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ANNALS 



LYCEUM OE NATURAL HISTORY 



^i5')( 



ANNALS ^^onal m,^ 



LYCEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



NEW YORK 



VOLUME X. 



NEW YORK: 

PUBLISHED FOR THE LYCEUM, 

NATURALISTS' AGENCY, SALEM, MASS. 

1874. 



Printed at 

THE SALEM PRESS. 

F. W. PUTNAJI & Co., Proprietors. 



OFFICERS OF THE LYCEUM, 
1873. 



IJresibiut. 
JOHN S. NEWBEERY 



T. EGLESTON. HENRY MORTON. 



fforrrspoubing .Sctrtiarjr. 
ROBERT DINWIDDIE 



^xKorbiug Sctrttarn. 
ROBERT H. BROWNNE 



(trrasurtr. 
JOHN H. HINTON, M. D, 

librarian. 
B . G. AMEND. 



€ommittK of ^ubluation. 

THOS. BLAND. JOHN S. NEWBERRY. 

GEO. N. LAWRENCE. DANIEL. S. MARTIN. 

II. CARRINGTON BOLTON. 



CONTENTS 



TENTH VOLUME 



BY THOMAS BLAND AND W. G. BINNET. 

Page. 

Notes on the Genus Pineria and on the Lingual Dentition of Pineria Viequcnsis, 

Pfi 22 

On the Lingual Dentition of Helix turbiniformis, Pfr., and other species of Ter- 
restrial Mollusca. (Plate II.) 79 

On the Sj'stematic Arrangement of North Anieriean Terrestrial Mollnsks 158 

On the Relations of Certain Genera of Terrestrial Mollusca of, or related to, the 
Sub-family Succininre, with Notes on the Lingual Dentition of Succinea ap- 

pendiculata, Pfr. (Plate IX, in part.) 198 

Description of Heniphillia, a new Genus of Terrestrial Mollusks. (Plate IX.). . . 208 
On the Lingual Dentition of Certain Terrestrial Pulmonata Foreign to the United 

States 219 

. On the Lingual Dentition of Gieotis. (Witli plnte XI in part.) 252 

Note on a curious form of Lingual Dentition in Physa. (With plate XI.) 255 

On Prophysaon, a new Pnlmonate Mollusk, on Ariolimax, on Helix lycliiuiihus 

and other species. (With Plates XHI and XIV.) 293 

On the Lingual Dentition and Anatomy of Achatinella and other Pulmonata. 

(With Plates XV and XVI.) 331 

BY TIIOJIAS BLAND. 

Description of a New Species of Mollusk of the Genus Helicina 186 

On the Physical Geography of, and the distribution of the Terrestrial Mollusca 

in, the Bahama Islands 311 

Description of a new species of Helix, and note on Helix Mobiliana, Lea 361 

BY n. CARRIXGTON BOLTON. 

Outlines of a Bibliography of the History of Chemistry 352 

BY LOUIS ELSBERG. 

On the Subdivisions of Science and their Classification 277 

BY p. FISCHER. 

Note sur 1' Anatomie des Cyrenes Americaines. (Plate VIII.) 191 

BY W. J. HAYES. 

Description of a Species of Cervus. (Plate X.) • 218 

BY GEORGE N. LAWRENCE. 

Descriptions of New Species of Birds from Mexico, Central America and South 

America; with a Note on iJa^MS longirostris 1 

(vii) 



VI 11 CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Descriptions of three New Species of American Birds, with a Note on Eugenes 

spectabilis 1 37 

Descriptions of New Species of Birds of the Genera Icterus and Synallaxis 184 

Descriptions of Six Supposed New Species of American Birds 395 

BY ALBERT LEEDS. 

Spectroscopic Exam ination of Silicates 324 

BT PROFESSOR BENJAMIX X. MARTIN. 

Essay upon a Necessary Limitation of tlie Doctrine of the Unity of the General 

Forces of Nature 211 

BT EDWARD S. MORSE. 

On the Tarsus and Carpus of Birds. (With Plates IV and V.) 141 

■ BY A. S. PACKARD, JR. 

Catalogue of the Pyralida3 of California, Mith descriptions of new Californian 

Pteropliorida; 257 

Notes on some Pyralidre from New England, with Kemarks on the Labrador 

Species of this Family , 2G7 

BY FELIPE POEY. 

Genrep des Poissons de la Faune de Cuba, appartenant a la Famille Percid:e, 

avec une Note d' introduction par J. Carson Brevoort. (Plate I.) 27 

Monographic des Poissons de Cuba compris dans la sous-famille des Sparini. 

(With Plates VI and VII.) 170 

BY TEMPLE PRIME. 

Notes on Specimens of Corhiculadaj in the Cabinet of the Jardin des Plantes at 

Paris, and on the authorship of the Eucyciopedie Methodique 188 

BY ROBERT RIDGWAY. 

Catalogue of the Birds ascertained to occur in Illinois 304 

BY JXO. J. STEVEXSON. 

The Upper Coal Measures West of the Alleghany IMonntains. (Plate XII.) 223 

Notes on the Coals of the Kanawha Valley, West Virginia 271 

BY AVILLIAM STIMPSOX. 

Notes on North American Crustacea, in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. (Xo. III.) 92 

BY TIIEO. A. TELLKAMPF. 

Notes on the Ascidea Maiihattensis, DeKay, and on the Mammaria Manhattensis. 

(Plate III.) 83 



LIST OF PLATES, VOL. X. 



Plate I. Gramma Loreto. Hypoplectriis maculiferus. 

Plate II. Figs. 1 and 5. Unlimulus laticinctus. 
" 3. Helix ttirbiniformis. 
" 3 aud 4. Bulimulus Bahamensis. 
For explanations see page 82. 
Plate III. Molgula Manliattensis. 

For explanations see page 91. 
Plate IV. Tarsus and Embryos of Birds. 
Plate V. Carptis of Birds. 

For explanations see pages 156-158. 
Plate VI. Calamus Bajonculo. 
Calamus orbitarius. 
Plate VII. Calamus macrops. 

Grammateus medius. 
Plate VIII. Figs. 1-4. Cyrena Carolinensis. 
" 5-6. " Floridana. 
For explanations see page 197. 
Plate IX. Figs. 1, l.i-17. Hemphillia glandulosa. 

" 2, 6, 9-11. Succinea appcndiculata. 
" 4, 5. Pellicula depressa. 
" 7, 8. Simpulupsis sulculosa. 
" 12-14. Pellicula convexa. 
For explanations see page 210. 
Plate X. Cervus Yucatanensis. 
Plate XI. Fig. 1, 5-7. Gceotis. 
" 2-4, 9. Physa. 
" 8. Amphibulima patula. 
For explanations see page 2.5G. 
Plate XII. Map to show limits of the Upper Coal Measures in Ohio. 
Plate XIII. Fig. 1. ArioUmax niger. 

" 2-8. Prophysaon Remphilli. 
Plate XIV. Figs. 1, 2. Helix Columbiana. 
" 3, 4. Helix germana. 
" 5-8. Helix lychnuohus. 
For explanations see page 310. 
Plate XV. Fig. 1. Zonites Gundlachi. ^ 

" 2,4,5. Achatinella producta. 
" 3. Nanina Chamissoi. 
" 6. Newcombia picta. 
" 7, 9-11. Laminella Mastersi. 
" 8. Leptachatina nitida. 
Plate XVI. Figs. 1-2. Helix ]ncta. 

" 3-5. Oiichidium Schrammi. 
For explanations see page 351. 

(ix) 



EEEATA. 

Page 83, between 2d and 3d line from top, insert "with Plate III." 

Page 85, 7th line from bottom, after "cilise on the inside" substitute a semicolon for 

the comma ; same page and line, for " canal " read " canals." 
Page 90, 5th line from bottom, for "vermicem," read " vermium." 
Page 1G9, 10th line from bottom, for "cabias,^' read "calias;" same page, 6th line 

from bottom, for "jaws," read "jaw is." 
Page 185, (!th line from top, for "Tuchitan," read " Juchitan." 
Page 325, 5th line from bottom, for " could," read " can." 
Page 328, top line, for " sligoclase-felsite," read " albite." 
Page 382, between 2d and 3d line from bottom, insert "Genus Ortyx." 
Page 395, 18th line from top, for " species," read " specimens." 

(xi) 



ANNALS 



LYCEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, 



I.— Descriptions of New Species of Birds from Mexico, Cen- 
tral America, and South America, with a Note on Ral- 
lus longirostris. 

By GEO. N. LAWKENCB. 

Read January 30th, 1871. 

Some of the birds described in this paper were obtained by 
the late Col. A. J. Grayson, of Mazatlan, most of tlieni on the 
Island of Socorro, off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Col. Gray- 
son's collection, with others made in Northwestern Mexico, were 
kindly placed in my hands by Prof. Henry, of the Smithsonian 
Institution, for examination, with a view to furnishing a cata- 
logne of them, in which the notes of Col. Grayson are to be 
incorporated. As some time will elapse before this can be pre- 
pared and published, I have thought best, preliminary to its 
appearance, to describe the new species. 

Several of the species have MS. names given them by Prof. 
Baird, wJiich in all such cases have been retained. 

1. Marpor]iynclMi§ sraysoni, Baird, MS. 

Male. Above of a rather dull reddish-brown, the front paler, a 
blackish spot in front of and under the eye ; chin, upper part of 
throat and sides of the head pale ochreous, the latter marked with 
narrow faint dusky bars; tail dark liver-brown, the outer three 

FEBRUARY, 1871. 1 ^^. L^^, N^^_ ^IST., VOL. X. 



2 Description of New Species of Birds from 

feathers witli a gi-ayisli spot on the inner web at the end ; quills of 
the same color as the tail, the larger ones narrowly edged with dull 
white, the others with dull pale rufous ; the entire under-plumage is 
pale yellowish fulvous, sides darker, with longitudinal brown stripes ; 
bill black ; tarsi and toes blackish-brown. 

Length (fresh) 11|- in.; wing i\\ tail 5^; bill f ; tarsi If. 

Habitat. Socorro Island, Mexico. Collected bj Col. A. J. 
Grayson, June, 1865. Type in Museum of the Smithsonian 
Institution, No. 59987. 

The female (No. 50808) differs in being brownish on the un- 
der-plumage, without any of the yellowish tint. 

liemarks. This is so distinct from all others of the genus, 
that no comparisons are required. 

Note hy Col. Grayson. 

'''■Socorro Thrush, MocMng-Blrd. Iris brown ; bill and feet 
black, nails do. ; soles of feet dull yellow. First primary xox^ 
short or spurious, third and fourth longest ; tails lightly forked 
wdien closed. 

"Not very abundant, but seems to be well distributed over the 
island. It has all the cliaracteristics of tlie true Mocking-Bird 
{Mimus polyglottus) in its habits. Of solitary disposition, it 
attacks every bird of its own species that approaches its usual 
haunts. There was one that took up its quarters in our camp, 
and was certainly the tamest bird of this genus I ever saw. He 
appeared to take pleasure in our society, and attacked furiously 
every bird that came near us ; he doubtless regarded us as his 
•own property, often perching upon the table when we were 
taking our meals, and eating from our hands, as though he liad 
been brought up to this kind of treatment; at times ascending 
to the branches over our heads,' he would break forth into loud 
and mellow song, very thrush-like. In the still hours of the 
night, while roosting on the branches near us, he would some- 
times utter a few dreamy notes, recalling to mind the well- 
,known habits of the true Mocking-Bird." 



Mexico, Central America, and South Amei^ica. 3 

9. Cistotlioriis aequatorialis. 

Male. Upper plumage brownisli rufous, brightest on the rump ; 
the feathers of the crown and hind neck have their centres marked 
with j^aler, nearly obsolete stripes ; a stripe of pale rufous extends 
from over the eye to the hind neck, sides of the head and neck clear 
light rufous ; a narrow dark brown line runs from the angle of the 
mouth under the eye ; the interscapular feathers are blackish-brown, 
with conspicuous shaft stripes of pale fulvous ; tail light rufous, with 
transverse narrow bars of black, on the central feathers there are 
thirteen bars, on the others they are broader and wider apart ; quills 
dark umber-brown, the outer primaries narrowly margined with 
white, the outer webs of the smaller quills and the wing coverts are 
light rufous, more or less transversely marked with blackish-brown ; 
the under surface is j)ale rufous, whitish on the throat and middle of 
the abdomen, brighter on the flanks and under tail coverts ; under 
wing coverts whitish ; upper mandible light-brown, the vmder pale 
yellowish-white, dusky at the tip ; tarsi and toes yellowish- white. 

Length (skin) about 4|- in. ; wing If; tail If; bill y'^; tarsi f. 

Habitat. Fichincha, Ecuador. Type in the Museum of 
Yassar College, from the collection of Prof. J. Orton. 

Hernarks. This species seems of a somewhat stouter form 
than C. stellaris, with longer tarsi and bill ; the colors are 
lighter and more rufous ; it may be distinguished by the absence 
of dark brown on the crown, and its clear rufous uropygium ; 
the tail also is rufous, with narrower and more numerous bands. 

3. Trog^lodytes m§nlai*i$, Baird, MS. 

Male. Plumage above of a dull light brown, slightly rufescent, and 
crossed with narrow faint dusky bars, front paler, the feathers of the 
crown have lighter margins ; the concealed feathers of the rump end 
with white ; lores, a narrow line over the eye, sides of the head, and 
the entire under-plumage of a clear pale fulvous, the under-tail cov- 
erts with dusky bars ; tail light brown, crossed with numerous dark 
brown bars, on the outer feathers the interspaces are whitish ; the pri- 
mary and secondary quills have their inner webs dark liver-brown, the 
outer webs are light brown with whitish indentations, tertiaries light 



4: Description of New Sj)ecics of Birds from 

brown, barred with darker brown ; upper mandible brown, the under 
yellowisli- white, dusky at the end ; tarsi and toes yellowish-brown. 
Length (fresh) 5 in.; wing 1^; tail If ; bill f ; tarsi f. 

Habitat. Socorro Island, Mexico. Collected by Col. A. J. 
Grayson. Type in Mns. Smithsonian Institution, '^o. 50810. 

RemarJcs. This somewhat resembles T. ioiquietus from 
Panama, but that species has a stouter bill, the colors are more 
rufous, and the bars more clearly defined ; the flanks and under- 
tail coverts are of a darker rufous, the former faintly barred, 
the latter with dark brown bars and ending with white. 

Note hy Col. Grayson. 

^^ Socorro Wren. Iris brown; bill dark brown above, under 
mandible paler ; feet brown, nails black; wings much rounded, 
the fifth and sixth primaries longest. 

" This busy little wren is the most common bird I met with 
upon the Island, and everywhere its cheerful song may be 
heard in the ti'ees, or among the brambles and rocks ; like all 
the birds peculiar to this Island, it is very tame. I often saw it 
feeding upon dead land-crabs ; and I may here remark, that all 
the birds inhabiting the Island, with the exception of doves and 
parrots, subsist more or less upon this crustacean." 

4. Pariila iiisiiilnris. 

Male. Plumage above of a clear bluish-gray, a patch of dull green- 
ish-yellow in the middle of the back ; a blackish mark sun-ounds the 
fore part of the eye ; tail feathers brownish-black, with margins the 
color of the back, the outer two feathers on each side have a small 
spot of dull white on the inner web near the end ; the smaller wing 
coverts and exposed portions of the others, and of the inner quills, 
are the color of the back ; the concealed parts of the middle and 
lai'ger coverts are black, the ends of both largely marked with white ; 
the quills are blackish-brown, the outer with narrow whitish edges ; 
inside of wings white ; under-plumage bright yellow, deepening to 
orange on the upper breast and on the flanks, lower part of abdomen 
light fulvous, in the middle and on the under tail coverts creamy- 



Mexico, Central America, and South America. 5 

white, thighs light ashy brown ; upper mandible black, the under 
yellow, with the tip brown ; tarsi and toes brown. 

Length (skin) 4|^ in. ; wing 2^; tail 1| ; bill .^ ; tarsi f. 

Habitat. Tres Marias Islands, Mexico, Collected by Col. 
A. J. Grayson. Type in Miis. Smithsonian Institntion, No. 
50796. Four specimens in the collection are all males. 

In the collection made by Col. Grayson at Socorro Island, 
are eight specimens of Panda, only one of which has the sex 
indicated, viz., No. 50804, a female ; they are probably the 
same as the males from the Tres Marias ; they differ in having 
the upper plumage more gray, scarcely showing any shading of 
blue, but with the rump tinged with greenish-yellow, and the 
quills and tail feathers edged with the same color ; below they 
are of a paler yellow ; all the Socorro Island birds are much 
alike, which raa}'^ be due to seasonal change, as it is not pro- 
bable that all the specimens are females. 

liemarhs. Col. Grayson says of this species, "perhaps 
Parula pitiayumi,'''' but they are very distinct. That species 
is of a deeper and more decided blue above than all others of 
the genus, whereas the present bird is paler. P. pitiaijumi is 
entirely of a deep yellow below, with the lores a decided black ; 
in the present species the lower part of the abdomen is whitish 
and the lores dusky ; it also has the tail longer and the wings 
shorter than those of P. jntiayumi. 

Note hy Col. Grayson. 

"Iris brown; bill black above, dull yellow below towards 
the base and black at tip; feet brown, with yellow soles, claws 
dark brown ; indistinct shady bars across the upper part of tail 
feathers. This bird seems to be identical with the Tres Marias 
species, and is quite common on the Socorro; it is a little larger 
than the Marias' bird, and less white at the extremities of the 
tail feathers." 



6 Desorijpiion of New Species of Birds from 

5. Haeniopliila stiiiiieBtrasfi. 

Female, The feathers of the back are pale rufous, broadly marked 
down their centres with dark brown, the rum]) is immaculate and the 
upper tail coverts bright rufous ; the feathers of the crown have dark 
brown shaft-stripes, with their edges brighter rufous than those of 
the back, there is a narrow cinereous stripe from the bill over the 
centre of the crown to the hind neck ; a broader stripe of ashy-white 
extends from the bill over the eye, along each side of the crown as far 
back as the central stripe ; below, and bordering this, is a brownish- 
red postocular stripe, also one from the bill to the eye ; sides of the 
head and of the neck, lower part of the throat and the breast, of 
a pale ashy color, upper part of throat and abdomen grayish-white, 
the latter washed with very pale rufous, flanks and imder tail coverts 
light rufous ; a short, narrow brown line extends back from the 
angle of the mouth, and another parallel to it down the side of 
the chin on each side ; the two central tail feathers are of a rather 
bright rufous, and are crossed with dusky, nearly obsolete bars, 
the other tail feathers have their inner webs brownish-rufous, the 
outer webs colored like the central feathers, the outer feather 
very pale rufous; quills liver-brown, margined with dull pale 
rufous, smaller wing coverts deep bright rufous, the middle and 
greater coverts blackish-brown edged with very pale rufous ; " iris 
brownish-red; upper mandible brown, the lower mandible and feet 
fleshy." 

Length (skin) 5| in. ; wing 2|- ; tail 2f ; tarsi f . 

IlaUtat Tuchitan, Tehuantepec, Mexico. Collected by 
Prof. F. Sumichrast, September 8, 1868. Type in Mus. 
Smithsonian Institution, No. 54139. 

liemarl-s. With the exception of the very different mark- 
ings about the head, this species in coloring much resembles 
my II. melanotis ; but it is jnuch smaller, and differs from it in 
there being no black on the crown or sides of the head, and in 
having two narrow stripes extending downwards from the bill, 
on each side of the throat. 

I found a single specimen of tliis species in a remarkably fine 
collection of birds made by Prof. F. Sumichrast, in Southwest- 



Mexico, Cerdral America, and South America. 7 

ern Mexico, belonging to the Smithsonian Institution, and sub- 
mitted to me for examination by Prof. Henry. It contains many- 
species of much interest, but so far this is the only one I feel 
satisfied to describe as new. 

Since ray determination of it as a new species, I have 
received a letter from Prof. Sumichrast, containing a full 
description and an accurate drawing of the head, apparently 
of the same bird, which he writes he is tempted to con- 
sider new. It is, therefore, with mucli pleasure I dedicate 
it to him. 

6. PipiEo carmanl. 

Male. Wliole upper plumage, head, throat, and upper part of 
the breast olivaceous brown, with a reddish cast ; there is a spot of 
white on the centre of the throat (tliis last character varies in size in 
different individuals) ; tail blackish-brown, edged with olivaceous and 
crossed with almost obsolete dusky bars, the outer two feathers on 
each side with an iri-egular oval sjiot of white on their inner webs at 
the end ; quills dark hair-brown, with grayish margins ; the wing 
coverts blackish-brown, the greater and middle coverts, the scapulars 
and the tertiaries spotted with white at their ends ; lower part of 
breast and middle of abdomen white, sides broadly marked with 
bright ferrviginous, the under tail coverts pale ferruginous ; upper 
mandible brownish-black, the under paler ; tarsi and toes light fleshy- 
brown. 

Length 6^ in. ; wing 2f ; tail 3 ; bill ^ ; tarsi 1 

The female differs only in having the color of the upper 
plumage and that of the throat of a lighter brown ; the 
coloring of the abdomen, and the sides are the same in both 
sexes. 

Habitat. Socorro Island, Mexico. Collected by Col. A. J. 
Grayson, June, 18G5. Types in Mus. Smithsonian Institution, 
No. 50843, N'o. 39990. 

Remarks. As will be seen, this is quite a diminutive species ; 
its style of coloring is like that of P. erythrojpthalmus, P. 



8 DescriiJtion of Neic Species of Birds from 

a7'Gficus, &(i. It may readily be known from all others by its 
smaller size. 

Col. Grayson reqnested that this species might be named 
after his friend, Dr. B. F. Carman, of Mazatlan, to whom he 
was under many obligations. With this request it gratifies 
me to be able to comply. 

JVoie by Col. Grayson. 

" Iris reddish-hazel ; bill black; tarsi and toes brown; nails 
brown. 

" This is an abundant species, found m all the thickets of the 
Ishxnd ; many of them took up their abode in our camp, picking 
up crumbs about our feet, as tame as domestic fowls. They de- 
lighted in bathing in the water we had placed in a basin on the 
ground for their use, and frequent combats took place between 
them for this privilege. It was througli the agency of tliis 
species that water was discovered in a localit}^ where we had 
not the remotest idea of finding it, and for this providential 
service he was a welcome visitor and a privileged character." 

7. AttiSa €ioiBft»flnoineus. 

Male. Upper plumage of a rather light reddish cinnamon, the 
rump and upper tail coverts pale yellowisli-cmnamon, the covei'ts 
lightest in color ; front, superciliary stripe and sides of the head clear 
light yellow, all the feathers having black shaft-stripes ; the throat 
and breast are clear yellow, the centres of the feathers with dusky 
flammulations, abdomen and under tail coverts bright lemon-yellow, 
sides of the breast and flanks bright pale cinnamon, thighs yellow, 
tinged with cinnamon ; tail clear cinnamon, of a brighter color than 
the back ; quills dark brown, the primaries edged with grayish, the 
secondaries with light cmnamon ; the smaller wing coverts are the 
color of the back, the middle and larger are blackish-brown ending 
with cinnamon ; under wing coverts bright yellow, axillaries tinged 
with cinnamon ; bill brownish horn-color, both mandibles whitish at 
tip, the hook much elongated ; tarsi and toes brown. 

Length (skin) 8^ in. ; wing 3^ ; tail 3^ ; bill 1 ; tarsi 1. 



Mexico^ Central America^ and South Amej'ica. 9 

The female differs in having grayish-white on the front, sides of the 
head, throat and breast, in place of the yellow of the male ; the abdo- 
men is creamy- white, with a slight tinge of yellow on the lower part ; 
under tail coverts very pale yellow ; under wing coverts light yellow. 

Habitat. Mazatlan, Mexico. Collected by Col. A. J. Gray- 
son. Types in Museum of Smithsonian Institute, ^ No. 58231 ; 
? No. 58232. 

Rem,arhs. Three specimens are in Col. Grayson's collection, 
two marked A. sdateri and one A. citreopyg'ms^ but I think it 
a very distinct species from both ; its affinities are with A. cit- 
reopygius^ from which it differs in its upper plumage being not at 
all tinged with brown, the light marking on the rump apparently 
more restricted, the yellow coloring below clearer and brighter, 
without any brown on the sides of the breast, and the under 
wing coverts yellow — not light cinnamon as in that species ; 
the tail is lighter in color, not inclining to brown ; the feathers 
overlying the pleura are brighter in color and more elongated ; 
it is larger than A. citreojyygius, the tail being half an inch 
more in length than that of the other ; the bill is more slender, 
with the hook conspicuously longer, and much lighter in color. 
A. sdateri has not been found, I think, north of Costa Eica; 
it may be distinguished by tlie olive-green which prevails in its 
upper plumage, also on the neck and breast. 

8. ToclirostriioM §tiperciliafl*i§. 

Crown and hind neck dark grayish-plumbeous, the front blackish ; 
a white stripe extends from over the eye quite forward on the bill ; 
lores blackish ; back and rump bright olive-green ; tail black, mar- 
gined with olive-green ; wing coverts black, the ends broadly marked 
with bright yellow ; quills brownish-black, edged with bright yellow ; 
under wing coverts yellow ; the under-plumage is peai'ly-white, with 
the upper part of the breast light plumbeous ; a wash of j^ale yellow on 
the lower part of the abdomen and under tail coverts ; sides under the 
wings light olive-gi-een ; bill black, whitish at the end ; tarsi and toes 
pale brown. 

Length 3| in. ; wing 2 ; tail If; tarsi f ; bill ^. 



10 Description of New Sjyecies of Birds from 

Ilalntat. Yenezuela ? Collected by Mr. Christopher Wood, 
of Philadelphia. Type in my collection. 

liemarhs. In general appearance this comes nearest to T. 
soMstaceiceps^ Scl., but has the crown of a lighter shade; is much 
whiter below, the ashy coloring occupying only a small space 
on the upper part of the breast ; the yellow markings on the 
wings are much broader and brighter ; the wings, tarsi and tail 
are longer ; a very distinguishing character is the white stripe, 
which runs from over the eye to the nostrils, on each side of 
the crown, whereas T. sGhistaceiceps has a white spot in front 
of the eye, not extending over it. 

9. Elainea niactlvninii. 

Upper plumage greenish-olive, yellowisli-green on the rump ; front 
and crown blackish-brown, with a crest of light sulphur-yellow ; a 
line from the bill over the eye and circle round the eye grayish-white ; 
lores dusky ; tail light umber-brown, edged with yellowish-green ; the 
smaller wing coverts are colored like the back, the other coverts are 
dark brown, the middle ones ending with very pale yellow, forming a 
transverse band, and the larger edged with the same color ; quills 
blackisli-brown, the primaries narrowly and the secondaries rather 
broadly margined with pale yellow ; under wing coverts light yellow ; 
chin and throat grayish-white, sides of the breast dusky olive-green, 
middle of the breast pale yellow, the feathers with ashy centres, the 
abdomen and under tail coverts are of a clear, rather pale yellow ; bill 
and feet black. 

Length 4f ui. ; wing 2^ ; tail 2^ ; tarsi f ; bill f . 

Habitat. Yenezuela? Collected by Mr. Christopher "Wood. 
Type in my collection. 

Remarks. This fly-catcher in coloring most resembles E. 
placens, Scl., but is much smaller, with the upper plumage of a 
darker shade ; the wings and tail each measure half an inch 
less than those of that species ; the top of the head is dairker 
and the crest much paler ; by these differences it is easily dis- 
tinguished. 



Mexico, Central America, a/nd South America. 



11 



I have named this species in compliment to my fnend, J. H. 
Mcllvain, Esq., of Philadelphia, an ethnologist as well as 
ornithologist, to whose liberality Mr. Wood is indebted for the 
opportunity to make the collection, from which I obtained this 
and the preceding species. 

Unfortunately, Mr. Wood lost a considerable portion of his 
collection by shipwreck. 

10. Empidonax falvipectiis. 

Male. The entii-e iipper phxmage is brownish-olive, the crown and 
lengthened crest are a little darker ; lores dnsky gray ; a conspicuous 
cirde of pale yellow around the eye; tail dark brown, the outer web 
of the outside feather dull white, the other feathers edged with olive ; 
the smaller wing coverts are the color of the back, the middle and 
larger are blackish-brown, ending with dull pale fulvous; forming two 
bars across the wing ; quills blackish-brown, with oUve-gi-een margins ; 
under wing coverts pale tawny yellow ; under plumage dull yellow, 
the chin grayish, the breast and upper part of the abdomen of an 
olivaceous brownish-fulvous, middle of abdomen light huffy yellow ; 
the upper mandible is brownish-black, the under pale yellow ; tarsi 
and toes brownish-black. 

Length 5f m. ; wing 3 ; tail 2f ; bill -Jj ; tarsi |. 
The bill is very narrow and tapers regularly from the base, not the 
least bulging at the sides ; the third quill is the longest, second and 
fourth nearly as long, first and sixth equal. 

Habitat. City of Mexico. Type in my collection. 
Bemarhs. This species in its peculiar coloring is somewhat 
like E. hairdii, Scl., but may readily be known by its more 
slender form, longer wings and tail, its general duller color, 
decided brownish breast, and slender bill, this last in K hairdii 
being quite broad. 

The bill exceeds in length that of K hammondi, while it is 
quite as narrow at the base. 

11. Tro^on eximiHS. 

Trogon viridis, Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y., Yol. vii., p. 290. ^ 
Male. Crown and hmd neck dark violet-blue, back of a shhihig 



12 Description of New Species of Birds from 

dai-k green, more or less mixed with violet-blue, rump and upper tail 
coverts deep violet-blue ; front, cheeks, chin, and throat black ; breast 
fine violet-blue, connecting with the same color on the hind neck ; 
abdomen and under tail coverts very deep orange, sides dark gi-ayish 
slate-color, thighs sooty black ; two middle tail feathers green, with a 
decided wash of blue, the outer webs of the next two feathers are of 
the same color, the inner webs black — the ends of all these end nar- 
rowly with black, the outer three feathers are white, their concealed 
bases being black ; wings black ; the quill feathers have their bases 
white, the primaries are narrowly edged with white for two-thirds 
their length ; the upper mandible is whitish horn-color, with the base 
pale plumbeous, the under is dark plumbeous ; feet dark br-own, the 
soles yellow. 

Mr. J. Galbraith, in his note of this species, says, " very common, 
light blue about the eyes, irides brown." 

Length (fresh) 10|- in. ; wing 5f ; tail 6 ; tarsi ^. 

The female is of a plumbeous slate-color, grayish on the breast, the 
abdomen and under tail coverts orange ; primaries of a rich dark 
brown ; the wing coverts and smaller quills are black, crossed with 
very narrow undulating white lines, rather widely separated ; tail 
blackish-brown, with a purplish gloss, the three lateral feathers are 
white at their ends, the outer web of the outer feather is barred with 
white, and has a few irregular bars of the same color on the inner 
web, both webs of the next feather also have a few white bars. 

Habitat. Isthmus of Panama. Types in my collection. 

Remarhs. In my catalogue of birds from Panama, I in- 
cluded this species as T. viridis, Linn. ; but as it differs so 
materially from that species, I consider it to be distinct. 

In general coloration it somewhat resembles T. viridis, but 
is rather smaller; the back is mixed with violet-blue, and the 
rump is of a more intense violet-blue color ; the wash of blue on 
the tail is more apparent, and the orange of the under parts is 
of a deeper shade ; but the most distinguishing character is 
that of the outer tail feathers, which have a much greater ex- 
tent of white on their terminal portions, when the tail is closed, 
the under side apj)ears entirely white, the black bases being 



Mexico, Central America, and South Ainerica. 13 

quite concealed, whereas in T. viridis the ends of the feathers 
only are white, the black basal portions showing conspicuously. 

Specimens referred to T. vemisfus, Cab., by Mr. Cassin, are 
in Prof. Orton's collection, from Archidona, Ecuador; they 
agree quite well with Cabanis' description, except in being of 
the same size as T. viridis, not " somewhat smaller," and that 
the abdomen is deep orange; he says, "belly yellowish-orange;" 
in describing T. viridis, he has, " belly orange," but this is 
perhaps a variable character. 

Compared with examples of T. vi?'idis from Bahia, Prof. 
Orton's specimens are more of an azure instead of violet-blue, 
the u]q)er plumage more golden, the rump less violet, being 
mixed with green ; the middle tail feathers are green, without 
any shading of blue, and the abdomen and under tail coverts of 
a deeper orange ; in the extent of white on the end of the tail 
feathers, they agree with T. viridis. 

These conq^arative differences with T. viridis are very simi- 
lar to those pointed ont by Dr. Cabanis ; as lie makes no allu- 
sion to the ending of the outer tail featliers, I infer they are 
the same in botli. 

Specimens exactlj' corresponding with those from Archidona 
are in collections received b}^ Prof. Orton from Mr. J. Haux- 
well, at Pebas on the Upper Amazon ; also, I have an example 
from Bogota. 

The new species differs from the specimens above spoken of 
as T. venustus, in the head and breast being of a deeper blue, 
the rump intensely violet instead of greenish ; the middle tail 
feathers, instead of being green, are more blue even than those 
of T. viridis f the greater extent of white on the outer tail 
feathers distinguishes it from this as well as from T. viridis ; 
the orange coloring below is of a deeper color than in either 
T. venustus or T. viridis. 

13. €liIoro§tiBlioii carib£e»!>i. 

Male. Crown of a glitteiing pale golden-green, upper plumage and 
wing coverts grass-green, somewliat golden ; the entire undei--phimage 



14 Descrijption of Nevi Species of Birds from 

is of a brilliant uniform emerald-green, with a few white feathers on 
the flanks ; tail steel-blue ; wings brownish-purple ; bill black ; feet 
dark brown. 

Length about 3^ in. ; wing If ; tail 1|- ; bill f . 

Habitat. Island of Cura9ao. Type in my collection. 

Remarhs. Its nearest ally appears to be C. atala, but that 
species is entirely of a golden-green ; the new species is only 
slightly golden above, not the least so in its under-plum age, 
where it is of a much darker shade of green, and more glitter- 
ing ; the tail is strikingly larger and the feathers broader, the 
color of which is more blue, that of C. atala being more of a 
steel-black; the wings are longer, and the bill appears to be 
stouter than in that species. 

Three specimens were presented to me by my friend, Mr. 
T. Bland ; he obtained them from Mr. Henry H. Raven, who 
brought them from the Island of Cura9ao. Two of the speci- 
mens are immature males. 

13. Cosiiirms hoilochlorus var. I>revipes, Baird, 

M. S. 

Male. The general plumage is grass-green ; the abdomen is lighter 
and has a yellowish cast ; ends and inner margins of quills blackish ; 
inside of quills and under-surface of the tail dull yellowish ; bill 
yellowish-white ; feet light yellow. 

There is no difference in the plumage of the sexes. 

Length (fresh) 12^ in. ; wing 6f ; tail 6|^; tarsi f. 

Habitat. Socorro Island, Mexico. Collected by Col. A. J. 
Grayson, "Spring of 1S65." Type in Mus. Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, No. 39971. 

Remarks. Six specimens before me, compared with two ex- 
amples of C. holochlorus from Salvador, have the toes uniformly 
shorter ; the wMngs of the Socorro Island bird are half an inch 
shorter than in. those from Salvador ; in plumage there is no 
perceptible difference in the two forms. 



Mexico^ Central America^ and South America. 15 

The toes of the two forms measure as follows : — 
C. holochlorus — Outer toe \^\ middle l^-; inner f ; hind ^. 
C.lrevi^es— " f; " f; " I; " f. 

Ifote hy Col. Grayson. 

^'■Socorro Parrot. Iris reddish-brown ; bill yellowish-white, 
dark or black at point ; feet pale yellow, with brownish scutell^e ; 
nails dark brown. Contents of the stomach, kernels of nuts. 

" This Parakeet is quite abundant and evidently belonging to 
this locality, which it never leaves ; they are to be met with in 
flocks or in pairs. In the mornings they left the cove in which 
we were encamped, for the higher regions of tlie interior, to 
feed, returning again in the evening to roost; this cove, in 
which the .trees are larger and the shade more dense than in 
other parts of the Island, seems to be their favorite resort. I saw 
them at times walking about on the ground beneath these trees, 
apparently picking up clay or gravel. The_y are remarkably 
tame, exhibiting no fear in our presence ; three cages were soon 
filled with them, which were caught by hand, and their con- 
stant whistling for their mates brought many of them into 
camp, perching upon the cages and elsewhere. They feed upon 
a hard nut which they find in the mountain-gorges, and on ac- 
count of the inaccessible localities where this fruit grew, I was 
unable to find it; the powerful jaws of this Parakeet would 
indicate the fruit to be ver\' hard." 

14. I^eptoptila boiiapartii. 

Male. Above of a light brownisli-olive, a little browner on the 
wings and more olivaceous on the lower back and upper tail coverts, 
hind neck grayish, with a bluish tinge ; front whitish, with a slight 
roseate tint, crown plumbeons-blue, grayish on the forward part and 
darker towards the occiput ; throat white, sides of the head light 
brownish-vinaceous, this color extending somewhat on the hind neck ; 
breast and upper part of abdomen of a pale roseate color, lower part 
of abdomen and under tail coverts white, sides under the wings light 



16 Description of New Species of Birds from 

cinnamon-brown ; four middle tail feathers colored like the back, the 
others purplish-black, terminating in white ; under wing coverts dark 
bright cinnamon ; the inner webs of the primaries light cinnamon, the 
larger quills are of a fine dark brown, the exposed portions of the 
others colored like the back ; bill black ; feet yellow. 
Length 10^ in. ; wing of; tail 4 ; bill W ; tarsi ly^g-. 

Habitat. Mexico (A. Salle). Type in Mas. Smithsonian 
Institution, No. 29693. 

ReinarTis. This specimen was received from Mr. Salle and 
labelled by him " Z. alVfrons^ Bj). ','''' the reverse side of the 
lable is marked " ^ P. Y. Juin, '59." It no doubt v^^as super- 
vised by Bonaparte, as Salle's birds mostly were ; it is very 
distinct from the species, which is now admitted to be entitled 
to bear that name, viz., the bird for some time known as L. 
hrachyptera, Gray. 

I found this specimen in the collection of the Smithsonian 
Institution (where there are numerous specimens of the true 
L. alhifrojis) about two years ago, and hesitated to describe it 
as new, fearing to add to the confusion attached to the name of 
albifrons. In general coloration it somewhat resembles that 
species, which differs in being of a lighter olive above and 
more roseate on the breast, it has a much longer tail, with no 
plumbeous on the crown, and may be known from all its allies 
by the inner webs of the primaries being just edged with pale 
cinnamon. 

L. j^lumheiccps, Scl. & Salv. (P. Z. S., 1868, p. 59), differs in 
being dark brown above, in having the plumage of the breast 
somewhat darker, and the under-lining of the wings of a more 
intense color; in the new bird the plumbeous is confined 
to the crown, and does not extend on the hind neck, as in Z. 
jpluinbeiceps. 

It really comes nearest to Z. rif axilla., from South America, 
in general coloration, but that species has the breast more roseate, 
the blue of the head lighter and more restricted, the sides of 
the head cinnamon color, and the feet smaller. 



Mexico^ Central America^ and South A7nerlca. 17 

Under the circumstances I consider the name conferred a 
very appropriate one, 

15. Zeiiaidura g;ray!>$oiii, Band, M. S. 

Male. Entire plumage above olivaceous-brown, with a rufescent 
tinge, the crown of a darker browii ; front, sides of the head, and the 
whole under-plumage dark cinnamon red, except the chin, which is 
paler ; auricular spot black, but not very distinct ; the sides vmder 
the wings grayish-plumbeous ; the two central tail feathers are of the 
same color as the back, with their centres blackish-plumbeoiis ; the 
next feather on each side has the outer web and end colored like the 
back, with a rather indistinct subterminal black bar on the inner 
web, below wliich the inner web is dai"k plumbeous, the next pair on 
each side are grayish-plumbeous, the outer webs broadly margined and 
tipped with brown, and having the subterminal black bar more 
distinct, the next two on each side of a light plumbeous-gray, just 
margined with brown on the outer webs, and with the black bars still 
darker, the outer feather has its end and the outer web pale bluish- 
white, the inner web dark plumbeous, the black spot mostly confined 
to the inner web ; tlie tail feathers underneath are brownish-black, 
except the outer web of the lateral one, the end of which and those of 
the next two are light plumbeous, the ends of the others becoming 
darker towards the central ones, and more or less tinged with brown ; 
primary and secondary quills blackish-brown, the outer primaries just 
edged with white; wing coverts and tertiaries of a rather lighter 
reddish-brown than the back, and marked with oval black spots, 
most conspicuous on the tertiaries ; under wing coverts grayish- 
plumbeous ; bill dark brown, base of under mandible yellowish ; feet 
reddish. 

Length (fresh) 12 in,; wing 5|; tail 5; bill ||; tarsi 1. 

Habitat. Socorro Island, Mexico, Collected by Col, A. 
J, Grayson, Type in Museum Smithsonian Institution, ]^o. 
50855, 

There is no difference in the plumage of the sexes. Three 
specimens are in the collection, one of which is rather more oli- 
vaceous on the back ; otherwise all are alike, 

FEBRUARY, 1871. 2 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. X. 



IS '^Description of Kew Species of Birds from 

The tail consists of fourteen feathers, as in the two others 
of the genus ; the shape of the tail is like that of Z. yucatanen- 
sisy the feathers not pointed as in Z. carolinensis. 

Remarks. It bears no resemblance to Z. carolinensis ^ com- 
pared with Z. yucatanensis, tliey are somewhat alike in color- 
ing below, but in Z. graysoni tlie color is more uniform and 
much darker ; it differs from both species in the absence of 
metallic coloring on the neck. 

Note and observations ly Col. Grayson. 

" The Solitary Dove. Iris dark brown ; bill dark brown, 
with a sliiiht tinge of red ; base of under mandible reddish- 
purple, as also the base of the gape; tarsi and toes reddish 
flesh-color, posterior portion of which is paler, nails brown- 
ish-black ; bare space extending from base of bill to and 
around the eye plumbeous; second and third primary quills 
longest ; tail graduated, with fourteen feathers, outer ones \.\ 
inches shorter than the central. Not abundant. 

" Of all the birds I met with in the Island, this seemed to be 
the most lonely ; not a flock or even a pair were ever seen 
together. They are remarkably tame, perhaps more so than 
any bird of this order ; one was captured by hand as it came 
into our camp, and perched upon the rude table on which I 
was at work. Its melancholy look appeared to be in keeping 
with the solitude of, and its sombre plumage corresponding 
with the gray brush and brown volcanic rock composing its 
wild home. In form and appearance, when alive, it resembles 
the common Turtle Dove. 

" The first specimen seen and captured was by my son, 
Edward Grayson, whose name this evidently new species 
should bear — not for this discovery alone, but for the as- 
sistance often rendered, in making my collections, and more 
particularly on this expedition, in which he was indefatigable, 
even to enthusiasm, in aiding its progress, as well as the 
advancement of science, in the cause of which he came to an 
untimely death ! " 



Mexico^ Central America, and Suuth America, 19 
16, Note on Hallus longirostris, Boddaert. 

I received a specimen of Rallus in a collection from Baliia, 
which I was unable to determine and was inclined to consider 
undescribed ; from the stoutness of its bill, I named it pro- 
visionally R. crassirostris. In 1868 Messrs. Sclater and 
Salvin gave a most valuable and complete " Synopsis of the 
American Rails" (Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 412), Not beino- able 
to make it agree satisfactorily with an_^ of the species therein 
enumerated, and an opportunity offering to send it to them 
as they had lately so fully investigated the Rallid^, I did so. 

On returning it, Mr. Sclater wi-ote, "is true longirostris, 
figured PI. Enl. 849." I infer from this (although not dis- 
tinctly so stated) that they consider it different from crepitans : 
the two birds are very unlike, and no one with the two before 
him could confound them. If right in my inference this 
would be a change of opinion since the publication of the 
Synopsis, wherein crejpitans is put as a synonym of lonyirostris ; 
this view has also been taken by other recent writers, adoptino- 
Mr. Cassin's suggestion of their probable identity. 

I find it agrees with Buftbn's plate (which is of reduced size) 
in the apparent color of the back, also in the form and stout- 
ness of the bill ; but they differ in the coloring below, which in 
the plate is more like crepitans, being of an ashy-fulvous 
instead of uniform light rufous; they differ also in the bars 
on the flanks. The only characters, then, on which it can 
assume the name of longirostris, are the shape of the bill and 
the color of the back, if these are deemed sufficient to overrule 
the coloring below, in which the plate resembles crejntaiis. 

My specimen differed so much from crepitans, as well as from 
all others, that I considered it undescribed at the time, taking 
for a settled fact that cre^ntans and longirostris were the same ; 
if the Bahia bird is to take the name of longirostris, it being 
certainly distinct from crepitans, the latter name must be 
restored to full specific rank. 



20 Description of New Species of Birds from 

The bird from Bahia is grayish-olive above, flammiilated with 
blackish-brown ; the under-plumage is light rufous, the throat wliite ; 
a stripe of dull rufous extends from over the eye to the bill ; the 
sides and under wing covei-ts are brown, with transverse nari-ow 
white bars ; the vipper mandible is brown on the ridge and at the 
end, the remaining part and the lower mandible dark yellow ; feet 
yellow. 

Length 12 in.; wing 5|^ ; tail 2|- ; bill 2:^ to rictus; tarsi If. 

It is smaller in all its measurements than crepitans^ and has 
the bill fully twice as deep as in that species, the tarsi are 
shorter, the featliers of the hack are bordered with grayish- 
olive instead of light bluish-cinereous, and the color below 
of a clear light rufous instead of an ashy-fulvous ; the colors 
are more like those of R. elegans, but are lighter; its smaller 
size, shorter and stouter bill, distinguishes it also from that 
species. 

The description of R. hmgirostris in Messrs. Sclater and 
Salvin's Synopsis is evidentl}^ taken from United States speci- 
mens of crepitans. I have seen no description at all applicable 
to my Bahia specimen, and if the evidence is not considered 
sufhcient for it to assume the name of Jo7Hjirostris, it may then 
bear that of crassirostris. 

The new species of Vireo^ described below, is added to my 
paper by request of Professor Baird. The description and 
remarks are his, without alteratitm by me. 

Vireosylvia niag'li§iter, Baird, n. s. 
Hahitat. Belize, Br. Honduras. 

Bill stout and lengthened. Wings considerably longer than the 
nearly even, thovigh rather short and decidedly rounded tail; the 1st 
quill about equal to the 6th, or very little longer ; the 3d longest ; 
the 2d and 4th a little shorter. No spurious primary. 

Upper parts olive-green, brightest on rump and tail ; the head 
above, and to a less degree the back, with a slight gloss of ashy, but 
without forming a cap. Beneath dull olivaceous-white, the belly (and 



Mexico, Central Anier'ica, and South America. 21 

the tibiae somewhat) rather bviffy yellow ; the sides of neck and body 
olivaceous. Axillars and inner wing coverts sulphur yellow ; the 
crissum similarly colored, but duller. Quills almost black, edged 
internally with grayish-white, externally with olive ; tail feathei's 
more olive-brown, edged internally with greenish-yellow, externally 
with bright olive. A broad stripe of pale yellowish from bill over 
and behind eye to nape, becoming paler when it reaches the eye, and 
with a faint indication of a dvTsky border above it ; a dusky brown, 
well-marked stripe from bill to eye, and a small spot of the same 
behind it. The bill is almost black, except the basal half of lower 
mandible, which appears to have been nearly white. The legs are 
blackish -plumbeous. '' Iris brown " ( ItVood) ? 

Total length, 6.00 ; wing, 3.00 ; tail, 2.50 ; difference between 9th 
and longest quills, .60 ; exposed poi-tion of 1st primaiy, 1.90, of 2d, 
2.15, of longest (measured from exposed base of 1st primary), 2.24 ; 
length of bill from forehead, .80, from nostril, .46, along gape, .90 ; 
tarsus, .83 ; middle toe and claw, .70, claw alone, .24 ; hind toe and 
claw, .56, claw alone, .27. 

This interesting new species of Vireo is among tlie largest of 
the genus, considerably exceeding in size V. olwacea, and fully 
equal to Y. calidris of Jamaica. In general appearance it 
closely resembles the latter, but there is even less of tlie grayish 
cap, and the dusky mandibular stripe is wanting ; the under 
parts are rather more olivaceous ; the bill is of about the same 
size. The much rounded wings constitute an important char- 
acter of the species. 

The much larger size, almost black bill and feet, absence of 
ashy cap, more olivaceous under-parts, will readily distinguish 
the species from Y. oUvacea. The wings, also, are much more 
rounded ; the first quill about equal to the sixth, instead of 
being but little shorter than the fourth. The wing formula is 
much the same as that of Y. agilis, but the size and coloration 
are very dift'erent. 

This species is one of several new species of birds in a col- 
lection made at Belize, British Honduras, for Dr. Henry 
Bryant, by Mr. Christopher Wood. 



22 Notes on the Genus Pinerla, and on the 



II. — Notes on the genus Pineria, a7id on the Ungual dentition 

of PiNERiA YiEQUENSIS, PfelffeV. 
By Thomas Bland and W. Gt. Binney. 

Read March 30, 1871. 

The genus Pineria was established bj Poey in 1854 {Me- 
morias, I., 428), and thns cliaracterized : — 

T. bulimiformis, imperforata, turrita, apertura rotundata, peris- 
toma simplex, rectum, imdique acutum. Animal nudipes tentaculis 
duobus retractilibvis iustructura, apice oculatis ; labrum rotundatum ; 
reptatio sinuosa. 

Poey described two species, P. terebra and Beathiana, both 
from the Isle of Pines, of which figures are given {Metnorias, 
I. c, tab. 34, f. 12-18). 

He remarks that he had examined the living animal of P. 
Beathiana with great care, but could detect no trace of " in- 
ferior tentacles," and Dr. Gundlach had satisfied himself of 
their absence in P. terebra. Observing that the form of siiell 
(columella excepted) and sculpture of the former species was 
somewhat like that of Macroceramus turricula, Pfr., Poey 
studied its soft parts and found such tentacles existing. 

In 1856 Pfeitfer {Malak. Bl. III. p. 46) described Bxilimus 
Vieque7isis, from Vieque, and suggested its alliance with 
Pineria. The species is figured in Notit. Conch. Fasc. xxxi. t. 
93, f. 39-41. 

The late Pev. II. Parkinson, in 1857, discovered P. Yiequen- 
sis in Barbados. 

In 1858 Fischer {Journ. Conch, vii. 184, t. 7,f. 7-8) described 
Helix Schrammi, from Guadaloupe. 

Pfeiffer (Mon. vi. 343) adopts the genus Pineria, for B. 
Viequensls, H. Schranimi., and Poey''s two species, and re- 
marking on the evident affinity of Fischer's species with Vie- 



Lingual Dentition of Pinerla Viequensls^ Pfeiffer. 23 

quensis, asks whether both should not be transferred to Macro- 

ceranius. 

H. and A. Adams {Gen. ii. 163) place Poey's species in Macro- 

ceramus, while Pineria is adopted by v. Martens {Alhers, '2d, 

ed) as a subgenus of Pnjya. 

We have compared specimens of Helix Sohrammi, received 

from M. Crosse, Pineria Viequensis from Barbados, and also of 

P. Schrammi from Anguilla, St. Martin, and St. Bartholomew, 

and are satisfied that all are of one and the same species, which, 

by priority, is entitled to the specific name, Viequensis. 

We obtained the jaw and odontophore from a dead specimen 

of this species, collected at the east end of St. Martin, by Dr. 

van Rijgersma, for which we are indebted to Mr. Robert Swift, 
but no living example has at present been received to enable 
us to form an opinion as to the presence or absence of the " in- 
ferior tentacles." 

With respect to tlie alleged absence of those organs in 

Pineria, the following is a copy of a note by Poey, published in 
1865, with a Catalogue of the Terrestrial and Fluviatile Mollusks 

of Cuba by Arango {Repertorio, 1. 145) : " En las altas regiones 
de la filosoffa natural, tendran probablemente razon los que 
suprimen mi genero Pineria, el cual he separado de los 
Macroceramos por la razon, de que el animal no muestra ni 
vestigios de tentaculos inferiores. Los principios formologicos 
nos obligan a considerar que existen virtual mente ; por lo que 
no me opongo a que se suprima." 

Before the commencement of the late European M^ar, M-e sent 
to M. Crosse, unfortunately without previous examination, the 
odontophore from a dead specimen of P. terebra, as to which 
we hope to have a report at no distant day. 

It will be seen from what has been stated above, that an 
opinion has been generally entertained in favor of placing the 
species of Pineria in the genus Macroceramus. 

Crosse and Fischer, in a late interesting paper {Journ. de 
Conch, xviii. 1, Jan. 1870) fully discussed the lingual dentition 



24 Notes on the Genus Pineria^ and on the 

of various groups of Cylindrella and M.acroceramtis^ and con- 
sider that they constitute a natural family, characterized by the 
presence, 1st, of a jaw of extreme thinness, and with folds 
chevroned on the median line ; and 2d, of lateral teeth, more 
or less palm-leaf shaped, disposed in very oblique rows, which 
family they designate as CylindrellidcB. 

The authors proposed the following classification : — 

FAMILY CYLmDRELLIDyE. 

1. Geoup a. Cylindrella (sensic strido). 

Two lateral teeth on either side of the rachidian tooth ; mar- 
ginal teeth of a very diflerent form, varying in nuuiber, 
according to the species. 

This group comprises the sections Ajpoma^ Beck, or Casta, 
Albers (including the sinistral species, C. gracilis, Wood, C. 
elongata, Chemn., C. Agnesiana, C. B. Ad.); Trxiohelia {C. 
Broolisiana, Gundl, &c.), and Mychostoma, Albers {C. costata, 
Guilding, C. Bahamensis, Pfr. &c.). 

2. Group B. Callonia, Crosse and Fischer. 

Rachidian tooth with a very long cusp ; lateral teeth more 
than two ; marginal teeth arranged obliquely in a continuous 
line with the laterals, and not distinctly characterized. Only 
one species known, C. Eliotti. 

3. Group C. Thaumasia, Albers {partim). 

Lateral teeth more than two ; marginal teeth similar to the 
laterals, and not to be distinguished from them. 

This group includes the large species of Jamaica and Hayti, 
and some of those of Cuba, but none of the species of Eucalo- 
diuni. 

4. Group D. Lia, Albers {emend}) 

Lateral teeth verj^ numerous ; marginal teeth of the same 
type as the lateral teeth, and not to be distinguished from 



Lingual Dentition of Pineria Yiequensis^ Pfeiffer. 25 

them ; inner cusp simple and pointed, instead of semi-circular,, 
as in the preceding groups. 

This group includes L. Maugeri, Wood, zehrina^ Blandiana, 
mad'ostoma^ Paivana, Jlexuosa, Gossei, and tricolo7\ all of Ja- 
maica, and Z. virginea of Hayti. 

5. Gkoup E. Macroceeamus, Guilding. 

Lateral teeth very numerous, as in the preceding group ; 
marginal teeth of the same type also ; two inner cusps. 

This includes forty-eight species, of which only four are 
found on the continent of America; the balance belong to the 
Antilles, particularly to Cuba, which alone has thirty -four. 

The other species formerly referred to the genus Cylindrella^ 
are placed by Crosse and Fischer in the genera Eucalodium, 
Berendtia and Holospira^ of the family Ilelicidce ; their lin- 
gual membranes resembling those prevailing in that famil}^ 
The limits of the present paper preclude our entering further 
on this part of the subject. 

The authors remark that the three above-named genera of 
Ilelicidce, are localized in a relatively small portion of the 
American continent (Texas, Lower California, Mexico, and 
Guatemala), where there are very few representatives of Cylin- 
drella proper, while the family Cylindi^ellid m is largely de- 
veloped in the Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, and Hayti especially), 
with an entire absence of the Cylindrelliform genera belonging 
to Ilelicidm. 

From the subjoined descriptions of the jaw and lingual denti- 
tion of Pinericb Viequensis, it will be seen that it belongs to the 
family OylindrellidcB as restricted hj Crosse and Fischer. If 
form of shell be considered, the species may be placed in the 
above-mentioned group E {Macroceramus), but from the cliar- 
acter of tlie dentition it is rather a member of group A {Cylin- 
drella). The resemblance of the dentition of P. Viequensis to 
that of Cyllndrella Trinitaria, Pf. {Amer. Jour, of Conch.^ iv., 
187) is very striking. 



26 Notes on the Genus Pineria. 

An examination of the lingual teeth of the varions forms of 
Macroceramus, and of Pineria from the Isle of Pines, is ex- 
tremely desirable, and also of the soft parts of the latter, in order 
to settle the question raised by Poey as to the tentacles. In the 
meanwhile we continue to use the generic name Pineria. 

The following is a description of the jaw and lingual denti- 
tion of P. Viequensis : 

Jaw so extremely tliin. and delicate that it curls or folds over upon 
itself along the edges, and at tlie extremities ; pale horn-color, translu- 
cent ; strongly arched, svibcircular ; of nearly equal height througliout, 
the ends slightly attenuated and blunt ; entire, but with the appear- 
ance of being divided perpendicularly into about twenty-eight sepa- 
rate sections or folds, the outer margin of each defined by a thicken- 
ing of the substance of the jaw ; the sections curve strongly out- 
wards, excepting at the upper centre of the jaw, where they are 
arranged en chevron upon the central line ; either margin serrated by 
the extreme outer edges of the sections or folds ; generally resembling 
the jaws of Macroceramus and Cylindrella^ as figured in Ann. Lye. 
viii. 162. ; ylm. tTour. Conch, iv. 187, v. pi. xi. ; tFourn. de Conch. 
xviii. 1, pi. iii. and v., Jan. 1870. 

Lingual membrane very long and narrow, composed of numerous 
rows of teeth arranged obliquely from below upwards en chevron ; 
teeth arranged in quincunx 2. 1. 2 in each row, with several additional 
rudimentary marginal teeth ; central teeth small, long, slender, 
crowded between the first laterals, its apex recurved into a rounded 
cusp ; first lateral broad, bicu.spid, base of attachment subquadrate, 
lower cusp very large, broader than the base, subcircular, upper cusp 
very small, seated on a long, slender neck, which curves gracefully 
outward and upward beyond the apex of the central tooth; second 
lateral of the same shape as the first lateral ; marginal teeth five or six, 
arranged in a crowded row running obliquely upward and outward 
from near the base of the outer lateral, decreasing rapidly in length 



* Crosse and Fischer, in their description of the jaw of Cylindrdla, remark 
that it is furnished with very fine ribs, which are shown under the microscope 
to be nothing less than a complete folding of the substance of the jaw. 



Genres des Poissons. 27 

as they pass outward, long, narrow, simple, with irregularly curved 
apices. 

On some portions of the lingual membrane the cusp of both central 
and latei-al teeth are much more produced than on others, the lower 
cusp being quite spoon-shaped. 

With respect to the habits of Cylindrella and Maorocera?nus, 
we are indebted to Mr. C. P. Gloyiie, of Jamaica, for the infor- 
mation that they feed on lichens growing on walls and rocks — 
lie has found their stomachs and intestinal canals filled with 
such matter. He also remarks that the sinistral species 
(C gracilis, etc.) appear to be viviparous, as he had frequently 
found four or five youns^ shells, with several whorls, within living 
adults, but that while he had never detected eggs, he had not 
seen such embryo shells in the group to which C. sanguinea^ 
etc., belong [Thaumasia, Cr. and Fisch.). 



III. — Genres des Poissons de la Fatme de Cuha^ appartenant 
a la Famille Percid^, aveo une Note d^ introduction par 
J. Carson Brevoort. 

By Felipe Poey. 

Read March 7th, 1871. 
INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 

[The difficulty in establishing a permanent generic group of animals 
defined by truly natural characters, is well known to naturalists, and 
to those more especially, who, as in the case with fishes, have to study 
preserved, and therefore shrunken and faded specimens. The want 
of a complete series of all the spacies and varieties, taken at all 
seasons and at all ages, and in both sexes, together with accurate 
data concernuig their habits, geographical range, rarity of occurrence 
and appearance when fresh, causes insuperable difficulties in properly 



28 Genres des Poissons 

defining the genera and characterizing the species. On this account 
we take especial pleasure in presenting the following pajier by our 
esteemed corresponding member, Professor Poey, of Havana, on the 
great group which stands at the head of the Order of Fishes, the 
perplexing characters of which he has sought to more clearly define 
and describe. Well known as a careful observer and able anatomist, 
he is also a diligent and indefatigable collector of specimens and of 
information, qualities rarely found combined in the older naturalists. 
He has sought to become thoroughly acquainted with the entire 
Fauna of the tropical island which he inhabits, and his studies have 
thus a peculiar and abiding value. Examining, as in the case before 
us, specimens of every age and at all seasons, he learns their habits 
and native characteristics, so as to surely fix the species and mark 
the genus. His generic descriptions in the following paper are so 
thorough, that they can hardly be disputed or misunderstood. His 
bibliogra})hical knowledge withal is most extensive, enabling him to 
present the history of each genus and criticise the labors of his pre- 
decessors. 

The paper is published as it was received, for were a translation of 
it to be attempted, the sense might be slightly altered, and the true 
meaning of the autho)- be lost. J. C. B.] 

CLASSIS PISCIUM. 

Les Poissons sont des aniniaux vertobres ovipares, a circula- 
tion double et complete, a respiration bronchiale, et par con- 
sequent incomplete, ce qui fait baisser la temperature du sang, 
Le coeur est veineux, a deux cavites, separe du sinus aortique. 

La plupart out le corps convert d'^cailles. 

La locomotion s'effectue par le moyen des nageoires, prin- 
cipalement par la caudale. Les nageoires pectorales repr^sen- 
tent les membres tlioraciques, et les ventrales les abdominaux. 
Oes nageoires sont sontenues par des rayons, tantot epinenx^ 
tantot mous, articules, et le plus souvent branclius. 

Les dents sont implantees sur les machoires. II pent y en 
avoir encore au vomer, aux palatins, aux pterygoid iens in- 
ternes, sur la langue et sur les os pharyngiens ; les arcs 
branchiaux sont hdrisses de tubercules epineux. 



de la Faune de Oulja. 29 

Von hyo'ide est trus-coniplique : il sontient la iiieinbrane 
brancliiost^ge, poiirvue do rayons, placee sons les os opercu- 
laires, et forinaut avec ces denuei-s rouverture des ouies, 

Les narines ii'ont pas de coniinuiHcation avec I'arriere- 
bonclie. 

IJoeil a \m cristallin i^lobulenx et tres-dur: il inanqne 
d'hnineur aqneiise. 

L\)reiUe est rednite a \m sac qui represente le vestibule, et 
aiix canaux semi-circulaires: on y troiive des otolithcs. 

Zes vert^hres s'unissent par des surfaces concaves : elles se 
divisent en abdominales et caudales. Les os de la tdte, com- 
pards a ceux de I'honnne, se divisent presque toujonrs en 
]>lusieurs pieces, qui repondent aux points d'ossification des 
derniers. 

Les parties ordinaires du cerveau sont placees a la suite les 
unes des autres. Le pylore est presque toujours entouru de 
ca3cunip, qui remplacent le pancreas, Les reins sont fixes le 
long de I'epine. Les testicules et les ovaires sont doubles ; 
les premiers prennent le uom dc laites. Presque tons les 
poissons osseux out une vessie aerienue, dont toutes lesfonctions 
ne sont pas bien connues, mais qui est poiirvue d'une mem- 
brane musculaire, pour diminuer, au besoin, le volume du 
corps dans Facte de la natation. La plupart des poissons n'ont 
pas d'accouplemerit. 

Ce qui vient d'etre dit prdsente quelques exceptions on 
modifications cliez les cliondropterygiens, qui, Tossification ^ 
part, sont superieurs dans la serie animale. (') 

^ Dans les divisions qui viennent a la suite du tableau ci-joint, j'ai souvent 
profite des travaux de Mr. Gill. J'ai consulte aussi, entr'autres materiaux, 
I'article de J. Miiller, inst're dans Wiegmanu's Archiv. I., p. 292. Quant aux 
caracteres generiques, il faut avouer que les auteurs les plus renommes n'en 
ont employe qu'un nombre bien borne, et en ont neglige plusieurs de premiere 
importance. Ce reproche ne s'adresse pas a Mr. Gill, qui a donne I'exemple de 
diagnoses gcueriques plus Otendvics: c'est sous cette impulsion que je prcsente 
les miennes. — Quant a, la nomenclature des os, j'ai adopte celle de Mr. Kichard 
Owen. 



30 



Genres des Poissons 



CLASSIFICATIO PISCIUM VIVENTIUM 

ex Artedi, Linne, Cuvier, Agassis, Milller, Owen, Bonaparte, 
C. Dumeril, Sleeker, Gill, Poey. 



SecUo. 



Acanthopteri, Art. 



Sitbnrdo. Series. Families, v. g. 

f choripharyngodon- ( thoracici Percid^. 

■s tes, Blk ( abdoinmales.Sphyra;nida>. 

( amphipharyngodontes,P Malacanthidi. 



S3^haryngodontes, S acanthopterygli . . . { ^S^.;;:!^^^"'^'- 

■ ( malacopterygii Scombrcsocidi. 

f Gobiosomi, P \ t^'o'-f ici . . • 0-obidi 

I ' I jugulares . .Blennidi. 

Teleostei, M \ ^ Subacanthopteri, P.. -! Pedicnlati, L Lophidi. 

I Ju.arulati, L Gadidi. 

[ Heterosomi, D Pleuronectidi. 

Malacopteri, Art. Abdominales, Cyprinidi. 

' Apodes, L Murasnidae. 

Neraatognathi, Gill Siluridi. 

ui„^*.„,^„tv.,- n S Gymnodoiiti, C Diodontidi. 

Plectognathi, C -j Sclerodermi, C Ballstidl. 

I "^ o I I'Ophobranchii, C Hippocampidi. 

) Holostei, M Lepldosleidl. 

I Chondrostei, M Acipenseridi. 

Protopteri, Ow Lepidosirenidas. 

I T>1 t • T> J Pleurotremi, D Squalldi. 

Elasmobranchii, Bon. . . J. i^'agiostomi. v ^ Hypotiemi, D Rajidaj. 

( HolocephaU, M Chimseridfe. 



Ganoidei, Ag. 



Dermopteri 



\ fvHo^itomi T> i Hyperoartii, M Petromyzontidi. 

i, Ow \ Oyclostomi, u ^ Hyperotreti, M Myxinida;. 



I Leptocardii, M Amphioxidi. 



I 1. Les Sympharyngodontes de Bleeker sont les Phwrynyognathi de Miiller. 

2. MiJUer place la famllle des Chromides parmi les Pharyngognathes ; cependant, le NandopHs 
tetracanthus de Cuba, a les os pharyngiens inferieurs unia seulement en apparence ; car ils se 
s6parent avec un I6ger effort. 

3. Je n'ai pas nomme avec Miiller Anacanthini mon ordre des Subacanl/iopteri, parceque 
Tauteur llmlte cette denomination aux Gadkli, Plenro7iecUdi, Ophididi. 

4. Je ne me suis pas occupe des Leptocephali de Bonaparte, ou Lemniscati de Kaup, parcequ'on 
ignore encore si ce sont des poissons adultes, ou des embryons. 



SUBCLASSIS I. TELEOSTEI. 



Le nom de cette sous-clas&e est du a Miiller en 1845 ; il fait allu- 
sion a Tossificatioii plus ou moins parfaite du sqnelette. Elle 
repond aux poissons osseux de Cuvier, sauf les Lepidosteides. 

Branchies libres sur lenr contour; ouverture branchiale 
simple de ehaque cote, et placee au-devant des pectorales. 

Nerfs optiques croises ; deux valvules opposees a I'entree du 
bulbe aortique. 

Corps ecailleux ; les ecailles sont cteno'ides ou cycloides. 



de la Faunc de Cuba. 31 

Sectio 1. — Teleocephali. 

Le noin indique que la tete est parfaite. Cette coupe etait 
necessaire, etsa denomination est due ^ Mr. Gill, qui Ta appliquee 
a un ordre. Elle embrasse les Acanthopterjgiens de Cuvier, 
ainsi que ses Malaeopt^rygiens abdoniinaux et subbrachiens, ex- 
cepte les Sihirides. Les maxillaires et les premaxillaires existent 
separenient, ainsi que les sous-orbitaires ; I'os sous-operculaire 
existe, sauf chez les l^otopterides, Brancbies pectinees. 

Ordo 1. — AcANTiroPTEKi. 

Une partie des I'ayons dorsaux et quelques-uns de Tanale 
sont epineux, simples, non-articules, ainsi que le premier de la 
ventrale. Arcs brancbiaux au nombre de quatre, portant les 
brancbies enticres, a double lame suivies d'une fissure, et ordi- 
nairement une fausse-braiicbie. Des appendices pyloriques a la 
brancbe montante de I'estomac. Vessie aerienne sans conduit 
pneumatique. 

Sld)Ordo 1 . ChOKIPH AEYNGODONTES. 

Os pbaryngiens inferieurs separes. 

Series 1. — Thoracici. 

Os pelvien en relation avec I'arcade scapulaire : ventrales tho- 
raciques. 

' Familia 1.— Percid^. 

Corps plus on moins allonge ; auus arriere. Centrales 1, 5. 
Sept rayons aux brancbies; ouverture brancbiale bien fendue ; 
la fausse-branebie existe, excepte dans les genres Lates et Gni- 



32 Genres des Poissons 

don. Qiielques pieces operculaires epineuses on a bords dente- 
les, excepte cliez les Apsiles. Yeux latdraux ; oiivertures nasales 
doubles de chaque cote, ranterieure a burd tubulaire, la poste- 
rieure simple. Bouche fendue a rextrcmite du museau ; re- 
gime carnivore ; machoires plus ou moins protractiles. Dents 
en velours, le plus souvent accompagnees d'un rang externe 
de dents pointues, plus fortes et solides, avec ou sans canines. 
Dents au vomer et aux palatins. Une ou deux dorsales. avec 
ou sans sillon sur le dos, p(nir loger les rajons epineux ; la par- 
tie molle moins etendue que li partie epineuse ; rajons mous 
branclius. Ecailles ctenoides : ligne laterale continue, finis- 
sant sur la base de la caudale. Jones non-cuirassees. 
Le conduit osseux semi-circulaire lateral de I'ouie com- 
mence sur I'alisphenoide, penctre dans le mastoidien, et revient 
par I'exoccipital, apr^s avoir traverse ces trois os ; le conduit 
A^ertical postcrieur traverse Texoccipital, penetre dans le parocci- 
pital, et termine par une ouverturc superieure de ce dernier. 
C'est ce qui arrive cliez les adultes ; car dans les jeunes le canal 
merabraneux lateral entre et sort par le mastoidien, par des ou- 
vertures rendues completes au mojen d'uneechancrure del'alis- 
phenoide et de I'exoccipital ; I'autre penetre par une echancrure 
de I'exoccipital. Le pectoral osseux et tout-a-fait superficiel, 
n'entre pas dans la formation de la capsule auditive. La premiere 
nevrapophyse chevauche, c'est-a-dire qu'elle est mobile sur la 
premiere vertebre abdominale. 

Vertebres 10 — 14. Surtemporaux au nombre de deux. Ap- 
pendices pyloriques generalement pen nombreux ; intestins a 
deux replis, sauf quelques legeres modifications. Vessie aeri- 
enne simple. 

Observations. — Cette coupe repond a la famille des Per- 
coides de Cuvier, Regne Animal, 2^ edition ; sauf les genres qui 
ont plus ou moins de sept raj'ons aux branchies, et les sous- 
families du Dr. Giintlier, Catalogue, I., p. 5Y, qui ont pour types 
les genres Pentaceros, Apogon. et Grystes. J'en ai detache aussi 
les genres Centrojyomus et Phypticiis, comme types de families 



de la Faune de Citha. 33 

distinctes ; et les genres anomaux de Giintlier (1. c, p. 51), 
Pogonojperca et Prionodes, ainsi que raon genre Gramma^ non 
moins anomal, Yojez les observations de Mr. Grill, Proc. Phil., 
1861, p. 4G. 

Subfajnilia 1. — Serranini. 

Une seule dorsale, la partie epineuse non-logee dans un 
sillon du dos. Opercule 6pineux, preopercule dentele. Un rang 
de dents ext^rieures, solides et plus fortes que les interieures 
qui les accompagnent, et qui sont ordinairement couchces et 
mobiles. Des canines sur le devant des machoires. Le premier 
80Us-orbitaire, peu developpe, ne recouvre pas la partie posteri- 
eure du maxillaire, excepte dans le genre Mentiperca. Pecto- 
rale arrondie. Dernier rayon de la ventrale attache i I'abdo- 
men par une membrane axillaire. II n'y a pas de lobule 
^cailleux au-dessus de la base de la ventrale ; mais il y a sou- 
vent une pli cutane ecailleux au-dessus de Paxille pectorale. 
Les ^cailles sont petites ; le limbe preoperculaire en est con- 
vert. L'os surscapulaire ne perce pas en dehors. Le post- 
frontal, saillant et aplati en dessus, porte un os caverneux 
post-orbitaire solidement encaisse, faisant continuation a la 
chame d'osselets sous-orbitaires. La fosse paroccipito-masto'i- 
dienne est plus ou moins profonde, couverte en partie par une 
cote parieto-mastoidienne, excepte cependant dans le genre 
Brachyrhinus. U y a un os labial, place au-dessus du maxil- 
laire. On ne trouve pas dans les chairs, au-devant de la 
premiere ^pine internevrale, les trois fausses internevrales 
qui se presentent chez les LutjaMini j tout au plus y voit-on 
dans les premiers groupes, un os de la nuque, inclin6 en sens 
contraire et moins ossifie. 

Les deux derniers groupes de cette sous-famille, appartenant 
aux genres Haliperca et Hijpoplectrus^ forment une transition 
aux Lutjaniiii^ par l'os surscapulaire visible en dehors, I'apo- 
physe post-frontale sans osselet post-orbitaire, la fosse paroccipito- 

MAKCH, 1871. 3 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. X. 



34 Genres des Poissons 

masto'idienne limitee et non-reconverte, lo defaiit cl'os labial et 
I'absence de fausses opines interndvrales ; mais lis appartiennent 
aux Serrmiini par tons les autres caracteres, qui sont Ics plus ini- 
portaiits. La caudale est ecliancree, Le liinbe preoperculaire 
est nu. lis different encore de tons les Percides par la ventrale 
sans frein membraneux. On pourrait former de cette coupe la 
sous-famille des Ilypoplectrini. 

Yoici dans quel ordre je place les genres de Cuba qui se 
p ;uoAUO.^ans cette sous-famille. 

a. 

1. Trisotropis. — Species : CardlnaUs, Ydl.—petrosus, Poey. — 
hrunneus, Poey. — Bonaci, Poey. — 171, Poey. — Aguaji, Poey. 
—ca77ielopa?'dalis, Poey. — 429, Poey. — tigris, Val. — callmrus, 
Poey. — 181, Poey. — inter stiticdis, Poey. — cldorostomus^ Poey. 
— dimidiatus, Voey.—falGatus, Poey. 

2. Epinephelus. — Species : striatus, Bl. — morio, Yal.^lavo- 
Umhatus, Poey. — niveatiis, Val. — impetiglnosus, M. et Tr. — 
lumdaius, Bl. — Cuhanus, Poey. 

3. Lioperca. — Species : inerinis, Val. 

4. Promicrops. — Species : Guasa^ ^^^J' 

5. Sehistorus. — Species: mystacinus^ Poey. 

6. Prosplnus. — Species: chloropterus^ Cuv. — 712, Poey. 

b. 

7. Brachyrhlnus. — ^Y'^qiq^: furcifer, Val. 

c. 

8. Petro7netopon. — Species : guttatus, L. — apiarus, Poey. 

9. Enneacentrus. — Species : punctulatus^ Gm. — 224, Poey. 

10. Menephorus. — Species : dubius^ Poey. — 309, Poey. 

d. 

11. Centropristis. — Species : Meinis, Poey. 

e. 

12. Ilaliperca. — Species : Phmhe, Yoey.^fusGula, Poey. — 
tlacome, Poey. — p)'cestigiafor, Poey. — hiviUata, Val. 

13. Dlplectrum. — Species : radians, Q. et G. 

14. Mentiperca. — Species : lucioperca7ia, Poey, 



de la Faune de Cuha. 35 

f. 

15. Hrjpoplectrus. — Species : lyiiella^ Cuv. — vital'mus^ Poey. 
— indigo, Foey. — hovinus, Poey. — guminigxvtta, Poey. — guita- 
varius, Poey, — -pinnavarius, Poey. — macidiferus, Poey. — ale?'- 
ra?is, Poey. — nigricans, Poey. — accensus, Poey. — aJjUnis, Poey. 

16. Gonioplectrus. — Species: Aispanus, Cnv. 



GENUS TKISOTROPIS. 

nistorlque. — Ce genre a ete etabli par Mr. Gill, dans les Pro- 
ceed. Acad. Philad.j 1805, p. 101:, dans la faniille PercidiB, 
sons-famille Serranince. Yoyez en entier cette description, 
dont le type est le T. guttatus, Gill ex Blocli, le meine que le 
Serrajius cardinalis de Valenciennes. C'est un demenibrenient 
du grand genre Scrranus de Cuvier, appartenant a la division 
des Merous de Cuv. et Yal., et comprenant parnii ces der- 
niers ceux qui joignent a onze piquants de la dorsale la cau- 
dale coupee carrement, et I'anale 3, 11. 

Etymologie. — r^sT?, tres ; rpoifn, carina. 

Caractere du genre. — Corps oblong, ceil haut ; ouvertures 
nasales rapprocliees, plus pres de I'oeil que du bout du museau. 
La bouche est tres-fenduc; le maxillaire termine, dans les su- 
jets de 12 pouces, sous le milieu de I'ceil ; niais dans les grands 
sujets, il depasse I'orbite. La maclioire inferieure est beaucoup 
plus avancce que la snperieure. L'opercule a trois pointes ; 
celle du milieu bien saillante, la supdrieure emoussee, I'inferi- 
eure pen visible en dehors. Le preopercule finenient denteld, 
arrondi, presque sans sinuosite, sauf dans le groui)e qui 
porte le nom vulgaire de Ahadejo, ou I'angle inferieur se de- 
taclie et porte quelques grosses pointes ; il n'est pas denticule 
en dessons. La langne est pointue, lis'se, retenue par un frein, 
logee en partie sous un voile membraneux. 

Dents. — II y a une dent canine, robuste, courte, au-devant de 
cliaque maclioire ; elle est suivie d'une rangee externe de dents 
coniques, aigues, crochues, plus petites, solidement implantees. 



36 Genres des Poissona 

En dedans, soit en arriere de cette premiere serie, se trouve une 
bande de dents en cardes, greles, aigues, les anterieures en plus 
grand nombre et plus longues, toutes mobiles, ordinairement 
coucliees ; celles de la machoire inferieure plus nombreuses. 
Les dents de la voute palatine sont aussi en cardes ; celles du 
vomer, sur un chevron angulaire ; celles des palatins, sur une 
ligne etroite. Les os pharjngiens ont des dents en velours. 
Les arcs brancliiaux ont de courtes ratelures et de gros tuber- 
cules berisses d'epines, 

Nageoires. — D. 11, 16 ; A. 3, 11. Le dernier rayon epineux 
de la dorsale est au moins aussi long que celui qui le precede, 
et rapproche du premier rayon mou ; la partie molle est nota- 
blement moins etendue que la partie epineuse. La caudale est 
coupee carrement, presentant souvent deux pointes tres-peu 
saillantes; il est tres-rare de la trouver legereraent arrondie 
vers les pointes, et je ne I'ai viie bien ecbancree que cliez le 
T.falcatus. Lesepines anales ne sont pas fortes; et il y a un 
repli cutane au-dessus de la base de la pectorale. 

Ecailles. — Les ecailles sont petites ; car leur nombre, sur la 
ligne lat^rale, passe ordinairement de 100 : elles doivent se 
ranger sous la division des Ctenoides de Mr. Agassiz, a cause de 
I'eventail qu'elles ont toujours a leur racine ; mais leur bord 
libre, quoique ponctue, n'est pas toujours cili^ ; il est souvent 
convert par I'epiderme, ee qui empeche de les compter avec ex- 
actitude, et de les sentir sous les doigts. Celles de I'opercule 
sont un pen plus petites que celles du tronc ; celles du dessus de 
la tete et des joues sont encore plus petites ; il y en a sur le 
limbe du preopercule et sur I'interopercule ; celles qui s'^ten- 
dent sur le bout du museau et sur la machoire inferieure sont 
tres-petites ; et celles qui couvrent le maxillaire le sont a tel 
degre qu'on ne pent les distinguer qu'avec une forte loupe. La 
partie molle des nageoires verticales est en partie couverte par 
lapeau, qui montre a la loupe de petites ecailles ; ily en a meme 
a la base des interstices que laissent entr'elles les epines dorsales. 
On trouve souvent, soit entre deux dcailles, soit a la base d'une 



de la Faune de Cuha. 37 

seule. de tres-petites ecailles, qui se raontrent comme des tuber- 
cules microscopiqucs, formes par I'epiderme sous laquelle elles 
se cachent. 

Squelette. — Crane elargi en arriere. Espace interorbitaire 
large et enfonce. La crete suroccipitale est basse, terminant 
posterieurement en angle obtus ; les autres cretes sont hautes ; 
il n'y a pas de crete frontale. L'orbite est place sur la moitie 
anterieure du crane. L'apopliyse preorbitaire est tres-saillante, 
et portant la tete qui s'articule avec le premier sous-orbitaire ; 
I'apophj'se post-orbitaire est tres-prononcee. La lame anterieure 
de I'alisphenoide avance beaucoup ; le trou posterieur qui donne 
passage an nerf trijumeau est tres-arriere. La convexite oto- 
cranienne ne se montre pas au dehors. La base esphenoidale 
du crane est droite ; la fosse paroccipito-mastoidienne est pro- 
fonde. 

Yoici comment Mr. Gill decrit le crane : " Distinguished by 
the petrous-like convexity between the supra-orbital grooves, 
and its triangular sinus behind, into the angles on each side of 
which the lateral crests terminate ; the crests are parallel, and 
the surface between flat or scarcely convex." 

Cinq sous-orbitaires et un osselet caverneux solideraent en- . 
caisse sur I'apophyse post-orbitaire. Pre tympanal pourvu d'une 
lame apophysaire plate. Les six premieres vertebres abdominales 
sans apophyses transverses, les deux dernieres pairesformant I'an- 
neau. Les premieres nevrapophyses de la colonne vertebrale sont 
larges, courtes, plus obliques que les normales. Les cotes sont 
dansl'ordre suivant, dechaque cote: 2epinesepinevrales, Spleur- 
apophyses, 7 epipleurales. La premiere epine internevrale ne 
porte qu'un s(;ul aiguillon de la dorsale. II n'y a pas sur le 
devant, entre les chairs, de fausses internevrales ; on y trouve 
seulement un osselet pen durci, sans tete epineuse, dispose 
obliquement en sens contraire, en arriere de la crete occipi- 
tale ; on pourrait le noramer I'os de la nuque. L'os pelvien 
n'a pas son apophyse interne ascendante. 

Visceres. — L'intestin est ferme ; il revient deux fois sur lui- 



38 Genres des Poissons 

meme, et se pelotonne avant le premier pli. Les eoecuras 
soiit au nombre de 12 a 18, ordinairement 15 ; ils sont longs et 
fermes. La vessie aeriermeest a parois minces ettransparentes. 
II n'estpas rare de trouver au milieu des visceresdes belmintlies 
enkjstes, bleuatres a I'exterieur. 

Couleurs. — Les couleurs, chez les espoces de Cuba, sont d'un 
fond violet, plus ou moins convert de tacbes d'un brun rouge- 
atre : le rouge se presente parfois sur le fond du dos et sur les 
tacbes. Les nageoires verticales ont un fin lisere blanc, qui se 
perd avec I'age. 

Variet^s. — Les cbangements apportes par I'agc ne se bornent 
pas a la petitesse de I'oeil et au raccourcissement des nageoires; 
mais encore aux couleurs du corps, et surtout a celle des 
nageoires pectorales, qui dans le premier age sont presque d'une 
teinte uniforme, et plus tard bord(5es d'une maniere trancbce 
d'orange ou de blanc, 

Ilistoire. — La plupart de ces poissons deviennent tr^s-grands ; 
leur chair est bonne a manger. Ceux de grand taille sont 
suspects, parce que parfois et bien rarement ils ont ete p^cbes 
malades, et ont cause I'indisposition que dans le pays on nomme 
ciguatera. 

GENUS EPINEPUELUS. 

Ilistorique. — Ce genre a etc etabli par Blocli, Ichtbyologia, 
Pars 10, p. 9 ; abandonne par Cuvier et Valenciennes, retabli 
par Mr. Gill, Proceed. Philad., 1862, pp. 236, 237 ; 1863, p. SO ; 
dans la famille Percidm, sous-famille Serraninw. Cest 
un demembrement du grand genre Serranics de Cuvier, 
appartenant a la division des Merous de Cuv. Yal., et com- 
prenant parmi ces derniers ceux qui joignent a onze piquants 
de la dorsale la caudale ordinairement arrondie, et les nombres 
de I'anale 3, 9 ; jamais plus, quelquefois 3, 8. 

EUpnoloyie. — (Vive^fPifl?, objiuhilus. 

Voici les caract^res assignes par Blocb : " Pisces capite toto 
squamoso, o])erculo anteriore serrato, jposteriore acideis 



de la Faune de Cuba. 39 

armato ; " a qiioi il ajoute une seule dorsale et des ecailles 
cilides. La premiere esp^ce decrite est le E. afer^ dont il a 
fait plus tard le type de son genre Aljohestes, et dont je ni'oc- 
cuperai an snjet dn Prospinus chloroj)terus : ce type de Blocli 
a la caudale arrondie, et I'anale 3, 9. 

Ce genre, neglige par Cuvier et Valenciennes, a ete repris 
par Mr. Gill, qui y a ajoute un caractere reniarquable, savoir, 
des dents en cardes et mobiles dans I'interieur des maclioires. 
En 1865, Proceed. Philad., p. 105, il Ta distingue du genre 
Trisotrojns par la forme du crane ; et par le seul fait d'avoir 
accorde a ce dernier genre I'anale 3, 11, il a laisse dans le genre 
Epinephelus les especes qui out I'anale 3, 9 ; il n'a rien dit de 
la caudale, mais celle de Trisotropls n'est pas pour lui arrondie. 

Block a nomme ces poissons EpinepLeles, parce que, dit-il, 
"ils ont les yeux converts d'une membrane, on d'une taie; " 
ce qui ferait croire qu'ils ont sur IVieil une membrane adipeuse. 
Tout an plus voit-on chez les adultes une prolongation de ]a 
panpiere superieure, qui est loin de pouvoir etre nomm^c une 
taie- Le nom reposerait alors sur une erreur, et meriterait 
d'etre change. En ce cas le groupe Merou de Cuv. Val., lixe 
par sa premiere espece Serranus gigas, pourrait y etre sub- 
stitue, en Latin Merits. Quant aux Merous de 9 epines dor- 
sales, ils en ont ete detaches par Mr. Gill, qui en a fait ses genres 
Petrometopon et Enneacentrus. Le genre Cromileptes de 
Swainson, Nat. Hist, of Eishes, tfe''., 11, pp. 108, 201, doit aller 
a la synonymic du genre Ejoinephelus. 

CaracUres du genre. — Pour etre bref dans les caracteres du 
genre, je me bornerai a dire qu'il a tons ceux qui ont ete 
assignes au genre Trisotroins^ sauf I'anale 3, 9, et la forme du 
crane ; la caudale est ordinairement arrondie. Le ci-ane est 
etroit entre les deux orbites ; la crete mastoidienne forme un 
arc descendant. La langue n'est pas toujours si pointue. Les 
ecailles du tronc sont ciliees et decouvertes, sans melange 
d'autres plus petites ; les nageoires verticales n'ont pas toujours 
un lisere, et portent quelquefois une laniere vers les pointes 



40 Genres des Poissons 

epineuses de la dorsale. La vessie natatoire est a parois 
minces, mais ordinaireraent renforc^e sur sa partie anterienre; 
le nombre des coecnms varie, mais il n'est pas tres-considerable. 
La chair est toujours saine. 



GENUS LIOPERCA. 

Historique. — Ce genre a ete etabli par Mr. Gill en 1862, 
dans les Proceed. Philad,, pp. 236, 237, famille Percidce 
sons-famille SerranincB. II se trouve dans la division de : 
"Dorsale entiere ou presque entiere, caudale entiere ou simple- 
men t ech an cree ; corps oblong, ecailles petites ; dents non- 
conchees en arri^re des canines ; Ecailles donees an tact et 
glissantes ; onze rayons epinenx a la dorsale ; type : Serranus 
inermis C. et Y. — L'auteur dit en 1865, dans le meme 
ouvrage, p. 105 :' " que les genres de cette sous-famille etablis 
par lui ponr les especes des Indes occidentales, peuvent se 
distinguer par la forme du crane, meme le genre Lioperca^ qui 
offre cependant le pins de dontes." 

Etyinologie. — a^os, Icmis / Perca, nom propre. Ce qui peut- 
etre fait allusion a la faiblesse des pointes operculaires. 

Caracteres du genre. — Corps oblong, machoires d-peu-pr^s 
d'egale longueur. Trois pointes a I'opercule ; celle du milieu 
forte, les autres plates. Preopercule finement dentele a la 
branche montante, fortement a Tangle, nullement au bord 
inferieur. Narines rapprochees de I'oeil. Langue lisse, libre 
et pointue. 

Pents. — Les dents des machoires sont en cardes ; les plus 
interieures, quoique petites, sont mobiles, et il y en a quel- 
ques-unes de plus grandes sur le devant ; les canines ne sont 
bien remarquables que dans un age avance. Les dents du 
vomer et des palatins sont en cardes, sur un seul chevron. 

Nageoires. — D. 11, 19; A. 3, 9. La partie molle de la 
dorsale est tres-61evee ; la caudale arrondie, excepte dans un age 
fort avance. 



de la Faime de Cuba. 41 

^cailles. — Environ 100 siir nne ligne longitudinale ; celles de 
la jone tr^s petites ; il y en a sur toutes les pieces operculaires 
et sous le dentaire. II n'y en a pas sur les apophyses mon- 
tantes du prdinaxillaire, sur le devant de I'oeil, ni sur le maxil- 
laire. II y en a sur la base de toutes les nageoires, principale- 
ment sur les verticales raedianes, qui sont couvertes d'une peau 
epaisse. 

Squelette. — Le crane est etroit posterieurement, ainsi que 
I'espace interorbitaire ; la cr^te suroccipitale pen relevee, se 
continuant avec une crete frontale tres basse et courte ; la 
mastoidienne est descendante. L'orbite est avance, les apo- 
physes orbitaires saillantes ; le trou du nerf trijumeau arrierd ; 
la convexite otocranienne nulle en dehors; la base esphenoidale 
nn pen courbe. Sous-orbitaires au nombre de 4, sans compter 
I'osselet solidement encalsse sur I'apophyse post-orbitaire ; pre- 
tympanal pourvu d'une apophyse laminaire. Les apophyses 
laterales des vertebres abdominales commencent sur la 6® et 
vont en augmentant, les deux derm^res paires formant I'anneau. 
Les premieres nevrapophyses forment un arc renforce sur le 
devant; 2 epines epicentrales anterieures, 8 pleurapophyses, 6 
epipleurales (peut-^tre 8). Le premier internevral ne soutient 
qu'une seule ^pine du dos ; il n'y a pas sur le devant de fausses 
epines internevrales. 

Visceres. — Estomac court, branche raontante tres-courte ; 
coecums assez nombreux, divises, les divisions sont dans le type 
au nombre de 60. L'intestin est tres-ferme et tr5s-gr^le, 
faisant les circon volutions ordinaires, mais se pelotonnant un 
peu avant le premier pli. Yessie aerienne a parois minces et 
transparentes. 

Observations. — J'ai adopte ce genre dans ma Synopsis, en 
1868, par deference pour Topinion de Mr. Gill, en qui j'ai 
toujours reconnu un tact sur, soit un don particulier pour la 
classification. Un des caracteres par lui donnas, a cependant 
disparu ici ; c'est celui qui se fonde sur I'absence de dents 
couchees en arriere des canines : on voit que les machoires sont 



4:2 ■ Genres des Poissons 

armees clans le sens de celles de Trisotropis ; ce n'est qii'ane 
question de plus ou de moins entre les deux genres. C'est 
peut-etre moi qui ai induit en erreur Mr. Gill ; car en 1851, 
epoque a laquelle j'ai decrit Fesp^ce-type dans mes Meraoires, 
je n'avais pas encore les connaissances que j'ai retirees plus tard 
de mes etudes et des savants articles de l'iclith3'ologiste ameri- 
cain, mon digne correspondant durant le cours de plusieurs 
annees ; et j'ai commis alors quelques erreurs : ainsi, je me suis 
trompe en ecrivant que les dents sont en velours ras ; ce qui ne 
pent paraitre ainsi que chez de jeunes individus ; et que la 
cr^te suroccipitale est haute. 

Tel qu'il est, le genre Lioperca pent ^tre separe de Triso- 
tropis et de Epinephelus par un corps un pen bossu, a cause de 
I'affaissement de la tete, la peau plus mucilagineuse, deux epines 
plates qui accompagnent une epine plus robuste de I'opercule, 
bout du museau ddpourvu d'ecailles, sauf le dentaire ; ccEcums 
nombreux et divises, defaut complet de fausses epines inter- 
nevrales. Une autre particularity bien reraarquable est celle 
que Page introduit dans la forme des nageoires verticales, surtout 
dans la caudale, qui, d'abord arrondie, devient dans I'age 
adulte legerement ^chancree. 



GENUS PKOMICROPS. 

nistorique. — Ce genre a ete etabli par Mr. Gill, qui n'en 
a pas encore donne au public les caract5res ; mais il a eu la 
bonte de me I'indiquer avant I'impression de ma Synopsis, 
ayant pris pour type le Serranics Guasa de mes Memoires. 

Etymologie. — Je crois que le nom se rapporte a la brievet^ 
de la partie anterieure du crane; ce qui est dii au grand 
avancement de I'orbite. 

Caracteres du geni^e. — Ce genre a les caracteres des Epine- 
pTieli, sauf le crane, qui se rapporte a celui des Trisotropi par 
la grande distance interorbitaire. On y remarque I'ceil tr^s- 



de la Faune de Cuha. 43 

avance, et le ti"ou du nerf trijuraeau tres-arriere. II en difFere 
de plus par les dents et par Textreme division des appendices 
pyloriqnes. 

Les dents sont en cardes sur nne large bande, un pen plus 
etroite a la machoire inferieure ; le bord externe ofFre nne 
rangee de dents un pen plus fortes, surtout les deux premieres, 
mais on ne voit pas s'y detacher de vraies canines ; la rangee 
tont-a-fait interne, sur le devant, oft're aussi quelques dents plus 
fortes. La bande des palatins et le chevron du vomer sont en 
cardes plus fines. Les coecums et leurs divisions sont in- 
nombrables. 

GENUS SCHISTORUS. 

Historique. — Genre etabli par Mr. Gill, Proceed, Philad., 
1862, pp. 236, 237, ou. il en donne les caracteres suivants, 
servant a, le distinguer des autres genres de Cuba : " Famille 
des Percid(B, sous-famille Serranince, ', une seule dorsale sans 
echancrure, caudale entiere, corps oblong, ecailles petites, des 
dents couchees derri^re les canines, pr^opercule ayant vers le 
bas des epines tourn^es en avant ; D. 11, 14 ; coecums nom- 
breux et divises." Type : Serranus wystamnis, Poey. 

Caracteres du genre. — Jecrois qu'il faut fairepeu d'attention 
aux pointes de I'angle du pr^opercule, telles que les presente 
cette esp^ce, lesquelles sont peu nombreuses et variables ; ce 
qui, outre la taille et la dentition, I'eloigne du groupe des 
PlectropomcB. Laissani a part ce faible caractere, tout ce que 
m'a appris I'etude de cette espece, n'ayant pas examine le 
squelette, en fait un veritable ]£j>mephelus, avec la seule 
difference que presentent les appendices pyloriques. J'ai 
indique ce dernier caractere, bien mieux prononce chez le 
Promicrojps Guasa ', et on le retrouve, tel que le presente le 
Schistorus mystacinus^ chez le Epinepkelus niveaius et chez le 
Lioperca inermis. L'etude du crane pent seule nous dire si le 
genre doit etre conserve, ou s'il faut le considerer comme un 



44 Genres des Poissons 

Epinephehts ou comme un Promicrops. Mon respect pour 
I'opinion de Mr. Gill m'a fait adopter son genre dans ma 
Synopsis, en 1868. 

Etymologie. — o-;^''^'*', divisor; e/>o?j Immeurs. Par allusion aux 
coeeums. 

GENUS PROSPINUS. 

Historique. — Les auteurs du genre Plectropomus (Cuv. et 
Val., Poiss., II., p. 38Y) ont eux-memes qualifie de fort leger le 
caract^re tire de la dentelure autour et au-dessous de Tangle 
preoperculaire. C'est cependant sur les modifications de ce 
caract^re qu'ont ete fondes, parmi les Percidm, sous-famille 
des Serranini^ plusieurs genres, qui ne meriteraient pas d'etre 
conserves, si I'on n'avait pas trouv^ a leur appui quelques 
autres particularites plus irnportantes. 

Le genre Plectropomus est de 1828 : il a ete subdivisd en 
trois groupes, selon le nombre de dentelures, et le bord mon- 
tant du preopercule entier ou finement dentele. La premiere 
esp^ce nommee, et qui doit par consequent servir de type dans 
le premier groupe, est le Bodianus melanoleucus de Lacepede. 
Le corps est allonge. Le bord montant du preopercule est 
entier ; D. 8, 11 ; A. 2, 8. Les ecailles sont petites ; il y en a 
sur le bout du museau, sur le maxillaire, sur les nageoires ; les 
pectorales sont arrondies, la caudale a-peu-pres coupee carre- 
ment. 

Le genre Uypothrodus (on lit ITypoi'thodus, mais je crois que 
c'est une faute d'impression) a et6 etabli par Mr, Gill, Proc. 
Phil., Mai de 1861, p. 98. Type: H. Jlavicaada, Gill. L'oper- 
cule, la joue, les os surmaxillaires sont converts d'ecailles, la 
machoire inf^rieure nue. Le preopercule porte a I'angle une 
forte epine, elle-meme denticulee, aussi que le bord montant ; il 
y a encore des dentelures au bord inferienr, D. 11, 14; A. 
3,10. 

Le genre Prospinus a ete norame dans mes Memoires, I. p. 



de la Fartne de Cuba. 45 

364. Type : PL chloroptevum C. V., fonde. p. 388, sur la force 
at le petit nombre de dents sous-preopei"culaires. II a ctd 
adopte par Mr. Gill, Proc. Acad. Phil., 1862, pp. 236, 237, 
dans la division de " Dorsale entiere ou presque entiere, 
caudale entiere ou siniplement echancree, corps oblong, ecailles 
petites, dents couchees en arri^re des canines, preopercule 
pourvu en dessous d'une on de deux pointes dirigees en avant ; 
D. 11, 18-19. Coecunis 8." 

Le genre Alphestes de Bloch, Systema, p. 236, en 1801, 
ayant pour type le Epineplielus afer de Bl., Ichth., tab. 327, 
lequel est le meme que le PI. cliloropterum de C. et V., a la 
priorite sur le genre Prosjnnus j mais je crois qu'il doit 
tomber: 1". parce qu'il n'est pas fonde sur I'epine preoper- 
culaire, que Tauteur n'a pas apergue ; 2°. parce que le caraetere 
donne a une etendue trop-considerable, savoir: Squavnm oper- 
cidi posterior is duplo tnojores qtiam anterioris. C'est tout ce 
qu'il en dit ; et c'est ce qui pourrait etre applique a une foule 
de genres. 

Le genre Acanthistius a ete propose par Mr. Gill, Proc. 
Acad. Phil, 1862, p. 236, pour le PI. serratum^ Cuv. et Val., 
qui doit servir de type. Cette espece, placee dans le 2® 
groupe de C. et V., a le corps gros et court, les deux machoires 
d'egale longueur, des ecailles au maxillaire et a la machoire 
inferieure ; preopercule fortement dentele ; et pr^s de Tangle, 
deux grosses dents dirigees en avant, dont I'anterieure plus 
forte. D. 13, 16 ; A. 3, 9. Ecailles petites. 

Le genre Ilypoplectrodes a ete propose par Mr. Gill, Proceed. 
Acad. Phil., 1862, p. 236, pour le PI. nigro-rubrwn.^ C et Y. 
II est plus allonge que le PI. serratum j les dentelures du bord 
montant du preopercule sont plus fines ; il n'y a au bord 
inferieur que deux ptointes dirigees en avant, dont I'une a 
I'angle. D. 10, 17; A. 3, 8. 

Genre Goniop>lectrus, Gill. — Yoyez ci-dessous. 

Genre IJypoplectrus, Gill. — Voyez ci-dessous. 

Genre Schistorus, Gill. — Yoyez ci-devant. 



46 Genres des Poissons 

Etymologie. — Prosj)inus, epine tournee en avant. 

(Jaractere du genre Prosjpinus. — II differe du genre Epine- 
jphelus par I'epine preoperculaire et quelques menus details : ainsi, 
les canines sont tres-petites ; on n'en voit pas a la maclioire infe- 
rieure. La ligne laterale porte 70 ecailles ; celles de ropereule 
sont grandes ; elles sont petites sur les joues ; ily en a sur I'es- 
pace interorbitaire et snr I'os turbinal, mais non pas sur le bout 
du museau ni sur le maxillaire. L'epine unique sous-preopercu- 
laire est tres-forte, couverte dans le frais par la peau : elle parait 
elle-meme finement subdivisee en arriere, parce qu'elle porte 
la terminaison de la roue formee par I'angle. 



Genus Brachyrhinus. 

Historigue, — Ce genre a ete etabli par Mr. Gill, dans les 
Proced. Acad. Philad., 1862, p. 236, dans la famille des Per- 
cidoB, sous-famille Serraninm ', type, Serranus creolus, C. et Y. 
II y est place dans la division de " Dorsale entiere ou presque 
entiere ; caudale bifnrquee, a lobes aigus ; dorsale basse et 
uniforme ; formule radiale 9, 18-19." C'est pour Cuvier et Ya- 
lenciennes un Serran du gronpe des AntMas. J'ai adopte ce 
genre dans ma Synopsis, en 1868. Plus tard, Mr. Guichenot, dans 
un travail intitule Index Generum et Specierum Anthiadido- 
7'wn, insere dans le 9® volume des Annales de la Societe Lin- 
neenne de Maine et Loire, a fait de I'esp^ce que je viens de citer 
le iy^Q de son genre Paranthias, dont il a donne les caracteres 
suivants : " Corpus oblongum subelongatum, squamis minimis 
vestitum. Caput breve curvatum, omnino squamosum. Prseo- 
perculum tantum denticulatum. Oculi parvi. Pinna dorsi 
simplex absque incisa, simul ac analis et caudalis in parte 
squamosa." 

Etymologie. — ^potzv?, brevis; fa, nasus. 

Caracteres du genre. — Corps elegamment oblong, museau 
court, oeil mediocre ; narines rapprochees, occupant le milieu 
entre I'ceil et le premaxillaire ; preopercule fineraent "dentele, 



de la Faune de Cuba. 47 

sinuenx versle bas; opercule a trois pointes, rinferieure pres- 
que aussi forte que celle da milieu ; bouche petite, macLoire 
inferieure un peu plus avancee que la superieure. Langue lisse. 

Dents. — Les dents des maclioires sont courtes et poiutues sur 
un rang exterieur, precedees de deux canines petites et fortes ; 
a I'interieur il y a une bande de petites dents en cardes, 
tres-etroite a la maclioire inferieure. Celles du vomer sont sur 
une plaque triangulaire, et celles des palatins fornient une plaque 
apre. Les dents pharyngiennes superieures sont en cardes, les 
inferieures en velours. Le premier arc porte de longues rate- 
lures. 

Nageoires. — D. 9, 19; A. 3, 9. La partie molle de la dor- 
sale est plus basse que Tepineuse, et moins etendue ; les epines 
anales sont courtes, mais fortes ; la pectorale est arrondie, for- 
mant cependant un prolongement aigu ; caudale bifurquee ; 
ventrale retenue par une membrane axillaire. Le dernier rayon 
des nageoires medianes est filamenteux. 

Ecailles. — Environ 115 le long de la ligne laterale, qui a sa 
direction normale. II y en a sur toute la tete, excepte aux 
levres, ainsi que sur les nageoires. Le preopercule n'a pas son 
limbe nu. II n'y a pas de lame surscapulaire. 

SqxLelette. — Le crane est aplati en dessus, concave dans Tea- 
pace interorbitaire, qui est assex large; I'orbite est rejete vers 
I'extremite anterieure ; la crete suroccipitale est basse, arrondie, 
et peu prolongee en arriere ; la paroccipitale est sinueuse ; la 
fosse paroccipito-mastoidienne est ouverte anterieurement ; le 
basi-occipital ofFre une ample ouverture qui conduit a la fosse 
sous-cranienne. Sous-orbitaires au nombre de quatre? Nul 
osselet solidement eneaisse sur Fapopliyse post-orbitaire. Pre- 
tympanal portant une lame apophysaire. Les apophyses late- 
rales abdominales commencent a la 5® vertebre,les deux dernieres 
paires formant I'anneau. Les deux avant-premieres nevrapo- 
physes sont courtes, fortes, et peu inclinees. II parait que I'appa- 
reil des cotes se compose de 2 epines epinevrales, 8 pleurapo- 
physes, Y epipleurales. Le 1" internevral soutient une seule epine 



48 Genres des Poissons 

du dos ; il y a siirle devant deux, peut-etre trois fausses intern e- 
vrales. L'os pelvien n'a pas d'apophyse interne ascendante. 
Visceres. — Ccecums, 8. 



Genus Peteometopon. 

Historique. — Ce genre a ete etabli par Mr. Gill, dans les 
Proceed. Acad. Pliilad., 1865, p. 105, sur le nombre des epines 
dorsales et la construction du crane, famille des Percidai^ sous- 
f ami lie Serranince / ay ant propose pour type le Perca guttata 
de Linne, soit \e Serranus coronatus de Valenciennes. En 1862, 
p. 236 du menie ouvTage, il I'avait place dans le genre Bodi- 
aw?^5 de Bloch ; mais en 1865, il a laisse ce dernier dans les 
LabridcB, type Bodianus hodianus de Bloch, soit le Labrus 
rufus de Linne. J'ai adopte ce genre dans ma Synopsis, en 
1868. C'est un ddmembreinent du genre Serranus de Cuvier, 
groupe des Merous^ dont il se distingue principalement par les 
neuf aiguillons de sa nageoire dorsale. 

Eiymologie. — mtfa.^ petra; fA^ruTroi^ frons ; a cause de I'en- 
durcissement du crane sur la partie frontale. 

Caracteres du genre. — Corps oblong. IN arines rapprochees, 
placdes pres de Fceil. Pr^opercule dentele sur le bord poste- 
rieur seulement ; cpercules a trois pointes epineuses. Machoire 
inferieure plus avancee que la superieure. 

Bents. — Les maclioires ont une rangee exterieures de petites 
dents aigues, precedees d'une ou deux petites canines. La ma- 
choire superieure a, derriere cette rangde, une bande d'asperi- 
tes ; mjiis sur le devant il y a un groupe de. dents en cardes, les 
plus internes tres-longues et greles, couchees et mobiles. La 
machoire inferieure porte derriere la rangee externe une bande 
de dents en cardes, fines et allongees, egalement couchees et mo- 
biles. Le vomer porte un chevron triangulaire de petites 
dents, et les palatins un mince chevron. La langue est lisse. 
Les dents pharyngiennes sent en velours. 



de la Faune de Ciiba. 49 

i\^(2^60^>6s.— D. 9, 14 ; A. 3,8. La derniere epine dorsale 
est egale a celle qui la precede. La partie molle de la dorsale a 
presque antant d'eteiidue que la partie epiiieiise. Les epines de 
I'anale sont fortes. La caudale est arrondie. La ventrale est retc- 
nue par une membrane axillaire. 

Ecailles. — La ligne laterale est arqii^e. Les ecailles sont 
ciliees, petites, environ 70 sur une ligne longitudinale ; celles de 
la joue sont petites. II y en a de tr^s-petites sur toute la tete, 
meme sur le maxillaire, et sur la base des nageoires verticales. 
Un espace anteorbitaire qui conduit aux narines est cependant 
nu. Le surscapulaire ne perce pas en dehors. 

Squelette. — Le crane a peu de largeur en arriere ; I'espace 
interorbitaire endurci, etroit, et convexe ; la crete suroccipitale 
tres-basse, et les autres aussi. L'orbite est place sur la partie 
anterieure. La fosse paroccipito-mastoi'dienne est profonde; les 
apoph3^ses articulaires prefrontales sont verticales. Les sous- 
orbitaires sont au nombre de cinq, et de plus il y a un osselet 
caverneuxsolidement encaisse dans Tapopliyse post-orbitaire. Le 
pretjmpanal a une apophyse laminaire. Les six premieres 
vertebres abdominales n'ont pas d'apophyses laterales, les trois 
dernierespairesformant I'anneau. Les premieres nevrapophj'ses 
sont rol)ustes, dont les deux dernieres moins longnes. On 
compte 2 epines epindvrales, 8 pleurapopliyses, Y epipleurales, 
dont la derniere est plutot une epinevrale. Le premier inter- 
n^vral soutient une seule epine dorsale. L'os pelvien n'a pas 
d'apophyse ascendante. 

Viscercs. — Circonvolutions ordinaires, intestin grele, un peu 
pelotonne avant le premier pli ; coecums mediocrenient nom- 
breux, longs, fermes. Vessie aerienne tres-solide. 

Ilistoire.—Qe sont des poissons de mer, carnivores, de taille 
mediocre ; ceux de Cuba se distinguent par un fond rougeatre 
parserae de taches brunes; trois tacbes brunes le long dii dos, de 
chaque cote. 

MARCH, 1871. ; 4 akn. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. X. 



50 Genres des Poissons 

Genus Enneacentrus. 

Ilistorique. — Ce genre a ete etabli par Mr. Gill, dans les Pro- 
ceed. Acad. Philad.5l865,p. 105, conjointementavec legeni'e^;i- 
neacentrus^ sur le nombre des epines dorsales et de la construc- 
tion du crane; famille des /*e?wtZce, sous-famille Serranince, ; 
ayant pour type le Seri^anus Ouatalibi de Yalenciennes, soit la 
variete rouge da Perca pimctidata de Ginelin. J'ai adopte ce 
genre dans ma Synopsis en 1868. II appartient an menie 
groupe que le genre anterieur. 

JEtymologie. — avix^ novem ; x.evipov, aculeus. 

Caracteres du genre. — Ce sont tons les caracteres du genre 
PetromStojpon, sauf ceux du crane, qui differe en ce qu'il est 
cannele dans I'espace interorbitaire, et toute sa surface lisse, 
comnie Mr. Gill, habile observateur des cranes, I'a deja fait 
remarquer. Le besoin de traduire au-deliors cette distinction 
anatomique, ra'oblige d'ajouter un caractere tire descouleurs: 
c'est, pour Cuba, deux taches noires surcaudales, et une autre, 
de chaque cote, sur I'extremite de la machoire inferieure. J'ai 
trouve dans le type un petit nombre de coecums, depassant 5, 
et la vessie aerienne a parois minces. Les moeurs et la taille 
sont ceux des Petrometopons. 

Genus Menephoeus. 

Le genre Menephorus ne differe du genre Enneacentrus de 
Mr. Gill, que par la caudale coupee en croissant, et le 
defaut de taches noires sur le pedicule caudal et a I'extremite 
du menton ; il porte, comme le genre etabli par Mr, Gill, des 
points bleus sur le corps. L'importance du premier de ces deux 
caracteres n'a pas ete meconnu du savant classificateur que je 
viens de nommer ; car il I'a fait heureusement entrer dans la 
description de ses genres. II est certain que la caudale des 
Trisotropis se presente coupee carrement ; celle des Epinepheli 
est arrondie ; celle des Lutjani est echancree ; celle des Caran- 



de la Faune de Cuha. 51 

gidce est bifurquee. Cependaiit, je n'ignore pas qu'il y a en 
cela de rares exceptions, comine par exemple cliez mon Triso- 
tropis falcatus etchez le Epinephelus morio ; etje n'aurais pas 
siir ce seul caractere etabli un nouveau genre dans la coupe de 
Mr. Gill, si je n'avais pas ete appu^ye par un trait de coloration 
caracteristiqoe qui se trouve chez les Enneacentri, et qui man- 
que dans les deux especes du genre que j'etablis ici. 

Quant au caractere de coloration, il parait nul au premier 
abord, quand on considere que I'organisation entiere n'est nul- 
lement changee par la disposition des couleurs; mais d'un 
autre cotd, on observe que la nature est souvent constante dans 
sa maniere de peindre les animaux, suivant les groupes aux- 
quels lis appartiennent. Ainsi, les especes de la race feline 
ont en general le poil fauve, parseme de taclies arrondies; les 
Colibris, parmi les oiseaux, ont le gosier aussi resplendissant 
que les pierres precieuses ; les Buprestes, parmi les Coleopteres, 
sont converts d'or ; les Papillons du genre Coliade sont presque 
tons jaunes, et les Pierides, blanches ; les Satyres derobent aux 
herbes des bois montagneux leurs traits cendres et incertains, 
Hiibner a etrangement abuse de ce caractere dans sa classifica- 
tion l^pidopterique ; mais il n'en a pas ete moins conduit a faire 
d'heureux rapprochements. Les couleurs souvent n'amenent a 
rien ; mais dans certains groupes elles semblent devoir faire 
necessairement partie des descriptions generiques ; ne fut-ce 
qu'au dernier terme. 

Je prends pour type le Erineacentrus dubius de mes 
Me moires. 

Etymologie. — My^i, luna ; ^//)«, fero. Ce qui repond au mot 
latin Lunifer, la caudale etant coupee en croissant. 

Genus Centeopristis. 

Ce genre a ete etabli par Cuvier et Yalenciennes, en 1829, 
dans rilistoire des Poissons, III., p. 36, sous le nom de Centro- 
pristes. Dans le 2*^ volume du R5gne animal, qui est poste- 



52 Genres des Poisso7is 

rieur, quoique de la nieme annee, il a ete change en Centropi'is- 
tis^ qui est plus acceptable. 

D'apres les auteurs du genre, ils sont parmi les Perches a 
dorsale unique et a dents en velours, a peu-pres ce que sont les 
Serrans dans la division de dents canines, c'est-a-dire, qu'ils 
reunissent a un opercule epineux un preopercule dentele en 
scie. Le rauseau, la machoire et la membrane des ouies man- 
quent d'ecailles ; mais il y en a sur le crane, sur la joue, et sur 
les pieces operculaires. Type : Perca atraria, L. 

Le type nomme, a les dents en velours, la langue lisse ; D. 
10, 11 ; A. 3, 7. La caudale est trilobee ; mais la forme de 
cette nageoire n'entre pas dans les caracteres du genre, tel que 
le presentent Cuv. et Val. 

Le Dr. Giinther, Catal. I., p. 82, indique les dents en velours, 
avec de tres-petites canines aux deux machoires. II ajoute 
que les dents du vomer sont sur une plaque triangulaire 
et que les nombres sont : D. 10, 12 (ou moins de 12) ; 
A. 3, 7 (parfois 6). Presque toutes les especes citees dans 
dans cette partie de son catalogue, ont etc plus tard portdes 
par Mr. Gill a un nouveau genre, nomme par lui Ilallperca. 

Ktyraologie. — xtvrptu, aculeus ; x^<5-t««, serratus. 

Genus IIalipekca. 

Ilistorique. — Ce genre a etc etabli par Mr. Gill, dans les 
Proceed. Acad. Philad., 1862, p. 236, parmi les Perddm, 
sous-famille SerranincB ', type, Serranus hivittatus, C. et V,, 
S. Ph(Bbe,Voey, Ceyitropristis tahaGarius,C.Y.,&''. II est place 
dans la division de " Dorsale entiere ou presque entiere, caudale 
entiere ou simplement ecliancree, corps delic, ecaillcs mode- 
rees (50-75) dents non conchees, machoires dgales, preopercule 
dentele." Les especes de ce genre ont ete distribuees par Cu- 
vier et Valenciennes parmi les Serrans proprement dits et les 
Centropristes. C'est dans ces derniers qu'elles ont ete placees 
par le Dr. Giinther. Klein, Miss. V., p. 60, N°. 4, a place une 



de la Faune cle Cuba. 53 

de Tios especes dans son genre ProchHus, deponrvu de dents, 
qualifie de monstrueux par Cuvier et Valenciennes. 

Etymologic. — uM, mare ; t//>x»), perche. 

Caracteres du genre. — Corps allonge, tete obtuse en dessns, 
ceil mediocre, ouverturesnasales rapprocliees et placees pres de 
I'oeil ; preopercule dentele sur tons ses bords, opercules a trois 
epines rejetees en bas ; bouche grande, machoire inferieure 
depassant la snperieure. Langue lisse, libre, pointue. Yoyez 
ce qui a ete indique dans la sous-famille des Serranini. 

Dents. — Les maclioires ont un rang exterieur de dents poin- 
tues, dont les deux ou trois premieres en haut, une on deux en 
bas, Bont plus fortes et peuvent etre considerees comme canines ; 
en dedans, il y a en haut une bande de dents en velours, ainsi 
que sur le devant de la machoire inferieure. Parnii celles de 
devant de la machoire snperieure, il y en a une de chaqne cote 
longue et forte, coiich^e en arriere, et qui parait etre mobile. 
Au milieu du rang externe de la machoire inferieure, s'elevent 
environ cinq dents plus longues que les autres et ecartees. Les 
dents du vomer sont sur un chevron triangulaire, et celles des 
palatins sur une bande dtroite. 

Nageoires. — D. 10, 12 ; A. 3, 7. La derniere epine dorsale 
est egale a I'avant-derniere. La partie molle 'est a-peu-pres 
aussi etendue que la partie epineuse. La caudale est echancree. 
II n'y a pas de lanieres a la pointe des epines dorsales. 

Ecailles. — Les ecailles sont au nombre de 50 a 70 le long de 
la ligne laterale, laquelle est parallele au dos. Celles des joues 
sont egales ou presque aussi grandes que celles de Topercule ; 
tantot il y en a, tantot il n'y en a pas sur I'interopercule, dont le 
limbe est toujours nu ; le crane et tout le museau en est deponr- 
vu ; il y en a a la base des nageoires verticales. 

Sguelette. — Le crane est arrondi en-dessus ; les cretes courtes 
et basses, la suroccipitale rejetee en arriere ; I'espace interorbi- 
taire etroit ; une apophyse laminaire au pretympanal. Les apo- 
physes laterales des vertebres abdominales commencent a la 5*, 
les trois dernieres paires formant I'anneau. La l*" etla2'' nevra- 



54 Genres des Poissons 

pophyses sont fortes et courbent leur pointe en avant. La 1* 
epine internevrale soutieiit deux rayons de la dorsale ; 2 
epines epicentrales, 8 plenrapophyses, 7 epipleurales. 

Visceres. — L'intestin est mou, les coecums au nombre de 5, 
la vessie aerienne a parois minces et transparentes. 

Histoire. — On en connait pbisieurs especes, toutes de petite 
taille. 



Genus Diplectkum, 

Histoi'ique. — Ce genre a ete etabli en 1855, par le Dr. Hol- 
brook, dans son Ichthyology of South Carolina^ p. 32. Type : 
Serranus fasoicularis, Cuv. et Yal. II a ete accepte par 
Mr. Gill, Proceed. Acad. Philad., 1862, pp. 236, 237. 

Caracteres. — II ne diff^re du genre Ilaliperca que par le preo- 
percule arme de deux faisceaux d'epines divergentes. Le II. hi- 
vittatus pent servir de transition entre ces deux genres. 

Etymologie. — <?<?, bis ; jt^l^xt^ov, plectrum, que Cuvier traduit 
ej>eron. 

Genus Mentipekca. 

Historique. — Ce genre a ete etabli par Mr. Gill, dans les 
Proceed, Acad. Philad., 1862, p. 236. Type : Serranus lucio- 

percanus, Poey. 

Caracteres. — Le genre Me7itipe}'ca Y>'^va.it bien etabli, quoique 
I'auteur ne I'ait separe des Halipercw que par un men ton 
proeminent et le petit nombre de coecums (deux seuleraent). 

• L'avanceraent de la machoire inferieure, chez les Haliper- 
cm, a ete indique par raoi ; mais ce caract^re n'est pas bien re- 
raarquable. II est bien prononce chez les Me^itipercce, ce qui 
leur fait un museau plus pointu ; I'oeil est pins grand. Le 
crane, au lieu d'etre arrondi, est plat en dessus. Le preorbitaire, 
tres-developpe, couvre tout le milieu de I'os maxillaire, et touche 
au bord de la levre. Ouvertures nasales extremement petites, 



de la Faune de Cuba. 55 

snrtout ranterieure, qn'on pent a peine decouvrir avec une 
forte loupe. Sauf ces difterences, il a les caracteres des Hali- 
percm ^ je ne suis pas certain cependant que I'on trouve der- 
riere les premieres dents de la maclioire superieure, lagrosse 
dent qui de chaque cote se couclie en arri^re. 
Etymologie. — Mentmn — Perca. 

Genus Hypoplectkus. 

Historique. — Ce genre a ete etabli par Mr. Gill, Proc. Acad. 
Philad., 1862, pp. 236, 237 ; type, Plectropoma j)uella C. et Y. 
II yest place dans la famille des Percidce, sous-famille Serrani- 
nce. " Dorsale entiere, candale ecliancree, corps oblong, ecailles 
petites, dents couchees en arriere des canines, preopercule aj-ant 
en dessous des dentelures dirigees en avant, le dit preopercule 
denticule en dessous en forme de scie. D. 10, 14-15. J'ai 
accepte ce genre dans ma Synopsis, en 1868. 

L'espece citee par Mr. Gill est chez Cuvier et Valenciennes 
le type de leur 3*^ division des Plectrojyomce.^ laquelle, outre les 
dentelures fines du bord montant du preopercule, en montre 
au bord inferieur de nombi'euses, presque aussi fines, mais 
dirigees en avant. 

Etymologie. — ujto, sub ; TtrXrjx.Tpov.i plectrum. 

Caracteres du genre. — Corps court, comprime ; ceil mediocre, 
haut ; narines rapprocbees, plus pres de I'oeil que du bout du 
museau. Preopercule finement dentele a son bord montant, 
sans echancrure, portant sur son bord inferieur 10 a 12 dente- 
lures dirigees en avant. Opercule arm^ de trois pointes 
epineuses. Bouche bien fendue, la machoire inferieure depas- 
sant la superieure. Langue lisse. Yoyez ce qui a etd indique 
dans la sous-famille des Serra^iini. 

Dents. — II y a aux machoires un rang externe de petites dents 
coniques, crochues, precedees de deux courtes canines. En ar- 
riere, sur la machoire superieure, il y a nn rang de dents plus 
minces, plus nombreuses sur le devant, et qui paraissent cou- 



56 Genres des Poissons 

cliees et mobiles. A la machoire inferieure lesdents coucliees 
ne sc trouvent que sur le devant. Les dents du vomer sont sur 
line plaque triangulaire. 

Nageoires. — D. 10, 15 ; A. 3, 7. La derniere epine dorsale 
est aussi longue que I'avant derniere ; I'etendue de la partie molle 
^gale, a peu pres, celle de la partie.epineuse ; les epines anales 
sont fortes ; la caudale est ^chancree. II n'j a pas de la- 
nieres membraneuses a I'extremite des epines dorsales. 

Ecailles. — Les ecailles sont fortement ciliees, aussi longues 
que hantes, adh^rentes, plus fortes sur les joues que sur les 
deux pieces posterieures operculaires ; les plus grandes du tronc 
se trouvent sur les flanes, pres de la pectorale ; celles de la gorge 
sont petites ; il y en a aux tempes, mais non pas sur le crane, 
I'interopercule, le limbe preoperculaire, ni le bout du museau, 
inclus le maxillaire et le dentaire, II n'y en a pas a la mem- 
brane des ouies. De ti es-petites ecailles s'dtendent sur la base des 
nageoires verticales ; il n'y en a pas sur la base des pectorales. 

Squelette. — Le crane est arrondi a son sommet, I'espace inter- 
orbitaire mediocre, I'orbite plus rapproclie de I'extremite ante- 
rieure ; la crete suroccipitale basse et rejetee en arriere ; la 
mastoidieniie tres-basse ; le nasal bas. Les cinq premieres 
vertebres abdomiiiales manquent d'apophyses laterales; les trois 
dernieres paires torment I'anneau, Les premieres nevrapopliyses 
sont plus fortes et plus courtes que les autres. L'appareil 
des cotes se compose de 2 epinevrales, 8 pleurapopliyses, 6 epi- 
pleurales, Le 1" internevral soutient deux epines dorsales. 
Le coracoidien est tres-echancre vers le bas. L'os pelvien u'a 
pas d'apo})liyse ascend ante. 

Visceres. — L'intestin fait les circonvolutions ordinaires ; ap- 
pendices pyloriques au nombre de 5 ; vessie natatoire a parois 
minces, quoique opaques ; vesicule du fiel allonge. 

Histoire. — Ce genre parait tres-naturel. Les especes qui le 
composent sont assez nombreuses, et de petite taille: environ 5 
pouces. 



de la Faune de Cuba. 57 

Genus Gonioplectrus. 

Historique. — Ce genre a ete etabli par Mr. Gill, Proceed. 
Acad. Philad., 1862, pp. 236, 237, parmi les PercidcBy sous- 
famille 8erranin(B^ dans la division de " Dorsale entiere, caudale 
entiere, corps oblong, ecailles petites, dents coiichees en arriere 
des canines, preopercule portant a son angle line dent plec- 
troidale dirigee en avant : D. 8. Type : Plectropoma Jiispor 
nuiii, C. V. Je I'ai adopte dans ma Synopsis, en 1868. 

L'espece cit^e par Mr. Gill est le type du 2*^ groupe de 
Plectropoma de Cuvier et Valenciennes, distingue par le bord 
montant du pr6o|:ercule dentele, n' ayant an bord inf(6i-ienr 
qu'un petit nombre de dentelures. Les especes renfermees dans 
cette division ne forment pas un groupe naturel, comrae le de- 
montrentle PI. chloropterum^ \e Susuki, le /Serratum, le nigro- 
ruhruni, types aujourd'hiii de nouveaux genres. 

Etymologie. — y^v/a, angulus ; "TrxUx.rfot^ plectrum. 

Caracteres du genre. — Corps court, oeil mediocre, place haut ; 
preopercule finement dentele a son bord montant, pourvu en des- 
sous d'une forte epine partant de I'angle et se dirigeant en 
avant ; opercule a trois pointes, celle du milieu extremement 
longue et forte. 

Dents. — Les dents des machoires sont en cardes ; il y en asur 
le devant quelques-unes un pen plus longues, coucliees et pro- 
bablement mobiles ; une seule canine en haiit, forte ; deux en 
bas longues et fortes, au milieu de la machoire. Les dents du 
vomer snr une plaque triangulaire ; les palatines sur une bande 
etroite. 

Nageoires. — D. 8, 13 ; A. 3, 7. Les rayons epineux de la 
dorsale sont assez courts et forts, le dernier ])lus court que celui 
qui le precede ; la partie moUe a peu d'etendue relativement a la 
portion epineuse. Les epines anales sont tr^s-fortes. La pec- 
torale est plutot arrondie que pointue. Yentrale retenue par 
une membrane axillaire. 

Ecailles. — Les ecailles sont ciliees. La lio;ne laterale se re- 



58 Genres des Poissons 

leve et ne suit pas la direction parall^le au dos. II y a des 
ecailles sur toutes les pieces operculaires ; celles des joues sont 
petites ; il n'y en a pas sur le crane, qui est apre, ni sur le devant 
du museau ; elles niontent sur les nageoires m^dianes jusqu'aux 
deux tiers de leur liauteur ; il y en a menie quelques-unes sur la 
membrane epineuse de la dorsale. L'os surscapulaire envoit au 
dehors sa lame plate. 

Squelette. — Malgr6 la grande diiference que presente, au pre- 
mier aspect, ce genre compare avec les Hypojolectri, I'examen 
du crane revele entre eux une grande affinite. Ainsi il est ar- 
rondi en dessus, la crete suroccipitale est au-dessous du niveau 
frontal ; les autres cretes sont basses ; la distance interorbitaire 
mediocre ; mais le nasal n'est pas bas. J'ignore si le labial 
existe. Les apophyses laterales des vertebres abdominales se 
montrent a commencer dela T®, les troisdernierespairesformant 
I'anneau, La V^ nevrapophyse chevauche ; les trois qui suivent 
sont fortes et rejetees en arriere, les quatre autres sont courtes ; 
celles qui suivent sont normales. Je ne crois pas qu'il y ait 
entre les chairs de fausses epines intern^vrales. 

Visceres. — L'intestin est etroit, et fait les circon volutions 
ordinaires, J'ai compte 8 appendices pyloriques, courts et 
fermes. J'ai trouve des crustaces dans son estomac. 

Observations. — Si I'on n'avait egard qu'a I'epine sous-pre- 
operculaire, on placerait ce genre a cote du genre Prospinus ; 
mais le nombre des epines dorsales et la forme du crane rap- 
proche ce dernier des Epinepheli ; tandis que le genre Gonio- 
plectrus se rapproche davantage des Ilypojplectri. 

SUBFAMILIA II. LUTJANINI. 

Une seule dorsale, la partie epineuse presque entierement 
logee dans un sillon du dos. Preopercule dentele ; opercule 
sans epines ou n'en portant qu'une plate. Machoire in- 
ferieure peu avancee. Un rang de dents exterieures, solides 
et plus fortes que les interieures, qui plus ou moins les 



de la Faune de Cuba. 59 

accompagnent ; des canines sur le devant des machoires. 
Le premier sous-orbitaire, tres-developpe, recouvre en partie 
I'extremite posterieure du maxillaire, Pectorale pointue ; 
dernier rayon de la ventrale attache a I'abdomen par une mem- 
brane axillaire. II n'y pas de lambeau cutane ecailleux au- 
dessus de I'axille pectorale, Mais il y a tonjonrs un lobule 
ecailleux au-dessus de la base de la ventrale. La caudale est 
echancree ou bifurquee. Les ecailles sont grandes ou mediocres. 
Le limbe preorperculaire est nu ; I'os surscapulaire perce en 
dehors. Le post-frontal n'a pas d'os caverneux solidement 
encaisse dans Fapophyse post-orbitaire. Quand I'os existe, il 
y est lachement encaisse. La fosse paroccipito-mastoidienne 
est ouverte et se continue jusq'au frontal. II n'y a pas d'os 
labial. II y a dans les chairs, au-devant de la dorsale, trois 
fausses epines interne vrales. 

On voit que c'est a juste titre que Mr. Gill a forme cette 
sous-famille, qui se distingue assez nettement de I'anterieure ; 
en meme temps qu'elle se rapproche de la famille des SjparoidcB. 
Yoyez la-dessus ce qu'en dit Mr. Gill, Proced. Acad. Philad., 
1862, p. 446, d'apres les vues de Mr. Troschel. Le genre 
Zutjanus est le type normal de cette coupe : c'est le genre 
Mesoprion de Cuvier. 

Voici les genres compris dans cette sous-famille : — 

1. Ocyurus. — Species : chrysurus, Bl. — aurovittatus, Ag. — 
ambiguus. Posy. — lutjandides^ Posy. 

2. MhomhopUtes. — Species : elegans, Poey. 

3. Lutjanus. — Species: Caxis^'^. — Jocu^ CwY.-^Cahallerote^ 
Bl. — Cubera, Poey. — Buccanella, Cuv. — Auhrieti, Dem. — 
Ojanco, Poey — profundtis, Poey — Campechianus, Poey — ana- 
Us, Cuv. — rosaceus, Poey. 

4. Tropidinius. — Species : Arnillo, Poey. 

5. Platyinius. — Species : vorax, Poey. 

6. Etelis. — Species : ocidatus, Yal, 

7. Yerilus. — Species : sordidus^ Poey. 



60 Genres des Poissons 

Genus Ocyurus. 

Historique. — Genre etabli par Mr. Gill, Proceed. Acad. 
Philad,, 1862, pp. 236, 23Y, ou il en donne les caracteres suivants, 
servant a le distinguer des autres genres de Cuba : " Famille 
des PercidcB, sous-famille Lutjaninm^ caudale bifurquee a 
lobes ti-es-aigns." Le type cite est le Mesoprion chrysurus de 
Cuvier et Valenciennes. 

Etymologie. — u-x^i, celer ; a'pct^ cauda. 

Caracteres du genre. — Le genre Ocyurus, considere dans 
son type, presente les caracteres qui suivent : Corps elcgam- 
ment oblong. Opercule sans epines. Narines ecartees, a-peu- 
pres a egale distance de Fceil que du bout du museau. Bouclie 
petite, la machoire inferieure depassant un pen la supcrieure. 
Langue apre. 

Dents. — Les maclioires portent une rangee de petites dents 
aigues, ecartees, sans canines remarquables ; derriere cette 
rangee il y a en haut une bande d'asperites, ainsi qu'en bas 
sur la partie anterieure seulenient ; il y a des asperites aux pa- 
latins et au vomer ; ce dernier en presente une plaque rlioni- 
boidale ; les os pharyngiens out des dents en iin velours. Le 
premier arc des branchies porte de longues ratelures. 

Nageoires. — D. 10, 13 ; A. 3, 9. L'etendue de la partie 
molle de la dorsale est un peu moindre que celle de la partie 
epineuse. Caudale bifurqude, a lobes tres-aigns, portee sur un 
pedoncule etroit. 

Ecailles. — Elles sont assez grandes, environ 55 le lono- de la 
ligne laterale, qui est parallele au dos ; il y en a aux tempes, 
aux joues, et sur I'appareil operculaire, sauf le limbo du preoper- 
cule ; le reste de la tete en est depourvu. 

Squelette. — Le crane, vu en dessus, est large ; I'espace inter- 
orbitaire assez grand et enfonce ; la crete suroccipitale tres- 
haute, ct se continuant avec la crete frontale jusqu'a I'articula- 
tion du nasal. Les apophyses laterales des vertebres abdomi- 
nales commencent a la 6® vertebre. Le 1'"' internevral ne soutient 



de la yaune de Cuha. 61 

qu'une seule epine. L'appareil des cotes se compose de 2 
epinevrales, 8 pleiirapophyses, 6 epipleurales. 

Viaceres. — Circonvolutionsordinaires ; coecums an nombrede 
5 ; vessie aerienne longue, opaque, argentee. 



Genus .Rhomboplites. 

Ilistorique. — Ce genre a ete etabli par Mr. Gill, dans les 
Proceed. Acad. Pliilad., 1802, pp. 236, 237 ; type : Centropristis 
auroruhens, Cuv. et Yal. 11 y est inis dans la fauiille des Per- 
cldcB, sous-fauiille Lutjanince^ caudale echancree, dents vonie- 
riennes sur ime plaque rlioniboidale. Je I'ai adopte dans ma 
Synopsis, en 1868. 

Etyynologie. — fVyS*?, rhombus; o^rAio-/?, aimatura. 

Caracferes du genre. — Corps oblong, elegant ; oeil grand, 
peu eleve ; narines rapprochees, aussi eloignees de Toeil que 
de I'extremite du museau ; preopercule tinement dentele a sa 
branche montante, bien dente a Tangle et sur la branehe infe- 
rieure ; opercule a une seule pointe epineuse, plate. Bouche 
petite, machoire inferieure depassant la superieure. Langue 
apre. 

Dents. — Les maclioires presentent exterieurenient une rangee 
de dents aigues, ecartees, plus grandes d'avant en arriere, 
mais sans canines prononcees. La rangee d'en liaut est accom- 
pagnee interieurement d'une bande de dents en cardes lines ; 
tandis que celle d'en bas n'en a que sur la partie antericure. 
Dents vomeriennes sur une plaque rhomboidale ; celles des pa- 
latins sur une large plaque. Pharynx a dents en velours. Pre- 
mier arc des branchies a longues ratelures. 

Nageoires. — D. 12, 11 ; A. 3, 8. La partie molle de la dorsale 
est d'uue etendue beaucoup plus courte que celle de la partie 
epineuse. Caudale bien echancree. 

Ecailles. -Elles sont cilices, de grandeur mediocre, environ 60 
le long de la ligne laterale, qui est parallele au dos. La tete en 



62 Genres des Poissons 

moiitre jusqii'aux tempes ; la joue en est couverte, aiissi grandes 
qu'a I'opercule ; il y en a a I'interopercule, mais pas au limbe 
pr^operculaire. Le reste de la tete en est depourvu. Le sur- 
seapulaire laisse voir son bord posterieur en dehors. 

Sqtoelette. — Le crane, vu en dessus, est aplati, le dianietre 
posterieur grand, ainsi que Tespace interorbitaire. La crete sur- 
occipitale est haute, se continuant avec la frontale ; les autres 
sont; basses. Une large perforation basilaire conduit aux fosses 
sous-craniennes. L'orbite occupe un espace plus pres de Textre- 
mite anterieure que de la posterieure. Sous-orbitaires au nora- 
bre de quatre, Pretympanal portant une apophyse laminaire, 
Les apophyses lateral es de Tabdomen commencent a la 5® ver- 
tebre. II y a de chaque cote 2 epinevrales, 8 pleurapophyses, 6 
epinevrales. La 1® epine internevrale supporte deux rayons 
epineux. L'os pelvien n'a j^as d'apophyse ascendante. 

Yisceres. — Circonvolutions ordinaires. Coecums, 5. 

Observations. — On voit que ce qui distingue principalement 
ce genre de celui que Mr. Gill woxnvaQ Lutjami^^ c'est le nombre 
12 des epines dorsales ; car la plaque rhoraboidale du vomer est 
un caractere commun a plusieurs Lutjans. J'ai pris pour type, 
quant aux caracteres du genre, le Rh. elegans de Tile de 
Cuba. 

Histoire. — Moeurs carnivores : taille mediocre. 



Geni's Lutjanus. 

Historique. — Ce genre a ete etabli par Bloch en 1797, dans 
son Ichthyologie, Pars 7, p. 324, sous les caracteres suivants: 
"tete nue anterieurement ; preopercule dentele, opercule sans 
epines ; museau aigu." II a pour premiere espece son Lutia- 
nus Lutianus du Japon, qui est le Mesoprion Lutjanus de 
Cuvier, dont les nombres sont : D. 10, 13 ; A. 3, 8. 

Cuvier, en 1817,avait adopte ce genre ; mais il I'a abandonne 
en 1828, et I'a remplace par celui de Mesoprion, parce qu'il est 



de la Faune de Cuba. 63 

mele dans Bloch a des especes d'autres families, soit Scleudides^ 
soit Lahrdides^ et a des Serrans du groupe des Merons-. Si cette 
raison pouvait etre admise, il faudrait supprimer bien d'autres 
genres. 

Mr. Gill, croyant sans doute qne le poids d'un grand nom 
ne saurait nuire a la priorite, a retabli le genre de Blocli dans 
les Proceed. Acad. Pliilad., 1802, pp. 236, 23 Y, coinme syno- 
nynie de 3Iesop7'ion, Cuv. Mr. Demarest I'avait deja accepte ; 
et avant lui, Lacep^de, en ajoutant le caractere de " une senle 
nageoire dorsale." Mr. Gill lui assigne : " Lufjaninm^ caudal 
emarginated, profile straight ; occiput crested." Son type est 
le Mesojprion griseus^ Cuv., qui est le nieme que le Lutjanus 
Caoiis. 

Le Dr. Giinther a conserve le nom de Cuvier. Je crois avec 
Mr. Gill que le genre Diacope^ Cuv., soit Genyroge de Cantor, 
doit etre confondu avec les Lutjani. 

Etymologie. — Du mot Lutjang, que Bloch avait cru du 
Japon, et qui est malais, selon Cuvier. Bloch ecrit en latin 
Lutianus. 

Caracteres du genre. — Yoici comment je presente les carac- 
teres du genre Lutjanus^ prenant pour type le Mesojprion 
Caxis, n'ayant pas en mon pouvoir le type cite par Bloch. 

Corps oblong, un peu eleve ; museau aigu ; machoire 
inferieure un peu moins avancee que la superieure ; opercule 
finissant en angle mousse et non-epineux ; preopercule presque 
pas dentele en dessous. Langue tantot lisse, tantot apre. 

Dents. — La machoire superieure a une rangee externe de 
dents aigues, ecartees, les dernieres plus petites ; elle est pr^- 
cedee de deux canines tres-longues ; en dedans il y a une large 
bande d'asperites. La machoire inferieure n'a pas de canines 
remarquables, mais seulement une rangee externe de dents 
aigues, plus longues que celles d'en liaut, et les dernieres pins 
petites ; en dedans il n'y a qu'une plaque etroite d'asperites sur 
ie devant. Les dents du vomer sont tantot sur un simple 
chevron triangulaire, tantot sur une plaque rhomboidale qui se 



64 Genres des Poissons 

prolonge en arriere en angle tres-aigu, Les dents pharyiigi- 
ennes inferieures sont en velours ; mais le bord interne en porte 
nne rangee de plus grosses et crochues, aiusi que les os 
superieurs. Le premier arc des branchies a de lougues 
ratelnres. 

Nageoires. — D. 10, 1-i ; A. 3, 8. La caudale est ecliancree, 
mais non pas profondement. 

Ecailles. — Elles sont ciliees, de 45 a 50 sur une ligne longi- 
tudinale. II y en a aux pieces operculaires. anx teinpes, aux 
joues ; mais non pas sur le crane, sur le museau, ni snr le limbe 
du preopercule. 11 y en a sur la base des nageoires verticales, 
partie molle ; mais non pas snr la base des nageoires paires. 
Elles sont d'egale grandeur sur la joue et sur I'opercule. 

Squelette. — Le crane est etroit en arriere. La crete surocci- 
pitale plus on muins elevee ; I'oeil place an milieu de la 
longueur cranienne ; I'espace interorbitaire etroit; le tron qui 
livre passage au nerf trijumeau est presque marginal. L'ap- 
pareil sous-orbitaire porte en tout cinq os, dont le dernier parait 
articule sur I'apopli^'se postorbitaire, mais tres-lacbement. II y 
a 2 epines epinevrales, 8 pleurapophyses, T epipleurales. Le 
I'"' internevral porte deux epines du dos. 

Yisceres. — L'intestin fait les circonvolutions ordinaires. La 
vessie aerienne est ordinairement solide ; quand ses parois sont 
minces, elles ne sont pas transparentes. Lavesicule du fiel est 
longue et etroite. Les coecums, au nombre de 5, mous et 
courts. 

Observations. — Ce genre admet quelques subdivisions : ainsi 
les especes nommees Oaxls, Jocu, etc., out de longues canines a 
la machoire superieure, et de grosses dents a I'inferieure ; en 
meme temps que les rayons mous des nageoires medianes sont 
plats, tres-divises et contigus, D'autres out les dents moins 
remarquables, surtout le Luiganus Ojanco, et les rayons mous 
pen divises. 11 y a encore des differences a I'egard de la 
convexite otocranienne. 



de la Faune de Ctiha. 65 

Genus Tropidinius. 

Historique. — Ce genre a ete etabli par Mr, Gill, qui n'en a 
pas encore fait connaltre les caracteres. Je Fai adopte dans 
ma Synopsis en 1868, d'apr^s les renseignements manuscrits de 
I'auteur, savoir : " Distinguished by the elevated occipital crest; 
strengthened by a subvertical rib behind, and the simple paroc- 
cipital process." Type : 2\ Arnillo, Poey. 

Etynxologie. — Tpo^-zj, carina; /v/av, nucula. 
Caracteres du genre. — Corps oblong, Narines rapprochees, 
plus pres de I'ceil que de I'extremite du museau ; une seule 
epine a I'opercule ; preopercule finement dentele a la branche 
montante et a I'angle, sinueux en dessous ; bouche mediocre- 
ment fendne, machoire inferieure un pen avancee, Lano-ne 
lisse. 

Dents. — Les dents des machoires sont courtes et pointues, 
sur un rang externe ; pr(5cedees de deux canines en haut et 
trois en bas. Interienrement, il y a en haut une bande en 
velours ras, ainsi qu'en bas; mais ici il n'y en a que sur la 
partie anterieure, Celles du vomer sont sur un simj^le chevron 
transversal, et aux palatins sur une seule ligne, Les os 
pharyngiens ont des dents en velours en bas, en cardes fines 
en haut. Le premier arc porte de longues ratelures. 

Nageoires. — D. 10, 10 ; A, 3, 8, La caudale est echancree ; 
la ventrale n'a pas de lobe ecailleux au dessus de sa base, 

Ecailles. — Environ 60 sur la ligne laterale, qui suit la 
courbure du dos ; il y en a sur la joue, mais non pas sur le 
limbe du preopercule ; les autres pieces operculaires en sont 
pourvues ; on en voit un groupe aux tempes : le reste de la tete 
est nu, Les nageoires verticales anterieures n'en ont pas. 

Sqtielette. — Le crane est mediocrement elargi en arri^re et 
sur I'espace interorbitaire ; la crete suroccipitale commence 
vers le milieu de Torbite ; elle est haute, tronquee en arriere ; 
les deux autres sont basses. La convexite otocranienne ne se 
montre pas en dehors, L'opercule est arrondi et eehancre 

MAKCH, 1871. 5 A^'N. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. X. 



QQ Genres des Poissons 

vers le haut, son epine unique renforcee interieurement. 
Cinq sous-orbitaires ; pretjmpanal sans apophyse laminaire. 
Les apophyses laterales abdominales commencent a la 5* 
vertebre, les trois dernieres paires formant I'anneau. Les 
quatre premieres n^vrapophyses sont assez fortes. Le 1" 
internevral supporte deux epines du dos. L'os pelvien n'a pas 
d'apophyse interne ascendante. 

Visceres. — Coecums, 5. 

Observations. — Le nombre des rayons de la dorsale, et la 
base nue de cette nageoire, ainsi que de I'anale, distinguent 
principalement ce genre des Lutjani. L'ecaille ventrale sur- 
axillaire manque. L'opercule et le pretympanal oifrent encore 
des differences. 

Genus Platyinius. 

Ce genre a etc etabli par Mr. Gill, en 1862, dans les Proceed. 
Acad. Philad., pp. 236, 237, dans la sous-famille des Lutjaninm ; 
ayant " la caudale ecliancree, les dents du vomer sur una 
plaque triangulaire, le profil bossu, I'occiput plat." Type: le 
Mesojprion vorax, Poey. II rentre dans le genre Anthias de 
Blocb, on Serrans harhiers de Cuvier et Valenciennes. Mr. 
Gill a cependant deraontre dans son article sur le genre Etelis^ 
Proceed. Acad. Philad., 1862, p. 447, que sa plus grande 
affinite est avec les Lutjans, ou Mesoprionsde Cuvier. Je I'ai 
adopte dans ma Synopsis, en 1868, 

Etymologie. — Trketrui^ latus ; <v/ay, nucula. 

Caracteres dtt genre. — Malgre la dorsale sans echancrure, 
qui distingue ce genre, il est telleraent rapproche du genre 
Etelis., que je crois devoir le decrire par simple comparaison 
(voyez ci-dessous). II a les caracteres de ce dernier, savoir, la 
meme colonne vertebrale, les memes pieces operculaires, I'oeil 
grand, la bouche bien fendue, le dentaire avance, la caudale 
bifurquee, les ecailles manquant au-dessus et au-devant de la 
tete, ainsi qu'aux nageoires, sauf le long des rayons de la 



de la Faune de Caha. 67 

caudale. II s'en distingue par la dorsale enti^re et par les 
details qui suivent. Le corps est oblong, sans etre elance ; 
tronQon de la queue plus court, lobes moins inegaux ; le museau 
plus bonibe ; I'ceil plus petit, le dentaire moins avance ; le 
maxillaire et le dentaire sans ecailles; le preopercule plus 
dentele a I'angle et en-dessous ; la partie molle de la dorsale 
plus etendne ; les epines anales plus fortes ; le dernier rayon 
raou de cette nageoire non-divise ; les ecailles plus petites, 60 
sur une ligne longitudinale ; celles de la caudale plus nom- 
breuses. 

Les dents des macboires oiFrent quelques differences : je les 
decris minutieusement ici. En haut, il y a d'abord deux ou 
trois canines, puis vient la rangee externe de dents pointues, 
au nombre a-peu-pres de 12, et quelques-unes plus petites ; dans 
I'interieur il y en a une bande en velours ras, plus large sur le 
devant, ou les plus interieures sont les plus longues. En bas, il 
y a d'abord 5 a 6 dents en crochets, plus petites que les canines 
d'en haut, et elles vont en augraentant de la premiere d la 
derniere; iramediatement apr^s vient la rangee de dents externes, 
plus petites et plus nombreuses que celles d'en haut. Dana 
rinterieur, le devant seulement est pourvu d'une bande de dents 
en cardes fines, dont les plus interieures sont les plus longues, 
maia non pas mobiles. 

I^e crane est construit sur le menie modele que celui de 
VEtelis ', il en differe cependant parun frontal plus prolonge, et 
les deux cretes laterales plus basses, ce qui detache un pen plus 
la cr^te suroccipitale. 



Genus Etelis. 

Historique. — Ce genre a ete etabli en 1828, par Cuvier et 
Valenciennes, Poiss. II., p. 127, famille des Percoides ; " ayant 
tous les caracteres des Perches proprement dites, sauf une 
rangee externe de dents en crochets, et se distinguant du genre 



68 Genres des Poissons 

Lucioperca par les palatiiis tout en velours et par ses opercules 
pourvus de deux pointes." Le type est le E. oarhiinculus, C. Y. 

C'est un deinembrement du genre Anthias de Blocb, 
qui peu-a-peu se trouvera reduit a une seule esp5ce, le Labrus 
Anthias^ L., Anthias sacei\ Bl., dont Rafinesque a fait le genre 
Aylopon : cette esp^ce a des particularites remarquables aux 
dents des machoires et au pieces operculaires ; et surtout aux 
vertebres, qui sont 10-16. 

Swainson, en 1839, Nat. Hist, of Fisbes, etc., II., pp. 168, 202, 
le pr^sente sous le nom de Etdes, en ajoutant le caractere de 
"caudale a lobes inegaux." II etablit en m^me temps le genre 
Elastoma^ qui en differe, selon lui, par les lobes egaux et la 
nageoire dorsale profondement ecbancree, sa partie epineuse 
plus etendue que la posterieure, I'oeil tr^s-grand ; type, Serra- 
nus ocidatus, C. V. On voit que les illustres auteui"S de 
I'llistoire generale et particuliere des Poissons n'ont pas connu 
la grande affinite qui existe entre le carhunculus et le ocidatus j 
ni Swainson non plus. Le Dr. Giintber a suivi I'exeinple de 
Cuvier et Valenciennes. Mr. Gill a deraontre que ces deux 
especes appartiennent au meine genre, Le nom de Swainson 
doit done passer a la synonymic. 

II en est de meme du genre Ilesperanthias de Lowe, Fishes 
of Madeira, 1843, puisqu'il prend pour type le S. ocidatus, 
ainsi que Swainson. C'est encore le genre Macrops, etabli par 
Mr. Oh. Dumeril en 1856, Icbtb. analyt., p. 279. 

II faut consulter sur ce sujet et sur les caracteres detailles du 
genre un bon article de Mr. Gill, insere dans les Proceed. 
Acad. Philad., 1862, p. 447, sous le titre de " On the Synonymy 
and Systematic Position of the Genus Etelis of Cuvier and 
Valenciennes." 

Etymologie. — Nom propre d'un poisson dans Aristote. 

Caracteres du genre. — J'ai profite du travail de Mr. Gill . j'y 
ai ajoute quelques autres particularites, principalement celles 
qui ont ete prises sur le squelette. 

Corps oblong, elance ; racine de la queue longue. Dorsale 



de la Faune de Caha. 60 

unique, presqne double j\ cause de son echancrnre profonde ; 
I'espace entre les yeiix plan, ainsi que I'occiput; museau court, 
bouche grande ; ceil trcs-grand ; narines rapprochees, beaucoup 
plus pres de I'oeil que de I'extremite du museau ; le preopercule 
n'a pas d'echancrure ; son bord montant est finement pectine, 
Tangle et le dessous sont dentlcules ; I'opercule est arnie d'une 
pointe assez forte, I'inferieure u'existant pas, la superieure tres- 
plate ; maxillaire terniinant sous le tiers posterieur de I'oeil ; 
raaclioire inferienre plus avancee que la superieure ; langue 
lisse. 

Dents. — Les maclioires ont une rangee exterieure de dents 
en crochets, petites, ecartees, les premieres d'en haut un peu 
plus fortes; parmi celles-ci on remarque une canine peu 
developpee en haut, et une plus petite en bas. A Tinterieur, 
la machoire superieure porte une bande de dents en velours 
ras ; et Tinferieure aussi, mais sur le devant seulement. II y a 
des dents en velours au vomer, sur un chevron angulaire ; aux 
palatins, sur une bande etroite, ainsi qu'aux pharjmgiens, De 
longues ratelures au premier arceau des branchies. 

Nageoires. — D, 10, 11; A. 3, 8. La partie molle de 
la dorsale a peu d'etendue. L'anale a les epines faibles. 
Caudale bifurquee, lobes aigus, le superieur plus prolong<^ que 
I'inferieur. Le dernier rajon mou de la dorsale n'est pas 
divise ; il se prolonge en filament, ainsi que le dernier de 
l'anale; mais celui-ci est divise. II n'y a pas de lobe ecailleux 
au-dessus dela base des ventrales, 

Ecailles. — Les ecailles sont ciliees, au nombre de 50 sur une 
ligne longitudinale ; la ligne laterale suit la courbure du dos. 
II y a des ecailles aux joues, aux tempes, au maxillaire, au 
dentaire ; mais non pas sur le preorbitaire, qui est strie, ni sur 
la t^te, ni sur le limbe du preopercule. II n'y en a pas non 
plus aux nageoires, sauf a la base de la caudale. 

Squelette. — Le ci'ane est-tr^s large et plat entre les deux 
orbites, et le bord orbitaire bien strie en travers. L'ffiil occupe 
le milieu du crane. La crete suroccipitale, sans etre trop 



70 Genres des Poissons 

basse, ne s'avance pas sur le front: il y a uii trait eleve en 
travers la ou coramencent les cretes. Le basilaire est perce 
d'une grande fente. qui conduit aux fosses sous-craniennes, 
lesquelles sont tres-amples. H y a cinq os dans I'appareil sous- 
orbitaire. L'apophyse laminaire du pretympanal est tres- 
petite. Les apophyses laterales abdominales ne commencent a 
se bien prononcer qu'a la 4® ou 5^ vertebre; les trois derni^res 
paires forraent I'anneau. Les premieres nevrapophyses sont 
basses et un peu robustes sur les premieres vertebres qui 
suivent. L'appareil des cotes compte de chaque cote 2 
epinevrales, 8 pleurapophyses, 7 epipleurales. La 1® epine 
internevrale snpporte deux rayous epineux du dos, L'os 
pelvien a une apopliyse interne ascendante. 

Observations. — Ce genre ne contient aujourd'hui que trois 
especes, qui peut-etre n'en font qu'une; la premiere est 
Atlantique, region intertropicale ; la seconde est du Japon, la 
troisiome, de Tile de Bourbon. Malgre Techancrure de la 
dorsale, les affinites sont plutot avec les Liitjanini qu'avec les 
PercidcB^ comme Mr. Gill I'a demontre. Le genre Pla- 
tyinius sert d'intermediaire. 



Genus Yerilus. 

Historiqiie. — Ce genre a ete etabli par moi en 1860, dans 
mes Memorias sobre la Ilistoria natural de la isla de Cuba, II., 
p. 125, tab. 12, f. 6, famille des Percoides, voisin du genre 
^ifeZ/s, mais s'en distinguant quant a la dentition. Type: V. 
Sordid'US, Poey. Mr. Gill le cita dans les Proceed. Acad. 
Philad., d'abord dans la sous-famille des Serranince, 1862, p. 
236, indiquant avec doute 5 rayons aux branchies, pour le 
distinguer du genre Elastoma (le Verilus a 7 rayons) ; mais 
apres son article sur le genre Etelis, 1862, p. 445, il est certain 
qu'il le considere aujourd'hui comme appartenant a la sous- 
famille des LutjanincB. 



de la Faune de Cuba. 71 

Etymologie. — Du mot espagnol 'veril, qui signifie haut-fond 
coupe a pic. 

Caracteres du genre. — Je renvoie au genre Etelis^ pour avoir 
par comparaison la description du genre actuel. II lui 
ressemble probableraent par I'aplatissement de la partie 
superieure de la tete ; il a, com me lui, le museau court, I'oeil 
grand, la bouche grande, la raaclioire inferieure avancee, la 
langue lisse, les m^mes dents du vomer et des palatins, le 
m^me preopercule, I'opercule portant deux epines plates, le 
sillon dorsal, la nageoire dorsale aussi profondement ecliancree 
et sous le m^me nonibre 10, 11 ; les epines anales faibles, la 
caudale bifurquee, la pectorale pointue, le maxillaire ecailleux, 
I'ecaille surscapulaire, 

II en differe par un corps oblong moins allonge, par Tanale 3, 
7, P. 15 ; lobes de la caudale egaux et moins prolonges, dernier 
rayon des nageoires verticales divise et non-filamenteux ; 45 
ecailles sur une ligne longitudinale ; j'ignore s'il en a au sous- 
orbitaire et au limbe du preopercule ; mais il y en a a la base 
de la dorsale molle et de I'anale ; celles du tronc sont minces 
et caduques, pourvues d'eventail et centre granuleux, non- 
ciliees sur leur bord libre. La principale difference est dans 
les dents des machoires. Dans celles d'en liaut, c'est une 
bande d'asperites portant seulement en dehors et sur le 
devant une dent canine (on deux s'il y en a une de recliange) ; 
dans celle d'en bas, c'est un rang externe de dents petites et 
serrees, et une bande interieure en velours sur le devant ; il y 
a de plus une petite canine dont la pointe se rejete en arri^re. 

Je n'ai pas etudie le squelette. 

Les visceres presentent les circon volutions ordinaires de I'in- 
testin, qui est etroit et ferme ; les coecums sont au nombre de 
6 a 7. 

Ce genre renferme a Cuba une seule espece. Une forme 
analogue le represente peut-etre au Japon, dit Mr. Gill, dans 
le genre Caprodon de Temminck et Schlegel. 



72 Genres des Poissons 

SUBFAMILIA III.— PEECm^. 

Deux dorsales, la premiere portant des rayons epineux. 
Dents des niachoires en velours, sans canines distinctes. 

Genres de cette soiis-famille : — 

1. Chorististium. — Species : riibrum, Poey. 

2. Liojproi)07)ia. — Species : aberrans^ Poey. 

Genus Chokibtistium. 

Ce genre a ete etabli par Mr. Gill, dans les Proceed, Acad. 
Philad,, 1862, p. 15; ayant pour type mon Liopropomaf 
rubrum, dans la famille des PercidcB^ sous-famille Percince. 
Voici les caracteres qu'il en donne : '' Body fusiform, with the 
caudal peduncle high and compressed. Head rather elongated, 
conic in profile and acute in front, but with the outline slightly 
curved ; lower jaw protuberant, teeth villiform on the jaws, 
vomer, and palatine bones. Preoperculum entire. Operculum 
armed with two spines. Scales on the whole body except the 
muzzle. Dorsal fins entirely separated ; the fi,rst with five 
spines diminishing from the second ; the second dorsal with a 
simple spine. Anal armed with three graduated spines, and 
with the soft portion elevated backwards. Caudal subtrun- 
cated. Lateral lines anteriorly arched." 

Elytnologie. — ;c*'f"7«?, separatus ; /Vrev, velum. 

La pectorale est pointue ; les ecailles montent sur la 2^ dor- 
sale et sur I'anale. D, 5, 1, 12 ; A. 3, 8 ; P. 13. 11 y a trois 
epines operculaires, mais il n'y a que celle du milieu qui soit 
forte ; les deux autres sont plates. Les dents des machoires 
sont en fin velours ; mais il y en a d'autres dans I'interieur sur le 
devant, longues et greles, ayant I'aspect d'etre mobiles ; celles 
du vomer sont placees sur un espace triangulaire. La crete 
suroccipitale est basse. 



de la Faune de Cuba. 73 

Genus Liopkopoma. 

Ce genre a ete etabli par Mr. Gill, dans les Proceed. Acad. 
Philad., 1861, p. 32, dans la fatnille des Percidce, soiis-famille 
PerciiKK.^ dans la division de " Dents en velours a I'intermaxil- 
laire, au vomer et aux palatins, ayant des pseiidobranchies, tonte 
la tete couverte d'ecailles, preopercule ordinairement entier, 
dorsale anterieure ayant environ 6 rayons. Le type est le Perca 
aherrans^ Poey." Yoici sa diagnose de p. 52 : "Body slender 
and fusiform. Head elongated, conic in profile and anteriorly 
acute. Preoperculum entire. Operculum armed with a strong 
spine. Scales covering the whole head and the bases of the 
vertical fins. Dorsal fins connected at their bases; the anterior 
with six spines, the middle of which are longest ; the second 
armed with three spines, regularly increased in length. Anal 
fin with three spines; the fin increasing in height pos- 
teriorly. Caudal fin emargiuate. Lateral line anteriorly 
strongly curved." 

J'ajoute qu'il y a des ecailles sur le maxillaire ; on en compte 
45 sur une ligne longitudinale ; le surscapulaire ne perce pas 
en dehors. La ventrale est un peu avancee. D. 6 + 3, 12; A. 
3, 8 ; P. 15 ; V. 1, 5 ; C. 17. Les dents des machoires forment 
une bande en velours, sans canines ni rang externe de dents 
plus fortes. Les dents en velours deviennent plus longues en 
avant, couchees en arriere, probablement mobiles. Le crane 
est lisse et un peu arrondi en dessus; I'espace interorbitaire 
mediocre ; la crete suroccipitale rejetee en arriere et tres-basse, 
ainsi que la paroccipitale. La fosse exoccipito-mastoi'dienne 
est bien marquee. La base esphenoidale du crane est droite. 
Vertebres 10 + 14; les six premieres sans apophyses laterales. 
Les trois premieres nevrapophyses sont fortes et courbees en 
avant. 

^ Etyraologie. — Aerss, laevis ; ^^o, ante ; srw/^t*, operculum. 



74: Genres des Poissons 

APPENDICE. 

Genus Gkasima. 

J'ai etabli ce genre en 1868, dans ma Synopsis, p. 296, 
famille Percidce, sous-famille Lutjanini ' ligne laterale re- 
montant tres-haut et interrompne ; caudale arrondie, un peu 
pointue. Par le seul fait de le placer pres des Lutjans, on doit 
supposer qu'il en a les principaux caracteres. En effet, les 
ventrales sont thoraciques, a 5 rayons mous ; preopercule dentele, 
opercule sans epines, pectorale pointue, ecailles ciliees, peu 
nombreuses, 45 sur une ligne longitudinale; il n'y en a pas sur 
le crane, sur le museau, ni sur les nageoires ; il y a des dents 
au vomer et aux palatins. 

II en differe par les epines dorsales, puisque la formule 
radiaire est D. 12, 9, A. 3, 9, C. 17, P. 17, Y. 1, 5, et par la forme 
de la caudale. La machoire inferieure parait depasser un peu 
la superieure. La partie molle de la dorsale a tres peu d'eten- 
due ; le premier rayon des ventrales forme un filament allonge. 
Les dents de la machoire superieure sont tres-fines ; celles 
de la machoire inferieure sont bien visibles, pointues, 
crochues. Je n'ai pas indique de canines, et j'ai oublie de 
noter s'il y a d'autres dents sur une rangee interieure. Je 
n'ai pris de notes non plus sur le nombre de rayons branchi- 
osteges, la surface de de la langue, le frein merabraneux des 
ventrales, Tecaille surscapulaire, ni tout ce qui se rapporte au 
squelette interne et aux visceres. 

La plupart des caracteres indiques rapprochent ce genre des 
Pomacentres ; mais il s'en eloigne par un trait de la plus grande 
importance, savoir, deux os phar^mgiens inferieurs ; ce que 
j'ai examine avec soin dans I'exemplaire unique envoye a Mr. 
Agassiz, sur lequel j'ai etabli le genre ; on n'y trouvera pas 
ces OS, parce que je les ai enleves pour en faire I'etude. Tons 
les Pomacentres que je connais out le corps court, la bouche 
tres-petite, des ecailles sur le crane, et le palais manque de 
dents ; leurs nageoires sont ecailleuses. 



de la Faune de Ctiba. Y5 

Gramma Loeeto. Poey. 

Observations. — L'individu type n'avait que 50 millimetres 
de long. Cette taille, jointe a la grandeur de I'oeil et aux 
narines tres-rapprochees de I'orbite, paraissent ann oncer le 
jeune age de l'individu. Je I'ai figure grossi, sous le nom de 
Gramma Loreto. 

Etymologie. — yfxfjLf^yi^ linea ; par allusion a la ligne laterale. 

La partie anterieure du corps est bleuatre, plus eclairci sur 
les flancs, et passant insensiblement au rouge sur la partie pos- 
terieure du tronc ; les nageoires sont jaunatres, la ventrale a 
le bord anterieur bleu. La membrane qui soutient les quatre 
premiers rayons epineux de la dorsale porte vers le bord une 
tache d'un bleu fonce. II y a deux lignes noiratres sur la 
partie posterieare de I'orbite, montant obliquement vers la 
nuque, la sup^rieure plus longue. 

Deux especes nouvelles de Poissons de Cid)a^ nominees dans 
V article qui precede. 

liiitjaniis Cubera, Poey. 

Poey, Proceed. Acad. Pliilad., 1863, p. 185; Mesopriori 
cynodon (Cuv.), nee typus. Yide quoque Eepert. I., p. 268, 
411 ; II., p. 157; et Lutjanus cynodon in Synopsis, p. 294. 

Je vais decrire ce poisson par comparaison avec le Lutjanus 
Caballerote. Je n'ai pas besoin d'entrer dans le detail des 
formes, parceque ces deux especes sont assez connues, quoique 
difficiles a distinguer, au premier aspect, I'une de I'autre. Le 
corps est toujours plus allonge que celui du L. Caxis et que 
celui du L. Jocu ; et leurs couleurs n'ont pas les teintes jaunes 
du premier ni le rose du second. Le Cubera est ordinairement 
brun, tirant sur le violet ; le bord des ecailles jete un reflet mi- 
dore, chez les jeunes individus. Le ventre est rose ; les 
nageoires vineuses. L'oeil est brun-rougedtre. Le Caballerote 



76 Genres des Poissons 

est teint a pen-pres des memes coulenrs : ou y trouve quelque- 
fois dans les jeunes, sons I'orbite, des points bleus longitudi- 
naux, tels qu'on en voit ehez le Jocii et parfois chez le Caxis / 
mais on n'y trouve pas les bandes verticales qui sont si 
frequentes chez ces derniers. Cependant, lorsque I'animal sort 
de I'eau, il presente des bandelettes verticales, blanches, qui 
ne tardent pas a disparaitre apres la mort ; ce qui- probableraent 
arrivera anssi au Ciihera. Chez les deux especes, on trouve les 
caracteres indiques dans le type, decrit par moi, du genre 
Lutjanus I sauf les rayons de I'anale nioins divises, et ce qui 
sera dit plus bas. Le Cdballerote arrive a dix livres de poids, 
tout au plus douze ; le Cubera a tres-souvent quarante livres, 
quelque fois cent. 

II faut etre un pecheur tres-experimente, comme I'est a la 
Ilav ane M. Pablo Lesmes, pour bien distinguer le Ciibera du 
Caballerote ; d'autant plus qu'on prend rarement des Cubera 
jeunes, pour en faire la comparaison. A Matanzas, tout est dit 
Ciibera; et les Caballerote^ en raison de leur taille, sont dits 
Cubereta (petites Cubera). A la Havane, au contraire, tout est 
Caballerote^ parcequ'il est defendu de vendre le Cubera. J'ai 
donne dans les Proceedings de Philadelphie les caracteres qui 
distinguent les deux especes, en comparant deux individus du 
raeme age, longs de 350 millimetres. La difference consiste, 
outre la taille, en ce que le Caballerote a le museau aigu, ce 
qui est du d'abord ^ un prolongement plus grand, ensuite a un 
affaissement du profil ; la bouche, plus petite, termine rarement 
au-dessous du bord anterieur de I'orbite. Le Cubera a le 
museau plus court, et obtus ; la bouche, plus fendue, se rejete 
en arriere, et arrive souvent sous I'aplonb du milieu de I'oeil. 
Mais ce dernier caractere, bien marque dans le jeune age 
devient equivoque chez le Cubera adulte ; parceque I'oeil 
diminuant avec Vage, la bouche avance en proportion. Cepen- 
dant la ligne du profil est suffisante pour le reconnaitre a tout 
age. La langue est lisse ; celle du Caballerote est apre. En 
etudiant nouvellement ces especes sur les individus cites dans 



de la Faune de Cuba. 77 

les Proceedings, j'ai troiive un caractere telleraent important, 
qu'il suffit a lui-senl pour enlever touts espece de doute : c'est 
que les dents du vomer, eliez le Cuhera, sont sur un mince 
clievron transversal, tandis que, chez le Caballerote^ elles 
torment une large plaque qui se prolonge en arriere, corame 
chez le L. Caxis^ et prend un forme rliomboidale. 

J'avait d'abord cru que le poisson de Parra n'etait pas le 
Caballerote, mais plutot notre Ouhera^ a cause du racourcisse- 
ment du museau que Ton remarque sur sa figure ; mais c'est un 
defaut dans lequel I'auteur tombe quelquefois, corame on pent 
le voir dans son Caxls. Parra ne dit pas que le poisson 
devient tres-grand ; il dit seulement que son individu, dont il 
ne donne pas la mesure, est un des plus grands de son espece. 
Or j'ai su par Mr. Goaells que I'exemplaire original, depose au 
Museum de Madrid, a 380 millimetres de long jusqu'a la bi- 
furcation caudale. Mr. Perez Areas a eu plus tard la bonte 
de m'ecrire que la distance du bout du museau au boi-d 
posterieur du maxillaire est de 59 millimetres ; et a I'oeil, 64. 
C'est done la vraie physionomie du Caballerote. D'ailleurs, 
Parra a bien connu le Cxd^era^ ayant ete lui-raerae empoisonne 
par un individu de cette espece, comme il le rapporte, page 200 
de son ouvrage. 

La figure de Parra a suflEi a Bloch pour etablir I'espece. 
Cuvier I'accepte dans sa synonymic ; mais, sans respect pour la 
priorite, il nomme le poisson Mesojirion cynodon : il decrit des 
individus de la Martinique ; et les caracteres qu'il en donne 
sont communs aux deux especes dont il est question dans cet 
article. II ne donne ni la taille de I'animal, ni la forme du 
museau, ni la grandeur de la bouche relativement a I'ceil; ce 
qui fait qu'on ne pent savoir quelle espece est par lui decrite. 
D'autre part, il rapporte a son cynodon la Sarde midatiesse de 
St. Domingue, qui me semble devoir etre plutot rapportee au 
L. Caxis, dont il a les teintes jaunes et orangees ; ainsi que le 
Yellow-tail- Snap^e?^, cite sous le nom de Cuvier par Miiller et 
Troschel in Schomburgk, Hist, of Barbadoes, p. 465. 



78 Genres des Poissons 

En tout ceci, ce qu'il y a de certain, d'apres Cuvier lui-meme, 
c'est que le Mesprion cynodon est le meme que le Cahallerote 
de Parra, soit VAnthias Cahallerote de Blocli, qui a la priorite 
sur Cuvier. J'ai dii par consequent donner un autre nom an 
veritable Cubera de Cuba. — IST". 153 de mon Atlas MSS. 

Yoici la synonymic du Cahallerote, ]S[°. Ill de mon Atlas. 

Parra, p. 52, tab. 25, f. 1. Caballerote. 1787. 

Anthias Cahallerote B. Syst. p. 310. 1801. 

Mesojprion cynodon Cuv. in C. Y. Poiss., II., p. 465. 1828. 

Sagra, Atlas MSS., tab. 36. Cahallerote. 

Giinther, Catal. I., p. 194. M. cynodon. 1859. 

Poey, Proceed. Philad., 1860, p. 187. M. Cahallerote; 
Synopsis, p. 293, Lutjanus Cahallerote, 1868. Vide quoque 
Kepert. I., p. 268, 411 ; II., p. 157. 



Hypoplectriis iiiaciiliferiii»i, Poey. 

La taille et la forme de ce poisson sont les memes que celles 
du Plectropome puella de Cuvier, inclus aujourd'hui dans le 
genre Hypoplectrus de Gill. II a, comme lui, des bandelettes 
sur la tete ; mais il se rapproclie de mon H. guttavarius par la 
taclie preorbitaire, quoique non-bord^e de bleu. L'espece la 
plus voisine est mon H. aberrans, dont il differe par les lignes 
de la tete et par la couleur du tronc. [Yoyez planche.] 

La tete et le ventre sont oranges, mais le dessus de la tete est 
olivatre ; le tronc est terre d'ombre. II y a une taclie noire sur 
la caudale, et une tache preorbiraire d'un bleu tres-fonce, sans 
bordure. Les bandelettes de la tete et de la gorge sont d'un 
bleu metallique. La dorsale est jaunatre avec des traits bleus 
sur la partie moUe. La pectorale est la caudale sont d'un 
orange vif, mais la pectorale a le bord superieur bleu ; la 
ventrale est verdatre, sa base est orangee; I'anale est orangee, 
son bord bleu. 

Les ecailles les plus grandes sont situees sur les flancs, pres 



de la Faimc de Cula. YO 

cle la pectorale ; les plus petites sont snr la region jugulaire. II 
y en a de tres-petites snr la base des nageoires vertical es. II 
n\y en a pas sur I'interopercule ni sur le museau. — N° 390. 
Yoyez les autres caracteres dans la famille et le genre, 
L'original sera envoye an Professenr Agassiz, pour etre 
depose au Museum de Cambridge. 



IV. — 0)1 the Lingual Dentition of Helix turhiniformis^ ^*f'*^-i 
and other' sjyecies of Terrestrial MoUnsca. 

By THOMAS BLAND and W. G. BINNEY. 

Read May 15th, 1871. 

Helix tiirbiniforiui^, Pfeiffer. 

(Plate II., Fig. 2.) 

Jaw so extremely thin and delicate as to fold over upon itself 
along its edges and at its extremities ; very light horn color, 
almost transparent ; strongly arched, rather narrow, attenuated 
towards the ends, which are obtuse ; divided into about forty 
separate perpendicular compartments composed of curving fold- 
like plates, whose extremities give a correctly serrated appear- 
ance to either margin ; these plates or folds are straight at tlie 
centre of the jaw, and in no wise clievron-shaped upon the 
central line; upon about the centre of the jaw is a curving, 
horse-shoe shaped line of reinforcement, running somewhat 
parallel to the margin, below this line there are very delicate 
transverse strise ; the upper margin is slightly incurved at its 
centre, the lower margin has no approach to a median pro- 
jection. 

It is difficult to determine the precise nature of the fold-like 
plates into which this jaw is divided. They give the same ap- 
pearance as if the whole substance of the jaw were plaited along 

JULY, 1871. 6 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. X 



80 On the Lingual Dentition of 

its entire length, no interstices being left between the plaits. 
As the word plait would imply an actual folding of the sub- 
stance of the jaw upon itself, we have not used that term, as 
there is in reality a simple thickening. In using the word 
plate, we do not intend to describe the jaw as composite, as in 
the case of Orthalicus, or Achatina fasciata and virginea, in 
which it seems to be composed of separate, i. €., partially de- 
tached plates, imbricated one upon the other, with oblique 
sutures, those of the upper centre chevroned upon the central 
line, so as to leave an angular upper central plate. From this 
angular plate is derived the term Goniognatha used by Morch 
for one of the sections into wliicli he suggests the Geophila may 
be classified according to character of jaw. In the jaw of H. 
turhiniforinis the central plates are perpendicular, with no 
approach to the angular arrangement. The plates must be 
considered, therefore, as a modification of the rib-like process, 
which characterizes most of tlie species of the genus Helix, as 
restricted by Albers and v. Martens, but by no means all of 
them, as we find a ribless jaw in H. alternata, Heinphilli^ 
striatella, asteriseus, labyrinthica, Phoenix, tnuscarum, and 
vartans, in the last of which we have also a highly developed 
median projection. 

With the exception of the absence of angular plates at the 
upper centre, this jaw resembles very closely that of Cylindrella 
rosea (see photograph, Amer. Journ. Conch. Y., plate XI,), or 
that of Pineria Schrammi (Ann. Lye. N. Y., X. 22). 

We now notice, for the first time, this form of jaw in the 
Genus Helix, in which stout, distinct ribs are usually found 
upon the anterior surface of the jaw, decidedly crenellating 
either margin. It is very common, however, in the genus 
Buliniuhis, having been observed by us in B. aurisleporis, 
Brug., suffiatus, Gld., membranaceus, Ph., papy^'aceus, Mawe, 
Jonasi, Pfr., alternatus, Say, jpallidior, Sow., and aureolus, 
Guppy, var. Rawsoni, In the jaw of B. aurisleporis there 
appear to be angular central plates. 



Helix turhiniforinis^ Pfeiffer. 81 

In tlie Genus Bulimulus^ however, the form of jaw under 
consideration is not constant, as that of B. dealbatus, kSay, has 
distinct anterior ribs. 

Helix turhiniforinis is placed, by Albers and v. Martens, in 
the subgenus Microphysa. 

The lingual membrane is long and quite narrow, composed 
of numerous oblique rows of about 25-1-25 teeth. Centrals 
large in proportion to the laterals, siibquadrate, with broadly 
reflected triscuspid apex, the cusps very globose, the two outer 
ones unusually small and distant from the middle cusp ; 
laterals like centrals, but bicuspid ; marginal teeth wide, low, 
with small, stout, irregular denticles. 

The jaw and lingual membrane above described M'ere re- 
ceived, already mounted, through Governor Kawson, from Mr. 
Henry Vendryes of Jamaica, by whom they were taken from 
a Jamaica specimen, and who noticed and has corresponded 
with us on the peculiarity of the jaw. 

BiiHmnliis laticinctii§^ Gr"PPy- 

(Plate II., Figs. 1, 5.) , 

A mounted lingual membrane of this Dominica species was 
received from W. H. J. Lechmere Guppy, of Trinidad. 

Lingual membrane long, and quite broad in comparison to 
its length, composed of numerous waving rows of teeth. Cen- 
trals subpyrauiidal, the base excavated, the apex not pointed, 
but bluntly rounded and recurved into a stout obtuse long cusp, 
which is unequally divided into two blunt, stout lobes. Later- 
als very much longer and larger than the centrals, long, narrow, 
obliquely recurved into a greatly developed, unequally tri- 
lobed cusp. Marginals but little modified from the laterals in 
shape, but narrow, denticulated on the outer side of their re- 
flected cusp, which last is bicuspid rather than trilobed. 

Fig. 1 represents the central and lateral teeth ; Fig. 5 one of 
the marsrinals. 



82 On the Lingual Dentition. 

Buliiiinlu^ Bahaiiiensis, Ffr. 

i (Plate II., Figs. 3,4.) 

A specimen from ISTew Providence, received from Governor 
Ravs^son, furnished the lingual membrane and jaws here de- 
scribed. 

Jaw long, low, slightly arcuate, composed of over fifty sepa- 
rate plates, in some places divided by distinct, though narrow 
ribs. In two of the three jaws examined, the central plates are 
chevroned on the median line, leaving a distinctly triangular 
plate at the upper centre, whose base is up, its apex pointing 
downward. In the third specimen the plates are obliquely ar- 
ranged, from above and outward to within and below, as on 
the whole surface of the jaw, but they reach quite across it, 
leaving no central triangular plate. The jaw is interesting, as 
it combines the characteristics of separate plates and distinct 
ribs. 

Lingual membrane (PI. II., Figs. 3 and 4) as already de- 
scribed in B. laticinctus. The points of the cusps, however, 
are more acute than in that species. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE II. 
Fig. 1. Svlimulus laticinctus, to show the cusps of the central and 
lateral teeth. 
" 2. Helix turhiniformis. Jaw, 
" 3. JBulimulus JBahamensis. To show the cusps of the marginal 

teeth. 
" 4. Same as Fig. 3. The cusps of central and lateral teeth. 
" 5. Same as Fig. 1. One marginal tooth. 



Notes on the Ascidea Manhattensis. 83 



Y. — Notes on the Ascidea Manhattensis^ De Kay, and on the 
Mammaria Manhattensis. 

By THEO. a. TELLKAMPF, M.D.ij 

Read May 2.3d, [1871. 

De Kay's description of the Ascidea Manhattensis* is such 
that this species, the only simple Ascidian thus far known to 
occur on the shore of Manhattan Island, could not be classified 
as yet. He states, 1. c, " the orifices are surrounded by ten to 
thirteen verrncose processes," while the branchial orifice is six- 
lobed, the anal orifice four-lobed ; he calls the tubes distant, 
which generally are approximate, and omits to state that the 
muscular sac (mantle) is gelatinous, and that the branchial sac 
is not plicated. " In the young," he says, " besides, the orifices 
are both terminal," though they are commonly more or less 
distant, even approximate, and more rarely terminal. 

Description : Corpore subgloboso, cinereo, sacculo gelatinoso, 
subverrucoso, subpellucido ; tubis insequalibus modice distan- 
tibus ; osculo sexlobato, orificio anali quatuorlobato. 

The orifices on very contractile tubes, the branchial is shorter 
and wider than the anal tube. 

This species is to be referred accordingly to the Molgidm, and 
I propose to name it Molgula Manhattensis. (Figs. 1, 2, 3.) 

I have found it on the west, south, and east shores of Man- 
hattan Island, particularly in places protected against the cur- 
rent of the water, attached to beams, boards, or rocks in Sandy 
Hook Bay, and in the Nevesink River to sea-grass, to about five 
feet below the surface of the water. 

In a floating bathing-house anchored near the Battery I 
found the young, from one to three lines in diameter, earlier or 

* Nat. Hist, of the State of New York, Part V., p. 259. 



84 Notes on the Ascidea Manhattensis^ De Kay, 

later in June, Their earlier or later appearance, as well as de- 
velopment, depends on the higher or lower temperature of the 
season. During the unusually warm summer of 1856 a great 
many specimens were full grown — ni^ne lines to one inch in 
diameter — as early as July 15, while commonly on the same 
date the largest specimens measure but six lines. The animal 
perishes, it appears, soon after the ova are ejected. 

Larvse arrive througli the summer months, and later, for 
young specimens were found, constantly together with those 
more or less developed or full grown. Those which arrive late 
in the season (August and September) probably perish prema- 
turely. 

My observations on the general and minute anatomy of this 
species, and of some morphological changes of certain organs, 
particularly of the branchial sac, saccus calcareus, and ovaries, 
and on gemmation, I shall publish hereafter. 

In connection with the foregoing statements, I offer some 
remarks on J/ammo^Hce, which Lamarck* refers to the Ascidians 
as a sub-family, enumerating three species, and which he de- 
scribes in the following manner: "Corpus librum, nudum, 
ovale aut subglobosum ; apertura unica ad apicem." He says, 
1. c, that the organization of the MaTninaricB was known so 
little that they could be classified only provisionally ; he sup- 
poses that, in case the body had a double envelope, " les deux 
ouvertures, que I'on supposerait a I'interieure, viennent aboutir 
a I'oscide unique, qui termine superieurement a I'exterieure," 
and adds that doubtless further observations are necessary in 
order to enlighten us in this respect. 

The literature on the Ascidians here at my disposal furnishes 
nothing new on the subject. 

On the 16th of August, 1850, I found Mammarim of about 
the same size of the so-called three species enumerated by La- 
marck, the largest 1.5 lines 1., 1 line br., with one terminal 

* Hist. Nat. des Animaux sans Vertebres, torn. iii. p. 473, 1841. 



and on the Mmnmaria Manhattensis. 85 

opening situated on a short tube slightly lobed at its edge, M-ith 
circular and radial fibres (muscles) (57 diam.).* The muscular 
sac (mantle) of this Mainmaria is tough, and contains much pig- 
ment. The majority of pigment cells are filled either entirely or 
partially with yellow and brown or black molecules. The latter 
are found at this stage of development in diverging lines from 
the base to the back, and on the back forming a line, in the 
middle broadest, tapering to its ends, surrounded by a light- 
colored space. 

The orifice opens and closes at irregular intervals. The con- 
traction of one is followed by the contraction of all others 
imbedded within the same common envelope. 

While carefully removing the muscular sac, I ascertained 
that the short tube leads into the branchial sac, and that its 
internal membrane adheres to the muscular sac around the ori- 
fice. On further examination I found that the body is sur- 
rounded by a fibrous membrane, and that the greatest portion 
of the body consists of the branchial sac (about f ), while the 
heart (and a mass of different cells, among them an aggregation 
of dark fat-cells, lying forward and near the branchial sac, and 
a body composed also of cells), inclosed within a membrane of 
its own, occupied the remaining space (^). 

At this stage of development there exists no intestinal tract, 
and consequently no internal opening. 

The branchial meshes are more or less rectangular or oval in 
shape, provided with cilise on the inside, within the canal, along 
which red pigment is deposited, giving them a reddish appear- 
ance, the circulation of the blo^d peculiar to the Ascidians — 
for some time in one and after a short pause in the opposite 
direction — was visible. N^ear the base of the tube lies the cir- 
cular canal of the branchial sac, into which all canals, cuttino- 
the other circular canals nearly at right angles, open, covered 



* All examinations were made on living animals ; Plossl's large microscope 
was used. 



86 Notes on the Ascidea Mmihattensis, De Kay, 

by the nervons ring, composed of light-yellow cells, correspond- 
ing nearly in size and color with the cells of the nervous gang- 
lion of the Molgula Manliattensis. 

The body, enclosed Mdthin its own membrane already men- 
tioned, lying nearest the apex opposite the orifice, now claimed 
my special attention. When I examined it under the micro- 
scope, after rupturing its membrane by means of the compres- 
sorium of Purkinje, I discovered a body resembling an embryo 
(Fig, 4). After a few days it had changed its form ; it was globu- 
lar, with its tail partially surrounding the body, which, as soon as 
I had loosened it from the body with insect needles, made occa- 
sional sudden motions. No sexual organs existed at that time 
in the Marmnaria in question. It was certain now that tlie 
Mamvmaria was a nurse. 

I then examined many specimens, and found in each, as was 
to be expected, one larva within its chorion. In regard to the 
development of these larvae, I shall make at present but a few 
statements, as it has been studied and accurately described 
by Milne Edwards, Kolliker, A. Krohn, and others. The 
younger larvae had three, those more developed two appendages, 
those full grown three (?). These were conical at first, then 
became triangular in form, perforated from the middle of the 
base to its apex by a fine tubular canal ; those fully developed 
had three appendages perforated by asmall tubular canal, divided 
in its middle trichotomically (Fig. 5, «, 5, c). It is a fact worthy 
of note, that the larvae escape from their nurses about the same 
time, consequently in great numbers ; for I found them to a 
certain day, but could not find any on the next following day, 
though I examined a great number of Mammarim. It is in 
favor of the supposition that the larvae of at least some simple 
Ascidians, as well as those of the Salpae and of the compound 
Ascidians, form as such colonies floating in the sea during a time 
of their existence. An observation of Th. H. Huxley,* respect- 
ing a marsupial Cynthia, that " the originally free-tailed larvae 

* Report of the Brit. Ass. for the Adv. of Sc, 1853, p. 76. 



and on the Mmnmaria Manhattensis. 87 

become firmly united before the withering away of their appen- 
dages," as well as other facts, support that supposition. 

The development of the Mammaria continues after the lar- 
va has escaped. Their aggregation in the common envelope 
in circular or oval form resembles that of the compound As- 
cidians. The common envelope increases in size, already ob- 
served by Milne Edwards in reference to the compound Ascid- 
ians ; it contains, as I ascertained, elastic fibres (muscles), 
which contract independently of the contractions of the Mam- 
marice. Later in the season it assumes difierent forms ; is 
gradually detached from the objects to wdiich it adhered, and 
is then (September and October) carried away by the waves. 
The Mammfiarim to which Lamarck refers were found floating; in 
the water. 

Within the common envelope gemmation takes place. 

Having proved that the Ifammaria observed by me is a. 
nurse, I believe I can safely conclude that all Mammarioe, are 
nurses, and it follows that they cannot be classified with the 
Ascidians as a subfamily. 

In regard to the question to which parent animal the Mam- 
maria under consideration stands in a genetic relation, I made 
some investigations during the following summer, 1851. 

As I had found them on the mantles of the Molgula Maii- 
hattensis, after the ova were ejected, I inferred that its ova 
possibly might be metamorphosed into 3fammari(B, being con- 
vinced already from previous studies respecting the structure of 
the cloaca, which represents a short tubular canal into wdiich 
the vas deferens opens between the orifices of the (2) oviducts, 
as well as the development of the ovaries, etc., that the ova 
would be fecundated during their passage through the cloaca, 
and developed outside of the parent animal. Accordingly, when 
I observed that the ovaries of numerous animals wei'e filled 
with mature eggs, — the germinative follicles (Keimschlauche) 
having disappeared, with the exception of comparatively few 
situated on the dorsal and ventral sides of the ovaries, their 



88 Notes on the Ascidea Manhattensls^ De Kay^ 

calices filled with mature ova, with the vesicles of Purkinje 
and the vesicle of Wagner (the latter appears first in the 
calyx, the former already in the germinative follicle, and such 
representing different stages of their development), — I watched 
from day to day for the ejection of the ova, and was fortunate 
enough to observe, on the 18th of July, 1851 (at high water), a 
viscid, yellowish substance deposited on the mantles of innumer- 
able specimens attached to the sideboards of the bathing-house 
already mentioned, and on such only, which had been exposed 
to the rays of the sun during the afternoon, the tubes of which 
were directed more or less upwards,* which contained, as I 
anticipated, the fecundated ova. On examination of the 
ovaries of those specimens on which it was deposited, they were 
found flattened and almost empty, and when I examined under 
the microscope (300 diam.) the substance itself, I found that it 
. contained mature and immature eggs and spermatozoids, both 
identical with those contained at the time in the ovaries and 
testes of full-grown specimens. Among the ova I noticed such, 
in which the process of segmentation had commenced already. 

According to A. Krohn'sf investigations of the development 
of the Ascidians, who observed the development of the ova of 
the Phallusia mammillata (Cuv.), artificially fecundated, that 
process begins within two or three hours after the spermatozoids 
have come in contact with the ova. The ova which I observed 
about 5 o'clock p.m. were ejected therefore probably at about 
2 or 3 o'clock p.m. — under altered circumstances perhaps 
earlier — on the same day. This observation proves conclu- 
sively what Cuvier and von Baer, and more recently Krohn, 
expressed as an opinion that, with some simple Ascidians, 
{Phallusice), the ova are actually fecundated during their pas- 

* Wherever the animals are attached below stones or boards, etc. , the tubes 
being directed downwards, the viscid fluid containing the fecundated ova 
necessarily sinks to the ground, or is carried away by the current of the 
water. 

f Ueber die Entwicklung der Ascidien ; Joh. Miiller's Archiv. Berlin, 1852, 
p. 313. 



and on the Maininaria Manliattensis. 89 

sages tlirough the cloaca, and developed outside of the parent 
animal. 

Tlie viscid fluid containing the ova deposited at the base of 
the tubes, of a light orange-color, had assumed, in passing 
through the cloaca, a threadlike appearance, irregularly folded 
and glued together, as represented. On the following day 
it had lost its folded appearance, and resembled the ex- 
ternal envelope, " couche tegumentaire commune ; " (Milne 
Edwards.) This substance, which appeared at first whitish 
when the sun was shining upon it, is, as has been already men- 
tioned, of a pale orange-color, which is caused by the yellowish 
color of the yolk of the mature ova. The vesicular, or cellu- 
lar bodies embedded in the hyaline gelatinous layer — the future 
muscular sac, or mantle — are colorless ; they are green wnth 
the PhallusicB according to Krohn, 1. c, and yellow with the 
Ascidia infestiiialis, according to A. Kowalevsky.* 

The viscid mass had become tough, and its color had chano;ed 
to ashy gray on the following day ; the next day it w^as con- 
tractile ; the ova became visible with the naked eye. They 
were round and of different sizes. After two or three days the 
largest protruded somewhat above the surface of the common 
envelope, and presented a circular or oval aggregation, like that 
of the Mammarice found a year ago. The external envelope of 
the ova had assumed the characteristics of the mantle. The 
pigment had much increased. After an interval of four or five 
days, on the eleventh day after the ova were ejected, I found 
ova still of a round form, increased in size, with a central round 
or oval orifice through which the motion of the cilise of the 
branchial meshes were visible. The large orifice, without a tube, 
led directly into the branchial sac, which formed a greater por- 
tion of the body of these evidently young Mammarioe than in 
those found during the previous year, with terminal openings, 
and I found, at this stage of development, the embryo within 

* Entwicklungsgeschichte der einfachen Ascidien. Memoires de TAcadem. 
des Sc. de St. Petersbourg ; vii. Serie, torn, x., No. 15, 1866. 



90 Notes on the Ascidea Manhattensis, De Kay, 

its chorion. The orifice had ai^proached, on the 1st of August, 
more or less, one apex ; in some specimens — which were now 
oval — it was terminal. 

In my notes taken at the time (1851), no doubt is expressed 
as to the identity observed soon after they were ejected, and 
examined for three successive days, and those observed subse- 
quently, until a central orifice was formed containing one em- 
bryo. — (Of the microscopical examination of the morphological 
changes taking place inside, which led to no satisfactory results, 
I refrain from giving any details). Having established the fact 
that the Ilammarim are nurses, it is certain that a chansce of 
generation takes place with the Molgulce. That there is such 
an occurrence in nature as a change of generation was dis- 
covered by Chamisso,* viz., with the SalpcB. His observations 
in regard to this subject were considered for years as contrary 
to the laws of nature, but were proved to be true and intro- 
duced into science by Steenstrnp,t who deduced from them, 
and from analogous observations among the lower animals, laws 
now generally' recognized. 

In 185Y I found the calices of the ovaries filled with mature 
ova on the 12th of August, and on tlie 23d of the same month 
3'oung MammaricB, where I had found them before, viz., on 
the mantle at the base of the tubes — with reference to the time 
of their development — two days earlier than in 1851, a differ- 
ence accounted for by the temperature of the respective years. 

I have delayed the publication of the results of my investiga- 
tions, desiring again to study minutely, and at short intervals, 
the ova from the time of ejection to that of the formation of the 
embryo, but have had no opportunity of doing so. 

* De animalibus quibusdam e classe vermicem Linasana. Fascic. I. de Salpa 
Berolini 1819. 

f Ueber den Generationswechsel oder die Fortpflauzung und Entwicklung 
durch abwechsehide Generationen, eine eigenthiimliche Form der Brutpflege 
in den niederen Thierklassen. Kopenhagen 1842. 



and on the Mammaria Manhattensis. 91 

Explanation of Plate 3.. 
Fig. 1. Represents : Molgula Manhattensis, of natural size. 

2. The test has been removed ; left, or neural side. 

3. Test removed ; right or haemal side. 

4. Mammaria with embryo ; test removed. 

5. Larvae, Diam. 300. 

6. Piece of the branchial sac. 

Explanation of Lettering. 
b. t. Branchial tube, with six-lobed orifice. 

a. t. Anal tube, with four-lobed orifice, 
n. g. Nervous ganglion. 

n. r. Nervous ring. 

b. s. Branchial sac. 

c. s. Circular sinus. 

b. V. Branchial bloodvessels. 

s. Stomach. 

1. Liver. (?) 

i. Intestinal canal. 

r. Rectum, 
cl. Cloaca. 
1. o. Left ovary. 
r. o. Right ovary. 

h. Heart. 
s. c. Saccus calcareus. 

c. Calyx, 
ov. Oviduct. 

p. Pericardium. 

s. Sediment in the Saccus calcareus. 
f. m. Fibrous membrane, 
cm Circular muscles, 
t. m. Transversal muscles. 
1. m. Longitudinal muscles. 

e. Embryo, 
f. c. Fat cells, 
r. o. Rudimentary organs enclosing the heart. 



02 Notes on North American Crustacea^ 



YI, — Notes on North American Ckustacea, in the Museum of 
the Smithsonian Institxition. No. III. 

By WILLIAM STIMPSON, M.D., Corresponding Member. 

Read October 2d, 1871. 

The publication of these notes has been discontinued for many 
years,' owing to various unfavorable cirumstances, among 
which may be mentioned the destruction by fire of some of the 
author's manuscripts and materials, and want of opportunity of 
access to the rest. It is proper to state that some of the de- 
scriptions here following were written more than ten years ago, 
and have not been revised.' 

Herbi^tia piibesccHs, nov. sp. 

Body covered with a dense short pubescence, beneath which tlie 
carapax is smooth and nnarnied, except at the sides, where there are 
a few minute spines. There are two inconspicuous tubercles in the 
median line on the gastric region, and a short, transverse, tuberculi- 
form ridge between the gastric and the cardiac region, which latter is 
somewhat prominent. There is a single small triangular tubercle at 
the posterior extremity, on the intestinal region. Rostrum very 
short. Chelipeds with the meros and carpus armed with spiniform 
tubercles ; hand smooth, \inarmed ; fingers not gaping (in the female 



' For No. I. see Annals of the Lyceum, Vol. VII. (1860), pp. 49-93 ; No. 
II., same vol., pp. 176-246. 

- Since these pages were placed in the hands of the printer, the remainder 
of these materials were involved in the disaster of the great fire of Chicago. 
The manuscript descriptions of the North American Schizopods, Stomapods, 
and Tetradecapods, intended to form a part of the present paper, with nu- 
merous drawings and the specimens upon which they were based, were all 
burnt in this third and finally complete destruction of the author's scientific 
property. 



in the Musewn of the Smithsonian Institution. 93 

and young male). Ambulatory feet unarmed, pubescent ; dactyli 
very short. 

Length of carapax in a female, 0.85 ; breadth, 0.67 inch. 

It differs from II. condyliata in its shorter, broader, and 
smoother carapax, and smooth hand. From H. pyriform,is 
{Rhodia jpyriformis Bell) in its shorter rostrum, and in the 
spines of the lateral margins of the carapax, which are smaller 
and more numerous. 

Found at Manzanillo, West Coast of Mexico, by J. Xantus, 
Esq. 

This species would come nnder the gronp named as a genus, 
Bhodia, by Bell. This can scarcely be considered as distinct 
from Ilerhstia, the only important differences being those of the 
chelipeds. 

Herbstiella, nov. gen. 

This name is proposed for a group of small crabs allied to 
Herhstia, which it resembles in form, but differs in having a 
strong tooth on the inferior margin of the orbit between its ex- 
ternal angle and the base of the antennae ; and in having three 
teeth instead of two on the outer side of the basal joint of the 
antennjB. It also differs in its longer chelipeds and spinous 
meros-joint of the ambulatory feet. 

Ilerhstia depressa Stm., which inhabits the Caribbean Sea, 
may be considered as the type of the genus IIe7'bstiella. It 
also includes II. Edwardsii Bell, from the Gallapagos Islands, 
and two new species described below. '' 

Herbstiella depressa. 

Herbstia dejn'essa Stimpson, Notes on N. American Crust. , p. 57 (Annals Lye. 
Nat. Hist. N. Y., VII (1860) 185). 

In the description of this species quoted above, the praeorbital 
teeth, orbits, and antennae are by a slip of the pen stated to be 
" nearly as in II. condyliata " instead of " nearly as in II. 
jparmfrons^^ which was intended ; the species alluded to as 



94 Notes on North American Crustacea^ 

" H. parvifrons " being that described below under the name 
Herhstiella camptacantha. 

Hei*b!!^tiella camptacantha, nov. sp. 

Ilerbstia imrdifrons Stimpson, Notes on N. American Crust., p. 57 (Annals 
Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., VII (1860), 185) ; not of Randall. 

A more careful consideration of the terius of Randall's de- 
scription of //. parvifrons (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliila., YIII. 
lOY) leads me to believe tliat the species noticed by me under 
that name cannot be the same as that meant by that author. 

In II. camptacantha the carapax is but slightly convex, and the 
surface is very regularly and conspicuously punctate. The cervical 
suttire is deep and well marked, but the sulci separating the branchial 
from the cardiac regions are very shallow, and there is no sulcus 
whatever between the branchial and the rather flattened intestinal 
region. There ar^ twenty small tubercles on the carapax, not includ- 
ing the marginal spines. Of these tubercles there are five on the 
gastric region, four of which are arranged in a transverse line across 
the middle, the two on either side being approximated ; three on the 
cardiac region, two on the intestinal, and five on each branchial re- 
gion. On the margin of the carapax on each side behind the orbit, 
there are fourteen spines ; five on the antero-lateral and nine on 
the postero-lateral margin. The posterior spines are very small, 
blunt, or tuberculiform ; but the anterior ones are larger, and, like the 
spines on the legs, abruptly bent at the tip, so that they have a 
truncated appearance, with the sharp apex pointing forward. There 
is a similar spine and two smaller ones on the subhepatic region ; and 
the oblique ridge separating the pterygostomian from the subhepatic 
region is armed with five spines, the anterior three being small and 
tooth-like. The horns of the rostrum are rather large and divergent ; 
they form considerably more than half the lengtli of the rostrum, and 
their tips as well as those of the anteimal spines are bent inward. All 
of the spines are much more acute in young specimens than in adults. 
The chelipeds are long, and the meros-joint is armed with numerous 
(about 13) blunt spines on the outer side ; the carpus is tuberculated 
above ; the large and compressed hand is perfectly smooth, and un- 



in the Ifuseum of the Smithsonian Institution. 95 

armed above and below ; the fingers are less than half as long as the 
palm, and gaping ; and the dactylus bears a strong truncated tooth 
at the middle. In the ambulatory feet the meros-joint is armed 
with seven to ten spines along the upper edge, and two or three be- 
low near the extremity; the carpus is slightly taberculatcd, and the 
penult joint unarmed. 

The adult male specimens before me are entirely naked, but young 
and female specimens are frequently pubescent. Possibly the adult 
males may have been accidentally denuded. 

Dimensions of an adult male : Length of carapax, 0.G75 ; breadth, 
0.57 inch. 

It was found at Cape St. Lucas by Mr. John Xantiis, and 
there are specimens in the Mnseum of Comparative Zooh)o-v 
taken at Acapulco by Alexander Agassiz, Esq. 

IlA'a'ljsiielBji iBiiBaida, nov. sjx 

The foUowiug description is that of a female : Bod}' and feet 
pubescent. Carapax convex, with the regions more protuberant than 
in the other two species. There are indications of tubercles on the 
upper sui'face, distributed as in II. cmn^ytacantha, but they are faint 
protuberances rather tlian tubercles, except the two on the intestinal 
region, which are small but distinctly prominent. There is a minute 
sharp spine at the anterior end of the branchial region and one on the 
hepatic region. On the antero-lateral margin there are no distinct 
spines, but the rounded surface is covei-ed with minute, sharp tubercles. 
On the jtostero-lateral margin there are about ten minute spines, the 
anterior one largest. The horns of the rostruni are small, acute, and 
placed close together ; they form rather less than half the length of 
the rostrum. Basal -joint of the antennae short and broad, with a 
sharp projection at the insertion of the movable pai-t of the antennas 
not seen in II. camptacantlia / antero-exterior spine straight, acute 
and pointing obliquely outward; the other spines shorter than in the 
allied species. In the chelipeds the meros-joint is armed above with 
eight acute spines ; carpus with one minute spine above and a slight 
crest on the outer side ; hand unarmed ; fingers little gai>ing ; 
JULY, 1871. 7 Ann. Lyo. Nat. Hist., Vol. X. 



96 Notes on North American Crustacea^ 

dactylus without tooth. Ambulatory feet with ten long, slender 
spines above and two or three below. 
Length of carapax, about half an inch. 

Found at Manzanillo (West Coast of Mexico), by John 
Xautus, Esq. 

]Votoloi>as, nov. gen. 

Carapax pyriform ; back with a flattened area on the posterior 
half, enclosed by a ridge which posteriorly becomes a broad concave 
lamella, occuf)ying the entire width of the carapax and projecting 
over its posterior extremity. Rostrum long, bifid ; horns divaricate. 
There is a prseorbital spine of moderate size, and behind the eye a 
strong triangular lobe extending slightly beyond the tip of the eye, 
and somewhat excavated in front, forming part of the orbit, which, 
however, is not completed below. The external antennte are not 
concealed beneath the rostrum, and the basal joint is broad, with a 
lobed laminiform expansion at the outer side ; coxal joint with a 
small but prominent tooth on the outer side. Oiiter maxillipeds of 
the form usual in the Pisinte; meros-joint with no distinct notch for 
the reception of the palpus. Ambulatory feet cylindrical; dactyli 
very strong, curved, and nearly as long as the penult joint. Male 
abdominal appendages of the first pair somewhat flattened, reaching 
to the last segment of the abdomen, and tapering very little toward 
the extremity, which is truncate and exj^anded, with a fold on the 
outer and a small slender hook on the inner side. 

This genus resembles in general appearance some of the 
genera of Acanthonychiclie ratliei' than those of the Pisa 
group, in which the characters of the orbital region would lead 
us to place it. It differs, however, from Halimus and Pugettia 
in the strong post-ocular lobe excavated in front, and from 
Halimus also in the non-expanded penult joint of the ambula- 
tory feet. From Acantliojyhrys A. M. Edw. it differs in its 
exposed external antenna. The posterior lamelliform expansion 
of the carapax will distinguish it at a glance from most if not 
all other genera of Maioids. 



in the Muse^ini of the Smithsonian Institution. 97 
]\otolopa« lamellatn^, nov. sp. 

Body and limbs pubescent. Carapax with an erect spine and two 
tubercles on the gastric region, and a strong spine on each branchial 
region, on the ridge near the outer end of the laminiform expansion 
of the posterior extremity, which has a triangular tooth at the 
middle. Rostrum half as long as the post-frontal part of the carapax. 
From the antero-exterior angle of the buccal area a crest passes 
backward, defining the pterygostomian region, which crest is armed 
with two teeth, the anterior one largest. There is also a crest on 
the sub-branchial region, along the bases of the feet, ending ante- 
riorly in a projecting tooth. 

Length of carapax in a male, 0.63 ; breadth, 0.35 inch. 

Found at Panama by Capt. J. M. Dow, and at Man- 
zanillo by John Xantus, Esq. 

Tyche lainellirrons. 

Tychelamdlifrons Bell, Trans. Zool. Soc, II. 58 ; pi. xii., f. 3. 
Found at Cape St. Lucas by John Xantus, Esq. 

Acaiithonyx Petiveri. 

Acantlwnyx PeUverii H. Milue-Edwards, Hist. Nat. des Crust., I. 343. 

This is one of the few species which inhabit the shores of 
both sides of tropical America. We liave it from St. Thomas, 
collected by A. H. Eiise, and from Cape St. Lucas by John 
Xautus. 

PodoiieiBia vesfita. nov. sp. 

This is the first species of the genus which lias been reported 
from the Western coast. It differs from all of the East coast 
species in its more hairy body, shorter ambulatory feet, and 
notched outer lamina or crest of the basal joint of the an- 
tennas. The sternum and basal joints of the feet are ver- 
miculated. The penult joint of the ambulatory feet is some- 
what thickened in its distal half. 



98 Notes on North AmericaM Crustacea^ 

Length of the carapax in a female, 0.52 ; breadth, 0.42 
inch. 

Found at Cape St. Lucas bj John Xantus, Esq. 

Etll>leiirocloil, nov. gen. 

Allied to Epialtus, but with a depressed and uneven cara- 
pax. The antero-lateral angles of the carapax are strongly 
prominent, forming projecting teeth directed forward, almost 
parallel to the axis of the body. The ambulatory feet are 
strongly prehensile, with dentigerous penult joints. The size 
is small. 

Eupleiirodoii trifiircatBas, nov. sp. 

Carapax with a profovmd depression in front of the gastric region, 
and one on either side of the cardiac, which with the gastric region 
forms a prominent median ridge. Branchial region depressed, with 
a tubercle near the postero-latei-al angle. Teeth and prominences of 
the carapax generally setose. Rostrum half as long as the post- 
frontal part of the carapax, and one-third as broad as long, flattened, 
truncate, and emarginate at the extremity. Tooth of the antero- 
lateral angle half as long as the rostrum and curving forward : the 
distance between the tips of these teeth equals the greatest width of 
the carapax, and is one-third greater than the middle width. There 
is a small tooth on the lateral margin behind the antero-lateral 
angle. Orbital margin arched but not toothed. Feet "\\T.th an angular 
ordentated carpal joint. 

Of this species I have seen only one specimen, a female, the dimen- 
sions of which are: Length of carapax, 0.31 ; breadth, between tips 
of antero-lateral teeth, 0.25 inch. 

Found at Cape St. Lucas by John Xantus, Esq. 
IiSiiiil>riti§ excavatiis, nov. sp. 

This species resembles Parthenope in general appearance. The 
carapax is irregularly hexagonal, and one-sixth hroader than long, 
Antero-lateral margin concave, and forming an angle with the outer 
lateral margin, which is nearly straight and parallel with the axis of 



in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. 99 

the body, and terminates posteriorly in a strongly projecting angle. 
The postero-lateral margins are slightly concave, and form a very 
obtuse angle -wdth each other on account of the little projection of the 
intestinal region. The periphery is armed with teeth, which are short, 
triangular, and regularly approximated on the antero-lateral and 
outer latei-al margins, but are longer, more spiniform, and irregularly 
arranged on the postero-lateral margins. On the iipper surface, 
besides the usual depression between the cardiac and branchial regions, 
there are four deep excavations in front of the latter region ; — two 
separating it from the hepatic, and two, somewhat larger, from the 
gastric region. There is also a deep concavity on the frontal region, 
which is continued posteriorly for a short distance on the gastric 
region. The rostrum is large, regularly triangular, and deflexed to a 
right angle with the general level of the gastric region ; inai'gin un- 
armed, or only obscurely toothed. The surface of the protuberant 
parts of the carapax is covered w4th low, granulated tubercles. The 
chelipeds are much shorter and stouter than in the typical forms of the 
genus, and are deeply concave above, the concavity being smooth or 
nearly so, and defined by prominent marginal crests, which, except 
on the carpus, are strongly toothed. The meros-joint of the chelijDed 
is particulai'ly short ; its anterior crest is armed with three or four 
teeth, and' its superior one wjth only two large teeth, the outer one 
of which is much the largest. In the hand, the crest of the superior 
margin is armed with six unequal, approximated, triangular teeth ; 
and that of the outer margin with two conical distant teeth, besides 
the knob at each extremity. The lower surface of the hand is orna- 
mented with four or five rows of granulated tubercles, those of the 
middle row being largest and most conspicuous; inner margin ser- 
rated with granulated teeth. Ambulatory feet much compressed, and 
crested above. In the female abdomen each segment is armed with 
short setose tubercles, there being a larger ridge-like one, equalling in 
extent the length of the joint, in the middle, and four or five small 
ones on each side. 

Length of the carapax in a female, 1.20; breadth, 1.38 inch; pro- 
portion 1:1.15; length of meros-joint of cheliped, 0.G8 ; length of 
greater hand, 1.20 inch. 



100 Notes on North Kmerican Crustacea^ 

It is distinct from all other known species with the carapax 
broader than long, in the shortness of its chelipeds. In one of 
the specimens before me the right hand is nearly twice as broad 
as the left. 

Two specimens were collected at Manzanillo, Mex., by Jolui 
Xantus, Esq. 

liniiibriis liypoiien!^, nov. sp. 

The carapax is subrliomboidal in shape, the posterior region being 
well developed and prominent, as in L. angulifrons. There is one low 
tvibercle on the gastric region, two lai-ge, prominent ones on the 
cardiac, one small, spiniform one on the posterior margin at the 
median line, and two rather large ones on the branchial region, the 
posterior one of which is the taller, and situated close to the postero- 
lateral margin. Besides these tubercles, there are several other, minute 
ones, roughly arranged in eight or ten longitudinal rows, and the gen- 
eral surface is covered with ptmctures, crowded together. There are 
two or three small pits in the depression between the branchial and 
gastric regions. The antero-lateral margin behind the cervical sulcus 
is armed with eight triangular, denticulated teeth, the posterior one 
being but little longer than the others, which are equal in size. Front 
smooth. Rostrum of moderate size, subtriangular, deflexed ; sides 
slightly concave, unarmed ; apex obtuse. Chelipeds long ; surface 
smooth above, except that of the meros, which has a median tubercu- 
lated ridge ; edges of meros, carpus, and hand armed with small teeth, 
' which, on the supei'ior edge of the meros, are spiniform ; oiiter edge 
of hand with sixteen teeth alternating in size. Below, the chelipeds 
are smooth and glabrous except the inner edges, which are tubercu- 
lated ; the tubercles being small. Sternum with a strongly prominent, 
almost capitate tubercle on each side at the base of the chelipeds, 
which also bears a small tubercle on the basal joint ; these four tuber- 
cles are somewhat flattened at the top and bent forward. In the fe- 
male abdomen the segments are each armed with a transverse I'idge, 
more or less developed; on the second and third joints this ridge is 
strongly toothed, and on the j)enult joint it a])pears in the form of a 
median tubercle. 



in the 3Iuseum of the Sinithsonian Institution. 101 

Of this species there is but one specimen in the collection, a steiile 
female, the dimensions of which are : Length of the carapax, 0.60 ; 
breadth, 0.68 inch; proportion, 1:1.133; length of meros of cheli- 
ped, 0.60 inch. 

Found at Panama by Capt. J. M. Dow, to whom the Insti- 
tution is indebted for this and man_y other interesting species. 

XdaBHbrw* (1ei>re§s9ii!^eulBi§, uov. sp. 

Body depressed, though much less so than in L. crenulatus. Cara- 
pax one-fifth broader than long ; regions moderately prominent, 
the cardiac region most so ; surface covered with scattered, granu- 
lated tubercles, irregular in size. Branchial region broadly expand- 
ed. Lateral margin armed with about foui'teen spiuiform, granulated 
teeth, largest on the outer side of the branchial region ; at the postero- 
lateral angle they are as long, or longer, than the rostrum. The in- 
testinal region is broad, and projects but little beyond the line of the 
postero-lateral angles. Of the fourteen lateral teeth mentioned above, 
only five properly belong to the postero-lateral margin. The frontal 
region is concave. The rostrum is small, triangular, and horizontal. 
Chelipeds of the usual length ; superior surface of the meros with a 
median row of about five spiniform tubercles ; margins of both meros 
and hand armed with numerous spiuiform teeth, of which there are 
about ten on the outer side of the hand. All these teeth of the 
chelipeds are granulated like those of the carapax, but not ramose. 
Beneath, the hands are ornamented with longitudinal rows of small, 
smooth tubercles, largest along the inner edge, and fading out toward 
the exterior margin. Ambulatory feet slightly compressed, but not 
crested, and perfectly smooth and unarmed. There is a small, slender 
spine on the peniilt joint of the abdomen in the male. 

Length of the carapax in a male, 0.85 ; breadth, spines included, 
1.15 inch ; proportion 1:1.35 ; length of hand, 1.13 inch. 

Found at Manzanillo, Mex., hy John Xantus, Esq. 
^olesiolaiiibrii§ aretiatiis, nov. sp. 

Carapax short and broad, with projecting lateral angles. Surface 
punctate, much more finely than in S. tyiyiciis. Antero-lateral 



102 Notes on North American Crustacea, 

margin long and convex. The two antero-lateral margins together 
would form a regular arc were it not for the projection of the ros- 
trum. The postei-o-lateral mai'gin is concave, and the posterior 
margin short and slightly convex. The antero-lateral margin is armed 
with eleven tridenticulate teeth, little projecting; the middle ones 
broadest. Protviberances of carapax like those of S. typicus, but 
stronger; their ridges crenulated. Gasti'ic and cardiac protuberances 
very tall, with strongly jirojecting apices, which are almost spiniform 
but not acuminate. Ridge of branchial region convex forward, and 
crenulated, with a larger toothlet at the middle. Basal joint of the ex- 
ternal antennge shorter than the next j oint. Eyes very small . Afferent 
and subhepatic channels very deep ; the ridge separating them being 
])rominent and very thin and sharj). No supplementary ridge on the 
subhepatic region. External maxillipeds with hairy margins, and 
with a tubercle near the inner summit of the ischium; antero-exterior 
angle of the meros less acute and prominent than in S. typicus j meros 
with three or four strong tubercles on the external oblique ridge. 
Sternum between the chelipeds concave, witliovit tubercles. Chelipeds 
rather short ; meros seven-toothed before and behind ; carpus with 
five denticulated crests ; hand with nine strong, subspiniform teeth on 
the superior crest, and the same number of tuberculiform teeth on the 
outer and the inner edge of the lower surface; on the inner edge the 
teeth are minute toward the base, but are large on the outer half of 
the hand. The surface of the hand between the toothed crests is 
smooth ; the inferior surface, and tlie intei'stices of the teeth of all 
three of the crests, are pubescent. The hand is exj^anded in width 
at the distal extremity, and the dactylus when retracted is exactly at 
right angles with the palm. Ambulatory feet compressed, glabroiis ; 
meros-joints with acute, sparsely ciliated superior edge; meros of the 
posterior pair obtuse below, without crest. Abdomen smooth. 

Length of carapax in a female specimen, 0.40 ; breadth, 0.52 ; 
length of meros-joint of cheliped, 0.31; length of hand, 0.37 inch. 

Taken at Panama by Capt. J. M. Dow. 

Heterocryptaj nov. gen. 
The type of this genus is the Crypto]jodia gramdata of 
Gibbes, which approaches Solenolamhrits in its characters, and 



in the Museum of the Sraithsonian Institution. 103 

differs greatly from Cryptopodia in the want of a posterior ex- 
pansion of the carapax, and in the existence of a ridge on the 
pterygostomian region defining the afferent passage. 

H. granulata inhabits the seas of the Southern States and of 
the West Indies, 

Heterocrypf a iBaacrobrachia, nov, sp. 

Body depressed. Carapax narrower and less triangular tlian tliat 
of If. granulata, but resembling it in its granulated ridges and pro- 
tuberances. Antero-lateral margin regularly convex, and crenulated 
with fourteen or fifteen teeth which are themselves denticulated. 
Margin between the lateral angle of the carapax and the projecting 
terminus of the brauchial ridge profoundly concave. Posterior mar- 
gins crenulated like the anterior, with a somewhat larger tooth on 
each side at the juncture of the posterior with the posterodateral 
margins. Exognath of the external maxillipeds not tuberculated. 
Chelipeds very long, smooth, and naked above, except at the crenulated 
edges. Ambulatory feet compressed ; meros-joint with sharp, minutely 
denticulated lower edge. 

Color yellowish ; sometimes with bluish-gray patches on the cara- 
pax, and bands of the same color across the chelipeds. 

Dimensions of a male: Length of cai-apax, 0.5G; breadth, O.GO ; 
length of meros of chelipeds, 0.4G ; length of hand, 0.55 inch. 

It differs from II. granulata in its longer chelipeds, and 
more strongly toothed margins of the carapax. 
Taken at Panama by Capt. J. M. Dow. 

CAIN^CROIDEA. 
liloifiiera cinctiinaiia. 

Ciirpilius cinctimanus Adams and White, Voy. Samarang, Crust., p. 37 ; pi. 
vii, fig 4. 

Liomera dnctimana Dana, IT. S. Expl. Exped., Crust., I. IGl. A. Milne - 
Edwards, Nouv. Arch, du Mus. , I. 219. 

The dactyliis of the ambulatory feet is white, with a red base 
and black tip. 



104 Notes on North American Crustacea, 

This species, like the next, is one of the few Indo-Pacific 
forms which have thus ftir occurred on the west coast of 
America. It was found at Cape St. Lucas by John Xantus, 
Esq. 

liioiiiera Isita. 

Liomera lata Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., Crust., I. IGl ; vii. C. A. Milne- 
Edwards, Nouv. Arch, du Mus., I. 220. 

Our specimens are somewhat broader than those figured by 
Dana. Color hght-red. Lateral extremities of carapax in the 
male white. Pterygostomian regions white. Fingers of hand 
black with \vliite tips. Dactylus of ambulatory feet with a 
broad white ring at the middle. 

The dimensions of a male specimen are : Length of carapax, 
0.41 ; breadth, 0.74 inch. Of a female : Length of carapax, 
0.48 ; breadth, 0.90 inch. 

These specimens were found at Cape St. Lucas by John 
Xantus, Esq. 

Actaea I>ovii, nov. sp. 

Yery closely allied to the A¥est Lidian species A. setigera, 
l)ut differing in the granulation of the carapax, which is finer 
and more dense, and on the posterior regions more distinct. 

Dimensions of a male: Length of carapax, 0.45; breadth, 
0.G3 inch. 

Found at San Salvador by Capt. J. M. Dow, and at Panama, 
by Alex. Agassiz, Esq, 

Actaea eros^a. 

Actaea O'osa Stimpson, Notes on N. American Crust., p. 5. 

The raised parts of the surface of the carapax, between the 
small cavities, are conical or ridge-like, and roughened. The 
lobes of the antero-lateral mai-gin are not distinctly defined, 
with the exception of the posterior one, which is small, trian- 
gular, and projecting. 

This species differs from the Xantho vermiculatd of H. Milne- 



in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. 105 

Edwards, judging from the description in the " Histoire Nat- 
nrelle des Crnstaces " in sculpture ; — the surface of the carapax 
is not "couverte de petits tubercles sondes entre eux par doubles 
rang^es." Also, the notch of the meros of the external maxilli- 
peds is not at the middle of the anterior margin. Milne-Ed- 
wards 'gives no locality for his vei'micidata. 

Alphonse Milne-Edwards regards this species as belonging to 
the Xantho-^YOW^. 

Xaiitliofles Xaiitusii, nov. sp. 

In this small species the carapax is smooth on the middle and jdos- 
terior portions of its svirface, bnt in front it is areolated and rough- 
ened with somewhat squamiform granules and slight transverse cren- 
ulated ridges. The antero-lateral margiia is armed with four teeth, 
not including the angle of the orbit, between which and the first 
tooth there is a granulated concavity. Front little projecting, and 
bordered by a thin lamella ; outline of lobes somewhat concave. Fis- 
sures of orbit very slight. Subhepatic region irregularly granulated. 
Basal joint of the external antennae short, scarcely reaching the pro- 
cess of the front. In the chelif)eds, the carpus and hand are strongly 
granulated above and on tlie whole outer surface ; carpus with a deep 
sulcus near and parallel to its extero-anterior margin ; hand with three 
slight longitudinal sulci, one on the tipper and two on the outer sur- 
face. Smaller cheliped sparsely short-setose. Ambulatory feet setose 
and roughened above with minute asperities. 

The dimensions of a male specimen are : Length of cai'apax, 0.25 ; 
breadth, 0.35 inch. 

It resembles somewhat X. granosimmius Dana, a Polynesian 
species, but the carapax is narrower and more convex, and the 
lobes of the front are concave instead of convex. 

It is very common at Cape St. Lucas, judging from the large 
number collected by Mr. John Xantiis. 

Xaiitliocles inseiilpta, nov. sp. 

Very small. Carajiax naked, areolated ; anterior areolets rather 
strongly protuberant. Surface very minutely granulated. Antero- 



106 Notes on North American Crustacea, 

lateral margin with five teeth, including the angle of the orbit, which 
is about equally prominent with the other teeth. There is generally a 
minute denticle or two in the interval between the teeth. From the 
posterior tooth a slight transverse ridge extends inward across the 
branchial region. Front rather broad ; median and lateral sulci deep ; 
margin of lobes convex. Orbital margin smooth, or simply granulat- 
ed ; fissures very slight, except the extero-inferior one. A slight ridge 
on the subhepatic region extending forward from the second antero- 
lateral tooth. Chelipeds with large tubercles or jjrojections, five or 
six on the carpus, and nine or ten on the hand ; outer surface of the 
hand with a slight median ridge and obsolete transverse ranges of 
minute granules. 

Of this species I have seen only one specimen, a male, perhaps imma- 
ture, the dimensions of which are : Length of carapax, 0.12 ; breadth, 
0.17 inch. 

The specimen was found at Cape St. Lucas by Mr. John 
Xantus. 

Meiiippe Riiniphii. 

Cancer RumpUi Fabr., Suppl., 33G (?). Herbst, Naturg. d. Krabben u. 
Krebse, III, xlix. , 2. 

Menippe Rumphii Be Haan, Fauna Japonica, Crust. , 21 ; Dana U. S. Expl. 
Exped., Crust., I.. 179. Smith, Trans. Conn. Acad. II. 34. 

Pseudocardmis Rumphii H. Milne-Edwards, Hist. Nat. des Crust. , I. 408. 

Menippe nodifrons Stimpson, Notes on N. American Crust. , p. 7. 

In this species, as in M. ohtusa, there is a striated area on the 
inner surface of the hand, but it is far less developed than in that 
species, and the striae are much finer and more closely set ; in 
some specimens they are scarcely perceptible. 

The description of Fabricius does not apply, in all respects, to 
our species ; as, for instance, " carpi vix unidentati " and " frons 
margine quadridentata." 

H. Milne-Edwards, and the older authors generally, give the 
East Indies as the habitat of the species, but White and Dana 
refer it to the West Indies and Brazil. In the Smithsonian Mu- 
seum there are specimens from Florida (Wurdemann), Jamai- 
ca (C. B. Adams), and St. Thomas (A. H. Eiise). 



in the Museiiin of the Smithsonian Institution. 107 
Micropaiiope latiiiiaiia, nov. sp. 

Carapax moderately convex, naked, smooth, and polished, except 
toward the anterior and antero -lateral margins, where it is somewhat 
granulated. Front rather broad, and little projecting; lobes with 
straight mai-gins. Subhepatic region minutely granulated. Cheli- 
peds large and angular ; hands broad, smooth, and polished, strongly 
protubei-ant at the postero-inferior angle ; palm broadei- than long ; 
fingers neai'ly as long as the palm, deflexed, and black ; the black of 
the propodal finger extends on the palm for one-third its length. The 
hands are unequal, and the fingers of the smaller one are longer and 
more deflexed than those of the greater one, which gives the smaller 
hand a more angular form and a deeply concave inferior outline. 
Ambulatory feet slender, smooth, and sparsely hairy. 

Dimensions of a male : Length of carapax, 0.28 ; breadth, 0.38 inch. 

Found at Cape St. Lucas by John Xantns, Esq. 

Micropaiioiie cristiawaiia, nov. sp. 

Carapax convex, smooth posteriorly, and with a transverse i"idge, 
interrupted at the middle, on the gastric, and one on each hepatic 
and branchial region. Front convex, rather strongly projecting at 
the middle, where there is a deep sinus, from which arises a deep 
furrow extending backward to the gastric region. Posterior lateral 
tooth rather more prominent than in 31. latimana. Hiatus of outer 
side of orbit almost entirely obsolete. Inferior inner tooth of orbit 
large. Basal joint of the external antennas very short. Chelipeds 
large, smooth, and polished ; carpus with one tooth at the inner angle, 
and a short crest, bordering a depressed area, at the outer angle ; 
hands very short and broad, and compressed, especially above, where 
a smootli crest is formed ; posterior outer extremity of hand protvi- 
berant and bituberculate, the tubercles being most conspicuous in 
the greater hand. Fingers black, with white tips ; those of the smaller 
hand much deflexed and longer than the palm. Ambulatory feet 
rather compressed and faintly crested above ; dactyli pubescent. 

Dimensions of the carapax in a male : Length, 0.22 ; breadth, 0.27 
inch. 

Cape St. Lncas. J. Xantus. 



108 Notes on North American Crustacea^ 

Microiiaiiope caribbaea, nov. sp. 

Oarapax somewhat pubescent, with two or three transverse I'aised 
lines, or slight pubescent ridges, on the gastric and on each branchial 
region. Frontal and gastric regions nearly smooth. Front rather 
prominent, nearly horizontal ; mai'gin straight ; median sinus slight. 
Flagellum of the external antennse as long as the front is broad. 
Chelipeds obsoletely granulated ; carpus with four or five tubercles 
above, and a tooth at the inner angle ; hand itnarmed, but with 
two slight parallel longitudinal ridges on the upper side. Ambula- 
tory feet smooth, slightly pubescent. 

The dimensions of the carapax in a male sjiecimen are : Length, 
0.16; breadth, 0.22 inch. 

Found at St. Thomas, by A. H. Riise, Esq. 

Chlorodiaii^ occidentalis nov. sp. 

This species represents on the West Coast the C.floridanus 
of the Caribbean Sea. Like many other West Coast crabs, it 
differs from its eastern analogue in its broader and less convex 
carapax. The antero-lateral teeth are less prominent than in 
Cjloridamis, the second tooth in particular being broader and 
much less acute. The median lobes, or teeth of the front, do 
not project beyond the lateral ones. 

Dimensions of a male specimen : Length of carapax, 0.45 ; 
breadth, 0.74 inch. 

Found at Panama by Alex, Agassiz, Esq., and at Manzanillo, 
Mex., by Mr. John Xantus. 

PauopeiiM planissiiiiiis. 

Xantho planissima Stimpson, Notes on N. American Crustacea, p. 77. 

The reception of several specimens of this species of larger 
size, and more perfect than those first obtained, gives an oppor- 
tunity for a re-examination of its characters, which leads me to 
refer it to the genus Panojpeus. 

The body and chelipeds are very much depressed. The chelipeds 
are very large, and the carpus has a groove on the upper surface, 



in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. 109 

I'unning parallel and near to the antero-exterior margin ; above this 
groove there are two tvibercles, separated from each other by a sliort 
groove placed at right angles with the first. 

Dimensions of a male specimen : Length of carapax, 0.34 ; breadth, 
0.53 inch. 

Cape St. Lucas. 

Piluniiiii§ clepressiis, nov. sp. 

Body depressed ; carapax for the most part flattened and naked, 
but slightly curved, pilose and roughened toward the anterior and 
antero-lateral margins. Prontal margin spinulose. Margins of the 
orbits above and below armed with spiniform teeth. Antero-lateral 
margin with three spiniform teeth besides the angle of the orbit, 
which, like the next lateral tooth, is bifid. Subhepatic tooth min\ite. 
Subhepatic and suborbital I'egions covered with sharp granules con- 
cealed beneath pubescence. Feet pilose and spinulose ; spinules 
shorter than in P. Xantusii. Greater cheliped naked and obsoletely 
granulated on the larger part of its outer surface. 

Dimensions of a male specimen : Length of carapax, 0.35 ; breadth, 
0.47 inch. 

Cape St. Lucas. J. Xantus. 

Pil8iEiBiiii§ ceratoidi^. 

Pdummis ceratopus Stimpson, Notes on N. American Cnistacea, p. 87. 
Pilumnus? Desbonne et Schramm, Cnast. de la Guadeloupe, p. 33; pi. iii, 
figs. 9, 10. 

This species, originally discovered on the Florida coast, was 
found at Guadeloupe by M. Desbonne. 

Piltiannn^ inar^iiiattis, nov. sp. 

A very small species. Carapax somewhat hairy, moderately convex, 
somewhat distinctly areolated, and regularly covered with small equi- 
distant tubercles, between which the surface is very minutely punc- 
tate. The posterior extremity is very narrow. The areolets are not 
protuberant. The median frontal channel is rather deep and con- 
spicuous. The front is broad, very little pi'omiuent, and separated 



110 Notes on North American Crustacea, 

from the supra- oi'bital margin by a small notch ; its margin is simply 
granulated, and there is a slight channel running parallel with it and 
se^Darating it from the frontal region. The orbital margin is unarmed 
except by small tubercles or graniiles, and has a single slight fissure 
at the middle above. The antero-lateral margin is sharply defined, 
almost limbed ; and is armed with three very slightly prominent 
teeth, besides the angle of the orbit, and a broad lobe posterior to it, 
neither of which project beyond the general outline ; the three 
teeth are each composed of two or three denticles, of about the size 
of the tubercles of the dorsal surface. There is no subhepatic tooth. 
The ridge of the endostome is almost obsolete. Chelipeds large, granu- 
lated ; carpus and hand usually covered on the outside with a dense 
tuft of algoid growth. 

Dimensions of a male specimen : Length of carapax. U 1 6 ; breadth, 
0.20 inch. 

This species is chiefly remarkable for tlie absence of a sub- 
hepatic tooth, and the character of the antero-lateral margin, 
which approaches somewhat in appearance that of P'duui- 
noides, though much shorter. 

Cape St. Lucas : J. Xantus. 

Acidops nov. gen. 

Carapax broad, smooth, with convex antero-posteiiov and nearly 
plane transverse dorsal outline ; surface nearly even. Antero-lateral 
margin short, acute, with three inconspicuous teeth, besides the 
angle of the orbit. Eyes and orbits elongated, resembling somewhat 
those of certain Macrophthalmoids. Orbits destitute of teeth or 
fissures. Eye -peduncles flattened, with an acute anterior edge con- 
tinuous with that of the margin of the carapax. The basal joint of 
the external antennae fills the hiatus of the orbit and just reaches the 
fi"ont. Chelipeds small. Ambulatory feet broad and compressed, 
except the terminal joint, which is narrow. Abdomen of the male 
with the third joint much produced on either side. Male appendages 
of the first pair broadly laminate at base, geniculated at the posterior 
third of their length, and tapering to a fine point, somewhat iiicurved 
toward the extremity, and reaching to the penult segment of the 



in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Ill 

abdomen ; those of the second pair tvo-thiixls as long as the first, 
slender, cylindrical, and tapering to a filiform extremity. 

This genus is soinewluit allied to Pilummis^ but differs 
greatly in the character of the orbits and eye-pednncles. 

Aeifloi»!^ laBiibriatii!^, nov. sp. 

Anterior and antero-lateral margins of the carapax ciliated with 
a fringe of long fine hairs. Carapax covered with a short pubescence, 
and areolated, the areolets being sufficiently distinct, but not at all 
protuberant. Angle of the orbit and next tooth of the antero-latei-al 
margin about equal in size ; the other two teeth veiy small. Sub- 
hepatic region smooth. Front not prominent ; median sinus slight ; 
lobes very slightly convex. External maxillipeds hairy ; meros-joint 
somewhat swollen. Chelipeds somewhat hairy ; hand granulated on 
the outer side ; fingers short, acuminate, and with granulated longi- 
tudinal ridges. Ambulatory feet ciliated. 

Dimensions of a male specimen : Length of carapax, 0.21 ; breadth, 
0.28 inch. 

This little crab resembles Ceratoplax c'diatus in appearance. 
Cape St. Lucas. J. Xantus. 

Achelous transversals, nov. sp. 

Carapax broad ; regions only slightly protuberant ; ridges distinct, 
granulated ; branchial ridge sinuous, but only slightly convex, curv- 
ing forward even less than in A. Gibhesii and scarcely more than in 
Callinectes^ but nevertheless forming an angle near the base of the 
lateral spine. The oblique meso-branchial lobes are distinct. The 
lateral spine is long, as long as the space occupied by the four or five 
teeth in fi'ont of it. The other antero-lateral teeth are pretty strong, 
equal, and have a granulated surface. Front nearly as in A, pana- 
mensis described below, but with the teeth somewhat more pointed. 
Chelipeds rather short ; meros fo\ir-toothed in front. Meros of the 
posterior pair of feet with a spiniform tooth at inferior extremity. 

Dimensions of a male : Length of carapax, 0.39 ; breadth., 0.85 
inch. 

Of this species I have seen only one specimen, which is iin- 

NOVEMBER, 1871. 8 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. Vol. X. 



112 Wotes on North American Crustacea^ 

perfect, tlie hands being wanting. It has somewhat the aspect 
of a Callinectes. 

It was taken at Manzanillo, Mex., by John Xantus, Esq. 

Achelous acuiniiiatu§, nov. sp. 

Body and feet pubescent. Cai-apax very short and broad ; propor- 
tion of length to breadth, 1:2.52 ; surface uneven, but with the pro- 
tuberances few in number and large, these being on the gastric, 
cardiac, and inner branchial regions. All the protuberances and 
ridges are graniilated at their summits only. The branchial ridge is 
convex, bending rather abruptly forward near the base of the lateral 
s{)ine. This lateral spine is very long, nearly two-thirds as long as 
the antero-lateral margin. The other teeth are rather sti'ong, the 
second, fourth, and sixth being somewhat smaller than the others. 
Front convex, separated from the orbit by deep incisions ; median 
teeth projecting somewhat beyond the level of the outer angles of 
the orbit ; teeth equal, bluntly triangular, moderately deeply cut ; 
median teeth most projecting. A large notch on the margin of the 
orbit above the insertion of the external antennae. Chelipeds very 
long, nearly three times as long as the carapax ; meros longer than 
the carapax, projecting nearly to the middle of the penult joint of the 
first pair of ambulatory feet, and tapering, and armed with four spines 
in front ; carpus slender, inner spine no longer than the basal spine 
of the hand ; hand very slender, almost sword-shaped, and with 
strong granulated ridges. A spine on the meros-joint of the pos- 
terior pair of feet. 

Dimensions of a male: Length of carajmx, 0.50; breadth, 1.26 
inch. 

Found at Panama by Capt. J. M. Dow. 

Acheloiis |)aiianieii!«is, nov. sp. 

Carapax moderately broad ; regions moderately protviberaut. 
Branchial ridge bending very abruptly forward near the base of the 
lateral spine. Lateral spine as long as the space occupied by the 
three teeth in front of it. The other lateral teeth are rather strong, 
and of equal size. Front projecting slightly beyond the level of the 



in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institxdion. 113 

angles of the orbits ; teetli rather bhmt, equally prominent ; median 
teeth smaller than the laterals, and separated from each other by a 
much deej^er and narrower sinus than that separating them from 
the laterals. Notch of orbital margin over base of antennae very 
slight. Chelipeds rather long ; meros with four spines in front ; 
inner spine of carpus about twice as long as basal spine of hand ; 
hand of ordinary proportions, if anything rather more slender than 
usual. A spine on meros joint of posterior feet. 

Dimensions of a male: Length of carapax, 0.40; breadth, 0.75 
inch. The breadth in this and the two preceding species of Achelous 
is measured between the tips of the lateral spines. 

It differs from A. acicminatus in its narrower carapax, shorter 
lateral spines, blunter frontal teetli, and thicker hand. 
Panama. Capt. J. M. Dow. 

Acheloii^ ancep^. 

Lupea anceps De Saussure, Crust, nouv. des Antilles, etc., p. 18 ; pi. ii, 
f. 11. 

Ltipea JDuchassagni Desbomie et Schramm, Cnist. de la Guadeloupe, p. 39 ; 
pi. iv, f . 25. 

Specimens from St. Thomas in the Smithsonian Collection 
agree with the descriptions quoted above in everything except 
their shorter chelipeds. 

OCYPODOIDEA. 
Paclftvg^rapsiis gracilis. 

Metopogrwpsus gracilis De Saussure, Crust, nouv. des Antilles, etc. , p. 27 ; 
pi. ii, fig. 15. 

Found at Barbados by Professor T. Gill. 

Pachygrapsus transversus. 

OrapsiLS tramversus Gibbes, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. ScL, 1850, p. 181. 
Pachygrapsus tnmsversus Gibbes, loc. cit., p. 182. 

Metopograpsus dubius De Saussure, Crust, nouv. des Antilles, p. 29; pi. ii, 
fig. 16. 

Found at St. Thomas by A. H. Riise, and at Barbados by 
Theo. Gill. 



114 Notes on North American Orustacea, 

Pachygrapsus sociias, nov. sp. 

Closely allied to JP. transversus, but diiFering in several minor par- 
ticulars. The carapax is somewhat narrower, less convex,- and more 
strongly striated ; and the frontal region is more depressed and ex- 
panded. The propodal finger of the chelipeds never has the dark 
patch which is always more or less conspicuous in P. transversus and 
P. inoiotatus. 

Dimensions of a male specimen : Length of carapax, 0.63 ; 
breadth, 0.725 inch. 

There are 'specimens in the Smithsonian Collection from the 
following localities : Peru, C. II. Raymond ; Panama, Alex. 
Agassiz ; San Salvador, J. M. Dow ; Manzauillo, Mex., John 
Xantus ; Cape St. Lucas, John Xantus. 

LEUCOSOIDEA. 
Calappa coiivexa. 

Calappa convexn De Saussure, Rev. et Mag. de Zo6l., 1853, pi. xiii, fig. 3. 
Calappa Xantudana Stimpson, Notes on N. American Crust., p. 109. 

There are specimens in the Smithsonian Collection from Cape 
St. Lucas (Xantus), Mazatlan (BischofF), and Panama (Stern- 
bergh). 

Osacliila acuta, nov. sp. 

Carapax depressed between the protuberances, and particularly 
toward the antero -lateral margins, where it is broadly expanded and 
concave. Protuberances rather small and somewhat conical ; the 
three on the gastric region equal ; all of them tuberculated, and with 
the tubercles coarsely punctate. Between the large protuberances 
there are no small one.s, but the surface is smooth, naked, and micro- 
scopically and crowdedly punctate. The rostrum is flattened, narrow, 
prominent, and bilobed at the extremity; margin thin and shai-p, 
and at the extremities of the lobes denticulated. Antero-lateral 
margin acute, arciiated anteriorly but becoming nearly straight and 
parallel to the axis of the body posteriorly; its armature is variable. 



in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. 115 

l)\it generally there are seven or eight teeth behind the obtuse tubercii- 
hited space near the orbit, or rather behind the point where the 
transverse subhepatic ridge joins the margin; the teeth increase in 
size posteriorly, and each one is composed of two or three denticles, 
the median one being largest where there are three. The postero- 
lateral margin is thickened, as if double ; it is irregularly tubercu- 
lated, and bears two strong triangular teeth, one next the lateral tooth 
of the carapax and the other next the posterior extremity. The 
posterior extremity of the carapax is narrow, with two thickened, 
tuberculated margins placed one above the other. Beneath, the sur- 
face of the body is rough with pits and tubercles both anteriorly and 
posteriorly; but the subbranchial region is smooth. Chelipeds angu- 
lar ; meros smooth below, a.nd having a transverse, creniilated, lami- 
niform crest at the superior extremity, following the upper j^art of 
the base of the carpus; supero-exterior surface of the carpus nearly 
smooth ; superior crest of the hand with three equal teeth ; outer 
surface of hand with five longitudinal ridges, the three upper ridges 
formed of large, the two lower ones of small tubercles. Ambulatory 
feet nearly as in 0. tuberosa, but with the crests less prominent, that 
of the meros-joint not pitted, but faintly denticulated and sparsely 
hairy. 

Color yellowish, with spots of red and white resembling patches of 
lichen. 

Dimensions of a male : Length of carapax, 0.70; greatest breadth, 
at the antepenult antero-lateral tooth, 0.83 inch. 

There are several specimens of this species in the Smithso- 
nian Collection, which were taken at Panama by Capt. J. M. 
Dow, and at Manzanillo by John Xantus, Esq. 

liithadfia poiitifera, nov. sp. 

The following description is that of an adult female, the only spe- 
cimen I have seen. The carapax is rather broader and less convex 
than in other species of the gemis, and has an angular outline, with 
an aspect somewhat like that of a Nursia. The sides project con- 
siderably over the bases of the feet. The entire upper surface is 



n6 Notes on North American Crustacea^ 

granulated. The protuberances of the carapax are smaller than usual, 
but prominent, and covered with tubercles, or granules, much larger 
than those on the depressed parts. The branchial protuberance is 
divided into two, one part being connected by a ridge with the ante- 
rior lateral tooth, and the other by a thicker ridge with the posterior 
lateral tooth. There is a median tuberculated ridjie extending from 
the frontal region to the cardiac, and interrupted at the centre of the 
carapax. Between the cardiac and the branchial region on either 
side there is a deep narrow cavity, bridged over by the meeting of a 
projection from the cardiac region with a similar projection from the 
posterior branchial protuberance. The hepatic region is not very 
protuberant above, and bears a short longitudinal ridge. The mar- 
ginal teeth of the carapax are all prominent, thickened, coarsely 
granulated, and separated by rather deeply concave intervals. The 
anterior lateral tooth (that on the branchial region, forming the an- 
tero-lateral angle of the body) is very large and prominent, and 
there is a smaller triangular tooth in front of it, pointing downward. 
Between this latter and the triangular hepatic tooth there is a deep 
sinus. The subhepatic tooth is very prominent and tuberculated. 
The posterior lateral tooth is obtusely rounded. The posterior mar- 
gin is thinner than the anterior and lateral margins on account of the 
deep excavation around the cardiac region ; the intestinal I'egion is 
bilobed, but the lobes do not form dentiform projections, the poste- 
rior outline being nearly straight when viewed from above, though 
interrupted at the middle. The front has a deep sinus at the middle, 
and is somewhat bimarginate. The epistome is very short, and the 
suborbital region less developed than usual. The external maxilli- 
peds are granulated, with the meros of the endognath much smoother 
than the other joints. The chelipeds are somewhat flattened, and 
resemble those of the type, X. Cumin gii ^' the outer crest of the hand 
is rather sharp. The ambulatory feet are granulated and tubercu- 
lated ; the tubercles not spiniform. The abdomen is densely tuber- 
culated. 

Dimensions of the female specimen : Length of carapax, 39 ; 
breadth, 0*48 inch. 

This can scarcely be the Ehalia mammUlosa of Desbonne and 



in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. 117 

Schramm, Crnst. de la Guadalonpe, p. 54, for tliat species is 
described as having the granulatioTis of the clielipeds larger 
than those of the carapax; the meros of the chelipeds rounded, 
and both meros and hand without crest; the ambulatory feet 
simply granulated ; and no mention is made of the bi-idged 
fossae between the cardiac and the branchial regions, unless 
these are what is meant by "trous borgnes," which is not prol)- 
able. What E. mainmUlosa is will, perhaps, always remain a 
matter of conjecture, as no specimen was preserved in Des- 
bonne's collection, and no figure was made. It is probably a 
Lithadia. 

Found at Barbados by Theodore Gill. 

Ulllia§, nov, gen. 

Closely allied to Oreojyhorus, but difiering in its broadly el- 
liptical shape, in the greater expansion of the sides of the cara- 
pax, in the non-projecting front, in the concealment of the eyes 
beneath the orbital margin of the carapax, in the broader and 
non-tapering exognath of the external maxillipeds, and in the 
expanded penult joint and short dactylns of tlve ambulatory 
feet. The hepatic region is not distinctly defined, and is not 
toothed. 

Uhlias is an American, while Oreopho7'us is an East Indian 
genus. 

Uhlias elliptlcns, nov. sp. 

Of this species I have seen only one specimen, a female, which 
may be described as follows : Carapax broad, regularly ellij)tical, rather 
depressed ; sides much expanded, laminiform ; middle of the carapax 
elevated above the sides, which are depressed. Upper surface, witli 
the exception of the central parts and the lateral expansions, covered 
with deep, rounded, or elongated pits. The posterior pits ar^ the 
largest, and six of them, of a pentagonal or rounded shape, are situ- 
ated on the posterior part of the branchial regions, three on each 
side. A large, transverse pit occupies the entire width of the intes- 



1 ! S Notes on North American Crustacea, 

tinal region, following the posterior margin. The pits on the frontal 
and hepatic i-egions are elongated in a direction parallel with the 
longitudinal axis of the body. The entire surface, except the bottoms 
of the pits, is granulated. The margins are slightly waved, but no- 
where distinctly toothed. The front does not project much beyond 
the regular curve of the anterior outline. The frontal margin is 
thick, and the eyes are small, and in our specimen are firmly imbed- 
ded in their sockets, lying beneath the margin, so as not to be seen 
from above. The intestinal margin is straight. Feet granulated. 
Ghelipeds short, with a crest on the meros and one on the hand. 
Ambulatory feet compressed, with a laminiform crest on the meros 
joint, and two similar crests on the carpus and penult joint; this 
penult joint is broadly expanded below, forming a process against 
which the short dactylus retracts ; thus giving a subcheliform appear- 
ance to the extremities of the feet. 

Dimensions of the female specimen : Length of carapax, 0.20 ; 
breadth, 0.31 inch. 

Found at Panama by Capt, J. M. Dow. 

Uliliiis liiBitoatiis, nov. sp. 

Description of an adult female : Carapax broad, subelliptical, rather 
sharply curved and almost angular at the sides, which are strongly 
projecting. Upper surface coarsely and closely granulated, and 
moderately convex, except towards the sides, where it is depressed as 
in IT. ellipticus. The cardiac region is surrounded, except in front, 
by a deep furrow, which posteriorly follows the posterior margin of 
the carapax. There is also a deep circular pit on the posterior part 
of the branchial region ; but there are no other well-defined pits, al- 
though the swollen part of the carapax is surrounded on the sides 
and in front by a shallow concavity, which deepens at its posterior 
extremity on the branchial region. The lateral margins aie waved, 
but not distinctly toothed. The postei'ior margin is slightly convex. 
Ambulatory feet rather short and stout, not compressed, granulated 
above and below ; penult and antepenult joints somewhat flattened 
or even concave above, but not crested ; penult joint much less ex- 
panded below than in L\ ellq^tlcus, and not forming so distinct a 



in the Museum of the SmithsoJiimi Institution. 110 

hand; dactyli about equal to the penult joint in length. The cheli- 
peds are wanting in the only specimen I have seen. 

The dimensions of this specimen ai-e: Length of carapax, 0.22; 
breadth, 0.32 inch. 

Found at St. Thomas, W. I., by A. H. Riise, Esq. 
Spelaeophorus iiocloi^us, A. M.-Edw. 

Ore<yphorus nodosus Bell, Trans. Lin. Soc. , XXI, 307 ; pi. xxxiii, fig. 8. 
Spdaeojyhorus nodosxis A. Milne-Edwards, Ann. Soc. Ent. de France, 
4e Serie, Tome V, p. 149. 

Of tliis species there is one (female) specimen in the Smitli- 
sonian collection. It agrees well with the figure and descrip- 
tion of Bell, except that the exognath of tlie onter maxillipeds 
does not taper, but is blunt, almost truncated at the extremity, 
and that the ambulatory feet are less spinous. The postero- 
inferior marginal lobe is concave in outline, 'and granulated 
below ; and its lateral angles do not form teeth projecting 
downward, as in Bell's figure of a posterior view of the male 
carapax. This latter may be a sexual difference. The soldered 
segments of the female abdomen have a longitudinal sulcus on 
either side of the median line, and the lateral surfaces are ru- 
gose and pitted, as if eroded. 

The specimen was taken at Jamaica by the late Prof. C. B. 
Adams. 

PORCELLAXOIDEA. 
Petr«Bistlies erlouserus, nov. sp. 

Near P. rupicola. Front nearly horizontal. Epigastric lobes 
rather sharply prominent, more so than in the allied species. The 
protogastric and epibranchial lobes are also prominent, and there is a 
channel between them and the orbital and the antero-lateral margins. 
Front broad, triangular, much less prominent than in P. rv^ncola. 
Chelipeds (except at the fingers) granulated ; carpus rather elongated, 
with a straight and entire anterior margin destitute of a prominent 



1 20 Notes on North American Crustacea, 

inner lobe, and a denticulated posterior margin ; hand with a tuft of 
hair between the fingers below. Ambvilatory feet everywhere hairy 
on upper edge. Surface of meros of third pair also hairy. Size of 
P. rupicola. 

Found at Mendicino, Cal., by Alexander As^assiz, Esq. 
P«lyoiiyx iiiacroctieles. 

PorceUana mncrocJieles Gibbes, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1850, p. 171. 

This species Jives in the tubes of CJiaetopterus, along with 
the woi'm and its other guest, Pinnixa chaetojpterana, on the 
coast of South Carolina. 

HIPPOIDEA. 

MeBSftipes bartoadcsisas. 

Squilla iarbadensis ovalis Petiver, Pastrigrapliia americana, pi. ii, f. 9. 

Body oval. Carapax depressed, not narrowed anteriorly ; surface 
nearly smooth, but anteriorly and towai'd the sides minutely lineo- 
lated transversely as in other species. Front broad, undulated, with 
a single broadly rounded median tooth ; margin minutely crenulated. 
The lateral margins are ornamented with a rather broad marginal 
stripe, which is transversely striated ; strise setiferous, and not intei*- 
rupted at the middle as in some species. Inner antennae half as long 
as the carapax ; the shorter flagellum being scarcely a tenth part as 
long as the longer one, which is compressed and almost naked. 

Length of carapax, 0.84; breadth, 0.69 inch. 

Found at Barbados by Prof. Gill, and at Key Biscajne, 
Fla,, by the late Gustavus Wurdeniann. 

THALASSINOIDEA. 
Crlypturus. 

Olyptxirus Stimpson, Proc. Chicago Acad, of Sciences, I, 46. 
Flagella of the antennulaj much longer than their peduncles. Ex- 
ternal maxillipeds indurated ; meros and ischium not dilated, no 



in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institutior\ . 121 

broadex' than the propodus (jienult joint), and concave on the outer 
surface ; ischium armed along the middle of its inner edge with a 
sharp, prominent, spinous crest ; carpus thick, and only half as broad 
as the propodus, which is greatly dilated within, and truncated, but 
not grooved, at the broad anterior margin, against which the dactylus 
folds ; dactylus rather stout, compressed, and rather longer than the 
anterior margin of the propodus. Mandibles strong, much indurated ; 
corona with its margin unevenly toothed, deeply cleft within, and 
with the basal process as broad and half as high as the corona itself, 
and having also a toothed edge. Appendages to the first two joints 
of the abdomen in the male nearly similar to the corresponding parts 
in the female. Caudal lamellae deeply sculptured. Of the appen- 
dages to the penult joint of the abdomen, the outer lamellfe appear as 
if composed of two pieces soldered together, the outer one of which 
overlaps the inner ; while the inner lamellae are obliquely triangular. 
Terminal segment of the abdomen very small. 

Qlypturus aeantJiocMrits Stimpson, Proc. Chicago Acad, of Sciences, I, 46. 

Dorsal suture A^ery deep. Front bearing an erect spine close to its 
anterior extremity, and a sharp, curved spine on either side, over the 
insertion of the outer antennae. Greater cheliped rather short and 
stout ; ischium, meros, and caipus with their lower edge spinous ; 
meros with two spines above, and no projecting lobe at the base 
below ; carpus much shorter than the palm of the hand ; haml much 
broader than the carpus, with three spines on the upper edge, and a 
granulated area on the outer surface behind the base of the pollex or 
immovable finger ; dactylus two-thirds as long as the palm of the 
hand. Smaller cheliped nearly similar to the greater one in shape 
and armature, but of less than half its size. 

In a female specimen, the length of the animal, exclusive of the 
antennae, is 3.9 inches; length of the carapax, 1.02; length of car- 
pus and hand taken together, and measured to the end of the dacty- 
ius, 1.5 inches. 

This species is not uncommon among the Florida Keys. A 



122 Notes on North American Crv.stacea, 

considerable mimber of specimens was found at the Tortugas 
by Dr. Whitehnrst. 

It cannot be mistaken for an}* of tlie Thalassinidea found on 
oui- coast, nnless it be a species described b^^ Prof. Lewis R, 
Gibbes under the name of Callianassa grandimana^ in tlie 
Proceedings of the Charleston meeting of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, in 1850. If the de- 
scription given by that author is correct, however, our species 
differs from that named by him in liaving the palm of the hand 
less than twice as long as the carpus, and in liaving a granu- 
lated area on the outer surface of this palm ; as well as in the 
armature of the lower edge of the greater cheliped. 

CalSieMrMs. 

CallicJiirus Stimpson, Proc. Chicago Acad, of Sciences, I, 47. 

Flagella of antennulfe rather shorter than their peduncles. Exter- 
nal maxillipeds soft, coriaceous ; meros and ischixim compi'essed 
and dilated ; meros short ; carpus and })ropodus ranch dilated 
at the inner margins ; propodus larger and more dilated than 
the carpus, and with a groove in its anterior margin, into which the 
small, curved dactylus folds. Inner lobes and lacinise of the second 
pair of maxillse for the most part narrow. Mandibles veiy small and 
weak, not indurated ; internal basal projection only slightly devel- 
oped. Carpus and hand of the greater cheliped very long. The ap- 
pendages to the first and sbcond joints of the abdomen in the male 
are small ; those of the first pair having but one branch, while those 
of the second pair have two branches, the outer branch being minute. 
Caudal lamellje much thickened. Inner lamellae of the appendages to 
the penult joint of the abdomen very narrow, almost styliform. Ter- 
minal joint of the abdomen short and broad, contracted at the base, 
and emarginated at the extremity. 

The type of tliis genus is the Callimiassa major of Say (Jour. 
Acad. Nat. Sci., Philad., I, p. 238). This species is found 
abundantly on the sandy shores of the Southern States — North 



in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. 123 

and Soutli Carolina, Georgia, Florida, etc. It burrows in the 
sands about low-water mark, its holes being usually about one 
foot in depth. 

ASTACOIDEA. 

!*!tcyBlarMs nodiler. 

Scyllarus nodifer Stimpson, Proc. Chicago Acad, of Sciences, I, 48. 

Upper surface tuberculated ; tubercles sparsely setose. A strong, 
bidentate projection on the gastric region of the carapax. On the 
third segment of the abdomen above there is a very prominent, me- 
dian knob, which forms the posterior extremity of the body when the 
abdomen is folded in. The second joint of the antenniB is armed 
with four or five teeth on the antero-exterior margin — the teeth, with 
the exception of that at the angle, being little prominent. Fourth 
joint of the antennae broader than long, with the margins crenulated, 
and the antero-exterior angle prominent. 

The length of the largest specimen is about five inches. In a male, 
the length of the carapax is 2.1 ; and its breadth at the anterior ex- 
tremity, 1.88 inches. In a female, length of carapax, 1.225; breadth 
anteriorly, 1.13 inches. 

Found among the Florida Keys. The specimens in the 
Smithsonian Museum were taken at the Tortugas by Dr. 
Whiteliurst, and there are examples from Key West in the Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge. 

CAEIDEA. 
Hippo! ysiBiata .caMrorisica. 

Hippolysmata californica Stimpson, Proc. Chicago Acad, of Sciences, I, 48. 

Surface of carapax and abdomen minutely pubescent. Rostrum 
short, scarcely over-reaching the ante-penult joint of the peduncle of 
the antennulifi, and six-toothed above, the posterior tooth being situ- 
ated at one-half more than the usual interval behind the next tooth, 



124 Notes on North Atnerican Crustacea, 

and at about the anterior third of the length of the carapax ; below, 
the rostrum is armed with three minute teeth. On the anterior mar- 
gin of the carapax there is a strong spine above the base of the antennae, 
and a minute one below it. Flagella of the antennulje equal, and 
very long, one and a half times as long as the body. Acicles or ap- 
pendages to the antenna? broad even to their tips, and much longer 
than the peduncles of the antennulse. External maxillipeds thickly 
setose, and reaching the extremity of the acicles. Terminal segment 
of the abdomen with two pairs of aculei above. 
Length, 1.25 inches. 

Found at San Diego, Cal., by Mr. Cassidy. 

This is the analogue of the Florida species, TI. Wttrdemanni 
{Hippolyte Wttrdemanni Gibbes), from which it differs in its 
hjnger antennulse, smaller eyes, etc. 

RliyiichocylH§ parvnlas, nov. sp. 

Dorsum of the carapax elevated, and protuberant at the middle of 
its length, its anterior half having a considerable slope forward, and 
being obtusely carinated and armed with five small, spiniform teeth ; 
— the posterior two teeth being somewhat remote from the anterior 
three, which are approximated. Rostrum one-third as long as the 
carapax, rounded-ovate, reaching beyond the tips of the peduncles of 
antennulfe and the antennal scales, and serrated with six teeth above 
and three below near the extremity. Antennulse longer than the 
rostrum ; antennae as long as the body. The external maxillipeds 
reach the extremity of the peduncle of the antennae. Feet of the 
first pair very short ; carpus half as long as the meros, and excavated 
in front for the reception of the hand. Feet of the second pair with 
a triarticulate carpus. Abdomen -smooth above; caudal segment with 
two pairs of aculei on the dorsum. 

The color in life is unknown to me. Alcoholic specimens are plen- 
tifully spotted and blotched with whitish pigment. 

Length, half an inch. 

Found at St. Joseph's I., Texas, by Gustavus Wurdemann, 
Esq. 



in the Ifuseum of the Smithsonian Institution. 125 
MeetocraM^oii lar. 

Crangon lar Owen, Beechey's Voy., Zool., 88 ; pi. xxviii. f. 1. 
Argis lar Kroyer, Tidsskrift, IV. 255 ; pi. v, f. 45-63. 
Nectocrangoti lar Brandt, Sibirische Reise, Zocil., p. 115. 

There are specimens in the Smithsonian collection, taken at 

St. John's, Newfoundland, by Prof. Gill. 

Mippolyte picta, no v. sp. 

Carapax and rostrum as in H. sitchaensis Brandt (Sibirische 
Reise, Zool., p. 116; pi. v, f. 8), the latter reaching a very little 
beyond the peduncle of the antennnlse, and armed with six teeth 
above (including two on the carapax) and three teeth below, near the 
extremity. On the antennulse the outer flagellum has the slender 
part only one-fourth as long as the thick part ; the inner flagellum is 
one-half longer than the outer. The external antennte are one-third 
longer than the body. The external maxillipeds reach a little beyond 
the tip of the antennal scale, and are provided with a flagellum or 
epignath, but have no exognath. Feet of the first pair provided with 
an epipod ; those of the last pair rather long and stout ; abdomen 
smooth ; last segment with four pairs of dorsal aculei. 

Thorax obliquely streaked with crimson. Length of the largest 
specimen, 1.33 inch. 

It differs from II. sitchaensis Brandt in its longer external 
maxillipeds and non-carinated abdomen. The rostrum is longer 
than in H. jjalpator, but much shorter than in //. Zayi. 

Found at Monterey, Cal., by A. S. Taylor, Esq. 

Mipidolyte vitoraais, nov. sp. 

This species resembles very closely II. Phipjysii Kroyer 
(Monog. Fremst. Hippol., p. 100, pi. iii, fig. 65-68), but differs 
ill having but one spine over the eye, and only two or three 
teeth beneath the tip of the rostrum. The carina of the cara- 
pax is sufiiciently well marked toward the base of the rostrum. 

Found in Massachusetts Bay. 



1 2(3 Notes on North American Crustacea^ 

Mippolytc !«ipiiia. 

Cancer spimis Sowerby, British Miscellany, xxi. 

Uijypolyte spirvm Whiia^ British Museum Cat., Crust. (1847), p. 76. Bell, 

British Crustacea, p. 284. 

Hipj)olyte Sotcerbei Leach. Kroyer, Monog. Fremst. Hippol. , 90 ; pi. ii, fig. 
45-54. 

This species is very beautifully colored in life, being gene- 
rally speckled or mottled with crimson, or bluish ; the base of 
the antennulae is usually brownish, and the scale of the antenn[\3 
blue. 

It is common on rocky bottoms, among algse in the laminarian 
zone, on the coasts of Maine and Massachusetts. I have several 
specimens from Grand Manan, where it occurs at low water 
mark. 

Sowerby, by the name he gave to this species, doubtless had 
reference to a spine, or the backbone ; in Latin sjnna, not 
spinus. Spinus is not an adjective, and means only the sloe- 
tree, which could scarcely have been intended. 1 have, there- 
fore, taken the liberty to modify the name, and all the more wil- 
lingly because Tlippolyte is feminine. 

Hippolyte Fabricii. 

Hippolyte Fabricii Kroyer, Monog. Fremst. Hippol. , p. 69 ; pi. i, f. 12-20. 
This species is common in Massachusetts Bay, in which I 
have often obtained specimens by dredging. 

llipi^olyte Gaiimardli. 

Hippolyte Oaimardii H. Milne-Edwards, Hist. Nat. des Crust., II, 378. 
Kroyer, Monog. Fremst. Hippol., p. 74; pi. i, f. 21-29. 

In our specimens the back of the abdomen at the third seg- 
ment is smo(^thly rounded ; but in Milne-Edwards' description 
this segment is said to be " moins dentc." Our specimens, 
however, agree perfectly with Kroyer's description and iigures. 

This species occurred to me on a sandy bottom, covered with 
dead Zostera^ in three fathoms, in Boston harbor, and I have 
found it in other parts of Massachusetts Bay. 



m the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. 127 
Mippolyie ptisiola. 

Hlpiwlyte pusiola Kroyer, Monog. Fremst. Hippol., p. 111. ; pi. iii, fig. 
69-73. 

This small species is easil}' distinguished from our other Hip- 
poljtes by the smallness of its four-toothed rostrutn, which is 
no longer titan the eyes. There is no sj^ine over the eye. 

I have found it abundantly in Massachusetts Bay, particularly 
in Boston Harbor. It also occurred to me at Harpswell, Me. 
It lives in the laminariau zone, and is most frequent among 
eel-grass {Zoster a). 

Virbiiis pleiiracanlhus, nov. sp. 

Back depressed. Rostrum horizontally broad, and smooth at base, 
acute, about half as long as the carapax, and scarcely more than half 
as long as the acicle of the antenna?, but reaching to the extremity 
of the penult joint of the peduncle of the antennulpe, and armed with 
one or two teeth above, and one below near the extremity. There is 
a small spine on each side at the base of the rostrum, above and a 
little behind the base of the ocular peduncles. On the anterior mar- 
gin of the carapax there is a spine beneath the eye, but no pterygos- 
tomian spine. There is a sharp (hepatic) spine on the surface of the 
carapax behind the base of the antennse. The scales of the antennae 
are very large, as long as the carapax, and rather widening than nar- 
rowing toward their extremities. The dactyli of the posterior three 
pairs of feet are broad, compressed, and knifedike, with the inner 
edges nearly straight, and armed with minute spiiies. The dorsal 
angle of the abdomen at the third segment is very prominent, but not 
acute. 

Length about one inch. 

It is easily distinguished from Y. acum,inatus by the great 
size of the antennal scales, and the presence of an hepatic spine 
on the carapax. 

It was dredged by me in the harbor of Norfolk, Ya., in June, 
1853 ; and found abundantly at Somers' Point, in Great Egg 
Harbor, N. J., in the summer of 1864. It lives among Zostera 
just below low water mark. 

NOVEMBER, 1871. 9 Ann. Ltc. Nat. Hist. Vol. X. 



128 Notes on North American Crustacea^ 

Pandalus borealls. 

Pandalus bwealis Kroyer, Tidsskrift, II, 354 ; Voy. en Skandinavie et La- 
ponie, Zool., Crust., pi. vi, fig. 2. 

In this species the feet of the posterior pair reach only to the 
extremity of the scales of the antennae. The caudal segment 
has nine pairs of dorsal aculei, which is another mark by which 
this species may be distinguished from P. annulicornis. It 
reaches a large size. 

Found in Massachusetts Bay. 

PandaSus Criiriieyi, nov. sp. 

A large species, of the same size as Jr*. borealis, etc. Surface 
of tlie carapax marked with shallow pits in clusters ; not pubescent. 
Rostrum more than one-half longer than the carapax, and unarmed 
above, except near the base, where the crest has eight or nine teeth, 
four of which are on the carapax : these teeth are small and rather 
distant. Below, the rostrum is armed with nine teeth, the two t^eth 
next the base being rather close together, large, and hook-shaped, but 
not broad. The feet of the third pair are rather short, not reaching 
the extremity of the rostrum ; they terminate in well-formed sub- 
cheUform hands. • 

Found at Monterey, Cal., by A. S. Taylor, Esq. It is named 
P. Gurneyi at the request of its discoverer. 

Palaenionetes. 

This genus resembles Palaeinon and Leander closely in all 
its characters, except that the mandibles are not palpigerous. 
From Anchistia it differs in its general form and habit, which 
are exactly those oi Palae7non, and in its antennulse, which are 
provided M'ith three flagella. It agrees with Leander in the 
spines of the carapax. The species are for the most part in- 
habitants of fresh or brackish water. 

The genus was described by me in manuscript about twelve 
years ago under the name Palaemonopsis, but this name has 



in the Museum of the S^nithsonian Institution. 129 

never before been published, and I believe it to be identical 
with J^alaemonetes of Heller, recently- described from a species 
found in the fresh water lakes of Southern Europe. If it should 
prove distinct, the name Palaemonopsis may be retained for it. 

Palaeiiionetes vulgaris. 

Palaemon mlgaris Say, Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
PhHadelphia, I, 248. 

This species is very common in the brackish waters of the 
inlets along our coast, from Massachusetts to South Carolina. 
I have distributed specimens to European Museums under the 
name Palaemo7iopsis vulgaris. 

Palaeiiionetes carolinu§, nov. sp. 

Kostrum of moderate breadth, rather long, reaching a little beyond 
the extremity of the antennal scale, and curved upward considerably. 
It is ciliated and serrated above throughout to the tip, with nine 
teeth ; the posterior tooth being a little further removed from the 
second than the second is from the third, and situated at the anterior 
third of the carapax ; the third tooth is directly above the base of the 
eye-peduncles. The extremity of the rostrvim is acute, or sometimes 
minutely bifid. Beneath, the rostrum is armed with four teeth, and 
densely ciliated. Antennas of both pairs as in P, vulgaris. Feet of 
the second pair long, reaching much beyond the extremity of the ros- 
trum; extremity of carpus jvist falling short of the end of the anten- 
nal scale ; hand much stouter than in P. vulgaris ' fingers a little 
shorter than the palm. The feet of the first pair reach scarcely be- 
yond the extremity of the carpus of the second pair. 

Of the same size, and nearly allied to P. vulgaris, but easily 
distinguished by its recurved rostrum, and larger feet of the 
second pair. It has been distributed to other museums under 
the name Palaemonopsis carolinus. 

It was originally found in the harbor of Charleston, S. C, 
by Col. J. D. Kurtz and myself, and has since been found in 



130 Notes on North American Crustacea^ 

Great Egg Harbor, N. J., by Professor Baird. I have also 
dredged it in the harbor of Beaufort, N. C, and off the neigh- 
boring coast at the depth of from two to seven fathoms. 

Palacmonetes exilipcs, nov. sp. 

Rostrum long and slender, longer than the antennal scales, and 
with its dorsal crest rising i-ather abruptly (more so in some speci- 
mens than in others) a short distance behind the eyes, and serrated 
with six (rarely seven or eight) small, acute, equidistant teeth, sepa- 
rated rather widely from each other at base ; the second tooth is 
placed just over the base of the eye-peduncles. The point of the ros- 
trum is very slender and acute, never bifid ; and the inferior crest is 
armed with two or three teeth. Antennulse variable in length, but 
usually half or two-thirds as long as the body, with the outer flagel- 
lum longest, and having the thick part much shorter than the slender 
part, and united to it for nearly the whole of its length. Feet very 
slender and naked ; in the second pair the carpus is a little thickened 
toward the extremity, and reaches to the end of the antennal scale ; 
and the hand is small, about half as long as the carpus, and but little 
thicker than its extremity. Fifth pair of feet longer than the third 
and fourth, and reaching a little beyond the extremity of the anten- 
nal scale. 

Length about an inch and a half. 

This species has been distributed under the name Palaemo- 
noj)sis exilipes. 

Found in fresh water at Somerville, S. C, by Dr. Charles 
Girard. 

lieaiicfer pandaliformis, nov. sp. 

liostrum slender and much longer than the carapax and than the 
antennal scales, curving upward, and very slender at the extremity. 
Its dorsal crest commences at the anterior third of the length of the 
carapax, and its posterior two-thirds is armed with seven teeth, the 
second tooth being over the base of the eye-peduncles ; its anterior 
third is unarmed, except by a minute tooth close to the extremity. 
Below, the margin of the rostrum is densely fringed with short hairs. 



in tlie Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. 131 

and armed with eight small and somewhat distant teeth. The anten- 
nae and antennulse are of equal length, and about two-thirds as long as 
the body. The inner flagelluni of the antennulse is one-half as long 
as the outer one, of which the thick part is short and united to the 
thin part for but a short distance at the base. The antennal scale is 
broad, and the lobe of the inner extremity projects strongly forward. 
The outer maxillipeds are very slender, and reach a little beyond the 
extremity of the peduncle of the antennfe. Feet very slender ; almost 
entirely naked, and unarmed ; in those of the second pair the cai'pus 
reaches to the extremity of the rostrum ; hand very small, and less 
than half as long as the carpus. Posterior feet so slender as to be 
almost hair-like ; those of the last pair reach to the extremity of the 
rostrum. Candal segment slender; outer caudal lamella much longer 
than the inner one. 

The color in my (alcoholic) specimens is faded, but the antennal 
scales, the lower margins of the abdominal segments, and the caudal 
lamellje are still seen to be margined with blueish-white, and the 
colors were probably much more brilliant than is usual in the grovip. 

The length is about an inch and a half. 

This species is distinguished by the great length of its re- 
curved rostrum, and of its antennae and feet. 

It was found by Prof. Tlieodore Gill in fresh-water streams 
near the sea, either in Barbados or Trinidad ; — he is uncertain 
whicli. 

8icyonia laevig^ata, nov. sp. 

The body is small and I'ather slender, and moderately compressed. 
The dorsal crest of the carapax is tridentate ; teeth small, acute, equi- 
distant ; the posterior one sitviated nearly at the posterior third of 
the length of the carapax. Lateral spine of carapax very slender. 
Rostriim slender, pointing forward and upward at an angle of about 
20° with the axis of the bodj^ ; it is twice as long as the eyes, and 
reaches nearly to the extremity of the penult joint of the peduncle 
of the antennulse ; it is armed above with one minute tooth over the 
eyes, and one near the extremity ; its extremity is truncate and armed 
with two or three spiniform teeth ; its lower margin is almost entire. 



132 JVotes on North American Crustacea. 

Flagella of the antennas only slightly depressed, and very little hairy. 
Feet compressed ; those of the third pair reaching the extremity of 
the scale of the antennae. The abdomen is sharply carinated above, 
but its sides are glabrous, and much smoother than in any other 
known species of the gemis, the sulci being very narrow and the 
protuberant pai'ts flattened and not rugose. 

Length, 0.8 inch. 

Of this species I have seen only one specimen, a male, which 
was taken in the harbor of Charleston, S. C, by Col. J. D. 
Kurtz, IT. S. A. 

l§icyoiii:i brevirostris. 

Sicyonia cristata De Saussure, Crust, du Mexique et des Antilles, p. 55, fig. 
25. (?) 

A species of similar size and closely allied to S. ca7n7iata 
H. M.-Edwards, from Rio Janeiro; from which it differs, how- 
ever, in having three teeth on the dorsal carina of the carapax, 
and four on the superior margin of the rostrum, which is very 
short, much shorter than the eyes, and unarmed beneatli. 

The crustaceous envelope of this species is very mucli indu- 
rated. There are small round tubercles scattered on the promi- 
nent parts of the abdomen, and a few on the posterior parts of 
the sides of the abdomen. The length of the animal is nearly 
three inches. 

There is little doubt that this is the adult of S. cristata, 
Sauss., although the rostrum is shorter and more pointed, and 
the lateral furrows of the carapax much shallower posteriorly 
than in the specimens described by De Saussure. The name 
S. cristata is preoccupied for a Japanese species. 

Found on the S. Florida Coast. 

Penaeus l>ra!«ilieii!!^is. 

Penaeus irasiliensis Latreille, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XXV, 154. H. 
Mihie-Edwards, Hist. Nat. des Crust., II, 414. Gibbes, Proc. Am. Assoc. 
Adv. Sci., 1850, p. 198. 

Professor Milne-Edwards states that this species differs from 



hi the Miisemn of the Smithsonian Institution. 133 

P. caramote in having tliree teeth on the inferior edge of tlie 
rostrum. The number is, however, generally two, as in P. 
setiferus. The chief difference is that pointed out by Gibbes ; — 
the want of spines at the base of the third pair of feet. 

This species is often found in brackish water, and even as- 
cends streams to points where the water is nearly or quite 
fresh. It was thus found in the Croton River at Sing Sing by 
Prof. Baird, and by myself in a fresh-water creek near Somers' 
Point, N. J. Besides these localities there are specimens in 
the Smithsonian collection from Great Egg Harbor, N. J. 
(Baird), Charleston, S. C. (Gibbes), Tortugas, Fla. (White- 
hurst), Pensacola, Fla. (Jeffrey), New Orleans (Couch), Brazos 
Santiago, Tex. (Yan Yliet), and Brazil (A. H. Riise). 

Penaeus setiferus. 

Cancer setifenis Lin. , Syst. Nat. 

Penaeus fluviatilis Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philad. , I. 236. 
Penaeus setiferus H. Milne-Edwards, Hist. Nat. des Crust., II, 414. Gibbes, 
Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1850, p. 199. 

The flagella of the antennulte in males differ from those of 
females in being less tapering, naked, and armed with corneous 
teeth like those of a file, which form spinules along the margin. 

In a specimen from Mobile Point, the rostrum is armed with 
one tooth only on the inferior edge. 

Our specimens are from the following localities :— Norfolk, 
Ya. (Farragut); Charleston, S. C. (Gibbes); Florida (Agassiz); 
Mobile Point, Ala. (Wurdemann) ; Biloxi, Miss. (Bellman) ; 
Calcasieu Pass, La,, and Galveston (Kennerly) ; St. Joseph's L, 
Texas (Wurdemann); Brazos Santiago (Yan Yliet). 

Penaeus pubescent, nov. sp. 

Surface of thorax and abdomen short-pubescent. Lateral furrows 
of carapax shallow and inconspicuous, being filled with pubescence ; 
lateial spine acute. No trace of a longitudinal furrow on the dor- 
sum. A sharp and rather long spine on the anterior margin at the 



134: Notes on North American Crustacea^ 

insertion of the antennulse, and one at the antero-inferior corner of 
the carapax. Rostral crest extending only as far back as the first or 
posterior tooth, which is situated at about the anterior third of the 
length of the carapax, and far distant from the second tooth, which 
is placed over the base of the eye-peduncle. Beyond and including 
this second tooth there are seven teeth on the superior margin of 
the rostrum, and perhaps more, as the tip is broken in our speci- 
men. There are no teeth on the inferior margin. The rostrum, 
in its broken condition, reaches to about the middle of the penult 
joint of the peduncle of the antennulse. Eyes very large. Anten- 
nulse short, as in P. setiferus / the lamelliform appendage at its base 
is small, long-ciliated, and pointed, not dilated, at its extremity ; fla- 
gellum veiy short. Antennas only as long as the body ; the antenual 
scales are a little shorter than the peduncle of the antennvil^e. Feet 
unarmed at base ; hands of the third pair very slender. Abdomen 
carinated from the middle of the second joint backward to the sixth 
joint, the carina becoming sharper and prominent towards its poste- 
rior extremity ; seventh or caiidal joint sublanceolate, very slightly 
furrowed above, without carinse, and terminating in an acute spine, 
with a smaller spine on either side at its base. Caudal lamellae pubes- 
cent ; the inner one longitudinally bicarinated in the middle, not sul- 
cated as in P. hrasiliensis and P. setiferus. 

Of this species I have seen but one specimen, a female, two 
inches in lengtli, excludinsj the antennae. 

It was presented to the Institution by A. H. Eiise, Esq., who 
collected it at St. Thomas. 

Penaeus styliro!$tris, nov. sp. 

Somewhat allied to P. setiferus, but with the following well-marked 
distinctive characters. The carapax behind the rostrum is obtusely 
carinated nearly to the posterior extremity; the carina being some- 
times furrowed along the middle for a short distance at the point 
where the cervical sulcus would cross if continued, at which point 
there are two small pits indicating the attachment of the posterior 
supports of the stomach. Rostrum long, over-reaching the antennal 
scales, four-toothed below, and, including carina of the carapax, eight- 



in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. 135 

toothed above, the posterior tooth aboA'e being placed a little before 
the middle of the carapax. Terminal half of the rostrum styliform, 
without teeth above. Lateral furrows of the rostrum distinct, ex- 
tending to the posterior tooth. Antero-lateral spine and sulci nearly 
as in P. setiferus. Antennulse with the inner flagella much longer 
than the outer ones, and about as long as the carapax. Spines on the 
bases of the first and second pairs of feet very small. In the female 
the feet of the last three pairs bear lamelliform processes on the inner 
sides of the coxse, and the sternum between the bases of the posterior 
feet bears a short but much projecting dentiform median carina. The 
abdomen is similar to that of P. setiferus. 

Length of the largest specimen in the collection, six inches, exclud- 
ing antennaj. Length of flagellum of antennae, about twelve inches. 

It differs from P. setnisulcatus in its longer rostrum and an- 
tennulse, and from P. carinatus in the oblique position of the 
anterior cervical sulcus. 

Found at Panama by J, H. Sternbergh, Esq. 

Penaeiis con§tricfus, nov. sp. 

The abdomen is naked and glossy, but the carapax, particularly 
toward the front part, is pubescent with extremely minute setae, di- 
rected forward, so that the surface is easily rubbed in a forward di- 
rection, but resists strongly when rubbed backward. The hepatic 
spine, and antennal spine, ridge, and sulcus are well marked or even 
prominent. The cervical sulcus is well-marked, and may even be 
traced in the middle of the back on either side of the median carina ; 
it is deflected near its anterior extremity, running to the inferior 
margin of the carapax, and forming a deep groove parallel with the 
anterior margin ; giving the carapax, seen from below, the appearance 
of being constricted close to its anterior extremity. A furrow along 
the inferior side of the antennal ridge flows into the cervical sulcus 
at the point where the latter is deflected. The angle at the outer 
base of the eye-peduncle jirojects a little, but scarcely forms a spine. 
The carapax is carinated on the anterior three-fourths of its length, 



136 Notes on Worth American Crustacea. 

the carina being slightly flattened and longitudinally grooved at the 
point where the cervical sulcus crosses, and bearing a small tooth or 
s])iue behind the base of the rostrum. The rostrum is straight, cnsi- 
form, reaching the middle of the penult joint of the peduncle of the 
antenniG, and pointing forward and upward at an angle of about 20° 
with the horizon. It has a strong lateral carina, with a groove on 
each side of it, the upper groove being continued backward as far as 
the little gastric tooth of the carina of the carapax. Its dorsal crest 
is armed with eight teeth, which are equidistant, and diminish regu- 
larly in size toward the extremity, the anterior tooth being very near 
to this extremity, which is slender and acute. The inferior margin 
of the rostrum is ciliated and entire, without teeth. Eyes large, reni- 
form. Antennula) stout ; peduncle longer than the flagellum, over- 
reaching the acicle or scale of the external antenme, and very pubes- 
cent above ; its penult joint three or four times as long as the termi- 
nal joint. Feet of the first two pairs armed with a spine on the basis 
joint. Last pair of feet longer than the fourth pair, and nearly 
reaching the extremity of the acicle ; dactylus half as long as the 
penult joint. Abdomen carinated from the foui-th to the sixth joint 
inclusive; carina cristiform. Median sulcus of last joint very deep 
and narrow, defined by two carinte : this sulcus is abruptly termin- 
ated at the base of the mucronate point which forms the posterior 
extremity of the joint. The fij-st pair of abdominal appendages in 
the male have the inner lamella? soldered together and folded, but di- 
verging at the tip, forming two haixl, lunate processes like the flakes 
of a grapple ; the distance between the tips of these processes eqiial- 
ling two-thirds of the length of their peduncle. 

Dimensions of a male specimen: Length, excluding antennae, 1.70; 
length of carapax, rostrum included, 0.60 ; length of rostrum, 0.22 ; 
length of penult joint of the abdomen, 0.20 inch. 

This species was dredged by me at the depth of four fathoms 
on a sandy bottom in the harbor of Beaufort, N. C, and I have 
also taken it in Ciiarleston Harbor. 



DesGripiions of tliree New Species. 137 



YII. — Descriptions of tliree New Species of American Birds, 
with a Note on Eugenes spectabilis. 

By GEO. N. LAWRENCE. 

Read November 27th, 1871. 

1. MiBBftum iDig'B*iIorij!!$. 

Plumage above dusky cinereous, each feather with the centre black- 
ish-brown ; a superciliary stripe of creamy-white extends from the 
front as far as the occiput ; lores dee[) black, and behind the eye a broad 
stripe of brownish -black ; sides of the head and the throat dull white 
with a slight fulvous tinge, the latter bordered on each side by a nar- 
row stripe of black ; across the side of the neck is a broad mark of 
pale fulvous ; tail feathers blackish-brown, having a hoary appearance 
above for the greater part of their length from the base, the outer 
three on each side are light dusky fulvous at their ends for rather 
more than an inch in extent ; quills blackish-brown edged with dull 
ochreous, wing coverts dark brown with whitish-gray margins, the 
pi-imary coverts end largely in creamy- white, forming a conspicuous 
bar over the primaries ; vmder wing coverts brownish-ash, edged 
with dull white, the inner margins of the quills are very pale fulvous 
white ; breast brownish-ash, the feathers with grayish margins ; ab- 
domen and under tail coverts dull white just tinged with fulvous ; 
sides the color of the breast and sparingly striped with blackish- 
brown ; bill black, except the basal half of the under mandible, where 
it is yellowish-white ; tarsi light hazel-brown in front, whitish behind. 

Length 10^ in. ; wing 4|- ; tail b^ ; tarsi \^ ; bill ^. 

Habitat. Mexico. 

Remarks. I obtained the above-described bird from Dr. 
C. H. Yan Patten, of Costa Rica, who got it in exchange from 
Mr. Gruber, of San Francisco, bj whom it was labelled as 
coming from Mexico. As it looked so unlike all other lS"ortli 
American species of J/'mw6', I thought the locality given might 



138 Descy'ijptions of three New Species 

possibly be erroneous, and that, perhaps, it was one of the 
stout, darkly-colored South American forms of that genus, but 
on investigation, failing to make it agree with any of them, I 
consider it undescribed, and for the present, Mexico must be 
received as its habitat. 

It is related to the South American group repi'esented by 
M. thenca^ M. lo7igicaudatus, etc. ; in coloring it somewhat re- 
sembles the last-named species, but is darker, with a much 
stronger bill ; the toes and claws are longer and much stouter, 
those of longlGaudatus being comparatively quite feeble ; the 
ashy coloring on the breast is much darker, and the abdomen 
clearer in color, the under tail coverts are colored like the 
abdomen, whereas those of longicaudatus are of a light reddish- 
brown ; the black lores and the basal half of the under mandi- 
ble being yellowish-white, are distinguishing characters. 

The uppei' plumage in the new species is of a smoky brown, 
that of longicaudatus is lighter and more of an ochreous color, 
in thenca the back is ashy, and the rump with a rufescent 
tinge, the latter species is much lighter below than the others, 
the breast having an ash}^ suffusion, and the under tail coverts 
being pale fulvous. 

S. BiiarreBnon isordidus. 

A broad stripe of light reddisli-ochreoiis extends over the front, 
crown, and hind neck, the feathers of the front have their centres 
dusky ; sides of the head black ; back and wing coverts of a dull 
greenish olive-brown, tinged with ochreovis ; the tail feathers are 
black and the wings brownish-black, both with margins the color of 
the back ; the throat is dull light yellow, with a narrow line of dusky 
feathers extending down from the lower mandible on each side, the 
feathers of the breast and of the abdomen are of a soiled yellowish- 
olive, with narrow dusky-brown shaft stripes, sides colored like the 
the back, but with rather more of an ochreous tinge ; bill blackish- 
brown, with the cutting edges and the lower part of the under 
mandible pale brown ; tarsi and toes light fleshy -brown. 



of American Birds. 139 

Length about 6 in. ; wing 3 ; tail 3 ; tarsi 1 J^ ; bill |-. 

Ilahitat. Bogota. 

Memarhs. In the stripe over the crown and the black sides 
of the head, this species resembles £. leucojpterus and B. pal- 
lidinuchiis, but the stripe is uniform in color, and is paler and 
duller than it is in B. leucopterus. The stripe in B. pallidi- 
miclius is of two colors, being whitish on the hind neck ; in all 
other respects they are entirely unlike. The coloring, gener- 
ally, is dark and dull, and it appears to differ from all others 
of the genus, in the striped character of the under plumage. 

3. I^erpophag^a g^risea. 

F Front, crown, and lores sooty black, sides of the head and the hind 
neck grayish-fuliginous ; upper plumage of a clear grayish-cinereous ; 
tail feathers black, tipped ^svith whitish-gray ; quills and wing coverts 
black, the latter with very narrow edgings of dull gray; under 
plumage and under wing coverts light ashy-gray, the throat and 
abdomen whitish ; bill and feet black. 

Another specimen — perhaps younger — has the head rather lighter 
in color, and the wing coverts end in pale ochreous-white. 

Length 4 in. ; wing 2 ; tail \\\ ; bill /g ; tarsi |. 

Ilahitat. Costa Rica. 

RemarTis. These two specimens were in a large collection 
of birds, made mostly in the vicinity of San Jose, by the 
Messrs. Carmiol, for Dr. C. H. Van Patten, from Avhom I ob- 
tained them. 

' It differs from specimens of S. cinerea from Ecuador and 
New Granada in being smaller in all its measurements, and in 
having the under plumage whiter, especially on the throat and 
abdomen. In S. cinerea the throat and breast are much darker 
and uniform in color ; but the most marked differences are in 
the absence of concealed white on the crown feathers, and in 
wanting the conspicuous white terminations of the wing coverts, 
which exist in the other species, the edges of the wing coverts 
in S. grisea are scarcely perceptible. 



140 DesGvvption of three Neva SjMcies. 

This is possibly the same us the species referred to ,5'. cine- 
rea by Mr. Salvia {This, 1869, p. 319), for which it iniglit 
easily be mistaken at first sight, or by a too hasty detenniiia- 
tion, but from wliich, in my opinion, it is quite distinct. 

Note on Eugenes spectabilis. 

Mr. Salvin {This, 1869, p. 316) expresses doubt as to the dis- 
tinctness of this species from E. fulgens. Having lately pro- 
cured, fi-om Dr. C. H. Yan Patten, several adult males of E. 
spectahilis, collected near San Jose, Costa Rica, I have been 
enabled to make more satisfactory comparisons with E. fulgens, 
the type of E. spectabilis being a female. The differences 
between them, pointed out below, seem to me to clearly estab- 
lish the validity of my species. 

The dimensions are somewhat larger than those of specimens 
of E. fulgens from Mexico and Guatemala ; in the color of the 
crown they are much alike, but it appears to be of a rather 
deeper violet in E. spectabilis, in wdiich species the green on 
the front is much greater in extent ; the entire hind neck and 
the back as far as the middle are sooty black, whereas E. fulgens 
has a narrow band of black next the bright color of the crown, 
and only a wash of fuliginous on the hind neck and upper 
back, not so decided or extensive as in the other ; the color of 
the lower part of the back and upper tail coverts is grass 
green, not golden as in the northern species ; the tail above is 
bronzy brown, and underneatli is washed with fuliginous, much 
darker than in E. fulgens ; the color of the throat in E. specta- 
bilis is much deeper, being bluish-green, instead of silvery- 
green ; the entire under surface below the gorget is clear green, 
whereas in E. fulgens there is a M'asli of smoky black from the 
gorget extending over the breast ; the under tail coverts are 
darker in E. spectabilis. 



On the Tarsus mid Carpus of Birds. 141 



« 



VIII. — On the Tarsus and Carpus of^ Birds. (Plates iv, v.) 

By EDWARD S. MORSE, Pii. D. 
Rend January 29tli, 1872. 

Among the many interesting features of structure, com- 
mon to birds and reptiles, that have been pointed out from 
time to time by Huxley, Gegenbaur, Dana and others, that 
point which established the existence of tarsal bones in 
birds, with the joint occurring between the first and second 
tarsal series as in reptiles, seems the most important. 

There is still, however, a variance of opinion as to the 
number and condition of the tarsal and carpal bones in 
birds, and upon this question I hope to throw some little 
light. 

The most important contribution has been made by 
Gegenbaur,* who has shown the presence of two tarsal 
bones in the embryo chick, which unite, respectively, with 
the distal end of the til)ia and the proximal end of the 
metatarsus, leaving the ankle joint l)etween the proximal 
and distal tarsal series, as in reptiles. In the upper tarsal 
bone he figures two centres of ossification, and from what 
he finds in certain reptiles, believes that these two centres 
in the cartilaginous mass indicate the presence of two 
tarsal elements, the astragalus and calcaneum. 

In referring to other authors, I find a great difierence of 
opinion respecting the existence of any tarsal bones. Prof. 
Owen, who has contributed so hirgely to our knowledge of 
the osteology of birds, particularly the larger and more 
aberrant forms, such as Ap)teryx, Binornis, ^pyornis and 



*TJntersuchuugen zur Vergleicliendea Anatomic der Wirbelthiere. Erstes Heft 
Carpus uud Tarsus. Leipzig, ISOi. 
March, 1872. 10 Anx. Lyc. Nat. msT., Vol. x. 



142 On the Tarsus and Caiyus of Birds. 

others, while admitting the existence of three carpal bones, 
one of which, the magnum, unites with the base of the mid- 
metacarpal, says, in his last work on the Comparative 
Anatomy of the Vertebrates,* that the tarsus is absent, or 
perhaps blended with the tibia or metatarsus. In speak- 
ing of the term tarso-meiatarse, as applied by some orui- 
thotomists to the segment sustaining the phalanges, he says 
it implies the tarsal homology of the epiphysis, and adds 
that the same might be predicable of the distal epiphy- 
sis of the tibia ; but neither of these points being demon- 
strated, he prefers to call that segment the metatarse. 

Still later, in the year 1869, in a memoir on the Fossil 
Reptiles of the Liassic Formation,! he strongly insists upon 
calling the tarsal bones of birds, epiphyses. 

Admitting, as Prof. Owen does, the excessive tendency 
in the skeleton of birds to anchyloses, and further admitting 
the interesting correspondence between the wing and the 
leg, in the coalescence of the metacarpals and metatarsals 
respectively, and also admitting the confluence of the mag- 
num with the proximal end of the mid-metacarpal, it seems 
strange, indeed, that he could not have interpreted the so- 
called epiphyses of the til^ia and metatarsals as true tarsal 
ossicles ; or, having interpreted them as epiphyses, that the 
same mode of reasoning should not have led him to regard 
the magnum as an epiphysis also. 

Mr. W. K. Parker, in a valuable paper on the osteology 
of Baloeniceps rex,X suggests the existence of a tarsal bone, 
in describing the tibia of that bird, as follows : "This infe- 
rior, or distal end of the tibia is developed from a distinct 
osseous centre in young birds, which piece forms all the 
articular parts, and sends upward a wedge-shaped process 
in front — the seat of the ossification which makes the large, 
wide, oblique, tendon-like bridge. 



*Vol. II, 11. 79. t Palreontographical Soc, Vol. XXIII, part II, p. 77. 
X Zoological Traus., Vol. IV, part 7, 1861. 



On the Tarsus and Carpus of Birdsx 143 

"Below this bridge the bone is deeply scooped, and the 
concavity between the condyloid margins of the trochlea is 
very considerable. Query. Is the lower articular portion 
of the tibia an epiphysis of the tibia itself, or is it the homo- 
loofue of the mammalian astragalus?" 

Gegenbaur's discoveries confirm the supposition of Mr. 
Parker, and prove that the term tarso-metatarsus is appro- 
priately applied to that segment of the leg bearing the pha- 
langes. 

Besides the discovery of Gegenbaur's, above mentioned, of 
the two tarsal bones and the two centres of ossification in 
the upper, or proximal one, he recognizes and figures two 
carpal bones, one corresponding to the radius, the other 
corresponding to the ulna; these he designates, respectively, 
the lYidiale and the idnare. 

In considering these points, and reflecting upon the char- 
acter of these bones in the higher classes of vertebrates, it 
seemed to me that further investigation should reveal more 
carpal bones in birds ; that bones representing the distal 
carpal series should be present, and that the calcaneum and 
astragalus should be more clearly demonstrated. 

In the land tortoises, the chelonians, monitors, crocodiles 
and even in the low batrachians, whatever the number of 
ossicles the carpus and tardus respectively present, there 
appear to be at least two ossicles in the first, or proximal 
series, as in the ^3es, for instance, where there is one corres- 
ponding to the tibia, and another corresponding to the fibula. 

In the carpus, likewise, according to the demonstrated 
homology between the fore and hind limbs, we should expect 
to find other carpal bones anchylosing with the proximal ends 
of the metacarpals, leaving the joint between the first and 
second carpal series, as in the tarsus. With no prejudice in 
favor of these views, nor- doubting the ol)servations of 
others, I yet determined to satisfy myself, and so took up 
the study of these features, as revealed in the embryonic 
stages of the class. 



144 On the Tarsus and Carjpus of Birds. 

Knowing the importance of making many observations 
upon different species, in order to arrive at any general 
truth in the matter, I studied the embryos of all the birds at 
my limited command, and my only regret is, that the species 
I was able to examine were so few in number, and so 
similar in character. For this material my thanks are 
chiefly due to Mr. Frank L. Scribner and Anson Allen, Esq. 

The embryos studied were those of the Bank swal- 
low, Cotyle riparia; Eave swallow, Hirundo lunifrons; 
Kingbird, Tyrannies Carolinensis; Crow blackbird, Quis- 
calns versicolor; Cow blackbird, Molot/irus j^ecoris; Blue- 
bird, jSialia sialis; Chipping sparrow, Spizella socialis; 
Yellow warbler, Dendroeca cestiva; Wilson's thrush, Turdus 
fuscescens, and the Spotted sandpiper, Tringoides macula- 
rius. 

I have no means of determining, with certainty, the age 
of any of the embryos examined, but have made a careful 
life-size drawing of each one, so that an approximate idea 
may be formed of their condition and age. 

As all these studies were made from living specimens, 
more dependence can be placed upon the results obtained, 
than if they had been drawn from alcoholic specimens, in 
which the tissues are opaque. 

Tarsus. (See plate iv.). In all the embryos ex- 
amined, there Avere three distinct bones composing the 
tarsus. Two of these belonged to the proximal series, one 
corresponding to the tibia, and the other to the fibula, rep- 
resenting, respectively, the astragalus and calcaneum. (It 
seems better to use the terms given by Gegenbaur to these 
bones, as it removes all objection on the score of question- 
able homologies. The terms iihiale and fihidare will there- 
fore be applied to these two boues, and centrale to the 
remaining one belonging to the distal series.) The tihiale 
is generall}^ the largest, and in birds, the inner condyle at 
the distill end of the tibia is usually the largest, which is 
in accordance with the proportions of the tarsal bone repre- 



On the Tarsus and Carjms of Birds. 145 

sentiug this process. The fibulare unites with the tihiale at 
a very early age, there being a sort of hour-ghiss shaped 
constriction between them. From their resemblance, at this 
stage, to a similar bone in Laelaps, as determined by Prof. 
Cope, the correctness of the term astragalo-calcaneum, 
applied to that bone by him, is confirmed. 

The coalescence of these two bones, forms the peculiar 
bi-condylar trochlea of the distal end of a bird's tibia ; a 
firm joint is thus rendered ; for the inner condyloid margins, 
thus produced, bear against either side of the centrale, which 
early unites with the proximal ends of the metatarsals. 

The mid-metatarsal is generally the shortest at the proxi- 
mal end, and the centrale fills up the depression thus 
made. 

In the crow blackbird the proximal end of the mid-meta- 
tarsal at an early stage is crowded back by the metatarsals 
upon each side of it, as is usual in adult birds.* In the 
same bird the centrale is small and round, and imites chiefly 
with the mid-metatarsal. In the spotted sandpiper, the 
centrale is lozenge-shaped, and caps the three metatarsals. 
The tihiale and fibulare unite, forming a symmetrical hour- 
glass shaped bone. 

In the bank swallow and kingbird, the centrale is similar 
in shape to that of the sandpiper, and in like manner caps 
the metatarsals. In the bluebird, the centrale is very large 
and irregular in shape, and unites first with the second meta- 
tarsal, but overlaps the others. In the yellow warbler the 
centrale is very large and irregular in shape, presenting two 
conspicuous prominences upon its articular face. In the 
eave swallow, the centrale unites with the metatarsus a long 
time before the tihiale and fibulare have united with each 
other, or with the tibia. 

In all the birds examined, the tihiale and fibulare, with 
one exception, anchylose together before they unite with the 

*See Owen, immature Dinornis crassus. Trans. Zool. Soc, VI, pi. 6, and Dr. R. O. 
Cuuuiugham's Rhea Darivinii, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1871, pi. 6. figs. 7 and 8. 



146 On the Tarsus and Carjnis of Birds. 

tibia. This exception occurs in the kingbird, wliere these 
two bones appear to unite Avith the tibia first, leaving a deep 
intercondylar groove between them. 

Carpus. (See jjlate v.) In the fore limb or wing- 
there are at least four carpal bones, two in the proximal 
series, and two in the distal series. When more than four 
carpals occur, as in the yellow warbler, and possibly in the 
kingbird, the extra one is found on the radial side, and this 
seems to be in accordance with wdiat obtains in the higher 
vertebrates, wdiere we find on the radial side three carpals ; 
the scaj)hoid, trapezoid and trapezium. 

In the proximal series of carpal bones, the scaphoid or 
radiale is the largest, and is the first bone to appear in the 
development of the carpus. This bone is always free. 

The cuneiform or idnare is smaller, and in most of the 
species examined is found beyond the outer edge of the ulna. 

In Wilson's thrush, the bank swallow and yellow warbler, 
it seems to anchylose with the outer distal end of the ulna, 
so closely is it appressed to that region. On consulting Dr. 
Elliott Coues in regard to the subject, he informed me that 
two free carpals are always present in the adult yellow 
warbler. As this bird when embryonic has an extra carpal 
present on the radial side, it may be this one with the radiale 
that makes up the two free carpals, 3^et o1)servations are very 
limited in this respect; and until the contrary is proved, I 
shall hold that the ulnare may unite with the ulna. 

In the distal carpal series is a bone which appears next in 
development. Whether this represents the interniedium and 
centrale, connate, or the third carpale (^magnum), I am not 
able to say. It is always found at the base of the mid-meta- 
carpal, to which it early anchyloses. This bone is quite 
small, and lenticular in shape in Wilson's thrush, the chip- 
ping sparrow, crow blackbird, eave swallow, bank swallow, 
kingbird and yellow warbler, and large in the cow blackbird 
and bluebird. 

In the kingbird an accessary carpal is seen near the third 



On the Tarsus and Carpus of Birds. 147 

carpale, from which it seems to have separated, fig. 47, plate 
V. As I found it in no other specimen, it may have been 
the result of accidental pressure in examination. 

The other bone in the distal series may be regarded as 
the unciform, or fourth carpale of Gegenbaur's nomen- 
clature. 

This is the last carpal bone to appear in development, 
though it often attains as large a size as the third carjmle. 
This anchyloses almost simultaneously with the base of the 
anmdaris metacarpal, the third carpale and the approximate 
snrfoce of the mid-metacarpal. The third and fourth car- 
pale are seen united, by a cartilaginous band, at an early 
stage in the chipping sparrow aud Wilson's thrush. In the 
cow blackbird the two distal carpals unite before they have 
joined their respective metacarpals. 

In one specimen of kingbird examined, there appeared 
to be a second carpal just beyond the radiate, and similar to 
that in form; as it was not seen in another specimen, it is 
safe to reject its occurrence at present. 

A very curious shape is assumed by the ninare in the 
kingbird, bluebird, and cow blackbird, as will be seen by 
referring to the plate. 

With the accompanying figures, which I have endeavored 
to render faithfully on stone, from my original drawings, 
further description of these bones is unnecessary. Many 
other points of interest have come up in this investigation, 
regarding other peculiarities of the leg and wing, but a dis- 
cussion of such features would be outside the intended 
limits of this paper. 

The general results of this paper have been submitted to 
Prof. Jeflries Wyman and Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A., and 
my thanks are due to these gentlemen for their careful con- 
sideration of the results therein presented. With Dr. 
Coues, I had the pleasure of dissecting the tarsus and car- 
pus of an adult penguin, Aptenodytes Pennantii, and of 
examining the same parts of other birds. 



148 On the Tarsus and Carjms of Bi7'ds. 

Prof. Wyman has generously placed at my disposal the 
tarsus of au embryo heron, with other specimens of the 
same bird, and authorized me to embody their peculiar 
features in this paper. Accompanying the specimens, the 
following letter was received, which I have the liberty of 
publishing : 

Dear Prof. Morse, — 

111 a receut examination of the bones of the leg of some unfledged 
herons (supposed to be Ardea coerulea) with refei'ence to their ossifica- 
tion, to which I was led by your admirable embryological studies of the 
limbs of birds, I found a bone accompanying the groove on the front of 
the lower end of the tibia, which does not agree with any description of 
these parts I liave seen. It is a style-shaped bone, ends in a sharp point 
above, has the lower end, which is on a level with the lower end of the 
tibia, blunt and rounded, and almost exactly resembles, in the older speci- 
mens, the fibula of the same leg inverted. 

It is about one-fifth as long as the tibia, and as appears from several 
specimens of diffei'ent ages, grows, for a time at least, in proportion to 
the other parts. 

In the older specimens two nodules of bone are seen, side by side, in 
the cartilage part below the tibia, one corresponding to each cond.yle, as 
you have pointed out in other birds. These belong to the near portion of 
the tarsus, and may therefore be supposed to represent the astragalus 
and calcaneum. Thus we have these two bones entirely apart from the 
pretibial bone described above. 

As regards the homology of this last named piece, the most natural 
supposition is that it is the ascending process of the astragalus to which 
attention has of late been called by Huxley and Cope, in discussing the 
aftuiities of birds and Dinosaurian reptiles. 

Its mode of development, however, leads to the belief that it is not, 
properly speaking, a process of either of the tai'sal bones, but a distinct 
bone, for it not only has an independent ossification, but is alreadj' far 
advanced in this process, before the ossification of either of the tarsal 
bones is begun. It has occurred to me that the part in question might 
have been originally the lower portion of the fibula, from which it had 
become detached by absorption, but it has not at any time been observed 
to be continuous with this bone, and further, it continues to grow from 
below upward, as the young bird gets older, instead of becoming shorter 
and shorter, as it ought, if this supposition was true. 

Observations are now wanted to show whether the ascending process 
of the astragalus, as seen in the ostrich and other birds, is really an out- 
growth from, and therefore a process of, one of the tarsal bones, or 
whether it ossifies independently, and subsequently becomes united with 
it. Should this last supposition be decided in the afllrmative, then we 



On the Tarsus and Carpus of Birds. 



149 



should have either a third bone iu the leg, which would be contrary to all 
analogy, or a third member of the near tarsal series, which would, so to 
speak, be out of place. 

Truly yours, 

J. WYMAN. 
Cambridge, Dec. 20, 1871. 

I have examined with the greatest interest, this new tarsal 
bone of the heron, and from tlie specimens kindly loaned me 
by Prof. Wyman, have made the following drawings. The 
figures represent different stages of the tibia, from the front, 
with the pretibial bone at the 
base. 

Figure 1 is magnified, the 
natural size of the tibia beins; 
represented by a line at its side. 
Figures 2, 3 and 4 are natural 
size. 

In referring to Huxle3''s fig- 
ures of the tibia of the young 
ostrich,* and of the young 
fowl,f I find the so-called proc- 
ess of the astragalus, on the 
outer side of the tibia, occu- 
pying the same region as that of the pretibial bone of 
the heron, and this leads me to believe that this so-called 
process of the astragalus in the birds just mentioned, is 
identical with the pretibial bone of Wyman. % 

* Quarterly Jour. Geological Soc, Vol. XXVI, part I, p. 30. 

t Anat. Vert. Animals, Huxley, p. 29G. 
X Since writing tlie above, I liave received from Prof. Wyman tlie distal portion of a 
tibia from a still older specimen of the blue heron. Accompanying the specimen he 
writes, " This bird had not left the nest, notwithstanding its large size. You will see 
the pretibial piece coossified with the astragalus and calcaneum, though neither of them 
is consolidated with the tibia. There is nothing now in this specimen to show that the 
ascending portion was ever free from the astragalus." 

We herewith give a figure of it iu section, natural size (Fig. 5); see next page. This 
removes all doubt as to the relation of the pretibial bone, with the so-called process 
of the young fowl and young ostrich alluded to above, and leads to the belief that 
the tendon-like bridge, spanning the groove in front, originates from this piece, as 
stated by Parker. He also speaks of this process in Balieniceps rex as forming '• the 
seat of the ossification whicli makes the large wide oblique tendou-like bridge. Prof. 
Wyman infoi-ms me that the two are not identical." 




Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. 
The stjde shaped bone at lower end of 
tibia represents intermedium, or pre- 
tibial bone of Wyman. 



150 



On the Tarsus and Carpus of Birds. 




It surely is not the distal end of the fibula, for in the 
larger specimen of tibia examined (fig. 4) I find, with the 
aid of a hand lens, a delicate tendinous thread running from 
the lower end^ of the fibula and the upper end of the pre- 
tibial bone, and passing each other, showing no sign of ap- 
proximation. Furthermore, in all the embryo birds I have 
thus far examined (see plate iv), the fibula shows no signs of 
torsion. Dismissing the idea that it represents a third bone 
of the leg, "as contrary to all analogy," we have 
only to admit that it represents a new tarsal bone 
of the proximal series. 

The specimen represented in figure 1, was 
sent to me by Prof. WN'man sometime before 
he had examined the other bones with reference 
to this new tarsal. In this specimen the meta- 
tarsals are still separate, and the presence of 
the three tarsal bones thus far described is but 
dimly made out ; yet the pretibial bone is quite 
distinct, and of much importance is the fact that 
its lower edge is below the lower edge of the tibia. Satisfied 
that it is a true tarsal bone, to what bone in the tarsus shall 
we compare it? 

After studying over it very carefully, and comparing it 
with figures of certain amphibians, given by Gegenbaur, and 
with some of my own drawings of the tarsus of the com- 
mon wood salamander, PJethodon.erylhronotns, I believe it 
to represent the intermedium of Gegenbaur. In the tarsus 
of Salamandra maculosa, as given by Gegenbaur, the inter- 
medium is represented as a much elongated bone, broader at 
the bottom, and wedged between the tibia and fibula, half 
of it being actually above the distal margins of these two 
bones. Above the reptiies, the intermedium is supposed by 
Gegenbaur to coalesce with the tibiale or astragalus. 

In other words the astragalus represents the intermedium 
and tibiale, connate. Gegenbaur believes that the astraga- 
lus represents the scaphoid and lunare of the carpus. In 



Fig. 5. 



On the Tarsus and Carpus of Birds. 



151 



some mammalia these two latter bones are connate, e. g., in 
the carnivora ; while in others they are free. 

The position of this pretibial bone appears anomalons, but 
when we consider the remarkable displacement of other 
bones in the bird's leg, the occurrence of this new tarsal in 
such a place, is by no means unreasonable. The displace- 
ment of certain bones in the bird's leg, is the result, as it 
were, of lateral compression, or rather lateral contraction. 
The fibula is always reduced to a mere splint bone, and is 
closely appresscd to the tibia. The metatarsals are so 
crowded together that the proximal end of the mid-meta- 
tarsal is forced back, so that the flanking metatarsals actually 
meet in front. All these ultimately anchylose and form a 
single bone. The first metatarsal is reduced to a half, or a 
third the size of the others, and is often crowded behind the 
others. The two proximal tarsal bones at first, stand one 
at the end of the tibia, and the other at the end of the fibula, 
the tibiale being actuall}^ as wide as the distal end of the 
tibia (see plate iv, fig. 1) ; yet in a short time these two 
tarsal bones are gradually 
brouo'ht too;cther, and as the 
fibula becomes reduced in 
comparative size, the tibia 
takes on an accelerated 
growth, so that its distal end 
equals in width the two tar- 
sals to which it finally unites. 

To show still more plainly 
the reasons for believing that 




Fig. G 



Fig. 7. 

The intermedium in the three figures is 
represented black. 

Fig. 0. Representing- lower portion of 
leg of Sulamandra maculosa, copied from 
Gegenbaur, with distal tarsals omitted. 

Fig. 7. Spizella sociaiis copied from flg. 
1, plate iv, of tliis paper, with intermedium 

the pretibial bone or At y man iutroduced. 

^ "^ Fig. 8. Ideal figure showing true position 

represents the intermedium, ot intermedium inrelation to proximal tar- 
^ ' sal bones. 

the following diagrams are f. Fiimia. T' ^v '•"; 

C! o /. fibulare. t. ttbuue. 

presented. The intermedium "• <^««^™^«- 
is represented black. Figure 6 represents the intermedium 
and its associate tarsals in relation to the tibia and fibula of 
Salamandra maculosa, after Gegenbaur. 



152 On the Tarsus and Carpus of Birds. 

Figure 7 represents the tarsus of an embryo bird, with 
the pretibial bone introduced, bearing the same relation that 
it afterwards does to its own tarsals ; and figure 8 repre- 
sents the pretibial bone and its actual relation to the tAVO 
tarsals, as seen in Professor Wyman's oldest specimen, the 
tibia now having widened so as to include the two tarsals 
within its lateral boundaries, and consequently including 
the pretibial bone also. That the tibia widens at its distal 
extremity in that way, so as to equal in width not only the 
two tarsals, l)ut the three metatarsals, may be seen by re- 
ferring to plate IV ; and indeed to suppose that it would do 
so is reasonable, since the excessive reduction of the fibula 
naturally enhances the greater proportionate development of 
the tibia ; and by this excess of growth, the pretibial bone, 
or intermedium, finds its anomalous position in front of the 
tibia. 

In connection with this elongated intermedium, it is inter- 
esting to note that in certain lizards where the intermedium 
is absent, the centixde takes on the elongated and slender 
form, and is wedged between the other tarsals. 

If further investigation should prove the correctness of 
this interpretation, wc have an interesting stage in the con- 
ditions of this bone represented, namely, that in birds the 
intermedium is at first a separate bone, as in the lower rep- 
tiles, but finally it anchyloses with the astragalus, as in 
higher vertebrates, thus proving the correctness of Gegen- 
baur's statement that the astragalus of higher vertebrates 
represents the tibiale and intermedium connate. 

Thus we must recognize in birds the presence of four 
tarsal bones, and at least four carpal l)ones. 

Concluding Observations. — At an early stage bf the 
embryo the leg and the wing are almost precisely alike, and 
even after the principal bones have made their appearance 
the two appendages are remarkably alike in the form and 
proportion of their parts. This similarity was noticed by 



On the Tarsus and Carpus of Birds. 153 

Asrassiz a lono- time ao-o, as Avell as the fact that in the 
embryo robin, the toes are webbed. In the early embryo 
the toes are always webbed, and for a long- time in the 
embryo all the toes point forward ; these are two characters 
highly characteristic of lower groups of birds. The turning 
back of the first toe is a subsequent modification. 

The first metatarsal appears last in development. The 
phalanges of the third and fourth toes appear first, and the 
others in regular succession. The phalanges of the foot 
appear before those of the hand. 

The metacarpals and phalanges are widely separated in 
the early embryo, and were it possible for the wing at this 
stage to make a track in the mud, the impression would be 
like that made by a tridactyle foot. In fact it is a tridactyle 
foot at this stage. The metatarsals are also separated at the 
same stage, but not so widely as the metacarpals. 

There is a difi:erence of opinion among anatomists in their 
interpretation of the fingers of the wing. Gegenbaur, 
Huxley, Rolleston and others, regard the marginal finger 
on the radial side as representing the first finger, or pollex, 
while Wyman, Owen and Coues, believe this digit to repre- 
sent the index, or second finger. It seems more reasonable 
to believe that this latter interpretation is right ; for when 
the number of fingers or toes is reduced in Mammalia and 
Reptilia, they are always taken away from the sides of the 
member, the thumb first disappearing and then the little 
finger. 

If we compare the leg and wing of Sjnzella (figs. 1 and 
32, pi. IV and v) we shall see that in this early stage there 
are but three metatarsals and three metacarpals, and it seems 
reasonable to compare them together. 

As the first toe appears much later and is reduced to two 
phalanges, and has its metatarsal also greatly reduced, and 
as at the stage just cited the first toe is represented only by 
a few granules, it seems natural to infer that in the wing, the 
first finger never makes its appearance. 



154 On the Tarsus and Oarjms of Birds. 

In regard to the reptilian characters iu birds, it seems tliat 
a nearer relation between birds and pterosaurians can be 
established, with the additional carpals pointed out in this 
paper. At least one of the characters for separating the 
pterosaurians from the birds, as given by Owen, fails in 
the light of these distal carpals. 

Owen says, in his "Fossil Keptilcs of the Liassic Forma- 
tion,"* that: — 

"A carpus with one large and one small bone in a proxi- 
mal row, and with a second large, and at least one small one 
in a distal row, is another character b}' which the ptero- 
sauria manifest their closer affinity to reptiles than to birds." 
Now this is precisely the character of all those birds thus 
far examined. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate IV. THE TARSUS AND EMBRYOS. 

In every case the riglit leg and right wing are represeuted. For want 
of room on the plates I have been compelled to leave out the humerus 
and femur in most of the figures given. 

All the embryos are represeuted of natural size, and by referring to 
them, an approximate idea may be formed of the size of the appendage 
drawn, as well as the age and condition of the embrj'o. 

Reference to the embryo preceded by the initial E, follows explanation 
of the figure, thus : Fig. 1, Spisella socialis. E. 18. 

Fig. 1. Spizella socialis. E. 18. 

The three bones separate, the fihulare being at the end of the filnda. 
The 2d, 3d and 4th metatarsals not complete, while the 1st metatarsal 
appears only as a few granules. 

Fig. 2. SjnzeUa socialis. E. 19. 

Tarsal joint appearing, in separation of cartilage between proximal 
and distal tarsal bones. 

Fig. 3. Tardus fascescens. E. 21. 

The tarsals separate. The distal end of tibia widening so as to in- 
clude the proximal tarsals. 

* PalKontogi-aphical Soc, Vol. XXIII, 1SG9. 



On the Tarsus and Carjms of Birds. 155 

Fig. 4. Tardus fascescens. Embi\yo not given. 

A later stage in which the proximal tarsals have already uuited with 
the tibia, and the distal tarsal has not yet united with the metatarsals. 

Fig. 5. Tardus fascescens. 

Another view of the same. 

Fig. 6. Ti/rannus Carolinensis. E. 23. 

The tibiale and fibiilare united with tibia, the centrale still free. 

Fig. 7. Dendrmca cesliva. E. 24. 

The two proximal tarsals uuited. The centrale very large and capping 
the three metatarsals. 

Fig. 8. Dendrceca msiiva. 

Another view of the same, showing the tarsal bones more distinctly. 

Fig. 9. Dendrosca cestiva. 

Another view of same, showing centrale capping the metatarsals. 

Fig. 10. Quiscalus versicolor. E. 25. 

The tibiale and jibulare united, but not yet auchylosed to the tibia. 
The centrale still free. 

Fig. 11. Qaiscalus versicolor. 

An enlarged view of the tarsus. 

Fig. 12. Sialia sialis. E. 31. 

The proximal tarsals united with the tibia. The distal tarsal united 
with the fourth metatarsal. 

Fig. 13. Sialia sialis. 

Another view of the same. 

Fig. 14. Cotyle riixiria. E. 27. 

A considerably advanced stage in which the three tarsal bones are 
distinctly separate. 

Fig. 15. Hirundo lunifrons. E. 30. 

The tibiale and Jibulare about uniting. The centrale already blended 
with third metatarsal. 

Fig. 16. Tringoides macularius. E. 26. 

The tibiale and fibulare united forming an hour-glass shaped bone. 
The centrale flattened and capping the metatarsals but not yet united with 
them. 

Fig. 17. Tardus migratorius. 

Posterior portion of early embryo, sliowing the leg as a simple fin, 
and caudal vertebrae. 



156 On the Tarsus and Carjnis of Birds. 

Fig. 18. Spizella socialis. 
19. 

20. " " 

21. Turdus fascescens. 

22. Molotltrus pecoris. 
23.- Tyran7ius Carolinensis. 

24. Dendroeca mstiva. 

25. Qidscalus versicolor. 

26. Tringoides mamdarius. 

27. Ootyle riparia. 

'^^' " " Several days from the egg. 

29. Tringoides maadariits. just read}^ to hatch. 

30. Hirundo lunifrons. 

31. Sialia sialis. 

EXPLANATION OF LETTERS. 

FE. Femur. 

T. Tibia. 

F. Fibula. 
f t. Tibiale = astragalus. 
TARSUS. <( f' Fibidare = calcaneum = o.s calcis. 

i c. Centrale = navicular =^ scajjhoideum. 

I, II, III, IV. Corresponding metatarsals. 

Plate V. THE CARPUS. 

Fig. 32. Spizella socialis. E. 18. 

Sliowing tlu'ee cavpals and three metacaipals. No iudicatlon of pha- 
langes. 

Fig. 33. Spizella socialis. E. 19. 

The fourth carpal e now formed; phalanges also formed, and Angers, at 
this stage widely spread. 

Fig. 34. Spizella socialis. E. 20. 

Third and fourth carpal bones united, and third and fourth metacarpals 
unitefl at distal and pi'oximal ends. 

Fig. 35. Spizella socialis. 

Several days from the egg, and nearly capable of flight. 



On the Tarsus and Carpus of Birds. 157 

Ficr. 36. Tardus fuscescens. E. 21. 
Showing four carpals. 

Fig. 37. Tardus fuscescens. 

A slightly more advanced stage, showing the third and fourth carpal 
bones about uniting. The fourtli carpale sending out a process to third 
metacarpal. The ulnare apparently uniting with ulna. 

Fig. 38. Turdus fuscescens. 

The same carpus under slight pressure. The ulnare separate again. 

Fig. 39. Quiscalus versicolor. E. 25. 

Showing the minute third carpale and the elongated ulnare. 

Fig. 40. Molothrus pecoris. E. 22. 

The third and fourth carpale united. 

Fig. 41. Sialia sialis. 

Third and fourth carpale about uniting, and fourth carpale sending out 
peculiar process to third metacarpal. 

Fig. 42. 8ialia sialis. E. 31. 

A slightly more advanced stage, in which the distal carpals and base 
of metacarpals are all united. 

Fig. 43. Cotyle riparia. E. 27. 

Anchylosis far advanced. Ulnare supposed to have united with ulna. 

Fig. 44. Dendroeca oestiva. E. 24. 

Ulnare supposed to have united with the ulna. The carpal marked i, 
supposed to be intermedium. Third and fourth carpale united. 

Fig. 45. Hirundo lunifrons. E. 30. 
The four carpals all separate. 

Fig. 46. Tijrannus Carolinensis. E. 23. 

Showing excessively long radiale. 

Fig. 47. Tijrannus Garolinensis. 

Another specimen under pressure, with a new carpal? supposed to be 
centrale. 

Fig. 48. Tyrannus Garolinensis. 

Another specimen under pressui-e, in which the long ulnare readily 
separates, leading to the supposition that the second carpale is here 
present. 

The peculiar form of ulnare in Tyrannus, fig. 47, is seen also in Moloth- 
rus and Sialia, flgs. 40, 42 and 43. 
Apkil, 1872. 11 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. x. 



158 



On the Systematic Anyang ement of 



CARPUS. <; 



EXPLANATION OF LETTERS. 

H. Humerus. 

u. Ulna. 

R. Radius. 

u. Ulnar e = cuneiform. 

r. Radiale = scaphoid = navicidare. 

c. Centrale = central. 

i. Intennedium = lunar. 

z. Second carpale= trapezoid. 

3. Third carpale = magnum. 

4. Fourth carpale = unciform. 

II, III, IV. Corresponduig metacarpals. 



IX. — On the Systematic Arrangement of North American 
Terrestrial Mollusks. 

By THOMAS BLAND AND W. G. BINNEY. 
Read January 29, 1872. 

Since the publication of our work on the Land Mollusks 
of North America,* we have had the opportunity of examin- 
ing the animals and the lingual dentition of many additional 
American, as well as numerous foreign species. We have 
also carefully studied the various systems of classification 
which have been proposed both here and abroad. The re- 
sult of our researches is a considerable change in our views 
regarding the classihcation of terrestrial mollusca. Such of 
these changes as relate to the American families, we pur- 
pose stating here, referring always to the page of our work 
containing the description or statement to be modified. 



*Land and Fresh- water Shells of North America, Part I. 
Feb., 1869. 



Smithsonian Institution, 



JVbrth American Terrestrial Mollusks. 159 

We restrict our corrections and sus^orestions to the g-enera 
belonging to the fiiuna of North America, exclusive of that 
of Mexico and Lower California. 

The divisions A and B (p. 2) of Dr. Gray (founded on 
the head, eye-peduncles and tentacles being retractile under 
the skin, or contractile) cannot be retained, as the recent 
observations of Stoliczka have proved the eye-peduncles of 
Oncliidium to be reall}^ retractile. The same may possibly 
be true of Veronicella. 

The sections 1, Vermivora and 2, Phyllovora are equally 
untenable. There is not the difference in food indicated by 
these names. For instance, no species can be more carnivo- 
rous than Stenogyra decollaia, which is always placed among 
the herbivorous genera. Limax maximus, also, we have 
known to devour its kind, though it is ranked in the same 
section. The first instance shows how incorrectly the 
aculeate marginal teeth alone are called of carnivorous type, 
as they are entirely wanting in 8tenogyra decoUata. 

The presence or absence of a jaw is not a reliable char- 
acter to sustain the distinction of these sections. Helix 
incequalis, for instance, has no jaw. 

The teeth are equally unreliable, inasmuch as all our 
species of 31acrocyclis, placed in section 2, have teeth like 
those described in section 1. So have Helix incequalis, 
Hyalina Baudoni and Gonospira j)alanga. Moreover, some 
genera show a gradual change from the so-called herb- 
ivorous to the so-called carnivorous type of teeth. Thus in 
Glandina and Macrocyclis we find the carnivorous ty^Je only ; 
in Zonites, Vitrina and Limax the marginal teeth are 
carnivorous, and occupj' the greater part of the membrane, 
but the few laterals are of the herbivorous type. In Zonites 
cellarins the latter are greatly* modified and resemble closely 
the carnivorous type. The membranes of Vitrina limjnda 
and Zonites cJiersinus, however, by the increased number of 
laterals and the bifurcation of the marginals, are more nearly 
related to the herbivorous type. Thus, instead of the differ- 



160 On the Systematic Arrangement of 

ence of food, of the presence or absence of a jaw, of the 
aculeate or quadrate form of teeth, supposed to exist between 
the Vermivora and Phyllovora, we find these characters 
shared irregularly by both sections, and consequently we 
abandon them. 

OLEACiNiDiE (p. 13). — In the description of the teeth the 
term aculeate, rather than recurved, better expresses their 
thorn-shaped outline. In our descriptions of the lingual 
membranes, we have often called these teeth uncini, and 
with less judgment used the same term for the quadrate 
marginal teeth of some of the HelicidcB. It would be better 
in all cases to retain the names central, lateral and marginal 
for the three forms of teeth. 

Cylindrellid^. — We no longer consider this a distinct 
family. Even while our work was passing through the press 
the presence of a jaw was discovered by one of us.* We 
also misapprehended the character of the teeth, which have 
since proved to be simply a modification of the form usual in 
the HeliciddB. We propose, therefore, to place the species 
referred to Oi/lindrellidcE, and also of Macroceramus referred 
to OrthalicincE, in the family Helicidm, before the genus 
Bidhmdus. 

Messrs. Crosse and Fischer (Jour, de Conch., January, 
1870), after a thorough study of the jaws and lingual mem- 
branes of numerous species, proposed to separate the Gylin- 
drellidoe as a family, supporting their views entirely upon 
the jaw and teeth, both of which we have found unreliable. 
The kind of jaw supposed by them to be peculiar to the 
family has been detected by us in various species of Bidimu- 
lus, "and in one of Helix (see Ann. Lye. N. H. N. Y., x., 
79). The type of palmate teeth, also, which Messrs. Crosse 
and Fischer describe as charticteristic of the family is not 
constant, as we find it entirely wanting in Macroceramus 
Gossei. (See American Journ. of Couch, vii, pi. 17, figs. 
9, 11, 12.) 

*Blaud, Amer. Jour, of Conch. IV. 1868. 



JVbrth American Terrestrial Mollusks. 161 

• 

Cylindrella (p. 22). — In this genus there is a jaw, 

thin, almost membranous, light horn color, semitransparent, 
arched, ends but little attenuated ; in one single piece, but 
divided by delicate ribs into numerous oblique plates,* 
chevroned on the central line, with a median triangular plate 
at the top ; cutting edge simple ; no beak. 

The teeth are not joined two by two at their bases. They 
are distinct as in the other Helicidm. The centrals are small, 
long, narrow, with a broadly recurved, blunt, rounded and 
expanded apex ; the laterals have a long, subquadrangular 
base of attachment, bearing, below, a large, bluntly rounded, 
greatly expanded, palmate cusp, representing the inner and 
central cusps of the laterals ; and, above, a long, slender, 
graceful cusp, representing the external cusp of the other 
Helioidoi. This last is bluntly truncated, or bears a re- 
curved cusp, smaller but of same shape as that below ; or it 
has a laterally extended, small, blunt point. In some species 
the laterals extend to the margin of the lingual membrane ; 
in others there are distinct marginal teeth, long, narrow, 
laminar, with bluntly recurved apices. A full description 
and figures of these various forms of teeth will be found in 
Journal de Conchyliologie, Jan., 1870. 

HoLOSPiRA (p. 24). — Messrs, Crosse and Fischer, in the 
article on Cylindrellidoe, referred to above, hav^ shown that 
Holospiixi is a distinct genus from Cylindrella. 

The jaw is arcuate, about the same shape as in Gylindrella, 
thin, light horn colored, without separate plates or anterior 
ribs; with obsolete striae, transversal and vertical; cutting 
edge simple, without a median beak. 

The lingual membrane wants entirely the chevron-shaped 
rows of teeth and the palmate form of cusp, characteristic of 
Cylindrella. It resembles that usual in the Helicid(E, the 
lateral teeth not unlike those we have figured of Bulimulus 
pallidior (Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y., ix., p. 282)! 

* As in Helix turhirdformis, uot as in Orthalicus. (See Ann. N. Y. Lye, X., 79, pi. ii. 
fig. 2.) 



162 On the Systematic Arrangement of 

The genus Holospira, with the two species H. R'demeri 
and H, Goldfussi, must be phiced, together with Cylindrtlla 
and Macroceramus, as ah-eady mentioned with regard to 
those genera, in the family Helicidon. 

Macroceramus. — In this genus the jaw and lingual mem- 
brane are as in Cylindrella, and our description (page 219) 
must be cancelled. In M. Gossei, however, the teeth are 
the same as in Helix, with bluntly pointed denticles, one 
long and the other short, as shown in our above referred to 
figure. 

Helicid^ (p. 25). — More recent investigations have 
satisfied us that the presence of a mucus pore is not in itself 
a character to warrant the separation of the Arionidce as a 
family. It has been shown that the pore exists, with various 
moditications, in many species of Geophila where it was not 
before suspected, for instance in Helix pylaica, Glandina 
liyulata {Petenia, Crosse, Journ. Conch. 1869, p. 35), Glan- 
dina monilifera (Morelet, ibid., 1852). Unless, then, we 
are prepared to consider these species as belonging to a 
family distinct from Helix and Glandina respectively, we 
cannot separate the Arionidoi from the Helicidce on account 
of the presence alone of the mucus pore. 

The description of the foot of Helicidoe (p. 25) should be 
modified by the addition of the following words : "or with a 
distinct locomotive disk," and " or with a caudal mucus pore." 

To the description of the jaw must be added the words 
" or with one upper, accessory plate. Jaw sometimes want- 
ing." The last reference is necessary to embrace such cases 
as Helix incequalis, a species, however, which may be proved 
to belong to another family. 

As a basis for grouping the large number of genera of 
Helicidoi into subfamilies, we retain the characters of the jaw 
and teeth, but with some modifications, as shown in the 
following synopsis. The subfamily JPupinm is eutirely sup- 
pressed, as it has been shown that no reliance can be placed 
on the median beak-like prominence to the cutting edge of 



North American Terrestrial Mollusks. 163 

the jaw, or on the presence or absence of striae or ribs on its 
anterior surface, at least as subfamil}'^ characters. We have 
recognized, therefore, at present three forms of jaw only, 
viz. : 1st, simply in one piece ; 2cl, in one piece, with an 
upper accessory plate ; 3d, in numerous separate, free, im- 
bricated pieces. Some modifications even in these distinc- 
tions will, we believe, soon prove necessary, as several forms 
of accessory plate have already been noticed,* and the jaw 
of Punctum, figured by us on p. 222, is a modification of 
that of Orthalicus figured on p. 215. 

We admit two distinctions on the lingual membrane for 
the purpose of grouping the genera into subfamilies, viz. : 
marginal teeth conical, separate, aculeate ; and marginal 
teeth crowded, quadrate, dentate or serrate. 

Based upon these characters we propose the following 
grouping of the North American genera of HelicidoB:^ 

ViTRiNiN^. Jaw in one piece. Marginal teeth separate, 
conical, aculeate. — Macrocyclis, Zonites, Hyalina, Vitrina, 
Limax. 

Helicin^. Jaw in one piece. Marginal teeth crowded, 
quadrate, dentate or serrate. — Arion, Ariolimax, Binneia, 
Patula, Helix, Holospira, Cylindrelhi, Macroceramus, Buli- 
mulus, Cionella, Stenogyra, Pupa, Vertigo. 

Orthalicin^. Jaw composite, in numerous, free, im- 
bricated pieces. Marginal teeth crowded, quadrate, dentate 
or serrate. — Orthalicus, Liguus, Punctum. 

SucciNiN^. Jaw in one piece, Avith one upper accessory 
plate. Marginal teeth crowded, quadrate, dentate or serrate. 
— Succinea. 

Subfamily ViTRiNiN^. (p. 25). — The following description 
is to be substituted for that oriven : 

Jaw in one piece, smooth, usually striated, never I'ibbed, 

* See Eucalodium, Joiirn. de Conch., 1870, pi. v, flg. 1. 

t Gill, in fact, embraces in his section Soloynatha, all the genera included in our suh- 
families Vitrinince and Helicinoi with tlie exception of JinUmulufi, regarding which he 
adopts the views of Albers and von Martens, placing it in tlie section Gotnognatha, with 
Orthalicus. (Arrangement of the Families of Mollusks, Washington, 1871.) 



164 On the Systematic Arrangement of 

with a beak-like median projection to its cutting edge. Lin- 
gual membrane, with separated, conical, aculeate marginal 
teeth. 

Genus Hyalina (p. 29). — We have already stated our 
views relative to the value of the caudal mucus pore as a 
family character, and in consequence unite the Arionidoe to the 
Ilelicidce. This brings the genus Zonites next to the genus 
Hyalina. The two genera are very nearly allied, their only 
distinction, so far as known to us, being in the presence in 
Zonites of a distinct locomotive disk to the foot, and of 
longitudinal furrows along the side of the animal near its 
base, rising over the top of the tail and uniting above a ter- 
minal mucus slit or pore. (See fig. 524, p. 2U2.) This 
difference is considered of generic value by most authors,* 
among others by Albers and v. Martens, whose descriptions 
of genera we adopted in our work. They place, however, 
in the genus Hyalina many species which are known to 
possess the mucus slit (or some modification of it), as H. 
olivetorum and H. nitida (see Moquin Tandon), and H. 
fuliginosa, Imvigata, inornata, suppressa (see Terr. Moll. 
U. S., ii). We have ourselves observed it in the following 
additional species, H. cellaria, viridula, indentata, intertexta, 
ligera, demissa, capsella, lasmodon and multidenta, and in 
Zonites hopnodes, sculptilis and gulari.s. Its having been 
overlooked l)y many European authors in so common a 
species as cellaria-\ leads to the supposition that it really 
exists also in other species now referred to Hyalina. We 
propose, therefore, to place in the genus Zonites the species 
in whicli the caudal mucus pore or slit has been actually 
observed, restricting Hyalina to those without it. We have 
not had an opportunity of examining all the species, but 
have failed to discover any pore in Tennessee specimens, 

* But not by Messrs. Fisclier and Crosse in their magnificent work " iitudes sur les 
MoUnsques Terrestres et Fluviatiles tlii Mexique et du Guatemala" (page 150), -where 
Zonites and Hyalina are considered generically identical. 

t No mention of the caudal mucus gland in Z. cellarius is made in the monographs of 
Draparnaud, Moquin-Tandou, Reeve, Forbes and Hanley, Gi-ay or Gwyn Jeffreys. 



North American Terrestrial IfoUusks. 165 

received from Miss Law, of H. interna; it may, however, 
have escaped our notice, being often difficult of detection. 

The orifice of a^eneration in the s^enns Zonites is said to be 
at the base of that of respiration, below the collar, and not 
below the right eye-peduncle as in Helix. It may be much 
doubted, however, whether this be a constant generic charac- 
ter, as it is found in some species of the former much nearer 
to the head than the collar. 

The dart sac and dart were observed by us in specimens 
of Zonites clemissus and Z. ElUotti. They have also been 
noticed by Morch (Moll. Dan. ) in Zonites ( Oxychilus) nitidus. 
The description of Albers and v. Martens must therefore be 
modified, as well as Moquin Tandon's assertion that no 
species of Zonites has the dart.* 

Subfamily Helicin^. — The following description is to be 
substituted for that given at p. 67. 

Jaw in one piece, either smooth, striated, or ribbed, with 
or without a median beak-like projection to its cutting edge. 
Lingual membrane with crowded, quadrate marginal teeth, 
either dentate or serrate. 

The ribs are found in every degree of development, pass- 
ing quite across the jaw and denticulating one or both 
margins, or only developed on the lower portion of the jaw, 
and crenellating the lower margin. The ribs are often al- 
most obsolete, or represented by wrinkles or coarse striee. 
They are present on the anterior surface of the jaw only, or 
on both anterior and posterior surfaces. They are distant, 
narrow, stout, few, or crowded, broad, stout and numerous. 
Their number is inconstant in the same species. They some- 
times are very broad, and seem like separate plates soldered 
to the anterior surface of the jaw, or to be formed by a 
folding of the jaw upon itself. When this appearance of 
folding into plaits is given it will generally be found that the 
plait-like sections are actually separated by distinct, but 

* Hence, probably, Draparnaud correctly reports its presence in Helix algira. 



166 071 the Systematic Arrangement of 

delicate ribs. Wlien by this form of ribs the jaw is divided 
into separate compartments, these compartments or plates 
are either vertical or inclined obliquely towards the median 
line of the jaw. Sometimes this last arrangement is de- 
veloped to such a degree that the oblique lines of separation, 
or delicate ribs, of the plates meet before reaching the bottom 
of the jaw, and a triangular plate is left at the upper centre 
of the jaw, its base being upward. This form of jaw is 
usually thin and membranous. It has been considered the 
characteristic of the subfamily Orthalicince, or of the Goni- 
ognatha by most authors. We, however, can treat it only 
as a modification of the usual form of ribbed jaw, inasmuch 
as we find it in various degrees of development in Bulitnidus, 
Bulimus, and even in Helix.* It will be seen below that we 
restrict the Ortlialieinod to those genera whose jaw is in actu- 
ally free, imbricated pieces. 

When the jaw is striated and not ribbed, the strife are 
vertical, or they converge towards the median line, as do the 
plates in Macroceramus and Cylindrella. There are often 
transverse strife also. 

The upper margin of the jaw is often extended into a 
stout membranous attachment, apparently of the same mate- 
rial and consistency as the jaw itself, and showing the same 
continuity of structure by the striaj of the jaw extending into 
it without interruption. 

The jaw is found in every degree of consistency, very 
thick in most species of Helix, quite membranous and almost 
transparent in some of Bidimulus, in Macrocerainus and 
Gylindi'ella. 

The cutting margin of the jaw is smooth, crenellated, or 
denticulated. It is simply concave, or furnished with a more 
or less developed beak-like median projection. 

In shape the jaw ranges from scarcely arcuate, long, low, 
to horse-shoe shaped, short, high. 

* See our notes on Helix turhiniformis in Ann. N. Y. Lye. x, pi, ii, fig. 2. 



North American Terrestrial Mollusks. 167 

We have not noticed in any of the Helicidm the vertical 
median carina to the jaw, often present in the VitrinincE. 

Patula (p. 71). — We propose to recognize this as a 
genns, following the more recent decision of von Martens 
(Preuss. Exp. p. 258). It will take precedence of the 
genus Helix. To the description of the shell and animal 
alread}^ given, we may add that in the American species the 
jaw cannot be said to be ribbed, as usual in Helix. On that 
of several species, however, there are subobsolete ribs or 
wrinkles near the cutting edge, which they sometimes crenel- 
late. The prevailing type of jaw seems to be such as we 
have tigured for P. alternata (p. 75). 

Lingual membrane as figured on p. 75. The marginals, 
however, are serrate in P. af^teriscus. In the other species 
they have oue long, inner, oblique, blunt denticle, and one 
or more short, side denticles. 

For the description of the jaw and lingual membrane of 
the genus Helix (p. 69) may be substituted the descriptions 
given by us al)ove for the jaw and lingual membrane of the 
subfamily Helicinoe. We have noticed in the genus Helix, 
as now constituted, every form of jaw which we have de- 
scribed at length above, except that having angular lipper 
median plates. 

With the exception of Patula, we still retain the genus 
Helix in the sense in which it is used by Albers and von 
Martens. With all those who have studied the genus, we 
are aware that it contains numerous natural groups, many of 
which appear to be sufficiently well marked to warrant their 
being recognized as distinct genera; space, however, does 
not permit of our considering this part of the subject. 

Genus Bulimulus (p. 191). — To the description of the 
jaw must be added, "often presenting the appearance of 
separate plates, sometimes arranged obliquely towards the 
central line, so as to form an upper triangular plate, as in 
Cylindrella.'''' This last form is usualjy thin and almost 
transparent. 



168 On the Systematic Arrangejnent of 

Subfamily Okthalicinj<: (p. 212). — The following de- 
scription of the subfamily must be substituted for the one 
given. 

Jaw composite, in numerous free, imbricated pieces, 
usually with oblique sutures towards the centre of the jaw, 
leaving an upper, angular, median piece. No median pro- 
jection to the cutting edge, which is serrated by the lower 
angles of the separate pieces. Lingual membrane Avith mar- 
ginal teeth crowded, quadrate, usually broadly dentate. 

It will be observed that we include only in this subfamily 
the genera whose jaw is actually in separate pieces, not those 
in which the jaw is in one single piece, though in plates 
formed by the ribs being arranged so as to give the appear- 
ance of separate pieces. We do not, moreover, use the term 
Orthalicinm in the same sense as Goniognatha of some 
authors to comprise all the genera whose jaw has an upper 
angular, median plate. This last form of jaw is found in 
Cylindrella, Macroceramus, Pineria., and in some species of 
Bidimulus, but not in Punctum. We do not recognize it 
as of value in dividing the IMicidm into subfamilies. We 
base this subfamily [Orthalicinm) solely on the free, imbri- 
cated pieces of its composite jaw. 

The description of the genus Achatina (p. 212) is to be 
entirely omitted. We adopt Liguus as a genus, and add the 
following description of the jaw and lingual membrane. 

Jaw arcuate, ends attenuated, pointed ; composite, being 
in numerous separate, free, imbricated, triangular pieces, 
with sutures inclined obliquely to the centre of the jaw, so 
as to leave an upper median, angular piece. Cutting edge 
with no median projection, serrated by the lower angles of 
the oblique pieces. 

Lingual membrane with long, quadrate teeth, pointed or 
simply with a broad, recurved cusp. 

Orthalicus. — The following description of the lingual 
membrane must be substituted for that given at p. 215. 

Long, broad, with numerous rows of long, four-sided, 



North American Terrestrial MoUusls. 169 

narrow, uniform teeth, bearing a broad, expanded, recurved, 
gouge-shaped cusp. 

Genus SxENOGYiiA (p. 228). — Central teeth of the lingual 
membrane very small, tricuspid ; laterals large, subquadrate, 
tricuspid, middle cusp very large; marginals subquadrate, 
obtusely denticulated. 

Subfamily Succinin.e (p. 255). — To our description of 
the lingual teeth must i)e added, " marginal teeth quadrate, 
crowded, dent;ite or serrate." 



JVote on Helix inversicolor Fer. and other species from 
Mauritius. 

While the foregoing paper was being printed, we had, 
through the kindness of Mr. J. G. AnJiony, of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, and of Mr. J. H. 
Thomson, the opportunity of examining the animals of Helix 
inversicolor Fer., H. leucostyla Pfr., //. rufozonata H. Ad. and 
H. militaris Pfr., received from Mr. Pike, the United States 
Consul at Mauritius. The results of such examination are 
so interesting that we now publish them, 

H. inversicolor and H. militaris are placed by v. Martens 
in Helicacea, genus Helix, the former in the section Caraco- 
lus, and the latter in Stylodon, but both, as well as H. 
rufozonata and leucostyla, rather belong to Vitriiwa, genus 
Nanina of that author's classification. Indeed ou*' figure of 
the lingual dentition of Nanina cabias, Benson (Am. Jour, 
of Conch, vii, pi. 17, fig. 6), almost equally well applies to 
the species under consideration, as will be seen from the 
following description of their dentition. 

The jaws stout, arcuate, high, ends slightly attenuated, 
blunt ; anterior surface with no ribs ; cutting edge with a 
decided, blunt, median projection. , 

Lingual membrane long, I)road. Central and lateral teeth 
in horizontal rows, in shape as usual in the Helicidm. Mar- 
ginal teeth in oblique rows, aculeate, bluntly bifid, decreas- 



170 Monographie des Poissons de Oidja 

ing in size as they pass off" laterally. In Helix militaris 
there is about an equal number of laterals and marginals. 

The resemblance of these species to the genus Nanina 
holds good also in the external characters of the animal. 
The tail is long, gradually tapering towards a blunt extrem- 
ity, which is bifid, being separated into two distinct pro- 
cesses by a transverse, triangular, deeply-seated, mucus pore. 
There is a distinct locomotive disk to the loot. Down the 
centre of the back of the foot is a distinct line, from which 
the granulations run obliquely down to a horizontal line of 
furrows bordering the edge of the foot. This horizontal line 
rises over the extremity of the tail, above the process which 
overhangs the mucus pore. 

These species must certainly be removed from the genus 
Helix, and even from the Helicinm, and placed among the 
Vitrinince in the genus JSfanina. 



X. — Monographie des Poissons de Cuba compris dans la 
sous-famille des Sparini. 

Par FELIPE POEY, 
Professeue d'Histoire Naturelike a L'UNivERf^iTfi de i.a Havane. et membre 

CORRESPOXDANT DU LYCEE D'HISTOIRE XaTURELLE UE XEW YORK. 

Pretente le 29 Janvier, 1873. 

Familia 8PARIDI. 

La famille des Spares est fondee sur le geni-e Sparus 
d'Artedi, Genera, p. 35 ; adopte par Linne et caracterise 
principjilement par des molaires rondes en forme de paves 
sur les cr)tes des ma,choires. C'est proprement la premiere 
tribu de Cuvier, Regne Animal II, p. 181 , qui refiond aux 
groupcs Pagrina et Sargina du Dr. Giinther, Catalogue, I, p. 
412. Ce genre a ete conserve par Bloch et par Lacepede, 



compris dans la sous-famille des jSparini. 171 

qui y ont fait entrer uii grand nonibre d'especes qui ne lui 
appartieuuent pas, surtout le dernier. 

Cependant, Cuvier place dans la meme famille d'autres 
tribus qui n'ont pas de molaires arrondies, et qui forment 
principalement le groupe CantJiarina du Dr. Giinther. II a 
done fallu exclure les dents des caracteres essentiels et 
generaux de cette famille. 

Les Sparidi sont des poissons a corps oblong et comprime ; 
ventrales 1, 5; trois epines ariales ; pieces operculaires sans 
armure ; bouche non protractile, palais sans dents ; ecailles 
ctenoides de mediocre grandeur, n'en ayaut pas aux na- 
geoires ; queue sans bouclier ; les os de la tete sans caverno- 
sites ; coecums pen nombreux. Je passe sous silence d'autres 
caracteres importants, parce qu'il y a des exceptions dans 
quelques sous-families ; je m'etendrai davantage dans celles 
de Cuba. 

C'est a tort que Linne accorde a ces poissons des pectorales 
arrondies. 

Observations. — Je separe des Sparidi le groupe Pimelep- 
terina du Dr. Giinther, parce qu'il a sept rayons branchios- 
teges, et des ecailles aux nageoires verticales. Le regime 
herbivore et les nombreux appendices pyloriques, le rap- 
prochent des Chetodons, pres desquels Cuvier I'a place. 

Sous-families de Cuba. — 1. Sparini; 2. Sargini. 



SUBFAMILIA SPARINI. 

Cette sous-famille repond an groupe Pagrina du Dr. Giin- 
ther ; caracterise par des dents coniques sur le dcvant des 
machoires, suivies en dedans d'un groupe de dents en cardes ; 
des molaires roncles sur les cotes. Le preorbitaire, tres 
developpe, couvre en partie le maxillaire ; *la langue est lisse. 
Dorsale unique, dont la partie epineuse pent se loger dans 
un sillon du dos. II y a six rayons branchiosteges. Caudale 
fourchue, pectorale pointue. Regime carnivore. 



172 Monograjphie des Poissons de Cuba 

Nous pouvons diviser cette sous-famille ainsi qu'il suit: 

I. Premier interheinal iion taille en forme de bee de plume a ecrire. 

1. Plusieurs rangs de dents molaires. 

a. Des dents coniques Ibrtes sur le devant des raachoires. 

f.- Maxillaire non renflc • . Spams, Art. 

tt- Maxillaire renfle Lithognaihus, Sw. 

b. ])es dents coniques faibles sur le devant des maclioires 

ragellus, Cuv. 

2. Deux rangs de molaires, canines fortes Fagrus, Cuv. 

3. Uu seul rang de molaires, canilies mediocres 

a. Joues ecailleuses Sj^hcerodnn, Gthr. 

b. Jones sans ecailles Lcthrinus, Cuv. 

II. Premier interhemal taille en forme de bee de plume a ecrire. 

1. Plusieurs rangs de dents molaires, pectorales longues, 

depassant I'anus, canines plus ou moins fortes . Calamus, Sw. 

2. Un rang de moins aux molaires, pectorales courtes, 

n'atteignant pas I'anus, canines faibles . Grammateus, Poey. 

Les genres Chrysoblephus et Argyrops de Swainson 
restent, le premier parmi les Spares, le second parmi les 
Pagrcs, 

Le genre Sjoarus a ete etabli en 1738, quoique avec uhe 
signification plus 6tendue, par Artedi, Genera, p. 35; ayant 
pour type le Sparus aurata de Linne. Accepte par Linne, 
avec la meme etendue, il a depuis servi de type a une famille 
divisee en plusieurs genres, dont aucun n'a conserve le iiom 
primitif, .contre I'usage des classificateurs ; excepte chez 
Swainson, qui I'a bien a tort a[)plique, en 1839, a un groupe 
de Sparoides sans molaires arrondies. C'est aujourd'hui 
pour tons les auteurs le genre Chrysophrys de Cuvier, 
Regne Animal, II, p. 181, 1829 ; nom que la loi de la priorite 
nous oblige a faire passer sous le joug de la synonymie. 

Cuvier et Valenciennes out fait entrer dans le genre Pagel- 
lus les espcces des Antilles, qui sont toutes poui-vues de 
plume, du moins celles de Cuba ; mais Mr. Guichenot, dans 
sa Revision du ghire des PageUp les eu a separe pom- les 
placer dans le genre Calamus de Swainson. 

De meme que les Sparini sans pluiue ont ete divises en 
plusieurs genres, d'apres le nombre et la forme de leurs dents, 



compris dans la sous-famille des Sparini. 173 

il parait que nous clevrious aussi diviser les Sparini a plume 
d'apres les differences analogues et non nioins remarquables 
de leiir dentition. Mais malgre ces differences chez les pois- 
sons a plume de Cuba, je ne me trouve pas dispose a intro- 
duire de nouvelles coupes generiques aux depens du genre 
Calamus; ayant toutcs le desavantage de ne pouvoir traduire 
an dehors le caractere general, qui consiste dans nne modifi- 
cation de rinterhemal, servant d'entonnoir a la vessie nata- 
toire. On verra cependant que j'ai fait une exception. 



Genus CALAMUS. 

Hisiorique. — Ce genre a ete etabli par Swainson, en 1839, 
dans The JVat. Hist, of FisJies, AmjMhians and Heptiles, II, 
p. 221, comme sous-genre de Chrysophrys, ayant pour type 
le Pagellus calamus de Valenciennes, dans Cuv. et Val. His- 
toire des Poissons, VI, p. 206, pi. 152; sous les caracteres 
suivants : "Head very large ; profile abruptly oblique ; dor- 
sal fin slightly emarginate in the middle ; the second anal 
spine hollow and shaped as a pen ; pectoral large." La 
seconde epine anale est sans doute un lapsus de I'auteur, qui 
a voulu dire le deuxieme interepineux, lequel sonde au pre- 
mier, est creuse en entonnoir pour recevoir la vessie aerienne. 
Mr. Guichenot (1868) adopte ce genre dans sa Revision du 
genre des Pagels, et I'applique, sans distinction de dents, 
a tons les Sparoi'des a plume de la sous-famille des Sparini. 

JEtymologie. — Calamus, plume a ecrire. 

Caracteres du genre. — Corps eleve vers la nuque, ceil 
haut, museau oblique, anus arriere ; bouche petite, machoire 
inferieure un pen arrieree ; symphyse sans pores, membrane 
branchiostege n'arrivant pas a Farticulation de la miichoire 
inferieure ; narines pres de Toeil, rapprochees, I'ouverture 
posterieure sur une fente longitudinale, oblique, ranterieure 
tres petite. Le maxillaire prolonge a son angle anterieur 
une eminence, qui forme une corne a Texterieur. 

Dents. — Le devant des m^choires porte un groupe de 

Mat, 1873. 12 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. x. 



174 Monographie des Poissons de Cuba 

dents en cardes, qui avec I'age devieunent greniies ; le rang 
exterieur est toiijours plus robuste, et se compose de dents 
plus ou nioins coniques et crochues, quelquefois tres fortes, 
comme des dents canines, et alors en petit niombre. Les 
dents laterales sont arrondies en pave, sur trois rangees 
principales en haut et deux en bas ; la seconde d'en haut est 
formee de tubercules plus petits. Celles du troisieme rang, 
en haut, et du second en bas, sont les plus grosses, surtout 
celles du fond de la bouche. II y a encore vine ou deux 
courtes rangees de tubercules plus internes, qui devieunent 
plus nombreux dans I'age adulte, mais qui existent toujours. 
Les premieres molaires de la rangee externe out leur cou- 
ronne un pen conique, quoique courte. Le nombre de series 
dentaires donne a la bouche un dianietre plus grand que dans 
le genre qui suit. Les dents pharyngiennes sont en cardes 
fortes et courtes. 

JSFageoires. — La dorsale a onze piquants, sa portion molle 
a pen d'etendue ; I'anale est beaucoup plus longue que haute , 
la ventrale est sans membrane axillaire, et porte au-dessus 
de sa base une ecaille lanceolee ; la pectorale est longue et 
pointue, atteignant I'anale. 

Ecailles. — Les ecailles out leur bord libre presque entier. 
La tete en est depourvue, sauf aux pieces operculaires ; il y 
en a un groupe etroit sur la joue, et non pas sur le limbe du 
preopercule ; il n'y en a pas aux nageoires. L'ecaille sur- 
scapulaire, extremement amincie, est a peine visible en de- 
hors ; de la part une serie d'ecailles qui remontent oblique- 
ment sur la nuque, et qui sont fortement striees. 

Squeleite. — Je prends pour type de cettc description le 
Calamus Bajonado. Le crane, vu en dessus, est mediocre- 
ment elargi en arriere et entre les deux orbites. La crete 
suroccipitale est haute, et son angle est aigu : les deux autres 
cretes sont tres-basses. L'orbite, rejete en arriere, laisse un 
espace tres court pour la cavite encephalique. L'apophyse 
prefrontale est tres saillante, et percee en dessus d'un trou 
aveugle infundibuliforme, portant des points d'articulation 



compris dans la sous-famille des Sparini. 175 

i 

hauts et aplatis. L'apophyse prefrontale n'existe pas : il y a 
plus has line lame qui Hmite I'orbite en arriere. Les ouver- 
tures externes clu nerf trijuraeau soiit marginales ; la pos- 
terieure tres-grande, percee sur une voiite liorizontale de 
Falisphenoi'de ; il y a de plus un petit troii au-dessus des 
deux cavites, tres rapprochees, qui regoivent I'epitj^mpanal. 
La convexite otocranienne n'est pas visible en dehors. La 
base du sphenoide descend beaucoup et se bifurque ; plus en 
avaut, il y a une grande ecliancrure, et son bord devient 
tranchant, a cause du grand amincisseraent du prefrontal et 
du nasal ; celui-ci porte au-dessus la fosse naso-vomerieune. 
La fosse paroccipito-raastoi'dienne est ouverte. La fente 
basisphenoidale est bien marquee. L'ouverture anterieure du 
cri\ne est ample. Le conduit superieur de I'ouie peni'tre par 
le paroccipital et sort par un trou de I'exoccipital, rendu 
eomplet par une ecliancrure du mastoidien. Le conduit 
lateral peiiotre dans le mastoidien et aboutit aux memes 
echancriu'es. L'otolitlie est petit et allonge ; n'ayaut aucune 
communication avec la vessie natatoire ni avec la cavite 
abdominale : le Dr. Giinther indique cette communication 
dans le genre Sjxirus, Catal. L, p. 23; mais je ne I'ai pas 
trouvee dans les sparoi'des de Cuba. 

Les sous-orbitaires sont an nombre de six ; les deux pre- 
miers, tres-amincis, recouvrent I'os maxillaire, qui n'a point 
de labial. II y a deux surtemporaux. Le symplectique, ou 
mesotympanal, bifurque en bas, appuye une de ses branches 
sur riiypotympanal, et I'autre sur le preopercule. Le pre- 
tympanal n'a pas de lame apophysaire. L'urohyal est 
bifurque. 

Vertebres, 10 — 14. Les apophyses laterales commencent 
des la premiere, et vont en augmentant ; I'anneau commence 
a la huitieme. La premiere nevrapophyse chevauche ; la 
seconde est courte ; celles qui suivent ne se distinguent pas 
beaucoup des autres. Les cotes sont : 2 epicentrales, 8 
pleurapophyses, chacune avec une epipleurale, dont les cler- 
nieres sont plutot des epihemales ; il y a de plus une epi- 



176 Monographie des Poissons de Cuba 

centrale sur les trois premieres vertebres caudales. La 
premiere epine internevrale soutient deux rayons epineux. 
II y a trois fausses interuevrales suspendues dans les chairs. 
Le second interhemal, sonde an jDremier, est crense en forme 
de plnme. 

Visceres. — L'intestin fait les circonvolntions ordinaires. 
Coecums pen nombreux. Vessie natatoire fibrense et forte. 

Division. — Les especes de Cuba, renfermees dans le genre 
Qalamus (apres en avoir separe le genre Graramateus) , 
peuvent etre divisees eu quatre groupes, dont je vais donner 
les caracteres, en y rapportant nos especes. 

1°. Ce groupe, pour le nombre des molaires et par la nature 
des dents coniques, repond parallelement an genre Spcirus 
(^GhrijsopJirijs des auteurs), trois fortes canines de chaqne 
cote, liors du plan des dents en cardes. — O. Bajonado. 

2°. line forte canine oblique on borizontale, a la machoire 
superieure ; dos tres-eleve. — C meg acepl talus.. 

3°. Dents coniques taibles ; entre elles, une plus forte, 
verticale. — O. orhitarius; C. 579. 

4°. Toutes les canines faibles. Ce groupe repond aux 
Pagels. — C. macrops. 

Calamus Bajonado — Vulgo Bajonado. 

Plauche VI., fig. 1. — L'individu represente a 210 millimetres de long. Les 
dents sont d'un individu adulte. 

Parra, p. 13, tab. 8, f. 1. Bajonado. 

Spams Bajonado Bloch, Syst Ichth.,p. 28-1. — 1801. 

Sagra, Atlas MSS., tab. 53. Bajonado. 

? Pagellus penna Valenefiennes, in Cuv. et Val. Poiss. VI., p. 209. — 1830. 

Guiclienot, in Sagra, ed. hisp., p. 187. Pagellus penna. 

Pagellus caninus Voey, Memor. Cuba, II., p. 468. — 18G1. 

? Guichenot, R§v. des Pagels, p. 114. C. penna. — 1868. 

Poey, Synopsis, p. 318. Sparus Bajonado; Repert. II., p. 160. 

Caracteres essentiels. — On le reconnait a son musean pro- 
longe, legeremeut arque eu-dessus, son ceil assez grand. Les 
dents canines sont longues et fortes, ordinairement au nom- 
bre de trois a chaque miicboire. C'est de toutes les especes 



compris dans la sous-famille des jSparini. 177 

cle Cuba celle qui devient la plus grande ; car les autres ne 
depassent pas un pied de long. Le dos est mediocrement 
eleve ; la hauteur entrant environ 3 fois dans la longueur 
totale ; chez les individus de 8 ponces, I'oeil entre 13 fois dans 
la longueur totale; 15 fois chez ceux de 12 ponces. La 
plume est d'un diametre mediocre, son bee long. Les lobes 
de la caudale sont plus aigus que chez les autres especes du 
meme genre. La joue porte rarement sur le devant des 
ecailles des traits de coloration. 

Details divers. — Les deux premieres epines de la dorsale 
sont faibles. Les rayons mous sont pen branchus aux 
nageoires medianes ; les premiers de la pectorale sont simples. 
Les OS mandibnlaires sont violets. D. 12, 12; A. 3, 10; 
trois coecums courts et laches. 

Couleurs. — Le tronc est gris de plomb tirant un pen sur 
le violet ; a reflets dus aux contours jaunatre des ecailles. 
La tete en-dessns est olive assez fonce sur toute la partie 
nue ; les cotes du museau sont bronzes, rarement parsenies 
de traits bleus, les ecailles des joues en partie dorees. Une 
bande bleue entoure le dessous de I'oeil. La commissure des 
levres est orangee, passant qnelquefois au violet. Les 
nageoires sont pides. H y a au-dessus de I'axille pectorale 
un espace dore. L'iris est nuance de brun et de jaune. On 
trouve souvent, dans un age pen avance, des bandes brunes 
verticales au nombre de 5 a 6 sur le tronc, et des bandelettes 
sur la caudale. 

Va^netes d'age. — J'en ai dccrit dans les caracteres du genre. 
Chez un individu de 185 millimetres, les dents canines n'ont 
pas encore atteint la force que Ton remarque chez les adultes ; 
mais elles n'ont pas perdu leur caracteres, ni la petite serie 
interne des molaires. 

Comparaison. — Le Calamus penna presente la synonymic 
que j'ai deyk indiquee avec doute. Valenciennes, decrit un 
individu de 6 pouces : Mr. Guichenot n'en a vu que de 80 a 
180 millimetres. A cet age, la hauteur est moindre, les 
canines sont moins robustes, les bandes verticales existent 



178 Monographie des Poissons de Ouha 

accidentellement. Mr. Giiichenot rapporte ce poissoii au 
Bajonado de Sagra, qui appartient evidemment a notre 
espcce, par la forme du corps, et siirtoiit par celle de la tete. 
II lui resscmble encore par la joiie, sans traits particuliers de 
coloration. Cependant, on pent douter qne le C. penna soit 
le veritable Bajonado; parceque, au dire de Cuvier et de 
Guiclienot, il a I'oeil petit et la caudale pen fourchue. Le 
Dr. Giinther le porte avec doute a la synonymic du CJiryso- 
phrys calamus. 

Ohservationft. II est tres rcmarqnalde que le jSjiarns 
Bajonado de Bloch, ni la figure de Parra, a laquelle elle se 
rapporte, ne soient pas cites dans I'ouvrage de Cuvier et 
VaJenciennes, dans celui du Dr. Giinther ni dans la Revision 
des Pagels de Mr. Guichenot. 

llistoire. — Ce poisson est conimun et sain, quoique medio- 
crement estime : il arrive au moms a un pied et demi de 
long. On le peche a pen de profondeur. J'ai trouve dans 
ses intestins du sable et des del)ris de mollusques, ainsi que 
des fucus. 

Nura^ro 4(i8 de mon Atlas manuscrit. 



Calamus megacephalus — Vulg. Pez de pluma. 

Paffellus calamus Valenciennes, in Cuv. et Val. Poiss. VI., p. 206, tab. 

152.— 1830. 
Calamus megacephalus Swainson, Nat. Hist. Fishes, II, p. 222. — 1839. 
Giinther, Catal. I., p. 187. Chnjsophriis calamris. 1859. 
Guichenot, Rev. des Parcels, in Mem. de la Soc. Imp. des Sciences Nat. de 

Cherbom-g, vol. XIV., p. 112. Calamus megacephalus. — 1868. 
Poey, Synopsis, p. 208. Spams calamus ; Repert. I., p. 314. 

Caracteres essentieh. — Le dos est tres-eleve ; la hauteur 
du corps n'entrant pas deux fois et demie dans la longueur 
totale. La machoire superieure porte une dent canine forte, 
dirigee obliquement en avant, au milieu d'autres moins ro- 
bustes. L'ceil est grand, 'entrant 14 fois dans la longueur 
totale, chez uu individu de onze pouces. La couleur de la 



compris dans la sous-famille des Sparini. 179 

peaii sur les cotes du niuseau, est caracteristique. La plume 
est large, sou bee loug. 

Details divers. — Coecums, 4. Vessie aerieuue forte, ayant 
daus I'interieur de uombreux corps rouges. La bifurcation 
caudale est peu profonde, lobes elargis. 

Couleurs. — La couleurgenerale resulte de celle des ecailles, 
qui out le centre verdatre dore et les contours bleus ; elle 
s'eclaircit en dessous. Les ecailles du preopercule sont 
blanches, bordees de jaune ; le limbe est violet. L'isthme 
est orauire. La tete est brune en dessus. Les cotes du 
museau ont des taches rondes jaunatres sur un fond bleuMre 
metallique. Les levres sont en partie jannes, avec du bleu 
sur la commissure. Un trait bleu entoure I'oeil en dessous. 
Les uageoires sont d'un jaunatre pale ; pectorales rose. Iris 
mele de brun et de jaune. 

Comparaison. — Le Calamus jiennatula de Guichenot, Rev. 
des Pagels, p. 116, de la Martiuique, est trop bas pour ap- 
partenir a la meme espece ; car I'auteur dit que sa hauteur 
n'a pas le tiers de la longueur totale : elle n'y eutre pas meme 
deux fois et demie chez un iudividu de Cuba de meme taille. 

Observations. — II est trcs-bien represente dans Touvrage 
de Cuvier et Valenciennes ; mais il y est peint trop rouge. 

Hisloire. — II est rare. Le plus grand que j'ai vu est d'un 
pied de long. On le trouve aussi a Bahia, Trinite, Jamaique 
(Gthr.), Martinique (Val.), Saint Dominguc (Guich.) 

Numero 475 de mon Atlas Mss. 



Calamus orbitarius — Vulg. Fez de pluma. 
Plauche VI., fig. 2. Iudividu figure : 310 niillim. 

PageUus orhitarms Poey, Memor. Cuba, II., p. 201. — 18G0. Synopsis, 

p. o08, Sparus orhitarms. — 1868. 
Guicheuot, Rev. des Pagels, p. 123, Calamus orbitarius. — 18G8. 

Oaracteres essentiels.—yiw^Qan peu prolonge, hauteur con- 
tenue deux fois et trois quarts dans la longueur totale ; ceil 



180 Monographie des Poissons de Cuba 

mediocre, contenu 15 fois dans la dite longueur, sur dcs in- 
dividus de 10 pouces ; une dent canine verticale mediocre- 
ment forte a la machoire superieure, au milieu d'autres plus 
faibles. Plume large, bee tres-court. Un trait bleu ante- 
oculaire. Lobes de la caudate elargis, la bifurcation medio- 
crement profonde. Q^^il plus brun que jaune. 

Details divers. — D. 12, 12; A. 3, 10 quelqnefois 3, 11. 
Vessie fibreuse, renforcee en dessous : son interieur laisse 
voir la premiere vertebre a decouvert. Coecums 4. 

Oouleu7's. — La couleur generate resulte de celle de cliaque 
ecaille, qui est d'un bleu fonce au centre, jaunatre dorc pale 
au pourtour ; celles des joues sont blanches. La partie nue 
du museau est janne dorc sale, les cotes parcourus par des 
traits bleus circulaires ; la bande sous-oculaire est bleue, 
ainsi que la prcoculaire. Les Icvres sont d'une teinte violette ; 
I'isthme est jaune. II y a sur le tronc brachial une tache 
bleue. Les nageoires sont jaunatres. H y a dans I'oeil du 
brun et du jaune : c'est le brun qui domine. On le trouve 
quelquefois avcc des bandes brunes verticales sur le tronc, 
pen prononcees, ainsi qui sur la caudale. 

Comparaisonfi. — Ce n'est pas le Oidamuspenncttula, Guich. 
Rev. dcs Pagels, p. IIG, dont la machoire superieure est 
munie de deux dents canines proclives en avant. 

Ce n'est pas le Calamus ^^l^iniatella , Guich. Rev. des 
Pagels, p. 120; lequel est moins haut, le protil du museau 
moins vertical, I'oeil plus grand, les canines de la mtxchoire 
superieure toutes egales et fortes, joues sans traits de colora- 
tion, caudale bordee post(iricurcmcnt de brun ou de noiratre. 

Ce n'est pas le Calamus penna Val., in Cuv. et Val. Poiss. 
VI., p. 209; Guich. R. des P., p. 114, dont la hauteur est 
moindre, la joue sans traits de coloration, dents et plume 
distincts. La caudale est moins fourchue et ses lobes sont 
obtus. II y a une bande verticale qui descend a travers I'oeil 
sur la joue. 

JErratu7n. — Je dis dans mes Memoires que la quatrieme 
serie de molaires de la machoire superieure n'existe pas dans 



compris dans la sous-famille des Sparniii. 181 

cette espece : c'est une erreur que j'ai corrigee dans ma 
Synopsis. 

Histoire. — L'espece est commune, et n'atteint pas un pied 
de long. J'ai trouve dans I'estomac des debris de MoUusques, 
des asteries et des annelides. 

Nuraero 149 de mon Atlas Mss. 

Calamus macrops — Vulg. Pez de pluma. 
Plauche VII., fig. 3. ludividu figure: 220 milliin. 

Caraderes essentiels. — Le corps est haut, sa hauteur con- 
tenue deux fois et deux tiers dans la longueur totale ; et 
I'ceil contenu 13 fois : le tout chez les individus de 10 pouces. 
Les dents canines sont faibles, an nonibre de 5 a 6 de chaque 
cote, et d'egale force. Plume d'un dianietre mediocre, sou 
bee plus long que le tuyau. Elargissement et bifurcation de 
la caudale mediocres. II n'a pas de bandelette bleue ante- 
oculaire. Voyez plus bas la couleur des yeux. 

Coideurs. — Gris de plomb, avec une tache bleu-clair au 
centre de chaque ecaille du tronc. La tete est olive assez 
fonce eu dessus, dorc vcrdatre sur les cotes, parcourus par 
des traits bleus. Bande sous-oculaire bleue. La machoire 
inferieure est bleuatre, commissure jaune. Isthme couleur 
de paille. Nageoires pales. Un point bleu axillaire au 
dessus de la base de la pectorale. II y a dans I'oeil du brun 
et du jaune : c'est le jaune qui domine. 

Comparaison. — Quoique par la grandeur de I'oeil il se rap- 
proche du Calamus pluma tella de Mr. Guichenot, plus que le 
O. orbitarius, ce n'est pas encore la meme espece, par les 
raisons deja exposees. II s'en separe davantage par les 
canines de la machoire superieure. 

Histoire. — Ce poisson est commuu. 

No. 221 de mon Atlas Mss. 

Calamus 579. 
Caracteres essentiels. — II ne diUere du Calamus macrops 



182 Monographie des Poissons de Cuba 

que par les dents, qui sont corame chez le C. orhitarius. La 
plume est large, son bee long, 

Ce n'est pas le Calamus plumatella Guich. dont il est ques- 
tion aux deux especes anterieures. 

Je ne donnerai un nom a cette espece, qu'aprcs en avoir 
vu uu Errand nonibre d'iudividus. 



Genus GRAMMATEUS. 

Ce genre ne difFere du Calamus que par les dents molaires, 
qui raanquent de serie interne ; laquelle, chez ce dernier 
genre, forme le quatrierae rang en haut, et le troisicme en 
has ; et de plus, par la pectorale courte, n'atteignant pas 
I'anus. 

^tf/mologie. — yf)rji;j.fj.a~iur, scriptor . 

Grammateus humilis — Vulg. Pez de pluma. 

Sagra, Atlas Mss., tab. 51.— 1834. Salgo (lege Sargo). 

Pagellus microps Guichenot, in Sagra, ed. hisp., p. 188, tab. 3, fig. 1 

(dentibus molaribus erroneis). 1843. 
Pagellus humilis Poey, Synopsis, p. 308. — 18(58. 
Guichenot, Rev. des Pagels, p. 118. Calamus viicrops.— 1868. 
GUuther, Catal. I., p. 417. Pag. microps. 1859. 

Details divers. — Le sixieme sous-orbitaire n'est pas en- 
caisse. La corne du maxillaire est a peine sensible. D. 
12, 12; A. 3, 11. L'oeil est contenu 21 fois dans la lon- 
gueur totale, et la hauteur du corps 3 fois ; le tout chez un 
individu de 275 millimetres. La plume est d'un diametre 
mediocre, le bee plus long que le tuyau. L'intestin est 
etroit, sans strangulations. Coecums, 4. Vesicule du fiel 
prolongee ; lobe gauche du foie plus long que I'autre. Moii 
nom specifique se rapporte a la nageoire anale, qui est tres 
basse. 

Cmdeurs. — Plombe verdatre. 11 y a an milieu de chaque 
ecaille un reflet plus clair ; les bords sont verdittres : celles 
des joues sont d'un dore pale. La miichoire iuferieure est 



compris dans la sous-famille des Sparini. 183 

violette. La pectorale est jauniitre, la ventrale tirant sur le 
violet ; les autres nageoires cl'un verdMre pale. Une tache 
de bleu fonce sur la partie superieure de la base de la pec- 
torale. La bandelette bleue sous-oculaire peu prononcee. 
II y a dans I'iris du rouge et du bruu. 

Observations. — Mr. Guicheuot, dans I'ouvrage de Sagra, a 
la priorite ; niais il I'a perdue par la description erronee dcs 
dents molaires, qu'il dit ctre sur deux rangs a la m^choire 
superieure ; ce qui m'a empecHe de reconnaitre I'espece. II 
a corrige I'erreur dans sa Revision des Pagels, publiee dans 
le 14^ volume des Memoires de la Societe Imperiale des 
Sciences de Cherbourg, de 1868. Ma livraison du Bepertorio, 
qui contient ma Synopsis, est de Mars 1808. II est vrai 
que, dans ma Synopsfs, j'ai conimis aussi une crreur, que je 
corrige plus bas ; mais Mr. Guichenot n'ayant pas encore 
connaissance do mou travail, comme on pent le remarquer 
dans sa page 123, il n'a pas pu etre par moi egare dans lade- 
termination de I'espece. 

Enxita. — Dans ma Synopsis, p. 309, ligne 4, il est dit 
qu'ou trouve de moins la petite rangee de molaires inter- 
mediaires ; lisez internes. Et ligne 17, oil il est dit que les 
molaires sont sur deux rangs, non separes par un rang de 
petites dents intermediaires, lisez trois rangs en haut et deux 
en bas, ces dernieres non separees par un rang intermediaire. 

HiMoire. — L'espece n'est pas rare, sans etre commune. 
Sa taille est d'environ 10 ponces. 

Numero 288 de mon Atlas Mss. 

Grammateus medius — Vulg. Pez de pluma. 
Planche VII., fig. 4. Individu figure : 180 millim. 

Caracteres essentids. — II difFere. du Grammateus humilis 
par un ceil plus grand, contenu 17 fois dans la longueur totale, 
chez un individu de 273 millimetres, et 16 fois chez un de 
180 millimetres. La plume est beaucoup plus etroite, le bee 
plus long que le tuyau. 



184 Descrijjtions of JVeiv Species of 

Details divers. — La corne du maxillaire est a peine sensi- 
ble. Liojue lat. 45. 

Varietes. — J'ai clans un exeniplaire D. 12, 12; A. 3, 10; 
dans un autre A. 3, 14. Dans iin individu, je ne decouvre 
pas la l)ande bleue sous-oculaire. 

Histoire. — II n'est pas rare, sans etre commun. Quelques 
pecheurs le nomment Sargo, qiioique ce soit un poisson a 
plume. Le plus grand que j'ai vu est de 12 pouces. 

Numero 192 de mon Atlas Mss. 



XI . — Descriptions of New Species of Birds of the 
Genera Icterus and Synallaxis. 

BY GEO. N. LAWRENCE. 
Read April 22(1., 1872. 

Ictei'us foi'iuosiiis. 

Male. Throat, space in front of the eye and a broad band across the 
back black ; the rest of the plumage of the body is of a beautiful reddish- 
orange ; tail black, the outer two feathers on each side end narrowly with 
dull white, the bases of the feathers concealed by tlie coverts are light 
yellow, with that portion of their shafts white; quills brownish-black, 
the smaller wing coverts are deep orange, the upper row ending with black, 
the middle coverts are white, the larger are black with the terminal half 
of the margins of their outer webs white, the primaries have their 
outer webs at the base white for a short space, forming a spot, beyond 
which they are narrowly edged with wiiite, the secondaries have their 
outer margins broadly white ; under wing coverts orange, inner webs of 
quills for two-thirds their length from base grayish-white; " iris brown; 
bill black, base of lower mandible and feet light plumbeous." 

Length (skin) 8 in., wing 4^; tail 3|^; bill from front % ; tarsi \^. 

The female has the upper plumage of a dull yellow, brighter on the 
front ; the back is olivaceous, on which part the centres of the feathers 
are black, giving it a distinct spotted appearance, somewhat as in I. pus- 
tulatus ; the tail is greenish-olive; the throat is black and the under 
plumage of a clear bright yellow. 

A young male has the yellow coloring more orange, with the centres of 
the dorsal feathers black, but the spots are much larger and closer than 



Birds of the Genera Icterus and Synallaxis. 185 

in the female. A young male of I. pnstulatus before me, has the back 
similarly marked, but the spots are smaller and the upper plumage is 
more olivaceous. The general plumage of the adult female and young 
male of /. pustulatus, is much duller and more olivaceous thau that of the 
new species of corresponding sex and age. 

Habitat. "Tehiiantepec (Tuchitau)." 
Collected by Prof. F. Suinichrast. Type in Museum of 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Remarks. The adult male above described, was in a col- 
lection recently received from Prof. Sumichrast, the others 
were in his former consignments and have been considered 
/. pustulatus, the markings on the back of the female and 
young male being somewhat like those of that species; but 
the two are shown to be very distinct on comparing the 
adult males — the back of the present species is crossed by 
a broad black band, whereas that of I. pustulatus is orange, 
the centres of the feathers marked with narrow ovate spots 
of black ; in the new species the deep orange color above 
continues without change until it joins the black of the back, 
in /. pustulatus the deep color is restricted to the fore part 
and sides of the head. This species really comes nearest to 
the bird from Guatemala named /. sdateri by Mr. Cassin 
(which he says is /. mentalis, Scl. nee Less.) ; from this it 
differs in being smaller and of a much deeper orange color, 
the outline of the bill is more curved, that of /. sdateri 
beinof nearly straiiiht ; the bases of the feathers which form 
the black mantle are white tinged with yellow in /. sdateri, 
in /. formosus they are grayish-white except immediately 
adjoining the black ends of the feathers, where they are 
orange, this color showing a little on the edges of the feath- 
ei;s of the upper part of the mantle. 

This bird is almost a miniature of/, gidaris, differing only 
in the mantle of that species being of a uniform black, and 
having the bases of the black feathers grayish-white, with- 
out any portion of them yellow. 



186 New Species of Mollusc of the Genus Helicina. 



Head above and hind neck brown, back brownish-rufous, rump and 
upper tail -coverts rather brighter; tail rufous with a bhickisli wash on 
the inner webs of the two central featliers at their ends ; superciliary 
streak white ; throat, breast, sides of the head and of the neck grayish- 
white, the throat is immaculate but the feathers of the other parts have 
blackish- brown centres, giviug them a very distinct spotted appearance: 
abdomen and under tail coverts light rufous; quills blackish-brown, wing 
coverts and edges of inner quills bright rufous ; false wing black ; bend of 
wing, while; under wing coverts grayish-white tinged with rufous, inner 
webs of quills for their basal half of a very light salmon color, their ter- 
minal half edged with light rufous ; upper mandible dark brown, the under 
yellowish-white, dusky at the end; tarsi aud toes dark brown. 

Length (skin) 5^ in. ; wing 2; tail 2|; bill y'j ; tarsi \^. 

Habitat. Province ot" Tunibes, Peru. 
Type ill Museum of V;issar College, Poughkeepsie. 
It was in a small collection received by Prof. Ortoii and 
placed in my hands for examination. 

Remarhs. In colors and general appearance this species 
resembles S. guianensis, but the wings are shorter ; iS. gui- 
anensis is darker below and has the tail of a deeper rufous, 
without the dusky markings on the ends of the central 
feathers ; the new species can easily be distinguished by the 
decided suj)erciliary stripe, and the sni;dl spots on the sides 
of the head and of the neck, and on the breast. 



XII. Description of a New Species of Mollusc of the 
Genus Helicina. 

BY THOMAS BLAND. 

Read April 22nfl, 1872. 

Helicina. g'lo^'nei, nov. sp. 

T. subglobosa, tenuis, pellucida, pallide cornea, epidermide lineis spirali- 
bus, confertis, pilosulis induta, sub epidermidem nitida, striatula, lineis 
microscopicis concentricis decussatula; spiraparum elevata, apice acuti- 
cuscula, rufescente; anfr. 4i, convexiusculi, ultimus rotundatus, seri- 



Neio Sj)ecies of Mollusc of the Genus Ilelicina. 187 

ebus 5 angustis fusco-pilosis longioribus ornatus, basi impressns ; colu- 
mella breviter recedens, compressa, albu, callum tenuem, album emittens; 
apertura vix obliqua, semlcircularls ; perist. teiuie, margiiie dextro brev- 
iter reflexo, basali cum columella angulum formaiite. Opere. ? 

Shell subglobose, thin, pellucid, pale horn colored, with epidermis hav- 
ing closely set spiral lines of short hairs, beneath the epidermis shining, 
delicately striate, and with microscopic spiral lines ; spire slightly ele- 
vated, apex rather pointed and tinged with reddish color; whorls 4i 
rather convex, the last rounded and ornamented with five spiral series of 
longer dark hairs, base impressed ; columella shortly receding, com- 
pressed, and with thin white callus over the umbilical region ; aperture 
scarcely oblique, semicircular; perist. thin, the right margin slightly 
reflected, basal margin forming an angle with the columella. 

Diam. maj. 9, min. 7, mill. Alt. 5, mill. 

Habitat. Newcastle, in the Parish of St. Andrews, 
Jamaica, West Indies, at an elevation of abont 4,000 feet 
above the sea. 

Remarks. This interesting species is very unlike any 
other hitherto found in Jamaica. It has the hirsute char- 
acter oi Alcadia hirsuta C. B. Adams, of that island, and in 
that respect, as well as in general form has, to a remarkable 
degree, the aspect of a Schasicheila, without, however, the 
incised peristome. 

I am indebted for this, as well as many other species, to 
my valued correspondent Mr. C. P. Gloyne, R. E., who 
refers to it, the specific name having been communicated by 
me, in his Notes on the Lund Shells of Jamaica, Jour, de 
Conchyliologie XII, p. 44. January, 1872. 



188 Notes on Specimens of the Corhiculadce. 

XIII. — JSfotes on specimens of Corhiculadce in the Cabinet 

of the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, and. on the 

authorship of the Encycloptedie Mcthodique, 

BY TEJIPLE PRIME, 
Read May 6th, 1872. 

I had the opportunity, in 1871, of making notes on some 
of the Corbiculadm in the Jardin des Plantes, which I am 
mduced to publish in the hope that their perusal may lead to 
the correction of some errors prevalent in regard to the 
species of this family. 

Cyrena orsentiiilis, Lamai:ck. 
This species, described in 1818*, is represented by a 
single valve, which I found to agree 
with the shell which I published! 
under the name of Corb iciila 
Japonica. — Lamarck's species is 
represented as coming from China, 
mine is a native of Japan. 

Corbicula Japonica. i • i 

We cannot, however, decide as 
yet positive!}^ that the orientalis and the Japonica are identi- 
cal, for the reason that Lamarck refers to his type as being 
in his own Cabinet, which is at present at Geneva. 

Cyi'ensa tVBjncata, Lamarck. 

Lamarck in his description! of this fossil species stated 
that it came from the State of New York. There is one 
valve of the truncata which evidently l)elongs to the Tertiary ; 
it is intermediate between antiqua and cuneiformis of Eu- 
rope . 

As alread}^ stated on a previous occasion § I doubt the 
fact of this species having been found in N. Y., but think 

*Lam. An. V, 552, 181S. 

t Ann. Lye. N. H. N. Y. viii, G8, f. 15, 1864. 

J Lam. An. v, 553, 1818. 

§ Smith. Inst. Misc. Coll; Prime, Monog. Corb. 7, 18U5. 




JSfotes on Specimens of the Oorbiculadce. 189 

that, if it came from America at all, which I hardly believe, 
as it is so uulike any of our known fossil Qyrenm or rather 
Corhiculm, it is a native of one of our Southern States. 

The .truncata is labelled as having been purchased from 
the collection of Valenciennes (the father of the late Prof. 
Valenciennes). 

Cyrena oblongra, Quoy. 

M. Deshayes has stated* that this species, a native of 
Vanikoro, has a sinus. .1 called attention f to this fact, 
remarking that it was the only instance on record of a non- 
American Cyrena possessing a sinus, qualifying my state- 
ment, however, with the reservation, that I had never seen 
any specimen of oblonga. 

On an inspection of the specimen of the oblonga at the 
Jardin des Plantes, I detected at once that the so-called 
Cyrena was nothing more or less than a Glauconotne. 

I am enabled consequently to uphold the proposition, that 
none of the non-American Cyrence have an unbroken pallial 
impression. 

Cyrena placens, Hanley. 
Elsewhere J I have quoted Mr. Hanley to the effect that 
there was a specimen of this species at the Jardin des 
Plantes. As the placens is not personally known to me, I 
sought for the specimen in question with some eagerness ; 
unfortunately, it was not to he found. 

JVote on the "EncyclojJcdie Methodique. " 

Being frequently obliged to consult this work, I was much 
puzzled to know whether the name of the genus, in many 
cases a new one, at the top of the plate, was the only evi- 
dence of the publication of the genus, or whether -there 



*Lam. An. Desh., edit. 

t Ann. Lye. N. H. N. Y., viii, 4'20, 18(i7. 

t Smith. lust. Misc. Coll. Prime, Monog. Corb. 21, 18(i5. 

May, 187-2. 13 Ann. Lvc. Nat. Hist., Vol. x. 



190 JSTotes 0)1 Spechnens of the (Jorhiculadm, 

existed some published record of the same not so widely 
distributed as the plates of the Encyclopedie, and to clear 
up my nncertainty I entered into correspondence with M. 
Crosse the manager of the Journal de Conchyliologie, 

M. Crosse wrote me that to make the information the 
more authentic he had consulted M. Deshayes, who had been 
one of the contributors to the Encyclopedie Methodique. 
M. Deshayes sent him the following, which I have trans- 
lated. 

"We owe to Bruguiere all the plates of Natural History 
'of the Encyclopedic Methodique relating to the Vers, 
'except the last hundred for which we are indebted to Lam- 
'arck. The names of the genera printed at the top of the 
'plates are the only indications which exist relating to these 
'useful creations, which the author would have placed on 
'record in text, had not a premature death prevented him 
'from so doing. With reference to the existing text, Brur- 
'guiere published one volume, which ends with the genus 
'Conus. It was in 1828 that I was entrusted with the fin- 
'ishing of this text; my first volume commences with a sup- 
'plement to the letters a, b, c ; it was published in 1830; 
'my second volume is of 1832; so that the text of the 
'Encyclopedie Methodique" concerning Mollusca is com- 
'posed of three volumes, one by Bruguiere and two by me." 
(Extract from a letter addressed to M. H. Crosse by M. 
Deshayes, Nov. 24th, 1869.) 



Note sur VAnatomie des Cyrenes Americaines. 191 



XIV. — JVbte sur V Analomie des Oyvhies Americaines. 

Par Du. p. FISCHER 
DE Pakis, 

MEMBRE COItKESPOXDAXT DU LYCEE D'IIISTOIRE XATURELLE DE NEW YOIiK. 

Read May Gth, 1872. 

jMu. Temple Prime de New York m'a aclresse une ccrtaine 
quautite d'aiiiraaux de Cyrenes appartenant a deux cspeces 
qui represeutcut les types les plus tranches des Cyrenes 
Americaines : Cyrena Carol'inensis, Lamarck, et Cyrena 
Floridana , Conrad . 

II etait important d'examiner ces Mollusques, qui paraissent 
s'eloigner sensiblement des Cyrenes de I'Ancien Continent et 
de eel les de I'Oceauie. 

Les Cyrenes Americaines du groupe de la Cyrena Caroli- 
nensis, presentent un caractere tres rcmarquable ; I'impression 
palleale forme ini sinus etroit et allonge ; ce caractere les 
distingue, a premiere vue, des autres Cyrenes, ou le sinus 
palleal est rudimentaire. La (Jyrena Floridana pent etre 
consideree comme le type des especes saumatres, rostrees,, 
minces, dont le sinus a peine indique rentre dans le cas 
general. 

L'animal des Cyrenes est pen connu. Mr. Gra}' a donne 
les caracteres de celui des Batissa; * j'ai pu moi-meme decrire 
celui des CorbiGula,-\ mais les autres groupes etaient restes 
inconnus jusqu'a present, au point de vue de I'auatomie. C'est 
done grace aux envois de Mr. Prime, que Ton pent aujour- 
d'liui combler une partie de cettclacune. 

Cyrena Carolinensis. JMoUusque globuleux, a manteau 

* Brit. Mus. Cat. Coiichif., p. 231, I80I. 

t J. Conchyl., XI, p. 5. Aun. Lye. N. H., N. Y., VIII, p. 122, 18(>T. 

October, 1872. 14 Ann. Lie. Nat, Hist., Vol. x. 



192 Note sur VAnatomie des Cyrtnes Americaines. 

assez mince, ouvert clepuis le muscle acldiicteiir anterieur 
jusqu'iiii dessous dii muscle adducteur posterieur, ou une 
cloisou reunit les deux fcuillets, pour coiistituer en arriere la 
cavite des siphons, assez petite d'ailleurs, par suite du faible 
developpement de ceux-ci. 

Les hords du manteau sont minces, simples ; en dedans 
un rcpli porte de tics petits tentacules a peine visibles a la 
loupe. En haut le manteau constitue une crete s'insinuant 
dans la charniere et percee de trous qui correspondent aux 
dents cardinales, et qui rcproduisent leur forme. 

Le muscle adducteur anterieur des valves est semi-lunaire ; 
I'adducteur posterieur est ovoide et surmonte par un faible 
retractcur du pied, laissant une empreinte pen profonde sur 
la coquille. 

Le muscle palleal est assez large, mais ses fibres sont pen 
denses et rayonnent en faisceaux plus ou moins cspaces. 
Vers le bord inferieur de I'adducteur posterieur on voit se 
detacher les fibres du retractcur de I'arriere-cavite des siphons. 
Ces fibres forment deux faisceaux distincts : I'un inferieur, se 
portant jusqu'a la base de la cavite des siphons ; I'autre 
superieur, rayonnant en eventail et remontant vers le haut 
du bord posterieur de I'adducteur posterieur des valves. 

Le muscle retractcur des siphons, quoique allonge, est 
remarquablement etroit ; sa direction est presque horizontale. 
II sc compose de cinq ou six trousseaux de fibres minces et 
aplaties. Sa longueur et son etroitcsse le distinguent des 
muscles analogues chez les autres Cyrenes, qui sont toujours 
extremement courts, et de ceux des Galatecs qui sont tres 
larges et bien developpes. 

Les siphons petits, etroits, sont desunis dans leur longueur ; 
le siphon superieur ou anal est plus etroit et plus conique 
que I'iiiferieur ; son extremite libre ne porte pas do tuber- 
cules bien evidents. Le Siphon branchial, an contraire, est 
pourvu d'une couronne de tentacules pen nombreux et cylin- 
. driques. li serait a desirer que I'oii put dessiner ces siphons 
4uraut la vie de I'animal et au moment de leur epanouisse- 



Note sur VAnatomie des Cyrenes Americaines. 193 

ment ; ils cloivent alors clepasser sensiblement le bord 
posterieur de la coquille. lis sont relativemeiit pins longs 
mais aussi plus etroits, que ceux des Corhicula dont la 
saillie est a peine appreciable. Dans I'alcool ils sont 
musculeux, rigides et de coloi-ation plus foncee que celle du 
manteau. 

Les palpes labiaux petits, triangulaires, a base peu large, 
portent des sillons rapproches sur les deux faces qui sont en 
contact, c'est a dire, sur la face interne du palpe externe et 
sur la face externe du palpe interne ; les sillons des palpes 
sont beaucoup plus gros que ceux des brancliies. 

Les brancliies sont larges et bien developpees ; la brauchie 
interne clepasse I'externe en avant du tiers de sa largeur ; 
elle se sonde a la masse viscerale sur une ligne oblique 
d'avant en arriere et de haut en bas. La branchie externe 
est attachee a la meme ligne d'insertiou oblique que I'interne, 
mais nou par son bord posterieur. En effet, cette branchie 
est divisee par la ligne d'insertiou en deux parties dont I'an- 
terieure est plus grande que la posterieure ; il s'en suit que la 
branchie externe est libre dans presque toute sa peripheric et 
qu'elle ressemble aux deux feuiliets d'un livre ouvert ; le 
dos du livre representant la ligne d'insertiou. 

La disposition des branchies est identique chez les Gala- 
tea, Corbicula; chez ces divers Mollusques les branchies 
semblent etre au nonibre de trois de chaque cote, si Ton 
considere comnie une branchie distincte la portion posterieure 
ou retlechie de la branchie externe. 

La structure des branchies des Gyrenes montre qu'elles 
sont composees de tubes d'une finesse extreme, diriges de 
haut en bas et d'arriere en avant, croises par des tubercules 
perpendiculaires, qui circonscrivent des espaces rectangu- 
laires tres allono-es. Ces tubes forment des stries visibles 
seulement a un fort grossissement ; mais en outre les bran- 
chies portent des plis assez regulierement espaces, diriges 
aussi d'arriere en avant, assez gros, et qui donnent a la 
branchie I'aspect d'un grossier plissement regulier. Ce 



194 Nole sur VAnatomie des Cyrhnes Americaines. 

sont ces memes plis qui forraent les fortes stries des braucbies 
do Corbicula. 

Ell arriere du pied et an niveau de rorifice interne du 
sipbon brancbial, les extremites des quatre feuillets brancbiaux 
se soudent entr'eux. C ' est dans I'espaee compris entre leur 
point de jonction et leur insertion sur Li masse abdominale 
que passe le muscle retracteur du pied. 

Le pied est allonge, pen eleve, trancbaut ; il ressemble a 
celui des Corbicula. La masse abdominale est pen devel- 
oppee ; mais cette disposition provient sans doute de la 
retraction alcoolique et de la vacuite des ovaires. 

Le ganglion brancbial est semblable a celui des Galatea 
par sa forme et le nombre des nerfs qui en partent et y 
aboutissent. 

Cyrena Floridana. Les Cyrenes de ce groupe sont 
rostrees, triangulaires. Le manteau est mince ; le muscle 
palleal etroit est tres rapprocbe du bord de la coquille ; il 
ne forme qu'un sinus tres court au dessous du muscle adduc- 
teur posterieur des valves, mais ce sinus est ccpendant plus 
prononce que cbez les Batissa et les Corbicula. Le manteau 
est garni en dedans d'une rangee de pctits tubercules places 
au clessus du bord libre, qui est simple et mince. 

L'impression musculaire de I'adducteur anterieur des valves 
a la forme d'un croissant, elle est etroite, I'impressiou de 
I'adducteur posterieur est ovale ; l'impression du retracteur 
du pied se voit a peine. 

L'arriere-cavite des sipbons, tres etroite, montrc deux 
siphons extrememcnt courts ; le sipbon anal est large et 
cylindrique ; le sipbon brancbial conique, un pen plus aHonge, 
porte unc couronne de petits tentacules. Ces sipbons quoique 
peu developpes sont desunis. 

Les brancbies dont la structure intime est semblable a 
celle des Cyrenes du groupe precedent sont disposees aussi 
do la meme fagon ; mais la brancbie interne est relativement 
plus grande ; elle est double en longueur de la brancbie 
externe. Celle-ci est divisee a peu pres vers sa moitie par la 



JSFote sur VAnatomie des Cyrhnes Americaines. 195 

ligne cVinsertioii sur la masse viscerale. La branchie externe 
est clone ovale, divisee obliquement en deux portions, dont la 
posterieure et superieure est reflechie. 

Vers la partie posterieure du pied, les feuillets branchiaux 
se soudent entr'eux en embrassant le retracteur du pied. 
Celui-ci est allonge, securiforme, court ; son extremite ante- 
rieure s'approche tres pres du muscle adducteur anteriem-. 
Masse abdominale peu elevee. Palpes labiaux courts et 
triangulaires. 

Conclusions. Si I'on resume ce qui est relatif au groupe 
des Gyrenes, on s'apercoit que dcpuis les Galatea jusqu'aux 
Batissa, le muscle retractenr du siphon diminue progrcssive- 
ment dans I'ordre suivant : 

a. Muscle retracteur des siphons long et large ; siphons 

longs et larges. Galatea. 

b. Muscle retracteur long et etroit ; siphons assez courts et 

etroits. Cyrena Carolinensis. 

c. Muscle retracteur court et triangulaire ; siphons courts 

et etroits. Cyrena Floridana. 

d. Muscle retracteur extremement court ; siphons larges et 

courts. Corhicula. 

e. Muscle retracteur non developpe ; siphons tres courts. 

Batissa. 

Ces diverses sections du groupe des Gyrenes sont geo- 
graphiquement distribuees : 

a. Les Galatea appartiennent uniquement au continent 
Africain. Pas de fossiles. 

h. Les Gyrenes de la deuxieme section, pour lesquelles 
nous piioposons le nom generique de Leptosiphon, 
sont propres a I'Amerique du Nord. Nous ne les 
connaissons pas a I'etat fossile, du moins dans les 
terrains tertiaires de I'Ancien Gontinent, mais il est 
probable qu'on en trouvera quelques espcces dans 
les couches du meme age du Nouveau Gontinent. 

c. Les Gyrenes de la troisieme section, que nous nommerons 
Gyrenocapsa, sont propres a I'Amerique, ou elles 



196 Note sur VAnatomie des Cf/renes Americaines. 

vivent dans les eaux saumi\ti-es. Un certain nombre 
cle Gyrenes eocenes lenr seront peut-etre rattacbees. 

d. Les Gyrenes cle la quatrieme section, ou Corhicula, ont 

une distribution geograpbique des plus etendues. 
On les a signalees dans toiites les parties du monde, 
excepte en Europe, mais la leur extinction est bien 
recente, puisque I'une d'elles, C. consobrina, existe 
dans les depots quaternaires de I'Angleterre, de la 
France et de la Sicile. Le type apparait dans le 
Weald ien. 
Les Corhicula du Gontinent Americain sont remar- 
quables par la presence d'un sinus palleal evident. 

e. Les Batissa sont reparties dans la plupart des iles de 

rOceanie. On les trouve a I'etat fossile a partir de 

I'eocene. Les Velorita ont une distribution geogra- 

phique analogue. 

Quant a la composition de la fjimille des Cydadea, 

Ferussac, Gorhicidadce ou Cyrenidm, Gray, Gydasidoz^ 

d'Orbigny, Conques Jluviatiles de Lamarck, nous croyons 

qu'elle doit etre ainsi etablie : 

1. Cijrena, Lamarck. 2. Cor/vicwZa, Megerle. 

Sous-genres ; 3. Ci/elas, Bruguiere. 

Leptosiphon, 4. Pisidium, Pfeiffer. 

Cyrenocapsa, 5. Galatea, Bruguiere. 
Batissa, 
Velorita. 

Peut-etre le genre Fisdieria, Bernard i, appartient-il a ce 
gronpe, mais I'amplitude du sinus palleal et les caracteres 
de la charniere le rapprocbent beaucoup des Iphigenia. 11 
serait utile d'examiuer I'animal pour etre eclaire sift' ses 
affinites. 

Woodward place les Cyrenella parmi les Cydadidoe; ce 
rapprochement me semble fautif; les Cyrenella n'ont de 
rapport qu'avec les Diplodonta et les Ungidina, et doivent 
constitner une petite famille, celle des Uiigulinidce tres 
distincte par la structure de leurs brancbies des Liicina. 



N'ote sur VAiiatomie des Oyrhies Americaines. 197 

Le plus oil moins "fi-aiicl developpement des siphons ivest 
pas, a mes yeiix, im caractere de famille, et pour cette rnison 
je place les Galatea parmi les Cydadea et noii parnii les 
TeUinidce comme le font Adams, Gray, Woodward, etc. II 
faut n'avoir jamais va uii animal de TelUna pour proposer 
line pareille classification. Tout au plus pourrait-on rappro- 
cher les Galatea des Donacidm. 

Cette famille des TeUinidce, telle qu'elle est circonscrite 
par Adams et Woodward, est inadmissible. Les seuls genres 
voisins des Tellina par leur organisation anatomique sont les 
Fragilia, Amphidesma, Scrobicidaria, Syndesmya. Les 
Capsida, Psammohia, 8anguinolaria forment une famille 
distincte ; les Donax, Mesodesma^ IpMgenia constituent une 
autre famille. 

EXPLICATION DES FIGURES. 
PI. VIII. 

Fig. 1. Animal de Cyrena Carolinensis. 

a, manteau; 6, expansion du manteau qui s'insiuue entre les dents 
cardiuales; c, muscle adducteur anterieur des valves; d, muscle adducteur 
postei'leur des valves; e, muscle retracteur du pied; /, muscle palleal; g, 
muscle retracteur des siphons. 

Fis;. 2. Le meme. 

Le manteau est enleve en partie. Memes lettres. h, palpes labiaux ; 
i, brauchie interne ; /.;, brancbie externe ; I, portion reflechie de la branchie 
externe ; m, pied. 

Fig. 3. Portion du meme pour montrer les siphons. 

11, siphon anal; o, siphon branchial; p, cavite des siphons. 

Fiir- 4. Le meme. 

Les branchies sont relevees pour montrer le pied, m, pied; n, masse 
abdominale. 

Fig. 5. Animal du Cyrena Floridana. 

a, manteau; c, adducteur anterieur des valves; d, adducteur poste- 
rieur des valves ; e, retracteur du pied ; /, muscle palleal ; g, retracteur 
des siphons. 

Fiii'. 6. Le meme. 

Le manteau est enleve. Memes lettres. 7i, palpes labiaux ; i, branchie 
interne ; k, branchie externe ; I, sa portion reflechie ; m, pied ; n, siphon 
anal; o, siphon branchial. 



198 On the Relalions of Certain 



XV. — On the Helations of Certain Genera of Terrestrial 
MoJlusca of, or related to, the Subfamily Succininoe, 
ivilJi JSTotes on the Lingual Dentition of Succinea append- 
icidata Pfr. 

Br THOMAS BLAMD AND W. G. BINNEY. 

Head October 7, 1872. 

The receipt from Governor Rawsoii of S})ecimeus pre- 
served in iilcohol of Succinea appendicidata and Omalonyx 
unguis Fer, collected in and sent to him from Guadclonpe, 
by M. Schramm, has afforded us the opportunity of studying 
their dentition and induced us to examine the relations 
of certain genera ^vhich have been placed in tlie sub-family 
Succininm. 

Albers (2nd ed.) in group E, Succinea, has the following 
genera, viz., Simpulojpsis Beck, and Succinea Drap., the 
latter divided into four sections, viz., AmjjJiihidima , Suc- 
cinea, Bracliysjnra and Onudonyx. He describes the jaw 
and refers to the limrual teeth in the following terms : — 

Jaw arcuate, its convex margin extended into an almost 
quadrate plate; its concave margin striate or ribbed, with a 
short middle projection. Teeth of the lingual membrane as 
previously described (^. e., tricuspid or bicuspid as in Ilel- 
icea, etc.). 

SBBMpiaSoiJSiS Bl'XK. 

Beck (Index, p. 100) adopted this genus, ]>ut by name 
only. Shuttleworth (Bern. Mitt., 1854, p. 55) thus charac- 
terizes the animal : — 

"Animal heliciformo, testa omuiuo iuclusum, pede lato subtiis trans- 
verse plicato : pallium exappeiicliculatum. 

"Maxilla fere formam ferri equiui habet, utroque latere clilatato-rotun- 
dato, medio autem angustata, costis 12 validis permunita, qiiarum G ap- 
proximata3 in parte angusta mediana, et in utroque latere 3 majores, 
magis reraota3. PapilliB in laminam lingualem in seriebus obliquis ordi- 



Genera of Terrestrial MoUusca, etc. 199 

nata3, numerosoe ; centralis tridenticulata, clenticulo medio elonsata; mediae 
bidenticulatse, denticulo intenio elon,2,ato, externo brcvi ; marginales lati- 
ores ina^qualiter trideiUiculata;, denticulis versus marginem exteriorem 
gradalim miiioribus, intenio antcra valdc producto. 

"Genus naturale, Vitriiice uullo modo afflne, sed Sncciwce proximum. 
Lamina lingualis autem diversa videtur (Cf. Phil. Handb., p. 243) atque 
etiam Maxilla {Cf. Terr. Moll. U. S., I, p. 213, pi. xiii, fig. 3)." 

Heynemann (Mai. Blatt., 1868, p. 110, taf. v, f. 10) has 
description and figures of the teeth of Simpulopsis sidcidosa 
Fer., mentioning- that the jaw was not observed. On the 
accompanying phite we have given (PI. ix, figs. 7, 8) copies 
of several of Heynemann's figures of the teeth, as many of 
our readers may not have access to the originals, and in a 
subsequent part of this paper we have described them. 

With respect to the jaw not having been examined by 
him, Heynemann refers to that fact as rendering the correct 
classification of the genus difficult, but remarks that the form 
of the linsual teeth suirgests relationshiii to the Orthalicea* 
rather than to the Succinea, as shown by a comparison of 
the marginals with those of B. auris leporis and papyraceus. 

H. and A. Adams (Genera, II, 127) adopt in Sucdmnce 
the following genera: — Simjyulopsis, Succinea, Amphibit- 
lima, Helislga and Omalonyx, enumerating as species of the 
latter, O. unguis, appendlculata and ilepressa. 

On reference to our subjoined notes on the so-called Suc- 
cinea appendicidata from Guadeloupe, it Avill be observed 
that the form of its teeth aijrees sfenerally with that ascribed 
by Heynemann to Simpidopsis sidculosa, Avhile his sug- 
gestions as to the affinities of the latter genus (the jaw 
being unknown to him) arc supported by our discovery of 
the character of the jaw in the Guadeloupe species. It 
must not, however, be overlooked that while the animal of 
Simpidojjsis is entirel}^ covered by the shell, that of the 
S. appendicidata under consideration is limaciform, like 



* It mu!-t be remembered that we use the term Orthalicince in a much more reetricted 
sense than the Orthalicece of Albers and von Martens. See our notes on Syttematic 
Arrangement, Ann. N. Y. Lye, x, p. 168. 



200 On the Relations of Certain 

O. unguis, as figured by Orbigny (Voy., t. 22, f. 1-7). 
With the form of jaw described by Shuttleworth and the 
quadrate marginal teeth, it would seem that Slmjjulopsis 
belongs to the Hdicince and not to the Sacclnlnm, It may 
be noticed that, even form of shell alone considered, some 
of the species might appropriately be placed near to BuUm- 
ulus. 

Guppy (Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Jan., 18GG) described 
S. corrugatus,* from Trinidad. Of the animal he says, 
" mantle edge narrowly reflexed over the peristome." Sub- 
sequently, the same author (Amer. Jour, of Conch., VI, 308, 
1871) mentions having ascertained, from a young example 
of 8. corrugatus, the characters of the dentition of Simpu- 
lopsis, and that it resembles that of Saccinea more than he 
had anticipated. He says, "the odontophore is moderately 
large, but the individual teeth are very minute and resemble 
those of /Succinea, particularly, perhaps, S. ovalis." 

It seems to us that one important characteristic of the 
dentition of /Succinea, absent in that of Simpulopsis, is the 
gap or notch in (as if by the cutting away of) the lower 
edge of the base of attachment in the central, and corres- 
ponding gap in the inner edge of the laterals. 

Fischer and Crosse, in 1867, established the genus JS^an- 
tlionyx (Jour. Conch., 1867, p. 221, et seq., pi. x, figs. 1-4), 
describing as the type Vitrina Samichrasti Brot {I. c, p. 70, 
pi. iv, fig. 2), and referred to the same genus fSimpulopsis 
Salleana, 8. Oonlovana and (with some doubt) 8. CJtia- 
pensis. 

Among the generic characters of the animal of Xanthonyx, 
derived from examination of a specimen of X. SamicJirasti, 
communicated by Brot, are the following, " Animal testa 
sua multo majus, hand omnino inclusum," and " maxilla 
arcuata, costata ; tceniola lingualis dentibus basi subquad- 



* Guppy compares his species witli S. Brasiliensis (Syu. of S.obtusa Sow.)) from 
which indeed it t^eeins scarcely distinguishable. 



Genera of Terrestrial Mollusca, etc. 201 

ratis, inoequaliter bicuspidatis (dente medio tricuspidato) 
instructa."* 

With respect to X. Salleanus and Cordovanus, the authors 
state, on the authority of Salle, that the animals are much 
larger than their shells, as in X. Samichrasti. 

Xantlionyx, as well as /Si'mpulopsis, belongs to Helicince 
and not to Succinince. 



§iiccixBea Drap. 

Am/phihulima. — Albers (l. c, 309) gives as the type of 
this section of Saccinea, A. patula Brng., but without 
any special description of animal or its dentition. 

Guppy (Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., June, 1868) mentions 
the occurrence in Dominica of A. patula, and we were in- 
debted to him for the lingual membrane (without jaw), of 
which we published figure and description in Amer. Jour. 
Conch. VII, 186 (1871), pi. xvii, fig. 1-2. Guppy does not 
particularly notice the animal, and we assume in consequence 
that, as in /Succinea s. s., it is capable of retraction withiu 
the shell ; indeed the form and character of the shell pre- 
clude any other suppcjsition. 

Guppy (/. c, June, 1868) describes another species, found 
by him in Dominica, as AnipldbuUma pardalina, the animal 
of which he describes as follows : — 

"The animal resembles that of Omalonyx unguis Fer. 
(D'Orb. Voy. Amer. Mer. pi. xxii, fig. 1-7). The foot is 
translucent, like a bit of ice dipped in milk, the internal 
organs showing as a dark, variegated patch about the shell, 
into which the body is incapable of retraction." 

Guppy adds (and apparently he was acquainted with the 
dentition [not the jaw], of A. patula only) : 



*Fischer aucl Crosse (Etudes sur les Moll. Terr, et Fluv. da Mexique et du Guate- 
mala, l'.J2-199, pi. 9, figs. 14-17} give a more detailed description of Xantlionyx, and 
remark on certain of its aflinities witli the genus Binneya. The part of the work 
referred to reached us after our manuscript was in the printer's hands. 



202 On the delations of Oerlain 

" Forming my judgment from the soft parts and the lingual dentition, 
I should separate AmpJiibuIima as a genus from Succinea. The genus 
AmphibuUma might then be divided into the following groups : — 

Amphibulima s. strict. Type ^4. patula. 
Omalonyx D'Orb. " 0. ungvis. 

Brachyspira Pfr. " A. pardalina and tigrina." 

Without knowledge of the j;iw of AmjjJiihulima, and we 
scarcely think that the genus can be elasmognathous, Ave are 
unable to decide whether it belongs to Succininoe or not, but 
have a strong impression that its proper position is in 
Helicince. 

The dentition of AmphibuUma, as shown in our figure, 
does not materially differ from the form usual in the IleUcidoB, 
excepting in the marginal teeth, which are very long and 
narrow. The cutting away of the plate, before referred to 
as characteristic of Saccinea, is entirely wanting in AmpJiib- 
uIima. 

•V. Martens (Zool. Record, 1868, p. 491) observes that 
"Mr. Guppy reestablishes Ajnphibiilima as a genus distinct 
from Saccinea (Drap.) on account of its different lingual den- 
tition, but without pointing out the difference." 

Succinea s. strict. — The animal, lingual dentition and form 
of jaw need no special notice in the present paper. We 
would express, however, the opinion that those species only, 
to Avhatever group or section they belong, which are elas- 
mognathous, should be admitted in Succinince. 

There are several elasmognathous ijcnera with animals of 
varied forms on which we have no occasion here to remark. 

Brachyspira Pfr. — This group is based on the form of 
shell, and it is worthy of notice that Albers (ed. 2) gives as 
the type S. tigrina Lesueur, Avhich is very near to, if not 
identical with, as Glippy remarks, his A. pardalina. If the 
animal of the latter be as described by Gup[)y, we cer- 
tainly should not place the species in Brachyspira, which 
belongs rather to Saccinea than to AmpJiibuIima. 

Tryon (Amer. Jour. Conch., 11, 236-241, 1866) refers 



. Genera of Terrestrial MoUusca, etc. 203 

many species of North American Sttccinea, we think erro- 
neously, to BracJiyspira. In Land and Fresh Water Shells 
of JVbrth America (18G9) we adopted the hitter in the sense 
in which it is used by Albors (ed. 2). 



©BMstloisys D'Orb. 

Albers {I. c, 311) refers to O. unguis Fer. as the tjq^e of 
this group. D'Orbigny (Voy., 229, t. 22, figs, 1-7) gives 
the following description of the animal : 

"Allonge, ovale, depnme, beaucoup trop grand pour rentrer dans la 
coquille, occupant pres de trois fois la surface de celle-ci; pied tres large 
debordant de toutes parts, arrondi enavant, acumiue posterieureraent, lisse 
en dessous et endessus; raanteau formant uu bourrelet autour de la 
coquille, qu'il recouvre sur les bords, etroit en urriere, plus large et comme 
plisse en avaiit; col assez long; tete etroite ; tentacules courts; oriflce 
des poumons sous le bord droit du nuuiteau, vers sa partie moyenne." 

Fischer (Melang. Conch., p. 67, pi. vi, f. 1) describes the 
animal of 0. unguis and its dentition. 

Sometime since we were indebted to Mr. John G. Anthony 
for specimens collected by him (Agassiz' expedition) in 
Brazil, and found, on examination of the jaw and lingual 
dentition, that both agree with the figures given by Heyne- 
mann (Mai. Blatt., 18G8, taf. iv, fig. 5) of the jaw and teeth 
ot PellicLda convexa Martens, of which figures we add copies 
(plate ix, figs. 12-14). 

. As already mentioned, we have lately received from Gov- 
ernor Rawson specimens in alcohol of animal and shell of 
O. unguis, collected in Guadeloupe by Schramm, and find 
that both jaw and teeth are precisely similar to those of the 
Brazilian examples. 

It appears, irrespective of form of animal and shell, that 
should even Amphibulima prove like Onialonyx to be elas- 
mognathous, the lingual dentition of the latter does not 
warrant its being treated, as proposed by Guppy, as a section 
of the former genus. 

Guppy has lately discovered in Trinidad, but not yet, we 



204 On the Relations of Certain 

believe, described, another species of Omalonyx, the shell of 
which he has communicated to Governor Rawson, with the 
name Amphibidima (^Omalonyx) felina. Indebted to Mr. 
Rawson for an opportunity of examining the shell, we find, 
as the author remarks in a letter accompanying the spec- 
imens, no appreciable distinction between it and the Guad- 
eloupe 0. unguis. 

In a late letter Mr. Guppy states that "the animal of 
0. felina resembles in general character 0. unguis, O. par- . 
dalina and A. patula, the latter being much larger, darker, 
more strongly colored and more coarsely striated." 

The Guadeloupe specimens received from Gov. Rawson, 
collected and labelled by Schramm Saccinea appendiculata, 
are extremely interesting and not a little perplexing, indeed 
Schramm, judging from his notes sent with them, rather 
suggests that S. appendiculafa, depressa, and 0. unguis are 
all one and the same species. 

Succinea depi-essa Rang (Guer. Mag., 1834, t. 55) is a 
species as to which there seems to be much uncertainty. 
Fischer described it, the animal and its dentition, as Pellicula 
depressa in Act. Soc. Linn. Bord. XX, 5, to which we have 
not had an opportunity of referring, and also in Melang. 
Conch, p. 67, t. vi, f. 19. 

In the latter work, the jaw and teeth are thus char;»c- 
terized : — 

" M^choire semblable a celle des Limaces, et portant uue 
quantity de denticulations. Plaque linguale se rapprochant 
de celles des Ambrettes. Epines medianes trifides ; late- 
rales bitides." 

We give copy of the figure of the jaw on plate ix, fig. 4. 

Petit (Jour. Conch., 1856, p. 154) expresses the opinion 
that S. appendiculata Pfr. is the same species, Rang's specific 
name having priority, but Pfeiffer (Mon., IV, 804) referring 
to Rang's figure, maintains that they are distinct. 

The character from which the specific name of Pfeiffer's 
species is derived, he describes (Mon., II, 531) thus; '*col- 



Genera of Terrestrial MoUusca, etc. 205 

umella callosa, aperta, appendicula clilatafa, torta siiperne 
munita," adding in a footnote, "Forma persimilis prsecedenti 
(^S. dejyressa Rang), at bene distincta columella appendice 
torta quasi duplicata, spira siibpapillatim prominula ct peri- 
pberia magis regulari." This appendage is shown in our 
figure (pi. ix, fig. (1) of Eawson's appendiculata. 

V. Martens (Malak. Blatt., 1868, p. 183) described Suc- 
cinea (^Pellicula) convexa, to the dentition of which by 
Heynemann we have already referred, giving also (phite ix, 
figs. 12-14) copies of his figures.* One of the characters 
of this species is said to be by its author, "paries aperturalis 
appendicula parva, plieoe-formi munitus." 

With respect to the validity of his species, v. Martens 
adds a note to the following eflect, — S. depressa Rang, as its 
name implies, differs from our species by being less arched. 
Pfeiffer writes that P. convexa is by no means the same as 
his 8. append iculata. If the latter be identical with, depressa 
as Fischer maintains, then Rang's figure is entirely faulty, 
the most essential character, the process on the columella, 
being overlooked. 

A comparison of the figures presented on plate ix, will 
show that the Pellicula depressa of Fischer has a ribbed jaw 
(fig. 4), and does not belong to the Succininm,^ while Pellic- 
ula convexa v. Martens is elasmognathou"s, like . Succinea 
(fig. 14). 

It seems to us that S. depressa of Fischer must be treated 
as the type of Pellicula, while S. convexa belongs to 
Omalonyx. 

Albers (ed. 2) does not include in Omalonyx or other 
group S. depressa or S. appendiculala, mentioning them only 
in a remark of the following purport : — 



*v. MMi-tens (Zool. Record, 1818, p. ■192), referring to Heynemann^s figure, says 
" proving that Pellicula is not geaerioally distinct from f^uccinea." — a proposition in 
which wo do not concur. H. & A. Adams (Genera, II, 5()S) inconsiderately remarli th; j 
Pellicula Fischer is syn. of HelUiga, and foujuled upon FI. depressa Fischer, a new spe- 
cies of that genus. 

t Mijreh (Jour. Conch. 18(55, p. 381) places Pellicula in his section OdontognatUa. 



206 On the Relations of Certain 

SiLccinea aj)j)endtculata, identical with S. depressa Rans:, 
is miide by Fischer the type of a separate genus, Pellicula, 
after an examination of the jaw, lingual dentition and gen- 
erative organs; Albers {I. c.) adds that he had not yet 
been able to decide upon the correctness of those views. 

From the subjoined diagnosis of the species received as 
Succlnea append Iculata iwnw Guadeloupe, it will be seen that 
the animal is limaciform, has a jaw, not as in 0. unguis, but 
allied to that of genera and species of Ilellclnm, and teeth 
agreeing somewhat closely with those of Slmpulopsls. In 
pi. ix, we give figures of the animal (from an alcoholic spec- 
imen), of part of the jaw and teeth (Figs. 2, 9, 10, 11). 

We now proceed to describe the jaw and lingual membrane 
of Succlnea appendiculata Pfr., received from Governor 
Raws on : 

Jaw extremely tliin and transparent, long, low, slightly arcuate, ends 
blunt, divided longitudinally by about 40 delicate ribs into as many 
plate-like sections, of the character found in the jaws of Cijlindrella, 
3Iacroceramus and many species of Bulimulus. No appearance of trian- 
gular upper median plates, however, as in Gylindrdla, though the two 
specimens examined by us are not perfect at that part. Both margins 
serrated by the extremities of tiie ribs. The general character of these 
I'ibs is the same as in Helix turbini/urmis, figured by us in Ann. of Lye. 
of Nat. Hist. N. Y. x, pi. 2, flg. 2. The jaw is quite membranous. 

Lingual membrane as usual in the Ilelicince proper (see Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y. X, 163).. Centrals subquadrate^with a very large, stout, short, 
pointed cusp, the side cusps obsolete. Laterals larger and more narrow 
than the centrals, bicuspid, the inner cusp greatl^'^ produced, broad 
and quite squarel}' terminating. The base of attachment of the laterals 
is cut away on the inner side, leaving a large outer lateral expansion, 
bringing to mind the much less developed one of Succinea. Marginal 
teeth quadrate, gradually becoming moditied from the laterals, the cusps 
finally passing off into simple, obtuse papillas, the inner one the larger. 

The central and lateral teeth are lilce those of Siinpiilopsis sulculosa as 
tigured by Heynemanu in Malak. Blatt. xv, pi. 5, (ig. 10, the central, 
however, bearing a much more developed cusp in our species. The 
marginals in that figure, of the form found in Bulimulus aurisJeporis, 
papyraceus, laticinctus, etc., we failed to detect in our species. As already 
stated, we found the marginals merely a modification of the laterals. 

The above description does not agree with that given by 
Dr. Fischer (Melanges Conch., GO, t. vi, tig. Id) oi Pellicula 



Genera of Terrestrial Mollusca, etc. 207 

depvessa, which we have already quoted. He describes the 
jaw as having a number of ribs on its anterior surface pecti- 
natingthe cutting margin, actually nine of them being shown 
in his figure. He also describes the lingual dentition as 
quite different, the centrals being represented with one large 
bifid median cusp and one small cusp at either side. His 
figure of the lateral teeth is also simply bicusi^id, the figure 
of the inner cusp does not show any trace of the peculiar 
prolongation and blunt termination, described by us above. 
For convenient reference we copy Fischer's figure of the 
jaw (Plate ix, fig. 4). 

The external appearance of our animal is the same as 
described by Fischer in the paper referred to. Little confi- 
dence, however, can be placed on the external characters of 
the animals of this igroup, that of 0. unguis being, as 
Fischer remarks, nearly the same as of the species under 
consideration. 

As already mentioned, P. convexa v. Mart., from its form 
of jaw, cannot be placed in Fischer's genus Pellicula, while 
the appendiculata examined by us has jaw (as well as teeth) 
of different character from that assigned by Fischer to Pellicula 
depressa, but for the present we refer, with doubt, our spe- 
cies to Pellicula; most certainly it does not belong to jSuc- 
cinea. 

We appear to be warranted in assuming that Mr. Rawson's 
appendiculata is Pfeiffer's species, specifically and probably 
generically distinct from 8. depressa Fischer. Whether the 
latter is or is not the 8. depressa Rang we are unable to 
decide. 

Dkcembek, 1872. 15 Ann. Ltc. Nat. Hist., Vol. x 



208 Description of Hemphillia, 

XVI. — Description of Hemj)hillia, a New Genus of Ter- 
restrial Mollusks. 

BY THOMAS BLAND AND W. G. BINNEY. 

Read October 7, 1872. 

nr e iiB i> li 1 1 1 i St . 

Animal limaciforme, parvum, antice obtusum, postice attenuatum. Pal- 
lium subcentrale, magnum, ovatum, antice valde productum, marginibus 
liberis. Discus gressorius distiuctus nullus. Poi'us mucosus transversus 
in apice pedis, processu couiforme valido protectus. Apertura respiratoria 
ad dextram, in medio marginis inferioris pallii, genitalis ad basin tenta- 
culi dextri oculigeri. 

Testa externa, unguiformis, subquadrata, replicatura pallii margiuorum 
breviter inclusa. 

Maxilla et lamina lingualis ut in Arione constituta, dentes centrales 
tricuspidata;, laterales bicuspidatai, marginales quadratEe, bicuspidatse, 
papillis interuis valde productis, externis subobsoletis. 

Animal limaciform, small, blunt in front, tapering behind. 
Mantle subcentral, large, oval, greatly produced in front, 
free around its margin and slightly reflected over the edges 
of the shell. No distinct locomotive disk to foot. Lines 
of furrows run near and parallel to edge of foot, rising above 
the extremity and apparently uniting over a transverse, 
mucus slit, overhanging which is a greatly produced horn- 
shaped process. Respiratory orifice at right edge of mantle, 
near its centre. Generative orifice at right side of neck, 
near right eye peduncle (Plate ix, figs. 1 and 3). 

Shell external, its edges imbedded lightly in the mantle, 
very thin, unguiform, almost as large as the mantle (in spec- 
imens preserved in alcohol) (Plate ix, fig. 5). 

Jaw wide, low, slightly arcuate ; ends blunt, but little 
attenuated ; anterior surface with numerous ribs clenticulating 
either margin. 

Lino-ual membrane as usual in the Helicidm. Teeth in 
Hempliillia glandulosa about 23-1-23. Centrals and laterals 
long, the former tricuspid, the latter bicuspid; marginals 



a New Genus of Terrestrial Mollusks, 209 

about twelve, quadrate, the inner cusp long, narrow, oblique, 
bluntly pointed, outer cusp subobsolete (Plate ix, figs. 15- 
17). 

Animal, shell, jaw and lingual membrane as already 
described a])ove under HempldUla. (See Plate ix.) 

Animal about 12 mill, long (preserved in alcohol) ; 
color smoky white, mottled with longitudinal, dark brown 
blotches, running obliquely from the edge of the mantle to 
the foot, uniformly with the coarse granulations, of which 
we counted about twenty-five on cither side of the animal. 
Caudal process very large, triangular in profile, dark brown, 
with a few coarse granulations. 

Shell unguiform, slightly convex, light horn-color, very 
thin, its edges almost membranous, with prominent concen- 
tric lines of growth ; five mill, long, three wide. 

Hahilat. — Astoria, Oregon : Mr. Plenry Hemphill. 

Our description is drawn from specimens preserved in 
alcohol, due allowance for which fact must be made. They 
were collected at Astoria, Oregon, by Mr. Henry Hemphill, 
to whora we dedicate the genus in return for most valuable 
addition to our knowledge of the laud shells of the Pacific 
region. 

This curious slug, by its general outline and by the form 
and position of its shell, may be compared to Omalonyx 
unguis D'Orb, and the species known formerly as Succinea 
aj)pendiculaia Pfr., but now usually referred to Pellicula. 
The former has, however, a jaw with the supplementary 
extension as in Succinea, the latter has the jaw usual in 
Bulimulus and O ylindrella , while neither of them has the 
prolongation of the mantle. Both of those genera also are 
readily distinguished by their shell being more developed 
and approaching a spiral form. 

Hyalimax is distinguished from IIemj)liiUia by its Succinea- 
like jaw. Otherwise, it resembles our genus in its general 



210 Description of Hemphillia, 

outward appearance, and by its non-spiral shell. This shell, 
however, in Hyalimax is almost, if not completely, internal, 
while the shell of Hemphillia is entirely exposed. 

Binneia, in its prolonged mantle and costate jaw, 
resembles Hemphillia, but its shell is much more developed, 
spiral, striate and almost capable of protecting, though not 
absolutely including, the animal when contracted. 

Xanthonyx and Simpulopsis are both described with costate 
jaw, but they have both highly developed, decidedly spiral 
shells. 

Finall}^ from all the above mentioned genera and from all 
known sublimaciform genera, our genus is at once distin- 
guished by the peculiar hump-like process on the tail, re- 
minding one of the caudal process in JSfanina. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX. 

Fig. 1. Hemphillia glandulosa. 

The caudal extremity greatly enlarged. 

Fig. 2. Succinea appendiculata Pfr. 

From Governor Rawson; a portion of the jaw. 

Fig. 3. Same as fig. 1, enlarged. 
From a specimen preserved in alcohol. 

Fig. 4. Pellicula depressa Raug. 

The jaw; copied from Fischer, Mel. Conch., I. c. 

Fig. 5. Same as fig. 1. The shell, enlarged. 
Seen from above. 

Fig. 6. Succinea appendiculata Pfr. 

From Governor Eawson, slightly enlarged, the right hand figure 
showing profile of appendage. 

Fig. 7. Siinpulopsis sulculosa Fer. 

A marginal tooth, copied from Heynemann, Mai. Blatt., 1868, pi. 
V, fig. 10. 

Fig. 8. Same as fig. 7 ; centrals and laterals. 
Fig. 9. Succinea appendiculata Pfr. 

From Governor Rawson ; centrals and laterals. 

Fig. 10. The same ; marginal tooth. 



Unity of the General Forces of Nature. 211 

Fis:. 11. The same; external view of animal contracted 
in alcohol. 

Enlarged about one half. 

Fiff. 12. Pellicula convexa Martens. 

Centrals and laterals ; copied from Heynemanu, I. c, pi. iv, fig. 5. 

Fig. 13. The same ; marginal tooth. 

Fig. 14. The same ; jaw. 

Fig. 15. Hemphillia glandidosa. 

Extreme marginal teeth. 
Fig. 16. The same ; first marginal teeth. 
Fig. 17. The same ; central and lateral teeth. 



XVII. — Essay ujjon a JVecessary Limitation of the Doc- 
trine of the Unity of the General Forces of Nature. 

BY PROFESSOR BENJAMIN N. MARTIN, 

of the University of the City of New York. 

Read Nov. 6, 1872. 

The great and characteristic doctrine of our modern 
physics is that which affirms the unity and the convertibility 
of the forces of nature. Varied and multiform as are the 
diflfused agencies of the physical universe, it is found that 
they are fundamentally one ; and the proof of this oneness 
is furnished by the fact that they are all convertible into one 
another. On the one hand, electricity, magnetism and gal- 
vanism, — on the other, light and heat, may be made to 
produce each other. One of these forms of force can dis- 
appear only by giving birth to another ; and the sum of 
them all is ever the same. Under certain conditions, gal- 
vanic electricity will manifest itself as light and heat, and 
heat will develop electricity again. Each is a form of 
motion convertible into the other. Moreover, they sustain a 
common relation to the motion of the masses of matter 



212 Necessary Limitation of the Doctrine of the 

around us : each will produce such motion, and will be accu- 
rately and completely measured by the amount of motion 
into which it is thus capable of resolving itself. 

This doctrine, of the unity of the general forces of nature, 
I do not propose to dispute. It is a doctrine of the most 
interesting and beautiful kind ; and if not fully proved, — and 
some eminent physicists still demur to the reception of it — 
it yet furnishes so many singular and ingenious explanations 
of phenomena, that one is tempted to overlook its want of 
complete demonstration, and acquiesce, perhaps by antici- 
pation, in the conclusion which affirms it. And yet there 
seems to be a limitation of its scope, arising out of the 
necessary relation of this to another equally important phys- 
ical doctrine of our day — the indestructibility of matter. 

It is affirmed with equal certainty that, in all the varied 
round of changes taking place among the particles and com- 
binations of matter, no slightest atom or molecule of it is 
ever lost. Every chemical change is but a combination, or 
a resolution, of the particles of a mass ; but these particles 
are ever the same in number, in weight, and in attraction. 
No one of them can by any possibility ever be put out of 
existence. The amount of matter is as constant as the 
amount of force in the universe ; and both are alike beyond 
our power to alter or reduce. 

It has not hitherto been observed, however, that the one 
of these doctrines imposes by necessity a limit upon the 
scope of the other ; and it is with the object of calling atten- 
tion to this restriction, that the present paper is offered. 
Before proceeding, however, to point out the limitation 
referred to, it may be well to endeavor to gain a more exact 
appreciation of the doctrine already desci-ibed, of the con- 
vertibility of force. What is meant by it ? 

Strictly speaking, this view is often not accurately stated 
in the ordinar}^ language of science. " Heat," according to 
Tyndall's just and happy statement of the fact, " is a mode 
of motion ;" it is a motion of the molecules, instead of a 



Unity of the General Forces of Nature. 213 

mechanical motion of the mass as a whole. The one of 
these motions may be converted into the other. If a leaden 
bullet be dropped from a considerable height upon an iron 
plate which arrests and destroys its mechanical motion, the 
result is a quivering or vibrating of the particles in their 
molecular spaces, and this is first, heat ; if carried farther, it 
may become light, or it may give rise to electricity, which 
again are only other forms of molecular agitation or disturb- 
ance ; and either of these may, by cooling, which is but 
the arrest of the molecular agitation, occasion again the 
mechanical motion from which it originated. 

Accurately conceived, then, all these phenomena are forms, 
not, as is so often stated, of force, but of motion. Heat is a 
mode of motion ; light, too, is the vibration of the particles 
of the elastic medium which fills the inter-planetary spaces 
around our globe ; it is another and more rapid vibration, 
propagating itself through the ether by undulations, in other 
words, it is another mode of motion. The phenomena of 
electricit}^, also, manifest themselves simply as attractions 
and repulsions, — that is, as motions of particles and masses 
of matter, to and from each other. In the same way, every 
other manifestation of these imponderable agents is simply, 
and only, a distinct and peculiar mode of molecular motion. 

Now of all these phenomena, the universal law is that no 
one is fixed or permanent. Each is a transient modification 
of some other, or of that which is the common ground of 
them all. Each is called into existence by another; it 
comes to view solely by the disappearance of another. One 
is born because a previous phenomenon of the same kind 
ceases to exist ; each dies in giving birth to its successor. 
This extinction, too, is absolute and inevitable. The amount 
of force involved in one of these changes is ever the same, 
but it cannot exist in two of these forms at the same time ; 
the preceding form must cease to exist before that into 
which it is convertible can take its place. The mechanical 
motion of a body must utterly stop and cease, before the 



214 JSFecessary Limitation of the Doctrine of the 

heat can be developed into which it is resolvable ; and that 
cessation is absolute. So far as the conversion takes place, 
so far is the destruction of the previous form of motion utter 
and complete. 

There is in this common relation of all these phenomena 
to motion, an obvious reason for their correlation with one 
another. They are phenomena of the same kind. All are 
simply forms of motion ; and it is no great novelty to learn 
that one form of motion may be converted into another. The 
whole doctrine of the convertibility of the forces resolves 
itself into the very familiar fact of the communication of 
motion by impulse. Where one of two billiard balls 
impinges on another in the precise line of its direction, its 
motion is imparted to the other, and itself is arrested and 
stopped. So it is also with the atoms and masses of the 
physical world. The balls may differ in size, and in the pre- 
cise mode of their motion, but these are the only differences. 
One imparts to another its motion ; or a large mass commu- 
nicates movement to a multitude of minute particles ; in 
each case it has its own motion destroyed by the change ; 
and this is the whole of it. The convertibility of the forces 
implies, then, nothing more than the communication of 
motion by impulse. 

When, however, we examine the particles of matter for 
their essential characteristics, we find that something more 
than mobility enters into their nature. Adopting, with some 
variation of order, the accurate analysis of Sir William 
Hamilton, they may be grouped under the two general heads 
which follow. We may regard matter, first, as included in 
space, and secondly, as occupying space. 

I. Under the first aspect, as included in space, it has 
position and mobility, 

(1.) It is known in finite parts and forms ; and these must 
be recognized as occupying definite places in space ; matter, 
therefore, has (1) position. 

(2.) Next, it has mobility. In consequence of the rela- 



Unity of the General Forces of JVaiure. 315 

tions of the parts of space to one another as absolutely 
adjacent, that which occupies one part of space may be 
shifted to another; in other words, it possesses (2) mobility. 

II. Under the second aspect, as occupying space, matter 
may be said to have (1) Divisibility ; (2) Magnitude ; (3) 
Form; (4) iJltimate incompressibility , or the impossibility 
of being compressed by pressure from an extended to an 
absolutely unextended thing, from what is, to what is not, 
extended. 

Now, when these general properties of matter are exam- 
ined, it is at once seen that no one of them, except the last, 
has any relation to force. Position, mobility, form, magni- 
tude, these are not proj^erties of force, nor do they result 
from force. They can all be conceived ideally. But 
. incompressibility, however ultimate, has direct relation to a 
resisting force in the body itself. The atom in the last 
analysis is incompressible ; it cannot be so compressed that 
it ceases to occupy space, and to repel other matter from the 
space which it fills. So far as there are pores or vacuities 
in any kind of matter, so far other matter may permeate 
a given mass, as the air permeates cork, or as one gas 
diffuses itself between the molecules of another. But the 
atom is ultimately, incompressible, it resists all compression 
which would destroy its integrity. It evermore asserts its 
own existence, against every other particle with which it can 
come into contact. 

In resisting compression, however, the atom manifests 
Itself as possessing a true force ; for resistance to our own 
voluntary motion is, in the last analysis, the only form in 
which any force manifests itself to us. Gravitation we know 
as a force, because it resists our own efforts to support a 
falling body. It is through the same means that we come 
to the knowledge of any other force. Cohesion is known to 
us as a force, only by its resistance to our endeavor to sepa- 
rate the parts of one united body, or mass. 

There is, then, in every atom of matter a resistance to 



216 JVecessari/ Limitation of the Doctrine of the 

compression which is an essential property of matter itself. 
So far as we know, it does not impart motion to the atom 
at all, and has no relation either to motion, or to the space in 
which the atom moves. It simply attends the particle and 
occupies its internal mass. It is not called into operation by 
any motion, mechanical or molecular, into which the particle 
may be thrown. Moving, or at rest, the sole function which 
we can recognize in it, or as belonging to it, is to preserve 
the existence of the particle itself; and this.it does so effec- 
tually that, as we have already seen, no particle is ever 
destroyed, and the sum of them in the universe has never, 
from the lirst, been diminished, by a single atom. 

Now it is an essential characteristic of this force that it is, 
and must be, forever inconvertible into any other. For if 
the force which guards the integrity, and guarantees the 
permanent existence, of a particle, were convertible with any 
other, it could not in its converted form perform its original 
function ; and the atom might be converted into light, or 
heat, or electricity. It might impart to other particles the 
undulation Avhich constitutes light; but it could not do this, 
and continue to resist compression, to which all matter is 
perhaps subject. The atom would no longer be capable of 
asserting itself by its normal resistance to external pressure, 
and so, capable of maintaining its own existence ; and might 
disappear forever in a flash of light. Matter deprived of the 
force by which it is ultimately incompressible, would no 
longer be indestructible ; its preservative force would be 
gone ; and matter Avithout that preservative force which 
arises from this power of resistance, would be inconceivable. 
The fundamental fact or law of physics, that all matter is inde- 
structible, implies that its essential force of resistance to com- 
pression is inconvertible with any other. It exists unchanged 
through all the chemical changes, through all the molecular 
vibrations, or undulations, through all the mechanical trans- 
fers, or movements of mass, which take place in the universe 
around us; and it is forever incapable of being converted 



Unity of the General Forces of Nature. lYl 

into any one of these pbeiiomeua of motion. Being wliolly 
internal, it is ineapable of passing out into the spaces beyond 
the volnme of the atom whose existence it preserves. It 
exists unchanged throngh motion and rest alike, and, posses- 
sing uo relation to motion, is inconvertible into any form 
of it, either molecular or mechanical. Its sole function is 
to maintain the existence and reality of the atom which it 
permeates, as a permanent, indestructible and, therefore, 
inconvertible thino". 

That form of force, then, which has for its exclusive func- 
tion to guarantee the indestructibility of matter, must be 
conceived as sid generis, — as wholly peculiar, incommuni- 
cable to anything else, and inconvertible with any other 
form of force in the universe. We must, therefore, recog- 
nize the reality of one force, at least, which is incapable of 
transmutation into any other. 

Moreover, this peculiar and inconvertible force is also in- 
capable of correlation. It cannot be converted, cither into 
any other force directly, or into that mechanical motion 
Avhich is the common measure of all the others. We cannot 
express this resistance in terms of any other denomination. 
We cannot say that it is equivalent to a given amount of heat, 
nor can we assign the number of foot-pounds which will 
measure the ultimate resistance of an atom to compression. 
As destitute of all relation to motion, it is out of all relation 
to those forces which express and measure themselves by 
motion. It simply cannot take the form of light, or heat, or 
electricity ; a greater degree of heat is as incapable of ex- 
pressing the intensity of this force, as a less would be. It 
stands outside of the sphere within which the correlation of 
the forces finds its scope ; and being necessarily out of all 
relation with the others, it is of course incapable of corre- 
lation with them. 

It follows that the doctrine of the convertibility of the 
forces relates properly only to those general and diffused 
forces of nature which impart motion; and not, so to speak, 



218 Description of a Species of Cervus. 

to the private force of the individual particle ; and that the 
modern doctrine can be true, only with this important limita- 
tion of its scope. 



XVIII. — Description of a Species of Cervus. {Plate x.) 

BY W. J. HAYS. 

Read October 8, 1872. 

Cervus ITiictttanensiiii. 

This beautiful deer is found throughout Yucatan and the 
southern part of Mexico, but little is known of its habits in 
its native place, and so far as I can learn no account of it 
has been published. Its color is a grayish-brown on the 
back and front of the legs, the sides more yellow and run- 
ning into white on the belly, the color of the head and face 
similar to the autumn coat of the Cervus Virginianus, the 
legs a brownish-yellow, lighter on the inner side ; the inner 
side of the thigh, and the under side of the tail, as well as 
the inside of the ear, are white ; the chin and under side of 
the lower jaw are white, and there is a patch of white on 
each side of the nose and upper lip ; a black line reaches 
from the nostril to the edge of the lip, and also passes 
around the lower jaw. 

The tuft of hair on the inside of the hock joint is short, 
and there is no gland on the metatarsal bones. 

This deer does not change its color with the seasons, as 
other deer, but remains the same in color throughout the 
year. The doe resembles the buck in color, but is somewhat 
smaller, and has no horns. The fawns when born are of a 
dark reddish-brown, spotted with white, on the body ; the 
legs inclining to gray. At about six months of age they 
assume the color of the adult. The horns are short, a sin- 
gle straight beam with one short tine projecting inwards ; 



Certain Terrestrial Puhnonata. 219 

the general direction of the beam is upwards and backwards 
in a line with the face ; the horns are cast in March. 

This deer has been brought to the Northern States, and 

yet the change of climate has produced no change in the 

color of the pelage, it remaining of a uniform color, very 

similar to what is known as the blue coat of the Cervus 

Virginianus. 

DIMENSIONS. 

Ft. In. 

Length from tip of nose to root of tail, 3 10 

" of tail including hair, 8 

" " " without " 5i 

" " head, . 10^ 

" from tip of nose to inner can thus, 5 

Height at shoulder, 2 

" " " 2 2 

Girth behind shoulder, . 2 

Length of ear, 5i 

" " fore leg, '. 14 

" " hind " 1 10 

Weight, 55 lbs. 

Length of horns, 7^ 

" " tine, I 



XIX — On the Lingual Dentition of Certain Terrestrial Pul- 
monata Foreign to the United States. 

Bt THOMAS BLAND AND W. G. BINNEY. 
Read Dec. 9, 1872, 

Helix *Faystsia, C. B. Adams {Sagda). 

Like Sagda connectens C. B. Adams and Sagda Haldemaniana C. B. 
Adams (see Amer. Jour. Conch. VII, p. 175), this, also a Jamaica species, 
has quadrate, not aculeate, marginal teeth on its lingual membrane. 
The cusps of the marginals are short, stout and blunt, centrals and lat- 
erals as usual. 

Jaw smooth anteriorly, with scarcely any median projection to its 
cutting edge. 

This is an additional proof of the position of Sagda 



220 Certain Terrestrial Pulmonata 

beiug among the Helicea rather than the Vitrinea of von 
Marten's arrangement. 

We received from Mr. Henry Venclrj^es the specimen 
examined. 

!BLeiicoclBro&t ISoBSSieri, Ciiarp. 

The genus LeucocJtroa is adopted by von Martens (Die 
Heliceen ed. 2, p. 78) the type being Helix candidissima 
Drap, a species whose anatomy has been described by 
Moquin-Tandon as being more nearly related to Zonites, 
than to Helix. The genus is classed by von Martens among 
the Vitrinea, the section of Helicea containing the genera 
furnished with ribless anterior surface and median projec- 
tion to the jaw, and aculeate, marginal teeth to the lingual 
membrane. Among the species catalogued by von Martens 
is Leucochroa Boissieri Charp. Having sometime since 
received a specimen of this species from Mr. John Van 
Nostrnnd, collected by him in Palestine, we have examined 
its jaw aud lingual dentition with the following results. 

Jaw very low, long, arcuate, ends but little attenuated, bluutly 
rounded. Cutting edge with a decided median projection, anterior sur- 
face free from ribs, witli a strong, transverse line of reinforcement. 
The jaw resembles that of Clausilia or Pupa more than that usually 
found in Hdix. 

Lingual membrane as usual in the HeUcIdce. Centrals short and stout 
with a bluntly pointed median tooth, the side teeth almost obsolete. 
Laterals with a very long, oblique, blunt inner tooth, the outer tooth 
almost obsolete. Marginals subquadrate, with several short, blunt, 
papillaj-like teeth. 

From the above it will be seen that LeiicocJiroa Boissieri 
must be classed among the Helicea, its lingual membrane 
having the quadrate type of marginal teeth, and not the acu- 
leate type common to Vitrina, Zonites and other Vitrinea. 
Its jaw is of the form often found in the Helicea. Judging 
from both jaw and lingual membrane, we would not separate 
the species from the genus Helix as received by von Martens. 
We xire inclined to believe that further investij^ations will 



Foreign to the United States. 221 

prove the genus Leiicochvoa to l)e only a subgenus of Helix, 
in the arranirenient of "Die Heliceen." 



Helix circaajMflD'BBisQta, Eed field. 

Lingual membrane long and broad, centrals tricuspid, laterals bicuspid, 
cusps long and slender, marginals aculeate. 

From the above description it "will appear that this spe- 
cies belongs to the Vitrinea rather than to the Helicea of 
von Marten's arrangement, in which latter it is classed in 
"Die Heliceen" as a species of the subgenus MicrojjJiysa. 



Helix BeriBHB«leMsis, Pfu. 

Jaw extreraelj' thin, arched, with a blunt, median projection to its 
cutting edge. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow. Central teeth tricuspid, laterals 
bicuspid; the cusps in each long and slender. Marginals numerous 
aculeate in oblique rows. 

As in the II. circumfirmata , the result of our examina- 
tion of the lingual membrane throws light on the generic 
position of this species. It can no longer be retained in 
Caracolus, a sub-genus of Helix, as it has the dentition of 
the Vitrinea of von Marten's arrangement. For the speci- 
mens examined of this and the preceding species, both from 
Bermuda, we are indebted to Mr. J. J. Crooke. 



Saclix B»<?B'plexs4, Fer. (Dentdlana). 

Jaw with a median projection to its cutting edge. The anterior sur- 
face of the jaw is of irregular thickness, showing some approach to the 
ribbed form of jaw. 

Lingual membrane as usual. Central and lateral teeth with short, 
stout, blunt cusps. Marginal teeth quadrate, with one wide, stout, bluntly 
rounded median cusp, and two small, blunt side cusps. 

We are indebted to Governor Rawson for this specimen 
collected in the Island of Grenada. 



222 Certain Terrestrial Pulmonata 



!PMl>a, SllUcsttSi, MuLLER {Gonidomus). 

Lingual membrane long and very narrow. Eows of teeth arranged en 
chevron. Teeth separated, aculeate, as in Pupa palanga Lesson photo- 
graphed by us, (Araer. Jour. Conch. V. pi. xi. fig. 1.) 

We obtained no jaw on boiling the buccal mass in a solu- 
tion of caustic potash. 

This species belongs to the genus Gonospira, in which 
P. palanga was placed by Crosse and Fischer (Journal de 
Conch. IX, 213, (1869) pi. xi, figs. 6-8). 

The specimen examined, sent from Mauritius by Consul 
Pike, was kindly supplied by Mr. John G. Anthony. 



]tuliiuia§ aullaco.§t'ylii§, Pfk. (Eurytus). 

Lingual membrane as usual in the genus, tlie marginal teeth simply 
modified from the laterals. 

Jaw sliglitly arcuate, membranous, almost transparent, in one single 
piece, but divided by delicate ribs into more than sixty plate-like sections, 
as common in the genus Bulimulus, CylindreUa, etc. No upper median 
triangular plate, but the ribs run somewhat obliquely to the centre. 

We are indebted for this specimen from St. Lucia, and 
for the following from St. Vincent, to Govenor Rawson. 



ISuIbiuus SKii'i.^-silCEii, Born {Felecychilus). 

Jaw and lingual membrane as in the last species. The middle cusp of 
the central teeth and inner cusp of the lateral teeth long, acute. 

The jaw of this and the preceding species do not agree 
with the generic description of von Martens "costis validis 
exarata," but are like that of Bulimulus. This fact gives 
still more proof of the difficulty of classifying the Bulimi 
by their jaw, at the present stage of our knowledge of the 
subject as already remarked by Fischer (Jour, de Conch. 
XII, 295, 1872). 



Foreign to the United States. 223 

Additional note on the genus AMPHIBULIMA. 

Since our paper "On The Relations of Certain Genera 
of Terrestrial Mollusca of, or related to, the Sub-family Suc- 
cininse, with Notes on the Lingual Dentition of Succinea 
appendiculata Pfr. " (pp. 198-207) was printed, we have re- 
ceived, through the kindness of Dr. W. J. Branch of the 
island of St. Kitts, two specimens of Am])hibulima j)aiula 
with the animals, preserved in glj^cerine, and can in conse- 
quence offer a decided opinion as to the generic relations of 
the species. 

Finding a note among the papers of the late Mr. Rol)ert 
Swift to the effect that " S. patula Brug. is found at St. Kitts 
on Bayford's estate on the wild plantain which grows on 
the banks of a small water-course," Bland wrote on the 21st 
November last, requesting Dr. W. J. Branch, a correspond- 
dent of Mr. Swift and also of Governor Eawson, to obtain 
specimens, if possible, for examination. To this request Dr. 
Branch most kindly responded. We subjoin a copy of his 
interesting letter, which accompanied the specimens. 

" I went a few daj-s ago to Bayford's to look for the 8. patula but, 
after a long and fatiguing search, found only two small (young) speci- 
mens. When I was in the place several years since, the bushes on each 
side of the little river were covered with snails * (a striped BuUmus, a 
species of Hdicina and the S. patula), but the other day I saw only three 
arboreal snails. The present scarcity of these creatures in St. Kitts is 
probably due to the hurricane which visited the island in 1870. Many 
trees, some of enormous size, were torn up by the roots, others lost all 
their branches, and scarcely a single leaf was left on any tree. The sup- 
ply of water to the estates was cut off or much diminished by the drying 
up of the numerous streams from the mountains. This was, no doubt, 
caused by the want of foliage to protect the moisture, which collects on 
the slopes of well- wooded hills, from the sun's heat. So the poor snails 
have come to grief from the actual violence of the hurricane itself, and 
the subsequent cutting off of their supplies both of meat and drink. 

You will see that both the snails sent are completely tucked into their 
shells, but I do not think that they often, or perhaps ever, draw in either 
the head or the posterior part of the foot during life. ' Their flesh is partic- 

* B. multifasciatus Lam. and H. fasciata Lam.(T. B.) 
Januakt, 1873. 16 Ann. Ltc. Nat. Hist., Vol, x 



224 Certain Terrestrial Pulmonata 

ularly watery and gelatinous and slirinks up as they die. "When they are 
moving about, the foot loolvs very large and when I touched the creature 
it could not or would not retreat into its shell. On this point, however, 
I shall be able to give more accurate information when I can collect addi- 
tional specimens." 

We ihid that the animals are completely retracted into 
their shells and very much in the same manner as in Succiiiea^ 
little more than the entire surface of the foot beino- alone 
seen within the aperture, the edges of the peristome pro- 
jecting slightly beyond it. While the sensitiveness of the 
animal to touch may be slight, and its habit as described by 
Dr. Branch, they cannot be said to be much larger than their 
shells, as remarked by Salle of Xanthonyx, and described 
by Fischer and Crosse, or as described by Dr. .Cooper of 
Binneia. The specimens, for \yhich we are indebted to Dr. 
Branch, must have been taken alive in the month of Decem- 
ber, and very soon at least after death, before becoming dry, 
put in the glycerine. 

It will be remembered that Guppy considers Omalonyx 
and Brachyspira as groups or sections of AmphibuUma. In a 
very recent letter he repeats his assurance that " the animals 
of both AmphibuUma patula and pardaUna are very much 
larger than the shells and quite iucapable of retraction into 
them." His observation agrees, so far as it goes, with that of 
Dr. Branch, who adds a remark as to the shrinking up of the 
animals " as they die." This shrinking before death must 
be accompanied by the exercise of contractile muscular force, 
and probably further observation will prove that the animal, 
while in possession of its full vital power, can and does with- 
draw itself into the shell, and especially, perhaps, in seasons 
of drought. 

The jaw of A. patula, of which we subjoin description, 
has not the accessory plate characteristic of Succinea, and 
which is found in Omalonyx and Brachyspira; while the 
latter subgenera ;therefore belong to the Succinince, Amphi- 
buUma must be associated with the Helicinoe. By the char- 
acter of the ribs of the jaw, it is most nearly allied to the 



Foreign to the United States, 225 

genus Bulimulus. The same may be said of Gmotis lately 
examined by us. 

Amphihulima patula. — Body obtuse in front, pointed 
behind, entirely retractile within the peristome, though usu- 
ally greatly expanded. Mantle simple as in Succinea, Helix ^ 
etc. Base of foot wrinkled transversely, without distinct 
locomotive disk. Generative orifice? Respiratory orifice? 

Jaw slightlj' arcuate, low, ends attenuated: extremely thin 
and transparent with prominent transverse striae ; divided 
longitudinally by about forty-five delicate ribs into so many 
plate-like sections of the same character as those of Cylin- 
drella, Macroceramus and many species of Bulimulus. No 
upper triangular median plates as in Oylindrella. Margin 
serrated by extremities of ribs. 

The figure we have given of the jaw of Succinea? apjieii- 
diculata Pfr. (Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., X, pi. ix, fig. 2) 
offers a correct general idea of the jaw of Amphibidima 
patula. See also our photograph of jaw of Cylindrella rosea 
(Am. Journ. Couch., V, pi. xi, fig. 2) for the character of 
the ribs and plate-like sections. 

Lingual membrane as already described and figured by us 
from a specimen from Dominica (See Am. Journ. Conch., 
VII, 186, pi. xvii, figs. 1-2), long and broad, composed of 
numerous horizontally waving rows of teeth, of the form 
usual in the Helicidoe. Centrals subquadrate, extended at 
basal angles, narrowing towards the centre, expanding 
towards the upper edge, which is reflected and tricuspid, 
extending quite to the base of the tooth ; the cusps are stout, 
the median one bluntly pointed. The lateral teeth are of 
the same type as the centrals, but unsymmetrical. The 
marginals are long and narrow, rounded at base, narrowed at 
apex, reflected and bicuspid ; cusps short, stout, and gener- 
ally a simple modification of those of the laterals. The 
extreme marginals have irregular teeth, like simple papillee. 



226 The Upper Coal Measures 

XX. — The Upper Coal Measures West of the Alleghany 

Mountains. 

Bt JNO. J. STEVENSON, PH.D. 
Read December 16, 1872. 

While connected with the Geological Survey of Ohio, I 
was employed in investigating the Upper Coals as displayed 
in the First Geological District of the state. The relations 
of the coal beds to each other, and the marked changes in 
the intervening strata, seemed to be at variance with some 
accepted opinions and induced me to make diligent compari- 
son of the Ohio coals with those of Pennsylvania and West 
Virginia. The results of this examination appear, to me, of 
sufficient importance to warrant publication in advance of the 
Ohio Report. This I am permitted to do by the courtesy of 
Prof. Newberry, chief geologist of Ohio. 

The observations recorded in this paper cover only that 
portion of the field north of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad 
in West Virginia and Ohio. 

LIMITS OF THE UPPER COALS. 

The outcrop of the Pittsburg coal, the base of the Upper 
Coal Measures, beginning at the Baltimore and Ohio rail- 
road in West Virginia runs northward, rudely parallel 
to Laurel Hill, through Marion and Monongalia counties, 
W. Va., and Fayette and Westmoreland, Penn., thence 
westwardly, through Westmoreland and Alleghany into Han- 
cock, W. Va. Crossing the Ohio just above Steubenville 
it passes through JeiFerson, Harrison and Belmont into 
Guernsey where it reaches the Baltimore and Ohio railroad 
at Salesville, thirty-seven miles west from the Ohio river. 
That this is by no means the original extent is evident from 
several facts. In Pennsylvania, the Frostburg and Broad 
Top basins lying to the east of the main outcrop have been 



West of the Alleghany Mountains. 227 

proved to contain the upper coals, and some of our leading 
geologists profess to find equivalents of the same beds in the 
anthracite region. In Ohio, west of the line of outcrop, 
isolated patches are found in the synclinal passing through 
Guernsey county, ten to fifteen miles away. At New Con- 
cord, Muskingum Co., Ohio, twenty-three miles west from 
Salesville, there is a thin coal resting on a heavy buff colored 
fossiliferous limestone and occupying both sides of the syn- 
clinal trough, of which the bottom is at that village. About 
fifty feet below it is a hard limestone, bluish-gray in color 
and fossiliferous, known in the Ohio section as the Crinoidal 
Limestone, a persistent stratum traceable into Pennsylvania 
and West Virginia. 

Along the western outcrop of the Pittsburg coal the 
Crinoidal Limestone is found at a distance, varying little 
from one hundred and fifty feet, below the coal, and the 
interval is occupied by variegated shales and shaly sand- 
stones, with no coal or even bituminous shale. From four 
to ten feet below the coal there is a tough limestone, varying 
in color, four to six feet thick and more or less fossiliferous. 
It would seem then from the accompanying rocks that the 
New Concord coal is the western prolongation of the Pitts- 
burg. It is true that the interval between it and the Crinoidal 
Limestone is at that place very much less than at Salesville, 
twenty-three miles east, but even this is an additional proof 
of identity, for this interval increases eastward. Three 
miles northwest from New Concord it is barely thirty-five 
feet ; at Concord it is fifty ; at Salesville it is one hundred 
and fifty ; while in the Monongahela Valley it is two hun- 
dred and fifty. 

The Crinoidal Limestone has been traced to within three 
miles of the Muskingum river on the west and thence round 
to the borders of Tuscarawas and Stark, on the northwest 
and into Columbiana and Mahoning on the north. So 
constant and regular is it in its relations to the Pittsburg 
coal, that we may regard its distribution as an indication of 



228 



The Upper Coal Measures 



the original extent of that bed. Accepting this then as a 
basis for the calculation we conclude that that coal once 
reached as far west as Sonora on the Central Ohio railroad, 
seventy-one miles west from Wheeling, and to a point north- 
ward not less than fifty miles from that city, a tortuous 
boundary line connecting the two points. 



RELATIONS OF THE SEVERAL COAL BEDS IN OHIO, 
PENNSYLVANIA AND WEST VIRGINIA. 

To ascertain the relation of the Ohio coals to those of 
Pennsylvania and West Virginia the following sections are 
compared : 



I. From Kirkwood Township, Belmont 

Co., Ohio. 
II. From the Central Ohio railroad be- 
tween the Ohio river and the Barnes- 
ville summit. 
III. From Wheeling, W. Va. 



IV. From Wheeling creek, W. Va. 
V. From Scott's Run, Monongalia Co. 

W. Va. 
VI. From Uniontown, Fayette Co., Penn. 

(Rogers.) 



I. 


II. 


III. 


1. 


Debris, 


150' 


1. 


Sandstone, 


40' 


1. Sandstone, 


7' 


2 


Coal XIII, 


ir 


2. 


Coal xni, 


1' 


2. Coal, Waynesburg, 


3' 


3. 


Sandstone, 


70' 


3. 


Sandstone, 


70' 


3. Shale, 


33' 


4 


Coal XII, 


IV 


4. 


Coal XII, 


1' 


4. Limestone, 


15' 


5. 


Shale and Sandstone, 


40' 


5. 


Shale, 


35' 


5. Sandstone, 


3' 


6. 


Coal XI, 


2' 


6. 


Coal XI, 


U' 


G. Limestone and Shale 


95' 


7. 


Sandstone with thin 
Limestone, 


100' 


7. 


Sandstone, 


100' 


7. Shale, 


3' 








S. 


Coal X, 


4J' 


8. Coal, 


I4' 


8. 


Coal X, 


4' 


















9. 


Sandstone, 


35' 


9. Shale, 


6' 


9. 


Sandstone, 


40' 


















10. 


Coal IX, 


2^' 


10. Coal, 


1' 


10. 


Coal IX, 


2^' 


















11. 


Limestone, 


70' 


11. Clay, 


6' 


11. 


Limestone, 


70' 


















12. 


Coal vm c, 


4' 


12. Sandstone, 


8' 


12. 


Shale, 


6' 


















13. 


Sandstone, 


35 


13. Coal, Sewickly, 


1|' 


13. 


Coal \^II, 


8' 


















14. 


Coal vm h. 


1' 


14. Limestone, 


24' 


U. 


Fireclay, 


5' 


















15. 


Limestone, 


30' 


15. Coal, Redstone, 


1' 


15. 


Limestone, 


6' 


















16. 


Coal vin a, 


h 


16. Limestone, 


20' 








17. 


Limestone, 


20' 


17. Shale, 


6' 








18. 


Shale, 


10' 


18. Coal, Pittsburg, 


8' 








19. 


Coal VIII, 


9' 







West of the Alleghany Mountains. 



229 



IV. 


V. 


TI. 


1. 


Sandstone, 


5' 


1. 


Sandstone, 


40' 


1. 


Limestone, 


12' 


2. 
3. 


Limestone and shale, 
Coal, Waynesburg, 


3' 
3' 


2. 
3. 


Shale, 1-20' 
Coal, Waynesburg, 9' 


2. 


Not well exposed 
but containing 
much limestone. 




4. 


Shale, 


38' 


4. 


Sandstone, 


15' 


3. 


Shale, 


15' 


5. 
6. 


Limestone, 
Shale, 


1' 
40' 


5. 

G. 


Shale, 
Limestone, 


8' 
5' 


4. 


Sandstone and lime 
stone. 


110' 


7. 


Limestone and shale, 100' 


7. 


Shale, 


4' 


5. 


Coal, Sewickly, 


4' 


8. 


Coal, 


3' 


8. 


Sandstone and shale 


15' 


6. 


Shale, 


2' 


9. 


Clay, 


2' 


9. 


Limestone and shale 


30' 


7. 


Limestone, 


6' 


10. 


Sandstone, 


15' 


10. 


Shale and sandstone. 


25' 


8. 


Shale, 


41'? 


11. 


Coal, Sewickly, 


3i' 


11. 


Limestone, 


6' 


9. 


Coal, Redstone, 


2' 


12. 
13. 


Limestone, 
Shale, 


55' 

5' 


12. 
13. 


Sandstone, 
Limestone, 


15' 

7' 


10. 


Shale with calca 
reous nodules. 


15' 


14. 


Coal, Pittsburg, 


r 


14. 


Sandstone, 


10' 


11. 


Sandstone, 


5' 


15. 


Fireclay, 


2' 


15. 


Limestone, 


8' 


12. 


Shales, 


15' 








16. 


Shale, 


12' 


13. 


Coal, Pittsburg, 


10' 








17. 


Sandstone, 


11' 














18. 


Arenaceous shale. 


20' 














19. 


Coal, Sewickly, 


5' 














20. 


Shale, 


8' 














21. 


Limestone, 


7' 














22. 


Sandstone, 


10' 














23. 


Limestone, 


22' 














24. 


Coal, Redstone, 


4' 














25. 


Limestone, 


.12' 














26. 


Shale, 


8' 














27. 


Coal, Pittsburg, 


14' 









The discrepancy between the two Ohio sections will be 
discussed in another portion of the paper. 

Taking Coal VIII of the Ohio section as our basis, we 
have a definite starting point, as that is the Pittsburg.^ VIII a 
is present at Wheeling ; does not appear at Wheeling creek, 
owing probably to imperfect exposure, but reappears on the 
east side as the Redstone. VIII b is seen in all the sections 



230 



The Upper Goal Measures 



and is the Sewichly. VIII c crosses the Ohio, is traceable 
along Wheeling creek for several miles, but soon runs under 
and does not reappear on the other side. IX and X do not 
cross the river into West Virginia, the former disappearing 
two miles west from the Ohio, while the latter is seen as a 
mere streak in the hills opposite Wheeling. It is possible, 
however, that careful tracing round by the north may estab- 
lish some connection between our Goal X and the Vniontown 
coal of Pennsylvania. Goal XI is persistent throughout, and 
is the Waynesburg. XII was not seen by me at Wheeling, 
though it is probably the bed noted by Mr. Briggs, eighty- 
two feet above the last. At Waynesburg and Uniontown, 
the interval is from fifty to sixty feet. Erosion has so 
removed Goal XIII and its adjoining rocks that it is to be seen 
at no point near the Ohio river, but its equivalent in Penn- 
sylvania is doubtless the top coal at Waynesburg and Union- 
town, fifty-live feet above the last. These two beds exist in 
West Virginia on the east side of the basin, but owing to the 
poverty of exposures no definite statement can be made 
respecting them. 

The relations of the coals in the several states may there- 
fore be represented as follows : 



OHIO. 


PENNSYLVANIA. 


WEST VIRGINIA. 


Coal XI 11. 


Top at Waynesburg. 


p 


Coal xn. 


Middle at Waynesburg. 


? 


Coal-si. 


Waynesburg. 


Waynesburg, 


Coal X. 


Uniontotonf 


Not present. 


Coal IX. 


Not present. 


Not present. 


Coal \in c. 


Not present. 


Not present (east side of basin). 


Coal mi h. 


Sewtckly. 


Sewickly. 


Coal VIII a. 


Redstone. 


Redstone. 


Coal xm. 


Pittsburg. 


Pittsburg. 



West of the Alleghany Mountains. 231 

DESCRIPTION OF THE BEDS. 

Coals XII aud XIII of the Ohio section are seen at few 
localities and are of economical importance nowhere. The 
former is enormously developed in the hills opposite Wheel- 
ing, where it is a dry coal, six feet thick, but heavily charged 
with pyrites. 

The Waynesburg (XI) is commonly known in western 
Belmont Co., Ohio, as the "jumping six-foot seam" owing 
to its sudden variations in thickness. In Harrison and Jef- 
ferson counties, it is worthless, never more than two feet 
thick, and is seen only near the tops of the highest hills. 
In western Belmont it is not worked and varies from six 
inches to nearly six feet in thickness. This change is seen 
in a cut west from Barnesville, at one end of which it is 
barely six inches while at the other it shows the following 
section : 

Coal, 1 ft. ; shale, 4 in. ; coal, 4 in. ; shale, 4 in. ; coal, 
4 in. ; shale, 2 ft. ; coal, 1 ft. Total, 5 ft. 4 in. 

Seven miles east from Barnesville it is seen in a cut, about 
one foot thick and parted in the middle by a thin layer of 
limestone. Near St. Clairsville, in the same county, it is 
rudely worked and shows three feet of very impure coal, 
resting almost immediately upon a foot of limestone. Near 
Bridgeport, opposite Wheeling, it is three feet six inches 
thick, roofed by six inches of impure black band which is 
overlaid by two feet of alternating bands of bituminous and 
ordinary shale. Here the limestone is eighteen inches below 
the coal. On a run four miles west from Belleair and just south 
of the railroad, it suddenly thickens out and becomes a con- 
fused mass of coal and shale not less than fifteen feet thick, 
and totally worthless. 

Followed into W^est Virginia it is seen on the top of 
Wheeling Hill, just back of the city. On Wheeling creek 
it is worked at Honey's Point, ten miles from the city, and 
proves to be a very good coal varying from two feet four 



232 The Upper Goal Measures 

inches to three feet thick. It is seen somewhat thicker on 
the south fork of the creek. On the eastern side of the 
basin it is seen at several j)oints along Scott's and Robinson's 
Runs, in Monongalia Co., W. Va., as well as in Greene Co., 
Penn. Its greatest development is seen on Scott's Run, 
where its changes are almost as interesting as in Belmont Co. 
Ohio. Two miles and a half up the run several openings 
are seen which give the following section : 

Coal, 1 ft. 9 in. ; Bituminous shale, 8 in. Coal, 4 ft. 8 in. 

Two miles farther up the run the shale has disappeared, 
and at an opening near Cassville, the bed shows full nine 
feet of coal. One mile beyond, the following section was 
obtained : 

Blue clay, 6 in. ; slaty coal, 1 ft. 3 in. ; clay, with many 
impressions of plants, 3 to 6 in. ; coal, 2 in. ; clay, 2 in. ; 
coal, 7 J in. ; clay, 1 ft. 1 in. ; coal, seen, 4 ft. 2 in. 

This opening is likely to prove of considerable interest as 
the fossils are very numerous and well preserved, while the 
horizon at which they occur is more than one hundred feet 
higher than any other yet discovered in the northern portion 
of the trough. On Robinson's Run the bed shows a tendency 
to develop in the same manner as follows : 

Bituminous shale, with thin laminse of coal, 2 ft. ; coal, 1 
ft. 6 in. ; clay, 7 in. ; coal, 4 ft. 8 in. 

Towards the south it rapidly diminishes in thickness and 
apparently thins out. 

In Pennsylvania the bed is usually double, but is nowhere 
so greatly developed as on Scott's Run. Near Waynesburg 
it shows coal, 1 ft. 8 in. ; clay, 1 ft. 2 in. ; coal, 3 ft. 2 in. 
Near Carmichaeltown, Greene Co., it shows coal, 3 ft. ; clay, 
3 in. ; coal, 3 ft. The clay is sometimes replaced by black 
slate with innumerable thin laminae of coal (Rogers). Near 
Brownsville it is five feet thick and sinsfle. 

In West Virginia the coal from this bed is dry, almost 
open-burning, gives a strong fire and is highly valued for 
domestic purposes. It contains a large proportion of pyrites. 



West of the Alleghany Mountains. 233 

sufficient probably to render it unfit for general use. In 
Pennsylvania its quality is inferior to that of coal from the 
Pittsburg, while in Ohio, it is, for the most part, utterly 
worthless. 

Coal X of the Ohio section is traceable through Belmont, 
Harrison and Jefferson counties, Ohio. It is usually a double 
bed and in some localities is still further divided. At the 
most westerly opening seen, in Warren Township, Belmont 
Co., it shows : slaty coal^ 1 ft 6 in. Goal, good, 3 ft. 

At Badgersburg in the adjoining township it displays the 
double character more clearly as follows : 

Laminated shale, 4 ft. ; coal, slaty, 1 ft. 7 in. ; shale and 
clay, 1 ft. 8 in. ; coal, 5 ft. ; fireclay, 1 ft. 

Here the coal is of good quality and compares favorably 
with that obtained from the Pittsburg, but the bed is much 
cut up by "clay-veins" and "horse-backs" both from above 
and from below, difficulties which seem to beset it generally. 
In Union township the bed is seen triple in Section 25 as 
follows : 

Goal, 1 ft. ; clay, 1 ft. 3 in. ; coal, 4 ft. 6 in. ; shale, 1 ft. ; 
coal, slaty, 1 ft. ; firecla}^ 1 ft. 3 in. 

Near the village of Flushing it is worked at many openings. 
While varying little in thickness it is exceedingly uncertain 
in quality; some banks yielding coal well fitted for black- 
smiths' use, while that from others in the immediate neigh- 
borhood is hardly fit for the coarsest of domestic purposes. 
The general section there is 

Goal, 1 ft. 2 in. ; shale and clay, 1 ft. 4 in. ; coal, 3 ft. to 
4 ft. 

As this bed is followed eastward toward the Ohio river it 
is seen to lose its thickness gradually, soon becoming of no 
economical importance and finally thinning out near the 
river. In Harrison Co., it is frequently seen at the road- 
sides ; but few openings are found owing tothe ready accessi- 
bility and better quality of the Pittsburg. Near New Athens 
the followino^ section was obtained : 



234 The Uppe7' Coal Measures 

Shale, 6 ft. ; coal, 10 in. ; fireclay, 10 iu. ; shale, 1 ft. 8 
in. ; coal, 4 ft. 8 in. ; shale, 3 ft. ; coal, 4 in. ; shale, 3 ft. 

Near Cadiz the same section is repeated. In Jefferson 
Co., the coal is frequently seen at the roadside but is so 
degraded as to be worthless. It is little more than a bitumi- 
nous shale, two to three feet thick. It may be the coal at 
Knoxville one hundred feet above VIII, but is there not 
more than eighteen inches. 

Coal IX likewise thins out before reaching the Ohio. It 
is seen at numerous localities in Belmont, Harrison and Jef- 
ferson counties, at varying distance above the Pittsburg and is 
usually about two feet six inches thick, divided midway by 
a thin clay parting. It is very persistent, rests directly on 
limestone and being of no economical value, is interesting 
chiefly because of its relations to the Pittsburg, which will 
be considered farther on. It is thickest in its southeastern 
prolongation and thins out toward the borders of the basin, 
W. and N. 

Coal VIII c is known locally in Ohio as the Glenco Coal, 
having been worked somewhat extensively at the station of 
that name, on the Central Ohio railroad, where it is nearly 
four feet. Along the railroad it retains its size to Belleair, 
but from that point northward it diminishes rapidly, becom- 
ing three feet along Wheeling creek and only fifteen inches 
at Martinsville, five miles north from Belleair. In West Vir- 
ginia, from Benwood to Wheeling it shows some singular 
variations. Back of the furnace at Benwood it is eighteen 
inches ; at the stone quarry, a short distance north, it is six 
inches, with one foot of coal five feet above it ; at the lime- 
stone quarry near South Wheeling, it is eight inches and the 
upper bed concealed ; while at Wheeling it is one foot with 
fourteen inches of coal six feet above it. Followed up the 
north fork of Wheeling creek it becomes more important 
and is mined near Triadelphia where it shows about three 
feet of very fiiir cannel. The double character displayed 
along the Ohio, on the Virginia side, is occasionally ex- 



West of the Alleghany Mountains. 235 

hibited in Belmont Co., but never to any very marked 
degree. 

The Setoickhj (VIII 6) is confined, in Ohio, to the neigh- 
borhood of Wheeling. It may be seen on the National Road, 
five miles west from the river and near Glenco on the Cen- 
tral Ohio railroad. At Belleair it is only six inches thick 
and at Bridgeport barely one foot. At Benwood, on the 
Virginia side, it shows : 

Coal, 12J in. ; clay, 4^ in. ; coal, 8^ in. ; slaty coal, 5 
in. Total, 2 ft. 3J in. 

From this point to Wheeling it runs about two feet, but 
at Wheeling it is much degrr.dsd and shows bituminous 
shale, 8 in. ; clay, 4 in. ; coal, 8 in. On Wheeling Creek, it 
shows a very complex division. 

Coal, 1 in. ; shale, 1 ft. 3 in. ; coal, 1 ft. 1 in. ; clay, 3 
in. ; coal, 10 in. 

It disappears under Wheeling creek about five miles east 
from Wheeling. It reappears on Scott's Eun, in Monon- 
galia Co., greatly increased in thickness and much changed 
in character. W^here first seen above the ran, it is five feet 
eight inches thick ; a short distance beyond, it is five feet and 
on the bank of the Monongahela river it is six feet. At all 
of these openings it is divided about midway by a layer of 
cannel from two to six inches thick. On Robinson's Run it 
is four feet six inches, with a clay parting midway and the 
cannel layer only one foot from the bottom. At its eastern 
outcrop near Laurel Hill it is only one foot thick, having 
been torn away during the deposition of its overlying sand- 
stone. It can be traced southward to the Baltimore and 
Ohio railroad but does not retain its thickness. The coal 
from this bed in West Virginia on the east side of the basin 
is of remarkably good quality, containing only a minute 
proportion of pyrites and showing little tendency to cake 
upon the fire. 

In Pennsylvania, this bed is persistent within certain limits, 
and varies from two to five feet in thickness. 



236 The Upper Coal Measures 

The Redstone (VIII a), like the preceding, is seen in Ohio, 
only near Wheeling. At Belleair it is six inches thick im- 
beddecl in one foot of black shale and enclosed by the lime- 
stone. At the limestone qnarry near Benwood, W. Va., it 
is barely one foot thick, a confused mass of shale and coal. 
At Wheeling it has the same character. On Scott's and 
Robinson's Runs, in Monongalia Co., it is from three to four 
feet thick, and yields a coking coal of very superior quality. 
In Pennsylvania it is a variable coal, ranging from eighteen 
inches to four feet in thickness. 

The Pittsburg (VIII) is well exposed in Belmont, Guern- 
sey, Harrison and Jefferson counties, Ohio, as well as in Ohio, 
Brooke, Marion, and Monongalia counties. West Virginia. 
Its most westerly exposure, aside from isolated patches, is 
at Sales ville, on the Central Ohio railroad, thirty-seven miles 
west from Wheeling, and its most northerly exposure, at 
Knoxville, Jeiferson Co., about the same distance north from 
Wheeling. Wherever accompanied by its normal roof, shale, 
succeeded by limestone, it is a double bed, consisting of two 
or even more divisions of coal separated by shale or clay. 

In Guernsey and Western Belmont, where the overlying 
limestone shale has been removed to be replaced by sand- 
stone, this bed has suffered the loss of its upper layers, and 
for the most part is single-bedded, varying from four to five 
feet in thickness with the sandstone resting directly upon it, 
or at most, separated by only a few inches of shale. In 
some localities the eroding current excavated deep trenches 
in the coal itself. These, having been filled up with sand, 
now appear as huge sandstone "horsebacks" from five to 
sixty feet wide. The change in the accompanying rocks is 
shown in the followino; sections. 

No. I is from Baruesville, Belmont Co. 

No. II is from Sewellsville in the same county and north from Barnes- 
ville. 

No. Ill is from Moorfield, Harrison Co., and north from Barnesville. 

No. IV is from near Deersville, " " " " " " 

No. V is from Egj'pt, Belmont Co., a short distance east from Sewells- 
ville. 



West of the Alleghany Mountains. 



237 



I. 


n. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


1. Coalx. 


1. Coal X. 1. Sandstone, 40' 


1. Sandstone, 70' 


I. Coal X. 


2. Sandstone, 55' 


2. Sandstone,105' 2. Limestone, 4' 


2. CoaZ VIII. 


2. Sandstone, 35' 


3. Coal IX, 11' 


3. Coal VIII. 


3. Shale, 5' 




3. Coal IX. 


4. Limestone, 5^' 




4. Coal Yin. 




4. Limestone, 70' 


5. Sandstone, 40' 








5. Shale, 5' 


6. Coal VIII. 








6. Coal vili. 



At a short distance east from each of these localities, the 
heavy limestone shown in Section V is seen forty to seventy 
feet thick. Westward the sandstone prevails to the ontcrop. 

A comparison of these sections shows that the heavy lime- 
stone of Section V has been removed to be replaced by 
sandstone. That the entire removal, shown in Section II, 
was not the work of a single current is evident from Section 
I. The first or earlier current exerted its force before the 
close of the liraestone-making epoch and the formation of 
Coal IX. The five and one-half feet of limestone shown in 
Section I yields a hydraulic current which is equal to any 
manufactured in our country. The upper layer of the lime- 
stone of Section V possesses hydraulic properties, where 
exposed, along the Central Ohio railroad, at New Egypt, 
Flushing, at Wheeling Creek, and at other localities in 
Belmont County, as well as at many places in Harrison 
County, so that we cannot doubt that it and the limestone 
at Barnesville are synchronous. The force of this earlier 
current must have been irregular, for at Deersville it has 
removed both limestone and shale, but has left the coal 
untouched ; at Moorfield it has spared the lower layer of 
limestone ; while at Sewellsville and Barnesville it has re- 
moved everything above the lower division of the coal and 
has trenched that deeply from these points westward to the 
outcrop. The second current did not exist until after the 
formation of Coal IX, and seems to have acted more energet- 
ically at the north than at the south. At Barnesville it 



238 The Upper Goal Measures 

spared not only the limestone but also the coal, whereas 
northward both were removed. The eastern boundary of 
these currents is very tortuous, but has a rudely northeast 
and southwest direction. They must have their origin in 
similar causes, as their courses coincide. 

As already stated, the Pittsburg, where accompanied by 
its normal roof, is a double coal. The roof-coal, or upper 
division, is subject to much variation. The partings in the 
lower division are very persistent. About one foot from 
the top is a band of pyrites, one to two inches thick ; near 
the middle is a clay parting, about one inch, and three to 
eight inches below this a second clay parting resembling the 
first; below this a thin band of pyrites is frequently found, 
but it is not persistent. The middle bench, between the 
clay partings, is ordinarily very pure, and well adapted to 
smiths' use. 

In Millwood and Londonderry townships, Guernsey Co., 
Ohio, the coal is single-bedded, with a sandstone roof, and 
varies little from four feet in thickness. In Warren and 
Kirkwood townships, Belmont Co., wherever roofed by sand- 
stone, it is single-bedded and badly cut out. In Oxford 
township, Guernsey Co., the roof-coal is occasionally seen 
one foot thick and separated by shale from the lower divi- 
sion . 

Near Deersville, in Harrison Co., the coal is opened and 
gives the following section : — 

Coal, 10 in. ; clay, 10 in. ; coal, 4 ft. 

The intimate structure of the lower division, as shown in 
an opening here, is peculiar in the thickness of the middle 
bench : 

Goal, 1 ft. 6 in. ; pyrites band, 1^ in. ; coal, 2 in. ; clay 
parting, ^ in. ; coal, 1 ft. 3 in. ; clay parting, 1 in. ; coal, 
10 in. ; total, 4 ft. 1 in. 

In the neighborhood of these sections the coal is soft, not 
good for hard firing, but is quite pure and shows few streaks 
or nodules of pyrites. Followed eastward the coal thickens, 



West of the Alleghany Mountains. 239 

becomes harder and less pure. About a mile west from 
Cadiz it shows : 

Bituminous shale, 4 ft. ; coal, 1 ft. 3 in. ; clay, 1 ft. 2 
in. ; coal, 5 ft. 6 in. 

At Cadiz the following section is said to exist in the 
shaft of the coal works : — 

Coal, 2 ft. ; limestone, 5 ft. ; clay, 2 ft. ; coal, 5 ft. 

It is impossible to verify this report, given by the fore- 
man, as the shaft is boarded up. If it be a true section it is 
exceedingly anomalous, for no such succession is to be seen 
in the neighborhood, and there are good exposures near by- 
Through this district the coal seems to be exceedingly 
pure, no pyrites are visible except in the tw^o bands, and 
blacksmiths pronounce the coal admirably fitted for their 
use. Yet analysis shows that it contains upwards of two per 
cent, of sulphur in its best part. That this is distributed 
throughout the coal as pyrites and not as an organic com- 
pound is evident from the fact that more than one-half re- 
mains after coking, forming almost two jjer cent, of the 
coke. At the most northerly exposure of the bed near 
Jetlerson, the intimate structure of the whole bed is as 
follows : — 

Coal, 1 ft. 6 in. ; clay, 1 ft. 6 in. ; coal, 1 ft. 9 in. ; 
clay parting, ^ in. ; coal, 6 in. ; clay parting, ^ in. ; coal, 1 
ft. 2 in. ; clay parting, ^ in. ; coal, 1 ft. 2 in. ; total of 
lower division, 4 ft. 8 in. 

The upper pyrites band is not persistent at this opening, 
and where seen is one-fifth of an inch thick. The lower 
band was not observed. Near Hanover, at the north w^estern 
exposure of the bed, the clay between the coals has almost 
disappeared, and we find 

Roof-coal, 1 ft. 6 in. ; clay parting, ^ in. ; coal, 3 ft. 
11 in. 

The roof- coal is slaty and easily recognized as separate 
from the main coal below. In Jefferson Co., this bed lies 
for the most part high up in the hills, and there are few ex- 

January, 1873. 17 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. x 



240 The Upper Goal Measures 

tensive openings. Near Unionport, on the Panhandle road, 
at the northern ontcrop, several banks have been opened, 
but none of them show the roof-coal. The roof is shale 
succeeded b}^ sandstone, and the coal is 4 ft. 2 in. to 4 ft. 9 
in. thick, with the following structure. 

Coal, 1 ft. 2 in. ; clay, § in. ; coal, 6 in. ; clay ^ in. ; coal, 
9^ in. ; clay, J in. ; coal, 1 in. ; clay, J in ; coal, 2 ft. 

The p3'rites bands are not persistent here but streaks and 
nodules are quite numerous. At another opening aljout half 
a mile from these, the roof-coal is still absent, the roof being 
shale, six feet thick, succeeded by sandstone. Following 
the road from Unionport to York several openings are seen, 
at one of which the following section was obtained : 

Goal, 1 ft. 6 in. ; clay, 10 in. ; coal, 5 ft. to 5 ft. 6 in. 

The roof-'^oal throughout this district seldom exceeds ten 
inches and the lower coal is much injured by pyrites both in 
nodules and streaks. In the neighborhood of Mt. Pleasant 
the roof-coal varies from one to three feet, and on Push Run 
it is said to be five feet at one opening, though only three 
feet were exposed at the time of my visit. 

In Belmont Co., at Hendrysburg, just east of the sand- 
stone deposit the coal shows : 

Goal, 10 in. ; clay, 4 in. ; shale with thin lamina3 of coal, 
1 ft. ; coal, 4 ft. 8 in. On Jug Run, a tributary of Wheel- 
ing creek, the roof-coal is divided, a condition rarely seen 
in Ohio, except along Wheeling creek, where it is quite 
common. The section is 

Goal, 6 in. ; clay, 8 in. ; coal, 10-15 in. ; clay 10-15 in. ; 
coal, 5 ft. 

In Colerain township, on Hughes' Run, the lower division 
becomes 5 ft. 8 in. 

On Barr's Run, the subdivision of the roof-coal is extraor- 
dinary, as follows : 

Goal, 3 in. ; black shale, ^ in. ; coal, 1^ in. ; shale J in, ; 
coal, 10 in. ; shale, 1 in. ; coal, IJ in. ; shale 5 in. ; coal IJ 
in. : with the lower division 4 ft. 10 in. seen. 



West of the Alleghany Mountains. 241 

In Pease township, on Wheeling creek, the whole bed is 
grecatly expanded. At one opening we find 

Coal^ 1 ft. 6 in. ; shale 8 in. ; coal, 10 to 18 in. ; clay, 8 
in. ; coal, 5 ft. 2 in. to 6 ft. In one or two neighboring 
openings the lower coal becomes seven feet. Here the coal 
is of excellent quality for fuel, though containing too much 
sulphur to be of value in the manufacture of iron or gas. 
The intimate structure of the lower bed is shown here to be 

Coal, 2 ft. 5 in. ; parting, 1 in. ; coal, 3 in. ; parting, 1 
in. ; coal, 3 ft. to 3 ft. 6 in. 

The upper pyrites bantl is seen persistently at from twelve 
to fourteen inches from the top, and the clay partings are 
full of pyrites. Nodules occur occasionally, but are small 
and easily separated. Along the Ohio river the roof-coal 
again becomes single, while the lower coal retains its thick- 
ness. Two or three miles above Martinsville we find coal, 
2 ft. ; clay, (3 iu. to 2 ft. ; coal, 4 ft. 9 in. to 6 ft. 

Here the roof-coal has not been mined. It is usually left 
with the clay parting to make a firm roof. The clay is much 
slickensided, rendering it liable to fall after removal of the 
coal below. 

Crossing the river into West Virginia we find this coal ex- 
tensively worked from Benwood opposite Belleair to twelve 
miles north from Wheeling, as well as on both branches of 
Wheeling creek. As might hardly be expected it shows 
little variation in character and the following is a represen- 
tative section : 

Coal, 1 ft. 3 in. to 1 ft. 8 in. ; clay, 1 ft. ; coal, 5 to 6 ft. 

Rarely a thin shale is found dividing the roof-coal. East- 
ward the bed disappears about five miles from Wheeling, 
and at the same distance southward it passes under the Bal- 
timore and Ohio railroad, the dip being southeast. Follow- 
ing the railroad we see the coal again at Fairmont, about 
eighty miles S. S. E. from Wheeling, dij)ping sharply to the 
northwest. Here it is single-bedded, about nine feet thick, 
and roofed by a heavy felspathic sandstone which is coarse 



242 The Upper Goal Measures 

grained and contains numerous coaly spots, evidently eroded 
coal. The coal from this locality is coked and tests have 
been made at Wheeling to determine its value in iron-making. 
It proves to be too impure for use even when mixed with 
thrice its bulk of Connellsville coke. It is, however, much 
more compact than that coke, and if it could be cleaned 
by washing would undoubtedly be employed in preference. 
Along the base of Laurel Hill (Chestnut Hill, of Pennsyl- 
vania Reports) , from Fairmont to the junction of Cheat and 
Monongahela rivers we find the coal always single-bedded 
and roofed by this coarse sandstone, though occasionally 
separated from it by a few inches of shale. The roof is 
very irregular and gives evidence that the eroding current 
which removed the upper beds, tore out much of the lower 
coal, v/hich, indeed, near Morgantown is sometimes reduced 
to six feet, though seldom less than eight. 

Crossing the Monongahela we find a number of openings 
on Scott's Run, which give the following general section : 

Coal, 3 in. ; shale, 1 ft. 9 in. ; coal, 1 ft. 3 in ; shale, 1 ft. 
5 in. ; coal, 10 ft. 

On Courtney's Run, one mile below Scott's Run, we get 

Coal, slaty, 1 ft. 9 in. ; shale, 3 ft. 5 in. ; coal, 4|^ in. ; 
shale, 1 ft. 10 in. ; coal, 1 ft. 4 in. ; shale, 10 in. ; coal, 8 ft. 
8 in. 

On Robinson's Run, one mile farther down, we find 

Slaty coal, 2 ft. ; black shale, 3 ft. 6 in. ; bituminous 
slate, 10 in. ; coal, 1 ft. 3 in. ; bituminous shale, 1 ft. ; coal, 
8 ft., exposed. 

Here, within a distance of six miles, the bed is seen first 
single-bedded, next, on Scott's Run the roof-coal is present 
and double, on Courtney's, a third layer is added to the 
roof, while on Robinson's, the two layers seen on Scott's lie 
together, though they are clearly distinct. 

In Pennsylvania, the character of this bed varies in the 
different basins, and is found only south of the Ohio and 
Conemaugh rivers. In the first basin south of those rivers 



West of the Allegliany Mountains. 243 

it is about nine feet thick and single ; in the second eight 
and one-half, and sii||le ; while in the third it is double with 
the lower division averaging between nine and ten feet, and 
the upper varying from two to five and one-half. 



RELATIONS OF THE PITTSBURG AND THE SUPERIOR COALS. 

It has been stated that Coals VIII a, VIII 6 and VIII c of 
the Ohio section are to be seen only in the neighborhood 
of Wheeling' and that their relation to coal VIII would be 
considered especially. Coal IX, though observable over a 
much larger area in Ohio is evidently related to VIII in the 
same manner as the intermediate beds. That the matter may 
be clearly set forth, the following sections are introduced : — 

No. I is from the Central Ohio railroad, eight miles from Belleair. 

No. II is from New Egypt, Belmont Co., Ohio. 

No. Ill is from Flushing, Belmont Co., Ohio. 

No. IV is from near Cadiz, Harrison Co., Ohio. 

No. V is from near York, Jetlerson Co., Ohio. 

No. VI is from near Uniouport, Jefferson Co., Ohio. 

No. VII is from Knoxville, Jefferson Co., Ohio (H. Newton). 

The section on the railroad is representative of a consider- 
able area and, in all important points, can be duplicated at 
Belleair and at many localities along Wheeling creek and the 
Ohio river. The sections obtained here cannot be directly 
connected with the others given, as high dividing ridges sur- 
round the portion of the state represented by Sect. I. The 
Cadiz section is virtually characteristic of eastern Harrison, 
but northwest the limestone No. IV becomes thinner as we 
approach the outcrop. 



244 



The Upper Coal Measures 



I. 




II. 




IV. 






VI. 












V 








1. Coalx, 


- 


1. Coalx, 


- 


1. Coalx, 


- 


1. 


Coal X, 


? 


2. Sandstone, 


35' 


2. Sandstone, 


35' 


2. Sandstone, 


75' 


2. 


Sandstone, 


85' 


3. Coal IX, 


H' 


3. Coal IX, 


^a 


3. CoaZix, 


2' 


3. 


Coal VIII, 


5' 


i. Limestone, 


70' 


4. Limestone, 


70' 


4. Limestone, 


20' 








5. Coal vin c, 


4' 


5. Shales, 


5' 


5. Shales, 


4' 








6. Sandstone, 


18' 


6. Coalvni, 


7' 


6. Coal VIII, 


8' 








7. Coal VIII b, 


ir 
















8. Limestone, 


20' 


III. 




V. 






VII. 




9. Coal VIII a, 


ir 


1. Coalx, 


— 


1. Coalx, 


3' 


1. 


Coal X, 


w 


10. Limestone, 


20' 


2. Sandstone, 


60' 






2. 


Sandstone and 










2. Sandstone, 


85' 




shale. 


100' 


11. Shale, 


5' 


3. Coalix, 























3. Coal IX, 


W 


3. 


Coal vm 





13. CoalYTii, 


8' 


4. Limestone, 


38' 




















4. Limestone and shale 7' 












5. Shales, 


4' 


5. CoaZ VIII, 


6h' 










6. Coal VIII, 


6' 













Should one follow Wheeling creek, Ohio, from its mouth 
to where it becomes Patterson's creek, he will find VIII c in 
its banks, as well as in those of its tributaries. Along the 
bottoms of Patterson's creek, which flows northeast, he will 
see it worked by stripping. But before reaching Union 
township the creek bed is some distance above it. Crossing 
the dividing ridge and descending into the valley of Spen- 
cer's creek, he will find Section II, six miles west of the 
locality where he last saw VIII c. If, however, instead of 
following Patterson's creek, he take the branch flowing from 
the northwest, he will lose sight of VIII c near Unioutown, 
and six miles further he will obtain Section III. The result 
is similar in other directions. In each of these sections a 
coal is seen one hundred feet, more or less, below Coal X. 
In No. I it is VIII c, in the others it is VIII. The accuracy 
of this identification has been questioned, so that the grounds 
on which it is made should be stated distinctly. 

Ascending the Central Ohio railroad from Belleair to the 
summit, twenty-two miles west from the Ohio river, nine 
beds of coal are seen, beginning with the Pittsburg (VIII) . 



West of the Alleghany Mountains. 



245 



Descending from the summit to Quaker City, thirty-five 
miles west from the river, only six can be seen, and at 
Quaker City the crinoidal limestone occurs. The relatV)u of 
the sections is as follows : — 



ASCENDING. 


DESCENDING. 


1. Coal xiu. 




1. Coal xiii. 




2. Shales and sandstone. 


70' 


2. Shale and Sandstone, 


70' 


3. Coa? XII. 




3. Coalxu. 




4. Shaly sandstone, 


40' 


4. Shale and Sandstone, 


30' 


5. Coal XI. 




5. Coalxj. 




6. Sandstone and shales, 


98' 


6. Sandstones with thin limestones 








and shales. 


100' 


7. Coalx. 




7. Coalx. 




8. Sandstone, 


35' 










8. Sandstone, 


60' 


9. Coal IX. 




9. Coal IX. 




10. Limestone, 


70' 










10. Limestone, 


5V 


11. Coal vm c. 












11. Sandstone, 


45' 


12. Sandstone, 


18-35' 


12. Coal vni. 




13. Coalvuib. 












13. Fireclay, 


5' 


14. Limestone, 


20' 










14. Limestone, 


4|' 


15. Coalvma. 












15. Sandstones and variegated shales, 


150' 


16. Limestone, 


20-25' 


16. Crinoidal Limestone. 




17. Shales, 


5-10' 






18. CoalYXSi, 








19. Fireclay and shales with 


thin 






limestone. 


10' 






20. Sandstone, 


90' 







It is evident from these sections, that east and west of the 
summit the strata are identical to No. 10 ot each, including, 
as was previously shown. No. 11 of the second ; and it is 
equally evident that'No. 12 of the second cannot be No. 11 of 
the first, but that it must be Goal VIII or the Pittsburg. The 
internal anatomy of the bed shows this, for even along the 
Central Ohio railroad, where the upper division has been re- 
moved, we find the charact;eribtic pyrites band and the olay 
partings. But in order to remove all possible doubt, the 



246 ^ The Upper Coal Measures 

Coal VIII of the second section was carefully traced with its 
crinoidal limestone along its western and northern outcrop, 
from^Salesville, in Guernsey Co., to the Ohio river at Steu- 
benville. From Steubeuvillc it was easily followed down 
the river to Belleair, where it was found to be identical with 
Coal VIII of the first section. It is clear, then, that the coals 
between VIII and IX have disappeared somewhere within 
the dividing ridges of Belmont Co. One would expect to 
find the successive disappearances along the Ohio, but the 
coals become very thin above Belleair and the superficial 
deposits are so thick that accurate tracing is impossible. 

It is well to note that wherever VIII c occurs, it has the 
same relative position to Goal X that Coal VIII holds west 
and north of the dividing ridges in Belmont Co., the interval 
in each case being about one hundred feet. 

The gradual disappearance of the limestone below Coal IX 
and the merging of that coal into Coal VIII are more easily 
traced. In Section I on the Central Ohio railroad the lime- 
stone is seventy feet ; at Barnesville the interval, including 
the shales and upper layers of Coal VIII, is only forty-five 
feet ; at New Egypt, considerably east of Barnesville, it is 
seventy feet ; at Flushing, north from Egypt, it is thirty- 
eight ; at Cadiz, northeast from Flushing, it is only twenty 
feet, and diminishes rapidly to the northwest, being only 
five feet at Hanover ; at York it is seven feet, including the 
shales, overlying VIII ; while at Unionport and Knoxville 
the limestone does not exist and Coal IX itself has disap- 
peared. From a careful study of these facts I am led to be- 
lieve that here we have a series of bifurcations of Coal VIII 
almost as extensive and interesting as those said to occur in 
the MammotJi bed of the anthracite region. It is worthy of 
note in this connection that the distance between Coals VIII 
and X gradually diminishes northward, from one hundred and 
five feet on the Central Ohio railroad to eighty-five feet at 
Unionport, and the interval between X and XI diminishes in 
the same direction from one hundred feet on the railroad 



West of the Alleghany Mountains. 



247 



to sixty feet at York. Under these circumstances I am 
inclined to look upon the thin coal, one hundred feet above 
Coal VIII at Knoxville as XI and not X. Thinning out 
northward, like the lower coals, as these beds do, and grad- 
ually uearing Goal YIII, it is more than probable that they 
in like manner were successively merged into Coal VIII, 
which I regard as the parent bed of all the upper coals in 
Ohio, remaiuiiig in existence as a flourishing swamp from 
the beginning of the epoch until its close. 

A similar condition seems to have existed on the eastern 
shore of the inland sea, though it is somewhat difiicult to 
obtain thoroughly satisfactory evidence, owing to the pecu- 
liar manner in which information is scattered through the 
Pennsylvania report. Three short sections have been taken 
from that report, one from each of the three basins south of 
the Ohio. 



3d basin, REDSTONE CREEK. 


2d basin, ligonier. 




1ST BASIN. ELK LICK. 


1. SeioicUy Coal (vm b), 4' 


1. Sewiclchj Coal (viil 6), 


3' 


1. Setoickly Coal ('S^lI b), ? 


2. Shale, 2' 


2. Not seen. 


5' 


2. Sandstone, 25' 


3. Limestone, 6 


3. Lhnestone, 


6' 


3. Shale, 15' 


4. Shale, 40 


4. Shale, 


10' 


4. Pittsburg Coal(ym), 9' 


5. Redstone Coal{\ui a), 11' 


5. Redstone Coal (viii a) 


. 3' 




6. Shales and saurlstone, 35' 


6. Shales, 


20' 




7. Pittsburg Coal (viii), 14' 


7. Pittsburg Coal (viii). 


sr 





CONDITIONS DURING DEPOSITION OF THE UPPER 
COAL MEASURES. 

To many it may appear that the data presented in this 
paper are insufficient to justify generalization respecting the 
conditions prevailing during the epoch of the upper coal 
measures. But let it be remembered that the portion of the 
field examined is by far the most important economically 
and by far the most satisfactory in the exhibition of details. 



248 



The Upper Goal Measures 



South from the railroad line bounding our observations, the 
greater portion of the section, which we have been discuss- 
ing, disappears and the only information to be obtained 
respecting it is found along the line of outcrop on the west, 
or on the steep mountain slopes on the east. In no other 
portion of the basin can details be obtained respecting the 
strata below the Waynesburg coal. To give a fair illustra- 
tion I have introduced for comparison four sections from the 
east side of the basin and four from the west side as follows : 

I from Wheeling. 

II from Barnesville, Ohio. 

III from near Georgetown, Ohio. 

IV from near Yorlc, Ohio. 

V from Ligouier, Penn. (Rogers). 

VI from Monongalia Co., West Virginia. 

VII from Uniontowu, Penn. (Rogers). 

VIII from Elk Lick, Penn. (Rogers). 



I. 


I. 


I, 


1. 


Waynesburg Coal (xi) 


, 3 


12. 


Shale, 




3' 


23. 


Coal, 

Sandstone, vine, 

Coal, 


ir 


2. 


Shale, 


33 


13. 


Limestone a 


nd Shale 


13' 


24. 


6' 


3. 


Limestone, 


15 


14. 


Shale, 




6' 


25. 


1 


4. 


Sandstone, 


3' 


15. 


Limestone, 




2' 


26. 


Sandstone, 8-24' 


6. 


Limestone, 


5' 


16. 


Shale, 




4' 


27. 


SewicJcly Coal (viii b) 


n' 


6. 


Shale, 


5' 


17. 


Limestone, 




3|' 


28. 


Limestone, 


24' 


7. 


Limestone, 


2' 


18. 


Shale, 




3' 


29. 


Redstone Coal (vui a) 


, 1' 


8. 


Shale, 


2' 


19. 


Limestone, 




1' 


.30. 


Limestone, 


20' 


9. 


Limestone and Shale 


11' 


20. 


Shale, 




3' 


31. 


Shale, 


6' 


10. 


Shale, 


5' 


21. 


Limestone and Shale 19^' 


32. 


Pittsburg Coal (vrn) 


8' 


11. 


Limestone, 


W 


22. 


Shale, 




3' 










n. 




II. 


II. 


1. 


Waynesburg Coal (XI) 


1-5' 


5. 


Coal X, 




4' 


9 


Sandstone, 


40- 


2. 


Sandstone and Shale, 


50' 


6 Sandstone, 




55' 


10. 


Pittsburg Coal (\lil) 


4' 


3. 


Limestone, 


0' 


7. 


Conl IX, 




li' 








4. 


Sandstone and Shale, 


45' 


8. 


Limestone, 




51' 









West of the Alleghany Mountains, 



249 



ni. 


V. 


vir. 


1. 


Wayneshurg Coal (XI 


,2' 


1. Coal ( Uniontoionl) (X 


?) ? 


1. 


Limestone, 


12' 


2. 


Shale, 


5' 


2. Not seen, 


10' 


2. 


Limestone, sandstone 














and shale. 


p 


3. 


Limestone, 


10' 


3. Limestone, 


7' 


3. 


Shale, 


15' 


4. 


Sandstone, 


20' 


4. Sandstone, 


35' 


4. 


Sandstone and 


some 


5. 


Limestone, 


10' 


5. Seivicldy Coal (VIII b) 


. 3' 




limestone, 


110'? 


6. 


Sandstone, 


25' 


G. Not seen. 


5' 


5. 


SetcicMy Coal, 


4|' 


7. 


Limestone, 


7' 


7. Limestone, 


4-8' 


6. 


Shale, 


2' 


8. 


Sandstone, 


8' 


8. Shale, 


10' 


7. 


Limestone, 


6' 


9. 


Shale, 


6' 


9. Redstone Coal (VIII a 


, 3' 


8. 


Shale, 


40' 


10. 


Coal X, 


ih' 


10. Shale, 


20' 


9. 


Redstone Coal, 


i-2r 


11. 


Shale, 


10' 


11. Pittsburg Coal (■\^1I), 


sr 


10. 


Shale with calcareous 














nodules, 


15' 


12. 


Sandstone, ' 


55' 






11. 


Sandstone, 


5' 


13. 


Coal IX, 


2J' 


VI. 




12. 


Shale, 


15' 


14. 


Limestone, 


25' 


1. Wayneshurg Coal (xi 


), 9' 


13. 


Pittsburg Coal, 


14' 


15. 


Shale, 


G' 


2. Sandstone, 


15' 








16. 


Pittsburg Coal (VIII), 


7-8' 


3. Shale, 

4. Limestone, 


8' 
5' 




vin. 










5. Shale, 


4' 


1. 


Coal, 


? 




IV. 




















G. Sandstone, 


15' 


2. 


Sandstone, 


50' 


1. 


Waijnesburg Coal (IX 


, ? 


















7. Limestone, 


30' 


3. 


Seioickly Coal, 


? 


2. 


Shale and Sandstone, 
















with Limestone no 




8. Sandstone, 


25' 


4. 


Sandstone, 


25' 




dales, 


GO' 


















9. Limestone, 


6' 


5. 


Shale, 


15' 


3. 


Coal X, 


3' 


















10. Sandstone, 


15' 


6. 


Pittsburg Coal, 


9' 


4. 


Sandstone and Shale 


85' 


11. Limestone, 


7' 








5. 


Coal IX, 


n' 


12. Sandstone, 


10' 








6. 


Shale with thin lime- 
















stone, 


10' 


13. Limestone, 


8' 








7. 


Pittsburg Coal (viii), 


Gl 


14. Shale, 

15. Sandstone, 

16. Sewichly Coal, 

17. Shale, 

18. Limestone, 

19. Sandstone, 

20. Limestone, 

21. Pedstone Coal, 

22. Limestone, 

23. Shale, 

24. Pittsburg Coal, 


12' 
31 
5' 
8' 
7' 

10' 

22' 
4' 

12' 
8' 

14' 









250 



The Up])er Coal Measures 



The relative geographical positions of these localities, as 
well as those of some others already referred to, are shown 
in the following diagram. 




Barnesville.* 



* Scott's RuD. 



A similar series of sections of the Barren measures shows 
that the strata of that group diminish in thickness east and 
west of the central portion of the basin. There can be no 
doubt, therefore, that at the beginning of the Barren epoch, 
the Alleghany basin had already its present shape and was 
bounded on the west by the slopes of the Cincinnati axis, 
on the east by the slopes of a similar axis. The events of 
the succeeding epoch seem to show that the Cincinnati axis 
had attained its highest elevation before the deposition of the 
upper coal measures began. At the close of the Barren 
epoch, the northern portion of the basin was a half-filled 
valley such as is now presented by the bed of the Ohio river, 
below Smith's Ferry. 

A comparison of the upper coal measure sections given 
above, shows that as we leave the middle of the basin we find 
the limestones diminishing in every direction. In the portion 
below Coal X, these limestones, followed west and north do 
not give place to otf-shore deposits, but simply disappear 
and permit the coal-beds to approach each other ; whereas, 
eastward, they interlock with sandstones and shales, before 



West of the Alleghany Mountains. 251 

disappearing, which in their turn thin out as do the lime- 
stones on the west side of the basin. This is evidence of 
clear, quiet waters on the west, while rivers or shore cur- 
rents carried in their freight of sand and mud from the east 
and northeast. 

After the formation of Goal X, which, as has been stated, 
may have been synchronous with the Uniontmun of Pennsyl- 
vania, the conditions were more nearly alike throughout the 
basin until the formation of the Waynesburg , though at the 
east and west, alternations of limestone and sandstone during 
the greater portion of the interval give evidence of neighbor- 
ing shores. The limestone is still greatest in the central 
portions, but is easily traceable in strata or nodules as far 
west as Barnesville, north as Unionport, and east as Elk Lick 
creek, all on the line of final outcrop. 

On the west side of the basin, we find the Redstone, Se- 
wickly, VIII c and IX successively merged into the Pittsburg. 
On the east side we find the Redstone disappearing and the 
Sewickly brought nearer to the Pittsburg by so much as the 
Redstone was distant from it, while the interval between 
the Sewickly and the Uniontown (X ?) is reduced at the 
most easterly exposure to barely one-third of what it is 
nearer the central portion, on the Monongahela. We have 
thus evidence of a series of gradual subsidences, separated 
by intervals of repose, during each of which a lid of coal 
was formed over all or a part of the basin. These subsi- 
dences could not have been paroxysmal, for we find that as 
the shore-line sank, the great Pittsburg marsh crept up the 
shore, continually from the beginning of the epoch until long 
after the formation of Coal IX, perhaps until the very close 
of the epoch. Thus it is that, although giving origin to so 
many subordinate seams, the great coal bed diminishes in 
thickness when followed west from the Ohio, or east from 
the immediate valley of the Monongahela. 

It is highly probable that the Pittsburg was begun on the 
east and advanced westward ly. We have ample evidence in 



252 Lingual Dentition of Gaeotis. 

the sandstone and shale, which at the east separate it from 
its limestone, that a delta was there forming and pushing out 
to the west, so that on the east the conditions requisite for 
the formation of coal would first exist. On the east side of 
the basin we find nine to ten feet in the lower division of the 
bed, while on the west side we find only five to six feet. 
I am led, then, to the following conclusions : 

1. The Great Bituminous Trough, west of the Alleghanies, 
does not owe its basin shape primarily to the Appalachian 
Revolution. 

2. The coal measures of this basin were not united to 
those of Indiana and Illinois at any time posterior to the 
lower coal measure epoch, and probably were always distinct. 

3. The upper coal measures originally extended as far 
west as the Muskingum River, in Ohio. 

4. Throughout the upper coal measure epoch the general 
condition was one of subsidence interrupted by longer or 
shorter intervals of repose'. During subsidence the Pitts- 
burg marsh crept up the shore, and at each of the longer 
intervals of repose pushed out seaward upon the advancing 
land, thus giving rise to the successive coal-beds of the upper 
coal measures. 

5. The Pittsburg marsh had its origin at the east. 

XXI. — On the Lingual Dentition of Goeotis. 
bt thos. bland and w. g. binney. 

Read January 6, 1873. 

The genus Goeotis was described by Shuttle worth,* founded 
on a curious mollusk from Porto Rico. The lingual denti- 
tion was said to be nearly the same as in Vitrina and Zonites, 
the teeth arranged in oblique rows, centrals obtusely tri- 

*" Lamina lingiialis fere ut in Vitrina at Zonites constituta videtnr, papilla nempe 
numerosaa in seriebiis utrinque obliqiiis orclinatre sunt : papilla centrali obtuse tri ' 
dentata; raediis vix a centrali diversis; lateralibus autem subulnto-productis, arouatia 
basi? bifurcatis. An maxilla adsit hteret." " E formatione liugfuse animal videtur 
sine dubio carnivorum." Shuttlewortli, Bern Mit. 1S54, p. 34, 



Lingual Dentition of Gmotis. 253 

dentate, laterals scarcely differing from the centrals, mar- 
ginals lengthened, awl-shaped, arcuate, at base ? bifurcate. 
The presence of a jaw was not verified by Shuttleworth. 
The character of the dentition was considered such as to 
denote carnivorous habits of the animal. 

This is all the information as to the lingual dentition of 
Gceotis hitherto published. Morch, indeed, places the genus 
(Jour, de Conch. 1865, 384) in his section Odontogiiatha, 
which comprises the Terrestrial Pulmonata furnished with a 
ribbed jaw, not from any original investigations, but simply 
from its assumed identity with Parmacella , a genus believed 
to have a ribbed jaw, judging from the obscure figure given 
by Ferussac of the mouth of Parmacella palliolum (Hist. t. 
8 A, fig. 8). Shuttleworth's descr'ption rather indicates the 
form of dentition figured by us (Land and Fresh Water 
Shells, I), of many species of Vitrina, Ilyallna and Zonites. 
The bifurcated base of the marginal teeth may even be sup- 
posed to be such as we have figured {I. c. 17) in the centrals 
of Glandina truncata. 

We have long had in our possession the jaw and lingual 
membrane of a specimen of Gmotis from Porto Rico. The 
animal was received many years ago by one of us (Bhmd) 
from the late Mr. Robert Swift, the alcohol in which it was 
originally preserved evaporated, and the jaw and lingual 
membrane were, not very long since obtained, by macera- 
tion, in a somewhat imperfect condition. Comparing the 
latter with Shuttleworth's description, we find that at first 
we had misunderstood his words, which, indeed, are quite 
liable to mislead, especially in the infelicitous comparison 
with Vitrina and Zonites. We give, therefore, a more de- 
tailed description and figure, in order to prevent further 
errors. 

Jaw (plate xi, fig. 1) long, low, slightly arcuate, ends attenuated, ex- 
tremely thin and delicate, transparent : in one single piece, but divided b}' 
over forty* delicate ribs into as many plate-like compartments of the type 

* Fragments only of the jaw were saved ; the largest one we have figured, and from 
it estimate the whole number of ribs. 



254 Lingual Dentition of Goeotis. 

common iu Bulimiilus and Cylindrella, but without the upper median tri- 
angular plate characteristic of the latter ; both margins scarcely serrated 
by the euds of the ribs. 

From our nuniei'ous observations on the jaws of Pidmo- 
nata (see Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y., X, 165), we consider 
this to be a form of ribbed jaw, the phile-Iike sections being 
actually divided by delicate longitudinal ribs. It is to be 
understood that the jaw is not in separate pieces, as in Or- 
thalicus and Liguus (see Ibid, p. 168). Our iigure of the 
jaw of Helix turhiniformis^ Pfr. (Ibid, pi. ii, fig. 2), gives 
the same type of jaw, though differing in form. That of 
Succinea ? appendiculata (Ibid, X, pi. ix, tig. 2) is still 
nearer the jaw we are considering. 

The lingual membrane is entirely different from what we 
had supposed from our interpretation of Shuttle worth's de- 
scription. We recognize no resemblance to that of Zoniles 
and Vitrina, but rather (in arrangement and shape of teeth 
and position of cusp) to that figured by us of Orlhalicus 
zebra and undalus (Amer. Jour, of Conch. 1870, pi. ix, 
figs. 2, 6, 10, 12,) and Liguus fat<ciatus drawn by Leidy, 
(Terr. Moll. U. S. II, 270). From these, however, it dif- 
fers in the development of its cusp, which shares the trifid 
character, and nearly resembles that of Helix muscarum 
(Am. Jour. Conch. I. c. fig. 4). 

Lingual membrane long and broad, composed of numerous rows of 
teeth arranged en chevron. Centrals very long, narrow, obtuse above, 
Incurved at sides, obtusely rounded and expanded at base near which is a 
short, gouge-shaped, expanded cusp, whose lower edge is bluntly triden- 
tate. Laterals same as centrals in shape, but a little larger, and unsym- 
metrical from the disproportionate expansion of the outer denticle of the 
cusp. Marginals same as laterals, but moi'e slender, with more developed 
and graceful teeth, of which the median is pointed, often bifid. There is 
much variety in the shape and denticulation of the cusps. The middle 
denticle is always the smallest. 

We find no distinct marginal teeth of the aculeate type 
noticed by Shuttle worth, but believe he was misled by see- 
ing these teeth in exact profile, when they have somewhat 
that form as shown in our figure 6. Seen from above, 



Lingual Dentition in Physa. 255 

however, the same teeth retain their subquadrate form, 
figure 7. Both jaw and lingual membrane, therefore, 
prove that the genus belongs to the Ilelicince of our pro- 
posed arrangement of Pulnionata (see Ann. Lye. N. H. of 
N. Y., l. c. 165), or to the Helicea of von Martens. (Die 
Heliceen, ed. 2.) 

By its jaw, Gceoiis calls to our mind the genus Amphibu- 
lima (see pi. xi, fig. 8), as well as the shell known as Suc- 
cineaf appendiculata Pfr., whose generic position we have 
left in doubt (Ibid, X, pi. ix, fig. 2), and many species of 
BuUmulus. Wq have above shown the resemblance of its 
lingual dentition to that of Ortlialicus and Liguus, as well as 
of Helix muscanim. It also forcibly reminds one of some 
of the features of the dentition of Triboniophorus. 

Our figure 5, plate xi, gives the central and adjacent lat- 
eral teeth : fig. 6 an extreme marginal in profile, on a dif- 
ferent scale of enlargement : fig. 7 a marginal seen as in 
fig. 6 : fig. 1 the largest fragment saved of the jaw. 



XXII. — Note on a curious form of Lingual Dentition in 

Physa. 

By THOS. bland and W. G. BINNEY. 

Read January 6, 1873. 

We have received from Governor Rawson specimens in 
alcohol of a shell apparently belongiug to the genus PJiysa^ 
collected at Point a Pitre by M. Schramm. On examining 
its jaw and lingual dentition, we find both diflferent from 
what is usual in that genus. The jaw is not at all chevron- 
shaped,* but is simply slightly arcuate, long, low, ends atten- 
uated. The lingual membrane wants entirely the broad 
transverse rows of coml)-like teeth arranged en chevron 

* See flgure of jaw of Physa in Land and Fresh Water Shells of North America, II, 
p. 75, fig. 123. 
JANUAKT, 1873. 18 Ann. Ltc. Nat. Hist., Vol. x. 



256 Lingual Dentition in Physa. 

which are characteristic of Physa* On the other hand, the 
lingual membrane is long and narrow, with almost horizontal 
rows of teeth. The centrals are narrow, somewhat expanded 
at the base, at apex recurved into a slightly produced quin- 
quedentate cusp, the central denticle the largest. The later- 
als are quadrate, the whole apex recurved into a broad cusp 
produced almost to the base of the tooth, with one large, 
inner, stout, pointed denticle which bears on its inner side 
another small pointed denticle, and two, small, irregular, 
sharp, side denticles. The marginals are but modifications 
of the laterals, wider than high, with one bluntly bifid inner, 
and several small, blunt, irregular side denticles. 

The centrals and laterals are like those of Limnaea^ rather 
than of Physa, the marginals more like those of PlanorbisX 
but much more quadrate. 

In our figure 2 of plate xi, we give one central and several 
lateral teeth, in fig. 3 one marginal : fig. 4 represents the 
jaw. 

A view of the shell is also given in fig. 9. 

We have not been able to determine this species of Physa, 
represented by M. Schramm to be very rare. In some re- 
spects it appears to be allied to P. striata D'Orb. (Cuba I. 
192, Tab. xiii, figs. 14-16), received by that author from 
M. Ferdinand de Cande, but whether from Martinique or 
Cuba was not positively known. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XI. 

Fig. 1. A portion of jaw of Gceotis (p. 253.) 

2. Physa ? (See p. 255.) One central tootli and two laterals 

from the lingual membrane. 

3. The same as 2. One marginal tooth. 

4. The same. The jaw. 

♦See Ibid, p. 81, fig. 138: p. 82, fig. 141. Physa ampullacea, Gld. from Colorado Ter- 
ritory, lately collected by Dr. E. Palmer, has the same type of lingual. Dall has detected 
a more simple form of tooth alternating with the comb-like laterals of Physa. See his 
exhaustive review of Limnceidce etc., in Ann. of Lye. N. H. of N. Y., IX, 333, for valu- 
able information on the dentition of the iresh water Pulmonates. 

tSee our figures in the Amer. Jour, of Conch., 1871, pi. xii. 

JSee our figure in Ann. of Lye. N. H. of N. Y., IX, p. 292. 



Catalogue of the PyraUdcB of California^ etc. 257 

Fig. 5. Lingual dentition of Gceotis. One central tooth with adjacent 
laterals. 

6. Same as last, but more enlarged An extreme marginal tooth 

in profile. 

7. Same as 5. An extreme marginal tooth. 

8. Amphibulima patula (see p. 225.) The jaw folded as it appears 

on the microscope slide, the position taken from its extreme 
tenuity. 

9. Physa sp. indet. Shell. Jaw and Lingual dentition. Figs. 

2-4. 



XXIII. — Catalogue of the Pyralidoi of California, with 
descriptions of neiv Calif ornian Pterojphoridoe. 

Bt a. S. PACKARD, Jk. 

Read January 6, 1873. 

This catalogue of the Pyralid moths of the Pacific states 
is published more to show how extremely limited is our 
present knowledge of this family, as regards the region west 
of the Rock}^ Mountains, than to give a view of the group as 
developed in that part of the world. Neither Guenee in his 
"Histoire Naturelle des Insects, Species general des Lepidop- 
teres," Tome VIII, Deltoides et Pyralites (1854), nor Bois- 
duval* in his writings on the Lepidoptera of California, 
mention any species of this family, and it is believed that, 
with the exception of Botys fodinalis, described by Mr. 
Lederer from California, the following descriptions are the 
first references to the California species of this interestino- 
group. 

For my material I am chiefly indebted to Mr. Henry 
Edwards, of San Francisco, to whose energy in collecting, 
the science of entomology is under so many obligations. A 
few specimens have been received from Mr. Junius Holleman 
of Goose Lake, near Fort Bidwell, Siskiyou County, Cal. 

♦Lepidopteres de la Californle (Annales Soc. Ent. France, Ser. 2, 1852, Tome 10, 
p. 275-324 ; sfer. 3, 1855, Tome 3). Bull. p. 31. 

See also Aiuials Soc. Ent. Belgique, Tome xii, 5, 1869. 



258 Catalogue of the Pyralidce of California, etc. 

Among those he sent are some extremely interesting Cram- 
bus-like forms, one with pectinated antennae, too imperfectly 
preserved for description, but sufficiently so to indicate some 
remarkable types of this group of the family. Several inter- 
esting forms have been received from Mr. James Behrings. 

An interesting fact in geographical distribution is the con- 
siderable extension given to the range of one of the probably 
cosmopolitan species of moths. I refer to the N^omopJiila 
noctuella (Schiff.). It has hitherto been reported by Guenee 
from different parts of Europe, Algeria, Caifraria, Bengal, 
Pondicherry, Brazil, and Philadelphia. It has also been 
known by myself to occur in New England and New York, 
and now it has been received from Oregon, near the Cali- 
fornian state boundary line, from Siskiyou Co., California, 
near the Oregon line, and from the vicinity of San Francisco. 
Occurring so far inland as the settlements about Fort Bid- 
well, Siskiyou County, and also the newly settled portions 
of Oregon, it may be inferred that this species has not been 
introduced by man, and that it is probably autochthonous 
where it has been observed, at least in America. A variable 
moth wherever it occurs, it varies in much the same manner 
in California as in Europe. Such cosmopolitan forms give 
rise to the suspicion that they are relics of a preceding geo- 
logic age, which is borne out by the fact that quite a gap 
separates it from its nearest allies. 

Another point of interest is to ascertain what European 
features occur in the few species yet known of this family. 
The assemblage, so far as our rather scanty knowledge of this 
group may be depended upon, is allied as closely to the fauna 
of eastern North America as to Europe, as seen in the 
species of Botys and Cataclysta. In the group of Ptero- 
phoridse one species quite unlike any European one, so far as 
I am aware, has a very close ally in New England. 

In the measurements hundredths of an inch are used, and 
instead of indicating the alar expanse, the length of one fore 
wins: is ofiven to secure neater exactitude. 



Catalogue of the Pyralidoe of California, etc. 259 

Pempelia fenestrella, n. sp. — 2$ 4$. In this species tlie fore wings are 
long: and rather narrower than in the European P. palumbdla, aurl the 
large, broad palpi, though of much the same form, are porrected instead 
of ascending ; but in venation and the structure of the antenuaj it agrees 
with the European species, and PempeUa ovalis from New England, 
in which the wings are much shorter. Bod}^ and wings cinereous, 
or granite-gray, the abdomen and legs being paler, and concolorous with 
the legs and hind wings, which are of the usual glistening hue of the 
genus. Eore wings of the same ash hue as the thorax, specified with 
black scales. Two black dots at the base of the wing below the median 
vein. Beyond on the submedian vein is a longitudinal, blackish, iucou- 
spicuous stripe edged on each side with dull ochreous. Above it is a 
dark point on the median and subcostal veins, with whitish scales sur- 
rounding the middle dot, but there are no raised scales on the wing. 
Just beyond the middle of the wing are two, prominent, squarish, black 
spots, one on the median the other on the subcostal vein. A distinct, 
white, submarginal line, parallel with the outer edge and bordered in- 
tei-nally with black scales, especially marked on the costa. The space 
between this line and the outer edge is filled in with deep, ochreous, lon- 
gitudinal bars, alternating with black streaks, of which the costal one is 
the widest and shortest. These bars do not quite reach the distinct, 
black line at the edge. Fringe ash, twice lineated with whitish. Beneath 
a pale, whitish, straight, submarginal line, edged within towards the costa 
with dark ash. 

Length of body $, -45, ?, -45 of an inch; fore wing $, -43, $, -44 of 
an inch. California (Edwards). 

Easily recognized by the very distinct, yellow and black bars ; the prom- 
inent, twin, squarish spots, and the distinct, white, once sinuate, whitish, 
submarginal line. 

Pempelia leoniaella, n. sp. — 2 J IJ. Antennae and palpi as in P.fenes-, 
trella, but the fore wings are more produced towards the apex, the outer 
edge being more oblique. Body and base of fore wings tawny, the thorax 
being claj'-yellow ; palpi clear ash. Basal third of fore wings tawny yel- 
low, somewhat orange colored externally, outer edge of this colored 
portion directed regularly, obliquely outwards from the costa to the 
inner edge, with three, black, venular dots along this olilique l)order. In 
the ash space beyond is a distinct, dark, discal dot, and the veins are 
black. A broad, marginal, tawny yellow band, the sides even and par- 
allel; the costa, however, is cinereous to the apex. A marginal black 
line, and a fine dark line in the cinereous fringe near the base. Hind 
wings of the usual hue. Abdomen luteous. Beneath fore wings smoky, 
dusky towards the costa; a pale, costal streak, not forming a submar- 
ginal, pale line as in P. fenestrella. Legs dark ashen, whitish at ends of 
joints. 

Length of body <?, -.50, ?, -45 of an inch; of fore wing S, "^C, ?, '45 
of an inch. California (Edwards). 



260 Catalogue of the Pyralidce of California, etc. 

Differs from P. fenestrella in the more acute primaries, the tawny base 
of the wings and the conspicuous, marginal, broad, tawny band, and the 
want of the twin squarish spots in the middle of the wing. 

Nomophila noctueUa (Schiff.) (Slenopteryx hybridalis Hiibn.) After com- 
paring four specimens from Oregon (collected by Mr. J. Holleman) and 
ten from California (coll. Edwards) with one from New York (Angus) 
and three from New England, and four from Europe, I can find no valid, 
differences. The largest suite, from California, vary in the same manner 
as in the European specimens. One form is dark with the markings very 
distinct, the other is paler, with the discal dot and reniform spot partially 
obsolete, and the lines indistinct, while the whole moth is somewhat 
tawny. The variation in size is much as in the European specimens. 
One specimen was collected by Mr. J. Holleman in Siskiyou Oo., Cal. 

Scopula occidentalis, n. sp.— 2(J 2$. In this species the outer edge of 
the fore wings is much more oblique, and the costa much more rounded 
at the apex than in the European S. inquinatalis, otherwise structurally 
it is closely allied. Stone gray; head and palpi gray; orbits white ; head 
and palpi white beneath. Fore wings uniform stone gray, crossed by 
two, distinct, wavy, dark lines ; inner line shaded with whitish internally, 
with a large angle projecting outwards just below the median vein, and 
another inwards on the submedian. Discal and reniform spots very dis- 
tinct, black. Outer line finely scalloped, curved outwards from the costa 
to the fourth median venule, whei-e the line foi-ms a sinus, and angulated 
outwards on the submedian vein; the line broadly shaded externally with 
whitish. A marginal row of black dots. Fringe concolorous with the 
wing. Hind wings dusky, fringe pale; an obscure, short, dusky line 
beyond the middle. Beneath, much paler than above, dot and reniform 
line distinct, outer line faintly reproduced, as also the marginal dots. A 
short, faint line on hind wings. Abdomen dark above. Legs whitish. 

Length of body $, -44, ?, -40 of an inch; of fore wing $, -44, ?, -42 
of an inch. California (Edwards and Behrens). 

The lines and spots are very distinct on the fore wings, and in some 
specimens the space between the two lines is slightly darker than the 
rest of the wing. 

Botys Californicalis, n. sp. — 1 $ . This species belongs to the Rhodaria 
group, having broad, triangular, acute palpi, and being of small size, with 
the hind tibife rather swollen. Body and wings light brick red, with a 
deep, ochreous tinge. Orbits white, becoming red towards the front, 
palpi grayish-red, white along the under edge; head beneath white. 
Fore wings ochreous red, a basal, fine, regularly curved, waved dark 
line ; an outer, similar line, straight on the costa and inner edge, curved 
outwards and wavy between the subcostal vein and fourth median venule, 
there being four distinct scallops in this curved portion. Edge of wing 
broadly margined with dull, leaden, reddish-brown ; fringe reddish-brown 
on basal half, much paler beyond. Hind wings marked much as prima- 
ries, being reddish, and bordered widely with dull, leaden, reddish- 



Catalogue of the Pyrdlidoe of California, etc. 261 

brown ; base of wing powdered with dark scales, and the outer, curved, 
dark line present, diflFusely shaded within. Beneath, paler than above, 
a large, dark, discal patch ; costal and outer margin of wing dull, leaden 
brown; hind wings with a conspicuous, single, definite line, not shaded 
within, outer edge bordered widely with dusky brown. Fringe as in pri- 
maries. Abdomen reddish, with whitish, conspicuous lines covering 
hinder edge. 

Length of body ?; of fore wing, -28 of an inch. California (Edwards). 

Botys unifascialis, n. sp.— 2^. Of an uniform, stone-gray color, with a 
dark olive greenish hue. Head and thorax rather darker than the fore 
wings. The only mark on the fore wings is a submarginal, broad, sinuous 
diffuse, pale band, which is curved outwards on the upper half and in- 
wards on the lower. Fringe concolorous with the wings. Hind wings 
paler than primaries, with a slightly marked, median, broad, difluse band ; 
near edge of wing whitish ; extreme edge gray. Fringe white. Beneath 
fore wings dusky with no markings, but paler on the inner, outer and 
costal edges. Hind wings cream white. Fore legs slightly grayish; 
hind legs white. 

Length of body, "55 of an inch ; of fore wing, -55 of an inch. Cali- 
fornia (Edwards). 

This species very closely resembles an eastern species,* but difiers in 
the pale band on the hind wings, while both pairs are rather more acute 
on the apex. 

Botys profundalis, n. sp. — 2$ 3$. This is a small form, with the apex 
of fore wings subacute, rectangular, the outer edge being less oblique 
than in any other of the species described, while the palpi are rather 
longer and larger. Orbits white on vertex and on each side of the an- 
tennee. Deep ochreous-brown, body white beneath; palpi light brown, 
white on the under side. Fore wings deep ochreous-brown; the inner 
line angulated outwards broadly on the median vein and inwards on the 
subniedian. A large, round, discal dot and dumb-bell-shaped, reniform 
spot, these spots more conspicuous than usual. The outer line is dark 



* Botys suholivalis, n. sp. This species belongs to a distinct group, as far as I can 
judge by the figures, apparently including the European Botys alpinalis and its variety 
ablutalis figured by Herrich Schaefler in hia "Systematische Bearbeitung der Schmet- 
terlinge von Europa," etc. The fore wings are rather broad, subtriangular, costa 
straight, rounded towards the apex; outer edge not very oblique; hind wings broader 
than usual. It is of a peculiar stone gray, with a slight olive-green tinge. There are 
no markings on the fore wings, except a faint pale sinuate broad shade crossing the 
outer third of the wing; it is directed outwards on tlie costa, curved outwards in the 
middle of the wing, and is straight below the 4th median venule. Fringe slightly 
dai-ker than the wing. Hind wings dark smoky; fringe whitish, smoky at base. Be- 
neath clear smoky ash on the fore wings, white on the hind wings, with a single broad 
diflfnse, much curved, dark band in the middle, and slightly dusted with cinereous scales 
near the outer edge. Length of body -40 of an inch; of fore wing -50 of an inch. 
Brunswick, Maine, in grass uplands; Orono, Maine, July (Packard). It cannot be 
confounded with any other species of Botys I have yet seen. 



2G2 Catalogue of the Pi/ralidm of California^ etc. 

fllifonii, ol)li(iiif!, with ils {ijciKirul course piinUlcl with tiic outer cdf^c, but 
iiivvMrds iiiiiUlun- nn elbow just below the costa, wiiile just below the 
nicdian veiu, the liue is deeply eurved iu, uuikiuf^ a very deeii sinus, with 
parallel sides, the bottom of the sinus beiuf; parallel with th(^ inner edf?e 
of the renilorui spot. A niarf^inal row of conspicuous, black dots. Frin.i;e 
ash color, with a dusky lin<! at the base. Hind win<;s pale, tlie discal dot 
small, inconspicuous; Uie outer line with a small, deep sinus behind the 
middle of the wing, the line much curved in front of this sinus. A row 
of black dots along the edge. Beneatli pale, witli the lines and spots 
very distinctly reproduced, the fore wings not dusky as usual in some 
specimens. liCgs whitish. 

Length of body $, -12, ?, •40--45 of an inch; of fore wing $, -'12, ?, 
•40--4(5 of an inch. California (Edwards). 

Tills a])par(;ntly common species may at once be known by the unus- 
ually d<!ep sinus of the outer line. All the lines and spots are very dis- 
tinct, especially on the hind wings. One female, the best preserved of 
the lot, is bright florid ochre<Mis, while the best preserved nuile is of a 
pale mouse color, and the fore wings are dusky l)eneath. 

llotijx ransiclinnlis, ii. sp. — 2$. Body rather stout, with the fore wings 
rather nari'ow, much produced towards the apex, the outer edge being a 
little more oblique than usual. Body and wings of a uniform, pale, cloudy, 
sable-brown. Orbits just in front of the antenme and upper side of the 
palpi whitish. Fore wings with an oblique, dusky line, extending from 
the costa outwards to tlm inncir edge, being curved outwards a little in 
the median space, and inwards slightly on the submedian sp;iee. An 
obscure, dusky, large, round, discal spot and large rcniform spot. Outer 
dusky line llnely scalloped, curved around gradually from the costa to the 
fourth median venule, where it is bent at right angles inwards, and the 
lowci', \vi(hT, dusky portion begins half way between the end of the 
ui)per, scalloix'd division, aiul the origin of the fourth median venule; 
this portion is twice waved. Outer edge of wing a little darker than the 
middle and the costa is also darker. Hind wings slightly paler than pri- 
maries. A faint, discal dot, and an outer dusky shade, dislocated, or 
rather with a deep sinus below the middle of tiie wing. A nuirginal, line, 
(lark line. Fringe concolorotis with the wing. Abdominal segments 
edged with whitish. Beneath, somewhat paler with the discal and rcni- 
form spots fainlly reproduced; the outer line appears as a finely, deeiily 
scalloped line, the scallops lllled in with a much paler tint ; the bordi'r of 
the wing is llnely dusted with line, grayish scales; fringe with a slightly 
nuirked, lUu!, median, i)ale line. Hind wings with an acutely zigzag, 
outer line, and a short, dusky, ditfuse line in the middle of the wing, not 
reaching the costa or hind edge. Body beneath and legs paler, almost 
whitish. 

Length of body, -50 of an inch; of fore wing, -50 of an inch. Cali- 
fornia (Edwards). 

The distinguishing marks of this dull colored species is the rectangu- 



Catalogue of the Pyralidoe of California, etc. 263 

larly bent, outer, dusky, scalloped line, forming a large, reentering angle 
just under the reniform spot ; the apex of the fore wings is also rather 
more produced than usual. 

Botys fodinalis Lederer— 2(J 1$. This is a species of the typical form 
of the genus, with the fore wings moderately broad, the apex subacute, the 
outer edge not very oblique. Head, thorax and fore wings pale sable- 
brown. Palpi entirely sable-brown ; orbits in front of antenna? white. 
Fore wings with a faint, dark, basal line, incurved on the subcostal space, 
bent outwards just behind the median vein, then following a straight 
course and ending on the inner third of the inner edge. A small, dark, 
discal dot, and small, rounded, reniform spot at a considerable distance 
from it. The outer, dark line is bent at right angles inwards, the portion 
below the fourth median vein is parallel with the inner line ; the portion 
above is parallel to the outer edge of the wing, slightly sinuate in its 
course and augulated inwards on the costa. Hind wings pale, faded 
whitish, with a faint, ochreous tinge in the middle. A dark, conspicuous, 
discal dot; a single line curved in a semicircle iu the middle of the wing; 
edge. of wing shaded broadly with blackish, fading out towards the inner 
edge, with a narrow, pale, interrupted line beneath the fringe and dark 
shade. Fringe concolorous with the wings. Abdomen, legs and body 
beneath pale whitish, ochreous. Beneath fore wings dusky, hind wings 
whitish, with the dots, outer lines and marginal shade reproduced. Fringe 
a little paler than the wings, that on fore wings darker than on hind 
wings. Agrees with Lederer's figure, Wiener Ent. Monats. vii. PI. 8, fig. 9. 

Length of body $, -65 of an inch, $ (abdomen broken ofl') ; of fore 
wing $ , -55, $, -43 of an inch. California (Edwards). 

This dull colored species differs from the others in the obscureness of 
its markings, and in the pale hind wings with the broad, dark border. 
One of the two males is nearly twice the size of the single female, but a 
large suite of specimens may show that the equality of the sexes is as 
usual. The male wants the outer, much curved line, present on the hind 
wings of the other sex. There is a very faint, reddish tinge on the fore 
wings of one of the males. 

Botys semiruhralis, n. sp. — 1$. A species of the normal form, with 
palpi of the usual form and length. The apex of the fore wings is rather 
blunt, but the hind wings are of the usual form. Body and basal half 
of fore wings dull, dark, sable-brown, including the palpi and legs. Fore 
wings dull sable-brown, immaculate to beyond the middle, except a small, 
round, brown, discal dot. Outer portion of the wing dull, brick red, 
with a little paler, diffuse, slight, submarginal shade. Fringe dull, 
reddish-brown. Hind wings dull, sable-brown, with a vinous tinge; 
fringe pale reddish wine color. Beneath, fore wings dusky in the middle 
portion, becoming reddish-brown on the costa, and pale, faded reddish 
on the outer edge of the wing. Hind wings pale, faded brick red on 
costal region ; fringe of the same color, the inner region of the wing 
paler. 



264 Catalogue of the Pyralidce of California^ etc. 

Length of body, -45 of an inch ; of fore wing, -50 of an inch. Cali- 
fornia (Edwards). 

This species may. readily be distinguished by the blunt apex and the 
dull brick red outer half of the fore wings, contrasting with the dull 
umber or sable-brown ground color. 

Botys perrubralis, n. sp.— 2^ 1 ?. A species of the usual form. Body 
and fore wings deep ochreous-yellow, with bright red scales. Palpi 
reddish-brown externally; tongue white; head reddish-brown above, 
beneath white ; patagia red. Fore wings bright ochreous-yellow washed 
with red at the base; base of costa reddish; a little beyond a twice zig- 
zag, red line, bent inwards on the median vein, and outwards on the sub- 
median. A distinct, red, discal spot, a few scattered red scales run 
across the wing below, with a fine, red line parallel with the outer edge 
and running from the inner edge to the red portion and ending on the 
median vein. Outer third of the wing bright red, enclosing a large, 
roundish, yellow spot on the outer fourth of the costa. A faint, yel- 
lowish shade towards the apex, ending in a series of faint, marginal 
spots ; the inside of the red portion is inclined to be dusky. Fringe ver- 
milion red. Abdomen and hind wings glistening whitish, the latter with 
a small, black, discal dot; a broad, submargiual shade, not reaching the 
costal region, while the fringe is reddish, often faded white. Legs 
whitish. Beneath, both wings whitish, edge of wings dusky, instead 
of red (sometimes reddish); costa dark brown; fringe pale vermilion. 
Hind wings as above. Body silvery cream- white beneath. 

Length of body <?, -45, ?, '50 of an inch; of fore wing $, -48, ?, -.54 
of an inch. California (Edwards and Behrens). 

The bright red markings and outer edge will readily characterize this 
species. 

Eromene Calif ornicaUs, n. sp. — 3 $. This beautiful species is closely 
allied structurally to E. hella of southern Europe, but the wings are a 
little longer and narrower, and the palpi are rather longer. Body and 
wings dull cream color; head and thorax with a pale ashen hue. Fore 
wings dusted with scattered brown scales ; basal half of the wing im- 
maculate, just beyond the middle a slightly curved, narrow, silvery line 
crosses the wing and is bordered widely on each side with yellow ochre- 
ous. Beyond is a clear space, but very finely dusted with flue, brown 
scales. The usual submarginal, once broadly angulated, white line edged 
with deep ochreous ; a short, oblique, white line parallel to the costal 
portion of the longer line, which cuts oflF the apex. The marginal, ob- 
long, black, conspicuous dots, ending in bright, shining, metallic spots 
are arranged as in E. be.lla, just reaching the angle of the white line. 
Fringe pale, with two, fine, dark lines. Hind wings whitish, immaculate. 
Beneath, a little dusky on the fore wings, with eight or nine black dots 
on outer edge. Hind wings whitish. 

Length of body, -41 of an inch; of fore wings, -41 of an inch. Cali- 
fornia (Edwards). 



Oatalogue of the Pyralidoe, of California, etc. 265 

A beautiful moth readily recognized by the nine black spots on the 
lower part of the outer edge of the fore wings ending in bright, metallic 
points. 

Caladysta metalliferalis, n. sp. — 1 (? 3 $ . "Wings rather broad ; hind wings 
deeply notched. Pale brown with an ochreons tinge ; thorax ochreous. 
Fore wings ochreous brown, an obliquely straight white basal line ; a par- 
allel similar line beyond, bent on the costa, enclosing a broad pale brown- 
ish band; a broad white band, diffuse externally, crosses the wing, and is 
limited extei'nally by a filiform brown minutely zigzag line, which is much 
curved above the fourth median venule, and just below sends an acute 
angle inwards. (This line is more distinct in rubbed specimens). A mar- 
ginal white line very diffuse on the inner side ; beyond it towards the costal, 
a narrow ochreous brown line. Still beyond are two or three very fine dis- 
located hair lines at the base of fringe, which is pale brown, consisting 
of brownish and whitish scales. Hind wings whitish at base, a few dark 
long spatulate scales along the hinder portion of the wing. A dark spot 
within the middle of the inner margin of the wing. An outer cui'ved 
waved brown line, edge of wing brown. The white band below the notch 
enclosing five conspicuous black dots, with five black square spots beyond 
alternating with bright shining metallic points. Abdomen pale brown, a 
few ochreous scales at base ; segments whitish on hinder edge. Legs 
whitish silvery. Wings beneath dull ash brown, a whitish discal streak, 
the outer line common to both wings, dusky and obscure ; the marginal 
white line distinct towards the costa, but the other lines not reproduced. 
Blacli and metallic points as above. 

Length of body, $, -S-l of an inch; 5, -26 of an inch; of fore wing, $, 
•33; ?, -33 of an inch. California (Edwards). 

This species has the conspicuous, black and steel blue metallic spots 
on the hind wings, as in our eastern, and in the Brazilian species, de- 
scribed by Guenee. It does not follow the analogy of the European 
C. lemnalis, in which, as Guenee observes, the black and metallic points 
are represented by simple white points. 

Pyralis 'farinalis Linn. Two specimens from California, collected by 
Mr. Edwards, do not differ from New England examples. 

Fam. PteroplioridLcie. 

Pierophorus pergracilidactylus. n. sp. — 1 $ . A very slender species, 
with a long body, very long legs, and the wings unusually long and nar- 
row. Body and wings ash brown. Head whitish on vertex, reddish brown 
in front; palpi reddish brown with some white scales. Antennae whitish 
ringed with brown. Thorax brownish above, becoming whitish on the 
sides and extending along the abdomen ; a small dark irregular dot on the 
front end of each abdominal ring; brown on the sides with scattered dark 
scales ; beneath whitish with numerous dark scales, with a pair of large 
dark spots usually meeting beneath. Fore wings very narrow, split Avidely 
apart the usual depth ; the costal branch narrow and curved ; the hinder 



266 Catalogue of the Pyralidoe of California, etc. 

branch nearly twice as broad as the costal, the extremity falcate and very 
acute. The wing Is reddish ash brown, paler on the costa where are 
numerous white scales, with a few blackish ones. A black dash at the 
fork, a few black scales at the tip of both branches, the posterior edge 
of the hinder branch whitish. Fringe mouse colored. Hind wings with 
three long narrow not spatulate branches, the two anterior uniting on the 
basal third of the wing by a distinct web. Entire wing and fringe mouse 
colored. Legs white ringed with brown. 

Length of body -45 of an inch ; fore wing -55 of an inch. California, 
(Edwards). 

This interesting form is allied to the European P. pterodactylus, but the 
wings are still narrower and the legs longer, but it is still more closely 
allied to and represents our eastern Ft. cinereidactylus of Fitch, a specimen 
of which is in the museum of tlie Peabody Academy of Science, collected 
by Mr. F. W. Putnam, at Salem, Mass., Sept. 26th. In the latter species the 
hinder division of the fore wing is more triangular, less acutely pointed 
than in the Californiau species, and the markings on this division difier a 
little. 

Fterophorus sulphur eodactylus, n. sp. — 5$ 3?. Fore wings divided on 
outer thii'd, the two divisions rather wide, the costal one reaching con- 
siderably beyond the hinder, and ending in a vei-y acute point ; the hinder 
division broad halberd-shaped. Body and wings sulphur yellow, legs a 
little paler, tarsi whitish. Fore wings unspotted, clear sulphur yellow, 
except a slight brown costal streak on the outer fourth of the wing. A 
minute brown dot at the bottom of the fork. Hind wings pale mouse 
color, under side of fore wings deep mouse color, costa yellow, with some 
brown scales, especially towards the base. Fringe pale yellow. Two 
anterior divisions of hind wings mouse colored beneath, 3d yellow be- 
neath, with fringe yellowish at base, beyond pale mouse colored. Palpi 
whitish yellow, streaked with ochreous scales ; legs streaked with brown 
scales. 

Length of body -42 of an inch; fore wings -50 of an inch. Goose Lake, 
Siskiyou Co., California, July 26, 27. (J. Ilolleman). 

This handsome bright sulphur yellow species is allied to the European 
Ft. osteodactylus. I know of no American species related to it. 

Fterophorus cervinidaciylus, n. sp. — 1 J'. Head with an unusually long 
and large tuft of scales projecting slightly beyond the second joint of the 
palpi. Wings shorter than usual, and broad in proportion ; the split in 
the primaries quite short, the costal division very broad, the apex trian- 
gular; the apex of hinder division triangular, the outer edge very oblique, 
the hindermost division of the hind wings shorter and narrower than 
usual. Body and wings fawn color; vertex of head whitish fawn ; frontal 
tuft rather darker. Antennae anuulated with whitish fawn and brown. 
Palpi brownish. Fore wings fawn brown; paler, subochreous along the 
inner edge, with a concolorous patch on the costa a little within the apex ; 
a black dot just above and near the end of the split. Fringe concolorous 



Notes on some Pyrdlidoe from New England. 267 

with the wing. Hind wings with the first division spoon-shaped at the 
end; third very short and blnut at end; entire wings fawn color, with no 
dark brown scales in the fringe on third division. Legs whitisli-brown, 
hind pair as far as middle of tibiae, beyond brown, spurs paler. Beneath 
uniformly brown, thiclily dusted with paler scales ; with a large pale cloud 
on the costal division of primaries. 

Length of body -48; of fore wing -43 of an inch. California (Edwards). 
This species may at once be known by its hind short wings, its uniform 
fawn color, and by tiie faded ochreous cloud near the apex of costal divis- 
ion of fore wings. It is remotely allied to Pt. pterodactijlus of Europe, but 
differs decidedly in the costal divisions of the fore wings, being much 
more acutely produced. Besides these I have received, through Mr. Ed- 
wards, two other species of this genus from California, but too imper- 
fectly preserved for description. 



XXIV. — Notes on some Pyrdlidoe from New England, luith 
Remarks on the Labrador Species of this Family. 

By A. S. PACKARD, JK. 
Read January 6, 1873. 

Among the specimens of this group, in the Museum of 
the Peabody Academy of Science, are several species which 
occur frequently in New England, and are so well marked 
that I have ventured to describe them, without waiting for 
more material from other localities. 

I am unable, so far in my studies on this group, to find 
any valid characters separating the "Pliycidse" from the 
family Pyralida^, whether Ave regard the larval or imaginal 
characters. They seem to me to be intimately related on 
one hand to the lower Pyralids, such as Botys and Scopula, 
and on the other to the Crambi. Certainly the "Phycidai" 
should not rank as a family, but take their place as a sub- 
ordinate group. 

Acrobasis rubrifasciella, u. sp. — 8(J 7$. Antennge of J" with the usual 
tuft on basal joint; the palpi slender, pointed, ascending vertically. Body 
and fore wings slate-ash, glistening ; thorax tinged with reddish-brown, 



268 JSfotes on some Pyralidmfrom New En.rjland, 

and with the head giving off faint metallic colors ; palpi blackish on the 
outside. Fore wings rather broad; just within the basal third a straight 
line of raised scales, extending from the inner edge and stopping short 
of the subcostal vein, conspicuously black externally, concolorous with 
the wing within ; the black line, bordered externally with bright vermilion 
(sometimes wanting), which usually I'eaches the costal edge. Base of 
wing slightly paler than middle of the wing. A light, triangular, paler 
shade in the costal region of the middle of the wing, enclosing two 
small, conspicuous, twin black dots. A submargiual faint, pale, narrow 
line curving outward in the middle and with four or five acute scallops. 
Fringe concolorous with the rest of the wing. Hind wings pale, glis- 
tening, cinereous. Beneath, fore wings quite dusky, with no markings ; 
hind wings much paler, growing darker towards the costa. Legs dark 
ash, paler at the ends of the joints, especially the hind tibiae, which have 
a whitish band around them ; hind legs whitish within. 

Length of body $, -40, ?, -40 of an inch; of fore wing $, •38--40, 
5, -40 of an inch. Orono, Maine. (Packard.) 

This species is at once recognized by the broad bright-red transverse 
stripe just within the middle of the wing. This stripe varies much, being 
sometimes not present, at others not reaching the costal edge. In one 
additional specimen from Maine, the fore wing has scattered reddish 
scales at base and beyond the middle, while the dark transverse stripe is 
wanting, and the red portion forms a broad transverse bright-red band. 
The larva lives in June and early in July between the leaves of the alder, 
where it makes a horn shaped case of 'black cylindrical pellets of excre- 
ment, arranged regularly in circles, the additions being made around the 
mouth of the case. The case is about an inch and a half long; its mouth 
a quarter of an inch in diameter. Within it is densely lined with white 
silk. The pupa is of the usual color, mahogany brown, the end of the 
abdomen rounded, with six hairs projecting from a transverse supraanal 
projecting ridge. On each abdominal segment is a dorsal dusky trans- 
verse stripe, widest on the basal segment. The larva was not described 
in my notes. The pupa state lasts about two weeks, the moth which I 
reared appearing July 24th, the larva having been found July 6th. 

The Museum of the Peabody Academy of Science also contains ten 
specimens of this moth reared by Mr. J. H. Emerton. The larvse were 
found feeding on the Sweet Fern {Gumptonia asplenifolia Ait.), July 7, 
1866, at Hamilton, Mass., the moth appearing July 20th. The case is 
quite different in form from that previously described, being regularly 
oval cylindrical ; "55 inch long and "So inch in diameter. It is con- 
structed in the same manner as those found on the alder. This striking 
difference in the form of the case may possibly be due to the difference in 
the form of the leaves of the food plant, the large broad leaves of the 
alder inducing the larva to build a horn-like, much elongated case ; while 
the narrow smaller leaves of the Sweet Fern may have led to the forma- 
tion of a short, oval case. These differences are such as we would ordin- 



with Hemarks on the Labrador Species. 269 

arily regard as specific, but neither do the pupaj or adults reared from tlie 
two plants differ appreciably. 

Mydois albiplagiatella, n. sp.— 2^. Body long and slender, palpi large 
and quite long, wings long, with the outer edge of primaries unusually 
oblique. Dull cream or whitish buff, head and palpi whitish buff". Fore 
wings pale buff color with a single long broad white stripe extending 
from the base of costa to the apex, the extreme outer | of costa being 
buff; lower edge of the white baud slightly dusky, and the wing along 
the middle is deeper buff than along the inner margin. Fringe a little 
paler than the wing. Hind wings whitish. Abdomen white. Beneath 
both wings are uniformly pale whitish buff. Body and legs of an intenser 
white. 

Length of body, -57 of an inch; of fore wing -55 of an inch. New 
Hampshire, May and June (C. A. Walker). 

This is quite different from Myelois grossularios Pack, (described in the 
" Guide to the Study of Insects," page 331, under the name Fempclia gros' 
sularice), and which, as suggested by Prof. P. C. Zeller, may prove on 
comparison to be identical with the European Myelois convoluteUa, Htibn. 
(See Eutom. Zeitung Stettin 1871, p. 177) which preys on the gooseberry. 
The present species differs much from 31. grossularice in having a longer 
body and wings, and much larger palpi ; and in the style of markings. It 
may be at once known by the single long broad white Hue along the costal 
edge of the fore wings. 

FempeUa ovalis, n. sp. \ $ • Palpi large and broad ; antennae tufted at 
base as usual ; fore Avings oblong, not very long, outer edge less oblique 
than usual. Body and fore wings ash, being covered with whitish and 
brown scales. Fore wings with a short curved dark line at base on the 
median vein. On inner third of wing a very broad brown baud, directed 
obliquely outward from the costa to the inner edge, and enclosing a large 
distinct, regularly oval (longitudinal), ochreous spot between the median 
and submedian veins. Two obscure black discal points situated as usual; 
the outer one is enclosed in a dusky shade crossing the wing obliquely and 
limited beyond by the usual submarginal white zigzag line ; this line is 
curved inward below the costa; from the middle of the wing to the inner 
margin it is exactly parallel to the outer edge, terminating in an angle di- 
rected outwards. Between this line and the edge is a series of dusky 
bars, the interspaces cinereous. A marginal black line. Fringe cinereous. 
Jlind wings pale smoky. Beneath fore wings dusky. A whitish costal 
spot near the apex, but no line. Hind wings slightly paler. Abdomen 
concolorous with the hind wings. Legs dull ash ringed with whitish. 

Length of body -40 of an inch ; of fore wing -40 of an inch. Maine, 
(Packard). 

Easily known by the oval ochreous spot on the inner third of the fore 
wings. 

Nepihopteryx latifasciatella, n. sp. — 1 $ . Of the usual cinereous color_ 
Fore wings rather oblong, the outer edge being less oblique than in N. Ed- 



270 Notes on some PyralidcB from ISFeiv England, 

mandsii Pack, find other allied species; base of wing pale whitish ash, 
beyond a broad dark shade crosses the wing, limited externally by a white 
distinct zigzag line which is directed obliquely outward towards the inner 
edge; the line has an acute narrow point running inwards on the median 
vein, and a bi'oader angle directed inwards on the subraedian vein, the 
line directed outwards at its termination on the inner edge. A costal 
dark shade on the outer edge of this line. In the middle of, and extending 
across, the shade is a long ochreous spot. The two discal black dots are 
more obscure than usual. The submarginal white line is very distinct, 
consisting of three scallops, the middle one forming a grand curve ex- 
tending from the subcostal vein around to the submedian, the curve is 
well rounded not augulated as in N. Edmnmhii. This line has a dark 
shade on both sides, distinctly on the costa. A marginal row of distinct 
black dots. Fringe concolorous with the rest of the wing. Hind wings 
of the usual shade. Tore wings dusky beneath, with a costal submarginal 
pale line. Legs cinereous, hind tibiai with a dark ring, tarsi ringed with 
whitish. 

Length of body -35 of an inch; of fore wing -38 of an inch. Maine, 
(Packard). 

This species may be known by the broad dusky shade on the inner tliird 
of the fore wings, enclosing an ochreous patch. It is of about the same 
size as N. Edmandsii. 

Nephopteryx roseatella, n. sp. — 2 ^ . With the same cut of the wings and 
almost exactly repeating the coloration of the European Pempelia semiru- 
hella, it has all the structural characters of Nepliopteryx. The palpi are 
larger and less ascending than usual ; antennce without the tuft of scales 
with short broad joints, well ciliated beneath. Front with longer scales, 
than usual. Head and palpi reddish. Costa of fore wings conspicuously 
white, the band not reaching the apex, the rest of the wing dull roseate ; 
inner edge whitish, the band not reaching the inner angle. Hind wings 
whitish. Beneath fore wings a little dusky; hind wings same as above. 
Two hind pairs of legs reddish externally. 

Length of fore wing -37 of an inch. Dorchester, Mass. (F. G. San- 
born). 

In one specimen the roseate color on the wings has apparently faded 
out into a pale drab, but the head is red. Though the antennas are with- 
out the usual tuft of scales, and the palpi are longer than usual, I should 
judge that it was a Nephopteryx. 

REMARKS ON CERTAIN LABRADOR PYRALID^. 

Ill his Beitrilge zur Schmetterlings Fauna von Labrador 
(Entomologiscber Zeituug, Stettiu, 1870, p. 371), Herr H. 
B. Moschler makes some intei-esting remarks on the moths 
described by American writers from Labrador. As soon as I 



Note on the Goals of the Kanawha Valley. 271 

can obtain specimens from Europe with which to compare 
the species I have described as new, I shall give the results of 
the comparison and refer to Herr Moschler's valuable re- 
marks. 

Botys inquinitalis Zeller. Having received two specimens of tliis 
species from Lapland, through the kindness of Dr. Staudinger, and 
observed how much the t^vo specimens difl'er from each other, I am dis- 
posed, with Dr. Staudinger (Catalog., etc.) and Herr Moschler, to refer 
my Scopula glacialis (I. c. 52) to the above species. 

My specimens differ from the two others, in being paler in the middle of 
the fore wings, with the outer line consequently much more distinct. On 
the under side the same line is repeated with more distinctness, while the 
five black costal spots are smaHer and consequently farther apart than in 
the Lapland examples. Otherwise the species agree with those from 
Lapland. 

Pempelia fusca (Haworth). Moschler regai'ds mj Eudorea? frigidella 
(Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1866, p. 53) as identical with E. centuriella 
S. "V". I fear Herr Moschler has been misled by my doubtful reference of 
this species to Eudorea. Having since received four specimens from 
Lapland and Iceland, of Pempelia fusca (Haworth), I find that my speci- 
mens belong undoubtedly to that species. I have also specimens from 
Orono, Augusta and Brunswick, Maine, captured in July and August. 
These differ in no I'espect from the Labrador and European examples. 

Scopai'ia alhisinuatella {Eudorea? alhisinuatella Pack. I. c). As regards 
the identity of this form with S. centuriella, I should hesitate to decide 
until I have specimens from Europe with which to compare my example. 



XXV. — Note on the Coals of the Kanawha Valley , West 

Virginia. 

Br JNO. J. STEVENSON, Ph. D. 
Read February 17, 1873. 

Along the Great Kanawha river the Upper Coal Group 
is observable up to about twelve miles below Charleston. 
It contains two <!oal beds of workable thickness. The lower 
one is the Pittsburg (VIII of Ohio section) and is usually- 
known as the "Eaymoud seam." It is much reduced in 
thickness where it crosses Pocatalico Creek and is very 

March, 1873. 19 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. x. 



272 Note on the Coals of the Kanawha Valley. 

inferior in quality to the same bed in its northern extension. 
The limestone overlying this coal in Northern Ohio and 
Pennsylvania, as well as in the northern part of West Vir- 
ginia, is here greatly degraded, being represented by only a 
calcareous shale containing a few nodules of limestone. 
The upper bed of coal is occasionally of workable thickness, 
but is of no economical importance. When the section has 
been completed this coal will probably be proved identical 
with the one given in Dr. Hildreth's section at Pomeroy, 
which is No. X of the Ohio section, and likely the equiva- 
lent of the JJniontoivn coal of Pennsylvania. 

The Barren Group reaches to Charleston and runs out in 
the hills a short distance above the city. It is about five 
hundred feet thick and contains, as for as I am informed, no 
worka.ble coals. It is interesting to note that along a rudely 
north and south line, beginning at Pittsburg and running to 
the Great Kanawha, the Barren Group varies but little in 
thickness. 

The Lower Coal Group sinks under the river a short dis- 
tance below Charleston. Its development here, as compared 
with that observed in the coal field farther to the north, is ex- 
traordinary. In northern West Virginia the thickness is 
barely two hundred feet ; in the First Geological District of 
Ohio it rarely exceeds three hundred feet ; wMle in either case 
it contains only six or seven coal beds. In this valley it is 
readily separable into two portions, the upper of which 
is exposed along the river from Charleston to the Palls, a 
distance of thirty-tive miles. Including the Mahoning sand- 
stone it is not less than nine hundred feet thick, and con- 
tains at least fifteen beds of coal, each of which is of 
workable thickness at difi"erent localities. The lower divis- 
ion is exposed above the Falls to Sewell Mountains, a dis- 
tance of certainly thirty miles in a straight mie. It contains 
only two or three beds of coal that are anywhere of work- 
able size, and is made up chiefly of massive sandstones, with 
rarely a thin shale or limestone. The estimation of its 



Note on the Coals of the Kanawha Valley. 273 

thickness is attended with some difficulty, as the dip is 
undulating, and there may be one or two broad anticliuals. 
There is no reason to believe, however, that it is any thinner 
than the upper division. We have here, then, a total thick- 
ness of not less than eighteen hundred feet, with about 
twenty coal seams, most of them workable at some point. 
The extraordinary development of this group continues 
southwesterly, until its thickness becomes about twenty- 
five hundred feet in Tennessee. A careful survey of the 
State of West Virginia would doubtless reveal some very 
important facts in this connection, and would tyd in solving 
some perplexing problems arising from this variation. 

The Mahoning sandstone is conspicuous in the river hills 
above Charleston, and, as in its northern extension in this 
state and Pennsylvania, holds about midway a coal which 
frequently becomes of available thickness. It rests upon a 
variable bed of black flint, five to twelve feet thick, which is 
occasionally associated with a thin seam of cannel. 

A few feet below the flint, and separated from it by shale, 
often arenaceous, is a coal partly cannel and partly bitumin- 
ous. At Cannelton it is five feet four inches thick, and on 
Paint creek, near Coalburg, it is seven feet. This is usually 
regarded as identical with the Upper Freeport of Pennsyl- 
vania (VI of Ohio). Aside from its position one finds in 
its deportment evidence of this identity, since, wherever I 
have observed it in West Virginia, it shows a decided 
tendency to become partly cannel. Though I have not 
visited Peytona, yet an examination of the map, and the 
fact that Coal river heads near that locality and so cannot 
have cut very deeply into the country, seem to render it 
probable that this coal, known locally as the "Stockton 
seam," is the same with the cannel there worked. It seems 
hardly possible that the "Gas coal," situated five hundred 
and fifty feet below the "Stockton" at Cannelton, can be 
available at Peytona. 

At Cannelton a five feet coal is seen a few feet below the 



274 Note on the Coals of the Kanawha Valley. 

last, but at Coalburg it is absent, or is represented by two 
small seams occupying about the same relative position. 
Mr. Ritlgway identifies this with the Lower Freeport of 
Pennsylvania. That is an exceedingly variable bed, and 
cannot be traced satisfactorily in southwestern Pennsylvania 
or northern West Virginia. The whole of the state lying 
between the Baltimore Railroad and the Great Kanawha 
river, is as yet unexplored. Under such circumstances it is 
doubtful whether one is justified in making the determina- 
tion solely upon the ground of relative position, this being, 
at best, an ui^afe guide. 

At Canuelton the second seam below the "Stockton" is a 
cannel of insignificant thickness. At Coalburg, however, 
this place is occupied by the "Great Splint Coal," which in 
some respects is the most important bed along the river, 
although its importance is probably local. At the KanaAvha 
Salines no such bed appears, but where it should be there 
occur several thin beds considerably separated. On Paint 
and Cabin creeks its thickness is not far from eleven feet 
and on Campbell's creek, if Mr. Ridgway's identification be 
accurate, it is six feet. At Coalburg it has been worked 
extensively for several years by the Kanawha and Ohio 
Company, under the superintendence of Mr. William H. 
Edwards, so favorably known to the scientific world by 
means of his beautiful work on the Butterflies of Worth 
America. At the mines of this company the bed exhibits 
the following section : 

1. Sandstone, 

2. Clay shale, 1 inch. 

3. Coal, 6 inches. 

4. Dark slate, 4-7 inches. 

5. Coal, 3 feet, 2 inches. 

6. Clay, 3-5 inches. 

7. Goal, 1 foot, 6 inches. 

The roof is very irregular. Not unfrequently a huge clay 
''hip" comes down two or three feet, crossing the entries in 



Note on the Coals of the Kcmaiuha Valley. 275 

a rudely northeast and southwest direction, and having a 
width of from five to twent^^ feet. Such "hips" are not 
always of clay but are sometimes an odd mixture of sand- 
stone and coal, the latter included not as layers, but as 
fragments, as if it had been cut out after consolidation, 
though in several instances the bowl-shape of these frag- 
ments leads to the belief that it may have been removed 
before consolidation. These "hips," when traced across 
different entries, are seen to taper off* at each end. 

The thin layer of clay ordinarily interposing between the 
sandstone and coal contains numerous impressions of Lejoi- 
dodendron and jSigillaria, but usually in poor preservation. 
Some years ago a series of remarkably fine leaf-scars of 
Bothrodendron were found in entry I of the company's works. 
Of these, several were sent to the Smithsonian Institution 
and to Mr. Lesquereux. The rest were retained by Mr. 
Edwards, but were lost during the destruction of his house 
by fire, t^year ago. 

The dark slate. No. 4, is rich in Ifitumen, breaks with a 
semi-conchoidal fracture, but does not burn readily and is 
regarded as detrimental to the coal. The coal, No. 5, is the 
most important portion of the seam, and with No. 3 affords 
the marketable coal, which is sold in Cincinnati as Kanawha 
semi-cannel. When first shipped the proprietors named it 
"Splint," simply to distinguish it, and without reference to 
the British signification of the term. This name was after- 
ward applied to all the open-burning coals of the Kanawha 
Valle3\ The coal is clean, breaks with a neat, sharp frac- 
ture, bears transportation well a]id contains no appreciable 
quantity of sulphur. It is made up of thin alternating 
layers of cannel and bituminous coal, for the most part not 
more than one-twelfth of an inch thick, though occasionally 
a layer of cannel occurs one or two inches. It is conse- 
quently dry and open-burning, with no tendency to cake 
npon the fire. The "slack" yields a coke of only slight 
density. Owing to the open-burning character, as well as 



276 Note on the Coals of the Kanawha Valley. 

to the freedom from sulphur, this coal is destined to become 
of very great economical importance. Experiments have 
been made with it in the iron furnaces of southeastern Ohio, 
and in each case it has proved to be of the best quality. 
Owing to the uncertain outlet afforded b}' the Kanawha 
river, little has been done with this coal, but, now that the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Eailroad has been completed, the 
operators in the Kanawha Valley will be able to forward a 
steady supply, so that its introduction into southeastern Ohio 
for use in iron smelting is a matter of comparatively short 
time. 

No. 7 is variable in thickness and contains more bitu- 
minous coal than the preceding. It is of excellent quality 
but is too brittle to bear transportation. The larger pro- 
portion of bituminous matter led to the belief that it could 
be coked, but experiments in this direction have not been 
successful. 

The clay parting, No. 6, is of uncertain thickness. At 
the mines of the Kanawha and Ohio Company, it is seldom 
more than four inches, but followed westward it rapidly 
increases, so that at the western boundary of the company's 
property it is two feet. A similar increase, though by no 
means so great, is observable in the upper parting, so that, as 
far as one may judge with the imperfect exposures presented, 
there is much reason to believe that the thin coals at 
Kanawha Salines, occupying the position of this bed, are 
nothing other than its subordinate coals, 3, 5 and 7, sepa- 
rated by the partings, 4 and 6, greatly increased in thick- 
ness. 

About forty feet below this coal is found a seam of cannel, 
nearly three feet thick, well exposed at Cannelton, Paint 
creek and on both sides of the river at Coalburg. It is of 
good quality and will probably prove of much value. 

Five hundred and fifty feet below the "Stockton" coal at 
Cannelton, there is a bed of bituminous coal nearly seven 
feet thick and known as the "Gas coal." This is seen at 



On the Subdivisions of Science. 211 

Coalburg and has been worked opposite that village on the 
northeast bank of the river. Its thickness there is incon- 
siderable, barely three feet, and its quality poor. At 
Cannelton Mr. Ridgway observed a limestone below this 
coal, which he identifies with the Ferriferous of Pennsylvania. 
This is not exposed at or opposite Coalburg and I did not 
observe it at Cannelton. If Mr. Eidgway be accurate in his 
determination of the limestone, the "Gas coal" is very prob- 
ably the Kiltanning of Pennsylvania (No. IV of the Ohio 
section) . In this case the persistent seam a short distance 
below the limestone is the equivalent of the Ohio No. III. 

The coals below these belong to the lower division of the 
group, which I had no opportunity to examine. They are 
said to be well exposed in the gorge of New river. 

The dip of the strata below the Falls of Kanawha to 
Charleston is somewhat less than 30', but below Charleston 
they are horizontal, or at least the dip is inappreciable. 
Above the Falls it is very undulating and one may expect to 
find one or more broad anticliuals between the Falls and 
Big Sewell Mountain. 

P. S. The map (plate xii.) accompanj^ing this paper was 
prepared for the article on the Upper Goal Measures (pp. 
226-252), but was not completed in time to appear with it. 



XXVI. — On the Subdivisions of Science and their Classi- 
fication. 

By LOUIS ELSBERG, M.D. 

Read February 3, 1873. 

• 

The distinguishing characteristics of man are centred in 
his ability to "know" and to "do." Knowledge, accumulated 
and systematized, has become science; in a somewhat simi- 
lar manner action has given rise to art. It would lead me 



278 On the Subdivisions of Science 

too far from my present subject to trace the genesis and con- 
tinuous development, up to the present day, of either science 
or art. Of the latter this has never been philosophically 
attempted so far as I know ; of the evolution of the former, 
Herbert Spencer has given a brief but very able account 
in an article republished in his "Illustrations of Universal 
Progress" (New York, Appleton & Co., 1864), and occa- 
sionally also in other works. 

Classification of the subdivisions of a subject is an im- 
portant means of making clear to ourselves and to others 
our apprehensions ; it may be looked upon as a condensed 
exposition of the views we hold regarding the subject. It 
should be made out, I think — except for specific purposes — 
objectively, i. e., the subjects of the classification should be 
considered, as much as possible, as to themselves more than 
in relation to the classifier; although, on final analysis, it 
becomes obvious that all human learning (knowledge as well 
as art) is subjective, simply because it is human and there- 
fore relative. 

I may state, as a fundamental discrimination, the one be- 
tween the knowable and the unknowable ; and as to the 
knowable, that between the known and the unknown. It is 
self-evident that beyond this verbal statement, there can be 
for us no subdivision and no classification of the unknowable 
and the unknown. 

It has been held that the known should be classified after 
the order in which it has been, or may be, built up in the 
human consciousness ; and it has actually been attempted to 
be classified after an assumed order of creation ; but, as 
Herbert Spencer has shown in the article mentioned, it 
cannot be rationally arranged in any serial order. Each of 
Jthe subdivisions of science, in wiiich a sufficient amount of 
exact knowledge has been accumulated to have been general- 
ized and systematized, is entitled to the independent name 
of science ; but we must never lose sight of the fact that it 
is in reality a part of one whole, viz., human knowledge. 



and their Classification. 279 

Per se, all the subdivisions, or "the Sciences" are coordinate, 
not subordinate. As Heebeet SrENCER, in another pUxce 
truly says : — "No succession in which the Sciences can be 
placed represents either their logical dependence or their 
historical dependence." (The Classification of the Sci- 
ences: N. Y., Appleton & Co., 1864.) And there can 
be no "hierarchy of the sciences," as Auguste Comte 
calls the order in which he classifies them ; although we 
are apt to attach greater or less importance to any par- 
ticular science, in accordance with its relation and benefit 
to us and human afiairs, and are perfectly justified in 
doing so. 

The classification I present to you (see table, at the end of 
this article), I intend not as an ideal, but as a practical one. 
It is by no means perfect; but, I think, the most conform- 
able to the present state of knowledge. I claim no credit 
for devising it. My task has rather been the arduous one of 
revising; of collating, judging, rejecting and compiling. 
Some of the names are new ; and some are used in a wider 
sense than that in which they are ordinarily employed, and 
therefore need explanation. 

As already stated, Science and Art have been gradually 
evolved from man's ability to know and to do ; and science 
and art together are included under the term Mathesis, 
meaning everything that can be learned. 

Throusfhout the whole extent of the classification there 
are connecting links and transitions precluding sharp limita- 
tions ; thus there are connections not only between the 
sciences themselves, but also between science and art ; 
indeed every science includes something to be practised, and 
every art something to be known aside from what is to be 
performed. The epithets pure and mixed on the one hand, 
and pure and applied on the other, to denote these associa- 
tions and interrelations, have frequently been used rather 
loosely. I propose to have the term "mixed" confined to 
associations between the sciences, and the term "applied," to 



280 On the Subdivisions of Science 

those between sciences and arts ; thus I would speak of 
mixed mathematics to designate the mathematics of pho- 
nology, of thermology, or of morphology ; and of applied 
mathematics to designate that of surveying or of naviga- 
tion. As many branches or collective systems are each 
both a. science and an art, as, for instance, music, astronomy, 
etc., both mixed and applied mathematics may appertain to 
these. Mixed sciences may receive names compounded of 
the names of their components. 

The term science includes all knowledo^e. It is what has 
been called by some Pantology ; by H^ckel, Kosmology, 
equivalent to Theology in its all-inclusive sense ; by Ste- 
phen Pearl Andrews, Universology. If we limit the ter- 
mination "ology" to concrete science, these terras become 
inadequate for us, whilst the word science answers all 
purposes. 

A few words on the subject of hybridity, in combining 
words or roots derived from different languages, may not be 
out of place here. I think when exercised with judgment, 
such compounding frequently enriches and improves rather 
than debases language. Having adopted the suffix "ology" 
for the branches of concrete science, I regard it as perfectly 
proper to add this affix to words even if they are not derived 
from the Greek. 

In tabulating the subdivisions of science, I have made use 
of horizontal and vertical brackets. I may say that by the 
former I propose to indicate divisions which result from 
different points of view which may be taken, and by the 
latter divisions referring more obviously to separate depart- 
ments of being. These two kinds of subdivision, which I 
call, respectively, aspectual and departmental, are on dif- 
ferent planes, as it were, and intersect each other. Each 
aspectual subdivision of a science is applicable to all de- 
partmental subdivisions of the same, and vice versa; for 
instance, zoology, which is a departmental subdivision of 
ph3^sology, is divisible into zoogeny and zoography ; and 



and their Classification. 281 

morphology, which is an aspectual subdivision of phj^sology, 
is divisible into geomorphology and metageomorphology ; 
the former into biomorphology and abiomorphology ; bio- 
morphology into zoomorphology, vegetomorphology and 
protistomorphology, etc. 

Science as a whole, and also each science, may be studied 
from either a general or a special point of view. General 
science-as-a-whole is equivalent in meaning to what I desig- 
nate by the word philosophy. Special science-as-a-whole 
occupies itself with the subdivisions of science, the classifi- 
cation of these, etc. The terms general and special, applied 
to a subdivision of science, refer to the consideration of that 
subdivision, either as a whole, or in its parts, and with me 
correspond rather closely to what Stephen Pearl Andrews 
calls analytical and observational, the former dealing more 
(though by no means exclusively) with generalizations and 
principles reasoned out, and the latter with facts observed. 
The terms comparative and descriptive refer to another kind 
of aspectual division of science, or of any particular science, 
which is often confounded with that into general and special. 
Briefly to illustrate the proper designations by an example, 
general zoology occupies itself with generalizations of the 
science of animals ; special zoology with the fjicts and details 
of the domain ; comparative zoology, with comparisons, 
analogies, correspondences and ditferences of diflerent sub- 
jects pertaining to the animal kingdom ; and descriptive 
zoology with the description of the animals themselves. 
Either general or special zoology may be either comparative 
or descriptive, and vice versa. 

The first departmental division of science is into concrete 
and abstract. 

" The broadest natural division among the sciences," says Herbert 
Spencer (The Classification of the Sciences, New York, D. Appletou & 
Co., 1864, p. 4), "is the division between those which deal with the ab- 
stract relations under which phenomena are presented to us, and those 
which deal with the phenomena themselves. lielations, of whatever 
orders, are nearer akin to one another than they are to any objects. 



282 On the Subdivisions of Science 

Objects, of whatever orders, are nearer akin to one another than they 
are to any relations. Whether, as some hold, space and time are forms 
of thought; or whether, as I hold myself, they are forms of things, 
that have become forms of thought through organized and inherited 
experience of things; it is equally true that space and time are con- 
trasted absolutely with the existences disclosed to us in space and time, 
and that the sciences which deal exclusively with space and time are 
separated by the profoundest of all distinctions from the sciences which 
deal with the existences that space and time contain. Space is the 
abstract of all relations of co-existence. Time is the abstract of all 
relations of sequence. And dealing as they do entirely with relations 
of co-existence and sequence, in their general or special forms, logic 
and mathematics form a class of the sciences more widely unlike the 
rest than any of the rest can be from one "another." 



Concrete science, or the science of the phenomenal con- 
tents of space and time, i. e., the science of the o])jects of 
nature, is physics in the widest sense ; as sjnionymous with 
physics in this sense, or in the phice of it, I propose the 
word pliysology, disting'uishing all its subdivisions by the 
suffix "ology." Abstract science, or the science of space 
and time, is metaphysics ; and this is to me the only legiti- 
mate use of the word metaphysics, as a subdivision of 
science at the present day. I suggest, but without insisting' 
upon it at all, that all subdivisions of metaphysics might 
receive the distinguishing termination "ics." Although this 
may appear a bold and impractical)lc innovation, it is really 
not so very difficult to carry out, as I shall, for illustration's 
sake, show under the head of mathematics. If the sug- 
gestion be adopted, the termination "ology" would mean 
concrete science of, and "ics" abstract science of, whatever 
the other portion of the word indicates; the termination 
"ics" could then be also used to designate, with the appro- 
priate w^ord taken from the concrete sciences, their abstract 
science ; but I would not, perhaps, myself, carry it out in 
all its possible details. 

I divide metaphysics into the two departments, mathe- 
matics and logics, the first relating to space more or less 
closely connected with time, dealing abstractly with magni- 



and their Classification. ' 283 

tildes, numbers, quantity ; the second relating to time more 
or less closely connected with space, dealing abstractly with 
ideas, laws, quality. It must be noticed that for this second 
department of metaphysics, I use the word logics, not logic; 
I restrict the latter to its ordinary sense, in which it is both 
a science and an art, viz., human reasoning, and, as a sci- 
ence, constitutes a part of anthropo-psychology which itself 
is a part of anthropology. 

The words abstract and general are sometimes used as syn- 
onymes, as, for instance, occasionally by Auguste Comte ; 
but very improperly, as careful consideration will show to 
any one. Herbert Spencer has taken the trouble to define 
them accurately and at length. Among other things, he 
says : — "Abstractness means detachment from the incidents 
of particular cases. Generality means manifestation in 
numerous cases." And again : — "A general truth colligates 
a number of particular truths ; while an abstract truth colli- 
gates no particular truths, but formulates a truth which cer- 
tain phenomena all involve, though it is actually seen in 
none of them." The two words mathematics and logics 
fully answer all purposes for the two branches into which 
metaphysics is divisible ; but those who so desire, may use 
as synonymes for them the words choremics and chronics (or 
even, if they prefer, spacics and tempics), only they must 
not lose sight of the fact that although one division is pre- 
eminently the abstract science of space, and the other that 
of time, the consideration of time cannot be entirely sepa- 
rated in our consciousness from that of space, nor that of 
space from that of time. 

I desire to show that the suffix "ics" can be applied to 
the well known subdivisions of abstract science without 
making a very great change- in terms. Thus, mathematics 
is ordinarily divided into arithmetic, geometry and analysis ; 
analysis into algebra and fluxion or calculus ; and the latter 
into differential calculus, integral calculus and variation cal- 



• 

284 



On the Subdivisions of Science 



cuius. The use of the termiuation 
divisioD read as follows, viz. : — 



ics" would make this 



f Concerning (the 
value of) Numbers: 
Arithmetics. 



Abstract Science 
rehiting to Space 
(more or less close- 
ly connected with 
Time) : Mathematics. * 



Concerning (the 
extent ol) Magni- 
tudes : Geometries. 

Concerning (the [ 
uanti- J 



relations of) Q 
ties : Analytics. 



Pertaining to Fi- 
niteness : Algebrics. 



i Pertaining to In- 
' llniteness : Fluxion- 



! ics 



or Calculics 



Dift'erential 
Calculics. 



Integral Cal- 
culics. 



Variation 
Calculics. 



The other division of abstract science, viz., logics, is 
scientifically in a state of great incompleteness, although 
"metaphysicians" have thonght and written for thousands of 
years. While mathematicians — also metaphysicians accord- 
ing to my definition — have been noted for their exactness, 
logicians (using this word in the proper and wide sense 
resulting from my use of the term logics) have been noted, 
as we can now judge them, for their inexactness. This has 
been due mainly to the fact that in the absence of knowl- 
edge, imagination, and morbid imagination, i.e., imagina- 
tion influenced by feelings, prejudices and fears — especially 
religious and social or political — was allowed to take its 
place. As Herbert Spencer has it, "it may be said with 
truth that metaphysics, in all its anti-realistic developments, 
is a disease of language." Nevertheless there is contained 
in the writings of metaphysical philosophers — and we may 
class together both the materialistic and the idealistic ones — 
much that will hereafter be available for building up the 
science of logics. But heretofore its domain has not even 
been recognized, so far as I am aware. The domain of 
logics has hitherto been confounded with that of psychol- 
ogy, which, as I have said before, is a part of anthropology. 
Logics is divisible, analogously to mathematics, into three 
subdivisions, viz. : — 

Abstract science relating to Time (more or less closely con- f Concerning Ideas. 

nectedwith Space): Logics \ Concerning Laws. 

* t Concerning Qualities . 



and their Classification. 285 

For the first subdivision, there exists no name ; the term 
ideology which, according to Webster's Dictionary, has 
been used to denote "1. A treatise on ideas, or the doctrine 
of ideas, or the operations of the understanding. — Jefferson^ 
IV, 297; 2. The science of mind. — Stewart:'' is, of 
course, inapplicable if we confine the termination "oloo'y" 
to the concrete sciences ; so we might coin the word "ideics." 
For the second subdivision we might use the term "ethics," 
if we choose to enlarge its meaning ; ordinarily it is held to 
relate only to the laws of morality, etymologically it refers 
to only manners. For the third subdivision we might use 
the term "esthetics," although it has hitherto been employed 
only for the science of but one quality, viz: the beautiful. 

Physology is aspectually divided into physogeny and phy- 
sography on the one hand, and into hylology, dynamoloi>y 
and morphology on the other. By the first kind of division 
I refer to («) the development of the objects of nature in 
time, or their tempic, i.e. motic or sequential existence, and 
(,?) their spacic or static existence, or the state of their exis- 
tence at a definite time, ^. e. the present. The develop- 
mental or genetic knowledge of any branch gives answer to 
the questions : "How came you so ?" "How or what were you 
before?" The existential or. existing, to the question : "How 
or what are you?" The former science has the distino-uishiu"" 
sufiix "ogeny," the latter "ography," which may be expressed 
by saying that every "ology" has its "ogeny" and "ogi-aphy." 
The second kind of aspectual division of physoloijy marks 
the distinctions which may be made by looking at nature in 
its manifestations of either matter, force or form. Matter 
and force appear to be unlimited in space and time, eternal 
and infinite ; form is unceasingly changing. Force is the 
dynamical aspect of matter, and matter the statical aspect 
of force ; the two are inseparable and presuppose each other ; 
form results from the reaction upon each other, or the inter- 
action, of matter and force, it therefoi-e presupposes the two 
latter. Hence, therefore, our perception of neither of them 



286 On the Subdivisions of Science 

can be absolutely separate, although we may turu our atten- 
tion to either of them predominantly. The phenomena con- 
cretely presented to us are those of substance, motion and 
shape. 

By hylology I designate chemistry in its proper sense. 
Dynamology I use for what is ordinarily termed natural 
philosophy, or physics in its restricted sense, and what, 
when it concerns living beings, is ordinarily called physi- 
ology. To do away with the confusion that has come from 
the different uses to which these words have been subjected, 
I have proposed the nomenclature here presented. When 
the use of the word physiology for biodynamology (i.e. the 
science of the manifestation of force, viz., motion or func- 
tion, of living beings) shall have become obsolete — if it ever 
does — physiology may be substituted for the term physology 
as being more euphonious. Natural philosophy is, prop- 
erly, general physology ; although all the subjects usually 
discussed in treatises on natural philosophy belong to general 
djaiamology. The word physics, as I have already indicated, 
would express the abstract science of concrete science of 
natural objects. General dynamology is the general science 
of motion — that concrete science of which the old and 
obsolete term " phoronomics " might express the abstract 
science. Motion, as is well known, impresses our senses 
differently, according to its different kinds. Thus, vibratory 
motion through space, repeated less than sixteen times in a 
second of time, produces in us, if we become aware of the 
motion at all, only the consciousness of mechanical force or 
"mechanism," as it has been called. Eepeated oftener, we 
receive the impression of sound, unless recurring too rapidly. 
When the motion is so rapid as no longer to impress us as 
sound, and still is not frequent enough to give us the con- 
sciousness of heat, I believe that it produces in us the sensa- 
tion of what we call electricity, a belief I have publicly 
announced for several years. When motion recurs more 
rapidly than sixty-five trillion times in a second, we become 



and their Classification. 287 

aware of it as heat, until it occurs about four hundred trillion 
times, when it impresses us as light, and beyond about eight 
hundred trillion times as chemical force or chemism. °In 
treating of the different effects upon our consciousness of 
motion repeated with greater or less rapidity in a unit of 
time, dynamology embraces as subdivisions the particular 
sciences which treat of these different modes of motion, as 
phonology, photology, etc. 

Of morphology some portions have been well cultivated 
while some have been neglected. The forms, or states of 
cohesion, in which matter is found, as solid, liquid or gase- 
ous, have given rise to the subdivisions stereology, hydroloffy 
and aerology, to which must probably be added etherology'to 
embrace the fourth or etherial state, of which, however? not 
much is as yet known. From another point of view, I may 
say that moiphography has been investigated more than 
morphogeny. A part of metageo-morphography (especially 
that relating to the sun, its protuberances, etc., called helio- 
morphography) has lately been studied with renewed zeal, 
since heliohylology (the chemistry of the sun) has been 
made possible by the discovery of spectrum analysis. Of 
abio-morphography, the portion to which especial attention 
has been given, is crystal lograjihy in connection with miner- 
ology. Biomorphography is ordinarily termed anatomy, and 
the advances made in this science, especially in zoomorphog- 
raphy or animal anatomy (or zootomy as it is sometimes 
called), have been principally due to the needs of medicine 
and the researches of physicians. Biomorphogeny has been 
well divided by H^ckel into ontogeny (the science of the 
development of "onta,"^•.e. organic individuals), correspond- 
ing to what is ordinarily called embryology, and phylogeny 
(the science of the development of "phyla," i, e. orgiinic 
stocks or races) corresponding to ordinary palfebntoloo-y. 
The scientific investigation of both is a matter of recency. 
Until comparatively lately, fancy and hypothesis held the 
place of knowledge in both these branches. 

MARCH, 1873. 20 An:n. LYC. NAT. HIST., VOL. X. 



288 On the Subdivisions of Science 

Having discriminated l^etweeu the science of space and 
time, on the one hand, and the science of the contents of 
space and time, i. e. the science of natural objects, on the 
other, the hitter may be divided into the two broad depart- 
ments of the science of natural objects belonging to the 
earth and the science of natural objects not belonging to 
the earth. HiECKEL recognizes this fundamental distinction 
of cosmology by dividing the latter into uranology, which he 
defines as the science of nature beyond the earth or the 
sidereal part of cosmology and pangeology, the science of 
nature relating to the earth, geology in the widest sense, or 
the telluric part of cosmology. H^ckel's reason for using 
the word pangeology, doubtless, is that the restricted sense 
in which the word geology is ordinarily employed (being 
defined as that "science which investigates the history 
of the crust of the earth," instead of eral>racing, as it does 
etymologically, everything relating to the earth) seemed to 
him too firmly established to be disturbed. Eather than use 
jjangeology I would employ tellurology, as Stephen Pearl 
Andrews does, hybrid though the word be. It of course 
includes telluric astronomy. As the complement or antithet 
of geology (or tellurology), I propose the word metageology 
(or metatellurology) — a term wide enough to include every- 
thing known of concrete science relating to beyond the earth. 

The more we enter into details of classification the less 
sharply drawn our lines of demarcation become ; thus, con- 
crete science relating to the earth concerns either living or 
unliving existences, hence the divisions of biology and abi- 
ology, — yet not only is it a matter of great difficulty to 
determine as to some beings whether they are of exceedingly 
low vitality or are not alive at all ; but the died (those 
beings that have been alive, but are so no longer), unliving 
though the}^ be, must, for convenience' sake, if for no other 
reason, be classed under the head of biology. The difi'erent 
subjects ot biology, being either animals, plants, or protists, 
give rise to the sciences of zoology, vegetology and protist- 



and their Classification. 289 

ology. This division has boen introduced by H/eckel. 
Previous to him all living beings were classified into the two 
kingdoms, animal and vegetable. But a number of living 
beings have been found to present each, in external form, in 
internal structure and in all vital phenomena, so remarkable 
a mixture or combination of distinguishing animal and vege- 
table characteristics, that it is impossible, except arbitrarily, 
to account them as belonging to either realm. Most of these 
beings are so small that with the naked eye they can be seen 
either with difficulty only, or not at all. The majority of 
them have, consequently, become known only during the last 
fifty years, since the more general use and improvements of 
the microscope. And just as soon as they became known 
they gave rise to endless and unprofitable disputes as to their 
nature and position in the organic scale. Many of them 
botanists called animals, and zoologists plants ; i. e., neither 
wanted to own them. Others again were declared to be 
plants by botanists, and animals by zoologists ; '^. e., both 
parties claimed them. Keally they hold a position which 
can only by violence be incorporated with either realm ; and 
it was a happy idea of H.eckel to end the fruitless fight 
over these doubtful beings by erecting the neutral ground 
they occupy into a kingdom by itself, a' kingdom in a certain 
way below, yet intermediate to, the two organic kingdoms 
hitherto recognized. These beings are called neuters, be- 
cause they are neither plants nor animals, or "protists," 
l)ecause they are lowest in the organic scale, i. e., first after 
inorganics or unliving beings. 

The division of the animal kingdom into Vertebrata and 
Invertebrata, or Evertebrata, as they were afterward called, 
Ave owe to Lamarck, who introduced this distinction toward 
the end of the last century. 

" Vortebnita are divided into amniota and anamniota, accordinsly as the 
dermal and cuticular elements of the ventral lamin* are in development 
reflected upwards from the medio-ventral line, so as to meet along the 
medio-dorsal line, and form thus the foetal envelope known as the amnion- 



290 On the Subdivisions of Science 

or, as no such envelope is superadded to the more or less complex ones, 
furnished by the maternal organism. In the vertebrate amniota, a second 
foetal envelope, the allantois, is always developed, originating from the 
anterior aspect of the posterior extremity of the trunk as a body, which 
is at first bilobed and solid, but which subsequently becomes hollow in- 
ternally, and covered externally with vascular ramifications, whereby in 
reptiles and birds the respiration, and in mammals both the respiration 
and the nutrition of the developing embryo are provided for. From their 
possession of this structure, the amniota are also known as 'allantoidea'; 
and as gills are never developed upon their bronchial arches, they are 
also called 'abranchiata,' whilst the anaraniota have in their turn the two 
additional names, ' anallantoidea ' and ' branchiata,' as never developing 
an allantois, at least beyond the stage of a urinary bladder, into which its 
proximal portion is converted in the higher vertebrata, and as always de- 
veloping either deciduous or permanent gills." (Rolleston, Forms of 
Animal Life, Oxford, 1870, p. xxxix.) 

I accept the Dame branchiata or branchiate animals, i. e., 
animals havinof branchias or irills, for the division anallant- 
oidea, but I propose the word pulmonata, pulmonates, mean- 
ing animals having lungs, to designate the allantoidea or that 
division of vertebrate animals comprising the three classes, 
mammals, birds and reptiles. I, therefore, divide vertebra- 
tology into pulmonatology and branchiatology ; and pnlmona- 
tology into mammalology, ornithology or aviology, and rep- 
tilology. 

In accordance with the recognized divisions of the mam- 
malia into placental, marsupial and monotrematous mammals 
— the first being those whose young, during the period of 
pregnancy, are nourished by means of a placenta within the 
uterus itself; the second, those who carry their young in a 
pouch or bag of the abdomen and nourish them there by 
suckling, and the third, those who have the generative and 
renal ducts confluent with the terminal segment of the intes- 
tine, so as to form a true "cloaca;" — and of the placeutalia 
into discoplacentalia, zonoplacentalia and villiplacentalia, — 
depending upon the form and nature of the placenta, which is 
disk- or cake-like in the first, girdle- or zone-shaped in the 
second, and made up of scattered papillie or cotyledons in 
the third; — 1 divide mammalology into placentalology, mar- 



and their Classification. 291 

siipialology and monotrematology ; and placentalology into 
discoplacentalology, zonoplacentalologj and villiplacentalol- 

But my next subdivisions require some further explanation. 
LiNN^us, who made the first successful attempt at arranging 
in intelligible order the various objects of Natural History, 
the science corresponding to my subdivision geography or 
tellurography, placed man, together with apes, monkeys, le- 
mures and cheiroptera or bats, into an order of mammalian 
animals to which he gave the name primates. (Systema 
Natume, ed. 12, Holmise 1766.) Linn^us' arrangement, in 
many respects, forms the basis of all modern classification, 
but his order primates was rejected until nearly a hundred 
years later, Huxley (Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature, 
New York, D. Appleton & Co., 1863, p. 124) readopted it, 
but excluded from it the bats. I still further exclude the 
monkeys, and the lemurs or prosimise, keeping in the order 
primates only the two genera, man and ape, authropi and 
anthropoides. The prosimioe I place in an order by them- 
selves ; and all the rest of the discoplacental •mammalia, 
viz., the monkeys excluded from the first order {i. e. the 
tailed catarrhinse and all the platyrrhinaj), the cheiroptera, 
the insectivora and the rodentia, I combine to constitute a 
second order, which I name subprimates. Hence I divide 
discoplacentalology into primatology, subprimatology and 
prosimiology ; and primatology into anthropology and an- 
thropoidology. 

We have thus arrived at the science of man, and, at the 
same time, at man's place in the sj^stem of nature. "The 
ascertainment of the place which man occupies in nature and 
of his relations to the universe of things," Huxley (in the 
work cited, p. 71) characterizes as "the question of questions 
for mankind — the problem which underlies all others, and is 
more deeply interesting than any other." Our classification 
shows us that man occupies the highest position in the high- 
est order in the hiirhest class of the highest kiug-dom of tel- 



292 On the Subdivisions of Science. 

lurology ; but, after all, tellurology relates but to the earth, 
a small planet of a small solar system ; after all, man is 
only as a drop in the ocean of infinity, of value, but of 
relative value. To the tiger, man is a mass of flesh and 
bone, partly food and partly indigestible matter ; to man 
himself, he is the first and most important compound of 
physical, intellectual and moral attributes, a sentient, know- 
ing and acting being. Anthropology concerns itself with 
everything that pertains to man, his origin, his structure and 
functions, his relations and capabilities, his conditions in 
health and disease, his needs and desires, his religion and 
morals. In addition to the aspectual divisions already named, 
giving us general and special anthropology ; comparative and 
descriptive anthropology ; anthropogeny (embracing history 
of the past) and anthropography (embracing statistics of the 
present) ; authropohylology, anthropodynamology and an- 
thropomorphology ; — there is another aspect from which the 
science of *man may be studied, viz., that of man's being 
either alone, separate, individual or not alone, but combined, 
i.e., in society; and hence arises the further aspectual sub- 
division of anthropology into monanthropology, a name for 
which science is indebted to Stephen Pearl Andrews, and 
synanthropology, a name which I propose instead of that of 
sociology, introduced by Auguste Comte. To specify the 
many other sciences included under the head of anthro- 
jjology, I deem unnecessary. 



On Prophysaon, etc. 293 

XXYII. — On Prophysaon, a neiu Pnlmonate Mollush, on 
Ariolimax, on Helix lychnuchus and other species. 

Bv THOMAS BLAKD AND W. G. BINXEY. 

Read April 28, 187:3. 

Description of 5*i'Ol>]iyss&oii, a new Genus of Pulmonate Mollusk. 

Animal limaciforme. postice acnminatum. Pallium antice positiim, par- 
vura, obtiisum, margiuibus auterioribus liberis, testam siraplicem, liaud 
spiralem incluclens. Margo infera auinialis sulco lougitudlnali supra 
pedem posito iustructa. Discus distiuctus gressorius nullus. Apertura 
respiratoria et aualis ad niarginem dextrara pallii paululum anteriorem 
positse. Apertura genitalis ad latus dextrum, pone et infra tentaculum 
oculigerum. Poi'us mucosus caudalis nullus. 

Testa interna louga, subliexagonalis. 

Maxilla leviter arcuata, costis numerosis validis (in specie unica circa 
xv), confcrtis munita; margiuibus denticulatis. 

Lamina lingualis ut in Helice coustituta. Dentes medians tricuspidatie, 
laterales bicuspidataB, margiuales qnadratse, irregulariter cuspidatsB. 

Habitat in Oregon et in California. Specimiiia plurima collegit H. 
Hemphill de Astoria usque ad San Francisco. 

Genus Limaci, Arioni et ArioJimaci afflne, sed facile distinguendum. 
Limaci afflue est testa interna, et positlone aperturae genitalis; sed differt 
maxilla costata, deutibus liugualibus uiarginalibus subquadratis, et posi- 
tlone apertures respirationis. Arioni simile est genus maxilla costata, 
denti!)us lingualibus marginalibus et positioue aperture respiratoriae; 
sed differt testa interna, positlone aperturae genitalis, et poro mucoso 
carente. Arinlimaci afflne est maxilla costata, dentibus marginalibus 
quadratis lingualibus, et testa interna; sed differt positioue aperturarum, 
respiratoria? et genitalis, et poro mucoso carente. De omnibus geueribus 
supra comparatis differt etiam nostrum genus carente disco gressorio 
distincto. 

De genere Hibernico Geomalaeo differt careutibus poi'o mucoso caudali, 
disco distincto gressorio, et positlone pallii et aperturae respiratorise (in 
Geomalaeo valde anteriore) ; afflue est testa interna, dentibus quadratis 
marginalibus liugualibus. Maxilla Geomalaci (vide infra, p. 309). 

Ab ceteris generibus Americanis sat distinctura est. 

Animal (see pi. xiii, tig. 8) limaciform, atteimatecl beliiud. 
Mantle anterior, small, obtuse before and behind, its margins 
free as far back as the cleft for the respiratory orifice, enclos- 
ing a simple, not spiral, snbhexagonal shell, which is longer 



294 On Prophysaon, etc. 

than wide. A longitudinal line around the animal just 
above the edge of foot. No distinct locomotive disk to 
foot, but crowded, oblique furrows running from centre to 
edge. Respiratory and anal orifices on the right margin of 
mantle, slightly in advance of its centre, with the usual cleft 
to the edge. Genital orifice behind and below, but quite 
near to, the right eye-peduncle. No caudal mucus pore. 

Jaw slightly arcuate, ends blunt, but little attenuated. 
Anterior surface with numerous (about fifteen in the only 
known species) crowded, stout ribs, which denticulate either 
margin (see pi. xiii, fig. 4). 

Lingual membrane (pi. xiii, fig. 7) as usual in the genus 
Helix. Central teeth tricuspid. Laterals bicuspid. Mar- 
ginals quadrate, irregularly cuspid, the inner cusps, as usual, 
longest. 

Found in Oregon and California. Mr. Henry Hemphill 
has collected specimens from Astoria to San Francisco Bay. 

This genus agrees with Limax by having an internal shell, 
and by the position of the genital orifice. It difiers by its 
ribbed jaw, by the subquadrate marginal teeth of the lingual 
membrane, and by the anterior position of its respiratory 
orifice. The genus is allied to Avion by its ribbed jaw, its 
quadrate marginal teeth of the lingual membrane, and by 
the anterior position of its respiratory oi'ifice ; it difiers in 
having an internal shell, in the position of its generative ori- 
fice and by the want of a caudal mucus pore. The genus is 
also allied to Ariolimax in having a ribbed jaw, quadrate 
marginal teeth to its lingual membrane and an internal 
shell; it difiers in the position of both genital and respira- 
tory orifices, and by the want of a caudal mucus' pore. The 
absence of a distinct locomotive disk to the foot distin- 
guishes our genus also from Avion, Limax and Ariolimax. 
It is not readily confounded with any other known American 
genus. The Irish genus Geomalacus is somewhat allied, 
having an anterior respiratory orifice and an internal shell, 
and being said by Gray to have crowded, quadrate teeth as 



On Prophysaon, etc. 295 

in Helix, from which we presume tlie marginals are quadrate, 
not aculeate. Geomalacus, however, differs from Prophi/- 
saon in having an extremely anterior mantle and orifice of 
respiration close behind the i-ight tentacle. It also has a 
locomotive disk and caudal mucus pore. It is described 
below, p. 309. 

Proplaysaon Henipliilli. n. s. 

Fropi specimens preserved in alcohol we can draw the 
following description only. Body blunt anteriorly, attenu- 
ated posteriorly, rounded and high on the back. Mantle 
granulated, w^hitish with a circular ring of smoke color 
above the respiratory orifice. Body obliquely reticulated 
with bluish lines, the reticulations larger (about twelve) 
below each side of the mantle, more numerous and smaller 
on the posterior extremity of the body. These reticulations 
are subdivided by irregularly disposed, rounded tuljerosities, 
with colorless interstices. Above the foot, from the louiritu- 
dinal line running around the animal to the edge of the foot, 
are perpendicular lines or furrows, also bluish in color. The 
foot has crowded wrinkles, running obliquely backwards 
from its centre to its margins. Length of an alcoholic speci- 
men 40 mill. 

Astoria, Oregon: Oakland and Mendocino Co., Califor- 
nia (Mr. Henry Hemphill). 

The internal shell (pi. xiii, fig. 2) differs in thickness, but 
is always well marked, sometimes suboval, sometimes sub- 
hexagonal, always longer than wide. 

The jaw and lingual membrane have been described above. 

The genitalia* are figured on pi. xiii, fig. 6. The testicle is composed 
of black aciniform creca; it is almost completely buried in the upper lobes 
of the liver, the epididymis completely so, lying on the floor of the cavity 
formed by the spiral winding of the upper lobes. It appears to pass 
through one of the lower lobes to join the oviduct, before reaching 
which it is greatl}^ convoluted. The accessory gland of the epididymis 
appears to be composed of several aciniform coeca of unequal size. The 

*I alone am responsible for the descriptions of the anatomy.— W. Q. B. 



296 On Prophysaon, etc. 

prostate gland is large. The vas deferens is extremely long, ten times 
as long as the penis, and equals the length of the whole genital system. 
It is attached to the side of the vagina quite to the penis, where it 
becomes free, and is spirally wound. It is largest about half-way from 
the vagina to the apex of the penis. It enters the penis at the centre of 
its truncated apex. The penis is very short and stout, barrel shaped, of 
equal breadth throughout. It has no retractor muscle. The cloaca is 
very short. On the vagina, just above the penis, appears on some speci- 
mens an extremely small, sac-like organ, not figured in our plate, as we 
are not entirely satisfied as to its presence. It is perhaps a dart sac, or a 
prostate. The ovary has the usual tongue-shaped form. The oviduct is 
not much convoluted. The vagina is long, and extremely broad, several 
times convoluted. The genital bladder is oval, small, with a short, stout 
duct entering the vagina at its upper extremity, by the side of the ter- 
minus of the oviduct. 



This peculiarly stout, barrel shaped penis and broad vagina 
were constant in eight specimens examined, all from Astoria. 
In several other specimens from Mendocino County, easily 
detected exteriorly by a more slender, tapering bod}^, and 
smaller, more rounded mantle, the penis was found more 
elongated, the vagina less broad, the genital bladder larger, 
with a more delicate duct. In these specimens, also, the 
testicle was very much larger and was not concealed in the 
liver, but only slightly entangled in it at one point, against 
which it lay. The epididymis in these specimens was also 
free from the liver. The genitalia of this form differ enough 
from those of the Astoria specimens to warrant our belief in 
the existence of a second species of Pfophysaon. We have 
therefore figured, also (fig. 5), the genital system of the 
Mendocino County specimens. The question of specific 
identity must be settled by those who can study living speci- 
mens. The digestive system of the same form is figured on 
pi. xiii, fig. 3. It quite resembles that of Arion hortensis as 
figured by Leidy in Terrestrial MoUusks, Vol. I. It is 
much more simple than that of Ariolimax. The salivary 
glands are very broad and very arborescent, and form a 
broad collar around the oesophagus and commencement of the 
stomach. The last named organ is very broad. 



On Prophysaon, etc. 297 

Before decidino: that this sliis; is new to science we corn- 
pared it with the descriptions of AiHon foliolatus, Gould 
(Terr. Moll. U. S., II, 30, pi. Ixvi, %. 2) and Avion? An- 
dersonii, J. G. Cooper (Proc. Phila. A. N. S., 1872, 148, 
pi. iii, fig. F, 1-5). Our species cannot be identical with 
the former, which is described as oxi Avion, with "a conspicu- 
ous pit, which probably was occupied by a mucus gland" at 
the truncated tip of the tail. The areolre formed by the retic- 
ulating lines of A. foliolatus are said to have their surfaces 
iudented by leaf-like markings, no doubt the same as the 
granulations between the reticulations of Pvophysaon. In 
our genus, however, the granulations seem less regularly 
arranged. The figure of Avion foliolatus* shows, also, a 
larger mantle, which leaves a much smaller space between 
its lower margin and the longitudinal furrow above the foot, 
than does the mantle in our species. 

At first sight it seemed as if our species might be identical 
with Avion? Andevsonii, but that species is described and 
figured with a distinct locomotive disk, with the respiratory 
orifice perceptibly anterior only when the animal is fully 
extended, with a jaw having 20-30 ribs, Avith a minute 
caudal mucus pore and with the generative orifice half-way 
between the tentacle and the mantle, all of which does not 
apply to Pvopliysaon Hemphilli. 

We deem it necessary, therefore, to find a specific as well 
as generic name for our slug, and take pleasure in adopting 
that of Mr. Henry Hemphill, who has given us so much 
assistance in our studies of the laud shells of the Pacific 
Coast. 

On the Generic Characters of Ario3iinstx. 

Having received from Mr. J. G. Anthony, of the Cam- 
bridge Museum of Comparative Zoology, a specimen of the 
true Aviolimax, probably the A. Califovnicus, we are en- 



*rig. 6 of the Ex. Ex., shows the respiratory orifice behind the centre of the mantle 
edge. 



298 On Prophystaon, etc. 

abled to give a more full description of the genus than that 
contained in our Land and Fresh Water Shells of North 
America. 

Ariolimax. Animal liraaciforme, postice acuiiiinatum. Pallium antice 
situra, parvum, obtusura, marginibus liberis, testam simplicem baud 
spiralera, solidam includens. Margo infera animalis sulco longitudinali 
supra pedem posito rauiiita. Discus gressorius distinctus. Apertura 
respiratoria ad marginein dextram pallii in parte posteriore posita; aper- 
tura analis vicina, sed postice et infra posita. Apertura genitalis ad 
latus dextrum corporis, sub parte anteriore libera pallii posita (in A. 
Californico duobus oriflciis distinctis niuuita). Torus mucosas caudalis 
triangularis erectus supra apicem pedis. 

Maxilla leviter arcuata, costis numerosis (viii-xx), validis, confertis 
munita; marginibus denticnlatis. 

Lamina lingualis ut in Helice constituta. Dentes medlanae tricuspi- 
datae; laterales bicuspidatse ; marginales quadratse, irregulariter cuspi- 
data3, cuspide interna producta, externa ssepissime subobsoleta. 

Habitat in regionibus Pacificis Statuorum Unitorum, inter Oceanum et 
montes "Cascade" et "Sierra Nevada" dictas, de lat. 34° usque ad 49°. 

Genus a cl. Morch prinio descriptura, Mai. Blatt. VI, 110, Oct., 1859; 
postquam a W. G. Binney Amer. Journ. Conch. I, 48, pi. vi, fig. 11-13, 
18G5; delude, W. G. Binney et T. Bland, L. and F. W. Shells N. A., I, 278, 
f. 496-8, 1809. Ceteris auctoribus ad Limacem refertur: Gould in Terr. 
Moll. U. S. II, 1851; W. G. Binney ante, Terr. Moll. IV, 1859; Tryou, 
Am. Journ. Conch., Ill, 315, 1868. 

Genus Limaci, Arioni et Prophynaonti affine, sed facile distinguendura. 
Liniaci affine est testa interna, positione aperturae respiratoria?, et disco 
gressorio distincto; sed differt poro mucoso caudali, maxilla costata, 
dentibus marginalibus quadratis laminfe lingualis, et positione aperturae 
genitalis. Arioni simile poro mucoso caudali, disco gressorio distincto, 
maxilla costata, lamina linguali, positione aperturtc genitalis; sed difl'ert 
positione apertunc respiratoria), et testa interna. Frophysaonti simile 
testa interna, maxilla costata, lamina linguali; sed differt positione aper- 
turarura, respiratoriae et genitalis, disco gressorio distincto, et poro mucoso 
caudali. 

Ab ceteris geueribus Americanis limaciformibus aut sublimaciformibus, 
Veronicella, Biniieia, Ilemphillia, Tebennophoro et Pallifcra sat distinctum 
est. 

Species adhuc notoe : — 
Ariolimax Colwnbianns, Gould (Limax), Terr. Moll. U. S.. II, 43, pi. Ixvi, 

fig. 1. Conf. Binney et Bland, L. and F. W. Shells N. A., I, 279. 
Ariolimax Californicus, J. G. Coopkk, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1872, 

p. 146, pi. iii, fig. D, 1-3. 
Ariolimax niger, J. G. Coopeu, I. c, 147, pi. iii, fig. E, 1-4. 



On Projphysaon, etc. 299 

Animal limaciform, blunt in front, pointed behind. Man- 
tle anterior, small, bluntly truncated before and behind, free 
around its edges, containing a well defined, solid, testaceous 
plate. A longitudinal furrow along the sides above the foot. 
A distinct locomotive disk. Respiratory orifice at the poste- 
rior third of the mantle, with a cleft to its right maririn. 
Anal orifice contiguous to the last, slightly below and behind 
it. Orifices of generation on the right of the body, below 
the anterior, free part of the mantle, distinct but contiguous 
(in A. callfornicus, certainly), that of the male organ ante- 
rior. Tail furnished with a perpendicular, triangular mucus 
pore, with a horizontal mucus slit to the end of the tail. 

Testaceous plate flat, thick, calcareous, simple, not spiral; 
longer than wide, hexagonal. 

Jaw (see L. and F. W. Shells, p. 278, fig. 497) slightly 
arcuate, with numerous (from eight to twenty in the several 
species) stout, crowded ribs, denticulating either margin. 

Lingual membrane (see L. and F. W. Shells I, p. 279, 
fig. 498) as usual in Helix. Teeth in numerous horizontal 
rows; centrals tricuspid; laterals bicuspid: marginals (see 
our plate xiii, fig. 1) quadrate, irregularly denticulated, the 
inner cusp the largest.* 

Inhabits the Pacific Coast of the United States, at least 
from lat. 34° to 49°, apparently not eastward of the Sierra 
Nevada and Cascade Ranges. 

The species on which the genus was founded has been 
known for many years as a Limax (see Gould in Terr. Moll. 
U. S., II, III and Ex. Ex. Mollusca, where an additional 
figure is given), but it was not until 1859 that Morch (Mai. 
Blatt. VI, 110) recognized it to be distinct from Limax and 
projaosed a generic name, Ariolimax. In 1865, W. G. 
Binney (Amer. Journ. Conch. I, p. 48, pi. vi, figs. 11-13) 
gave a more detailed generic description, adding figures of 

*In only one instance have we seen marginal teeth as in onr figure. In all other 
specimens examined the marginals are as fl;fured iu L. and F. W. Shells, I. c, with one 
long cusp and one obsolete side cusp. 



300 On Prophysaon, etc. 

jaw and lingual dentition. These were also given in our 
Land and Fresh Water Shells N. A., I, p. 278, figs. 496-8 
(1869). As late as 1868 the species is still retained in 
Limax b^^Tryon (Amer. Journ. Conch. Ill, 315), who gives 
a copy of one of Gould's figures from the Terrestrial 
Mollusks. 

The genus has affinities with, but is readily distinguished 
from, Limax, Avion and PropJiysaon. It agrees Avith 
Limax in having an internal shelly plate, in the position of 
its respiratory orifice and its distinct locomotive disk ; but it 
diSers in having a caudal mucus pore, a ribbed jaw, quadrate 
(not aculeate) marginal teeth on the lingual membrane, and 
in the position of its genital orifice. With Avion it agrees 
in having a mucus pore, a distinct locomotive disk, a ribbed 
jaw, in its lingual membrane, and position of the genital 
orifice ; but it differs in the position of its respiratory orifice 
and its internal shell. With Pvophysaon it agrees in having 
an internal shell, a ribbed jaw, in its lingual membrane ; but 
clitfers in the position of the genital and respiratory orifices, 
in its distinct locomotive disk and caudal mucus pore. 

From the other sluglike, or semi-sluglike American genera, 
Tehennophovus, Pallifeva, Binueia, HempJiillia, Vevonicella, 
it is most readilv distinguished. 

Several species are known : — 

AvioUmax Colambianus, Gould (Limax) see L. and F. W. 
Shells, I, 279, for its synonymy, to which must be added 
Limax Columbiamis, Tryon, Amer. Journ. Conch., Ill, 
315, pi. xvi, fig. 1, copy. (1868.) This is found in 
Washington Territory and Oregon, confined, according 
to Dr. Cooper, to the west of the Cascades. 

AvioUmax Califovnicus, J. G. Cooper, Proc. Phila. Acad. 
Nat. Sci., 1872, p. 146, pi. iii", fig. D, 1-3. California, 
in the Coast Range, once only in the Sierra Nevada in 
lat. 39°. 



On Prophysaon, etc. 301 

ArioUmax niger, J. G. Cooper, I. c. 149, pi. iii, iSg. E, 1-4. 
San Francisco Bay. An examination of the original 
specimens belonging to the State collection of California 
convinced us of this being a distinct species. The 
anatomy, especially the genitalia, of these species varies 
greatly, as we hope to show in a future paper. 

On the Generic Position of Helix lycltiiaicSilis, 311111. 

Prominent among the group of Helices known as Dentel- 
lai'ia is Helix lycJmuchus, Miiller, a species well known from 
its characteristic shell. " Though its specific identity is un- 
questioned, it has been less fortunate with respect to generic 
position. From an examination of the generative organs 
and jaw, this species was referred by M. de St. Simon 
(Journ. de Conch. Ill, p. 227, Aug., 1853) to the genus 
Zonites. So positively was this determination made that it 
has been accepted by subsequent authors, either absolutely 
or to a degree sufficient to throw doubt upon the species 
being a true Helix. Thus in the second edition of Albers' 
"Die Heliceen," p. 79, there is a paragraph fixing the place 
it would hold as a distinct genus among the Vilrinea, should 
St. Simon's observations be confirmed ; and quite recently 
we find it singled out l^y Messrs. Fischer and Crosse (Moll. 
Mex. et Guat., p. 205) as an instance of the shell of a 
terrestrial mollusk beiuo^ unreliable in indicatins: sfeneric 
position. 

Early in our studies of the classification of land shells, we 
were inclined to doubt the correctness of St. Simon's decis- 
ion. On consulting his paper (p. 234) we noticed that he 
placed Helix lychnuchus in Zonites simply because he ac- 
cepted Moquin-Tandon's decision that Zonites is generically 
distinct from Helix, in having (1) a jaw without ribs or 
marginal denticnlatlons and with a median rostriform pro- 
jection to its cutting edge; and (2) by the absence of dart, 
dart sac and multifid vesicles in the generative system. We 
had satisfied ourselves that this distinction does not exist, 



302 On Prophysaon, etc. 

and even at the time of writing his article, St, Simon might 
have learned from the first volume of the "Terrestrial Mol- 
lusks of the United States" that many Helices have the most 
simple form of genitalia, while several true Zonites have the 
dart, dart sac, and some form of multifid vesicle. As to the 
presence or absence of ribs upon the jaw, or a median pro- 
jection to its cutting edge, we were well aware from our own 
observations that those characters were valueless for the pur- 
poses of distinguishing Zonites from Helix. Our doubts as 
to the correctness of the reference by St. Simon of Helix 
lychnuchus to Zonites, were confirmed on finding the allied 
species* of the subgenus Dentellaria, H. orbiculata, Fer., 
Isabella, Fer., dentiens, Fer., and perplexa, Fer., to be 
true Helices. All of those species have the quadrate mar- 
ginal teeth which characterize the genus Helix, while, as is 
well known, the genus Zonites is characterized by aculeate 
marginal teeth. Moreover we did not observe in any of the 
above species the marginal furrows above the edge of the 
foot, the distinct locomotive disk, or the caudal mucus pore 
prevailing in Zonites. 

Confident, therefore, that the species would prove a true 
Helix, we have for some time endeavored to obtain speci- 
mens of the animal, but have only recently succeeded in so 
doing. Through the kindness of Mr. A. Schramm we are in 
receipt of several specimens preserved in glycerine, from 
Guadeloupe. On examination of these specimens we find, 
from both external and internal characters of the animal, 
that our surmises are corroborated in every particular. The 
species, therefore, animal as well as shell considered, must 
remain in Helix, as now accepted by von Martens and most 
authors. 

Helix lychnuchus. Lingual membrane (pi. xiv, flgs. 7, 8), long and broad. 
Teeth arranged in numerous horizontal rows. Centrals tricuspid, laterals 
bicuspid, the side cusps of each being subobsolete ; marginals quadrate, 

* Two more of this subgenus are described below in this paper, p. 305, .306. 



On Prophysaon, etc. 303 

low, wide, the upper margin reflected along its wfiole length and produced 
into two oblique, broad, bluntly rounded cusps, the inner one bluntly- 
bifid. 

Jaw (see pi. xiv, fig. 5) arched, high, ends blunt, scarcely attenuated; 
concave margin with a broad, blunt, median projection. Upper margin 
showing slightly the ends of subobsolete ribs, whose presence is scarcely 
discernible on the anterior surface. Strong perpendicular striae, and 
stout transverse lines of reinforcement. 

We have also examined the genital system and find it 
apparently as described by M. St. Simon {I.e.). Its char- 
acteristic is the long, flagellate penis, and long, large duct to 
the genital bladder. (See pi. xiv, fig. 6.) The external 
orifice of the generative organs seems, as stated by M. St. 
Simon, to be under the mantle, not far in advance, on the 
side of the neck, behind the right tentacle. See our re- 
marks on the value of this character in Ann. N. Y. Lye. 
Nat. Hist., X, p. 165. 

It is interesting to state in this connection, that we have 
already rescued from a similar misapprehension^ one species 
of the genus Leucochroa (L. Boissieri, see Ann. of N. Y. 
Lye. Nat. Hist., X, p. 220), a genus separated from JleUx 
on the same grounds as Helix lychniichus was referred to Zo- 
nites. We cannot refrain from believing that all the species 
referred to Leucochroa, including L. candidissima, will be 
proved to have quadrate marginal teeth. 

The species allied to Helix lycJmuchus, also referred to 
Dentellaria, H Isabella and H dentiens, have decidedly 
costate jaws ; H. orbiculata and perplexa have only some 
approach to ribs on their jaws ; the last mentioned has a 
broad median projection. All of them have on their lingual 
membranes marginal teeth of the type described above in 
Helix lychnuchus.* 

*The habitat given of this species, in Albers, 2d ed. (Porto Rico), is unquestionably- 
erroneous. It is by no means uncommon in Guadeloupe, and Pfeiffer refers it also to 
Martinique, but we have not seen any authentic specimen from that island. 
June, 1873. 21 Astn. Ltc. Nat. Hist., Vol. x . 



304 On Prophysaon, etc. 

On the Specific Distinction of Helix Collini1>ianift, Lea, and 
Helix grei'iuann, Gould. 

We have hitherto found difficulty in separating certain 
forms of Helix Columbiana, Lea, and Helix germana, Gould, 
but have recently received, through the kindness of Mr. 
Henry Hemphill, specimens of both species, preserved in 
alcohol, from several distinct localities. An examination of 
their soft parts has proved that in the jaw and genital 
system there exists a specific difference readily detected. 
This difference appears to be constant, as we have observed 
it in one specimen, with parietal lamina and quite dej^ressed, 
of Helix Columbiana, from San Leandro, California, and 
three from another locality. In Helix germana we also have 
found the characters constant, having examined four speci- 
mens, one from Astoria, the other three from a separate* 
locality. 

In the jaw, the distinction is in its general outline and in 
the size and frequency of the ribs on the anterior surface. 
In H. germana the jaw is slightly arcuate (see pi. xiv, fig. 
4) ; the ribs are about eleven in number, broad, crowded, 
with narrow interstices only, generally resembling the jaw 
found in the subgenus Stenotrema (see our L. and F. W. 
Shells N. A., Part I). In Helix Columbiana (pi. xiv, fig. 2) 
the jaw is more arched, the ribs are less numerous, about 
eight, narrower, much more separated, and more decidedly 
produced on either margin, as usual in Mesodon. 

In the genitalia the difference lies in the genital bladder. 
This organ in Helix Columbiana is clavate, short, with a 
short, stout duct (fig. 1, a) but in Helix germana (fig. 3, a) it 
is globular and has a long, narrow duct. 

In both species the retractor muscle of the penis is attached 



Note. In L. and F. W. Shells N. A., Part I, 120, we included H. germana in Steno- 
trema, but it has not the internal transverse tubercle characteristic of that subgenus- 
In the foregoing remarks we have shown that H. germana diflfers specifically from H. 
Columbiana, but consider that both species belong to Mesodon rather than the latter to 
Stenotrema. 



On Prophysaon, etc. 305 

to the vas deferens, a short distance before the latter organ 
enters the penis, which it does at the apex of the penis sac. 

Macrocyclis Baiidoiii, Petit. 

*We have already described the lingnal membrane of this 
species. (See Am. Journ. Conch., VII, p. 175.) Recently 
we have received a Guadeloupe specimen (not adult), from 
Mr. Schramm. On extracting the lingual membrane we 
found attached to it a most delicate, transparent, colorless 
jaw, arched, with pointed ends, median projection to cutting 
edge and smooth anterior surfoce. 

This, added to the lingual dentition, places the species in 
Macrocyclis. 

Biiliniiiliisi miiltifa^ciattis, Lam. (Liostracus.) 

Antigua. Governor Rawson. 

Jaw long, very low, slightly arcuate ; ends attenuated, pointed ; ex- 
tremely thin, transparent; divided by numerous delicate ribs into over 
thirty plates of the form common to Bulimulus, Cylindrella, etc., the 
upper median plates triangular. 

Lingual membrane broad. Teeth in numerous waving rows, of the 
type we have described and figured in Bulimuhis laticinctus. (Ann. Lye. 
Nat. Hist., N. Y., X, p. 81, pi. ii, fig. 1, 5.) The centrals are distinctly 
trifid. 

Bulimulus alternant, Beck. (Liostracus.) 

Islands in the Bay of Panama. Mr. McNiel. 

Jaw long, low, slightly arcuate, extremely thin and transparent; divided 
by numerous delicate ribs in about fifty-two plates of the type common in 
Btilimulus, Cylindrella, etc. 

Lingual membrane as in the preceding species. 

Helix pacbygrastra, Gray. (Dentellaria.) 

Guadeloupe. Mr. Schramm. 

Jaw stout, slightly arcuate, ends blunt; anterior surface with decided 
ribs, denticulating either margin, about seven, irregularly disposed; both 
ends free from ribs. 

Lingual membrane as usual in the subgenus ; see above, p. 303 and plate 
xiv, figs. 7, 8, for those of Helix lychnudius. 



306 On Prophysaon^ etc. 

Helix Josepllinse, Fer. {Dentellaria.') 

Guadeloupe. Mr. Schramm. 

Jaw stout, ribless ; so strongly arched as to be quite horse-shoe shai)ecl. 
Ends bluntly rounded. A decided median projection to cutting edge, 
marked with strong vertical striae. 

Lingual membrane as in preceding. 

Helix invali<lst, Adams. (Pleurodonta.) 

Jamaica. Mr. Henry Vendryes. 

Jaw not examined. 

Lingual membrane as in the preceding. The centrals and laterals quite 
short and stout. 

Piinctuiu i»iiiaiti§§iiuuiii, Lea. 

This species was described as Helix minutissima by Mr. 
Isaac Lea, in 1841. Its proper generic position was un- 
known, however, prior to 1864, when Professor Edward S. 
Morse, published figures of the jaw and lingual dentition 
(Journ. Portland Soc, I, p. 27, fig. 70, pi. viii, fig. 71). 

He thus described the jaw : — 

" The buccal plate (fig. 70) is made up of sixteen long, slender, corneous 
laminae, recurved at their cutting edges, these plates partially lapping 
over each other." 

Morse remarked on the similarity between Lea's species 
and H. pygmosa Drap., of Europe, adding, "and it seems 
singular that it has never been referred to that species," but 
after examination of the jaw of the latter, as figured by 
Moquin-Tandon, Morse considered it generically distinct. 

The following is Moquin-Tandon's description of the jaw 
of H. pygmo&a (Moll, de France, II, p. 103, pi. x, fig. 2, 
1855). 

" 3Iachoire large de 0"" .25, peu arqufie, mince, a peine cornee, trans- 
parente, assez facile a etudier a cause de la transparence des teguments; 
extremites araincies ; partie moyenne du bord libre un peu surbaissee ; 
cotes verticales nombreuses, fines, serrees ; creuelures tres petites." 



On Propkysaon, etc. 307 

In W. G. Binney's Synopsis (Smith. Inst. Coll., p. 4, 
Dec, 1863) Htjalina (Conulus) mmuiissima, Lea, is enu- 
merated, and Tryon (Amer. Jour. Conch., II, p. 257, 1866) 
placed the species in Conulus, while quoting the particulars 
given by Morse,. of the jaw. 

In 1868, Lindstroni (Gotlands Nut. Moll., taf. iii, f. 12) 
published figures, but without description, of the jaw of 
II. pygmoRa. On comparison of this with Morse's figure of 
minutissima , the identity of the two species could scarcely 
be inferred. 

In our Land and Fresh- water Shells (Part I, p. 221, 1869) 
we adopt Punctum, Morse, as the generic name of Lea's 
species, treating that genus as belonging to Orthalicince, by 
reason of the structure of the jaw. 

W. G. Binney (Invert. Mass. 2d ed., p. 403, fig. 665, 
1870) has Hyalina minutissima as occurring in Massachusetts, 
adding in a note "the character of the jaw would place the 
species in the subfamily Orthalicince, as a distinct genus for 
which Morse's name Punctum might be retained, otherwise 
the species would be placed in Hyalina." 

Mr. J. Gwyn Jeflreys (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., Oct., 
1872) refers to Hyalina minutissima as being identical with 
Helix pygmoia, Drap. 

Dr. G. Schacko (Malak. Blatt., p. 178, 1872) has re- 
cently described both jaw and lingual teeth of II. pygmoia, 
showing that both have the same characters as ascribed by 
Morse to Punctum minutissimum. 

The foUovvilig is a translation of Schacko's description of 
the jaw of H. pygmma: — 

"The jaw consists of nineteen plates, which are grouped in the form 
of a horse-shoe. They lie together like the tiles of a roof, and partially 
cover one another. The plates are connected by a fine transparent mem- 
brane. The middle plate, which is the largest, and perfectly straight at 
the top, lies entirely alone, so that a space is visible between it and the 
two next side-plates. These are smaller and of the same length, while 
the top is slightly curved. The plates have the same form as regards 
their length, but the curve increases towards the end plates. The third 



308 On Prophysaon^ etc. 

plate from the middle begins to cover the second, the fifth covers half of 
the fourth, and the succeeding plates always more, until the last covers 
two-thirds of the preceding one." 

The formula of the linguiil membrane is given by Schacko 
as being one hundred and fourteen rows of 19-1-19 ; by 
Morse of Lea's species, fifty-one rows of 13-1-13. 

The centrals of H. jpygmcea are said by Schacko to be tri- 
auspid; the two side centrals so small, and scarcely recog- 
nizable, that they entirely disappeared in one specimen ; the 
laterals bicuspid. He remarks that every tooth of the 
radula lies alone, so that even the cusps do not cover or 
disturb the basal surfaces of the overlying rows. 

Schacko refers to the near alliance, in form of jaw espec- 
ially, of //. jpygmcEa with //. mmutissi?na of the genus 
Punctum of Morse. 

Looking at the descriptions and figures of the jaws of 
pygmma and minutissima, we notice, with striking general 
similarity of characters, some differences ; on the other hand 
the lingual teeth of the two forms appear to be the same, and 
the shells without variation of specific value. 

The facts regarding the distribution of H. pygmoea, which 
may be treated as one of the circumpolar species, favor the 
opinion, which we are disposed to adopt, that Lea's sjDecific 
name must be placed in the synonymy of Punctum pyg- 
mceum. 

The species known as H. pygniGea, Drap, has an extensive 
range in northern (Lapland, Denmark, etc.) and central 
Europe. The North American form occurs in California, 
also in Maine, Massachusetts, New York and Ohio, and has 
lately been discovered by Mr. Hugo W. Ericsson, in Boj^que 
County, Texas. 

C^eonialacus luaculosiis, Allm. 

On- p. 293 of this article we compared PropJiysaon with 
the Irish genus Geomalactls, as far as known to us by pub- 



On PropJiysaon^ etc. 



309 



lished descriptions.* Since then we have received through 
the kindness of Mr. Gvvyn Jeffreys six specimens, preserved 
in spirit, of Geomalacus 7naculosus, Allm. This enables us 
to give the following description and figures. 

Jaw (fig. A), liigh, stout, dark horn-colored, arched, ends but little 
attenuated, bluntly rounded ; anterior surface with about twelve, broad, 
crowded ribs, of which four on the middle part of the jaw are stout, well 
developed, denticulating either margin, and produced below so as to give 
the appearance of a median projection to the cutting edge : the remainder 
of the ribs are unequally developed in the several specimens examined, 
being sometimes scarcely discernible; on one specimen is a median, 
transverse line of reinforcement, parallel to the mai-gins of the jaw. 

Lingual membrane long, not very broad. Teeth arranged in horizontal 
rows, of the form common to the Helicince. Centrals (lig. B) tricuspid, 
laterals (Fig B) bicuspid, the external cusps of each being subobsolete. 
Marginals (Fig. C) quadrate, with one long inner oblique, pointed cusp, 
and one outer, small, pointed cusp. Extreme marginals lower than 
wide, but retaining the same bicuspid character. 




B gives one 



Fig. A gives an enlarged view of the jaw 
central and two lateral teeth of the lingual membrane 
sives several marginals . 



C 



The genitalia are as usual in the limaciform Helicince. The testicle is 
black, embedded in the upper lobe of the liver, connected by a long 
epididymis to the oviduct. The ovary is tongue shaped. The oviduct is 
convoluted. The genital bladder is small, round, with a long, delicate 
duct. The vas deferens is twice as long as the whole genital system, four 



* Owing to our copy of Xachiichtsbl. mal. Gesellsch. being imperfect, the description 
of Heynenftinn I, p. 105-168, pi. i, fig. 1, is known to us only from the notice in the Zoo- 
logical Record, VI, p. 565. 



310 On Prophysaon, etc. 

times as long as the penis sac, which it enters at its apex. This sac is 
cylindrical, stouter and longer than the vagina ; the retractor muscle is 
Inserted opposite the entrance of the vas deferens, beyond which point 
the sac is extended in a short delicate duct, which enters a large ovate 
organ, one-third the length of the penis sac. This organ is the peculiar 
characteristic of the species, present in all the six specimens examined. 
It no doubt is of the same use as the bulb-lilie termination sometimes 
found to the flagellum In other species, but is of extraordinary dimen- 
sions. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES XIII AND XIV. 

The separate organs of the anatomical figures will readily 
be recognized, or may be compared with the figures in "Ter- 
restrial Mollusks U. S.," I. 

Plate XIII. 

Fig. 1. Ariolimax niger. The extreme marginal teeth. 
See p. 299, foot note. 

Fig. 2. ProjpJiysaon HemphillL The internal shell en- 
larged. 

Fig. 3. The same. Digestive system. Same form as 
fig. 5. 

Fig. 4. The same. The jaw greatly magnified. 

Fig. 5. The same. The genitalia of the form referred 
to on p. 296. a, the genital bladder. 

Fig. 6. The same. The genitalia of the typical form, 
still more enlarged. 

Fig. 7. The same. Central, lateral and marginal teeth 
of the lingual membrane. 

Fig. 8. The same. External view of a specimen con- 
tracted in spirits. Magnified. 

Plate XIV. 

Fig. 1. Helix Columbiana, Lea. The genitalia, a, the 
genital bladder. 

Fig. 2. The same. Jaw. 

Fig. 3. Helix germana, Gld. The genitalia., a, the 
genital bladder. 



Physical Geography of the Bahama Islands. 311 

Fisr. 4. The same. Jaw. 

Fig. 5. Helix lychnuchus. Mull. Jaw. 

Fig. 6. The same. Genitalia. The accessory gland of 
the epididymis is not shown in the figure. It was broken oif. 

Fig. 7. The same. A group of central and lateral teeth 
of the lingual membrane. 

Fiof. 8. The same. Marji-inal teeth from the left of the 
median line of the lingual membrane. 



XXVIII. — On the Physical Geography of, and the Distribu- 
tion of Terrestrial Mollusca in, the Bahama Islands. 

. By THOMAS BLA^"D. 
Read April 28, 1873. 

The northern end of the extensive and remarkable group 
called the Bahama, or Lucayos Islands, lies opposite southern 
Florida, and from this point the islands stretch off in a 
double series, nearly parallel to the trend of Cuba and San 
Domingo, and terminate properly in the Turk's Island Bank, 
on which are the last, and most easterly, of this chain of in- 
habited islands, which extends about 600 miles, from within 
70 miles of the coast of Florida, to within 100 miles of that 
of San Domingo. 

The following brief description of the Banks and Islands, 
defined generally by the 100-fathom line of soundings, is 
taken principally from the valuable "Keport on the Bahamas," 
by Governor Rawsou, which report accompanied the oflicial 
"Blue Book" of that colony, for 1864; the soundings from 
the charts issued by the U. S. Coast Survey, and the Hydro- 
graphic Office of the U. S. Navy. 

The Little Bahama Bank. — This is the most northerly bank ; its north- 
westeru point, Matanilla Reef, is 70 miles from the Florida shore, sepa- 



312 Physical Geography, etc. 

rated from it by the Gulf of Florida, the greatest depth of which, on the 
line of the axis of the Gulf Stream, off the western edge of the Reef, is 
344 fathoms (2,064 feet). The area of the Bank is about 5,5G0 square 
miles, of which the islands occupy about 1,200; it is separated from the 
Great Bahama Bank by the northwestern and northeastern Providence 
Channels, but is not more than 45 miles from any part of it; at the 
nearest point only 15 miles.* 

The Little Bank contains only two islands of considerable size; Abaco 
(divided by a narrow channel into Great and Little Abaco) and Grand 
Bahama. "Hole in the Wall," at the southeast end of Great Abaco, is 
568 miles distant from Cape Hatteras. 

The Great Bahama Bank. — This Bank, south and southeast of the Little 
Bank, is separated from it by the Providence Channels, from Florida by 
the Gulf of Florida, by the Santaren Channel from Salt Key Bank, and 
by the Nicholas or Old Bahama Channel from Cuba, from which Key San 
Domingo, the southern extremity of the Bank, is distant about 40 miles. 

The greatest depth of the Gulf of Florida between Cape Florida and 
Gun Key, on the western side of the Great Bank, is 309 fathoms (1,854 
feet), and more southerly, between Carysfort Reef and Orange Key 
(distance about 60 miles), 475 fathoms (2,850 feet). The greatest depth 
of the Santaren Channel, between the Great Bank and Anguilla Island 
on the Salt Key Bank (distance about 27 miles), is 386 fathoms (2,316 feet). 

The Great Bank has an area of about 37,000 square miles, of which the 
islands upon it occupy about 2,357 square miles. 

This Bank is penetrated at its centre by a deep Sound, the Gulf of 
Providence (known as the " Tongue of the Ocean"), for a distance of 110 
miles, with an average width of 25 to 30 miles, approached from the 
northwest and northeast by the two Providence Channels. 

The principal islands on the Great Bank are as follows : — 

The Biminis, two small Keys on the western side, about 45 miles from 
Cape Florida. On tlie western edge of the Gulf of Providence, skirting 
the Bank, is Andros Island, the largest of the group (area 1,600 square 
miles), and to the northeast of it, the Beri'y Islands. 

East of the Gulf of Providence and at the northeast and east edge of 
the Bank, is Eleuthera, followed in the same direction, southeast, and then 
south, by a succession of long, narrow islands, viz., San Salvador or Cat 
Island,* Long Island and Ragged Island. 

On the north edge of the Bank, at the eastern entrance of the Gulf of 
Providence, is New Providence, and to the southeast of it, Exuma, with 
its chain of Keys extending 100 miles, lying on the eastern edge of the 
bank and on the western side of Exuma Sound, which breaks the con- 
tinuity of the Bank between San Salvador and Long Island, and runs 
about 100 miles in a northwesterly direction, with an average width of 40 
miles. 

*Watling'8 Island is, by some, called San Salvador, but in giving that name to Cat 
Island I follow Governor Rawson. 



of the Bahama Islands. 313 

Salt Key Bank. — This Bank lies in the triangular interval west of the 
Great Bank, between it, Florida and Cuba. Its area is about 1,430 square 
miles ; there are no inhabited Keys upon it. 

Elbow Key, on its west side is about 50 miles distant from Sombrero 
Key (Florida Keys), and the greatest depth of water between them is 500 
fathoms (3,000 feet). Salt Key, on the southwest of the Bank, is about 30 
miles from Bahia de Cadiz (Kej's north of Cuba), with depth between 
them of 534 fathoms (3,204 feet). The distance and depth of the Santaren 
Channel, between Auguilla Island (Salt Key Bank) and the Great Bank, 
have been already stated. 

Islands east of, and betioeen, the Great Bank and the Caicos Bank. — To the 
eastward of the Great Bank, and separated from it and from each other 
by deep water, are Watling's Island (40 miles east of the south end of 
San Salvador), Eum Key (24 miles from the northeast end of Long 
Island) and Conception Island, which is between San Salvador and Rum 
Key. 

Southeast of Long Island the chain of islands is continued to the south- 
east and south, as follows: — On a distinct Bank, separated from Long 
Island on the Great Bank by the Crooked Island Passage (25 miles in 
width), are Crooked Island, Ackliu's Island, with Castle Island, of small 
size, at its southern exti-emity, and Fortune Island or Long Key. 

To the northeast of Crooked Island lies Samana or Atwood Key (unin- 
habited), and to the east of Ackliu's Island there is a cluster of small 
islets, called Plana, or French Keys. To the southeast, about 45 miles 
from Ackliu's Island, is Mayaguana. 

Caicos and Txirk Islands Banks. — In the same southeasterly direction is 
the Caicos Bank (on which are several islands), separated from Maya- 
guana by the Caicos Channel, about 30 miles in width, and at a short 
distance to the southeast, on another Bank, with the Turk Passage 
between it and the Caicos Bank, lie the Turk Islands. 

Mouchoir Carre, Silver and Navidad Banks. — Tliese three Banks of 
coral and sand, separated by deep water channels of 30 to 40 miles in 
width, extend the Bahama chain of islands to the southeast, about 100 
miles, viz., Mouchoir Carre, Silver Bank, which is about 36 miles north of 
Cape Viejo Frances (San Domingo) and Navidad Bank, the southeast end 
of which lies north-northeast about 32 miles from Cape Cabron, the 
nearest part of San Domingo. 

Great and Little Inagua, or Henearjua. — Detached 'from all the other 
islands, from 60 to 70 miles south of Ackliu's Island and Mayaguana, 
nearly in the latitude of the Turk Islands, are Great and Little Inagua, 
standing, I believe, on one Bank. Great Inagua (area 530 square miles) 
is one of the largest and finest of the Bahama group. Thes£ islands, 
north of, and opposite the Windward Passage, between Cuba and San 
Domingo, are about 65 miles from the northwestern extremity of the 
latter and about 50 miles from Point Maysi the northwestern end of the 
former. 



314 Physical Geograjthy^ etc. 

Lieut. Nelson (Proc. Geo. Soc, IX, 203) mentions that, 
generally speaking, the islands are on the windward sides 
of their respective groups and banks. The exceptions re- 
ferred to by Mr. Rawson (Report, 11) are Grand Bahama 
on the southern side of the Little Bank, New Providence on 
the northern side, and the Bimiuis on the northwestern edge 
of the Great Bank. 

No part of any of the islands exceeds the height of 200 
feet, generally much less. The shores of a few present an 
abrupt face, or cliff, not exceeding 40 feet in height. They 
are almost universally environed with reefs or shelves of 
rock, which extend often to a considerable distance, and 
usually tprminate abruptly. Professor Agassiz (Bulletin 
Mus. Comp. Zool., I, 271) observes that "the Bahamas and 
the reefs to the northeast of Cuba exhibit very abrupt slopes 
and a great depth is reached close to the shores of the Banks, 
so that the Bahamas resemble the coral reefs of the Pacific 
much more than the reefs of the coast of Florida." 

Dana refers to the Bahamas as being coral reefs and reef 
islands, essentially like atoll reefs. 

The geological formation of these islands appears to be 
very similar to that of Bermuda ; their form and surface con- 
dition, being due to a great extent to the prevailing winds 
and currents, but owing much, probably, as remarked by 
Dana, with reference to the Bermudas, "to the configuration 
of the land upon which the coral reefs were built up." 

Nelson (I.e.) explaining his reasons for calling the Bahamas 
the Gulf Stream Delta, refers to it as, — 

" A Delta which has been apparently thrown down by the waters of the 
Gulf Stream on their receiving a check from those of the Atlantic as they 
emerge in full strength from the Gulf of Mexico." He adds, "although 
such deposits will be greatly accelerated in formation, and gain much 
stability, by finding ready-made hilly ground under the sea, nevertheless 
they can be formed without this ; but taking into account the remarkably 
symmetrical relation between the sweep of the Bahamas and that of the 
submarine mountain range of the Leeward Islands (with which they form 
a continuous S-like series), as well as the very general absence of shifting 



of the Bahama Islands. 315 

sands, it may be surmised that the Bahama Delta has had the advantage of 
such ready-made base and submarine nucleus of aggregation." 

With respect to the present surface condition of the 
Bahamas, as compared with that of the Bermudas, the evi- 
dence lately made known by Mr. J. Matthew Jones of sub- 
sidence in the latter should not pass unnoticed. 

In a communication published in "Nature" (Aug. 1, 1872), 
Mr. Jones explains that about two years ago submarine blast- 
ings were carried on at the entrance of Hamilton harbor, and 
at a depth of over six fathoms a cavern was broken into 
which contained stalactites and red earth. Also, that durino- 
the past two years similar blasthigs had taken place inside an 
artificial harbor, situate at the western extremity of the 
islands, for the purpose of forming a bed of sufficient depth 
for the reception of the great dock constructed several years 
ago, in England. 

Mr. Jones thus states and comments on the results : — 

" The excavations extended to a depth of 52 feet below low water mark. 
At 46 feet occurred a layer of red earth 2 feet in thickness, containing 
remains of cedar trees, which layer rested upon a bed of compact calca- 
reous sandstone. Here we have the first satisfactory evidence of the 
submergence of an extensive deposit of soil once upon the surface, and 
that to the depth of 48 feet below the present low water level, which con- 
sequently grants an equal elevation above it in former times. Now on 
carefully surveying the Bermuda chart, we find that an elevation of 48 
feet will bring the whole space which intervenes between the present 
land and the barrier reef, now covered with water, above the water level. 
This attained, what more is required to prove the former extent of the 
island group, before the present submergence, to the present barrier 
reef? 

Mr. Jones promises further evidence on this interesting 
subject. 

Whether any similar proofs of subsidence have been 
noticed in the Bahamas, I am unable to state. 

I now propose to consider the evidence afforded by the 
distribution of the Land Shells on the Bahama Islands. 



316 Physical Geography^ etc. 

The total number of species known to inhabit the Bahamas 
is about 80, of which a few species have not yet been satis- 
factorily determined or described ;* 20 belong to operculate 
genera, and the remainder are inoperculates. 

The operculate genera represented are Ctenopoma, Cy- 
clostomus, Cistula,^ Chondropoma, Trochatella, Helicina 
/Schasicheila and Alcadia. 

The occurrence on the Great Bank, in New Providence 
and Eleuthera, of a Schasicheila (8. Bahmnensis Pf.), is 
singular, inasmuch as the genus is not otherwise represented 
in the West Indies. Of the four other known species, three 
belonof to the Mexican fauna ; the habitat of 8. minuscula 
Pf. is unknown. 

The operculates considered, the land shell fauna of the 
Bahamas is essentially West Indian, and that of the Great 
Bank closely allied to the Cuban fauna. 

Of the five species (exclusive of Clstula scabrosa) on the 
Great Bank, all of which are confined to it, the three follow- 
ing are also found in Cuba; Chondropoma canescens Pfr., 
Trochatella rupestris Pfr., and Alcadia minima Orb. 

There are no Cuban ojjerculate species east of the Great 
Bank. Several species of the Crooked Island Bank occur 
in Inagua, and one on the Turk Bank, while three species 
are common to the latter and Inagua. 

With respect to the inoperculate species, omitting several, 
the afiinities of which have not been determined, the follow- 
ing genera and groups are represented, viz. : Zonites (^Con- 
ulusf) ; Helix (Microphysa, Polygyra, Thelidomus, Plagi- 
OPTYCHA and Polymita) ; CyUndreUa s. s., one species; 
Macrocera7nus, two species ; Bulimulus (Liostracus, Mesem- 
hrimis and Leptomerus^ one species of each) ; Gionella {Lep- 
tinaria, one species) ; Stenogyra ( Opeas, Suhulina, Melan- 

*A complete catalogue of the species, showing their distribution, is in course of 
preparation and will shortly be published. 

fThe single species C. scabrosa Humph., referred by Sowerby to Providence Island, 
and by Gray to Jamaica, I do not know. The names of genera or groups (of the iu- 
operculates also), most numerously represented, are printed in capital letters. 



of the Bahama Islands. 



317 



iella) ; Pupa, (Strophia and Leucochila) ; Orihalicus; Suc- 
cinea; Glandina {Oleacina, one species). 

Judging from the inoperciilates, as well as the opercnlates, 
the West Indian character of the Bahama land shell fauna 
is manifest. 

The following is a list of the inoperculate species com- 
mon to the Bahamas and the adjacent continent, Bermuda 
and certain of the West India Islands. The distribution in 
the Bahamas is indicated by the use of the abbreviations L. 
and Gt. Bk. (Little and Great Bank) ; Is. East (islands be- 
tween the Great and Caicos Banks) ; Turk Is. ; Gt. and L, 
Inagua (Great and Little Inagua). 



ZONITES. 

Conulus? Gundlachi Pfr., . . . Gt. Bk., 



Helix. 



Microphysa vortex Pfr., . . 

Microphysa Boothiana Pfr., . 
Polygyra microdonta Desh., . 
Thelidomus provisoria Pfr., 
Plagioptycha Albersiana Pfr., 
Plagiop)tycha disculus, Desh., 
Pol y mita varians Mke., 



Gt. Bk., 



Gt. Bk., 
Gt. Bk., 
Gt. Bk., 



. Florida, Cuba. 
Haiti, Porto Rico. 



Macroceramus Crossei Pfr., 



. Florida, Cuba, 
Haiti, Porto Rico. 

. . Cuba, Haiti. 

. . . Bermuda. 

. . . . Cuba. 
Gt. Inagua, Turk Is., Haiti. 
Turk Is., .... Haiti. 

L. and Gt. Bk., 
Is. East., . . Florida Keys. 
Gtv Bk., . . Florida, Cuba. 



BULIMULUS. 

Leptomer US sepulcralis Toey, . Gt. Bk., 



Cuba. 



Stenogyra. 
Opeas subida Vfr. Gt. Bk., 

Opeas octonoides C. B. Ad., . . Gt. Bk., 

iSubulina octona Ch., .... Gt. Bk., 

Melaniella gracillima Pfr., . . Gt. Bk., 



. Florida, Cuba, 

Haiti, Porto Rico. 

. Florida, Cuba, 

Porto Rico. 

. Florida, Cuba, 

Haiti, etc. 

. Florida, Cuba, 

St. Thomas. 



318 



Physical Geography^ etc. 



Pupa. 



Strophia mumia Brug., 


. . L. Bk., Cuba. 




Turk Is. 


StrophiaiostomaFfr., . . 


. . Turk Is., Gt. Inagua, . Cuba. 


Strophia mcanaWmn. , . 


. . Is. East, . . Plorida Keys. 




Cuba. 


Strophia marmorata Pfr., 


. . . Gt. Bk., Cuba. 


Strophia cydostoma Kiist., 


. . Gt. Bk., Cuba. 


Strophia Cumingiana Pfr., 


. . Is. East, Cuba. 


Leucochila Jallax* Say, 


. . Is. East, .... Bermuda, 




Turk Is., . . Florida, Cuba, 




Gt. Inagua, .... Haiti. 


Leucochila pellucidaFlv., . 


. . Turk Is., Gt. Bk., Bermuda, Texas? 




Cuba, Haiti. 


Okthalicus undatus\ Brug., . Gt. Bk., . . Florida, Cuba. 


SucciNEA luteola Gould, 


. . Gt. Bk., . . Texas, Florida, 




Haiti. 




Glaxdixa. 


Oleacina soUdnla Pfr., . . 


. . Gt. Bk., Cuba. 



The distribution shown in the foregoing list proves in a 
marked manner the alliance of the Bahamas, and of the 
Great Bank especially, with Cuba. The numerous repre- 
sentatives of Polymita and of Strophia, and the ocT3urrence 
of Polygyra, Tlielidomus and MelanieJla on the Great Bank 
only (all three groups unrepresented iu Haiti) afford similar 
proof, while the development of Plagioptycha iu the Turk 
Islauds and Great Inagua,- with the fact that P. Albersiana 
and disculus are common to them and Haiti, appears to indi- 
cate their connection with the latter island. 

Dr. Cleve (Geology of the N. E. West India Islands, 
Stockholm, 1871) mentions that Anegada (on the Virgin 
Bauk) is geologically in all respects different from the other 
Virgin Islands, that it lies northwest to southeast (the 
others extending from west to east) aud has a close resem- 
blance to the Bahamas. The land shells of Anegada, how- 
ever, in common with those of the other islands on the 



* I include, for the present purpose, the foi-ms known as marglnatus and nitidulus. 
t A single specimen in the cabinet of Mr. Ravvson, said to be from the Biminis. 



of the Bahama Islands. 319 

Virgin Bank, have no special relations with those of the Ba- 
hamas. Most of the Anegada species occnr in other of the 
Virgin Islands and in Porto Eico, none of them in the Ba- 
hamas. 

In connection with the facts stated as to the distribution 
of terrestrial shells in the Bahama Islands, and the infer- 
ences with regard to their former more intimate relations 
with each other and with adjacent lands, the views of Prof. 
Dana (Corals and Coral Islands, 1872) are of great value. 
In the chapter vi (p. 848), entitled "Geological Conclusions," 
Dana considers at some length "The Oceanic Coral Island 
Subsidence," and after treating the subject with reference 
more especially to the Pacific tropics, he sajs (p. 368) : — 

" The changes which took place cotemporaneouslj' in the Atlantic trop- 
ics are very imperfectly recorded. The Bahamas show by their form and 
position that they cover a submerged land of large area, stretching over 
six hundred miles from northwest to southeast. The long line of reefs 
and the Florida Keys, trending far away from the land of southern Flor- 
ida, are evidence that this Florida region participated in the downward 
movement though to a less extent than the Bahamas. Again, the islands 
of the West Indies diminish in size to the eastward, being quite small iu 
the long line that look out upon the blank ocean, just as if the subsidence 
increased iu that direction. Finally, the Atlantic beyond is water only, 
as if it had been made a blank by the sinking of its lands. 

"Thus the size of the islands as well as the existence of coral banks, 
and also the blaukness of the ocean's surface, all appear to bear evidence 
to a great subsidence. 

"The peninsula of Florida, Cuba and the Bahamas look, as they lie 
together, as if all were once part of a greater Florida, or southeastern 
prolongation of the continent. The northwestern and southwestern 
trends, characterizing the great features of the American continent, run 
through the whole like a warp and woof structure binding them together 
iu one system; the former trend, the northwest, existing in Florida and 
the Bahamas, and the main line of Cuba; and the latter course, the west- 
southv.est, in cross lines of islands in the Bahamas (one at the north ex- 
tremity, another in the line of Nassau, and others to the southeast), on 
the high lands of northwestern and southeastern Cuba, and in the Florida 
line of reefs, and even further, in a submerged ridge between Florida and 
Cuba. This combination of the two continental trends shows that the 
lands are one in system, if they were never one in continuous dry land. 

" We can not here infer that there was a regular increase of subsidence 
from Florida eastward; or that Florida and Cuba participated in it equally 
June, 1873. 22 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. x. 



320 Physical Geography^ etc. 

with the intermediate and adjoining seas ; for the facts in tlie Pacific have 
shown that the subsiding oceanic area had its nearly parallel bands of 
greater and less subsidence; that areas of greatest sinking alternated 
with others of less, as explained on page 326; and that the groups of 
high islands are along the bauds of least sinking. So in the Atlantic, the 
subsidence was probably much greater between Florida and Cuba than in 
the peninsula of Florida itself; and greater along the Caribbean Sea par- 
allel with Cuba, as well as along the Bahama reefs, than in Cuba. 

" The position of the lonely Bermuda atoll confirms these deductions. 
Its solitary state is reason for suspecting that great changes have taken 
place about it; for it is not natural for islands to be alone. The tongue 
of warm water, due to the Gulf Stream, in which the Bermudas lie, is 
narrow, and an island a hundred miles or more distant to the northeast- 
by-east, or in the line of its trend (p. 219), if experiencing the same sub- 
sidence that made the Bermuda land an atoll, would have disappeared 
without a coral monument to bear record to its former existence. Twenty 
miles to the southwest-by-west from the Bermudas, there are two sub- 
merged banks, twenty to forty-seven fathoms under water, showing that 
the Bermudas are not completely alone, and demonstrating that they 
cover a summit in a range of heights; and it may have been a long 
range." 

The facts regarding the diminution in size of the islands 
of the West Indies to the eastward, are of peculiar interest, 
not only as affording conclusive evidence of the greater sub- 
sidence in that direction, but in connection with geographical 
distribution. 

The banks and islands forming the long Bahama chain 
diminish in size to the southeast, where are situated at its 
termination the submerged Mouchoir Carre, Silver and Navi- 
dad Banks. In a similar manner the submerged Virgin Is- 
land Bank (with Anegada on its northeastern extremity, 
geologically, in the opinion of Dr. Cleve, resembling the 
Bahamas), Sombrero and the Anguilla Bank, terminate the 
chain of the West Indies (parallel with the Bahamas) east- 
ward from Cuba. 

In the caves of Anguilla the remains of large extinct 
mammalia are found, which must have inhabited a far more 
extensive area, subsequently broken up by subsidence. 

Packard (Amer. Nat., 1872) remarks, "there is every 
probability that the separation of these islands (of the east- 



of the Bahama Islands. 321 

ern part of the West Indies) took plnce at a late period of 
time, and probably subsequent to tlae spread of the post- 
pliocene fauna over North America."* 

Dr. Cleve {I.e.) observes that "the Bahama Islands, the 
Island of Anegada, and a part of Barbuda belong to a very 
recent period. "f 

The same author (/. c. 18), referring to the "Leeward 
Islands," states as follows : — 

"The Islands north of Guadaloupe form two parallel chains from north- 
west to southeast. The western chain (joramences with Saba and consists 
of St. Eustatius, St. Kitts, Nevis, Eedonda and Montserrat. All of those 
islands are volcanos and if the line were extended farther to the North 
it would reach the island of Anegada, of post-pliocene date, and all the 
volcanos seem to be of the same or nearly the same geological time 
The Bahama Islands, which are also most probably of post-pliocene date, 
have the same direction and seem to be the continuation of the same or 
of a parallel line of elevation. East of the volcanic range is another 
completely diflerent range of islands. They are not volcanic and com- 
mence with Sombrero comprising Amjuilla, St. Martin, St. Bartholomew, 
Barbuda and Antigua. All of these islands are of the tertiary age, eocene, 
miocene anc\ pliocene." 

In his "Summary of the Geology of the West Indies" 
(I.e. 47), Dr. Cleve says :— 

"From the facts exposed above it may consequently be inferred, that 
of the two prevailing lines of elevation in the West Indies, the one' run- 
ning from west to east originated before the miocene time, and that the 
other from northwest to southeast, commencing with the Bahamas and 
continuing in the same direction down to Trinidad, was formed after the 
miocene time." 

While considering the fiicts, and geological grouping of 
the Islands quoted above from Dr. Cleve's paper, it should be 
remembered that the land shell fauna of Saba, of St. Eusta- 
tius, St. Kitts and Nevis (all three on one Bank) and of Re- 
donda and Montserrat, and of Barbuda and Antigua (the 

*See also Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1838, and Bland, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc ' 
1871. 
tffelicina convexa is common to Bermuda and Barliuda. 



322 Physical Geography, etc. 

last two on the same Bank) is, in common with most of 
the islands to the south, to and inclusive of Triuidad, distinct 
from the fauna of the islands between and inclusive of the 
Bahamas and Cuba, and the Anguilla Bank, on which are 
Anguilla, St. Martin and St. Bartholomew.* 

This difference of the faunas, and the well defined line of 
their separation, must be considered in connection with the 
past and present geological history of the Islands. 

The distribution of the species of the genera Macrocera- 
mus and Strojphia illustrates in a marked manner the dis- 
tinctness of the two faunas 'just mentioned. Macrocera^nus 
has two species in the Bahamas (1 common to the Great 
Bank, Florida and Cuba, M. Gossei, being the only species 
found in Jamaica) ; 36 in Cuba, and 10 in Haiti of which 
1 (M. Gundlachi) occurs in both. 

There are two other species only in the islands between 
and inclusive of Porto Rico and those on the Anguilla Bank, 
M. signatuswhioh besides Haiti, is found in Tortola, Necker 
Island and Anegada, all on the Virgin Bank, and in Anguilla 
and St. Bartholomew on the Anguilla Bank ; M. microdoii 
occurs in Porto Rico, Vieque, St. Thomas, Tortola and Ane- 
gada. The genus is not represented in St. Croix, and not 
in any of the islands south of the Anguilla Bank. 

Sti'ophia has 16-18 species in the Bahamas of which 1 is 
also in the Florida Keys, and at least 6 in Cuba ; 17 in Cuba ; 
none in Jamaica; 2 in Haiti, of which one, S. striatella, 
occurs in Cuba, Porto Rico, Necker Island and Anegada, 
and the other, S. microstoma, is found also in Cuba, Haiti 
and Porto Rico {fide Pfr.). Remains of a fossil species, un- 
determinable, are noticed in Sombrero, and a fossil species 
in St. Croix. There is no representative of the genus on 
the Anguilla Bank or to the south of it. 

The exceptions are curious, Macroceramus Gossei and 
Strophia uva are found in Curasao !f 

* See Bland. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, I. c. 

fl desire to acknowledge my obligations for specimens and the means generally 



of the Bahama Islands. 323 

Dana as already quoted, refers to parallel bands of greater 
and less subsidence in the Pacitic Ocean, and to analogous 
conditions in the Atlantic; — the subsidence was probably, 
he says, "much greater between Florida and Cuba than in 
the Peninsula of Florida itself; and greater along the Carib- 
bean sea parallel with Cuba, as well as along the Bahama 
reefs, than in Cuba." Recent soundings show in these re- 
spects the following facts : 

The greatest depth in the Gulf of Florida, between Key 
West and Havana is within 5 miles of the latter, 800 fathoms 
(4,800 feet), and I have already stated that there is a depth 
in the Nicholas Channel, between Salt Key Bank and Cuba 
of 534 fathoms (3,204 feet). 

Between Cuba and the east end of Jamaica the depth is 
1,244 fathoms (7,464 feet). Eastward of Jamaica, along 
the southern side of Haiti, in about the latitude of Beata 
Island, great depths have been ascertained, — one sounding 
west of that Island gave 2,136 fathoms (12,816 feet), and 
one to the eastward of it 1,840 fathoms (11,040 feet). The 
greater subsidence still further to the east, between the Vir- 
gin Bank and St. Croix, may be inferred from the enormous 
depth there found of no less than 2,580 fathoms (15,480 
feet) . 

A line of soundings from the south side of Jamaica and 
east of the Pedro Bank, across the Caribbean Sea to Aspin- 
wall (a distance of about 550 miles), shows the instructive 
fact that, with no very considerable exception, the sea bot- 
tom slopes gradually from Jamaica towards the coast of the 
Isthmus of Panama. About 60 miles from Manzanilla Point 
(N.E. of Aspinwall), the depth is 1,215 fathoms (7,290 feet). 
The bottom then rises comparatively rapidly, — the depth at 
about 40 miles from Aspinwall being 677 fathoms (4,062 
feet), and at about 20 miles, 227 fathoms (1,362 feet). 

of studying the land shells of the Bahamas, to the late Mr. Wm. Cooper, Dr. Bryant, 
and Mr. Robert Swift : al^o to Mr. W. W. Miller, Mr. Daniel Sargent, of Inagua, and 
Dr. Weinland, hut especially to Mr. Rawson W. Rawson formerly Governor of the Ba"- 
hamas, and now of Barbadoes and the Windward Inlands. 



324 Speciroscojnc Exainination of Silicates. 

In connection with the rehitions of the land shell ftiunas of 
the islands on the north side of the Caribbean Sea, I may 
mention that the greatest depth between the coast of Yucatan 
and Cape San Antonio, the western extremity of Cuba, about 
midway betvveen the two, is 1,164 fathoms (6,984 feet),* — 
between the east end of Jamaica and the west end of Haiti 
(so far as is yet known), 600 fathoms (3,600 feet), and 
north of Mona Island, in the Mona Passage (between Haiti 
and Porto Rico) 250 lathoms (1500 feet). I postpone com- 
parison of the faunas of the islands and the adjacent parts of 
the North American continent, but in regard to the depth 
between Haiti and Jamaica on the west side, and Porto Eico 
on the east it is noticeable, that while the fauna of Haiti has 
very little relation with that of Jamaica, it has much alliance 
with that of Porto Rico. 



XXIX. — Speciroscojnc Examination of Silicates. 

By Prof. ALBERT R. LEEDS, 

Stevens Institute of Technology, Iloboken, N. J. 

Read March 10, 1873. 

While conducting the analysis of a silicious mineral, and 
determining its alkalies by the well-known and universally 
employed process of Prof. J. Lawrence Smith, which it 
would be entirely superfluous to repeat here, it occurred to 
me that a modification of this process would be valuable in 
the spectroscopic examination of silicates. 

It is evident that a pulverulent mixture of a powdered 
mineral with sal-ammoniac and precipitated calcic carbonate 

*I am indebted to the kindness ol I'rofesBor Peirce, Superintendent of the U. S. 
Coast Survey, and of Professor Heni-y, of the Smithsdnian Institution, for full particu- 
Ivrs of the deep-sea soundings betvveen Cape Catoche and Cape San Antonio, ascer- 
tained on the survey in 1872. 



Spectroscopic Examination of Silicates. 325 

could not be employed in spectroscopic work, while an easily 
fusible chloride would be well adapted to it. The plan was 
therefore adopted of mixing a small quantity of the finely 
powdered mineral with an alcoholic paste of chemically pure 
calcic chloride, and exposing a pellet of the pasty mass, on 
a platinum loop, to the outer fljime of a Buusen burner, 
before the slit of the spectroscope. 

This, it will be seen at once, is a return to the plan pro- 
posed maijy years ago, by Prof. Henry Wurtz, for effecting 
the decomposition of silicates and the extraction of their 
alkalies. For some reasons unknown, this method, which 
would seem to be an excellent one, does not appear to have 
come into general use. It will be found, however, that in 
its novel application to spectroscopic work, it eflects the 
desired object with such easjs and rapidity, and with so small 
an expenditure of reagent and material, that hereafter the 
mineralogist will wish to add this reagent to those in most 
constant use. The calcic chloride paste is most conveniently 
preserved in a small wide-mouthed bottle, stoppered care- 
fully to prevent the evaporation of the alcohol. There is 
the disadvantage in its practical working, that the calcium 
spectrum is always present : and the difficulty of preparing 
and using such a reagent in a way that will exclude the 
presence of minute quantities of sodium, is so great, that 
the presence or absence of the sodium band cannot be re- 
garded as demonstrating the presence or absence of sodium 
in the mineral under examination. On the other band, an 
extremely small quantity of the mineral is required. In 
most cases it is sufficient to select a part of the mineral 
which appears to be perfectly pure and unaltered, and to 
rub off as much of the powder (with the corner of a file) as 
could be taken on the end of a small knife-blade. This is 
then rubbed up, successively, with either an equal amount 
of the paste, or twice, thrice, or four times that amount, as 
may be found necessary. Generally an equal amount will 
be sufficient. An attempt was made to substitute magnesic 



326 Spectwscojnc Examination of Silicates. 

for calcic chloride, in order to get rid of the calcium 
spectrum ; but this reagent was not powerful enough to 
efiect decomposition. The results which may be obtained 
with baric and strontic chlorides, etc., are still to be looked 
for. It should be remarked that no acid vapors are set free 
by this process, and that the spectroscopist may work for 
hours in a dark room, without injury to himself or his ap- 
paratus ; which he could not do if the mineral were mois- 
tened with hydrochloric or other acid. 

To speak of the results thus far obtained, I would say 
that many minerals which have been reputed to contain 
alkalies, have revealed this fact when tested by the calcic 
chloride process, and that many others in which the alkalies 
have previously escaped detection, have manifested them in 
the most striking manner. It is very noticeable, when 
rocks and minerals are treated in the manner described, 
that lithium, in minute quantities, is not a rare but a vety 
common element. Thus, for example, a light greenish 
muscovite from Dixon's Quarry, near Wilmington, Del., 
contains lithium as well as potassium and sodium. In the 
list of analyses of muscovites which is cited in Dana's 
Mineralogy (5th ed., p. 310 and 311), it will be seen that 
only two muscovites are reported as lithium-holding. One 
is a rose colored mica from Goshen, Mass., which was ana- 
lyzed by Prof. Mallet, and contains 0-64 per cent, of 
lithium. The other is a mica from Orange Co., N. Y. 
(the analysis cited differs very widely from that of a nor- 
mal muscovite), and contains 0-06 per cent, lithium. 

One of the varieties of fibrolite, known as bucholzite, 
which occurs as a silky-white coating upon the gneiss rocks 
bordering the Schuylkill river in the vicinity of Philadel- 
phia, gives with calcic chloride, both potassium and lithium 
bands. None of the fibrolites, nor any of its varieties, silli- 
manite, monrolite, xenolite, worthite, have ever been re- 
ported to contain alkaline metals, except a specimen of bu- 
cholzite, analyzed by Brandes (Jour, de Pharm., XCI, 237), 



Spectroscopic Examination of Silicates. 327 

and quoted in Dana's Mineralogy, 5th ed., p. 374. It con- 
tained \'0 per cent, of potassa. 

Certain minerals in which we should confidently expect to 
find no alkalies were examined, and as a confirmation of 
analysis the negative results have a certain value. Amono- 
these were a number of woUastonites ; chrysotile and balti- 
morite from the chrome mines of Lancaster Co., Pa. ; the 
variety of ripidolite, known as clinochlore, from the ser- 
pentine quarries of Chester Co., Pa., and the crystallized 
ripidolites of Texas, Lancaster Co. The crystallized kaem- 
mererites, a variety of pcnninite, from Texas, likewise save 
no alkaline spectra. 

The examination of a numl)er of vermiculites was of par- 
ticular interest, as showing the presence of lithium in all of 
them, whereas hitherto it had been detected in none. Some 
of these vermiculitic minerals are varieties of ripidolite 
more or less altered, others have been made into separate 
species under the names of vermiculite and jefferisite. But 
all of these minerals are probably the results of alteration, 
and it is a curious fact that all of them contain lithium. 
This may, at a later time, perhaps, assist to explain the 
causes and manner of those surprising alterations visible 
along the line of the serpentine ridges of Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, and probably elsewhere. Of the vermiculites 
from the original locality at Milbury, Mass., I had no speci- 
men to examine, but an exfoliating mineral in bronze colored 
scales from the chlorite schist bordering the serpentine 
quarries above Manayunk on the Schuylkill river, con- 
tained lithium ; the matrix of chlorite schist contained none. 
Three other varieties of exfoliating ripidolite from Chester 
Co., Pa., gave similar results. A leek-green variety o-ave a 
very strong and persistent lithium band ; a bronze colored, 
a band less positive ; and a light green variety, a faint 
lithium band. A quantitative analysis of the first gave 0-33 
per cent, of lithium; of the second a trace, and of the third, 
none. Another vermiculite, occurring at Texas, Pa., in a 



328 Spectroscopic Examination of Silicates. 

seam between talc upon one side and oligoclase-felsite on the 
other, gave a decided lithium band. The mineral occurs 
in brownish scales, orthorhombic in form, and optically 
biaxial. A quantitative determination afforded 0-41 per 
cent, of lithia and soda. The pure alkaline chlorides ob- 
tained in the course of the analysis, and which together 
weighed 0*009 grm., were carefully tested and found to con- 
tain no potassium whatever, but to consist entirely of lithium 
and sodium. The calcic chloride process is thus valuable in 
showing the isomorphic replacement of one element by 
another. For in a mineral very similar to the one above 
described, except that it crystallizes in broad plates instead 
of small scales, and which has been called jefferisite by 
Prof. Brush, lithium appears in many instances to take the 
place of potassium. The analysis of jefferisite by Prof. 
Brush (Dana's Min., p. 494), gives soda trace, potassa 0-43 
per cent. A large number of jefferisites, from the serpen- 
tine quarry three miles southwest of Westchester, Pa., 
afforded only the lithium band with calcic chloride paste. 

In the above instance, I neglected to separate the alkalies. 
But in the case of a mineral resembling ripidolite, and oc- 
curing in connection with the corundum at Unionville, Pa., 
I have made the determination and found that, in certain 
cases, this method is of surprising delicacy. This bluish- 
green variety of ripidolite gave the lithium band very dis- 
tinctly. It contains only 0-11 per cent, of lithia and 0*14 
per cent, of soda. The pure chlorides obtained in the 
course of the examination were tested, and found to contain 
not the slightest trace of potassium. As only 0-005 grm. of 
the ripidolite was employed, the spectroscopic examination 
which required two minutes to perform, revealed the pres- 
ence of the one two hundred thousandth part of a gramme 
of lithia. 

It would be unsafe to infer from this statement that the 
calcic chloride process is equally delicate in the case of every 
mineral, and of every element capable of manifesting itself 



Spedroscojiic Examination of Silicates, 329 

iu the spectroscope ; for certain minerals seem to resist de- 
composition in this manner witli great obstinacy ; and, 
moreover, of the elements, lithium appears to rival sodium 
in the volatility of its chloride and the persistency of its 
spectrum band. For instance the variety of muscovite, 
termed margarodite, from Trumbull, Conn., afibrds a spec- 
trum with a faint potassium and a strong lithium I)and. 
This cannot be ascribed to the presence of those alkalies in 
the relative quantities indicated by their spectra, because 
the analyses of margarodite (Dana's Min., p. 310) exhibit 
in some instances as much as 12 per cent, of potassa. In 
fact the muscovites, as a class, do not yield up their alkalies 
under the decomposing action of calcic chloride as readily as 
many other minerals do. For example, we may take the 
well known specimens from Pennsbury, Chester Co., Pa. 
When mixed with an equal amount of the paste, this mineraj 
in powder gave the potassium band faintly, after exposure to 
the flame for over a minute ; with four times the amount of 
calcic chloride, it gave the spectrum more strongly than at 
first; but when mixed with eight times as much, the spec- 
trum was no stronger than at the beginning. In the case of 
a muscovite (from an uncertain locality) no potassium band 
whatever made its appearance. A still more striking illus- 
tration of what is said above, is afforded by the pink scapo- 
lites of Bolton, Mass. A compact, beautifully pink, and 
apparently quite unaltered specimen of this mineral, gave a 
lithium band, but no potassium. 

We are fortunate in possessing two analyses of this pink 
scapolite (Dana's Min., pp. 320 and 806). According to 
one, it contains 4'52 per cent, of soda and 0-54 per cent, of 
potassa; to a second, 6-55 per cent, of soda, with a little 
jjotassa. That no doubt might remain, I have analyzed a 
greenish-white compact translucent wernerite with a spec, 
grav. of 2.71, from Attlcboro', Bucks Co., Pa., and find 
that it contains Si Og 47-47; Alg O3 27-51; Fes O3 
trace; Mg O 1-20; Ca O 17-59; Naa O 3-05; Kg O 1-40; 



330 Spectroscopic Examination, of Silicates. 

H2 O 1-48 = 99*70. But this mineral, containing over 1 
per cent, of potassa, gave no potassium band. The ortho- 
clases and oligochises which I have thus far examined 
undergo decomposition hy this process and reveal potassium. 

The hexagonal biotite from Lake Laach gives a faint 
potassium line, while an analysis (Dana's j\Iin., p. 305) 
shows that it contains 8-GO per cent, of potassa. The ex- 
amination of various altered pyroxenes indicated no potassa, 
so that if thermal waters containing potassa in solution were 
in some instances the agents of decomposition, they have 
left no traces which this process can detect. 

In conclusion, it may perhaps be fairly said, that while the 
calcic chloride process, for a spectroscopic examination, is a 
most convenient and valuable one for detecting the presence 
of substances, other than calcium and sodium, which afford 
spectra, yet it does not equally well prove their absence, 
since they may be present inl)odies which resist decomposi- 
tion in this manner. 

In this case, however, a preliminary spectroscopic exam- 
ination would be of value, as aft'ording an indication of the 
amount of reliance to be j^laced upon a quantitative deter- 
mination of the alkalies, by calcic chloride alone. 

Finally, my thanks are due to Mr. F. E. Hilgard, of the 
first class of the Institute, for his painstaking examination of 
a large number of minerals by this process. 



Lingual Dentition of Achatinella, etc. 331 



XXX. — 0)1 the Lingual Dentition and Anatomy of Achati- 
nella and other Pulmonata. 

By THOMAS BLAND AND W. G. BINNET. 

Read October 0, 1873. 

In the early part of the present jear, 1873, Bland espe- 
cially requested his friend, the Rev. John T. Gulick, who 
was about to visit the Sandwich Islands, to obtain and pre- 
serve in alcohol specimens of different forms of AcJiatinella 
with the animals, with a view to the examination of their 
dentition.* 

It seemed probable from the diflerences in the shells, 
on wdiich alone the subgenera of authors are founded, that 
variation would be discovered in the dentition, leading to a 
more satisfactory classification of the species. 

Appreciating the value of the proposed examinations, Mr. 
Gulick, whose stay iu the Sandwich Islands was very limited, 
forwarded to Bland from San Francisco, on his embarking 
for China, a number of specimens with a list, of which the 
subjoined is a copy.f 

Fkom West Maui. 
Laminella picta, Mghls. Wailuku. Amastra Ilastcrsi, Newc. Wailuku. 
Auriculella jucunda, Smith. Wai- Leptachatina nitida, Newc. " 
liiku. " grana, Newc. " 

From East Maui. 
Partnlina plumbea, Gk. Makawao. Auriculella solidissima, Smith. Ma; 

" eburnea, Gk. " kawao. 

Amastra 3Iastersi, Newc. " 

*At that time the only knowledge we had of the subject was contained in Heyne- 
mann's description and figure ol'tlic linj;ual membrane of A.hulimoides in Mai. Bl., 1809. 
t The following extract from Mr. Gulick's letter is too interesting not to be quoted : 
'•I find that some of the most abundant species o)f twenty years ago have now become 
almost, if not quite, extinct. Some have not been found for many years, tliough re- 
peated search has been made for them. This lias occurred not only where the forests 
have been destroyed bj' cattle and oy woodmen, but where the sunlight has been let 
into the close shades by the tliinning out of the trees or by the increase of drought. In 
other places, tlie various forms of vegetable and animal blight have invaded the forests, 
proving fatal to the snails long before the trees are destroyed." 
November, 1873. 23 Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. x. 



332 Lingual Dentition and Anatomy of 

Fkom Oahu. 

Achatinella livida, Swn. Kawailoa. Aiiriculella solida, Gk. Kawailoa. 

Amastra decorticata, Gk. " Bulimella tceniolata, Pfr. Waialae. 

on the ground. Achatinella varia, Gk. " 

Amastra luctuosa, Pfi'. Kawailoa, Apex pallida, Nutt. Makiki. 

on the ground. Achatinella producta, Rv. Makiki. 

Amastra nigrolabris, Smith. Ka- Achatinella Johnsonii, Newc. Ma- 
wailoa, on trees. kiki. 

Leptachatina dimidiata, Pfr. Ka- 
wailoa. 

The species so sent for examination by Mr. Gulick are in 
the following list placed in the subgenera adopted by von 
Martens in the second edition of "Die Heliceen" of Albers. 
While adopting the subgeneric and specific names employed 
by Mr. Gulick, explanation is added of PfeifFer's views from 
"Mon. Helic. Viv." VI, as to the validity of the species. 

It will be seen, however, that, comparatively, the question 
as to specific names is of little consequence, inasmuch as 
the difi*erences in forms of jaw and lingual dentition con- 
sidered in the subjoined remarks are treated as of subgeneric 
and not of specific value. 

1. Paktulina, Pfr., p. 243 of " Die Helicoeu." 

Aurictdella jucunda, Smitli, W. Maui. 

" solidissima, Smith, E. Maui. 

" solida, Gulick, Oahu. 

(syn. of splcudida, Newc. teste Pfr.) 

Partulina phimhea, Gul., E. Maui. 

(syn. of marmorata, Gld., teste Pfr.) 

" eburnea, Gul., E. Maui. 

(syn. of Tappauiana, Ad., teste Pfr.) 

• Apex pallida, Nutt., Oahu. 

Bulimella tceniolata, Tf v., Oahu. 

(section b of Partulina, v. Mart.) 

2. BuLiMKLLA, Pfr., p. 244. 

Not represented among the Gulick shells. 

3. Achatinella, s. str., p. 246. 

A. livida. Swains., Oahu. 

(var. ? of vulpina, Fer. teste Pfr. ; placed by v. 
Martens in this subgenus.) 

A. varia, Gul., Oahu. 

(syn. of vulpina, Per. teste Pfr. ; of fulgens, 
Newc. teste v. Mart.) 



Achatinella and other Pidmonata. 333 

A. prnducta,'Rv., Oahu. 

A. Johusonii, Newc, Oahu. 

4. Apex, Alb. and v. Mart., p. 24:8. 

Not represented in the Giilick shells. 
[Apex pallida, Nutt., see above under Partulina, is 
treated by Pfr. as syn. of lorata, Ffr., nou Fer. 
of the subgenus Achatinella s. str., while von 
Martens puts it in the syn. of lorata, Fer., in the 
subgenus Partulina.] 

5. Newcombia, Pfr., p. 249. 

Laminella picta, Mghs., W. Maui. 

6. Laminella, Pfr., p. 250. 

Amastra Mastersi, Newc, E. and W. Maui. 

(syn. of rubens, Gld. teste Pfr.) 

Amastra decorticata, Gu\., on the gronuc\, . . . Oahu. 

" luctiiosa, Pfr., " " «< ... " 

" nigrolahris, Smith, on trees, .... " 

7. Leptachatina, Gould, p. 251. 

L, nitida, Newc., W. Maui. 

L. grana, Newc, W. Maui. 

L. dimidiata, Pfr., Oahu. 

8. Labiella, Pfr., p. 252. 

Not represented among the Gulick shells. 

The specimens were forwarded to Binney, the result of 
whose anatomical examinations are given below in detail. 
It may be stated here, however, that both in form of jaw 
and character of the lingual dentition, all the species of 
Partidina and AcJmtineUa s. str. sent by Mr. Gulick agree. 
They all share a form of dentition quite uncommon in the 
Helicidce. Of the same type of dentition is A. bidimoides 
examined by Heynemann. (See pi. xv, fig. 11.) 

The jaw and lingual dentition of all Mr. Gulick's species 
of JSTewcombia and Laminella are alike, thus indicating a 
separate group for these subgenera. The lingual membrane 
shows the usual type of Helicinoe, but the central tooth is 
quite narrow. (See pi. xv, figs. 9-11.) 

Similar to the last group in the form of jaw and character 
of central and lateral teeth are all the species of Leptachatina 
received Irom Mr, Gulick. They have, however, a different 
form of marginal tooth, distinguished by the blunt digitation 
of the reflected apex of the tooth (see pi. xv, fig. 8), which 



334 Lingual Dentition and Anatomy of 

in N'ewcomhia and Laminella is simply bidentate or triden- 
tate. This peculiar marginal tooth reminds one forcibly of 
that figured for Partula by Heynemann (Mai. Blatt. 1869), 
though the apex in his figure is not reflected as in Le}}ta- 
chatina. 

Thus it appears that three groups are indicated by the 
forms of lingual dentition in the genus Achatinella. 

a. Partulina, Achatinella s. str. 

b. JSfeivcombia, Laininella. 

c. Zieptachatina. 

As regards the subgenera not represented among Mr. 
Gulick's specimens, judging from the shell alone, it would 
appear that Bulimella and Apex belong to the grou]) a, while 
LoMella will prove to belong rather to h or c than to a. 

In the subjoined remarks on the anatomy of the genus it 
will be shown that there is another peculiar character, the 
division of the ovary (albumen gland of Moquin-Tandon) 
into long, w^avj^ delicate, thread-like cfeca. No doubt this 
is a generic character, so constant was it in all of Mr. Gu- 
lick's specimens examined, both of sections a and h indicated 
above. 

In this connection it is interesting to state that Mr. Gulick, 
in his paper "On the Variation of Species as related to their 
Geographical Distribution, illustrated by the Achatiuella;," 
(Nature, July 18, 1872), states as follows: "The family is 
divided into two natural groups of genera. The first group 
consists of seven genera : Achatinella, Bulimella, Helicter- 
ella, JPa7'tulina, JVewcombia, Laminella and Auriculella. 
These are all arboreal in their habits. In form they are 
sinistral, or both dextral and sinistral. The second group 
consists of three genera : Amastra, Leptachatina and Care- 
lia* With but few exceptions, the species of Amastra and 
Leptachatina live on the ground and are of dextral form." 

This division, apparently based more especially on the 
sinistral or dextral characters of the shells, and arboreal or 

* Careliaj H. and A. Ad., a subgenus of Achatina, teste von Martens. 



Achatinella and other Pulmonata. 335 

terrestrial habits of tlie auinials, is evidently faiilt}^ seeing 
that, irrespective of such characters and habits, the Achati- 
nellcB, dentition considered, may be very properly divided 
into two, perhaps three, subgenera, alike embracing forms 
comprised in each of Gulick's groups. 
The details of anatomy here follow.* 

In Laminella Mastersi the jaw is low, wide, slightly arcuate, ends but 
little attenuated, blunt; it is of horn color, thickest on the cutting edge, 
gradually thinning off to the upper margin. There is no median projec- 
tion to the cutting edge. The anterior surface is without ribs. Of the 
same type is the jaw in all the species of Laminella examined It is very 
wide, very low, and hardlj' arcuate in luctuosa. I find the same type of jaw 
also, though much more arched, in all the species of Neivcomhia and Lepta- 
chatina examined. In picta there is a slightly produced, blunt, median 
projection to the cutting edge. All these species have jaws readily boiled 
out by caustic potash, and usually remaining attached to the lingual mem- 
brane in the test tube after the process. There are delicate vertical striae 
on several of them, sometimes shown only by a very strong power. In 
all the other species submitted to me the jaw is so extremely delicate as 
to be found with difficulty. I failed to extract it in Achatinella Johnsonii, 
livida and varia.f In the other species of Achatinella, and in all of Far- 
tulina, the jaw appears to be simply arcuate, transparent, extremely thin, 
ends blunt. 

The lingual membrane is of the same type as figured for Partulina huli- 
moides by Heynemann (Mai. Blatt. XIV), in all the species of Achatinella 
s. s., and Partidina. It is very broad in comparison to its length. In 
one specimen the formula is 175-1-175. J The teeth are arranged en chev- 
ron. There is but one type of teeth for centrals, laterals and marginals, 
the former being, however, somewhat smaller, and symmetrical The 
teeth are long, narrow, bluntly truncated below, curving and widening at 
first gradually, then more rapidly, so that the apex is more than twice the 
breadth of the base; it is reflected along its whole breadth, slightly pro- 
duced, seven-cuspid, the central cusp the smallest. There is variation in 
these cusps. 

In Aeivcomhia, Laminella and Leptachatina the lingual membrane is en- 
tirely different. It is as usual in the Helicince, narrow compared with its 
length, the teeth arranged in horizontal rows. The centrals are long 
narrow, somewhat wider at base (where there are two long, parallel, 

* I alone am responsible for these anatomical details. — W. G. B. 

t The jtrocess of extraction by potash is not adapted to tliis slightly developed jaw; 
even by dissection it is very difficult to obtain the jaw ; when mounted in glj-cerine jelly 
it speedily becomes too transparent to be studied under the microscope. 

X Counted by ray young friend A. Ten Eyck Lansing, to whom I am indebted for val- 
uable aid in dissecting the specimens. 



336 Lingual Dentition and Anatomy of 

longitudinal lines of reinforcement), again enlarged at apex, which is re- 
flected, slightly produced, and bluntly tricuspid, the outer cusps almost 
obsolete. The lateral teeth are subfjuadrate, more than twice as broad as 
the centrals, the reflected portion greatly produced and bicuspid. There 
are about eight perfect lateral teeth in Leptachatina grana, tlie formula 
being 20-1-20. In LamineUn hictuosa the formula is about 22-1-22. In 
L. Mastersi 26-1-2G, with eight perfect laterals. The marginal teeth in 
Laminella are merely a simple modiflcation of the laterals, they ai'e low, 
subquadrate, with one long, oblique, blunt inner denticle and two smaller, 
outer denticles. In Laminella the denticles are more numerous and moi'e 
pointed. In all the Leptachatina the marginal teeth are of a diflerent type. 
They seem to have but one very broad cusp, whose outer edge is irregu- 
larly digitate or fringed, the points being about eight, but varying in num- 
ber and position. 

To illustrate the jaws and lingual membranes I have selected (fig. 10) 
one central and one lateral of Laminella Mastersi, a group of centrals and 
laterals of the same (flg. 11), with a group of marginals of the same (flg. 
9.) Fig. 2 gives one central and several adjacent laterals, from either 
side, of Achatinella prodiicta. Fig. 8 gives several marginal teeth of 
Leptachatina nitida. Fig. 7, the jaw of Laminella Mastersi. Fig. 6, the 
jaw of Laminella picta. 

It will be noticed that the lingual membrane of Newcomhia, Laminella 
and J^eptachatina resembles that of Stenogyra in its extremel}^ small cen- 
tral tooth. The jaw also is of the same type. 

The following species were found with embryonic shells in the oviduct, 
usually only two in number and of very unequal size, Newcomhia picta, 
Laminella decorticata, luctuosa, Partulina ehurnea, toiniolata, Achatinella 
producta. Heynemann, Z.c, found them also in bulimoides. 

A peculiarity of the genus seems to be a perfectly black lung, in great 
contrast to which are the two divisions of the heart and the renal organ, 
all decidedly white. 

Another peculiarity of the genus is a short foot, broad in front, rapidly 
narrowing towards the pointed tail. In Partulina pallida, however, the 
tail is long. Also in Partulina elmrnea. In many of the specimens I 
noticed an unusual development of the blind sac under the mouth (sup- 
posed by Dr. Leidj'^ to be the seat of the olfactory nerve). I believe this 
to be a generic characteristic also. 

I noticed nothing unusual in the nervous ganglia, or in the digestive 
apparatus, examining each system carefully in several species, the upper 
portions of the digestive system especially in Partulina pallida. 

The reversion of the shell, common in the genus, seems accompanied by 
a corresponding sinistral arrangement of the internal organs. Thus the 
oriflce of generation, usually on the right of the animal in the snails, is, 
in the sinistral AchatincUce, on the left. I have verified this fact in 
eburnea, varia, lioida and Johnsonii. 

So far as can be judged from alcoholic specimens, it seems that the 
external orifice of the generative organs is usually under the mantle, not 



Achaiinella and oilier Pulmonata. 337 

behind the tentacle; tliis I believe to be a generic characteristic, but the 
fact must be confirmed in the living animal. It must surely be so in many 
species, among which I may mention Johnsonii and UoiiokUa. It is not 
so, however, in j^'^^^ii^'^- 

Another peculiarity is the whiteness noticed in the internal organs of 
almost all the species examined. The whole digestire system seemed 
injected with j^dead white fluid. 

The generative system presents several peculiarities, but in its geueral 
arrangement is the same as in tlic other shell-bearing snails. Tlie testicle 
is embedded in the extreme apex of the shell, in the upper lobe of the 
liver. The epididymis is long, greatly convoluted near the oviduct. The 
accessory gland appeared in several species (for instance in Mastersi, 
varia, tceniolata and prodncta) to be composed of several long, white cosca. 
This appears to be a generic characteristic, as does also the peculiarly 
constituted ovary.* 

Instead of the single, homogeneous, tongue-shaped mass usually seen in 
the Pulmonata, I have invariably found the ovary in Achatinella to be 
composed of numerous, long, delicate, crimped, thread-like caeca, free 
excepting at their base, where they converge to the top of the oviduct, 
I noticed this form of ovary in tceuioluta, Johnsonii, pallida, livida, varia, 
ehurnea, Mastersi and luctnusa, besides other species less thoroughly ex- 
amined. The caaca are bound together in one irregularly ovate mass by 
an investing membrane, which, when opened, allows the casca to spread 
out in the form represented in pi. xv, lig. 4. Jhis peculiar ovary is the 
most interesting point in the genus, so unlike the corresponding organ in 
the other snails whose anatomy is now known. The oviduct is not con- 
voluted, but simply long and sac-like (with extremely thin sides), ending 
in a narrow, tubular cloaca. The remaining organs were not readily ex- 
amined, on account of the animals having apparently been boiled, or 
otherwise rendered difficult of dissection without breaking the continuity 
of several of the ducts and organs, though the same general arrange- 
ment (especially as to inter-counectioii) of penis, vas deferens, etc., was 
noticed by me in UeniolaUi, livida, varia, ehurnea and pallida. 

I have given a figure of the genitalia of one species only, A. produeta, 
which I succeeded in retaining in perfect condition. It will be noticed 
(fig. 4) that the vas deferens proceeds directly from the base of the 
ovary^and is free in its whole length, though lying close upon the oviduct. 
It enters the penis at its side, just below its apex. From the apex of the 
penis sac is a delicate duct to the long organ mai'ked a on the figure. 
This organ runs from the base of the ovary to the apex of the sac-like 
organ marked b. As there appears to be no prostate gland along the 
side of the oviduct, it occurs to me that the organ a may be a form of 
prostate, lubricating both the penis and the organ marked b. The last 
is a dart sac, or a prostate, probably the latter. Its long flagellum 

*I use the terms applied to the organs by Di-. Leidy iu "Terrestrial Mollusks of 
United States," I. 



338 Lingual Dentition and Anatomy of 

(c) in its natural position lies as iu flg. 5, directly under the respiratory 
cavity, over the other genital organs. The genital bladder (c?) was found 
almost embedded in the ovary. 

IVmaiiia ClBaiutiisoi, Ffr. 

With the AchatinellfB were specimens of a si|iall Nanina 
from Oahii and another species from West Maui. The latter 
is pjouounced by Dr. Newcomb to be young of the above 
named species. Both of these species have similar lingual 
teeth. Those of the West iNIaui species are figured in pi. 
XV, fig. 3. The centrals and laterals are as usual in the 
genus ; there are ten perfect laterals. The marginals are 
aculeate, but instead of the usual simply bifid point, they 
have three and four points. The tooth figured was the very 
last oil the edge of the membrane. No perfect jaw was 
obtained in either species, though a simple arcuate smooth 
jaw was recognized in that from Oahu, of too extreme deli- 
cacy to be satisfactorily studied. 

The species belongs to the subgenus Microcystis. 

fiiBCciiBeii eanelSift, Gkl. 

From West Maui also was this species of Succinea, whose 
jaw and lingual membrane are as usual in the genus. 

Zonites OimcllaclBi, Th-.* 

Mr. A. Schramm, Guadeloupe. The species is also found 
in Florida and several of the W. I. Islands. 

Jaw not examined. ^ 

Lingual memlirane arranged as usual in the genus. Centrals tricuspid, 
laterals bicuspid, about seven of the latter being perfectly shaped laterals. 
Marginal teeth aculeate, of the form usual in the genus, but bifld, and 
sometimes trifld (see pi. xv, fig. 1). The species is viviparous. 



*Thi8 species, like Z. fulims{h. & F.W. Sliells N. A., I, 47, fig-. 75), differs from Zonites 
in the bifurcation of the marginal teeth of its lingual membrane. It must be compared 
to Vitrinocomis, Semper, Phil. Arch., p. 91. 

Stetwpus has teeth arranged as in Glandina, with no laterals. Our species cannot 
therefore belong to it. 



Achatinella and oilier Pulmoiiata, 339 

H<»lix ilviilifoi'St, Sliuttleworth (Polygyra). 

Sarasota Bay, Florida, Dr. W. Newconib. 

Jaw low, arcuate, ends bluut, anterior surface with about tliirteen ribs, 
denticulating either margin. 

Lingual membrane as we have figured for H. auriculata. (Land and 
Fresh Water Shells, I, p. 87, fig. 158.) 

Veroiiacella oeeMentalisi, Guildiug. 

Guadeloupe, Mr. A. Schramm. 

Jaw and lingual membrane as usual in the genus, the former with about 
thirty ribs. (See Amer. Journ. of Conch., VII, 1G3, pi. xii, fig. 7 and L. 
and F. W. Shells, I, p. 304, flg. 539.) 

The head, eye-peduncles and tentacles of the specimens, 
preserved in alcohol, were entirely withdrawn, the aperture 
through which they withdrew being very conspicuous. The 
tentacles and eye-peduncles are contractile, as described. 
There appears, properly speaking, to be no distinct locomo- 
tive disk to the foot. Such a disk has been descril)ed for the 
genus, owing to authors considering the reflected edges of 
the mantle as portions of the foot. These give, indeed, a 
tripartite appearance to the base of the animal, but the foot 
itself is not divided. 

OiiclfiitliiiiM ftielii'Siiiinsi, nov. sp. 

In the absence of any satisfactory published figure of the 
lingual dentition of the genus Onchidium, we give on pi. 
xvi, figs. 3-5, figures of that of a species sent to us by Mr. 
A. Schramm, from Pointe a Pitre, Guadeloupe. He col- 
lected many specimens, thus describing their station. "Sous 
des galets au bord de la mer, dans la rade de la Pointe a Pitre, 
eu societe avec des Nerites, des Auricules et des Pedipes." 

The external appearance of the species, which may be called after the 
discoverer, is as usual in the genus. The body is elliptic in shape, green 
in color, about eighteen millimeters long (contracted in spirits), flat 



340 Lingual Dentition and Anatomy of 

below, convex above, with a rounded slightly prominent ridge along the 
back, on which the skin is smoother than on the balance of the body, and 
where the tuberosities are much less conspicuous. The foot has no 
proper locomotive disk, tliough the broadly reflected mantle edge has 
usually been counted as a portion of the foot and has given rise to the 
impression that tlie foot of Onchidium is divided into three longitudinal 
bands, of which the central is a locomotive disk. The eye-peduncles are 
surely retractile, being found completely inverted in all the specimens 
examined. This confirms the recent observations of Dr. Stoliczka.* 

We found no jaw in the specimens. 

The lingual membrane is broad. The teeth are arranged en chevron. 
They are crowded closely together, the individual teeth and separate rows 
of teeth overlapping each other. The central tooth has somewhat the 
outline of a truncated cone, narrow and squarely truncated above, grad- 
ually widening and curving outward toward the base, which is much 
roader tlian tlie top, and is incurved with acutely pointed coi-ners. The 
top of the tooth projects beyond the reflected cutting edge, which is small 
and tricuspid. The first lateral is about the same size as the central. Its 
squarely truncated apex extends beyond the reflected cutting edge, which 
is bicuspid, the outer cusp subobsolete, the inner much larger and extended 
into a long, broad, squarely truncated point, reaching almost to the base 
of the tooth. This last is hidden behind the central, is long and gradu- 
ally attenuated to its blunt base. The second lateral is of same sliape as 
the first, but one-half longer and larger, the third and fourth laterals also 
increase in like proportion. The general direction of all the laterals is a 
curve outward fi-om the central. There are no distinct marginal teeth. 

Fig. 5 (pi. xvi) gives a group of centrals and laterals 
from two adjacent rows of teeth. Fig. 3 shows one central 
with its adjacent two laterals more enlarged, and purposely 
separated. Fig. 4 shows one lateral in profile. 

This lino;ual is instructive from showins; a combination of 
the characters of the quadrate teeth of Ilelicinoe and the 
aculeate teeth of VitrinincB, the last most evident in the pro- 
file. In profile, however, the reflected cusp is not of the 
sharp, thorn-like character of Vitrina, Zonites, etc. We 
should rather consider the teeth as decidedly quadrate, the 
base of attachment, or plate, being extended beyond the 
top of the reflected cusp. 



* Many years ago the eye-peduncles of OncMcHum were described as retractile by 
Forbes and Hanley, yet of late years most authors have treated them as contractile, as 
in Veronicella. 



Achatinella and other Pulmonata. 341 

We are indebted to our you»g friend A. Ten Eyck Lan- 
sing for assistance in the study of this lingual. 

He3aiemann's figure of the dentition of Peronia ( Onchi- 
della) is somewhat similar to that described above, at least 
in the general form and arrangement of the teeth. (Mai. 
Blatt., 1868, XV, pi. iii, fig. 10.) 

Helix jjicfa, Boru (Polymita). 

A Cuban species. The specimen examined was captured 
on a bunch of bananas in New York by Mr. M. Brandigee, 
who kindly sent it to Bland. 

Jaw (pi. xvi, fig. 1) thick, arched, high, ends bluntly rounded, but 
little attenuated; anterior surface without ribs; cutting edge without 
median projection; a trausvei'se, median line of reinforcement. 

Lingual membrane (pi. xvi, fig. 2) long and broad. Teeth ari'anged 
strongly en chevron, of nniforni shape on all parts of the membrane. 
Centrals long, narrow, bluntly truncated at top, slightly incurved at sides, 
rounded and fringed at base, near which is the gouge-shaped, expanded, 
tricuspid cutting edge. The central cusp is bluntly rounded, the exterior 
cusps curve outward and are pointed. The lateral teeth are of the 
same form with the centrals, but are slightly unsymmetrical. There are 
no distinct marginal teeth. 

By its jaw and lingual membrane. Helix picfa is closely 
allied to Helix muscarum, Lea (see Amer. Journ. of Conch., 
VI, 204, pi. ix, figs. 4, 16). The last named species is, 
however, placed by von Martens in the subgenus Polyinita 
and jgicta in Liochila. There can be no doubt that both 
species belong to the same subgenus, but as Helix muscarum 
is the type of Pohjmita, that name must be retained instead 
of Liochila. We anticipate finding the same curious type 
of lingual dentition in H. suljjhurosa, Morel, (which is" 
scarcely distinguishable from H 2ncta), also referred to 
Liochila by von Martens, but are scarcely prepared to ex- 
pect it in LAochila Jamaicensis, Chem. The latter, which is 
the type of Liochila, will therefore remain undisturbed in 
its systematic position, unless, indeed, it belongs to Thelid- 
omus, in which case the name Liochila will be placed in the 



342 Lingual Dentition and Anato^ny of 

synonymy of the last named subgenus. Of the species re- 
ferred to Polymita we presume none will prove to have 
similar dentition unless, as may probably be the case, H. 
versicolor, Born, so that the others must all l)e removed from 
Polymita, to form a distinct subgenus under the name of 
Hemitrochus, Swainson, 1840. We have, however, om'selves 
examined only H. varians, Mke., Troscheli, Pfr., gallopavo- 
nia, Val., and graminicola, Adams, all of which have the 
usual form of lingual teeth of the Hellcidoe (see Amer. Journ. 
Conch., VI, 206^ VII, 178, and L. and F. W. Shells, N. A., 
VI, 185, fig. 325). The jaw offers no subgeneric character 
to distinguish the two subgenera Polymita and Hemitrochus. 

The long, subquadrangular lingual tooth, not reflected 
along its upper margin as usual in the Helicidce, but bearing 
the gouge-shaped, expanded, cutting edge, soldered as it were 
upon its surface, has never been noticed by us before in the 
genus Helix. It is, however, characteristic of Orthalicus,* 
of Goiotis,] and of the marginal teeth of Liguus.X 

Our fig. 1, of pi. xvi, represents the jaw of H. picta. 
Fig. 2 gives two central teeth of the lingual membrane with 
the adjacent laterals. 

Helix g'alloiia.vonis, Val. {Hemitrochus). 

Jaw as in Helix varians (see L. and F. W. Shells, I, p. 185, f. 325) and 
H. Troscheli (herewith described). 

Lingual membrane as usual in the Helicidae. Cusps of centrals and 
laterals stout, short, with short points ; side cusps subobsolete. The re- 
flected cutting portion of both centrals and laterals does not reach beyond 
the middle of the plates, which are very long. Mai-ginal teeth low, wide, 
with four or more short, oblique, bluntly rounded deu tides, the two 
inner ones the largest. 

We are indebted for the specimen examined of this Turk's 
Island species, and the following one from New Providence, 
Bahamas, to Governor Rawson. 

* See Amer. Journ. Conch., VI, 212, 21.3, pi. ix, figs. 2, 10, 12. 
t See Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist., X, 2.'j3, pi. xi. figs. 5, 6, 7. 
J See Amer. Journ. Conch., VI, 209, 211, flgs. 4, 5. 



AckatineUa and other Pulmonata. 343 



Helix Trosclteli, Pfr. {Ilemitroclms). 

Jaw stout, decicledly arched, liigh, ends attenuated, blunt; a decided, 
small median projection to cutting edge, a strong transverse line of reiu- 
lorcement. 

Lingual membrane as usual in the genus. Centrals very long, the re- 
flected cutting edge greatly produced above and not extending to the base 
of the plate, side cusps obsolete, median cusp with a short point. Lat- 
erals like the centrals, but unsymmetrical, the upper portions still more 
produced. Marginals quadrate, with one large, oblique, rounded, bluntly 
bifid denticle, and one or two small, blunt, side denticles. The membrane 
is peculiar in the extension of the centrals and laterals at their upper 
margin. 

Aiuplil^iaSiBBBa, (.^saceinea) »i»g>eii<]ieul»ta, Pfr. 

We have already fully described (Ann. Lye. N. H. N. 
Y., X, 206, pi. ix, f. 2, 6, 9-11) the external appearance, 
jaw, lingual membrane and shell of this species, pointing 
out its difl'eronces from Succinea, from Pellicula, from Orn- 
alonyx and all other described genera, but hesitated to decide 
upon its generic position, leaving it temporarily in Pellicula 
of Fischer (not of Heynemann which is Omalonyx). 

Being now better acquainted with the jaw of Amjphibulima 
and tinding that of owv ajppendiculata (believed by us to be the 
ajppendiculata of Pfciffer) of the same tA'pe, we place the 
species in Amj)hibuUhia. 

Its lingual dentition more closely resembles that of Sim- 
pulopsis sulculosa, so far as centrals and perhaps laterals are 
concerned, but in the marginals, as described in S. sidculosa 
and S. Portoricensis, the resemblance ceases. 

Moreover A. appendiculata, Pfr. cannot be placed in Sim- 
jndopsis, the jaw of which, according to Shuttleworth, iS' quite 
different.* 

Fischer bases his genus Pellicula on Succinea depressa, 
Rang, in the synonymy of which he has S. appendiculata, 
Pfr., but the specimens of the latter under our consideration 
cannot be the same as Fischer's of depressa. His specimens 



* See Blaud and Biuaey, Ann. Lye, X, 198. 



344 Lingual Dentition and Andto7ny of 

are described as having a jaw with nine decided ribs* dentic- 
ulatino; the cuttino; edije and teeth of the usual form of the 
Helicinoe — quite different from our appendiculata, which is, 
we believe, distinct from his species. 

Pellicula convexa, Martens (Snccinea) , belongs to the genus 
Omalonyx, as shown by Heynemann's figure of the jaw 
(Malak. Blatt., XV). 

Ami»SiiSoiiIiBiiis& i$atSBlSst, Brug. 

We have elsewhere described the lins^ual membrane of this 
species from a Dominica specimen (Am. Journ. Conch., 
VII, 18H, pi. xvii, f. 1, 2,) and the jaw of one from St. 
Kitts (Ann. Lye. N. H. N. Y., X, 225, pi.' xi, f. 8). 

It has lately been suggested by Schramm (Journ. de Conch. , 
XIII, 127, April, 1873) that this species belongs exclusively 
to the fauna of Guadeloupe, and does not exist in the neigh- 
boring islands. We have seen one fossil example only from 
Guadeloupe, but on comparing it with fresh specimens from 
St. Kitts and Dominica are satisfied, judging from the shells, 
that all are of one and the same species. 

Considering Schramm's views, we have again carefully ex- 
amined the lingual membranes already described of the St. 
Kitts and Dominica forms, to ascertain whether they present 
differences of speciiic value. It \wi\y be mentioned that the 
shells from the latter island, several of which are in the 
cabinet of the late Mr. Robert Swift, are smaller than those 
from St. Kitts. 

We find that the Dominica form has sharper cutting points 
to the large cusps of its central and lateral teeth than in the 
St. Kitts' examples, while the laterals of the latter show 
greater constancy in the square truncation of the cutting 
points. 

The teeth of the St. Kitts Unguals are broader in propor- 
tion to their length, have a greater curve in their outlines and 

* la Fischer's plate the references to the teeth of Omalonyx unguis and Pellicula 
depressa are reversed. 



Achaiinella and other Pulmonata. 345 

more developed side cusps, which overlap the median cusps, 
than in those from Dominica. 

The marginal teeth of the former exhibit a o;reater ten- 
dency to splitting into shar^i denticles on the cutting cusps 
than those of the latter island. 

The Dominica lingual, in the only row counted, has 87-1- 
87 teeth, one in the St. Kitts form has 57-1-57. 

These diiferences in the lingual membranes are noticeable, 
but we believe, especially as the shells are identical, that 
they are not of specific value. 

AsuplsLi99iilini» (^uceinea) nibesceiani, Dcsh. 

AVe are indebted to Governor Rawson for specimens (pre- 
served in alcohol) of this species from Martinique. 

On examination of the jaw and lingual membrane, we 
found that the species is not a 8uccinea, but an Amj)hibu- 
lima,* in which genus it is placed by Beck (Index, p. 98) 
and by H. and A. Adams (Gen. Rec. Moll., 129), although 
Pfeiffer treats it as a Succinea and v. Martens (Die Ilellcccn, 
ed. 2nd, 310) catalogues it in Succinea s. str.f 

The jaw agrees perfectly with that of the genus Am/pJiibu- 
lima described by us (Ann. Lye. N. H. N. Y., X, p. 
225, pi. xi, tig. 8). There are alwut sixty delicate ribs. 
The lingual membrane has also the same general arrangement 
as in that genus (I.e., fig. 9) with specific differences from 
that of A. jjaiula, especially in the widely expanded, blunt, 
median cusp of the central tooth, and in the /Succinea-Yike 
cutting away of the lower margin of the teeth. The mar- 
ginal teeth of A. ruhescens resemble those we have figured of 

Goeotis (I.e., pi. xi, fig. 7). 
A. rubescens occurs also in the environs of Cayenne 

(Drouet, Moll, de la Guyane Frangaise, p. 49). 

*See our note on p. 345 of Journal de Conchyliologie, XIII, Oct., 1873. 

t Since sending; the above to the printer, we have received the Journal de Conchy- 
liologie, 3d series, XIII, No. 4, Oct., 1873. Oq p. 324, is a description of the jaw and 
anatomy of this species by Dr. Fischer, who suggests the subgeneric name Rhodonyx, 
overlooking its generic identity with Amphibulima. 



346 Lingual Dentition and Anato7ny of 

Onanloniyx felina., Guppy. 

We have received, from Mr. R. J. Lechmere Guppy, spec- 
imens preserved in glycerine of his Amphibulima {Omalo- 
nyx) felina, from Trinidad. On examining the jaw and 
lingual membrane, we find the species to be a true Omalo- 
nyx, both organs being the same as have been described for 
that genus. (See Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist., X, 203, 0. 
unguis of Brazil and Guadeloupe.) 

We have already {I.e., p. 204) stated our belief that O. 
felina, judging from the shell alone, is specifically identical 
with the Guadeloupe O. unguis. 

liitlioti.^i i'»l>ac<»Isi, Blanford. 

Sometime since Bhmd was indebted to Colonel Jewett for 
specimens of this interesting species, from one of which he 
obtained the jaw and lingual membrane. 

Pfeiffer (Nov. Conch., TV, pp. 11 and 12, pi. cxii, figs. 
1-4) describes and figures Succinea rupicola Bhuiford (sub- 
genus Lithotis) quoting the name from the catalogue of Dr. 
Dohrn's collection, remarking that he had no information as 
to the work in which the subgenus and this, the typical spe- 
cies,* had been characterized. 

The shell has a certain similarity to that of Succinea but 
the species does not belong to the Elasmognatha. 

L. rupicola is found on rocks at an elevation of 2,000 feet 
in the mountains near Bombay. 

The jaw is arcuate, with a depression or excavation at the centre of its 
upper margin ; scarcely attenuated towards the ends ; cutting edge with a 
decided median projection; anterior surface with vertical strias, but no 
trace of ribs. 

The lingual membrane is as usual in the Helicince, the marginal teeth 
being quadrate, not aculeate. The centrals are long and narrow, with 
lateral expansions at the lower margin ; the reflected portion has one stout 
median cusp with a point reaching nearly to the lower margin of the 

* Succinea {Lithotis) iumida was described and figured by Blanford in Journ. Aa. 
Soc. Bengal, 1870. See also Nov. Coiich., I.e. 



Achatinella and other Pahnonata. 347 

tooth, the side cusps being subobsolete. The Uiteral teeth are like the 
centrals, but uusj-m metrical. The margiual teeth are about as wide as 
high, with one stout, pointed inner cusp, and two short, side cusps. 



HeSix l»rOTi!iOi*i», Pfr. (Thelidomus^. 

New Providence, Bahamas (also Cuba). Gov. Rawson.* 

Jaw very sliglitly arcuate, wide, low, of about equal height thi'oughout ; 
ends blunt; anterior surface with 10-15 ribs, separated by irregular inter- 
vals, not always reaching the cutting edge, wljich has a broad, blunt 
median projection. 

Lingual membrane with numerous rows of about 40-1-40 teeth, as 
usual in the Ilelicidcc, the marginals liaving one large and one side, small, 
blunt cusp, projecting but sliglitly beyond the base of the tooth. 

CS^Santlilia SOIMiaHa, Pfr. (Oleacina). 
New Providence (also Cuba). 
Lingual membrane as usual in the genus. 

SailiimilMiS seiMilcralifi, Poey {Leptomerus). 
New Providence (also Cuba). 

Jaw stout, wide, low, arcuate, of about equal height throughout ; ends 
bluntly rounded; with fifteen stout, broad, crowded ribs, their ends cre- 
nellating either margin. Some of these ribs are of equal thickness 
throughout their whole breadth, and are separated by decided narrow in- 
terstices. The jaw cannot, thei-efore, be said to be in numerous plate-like 
sections separated by narrow ribs, as is usual in Bulimnlus. This jaw is 
of interest as showing the passage from the jaw of Cylinclrella, BnJimulus, 
etc., to that of Helix, having some of the characters of each. 

Lingual membrane as usual in the Helicidce. Side cusps of centrals and 
laterals obsolete, median cusp long, with a long point, passing beyond the 
base of the tooth. The upper margin of the centrals is incurved. Margi- 
nal teeth a modification of the latei-als, with one long, narrow, blunt, 
inner denticle, and one or two short side denticles of similar shape. 



*TI)e animals of this, the four following:, and other Bahamas species were sometime 
since received from Gov. Rawson by Bland, to whom the shells collected by the late Dr. 
Bryant were referred by the Boston Society of J^atural History. The jaw .^ and lingual 
membranes of the species were placed by Bland at the disposal of the society, and at 
his suggestion were mounted for microscopic examination. We are indebted to the 
Society for the use of the slides. 
November, 1873. 24 Akn. Ltc. Nat. Hist., Vol. x. 



348 Lingual Dentition and Anatomy of 

§troi»lfiia eleeumantt,'^ F6r. 

Castle Island, Bahamas. 

Jaw stout, strongly arcuate, euds slightly attenuated, bluntly rounded ; 
anterior surface ribless, transversely striate, and with several stout lines 
of reinforcement; a small, blunt, median projection to cutting edge. 
(See our fig. 431, p. 247, of L. and F. W. Shells, I, for jaw of /S". incana.) 

Lingual membrane as usual in the Helicidce. Teeth about 30-1-80, 
about as broad as long, short, broad, with short, stout, bluntly pointed 
median cusps and subobsolete side cusps, upper margin of teeth rounded. 
Marginal teeth simply a modification of the lateral, with one inner, large, 
and one outer, small, stout, blunt, oblique denticle. 

Sti'opliia. miiiuia, Brug. var. ? 
Abaco, Bahamas (also Cuba). 

Jaw slightly arcuate, stout, rough, rather high, ends but little attenu- 
ated, blunt ; cutting edge with a wide, blunt, slightly developed median 
projection. 

Lingual membrane with about 30-1-30 teeth. Centrals short and broad, 
the upper margin rounded and reflected into a short, broad cutting projec- 
tion, with one stout, short, median cusp, bearing a stout point, and sub- 
obsolete side cusps. Laterals like the centrals, but bicuspid and unsym- 
metrical. Marginals long, low, with irregular, short, blunt, oblique, 
stout denticles, usually about four, the inner two the largest. 

Pupa falla:x:, Say (Leucochila) . 

We are indebted to Mr. A. G. Wetherbj for Ohio speci- 
mens, from which we extracted the jaw and lingual membrane 
here described. 

Jaw wide, low, slightly arcuate, ends blunt, but little attenuated. 

Lingual membrane as usual in the genus. (See our L. and F. W. Shells 
of N. A,, I, p. 233, figs. 395, 401, 409.) Teeth about 15-1-15, with about 
seven perfect laterals. Centrals quite narrow, the reflected portion very 
small, tricuspid. Laterals quite broad, bicuspid. Marginals quadrate, low, 
wide, with one inner, long, oblique, blunt denticle, and several outer, 
small, irregular, blunt denticles. The outer lower edges of the centrals 
and laterals have the projecting or short reinforcements shown in the fig- 
ures referred to above. 

* See remarks on this species by M. Crosse, in Journ. de Conch, VIII, 3d Ser., p. 337, 
1868. 



Achatinella and other Pulmonata. 349 

Though we retain the species iu the geuus Pupa it must be remembered 
that as treated by Pfeiffer it would be placed in BuUmimis of Albers and 
Martens. In general form of shell it certainly approaches Buliminus 
montaniis, Drap. 

lilmax ne^vstOEil, J. G. Coop. 

San Francisco, received from Mr. Stearns. We presume 
the specimens belong to this species. 

Jaw and lingual membrane as usual in the genus. No bifurcation to the 
marginal teeth. Teeth about 30-1-30, with fourteen perfect laterals. 

The teeth are quite of the shape of those figured on p. 59 of our L. and 
r. W. Shells. The side cusps of the centrals and laterals are well devel- 
oped. 

Xlrinna. ^e«vcom1>i, A. Ads. 

In the collection of the late Mr. Robert Swift, presented 
by his daughter, Mrs. A. L. Washburne, to the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, but temporarily in the 
charge of Bland, he found specimens of this species, given 
to Mr. Swift by Dr. Wesley Newcomb. 

The genus SJrinna, referred to the family Limncetdce, was 
described by H. and A. Adams, iu the Zool. Proc, 1855. 

The authors remark, "This shell (J^. JSfeivcomhi) by some 
would be referred to JSTeritina, by others to Limncea, and 
possibly by a few to the genus Otina; it appears, however, 
to be distinct in character from all these." 

From one of the specimens in the Swift collection the jaw 
and lingual membrane here described were obtained. 

To satisfy himself as to the shells, Bland sent one for ex- 
amination to Dr. Newcomb, who in reply has kindly furnished 
the following information as to the habitat and station of the 
species : — 

, "The specimens were forwarded by me to Mr. Swift iu 
about 1852 or 1853. They were collected high up the stream 
called the Hanelei River, on the Island of Kauai. At a fall 
in this river, the spray is thrown over the rocks, keeping 
them constantly wet ; from these rocks the shells were taken. 



350 Lingual Dentition and Anatomy of 

On repeated subsequent visits to the same locality I failed to 
find any more." 

The jaw is low, wide, slightly arcuate, cuds poiutcd; a decided median 
projection to the cutting edge; anterior surface smooth. There is no ap- 
pearance of a supplementary plate as in Succinea. 

The lingual membrane is as usual in the Heliciiice. The central tooth is 
long and narrow, small in proportion to the laterals, the reflected portion 
has one long median cusp, the side cusps being subobsolete. The lateral 
teeth are wide, broad as long, the reflected portion almost as large as the 
whole base of attachment, and tricuspid, the inner cusp very small, the 
median cusp large and bluntly truncated, the outer cusp smaller than 
the median and bluntly pointed. The marginal teeth are subquadrate, 
wider than high, the apex reflected, obliquely produced and bearing five 
or more blunt, short denticles, of which the inner two are the largest. 

This description proves that the species is more nearly re- 
lated to Pu]}a, Clausilia and Slenogyra than to Succinea 
among the Ilelicidce, but it may well prove to be a Limnajan, 
as suggested by H. and A. Adams. As such it must be 
compared to Pompholyx. 



Achatinella and other Pulmonata. 351 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XV. 

Fig. 1. Zonites Gimdlachi, Pfr. One marginal tooth of 
the lingual membrane. 

Fig. 2. Achatinella jproducta, Rve. One central and 
adjacent lateral teeth. 

Fig. 3. Nanina Chamissoi, Pfr. (See p. 338.) One cen- 
tral, one lateral and one extreme marginal. 

Fig. 4. Achatinella producta, Rv. The genital system 
enlarged, a, see p. 337. 6, Vaginal prostate? c, Flagelluni 
of same. cZ, The genital bladder. 

Fig. 5. Same as c of fig. 4, as it lies in the animal. 

Fig. 6. Kewcomhia picta^ Mighels. Jaw. 

Fig. 7. Laminella Mastersi, Newc. Jaw. 

Fig. 8. Leptachatina nitida, Newc. Marginal teeth. 

Fig. 9. Laminella Mastersi, Newc. Marginal teeth. 

Fis;. 10. Same. One central and one lateral, still more 
enlarged. 

Fig. 11. Same. A group of central and lateral teeth. 
Same scale of enlargement as fig. 9. 

Plate xvi. 

Fig. 1. Helix picta, Born. Jaw. 

Fig. 2. The same, lingual membrane, a, central tooth. 

Fig. 3. Onchidium (see p. 340). The central and ad- 
jacent lateral teeth of the lingual membrane, artificially 
separated. 

Fig. 4. One separate tooth in profile. 

Fig. 5. The same, a group of centrals and laterals as 
they occur naturally on the lingual membrane, magnified less 
than in fisfs. 3 and 4. 



352 Outlines of a Bibliography of the 

XXXI. — Outlines of a Bibliogra/phy of tlie History of 

Chemistry. 

By H. CARRINGTON BOLTON. 

Read December 8, 1873. 

To study a subject advantageously and satisfactorily, the 
first requirement is a knowledge of the literature on that 
subject ; in this belief we have compiled a catalogue of 
works on the History of Chemistry, for our own use and 
that of those who may be interested in the origin and devel- 
opment of this science. So far as we know, no bibliography 
of the kind exists, and as the materials for such a list are 
widely scattered the difBculty incurred is not inconsiderable. 
In the following catalogue we lay no claim to completeness, 
but desire that it should be regarded rather as an outline to 
be filled up by others having greater bibliographical experi- 
ence and larger facilities for research. 

This bibliography is confined to independent works ; the 
numerous essays relating to the history of specific branches 
of chemical science, widely disseminated throughout periodi- 
cal literature, are not included ; we have inserted, however, 
the few catalogues of chemical books, which, though not 
embraced by the title of this compilation, are too important 
adjuncts in the history of chemistry to be omitted. 

Nearly all encyclopedias and dictionaries of science con- 
tain articles on chemistry from a historical point of view, 
under the word "alchemy;" references to these would need- 
lessly expand this biI)liography, and have been omitted. 
We may here mention, as noteworthy, the article on alchemy 
in the "Encyclopedic Methodique," Paris, 1792; in the 
"Allgemeine Encyclopaedic der Wissenschaft und Kunste," 
by J. S. Ersch und J. G. Gruber, Leipzig, 1818 ; in Rees' 
"Cyclopedia, or Universal Dictionary of Arts," Edinburgh, 
1819; and in the " Handvvorterbuch der reinen und ange- 



History of Chemistry. 353 

wunclten Chemie," of Licbig, PoggeudoriF and Wohler, 
Braunschweig, 1857. 

If undue consideration appears to be given to the history 
of alchemy as distinguished from chemistry proper, our 
readers will bear in mind that the early literature of chem- 
istry is almost wholly devoted to the hermetic art. Alchemy 
is sometimes regarded as the dishonorable parent of a noble 
offspring, and has been sarcastically defined as : "Ars sine 
arte, cujus principium est mentiri, medium laborare, finis 
mendicare ;"* an art without art, originating in falsehood 
and proceeding through labor to beggary. We agree, rather, 
with the British historian of chemistry, who remarks that 
"Alchemy, or the art of making gold, furnishes too curious 
a portion of the al)errations of the human intellect to be 
passed over in silence," and Ave confess to a partialit}' for 
the study of the vagaries of the gold-makers, and to finding 
a fascination in tracking their mysterious footsteps. 

Finally, a word of apology with regard to the annotations. 
In order to make the bibliography instructive and somewhat 
more readable than such compilations usually are, we have 
ventured to add brief remarks in connection with the less 
known publications, giving some account of the author and 
the nature of his work. In expressing an opinion with re- 
gard to the merits of a work we disclaim any intention of 
assuming the position of a standard in criticism, but we 
believe that the opinion of an individual may be of some 
value, even though the views taken are diametrically opposed 
to the judgment of others. We have an honorable prec- 
edent, moreover, in the " Bibliotheca Bibliograpliica " of 
that learned bibliographer, Julius Petzholdt. 

The works which follow are arranged in chronolo2:ical 
order. 

HoGHKLANDE, THEOBALD VAN. Historice aliquot transmutationis metallicoe 

2)ro defensione alchymice contra hortium rabiem. 8vo. Colonise, 1604. 

Schraieder remarks that Hoghelande was an important personage in the 

*HaiTi», iu Rees' Cyclopedia. 



354 Outlines of a Bibliography of the 

history of alchemj^ for after experiencing serious doubts of tlie trans- 
mutation of metals lie became a vigorous defender of tlie faith, and 
freely made his convictions known. This essay is a collection of mar- 
vellous tales concerning veritable (?) transmutations. A German trans- 
lation also ai)peared under the title: "Bevveis das die Alchymey oder 
Goldinacherkunst eiu sonderbares Gescheuk Gottes sei." 8vo. Leipzig, 
1604. 

CoNiiixG, Hermann. De hermetica u^cjyptiorum vetere et Paracelska nova 
medicina. 4to. Helmstadtii, 1648. (Second edition in 1669.) 
Conriug bitterly attacks the extreme antiquity assigned to alchemy, and 
provoked the reply by Borrichius, noticed below. 

BOREL, Pierre. [Borellus.] Uibliotheca chimica, seu CaUilogus Libro- 
rnm Philosophicorum Ilermcikoriim. Auctore Petro Borellio. Parisiis. 
1654. 
The first extensive catalogue of chemical books. Contains four thou- 
sand authors. 

KiRCiiER, Athanasius. De Origins Alchymim; also De Lapide Philoso- 
lyliorum. In Mundus Subterraneus, Vol. II, Liber XI, Sectio I et II. 
Polio. Amsterodarai, 1665. 
Athanasius Kircher, a celebrated historian, philosopher, mathematician 
and physical philosopher, was born at Fulda, in 1601, and died at Rome, 
in 1680. He filled the chairs of philosophy and oriental languages in the 
College of Wurtzburg and in the Jesuit's College, at Avignon. He was 
afterwards professor of mathematics in the Jesuit's College at Rome. 
Kircher was a man of " wide and varied, but ill digested erudition, and a 
most voluminous writer." Athough credulous to an absurd degi-ee, in the 
dissertation " De Origine Alchymife," he violently attacks the alchemists 
and their pretended transmutations of the baser metals into gold. It is 
reprinted in Maugetus' " Bibliotheca Chemica Cnriosa," where also re- 
plies to his attacks, by Clauder and by Blaueustein, are found. 

Cooper, William. A Catalogue of Chijmicall Books, in 3 Parts, collecled 
by William Cooper. 12mo. London, 1675. 

Borrichius, Olaus. Dissertatio de ortu et progressu Chemiw. 4to. 

Hafuiae, 1668. (Reprinted in the Bibl. Chem. curiosa of Mangetus, 

Vol. I, No. 1.) 
The author of this celebrated treatise, the most frequently quoted by 
succeeding historians, was born at Borchen (whence his latinized name), 
Jutland, in 1626. He was Professor of Philosophy, Poetry, Chemistry 
and Botany, at the University of Copenhagen, a fact which causes Rod- 
well to remark that, " either Professors were difficult to procure in the 
Kingdom of Denmark, or else Olaus Borrichius was an astounding 
genius." However this may be, he was certainly a man of amazing 
credulity, and allowing "the imaginative faculty due to his poetical 



History of Chemistry. 355 

temperament, to exert au undue influence over his sober judgment," he 
refers the origin of alchemy to the antediluvians, endeavors to prove 
that Hermes Trisraegistus was a real personage, the inventor of all arts, 
and the father of alchemy, and that the Smaragdine Table was really 
found by the wffe of Abraham, besides accepting the preposterous 
theories of his contemporaries concerning the elixir of life and the phil- 
osopher's stone. This dissertation was highly prized by the alchemists 
of his day on account of its earnest defence of their principles. 

Its present value is solely that of a curious example of the extravagant 
credulity of a learned man. According to Wiegleb, Borrichius' work 
may be accounted the first history of Chemistry (Alchemy). 

MoRnoF, Daniel George. Be Transmutatione metallorum Epistola ad 
virum nohilissimum Jnelem Langelutum. 8vo. Hamburg, 1673. (Re- 
printed in Mangetus' Bibl. Chem. curiosa. Vol. I, No. 9; also ap- 
peared in German, under the title : " D. G. Morhof's Abhaudlung 
vom Goldraachen." Baireuth, 17G4.) 
Morhof, born 1639, died 1691, was Professor of History at Kiel. 

Schmieder calls him an unprejudiced historian. 

BoKRiCHius, Olaus. Hermetis, uEgyptiorum et chemicorum sapientia ab 
Herm. Connngii animadversionibus vindicata. 4to. Hafnias, 1674. 
(Reprinted in Mangetus' Bibl. Chem. curiosa. Vol. I, No. 2.) 

Borrichius, Olaus. Conspectus scriptorum chemicorum. 4to. Hamburg, 
1697. (Reprinted in Mangetus' Bibl. Chem. curiosa. Vol. I, No. 2.) 

Manoet, Jean Jacques. [Mangetus.] Blbliotheca Chemica curiosa, seu 
rerum ad alchemiam pertinentium Thesaurus instructissimus * * * 
GeneviB. 2 vols. Folio. 1702. 
A collection of one hundred and thirty-three rare tracts on alchemy ai"e 
here reprinted. Contains many bibliographical notes. 

RoTH-ScHOLTZ, FiiiEDRicii. BibUotheca Chemica; h. e. Collectio Aucto- 
rum fere omnium qui de naturoi arcanis, re metallica et minerali * * 
hermetice scripscrunt. * * * 5 parts. 8vo. Norirabergse, 1725-33. 
The work of a Nuremberg bookseller well versed in literature. Con- 
tains the greater pai't of the work of Borel, which had already become 
scarce. Is, however, incomplete, extending only to the letter H. 

Boerhaave, Herman. Elementa Chemice. Paris, 1724. Also an English 
translation as follows : " A new Method of Chemistry, including the 
theory and practice of that art laid down on mechanical principles 
and accommodated to the uses of life. * * * To which is prefixed 
a Critical History of Chemistry and Chemists from the origin of the 
art to the present time. Written by the very learned H. Boerhaave. 
* * * Translated by P. Shaw, M.D., and E. Chambers." 4to. Lon- 
don, 1727. 
A logically ari'anged, condensed history of chemistry, forming the in- 



356 Outlines of a Bibliography of the 

troduction to a very remarkable work of one of the most distinguished 
men of the time. (Boerhaave, boru 1668, died 1738.) 

Du Fresnoy, Lenglet. Histoire dc la Philosophie Hermetique. Accom- 
pagne cVun Catalogue raisonne des Ecrivains de cette Science. Avec le 
veritable Philalethe, revu sur les originaux. 3 vols. 12mo. Paris, 1742. 

The author of this exceedingly curious work was an Abbe of some dis- 
tinction as a literateur. He was born in 1674, and died in 1755. While 
apparently accepting the truth of the legends relating to the great an- 
tiquity of alchemy, and narrating accounts of veritable transmutations 
at considerable length, he at the same time exposes the frauds practised 
by the adepts, and quotes entire the celebrated essay of Geoffroy: "Des 
Supercheries concernant la Pierre Philosophale," which rang the death 
knell of the Hermetic Art. 

The first volume of Du Fresnoy's work contains only historical matter, 
concluding with a " Chronologic des plus celebres auteurs de la philoso- 
phie hermetique." In this chronology, which begins with " Hermes, 
1996 B. C," he includes Moses, Cleopatra and Caligula, adepts being 
marked by an asterisk. The second volume continues the history, and 
includes the "Introitus apertus ad occlusum regis palatium" of Philale- 
thes, entire, both in French and in Latin. The third volume consists of 
a compendious Bibliography of Chemistry embracing the works of a 
thousand authors. 

Schroder, Fr. Jos. Wilh. Geschichte der dltesten Chemie und Philoso- 
phie. 8vo. Marburg, 1775. 
Schroder was Professor of Chemistry and Medioiue at the University 
of Marburg. This work is written in defence of the " Higher Chemistry," 
a term applied to alchemy by Wenzel, shortly before. 

WiEGLEB, J. C. Historisch-liritische Untersuchung der Alchemie oder der 
eingebildeten Goldmacherlamst. 8vo. Weimar, 1777. 
A severe criticism on the claims of hermetical philosophy. 

Bergman, Torbern. De primordiis Chemice. Upsala, 1779. 

Bergman, Torbern. Historiai chemioi medium seu obscurum cevum. Up- 
sala, 1782. 
Bergman, born 1735, died 1784, was Professor of Chemistry at the 
University of Upsala. The above essays were presented to the Academy 
of Sciences in Stockholm. 

Baumer, J. W. Bibliotheca Chemica. Giesseu. 8vo. 1782. 

Wiegleb, J. C. Geschichte des Wachsthums und der Erfindungen in der 
neuern Zeit. 2 vols. 8vo. Berlin, 1790. 
This covers the period from 1650 to 1790; the matter is chronologically 
arranged. 



History of Chemistry. 357 

WiEGLEB, J. C. Geschichte des Wachsthums und der Erfindungen in der 
Chemie in den dltesten und mittleren Zeiten. 8vo. Berlin, 1792. 
This is a translation of Bergman's works above mentioned. 

Beckmann, Johann. Beitrdgezur Geschichte der Erfindungen. 5 vols. 8vo. 
Leipzig, 1780-1805. 

Gmelin, J. F. Geschichte der Chemie seit dem Wiederaufheben der Wissen- 
schaften bis an das Ende des 18 Jahrhunderts. 3 vols. 8vo. Gottiugen, 
1797. 
An unwieldy work, with a stupendous amount of detail, badly arranged. 
It excels iu bibliographical references. 

Reuss, J. D. EepeHorium Commentationnm a Societatibus litterariis edita- 

rum secundum disciplinarum ordinem digessit J. D. Beiiss. 4to. Got- 

tingse, 1803. (Scientia-Naturalis. Cheraia, etc. Vol. III.) 

An exceedingly useful work, compiled with great diligence. Comprises 

sixteen volumes, of which the third volume of the division of natural 

science is devoted to chemistry and metallurgy. The whole work forms 

a proper introduction to the "Catalogue of Scientific Papers" published 

by the Royal Society, which covers the years 1800 to 1863. 

Johnson, . History of the progress of Animal Chemistry. 3 

vols. London, 1803. 

FucHS, G. Fr. Chr. Bepertorium der chemischen Litteratur von 494 vor 
Christi Geburt bis 180G, in chronologischer Ordnung aufgestellt. 8vo. 
Jena und Leipzig, 1806-12. 
This work is highly praised by Petzholdt, as exceedingly compendious 
and carefully prepared. It contains not only independent works, but also 
articles from periodical literature, to which are added numerous bio- 
graphical and literary notes. Actually, it extends only to 1799, inclusive; 
the proposed third volume (1800 to 1806) never appeared. 

Barrett, Fk. The Lives of Alchemy stical Philosophers ; ivith a critical 
catalogue of books in occult chemistry and a selection of tlie most cele- 
brated treatises on the theory and practice of the Hermetic Art. 8vo. 
London, 1815. 

Contains superficial biographies of forty-five so-called adepts, a list of 
seven hundred and fifty alchemical books, and selections from the most 
incredible treatises on the hermetic art. Bibliographically it is very in- 
exact. 

Davy, Sir Humphrey. Historical View of the Progress of Chemistry, in 
Davy's Collected Works. Vol. IV. London, 1829. 
A brief sketch. 

Thomson, Thomas. A History of Chemistry. 2 vols. 12mo. London, 
1830. 



358 Outlines of a Bihliograpliy of the 

A very entertaining and useful work, embracing tlie whole field up to 
the date of publication. The progress of analj'tical chemistry is reviewed 
with critical skill. 

Callisex, a. C. p. Medicinisclies Schriftsteller Lexicon der jetzt lehenden 
Aerzte, Wundaerzte, Gebnrtshelfer, Apothelcer und Naturforschcr * * 
33 vols. 12mo. Kopenhagen, 1830-1845. 
A wonderfully exhaustive and laborious compilation, replete with 
minutest details concerning the literature of medicine and natural sci- 
ence. Chemistry proper, though not included in the title of the work, 
receives its full quota of attention. The author sacrificed a fortune in 
compiling and publishing these numerous and closely printed volumes, 

ScHMiEDER, Karl Christoph. Geschichte der Alchemic. 8vo. Halle, 
1832. 

Schmieder was born at Eisleben, in 1778, and was Director of a High 
School and School Inspector in Cassel, at which place he died in 1850. 
Several minor works on Geology and Mineralogy appeared from his pen, 
but none of such extraordinary character as this History of Alchemy, in 
which he endeavors to establish, by historic proofs, the reality of the 
transmutation of metals. Schmieder recognizes two distinct sciences, 
chemistry and alchemy, and claims they exist independently of each 
other from the earliest ages. Alchemy, he states, has a threefold dogma : 
I. It is possible to prepare, by true art, perfect gold from substances 
which contain no gold. II. The same is true of silver. III. This arti- 
ficial preparation is a wonderful medicine, a panacea of life. Starting 
with this statement he investigates the authenticity of the historic 
records of transmutation, and sparing no pains in deciphering musty 
manuscripts of a former age, he concludes that we must acknowledge the 
reality of the transmutation of metals. He confesses that impostors 
abounded, but thinks he establishes the claims of five persons as true 
adepts, and gives their personal history with narratives of their wonder- 
ful accomplishments. He calls attention to the fact that the five persons 
named lived at succeeding periods and concludes that the Philosopher's 
Stone was secretly handed down from one to the other. 

The whole aim and scope of this strange work, and especially the con- 
clusions drawn, seem more appropriate to the times of Borrichius than 
to the second quarter of the enlightened 19th century. 

HoEFER, Ferdinand. Histoire de la Chimic. .2 vols. Svo. Paris, 18-12. 
(Second edition in 1866.) 
A work of great research, especially in regard to earliest authentic rec- 
ords as derived from ancient manuscripts. 

Kopp, Hermann. Geschichte der Chemie. 4 vols. Svo. Braunschweig, 
1843. 
A classical work, above praise. Is somewhat scarce; a new edition in 
Roman type is desirable. 



History of Chemistry. 359 

Wolff, E.mil TuEODoii. QueUen-LUeratur der theureUsch-onjanischen 
Chemie oder Vcrzeichniss der vum Anfang des letzten Viertheils des 
vori(jeii Jahrhunderts bis zum Scliluss des Jahres ISii ausyefdhrten 
chemischen Untersuchvngen. * * * gvo. Halle, 1845. 

A carefully collated index to the researches iu orgauic chemistry 
within the period named. 

Wolff, Emil Theodok. Vullstandige Uehersicht der elementar-analytischen 
Untersuchungen oryanischi'.r Suhstanzen. * * * Aus den chemischen 
Journalen * * * in systemaUscher Ordnung entioorfen. 8vo. Halle, 
1846. 

Wagner, Eudolf. Die Geschichte der Chemie. Von der Kindheit des 
Menschenyeschlechts bis auf uusere Taye. 8vo. Leipzig, 1853. 

FiGuiEK, Louis. L'Alchimie et les Alchimistes. Essai historique et critique 
sur la philosophie hermetique. 12ino. Paris, 1855. 

A readable work, founded mainly on Schmieder's Geschichte der Al- 
chemic. 

POPPE, Adolpu. ChroHologische Uebersicht der Erjindungen und Entdeck- 
ungen auf dem Gebiete der Physilc, (Jhemie, Astronomie, 3Iechanik und 
industriellen Technik von den dltesten Zeiten bis auf unsere Tage. 8vo. 
Frankfurt, 1856. 

ZucHOLD, Erkst Amandus. Bibliotheca Chemica. Verzeichniss der auf 
dem Gebiete der reinen pharmaceutischen physiologischen und technischen 
Chemie in den Jahren 1840, bis mitte 1858 in Deutschland und vm Aus- 
laiide erschienenen Schriften. 8vo. Gottiugen, 1859. 
A most complete contribution to special bibliography. All the works 
bearing chemistry in their title, or relating to the subject, issued between 
the years named, in twenty-one different languages, are here alphabeti- 
cally arranged. A sequel for the years 1858-70 was issued by Kuprecht 
in 1872. 

WUKTZ, Adolphe. Sur quelques Points do Philosophie Chimique. Lvqons 
professees les 6 et 20 Mars 1863, devaiit la Societe Chimique [de Paris'] 
par M. Adulphe Wurtz, President de la Societe. 8vo. Paris, 1864. 
An admirable discussion of the development and principles of modern 

chemical philosophy. 

Deherain, p. p. Etudes pour servir a I'histoire de la Chimie \_Extrait des 
Annales da Conservatoire imperial des arts et metiers]. 8vo. Paris, 1864. 

SiLVESTKi, Orazio. II prcscnte ed il passato della chimica considerata nei 
suoi rapporti con le altre scienze naturali. 16mo. Catauia, 1864. 



360 BihliograpJiy of the History of Chemistry. 

PoGGENDOKFF, J. C. BiograpIiisch-lUerarisches Handworterbuch zur Ges- 
chichte der exacten Wissenschaften, enthaltend Nachtveisimgen uber 
Lebens-verhdltnisse und Leistungen von Mathematikern, Astronomen, 
Fhysikern, Chemikern, Ilineralogen, Geologen, u. s. lo. aller Volker und 
Zeiten. Lex 8vo. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1858-63. 
Invaluable as a work of reference. Abounds in information concerning 

chemists of everj-^ age and nation. 

HoEFER, Ferdinand. La Chimie enseignee par la biographie de ses fonda- 
teurs, B. Boyle, Lavoisier, Priestley, Scheele, Davy, etc. 12mo. Paris, 
1865. 
A compilation of comparatively little value. 

Chevreul, E. Histoire des Connaissances chimiqttes. 8vo. Paris, 18G6. 
A singular work, rather metajihysical than historical or chemical. 

Buff, Heinrich Ludwig. Mii Blick auf die Geschichte der Ghemie. 8vo. 
Erlangen, 1866. 

Kopp, Hermann. Sunst und Jctzt in der Ghemie. Ein populdr-wissen- 
schaftlicher Vortrag. 8vo. Braunschweig, 18G7. 

Gerding, Tu. Geschichte der Ghemie. 8vo. Leipzig, 1867. 

A rather hasty though compendious histoiy, including notices of living 
chemists and modern researches. 

WuRTZ, Adolphe. Histoire des Doctrines Ghimiques depuis Lavoisier 
jusqu' a nos jours. 12mo. Paris, 1869. 
Valuable; well known for its much criticised opening sentence: "La 
Chimie est une Science Fran^aise." 

Ladenburg, a. Vortrage uber die Entwickelungs-geschichte der Ghemie in 
den letzten 100 Jahren. 8vo. Braunschweig, 18G9. 

Kopp, Hermann. Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Ghemie. 8vo. Braun- 
schweig, 1869.- 

Blomstrand, C. W. Die Ghemie der Jetztzeit vom Standpunkte der electro- 
chemischen Auffassung und aus Berzelius' Lehre entwickelt. 8vo. Hei- 
delberg, 1869. 

Chevreul, E. Histoire des pi'incipales opinions que Von a cues de la na- 
ture chimique des corps, de Vespece chimique et de I'espece vivante. Atlas 
4to. Paris, 1869. 

Kopp, Hermann. Die Entwickelung der Ghemie in der neueren Zeit. 8vo. 
Miinchen, 1871-73. [In progress.] 

Hoefer, Ferdinand. Histoire de la Physique et de la Ghimie depuis les 
temps les plus recules jusqu' a nos jours. 12mo. Paris, 1872. 



Description of a neio Sjpecies of Helix, etc. 361 

The latter portion i-elating to chemistry is mainly a condensation of 
Hoefer's larger work noticed above. 

RupiiECHT, Rudolph. Bibliotheca Chemica et Pharmaceutica. Alphabet- 
isches Verzeichniss der mif dem Gebiete der reinen, pliarmaceutisclien 
physiologisclien und technischen Cliemie in den Jahren, 1858, bis Ende 
1870, in Deutschland und im Auslande erschienenen Schriften. 8vo. 
GQttiugeu, 1872. 

A continuation of Zuchold's Bibliotheca Chemica, similarly arranged 
but evidently collated with less care and completeness. 

RoDWELL, G. F. The Birth of Chemistry ; in "Nature," Vols. VI and VII. 
1872-73. 

A popular essay full of research, especially rich in the knowledge of 
the Egyptians. It embraces only the period prior to 1680. 



XXXII. — Description of a new Species of Helix, and Note 
on H. Mobiliana, Lea. 

By THOMAS BLAND. 
Read Jan. 5, 1874. 

Helix '^Vetlaei'byi, no v. sp. {Mesodon). 

T. obtecte-perforata, orbiculato-depressa, tenuis, granulato-striata, pal- 
lide cornea; epidermide fusca, pilis prostratis, obliquis obsita, induta; 
epira breviter conoidea, sutura impressa, apice obtusiusculo ; anfr. 5, con- 
vexiusculi, lente accrescentes, ultimus antice subito deflexus, gibbosulus, 
constrictus, subtus convexus, ad peripheriam subangulatus ; apertura 
obliqua, rotundato-lunari, dente albo, erecto, obliquo, linguseformi, parie- 
tali munita; perist. labiatum, augulatim reflexura, margine supero ad 
insertiouem expanse, columellari dilatato, adnato. 

Shell with umbilicus covered, orbicular-depressed, thin, 
graiiulately striate, pale horn-colored ; epidermis dark, 
covered with oblique, prostrate hairs ; spire somewhat co- 
noidal, suture impressed, apex obtuse ; whorls five,- slightly 
convex, gradually increasing, the last suddenly deflected, 
rather gibbous, constricted, beneath convex, subangulate at 
the periphery ; aperture oblique, roundly lunate, with a 



362 Description of a new Species of Helix, 

white, erect, oblique, tongue-shaped parietal tooth ; peris- 
tome thickened, angularly reflected, the upper margin ex- 
panded, the columella margin dilated, covering the um- 
bilical perforation. Diam ; maj. 17, min. 15 mill.; Alt. 
8 mill. 

Habitat. At the base of sandstone cliffs, mouth of Laurel 
River, Whitley Co., Kentucky. A. G. Wetherby. 

liemarhs. — This species belongs to the same group (Me- 
sodon) as //. dentifera, Binn., and H. lioemeri, Pf., but is of 
smaller size, somewhat more elevated, and readily distin- 
guished from them by the sculpture and epidermis. It dif- 
fers from H. divesta, Gould, in having a parietal tooth, and, 
although in general appearance like a small form of H. aj)- 
pressa, Say, is without the lamina on the basal margin of 
the peristome. 

Five specimens were collected by Mr. Wetherby, to whom 
I dedicate the species. I am under obligation to him for 
examples of this and many others, some of them rare species. 

I am indebted to my friend W. G. Binuey for the follow- 
ing paVticulars of the dentition of H, Wetherbyi. 

Jaw as usual in Mesodon, low, wide, arcuate, ends but little attenuated, 
bluut, with about eighteen decided 'ribs, denticulating either margin. 
Lingual membrane long and narrow; teeth as usual in the subgenus (see 
L. and F. W. Shells N. A., I, tigs. 232, 242). Centrals with a long 
bluntly-pointed middle cusp, and obsolete side cusps ; laterals like cen- 
trals, but with no inner cusps. Marginals low, wide, quadrate, with 
one very long, oblique, blunt, inner denticle, and one outer, short, blunt 
denticle. 

Helix Eclvar«lsi, Bland (^Stenotrema). 
This pretty species, hitherto solely known from Virginia, 
where it was discovered in 1857, by Mr. W. H. Edwards, and 
not found since, was collected by Mr. Wetherby, in Laurel 
and Whitley counties, Kentucky. 

laeSix ]5f©l>Bliaiia, Lea {Mesodon). 
Li "Remarks on North American Helicidffi" (Ann. Lye. 
N. y., VI, 341, 1858), concurrii]g in a suggestion of Dr. 



Description of a neiu Species of Helix, etc. 363 

Pfeiffer, I placed this species in the synonymy of H. jejuna, 
Say, having before me adult specimens from Georgia, and 
others, immature, from Florida. W. G. Biuney (Terr. 
Moll., lY, 67, 1859), Tryon (Amer. Jour. Conch., II, 308^ 
1866), and Binney and Bland (Land and Fresh-water Shells, 
Part I, 151, 1869) adopted this view. Having since the 
latter date acquired specimens from Baldwin, Florida, col- 
lected by Col. Jewett and the late Dr. Hubbard, also from 
Mobile, by Mr. Mohr, I am satisfied that two species have 
been confounded,- that H. Mobiliana, Lea, is distinct from 
the small species, known especially from the vicinity of 
Savannah, Ga., now recognized as H. jejuna. 

The figures in Terr. Moll., pi. xlii, f. 2, of Tryon {I.e.), 
pi. V, f. 3, and Land and Fresh-water Shells, fig. 258, are 
of H. jejuna and do not represent Lea's species. 

In H. MoUliana there are six whorls ; the last whorl is re- 
markably constricted and gibbous at the aperture, more 
tumid at the base and with smaller umbilicus than in jejuna. 
The microscopic spiral lines on the eminyonic whorls of the 
latter are absent in the former. The peristome at its junc- 
tion with the penultimate whorl is sharp, not reflected nor 
thickened, but elsewhere reflected, thickened by a whitish 
callus within, the edge of which forms a distinct portion of 
the peristome, and has an obsolete tooth-like development 
near the columella. The aperture. is more lunate than in 
jejuna. 

H Mobiliana may be compared, so far as regards the 
tumid base, small umbilicus, constricted aperture and gib- 
bous character of the superior part of the last whorl behind 
the aperture, with a Texan form in my cabinet of H. Bev- 
landieriana. 

The measurements of my largest specimen (six whorls) of 
H. Mobiliana, from Baldwin, are as follows : Diam • mai 
10, min. 7 mill. ; alt. 6 mill. ' 

Jaxuarv, 1874. 2t 

Axxv. Ltg. Nat. Hist., N. Y., Vol. x. 



364 Catalogue of the Birds 

XXXIII. — Catalogue of the Birds ascertained to occur in 

Illinois. 

Bv ROBEllT RIDGWAY. 
Read Jan. 2, 1874. 

The following catalogue of the birds of Illinois embraces 
only species which have been actually observed by the author 
within the limits of the state, and those otherwise included 
by reason of reliable authority for their capture, in which 
case the fact and reference are noted. 

Though sixty-five species not previously accredited to the 
avi-fauna of the state, in any published catalogue or notice, 
are given here, the lists by Mr. Robert Keunicott, Mr. Henry 
Pratten and Dr. R. B. Holder, published in various numbers 
of the "Transactions of the Illinois State Agricultural So- 
ciety," furnish a few which I could not give on my own 
responsibility ; while for the privilege of including several 
species of water-fowl found about the southern end of Lake 
Michigan, I am indebted to Dr. J. W. Velie, of the Chicago 
Academy of Sciences, who has kindly furnished me much 
information concerning the birds of the northern portion. 

The various local and general lists of the birds of Illinois, 
which have from time to time been published, are severally 
noticed and criticised at the close of this work, in an ap- 
pendix specially devoted to a review of the bibliography of 
the ornithology of the state. 

The range within the state's limits, of each species, is 
indicated approximately, or according to our present knowl- 
edge of their habitat. When no particular section is men- 
tioned, it is to be understood that the distribution is general ; 
and if any doubt exists as to the limitation of the range, or 
the question of the breeding, of any species, care is taken to 
call particular attention to it. 

The asterisk before the number indicates that the species 
breeds within the state. 



ascertained to occur in Illinois. 365 

Order PASSER ES. 

{Oscines.) 

Family TURDIDJE. The Thrushes. 

Subfamily Turdin^. The true Thrushes. 

Genus Turdus, Linnaeus. 

Subgenus Hylodclila, Baird. 

*1. T. mvstelinus Gm el. "Wood Thrush; "Bell Bird." Summer 
sojourner; abundant. 

* 2. T. fuscescens S t e p h . Tawny Thrush ; Wilson's Thrush. Tran- 
sient in the southern portion; summer sojourner in the northern part. 

3. T. AHcice Bair 6 . Gray-cheeked Thrush. Transient. 

4. T. Swai7isoni C ah Sin. Olive-backed Thrush ; Swainson's Thrush. 
Transient, but possibly breeding in the northern part. 

5. T. Pallasii C a b a n . Hermit Thrush ; Rufous-tailed Thrush. Tran- 
sient, but in mild seasons a winter sojourner south of latitude 39°. May 
possibly breed in the northern portion. 

Subgenus Planesticus, Bonaparte. 

* 6. T. migratorius Linn. Robin Thrush. Common Robin. Resi- 
dent. 

Subfamily Miming. The Mocking Thrushes. 

Genus Galeoscoptes, Cabanis. 

*7. G. Carolinensis (Linn.). Cat Bird. Summer sojourner; some- 
times wintering south of latitude 39°. 

Genus Mimus, Boie. 

.*8. 31. polyglottus (L.). Mocking Bird. "Southern Mocking Bird." 
Whole state, but common only in the southern and central portions. 
Summer sojourner, but occasionally wintering south of latitude 39°. 

Genus Harjjorhynchus, Cabanis. 

9. H. rufus (Linn.). Brown Thrasher. "Sandy Mocking Bird." 
Summer sojourner, but sometimes resident south of latitude 39°. 

Family SAXICOLID^. The Saxicolas. 
Genus Sialia, Swainson. 

10. S. sialis (Jj inn.'). Blue Bird. Resident. 



366 Catalogue of the Birds 

Family SYLVIID^. The true Warblers. 

Subfamily REouLiNiE. The Kinglets. 

Genus Regulus, Cuvier. 

11. B. calendula (Liun.). Ruby-crowned Kinglet. Transient, but 
sometimes wintering in the southern portion. 

12. B. satrajM Jjicht. Golden-crowned Kinglet. Winter sojourner 
in the southern portion and transient in the northern part. 

Subfamily Polioptilin^. The Gnatcatchers. 
Genus Poliojotila, Sclater. 
*13. P. cozrulea (Linn.). Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. Summer so- 
journer. 

Family PARIDiE. 

Subfamily Paring. The Chickadees or Titmice. 
Genus Lojohophanes, Kaup. 
*14. L. bicolor (Linu.). Tufted Titmouse. Resident; excessively 
abundant in the southern portion. 

Genus Parus, Linnaeus. 

* 15. P. atricapillns Liun. Northern Black-capped Chickadee. Nortli- 
ern portion ; resident. 

* 16. P. Carolinensis And. Carolina Chickadee ; Southern Chickadee. 
Southern half of the state, where resident, and replacing P. atricapillus. 

Subfamily Sitting. The Nuthatches. 
Genus Sitta^ Linnseus. 
*17. S. Carolinensis Lath. White-bellied Nuthatch; "Tom-tit." 
Resident. 

18. S. Canadensis Linn. Red-bellied Nuthatch. Winter sojourner. 

Family CERTHIID^. The Creepers. 
Genus Cerfhia, Linnoeus. 

* 19. C. familiaris Jj inn., Yur. Americana Bo nap . Brown Ci-eeper. 
Resident in the northern portion, and winter sojourner (possibly summer 
sojourner also) in southern part. 

Family TROGLODYTIDiE. The Wrens. 
Genus ThryotJiorus, Vieillot. 
Subgenus Thrijothorus. 
*20. T. Ludovicianus {'Latii.). Great Carolina Wren. Resident. Rare 
n the northern, but very abundant in southern and central portions. 



ascertained to occur in Illinois. 367 

Subgenus Thryomanes, Sclater. 

* 21. T. Bewickii (A u cl .)• Bewick's Wren ; Long-tailed House Wren. 
Resident, and verj^ abundant, in the southern and central portions of the 
state, where in many districts it entirely replaces Troglodytes cedon. 

Genus Troglodytes, Vieillot. 
Subgenus Troglodytes. 

* 22. T. cedon V i e i 1 1 . House Wren ; Short-tailed House Wren. 
Northern and central portions only? Very rare, or in some localities 
wanting altogether, in the southern portion. Resident? 

Subgenus AnortJiura, Rennie. 
23. T. parvnlns Koch, var. hyemnlis Vie ill. Winter Wren; 
" Bunty Wren." Winter sojourner. 

Genus CistotJiorus, Cabanis. 
Subgenus Cistothorus. 
*24. C. stellaris (Licht.). Short-billed Marsh Wren. ■ Summer so- 
journer. Resident in the southern portion? 

Subgenus Telmatodytes, Cabanis. 

*25. C. pahistris (W lis.). Long-billed Marsh Wren. Resident, at 
least in the southern portion. 

Family MOTACILLID^. 
Subfamil}^ Anthin^e. The Titlarks. 
Genus Anthus, Bechstein. 
26. A. Liidovicianus (_Gme\.). American Titlark. Winter sojourner. 

Family MNIOTILTID^. The American Warblers. 

Group MniotiltetE. The Creeping "Warblers. 

Genus Mniotilta, Vieillot. 

*27. 31. varia (T.\i\\i.). Black-and- White Creeper; Striped Creeper. 
Summer sojourner. 

Group Vermivorye. The Worm-eating Warblers. 

Genus Protonotaria, Baircl. 

*28. P. citrea (Bodd.)- Prothonotary Warbler; Golden Swamp 
Warbler. Abundant in the southern and central portions. Summer 
sojourner. 



368 Catalogue of the Birds 

Genus Helmitherus, Rafinesque. 
*29. H. vermivorus (Gm.). Worm-eating Warbler. Summer so- 
journer. 

Genus Helminthophaga, Cabanis. 

*30. H. chrysoptera (Linn.). Golden-winged Warbler. Summer so- 
journer in the northern and central parts, transient in the southern 
portion. 

*31. H. pinus (Linn.). Blue-winged Yellow Warbler. Summer 
sojourner; most abundant in southern portion. 

32. JI. mjicapilla (Wils.). Nashville Warbler. Summer sojourner 
in the northern portion? transient in other parts. 

33. H. celata (Say). Orange-crowned Warbler. Transient. 

34. II.peregrina(Wils.). Tennessee Warbler. Transient. 

Genus Parula, Bonaparte. 
*35. P. Americana (Linn.). Blue Yellow-backed Warbler. Summer 
sojourner. 

Group Dendroic^. The Wood "Warblers. 
Genus Dendroica., Gray. 
Subgenus Penssoglossa, Baird. 
36. D. tigrina (G m .) . Cape May Warbler. Transient. 

Subgenus Dendroica. 
*37. D. cestiva (Gmel.). Summer Yellow Bird; Orchard Warbler. 
Summer sojourner. 

38. D. coronata (Linn.). Yellow-rumped Warbler; " Myrtle Bird." 
Winter sojourner in southern and central portions ; transient in northern 
part? 

39. D. viaculosa (Gmel.). Black-and-Yellow Warbler. Transient. 

* 40. D. ccerulea (W i 1 s .). Cserulean Warbler. Summer sojourner. 
41. D. JBlackbur nice (Gmel.). Blackburnian Warbler. Transient. 

* 42. D. dominica, var. alhilora Baird. Western Yellow-throated 
Warbler. Summer sojourner north to 39°, or beyond. Occasional in 
the northern portion of the state? 

♦43. D. Pensylvanica (Linn.), Chestnut-sided Warbler. Summer 
sojourner; rare in the southern, but common in central and northern por- 
tions during the breeding season ; abundant everywhere in autumn. 

44. D. striata (Linn.). Blajk-poU Warbler. Transient. 

45. JD. castanea (W i 1 s .) . Bay-breasted Warbler. Transient. 

46. D. cccrulescens (¥ oYSt.). Black-throated Blue Warbler. Tran- 
sient. 

47. D. virens (G m .). Black-throated Green Warbler. Transient. 

* 48. D. pinus (W lis.). Creeping Pine Warbler. Summer sojourner ; 
entire state? 



ascertained to occur in Illinois. 369 

*i^. D. discolor (Vie ill.)- Prairie Warbler. Summer sojourner; 
entire state ? 

50. D. 2)almarrim (Gmel.). Red-poll "Warbler. Transient. 

Group Geothlype^. The Ground Warblers. 
Genus Seiurus, Swainson. 
Subgenus Seiurus. 
*51. S. aurocapillus (Linn.). Golden-crowned Thrush; "Oven 
Bird." Summer sojourner. 

*?52. S. Novehoracensis (Aud.). Small-billed Water Thrush, or 
" Water Wagtail." Transient ; sometimes winter sojourner south of lati- 
tude 39°. 

*53. 8. Ludovicianus (Grael.). Large-billed Water Thrush, or "Water 
Wagtail." Summer sojourner. Entire state, but most abundant south- 
ward. 

Subgenus Oporornis, Baird. 

*54. 8. forniostts (W ils.). Kentucky Warbler. Summer sojourner. 
Entire state ; very abundant north to 39°. 

55. 8. agilis (Wils.). Connecticut Warbler. Transient; most 
abundant in spring. 

*56. 8. Philadelphia (Wils.). Mourning Warbler. Summer so- 
journer. Breeding in extreme southern portion ? 

Subgenus Geothlypis, Cabanis. 

* 57. 8. trichas (Linn.). Maryland Yellow-throat. Summer sojourner. 

Group IcTERiiE. The Chat Warblers. 
Genus Icteria, Vieillot. 

* 58. I. virens (Linn.). Yellow-breasted Chat; "Yellow Mocking 
Bird." Summer sojourner. 

Group Setophag^. The Flycatching Warblers. 
Genus Myiodioctus, Audubon. 

* 69. 3f. mitratus (G m e 1 .). Hooded Warbler. Summer sojourner. 

60. M. pusillus (W i 1 s .). Black-capped Greeu-and-Yellow Warbler. 
Transient. 

61. 31. Canadensis (Linn.). Canada Flycatching Warbler. Tran- 
sient ; breeding in northern part of State ? 

Genus Setojjhaga, Swainson. 

*62. 8.ruticilla (Linn.). Red-start; Black-and-Red Flycatching War- 
bler. Summer sojourner. 



370 Catalogue of the Birds 

Family HIRUNDINID^. The Swallows. 
' Geuns Progne, Boie. 

*63. P. stibis (Linn.)- Purple Martin; "House Martin." Summer 
sojourner. 

Genus PetrocJielidon, Cabauis. 

*64. P. lunifro7is (Say). Cliff Swallow; Eave Swallow; "Mud Swal- 
low." Summer sojourner. 

Geuus Hirimdo, Linnaeus. 

* 65. H. horreorum B a r t r . Barn Swallow. Summer sojourner. 

Genus Tacliycineta., Cabanis. 

*66. T. bicolor {YiQiW.). White-bellied Swallow; "Tree Swallow." 
Summer sojourner. 

Genus Cotyle, Boie. 

*67. C. rijmria (Linn.). Bank Swallow; " Sand Martin." Summer 
sojourner. 

Genus SteJgidopteryx, Baird. 

*68. 8. serripennis (And.). Roujili-winged Bank Swallow; "Sand 
Martin." Summer sojourner. Entire state? Abundant south of 39.° 

Family VIREONID^. The Greenlets. 

Genus Vireo, Vieillot. 

Subgenus Vireosijlvia, Bonaparte. 

♦69. V. olivacetis (1,1 nn.). Red-eyed Vireo. Summer sojournei". 
70. V. PhiladeljMcus Cass. Philadelphia Vireo. Transient. 

* 71. V. gilvus (V i e i 1 1 .). Warbling Vireo. Summer sojourner. 

Subgenus Lanivireo, Baird. 

72. V. solitaria (Wils.). Blue-headed Vireo. Transient (summer 
sojourner northward?). 

*73. F. j^ayi/j'ons (V i e ill .). Yellow-throated Vireo. Summer so- 
journer. 

Subgenus Vireo. Vieillot. 

*74. V. Novehoracensis (Gmel.). White-eyed Vireo. Summer so- 
journer. 

*75. V. Bella Aud. Bell's Vireo. Summer sojourner. Southern 
and central prairie districts. 



ascertained to occur in Illinois. 371 



Family AMPELID^. 
Subfamily Ampelin.e. The Wax- wings. 
Genus Ampelis, Linnreus. 
76. A. garrnlus 'Linu. Northern Wax-wing. Winter visitant. Ex- 
treme northern part only? 

*77. A. cedrorum Vieill. Sonthern Wax-wing; "Cedar Bird;" 
" Cherry Bird." Resident (not breeding in southern portion?). 

Family LANIID^. The Shrikes. 
Genus CoUnrio, Vigors. 
*78. C. horealis (Vieill.). Great Northern Shrike. Resident in 
extreme northern portion ; winter visitant southwards. 

*79. G. Ludovicianus (Linn.), var. excubitoroides Swains. White- 
rumped Shrike; Western "Logger-head;" "Butcher Bird;" "Mocking 
Bird." Resident. 

Family TANAGRID^, The Tanagers. 
Genus Pyranga, Vieillot. 

* 80. P. rubra (Linn.). Scarlet Tanager ; "Black-winged Red Bird." 
Summer sojourner. 

*81. P. cestiva (Gmel.). Vermilion Tanager; "Summer Red Bird." 
Summer sojourner. Common in the northern portion and abundant south 
of 39°. 

Family FRINGILLID^. The Finches. 

Subfamily Coccothraustin^. The True Finches. 

Genus Coccothraustes. 

Subgenus Hesperiphona, Bonaparte. 

82. C. vespertinns (Coop.). Evening Grosbeak. Winter visitant. 
Extreme northern portion only? 

Genus Pinicola, Vieillot. 

83. P. enucleator (Linn.), var. Canadensis Briss. Pine Gros- 
beak. Winter visitant. Northern portion chiefly ; accidental south of 
39°. 

Genus Carpodacus, Kaup. 

84. C. purpureus (Gmel.). Purple Finch. Winter sojourner. 

Genus Chrysomitris, Boie. 

* 85. C. tristis (Linn.). American Goldfinch; Black-winged Yellow 
Bird ; Lettuce Bird. Resident. Entire state (migratory in northern por- 
tion?). 



372 Catalogue of the Birds 

86. C. pinus (W i 1 s .)• Pine Goldfinch ; Striped Goldfinch. Irregu- 
larly migratory ; chiefly transient and winter visitant. 

Genus ^giothus, Cabanis. 

87. ^. linarius (1j inn.). Lesser Red-poll. Winter visitant. Chiefly 
northern portion ; very rarely south to 39°. 

88. uE. canescens Gould, var. exilipes Coues. American Mealy 
Red-poll. Winter visitant. Extreme northern portion only (Mt. Carroll: 
Prof. Henry Shimer. Mus. Smiths. Inst.). 

Genus Loxia, Linnaeus. 

89. L. curvirostra Linn., var. Americana Wils. Red Cross-bill; 
Common Cross-bill. Winter resident northvrards, winter visitant south- 
wards. 

90. L. leucoptera Gmel. White-winged Cross-bill. Winter resident 
northwards, winter visitant southwards. 

Genus Plectroplianes., Meyer. 

91. P. nivalis (lu'inn.). White Snow Bird; Snow Bunting. Winter 
visitant. Northern and central portions only? Accidental south to 38° 
20'. 

92. P. Lapponicus (Linn.). Lapland Long-spur. Winter visitant. 

93. P. _pic(i(s S w a i n s . Painted Long-spur. Winter visitant. Entire 
state in the prairie districts. 

Genus Poocaetes, Baird. 

*94. P. gramineus (Gmel.). Bay-shouldered Bunting; Grass Bunt- 
ing. Summer sojourner; resident southward. 

Genus Passerculus, Bonaparte. 

*95. P. savanna (Wils.). Savanna Bunting. Summer sojourner ; 
resident southward. 

Genus Ammodromus, Swainson. 

Subgenus Coturniculus, Bonaparte. 

*96. A. passerinus (Wils.). Yello w- winged Bunting ; "Cricket Bird." 
Summer sojourner. 
*97. A. Henslowi (A u d .) . Henslow's Bunting. Summer sojourner. 

Genus CJiondestes, Swainson. 
*98. C. grammaca (S a, y) . Lark Bunting. Summer sojourner. 

Genus Zonotricliia, Swainson. 

99. Z. leucophrys (Forst.). White-crowned Bunting. Winter so- 
journer. 



ascertained to occur in Illinois. 373 

100. Z. alhicollis (Gmel.). White-throated Bunting. Winter so- 
journer. Entire state. 

Genus Ju7ico, "VVagler. 

101. J. hyemalis (Linn .). Black Snow Bird. Winter sojourner. 

Genus Spizella, Bonaparte. 

102. 8. monticola (fivfiel.). Tree Sparrow. Winter sojourner. 

* 103. S. pusilla (IV i\s .). Field Sparrow. Summer sojourner; resi- 
dent in the southern portion. 

* 104. S. pallida (Swains.). Clay-colored Sparrow. Summer so- 
journer? Prairies of the northern and central portions. 

* 105. S. socialis (yf i\& .). Chipping Sparrow ; "Chippy." Summer 
sojourner. 

Genus Melospiza, Baircl. 

106. M. melodia (W lis .). Song Sparrow. Winter sojourner. 

107. M. palustris (W lis .). Swamp Sparrow. Winter sojourner. 

108. M. Lincolnii (And.). Lincoln's Spari'ow. Winter sojourner 
in southern portion, transient northward. 

Genus Peucoea, Audubon. 

* 109. P. cestivalis (Licht.). Bachman's Sparrow. Summer so- 
journer. Wabash Valley, north to 38° 30'. 

Genus Passerella, Swainson. 

110. P. iliaca (M e r r .) . Fox-colored Sparrow. Winter sojourner 
southward, transient northward. 

Subfamily Spizin^. 
Genus Euspiza^ Bonaparte. 

* 111. E. Americana (Gmel.). Black-throated Bunting ; "DickCis- 
sel;" "Little Field Lark." Summer sojourner. 

Genus Hedymeles, Cabanis. 

* 112. H. Litdovicianus (Linn .). Rose-breasted Grosbeak. Summer 
sojourner in the northern part, transient in southern portion. 

Genus Guiraca, Swainson. 

* 113. G. ccBrulea (Linn.). Blue Grosbeak. Summer sojourner. 
North to 38° 30'. Rare. 

Genus Cyanospiza, Baird. 

*114. C. cyanea (Linn.). Indigo Bird; "Green Linnet." Summer 
sojourner. 



374 Catalogue of the Birds 

115, C. cms (Lin !!.)• Painted Bunting; Nonpareil. Summer visit- 
ant to soutliern portion. (One specimen near Mt. Carrael, June, 1871.) 

Genus CarcUnalis, Bonaparte. 

* 116. C. Virginianus (Briss.). Cardinal Grosbeak; Crested Eed 
Bird ; " Corn-cracker." Resident. Entire state, but rare in the nortliern 
portion. 

Genus Pipilo^ Vieillot. 

*117. P. erythrophthalmus (Linn.). Chewink; Cliaree; Ground 
Robin ; Swamp Robin, Resident. 

Family ALAUDID^. The Larks. 
Genus EremopJiila, Boie. 

* 118. E. alpestris (Linn .). " Snow Lark ;" Horned Lark. Resident, 
Entire state, but most abundant on the prairies, and merely winter resi- 
dent in the heavily wooded districts. 

Family ICTERIDiE. 
Subfamily Agelain^. 
Genus DoUcJionyx, Swainsou. 
*119. Z>. oryzivorits (Linn.). Bob-o-link; "Skunk Blackbird," etc. 
Transient in southern portion, summer sojourner in northern part. 

Genus Molothrus, Swainson. 

* 120. 31. pecoris (G m e 1 ,). Cow Blackbird ; " Clod-hopper." Resi- 
dent in southern portion ; summer sojourner uorthwai'd. 

Genus Xantliocephalus, Bonaparte. 

* 121. X.icterocephalus{Bona,\).). Yellow-headed Blackbird. Summer 
sojourner in northern portion, resident in southern districts (?). Prairies 
of entire state, but commonest northwards. 

Genus Agelams, Vieillot. 

*122, A. phoenicetis {Linn.). Red-winged Blackbird ; Swamp Black- 
bird, Resident in southern portion, summer sojourner northwards. 

Genus SturneUa, Vieillot. 

* 123. S. magna (Linn.). Meadow Lark; "EieldLark." Resident. 

* 124. S. neglecta And. Western Meadow Lark. Resident. Prairies 
only, chiefly along the western side of the state, but found as far east as 
Richland and Jasper counties. 



ascertained to occur in Illinois. 375 

Subfamily Icterin^. The Hang-nests. 
Genus Icterus. 

* 125. J. Baltimore (Linn.)- Baltimore Oriole; Fire-bird; Golden 
Robin; Haug-ncst; Hanging Bird, etc. Summer sojoui'uer. 

* 126. I. sjmrius (L in n.). Orchard Oriole. Summer sojourner. 

Subfamily QuiscALiNiE. The Crow Blackbirds. 
Genus Scolecopliagus^ Swainson. 

127. 8. fcrrugineus (Gmel.). Eusty Blackbird. Winter sojourner. 

128. -S. cyanocephahis (Wag I.). Brewer's Blackbird. Winter visit- 
ant. (Mt. Carmel, December, 1866.) 

Genus Quiscalus, Vieillot. 

* 12D. Q. vei'skolor, var. ceneiis Ridgway. Bronzed Crackle; West- 
ern Crow Blackbird. Resident in southern portion, summer sojourner in 
northern pai't. 

Family CORVID^. 

Subfamily CoRViNiE. The Ravens and Crows. 
Genus Corvus, Linnreus. 

* 130. C. corax Linn., var. caraivonts Bartr. Raven. Resident. 
Entire state (?), in wild, heavily timbered localities. 

* 131. C. Americanus A u d . Common Crow. Resident. 

Subfamily Garrulin.e. The Jays, 

Genus Pica, Cuvier. 

132. P. candata Linn., vai*. Jludsonica Sabine. Magpie. Win- 
ter visitant. Northern portion only. 

Genus Cyanura, Swainson. 

* 133. C. ctHstata (liinn .). Blue Jay. Resident. 

{Clamato7-es.) 

Family TYRANNIDiE. The Tyrant Flycatchers. 

Subfamily Tyrannin.*:. 

Genus Tyratmus, Cuvier. 

* 134. T. Carolinensis (Linn.). King Bird; Bee Bird; Bee Martin. 
Summer sojourner. 

Genus 3Iyiarchus, Cabanis. 

* 135, 31. crinitus (Linn.). Great Crested Flycatcher. Summer so- 
journer. 



376 Catalogue of tJie Birds 

Genus Sayornis, Bonaparte. 

* 136. S. fuscus (Gmel.). Pewee; Phoebe Bird. Kesideut south of 
39° ; summer sojourner northwards. 

Genus Contopus^ Cabanis. 

137. C borealis Swains. Olive-sided Wood Pewee ; Great Wood 
Pewee. Transient in northern portion. Whole state? 

* 138. C. virens (Linn.). Wood Pewee. Summer sojourner. 

Genus Empidonax, Cabanis. 

* 139. E. pusilliis (Swains.), var. Traillii Aud. Traill's Fly- 
catcher. Summer sojourner. Whole state. 

140. E. minimus Baird. Least Flycatcher. Summer sojourner in 
northern portion? Transient southwards. 

* 141. E. acadicus (G m e 1.). Acadian Flycatcher. Summer sojourner. 
Entire state ? (Most abundant species in southern portion ) 

142. E. Jlaviventris Baird. Yellow-bellied Flycatcher. Transient. 

Order PICAEI^. 

(Cypseli.) 

Family ALCEDINID^. Tiie Kingfishers. 

Genus Ceryle, Boie. 

* 143. C. alcyon (Linn.). Belted Kingfisher. Resident in southern 
portion, summer sojourner in northern part. 

Family CAPRIMULGID^. The Goatsuckers. 

Subfamily Caprimulgin^. 

Genus Cajyrimxdgus, Linnaeus. 

* 144. C. vociferus W i 1 s . Whip-pooi'-will. Summer sojourner. 

* 145. C. CaroUnensis Gmel. Chuck-will's-widow. Summer so- 
journer north to 38° 20'. Rare? 

Genus Chordeiles, Swainson. 

*146. C. popetue (Vie ill.). Night Hawk; Bull Bat. Summer so- 
journer. 

Family CYPSELID^. The Swifts. 

Subfamily Ch^turin^. 

Genus Chcetura, Stephens. 

* 147. C. pelar/ica (Linn.). . Chimney Swallow ; Chimney Swift. Sum- 
mer sojourner. 



ascertained to occur in Illinois. ^11 

Family TROCHILID^. The Hummiug Birds. 
Subfamily Trocuilin^. 
Genus TrocJiilus, Liuuaeus. v 

* 148. T. colubris Linn. Kubj-throated Hummer. Summer so- 
journer. 

(Cuc^iU.) 

Family CUCULID^. The Cuckoos. 

Subfamily Coccygin^. 

Genus Coccygus, Vieillot. 

* 149. C. Americanus (Linn .). Yellow-billed Cuckoo ; "Rain Crow;" 
" Wood Pigeon." Summer sojourner. 

*150. C. erythrophthaJmus (Wils.), Black-billed Cuckoo; Red-eyed 
Cuckoo. Summer sojourner. 

(Pici.) 

Family PICID^. The Woodpeckers. 

Subfamily Picin^. 

Genus Campepliilus, Gray. 

*151. G. principalis (Jj inn.). Ivory-billed Woodpecker; "Big Log 
Cock." Resident. Ohio, lower Mississippi (?) and lower Wabash bot- 
toms only. 

Genus Picus, Linnaeus. 

*152. P. villosiis Linn. Hairy Woodpecker; "Big Sapsucker." 
Yay. villosus, Linn., resident. Var. Auduboni, summer sojourner (resi- 
dent?) in southern portion. 

* 153. P. piibescens L. Downy Woodpecker; "Little Sapsucker" 
" Guinea Woodpecker." Resident. 

Genus Picoides, Lacepede. 

154. P. arcticus (Swains.). Black-backed Three-toed Woodpecker. 
Winter visitant to northern portion. (Velie.). 

Genus Sphyropicus., Baird. 
*155. S. varius (Linn.). Yellow-bellied Woodpecker; Red-throated 
Woodpecker. Winter sojourner in southern portion ; resident in northern 
part? 

Genus Dryocopus Boie. 
Subgenus Hylotomns, Baird. 

* 156. D. pileatus (Linn.). Pileated Woodpecker; "Black Wood- 
cock;" "Log cock." Resident. 



378 Catalogue of the Birds 

Genus Melanerpes, Swainson. 
Subgenus Centurus, Swainson. 

* 157. M. Carolinus (Linn.). Red-bellied Woodpecker; "Checkered 
Woodpecker;" " Woodcliuck." litsident. 

Subgenus 31elanerpes. 

* 158. 31. erythrocephalus (Linn.). Red-Iieaded Woodpecker. Resi- 
dent. 

Genus Cohqjtes, Swainson. 

* 159. C. auratus (Linn.). Golden-winged Woodpecker; "Yellow 
Hammer;" Yellow-shafted Flicker; "Flicker;" "lligh-holder;" "Wake- 
up," etc. Resident. 

Order PSITTACI. The Parrots. 

family PSITTACIDiE. 

Genus Conurus, Kuhl. 

* ICO. C. Carolinensis (Briss.). Parakeet; Carolina Parrot. Resi- 
dent. Formerly abundant throughout the state, but now confined to the 
heavy forests of the bottoms of the southern rivers. 

Order RAPTORES. Birds of Prey. 

Family STRIGIDtE. The Owls. 

Subfamily Strigin^e. 

Genus Strix, Savigny. 

* 161. S. flammea Linn., var. pratincola B o n a p. Barn Owl. 

Subfamily Bubonin^. 
Genus Otus, Cuvier. 
Subgenus Otus. 
*162. 0. viilgaris (Flem.), var. Wilsonianus Bonap. Long-eared 
Owl; Lesser Horned Owl. Resident. 

Subgenus Brachyotns, Gould. 

* 1G3. 0. hrachyotus. Short-eared Owl. Resident. 

Genus Nj/ctale, Brehm, 

*164. iV. acadica (Gmel.). Saw-whet Owl; White-fronted Owl; 
Kirtland's Owl. Winter visitant to southern portion ; resident in extreme 
northern portions? 



ascertained to occur in Illinois. 379 

Genus Syrnmm, Savigny. 
Subgenus Syrnium. 

m 

♦165. S. 7iebitlosum (F or St.). Barred Owl; " Hoot Owl." Eesident. 

Subgenus Scotiaptex, Swains. 
166. *S'. cinereum (Gin el.). Great Gray Owl. Winter visitant to 
extreme northern portions. 

Genus Scojys, Savigny. 
*167. S. asio (L.). "Screech Owl;" Little Red Owl; Mottled Owl. 
Eesident. ♦ 

Genus Bubo, Dum^ril. 

Subgenus Bubo. 

*168. £. Virginianus (Gme\.). Great Horned Owl; "Cat Owl." a. 
var. Virginianus G m e 1 . Resident, h. var. jxrcticus Swains. Win- 
ter visitant to northern portion (Peliin, Cambridge Musp:um). 

Subgenus Nyctea, Stephens. 

169. B. scandiaca (Jjinn.), var. arctica B artr. Snowy Owl. Win- 
ter visitant. Entire state. 

Genus Surnia, Dumeril. 

170. S. ulula (Li n n .), var. /iMc?so?«'a Gmel. Hawk Owl. Winter 
visitant to northern portion (Kennicott). 

Family FALCONIDiE. The Hawks. , 
Subfamily Falconing. The Falcons. 
(Falcones.) 
Genu-s Fcdco, Auctorum. 

171. F. communis Grael., var. anatum Bo nap. American Pere- 
grine Falcon; Duck Hawk. Resident? 

Subgenus Ilierofalco, Cuvier. 

172. F. lanarius Gmel., var. polyagrus Cass. Autumnal and winter 
visitant. (Rock Island, Sargent ; Mt. Carmel and Bridgeport, Ridgway.) 

Subgenus JEsalon, Kaup. 

* 173. F. cohimharius Linn. American Merlin ; Pigeon Havpk. 
Resident? 

Subgenus Tinnuncuhis, Vieillot. 

* 174. F. sparverius (Linn.). American Kestril; Sparrow Hawk. 
Resident. 

January, 1874. 26 Ann. Ltc. Nat. Hist., N. Y., Vol. x. 



380 Catalogue of the Birds 

Subfamily Buteonin^. The True Hawks, Eagles, Kites, etc. 

(^Pandiones.) , 

Genus Pandion, Savigny. 

* 175. P. Jialicetus Linn., var. Carolinensis Gmel. Fish Hawk; 
American Osprey. Resident. 

{Pernes.) 

Genus Naiiclerus^ Vigors. 

*176. N. forficatus (JjiMM..). Swallow-tailed ttute; " Sualie Hawk;" 
"Fisli-tail Hawk," Summer sojourner. 

(Elani.) 
G6nus Elanus, Savigny. 

177. E.leucurus Vie ill. Black-shouldered Kite ; "White-tailed Kite. 
Summer visitant north to 38° 30'. (Mt. Carmel, July, 1865; Ridgway.) 

(Ictinice.) 
Genus Ictinia, Vieillot. 

* 178. 7. Mississippiensis (Wils.). Mississippi Kite; Blue Kite; 
"Square-tailed Kite." Summer sojourner. Abundant on prairies of 
southern and central portions. Whole state ? 

{Circi.) 
Genus Circus, Lacepede. 

*179. C. ajaneus (Linn.), var. Hudsoniiis Linn. Marsh Hawk; 
American Harrier. Resident. 

{Nisi.) 

Genus Nisus, Cuvier. 

Subgenus JSfisus. 

* 180. V. /?(sc«s (Gm el .). Sharp-shinned Hawk. Resident. 

*181. V. Coope/7 (Bon ap.). Cooper's Hawk ; "SwiftHawk;" "Quail 
Hawk." Resident. 

Subgenus Astur, Lacepede. 

182. V. palumharius Linn., var. atricapillus Wils. American Gos- 
hawk. Winter visitant. Whole state ? 



ascertained to occur in Illinois. 381 

{Buteones.) 

Genus Buteo, Cuvier. 

Subgenus Asturina, Vieillot. 

183. B. nitida (Lath.), \a.r. plagiata Licht. Mexican Goshawk. 

Summer visitant to southern portion. (Fox prairie, Richland Co., August, 

1871, one specimen; Ridgway.) 

Subgenus Buteo, Cuvier. 
* 184. B. lineatus {Gm^l.). Red-shouldered Hawk. Resident. 
185. B. Pensylvanicus (Wils.). Broad-winged Hawk. Transient. 
Breeding in northern part? 

*186. B. borealis (Grael.). Red-tailed Hawk; " White-breasted Hen 
Hawk." Resident. 

Subgenus TarJnjtnorchis, Kaup. 

187. B. Sioainso7ii Boil a Y). Swainson's Hawk. Irregular visitant. 
Breeding in northern portion ? 

{Archibuteones.) 
Genus Archibuteo, Brebm. 

188. A. lagopus (Briinn.), var. sancti-johannis 'Penn . American 
Rough-legged Hawk ; Black Hawk. Winter sojourner. 

{Aquiloi.). 
Genus Aquila, Auctorum. 

189. A. chryscBtvs Linn., var. Canadensis Linn. American Golden 
Eagle ; Ring-tailed Eagle ; Mountain Eagle. Winter visitant. 

{Halideti.) 

Genus Haliaetus, Savigny. 

*190. H. leucocephalus (Briss.). Bald Eagle; Gray Eagle; Black 
Eagle. Resident. 

Family CATHARTID^. The American Vultures. 

Genus Rliinogryphus, Ridgway.* • 

*191. B. aura (Linn.). Turkey Buzzard. 'Resident north to 39°; 
summer sojourner in northern portions. 

Genus Catharista, Vieillot. 

192. C. atrata (Bartr.). Carrion Crow; Black Vulture. Summer 
visitant to southern portion. 



f Type Vulture aura Linn. Includes also Cathartes burrovianus Cassin. 



382 Catalogue of the Birds 

Order COLUMB^. 

Family COLUMBID^. The Pigeons or Doves. 

Genus Ectopistes, Swainson. 

* 193. E. migrator ia (Linn.). Wild Pigeon ; Passenger Pigeon. Kesi- 
dent southward, summer sojourner uortliward. 

Genus Zenaidura, Bonaparte. 

* 194. Z. Carolineiisis (Linn.). Turtle Dove; Mourning Dove. Resi- 
# dent nortli to 39° . Summer sojourner northwards. 

Order GALLING. 

Family PHASIANID^. The Pheasants. 

Subfamily Meleagrin^. The Turkeys. 

Genus Meleagris, Linnaeus. 

* 195. M. gallopavo Linn., var. sylvestris Bartr. Wild Turkey. 
Resident. 

Family TETRAONID^. The Grouse. 

Genus Bonasa, Stephens. 

* 196. B. umhellus (Linn.). Ruffed Grouse; Drumming Grouse. 
" Pheasant." Resident. Entire state. 

Genus Cupidonia, Reichenbach. 

* 197. C. cupido (Linn .). Pinnated Grouse ; " Prairie Chicken." Resi- 
dent. 

Genus Pediocaetes, Baird. 

* 198. P. phasianellus (Linn.), var. Columbianus Ord. Sharp-tailed 
Grouse. Resident? Northern prairies only. 

* Genus Lagopus, Vieillot. 

199. L. albns (Gra.). White Ptarmigan; Willow Grouse. Winter 
visitant to extreme northern portion (Cook Co., Kennicott). 

Family PERDICID^. The Quails and Partridges. 
Subfamily Ortygin^. The American Quails. 

*200. 0. Virginianus (Linn.). Virginia Quail, or Partridge; Bob- 
white. Resident. 



ascertained to occur in Illinois. 383 

Order LIMICOL^. 

Family CHARADRID^. The Plovers. 

Genus Charadrms, Linn fens. 

Subgenus Charadrins. 

201. G. pluvialis (L.), var. Virginicus Borck. Golden Plover. 

Subgenus Sqnatarola, Cuvier. 

202. C. helveticus (Linn.). Black-bellied Plover. Transient. 

» Genus .^giaUtis, Boie. 

Subgenus Oxyechus, Reichenbach. 
*203. JE. vociferus (Linn.). Kill-deer Plover. Resident — at least 
in southern portion. 

Subgenus ^gialitis. 

204. ^. hiatacula (L.), var. semipalmatus Bonap. Ring-necked 
Plover; Seraipalmated Plover. Transient. 

205. .^. melodiis (Or 6.). Piping Plover. Transient. 

Family H^MATOPODID^. The Oyster-catchers. 
Genus Strepsilas, Illiger. 

206. S.interpres (Jjinn.). Turn-stone. Shore of Lake Michigan. 

Family SCOLOPACID^. The Snipes. 
i^Scolopaci.) 
Genus Philohela, Gray. 
*207. P. minor (G me\ .). American Wood-cock. Resident. 

Geniis Gallinago, Leach. 

* 208. G. gallinaria (G m el.), var. Wilsonii T e m m . Common Snipe ; 
Gutter Snipe ; English Snipe. Resident in northern portions ; winter 
resident southward. 

Genus MacrorJiampJius, Leach. 

209. M. griseus (Gme\.). Red-breasted Snipe ; Gray Snipe. Tran- 
sient. 

( Tringm.) 
Genus Jficropalama, Baird. 

210. M. himantop^is Bonap. Stilt Sandpiper. Transient. 



384 Catalogue of the Birds 

Genus Ereunetes, Illiger. 

211. E. pusilla 'Liuji . Semipalmatecl Sandpiper. Trausient. 

Genus Tringa, Linnaeus. 
Subgenus Actoclromus, Kaup. 

212. T. Bonapartei S c h 1 e g . Bonaparte's Sandpiper. Transient. 

213. T. maculata V i, e i 1 1 . Trausient. 

214. T. Bairdii C o u e s . Baird's Sandpiper. Transient. 

*215. T. minutilla Vieill. Least Sandpiper. Summer sojourner. 
Found in spring, summer and autumn, about the prairie ponds throughout 
the state. 

Subgenus Pelidna, Cuvier. 

216. 1\ alpina,\siv. Americana CSiSS. Red-backed Sandpiper. Tran- 
sient. 

Subgenus ArquateUa, Baird. 

217. T. maritima (Briinn.). Purple Sandpiper. Shore of Lake 
Michigan. 

Subgenus Tringa. 

218. T. camita {Ijiun .'). Robin Snipe. Shore of Lake Michigan. 

Genus Calidris, Cuvier. 

219. C. arenaria Linn. Sanderling. Trausient. 

{Totanece.) 
Genus Sympliemia^ Rafinesque. 
* 220. S. semipalmata G m e 1 . Willet. Summer sojourner. 

Genus Totanus, Bechsteiu. 
Subgenus Bhyacophilus, Kaup. 

221. T. melanoleucns G m e 1 . Tell-tale ; Big Yellow-legs. Transient. 

222. T. Jlavipes G m e 1 . Yellow-legs. Transient. 

*223. T. chloropus (Linn.), var. solitarins Wils. Solitary Sand- 
piper; "Wood Sandpiper; Peet-weet; Tilt-up. Summer sojourner. 

Genus TriJigoides, Bonaparte. 

*224. T. hypoleucus {Linn.), vnr. macrdarius Ijinn. Spotted Sand- 
piper; "Sand Lark;" " Sand Peet-weet. 

Genus Actiturus, Bonaparte. 

*225. A. Bartramius (Wils.). Prairie "Plover;" Field "Plover;" 
Upland "Plover." Summer sojourner. 



ascertained to occui' in Illinois. 385 

Genus Tryngites, Cabanis. 

226. T. rufescens (Vie ill.)- Bufl-breastecl Sandpiper? Transient. 

(Limosce.) 
Genus Limosa, Brisson. 

227. L.'fedoa (1.1 nn.). Marbled Godwlt. Transient. 

228. L. Hudsonica (L nth.). Hudsonian Godwit ; Bay-breasted God- 
wit. Transient. 

{Numeneoe,.) 

Genus Numenius, Linnaeus. 

*229. N. longirostris ^ il s . Long billed Curlew. Resident, but dis- 
appearing in severe weather ; perhaps not breeding in southern portion. 

230. N. Hudsonicus Lath. Hudsonian Curlew. Transient. 

231. N. borealis {'F ov St.). Eskimo Curlew. Transient. 

Family PHALAROPODID^. The Phalaropes. 

Genus Lohipes, Cuvier. 

Subgenus LoMpes. 

232. L. hyperhoreus {Ijinxi.). Northern Phalarope. 

Subgenus Steganopxis, Vieillot. 
* 233. L. Wilsonii Sab. Wilson's Phalarope. 

Genus Phalaropus, Brisson. 

234. P. fidicarius (1,1 nn.). Eed-bellied Phalarope. 

Family RECURVIROSTRIDiE. The Avoeets and Stilts. 
Genus Recurvirostra, Linnaeus. 

235. B. Americana G ni e 1 . Avocet; Scooper. 

Genus Himantopiis, Brisson. 

236. H. nigricollis V i e i 1 1 . Stilt. 

Order HERODIONES. 

Family CICONIID^. The Storks. 

Genus Tantalus, Linnaeus. 

237. T. locnlator Hi\u . Wood Ibis. Summer visitant, frequenting 
chiefly the lagoons of the bottom lands, in the southern portions. 



386 Catalogue of the Birds 

Family IBIDID^E. 

Subfamily IbidinvE. The Ibises. 

Genus Ihis, Moehring. 

Subgenus Falcinellus, Bechstein. 

238. I. falci7iellus (Liun.). Glossy Ibis ;" Black Curlew." 

Family ARDEID^. The Herons. 

{A7'dece.) 

Genus Ardea., Linnaeus. 

♦239. A. herodias li i n n . Great Blue Heron ; Blue "Crane." Sum- 
mer sojourner. 

Genus Herodias, Boie. 

* 240. H. alba (Linn .), var. egretta (G m e 1 .). White Heron ; Ameri- 
can Egret ; White " Crane." Summer sojourner in the southern portions ; 
autumnal visitant to northern part of the state. 

Genus Garzetta, Kaup. 
Subgenus Garzetta. 
*241. G. candidissima (J acq.). Snowy Heron; Little White Heron. 
Summer sojourner. 

Subgenus Florida, Baird. 
242. G. ccerulea (Linn.). Little Blue Heron. Summer visitant to 
southern portions. 

Genus Butorides, Blasius. 

*243. B. virescens (Linn.). Green Heron; " Fly-up-the-creek ;" 
" Schytepoke." Summer sojourner. 

Genus Nyctiardea, Swainson. 

* 244. N. grisea (Linn.), var. ( ?) " gardeni G m e 1 ." Black-crowned 
Night Heron; " Qua Bird." Summer sojourner. 

Genus JSJ'y ether odias, Reichenbach. 
245. N. violaceus (L i n u .) . Yellow-crowned Night Heron. Summer 
visitant to extreme southern portions. 

(Botaurece.) 
Genus Ardetta, Gray. 

* 246. A. exilis (G m e 1 .). Least Bitteru. Summer sojourner. 



ascertained to occur in Illinois. 387 

Genus Botaurus, Stephens. 

*247. B. lentiginosvs Ste\-)h. American Bitteru; Stake-driver. Eesi- 
deut in soutlieru portions, summer sojourner northward. ^ 

Older ALECTOEIDES. 

Family GRUID^. The Cranes. 

Genus Griis, Linnseus. 

*248. G. A7nericanus Linn. Whooping Crane ; White Crane. Sum- 
mer sojourner. 

* 249. G. Canadensis Linn. Sand-hill Grane; Brown Crane. Eesi- 
dent southward. 

Family EALLID^. 

Subfamily Eallin^e. The Rails. 

Genus Jicdhis, Bechstein. 

*250. B. elegans And. Red-breasted Eail ; Marsh Hen. Summer 
sojourner; sometimes resident in southern portions. 

*251. B. Virginiamis'L inn. Virginia Kail ; Little Red-breasted Eail. 
Resident, except in northern portions. 

Genus Porzana, Vieillot. 

* 252. P. Carolina V i e i 1 1 . Common Eail ; Sora. Eesident in south- 
ern portions, and summer sojourner northward. 

*253. P. Noveboracensis (Gmel.). Little Yellow Eail. Eesident? 
Breeds throughout the state. 

*254. P. Jamaicensis (Gmei .). Little Black Eail. Summer sojourner 
in southern portions. 

Subfamily Gallinulin.e. The Gallinules. 

Genus GaUinula, Brisson. 

Subgenus Gallinula. 

* 255. G. chloropus (L i n n .), var. galeata L i c h t . Florida Gallinule j 
"Eed-billed Mud Hen." Summer sojourner. 

Subgenus Porphyrio, Brisson. 
256. G. ma7-tinica (Linn.) Purple Gallinule; "Blue Peter." Summer 
visitant in southern portions (Wabash Valley). 

Subfamily Fulicin^. The Coots. 
Genus Fulica, Linnseus. 

*257. F. Americana Gmel. Coot; " White-billed Mud Hen." Sum- 
mer sojourner. 



388 Catalogue of the Birds 

Order LAMELLIROSTEES. 

Family ANATIDJE. 

Subfamily Cygninje. The Swans. 

Genus Ci/gnus, Linnaeus. 

Subgenus Olor, Wagler. 

258. C. buccinator Jiich. Trumpeter Swan. Transient; sometimes 
winter resident. 

259. C. Amencanus S ii a r p 1 e s s . Common Swan. Transient ; some- 
times winter resident. 

Subfamily Anserine. The Geese. 

Genus Anser, Brisson. 

Subgenus Chen, Boie. 

260. A. hyperhoreus Pall. a. var. hyperhoreus Pall. Snow Goose. 
6. var. alhatiis Cass. "White Brant." Winter sojourner; the var. 
alhatus more common than the larger race. 

261. A. ccerulescens 'LSwM. White-headed Goose. Transient; some- 
times winter sojourner. 

Subgenus Anser, Brisson. 
26*2, A. alhifrons Bechst., var. Gambeli Hartl. White-fronted 
Goose. Transient; sometimes winter sojourner. 

Subgenus Branta, Scopoli. 

263. A. Canadensis {JjivLVL .). a. var. Canadensis l^inw. Big Wild 
Goose, b. var. Hutdiinsii'R ich.. Little Wild Goose. Transient; some- 
times winter sojourner. The var. Rutchinsii the more common form. 

264. A. bernicla Linn. Brant. Ti-ausieut; sometimes winter so- 
journer. 

Subfamily Anatin^e. The Ducks. 

Genus Anas, Linnaeus. 
Subgenus Anas. 
*2G5. A.boschas'L\\na. Mallard; "Green-head." Resident, but most 
numerous in spring and autumn. In the southern portion confined to the 
prairies in the breeding season. 

*26G. A. obscura Gme\. Dusky Duck. Eesident, but breeding very 
sparingly on the prairies, and wintering in the lagoons of the densely 

wooded bottoms. 

Subgenus Chaulelasmus, Gray. 

*267. A. streperus (Linn.). Gadwall; Gray Duck. Transient; 
perhaps breeding in the northern, and occasionally wintering in the south- 
ern, portion of the state. 



ascertained to occur in Illinois. 389 

Subgenus Mareca, Stephens. 

268. A. penelope (Linn .). European Widgeon. Accidental in the 
northern part (Chicago, D. G. Elliot, P. Z. S. — ) 

269. A. Americana (Gmel.). American tVidgeou; "Bald-pate." 
Transient, or winter sojourner southward. 

Subgenus Dafila, Leach. 

270. A. aaita (Jj'win.). Pin -tail ; Sprig- tail. Transient, or occasional 
winter sojourner in southern portion. 

Subgenus Nettion, Kaup. 
*271. A. Carolinensis (Gmel.). Green-winged Teal. Resident, but 
most abundant during migrations : breeds ouly in the prairie districts, 
and winters chiefly in the lagoons of the heavily timbered bottoms. 

Subgenus Qiierquedula, Stephens. 
*272. A. discors (Linn.). Blue-winged Teal. Resident. Breeds 
sparingly in the pi-airie districts, and winters in small numbers in the 
ponds of the bottoms. 

Subgenus Spatula, Boie. 
*273. A. clypeata {Ij'win.). Shoveller; Spoon-bill. Summer sojourner 
in the northern portions ; transient, or winter sojourner southward. 

Genus Aix, Boie. 

*274. A.sponsa (Linn.). Summer Duck; Wood Duck; Tree Duck. 
Summer sojourner in northern portion, and resident in southern part. 

Genus FuUgida, Stephens. 
Subgenus Fulix, Sundevall. 

275. F.marila (Linn.), a. var. man7« L i u n . Scaup; Broad-bill; 
Blue-bill. h. var. affinis F o r s t . ' Little Scaup, etc. Winter sojourner. 

276. F. collaris D o n o v . Ring-neck Scaup ; Ring-bill. Winter so- 
journer. 

Subgenus Atjthya, Boie. 

277. F. Americana 'E J t o n . Red-head ; American Pochard. Winter 
sojourner. 

278. F. vallisneria W i\ s . Canvas-back. Winter sojourner. 

Genus Bucephala, Baird. 

279. B. clauf/ula (Linn.), var. Americana Bo nap. Winter so- 
journer. 

280. B. alheola (Linn.). Butter-ball; Buffle-head; "Di Dipper." 
Winter sojourner. 



390 Catalogue of the Birds 

Genus Histrionicus, Lesson. 

281. H. torquatus (Linn.). Harlequin Duck. Winter visitant to 
Lake Michigan (Dr. Velie). 

Genus Harelda, Leach. 

282. H. fflacialis (Jj inn.). Long-tail; " Old Squaw." Winter visitant 
to Lake Michigan (Dr Velie). 

Genus Melanetta., Boie. 

283. 31. velvetina (Cass.). Velvet Duck. Winter visitant to Lake 
Michigan (Dr Velie). 

Genus (Edemia, Fleming. 

284. CE. nigra (Linn.), var. Ame7-icana Swains. Black Scoter. 
Winter visitant to Lake Michigan (Dr. Velie). 

Genus Erismatura, Bonaparte. 
*285. E.ruMda{Wi\s.). Ruddy Duck; Spine-tailed Duck. Eesident. 

Genus Mergus, Linnaeus. 
Subgenus Mergus. 

286. M. merganser Linn., var. Americanus Cass. Buff-breasted 
Sheldrake. Winter sojourner. 

287. M. serrator Jjinn. Red-breasted Sheldrake. Winter sojourner. 

Subgenus Lophodytes, Reichenbacli. 

* 288. M. cucullatus Linn. Hooded Sheldrake. Resident. 

Order S T E G A N O P O D E S . 
Family PELECANIDiE. The Pelicans. 
Genus Pelecanus, Linnaeus. 
289. P. erythrorhynchus Gm^l. American White Pelican. Transient. 

Family GRACULID^. The Cormorants. 
Genus Graculus, Linnaeus. 

* 290. G. dilophus Swains, a. var. dilophus Swains. Double- 
crested Cormorant, b. var. Floridamis A u d . Florida Cormorant. The 
var. dilophus winter sojourner; var. Flondanus summer visitant, proba- 
Jaly breeding. 



ascertained to occur in Illinois. 391 



Family PLOTEID^. The Aohingas. 

Genus Plotus, Linnaeits. 

291. P. an?dnga Tu i n n . Snake-bird ; Darter. Summer sojourner in 
extreme soutlieru portion; rare summer visitant uortli to 38° 30'. 

Order LONGIPENNES. 

Family LARID^. 

Subfamily Larin^e. The Gulls. 

Genus Larus, Linnaeus. 

Subgenus Larus. 

292. L. marinns li inn. Black-backed Gull. " Saddle Back." Win- 
ter visitant ou Lake Michigan (Dr. Velie). 

293. L. argentatus Briiuii., var. Smithsonianus Coues. Herring 
Gull. Winter sojoui-ner; occasional in summer? 

294. L. Delawarensis O r d . King-billed Gull. Winter sojourner. 

Subgenus Chroicocephahis, Eyton. 

295. G. Philadelphia (Ord). Bonaparte's Gull; Little Black-headed 
Gull. 

296. C. FranMinii {R\c\i.). Franklin's Rosy-breasted Gull. Winter 
visitant to northern portions. 

297. C. atricilla (Linn.) Laughing Gull. Summer visitant. 

Subfamily Sternin^. The Terns. 
Genus Sterna, Linnaius. 
Subgenus Thalassetis, Boie. 

298. S. caspia Pall., var. imperator Coues. Caspian Tern. Win- 
ter visitant to northern part. 

299. 8. rerjiaGr a, inh . Royal Tern ; Cayenne Tern. Summer visitant 
throughout the state. 

Subgenus Gelochelidon. 

300. S. anrjlica Mont. (var. " aranea W i 1 s ."). Marsh Tern. Sum- 
mer visitant to Lake Michigan. 

Subgenus Sterna, Linnaeus. 
*301. S. hirundo Linn. Common Tern; Wilson's Tern. Sum- 
mer sojoui'ner in northern portion. 
*302. S. For steri 'is nit. Forster's Tern. Summer sojourner. 
* 303. 8. antillarum (L e s s.). Summer sojourner. 



392 



Catalogue of the Birds 



Subgenus Ilijdrochdidon, Boie. 

*304:. S. Jissipes L i n u . Bhick Tern; Short-tailed Tern. Summer 
sojoui-ner. 

Older P Y G O r O D E S . 

F'amily COLYMBIDil^:. The Loons. 

Genus Colymbu^, Linnaeus. 

305. C. glacialis Linn., vur. torquatus Briinn. Great Northern 
D i ver ; Loon . W i n t e r soj ou r n e r . 

306. C. arcticus Linn. Black-throated Loon. Winter sojourner. 

307. C. septentrionalis h'wiQ. Red-throated Loon. Winter sojourner. 

Family PODICIPIDiE. The Grebes. 
Genus Podiceps^ Latham. 

308. P. (jriseigcna (B o d d .), var. hulbolli Rein h . Red-necked Grebe. 
Winter sojourner. 

*309. F. cristatus Linn. Crested Grebe. Resident in nortliern, and 
winter sojourner in southern, portion. 

310. P. ff?«n^i«s (G m e 1 .), var. CalifornicusJjawr. American Eared 
Grebe. Winter visitant. 

Genus Podilymhus, Lesson. 

*311. P. podlceps \ J inn. Tiiick-billed Grebe; Carolina Grebe. Resi- 
dent. 



The following is the ratio of the number of species of each family rep- 
resented in the avifauna of Illinois : — 



1. Mniotiltidne 3(i 

2. FriiiKillkUv ;!« 

3. AniituUe 34 

4. 8(;olop;ici(la3 25 

5. falcoiiidaj 20 

6. LarkUe 13 

7. IcteiidiB 11 

8. Strigidic 10 

9. Tiudid.T3 !t 

10. Tyraiinidic 

11. Picidrc !) 

12. Ardeidie •) 

13. Riillid;i! 8 

14. Vireonidre 7 

15. Troglodytidx (> 

IG. Iliriindihidiu- 

17. ParidiL" 5 

18. CliarjidridTO 5 

19. CorvidiB 4 

20. TetraonidiB 4 

21. Podicei)ida3 4 

22. Sylviidro 3 

23. Capi'iimilgidiB 3 

24. Phalanipochdic 3 

25. Colymbidte 3 



2(;. Laniidse 2 

27. Anipelidaj 2 

2H. Taiiagrida) 2 

2i). (JiicuIidaJ 2 

30. Cohinibidic 2 

31. (JathartidtB 2 

32. Kecuvvirostridie 2 

.■j3. Gniida3 2 

34. Ci(H)nida; 

35. Ibidida' 

3(). Saxic.olidic 

;i7. Cevlli i i<l as 

:!cS. Motacillidie 

3'.). Alaudida? 

40. A Irod ill id;c 

41. Cviisclida" 

42. 'ricM-|iilid;v! 

43. I'sillacida- 

44. .^Iflc,-iKri(ia> 

45. I'cidicida' 

4(i. ll:.uiMl<)|>.idida.> 

47. ( iraciilidn' 

48. I'dccuiiiiUv 

4U. Plotida) 



ascertained to occur in Illinois, 



393 



During the breeding season the ratio stands as follows : — 



1. Mnioliltidae 21 

2. Fiiugillida? Ki 

3. Faleouiiia; 11 

4. Icteridae i) 

5. Ficidaj '.) 

6. Anatidae 9 

7. Sli-igid03 7 

8. Scolopacidaj 7 

9. ArdeidiB 7 

10. Kallida' 7 

11. Tiudida! 

li. Ilh'undinida; G 

13. Tyianiiida; (i 

14. Troglodytidie 5 

15. Vireonidic 5 

16. Paridic 4 

17. Lai-ida- 4 

18. Coi-vidre 3 

1",). Capiiiiiiilgida' 3 

20. TetraoiiidM 3 

21. Laniida' 2 

22. Taiuigi-idic 2 

Total number of species known to breed within the limits of the State 
of Illinois, 17G. 

The species in the following lists are to be looked for, and many of them 
will no doubt be }'et found to occur within the limits of the state. 



23. Cuculida; 2 

24. Ciiliinibida3 2 

2o. GviiidiB 2 

2(i. Podicipidre 2 

27. Sylviida,' 1 

28. iSaxicolidffi 

■29. C e r t h i i d a* 

30. Ampclidii; 

31. Aland id K 

32. AJcediiiida' 

.33. Cypselidie 

34. Tio(diilidcC 

.35. Psittacida! 

3(>. Cathartidic 

37. Meleagiida' , .. . . 

38. Perdicida' 

39. Cliaradiiida> 

40. Phalaropodida? 

41. Ciconiidre 1(? 

42. GraculidaB 

43. Plotid;u 1 



a. Northern series. 

1. Turdiis nccviHS. (Iowa; Allp;n. East Pennsylvania; Tuknbull. 

Long Island; Lawrence. New Jersey; Cabot. East Massa- 
chusetts ; MaynaiJd. ) 

2. Perisoreus Canadensis. (South Wisconsin; Hoy. Michigan; Fox. 

East Pennsylvania ; Turnbull.^ 

3. Canace Canadensis. (Michigan; Fox.) 

4. Somateria spectahilis. (Iowa; Allen. North Ohio; Wheaton.) 

5. Larus leucopteriis. (North Ohio; Wiieaton.) 
G. Larus fjlaucus. (Michigan; Fox.) 

7. liissa tridactyla. (North Ohio; Wheaton.) 

8. Xetna Sahinei. ■ (North Ohio; Wiieaton. Salt Lake, Utah; Allen.) 

9. JL/drocheUdon leucoptera. (Lake Koskenoug, Wisconsin; Kumlein.) 

10. Sterna macroura. (North Ohio; Wheaton.) 

11. Sterna par adiscea. (N6rth Ohio ; Wheaton.) 4 

12. Nyctale Bichardsunii. (Iowa; Allen. South Wisconsin ; Hoy.) 

13. Anser Bossii. 

b. Western series. 

1. JSfeocoriis Spragnei, 

2. Plectrophanes ornatus, 

3. " Ilaccoivni, ^ To be sought for on the large prairies. 

4. Centrenyx Bairdii, 

5. Coturniculiis Lecontei. 

6. Zonotrichia quernla. (Common as far east as Lexington and Chilli- 

cothe, Missouri; Hoy. Iowa; Allen and Trippe.) 



394 Catalogue of the Birds of Illinois. » 

7. Calamospiza bicolor. (West Missouri ; Hoy.) 

8. Hedymeles melanocephalus. (Michigau; Fox.) 

9. Tyr annus verticalis. Iowa; Allkn. New Jersey; Turnbull.) 

10. Sayornis Sayus. (Michigan ; Fox.) 

11. Speotyto hypocjma. (Breeds as far east as Foi't Hays, Kansas; 

Allen.) 

12. Caprimulgus NuttMli. (Breeds in eastern Kansas ; Allen.) 

13. Falco Eichardsonii. (Kansas; Mus. Smiths. Inst. Michigan; Fox. 

" F. (zsalon") 

14. Archibuteo ferrugineus. 

15. ^gialitis montanus. (Kansas; Allen. Florida; Maynard.) 

16. Querquediila cyanoptera. (Florida; Maynard. Louisiana; PilatjS.) 

c. Southern series. 

35. Sitta inisilla. North Ohio ; Dr. Kirtland. Probably to be found 

among the pines — Pinus mitis — of south Illinois. 

36. Helinaia Swainsoni, ^To be looked for in swampy portions of 

37. Helminthophaga Badimani. ) tlie southern extremity of the state. 

38. Feuccea Cassinii. (Kansas, breeding; Allen.) 

39. Milvulus tyrannus. (Henderson, Kentucky, and Mississippi; Audu- 

bon. New Jersey; Audubon and Auct.) 

40. Milvulus forjicatus. (Abundant as far north as Indian Territory. 

Fort Leavenworth; Coues.) 

41. Perissoglossa earbonata. (Kentucky; Audubon.) 

42. Dendroica Kirtlandii. (N.Ohio; Dr. Kirtland. Bahamas; Cabot.) 

43. Buteo Harlani. (Louisiana; Audubon. Texas; Mus. Smiths. Inst. 

Lawrence, Kansas, Oct., 1871; specimen in Kansas University.) 

44. Ibis alba. (East Pennsylvania; Turnbull. Salt Lake, Utah; Allen.) 

45. Demiegretta Ludoviciana. (East Pennsylvania; Turnbull. South 

Platte ; Allien.) 

46. Dendrocygna fulva. Texas and Louisiana ; Dresser, Moore.) 

47. Frismatura dominica. (Wisconsin ; Kumlein. ^ Lake Champlain ; 

Cabot.) 

48. Graculus Mexicanus. (Lawrence, Kansas, April 2, 1872; Coll. Univ. 

Kansas. Ui^loubtedly to be found on the lower Wabash.) 



Descriptions of New American Birds. 395 

XXXIV. — Descriptions of Six supposed JSTeiv Species of 
American Birds. 

Bv GEORGE X. LAWRENCE. 

Read February 9, 1874, 

1. Chloi'osping'iis briiniieiis. 

The entire plumage is of a dark rusty-brown, brighter on tlie throat 
and neck in front, and deeper in color on the back, rump and upper tail 
coverts; the wing coverts have their margins just perceptibly brighter in 
color; quills brownish-black, their outer webs narrowly edged with the 
same color as that of the back; under wing coverts brownish-ash; tail 
purplish black; upper mandible blackish horn color, the under whitish ; 
tarsi and toes hazel-brown. Length (skin) 5i in. ; wing 2 11-16; tail 2| ; 
bill 7-16; tarsi 11-16. 

Habitat. — Cost.i Rica, Volcan cle Inizu. 

Bemarhs. — In its general dark brown plumage this 
• species is unlike any nieml)ers of the genus to which I have 
assigned it. 

Two species (sex not determined) ;ire in a collection of 
birds made in Costa liica, in the spring of 1873, by Mr. J. 
Zeledon, Zoologist under Prof. W. M. Gabli, Chief of the 
Talaraanca Costa Rica Exploring Expedition. 

This collection was forwarded to the National Museum at 
Washington, and has been placed in my hands for determina- 
tion . 

2. Clilorospingrus axillaris, 

Male. Upper part and sides of the head and the hind neck, olive-green, 
back and rump of the same color, washed with yellowish-fulvous, having 
a brighter appearance than the head; upper tail coverts glossy black; 
two middle tail feathers greenish-olive, the others brownish-olive, the 
outer webs of all broadly margined with fulvous of the same color as 
the back; wing coverts similar in color to the back, the larger ones 
broadly edged with clear pale fulvous; quills of a rather light brown, 
their outer margins of the same color as the back; under wing coverts 
and inner margins of quills white, axillars pale yellow; entire under 
plumage fulvous yellow, clearer in color on the abdomen and of a brighter 
fulvous on the flanks and under tail coverts; bill whitish horn color, 
brown at the base; tarsi and toes pale plumbeous. Length (skin) 5|- in. ; 
wing 2i ; tail 2h ; bill h ; tarsi |. 
MARCH, 1874. 27 . Lyc. NAT. HiST., Vol. x. 



396 Description of Six supposed 

Habitat. — Costa Rica, Volcan tie Irazii. Talamanca Ex- 
pedition. 

Remarks. — This specimen I judge to be immature, for 
besides the black upper tail coverts, there are a few scattered 
black spots on the front and two on one side of the neck, 
which would seem to indicate that it was undergoing a change 
of plumage. At one time I thought it was perhaps the 
young of the preceding species, but the tail coverts and 
spots above spoken of, being black in color instead of brown, 
do not favor such a supposition ; in C. axillaris the wings 
are shorter and the tail feathers narrower. 

Further collections will soon be received from the expedi- 
tion, when I hope to be enlightened by other examples. 

4. Hitiirreiuoii ati'iciti>illiis. 

Entire head above, cheeks and hind ncclv deep blacli; back, upper tail 
coverts, wing coverts and outer margins of quills, of a clear yellowish- . 
green; bend of wing bright yellow; quills and tail feathers brownish- 
black; throat, breast and abdomen pure white; sides cinereous tinged 
with yellowish-greein ; under tail coverts dark ashy-brown, some of the 
shorter feathers with white shaft stripes and edged with the same, the 
longer coverts washed with greenish ; bill black ; tarsi and toes bi'ownish- 
black. Length (skin) 7| in. ; wing 3| ; tail 3^ ; tarsi 1 ; bill from front 
11-16; high at base |. 

Habitat. — Thousfht to be from Bosrota, and from the make- 
up of the skin I think the supposition is correct. 

JRemarA's. — The species is of about the size, and somewhat 
resembles B. assimilis in coloring, but the upper plumage 
has more of a yellow shade, and the under plumage is more 
white, the ashy coloring not extending so much on the sides 
of the breast and abdomen ; the bill is higher and more 
arched than in any of its allies, and it is distinguished from 
all others of the genus, by its entirely black head and hind 
neck. 

4. Phoniiiara funiosa. 

The entire plumage is of a fuliginous-black, inclining more to black on 
the throat and breast ; the outer webs of the quill feathers edged narrowly 



Neio Species of American Birds. 397 

with gray; the shafts of the tail feathers underneath are whitish; bill 
black; tarsi and toes brown. Length (skin) 4i in.; wing 2g ; tail 1|; 
tarsi f . 

Habitat.— TYm\(\^([. Collected by Mr. A. H. Alexander. 

Remarks. — This species differs from its congeners by its 
general smoky coloring, all others of the genus are charac- 
terized by a greater or less extent of olivaceous in their 
plumage. 

Adult male. Lores and capistnim black, upper part and sides of the 
head, throat, entire plumage above, smaller wing coverts and rump, of a 
flue azure blue, more intense on the head and throat, paler on the back 
and rump; a white circle around the eye; chin grayish-white; breast and 
upper part of abdomen of a fine rose red, but largely bordered with blue, 
in a manner to make these parts appear as if mixed with red and blue ; 
lower part of abdomen and under tail coverts pale rose red, tinged with 
pale blue; tibia dnll blue; wings grayish-black, the larger coverts and 
the quills bordered outwardly with bluish ; the two middle tail feathers 
entirely blue above, the others of an ashy-blue on the inner webs and 
bluish exteriorly, there is a narrow border of whitish on the inner web 
of these same tail feathers; the tail underneath is of a pale ashy-blue; the 
shafts of the rectrlces are black above and white below ; iris browu ; 
upper mandible blackish, the under pale bluish; feet livid plumbeous. 

" Longueur tot. 14 centimetres ; aile 72 millimetres; queue 55 millim. ; 
bee (le long de culmen) 11 millim. ; tarse 15 millim." 

Habitat. — Mexico, Tehuantepec. 

Remarks. — I have named this species after the wife of ray 
friend Prof. F. Sumichrast, and think it but a fitting compli- 
ment that her name should be borne by so beautiful a bird. 

In Feb., 1872, Prof. Sumichrast sent me the description 
from which the above account is transcribed — writing that 
he thought it a new species, and would send the specimen on 
for my decision. Considering it to be new, I requested him 
to do so, but no opportunity offered until April of last year; 
it was then sent, and also examples of the female and young, 
afterwards obtained. They were enclosed in a box coming 
for the Smithsonian Institution ; unfortunately, up to this 
time (Feb., 1874) no tidings of the box has been received. 



398 Description of Six supposed 

Under the circumstances, I concluded not to delay its pub- 
lication any longer, as Prof. Sumichrast's description taken 
from the bird is very minute. 

At some future time I hope to receive specimens and give 
descriptions of the female and young, and on examination 
should the male differ from the description given, in any im- 
portant particular, to make it known. 

It seems quite unlike any of the allied species in the hand- 
some group to which it belongs. 

Prof. Sumichrast says, this pretty species equals, if it 
does not surpass, by the elegance of its plumage, its con- 
fjeners O. ciris and O. leclanchert. 

In a letter dated Nov., 1873, he writes, alluding to the 
specimens forwarded (wliich he supposed I must have re- 
ceived), that the species seemed very rare, as he had pro- 
cured no more examples. 

41. TlBi'iiSiidectes virgraticejjs. 

Front, crown, cheeks and hind neck blackish brown, the feathers of all 
these parts with broad shaft stripes, those of the crown and hind neck 
grayish-whitCj the others of a pale rufous ; upper part of the back dull, 
reddish-brown, the lower part of the back and rump deep bright cinna- 
mon; tail brownish cinnamon; wing coverts and outer webs of quills 
also cinnamon-brown, but of not so deep a color as the tail; the inner 
webs of the quill feathers are dark brown, with their inner margins 
broadly marked with pale cinnamon ; under wing coverts bright cin- 
namon; the feathers of the chin and upper part of the throat are red- 
dish fulvous, with brownish-black margins ; the under plumage is of a 
rather dull cinnamon red, brownish on the lower part of the neck; bill 
black, tarsi and toes dark brown. Length (skin) 8^ in. ; wing 4J ; tail 4 ; 
bill 1; tarsi 1 3-16. 

Habitat.^- Ecuador, Quito. 

Remarks. — This I consider to be a second species of Thri- 
padectes, T. flamynulaius (Eyton) having been the sole rep- 
resentative of the genus heretofore. It is about the size of 
that species, perhaps rather stouter in form, the bill very 
decidedly longer and larger ; the very distinct flammulations 



]^ew Species of American Birds. 399 

over the entire body of T. Jlammulatus will readily serve to 
distinguish them. 

Belonging to a family very difficult to investigate satisfac- 
torily, and having an opportunity last summer to send it to 
Mr. Sclater, I did so, asking his opinion; he wrote that it 
was unknown to him, hence I have no hesitation in describ- 
iusf it as new. 



INDEX. 



[The names of new species are printed in Roman letters; synonymes and species to 
whicli reference is made, are in Italics; names of sub-families, families, or higher 
divisions, in Small Capitals.] 



Acanthistius, 45. 
Acanthonyx Petiveri, 97. 
Acanthophrys, 96. 

ACANTHOPTEKI, 30, 31. 
ACANTHOPTERYGII, 30. 

Achatina, IGS. 

fasciata, 80. 
virginea, 80. 
Achatinella, 331, 832, 333, 334, 335, 337. 
bulimoides, 331, 333. 
fulgens, 332. 

Johnsonii, 332, 333, 335, 336, 
Hvida, 332, 335, 336, 337. 
lorata. 333. 
marmorata, 332. 
producta, 332, 333, 336, 337, 
ruhens, .'i33. 
splendida, 332. 
Tappaniana. 332. 
varia, 332, 335, 336, 337. 
vulpina, 332. 
Acheloiis acumiuatus, 112, 113. 
anceps, 113. 
Gibbesii, 111. 
panamensis, 112. 
transversus. 111. 
Acidops, 110. 

fimbriatiis, 111. 
ACIPENSERIDI, 30. 

Acrobasis rubrifasciella, 267. 
Actaea Dovii, 104. 
erosa, 104. 
setigera, 104. 
Actiturus, 384. 

Bartramius, 384. 
Actodromiis, 384. 
^gialitis, 383. 

hiatacula, 383. 
melodus, 383. 
montanus, 394. 
vociferus, 383. 
^giothus, 372. 

canescens, 372. 
linarius, 372. 
.^pyornis, 141. 
^salon, 379. 
AgelaiN^, 374. 
Agelaius, .374. 

phosnicius, 374. 
Aix, 389. 

sponsa, 389. 
Alaudid.^, 374, 392, 393. 
Alcadia, 316. 

hirsuta, 187. 
minima, 316. 
AlCEDINID^, 376, 392, 393. 
Alectorides, 387. 
Alphestes, 39, 45. 
A.mtto,. a, 334. 

decorticata, 332, 333. 
luctuosa, 332, 333, 337. 
Mastersi, 331, 332, 333, 337. 

February, 1874. 



Amastra nigrolabris, 332, 333. 
Ammodromus, 372. 

Sensloioi, 372. 
passerinus, 372. 
AJCPELIDJE, 371, 392, 393. 
AJIPELIN.E, 371. 
Ampelis, 371. 

cedrorum, 371. 
garrulus, 371. 
Amphibulima, 198, 199, 201, 202, 224, 343. 
felina, 204, 346. 
337. pardalina, 201, 202, 224. 

paiula, 201, 202, 204, 223, 224, 

225, 257, 344, 345. 
rubescens, 345. 
351. tigrina, 202. 

Amphidesma, 197. 
Amphioxidi, 30. 
Ampiiiphartngodonxes, 30. 
Anacanthini, 30. 
Anas, 388. 

acuta., 389. 
Americana, 389. 
boschas, 388. 
Carolinensis, 389. 
clyjieata, 389. 
discors, 389. 
obscura, 388. 
penelope, 389. 
streperus, 388. 
Anatid^, 388, 392, 393. 
Anatin^, 388. 
Anorthura, 367. 
Anserine, 388. 
Anser, 388. 

albifrons, 388. 
bernicla, 388. 
Canadensis, 388. 
ccerulescens, 388. 
hyperboreus, 388. 
Jtossii, 393. 
Anthias, 66, 68. 

Caballerote, 78. 
sacer, 68. 
Anthin^, 367. 
Anthus, 367. 

Ludovicianus, 367. 
Apex, 333. 334. 

pallida, 332, 333. 
Apodes, 30. 
Apogon, .32. 
Apoma, 24. 

Aptenodytes Pennantii, 147. 
Apteryx, 141. 
Aquila, 381. 

chrysoetus, 381. 
Archibiiteo, 381. 

ferrugineus, 394. 
lagopus, 381, 
Ardea, 386. 

cerulea, 148. 
herodias, 386. 

(401) 
27* Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist., Vol. x. 



402 



INDEX. 



ARDEiDiE, 386, 392, 393. 
Ardetta, 386. 

exilis, 386. 
Argis lar, 125. 
Argyrops, 173. 
Ariolimax, 163. 294,298, 299. 

Californicus, 298, 299, 300. 
Columbianus, 298, 300. 
niger, 298, 301, 310. 
Arion, 163, 294. 

1 Andersonii, 297. 
foUolaius, 297. 
ARIONID.E, 162, 164. 
Arquatella, 384. 
Ascidea intestinalis, 89. 

Manhattemis, 83. 

ASTACOIDEA, 123. 

Astur, 380. 

Ateleoc ephali, Poey, 30. 
Attila ciuuamomeus, 8. 
citreopygius, 9. 
sclatei-i, 9. 
Auriculella, 334. 

juctmda, 331, 332. 
solida, 332. 
solidissima, 331, 332. 
Aylopon, 68. 
Aythya, 389. 

Balieniceps rex, 142, 149. 
Balistidi, 30. 
Baltimorite, 327. 
Batissa, 191, 194, 195, 196. 
Berendtia, 25. 
Binneia, 163, 210, 224, 300. 
Biotite, 330. 
Blennidi, 30. 
Bodianus, 48. 

bodianus, 48. 
melanoleucus, 44. 
Bonasa, 382. 

umbellus, 382. 
BotauruB, 387. . 

lentigmosus, 387. 
Bothrodeiidrou, 275. 
Botys, 258, 267. 

abltitalis, 261. 
alpinalis, 261. 
Californicalis, 260. 
fodinalis, 257, 263. 
inquinitalis, 271. 
mustelinalis, 262. 
perrubralis, 264. 
profundalis, 261. 
semirubralis, 263. 
Bubolivalie, 261. 
unifascialia, 261. 
Brachyotus, 378. 
Brachyrhinus, 33, 34, 46. 

furcifer, 34. 
Brachyspira, 198, 202, 203, 224. 
Branta, 388. . 
Buari-emon atricapillus, 396, 
assimilis, 396. 
leucopterus, 139. 
pallidinuchus, 139. 
sordidus, 138. 
Bubo, 379. 

scandtaca, 379. 
Virginianus, 379. 
BUBONIN^, 378. 
Bucephala, 389. 

albeola, 389. 
clangula, 389. 
Bucholzite, 326. 
Bulimella, 332, 334. 



Bulimella tceniolata, 332. 
Buliminus, 349. 

montamis, 349. 
Bulimulus, 80, 100, 163, 166, 167,206,209, 222, 
225, 316, 317. 

alternatus, 80. 
aureolus, 80. 
aurisleporis, 80, 199, 206. 
Bahamensis, 82. 
dealbatus, 81. 
Jonasi, 80. 

laticinctus, 81, 82, 206. 
tnembranaceus , 80. 
pallidior, 80, 161. 
papyraceus, 80, 199, 206, 
sepulcralis, 317, 347. 
sufflatus, 80. 
Bulimus, 166. 

aulacostylus, 222. 
auris-sileni, 222. 
multifasciaius, 223. 
Viequensis, 22. 
Buteo, 381. 

horealiSj 381. 
Harlani, 394. 
lineatus, 381. 
Pensylvanicus, 381. 
Swainsoni, 381. 
BUTEONIN^, 380. 
Butorides, 386. 

firesceras, 386. 

CalaclyBta levinalis, 265. 

metalliferalis, 265. 
Calamospiza bicolor, 394. 
Calamus, 172, 173, 181. 

Bajonado, 174, 176. 
macrops. 176, 181. 
megacepJwius, 176, 178. 
microps, 182. 

orbitarius, 176, 179, 181, 182, 
penna, 177. 178. 
pennaiula, 179, 180. 
plumatella, 180, 181, 182. 
Calappa convexa, 114. 

Xantusiana, 114. 
Calcium, .325, 330. 
Calidris, 384. 

arenaria, 384. 
Callianassa grandimana, 122. 

major, 122. 
Callichinis, 122. 
Callinectes, 111. 
Callonia, 24. 

£Z;io«i, 24. 
Canace Canadensis, 393. 
Caucer Rumphii, 106. 
setiferus, 133. 
spinus, 126. 
Cancroidea, 103. 
Canthaiina, 171. 
Caprimulgid^, 376, 392, 393. 
Caprimulgin^, 376. 
Caprimulgus, 376. 

CaroUnensis, 376. 
NuttalU, 394. 
voci/e»'MS, 376. 
Caprodon, 71. 
Capsula, 197. 
Caracolus, 169, 221. 
Carangid^, 50. 
Cardinalis, 374. 

Virginianus, 374. 
Carelia, 334. 
Caridea, 123. 
Carpilius cincfimanus, 103. 



INDEX. 



403 



Carpodacus, 371. 

purpureus, 371. 
Casta, 24. 
Catharista, 381. 

atrata, 381. 
Cathartics, 381, 392, 39S. 
Centronyx Bairdii, 393. 
Centropomus, 32. 
Centropristis, 34, 51. 

auroruoens, 61. 
merus, 34. 
tabicarius, 52. 
Centurus, 378. 
Ceratoplax ciliatus, 111. 
Certhia, 3(36. 

familiaris, 36G. 
CERTHtlDS, 366, 392, 393. 
Cervus Virginianus, 218, 219. 

Yiicatanensis, 218. 
Ceryle, 376. 

alcyon, 376. 
Chsetopterus, 120. 
ChsturiN/E, 376. 
Chsetura, 376. 

pelagica, 376. 
CHARADRIDS, 383, 392, 393. 
Characli-ius, 383. 

helveUcus, 383. 
pluvialis, 383. 
Chaulelasmus, 388. 
Chen, 388. 
CHIRLERID^i 30- 
Clilorodius Floridanus, 108. 
occidentalis, 108. 
Chlorospingus brunneus, 395. 

axillaris, 395. 
Chlorostilbon caribseus, 13. 

atala, 14. 
Chondestes, 372. 

grammaca, 372. 
Chondropoma, 316. 

canescens, 316. 
Chondrostei, 30. 
Chordeiles, 376. 

popetue, 376. 

CHORiniARTNGODONTES, 30, 31. 

Chorististium, 72. 

ruhrum, 72. 
Chroicocepbalus, 391. 

atricilla, 391. 
Franldinii, 391. 
Philadelphia, 391. 
Chrysoblephus, 172. 
Chrysomiti-is, 371. 

pinus, 372. 
tristis, 371. 
Chrysophrys, 172, 173, 176. 

calamus, 178. 
Chrtsotile, 327. 
CiCONIIDS, 385, 392, 393. 
Cionella, 163, 316. 
Circus, 380. 

cyaneus, 380. 
Cistothoi-U8, 367. 

equatorialis, 3. 
palustris, 367. 
stellaris, 3, 367. 
Cistula, 316. 

scabrosa, 316. 
Clausilia, 220, 350. 

COCCOTHRADSTIN^, 371. 

Coccothraustes, 371. 

vespertinus, 371. 

COCCTGINiE. 377. 
Coccygus, 377. 

Americanus, 377. 



Coccygus erythrophthalmui, 377. 
Colaptes, 378. 

auratus, 378. 
Collurio, 371. 

borealis, 371. 

Ludovicianus, 371. 
COLTIMBiE, 382. 
COLUMBIDS, 382, 392, 393. 
COLYMBIDS, 392. 

Colymbus, 392. 

arcticus, 392. 
glacialis, 392. 
septentrionalis, 392. 
Comptonia asplenifolia, 268. 
Contopus, 376. 

borealis, 376. 
virens. 376. 
Conulus, 307. 316. 

Gundlachi, 317. 
Conurus, 378. 

Carolhiensis, 378. 
holochlorus, 15. 
Conus, 190. 

Corbicula, 191, 193, 194, 195, 196. 
consobrina, 196. 
Japonica, 188. 
CORBICULAD.^, 188, 196. 
CORVID.E, 375, 392, 393. 
CORTINS, 375. 
Corvus, 375. 

Americanus, 375. 
corax, 375. 
Coturniculus, 372. 

Lecontei, 393. 
Cotyle, 370. 

riparia, 144, 155, 156, 157, 370. 
Crangon lar, 125. 
Cromileptes, 39. 
Cryptodia granulata, 102. 
Ctenopoiua, 316. 
CuCULIDiE, 377, 392, 393. 
Cupidonia, 382. 

cupido, 382. 
Cyanospiza rositse, 397. 
ah'is, 398. 
leclancheri, 398. 
Cyanura, 375. 

cristata, 375. 
Cy.anospiza, 373. 

ciris, 374. 
cyanea, 373. 
CTCLADEA, 196, 197. 
Cyclas, 196. 

CYCLASIDiE., 196. 

Ctclostomi, 30. 
Cyclostomus, 316. 

GYGNINS, 388. 

Cyguus, 388. 

Americanus, 388. 
buccinator, 388. 
Cylindrella, 24, ^5, 27, 161, 163, 166, 167, 168, 
206, 209, 222, 225, 316. 
Agnesiana, 24. 
Bahamensis, 24. 
Broolcsiana, 24. 
costata, 24. 
elongata, 24. 
gracilis. 24, 27. 
rosea, 80, 225. 
sanguinea, 27. - 
Trinitaria, 25. 

CTLINDRELLID.E, 24, 25, 160, 161. 

Cynthia, 86. 
Cyprinidi, 30. 
Cypselids, 376, 392, 393. 
Cyrena, 196. 



404 



INDEX. 



Cyrena antiqua, 1S8. 

Carolinensis, 191, 195, 197. 

cuneif'ormis, 188. 

Floridana, 191, 194, 195, 197. 

oblonga, 189. 

orientalis, 188. 

placens, 189. 

truncata, 188. 
Cjrrenella, 19(). 
Ctrenid^, 196. 
Cyreuocapsa, 195, 196. 

Daflla, 389. . 

Uemiegretta Ludovictana, 394. 
Dencli-ocygna fulva, 394. 
DENDROIC/E, 368. 

Dendroica, 368. 

cestiva, 144, 155, 156, 157, 

Blachburnia, 368. 

castanea, 368. 

ccerulea, 368. 

carulescens, 368. 

coronata, 368. 

discolor, 369. 

dominica, 368. 

Kirtlandii, 394. 

maculosa, 368. 

palmaruin, 369. 

Pensi/lvanica, 368. 

pinus, 368. 

striata, 368. 

virens, 368. 
Dentellaria, 221, 301, 303. 
Dermopteri, 30. 
Diacope, 63. 
Dinornis, 141. 

crassus, 145. 

DIOCONTIDI, 30. 

Diplectrum, 34. 54. 

radians, 34. 
Diplodonta, 196. 
Dolichonyx, 374. 

oryzivorui, 374. 
DONACIDiE, 197. 
Donax, 197. 
Dryocopus, 377. 

pileatus, 377. 

Ebalia mammillosa, 116. 
Ectopiites, 382. _ 

migratoria, 382. 
Elainea Macilvainii, 10. 

placens, 10. 
ElanuB, 380. 

leucurus, 380. 
Elasmobranchii, 30. 
Elasmognatha, 346. 
Elastoma, 68, 70. 
Empidonax, 376. 

acadicus, 376. 
Bairdii, 11. 
flaviventris, 376. 
fulvipectus, 11. 
Hammondi, 11. 
minimus, 376. 
ptisillus, 376. 
Enneacentriis, 34, 39. 50, 51. 
dubius, 51. 
punctulatus, 34. 
Epialtus, 98. 

Epinephelus, 34, 38, 42, 46, 
*^ «/er, 45. 

C'ubanus, 34. 
flavolim.batus, 34. 
impetiginosus, 34. 
limbafus, 34. 



Epinephelus lunulatus, 34. 
morio, 34, 51. 
nivert^MS, 34, 43. 
striatus, 34. 
Eremophila, 374. 

alpestris, 374. 
Ereunetes, 384. 

pusilla, 384. 
Erinna, 349. 

Newcombi, 349. 
Erismatura, 390. 

dominica, 394. 
rubida, 390. 
Eromene &eZZ«, 264, 

Californicalis, 264. 
Etelis, 59, 66, 67, 70. 

carbunculus, 68. 
oculatus, 59. 
Eucalodium, 24, 25. 
Eudorea ? albisinuatella, 271. 
Eudorea centuriella, 271, 

frigidella, 271. 
Eugenes/M^f/ens, 140. 

spectabilis, 140. 
Eupleurodon, 98. 

trifurcatus, 98. 
Eurytus, 222. 
Euspiza, 373. 

Americana, 373. 

FALCONiDJi:, 379, 392, 393. 
Falconing, 379. 
Palco, 379. 

columbarius, 379. 
communis, 379. 
lanarius, 379. 
Richardsonii, 394. 
sparverius, 379. 
Falcinelliis, 386, 
Fischeria, 196. 
Florida, 386. 
Fragilia, 197. 

Fringillid^, 371, 392, 393. 
FULICIN^, 387. 
Fulica, 387. 

Americana, 387. 
Fuligula, 389. 

Americana, 389. 
collaris, 389. 
marila, 389. 
Vallisneria, 389. 
Fulix, 389. 

Gadidi, 30. 

Gffiotis, 252, 253, 255, 257, 342, 345. 
Galatea, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197. 
Galeoscoptes, 365. 

Carolinensis, 365. 
Galling, 382. 
Galliuago, 383. 

gallinaria, 383. 
GaUinula, 387. 

chloropus, 387. 

martinica, 387. 
Gallinttlin^, 387. 
Ganoidei, 30. 
Garrulin^, 375. 
Garzetta, 386. 

ccerulea, 386. 

candidissima, 386. 
Gelochelidon, 391. 
Genyroge, 63. 
Geomalacus, 294, 308. 

maculosus, 308, 309. 
Geophila, 162. 
Geothlype^, 369. 



INDEX. 



405 



Geothlypis, 369. 
Glandina, 159, 163, 317, 338. 

ligulata, 162. 

monilifera, 162. 
Glaiiconome. 189. 
Glypturus, 120. 

acanthochirus, 121. 
Gniclon, 31. 
GOBIDI, 30. 
GOBIOSOJII, 30. 
Gonidomus, 222. 

GONIOGNATHA, 80, 166, 168. 

Gonioplectrus, 35, 45, 57, .58. 
hispanus, 35. 
Gonospira, 222. 

palanga, 159, 222. 
GRACtrLID.E, 390, 392, 393. 
Graculus, 390. 

dilophus. 390. 
Mexicamis, 394. 
Gramma, 33, 74. 

Loreto, 75. 
Grammateus, 172, 176, 1S2. 

humilis, 182, 183. 
medius, 183. 
GRUIDiE, 387, 392, 393. 
Grus, 387. 

Aniericanus, 387. 
Canadensis, 387. 
Grystes, 32. 
Guiraca, 373. 

carulea, 373. 
Gtmnodonti, 30. 

h^matopodid^, 383. 
Haemophila SumichrasLi, 6. 

melanoiis, 6. 
Haliaiitus, 381. 

leucocephalus, 381. 
Halimus, 96. 
Haliperca, 33, 34, 52, 54. 

bivittata, 34, 54. 
fuscula, 34. 
Jacome, 34. 
Phosle, 34. 
prmstigiator, 34. 
Harelda, 390. 

glacialis, 390. 
Harporbynchus, 365. 

Graysoni, 1. 
riifus, 365. 
Hedymeles, 373. 

Liidovicianus, 373. 
melanocephalus, 394. 
Helicacea, 169. 
Helicea, 220, 221, 255. 
HeliCID^, 25, 160, 161, 162, 164, 167, 169, 

220, 225, 333, 342. 
Heliclna, 316. 

fasciata, 223. , 

Gloynei, 186. 
HELICINiE, 163, 165, 171, 200, 201, 206, 224, 

255, 309, 333, 335, 340, 346. 
Helicterella, 334. 
Helinaia Sivainsoni, 394. 
Helisiga, 199. 
Helix, 80, 162, 163, 166, 
algira, 165. 
alternata, 80. 
appressa, 312. 
asteriscus, 80. 
Berlandieriana, 363. 
Bermudensis, 221. 
candidissima, 220. 
circumfirmata, 221. 
Columbiana, 304, 310. 



Helix dentiens, 303. 
dentifera, 362. 
divesta, 362. 
Edrardsi, 362. 
gallopavonis, 342. 
germana, 304, 310. 
graminicola. 342. 
Hemphilli, 80. 
incequalis, 159, 162. 
Isabella, 303. 
invalida, 306. 
inversicolor, 169. 
Jayana, 219. 
jejuna, 363. 
JosepMnai, 306. 
labyrinthicd , 80. 
leucostyla, 169. 
lychnuclms, 301, .302, 305, 311. 
militaris. 169, 170. 
minutissima, 306, 308. 
Mobiliana, 362, 363. 
mtiscarum, 80, 254, 255, 341. 
orbiculata, 303. 
pachygasira, 305. 
perplexa, 221, 303. 
Phmnix, SO. 
picia, 341, 342. 351. 
provisoria, 317, 347. 
pygmcea, 30(), 307, 308. 
Mmmeri, 362. 
rufozonatn, 169. 
Schrammi, 22, 23. 
striatella, 80. 
sulphurosa, .341. 
Troscheli, 342, 343. 
Uirbiniformis, 79, 81, 82, 206. 
uvuHfera. 339. 
varians, 342. 
versicolor, 342. 
"Wetheibyi, 361. 
Helmitherus, 368. 

vermivorus, 368. 
Helminthopliaga, 368. 

Bnclimani, 394. 
celata. 368. 
chrysoptera, 368. 
peregrina, 368. 
pinus, 368. 
ruficapilla, 368. 
Hemitrochus, 342. 
Hemphillia, 208, 209, 210, 300. 

glandulosa, 208, 209, 210, 211. 
Herbstia, 93. 

condyliata, 93. 
depressn, 93. 
Edioardsii, 93. 
parvijrons, 93, 94. 
pubescens, 92. 
pyriformis, 93. 
Herbstiella, 93. 

camptacantha, 94, 95. 
depressa, 93. 
tumida, 95. 
Herodias, 386. 

flZ6«, 386. 
Heeodiones, 385. 
Hesperanthias, 68. 

Hesperiphona, 371. « 

Hetei-ocrypta, 102. 

granulata, 103. 
macrobrachia, 103. 
Heterosomi, 30. 
Hierofalco, 379. 
Himantopus, ,385. 

nigricollis, 385. 
HiPPOCAMPIDI, 30. 



406 



INDEX. 



HiPPOIDEA, 120. 

Hippolysmata Californica, 123. 
Hippolyte FabricH, 126. 

Gaimardii, 126. 

Sayi, 125. 

palpator, 125. 

Phippsii, 125. 

picta, 125. 

pusiola, 127. 

sitchansis, 125. 

Sowerbei, 126. 

spina, 12fJ. 

spinus, 126. 

vibrans, 125. 

Wurdemanni, 124. 
HmUNDINID^, 370, 392, 393. 
Hirundo, 370. 

lunifrons, 144, 155, 156, 157. 
horreorum, 370. 
Histrionicus, 390. 

torquatus, 390. 
HOLOCEPHALI, 30. 
Holospira, 25, 161, 162. 163. 
Goldfassi, 162. 

Roemeri, 162. 

HOLOSTEI, 30. 

Hyalimax, 209, 210. 
Hyalina, 163, 164, 253. 
Baudoni, 159. 
capsella, 164. 
cellaria, 164. 
demissa, 164, 
jyiliginosa, 164. 
indentata, 164. 
inornata, 164. 
interna, 105. 
intertexta, 164. 
Icevigata, 164. 
lasmodon, 164. 
ligera. 164. 
minutissima, 307. 
muUidentala, 164. 
nitida, 164. 
olivetorum, 164. 
suppressh, 164. 
turhiniformis, 254. 
Hylocichla, 365. 
Hylotomus, 377. 
Htperoartii, 30. 
Hyperotreti, 30. 
Hypoplectrini, 33. 
Hypoplectrodes, 45. 
Hypoplecttus, 33, 35, 45, 55, 78. 
aberrans, 35, 78. 
accensMS, 35. 
afflnis, 35. 
fcorinjis, 35. 
gummigutta, 35. 
Quttavarius, 35, 78. 
tndigo, 35. 
maciiliferus, 35, 78. 
nigricans, 35. 
pinnavarius, 35. 
puella, 35, 73. 
vituHnus, 35. 
Hypothrodus, 44. 

flavicauda, 44. 
Htpotkemi, 30. 

IbidiDjE, 386, 892. 
iBIDINiE, 386. 

Ibis, 386. 

aZ6a, 394. 

falcinellus, 386. 
Icteria, 369. 

t'irenj, 369. 



Icteric, 369. 
icterid^e, 374, 392, 393. 
icterin^e. 375. 
Icterus, 375. 

Baltimore, 375. 

formosus, 184. 

gularis, 185. 

mentalis, 185. 

pustulaius, 185. 

Sclateri, 185. 

spurius, 375. 
Ictinia, 380. 

Mississippiensis, 380. 
Iphigenia, 196, 197. 

Jeffei-isite, 327, 328. 

JUGULATI, 30. 

Junco, 373. 

hyemalis, 373. 

Kcemmererite, 327. 

Labiella, 334. 
Labrus Anthias, 68. 

rnfus, 48. 
Lrelaps, 145. 
Lagopus, 382. 

rt/6MS, 382. 
Lambrus depressiusciilus, 101. 
excavatus, 98. 
liyponcus, 98. 
Lamellirostres, 388. 
Laminella, 333, 334, 335, 336. 
decorticata, 336. 
luctuosa, 335, 336. 
Mastersi, 335, 336, 337, 351. 
jsicte, 331, 333, 335, 336. 
LANIIDiE, 371, 392, 393. 
Larid.*;, 391, 392, 393. 
Larin^, 391. 
Larus, 391. 

argentatus, 391. 
Delatvarensis, 391. 
glaucus, 393. 
leucopterus, 393. 
marinus, 391. 
Lates, 31. 

Leander pandaliformis, 130. 
Lemniscati, 30. 
Lepiiloilendron, 275. 
Lepidosiresidje, 30. 
Lepidosteidi, 30. 
Leptachatina, 333, 334, 335, 336. 
Leptachatina dimidiata. 332, 333. 
firrana, 331, 333, 336. 
nitida, 331, 333, 336, 351. 
Leptinaria, 316. 
Leptocardii, 30. 
Leptocephali, 30. 
Leptomerus, 316. 

sepulcralis. 317. 
Leptoptila bonapartii, 15. 
albifrons, 16. 
bracliyptera, 16. 
plumbeiceps, 16. 
rufaxilla, 16. 
Leptosiphon, 195, 196. 
Lethriniis, 172. 
Leucochila, 316, 317. 

fallax, 318. 
pellucida. 318. 
Leucochroa, 220. 221, 303. 

Boissieri, 220, 303. 
candidissima, 303. 
Leucosoidea, 114. 
Lia, 24. 



INDEX. 



407 



Lia Blandiana, 25. 

flexuosa, 25. 

Gossei, 25. 

macrostoma, 25. 

maugeri, 25. 

Paivana, 25. 

tricolor, 25. 

virginea, 25. 

zehrina, 25. 
Liguus, 163, 168, 254, 252, 342. 

fasciatus, 254. 
Limax, 159, 163, 294, 299. 
Hewstont, 349. 
maximus, 159. 
LIMICOL^, 383. 
Limnaga, 256, 349. 
LlMN^IDvE, 349. 

Limosa, 385. 

fecloa, 385. 

Hudsonica 385. 
Liochila, 341. 

Jamaicensis, 341. 
Liomera cinctimana, 103. 

tato, 104. 
Lioperca, 34, 40, 42. 

inermis, 34, 43. 
Liopropoma, 72, 73. 

aberrans, 72. 
Liostracus, 316. 
Lithadia Cumingii, 116. 

pontifera, 115. 
Lithium, 326, 327, 328, 329. 
Lithognathus, 172. 
Lithotis rupicola, 346. 

tumida, 346. 
Lobipes, 385. 

hyperboretis, 385. 
Jfilsonii, 385. 

LONGIPENNES, 391. 
LOPHIDI, 30. 
LOPHOBRANCHII, 30. 

Lopliodytes, 390. 
Lophophanes, 366. 

Ucolor, 366. 
Loxia, 372. 

curvirostra, 372. 
leucoptera, 372. 
Lucina, 196. 
Lupea anceps, 113. 

Duchassaqni, 113. 
Lutianus Lutianus, 62. 
LUTJANIN^, 60, 63, 70. 
LUTJANINI, 33, 50, 58, 70, 74. 
Lutjanus, 59, 62. 

analis, 59. 

Aubrieti. 59. 

Buccanella, 59. 

Caballerote, 59, 75, 76, 77, 78. 

Campechianus, 59. 

Caxis, 59, 63. 75, 76, 77. 

Cubera, 59, 75, 76, 77. 

cynodon, 75. 

,7ocM, 59, 75, 76. 

Ojanco, 59, 64. 

profundus, 59. 

rosaceus, 59. 

Macroceramus, 25, 26, 27, 160, 162, 163, 
206, 225, 316. 322. 
Gossei, 100, 162, 168, 317, 
Gundlachi, 322. 
microdon, 322. 
signatus, .322. 
turriculn, 22. 
Macrocyclis, 159, 163, 305. 
Baudoni, 305. 



Macrops, 68. 
Macrorhamphus, 383. 

griseus, 383. 
Malacanthidi, 30. 
Malacopteri, 30, 
Malacopterygii, 30. 
Mammai-ia, 84, 85, 86, 87. 
Mareca, 389. 
Margarodite, 329. 
Melauerpes, 378. 

Carolinus, 378. 
erythrocephalus, 378. 
Melanetta, 390. 

velvetina, 390. 
Melaniella, 316, 318. 

gracilhtna, 
MELEAGRIN.E, 382, 392, 393. 
Meleagris, 382. 

gallopavo, 382. 
Melospiza, 373. 

Lincolnii, 373. 
melodia. 373. 
palusiris, 373. 
Menephonis, 34, 50. 

dubius, 34. 
Menippe nodifrons, 106. 

Rumphii, 106. 
Mentiperca, 33, 34, 54. 

luciopercana, 34. 
Mergus, 390. 

cuctdlatus, 390. 
merganser, 390. 
serrator, 390. 
Mesembriuug, 316. 
Mesodesma, 197. 
Mesodon, 301, 362. 
Mesoprion, 59, 63. 

Crtarts, 63. 
chrystirus, 60. 
cynodon, 75, 77, 78. 
grisseus, 75. 
Lutjanus, 62. 
vorax, 66. 
Metograpsus dubius, 113. 
gracilis, 113. 
Mica, 326. 
Micropalama, 383. 

himantopus. 383. 
Micropanope cai'ibbsea, 108. 
cristimana, 107. 
latimana, 107. 
Microphysa, 81, 221, 316. 

Boothiana, 317. 
vortex, 317. 
Milvulus tyrannus, 394. 
forficatus, 394. 
MonN^,"3(i5. 
Mimus, 305. 

longicaudatus, 138. 
nigriloris, 137. 
polyglotttis, 2, 365. 
theuca, 138. 
Mniotilta, 367. 

varia, 367. 
Mniotilte^, 367. 
MNIOTILTID^, 367, 392, 393. 
Molgula Manhattensis, 83, 86, 87, 91. 
166, Molothrus, 374. 

' pecoris, 144, 156, 157, 374. 

322. Monrolite, 326. 

MOTACILUD,?5, 367, 392. 
MUR^NID^, 30. 
Muscovite, 326, 329. 
Mychostoma, 24. 
Myelois albiplagiatella, 269. 



408 



INDEX. 



Myelois convolutella, 209. 
grossularice, 2()9. 
Myiarchus, 375. 

crinitus, 375. 
Myiodioctus, 369. 

Canadensis, 369. 
mitratus, 369. 
2nisUlus, 369. 
Mtxinid^, 30. 

Nandopsis tetracantJius, 30. 
Naaiua, ]69. 170, 210. 
cabins, 169. 
Chamissoi, 338, 351. 
Nauclerus, 380. 

forficatus, 380. 
Nectocranp:on lar, 125. 
Nematognathi, 30. 
Neocoryx Spraguei, 393. 
Nephopteryx latilasciatella, 269. 
Edmandsii, 270. 
roseatella, 270. 
Neritura, 349. 
Nettion, 389. 
Newcombia, 333, 334, 335, 336. 

picta, 336, 351. 
Nisus, 380. 

Cooperi, 380. 
fuscus, 380. 
palumbarius, 380. 
Nomophila noctuella, 258, 260. 
Notolopas, 96. 

lamellatus, 97. 
Numeniiis, 385. 

borealis, 385. 
Hudsonicus, 385. 
longirostris, 385. 
Nyctale, 378. 

acndica, 378. 
Richardsonii, 393. 
Nyctea, 379. 
Nyctiardea, 386. 

grisea, 386. 
Nyctherodias, 386. 

violaceus, 386. 

Ocyurus, 59, 60. 

ambiguus, 59. 

aurovittatus, 59. 

chrijsurus, 59. 

lutjanoules, 59. 
octpodoidea. 113. 
Odontognatha, 253. 
CEdemia, 390. 

nigra, 390. 
Oleacinid^, 160. 
Oleacina, 317. 

solidula, 318, 347. 
?0li(70clase-felsite, 328. 
Omalonyx, 198, 199, 202, 203, 205, 224, 343, 344 

appendiculata, 199. 

depressa, 199. 

/e?(mrt, 204, 346. 

jjardfdina. 204. 

unguis, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 
204, 206, 209, 344. 
Onchidella, 341. 
OnchidJum, 159, 339, 340, 351. 
Schrammi, 339. 
Opeas, 316. 

octonoides, 317. 
subula, 317. 
Ophididi, 30. 
Oporornis, 369. 
Oreophorus, 117. 

nodosus, 119. 



Orthalicea, 119. 

Orthalicin^, 100, 163, 166, 168, 307. 
Orthalicus, SO, 163, 168, 254, 255, 317, 342. 
undatus, 254, 318. 
zebra, 254. 
Ortygin^, 382. 
Ortyx, 382. 

Virginiamis, 382. 
Osachila acuta, 114. 

tuberosa, 114. 
Otina, 349. 
Otus,«78. 

brachyotus, 378. 
vulgaris, 378. 
Oxyechus, 383. 

Pacliygrapsus gracilis, 113. 
innotatus. 114. 
socius, 114. 
transfer sus, 113. 
Pagellus, 172. 

calamus, 173, 178. 
caninus, 176. 
humilis, 182. 
micraps, 182. 
orbitarius, 179. 
penna, 176. 
Pagrina, 170, 171. 
Pagrus, 172. 
Palsemouetes, 128. 

carolinns, 129. 
exilipes, 130. 
vulgaris, 129. 
Palremonopsis, 128. 

carolinus, 129. 
exilipes, 130. 
vulgaris, 129. 
Pallifera, 300. 

Paudalus, annulicornis, 128. 
borealis, 128. 
Gurneyi, 128. 
Pandion, 380. 

halicetus, 380. 
Panopeus planieslmus, 108. 
Paranthias, 46. 
PARIDJi, 306, 392, 393. 
Paring, 366. 
Parmacella, 253. 

palliolum, 253. 
Parthenope, 98. 
Partula, 334. 
Partuliua, 332. 333, 334. .335. 

bulimoides. 335, 336. 
eburnea, 331, 332, 336, 337. 
pallida, 336, 337. 
X)himbea, .331, 332. 
tieniolata, 336, 337. 
Parula, 368. 

Americana, 368. 
insularis, 4. 
pitiayumi, 5. 
Parus, 366. 

atricnpillus, 366. 
Carolinensis, 366. 
Passerculus, 372. 

savanna, 372. 
Passerella, 373. 

iliaca, 373. 
Passeres, 365. 
Patula, 163, 167. 

alternata, 167. 
asteriscus, 167. 
Pediculati, .30. 
Pediocaetes, 382. 

phasinnellus, 382. 
Pelecaotd^, 390, 392. 



INDEX. 



409 



Felecanus, 390. 

erythrorhyncTius, 390. 
Pelecychilus, 222. 
Pelidna, 384. 
Pellicula, 2013, 207, 209, 348. 

convexa, Mart., 203, 205, 207, 211 

344. 
depressa, 204, 205, 207, 210, 344. 
Pempelia fenestrella, 259, 2U0. 
fusca, 371. 
grossularice, 269. 
leoniuella, 259. 
ovalis, 2(i9. 
pahimbella, 259. 
Penaus brasiliensis, 132, 134. 
caramote, 133. 
carinaius, 135. 
constrictus, 135. 
fluviatalis, 133. 
pubescens, 133. 
semisulcatiis , 1.35. 
seti/erus, 133, 134, 135. 
Penninite, 327. 
Pentaceros, 32. 
Perca aberrans, 73. 
ati-aria, 52. 
guttata, 48. 
punctulata, 50. 
Percid.e, 30, 31, 35, 48, 55, 61, 73, 74. 
Percin^, 72, 73. 
Perdicid.E. 382, 392, 393. 
Perisoreus Canadensis, 393. 
Perissoglossa carbonata, 394. 
Peronia, 341. 
Petenia, 1()2. 
Petrochelidou, 370. 

luiiifrons, 370. 
Petrolisthes erismenis, 119. 

ritpicola, 119. 
Petromyzontidi, 30. 
Peucaja, 373. 

cBStivalis, 373. 
Cassinii, 394. 
Phai^aropodid^e, 385, 392, 393. 
Phalaropus, 385. 
Phallusia mamniillata, 88. 
Pharyngognathi, 30. 
Phasianid^, 382. 
Philohela, 383. 

minor, 383. 
Phonipai-a fumosa, 396. 
Phycid^, 267. 
Phyllovora, 159, IGO. 
Physa, 255. 

ampullacea, 256. 
striata, 256. 
Pica, 375. 

caudata, 375. 
PlCARI^, 376. 
PlCID^, 377, 392, 393. 
PICIN^E, 377. 
Picoicles, 377. 

arcticus, 377. 
Pious, 377. 

piihescens, 377. 
villosus, 377. 
Pilumuus ceratopus, 109. 

depressus, 109. ' 

marginatua, 109. 
Xantusii, 109. 
Pimelepterina, 171. 
Pinei-ia, 22, 23, 168. 

Beathiana, 22. 
Schrammi, 23, 80. 
terebra, 22, 23. 
Viequensis, 22, 23, 25, 26. 



Pinicola, 371. 

enucleafor, 371. 
Piunixa ckcetopierana, 120. 
Pipilo, 374. 

arcticus, 8. 
carman i, 7. 

erythrophthalmus, 7, 374. 
Pisidiiim, 196. 
Plagioptycha, 316. 318. 

Albersiana, 317, 318. 
disculus, 317, 318. 
PLAGIOSTOSn, 30. 
Planesticus, 365. 
Planorbis, 256. 
Platyinius, 59, 66, 70. 
vorax, 59. 
Plectognathi, Cuv., 30. 
Plectrophanes, 372. 

Lapponicus, 372. 
Maccmvni, 393. 
nivalis, 372. 
ornatus, 393. 
pictus, 372. 
Plech'oiJoma cliloropterum, 45, 57. 
hispanum, 57. 
nigro-rubrum, 45, 57. 
puella, 55. 
serratum, 45, 57. 
Siisuki, 57. 
Plectropomus, 44. 
Pletliodon erythronotus, 150. 
Pleuronectidi, 30. 
Pleurotremi, 30. 
Ploteid^E, 391, 392, 393. 
Plotiis, 391. 

anliinga, 391. 
Podiceps, 392. 

auritus, 392. 
cristaius, 392. 
griseigena, 392. 
PODICIPID^, 392, 393. 
Podilymbus, 392. 

podiceps, 392. 
Padonema vestita, 97. 
Pogonoperca, 33. 
Polioptila, 366. 

ccertiUa, 366. 
POLIOPTILIN^, 366. 
Polygyra, 316, 318. 

microdonta, 317. 
Polymita, 318, 341, 342. 
varians. 317. 
Polyonyx macrocheles, 120. 
Pomacentridi, 30. 
Pompholyx, 350. 
Poocaetes, 372. 

gramineus, 372. 
Porcellana machrocheles, 120. • 

PORCKLLANOIDEA, 119. 

Porphyrio, 387. 
Potassitim, 326, 328, 329, 330. 
Porzaua, 387. 

Carolina, 387. 
Jamaicensis, 387. 
Noveboracensis, 387. 
Pretometopon, 34, 39, 48. 

apiarius, 34. 
guttatus, 34. 
Prionodes, 33. 
Progne, 370. 

subis, 370. 
Promicrops, 34, 42. 

Guasa. 34, 43. 
Propliysaon, 293, 296. 

Hemphilli, 295, 297, 310. 
Prospinus, 34, 44, 45, 46. 



410 



INDEX. 



Prospinus chloropierus, 34, 39. 
Protonotaria, 3G7. 

citrea, 367. 
Protopteri, so. 
Peammobia, 197. 
Peeudocarcinus Bumpliii, 106. 

PSITTACI, 378. 
PSITTACID^. 378, 393, 393. 
PTEROPHORIDiE, 258, 265. 

Pterophorus cervinidactylus, 266. 

cinereidaciylus, 266. 

osteodactylus, 266. 

pergracilidactylus, 265. 

pterodactylus, 266, 267. 

Bulphureodactylus, 266. 
Pugettia, 96. 

PULMONATA, 337. 

Punctum, 163, 168, 307, 308. 

minutissinum, 306, 307. 
pygmcBum, 308. 
Pupa, 163, 220, 317, 350. 
fallax, 348. 
palanga, 222. 
sulcata, 222. 
PUPINjE, 162. 
PrcoPODES, 392. 
Pyralid^, 257, 267, 270. 
VyiaMsfarinalis, 265. 
Pyranga, 371. 

CBStiva, 371. 
rubra, 371. 

Querquedula, 389. 

cyanoptera, 394. 

QUISCALIN^, 375. 

Quiscalus, 375. 

versicolor, 144, 155, 156, 157, 375. 

Kajtd^, 30. 
Rallid^, 387, 392, 393. 
Rallin^, 387. 
Ballus, 387. 

crassirostris, 19, 20. 

crepitans, 19, 20. 

elegans, 20, 387. 

longirostris, 19. 

Virginianus, 387. 
Baptores, 378. 
Recurvirostra, 385. 

Americana, 385. 
RECUHVIROSTRID^, 385, 392. 
REGUHNjB, 366. 
Regulus, 366. 

calendula, 366. 
satrapa, 366. 
Remipes barbadensis, 120. 
Rhea Darwinii, 145. 
Rhinogryphus, 381. 

aura, 381. 
Rhodia, 93. 

pyriformis, 93. 
Rhodonyx. 345. 
Rhomboplites, 59, 61. 

elegans, 59, 62. 
Rhyacophilus, 384. 
Rhynchocylus parvulus, 124. 
Rhypticus, 32. 
RipidoUie. 327, 328. 
Rissa trydactyla, 393. 

Sagda, 219. 

connectens, 219. 

Haldemaniana, 219. 

Jayana, 219. 
Salamandra maculosa, 150, 151. 
Sanguinolaria, 197. 



Sargina, 170. 
Sargini, 171. 
Sayornis, 376. 

fuscus, 376. 
Sayus, 394. 
SAXICOLID^. 365, 392, 393. 
Scapoliie, 329. 
SCARIDI, 30. 
Schasicheila, 187, 316. 

iBahamensis, 316. 
minuscula, 316. 
Schistorus, 34, 43, 45. 

mystacinus, 34, 43. 
Sclerodermi, 30. 
Scolecophagus, 375. 

cyanocephalus, 375, 
ferrugineus, 375. 
SCOLOPACIDvE, 383, 392, 393. 
SCOMBRESOCIDI, 30. 

Scops, 379. 

asio, 379. 
Scoparia albisinuatella, 171. 

centuriella, 271. 
Scopula, 267. 

qlacialis, 271. 
inquinatalis, 260. 
occidentalis, 260. 
Scotiaptex, 379. 
Scrobicularia, 197. 
Scyllarus nodifer, 123. 
Seiurus, 369. 

agilis, 309. 
aurocapillus, 369. 
formosus, 369. 
Ludovicianus, 369. 
Novebnracensis, 369. 
Philadelphia, 369. 
trichas 369 
Serranin^, 35,' 38, 40, 46, 48, 50. 
.Serranini, 33, 34, 53, 55. 
SerranuB, 35, 38. 

bivittatus, 52. 
cardinalis, 35. 
coronatus, 48. 
creolus, 46. 
fnscicularis, 54. 
gigas, 39. 
Guasa, 42. 
inermis, 40. 
luciopercanus, 54. 
mystacinus, 43. 
occttlatus, 68. 
Ouatalibi, 50. 
Phcebe. 52. 
Serpophaga cinerea, 1.39, 140. 

grisea, 139. 
Setophag^, 369. 
Setophaga, 369. 

ruticilla, 369. 
Sialia, 365. 

swjZis, 144, 155, 156, 157. 
Sicyonia brevirostris, 132. 
carinata, 132. 
cristata, 132. 
laevigata, 181. 
Sigillaiia, 275. 
Sillimanite, 320. 
SlLURIDI, .30. 

Simpulopsis, 198, 199, 200, 201, 206, 210. 
Chiapensis, 200. 
Cordovana, 200. 
corrugatus, 200. 
Portoricensis, 343. 
Salleana, 200. 
sulculosa, 199, 206, 210, 343. 



INDEX. 



411 



Sitta, 366. 

Carolinensis, 366. 
Canadensis, 366. 
pusitia, 394. 
Sitting. 3G6. 
Sodium, 325, 330. 
Solenolambrus arcuatuB, 101. 

typicus, 101, 102. 
Somateria spectabilis, 393. 
Spakidi, 170, 171. 
Sparini, 171. 
Sparoid^, 59. 
Sparus, 170, 172, 175. 
aurata, 172. 
Bajonado, 176, 178. 
calamus, 178. 
orbitarixis, 179. 
Spatula, 389. 

Spelajophorus nodosus, 119. 
Speotyto hypogaa, 394. 
Sphaerodoii, 172. 
Sphyh^nid^, 30. 
Sphyropicus, 377. 

varius, 377. 
Spizella, 373. 

monticola, 373. 
pallida, 373. 
pusilla, 373. 

socialis, 144, 151, 153, 154. 156, 373. 
Spizin^, 373. 
squalidi, 30. 
Squatarola, 383. 
Squilla barbadensis ovalis, 120. 
Steganopoues, 390. 
Steganopue, 385. 
Stelgidopteryx, 370. 

serripennis, 370. 
Stenogyra, 163, VVJ, 316, 317, 350. 

decollata, 159. 
Stenopteryx hybridalis, 260. 
Stenotrema. 304. 
Steaopue, 338. 
Sterua, 391. 

angllca, 391. 
antillarum, 391. 
caspia, 391. 
flssipes, 392. 
Forsteri, 391. 
hirundo, 391. 
macroura, 393. 
paradisea, 393. 
regia, 391. 
STERNINjE, 391. 
Strepsilas, 383. 

inierpres, 383. 
Strigid^, 378, 392, 393. 
StrigiNjE, 378. 
Strix, 378. 

flammea, 378. 
Strophia, 317, 318, 322. 

Cumingiana, 318. 
cyclostoma, 318. 
decumana, 348. 
incana, 318. 
iostoma, 318. 
marmorata, 318. 
microstoma. 322. 
mumia, 318, 348. 
striatella, 322. 
Sturnella, 374. 

magna. 374. 
neglecta, 374. 
Stylodon, 109. 
Subacanthopteri, 30. 
Subulina, 316. 

oc<ona, 317. 



Succinea, 163, 198, 199, 201, 202, 224, 317, 343, 
345. 

appemliculata, 198, 199, 204. 205, 

206, 209, 210, 225, 254, 343. 

canella, 338. 

depressa, 204, 205, 206, 207, 348. 

luteola, 318. 

ot'flZts, 200. 

patula, 223. 

rupicola. 346. 

tigrina, 202. 

tumida. 346. 
SUCCININ^, 1G3, 1G9, 198, 199. 200, 201, 205, 

223, 224. 
Surnia, 379. 

it^MZa, 379. 
STLVnD^, 366, 392, 393. 
SrMPHARYNGODONTES, 30. 

Symphemia, 384. 

semipalmata, 384. 
Synallaxis guianensis, 186. 
maculata, 186. 
Syndesmya, 197. 
Syrnium, 379. 

cinereum, 379. 
nehulosum, 379. 

Tachycineta, 370. 

bicolor, 370. 
Tachytriorchis, 381. 
TANAGRID^, 371, 392, 393. 
Tantalus, 385. 

loculator, 385. 
Tebennophorus, 255, 300. 
Teleocephali, 30, 31. 
Teleostei, 30. 
Tellina, 197. 

TELLINIDiE, 197. 

Telmatodytes, 367. 
Tetraonid^, 382, 392, 393. 
Thalasseus, 391. 
Thalassinoidea, 120. 
Thanmasia, 24, 27. 
Thelidomus, 316, 318, 341. 

provisoria, 317. 
Thripadectes vii-gaticeps, 398. 
flammulatus, 398. 
Thryomanes, 367. 
Thryothorus, 366. 

Bewickii, 367. 
Ludovicianus, 366. 
Tinnunculus, 379. 
Todiro6trum superciliaris, 9. 
schistaceiceps, 10. 
Totanus, 384. 

cMoropus, 384. 
flaripes. 384. 
melanoleucus, 384. 
Trachelia, 24. 
Tringa, 384. 

alpina. 384. 
Bairdii. 384. 
Bonapartei, 384. 
canuta, 384. 
viaculata, 384. 
maritima, 384. 
minutilla, 384. 
Tringoides, 384. 

hypoleucus, 384. 
macularius. 144, 155, 156. 
Trisotropis, 34, 35, 39, 42, 50. 
Aguaji. 34. 
Bonaci. 34. 
brunneus, 34. 
calliurus, 34. 
camelopardalis, 34. 



412 



INDEX. 



Trisotropia Cardinalis, 34. 

chlorostomus, 34. 

dimidiatus, 34. 

falcatus, 34, 36, 51. 

guttatus, 34. 

inter stiHalis, 34. 

petrosus, 34. 

tigris, 34. 
Trochatella, 316. 

rupesiris, 316. 
Trochilus, 377. 

colubris, 377. 
TKOCniLiD^E, 377, 392, 393. 

TROCHOLINiE, 377. 

Troglodytes, 3G7. 

cedon, 367. 

inquietus, 4. 

insularis, 3. 

parvnlus, 367. 
TrOGLODTTID^^, 366, 392, 393. 
Trogon eximius, 11. 

venustus, 13. 
viridis, 11, 12, 13. 
Tropidinius, 59, 65. 

Arnillo, 59, 65. 
Tryngites, 385. 

mfescens, 385. 
TURDID^, 365, 392, 393. 
TURDIN^, 365. 

Tardus, 365. 

Alicice, 365. 

fuscescens, 144, 154, 155, 156, 157, 365. 

migratorius, 155, 365. 

mustellinus, 365. 

naevius, 393. 

Pallasil, 365. 

Swainsoni, 365. 
Tyche lamellifrons, 97. 
TYRANNIDiE,"375, 392, 393. 
TYRANNINiE, 375. 

Tyrannus, 375. [375. 

Caroli7iensis, 144, 155, 156, 157, 
veriicalis, 394. 

Uhlias, 117. 

ellipticus, 117, 118. 

limbatus, 118. 
Ungulina, 196. 
UNGOLINlDiE, 196. 

Velorita, 196. 
Verilus, 59. 70. 

sordidus, 59, 70. 
Vermiculite, 327. 
Vermivoua, 159, 160. 
Veumivor/E, 367. 
Veronicella, 159, 300, 340. 

occidentalis, 339. 



Vertigo, 163. 

Virbius acuminatus, 127. 

pleuracanthus, 127. 
Vireo, 370. 

agilis, 21. 

iJeZij, 370. 

calidris, 21. 

jlavifrons, 370. 

gilvus, 370. 

Noveboracensis, 370. 

oUvaceus, 21 , 370. 

PMladelpliicus, 370. 

soUtaria. 370. 
VlREONID^, 370, 392, 393. 
Vireosylvia, .370. 

magister, 20. 
Vitrina, 159, 163, 252, 253, 340. 
limpida, 159. 
Sumichrasii, 200. 
VlTRINEA, 169, 220, 221. 
ViTRlNiNiE, 163, 167, 170, 340. 
Vitrinoconus, 338. 

Wernerite, .329. 
Wollastonite, 327. 
Worthite, 326. 

Xantho planissima, 108. 
vermiculata, 104. 
Xanthocephalus, 374. 

icterocephalus, 874. 
Xanthodes insculpta, 105. 

granosinianus, 105. 
Xantusii, 105. 
Xanthonyx, 200, 201, 210, 224. 
Cordovanus, 201. 
Salleanus, 201. 
Sumichrasii, 200, 201. 
Xema Sabinei, 393. 
Xenolite, 326. 

Zenaidura, 382. 

Carolinensis, 18, 382. 
graysoni, 17, 18. 
Yucatanensis, 18. 
Zonites, 159, 163, 164, 165, 220, 252, 253, 391, 
.302. 316, 317, 340. 
cellarius, 159. 
chersiuus, 159. 
demissus, 165. 
Elliotti, 165. 
fulvus, a38. 
gularis, 164. 
Gundlachi, 338. 
kopnodes. 164. 
nitidtis. 165. 
sculptilis, 164. 



Ann.Lvc.Fat.Hist. NT. 



Vol.X. PI. I. 




Gramma Loreto. Poey. 




V4 Mag. Wat 
Htpoplectbtjs Macctlifebus. Poey. 



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W.G.B.de/ 



I(ydeuii\ of JSf^tuf ^1 Si^tofy 



CITY OF NE^V YORK. 



^^Incorporated by ci.ct of the legislature of the State of 
J\rew Tork, Tassed April 20, fSfS.'] 



Believing that a general knowledge of the contents of the volumes 
published by the LYCEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY will be advan- 
tageous to scientists and bring about a wider circulation of the publica- 
tions, the following summary has been prepared. 

The Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 

are in 8vo form and contain many plates and woodcuts. The first eight 
volumes cover the years 1823 to 1867 as follows : 

Volume I. — With 29 Plates and 410 pages, 1823-1825. 
II. — With 6 Plates and 480 pages, 1826-1827. 

III. — With 6 Plates and 448 pages, 1828-1836. 

IV. — With 18 Plates and 519 pages, 1836-1848. 
V. — With 6 Plates and 567 pages, 1848-1852. 

VI. — With 9 Plates and 443 pages, 18.53-1858. 

VII. — With 6 Plates and 514 pages, 1858-1862. 

VIII. — With 17 Plates and 505 pages, 1863-1867. 

These eight volumes contain many valuable papers, including the de- 
scriptions of hundreds of new species of animals, plants, etc. The 
papers may be grouped as follows : — 



On Geology, by Smith (S.). Stevens, Julien. Ox Paleontology, by Cooper ( W.), 
Cozzens, DeKay, Hitchcock (C. H), Mitchell, Renwiok, Redfleld. On Mineralogy, 
by Dana, Delafleld, James, Bailey (S. C. H.). Joy, Renwick, Torrey, Totten, Thomson. 
On Botany, by Torrey, Cooper (\Vm.), Gray, Darlington, Harley, Dana, LeConte, 
Madianna, DeSchweinitz, Groom. On Mammalia, by Cooper (Wm.), Cozzens, DeKay, 
King, Ludlow, LeConte. On Birds, by Audubon, Bonaparte, DeWitt Clinton, Jones, 
Gundlach, Ward, Baird, Bell, Giraud, Lawrence. On Reptiles, by LeConte, Smith, 
Troost. On Fishes, by DeWitt Clinton, Mitchell, DeKay, Poey, Brevoort, Suckley, 
Tellkampf, Gill. On Insects, by LeConte (J.), LeConte (J. C), Greene, Grote, Robin- 
son, Hill, Matthews. On Crustaceans, by LeConte, Gill, Stirapson. On Annelides, 
by Agassiz. On Mollusks, by Barnes, DeKay, Jay, Redfleld, Fairbank, Gill, Gulick, 
Haines, Newcomb, Cooper (J. G.), Shuttleworth, Adams, Cliitty, Prime, Anthony, 
Bland, Rowell, Smith (S.), Hubbard, Krebs, Morse. On Radiates, by Agassiz, Ed- 
wards. On Microscopy, by Edwards. On Meteorology, by Morris. 



The following is a list of the contents in full of Volume IX, with 2 
plates and 426 pages, 1868 to 1870. 

By Alexander Agassiz. Note on Lov^n's Article on "Leskia mirabilis, Gray." 

By W. G. BiNNEY and Thomas Bland. Notes on Lingual Dentition of Mollusca. 

By Thomas Bland. Notes on certain Terrestrial Mollusca, with Descriptions of New 
Species; Additional Notes on the Geographical Distribution of Land Shells in 
the West Indies. 

By H. C. Bolton. Index to the Literature of Uranium. 

By A. D. Brown. Note on Bulimus ciliatus, Gould. 

By W. H. Dall. On the Genus Pompholyx and its Allies, with a revision of the Lim- 
naeidse of Authors (Plate II). 

By A. M. Edwards. Results of a Microscopical Examination of Specimens of Sand 
obtained from an Artesian Well. 

By H. Endemann and O. Loew. On the Earth contained in the Zircons of North 
Carolina. 

By George N. Lawrence. A Catalogue of the Birds found in Costa Rica; List of 
a Collection of Birds from Northei-n Yucatan; Catalogue of Birds from Puna 
Island, Gulf of Guayaquil, in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, col- 
lected by .J. F. Reeve; Characters of some new South American Birds, with 
Notes on other rare or little known Species. 

By O. Loew. On a New Product obtained by the Decomposition of Trichlormethyl- 
sulphonbromide; On the Number of Isomeric Bodies. 

By J. S. Newberry. Notes on the Later Extinct Floras of North America, with Des- 
criptions of some New Species of Fossil Plants from the Cretaceous and Tertiary 
Strata ; On the Surface Geology of the Basin of the Great Lakes, and the Valley 
of the Mississippi. 

By Felipe Poev. Review of the Fish of Cuba belonging to the Genus Trisotropis, 
with an Introductory Note by J. Carson Brevoort; Note on the Hermaphroditism 
of Fish; New Species of Cuban Fish. 

By Temple Prime. On the names applied to Pisidium, a genus of Corbiculada; ; List 
of the Species of Mollusca found in the vicinity of North Conway, New Hamp- 
shire; Notes on Species of the Family CorbiculadaB, with Figures. 

By Coleman T. Robin'SON. Lepidopterological Miscellanies (Plate I). 

By Paul Schweitzer. On Tribasic Phosphoric Acid; its history, its modes of sep- 
aration from sesquioxyds, principally from Sesquioxyd of Iron, and its estimation. 



By SANDERSON Smith and Temple Prime. Report on the Mollusca of Long Island, 

K. Y., and of its Dependencies. 
By Theo. a. Tellkampf. Note respecting the Eyes of Amblyopsis speljeus. 
By E. G. Squier. Observations on a Collection of Chalchihuitls from Central America. 



The current volume, Vol. X, 1871 to 1873, contains to date, 330 pages 
and 14 plates, and will be completed in the present year. The following 
is a list of the articles as far as printed : — 



By Geo. N. Lawrence. Descriptions of New Species of Birds from Mexico, Central 
America, and South America; with a Note on Rallus longirostris. 

By Thomas Bland and W. G. Binney. Notes on the Genus Pineria and on the Lin- 
gual dentition of Pineria Viequensis, Pfr. 

By Felipe Poey. Genres des Poissons de la Faune de Cuba, appartenant a la Famille 
Percidse, avec uue Note d' introduction par J. Carson Brevoort. (Plate I.) 

By Thomas Bland and W. G. Binnet. On the Lingual Dentition of Helix turbin- 
iformis, Pfr., and other species of Terrestrial Mollusca. (Plate II.) 

By Theo. A. Tellkampf. Notes on the Ascidea Manhattensis, DeKay, and on the 
Mammaria Manhattensis. (Plate III.) 

By William Stimpson. Notes on North American Ci-ustacea, in the Museum of the 
Smithsonian Institution. (No. III.) 

By Geo. N. Lawrence. Descriptions of three New Species of American Bii-ds, with 
a Note on Eugenes spectabilis. 

By Edward S. Morse. On tlie Tarsus and Carpus of Birds. (With Plates IV and V.) 

By Thomas Bland and W. G. Binnet. On the Systematic Arrangement of North 
American Terrestrial Mollusks. 

By Felipe Poey. Monographic des Poissons de Cuba compris dans la sous-famille 
des Sparini. (With Plates VI and VII.) 

By Geo. N. Lawrence. Descriptions of New Species of Birds of the Genera Icterus 
and Synallaxis. 

By Thos. Bland. Description of a New Species of Mollusk of the Genus Helicina. 

By Temple Prime. Notes on Specimens of Corbiculadte in the Cabinet of the Jardin 
des Plantes at Paris, and ou the authorship of the Encyclopedic Methodique. 

By P. Fischer. Note sur 1' Anatomic des Gyrenes Americaines. (Plate VIII.) 

By Thos. Bland and W. G. Binney. On the Relations of Certain Genera of Terres- 
trial Mollusca of, or related to the Sub-family Succininas. with Notes on the Lin- 
gual Dentition of Succinea appendiculata, Pfr. (Plate IX, in part.) 

By Thos. Bland and W. G. Binney. Description of Hemphillia, a New Genus of 
Terrestrial Mollusks. (Plate IX.) 

By Professor Benjamin N. Martin. Essay upon a Necessary Limitation of the Doc- 
trine of the Unity of tlie General Forces of Nature. 

By W. J. Hayes. Description of a Species of Cervus. (Plate X.) 

By Thomas Bland and W. G. Binney. On the Lingual Dentition of Certa.n Terres- 
trial Pulmonata Foreign to the United States. 

By Jno. J. Stevenson. The Upper Coal Measures West of the Alleghany Mountains. 
(Plate XII.) 

By Thomas Bland and W. G. Binney. On the Lingual Dentition of Gaotis. (With 
plate XI in part). 



By Thomas Bland and W. G. Binnet. Note on a curious form of Lingual Dentition 

in Physa. (With plate XI.) 
By A. S. Packard, Jr. Catalogue of the Pyralidae of California, with descriptions of 

new Californian Pterophorida. 
By A. S. Packard, Jr. Notes on some Pyralidae from New England, with Remarks on 

the Labrador Species of this Family. 
By Jno. J. Stevenson. Notes on the Coals of the Kanawha Valley, West Virginia, 
By Loois Elsberg. On the Subdivisions of Science and their Classification. 
By Thomas Bland and W. G. Binnet. On Prophysaon, a new Pulmonate MoUusk, 
on Ariolimax, on Helix lychnuchus and other species. (With Plates XIII and 
XIV.) 

By Thomas Bland. On the Physical Geography of, and the distribution of the Ter- 
restrial Mollusca in, the Bahama Islands. 
By Albert R. Leeds. Spectroscopic Examination of Silicates. 

Vol. XI and following Volumes will be printed in parts of not less than 
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Yearly Subscriptions $2,00, Payable in Advance. 

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Single Parts of Volumes 9 and 10 and of future Volumes (each), ,60 

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JOHN H. HINTON, M.D., 
Treasurer, 

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Special Agents for the Lyceum. 

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