr. Lane was thirty years old, and he always 
spoke very highly of her. 

Hon. A. J. McCrary says of Mr. Lane, "He was truly 
the friend of youth, yet you could not think of him as ever 
having any youth. ' ' But in every case the boy precedes the 
man. The little I know of Daniel Lane, the boy, I learned 
from the Valentine brothers, Lowell and John, who followed 
Mr. Lane to Keosauqua, Iowa, and whose mother was a cousin 
of Mr. Lane's mother. Lowell Valentine was superintendent 
of the Congregational Sunday School in Keosauqua when I 
was a boy, and I recall his telling a very interesting story of 
the struggles and triumphs of a poor, orphan boy, closing with 
the impressive declaration, "And that boy was Daniel Lane." 
At the time we had no difficulty in thinking that Mr. Lane 
might have been such a boy. But John Valentine, who now 
lives in Denver, Colorado, writes me something which may 
astonish those who only knew the man, Rev. Daniel Lane, and 
are not able to ' ' think of him as ever having any youth. ' ' Mr. 
Valentine says, "I can tell you an incident of his boyhood, 
w^hich not only illustrates Ms desire to excel in everything, 



284 ANNALS OF IOWA 

but also shoAvs the power of religion to change one's moral 
nature. And I have thivS from his own lips. Several boys, of 
whom Daniel was one, were playing together, when some of 
them became very profane. Daniel so far excelled the othei*s 
that one of them, at least, was 'g-reatly sihocked and exclaimed, 
'Now Dan! quit that!' And Daniel was so surprised and 
deeply moved by the rebuke that he did quit, then and there, 
and soon afterward became a follower of the Jesus whose 
name he had used so lightly. ' ' That indeed was the turning 
point in his career, and the real key to his future character 
and useful life. 

As nearly as I can learn he was about sixteen years old 
when, after much reflection and study of the Bible, he came 
out openly on the Lord's side and united with the Congrega- 
tional church. He fitted himself for college in the Brighton 
Academy. While doing so his ^health became very poor, he 
was thought to have consumption, and asked his physician 
whether he would better go on with his studies. The reply 
was, ' ' Oh yes, but you will not live beyond your second year 
in college." H'e did go on, and not only passed "the dead 
line" safely, but graduated from Bowdoin College in: 1838, 
by which time he was twenty-five years old. In the mean- 
time he had taught school in several places, among which 
was the village of Freeport, not far from the city of Portland, 
Maine. There he 'became acquainted with the family of 
David Staples, a sea captain, whose daughter Elizabeth Avas 
destined to be his devoted AA'ife and efficient helper through- 
out his career in Iowa. 

Immediately after graduating from college he became 
the teacher of Eniglish and modern languages in North Yar- 
mouth Academy. At this writing, 1915, there is living in 
Iowa City a Mrs. Saunders, who was then a student in that 
academy, but probably in the primary department, as she was 
only nine or ten years old, and only remembers that Mr. 
Lane was a tall, slender, fine looking man, and very highly 
esteemed hy the Avhole community as a man and teacher. 
After teaching two consecutive years in Yarmouth, he entered 
Andover Theological Seminaiy, took its three-year course of 
study, and graduated therefrom in 1843, at the age of thirty 
A^ears. 



REV. DANIEL LANE AND HIS KEOSAUQUA ACADEMY 285 

While in the seminary^ Mr. Lane, because of his riper 
years and strong personality, became a leader amons^ the 
students, especially those of his own class. But in the sum- 
mer of 1843, near the close of his second year at the seminary, 
he was in very poor health, and it is he to whom the author 
of "The Iowa Band" refers in relating- what occurred one 
evening that summer at the usual devotional exercises of the 
faculty and students: "Among them sat one, pale and emaci- 
ated by continued illness, and of whom his friends l)egan to 
whisper, 'Unless relieved soon we fear he will never be well, 
even if he lives.' They might have spared a portion of their 
anxiety had they known the nature of his disease, which was 
dyspepsia, and that not of a chronic form." Mr. Lane came 
to that service greatly cast down by the conjbined eflfects of 
disease and hard study. During the service he deeply 
pondered his condition and prospects, and had about con- 
cluded that he must abandon his long-cherished plan of he- 
coming a New England minister, for the reason that such a 
life would aggravate his disease, cripple his energies, and 
shorten his days. At that moment there came to ham the 
thought that the quite different life of a missionary in the 
west might counteract his disease. To go west would require 
great self-denial, but there might be great compensation, 
chiefly of a spiritual character. These thoughts, with others, 
passed before him with the swiftness of a vision, and had 
for a time the effects of a vision. All things el?e were shut out. 
The chapter, the hymn, the singing were all unheard. In 
the general movement he rose for prayer, but not to join in 
the petitions offered. The spell was upon him., and he seemed 
to stand alone before God. He went out that evening not as 
he came in. Henceforth his prayer was "May I be found in 
the right plaee, doing the right work ! Prepare me for it, and 
make me willing to enter upon it ! " The result was that he 
definitely decided to become a western missionar^\ He soon 
found that a classmate from the west expected to return and 
labor in that region. And these two so successfully promoted 
the scheme that teui others of their class joined them. The 
twelve prospective home missionaries were Daniel Lane, Har- 
vey Adams, Erastus Ripley, Horace Hutchinson, Alden B. 
Robbins, William Salter, Edwin B. Turner, Benjamin A. 



286 ANNALS OF IOWA 

S^paulding, William Hammond, James J. Hill, Etoenezer Alden 
arnd Ephriam Adams. 

These kindred spirits then proposed to hold prayer 
meetin'gs, to further fos-ter their remarkable friendship and 
TUiity of purpose. But no two of them roomed together, and 
the question arose as to when they might privately assemble. 
(3ne of their numher happened to he the seminary librarian ; 
so they decided to meet in the lilirarv^ room, although the 
.seminary rules for^bade lights in that room; but they over- 
came that difficulty' by meeting there on Tuesday evenings 
and praying in the dark. And in after years, though widely 
.separated in the mission field, those devoted men observed 
Tuesday evening as the set time to secretly pray for each 
other. Before graduating from the seminary the twelve had 
chosen Iowa territory as the field of their missionarv^ labors. 
They therefore became known as "The Iowa Band." 

After seven years of acquaintance, courtship and be- 
trothal, Daniel Lane and Elizabeth Staples were married, 
September 9, 1843, which was soon after he graduated from 
the seminary, and a few weeks before "The Band" was to 
start west. One of the members, William Hammond, decided 
not to go at all, "for fear of the western climate," and two 
more, Erastus Ripley and J. J. Hill, were temporarily 
detained, and came oai the folloiwing year. Nine of "The 
Band," two of them, Mr. Lane and Mr. Robbins, with wives, 
started on the long journey, Oct. 4, 1843. The first stage was 
by train to Buffalo, then the western terminus of the rail- 
road, thence by a lake steamer to Chicago. It is worth not- 
ing and will amuse present day lowans, that during a brief 
landing at Milwaukee they were met by Rev, Peet, the Wis- 
consin agent for the American Home Missionary Society, 
which was financing "The Band," but he discouraged their 
going on to their destination by saying "Iowa will never 
amount to much, as it has only a narrow strip of good land 
along the IVIississippi river, beyond which is the Great Amer- 
ican Desert." The only excuse for such a statement was ig- 
norance of the character of the unsettled portion of Iowa at 
tfhat time, when it was understood that "the settled portion of 
the territory w^as a belt of land on the west bank of the Miss- 



REV. DANIEL LANE AND HIS KEOSAUQUA ACADEMY 287 

issippi, 200 miles long- and 40 wide, with a population of some- 
thing over fifty thousand." From Chicag'o, by chance con- 
veyances, mostly open farm wagons, the missionaries came 
through what was to them, "a new^ and wonderful cojjntry," 
and were much surprise^d to get good meals hy the way for 
a "bit," 1214 cents, and night lodging for 25 cents. Through 
out the whole trip they refrained from tra\'eling on Sunday 
and, after about seventeen day of actual travel, they arrived 
at Denmark, Lee County, Iowa, October 25, 1843. 

But they were not the first Congregational missionaries to 
come to Iowa. The same missionary society had sent Rev. 
Asa Turner to Quincy, Illinois, in 1830. In 1836 he made an 
exploring tour to the Black Hawk purchase, and found a 
colony of religious New England people settled in the Den- 
mark locality. In 1838 those Denmark people invited him to 
become their pastor ; he accepted the call, and sustained that 
relation to them for thirty years. However, during the first 
six yeai*s of that peri(xl lie gave half his time as agent for the 
''American Home Missionary Society in the territory of Iowa. 
Fourteen CougTegational churches had been organized by the 
time the 'Iowa Baiid" came, and some eight Congi-egational 
ministers had reached the Territory," so said Dr. Magoun at 
the dedication of a new Congregational church in Keosaukua 
in 1888," and Dr. Salter one of 'The Band,' says, 'It was a 
letter from Asa Turner, under God, more than any other single 
influence, which led us to choose Iowa as our field of labor,' 
therefore, with or without the consent of my Congregational 
friends, I may say that Asa Turner was a sort of Bishop of 
loava, and Denmark the headquarters of his diocese ; which ac- 
counts for 'The Iowa Band' coming to Denmark in a body." 

Dr. Salter further relates that, after aiTiving in Iowa, "the 
next Sunday I spent at Keosauqua, on the Des Moines liver, 
and preached in a blacksmith shop. " A Mr. Hadden attended 
or followed him back to Denmark where, on the following Sun- 
day, Noveniber 5th, Mr. Lane and six others were to lie or- 
daine-d before the memhers of "The Band" dispersed to. their 
appointed fields of lalwr. The method of assigTinent to those 
fields is thus described in the little book entitled "Th^ Iowa 
Band", the nine members having assembled in the pastor's 



288 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Study for that purpose : Then Fathers Turner and Gaylord, 
who had explored the field, came in. map in hand, descrihed 
their tour, the places visited, and then retired. Now. by free 
sug'gestion and mutual consent, tlie assignment began. Broth- 
er Hutchinson, for peculiar reasons, as was well knowai, was 
inclined to Burlington, and H. Adams to Farmington; and 
none were disposed to object. Those having wives, it was said, 
ought to be provided with places as connfortable as any in the 
territory. A minister-seeking man^ "from Keosauqua had 
claimed Brother Lane as the one of his choice. His promises 
were fair, and he was gratified. Then Bloomingtou, since 
called Muscatine, a smart town of 400 inhabitants, was ceded 
to Brother Robbins, and thus the wives were provided for." 
And thus, incidentally, was shown the rank which Keosauqua 
held among her sister towns in 1843. The Savior's injunction 
was "judge not according to appearances; judge rig<hteous 
judgment." For lack of time and opportunity Mr. Hadden 
had to "judge according to appearances" Avlien he chose Mr. 
Lane but, fortunately, it proved to be a ' ' righteous judgment ' ' 
also, and has been endorsed as such by Keosuaqua people un- 
to this day. 

Mr. Lane was nearly thirty-one years old on November 12, 
1843, when he preached his first sermon in Keosauqua, and 
sitood face to face with the great -work he had chosen, and for 
wliiich God had chosen him. Many precious years had been 
spent in preparation for it, not mllingly 'but necessarily. He 
liad not inherited a robust body ; physical weakness always, 
and real illness often, hindered study. And a degi-ee of pov- 
erty frequently drove him from the halls of learning, and 
compelled long j>eriods of manual labor or teaching, in order 
to replenish his normally slender and often empty purse. His 
eager spirit chafed against the enforced delay, which after all 
was not without its compensations, for the protracted sitruggle 
was a discipline which resulted in the development of patience, 
courage, perseverance, self-reliance — all those moral qualities, 
inid<3ed, wthioh characterized him afterward and contributed 
so much to his popularity and usefulness. 

As a matter of economy, if not of necessity, the Lanes had 
sent their few household effects by water down the Atlantic 

^Mr. Hadden. 



REV. DANIEL LANE AND HIS KEOSAUQUA ACADEMY 289 

coast, across the Gulf of Mexico, and up the Mississippi to 
Burlington, w'hence thev must come to Keosuaqi^a by wagon; 
and until they arrived Mr. and Mrs. Lane boarded with Mr. 
Hadden's family. How few were those household effects is 
shown "by the following excerpt from the diary of Rev. H. 
Adams, of Parmington, who, the next summer, visited the 
most of his brother minister's at their homes, beginning at 
Keosauqua : "July 16, 1844. Here are Brother Lane and his 
wife in their little home of two rooms. They have a chair or 
two now and a table, but they say they set up housekeeping 
without either, using old iboxes instead." He then goes on to 
say "They have a church of a few members, organized as 
Presbyterians, but its members are not all of that way of 
thinking. Brother Lane is coming to be very decided that 
CongTegationalism is the true Bible way, really quite con- 
scientious about it. A majority are with him. How 
things will turn out, can't tell." How "few members" com- 
posed that church, and how eager was "the majority" who 
were "with Brother Lane" on the denominational question, 
appears from the fact that, when he did organize a Congrega- 
tional Church about four months after Rev. Adams ' visit, and 
a little more than a year after Mr. Lane began his labors here, 
he did it ^^'■ith only five members, viz., Moses Root and wife, 
Comfort Barnes and wife, and Mrs. Lane. Moreover, Mrs. 
Lane was the only member who lived in town ; the others lived 
two and four miles out. Mr. Hadden, the Chief instrument in 
bringing Mr. Lane to Keosauqua, must have been a Presby- 
terian ' ' after the strictest of his sect, ' ' for he did not then join 
the Con'gregational church, nor did he afterward during the 
few years he remained in town. 

AVTien Mr. Lane had lieen in Iowa about two years, the con- 
dition of his health required an extended vacation and a 
change of climate, but did not keep him from doing good 
when and where he had opportunity. Of that vacation Mr. 
John Valentine writes me, "The winter of 3845-6 Mr. Lane 
spent in Maine, on account of illness from malaria, and made 
his home with my ibrother, Lo^'ell. During that winter he 
preached to our people there ; and it was then under his 
preaching, that I was converted." 



290 ANNALS OF IOWA 

In the hisitory of Van Buren County — page 475 — it is er- 
roneously stated that "Mr. Hadden built the first church at 
iveosauqua, in 1840." It is not at all probable that a single 
pereon would build a ehurch at his own expense in a frontier 
town which was less than four years old. The truth is that 
Mr. Hadden, being a carpenter, as I am informed, did erect 
a small house in that year to be rented for school purposes. 
It is true that it was also a preaching place "for all denomi- 
nations", as many school houses were in an early day, and not 
a few are in these days, but the Hadden house was not intend- 
ed for a church, and was never dedicated as such. Judge 
Wright and Mrs. Joseph C. Knapp both came to Keosauqua in 
1840, the year in which Mr. Hadden built that house. Judge 
Wright in his sketch of Mr. Lane — ^Annals of loM-a,, October, 
1914, page 486 — refers to it as "the little school house, rented 
for private scohols, " and Mrs. Knapp says she never heard 
it spoken of as being a cihurch, on the contrary it was always 
called " Hadden 's school house." 

In that school house Mr. Lane preached his first sermon, 
and many others, in Keosauqua, but we have his own state- 
ment that his congregation "for several years had no settled 
place for pulblic worship." But in his fourth year here, and 
under his leadership, his people, aided by other citizens, 
built a small brick church, Mr. Lane himself paying for the 
brick out of his salary of $400 per annum, when, as he after- 
ward said, "we had no other pecuniary resources whatever." 
Let us give honor to whom honor is due. As we have already 
seen, there was a small Presbyterian church organization here 
when Mr. Lane arrived in 1843, but to the Methodists belong 
the credit of the first church organization. About the middle 
of Novemiber, 1836, less than a year after the fii-st settler built 
his " olaim-,pen, " and about seven years before Mr. Lane ar- 
rived, Rev. Norris Holiart, a Methodist preacher, "fonned a 
Class" here, and made this a regular preachin'g place on his 
large "circuit" of sixteen appointments, the lieadquartei's of 
which was Burlington. But to ]\Ir. Lane belongs the honor of 
having been the first resident pastor, and the credit of leader- 
ship in the erection of the first church building in Keosauqua. 

And no\v, a few general statements may be made to intro- 
duce an account of Mr. Lane's school-teaching in the tow^n. 



REV. DANIEL LANE AND HIS KEOSAUQUA ACADEMY 291 

According- to the History of Van Biu'en Comity, "Tom Wil- 
kinson kept the first school at the (new) county seat, in 1839," 
which was about three years after the advent of the first set- 
tler. The character of "Tom", and how he may have "kept 
school," may be inferred from the further statement of said 
history that "Wilkinson left in 1842, and married a half- 
breed of the Cherokee nation." All the early schools were 
private ones, and steadily improved in character and effi- 
ciency. In the late forties, Professors Allen, Moore and Howe 
taug'ht schools of some pretentions. And a part of that time 
Moore and Howe were assoiciated in teaching a school in the 
Des Moines House, originally a tavern, near the court house. 
The large dancmg- hall of that building- could he made two 
g"ood school-rooms by means of folding doors, and other parts 
of the house were occupied by private families. 

The pulblic school district was not organized till 1849. Late 
in that year it accjuired two lots, on which a one room brick 
school-house was built the following summer, and in it the 
next winter a puhlic school was taught by George Baldwin, a 
brother of the pioneer, Charles Baldwin, who had opened the 
school and taught it al)out two weeks, until his brother George 
could come on from Ohio. 

A very brig-ht girl, Mary Wilkins, was a scholar in that first 
pulblic school, and later a student in Mr. Lane's academy. She 
is now Mrs. Charles Rustin, of Omaha, and writes me of that 
public school that, after a lapse of sixty-five years, she still 
treasures a little book, on the fly-leaf of which is wnritten: 
To Miss Mary E. Wilkins: 

This book is presented by the undersigned, Directors of School 
District No. One, Van Buren "township, as the principal premium 
for improvement and good conduct during the winter term of said 
school— 1850. Attest: George G. Wright, Pres't. 

John D. Mitchler, Treas. 
John H. Stine, Sec. 

And Mrs. Rustin adds, with commendable pride, "This was 
the first prize given in the first puhlic school of Keosauqua. ' ' 

But some citziens of the tO'WTQ were anxious for better ad- 
vantages for their children than could be expected of the 
public school at that time. Who took the initiative in the mat- 
ter I cannot say, but it resulted in Mr. Lane opening a school 



292 ANNALS OF IOWA 

ill the only room on the gronnd floor of the Odd Fellow liuild- 
ing. He did this partly for financial reasons, his salary as a 
minister still bein,ii- a small one, and partly- -perhaps more — 
for the sake of enlargino: his sphere of usefulness. The school 
was to be one of high grade, an academy really, as appears 
from the following which, published in the Des Moines Val- 
ley Whig, Keokuk. Iowa, IMay 1, 1851 : 

KEOSAUQUA ACADOBMY 

Rev. Daniel Lane — Teacher 
The First Term of this Institution will commence on Monday. May 
20th. Each term will consist of 11 weeks. 

TUITION PER TERM; PRIMARY BRANCHES— $3.00 

Branches usually taught in common district schools, including the 
elementary principles of Algebra and Natural Philosophy — $3.75. 
Higher studies in Mathematics, Mental and Moral Science, Chemis- 
try, Astronomy, Rhetoric, Logic, Ancient and Modern Languages 
— $4.50. * * * Keosauqua, April 17th, 1851. 

In the announcement for the third term of the same year 
in the Western American, Keosauqua, December 5th. "Latin 
and Greek'' are mentioned as languages to be taught; and in 
the same paper, June 19, 1852, announcing June 30th as the 
beginning of the "Fifth T.erm," it is said that "instruction 
will be given in Latin, Greek, French and German if re- 
( [nested." The first announcement, backed up by the well 
Ivnown fact that Mr. Lane was a graduate of three schools, 
an academy, a college, and a theological seminary, and also 
was a teacher of several years experience, indicated that the 
proposed school would not be an experiment so far as the 
teacher was concerned, and the people were not left in doubt 
very long. His albility as an instructor, and the excellent 
moral atmosphere of his school, soon became so evident that 
his patrons desired to have their younger children brought 
under his immediate influence. To gratify their desire, he 
formed one or two sub-primary classes, and employed Miss 
Mary Wilkins, an advanced scholar, to hear their recitations ; 
for which service she received $3.08 per week, in addition to 
her own tuition. 

The newspapers frequently referred to the academy as be- 
ing "an excellent and flourishing institution." Its fine rep- 



REV. DANIEL LANE AND HIS KEOSAUQUA ACADEMY 293 

utation went aibroacl and attracted students from adjoining- 
counties in lo'wa and Missouri. 

As further evidence that Mr. Lane was seriously liandi- 
eapped by physical frailty the Western American of August 
30, 1851, says, "Keosauqua Academy — We are requested to 
state that the academy will not commence its session next 
Monday, owing to the continued ill health of Mr. Lane. But he 
is rapidly recovering' and in all prohability will soon be at his 
post." He bravely carried his double burden of preaching and 
teaching through a period of two years, until the spring O'f 
] 853, when it became evident to him that he was overworking. 
He therefore closed his school, severed his pastoral relation 
to the church, and went to Davenport to bec^ime principal of 
the Preparatory Department of Iowa College, then in its in- 
fancy, and without a dollar of endowment. He was also to 
have charge of the boarding and lodging department, in the 
case of which Dr. Magoun said "jMr. and Mrs. Lane were use- 
ful to the students in a rare measure, both in respect to this 
Avorld and the world to come." Mr. and Mi's. Lane had no 
children of their own, but both of them had the instinct of 
parenthood in an eminent degree. Of course there was greater 
obligation and opportunity for its exercise while in charge of 
that boarding and lodging department than they ever had 
before or afterward, but they always had a parental interest 
in their scholars. To their intimate friends they habitually 
spoke of their scholars as "our boys" and "our girls," and 
they watched their adult careers with a solicitude akin to that 
of real parents. To illustrate that habit I may relate that on 
the occasion of a visit to Keosauqua, when the name of a 
former scholar, inclined to waywardness, was mentioned, Mr. 
Lane inquired with evident anxiety, ' ' Is W steady now ? ' " 

He was equally solicitous ahout the church he had planted 
in Keosauqua anid, before leaving for Davenport, he secured 
Rev. Dimon to succeed him as pastor. Mr. Dimon was an ex- 
ceptionally alble man and a fine character, who had left a good 
law practice in the east after being convinced of a call to 
preach the Gospel. But he died albout a year after coming to 
Keosauqua, greatly to the regret of all who knew him. In that 
short time he acquired influence enough to organize a company 
for the purpose of founding a permanent academy in the 



294 ANNALS OF IOWA 

town. After his death the company bougiht a small brick 
house of two rooms, placed over its door the sign ' ' The Dimon 
Institute, " and brought a Professor Grreene from the east to 
superintend the school. But for some reason the institution 
was short lived, and Mr. Greene returned to Massachusetts, 
where he became assoiciated in the practice of law with George 
F. Hoar, who later on was United States senator. 

Two years after going to Davenport, Mr. Lane was promoted 
to the chair of mental and moral science in Iowa College. But 
in 1858, because of a defaulting college treasurer, and the 
persistence of the Davenport City Council in opening a wide 
street through the campus the college trustees temporarily 
closed the institution but reopened it at Grinnell the follow- 
ing year. 

During that year of intermission Mr. Lane taught a classi- 
cal school in Davenport, at the close of w^hich, in the fall of 
1859, upon the earnest solicitation of Judge Wright and others 
he returned to Keosauqua under a contract to teach there three 
years. This second Keosauqua academy was conducted in the 
basem^ent of the Methodist Church, and occupied three rooms. 
The majority of the students were under Mr. Lane's immed- 
iate control in a large lecture room. In a smaller room the 
primary scholars were located, and taught for some time by 
Mrs. Lane, who was succeeded by Miss Maggie McArthur. In 
a third room, a few of Mr. Lane 's classes were tutored by the 
advanced scholar and exceptionally fine young man, William 
0. Harper, until he became a Union soldier in 1861, This 
school also attracted students from afar. The average num- 
ber of its scholars is now supposed to have been seventy or 
eighty for about two years, when the Civil War came on, cut 
down the attendance and otherwise seriously affected the 
school by making soldiers of a number of young men and older 
boys, who were greatly admired by Mr. Lane, and had con- 
tributed much to the morale of his school. Mr. Lane was a 
devoted Union man, and thoroughly in sympathy with the 
patriotic spirit which prevailed among his scholars. Friday 
afternoons were devoted to literary exercises which, after the 
war I)egan, took on a decidedly patriotic character. W. W. 
Baldmn says "I remember declaiming an impassioned, pat- 
riotic appeal, and seeing the tears flow down Mr. Lane 's face 



REV. DANIEL LANE AND HIS KEOSAUQUA ACADEMY 295 

as he listened to me. I can never forget the inspired look 
upon him at that time." 

In those days Keosaii({ua had a "giee club" of unusually 
good singers, four of whom were scholars in the academy, and 
Hattie McArthur one of the four. When the war came on the 
cluib sang at rallies for recruits in southeastern Iowa, and 
raised many a boy's patriotism to the enlisting point. And the 
boys did not forget that when they were hundreds of miles 
distant from the club, and experiencing the stern realities of 
soldier life. One day when conditions were very trying a 
wag in our company sang out dolefully, "Oh, I wish Hattie 
^McArthur was here to sing me out of service ; she sung me 
into it I " 

Four of Mr. Lane's scholars responded to President Lin- 
coln's first call for troops. Voltaire Twombly was one of them 
and he w^rites me, "The four of us. Harper, Burns, Henry 
and Twombly, were one day invited to dinner by Mr. Lane, 
and Mrs. Lane got us up a good dinner. The most impressive 
part of that visit with our dear teacher and his wife was when 
we all got dow n on our knees and he prayed with us. And in 
parting he gave each of us a small Testament and fatherly 
counsel. I carried my Testament throughout the war. and 
read it — sometimes when under fire in the trenches. I have 
it yet, with this wTitten on the fiy-leaf, 'Y. P. Twoml)ly, from 
his teacher and friend, D. Lane'." I have ascertained that, 
including nine from his first school, thirty-eight of ^Ir. Lane's 
scholars 'became Union soldiers, and suffered their proportion 
of hardships and casualties during the war. There may have 
been a few more in the Union Army, and it is also a signifi- 
cant fact that I have^ not learned of one of his scholars who 
served in the Confederate Army. 

Including both schools Mr. Lane's teaching in Keosauqua 
covered a period of about five years. Some persons, in their 
zeal for the good reputation of the old town, but with no in- 
tention whatever of misrepresenting mattei*s, assert that no 
other school of like character, in the whole country, and in the 
same length of time, was attended 'by so many scholars, who 
became prominent in their mature years. That may or may 
not l>e true. No one can tell in the absence of complete statis- 



296 ANNALS OF IOWA 

tics from all sueli schools, and it is safe to say that no such 
statistics were ever compiled, and distributed, therefore the 
assertion may be made only as an opinion, not as a knO'W^i 
fact. Moreover, the makers of the foregoing statement er- 
roneously, but of course honestly, swell their mental list of 
Mr. Lane 's scholars who became prominent men, Ijy including 
in it the names of George W. McC'rary, H. C. Caldwell, and a 
few others, of less prominence, none of whom ever went to 
school to Mr. Lane. In the Annals of Iowa, Octoher, 1914, 
there appeared a 'brief character sketch of Mr. Lane hy Judge 
Wright. In that sketch the Judge does not assert the su- 
periority of Mr. Lane 's school over other schools in the pro- 
duction of prominent men, but he restricts the field of com- 
parisoii, and adroitly shifts the burden ,of proof upon any 
one who might deny it. He says, ' ' Find if you can another in- 
stance in this western world, in the eariy days, of a small pri^ 
vate school sending out so many men of whom the instructor, 
the state and nation even, may feel so justly proud." This 
challenge comes after naming twelve prominent men — from 
memory — who had been scholars in Mr. Lane's school. Judge 
Caldwell among them. I will not attempt to take up the chal-- 
lenge, for I do not contend for the superiority of any other 
school, but the Judge is mistaken in naming Caldwell as a 
student in the Lane Academy. This may seem strange — and 
it is — ^in view of the facts that Caldwell studied law in the 
office of Knapp and Wright, and was junior mem'ber of the 
firm of Knapp, Wright & Caldwell from the time he was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1851, until he enlisted as major in the 
Third Iowa Cavalry in 1861, a period of about ten years. 

Now Judge Wright's reminiscent articles are veiy fine. 
They are illuminating, intensely interesting, and, in a general 
way, are faithful portrayals of pioneer characters and events. 
But they were written exclusively from memory, or nearly so, 
and it is well known that memory is not perfectly reliable as 
to the details of forty or fifty years "Lang Syne," In other 
articles I have found Judge Wright in error as to some details. 
And in the article now under consideration there are two er- 
rors l>esides the one concerning Caldwell. The first one states 
that Ml'. Lane settled in Keosauqua in 1842 instead of 1843, 
and the second says ' ' forty years later he returned to his firet 



REV. DANIEL LANE AND HIS KEOSAUQUA ACADEMY 297 

liome in Maine, and died within the year," whereas he lived 
over seven years after returning to Maine. It is thought by 
some that George W. McCrary attended school in Keosauqua 
and it is known that Caldwell w^ent to school to Professors 
Allen, Moore and Howq; but I have reliable information that 
neither of them, nor a few others included with them, ever 
were students in Mr. Lane's schools. Mrs. Rustin, Winifield 
Mayne and others who were students in the first school are 
quite positive that those persons did not attend it, and Mrs. 
Knapp confirms their statement. 

Mrs. Rustin explains that as the Knapp, Wright & Cald- 
well law office Avas just across the street from the academy 
school room, Caldwell would often come over during inter- 
mission perio-ds and .join the older scholars in their games. 

Caldwell had very little schooling, but he was one of those 
percocious youths who had a faculty for obsor'bing knowledge, 
and made good in after life. He began studying law with 
Knapp & Wright at the age of fifteen and was only nineteen 
when he was admitted to the bar in 1851, the very year in 
which Mr. Lane opened his school in the Odd Fellow building. 
What more likely then than that the boy of nineteen or twen- 
ty should still have a 'zest for play and often engage in it, 
when suitable comrades were hard at it so near him, especially 
when his sedentary occupation made erereise and recreation 
necessary. Judge Wright saw those youngsters at play hun- 
dreds of times; they made a bright and enduring picture in 
his mind. Forty years later as he sat writing his tribute to 
Mr. Lane memory brought out that picture labeled "Mr. 
Lane's students at play" and in it was Caldwell, one of the 
most enthusiastic players; so memory played the honest 
Judge a trick, and beguiled him into thinking that Caldwell 
was really a student in that academy. Finally, I have a list 
of the students in that school, given by Mr. Lane himself to 
Thomas S. Wright, the Judge's son, for us3 in an address 
made in Keosauqua in 1888, and the names of George W. Mc- 
Crary and H. C. Caldwell are not in that list. It is true that 
]\Ir. Lane made that list from memory, closing with the re- 
mark "And perhaps two or three others, Avliose names are 
not recalled by their old teacher." But it is incredible that 
he should have forgotton two such men as McCrarv and Cald- 



298 . ANNALS OP IOWA 

well, who became far more prominent than any he did men- 
tion as students in Ms first Keosauqua Academy. 

Other Keosauqua patriots, and ardent admirers of Mr. 
Lane, equally desirous of honoring him and being loyal to 
truth, are content with saying that he was in the front rank 
of this country's great teachers; that he probably had few, if 
any, superiors; and that his Keosauqua schools were really 
remarkable for the numher of their students who became more 
or less prominent in after life. That seems to be a perfectly 
reasonably statement. And I feel sure that the^ fair minded 
and modest Daniel Lane would not think of claiming the sole 
credit for the promdnence of his scholars. Indeed, he often 
and gladly admitted that heredity and home environment had 
furnished him an unusual amount of good material for the 
making of superior men and women. And we are not to leave 
out of the account that great factor, the personal endeavor of 
the students themselves. Therefore, on these accoimts, and 
the certainty that those students would have had other good 
teachers, it is to be conceded that many of them would have 
become useful men and women and attained to a good degree 
of prominence if they had never seen Mr. Lane. And it is 
also admitted that at least a few of his scholars profited little 
in youth or maturity (by the gTeat' advantages of his schools, 
but that was not the fault of their teacher. But I do contend 
that he inspired many with a zeal for knowledge and morality 
who, otJller^^^se, might not have been so inspired; and that he 
developed even the most willing o'f his scholars to a degree 
which they were not likely to have attained under any other 
teaoher available at that time — in short, that he was the great- 
est possible help to all who were willing to be helped and to 
help themselves; and therefore justly deserves a very large 
measure of credit for the success which they achieved in later 
life. 

There is extant no original roster of the students in either 
of Mr. Lane's academies. His list of those in the first school 
given from memory has been supplemented — also from mem- 
ory' — ^by a few surviving students of that school. For a list 
of those in the second school I am wholly dependent upon the 
recollections of a few of its survivors with whom I have cor- 
responded. Both lists are probably not complete, but I think 



REV. DANIEL LANE AND HIS KEOSAUQUA ACADEMY 299 

are nearly so. They are as follows, with my comments show- 
ing the prominence in life attained by many of them, the ma- 
jority of those not thus noticed filled their humhler stations 
with credit to themselves and their able teacher : 

FIRST SCHOOL 

Edwin Stannard — ^Commission merchant in St. Louis, 
wealthy owner of flouring- mills, lieutenant governor of Mis- 
souri, congressman, and delegate to Methodist General Con- 
ference. 

Zervia Stannard — Wife of George C. Duffield, a prominent 
pioneer farmer and citizen of Van Buren county. 

Alphonso Stannard — Brother of Edwin. 

John C. Browai — Bank cashier. 

Hugh Browai — ^Lieutenant on staff of Gen. Ord in Civil 
War, thereafter in regular army, last service in Spanish- 
American war, final rank, major. 

Alex Brown — ^Sergeant-major of Fifteenth Iowa, discharged 
for wound received at Shiloh and Corinth, county judge, 
county auditor, lawyer, and member of state legislature. 

Annie Brown — ^Wife of Dr. William Craig. 

Mollie Bro'Avn — Wife of Judge Rdbert Sloan. 

Henry Moon — Keosauqua postmaster. 

Winfield Mayne — ^The first gTaduate of Iowa Wesleyan 
College, he being the whole class of 1856, for many years a 
prominent lawyer of Council Bluffs. 

Leroy Mayne — Soldier in Second Iowa Infantry and Third 
Cavalry, lieutenant and adjutant of marine brigade when he 
died in 1863. 

Stephen Fellows — Prominent citizen, wealthy and success- 
ful farmer. 

Mary Shepherd — Wife of Delazon Smith, a lawyer, preach- 
er, and United States senator from Oregon. 

Mary E. Wilkins — Both scholar and tutor in the school, af- 
terward a successful teacher in Keosauqua and Sioux City, 
wife of Charles Rustin, a cultured woman and life-long stu- 
dent. 

Harriet Benton— Wife of Judge H. C. Caldwell. 

Arthur Buckner — When a child came with his people from 
Kentuck}^ to Clark county, Missouri, ' ' depended on his mental 



300 ANNALS OF IOWA 

quickness rather than on close aipplication to study, mischiev- 
ous in season and out of season, and the only scholar I ever 
saw Mr. Lane out of patience with" sa.ys Mrs. Rustin. lie 
became a physiieian and eminent surgeon. The Confederate 
Gen. Buckner was his great uncle. Arthur was loyal and 
served as a surgeon in the ITnion Army. 

Aurelia Julien- — Wife of ^laj. H. C. McArthur, civil war 
veteran. 

Jane Bell — Sister of Col. Frank Bell. 

Margaret Leaeli — Daughter of Gen. Leach. 

Isaac Thatcher — Captain of Company K, Forty-fifth Infan- 
try. 

Amos Thatcher — Sergeant-major Fifteenth Iowa. 

Jacob St. Jolm — Larwyer in Des Moines. 

Vina Baldwin — ^Sister of Charles Baldwin. 

Ellen Manguin — ^Wife of Winfield Mayne. 

George Swain — ^Lieutenant in Seventh Cavalry. 

Aurelia or "Milly" Williams — Wife of Mr. Schraimn, a 
prominent Burlington merchant. 

Volney Smith — 'Son of Delazon Smith, was cadet a while 
at West Point, suiposed to have been a soldier in the Civil War, 
and known to have 'been prominent in Arkansas politics. 

Lizzie Brown, Mary Ann Brown, Nancy Brown, Elizabetli 
Burns, Mary Burns, Elizabeth Cameron, Cornelia and Mary 

Chittenden, Ellen Claflin, James Coleman, Samuel Dook, 

Devin, Davis Leonard, William Fellows, William Fosnot, 
Sarah and Amanda Hartzell, Victoria Julien, Luther and 
Mary Kreigh, Henry Mathias, Philander and Carrie Mayne, 
Sarah Jane, Elizalljeth and Angeline Miller, Jackson and Zar~ 
via Miller, David Miller, Mary Moore, Francis Montonye, 
Martha Selby, Felissa Stannard, Joanna Steele, Carlisle and 
Sarah St. John, Louisa and Sarah Tolman, Charlotte and Rus- 
sell Tylee, Adaline and Amanda Walker, Boylston Wilson, 
Emily Webster and William Wallace Brown. 

SECOND ACADEMY 

The first three names on this list are persons who were also 
in the first school, but in the primary class. 

Charles W. Shepherd — ^Served three years in Third Iowa 
Cavalry, then till close of Civil war as a lieutenant in a col- 



REV. DANIEL LANE AND HIS KEOSAUQUA ACADEMY 301 

ored regiment, was a Methodist minister nearly thirty years, 
and died when treasurer of Van Buren county. 

Thomas kS. Wright — ^Son of Judge George G. Wright, was 
adjutant in Third Cavalry, prisoner of war for a short time, 
lawyer of prominence, and was attorney for the C. R. I. & P. 
Ry. Co. when he died in New York City as the result of an 
accident, age about forty-nine years. 

V. P. Twombly- — Excelled in mathematics while a student, 
enlisted spring of 1861 in the Second low^a Infantry at the 
age of nineteen, was slightly wounded at Ft. Donelson and 
Avas the last of the color guards on his feet Avhen he carried 
the colors over the Confederate works, was promoted from 
grade to grade until made captain, was severly wounded at 
Corinth, sem^ed over four years. After the war was treasurer 
of Van Buren county four years, treasurer of the state of 
Iowa six years, and president of the Home Savings Bank of 
Des Moines ten years, from 1891 to 1901. 

Chloe Funk— Wife of V. P. Twombly. 

W. W. Baldwin — Soldier and lawyer, prominent citizen of 
Burlington and president of its lihraiy association, became 
land commissioner of the C., B. & Q. R. R. in aibout 1879, still 
in the employ of that company as vice-president and is an 
able writer on railroad questions. 

John Burns — Soldier four years, sergeant Third Cavalry, 
afterward treasurer Van Buren county and postmaster at 
Keosauqua. 

B. F. Elbert — Banker and member of Iowa Legislature. 

Felix T. Hughes — ^Soldier, school teacher in ]Memphis, Mo., 
three years, lawyer in Lancaster, Mo., in 1880 removed to 
Keokuk, Iowa, as general solicitor of the M., I. & N. R. R., five 
years later president and attorney for the same road reorgan- 
ized as the Keokuk and Western until it was sold to the C, 
B. & Q., since which he has been local attorney for the 
C.*, B. & Q. Meantime he has been mayor of Keokuk two 
years and judge of that city's superior court three years. 

Ben Johnston — ^Soldier four years in Union army, promoted 
lieutenant in colored regiment, lawyer, county attorney, and 
died while United States consul in a Honduras port. 



302 ANNALS OF IOWA 

B. F. Kauft'nian — Lawyer, and by many thoucrht to be the 
foremost attorney in Des Moines when he died in the prime 
of life. 

Rutled'ge Lea — Said to have been the best declaimer in the 
school, became an able lawyer but died when about forty years 
old. 

Alvin J. McCrary — Soldier, lawyer, president Iowa State 
Bar Association, appointed by President Roosevelt a delegate 
to the congTess of lawyers at the St. Louis Exposition, and 
since 1900 has been attorney for two corporate companies at 
Bingihampton, N. Y. 

Craig- L. Wright — Son of Judge George G. Wright and for 
many years an able lawyer in Sioux City. 

Sam M". Clark — Editor of the Gate City and memlber of 
congress. 

J. H. Watts — First lieutenant in Third Cavalry and killed 
in battle. 

Charles Leach — First lieutenant in Third Cavalry. 

William C. Stidger — ^Soldier four years, second lieutenant 
and adjutant of Fifteenth Iowa. 

George Stidger^ — iSoldier and physician. 

Addie Stidger — Wife of George C. Dutlt'ield. 

John Baker — Soldier and physician. 

William C. Harper — Lieutenant in the Second Iowa, was 
killed at Ft. Donelson. 

W. II.Andrews, Irene Anderson, Lavina R. Baldwin, Rachel 
Berger, Mary Bonney, John Bonner, Jerome Briggs and two 
sisters, Miles Burns, i\Iary Claflin, Lou Canaja, Eliza Day, 
Henry Easling, Susanna Fellows, Lutie Ganes, Lizzie and 
Susie Harrison, Ellen Brewster, Clarissa Hartson, Samuel 
and Benjamin Hearn, Thomas and Orra Henry, Sally Jordan. 
Stanslow Julien, Christopher Kautfman, Augusta Kinnersly, 
Lemuel Kincade, Lena Lea, Anna and Will Manning, Josie 
Manguin, Flavins, Scott and Susan ]\Iiller, Hattie McArthur, 
Nelson McCrary. William McBride, Sarah and Vina Morris, 
, Elizabeth Myers, Frances Miller, Lida Moore, Emma and 
Amandus Pearson, Henry Potter, Mary Purnell, James and 
Mary Rankin, Laura Rowley, Lewis Rye, John C. Smith, 
Melissa Stannard. Fletcher and Mary St. John, Clai-ence and 



REV. DANIEL LANE AND HIS KEOSAUQUA ACADEMY 303 

Amanda AValker, Thomas Thornlburg, Peter Watts, Sarah 
Warren, Mary Wheelan, Solon Wilson, Dora and Mary 
Wright, Samuel Hogue, Elizabeth Marshall. 

The building in which Mr. Lane taug-^ht his schools and the 
church he built in Keosauqua have long- since been torn down 
that modern ones might take their places, and Mr. Lane has 
been dead nearly twenty-six years ; but his memory is still 
cherished in the town, and will be after those who knew and 
loved him in the flesh are dead and gone. In the present Cou- 
gregationalist church on the wall, above and back of the pulpit, 
there hangs a large and life-like picture of Mr. Lane, who 
seems to be looking- over the congreg:ation, his eyes fondly rest- 
ing upon the beautiful front window, which bears this inscrip- 
tion: "Daniel Lane, D. D., of the 'Iowa Band,' and the first 
pastor of this church. By his students, testifying their affection 
and esteem, and commemorating his work and character as a 
Christian teacher. ' ' At the dedication of this church, in 1888, 
Thomas S. Wrigiht delivered an appropriate and able address 
in behalf of Mr. Lane 's students, some of whom had journeyed 
far to be present on the occasion. The foreg:oing: narrative 
is a more able and just tribute to the character of Mr. Lane 
than I can personally offer in another form. ' But to show 
further how he was and still is regarded and appreciated by 
his former students, I here fiuote tributes which a few of them 
sent me at my request. Mrs. Rustin says : " I think Mr. Lane 's 
success as a teacher was the result of his splendid scholarship 
and ability to impart knowledge, to his kind, wise and firm 
control of his scholars, and to his broad views and aims. He 
was much more than a mere pedag'ogue, with an eye upon his 
jjecuniary reward. He had a great longing for the personal 
])rofit of his scholars, and through them for the future wel- 
fare of Iowa. As I think of it now, he must have taken up 
teaching in Keosauqua as a necessary corollary of Ms minis- 
terial work, his conception of the work of a home missionary 
was that broad. He saw that the hope of Iowa lay in the 
morality and intelligence of her citizens. As a minister, and 
as a citizen himself he dbeyed the call to do what he could to 
mold the minds and characters of the rising generation. And, 
Oh, the personality of the man ! Sincerity radiated from his 



304 ANNALS OP IOWA 

CQunteimnce. Even a look from his honest, blue eyes blessed 
the one on whom it rested." 

By Alvin J. McCrary: "No man can fully estimate a life 
so poured out on his pupils as was Mr. Lane's. In lasting in- 
fluence never did a teacher more surely fasten his wise 
thoughts upon his scliolai^s. And he personally followed them 
in after years with his loving counsel. He w^as one of the few 
who could talk of Divine things without cant He was truly 
the friend of youth, yet you could not think of him as ever 
having had any youth. Man's value to man is the true mea- 
sure of greatness. But hy that standard Daniel Lane 's great- 
ness will never be realized in this world." 

By Judge Felix T. Hughes: "We loved Professor Lane 
very dearly, and I have always regarded him as a wonderful 
educator, and in other respects a really wonderful man. His 
christain virtues and liis anxiety for the advancement of his 
scholars were really admirable, and no thoughtful young man 
or woman could work for other than his highest esteem. 1 
can see him now before the classes, his face aglow with inter- 
est and anxiety for the success of his pupils. He was .so ten- 
der, so patient, and yet so firm tliat he never let a pupil go 
until he understood just what the lesson was intended to teach. 
He was so perfectly informed himself that it seemed a delight 
to him to exert himself in the interest of the subject under 
consideration, and he was so free in the use of simple and 
plain language that it all seemed real eloquence, and held us 
to the closest attention. ' ' 

By V. P. Twombly : ' ' ^Ir. Lane was loved by all his schol- 
ars. He was stern on occasion, but very just. x\s an example 
of his thoroughness I may relate that our arithmetic classes 
seemed to have trouble to remember, '5280 feet make a mile', 
that sentence was written at the top of the blackboard, and 
kept there until it was impressed upon their memories. And 
I venture that few, if any, of thovse scholars, if asked today, 
would fail to answer promptly, '5280 feet make a mile.' Mr. 
Lane was a strong, earnest, christian character; not a great 
preacher, but one who truly exemplified the Christ-life in his 
daily walk and conversation. He certainly M-as a great teacher 
and leader of young people. 



REV. DANIEL LANE AND HIS KEOSAUQUA ACADEMY 305 

And Mrs. Twonibly says : ' ' My strongest impressions of Mi-. 
Lane in the school room were made by his <|uiet talks before 
or after reading' a Scriptnre lesson and praying-, every morn- 
ing, on opening the school ; and his repeatiiig over and over 
again ' The frnit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, long-sutfer- 
ing, kindness, goodness, faithfnlness, meekness ; against such 
there is no law.'" (Gal. V. 22-28.) 

By W. W. Baldwin: "Mr. Lane was more than a teacher 
and preacher. He was a great example. His precepts were 
sound, but his life was more than all his precepts. He was 
not simply an upright and pure-minded man. but was the em- 
bodiment of uprightness and high character. I think that he 
combined in himself more nearly the best type of a patriotic 
citizen, the faithful pastor, and the conscientious teacher than 
any man with whom my life has been associated. This ex- 
plains his influence upon his pupils, an influence in the for- 
mation of character and habits aibove any influence of max- 
ims or books, and one which endures in our minds and lives 
even now after the lapse of more than half a century, uot 
only as a blessed memory but also as a vital force. ' ' 

In 1862 another protracted illness prevented Mr. Lane from 
teaching the final term, eleven weeks of his second school. That 
probably convinced him that he was no longer equal to the 
strain of continuous teaching. At any rate as soon as he was 
able he returned to active work in the ministry, in which he 
served as pastor at Eddj^ille four years, and at Pleasant 
Plains six years ; he then retired from pastoral work on ac- 
count of impaired hearing. In 1872-73 he assisted in raising 
funds for Iowa College. He then moved to Oskaloosa, chiefly 
to enjoy the fellowship of "Father" Turner, who in age amd 
feebleness lived there with his daughter. Mr. Lane still 
preached at times, and for short periods undertook pastoral 
charge of churches which were temporarily v/ithout installed 
pastors. In that capacity he was again at Eddy\alle six months, 
and three months at Keosauqua. Wliile in Iowa he was pastor 
of churches twenty-one years, a teacher eleven years and col- 
lege agent two years, making in all thirty-four years of active 
labor, including the two years when he was both pastor and 



COG ANNALS OF IOWA 

teacher in Keosaiikiia. And in the meantime he Avas a trustee 
of Iowa College for tAventy-six years. 

As old age crept upon them Mr. and Mrs. Lane yearned 
for the land of their youth, and for their relatives and friends 
who still lived there. So they left Iowa and went hack to 
Maine in December, 1882. In order to be near Mrs. Lane's 
relatives they bought a small, rural home about a mile from 
tlie little village of 'Freeport. It will please his Iowa friends 
atnd pupils to learn that the generous and self-denying Daniel 
Lajie had enough means to supply his moderate wants in the 
evening of life. IMrs. Lane's sister, Miss Anna Staples, Avrites 
me. "One of Mr. Lane's Iowa friends advised him to invest 
some money in land, so that he would have something for 
old age, or to leave to his wife if she survived him, which she 
did for ten years. Tlie investment proved to be a good one 
so when he came here he was able to buy a small place and live 
very comfortably. After he idied some of his money was lost 
tlirough his agent in the west, but there was enough left to 
last Mrs. Lane through, and what there was ever was to go to 
Iowa College and the missionary societies. He was to the 
last a cheerful giver, and when he received a gift he would 
give it to some good cause instead of using it for liis own 
benefit.'' 

Mr. Lane lived a little over seven years after returning 
to Maine, and died April o. 1890, at the age of seventy-seven 
years and twenty-three days. Of his closing years Miss Staples 
writes, "His last days were passed (juietly in reading and 
study, cultivatixig his garden and preaching occasionally. 
He was a constant attendant at church and mid-week prayer 
meetings. He had a large Bible class of men and women in 
the Sunday school, and a neighborhood prayer meeting at his 
home on Saturday evenings." 

Thus, contrary to the dark prophecy of the physician in 
his academy days, although seriously handicapped liy a frail 
Ixxiy and frequent illness, this good man labored long and 
successfully for God and humanity, and "came to his grave 
in a full age, like as a shock of corn cometh in its season." 



ANNALS OF IOWA. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 



SUSPENSION AND RBSUIMPTION OF THE 
ANNALS OF IOWA 

The Annals of Iowa, like many another excellent enterprise, 
has depended from its beginning upon great effort and sacri- 
fice by the curator of the Historical Department. Extreme 
effort and expenditure of time, talent and energy by Charles 
Aklrich, the founder of the Historical Department of Iowa, 
and the founder and editor of the third series of the Annals 
of Iowa, drew exhaustively upon the frail strength of his last 
years. From its first issue in April 1893, until Januarj^ 
1908 (the last number containing his work) his friends and 
associates volunteered for his use their strength and zeal. 
His successor, with fewer natural and acquired talents than 
Mr. Aldrich, took up and prosecuted the work to the best of 
his aibility, holding to the same lines. He bound himself to 
the same consideratio'ns and aimed at the same results, as he 
undei*stood them, as the founder. 

With the pulblication of the Annals goes the direction of 
the great collection of newspapers, the portrait gallery, the 
great natural and political history museum, the priceless 
collection of local historical books, mansuscript, etc., and the 
pu'bli<3 archives of the state of Iowa. Thus is formed the 
task and thus supported the distinction of the curatorship 
succeeding that of the lamented founder. 

The war which distorted the passions, the zeal, the demands 
of service, the purchasing power of money, and practically all 
the elements entering into the direction of an institution such 
as the Historical Department interfered especially with the 
pu'blication of the Annals. Our board of trustees, therefore, 
on January 12, 1918, aodpted the following: 



308 ANNALS OF TOWA 

RESOLVED. That the publication of the Annals be suspended 
until the close of the present war, and that at that time such 
action be taken as shall be deemed expedient. 

Throughout the fighting the great heart of Jowa beat up to 
and beyond the full of its every obligation. The Thirty- 
eighth General Assembly substantially added to the curator's 
responsibilities, for it gave heed to an appeal in which the 
Historical Department had joined, for authority and means 
wherewith to establish and bring forward the work of con- 
serving as puiblic state parks such areas in Iowa as are suited 
to the use of the people for scientifie, scenic, historical and 
recreational purposes. A more extended treatment of the lat- 
ter subject is given elsewhere in this issue of the Annals. 
The editorial responsibilities and labor of the curator were 
doubled thereby. He, therefore, submitted to the Board of 
Trustees of the Historical Department, the Executive Council, 
and the legislative committee on Retrenchment and Reform, 
in suibstance, the following request : 

It is proposed that since the curator was made by law a 
member, and by seleetio'n the secretary, of the Board of Con- 
servation, with the resulting responsibility of esta])lishing and 
maintaining an office with proper records, preparation of re- 
ports and carrying on the innumerable details of a new insti- 
tution, in addition to doing his share of inspecting areas, 
and public speaking, he requests that an editorial assistant be 
engaged, who shall be assistant secretary of the Board of Con- 
servation, and assistant editor to the curator, by way of com- 
pensating the time and talent subtracted by the curator from 
the Historical Department. 

The proposal was agreed to by the legislature, authority 
and means for such assistant provided, and the resumption of 
the publication of the Annals of Iowa made possible. The 
curator thereupon reported to the Board of Trustees his belief 
that notwithstanding the eo'ntinued distortion in the cost of 
printing and supplies and pending adjustment of our support 
to these and all other demands, the publication should be re- 
siuned, and in response the followi^ng resolution was adopted 
by the Board of Trustees : 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 309 

RESOLVED, That Mr. Harlan's recommendation that the revival 
of the publication phases of the department work, including the 
issues of the Annals of Iowa, be undertaken within the present 
year, be adopted. 

The field of the Annals is ample, and the repository of re- 
sources upon which to draw for its matter has increased and 
continues to expand. Neither the writer nor those who follow 
him need ever fear they will find themselves without the most 
ample and valuable sources of materials in the collections of 
the department and productions of others of the type and 
character the Annals produces, which mil register and reveal 
the aims and attainments of those who laid the foundations 
or continue in the construction of our commonwealth. 

The Annals therefore returns to its place of service. The 
work it did has been resumed. 



THE IOWA BOAED OF CONSERVATION 

Theodore Roosevelt attributes the enactment of national 
legislation to conserve national resources to the energy and 
foresight of Mr. Grifford Pinchot. Papers in the Historical 
Department reveal that two notable Iowa men contributed a 
very great part. They were W. J. McGee and John F„ Lacey. 

The Iowa legislature in its Thirty-seventh General Assem- 
bly, stimulated by the foregoing and similar influences, en- 
acted two measures, aimed at the preservation of Iowa areas 
worth while for scenic, scientifie, historical and recreational 
use. Numerous Iowa institutions of learned character, and 
associations aimed to promote recreation or sportsmanship, 
had for years directed the thought of the public to our rapidly 
disappearing forests, the decimation of wild animal and plant 
life, and the destruetion of mounds and works of prehistoric 
men. 

Chapter 333, Acts of the Thirty-seventh (xeneral Assembly, 
empowered the curator of the Historical Department to accept 
gifts as trustee of the people, of lands and property of his- 
toric interest. 

Chapter 236 of the same session directed the division of the 
fish and game protection funds into halves, one part to be 
expended in improving lakes and acquiring public state parks 



310 ANNALS OP IOWA 

selected, if recommended by the fish and game warden and 
approved by the Executive Council. 

The Thirty-eighth General Assemibly amended the latter 
act iby sulbstituting for "the fish and game warden" "the 
Board of Conservation " so far as selecting and approving 
park sites are concerned. It set apart only so much of the 
fish and game protection fund as would not in the opinion of 
the Executive Council 'be required to carry on the work of the 
fish and game department, 1>ut it added annually the sum of 
$100,000. 

Under this law the curator of the Historical Deparment 
is made a member of the Board of Conservation and, in the 
organization, became its secretary. The Executive Council ap- 
pointed Dr. L. H. Pammel of Ames, head of the department 
of botany of Iowa State College, who, on organization, w^as 
made president; Hon. Joseph Kelso, Jr., of Bellevue, a mem- 
ber of the Thirty-fifth and Thirty-sixth General Assemblies, 
and Hon. John F. Ford of Fort Dodge, former mayor of 
that citj', as the other three members. 

The board, serving with no compensation other than ex- 
penses, has performed a great amount of valuable work. Be- 
sides its preliminary investigations and the institution of state 
policies, they have examined and passed upon some fifty areas, 
and have recommended for acquisition some eight or nine 
tracts. A general report dealing with the law, policy and 
procedure of the state with reference to public state parks, 
is ready for publication and is delayed only by the impedi- 
ments to state printing that retard all similar work. 



Major Williams' journal, which he kept while going through 
Iowa in 1849 and which is published in this number of the 
Annals, frequently alludes to the Sons of Temperance, an 
organization Avhich was then very- popular. The Historical 
Department is fortunate in having in its possession a certifi- 
cate of membership in that society issued to C. F. Clarkson 
in Indiana in 1845. We present an illustration of the cer- 
tificate on opposite page. 



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SONS OF TEMPERANCE TRAVELING CARD 

Issued to C. F. (Father) Clarkson in 1845, The original from which this illustration is made is 

in possession of the Historical Department of Iowa, 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 311 

ACCOMPLISHMENT OF STATE BOARD OF CONSER- 
VATION TO APRIL, 1920 

(From the forthcoming- report of tlit' State Board of Conservation) 

AREAS IN IOWA WHICH HAVE BEEN ACQUIRED OR ARE IN 
COURSE OF ACQUISITION FOR PUBLIC STATE PARKS 

Boneyard Halloic and Woodman's Hollow, Webster County 
Ajbout ten miles southeast of Fort Dodge on the west bank 
of the Des Moines river ; -wild and beautiful scenery ; rare 
plants and forestry; adapted to summer and winter sports; 
interesting historic associations and unusual prehistoric works 
and discoveries. 

Four hundred and fifty-seven acres purchased for thirty- 
eight thousand, five hundred dollars, toward which the local 
citizens paid ten thousand dollars in cash and provided, cost 
free to the State, two appropriate roadways. 

The Devil's Backbone, Delmvare Coiinty 
Twelve miles northwest of Manchester, four miles northeast 
from Lamout, four miles southeast of Strawberry Point : 
good roads ; purchased almost entirely from funds derived 
from half the hunting license proceeds, under Chapter 236, 
Acts of the 37th General Assembly, therefore by the State 
Board of Conservation characterized as "The Gift of the 
Iowa Sportsmen to the People of the State." First public 
state park acquired ; most wild and wonderful scenic area in 
interior of Iowa : great bend of Maquoketa river ; immense 
spring is a constant supply for fine brook trout; Maquoketa 
river to and including an ancient mill embraced ; ;'are plants 
and forestry, in<iluding best typical growth of native white 
pines ; grotesque weathering of ancient limestone ; unusual and 
rare glacial and erosive effects displayed ; ideal camping place 
when facilities are provided. 
All lands purchased. 

Xear Farni.ington, Vtoi Btiren County 

One-half mile south of Farmington near Des Moines River 

and State roads : unicjue geology ; scenic gem ; original timber 

undisturbed ; natural lake and marsh of forty acres proposed 

to be improved so as to cover sixty acres ; perfect for stocking 



312 > ANNALS OF IOWA 

with bullheads and other fish ; rare fields of lotus or chin- 
(juapin; throng's of the cardinal and other birds winter and 
summer; muskrat and other fur bearers numerous. 

One hundred acres purchased by local citizens for seventy- 
five hundred dollars and presented cost free to the State 
which has engaged to purchase two additional acres, con- 
demn or acquire roadways and improve the same and other- 
wise render the area enjoyable. 

Near Keosauqua, Van Buren County 
Extends from the town along the south bank of the Des 
Moines River at the toe of the horseshoe 'beod some two miles 
up stream, thence southward from the stream to include some 
fourteen hundred acres. Natural wild life sanctuary and set 
apart to the unmodified and undisturbed use of the natural 
species of wild animal and plant life ; rough, wooded, brushy, 
the high hills affording- rarest of vistas up, down and across 
stream and crowned wdth prehistoric mounds; the ruffed 
grouse observed in summer 1919, with (juail most abundant ; 
winter resort and summer breeding place of the cardinal ; 
numerous dens of fox, skunk, mink, raccoon, opposum and 
groundhog; for a mile in all directions of the State lands, 
land owners voluntarily engage to assist the State in its pro- 
tection of wild life, both on their lands and the lands of the 
State so that there shall be a protected, undisturbed breed- 
ing' place of approximately 4,000 -acres; "Ely's Ford," a 
historic river crossing of pre-railroad days, famous then 
and ever since, as a camping site for hunting, fishing, 
bathing and for winter sports. 

Acquired by purchase at an average of less than fifty 
dollars per acre, to which local citizens contributed in cash, 
something over seventy-six hundred dollars. 

Lepley Park, Hardin County 
Three miles in a northerly direction from I ^nion ; nine 
acres presented cost free to the people of Iowa by Mr. Iryin 
Lepley : the State to purchase some additional twenty acres. 
On the tract presented and that to be acquired are magTiifi- 
cent oak, elm, basswood, walnut and nearly every other native 
species of timber, wild flowers, woods, river, and important 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENt 313 

highways near make of this place an ideal gift to be dedi- 
cated to the perpetual use to which it has been devoted from 
the earliest civilized times, namely, the enjoyment of the great 
out-doors. 

For withholding this area from mercenary disposition and 
making its transfer to the State for park purpose, the board 
feels it is warranted in commending Mr. Lepley to the grati- 
tude of the people of the State. 

Near Oakland, Pottawattamie County 

The Oakland Chautauqua Association donates, cost free to 
the State of Iowa, its fifteen acres of ground of a high pecu- 
niary and still higher esthetic value as the first roadside 
park in Iowa, upon the condition that the State acquire 
a small additional area of ground to complete and perfect 
the foundation of an ideal roadside park. 

Tbe additional ground being held at an exorbitant price is 
yet to be condemned. The committee commends to 'Citizens 
in other parts of Iowa the spirit of the Oakland Chautauqua 
Association as of the most practical, unselfish and farseeing 
character. 

Near Oakland Mills, Henry Count ij 

Four miles southwest of Mt. Pleasant on Skunk River; 
accessible from State roads ; resorted to from remotest civil- 
ized and even during Indian times, for fishing and sugar mak- 
ing ; rare plants a^nd forestry ; good boating and bathing ; beau- 
tiful scenery; interesting history. 

acres in extent, a part of the ground and four thou- 
sand dollars donated, the State purchasing acres. Addi- 
tional areas on margins of streams should be donated to the 
State, giving it complete, undisputed control. 

Roosevelt Park, Floyd Conntij 

Three miles in a northerly direction from Greene and four 
miles in the southerly direction from Marble Rock in the banks 
of the Shell Rock River. C. M. Mather donates cost free to 
the people of the State, some fifteen acres of ground together 
with an appropriate roadway thereto, providing the State 
acquire some additional ground, denominate this "Roosevelt 
Park" and furthermore, that in the use of this area certain 



314 ANNALS OF IOWA 

rules defert'utial to iSunday be established and enforced. A 
tine growth of woods and HoAvers; resort of every species of 
bird, native and migratory in that region; picturesque bluffs 
and ravines; a dam in the river at Greene affords fine lioat- 
ing and fishing; for j-ears much resorted to for fishing and to 
some extent for camping. 

The State Board of Conservation regards the donation 
of Mr. Mather as a distinctly puiblic-spirited act and bene- 
ficial to the people of the State ibeyond present valuation. It 
individually and positively expressed to Mr. Mather, and here 
records that expression, that the reasonable rules recognizing 
and differentiating Sunday as the one day on which pastimes 
and performances of all sorts shall be in harmony with the 
mental attitude of devout people, is a wholesome and welcome 
condition precedent to public acceptance of this gift. 

Wilclcdt Den, Muscatine Couuty 
Eight miles northeast of Muscatine, near good roads. 
Misses Emma C. and Clara L. Brandt, nature-loving sisters, 
j^resent, cost free, sixty acres of the heart of one of the richest 
floral regions in the State. Picturesque in Q\e,ry way and 
the resort for years of classes in botany and forestry from the 
(Chicago University and other institutions of learning; fish- 
ing, boating and bathing available especially if the area em- 
brace one of the few remaining water power mills on the 
smaller streams. 

The State and local citizens engage to acciuire the remainder 
of three hundred acres along Pine Creek to its confluence with 
the Mississippi River. 

AREAS IN IOWA SUGGESTED BY RESPONSIBLE CITIZENS OP 
STATE AS SUITABLE FOR PUBLIC STATE PARK PUR- 
POSES AND SO REGARDED BY THE BOARD OF CONSER- 
VATION, FROM WHICH SELECTIONS WILL BE MADE, BUT 
NONE OP WHICH HAVE AS YET BEEN ACQUIRED FOR THE 
WANT OP APPROPRIATE CONDITIONS POUND OR 

CREATED. 

FIRST DISTRICT 

Des Moines County— Starr's Cave — Cave and glen near Burlington. 
Jefferson County — -Cedar Creek — Woods south of Fairfield. 
Lee County— Keokuk — Bluffs near Mississippi River. 
Lee County^ — Murray's Landing — Camp ground on Skunk River. 
Louisa County — Myerholz Lake — Near Wapello. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 315 

Louisa County — Odessa Lake — East of Wapello. 

Louisa County — Toolesboro — Indian mounds, mouth Iowa River. 

SECOND DISTRICT 

Jackson County — Morehead Caves — Northwest of Maquoketa. 
Jackson County — Tete des Morts — Historic, picturesque, near 
Bellevue. 
'Muscatine County — Park Place Addition — Suburb of Muscatine. 

THIRD DISTRICT 

Black Hawk County — Cedar Heights — Near Cedar Falls on Cedar 
River. 

Black Hawk County^ — Island — Above Cedar Falls. 

Bremer County — Shell Rock — Southwest of Waverly. 

Bremer County — Waverly Park — In suburbs of Waverly. 

Dubuque County — Catfish Creek — Two miles from Dubuque. 

Dubuque County — Durango Road — North of Dubuque. 

Hardin County — Alden-Iowa Falls — Along Iowa River. 

Hardin County — Steamboat Rock — Scenic, scientific, on Iowa 
River. 

Wright County — Cornelia Lake — Six miles northeast of Clarion. 

Wright County — Elm Lake — Six miles north of Clarion. 

Wright County — Twin Sisters' Lake — West of Belmond. 

Wright County — Wall Lake — Eleven miles southeast of Clarion. 

FOURTH DISTRICT 

Allamakee County — The Fish Farm — Indian mounds, near Lan- 
sing. 

Allamakee County — Waterville — Scenic and scientific. 

Allamakee County — Yellow River — 'Scenic and scientific. 

Cerro Gordo County — Hackleberry Grove — Fossil beds, near Port- 
land. 

Cerro Gordo County — Clear Lake — Land bordering the lake. 

Chickasaw County — Nashua Park — Near Nashua, woods. 

Chickasaw County — Nashua Lake — Near Nashua on Cedar River. 

Clayton County — Bixby Park — Wooded and scenic, southwest part 
of Clayton County. 

Payette County — Arlington — Scenic, near Arlington. 

Payette County — Dutton's Cave— Scenic, wooded, six miles from 
West Union. 

Payette County- — Falling Springs — Scenic, four miles northwest of 
West Union. 

Fayette County — Rocky Dell — Scenic, four miles northwest of 
Wiest Union. 

Floyd County — Big Boulder — Biggest boulder in west, near 
Nashua. 

Floyd County — Charles City Park — Suburbs Charles City, Cedar 
River. _^ 

Howard County — Lime Springs — Wooded, on Upper Iowa River. 



316 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Mitchell County — Spring Park — Wooded, near Osage. 

Winneshiek County — Bluifton Balsam Grove — Rare woods, near 
Bluffton. 

Winneshiek County — Ice Cave — Near Decorah, famous scenic, 
scientific. 

Winneshiek County — Meader Farm — Woods near Hesper. 

Worth County — 'Silver Lake — Ten miles west of Northwood. 

FIFTH DISTRICT 

Cedar County — Cedar Valley — Eight miles southwest Tipton on 
Cedar River. 

Cedar County — Rochester — Seven miles south Tipton on Cedar 
River. 

Jones County — Monticello — Ten miles east of Monticello, pictured 
rocks. 

Jones County — Oxford Junction — Picnic grounds on Wapsie River. 

Linn County — Palisades — On Cedar River, ten miles southeast 
Cedar Rapids. 

Tama County — Tama — Partly on Indian Reserve near Tama. 

SIXTH DISTRICT 

Mahaska County — The Bluffs — Thirteen miles southwest Oskaloosa 
on Des Moines River. 

Mahaska County — Eveland Park — Wooded, southwest of Oskaloosa. 

Wapello County — ^Chilton Farm — Near Eddyville, Indian mounds. 

Wapello County — Eldon — Suburhs of Eldon along river. 

Wapello County — Monkey Mountain — Near Ottumwa on Des 
Moines River, scenic. 

Wapello County — The Old Agency and Fort Sanford. 

SEVENTH DISTRICT 

Dallas County — Parlow Ford — On Coon River, north of Adel. 

Dallas County — Perry — Woods near Perry. 

Dallas County — Van Meter — One mile northeast of Van Meter. 
woods. 

Madison County — Devil's Backbone — Scenic, scientific, six miles 
southwest Winterset. 

Marion County — Red Rock — Historic, scientific, six miles north- 
east Knoxville. 

Warren County — ^Carlisle — On North River, near Carlisle, wooded. 

Warren County — Indianola — One mile west of Somerset, on Mid- 
dle River. • 

EIGHTH DISTRICT 

Lucas County — Chariton — Five miles southeast Chariton on 
Chariton River. 

NINTH DISTRICT 

Harrison County — Missouri Valley — Woods, scientific, scenic. 
Harrison County — Four miles west Pisgah, on Little Sioux River. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 317 

Mills County — Buckingham Lake — Southwest corner county. 

Pottawattamie County — Council Bluffs — Northwest of city, bluffs 
and ravines. 

Pottawattamie County — ^Manawa Lake — Near Council Bluffs. 

Shelby County — Grove Township — Rare woods, northwest part of 
county. 

TENTH DISTRICT 

Boone County — Ledges — ^Scenic, scientific, on Des Moines River, 
south of Boone. 

Calhoun County — Twin Lakes — Six miles north Rockwell City. 

Emmet County — Estherville — Near town, fine woods, on Des 
Moines River. 

Emmet County — High Lake — Three miles east Wallingford. 

Emmet County — Iowa Lake — Northeast corner of county. 

Emmet County — Swan Lake — Ten miles southeast Estherville, 
walnut grove. 

Emmet County — Tuttle Lake — On north line of county. 

Hamilton County — Little Wall Lake — Three miles south of Jewell. 

Hancock County — Crystal Lake — In northeast part of county. 

Hancock County^ — Eagle Lake — Timbered banks, four miles east 
of Britt. 

Hancock County — Pilot Knob — Four miles southeast of Forest 
City, scenic. 

Hancock County — Twin Lakes — In southern part of county. 

Palo Alto County — Medium Lake — Suburbs of Emmetsburg. 

Pocahontas County — Sunk Grove Lake — Four miles northwest of 
Fonda. 

Winnebago County — Duck Lake — In northern part of county. 

Winnebago County — Rice Lake — On eastern edge of county. 

ELEVENTH DISTRICT 

Buena Vista County — Pickerel Lake — In northeastern corner of 
county. 

Buena Vista County — Storm Lake — Land on shore near town of 
Storm Lake. 

Cherokee County — Cherokee — In northwestern suburbs of Chero- 
kee. 

Cherokee County — Pilot Rock — Four miles south Cherokee, large 
boulder. 

Clay County — Peterson — Scenic, wooded, on Little Sioux River. 

Dickinson County — Okoboji Lake — Adjacent shore. 

Dickinson County — Spirit Lake — Adjacent shore. 

Lyon County — Gitchie Manito — Scientific, granite, northwest 
corner of county. 

Monona County — Blue Lake — Pour miles west of Onawa. 

Osceola County — Ocheyedan Mound — Near Ocheyedan. 

Plymouth County — River Sioux Park — Near Westfield, on Big 
Sioux River. 

Sac County — Lake View — Shore of Wall Lake. 

Woodbury County — Stone Park — Suburbs of Sioux City. 



318 ANNALS OF IOWA 

GOVERNOR SIIAW 'S PORTRAIT 

We present as a frontispiece a halftone reproduction of an 
oil painting- of Governor Leslie M. Shaw, which was recently 
hung in the portrait gallery of the Historical Department. 
It is by the artist, F. Carl Smith, and is a splendid portrait. 
It is the one that was in the Iowa building' at the St. Louis 
Exposition in 1905, shows the distinguished governor in a 
characteristic pose, and reveals his force and power. It 
is a valuable addition to our already notable collection of 
paintings of historical characters of Iowa. 

F. Carl Smith is an artist of note. "Who's Who in Ameri- 
ca" says of him: "Smith, P. Carl, born Cincinnati, 0.; 
son of Frederick and Louisa Smith; grad. high school, Cin- 
cinnati; studied lithography; studied Cincinnati Art School, 
where he received medal; spent 7 years in Paris; pupil of 
Benjamin Constant and Bougeaureau and Ferrier; won 
medal in art schools in Paris and exhibited several years in 
Paris Salon ; married in London, Eng., Isabel E, Smith 1895. 
Benjamin Constant and Bougeureau and Ferrior; won 
mention Art Soc. Exhbn., Phila. 1902, for water colors. Mem. 
Am. Art Club (Paris), Washington Artists (sec). Address: 
1789-17th St., N. W. Washington." 



DAVID C. MOTT, ASSISTANT EDITOR OF 
THE ANNALS 

AVhen the added duties of editorial character fell to the 
curator through his membership on the State Board of Con- 
servation, editorial assistance seemed imperative. Authori- 
ties joined with him in making this possible. The curator's 
choice was Mr. David C. Mott, until recently of Marengo. 

Mr. Mott has been a resident of Iowa nearly all his life. 
For twenty-five years he w^as in the newspaper business, own- 
ing and editing in that time in turn the What Cheer Patriot, 
the Tipton Advertiser, the Audubon Republican and the 
Marengo Republican. He was representative from Audubon 
County in the Thirtieth and Thirty-first General Assemblies. 
For nearly nine years he was a member of the State Board of 
Parole, ending his service there last July and coming to this 
department. 

The state is fortunate in finding such a man and being able 
to keep him in its employ. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 319 



NOTABLE DEATHS 



Pkter Millkk Musser was born at WTiitehall, Lancaster County, 
Pennsylvania, April 3, 1841, and died at Muscatir^.e, Iowa, May 22, 
1919. He attended common school and early began to belp his father 
in his store at Whitehall and later at Adamstown. in 1863 he came 
to Muscatine to work for his uncles, Peter and Richard Musser, in 
their lumber business. In 1864 he went to Iowa C'ty cs an employe 
in the firm's branch yard there. Ke later became the local manager 
of that yard. In 1S71 he became a member of thp firm of Musser 
& Co. In 1875 he removed to Muscatine and became active in the 
management of the company's business. The firm incorpoi-ated and 
grew to immense proportions. They erected and operated their own 
saw and planing mills. They also owned their own timber lands in 
Minnesota and Wisconsin and operated their own rafting steamers. 
The company was very successful and always maintained a reputa- 
tion for integrity. Besides his active participation in the manage- 
ment of the lumber company P. M. Musser was for forty-three years 
president of the Cook, Musser & Co. Bank. He was also interested 
in other business enterprises. He was a public bonefactor, as the 
P. M. Musser Public Library, the Old Ladies' Home, the Muscatine 
fire department and the Musser Park, all bear witness. He was a 
prominent member of and a liberal contributor to the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. He was a cultured man and especially loved 
travel and outdoor life. 



Charles W. Mullax was born in Wayne County, Illinois, Decem- 
ber 31, 1845, and died at Rochester, Minnesota, May 8, 1919. Inter- 
ment was at Waterloo, Iowa. He came to Black Hawk County with 
his parents in 1846. He attended public school in Waterloo. He 
enlisted as a private in the Forty-seventh Iowa Infantry and served 
until the regiment was mustered out. He attended Upper Iowa 
University at Fayette for a time and then read law with Orrin 
Miller at Waterloo. In 1870' he was admitted to the bar. He was 
city solicitor of Waterloo for six years. He was county attorney of 
Black Hawk County from 1887 to 1893. In 1897 he was elected 
senator and served in the Twenty-seventh and Twenty-eighth Gen- 
eral Assemblies. He was elected attorney general of Iowa in 1900 
and re-elected in 1902, serving four years. In 1913 he was appointed 
by Governor Clarke one of the judges of the Tenth Judicial District 
and was thereafter twice elected, holdin? the position at the time 
of his death. He was an able lawyer and a high-minded and cul- 
tured man. 



320 ANNALS OF IOWA 

George A. Lincoln was born at Chickopee, Massachusetts, Janu- 
ary 31, 1848, and died at Spirit Lake, Iowa, July 18, 1919. When a 
boy he came with his parents to Madison, Wisconsin. At sixteen 
years of age he enlisted in the Third Wisconsin Light Artillery, 
serving until honorably discharged, July 5, 1865. He then worked 
two yeai'S in a clothing store in Madison and in 1867 came to Cedar 
Rapids and engaged in the clothing business, following it twenty 
years. From 1870 to 1876 he was chief of the Cedar Rapids fire 
department. In 1874 and 1875 he served as a city alderman. In 
1878 he was city assessor. In 1889 and 1890 he was engaged in 
building the first electric railway in Dubuque. In 1890 and 1891 he 
was the Fifth District member of the Republican State Central Com- 
mittee. From 1891 to 1895 he was postmaster at Cedar Rapids. 
From 1895 to 1897 he was mayor of Cedar Rapids. From 1899 to 

1900 he was secretary of the Cedar Rapids commercial club. In 

1901 he was appointed state fish and gamo warden, and served 
until 1910. 

Ejui Manning was born near Rockford, Illinois, March 13, 1846, 
and died at Chariton, Iowa, June 23, 1919. He attended common 
dchool and was one year at an academy at Rockford. He taught 
school one year in Franklin County, Iowa. He was a bookkeeper 
for Farwell & Company of Chicago for a time and was also in the 
grain business there. With a brother he was in the grain business 
three years at Aledo, Illinois. In 1871 he came to Chariton and 
worked as a store clerk. He served as sheriff of Lucas County for 
six years, 1896 to 1901 inclusive. In 1903 he was elected representa- 
tive and served in the Thirtieth General Assembly. He served as a 
member of the school board at Chariton, as a member of the city 
council, was active in securing the right-of-way for railroads being 
constructed in the county, in developing the coal mines, in building 
churches, in conducting Chautauquas, and in almost every enter- 
prise calculated to benefit the people. 



George Fitch was born in Galva, Illinois, June 5, 1877; he 
died at Berkeley, California, August 9, 1915. He was the son 
of Elmer Eli and Rachel (Helgesen) Fitch. He was educated 
in the common schools and received the degree of B. S. from Knox 
College, Galesburg, Illinois, in 1897. He commenced his news- 
paper work at Galva in 1897, was special writer on the Council 
Bluffs Nonpareil from 1902 to 1905 and editor of the Peoria (111.) 
Herald-Transcript from 1905 to 1911. He served as member of 
the Illinois House of Representatives in 1912. He was president 
of the American Press Humorists and author of the "Big Strike 
at Siwash;" "At Good Old Siwash;" "My Demon Motor Boat" and 
"Homeburg Memories," which last series was unfini'^hed at the 
time of his death. He was recognized 33 one cf the lending humor- 
ists of the country. 



'i^rA*^'''^' 






THIRD SERIES 



VOL. Xil, No. 5 



JULY, 1920 



(Owing to Tlie Wo.-id \Vti7 there wore no copies issntd ffirn October, V>1: 
untii April, l')20-. 






A HISTORICAL QUARTERLY 



liil 
11 1 



PUiiL;i;nLI) BV Ti^E 

IrllSTORiCAL DEPARTIMENT OF IOWA 

fax:, KK R. ilAliLA.V, Cirntor 



li price: $1.00 PER YEAR SiNGLE NUMBER 25 CENTS 

I 



DES MOLN'ES, IOWA 



£•:.•-•' J ^t fti-.v.t: w-s i<:<:atr July S. mzo. c! t'rc f.:".: C'/K^x .11 Dt- M.^hu-^; lonj. 



AXXAI.S OF TOW A 
CONTEXTS I'Oli .lUl.Y, 1920 



MisccIla!>coiis 

Sae and Fox Imliaii Couiieil of iSrtl oi'l 

.Sai.' ajnl h\)K ]ndi;m (JoiiiK'il of JS42 o-^l 

John A. Kas:^oii. an Autcl)ioL')'a])]iy o46 

The 2iLouut W-rnon l.adies" A>sociatioa oi' the I'liicn, ^[rs. 
Horaee M. Towjvt 1)30 

Letter from a Citizen of the Southern Confedei'ary 066 

Span of the <i)eat lee Atz'', Charles Keyes 369 

Editorial Drparlnicnt 

In-lian 'J'ri'aties ''J'on'-hiny Io^\'a 874 

Tlie Sae and F..x Treaty of 184--2 375 

T!ie State ];()ard of Coiiservatii^n 381 

Notable Deaths 383 

lUiisf rations 

James W. ( irime^ .• Frontispioee 

Jolin A. Kassun 34G 

Home of A\'a.>hini;io!i. Mount \'ernon 3r)'J 

IMonumenta! Jiri Ij^'int;- of tln^ Oldest and Y(inn<;i'st (ilai-ial 
i);-iu)sits <,f lo\va 3(5!) 




JAMES W. GRIMES 



^ 



Annals of Iowa. 



Vol. XII, No. 5 Des Moixes, Iowa. Jim y. 1920 3d Series 



SAC AND FOX INDIAN COUNCIL OF 18il 

Minutes^ of a Treaty licid at tlie Sac & Fox Indian Atiency 
iu the Territory of Iowa on the 15th day of Octol)er 1841 by 
and between Hon. John Chambers-, Hon. T. Hartley Craw- 
ford" and Hon. James Duane Doty*, Commissioners on the 
part of the United States and the Chiefs, braves, warriors 
and head men of the Confederated trilies of Sac & Fox 
Indians. 

The Council having met at 11 o'clock A. ]M. Gov. Cham])ers 
addressed the assembled chiefs, braves and head-men as fol- 
lows: My friends; We are now about to enter upon a sub- 
ject of vast importance to you and one of deep interest to the 
Government of the United States. Your great father, the 
President, has sent us here to act the part of friends towards 
you, and we wish you to act as such towards us. AVe want 
your own honest & candid opinions upon the subject we are 
about to submit to you, and not the opinions of your traders 
and those wdio have claims against you. We want. I say. 
your own opinions for we believe you are capable of forming 



^These minutes were recorded by James W. Grimes, of Burling- 
ton, then twenty-four years old, and just entering- on his illustrious 
public career. See editorial section. The original is on file in the 
Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washinsrton. D. C. 

^An extended biography and estimate of Gov. Chambers, second 
territorial governor of Iowa, (1841-1845) was written by William 
Penn Clarke and published in the Annals of Iowa, Vol. I, page 425. 

^Thomas Hartlev Crawford was born in Chambersburg, Pa.. Nov. 
14. 1786. He graduated at the College of New Jersey in 1804 and 
was admitted to tlve bar in 1807, practicing at Chambersburg. He 
was representative in the Twenty-first and Twenty-second C'on- 
gresses, 1829-33, and was a state legislator in 1833-4. In lS3fi 
he was appointed by President Jackson to investiga;te alleged 
frauds in the purchase of the Creek Indian reservation. He was 
commissioner of Indian affairs. 1838-45, and was judge of the crim- 
inal court of the District of Columbia, lS46-fi3. He died in ^Vashing- 
ton, January 27, 1863. Recollections of Chambersburg, Pa., says 
he had a large law practice there, especially in criminal cases. He 
was of medium height and large build, with a sharp nose and a 
head inclined to baldness. His arguments were earnest and in- 
cisive. (Lamb's Biog. Dictionary.) 

^James Duane Doty, second territorial governor of "Wisconsin. 
(1841-44), was born in Salem, Washington County, N. Y.. in 1790. 
After studying law he removed to Detroit, Michigan, at the age 



322 ANNALS OF IOWA 

connect ones and lionest enongh to express them. Your friend 
from Waisliington who has been sent here hy your great 
father, the President, will explain to you what the President 
wants. We come as friends, from your great friend the 
President and we wish to act towards you in pure friendship. 
We do not wish to entrap or over-reach you, but to act hon- 
ourably and fairly towards you and we wish and believe you 
will a<?t so towards ns. 

Hon. j\rr. Crawford: 

My friends and brothers : Your great father the President 
of the United States has sent me in conjunction with my 
powerful friend on my left and my friend the Governor of 
Wisconsin on my right, to tell you what he wants. I am 
extremely happy to see you once more friendly and united, 
and I sincerely hope you will remain like the iron on a 
wheel, no part of which can move without the whole. You 
are met a handsome and powerful people, but you must 
know that you will become weak if you do not cultivate 
peace and friendship among yourselves and cease to follow 
the advice and practice of those whose design is to destroy 
you. What is better than anything else, you are honest still, 
l)ut will not remain so if you obey the council of those whose 
endeavor it is to corrupt you. The times past have satisfied 
your great father that there is no safety for you unless you 
are removed beyond the reach of white men, where they can 

of nineteen, where he was admitted to the bar, and in 1819 was 
appointed secretary of the legislative council and clerk of the court 
of the. territory. In 1S20 he joined the expedition to explore the 
upper lakes in canoes. He traveled with it 4,000 miles in com- 
mand of one of the five canoes, and as secretary of the expedition, 
assisting in negotiating- important treaties with the Indians of tliat 
region. In 18:22 he was appointed United States judge for northern 
Micliigan. He held his first court at Prairie du Chien, then a mili- 
tary outpost, and having organized the judiciary of his district, filled 
this p'ositon till 1S32. In 1830 he was appointed by Congress one 
of the t"w^o commissioners to survey and locate a military road from 
Green Bay tlirough Chicago to Prairie du Chien, in wmcn work he was 
engaged about two years. In 1834-35 he was a member of the 
legislative council of Michigan. Here he was the first to agitate 
the question of dividing Michigan, which finally led to the creation 
of Wisconsin and Iowa, territories. Returning from the legislature 
he became an active operator in the public land sales which were 
opened at Green Bay in 1835-36 and pre-empted several tracts of 
government land at presumably desirable spots in the wilderness for 
futuie towns and cities. One of these tracts situated on an un- 
dulating isthmus between four lakes, was laid out in 1837 and 
named Madison and he selected that as the site for the capital of 
the new territorv. He succeeded i" havin°- the se^it of government 
located there in 1836 and was himself a member of the commission to 
erect a capitol building. In September, 183S, he was elected delegate 



SAC AND FOX INDIAN COUNCIL OP 1841 323 

have nothing' to do with your funds or anything that con- 
cerns you. We wish to purchase the lands you now oci-upy 
and claim, but not without your full and free consent. To 
get that assent, freely and without the eontroul of any liody 
we have sent away all white people from you and from the 
council house, and want you to be let alone, to get your opin- 
ions without the interference of white people. It is the 
opinion of the Sac & Fox nations we desire and not the 
opinion of persons coming from a distance Avho want your 
money and care nothing about your condition or happiness. 
Having these views for 3'our advantage, we propose to you 
in behalf of the President of the United States to cede to the 
United States all that portion of land claimed by you and 
embraced Avithin the present limits of the Territory of Iowa. 
For this we propose to give you one million of dollars and 
money enough to pay your debts. The country we wish you 
to remove to should such cession be made, will be on the 
head Avaters of the Des Moines and west of the Blue Earth 
River. To remove apprehension of hostilities from your red 
brothers in that section, we propose to establish and man 
three forts there for your protection to be established liefore 
your removal frcm your present villages. Out of the million 
of dollars we propose that you have farms & farmers, mills 
and millers, blacksmiths, gunsmiths, school houses, and a 
fine Council House. But Avhat will be of more value to vou 



to congress from the territory, and re-elected in 1S40, and served 
until March 3, 1841. He "w^as appointed governor of the territory 
of Wisconsin, October 5. 1S41, serving- till September 16, 1844, when 
he was removed and succeeded by N. P. Tallmadge, but in 1845 
Doty was re-appointed, and served till May 13, 1845. His admin- 
istration was marked by bitter contentions and a collision with the 
leg-islature. After his removal from office he was appointed by 
the war department a commissioner to treat with the Indi;in.'^ of 
the northwest. He was a deleg-ate to the first constitutional con- 
vention at Madison, in 1846, and on the admission of Wisconsin to 
tlie Union in 1848, was elected a representative in Cong'ress, serv- 
ing two terms, 1849-53. He was made superintendent of Indian 
affairs in 1861, with headquarters at Salt Lake City, Utah, subse- 
quently became treasurer of Utah and in 1864 was appointed by 
President Lincoln, governor of Utah, wliich post he held at the time 
of his death. He died at Salt Lake City, June 13, 1865, leaving the 
reputation of a man of conspicuous ability wlio enjoyed the respect 
of botli friends and foes. (Natl. Cyc. Amer. Biog^.) 

Letters from Henry Dodge to Georg-e "W. Jones, published in 
Vol. IJI, p 292, of the Annals of Iowa, tell of Jones defeating- Doty 
in 1835 for delegate to Cong-ress from that part of Michigan Terri- 
tory not included in the new state of Michigan, but that Doty de- 
feated Jones in 1838. Henry Dodge seems to have be°n bitterly 
opposed to Doty. He charges in these letters that Doty was in- 
terested in locating- the capitol of Wisconsin at Madison because 
he was interested in real estate there. 



324 ANNALS OF IOWA 

than all, we would propose to build a house for each family, 
each house to be worth not exceeding one hundred & fifty 
dollars, to fence and plough six acres of ground for each 
family. We propose to build for each of the chiefs a house 
worth not exceeding three hundred dollars and fence and 
plougli twelve acres of ground for each. We then intend 
you all to live in one village, like brothers. This is the 
propositio]! we are authorized to make. If you will once 
ti'y this mode of life, you will never quit it. Tlie white peo- 
jile iiave found it good. You will be happy with your wives 
and children in fine, Avarm & close houses. Your children 
will grow strong and be healthy, if kept from the weather 
& well fed and you will all live long. 

But to make your children respected, they should be taught 
to read & write. To enable them to do so, we propose to 
place fifty thousand dollars at interest, for the purposes of 
instruction. If you will live in houses, cultivate the land 
and educate your children you will be contented and happy. 
I have now told you the terms upon which we propose to 
treat. You will probably want time to retiect upon this 
subject. In making this proposition I have been honest and 
plain with you and I expect the same from you. Any other 
course of conduct would be unworthy of you and unjust to 
the Government. 

(jov. Chambers: 

My Friends : You have listened to what your friend the 
chief from Washington has said. I approve of every thing 
you have heard from him. I am sent here to remain as your 
superiiitendent. It is my duty to watch over you and see 
that no injustice is done to you by any one, either by our 
traders or the government. If the President should require 
me to do what was wrong towards you, I would spurn the 
direction. We have been directed by him to treat with you 
and to make you proposals for the i)urchase of your lands. 
If I tlunight the pro})osals you have heard were luijnst or 
dishcnourable I would not sanction or advocate them. I 
m-Av be mi.staken as to what is for your interest, but you are 
capable and must judge for yourselves. 1 iuive fought the 



I 



SAC AND FOX INDIAN COUNCIL OF 1841 325 

red men and esteem them l)rave. Brave men are always 
honest and I respect them for their bravery and honesty. 
You have now been two years without your money. You are 
surrounded by blood suckers who are constantly endeavoring 
to obtain all the money paid to you. All the money you 
yesterday reced. has already gone into their Jiands. You 
liave paid them enough to supply all your wants for a year. 
Those of them who sell you whiskey are men who desire only 
your money and would kill all your women and children to 
obtain it. They have no souls. They are men of bad hearts 
and you should not permit them to exercise any influence 
over you Avhatever. I believe it to your interest to get out 
of their reach. Your great father proposes to give you such 
an opportunity — he proposes to you to go north. I know 
that in going north you will go towards your enemies the 
Sioux and Wiunebagos but the President authorizes us to 
propose to establish for you a line of forts for your pro- 
tection and to place sulficieut troops there to prevent aggres- 
sion upon you, and if they will not be peaceable, to chastize 
them. Farther south a great many red men have been gath- 
ering for some years and frequent difficulties have occurred 
among them. You Avould be much safer where we propose 
to send you. We propose to give you as your friend from 
AVashington has stated, one million of dollars and money 
enough to pay your debts; to build you out of that one mil- 
lion of dollars comfortable houses and farms, mills, black- 
smith shops, school houses, &e. AVhy is it the white people 
increase like the leaves on, the trees and the red men are 
constantly decreasing! Because the Avhites live in comfort- 
able liouse, are well fed and comfortably cloathed. Your 
l)and only fifteen years ago numbered no less than sixteen- 
hundred warriors, and now it numbers but tM^enty-three 
hundred persons, including men, women and children. An- 
other reason why the red man is continually decreasing is 
that the evil spirit has been introduced among you in the 
ishape of liquor impregnated with pepper and tobacco and 
other poisonous ingredients. But few as 3'ou now are, there 
are young men among you w^ho will yet live to see you a 
powerful and prosperous people if you settle down and 



326 ANNALS OP IOWA 

cultivate the earth as we propose to you. There is no reason 
wh}" you should not increase as fast as any people on the 
earth if yon live in comfortahle houses, are "well fed and 
keep clear of the vultures who are ahout you. It will indeed 
be a happy day tO' me to hereafter go among your homes 
and find you a happy & strong people. These old men and 
myself must noon be gone, but if w^e are so disposed, we can 
do much good for those who shall come after us. In deciding 
upon the acceptance of our proposal, we wish you to use your 
own judgment without the controul of others. "We have 
forbidden white men to have any intercourse with you during 
the progress of this treaty. 

Ke-o-kuck, the Chief: 

All our chiefs and braves have heard what you have said 
to lis, and understand your desires. AVe are glad you have 
told us to reflect upon it and not decide immediately. Our 
ehi^-fis and then our braves will have to council together 
before we can give you an answer. "We have to take more 
time among us in matters of this kind, than the whites do. 
"When the Sun is half gone tomorrow, we will give our answer. 

Saturday, 16th Oct. 1841, 12 o'clock, Council met. Gov. 
Chambers said, We have come to hear what reply the chiefs 
and braves have to give to our proposals. 

Ke-o-kuck, Sac Chief: 

"We have come together Avithout coming to any conclusion. 
Many of our people are not accustomed to business and do 
not understand your propositions. AVo want them explained 
slowly and plainly. We do not know whether the houses 
are to be paid for from the thousand boxes or to be paid 
'besides. We wish this explained so there will be no misun- 
clerjStanding. We hope we shall be excused for our not under- 
standing, for our people are not much acquainted with busi- 
ness. After you will explain to us, we shall have a council 
among ourselves alone and then explain & talk over the 
whole matter among ourselves. We Avish a guard stationed 
around us to prevent interference from the whites Avhile in 
council. 



SAC AND POX INDIAN COUNCIL OF 1841 327 

Hon. Mr. Crawford repeated and explained the proposals 
made as substantially stated in yesterday's proceedings, 
whereupon council adjourned 'till Sunday ITtli at 10 O'clock. 

Sunday 17tli Oct. 10 o'clO'Ck, Council met. 

Kis-ke-kosh, a Fox brave and chief: 

WLsh-e-eo-mac-quet s band are going to give their opinions 
first and then Ke-o-kuck's band. 

Wish-e-co-mac-quet, Sac Chief, called Hard-Fish. 

My braves and warriors who sit around me had a council 
yesterday. All our chiefs, braves and warriors had one 
council and are all of one opinion. We have thought of our 
families and those who are to follow us, and my answer is 
the answer of all. It is a great concern to us and we hope 
the great Spirit and this earth will bear favourable witness 
to our answer. It is impossible for us to accept your pro- 
posals. We. can't subsist in the country where you wi^h us 
to go. It is impossible for us to live there. In reflecting 
upon it, it seems like a dream to think of going and leaving 
our present homes and we do not want to hear any new j)ro- 
posals. 

Pow-e-sick, Fox chief from Iowa River: 

You have heard through Wish-e-co-mac-quet the opinion 
of our whole nation. We have thought of the condition of 
our families, and what it will be where you wish us to live. 
We hold this country from our fathers. We have an heredi-* 
tary right to it, and we think we have^ a right to judge 
whether we will sell it or not. According to our custom, 
our chiefs own all the trees and the earth and they are used 
for the benefit of our people. We should give up a timber 
for a prairie country if we went where you wish. I call the 
great spirit, earth, sky and weather to witness that we choose 
what is best for our people. After being a powerful people, 
Ave are now bnt the shade of one. We hope the great spirit 
will now pity and protect us. 

Pash-o-pa-ho, Sac brave : 

We yesterday listened to what was sent to us from our 
great father at Washington. We have had a council together 
about it and now come to give our answer. After thinking 
of our families and those wlio are to come after us we think 



328 ANNALS OF IOWA 

we cannot accept your proposals. We liave already given 
to government all the land we owned on the other side of the 
Mississippi River and all they own on this side. Our country 
is now small and if we part with it we cannot live. AVe hope 
you will not be displeased with our refusal. 

Kish-ke-kosh, Fox brave : 

You have heard the unanimous opinion of our nations. 
AVe do not wish to accept your proposals. This is the only 
country we have. It is small and it is our only timber. 

AVish-e-wah-ka, a Fox brave : 

You have already heard our opinion. AVe are all of the 
same mind. This is the only spot of timber we own and it is 
small. The countrj^ you wish us to remove to is without tim- 
ber and very poor. AVe hope our great father Avill not insist 
upon our removal. 

Ke-o-kuck, Chief of the Sac nation : 

Day before yesterday we did not understand the terms 
upon Avhich you wish to buy our land. We have since then 
had a council & have come to one mind. We have never heard 
so hard proposals. We never heard of so hard a proposal 
as you have made us. The country where you wish to send 
us, we are acquainted with. It looks like a country of 
distress. It is the poorest in every respect I have ever seen. 
We own this land from our fathers, and we think we have 
a right to say whether we will sell or not. You have read 
and heard the traditions of our nation. We were once 
powerful. We conquered many other nations and our fathers 
conquered this land. AVe now o\\7i it by possession and have 
the same rig'ht to it that Avhite men have to the lands they 
occupy. We hope you will not think hard of our refusal to 
sell. AVe wish to act for the benefit of our children & those 
who shall come after them, and we ])elieve the Great Spirit 
will bless us for so doing. As to the proposal to Iniild school 
houses, we have always been opposed to them and will never 
consent to have them introduced into our nation. AA^e do 
not wish any more proposals made to us. 

AA^a-pel-lo Chief of the Foxes: 

You said you were sent l)y our Great Father to treat with 
us and buy our land. AVe have had a council and are of one 



SAC AND FOX INDIAN COUNCIL OP 1841 329 

opinion. You have learned that opinion from our chiefs & 
braves who have spoken. You told us to be candid and we 
are. It is impossible for us to subsist where you wish us to 
go. We own this country by occupancy and inheritance. 
It is the only good country & only one suitable for us to 
live in on this side the Mississippi River and you must not 
think hard of us because we do not wish to sell it. We were 
once a powerful, but now a small nation. When the white 
people fii*st crossed the big water and landed on this Island, 
they were then small as we now are. I remember when Wis- 
konsin was ours and it now has our name. We sold it to you. 
Rock River & Rock Island was once ours. We sold them to 
you. Dubuque was once ours. We sold that to you and 
they are now occupied by white men who live happy. Rock 
River was the only place where we lived happily & we sold 
that to you. This is all the country we have left, and we 
are so few now, we cannot conquer other countries. You 
now see me and all my nation. Have pity on us. We are 
l)ut few and are fast melting away. If other Indians had 
been treated as we have been, there would have been none left. 
This land is all we have. It is our only fortune. AVhen it is 
gone, we shall have nothing left. The Great Spirit has been 
unkind to us in not giving us the knowledge of white men, for 
we would then be on an equal footing, but we hope He will 
take pity on us. 

Ap-pa-noose a Sac Chief : 

You have truly heard the opinion of our nation from our 
chiefs and braves. You may think Ave did not all understand 
your proposals, but Ave do. We have had a council upon 
them among ourselves and concluded to refuse them. We 
speak for our Avhole nation. AVe Avere told at AVashington 
that Ave would not be asked to sell anymore of our land, and 
Ave did not expect to be asked to do so, so soon. AVe Avould 
Ave Avilling to sell some of our country, if Ave could subsist 
Avhere you Avish us to live. The country you offered us is 
the poorest I ever saAv. No one can live there. AVisli our 
great father at AVashington to know the reason why Ave do 
not Avish to sell. 



330 ANNALS OP IOWA . 

Gov. Chambers : 

My friends : We have lieard your answer to the proposals 
the President directed us to make to you. We hope and 
have reason to believe you have been governed bj' 3'our own 
judgment and not by the advice of others. Your' great father 
has no intention to drive or force you from your lands. I 
am sent here to remain and to watch over and attend to you 
■ — to see justice done, and I will not see wrong done to you 
while I can prevent it. I have been led to believe that the 
Country we wish you to go to is different from the descrip- 
tion you have given of it. Your friend Gov. Doty has lately 
been over it and says it is different. He says there is timber 
there. There must be some mistake. Now I will tell you 
why your great father proposes to sell at this time. He 
knows and. I Iniow that white people have got near you — 
are selling you whiskey, and that we cannot prevent them 
from selling or you from buying. Bad white people are thus 
encouraged to sell and you are degraded by buying, and you 
will become more & more degraded until you become entirely 
extinct. Troops have been sent here, but on account of your 
proximity to the white settlements, improper intercourse with 
them cannot be prevented. I had learned and reported to 
your great father that you bought goods which you did not 
need and immediately traded them away for Avhiskey. Your 
great father thought you wished to pay your debts. I have as- 
certained that 300,000 dollars will not pay them. This is an- 
other reason why he thought you should sell. A few months 
ago you went to Montrose and bought fifteen thousand dollars 
of goods, none of which you needed (save perhaps a few 
horses) and they are now all given to the wind^. How will 
you pay the man of whom you procured them? The whole 
amount of your annuities for five years will not pay your 
debts to your traders. They will not trust you any more. 
They have sold to you heretofore, expecting you would sell 
your lands and that they would then be paid. You will get 
no more goods on credit. It was kindness then on the part 
of your great father which induced him to offer to buy your 
land — to furnish you money with which you could render 
yourselves, your wives and children comfortable & happy. 



SAC AND FOX INDIAN COUNCIL OP 1842 331 

It is my business to superintend your affairs and watch over 
your interests as well as the interest of government, and I 
want you to reflect upon the fact that in a few days all 
your money will be gone, you will be without credit — you 
may be unsuccessful in your hunts & what will become of 
you? Even your whiskey sellers will not sell you that with- 
out money or an exchange of your horses, guns and blankets 
for it. Many of you do not reflect upon this now, liut yon 
Avill before a year, with sorrow. 

These Chiefs (Gov. Doty & Mr. Crawford) are going away. 
I am to remain and it will be the first wish of my heart to 
do you all the good in my power, but I cannot render you 
much service unless you are more prudent. We shall not 
come to you any more to induce you to sell your lands how- 
ever great may be your sufferings. We shall let the matter 
rest until your misfortunes & sufferings will convince you 
that you have been guilty of an act of folly in refusing to 
sell your lands — 

The Indians signifying no further disposition to treat, the 
Council was indefinitely dissolved. 

I hereby certify the foregoing to contain substantially true 
& correct minutes of the council held as above stated by Hon. 
John Chambers, Hon. James D. Doty & Hon. T. Hartley 
Crawford with tbe Confederated tribes of the Sac & Fox 
Indians on the 15th day of Oct. 1841. 

Jas. W. Grimes, 
Secty. of the Commission. 



SAC AND FOX INDIAN COUNCIL of 1842 

Minutes of a council held by Governor Chambers with 
chiefs, braves and headmen of the Sac and Fox Mission, com- 
mencing on the 4th of October, 1842, at the Sac and Fox 
Agency, Indian Territory for the sale of their lands in said 
Territory. 

Tuesday morning, 10:00 o'clock, council opened. 

Governor Chambers rose and said "My friends, I am glad 
to meet you once more in council. When I was here last 



332 ANNALS OF IOWA 

year, at the fall of the leaf, we made you an offer for the 
sale of your land in tliis territory to which you w^ere not 
willing to accede. I then told you that no further attempt 
to treat with you would be made until you asked for it. 
Towards the close of the last winter, your agent told me you 
wished to go to Washington for that purpose. I wrote to 
your Great Father and told him of your wishes, but the 
great council of the whites was then in session and he had 
too much business to permit him to meet you there. 

But he has now sent me here to talk to you again about 
it and he has told me he does not wish to hold frequent 
councils with you and make frequent purchases of you. He 
wishes now to settle you in a permanent home. 

At the time we were here last fall, we had bought a part 
of the Sioux country on the St. Peters river, and you remem- 
ber we wanted you to go there, but the great council have 
rejected that treaty and put it away, and we now have no 
land there. We could not therefore, offer you a home there 
if we wished to and you were willing to go to it, but you were 
not willing to go there then. 

Your Great Father has told me to say to you now that he 
still wishes to buy the whole of your country and find you 
another home where j'ou will not be troubled by the white 
people as you are here. You see that he has been compelled 
to keep part of his army here to protect you and he now wants 
to give you a home where they can no longer molest you. 
If he buys the whole of your country, he will want you to 
move further west until 'he can find another home which he 
mil do as soon as he can. 

I will now tell you what he offered. He will give you one 
million dollars (one thousand boxes of money). Out of that 
he expects you to pay all the debts you now owe. He will 
put a part of it in such a situation that it will never lessen 
and give you so much a year through all time; that is, he will 
give 5'/ a year or fifty dollars on each box. He directs me 
to urge upon you to apply some portion of it to educate 
3'our children, to learn them to read and write and to keep 
accounts so that they may not be cheated by bad men. He 
wished you to make yourselves farms and build comfortable 



SAC AND FOX INDIAN COUNCIL OF 1842 333 

homes. He thinks it is very important to yon to make your- 
selves comfortable homes and to edncate your children. You 
will be better and happier and it will prevent white men 
from imposing upon yon. He has instructed me to iu"ge 
this upon yon because he has seen that your red brother of 
the south who have done so, have good cattle, hog's and horses, 
and good homes and are increasing in numbers and are happy. 
He is your friend and he knows that this is for your good. 
He wants you all, your old men and braves, and your young 
men, to consider this deeply. Your money is now wasted. 
like water; your young men are dissipated and you all have 
a great deal of trouble. If you will adopt his advice, your 
money will last longer, your young men will lie kept from 
the evils of intemperance, your condition will be liettcred 
and you will all be happier. 

I will now repeat to you briefly that if you sell your land, 
your Great Father Avill give you one thousand boxes of 
money. Out of that he will pay all the debts I may be 
satisfied ought justly to be paid (after the gentlemen I have 
here with me have investigated them to prevent your being 
cheated) and he will take pleasure in disposing of any 
amount of your money you may wish to for the purpose of 
educating your children and making them wdser and l)etter. 
He does not wish to force you ( ) do so but he knows that 
it is for your good and he hopes you will see it and adopt 
it and it will give him great pleasure to hear you have done so. 

If you accept the proposition now made, he will want you 
for the present to go west of a line running north and .south 
from the mouth of the Racoon river. He only wishes you 
together to get out of the way of the white men who are con- 
tinually rushing in upon yon in great numbers and giving 
him trouble to send them back into the white settlements, 
and he will select a permanent home for yon as soon as he 
can do so, so that you will not remain there long. 

You will now take this matter into consideration and 
answer me tomorrow, and if you conclude to sell your land 
we will then enter into the details as to when yon are to 
move and of the disposition yon will have of your money."' 



334 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Kaw Kaw Ke, Fox brave, then rose and said "My friends, 
the advice of our father is good and I hope we may all meet 
and talk it all over friendly and amicably." When several 
other braves from the different bands having repeated the 
same in substance, the council adjourned. 

Thursday morning, October 6th, the council having re- 
convened. Kaw kaw ke, a Fox brave, having said (addressing 
the Indians) "Chiefs and braves of the Sac and Fox, as we 
will leave tlie answer to the matter now under consideration 
to him whom the Great Spirit has given us to be the repre- 
sentative of our people, and we, braves and warriors, vfill 
listen." 

Powsheik, Fox Chief, "You have heard what my brave 
has said. We govern by the appointment of the Great Spirit, 
and by the will of the nation. This land was given to us to 
do with as we please. After the Great Spirit made this vast 
island, he placed the chiefs upon it, he gave us the sun and 
moon and stars and all the great lights ; he gave us the beasts 
of the field and the birds that fly for our meat and for our 
dresses. He made the trees and gave names to them for our 
benefit, and he not only gave us these but he gave ns the 
great medicine bag and everything you see to make us a great 
people. 

"You was sent by our Great Father to make a propo- 
.sition to us for a sale of our lands. We have advanced and 
talked over several propositions among ourselves and you will 
hear the fourth one, to which we have all agreed." 

Governor Chambers' commissioner then said "My friends 
I am glad you have determined. to leave your chiefs to speak 
for you. I will consider it the answer of all of you and if 
I do not accept it, you can then say what other conclusion 
you can come to." 

Kish ke kosh, Fox Brave, "I suppose our father did not 
understand precisely what my. chief meant. I will explain. 
He said that the answer about to be given would be by the 
chiefs whom the Great Spirit approves as the rulers of our 
people. This is the first time the Foxes have ever spoken 
first,in council. , Heretofore it has been always our friends 
the Sacs. But my chief is the one to whom the Great Spirit 



SAC AND FOX INDIAN COUNCIL OF 1S42 335 

first g'ave this land, and you liave heard him speak. We have 
been two days trying- to make all of one mind, to reconcile 
all to the answer about to be given, and you was perhaps 
impatient. We first proposed among ourselves to sell all 
our lands south of the Des Moines, but all did not agree. We 
then spoke of selling from Wishecomacjue 's' to Poweshieks'. 
This was rejected as was likewise a proposal to determine 
upon a creek named White Breast. The land is full of 
some precious things. It is in four different places near us 
to the north. You have before bought land of us containing 
this Lead from which you have grown rich. It is in many 
places in our country. We wish more money on this account 
and this was the cause of our disagreement. The Sacs have 
not yet spoken. After you have heard them, we will hear 
you and then you will hear us again. I am pleased that you 
approve of our determination that the chiefs should deliver 
the voice of the nation." 

Wish e CO maque, "You have heard what my friends, the 
Foxes have said. I w^as pleased to hear you advise us to think 
deeply of this matter and I think we have done so. Now the 
fourth proposition upon which we have all agreed is to sell 
all the land east of a line commencing where the northern 
boundary of Missouri is met by the eastern boundary of our 
session of 18 (for Indian purposes) thence northeast to a 
point on the Des Moines called Painted Rocks, (about eight 
miles from White Breast) and onward to the mouth of Deer 
River" on the Iowa (not laid down on map, supposes about 
forty miles from the present boundary of the Neutral 
grounds). 

"This is a serious matter with us. The country we now 
have left upon which to support our women and children 
is very small. But we have agreed among ourselves to this 
offer. We talked a great deal before concluding upon it. 
weighing and examining the matter well before we made up 
our mind. And we are now willing to sell you this portion 

iThe Indian viUage of Hard Fish, or Wishecomaque. as it is in 
the Indian tongue, was located where the city of Eddyville now 
stands. . . 

2An Indian village about a mile north of the present city of 
Colfax. 

•''Deer Creek, or Deer River, empties into the Iowa River near 
the west boundary of the city of Tama. 



336 ANNALS OF IOWA 

of oiu- land because we Avant to pay our traders and to please 
our friends and relations by giving- something to them." 

Pash e pa ho, "I am pleased that you gave us time and 
advised us to consult among ourselves. It is an important 
matter and we wished the consent of all our people before 
Ave answered you which is the reason we were so long in con- 
sultation. Last fall our Great Father sent commissioners to 
buy our land but Ave could not agree and you have noAV made 
us the same proposition to Avhich you have heard this answer 
of our chiefs and which is the answer of all." 

('ha ko mart or AVa pe ke shit the Prophet, "I am not 
ashamed to come before you like a man and express my 
pleasure at the understanding to Avhich Ave have come among 
ourselves. I hope that Avhen you make this treaty you Avill 
lilot out all our debts and I have thrown oft' my blanket to 
sliow you that I am Avilling to give all I have to pay an old 
del)t we owe for having robbed a trader, Mr. George Hunt, a 
hnig time ago." 

(Jovernor Chambers, "My friends, I told you to consider 
well en tliis matter among yourselves. It is the Avish of your 
Great Fatlier that you should all unite in Avhatever you do, 
and although he Avould not regard the voice of a few turbu- 
lent ones, he Avould be pleased to have you all of one mind. 
I told you the day before yesterday and now tell you again, it 
is his wish to Imy all your land provide you a better home, 
lie knows as well as you do that your game is nearly all 
gone from your lands here and that if you go north to hunt, 
yon meet with your old enemies, the Sioux, Avho AA'ill fight 
and kill you, and he Avants to put you Avhere your hunting 
grounds Avill be better. lie knows that if he buys only a 
part of your land noAv, you Avill soon have to sell more. The 
Whites Avill follow you as buzzards do a carcass to get your 
money and everything of value you have, and they Avill fol- 
loAV you again. You know this and you know that it Avill be 
the case as long as you have any land to sell. If you sell 
all the lands yen now own. and get the money for them, you 
will be out of their reach and l)e able to live easier and bet- 
ter and liaA'e better hunting grounds than j^ou now have. One 
of (you) said yon Avanted money to ]iay your traders: Avell, 



SAC AND FOX INDIAN COUNCIL OF 1842 337 

if you pay them now, how lono^ will it be before you will 
again be in debt to them and have to pay them again and 
when you sell it all, how Avill you then pay them? You see 
then you will be compelled to continue selling- until you will 
he shoved off your lands entirely and will then have nothing- 
left to pay with or live upon. 

'"The president looks upon you as a part of his great fam- 
ily. It is his duty to take care of you and to protect you 
and see that you are not imposed upon. He does not want 
your land for present use. He has enough in Illinois and 
Missouri, and in the north. You attach great value to your 
lead mines but all you have sold him have only been a trouble 
to him. Some of his people make money by it, but others 
wear out their lives in digging without any success. He 
does not consider lead mines of any advantage to him. Those 
he has, gave him more trouble than profit. Day before yes- 
terday, I made you the proposal the President directed me 
to make to you and you have rejected and have made one of 
your own. You have offered me less than a half of your land 
and if I. were to accept your offer I could only pay for it in 
proportion to the whole sum I have oft'ered you for all, and 
all I could give you for it would but little more than pay 
your debts. Your land then would be gone, and your money 
would be gone to the traders and whiskey sellers who Avould 
be ready next year for as much more. 

"I cannot therefore accept your proposition. The President 
would be displeased if I were to do so because you would 
be ruined by it. I wish you therefore to go into council 
again, think well of what I have said to you think of the 
effect of selling a small part of your lands and then I Avill 
meet you in council again.'' 

Keokuk then said "This is the second time we have heard 
you on this subject. I think my friends have made a mis- 
take in saying that all of our peoples have been in council. 
That cannot have ])een." And leaving the council, it 
thereupon dispersed. 

Saturday, October 8th. The council having been assembled. 

Ma why why, a Fox, said, "We told you the day before 
yesterday that we had determined to permit those men whom 



338 ANNALS OF IOWA 

the Great Spirit had placed over us to speak for us in this 
matter and they will now give our final answer. ' ' 

Powsheik, "I helieve we are now all present. This is an 
important occasion to us and as is usual with us in such cases, 
we have taken much time to consider it and we are all '\^'illing 
now to accept the proposition you made us last fall." 

Kish ke kosh, "You told us day before yesterday to go 
back to our tents and reconsider this subject. We have done 
so and after much difficulty have reconciled all to the answer 
just given. We were certain you had forgotten something 
on this occasion which you promised to us last fall. Then 
you was willing to give us one million dollars and pay all 
our debts in addition and as you appear to have forgotten it, 
we now remind you of it and submit it as the wish of all 
our people. In our treaties heretofore, our friends the Sacs 
have had the entire management but what my chief has 
said is the wish of all, both Sacs and Foxes. We are one 
people. In our new home we hope you will not let us be 
imposed upon by the red men we live near and we want you 
to prepare the agentis of those people for our coming.'' 

Wish e CO maque, "I am pleased to hear the opinion of 
our friends the Foxes. I also was of opinion that you had 
forgotten a part of the offer made last fall and was listening 
to hear it. We wish you to adhere to that proposition. Our 
people have not forgotten it and have agreed to accept it." 

Pash e pa ho, "You have heard what has just been said. 
It is good. Although yon forgot to mention that you would 
pay our debts in addition to giving us $1,000,000, you can 
do so now and we know you will. It is also good that you 
inform the agents of our lirethren on the Missouri to tell 
their people that we are coming among them. Some of them 
are bad men, for I know them my self, and you know us well 
enough to tell them that if they do not meddle with us, we 
will not trouble them, and to tell them too, that if they 
molest us we will retaliate and you know that we can do it." 

Keokuk, "You have heard the cause of our delay and I 
presume think it is a good omen. And now on this clear day, 
I give you the answer of all our people to your proposition 
for the sale of our lands. Last fall, our Great Father told 



SAC AND FOX INDIAN COUNCIL OF 1842 339 

you to offer us $1,000,000 and to pay all our debts, and find 
US a good home if we would let him have all the land we 
owned. After many consultations, among ourselves, we have 
come to the conclusion that it was good, but we want them 
to look at our new home and prepare to move their women 
and children there. AVe wish therefore to remain in our 
present country west of a line running north and south 
through the mouth of White Breast, for three years. "We 
want you also to inform those people on the Missouri that 
we are coming to live among them and that we want to live 
peaceably. Some of them steal and sometimes they kill each 
other, but if they do so to us, we will have to protect our- 
selves and to fight too. "We caution you now so that if they 
molest us you cannot be angiy if we seek revenge. We will 
not trouble them but they must let us alone. 

''We are now ready to draw up the writing and in doing 
so, we have many little things to talk about; many poor 
friends and relatives to think of, and also to provide for the 
future as well as the present and past. We would like to have 
our white friend, Mr. Choteau's son-in-law, Mr. Sandford, 
and our interpreter, Mr. Le Claire, to be with us. They know 
us and can advise us." 

Governor Chambers, "My friends, I am glad that you have 
come to an agreement among yourselves as one people. I 
can only know and consider you as such in my intercourse 
with you. You are all brothers. You have inter-married. 
You hunt together and live together and you can only be 
considered as one nation. You have now agreed to sell j^our 
lauds and ask the protection of your great father in your 
new homes. This you shall have, my long intercourse with 
you has made me your friend, and if I thought you could 
not live peaceably and happy where he places you, I would 
not ask you to sell and remove. I will tell your red brethren 
wherever you go, that you are coming to live near them and 
that they must be your friends. Your great father has sol- 
diers everywhere who can and will protect you if these people 
attempt to molest you. But I hope we will be able to place 
you among your friends whom you know and with wh&rn 
vouhave hunted. ■ - -. M 



340 ANNALS OF IOWA 

"I am now ready to prepare the papers and will meet 
your eliiefs this evening for the purpose of talkinc^ over the 
details that are to be written down. You can brino- any of 
your white friends you wish with you, and we will talk it 
all over." 

On meeting- the chiefs and braves in the afternoon in a 
similar conversation, they again urged that tlie Governor 
should confirm the offer made last fall of paying their debts 
in addition to the $1,000,000 to wdiich he replied that he had 
told them very candidly what their great father had allowed 
him to offer them, and that he could not consent to extend tlie 
offer. They, however, insisted upon it, and after some con- 
sultation among themselves, they in((uired how much he 
thought their debts Avould amount to, to which the Governor 
replied that he had not yet been able to ascertain the amount, 
but that from the examination that had been made, he 
thought it would ]iot exceed $300,000. They then said they 
would agree to pay $200,000 of the debts out of their 
$1,000,000, but their great father must pay the balance, 
which the Governor finally agreed to, but said it must be 
understood that no del)ts should be allowed by them but such 
as he should consider just, to Avhich they agreed. 

The chiefs then said that having agreed to sell their land 
they nnist have a home upon it west of the line running 
north and south from the mouth of the White Breast at the 
Des Moines to strike the neutral ground on the north and the 
line of the state of Missouri on the south, for three years. 
To this the Governor answered that it was very important 
to them to remove as early as the President could point out 
the place to which they could go and he would much prefer 
fhat they should remove as soon as that w^as done. 

The chiefs said it was probable they would wish to do so, 
but still they desired to have three years to remove in. The 
Governor then told them that if they would agree to let the 
line run north and south from the Painted or Red Rock on 
White Breast, understood to be 6 or 8 miles from the junction 
of that stream with the Des Moines and would remove west 
of that line by the first of May next, he w^ould agree that 
they should remain there three years, if they insisted upon 



SAC AND FOX INDIAN COUNCIL OF 1842 341 

it, but advised them earnestly against doing so longer than 
the President should give them a place to go. 

This being agreed to, they entered into a variety of argu- 
ments to prove that they ought to make provision for their 
poor friends, meaning the half breeds and white people who 
had inter-married among them. The Governor advised them 
against such a disposition of their money and their friend 
Major Sanford told them they ought to divide the half breeds 
with the Governor and let him provide for one half of them 
as they were the children of white people as well as of the 
redskins, but that it was wrong to give them anything. It 
was too much like hiring the white men to take their women 
for wives. They however adhered to their Avish and left the 
matter open for further consideration. 

The chiefs by Keokuk then told the Governor that they 
wanted to give one mile square of land around the agency 
house to the family of their old friend General Street, their 
late agent. The Governor asked them why they wished to 
make such a gift and told them he did not wish them to 
begin to make presents of land. There would be no end to 
it. Keokuk answered that General Street had been good 
friend to them Avhen alive, that they had buried their dis- 
tinguished chief Wapello along side of General Street, and 
had given their agent $100 to erect such a stone over liis 
grave as was over General Street ; that their tribe was now 
going away and they would not consent to let these graves 
go into the possession of strangers; they want the family 
of General Street to take care of them.' The Governor told 
them that the government had been at the expense of build- 
ing the agency house and he was not authorized to give it 
away, but if they would agree to pay what it should be now 
valued at by gentlemen who were judges of its value, he 
would agree to their request and to this proposition. The 
chiefs assented. There was much additional convereation 
which did not result in any specific arrangement and the 
council adjourned to meet again tomorrow morning. 

iThis monument was provided and the land granted to Mrs. Street 
as requested. Upon the death of Mrs. Street the lands passed on 
and finally into the possession of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
Railroad Company, which now maintains them. 



342 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Sunday morning, October 9th. 

At the meeting of the council this morning Governor Cham- 
bers told the Chiefs and head men that if anything further 
had occurred to them which they wished to suggest before 
the treaty was drawn up, he wished to hear it, and then told 
them that he would again recommend to them very earnestly 
the adoption of the wishes of their great father, the Presi- 
dent, that they should apply some portion of their money to 
agricultural purposes and to the education of their children, 
and reminded them of what had been recommended to them 
last year upon those subjects. He then told them it was his 
advice to them to make some provision for their chiefs who 
were compelled to attend the affairs of the tribe, and were 
expected to entertain and feed strangers, and friends who 
visited them, and had not time to hunt and attend to their 
own interests. And he recommended that they should give 
the principal chiefs $500 each per year to be applied with 
the advice of their agent. He recommended to them to make 
provision for a national fund to be expended by their 
chiefs with the consent of their agent for the support of their 
poor and helpless of the tribe and for such other benevolent 
purposes as might present themselves, and to purchase pro- 
visions when their hunts failed and their necessities required. 

Keokuk then answered that as to expending their money 
for agricultural purposes, or schools, or building houses, they 
had consulted among themselves and determined as they did 
last year they could not consent to it. A number of the 
braves then spoke and all concurred in the suggestion of 
giving their chiefs $500 a year and creating a national fund 
as recommended by the Governor. They said they believed 
he was their friend and had a good heart, and they wished 
him to fix the amount to be retained every year as a national 
fund. Finally the chiefs and braves were unanimous in 
assenting to the adoption of those suggestions. Several of 
their chiefs then spoke with much earnestness of their wish 
to provide for two women of their tribe who were married 
to white men, said they had given up the idea of providing 
for any others upon the advice of the Governor, but they 
hoped he would consent to their giving one box of money to 



SAC AND POX INDIAN COUNCIL OF 1842 343 

each, of these women because the Indians' very often ate at 
their houses and were always kindly treated by them. The 
Governor told them he liked the manly liberality which they 
always manifested and especially when it was directed to- 
wards their women, but that if they opened the door, he 
knew there were forty or fifty more ready to rush in and 
that they could not withstand them. These people always 
gathered about them when they made a treaty or received a 
payment, and cared nothing about them at any other time; 
that these w^hite men's wives deserved nothing more from 
them than any other of their w'omen and they were only 
offering a premium to white men to marry their prettiest 
young w^omen and deprive their young men of a choice. He 
entirely disapproved it and hoped they would give it up — 
which, upon further consideration, they agreed to do. 

They then requested that provision should be made for 
marking- the line from the Painted or Bed Rock on White 
Breast west of which they were to remove. They w'anted it 
so marked that the white people could see it and wished that 
they should be allowed to follow the surveyors over it. 

The Indians finally requested that the papers might be 
drawn up and prepared for signing, and the Governor de- 
sired them to meet him early tomorrow morning to look into 
the debts that were brought in against them, and tell him 
which of them were just and which of them were not so. 
Whereupon the council adjourned. 

The council having reassembled, at 10 :00 o 'clock on Mon- 
day the 10th of October, Governor Chambers proceeded to 
read the articles of the treaty to the Indians present and to 
have every part of it carefully interpreted to them, request- 
ing them repeatedly to ask explanations if there was any- 
thing they did not perfectly understand. They all expressed 
their entire satisfaction with the terms of the treaty as read 
to them, but there was a blank left for the insertion of the 
aggregate amount of their debts which the Governor told 
them could not be filled until he held a council with them 
on that subject (of the claims which had been presented 
against them). There was also a blank for the amount of 
the national fund which they proposed to retain each year 



344 ANNALS OF IOWA 

out of their annuities; that he had considered their request 
to liim to fix the sum, but felt at a loss about it and would 
be glad to have their views o.n the subject. He said he 
thouofht this fund had better be a large one. If they did not 
use it in any one year, there would be no loss of the money. 
It would still be in the hands of their agent for their use 
another year. He said he had thought of $200,000 as the 
least sum they ought to reserve and would be pleased to 
enlarge it if they were willing. They then consulted together 
and finally requested that the sum might be set down at 
$300,000. 

Keokuk then said there was one thing he wished to mention 
to their father. They were now making their last treaty 
with their white friends for the sale of their lands, and it 
had been customary on such occasions for their great father 
to send their chiefs each a large medal and each of the prin- 
cipal braves a smaller one; and they hoped he would do so 
now. The Governor told him they would make the request 
of their great father and had no doubt he would take great 
pleasure in complying with it. 

Keokuk then said there was another thing he wished to 
say. He understood that the great council at Washington 
sometimes altered treaties made with the red men after they 
were signed. That he and his people did not want this 
treaty changed after they had signed it, and they wished to 
have it written down in the treaty that it is not to be altered 
or changed in any way, and that if it is, it shall no longer be 
binding upon them. The Governor told them in reply that he 
would to satisfy them, insert a clause in the treaty that if 
any alteration or change in the treaty should be proposed by 
the Senate, it should be sent back for them to consider of it 
and if they disapproved the proposed change or amendment, 
it should have no effect and the treaty should be sent back 
to Washington for ratification or rejection as it was when 
they signed it. Keokuk answered for his people that they 
would l>e satisfied .with such an article. 

The commissioners appointed by the Governor to affirm the 
claims against the Indians then came into the council and 
together with the Governor and Chiefs, head men and braves, 



SAC AND FOX INDIAN COUNCIL OP 1842 345 

proceeded to council upon the various claims that had l)oen 
presented. 

The council having again assembled on this morning of 
the 11th of October, the treaty was publicly read by the Sec- 
retary after which it was duly signed by the Commissioner 
and Indians. This done, Governor Chambers remarked : ' ' My 
friends, this business on which we have been engaged, being 
now concluded, I take pleasure in sa3'ing to you that you 
have acted nobly and generously. I shall so inform your 
great father who I am sure will feel niucli kindness towards 
you. The step you have taken is an important one. I believe 
it will insure your greater comfort and happiness. 

"In conclusion, I implore that the Great Spirit above will 
always watch over and protect you. I bid you now farewell." 

And the Indians, having taken the Governor by the hand, 
the council dissolved. 

I certify that the foregoing record is correct. 

John Beach, Secretary. 



Northern Boundary Survey. 

The steamer, Lamartine, left this city on Thursday evening 
last for Lansing, in Allamakee county, having on board most 
of the party to be employed in establishing the Northern 
Boundary line of this State this season. The work will be done 
under instructions from the surveyor general of Wisconsin 
and Iowa. Capt. Andrew Talcott will have particular direc- 
tion of the field and astronomical oi:>erations. Isaac AV. Smith, 
late of the Creek and Cherokee boundai^y survey, is assistant 
surveyor, and George R. Stuntz and John S. Sheller, second as- 
sistants. 

Active field operations will be entered upon immediately. 
The place of beginning will be at a monument heretofore es- 
tablished by Captain Lee a few miles from Lansing. The party 
is provisioned for six months, and great exertions will be made 
to complete the work the present season. 

(Dubuque Tribune.) — Iowa City, Iowa Bepublican, April 
14, 1852. (In the newspaper collection of the Historical De- 
partment of Iowa.) 



346 ANNALS OF IOWA 



JOHN A. KASSON, AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY^ 

John Adam Kasson was born in the country town of Char- 
lotte, Vermont, January 11, 1822. 

His parents were' John Steele Kasson and Nancy Black- 
man, who were fairly educated country people, intelligent 
and irreproachable in character, who migrated from Connec- 
ticut to Vermont in 1816. Both were devoted to giving the 
best education obtainable to their children, of whom the 
youngest was the above named. Their father died in 1828, 
the mother in 1860. 

The blood was Scotch-Irish mingled with English. Adam 
Kasson with Jane Hall, his wife, and nine children sailed 
from Ulster, Ireland, in 1722 to Boston, Massachusetts, and 
taking- a body of land lying partly in Rhode . Island and 
partly in Connecticut settled upon it. Thence their descend- 
ants have scattered to ]\Iassachusetts, Vermont, New York, 
Pennsylvania, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Louisiana 
and California. 

James, sixth son of the first emigrant, Adam, built a home- 
stead at Bethlehem, near Litchfield, Connecticut, in 1760, 
which remained in the family 130 years. To him and his 
wife, Esther Duncan, was born in 1763, Adam his tenth 
child. He married Homour Steele, descendant of that Johu 
Steele who was one of the proprietors of Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, and after being a member alternately of both upper 
and lower house of the Colonial Legislature and its secretary, 
became afterwards a leader and founder of the town of 
Hartford, Connecticut and its registrar for many years. For 
him this Adam's son, John Steele Kasson was named; and 
this latter was the father of John A. Kasson, his youngest 
child. 

Of the ancestral family Robert Kasson served in the French 
and Revolutionary Wars, and Colonel Archibald Kasson 



^This sketch was written by Mr. Kasson a few years before his 
death, for an 'eastern publishing- company, and the document as he 
wrote it is on file in the Historical Department. The great career 
of this illustrious statesman and international dinlomat justifies the 
laudatory statements he makes about himself. — Editor. 




JOHN A. KASSON 

The original painting from whicli this cut is made hangs in 
the portrait gallery of the Historical Department of Iowa 



JOHN A. KASSON, AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY 347 

served throughout the Revolutionary War, and at its close 
was honored with a brigadier general's commission. Of the 
Blackmans one is known to have been a lieutenant and mem- 
ber of an expeditionary force to Tieonderoga, and his note- 
book thereof remains in the family. 

John Adam Kasson was educated at the University of 
Vermont, in Burlington, and graduated in 1842, ranking 
first in Greek, and second in average of all studies. 

His earliest experiences were on a farm near Lake Champ- 
lain, and at the common school of the town. Having been 
orphaned by the death of his father at the age of six years, 
the family afterwards settled in Burlington for his educa- 
tion, and that of his eldest brother, Charles de Forest Kasson, 
in the study of the law. The younger brother developed a 
taste for reading and study, was fond of horses and dogs, 
and was ambitious and diligent in his studies at school and 
the university. After graduation, restless and eager to see 
the world, he took a position as tutor in a Virginia family 
for a few months — returned to Burlington and began the 
study of the law. Again restless under his limitations and 
having a few extra dollars in his pocket, he left without 
adieus to the family for Boston, tried to embark for a sailing 
voyage on an old schooner fit for shipwreck, failed, turned 
inland to Worcester, Massachusetts, where he arrived with 
his funds exhausted, and entered the law otfice of Emory 
Washburn, afterward judge and governor of Massachusetts. 
He was admitted to the bar by Judge W^ashburn in 1844. 
After consulting the distinguished Rufus Choate at Boston, 
he went to pursue his profession at New Bedford. There he 
formed a partnership with Thomas Dawes Eliot, and had 
much practice .from that whaling port in the courts of admir- 
alty at Boston. At this time he published an article in the 
''Law Reporter" advocating a reform in the cumbrous com- 
mon law system by simplification of pleadings,, partial disuse 
of juries, and diminution of legal expenses. He also took 
part in the anti-slavery movement of 1848, was sent as a 
delegate to the Free Soil Convention at Buffalo, and was 
on his return nominated for congress on that issue from the 



348 ANNALS OF IOWA 

New Bedford District, a nomination wliieh at that early age 
ho liad the good sense to decline. 

Still feeling the pressure on him of the settled institutions 
and the hereditary systems of that old society, his desires 
turned to the new and open West, where west of the 
Allegheny Mountains all traveling was then done by boat on 
rivers and lakes and by stage coach or wagon or horseback 
across country. Having by this time some surplus earnings 
in money, he removed in 1850 to St. Louis, Missouri, where 
he arranged for law practice with J. B. Crockett, afterwards 
a supreme judge in California, to whose business he suc- 
ceeded. For a short time he associated with him Hon. B. 
Gratz Brown, afterward United States senator from Missouri 
and a candidate for vice president on the Greeley ticket. He 
was very successful in his practice at that bar, which was 
then distinguished by such men as Henry S. Geyer, afterward 
a United States senator, and Edward Bates, afterward United 
States attorney general under Lincoln. 

He continued in his profession there until 1856, when he 
found his health deteriorating under the influence of that 
climate, and the .controlling pro-slavery elements of Missouri 
were distasteful to him. After a year of comparative idleness 
and a tour in Europe, he finally in 1857 established himself 
at Des Moines, Iowa, which had just then been declared the 
new and permanent capital of that young state. It was then 
a large struggling village, but full of hope and ambition as 
the coming capital city. He soon had a large docket as an 
attorney, the docket much fuller than his purse. Hard-work- 
ing farmers, but no money. Panic of 1857 impoverished 
everybody. There was no river navigation nor railroad to 
the capital. Road and bridges bad, and wagon transportation 
slow and costly. The wagon which carried him for two days 
and nights to Des ]\Ioines broke down before reaching the 
city, leaving him to walk the remaining distance through 
the mud to his future home. Everything discouraging. But 
he stuck to his purpose of sharing the fate and fortune of 
this frontier and western people. Years of weary waiting, 
in which he formed his close attachment to his fellow-fron- 
tiersmen, who afterward stood so constantly by him in many 



JOHN A. KASSDN, AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY 349 

l>olitieal contests. In his political campaigns he travelled 
in open wagons, he ate in their kitchens, slept when necessary 
on the floors of their cabins or in the hay loft, and shared 
their deprivations. AVithont Avrangling over nnpaid fees, he 
sometimes accepted in place of inoney a load of vegetables 
which a farmer would bring him. 

In 1858-59 he was made chairman of the Iowa State Kepnb- 
lican Committee, and organized for the first time systematic- 
ally the Kepublican party of that state. He was also ap- 
pointed by Governor Lowe chairman of a commission to 
examine and report npon the condition of the executive 
offices of the state, which had just been removed to the new 
capitol, and made report thereon recommending various im- 
provements of administration. He was also made a state 
director in the newly organized State Bank of Iowa. In 1860 
he was sent as delegate from the state at large to the Kepub- 
lican National Convention at Chicago which nominated Lin- 
coln. He was chosen to represent that state in committee on 
resolutions, and on the sub-committee which framed the plat- 
form. After an all-night session of this committee of five, 
of which Horace Greeley was one, Kasson was left to reduce 
the platform to its final shape and style, while Greeley, as 
the morning sun was rising, left the room to telegraph the 
New York Tribune that the platform was complete, and that 
credit for it was chiefly due to John A. Kasson of Iowa, as 
appears by the Tribune of that issue. From that, lime 
throughout the campaign he was on the stump in the West 
advocating the election of Abraham Lincoln, and supportiag 
that clause of the platform which he himself had penned, 
that '"the normal condition of all the territories of the United 
States was that of freedom." 

Joyous over the wonderful victory of his party in 1860, 
and made anxious by the threatening organization of rebel- 
lion, he travelel to Washington to witness the inauguration 
of the new president in March. 1861. Intensity of feeling 
was there divided between the rebellious movement in the 
South and the organization of the new cabinet. ^Montgomery 
]^lair. whom he had known as a .judge in St. Louis had been 
selected f(n' postmaster general. Hy desire of Senator (irimes 



350 ANNALS OP IOWA 

of Iowa ]\Ir. Kasson was most iiiiexpeetedly offered tlie place 
of tir'st assistant postmaster general and accepted it. His 
nomination was the second sent to the Senate by President 
Lincoln for confirmation, the first 'being that of Mr. Lincoln's 
personal friend, ^Ir. Judd of Illinois for minister to Prussia. 
In this way Mr. Kasson was introduced into that branch 
of the national service where as it later appeared he was to 
render some historical service in national and international 
postal relations. At first he was overwhelmed with the work 
of discharging and appointing postmasters, sometimes reach- 
ing six hundred changes in one day, both on account of poli- 
tics and for disloyalty. In those days civil service reform 
had not been introduced. Mail communications with the 
Secession States were broken up. As our armies advanced 
southward Kasson prepared an army postal system which 
was approved by the military authorities and used during 
the war. As soon as this pressure of official duties was 
relieved, he turned his attention to the condition of the postal 
laws. They w^ere scattered through many statutes. He pre- 
pared a postal code, eliminating obsolete provisions. He 
found different rates prevailing to different parts of the 
country. He proposed legislation to make them uniform, 
and this was adopted. In respect to foreign countries he 
found as many differing rates as there were nations, and a 
complicated system of international accounts, under which 
this country was brought largely in debt for balances each 
,vear to the foreign governments. This balance was payable 
in gold, the premium on w'hich cost the United States Gov- 
ernment many added thousands for exchange. To remedy 
these inconveniences Kasson proposed to Mr. Blair to invite 
an international postal conference to make lower and more 
uniform rates, to simplify postal treaties, and for the aboli- 
tion of international accounts. The detailed plan being ap- 
proved by the postmaster general, invitations were sent 
through the secretary of state, which were accepted by fifteen 
nations who were represented in the conference held at Paris 
in 1863. Kasson Avas the commissioner representing the 
United States, and his propositions were the basis and the 
beginning of that great international postal reform, which 



JOHN A. KASSON, AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY 351 

lias now become tlie admiration as well as the convenience 
of the civilized world. At its conchiding session the Con- 
ference ordered Mr. Kasson's closing- address to be inserted 
in the Proces Verbal, together with an acknowledgment of 
the obligation of the conference to "the enlightened and at 
the same time conciliatory spirit" which he had constantl>- 
presented in their deliberations. (Proces Verbal of June 8, 
1863.) Kasson remained long- enough in Europe to visit 
several of the g'overnments and make preliminary conven- 
tions with them on the new basis. 

He returned toward the close of that year to take his seat 
in the Thirty-eighth Congress, to which he had in the mean- 
time been elected, representing twenty-three counties of 
southwestern Iowa. He was re-elected in 1864 to the Thirty- 
ninth Congress. During this time he made annual tours of 
his large district, speaking in every county, ardently advo- 
cating the support of ]Mr. Lincoln, and arousing and main- 
taining^ the popular determination to make all sacrifices for 
the maintenance of the Union and for the extinction of 
slavery. In the Thirty-eighth Congress he was appointed by 
Speaker Colfax on the leading committee, Ways and Means, 
which also at that time included Appropriations. In the 
Thirty-ninth Congress he was appointed on the Committee of 
Appropriations, and chairman of the Committee on Coinage, 
Weights and Measures. While on this latter committee he 
initiated and carried through Congress the first bill ever 
passed for the introduction of the decimal system of weights 
and measures into the United States, adopting the metric 
system of France. He also reported a bill which was passed, 
for abolishing the smaller denominations of paper money. 
On his proposition a measure was also adopted for introduc- 
ing consular clerks into that service, irremovable except for 
cause — the first step in the congressional reform of civil 
service. Became prominent among congressional debaters 
in various departments of legislation, and secured the intro- 
duction of a clause into the Bankrupt Bill exempting from 
liability the homesteads of settlers in all the states where 
that exemption had been established by state law. He always 
advocated the reservation of public lands for actual settlers. 



352 ANNALS OF IOWA 

At the end of the Thirty-ninth Congress, in March, 1867. 
Kasson was again appointed a commissioner from the United 
States to European" governments to make further postal 
conventions with them, and signed them Avith Great Britain. 
Belgium, Holland, Germany. Switzerland and Italy. In 1878 
in recognition of his services in metrical reform lie was made 
a meraher and iirst chairman of the American ^Metrological 
Society, organized at Columbia College, New York. 

During his absence in Europe in tlie fall of 1867, the people 
of his home county elected him to the legislature of Iowa 
for the purpose of securing state action for the erection of 
a new capitol at Des ]\Ioines. This election was repeated in 
1869 and 1871, Avhen the Fourteenth General Assembly con- 
summated the legislation desired. The contest which he con- 
ducted through three successive assemblies became memoi-alile 
in the annals of the state; and secured still more for liini 
the confidence and attachment of the people. 

After making a long tour in Europe and parts of Africa 
and Asia in 1870 and 1871, Mr. Kasson was called home to 
take his seat for the last time in the legislature in January, 
1872. In the following fall he was elected to the Forty-third 
Congress, by an unexpectedly large vote from the ten coun- 
ties of central Iowa, which now composed his district ; and 
was re-elected to the Forty-fourth Congress from the same 
district in 1874. During the Forty-third Congress he again 
served on the Ways and Means Committee, and in the Forty- 
fourtli, which was Democratic, he Avas appointed on the 
Banking and Currency and Pacific Railroad Committees, and 
was prominent in various debates.. He led the movement for 
the repeal of the odious provision known as the "Salary 
Gral)," which the previous congress had passed. He opposed 
all further land grants to railroads, and defeated that pro- 
posed for the Texas Pacific Railroad. 

During these congresses the Avear and tear of congressional 
service, which was not confined to legislative duties alone, 
but embraced an innnense correspondence with constituents 
about pension and other claims and demands for personal 
and political favors, added to his annual speaking campaign, 
had told upon Mr. Kasson 's strength as well as his congres- 



JOHN A. KASSON, AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY . 353 

sional ainlntion. He resolved to retire at the end of that 
congress, and so declined to he a candidate for re-nomination 
in the fall of 1876. In that last session of the Forty-fourth 
ConoTess occurred the t>reat trial l:)efore the historic Trihnnal 
of Fifteen of the rig-ht of Kutherford B. Hayes to the presi- 
dency, contested by Mr. Tilden of New York, which excited 
intense and even passionate interest throughout the United 
States. Mr. Kasson was selected by the Republican commit- 
tee in charge to make the opening argument in the case on 
the part of the Republicans in congress. This speech won 
great praise and was telegraphed in full to the press of the 
nation, and was also published in a pamphlet and widely 
circulated. Soon after the inauguration of President Hayes 
he ottered Mr. Kasson the post of minister pleni]X)tentiary 
to Spain, and afterward the alternative of accepting that to 
Austria-Hungary. The latter was accepted by him as having' 
greater diplomatic interest owing to the Russo-Turkish AVar 
then waging near the boundaries of that empire, and the 
prospective conference of the Powers at Vienna. Tie occu- 
pied that post for four years to the satisfaction of his own 
government, as well as to that of Count Andrassy, the 
Austro-Hungarian premier. While there the Taiited States 
government gave him a commission as special envoy to the 
new Servian government to negotiate a commercial treaty, 
and he visited Belgrade for that purpose. He also paid an 
unofficial visit to Montenegro, where he was entertained by 
the prince of that interesting people. 

During his ahsence in Europe the Republicans had lost 
the Iowa district which Mr. Kasson had formerly represented 
in Congress. Toward the close of the Hayes administration 
his former constituents requested his return to become their 
■candidate for the Forty-seventh Congress, in the hope of 
recovering the district to the Republicans. He returned for 
that purpose, made a successful canvas, and took his .seat in 
congress in 1881 for the fifth time from the Capital District 
of Iowa. In this CongTess he was an unsuccessful candidate 
for speaker of the House, and was appointed chairman of 
the committee on Reform of Civil Service, and to the second 
place on committee of Ways and Means and of Foreign 



354 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Affairs. From the first coniinittee lie reported tlie senate 
bill, for reforming the civil service, and secured its passage 
in the House. From the second he reported, and in two 
speeches advocated and secured the passage of the hill, pro- 
viding a 'business commission to revise the tariff. From the 
third he made an elaborate report in favor of the construc- 
tion of the Nicaragua Canal, with a bill in aid thereof. 

He was again re-elected to the Forty-eighth Congress, 
which was Democratic, and was appointed as before on the 
Ways and ^Means Committee. 

It was during this, his sixth term in Congress, that some 
diplomatic trouble arose between, the then United States 
minister to Germany and the German chancellor, which re- 
sulted in chilling the relations between the two governments, 
and in the resignation of our minister. President Arthur, 
Mdthout prior consultation Avitli liim, sent the nomination of 
]\Ir. Kasson to the Senate as envoy extraordinary and minis- 
ter plenipotentiaiy to Germany to supply the vacancy thus 
created, and restore good relations. Wishing in any event 
to retire from congress at the end of this term, he accepted 
the appointment, and served as minister at Berlin until after 
the first inauguration of President Cleveland, when in accord- 
ance with the American custom he tendered his resignation 
to the new administration. The satisfaction which he gave 
to Prince Bismarck and his government was attested by a 
request made by the German government to that of President 
Cleveland for the retention of Mr. Kasson as United States 
minister at the German capital — an unusual and distinguish- 
ing honor from that supreme chief of European diplomacy, 
Prince Bismarck. 

It was during this service, and in the winter of 1884-85, 
that the "Congo Conference" of fourteen governments as- 
sembled under the presidency of Prince Bismarck. Its object 
was to establish the international relations of that vast newly- 
discovered region called the Congo Free State, with a view to 
equality of international rights therein, to the promotion of 
its civilization and to the preservation of its peace. Mr. 
Kasson was speciall}^ accredited thereto by the United States 
government as its representative. Its beneficial work has 



JOHN A. KASSON, AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY 355 

passed into history. In a German review of that conference 
Mr. Kasson was credited, next after the Cxerman represen- 
tatives, with having done the most to shape its nseful results. 
It was npon his proposition that the "Conventional Basin 
of the Congo" was enlarged so as to embrace ahout twice 
the territory originally included, and extending across Africa 
from ocean to ocean. In this region the people of all coun- 
tries were to enjoy equal commercial, educational and reli- 
gious privileges, and their citizens equal protection. He also, 
in the interest of civilization and perpetual peace, proposed 
an article agreeing to the arbitration of international dis- 
putes in all cases arising in or concerning these territories, 
instead 'of a resort to war. This was accepted by all but two 
of the fourteen governments ; but the refusal of these two 
compelled the modification of that proposition after long 
negotiation, into a mutual engagement to resort in all cases 
to friendly mediation before having recourse to war, while 
reserving their optional resort to arbitration. It was the 
first general agreement recorded in history among powerful, 
independent and alien nationalities looking to the adjustment 
of all future differences by the peaceful intervention of third 
parties. 

After his recall from Germany Mr. Kasson turned his at- 
tention to literary work, especially that of historical char- 
acter. But his diplomatic experience and ability were again 
to be called into service. The three governments of the 
United States, Germany and Great Britain, had in vain at- 
tempted to settle their differences concerning the Samoan 
Islands in a conference at Washington, held under the first 
administration of President Cleveland. It was later agTeed 
that a further conference should assemble at Berlin on the 
subject. In the meantime President Harrison succeeded Mr. 
Cleveland, and one of his earliest appointments was that of 
]\Ir. Kasson at the head of a commission, three in number, to 
meet the same number of delegates from each of the other 
governments in a conference at Berlin in 1889, to settle all 
the disputed points. Passing through London, Mr. Kasson 
had an interview on the subject with Lord Salisburj'. The 
conference was successfully concluded at Berlin; and the 



356 ANNALS OF IOWA 

chief point of the contention of the United States was gained, 
as tiie result of friendly jn-ivate negotiations between Mr. 
Kasson and Count Bismarck, Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

Since his return from that mission, Mr. Kasson has led a 
])riva.te and tranquil life, relieved by occasional travel to the 
remoter lands of the North Atlantic and Arctic Seas, and to 
various portions of Europe and America. Ilis life has l)een 
industrious as well as active and successful. He has made 
countless speeches in political campaigns in many States 
" since 18G0 and in Congress, many of which have been sepa- 
rately published for general circulation. He has also' de- 
livered many lectures before associations, and the i)ublie, on 
various subjects. He lias written for the reviews and maga- 
zines ; notably twO' articles on the Monroe Declaration (No. 
Amer. Rev. Sept. and Dee.. 1881) ; on Municipal Reform (lb. 
Sept., 1883) ; on the Congo Convention (lb. Feb., 1886) ; on 
Bismarck, Man and Minister (lb. Aug., 1886) ; the Hohenzol- 
lern Kaiser (lb. April, 1888) ; the Western View of the 
Tariff (The Forum, Dec, 1887). 

In 1887, he wa,s chosen president of the Interstate Com- 
mission to celebrate in that year the centennial of the Ameri- ' 
can Constitution, under the shadow of Independence Hall at 
Philadelphia. In that connection he prepared a brief history 
of the formation of the United States Constitution and its 
causes, which was published in the memorial volumes of that 
anniversary (pp. 133, Vol. L. Lippincott Co. Phila. 1889). 
In 1890 he delivered a course of ten lectures on the devel- 
opment and history of diplomacy before the Lowell Institute 
of Boston; and subse(|uen11y two courses of lectures on the 
same subject before the Johns Hopkins University in Balti- 
more. His address before the General Assembly, state offi- 
cers and people of Iowa upon the inauguration of their new 
State Capitol is remembered in that state as an Iowa classic, 
and is' published among the state doeuments, 1884. He lias 
had a large correspondence with men .eminent in official and 
literary circles, much of which is now deposited in the col- 
lections of the State Historical Department at the Capital of 
Iowa. 



JOHN A. KASSON, AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY 357 

Mr. Kasson is fond of society, whether that of royal court 
circles in Europe, or the more familiar circles of a country 
village at home. He was for many years a member of the 
Society of Free Masons in the West, and is a member of the 
Pioneer Lawmakers' Association of Iowa; of the National 
Geographic and Columbia Historical Societies of Washington ; 
and a governor of the Metropolitan and Chevy Chase Clubs 
of the same city. He was honored with the degree of Doctor 
of Laws by the University of Vermont. He is a member of 
tlie Protestant Episcopal Church, and of the Board of Cathe- 
dral Trustees of the Diocese of Washington. Born into a 
Democratic family, he passed early through the Free Soil 
episode into the Republican party, to which he has since con- 
stantly adhered. 

Mr. Kasson 's ''military service" is limited to one unhappy 
night, during his term as assistant postmaster general. Hear- 
ing of the fighting at Bull Run, he drove rapidly from Wash- 
ington toward the front, meeting the rapid movements of 
scared, non-combatant fugitives on the way. Pushing on 
against the tide till after dark, he arrived at a place called 
Goodwin's tavern. Here his carriage was sent back to the 
city; he mounted an abandoned musket to his shoulder, moved 
to a dark i)art of the road, and began a sentinel's regular 
pacing to and fro across the highway, ordering all the routed 
soldiers and teamsters to halt and form camp by the tavern, 
where was good water, and where an escaping commissary 
wagon was ordered to furnish bread. Strangely enough none 
disputed his orders, the camp was formed, the wearied sol- 
diers slept. At two o'clock in the morning a regular lieuten- 
ant of the army rode up on the route of fugitives and told 
this volunteer sentinel that the army orders were to fall 
back of the defences of Washington. Mr. Kasson then roused 
his camp, having but a single soldier who refused to get up, 
and followed his command as rear guard, rousing and en- 
couraging them who faltered with fatigue, until they en- 
tered the fortifications of the Potomac. General Burnside 
on horseback, weary and mud splashed, passed him on the 
way. Mr. Kasson crossed the long liridge into tlie city after 



358 ANNALS OF IOWA 

his Aveary night march, just as the sun rose over the humiliated 
capital. It vras probably the only instance during the war 
where a civilian undertook to command armed forces and 
was obeyed. 

The reader will observe that the foregoing- fragment was writ- 
ten by Mr. Kasson about 1S95 and his death occurred on the 18th 
day of May, 1910 After the sketch was written, President McKinley, 
in 1899, recognizing- Mr. Kasson's great ability and experience in 
international "diplomacy, appointed him to the important position 
of special commissioner plenipotentiary for the negotiation of com- 
mercial treaties with other nations, and also as a member of 
the British-American Joint High Commission for the settlement of 
differences with Canada. He proceeded at once to negotiating re- 
ciprocity treaties with the leading countries of both Europe and 
South America. His work was more difficult than was that of 
Secretary Blaine in negotiating his famous reciprocity treaties, 
because under the then recent Dingley tariff la^w other countries 
were somewhat resenting the strong protective policy of this coun- 
try. But laboring with great skill and perseverance and with an 
eye single to the future interests of this country in its trade with 
other nations, he was successful in completing several agreements of 
limited scope, which did not need ratification by the Senate, and 
which became operative by proclamation of the President, and at 
least twelve treaties, which had to be submitted to the Senate 
before they became operative. This was the largest number of com- 
mercial treaties ever before negotiated by one officer on the part of 
the United States. Mr. Kasson's great disappointment as a diplomat 
was the refusal of the Senate of the United States to ratify these 
treaties. The unique distinction paid him by the President, which 
should have been the crowning glory of liis long and successful career 
in diplomacy, turned out to be his great disappointment. Although the 
press largely commended his work and the President desired him to 
remain longer in the position, he resigned in 1903, and the position 
lapsed. Tliis was his last official work. The remaining seven 
years of his life was spent mostly in quiet retirement at his home 
in Washington, where he died May IS, 1910. Thus ended the life of 
this accomplished orator, lawyer, legislator, statesman and diplomat. 

The series of presidential commissions, diplomas and other tokens 
of honor and attainment of Mr. Kasson, deposited in the Historical 
Department, excel in number and excel in character all similar col- 
lection extant in Iowa. — Editor. 



SAD AFFAIR. 



The saddest incident connected with the battle at this place 
was the killing of Miss Magy Virginia Wade by the rebel 
sharp-shooters posted in the outskirts of the town. She was 
attending a sick sister at the time, and the house standing in 
an exposed position, she was in constant danger. A minie 
ball from one of their rifles struck her in the head and killed 
her instantly. Miss Wade was aged 20 years 1 month and 7 
days, and was a young lady of good character and much 
respected. This is only one of the many painful incidents 
connected with this cruel war. — Gettysburg, Pa. — Star and 
Banner, July 9, 1863. (In the newspaper collection of the 
Historical Department of Iowa.) 



THE MOUNT VERNON LADIES ASSOCIATION 359 



THE MOUNT VERNON LADIES ASSOCIATION 
OP THE UNION 

By Mrs. Horace M. Towner', 

Vice-Regent for Iowa. 

The present quickening- of interest in all that pertains to 
the early history- of the United States, and the development of 
the national life, is well illustrated in the renewed desire to 
become more familiar with all that relates to the life, char- 
acter and statesmanship of the "First American," George 
"Washington. 

The honor and responsibility of restoring, preserving* and 
caring" for the home and tomb of "Washington has belonged 
for more than half a century to an association of women 
known as the Mount Vernon Ladies Association of the Union, 
the first national organization of women in the country for 
patriotic purposes. To this association is due the credit of 
accomplishing a task which is far reaching in its influence 
and importance. 

At a time when Mount Vernon, with its hallowed associa- 
tions as the home and last resting place of Washington, seemed 
in imminent danger of being lost to the people of the LTnited 
States, this association of women was formed, rallied to its 
support patriotic citizens throughout the country, and by the 
moist painstaking and conscientious effort has restored and 
preserved this historic spot as it is seen today. 

Before referring specifically to the connection which Iowa 
has had with Mount Vernon it may be of interest to recount 
briefly the events which led to the foraiation of the Mount 
Vernon Ladies Association and the purchase of the estate, 
which at that time consisted of two hundred acre|S, and in- 
cluded the mansion in which W^ashington lived and the tomb 
in which he is buried. 

^■Mrs. Towner is the wife of Hon. Horace IM. Towner, of Corning, 
judg-e Third Judicial District 1890-1910. and representative in Con- 
gress from the Eightli Iowa District since 1911. Slie is a member 
of the Iowa Library Commission. 



360 ANNALS OF IOWA 

It will l)c' reiuenil)ered tliat jMoniit Vornon is part oi' a 
large tract of land in northern Virginia, lying between the 
Potomac and Rappahanock rivers, which was originality part 
of a royal grant made to Lord Culpepper. In 1674 a portion 
of this land came into the hands of John Washington, the 
great grandfather of George Washington. He devised it to 
his son Lawrence, who in tnrn left it to his son Augustine 
Washington, who was in 1740 in possession of 2,500 acres 
which included Mount Vernon. In 1743 this Augustine Wash- 
ington left the estate to his son Lawrence, who built, it is 
thought, the original house and named the estate for Admiral 
Vernon of the English navy, Avith whom Lawrence; had 
fought in the West Indies in 1741. 

Lawrence Washington died in 1752 leaving the estate to 
his infant daughter, with the proviso that in the event of her 
death it should become the property of his younger half, 
brother, George. The daughter died and in 1753 George 
Washington became the owner of Mount Vernon. 

Here in 1759 he brought his bride, Martha Dandridge Cus- 
tis, here he spent the important years preceding the Revo- 
lution, when not engaged in public duties ; from ju're he went 
forth to become the commander-in-chief of the American 
Revolutionary forces, and to Mount Vernon he returned, the 
victorious general. At this time he completed the remodeling 
of the mansion and surroundings, giving it the form we see 
today. 

From Mount A^ernon Washington again went forth in 
obedience to the summons of his country to become in 1789 
its first president, and to it he returned after eight years of 
service in establishing the Republic. Two years later he 
died at his beloved home on the Potomac and was buried there. 

Mount Vernon was left to Washington's nephew, Bushrod 
Washington, the son of his brother Augustine. Judge Bush- 
rod Washington was a member of the Supreme Court of the 
United States. At his death in 1829 he left the estate, now 
reduced to about 1,225 acres, to his nephew John A. Wash- 
ington, son of his brother Corbin. John A. Washington died 
in 1842 leaving ]\Iount Vernon to his wife Jane, with power 
to devise it as she pleased among his children. She deeded 



THE MOUNT VERNON LADIES ASSOCIATION 361 

it in 1850 to her hiisba]id"s oldest son, John Angustiiie Wash- 
ington, who was the last private owner. Changing eecmomie 
and labor conditions, the gradual impoverishment of tlie soil, 
together with the enormous demands made upon his hospi- 
tality by those whose patriotism brought them from every 
part of the country to visit the home and tomb of Washington, 
made it increasingly ditfieult for John Augustine Washing- 
ton to maintai]! the estate. He finally offered to sell it to the 
government of the United States, then to the commonwealth 
of Virginia, both of which declined to purchase it. At this 
juncture Miss Ann Pamela Cunningham, of h50utli Carolina, 
came forward with the suggestion that the women of the coun- 
try buy Mount Vernon and hold it in trust forever for the 
people of the Uuited States. The movement for the purchase 
and restoration of Mount Vernon Avas started by Miss Cun- 
ningham in 1853, and from that time until the purchase was 
completed in 1859 she devoted her entire time and thought 
to the accomplishment of lier purpose, overcoming obstacles 
which seemed at times to he almost insuperable. Miss Cun- 
ningham conceived the idea of forming an association of 
wom^i, incorporated under the laws of Virginia, consisting 
of a representative from each state, which should take charge 
of raising the money to purchase the estate, restore it to its 
appearance in Washington's time, and hold it as trustees 
for the people. The first charter was granted to the Mount 
Vernon Ladies Association of the Union in 1856, followed by 
a second charter in 1858. In this year the Association lield 
its first meeting; Miss (Junningham presiding as regent, the 
representatives of the various states being known as vice- 
regents. At this time there were twenty-two states repre- 
sented by vice-regents. Iowa was one of these srates. The 
■contract to jTurchase Mount Vernon was signed April, 1858, 
and the first installment ($18,000) was paid on the purchase 
price, which had been agreed upon as $200,000 for the two 
hundred acres. Eapid progress was made in raising the re- 
mainder of the money required and this is recorded in a 
paper published in Philadelphia known as The Mount Vernon 
Record. Its title page announces that it is '"the organ of 
the IMount Vernon Ladies Association of the Union ; contain- 



362 ANNALS OF IOWA 

ing important official matter of the Association, appeals of 
vice-regents and lady managers, monthly reports of the sec- 
retary, lists of contributors to the fund, together Avith a great 
variety of valuable and highly interesting matter relative to 
our colonial and revolutionary historj^" 

Mrs. Jane Maria Van Antwerp of Keokuk was appointed 
in October, 1858, as the first vice-regent for Iowa, Of Mrs. 
Van Antwerp The Mount Vernon Record for November of 
that year has the following : 

"The Regent has been particularly fortunate in the selec- 
tion of Mrs. Jane Maria Van Antwerp, as Vice-Regent for 
Iowa. Reports say — That this lady possesses every qualifi- 
cation Avhieh could fit her for the discharge of her duties in 
the honorable and important position to which she is called. 
She is endowed with brilliant talents; noted for her literary- 
abilities, her energy, her practical good sense, and her patriot- 
ism. 

"Mrs. Van Antwerp is the grand-daughter of Robert Yates, 
one of the framers of the Federal Constitution, and Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court of the State of New York; 
daughter of Robert Van Ness Yates, Secretary of the same 
state ; and niece of Major Fairlie, of Revolutionary memory, 
(who was aide-de-camp to Baron Steuben.) 

"Her husl^and, Gen. Ver Plank A^an Antwerp, has been 
entrusted by the government with many responsible offices. 
It was he who drew up the important treaty wdth the Sioux 
and Chippewa Indians, w^hereby an immense tract of terri- 
tory, reaching nearly to Lake Superior, and embracing the 
fine region of the upper Mississippi, was ceded to the United 
States. In the same year, 1837, he assisted in the removal 
of the Cherokee Indians from Tennessee and Alabama, and 
of the Pottawattamies to the western bank of the Missouri 
river. His biographer, Mr. John Livingston, placels him 
among the most eminent men of his country." 

In the same issue of The Mount Vernon Record Mrs. Van 
Antwerp appeals to the people of Iowa as follows : 

"The undersigned has recently been appointed, by the 
Regent of the Mount Vernon Ladies Association of the Union, 
Miss Anna Pamela Cunningham, of South Carolina — whose 



THE MOUNT VERNON LADIES ASSOCIATION 363 

patriotic, zealous and untiring efforts in the cause, do her 
the highest honor — Vice-Regent for Iowa ; and thus it becomes 
her duty to appeal to the people of the State, to help in this 
great work. It is confidently hoped that they will be no 
less prompt than have been those of South Carolina and New 
York, Virginia and Massachusetts, Alabama and Maine, in 
responding to the call. If, in consequence of the severe mone- 
tary pressure that still continues to prevail among us, much 
cannot be given by any one, let it be less, and in proportion 
to his, or her, ability to give; but let all give something; and 
the aggregate for the State may thus be made to swell to a 
considerable amount. The Western States are each being 
appealed to, in their turn, for help in this matter ; and let it 
never be said of Iowa that she is less willing, and readj^ than 
any of them, to do her share towards it, in proportion to her 
ability. Patriotism demands this at the hands of her people 
— and State Pride seconds to the call I 



"Finally, may not the undersigned appeal, confident of a 
favorable response, to the Public Press of Iowa — that ever 
ready champion of all noble and patriotic movements — for 
the aid of its columns to promote and advance the one now 
under consideration? She truly feels she may do so, with 
entire reliance upon a cordial co-operation on its part, for 
the achievement of the object in view; for surely, there can 
be none other of a more patriotic and truly exalted character. 
"All communications should be addressed to the under- 
signed at this place. 

Jane Maria Van Antwerp, 

Vice Regent for Iowa, 
Keokuk, November, 1858." 

Mrs. Van Antwerp 's appeal is followed b}^ a list of twenty- 
seven names of lowans to form an "Advisory Committee of 
Gentlemen" headed by Governor U. P. Lowe; also a "Ladies 
Standing Committee" of the same number. Contributions 
are reported and the names of contributors given from Keo- 
kuk, Davenport, Des Moines, Iowa City, Indianola, Dubuque, 
Mt. Pleasant, Drakeville, Council Bluffs, Cedar Rapids, 



364 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Bloomfield, Fairfield, Muscatine, Keo.saiiqiia, Farmington, 
Bonaparte and Washington. Under date of January 3, 1860, 
Mrs. Van Antwerp reports that Iowa has contributed over 
,i;2,100 to the fund. 

^lore than a quarter of the two hundred thousand dollars 
to be raised was contributed by Mr. Edward Everett, who, 
through his oration on the character of Wasliington, and in 
other ways, raised $69,064.77. 

The date of Mrs. Van Antwerp's death is uncertain but 
it occurred 'before 1872. Her successor as vice-regent for 
Iowa was Mrs. Jolm F. Dillon of Davenport, who was ap- 
pointed in 1872. ]\[rs. Dillon was the daughter of an Iowa 
pioneer, Ilirain Price, who was five times elected to congress 
from Iowa, between the years 1862 and 1881. She was the 
wife of Judge John F. Dillon, who served on the district 
bench (Clinton, Scott, Muscatine and Jackson Counties), was 
a member of the Iowa Supreme Court, and later became 
United States circuit .jndge for the Eighth Federal Circuit. 
Judge and Mrs. Dillon moved to New York in 1879. Mrs. 
Dillon was closely identified with social and civic affairs in 
Davenport and was the first president and long time trustee 
of the Davenport Library Association. 

Mrs. Dillon resigned as vice-regent for Iowa late in 1878, 
as she was planning an extended stay abroad with lier chil- 
dren. In 1898, as Mrs. Dillon and her daughter were again 
enroute to Europe to take the cure at Xauheim, (Jernian>'. 
they wei'e lost on the French steamer. La Tiourgoyne, which 
was wrecked under tragic circumstances. 

Mrs. Dillon w^is deeply interested in Mount Vernon and 
in the etfort to restore it to its appearance in Washington's 
time. Wlien the mansion came into the possession of the 
Association none of the original furnishings remained, the 
contents having been divided among the heirs of (Jeneral and 
Mrs. Washington It was therefore, from the beginning, the 
task of the members of the Association not only to restored 
and preserve the appearance of Mount A^ernon, but to find 
and bring back the household belongings Avhich Washington 
had in his home. This labor of love has been carried on 
through the years with the utmost reverence and singleness 
of |)ui-i)<)se, the .Vssociation feelinGr itself hound bv its charter 



HOW PRIMGHAR WAS NAMED 365 

to keep Mount Vernon inalienably sacred to the memory of 
Washington. The regent and vico-regents representing- the 
different states are appointed for life. The present regent is 
Miss Harriet C. Comegys of Delaware, dang'hter of the lat;^ 
Joseph P. Comegys, at one time chief justice of the Supreme 
Court of Delaware. 

After the resignation of Mrs. Dillon Iowa was witliout 
representation in the Mount Vernon Association until tlie 
writer was appointed in 1913. She has since then attended 
every meeting of the Grand Council which is held each year 
at Mount Vernon in May. 



HOW PRIMGHAR WAS NAMED. 

In the October, 1914. issue oF the Annals was published 
an account of the origin of the name of Le Mars, Iowa, 
which attracted the attention of Mr. J. D. Edmundson of Des 
Moines, who has kindly obtained for us the appended ac- 
count of the origin of the name of Primghar, Iowa : 

Primghar, Iowa, January 18, 1915. 
J. D. Edmundson, Des Moines, Iowa. 

Dear Sir: Yours of the 15th inst. at hand in regard to the 
naming of Primghar. 

It was named from the initials of the surnames of the eight men 
taking chief part in tlie platting; their names being as follows: 
Pumphrey, J. R. 
Roberts, James 
Inman, C. W. 
McCormick, B. F. 
Green, W. C 
Hayes, D. C. 
Albright, C. F. 
Rerick, T. L. 

It has been put in verse as follows: 

"P — umphrey, the treasurer, drives the first nail; 
R — oberts, the donor, is quick on his trail; 
I — nman dips slyly his first letter in; 
M — cCormick adds M, which makes the full Prim. 
G — reen, thinking of groceries, gives them the G; 
H — ayes drops them an H without asking a fee; 
A — Ibright, the joker, with his jokes all at par; 
R — erick brings up the rear and crowns all, Primghar." 



}66 ANNALS OF IOWA 



LETTER FROM A CITIZEN OF THE SOUTHERN 
CONFEDERACY^ 

Berkeley Co., Virginia, Southern Confederacy, 

The 12, May, 1861. 
Dear Brother, 
Samuel Thatcher : 

I seat myself this iSabhath morning to answer your kind 
letter which I received last week, and to let you know that I 
and my family are all well: hoping that you and yours are 
enjoying the same great blessing. 

I have not written to you concerning the death of my wife, 
she died on the first of March, 1860, lasted but 46 hours, 
leaving me, 6 sons and one daughter to mourn her loss. 
My sister-in-law Adaline Miller, has kept house, and she lived 
with us 2 years before the death of my wife and she is still 
with us. You wrote to me that there was a great excitement 
in your state concerning national affairs. "Now the crisis is 
only an artificial one; when I look out I see nothing going 
wrong, there's nobody hurt." This was the language of 
Abraham Lincoln, that was elected for to be president of the 
Great United States of America. It now appears to me that 
the man Abram or Abraham begins to think That something 
is going wrong and altho, he has at this time thirty thou- 
sand soldiers around him to guard him and the capital, he is 
still afraid of the southern rebels as he calls them, that they 
will hurt somebody. Well now I will let you know as near 
as I can how the call of Abram Lincoln was responded to 
here. He called for 75 thousand volunteers to .crush the 
Rebels in the Seceded States. I was at Harper's Ferry yes- 
terday and learned that Virginia has at this time 76 thousand 
Volunteers under arms and well equipped and Avill resist 
with their lives and fortunes and their sacred honor, any 
Northern Army that Lincoln may send against them. 

^This letter, written by J. W. Thatcher, of Virg-inia, to his brother, 
harnuel Thatcher, of Ohio, reflects the intense feeling that frequently 
divided families along the border states during- the Rebellion. It 
came into the possession of the late V. P. Twombly, and was by 
him turned over to the Historical Department. — Editor. 



LETTER FROM A CITIZEN OF THE CONFEDERACY 367 

Berkeley County furnished six large companies and tliey 
are at Harpers Ferry; there are five thousand troops at 
Harpers Ferry at this time. ^Nfy oldest son belongs to the 
Berkeley Cavalry; he left home last Friday three weeks ag-o, 
he is only 17 years of age, but is very near as large as I am. 

Hardly one family around here, but some one, two, or 
three, of its number have gone to defend the rights of the 
south; we may 'be over run, but may not be easily subdued. 
I believe the only way the Federal Government can conquer 
the South will be to exterminate them, .sweep them from the 
face of the earth. We begged long and hard for the Crit- 
tenden Compromise, which if it had been granted, would 
have saved the Border States and been no loss to the North. 
They wouldn't give us that. Then we wanted to separate in 
peace and they Avon't let uis go that way; and I tell you now 
brother, the first blood that the northern troops slied on Vir- 
ginia soil will be the beginning of a contest such as was never 
seen this side of the Atlantic. I was one of the number that 
went to Harpers Ferry from Martinsburg the time of the 
John Brown raid, which was on Monday, the 17th of Octo- 
ber, 1859, and I there seen the teachings of the North, and 
if it could have been carried out, where w^ould we have been? 
The Sharps rifles and pistols and pikes some two or three 
thousand in number, the pikes with long handles ; they were 
handed to the slaves that they took, but thej^ could not be 
persuaded to use them against their masters, where did these 
instruments come from ? There must have been a large num- 
ber of men in the North aiding in this irrepressible conflict, 
the 22 men that came there could not have made all those 
instruments themselves and kept it a secret. But, I am now 
glad that John Brown did come to Harpers Ferry, that very 
affair give the South warning and she prepared herself for: 
the coming conflict. 

If what the Northern Journals say comes true, then our 
lands, after we are murdered, will be given to the Northern 
soldiers for their pay. 

Now brother I have -written to you and have not been writ- 
ing fictitiouis language; you asked me to let you know how 
things stood, and I have this to say to you about this war. 



368 ANNALS OF IOWA 

that if the Black Repii))licaii Government at Wasliington is 
as determined as we are, then I say to yon goodbye. 

Now I will ask of you to write to me and let me know liow 
it stands out there, give me a full account, etc. 

I remain your brother and Avell wisher, 

J. W. Thatcher. 

P. S. I have 75 acres of wheat and 25 acres of l)arley 
which I sowed last fall and it look's very well. 

I sowed 20 acres of oats this spring and have planted 25 
acres of corn, and 25 acres to plant yet, just half done. 

I have one hundred and twenty-four head of sheep at tliis 
time, I sold 7 head last week for 31 dollars after T slieared 
tliem. 

I have 11 head of hogs and T;! head of cattle. 

1 am farmiiig besides my own land, which is 343 acres, my 
sister-in-law's and brotlier-in-law's 260 acres whicli is o\'er 
600 acres, and you nmy judge whether I have mucli time to 
idk^ away. 

J. AY. Thatcher to Samuel Thatelier. 

Mv best love to vou and Emilv. 



The Fourth of July was celebrated in this city most agree- 
ably. A large procession of citizens, headed by the city band, 
after parading the streets, marched to the courthouse where 
the Declaration of Independence was read by Warner Lewis, 
Esq., and an oration delivered by George Greene, Esq. ; after 
which about 200 citizens (including ladies) sat down to a din- 
ner prepared by Mr. Fanning on tlie ground in iront of the 
c(mrthouse. — Dubucjtue, Iowa Transcript, July 12, 1841. (In 
the newspaper collection of the Historical Department of 
Iowa.) 



That Buffalo. 

There will be a shooting match at Dudley on Christmas day 
next — first match for the Buffalo. Ye Knights of the Rifle 
be on hand ; much sport may be expected. So clean up those 
old guns and pick your flints. — Fort Des Moines Star, Novem- 
ber 23, 1849. (In the newspaper collection of the Historical 
Department of Iowa.) 



SPAN OF THE GREAT ICE AGE 369 



>SPAN OF THE GREAT ICE AGE 

BY CHARLES KEYES 

AViieu about half a century ago deep road cuttings were 
made on Capitol Hill there were unearthed some geological 
features that have since become famous the world over. 
While the excavations were fresh the walls displayed with 
diagrammatic clearness some of the most noteworthy glacial 
drift phenomena ever uncovered on the American continent. 
At the time the record was preserved in one of our leading 
scientific magazines. Were it not for this circumstance a great 
scientific discovery might soon have passed into oblivion. 
Long since the mural faces succumbed to the effacing effects 
of rain and frost, until they were worn down to gentle hill- 
side slopes, grass-covered and tree-dotted. 

In the extensive grading operations on the new Capitol 
grounds a few months ago, the celebrated glacial sections are 
again laid open to sky. They are now preserved for the ages 
to come. They are marked by a permanent monument erected 
by the State of Iowa. A beautiful and substantial bridge 
spans the sunken speedw^ay where they were best exposed. 

This monumental site, on the brow of Capitol Hill, is 
really one of the scientific wonders of our state. Geolo'gically 
its interest is indeed gloibal. Bearings of our local sections 
upon the broader aspects of the 'basic problems concerning 
the great Ice Age seem worthy of brief relation. For many 
years after Louis Agassiz first gave to the world his theory of 
glaciation — one of the most l)rilliant generalizations of modern 
science — earth students in the field w^ere occupied mainly in 
gathering facts and details. With the accumulation of these 
records came new generalizations. Gradually it came to be 
realized that the original notion was not nearly so complete as 
was in the beginning supposed. 

Finally it began to develop that instead of a single 
glacial epoch there were proba.bly several successive Ice Ages. 



370 ANNALS OP IOWA 

In the great wolid-^vide controversy which Avas warmly 
waged on this snbject for more than a generation Iowa 
chanced to bear a conspicnous part. Not the least interest- 
ing feature was that in this state were found the first un- 
doubtafble evidences of the existence of more than one drift- 
sheet separated by a thick deposit of fine wind-deposited 
loam. In after years this observation proved to be the inost 
critical criterion in the argument for a multiple rather than 
a unal character of the Ice Age. Moreover, Iowa men made 
this important discovery. In our state were finally differ- 
entiated five great glacial mantles. At the present day the 
Iowa Classification of the great Ice Age deposits is recog- 
nized the world over. 

This spot on Capitol Hill where first were obtained the 
depositional proofs of the complexity of the Glacial Period is 
for several reasons exceptionally instructive. It seems to be 
the first locality ever recorded in which the stratigraphical re- 
lations of two drift sheets were unmistakable. It is also this 
section which later gaA'e first intimation of the eolian origin 
of American loess loams. It is here that was disclosed first 
clue to that wonderful interlocking of the continuous south- 
Avestern loess and adobe deposits with the northeastern glacial 
tiUs. This site bids fair long to remain one of the classic 
geological localities of the continent. 

At this time and at this distance there are few of us who 
can have any adequate appreciation of the almost unsur- 
mountable difficulties which this novel problem once pre- 
sented, albeit now it seems all so simple. Still fewer of us 
there are who can gather directly from experience what it 
really means actively and determinedly to contend on the 
skirmish-line of the unknown. By our distinguished fellow 
citizen, the late W J McGee, than whom no one was in better 
position to know intimately the marvelous intricacies of the 
attempt to decipher the glacial puzzles of that day, the pro- 
cedure, so far as it concerns Iowa, is thus graphically por- 
trayed : * * * "In the solution of the prc^blem it is nec- 
essary to do more than assume the existence and action of a 
great sheet of ice hundreds or thousands of feet in thickness 
and hundreds or thousands of miles in extent. In order to 



SPAN OF THE GREAT ICE AGE 371 

explain tlie siim of the phenomena it is necessary to picture 
the great ice sheet not only in its general form and extent, but 
in its local features, its thickness, its direction, and its rate 
of movement over each sqnare league, the inclination of its 
surface both at top and bottom, and the relations of these 
slopes to the subjacent surface of earth and rock ; and all this 
without a single glacial stria or inch of ice polish, save in one 
small spot, in the whole tract of 16,500 square miles. It is 
necessary to conceive not only the mode of melting of the ice 
at each league of its retreat, (but also every considerable brook, 
every river, and every lake or pond formed by the melting 
both at its under surface and on its upper surface ; it is nec- 
essary not only to restore not only the margin of the nier de 
glace under each minute of latitude, it occupied, but as well, 
the canyons by which it was cleft, the floe-bearing lakes and 
mud-charged marshes with which it was fringed, each island 
of ice, and each icenbound lake formed within its limits. And 
it is not only necessary to reconstruct the geography of a 
dozen episodes, as does the anatomist the skeleton from a few 
bones, but to develop a geography such as civilized eye has 
never seen, and which could exist only under conditions 
such as utterly transcend the experience of civilized men. 
All this has been done. The trail of the ice monster has 
been traced, his magnitude measured, his form and even his 
features figured forth, and all from the slime of his body 
alone, where even his characteristic tracks fail." 

As originally described in the American Journal of 
Science, this now famous exposure on the brow of Capitol 
Hill presents the following successioin of beds: 

Feet 

6.— Soil 2 

5. — Till; light reddish buff clay, with pebbles 7 

4. — Till, contorted and interstratified with loess 5 

.?. — Loess, with numerous fossils 15 

2. — Till ; dark red clay, with aibundant pebbles 6 

1. — Shale, Carbonic, exposed 10 

The salient features to be especially noted are that: 
First, the lower till sheet (No. 2) represents what is now called 
the Kansas Drift, which was formed when the great conti- 
nental glacier, reaching southward to St. Louis and Kansas 



372 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Cit}', attained its greatest extent and thickness; second, the 
loess members (Nos. 3 and 4) composed of line loams, consti- 
tute the soil formations during long interglacial epochs when 
the climate was not so very different from \vhat it is at the 
present time; and third, the upper till (No. 5) represents 
what is now known as the great Wisconsin Drift-sheet. 

At the time when these observations were made (1882), 
as already indicated, the possible complexity of the Glacial 
Period was not yet even faimtly surmised. Chances of the 
existence of a second Glacial Epoch were only vaguely being 
suggested. The prolix and bitter controversy ove^" the duality 
versus the unity of the great Ice Period was just liegiiniing. 
Under these circumstances it is not at all surprising that 
some of the Iowa facts were misinterpreted and that their true 
significance was for a time overlooked. Then, too, the pre- 
vailing notion concerning the origin of the loess tended to ob- 
scure a proper understanding of data accurately recorded. 

Notwithstanding the fact that Doctor McGee was inclined 
at the time to attach rather slight importance to his really 
monumental observations and to regard the phenomena which 
he had noted as indicating mere local advance of the ice-sheet 
it soon became manifest that the two till deposits separated 
by a thick loess 'bed was impeachable testimony in support 
of two distinct and great ice movements within the period 
of what was regarded previously as a single one. So far as 
is known this appears to be the first and most important 
recorded evidence proving conclusively the crmplex character 
of the Ice Age. 

Of similar import was the somewhat later description of 
a great drift section several miles farther south on the Des 
Moines River. In a paper read before the Iowa Academy of 
Sciences in 1890, it was shown that there was still another 
Ihick member to be reckoned with beneath the till underlying 
the loess. In recent years ofiPicers of the State Geological 
Survey were inclined to regard it as representing the pre- 
Kansan Aftonian beds. 

The Capitol Hill drift section is now one of the notaible 
glacial localities in America. During the past thirty years 
i he place and the vicinity have 1>een visited by many of the 



SPAN OF THE GREAT ICE AGE 373 

most eminent scientists of the world. As it is, our fellow 
lowan and distiingnished pioneer in the field of glaciologry 
narrowly escaped making one of the half dozen great geolog- 
ical discoveries of the Nineteenth century — the establish- 
ment of the fact of the complexity of the Glacial Period. 

It so happens that the two thick drift sheets which cover 
Capitol Hill are the youngest and the oldest but one of a 
succession of five great glacial mantles, the intermiediary 
sheets being absent. Now, the bridge, of which a view is 
given in the accompanying plate, joins two unrivaled sec- 
tions on opposite sides of the Court Avenue speedway. The 
south abutment rests on the more remote drift sheet and the 
deposits beneath ; wliile the north end of the span abuts the 
more recent drift deposit. 

The arch not only spans a fine l)oulevard but it connects 
the two glacier-dropped 'beds which in point of time are sep- 
arated by thousands upon thousands of years. Geologically 
this noble structure spans, as it were, the Glacial Period 
as does the rainbow the heavens. It is fitting that a majestic 
monument should mark the positions of the famous McGee 

Drift sections, which first gave definite clue to the conception 
of a multiple Ice Age. It is especially appropriate that Iowa 
shouUI in so artistic a manner and in so permanent a form 
■commemorate such uniciue event. 



Military Notice. 

The signers of the article of agreement to form a rifle com- 
pany in Jackson county, are requested to meet at the store of 
A. G. Clark in Andrew, November 9, 1844, at 2.00 p. m. for 
the purpose of choosing officers, to agree upon a uniform, and 
the transaction of such other business as may be deemed neces- 
sary. A punctual attendance is earnestly requested by 

MANY SOLDIERS. 

Andrew, Oct. 24, 1844. — Dubuque, Iowa Transcript, Novem- 
ber 1, 1844. (In the newspaper collection of the Historical 
Department of Iowa.) 



ANNALS OF IOWA. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 



INDIAN TREATIES TOUCHING IOWA 

The Annals of Iowa is a repository rather more than a 
purveyor of Iowa historical facts. It has served as a ready 
tool and proibahly will continue so to |serve for a long while. 
It has been able so to serve largely through its publication 
of original articles and its re-publication of rare and fugitive 
pertinent materials. 

The present editor of the Annals has found special pleasure 
in pursuing facts relating to the transfer of title and posses- 
sion of lands of Iowa to the individual owner. A consider- 
able mass of these materials has been assembled. Portions 
of them have been printed, and other portions are not in 
print, nor, so far as we know, accessible to the public. It is 
intended to put such information into the pages of the Annals 
and to make it available. 

Not the least interesting of this group of materials are the 
minutes of the councils that were held between the United 
States government on the one part, and the Indian tribes 
occupying what is now the State of Iowa on the other part. 
Introducing what may become a valuable series of these mate- 
rials, we present the minutes as they have been preserved 
of these two councils, viz : of 1841 and 1842, held at Agency 
City, now in "Wapello County, Iowa. The deliberations of 
these councils ended in the treaty of October 11, 1842, which 
transferred to the white man the right to occupy the largest 
area surrendered at one time, and took from the Sacs and 
Foxes their last claim to their rights within the state. 

WA-PEL-LO who participated in the council of 1841 died 
in March, 1842 and was buried on the site of the two coun- 
cils. The inscription on his tomb is as follows: 

' ' In memory of WA-PEL-LO a principal chief of the Foxes, 
who was bom at Prairie du Chien about the year 1787, died 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 375 

near the forks of the Skunk River, March 15, 1842 and liere 
buried at his own request. This stone was erected by the Sac 
and Fox nation. Distinguished in early years for his valor, 
he was no less remarkable for kindness and beneficence toward 
his people, while honesty of character and strict friendship 
towards the white men won for him unusual regard." 

Those familiar wdth Iowa history will note with interest 
that one of the statements attributed to those representing the 
red and white peoples was written by James W. Grimes. It is 
probable that he who later became one of our greatest states- 
men transmitted truly the meaning of those arguments to us. 

Reading then the record of the councils of 1841 and 1842, 
it is not difficult to sense deeply the pathos with which the 
"trustees" from their "Great Father" for the benefit of 
His red children in perpetuity fought off the surrender of 
these lands. 



THE SAC AND FOX TREATY OF 1842 

In the body of the Annals we present the minutes of the 
councils leading up to the treaty through which the Sac and 
Fox Indians surrendered their right of possession of that 
part of the state of Iowa bounded on the north by the Neu- 
tral Strip of 1830 : on the east by the New Purchase of 1837 ; 
on the south by the state of Missouri and on the west by the 
Neutral Line of 1825. 

It is believed the meaning of these minutes will be better 
understood and this issue of the Annals increased in value 
by the addition herewith of the text of that treaty : 

TREATY WITH THE SAUK AND FOXES, 1842 
Articles of a treaty made and concluded at the agency of the 
Sac and Fox Indians in the territory of Iowa, between the United 
States of America, by John Chambers their commissioner thereto 
specially authorized by the President, and the confederated tribes 
of Sac and Fox Indians represented by their chiefs, headmen and 
braves : 

ARTICLE I 

(Lands ceded to the United States.) 
The confederated tribes of Sacs and Foxes cede to the United 
States, forever, all the lands west of the Mississippi River, to whick 



376 ANNALS OP IOWA 

they have any claim or title, or in which they have any interest 
whatever; reserving a right to occupy for the term of three years 
from the time of signing this treaty, all that part of the land 
hereby ceded which lies west of a line running due north and south 
from the painted or red rocks on the White Breast fork of the 
Des Moines river, which rocks will be found about eight miles, 
when reduced to a straight line, from the junction of the White 
Breast with the Pes Moines. 

ARTICLE II 
(Payment by the United States for Cession) 
In consideration of the cession contained in the preceding article, 
the United States agree to pay annually to the Sacs and Foxes, 
an interest of five per centum upon the sum of eight hundred thou- 
sand dollars, and to pay their debts mentioned in the schedule an- 
nexed to and made a part of this treaty, amounting to the sum 
of two hundred and fifty-eight thousand, five hundred and sixty- 
six dollars and thirty-four cents; and the United States also agree, 
(Lands to be assigned to Indians for permanent residence.) 
First. That the President will as soon after the treaty is ratified 
on their part as may be convenient, assign a tract of land suitable 
and convenient for Indian purposes, to the Sacs and Foxes for a 
permanent and perpetual residence for them and their descendants, 
which tract of land shall be upon the Missouri river, or some of its 
waters. 

(Blacksmiths' and gunsmiths' shops, etc.) 

Second. That the United States will cause the blacksmiths' and 
gunsmiths' tools, with the stock of iron and steel on hand at the 
present agency of the Sacs and Foxes, to be removed, as soon after 
their removal as convenient, to some suitable point at or near their 
residences west of the north and south line mentioned in the first 
article of this treaty; and will establish and maintain two black- 
smiths' and two gunsmiths' shops convenient to their agency and 
will employ two blacksmiths, with necessary assistance, and two 
gunsmiths to carry on the said shops for the benefit of the Sacs 
and Foxes; one blacksmiths and one gunsmiths' to be employed 
exclusively for the Sacs, and one of each to be employed exclusively 
for the Foxes, and all expenses attending the removal of the tools, 
iron and steel, and the erection of the new shops, and the purchase 
of iron and steel, and the support and maintenance of the shops, 
and wages of the smiths and their assistants, are to be paid by the 
tribe, except such portion thereof as they are now entitled to have 
paid by the United States, under the 4th article of the treaty made 
with them on the 4th of August, 1824, and the 4th article of the 
treaty of the 21st of September, 1832. And when the said tribes shall 
remove to the land to be assigned them by the President of the 
United States, under the provisions of this treaty, the smiths' shops 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 377 

above stipulated for shall be re-established and maintained at their 
new residence, upon the same terms and conditions as are above prO' 
vided for their removal and establishment west of the north and 
south line mentioned in the first article of this treaty. 

(Boundary to be run and marked) 
Third. That the President of the United States will as soon as 
convenient after the ratification of this treaty, appoint a commis- 
sioner for the purpose, and cause a line to be run north from the 
painted or red rocks on the "White Breast, to the southern Boundry 
of the neutral ground, and south from the said rocks to the northern 
boundry of Missouri; and will have the said lines so marked and 
designated, that the Indians and white people may know the 
boundry which is to separate their possessions. 

ARTICLE III 
(Removal of Indians) 
The Sacs and Foxes agree that they will remove to the west side 
of the line running north and south from the painted or red rocks 
on the White Breast, on or before the first of Mav next, and that 
so soon after the President shall have assigned them a residence 
upon the waters of the Missouri, as their chiefs shall consent to 
do so, the tribe will remove to the land so assigned them; and 
that if they do not remove before the expiration of the term of 
three years, they will then remove at their own expense; and the 
United States agree, that whenever the chiefs shall give notice 
to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs of the time at which they 
will commence their removal to the land to be assigned them by 
the President, a quantity of provisions sufficient for their subsistence 
while removing, shall be furnished them at their agency, and an 
additional quantity, not exceeding one year's supply shall be de- 
livered to them upon their arrival upon the lands assigned them; 
the cost and expenses of which supplies shall be retained out of any 
money payable to them by the United States. 

ARTICLE IV 
(Each principal chief to receive $500 annually.) 
It is agreed that each of the principal chiefs of the Sacs and 
Foxes, shall hereafter receive the sum of five hundred dollars annu- 
ally, out of the annuities payable to the tribe, to be used and ex- 
pended by them for such purposes as they may think proper, Avith 
the approbation of their agent. 

ARTICLE V. 

($30,000 to be retained at each annual payment.) 

It is further agreed that there shall be a fund amounting to 

thirty thousand dollars retained at each annual payment to the 

Sacs and Foxes, in the hands of the agent appointed by the Presi- 



378 ANNALS OF IOWA 

dent for their tribe, to be expended by the chiefs, with the appro- 
bation of the agent, for national and charitable purposes among 
their people; such as the support of their poor, burying their dead, 
employing physicians for the sick, procuring provisions for their 
people in cases of necessity, and such other purposes of general 
utility as the chiefs may think proper, and the agent approve. And 
if at any payment of the annuities of the tribe, a balance of the fund 
so retained from the preceding year shall remain unexpended, only 
so much shall be retained in addition as shall make up the sum of 
thirty thousand dollars. 

ARTICLE VI. 

(Application of any portion of annuities.) 
It is further agreed that the Sacs and Foxes may, at any time, 
with the consent of the President of the United States, direct the 
application of any portion of the annuities payable to. them, under 
this or any former treaty, to the purchase of goods or provisions, 
or to agricultural purposes, or any other object tending to their 
improvement, or calculated to increase the comfort and happiness 
of their people. 

ARTICLE VII. 

(Certain funds for agricultural purposes.) 
The United States agree, that the unexpended balance of the fund 
created by the seventh paragraph of the second article of the treaty 
of the twenty-first of October, 1837, for agricultural purposes, or so 
much thereof as may be necessary, shall be used and employed in 
the cultivation of the pattern farm near the present Sac and Fox 
agency, in the year 1843, for the exclusive use and benefit of the 
tribe. And they further agree, that such portion of the fund for 
erecting mills, and supporting millers, specified in the fourth para- 
graph of the second article of the aforesaid treaty of October 21, 
1837, as may be and remain unexpended on the 1st day of May 
next, shall be transferred to and made part of the sum designated 
in the fifth paragraph (as amended) of the article and treaty above 
named, for breaking up land and other beneficial objects, and be- 
come thereafter applicable to the same purposes, as were in the 
said fifth paragraph, originally intended. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

(Remains of the late chief Wapello to be buried, etc.) 
The Sacs and Foxes have caused the remains of their late dis- 
tinguished chief Wa-pel-lo to be buried at their agency, near the 
grave of their late friend and agent General Joseph M. Street and 
have put into the hands of their agent the sum of one hundred 
dollars to procure a tombstone to be erected over his grave, similar 
to that which has been erected over the grave of General Street; 
and because they wish the graves of their friend and their chief 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 379 

to remain in the possession of the family of General Street, to 
whom they were indebted in his life-time for many acts of kindness, 
they wish to give to his widow Mrs. Eliza M. Street one section of 
land to include the said graves, and the agency-house and the en- 
closures around and near it; and as the agency house was built 
at the expense of the United States, the Sacs and Poxes agi-ee to 
pay them the sum of one thousand dollars the value of said build- 
ing, assessed by gentlemen appointed by them, and Governor Cham- 
bers, commissioner on the part of the United States, to be deducted 
from the first annuity payable to them under the provisions of this 

treaty. 

(Patent to issue to E. M. Street for 640 acres.) 

And the United States agree to grant to the said Eliza M. Street 
by one or more patents, six hundred and forty acres of land in such 
legal subdivisions, as will include the said burial ground, the agency 
house, and improvements around, and near it, in good and con- 
venient form, to be selected by the said E. M. Street or her duly 
authorized agent. 

ARTICLE IX. 

(Treaty binding when ratified. Proviso.) 

It is finally agreed that this treaty shall be binding on the two 

contracting parties, so soon as it shall have been ratified by the 

President and Senate of the United States: PROVIDED ALWAYS, 

That should the Senate disagree to and reject, alter or amend any 

portion or stipulation thereof, the same must be again submitted 

to the Sacs and Poxes, and assented to by them, before it shall be 

considered valid and obligatory upon them, and if they disagree to 

such alteration or amendment, the treaty shall be returned to the 

Senate for ratification or rejection, in the form in which it was 

signed. 

In witness whereof, the said John Chambers, commissioner on 

the part of the United States, and the undersigned chiefs, braves 

and headmen of the Sac and Pox nation of Indians, have hereunto 

set their hands, at the Sac and Fox agency, in the Territory of Iowa, 

this eleventh day of October, Anno Domini, one thousand eight 

hundred and forty-two. 

JoHX Chambers. 

SACS. POXES. 

Ke kuk Pow a shick 

Ke o kuk, jr. Wa co sha she 

Wa ca cha An au e wit 

Che kaw que Ka ka ke 

Ka pon e ka Ma wha why 

Pa me kow art Ma che na ka me quat 

Ap pe noose Ka ka ke mo 

Wa pe Kish ka naqua hole 



330- 



ANNALS OF IOWA 



SACS- Cox. 
Wa sa men 
Wis ko pe 
As ke po ka won 
I o nah 

Wish e CO ma que 
Pash e pa ho 
Ka pe ko ma 
Tuk quos 
Wis CO sa 
Ka kon we na 
Na cote e we na 
Sho wa ke 
Mean ai to wa 
Muk e ne 

Signed in presence of — 

John Beach, U. S. Indian 
Agent and secretary. 

Antoine Le Claire, U. S. 
interpreter. 

Josiah Swart, U. S. 
interpreter. 



FOXES— Con- 
Pe a tau a quis 
Ma ne ni sit 
Mai con ne 
Pe she she mone 
Pe shaw koa 
Puck aw koa 
Qua CO ho se 
Wa pa sha kon 
Kis ke kosh 
Ale mo ne qua 
Cha ko kow a 
Wah ke mo wa ta pa 
Muk qua gese 
Ko ko etch 



J. Allen, captain First 
Dragoons 
C. F. Ruff, lieutenant, First 

U. S. Dragoons. 
Arthur Bridgman 
Alfred Hebard 
Jacob O. Phister 



(To the Indian names are subjoined marks.) 

Schedule of debts due from the Confederated Tribes of the Sac 
and Fox Indians to be paid by the United States under the provi- 
sions of a treaty made and concluded at the Sac and Fox agency 
in the territory of Iowa on the eleventh day of October in the year 
1842; to which this schedule is annexed as a part thereof. 



Name of claimant 
Pierre Choteau, Jr. & Co. 

W. G. & G. W. Ewing 
J. P. Eddy & Co. 
Thomas Charlton 
R. B. Willoughby 
Francis Withington 
Jesse B. Webber 
J. C. Wear 

W. C. Cameron, assignee 
of A. M. Bissel, (bankrupt) 
David Bailey, 
Thomas W. Bradley 
John J. Grimes 
William Settles 



Place of residence Amount 
St. Louis, Missouri, licensed 

traders. $112,109.47 

Indiana, licensed traders 60,371. 83 

loway " " 52,332.78 

Van Buren c'ty, loway 76.69 

' ' 25.00 

Lincoln county, Missouri 4,212.58 

Burlington, loway 116.60 

Jefferson county, loway 50.00 

Burlington 283.14 

Lincoln City, Missouri 75.00 

loway 20.00 

Lincoln c'ty, Missouri 625.00 

do do do 320.00 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 



381 



John S. David 
P. Hancock 
C. G. Pelton 
J. Tolman 
J. L. Burtis 
Isaac A. LEfevre 
Jeremiah Smith, jr. 
William & Sampson Smith 
John Koontz 
Robert Moffet 
Antoine Le Claire 
Margaret Price 
Jesse Sutton 
Jefferson Jordon 
Jeremiah Wayland 
Robert Brown, assignee 

Cutting & Gordon 
William Rowland 
Edward Kilbourne 
Perry & Best 
P. Chouteau Jr., & Co. 
Job Carter 
Francis Bcsseron 
James Jordon 
Sampson Smith 
Louis I.aplant 
William Phelps 
William B. Street 
Julia Ann Goodell 
George L. Davenport 
G. C. R. Mitchell 
David Noggle 



Burlington, loway 


20.00 


Van Buren, do 


20.00 


Burlington do 


34.00 


Van Biu'en, do 


115.00 


Lee county, do 


715.00 


Van Buren do 


348.00 


Burlington do 


4,000.00 


Jefferson county do 


60.00 




6.50 


New Lexington, loway 


129.63 


Davenport do 


1,375.00 


Lee county, do 


9.00 


Van Buren do 


22.00 


do do 


175.00 


St. Francisville, Missouri 


15.00 


Van Buren c'ty, loway 


73.25 


do do 


460.32 


Lee county, do 


10,411.80 


do do 


22.75 


St. Louis, Missouri 


26.00 


Van Buren C'ty 


28.00 


St. Louis. Missouri 


26.00 


Van Buren, loway 


1,775.00 


do 


54.00 


loway 


122.00 


Clark county. Missouri 


310.00 


loway 


300.00 


do 


855.00 


Davenport, loway 


320.00 


do do 


100.00 


Van Buren, do 


20.00 



Amount $258,566.34 

Joiix Cha:\[beks, 
Comwissioner on the imrt of the U. S. 



Alfred Hebaru, 
Arthur Bridgman. 

Commissioners appointed hy the eommission on the part of the 
United States for examining and adjusting claims. 

(The above treatv became effective by proclamation March 23, 
1843. — Editor.) 



382 ANNALS OF IOWA 

THE STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION 

Chapter 236, Acts of the Thirty-seventh General Assenlbl5^ 
and acts amendatory thereto, providing for the creation of 
a State Board of Conservation and the machinery wherewitli 
to initiate a public state policy of reserving and administering 
areas as state parks, names as a member of the commission, 
the Curator of the Historical Department of loAva ; by election 
he was made and remains the secretary of the board. By a 
resolution of the Thirty-eighth General Assembly provision 
Avas made for an assistant secretary, and under an appoint- 
ment of the Curator, on the 15th day of July, 1919, Mr. D. C. 
Mott accepted and has filled that position. 

The Historical Department, therefore, more than has any 
other department of the state government contributed of its 
administrative and physical resources to the routine of ini- 
tiation and promotion of this new public policy. 

It appears fitting to the Curator of the Historical De- 
partment, that in the absence of some other official publica- 
tion of the State Board of Conservation, and in view of the 
ex-otficio character of his service on the board, that the 
Annals of Iowa should publish the essential facts touching 
the business of the board and, therefore, beginning with the 
next number the editorial department will carry an abstract 
of the minutes of the board. 



New Mail Route. — The legislature has authorized the post- 
masters at Dubuque, Iowa City and Keosauque, to hire a 
mail carrier to carry a one horse mail weekly during the pres- 
ent legislative session, from Dubuque through this city, via 
Washington and Mt. Pleasant to Keasauque. — Iowa City 
Standard, December 11, 1841. (In the newspaper collection 
of the Historical Department of Iowa.) 



Henry O'Reilly, Esq., formerly editor of the Daily Adver- 
t.'.ser and Republican, has been appointed postmaster at 
Rochester. A very popular appointment. — Albany, N. Y., 
The Jefferso-nian, June 2, 1838. (In the newspaper collection 
of the Historical Department of Iowa.) 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 38c 



NOTABLE DEATHS 



Of diflfienlties experienced, by all historical societies and 
similar institntions the past three or four years, our depart- 
ment has had its full share. Nothing, however, has driven us 
from the sacred duty of noting and recording the passing of 
our notable citizens and pioneers. The "Notable Deaths" 
feature of the Annals, made standard and indispensable by 
our lamented predecessor, Charles Aldrich, has been made the 
particular charge of the publication division of the Historical 
Department, and the complete file, duly edited, lies reach' 
and is to be published portion by portion until it appears 
without a skip. 



John R. Sage was born at Blenheim, New York. December 29, 
1832, and died in Des Moines, Iowa, May 28, 1919. He attended 
common school and, at eighteen years of age, became a country 
school teacher, removing soon thereafter to western New York. 
In 1856 he was licensed to preach by the Universalist Church, hav- 
ing studied in the family of Rev. D. P. and Mrs. Mary A. Livermore. 
He was preaching at Little Palls, New York, when, in 1862, he en- 
listed as a private in the One Hundred and Twenty-first New York 
Infantry. He was commissioned chaplain of the regiment and 
served as such until the summer of 1863 when he was discharged on 
account of physical disability. In 1869 he came to Mitchellville, 
Iowa, as pastor of the Universalist church there. In 1877 he gave 
up his ministerial work and, with Ralph Robinson, established the 
Neivton Journal. In 1879 he sold his interest in the Journal and 
became editor of the Cedar Rajncls RepuhUca7i. In 1883 he sold his 
interest in the Repuhlican and was employed for a time as editor 
of the Des Moines Daily Capital. When that paper changed hands 
he was employed several years as correspondent for and editorial 
writer on the Chicago Inter-Ocean, lai 1890, after the establisment 
of the Iowa Weather and Crop Service he was appointed director. 
This position he filled for twenty years and became an authority on 
meteorological science. For several years before his doath he had 
been in retirement. He loved literature, music and nature. 



384 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Joux Mahix was born at Noblesville, Indiana, December S, 1S33, 
and died at his home in Chicago, Illinois, July 24, 1919. Burial 
was at Muscatine, Iowa. He was brought by his parents to Effing- 
ham County, Illinois, in 1837, and to Bloomington (afterwards called 
Muscatine), Iowa, in 1843. In 1844 they removed to a farm near 
Rochester, Cedar County, remaining there until 1847, when they re- 
turned to Bloomington. He was then apprenticed to Stout & Israel, 
editors and publishers of the Bloomington Herald. About a year 
thereafter this firm failed financially, but young Mahin remained 
in the office when new proprietors assumed control, and was so ad- 
vanced that he did much of the writing for the paper. In 1852 the 
Mahins, father and son, bought the paper, then called the Journal. 
and John at nineteen years old, was installed as editor, a position 
which he retained for fifty years, excepting about one year, in 1855, 
when he was attending Ohio Weslayan University at Delaware, 0. 
Because of serious illness he had to give up his much cherished 
desire to secure a college education. After returning from Ohio 
Wesleyan and lesuming his editorial work he soon attained prom- 
inence. In 1861 President Lincoln appointed him postmaster at 
Muscatine which position he retained until 1869. That fall he was 
elected representative and served in the Thirteenth General As- 
sembly. In 1873 President Grant appointed him postmaster and he 
served until 1878. In 1888 he was nominated by the Republicans 
for railroad commissioner, but was defeated by Peter A. Dey. In his 
editorial work he uniformly, courageously and with ability oppoced 
the liquor business and advocated prohibition. Being a leader he 
incurred the enmity of some of the liquor men. On the night of 
May 10, 1893, his home was dynamited and wrecked, and he and his 
wife and children escaped as if by miracle. But not even this dast- 
ardly deed served to swerve him from the course into which his 
judgment and conscience had directed him. In 1903 he retired from 
the editorship of the Journal. A short time before this he had been 
appointed a postoffice inspector and in April 1905, he removed to 
Evanston, Illinois, that he might be near his children, and contin- 
ued for a few years his work for the post office department, but 
several of the later years of his life he spent in happy retirement. 
During the more than fifty years of active life in Muscatine he was 
a real leader in his city and state. He was secretary and manager 
of the Soldiers' Monument Association of Muscatine County which 
erected the beautiful monument in the court house square. He was 
active in every good cause. He was a prominent lay member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church and was a delegate from the Iowa Con- 
ference to the general conferences at Baltimore in 1876, at New 
York in 1888 and at Los Angeles in 1904. He attained eminence as 
an editor. At the time of his retirement he was recognized as 
Iowa's veteran editor. At one time he was honored with the ores- 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT Sgo 

idency of the Iowa Press Association. As a writer he made no effort 
at brilliancy nrr claim to unusual talent. He even said what he 
wrote he had to "pound out." But he had a clear, logical, common- 
sense and forceful style. His earnestness, enthusiasm and intense- 
ness, his uncompromising steadfastness of purpose, his personal in- 
tegrity and high character, made of him a positive power in shaping 
the opinion of the state. 



David A. Young was born in Burnside, Hancock county, Illi- 
nois, January 16, 1852; he died at Keokuk, Iowa, August 21, 1915. 
He was of Canadian descent, his parents being Rev. William and 
Juliette (Toms) Young. The family moved from Burnside to 
Iowa and when he was ten years of age settled in Keokuk, In 
which town and its vicinity he made his home until his death. 
He was educated in the public schools and worked on the canal 
and in a sawmill before he was of age. He afterward engaged in 
farming, in stock raising and in the selling of public lands. He 
was greatly interested in politics and was a regular attendant on 
county and state conventions. In 1897 he was elected state sena- 
tor from Lee county on the Democratic ticket. He was re-elected 
in 1901 and his terms of service extended from the Twenty-seventh 
to the Thirty-first General Assemblies. He was instrumental in 
securing a new cell house for the penitentiary at Fort Madison 
and appropriations for various soldiers' monuments throughout 
the State. He was appointed delegate to the prison congress at 
Indianapolis by Governor Shaw. As a member of the Lee county 
board of supervisors he did much for the improvement of county 
bridges and highways. 



John Pouter w^as born in Washington County, Pennsylvania, April 
14, 1828, and died at Boise, Idaho, September 25, 1913. Interment 
was at Eldora, Iowa. In 1836 he migrated with his parents to 
Ohio. Here he attended school, studied law at Warren, Ohio, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1851. He removed to Plymouth, 
Indiana, in 1854, and to Mason City, Iowa, in 1856. In 1858 he was 
elected a judge of the district court in the then new district com- 
posed of Marshall, Story, Boone, Hamilton, Wright, Hancock. Win- 
nebago, Worth, Cerro Gordo, Franklin and Hardin Counties. In 
1859 he changed his residence to Eldora. In 1862 he was re-elected 
district judge and served until April, 1866, when he resigned and 
entered the practice of law at Eldora. His partner was W. J. Moir. 
He was very active in work for the interests of the new town and 
country. He led in promoting the building of the railroad from 
Gifford to Eldora, becoming president of the company and gen- 
eral manager of the road. He was mayor of Eldora for some 
years and lead in securing many improvements, water works and 
a sewer system being among them. 



3S6 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Eugene Secor was born at Peekshill Hollow, New York, May 13, 
1841, and died at Forest City, Iowa, May 14, 1919. He came to 
Forest City in 1862 and soon thereafter entered Cornell College, 
Mt. Vernon. In about a year he was called to Forest City to take 
charge of the business of his brother, David Secor, who had enlisted 
in the army. Caring for his brother's business included acting 
as treasurer and recorder of Winnebago County and as postmaster 
at Forest City. He performed these duties until the end of the 
war. He was the first mayor of Forest City, serving four consec- 
utive terms. He was afterwards a member of the city council for 
many years. From 1870 to 1876 he was clerk of the district court. 
From 1877 to 1881 he was county auditor. He was county cornorer, 
serving two years. In 1901 we was elected representative and 
served in the in the Twenty-ninth General Assembly. For many 
years he was, by appointment of the governor, a delegate from 
Iowa to the Farmers' National Congress. From 1889 to 1894 he was 
a trustee of the Iowa College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 
He was a member of the board uf trustees of Cornell College for 
twenty years and held the honorary degree of A. M. from that in- 
stitution. For fifteen years he served as a member of the board 
of education of Forest City. For twelve years he v/as president of 
the Winnebago County Farmers' Institute. He organized the Win- 
nebago County Agricultural Society and was its first president. 
He was at one time president of the Iowa State Society, Sons of 
the American Revolution. For many years he had conducted a 
real estate and loan business, was interested in banking and for the 
last few years in breeding registered Short Horn cattle. For forty 
years he was a bee culturist and won world-wide reputation in that 
work. In 1893 he was sole expert aparian judge at the World's 
Columbian Exposition. He was at one time president of the North 
American Beekeepers' Society, and for seven years its general 
manager and treasurer. He was a regular contributor to various 
agricultural and technical journals. He was an active member of 
the Iowa Horticultural Society, at one time its president and for 
nxany years was regularly on the program of its meetings. At the 
time of his death he was devoting his attention largely to horticul- 
ture. Mr. Secor was a Republican and in 1892 was a delegate to 
the national convention at Minneapolis. He was a Methodist and in 
1892 was a delegate to the general conference at Omaha. He was 
an accomplished writer of both prose and verse, a naturalist, philos- 
opher, scholar, public servant and christian gentleman. 



Geokge L. Dobson was born in Westmoreland County, England, 
September 24, 1851, and died at Redmond, Oregon, February 16, 
1919. Burial was at Sac City, Iowa, When an infant his parents 
removed with him to County Tipperary, Ireland. In 1864 they came 
to the United States, stopping in Jo Davies County, Illinois. In 



EDITORIAL, DEPARTMENT S87 

1868 they removed to Lafayette County, Wisconsin, and in 1869 
to Webster County, Iowa. He lived on a farm witli his parents. 
until 1373 when he went to Sac County and purchased a farm. He 
remained there three years and married there. Soon thereafter he 
entered the law department of the State University of Iowa from 
which he graduated in 1878. He then practiced law one year in 
Sac City and removed to Newell, Buena Vista County, in 1879, 
where he continued to reside until 1891, practicing law and acting 
as editor of the Ncioell Mirror. He was mayor of Newell five years 
and a member of the school board nine years. In 1885 he was 
elected representative, and was twice re-elected, serving in the 
Twenty-first, Twenty-second and Twenty-third General Assemblies. 
He resigned as representative before the expiration of his last term 
and accepted the appointment of registrar of the government land 
office at Beaver, Oklahoma. In 1892 he removed to Des Moines, 
Iowa. In 1896 he was elected secretary of state and was re-elected 
two years later, serving until January, 1901. In 1905 he was ap- 
pointed consul to Hang Chow, Cliina, but only remained abroad a 
few months, resigning because of poor health. In 1908 he was 
elected treasurer of Polk County and re-elected in 1910. For sev- 
eral years in Des Moines he was interested in insurance business, 
and was for four years vice president of the Des Moines Life In- 
surance Company. In 1918 he went to Redmond, Oregon, to make 
his home with a son. For a quarter of a century or more he took 
a conspicuous part in Republican campaigns both in Iowa and in 
other states, being considered one of the most popular orators of 
the day. He also distinguished himself on the platform as an 
eloquent advocate of measures against the use of intoxicating 
liquors. 

Malcolm Smith was born in Belfast, Ireland, June 8, 1848; he 
died at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, May 2, 1915. He was of Scotch an- 
cestry. His education was received in the schools of Belfast. While 
still a boy he became interested in the temperance movement and 
was a member of the Rechabites, Good Templars and Band of Hope. 
In 1873 he migrated to the United States, settling first in New York, 
where he was employed by A. T. Stewart & Co., pioneer drygoods 
merchants. He removed to Cedar Rapids in 1880 and became an 
employe of the T. M. Sinclair & Co. wholesale house, with whom 
he remained until his death, being in his last years their general 
agent. On his arrival in Cedar Rapids he became intensely in- 
terested in the prohibition question, and, though a Republican in 
politics, he allied himself with the Prohibition party. He was 
an intimate friend of the national leaders of that party. In 1890 
and again in 1914 he was candidate for governor of Iowa on the 
Prohibition ticket, and had twice been candidate for United States 
senator. 



388 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Tacitus Hussey was born in Terre Haute, Indiana, October 10, 
1832, and died at the Home for the Aged in Des Moines, Iowa, 
August 9, 1919. In his youth he attended country school in a log 
school house during winters. When sixteen years old he com- 
menced work in a printing office in Terre Haute and continued it 
for four years. On November 9, 1855, he arrived at Fort Des 
Moines, later called Des Moines, on a stage coach, and lived there 
continuously from that date until his death. He commenced work 
in Des Moines in the printig office of the Statesman, and worked 
in other offices, but in 1857 took employmet as a job printer with 
N. W. Mills & Co., becoming their foreman. In 1864 he became a 
member of the firm of Carter, Hussey & Curl, job printers, continu- 
ing actively in business until 1901. During all thi'^- time he did more 
or less writing, editing the l<Ieio Broovi, published by Carter, Hussey 
& Curl in the interests of their business, editing the Mail and Times 
for two or three years, assisting in editing Plain Talk for some 
time, and contributing many articles to the Register and other 
papers. He was the author of the songs, "Iowa, Beautiful Land," 
"My Country, Oh, My Country," and "Wlien the Mists Have Passed 
Away"; "The River Bend and other poems," "History of Steamboat- 
ing on the Des Moines River," "Story of the Central Presbyterian 
Church," and many other poems, sketches, etc. He had In manu- 
script at the time of his death "Beginnings; being Remin'iS' 
cences of Early Des Moines," which has since been published by 
his friends in a volume of over 200' pages. Mr. Hussey was a mem- 
ber of Central Presbyterian Church, Des Moines, from the time of 
his arrival in 1855. Printer, philosopher, pioneer, nature lover 
and poet, he was a remarkable character and was loved by all who 
knew him. He left his large and valuable collection of clippings, 
books and manuscripts to the Historical Department of Iowa. 



FiiEDEEiCK Edward White was born in Prussia, Germany, Jan- 
uary 19, 1844, and died at Sigourney, Iowa, February 14, 1920. With 
his widowed mother and two sisters he emigrated to America in 
1857, coming to the north part of Keokuk County, Iowa. For four 
years he worked in that vicinity as a farm hand, part of the time 
attending common school. In 1861 he enlisted in the Eighth fowa 
Infantry but was rejected on account of his youth. In February, 
1862, he re-enlisted, this time in Company I, Thirteenth lov/a In- 
fantry, served as a private until the end of the war, and was mus- 
tered out in August, 1865. He returned home and again engaged 
in farm labor. In 1866 he was married and settled on a farm 
of his own. For the next forty-five years he lived on that farm, 
adding to it from time to time and becoming successful as a farmer 
and stockman. He was a great reader and an intense student of 
political subjects. He early adopted the theories of Thomas Jeifer- 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 389 

son and being himself of a philosophical turn of mind and culti- 
vating the art of public speaking, he gained some local prominence 
as a speaker. In 1890 the Democrats of the Sixth District nomin- 
ated him for congress, and he was elected, defeating John P. Lacey, 
and served in the Fifty-second Congress. In congress he made at 
least two notable speeches, one being on disarmament, and the 
other on the tariff question. The latter became one of the most 
widely circulated speeches ever delivered in congi-ess, being trans- 
lated into various languages and used for years by Democratic com- 
mittees as a campaign document. Mr. White was renominated for 
congress in 1892, but was then defeated by Major Lacey. In 1897 
he was nominated by the Democratic party for governor of Iowa, 
but was defeated by L. M. Shaw. He was nominated again for the 
same office in 1899 and was again defeated by Governor Shaw. In 
1908 he was nominated for governor a third time, and this time was 
defeated by B. F. Carroll. In 1911 he retired from his farm and re- 
moved to Sigourney. When the World War opened he was, as 
might have been expected, intensely loyal to his adopted country 
and it was while delivering a speech at Ottumwa in the interests 
of the Red Cross that he was stricken with apoplexy, from which 
he never fully recovered. In his life he overcame the handicaps 
of poverty, hardships and lack of education. He labored by day 
and read by night. He was a foe of aristocracy and militarism. He 
ardently loved the institutions of this republic. He was an original 
and independent thinker in religion as well as in politics, and was 
an orator of unusual ability. 



Benjamin Rex Vale was born June 4, 1848, in Jefferson county, 
Ohio; he died at Bonaparte, Iowa, April 3, 1915. He removed with 
his parents to Lee county, Iowa, in 1850, and in 1856 to Harrisburg 
township, Van Buren county, which was his home until 1914, when 
he moved to Bonaparte. He was educated in the Birmingham 
Academy, Birmingham, Iowa, and at Monmouth College in Illinois, 
graduating therefrom in 1873 with the degree of A. B. He later 
received the degree of A. M. from the same college. He became one 
of the leading farmers and stock breeders of Van Buren county, 
introducing and improving thoroughbred strains of cattle and hogs, 
his most notable contribution to the wealth of the country at large 
being his long and wise course of improved breeding of the Chester 
White strain of swine. Upon the organization of the Farmers and 
Traders Bank at Bonaparte, in 1882, he was made president, and 
held the position continuously while he lived. He was also president 
of the Mt. Sterling Savings Bank. In 1887 he was elected senator 
from the Van Buren-Jefferson district to the Twenty-second General 
Assembly and served two terms. He took special interest in all 
matters pertaining to schools and agriculture. 



390 ANNALS OP IOWA 

Jesse Macy was born in Henry County, Indiana, June 21, 1842, 
and died at Grinnell, Iowa, November 2, 1919. In 1856 he came 
with his parents to a farm in Powesheik County, near Lynuville. 
In 1859 he entered the academy of Iowa College at Grinnell. He 
had been born and reared a Quaker. His parents had been active 
anti-slavery people. When the war came on he volunteered in the 
hospital service. He was with Sherman's army in its march to 
the sea. He was mustered out at Springfield, Illinois and re-en- 
tered Iowa College, graduating in 1870. From 1871 to 3 885 he was 
principal of Iowa College Academy. From 1885 to 1888 he was act- 
ing professor of history and political science in Iowa College. In 
1888 he became professor of political science, which position he 
held until he retired in 1912. He received the degree of A. M. 
from Iowa College in 1873. He was granted the degree of LL. D. 
from Brown University in 1898, from Grinnell College in 1911 and 
from Oberlin College in 1915. He was Harvard Foundation lec- 
turer in French provincial universities in 1913. He was president 
of the American Political Science Association in 1916. His fame is 
based not alone on his success as an instructor, but also on his 
productions as an author. Among his more noted publications are 
"Civil Government in -Iowa," 1881; "Institutional Beginnings in a 
Western State," 1884; "First Lessons in Civil Government," 1894; 
"English .Constitution," 1897; "Political Parties in the United 
States," 1900; "Political Science," 1913. He had an acquaintance 
with and the confidence of many of the world's truly great. He 
was indispensable to Hon. James Bryce in the production of "The 
American Commonwealth." He was a man of large abilities and 
of fine character, bringing honor to his college and to his state. 



WnxiAM E. Johnston was born in Cedar county, Iowa, Sep- 
tember 8, 1866; he died at Ida Grove, Iowa, August 16, 1915. 
His parents were Albert Jefferson and Ellen C. (McDonald) John- 
ston. He was educated in the district schools of Cedar and Ida 
counties, the family having removed to Ida county in 1881. He 
began the study of law and was graduated from the law depart- 
ment of the State University of Iowa in 1890. He served as clerk 
of the courts and in 1892 was elected county attorney, serving 
one term. As a young man he was a Democrat in politics, but in 
1896 became an advocate and active worker of the Republican 
party. He was instrumental in promoting the candidacy of Will- 
iam S. Kenyon for United States senator, and in 1914 was 
permanent chairman of the Republican state convention. He 
was president and attorney cf the Grain Shippers Mutual Fire 
Association and interested in various business enterprises of Ida 
Grove. He was an extensive land owner and had traveled widely 
in Europe and the Orient. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 391 

David Brant was born at Shelbyville, Indiana, July 6, 1850, and 
died at Iowa City, Iowa, June 4, 1919. He came with his mother 
and stepfather to Monroe County, Iowa, in 1855. They went on to 
Ringgold County in 1857. The stepfather went into the Union 
army, leaving the farm to the care of David' when he was hut 
twelve years old. Ambitious for an education he went to Iowa City 
in 1872, walking sixty miles of the way, and entered the academy 
where he remained two terms. He then attended the University 
three years. Leaving the University ha became editor and part 
owner of the Iowa City Journal. He later disposed of his interest 
in the Journal to take a position on the Iowa City Repuhlican. In 
1881 he went to Cedar Rapids as city editor of the Cedar Rapids Re- 
pnhlican. In 1883 he established the Walker Netos, conducting it 
seven years. In 1890 he became city editor of the Cedar Rapids 
Gazette, which he also represented six years as legislative corre- 
spondent at Des Moines. He was elected representative from Linn 
County, serving in the Twenty-sixth General Assembly and in the 
Twenty-sixth extra session in 1897 when the code was revised. Tn 
1897 he went to Clinton as editor of the Clinton Herald, remaining 
there four years. In 1902 he returned to Iowa City a3 editor and 
manager of the Iowa City Republican, later acquiring its ownership 
and continuing with his two sons, its publication until his death. 
As an editorial writer he was original, aggressive and forceful. 
He was a delegate to the Republican national convention in 1908. 
He was well acquainted with Iowa politics and affairs, had a re- 
tentive memory, and wrote a series of valuable reminiscent ar- 
ticles for his paper not long before his death. He had been a 
familiar figure at district, state and national conventions for many 
years. He bitterly denounced the legislation for extending and im- 
proving the State Capitol grounds in 1913. 



Henry W. Rothert was born in Germany, September 11, 1840, 
and died at Council Bluffs, Iowa, January 29, 1920. Burial was at 
Keokuk. He came with his parents to Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1850. 
He graduated from high school in that city and at once entered 
the hardware business with his brothers. In 1858 they established 
a branch house at Keokuk and Henry removed there and took charge 
of it and soon built up a very prosperous business. He began public 
life in 1868 by being elected alderman from the Third Ward and 
served three years. In 1871 he was elected mayor and was re-elected 
in 1872. In 1873 he was elected senator and served in the Fifteenth 
and Sixteenth General Assemblies. He was president pro tempore 
of the senate of the Sixteenth General Assembly and when on Febru- 
ary 1, 1877, Governor Kirkwood resigned to become United States 
senator, and Lieutenant Governor Newbold became governor, under 
the constitution Mr. Rothert became acting lieutenant governor, 



392 ANNALS OF IOWA 

serving as such until January, 1878. In 1881 he was elected to the 
senate again and served in the Nineteenth and Twentieth General 
Assemblies. Although those assemblies contained many men of 
note and ability, he was a real leader and greatly influenced legis- 
lation. In 1881 he was appointed register of the land office at 
Cheyenne, Wyoming, and held the position nearly four years, re- 
signing when Cleveland was inaugurated. He was then called by 
the board of directors of the Union Pacific Railroad to investigate 
and report on their entire land system, which he did. Up toi this 
time his career had been that of a successful business man and a 
political leader. For years he was chairman of the Republican 
county central committee of Lee County, and he was perhaps the 
dominant political figure of the county during the later years of his 
residence there. In August, 1887, at forty-seven years of age, he 
turned his back on what appeared to be further and more distin- 
guished political honors, and entered his life work as superintendent 
of the Iowa School for the Deaf at Council Bluffs. His mind had 
been directed to this work because of the deafness of a son. When 
In the senate he had been active in furthering legislation for the 
deaf. His nine years of service on the board of education of Keokuk, 
several of the later years as its president, had familiarized him 
with general educational work. In 1887 he found the School for 
the Deaf was a small institution with quite limited buildings. He 
remained its superintendent thirty-two years, or until August, 1919, 
when he resigned. During that time epidemics of sickness, floods 
and fires were visited upon them. At one time nearly the whole 
plant was burned down. Under his constructive management the 
school became one of the best equipped and best organized in the 
country. Mr. Rothert was active in Masonic circles, being grand 
master of the Grand Lodge of Iowa in 1875 and 1876. He was a 
man of large administrative and executive ability, of strong intellect 
and of generous sympathies. 



James Hannibal Shields was born near Bowling Green, Missouri, 
May 8. 1840; he died at Dubuque, Iowa, September 30, 1914. He 
received his early education in the schools of Dubuque, was pre- 
pared for college at Alfred Academy in western New York and 
spent some time in Union College, Schenectady. He studied law 
In the office of John B. Henderson, of St. Louis, and was admitted 
to the bar in Dubuque County in 1862. He was elected city attorney 
of Dubuque in 1863 and served two terms. In 1882 he was elected 
district attorney and held that office for four years. In 1889 he was 
elected senator and served in the Twenty-third and Twenty- 
fourth General Assemblies. In the last twenty years he withdrew 
almost entirely from politics and the practice of law, confining his 
attention to the real estate business. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 393 

James Albert Smith was born at Castile, Wyoming County, New 
York, February 4, 1851, and died at Pasadena, California, January 
12, 1918. Burial was at Osage, Iowa. He received a common school 
education. In 1869 he came to Osage and followed civil engineering 
several years. He then entered mercantile business and soon there- 
after the lumber business. He became the owner of several lumber 
yards in Iowa, Minnesota and South Dakota. He had rare busi- 
ness judgment and great energy and came to be rated as a million- 
aire. He served several terms on the school board and on the city 
council of Osage. In 1887 he was elected representative and re- 
elected two years later, serving as such in the Twenty-second and 
Twenty-third General Assemblies. In 1899 he was elected senator, 
and twice re-elected, serving as senator from the Twenty eight Gen- 
eral Assembly to the Thirty-fourth inclusive. Thus for four years 
he was representative and for thirteen years he was senator, mak- 
ing a state legislative career excelled in length of service by only 
Lemuel R. Bolter, of Harrison County, John L. Wilson, of Clinton 
County, and William Larrabee, of Fayette County. Senator Smith 
was a very useful member. During the last few sessions of his 
service he was chairman of the appropriations committee and was 
also president pro tempore of the senate. He was a close personal 
and political friend of Albert B. Cummins. He was an ardent 
advocate of primary election, anti-pass, two-cent fare and kindred 
measures. He was a trustee of Grinnell College from 1887 until 
his death. 

JoHx A. Nash was born in Des Moines, Iowa, May 9, 1854, and 
died at his home in Audubon, Iowa, October 28, 1913. He was the 
son of Reverend John A. Nash, prominent pioneer minister of 
Des Moines. He attended public school in Des Moines and grad- 
uated from Des Moines College in 1870. He read law with Brown 
and Dudley and was admitted to the bar. He spent one year at 
Stuart in a law office, then in 1878 went to Exira and commenced 
practice. In 1879 he removed to Audubon. He Avas employed by 
the C, R. I. & P. Ry. Co. to quiet the titles of lands they owned 
in Audubon, Shelby and Crawford Counties. He also engaged in 
the law, loan and abstract business, having partners at different 
times, the present Congressman W. R. Green being with him sev- 
eral years. He was mayor of Audubon some years, was a member 
of the school board twelve years, was a leader in politics in that 
part of the state and a public spirited and useful citizen. 



Michael F. McCuLLoroH was born at Holy Cross, Dubuque Coun- 
ty, Iowa, July 28, 1854, and died at Dubuque, December 20, 1913. 
He received a common school education and followed the avocation 
of farmer and stock buyer. He was elected representative in 1910 
and re-elected in 1912, serving in the Thirty-fourth and Thirty- 
flfth General Assemblies. 



394 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Mabo Loomis Bartlett was born at Brownhelm, Ohio, October 
25, 1847, and died in Des Moines, March 15, 1919. His youth was 
spent on a farm. At Oberlin College he early took instruction 
on violin and in voice. Soon thereafter he began his long career 
as a musical instructor, as he there became director of the Bap- 
tist Church choir. He went from there to Meadville, Penn., and 
taught music there and conducted a church choir. He later did 
the same in Orange, New Jersey. He then went to New York City 
where he was the first to introduce the specialized teaching of 
music in the public schools. In New York he studied under some 
of the best known instructors and sang and directed music in 
several leading churches, among them being Grace Church where 
Bishop Potter was rector. After six years in New I'ork he re- 
moved to Chicago and was equally active there, but in 1886 went 
to Des Moines and remained there actively engaged in teaching 
music and training choirs and orchestras. In St. Paul's Episcopal 
Church he organized the first boy's choir. He established the 
first orchestra of any size in Des Moines. He gave the Messiah, 
the Creation, Elijah and other choral works their first performance 
in Des Moines. It was through his efforts that many great artists 
were brought to Des Moines, among them being Nordica, Melba, 
Carreno, Alice Nielson, Schumann-Heink, McCormack, Kubelik and 
Alma Gluck and among the organizations he brought were the 
Thomas Orchestra, the New York Symphony Orchestra, the New 
York Philharmonic Orchestra and the Minneapolis Orchestra. He 
was a strong force in developing the musical taste of the people 
of Des Moines and of Iowa. 



John Stillman Lothbop was born at Dover, Maine, October 9, 
1836, and died at Sioux City, Iowa, July 1, 1913. He came with 
his family in 1852 to Illinois and lived on a farm until 1859 when 
he entered the Chicago Law School. When the war opened he 
enlisted in the Eleventh Illinois Infantry and re-enlisted in the 
Twenty-sixth Illinois Infantry and was commissioned eaptain. 
After the war he practiced law at Ottawa, Illinois, and later at 
Champaign, Illinois, until 1884 when he removed to Sioux City, 
Iowa. Here he was quite successful in his law practice, especially 
in drainage cases, in whicJi he specialized. President Harrison ap- 
pointed him collector of internal revenue with headquarters at 
Dubuque and he served one term. In 1895 he was elected senator 
and served in the Twenty-sixth, Twenty-sixth extra and Twenty- 
seventh General Assemblies. After retiring from the legislature 
he was successful in securing for the state of Iowa from the United 
States a refunding of interest on certain war and defense bonds 
issued in 1861, amounting to $456,417.89, for which service he was 
paid $7,500. In 1912 he was elected commander of the Loyal Legion 
of Iowa. He was a political orator of reputation. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 395 

Bradford B. Lain'E was born in Lincoln County, Ontario, Canada, 
February 5, 1838, and died at his home near Maxwell, Iowa, July 
16, 1913. He attended common school in his native town and grad- 
uated in the Bellville Academy. He then taught school two years 
and in 1860 entered Oberlin College, remaining there two years. 
The three following years he was in his native country but in\ 
1865 he came to Palmyra, Warren County, Iowa, and taught school. 
He was ordained a minister by the Methodist Episcopal Church in 
1867, and two years later an elder. He then had charge of various 
churches until 1872 when he settled on a farm in Washington town- 
ship, Polk County, and for ten years cultivated his farm and preached 
for the Highland Congregational Church. Failing health caused 
him to quit preaching. In 1889 he was elected representative and 
re-elected in 1891. thus serving in the Twenty-third and Twenty- 
fourth General Assemblies. In the former, following the custom 
of the senior member from Polk calling the house to order, he be- 
came temporary speaker, and presided during the two weeks of the 
famous deadlock, or until an organization was effected. He served 
ably and satisfactorily. After his retirement he frequently con- 
tributed to public journals on leading questions of the day. 



L. B. Parshall was born at Interlaken, Seneca County, New 
York, June 28, 1845, and died at Canton, Jackson County, Iowa, 
May 9, 1913. He attended common school, Northville, New York, 
Academy and Yale University, graduating from the latter with the 
degree of Ph. D. He was in Chicago in 1872 in mercantile busi- 
ness one year. He then went to Kansas and engaged in the cattle 
business until 1877, after which he returned to New York. In 
1881 he removed to Jackson County, Iowa, and engaged in farming 
and live stock business on a large scale. In 1892 he was elected 
superintendent of schools of Jackson County, holding the position 
until 1897. In that year he was the candidate for state superin- 
tendent of public instruction on the Democratic ticket. In 1908 
he was elected state senator and served in the Thirty-third and 
Thirty-fourth General Assemblies. 



George Leuders was born at Jaemstad, Germany, January 30, 
1861, and died at New Liberty, Iowa, January 24, 1919. He came 
with his parents to America in 1875, locating at Davenport. He 
attended common school and business college in Davenport. In 
1887 he located at New Liberty and engaged in the lumber business 
and in buying and selling live stock. In 1905 he became cashier of 
the German Savings Bank of New Liberty and later became its 
president. He held numerous township offices and was mayor of 
New Liberty from 1909 to 1915. In 1914 he was elected representa- 
tive and served in the Thirty-sixth General Assembly. 



396 ANNALS OF IOWA 

James M. Anderson was born at Antrim, Guernsey County, Ohio, 
November 22, 1844, and died at Long Beach, California, February 
17, 1919. Burial was at Indianola, Iowa. He came with his parents 
to Davenport, Iowa, in 1854. In 1856 they removed to Oskaloosa, 
and in 1857 to Warren County. He worked on the I'arm for his 
father in boyhood until sixteen years of age when he went to 
Des Moines and learned the saddlery and harness making trade. 
In 1872 he went to St. Charles and engaged in mercantile business, 
and afterwards bought and operated a farm near there, in Warren 
County. In 1886 he and his brother T. T., bought the Indianola 
Herald, which they owned and edited for twenty-five years. In 
1911 he bought his brother's interest and until 1915 he owned and 
edited the paper alone. In 1899 he was elected representative and 
was re-elected two years later, serving in the Twenty-eighth and 
Twenty-ninth General Assemblies. He was the author of the Ander- 
son road law, which marked a distinct progress in road legislation. 
He was an able and successful newspaper man. m 1908 he Was 
president of the Southern Iowa Press Association. In 1915 because 
of poor health he sold his newspaper and thereafter spent his time 
between Ft. Collins, Colorado, and Long Beach, California. 



Neal W. Rowell was born in Athens county, Ohio, June 19, 
1836; he died at Afton, Iowa, June 30, 1915. He was educated in 
the public schools and at Ohio University, graduating therefrom in 
1856, completing the scientific course. He had removed with his 
father's family to Wapello county, Iowa, in 1847, and after his 
graduation in Ohio, returned to Iowa and began the study of law 
in the office of Harris and Galbraith in Centerville. In 1858 he 
was admitted to the bar and removed the same year to Afton, where 
he continued in the practice of law until his death. He was elected 
county judge of Union county in 1862. In 1868 he was elected repre- 
sentative in the Twelfth General Assembly and two years after 
re-elected for a second term. He served as member of the board 
of education from 1865 to 1880 and as mayor of Afton for two terms. 
He was a Republican in politics and deeply interested in all affairs 
pertaining to the welfare and uplift of his community. 



Oliver P. Rowles was born at Beth, New York, March 25, 1821, 
and died at his home at Albia, Iowa, August 10, 1913. When an 
infant he was brought by his parents to Covington, Indiana, where 
he grew to manhood. In 1844 he came to a farm two miles south 
of the present city of Albia, and lived there for sixty years. He 
was a member of the county board of supervisors for two or three 
terms and was representative in the Ninth and Ninth extra General 
Assemblies, being elected in 1861. Since 1900 he had lived a retired 
life in Albia. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 397 

John W. Harvey was born in Wells County, Indiana, September 
16, 1840, and died at Leon, Iowa, February 28, 1913. His father died 
in 1845 and the next year the mother and family came to Jasper 
County, Iowa. He took some preparatory school Avork at Indian- 
ola and then attended Iowa Central University at Pella. He en- 
listed in Company G, Eighteenth Iowa Infantry, as a private and 
came out a captain in 1866. He again entered college at PeUa and 
graduated in 1867. He graduated from the Iowa College of Law at 
Des Moines in 1868. He removed to Leon soon thereafter and 
formed a law partnership with Major J. L. Young. He was elected 
judge of the district court, serving from 1883 to 1890. He then 
formed a partnership with R. L. Parrish, which continued eleven 
years, or until Mr. Parrish was elected to the district bench. He 
then formed a partnership with his son, James F. Harvey. His 
practice was extensive and his reputation as a lawyer and a citi- 
zen of the best. He was president of the Farmers and Traders 
State Bank of Leon from 1894 until his death. 



Edward P. McManus was born in Keokuk, Iowa, June 20, 1857, 
and died at Keokuk, January 8, 1918. He graduated from the pub- 
lic schools and took a business course at Bayless Commercial Col- 
lege. He then taught school three years, then acted as bookkeeper 
for a Keokuk firm three years, and then for eight years was en- 
gaged in farming and stock-raising. At the end of that time he be- 
came a member of a contracting firm of which his father was the 
head, and on his father's death he became the senior member of the 
firm of McManus & Tucker, general contractors in stone and earth- 
work. In 1906 he was elected senator and was re-elected in 1910, 
serving from the Thirty-second General Assembly to the Thirty- 
fifth inclusive. At the time of his death he was postmaster at Keo- 
kuk. He was also chairman of the Lee County Council of Defense 
and was county food administrator. 



Henry Franklin Andrews was born at Lovell, Maine, June 27, 
1844, and died at Exira, Iowa, May 20, 1919. In 1862 he enlisted in 
the Sixteenth Maine Infantry. In June, 1864, on account of ill 
health he was sent to a hospital at Washington, D. C, and after- 
wards was on detached duty as clerk there until he was discharged 
in July, 1865. He came to Audubon County, Iowa, in 1865, taught 
school two or three years, served as county recorder in 1867 and 
1868, and in 1868 was appointed county judge. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1870. In 1891 he was elected senator from the Audubon- 
Dallas-Guthrie district and served in the Twenty-fourth and Twenty- 
fifth General Assemblies. In the later years of his life he became 
an authority on geneological subjects, publishing several books on 
different family lines, particularly of the Hamlin family. 



398 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Guernsey Smith was born in Ulster county, New York, July 
15, 1833; he died at Hawlteye, Iowa, July 16, 1915. His parents 
were Calvin and Henrietta (Chambers) Smith. His early years 
were spent on the home farm. When he was eight years of age 
his father died and he was obliged to earn his own living. In 
1849 he started to California, but stopped at the Missouri river 
and spent a year in shipping and freighting on the Missouri, Mis- 
sissippi and Tennessee rivers. He returned home for a few years. 
In 1856 he removed to Iowa City and was one of the party who as- 
sisted in removing the capital from Iowa City to Des Moines. In 
1857, while acting as government surveyor in Pocahontas county, 
he volunteered in the Spirit Lake Massacre Relief Expedition 
and participated in the terrible hardships of that trip. The next 
three years were spent on his claim near Fort Dodge. In 1861 he 
crossed the plains and worked in the mines and as stage driver 
until 1864, when he returned home. He remained on this farm for 
eight years, and afterward lived for different periods of time at 
Rochester, Illinois, on a farm in Fayette county and at Hawkeye, 
Iowa. He was a worker in the temperance cause and always in- 
terested in men and events about him. 



William Dennis was born in Madison County, Illinois, April 20, 
1870, and died at his home in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, December 12, 
1919. In 1884 he came with his parents to Woodbury County, Iowa. 
He attended school at Sloan, taught school five years, graduated 
from Cornell College, Mount Vernon, in 1900, and later, from the 
law department of the State University of Iowa. He began practice 
at Mount Vernon, but was elected county clerk of Linn County in 
1910 and re-elected in 1912 and 1914. He was for a time chairman 
of the Linn County Republican Committee. In 1915 he was appointed 
by Governor Clarke a member of the Iowa Board of Parole, but re- 
signed in 1916. He then formed a law partnership with Charles W. 
Kepler and son of Mount Vernon, the firm being Kepler, Dennis & 
Kepler, he having the Cedar Rapids office of the firm. He was a 
member of the board of directors of the Cedar Rapids Y. M. C. A. 



Thomas Francis Nolan was born in Ireland, December 17, 1838; 
he died at Dubuque, Iowa, June 26, 1915. At the age of eight years 
he emigrated with his parents to America and settled in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., where they remained three years. At the end of that 
time they removed to Iowa, and to a farm in Dubuque county. Mr. 
Nolan engaged in farming and successfully followed that pursuit in 
Dubuque county for the remainder of his life. He served as repre- 
sentative from Dubuque county in the Twenty-sixth, Twenty-sixth 
Extra and Twenty-seventh General Assemblies and as senator in 
the Twenty-eighth General Assembly, in which he was a member 
of the committees on agriculture, labor and mines and mining. 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 399 

John Collixs Siierwin was born at Berlin, Ohio, February 6, 
1851, and died at Mason City, Iowa, February 3, 1919. When an 
infant he came with his parents to LaCrosse, Wisconsin. He at- 
tended common school and Ripon and Beloit Colleges and grad- 
uated from the law department of the Wisconsin State University 
at Madison in 1875. In 1876 he came to Mason City, Iowa, and 
entered on the practice of law. He first had a partnership with 
B. F. Hartshorn and two years later, with Richard Wilbur. At 
one time he was a partner of M. L. Scherraerhorn. In 1881 he 
became city solicitor of Mason City, and in 1884, mayor. The fall 
of 1884 he was elected district attorney of his judicial district, 
being the last one under the old system. In 1888 he was appointed 
district judge and was later elected and regularly re-elected, serv- 
ing until 1899, when he was elected judge of the supreme court of 
the state. He was re-elected to this position serving until 1913. 
After retiring he continued to make his home in Mason City. He 
had a high standing in his profession and as a citizen. 



CoRXELius C. Platter was born at Chillicothe, Ohio, April 22, 
1839, and died at Red Oak, Iowa, December 30, 1909. He graduated 
at Miama University, Oxford, Ohio, in 1860. In 1861 he enlisted in 
Company I, Eighty-first Ohio Infantry, was commissioned a second 
lieutenant, then a first lieutenant, then adjutant oi his regiment, 
and later was commissioned captain and appointed adjutant of his 
brigade. Finally he was assistant adjutant general on the staff 
of General John A. Logan. After the war, he removed to Forest 
City, Missouri, and engaged in the furniture business, but in 1870 
he removed to a farm near Red Oak, Iowa, where he lived for 
twenty-five years. In 1873 he was elected representative, serving 
in the Fifteenth General Assembly. Again in 1881 he was elected 
representative and served in the Nineteenth General Assembly. He 
was postmaster ai Red Oak from 1900 until his death, almost 
ten years. 



CiiAKTES E. Albrook was born in Pennsylvania, October 23, 
1851, and died at San Diego, California, February 10, 1919. Burial 
was at Eldora, Iowa. When a boy he came with his parents to 
Delaware County, Iowa. He attended common school and grad- 
uated from Cornell College, Mt. Vernon. He went to Eldora in 1874 
and began the study of law in the office of Judge Porter and W. J. 
Moir. After being admitted he was a partner of Judge Porter for 
some time and later practiced alone until 1893 when he became 
the senior member of the firm of Albrook & Lundy, which con- 
tinued until 1908 when he was appointed as one of the judges of 
the Eleventh Judicial District. He was later elected and served 
until 1914 when he retired and moved to San Diego, California. 



400 ANNALS OF IOWA 

"W. B. Southwell was born at Sterling, Illinois, November 16. 
1S62, and died at a hospital in Chicago, February 16, 1920. Interment 
was at Burlington, Iowa. When a small boy he removed with his 
parents to Burlington. He became a carrier boy for The Burlington 
Hawkeye. Later he ran the news stand at the Union Hotel, and at 
the Union Station. In 1885 he entered the business office of The 
Burlington Haivkeye and soon became that paper's business man- 
ager. He achieved real success in that work and in 1904 he went 
to the Register and Leader of Des Moines as its business manager, 
remaining there thirteen years. There he was also eminently suc- 
cessful. In 1917 he returned to Burlington as principal owner and 
publisher of The Hawkeye. In Des Moines he was a director and 
finally first vice-president of the Chamber of Commerce. In Burling- 
ton he was a member of the school board, a director in the Rotary 
Club, and was very active in Red Cross, Belgian Relief, Liberty 
Bond sales and all war activities. 



Makiox Floyd Stookky was born in Kosciusco County, Indiana, 
March 19, 1846, and died at Leon, Iowa, April 2, 1919. In 1857 he 
came with his parents to Linn County, Iowa,, where they made theii- 
home on a farm. He attended common school, one year at Cedar 
Rapids High School and one year at Western College. He enlisted 
in Company C, Forty-seventh Iowa Infantry and served until the 
regiment was discharged. He taught school during winters and 
worked on farms during summers for several years. He attended 
the law department of the State University of Iowa, and graduated 
from there in 1877. He then located at Leon, forming a partner- 
ship with E. W. Hasket which lasted several years and until Mr. 
Haskett was appointed district attorney in Alaska. For several 
years Mr. Stookey was one of the editors of the Decatur Count],' 
Journal. He was mayor of Leon for a time and also was city at- 
torney. He was county attorney of Decatur- County in 1887 and 
1888. In 1903 he was elected senator and served in the Thirtieth, 
Thirty-first and Thirty-second General Assemblies. 



Hugh Rof.ert Lyons was born at St. Clairsville, Ohio, July 10. 
1825, and died at his home at Winfield, Henry County, Iowa, De- 
cember 28, 1913. He came on horseback and by stage from Indiana 
to Winfield in 1853, and entered from the government 320 acres 
of land three miles southwest of Winfield. It remained his prop- 
erty until his death, never having been mortgaged or encumbered. 
He brought his family there in 1855 and lived there until 1891 
when he removed to Winfield. He held a number of township 
offices, was a member of the county board of supervisors and was 
elected representative in 1863 and again in 1873, serving in the 
Tenth and Fifteenth General Assemblies. 






^ 



THIRD SERIES 



VOL. XII. No. 6 



OCTOBER, 1920 



;Owijii;; to the World V.'ai ih^ro were no copltfe issuovl 'roai October, 191S 
until .AjMii, 1920y. 






lil^ 



A HISTORICAL QUARTERLY 



Pl'BLISHED BY THl 

HISTORICAL DEPART:MENT OF IOWA 

F.DG.Jk.R R. II.\RLAN, Curator 



PRICE $1.00 PER YEAR SINGLE NUMBER 25 CENTS 



DES MOINES, iOWA 



in! 






£r:.vrci/<i.- sscond lU's maturjut-) H, r0:o. at she pc* c,%\- ai Dis Motr.ci. loa 
tintier the A<t i>/ .-iuiiu-tt i.<, 1-312. 






ANNALS OF IOWA 
CONTENTS FOR OCTOBER, 19-'0 



Miscellaneous 



lucidents of an low.i Soldier's Life - 1^01 

Recollections of Marengo - "^-^ 

Memories of the Chica";o Convention of ISGO 446 



Editorial Department 

A Notable Bequest - -..--- - ^^"^ 

Blackstone on Preserving lIistori< al Materials 168 

State Board of Conservation -.. ^Tl 

Notable Deaths ..- — -^^^ 



llhndrations 

Alonzo Abernetliy ::. - Frontispiece 

Hon. Milo P. Smith - ^-^ 

Charles Clinton Nourse ^'^ ^ 




ALONZO ABERNETIIY 
At the Age of Twenty-six Years 



Annals of Iowa. 

Vol. XII, No. 6 Des Moines, Iowa, October, 1920 3d Series 



INCIDENTS OF AN IOWA SOLDIER'S LIFE, OR FOUR 
YEARS IN DIXIE 

By Alonzo Abernethy ^ 

Who can portray, after so many years, the exciting events that 
foreshadowed and inaugurated the War of the Rebellion? The 
bombardment of Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, and its precipi- 
tate surrender next day to rebel soldiers under Beauregard, sent 
a thrill of excitement throughout the land. This defiant act of 
open war at once aroused the nation to intense feeling and 
activity. 

Who has forgotten that electric shock, even at this distance? 
Long years have come and gone since the heart of the whole 
North was convulsed by the attack and capture of Fort Sumter, 
but the sorrow and wrath of that day have never been forgotten 
and never can be. The conviction of danger and the impulse to 
self-preservation were alike universal. 

The call of President Lincoln, on the day following the sur- 
render, for 75,000 volunteers to defend the old flag seemed only 
the reflection of a greater call from every hearthstone in the 
broad land. When that memorable proclamation said : "I appeal 
to all loyal citizens to favor, facilitate and aid this effort to main- 
tain the honor, the integrity and the existence of our National 
Union and the perpetuity of popular government, and to redress 
the wrongs already long enough endured," it found the country 
already in arms. Forty-eight hours later, regiments were en 
route for Washington, and in two days more, a hundred thousand 
men had offered and were being rapidly organized for instant 
service. 

Intense excitement burst over the country. Both North and 
South rushed to arms. I need not recount the manner in which 
the call was everywhere responded to. How from all ranks, con- 

^Col. Abernathy died February 21, 1915. He was born in Sandusky, Ohio, 
April 14, l»3G, and came to Iowa in 1854. He enlisted as a private in Company 
F, Ninth Iowa Infantry, and rose to be lieutenant colonel. He was a repre- 
sentative in the Eleventh General Assembly in 1806. He w;is state superintendent 
of pul)lic instruction from 1872 to 1870. For a more complete sketch of his life, 
see Annals of Iowa, Vol. XII, No. 2, p. 152. 



402 ANNALS OF IOWA 

ditions and classes they came, "Came at their country's call," 
and went forth — the young men, the old men and the boys from 
school; the single men and those who had families to support; the 
men of all parties, of all religions and all nationalities ; giving up 
their employments, giving up their attachments, giving up their 
homes. Gathering into companies and regiments, they rose up 
in one mighty throng in this hour of common danger. Such was 
the common impulse that impelled a nation of freemen to arms. 

Our first winter in the Sunny South under canvas might well 
have served to cool the ardor of patriotic fervor. For three 
months it was a humdrum life in the woods, in a miserably un- 
attractive and unhealthy region of southeastern Missouri, at a 
little railroad station near Pacific Junction, where the people ap- 
peared sickly, sallow and cadaverous ; where malarial fever pre- 
vailed nine months in the year and worse forms of disease the 
remaining three. Camped there to protect important railroad 
bridges and constantly on guard duty day and night by turns ; 
with no adequate facilities for maintaining cleanliness ; exposed 
to cold, wind and storm; sleeping on rude bunks or on the frozen 
ground in our crowded tents at night, with only a pair of coarse 
blankets apiece for bedding; Avith little variety or change of food; 
with few of the comforts and delicacies of the average home, and 
with none of the cheerfulness and affection of either wife, mother, 
sister or daughter, is there any wonder that sickness soon entered 
the camp and carried away numbers to the post hospital, and 
even so soon, some down into the narrow house. Even that early 
in the service many a soldier began to absorb from the sickening 
miasma of that section the seeds of malarial disease that subse- 
quent years of change, waste and repair never eradicated. 

It would be both ungenerous and unjust, in any account of 
our first winter of camp life, not to mention the name and serv- 
ices of one noble woman, Mrs. Terrell', the widowed mother of 
one of our boys, who spent nearly the whole of our first winter 
in the camp and camp hospital of our regiment, in alleviating the 
pains, in relieving the distress and softening the pillows of our 
sick and suffering. They said, when she came, it was no place 
for a woman. She soon proved how sadly they were mistaken. So 

"The name Terrell is not found in Roster of the Ninth Iowa. It shows a D. W. 
Tyrell from West Union and an Edward Tyrell from Waverly. 



INCIDENTS OF AN IOWA SOLDIER'S LIFE 403 

far as I knoW;, Mrs. Terrell was the first army nurse of the war, 
the harbinger of that noble army of heaven-appointed nurses that 
later went out as angels of mercy in the midst of all the sickness 
and carnage and death. 

Iowa sent out her full quota of Mrs. Terrells, Aunt Beckys 
and Annie Wittenmeyers, furnished as they always were with 
every possible supply of sanitary stores and supported by the 
willing hands and loving hearts of the noble women at home. 

During three months' service here, in an unhealthy region and 
an inclement winter, the regiment passed through one of the 
severest ordeals of all its four years of active service in the 
South. Inexperienced in camp life and ignorant of its real perils, 
it was attacked simultaneously by the scourge of that country, 
bilious fever, and by the measles and the mumps. Few were so 
fortunate as to escape the hospital for one or more of these com- 
plaints. On December 31, 1861, at the end of the first four 
months of service, the regiment had lost by death 17, by dis- 
charge 7, total, 2i; and had gained by additional enlistments and 
transfer 42, leaving an aggregate of 995. 

A month later found us among the Ozark mountains, in south- 
western Missouri in pursuit of the rebel general Price; and after 
a march of 250 miles in less than a month, having made our way 
alternately through mud and snow,^ the Army of the Southwest, 
under the gallant Curtis, halted at Cross Hollows. From this 
point a detachment of 300 men under Colonel Vandever was sent 
to Huntsville, Arkansas, forty miles away, to destroy commissary 
stores, and capture or drive away a detachment of rebel soldiers. 

Our advance guard found the camp deserted, and learned from 

a straggler, a rebel soldier, that the combined Confederate army, 

under Van Dorn, McCullough, Price and Mcintosh was even then 

marching to meet and attack our force. At four o'clock on the 

morning of March 6, the bugle sounded the order to "fall into 

line," and we started to rejoin our command, every hour bringing 

us some new evidence that not a moment was to be lost if we 

would save ourselves from capture by the large force pressing 

forward in advance of us, on a parallel road. Accordingly, after 

an extraordinary march of forty-two miles, our little band of 300 

"January weather in southwest Missouri was not greatly unlike some of our 
March weather in northern Iowa — one day four or five inches of snow; the 
next, eight or ten Inches of mud. 



404 ANNALS OF IOWA 

sore-footed infantry rejoined our comrades at eight o'clock the 
same evening. It was the longest and hardest march we ever 
made, forty-two miles in one day. 

The phases of camp life were like the ever-changing sands of 
the seashore. Whoever would understand a soldier's life must 
put himself in his place, and imagine himself on a mild winter 
morning, strapped to his back a knapsack containing, besides the 
extra shirt, pair of trousers and stockings, the single blanket 
which has been his sole protection in sleep from the frozen bed 
beneath and the frost and wind above. He should not forget 
the usual plug of tobacco and pack of cards, even if they must 
lie beside mother's Bible.* Over his right shoulder hangs his 
haversack, with its last day's scanty rations ; from the left, his 
canteen and coffee. The belt around his waist supports the cart- 
ridge box and forty rounds, witli cap box in front and glistening 
bayonet at the left. Last but not least, he will not forget to 
"shoulder arms" with the eleven-pound Dresden rifle, as bright 
a piece and true a shot as ever soldier bore. Thus equipped, the 
distant bugle sounds the order "March" and for sixteen hours, he 
plods his way along, up hill and down, over gravelly and stony 
roads, made doubly hard and sharp by the mere remnants of his 
shoe soles, with never so much as a halt and rest of fifteen min- 
utes during the livelong day. As the muscles begin to stiffen 
and the bones begin to ache he may fear, as some did fear on 
that tiresome day, that he is planting seeds that may perchance 
bear fruit of pain' even to the end of the journey of life. 

At last we reached camp where our rations of hard-tack and 
rusty bacon made us a sumptuous supper. There occurred, on the 
following day, March 7, 1862, the memorable battle of Pea Ridge. 
It was for many an Iowa regiment a hard-fought battle. Such 
was it to the Ninth Iowa above all others. The fighting began at 
10 A. M. by a fierce attack of the enemy, who was driven back. 
Our line advanced in turn. We, too, were driven back before the 
grape and canister of their batteries. Again they came and again 
were repulsed. From this time, the battle raged incessantly, 
growing hotter as the day advanced. Only an occasional lull 

*One member of the Ninth Iowa, at least, can testify that he neither carried 
his pack of cards nor played its games during all those years. 

"It is no great wonder that many a gallant soldier who has stoutly braved it 
out, lo! these many years, has at "last been compelled to ask the government 
for a pension to buy bread he no longer has the strength to earn. 



INCIDENTS OF AN IOWA SOLDIER'S LIFE 405 

gave opportunity to refill the cartridge boxes. This, our first 
fight, raged with a fury which exceeded our worst apprehensions. 
Lieutenant Colonel Herron, our commander, had said in the 
morning to his regiment in line of battle: "We have come a 
long way, boys, to fight them, and by the Eternal, we will fight 
them right here." And we did fight them there. At nightfall we 
held our ground, and lay upon our arms near the spot where the 
fighting began in the morning and were satisfied that we had 
triumphed, but were not confident that we could long continue 
such fighting against such odds. It was only when the enemy 
vanished at sunrise with the mists of the morning, that we re- 
alized how complete had been this our first victory. 

This victory, though, was dearly bought. Of 560 men who 
went out in the morning, 237, or nearly every other man in the 
ranks had been killed or wounded. In this day's engagement 
seventy-four men had been either killed or mortally wounded, and 
nearly as many more permanently disabled out of our single 
regiment. Among the killed were the brave Captains Andrew 
W. Drips and Alva Bevins, and Lieutenants Abner G. M. Neff° 
and Nathan Rice. Here the gallant Herron, then commanding 
the regiment, was severely wounded and fell into the hands of 
the enemy while at the head of his regiment. He was soon after 
promoted to brigadier general, and Colonel Vandever, also in 
command of our brigade, received a like recognition of his dis- 
tinguished bravery. 

It Avas during the thickest of the fight on the afternoon of this 
day, that I had my first experience of rebel lead and how it 
feels. Standing partly protected by a fallen tree, I had raised 
my rifle to take steady aim, when I felt a dull thud upon the inside 
of my right leg, near the ankle, as if struck by a club. 

In the midst of a first battle, the human mind often manifests 
powers transcending all experience, as in the case of a man 
drowning. I would not express it as some have, as an instan- 
taneous review of the experiences of a lifetime, but rather as a 
preternatural power of recollection and association by which the 
mind seems able to recall instantly and vividly, every related 
idea in all past experience. 

"Lieutenant NefT died of his wounds, March 12. — Iowa Soldier's Roster. 



406 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Daniel Webster, when afterwards describing his mental state 
while making that great speech in the United States Senate in 
reply to Hayne of South Carolina, portrayed the condition of 
the mind in the highest state of controlled activity, when he said: 
"All that I had ever read, or thought, or acted in literature, in 
history, in law, in politics, seemed to unravel before me in 
glowing panorama; and then it was easy, if I wanted a thunder- 
bolt, to reach out and take it as it went smoking by." 

Tlie instant I felt the stroke, there came to me, probably for 
the first time since early boyhood, the recollection of stories to 
which I had listened, related by returned soldiers of the Mexican 
war, that a cannon ball might take off a leg or a foot, with no 
more pain at the instant, than of a limb benumbed by a blow or 
bruise. I looked down and found the foot still there. I stepped 
and found that no bones were broken, and returned to the thought 
of my rifle. A few minutes later. Captain Towner asked me the 
cause of my limping. I replied, "A slight bruise only," though 
my trousers were considerably riddled. Some time later I found 
blood in my shoe, and then first learned that I was really wound- 
ed, but I still considered it unimportant and kept my place in the 
ranks. In another half hour I could not walk, and did not again 
step upon that foot for four months ; nor was I able to walk with- 
out the aid of a cane for more than a year. But to many a soldier 
in that day's struggle, nightfall brought neither pain nor anxiety, 
for 

He lay like a warrior takinjr his rest, 
With his martial cloak around him. 

Of the eight thousand who went out to battle in the morning, 
thirteen hundred were that night hors de combat. They were out 
of the battle. Those who rested upon their arms, where nightfall 
had ended the battle, were ready to re-form their lines at a 
moment's warning. Though their ranks had been frightfully 
decimated; though it was apparent to everybody that they had 
been fighting against great odds ; though heavy draughts had 
already been made upon the reserve ammunition, and though no 
one could claim more than a drawn battle; yet they were deter- 
mined and resolute, and for the most part hopeful, and after the 
exhaustion and excitement of the day, they generally slept. 



INCIDENTS OF AN IOWA SOLDIER'S LIFE 407 

Quite another scene was presented at the Division Hospital. 
The shifting fortunes of the preceding day had twice compelled 
the removal of the large hospital tent, in and around which were 
huddled the hundreds of wounded men, who had either hobbled 
back or had been borne thither on stretchers from the front. I 
will not attempt a description of the scene at this hospital during 
that weary, anxious night. My own unimportant wound remained 
undressed till nearly morning. What could five or six surgeons 
do among 500 or 600 men who lay there, scores of them writhing 
in agony ? Besides the pain that every man had to bear for him- 
self — I might well say men and boys — for half of them seemed 
but striplings who ought to have been under their mother's care — 
besides their own pains, they must, perforce, listen to the groans 
and shrieks, the complaints and criminations, the curses and 
prayers, on every side. Add to this the uncertainty, and to these 
helpless men the gloomy anxiety of the morrow, and you have the 
material for your own picture. 

When the shot and shell, the grape and canister, begin to whiz 
about the ears of a regiment of armed soldiers, they can usually 
"hit back" and return the fire. When it becomes too hot, they 
know they can "retreat in good order"; that as a last resort, 
they can adopt the famous cry of Napoleon's Old Guard at 
Waterloo, "Sauve qui pent," — "Save himself who can." But 
what shall a regiment of wounded men do, in like circumstances ? 
Add yet to this number a small horde of worthless camp followers 
and cowards, who always infest that part of an army which is 
farthest from danger, with their doleful fears and their more 
doleful rumors from the front, and you have some conception of 
a night in a field hospital after a drawn battle. 

Army life afforded frequent illustration of some singular 
anticipations of coming danger. A similar illustration was that 
of the case of the gifted and charming Margaret Fuller, whose 
tragic fate on Fire Island Rock, near New York Harbor, sent 
such a thrill of horror throughout the country in the year 1850. 
She had been abroad four years, most of the time at Rome. 
When about to embark from her home abroad to the land of 
her birth, she found herself under a cloud of apprehension which 
no effort of her strong will could dispel. To a friend she wrote: 
"Various omens have combined to give me a dark feelinff. In 



408 ANNALS OF IOWA 

case of mishap, however, I shall perish with husband and child." 
Again she wrote: "It seems to me that my future on earth will 
soon close. Have a vague expectation of some crisis, I know 
not what. Yet my life proceeds as regularly as a Greek 
tragedy, and I can but accept the pages as they turn." On the 
day of sailing, she "lingered for a final hour on shore, almost 
unable to force herself to embark." During all the long home- 
ward voyage across the Atlantic the same shadow hung over her. 
They were not long out when the captain of the vessel sickened 
and died of smallpox. Two days later her own little boy was 
attacked with the same fell disease, and came near death's door, 
but recovered. After two weary months of anxiety and when 
almost in sight of the harbor, the vessel suddenly went to 
pieces on Fire Island Rock, less than 100 yards from the T.ong 
Island shore, and completed the tragedy so strongly fore- 
shadowed in her own mind, by engulfing together husband, wife 
and child. 

Every one is familiar with the shadows that would continue 
to flit over and darken the rugged pathway of the lamented 
President Lincoln with their portents of impending personal 
disaster, which at the very zenith of his lofty career came so 
undeservedly, so suddenly and so tragically. The most marked 
case of morbid presentiments, however, that has come under my 
own observation, was in connection with the Pea Ridge battle. 
Just one month to a day prior to that event. Lieutenant Neff, of 
my company, was seized with a foreboding that he could not 
throw off. 

On the night of February 7, at Lebanon, Missouri, where the 
regiment camped on its march. Lieutenant Neff spent the whole 
night in sleepless vigilance, and when at last morning came, he 
revealed to me the cause of his deep emotion. He had been my 
companion daily and almost hourly for the last five months. I 
knew every mood and phase of his usually sunny life. He was 
a man of genial life and high social qualities, dwelling habitually 
upon the sunny side of life and possessing a large fund of anec- 
dotes, with which it w^as his custom to beguile the monotony of 
camp life. But from that fell hour the whole current of his 
mental activity was changed. The clear limpid stream, suddenly 
and without apparent cause, became dark and turbid. He had 



INCIDENTS OF AN IOWA SOLDIER'S LIFE 409 

a conviction that his time had come. He made every preparation 
for it. His mind dwelt continually upon it and time did not 
serve to efface this conviction. It did not, however, affect his 
performance of duty. When one week later we came upon the 
enemy, he was in his place and never shrank once in the face 
of danger. So far as I know, he was the first man shot on the 
morning at Pea Ridge, and that, too, by a stray ball, some time 
before we got into action. 

He died in the heat of that terrible day, 
A day that shall live in story; 
In the rocky land they placed his clay, 
And left him alone in his glory. 

There was one phase of this class of phenomena very common 
in the army and often very baleful. It came to be known as 
homesickness. Sometimes sickness, which was not readily 
cured, brought first discontent, and then despondency; a convic- 
tion that they would not recover without better treatment and 
better care, followed by the longing for the comforts of home. 
This too often settled into a despair that greatly lessened the 
chances of recovery, and carried many a brave soldier to an 
untimely grave. But if some lives were lost by despondency and 
homesickness, many, many more were saved by "clear grit," by 
the force of will alone, stimulated by a conviction of duty. The 
man whose cot lay next to mine in the hospital at Cassville, after 
Pea Ridge, had been shot through the lungs. Whenever the 
wound in his breast was unbandaged, the air bubbled out at every 
expired breath. His surgeons told him he could not live. But 
he bravely said he would live, and sure enough he did live, got 
well, and served out his time in the ranks. The world has 
yet to learn the real value of courage, based upon devotion to 
the truth. "As a man thinketh, so is he." 

My first view of the rebel dead strewn upon the field was at the 
battle of Arkansas Post, January 10, 1863; a spirited affair in 
which the army and navy united to compass an easy victory. Aside 
from two days and nights of wading and standing around in the 
mud, with clothing drenched with rain ; with what came near being 
a forty-eight hours' fast — Arksansas Post was a large victory at a 
small cost. We had captured an important military post at a time 
in the war when victories were the exception and not the rule. It 



410 ANNALS OF IOWA 

served to reassure the army and prepare it for the splendid 
victories that awaited us under Generals Grant, Sherman and 
McPherson, from Vicksburg to Chattanooga during the year 1863. 
But after the first flush of excitement and joy was over, as we 
traversed the lines of the Arkansas Post intrenchments, the 
savage execution of our arms was apparent enough. Everywhere 
were the torn and mangled bodies of the rebel dead, scattered 
over the ground where the death-dealing weapons had left them. 
In ordinary death we see only the lifeless form, white hands, 
pallid face and sunken cheek. In the "grim visage of war" we 
saw more. We saw the gaping mouth and glaring eye over which 
the dull color of the butternut uniform cast its sickly hue. But 
here a still worse picture met the eye in face contortions ; in 
brainless skulls ; in limbless and headless bodies ; here an arm, 
there a leg and close by, two booted and stockinged feet, still 
standing in their place but from which had crawled away the 
mangled body, leaving the red stains as the life blood gushed out. 
Arkansas or Arkansaw, as their own people mostly pronounce 
it, though a state of great fertility and rich in undeveloped 
resources, contained at that time a wretched population. The 
people were, as a class, ignorant and lazy. It was decidedly a 
land of corndodgers and poor fiddlers. I wish I could render 
a little of the "Arkansas Traveler," a ridiculous song so popular 
in Missouri and elsewhere south, in those days : 

Way daun in Aukinsaw, daun b'low, daun b'low; 

Whar they eat the bar meat raw, daun b'low, daun b'low. 

And the taters skin and a', daun b'low, daun b'low. 

Referring to the kind of fare the Arkansas people liked best, 
they used to say that a true Arkansas breakfast consisted of 
"Three whiskey cocktails and a chew of tobacco." 

From Arkansas Post we returned to Youngs Point, Louisiana, 
just above Vicksburg, where we remained during February and 
March, 1863. During the two months after our arrival there, 
we suffered greater loss than can ever be told. Amidst the 
incessant rains and the constant overflowing of the river banks, 
we were driven hither and thither in search of a dry spot upon 
which to pitch our tents ; or in the expressive words of our 
leader, Sherman, "were compelled to roost on the levees when no 



INCIDENTS OF AN IOWA SOLDIER'S LIFE 411 

other dry spot could be found." The history of the regiment for 
these two months of February and March is a tale of sorrow. 
The health of many of the men was already undermined by a six 
months' sojourn in the malarial regions of the lower Mississippi 
and it seemed that but few could withstand the debilitating and 
enervating influences of this insalubrious climate. 

The smallpox came now for the first time into our ranks. 
Scores of our boys hitherto stout and rugged, were prostrated 
past recovery and now lie buried in the narrow graves near 
where the hospitals once dotted that region, while others only 
recovered long afterwards, in the mountains of Tennessee and 
Georgia or on the sandy plains of the Carolinas. The ordeal of 
these unpropitious months was the more grievous because it had 
all the evils of the battlefield with none of its honors. A historian 
of the war says of this period: 

Death was holding high carnival in every encampment. Acres of 
gravej^ards were soon visible in these most dismal swamps. The dying 
increased as the flood increased, till at length the dead were buried on 
the levee, whither the army had been driven. There they continued to 
be buried till, it is not too much to say, the levee was formed near its 
outer surface with dead men's bones, like the layers of stones in a work 
of masonry. When, after more than two months' stay in this vicinity 
the army moved away, it left the scene of its encampment the Golgotha 
of America.' 

The army was a good place to study character. The men 
were thrown constantly together, and thus compelled to reveal 
to their comrades almost every act and thought of their lives. 
Any peculiarities soon became manifest, and sooner or later, 
the "true inwardness" of every man revealed itself. Whether 
selfish or unselfish; good-natured or ill-natured; peaceable or 
quarrelsome; hopeful or despondent; pious or profane, (in fact, 
mostly the latter); industrious or indolent; brave or cowardly. 
A great many people in this world are moody. Most civilized 
people have at least two suits of clothes, one for every day and 
one for Sunday. They seldom wear their Sunday suit at home. 

I think it was Madame De Stael, that most brilliant and witty 
of all brilliant French women, who said: "The more I know of 
men, the better I like dogs." It is a common proverb, I believe, 
among women, that all husbands treat their second wives better 

Ungersoll — Iowa and the Rebellion, p. 159. 



412 ANNALS OF IOWA 

than their first, and all other women better than their own. 
Personally I do not believe it is true, but I do believe that a great 
many people make themselves unnecessarily disagreeable at 
certain times and in certain moods. This was especially true in 
army life. The men were huddled so closely together, had so 
many real causes of grievance, and so many more imaginary ones, 
that they often jostled each other without cause. What wonder 
if they became selfish and quarrelsome and troublesome when 
their rations were lean, their raiment thin, their comforts small 
and their duties hard. It was often difficult to harmonize con- 
flicting interests. A boy in my old company, whose name was 
Orlando Searles, took it into his head for some reason, I know 
not what, for he was only sixteen years old, to call himself "Old 
Hackett" and very soon he was known as "Old Hackett" and 
always called "Old Hackett." "Old Hackett" was brimful of 
good nature and broad humor. He was the self-appointed peace- 
maker of the company. He was sure to find enough absurd, 
ridiculous or funny points in every quarrel and against every 
complainant to laugh both parties out of it. It was impossible to 
get mad at him or resist his sallies of wit. Though a "high 
private in the rear ranks," and not quite like Dickens' Mrs. 
Fezziwig, "one vast, substantial smile," yet "Old Hackett" as a 
peacemaker, God bless him, was worth his weight in gold. 

Since the time when Charles Sumner made his masterly speech 
in the United States Senate in 1860, choosing as his subject, 
"The Barbarism of Slavery," denouncing its influence on 
character, society and civilization, the barbarism of slavery has 
been illustrated in a thousand forms. One instance that came 
home to me with great force occurred at the first capture of 
Jackson, the capital of Mississippi, just prior to the siege of 
Vicksburg. Having a leisure hour, I walked out to the State 
Penitentiary, whose doors that morning had been thrown open, 
all the convicts being pressed into the rebel ranks. One old 
white-haired man alone remained. Suddenly set free, and left 
there alone, after thirty years of continuous imprisonment, he 
seemed at a loss where to go or what to do. His intelligent and 
kindly face was attractive, and, approaching, I ventured some 
inquiries. This led to a brief history of the old man's checkered 
life from his own lips. 



INCIDENTS OF AN IOWA SOLDIER'S LIFE 413 

He told me that he was born and educated in Fall River, 
Massachusetts, and learned the trade of carpenter and joiner. 
In the year 1832, he went south to seek his fortune, working at 
his trade. Landing at Mississippi City, he soon found employ- 
ment and boarded in a private family. Six months later he was 
caught in that invisible cord whose silver strands bind together 
kindred hearts, and became enamored of a young woman em- 
ployed at needlework in the house. This woman, he said, was 
endowed with rare beauty and intelligence. Unfortunately, 
her otherwise aristocratic southern blood was tinctured with one- 
sixteenth African. In other words, she was a semi-octoroon, and 
a slave, though her complexion was as fair and pure as that of 
any woman in the town. To this woman he was plighted in 
marriage, and they started on their way north, through Alabama, 
making their way rapidly and successfully until he was suddenly 
prostrated by sickness. He urged her to go on and he would 
follow, but she resolutely refused. The delay proved terribly 
fatal to their plans and hopes. The trail had been found and 
followed, until as they were about escaping into the mountain 
ranges of East Tennessee where friendly hands would surely 
have helped them forward, they were overtaken. She was 
carried back into slavery, he never knew where, and he was 
thrown into jail, whence he was sent to the Alabama State 
Prison, for the crime of "Abducting a slave from her master." 
At the expiration of a twenty year term of imprisonment, in- 
stead of being released, he was turned over to the state authorities 
of Mississippi on a now twenty year old indictment, for the 
further crime of "Attempting to marry a slave"; and though he 
had the sympathy of both judge and jury, and was given the 
lightest sentence allowed under the laws of Mississippi, he was 
"sent up" for another ten years. 

He completed his remarkable story in these touching words : 
"In three months more I should have completed thirty years 
imprisonment in these two penitentiaries for two offences, neither 
one of which would have been even so much as indictable in my 
own native state of Massachusetts." 

Seeing that I had become deeply interested in his story, 
he requested me to go with him to a neighboring cell, where he 
took the half of a pair of broken handcuffs, which had encased 



414 ANNALS OF IOWA 

his own wrists, and asked me to keep it in remembrance of a 
heartbroken, homeless and now helpless old man. This little 
memento of that old man's sorrowful story I took from his hand, 
and shall keep as long as I live. As I looked into the face of the 
white-haired, but broken-spirited and penniless man, my blood 
boiled with indignation and I realized as never before the bar- 
barism of slavery. And I shall never cease to reverently bless the 
Most High for the Emancipation Proclamation, which Theodore 
Tilton said "Bound the Nation and unbound the Slave" and of 
which President Lincoln himself afterwards said: "It is the 
central act of my administration and the great event of the Nine- 
teenth Century. "° 

I shall not soon forget the dismay of 300 factory girls in a 
large cotton mill on the banks of the Pearl River in Jackson at 
General Sherman's order to "clear the building and set it on 
fire." The factory contained looms enough to employ 300 girls, 
weaving a heavy-bodied, light-colored cotton jean. General 
Sherman had good evidence that they were manufacturing cloth 
for rebel uniforms, and hence the order to burn that sent such 
consternation among these poor girls, many of whom ran back 
and forth in wild excitement at being so suddenly thrown out of 
emjoloyment. All too many of them no doubt were thus left 
both penniless and homeless — one might almost say of girls in 
their situation, hopeless. The order was probably necessary, 
and yet to these 300 factory girls it seemed only harsh. It was 
harsh. And, indeed, such must ever be nearly all the con- 
comitants of cruel war, especially of civil war. 

That night we left the Capital to march upon Vicksburg, but 
before starting I found time to go over to the Confederate 
Hotel for supper. At the head of the table stood the good- 
natured landlord, a fat, old man, known as "Old McMackin," 
who, they said, had kept the same hotel under different names for 
near thirty years. He followed the odd habit of standing at 
the head of the table and calling out in a singsong, lazy tone 
the bill of fare, set to rhyme in some doggerel verses : 

Here's yer jellies and yer jam, 

Yer veal cutlets and yer ham, 

Yer petatoes mashed, and yer squashes squashed, 

Yer peach pie and yer bread made o' rye. 

'Carpenter — Six Years in the White House, p. 90. 



INCIDENTS OF AN IOWA SOLDIER'S LIFE 415 

When asked why he continued such an absurd custom, he 
replied that it was purely from the force of habit; that when he 
first opened the house many years ago, it being the principal 
hotel in the capital city, he had at his table a good many 
members of the legislature, and that he found it necessary to 
call out the bill of fare because so many of his boarders could 
not read. The price charged for my supper was $1.50, which 
I paid by giving the clerk a ten dollar Confederate bill handed 
me by one of my boys during the day, and received in change 
$8.50 in United States currency. 

The same landlord went to General Sherman for protection, 
as a "law-abiding Union man," which fact, the General quietly 
remarked, was manifest from the sign of his hotel, which was 
the Confederate Hotel, the sign "United States" being faintly 
painted out and "Confederate" painted over it. In the dusk of 
the evening, as we marched away, this "Confederate Hotel" 
also was seen to be in flames and by its lurid light illumined 
the whole city for miles around. 

Forty-eight hours after leaving Jackson, we took position in 
the outer works which environed Vicksburg, having in seventeen 
days marched a distance of 225 miles, on about six days' rations. 
May 19, after severe skirmishing and a final assault, the regiment 
succeeded in getting a good position about seventy-five yards 
from the enemy's line of works, protected in front and flank by 
a semi-circular ridge the crest of which was immediately con- 
verted into a line of earthworks, supported on the right by the 
Twenty-sixth Iowa and on the left by the Thirtieth Iowa. Some 
difficulty was at first experienced in getting up supplies of 
ammunition and food, as no one could leave our position in day- 
light without exposing himself to the rebel sharpshooters, con- 
stantly on the watch. In a few days covered ways were con- 
structed, which made the passage sufficiently safe. 

On May 22, in line with the whole Army of the Tennessee, we 
went up to the assault. Our colors went down a few feet from 
the rebel works, after the last one of the color guard had fallen, 
either killed or wounded, and its dripping folds were drawn from 
under the bleeding body of its prostrate bearer. In the few 
terrible moments of this assault our regiment lost seventy-nine 
killed and wounded, or nearly one-third the number in action. 



416 ANNALS OF IOWA 

But this was not all. The assault failed; and we found our- 
selves lying in ravines^ behind logs, close up to and partly under 
the protection of the rebel works. There we lay and were com- 
pelled to lie, till darkness gave us a cover under which to escape. 
Here again I pay tribute to those who fell: to Captain F. M. 
Kelsey, and Lieutenants Jacob Jones, Henry P. Wilbur and 
Edward Tyrell who fell while leading their companies to the 
assault; and to Captain F. S. Washburn who was mortally 
wounded at the head of the regiment. Our loss on May 19 was 
sixteen men ; and when on the morning of Independence Day, the 
enemy came out and stacked his arms and colors on the works, our 
total loss in the siege was 121. "They slept an iron sleep — 
slain for their country." The same evening, July 4, found us 
marching away again toward the State Capital, where we took 
part in the siege of Jackson, now fortified and defended by the 
rebel Joe Johnston, who was soon put to rout. 

The Fifteenth Army Corps to which we belonged almost from 
the date of its organization, always had faith in "Billy Sher- 
man," or "Crazy Billy," as General William T. Sherman was 
often familiarly called in those days. 

The "Stay-at-home Rangers" in the North might say what they 
would of "our Billy," but the boys of the Fifteenth Corps had 
faith in him. They believed he would fight — believed he would 
look after his men— believed he knew what he was doing — be- 
lieved he could lead them to victory if anybody could. In other 
words, they believed him a man of brains, a man of heart, and 
above all else, a man of action. But they were also ready to do 
battle under any other fighting man. And at last our Fourtli 
Division of the Fifteenth Corps did serve for two days and two 
nights under "Fighting Joe Hooker." 

I must pass over a long and ever-radiant page of our history, 
from Vicksburg to Chattanooga, where we found ourselves on 
the night of November 23, 1863, at the foot of Lookout Mountain, 
cut off from the rest of Sherman's Corps by a broken pontoon 
bridge stretched over the Tennessee River, and were temporarily 
attached to the command of General Joe Hooker. 

The first and only written order we had from Hooker was re- 
ceived that night: "Be ready next morning to move at six, and 
fight at seven." AVe were ready as ordered; but did no fighting 



INCIDENTS OF AN IOWA SOLDIER'S LIFE 417 

till the afternoon of the 24'th. It was a misty, cloudy, murky 
day, and we were drawn up in line at one o'clock at the foot of 
Lookout Mountain, the sides of which, at this point, were exceed- 
ingly steep and rugged. We were ordered to advance. A more 
appropriate order would have been to ascend, as it was a feat 
of climbing rather than of marching. We obeyed orders as 
best we could, climbing up the steep sides and clambering over 
the huge rocks as they lay piled one upon the other. 

It was a wild weird way that we went. It was a dark and 
dismal afternoon. The thunders of battle were rolling and 
reverberating about and above us. Away in the distance to our 
left, Sherman was deploying his troops and planting his batteries 
along the foot of Missionary Ridge. The closed ranks and 
heavy guns of Thomas were in the center; close up to which, on 
Pilot Knob stood General Grant, turning wistfully from right to 
left, in the vain effort to follow the movements of the two armies 
in the gathering mists. But we were crowding up the mountain 
side into the very muzzles of the enemy's cannon as they belched 
forth with flame and smoke their fiery missiles over our heads. 
The hoarse voice of command ordered "Halt." But the intoxi- 
cation of battle carried our line steadily forward. On we climbed, 
still up the rocky heights, over fallen trees, through tangled 
thickets, into unexplored ravines, until we were beyond and 
behind a large part of the rebel host as they stood shivering 
with fear behind their breastworks, hastily constructed of cord- 
wood, and sowing the unoccupied hillsides below thick with their 
harmless minie balls. There was nothing left for them to do 
but to surrender, stack their arms and march down where we had 
just come up. 

At length as we neared the summit of this mighty "Bulwark of 
everlasting hills," the darkness of cloud and mist was made 
intense by the darkness of night, and we halted, resting upon our 
arms and sending a detail down for hard tack and coffee. 

This battle has been immortalized by the genius of Benjamin 
F. Taylor, whose poetical and beautiful description is as follows : 

Night was closing in and the scene was growing sublime. The battery 
at Moccasin Point was sweeping the road to the mountain. The brave 
little fort at its left was playing like a heart in a fever. The rebel 
cannons at the top of Lookout were pounding away at their lowest 



418 ANNALS OF IOWA 

depression. The flash of the guns fairly burned through the clouds; 
there was an instant of silence, here, there, yonder, and the tardy 
thunder leaped out after the swift light. For the first time, perhaps, 
since that mountain began to burn beneath the gold and crimson 
sandals of the sun, it was in eclipse. The cloud of the summit and the 
smoke of the battle had met half way and mingled. Here was Chatta- 
nooga, but Lookout had vanished ! 

It was Sinai over again, with its thunderings and lightnings and 
thick darkness — and the Lord was on our side. Then the storm ceased, 
and occasional dropping shots tolled off the evening till half-past nine — 
then a crashing volley, a rebel yell, and a desperate charge. It was 
their goodnight to our loyal boys; goodnight to the mountain." 

On the morrow as we again shouldered arms at early dawn to 
complete the ascent, we missed the music of the rebel shot and 
shell. The glittering sunlight^, leaping from the crest of Mis- 
sionary Ridge, away in the east, fell upon the Stars and Stripes 
again floating upon the summit of Pulpit Rock. We enjoyed a 
sublime view of the wonderful panorama spread out before us ; a 
scene of varied hue and grandeur; of city and plain; of winding 
river and mountain range ; a bird's-eye view of surpassing beauty 
of nature's own scenery from six different states. Our part of 
the great battle of Missionary Ridge on November 25 was a 
contest of legs rather than of arms ; the rebels running to get 
away from us ; we running to catch them. Having descended 
from Lookout Mountain early in the day, we were marched away 
over the plain to Ross's Gap, a fissure and roadway through Mis- 
sionary Ridge, guarded by a detachment of infantry and artillery, 
which we easily put to flight. 

Having been ordered to stack arms, our boys were strolling 
about when suddenly came dashing down into our midst a gay 
young officer in butternut uniform, riding one of Kentucky's 
fleetest thoroughbred horses. Before he could realize his situa- 
tion, he was surrounded by a half-dozen bluecoats, with pointing 
revolvers, and ordered to dismount. He proved to be a son and 
aid-de-camp of the rebel General Breckenridge, sent down to 
reconnoitre. At this moment the signal officer on Lookout 
Mountain, four miles away in the rear, signalled General Hooker 
that a strong rebel column was starting along the crest of Mis- 
sionary Ridge, with the evident purpose of driving us back. Our 
bugleman sounded the "assembly" and we were hastily formed 

"Ingersoll— Jowa a7id the Rebellion, p. 580. 



INCIDENTS OF AN IOWA SOLDIER'S LIFE 419 

into line, over the crest of the Ridge, and ordered "forward, 
double quick." 

From that time till dark we maintained a running fight, re- 
peatedly striking and doubling back the head of the rebel column, 
and never once giving them a chance to form a sufficient line 
seriously to check our advance. That night was cold and bleak, 
and we were compelled to huddle about our scanty camp fires 
without either blanket or food until four o'clock next morning, 
when our previous day's combined dinner and supper at last 
reached us. I can this moment see all about me, as when I stood 
there years ago on that bleak November night, on the brow of that 
historic Ridge, those thickly-studded knots of shivering, hungry 
soldiers, good-naturedly recounting the incidents of the day. It 
was indeed a rough, bleak night but little we cared; for another 
great battle was done and victory won, and our lives were yet 
spared by the God of Battles, while the enemy was utterly routed 
and in full retreat. Our year's work mainly ended with this great 
battle. And to us who survived, it had been a glorious year; a 
year of great marches and great battles, a year of great victories ; 
and crowned, at last, with the greatest victory of all. It began 
to give some promise and hope of a successful and speedy termi- 
nation of this unholy war. And for this most of all, our hearts 
rejoiced. 

Time utterly fails me even to make mention of the still later 
marches and countermarches, battles and victories, of this 
eventful year; of the soldierly celebration of New Year's Day in 
northern Georgia wherein every able-bodied man of my regiment 
attested his patriotism by promptly re-enlisting for another 
"three years or during the war"; of the consequent twenty days' 
furlough at home; of the honors received by the way, notably 
those bestowed by the patriotic citizens of Dubuque; of our 
prompt return, bringing 125 three year recruits; and I plunge 
headlong into the middle of the immortal Atlanta Campaign. 

At Dallas, Georgia, on May 27, 1864, having lain upon our 
arms during the night, the regiment was attacked at daybreak 
simultaneously in front and flank, by a strong force, but hand- 
somely repelled the charge and drove the enemy back. Next 
day, the 28th, we w^ere again attacked, and this time with great 
force and fury. For two years we had been digging intrench- 



420 ANNALS OF IOWA 

ments; for the last twelve months almost continually, and since 
the beginning of the present campaign, incessantly day and night. 
As yet, not the first opportunity had been afforded to use them. 
So far we had only dug to go forward and leave our works in 
the rear. Now, suddenly, we had our reward for all this labor. 
At 4 p. M. without warning and as the rush of an avalanche, came 
the excited, confident, yelling thousands of the rebel Hardie's 
corps. They swept our skirmishers to the ground. Our men in 
the trenches waited to see their comrades come in from the front 
before firing, but they came not; and in their stead was the 
advance of the rebel line. That moment they were met by such 
a volley as scattered them from the spot. They tried to rally, 
once, twice and even a third time, but to no avail. All who could, 
betook themselves to places of safety, and as our skirmishers 
followed them out over the ground where so short a time since 
their lines were advancing, they found it strewed with the killed 
and wounded. That few moments' experience behind breast- 
works had taught us, and the whole Fifteenth Army Corps, such 
a lesson as was never forgotten; the lesson that no number of men 
could have driven them that day, nor ever afterwards, from 
behind a line of earthworks. 

It was the boldest and fiercest attack that Johnston ever made 
upon us, and it miserably failed. From this place, we went to 
New Hope church, thence to Big Shanty. And from June 19 
to July 3, we remained close up under the frowning brow of 
Kenesaw Mountain and within easy range of the line of batteries 
that bristled from its crest and belched forth upon our unpro- 
tected heads its periodical discharge of iron hail. Several of our 
men were fearfully mangled by shot and shell from their 
batteries. 

This Atlanta campaign was prosecuted with the most wonder- 
ful energy. General Sherman was a man of extreme nervous 
temperament, and pushed forward every part of his army with 
the utmost vigor. The Confederate army was crowded back at 
every point, and followed up day and night. All our supplies 
were kept close up to the front, and even railroad bridges, 
burned by the rebels as they retreated, were sometimes replaced 
in a night. 



INCIDENTS OF AN IOWA SOLDIER'S LIFE 421 

Sherman tells a good story on a Confederate soldier who was 
on Kenesaw Mountain during our advance, regarding the rail- 
road tunnel at Dalton, through which all our supply trains had 
to pass: 

A group of rebels lay in the shade of a tree one hot clay, overlooking 
our camps at Big Shanty. One soldier remarked to his fellows: "Well, 
the Yanks will have to git up and git now, for I heard General Johnston 
himself say that Wheeler had blown up the tunnel at Dalton and that 
the Yanks would have to retreat, because they could get no more 
rations." "Oh, hell !" said a listener, "don't you know that Old Sherman 
carries a duplicate tunnel along?" 

From Kenesaw Mountain we went to Marietta, the Chatta- 
hooche River, Roswell Factory and Decatur, and were in front 
of Atlanta in time to take part on July 22 in handsomely 
driving back a strong rebel column and retaking a battery of 
Parrott guns that had just been lost on our left. We could but 
take honest pride in having the honor of helping turn the first 
success of the new rebel leader. General Hood, into a withering 
defeat before night, and of avenging the death of our own beloved 
McPherson. 

I had been almost three years in active service in the army, and 
had taken part in some of the most hotly-contested battles of the 
war, before I ever really saw two hostile armies in the midst 
of battle. Soldiers as a rule had poor opportunities of witnessing 
those grand views of contending armies, pictures of which are 
everywhere so common. These views came not to those who stood 
at their posts in the front line, but to that other army of camp 
followers, newspaper correspondents, and the like, who always 
did their fighting at long range and who were able to send 
home glowing accounts of battle scenes because they were not 
in the fights. I tried that method of fighting for a part of one 
day, and had the usual reward, getting a splendid view of one of 
the great battles of the war, that of Atlanta, July 22, 1864. 

It was the greatest battle of the Atlanta campaign and in- 
deed the last great battle of Sherman's army. At daybreak on 
the twenty-second our army found the rebel earthworks in their 
front deserted. And many hoped it was a final retreat — that 
our Atlanta campaign was ended. It soon enough proved other- 
wise. It was only a sudden change of front, for a final struggle 



422 ANNALS OF IOWA 

to drive us thence. It was an adroit flank movement to strike us 
hard at a weak point. At first they met with real success. Our 
lines did, for the time, waver. Some gaps were made, through 
one of which the gallant McPherson rode hastily to his death 
at 11 A. M. as he was bravely trying to direct his army to resist 
the assault. 

From that hour, the battle raged with the greatest fury in 
front of the Fifteenth and Seventeenth Army Corps. Line after 
line was formed along our whole front and hurled desperately 
forward. They were shattered and scattered and slain, and the 
staggering survivors could only retreat to again rally, with the 
reinforcements rapidly led forward. They, too, in turn, went 
down before the livid lightning of our steady lines. Yet other 
lines were formed, came wavering on, in great serpentine columns, 
only to meet the fate of those who had before been sacrificed 
in the insane hope of breaking our solid and serried ranks. It 
was an awful sight. Fifty thousand armed men confronting 
each other, counting not their lives dear unto themselves, if they 
could but stand, and withstand the terrible ordeal. The din of 
artillery, the roar of musketry, uninterrupted and increasing as 
the day sped was like pent-up peals of rolling thunder. It was 
a grand and awful scene. A sublime day in the history of the 
Republic, though in it many a brave man fell, to rise no more. 

Will I be blamed if I linger a moment, even at this distance, 
to drop a tear over the sacred memory of a long-lost, but not 
forgotten brother? I know I may claim many in the great 
brotherhood of humanity and patriotism, and doubtless may even 
join hands with many an one whose heart chords are often made 
tremulous over the evergreen memory of a slain brother, father 
or affectionate son. 

It was in the heat of one of those two terrible days at Atlanta, 
in the second one of which the noble McPherson with so many 
of his gallant men received their final discharge. Among them 
my own younger brother was ruthlessly slain, at the head of 
the old veteran Third Iowa, in a charge made by a part of the 
Seventeenth Corps. I sought the privilege of taking his remains 
away from this bloody field and to our old home for Christian 
burial. The hard fortunes of war denied me even this poor 
privilege. His body lies buried near the scene of his last struggle 



INCIDENTS OF AN IOWA SOLDIER'S LIFE 423 

and final sacrifice upon the holy altar of his country; near the 
spot where his spirit — the spirit of a loving brother, an affec- 
tionate son and a patriot soldier — took its flight. 

I would not if I could, forget the last brave words that passed 
his whitening lips. He said calmly, but with bated breath: 
"My time has come at last, and I must go. But tell Mother 
I have done my duty and am ready." 

And when the sun in all his state 
Illumed the western skies, 
He passed through glory's morning gate 
And walked in Paradise. 

A soldier's grave he was not denied. A soldier's burial he was 
not refused; for we laid him away gently, "With his martial cloak 
around him." His grave yonder upon the stony hillside, under 
the tropical rays of the sun in central Georgia, may go ever un- 
decorated until the echo of the final trumpet shall proclaim the 
general assembly of all the earth. And yet I do not forget that 
he was only one of the many, many thousand brothers and sons 
of Iowa, whose lives must needs have been laid upon the bloody 
altar. 

On September 22, 1864, while our army was lying for a few 
days in and around Atlanta, it was my fortune to witness the 
return of some of our Union soldiers from the Andersonville 
prison pens. In that Atlanta campaign prisoners were being 
constantly captured on both sides. The men taken from our 
army had been for months hurried away to Andersonville. At last 
an exchange of prisoners was arranged for, and it was announced 
that the first trainload was approaching our lines. As the iron 
horse moved slowly along past our picket outposts and ap- 
proached within the Union lines, the banks of the railway were 
lined with our soldiers to witness and welcome a trainload of 
their old comrades direct from the horrors of Andersonville. 

And who shall depict the scene that met their eyes ? Strong, 
stalwart, sun-browned men already inured to the hardest of hard- 
ships, in two short months reduced to literal skeletons, haggard, 
nerveless, spiritless, almost naked. Of hats and shoes next to 
nothing was left. Of coats, I need not speak, for they had none. 
Of the trousers and shirts that alone remained, and with which 
they vainly sought to cover their bodies from midnight chill and 



424 ANNALS OF IOWA 

midday sun, scarcely a garment that was not either measurably 
legless or armless. It was indeed an affecting sight, that long 
line of standing skeletons, almost naked. And yet when cheer 
after cheer from the ranks that lined either side of the slowly 
moving train aroused them to the fact that they were, at last, 
back again among their old comrades, the joy that shone from 
their eyes, beamed forth from their white faces, and otherwise 
manifested itself from their feeble actions, was a sight never to 
be forgotten. Some tried to hurrah, others to sing; some laughed, 
some cried; while in many more, the emotions were too deep for 
any utterance. And yet in every attitude and look were unmis- 
takable evidences of the joy of deliverance from a living death; 
of an escape from loathsome tombs ; of a resurrection to new life. 

On October 4 we were again hurried off at "double quick" 
after the rebel General Hood, whom Jefferson Davis had re- 
cently placed in command of Joe Johnston's army with the hope 
of resisting and checking Sherman's further progress into the 
heart of the Confederacy. Hood had failed to keep us out of 
Atlanta. He now tried a bold scheme to force us back, by a 
flank movement intended to attack our lines of communication 
and cut off our supplies. We followed him rapidly back nearly 
200 miles, through Marietta, Rome and Resaca, and across into 
Alabama and then again "about faced" and retraced our steps 
to Atlanta, Sherman telegraphing to General Grant, November 2, 
"I want to prejoare for my big raid; I regard the further pursuit 
of Hood as useless. The best results will follow my contemplated 
movement through Georgia." 

To which Grant's laconic answer was: "Go on!" 

Before starting on his "big raid," Sherman issued a general 
order in which he said: "The army will forage liberally on the 
country during the march."" The General, himself, tells a 
story illustrating how well this order was understood and 
executed. Standing by the roadside a few days after the orders 
were issued, while his army was marching through Covington, 
Georgia, a soldier passed him with a ham on his musket, a jug 
of .sorghum molasses under his arm and a big piece of honey in his 
hand, from which he was eating. Catching Sherman's eye, he 

^"Sherman — Memoirs. V. II, p. 175. 



INCIDENTS OF AN IOWA SOLDIER'S LIFE 425 

remarked sotto voce and carelessly to a comrade: "Forage 
liberally on the country," quoting from the general orders. 

November 15 we started with Sherman's army on its famous 
"March to the Sea." In describing this remarkable trip and the 
manner in which we lived off the country as we traveled, often 
leaving more provisions in camp as we left it in the morning than 
the whole army had consumed, there only remains to copy from 
my daily journal, kept at the time, a few days' record: 

Sunday, November 13. At daybreak we received orders to be ready 
to march at seven o'clock. We started promptly on time and marched 
through Atlanta and two miles east, a distance of sixteen miles. Saw 
Atlanta today for the first time, and it looks sorry enough in all con- 
science; but probably not half so bad as it will tomorrow. It still con- 
tains, after all the destruction of property, many fine buildings and even 
whole brick blocks. 

It will be seen that we commenced this great march, as we 
did so many marches and battles in the war, on Sunday. Of the 
destruction of Atlanta, here foreshadowed. General Sherman's 
own record is as follows : 

About 7 A. M., November 16, we rode out of Atlanta by the Decatur 
road, filled by the marching troops and wagons of the Fourteenth 
Corps; and reaching the hill, just outside of the old rebel works, we 
naturally paused to look back upon the scenes of our past battles. 
We stood upon the very ground whereon was fought the bloody battle of 
July 22, and could see the copse of wood where McPherson fell. Behind 
us lay Atlanta, smouldering and in ruins, the black smoke rising high in 
air, and hanging like a pall over the ruined city.^^ 

I must omit the record of the intervening days, and quote the 
records of two Sundays more, only. 

Sunday, November 20. Started at 6 a. m. our division and brigade 
in advance. Got a mile or two before daylight. Passed through Hills- 
boro, and marched direct for Macon, stopping at Clinton, twelve miles 
from Macon. Reached camp at 8:30 p. m. in the rain, having come 
twenty miles. 

Pretty good Sabbath day's journey, twenty miles, beginning 
an hour before daylight, and ending two hours after dark, and in 
the rain ! 

It should not be forgotten that all arrangements for cooking 
and eating supper, preparing beds upon which to stretch the 

"Sherman — Memoirs. Vol. II, p. 178. 



426 ANNALS OF IOWA 

wear}^ limbs^ details for guard duty and other precautions for the 
night's defense had to be made after we reached camp. And 
many a night the bed, made simply of rails, over which one-half 
the single blanket was spread, formed a most grateful protection 
from the damp, wet or muddy ground. There is a limit to physical 
and nervous endurance. Is it any wonder that many a soldier, 
under the terrible strain to which he was so often subjected, 
finally gave up in despair and fell out by the way, never to 
return ? 

Again I pass over six days' record, for a last quotation. 

Sunday, November 27. At 7 a. m. were ordered out to tear up rail- 
road. Went four miles, worked till one o'clock, when we were ordered 
to rejoin the regiment — marched till nine o'clock, twenty-two miles. 

So the days, even the Sundays, came and went, filled with 
work, tearing up railroads till one o'clock in the afternoon and 
then marching twenty-two miles and reaching camp at 9 p. m. 
tired, hungry, sleepy men. 

It was in the closing days of this march and during the actual 
siege of Savannah, Georgia, that our boys were permitted to en- 
joy their well remembered rations of rice in three courses. The 
first course consisted of rice taken from the immense rice mills 
of that region, all hulled and nicely prepared for our camp 
kettles ; for we were in the midst of the finest rice-growing 
plantations of America. When this supply of hulled rice gave 
out, the boys resorted to the bins of unhulled rice as it came from 
the threshing machines, which was about equal to so much un- 
hulled barley or oats. And again when this delicacy had all 
been served up, a lively skirmish line deployed out over the 
fields for a vigorous attack upon the little stacks and bunches of 
cut and gathered, but unthreshed rice, which still dotted most 
of those broad, level rice fields of southern Georgia. 

I scarcely need so much as even to mention the three days on 
parched corn that filled in the necessary gap between the last 
of the rice and the first boxes of hard tack that finally reached 
us from the Atlantic coast. 

Having found Savannah a comfortable place to spend the 
Christmas and New Year's holidays, we embarked on January 
13 of the new year, for a sliort ride out over the broad Atlantic, 



INCIDENTS OF AN IOWA SOLDIER'S LIFE 427 

landing at Beaufort, South Carolina. Plunging thence into the 
interior of the state, it was not many weeks till we built our 
camp fires, and lay down to sleep at night beneath the domes 
of another proud rebel capital. Columbia lay upon the hillside 
beyond us. Her haughty citizens could look down upon us at 
night, and we could now come beneath their very windows, and 
almost upon their threshholds. 

The next night after our arrival was spent in being ferried 
across the Broad River, two miles above the city, and by daylight 
of the seventeenth, the Ninth Iowa, together with the Thirtieth 
and Thirty-first, charged through a bayou, sometimes up to their 
waists in the mud and water, upon a force of rebels opposed to us, 
and drove them from their position. This sealed at last the fate 
of Columbia, and gave us the pleasure of marching, an hour 
later, at the head of Sherman's army, into this hotbed of treason 
and the foul nest where secession was first hatched. 

That night our boys pitched their tents, taken from the rebel 
storehouses around the capitol, and from thence furnished 
guards for the night, to the southwest quarter of the city, until 
driven away by that terrible night of fire and flame, wherein 
a city of 30,000 souls was instantly consumed. Does any one yet 
ask how Columbia was burned to the ground? Echo will ever 
answer, "How?" to every soldier who witnessed the awful sheet 
of red flame that canopied the whole wide expanse of heaven, as 
far as eye could reach, and which is so vividly photographed, to 
this day, upon the imagination of every surviving witness of that 
awful scene, and the causes of which, when rightly read between 
the lines, give color and ground for the bold comparison of 
Sherman, the statesman-soldier, vs. Wade Hampton, the political 
poltroon. 

A few more weary stages up through the Carolinas brought 
us to Bentonville, North Carolina, and Raleigh, its beautiful 
capital, where we well remember the one day of gloomy suspense, 
succeeding the first vague report of President Lincoln's assassi- 
nation. Thence in a triumphal march we went up through the 
proud old state of Virginia, via Petersburg, Richmond, Fred- 
ericksburg, Mount Vernon and Alexandria, to Washington, where 
we took part in the great military pageant of May 24, in the 
streets of the National Capital. Thence, westward, over the 



428 ANNALS OF IOWA 

mountains, down the Ohio river, to Louisville, Kentucky, whence 
at last the fortunate survivors of our oft-thinned ranks, with their 
final discharge, came "Marching Home." 

And thus we left the conquered South. We left it neither in 
hate nor in anger. Any truthful picture of the great war, from 
whatever standpoint we view it, must needs present a sombre hue. 
And yet, even this great cloud of defeat and destruction and 
death; of wasted energies and ruined hopes, wherein all had 
been staked and all lost; even this dark cloud has to me its 
silver lining. After its night of defeat, is there not arising in 
the South, a new civilization whose bow of promise already spans 
the whole arch of heaven? This "Sunny South," this "Dixie 
Land," the fairest upon which the sun ever shone, is even now 
giving assurance of a great and glorious future. If the close of 
our first century of national life testified to the blessed inherit- 
ance we have received through the Revolutionary War, may 
not the close of a second century testify to the still greater 
benefits of the war for the suppression of rebellion, in the exist- 
ence, on this continent, of a nation of a hundred million freemen, 
controlled by the supremacy of an enlightened public sentiment, 
and built on the immovable pillars of a free church, free schools 
and a free ballot ? 




HON. MILO P. SMITH 
Judge of the Eighteenth Judicial District of Iowa 



RECOLLECTIONS OF MARENGO 429 



RECOLLECTIONS OF MARENGO 
By Judge Milo P. Smith ^ 

I first saw the village of Marengo in January, 1862. It then 
had about five or six hundred inhabitants. I walked there 
from Leroy station (now Blairstown) on the Chicago and North- 
Western Railway. The snow was quite deep and walking hard. 
I crossed the river down where Robert McKee formerly had a 
ferry and went up town by the old hotel kept by the Ratcliffs. 
There were but few buildings then on either the south or west 
sides of the square, and the little town looked straggly, sickly 
and very bleak in its coat of snow. I stayed over night at Lewis 
Wilson's on the Koszta road, and the next day passed on my way 
westward. The railroad only ran to Victor then. 

The next time I saw the place was in May, 1866, when I located 
there and began the practice of law. The town had grown 
some in the four years and then contained about eight hundred 
inhabitants, with but four brick buildings — the school house, 
the Presbyterian church, the court house, and L. Q. Reno's 
dwelling house — all the rest being wooden, some frame and some 
log buildings. Aside from Beaupre's Hall near the northwest 
corner of the public square, William Liddle's blacksmith shop 
and McConnell's millinery shop (where the First National 
Bank now stands) and the V. M. Ogle & Co.'s store, there were 
no other buildings on the west side. Mrs. Groff's dwelling, 

^This article was originally written in 1909 at the request of the editor of the 
Marengo Republican and published in the home-coming edition of that paper, 
issued on October 13, 1909, on the occasion of the celebration of the fiftieth 
anniversary of the founding of Marengo. Judge Smith recently made some 
revision of the article for publication in the Annals. The author of the article, 
Milo. P. Smith, was born in Delaware County, Ohio, July 16, 1835. He spent most of 
his youth in Washington County, Ohio, and came with his parents by covered 
wagon to Linn County, Iowa, in 1855. He graduated from Cornell College, Mount 
Vernon, in 1861. In 1862 he enlisted in Company C, Thirty-first Iowa Infantry. 
He was promoted several times and became captain of his company. Anticipating 
the fact that the war was almost over he resigned late in 1864 and entered the 
law department of the University of Michigan, and graduated therefrom in 1866. 
He entered the practice of law at Marengo, Iowa, in May, 1866. In 1874 he was 
elected district attorney of the Eighth Judicial District which was composed of 
Cedar, Jones, Johnson, Linn, Iowa, Benton and Tama counties, and was re- 
elected four years later, serving from 1875 to 1883. In 1882 he removed to 
Cedar Rapids and has continuously resided there since. In 1906 he was elected 
one of the jiidges of the Eighteenth Judicial District, composed of Cedar, Jones 
and Linn counties; was re-elected in 1910, 1914, and in 1918 for the term which 
will end in 1922. He occupies the bench acceptably to a most distinguished bar, 
and administers the duties of his office promptly, impartially and with exceptional 
ability. He surpasses in age the record of any presiding judge of which we 
have account, being well into his eighty-sixth year. — D. C. M. 



430 ANNALS OF IOWA 

where the Masonic building now stands, L. Q. Reno's store, 
Jake Hass' saloon, Charley Eckert's blacksmith shop, and the 
Marengo hotel on the southeast corner were all the buildings 
there were on the south side, while the north and the east sides 
were about half filled with buildings, many of which have long 
since disappeared. 

The court house was a boxlike building standing close to the 
sidewalk on the east side of the park or square, the length being 
the breadth of the present old court house building, as it was 
afterwards improved. The county offices were all on the ground 
floor and were entered directly from the sidewalk, with no hall or 
staircase in the building. The second floor was reached by some 
outside steps at the south end, and up there was the court room, 
small, stuffy, but certainly well lighted. In place of carpet or 
linoleum the floor was covered with about one inch of saw- 
dust, making a good deposit for tobacco spit. All the furniture 
was of the plainest kind, and unpainted except the judge's desk, 
and that was white. N. B. Vineyard was county treasurer and 
occupied the south room, while the middle room was used by the 
clerk of the court and the sheriff. W. G. Springer was clerk 
and his son, John C, deputy. Eli D. Akers was sheriff, and he 
had for deputy the irresponsible "Bill" Hastings, who could tell 
the biggest yarn of any man in the county. He used to tell it as 
a fact that he was driving a wagon loaded with loose gunpowder 
during the war through the city of Columbia, South Carolina, 
when it was burning, and that the powder caught fire and half the 
load burned up before he could tramp it out. But the Ananias 
Club had not been organized then. The county recorder (Judge 
John Miller) and the county judge (A. H. Willetts) occupied the 
north and remaining room of the building. I believe Mr. Jennis 
was county superintendent and Mr. Childers coroner. They both 
carried their offices in their hats. 

The stores of general merchandise were those of L. Q. Reno 
on the south side and V. M. Ogle & Co. on the west side, and 
Scheuerman Bros, at the northeast corner of the square, where 
Eyrich so long had his shoe store. The only drug stores were 
run by Ed Alverson in the old Beaupre building on the west 
side, and by Williams & Games on the north side. Libby & 
Martin had a hardware store just south of Alverson's drug 



i 



RECOLLECTIONS OF MARENGO 431 

store. Gus Holm, genial and accommodating, was running in con- 
nection with Myers Bros, of Davenport, a hardware store on the 
east side, and Henry Deffinbaugh had the office of the express 
company in the same room with him. Hon. John R. Serrin, 
representative in the legislature, was postmaster, and carried in 
the same room a stock of notions, wall paper, etc. His store 
was east of the southeast corner of the square, and the Masonic 
Lodge and Good Templar lodge met up stairs over his store. 
H. N. Redmond (Nice) and B. F. Haven each carried a small 
stock of goods. These were the chief parties engaged in business 
as I now recall them. A. J. Morrison ran the Clifton House and 
Uncle John Cone ran the hotel at the southeast corner of the 
square. John Dinwiddie, now the cashier of the Cedar Rapids 
Saving Bank, and secretary of the Bankers' association of Iowa, 
was learning to clerk in the store of B. F. Haven. He was very 
young and small. 

Some years afterwards J. H. Branch came and established his 
bank. It is said he started with $2,500, one-half of which he 
invested in a safe, which must have proven a good advertisement 
and investment, as his subsequent success showed. Drs. Bartlett, 
Grant and Huston were the leading physicians, though Drs. Mc- 
Fall and Alverson had some practice. Afterwards Drs. Eddy 
and Schultz came and both acquired a good practice and won 
for themselves enviable positions in the community for their 
learning, judgment and skill in their chosen profession. 

The legal fraternity was reperesented by Martin & Kagy, J. 
H. Murphy & Bro., Templin & Feenan, Capt. (Judge) C. 
Hedges, and John Miller, who became my partner. Soon after 
I went there C. S. Lake and Charles E. Baker came up from 
Iowa City and established the firm of Lake & Baker. Capt. J. 
N. W. Rumple was at the time reading law in the office of Martin 
& Kagy, and Homer Wilson was reading with Templin & Feenan. 

H. M. Martin (commonly called Hugh) was facile princeps of 
the bar of the county. He was a first rate lawyer, careful, pains- 
taking and studious, and always kept abreast of the decisions of 
the supreme court of the state. Though not a man of great 
learning or especial breadth of general reading, he possessed 
excellent judgment and a good understanding, and was a 
splendid all-round lawyer. He was almost destitute of wit. 



132 ANNALS OF IOWA 

however^ or the power of repartee. He was genial and pleasant, 
and was of fine physique and princely bearing, always dressed 
in the height of fashion, his clothes neatly fitting his almost 
perfect form, and his head always crowned with a silk hat. He 
was instinctively respected by all who met him, was admired 
by his associates and loved by his friends. He left Marengo 
shortly after I came and went to Davenport, and he and, J. H. 
Murphy constituted the firm of Martin & Murphy, which became 
eminent and was known as one of the strongest law firms of the 
state. Mr. Martin died many years ago from the effects of an 
accident when on a visit to the Rocky Mountains. He was a 
man of affairs and acquired quite a property and left a generous 
estate to his family at the time of his death. His partner, Mr. 
Kagy, was a respectable lawyer, industrious and careful. He 
only remained in Marengo a few years, but early went to Musca- 
tine and died many years ago. 

J. H. Murphy, member of the firm of J. H. Murphy & Bro., 
was, as his name indicates, an Irishman, possessed of the unique 
distinction of being an Irishman born in Massachusettes. He 
was the son of a Yankee mother and there was no other man 
like him. "Jerry," as we called him, was a splendid judge of 
human nature, a pretty good lawyer, possessed a fair education, 
and had more than ordinary ability as a public speaker. Whether 
addressing the jury or speaking from a platform, he was very 
effective, and was always listened to with close attention. He 
had unusual assurance and unbounded faith in himself, and 
never hesitated to push his own claims or any claims in which 
he was interested to the utmost. His motto, and it was appropri- 
ate, was "If a man bloweth not his own horn, surely that horn 
shall not be blown." His horn was heard early and often. His 
self-esteem and egotism were most remarkable. It passed the 
line of boredom and disgust and become not only tolerable, but 
really pleasant and enjoyable. He was of a large, sturdy frame 
and was a man of affairs, and accumulated before his death con- 
siderable property. While the firm of Martin & Murphy existed 
in Davenport, I presume that Jerry Murphy could go to New 
York City and drum up more valuable collections against western 
merchants than any man in the state of Iowa. Soon after 
going to Davenport he began to take a great interest in politics. 



RECOLLECTIONS OF MARENGO 433 

was mayor of the city a long time, and represented his district in 
congress for a number of terms. He was whole-souled, open- 
handed, a generous man and one who loved a joke and appreciated 
all the good things that came his way. I heard Dr. Peck say 
once "There were a thousand people in Davenport who believed 
'Jerry' Murphy was the greatest man in the state, because Jerry 
had told them so himself." He was the sort of man 

Who, meeting Caesar's self, would slap his back. 
Call him "Old horse," and challenge to a drink. 

I learned to respect him very much, and loved his company 
and genial conversation. 

T. P. Murphy, commonly called "Tim," was a very good 
lawyer indeed. We regarded him as a much better lawyer than 
his brother, J. H. He was industrious, persevering, vigilant and 
very determined in any thing he undertook, and at times his 
logic was merciless. He was not, however, so good a business 
man, nor was he so good a talker as was his brother. He went 
years ago to Sioux City and at one time filled the office of 
United States district attorney for the northern district of Iowa. 

After the departure of H. M. Martin, Mr. Hedges was 
recognized as the head of the bar of Iowa County, and, indeed, 
many thought he was not inferior to Mr. Martin. He had, I 
believe, a better education than any of those before mentioned. 
His general reading and his acquired information were very 
broad and very thorough. He had read law and was prepared 
for admissioij long before he was twenty-one years of age. He 
had read in the office of one of the best lawyers in Ohio, had 
been thoroughly drilled, and became versed in the common law 
and the principles of American jurisprudence, and but few 
lawyers in the state were his superiors in that respect. His mind 
had been well trained to investigation, reflection and accurate 
decision. He was a splendid pleader, and was an advocate of 
no mean ability. He could discover and present finer questions 
of law than any other member of the bar, and sustain them with 
better reasoning and more profundity if not lucidity of argument 
than almost any lawyer I ever knew. He was very firm and 
tenacious of purpose, and when he afterwards was elected judge 
of the Eighth Judicial Circuit of the state, he became eminent 
for the justness and fairness of his decisions, and for his firmness 



434, ANNALS OF IOWA 

and impartiality in dispensing justice. He was as fearless as 
death itself, and as honorable and upright as a man could be. 
He was always very plain and direct in expressing his opinion 
of men and things, and at times quite blunt, as was illustrated 
in the answer he made to Lawyer Clarkson, who blew into 
Marengo at one time, remained a few years, and departed 
between two days. On the occasion I refer to. Homer Wilson, 
who did not always use the best language in the world, was 
addressing the jury, when Mr. Clarkson turned to Hedges and 
remarked, "Homer's vernacular grates so harshly on my ears 
that I can scarcely stand it." Hedges instantly replied, "Cut 
your d — d ears off then." Such indulgence in the energetic idiom 
came so natural to him that it never seemed to be profane. 
Clarkson, however, afterwards partly evened up with the Judge 
upon being told that Hedges' first name was Christian, by saying, 
"What strange ideas his parents must have entertained of the 
character of Christ." In my early efforts in the practice of 
law in Iowa County I acquired more valuable information from 
Judge Hedges concerning the practice of law itself than I had 
acquired in all of my previous reading. 

Mr. Templin, of the firm of Templin & Feenan, had formerly 
been a Methodist preacher of great power and unction, but 
abandoned the cloth for the court room. His enemies always 
insisted that he never forgot Paul's injunction in I Tim. 5:23. 
He was a good advocate and quite strong before a jury; was a 
man of good parts and acquired information, but not overly 
profound as a lawyer. He was not about Marengo very much, 
intrusting the business to his partner, Mr. Feenan, as a 
general thing. I never thought he deserved the implied excoria- 
tion administered to him by LeGrand Byington of Iowa City. 
They were trying the case of Byington vs. Scanlon that came 
to Marengo on change of venue from Johnson County. In ad- 
dressing the jury Mr. Byington went for Templin's client, Scan- 
lon. He described him as a thief, robber, perjurer and law- 
breaker, a moral pervert, a man without a single virtue to his 
credit, then pausing and pointing downward, he said, "And now, 
gentlemen of the jury, leaving Scanlon and descending the scale 
of human degredation, we come to Templin." 



RECOLLECTIONS OF MARENGO 435 

Mr. P'eenan, as the name indicates, was an Irishman too, 
although he looked the least like it of any one you ever saw. 
He was rather below the medium size, trim built, with a good 
head, fine face and dressed always at the top of the fashion. 
His movements about the office or court room were stately, 
considerate and quiet, rarely in a hurry. His step as he walked 
upon the street would remind you of that of a cat walking in 
damp grass. He was not the profoundest lawyer, nor did he 
possess the strongest individuality in the world, but he was the 
soul of industry, with an unflagging zeal for the rights of his 
clients; was honest, careful and true, and became quite eminent 
in the line of probate law and commercial collections. He died a 
comparatively young man several years ago, quite well off. 

Mr. Lake, of the firm of Lake & Baker, afterwards became a 
member of the well-known firm of Rumple & Lake, that 
flourished a number of years in the county. He spent the later 
years of his life at Marion, enjoying the respect of all who 
knew him, dying in 1917. I always thought that Mr. Lake had 
naturally the best legal mind of any lawyer in the county. His 
natural abilities were far above the average ; his education, 
though not so broad as some, was solid and thorough, and his 
knowledge of the law and his ability to discern the main points in 
a case and the effect of a legal proposition were really invaluable. 
He was a fine pleader, and presented his questions to the court 
with clearness and fairness, so that it was a pleasure to listen 
to him, but he very much disliked the trial of jury cases. In 
the preparation of a case for the supreme court or in looking up 
the law applicable to a case in the trial court, he was wonderfully 
useful and successful. 

Charles E. Baker remained in Marengo only about a year, 
when he returned to Iowa City, entered the office of Mr. Black- 
well, became his partner and finally his successor, and then the 
senior member of the firm of Baker & Ball, now one of the 
oldest and best law firms in the state. I always had a fellow 
feeling for him, because he came to Marengo as poor as I was. 
He rendered valuable service to the profession in assisting to 
frame the Code of 1897. He has since passed away. 

Mr. Rumple, as I have heretofore said, was a law student when 
I first knew him, who afterward became one of the most 



436 ANNALS OF IOWA 

prominent men and most highly respected citizens of the county, 
and had a reputation that was state wide. He was the trial 
member of the firm of Rumple & Lake, and probably no man 
tried or assisted in the trial of more cases in Iowa County than 
he did, and with the assistance of Mr. Lake, their firm justly 
became very eminent and successful. Mr. Rumple's education 
was good and his early advantages were such as usually fell to 
a young man of that period. He, like Judge Hedges and his 
partner, Mr. Lake, and Mr. Baker, had served faithfully and 
honorably during the War of the Rebellion, which gave him much 
prestige in his after life. I never thought he was as deep and 
profound a lawyer as was his partner, Mr. Lake, but his per- 
ceptions were quick, his judgment was sound, and as a trial law- 
yer and advocate, he stood surpassed by few. He represented the 
county for many years in the state senate, and died while a 
member of congress from the Second District of Iowa. Rumple 
& Lake had the best clientage in the county after the departure 
of Martin & Murphy. We used to think that Rumple needed 
Lake as much as Lake needed Rumple in the firm. 

Homer Wilson was entitled to much credit for the position he 
won for himself as a lawyer when one considers his lack of 
advantages in his early life. He always had a fair clientage, 
and there came to him a class of business among his old 
acquaintances and friends that could not be driven to anyone 
else. He served his country also as a member of the First Iowa 
Regiment and fought at Wilson's Creek. 

My old partner. Judge Miller, gave a very accurate description 
of himself the first time I saw him, in which he said, "I am not 
much of a lawyer, but I can work just as hard as anybody," 
He came to the county when the Indian trading post stood down 
where South Amana stands, became acquainted with the Indians, 
and was by them named Kish-Ke-Kosh. He had a common school 
education, had been a farmer, and was once elected county judge 
of Iowa County, hence always carried the title of Judge Miller, 
He too had been a member of the Twenty-fourth Iowa. He was 
admitted to the bar when such admission could be obtained by 
having two lawyers recommend him and setting up the oysters 
for the crowd. He was a man of fair natural ability, and I 
soon found that he was just as industrious as he said he was. 



RECOLLECTIONS OF MARENGO 437 

nor was his profundity in the law in excess of what he had first 
told me. He was honest, upright, true to his friends, a kind 
husband and father, and no one was more highly respected 
than he during all the time I knew him. He also died some 
years ago. 

To show that lawsuits were not always conducted then with 
the decorum that now prevails, I give the following illustrations : 

Thomas Rankin of Millersburg was a lawyer of pretty fair 
ability. He was lawyer and farmer combined, and was respect- 
able in both capacities. He was a small, active, wiry little fellow 
with a very scant supply of hair on the top of his head, and, 
fortunately or unfortunately, was very quick tempered. There 
was a long, lathy lawyer that lived in Marengo a short time, who 
announced to some of us one day that he was going over to 
Millersburg to try a case before Pat Sivard, a justice of the 
peace. He was asked who was on the other side. He answered, 
"Tom Rankin." He was told to be careful or he might have 
trouble. He just laughed and went on the next day. After he 
came back he drojiped into Hedges' office where I was sitting at 
the time and began to tell what a fine time he had over at 
Millersburg. Hedges asked him how he and Tom Rankin got 
along. He replied, "Oh, first rate; we had no trouble at all." 
Hedges asked him what made that black and blue place on tne 
top of his forehead. He replied, "Oh, during the trial I told 
Tom he was a d — d old bald-headed fool and he knocked me 
down." We afterwards learned that it was true and Tom had 
cleaned out the ranch. 

I was once trying a case before Squire Ogden in Troy Township 
against old Thomas Hughes, a sharp but domineering old Welsh- 
man who acted as his own lawyer in the trial. He purposely 
insulted and exasperated every witness that testified against 
him. I finally called old Lewis Jones, another fiery Welshman, 
to the witness stand, and Hughes (they called him "Windy 
Hughes") insulted him with his first question. Jones sprang up, 
laid some money on the Squire's table and then turned and 
struck Hughes, turned him around and kicked him clear out of 
the room, through the kitchen and off the back porch. The 
Squire regarded it as being contempt of court, and announced 
that he would have to fine him for contempt, when one of Jones' 



4S8 ANNALS OF IOWA 

friends spoke up at once with great assurance, "You can't fine 
him. Squire, for he laid the money down before he struck the 
man." The Squire regarded that as good law and entered up a 
fine for the amount laid down and let the contempt matter go. 

At another time I went over, or rather he took me over, to the 
school house in York Township, to try a case before Squire Kelly 
for Mike Rigney, a well-to-do old Irish bachelor. As we ap- 
proached the building, I saw a great crowd around it. I asked 
Rigney whether or not the justice of the peace was friendly to 
him. He replied, "Friendly, of course, because I board with 
him." I asked what lawyer was on the other side. He answered, 
"A little fellow by the name of Winter from Iowa City." I 
said, "Maybe he will call for a jury." He replied, "It's all right; 
the crowd is all my friends, for I have two kegs of beer up 
there on the hill." It is needless to say that I won the case. 

Of the judges who presided in the courts at Marengo during 
my stay there, much could be said. There was Judge Hubbard, 
Judge Rothrock and Judge Shane of the District bench; and 
Judge William E. Miller, Judge George R. Struble, Judge C. 
Hedges and Judge John McKean of the Circuit court, and I 
doubt if, all things being considered, the judiciary of the state 
was ever represented by seven more competent, upright and fair 
minded men than by the above-named gentlemen. 

Hubbard only held court a few times in Marengo. He had an 
extraordinarily acute and penetrating mind, and had no superior 
as a trial lawyer in the state, as his subsequent career demon- 
strated, but his methods in the transaction of business from the 
bench were so energetic and novel, jjresenting phases so unex- 
pected, and at times with conduct so abrupt and severe, and 
withal quite humorous and interesting, that some were con- 
strained to say that he held court-martial rather than an ordinary 
court. He afterwards attained to great eminence in his profes- 
sion and in state affairs. 

Judge Rothrock, though not a man of extensive learning or 
very great breadth of reading had an unusual amount of "uncom- 
mon common sense," and his knowledge of men and affairs, and 
his natural good judgment made up for his deficiencies in other 
respects. He was a large and fine looking man, and his aspect 
when on the bench was always that of strong judicial integrity. 



RECOLLECTIONS OF MARENGO 439 

He afterward served for over twenty years on the supreme bench 
of the state. 

Judge John Shane of Vinton was probably the best educated 
and the best read of any of the district judges that had sat 
on the bench prior to his time in Iowa County. He too was 
a natural jurist, with a presence that was satisfactory to all 
who knew him unless you would say that his facial resemblance 
to Boss Tweed of New York fame was a drawback. He died 
greatly lamented. 

Judge William E. Miller, our first circuit judge, a sort of 
helper to the district judge, lived in Iowa City. He had been 
fairly well educated when young and trained to the trade of a 
mechanic or rather machinist, which knowledge was very useful 
to him afterward in his profession and especially in deciding 
cases that came before him. He was a good lawyer, clear 
headed, perfectly upright and very suave and sociable. He 
served as a judge of the supreme court after leaving the circuit 
court, from 1870 to 1875. He died in Des Moines, highly re- 
spected, many years ago. 

Judge Struble of Toledo, succeeded Miller on the circuit bench. 
He was then a young man of fine appearance, well educated, and 
thoroughly grounded in the laws of Iowa, and no man was more 
familiar with the provisions of the Code of Iowa than was Judge 
George R. Struble. He was, if anything, more genial, more 
pleasant and more accommodating than any of the other judges. 
He used frequently to adjourn the spring term of court for 
half a day to go fishing with the lawyers. After his retirement 
from the bench he entered into the active practice at Toledo 
and was known throughout the state as a careful, painstaking, 
high-minded and successful lawyer. 

John McKean of Anamosa also served as one of the circuit 
judges. He was well educated, a good and profound lawyer, a 
learned jurist and an upright judge, though a constant sufferer 
from an affliction that rendered his neck stiff and eventually 
terminated in death. Having long served in the Iowa Legislature 
he proved to be a wise and sagacious statesman. A lover of 
learning, he took a deep interest in college work and higher 
education. No man in Jones County was more respected than 
Judge McKean. 



440 ANNALS OF IOWA 

Of Judge Hedges I have already written. 

The district attorney at that time was C. R. Scott of Anamosa, 
who was followed by William G. Thompson of Marion. I pause 
for words when I come to write of Major Thompson. He was 
tall, straight, broad-shouldered, full of life and vitality, and 
everybody knew he was around when he was there. A man of 
remarkably quick perceptions, rapid judgment and a sound 
understanding, he also possessed the readiest wit and quickest 
repartee of any man in the old Eighth Judicial District. He 
had read law and been trained in an old-fashioned Pennsylvania 
law office, which training was seasoned by doses of the West- 
minster catechism administered by his Presbyterian parents, so 
that he came to the bar thoroughly imbued with the principles of 
the common law and a knowledge of the natural degeneracy of 
mankind. The readiness with which he could grasp the main 
points in a case was equalled only by the rapidity with which he 
let loose his gatling guns on the enemy. When the Major 
"turned himself loose" on a criminal, all that fellow had to do 
was to select the articles of clothing he wanted to wear to the 
penitenitary. If there was any man living who could prepare 
and try a case quicker, and say more to the point in addressing 
the jury, in the same length of time than Major Thompson could, 
I never met him. He had always been an omniverous reader, 
and his naturally retentive memory aided him so that his mind 
became well stored with the thoughts of the world's best authors 
which he used to advantage. He was remarkably democratic in 
his habits and in his dress and had a bon homine about him that 
rendered him very popular indeed. He filled many offices of trust 
and honor in the state and never was defeated at the polls. 
Coming to Iowa in 1853, he soon entered public life and has 
ever since been in the lime-light, and no blur or stain ever 
formed on his name. He was state senator and representative, 
presidential elector, chief justice of Idaho, member of congress 
and district judge, besides district attorney, all of which 
positions he filled with credit and honor. He died at his home 
at Kenwood Park in April, 1911, when past eighty-one years 
of age, full of honors and loved by all who knew him. 

C. R. Scott, who, as I have said, was district attorney when I 
went to Marengo, was a small, waspish fellow, whose greatest 



RECOLLECTIONS OF MARENGO 441 

delight was to be the hero of a row in a lawsuit. He was 
familiarly called at that time "Little Scott," but after he went 
to Omaha he was called "Great Scott." When Scott's ire was 
raised he made the saw dust fly in that old court room. He was 
surely a live wire. He went to Nebraska in the early '70's and 
was for many years a judge in one of the courts in Omaha. I 
believe he is not now living. 

Of the other citizens that I early became acquainted with in 
the town of Marengo forty odd years ago, but few are living. 
We had some characters there, as all communities have. The man 
who was nearest regarded as a part of Marengo, and who came, 
I think, while the Indians were in possession, who was always a 
property owner there and had faith in the future of the town 
equalled only by the faith of a Christian in his Saviour, who was 
always ready to greet friend or stranger with a smile and 
pleasant word, and help anyone who was in need, and who 
bought every patent right that was offered on the street, was 
Uncle Horace H. Hull. No kinder hearted or more optimistic 
man ever lived than Uncle Horace. I don't think he had, when 
I knew him, or ever had, an enemy; nor did he deserve to have 
one. I don't think anyone ever asked alms of him that he did 
not receive something, and always got the sympathy of the old 
man, but the singletree on his side always scraped the wheel. 
When I travel over the state and visit different towns and see 
hundreds of miles of cement sidewalk and scores of beautiful 
buildings made from cement, I recall the fact that the first time 
I ever saw anything of the sort, Horace Hull made the stone 
with which he laid up a cement wall for a cellar in Marengo 
over fifty years ago, and it stood there on the north side of the 
square a naked and unfinished wall for years, and furnished 
scoffers and wits the opporunity to laugh at "Hull's folly." The 
old gentleman had bought a patent right for Iowa and possibly 
some other county, and had started to make stone. It was the 
incipient step to the great cement industry that now practically 
takes the place of natural stone in sidewalks throughout the 
country. 

The man that I always felt I owed as much, if not more to, 
than anyone else, was G. W. Williams, commonly called "Gord." 
I soon became acquainted with him, and learned to love him. He 



442 ANNALS OF IOWA 

was such a good hearted man, so kindly disposed, so ready to 
help a friend, that I early became indebted to him for many acts 
of kindness. On many a time when I hadn't a dollar and did not 
know where the food for myself and family was to come from, 
I have gone to Gord, and a hint of my situation would prompt 
him to proffer me any amount I wanted, and many a five dollar 
bill did he loan to me, saying "You can pay it back to me. Cap, 
whenever you get ready." I often wonder at the mistaken 
faith that he had and why he was so foolish as to trust a penniless 
fellow as I was without any security. We all knew that Gord 
kept not only his family, but all his brothers and a part of his 
wife's family. He never had a word of complaint to make to 
anyone, but seemed to do it not only as a duty, but because he 
loved to do it. There was but one person living that ever was 
or ever could be an enemy of Gord Williams, and that was Gord 
himself. The circumstances of his death it is not necessary to 
mention. I would place a laurel wreath on his grave. 

A. J. Morrison, then the keeper of the Clifton House, was 
another with whom I early became acquainted, and for whom I 
ever had a tender and affectionate feeling. No one enjoyed a 
good joke on another more than did Andy Morrison. I recollect 
before I had been there a year, on a cold winter morning I 
started on horseback over into Benton County to try a case before 
a justice of the peace. I had a copy of the Conklin Treatise 
under my arm, and as I rode past the Clifton House, Andy came 
out, called to me to stop, and tendered me one of Jayne's 
Almanacs, saying it was just as useful to me, and that I could 
comprehend it just as well as the book I had. During the long 
period of the time that he lived in Marengo, no man filled as 
many offices as he did, and no one filled them more acceptably 
and faithfully. He was a public spirited man and always had 
an interest in the town. I never believed the trouble which came 
to him eventually was by reason of his want of honesty or in- 
tegrity. I believe the "recording angel dropped a tear on the 
charge that blotted it out forever." 

Another very prominent man and one who probably did more 
for Marengo than any other man there, and who had more 
varied ability than any other, was N. B. Holbrook. He was, I 
think, the best educated man in the town. He was a splendid 



RECOLLECTIONS OF MARENGO 443 

surveyor and engineer, a successful newspaper editor, a respect- 
able member of the bar, a very prosperous land agent, a good 
banker, and one of the most successful all-around business men 
that the county ever had; and was, withal, the most complete 
master in politics that could be found in this portion of the state. 
No church subscription was ever circulated there that didn't 
have N. B. Holbrook's name on it with a good sized amount; 
no appeal was ever made for charity to which Holbrook did not 
respond; no town meeting was ever held for the general good 
of the town and community that Holbrook wasn't prominent in. 
In school matters and the financial affairs of the churches and in 
the general business affairs of the town N. B. Holbrook had no 
superior, if he had an equal. He was thoroughly versed in the 
history of the country, and had the political events of the nation 
at his finger's end, and no one was safe in getting into an argu- 
ment with him on the history of American politics. He filled 
many places of eminence and trust and offices of responsibility, 
and, withal, Bruce Holbrook, as we called him, was in his daily 
walk and conversation, as quiet, gentlemanly and polite as a 
subdued minister of the gospel. 

Another quaint character in Marengo was Uncle Dicky Groff. 
Teacher, preacher, lawyer, merchant, book peddler and poet all 
rolled up in one man makes a combination hard to beat, but that 
was Dicky Groff. A short, stubby man with a full grey beard, 
always of the same age and never changing, he was hones.t and 
well meaning, but never learned how to do anything. His 
greatest claim to immortal renown lies in his poem to Iowa, com- 
mencing, "Young Peri of the West." His greatest achievement 
in teaching a Sunday School was to ask the children where Moses 
was when the light went out, and his preaching was about on a 
par with that. As a lawyer he went out of practice about a hun- 
dred years ago, in fact, he never began. The goods in his store 
consisted of two old straw bonnets, some ribbon, a few spools of 
black thread, and an old stove that never had a fire in it winter 
or summer. He had no customers, for he had nothing to sell, 
but still he went to the store every day, opened it, sat down and 
read a book a short time and then went home. But I think he 
was the most constant reader in the state of Iowa, and read to 
the least purpose of anyone in the state. Still he could write 



444 ANNALS OF IOWA 

a first class newspaper article, and make words jingle in what he 
called verse or poetry. He was always happy and good natured, 
and viewed life from a pleasant standpoint. The following 
quotation, worthy of Hudibras, he frequently used, possibly be- 
cause it fully embodied his ideas of men: 

The world of fools has such a store 
That he who would not see an ass 

Should go home and bolt his door, 
Then break his looking-glass. 

I don't think he ever sat five minutes in his life that he did 
not pick up a book or paper and go to reading. He could write 
as good an article on farming as could Horace Greeley, and could 
manage a farm about as well as could the great editor. 

But there were other good men in business there: J. P. 
Ketchem, who was probably the best business man in the town; 
Ed Hopkins, who was a royally good and lovable man; J. M. 
Rush, true to his friends ; W. A. Suavely, tinner and hardware 
merchant, a good citizen and "piller" of the M. E. church; "Nice" 
Redman, with his "North Carolina" ditty; Fred Eyrich, the 
shoeman; Ben Liddle, whose love for Canada was so intense that, 
when in a fight with a stranger who struck him a fearful blow, he 
said, "I knew he was Canada from the way he struck me." There 
was I. M. Lyon, "Pappy," we called him, who came as near as 
mortal could to keeping the commandment, "Thou shalt love the 
Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with 
all thy strength, and thy neighbor as thyself." Quiet and of even 
temper at all times, he was surely a good and consistent Christian. 
He had a large family of boys — ^Asher (the dragoon), Tom, 
Ben, etc. Ben Lyon once at a meeting of the G. A. R. men to 
bury a comrade, unconsciously paid his father an unclassified 
compliment. We could find no minister in town to officiate at 
the funeral, when Bent cut the Gordian knot by saying, "Why, 
d — n it, boys. Pap can do the praying, and Cap. Rumple or 
Smith can do the talking." And no minister ever made a more 
appropriate prayer than did "Pappy" Lyon at that grave. Out 
on the hill in the old grave yard, on a cold stormy day, from an 
earnest man came an earnest prayer to the Heavenly Father that 
for simplicity of language, grandeur of pathos, and firmness of 
faith, could not have been excelled by a bishop. And when he 



RECOLLECTIONS OF MARENGO 445 

asked divine blessings on the band of scarred veterans standing 
around, it seemed that heaven was near ! 

J. S. Shaw, soon after I went there, "came to stay." Next to 
his family, he loved the Methodist church and a good horse more 
than anything else. And by kicking Jake Sehorn out of his hotel, 
he was the innocent and unintentional cause of Jake's dropping 
into poetry in the next issue of the Marengo Democrat. 

Of the young men of the town that I became acquainted with, 
there was Capt. McBride, Capt. J. B, Wilson, C. V. Gardner, 
W. P. and Sam Ketchem, Nate Martin, A. B. Eshelman, Thomas 
Owen, Henry and Newton Leib, Lute Wilson, my dear friend, 
Henry E. Goldthwaite, still living there, and others. We never 
painted the town red, but it was sometimes made green. Our 
enjoyments were primitive, but they were well worth their cost, 
and did us no harm. An evening at the Good Templar's Lodge, 
a sleigh ride to Blairstown, or a trip to the Colony, were regarded 
as sufficient acts of dissipation. But few of those early friends 
are living. The departed acted well their part in life. 

Yet they who fall in fortune's strife, 

Their fate ye should not censure, • 

For still the important part of life 
They equally may answer. 

I could mention many others with whom I early became 
acquainted and whose friendship has left a sweet remembrance, 
but I forbear. Any town that could withstand a campaign of 
"Mike McNorton" and two floods deserves to live while the 
hills stand. 

Of my numerous acquaintances subsequently made, though 
just as dear as the older ones, I will forbear to speak. 

Around Marengo hangs many a recollection of struggles in 
life, clouds of adversity and sunshine of joy and happiness, and 
the town and its people will never be by me forgotten till my 
heart is as cold as death can make it. 



446 ANNALS OF IOWA 



MEMORIES OF THE CHICAGO CONVENTION OF 1860 

Being interviews tvitli General Grenville M. Dodge of 
Council Bluffs and Judge Charles C. Nourse of Des 
Moines, the memoranda being obtained and put in form 

By F. I. Herriott 

Professor in Drake University 

The following interviews were obtained in the course of a 
search for data bearing upon assertions of two prominent 
historians relative to the actions of the representatives of the 
Republicans of Iowa at the Chicago Convention of 1860 which 
nominated Abraham Lincoln for the presidency^ namely: 

(1) The allegation of Professor A. B. Hart of Harvard 
University in his Life of Salmon P. Chase in "The American 
Statesmen" series, by means of a quotation to the effect that 
"some of the delegates from Iowa were 'on the trading tack' " — 
so put in a context as to involve all of the delegation in the 
charge of sordid personal greed and venality. (See edition of 
1899, pp. 189-190, and repeated in the same terms in the 
"Standard Library Edition" of the series of 1917, pp. 189-190.) 

(2) The assertion of Miss Ida M. Tarbell in her Life of 
Abraham Lincoln concerning the many and varied efforts of the 
opponents of Governor Seward's nomination to unite on Lincoln 
on the night before the convention was to decide, as follows : 

While all this was going on, a committee of twelve men from Pennsyl- 
vania, New York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Iowa were consulting in 
the upper story of the Tremont House. Before their session was over 
they had agreed that in case Lincoln's vote reached a specified number 
on the following day, the votes of the states represented in that meeting, 
so far as these twelve men could .effect the result, should be given to 
him. Vol. I, p. 353. 

The present writer has dealt with the gross injustice and the 
unmitigated impropriety of Professor Hart's aspersion upon the 
members of the delegation to the Chicago convention.^ His 
design to exhibit the actual part taken by lowans in the pre- 

^See "Iowa and the First Nomination of Abraham Lincoln" in the Annals of 
Iowa for July, 1907, Vol. VIII, pp. 81-115, especially pp. 100-109. 



MEMORIES OF THE CHICAGO CONVENTION OF 1860 447 

liminaries and proceedings of the National Republican Conven- 
tion of 1860 and particularly the character and conduct of the 
members of the party sent to represent them has been partially 
accomplished.' 

Both of the interviews contain recollections of more or less 
general interest outside of the immediate objectives of the inter- 
viewer that justify their preservation and publication — par- 
ticularly the recollections and observations of Judge Nourse. 
The contents of the interview in each case were submitted sub- 
sequently to the one interviewed and his amendments or additions 
incorporated. The interview with Judge Nourse was, because 
of his defective vision, read twice to him in order to insure the 
accuracy of his original statements and additions or amendments. 

The interview with General Grenville M. Dodge which follows 
took place in the Savery Hotel, Des Moines, on the evening of 
November 17, 1908. General Dodge was in Des Moines in 
attendance at a meeting of the Loyal Legion. The writer was 
indebted to the courtesy of Colonel G. W. Crossley of Webster 
City for the opportunity to meet him at the time when many 
counter interests attracted him. Previous correspondence with 
him had prepared the way, however, and the only adverse fact 
was the shortness of the time. 

General Dodge frankly confessed to difficulty in recalling spe- 
cific facts inquired about because, as he himself put it, he was 
"a youngster" and acted "as a messenger for Judd," and was 
completely absorbed "in helping him in his moves and ma- 
neuvers." Working "like a beaver," he hardly appreciated the 
significance of the crowding events about him or took particular 
note of the men who were, or who were reported to be, con- 

^Ibid, and again in subsequent articles under the same title in the Annals for 
October, 1907, Vol. VIII, pp. 186-220; for July, 1908, Ibid, pp. 444-466; for April,- 
1909, Vol. IX, pp. 45-64; and for October, 1909, Ibid, pp. 186-228. 

See also "Republican Presidential Preliminaries in Iowa — 1859-1860" in 
Annals for January, 1910, Vol. IX, pp. 242-283; and "The Republican State 
Convention — Des Moines, January 18, 1860" in Annals for July-October, 1910, 
Vol. IX, pp. 401-446. 

In another series dealing with the notable and decisive activities of the 
Germans in the anti-slavery propaganda affecting and determining the course 
of the Republicans of Iowa and of the northern Free states in the preliminaries 
of the National Republican Convention of 1860 the writer has displayed more 
or less of the antecedent developments controlling the lowans at Chicago. See 
especially "The Germans of Davenport and the Chicago Convention of 1860" in 
Deutsch-Avierikanische Geschichisblaetier for July, 1910, Vol. X, pp. 156-163; 
also "The Germans of Iowa and the 'Two Year' Amendment of Massachusetts," 
Ibid, Jahrgang, 1913, Vol. XIII, pp. 202-308; also "The Germans of Iowa in 
the Gubernatorial Campaign of Iowa in 1859," Ibid, Jahrgang, 1914, Vol. XIV, 
pp. 451-623; and "The Premises and Significance of Abraham Lincoln's Letter to 
Theodore Canisius," Ibid, Jahrgang, 1915, Vol. XV, pp. 181-254. 



448 ANNALS OF IOWA 

trolling or directing the course of events. Portions of the inter- 
view do not bear directly upon the convention at Chicago, but 
as one of the paragraphs deals with what was one of the not- 
able perplexities of President Lincoln's policy in dealing with 
the liberated slaves during the early progress of the Civil War, 
and the other to a noteworthy decision of President Lincoln 
that was due in major part to the latter 's visit to Council Bluffs 
and his chance meeting with the young surveyor of the projected 
railroad to the Pacific coast, both are included. 

Grenville M. Dodge in May, 1860, was already a young man 
whom associates were beginning to watch with lively expecta- 
tions of a notable career and they were not disappointed. At 
that time he was a civil engineer in charge of the initial surveys 
for the then much mooted railroad to the Pacific coast, and not 
long thereafter he became chief engineer of the Union Pacific 
Railroad Company. Upon the outbreak of the Civil War he 
offered his services to the government of President Lincoln, 
raised a company of infantry at Council Bluffs and entered the 
army with the rank of caj^tain. His rise was rapid and his 
achievements under Generals Grant and Sherman were so bril- 
liant and solid as to win- for him the stars of a major general 
before the end of the Civil War. In 1866 he was elected by the 
Republican party to the Fortieth Congress. At the expiration 
of his term he declined renomination and thereafter devoted 
himself to his profession and to the furtherance of his invest- 
ments and interests in railroad construction, mainly in the west- 
ern and southwestern states. He became one of the influential 
leaders in financial circles in Wall Street in relation to railroads 
and their management. In 1898 President McKinley appointed 
him chairman of the Commission to Investigate the Conduct 
of the Military Department, particularly in care of the soldiers 
in camp and field during the war with Spain, concerning which 
there raged a violent and bitter controversy both in official and 
in popular circles. Many of the helpful reforms in the organiza- 
tion of our national military department that enabled the 
United States to cope so effectively and so promptly with the 
immense task suddenly put upon the government in the late 
war with Germany resulted from the findings and recommenda- 
tions of General Dodge's commission. 



MEMORIES OF THE CHICAGO CONVENTION OF 1860 449 

Somewhat of the energy and influence of Judge Nourse in 
1860 may be inferred from the ensuing extract from a letter to 
the writer from Mr. A. C. Voris, President of the Citizens Na- 
tional Bank of Bedford, Indiana, under date of April 25, 1907, 
written in response to inquiries as to his recollections of the 
character of Iowa's delegates to the Chicago convention of 1860 
and their participation in the caucus, or committee, referred to 
by Miss Tarbell. Mr. Voris was one of the delegates from Indi- 
ana. He says relative to the caucus in the small hours of Thurs- 
day morning: 

As to the members of that Com[mittee] from Iowa. I regret I can- 
not say certainly. I only remember that a Mr. Nourse of Des Moines, 
and of "Williamson and Nourse," seemed to be a ruling spirit in the 
convention, and though there were older men than he, it is likely he 
was one of that Com[mittee]. 

Mr. Nourse was only twenty-nine years of age at the time of 
the Chicago convention. He was known then as one of the 
"coming men" of Iowa and a factor to be reckoned with by all 
those concerned with the political aifairs of the state. The next 
year he was elected by the Republicans to the office of attorney 
general of the state and served for four years of the Civil War. 
Later he was appointed judge of the Fifth Judicial District; but 
he soon resigned and thereafter steadfastly confined himself to 
the practice of the law. 

As Judge Nourse recalled the exciting moments in the 
Chicago convention, following the third ballot that insured Abra- 
ham Lincoln's nomination, his memories of the scene in the great 
Wigwam became so stirring that his emotions aroused him from 
his chair, and almost blind though he was from cataract of the 
eyes, he leaped to his feet, threw out his arms in swinging ges- 
tures in reproduction of the wild gesticulation and vociferation 
of the lowans joining in that pandemonium. In the rush of his 
recollections he dashed about the table in the center of the room 
in which we were in demonstration of his narrative. His aban- 
don proved beyond cavil how intense and overwhelming must 
have been the excitement the instant the friends of the Com- 
moner of Springfield realized the certaintv of their triumph, if 
nearly a half century after memories of the scene could so 
arouse and carry away a cool collected lawyer of wide and varied 



450 ANNALS OF IOWA 

experience in court and public forum. Judge Nourse's partial 
blindness enhanced the effect of his demonstration. It was a 
sight that the present writer will not soon forget. 



NOTES OF A CONVERSATION WITH GENERAL GREN- 

VILLE M. DODGE, SAVERY HOUSE, DES MOINES, 

NOVEMBER 17, 1908 

"My first interest in Abraham Lincoln came about as a result 
of my business interests and connection. For some time I had 
had business relations with Mr. N. P. Judd of Illinois. He was, 
as you know, Mr. Lincoln's manager in the campaign before the 
Chicago convention. He was an attorney for the Rock Island 
railroad, then in the course of construction across Iowa, and a 
large stockholder, and I believe an officer. 

"Mr. Lincoln was also interested in the Rock Island railroad. 
He had acted as one of the leading attorneys in the celebrated 
litigation involving the right of the company to build the bridge 
across the Mississippi at Rock Island. In consequence of the 
acquaintance and association of Judd and Lincoln I had been 
asked to look after some of their land interests in Council Bluffs, 
which I had done for some time. These facts created and, of 
course, increased my interest in the promotion of Mr. Lincoln's 
public advancement. 

"My going to Chicago and working for Lincoln's nomination 
was the result of a letter from Mr. Judd asking me to do so. I 
was an admirer of Lincoln and did not need much urging, but it 
was my relations with Judd that made me go and work like a 
beaver for Lincoln at that convention. I was only a youngster then 
of course.' I was not very well acquainted with the older political 
leaders in the state. I knew Hoxie,* Nourse and Kirkwood and 
some of the other delegates but none very intimately. I tried to 
exert what influence I had of course in bringing our delegation 
around to Lincoln but I was in a way a messenger for Judd, 

^General Dodge was twenty-nine years old. 

■•Herbert Hoxie of Des Moines, later appointed by President Lincoln United 
States marshal for Iowa. After the war he became extensively interested in 
railroad construction. At the time of his death in 1886 he was virtually in 
cliargre of tl\e Gould system of railroads in the Southwest. See Harper's Weekly, 
Dec. 4, 1886, p. 784. 



MEMORIES OF THE CHICAGO CONVENTIOIST OF 1860 451 

helping him in his moves and maneuvers. My business interests 
and my admiration of Lincoln combining, I was naturally very 
enthusiastic and earnest and hopeful of the final outcome. 

"The caucus in the Tremont House the night before the 
nomination was made I recall but I cannot remember the names 
of the men who were there except Kirkwood. The others you 
mention (Gear/ Dunham, Saunders) were doubtless present for 
they were influential and would naturally be called in for such a 
conference. As I recollect the conference was first called by some 
man from New York. The opposition to Seward wished to find 
out whether there was not enough second choice Lincoln men 
among the delegates from New England, Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey, Indiana and Iowa to secure the votes of those states 
for Lincoln after the first ballot. Judd's plan from the start was 
to unite the second choice men in the doubtful states on Lincoln. 
My memory is too vague now to recall names or faces of men 
from the other states; but I do recollect late or rather early the 
next morning after the conference had come to an agreement, 
going to Judd and talking with him about the agreement reached 
and the result if the agreement could be carried out. Judd was 
especially anxious to get our Iowa delegates to go solid for 
Lincoln after the first ballot. Our being neighbors was a fact 
that he urged very strongly. But our Seward men, while they 
wanted to nominate a strong man and were willing to go to him 
when it was evident that all would go to him, voted for Seward 
up to the last or third ballot. 

"My memory of men and events back in those days is not so 
good as it was ten years ago; but when you prod it by calling 
my attention to some of the incidents I can recollect many of 
them. One fact I realize. In the hurry and confusion of ordi- 
nary times we do not always appreciate, or even discern the im- 
portance or significance of events taking place about us and in 
which we are more or less engaged. In 1860 I felt of course 
much of the keen public interest in the discussion of political 
matters and yet as a young man I but vaguely sensed the vital 
import of the events that I was watching. 

=John H. Gear of Burlington, aftenvard (1877-1881) Governor of Iowa and 
Mr. Clark Dunham, the editor of The Haickeye of Burlington. Mr. Alvin 
Saunders, later mentioned by Judge Nourse, 



452 ANNALS OF IOWA 

"I first met Mr. Lincoln at Council Bluffs in August, 1959. 
He had come up there by way of St. Joseph and the Missouri 
River to look after an interest in the Riddle tract, he had bought 
from Mr. Judd. I had returned with my party from a surveying 
trip and was camped in a ravine just north of the town, and had 
come down to the Pacific House to get a square meal. 

"He heard of the arrival of the engineering party, and sought 
me out at the hotel. We sat down on a bench on the porch of 
the Pacific House and he proceeded to find out all about the 
country we had been through, and all about our railroad surveys, 
the character of the country, particularly its adaptability to 
settlement, its topographical features, in fact, he extracted from 
me tlie information I had gathered for my employers, and 
virtually shelled my woods must thoroughly. 

"There are no accounts of his speech" that give any details as to 
what he said except perhaps in a very vague way. He dwelt 
largely upon the slavery question — the great subject in which 
we folks on the 'Missouri Slope' were then, as was the whole 
country, much interested. Mr. Lincoln set forth his views of 
the slavery question in connection with the settlement of the 
territory just across the Missouri River. The settlement of the 
new territories interested him very much and their commercial 
development was much in his mind. In the course of his speech 
he took occasion to commend the advanced stand taken by Kirk- 
wood in his campaign for governor. I went with Kirkwood to 
some of the towns in the western part of the state, where he 
spoke. Kirkwood was regarded by a good many as pretty strong 
on the slavery question. It was natural that Lincoln should say a 
good word on his behalf. 

"Before the speech I had no very definite ideas about Mr. 
Lincoln, but that speech in the square settled the matter. He 
convinced me and most of those who heard him that he knew 
what he was talking about and tliat he knew how to put the 
issues so as to bring out the strong points of the Republican 
position. He made many strong friends in our part of the state 
at that time. 

"This was Lincoln's speech made on the public square in Council BluflFs the 
same day. 



MEMORIES OF THE CHICAGO CONVENTION OF 1860 453 

"Mr. Lincoln staid with Messrs. Thomas Officer and W. H. M. 
Pusey while in the town — they had formerly lived in Springfield, 
Illinois. 

"Years after it was the conversation at the Pacific House that 
led to the fixing of the eastern terminus of the Union Pacific at 
Council Bluffs. In 1863 I was stationed at Corinth, Miss., 
with my command. I had just previously marched up the Ten- 
nessee valley, which was a very rich district and full of rebel 
supplies. These I had destroyed. One of the results was that 
about three thousand negroes followed me back to Corinth and 
were on my hands. They were a great problem. They had to 
be fed and kept in order. My soldiers, or many of them, did 
not take very kindly to the idea of guarding, feeding and caring 
for 'niggers.' The ill feeling manifested itself in serious ways, 
the white guards shot darkies out foraging and tresspassing. 
What to do with them I hardly knew. Finally Chaplain Alex- 
ander of one of my regiments — a very able man — came to me 
and said that he could solve my negro problem. He asked to 
have 100 muskets assigned to him to arm a company of the darkies 
to guard the rest. He said that they would be able to do it with 
a little assistance. My ordnance officer refused to issue arms 
and ammunition to him and when Alexander came back to me and 
reported the situation I receipted for the arms and turned them 
over to him, not thinking much about the matter at the time for 
I was greatly relieved to have their care taken off my hands. 
The arming of those negroes produced a stir. Soon the Chicago 
papers had accounts of it. The discussion of what to do with 
the negroes was then becoming a live coal in political discussion. 
I soon realized that I had put my foot in it. But I concluded that 
silence was the better part of wisdom and said nothing. I 
knew that General Grant knew what I had done though I had 
made no report; and so long as he did not make trouble I felt 
fairly safe. One day General Grant transmitted an order from 
the War Department directing me to report at once at Washing- 
ton. I thought my time was up and my head was going off, for 
I had done a very serious thing absolutely without orders. 

"The event was not so fearful as I had reason to fear. 
President Lincoln had to decide upon the terminal of the Union 
Pacific and he had summoned me to give him the benefit of my 



454 ANNALS OF IOWA 

first hand knowledge of the region and the probable develop- 
ments. He recalled our conversation in Council Bluffs, and on 
the report I made to him he fixed the eastern terminus on the 
western boundary of Iowa in the townships that Council Bluffs is 
located in. About that time the government officers were 
begining to look favorably upon the notion of arming the negroes 
and I could offer some practical experience that was beneficial. 
I was thereupon given a general commission that enabled me to 
organize regiments directly and appoint the officers from my 
command which were duly commissioned at Washington. By 
this means I could reward my line officers and non-commissioned 
men. At first they did not look upon the offers or chances 
favorably but as the negroes proved that they could fight and 
under good training and discipline would make good soldiers, 
very soon my soldiers were anxious to secure commissions, The 
First Alabama Colored Regiment was thus organized by me 
and several other regiments." 



II 

A DELEGATE'S MEMORIES OF THE CHICAGO CON- 
VENTION OF 1860 

Ah Interview with Hon. Charles C. Nourse, Des Moines, 
April 26 and May 12, 1907 

"My memories of the Convention that met in Chicago, May 
16-18, 1860, are not so definite as you probably wish. Never- 
theless, events and men and measures that concerned us in 
those exciting days made a vigorous impression on my mind. I 
recall much in those days a great deal more clearly than I do 
happenings of ten years ago. However, I do not want to be 
held too strictly to account for details. You know in a few days 
now it will be just forty-eight years since we met in that Wig- 
wam at the corner of Market and Lake streets. 

"From the beginning of the serious discussion of candidacies 
in 1859, I was a Lincoln man. When I went to Chicago I felt 
strongly that two things had to be accomplished or all would be 
in vain in the forthcoming campaign. The first essential was to 




CHARLES CLINTON NOURSE 
From a Photograph by W. Kurtz, Madison Square, New York, 1876 



MEMORIES OF THE CHICAGO CONVENTION OF 1860 455 

prevent the nomination of William H. Seward. The second 
thing was to nominate a man whose views on the slavery question 
were solid and clear-cut, who would represent and attract those 
in all the old parties who strongly opposed the extension of 
slavery and the aggressions of its leaders, and whose character 
and career would not suggest attacks upon the property rights 
of the southern slave owners. The selection of Lincoln I be- 
lieved would meet the second condition of party success. 

"My objections to Seward were based partly upon my opinion 
of the New York statesman and his character, and partly upon 
my knowledge of what the people here in Iowa, particularly in 
the southern tiers of counties, thought of him. To me. Governor 
Seward was a dangerous radical. He had been intimately asso- 
ciated for over a decade with the extreme opponents of slavery, 
especially with the Free Soilers. He had used expressions in 
his speeches that seemed to us then to indicate that he was in 
favor of abolition or emancipation. Certainly this was the opin- 
ion of the great majority of the Democrats throughout Iowa. 
At the same time he was associated with the old Cotton Whigs 
of New York to such a degree as to make him objectionable to 
those Whigs who opposed further compromises for the sake of 
holding the southern trade. The manufacturers and merchants 
of New York were anxious to curry favor with the southerners. 
They wished first and last to maintain the supremacy of the 
port of New York as the transshipping point or center of the 
cotton and ocean carrying trade for the Southern States. They 
wanted further to enjoy a monopoly in supplying the South with 
manufactured goods. Back of Seward stood vast commercial 
interests. Their leaders counseled against firmness in opposing 
the arrogant demands of Judah P. Benjamin and Jefferson Davis, 
and favored compromising and conciliatory measures. We had 
had enough of compromises that made the southerners more and 
more aggressive and domineering. Another fact adverse to 
Governor Seward, in southern Iowa particularly, was his hostile 
attitude towards the 'American' or Know Nothing party that 
had a very considerable representation in Iowa. 

"These fears of Seward, or objections to his candidacy were 
not a dreamer's notions. They had been forced upon me as early 
as the Pierce-Scott campaign in 1852 and particularly in 1856. 



456 ANNALS OF IOWA 

In 1852 I was elected county prosecutor of Van Buren County 
as a Whig. In 185i I was renominated. The Free Soilers were 
numerous enough in the northern part of the county to cause the 
convention to put a Free Soiler by the name of French on the 
ticket. For several reasons I was strong enough to win on 
my own strength, but my friends soon told me that I could not 
carry the Free Soiler along with me. You see a great number 
of the people in Davis and Van Buren counties had moved into 
that region when they supposed it was a part of Missouri. In 
the contest over the boundary the decision was largely in our 
favor. The fact that those southerners were in Iowa did not, 
however, reconstruct their notions or ways of thinking. A Free 
Soiler to them was an abolitionist, an equal suffragist who pro- 
posed to force on us negro equality both political and social. I 
worked manfully on behalf of French but I could not disabuse 
their minds and I was beaten. It was my defeat that induced 
my friends to make me clerk of the House of Representatives 
in 1854, as a sort of compensation or 'consolation prize.' 

"In the Fremont campaign in 1856 I canvassed nearly all the 
southern counties of the state for the State Central Committee, 
and I knew, or thought I knew thoroughly how strong the anti- 
abolition and anticompromise sentiments were among the 
voters. By that time the old Whig party had disappeared as a 
national party organization. But we had large numbers of them 
in the state. Many, if not most of them were opposed to any 
interference with slavery in the Slave States, but they were just 
as much opposed to its extension. Many of them were strongly 
proslavery because they had come from Kentucky, Virginia and 
Maryland. We could not safely or sensibly antagonize them 
and Seward's speeches had made . them very uneasy and sus- 
picious. Finally, we had a large Know Nothing element in our 
region — ^just how large it was I cannot say now. But they 
made a tremendous noise and no one could really say whether 
the woods were full of them or not. The Bell-Everett vote 
showed that they were not a factor to be ignored. The most of 
them became Republicans and we believed that if not antag- 
onized or offended nearly all of them would come to us. They 
made us lots of trouble in the southern sections. To all this 
element Seward was especially distasteful because as governor 



MEMORIES OF THE CHICAGO CONVENTION OF 1860 45T 

of New York he had pursued a course contrary to their views 
on Catholicism and the school question. 

"Such objections were not captious or fanciful or mere make- 
believe. If we were to unhorse the Democrats at Washington we 
needed every ounce of strength we could muster. It was suicide 
to take any serious risks. We had to have a candidate that 
would unite all factions and all sections of the Republicans and 
attract to us the other discordant elements that were, like we 
were, opposing the Democracy and draw to us the thousands 
of Democrats who were discontented and disgusted with the 
weakness of Buchanan's administration. The right man in my 
judgment was the man who had worsted Stephen A. Douglas in 
1858. 

"Abraham Lincoln had secured my admiration and firm sup- 
port in 1858, because he had demonstrated his remarkable in- 
sight into the significance of the issues then disturbing us. His 
debates with Douglas had astonished us all by his profound 
thought and preeminent capacity for statesmanship. He was no 
artful dodger and he was no demagogue; he met the issues 
squarely and convinced the entire public that he knew and was 
master of the real problem. As soon as the lines began to be 
drawn and the date of the convention approached, I became 
convinced that Lincoln was the man we should nominate. Among 
the politicians, as the term goes, Seward had a large following. 
But Iowa could not be carried easily by anybody we might 
nominate. We had to fight, and to fight hard, to secure and to 
maintain control, and common prudence or 'good politics' if you 
please, as well as moral philosophy required that we nominate a 
man at Chicago who would carry our cause and the party through 
to victory. 

"Seward probably had the largest popular following in Iowa 
at the time; and I think that such was the case in the convention 
that met in Des Moines in January, 1860. But we were prac- 
tical politicians as well as ardent friends of the various candi- 
dates. We were chosen five months before the National Con- 
vention and none knew what might happen. Every practical 
political worker knows that winds and tides change suddenly and 
it would have been extremely foolish for us to be instructed 
then for anybody. We wanted to nominate a man that would win 



468 ANNALS OF IOWA 

and we divided honorably and fought hard but it was not petty 
huckstering that controlled our conduct. 

"The assertions of Professor Hart concerning our delegation 
has no justification. The fact that our Seward men held fast 
and fought from start to finish for their leader shows that a good 
portion of us were not wabblers or weak-kneed brethren. We 
original Lincoln men had to contend against tremendous 
odds — Seward's popularity and the money and hired workers of 
Thurlow Weed, the great manager of Seward's forces. We 
would call Weed a 'boss' nowadays. There were some, perhaps, 
in our delegation — but I recall none — as there were doubtless in 
every delegation, who considered the probabilities of personal 
advancement being an incidental result of the success of their 
own candidate — but it is unjust to Iowa's delegation to class us, 
as Professor Hart does, in his Life of Chase among corruption- 
ists. Even if he means only office broking, cabinet appointments, 
or the like, he implies petty sordidness on our part; and honor- 
able men do not rest easily under the implications of his state- 
ment. 

"The correspondent of Chase on whom Professor Hart de- 
pends was without warrant, in my judgment, for his assertion re- 
specting the delegates from Lee county. Dr. Walker and Senator 
Rankin were both men of great ability and solid character with a 
fine sense of honor regarding public matters. Neither pettiness 
nor desire for private gain were moving motives with either. Any 
one who knows the A B C's of politics knows that in the last 
struggle of the various factions and sections for the chief prizes 
of a convention that various sorts of combinations or 'trading,' if 
you please so to call it, result, but there is nothing essentially 
questionable about such proceedings. They are inevitable and, 
while now and then the result of petty trading and corrupt ex- 
change, are not usually reiirehensible. 

"Colonel Voris, of Bedford, Indiana, gives me undeserved 
credit in saying that I was the leading spirit among the Lincoln 
men of the Iowa delegation. I was young and active and I worked 
like a Trojan and no doubt I helped somewhat. But the real 
leader of the Lincoln men was Colonel Alvin Saunders, of Mt. 
Pleasant. He was one of our big men in Iowa in those days, a 
forceful, clear-headed and efficient worker. He had managed the 



MEMORIES OF THE CHICAGO CONVENTION OF 1860 459 

two campaigns of his fellow townsman, James Harlan, for the 
United States Senate, with rare discretion and marked success. 
He was widely acquainted in Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky and 
other states. He was, in fact, a whole team by himself. An- 
other man who probably exercised as much influence as Saunders 
on behalf of Illinois's candidate was Governor Samuel J. Kirk- 
wood. He was not a delegate, however. He had already won 
distinction by his course as governor. He was a great leader, a 
keen eyed statesman, and an adroit politician. He was exten- 
sively acquainted in Ohio where he had a state wide reputation 
before coming to Iowa. Saunders and Kirkwood probably did 
more than any others to bring the Iowa contingent around to 
Lincoln.' 

"Miss Tarbell's statement I think is true, but I cannot say 
positively who represented Iowa in that committee of twelve to 
which she refers. Saunders and I slept in the same room at the 
Tremont Hotel where Illinois and Iowa had their headquarters. 
Early in the evening of the night before the nomination was to 
be made I had gone up to get some rest. I was fagged by the 
long strain of the day. The outlook for Lincoln was gloomy 
indeed; I recall Saunders coming in. He was depressed and 
dubious about our chances of overcoming the New Yorkers. 
Kirkwood came in later. He was nervous and very uneasy and 
glum. I remember a peculiar sound he made that was character- 
istic of him whenever he was worried over anything — a clucking 
or sucking sound as he fidgeted about. Both of them soon went 
out and I went to sleep. After midnight Saunders came in and 
in some excitement wakened me. He said that he, or Kirkwood, 
or both, had just come from a caucus or committee of various 
states and that all present had decided to throw their votes and 
influence for Lincoln after the first ballot. He was jubilant at 
the outlook. I cannot assert definitely, but I feel certain that he 
or Kirkwood or both had been in attendance at a meeting that 



'In a letter to me dated at Des Moines, August 29, 1906, Judge Nourse says: 

"We had originally, first, last, and all the time, eight men in the delegation 

earnestly in favor of Mr. Lincoln's nomination. The most active of them were 

James F. Wilson of Fairfield, Alvin Saunders of Mount Pleasant, Thomas 

Seeley of Guthrie [county], and myself; the others I am not sure of." 

James F. Wilson later became a representative in Congress and a national 
senator from Iowa, becoming one of the prominent leaders of both bodies. Alvin 
Saunders was appointed the last governor of tlie territory of Nebraska; later 
he became a national senator from the state of Nebraska. Thomas Seeley had 
been a member of tlie Constitutional Convention in 1857 that drafted the 
present constitution of Iowa. 



460 ANNALS OF IOWA 

practically decided Lincoln's fate. I mean by this, of course, 
that none of us before that agreement were certain that we could 
swing Pennsylvania and New Jersey into line and insure Seward's 
defeat, which we deemed necessary to party success in the fall. 

"W. M. Stone's seconding Lincoln's nomination 'on behalf of 
two-thirds of the Iowa delegation was a case of undue excite- 
ment. The minutes are correct:^ he made the declaration, but he 
had no right to do so. All of us were astounded at his perform- 
ance and laughed at his being carried off his feet. Stone was 
not an original Lincoln man. He was for McLean or Chase as 
I recall. His vote on the first ballot was cast for one or the 
other in accordance with the decision of the delegates before we 
went into the convention. But Stone was a man who was bound 
to distinguish liimself some way or other. He supposed that his 
candidate would win of course, but when the deavening roar fol- 
lowed Judd's nomination of Abraham Lincoln — you know the 
Lincoln managers had packed the Wigwam while the Seward 
shouters were paradidng outside — Stone was carried off his feet. 
He thought he saw his chance and jumped up and proclaimed 
Iowa for Lincoln. The vote, however, showed that he was off; 
his own vote included. 

"The summary, or poll of the delegation in the St. Charles 
City Intelligencer [May 24, I860], is incorrect." There were 

'The above refers to the following minute in the proceedings of the conven- 
tion on Thursday morning after some fourteen different delegates had either 
nominated or seconded the nomination of different candidates, mostly either 
Seward or Lincoln : "Mr. Stone, of Iowa. Mr. President, I rise in the name 
of two-thirds of the delegation of Iowa to second the nomination of Abraham 
Lincoln. [Great Applause.]" See Chas. W. Johnson's Proceedings of the First 
Three Republican National Conventions, p. 149. 

"In its account of the Chicago Convention The St. Charles City Intelligencer 
of St. Charles City, in Floyd County, contained, May 24, 1860, the following: 

"The Iowa delegation had their headquarters at the Tremont House. Before 
the opening of the convention they organized by appointing W. Penn Clarke 
chairman and took a ballot among themselves for the purpose of ascertaining 
how they stood in reference to the different presidential candidates. The result 
was as follows: 

"Whole number of ballots 27 

Lincoln had 8 

Seward 7 

Bates 4 

Cameron 4 

McLean 3 

Chase 1" 

On the first ballot in the convention the delegation gave two votes to Seward, 
two votes to Lincoln, and one each to Bates, Cameron, Chase and McLean. The 
division of the delegates from Iowa was eight each for Seward and Lincoln and 
four each for the other candidates named. (See Johnson's Proceedings, p. 149.) 
Both the contemporary and the latter-day statements of the vote of the delegation 
from Iowa have been curiously misrepresented or incorrectly reported. Professor 
Hart in his Life of Chase states that the Ohioan received no votes from Iowa, 
(see p. 190.) lowans voted for Chase on all three ballots, William B. Allison of 
Uubuque and Judge William Sniythe of Cedar Rapids being among the number. 
Judge Smythe "died in the ditch" with Chase. (For the ballots, see Johnson's 
Proceedings, pp. 149, 152, 153.) 



MEMORIES OF THE CHICAGO CONVENTION OF 1860 461 

nine Seward men on the delegation. I remember very distinctly 
the heated discussions we had when we refused to allow it to be 
counted. It took four delegates to make one vote and we would 
not announce less than one-half a vote. Mr. R. L. B. Clarke, of 
Mt. Pleasant, an ardent Seward man, was among us by proxy 
apparently because his name, you say, does not appear among the 
regular delegates. He insisted stoutly upon having his vote for 
Seward added and there was a hot debate when we refused. He 
got so angry that I flippantly said that if he did not look out he 
would make us think he had just escaped from the new lunatic 
asylum at Mt. Pleasant, that was just then a subject of hot 
political discussion. 

"The Seward men were very confident of winning when we 
went into convention and they held fast to the end. Henry 
O'Connor of Muscatine, one of my successors as attorney general, 
in a ratification meeting afterwards at Muscatine, said there were 
two classes of men who voted for the New Yorker, 'plain' Seward 
and 'fool' Seward men, the latter voting for their candidate 
through thick and thin regardless of prospects and he, O'Connor, 
belonged to the latter class. 

"We delegates from Iowa were a noisy and contentious set. 
We were all young and full of ginger and fight. We were di- 
vided so badly that our deliberations were not always the most 
dignified. The odd Seward vote not being counted put a wire 
edge on the tempers of the Seward men. In the convention we 
sat next to the New Jersey delegation. The contrast between us 
was marked. We were full of life and enthusiasm and perhaps 
not very considerate of each other's feelings or opinions. The 
Jerseyites were extremely dignified and proper in their conduct. 
From their solemn looking clothes and polite behavior, one to 
another, we would think they were all college professors or 
preachers. They seemed always to bow to each other in a most 
deferential manner whenever one spoke to another. When Lin- 
coln was nominated we Lincoln men let loose such a series of war 
whoops and indulged in such fantastic antics that one of the 
Jersey delegates came up to me in one of my gyrations and very 
cautiously put his hand on my shoulder and said soberly, 'Why 
are you so excited? What is the need of so much feeling?' 'Why,' 
I said, letting forth another shout, 'we have nominated the best 



462 ANNALS OF IOWA 

man in the country for president and beaten that New York 
crowd of wire pullers. Why shouldn't we shout? We came from 
Iowa where we were suckled by prairie wolves ! Whoop !' and 
off again I went into a series of ear-splitting performances. I 
never was so happy in my life before or since. 

"One of the comical results of the convention was the cost of 
the 'Iowa Headquarters' to the chairman of the delegation, 
William Penn Clarke. Clarke felt very much elated at his selec- 
tion as chairman. I have forgotten whether we had concluded to 
choose him here in Des Moines or not. Any way, Clarke felt that 
he was certain of being so designated and he was also sure that 
it would promote his political ambitions which were robust at 
that time — he had been, you know, a strong candidate for the 
United States Senate against Grimes in 1858 — and he wanted to 
make the most of his honor. So he went to Chicago several days 
ahead of time and rented a good sized room and had it labeled 
'Iowa Headquarters.' We had no candidate to promote and no 
axes to grind and there was no particular need for so much show, 
but it gave us some prominence perhaps. The result to Clarke 
was hard on his pocketbook. There were a few on our delega- 
tion who liked wines and Kentucky Bourbon more than was good 
for them and at the convention such gay lords had plenty of en- 
couragement to indulge their fondness for spirits. Clarke him- 
self was not much given to such divers