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ANNALS OF MANCHESTER: 



A CHEONOLOGICAL EECOED 

FKOM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE EKD OF 1885. 



EDITED BY 



WILLIAM E. A. AXON, 



JOHN HKYWOOD, 

Dkansgate and RiDGEriELD, Manciiesikr; 

AND 11, Paternoster Buildings, 

LOXDOX. 

ISSO.. 



TO 

GEORGE MILNEH, 






President of the Manchester' Literary Chtb, 

WHO HAS EARNED AN HONOURED PLACE AMONGST MANCHESTER WORTHIES 

OF THE PRESENT, THIS RECORD OF THE WORK OF THE 

MANCHESTER WORTHIES OF THE PAST 

IS DEDICATED. 



PEEFACE. 



THE volume now offered to the public, as a revised edition of the Man- 
chester Historical Recorder, is virtually a new work, owing to the 
many changes and additions that have been made by the present editor. 
The book in its different editions has had a curious history. The utility 
of a concise chronological record of Manchester history appears first to have been 
practically recognised by James Butterworth, whose Tabula Mancunie7isis—a, 
mere pamphlet — appeared in 1829. The next effort was made by William Ford, 
and then — ten years later — Mr. Charles Henry Timperley, a man of great 
industry and wide reading, compiled the Annals of Manchester, a little book 
which is highly to be commended for its usefulness. Various editions have 
since appeared, bringing down the record to a later period, but without any 
attempt at systematic revision or the incorporation of the abundance of fresh 
material amassed by the labours of subsequent investigators. The following 
list is the completest I have been able to make of the forerunners of the present 
volume :— 

Tabula Mancuniensis ; or a Chronological Table of Events, comprising 
within the coinpass of a feiv pages the history of the town and neighbourhood 
of Manchester, from the remotest 2ieriod to the loresent time. . . . By James 
Butterworth. . . . Manchester : Printed by J. Bradshaw, 34, Church Street, 
1829 ; 8vo pp. 16. 

In the Manchester Free Library there is a little book, believed to be unique, 
with a MS. title : Ford's Chronological Series of Events in Manchester, 1833. 
This is made up of proof slips and cuttings from the Stockport Advertiser, in 
which the articles appeared. The dates are 1301-1822 inclusive. This work of 
William Ford's does not appear to have been published, but may have formed 
the basis of Timperley's Annals. 

Annals of Manchester: Biographical, Historical, Ecclesiastical, and 
Commercial, from the earliest x>criod to the close of the year 1S39. By C. H. 
Timperley. Manchester : Bancks and Co., Exchange Street, 1839. 18mo, pp. 108. 

The Manchester Historical Recorder: or a concise Biograp)hical, Ecclesi' 
astical, and Conimercicd History of the Rise and Progress of the lown and 
Neighbourhood, from the earliest period to the close of the year 1845. By a 
Native of the Town. Manchester : Horsefield and Davies, Printers, Riding's 
Court, St. Mary's Gate and Deansgate. 18mo, pp. iv. 156. This is described in 
the preface as the second edition. 

Records Historical, Municij)al, Ecclesiastical, Biographical, Commercial, 
and Statistical of Manchester, from the earliest x>eriod, revised and corrected 
to the present time. By E. Waugh and T. Fawcett. Published for the Pro- 
prietors by F. Wilde, 9, Half Street, and James Ainsworth, 93, Piccadilly, 
Manchester ; Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., London, 1851. 18mo. vi., 174. 

The Manchester Historical Recorder: being an Analysis of the Municipal^ 



iv Preface. 

Ecclesiastical, Biographical, Commercial, and Statistical History of Man- 
chester from the earliest period, chronologically arranged. Revised and 
corrected to the present time. Manchester : John Heywood, 141 and 143' 
Deansgate. London: Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., 1874. 

Those who have the curiosity to compare this new edition with its prede- 
cessors will find that the greater portion has been completely rewritten, and 
that in every page there have been alterations and corrections. It is impossible 
in a volume dealing with such a mass of dates and data to avoid mistakes, but 
it is hoped that the care that has been exercised will have prevented any serious 
errors. Several of the proof sheets have been read by Mr. J. E. Bailey, F.S.A., 
and Mr. C. W. Sutton, whose kindness for this service and for various useful 
suggestions I gratefully acknowledge. Mr. David Kelly, of Stretford, kindly 
placed an annotated copy of the Recorder at my disposal, and has also favoured 
me with various items of information. Mr. Robert Wood, of Rusholme, also 
lent me his annotated copy. The custodians of the various public libraries of 
Manchester and Salford have treated me with great indulgence, and I have 
also to return cordial acknowledgments to Dr. Richard Garnett, of the British 
Museum. 

The history of Manchester is important, not only to its citizens but to all 
those who care to trace the development of modern civilisation. Its greatness 
in the present century sonaetimes leads to forgetfulness of the fact that it is 
one of the oldest communities in the land, and has had an unbroken existence 
from Roman and pre-Roman days. The long chain of events which have trans- 
formed the ancient village into one of the greatest commercial centres of the 
world are not only important in this connection, but are also interesting in 
themselves. The annals of the city and district contain many quaint, 
picturesque, and romantic incidents. 

The Annals of Manchester attempts to givB, in chronological order, a brief 
and pithy analysis of the history of Manchester from the earliest times to the 
present day. The sale of several successive issues of the Manchester Historical 
iJecorcZer has sufficiently shown the value and usefulness of such 'a manual. 
This edition contains, it is hoped, the most essential data in regard to the 
general, ecclesiastical, municipal, and commercial history of Manchester and 
Salford. Statistical information has been included, and biographical sketches 
given of the worthies of the place. 

The arrangement by dates has been retained, as affording the greatest 
facility for research, whilst not materially interfering with a general view of 
the changes, social, national, religious, and commercial, in which Manchester 
has had a share, and often an important one. In this way the reader has 
brought before him the prehistoric settlement ; the Roman station ; the Saxon 
village ruined by the Danes; the Norman barony; the mediaeval manor ; the 
early manufacturing town ; the Puritan stronghold where the first blood of the 
Civil Wars was shed ; the town which gave so many to the fatal rebellion of 
1745 ; and the busy district which saw the rise of the modern cotton trade and 
the development of the factory system. 

Particulars are also given of the struggle for local government, parliamen- 
tary reform, free trade, and the other great changes of the present century, to 
which Manchester has contributed in so large a measure. 



INTEODUCTION. 



MANCHESTER, the great centre of the cotton manufacture, is a corporate 
and Parliamentary borough, and was elevated to the dignity of a city in 
1847, by being constituted the see of a bishop, and by royal proclamation in 
1853. It is situated on the river Irwell, in the hundred of Salford, and county 
of Lancaster, and is distant from London 188 miles by the London and North- 
western Railway, 189 by the Midland, 188J by the Great Northern, and 31| 
from the port of Liverpool. According to the census of 1881, the municipal 
borough of Manchester contained 3-41,414 inhabitants, and the Parliamentary 
borough, which includes the townships of Harpurhey, Newton, Bradford, and 
Beswick, contained 393,585. In 1885 the city boundary was extended to include 
Rusholme, Bradford, and Harpurhey, and the population of the municipal 
borough was thus raised to 373,583, and of the Parliamentary borough to 
404,823. The limits of the municipal and Parliamentary borough of Salford 
are identical, and the population at the census of 1881 was 176,2.35. 

The following outline of the history of the city is condensed from an 
article contributed to the Encyclojicedia Britannica by the editor of this 
volume : — 

Very little is known with certainty of the early history of Manchester. It 
has, indeed, been conjectured, and with some probability, that at Castlefield 
there was a British fortress, which was afterwards taken possession of by 
Agricola. It is, at all events, certain that a Roman station of some importance 
existed in this locality, and a fragment of the wall still exists. The period 
succeeding the Roman occupation is for some time legendary. As late as the 
17th century there was a floating tradition that Tarquin, an enemy of King 
Arthur, kept the castle of Manchester, and was killed by Launcelot of the 
Lake. Early mention of the town, in authentic annals, is scanty. It was 
probably one of the scenes of the missionary preaching of Paulinus ; and it is 
said (though by a chronicler of comparatively late date) to have been the 
residence of Ina, King of Wessex, and his queen Ethelberga, after he had 
defeated Ivor, somewhere about the year 689. Nearly the only point of certainty 
in its history before the Conquest is that it suffered greatly from the devasta- 
tions of the Danes, and that in 923 Edward, who was then at Thelwall, near 
Warrington, sent a number of his Mercian troops to repair and garrison it. In 
Doviesday Book, Manchester, Salford, Rochdale, and Radcliffe are the only 
places named in South-East Lancashire, a district now covered by populous 
towns. Large portions of it were then forest, wood, and waste lands. Twenty- 
one thanes held the manor of Salford among them. The church of St. Mary 
and the church of St. Michael, in Manchester, are both named in Domesday, 
and some difficulty has arisen as to their proper identification. Most anti- 
quaries have considered that the passage refers to the town only, whilst others 



vi Introduction. 



think it relates to the parish, and that, while St. Mary's is the present Manches- 
ter Cathedral, St. Michael's would be the present parish church of Ashton-under 
Lyne. Manchester and Salford are so closely allied that it is impossible to 
disassociate their history. Salford received a charter from Ranulph de 
Blundeville, in the reign of Henry III., constituting it a free borough, and 
Manchester, in 1301, received a similar warrant of municipal liberties and 
privileges, from its baron, Thomas Gresley, a descendant of one to whom the 
manor had been given by Roger of Poictou, who was created by William the 
Conqueror lord of all the land between the rivers Mersey and Ribble. The 
Gresleys were succeeded by the De la Warres, the last of whom was educated 
for the priesthood, and became rector of the town. To avoid the evil of a non- 
resident clergy, he made considerable additions to the lands of the church, in 
order that it might be endowed as a collegiate institution. A sacred guild was 
thus formed, whose members were bound to perform the necessary services of 
the parish church, and to whom the old baronial hall was granted as a place of 
residence. The manorial rights passed to Sir Reginald West, the son of Joan 
Greslet, and he was summoned to Parliament as Baron de la Warre. The 
West family, in 1579, sold the manorial rights for £3,000 to John Lacy, who, in 
1596, resold them to Sir Nicholas Mosley, whose descendants enjoyed the 
emoluments and profits derived from them until 1845, when they were 
purchased by the Town Council of Manchester for d6200,000. The lord 
of the manor had the right to tax and toll all articles brought for sale into the 
market of the town ; but, though the inhabitants were thus to a large extent 
taxed for the benefit of one individual, they had a far greater amount of local self- 
government than might have been supposed, and the Court Leet, which was the 
governing body of the town, had, though doubtless in a somewhat rudimentary 
form, nearly all the powers and functions now possessed by municipal corpora- 
tions. This court had not only control over the watching and watering of the 
town, the regulation of the water supply, and the cleaning of the streets, but 
also had power, which at times was used freely, of interfering with what 
would now be considered the private liberty of their fellow-citizens. Some of 
the regulations adopted, and presumably enforced, sound grotesque at the 
present day. Under the protection of the barons the town appears to have 
steadily increased in prosperity, and it early became an important seat of the 
textile manufactures. Fulling mills were at work in the 13th century ; and 
documentary evidence exists to show that woollen manufactures were carried 
on in Ancoats at that period. An Act passed in the reign of Edward VI. regu- 
lates the length of cottons called Manchester, Lancashire, and Cheshire cottons. 
These, notwithstanding their name, were probably all woollen textures. It is 
thought that some of the Flemish weavers who were introduced into England 
by Queen Philippa of Hainault were settled at Manchester ; and Fuller has given 
an exceedingly quaint and picturesque description of the manner in which these 
artisans were welcomed by the inhabitants of the country they were about to 
enrich with a new industry, one which, in after centuries, has become perhaps 
the most important industry in the country. The Flemish weavers were, in 
all probability, reinforced by religious refugees from the Low Countries. 
Leland, writing in 1638, decribes Manchester as the "fairest, best builded, 
quickest, and most populous town of Lancashire." In 1641 we hear of 
the Manchester people purchasing linen yarn from the Irish, weaving it. 



Introduction. vii 



and returning it for sale in a finished state. They also brought cotton wool 
from Smyrna to work into fustians and dimities. The right of sanctuary 
had been granted to the town, but this was found to be so detrimental to its 
industrial pursuits that, after very brief experience, the privilege was taken 
away. The college of Manchester was dissolved in 1547, but was re-founded in 
Mary's reign. Under her successor the town became the head-quarters of 
the commission for establishing the reformed religion. In the civil wars the 
town was besieged by the Royalists under Lord Strange, but was successfully 
defended by the inhabitants under the command of a German soldier of 
fortune. Colonel Rosworm, who complained with some bitterness of their 
ingratitude to him. An earlier affray between the Puritans and some of Lord 
Strange's followers is said to have occasioned the shedding of the first blood 
in the disastrous struggle between the King and Parliament. The year 1689 
witnessed that strange episode, the trial of those concerned in the so-called Lan- 
cashire plot, which ended in the triumphant acquittal of the supposed Jacobites. 
That the district really contained many ardent sympathisers with the Stuarts 
was, however, shown in the rising of 1715, when the clergy ranged themselves to 
a large extent on the side of the Pretender, and was still more clearly shown in 
the rebellion of 1745, when the town was taken possession of by Prince Charles 
Edward Stuart, and a regiment, known afterwards as the Manchester regiment, 
was formed and placed under the command of Colonel Francis Townley. In 
the fatal retreat of the Stuart troops the Manchester contingent was left to 
garrison Carlisle, and surrendered to the Duke of Cumberland. The oflicers 
were taken to London, where they were tried for high treason and beheaded on 
Kennington Common. The variations of political action in Manchester had 
been exceedingly well marked. In the 16th century, although it produced 
both Catholic and Protestant martyrs, it was earnestly in favour of the 
reformed faith, and in the succeeding century it became indeed a stronghold 
of Puritanism. Yet the descendants of the Roundheads, who defeated the 
army of Charles I., were Jacobite in their sympathies, and by the latter half of 
the 18th century had become imbued with the aggressive form of patriotic 
sentiment known as Anti-Jacobinism, which showed itself chielly in dislike of 
reform and reformers of every description. A change was, however, imminent. 
The distress caused by war and taxation, towards the end of the last and the 
beginning of the present century, led to bitter discontent, and the anomalies 
existing in the Parliamentary system of representation afforded only too fair 
an object of attack. AVhile single individuals in some portions of the country, 
had tlie power to return members of Parliament for their pocket boroughs, 
great towns like Manchester were entirely without representation. The 
injudicious conduct of the authorities, also, led to an increase in the bitterness 
with which the working classes regarded the condition of society in which 
they found themselves compelled to toil with very little profit to themselves. 
Their expressions of discontent, instead of being wisely regarded as symptoms 
of disease in the body politic, were looked upon as crimes, and the severest 
efforts were made to repress all expression of dissatisfaction. This foolish 
policy of the authorities reached its culmination in the alVair of Petcrloo, 
which may be regarded as the starting point of the modern Reform agita:ion. 
This was in 1819, when an immense crowd assembled on St. Peters Field?, (uow 



Introduction. 



covered by the Free Trade Hall and warehouses) to petition Parliament for a 
redress in their grievances. The authorities had the Riot Act read, but in such 
manner as to be quite unheard by the mass of the people, and drunken 
yeomanry cavalry were then turned loose upon the unresisting mass' of 
spectators. The yeomanry appear to have used their sabres somewhat freely ; 
several people were killed and many more injured, and although the magistrates 
received the thanks of the Prince Regent and the ministry, their conduct excited 
the deepest indignation throughout the entire country. Naturally enough, the 
Manchester politicians took an important part in the reform agitation, and 
when the Act of 1832 was passed, the town sent as its representatives the 
Right Hon. C. P. Thomson, Vice-President of the Board of Trade, and Mr. Mark 
Philips. With one notable exception, this was the first time that Manchester 
had been represented in Parliament since its barons had seats in the House of 
Peers in the earlier centuries. In 1654 Mr. Charles Worsley and in 1656 Mr. 
R. RadclifFe were nominated to represent it in Cromwell's Parliaments. Worsley 
Avas a man of great ability, and must ever have a conspicuous place in history 
as the man who carried out the injunction of the Protector to "remove that 
bauble," the mace of the House of Commons. The agitation for the repeal of 
the corn-laws had its head-quarters at Manchester, and the success which 
attended it, not less than the active interest taken by its inhabitants in public 
questions, has made the city the home of various projects of reform. The 
"United Kingdom Alliance for the Suppression of the Liquor Traffic" was 
founded there in 1853, and during the continuance of the American war the 
adherents both of the North and of the South deemed it desirable to have 
organisations to influence public opinion in favour of their respective causes 
A charter of incorporation was granted in 1838; a bishop was appointed in 
1847 ; and the town became a city in 1853. The Lancashire cotton famine, 
caused by the civil war in America, produced much distress in the Manchester 
district, and led to a national movement to help the starving operatives. The 
relief operations then organised are amongst the most remarkable efforts of 
modern philanthropy. 

The spinning of cotton and the manufacture of various fabrics from that 
article are the staple of the Manchester district. There are also calico-printing 
works, in a wide circuit round Manchester, of great magnitude, and the ware- 
houses established in the city in connection therewith are of corresponding 
extent ; while the bleach and dye works, for miles round, furnish employment 
to numerous hands. The manufacture of an infinite variety of articles com- 
prised in the general term of " smallwares" engages a large amount of capital, 
and many of the mills are of large dimensions. Ironfounding and the manu- 
facture of stationary and locomotive steam engines, together with machine and 
tool making, are branches of great importance, employing immense power and 
expenditure. Many chemical works are on an extensive scale, and in the 
vicinity are paper mills. The merchants and manufacturers of Manchester 
have commercial relations with all parts of the world. 

Manchester contains some fine public buildings, the most noteworthy 
being the Royal Exchange, Assize Courts, Royal Infirmary, Free Trade 
Hall, Royal Institution, the Town Hall, the Owens College, and the Post 
Office. The new Town Hall is one of the most spacious and elegant struc- 



Introduction. ix 



tures in Europe, and is probably the largest in the world devoted to civic 
purposes. Besides public edifices, there are many warehouses of gigantic size, 
foremost among which stands the magnificent warehouse of Messrs. S. and J^ 
Watts. Many new streets have been formed of late years, and others widened 
for the immense traffic constantly passing along them. Nearly in the centre 
of the city is Albert Square, in which stands the new Town Hall and the 
memorial erected to the late Prince Consort. Deansgate, an ancient thorough- 
fare of many centuries' existence, has been transformed into a broad and 
handsome street. 

The charitable institutions of the city are numerous, affording relief and 
consolation to the poor and indigent. The educational machinery of Man- 
chester and Salford ranges from excellent elementary schools to the Victoria 
University, empowered to grant degrees alike to men and women. Schools 
for the Deaf and Dumb and an Asylum for the Blind are likewise provided ; 
whilst the foundations of Bishop Oldham, Humphrey Chetham, and Benjamin 
NichoUs remain as monuments worthy of imitation. 

The government of Manchester, previous to the charter of incorporation 
being granted, was vested in a boroughreeve, two constables, and other 
officers, elected or appointed at the Court Leet of the Lord of the Manor. The 
corporate body, under the municipal charter, consisted of a mayor, fifteen 
aldermen, and forty-eight councillors. This number has increased, since the 
incorporation of Rusholme, Bradford, and Harpurhey into the city, to nineteen 
aldermen and fifty-seven councillors. The first election took place on the 14th 
December, 1838, and on the loth Mr. Thomas Potter, afterwards knighted, was 
elected to the civic chair, and the following year le-elected. A stipendiary 
magistrate sits daily at the City Court, MinshuU Street, for the disposing of 
petty offences, or committal to the sessions or assizes of more serious offenders. 
Salford also has a stipendiary magistrate, who sits at the Town Hall. Assizes 
are held thrice during the year, and sessions every six weeks. 



APPENDICES TO INTEODUCTION. 



LIST OF THE BOROUGHRBEVES OP MANCHESTER. 



1552-3 Robert Becke (d. between Sept. 30, 
1556, and April 21, 1557). 

1553-4 

1554-5 Nicholas Sydall. 

1555-6 William Hardey (d. between Sept. 30 
and March 20, 1556). 

1556-7 Peter Cowopp. 

1557-8 Richard Owen. 

1558-9 
1559-60 John Gee (d. 1589). 

1560-1 Richard Galley. 

1561-2 Thomas Harrison. 

1562-3 Edward Rilstone. , 

1563-4 Thomas WUlott. 

1564-5 

1665-6 George Pendleton (draper). 

1566-7 James Chorlton. 

1567-8 John Davy. 

156S-9 Christopher Grant. 
1569-70 Edward Hanson. 

1570-1 Ralph Proudlove. 

1571-2 William Biguley. 

1572-3 John Birch. 

1573-4 John Radcliffe. 

1574-5 Humfrey Haughton. 

1575-6 George Birch. 

1576-7 John Gee. 

1577-8 John Gee. 
1578-9 Robert Langley. 
1579-80 Thomas Goodier. 

1580-1 Henry Gee. 

1581-2 Thomas Becke (son of Robert). 

1582-3 Henry Pendleton. 
1583-4 George Travis, sen. 
1584-5 George Proudlove. 
1585-6 Richard Sorocold. 
1586-7 Robert Langley. 
1587-8 Roger Hardey. 
1588-9 Roger Bexwick. 
1589-90 Richard Moreton. 
1590-1 George Travis. 
1591-2 Anthony Mosley. 
1592-3 John Gee. 
1593-4 Humfrey Haughton. 
1594-5 Robert Langley. 
1595-6 George Tipping. 
1596-7 Oswald Moseley. 



1597-8 Thomas Goodier, sen. 
159S-9 Richard Nugent. 
1599-1600 Richard Fox. 
1600-1 Nicholas Hartley. 
1601-2 William Radcliffe. 
1602-3 Robert Langley. 
1603-4 George Tipping. 
1604 Alexander Radclyfife (to Easter, 1606). 
April 

1606 Robert Goodier (to October). 
Oct. 

1606-7 William Stanley. 
1607-8 Oswald Mosley, jun. 
1608-9 Francis Pendilton. 
1609-10 Lawrence Langley. 
1610-11 Adam Smith. 
1611-12 Robert Robinson. 
1612-13 William Radclyffe. 
1613-14 Thomas Brownsword. 
1614-15 Francis Mosley. 
1615-16 William Spark. 
161617 Francis Pendleton. 
1617-18 Alexander Radclyffe. 
1618-19 James Fox. 
1619-20 Richard Fox. 
1620-1 Edward Marler; 
1621-2 Stephen Radley. 
1622-3 William Radclyffe. 
1623-4 Henry Keley. 
1624-5 Henry Johnson. 
1625-6 Thomas Lancashire. 
1626-7 Richard Halliwell. 
1027-S James Fox. 
1628-9 George Clarke. 
1629-30 William Cooke. 
1630-1 John Hartley. 
1631-2 Rowland Mosley. 
1632-3 Wilham Bell. 
1633-4 John Beswick. 
1634-5 John Marler. 
1635-6 Francis Mosley. 
1636-7 Samuel Tipping. 
1637-8 John Radclyffe. 
1638-9 Edward Johnson. 
1639-40 Geoffrey Croxton. 
1640-1 Michael Dickonson. 
The Records are missing from 1641 to 1647. 



Appendices to Introduction. 



XI 



BOROUGHREEVES OF 
Oct. 

1647-8 Thomas Lancashire. 
164S-9 John JIarler. 

April 
1650 Nicholas Hawett. 

Oct. 
1650-1 Edward Johnson. 
1651-2 Richard Radclifife, Esq. 
1652-3 William Jackson. 
1653-4 Henry Dickonson. 
1654-5 Robert Marler. 
1655-6 James Lancashire. 
1656-7 Michael Buxton. 
1657-S William Byrom (of Manchester, re<. 48, 

1664). 
1658-9 Thomas Illingworth. 

April 
1660 Henry Dickonson. 

Oct. 

1660-1 Robert HiU. 
1661-2 Nicholas Mosley. 
1662-3 Thomas Becke. 
1G63-4 John Lightbowne, Esq. 
1664-5 Richard Meare. 
1665-6 John Hartley, Esq. 
The Records are missing from 1666 to 1668. 
1669-70 Michael Buxton. 
1670-1 John Alexander. 
1671-2 John Holbrooke. 
1672-3 Edward Bootle. 
1673-4 John Moxon. 
1674-5 Joseph Higham. 

1675-6 Humfrey Marler. 

1676-7 John Sandiford. 

1677-8 Richard Fox. 

1678-9 Samuel Dickonson. 
1679-80 William Hunter. 

1680-1 WiUiam Byrom. 

1G81-2 Laurence Gardner. 

1682-3 

1683-4 Thomas Shawe. 

1684-5 Matthew Bootle. 

1685-6 

1686-7 Robert Illingworth. 

The Records are missing from 1087 to 1730. 

1731-2 Jeremiah Bradshaw. 

1732-3 Richard Davenport. 

1733-4 Robert Bowkcr. 

1734-5 Thomas Birch. 

1735-6 Richard Millington. 

1736-7 Jonathan Lees. 

1737-8 James Edge. 

1738-9 Edward Byrom. 
1739-40 Samuel Clowes (of Broughton, d. July, 
1773). 

1740-1 Roger Sedgwick. 

1741-2 John Stott. 

1742-3 John Stockport. 

1743-4 Jeremiah Bower. 



MANCHESTER— Co»<m?<e(/. 

Oct. 

1744-5 .Tohn Hawks well. 

1745-6 John Fielden. 

1746-7 Abraham Hawarth. 

1747-8 William Clowes. 

1748-9 Miles Bower. 
1740-50 John Dickenson. 

1750-1 Robert Livesey. 

1751-2 John Moss. 

1752-3 Thomas Johnson. 

1753-4 Samuel Ridings. 

1754-5 Joseph Alexander. 

1755-6 Jonathan Patten. 

1756-7 Thomas Parrott. 

1757-8 Thomas Tipping, sen. 

175S-9 James Greatrex. 
1759-60 John Markland. 

1760-1 Thomas Battersbee. 

1761-2 Edward Byrom. 

1762-3 Thomas Chadwick. 

1763-4 Thomas Tipping. 

1764-5 John Hardman. 

1765-6 James Hodson. 

1766-7 Charles Ford. 

1767-8 James Borron. 

1768-9 William Edge. 
1769-70 Robert Gartside. 

1770-1 Samuel Clowes, jun. (d. January 
1801, son of Samuel, 1739). 

1771-2 Thomas Stott. 

1772-3 John Heywood. 

1773-4 Edward Borron. 

1774-5 Benjamin Bower. 

1775-6 Thomas Marriott. 

1776-7 Daniel Whitaker. 

1777-8 Joseph Ryder. 

1778-9 William Bullock. 
1779-80 Thomas Chadwick. 

1780-1 Benjamin Luke Winter. 

1781-2 Nathaniel Philips. 

1782-3 Lawrence Gardner. 

1783-4 Thomas Johnson. 

1784-5 William Houghton. 

1785-6 Thomas Starkie. 

17S6-7 John Kearslcy. 

17S7-S George Barton. 

1788-9 James Billings. 
1789-90 Edward Place. 

1790-1 Thomas Walker. 

1791-2 Nath.an Crompton. 

1792-3 Jamos Ackers. 

1793-4 James Entwistle. 

1794-5 Thomas Richardson. 

1795-6 Henry Farrington. 

1796-7 Joseph Hardman. 

1797-S John Poole. 

1798-9 William .Myers. 
1799-1800 Charles Frederick Br 
1 800-1 John Tetlow. 



Xll 



Appendices to Introduction. 



BOROUGHREEVES OF MANCHESTER— Conimwcd. 




Oct. 


Oct. 




1801-2 Joseph Thackery 


1824-5 S. Grimshaw. 




1802-3 Samuel Smith. 


1825-6 WiUiam Lomas. 




1803-4 Edward Hobson. 
1804-5 James Hibbert. 


1826-7 George Neden. 
1827-8 Charles Cross. 




1805-6 William Fox. 


1828-9 David Bannerman. 




1806-7 Joseph Seddon. 
1807-8 "William Starkie. 


1829-30 Bulkeley Price. 
1830-1 James Burt. 




180S-9 Richard Rush worth. 
1809-10 Johu Ratcliffe. 
1810-11 Thomas Fosbrooke. 
1811-12 Richard Wood. 
1812-13 Jeremiah Fielding. 
1813-14 Thomas Hardmau. 
1814-15 Hugh Hornby Birley. 
1815-16 Wm. Johnson Edensor. 
1816-17 Joseph Green. 


1831-2 Benjamin Braidley. 
1832-3 The same reappointed. 
1833-4 R. C. Sharp. 
1834-5 Edmund Buckley. 
1835-6 John Macvicar. 
1836-7 John Hyde. 
1837-8 John Brown. 
1838-9 Thomas Evans. 
1839-40 John Brooks. 




1817-18 T. Scholes Withington. 


1840-1 David Ainsworth. 




1818-19 Edward Clayton. 


1841-2 Richard Birley. 




1819-20 Thomas Sharp. 


1842-3 John Woollam. 




1820-1 James Brierley. 


1843-4 The same reappointed. 




1821-2 The same reappointed. 


1844-5 John Burgess. 




1822-3 Thomas Worthington. 


1845-6 Alexander Kay, the last 


Borough- 


1823-4 Gilbert Winter. 


reeve of Manchester. 





LIST OP THE MAYORS OF MANCHESTER. 

1. Sir Thomas Potter, Knight (died March 20, 1845) 1838-9, 1839-40 

2. WiUiam Nield (died April 4, 1864) 1840-1, 1841-2 

3. James Kershaw, M.P. Stockport (died April 27, 1864) 1 842-3 

4. *Alexander Kay (died May 16, 1863) 1843-4, 1844-5 

5. WilUam Benjamin Watkins (died June 24, 1864) 1845-6 

6. Sir- Elkanah Armitage, Knight (died November 26, 1S76) 1846-7, 1847-S 

7. Sir John Potter, Knight, M.P. (died October 25, 1858) 1848-9, 1849-50, 1850-51 

8. Robert Barnes (died December 25, 1871) 1851-2, 1852-3 

P. Benjamin Nicholls (died March 1, 1877) 1853-4, 1854-5 

10. Su- James Watts, Knight (died April 6, 1S7S) 1855-6, 1856-7 

11. Ivie Mackie (died February 23, 1873) 1857-8, 1858-9, 1859-60 

12. Matthew Curtis 1860-1, 1875-6 

13. Thomas Goadsby (died February 16, 1800) 1861-2 

] 4. Abel Hey wood 1862-3, 1S76-7 

15. John Marsland Bennett 1863-4, 1864-5 

16. William Bowker (died April 7, 1S6S) 1865-6 

17. Robert Neill 1866-7, 1867-8 

IS. John Grave 1868-9, 1869-70, 1870-1 

19. William Booth (died September 16, 1SS3) 1871-2, 1872-3 

20. Alfred Watkin (died June 23, 1875) 1873-4 

21. John King, jun 1874-5 

22. Charles Sydney Grundy 1877-8, 1878-9 

23. Henry Patteson 1879-80 

24. Sir Thomas Baker, Knight (died April 17, 1886) 1880-1. 1S81-2 

25. John Hopkinson 1882-3 

26. Philip Goldschmidt 1883-4 

27. John James Harwood 1884-5 

28. Philip Goldschmidt 1885-6 



* Last Boroughreeve. 



Ap-pendices to Introduction. 



Xlll 



LIST OF THE BOROUGHREEVES OP SALFORD. 



1732 Peter Guest. 
X733 Richard Berry. 

J^5 I Charles Bramwell. 

1736 Adam Crouchley. 

1737 John Wilcoxon. 

1738 Roger Nield. 

1739 James Ueau 

1740 Thomas Nield. 

1741 William Bell. 

1742 James Massey. 

1743 Thomas Wilcoxon. 

1744 William Barlow. 

1745 Roger Birch. 

1746 Thomas Hulme. 

1747 Thomas Wilcoxon. 

1748 John Withington. 

1749 Charles Bramall, jun. 

1750 Samuel Worthington. 

1751 Richard Barrow. 

1752 Samuel Horridge. 

1753 John Mellor. 

1754 Thomas Nightingale. 

1755 Charles Mills. 

1756 John Cooke. 

1757 John Bury. 

1758 Thomas Gorton. 

1759 John Booth Gore. 

1760 Robert Gorton. 

1761 Richard Bury. 

1762 Benjamin Richardson. 

1763 John Leech. 

1764 William Christopher. 

1765 Francis Baxter. 

1766 Henry Birtles. 

1767 James Cockerill. 

1768 Joseph Barrett. 

1769 Robert Parrin. 

1770 Peter Wright. 

1771 Thomas Shorrocks. 

1772 Thomas Barrow. 
1173 William Leaf. 

1774 Miles Dixon. 

1775 William Loxham. 

1776 Edward Hobson. 

1777 William Barrow. 

1778 Thomas Chesshyre. 

1779 James Cook. 

1780 John Barrow. 

1781 James Bury, jun. 

1782 James Holland. 

JZ^H Thomas Walker. 

1785 Richard Gorton. 

1786 Daniel Eddleston. 

1787 Benjamin Makin. 

1788 Thomas Partington. 

1789 Edward Hobson. 



1790 Richard Harrison. 

1791 James Kay. 

1792 Joseph Harrop. 

1793 George Walker. 

1794 Jonathan Beever. 

1795 Robert Hindley. 

1796 George Clowes. 

1797 Dauntsey Hulme. 

1798 John Broom. 

1799 John Boardman. 

1800 John Atkinson. 

1801 William Beck. 

1802 Nat. Kirkham. 

1803 Nat. Shelmerdine. 

1804 David Locke. 

1805 Thomas Holland. 
1S06 William Norris. 

1807 James Hall. 

1808 B. H. Green. 

1809 George Gould. 

1810 William Tate. 

1811 William Hutchinson. 

1812 Henry Burgess. 

1813 Thomas O. Gill. 

1814 Robert Hindley. 

1815 John Heygate. 

1816 Richard Bindloss. 

1817 Joseph Buckley. 

1818 John Greenwood. 

1819 John E. Scholes. 

1820 Jerry Lees. 

1821 Nat. Shelmerdine. 

1822 James Leech. 

1823 Thomas Marriott. 

1824 Benjamin Booth. 

1825 George Jones. 

1826 Thomas Heywood. 

1827 William Hatton. 

1828 Josiah Collier. 

1829 John Bradshaw Wanklyn. 

1830 James Kerr. 

1831 William Hill. 

1832 John Dugdale. 

1833 Lot Gardner. 

1834 William Jenkinson. 

1835 James Hall, jun. 

1836 James Garratt Frost. 

1837 Elkanah Amiitago (afterwards 

Elkanah Armitage, Kt.) 

1838 John Leeming. 

1839 Thomas Bazley (afterwards Sir Thomas 

Bazley, Bt.) 

1840 George H. HaU. 

1841 Holland Hoolo. 

1842 William Lockett. 

1843 Robert Chadwick. 

1844 William Lockett, the last Boroughreeve 

and first Mayor of Salford. 



Sir 



XIV 



Appendices to Introduction. 



LIST OF THE MAYORS OP SALFORD. 

WiUiam Lockett (died July 7, 1856) 1844-5 

John Kay (died April 26, 1871) 1845-6 

Eobert Parren Livingstone (died September 11, 1853) 1846-7 

William Jenkinson (died February 28, 1862) 1847-8 

Edward Ryley Langworthy, M.P. (died April 7, 1874) 1848-9, 1849-50 

Thomas Agnew (died March 21, 1871) 1850-1 

Frank Ashton (died March 7, 1885) 1851-2, 1852-3 

William Ross (died 1873) 1853-4, 1854-5 

Stephen Heelis (died 1871) 1855-6, 1856-7 

William Harvey (died December 25, 1870) 1857-8, 1858-9 

James Woods Weston (died April 22, 1877) 1859-60, 1860-1 

James Worrall 1861-2 

WUliam Pearson (died 1873) 1862-3, 1863-4 

Wright Turner (died 1880) 1864-5, 1865-6 

Henry Davis Pochin 1866-7, 1867-8 

Thomas Davies (died October 18, 1885) 1S6S-9, 1869-70, 1S70-1 

Thomas Barlow (died 1885) 1871-2, 1872-3 

Bichard Harwood 1873-4, 1874-5, 1875-6 

Francis Harrison Walmsley 1876-7, 1877-8 

William Robinson 1878-9, 1879-80, 1880-1 

Richard Husband 1881-2, 1SS2-3 

Charles Makinson 1883-4, 1884-5 

James Farmer 1885-6 



PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS 



BOROUGH OF MANCHESTER. 



Charles Worsley, of Piatt, first Representative, by order of Oliver Cromwell, July 10th, 1654. 
Richard Radcliffe, of e Pool, August 12th, 1656. 



1832— Dec. 13 & 14. Votes. 

Mark Philips (l) 2923 

Right Hon. C. P. Thomson (l) 2068 

Samuel Jones Loyd (l) 1832 

John Thomas Hope (c) 1560 

William Cobbett (l) 1305 

1835— Jan. 8 & ;>. 

Right Hon, C. P. Thomson (l) 3355 

Mark PhUips (l) 3163 

B. Braidley (c) 2535 

Sir Charles Wolseley (l) 5S3 

1835— April 28 (fe 29. 

Bight Hon. C. P. Thomson (l) 3205 

B. Braidley (c) 1839 

1837— July 27. 

Bight Hon. C. P. Thomson (l) 4158 

Mark Philips (l) 3750 

W. E. Gladstone (c) 2281 

1839— September 5. 

R. H. Greg (l) 3096 

Sir George Murray (c) 2969 

Colonel Thomson (l) 93 

(Before the Boroughreeve.) 



1839— September 6. Votes. 

B. H. Greg (l) 3421 

Sir George Murray (c) 3156 

(Before the Mayor.) 

1841- June 30. 

Mark Philips (l) 3695 

T. M. Gibson (l) 3575 

Sir George Murray (c) 3115 

WiUiam Entwistle (c) 2692 

1847— July 29. 
Bt. Hon. T. M. Gibson (l) ) 
John Bright (l) ) 



. Uiiopposed. 



1852— July 8. 

Bight Hon. T. M. Gibson (l) 576 

John Bright (l) 5475 

George Loch (lc) 4363 

Captain Denman (lc) , 3955 

1857— March 28. 

Sir John Potter (l) 8368 

James Aspinall Turner (l) 7854 

Bight Hon. T. M. Gibson (l) 5588 

John Bright (l) 5458 



Appendices to Introduction. 



XV 



PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS FOR MANCHESTER— Conimwed 



1S5S— November 17. 
Thomas Bazley (l) Unopposed 

1S59— April 30. Votes. 

Thomas Bazley (l) 7545 

James Aspiiiall Turner (l) 7300 

Abel Heywood (l) 5448 

Captain Denman (c) 5201 

1865— July 1. 

Thomas Bazley (l) 7009 

Edward James. Q.C. (l) 6698 

Jacob Bright (l) 5562 

Abel Heywood (l) 4242 

1867— November 26. 

Jacob Bright (l) 8160 

J. M. Bennett (c) 6420 

Mitchell Henry (l) 643 

1868— November 17. 

Hugh Birley (c) 15486 

Thomas Bazley (l) 14192 

Jacob Bright (l) 13514 

Joseph Hoarc (c) 12684 

Ernest Jones (l) 10662 

Mitchel Henry fL) 5236 

1874 — February 5. 

Hugh Bhley (c) 10984 

W. R Callender (c) 19649 

Sir Thomas Bazley, Bart, (l) 19325 

Jacob Bright (l) 18727 

1876— February 17. 

Jacob Bright (l) 22535 

F. S. Powell (c) 20974 



ISSO— April 1. Votes. 

John Slagg (l) 24959 

Jacob Bright (l) 24789 

Hugh Birley (c) 20594 

W. H. Houldsworth (c) 20268 

1883— October 4. 

W. H. Houldsworth (c) 18188 

Dr. R. M. Pankhurst (r) 6210 

1885— November 26. 

East Division. 

A. J. Balfour (c) 4536 

A. Hopkinson (l) 3712 

North Division. 

J. F. Button (c) 4093 

C. E. Schwann (l) 3143 

North-East Division. 

Sir J. Fergusson (c) 4341 

R. P. Blennerhassett (l) 2893 

North-Wkst Division. 

W. H. Houldsworth (c) 5834 

John Slagg (l) 5111 

South Division. 

Sir H. E. Roscoe (l) 3791 

Dr. P. Royle (c) 3121 

South-West Division. 

Lord F. C. Hamilton (c) 3929 

Jacob Bright (l) 3362 



PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS 

FOR THE 

BOROUGH OF SALFORD. 



1832 — Decemlx;r. Votes. 

Josepli Brotherton (l) 712 

William Garnett (c) 518 

1S35— Januarj-. 

Joseph Brotherton (i.) 795 

John Dugdale (c) 572 

1837- August. 

Joseph Brotherton (l) 890 

William Garnett (c) 888 

1841— July 12. 

Joseph Brotherton (i.) 091 

William Garnett (c) 873 

1847— August. 
Joseph Brotherton (l) uno-pposed 

1852— July 7. 

Joseph Brotherton (l) unopposed 

(Died Jan. 7th, 1857.) 

1857 — February 2. 
E. R. Laiigworthy (l) unopposed 



1857— March 2. Votes. 

Wm. Nathaniel Massey (l) ISSO 

Su- Elkanah Armitagc (l) 1264 

1859- April 30. 

Wm. Natlianlel Massey (l) 1919 

Henry Ashworth (l) 17S7 

1864. 
John Cheetham (l) unopposed 

1SG5— July 12. 
John Cheetham (l) unopposed 

1868— November 17. 

C. E. Cawlcy(<) 6312 

W. T. Charley (i ) 6181 

John Cheetham (l) 6141 

Henry Rasvsou (l) G013 

1874— February 5. 

C. E.Cawley(c) 7003 

(Died April 2nd, 1877.) 

W. T. Charley (c) 6987 

Joseph Kay (i.) 6829 

Henry Lee (l) 0707 



XVI 



A'ppendices to Introduction. 



PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS FOR ^kluFOWD— Continued. 
lS77~April 19. Votes. 



O. O. Walker (c) 8642 

Joseph Kay (l) 8372 

1880— April 1. 

Benjamin Armitage (l) 11116 

Arthur Arnold (l) 11110 

Sir W. T. Charley, Kt, Q.C. (c) .. 8400 

O. O. Walker (c) 8302 



1885— November 25. 

NORTH DIVISION. VotCS. 

E. Hardcastle (c) 3519 

A. Arnold (l) 3343 

SOUTH DIVISION. 

WiUiam Mather (l) 3752 

T. G. Bowles (c) 3690 

WEST DIVISION. 

B. Armitage (l) 3437 

Sir W. C. Worsley (c) 340 



POPULATION AND ACREAGE OF THE 
OP MANCHESTER. 



CITY 



Ward. 


Population 
in 18S1 


Area in 
Statute Acres 




9,328 

813 

10,515 

346 

4,378 

4,653 

11,650 

25,721 

l 63,941 

47,980 
24,078 
31,197 
33,139 
22,468 
11,238 
.34,545 
36,602 


137 




45 




125 




39 




97 


Oxford , 


136 




151 




919 




(252 
1501 






355 




385 




509 




419 




227 




1,153 


Medlock Street 


194 




283 












Totals 


373,583 
341,414 


5,927 


Before the Extension 
totals were 


of City Boundary in 


1885, 


the 


4,292 



HOUSES AND POPULATION OP SALFORD 

AT THE CENSUS OF 1881, WITH ACREAGE. 



Area in 
Statute 
Acres. 



HOOSES. 



Population. 



Inha- 
bited. 



Sed -S""'^^"^ ^^«'^* 



Total 



Broughton 

Pendleton and Pendlebury 
Salf ord 

Totals 

Wards. 

Crescent ». 

Greengate 

Islington 

Kersal 

Ordsal 

Regent 

St. John's 

St. Matthias's 

St. Stephen's 

St. Thomas's 

Seedley 

Trinity 

Totals 



1,426 
2,416 
1,329 



6,156 
8,574 
19,476 



967 
1,369 
2,157 



5,171 



34,20 



4,493 



178 
61 

124 
1,046 

226 
521 
367 

77 

104 

817 

1,598 

52 



2,395 
1,446 
1,904 
3,516 
4,748 
3,701 
2,710 
2,165 
1,886 
3,591 
4,983 
1,161 



318 
112 
199 
548 
447 
593 
428 
152 
122 
470 
899 
205 



25 

51 

161 



14,589 
20,323 
49,698 



217 I 84,610 



5,553 
3,443 
4,620 
8,127 

12,813 
9,872 
6,650 
5,183 
4,527 
8,554 

11,769 
3,199 



16,945 

22,794 
51,886 



91,625 



6,273 

3,632 

4,903 

9,692 

12,487 

10,445 

7,389 

5,718 

4,970 

9,637 

13,157 

3,322 



31,534 

43,117 

101,584 



176,235 



12,126 

7,075 

9,523 

17,819 

25,300 

20,317 

14,039 

10,901 

9,497 

18,191 

24,926 

6,521 



.5,171 



34,206 



4,493 



217 84,610 91,625 



176,235 



Appendices to Introduction. 



xvii 



ACREAGE, POPULATION, AND RATEABLE VALUE 

OF LOCAL BOARD DISTRICTS. 



District. 



Aiidenshaw 

Barton 

Crumpsall 

Denton and Haughton . . . . 

Droylsden 

Fail^worth 

Gorton and Longsight. . . . 

Heaton Norris 

Levensliulme 

Middleton and Tonge 

Moss Side 

Newton Heath 

Openshaw 

Prestwich 

Reddish 

Stretford 

Swinton and Pendlebury 

"Whitefield 

Withington 



Acres 


Population 


Rateable 


(ISSIJ 


Value 


1,165 


5,930 


£32,791 


2,200 


25,994 


110,000 


733 


8,154 


38,723 


2,593 


12,711 


40,367 


1,144 


8,679 


30,000 


1,073 


7,912 


36,092 


1,484 


33,096 


102,498 


1,564 


6,797 


36,007 


640 


3,557 


18,137 


4,584 


18,952 


55,019 


420 


18,184 


116,501 


1,350 


31,240 


97,419 


079 


16,153 


80,873 


1,917 


8,498 


40,330 


1,541 


5,557 


29,703 


3,254 


19,018 


122,986 


2,222 


18,107 


70,000 


2,048 


9,516 


40,242 


5,72S 


17,108 


137,289 



Jn the cases of Crumpsall and Prestwich the population is reckoned without the inmates qf 
the Workhouse and Asylv.m. 



ANNALS OP MANCHESTEE. 



48-79. 

THE first glimpse of historical Manchester is as a Roman military station. 
The castrum was situated on a tongue of land formed by a curve of the 
river Medlock, which "approached nearest to the fortress at the southern 
angle of the latter, from which it was distant about 85ft., forming a defence on 
the south-western side, a partial one on the south-eastern, and a more distant 
•one on the north-western. The river Irwell, running north and south, approaches 
nearest to the castrum opposite its western angle, from which it is distant 
about 528 yards, the junction of the Medlock with it occurring some 130 yards 
lower down. This proximity of the Irwell, and the intervention of a morass 
between it and the castrum, proved a second line of defence to the latter 
on its north-western side. The fortress occupied a slightly-elevated plateau, 
which had a gentle slope towards the south. In shape it was a paral- 
lelogram, the angles of which almost exactly faced the cardinal points. 
The north-eastern and south-western sides measured 490ft. in length, and 
the north-western and south-eastern sides 44;0ft., thus giving an area of 
about five acres. Whether a British post occupied the site previously 
to the advent of the Romans is a problem which can hardly now be solved." 
Such is the description given by Mr. W. Thompson Watkin in his Roman 
Lancashire. The Rev. John Whitaker unhesitatingly asserts that there was 
a British fortress, to which he gives the name of Manceuion, but there is no 
certain evidence either of the place or the name before the Roman conquest. 
The date of the foundation of Manchester is also uncertain, but it can be fixed 
within comparatively narrow limits. The Brigantes — the tribe to whom this 
district would belong — were subjugated by the Pro-praetor Petilius CereaUs, 
A.D. 71-75, It is known the lead mines of North Wales were worked as early 
•as A.D. 74, and that Chester and the roads to it from IManchester, by North- 
wich, and to Warrington, by Frodsham, &c., were then in existence. Mr. 
Watkin observes, " As the former of tliese roads would scarcely be made to 
Northwich only, we may safely assume that it was continued on to Man- 
chester, and thus that Maucunium was in existence in a.u. 74. Indeed, it is 
possible that Ostorius, who in a.d. 48 subdued the Cangi and put down a 
revolt of the Brigantes, may have founded Manchester at this juncture. The 
recorded inscriptions show that the First Cohort of the Frisiavones, who are 
regarded as the auxiliaries of the Twentieth Legion, were engaged in 



2 Annals of Manchester. [3ii-367 

the construction of the castrum. The Frisii came from the district now 
known as Friesland, and from the north and west of the Zuyder Zee, 
An ingenious attempt has been made in recent years to show that the 
language of these Roman auxiliaries has had a permanent eflPect on the 
dialect of South Lancashire. The Third Bracarian Cohort is also believed to 
have been stationed at Manchester. A fragment of the Roman wall still 
remains, and, by the care of the late Lord Francis Egerton, was covered 
with a wooden shed at the foot of one of the large piers of the Altrincham 
Railway Viaduct. Its preservation is provided for by deed. There was an 
altar to Fortuna Conservatrix — "Fortune the Preserver." (Hollin- 
worth, p. 16.) Another altar shows that at one time the garrison 
consisted of a vexillation of Rhaetii and Norici — Swiss and Tyrolese. 
A fine miniature statue of Jupiter Stator, a small cross, perhaps an 
indication of early Christianity, and a variety of smaller objects and coins, 
have from time to time been unearthed. These evidences of Roman 
occupation are fully described and discussed by Mr. Thompson Watkin in hia 
Roman Lancashire where many of them are illustrated. It will be seen 
that there is a probability that Manchester came under the Roman power by 
the agency of Petilius Cerealis, but it may not have been until the later cam- 
paigns of Agricola, whose progress by the woods and estuaries — special charac- 
teristics of Lancashire— is expressly mentioned by Tacitus in his narrative of 
the march by which the great general alarmed and terrifled the Brigantes, and 
subdued such communities as had still preserved their independence. The 
building of Mancunium would not therefore be later than a.d. 79, whilst it 
may have been as early as a.d. 48. Agricola, if we may trust Tacitus, had the 
wisdom of a statesman as well as the valour of a soldier. The winter after his 
conquest he began the task of civilising the conquered tribes, by teaching them 
the art of constructing houses and temples, by imparting to the sons of the 
native chieftains an acquaintance with liberal sciences and a knowledge of the 
Latin tongue. Thus they learned to imitate the manners, speech, and dress of 
the dominant race. 

In 1873, during the making of some roads in Broughton Park, the work- 
men came upon a cinerary urn containing calcined bones. It is now in the 
Peel Park Museum, Salford. 

311. 

This year is memorable as the date of the assumption of Christianity by 
Constantino the Great. His father died at York, 25th July, 306, and it was at 
that place, the capital of the district which included Manchester, that he 
assumed the purple. Before he left England for Rome he had conducted a brief 
but successful campaign against the Picts and Scots who had now begun to be 
troublesome. 

367. 

The Picts, Scots, and Saxons combined made an incursion into Southern 
Britain, but were driven back northwards by Theodosius, who returned most 
of their spoil to the rightful owners, and restored the damaged forts and 
cities to their former condition. How far Lancashire suffered is not known. 



378-4491 



Annals of Manchester. 



378-395. 

"When Theodosius, the son of the general whose victories have been named^ 
became joint Emperor with Gratian, his elevation to power excited the anger 
of Maximus, a former fellow-officer, who was proclaimed Emperor, it is said at 
York. He raised an army, which included the flower of the British youth, 
invaded Gaul and defeated Gratian, who was killed a.d. 383. But the star of 
Maximus soon paled, and he was defeated and slain by Theodosius a.d. 388. 
The victor died in 395", and in his reign was appointed the last known Governor 
of Britain, Ghrysanthus, who was Vicarius. 

400-421. 

It has been said that the famous Stilicho distinguished himself in Britain, 
but other authorities state that it was the terror caused by his crushing defeat 
of the Saxon pirates, the scourges of the northern coast, which led the Picts to 
retreat from Britain to their mountain fastnesses. 

The accession of Theodosius II., about a.d. 407, led to the apprehension of 
a Vandal invasion, and the Britons, with the Roman troops stationed in the 
island, revolted and proclaimed Marcus, who in a few months was killed and 
succeeded by Gratian, described as a native, whose reign was equally brief. 
The next Emperor was a common soldier, bearing the auspicious name of 
Constantine, who went to Gaul with a large following from this island, and 
conquered Spain and Northern Italy, and was assassinated a.d. 411. The 
revolt, however, had taken the best strength and blood from the land, and 
when the legions were recalled the country fell an easy prey to the attacks of 
the Picts and Scots. The exact date of the withdrawal of the Roman troops is 
not known, but " historians agree that it was in the earlier part of the reign of 
Theodosius II. (a.d. 402-450) that Britain, with several other provinces, was lost 
to the empire. Numismatic evidence confirms this, for while the coins of 
Honorius and Arcadius are plentiful, those of Theodosius II. are few, and of 
Vallentinian III. (a.d. 425-455) very rare — probably accidentally lost in the- 
course of commercial transactions. Lancashire has yielded very few coins of 
even Arcadius and Honorius " (Watkin). 

449. 

Baines narrates, on the authority of GeolTrey of Monmouth, the successes 
of Aurelius Ambrosius against the invading Saxons. Octa was conquered at 
York, and " Ebissa, who had probably occupied Manchester while Octa was 
stationed at York, also submitted ; but on the death of Ambrosius they 
revolted, and took Overbrough, Walton-le-Dale, Manchester, and Warrington. 
They were defeated and captured at York." Even if it were possible to accept 
Geoffrey of Monmouth as a sober chronicler, or to separate the grains of 
tradition from the mass of fable — which appears equally hopeless — it must be 
further confessed that Geoffrey makes no mention of Manchester in his narra- 
tive. He does not say that Manchester was part of the lordsliip or kingdom of 
Eosa, Ebusa, or Ebissa, as the chief is variously styled. He merely says that 
it was " the country bordering upon Scotland." The conqueror of Ebussa ia 
the legendary Uther, the father of Kin:: Arthur. 



4! Annals of Manchester. [520-689 

520. 

IloUinworth, in his Mancuniensis, refers to a tradition which must have 
been current in his, the seventeenth century. " It is sayd," he observes, " that 
Sir Tarquine, a stout enemie of King Arthur, kept this castle, and neere to the 
f oard in Medlock, about Mabhouse, hung a bason on a tree, on which bason 
whosoever did strike, Sir Tarquine, or some of his company, would come and 
fight with him, and that Sir Launcelot du Lake, a knight of King Arthur's 
Round Table, did beate uppon the bason, fought with Tarquine, killed him, pos- 
sessed himselfe of the castle, and loosed the prisoners. Whosoever thinketh it 
worth his pains to read more of it may read the history of King Arthur. It is 
certain that about a.d. 520 there was such a prince as King Arthur, and it is 
not incredible that he or his knights might contest about this castle when he 
was in this county, and (as Ninius sayth) hee put ye Saxons to flight in a 
memorable battell near Wigan, about twelve miles off" (pp. 21, 22). The 
Arthurian localities have been a subject of vigorous debate, and it may be 
regarded as utterly impossible to settle them with any reasonable degree of cer- 
tainty. Mr. Skene identifies places in the North, Dr. Guest is equally confident 
as to localities in the South ; Hollinworth, Whitaker, and Mr. D. H. Haigh 
are positive as to Lancashire. The river Duglas and the region Linius 
remain unidentified. The various theories are carefully summarised by Mr. 
Charles Hardwick in his Lancashire Battlefields. 

607. 

Ethelfrith, the Chieftain or King of Northumbria, in the course of his march 
upon Chester, where he slew the Welsh priests, would pass through South 
Lancashire, which was probably occupied by the English at this date, " and the 
nature of the occupation," observes Professor Boyd Dawkins, " may be gathered 
from the treatment of the city of Chester. A fire (to use the metaphor of 
Gildas) went through the land, and the Brit-Welsh were either put to the sword 
or compelled to become the bondsmen or conquerors." The conquest of North 
Lancashire was still later. 

620. 

In this year Baines states that Edwin, King of Northumbria, permanently 
reduced the town of Manchester under the dominion of the Saxons, but he cites 
no authority for the statement. 

627. 

Edwin, King of Northumbria, adopted the Christian faith, and was bap- 
tised at York by Paulinus, who also preached the Gospel in Lancashire. About 
this date there probably arose a Saxon church at Manchester, but of this there 
is no absolute evidence. 

689. 

Manchester selected for the residence of Ethelburga, the consort of Ina, 
King of Wessex, during his march against the Welsh under Ivor and Henyr, 
who had laid waste the province of Chester. Having conquered the invaders 
in two sanguinary conflicts, Ina, according to a chronicle quoted by Humphrey 
Lhuyd, "departed himself with Adelard, his cousen, to Queen Ethelburga, 
being then at Manchester, and continued there about three months." 



794-9201 Annals of Manchester. 5 

(Ormerod's Cheshire, vol. i., introd. xxv.) In the Rhyming Chronicle of 
Robert Mannyng, alias Robert de Brunne, of about a.d, 1300 (and which is 
apparently a paraphrase of Peter Langtoft's French Chronicle), is the following 
version (modernised) of the facts cited by Humphrey Lhuyd : — 
" The English kings turned ; they could do no more 

But sojourned them awhile, in rest, at Bangor ; 

So that each king of realm should make him all ready, 

At the Eastor (after King Ina would tarry), 

Homeward to go, to child and to wife, 

To visit their lands and solace their life. 

Ina, King of Wessex, for his wife sent 

Unto Mamecestre. The Queen to him went." 

794. 

HoUinworth has the following : " After that Ethelred, King of the Nortu- 
nmbers, was slaine anno 794, there was an interregnum for thirty yeares, in 
which time this whole Province (wherein this towne must needes have its share) 
was made a prey and a laughing-stocke to its neigbors, saith William of 
Malmesbury." (P. 22.) 

863. 

" It is allso sayd," states HoUinworth, ' 'that the townesmen carried valiantly 
against the Danes when, about Ao. Christi 863, they landed in Northumber' 
land, though it is utterly unworthy that the inhabitants should imagine, as 
Mr. Cambden pretends they did in his time, that Manchester should signify the 
' City of Men ;' and with this light and frothy conceite, implying their owne 
commendation, should at all please themselves ; yet it is true that they did 
carry valiantly and fared the worse for it ; for the Danes, about ten years after, 
tooke and possessed themselves of the whole region of Northumberland ; they 
tooke allso the city of Yorke ; they held the countrey about 60 years. Certainly 
at that time Manchester was either ruined totally or in a great measure, as 
Chester allso and other cityes when their destroying feete trampled downe the 
beauty of the land." (Pp. 22, 23.) 

901. 

In this year died Alfred the Great, to whom has been traditionally assigned 
the division of the lands into hundreds as areas of local government and de- 
fence. The name of Salfordshire was given to South-East Lancashire, and it is 
reasonably conjectured that Manchester had suffered so greatly from the 
ravages of the Danes as to be in a ruinous condition, and therefore of less im- 
portance at that time than its neighbour, Salford. 

920. 

" In the yeare of our Salvation 920, King Edward the Elder (as Mavianus 
writeth) sent an army of Mercians into Northumberland, To recdify the Citie 
of Manchester and to X)lace a garrison there (for it belonged formerly to the 
kings of Northumberland), and scemeth to have been quite destroyed in the 
Danish warre, against whom, because the inhabitants had borne themselves as 
valiant men, they will have their towne to be called Manchester — that is, as 
they expound it, The Citie of Men; and in this conceit, which implieth their 



6 Annals of Manchester. [923-1086 

own commendation, they wonderfully please and flatter themselves. But full 
little know the good honest men that Mancunium was the name of it in the 
Britans' time, so that the etymologie thereof out of otir English tongue can by 
no means seem probable. I, for my part, therefore, would derive it rather 
from main, a British word which signifieth a stone ; for upon a stony hill it is 
seated, and beneath the very towne, at Colyhurst, there are most good and 
famous quarries of stone." Cainden (Phil Holland's Translation, pp. li.Q-1). 

923. 

" In this year," says the Saxon Chronicle, " after harvest, King Edward 
went with his forces to Thelwall, and commanded the town to be built, and 
occupied, and manned ; and commanded another force also of Mercians, the 
while that he sat there, to take possession of Manchester, in Northumbria, and 
repair and man it." There has been some controversy as to whether Manchester 
was included in the kingdom of Mercia or in that of Northumbria. Whitaker 
maintains that it was part of Mercia, but the passage in the Saxon Chronicle 
seems good evidence to the contrary. It is clear also from this entry that Man- 
chester suffered from the Danes, but the bloodshed and suffering caused by 
their incursions have remained unchronicled. 

At this time, in the opinion of Baines, the town of Manchester extended 
from the confluence of the Medlock with the Irwell to the confluence of the Irk 
with the same river ; in other terms, from the Castlefleld to the college (Chet- 
ham's Hospital) ; and that Deansgate and St. Mary's-gate formed the principal 
streets, and Aldpark the vill precinct. In addition to the mill near the Roman 
castrum, another was built on the banks of the Irk, where Cateaton Street now 
stands, and gave the name to Old Millgate, which is to be classed amongst the 
ancient parts of the tovra. The market was held in and about Smithy Door, 
and the wakes were celebrated on St, Michael and St. Mary's days, the former 
of them along the course of Aldport Lane, and the latter in the area of Acres 
Field. 

1031. 

Canute the Dane, in his march into Cumberland to encounter the Scots, 
visited Manchester, and is reputed to have conferred his name on one of its 
ancient mills, popularly called Knot (or Canute) Mill, but there is no evidence 
of the occurrence. 

1086. 

The evidences as to the earlier history of the district are so few that much 
more has been left to ingenious conjecture than is at all satisfactory. With the 
Norman Conquest we have a document of great importance, though the infor- 
mation it contains is not always clear. The passage in Domesday Book relating 
to the Manchester district is thus translated : " King Edward held Salford. 
There are iii. hides and xii. carucates of waste land. There is a forest iii. leagues 
long and the same broad. There are many hays and a hawk's aery there. King 
Edward held Radeclive for a manor. There is i. hide, and another hide there 
belongs to Salford. The Church of Saint Mary and the Church of Saint Michael 
held in Mamecestre i. carucate of land free from all customs but the gelt. To 
this manor or hundred belonged xxi. berewicks, which so many thanes held for 
so manv manors. In which there were xi. and a half hides and x. and a half 



2086] Annals of Manchester. 7 

carucates of land. The woods there are ix. leagues and a half long and v. 
leagues and a furlong broad. Gamel, a tenant of ii. of these hides in Recedham 
<Rochdale), was free of all customs but these six : theft, heinfare, forestel, breach 
of the peace, not keeping the term set him by the reeve, and continuing a fight 
after an oath given to the contrary. The fine for these was xi. shillings. Some 
■of these lands were free from every custom but the gelt, and some were free 
even from the gelt. The whole manor of Salford, with the hundred, rendered 
xxxvii. pounds and iv. shillings. Of this manor there are now in the demesne 
ii. carucates and viii. serfs, and ii. villeins with i. carucate. The demesne 
is worth c. shillings. Of the lands of this manor these knights hold, by the 
gift of Roger of Poictou, Nigel iii. hides and half a carucate of land, Warin 
ii. carucates of land, another Warin i. carucate and a half, Goisfrid i. carucate 
of land, and Gamel ii. carucates of land. In these are three thanes and xxx. vil- 
leins and ix. bordars and a priest and x. serfs. They have xxii. carucates among 
them. The whole is worth vii. pounds." (Beamont, Domesday Book, p. 81.) 
After an intervening passage about Leyland, we read : " The men of this manor 
{Lailaud] and of Salford were not bound by the custom to work at the King's 
hall or to mow for him in August. They only made hay in the wood, and they 
had the forfeitures for bloodshed and rape. In the other customs of the other 
manors above mentioned they bore their part." (Beamont, p. 81.) Of the 
entire district between Ribble and Mersey it is said : " In King Edward's time 
the whole was worth cxlv. pounds and ii. shillings and ii. pence. When Roger of 
Poictou received it from the King it was worth cxx. pounds. The King now 
holds it, and has in his demesne xii. carucates, and [there are] ix. knights hold- 
ing a fee. Amongst them and their men there are cxv. carucates and iii. oxen. 
The demesne which Roger held is valued at xxiii. pounds and x. shillings, 
what he bestowed on his knights at xx. pounds and xi. shillings." (Beamont, 
p. 83.) It appears to be implied that there were two chuixhes in Manchester, 
but if the Church of St. Mary be identified with the parish church, it is difficult 
to know where St. Michael's could have been. One suggestion is that the pas- 
sage applies to the whole district, and that St. Michael's at Ashton-under-Lyne 
is meant. The necessity for two churches in a place so small as Manchester 
then was is not at all apparent. The subject is discussed fully in Hibbert 
Ware's Foundations of Maiichcster. 

Roger of Poictou, to whom William the Conqueror granted the land 
between Mersey and Ribble, was one of the sons of Roger de Montgomery, Earl 
of Arundel and Shrewsbury, and grandson of Roger the Great de Montgomery. 
The pedigree is by no means undisputed, but the evidence is carefully analysed 
bj' Mr. II. H. Howorth in the Palatine Note-hook (vol. ii.). The second Roger 
styles himself ex-Normunnis Normannus, and was probably a descendant of 
one of the freebooters who, under Rollo, settled in Normandy. The surname 
of Montgomery came from a fief in what is now the department of Calvados. 
The wife of the second Roger was a daughter of William Talvas de Belesme. 
The father's character was a bad one, and the lady is described as small of body, 
a great talker, crafty, cruel, and audacious. The marriage is said to have taken 
place in 10-18, and Roger de Pictavcnsis was the third son. At the time of the 
Conquest, among the most important, rich, and influential of all William's 
feudatories, was Roger de Montgomery, viscount of the Iliesmois. Wace has 



8 Annals of Manchester. [1102-1131 

given a vivid account of his share in the battle of Hastings, and his statement 
is adopted by Freeman, On the other liand Orderic Vitalis states that he 
remained beliind as Governor of Normandy. The question was fully debated 
betvv^een Mr. Howorth and Dr. Freeman {Palatine Note-hook, vol. ii.). Mr. 
Howorth believes that it was Roger of Poictou, and not his father, who fought 
at Senlac, and, in coniirmation, points out, that of the various sons of the Earl 
of Arundel, he was the only one who received a reward from the Norman Con- 
queror. His estates in what is now known as Lancashire are entered under 
Cheshire in Domesday Book. The people were rather Mercian than Northum- 
brian in speech and race. The population was sparse. His possessions were in 
the nature of an Honour, and not a County, and there is no good evidence that 
he exercised palatine jurisdiction or was an Earl. He was a great seignor, 
holding of the Crown and having extensive privileges. The courts of criminal 
and civil jurisdiction of such great landowners have been well described as 
public jurisdictions in private hands. It is thought that he fixed his residence 
at Clitheroe, and in that stronghold this lord of 300 manors may have held his 
court. He obtained his surname of Poictou from his marriage with a lady of 
that duchy. This was Almades, daughter of Adalbert III., Count of La 
Marche. Roger, between the Conquest and Domesday, had forfeited the great 
grants made to him in Lancashire by his defection from the King, but his 
honours were restored by William II. He appears to have been a turbulent 
spirit, and having joined Robert Duke of Normandy in a rebellion against 
Henry I., he was finally deprived of his possessions and banished from the 
country in 1101. 

1102. 

William Peverel, Lord of Nottingham, a natural son of William the Con- 
queror, succeeded to some of the possessions of Roger of Poictou, including the 
hundred and town of Salford. It is under his rule that Albert Gresley received 
his grant of lands forming the greater proportion of the barony of Manchester. 
Gresley is, however, said to have been a favourite of Roger Pictavensis, and is 
thought to have held the barony from 1086 to 1100. 

1120. 

" One writeth that about 1120 (a mistake for 1520, about 12 H 8) there were 
three famous clothiers living in the north country— viz., Cuthbert of Kendal, 
Hodgkius of Halifax, and Martin Brian, some say Byrom, of Manchester . . . 
he sayeth also that the sayd Martin gave much money to the building of a free 
school in Manchester." (Hollinworth's Mancuniensis.) This has been fre- 
quently repeated, but Martin Byrom is purely mythical, and the passage is 
based on one of Thomas Deloney's romances and has no historic value at all. 

1131. 

Robert, the son of Albert Gresley and second baron of Manchester, gave to 
the Abbey of Swineshead, in Lincolnshire, his mill at Mancestre, " at which 
lordship," says Dugdale, " he held his principal seat." He is stated to have 
died in 1135, but another account represents him as founding the abbey in 1143- 
Dugdale (Monasticon and Baronage) says 1134. 



1135-1222] Annals of Manchester. 



1135. 

Albert Grelle, senex, third baron, lived in the time of Stephen and Henry 
III. [? 1135—1106], and married a daughter of William Fitz-Nigel, Baron of 
Halton, with whom he acquired lands in the upper bailiwick of Mamcestre. 
Amongst his grants were four oxgangs to Ulric de Mamcestre and four oxgangs 
to the church in Mamcestre (supposed to be the site of the old Parsonage, 
Deansgate), and a croft to the Abbey of Swineshead. He is beUeved to have 
died about 110(5. 

1166. 

Albert Gresley, senex, was succeeded by Albert Gresley, juvenis, as fourth 
baron, who in 1166 confirmed the grants of his father and grandfather to 
Swineshead Abbey. Albert, juvenis, married Isabel, daughter of Thomas 
Basset, and was dead in 1182. 

1182. 

Robert Gresley, fifth baron, succeeded, but being under age (born 1175), 
was placed under the guardianship of his mother, Isabel, and her brother, 
Gilbert Basset. She married again and became the wife of Guy de Creon. 
Details of his grants of land are given in Harland's Mamcestre, 

1195. 

Robert Gresley, Baron of Mamecestre, came of age and did homage 6th 
Richard I., and was invested with his lands. He was the first Gresley known 
to have lived in Mamecestre— viz., at the Baron's Yard or Hull, on the site of 
Chetham's Hospital. (Baines.) 

1200-1207. 

The Testa de Nevill gives particulars as to the various holders of land in 
Lancashire, as the result of an inquisition made by a jury of knights, at a date 
not stated, but supposed to be about 1200 — 1207. Full particulars are given in 
Harland's Mamcestre. 

1215. 

Robert de Gresley, Baron of Manchester, was one of the peers who de- 
manded Magna Charta from King John, at Runnymede, June 12. When the 
barons again rose in arms Gresley incurred the anger of the King, who com- 
mitted his castle to Adam de Ycland, probably as sheriff, and afterwards 
granted Greslet's lands to William Maresma the younger and Hugh de Vivian. 
These orders were never executed, and .John's death in 1216 left Greslet 
undisturbed. 

1222. 

Robert Greslet obtained a grant of a yearly fair of two days' duration at 
his lordship of Manchester, to be held on the eve and day of St. Matthew. 
The grant is dated 11th of August. As the King was then a minor, the privilege 
was limited until the time when the King should come of age. For this con- 
cession the baron gave five marks and one palfrey. See further under date 
1227. 



10 Annals of Manchester. 



[1227-1231 



1227. 

A second charter for an annual fair, granted to Manchester by Henry III., 
at the request of the third Barou of Manchester. The time was now extended 
to three days— on the eve and feast day of St. Matthew, the apostle, and the 
day next following— and the grant made perpetual. No consideration is 
stated as having been paid for the charter, which is dated at Faringdon, 19th 
August. 

1231. 

Randulph de Blundeville, Earl of Chester, granted a charter making Salford 
a free or corporate borough. It is not dated, but was probably granted in or 
about 12.31. The document is now in the Peel Park Museum. The following is 
a translation made by Mr. T. N. Morton : — 

"Ranulf, Earl of Chester and of Lincoln, to all now present, and to those wno 
shall hereafter inspect or hear of this present Charter, gives salutation. 
"[I.] Be it known that I have given, granted, and by this my present 
charter have confirmed, that the town of Salford may be a free borough ; and 
that the burgesses dwelling therein may have and hold all these liberties 
underwritten : [II.] First, that every burgess may hold one acre of land with 
his burgage, and shall pay for each burgage twelve pence per year, for all rents 
pertaining to the said burgage. [III.] If the reeve of the town challenge any 
burgess concerning any plea, and the party challenged shall not appear at the 
day appointed, nor any other for him, in the laghe-moot, he shall forfeit to me 
twelve pence. [IV.] If any burgess shall sue another burgess for any debt, and 
he has acknowledged the debt, the reeve may appoint a day for him to appear 
(in court), viz., the eighth ; and if he comes not he shall pay me twelve pence 
for forfeiture of the day, and pay the debt, and the reeve four pence. [V.] If 
any burgess shall in anger strike or beat any other burgess within the borough 
without shedding blood, he may make peace for himself in view of the bur- 
gesses, saving my right, viz., twelve pence. [VI.] And if any one shall be sued 
within the borough concerning any plea, he shall not answer, if a burgess to a 
bondman, or to any other, save in his OAvn portmannemoot, that is, concerning 
a plea which appertains to the borough. [VII.] If any burgess or other person 
accuse another burgess of theft, the prefect shall summon him to answer and 
to stand judgment in the portmannemoot, saving my right. [VIII.] If any one 
shall be sued by his neighbour, or by any other person, concerning any matter 
which appertains to the borough, and the complainant makes no appearance 
for three days, if the defendant shall have the testimony of the reeve and of 
his neighbours that his adversary has failed to appear during those thi-ee days, 
he need give no answer to that plea, and the other shall be at the mercy (of the 
lord of the borough). [IX.] Also no burgess ought to take bread which is for 
sale, except at my bakehouse, according to the reasonable customs (of the 
borough). [X.] If I shall have a mill there, the burgesses may grind at such 
mill to the twentieth bushel ; and if I shall have no mill there, they may grind 
wheresoever they wish. [XI.] Likewise the said burgesses can choose the reeve 
from themselves, whom they wish, and remove him at the end of the year. 
[XII.] And when any burgesses shall wish to grant mortgage, or sell his bur- 
gage, he may do so to any one, unless the heirs wish to buy it, and then the 
nearest shall have the preference, saving my service, and so that it be not sold 
to religion. [XIII.] Moreover, tlie burgesses may arrest their debtors for debts 
contracted in the borough, if the debtor acknowledge the debt, unless they 
hold a tenement in the borough. [XIV.] The chattels of the burgesses may 
not be detained for any other debts than their own. [XV.] The aforesaid bur- 
gesses also and all theirs, of whomsoever they may buy or sell, and whereso- 
ever they may be within my lordships, whether at fairs or markets, shall be 
free from toll, except the salt toll. [XVI.] Whosoever shall break the assize, 
wliether of bread or of beer, shall suffer a forfeiture of twelve pence three 
times ; and the fourth time he shall perform the assize of the town. [XVII.] 
Also the said burgesses shall have common free pasture in the wood, in the 
plain, and in all the pastures belonging to the town of Salford ; and shall be 
free from pannage in the same wood of the town of Salford. [XVIII.] The 
same bui-gesses may take reasonably in the aforesaid wood aU necessaries for 



1219-1262] 



Annals of Manchester. 11 



building and for burning. [XIX.] Any one may also implead for his wife and 
for his family, and the wife of any person can pay his fine, to be made to the 
reeve as he ought, and to follow the plea for her husband, if he himself chance 
to be elsewhere. [XX.] A burgess, if he have no heir, can leave his burgage 
and his chattels, whensoever he dies, to whom he pleases, saving my right, 
viz., four pence, and saving the service pertaining to the said burgage ; 
so, however, that the burgage be not alienated in religion. [XXI.] When 
a burgess dies his widow shall remain in the house with the heir and 
there have necessaries so long as she remain without a husband, and 
from the time she may wish to be married again, she may depart freely, 
without dower, and the heir as lord shall remain in the house. [XXII.] 
Also when a burgess dies his heir shall give no further relief to me, 
except arras, viz., of this kind — a sword, a bow, or a lance. [XXIII.] No 
one within the wapontake of Salford, as a shoemaker, currier, fuller, or any 
such, may exercise his calling, except in the borough, saving the liberties of 
the barony. [XXIV.] The aforesaid burgesses, moreover, shall pay my rent 
for the burgages at four periods of the year: viz., the Nativity of our Lord, 
three pence ; Midlent, three pence ; the feast of the blessed John the Baptist, 
three pence ; and the feast of the blessed Michael, three pence. [XXV.J All 
the above pleas shall be decided before the bailifis of the lord the earl, upon 
view of the burgesses. [XXVI.] Whoever may wish to sell his burgage, ex- 
cept to religion, and to leave the town, shall pay me four pence and go freely 
wheresoever he wishes, with all his chattels. I, Ranulph, and my heirs will 
guarantee all the aforesaid liberties and customs to the said burgesses and 
their heirs against all men for ever, saving to me and to my heirs reasonable 
tallage, except when the lord King impose a tallage on his boroughs through- 
out England. In the memory whereof to this present page I have afltixed my 
seal: Before these witnesses : (1) Sir AVniliam, Justiciar of Chester; (1^) Simon 
de Montfort ; <8) Pagan de Chauworth ; (4) Fulc son of Warren ; (5) Gilbert de 
Segrave ; (0) Walkel de Arderne ; (7) Richard de Vernon ; (8) Roger Gernet ; 
(9) Roger de Derby ; (10) Geoffrey de Bury ; (11) Hugh de Biron ; (12) Simon and 
(13) John, scribes ; and many others." 

For further details the reader may consult The First Chart er of Salford, 
County Lancaster, by J. E. Bailey, F.S.A., reprinted with additions, &c., from 
the Palatine Note Book for July and August, 1882. (Manchester, 1882.) 

Robert, Baron of Manchester, died in 1230-31. He had married a daughter 
of Henry de Longchamp, and was succeeded by his son Thomas. 

1249. 
Thomas Gresley had a grant of free warren over all his lands in Mamccstre 
and Horwich. (Harland.) 

1253-4. 
Greslet's lands in Mamcestre and Horwich forest were escheated, probably 
on account of his resistance to an aid sought by Henry III. for his war in 
Gascony, and for a projected expedition to the Holy Land. 

1259. 

Thomas, Baron of Mamcestre, appointed in 1259-60 "Justiciar" of the 
King's forests south of the Trent. Particulars of grants of land made by him 
are given in the Testa de Neville. This was probably a reward for his services 
in the expedition of the preceding year against the W^elsh, who had overrun 
Pembrokeshire. He married Christiana Ledet, and died about 1261. 

1262. 
Robert Gresley succeeded to the barony on the death of his grandfather, 
Thomas. It was found by inquisition that Thomas had not infeoffed his son 
Peter of his manor of Manchester, and that the custody thereof did appertain 
to the King, by reason of the minority of his lieir, in regard it was held in 
capite by Barony ; the sherifT had command to seize it. (Dugdale.) He 



12 Annals of Manchester. 



[1281-1235 



was summoned to Parliament, 1273—1276. His guardian during minority 
was Edward Cronchback, first Earl of Lancaster. His uncle, Peter Greslet, 
was for a time custos eccles^'ce, keeper of the church, but never held the 
baVony. Robert married Hawise, daughter of John de Eurgh, and made grants 
of land to the Abbey of Stanlaw and to Whalley Abbey. He died 1282 [1283-4, 
Dugdale] when about 30 years old ; whereupon Amadeus de Savoy had the cus- 
tody of the manor of Manchester, with its members, during the minority of 
Thomas, son and heir. (Dugdale.) 

1281. 

The rental of Salford, with water-mill, toll and stallage of the market and 
fair, and pleas and perquisites of the court, amounted to £12 16s. 6|d. The 
assize rent of Burgh ton was £2 Ss.; of Ordesall £1 12s. The pleas and perquisites 
of the court of the wapentake amounted to £4 7s. 3d. See an extract from the 
rent-roll of Edward, Earl of Lancaster, in Harland's Mamcestre. 

1282. 

Thomas Greslet, who succeeded to the barony, was only three years old at 
the time of his father's death, and during his minority was the ward of 
Amadeus of Savoy, a royal favourite, who acted as the proxy of Prince Edward 
of Carnarvon at his marriage with the Princess Isabella of France. 

The first notice of a court in Manchester occurs in the inquisitions held 
before the escheator and sheriff this year. These inquisitions give many 
details as to the possessions of the lord of Manchester. The fulling mill is said 
to be worth £1 6s. 8d.; the oven 10s. ; the Rectory of Manchester valued at 200 
marks per annum =£133 6s. 8d. The annual value of the entire manor of Man- 
chester, which extended far beyond the town, is calculated to have been nearly 
equal to £6,000 of modern money. 

1291. 

Pope Nicholas IV. caused a valuation to be made of the ecclesiastical 
liviiigs in England, when Manchester was valued at £53 Gs. 8d., and Prestwich 
at £18 13s. 4d. 

1295. 

Hugh of Mamcestre and William of Gaynesburgh were sent as ambassadors 
to the French King to vindicate the claim of Edward I. to the lands of Aquitaine. 
Hugh was a man of learning and distinction, and was professor and doctor of 
divinity, and Provincial of the Dominican Preachers in England. An impostor 
having claimed that miracles had been performed at the tomb of Henry III., 
Mamcestre detected the fraud and wrote an exposure of it, which he dedi- 
cated to Edward I., entitled " De Fanaticorum Deliriis " (or the Dotages of 
Fanatics). " I could wish," says Fuller, " some worthy divine would resume 
this subject." But it is doubtful if Hugh of Manchester belonged to Lanca- 
shire, and some regard him as a native of Warwickshire. The question is dis- 
cussed in the second volume of the Transactions of the Lancashb^e and 
Cheshire Antiquarian Society. 

Henry de Ancotes gives an acre of land and a messuage in Ancoats to 
Alexander le Tinctore [the dyer], of Manchester. Another deed, probably of 
the same date, mentions Robert, son of Robert son of Simon Tinctore. It is 



1301] 



Annals of Manchester. 13 



thus clear that dyeing was carried on in the town at least as early as the middle 
of the thirteenth century. " What fabrics," asks Mr. Harland, " were then 
dyed in Manchester ? The oldest textile fabric of England was woollen cloth ; 
for even in the time of the Romans a manufactory of woollen cloths was estab- 
lished at Winchester for the use of the emperors. The English woollen manu- 
facture is mentioned in 1185, but it was not extensive till 1331, when the 
weaving of cloth was introduced by John Kempe and other artisans from 
Flanders. These were then called Kendal cloths and Halifax cloths ; and 
blankets were first made in 1340. But it is stated that the art of dyeing 
woollens was first brought from the Low Countries to England in 1608, prior 
to which the English cloths were usually sent white to Holland, dyed there, 
and returned to England for sale. So late as the year 1625 two dyers of Exeter 
were flogged for teaching their art in the north of England. The old records 
now under consideration prove indisputably that the trade of a dyer was 
carried on in Manchester in the thirteenth century. As early as 1311 an inqui- 
sition post moj'tem specified a fulling mill at Colne ; thus showing that the 
woollen manufacture had its seat in this county nearly thirty years before the 
introduction of the Flemish artizans by Edward III. It may be that the Man- 
chester dyers of the thirteenth century operated upon linen cloths, which were 
first manufactured in England by Flemish weavers in 1253. However this may 
be, it is clear that the manufacture of woollens existed in Lancashire at the 
very early period when our dyers plied their trade in Manchester and Ancotes; 
and there seems some reason for supposing that every process in the manufac- 
ture of coloured woollens was carried on in this neighbourhood at the early 
period now under notice." (Collcctarea.) There was a fulling mill on the Irk 
at least as early as 1282. By the Salford Charter no one could exercise the 
calling of fuller anywhere in the wapentake except in the town of Salford. 

1301. 

The charter granted to his burgesses by the lord of the manor of Manchester 
is a document of such importance that it seems desirable to state its provisions 
in full, since it is the instrument which decided the method of municipal 
government for many centuries. The following translation is that adopted by 
Mr. Harland. The charter has been elaborately annotated by that writer in his 
Mamccstrc, and by Dr. Ilibbcrt Ware in his Fuundatlons of Manchester. 

[Charter.] 

"Know [all] present and to come that I, Thomas Grello, have given and 
granted, and by this my present charter have confirmed, to all my burgesses of 
Mamecestre. To wit : 

" (1) That all the burgesses shall pay for every one of their burgages twelve 
pence by the year for [or in lieu of] all service. 

" (2) And if the reeve of the town [prefectus ville] shall challenge [or make 
claims against] any burgess of any plea, and the challenged shall not come on 
the day, nor any one for him, into the Lagh-mote, he is in forfeiture twelve 
pence to the said lord. And the said lord shall have his plea [or action] against 
him in the Porteman-mote. 

" (3) Also, if any burgess shall implead any burgess of [or for] any debt, and 
he [the debtor] shall acknowledge the debt, the reeve may appoint him a day, 



14 Annals of Manchester. 



[1301 



to wit, the eighth ; and if he shall not come at the day he shall pay twelve 
pence for forfeiture of the day to the aforesaid lord ; and he shall pay the debt, 
and to the reeve eight pence. 

" (4) And if any one maketh complaint of anything, and shall not find 
surety and bondsmen, and afterwards is willing to withdraw his complaint, he 
shall be without forfeiture. 

" (5) Also, if any burgess in the borough shall wound any burgess on the 
Lord's Day, or from noon on Saturday until Monday, he shall be in forfeiture 
of twenty shillings. And if on Monday, or on the other days of the week, he 
shall wound any one, he shall fall into [or incur] the penalty of twelve pence 
towards the afpresaid lord. 

" (6) Also, if any burgess shall quarrel [or strive, certaverit] with any one, 
and, through anger, shall strike him, without bloodshed, and shall be able to 
return to his house without challenge of the reeve or his servants, he shall be 
free from the plea from the reeve. And if he shall be able to sustain [or justify] 
the assault against him on whom he committed it, he shall do well. But if, 
nevertheless, by the counsel of his friends, he make peace with him, this also 
[he may do] without forfeiture to the reeve. 

" (7) Also, if any one shall be impleaded in the borough of any plea, he 
need not make answer either to burgess or villein, save in his Porteman-mote, 
nor even to a vavasour, except to a plea that belongeth to the King's Crown, 
and in one for robbery [or theft, latrocinio]. 

" (8) Also, if any one accuse another burgess of theft [latrocinio] the reeve 
may attach him [the accused] to make answer in the lord's court, and to abide 
[its] judgment. 

"(9) Also, if any shall be impleaded of his neighbour, or of any one, and 
shall be in suit [or in attendance] three days, if he shall have testimony of the 
reeve and of his neighbours of the Porteman-mote that his adversary hath de- 
faulted [been absent] on those three days, after that he shall give no answer to 
him upon that plea. 

" (10) Also, the aforesaid burgesses shall follow [do suit at] the mill of the 
aforesaid lord and his oven [or bake-house], paying to the aforesaid mill and to 
the aforesaid oven the customs as they ought and are wont to do. 

" (11) Also, the burgesses ought, and have power, to choose the reeve of 
themselves, whom they will, and to remove the reeve. 

" (12) Also, no one can put his neighbour to his oath unless he have suit of 
some [clamoren] [against him]. 

" (13) Also, no one can receive [in purchase] anything within the town save 
by the view of the reeve. 

"(14) Also, it shall be lawful for any one to sell or give his land, which is 
not of inheritance, if he shall fall into necessity, to whomsoever he will, unless 
his heir will buy it. But the heir ought to be the nearest [or first] to have the 
buying of it of him. 

" (15) Also, every one can sell [land] of his inheritance, whether more or 
less, or the whole, by consent of his heir. And if, perchance, the heir be un- 
willing, nevertheless if he [the burgess] shall fall into necessity, it shall be law- 
ful for him to sell what is of his inheritance, whatever age the heir may be. 

" (16) Also, the reeve ought to deliver [or give possession] to every burgess 



1301] 



Annals of Manchester. 15 



and to the farmers [or renters] their shops [or sheds] in the market place, and 
the reeve ought therefor to receive one penny, to the use of the aforesaid lord. 

" (17) If a burgess or a farmer will stand in the shops [or sheds] of the mer- 
chants, he ought to agree to pay [or, perhaps, pay beforehand, pacare] to the 
aforesaid lord as much as a stranger. And if he stand in his proper shop [or 
shed], then he is to give nothing to the aforesaid lord. 

" (18) Also, the burgesses may fatten their swine which are nearly fattened 
in the woods of their lord, except in the forests and parks of the aforesaid lord, 
until the term [or time] of pannage. And if they will, at the aforesaid term, 
withdraw it shall be lawful for them, without licence of the lord. And if they 
will make stay there for the term of pannage, for the pannage they shall satisfy 
•the aforesaid lord. 

" (19) Also, if any one shall be impleaded before the day of the Lagh-mote, 
and shall then come, it behoveth him to answer, and he ought not to essoin 
[excuse] himself without forfeiture. And if he shall then [on the Lagh-mote 
day] be first impleaded, then he shall have the first day [i.e., in which to 
answer]. 

" (20) Also, the burgesses may arrest [namare] men, whether knights, or 
priests, or clerks, for their debts, if they shall be found in the borough. 

" (21) Also, if necessity fall that any one sell his burgage, he may receive 
[or rent] another burgage of his neighbour. And every burgess may deliver 
[i.e., let or give possession of] his burgage to his neighbour, by the view of his 
co-burgesses. 

" (22) Also, it may be lawful for the aforesaid burgesses to deliver [convey 
or give possession of, tradere] their own proper chattels to whomsoever they 
will, within the fee of the aforesaid lord, freely, without licence from the afore- 
said lord. 

" (23) Also, if a burgess lend [commoclaverit, i.e., lend things to be returned 
in kind] anything to a man villein in the borough, and the term [of the loan] 
thereof shall expire in the borough, he may take a distress upon [the goods of] 
the villein, and by his distress may certify him. And he may restore the dis- 
tress [or goods distrained] by [or on the security of] bondsmen, even to the end 
of eight days, and then the bondsmen may return either the distress or the 
money. 

"(24) Also, a burgess, of whomsoever he shall buy or sdl within the fee of 
the aforesaid lord, shall be free from toll. And if any one of another shii-e [or 
town] shall come who ought to pay customs, and shall depart with the toll, 
withholding it from the reeve or from other of his [servants], he shall be in 
forfeiture twelve pence to the use of the lord. And he shall pay his toll. 

" (25) And if any one shall lend to another anything without witness, he 
[the borrower] need not make any answer unless he [the lender] shall have 
witness [or evidence, testimonium']. And if he [the lender] shall have witness, 
he [the borrower] may deny it by the oaths of two men. 

" (26) Also, whoso breaketh the assise, whether of bread or of ale, he shall 
be in forfeiture of twelve pence to the use of the lord. 

" (27) Also, if any one shall wound another in the borough, the reeve ought 
to attach him, if he be found outside his house, by surety and bondsmen. 

" (28) Also, every one ought to be, and may be, at plea [or impleaded] for 



16 Annals of Manchester. 



[1301-1309 



his wife and family ; and the wife of every one may pay his rent to the reeve, 
and follow a plea [or attend a suit] for her husband, if he shall, perchance, be 
elsewhere. 

" (29) Also, if any villein shall make claim of anything of burgesses, they 
[the burgesses] ought not to make answer to him unless he shall have the suit 
of [or from] burgesses or other lawful [or law-worthy] men. 

" (30) Also, a burgess, if he shall have no heir, may bequeath his burgage 
and his chattels when he dies wheresoever he shall please, saving, however, 
the lord's service. 

" (31) Also, if any burgess die his wife ought to remain in the house, and 
there she may have necessaries as long as she wills to be without a husband, 
and the heir with her. And when she will marry she shall depart. And the 
heir shall remain there as the lord. 

"(32) Also, if a burgess die his heir shall give no other relief to the afore- 
said lord save arms of some [or whatsoever] kind. 

" (33) If a burgess sell his burgage and willeth to depart from the town, he 
shall give to the lord four pence, and he may go freely whithersoever he will. 

"(34) Moreover, all the pleas aforesaid shall be determined before the 
steward by the enrolment of the clerk of the aforesaid lord. 

" (35) And all the aforenamed liberties, I, the aforesaid Thomas, and my 
heirs, will hold to the aforesaid burgesses and their heirs for ever ; saving to 
me and my heirs reasonable toUage, when the lord the King shall make tollage 
Upon his free boroughs throughout England. And that this donation and 
grant may be ratified and established, I have confirmed this writing by the 
affixing [thereto] my seal. These being witnesses :- 

" Sirs John Byron, 
"Richard Bi 
• ■ " Henry de Trafford, 

• " Richard de Hulton, 
" Adam de Prestwyche, 
" Roger de Pilkington, 
" Geoffrey de Chaderton, 
" Richard de Moston, 
" John de Prestwyche, 
* " And others. 

" Given at Mamecester the fourteenth day of May, in the year of the Lor a 
one thousand three hundred and one ; and in the year of the reign of King 
Edward, son of King Henry [i.e., Edward I.] the twenty-ninth." 



)N 1 

, ' I Knights. 

5YRON, J 



1307. 

Thomas de Gresley summoned to Parliament, March 10, and invested with 
the Order of the Bath. 

1309. 

For some unexplained cause Thomas de Greslet, with several Lancashire 
gentlemen, went to reside with his only sister Joan, the wife of Sir John la 
Warre, Baron of Wickwar, in Gloucestershire. Here he executed a deed by 
which, in return for an armuity of TOO marks=^£G6 13s. 4d., he formally granted 



13H-1340] Annals of Manchester. 17 

to Sir John and his wife the manor of Manchester, and the advowsons of the 
churches of IManchester and Ashton. Notwithstanding this transfer of his 
baronial rights he continued to be regarded as the lord of Manchester, and, as 
such, was summoned to serve in the wars and in parliament from 1307 to 1313, 
the year of his death. The matter is further complicated by the fact that La 
Warre alienated the barony in 1310-11 to the abbey of Dore, in Herefordshire. 

1311. 

The "Great De Lacy inquisition," and the Birch Feodary, both of which 
are fully translated in Harland's Mamcestre, give particulars as to the tenants 
of the manor of Manchester. 

1313. 

Thomas de Greslet died without issue. The name of this family is variously 
spelled, Greslet, Gresley, Greslei, Gredlc, and Gredley. 

1320. 

A survey of the manor was taken in this year. The document, not quite 
perfect, is printed with a translation by Mr. Ilarland. 

1322. 

In this year there was an " Extent" of the manor, which was then held of 
the Duchy of Lancaster. Two separate and different copies of this document 
are printed by Mr. Harland. The demesne in Manchester contained about 
3,o50i statute acres of arable land. There were 38 acres of heath land, and 85 
more claimed by the tenants by prescription. There were 32G acres of pasture 
land. Mamcestre had woods and moors of Tutbury, which on account of their 
great size and diversity were not measured. The wood of Alport with its 
aeries of hawks, hei-ons, and eagles, bees' honey, and the like issues, was worth 
OS. 8d. The wood of Bradford was being destroyed, and comprised a mile in 
circuit. The park of Blakely, seven miles in circuit, was valued at 53s. 4d., and 
contained two deer leaps " of the grant of Kings." The woods of Horewith 
and Openshagh, the wastes of Curmesall and Denton, the lord's mill, the 
common oven, and the fulling mill of Manchester are also named. 

Annual amount of the tolls and stallage for the markets and fairs of Man- 
chester was £G 13s. 4d. 

1325. 

John la Warre, ninth baron of Manchester, again obtained possession of 
the manor, which reverted to him as an escheat from the Abbey of Dore, iu 
1325-20. 

1330. 

" About 1330 lived Thomas Langford, the famous historian, a Dominican 
friar, of Chelmsford in Essex, who is supposed to be one of the Laugfords of the 
Hough." — Hollinworth's Mancuniensis. 

1340. 

Parliament gave to Edward IH. a subsidy of ninths, that is, the ninth 
lamb, fleece, and sheaf, for two years. Foreign merchants, not dwelling in cities 

B 



18 Annals of Manchester. 



[1347-1366 



or boroughs, were assessed at no more than a fifteenth on their goods and 
movables. The Hundred of Salford contained no one who was liable to the 
fifteenth. The jury of assessors also returned the ninth, or at a sum much too 
low to please the commissioners. Instead of 80 marks it was placed at about 
35J marks. 

1347. 

John la Warre died 9th May, 1347. He was a soldier who saw a great deal 
of active service. He went with the expedition to Flanders in 1297. He was 
constantly engaged in the Scotch wars. In 1340, when the French were defeated 
in the great naval battle off Sluys, La Warre was present. He also fought 
with distinction at Cressy. 

Roger la Warre, the tenth baron, was the grandson of the ninth baron. 
He was a warrior like his grandfather, and at Poitiers was one of the knights 
to whom the French king surrendered. He was twice married, and left two 
sons, and a daughter who became the wife of Thomas, Baron West. Roger 
died in 1370. 

1348. 

A destructive pestilence spread over England. The labours of husbandry 
were neglected ; no courts of justice were opened ; and Parliament was 
prorogued. 

1351. 

Henry "the Good," Earl of Derby, created first Duke of Lancaster, with 
the same jura regalia as the Earls Palatine of Chester had ever enjoyed. The 
Duchy became consequently a petty kingdom, and some of its original regula- 
tions are yet in force. 

1352. 

"A Commission was granted by the Bishop of Liehfeeld for the dedication 
of the chappell yard of Didsbury, within the parish of Manchester, for the 
buriall of such as died of the Pestilence in that hamlet, and in neigboring 
hamlets, in the chappell-yard there, because of their distance from the parish 
church of Manchester." 

1359. 

The bailiflfs of the Duke of Lancaster having annexed certain inhabitants, 
commissioners were appointed to inquire whether Roger la Warre held, as he 
asserted, the town as a borough and market town. The inquiry was held at 
Preston, when John de Radeclif and twelve others declared on oath that Roger 
did not hold Manchester as a borough, but that he and his predecessors had 
held it from a time to which memory goeth not as a market town. The result 
would be that the town was no longer free from suit to the county and 
wapentake. 

1366. 

The Sheriff of Lancashire, after returning two knights for the shire, adds : 
" There are no cities or burghs within this county from which any citizens or 
burgesses can or were wont to come, by reason of their inability, low condition, 



1368-1422] 



Annals of Manchester. 19 



or poverty." Lancaster and Preston had been represented sundry times before, 
in the reigns of Edwards I., II., and III. ; but from this date to the reign ol 
Edward IV. no returns were made from the county. 

1368. 

The earliest record relating to "the Old Bridge," or, as it seems originally 
to have been called, "the Salford Bridge," is the will of Thomas del Bothe, 
who is described as an opulent yeoman, resident at Barton, in the parish of 
Eccles, and of whom it is stated that he built a chapel on Salford Bridge, where 
prayers were wont to be made, as usual in those times, for the repose of the 
soul of the founder. His will directs the gift to the bridge of Salford of £30, 
payable in the three years next following his death in equal portions. 

1370. 

John la Warre, at the age of twenty-six, became the eleventh baron of 
Manchester. He took a share in the wars of Gascony, and died, unmarried, 
27th July, 1398. 

1371. 

Thomas la Wai-re was presented to the vacant living of Ashton-under-Lyne. 

1373. 

About this date Thomas la Warre is believed to have resigned his living of 
Ashton and to have been inducted as rector of Manchester. 

1375. 

.John la "Warre, Lord of Manchester, granted to Nicholas de Longford the 
manor of Withington, on condition of finding one judge for the lord's court. 
{Mamcestre.) 

1382-3. 

Richard II. gave a special dispensation to John la Warre, Lord of Wakerley 
and Baron of Manchester, by which he was not required to attend Parliament 
during the remainder of his life. (Mamcestre.) 

1398. 

Thomas la Warre, who on the death of his brother became the twelfth 
baron of Manchester, was a priest, and rector of Mamcestre. He alienated his 
barxjny and estates from his heir-at-law, and settled them upon his half-sister 
Joan, wife of Thomas, Lord West, and her issue. 

1422. 

The collegiation of the parish church is thus described by IloUinworth : — 
" This Thomas being Lord of the manor and parson of the church, as well 
as Patron, considering that the Parish was large and populous, and that the 
former Hectors, some neuer, did reside, bcthoughte himself as well for the 
greater honor of the place, as the better edification of the people, to erect a 
Collegiate church in Manchester : to that purpose hee procured licence from 
Henry the 5th, dated Anno reg. 9, May 22, vnder the seale of the Dutchy for 
appropriation of the Rectory and foundation of the Colledge, for which 200 



20 Annals of Manchester. 



[1422 



markes were payd into the Hanaper or Exchequer of the Chancery. Then the 
Parishioners, viz. : — 

"Cliurchwardens : Lawrence Hulme, Henry Bullieley. Knights: John 
le Byron, Joliannes de Radcliffe. Gentlemen : Edmund Trafford, John de Bootli, 
Badulpli Longford, Tliurstan de Holland, Jacob Strangewayes, Robert de Hyde, 
Kobert de Booth, Otlio de Reddich, Johannes de Barlow, Radulph de Prestwich, 
Petrus de Workeslie, Jacob de Hulme, Joannes de Hulton, William de Birches, 
John Bamford, Laurentius de Barlow, Galfridus Hopwood, Galfridus de Hilton, 
William de Highfeeld. 

" And all and every Parishioners gathered together at the sound of the bell, 
and the community and university of the sayd parish, so farre as this might 
any way concerne them, did for themselves, their heires and successors, give 
their free assent and consent thervnto, and draw up a writing to that purpose, 
sealed with the deeds of the Deane of Manchester and aboue twenty other seales 

" Then the sayd Thomas de la Warre made a deed of gift and feoffment oi 
his lands and Rectory of Manchester to Thomas, Bishop of Durham (who was 
allso chauncelor of England, and amongst other his good workes founded two 
schools at Place-greene, one of Grammer, and the other of Musicke^, John 
Heneye, Richard Lombard, Parson of Holtham church, and Richard Firth. 

" This Thomas, Bishop of Durham, &c., founded a Collegiate Church ; 
consisting of one Keeper or Master, eight fellowes chaplaines, foure clerkes, and 
sixe choristers, in honor of St. Mary (to whom this Parish church was formerly 
dedicated, and of St. Dyonyse, Patron St. of France, and St. George, Patron St. 
of England (the sayd Thomas de la Warre being partly a French-man and 
partly an Engliah-man) ; and having first resigned by Proxy, made to William 
Brinkley, cannon of Litchfeeld, and to Thomas Gierke, Chaplaine. 

" This was allso confirmed first, by Richard Crosby, Prior of the convent of 
Coventry, and Henry Hallsall, Archdeacon of Chester, and then by William, 
Bishop, and Thomas Strelton, Deane, and the chapter, at Litchfeeld. 

"Then Thomas de la Warre presented to William, Bishop of Coventry and 
Litchfield, John Huntingdon to bee the Master or Keeper of the sayd Colledge ; 
tmd the sayd Thomas, Bishop of Durham, &c., did give, grant, and confirmed 
vnto the sayd John Huntingdon five Messuages and ten Acres of ]and, which 
were parcells of the manor of Manchester, one Messuage with the appur- 
tenances with one acre and twenty foure Pearches, called Barrons hull and 
Barrens yerde ; eight acres of land in Neder Aldport ; one messuage in Gorton 
greene, of eleven pearches ; another in Heaton, of eleven pearches. 

" This John Huntingdon, Batchelor in Degrees, and Rector of Assheton- 
vnder-lyme, was warden neere forty years, a man learned in the learning of 
those times, very devout and magnificent, hee built the Chancel or Quire, in 
the midst whereof and iust before the high altar, as then it stood, hee lyes 
buried with the suitable inscription, Domine dilexi decorem domus tuae. His 
Rebus or name-devyse (a custome borrowed from the French) is to bee scene 
on either side of the Middle arch, as it looketh Eastward : on the Syde is an 
Huntsman with dogges whereby hee thought to expresse the two former 
Billables of his name ; Hunting ; on the other syde, a vessell called a Tonne, 
which being joined together makes Huntington ; which is as good or better 
than Morton, A. B. of Canterbury, a man of a prudent and publique Spirit, was 



1422] 



xinncds of Manchester. 21 



content to use, viz. Mor uppon a tonne, and sometimes a mulbery Tree, called 
in Latine, Moras, coming out of a tonne, to express his name of Morton. 

" About this time, or not long before, for ought appeares ended, the present 
large and stately stone buildinge, which we call the Church, being formerly a 
vast wooden building not much vnlike (save that probably it was more adorned) 
to the Boothes where the Court Leete, Court Baron, of the Lord, and the 
quarter Sessions, are now kept. Credible tradition sayth the one part of the 
sayd wooden building was removed to Oardsall, another part to Clayton ; but 
the maine body was remooved to Trafford, which is standing to this day, and 
now called the greate Barne. Who did most in the building of it is not cer- 
tainly known, but the names and armes of the Stanleys Wests, Radcliffes of 
Radcliffe (some remainder of the Alabaster Statues (as it is sayd) of twoo oJ 
them are yet on the North Syde of the Quire), Byrons, Radcliffes of Oardsall, 
and others now or lately in the windowes, doe witness their assistance : oneij' 
one Richard Bexwick did many workes of piety and charity towards the 
Master and fellowes, and for the decent and honorable reparation and amend- 
ment of the sayd Quire and body of the sayd church ; and other Parishioners 
doubtless did freely contribute thereunto ; hence is that vulgar mistake that 
Didsbury church is more ancient than Manchester, which ammounts to no 
more truth (if so much) than that the present structure of Didsbury chappell 
is more ancient than the present structure of Manchester church, as allso their 
Font was much bigger, because when dipping of children and baptizing of 
Heathens grew most out of vse, then the Baptisteries were lesse or lesse. 

" The windowes were richly painted, the east window of the South Isle 
had Michael and his Angells ; the nine orders of Angells fighting with the 
Dragon and his Angells: the East window of the North Isle had St._ 
Austen and St. Ambrose singing Te Deum laudamus, and the other 
windowes represented some canonical or Ecclesiasticall story. In the middle 
Stanchion evry window, especially in the twenty-four vppermost windowes, 
was the pictui'e of the Virgine Mary. But at the uppmost end of the Outmost 
North ally, neere to Strangewaies chappell, was a very rich window, whereby 
was described our Saviors arreiguement and crucifixion, with some pictures of 
the Ti'inity with these verses : 

6ob tl;al jjs of migbtn most 

J^abur anil Son anb Jljoln Cost 

©uff gr* 

ginb lutpe t^anr soulis ont of ^eU 

Cl^at mabe tbns (unnbo as vt man se 

gix toors^ippe of tbe Snnitt. 

^Ibnt gobe tnbinge 

. . . Jus tunubo gaff ann tbijngc. 
" In this corner vnder this window, its probable there stood an altar, and 
that it was a place of much devotion, it is sayd it was for the countrey. 

"In the chappell, where morning sermons were wont to bee preached, 
called St. George his chappell, belonging now to John Radcliffe, of Oardsall, 
Esquire, was the Statue of St. George on horseback, hanged up ; his horse was 

• Forte, give them grace to do well. t Forte, give them. t Forte, That to. 



22 Annals of Manchester. 



[1427-1465 



lately in the Sadlers shop. The Statues of the Virgin Mary, and St. Dyonyse, 
the other Patron Saints, were uppon the two highest pillars next to the Quire, 
vnto them men did bow at their coming into the church." 

The reasons for the collegiation of the church have been fully investigated 
and stated in the supplement to Hibbert Ware's Foundations of Manchester. 

1427. 
Thomas la Warre, rector of Manchester, lord of the manor, founder of the 
Collegiate Church, died without issue 14:26-27, and was buried at Swineshead 
Abbey. 

1428. 

Sir Reginald West, who was born in 1394, appointed Sir Edmund Trafford, 
William Chauntrell, and Thomas Overton, his attorneys, to receive seizin for 
him of and in the manor of Manchester, and the advowson and patronage of 
the church. 

1451. 

Sir Reginald West died 27th August, 1451. He made one, if not two pil- 
grimages to Palestine. He had also made a pilgrimage to Rome. He was 
succeeded by his son, Sir Richard West. 

1457. 

John Huntington, D.D., first warden of the College, died November 11, 
and was buried at the east end of the choir. His rebus is still to be seen upon 
the eastern side of the middle arch of the choir. On the left-hand side of the 
arch is a huntsman with dogs, and on the right-hand side a vessel called a 
tonne or tun ; and these devices put together represent the name of Hunting- 
ton. "Dr. Huntington was learned in the learning of those times : one very 
devout, magnificent, and of public spirit. He was the mover and contriver of 
that great work of erecting the stone church now in being, of which he built 
the choir and aisles." 

Sir Edmund Trafford of Trafford died. He was in the confidence of Henry 
VI., whose dreams of avarice he fanned by visions of the philosopher's stone, and 
of the possibility of changing all the baser metals into gold and silver. On the 
7th of April, 144G, the King granted a patent to this Trafford and to Sir Thomas 
Ashton, setting forth that certain persons had maligned them with the charac- 
ter of working by unlawful arts, and might disturb them in their experiments, 
and, therefore, the King gave them special lease and licence to work and try 
their art and science, lawfully and freely, in spite of any statute or order to 
the contrary. The King, in issuing this commission, was overriding the pro- 
vision of 5 Henry IV., c. 4, and if Sir Edmund succeeded in finding the 
aurum jwtabile he carried the secret with him to the grave. 

1459. 

John Booth appointed warden. He was deprived by Edward IV. in 1465. 
He was a younger brother of Booth, of Barton. 

1465. 

Sir Ralph Langley, clerk (second son of Langley, of Agecroft), rector of 



1470-1486) 



Ayinals of Manchester. 23 



Prestwicli, appointed warden. Resigned July 27, 1481. He zealously continued 
the improvements of the church began by Warden Huntington, and gave a 
clock and chimes. He was buried at Prestwich. 

1470. 

About this time Warwick, the king-maker, came in hot haste to Man- 
chester to ask help from his brother-in-law, the Lord Stanley, who then had a 
dwelling in the Aldport. 

1471. 

Somewhere between 1471 and 1484 the Abbot of Abingdon came to Man- 
chester in company with the Collector of the Apostolic Chamber and Gold Hall, 
from whom who would might buy plenary indulgences as effectual as if their 
purchasers had performed the pilgrimage to Rome, and had been there on the 
great day of the church's jubilee. The occasion for which the money was 
needed was said to be the defence of the Christian world against the Turks. 

1473. 

The "Rental" of Thomas West, Lord of Mamcestre, son and heire of Lord 
la Warre, and Ellinor his consort, made at Mamcestre, May 1, 13 Edward IV., 
which is in the year 1473. There are some difficulties, however, as to the date, 
and it is just possible that it may refer to the 23rd year of Edward IV., that is, 
1507-8. There appears then to have been about 150 burgages in the town. 

1475. 

Thomas West, eighth Baron de la Warre and fifteenth lord of Manchester, 
obtained special livery of his lands in September, 1475, though then a minor. 

1476. 

Sir Richard West, fourteenth baron of Manchester, is said to have died 
10th March, 1476, though according to another account he was summoned to 
parliament in January, 1497. He was a staunch partizan of the House of Lan 
caster, and in 1400 had a grant of £10 per annum from the forfeited possessions 
of Richard Duke of York. In 1463 he had a grant authorising him to go beyond 
the seas. 

1481. 

James Stanley appointed warden. He was a younger son of Thomas, Lord 
Stanley, created in 1485 Earl of Derby by Henry VII. 

Sir Ralph Langley, former warden of the Cathedral, died July 27th. 

1485. 
James Stanley, D.D., archdeacon of Richmond and warden of Manchester, 
died. (IloUinworth.) He was succeeded by James Stanley, afterwards Bishop 
of Ely. 

1486. 

A tenement lying at " Salford bryge cnde open the west syde," mentioned 
in a deed executed 10th November. {Palatine Note-book, vol. v., p. 132.) 



24 Annals of Manchester. 



[1493-1509 



1493. 

The tenement at Salford Bridge-end named in a deed 1 February {Palatine 
Note-hook, vol. iv., p. 132). See under date 1486. 

1495. 

Henry VII. visited the Earl of Derby at Latham, and they aftervs^ards came 
by Warrington to Manchester. At Latham a curious incident occurred. 
Earlier in the year took place the execution of Sir William Stanley, the Earl of 
Derby's brother, who ten years earlier had placed the tottering crown on 
Henry's brow at Bosworth field. The King and the Earl stood on the leads of 
the house to view the country. "The Earl's fool was in company, who, 
observing the King draw near to the edge of the leads, not guarded with 
business, he stepped up to the Earl, and, pointing down to the precipice, said, 
' Tom, remember Will !' " The King made a hasty exit, and left the fool to 
lament the failure of his lord to avenge the death of his brother. 

1505. 

"Care was taken for the reparation of the chappell standing on Salford 
Bridge, built, as it is sayd, by Thomas del Booth, in Edward III.'s time. He 
certainely gave £30 towards the building of Salford Bridge ; and it was very 
usual on greater bridges to build chappells, in which they did pray for the 
soules of their founders. This chappell is now converted to a prison for Man- 
chester and Salford." (HoUinworth's Mancunicnsis^ 

1506. 
Richard Beswick erected the Jesus Chapel on tlie south side of the south 
aisle of the choir of the Collegiate Church. (Hollinworth.) The next Trafford 
Chapel, he says, was built by Thomas del Booth, who gave it. to Hugh Scholes, 
chaplain, who gave it to Sir John Trafford. The highest chapel was probably 
built by the Byrons. In the Strangeways chapel there was " a pardon " under a 
picture of the Resurrection of Christ from the Sepulchre. The pardon, five 
paternosters, five aves, and a creede, is xxvj. thousand, and xxvj. days 
of pardon. (Hollinworth.) A similar pardon, brass, at Macclesfield has 
excited much attention, and it has been suggested that it may be the one 
removed from Manchester. (See Palatine Note-hook, vol. iv., pp. 127, 154, 225.) 

1508. 
The chapel near to the porch of the Collegiate Church was built by Mr. 
William Galley, a merchant of Manchester, who died in 1508, and is buried in 
this chapel. (Hollinworth.) 

1509. 

Robert Cliffe, Bachelor in Degrees, appointed Warden. 

Sir James Stanley, Warden of Manchester, promoted to the bishopric of 
Ely. Jortin, in his Life of Erasmus, says: "At this time he (Erasmus) 
refused a large pension, and larger promises, from a young illiterate English- 
man, who was to be made a bishop, and who wanted to have him for a pre 
ceptor. This youth seems to have been James Stanley, son of the Earl of 
Derby, and son-in-law to Margaret, the King's mother, and afterwards made 



1512-1526] 



Annals of Manchester. 25 



Bishop of Ely by her interest. However, it appears that the young gentleman, 
though ignorant, had a desire to learn something, and to qualify himself in 
some measure for the station in which he was to be placed." 

1512. 

Chorlton Chapel erected about this time. 

1513. 
Sir James Stanley, Warden of Manchester and Bishop of Ely, in conjunc- 
tion with others of his family, commenced the erection of the large chapel 
dedicated to St. John the Baptist, and the small chantry adjoining to it, now 
called the Derby Chapel. 

1514. 

Sir Edmund Trafford of TraflFord died. In the same year he had been 
created a Knight of the Bath by Henry VIII. 

1518, 

George West, a kinsman of West, Lord La Warre, appointed warden of 
the college. 

1519. 

Hugh Oldham, Bishop of Exeter, the founder of the Free Grammar School, 
died June 15. He was born, it is believed, in Crumpsall, and was educated 
both at Oxford and Cambridge, but took his degree of doctor of divinity at the 
latter place. He was a great patron of learning, and an extensive benefactor 
of Corpus Christi College. Having fallen under the displeasure of Leo X. for 
refusing to abide by his decision in a case of dispute between himself and the 
Abbot of Tavistock, ho was excommunicated. The Free Grammar School was 
founded in pursuance of his will. To this good work the venerable prelate was 
moved, "considering," as the statutes say, "the bringing up of children in 
their adolescence, and to occupy them in good learning therein, when they 
should come to age and virility, whereby they may better know, love, honour, 
and dread God and His laws ; and that the liberal science or art of grammar is 
the ground and foundation of all other liberal arts and sciences ; and for the 
good mind which he did bear to the county of Lancaster, where the children 
had pregnant wits, but had been mostly brought up rudely or idly, and not in 
virtue, cunning, education, literature, and in good manners." The original 
income was about £29 per annum. Details of its history and founder may be 
found in Hibbert Ware's Foundations of Manchester, Espinasse's Lancashire 
Worthies, Edwards' Manchester Worthies and their Foundations, and 
Smith's Admission Rcyisters of the Manchester Grammar School. 

1520. 

St. Mary's Chapel, at the east end of the choir of the Collegiate Church, 
Ouilt by Sir George West, warden. 

Martin Briam, a famous clothier. (Sec under date 1120.) 

1526. 
Thomas West, eighth Lord La Warre and fifteenth Lord of Mamcestre, 



26 Annals of Manchester. 



[1532-1535 



died about January, 1525-6, as his will was proved in February. He was a 
favourite of Henry VII., who rewarded his aids by grants from the forfeited 
estates of " Jockey of Norfolk," slain at Bosworth Field. He was created a 
Knight of the Bath in 14S9. He served with the army in Flanders in 1491, and 
in 149G had a large share in the suppression of the rebellion in Cornwall. He 
was made a K.G. in 1510, and was installed at Windsor on the same occasion as 
the King of Portugal. At the famous Battle of the Spurs, in 1513, his valour 
earned him the distinction of knight banneret. He escorted Charles V. from 
Graveline to England in May, 1522. He was succeeded by his eldest son Thomas, 
ninth Baron de la Warre. 

James Stanley, Bishop of Ely and Warden of Manchester College, died 
March 22, and was buried on the north side of Derby Chapel. He is said to 
have died excommunicated. Fuller, adverting to his place of residence, 
observed : " He blamed not the prelate for passing the sumnaer with his brother, 
the Earl of Derby, in Lancashire, but for living all the winter at Somersham 
with one who was not his sister, and who wanted nothing to make her his wife 
save marriage." In 1513 the Bishop of Ely sent his natural son, John Stanley, 
with his own retainers, to assist Sir Edward Stanley in the Battle of Flodden 
Field. Here young Stanley is believed to have been knighted. Notwithstand- 
ing his prowess, he appears to have been " sicklied o'er with a pale cast of 
thought," his favourite mottoes being those of the preacher who declares vanitas 
vanitatutn, ovinia vanitas. In 1523 he became engaged in a dispute with one 
of the Leghs, of Adlington, who had married the daughter of a mistress of 
Cardinal Wolsey. That haughty prelate summoned Sir John to London, and 
committed him to the Fleet until he surrendered his lease. Sir John founded 
a chantry in the church of Manchester, and arranged his estates for the benefit 
of his wife and child. Then by mutual consent a divorce was pronounced 
between him and Dame Margaret, and he became a monk of the order of St 
Benedict in the Abbey of Westminster. His wife, when the divorce was 
arranged, intended to enter a nunnery, but anticipating the sentiment of a 
once popular song, she altered her mind and married Sir Urian Brereton. 
When Stanley settled his property, he directed that his son was not to be 
married until he was 21, and then he was to choose his own wife by the advice 
of the Abbott of Westminster and Edmund Trafford. 

1532. 

St. Lawrence's (originally St. James's), Denton, built about this time ; 
chancel added 1800 ; gallery erected, 1728 ; pewiug renewed, 1768 ; various 
restorations, 1791. 

1533. 

Sir Edmund Trafford the 2nd died. He was born in 1485, and was one of 
the first feoffees of Manchester Grammar School. 

1535. 

The clear revenue of the Collegiate Church was returned,to the First Fruits 
Office, 26 Henry VIII., as £213 10s. lid. 
George ColUar appointed Warden. 



1538-15481 



Annals of Manchester. 27 



1538. 

Manchester visited by John Leland, the antiquary, who thus describes it : 
" Mancestre, on the south side of tlie Irwel river, stondeth in Salfordsliiret, 
and is the fairest, best buildid, quiltkest, and most populus tounne of all Lau- 
castreshire, yet is in hit one Paroch Chirch, but is a College, and almost 
ihorowhowt doble ilyd ex quadvato lapide durissimo, wherof a goodly 
;iuarre is hard by the towne. There be divers stone bridges in the towne, but 
the best of iii arches is over Irwel. This bridge dividith Manchestre from Sal- 
ford, the wich is a large suburbe to Manchestre. On this bridge is a praty 
little chapel. . . . And almost ii flyte shottes withowt the towne beneth on 
the same syde of Irwel yet be seene the dikes and fundations of Old Man 
Castel (Ould Manchester in Burton's transcript of Leiand's MSS.) yn a ground 
now inclosid. The stones of the mines of this castel were translatid towards 
making of Briddges for the Toune." {Itinerary.) 

Birch Chapel, Rusholme, built about this time, dedicated to St. James ; 
registers commenced, 1752 ; roof raised and edifice lengthened, 1753 ; repairs, 
&c., 1803 ; improved and an organ added, 1811 ; new church erected, 1845-6, cost 
£4,300 ; consecrated, July, 184G ; returned a district chapelry, 1850 ; constituted 
a rectory, 1854. 

1540. 

The bishopric of Chester founded. John Bird, D.D., was translated from 
Bangor to fill the new see, which was formed of the archdeaconries of Chester 
and Richmond. Manchester had previously been in the diocese of Lichfield. 

The Collegiate Church of Manchester (in common with twenty-seven other 
places, principally collegiate) obtained the right of sanctuary, constituting it a 
" place of privilege and uicion for term of life, to all offenders and malefactors, 
of whatsoever quality, kind, or nature their offence might be, for which saide 
offences and crimes the peine and punishment of death should ensue by the 
statute laws and customs of the realme" other than murder, rape, burglary, 
highway robbery, or wilfully burning any house or barn. (32 Henry VIII.) 

1541. 

"An acte touchinge the translation of the privilege of sanctuary from 
Manchester to Westchester" (Chester). From this it appears that the privilege 
of sanctuary had proved detrimental to the good order of the town, and is 
therefore taken away. The town is represented as "well inhabited for a long 
time, and the King's subjects well set a work in the making of clothes as well 
of linen as of woollen." 

1547. 
The collegiate clergy dissolved by Edward VI. The warden, Sir George 
CoUiar, was deprived for denying the King's supremacy. The college house 
was, together with some of the lands, taken into the possession of the King 
and sold to the Earl of Derby, who provided three or four ministers to supply 
the service of the church. (Hollinworth's Mancuniensis.) 

1548. 
Sir Alexander iladcliffe, of Ordsall, died, aged 72. He was High Sheriff of 



28 Annals of Manchester. [1550-155-J 



Lancashire in 1547, In 1524 he was a feoffee of Manchester Grammar School. 
What is believed to be his brass, a palimpsest, is described by Rev. E. F. Letts 
in Palatine Note-book, vol. iv., p. 77. 

Blackley Chapel, dedicated to St. Peter, built about this period ; sold to the 
inhabitants by Sir John Byron, of Newstead, in May, 1611 ; entirely rebuilt at 
a cost of £245, 1736 ; enlarged 1741 ; taken dovk^n 1844, and built to the north of 
the former one, cost £3,300. 

1550. 

Stretford Chapel built about this time. For further pai'ticulars see Mr- J. 
E. Bailey's Old Stretford. 

A general muster of troops was ordered by the Queen. Salford Hundred 
consisted of 394 harnessed (i.e., with armour), 649 unharnessed soldiers. 

1552. 

An Act passed " for the true making of woollen cloth." It directs " that all 
the cottons called Manchester, Lancashire, and C!.eshire cottons, shall be in 
length twenty-two yards, and that all clothes called Manchester rugs, or Man 
Chester frizes, shall contain in length thirty-six yards, &c." 

An Act of Parliament passed by which the Manor of Manchester, the 
advowson of the Church and various other possessions of Thomas Lord La 
Warre were settled upon himself in tail with remainder to his half brother. Sir 
Owen West ; to the heirs male of his late brother Sir George West ; and to the 
right heirs of Sir Thomas West, late Lord La Warre, his father. 

The first recorded meeting of the Court Leet was held in October. The 
minute-book begins with the year 1552, when the Lord of the Manor was Sir 
Thomas West, ninth Lord La Warre. The steward is not named until a subse- 
quent entry, but was probably that great and powerful nobleman, Edward, 
third Earl of Derby. It is one of the oddities of sixteenth century life to flud a 
magnate of his standing and position— he was certainly the most powerful 
person in the county— holding this office. The names of the householders who 
had to serve as a jury are given, as well as those of the officials. There was a 
borough-reeve elected by the burgesses and holding a position of responsibility 
closely approaching to that of the mayor of a modern city. There was a catch- 
pole, whose functions were those of bailiff of the Court. There were two 
constables, whose honorary but sometimes onerous duty was to secure the 
peace of the town, prosecute offenders, put down unlawful games, make a 
faithful presentment of all " bloodsheds, outcries, affrays, and rescues," and see 
that archery practice was duly enforced on the sometimes unwilling townsmen. 
For this purpose there were archery butts in Market Stead Lane, at Aldport, 
and at Collyhurst. The pillory is not named, though it may have existed ; but 
the decision for the erection of stocks is recorded in 1569. But if archery had 
become unpopular, bowling was a favourite recreation, and giddy-gaddy or 
cafs pallet, a now obsolete game, could only be put down by the terrors of 
fine and dungeon. The markets had to be looked after, and for this purpose 
there were four "market lookers" for corn, two for fish and fleshmeat, and 
five for white meats, which Mr. Earwaker explains as veal, pork, lamb, &c., 
but which are much more likely to have been milk, butter, and vegetables. 
Two officers were charged to keep the Market Place clean, and on one occasion 



1552J 



Annals of Manchester. 29 



two women were appointed. There were appraisers to value various kinds of 
goods, and "sealers" of leather, who had to make sure that all skins were 
properly dressed and duly stamped iu accordance with the statute. There were 
laws against buying in the market and selling at a higher price on the same 
day, and the injunctions against forestallers are repeated. Standards by which 
to test weights and measures were provided. Strangers might not buy before 
a certain time. A couple of ale founders, or ale conners, had not only the duty 
of certifying the liquor for the use of the King's lieges, but were also entrusted 
with the oversight of the sale of bread. There were two brpiamen for Market 
Stead Lane, two more for Deansgate, and four for Milngate, Withynge Greue 
(Withy Grove), Hanging Ditch, Fennel Street, " and so to Irk's Bridge." The 
duties of these officers were to see that the rules and regulations made by the 
Court were duly carried out in their several districts, and that they did not 
always attend to their duty is clear fi-om these records, when they are some- 
times charged with allowing swine in the street and other faults of omission. 
The meaning of the name is doubtful, but it has been suggested that it is 
equivalent to bye-law men. To see that the streets were kept clean and in 
good order was the duty of certain other citizens, whose title of "scavengers" 
need not lead us to suppose that they actually did the work themselves. There 
were two for Market Stead Lane, two for Deansgate and St. Mary's Gate, three 
for the " Old Market Stede," two for Smithy Door, three for Hanging Ditch 
and Long Millgate, two for Fennel Street, and four for Milngate and Hunt's 
Bank. Finally there were five afferators or affecrers, whose duty was to 
assess the amount of the penalties to be inflicted by the Court as fines. 

Such was the Court which assembled in October, 1552. Those important 
persons "the myse leyers" and "myse" gatherers, who had to make and 
collect the local rates, are not named in this Court roll, but they occur in sub- 
sequent entries. There was also at a later date a swineherd, who each morn- 
ing conducted the porkers of the town by the sound of the horn to the common 
at Collyhurst, and brought them back again at nightfall. The jury found that 
a burgess had encroached upon the King's highway in the erection of a house, 
and he is admonished not to "ditch, pale, or hedge any'further there unless he 
have the licence of the twelve men." Who were the "twelve men" is not 
stated, but they appear to have been the jury of an inferior or smaller court, 
which met more frequently, but of whose proceedings there are no records. 
Perhaps, however, it is merely a general way of indicating the Court Leet 
jury, which would consist of not less than twelve. Another burgess is 
ordered to make a stone wall so that his dunghill shall not affect his neigh- 
bour's watei'course. Several orders are more or less anticipatory of recent 
action of the Health Committee in relation to the "pail system." A water- 
course that has apparently been diverted must, emphatically, "goo the same 
weye as hit hathe bene orderede afore," and less than two months are allowed 
for the change, on pain of a fine of twenty pence. Another man's palings are 
too high, and are ordered to be cut down four inches. A burgess who has a 
field in Toad Lane has allowed the ditch to become unpleasant, and he is there- 
fore admonished to sklannsc it, and the word has the appearance of indicating 
that the authorities are firmly resolved to have that ditch made clean. The 
same man who had not observed the " building line" is directed to " dyche the 



30 Annals of Manchester. [1553-1555 



Jyche anends his feldes ende in Newton Lane," and the like injunction is laid 
upon another negligent farmer. A penalty of one penny is to be inflicted upon 
ill persons who suflfer their geese to be put in the Market Stead. House- 
holders in St. Mary's Gate having neglected to keep the "street end" clean, 
the landlord is informed that he must cause his tenants to do this cleansing 
" or do it himself." Extracts from the Court Leet Eecords from 1552 to 1602 
have been edited by Mr. John Harland for the Chetham Society, and the 
Records are now being printed in full for the corporation, under the editorial 
charge of Mr. J. P. Earwaker. The first volume appeared in 1885. 

1553. 

Queene Mary refounded the Colledge, restored allmost all the lands (the 
Earle of Derby still keeping the Collegiate house, and some other small things), 
appointed one master or keeper, eight fellowes chaplaines, foure clerkes, and 
sixe choristers, and did allso confirme and re-establish .he statutes of the first 
foundation, and placed George CoUiar in his wardenship againe. This George 
Colliar came along with Dr. Pendleton to John Bradford to dispute with him, 
anno 1555. 

1554. 

Making of " dawbe," which was used in the construction of the raddle and 
laub houses, was a great source of trouble, and there are numerous references 
to it. 29 March. (Earwaker's Eecords.) 

Thomas, ninth Baron La Warre and sixteenth lord of Manchester, died 
25th September, 1584, leaving no issue. William West, the son of the half 
brother of the last Baron La Warre, became lord of Manchester, in accordance 
with the act of 1552. 

An order in Council, dated May 22, states that "George Charleton, of 
Manchester, goldsmithe, suspected of coyning, was this day committed to the 
ffleete." 

There was a great deal of counterfeit coining going on at this time all over 
England, and a nest of coiners was found at Bunbury, in Cheshire. 

1555. 

The Court Leet Jury had quarrels to deal with. The wife of Robert Ker- 
shawe gives "a piece of her mind " to John Spenser, and tells him that he is 
no honest man, but " a recetter of theves," which John repeats to the jury, 
who remit the punishment of the woman to the steward of the manor. 16th 
October. (Earwaker's Eecords.) 

John Bradford, a native of Manchester, suffered martyrdom in the cause 
of Protestantism at Smithfield, London. He is supposed to have been born 
about 1510, and to have been one of the earliest pupils at the Manchester 
Grammar School. He was secretary to Sir John Harrington, the treasurer of 
the King's Camps and Buildings, and after his conversion to the reformed 
faith, made restitution for some real or fancied wrong he had then committed. 
In 1548 he entered Catherine Hall, Cambridge, and became M.A. In 1551 he 
was one of the chaplains of Edward VI., and in the following year visited 
and preached in his native county. On the accession of Mary he saved a 
Roman priest from the fury of a London mob. " Ah, Bradford," said one. 



1555] 



Annals of Manchester. 31 



" thou sarest one that will help to burn thee." On 15th August, 1553, he was 
arrested on a charge of sedition, and after lingering in prison was brought to 
Smithfleld. where he was burnt at the stake. John Leaf, a tallow chandler's 
apprentice, was burned at the same time. Great influence was exercised by 
the publication of a volume, entitled Letters of Maister John Bradford, a 
Faythfull Minister and a syngularpyllar of Christens Clmirch; by u-hoscgreate 
trauiles and diligence in preaching and planting the syncerity of the Gospel, 
by whose most godly and innocent lyfe, and by whose long and 2Jayneful im- 
prisonments for the maintenance of the truth, the Kyngdome of God ivas not 
a little advanced ; who also at last 7nost valiantly and cheerfully gaue his 
blood for the sam^e. The ^ day of July. In the year of our Lord \5ob. One of 
the ministers who held disputations with Bradford in prison was "Warden 
CoUiar ; another was Pendleton, " who," says Hollinworth, " was, in King 
Henries dayes, a Papist ; in King Edward's days hee recanted in Manchester 
being one of the preachers there, mainteined out of the revenues of the then 
dissolved colledge), and became an earnest assertor and preacher of the 
Gospell : in Queene Mai'ies dayes, meeting with Mr. Saunders in the country 
(about Coventry it's like, where Mr. Saunders lived, and Dr. Pendleton went 
that very way to London), and discoursing of the persecutions then arising, 
Saunders complaining that though his spirit was ready to suffer, his flesh was 
weake, and loth to tast of that bitter cup. Pendleton being a fat bigg man, 
ouer-selfe-confidently sayd, ' I will see the vtmost dropp of this grease of mine 
molten away, and the last gobbet of this flesh consumed to asshes, before I 
will forsake God and his truth.' But the issue prooued otherwise when they 
came to London. Saunders bouldly preached Christ, opposed antichrist, and 
sealed his doctrine with his bloud at Coventry. ' Pendleton,' sayth Mr. Fox, 
' changed his tippet, preached popery, and, being learned, was a greate disputer 
for it above ; and was sent, or of his owne accorde came downe to Manchester 
and other places to recant his recantation, and to preach vp popery, which 
occasioned Mr. Bradford to admonish his Christian friends and countrymen to 
beware of him.' This Mr. Bradford came downe, in King Edward's dayes, into 
the countrey, preached the word of God (as Dr. Pendleton then allso did, 
in Manchester ; and allso at Eccles, Prestwich, Midleton, Radcliife, Assheton 
vnderlyme, Stopport, Mottrime, Wimsley, Boulton, Bury, Wigan, Liverpoole) 
and the City of Westchester. And God gave good successe to the ministry of 
the word ; and both raysed vp to himselfe, and preserved a faithful people in 
Lancashire, especially in and about Manchester and Bolton, some names of 
whom wee find in Mr. Fox, his Acts and Monuments. Their minister, I con- 
ceive, was Father Travers, in King Edward's dayes the minister of Blakeley, 
and outed in Queene Maries dayes, and Sir Thomas Hall, who lived near unto, 
and much counselled Mr. Bradford's mother. It is commonly and credibly 
reported that one Ryder, of Smedley, Avas imprisoned for, that hee, in King 
Edward's dayes, was one that pulled a popish priest out of the pulpit, that a 
preacher might goe vp. It is reported and believed that John Bradford, 
preaching in Manchester in King Edward's dayes, tould the people, as it were, 
by a prophetical spirit, that because they did not readily embrace the Word of 
God, the Masse should bee sayd againe in that church, and the play of ' Robin 
Hood ' acted there, which accordingly came to passe in Queene Maries reigne. 



32 Annals of Manchester. 



[1556-1557 



The imprisonment of the sayd Mr. Bradford, the conferences hee had, the exa- 
mination of him, and his being burned for the reformed religion at London 
(though it was at first intended hee should have bin burned at Manchester), 
and how WoodrofTe, the Sheriffe of London, struck Roger Bexwick, his 
bi-other-in-law, then living in Manchester, as hee was speaking with Mr. Brad- 
ford, and the hand of God vpon the sayd Woodroffe, and many other things are 
fully related by Mr. Fox, to whom I referre the reader." 

Bradford's Writings have been collected by the Parker Society, with a bio- 
graphical notice by Aubrey Townsend (Cambridge, 1848-53, 2 vols.); Fuller's 
Worthies; Froude's History of England; Espinasse's Lancashire Worthies 
should also be consulted. 

There are several portraits of John Bradford, some of them dissimilar in 
character — one from a picture in the Chetham Library, Manchester, engraved 
by J. Jenkins, which has no resemblance to the other three ; another from a 
painting in Pembroke College, Cambridge; a third prefixed to his writings, 
as published by the Religious Tract Society ; and a fourth from a painting in 
possession of Mr. Blythe, painted by C. Jansen and engraved by Thos. 
Trotter. There is a portrait of him in the Heroologia, which is called by 
Evans the original print, and engraved by S. Pass. 

1556. 

The burgesses were bound to have their corn ground at the manorial mill, 
which had been granted to the Free Grammar School, and as some of them 
evaded the monopoly, it was ordered that frequent warning should be given in 
the church. 30th September. (Earwaker's Records.) 

1557. 

George Colliar, warden, died, of whom it is stated by Fox, the martyrologist, 
that although a rigid Catholic, " he does not appear to have aided persecution." 

Lawrence Vaux, B.D., appointed warden, but opposing the Reformation 
was deprived by Queen Elizabeth. He was a strenuous Catholic, " so wonderful," 
Bays Hollinworth, "did God hide his people in Lancashire." His example 
and influence appear to have opposed a powerful obstacle to the reception of 
the reformed religion in this county. He was born at Blackrod, near Chorley, 
and was a laborious, learned, and devout divine ; but for his adherence to the 
Catholic faith was cast into prison, in London, where he is believed to have died 
in great necessity. He was the author of a Catcchisme, published at Antwerp 
in 1573, which has been reprinted by the Chetham Society, with a biographical 
notice by Mr. T. G. Law. The testimony of Hollinworth, who was a hearty hater 
of Rome, is that " he was laborious, learned, and in his way devout and con- 
scientious." Further, " he was a man well beloved and highly honoured by 
many in Manchester ;- yea, by the generality." 

The bakers having taken their stand to sell bread in a situation that was 
deemed inconvenient, it was ordered that when they appeared in the forbidden 
spot a pennyworth of bread should be taken from each of them and given to 
the poor. 30th September. (Earwaker's Records.) 

Henry Pendleton, D.D., died circa 1557. He was born at Manchester about 
1521, and was the author of two of the homilies and other writings. He was 



1558-1563] 



Annals of Manchester. 33 



one of those who attempted to reconcile Bradford to the Church of Rome, 
having been himself a stout Protestant in King Edward's days. 

1558. 

William Birch, M.A. (a younger brother of Thomas Birch, of Birch Hall), 
appointed warden. Resigned at the request of Queen Elizabeth. He died at 
Stanhope, in the bishopric of Durham, 1572. 

1559. 

Thomas Herle, a native of Cornwall, chaplain to Queen Elizabeth, appointed 
warden. He was deprived in 1578, for mismanagement of the funds of the 
college. His alienations did not deprive him of the favour of the Queen, who 
granted him a pension upon his retirement. Thomas Herle is described as "a 
subservient tool and a selfish man ; who, indeed, if a Protestant, had always 
changed with the princes of these changeable times." He rarely visited 
Manchester, having a dispensation for his absence. 

1560. 

The Court Leet ordered that no one should brew to sell unless they had twa 
honest beds for the accommodation of travellers. The sign of a hand was to 
be shown when ale was to be had, and when the tap was dry the hand was 
withdrawn. Those who could provide four beds must have a sign, but were 
left to their own choice in the selection. 2nd October. (Earwaker's Records.) 

Numerous libels against Queen Elizabeth, and those who favoured her 
proceedings, were circulated in Manchester and neighbourhood. The Privy 
Council issued a proclamation for the suppression of one, called " Leycester's 
Commonwealth." 

1561. 

The Court Leet ordered that no manner of persons shall sell ale above 4d. 
out and Cd. in the house ; in default, Gs. 8d. fine. Also those that brew to sell 
ale and keep no inn, shall have a sign of the hand, which, so long as they have 
ale to sell, shall be put forth ; and when they have none, to be taken in. They 
shall deny no person ale for their money if the hand be out, under a fine of 
6s. 8d. October 21. 

1562. 

The College became a prison for "heretics," Catholics, and "recusants," 
Puritans, or those who refused to acknowledge Elizabeth head of the church. 
The condition of the prison and prisoners is described in Peck's Desiderata 
Curiosa. 

1563. 

Richard Kyrshaw appointed common wayte (minstrel) by the Court Leet. 
This is the first mention we have of waytes as officials of the town. Sep- 
tember 30. It was customary for each place to have its musicians, who some- 
times performed outside their own town. Various instances of this are given 
in the Shuttlcworth Accounts, published by the Chetham Society. The Man- 
chester waits (in the Court Leet Records) attended the wedding parties and 
otherwise discoursed sweet music for the burgesses. Their emoluments were 
C 



Si Annals of Manchester. [i564-i567 

the gifts of those who heard them, and probably most of their income came 
from marriage feasts. The tendency to extravagance at the moment of entry 
upon matrimony was severely repressed by the Court Leet by orders that not 
more than fourpence a head should be paid at a wedding dinner. In the other 
Ales or " Drinking in assembly " w^e may see the survival of still older customs, 
w^hich doubtless were not infrequently detrimental to the peace of the town. 
They were prohibited, but Ales for highways, bridges, and churches were 
allowed. At these social meetings collections were made after the fashion of 
the charity dinners. (Harland's Court Leet.) 

1564. 

Sir Edmund Traflford the third died. He was born in 1507, and was 
tnighted by the Earl of Hertford in Scotland. He was with Henry VIH. at 
the siege of Boulogne. 

1565. 

Elias, the Manchester Prophet, died 2oth February in prison at London. His 
real name was Ellis Hall, and he was born at Manchester in 1502, where his 
father was a carpenter. Having prospered in business, he began to see visions, 
and in 1562 went to London, where he attempted to have an interview with 
the Queen. He was arrested, condemned to the pillory, and Avhipped by two 
ministers at Bedlam. His BooJc of Visions, a MS. in metre, was in the library 
of the son of Archbishop Parker. (Axon's Lancashire Gleanings.) 

There was allso an act of parliament concerning the Aulnegers' fees, and 
that hee should have deputies within the seueral townes of Manchester, Boul- 
ton, Blackburne, Bury. (Hollinworth's Mancuniensis.) 

" There was a sore sickness in Manchester and about it, of which very 
many died." (Hollinworth's Mancuniensis.) 

The keepers of bakehouses were ordered by the Court Leet not to store 
gorse or kiddes for fuel " within two bays" of the ovens. 2nd Oct. (Earwaker's 
Becords.) 

The ale-house keepers appeared to have been fined one penny each indiscri- 
minately. (Earwaker's Court Leet Becords.) 

1566. 

It was enacted at the Court Leet that all manner of weights should be made 
according to the statutes, and sealed with the town seal. October 2. (Harland's 
Court Leet.) 

1567. 

Some leather-dressers, having begun operations in wet-dressing of leather 
near the well and washing-place, are admonished by the Court Leet to remove. 
October 1. (Earwaker's Records,) 

Randall Lyghe and Richard Wirrall appointed wettes (minstrels) of Man- 
chester. The Court Leet record states : " They shall play morning and evening 
together, and that they shall not absent themselves without license of the 
steward and twenty of the persons at least." October 1. 



568-1572) 



Annals of Manchester. 35 



1568. 

The watching of the town appeai-s to have been a compulsory service, and 
each watchman was expected to have "a jack, a sallet, and a bill." At the 
opening of the fair every burgess was expected to attend the steward in armour 
or to provide a substitute "well furnished" with bill and halbert. October 16. 
Earwaker's Records.) 

It was forbidden by the Court Leet jury to cast carrion or anything else 
hurtful into the river Irk. October 16. (Earwaker's Records.) 

1569. 

The jury of the Court Leet ordered that there shall not be "any rogg or 
cottons wet openly in the stretes." (Earwaker's Court Leet Records, vol. i.) 

1570. 

From a letter written 4th May by the Archbishop to Cecil, it appears that 
the warden of Manchester desired to relinquish the trust, " to be converted to 
some college in Cambridge, who might hereafter send out some preachers to 
inhabit that quarter, and also by the rest of the revenues maintain some 
students." It was suggested that the collegiate estates might be annexed to 
St. John's CoUege, Cambridge. (Baker's History of St. John's, edit, by Mayor, 
p. 589.) 

A search made throughout Lancashire and the other parts of the kingdom 
for vagrants, rogues, gipsies, &c. The result was the apprehension of 13,000 
"masterless men." (Baines's iancas/i ire, 1868, vol. i., p. 169.) 

1571. 

There was an enquiry into the state of the Collegiate Church by Archbishop 
Grindal, held 8th .Tune, in the Chapter-house. Some cui'ious evidence was 
given of the habits of the clergy and condition of the church. Two of the 
Collegiate body went about the town with a handbell, moving the people to 
works of mercy ; while the choiristers fetched the dead to the church from 
their houses with handbells and singing. There were pictures in the church 
which the churchwardens had never defaced, and the old shrines were not 
removed. One of the Fellows was accustomed to go to an alehouse in 
sermon time in his surplice, and even kept an alehouse himself. There had 
been no change of churchwardens since the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's 
reign. (MS. Rej)ort, in the hands of Mr. J. E. Bailey.) 

Sir Richard Hall, one of the Fellows of the Collegiate Church, " ministered 
a dormatory" to divers persons, who all died after taking the same ; and the 
same fate followed those whose veins he cut. "When he should serve God, 
he runneth abowte his phisicke and surgerye, and ys altogether unlearned." 
This individual added to his other employments that of Bursar to the College. 
(MS. in Mr. J. E. Bailey's hands.) 

1572. 

The occupiers of the houses and shops about the Conduit were ordered by 
the Court Leet to keep clean the streets in and about the Conduit, under a fine 
of 6d. 

" By virtue or presence of an act of parliament, in the first yeare of Edward 



36 Annals of Manchester. 



[1572-157$ 



the Sixth, the Colledge of Manchester was dissolved, and the lands and revenues 
belonging to it vrere taken into the king's hands, and were by him demysed to 
Edward, Earle of Derby ; and the house called the Colledge and some lands in 
Aldport were then or soone after (as it is sayd) sould to the sayd Earle, who 
was carefull, as our fathers have tould us, to provide very well for three or 
foure ministers officiating in the church. 

"Anno 1572, by inquisition vppon oath it was allso found, that the Earle 
of Derby had bought of the Prince, Over, AUport, and three burgages in the 
Milnegate and Fenelstreete, being chauntry lands ; and, indeede, severall 
chauntries belonged to the parish church of Manchester, which had their 
severall endowments ; one wherein Sir William Trafford was last incumbent, 
another called Cheetam's chauntry, wherein Sir James was last incumbent, 
besydes others." (Hollinworth's Mancuniensis.) 

The Court Leet appoint nine officers to see that the swine in the streets 
were duly sent to Collyhurst waste. April 10. 

1573. 

• The following entry is made in the Court Leet records : " The most of the 
jury do think thirty alehouses and inns to be sufficient in Manchester." 
March 26. (Harland's Court Leet.) 

The Court Leet direct that alehouse keepers shall not allow any unlawful 
gaming in their houses or gardens. March 26, 

The jury of the Court Leet "doth present .John Skilliekorne, plumber, to 
be a common easing-dropper, a naughty person, such a one as doth abound in 
all misorders ; therefore we desire that he may be avoided the town, and have 
such punishment as unto such doth appertain." March 26. (Harland's Cour-t 
Leet Records, vol. i., p. 131.) 

The first register for the parish of Manchester commenced in this year. 
The first entry is the burial of Robert Fisher, August 1. The first baptism was 
Ellen, daughter of William Darby, August 3. And the first marriage between 
Nicholas Cleaton and Ellen Pendleton. 

The Court Leet fixed hours for servants, &c. Apprentices, men servants, 
and women servants were not to be out later than nine in summer and eight 
in winter. Servants and children were prohibited from attending the wedding 
feasts. September 20. (Earwaker's Records.) 

The Court Leet records state that "Mr. Steward (Ralph Hurlestane) 
ordered that any unlucky tippler who was found drunk should pass the night 
in the dungeon and pay 6d. to the poor ; if the drunkard could not pay the fine 
the publican had to pay it for him." September 20. (Earwaker's Records.) 

The Court Leet order that if any alehouse keeper, man or woman, be found 
drunken in their own house or elsewhere, he or she shall be punished by 
imprisonment for one night, and from thenceforth discharged from alehouse 
keeping. September 20. (Harland's Court Leet.) 

"Injunctions and orders concerning the Colledge Church of Manchester 
were given to the Master or Warden ; and the rest, some by the Archbishop of 
Yorke, and other the Queene Majesties commissioners, for causes ecclesias- 
tical, within the province of Yorke, anno 1573, about residence of the warden 
and fellowes, diligent and constant preaching every Sunday in the church of 



1574-1578] 



Annals of Manchester. 37 



Manchester, or in one of the chappells of Stretford, Chorlton, Diddesbury, 
Gorton, Denton, Newton, and Blakeley." (Hollinworth's Mancunicnsis.) 

Newton Heath Chapel built about this time ; enlarged, 1738 ; rebuilt, 1814. 

1574. 

The lord of the manor having enclosed the common of Collyhurst, the 
•enclosure was put downe the same night. As a compromise he "lett to such 
as chose to give for it iiiis. the aker by yeares, and twenty shillings fine afore- 
hand." (Hollinworth's Mancunicnsis.) 

From Warden Herle the TrafFords of Trafford received, about 1574, some 
ambiguous leases of the tithes of Stretford, Trafford, and half of Chorlton, 
which were ultimately decided to mean possession for ninety-nine years after 
twenty-one years. This transaction is probably the origin of the right of the 
family to nominate one churchwarden and two sidesmen, and to appoint the 
parish clerk of Manchester. When Peploe was warden these leases were the 
occasion of much trouble, and it was with great difficulty that the Fellows 
obtained their surrender. 

At a Court Leet held April 15 " the jury doth present of themselves that 
George Marshall, the 10th April, made a fray upon Thomas Aspinall, and gave 
him two blood-wipes in the head." (Harland's Court Lett, vol. i., p. 136.) 

1575. 

Twenty -two old " croste grotes" were found in digging the ground within 
the house of George Bolton, Salford. April 7. (See Harland's Court Leet, and 
Earwaker's Records, where a mistake of the former is corrected.) 

1577. 

The Court Leet order James Smith, capper, and William Savage, the catch- 
poll, to attend the Parish Church on Sundays and holidays to note who wore 
hats contrary to law. April 11. (Harland's Court Led.) 

The town of Manchester gave £40 to the rebuilding of Crossford Bridge 
which was undertaken at their petition. The county assessment for the same 
was £200. (Hollinworth's Mancuniensis.) 

1578. 

Queen Elizabeth dissolved the foundation of the Collegiate Church, which 
had consisted of one warden, eight fellows, four chaplains, and six choristers ; 
and gave the college a new charter of foundation for one warden, four fellows, 
two chaplains, four musicians, two clerks, and four choristers. The warden to 
be elected by the Crown, and the others on vacancy, by the warden and fellows. 
The style was changed to the College of Christ, July 28. John Wolton, or 
Woolton, appointed warden ; John Mallayns, Alexander Nowell, Oliver Carter, 
and Thomas Williamson, fellows ; Robert Barber and Thomas Richardson, 
chaplains ; and Robert Leigh, Charles Leigh, Philip Gosnett, and John Glover, 
singing men. The salary of the warden was four shillings per day ; each fellow, 
sixteenpence; each chaplain, sixpence three farthings; each chorister, four- 
pence halfpenny ; and each singing boj-, twopence halfpenny. The warden to 
forfeit 30d. and each fellow Sd. for every day's absence. 

"About this time the Bishop of Chester erected, and his successors 



38 Annals of Manchester. 



[1579-1580 



encouraged a publicke exercise to bee held at Manchester, the second Thursday 
in every month, and nominated some grave, godly, learned ministers to bee 
moderators, and to preach in their courses in the af ternoone ; and commanded 
all parsons, vicars, curates, readers, schoolemasters, within the Deanery of 
Manchester, to bee present at the sayd exercise, and to bee ready in the after- 
noone to bee more privately conferred with, examined, instructed, and directed 
by the sayd nominated moderators ; and to obey and observe their orders and 
directions vppon paine of censure. The names of the moderators were Mr. 
Shaw, of Bury ; Mr. Carter, of Manchester ; Mr. Assheton, of Midleton ; Mr. 
Williamson, of Manchester; Mr. Langley, of Prestwich." 

The churchwardens of Manchester demand nine pounds from the inhabi- 
tants "for destroying crowes." (HoUinworth.) 

Sir William West, then Lord of the Manor, attempted to wrest the privi- 
lege of the inhabitants of Manchester from choosing the boroughreeve, the 
steward choosing John Gee, and the town Robert Langley. (Harland's Court 
Leet.) 

A number of exiles from the Low Countries are believed by some to have 
settled in Manchester about this time, but the evidence is scanty. (Wheeler's 
Manchester, p. 25.) 

1579. 

Perhaps in anticipation of a water famine, it was ordered in 1579 that no 
vessel larger than a woman could carry full of water should be brought to the 
Conduit, and but one from each house, and that the applicants should "have 
their cale," or wait their turn. It was unlocked at six in the morning and 
locked at nine in the evening. (Harland's Court Leet.) 

The manor of Manchester sold by the Wests to John Lacye, a mercer, of 
London, for £3,000, May 15. (See under date 1596.) 

"Description of a moste dreadfull and meruclous Monster born in Man- 
chester, upon Tusdaye, being the fourteenth [18th] of August last past, 1579.' 
This is an account of a sort of Siamese twin which is referred to in the 
register of burials, 19th of August, as "a mayde child and a monsterous mm 
childe wantinge boeth neck, head, and armes." {Palatine Note-book, vol. iii., 
p. 269.) 

In an assembly of Ecclesiastical Commissioners (including Henry, Earl of 
Derby ; Henry, Earl of Huntington ; and William, Bishop of Chester) held at 
Manchester, they issued an order against pipers and minstrels making and 
frequenting bear-baiting and bull-baiting on the Sabbath days, or upon any 
other days ; and also against superstitious ringing of bells, wakes, and com- 
mon feasts ; drunkenness, gaming, and other vicious and unprofitable pursuits. 
(HoUinworth.) 

1580. 

In Robert Hitchcock's Politic Plat, published 1 January, 1580, Rouen is 
said to be "the chiefest vent" for "Welsh and Manchester cottons, Northern 
kerseys, whites, lead, and tin." 

The old compulsion of baking at the lord's oven had become obsolete, but 
the Court Leet jury requested "all loving neghbours" to bake with the tenant 
who rented the disestablished oven. April 7. (Earwaker's Records.) 



1581-1584] 



Annals of Manchester. 39 



John Woolton, warden, promoted to the See of Lincoln, and William 
Chadderton, D.D., Bishop of Chester, appointed "Warden of the College, in 
commendam, June 5. Translated to the bishopric of Lincoln in 1594, and 
resipined his office of warden. 

Lord Burleigh thanks the Earl of Derby for reforming abuses in the 
Manchester College. 

A commission held in Lancashire for trying Popish recusants. 

A new jail built in Manchester at Hunt's Bank, called the " New Fleet,'' 
and the expense was for a time supported by fines imposed on the more wealthy 
of the prisoners, and by the proceeds of a parochial assessment, amounting to 
eightpence per week on every parish throughout the diocese of Chester. 

1581. 

Sir John Southworth and others imprisoned in the New Fleet, at Man- 
chester, for "obstinate adherence to Popery." 

1582. 

A Godhj and Learned Sermon, containing a charge and instruction for 
all unlearned, negligent, and dissolute Ministers, x>reached at Manchester, in 
Lancastershire, before a great and worshij^ifull audience, hy occasion of 
certain parsons there at the 2:)resent, apx)ointed (as then) to he made ministers. 
By Simon Harward. London, 1582. (Axon's Lancashire Gleanings, p. 219.) 

Mr. Robert Worsley, keeper of the gaol of Manchester, made an offer " that 
on condition of being allowed the proceeds of the 'jail tax' for one whole year, 
he would at his own proper charges build a workhouse, sufficient to afford 
employment to all the rogues, vagabonds, and idlers in the county." Dec. 3. 

1583. 

The number of alehouse keepers and bakers in Manchester was declared 
by the Lord of the Council to be excessive, and orders given for the suppression 
of a number of them. 

1584. 

At the Assizes at Lancaster, James Bell, a native of Warrington ; John 
Finch, a native of Eccleston ; and James Leybourne were found guilty of being 
Cathol'c recusants. The two former were executed at Lancaster, and their 
heads exposed on the summit of the Collegiate Church, April 20. The persecu- 
t oa of the Roman Catholics was very bitter. Details are given in Challoner's 
Memoirs of Missionary Priests, and in Foley's English Province of the Society 
of Jems, ii., 143. They were arrested at Manchester and imprisoned in the house 
known as Radcliffes of the Pool— the ancient seat of the Radcliffe family, the 
site of which is indicated by the name of Poolfold. An engraving of Radcliffe 
Hall is given in the Palatine Note-book, vol. iil., p. 265. It has been said that 
Leybourne was executed at Manchester, but this appears to be a mistake. 

" No single women were allowed in the town unless they were under the 
guardianship of their relatives, or in others' employ." May 9. (Harland's 
Court Leet.) 

The Court Leet ordered that single women should not be allowed to be "at 
their own hand," either to rent a house or exercise a trade, "to the great hurt 



40 Annals of Manchester. 



[1585-15S8 



of the poor inhabitants havinp; wife and children." May 9. (Earwaker's 
Becords.) 

1585. 

The Conduit was regarded as a special ornament of the town, and whilst 
subscriptions were collected for its maintenance and repair, it was forbidden 
in 1585 to wash clothes, scour vessels, or cleanse "meats of beasts" or calves at 
this, the chief source of the water supply of the town. 

" The English Benedictins beyond the seas began to bestirre themselves for 
continuation of their order. Abbot Fecknam being dead, and there being but 
one left ; viz., Father Sigebert Buckley, and therefore, before his death, pro- 
v'ision was made of others to succeede. Nine were chosen : five in Valladolid, 
in Spaine, and foure in Rome ; of which foure, one Father Anselme, of Man- 
chester, was one." (Fuller's Eccles. Hist.) 

Edward Rishton died at St. Manhew. He was, according to Fuller, born 
in Lancashire, and fled from Oxford to Douai, where he graduated M.A., and 
then went to the English College at Rome and was ordained in 1583, He came 
to his native country as a mission priest, and was imprisoned for three years. 
He caught the infection of plague in Lorraine, and carried it to St. Manhew, 
where he died. 

1586. 

Hollinworth states that "there was a greate dearth in this country, inso- 
much that in Manchester, a peny white loafe weighed but six or eight ounces, 
one peny boulted bread ten or eleven ounces, ryebread ten ounces, browne 
bread, about foureteene ounces ; and the Bishop of Chester and others pitying 
the condicion of the poore, did order that the peny white bread should weigh 
nine ounces of troy weight ; boulted bread, ten ; browne bread, fifteene ; 
jannocke, thirteene ; oate cake, fifteene ounces. That euery baker haue his 
marke, according to the statute ; that their bread bee wholesome and wel 
baked ; that they sell but onely twelve to the dozen ; that no loaves bee made, 
but either of jd., ijd., iiijd., at the farthest; that these orders bee duely 
observed, both by inhabitants and forreiners." 

Camden describes Manchester as surpassing the neighbouring towns in 
elegance and populousness. " There is," says he, "a woollen manufacture, a 
market, a church, and a college." 

The Court Leet records contain the following memorandum, circa, 1586 : — 
" That hoUe fiftene of the said town of Manchester and the hamell or hamella 
[hamlet] de Bulhangs [?] due to the Queen's majesty, at every hoUe fiftene 
granted, ys the some of Thre powndes Seyven shyllynges." (Harland's Court 
Leet Records, vol. i., p. 107.) 

1588. 

A letter was sent 15th March from two justices at Lancaster Assizes — 
Clenche and Rodes — to the deputy-lieutenants, directing them to inquire as to 
the too great number of bakers and alehouse-keepers in Manchester, and to 
suppress such as were not needed. 

" There died of the parishioners in one moneth of Aprill, neere seventy 
persons." (Hollinworth.) 

The Court Leet jury ordered that no person should be allowed to buy any 



1589-1590] 



Annals of Manchester. 41 



fruit before nine o'clock in the forenoon ; if any were bought they were not to 
sell the same day under a fine of 2.s. October 3. (Harland's Court Led.) 

A great panic in Manchester, caused by a rumour that a large army of 
Papists had actually marched as far as Swinton Moor to attack the town. The 
townspeople "betook themselves to such armes as they had," and Bishop 
Chaderton, who was then Warden, caused the flesh shambles to be removed 
to Salford Bridge. (Hollinworth's Mancunicnsis.) 

Printing was introduced into Manchester by itinerant printers, who in 
the interests of Puritanism issued fierce attacks upon the bishops from secret 
presses, first at Kingston in Surrey, then at Fawsley in Northamptonshire, 
and then at Newton Lane, Manchester, where printers and press were seized 
by Fernando, fifth Earl of Derby. The mystery attaching to the Martin Mar- 
prelate tracts has never been fully cleared. " Ha' ye any work for the Cooper ? " 
had appeared, and at Manchester they were printing "Ha' ye any more work 
for the Cooper?" No copies of the sheets actually printed off appear to have 
been preserved. (See Notes and Queries, 4th Series, iii., 97, and vii., 64 ; and 
Axon's Manchester Libraries.) 

Against the Spanish Armada, Manchester was required to contribute 38 
narquebusiers, 38 archers, and 144 men for bills and pikes. The county 
2,375 men. 

In the charter granted by Queen Elizabeth to the Collegiate Church, the 
Manchester population is stated at 10,000, but whether this means the town or 
the parish is not certain. 

1589. 

Sir John Radcliffe, of Ordsal, buried in the Collegiate Church 11th February, 
aged 53. Five of his sons died on the battlefield — four at an early age. One of 
his two daughters died of grief for the death of her brethren. Sir John was 
suspected of being a secret adherent to the Roman communion. 

Robert Asnal, of Gorton, slaine with a bull at a stake. (Hollinworth's 
ifancwniensis.) 

1590. 

A commission held in Manchester for the punishment of Popish recusants. 

Chorlton Hall demised by Edmund TrafFord, Esq., to Ralph Sorocold for 
£320. It was the seat of the Minshulls, or Mynsales, in the reign of Henry I. ; 
and in 1544 it was sold by Ellis Hey, of Monk's Hall, in Eccles, to Thomas 
Minshull, apothecary, in Manchester, for £300 ; but it is reported to have been 
sold at a later period for £00,000 or £70,000. 

Sir Edmund TrafTord the fourth died. He was born in 152G. His first wife 
was a sister of Queen Catharine Howard, his second a daughter of Ralph 
Leicester, of Toft. He was a staunch Protestant, and is credited with special 
activity against the partisans of the old faith. Sir Edmund was High Sheriff 
of Lancashire in 15G5, 1571, and 1580. 

John Piers, Archbishop of York, held a visitation of the diocese of Chester 
in the church of Manchester on the last day of May, when the Fellows of the 
College were admonished for not using the surplice. The correspondence 
which followed is printed in Chetham Miscellany, vol. v. 

A document, signed by Peter Shaw, Oliver Carter, and other preachers, 



42 Annals of Manchester. [i59i-i5£5 

gives an account of the state, civil and ecclesiastical, of the county, in which 
they complain of the presence of Jesuits and priests, daily masses, private 
marriages, old festivals and fasts observed, fairs, markets, mayames, &c., held 
on the Sabbath, unruly behaviour in church, "popish superstition used in 
the burial of the dead," corruption in churchwardens, sidesmen, and parish 
clerks ; inconvenient state of churches and chapels, contentions about seats, 
and other matters. {Chetham^s Miscellany, vol. v.) 

" The Lord visited the town with a sore pestilence ; there died of the 
parishioners, in one monthe of Aprill, near seventy persons." (Hollinworth's 
Mancuniensis.) 

1591. 

No person was allowed to buy fruit but upon the market day, and in the open 
market ; the inhabitants not to buy before nine o'clock, strangers at ten, and 
not before ; in default one-half the fruit went to the lord, and the other to the 
officers. (Harland's Court Leet. ) 

The Court Leet jury presented that "greses, or stairs, descending to the 
water of Erwell, is in great decay." The inhabitants were assessed to repair 
the same. October 1, 

1592. 

No meat was allowed to be dressed or eaten within the town or liberties of 
Manchester on fast days under pain of ten shillings for every householder so 
Difending. October 5. (Harland's Court Leet.) 

1593. 

John Wolton, or Woolton, Bishop of Exeter, and late warden of the 
Collegiate Church, died at Exeter, March 13. He was born at Wigan (others 
say Whalley) about 15.35, " and was," says Bishop Goodwin, who had married 
his daughter, " a pious, painful, and skilful divine." His Christian Manual, 
1576, was reprinted by the Parker Society in 1851. Another of his works is 
The Castell of Christians, Wll ; New Anatomie of the Whole Man, 1576. 
("Wood's Athen. Oxon., vol. i., p. 600; Sutton's Lancashire Authors.) 

1594. 

" The sicknesse " or plague stated to have broken out at Clough House, 
Failsworth. (Hollin worth.) 

1595. 

John Dee, M.A., installed with great solemnity warden of the Collegiate 
Church, February 20. Dr. Dee had frequent quarrels with the fellows of the 
college, and in 1604 quitted the town, but he held his preferment till his death 
in 1608. 

The Court Leet jury ordered that no person was to be allowed to use butter 
or suet in cakes or bread ; fine 20s. No baker or other person to be allowed to 
bake said cakes, &c. ; fine 20s. No person to be allowed to sell the same ; flue 
20s. Octobers. {^axlajiA's Court Leet.) 

William West, Lord la Warr, died 30th December. The story of this noble- 
man's life is a strange one, and there are some difficulties of date not easily to 



1596-1599 



Annals of Manchester. 4o 



be understood. It is said that, liaving been adopted by his uncle. Sir Thomas 
West, he was in too great liaste to inherit, and prepared poison for the des- 
patcli of the old man, who was so incensed that he appealed to parliament, 
which in 15iS debai'red William from succeeding to his uncle's honours. This 
is not easily reconciled with the act of 1552. William West had sufficient 
ability and good fortune as a soldier to be able to live down this accusation, 
whether it were true or false. He served at the siege of St. Quentin, in 
Picardy, and was knighted at Hampton Court, 1568, and created by patent Lord 
de la Warr. In 1569 an act of parliament granted him full "restitution in 
blood." 

1596. 

The manor of Manchester sold by John Layce, mercer and citizen of 
London, for £3,500, to Sir Nicholas Mosley, Knt., March 23. Sir Nicholas 
Mosley had been Sheriff of London in 1591, and was Lord Mayor in 1599. He 
built Hough End (generally called the Old Hall), near Chorlton, upon a place 
where a tenement occupied by his father had stood, and in which his son was 
born. This hall became the family seat for several generations, but was finallj' 
abandoned for Rolleston, in Staffordshire. (See under 1579.) 

Eight officers were appointed to see that no fleshmeat was eaten on 
Fridays and Saturdays, and twelve for the overseeing of them that put butter, 
cream, or suet in their cakes. September 30. (Harland's Court Leet Records.) 

1597. 

Dr. Dee, warden, with Sir Ralph Barber and Robert Talsley, clerk of Man- 
chester Church, with divers of the town, of divers ages, completed the peram- 
bulation to the bounds of Manchester parish. This survey of the town took 
six days to accomplish. May 4th. (Dee's Diary.) 

"Manchester town described and measured by Christopher Saxton, July 
10. (Dee's Diary.) Saxton left on the 14th. 

The following entry from the Court Leet records shows the rural character 
of the town : " Richard Nugent hath purchased two messuages or tenements, 
one barn, two gardens, one orchard, one acre of land, one half acre of meadow, 
and one half acre of pasture, &c., lying by the Mylne Bridge." October G. 

The Court Leet jury order " that no foreigner nor any other stranger shall 
sell or measure any corn upon any other day than the Saturday and Monday, 
and that to be after the bell rings." (Harland's Court Leet.) 

1598. 

The College gate, towards Hunt's Hall, fell down, together with part of the 
wall, January 22. (Dee's Diary.) 

Captain William Radcliffe, son of Sir John and brother of Sir Alexander 
Radcliffe, of Ordsal, was slain in the fight at Blackwater, when the English 
were defeated by Tyrone. 

1599. 

In August Sir Alexander Iladclill'e, of Ordsal, was slain when Tyrone 
defeated the English forces at Cunlcy Hills. Sir Alexander was knighted at 
the sack of Cadiz. 20th June, 1590. His bravery is mentioned by Sir John 



44 Annals of Manchester. 



[1600-1605 



Harrington. Margaret Radcliffe was a favourite maid of honour of Queen 
Elizabeth, and sorrow for the death of her brother shortened her life, which 
ended 10th November. Another sister, Anne, died soon after at the age of 18. 

Edmund and Thomas Radcliflfe, twin sons of Sir John Radcliffe, of Ordsal, 
died of fever whilst on military service in Flanders. 

On raising men to suppress the rebellion in Ireland, the magistracy of 
Manchester were cautioned not to send any vagabonds or disorderly persons, 
but young men of good character, who were well skilled in the use of the 
hand-gun. 

1600. 

The Court Leet directed that no person was allowed to weigh any yarn or 
other stuff but by the standard weights of the town. October 2. (Harland's 
Court Leet.) 

The principal streets of Manchester appear, from the Court Leet records, 
to have been the Old and New Market Stids or places. Market Stid Lane, and 
Alport Town, Meale Gate, Withingreave, Hanging Ditch, Smithy Door, and 
so to Salford Bridge, Fennel Street, Toad Lane, Hunt's Bank, Mylve Gate, and 
the Mylners Lane. October 2. 

1603. 

A letter was addressed to Sir Robert Cecil by Nicholas Mosley and other 
leading laymen and clergymen, in which they complain that the "Warden Dee 
and the Fellows of the College, with one exception, are non-resident, and they 
ask that a fellowship or the wardenship should be conferred upon William 
Bourne, who had a yearly pension from those "well-affected to religion." 
{Palatine Note-book, vol. i., p. 48.) 

1604. 

In PasquiVs Jests there are two stories told of " Merry Andrew of Man- 
chester." One of these stories is given in the Palatine Note-book, vol. iii., p. 192, 
and has since been modernised as a dialogue for school entertainments in the 
Rev, J. A. Atkinson's "Merry Andrew^of Manchester " (Manchester, 1884). 

1605. 

Oliver Carter, B.D., died in March. He was a native of Richmondshire and 
wrote An Answer unto certain Popish Questions, 1579. Hollinworth states 
that he fell sick as he was preaching of God's providing a succession of godly 
ministers. Mr. William Bourne went up into the pulpit and preached on the 
same text. One of Carter's sons was an Irish bishop. 

In consequence of the detection of the Gunpowder Plot, Sir Nicholas 
Mosley and Richard Holland wrote to the Constables of Manchester, Nov. 20, 
enjoining watch and word to be duly kept. All strangers who were suspected 
of complicity were to be examined before the next justice of peace. {Palatine 
iSiote-book, iii., 257.) 

The plague visited Manchester, and about a thousand died. The chaplain of 
the Collegiate Church, Mr. Kirke, liis wife, and four children all perished. The 
Rev. William Bourne continued to preach throughout the visitation, "in the 
towne," says Hollinworth, " so long as he durst by reason of the unruliness of 



J 



1607-1608] 



Annals of Manchester. 45 



infected persons and want of government, and then he went and preached in a 
field near to Sliorter's Brook, the townspeople being on one side of him and the 
country people on the other." Six acres of land on Collyhurst were devoted to 
cabins for the reception of plague patients, who were also buried there. This 
appropriation of the land was the compromise of a dispute between the 
burgesses, who regarded it as a common, and the lord of the manor, who had 
begun to enclose it. He also agreed to pay £10 yearly for the benefit of the poor. 
(Axon's Lancashire Gleanings.) 

1607. 

Anthony Mosley, of Ancoats, died 25th March, aged 70. He is buried in 
the Collegiate Church. He refused to serve the office of constable in 1603 for 
fear of the plague. He bought the Ancoats estate from Sir John Byron. 

Thomas Cogan, or Coghan, bui-ied at Manchester Church, 10th June. He was 
a native of Chard, and was born about 1545. He was educated at Oxford, and 
was Fellow of Oriel College, 1503, M.A. in 1566, and M.B. in 1574, and in that 
year he became High Master of Manchester Grammar School, which position 
he held until about 1600. He married a lady of position, Ellen, widow of 
Thomas Willott, who survived her second husband, and died in 1611. Cogan 
was the author of The Well of Wisedonie, 1577, The Haven of Health, 1584, and 
a selection for the use of schoolboys of Cicero's letters, which appeared in 1602. 
His will, with a biographical notice, is given in The Palatine Note-hook, vol. 
iii., p. 77. 

1608. 

William Chadderton, D.D., Bishop of Lincoln, and late Warden of Man- 
chester, died at Southoe, Hunts, 11th April. He was born at Nuthurst, and 
educated at Cambridge, where he was Regius Professor. He was favourable 
to Puritanism, but was placed in power by Queen Elizabeth as a check upon 
the Romanists, who were strong in the north. He removed his residence from 
Chester to Manchester, and with the Earl of Derby, who was then frequently 
resident at Aldport, exercised great authority as joint commissioners for 
promoting the reformation. The bishop had a sort of council of ministers, and 
daily morning and evening lectures and monthly exercises were set on foot. 
(Woods' Athen., Oxon, vol ii., p. 482 ; Peck's Desiderata Curiosa.) 

John Dee, M.A., Warden of the Collegiate Church, died at his residence, 
at Mortlake, in Surrey, in the utmost poverty, aged 81 years. He was born in 
London, July 13, 1527. He was celebrated for his learning and for his interest 
in the occult sciences. A folio volume published in 1659 by Meric Casaubon 
chronicles his intercourse with the world of spii-its. His Diary has been 
printed by the Camden Society, but somewhat inaccurately, and the portions 
relating to Manchester have been carefully re-edited by INIr. J. E. Bailey. His 
autobiographical tracts have been reprinted by the Chetham Society. His 
mathematical and philosophical tracts are exceedingly rare and sometimes very 
obscure. It is thought that during his continental travels he was in the 
employment of the Queen, and sent home intelligence of what he learned 
abroad. 

Richard Murray, D.D , I'cctor of Stopford (Stockport) and Dean of St. 



46 Annals of Manchester. 



[1608 



Buriens, in Cornwall, appointed warden. The story of this remarkable man is 
thus told by Hollinworth :— 

"After the death of Dr. Dee, the sayd "William Bourne being as was sayd, 
an approoued divine, and having allso married a kinswoman of the Cecylls 
Lords Burgley, was in a faire likelyhood of being warden, and had a grant for 
it, but hee was hindred, partly by his nonconformity (onely a lease of tj'thes 
for three lives of about thirty pounds per annum was given him), and partly 
by the potency of some Scottish lords at court, which got the wardenship for 
Richard Murray, D.D., who was likevvise Parson of Stockport, Deane of St. 
Buriens, in Cornewall, and had some civill honors descending to him by in- 
heritance from his Scottish ancestors — one of honorable descent, competently 
learned, zealous for the dignity of his place as warden, but not laudable other- 
wayes. Hee seldome preached — onely twise in Manchester— once in Gen. i. 1 
In the beginning, &c. Another time in Rev. xxii. 20 ; Come, Lord Jesus, &c. 
So it was sayd that hee in preaching begunne and ended the bible, nor was hee 
verry skillfull in it. Preaching once before King James vppon Rom i. 16 ; I 
am not ashamed of the gospell of Christ. When hee came to kisse the King's 
hand, his Majesty sayd, Thou art not ashamed of the gospell of Christ, but by 

, the gospell of Christ may bee ashamed of thee ! Hee was a greate 

Pluralist, and yet was a mighty hunter of other Ecclesiasticall dignityes and 
benefices. Hee was very iealous of being poysoned by his servants, if they 
were discontented at him : hee make them tast before he would eate or drinke. 
When hee was abroad, he liued very obscurely, lodging rarely in the best 
innes, or two journeyes together in the same inne ; but at Manchester hee 
liued in greater state, accounted himselfe (as indeed by his place he was) the 
best man in the parish. Hee required the fellowes, chaplaines, singing men, 
choristers to goe before him to church, and some gentlemen followed after : 
hee demaunded his seate from the Bishop of Chester when hee was sett 
In it, saying. My Lord, that seate belongs to the warden ; and because 
hee would not sitt below the bishop, hee remooued in to the body of the 
church, and in the afternoone hee came timely enough to take his owne 
seate, and so the bishop was forced to seek another seate. In his time 
the Quire part of the church grew very ruinous, the revennues of the Colledge 
were leased out by his meanes. Hee purposely abstained from taking the oath 
mencioned in the Queene's letters patents, concerning his not receiuing of the 
Colledge revenues, saue for the dayes in which hee did resyde. The fellow- 
ships and other places were either not furnished with men, or the men with 
meanes, herevppon many and grieuous complaints were made bj^ the 
parishioners against him to King Charles, who comitted the whole matter to 
William, Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Lord Coventry, of Alsbrough, 
Lord Keeper of the Greate Seale ; Henry, Earle of Manchester, Lord Keeper of 
the Privy Seale, that they might enquire further into the matter. Afterward 
hee comitted it to the examination of Commissioners, in causes ecclesiasticall, 
which after mature deliberation and examination, proceeding in due forme of 
law, and having summoned the sayd Richard Murray, personally to answer for 
himselfe, did not onely remooue the sayd warden from his place, but pronounced 
him to have bin no warden from the first, and that the colledge had either a 
weake foundation or none at all." 



1309-1616j 



Annals of JSIanchestev. 47 



1609. 

From a partnership deed dated 4th January, 1609-10, between George 
Tipping and George Chetham, it appears that the goods sent from Manchester 
to London for sale were Stopport clothe, cotton yarne, or cotton wool, frizes, 
whites, ruggs, and bayes. (Palatine I^ofe-book, vol. i., p. 127.) 

1612. 

Sir Nicholas Mosley died. He was a prosperous merchant, and managed 
the exportation of goods from London which were manufactured under the 
direction of his brother Anstrey at Manchester. He was Lord Mayor of 
London in 1599, and was knighted by Queen Elizabeth. He became Lord of 
the Manor of Manchester in 1596, and in 1604 was High Sheriff of Lancashire. 
He is buried in Diclsbury church. His character has been drawn as an energetic 
trader and pious Christian, and also as one careless how his money was gained 
and living and dying a miser. (Mosleys Family Memorials ; Axon's Lanca- 
shire Gleanings.) His son Rowland succeeded as Lord of the Manor. 

1613. 

"William Barlow, D.D., Bishop of Lincoln, died at Buckden, September 7, 
said to have been born at Barlow Hall, Chorlton-cum-Hardy. He was the 
author of Vita ct Obitu Richardi Cosin, 1598; Sermon at Paul's Cross, 1600; 
Sum of the Conference at Hampton Court, 1604. Baines says that he was 
one of the Barlows of Barlow, but this seems very doubtful. 

1614. 

Dame Alice Cajsar died 23rd May. She was a daughter of Christopher 
Grene, of Manchester, and when widow of John Dent, merchant, of London, 
married, 10th April, 1596, as his second wife, Sir Julius Caesar, who was suc- 
cessively Master of the Rolls and Chancellor of the Exchequer. He survived 
her, dying 26th April, 1636. They are both buried in Great St. Helen's, Bishop- 
gate Street, London. (Lodge's Life of Sir Julius Ccesar, 1827.) 

1615. 

John White, D.D., died. He was a native of St. Neots, and brother of 
Franer's White, Bishop of Ely. He was Vicar of Eccles, Fellow of the 
Collegiate Church, and author of The Way to the True Church, IGIO; Defence 
of the Way to the True Church, 1614. His works were collected in 1624 by his 
brother. (Wood's Athen. Ox., vol. iii., p. 238; Fuller's Worthies.) 

1616. 

Rowland Mosley, Lord of the Manor, died. He had a lawsuit with the 
townsfolk as to the waste of Collyhurst. (Mosley's Family Memorials.) He 
left a son, Edward, one year old, to succeed him. 

" Anno 1016 was an extraordinary flood, called from the day Lambard's 
Flood, in which the water suddenly rose many yards plumme above the ordi- 
nary course, that men stood upon Salford Bridge, and laded up water with a 
little piggin. It is a easy matter with God to drowne a towne ; yea, a world." 
(Hollinworth's Mancuniensis.) 



48 Annals of Manchester. 



[1617-1622 



1617. 

James I. visited Lancashire, and the famous Book of Sports was the answer 
to a petition presented to him at Houghton Tower in August. The proclama- 
tion was drawn up by Bisliop Morton at Preston, and the King altered it from 
the style of a bishop to that of a king, and issued it from the court at Green- 
wich. It has several times been printed. (Axon's Lancashire Gleanings.) 
His Majesty, in this memorable document, proceeds to state that "for his 
good people's lawful recreation, his pleasure is that, after the end of divine 
service, his good people be not disturbed, letted, or discouraged from any law- 
ful recreation, such as dancing, either men or women ; archery (for men), 
leaping, vaulting, or any such harmless recreation ; nor from having of May- 
games, Whitson-ales, and morice dances, and the setting up of May-poles, and 
other sports therewith used, &c." And he " bars from this benefit and liberty 
all such known recusants, either men or women, as will abstain from coming 
to church." This proclamation gave great offence to the Puritans. 

1620. 

The fifth Sir Edmund Trafford died. He was thrice High Sheriff of Lanca- 
shire. In 1584 there was a levy of 200 men for the service of the Queen in her 
Irish wars, and that the Lancashire lads might not be committed to strange 
captains, who "for the most part" had not used their soldiers "with the love 
and care that appertained" one of their own shire, Edmund Trafford, eldest 
son of Sir Edmund Trafford, Knight, was appointed their commander. Two 
years later an entry in the Court Leet book shows that the town paid £16 to 
Mr. Trafford and Mr. Edmund Assheton for the "makeing of soldiers into 
Ireland." In 1603, when James made his progress into England, a number of 
gentlemen were "graced with the honour of knighthood" at York. Amongst 
these was Edmund Trafford, who, like his father, was a hater of Roman 
Catholics, and employed a spy named Christopher Bayley to ferret them out. 
His first wife was a Booth, of Barton. In a second marriage he espoused a 
Lady Mildred Cecil, the second daughter of the Earl of Exeter A daughter 
received the name of Cecilia, and a son the name of Cecil, in honour of the 
mother's family. 

Leonard Smethley, arms painter and deputy herald, resident in Manchester, 
writes to the College of Heralds letters complaining of those who refused to 
pay the fees, and describing the funds of Sir Alexander Barlow, Sir Edmund 
Trafford, and others. These letters, with others of Randal Holmes ranging 
1620-22, are printed in the Chetham Miscellany, vol. v. 

1622. 

Oswald Moseley, of the Garret, died. His first wife was a daughter of Rev. 
Richard Gerrard, from one of whose family he bought the Garret Hall estate. 
His daughters married against his wishes, and his two eldest sons died before. 
The estate was inherited by his son Samuel, who, in 1631, sold it and went to 
live in Ireland. His descendants include Dr. Benjamin Moseley, Thomas 
Moseley, Lord Mayor of York in 1687, Rowland Moseley, Sheriff of York in 
1702. He has had also some notable descendants in America. (Mosley's Farnili/ 
Memorials ; Axon's Lancashire Gleanings.) 



1623-1627] Annals of Manchester. 49 

1623. 

The Charter of Manchester, granted in 1301 by Thomas de Gresley, enrolled, 
at the request of the burgesses, in the records of the Chancery of Lancaster, 
September 16. (Harland's Manicestre, vol. ii., p. 240.) 

1624. 

In the Court Leet records the jury find that William Butler had pur- 
chased of Sir John Sucklinge, knight, Anthony Abdye, of London, merchant, 
and William Sparke, gent., certain burgages or tenements in the St. Marye 
Gate, Deansgate, and Toad Lane, within the town of Manchester ; and Butler 
was ordered to come to do his suit and service to the manorial lord. Sir John 
Suckling was the father of the poet. {Palatine Note-book, vol. i., p. 197.) 

Ralph Cudworth, D.D., died this year. He was " the second son of Ralph 
Cudworth, of Wernith Hall, near Manchester, esquire, chief lord of Oldham, 
was bred Fellow of Emanuel College, in Cambridge, a most excellent preacher, 
who continued and finished some imperfect works of Mr. Perkins, and after 
his decease supplied his place in St. Andrew's, in Cambridge. He was at last 
presented by the college to the parish of Aller, in Somersetshire." (Fuller's 
Worthies.) His more famous son. Dr. Ralph Cudworth, was born at Aller. 

1625. 

Sir Henry Montague received from Charles I. the title of Earl of Manchester, 
which was altered to that of Duke 1719. The first bearer of the title was the 
author of a once popular devotional volume entitled Manchester al Mondo, 
1C33, which went through nine editions. It was reprinted in ISSO, with a bio- 
graphical introduction by Mr. J. E. Bailey. The Earl of Manchester had no 
connection with the town from which he took his title, except that of sending 
an occasional present of game. 

1627. 

Sir John Radcliflfe, of Ordsal, was slain at the Isle of Rh6 5th November. 
He was then 46 years of age. Some verses addressed to him by Ben Jonsou 
refer to the fatalities that had overtaken his family : — 

How like a column, Radcliffe, left alone 

For the great mark of virtue, those being gone 

Who did, alike with thee, thy house upbear, 

Stand'st thou, to show tlie times what you all were. 

Two bravely in the battle fell, and dy'd 

Upbraiding rebel arms and barbarous pride ; 

And two that would have fallen, as great as they, 

The Belgic fever ravished away. 

Thou, that art all their valour, all their spirit. 

And thine own goodness to increase thy merit — 

Than those I do not know a whiter soul, 

Nor could 1, had I seen all Nature's roll — 

Thou yet remain'st unhurt, in peace and war, 

Thotigh not unprov'd ; which shows thy fortunes are 

Willing to expiate the fault in thee, 

Wherewith, against thy blood, they offenders be 

It is said that Radcliflfe had quarrelled with his wife and, when fatally 
wounded, wrote a letter to her, which the Duke of Buckingham kept from her. 
U 



50 Annals of Manchester. 



[1630-1632 



She was Alice, daughter of Sir John Byron, of Newstead. (Earwaker's Local 
Gleanings, No. 302.) 

Samuel Bispham, " Doctor in Phisicke," resident in Salford, but apparently 
had another house at Great Lever when, in 1631, he attended Bishop Bridgman, 
who had sickened during the plague time at Wigan. Bispham was a graduate 
of Leyden and of Oxford. From Salford he went to London, and in 1643 went 
on an embassy to France, Genoa, Florence, and Venice, in which he boasts that 
he spent £7,000 and lost £10,000. In 1660 he was a petitioner as " the only sur- 
viving physician of the late King." His son Thomas, also a doctor of medicine, 
was the author of Iter Australe, a Latin poem, printed at Oxford in 1658. The 
entries relating to the Bispham family in the Manchester registers range from 
1576 to 1634. {Palatine Note-book, vol. iii., pp. 8, 73.) 

1630. 

Oswald Mosley, of Ancoats, died, aged 47. From 1613 to his death he was 
steward of the Court Leet. 

1631. 

" The Lord sent his destroying angell into an inne in Manchester, on which 
died Richard Merriott and his wife, the master and dame of the house, and all 
that were in it, or went in it for certaine weekes together. At last they 
burned or buried all the goods in the house ; and yet, in midst of judgment, 
did God remember mercy, for no person else was that yeare touched with the 
infection." (HoUinworth's Mancuniensis.) 

Fair Em, the Miller's Daughter of Manchester, with the love of William 
the Conqueror. A pleasant comedy, as it was sundry times acted in the 
Honourable City of London by the Eight Honourable the Lord Strange's 
servants. (London, 1631.) This play, which mentions Manchester, Chester, 
and the Traflfords, has been wrongfully attributed to Robert Green. It has 
been reprinted by Professor Delius, 1874; by Richard Simpson (School of 
Shakspere), 1878 ; and by Drs. "Warnke and Proescholdt, 1883. A ballad on the 
subject was licensed in 1581, and the play, though perhaps not printed, was in 
existence in 1591. It has even been supposed that Shakspere had some share 
in the authorship. (Axon's Lancashire Gleanings.) 

1632. 

"Daniel Baker, M.A., rector of Assheton-on-Mercy Banke, and Fellow of 
the CoUedge, having on Good Friday (as it is called) administered the Lord's 
Supper, and being (as it is feared) somewhat overcharged with drinke, in Salford, 
was found dead in the morning in the water under Salford Bridge. Whether 
hee fell downe of himself e, being a tall man, and the battlements then but low, 
or whether hee was cast downe or put over the bridge, is not certainely knowne 
to this day." (HoUinworth's Mancuniensis.) 

Sir Cecil Trafford abjured the reformed faith, and became a Roman 
Catholic. He had been a great persecutor of the recusant Catholics. In his 
zeal for the reformed religion he attempted to convert a kinsman, Francis 
Downes, of Wardley, but the fresh consideration of the controversy between 
the Anglican and Roman Churches led him to join the communion of the latter. 

A paper fixed upon the south door of the Collegiate Church with shoe- 



1633-1635] 



Annals of Manchester. 51 



maker's wax. It was taken down by the churcliwardens, who sent a copy to 
London, which is preserved in the Harleian MS. 2176, f. 7. It is obscurely 
worded, but appears to be a Puritan incitement to insurrection. Mr. J. P. 
Rylands regards it as an evidence that " the idea of taking away the King's 
life existed in some minds at least seventeen years before he was brought to 
trial." (See Baines' Lancashire, old ed., and Palatine Note-hook, vol. i., p. 89.) 
The MS. was endorsed by some official "Apeece of Paracelsus his plaster, 
or a little melancholike treason extracted from a distracted and simple soul." 

1633. 

"On New-Yeare's-Day, the Mosse being of a greate breadth, and foure or 
five yards deepe, rose up out of his place, and trauelled towards the house of 
James Knowles, and environed it about, carried a large stone trough before it, 
and boar downe trees that stood in the way, but being afterward somewhat 
broken with a row of trees before the sayd James Knowles' house, it filled the 
brookes and riuers, slew the fish, blackend the water, made some fruitful land 
barren," 

1634. 

Sacred Trinity Church, Salford, founded by Humphrey Booth, a prosperous 
merchant of Salford. Hollinworth gives the following account : — 

"Humfrey Booth, of Salford, laid the foundation of Trinity chappell, in 
Salford, and of his owne cost (save that about two hundred pounds was giuen 
by seuerall persons :— Sir Alexander Radcliffe, of Oardsall, twenty pounds; 
Henry Wigley, twenty pounds ; Robert Pendleton, twenty or forty pounds ; 
Charles Haworth, ten pounds ; John Hartley, twelve pounds ; John Gaskell, 
five pounds; George Scholes, ten pounds; Ralph Bayley, five pounds; and 
athers lesser summes ;) did finish it, and endow it with twenty pounds lands 
per annum : the said Humfrey Booth, being, by God's blessing on his trading, 
made rich, gaue allso to the poore of Salford, the first lands that he bought to 
the value of twenty pounds per annum, and payd it duely all his life time. 
Hee being in greate weakenesse, earnestly desired that hee might liue to see 
the chappell finished, which hee did, but immediately after the solemne dedi- 
cation of it, by the Bishop of Chester, hee more apparently weakened, then hee 
earnestly begged that he might partake of the Lord's Supper there, and then 
hee would not wish to liue longer. It pleased God to revive him in such a 
measure, as that hee was able to goe to the chappel constantly till hee was 
partaker of the supper (which could not bee done for some moneths after the 
consecration) in the chappell, and was neuer able to goe forth after, nor scarce 
to get home. Hee Avas a man just in his trading, generous in entertainment of 
any gentlemen of quality that came to the towne, though meere strangers to 
him, bountifuU to the church and poore, faithfull to his friend, and Ave hope, 
God gaue him both repentance for, and remission of his sinns, in the blood of 
Jesus." 

1635. 

Richard Murray, D.D., removed from the wardcnship upon a petition from 
the inhabitants, for destroying the revenues, and alloAving the church to fall 
into decay. See under date 1G08. 



62 Annals of Manchester. [I637-1639 

Humphrey Chetham, high sheriff, was ordered by Charles I. to levy 
£3,500 upon the county for a vessel of 350 tons, tovrards vt^hich Salford Hundred 
paid £490, Liverpool paid £25, Lancaster £25, and Wigan £50. The sheriff was 
taken sharply to account for levying more than the specified amount, in order 
to reimburse himself for the cost of collection, and was told that it was a 
" Starre Chamber business." 

The population of the Parish of Manchester in the charter of the Collegiate 
Church at 20,000 persons. 

1637. 

A gallery first erected in the Collegiate Church by Humphrey Booth, mer- 
chant, of Salford, founder of Sacred Trinity Church, Salford. 

1638. 

Charles L granted a new charter of foundation to the Collegiate Church, 
September 30. In this charter the salary of the warden was £70 per annum ; 
each fellow, £35 ; each chaplain, £17 10s. and marriage fees ; each singing man, 
£10 ; and each singing boy, £5. The foundation members were : Richard 
Heyrick, warden ; William Bourne, Samuel Boardman, Richard Johnson, and 
Peter Shaw, fellows ; Edmund Hopwood and Robert Brown, chaplains ; 
"William Leigh, John Le!!gh, Peter Starkey, and Charles Leigh, singing men. 

Sir Edward Mosley died at Rolleston Hall, at the age of 70. He was 
attorney-general of the Duchy of Lancaster, and bought the Rolleston estates. 
He was succeeded by his nephew Edward, lord of the manor of Manchester 
and son of Rowland Mosley. (See under date 1616.) 

The Collegiate Church, which had been suffered to fall into decay, under- 
went great repairs. 

1639. 

The Transit of Venus over the sun 24th November. It was observed by 
Jeremiah Horrox, at Hoole, who has described it in. his Venus in Sole Visa. 
He communicated his expectation of the circumstance to his friend William 
Crabtree, of Broughton, that he also might look out for a phenomenon which 
would not recur for more than a century. Crabtree looked, but the sky was 
overcast and he was unable to see anything. But a little before sunset, 
namely, about thirty-five minutes past three, certainly between thirty and forty 
minutes after three, the sun burst forth from behind the clouds. He at once 
began to observe, and was gratified by beholding the pleasing spectacle of Venus 
upon the sun's disc. Rapt in contemplation, he stood for some time motionless, 
scarcely trusting his own senses through excess of joy. He was born 1610 and 
baptised 29th June. He was a "clothier" — apparently a prosperous merchant 
of the seventeenth century. He married, in 1633, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Henry Pendleton. His mathematical and astronomical attainments were 
of a very high order — as is evidenced by his correspondence with Horrox, and 
by the warm testimony of Sir Edward Sherburne in his annotations upon 
Manilius. There is a translation of Horrox's Latin discourse on the Transit by 
the Rev. A. B. Whatton (London, 1869). A paper by Mr. J. E. Bailey, giving 
biographical and bibliographical particulars, appeared in the Palatine Note- 
book, vol. ii., p. 253; vol. iii., p. 17. 



1641-1642] 



Annals of Manchester. 53 



1641. 

Edward Barlow, Roman Catholic priest (Father Ambrose, O.S.B.), executed 
as a recusant, at Lancaster, September 10th. He was born at Manchester in 1585> 
and was son of Alexander Barlow of Barlow. He was educated at Douay and 
Valladolid. He was sent as a mission priest, and for twenty-four years laboured 
chiefly in his native county, where he was revered by those of his own faith 
for the sanctity of his life. He was arrested on Easter day by a minister and 
his congregation who left their own service to hunt the priest. He was tried 
at Lancaster Assizes for recusancy, and was executed September 10. Some 
curious extracts from a letter to his brother. Dr. Rudesind Barlow, are given 
in Challoner's Missionary Priests. 

An interesting reference to vegetable cotton, the soft substance forming the 
covering or envelope of the seeds of the gossypium, or cotton plant, as an 
article used in manufacture, appears in a small treatise published at London 
in 1641, entitled "The Treasure of Traffic," written by Lewis Roberts, who says 
that "the town of Manchester buys the linen yarn of the Irish in great 
quantity, and, weaving it, returns the same again to Ireland to sell. Neither 
doth her industry rest here, for they buy cotton wool in London, that comes 
from Cyprus and Smyrna, and work the same into fustians, vermilions, 
dimities, and other such stuffs, which they return to London, where they are 
sold ; and thence not seldom are sent into foreign parts, which have means on 
far easier terms to provide themselves of the first material." 

The news of the so-called Msh Massacre excited almost consternation, and 
the Lancashire Protestants were afraid of similar trouble at home, where the 
Roman Catholics were very numerous. Application was made to Lord Strange, 
the lord-lieutenant, for arms and ammunition. Magazines were formed in 
various parts of the county, and at Manchester a room of the college was set 
apart and stocked with ten barrels of gunpowder and a proportionate quantity 
of match. 

1642. 

The struggle between the King and the Parliament was drawing to a point 
when the arbitration of the sword alone was possible. The people of Man- 
chester, led by Heyrick, the warden, made their "Protestation," 28th Feb., 
in the form drawn up by the Long Parliament in May, 1641. The list of names 
appended is found in the Palatine Note-book, vol. i., p. 80. The original is 
amongst the MSS. of the House of Lords. The King left London for York, 
where he was joined by many of the nobility. King and Parliament each tried 
to secure the counties to their side. 

The memorable petition in favour of peace was drawn up by Richard 
Heyrick, warden of Manchester, and presented by him and James Bradshawe 
as a deputation to Charles I., at York. It was signed by sixty-four knights 
and esquires, fifty-five divines, seven hundred and forty gentlemen, and about 
seven thousand freeholders and others. Amongst the deputat ion was the after- 
wards celebrated .John Bradshaw, president of the High Court of Justice. The 
King, in his reply, given 6th June, declared himself equally opposed to Popish 
superstitions on the one side, and to schismatical innovation and confusion on 
the other. Upon this evasive reply the town of Manchester declared in 



54 Annals of Manchester. 



[1642 



favour of the Parliament. The solemn League and Covenant was subscribed 
to by the Puritans in Manchester, at whose head was Warden Heyrick, who 
was also the head of thirty gentlemen appointed to superintend the fortifica- 
tions of the town against the King's troops. The parties divided themselves at 
the county meeting on Preston Moor. There Sir John Girlington read the 
king's " Commission of Array," addressed to him as High Sheriff of Lancashire. 
James, Lord Strange, son and heir apparent of William, Earl of Derby, was 
by the king appointed one of the commissioners, and lord-lieutenant of the 
counties of Lancaster and Chester, to put it into execution. Whilst the High 
Sheriff seized the magazine at Preston, Lord Strange did the same at Liverpool. 
Alexander Rigby, as Commissioner for the Parliament, hurried to Manchester 
to prevent the same accident there. The townspeople asked for its removal to 
a place of safety, and when Sir A. Radcliffe and Thomas Prestwich came to 
seize for the King the ten barrels of gunpowder, which were stored in 
a room of the college, they found that it had been removed by Assheton, 
of Middleton. Lord Strange marched upon the town and demanded the mili- 
tary stores, which were refused. The train bands turned out to protect them, 
and Lord Strange's proposal that the stores should be placed under the charge 
of magistrates of both parties was refused, and he retired. The king now 
ordered that part of the ammunition should go to Bury, part to Rochdale, and 
that part should remain at Manchester. To allay the feeling of the Protestants 
he announced that no recusants should serve in his army. This proclamation 
was read at the Cross in Manchester, and Lord Strange then withdrew to 
Bury. At this point there is said to have happened an affray between his men 
and the townspeople, but the narrative is very confused and doubtful. Thi 
Parliamentarians refused the offered terms, but some of the inhabitants 
offered to purchase an equal amount for the royal service, and invited Lord 
Strange to a banquet. He came with a great retinue as lord-lieutenant and 
accompanied by the high sheriff, who read the king's proclamation of array. 
The Royalists paraded the streets, exclaiming, "The town's our own." The Par- 
liamentarians armed the pikemen and musketeers for fear of an attack. Whilst 
Lord Strange was at dinner. Captains Holcroft and Birch, firm Parliamen- 
tarians, with their forces entered the town, and beat to arms. A skirmish 
ensued, and Richard Perceval, a linen weaver, of Kirkmanshulme, was slain. 
This is believed to have been the first blood shed in the Civil War, which may 
be said to have begun at Manchester 15th July. Lord Strange withdrew into 
Cheshire. These events, perhaps, decided the king to give up his intention of 
raising his standard in Lancashire, but the selection of Nottingham gave great 
umbrage to our local gentry. Lord Strange's action at Manchester led to his 
impeachment for high treason 14th September. In spite of the King's pro- 
clamation Lord Strange enlisted many Roman Catholics, and with the men so 
raised intended to revenge himself for his previous defeat at Manchester. The 
burgesses on their side were not idle, but put themselves in a posture of 
defence. The military operations of Manchester were under the direction of 
Lieut.-Colonel John Rosworm, a German soldier of experience, whom Lord 
Strange vainly desired to gain over. The town's forces were under the com- 
mand of Captain Ratcliffe, of Pool Fold, and 150 auxiliaries furnished by the 
Asshetons, of Middleton, were commanded by Captain Bradshawe. As early 



1642J 



Annals of Manchester. 65 



as 22nd September the town was threatened by the Royalists, and Manchester 
was formally besieged by Lord Strange and Lord Molineux, on Sunday, Sept. 
25, with an army consisting of 4,000 foot, 200 dragoons, 100 light horse, and 
seven pieces of cannon. After a struggle of some days the besiegers abandoned 
the attempt, with the loss of 200 men, the besieged having lost only four killed 
and four wounded. Lord Strange's various proposals for disarming the bur- 
gesses were all rejected by them, and Lord Strange's artillery was answered 
by galling musketry fire from the Roundheads stationed in and about the 
churchyard. The Rev. William Bourne, the venerable Puritan minister, 
greatly encouraged the defenders. The houses, however, were much damaged, 
and great plunder was said to have been carried away by the Royalists. The 
town was immediately more completely fortified. Salford remained royalist, 
Alport Lodge was the headquarters of the Earl of Derby during the siege. 
Alport Park and Over Alport contained 95 acres, and comprised all the land 
between Irwell and Tib, and between Medlock and Quay Street. (There is a 
notice of it by Sir Oswald Mosley in Palatine Note-hook, vol. i., p. 120.) 
Captain Standish, of Duxbury, a Royalist, was killed by a bullet from the 
tower of the Collegiate Church, whilst looking out of the door of Robert 
Widdow's house, in Salford, Sept. 29, upon which his soldiers ran away. 
Another royalist loss was Colonel Cutbert Clifton " slain at Manchester." 
(Challoner's Missionary Priests.) According to a notice of later date, Law- 
rence Holker, a Royalist, was imprisoned at Manchester during the siege, and 
his estates were sequestered. {Gentleman' s Magazine, 1793, p. 1059.) Lord 
Strange, by the death of his father, was now Earl of Derby. The resistance of 
Manchester had disheartened him, and he was probably not sure whether his 
Lancashire tenantry, whom he had recruited, would fight against the towns- 
men, with whom they would have many common sympathies. On October 1, 
after an exchange of prisoners, he raised the siege and withdrew. 

Parliament prohibited the feoffees of Manchester Grammar School from 
renewing a lease of the town's mills to Mr. Prestwiche, on the ground that he 
was a Royalist. Early in November new fortifications were added to the town. 
Under the Speaker's warrant, four pieces of brass ordnance, commanded by 
Ralph Assheton, were ordered for its protection. The garrison was felt as a 
disagreeable tax upon the persons of the Puritans, and it was presently deter- 
mined that the estates of the " delinquents " were the most proper treasury 
whei-efrom to defray the charge of its maintenance. They were taxed 
accordingly. Sir Alexander Radcliflfe, knight, of Ordsall, who had been an 
active loyalist at the siege of Manchester, was taken prisoner in Essex, and 
committed to the custody of the Sergeant-at-Arms, November 2, and sent to 
the Tower, November 9. Sir Cecil Traff'ord, who was styled an Arch-papist, 
fell into the hands of the Parliamentarians at Manchester, December 2. Two 
companies of the Manchester Regiment embarked in " foreign " service, and 
marched to Wigan, where they suff'ered a defeat by the Royalists. Acting 
upon Rosworm's advice, they determined to recover their reputation, and at 
the battle of Chowbent the Manchester Regiment obtained "a splendid 
victory " over the Royalists, December 24. 

The siege of Manchester was an important event in the great struggle 
between the King and the Parliament. The successful defence made by the 



56 Annals of Manchester. 



[1643 



townspeople encouraged the resistance of the Puritans and gave them heart 
for what seemed an unequal contest. The decided adherence of the people 
of Manchester to the parliamentary side caused it to be said—" That had not 
this town stood firmly to the king and parliament, the whole country would 
have been brought into subjection to the oppression and violence of the 
cavaliers." Throughout the Civil War the Manchester train bands acted a 
conspicuous part. In a publication bearing the title of Jehova Jireh, God in 
the Mount; or, England's Parliamentary Chronicle, the Parliamentarians 
of Manchester are eulogised "as the honest-hearted and most courageous 
Manchesterians ; the principal men in the kingdom, next to the most famous* 
and renowned citie of London, that fight most prosperously for God and true 
religion." The details of the siege of Manchester, a very small affair if judged 
Dy modern military ideas, are given in Dr. George Ormerod's Mertiorials of 
the Civil War in Lancashire, published by the Chetham Society, which 
includes the narrative of Col. Rosworm, entitled Good Service Ill-rewarded ; 
in which he complains with much bitterness that the Manchester Puritans did 
not pay him according to their contract. Palmer's Siege of Manchester ; 
Hibbert Ware's Foundations, and Beamont's Civil War in Lancashire, 
published by the Chetham Society, contain many particulars of interest, 
mainly from parliamentary writers. Several curious pamphlets appeared this 
year relating to Manchester. The best known are Manchester's Joy for 
Derby's Overthrow, and Lancashire's Valley of Achor [by John Angier], 
giving an account of the sieges of Manchester, Bolton, &c. A number of 
the contemporary tracts are preserved in the Manchester Free Library, and in 
the Chetham Library, as well as in the Thomasson collection in the British 
Museum. 

1643. 

Manchester was made the headquarters of the Parliamentary army, under 
Sir Thomas Fairfax, January 12, who remained there till the 21st, when, with 
2,500 foot and 28 troops of horse, he marched to the relief of North wich. 

Sir John Seaton, a Scottish knight, major-general of the Parliament's 
forces in Lancashire, made Manchester his headquarters, and, attended by 
Colonel Holland, Captain Booth, Sergeant-Majors Birch and Sparrow, with 
three companies of foot, marched from Manchester to besiege Preston, Feb. 
10, which town surrendered after two hours' fighting. Captain Booth was 
the first to scale the walls, with the cry of "Follow me, or give me up for 
ever." The three Manchester troops "distinguished themselves eminently." 
A ship with supplies for the King was wrecked on the sands and the stores 
seized by the Roundheads. 

The Earl of Newcastle, when at Bradford in July, as the King's general, 
proposed to the town terms of surrender, but the proposal was firmly rejected. 
The Earl, finding that nothing was to be gained, took another route and went 
to Hull, and thus put an end to the military affairs of the place. July. 

William Bourne, B.D., Fellow of the Collegiate Church, died. He was a 
native of Staffordshire and a graduate of St. John's College, Cambridge. He 
was an earnest, pious, and learned Puritan, and was exceedingly popular with 
the parishioners. (See Hollinworth's Mancuniensis and Halley's Zancas/are.) 



1641-1645] Annals of Manchester. 57 

He had a controversy in 1631 with Richard Johnson, another Fellow of the 
Collegiate Church, as to the nature of sin. In consequence, a Roman Catholic 
priest published a tract against both disputants, which Avas answered by 
Hollinworth. 

Master John Shawe appointed to preach every Friday. The town then con- 
tained many Puritan fugitives. Shawe was promised £50, but "never got a 
penny." Shawe was at this time vicar of Lymme, and has left a very curious 
autobiography. {Memoirs of Mr. John Shawe, edited by Rev. J, R. Boyle, 
Hull, 1882 ; Axon's Lancashire Gleanings.) 

1644. 

The siege of Lathom House commenced February 28th, and was persisted in 
for three months. The besiegers were commanded by Sir Thomas Fairfax, and 
his officers were Manchester gentlemen. The heroic defence by Charlotte 
de la Tremoville, Countess of Derby, gives that lady a place amongst the 
heroines of history. 

1645. 

A pestilence visited the town ; and from an ordinance of parliament, July 9, 
it appears that it raged with such violence that for many months none had 
been permitted to come in and go out of the town. The ordinance says : 
" Most of the inhabitants living upon trade are not only ruined in their estates, 
but many families are like to perish for want who cannot be sufficiently 
relieved by that miserably wasted country." The parliament voted a grant of 
£1,000 "for the relief of Manchester," and directed a collection to be made in all 
the churches and chapels of the metropolis for the same purpose. December. 
The proceeds were forwarded hither to John Hartley, of Strangeways Hall. 

Rev. Samuel Byland buried at the Collegiate Church 16th July. He 
was a native of the town, and was baptised 1st January, 1618-19. His will is 
printed in Earwaker's Local Gleanings, No. 594. The several members of the 
family are known. There is a halfpenny token of the elder brother, who was a 
grocer. 

Walter Balcanquell, D.D., died at Chirk Castle 25th December, and is buried 
in Chirk Church. He was a native of Scotland and chaplain of James I. On 
the death of Oliver Carter he was elected Fellow of the Collegiate Church, but 
had ceased to hold that position in 1638, when the new charter was granted. 
He was Dean of Durham in 1639, but was reduced to poverty by his zeal for the 
Royalist cause. He wrote The Statutes of IlerioVs IIos2ntal ; A Sermon 
Preached at St. Mary's, Sjnttle, 1623 ; The Honour of Christian ChurcJies, 
1633 ; Eisc and Progress of the Troubles hi Scotland, 1639. In the curious 
case of Swinneston verstis Mosley, in 1647, one of the witnesses testified that 
the plaintiff, Mrs. Anne Swinnerton, had told him that she had received £300 
for withdrawing a charge of rape that she had preferred against Dr. 
Balcanquell. " This doctor," said the witness, " I knew to be a reverend man, 
and to my Jcnouiedge is long since dead and in heaven." {Ilarlcian Mis- 
cellany, ed. Park, iii., p. 501.) There is some doubt whether Balcanquell 
resided in Manchester, but as his name passed into a phrase to describe an 
odd-looking man, it may be supposed that he was not entirely unknown here. 
A full notice of Balc^quell is given in the Eaincs MSS., vol. xli., p. 179. 



58 Annals of Manchester. 



[1646-1649 



Robert Burnell "came to be sexton of Manchester Church. The rates of 
graves in alleys, in the parish part, except middle alley and two cross alleys, 
were five shillings for a man or woman, and two shillings and sixpence for a 
child, and ten groats for a child, and six shillings and eightpence for a man or 
woman." In 1649 they were doubled. 

1646. 

Richard Bradley, a Jesuit priest, arrested and " committed close prisoner 
at Manchester, and died of the gaol disease before he was brought to his trial.'* 
(Challoner's Missionary Priests.) In Gillow's Bibliographical Dictionary the 
date of his death is given as 20th or 30th July, 1645. Bradley was born at 
Bryning in 1605. 

Lancashire formed into an ecclesiastical province, and its spiritual affairs 
consigned to the several presbyteries. October 2. The " Presbyterical Classis" 
for the county hold their first meeting at Preston. 

Richard Heyrick, warden of Manchester, was one of the representatives 
of Lancashire in the Assembly of Divines at "Westminster. 

1647. 

George Fox began to preach his doctrine. " And I heard," he says, " of a 
woman in Lancashire that had fasted two and twenty days ; and I travelled to 
see her ; but when I came to her I saw that she was under a temptation, and 
when I had spoken to her what I had from the Lord I left her ; her father 
being one high in profession. And passing on I went among the professors at 
Duckenfield and Manchester, where I stayed awhile and declared the truth 
among them." (Fox's Journal.) 

1648. 

A flood, caused by " a sudden and terrible rain." July. (Hollinworth.) 

The Harmonious Consent of the ministers of Lancashire published. It is 
a fierce protest against toleration as soul-murther. An address to the parlia- 
ment. This intolerant document was principally levelled against the Indepen- 
dents, who were rising rapidly into religious and political notoriety. (Halley's 
Lancashire.) 

The Presbyterian divines and Committee of Sequestrators held their countj 
meeting at Manchester. In this county 145 persons were fined to the amount 
of £28,1C9 lis. 4d. Among them were John Byrom, of Salford, £201 16s. 6d. ; 
Edward Byrom, of Salford, £2 6s. 8d. ; Adam Bowker, of Salford, £16 13s. ; 
Peter Bowker, of Manchester, £12 ; Sir Edward Mosley, of Hough's End, 
£4,874 ; Nicholas Mosley, of Ancoats, £170 ; Francis Mosley, and Nicholas, his 
son, of CoUyhurst, £200 ; Henry Pendleton, of Manchester, £80 ; Alexander 
Potter, of Manchester, £4 Os. 5d. ; Sir T. Prestwiche, and Thomas, his son, of 
Hulme, £330 ; Ferdinand Stanley, of Broughton, £150 ; John Rogerson, of 
Manchester, £4 8s. 4d. 

Manchester College seized and converted into a military magazine and 
prison for delinquents. 

1649. 

The Parliament's proclamation prohibiting any person from being styled 
King of England was read in the Market Place 6th February, at four o'clock in 
the afternoon. (Earwaker's Local Gleanings, No. 319.) 



1650-1651] 



Annals of Manchester. 59 



" There were observed by hundreds of people in the Market Place of Man- 
chester, three perheli (mock suns), about ten o'clock before noon, which 
vanished away one after another, so that at eleven none were seen. I saw two 
of them myself." 26th Feb. (HoUinworth's Mancuniensis.) 

The Independents having obtained the ascendency over their rivals, the 
Presbyterians, one of their first acts was to appoint a Committee of Sequestra- 
tion, which seized all the church lands in this parish, dissolved the collegiate 
body, and appropriated its revenues. Heyrick, the warden, who resisted the 
administrators of these resolutions, was brought into subjection by Colonel 
Birch, of Birch Hall, who forcibly entered the chapter house of the Collegiate 
Church, which the warden had barricaded, broke open the chest, and destroyed 
many writings. Parliament granted to the warden £100 a year, and £80 per) 
annum to each of the fellows out of the public treasury. The soldiery 
destroyed many deeds, and an effigy of Bishop Oldham, in the Free Grammar 
School. The Independents, says Hollinworth, "set up a meeting in the 
College." November 5. 

The College was taken from the Earl of Derby, and turned into a prison, 
along with the chapel on the Old Bridge. 

A Solemn Exhortation made and published to the several Churches of 
Christ, within the Province of Lancaster, 4to, published by Thomas Smith, of 
Manchester. 

1650. 

The birthday of Charles II. celebrated by the Lancashire Presbyterian 
ministers, who refused to observe the fast ordered by Parliament. (Halley's 
Lancashire, p. 279.) 

" The ministers and others in the towne and parish being assembled to 
fast and pray, for preuenting of a new warre : the towne and country being 
generally non-engagers were disarmed by the gouernor of Liuerpoole." 

In a description of Manchester and Salford, annexed to a plan of the towns, 
as they appeared in this year, it is stated — " The people in and about the town 
are said to be in general the most industrious in their callings of any in the 
northern parts of the kingdom. The town is a mile in length, the streets open 
and clean kept, and the buildings good. The trade is not inferior to that of 
many cities in the kingdom, chiefly consisting in woollen friezes, fustians, 
sackcloths, mingled stuffs, caps, inkles, tapes, points, &c., whereby not only 
the better sort of men are employed, but also the very children by their own 
labour can maintain themselves ; there are besides all kinds of foreign mer- 
chandize brought and returned by the merchants of the town, amounting to 
the sum of many thousands of pounds weekly." In this account it is asserted 
the parish contained 27,000 communicants. 

" In Blakeley, neere Manchester, in one John Pendleton's ground, as one 
was reaping, the come being cut, seemed to bleede ; drops fell out of it like to 
bloud : multitudes of people went to see it, and the strawes thereof, though of 
a kindly colour without, were within reddish, and as it were, bloudy." 

1651. 

James, Earl of Derby, beheaded at Bolton, October 15. When besieging 
Manchester he succeeded to the titles and estates on the death of his father, 



60 Annals of Manchester. 



ri652-1653 



September 20, 1642. The character of the "Great Stanley" has been variously 
interpreted, but his warmest eulogist can hardly clear him from the bloody 
stains of the Bolton massacre. For details of his life the reader should consult 
The Stanley Papers (Chetham Society), and Cumming's Great Stanley. 

Charles II. on his route from the north is sometimes said to have passed 
through Manchester, but Hollinworth, vphose memorandum has probably 
caused the mistake, merely says that he passed through the county. 

After the battle of Worcester, when Charles II. was defeated by Cromwell, 
Heyrick, the warden of Manchester, the Rev. Mr. Herle, Rev. Richard Johnson, 
Rev. John Angier, Rev. Richard Hollinworth, Rev. Mr. Harrison, with 
Messrs. Gee, Lathom, Taylor, and Meek, ministers and elders of Presbyterians 
in Manchester, and who had taken an active part in the plots against the 
Commonwealth, were seized and conveyed to London, where they were im 
prisoned. Heyrick with diflaculty escaped a capital punishment; and the 
whole, after many weeks of suspense, were allowed, on paying serious fines, to 
return to their respective homes. 

When the proclamation of the Parliament against Charles Stuart, King of 
Scots, was being read it was torn in pieces by Captain Bexwicke. (Hollin- 
worth's Mancuniensis.) 

1652. 
The town was dismantled of its fortifications. (Hollinworth.) 

1653. 
The Council of State ordered, 29th June, on a petition from the inhabitants, 
that the gathering of the tithes should be forborne till further order. 

Humphrey Chetham, founder of the hospital and library which bears his 
name, died October 12, in his 74th year, and was buried in the Chetham chapel 
of the Collegiate Church. He was born at Crumpsall, and baptised at the 
Collegiate Church, July 10, 1580, and is said to have received his education at 
the Free Grammar School. His wealth was chiefly derived by supplying the 
London markets with fustians. He thus acquired opulence ; whilst his strict 
integrity, his piety, and works of charity secured him the respect and esteem 
of those around him. " He was," says Fuller, " a diligent reader of the Scrip- 
tures, and of the works of sound divines ; a respector of such ministers as he 
accounted truly godly, upright, sober, discreet, and sincere. He was High 
Sheriff of the County of Lancaster, anno 1635, discharging that office with great 
honour, insomuch that every good gentleman of birth and estate did wear his 
cloth at the assize, to testify their unfeigned affection for him." But some of 
them complained of his assumption of a coat of arms which brought him into 
trouble with the Heralds' College. During his life he had "taken up and 
maintained fourteen boys of the town of Manchester, six of the town Oi. 
Salford, and two of the town of Droylsden, in all twenty-two." By his will, 
bearing date December 16, 1051, he directed that the number of boys should be 
increased to forty ; bequeathing the sum of £7,000 for the purchase of an estate, 
the profits of which were to be applied to the support of this establishment. 
The operations of this benevolent institution have been since greatly extended 
by judicious management, and due attention to the views of the founder. In 
1845 the number of boys was augmented to one hundred, namely, Manchester 



1654] 



Annals of Manchester. 61 



35, Salford 15, Droylsden 8, Crumpsall5, Bolton 25, Turton 12. The " Hospital" 
is under the direction of twenty-four feoffees, and a resident governor. 

He also bequeathed £1,000 for the purchase of books, and £100 for a building 
as the foundation of a public librar j-, for the augmentation of which he devised 
the residue of his personal estate. The property left by Chetham, for the 
use and augmentation of the library, and for the board, &c., of the librarian, 
amounts to about £700 per annum. Donations have been made from time to 
time (the first of which was in 1G94, by the Rev. John Prestwich, Fellow of All 
Souls College, Oxford, of books to the amount of £50), so that the collection 
now amounts to upwards of 30,000 volumes. Any person who chooses, whether 
resident or not, on going to the Chetham library, is at liberty to read in a room 
provided for that purpose. 

Chetham further left two hundred pounds "to purchase godly English 
books to be chained upon desks in the churches of Manchester, Bolton, Turton, 
Gorton, and "Walmersley." His principal residences were at Clayton Hall, near 
Manchester, and Turton Tower, near Bolton. 

William Crabtree, the astronomer, is believed to have died in 1G52 or lGo3. 
(See under date 1639.) 

1654. 

Sir Alexander Radcliffe, of Ordsal, K.B., was buried in the Collegiate 
Church 14th April. He was made a Knight of the Bath at the coronation of 
Charles I., when only 17. He was a staunch cavalier, and in 1612 was im- 
prisoned in the Tower for assisting the Earl of Derby in the siege of Man- 
chester. He was 46 years old at the time of his death. His son Robert was 
slain on Bowdon Downs in a duel, which he hadfor«ed upon Sir Samuel Daniel. 

Charles Worsley, of Piatt, returned as first representative of Manchester 
to the House of Commons. Cromwell had thus the credit of recognising the 
growing importance of a town which already far exceeded in wealth and 
popiilousness many of the places represented in parliament. 19th July. 

William Malonc, Rector of Seville, died. "Anno 1592, was borne ir 
Manchester, William, the son of Simon Malloone, a young man of preg 
nant witt; hee was tempted by some Irish merchants (with whom the 
towne then and long after till the Rebellion broke out, anno 1649, did 
driue a greate and gainefull trade) to goe beyond sea, seduced from 
the reformed to the Romish religion, of which hee became one of the most 
earnest and able assertors ; hee made the reply to Archbishop Vssher's answer 
to the Jesuites' challenge, but hee was ouermatched, his adversarie being more 
eminently learned, and having evidence of truth on his syde. Malloune caused 
his reply to bee dispersed in Manchester ; hee afterward went to Rome, and 
was Master of the Irish Colledge there. Dr. Hoyle rejoined to his reply.' 
(Hollinworth's Mancuniensis.) 

The feoffees of Humphrey Chetham's charity purchase the " College," now- 
known as "Chetham's Hospital." The building, which succeeded to the 
Baron's Hall, was occupied by the clergy of the Collegiate Church till 1647, 
when it fell into the hands of the Earl of Derby, but was again taken from his 
family during tlic Commonwealth. In 1656 the boys were first lodged there, 
but the purchase was not completed till after the Restoration, from the cele- 
brated Charlotte de la Tremouille. 



62 Annals of Manchester. 



[1656-1657 



Samuel Bolton, D.D., died. He was born at Manchester in 1606 and| 
educated at Cambridge. He was a man of note amongst the Puritans, and 
wrote A Guard of the Tree of Life, 1647, and other works. 

1656. 

Charles Worsley, of Piatt, died 12th June, aged 35. He was the son of 
Ralph Worsley, and was born at Piatt in 1622, and in 1644 became a captain in the 
Parliamentary army. After the execution of Charles I. he was promoted to the 
rank of lieut. -colonel. In 1650 he went with his regiment into Scotland to help 
Cromwell, but arrived too late to be of service. In 1652 he was appointed to 
the command of Cromwell's own regiment of foot, and in October of that year 
he proceeded to London. On the 20th April, 1653, Cromwell forcibly dissolved 
the Rump Parliament, when Worsley, with some soldiers, cleared the House 
and took the mace away, and caused the House to be locked up. He kept the 
mace in his possession, and on the 8th July, 1653, the Barebone's Parliament 
ordered the Sergeant-at-Arms to repair to Lieutenant-Colonel Worsley for the 
mace, and bring it to the House. In September, 1654, when a parliamentary 
representative was first given to Manchester, he was elected, and thus became 
the first member for Manchester. The parliament was dismissed in January, 
1655. In October, 1655, he was appointed Major-General, with powers equal to 
those of a viceroy, of a district consisting of Lancashire, Cheshire, and Stafford- 
shire. He was summoned to a conference with Cromwell in May, 1656, but 
died soon after his arrival at St. James's Palace, where apartments had been 
assigned to his family. He was buried in Henry VII.'s Chapel, in Westminster 
Abbey, 13th .June, and his remains escaped the outrages inflicted on the other 
republican leaders. (Espinasse's Lancashire Worthies ; Booker's Birch 
Chapels, vol. i.) 

Richard Ratcliffe, of the Lodge, in Pool Fold, returned a member of 
Parliament for Manchester, August 12. 

" September 11, 1656. Mr. Richard Heyrick was prisoner in London ; and 
Mr. Herle, Mr. Johnson, Mr. Angier, Mr. Hollinworth, Mr. Harrison, Mr. Gee, 
Mr. Latham, Mr. Taylor, Mr. Meeke." 

Richard Hollinworth, fellow of the Collegiate Church, and author of 
Mancuniensis, died November 11, when a fast and prayer was offered for 
guidance as to his successor, who was the Rev. Henry Newcome. Hollin- 
worth was born in Manchester in 1607. (See Manchester Foundations, vol. i.) 

1657. 

The Censures of the Church Revived published. It is signed "John Har- 
rison, Moderator," and dated Manchester, January 11, 1658. It is a defence of the 
Presbyterian Classis and its jurisdiction in the controversy with Rev. Isaac 
Allen, minister of Prestwich, who strenuously objected to the eldership and 
retained as much as he could of the forms of the Episcopal Church. (Halley's 
Lancashire, p. 303 ; Baker's Memorials, p. 136.) 

George Fox again visited Manchester, and as the sessions were being held, 
many country people were in the town. Fox was assailed in the meeting with 
clods and stones, and finally he was taken into custody by the peace officers 
and brought before the magistrates, whom he rebuked, and was allowed to 



1668-1659] 



Annals of Manchester. 63 



depart on the following day. " The Lord hath since raised up a people in the 
town to stand for His Name and truth over those shabby professors." (Fox's 
Journal.) 

Sir Edward Mosley, lord of the manor, died. He was born in 1615, and was 
an ardent Royalist, and in 1640 received a baronetcy from Charles I. In 1642 
he was High Sheriff of Staffordshire. During the siege of Manchester his 
house (Alport Lodge) was burned down. He is said to have spent £20,000 in 
the Cavalier cause. He was one of the Royalist prisoners captured at Middle- 
wich by Brereton. His estate was sequestered, a fine of a tenth, amounting 
to £4,874, was levied. He was tried upon a capital charge brought against him 
by a woman, but was acquitted. He was succeeded by his son Sir Edward. 
(Mosley's Family Memoirs.) 

1658. 

Rev. Robert Meeke died 17th January. He was a native of Skipsey, near 
Bridlington, and in 1650 became the minister of the Salford Chapel (Sacred 
Trinity), built and endowed by Humphrey Booth. He was an active member 
of the Presbyterian Classis, and was one of the ministers sent prisoner to 
Liverpool by the Independents. Newcome speaks in high terms of his " dear 
friend and brother," the " sincere Meeke." He wrote The Faithfull Scout, 1645. 

1659. 

The Presbyterians and Independents of Manchester united, and a docu- 
ment sh'owing the terms of agreement was drawn up and signed July 13. This 
" accommodation" was the result of the dissatisfaction with the Rump Parlir- 
naent, the imprisonment of some members of the Classis, and the sale of the 
College and its land to Mr. Wigan, who had turned Baptist and preached in 
its barn. 

The futile " Cheshire Rising," under Sir George Booth, of Dunham, caused 
great excitement. His tenantry and those of other sympathisers had been 
openly drilled. On July 31, after Henry Newcome had preached, Stockport 
announced that "the Quakers had risen," and that the trained bands were to 
meet at Warrington on the Tuesday following. Five hundred men left Man- 
chester, where Sir George raised the cry for a free Parliament. August 5 was 
observed as a day of humiliation in Manchester, as they were afraid of 
Lilburne marching on the town, but the imprisonment of "a bloody 
Anabaptist" prevented him from knowing that the trained bands were absent. 
The Royalist rising was entirely unsuccessful, and the final defeat at Winning- 
ton Bridge, 19th August, was fatal. Fugitives arrived on the next day, and 
command of the town was taken by Colonel Birch and Colonel Lilburne, who 
was offended by Heyrick's sermon on the Sunday, and ordered Henry Rooth, 
the Independent minister, to officiate in the latter part of the day. Although 
the Cheshire Rising failed it showed the insecurity and unpopularity of the 
Government with Presbyterians and Independents as well as Episcopalians. 
(Fuller details of the Cheshire Rising will be found in Raines's Lancashire ; 
Halley's Lancashire ; Hibbert- Ware's Foundations ; Martindale's Autobio- 
graphy ; and Newcome's Diary.) 



64 Annals of Manchester. 



[1660-1663 



1660. 

The Presbyterians were greatly elated at the prospect of the Restoration. 
On May 6 Newcome prayed for the King " by periphrasis," but a meeting of the 
congregation resolved that Charles II. should be proclaimed, and May 12 New- 
come prayed for him without any periphrasis. 

The town lost its right of returning members of Parliament by the 
Restoration ; it was re-enfranchised in 1832. 

The Lancashire " Presbyterical Classis " was dissolved on the restoration 
of Episcopacy. Its final meeting was held August 14, after an existence of 
fourteen years. 

Richard Radcliffe died October 9. He was elected M.P. for Manchester in 
Cromwell's Parliament of 165G. 

1661. 

The coronation of Charles II. celebrated by processions, dinners, &c., April 
23. The conduit ran claret instead of water. Warden Heyrick preached on 
the divine right of kings to govern. "God save the king" was his text, and 
the sermon was printed. A full account of these festivities is given in an 
account written by Mr. William Heawood, who was steward of the manor, 
which was printed in 1841. 

1662. 

The "Act of Uniformity" passed, August 2. By this act two thousand 
ministers were deprived of their livings in the church. About seventy clergy- 
men were ejected in this county. Warden Heyrick refused to submit, and also 
resisted every attempt to remove him from the Collegiate Church, which he con- 
sidered as a life-estate given to him in lieu of a debt owing to his family by the 
crown. Charles II. appointed Dr. Woolley to the wardenship ; but the nomi- 
nation was subsequently revoked at the request of Heyrick's friend at court, 
the Earl of Manchester. Henry Newcome and Christopher Richardson, fellows 
of the Collegiate Church, retired, and began to preach privately to congrega- 
tions in the town. In this neighbourhood the other sufferers were R. Holbrook, 
Salford; R. Birch, Birch Chapel; T. Holland, Blackley; E. Jones, vicar of 
Eccles ; W. Leigh, Gorton Chapel ; P. Aspinall, Heaton ; G. Thompson, Hey- 
wood ; and J. Walker, Newton Heath. 

Manchester, on account of its Nonconformist population, was the resort of 
many of the ejected ministers, as is shown by Newcome's Diary. 

1663. 

Some persons in authority in Manchester are said to have tried to hatch a 
pretended conspiracy in order to get into their power the persons and estates of 
the Independents, Presbyterians, Anabaptists, and Fifth-Monarchy men in 
Lancashire and Cheshire. The information on this subject is contained in a 
very rare tract, Eye-Salve for England ; or, the Grand Trappan detected. By 
Evan Price (London, 1667). In this narrative Price states that Nicholas Mosley, 
a magistrate, came to him 22nd February and ofi"ered him £1,000, or a tenth of 
the forfeited estates, to swear evidence against those implicated in a conspiracy 
against the Government. Price refused, and was arrested and committed to 



1664-1667] 



Annals of Manchester. Go 



Lancaster Assizes, whei'e the judges also tried to induce him to turn King's 
evidence. He was said to have been the secret messenger of the conspirators. 
The High Sheriff, he says, renewed Mosley's offer. One of the leaders of the 
alleged plot was Lord Delamere, but Mosley having acknowledged in an 
unguarded moment that the name of that nobleman had been first named to 
Price by the judges. Lord Delamere began an action against Mosley, which 
was stopped by a letter from London ordering the justices to apologise. Lord 
Delamere insisted upon the release of Price, who was accordingly set at liberty 
at the Lent Assizes of 1664. In August, 1665, he was again arrested, but after 
a short imprisonment released. (Earwaker's Local Gleanings, vol, iii., 
pp. 361, 421.) 

. 1664. 

Sir William Dugdale, Norroy King at Arms, visited Lancashire to hold a 
visitation. He was at Manchester 8th, 9th, and 10th September. The court 
appears to have been held at the King's Head, Salford. 

A book, entitled A Guide to Heaven from the Word, said to have been 
"printed at Smithy Door." The title is given in one of Ford's catalogues, 
but the book is unknown. (Earwaker's Local Gleanings, No. 115.) 

1665. 

Sir William Dugdale again visited Lancashire to complete his visitation. 
He was at Manchester 10th and 11th March. The court was again held at the 
King's Head, Salford. The Visitation has been edited by Kev. F. R. Raines 
for the Chetham Society. 

The feoffees of Chetham's Hospital made a body corporate under a Charter 
granted by Charles II., November 10. 

1666. 

Sir Edward Mosley, second baronet, lord of the manor, died at the age of 
27. In 1661 he was returned M.P. for the borough of St. Michael, Cornwall. 
There was a lawsuit about his will, but in the end the RoUeston estates came 
into the possession of the Mosleys of Ancoats. 

The particulars of his rental of his Lancashire estates are thus given : 
Manor of Heaton Norris, £149 ?s. ; Manor of Withington and its members, 
£402 Is. ; Berry Lands, £10 ; old chief rents of Withington, £1 6s. lljd. ; tithes 
of Withington, £211 2s. 3d. ; Alport Lodge ground, £44 17s. ; Alport fields, 
£53 13s. ; Manor of Manchester, £212. Within Didsbury : Hough or Old Hall 
demesne, £300; Hough's End, £140; titlies of .Hough ^demesne, £10. Total, 
£1,534 83. 2id. 

. 1667. 

John Booker died in April of dysentery, and was buried in the Church of St. 
James, Duke's Place, London. He was born in Manchester, April 23, 1001, and 
apprenticed to a mercer in London ; but.turued his attention to astronomy and 
astrology, in which he became so efficient as to be appointed licenser of all such 
books as related to mathematics or the celestial sciences. It is said by Lilly 
that " he had a curious fancy in judging of thefts, and was quite as successful 
in resolving love questions." He wrote 2'/ie Bloody Irish Almanac, 1643 ; The 

E 



66 Annals of Manchester. 



[1669-1672 



Butch Fortune-teller brought to England, 1667, and various other almanacs. 

The Rev. Oliver Heywood notes in his Diary that he stayed at Mr. 
Hulton's, at Manchester. " They have a foolish custom after twelve o'clock to 
rise and ramble abroad, make garlands, strew flowers, &c., which they call 
Bringing in May. I could sleep little that night by reason of the tumult ; the 
day after being May the 1st, I went to Denton." 

Nicholas Stratford, M. A., Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford, at the age of 34, 
appointed warden. In conjunction with the fellows, he framed a new statute 
for the college, which permitted the two chaplains to be absent forty days in 
the year ; the four singing men, twenty days each ; and the four singing boys, 
twelve days each. May 6. 

Richard Heyrick, B.D., Warden of the Collegiate Church, died August 6, 
aged 67 years, and was buried near to the altar of the Collegiate Church, over 
which he had presided during the greater part of the most turbulent periods of 
English history. He was descended from the ancient family of the Herricks, 
at Beaumanor, in Leicestershire, and educated at Oxford. He was appointed 
"Warden of Manchester in 1636, obtained for him in reversion by his father, in 
lieu of a debt owing to his family by the Crown. He was a Presbyterian, and 
continued to hold his post during the Commonwealth, but was greatly in 
favour of the Restoration, which proved so disastrous to his party. The King 
granted the wardenship to Dr. John WooUey, but Heyrick's resistance was so 
effectual that no attempt was made at dispossession, and he remained warden 
until his death. He wrote Queen Esther's Resolve, 1646, and other sermons. 
Fuller details of his career are given in Hibbert- Ware's Foundations and 
Halley's Lancashire. 

1669. 

A gallery built in Manchester Church for the use of the boys of Chetham's 
Hospital. There is an engraving and map of the gallery in the Foundations 
of Manchester, vol. i., pt. ii., pp. 248, 342, and the bishop's licence for its erection 
is printed in the Palatine Note-book, vol. iv., p. 33. 

1671. 

John Worthington, D.D., died at Hackney 26th November. He was born 
at Manchester 8th February, 1617, and educated at the Grammar School and at 
Emanuel College, Cambridge, of which he was Fellow ; was created B.D. in 
1646 and D.D. in 1655. He was chosen Master of Jesus College in 1657, but 
resigned the appointment, and elected Vice-Chancellor of the University, which 
he held until 1660. He held several livings in succession, and was curate of 
St. Benet Fink during the plague of London. He wrote A Form of Sound 
Words, 1673 ; Great Duty of Self-Resignation, 1691, and other works. He had 
an extensive correspondence with Samuel Hartleb and other scholars at home 
and abroad. His Diary and Correspondence, published by the Chetham 
Society, a valuable contribution to the history of literature and learning. 

1672. 
On the King's declaration of indulgence fifteen licences were taken out for 
meetings of Protestant Dissenters. The Indulgence was cancelled by Parlia- 
ment 7th March. (Earwaker's Local Gleanings, vol. iii., p. 441.) 



1673-16T5] Annals of Manchester. 67 

Nicholas Mosley died in October, aged CI. He was the eldest son of Oswald 
Mosley, of Ancoats (see under date 1630). He was a Royalist, and paid a fine 
" for delinquency." He wrote a Treatise of the Passions and Faculties of the 
Soul of Man, 1653. Although a strict Episcopalian, he was on friendly terms 
with Newcome, Martindale, and other ejected ministers. (Mosley, Family 
Memoirs ; Axon's Lancashire Gleanings.) 

1673. 

An act was passed for confirming the sale of the manor of Hulme, and 
certain lands in the parish of Manchester, to Sir Edward Mosley, by the Prest- 
wiche family. 

1674. 

A petition, signed by 341 persons, was presented to Lord Derby for the 
removal of John Hartley, of Strangeways, from the commission of the 
peace. The document is printed in the Palatine Note-book, vol. iii., p. 37, and 
vol iv., p. 87, with various biographical particulars. The complaints against 
him are for wrongful assessments, withholding 40s. per annum left by his 
father for the repair of the conduit, &c. There had been a previous quarrel 
between Hartley and John Alexander, one of the constables, who had been 
his tenant. 

1675. 

The Rev. John Prestwich, B.D., died 30th July. He was born about 1G07, 
and was third son of Edmund Prestwich, of Hulme, and younger brother of Sir 
Thomas Prestwich, Bart. He was educated at Oxford, where he entered Braze- 
nose College in 1622-3 as a commoner, migrating to All Souls' College where 
he took his master's degree, and in 1631 became a Fellow. He proceeded as B.D. 
and became Senior Fellow early in 1641-2. Some time before April, 1653, there 
was an effort made in Manchester to form a public library for the use of the 
town, the suggestion being most probably due to Prestwich, who promised to 
give his own collection to the town, on conditions that a convenient room 
was found to keep it in. The Jesus Chantry was given up by Mr. Henry 
Pendleton for the reception of the books, and a rate was levied in 1656 for fitting 
it up. The books have all long since disappeared. (Palatine Note-hook, 
vol. ii., p. 181.) 

Rev. Joshua Stopford died 3rd November. He was born in Lancashire about 
the year 1636. He entered Brazenose College, Oxford, at Michaelmas, 1654, 
being then aged 18 ; and he matriculated from that college 25th July, 1655, as 
pleb.fil. He took the degree of B.A. 23rd February, 1657-8. He came into 
notice in Manchester on 22nd July, 1658, in connection with the Morning 
Lectureship at the Old Church, wliich was held at 6 o'clock a.m. Henry New- 
come formed an unfavourable opinion of him, and described him as "a young 
confident man, just come from the University." During some part of the 
following year Stopford was resident in Magdalen College, Oxford, but on the 
31st July he was again in Manchester, when he preached in favour of the 
" Cheshire Rising," under Sir George Booth, and though ho escaped from any 
ill consequences on its failure, it gave him a claim to preferment at the Restora- 
tion, and he became prebendary of Dunnington and rector of All Saints', York. 



68 Annals of Manchester. [i677-i678 

He was the author of The Ways and Methods of Rome's Advancement, 1671, 
and Pagano Papismus, 1675. (Palatine Note-book, vol. i., p. 157, and p. 219.) 
Stopford, on one occasion having preached strongly against cock-fighting, was 
bound over by the justices to keep the peace. 

Richard Johnson, M.A., Fellow of the College, and first librarian of 
Chetham's Library, died about 1675. He was born at Welch Whittle, and was 
sometime Senior fellow of King's College, Cambridge. He had a controversy 
with Eev. William Bourne on the nature of sin, and was regarded as a 
Romanizer by the extreme Puritans. During the Civil War he was imprisoned 
and led through the streets in mock triumph on a " sorry nag." He was deprived 
of his Fellowship,, but returned at the Restoration. Chetham in his will left 
dE60 to his loving friend Richard Johnson, preacher at the Temple, and he was 
named as a feoffee in the charter of 1675. (See note in Worthington's 
Diary, ii., 238.) 

1677. 

John Angier died 1st September. He was born at Dedham, Essex, 8th 
October, 1605, and had a boyish ambition to be a preacher. At Emanuel College 
" he fell off to vain company," but under the care of John Rogers and John 
Cotton became a Puritan. He married Ellen Winstanley, of Wigan, and a visit 
to her Lancashire relations induced him to break off an intended emigration to 
New England, and to settle at Ringley Chapel. He was ordained without sub- 
scription, and remained a Nonconformist. After the death of his first wife he 
married Margaret Mosley, of Ancoats. He was Presbyterian minister of 
Denton, but on refusing allegiance to the Commonwealth was carried prisoner 
to Liverpool. The universal respect in which the old man was held saved him 
from any great persecution after the Restoration. His house at Manchester 
was licensed as a dissenting preaching place in 1672. He is buried at Denton. 
He wrote An Helx)efor Better Thnes, 1647, and was the author of the anony- 
mous Lancashire's Valley of Achor, 1643— an important historical tract. 
{Dictionary of National Biography, vol. i.) 

1678. 

Nathaniel Paget, M.D., died in January. He was the son of Rev. Thomas 
Paget, incumbent of Blackley and rector of Stockport, in Cheshire, but was 
born in Manchester. He was M.A. Edinburgh, but proceeded M.D. at Leyden 
3rd August, 1639, and was incorporated at Cambridge on his Leyden degree 3rd 
June, 1642 ; and then settled in London. He was dead on the 21st January, 
1678-9. (Munk's Eoll of the Royal College of Physicians, vol. i., p. 224.) 

Ralph Brideoake, D.D., Bishop of Chichester, died. He was born at Cheet- 
ham Hill in 1614. He was educated at the Grammar School and at Brazenose 
College, and in 1636 was created M.A. His only writings are some Latin com- 
mendatory verses (Wood's Athence Oxon, vol. iv., p. 859), but some literary 
help given to Dr. Jackson, President of Corpus Christi College, procured him the 
Mastership of the Manchester Grammar School. He was chaplain at Lathom 
House during the siege, and his earnestness in trying to save the life of his 
master, the Earl of Derby, brought him the favour of Lenthall, the Speaker, 
who made him chaplain. On the Restoration he became Rector of Standish, 



i 



1679-1684] Annals of Manchester. 69 

and by the influence of the King's mistress, the Duchess of Portsmouth, he 
was appointed Bishop of Chichester in 1675, where he died, and is buried in 
St. George's Chapel. His devotion to the Stanleys in their evil fortunes is 
creditable to him, but otherwise he was a pliant and self-seeking courtier. 

1679. 

Several pamphlets published about Charles Bennet, a child three years old, 
who, it is asserted, " did speak Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, though never taught 
these languages, and at his own earnest request was taken from Manchester to 
be introduced to the King." Nothing more is known of this infant Mezzofanti. 

Sarah, Duchess of Somerset, appoints by her will sixteen scholarships in 
Brazenose College, Oxford, and the same number in St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, and directed that the scholarships should be elected by turns for ever 
out of Manchester School and the free schools of Hereford and Marlborough. 
She was the second daughter of Sir Edward Alston, Kt. She married, 
firstly, George Grimston, eldest son of Sir Harbottle Grimston, of Bradfield, 
Essex, Bart. He died in 1655, before his father, and his widow was married 
to John Seymour, fourth Duke of Somerset, who died 1675. The Duchess 
of Somerset then married Henry Hare, Lord Coleraine, by whom she 
was survived. She had no issue, and was buried in Westminster Abbey 
November 2, 1692. She left her property principally in charities. The residue 
went to her eldest sister's grandson, the Hon. Langham Booth, son of the Earl 
of Warrington. (See Hibbert- Ware's Foundations, vol. iii.) Le Neve says 
that she lived apart from Lord Coleraine severall years, being of a covetous 
humour, and left nothing to the Lord Coleraine. 

1680. 

Alms-houses, Millar's Lane, were erected at the cost of £309 10s. 2d. 

Rev. Edward Richardson, B. A., died. He was a son of Thomas Richardson, 
of Grindlow, and in 1658, at the age of 24, he was ordained minister of Stretford 
by the Manchester Classis. He was also a chaplain of the Collegiate Church, 
and in 1660 preached the morning (six o'clock) sermon. He was ejected in 1663, 
and became a Presbyterian teacher at Little Hilton. (Bailey's Old Stretford, 
pp. 39, 40.) 

1682. 

Ralph Thoresby visited Manchester in company with Rev. James lUing- 
worth, B.D., President of Emanuel College, Cambridge, June. (Thoresby's 
Diary, vol. i., p. 119.) See under date 1684. 

1684. 

Richard Wroe, Fellow of the College,''appointed Warden, May 1, being the 
first Fellow so promoted. 

Rev. John Tilsley, M.A., died December 12. He was born in 1614 and 
educated at Edinburgh University. His first professional employment was at 
Deane Church, as curate to the Rev. Alexander Horrocks. On January 4, 
1642-3, he married Margaret, daughter of Ralph Chetham, brother of Humphrey 
the benefactor. Tilsley was with Sir John Seaton when he captured Preston, 
in Amounderness, and he wrote in a letter, which was published, an account 



70 Annals of Manchester. 



[1685-1687 



of the capture, included in the Civil TFar Tracts. On the 10th August, 1643, 
he was appointed Vicar of Deane. On December 13, 1644, he was one of twenty- 
one ministers for ordaining ministers in the county of Lancaster. Tilsley took 
the Covenant and became a Presbyterian. In 1646 he published A True Copie 
of the Petition of Twelve Thousand Five Hundred and upwards of the Well- 
affected Gentlemen, Ministers, Freeholders, and others of the County Pala- 
tine of Lancaster. He was ejected from his benefice for refusing " The 
Engagement" of 1650, but was soon restored. By the will of Humphrey 
Chetham Tilsley was raade one of the feoffees of his proposed hospital, and was 
also nominated one of the persons to purchase godly English books. By the 
Act of Uniformity he was ejected from his benefice, but he preached in various 
towns occasionally tiU his death. {Memoir of the Rev. John Tilsley, by J. E. 
Bailey, Leigh, 1884, not published.) 

Ralph Thoresby again visited the town, where his sister Abigail was at 
Madame Frankland's boarding school. {Diary, vol. ii., p. 176.) Her husband's 
academy was for the education of Nonconformist ministers. 

Rev. Jeremiah Marsden, alias Ralphson, died in Newgate. He was the 
second son of Ralph Marsden, and was born in 1626, and was sent to Man- 
chester Grammar School ; but there he had a too rigid master, and the Civil 
"War commencing, we are told that he improved but little. About 1647 he 
became a pensioner at Christ's College, Cambridge. On his father's death at 
Neeston, June 30, 1648, Marsden turned schoolmaster for a living, and in 1654 
became a preacher. In 1658 he received a call to Kendal, where he stayed nine 
months, and then went to Hull, and afterwards to Ardsley, near Wakefield. 
He was ejected from thence in 1662. After many removes he was invited to 
Lothbury, and was there seized for preaching and confined in Newgate. He 
was known in and about London by the name of Ralphson, and under that 
name was written against by Richard Baxter in 1684, who did not go to the 
length of his rigorous separatist principles, which regarded the parochial wor- 
ship of the Church of England as idolatrous. He wrote an autobiography, 
which remains unprinted. (Calamy's Ejected Ministers, vol. ii., p. 796, and 
cont. pp. 2, 942.) 

Nicholas Stratford, D.D., Warden of the College, resigned and became 
preacher of Aldermanbury, London. 

An organ was built by the celebrated Father Smyth in the choir of the 
Collegiate Church. 

1685. 

Rev. Jeremiah (or Jeremia) Scholes died 27th April, 1685. He was baptised 
14th June, 1629, and educated at Emanuel College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated M.A. He was appointed curate of Stretford, 1655, and in 1659 wa? 
vicar of Norton, in Derbyshire, but was ejected in 1662. He returned tp Man- 
chester, where he died, and was buried in the graveyard of the Collegiate 
Church. There are many references to him in Henry Newcome's Diary. 
There is a notice of him in the Palatine Note-book, vol. iv., p. 30. 

The porch of the Collegiate Church built at the parish charge. 

1687. 

The Dissenters began to hold their meetings "in the public time," that is. 



1688-1690] Annals of Manchester. 71 

at the ordinary hours of divine service on the Sunday. July 31. (Baker's 
Memorials, p. 12.) 

1688. 

The revolution in favour of "William, Prince of Orange, excited no popular 
demonstrations in Manchester, as it did in most other parts of the kingdom ; 
nor did King William visit it on his route to Ireland, when he sailed from 
Liverpool. 

Proposals were issued for publishing a work entitled Briganta Lancas- 
terieyisis Bestaurata, by Richard Kuerden, M.D., a laborious topographer and 
antiquary, who descended from an ancient family at Kuerdon, near Preston. 
The publication was never accomplished ; and the manuscript, written in an 
obscure hand, in five volumes folio, is still in Chetham's Library. The more 
important portions have been transcribed by Palmer and utilised by lat«r 
historians. 

In the reign of William and Mary, the taxable property in Manchester was 
rated at £4,375 ; and the first assessment for the land-tax, at 4s. in the pound, 
produced £875. 

1689. 

John Birtenhead, "a great student,"jburied^in thejCoUegiate Church yard, 
23rd February, 1688-9. 

1690. 

"About the year 1690, the manufacturers and traders having accumulated 
capital, began to build modern brick houses in place of those of wood and 
plaster, which had prevailed so generally since the former era of improve- 
ment, in the reign of Elizabeth. The manufacturers, even those in an extensive 
line of business, who took apprentices from amongst the sonsof the respectable 
families in the neighbourhood, used to be in their warehouses before six o'clock 
in the morning, accompanied by their children of sufficient age, and by their 
apprentices. At seven they returned to breakfast, which consisted of one 
large dish of water-porridge poured into a bowl, at the side of which stood an 
equally capacious bason of milk, and the master and apprentices, each 
with a wooden spoon in his hand, without loss of time, and without ceremony, 
dipped into the bowl, and then into the milk-bason ; and as soon as the mess 
was finished they all returned to their work. Though our ancestors were 
watchful over the expenditure of the living, there was a great deal of cost in 
the interment of the dead. In Warden Wroe's time, these funeral expenses 
were carried to a great extent ; but the warden, by the exei'cise of his influence, 
prevailed upon the inhabitants to apply the money usually spent in this way 
for the relief of the poor, and in some years there was a sum accumulated to 
the amount of nearly £800." 

This year is memorable in the annals of the Free Grammar School for a 
juvenile rebellion which broke out upon some cause of discontent, and lasted 
for a fortnight ; during which time the young insurgents, who had taken 
possession of the school, to the exclusion of the masters, were supplied by 
some of the inhabitants with beds and victuals, as well as with firearms and 
ammunition, but in the end were compelled to surrender. 



72 Annals of Manchester. 



[1692-1695 



1692. 

James Chetham died. He was born in Manchester, 1640; and was the 
author of The Angler's Vacle Mecum, 1681. 

In Dunton's Athenian Mercury, No. 29, vol. vi., a question is asked as to 
the value of the MS. Anglite Sanctce et CathoUcce, Auctore D. V. Edwardo 
Bradshaw de Mancestria, Anglo, Sacrse Theologiae Candidate, Catholico 
Romano. The author was the second son of Roger of Bradshaigh of Haigh, 
and is sometimes called " The Deaf." (Palatine Note-book, vol. i., p. 221.) 

1693. 

Rev. James Illingworth, B.D., died, August, 1693. He was a Fellow of 
Emanuel College, Cambridge, but was ejected in 1662. He gave the portraits 
of Whitaker, Nowell, Bolton, and Bradford to the Chetham Library. He is 
the author of A Genuine Account of the Man whose Hands and Legs Botted 
Off, 1678. 

Sir Edward Mosley, of Hulme, died, aged 77. He was one of Cromwell's 
Scotch justices, and was knighted by William III. in 1689. The last baronet 
had entailed the family estates upon the son of Edward Mosley, of Hulme, but 
as a compromise, Rolleston and the manor of Manchester were secured to 
Nicholas. Sir Edward was unfortunate in his children ; his sons died early 
and his daughter became the wife of the spendthrift Sir John Bland. (Mosley's 
Family Memoirs ; Axon's Lancashire Gleanings.) 

A prescriptive claim set up by Oswald Mosley, acting for the lord of the 
manor (Sir Edward Mosley), for a toll of twopence per pack on all goods of the 
description called Manchester wares brought within the manor (not necessarily 
in the markets), except of the burgesses there, was held bad by the Court of 
King's Bench, upon error from a judgment in the County Palatine of Chester, 
the court holding that every prescription to charge a subject with a duty must 
impart a benefit or recompense to him, or else some reason must be shown 
why a duty is claimed. Warrington v. Mosley (sic), 4 Modern Reports, 319 ; 
1 Holt, 673-4. (Mosley's Family Memoirs.) 

1694. 

The first religious service was held in the newly-erected Cross Street 
Chapel 24th June. The building operations occupied twelve months. (Baker's 
Memorials, p. 15.) 

Sir Roland Stanley, Sir Thomas Clifton, and others tried at the Sessions 
House, Manchester, 20th October, on a charge of conspiracy and treason. The 
assizes were adjourned by special commission from Lancaster for this purpose. 
Sir Giles Eyres was the presiding judge. The witnesses for the existence of a 
Lancashire plot were shown to be perjured, and the accused were acquitted. 
(Axon's Lancashire Gleanings.) It is nevertheless certain that many of the 
gentry were gravely disaffected. Ainsworth's novel of Beatr'ice Tyldesley deals 
with this incident. 

1695. 

Rev. Henry Newcome, M.A., died 17th September. This learned and pious 
divine was the son of a clergyman in Huntingdonshire. His mother was one 



1696-1700] 



Annals of Manchester. 73 



of the Salford family of "Williamson. In 1644; he entered St. John's College, 
Cambridge, and after taking his B.A. degree, married, about the age of 20, 
Elizabeth Mainwaring, and through her interest became rector of Gawsworth 
in 1650, and in 1655 was chosen as successor of Hollinworth in the Collegiate 
Church. He is often called Fellow, but there was no Chapter, as the church 
revenue was sequestered and the college practically dissolved. He was 
favourable to the Restoration, and preached a sermon Usurx)ation Defeated 
and David Restored, 1660. The new charter of Charles II. did not name him, 
but he was allowed to preach until 31st August, 1662. He continued in Man- 
chester until the passing of the infamous Five Mile Act in 1665, when he was 
forced to remove to Worsley, but in 1670 again came to live in the town, and, 
after some persecution, obtained a licence in 1672 to preach in his own house or 
adjacent barn in the Cold House. This had to be discontinued in 1676, but he 
still taught in the homes of his adherents, and in 1687 began again to preach 
publicly. Amongst the smaller annoyances was the breaking of the windows 
of the barn chapel by Sir John Bland whilst Newcome was preaching. In 1693 
the Cross Street Chapel was erected, and the Revolution having given the Non- 
conformists some peace, the last days of Newcome were not made bitter by 
persecution. He wrote The Sinner s Hope, 1660 ; Plain Discourse about Rash 
and Sinful Anger, 1693, and other works. His Diary has been edited by 
Thomas Heywood, F.S.A., and his Autobiography by Rev. Richard Parkinson, 
and both published by the Chetham Society. He is buried in the aisle of Cross 
Street Chapel. There is a portrait of this founder of Manchester Noncon- 
formity in the Lancashire Independent College, which is engraved in the 
Manchester Socinian Controversy and in Sir Thomas Baker's Memorials of 
Cross Street Chapel, where there is a full list of his writings. 

From an indenture made of this year it would appear that the fee with an 
apprentice to a Manchester manufacturer was £60, the youth serving seven 
years. 

1696. 

Mrs. Shuttleworth's Charity was founded ; by it the interest of £50 was 
to be given to the poor people in Deansgate. 

1697. 

Dame Jane Meriel Mosley died 8th July. She was one of the founders of 
Nonconformity in Manchester, and left £50 for the poor of Cross Street Chapel. 
She was the daughter of Mr. Richard Saltonstall, of Huntwick, and married 
Edward Mosley, who was knighted in 1689, and died in 1695. Her father and 
mother were resident in Manchester, and are buried at Didsbury. (Baker's 
Memorials, p. 04.) 

The Nonconformist Chapel, Blackley, was built. 

1698. 

Thoresby again visited Manchester and laments that his friends, Newcome, 
Tilsley, Martindale, Illingworth, were all dead, and that none remained whom 
he knew. (Diary, vol. ii., p. 322.) 

1700. 

Tapestry to cover the altar-screen of the Collegiate Church given by Mr. 



74 Annals of Manchester. [1701-1706 

Samuel Brooke, February 24. The tapestry represents the oflFering of the early 
Christians, mentioned in Acts iv., 34, and the death of Ananias and Sapphira. 
The initial letters V. M., H. W., and G. K. are those of the makers, and the 
date, 1661, indicates the time of its manufacture. 

Nathaniel Edmondson, a woollen draper in Manchester, caused the marble 
pavement in front of the altar of the Collegiate Church "to be laid at his own 
expense." 

1701. 
Rev. Francis Mosley, M.A., died at Bowdon 3rd June. He was a son of 
Oswald Mosley, of Ancoats, and was educated at Emanuel College, Cambridge. 
He was successively minister of Stretford and Rector of Wilmslow. (Bailey's 
Old Stretford, pp. 40, 41.) 

1702. 

Rev. Nathaniel Scholes died of palsy 2nd October, 1702. He was a son of 
the Rev. Jeremia Scholes (see under date 1685). He was minister at Newton 
Heath and at Macclesfield. He was a great friend of Henry Newcome. (Ear- 
waker's East Cheshire, vol. ii., p. 511 ; Palatine Note-book, vol. iv., p. 30.) He 
was one of the believers in the Surey impostor. 

In the household book of a respectable tradesman of Manchester there is 
for the first time a charge of IDs. for tea and coffee. (Aikin's Country Sound 
Manchester.) 

1703. 

The first calendarer ("Kalendar") mentioned in the parish registers is 
Timothy Bancroft, who had a child baptised 1st March. 

1705. 

Rev. John Chorlton died 16th May. He was born at Salford in 1666, and at 
the age of 22 became the assistant of the Rev. Henry Newcome. Matthew 
Henry testifies to his readiness of expression, great sincerity, and serious piety. 
(Baker's Memorials, p. 18.) He is buried in the Collegiate Church. At the 
Academy, under his direction, many were educated for the ministry. 
{Ibid., p. 61 ; 140.) 

Mr. Samuel Haward died. His funeral sermon was preached at St. Mar- 
garet's, Lothbury, 24th September, by the Rev. Peter Newcome, M.A., vicar of 
Hackney. Haward was a Lancashire man, and left bequests for a dole of 
bread at Salford, and for a sermon with distribution of twenty Bibles, and 
woollen cloth at Oldham. {Palatine Note-book, vol. iii., p. 89.) 

1706. 

Four large silver flagons presented to the Collegiate Church, Sunday, April 
4th ; the four old ones of pewter given to Gorton, Stretford, Newton, and 
Didsbury. 

Rev. George Ogden, Vicar of Ribchester and Fellow of the Collegiate 
Church, died, aged 70. 

Six bells of the Collegiate Church were recast into eight. 



1707-1712] 



Annals of Manchester. 75 



1707. 

Nicholas Stratford, Bishop of Chester, a former warden of the Collegiate 
Church, died September 12. Dr. Stratford was Dean of St. Asaph, Prebendary of 
Lincoln, and had the living of Llanroost, in Wales. Having married a daughter 
of the Bishop of Rochester, he was appointed warden of Manchester at the 
age of 34. The close of his wardenship, in 1684, was marked by political and 
religious distractions. Persecutions became fierce. Stratford, to his honour, 
alleviated the suffering, and prevented, as far as he could, the persecution of 
the Dissenters in Manchester. He was the author of A Dissuasive from 
Revenge, 1684 (this he dedicated to the people of Manchester), A Discourse of 
the Pope's Supremacy, 1688, and other writings. 

1708. 

An act of Parliament passed for the erection of St. Ann's Church and 
building St. Ann's Square, when it was enacted " that the square should be 
thirty yards wide, to afford space for the purpose of holding 'Acres Fair,'" 
then a cornfield. 

1709. 

The foundation stone of St. Ann's Church, St. Ann's Square, was laid by 
Lady Ann Bland, of Hulme Hall, May 18. It was dedicated to St. Ann in 
coDQpliment to the lady who laid the foundation stone, and who was the 
greatest contributor to its erection. (See under date 17th July, 1712.) 

A Compendious Character of the Celebrated Beauties of Manchester, 
tvritten in the year 1709, appears in Heywood's Letters and Editions, 1726. 
The writer says that " many scandalous pamphlets and scurrilous lampoons " 
had appeared reflecting upon the ladies. Heywood's notice is reprinted in 
Earwaker's Local Gleanings, No. 494. 

1710. 

Eev. Peter Birch, D.D., died. He was son of Thomas Birch, of Birch, and 
although of a Presbyterian family conformed and graduated at Oxford. He 
was chaplain to the Speaker of the House of Commons. Two of hie sermons 
were printed. (Booker's History of Birch.) 

1712. 

St. Ann's Church was consecrated by Sir William Dawes, Bishop of 
Chester, 12th July, (Bardsley's Memorials of St. Ann's.) 

Rev. Charles Owen, in his Scene of Delusion Opened, alludes to the secret 
meetings of some prophets, probably a remnant of the "French prophets"— 
the refugee Camisards— and "the providential check" which they had received. 

A manuscript containing Eemarkables and Observables, in the life of 
Edward Harrald, ape^-ruquier, or barber-surgeon, in the years 1712 to 1715, was 
presented in 1882 to Chetham's Library by Mr. Robert McD. Smith, of St. 
Mary's Gate. Some extracts from it appeared in the first volume of Harland's 
Collectanea. Harrald's time was mostly passed at church and at the alehouse, 
and he varied his business of curling wigs by dealing in books. Mr. Harland 
omitted the diarist's outlines of the sermons of the Manchester preachers, 



76 Annals of Manchester. [1713-1716 

which appear to be well summarised, the peculiarities of individual style being 
preserved. 

1713. 

Rev. Samuel Angier died 8th Novftraber. He was born at Dedham 28th 
August, 1639, and was a nephew of John Angier, to whom he acted as assistant 
at Denton. He was ordained at the house of Robert Eaton, in Deansgate, in 
1672, at what was probably the first Nonconformist ordination in England. On 
the death of his uncle, the Warden of Manchester appointed the Rev. John 
Ogden, but great difficulty was experienced in dispossessing Angier, who retired 
to Dukinfield, where, in 1689, he became minister of a dissenting congregation, 
who, in 1708, built a chapel for him. In his latter years he was almost blind. 
{Dictionary of National Biography, vol. i.) 

1714. 

Dr. Nathaniel Banne, physician and feoffee of Chetham's College, died, and 
was buried at St. Ann's Church. 

1715. 

The Jacobites on the birthday of the Pretender, 10th June, under the lead 
of Tom Syddall, a blacksmith, caused a riot, and damaged the houses of the 
loyal inhabitants, and did much mischief at the Dissenting Chapel (in Cross 
Street) of which they left only the walls standing. There were riots also at 
Monton, Blackley, Stand, Failsworth, and other places. Some of the deposi- ; 
tions are printed in the Palatine Note-hook, vol. ii., p. 240. The rioters were 
tried at Lancaster in August. (See under date 11th February, 1716.) Parlia- 
ment granted £1,500 as compensation for the damage done by the mob to Cross 
Street Chapel, which was repaired and made ready for use in the spring of 1716. 

1716. 

Thomas Syddall executed 11th February. He was a blacksmith, and 
headed the mob which partially destroyed the Cross Street Chapel in 1715. 
For this, he with others was sentenced to the pillory and imprisonment in 
Lancaster Castle, but was released by the army of the Jacobite rebellion. He 
joined the forces of the Old Chevalier and was taken prisoner at Preston fight. 
He was tried at Liverpool, and sent for the death penalty w^ith five other rebels, 
"William Harris, Stephen Seager, Joseph Porter, and John Finch, to Man- 
chester. It is traditionally stated that Knott Mill was the place of execution. 
The Sheriff's "charge at Manchester on executing Sydall, &c.," was £8 lOs. 
{Palatine Note-hook, vol. iv., p. 93.) 

Rev, James Cunningham, A.M., died in London, September 1. He was the 
assistant of Mr. Chorlton at Cross Street Chapel, and was associated with 
him in the conduct of a Nonconformist Academy. After Mr. Chorlton's death 
a prosecution was instituted against him for keeping this academy, and in 1712 
he resigned the Manchester pastorate and became minister of a congregation 
in London. (Baker's Memorials, p. 20.) He published The Everlasting High 
Priest, 1705, and other sermons. 

Nathaniel Gaskell died 20th November, aged 63. He was the grandfather 
of Lord Clive, and left the interest of £50 for the poor of Cross Street Chapel, 



1717-1719] Annals of Manchester. 77 

and £4 per annum for teaching poor children to read the Bible. (Baker's 
Metnorials, 70.) 

General Willis passed through Manchester with the army under his com- 
mand against the Scottish rebels. 

1717. 

Rev. Eliezer Birch died 12th May, 1717. He was a native of Manchester, 
but had been for twenty years minister of Dean Row, and had also had a charge 
at Yarmouth before he became, in 1712, minister of Cross Street Chapel. 
(Baker's Meinorials, p. 21.) He is buried in the chapel yard. 

1718. 

Richard Wroe, D.D., "Warden of the Collegiate Church, died January 1. 
He was born at Heaton Gate, in the parish of Prestwich, August 21, 1641, and 
educated at Jesus College, Cambridge, where he proceeded D.D. in 1688. He 
was appointed fellow of the college March 9, 1674. His happy talent of preach- 
ing in the pulpit gave him the distinguishing character of " Silver-tongued 
Wroe." He had an interest in natural philosophy, and was a correspondent of 
Flamsteed. He wrote The Beauty of Unity, 1682 ; Righteousness Encouraged, 
1684. There is a portrait, with a biography and bibliography, in the Palatine 
Note-hook, vol. ii., p. 133. 

"One of the earliest burials in St. Ann's was that of John Best. His 
epitaph runs thus : ' John, son of Luke Best, of Manchester, limner, buried 
November y« 7th, 1718.' " (Bardsley's Memorials, p. 31.) 

Stretford Chapel was rebuilt. 

Samuel Peploe, Vicar of Preston, a Whig, was appomted warden by 
George I., but Dr. Francis Gastrell, Bishop of Chester, being a Tory, refused to 
confirm him in his office. The charter directed that the warden should have a 
degree in divinity, and when the Archbishop of Canterbury gave Peploe a Lam- 
beth diploma the bishop still refused on the pretext of the insufficiency of this 
degree. It was not till three years after the nomination of Peploe that the 
Court of King's Bench decided in this matter. The decision was in favour of 
the Crown. (See under 1722.) It is said that Peploe owed his advance in the 
Church to the following circumstance : Being required to perform divine 
service before the Pretender, at Preston, in 1715, he had the courage to pray for 
the reigning family. The clergy, who were chiefly Jacobites, were frequently 
at war with him, and whilst their sermons preached the divine right of kings, 
his were eulogies of the glorious Revolution. (Hibbert- Ware's Foundations ; 
Halley's Lancashire.) 

1719. 

The first book printed in Manchester was " Mathematical Lectures," read 
to the Mathematical Society, by John Jackson. It was printed by Roger 
Adams, Parsonage, and sold by William Clayton, at the Conduit. 

The first Manchester newspaper was the Manchester Weekly Journal, 
containing the freshest advices, both foreign and domestic, to be continued 
weekly, printed and sold by Roger Adams, at the lower end of Smiby (Smithy) 
Door, price Id. No. 325, dated March loth, 1725, was in the possession of the 



78 Annals of Manchester. ri720-i724 

late Mr. John Yates, of Bolton. It was discontinued 1726. The printer after- 
wards went to Chester (see 1749). 

1720. 

Oswald Mosley, of Rolleston, in the county of Stafford, lord of the manor, 
created a baronet, June 18, 

An Act (7 George I. cap. 15) was passed for making the Irwell and Mersey 
navigable to Liverpool, 8th December. 

1721. 

Kev. Mr. Barrow died 4th March at an advanced age. He was Head Master 
of the Grammar School about 40 years. 

The rivers Irwell and Mersey made navigable to Liverpool for vessels of 50 
tons, June 6. 

A post from Manchester to London and the North three times a week ; 
eight days required to effect the interchange of letters. 

1722. 

Dr Gastrell, Bishop of Chester, having refused to admit Samuel Peploe, B.D.," 
of Lambeth, to the wardenship of Manchester College, the cause was tried first 
at Lancaster Assizes, on the 13th of August, 1722. The argument in favour of 
the Archbishop's right was conducted with great learning and skill. The 
hearing occupied fifteen hours. A prescriptive right was made out to general 
satisfaction, and a statutable right also as far as there was occasion to go into 
the Act of Parliament. But the jury of gentlemen gave a verdict to the right 
in general, without fixing it on any single foot. It was then carried by appeal 
before the King's Bench, and there decided in favour of the Archbishop's 
right, May 22, 1725. {Notes and Queries, iii., 276. Blackstone Coram., i., 381. 
Edit., 1829.) 

1724. 

Rev, Robert Meeke died 31st May. He was born at Salford 30th Dec, 1656, 
where his father was minister of Sacred Trinity Church. (See under date 17th 
January, 1658.) His mother was Catharine Hyde, of Hyde Hall. Little is 
known of his early life, but in 1685 he was appointed, at the age of twenty-eight, 
minister of the ancient chapelry of Slaithwaite, where he continued nearly forty 
years. The chapel was rebuilt by his exertions in 1719, and in 1721 he founded 
the Sleathwaite Free School, He was buried in Slaithwaite chapel. He kept 
a diary, and extracts from 1689 to 1694 have been printed. (See Extracts from 
the Diary of Rev. Robert Meeke by H. F. Morehouse. London, 1874.) 

11 George I, Act for repairing and widening the road from Sherbrook 
Hill, near Buxton and Chapen in the Frith, to Manchester, 12th November. 

Mrs. Ann Hinde died, aged 70. She was the daughter of William Page, a 
Manchester merchant, and wife of the Rev. John Hinde, Fellow of the 
Collegiate Church. She founded the "Green Gown School" at Manchester 
and Stretford for clothing and educating poor children. (See Bailey's Old 
Stretford and Clarke's School Candidates, intro. pp. xiii.-xvi.) 

Dr. William Stukeley published his " Itinerarium Curiosum," in which 
Manchester is described as " the largest, most rich, populous, and busy village 



1725-1729] AnTials of Manchester. 79 

in England, having about 2,400 families." This must probably include the whole 
parish. He further says, " They have looms which work 24 laces at once, which 
were stolen from the Dutch." 

1725. 

On the death of Bishop Gastrell, 24th November, Dr. Peploe, the warden, 
was promoted to the see of Chester, retaining at the same time the wardenship 
in commendam. 

William Baguley, of Oakenbottom and Kersley, died 31st December, aged 
56. He was the founder of a school for poor children at Breightmet and another 
at Manchester. w 

1726. 

The living of Didsbury was vested in Dame Ann Bland, of Hulme Hall, 
December 12, for advancing £200 for the Queen Ann's Bounty. 

It was customary to place oak boughs on "the top of the steeple " (tower) 
of the parish church in commemoration of the Restoration. 

Bishop Gastrell having appointed Mr. Assheton to a vacant chaplainship in 
the Collegiate Church, the warden (now Bishop of Chester) opposed the 
appointment, and succeeded in obtaining from the Crown the nomination of 
Mr. Whittaker, who accordingly was sworn in under protest on the part of the 
fellows. Mr. Assheton appealed to the Court of King's Bench and obtained a 
mandamus which overruled the right of the bishop to visit himself as warden. 
Mr. Assheton thus succeeded in being appointed. An Act of Parliament was 
afterwards passed, appointing the king as a visitor of the Collegiate Church, 
when the wardenship was held in commendam. 

1727. 

A collection of curious papers was published in this year relating to Mr. 
Assheton, who was justly suspected of disaffection to the House of Hanover. 
There is also Mr. Assheton's reply. The writers in this controversy were John 
Byrom and Mr. Kenyon. The clergy of the old chiu-ch were somewhat 
notorious for their Jacobite sympathies. 

The author of A 'Tour through the whole Island of Great Britain, by a 
Gentlem,an, 1727, which has been attributed to Defoe, says that "within a few 
years past Manchester has doubled its number of inhabitants, so that, taking 
in all its suburbs, it contains at least 50,000 people." 

1728. 

2 George II. Act to impower His Majesty to visit the Collegiate Church of 
Manchester, during such time as the wardenship of the said Church, or shall 
be held in commendam with the Bishopric of Chester. 21st January. 

1 George II. cap. 11. Act to enable Thomas Brown, gentleman, to grant 
building leases of his estate in the town of Manchester. 

1729. 
Rev. William Hudlestone, formerly a Benedictine Missionary, preached a 
recantation sermon 21st September, before Bishop Peploe, in the Collegiate 
Church. The sermon has been printed. He was a native of Cambridgeshire, 



80 Annals of Manchester. 



[1730-1733 



but belonged to a Lancashire family which had already given several priests 
to the Church of Rome. Hudleston's sermon is noticed in Earwaker's Local 
Gleanings, No. 628. 

The old Exchange, Manchester, built at the charge of Sir Oswald Mosley. 

The character of the inhabitants of Manchester at this time is described to 
be "of a good sort, being pretty much of the old English temper, hearty and 
sincere in their affections and expressions, given to hospitality ; very kind and 
civil to their friends, but very stiff and resolute against their enemies." 

The establishment of races on Kersal Moor caused some controversy. The 
project is strongly censured in a pamphlet attributed to John Byrom. Dr. 
Peploe at the same time denounced assemblies, and prohibited clergymen from 
attending them. 

1730. 

Rev. Thomas Wroe died 21st September, 1730. He was a son of Warden 
"Wroe, and was baptised at Manchester 26th January, 1702-3. He took his 
degree of M.A. at Brazenose College, Oxford, and was a Fellow of the Collegiate 
Church. (Fishwick's History of Garstang, p. 183.) 

The Manchester Gazette published by Henry Whitworth, December 22 ;.the 
first number. The title was changed to the Manchester Magazine, which was 
sold for threehalfpence, 1737. The title was again changed by his son Robert 
to the Advertiser and Weekly Magazine. Its last number appeared March 
25, 1760. 

The small tithes of the Parish of Manchester amounted to £110 per annum. 

Hugh, twelfth Lord Willoughby de Parham, died, aged 77. He was con- 
nected with Cross Street Chapel, though not apparently resident nearer than 
the Old Hall, Worsley. (Baker's Memorials, p. 67.) The history of the 
Willoughby peerage is a curious one. 

1731. 

"An act was passed to prevent the stealing of linen, fustian, and other wares 
from the fields where they are whitening or drying. It received royal assent 
May 17. 

A proposal for the establishment of a public workhouse for Manchester was 
defeated by the violence of party feeling. The High Churchmen and Jacobites 
were afraid that the control would be in the hands of the Whigs and Presby- 
terians, and so refused to comply. 

1732. 

The first meeting house of the Society of Friends, which was in Jackson's 
Row, fell into disuse. 

1733. 

The fly shuttle for the handloom weaver invented by John Kay, of Bury. 
May 26. 

Rev. John Wesley visited Manchester in May to see the Rev. Mr. Clayton. 
He was in the town again in June, and, on the 3rd, preached at the Old 
Church, Salford Chapel, and St. Ann's Church. 

Henry Gore died. He was a native of Manchester, had some reputation 
as a mathematician, and was the author of The Elements of Sound Geometry. 



1734-1736] Annals of Manchester. 81 



1734. 

Lady Barbara Fitzroy died January 4. The following inscription is in the 
choir of the Collegiate Church, where she was interred :— 

Lady Barbara Fitzroy, 
Eldest Daughter of the Most IToble Charles 
Duke of Cleveland and Southampton, 
Died Jan. 4th, 1734. 

Nothing is known of the reasons which induced her to select Manchester as 
her place of residence. Her property was left to an adopted child, William 
Dawson, (Foundations of Manchester.) 

A charity school for boys and girls, " children of poor Protestant Dissenters, 
not excluding others," founded in connection with Cross Street Chapel. The 
girls' school was given up in 1805, and the boys' school in 1815, on the foundation 
of the Lancasterian School. (Baker's Meynorials, p. 29.) 

Lady Ann Bland, lady of the manor, died. She was the daughter of Sir 
Edward Mosley, of Hulme Hall, which she decorated with altars and other 
Roman antiquities. She was a leader of society and the chief founder of St. 
Ann's Church, which was built partly as a protest against the Stuart sympathies 
of the High Church clergy of the Cathedral. (Mosley's Family Memoirs; Axon's 
Lancashire Gleanings.) She was succeeded by her second cousin, Sir Oswald 
Mosley. (See under date 1751.) 

1735. 

The south side of St. Ann's Square, King Street, and Ridgefield first built 
upon. 

Bishop Peploe strictly enforced the payment of fines called " absence 
money," much to the discontent of the Fellows of the Collegiate Church, who 
were thus compelled to be punctual in residence. 

"Manchester," says Chamberlayne, "is a town of very great trade for 
woollen and linen manufacture." 

1736. 

10 George II. cap. 9. Act for making navigable the river or brook called 
Worsley Brook, from Worsley Mill, in the township of Worsley, to the river 
Irwell. 1st February. 

The Rev. Nathaniel Bann died September 9. He was a native of Man- 
chester, where his father was a physician and feoffee of Chetham's Hospital. 
He was baptised at the Collegiate Church 14th December, 1671, and became 
librarian of Chetham's Library in 1693, and was the first rector of St. Ann's 
Church. Some of his MSS. are preserved in Chetham's Library. (Bardsley's 
Memorials.) 

The register of the baptisms, marriages, and burials of St. Ann's Church 
commenced December 11. 

What is known as the " Manchester Act " passed the Houses of Parliament. 
This statute (9 George II., c. 4) says that as great quantities of stuffs made of 
linen yarn and cotton wool had been manufactured, printed, and painted, and 
the industry was a branch of the ancient fustian manufacture of Groat Britain, 
the manufacture was therefore permitted, " provided that the warp thereof be 
P 



82 Awnals of Manchester. [1737-1740 

entirely linen yarn." {Statutes at Large, Espinasse's Lancashire Worthies, 
i., 229 ; ii., 62.) 

Ann Butterworth, widow of Thomas Butterworth, died. Her mother was 
one of the Mosleys of Ancoats. She left £500 to the trustees of the Cross Street 
Chapel, the interest to be applied in binding poor Protestant children appren- 
tice. She was buried in the chapel. (Baker's Memorials.) 

The Manchester Journal was published by A. Schofield. 

1737. 

The existing registers of Chorlton Chapel begin this year. 

The townspeople were bound to have their grain ground at the manorial 
Boke-mill, which had become the property of the Grammar School. The 
management of the School Mills provoked the following epigram, written by 
John Byrom, against two trustees of the School Mills : — 

Bone and Skin, two millers thin, 

Would starve us aU or near it ; 
But be it known to Skin and Bone, 

That Flesh and Blood can't bear it. 

"Bone" (Mr. Dawson) was a surgeon, and "Skin" (Mr. Yates) an attorney. 
(See Byrom's Remains, vol. i., p. 562.) 

The title of Whitworth's Manchester Gazette was changed to the Man- 
chester Magazine. It was sold at threehalfpence. 

1738. 

Rev. John Wesley in Manchester, March 16-19, and was " refreshed and 
strengthened " by intercourse with Rev. John Clayton " and the rest of our 
friends here." Mr. "Wesley preached at Salford Chapel and at St. Ann's. This 
was immediately after his return from America. 

Lewis Paul's roller spinning machine was patented June 24. 

The Lancashire Journal published weekly by John Berry at the Dial, near 
the Cross. The contents of several numbers are described in the new edition of 
Baines's Lancashire, i., 329 ; Axon's Manchester Libraries, p. 155 ; Local Notes 
and Queries of Manchester Guardian, 6th July, 1874 ; Palatine Note-book, 
vol. ii., p. 205. 

Rev. George Whitfield preached twice in Manchester, December 3 (? 24). 

Samuel Peploe, Bishop of Chester and Warden of Manchester, resigned the 
latter position in favour of his son, Samuel Peploe, jun., LL.D., Chancellor, and 
Prebendary of Chester, Archdeacon of Richmond, and Rector of Worthenden 
and Taxall ; and to which benefices was added, in 1742, the rich living of Tatten- 
hall, in Chester. The Bishop Warden had been on bad terms with the Fellows of 
the Collegiate Church, and the appointment of his son enabled him to use his 
episcopal power as visitor. An investigation of the affairs of the college since 
1718 resulted in the submission and apology of the clergy. 

1740. 

About this time Manchester merchants began to give out warps and raw 
cotton to the weavers, receiving them back in cloth, and paying for the carding, 
roving, spinning, and weaving. The weaving of a piece containing twelve 



1741-1745] AnnaU of Manchester. 83 

pounds of eighteenpenny weft occupied a weaver about fourteen days, and he 
received for the weaving 18s. ; spinning the weft, at 9d. per lb., 9s. ; picking, 
carding, and roving, 8s. 

A Baptist Chapel built in Withy Grove. It was rebuilt 1826. 

1741. 

St. Thomas's Chapel, Ardwick, consecrated November 10. It is now a per- 
petual curacy, in the presentation of the Dean and Canons of Manchester. 

A plan of Manchester and Salf ord, surrounded with views of public buildings 
and the principal residences of the town, was published by Caslon and Berry. 

A spinning engine with rollers was constructed by John Wyatt, and 
" turned by two or more asses." It was in use in the Upper Priory, Birming- 
ham. Another of the like construction, containing 250 spindles, turned by 
water, was at Northampton, the property, in part, of Edward Cave, the pro- 
jector and proprietor of the Gentleman's Magazine. 

1742. 

The parish organ in the Collegiate Church built. 

1743. 

The import of cotton wool amounted to 1,132,2881b. The quantity retained 
for home consumption was 1,091, 41SIb. 

East India yarns used in Lancashire up to this time for the liner kinds of 

goods. 

1744. 

The name of Mercy De Foe occurs in the register of burials, 29th April, 1744. 

There is a story that the young Pretender visited Manchester in disguise, 
and stayed at Ancoats Hall, in the summer of 1744. It is said that a young 
woman recognised this mysterious guest in the leader of the Highland army of 
the following year. There is no real evidence of the visit. (Cf. Aston's 
Metrical Records, Mosley's Family Memoirs, and Axon's Lancashire 
Gleanings.) 

1745. 

John Kay and Joseph Stell invented " a loom for working and weaving of 
tapes, &c." April 18. 

In Marchant's History of the Rebellion, he says: "Manchester stands 
near the conflux of the Irk with the Irwell, and is so much improved in this 
and the last century above its neighbours, that though it is not a corporation, 
nor sends members to Parliament, yet, as an inland town, it has perhaps the 
best trade of any in these north parts, and surpasses all the towns hereabouts 
in buildings and number of people, and its spacious market-place and college. 
. . . . The fustian manufactures, called Manchester cottons, for which it 
has been famous for almost one hundred and fifty years, have been very nmch 
improved of late by some inventions of dyeing and prmting with the great 
variety of other manufactures, known by the name of Manchester goods, as 
ticking, tapes, filleting, and linen cloth, enrich not only the town but the 
whole parish, and render the people industrious. As the Hague in Holland is 
deservedly called the most magnificent village in Europe, Manchester, witli 



84 ■ Annals of Manchester. 



1745 



equal propi'iety, may be styled the greatest mere village in England, for 'tis not 
so much as a town, strictly speaking, the highest magistrate being a constable 
or headborough ; yet it is more populous than York, Norwich, or most cities in 
England, and as big as two or three of the lesser ones put together." 

The "rising of the forty -five" was a memorable event in the annals of 
Manchester, where the adherents of the Stuarts were very numerous. It was the 
custom of the leaders to dine together at a small public-house near Didsbury. 
After the cloth was removed a large bowl of water was placed on the table, 
when every gentleman rose, and holding his glass over the water drank "The 
King." "This is not a toast I should have expected to be drunk here," said a 
new guest. " Tush," said his friend, " are we not drinking ' The King over the 
water ?' " On the news of the insurrection in Scotland a subscription amounting 
to £1,906 3s. was raised for a troop to be placed at the disposal of Edward Lord 
Derby for resisting the army of the young Pretender. Warden Peploe was the 
only subscriber amongst the clergy of the Collegiate Church. The Stuart 
partizans included some of the leading gentlemen of the town, the clergy of the 
Collegiate Church, nearly all of whom, except Dr. Peploe (who laboured singly 
and unceasingly in defence of George II.), were zealous Jacobites, and took 
every occasion to promote disafi'ection from the pulpit, and to influence their 
hearers on behalf of the Pretender ; and lastly, Dr. Deacon and his band of 
Nonjurors, who was decidedly the most active in the insurrection, and whose 
three sons joined the Pretender. Corporal Dickson and his sweetheart, with a 
drummer belonging to the Pretender's army, took military possession of Man- 
chester, November 28. A party of the inhabitants resolved upon " taking him 
prisoner, dead or alive." A fight ensued, the issue of which was that, the 
Jacobite party defending Dickson and the drummer, the assailants were 
repulsed, and during the rest of the day they paraded the streets in triumph, 
and obtained about one hundred and eighty recruits, to don white cockades. 
In the evening the vanguard of the army entered the town, and the main body. 
Tinder the command of Prince Charles Edward (the young Pretender), began to 
enter Manchester about ten o'clock in the morning, November 29. The troops 
marched into St. Ann's Square whilst the funeral service was being performed 
over the grave of the Rev. Joseph Hoole. Some of the officers joined decorously 
in the service. The Prince arrived about two in the afternoon, and took up his 
residence at the house of Mr. John Dickenson, in Market Street Lane, after- 
wards known as the Palace Inn, and now the Palace Buildings. The Prince, 
in marching through Salford, was met by the Rev. John Clayton, who, falling 
on his knees, prayed for the divine blessing upon him. The Old Pretender was 
proclaimed as James III., and there were public illuminations, November 29. 
Some of the adherents of the Prince went to the printing office of Mr. Whit- 
worth, proprietor of the Magazine, and compelled Thomas Bradbury, a 
journeyman (in the absence of his master), to print several manifestoes and 
other papers. The Prince went to service on the Sunday at the Collegiate 
Church. The sermon was preached by Thomas Cappock, whom the Prince had 
appointed his chaplain, November 30. After service the "Manchester 
Regiment," which numbered about 300 men, was reviewed by the Prince 
Charles Edward in the Churchyard. The rebels left the town on their march 
to the South, 1st December. They marched to Derby, where a retreat was 



1746] 



Annals of Manchester. 85 



decided upon, and the rebel army re-entered on their retreat to the North, 
December 8. The Pretender levied a contribution of £5,000 upon the inhabi- 
tants of Manchester, and took old James Bayley prisoner, but let him go on 
condition that he would raise one-half of the money, or surrender himself 
again a prisoner. He went to the Old Coffee House, and it was arranged that 
he and John Dickenson should give promissory notes, payable in three months, 
to such persons as would advance them money to meet the demand. By this 
method the £2,500 was paid within the specified time, December 10. At the 
surrender of Carlisle to the Duke of Cumberland, December 24, the following 
officers of the Manchester Regiment fell into the hands of the Royalists : Colonel 
Francis Townley ; Captains James Dawson, George Fletcher, John Sanderson, 
Peter Moss, Andrew Blood, David Morgan ; Lieutenants T. Deacon, Robert 
Deacon, Thomas Chadwick, John Beswick, John Holker, Thomas Furnival ; 
Ensigns Charles Deacon, Samuel Maddock, Charles Gaylor, James Wilding, 
John Hunter, John Brettagh ; Adjutant Syddall, and Thomas Cappock. Of 
the non-commissioned officers and privates there were only ninety-three 
remaining. The officers were sent in waggons to London, and the subordinates 
were thrown into the prisons of Carlisle, Penrith, and Kendal. Before they 
were marched to the metropolis the former were confined in the town gaol, and 
the privates in the cathedral of the first-named place. The story of the " forty- 
five " has given rise to a considerable literature. The local details are given in 
Byrom's Diary, and the Foundations of Manchester. Various depositions as 
to the behaviour of the rebels in Manchester and the neighbourhood are printed, 
with annotations by Mr. J. P. Earwaker, in the Palatine Note-book, vol. iv., 
p. 70. See also an article by Sir Thomas Baker in the Palatine Note-booh, 
vol. iii., p. 19. There is a MS. diary of a Manchester man who was in the 
Pretender's army, and taken prisoner at Carlisle. It is in Chetham's library. 
It is sometimes styled James Miller's journal, but the question of its author- 
ship is discussed in The Reliquary, April, 1871. 

Rev. Joseph Hoole, M.A., died November 27. He was. educated at Sidney 
Sussex College, Cambridge, and had been vicar of Haxey before his appoint- 
ment as rector of St. Ann's in 1736. He wrote a Guide to Communicants, 1739. 
He was burled at St. Ann's, 29th November, and some of the Jacobite rebel 
officers joined in the funeral service. Mr. Hoole's Sermons were published in 
1747. (Bardsley's Me^norials.) 

Kersal Moor races were discontinued probably through the influence of 
John Byrom. 

1746. 

Rev. Joshua Bayes died April 24. He was the son of Rev. Samuel Bayes, 
one of the ejected ministers of 1662, who settled in Manchester. .Joshua Bayes 
is said by Wilson to have been born in 1G71, but according to his tombstone he 
died in his 52nd year. He was minister of the Lather Lane Church, and the 
aMthor oi The Church of Rome's Doctrine and Practice with relation to the 
Worship of God in an Unknotcn Tongue, 1735, and several other sermons. 
He contributed the portion on Galatians to the continuation of Henry's Com- 
mentary. There is a portrait of him in Wilson's Dissenting Churches, iv., 396. 
In Rose's Biographical Dictionary (vol. iii., p. 397) he is stated, but on what 
authority is not said, to have been a native of Slieffiold. 



86 Annals of Manchester. 



[1746 



The trial of the officers of the Manchester Regiment commenced at London 
July IG. Captain Fletcher was vainly urged to turn King's evidence, but 
Ensign Maddock was less unbending. The inquiry lasted three days, ter- 
minating in the conviction of all the prisoners. There was, of course, no doubt 
that they were guilty of treason, though their treason had its spring in 
mistaken loyalty. Moss and Holker effected their escape from Newgate. The 
national thanksgiving for the suppression of the rebellion was celebrated 9th 
October, when the mob took vengeance upon the houses of Deacon and Syddall 
because the unhappy father and the hapless widow had not illuminated their 
windows in token of rejoicing. 

Colonel Francis Townley, Captains Thomas Theodorus Deacon, James 
Dawson, John Beswick, George Fletcher, Andrew Blood, David Morgan, 
and Lieutenant Thomas Chadwick and Adjutant Thomas Syddall, officers in 
the Manchester Regiment of rebels, were executed on Kennington Common 
with all the cruel inflictions to which persons guilty of high treason were sub- 
ject, July 30. After the execution the heads of Captain Deacon, Adjutant 
Syddall, and Lieutenant Chadwick were brought down to Manchester and stuck 
upon the Exchange, August 3. Dr. Deacon was the first to gaze upon the 
remains of his son, and, though bowed with age and adversity, he subdued his 
parental sorrow so far as to salute the ghastly head, and to express his rejoicing 
that he had possessed a son who could firmly suffer martyrdom in the Stuart 
cause. On the other hand they were scoffed at as " the gods spiked upon the 
Exchange," and as "Tyburn gods." 

The Rev. Thomas Cappock, the reputed Bishop of Carlisle, was brought to 
trial in that city. He was taken into court robed in his gown and cassock ; and 
being found guilty of high treason he was drawn, hanged, and quartered 
October 18. He was a native of Manchester, and received his education at the 
Free Grammar School. He received the appointment of chaplain to Prince 
Charles at Manchester. He afterwards turned quartermaster, but again 
assuming the priestly garb is doubtfully said to have been appointed by the 
Pretender to the see of Carlisle. Some particulars of Cappock, or Coppock, 
will be found in Earwaker's Local Gleanings, Nos. 304, 317, 325. 

James Bradshaw, lieutenant of the rebel "Manchester Regiment," was 
■ xecuted at Kennington Common, November 28. His speech from the scaffold is 
reported in the Palatine Note-book, vol. iii., p. 275. Biographical particulars 
of Captain James Bradshaw are given in Earwaker's Local Gleanings, Nos. 
195, 202, 219. 

The magistrates held regular sittings at "The Dangerous Corner," and 
compelled the disaffected or the doubtful to take oaths of allegiance to the 
reigning monarch. The assembly-room, the private ball, the Exchange, the 
place of worship, were made arenas for exhibition of party rancour. At church 
the Jacobites offered negative allegiance to James III. by refusing to join in the 
church prayers for his antagonist, George II. The following verse, since so 
famed, was penned by John Byrom at this time : — 

God bless the King ! I mean our faith's defender ! 
God bless (no harm in blessing) the Pretender ! 
But who Pretender is, or who is King- 
God bless us all— that's quite another thing ! 



1747-1749] Annals of Manchester. 87 

1747. 

Mr. Fowden, the Constable of Manchester, and Mr. Ogden, the younger, 
were tried at Lancaster for high treason, but acquitted, as it was proved that 
they acted under the compulsion of the rebels. April. 

"Methodism" now began to take an organised form in the town. Some 
young men "began a society and took a room." The " room " was a small 
apartment in a house built upon a rock on the banks of the Irwell, on the north 
side of Blackfriars Bridge, at the bottom of a large yard, known by the name 
of the " Rose and Crown yard," and which was filled with wood-built thatched 
cottages. The house containing the " preaching room" was three storeys high. 
The ground floor was a joiner's shop ; the rooms in the middle storey were the 
residence of a newly-married couple ; the garret was the " room," and was 
itself also the home of a poor woman, who there plied her spinning wheel, 
while her husband, in the same apartment, flung the shuttle. Such was the 
cradle of Methodism in Manchester. The room being too small to hold all the 
people, Wesley preached at the Cross. Few persons joined the society at first in 
this town ; its members were suspected of being emissaries of the Pretender. 
The Rev. John Wesley himself was indecorously treated by the multitude, for, 
preaching at Salford Cross in this year, he looked with great apprehension on 
the " unbroken spirits" around him, one of whom threatened to " bring out the 
engine" and play it upon him. The story of the early progress of Methodism is 
told in Everett's Methodism in Manchester and the Neighbourhood, p. 58. 

Rev. Thomas Cattell died. He was chaplain and fellow of the Collegiate 
Church, and wrote some unpublished poems. He is the supposed author of a 
tract on the Manchester races, 1733, and of Human Laws Obligatory upon the 
Conscience, 1733. There is a long account of him in the Raines MSS. 

1748. 

Robert Duckinfield died in May, aged 63 years. He was a younger son of 
Sir Robert Duckinfield, and was High Sheriff of Lancashire in 1741. (Baker's 
Memorials, p. 78.) 

Lewis Paul's carding machine was patented, August 30. 

The town was still greatly agitated by the political controversy between 
the friends and foes of the Hanoverian Government. This is shown in 
Jacobite and Nonjuring Prindjiles Examined, in a Letter to the Master 
Tool of the Faction in Manchester, by J. Owen, &c., Manchester, 1748. The 
writer was a Nonconformist minister at Rochdale. The pamphlet was 
addressed to John Byrom, and ran through two editions. 

1749. 

Many of the unfortunate rebel "Manchester Regiment" removed from 
Southwark Gaol for transportation, January 11. 

The heads of Deacon, Syddall, and Chadwick stolen from the top of the 
Exchange. January. 

The Jacobite controversy was further continued in a volume entitled 
Manchester Vindicated. A com.plcte collection of the papers published in 
defence of that town, in the Chester Couranf, with those on the other side of 
the question, printed in the Manchester Magazine, or elsewhere, which are 



88 Annals of Manchester. 



[1750-1752 



unanswered in the said Chester Courant, Chester : Printed by and for 
Elizabeth Adams. 324 pages. 24mo. The publisher was the widow of Roger 
Adams, and mother of Orion Adams, both well-known printers. The volume 
itself contains some of Byrom's writing, and is full of curious and interesting 
matter. 

The import of cotton wool amounted to 1,658,3651b. ; the quantity retained 
for home consumption, 1,327,3671b. 

1750. 

An attempt was made to introduce hackney coaches in the town, but the 
extremities of the town being within the distance of a few minutes' walk the 
novelty was not eagerly received, and the scheme failed as sedan-chairs were 
generally considered preferable. 

The Methodist Chapel, Birchin Lane, was built. 

1751. 

Huhne Hall sold by the Bland family to G. Lloyd, Esq. 

Sir Oswald Mosley, lord of the manor, died. He was the eldest son of 
Oswald Mosley of Ancoats and RoUeston, who in 1720 declined a baronetcy, 
which was then accepted by his son. In 1693 he tried, unsuccessfully, to impose 
a tax upon each pack of Manchester wares brought into the manor. (Mosley's 
Family Memoirs ; Axon's Lancashire Gleanings.) 

A school was endowed by Samuel, Thomas, and George Birch in the town- 
ship of Ardwick. 

1752. 

The Manchester Weekly Journal, published on the first Tuesday In 
January, by Orion Adams. Its existence was short. 

Rev. Adam Banks, M.A., Fellow of the Collegiate Church, died February 
16, aged 51. He was buried in the church, where there is a monument to hia 
memory. 

Right Rev. Samuel Peploe, D.D., Bishop of Chester, died at Chester 21st 
February. Born in Shropshire in 1668, he owed his advancement in the church 
to his steady adherence to the House of Hanover, and to the courage and ability 
he displayed against the Jacobites. His appointment as Warden of Manchester 
was unsuccessfully contested by the local clergy, with whom he was always on 
bad terms. When he resigned in favour of his son the power of the sovereign, 
as temporary visitor of the college, reverted to the bishop, and he exercised his 
authority. He demanded an investigat ion into the whole affairs of the college 
from the year 1718, and entering the chapter house on a day fixed for a public 
court of inquiry " he denounced the fellows and chaplains as void of honour, 
void of common honesty, and void of grace, and charged them with a wilful 
intention to wrong the college." The fellows and chaplains made submission. 
He was buried in Chester Cathedral, over which he had presided for twenty- 
seven years. {Foundations of Manchester, vol. ii.) 

The first number of the Manchester Mercury was published by Joseph 
Harrop, March 3. It was issued every Tuesday at the sign of the Printing 
Press, opposite the Exchange, at number nine. This paper obtained a good 
circulation by meeting the mail at Derby and bringing the news express to 



1753J 



Annals of Manchester. 89 



this town. The title was changed to Harrop's Manchester Mercury and 
General Advertiser. In 1764 he issued with it a New History of England, in 
supplements, ultimately extending to 778 pages, to encourage the sale of his 
newspaper. In an address at the end of the work he says it cost him one 
hundred guineas. Joseph Harrop died 20th January, 1804. The paper was 
carried on by his son James up to his death, February 22, 1823. It was still 
carried on until August 31, 1825, when it was sold to Mr. J. E. Taylor, who 
changed its name to the Manchester Mercury and Tuesday s General 
Advertiser. The last number issued was 3,672, which appeared on the 28th 
December, 1830, after an existence of 77 years and 10 months. The following 
is the editorial article with which this paper was ushered into existence : " To 
the Public,— Having been greatly encouraged to publish a weekly newspaper, 
I lately advertised that I intended Speedily to proceed upon that design ; and 
having now procured a new set of types to print with, I have here begun to 
execute it. I shall take care to answer the proposals in my advertisement by 
the contents of the paper, and a favourable reception will, I hope, enable me to 
do it with success. Though in a time of general peace, a great dearth of 
foreign advices may be urged as a discouragement to my undertaking at this 
juncture ; yet the friendly excitement that I have had, and the honest desire of 
employment in my proper calling, in the place of my nativity, are motives 
excusable, at least for attempting in a private station, to bespeak the encourage^ 
ment of the public, to whom I propose to give all the satisfaction that I can, 
and no just cause of offence whatsoever. Such of my countrymen and others 
who intend me the favour of their subscriptions, shaU have the paper delivered 
at their house with all due care and expedition by, their obliged humble 
servant, "Joseph Harrop." 

A new market cross was erected from the designs of Oliver Nab. March 6. 

John Wesley visited Manchester March 26. He spent three days in a 
searching examination of the members of the Manchester Society, and found 
reason to believe " that there was not one disorderly walker therein." 

The Manchester Infirmary founded. It owes its origin more particularly 
to Mr. Joseph Bancroft, and Mr. Charles White, an eminent surgeon. The 
first house to carry on the purpose of the charity was in Garden Street, 
Shudehill, and was opened June 24. 

The time of holding Acres Fair was changed from the 20th and 21st of 
September to the 1st and 2nd of October. 

Sacred Trinity Chapel, Salford, taken down and rebuilt as a stone edifice of 
the Doric order, with a Gothic steeple, having six bells, and a clock with four 
faces. 

1753. 

Dr. Thomas Deacon died February 16. He lies buried beneath a tomb near 
the north-east corner of St. Ann's churchyard, with the following inscription : 
" Here lie interred the remains (which through mortality are at present corrupt, 
but which shall one day surely be raised again to immortality and put on 
incorruption) of Thomas Deacon, the greatest of sinners and most unworthy of 
primitive bishops, who died 16th February, 1753, in the 56th year of his age." 
He was one of the obscure sect of Nonjurors, amongst whom he was a bishop, 



90 Annals of Manchester. 



[175J 



but practised with success as a physician. He founded for himself an episcopal 
chapel in Manchester, which he styled "The True British Catholic Church.", 
He published a Collection of Devotions and some writings in defence of the 
Nonjurors. (Sutton's Notice of Dr. Deacon, 1879.) His library was sold by 
auction March 19. 

Mr. James Bayley, senior, died April 6. He was taken prisoner by the 
Pretender in 1745. 

The Mersey and Irwell Navigation Company issued the following advertise- 
ment, April 27 : " The proprietors of the rivers Mersey and Irwell give notice 
that they will for the future carry goods and merchandise for those persons 
who employ their fiats, in summer as well as winter, at the following prices, 
viz., from Bank Key to the key at Manchester at 6d. per hundred, from the 1st 
of May to the 11th of November ; and at 7d. per hundred, from the 11th of 
November to the 1st of May ; and from the key at Manchester to Bank Key at 
4d. per hundred at all times. N.B. — There are good convenient warehouses at 
both keys, and great care will be taken of all goods that come up or go down 
that river." 

May 8. Coach to be hired by Joseph Barrett, or Mr. Hanf orth, in Market 
Street Lane, Manchester — may constantly be heard of to carry passengers to 
any part of England at the most reasonable rate. — Harrop's Mercury. 

The shock of an earthquake was felt at Manchester .June 8. 

The foundation stone of St Mary's Church was laid by the Revs. Messrs. 
Assheton, Moss, and Foxley, July 16. The Act for building the chiirch is 
26 George U. cap. 45. 

The Theatre, in Marsden Street, built, and opened December 3; finally 
closed May 12, 1775. The first place employed as a theatre was a temporary 
structure of timber at the bottom of King Street. 

Sir Oswald Mosley executed a deed of conveyance of land for the erection 
of the Infirmary. December 4. 

A man named Grindret, or Grindrod, poisoned his wife and two children, 
September 15 ; executed at Lancaster, and gibbeted at the end of Cross Lane, 
Pendleton. An amusing story of his alleged "ghost" forms the subject of one 
of Ainsworth's ballads. 

In a trial at Lancaster between the warden and fellows of the Collegiate 
Church and the weavers, the former demanding 4d. each loom in lieu of tithes, 
at Easter, a verdict was given for the weavers. 

Rev. John Wesley visited Manchester. 

A cotton reel invented by Mr. Earnshaw was destroyed. 

From this year until the end of 1757 the price of food was unusually high. 

1754. 

The Manchester Journal, No. 1, issued March 2. It was printed by J. 
Schofield and M. TurnbuU (brother to the original publisher of this paper in 
1736), Fountain Court, at the back of the Exchange, and was sold at their shop, 
Deansgate, every Saturday morning. No price is mentioned. It was discon- 
tinued in 1756. 

The passing of the Marriage Act led to the discontinuance of the solemnisa- 
tion of marriage at St. Ann's Church. The last one under the old law was 
celebrated March 19. 



"T65-1756] Annals of Manchester. 91 

The first stone of the Manchester Infirmary was laid by Mr. Miles Bower, 
sen., May 20. The institution was opened in 1755. Upwards of £4,000 was 
expended on the erection. 

The "flying coach" between Manchester and London occupied four days 
and a half in the journey. 

A school and school-house were erected and endowed by Mr: Thos. Fletcher, 
in Levenshulme. It was rebuilt in 1824. 

A remarkable phenomenon, " resembling a large ball of fire, with a tail to 
it, was seen hovering in the air." It was probably a comet. 

1755. 

Mr. Thomas Johnson, of Manchester, was appointed High Sheriff January 27. 

Mr. James Hilton, sen. (commonly called Captain Hilton), died at his house 
in Shudehill, February 9. 

Mr. Thomas Samuel MynshuU, of Chorlton Hall, died February 28. 

Mr. Jeremiah Bowers, a hatter, died, leaving a fortune of £40,000. 

An interesting tract, entitled Friendly Advice to the Poor, "was written 
and published at the request of the late and present officers of the town of 
Manchester," by the Eev. John Clayton, A.M. It gives some curious informa- 
tion as to the social condition of the town, and especially of the poorer classes, 
at this period. A reply to it appeared under the title of Sequel to the Friendly 
Advice to the Poor of Manchester, by Joseph Stot, Cobbler. It is uncertain 
whether this name indicates a veritable son of St. Crispin or is only a pseu- 
donym, but the latter seems the more probable. 

1756. 

Mr. Miles Bower, hatter, and one of the constables of the town, died Feb. 23. 

The war against France was popular, and its proclamation was celebrated 
by a public procession, June 5. 

Sir Thomas Grey Egerton, M.P. for Newton, died at Heaton House, July 8. 

The effigy of Admiral Byng was carried through the town with a halter 
about its neck, and an inscription on its back. In the evening it was shot. 
September 17. 

St. Mary's Church, situated between the river Irwell and the higher part 
of Deansgate, was consecrated September 29. It is a Doric edifice, with a spire 
steeple 186 feet high. The ornamental pulpit in this church was the gift of the 
congregation to the Rev. John GatliflFe, M.A., fellow of the Collegiate Church, 
the first rector ; and the organ was the gift of Mr. Holland Ackers. 

Rev. William Shrigley died November 1, aged 62. He was chaplain of the 
CoUegiate Church. 

The Rev. Thomas Foxley, on the death of the Rev. John Gatliflfe, 
fellow of the Collegiate Church, was presented to the rectory of St. Mary's, 
November 13. 

By the first attempt at an enumeration of the population of Manchester 
and Salford there were estimated to be 19,839 persons in the two towns. 

Cotton velvets are said to have been first made at Bolton by Mr. 
Clarke. 



92 Annals of Manchester. [1757-1759 

As the result of an action by the warden and fellows of the Collegiate 
Church against the Traffords of TrafFord, the chapter recovered certain leases 
which had been improperly granted. 

The Manchester Circulating Library was instituted. 

1757. 

Mr. Thomas Houghton, J.P., a feoffee of Chetham's Hospital, and formerly 
Governor of the Isle of Man, died at his house in Deansgate, March 18. 

A serious food riot occurred at Shudehill. Four of the rioters killed 
and fifteen wounded. This disturbance was known as the "Shudehill 
Fight." Earlier in the day the rioters destroyed a cornmill at Clayton. 
November 15. 

Mr. James Bayley, junior, was appointed High Sheriff. 

Sir Oswald Mosley, second baronet, lord of the manor, died, and was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. Sir John Mosley. (See under date 1779.) 

Samuel Birch, J.P., died at Ardwick. 

Rev. Henry Brook, M.A., Fellow of the Collegiate Church, died. He wrote 
on Christian Peaceableness, 1741. There is a notice of him in the Dictionary 
of National Biography. 

A Celt and Roman bulla of gold found in deepening the canal near the 
econd lock of the Irwell. 

1758. 

Mr. Robert Booth, of Salford, died June 21. 

Lewis Paul's improved spinning machine was patented. June 29. 

Mr. Thomas Newton, bookseller, died. 

Ellen Hayfleld died at the reputed age of 104 years. 

32 George II. cap. 61. Act for discharging the inhabitants of the town of 
Manchester from the custom of grinding their corn and grain, except malt, at 
certain water cornmills in the said town called the School Mills, and for 
making a proper recompense to the feofTees of such mills. 

The first carriage set up in Manchester by any person actually in businesp 
was that of Madame Drake, who lived in Long Millgate. 

1759. 

Mr. Peter Worsley died at Piatt Hall, January 17. 

Mr. Peter Antrobus, governor of Chetham's Hospital, died June 19. 

The Duke of Bridgewater obtained an act (32 George II. cap. 2) to enable 
him to cut a navigable canal from Worsley to Salford, near Manchester, and 
to carry the same to or near Hollins Ferry, in the County of Lancaster. 

The capture of Quebec was celebrated by public illuminations, &c., 
October 23. 

Rev. John Wesley visited Manchester. In his diary he says : " Wretched 
magistrates, by refusing to suppress, had encouraged the rioters, and had long 
occasioned tumults, but some were now of a better spirit." 

In this year oats were 2s. the bushel of 451b., wheat 5s. the bushel of 701b., 
meal 20s. the load, " jannock" 151b. for Is., malt 23s. the load, a goose cost 15d., 
cheese about 3d. the pound, beef 2d. the pound, neck of mutton 9d., land 40s. 
or 45s. the Cheshire acre ; a weaver's cottage, with a two-loom shop, rented at 
40s. or 45s. the year. 



1760-1761] Annals of Manchester. 93 

1760. 

The flying machines from Manchester to London occupied three days in the 
journey, which was " performed, if God permit, by John Hanforth, Matthew 
Howe, Samuel Glanville, and William Richardson. Fare, inside, £2 5s. ; out- 
side, half price." March 3. 

33 George II. cap 2. Act to enable the most noble Francis Duke of Bridge- 
water to make a navigable cut or canal from or near Worsley Mill, over the 
river Irwell, to the town of Manchester, and to or near Longford Bridge, in the 
township of Stretford. 24th March. 

The Rev. Thomas Crouchley, one of the fellows of the Collegiate Church, 
died June 1. 

A musical entertainment was given in the garden of the Infirmary. The 
proceeds were added to the funds of the charity, June 18. 

Rev. Thomas Moss died at Crumpsall, 17th July. He was born in 1712, and 
was author of a Sermon at the Collegiate Church, Manchester, for the support 
of the InHr-tnary, 1754. (Manchester Foundations, ii., 305 J 
September. Barton Aqueduct commenced. (See 1761.) 
The races on Kersal Moor, after fifteen years' disuse, were renewed Oct. 1. 
(Procter's Our Turf, &c.) 

The manufacture and dyeing of ginghams, damasks, moreens, &c. was 
greatly improved by the inventions of Mr. Mather. 

There was a theatre held at the Riding School, Salford, at this time. 
Manchester began to be famous for its cotton manufacture. The entire 
value of the cotton goods made was £200,000 per annum. 

About this period, according to Aikin, the manufacturers of this town 
began to treat their apprentices in a somewhat different manner to what they 
had hitherto done. The apprentices had allotted to them the use of a back 
parlour, with a fire, and had tea twice a day. It had been usual for the manu- 
facturer and his apprentices to be in the warehouse by six in the morning ; at 
seven they had breakfast, which consisted of one large dish of oatmeal porridge 
and another of milk ; each with a wooden spoon in his hand, without loss of 
time dipped into the dish, and thence into the milk pan, and as soon as it was 
finished they all returned to their work. At this period the dinner hour in 
Manchester was twelve o'clock, and ladies paid afternoon visits at two, and 
then repaired to the four o'clock prayers at the Old Church. 

The drop box invented by Robert Kay, of Bury, son of the inventor of the 
picking peg, or fly shuttle, about this date. 

1761. 

The first English " Navigation Canal," extending from "Worsley to Man- 
chester, was opened, June 17. Its originator, the Duke of Bridgewater, is rightly 
called " The Father of Inland Navigation in England." 

Mrs. Dorothy Byrom died at Kersall Cell in her 81st year. September. 

Rev. Thomas Foxley, M.A., died at Manchester, October 17. He was born 
in Manchester, October, 1714, and was a fellow of the Collegiate Church, and first 
rector at St. Mary's Church. He was the author of a consecration sermon ou 
The Antiquity and Importance of Public Worship, 1756. 



94 Annals of Manchester, [i762-i763 

The coronation of George III. was celebrated with great rejoicings. He 
was proclaimed at the Market Cross, 4th November. 

Edward Crane was the author of Poetical Miscellanies, published at Man- 
chester this year. Nothing appears to be known of his personal history, and 
the book, though curious— it includes a tragedy on the crime of Miss Blandy 
the parricide— does not possess any merit. 

The first Blackfriars Bridge was built of wood by a company of comedians, 
for the purpose of enabling the inhabitants of Manchester the more readily to 
cross the river to the Riding School in Water Street, Salford, which they occu- 
pied as a theatre. 

Cannon Street Independent Chapel was erected. John Byrom records in 
his Diary that the Rev. John Newton, on the 20th April, 1762, came to Man- 
chester "upon account of the opening of the new Meeting {i.e., Meeting House) 
at the upper end of this Croft to-morrow and to see some Ministers and friends 
with whom he was acquainted." Byrom's house was at the corner of Hunter's 
Lane and Hanging Ditch, near the Old Church. By the "Croft" is meant 
Cannon Street, of which Hunter's Croft was the old name. The first minister 
was the Rev. Caleb Warhurst. 

Rev. John Wesley visited Manchester. 

1762. 

The Manchester Chronicle; or, Anderton's Universal Advertiser, came out 
in June. It was printed and published by Thomas Anderton, at the Shak- 
spere's Head, near the Market Cross. The price was 2d. 

Riots were renewed, in consequence of the high price of corn. July. 

The secret of dyeing turkey-red introduced by John Wilson, of Ainsworth. 

Rev. John Wesley visited Manchester, 

The weighing machine at Alport Town erected. 

The declaration of wrr against the King of Spain was proclaimed in the 
Market Place by Tliomas Chadwick, the boroughreeve, who was attended by a 
procession of magistrates. 

1763. 

The parish registers record the baptism of John, son of William Jordan, 
callique printer, of Little Green, September 4th. This Mr. Jordan is said to 
have been the first calico printer in the district. A notice of his house and 
descendants is given in the Palatine Note-book, vol. iv., p. 140. 

John Byrom, M.A., F.E.S., died September 26. He was born at Kersal in 
1691. His father, a linen draper of Manchester, sent him to Cambridge, where 
he graduated M.A. and became Fellow of Trinity College ; but declining to 
take orders he resigned this provision, and soon after married his cousin. Miss 
Elizabeth Byrom, against the consent of both families. Being without a 
profession, and pressed by the res angustce domi, he repaired to the 
metropolis, and supported himself by teaching shorthand, of which he had 
invented the best system then before the public. In 1723 he was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society, and in the following year he succeeded, by the death 
of his elder brother, to the family estate, when he returned to Manchester, where 
he remained till his death. Byrom was a mystic, but a man of wit as well as 



1763] 



Annals of Manchester. 95 



virtue. Two posthumous editions of his Poeyns have appeared, and they are 
also included in Chalmers's collection of the English Poets. Byrom is compara- 
tively unknown at the present day, but his Colin and Phccbe was once one of 
the most popular pieces in the language, and his carol of Christians, Atoake! is 
still so. His diary, written in his own shorthand, has been deciphered and 
published by the Chetham Society, and is valuable for its local information and 
for the glimpses it gives of the literary life of London and Cambridge in the 
early part of last century. 

The Rev. Charles Downes, fellow of the Collegiate Church, died October 28. 

"Last week a very curious and elegant clock, made by Mr. Hindley, of 
York, was compleatly finished and affixed in our collegiate church. It is 
allowed, by all judges, to be the best constructed thing of the kind ever seen in 
this country, and gives great satisfaction to the whole parish." (Harrop's 
MerciLvy, Dec. 13.) 

Mr. Thomas Percival died at Eoyton Hall. He was born at Eoyton Hall, 1st 
September, 1719. He was the author of A Letter occasioned by the late Disputes 
betwixt the Check-Makers of Manchester and their Weavers, Halifax, 1759 ; 
and was probably the author of A Letter to the Clergy of Manchester occasioned 
by Mr. Owen's Remarks on Deacon, etc., 1748. His genealogical and antiquarian 
papers remain in MS. 

The Lancashire Magazine was published and printed by T. Anderton, at 
the Shakspere's Head, near the Market Cross. 

Buildings were erected as a workhouse in Miller's Lane, and also a prison, 
but were eventually taken down. 

A project which was called the " Chorlton Rant " suggested that 
Manchester should be a borough, under a royal charter. It was proposed that 
the corpoiation should consist of one-third of High Churchmen, one-third of 
Low Churchmen, and the other third of Protestant Dissenters. But the High 
Churchmen anticipating a union of the other two-thirds, and " not liking that 
the mace should be taken on Sunday to a conventicle," opposed the bill, and 
celebrated their success with great exultation. This victory of party spirit was 
a misfortune for the town, which had now outgrown its antiquated form of 
local government. 

Bleaching was generally introduced into the district about this date. 

The first spinning jenny is said to have been constructed by Thomas Highs, 
a reed maker, at Leigh, and so named after his beloved and favourite daughter, 
Jane. There has been much controversy as to the origin of the various cotton 
machines. (Espinasse's Lancashire Worthies). 

In this year only eight Hats (vessels so called) were employed in the trade 
between Manchester and Liverpool. 

The trust deed for the Wesleyan Chapel in Manchester provided that 
" during their lifetime Wesley, his brother, and Grimshaw, of Haworth, and 
others should have the use of the said chapel ; and that, after their death, the 
trustees should permit such persons to preach in it as were appointed by the 
yearly conference, provided always that such persons preach no other doctrine 
than is contained in Wesley's Notes upo7i the New 'Test a mcnt, and his four 
volumes of sermons ; and provided also that they preach evenings in the 



96 Annals of Manchester. 



[1764-1765 



week, and at five o'clock on each morning following." (Tyerman's Life of 
Wesley, vol. ii., p. 478.) 

British muslins, both striped and plain, were first manufactured by Mr. 
Shaw, at Anderton, near Chorley, though with small success, from the deficient 
supply of yarn. 

The first cotton quiltings were made by Joseph Shaw, of Bolton. 

1764. 

Mr. Daniel Bayley, of Hope Hall, died May 14. He was the son of James 
Bayley, senior, and was born October 13, 1699. He was a deputy-lieutenant for 
the county, a trustee of Cross Street Chapel, and gave £100 for apprenticing 
poor Protestant dissenting children, to be held on the same trust as the money 
given by Ann Butterworth. He married for his first wife Elizabeth, daughter 
of Nathaniel Gaskell. Her sister was the mother of Robert Lord Clive, who in 
his boyhood used to live at Hope and attend the Cross Street Chapel. By his 
second wife Daniel was father of Thomas Butterworth Bayley. 

Kev. Richard Assheton, fellow of the Collegiate Church, died July 6. 

The anniversary meeting of the " ancient and respectable Corporation of 
Ardwick" was held, when William Clowes was chosen mayor for the year 
ensuing, in the place of Thomas Birch, late mayor ; and John Peploe Birch and 
Joshua Marriott were elected aldermen, October 31. This was something in 
the nature of a social club or mock corporation, of which there were several in 
the county. This survived into the present century, and is perhaps not even 
yet extinct. 

Mr. Joseph Harrop, proprietor of the Manchester Mercury, gave in weekly 
numbers A New History of England of 778 pages, to encourage the sale of his 
newspaper. In an address at the end of the work, Mr. Harrop says it cost him 
one hundred guineas. 

Calico printing introduced into Lancashire by Messrs. Clayton, of Bamber 
Bridge, near Preston. 

4 George III. cap. 73. Act to enable the warden and fellows of the College 
of Christ, in Manchester, for the time being, to grant leases of the glebe lands 
belonging to the said college. 

The foreign cotton markets began to be opened. At this time the trade of 
Manchester was greatly pushed by the practice of sending outriders for orders 
all over the kingdom, carrying with them patterns in bags. 

1765. 

Rev. Benjamin Nicholls, M.A., died at Eccles, June. He was curate of 
St. Ann's. His thanksgiving sermon on the suppression of the rebellion was 
printed in 1746, and he was appointed to the vicarage of Eccles in March, 1747. 
Some others of his sermons have been printed. (Bardsley's Memorials and 
Harland's Ancient Parish of Eccles, 1864.) 

The Rev. Richard Clowes, fellow of the Collegiate Church, died June 29, 
aged 29 years, having been a fellow only one month and six days. 

St. Paul's Church, Turner Street, consecrated July 28. It was known as 
St. Paul's Chapel. Considerably enlarged and again consecrated in 1778. It 
was re-erected at New Cross in 1880. 



1766-1767] Annals of Manchester. 97 



Rev. Caleb Warhurst died 5th November. He was the first minister of the 
Congregational Church in Cannon Street, then called Hunter's Croft. He is 
described as " a man of fervent piety, exemplary character, loving spirit, and 
incessant labour." (Halley's Lancashire, p. 519.) 

A Lunatic Hospital and Asylum was erected adjoining the Infirmary. 

A weaving factory was erected in Manchester by Mx\ Gartside. 

5 George III. cap. 81. Act for cleansing and lighting the streets, lanes, and 
passages within the towns of Manchester and Salford, and for providing fire 
engines and firemen, and for preventing annoyances within the said towns. 

The Methodist Conference held in Manchester, under the presidency of the 
Eev. John Wesley. 

1766. 

The Manchester Assembly was held on January 29th, so as not to clash 
with the "Anniversary of the Martyrdom of Charles the First." The assemblies 
were, however, kept up during Lent, "except during Passion Week," when 
they were postponed until Easter Tuesday. (Palatine Note-hook, vol. ii., 
p. 276.) 

Dr. Peploe, warden of Manchester, preached a charity sermon in aid of the 
funds of the Manchester Infirmary, April 21. Sermons were preached simul- 
taneously at the other churches and chapels of the neighbourhood. This 
Hospital Sunday appears to have been confined to the Established Church. 
The collections amounted to £16i Is. l^d. 

St. Thomas's Church, Pendleton, erected at the expense of Mr. Samuel 
Brierley. It was originally occupied by the Wesleyan Methodists, but was 
consecrated July 26. The Eev. Mr. Pedley was appointed minister. 

Sir Ralph Assheton, Bart., lord of the manor of Middleton, died. The title 
became extinct. The manor of Middleton came into the possession of Lord 
Suffield, who had married the eldest daughter and co-heir of Sir Ralph. 

The Lunatic Asylum opened for the reception of patients. 

1767. 

Mr. Edward Betts, the organist of the Collegiate Church, Manchester, died IS 
April, 1767. He wrote an Introduction to the Skill of Music, 1724. (Manchester 
Foundations, ii., 259.) 

Mr. John Wainwright appointed organist of the Collegiate Church, 
May 12. 

The following advertisement appeared in Harrop's Manchester Mercury 
of May 19 : " Any gentleman, or lady, wanting to purchase a Black Boy, 12 
years of age, with a good character, has had the smallpox and measles. Who- 
ever this will suit, may, by applying to the Higher Swan and Saracen's Head, in 
Market Street Lane, Manchester, meet with a Proper Person to deal with them 
on reasonable terms." (Palatine Note-book, vol. i., p. 144.) 

The Manchester Mercury, July 6, announces the death, "on Sunday last" 
(either July 5 or June 28), of Allen Vigor, an eminent attorney. He was made 
Master Extraordinary in Chancery in 1758. (Manchester Guardian Local Notc^ 
and Queries, 1239.) The lady who is supposed to have been his sister-in-law, 
Mrs. William Vigor, was the writer of Letters from a Lady who Resided many 



98 Annals of Manchester. [i768-i769 

years in Russia, 1775, which are highly commended by Nichols. {Literary 
Anecdotes, vol. iii., p. 209.) 

A flood occurred October 8. 

An additional burial ground was acquired in the place called Back o' th' 
Church. It adjoined the College garden, and was closed in February, 17S8. 

The Manchester Agricultural Society was founded. 

The spinning jenny improved upon by James Hargreaves, of Blackburn. 
He was the inventor of the crank and comb, an engine of singular merit for 
facilitating the progress of carding cotton. 

1768. 

Mr. John Wainwright, who was appointed organist of the Collegiate Church, 
May 12, 1767, died in January. He composed the tune to Byrom's " Christians, 
Awake !" {Manchester Guardian Local Notes, No. 259 ; City News Notes 
and Queries, 1., 231.) 

The shock of an earthquake was felt at Manchester, February 2. 

Tlie first stone of St. John's Church laid by Edward Byrom, April 28. This 
church, situated between Higher and Lower Byrom Street, is a modern Gothic 
structure, with a tower steeple, containing a musical peal of eight bells, and a 
clock which faces four ways. The church was founded by Edward Byrom, and 
consecrated July 7, 1769. By the Act of Parliament for building this church, 
the presentation of the first and second incumbents was vested in the founder 
and his heirs. A petition was signed by many of the inhabitants for presenta- 
tion to the House of Lords in favour of the bill for the erection of St. John's. 
It is printed in the Palatine Note-book, vol. iv., p. 81. 

Christian VII., King of Denmark, visited Manchester, and lodged at the 
Bull's Head, in the Market Place, September 2. 

JMr. Thomas Butterworth Bayley, of Hope Hall, appointed high sherili. 

1769. 

Cornet Roger Aytoun (better known as " Spanking Roger"), of Inchdarnie, 
Fifeshire, was married to Mrs. Barbara MynshuU, of Chorlton Hall, February 
2nd. He died in 1810. The lady, whose estates he thus acquired, was greatly 
his senior. 

Edward Chetham, of Turton, Clayton, and Smedley, and the last direct 
male descendant of that family, died February 19, and was buried in the 
Chetham Chapel in the Collegiate Church. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Byrom, sister to Dr. Byrom, died in her 86th year, Feb. 24. 

Mr. Richard Arkwright took out his first patent for the making of mule 
yarn by means of rollers, and erected a mill at Nottingham. 3rd July. 

Sir Thomas Egerton, of Heaton, married, at Middleton, to Miss Eleanora 
Assheton, one of the co-heiresses of Sir Ralph Assheton, of Middleton, Sept. 12. 

9 George III. cap. 60. Act to enable Edward Byrom, Esq., to complete 
a building intended for a new church (St. John's, Deansgate) in the town of 
Manchester, and for making the same a perpetual cure and benefice, and for 
other purposes. 8th November. 

Rev. John Seddon, M.A., died 22nd November. He was born at Lomax 
fold, near Bolton, and was educated at the University of Glasgow. In 1739 he 



1770-1771] Annals of Manchester. 99 

became assistant-minister at Cross Street Chapel, and was the first to preach 
Unitarian doctrine in that place. He married a daughter of Rev. J. Motters- 
head. He is buried under the vestry. He was the author of Discourses on 
the Person of Christ, 1793. (Baker's Memorials, p. 143.) 

The Rev. John Clowes was presented to the rectory of St. John's by 
Edward Byrom in December. 

The painted windows of St. John's Church were executed by William 
Peckett, of York. 

Mr. Doming Rasbotham was appointed High Sheriff. 

10 George III. cap. 51. Act to enable the trustees of the estates devised by 
William Hulme, Esq., to grant building leases thereof, and to increase the 
number of exhibitioners in Brasennose College, Oxford, founded by the said 
testator, and for other purposes therein mentioned. 

1770. 

Sarah Barlow died at the reputed age of 101 years, September 16. 

The peal of bells cast by Lester and Pack, of Whitechapel, for St. John's 
Church, Deansgate, rung for the first time 30th November, 

The health of the district was affected by an epidemic of ulcerous sore 
throat. 

A day school was attached to St. John's Church, and, besides being 
endowed by Mr. Edward Byrom, was aided by other gifts, as well as by the 
offertory money. 

The first volume of Whitaker's History of Manchester was published. 
The second appeared in 1775. 

A "Subscription Library for Promoting General Knowledge" was estab- 
lished. It was revived in 1802. 

The Gentlemen's Concert Club was originated at a tavern in the Market 
Place. (See under dates 1775 and 1S31.) 

The manufacture of ginghams, &c., was greatly improved by the inven- 
tions of Mr. Meadowcroft. 

1771. 

Sir Ashton Lever, of Alkrington, appointed high sheriff. February. 

The Rev. Radclyffe Russell, rector of Easingwold, in Yorkshire, died, at his 
house in Manchester, March 21. 

PrescotVs Manchester Journal, No. 1, was issued. It was printed and 
published every Saturday by John Prescott, in Old Millgate ; price 2d. Mar. 23. 

Rev. Joseph Mottershead died Nov. 4. He was born near Stockport, Aug_ 
17, 1688, and was ordained as a Nonconformist minister at the age of twenty. 
After preaching at Kingsley and Nantwich— where Matthew Henry died at his 
house— he succeeded Mr. Birch at Cross Street. He was buried at the chapel 
near Mr. Newcome's grave. There is a portrait of him in Sir Thomas Baker's 
Memorials, p. 27. He is the author of Religious Education begun and carried 
on in Three Catechisms, 1748, and other works. (Ibid., 142.) 

In December a notice was issued : " With the approbation and concurrence 
of the magistrates, we, the boroughrecves and constables, request the shop- 
keepers and iniiholders of this town, Avho have not already taken down their 



100 Annals of Manchester. 



inn 



signs, to do the same as soon as possible, and place them against the walls of 
their houses, as they have been long and justly complained of as nuisances. 
They obstruct the free passage of the air, annoy the passengers in wet weather, 
darken the streets, etc., all which inconvenience will be prevented by a com- 
pliance with our request, and be manifestly productive both of elegance and 
utility. Thomas Scott, Benjamin Bower, John Bell." The natural result ot 
this request was the entire removal, in most cases, of the obnoxious sign- 
boards, and the adoption of numbered houses. Manchester was the first in 
the country, after London, to fall upon this device. (Bardsley's Memorials, 
p. 402.) 

Mr. Richard Arkwright erected a mill at Cromford, Derbyshire. 

1772. 

Daniel Newton, a native of Oldham, who was apprenticed to a grocer in 
Manchester, made a vow to eat only bread and water from March to October. 
A clergyman having vainly tried to persuade him from this course of action, 
his master, in September, sent the boy to the Lunatic Asylum, then forming 
part of the Infirmary. From thence the clergyman obtained his release, and 
on being taken home he fell into a sleep which lasted for six weeks. In this 
trance he had visions of another world. Such is the narrative given in 
"Walker's Extraordinary Warnings from the Invisible World, which is 
quoted in the Manchester Guardian Local Notes and, Queries No. 1237. 

John Wesley visited Manchester April 5. He " drank tea at Am. O." (pro- 
bably Adam Oldham's), and remarks : " But how was I shocked ! The children 
that used to cling about me, and drink in every word, had been at a boarding 
school. There they had unlearned all religion, and even seriousness, and had 
learned pride, vanity, affectation, and whatever could guard them against the 
knowledge and love of God. Methodist parents who would send your girls 
lieadlong to hell, send them to a fashionable boarding school." (Tyerman's 
Life of Wesley, vol. iii., p. 120.) 

Mr. James Brindley died at his house, Turnhurst, near Golden Hill, StaflPord- 
shire, in his fifty-sixth year, September 27. The life of this famous engineer 
has been graphically told by Dr. Samuel Smiles in his Lives of the Engineers. 
To his skill and genius was due the successful construction of the Bridge- 
water Canal, which had so important an influence upon the fortunes of 
Lancashire. 

Passage boats were established by the Duke of Bridgewater. They carried 
passengers upon his canal from Manchester to within two miles of Warrington. 
October 1. 

Mr. Robert Whitworth died Oct. 27. He was for many years a well-known 
printer, and was the publisher and proprietor of the Manchester Magazine. 

Mr. Jeremiah Clarke, the inventor of cotton velvet, died at Bolton, 
December 9. 

Mr. John Lees, a Quaker, of Manchester, invented the feeder in the 
manufacture of cotton. 

Mr. John Kay, of Bury, received a present of 200 guineas from the Man- 
chester manufacturers for his invention of a double jenny, which was exhibited 
in the Exchange. 



1773] 



Annals of Manchester. 



101 



Mrs. Elizabeth RaffaUl, author of The Experienced English Hoiiselceeper, 
published the first Manchester and Salford Directory. (See under date 1781.) 

A police office was first established at Manchester on the recommendation of 
Sir John Fielding. It was opened at the offices of Messrs. Chippendall and 
Milne, in Bow Street. 

1773. 

The Duke of Bridgewaters Canal locks at Runcorn opened. The rise from 
the river Mersey was 90 feet. January 10. 

A comedy was performed, entitled The Generous Rival; or. Beauty in 
Distress, written by a gentleman of Manchester. It was founded upon a story 
which was related at the Debating Society's room, at the Angel Inn, Market 
Place. March 1. 

Philip Astley, the equestrian, paid his first professional visit to Man- 
chester, of which town he claimed to be a native, March 2. Astley is generally 
regarded as a native of Newcastle, but he had relations in Manchester. 

Helen Holker abjured the Protestant faith at the Maison des Nouvellcs 
Catholiques, Rouen, April 13. She was then 14, and was the daughter of 
Laurence Holker, of Mancliester. {Palatine ^ot.^ hook, vol, iv., p. 135.) See 
under date 1780 for notice of the Lancashire Holkers settled in France. 

Mr. Edward Byrom, the founder of St. John's Cliurch, died April 19, aged 49 
years. Mr. Byrom was a zealoiis Churchman, and much attached to -all its 
ceremonies. He gave a silver mace to be carried before the officiating clergy- 
man, from the vestry to the reading desk, and from the preacher's pew to the 
pulpit. He was the son of John Byrom, F.R.S. 

An enumeration of tiie houses and inhabitants of the town and parish of 
Manchester was made from an actual survey, and deposited by Rev. John 
Whitaker, April 27, in the College Library. The total of the enumeration was 
as follows : — 





1 Houses. 


Families. 


Males. 


Females. 


Jlarried. 


Wives. 


Widows. 


Manchester 


.,! 3,402 
. . ; 86(5 
..! 2,371 


5,317 
' 1,099 
I 2.52.'i 


10,548 
2,248 
6,942 


11,933 
2,517 
6,844 


7,724 


432 
89 


1,064 
14U 


Salford 

Out Townships 



The Russian Princess Czartoriski, Duchess of Oldenburgh, visited Man- 
chester, May 21. 

A stage coach now ran from the Spread Eagle, Salford, to Liverpool, on 
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and returned on Tuosdaj-, Tliursdaj', and 
Saturday. May 24. 

No. 1 of a History of Manchester was published. It was announced to be 
completed in twenty-two numbers, 8vo, atCd. each, and witli a supplement, in 
thirty-six numbers, 4to, at 6d. each, and to be sold by Harrop, Newton, and 
Clarke. June. 

Mr. Samuel Clowes, of Broughton Hall, died at Smedley, July 31. 

Francis Reynolds, of Strangeways Hall, M.P. for Lancaster, Clerk of the 
Crown, and Provost Marshal of Barbadoes, died August 8. He was the father 
of the first Lord Ducie. 



102 Annals of Manchester. [1774 

The Rev. John Clayton, fellow of the Collegiate Church, and known as the 
" Jacobite Churchman," died on the 2oth of September. He was the son of 
William Clayton, a bookseller in Manchester, was born in 1709, and educated 
at the Grammar School and at Brazennose College, Oxford. In 1732 he was 
introduced to Wesley, and became a prominent member of the Oxford 
Methodists. In 1733 he left Oxford and came to Manchester. In 1740 he was 
appointed one of the chaplains, and in 1760 elected a fellow of the Collegiate 
Church. He distinguished«himself as the master of a private academy in 
Salford, and his pupils erected in the Cathedral a monument to his memory. 
He was the author of Friendly Advice to the Poor, published in 1755. 

Mr. George Williamson, who had been a chorister and singing man for 70 
years at the Collegiate Church, died, aged 84. September. 

Mrs. Bent's Charity was founded December 31, It consists of the interest 
of £50 to be given to poor housekeepers. 

A crank and comb to take wool from the cards in a continuous fleece was 
invented about this time by either James Hargreaves or Richard Arkwright. 

A considerable amount of annoyance and difficulty felt in relation to the 
currency of bank notes for small amounts. 

The "Diligence" coach left Manchester for Liverpool at six a.m., and the 
passengers breakfasted at Irlam, dined at Warrington, drank tea at Prescot, 
and reached Liverpool at nightfall. 

Mr. Otho Cooke, one of the feoffees of Chetham's Hospital, and many years 
treasurer of the Infirmary, died. 

1774. 

A cattle market was established in Salford, and held at the same place as 
the fair. February 26. 

" On Friday last Rebecca Mee, of Manchester, single woman, was convicted 
before Thomas Butterworth Bayley, Esq., of embezzling and purloining three 
pounds weight of combed wool, the property of Mr. Ottwell Kershaw, and was 
committed to the house of correction, to be kept to hard labour for fourteen 
days, and to be once publicly whipped at the Market Place in Manchester." 
(Harrop's Mercury, September 6, 1774.) 

Pleasure boats began to ply on the Duke of Bridgewater's Canal, October 9. 

Sir Jonathan Briggs was buried on the north side of the Collegiate Church, 
December 3. He was the last member of a Middlesex family, and claimed the 
title of baronet. During his residence in Manchester he was an officer of 
excise. 

St. Chad's Roman Catholic Chapel, Rook Street, built. The adherents of 
the Church of Rome had long been obliged to worship in secret, and a dyehouse 
in Blackfriars was used by a priest, who came once a month from Macclesfield. 
Father Helme then obtained premises in Roman Entry Church, and these were 
succeeded by the Rook Street Chapel. It was disused in 1847. 

Codrus, a tragedy, by Doming Ramsbottom, J.P., was performed once at 
the Theatre Royal, and afterwards printed. 

The House of Correction, Hunt's Bank, was rebuilt. When John Howard 
visited Manchester he found twenty -one prisoners confined in it. 



1775-177S] Annals of Manchester. 103 

An Act of Parliament, by which a duty was imposed on printed, painted, 
and stained cottons, declares the manufacture of cotton goods to be lawful. 

1775. 

Mr. Abraham Clarke, bookseller, died May 20. 

The Theatre Royal, in Spring Gardens, was built and opened June 5. 

The first stone was laid of the Gentlemen's Concert Room in Fountain 
Street, by Edward Greaves, Esq., of Culcheth, August 24. 

16 George III. cap 55. Act to enable the trustees of certain charity lands 
belonging to the poor of Salford to grant building leases thereof. 6th October. 

Mr. Richard Arkwright took out another patent for carding, drawing, and 
roving frames. 

The ducking-stool was still in use. It was an open-bottomed chair of wood, 
placed upon a long pole, balanced on a pivot, and suspended over a sheet of 
water at Pool Fold. It was afterwards suspended over the Daub-holes— the 
Infirmary pond— and was used for the purpose of punishing scolds and dis- 
orderly women. 

In the course of a debate in the House of Lords, the Bishop of London 
opposed the passing of the bill for a theatre, on the grounds that Manchester 
was a manufacturing town, and nothing could be more destructive to the wel- 
fare of the place than the introduction of such an institution. On the other 
hand, the Earl of Carlisle supported the project for a theatre, because the town 
had become the seat of Methodism. He said : " I know not of any way so 
effectual to eradicate that dark, odious, and ridiculous enthusiasm as by giving 
to the people cheerful, rational amusements, which may operate against their 
methodistical melancholy." The bill passed. " An Act for enabling His 
Majesty to license a playhouse in the town of Manchester, in the County 
Palatine of Lancaster" is reprinted in Earwaker's Local Gleanings, vol. iii., 

p. 3n. 

A public subscription for the improvement of the town by the widening of 
St. Mary's Gate, the passage between the Exchange and St. Ann's Square, and 
the making of a street on the easterly side of Old Millgate, realised £10,771 
3s. 6d. (Earwaker's Local Gleanings, No. 274.) 

An act (16 George III. cap. 63) was obtained for widening several streets 
near the centre of the town and for opening new streets. 

Several curious gold and silver coins were dug up in Castle Field. 

1776. 

Mr. Sylvanus Hibbert died in January. He was the author of A Brief 
Inquiry into the State After Death (Manchester, 1771). A portrait, which 
looks like a caricature, is prefixed. The author was an advocate of cremation, 
and ends his pamphlet — 

Bury mc not, for heaven's sake 1 
In hopes that I may rise ; 
If tliat the object of my wish, 
Why not now mount the skies ? 

Particulars of this able but eccentric man are given in Hibbert-Ware's Life of 
Samuel Ilibbert-Ware. 



104 Annals of Manchester. [1777 

St. Thomas's Chapel, Pendleton, erected at the expense of Samuel Brierley 
It had been originally occupied by the Wesleyan Methodists, but was conse- 
crated July 6. It was rebuilt in 1831. 

Dr. Thomas White died July 20th, aged 81 years. A monument to him was 
erected at Sale by his son, Dr. Charles White, in 1790. {Palatine Note-book, 
vol. i., p. 113.) 

James Heywood died in London 23rd July. He was born at Cheetham 
Hill in 1686, and was a linen draper in London. He was author of Poems and 
Letters on Various Subjects, 1726. This volume includes a list of the ladies 
who were most celebrated for their beauty in Manchester. (Drake's Essays on 
the Tatler, iii., 331.) (See under date 1709.) 

The " Old Bridge " was made wider by taking down " The Dungeon " and 
extending the piers and arches. Until that period it was highly dangerous for 
foot passengers to meet a carriage ; and it was often a work of labour, for 
persons not very active, to get over the bridge on a market-day, as they were 
often obliged to take refuge from vehicles in the angular recesses on both sides 
of the bridge, (See also under date 1778.) 

The conduit, which was on the western side of the Old Exchange, ceased to 
flow, in consequence of the destruction of the spring (at the upper end of King 
Street), from which it had been supplied. 

The evacuation of New York by the American "Rebels," as the colonial 
patriots were still called, was celebrated in Manchester by the ringing of bells, 
public processions, &c. 

1777. 

John Phillip Kemble, the actor, made his first appearance at the Theatre 
Koyal, January 29th. 

John Bradshaw, for many years an active magistrate in the town, died 
March 4. 

Lady Lever, widow of Sir Darcy Lever, and mother of Sir Ashton Lever, 
died at Culshaw, in her 74th year, August 31. 

The shock of an earthquake was felt at Manchester, Middleton, Maccles- 
field, Preston, Wigan, Ashton, Stockport, and other places. The bells of the 
old church and of St. Mary's were set ringing by the force of the shock. Sept. 
14. Bishop Porteous wrote A Letter to the Inhabitants of Manchester, 
Macclesfield, and adjacent parts on occasion of the late Earthquake, Chester, 
1777. Another pamphlet appeared, entitled Observations and Reflections on 
the late Earthquake. By a gentleman of this town. Manchester, 1777. (Axon's 
Cheshire Gleanings.) 

A three days' musical festival, held in September, is believed to be the 
earliest of its kind in England. 

Green dye, for cotton, was invented by Mr. R. Williams. 

A grand stand was erected on Kersal Moor. 

A cupola on the tower of St. Ann's Church was taken down and replaced 
by a spire. It was soon after removed. 

Considerable street improvements were effected. Exchange Street was 
formed, by pulling down a pile of old buildings, called the "Dark Entry," 
forming a narrow footway which led from Market Place to St. Ann's Square. 



1778] 



Annals of Manchester. 105 



The streets, which were improved by the acts of 1776 and 1777, had long been 
felt to be a disgrace to the town. 

The Manchester people distinguished themselves by their loyal zeal in 
a foolish and unavailing attempt to coerce the American colonies. There was 
a subscription which amounted to £8,075, for the purpose of raising the cele- 
brated " Seventy-Second Regiment," to serve in America during the war. They 
were sent to Gibraltar instead, where they fought with great bravery 
during the siege of that place. The regiment consisted of 1,082 men. The 
people of Manchester were much elated at this display of military ardour. In 
an ode, written on this occasion by the Rev. John Whitaker, they are thus 
eulogised : — 

But Britain in this race of fame, 

Which of thy daughter-towns may claim. 
The greatest share of glory for the whole ? 

'Tis Manchester that claims the share, 

'Tis Manchester re-urged the war, 
'Tis Manchester re-awaked the British soul. 

On the return of the regiment in 1783 they were received with enthusiasm, 
and their colours were deposited with much ceremony in the Collegiate Church, 
from whence they were removed to Chetham College. 

The Manchester Free Grammar School, Long Millgate, was rebuilt. 

Samuel Clowes, of Broughton, was appointed high sheriff, 

1778. 

Samuel Ogden, D.D., "Woodwardian professor in the university of Cam- 
bridge, and vicar of Davenham, in Wiltshire, died March 23, in the 62nd year 
of his age, and was interred in St. Sepulchre's Church, Cambridge. He was 
born at Manchester in 1716, and educated at the Free Grammar School, from 
whence he proceeded, in 1733, to Cambridge. In 1744 he became master of the 
Free Grammar School at Halifax, but resigned in 1753 in order to reside at 
Cambridge. In private life Dr. Ogden was greatly beloved, but in his appear- 
ance and outward demeanour there is said to have been something uncouth. 
He was a man of extensive erudition. On the accession of George III. he 
produced congratulatory poems in Latin, English, and Arabic. This gave rise 
to the following epigram : — 

When Ogden his prosaic verse 
In Latin numbers drest, 

The Roman language prov'd too weak 
To stand the critic's test. 

The English rhyme he next essayed, 

To show he'd some pretence ; 
But, ah ! rhyme only would not do — 

They still expected sense. 

Enraged, the Doctor swore he'd place 

On critics no reliance ; 
So wrapt his thoughts in Arabic, 

And bade them all defiance. 

James Ilargreaves, the inventor of the spinning-jenny, died at Hockley, 
Nottingham, in April. He was originally a weaver, of Stand Hill, near Black- 
burn, and in 17G7 invented the spinning- jenny. In 1768 he went to Nottingham, 



106 Annals of Manchester. 



[1779-1780 



and in 1770 patented the jenny. He entered into partnership with Mr. 
Thomas James, and they erected a small mill at Hockley, where he died in 
moderate circumstances. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Byrom, relict of Dr. John Byrom, died at Kersal Cell, 
December 21. 

Samuel Bayley, of Booth Hall, died March 5, 1778. He was the son of 
"old" James Bayley, and was born December 31, 1717. 

The old chapel, Salford Bridge, built by Thomas del Booth, and afterwards 
converted into a dungeon, was taken down for the purpose of widening the 
bridge. 

1779. 

Mr. Roger Sedgwick, banker, died January 17. 

Mr. Philip Brown, M.D., died at his house in Marsden Square, June 17. 

Mr. Humphrey Trafford, of Trafford, died at York, July 1, and the estates 
passed to the Traffords of Croston. 

The Rev. Sir John Mosley, third baronet, lord of the manor, died 23rd 
September, and with him the baronetcy became extinct. He was a man of 
very eccentric habits, and owing to an early disappointment in love had so great 
an aversion to womankind that his orders to his housekeeper were given 
through a grated partition. (Mosley's Family Memoirs ; Axon's Lancashire 
Gleanings.) He was succeeded by John Parker Mosley. (See under date 179S.) 

Serious riots occurred in Manchester, and throughout Lancashire, on the 
introduction of machinery for spinning, October 9. The riots were continued 
during the following year. 

Mr. Samuel Crompton, of Hall -i'th'- Wood, near Bolton, invented a com- 
bination of the jenny and the water-frame, called a mule, for spinning, which 
he gave to the public. 

Rev. Robert Gore died at the age of 31. He was a native of Liverpool, and 
in 1770 became minister of Cross Street Chapel. He was buried in the vestibule 
of the chapel. (Baker's Memorials, p. 47.) 

There was only one stage coach each week from Manchester to London, 
and one to Liverpool twice a week. 

The Manchester and Liverpool Museum ; or. The Beauties of all the 
Magazines Selected, is the title of a periodical printed by and for T. Jefferson, 
Manchester, and issued monthly. 

The publication of a satirical work, entitled Characteristic Strictures ; 
or, Ujnvards of One Hundred of the Princij)al Portraits in Manchester, &c., 
gave offence to many who were lampooned. The book was anonymous, but 
the author was the Rev. Thomas Seddon. (See under date 1796.) 

Sir Thomas Egerton, of Heaton Park, raised, at his own expense, a regiment 
of 400 men, who were called the Royal Lancashire Volunteers. 

1780. 

The following notice was issued 4th July : " The ladies' stand on Kersal Moor 
will be opened on Wednesday next for the accommodation of ladies and gentle- 
men of the town and neighbourhood of Manchester, where coffee, tea, choco- 
late, strawberries, cream, &c., will be provided every Wednesday and Friday 



27S1] Annals of Manchester. 107 

during the strawberry season. By the public's most obliged and humble 
servant, Elizabeth Raffald." (Palatine Note-book, vol. i., p. 143.) 

A riot arose in July ovs^ing to the indignation of the people on account of 
some military floggings. (See under date 1781.) 

An old man, who died this year, remembered the site of St. Ann's Church 
and Square a cornfield. The old name of the locality was Acres Field. 

The old Chorlton Chapel, taken down in the preceding year, replaced by a 
brick structure, and dedicated to St. Clement. 

Cotton was picked, batted, slubbed, and wound on one spindle up to this 
period. 

The average import of cotton wool per year at this period was 6,766,6131b. 
and the official value of British cotton goods of all kinds exported in this year 
was £355,060. 

The manufacture of muslins was introduced. 

1781. 

Mr. Henry Whittaker, schoolmaster, of Salford, died March 1. 

The Wesleyan Chapel in Oldham Street opened, March 30, by Rev. John 
Wesley, who records in his diary that " the whole congregation behaved with 
the utmost seriousness." 

Mrs. Raff'ald died of spasms, after an hour's illness, 19th April. Elizabeth 
Whittaker was born at Doncaster, and in 1748 entered service as housekeeper, 
and when with Lady Elizabeth Warburton, of Arley Hall, in that capacity, 
met the head gardener, Mr. John Raffald, to whom she was married at Great 
Budworth, 3rd March, 1763. In eighteen years she had sixteen daughters. 
They came to Manchester, and finally settled at the King's Head, Salford. In 
17G9 appeared llie Experienced English Housekeeper, which went through 
many editions. Baldwin, the London publisher, is said to have paid her £1,400 
for the copyright in 1773. In 1772 she issued the first Manchester Directory, 
and it was re-issued in 1773, and again in 1781— the year of her death. A work 
on midwifery is said to have been completed in MS., and it is said that her hus- 
band, who did not share the business ability of his wife, sold it in Loudon, but 
whether it was published is not known. At one time she gave lessons to 
young ladies in cookery and other branches of domestic economy. She is also 
said to have helped in the continuance of Harrop's newspaper and in the com- 
mencement of Prescott's, and that but for her aid Manchester would have been 
left without a newspaper. An account of her busy life is given iu Harland's 
Collectanea, vol. i., p. 119; vol. ii., p. 144; Palatine Note-book, vol. i., p. 141. 

The first number of the Manclicstcr Chronicle was printed and published 
by Charles Wheeler, in Hunter's Lane, Cannon Street, June 23. The paper was 
conducted by Charles Wheeler and by his son John. It was discontinued June 
23, 1838, but was revived by Josiah Leicester, under the heading of the Man- 
chester Chronicle and Salford Standard, January 5, 1839, 4, St. Ann Street. 
It finally ceased December 31, 1812. 

A new market opened 2Sth July in Pool Fold. It was discontinued in 1803. 
Under date of 1782 will be found an account of the trial action brought agaiuf.t 
the promoters of this scheme. 



108 Annals of Manchester. 



ri782 



Samuel Peploe, junior, LL.D., Warden of the Collegiate Church, died 
October 22, aged 82 years, and was buried at Chester. He was much respected 
by the clergy both at Manchester and at Chester, as he resided at both places, 
and was remarkable for his attendance on public worship. He was succeeded 
by the Rev. Richard Assheton, D.D. 

Mr. Robert Thyer died at Manchester 27th October. This learned man was 
born at Manchester, February, 1708-9, and was Librarian of Chetham's College. 
He is often mentioned in Byrom's Journal, and was the editor of Samuel 
Butler's Remains. {Gravi7nar School Register, i., 39.) 

There were 2,519 houses in Manchester assessed to the house tax. 

The Manchester and Blackpool diligence set out from the Royal Oak, in the 
Market Place, every morning at six o'clock ; arrived at the Red Lion Inn, in 
Preston, at noon ; met the Lancaster, Penrith, and Carlisle diligence, and went 
to Forshaw's at Blackpool. Fare to Blackpool, 15s. " The journey performed 
by Pickford and Co., d.v." 

The foundation of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society 
belongs to this year. It arose from conversational meetings held at a tavern by 
a number of gentlemen interested in literature and science. The history of the 
society and its labours has been told by Dr. Angus Smith in A Centenary of 
Science in Manchester. (London, 1883.) 

Public Baths were erected near the Infirmary. 

Home patients were admitted to the benefit of the Infirmary. 

James Artingstall, who had been condemned to be hanged at Lancaster for 
his share in the riot at Manchester in July, 1780, received a pardon. 

Mr. Richard Arkwright brought nine actions, in this year, against certain 
manufacturers for the infringement of his patent for the carding, drawing, 
and roving machines. An association of Lancashire spinners was formed to 
defend the actions. 

" Mr. Fildes, in the same year in which Raikes began his work at Gloucester, 
opened a Sunday School in a Manchester cellar, a second in a garret, and a 
third in the first room in Manchester built expressly for Sunday School pur- 
poses, a room erected at Mr. Fildes' own expense, behind his own dwelling- 
house, in the neighbourhood of London Road." (Tyerman's Life of Wesley, vol. 
iii. p. 350.) 

1782. 

A panic was created in Manchester by the circumstance of 7,012 bags of 
cotton having been imported between the months of December and April. 

Sir John Parker Mosley, lord of the manor, brought an action in the Court 
of King's Bench against Mr. T. Chadwick and Mr. Holland for setting up 144 
meat stalls in Pool Fold, in July, 1781, in violation of his prescriptive rights : 
decided in his favour June 19, after being twice argued at Westminster, upon a 
special verdict found for the plaintiff at Lancaster Assizes. Mosley v. 
Chadivick, 3 Douglas's Reports, 117 : 7 Barn, and Cress. 47 (note). 

Mr. Richard Wainwright, Mus. Doc, died, 15th July. 

The inhabitants of Manchester raised a corps of 150 volunteers to serve 
during the war in America. Thomas B. Bayley was the Lieutenant-Colonel 



1783] Annals of Manchester. 109 



Commandant; George Lloyd was the Major, and his wife presented the 
regiment with colours, worked by the ladies of Manchester. The officers' 
commissions, dated September 24, were presented to them in St. Ann's Square. 
November 18. 

An Act passed for building the New Bailey Prison. (See under dates 1787, 
1816, and 1872.) 

The Manchester Printing Society, for the publication of the writings and 
doctrine of Swedenborg, was instituted. 

Mr. Oswald Mosley, the heir of Sir J. P. Mosley, came of age. The event 
was celebrated by a ball given to four hundred of the nobility, gentry, and prin- 
cipal inhabitants of the district. 

Lord North visited Manchester, and dined with the gentlemen of the town 
at the Bull's Head. 

Particulars of the " Volunteers of the Manchester Military Association " 
are given in Earwaker's Local Gleanings, Nos. 159, 165, 187. 

An act (22 Geo. III. cap. 60), was passed to prevent the seducing of artificers 
or workmen employed in printing calicoes, cottons, muslins, and linens, or in 
making or preparing blocks, plates, or other implements used in that manu- 
factory, to go to parts beyond the seas; and to prohibit the exporting to foreign 
parts of any such blocks, plates, or other implements. This act imposed a pen- 
alty of £100, or twelve months' imprisonment, for enticing any workman 
engaged in calico printing to go beyond the seas. 

1783. 

Mr. Edward Greaves, one of the feoffees of Chetham's Hospital, died at 
Culcheth, aged 75, January 28. 

Rev. Joseph Hoole died 4th Feb. He was a son of Rev. Joseph Hoole, rector 
of St. Ann's, and was educated at the Grammar School, and at Oxford, where 
he was Vice-President of Magdalene College. 

Mrs. Roger Aytoun, of Chorlton Hall, died February 20. She was the 
widow of a rich apothecary, Thomas Minshull, and married " Spanking Roger" 
Aytoun, of Inchdarnie, a man very much younger than herself. 

A fatal duel was fought with swords between Captain Mouncey of the 79th 
Regiment, and Cornet Hamilton, in Spencer's Tavern, in the Market Place, 
March 21. The former was killed. The quarrel originated in a dispute as to 
the respective qualities of two dogs. Mr. Hamilton was acquitted by a 
coroner's jury, and Mr. Mouncey had a public funeral at St John's Church. 

The foundation stone of the New Bailey Bridge was laid May 0; the 
bridge was opened for passengers and carriages in 1785 ; the toll taken ofl", 
January 31, 1803. It was owned by subscribers, who, during eighteen j^ears, 
received toll, which repaid them for the capital invested and seven and a half 
per cent. The toll for the last year was let for £1,150. 

Rev. John Wesley visited Manchester, May 17. Here he had an enormous 
sacramental service, at which thirteen or fourteen hundred communicants were 
present. " Such a sight," says he, "as, I believe, was never seen in Manchester 
before." " I believe," he adds, "there is no place but London where we have so 
many souls so deeply devoted to God." 

The Description of Manchester, by a native of the town, price one shilling, 
was printed by Charles "Wheeler, June 24. 



110 Annals of Manchester. 



[1784 



Mr. Thomas Tipping, of Ardwick, died July 12. 

The Manchester Regiment (the 72nd) returned from Gibraltar, and were 
presented Avith five shillings each, together with their pay and arrears, 30th 
August, and were disbanded 9th September. 

Mrs. Phoebe Byrom, sister to the late Mr. John Byrom, died September 23, 
aged 85 years. 

An air balloon ascended from the Infirmary gardens, and alighted at 
Cromford, Derbyshire. One shilling was the charge for admittance to witness 
the ascent, and the proceeds were devoted to the benefit of the Infirmary. 

Mr. Titus Hibbert, writing to a Prussian correspondent as to the trade of 
the town, says : " The greatest quantity of foreign yarn is imported from 
Hamburg and Bremen, Dantzig and Konisberg, and the greatest part of it, by 
far, is manufactured at Manchester, and by the manufacturers who live in the 
country and lesser towns, near enough to come weekly to Manchester, which 
they do, to buy yarn and cotton and sell goods ; the rest at Blackburn, Preston, 
Wigan, Walton, Nottingham, etc." (Mrs. Hibbert Ware's Life of Samuel 
Hibbert Ware.) 

The river Tib was covered over with a culvert. 

1784. 

Father Thomas Falkner, S.J., died at Plowden Hall, Salop, January 30, 
aged 77. He was born in Manchester, where his father was a surgeon. He 
was educated at the Grammar School, and practised as a surgeon in Manches- 
ter. About 1731 he was sent out as surgeon on a slave-ship to Africa, and 
from thence to Buenos Ayres. Here he was converted to Roman Catholicism 
and entered the Society of Jesus as a noviciate, May 5, 1732, and after his 
ordination entered on his missionary labours. In 1768 he was expelled, along 
with the other Jesuits, from South America. He afterwards removed to 
Plowden Hall, Shropshire. He was the author of A Descrijotion of Pata- 
gonia, editions of which appeared in German in 1775, in French in 1787, and in 
Spanish in 1835. (Gillow's Bibliographical Dictionary of English Catholics.) 

Samuel Kay, M.D., died 23rd February, aged 76. He was the first physician 
of the Manchester Infirmary, and was notable for his benevolence. (Baker's 
Memorials, p. 56.) 

Rev. John Wesley again visited Manchester, in March. 

Mr. Ralph Markland, lieutenant in the 23rd Regiment, died at Chorlton 
Hall, August 31. 

Mr. Joseph Younger, one of the patentees of the Manchester theatre, died 
near Liverpool, September 4. 

Ann Lee died at Watervliet, New York, 8th September, aged 48 years and six 
months. She was born at Toad Lane, Manchester, 29th February, 1736, and was 
daughter of John Lee, a blacksmith. She married in 1762, Abraham Stanley, 
or Standerin, and had several children who died 3'oung. She joined a small 
religious sect, a remnant of the French prophets (see under date 1712), and 
became a leader. She was accepted as "Ann the Word," and with some 
followers emigrated to America, where she was the foundress of the Shakers, 
who adopted a communistic life and the rule of celibacy. Her followers are 
remarkable for their honesty and industry. There is an extensive literature 



17S5J 



Annals of Manchester. Ill 



relating to the Shakers, whose official name is the " United Society of Believers 
in Christ's Second Appearing." (Axon's Lancashire Gleanings.) 

The boroughreeve and constables issued an address, August 10th, recom- 
mending the establishment of Sunday schools. A meeting was held 28th 
September, at the Bull's Head, and a committee was formed with Sir John 
Parker Mosley as president. Churchmen, Dissenters, and Roman Catholics 
served on this committee, and it was not until 1800 that sectarian disputes 
caused a rupture. This plan of joint management was copied in many other 
parts of the kingdom. Rooms were hired in dwelling-houses and the teachers 
were paid. The first building exclusively appropriated to the purpose of a 
Sunday school is said to be the cottages in Gun Street, Ancoats, which were 
the gift of Simeon Newton. 

Admiral Lord Hood and his family visited Manchester. 

Fustian tax of one penny per yard imposed upon all bleached cotton 
manufactures, if under the value of three shillings per yard, and twopence if 
exceeding that value. This tax was in addition to the already existing duty of 
threepence per yard. Deputations were sent from various towns, and the 
manufacturers were heard by counsel at the bar of the House; and in the 
following year Mr. Pitt brought in a bill which repealed the new duties of 1784 
on linen and cotton manufactures. 

1785. 

Rules were drawn up for the government of Sunday schools in Manchester, 
at a meeting in the Manchester Hotel, at which Sir John Mosley presided. 
January 3. 

The magistrates authorised the constables to prevent cock-fighting and the 
throwing of cocks during Shrove Tide. February 15. 

Mr. Stanley, M.P. for the county, presented a petition to the House of 
Commons from the manufacturers and inhabitants of Manchester against the 
commercial regulations between Great Britain and Ireland. March 11. 

The thermometer was from 1 to 18^ degrees below the freezing point from 
October 18, 1784, to March 15, except 26 days. 

Power-loom weaving was invented by the Rev. Dr. Edmund Cartwright, of 
Hollander House, Kent, by whom a patent was taken out on the 4th of April. 
In 1787 he patented an improved invention, and in 1809 he received a Parlia- 
mentary grant of £10,000. He was brother to the celebrated Major Cartwright, 
and died at Hastings on the 25th of October, 1832. 

Mr. Garrow, as counsel for the fustian manufacturers, was called to the bar 
of the House of Commons, when he spoke for two hours. April 8. 

Many thousands of weavers from Oldham and its vicinity, who had been 
thrown out of employ owing to the tax on manufactures, visited Manchester. 
April 12. 

Mr. Thomas Walker and Mr. Thomas Richardson, the delegates, arrived 
express with the intelligence that the repeal of the tax upon fustians had been 
moved by Mr, Pitt, seconded by Mr. Fox, and carried without a division. The 
delegates alighted at the Bull's Head, in tlie Market Place, which was filled 
with people. After a short speech by Mr. Walker they were placed upon two 
chairs and carried through the streets. April 21. 



112 Annals of Manchester. 



[1786 



The gentlemen and ladies appeared with favours in token of the repeal of 
the fustian tax, April 22. 

Mr. Sadler ascended in his balloon, 12th May, from a garden behind the 
Manchester Arms Inn, Long Millgate. It was then a private house. 

The Fustian Tax Repeal Act received the royal assent, May 13. 

The fustian tax repealed through the endeavours of Mr. Thomas Walker 
and Mr. Thomas Richardson, who were presented with a silver cup each. The 
victory was celebrated by public processions. May 17. 

Mr. Sadler made his second balloon ascent, but on alighting was obliged to 
let it drive with the wind. May 19. 

Jane Diggle, of Kersal Moor, died June 12. She had her coffin and suit 
made thirty years before she died. 

A dinner was given to Thomas Stanley, M.P., at the Manchester Hotel, 
August 27. This was to celebrate his share in the repeal of the Fustian Act. 

A musical festival was held in the Concert Hall, Fountain Street, Sept. 1. 

Thomas Reynolds, second Baron Ducie, of Tortworth, died at Woodchester 
Park, September 11. 

Lord Robert Spencer, Sir Frank Standish, Charles James Fox, and Mr. 
Grenville visited Manchester, and dined with the local adherents of the Liberal 
party. September 15. 

The Rev. John Bennett preached a sermon in aid of Sunday schools, 2nd 
October. The following is a copy of the title-page :— 

The Advantages of Sunday Schools : A discourse x>'reached for the benefit 
of that useful and excelle^it charity, St. Mary's Church, in Manchester, on 
Sunday, the 2nd of October, 1785 ; to which is prefixed some account of the 
origin, design, and progress of this institution. Published by order of the 
chairman of the comynittee. By the Rev. John Bennett, secretary to the 
society. Printed by J. Wheeler, and sold by J. Clark and all the booksellers 
in Manchester. (4to, pp. 20.) 

The scholastic session of the College of Arts and Sciences was opened with 
a lecture by Dr. Charles White, October 8. 

Rev. Abel Ward died, at Neston, 9th October. He was a graduate of 
Queen's College, Cambridge, and in 1745 became Rector of St. Ann's. A strong 
advocate and defender of the Protestant succession, the authorities recognised 
the value of his aid by a succession of preferments. He preached against 
Popery and Jacobitism, and in 1751 became Archdeacon of Chester, after which 
he was only occasionally resident in Manchester. He wrote The Duty of 
rendering to all their Dues considered, a sermon. (Manchester, 1750.) (Ear- 
waker's Local Gleanings, No. 664.) 

Peter Mainwaring, M.D., died, aged 91. He bequeathed his books to the 
Manchester Infirmary, where they became the nucleus of the present library. 

A German named Baden was tried at Lancaster, and fined £500, for 
having visited Manchester and seduced cotton operatives to go to Germany. 

The privileges of the spinning-jenny, which had partly been thrown open 
in 1783, were, in this year, wholly given to the public, when cotton mills began 
to increase as well as the population. 



17861 



Annals of Manchester. 113 



It was estimated by Mr. Pitt that the population employed in the cotton 
trade generally was 80,000. 

Cylindrical calico printing was invented by a Scotchman named Bell, and 
was first successfully applied at Masney, near Preston, by Messrs. Livesey, 
Hargreaves, Hall, and Company. 

1786. 

A main of cocks was fought at the Royal Exchange betwixt the gentlemen 
of Lancashire and Cheshire for £5 a battle and £200 the main. Cheshire won 
by eight battles. January 3, 6, 7, 8, 9. 

A fire broke out in the New Market Hall, Pool Fold, and entirely consumed 
the upper part of the building, January 10. 

Manchester Academy instituted 22nd February. The first session was 
opened 14th September by an address from Rev, Thomas Barnes. Dr. Thomas 
Percival was the first chairman. In 1803 it was removed, and became Man- 
chester College, York ; in 1840 it returned to its birthplace as Manchester New 
College, and in 1853 was removed to Loudon, still retaining the name of Man- 
chester New College. 

John Holker, Chevalier of the Order of St. Louis, and inspector-general of 
the woollen and cotton manufactures of France, died at Rouen, 28th April. He 
was born at Stretford, and baptised there 14th October, 1719. His parents were 
married at Manchester in 1715, and the name is found frequently at Monton. 
He was a " calendarer," joined the rebels in 1745, and was taken prisoner 
at Carlisle. When in Newgate awaiting trial a fellow-prisoner found a means 
of escape from the same cell, but Holker was too bulky to pass through the 
" straightgate." The generous comrade returned, and the two in company 
enlarged the hole and both escaped. Holker was concealed for six weeks by a 
woman who kept a green stall, but eventually escaped to France, where he 
entered the army, and retired on a pension of 600 francs in 1755. He had 
previously, in connection with partners, erected a velvet factory at Rouen, and 
in 1758 he retired with a fortune. He was inspector-general of foreign manu- 
factures from 1755 until his death. In 1766 he established chemical works and 
introduced leaden chambers for the manufacture of sulphuric acid. He is said 
to have visited England secretly to induce English artisans to settle in France. 
He was nominated a Chevalier de St. Louis, 27th September, 1770. This 
remarkable life is given with the fullest detail in communications by Mr. J. G. 
Alger in the Palatine Note-book, vol. iv., pp. 47, 111. 

John Collier, better known as " Tim Bobbin," died, at Milnrow, 14th July. 
He was born at Urmston, and baptised at Flixton 6th January, 1708-9. The 
greater part of his life was passed at Milnrow, where he was schoolmaster. In 
1746 he published a View of the Lancashire Dialect, which has since passed 
through almost innumerable editions. It cannot be supposed to represent 
faithfully the folk-speech of any particular district, but it preserves many 
uncommon words and idioms which Collier had picked up in various parts. 
There is a great deal of humour in his writings, but he is coarse and sadly 
wanting in refinement. Collier wrote in verse and prose, and dabbled in 
archaeology. His Curious Remarks on the Hisfor;/ of Manchester and More 
Fruit from the Same Pannier are severe criticisms on Whitaker's History of 
n 



ll'i Annals of Manchester. [i787-i783 

Manchester. In these he is thought to have been aided by Richard Towneley, 
of Belfield. Collier was also a painter, and published a volume of caricatures, 
entitled Human Passions Delineated. He is buried in Rochdale Churchyard. 

A rule vs^as adopted 6th September by the joint committee of Sunday 
schools that writing should not henceforward be taught in the schoolroom. 
The bigotry and cruelty of such a regulation at a time when the means of 
education were so scanty needs no comment. 

James Holland was hanged at Bolton-le-Moor, for croft breaking, Sept. 12. 

Mr. Josiah Birch, for many years treasurer to the Manchester Infirmary, 
died September 29. 

Sir John Parker Mosley served the office of High Sherilfof the County 
Palatine of Lancaster. He was accompanied from his seat at Ancoats by an 
immense retinue of his friends and neighbours, and the conviviality attending 
it was long celebrated in their private discourse. (Mosley's Mosley Family.) 

A man was tried at Lancaster and fined £200 for having had in his 
possession a quantity of machinery with a view to export it to the Emperor of 
Germany, and for also having seduced workmen to go abroad with it. 

1787. 

The foundation stone of the New Bayley, or Prison for the Hundred of 
Salford, laid May 22 by Thomas Butterworth Bayley. It was opened for 
prisoners April, 1790. Large additions were made to it in 1816, but in 1872 it 
was sold to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company in consequence 
of the erection of the gaol in Strangeways. 

A meeting was convened at the Manchester Hotel, by the Boroughreeve, 
for the purpose of establishing fixed market days, June 19. 

The Collegiate Church broken into and two surplices and the poor box 
stolen, June 22. 

The Rev, John Wesley held the annual conference of the ministers in his 
Connexion, at Manchester, in July. 150 preachers attended. 

Mr. John Tipping died at his house, Ardwick Green, August 19. 

The Bishop of Chester consecrated a new burial ground in Ashley Lane, 
21st September. It was closed in 1816, and after a period of neglect was 
covered and is now known as St. Michael's Flags. 

A flood in the Irwell which lasted for seven days carried away a portion of 
Salford Bridge. 

The Rev. Robert Kenyon, incumbent of Salford Chapel, one of the feoffees 
and also librarian of the Chetham College, died, aged 45. 

Muslin manufacture developed rapidly tlirough mule spinning, and 500,000 
pieces were manufactured in Great Britain. 

The value of exported cotton goods, in this year, amounted to £1,101,457. 
This was immediately after Arkwright's patent had been declared invalid. 

It is stated that only forty-two spinning factories existed in Lancashire. 

1788. 

Sir Ashton Lever, Knt., of Alkrington, died at the Bull's Head Inn, Man- 
chester, February 1. Having as a young man shot a " white sparrow," it 
formed the starting point of an important but very miscellaneous collection of 



17831 



Annals of Manchester. 115 



objects of natural history and archaeology, known as the Leverian Museum. 
Financial difficulties induced Sir Ashton to part with this collection, and Par- 
liament authorised a lottery for the purpose in 1785. The winner afterwards 
disposed of it by public auction in 1806, when the sale occupied 65 days. It has 
been surmised that Sir Ashton's death was due to poison self -administered. 

Mr. Thomas Burchell died 18th March. He was for several years the con- 
ductor of the Gentlemen's Concert. 

Mr. Aulay Macaulay died March 19, 1788. He was a tea dealer in St. Ann's 
Square, and was also the author of a system of shorthand which does not 
possess any great merit. (GicarcUan Notes and Queries, June 12, 1876.) 

The centenary of the Revolution of 1688 was celebrated in a variety of ways. 
The military fired a. feu dejoic in St. Ann's Square. 

" On the 29th [March] a most daring murder and robbery was committed 
near Miles Platting, on the York road, on the person of Mr. Worthington, the 
York carrier, who had scarcely left the house where he had stayed to drink 
than he was shot dead, and his watch and purse taken from him, though so near 
three men on the road before him as to be heard to beg for life. A man has 
been apprehended on suspicion, but discharged for want of evidence." {Gentle- 
man's Magazine, vol. Iviii., p. 355.) 

Mr. Henry Sedden died in March. He was buried at the Collegiate Church, 
of which he had been sexton for 30 years. 

The Rev. John Wesley preached in Oldham Street Chapel, 13th April. He 
was then in his 86th year. 

St. Michael's Church, Angel Street, was built by the Rev. Humphrey Owen, 
M. A., Chaplain of the Collegiate Church, and consecrated July 23, 1789. The pre- 
sentation was vested in the heu-s of the founder for sixty years, and afterwards 
in the warden and fellows of the Collegiate Church. Foundation stone laid 
May 20. 

Hey wood's Bank established in St. Ann's Street, May 26 ; afterwards known 
as Heywood Brothers and Co. It was amalgamated with the Manchester and 
Salford Bank, of which it is the St. Ann's Street Branch. 

Mr. John Wilson, Captain in the 72nd, or Manchester Volunteers, died 
June 24. 

St. James's Church, George Street, was built by the Rev. Cornelius Bayley, 
D.D., and consecrated August 18. The presentation was vested in the heirs of 
the founder for sixty years, and then in the warden and fellows of the 
Collegiate Church. 

The total number of scholars in Sunday schools of Manchester and Salford 
was estimated 4,000 in August. 

The Congregational Chapel, Mosley Street, was opened 24th September. 
(See under date 1819.) 

The foundation stone of St. Peter's Church, Mosley Street, which was 
founded by the Rev. Samuel Hall, M.A., was laid 11th December this year. 
It was consecrated September 6, 1794. The presentation was vested in 
twenty-one trustees for sixty years from the date of the consecration deeds, 
and afterwards in the wardens and fellows of the Collegiate Church. The 



116 Annals of Manchester. [i789-i79o 

church was built from the design of Mr. James Wyatt. Tlie altar piece is a 
" Descent from the Cross," attributed to Annibal Carracci. 

From an enumeration made at Christmas it appeared that Manchester liad 
5,916 houses, 8,570 families, and 48,821 persons. In Salford there were 1,260 
houses, and an estimated population of 7,566. 

A meeting was held in Manchester to consider the great depression of the 
cotton manufacture, arising from the "importation of Indian goods;" and 
Government was solicited to allow a drawback as an encouragement to the 
export of English products. It was estimated that the cotton manufacture 
employed 159,000 men, 90,000 women, and 101 children. 

The art of bleaching with oxymuriatic acid was introduced by Mr. Thomas 

Henry. 

1789. 

The Rev. Richard Millward, LL.B., one of the chaplains at the Collegiate 
Church, died April 15. 

Three boat loads of coal, the first that came from Worsley, arrived at Bank 
Top, April 20. 

The Theatre Royal, in Spring Gardens, was burnt down, June 19 ; rebuilt 
and opened, February, 1790. 

Mr. John Wheeler died 16th October. He was formerly of the Manchester 
Theatre, and was the father of Charles Wheeler, the original proprietor of the 
Manchester Chronicle. 

Mr. Duncan Smith died 16th December. He was for more than forty years a 
writing master in Manchester. 

There were great public rejoicings on the recovery of George III. from his 
insanity. 

The Unitarian Chapel in Mosley Street was erected. It was taken down in 
1836. 

Mr. Oswald Mosley, eldest son of Sir J. P. Mosley, died, aged 22. He married 
the daughter of the Rev. Thomas Tonman, and left four orphans, of whom 
Oswald succeeded to the title. (See under date 1798.) 

The Baptist Chapel, St. George's Road (now Rochdale Road), was built. 

The first volume of the Memoirs of the Manchester Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society was printed, at Warrington, by W. Eyres. A German 
translation of it appeared. 

The Lancashire Humane Society was established. 

The first steam engine for spinning cotton is said to have been erected in 
Manchester for Mr. Drinkwater. 

1790. 

Mr. James Hall, surgeon, of King Street, died February 11. 

The Theatre Royal was rebuilt after the fire of 1789, and reopened in 
February. 

On Easter Sunday, the Rev. John Wesley preached twice, and held a sacra- 
mental service at which there were about sixteen hundred communicants. 
This was his last visit to Manchester. 

Manchester Lying-in Hospital, founded May 6, by Charles White, F.R.S., 
and his son. Dr. White, and Messrs. Edward and R. Hull. Patients were 



1790] 



Annals of Manchester. 117 



attended at their homes until a house near Salford Bridge was taken in 1795. 
The Bath Inn, Stanley Street, was bought for £1,000, and converted into an 
hospital, 1796. This was sold by auction May 5, 1822. The Hospital had then 
removed to North Parade, St. Mary's, October 10, 1821. The foundation stone 
of the new hospital was laid by the Bishop of Manchester, September 3, 1855, 
and opened October 10, 1856. 

An Act of Parliament (30 George III. cap. 81) was obtained for the pur- 
pose of "providing a new poorhouse for, and for the better relief and govern- 
ment of, the poor of the township of Manchester, in the county of Lancaster." 
21st June. 

Oxford Road, from St. Peter's Church, was opened July 12. 

The organ at Trinity Chapel, Salford, was opened, August 9th. It was 
built by Schultz, of London. 

Mr. Thomas Taylor, lieutenant in the 72ud, or Manchester Volunteers, died 
August 16. 

James Macnamara hanged 11th September, on Kersal Moor, for a burglary 
committed in the house of Mr. Cheetham, at the sign of the " Dog and Part- 
ridge," Stretford, in January. He was executed on the large hill. 

The " Manchester Constitutional Society " established, to " effect a reform 
in the representation of the people in Parliament." October. 

Rev. Humphrey Owen died 14th November, He was born at Aberystwith 
in 1723, and after graduating at St. John's College, Oxford, became Chaplain of 
the Collegiate Church, but acted as the substitute of Rev. Abel Ward, at St. 
Ann's, after 1751 until 1789, when he was appointed the first rector of St. 
Michael's, Angel Meadow, in the erection of which he had been largely instru- 
mental. (Bardsley's Memorials, p. 89.) 

A large building, situated near Hanover Street, fell down, owing to the 
springing of an arch in the foundation. The upper part was used as a cotton 
mill, and at the time there were twenty-two persons at work, several of whom 
Avere killed, and others seriously hurt. December 21. 

The lord of the manor brought an action in the Court of King's Bench, 
claiming by prescription a weekly market on Saturdays for the sale of flour and 
oatmeal and other goods. The case was tried at the Lancaster Summer Assizes, 
when the plaintiff was nonsuited, but a rule for a new trial having been obtained 
was made absolute after argument. It does not appear whether the plaintiff 
ultimately succeeded. Mosley v. Picrson, 4 Term Reports (Darnford v. East), 
101. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Gravel Lane, Salford, was built. 

The House of Correction, Hunt's Bank, was taken down. 

Manchester paid in postages £11,000, which was a larger amount than any 
other provincial town. 

The Sessions Court, attached to the New Bailey Prison, was erected. 

Mr. Kenrick Price, of Manchester, died at Liverpool. He was a tea dealer, 
and the last Bishop of the Nonjurors in the neighbourhood. 

Power looms were introduced into Manchester by Mr. Grimshaw. (Butter- 
worth.) 

The cotton spinners of Lancashire and Scotland solicited permission of the 



118 Annals of Manchester. 



[1791 



Government to incorporate themselves into a " Company of Traders," with privi- 
leges similar to those enjoyed by the East India Company, with whom, it 
seems, they considered themselves otherwise unable to compete. 

30 George III. cap. 68. Act for making and maintaining a navigable canal 
from Manchester to or near Presto-lee-Bridge, in the township of Little Lever, 
and from thence by one branch to or near the town of Bolton, and by another 
branch to or near the town of Bury, and to Weddell Brook, in the parish of 
Bury 

1791. 

A fire in Blakely Street resulted in the death of a woman and four children, 
April 30. 

The first stone of the Manchester Workhouse, Strangeways, was laid by 
Mr. Leaf, a magistrate, July 24. It was opened February 14, 1793. 

Mr. Edward Hall died, at his house in King Street, 2oth September. He was 
for 38 years one of the surgeons to the Royal Infirmary, and was an active 
promoter of the Lying-in Hospital. 

Mr. Doming Rasbotham died 7tli Nov. He was bom in 1730 and served the 
office of High Sheriff in 1769. His extensive collections for the history of the 
county were written in Byrom's shorthand. He married Sarah, daughter of 
James Bayley. He wrote Codrus, a tragedy, and a variety of pieces in prose 
and verse. He was also an amateur artist. (Baines, new edition, i., 542.) 

The first printed catalogue of Chetham's Library issued with the title : 
Bibliotheca Chethamensis : sive Bibliothecce publicce Mancuniences ab Huvi- 
fredo Chetham armigero fundatce Catalogus, exhibens libros in varias classes 
pro varietate argumenti distributos. Editit Johaiines JRadcliffe, bibliothecce 
supradictce cusfos. 2 vols. 8vo. Continuations have since appeared. 

A Poetical Satire on the Times (London, printed for the author, in the 
year 1791) contains many curious references to Manchester men and manners. 
(Axon's Lancashire Gleanings.) 

The lord of the manor brought another action claiming by prescription a 
weekly market on Saturdays for the sale of flour and oatmeal, and succeeded 
in establishing his right. Mosley v. N orris (not reported). 

The Manchester Strangers' Friend Society was established, chiefly by the 
exertions of the Rev. Dr. Adam Clarke. 

The Manchester Humane Society was established. The first meeting held 
August 2oth, and was presided over by Lord Grey de Wilton. 

An Act of Parliament was obtained for the purpose of lighting, watching, 
and cleaning the town ; and for levying a police tax of Is. 3d. in the pound, 
upon the rent of the houses, to defray the expenses. Under this act the 
commissioners consisted of the boroughreeve and constables for the time 
being, the warden and fellows of the Collegiate Church, and the owners and 
occupiers of any buildings of £30 a year value, under whose control the conjoint 
towns of Manchester and Salford were placed. 

An Act was passed for the making of the Bury and Bolton Canal. 

John Imisson died. "It may not be amiss to mention the ingenious 
Imisson, who, among other pursuits, made some progress in. the art of letter- 



1792] 



Annals of Manchester. 119 



founding, and actually printed some popular novels at Manchester, with wood- 
cuts cut by himself." (Lemoine's Typograiihical Antiquities, 1797, p. 81.) He 
was also an optician in Manchester, and published there The School of Arts. 

31 George III. cap. 43. Act for vesting the settled estate of Samuel Clowes 
the younger. Esquire, in the county of Lancaster, in himself, in fee simple, 
and for settling an estate of greater value, in the same county, in lieu thereof, 
and in exchange for the same, and for enabling the said Samuel Clowes to 
grant building leases of the estate hereby settled. 

1792. 

32 George III. cap. 69. Act for cleansing, watching, and regulating the 
streets, lanes, passages, and places within Manchester and Salford, and for 
widening and rendering more commodious several of the said streets, lanes, 
and passages, and for other purposes therein mentioned. January 31. 
Reprinted, 1&42. 

Mr. Thomas Walker, upon the expiration of his office of boroughreeve, pub- 
lished the first account which had ever appeared of the different charities 
which had been under his official management and distribution, February 15. 

Special services were held in February in various Lancashire churches, when 
the collections in aid of the Manchester Charities amounted to £4,887 16s. l^d. 

The Manchester Herald, No. 1, March 31, was printed and published by 
Messrs. Faulkner and Birch, in the Market Place, price 3jd. It ceased March 
23, 1793. 

The Police Act for Manchester and Salford came into force, June 24. 

" On Monday, July 30, the morris dancers of Pendleton paid their annual 
visit to Salfoi'd. They were adorned with all the variety of colours that a pro- 
fusion of ribbons could give them, and had a very showy garland." (Eitson's 
Robin Hood.) 

The second Manchester Subscription Library was established 29th August. 

The Assembly Rooms, Mosley Street, were opened September 20. There 
were 100 subscribers at £50. A further call of £20 was made. The Assembly 
Rooms were sold by auction for £9,000 in 18.50, and warehouses built upon the 
site. (See under date 1795). 

The office of the Manchester Herald, in the Market Place, was destroyed 
by a political mob, December 10, 1793. The Manchester Herald ceased March 
23, 1793. The following curious handbill was circulated : "Violent Dissolution, 
being the Exit of Mons. Herald, of Manchester, a near relative to Mons. Argus, 
of London, who expired on Saturday last, to the great regret of the Jacobins, 
Painites, &c., but particularly to the Black Cat." It advocated Liberal principles, 
and so its publishers became the objects of persecution. They were obliged to 
find refuge in a foreign land. 

Two of the pinnacles of the Collegiate Church tower fell, one into the 
churchyard, and the other through the roof and gallery to the floor of the nave. 

The Antiquary, September, 1884, contains an account of a journey to 
Manchester and Liverpool made by Mr. "William Phillips, of Worcester. He 
was a visitor to his brother, Mr. Thomas Phillips, of Manchester, the father of 
Sir Thomas Phillips, of Middle-Hill. The Bridgewater Canal excited his 
admiration. 



120 Annals of. Manchester. 



[1793 



A Provincial Conference of the New Church (Swedenborgian) held at 
Salford. (Hindmarsh's Bise, &c., p. 140.) 

A Dispensary was erected adjoining the Infirmary. 

The Exchange was taken down, and the site marked by a stone pillar and 
posts. 

An Act (32 George III. cap. 84) was obtained for cutting a canal from Man- 
chester to Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham. 

An Independent Chapel erected in Cannon Street- The site is now covered 
by warehouses. 

1793. 

The effigy of Paine was burnt by the populace, January. 

33 George III. Act for more effectually repairing, widening, and improving 
certain roads leading to and from the towns of Salford, Warrington, Bolton, 
and Wigan, and to certain places called the Broad Oak, in Worsley, and Dux- 
bury Stocks, and also the road from a place called the South Sea, in Pendle- 
bury, to Agecroft Bridge, and from thence to Hilton Lane to Dawson Lane 
End, and also from Agecroft Bridge over Kersal Moor to Singleton Brook. 
June 17. 

Thomas White, M.D., died 19t]i June. 

Thomas Quincey, father of Thomas de Quincey, died at Greenheys, 18th 
July. He was born in 1754 and was the author of an anonymous Short Tour in 
the Midland Counties, London, 1775 (Axon's Lancashire Gleanings, p. 285). 
He settled in Manchester before 1780, and was a haberdasher who in 1783 gave 
up the retail to confine himself to the wholesale trade. He is also called a 
West India Merchant. (Espinasse's Lancashire Worthies.) There are few 
passages more impressive than De Quincey's description of the home-coming of 
the father already dying of consumption in his thirty-ninth year. 

The New Jerusalem Church, Peter Street; was opened, 11th August, by Eev. 
William Cowherd and Rev. Joseph Proud. 

St. Clement's Church, Lever .Street, was built by the Eev. E. Smyth, and 
opened for divine service on Christmas Day. 

The Salford Workhouse was bailt in Greengate. 

An act was obtained for cutting the Haslingden canal. 

33 George III. cap. 21. Act to enable the company of proprietors of the 
canal navigation from Manchester to or near Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham, 
to extend the said canal from a place called Clayton Demesne, in the township 
of Droylsden, to a place on the turnpike road in Heaton Norris, opposite to the 
house known by the sign of the Three Boars' Heads ; and from or nearly from a 
place called Taylor's Barn, in the township of Reddish, to Denton, at a place 
called Beat Bank, adjoining the turnpike road leading between Stockport and 
Ashton-under-Lyne, and also from the intended aqueduct, at or near a place 
called Stake Leach, at HolUnwood. 

33 George III. cap. 50. Act to empower William Churchill Dickenson, 
Esquire, to grant building leases, renewable leases, and to make conveyances 
in fee of and upon all or any part of the estates at Chorlton Row, devised by 
the will of John Dickenson, Esquire, deceased, situate near the town of 
Manchester. 



1794-1795] 



Annals of Manchester. 121 



33 George III. cap. 58. Act to enable John Trafford, Esquire, and other 
persons after his death, to grant leases of the estates devised by the will of the 
late Humphrey Trafford, Esquire, situate in the counties of Lancaster and 
Chester, for building, and also to grant leases of certain waste moss lands in 
the said counties, other parts of the said devised estates. 

1794. 

Mr. Tate presented to the trustees of the Infirmary a portrait of Mr. James 
Massey, the first president of that institution, February. 

34 George III. cap. 37. Act for altering an Act, passed in the seventh year 
of the reign of His late Majesty King George I., intituled " An Act for making 
the rivers Mercy and Irwell navigable from Liverpool to Manchester, by 
incorporating the proprietors of the said navigation, and to declare their respec- 
tive shares therein to be personal estate." March 28. 

34 George III. cap. 78. Act for making and maintaining a navigable canal 
from the Calder navigation, at ur near Sowerby Bridge wharf, in the parish of 
Halifax, to join the canal of his grace the Duke of Bridgewater, in the parish 
"? Manchester, and also certain cuts from the said intended canal. April 4. 

The Regiment of Independent Manchester Volunteers was incorporated in 
*-he 53rd, or Duke of York's Brigade, at Chatham, April. 

St. Stephen's Church, Salford, was built by the Rev, Nicholas Mosley 
Cheek, and consecrated July 23. 

St. Mark's Church, Cheetham Hill, founded by the Rev. E. Ethelston ; 
finished by his son, the Rev. C. W. Ethelston, fellow of the Collegiate Church, 
and consecrated July 24. 

The colours of the Royal Manchester Volunteers were consecrated in St. 
Ann's Church by the Rev. Thomas Seddon, chaplain to the regiment, August 
24. The corps subsequently became the 104th regiment. 

The Roman Catholics of the district built St. Mary's Chapel, Mulberry 
Street, from the proceeds of a subscription. 

The loyal associations in Manchester and Salford formed themselves into a 
corps for home defence. 

The poor rate for Manchester, at five shillings in the pound, produced 
£9,270 14s. The post-horse duty for the district was let for £7,640. 

The business of the post-office in Manchester was conducted by Miss Willet 
(post-mistress), with the assistance of two clerks. 

An act obtained for cutting the Manchester and Huddersfield canal. 
34 George HI. cap. 66. Act to enable the trustees of certain lauds in Man- 
chester, called Mayes' Charity Lands, to convey in fee, or grant leases under 
recserved yearly rents. 

1795. 

Ann Bayley, widow of Daniel Bayley, and daughter of Thomas Butter- 
worth, died March 9th, aged 82. 

The Manchester Gazette was printed and published by T. Bowden and 
William Cowdroy, in St. Mary's Gate. March. 



122 Annals of Manchester. 



[1795 



Rev. Rowland Sandford, A.B., died at Harrogate, 24th June. He was 
junior curate of St. Ann's, but on the deatli of Archdeacon Ward in 1785 
became rector. He was an earnest promoter of Sunday schools. (Bardsley's 
Memorials.) {See under date 1817.) 

There was some rioting from the scarcity of corn. In view of further 
anticipated disturbances an order was given that all public-houses be closed by 
seven in the evening. Persons appearing in the streets after nine o'clock were 
liable to be called upon to give account of themselves. July 31. 

Timothy Wood died 29th September. He was the keeper of the Hare and 
Hounds public-house, and was well known as the huntsman of the Manchester 
hounds. 

The Manchester Billiard Club was formed in the Assembly Rooms, Mosley 
Street, December 11. It was discontinued December 13, 1850. 

As a protest against the conduct of the authorities in putting down public 
meetings for the discussion of political grievances, it is said that a "Thinking 
Club" was formed at the Coopers' Arms, and that at the first meeting there 
were 300 present, and " silence prevailed for one hour." December 28. 

The shock of an earthquake was felt at Manchester in December. 

The Duke of Bridgewater's canal completed at a cost of £220,000. James 
Brindley was the engineer of this remarkable undertaking, the story of which 
has been told by Dr. Smiles in his Lives of the Engineers. 

The Friends' Meeting house in Mount Street was built. The locality was 
then practically suburban, St. Peter's Fields, the site of Peter Street and the 
Free Trade Hall, being an open space. The meeting house was rebuilt in 1828. 

A pamphlet entitled an Apj^eal to the Inhabitants of Manchester and its 
Neighbourhood, was published. It was a protest against the Convention Bills 
for limiting the freedom of the press and the right of public meeting, and was 
signed by George Lloyd, George Philips, Samuel Greg, Dr. John Mitchell, and 
others. (Hibbert- Ware's Life ofS. Hibbert-Ware, p. 242.) 

Mr. Robert Peel, the founder of the fortunes of the Peel family, died at 
Ardwick Green, aged 79. He is buried in St. John's Church. 

35 George III. cap. 53. Act to enable the trustees of certain lands in Man- 
chester, Crumpsall, and Tetlow, called Clarke's Charity Lands, to make leases 
for years upon rack rents, and also to grant building leases and make convey- 
ances in fee of and upon all or any part of the said lands under reserved yearly 
rents, 

35 George III. cap. 62. Act for annending an Act passed in the tenth year 
of the reign of His present Majestj', intituled an "Act to enable the trustees 
of the estates devised by William Hulme, Esquire, to grant building leases 
thereof, and to increase the number of Exhibitioners to Brasennose College, in 
Oxford, founded by the said testator, and for other purposes therein men- 
tioned;" and to enable the trustees to convey in fee or grant leases for lives or 
for long terms of years with or without covenants for renewal, under reserved 
yearly rents, the said Trust Estates, and to enable the trustees to apply the 
trust monies in making such allowance to the Exhibitioners as may be thought 
proper, and for other purposes therein mentioned. 



1796] 



Annals of Manchester. 123 



1796. 

Mr. James Massey, many years president of the Infirmary, died at 
Rostherne, Cliesliire, January 2. 

Mr. Tiiomas Battye publislied A Disclosure of Parochial Abuse, Artifice, 
&c., in the Totvn of Manchester, January 25. Tliis is one of several tracts in 
which the author gives some curious particulars as to the management of the 
affairs of the town. 

Mr. John Shaw, master of the punch house in Smithy Door, died January 
26, aged 83. He was well known for his eccentricities, one of which was to 
turn out all his customers at eight o'clock in the evening ; if any of them were 
obstinate his servant Molly, with her mop and pail, would come, and if this 
did not serve he would order a servant to bring him a whip. He had occupied 
the above house upwards of fifty-eight years. There is an interesting notice of 
him in Harland's Collectanea. 

Mr. George Swindells, printer aad publisher, died March 1, aged 36. 

A riot took place in the Theatre Royal during the singing of " God save the 
King," March 7. The day after the playbills had the following heading : 
" ' God save the King' will be sung at the end of the farce, to give the Non. 
Cons, time to retire." 

Mr. John Chad wick, sen., patron and supporter of Sunday schools, died at 
Longsight, March 20. 

Mrs. Mary Peel, widow of Robert Peel, of Ardwick, and daughter of 
Edmund Haworth, of Blackburn, died, March. 

Mr. William Clowes, son of Samuel Clowes, Broughton, died at Glandon, 
Derbyshire, May 15. 

Rev. Thomas Seddon died, 17th May, on his passage to the West Indies as 
chaplain of the 104th Regiment. He was born at Eccles in 1753, and matricu- 
lated at Oxford, but did not take any degree, although he styled himself M.A. 
From 1777 until his death he was curate of Stretford, and in 1779 published, 
anonymously, a work entitled Cha7-acteristic Strictures, which, in the form of a 
criticism upon a supposed exhibition of portraits, contains satirical remarks 
upon the public personages of the district. Like some other satirists, he was 
not remarkable for good conduct, and whether at Stretford, Wigan, or Lydgate, 
seems to have been in constant trouble. Another work. Letters to an Officer in 
the Army (Warrington, 1786) is of some interest. 

Mr. Alexander Eason died 27th May, aged 61. He was born in 1735, and in 
early life he travelled with Lord Moira, and afterwards was surgeon to the 
Marquis of Drogheda's dragoons. He gave much of his time to the poor of 
Manchester, and a tablet to his memory, the proceeds of a penny subscription, 
Avas placed in the Collegiate Church, where he is buried. He died of paralysis 
resulting from dislocation of the spine, caused by the stumbling of his horse 
when riding to see a patient. Miss Yates, of Clugh, an aunt of Sir Robert Peel. 
(Smith's Centenary, p. 128.) 

Robert Darby, M.D., physician to the Infirmary, died July 30. 

Sir Joliu Prestwich, of Prcstwich and Hulme, died at Dublin, August 15. 
His claim to the baronetcy was not universally allowed. He was the author of 
A Dissertation on Mineral, Animal, and Vegetable Poisons, 1775, and of 



]24 Annals of Manchester. 



[1797 



Bespuhlica, 1777. He left a MS. History of Liverpool which has never been 
printed. He was the son of Sir Elias Prestwich who died in 1785. (Gentleman's 
Magazine, Ixv., 879, 967.) There is a rude portrait of Sir John amongst 
Barritt's MSS. at Clietham's Library. 

The Stockport, Bolton, and Rochdale Volunteers were reviewed on Kersal 
Moor, August 25. 

A constable, sent to serve a warrant in the neighbourhood of Newton, was 
compelled by the people to eat the offensive document. 

Two well-known dwarfs, Thomas Allen and "Lady" Morgan, exhibited 
themselves here. She was 39 years old, and weighed 181b. 

The gentry, clergy, and tradesmen pledged themselves, in a series of 
resolutions, advertised in the newspapers, to reduce the use of wheat flour at 
least one-third. Pies and puddings ceased to appear on the tables of some of 
the middle classes. The working classes were already on the verge of 
staxvation. 

1797. 

The formation of the Manchester and Salford Volunteers decided at a 
meeting at the Bull's Head, February 28. 

.John Drinkwater, M.D., died 16th March. This physician was the father 
of General Drinkwater, the author of the History of the Siege of Gibraltar. 

The 1st and 2nd battalions of Manchester and Salford Volunteer Infantry 
drawn out for the first time. March. 

In Trinity Church, Salford, there is a white marble monument, with the 
following inscription — 

" Sacred to the memory of Thomas Drinkwater, Major of His Majesty's 
62nd Regiment of Foot, who perished at sea, on his return from the West 
Indies, the 23rd of April, 1797, aged 32 years. 

" Thi'ice had his foot Domingo's island prest, 

'Midst horrid wars and fierce barbarian wUes ; 
Thrice had liis blood repell'd the yellow pest 

That stalks, gigantic, through the 'W'osteru Isles 
Returning to his native shores again, 

In hopes t'embrace a father — brother — friends, 
Alas 1 the faithless ratlin snaps in twain, 

He falls, and to a watery gi-ave descends." 

" Major Drinkwater was the second son of John Drinkwater, M.D., and 
Eliz. Andrews, his wife, who are buried in the centre aisle of this chapel ; and 
this monument was erected by his only surviving brother, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Drinkwater, as an affectionate tribute to his memory." 

The Manchester and Salford Volunteers completely equipped and incor- 
porated, June 3. 

Mr. John Tipping, son of Joseph Tipping, died at Claxby, Lincolnshire, 
July 3. 

Mr. Jeremiah Bardsley died, aged 90 years, July 3. He is described as the 
oldest Methodist in the town. 

The volunteers, in St. Ann's Square, fired a salute on the anniversary of 
the King's birthday. July 5. 



1798] 



Annals of Manchester. 12i 



Margaret Eedmay, wife of Thomas Redmay, sexton of St. Mary's Church, 
was killed by falling from the belfry of the steeple of that church, September 
16. She was 65 years of age, and was assistant sexton over forty years. 

There were riots owing to the high price of corn and flour in November. 

Mr. Orion Adams died in great poverty near Chester. He was the son of 
Roger Adams, and was born in 1717, and in 1752 started the Manchester Weekly 
Journal, but was not a successful man of business. Little is known of his 
adventurous career. He is said to have "walked from London to Chester in 
his 70th year, with a heart as light as his pocket." At the finish his employ- 
ment was that of distributing playbills for a company of strollers. 

Mr. River Jordan, when a boy attending the school kept by Henry Clarke 
in Salford, used to ride on a pony past the top of Cross Lane, where Grind- 
rod's body still hung ou the gibbet. (Palatine ISiote-book, iv., p. 140.) 

The instructions to the constables as to the licensing of alehouse-keepers 
set forth that the licences are forfeited if the holders allow mountebanks or 
quack doctors to perform on their premises, if there is bull-baiting or horse- 
racing, if there is tippling on the Lord's day, if there is drinking after nine at 
night, or if there is any "club or society" for money, clocks, watches, or furni- 
ture. (Axon's Lancashire Gleanings, p. 72.) 

Mrs. Dorothy Byrom, daughter of Mr. John Byrom, died. 

The Amphitheatre, in Chatham Street, was opened by Mr. Handy, whose 
numerous company of equestrians (except himself and two or three who went 
by Holyhead) were lost on their passage from Liverpool to Dublin. 

A House of Recovery for sick and fever patients was opened in Aytoun 
Street. 

Admiral Lord Duncan's victorj' over the Dutch was celebrated with great 
rejoicings. 

Mr. Thomas Battye published Th.e Red Basil Book ; or. Parish Register of 
Arrears for the Maintenance of the Offsjyring of Illicit Amours, in which 
there are some curious revelations of the management of local ali'airs. 

37 George III. cap. 71. Act for enlarging the permanent powers of Act 
passed in the twenty-fourth year of His late Majesty King George II. for 
repairing the road from Cx'ossford Bridge to the town of Manchester, and for 
mending the road from Crossford Bridge aforesaid to a certain place in 
Altrincham, in the county of Chester. 

1798. 

Colonel Ackers' Regiment of Manchester and Salford Volunteers were 
drawn out at Piccadilly, and presented with their colours by Mrs. Hartley, 
February 14. 

Rev. Maurice Griffiths, D.D., died 25th February, aged 77. He was rural 
dean, rector of St. Mary's, and fellow of the Collegiate Church. Rev. John 
GatlifTe was appointed to the vacant fellowship, March 12. 

St. George's Church, St. George's Road, was opened for divine service 
April 1. It was subsequently occupied l)y ministers of Lady Huntingdon's 
connection. It was not consecrated until January 17, 1818. The site was taken 
by the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company and the church was 
rebuilt in Oldham Road. 



12(5 Annals of Manchester. 



[1799 



38 George III. cap. 32. Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the 
Canal Navigation from Manchester to or near Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham, 
to finish and complete the same, and the several cuts and other works author- 
ised to be made and done by them by the several Acts passed for that purpose, 
and for amending the said Acts and granting to the said company further and 
other powers. May 26. 

Colonel Ford's Manchester and Salford Light Horse Volunteers assembled 
opposite the house of Thomas Johnson, in High Street, to receive their colours, 
which were the gift of Mr. Johnson, and presented by Mrs. Ford. October 25. 

There were riots owing to a failure in the crops of corn. December 16. The 
authorities offered premiums to such persons as brought each day the largest 
quantity of wheaten flour or oatmeal to the Manchester market. 

Sir John Parker Mosley, baronet, lord of the manor, died, aged 67. He was 
the youngest son of Nicholas, the third son of Nicholas Mosley, of Ancoats. 
When a young man he was a hatter, and was assisted by his relatives out of 
financial difficulties arising from a passion for cock-fighting. He was after- 
wards equally remarkable for his steady and upright conduct. In later life he 
was esteemed "a Methodist." In 1781 he received a baronetcy— the third 
granted to the family. He was high sheriff in 1786, and soon after ceased to 
reside at Ancoats Hall. (Mosley's Family Memoirs. Axon's Lancashire 
Gleanings.) He was succeeded by his grandson, Sir Oswald Mosley. (See 
under date 1871.) 

Lord Nelson's victory at the Battle of the Nile was celebrated by a proces- 
sion of the authorities and military, and by public dinners and illuminations. 

Seven persons were standing in a wooden shed which projected over the 
river near the New Bailey, and were looking at a coach and horses which had 
been lost at Stannyhurst Old Bridge the previous night, and on their passage 
down the flood had stuck fast between an arch of New Bailey Bridge, when 
the floor gave way, and those who were upon it were precipitated into the 
river. A boy and girl were saved, but a man and five women were drowned. 

A list of the members of the Royal Manchester and Salford Light Horse 
Volunteers is printed in Earwaker's Local Gleanings, No. 63. 

1799. 

Mr. John Markland, of Ardwick, died 17th January. He was the father of 
Mr. Markland, high sheriff, of a Lancashire family. 

39 George III. cap. 25. Act for more effectually repairing and improving 
the roads from Manchester, through Oldham to Austerlands, in the parish of 
Saddleworth, and from Oldham to Ashton-under-Lyne, and from Oldham to 
the village of Royton. May 10. 

The officers of Col. Ackers's regiment of volunteers presented their Coloue' 
with a large silver vase and four goblets. May 29. 

Colours were presented to the first battalion of the Manchester and Salford 
Volunteers, of which Thomas Butterworth Bayley was the Colonel. On this 
occasion a sermon was preached by the Rev. Samuel Hall, who was the chaplain 
of the corps, June 4. 

St. Andrew's Presbyterian Chapel, Lloyd Street, was buUt, and opened for 
worship, June 13. 



1?00] 



Annals of Manchester. 127 



39 George III. cap. 64. Act for continuing for twenty-one years, and from 
thence to the end of the then next Session of Parliament, the term and 
enlarging the powers of an Act passed in the thirty-third year of the reign of 
His present Majesty, intituled an Act for repairing, widening, altering, 
diverting, and turning the road from Ardwick Green to the Bridge at the 
Cornmills at Wilmslow. July 1. 

Mr. Peter Clare died 30th July. He was an ingenious clock-maker and 
mechanic, and was the father of Peter Clare, the friend of Dalton. 

Mr. Matthew Wilkinson, steward to the trustees of the Free Grammar 
School, died in August. 

Mr. Samuel Clowes, jun., of Broughton, died Oct. 5. He was Lieut.-Colonel 
of the Royal Lancashire Volunteers. 

The authorities of the town entertained at dinner Colonel Stanley and the 
officers of the First Lancashire Militia, on their return from Ireland. Nov. 23. 

Messrs. Robinsons' factory, opposite the New Bailey, was burned down, 
resulting in damage estimated at £12,000. 

Soup shops were opened owing to the high price of provisions and the 
destitute condition of the operatives. 

A general fast was proclaimed. The first and second battalions of Man- 
chester and Salford Volunteers were drawn out for the first time, and marched 
to church. Colonel Bayley commanded the first battalion, and Colonel Silvester 
the second. 

The following volunteer corps were reviewed by Major-General Nichols, 
viz.. Colonel Ford's Light Horse, Colonel Ackers's Infantry, Colonel Thomas B. 
Bayley's First Battalion, and Colonel Silvester's Second Battalion. 

1800. 

Salisbury's factory, at Knot Mill, was destroyed by fire. A young woman 
lost her life by this disaster. January 29. 

Mr. Jonathan Pollard's factory, in Ancoats, burnt down, February 3. 

Mr. Alexander Gilbody died 31st March, aged 78. He was for 6-1 years boat- 
builder to the Mersey and Irwell Navigation Company. 

At a meeting, 5th May, of the General Committee of Sunday Schools it was 
decided that a certain number of the rooms should be henceforth called Church 
of England schools, and to be governed by the clergy and their friends, and that 
the same right belong to the Dissenters Avith respect to the other schools. Dr. 
Cornelius Bayley is regarded as the chief author of this separation. (Bardsley's 
Mcjnorials, pp. 121-5.) 

39 and 40 George III. cap. 24. Act for amending the several Acts passed for 
making, finishing, and completing the Canal Navigation from Manchester to or 
near Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham, and the several cuts and other works 
authorised to be made and done by the company of proprietors of the said 
Canal Navigation, and for granting to the said company further and other 
powers. May 16. 

39 and 40 George III. cap. 36. Act for better enabling the Company of 
Proprietors of the Rochdale Canal to raise money for completing the said 
canal, and to vary the line of the said Canal, and to alter, explain, and amend 



128 Annals of Manchester. 



(1801 



the Act passed in the thirty-fourth year of the reign of His present Majesty, 
for maliing the said canal. May 30. 

Richard Asslieton, D.D., died 6th June. He was warden of the Collegiate 
Church, Manchester, and rector of Middleton. He was born at Middleton, 
August 16, 1727. 

The Bible Christian Church, King Street, Salford, was opened 28th Sept. 

A fire, by which warehouses in Hodson Square were burnt down Decem- 
ber 10, caused damages to the extent of £50,000, exclusive of the buildings. 

Dean's cotton factory, Oxford Road, was destroyed by fire, December 30. 
The damage was estimated at £13,000. 

Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Great Bridgewater Street, built. 

Dr. John Mitchell published The First of the New Exjjosition of the Reve- 
lation of the A2iostle John, by J. M., M.D. (London, 1800). He was a believer 
in the millennium. (Hibbert Ware's Life of S. Hibbert Ware, p. 241.) 

Thomas Blackburne, LL.D., appointed warden. 

Mr. James Ackers, of Lark Hill, Salford, having been appointed high 
sheriff, was escorted from his residence by the whole corps of volunteers and a 
numerous assemblage of gentry, &c., of the town and neighbourhood, forming 
a procession of upwards of a mile in length. 

Margaret Macaulay, a well-known beggar, died at the reputed age of 101. 

1801. 

Isaac Perrins died 6th January, in consequence of injuries received whilst 
trying to save life and property at a fire. He was noted for his success in the 
prize-ring; but was defeated by Thomas Johnson in 1789. At one time he was 
leadjir of a country choir, at another manager of a Birmingham manufactory, 
and at still another period was a publican in Manchester. At the close of his 
career he was the conductor of the fire engines in Manchester. This son of 
Anak was of a mild disposition, and when challenged to fisticuffs by G, F. 
Cooke, the actor, calmly picked him up in his arms like a child, and carried 
him into the street. (Procter's Turf, p. 74.) 

Littlewood and Kirby's cotton mill, which stood on the banks of the Med- 
lock, was destroyed by fire, when twenty-three persons lost their lives. 
January 27. 

Mr. Holland Ackers, of Lark Hill, Salford, died, 17th April, aged 56. 

The children attending the Church of England Sunday schools walked in 
procession, Whit Monday, May 6, to the Collegiate Church, where Warden 
Blackburne preached a special sermon. This was the beginning of the popular 
Whit-week procession. (Bardsley's Monorials, p. 126.) 

Union Public Corn Mills founded May 14 by John Tetlow, boroughreeve of 
Manchester. 

The cotton factory of Wareham and Company, Bury Street, Salford, was 
destroyed by fire May 20. The damage was estimated at £2,000. 

Mr. Richard Hall died 1st June. He was surgeon to the Manchester and 
Salford Volunteers, and was buried with military honours in the family vault 
in the Ducie Chapel, in the Collegiate Church. 

Mr. Samuel Clowes, of Broughton Old Hall, died June 17, aged 34. 



1802] 



Annals of Manchester. 129 



41 George III. cap. 96. Act for continuing for twenty-one years, and frona 
thence to the end of the then next Session of Parliament, the term and 
altering and enlarging the powers of an Act passed in the thirty-third year of 
the reign of His present Majesty, intituled, an Act for repairing, widening, 
altering, diverting, and turning the road from Hurdlow House, through 
Buxton, in the county of Derby, and Stockport, in the county of Chester, to 
Manchester. June 20. 

The Court Leet jury presented eleven owners of factories for not consuming 
the smoke in the mill chimneys. They were fined respectively £100, but the 
fines were respited to allow time for the chimneys to be altered. June. 

The Peace of Amiens was celebrated in Manchester by illuminations, pro- 
cessions, &c., October 4. 

Miss Elizabeth BjTom, of Kersal Cell, daughter of JohnByrom, F.R.S., died 
December 2. 

Mr. Peter Drinkwater, of Irwell House, Agecroft, died on his journey to 
London, December 2. 

The Presbyterian Chapel, New Windsor, Salford, was erected. It was 
rebuilt 1817. 

Bolton and Bury Canal opened to Salford. 

Colonel Silvester's regiment of Manchester and Salford Volunteers were 
presented with colours. They were consecrated in the Collegiate Church by 
the Rev. C. W. Ethelston, chaplain of the regiment. 

The Scramble Club formed at " Old Froggart's," the Unicorn Inn, Church 
Street. It was removed successively to the Garrick's Head Inn, Fountain 
Street ; the Spread Eagle, Hanging Ditch ; and the Blackfriars Inn, where it 
remained till 1848, when it migrated to the Clarence Hotel. Jonathan Peel, 
cousin of the first Sir Robert Peel, gave the name in a joke to this club, which 
included many well-knoAvn citizens. 

The Independent Chapel, Jackson's Lane (now Great Jackson Street), 
Hulme, was built. 

The population of Manchester, including Ardwick, Cheetham, Chorlton, 
and Hulme, at the first census, was 75,275. That of Salford including Brough- 
ton, 14,477. 

1802. 

A great storm caused great destruction of property ; a cotton factory was 
blown down at Pendleton, and one of the dial plates of St. Ann's clock was 
forced out. January 21. 

Colonel Ackers's Regiment of Manchester and Salford Volunteers was dis- 
banded ; the colours were deposited in the Collegiate Church, March 10. 

Lord Wilton's Regiment of Lancashire Volunteers returned from Ireland, 
where they had been stationed for five years. May 13. 

The non-commissioned officers and privates of Lord Wilton's Regiment 
were entertained at dinner by their colonel, in the College Yard. After dinner 
they "chaired" him several times round the yard, and from thence into St. 
Ann's Square. May 22. 

The first and second battalions of the Manchester and Salford Volunteers 
were disbanded. They were drawn up in Camp Field, when the thanks of the 
1 



130 Annals of Mancliestei-. 



[1802 



House of Commons and the inhabitants of the town, for their services, were 
read to them. The colours were deposited at the house of Colonel J. L. 
Phillips, at Mayfield, June 1. 

Thomas Sowler died 5th June. He was a printer and bookseller, and 
grandfather of Thomas Sowler, the founder of the Manchester Courier. 

Mr. Thomas Butterworth Bayley, F.R.S., died at Buxton, June 24. He was 
son of Daniel Bayley, and was born at Manchester in 1744. Almost as soon as 
he attained his majority he was appointed a Justice of the Peace, and became 
perpetual Chairman of Quarter Sessions. In 1768 he was High Sheriff. He 
was one of the founders of the Manchester Agricultural Society, Manchester 
Literary and Philosophical Society, and of a Society for the purpose of effecting 
the Abolition of the Slave Trade. He laid the first stone of the New Bailey 
Prison, which is said to have been so named in his honour by the unanimous 
vote of the Bench of Magistrates, but this has been denied. Mr. Bayley was 
author of Observations on the General Highway and Turnpike Acts, 1773 ; 
Charge delivered to the Grand Jury on the Opening of the New Bayley Court 
House, at the Quarter Sessions at Manchester, April 22nd, 1790 ; Thoughts on 
the necessity and advantage of Care and (Economy in Collecting and Preser- 
ving different substances for Manure, 1795, 2nd edition, 1796, third, 1799, and 
an essay On a cheap and expeditious method of draining land, which was 
printed in Hunter's Georgical Essays. Bayley was colonel of the regiment 
of Manchester and Salford Volunteers; he was a trustee of Cross Street Chapel, 
and of St. John's Church, Deansgate. 

Dame Frances Lever, relict of Sir Ashton Lever, died at Alkrington, 
July 21. 

Col. Thomas Stanley and Mr. John Ireland Blackburne, representatives of 
the county, were entertained at a public dinner by the inhabitants of Man- 
chester, July 22nd. 

Mr. James Ogden, "Poet Ogden," died 17 th Aug. He was born at Manchester 
in 1718, and was by trade a fustian shearer, but afterwards became master of a 
school connected with the Collegiate Church. He wrote The British Lion 
Bousd, Manchester, 1762 ; The Revolution, Manchester, 1790 ; Emanuel ; or. 
Paradise Regained, Manchester, 1797 ; Sans Culotte and Jacobine, Man- 
chester, 1800. None of these writings possess merit. He was the father 
of William Ogden the Radical reformer. (Procter's Literary Reminiscences.) 

Shawcross and Barnes's factory, in Portland Street, was burned down, 
September 7. The damage was estimated at £20,000. 

The Rev. John Pope died, 28th Oct. He was minister of a Dissenting 
congregation at Blackley. 

Mr. William Sudlow died in October. He was a music-seller in Hanging 
Ditch, and the father of John Sudlow, organist of the Collegiate Church. 

43 George III. cap. 3. Act for continuing the term and altering and 
enlarging the powers of an Act passed in the thirty-eighth year of the reign of 
His present Majesty, intituled, An Act for more effectually repairing, 
widening, altering, and improving the road from the town of Manchester, by a 
place called the White Smithy, in the township of Crumpsall, to the town of 
Rochdale, and also the road from the said place called the White Smithy, by a 



1803] 



Annals of Manchester. 131 



place called Besses-of-the-Barn, to the town of Bury, and also from the said 
place called Besses-of-the-Barn to Radcliife Bridge, and also the lane called the 
Sheepfoot Lane, in the township of Prestwich, so far as the same relates to a 
certain district of road therein described, called the Manchester district. 
December 29. 

The Philanthropic Society was founded. 

Colonel Ford's Regiment of Light Horse Volunteers were disbanded, and 
the colours deposited at Claremont. 

The Lancashire Commercial Clerks* Society was established. 

42 George III. cap. 95. Act for enabling the guardian of Elizabeth 
Henrietta Phillips, Spinster, an infant, to sell and convey in fee farm her 
undivided fourth part, or join with the owners of the other shares, in selling 
and conveying in fee farm the entirety of several plots or parcels of land in 
Manchester, under yearly reserved rents, for the purpose of building upon. 

1803. 

The Manchester Telegraph and Weekly Advertiser, No. 1, January 1, 
price sixpence, was printed and published by James Edmonds and Co., Bow 
Lane. 

The last toll at the New Bailey Bridge was paid off, January 31. 

Francis Egerton, Duke of Bridgewater, died 8th March. He was born 20th 
May, 1736, and succeeded to the title on the death of his brother in 1748. An 
early disappointment in love is said to have led him to retire to his Lancashire 
estate, where he conceived the idea of a canal navigation. In the carrying out 
of this enterprise he had the advantage of the help of James Brindley, an engi- 
neering genius of the first class. The story of the construction of the 
Bridgewater Canal is told in Dr. Smiles's Lives of the Engineers, and in 
Espinasse's Lancashire Worthies. The Duke of Bridgewater contributed 
£100,000 to the "loyalty loan." His canal property and coalmines at the 
time of his death were realising from £50,000 to £80,000 a year. The title 
became extinct, but the canal property was entailed on Lord Francis Egerton, 
the second son of the Marquis of Stafford. 

Mr. Robert Walker died at Little Moss, May 6. He was born at Carrington 
Barn, Audenshaw, July 27, 1728, and was a handloom weaver. Like many 
others of that calling he was a keen politician, and Burke's reference to the 
" swinish multitude " excited his indignation, and some pieces in the dialect, 
first written on a slate hanging by the side of his loom, appeared in the Man- 
chester Gazette, and were reprinted in 1796 under the title oi Plebeian Politics. 
His portrait is prefixed to a later edition of this witty little book. He is 
buried in Ashton Churchyard. 

The Philological Society, instituted by Dr. Adam Clarke for the cultivation 
of literature in general, and the dillusion of useful knowledge, September 2.3. 

The Tou-nsman, No. 1, appeared December 7. The editor of this theatrical 
paper was the eccentric James Watson, better known as " The Doctor." 

Colonel Joseph Hanson was presented at court, and was, it is said, com- 
manded by George III. to appear with his hat on, and in the regimentals of the 
Manchester Rifle Regiment, of which he was the commander, December 21. 

The Argus, No. 1, published by Joseph Aston. 



182 Annala of Manchester. 



[1804 



The following volunteer corps were raised in Manchester in the course of 
this year : Manchester Light Horse Volunteers, Shakspeare Philips, Colonel ; 
Ackers's Volunteers, James Ackers, Colonel; Silvester's Volunteers, John 
Silvester, Colonel; St. George's Corps, John Cross, Colonel; Fourth Class 
Volunteers, G. Philips, Colonel ; Hulme Volunteers, Major Pooley ; Pendletou 
Volunteers, Captain Abbot ; Trafford Volunteers, Lieutenant-Colonel Cooke ; 
Loyal Masonic Volunteer Rifle Corps, Joseph Hanson, Colonel. 

Kennedy's factory in German Street was burned down, and one af the 
firemen killed. 

A market opened in Bridge Street. 

The officers of the Manchester and Salford Volunteer Regiments were each 
presented with a gold medal, as a testimony of gratitude from their fellow- 
townsmen for their patriotic services. 

Pickfords, the carriers, oflfered to place at the disposal of Government^ 
should they be required, 400 horses, 50 wagons, and 28 boats. 

The cost of equipping a Manchester Light Horse Volunteer was £25 8s. 6d. 

1804. 

Mr. Joseph Harrop died 20th January, aged 67. He was a native of 
Manchester, and a printer and bookseller, as well as proprietor of the 
Manchester Mercury. He was succeeded in business by his son, James 
Harrop. 

High floods in the Irwell did considerable damage in January. 

James Robinson was married to Ann Hilton, at St. John's Church, by the 
Rev. John Clowes, February 6. This was the first marriage celebrated in that 
church, notwithstanding the right granted and confirmed thirty-five years 
before, by the Act of Parliament on which the church was founded. 

Mr. Thomas Furnival died 22nd February, aged 66. He was the governor of 
the House of Correction, Hunt's Bank. 

44 George III. cap. 9. Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the 
Rochdale Canal more eifectually to provide for the discharge of their debts, 
and to complete the whole of the works to be executed by them in pursuance 
of the several Acts passed for making and maintaining the said canal. March 23. 

The Hay Market was fixed in Bridgewater Street, and the Shudehill Potato 
Market removed to St. Johns Market, March 24. The last was afterwards 
established in Smithfield Market and Oldham Road, adjoining the Lancashire 
and Yorkshire Goods Station. 

The Rev. John Clowes preached a sermon on the occasion of the presenta- 
tion of colours to the First Battalion, Fourth Class, of Manchester and Salford 
Volunteers, April 2. 

There was a grand review of the local Volunteer Corps, consisting of 5,816 
men, on Sale Moor, in Cheshire, by the Duke of Gloucester and his son. Prince 
William, April 12. The stand fell, and one person was kiUed. This is referred 
to in Mrs. Linnaeus Banks's Manchester Man. 

Mr. Nathaniel Wood died 1st June, aged 60. He was a patten maker ic 
Hanging Bridge, and was known by the nickname of "Patten Nat." A wag 



1804] Annals of Manchester. 133 

wrote the following doggerel upon him at the public-house he used to frequent 
in Sal ford : — 

" Patten Nat, he is so fat, 
That he can hardly walk, 
With sitting here, and drinking beer, 
And hearing puppies talk. " 

There is a portrait of Nat in the Scrap Album at Chetham's College. 

There was a public procession to Ardwick Green, to celebrate the birthday 
of George III., June 4. 

44 George III. cap. 49. Act for more effectually amending the road leading 
from the New Wall, on the Parade, in the township of Castleton, in the parish 
of Rochdale, through Middleton, to the Mere Stone, in the township of Great 
Heaton, and to the town of Manchester, June 5. 

Mr. Ralph Whitehead died 10th June. He was the leader of the band of 
the Fourth Class of Manchester and Salford Volunteers. 

The British Volunteer, No. 1, June 30, was printed and published by 
James Harrop, in the Market Place, price 6d. 

A duel was fought on Kersal Moor between Major Phillips, commander of 
the Manchester and Salford Cavalry, and Mr. Jones, a private in the same 
corps, July 9. 

Rev. Doming Rasbotham died 18th July. He was a fellow of the Collegiate 
Church. 

Colonel John Leigh Philips and Colonel Joseph Hanson met upon Kersal 
Moor, to fight a duel, but were arrested and bound over to keep the peace, 
July 25. 

The roof of the Bible Christian Church, King Street, Salford, fell in, 
August 23. 

Reverend John Johnson died 22nd September. He was born near Norwich 
and after hearing a sermon preached in one of the chapels of the Countess of 
Huntingdon he was one of the first six students ordained in the plan of 
secession. He settled at Wigan, and preached ac Chorley and Bretherton 
where there was a riotous disturbance which led to a trial at the Quarter 
Sessions. He next moved to Tyldesley, and then visited America, and had a 
stiff legal contest, in Avhich he was worsted, as to the Orphan House founded 
by Whitfield. Returning to England he was imprisoned for debts contracted 
in erecting the chapel at Tyldesley. He came to Manchester and secured St. 
George's Church, which had been built for Anglican services, but had not been 
consecrated, and the builder having become insolvent it passed into the hands 
of the creditors. Here he gathered an appreciative audience. On one occasion 
he preached three sermons in Hebrew to the Jews of Manchester. He left 
various MS. works, some in shorthand, and published llic Lcvites Journal; 
and a prospectus of a universal language. Tlie Rev. William Roby preached 
his funeral sermon, whicli was printed. 

The Duke of Gloucester, accompanied by his son. Prince William, inspected 
the whole volunteer force of the town at Ardwick ; after which they paid a 
visit to Chetham's Hospital, September 30. 

Colonel Cross's Regiment, known as the St. George's Corps of Manchester 
and Salfoi'd Volunteer Infantry, was disbanded in September. 



134 Annals of Manchester. 



[1805 



Mr. George Lloyd, barrister, died October 12. 

Mr. Griffith Cheese died 10th November. He was organist of the Collegiate 

Church, and a musical composer. He is buried in the Collegiate Church. 

Mr. Gerard Bancks died in November. He was a printer and bookseller, 

and an officer in the volunteers. 

The Rochdale and Halifax Canal to Knot Mill was opened December 20. 
The Rochdale Canal was opened. The committee came from Rochdale to 

Manchester in two boats, accompanied by the band of the 1st battalion of the 

Manchester and Salford Volunteers, and on the same evening a boat loaded 

with goods came from Rochdale to Manchester, and proceeded through to 

Liverpool next morning. December 21. 

The Manchester Guide, price 6d., by Joseph Aston. It gives a concise 

view of the state of the town at this date. 

The Rev. R. H. Whitelocke was appointed postmaster in. the place of Mr. 

James Harrop, printer. 

St. Luke's Chapel, Bedford Street, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, was built by 

the Rev. E. Smyth. It was consecrated 1858, and rebuilt 1865. It is now a 

parish and rectory. 

From returns it appears that in Manchester and Salford there were the 

following volunteer companies : — 

Men. 

Volunteer Cavalry, Major Shakespeare Phillips 138 

Volunteer Artillery, Colonel Earl Wilton 113 

Royal Manchester and Salford Volunteers, Colonel Ackers 1,017 

2nd Battalion Royal M. & S., Lieut.-Colonel Sylvester 1,057 

St. George's Volunteers, Colonel Cross 300 

Hulme Volunteers, Major Pooley 190 

Swinton, Captain Bullock 83 

Pendleton, Captain Ablett 110 

Fourth-class Manch. and Salf. Volunteers, Lieut.-Col. G. Philips.. 386 

Traiford Volunteers, Lieutenant-Colonel Cooke 8i5 

First Regt. Manch. and Salf. Volunteers, Lieut.-Col. Phillips... "» , ,,„ 

> r I 1,119 



} 



Heaton Norris Volunteers, Captain Dale 

Failsworth Pikemen, Captain Birch 192 

Manchester, Salford, Bury, and Stockport Rifle and Pikemen, 

Lieutenant-Colonel Hanson 676 

There is a list of the companies and officers in Earwaker's Local Gleanings, 
where the numbers of the men are in some cases slightly different. 

The order-book of the Royal Manchester and Salford Volunteers during 
their march from Bolton to Preston and return is printed in Earwaker's Local 
Gleanings, Nos. 182, 189, 196. 

1805. 

The Mail was printed and published by Joseph Aston, No. 1, January 1. 
Price sixpence. 

The factory of G. Ollivant, in Bury Street, Salford, was destroyed by fire, 
January 7. 

The factory of T. Rowley and Co., Oldfield Lane, destroyed by fire, Feb. 26. 



1805] 



Annals of Manchester. 135 



The factory of John Read, at Islington, Ancoats, was destroyed by fire 
February 26. 

The factory of "Wood and Foster, at Garratt, destroyed by fire, March 1. 
The damage was estimated at £20,000. 

45 George III. cap. 4. Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the 
Canal Navigation from Manchester to Bolton and to Bury to raise money to 
complete the same. March 12. 

45 George III. cap. 11. Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the 
Canal Navigation from Manchester to or near Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham, 
more effectually to provide for the discharge of their debts and to complete 
the said canal and the cuts and works thereto belonging. IMarch 18. 

45 George III. cap. 38. Act for enabling Thomas Barrow, Esquire, and the 
person and persons for the time being respectively entitled to the freehold in 
possession of and in the moiety of certain estates in Manchester, under the 
will of William Barrow, deceased, to grant and convey the same moiety in fee 
simple for building upon, or otherwise improving the same, reserving rents, or 
to make building leases thereof, or to join with the owner or owners, for the 
time being, of the other moiety thereof, in making such grants and convey- 
ances or leases respectively. May 17. 

Ann Smith, a woman 30 years old, was murdered in Oak Street, May 31. 
Mary Jackson was tried at Lancaster for the crime, but acquitted. 

Two cousins of the name of Faulkner, belonging to Colonel Hanson's Rifle 
Corps, were practising at the target, in the grounds attached to Strangeways 
Hall, when one of them going behind the mark was shot through the body by 
the other. June 7. 

45 George III. cap. 59. Act to empower the Justices of the Peace within 
the Division or Hundred of Salford to raise a sum of money to be paid by way 
of salary to the Chairman of the Quarter Sessions for the said Hundred. 
June 27. 

The factory of Messrs. Buchan and Shaw, at Higher Ardwick, destroyed 
by fire. July 14. 

Rev. Mosley Cheek died 18th July. He was the founder of St. Stephen's 
Dhurch, and chaplain of the New Bailey. 

There were great public rejoicings on Ardwick Green for the victory ol 
Trafalgar. Subscription was made for the relief of those who had lost 
relatives in the engagement. November 21. The volunteers attended the 
thanksgiving services 5th December. 

Hindley's cotton factory, George Leigh Street, Ancoats, was burned down 
December 20. 

Thackary and Son's cotton factory, at Garratt, destroyed by fire Dec. 22. 

The officers of the Manchester and Salford Rifle Corps presented to Joseph 
Hanson, their colonel, a sword, a brace of pistols, and a pike. 

Mr. Charles Gough, of Manchester, died upon the mountain of Helvellyn. 
His remains were not discovered till three months afterwards, when they were 
found guarded by a faithful terrier bitch, his constant attendant during fre- 
quent solitary rambles through the wilds of Cumberland and Westmoreland. 



136 Annals of Manchester. 



ri806 



This melancholy incident was made the subject of a poem by Sir Walter Scott, 
ending with the verses : — 

" When a prince to the fate of the peasant has yielded, 

The tapestry waves dark round the dim-lighted hall 
With scutcheons of silver the coffin is shielded, 

And pages stand mute by the canopial pall : 
Through the courts, at deep midnight, the torches are gleaming, 
In the proudly-arched chapel the banners are beaming, 
Far adown the long aisle sacred music is streaming. 

Lamenting a chief of the people should fall. 

But meeter for thee, gentle lover of nature. 

To lay down thy head like the meek mountain lamb, 
When, 'wilder'd, he drops from some cliff huge in stature 

And draws his last sob by the side of his dam. 
And more stately thy couch by this desert lake lying, 
Thy obsequies sung by the gray plover flying. 
With one faithful friend but to witness thy dying, 

In the arms of Helvellyn and Cathedicam." 

Mr. "W. M. Craig attempted the formation of a Manchester Academy for the 
Promotion of Fine Arts, but the attempt failed. 

The factory of Messrs. Lee and Phillips, Salford, was lighted with gas. This 
was the first use of the new light in this district. 

1806. 

The Portico, Mosley Street, was opened January 20. Cost £7,000. 

In the case of Mosley v. Stonehouse and Railton, which was tried in the 
King's Bench 11th February, the lord of the manor, as plaintiff, sought to com- 
pel defendants to serve the office of constable, to which they had been 
appointed. They claimed exemption as the holders of certificates known as 
Tyburn tickets, and their claim was allowed. By 10 and 11 William III., c. 23, 
those who obtained the conviction of a person charged with a capital offence 
were entitled to exemption from parochial ofiices. This was repealed 58 Geo. 
III. c. 70. 

46 George III. cap. 2. Act for making and maintaining a road from Great 
Bridgewater Street, in Manchester, across the River Irwell, through Salford, 
to Eccles, and several branches of road to communicate therewith. March 22. 

In making the new road from Manchester to Middleton the workmen 
discovered a number of bones and a lead cofiinin Collyhurst Clough. They are 
supposed to be the remains of persons who died of the plague in 1605, when a 
piece of land containing six acres was given by Mr. Rowland Mosley, lord of 
the manor, as a burial-place for those who died of this disease. It was also 
intended to erect cabins and build upon for the relief and harbour of infected 
persons whenever the plague should appear in the town. March. 

Mr. Joseph Barlow, governor of Chetham's Hospital, died April 9, aged 72. 

Mr. Charles Lawson, M.A., died 19th April, aged 78 years. He was for 
fifty-eight years master of the Free Grammar School. A monument, designed 
by Bacon, is placed over the entrance into the chapter-house of the Collegiate 
Church, with an inscription expressive of the estimation in which he was held. 
There is a notice of him in Smith's Grammar School Register. De Quincey 
has left a vivid account of the state of the school under Lawson's management. 



1806] 



Annals of Manchester. 137 



The first stone of the Exchange was laid by Mr. George Phillips, July 21. 
<See also under dates 1809 and 1872.) 

46 George III. cap. 20. Act for enabling the Company of Troprietors of the 
Kochdale Canal more effectually to provide for the discharge of their debts, and 
to amend the several Acts passed for making and maintaining the said canal. 
April 21. 

Mr. William Tate, an eminent portrait painter of this town, died at Bath, 
June 2. He is said to have been born at either Manchester or Liverpool, was a 
pupil of Wright, of Derby, and exhibited twelve portraits at the Society of 
Artists, London, between 1771 and 1804. 

46 George III. cap. 63. Act for more eflfectually improving the roads from 
Manchester, through Oldham, to Austerlan-''^, in the parish of Saddleworth, and 
from Oldham to Ashton-under-Lyne, and from Oldham to the village of Royton. 
June 9. 

46 George III. cap. 83. Act to extend the powers given to and vested in the 
Trustees of certain lands in Manchester, Crumpsall, and Tetlow, in the county 
of Lancaster, called Clarke's Charity Lands, by an Act made in the thirty-fifth 
year of the reign of His present Majesty, intituled, An Act to enable the 
Trustees of certain lands in Manchester, Crumpsall, and Tetlow, called Clarke's 
Charity Lands, to make leases for years upon rack rents, and also to grant 
building leases, and make conveyances in fee of and upon all or any part of the 
said Lands, under reserved yearly rents. June 20. 

46 George III. cap. 84. Act for enabling the Guardians of Francis Outram, 
an infant, or of the persons, for the time being, entitled to the freehold in pos- 
session of the moiety of certain estates situate in or near Ancoats Lane, Man- 
chester, during their minorities, to carry into execution certain contracts 
entered into with the several persons therein named for sale of part thereof, 
and also for enabling such guardians to convey the residue in fee simple for 
building upon, reserving rents, or to make building leases thereof; or to join 
with the owners, for the time being, of the other moiety of the same estates in 
carrying into execution such contracts, and in making such conveyances or 
leases respectively, and for other purposes therein mentioned. June 20. 

Mrs. Julia Young, wife of the highly-talented tragedian Mr. Charles Mayne 
Young, then one of the managers of the Theatre Royal in this town, died 
July 11. She was buried at Prestwich, and upon the gravestone are some lines 
written by Joseph Aston. The spot was one which she selected when walking 
there with her husband. Some interesting particulars are given in the Life of 
C. M. Young, by his Son, the Rev. Julian Young. 

The Lancashire Union of Independent Churches was founded at Mosley 
Street Chapel, September 23. 

Messrs. Norton and Co.'s dyehouse, at the Wallness, was burned down 
October 9 ; damages £2,000. 

Banns of marriage were published in St. Mary's Church for the first time, 
October 19. 

The Methodist New Connexion Chapel, Broad Street, Pendleton, was built. 

Robert Southey visited Manchester. In his Letters of Espriclla he has 
given a curious account of his experienccf 



138 Annals of Manchester. 



[1807 



Broughton Bridge built by Mr. Samuel Clowes. The passage over was free 
to his tenants in Broughton, but for other passengers a toll was levied. 
Theatre Koyal, Fountain Street, erected. 

1807. 

Julius Leuchte, leader of the band at the Gentlemen's Concert, died Jan. 16. 
The Rev. John Lever died February, aged 75. He was the brother of 
Sir Ashton Lever, of Alkrington. 

The Grand Lodge of the Loyal Orange Institution of England established 
at the Star Hotel, Deansgate. Colonel Taylor, of Moston, was elected Grand 
Master. February. 

Mr. Francis Duckinfield Astley, of Dukinfleld, was appointed High Sheriff 
for Cheshire, and passed through Manchester 12th April, with a splendid caval- 
cade, accompanied by the Rifle Corps. 

The Rev. Jeremiah Smith, D.D., of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
appointed master of the Free Grammar School, May 6. 

The Theatre Royal, Fountain Street, was opened July 12, with the comedy 
of Folly as it Flies and Eosina, under the management of Mr. Macready. 
The rent was £2,000 a year. 

There was a riot between the Orangemen and the Irish, in High Street, 
July 13. 

47 George III. stat. 2, cap. 81. Act to alter, amend, explain, and enlarge 
the powers of the several Acts passed for making and maintaining the Rochdale 
Canal Navigation. August 8. 

As three boys were sliding upon the ponds in Strangeways Park, the ice 
broke and they were let into the water, when two were saved by Mr. David 
Law, jun. The other was drowned. November 29. 

The Independent Chapel, Grosvenor Street, was opened in December. 
James Massey, who was a prisoner in the New Bailey, charged with an 
unnatural crime, hanged himself, and was buried near the " distance chair " on 
Kersal Moor ; from whence he was afterwards removed and buried in the 
ditch at the place where Grindrod was gibbeted, and was finally interred near 
the Salford weighing machine. 

The payment of cock penny abolished by the feoffees of the Free Grammai 
School. 

The Independent Methodist Chapel, Shaw Street, Salford, was opened. 
The Baptist Chapel, York Street, was built. 

The first packet boat from the New Bailey Bridge commenced sailing to 
Runcorn. 

John Lancaster died at Mere 10th August. He is said to have been the 
first to open a Sunday school in Manchester. He was a shoemaker in a cellar 
in London Road, where he started a school in 1785. {Manchester Guardian 
Local Notes and Queries, No. 984.) 

Rev. George "Walker, F.R.S., died in London in 1807. He was born at 
Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1735, and after preaching to Dissenting congregations at 
Durham and Yarmouth became mathematical teacher at Warrington. In 
1794 he was master at Nottingham, but came to Manchester as a professor at 



1808] 



Annals of Manchester. 139 



the Manchester Academy. He was president of the Liteiary and Philosophica' 
Society, and the author of the Dissenter's Plea, and various essays on ethic4 
and belles-lettres. (Smith's Centenary, p. 186.) 

Mr. Joseph Hanson resigned the command of the Manchester Loyal 
Masonic Rilie Volunteers. 

1808. 

A dispute between the weavers and their employers respecting the rate of 
wages led to a riot, May 24, 25. Lieutenant-Colonel Hanson appeared on the 
field and endeavoured to pacify the weavers. One weaver was killed by the 
military. 

48 George IIL cap. 43. Act for the more easy and speedy recovery of small 
debts within the parish of Manchester. May 27. 

48 George III. cap. 127. Act for enabling Sir Oswald Mosley, Baronet, to 
grant certain lands and hereditaments, in the parish of Manchester, for the 
purposes of the Manchester Public Infirmary, Dispensary, Lunatic Hospital or 
Asylum, and for vesting the property and eff'ects belong to the said Charity in 
Trustees for the benefit thereof. June 18. 

The Rev, John Darby died August 31, aged 71. He was for upwards of 
forty yeai's second master of the Free Grammar School, and on the death of Mr, 
Lawson refused the head mastership on the ground of ill-health. 

Mr. Nathaniel Philips, of Stand, in Pilkington, died September £9, aged 82. 

A servant woman committed suicide by poison, and was buried at New 
Cross, September 22. 

The Rev. John Whitaker died at Ruan Rectory, 30th October. He was the 
son of IVIr. James Whitaker, and was born at Manchester and baptised at the 
Collegiate Church. He entered the Grammar School 7th January, 1744-5 ; and 
was exhibitioner to Brasenose, Oxford, 1752, He matriculated 5th March, 1752, 
and became Lancashire Scholar of Corpus Christi College 2nd March, 1753, 
and fellow 21st January, 1763. He took his degrees as follows : B.A. 24th 
October, 1755 ; M.A. 27th February, 1759 ; and B.D. 1st July, 1767. He was 
elected a F.S.A. 10th January, 1771. He lived near Salford Bridge, circa 1772. 
He was successively curate of Bray, Berkshire, and curate of Newton Chapel ; 
he was morning preacher at Berkeley Chapel, November, 1773, to January, 1774 ; 
and Rector of Ruan Lanyhorn 22nd August, 1777, to the time of his death. 
He married Jane, daughter of the Rev. John Tregenna. He is best known by 
his History of Manchester, 1771-75, which, if disfigured by dogmatism and 
untenable theories, is a work of great importance and erudition. A full list of 
his numerous writings is given in the Bibliotheca Conuhiensis of Boasc and 
Courtney, and in Palatine Note-hook, vol. i., p. 77, where a miniature portrait 
by n. Bone is engraved. 

Mr. John Thornton, drawing-master, died November 9. 

Rev. James Bayley, M.A., senior fellow of the college, died November 13. 
He was son of James Bayley, high sheriff in 1757, and was born in 1740. He 
was educated at the Grammar School, and was Hulme exhibitioner at Brasenose 
College, Oxford, in 1762. He was rector at St. Mary's Church, and was elected 
fellow of the Collegiate Church, October 14. 1773. (Smith's Grammar School 



140 Annals of Manchester. 



[1809 



Register, vol. i., p. 31.) The Rev. C. Johnson, of Wilmslow, was elected in 
his place, December 12. 

Mr. Nathan Meyer Rothschild settled in Manchester, as agent to his father 
t Frankfort, in purchasing cotton goods for the Continental market. He wa3 
only resident for a few years. 

Sir Oswald Mosley offered to sell the manor of Manchester to the inhabi- 
tants for £90,000, but the negotiations failed. £70,000 Avas offered, and refused. 

A petition, signed by 50,000 persons, was sent from Manchester against the 
"Orders in Council," passed in retaliation of Bonaparte's Berlin and Milan 
decrees. 

Manchester and Salford Court of Requests was established. 

The Manchester and Salford Waterworks Company established. The 
length of iron main pipes laid down was upwards of seventy miles, and the 
daily consumption of water was about 1,400,000 gallons. Reservoirs were made 
at Bradford, Beswick, Gorton, and Audenshaw. 

The Shudehill Pits partially filled up, and a Methodist chapel built upon 
a part of their site in Swan Street, but converted into shops and dwelling- 
houses in 1823. 

The Circus, in Chatham Street, was taken down and dwelling-housea 
erected on the site. 

The Regent Bridge, Regent Road, was opened. A toll was taken until 
1848, when it was made free. 

The Bradford reservoir was demolished. 

1809. 

The newsroom was opened at the Exchange 2nd January. 

The Rev. John Clowes, of Broughton Hall, was elected a fellow of the 
Collegiate Church, February 11. 

Mr. Joseph Hanson, of Strangeways Hall, was sentenced in the Court of 
King's Bench to six months' imprisonment, and a fine of £100, May 12, for his 
share in the conflict between the weavers and their masters. A "penny sub- 
cription " was raised, to which there were thirty-nine thousand six hundred 
contributors. Hanson was justly popular with the working classes. 

49 George III. cap. 192. Act for more effectually supplying with water the 
inhabitants of the towns of Manchester and Salford. June 20. 

The dining-room of the Exchange was opened 4th June. 

Mr. Samuel Clowes, of Broughton Hall, was appointed high sheriff of the 
county. 

The lessee of the Theatre Royal, the elder Macready, found himself in 
financial straits. His son, afterwards so famous as an actor, although only a 
youth of sixteen, was practically manager of his father's company. The youth 
saw his father arrested by the sheriff's officer. " When I found him actually a 
prisoner," he says, " my fortitude gave way, and I burst into tears." For W. C. 
Macready's later connection with the town see under date 1849. 

The Swedenborgian Conference was to have been held in Manchester, but, 
"from unforeseen circumstances of an unpleasant nature," did not take place. 
A conference, summoned by the Rev. William Cowherd, was held, and resulted 



1810] 



Annals of Manchester 141 



in the formation of the Bible Christian Church. (Hindmarsh's Rise of New 
Jerusalem Church, p. 190.) 

The Manchester Exchange Herald, No. 1, September 30, was printed and 
published by Joseph Aston, St. Ann Street. 

Mary Leatherbarrow, said to be 106 years of age, died at Hulme. 

A large pile of warehouses, situated in Crompton Coui't, was burnt down, 
April 13. 

Bradbury, the clown, opened the new Amphitheatre in Spring Gardens, 
September. 

The Ladies' Jubilee School, Strangeways, was founded October 24. (See 
under date 1810.) 

The Jubilee, to commemorate the fiftieth year of the reign of George III., 
celebrated with processions, balls, and fireworks, October 23. 

The fine whole-length portrait of Colonel Stanley, painted by Lawrence, 
was presented by James Ackers and Thomas Johnson, and placed in the 
Exchange room. November. 

The scutching machine introduced into Manchester by Mr. James^Keuncdy. 

1810. 

The Manchester Auxiliary Bible Society was established January 4. 

Mr. Thomas Henshaw, of Oldham, died March 4. He left £20,000 for a 
Blind Asylum, £1,000 to the Infirmary, £1,000 to the Lunatic Hospital, and 
£500 to the Ladies' Jubilee School. 

Rev. Thomas Barnes, D.D., died at Ferneysides, Little Lever, 27th June. 
He was born at Warrington, 13th February, 1747, and educated at Warrington 
Grammar School and Warrington Academy. In 1768 he became minister at 
Cockey Moor, and in 1780 was appointed co-pastor of Cross Street Chapel. He 
was one of the founders of the Literary and Philosophical Society, and a leader 
in the intellectual and philanthropic movements of the time. There is a 
portrait of him in Sir Thomas Baker's Memorials, and a list of his writings. 
He is buried in the Chapel Yard. 

The Rev. John Gresswell, who for many years filled the office of school- 
master at the Chetham Hospital, died July 14. 

A dinner given to Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith by the authorities 
of the town, September 6. 

William Wilkinson Westhcad born 20th September. He was known as 
the "Manchester gigantic boy." (See under date of September 5, 1825.) 

Major-General Roger Aytoun (" Spanking Roger"), of Chorlton Hall, died 
at Inchdarney, in Scotland, October 23. 

Rev. Ralph Harrison died 4th November. He was a descendant of Cuthbert 
Harrison, of Kirkham, but was born at Chinley, in Derbyshire, and was 
educated at the Warrington Academy, and in 1771 became minister of Cross 
Street Chapel. There is a silhouette portrait of him in Sir Thomas Baker's 
Memorials. He is the author of Institutes of English Grammar, 1777 ; Sacred 
Ilarinony : Psalm Tunes, 1786. His Sermons were collected, with a memoii' 
by Rev. John Holland, and published in 1813. 

The Royal Laucasterian Free School, jNIanchcster, founded by public 



142 Annals of Manchester. jign 

subscription, was opened, November 23, in Marshall Street, Oldham Koad. It 
was transferred to the Manchester School Board in 1880. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Great Bridgewater Street, was opened. 

Hackney coaches established in Manchester. 

Brown's Chantry, dedicated to St. George, on the north side of the Collegiate 
Church, was purchased by the parishioners for £900. 

The Ladies' Jubilee School, in Strangeways, had its origin in 1806, in the 
benevolence of several ladies. In 1809 a house was procured in Broughton 
Lane, and ten gii-ls were educated. Over the centre door of the present build- 
ing is the following inscription : " Jubilee Female Charity School, erected 
1810, by public subscription, in commemoration of the 50th year of His Majesty 
George IH." Shortly after the completion of the building the number of girls 
was increased to thirty. The children are instructed in reading and writing, 
in knitting, sewing, and in the duties of kitchen and house servants. 

Joseph Allen, portrait painter, settled in Manchester and painted a great 
number of portraits. He was a native of Birmingham. He retired from 
Manchester to Buxton, where he died. 

A painting by Old Parry, representing Manchester Market Place in 1810, 
is preserved at Agecrof t Hall. It is described by Sir Thomas Baker in the 
Palatine Note-hook, vol. iii., p. 231. 

1811. 

The Manchester Philanthropic Society established January 1. 

Wood and Foster's cotton factory, at Garratt, was destroyed by fire, 
January 3. 

William Thomas Lewis, comedian, died January 13, aged 65. He was a 
native of Ormskirk, his father being an actor, and his grandfather a clergyman. 
He went on the stage when very young, and early distinguished himself. He 
made his first appearance in London, October 13, 1776. In 1782 he became deputy 
manager of Covent Garden Theatre. In 1803 he retired from this position, and 
eventually became joint proprietor of the Liverpool and Manchester Theatres. 
{Gentleman s Magazine, January, 1811, p. 90.) 

Rev. Thomas Bancroft, M. A., Vicar of Bolton, died at Bolton, 5th February. 
He was born at Manchester, 1756, and wrote Prolusiones Poetical, 1788, and 
other works. {Grammar School Register, vol. i., p. 103.) 

Mr. John Prescott, printer of the Manchester Journal, died, near Leigh, 
April 13, aged 79. 

Mr. Joseph Hanson died 3rd September. He was born at Manchester, 1774. 
He was the author of Defence of the Petitions for Peace, 1808. After retiring 
from business he lived at Strangeways Hall, and was imprisoned for taking 
sides with the weavers in a dispute with their employers. (See under date 1809.) 

Mr. Thomas Philips, father of Sir George Philips, Bart., died, aged 83. 

Mr. Samuel Chetham Hilton, of Moston, was appointed High Sheriff. 

Mr. Joseph Hanson, in giving evidence before the House of Commons on the 
petition fi'om the Manchester weavers, stated the number of spinners to be 
9,000, and the number of weavers at 12,000, the latter earning lis., and the 
former averaging 7s. per week when fully employed. 

The Lodge in Pool Fold taken down. This was the ancient house formerly 



1812] 



Annals of Manchester. 143 



known as " Radcliffes of the Pool," and at one time used as a prison for Roman 
Catholic recusants. 

The population of Manchester, including Ardwick, Cheetham, Chorlton 
and Hulme, at the second census, was 89,054. That of Salford, including 
Broughton, 19,939. 

1812. 

Haigh, Marshall, and Tidswell's warehouse, High Street, was destroyed 
by fire, Sunday, February 9. 

Rev. Cornelius Bayley, D.D., died at Manchester, 2nd April. He was 
founder and minister of St. James's Church. He wrote a Hebrew Grammar, 
and took an active part in the promotion of Sunday schools. The Sweden- 
borgian minister Hindmarsh, who knew him well, says that he was a 
disbeliever in the Newtonian astronomy, against which he urged Jos. x. 12, and 
2 Kings XX. 10, 11. He thought a knowledge of the Hebrew language a good 
introduction to that of the angels of heaven, since it was the tongue spoken by 
God and His prophets. One of his sermons ended with the following odd meta- 
phor in the expression of a wish that " the waters of strife may be quenched in 
the^re of divine love." (Hindmarsh's Rise of Isew Jerusalem. Church, p. 136.) 
A meeting for proposing a loyal address to the Prince Regent was called by 
the authorities at the Exchange, but the meeting was postponed. The 
irritation thus caused finally led to a riot, in which great damage was done. 
April 8. 

There were food riots in April. The ringleaders were apprehended, and on 
the 13th June eight persons were executed at Lancaster — four for mill burning, 
three for breaking into a house merely to obtain some food, and a woman for 
stealing some potatoes at Bank Top. 

National Schools, on Dr. Bell's system, opened in Granby Row, 20th April, 
and in Bolton Street, Salford, 26th June. 

The Wiltshire, Buckinghamshire, Louth, and Stirling militia regiments, 
' numbering about 3,000, were encamped on Kersal Moor, and were reviewed by 
General Ackland, June 4. The camp was visited in August by the Duke of 
Montrose. 

Thirty-eight men— named "William Washington, Thomas Broughton, Thos. 
Cooke, John Haigh, Thomas Wilkinson, Charles Oldham, James Knott, Chas. 
WooUing, Robert Thornley, Simon Simmons, William Coppock, John Oldham, 
Aaron Marvel, John Haworth, Err Oldham, John Kershaw, Charles Smitli, 
Thomas Harsnett, John Knight, Thomas Cannavan, Joseph Tilney, John 
Godley, Daniel Jevens, Stephen Harrison, Edward M'Ginnes, James Hepworth, 
Rycroft Hepworth, James Lawton, Robert Slack, Randle Judson, P^Jmund 
Newton, Aaron Whitehead, James Buckley, John Newton, James Boothbr, 
Edwai'd Phillips, James Greenwood, and Isaac Birch — who had assembled at a 
public-liouse in Ancoats Lane were taken up and tried for administering the 
Luddite oath, June 11. After remaining in prison for three months they were 
tried at Lancaster and acquitted, August 28. 

Mr. Sadler, the aeronaut, ascended in a balloon from St. George's Field, 
June 2!», 



144 Annals of Manchester. i8i3 

The tomb of Sir James Stanley, fourth warden of the Collegiate Church, and 
Bishop of Ely, was reopened after an interval of 287 years since his interment. 
The bishop died excommunicated, and a suspicion was thereby excited that the 
body would not be found buried within the pale of the church. This conjecture 
was confirmed, June. 

Mr. James Cooke, solicitor, of Salford, died August?. He was a captain in 
Ackers's First Regiment, and afterwards colonel of the Trafford and Hulme 
Volunteers. 

Right Hon. George Canning entertained at dinner at the Star Inn, 
Manchester, October 31. The company numbered about 300. 

Mr. Samuel Crompton made a survey of all the cotton districts in England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, and obtained an estimate of the number of spindles then 
at work upon the principle of his invention. There were between four and five 
millions. He obtained a Parliamentary grant of £5,000 in full, without fees 
or charges. In 1829 about seven millions of his spindles were at work. 

The Society for Converting the Jews to Christianity was instituted. 

The Religious Tract Society was established. 

The Church Tract Society was instituted. 

Mr. Edward Greaves, of Culcheth, was appointed high sheriff. 

1813. 

Mr. Charles White, M.D., F.R.S., died 20th February. This eminent surgeon 
was born in Manchester, October 4, 1728. He was one of the founders of the 
Manchester Infirmary, and, in addition to some professional writings, was the 
author of a suggestive book on Gradations in Man and Ayiinials, 1799. Par- 
ticulars of his life are given in Smith's Centenary, in Smith's Grammar School 
Begister, and in a notice by Thomas White in the Mevioirs of the Literary and 
Philosophical Society of Manchester, series 2, vol. iii. 

Mr. Edward Erastus Deacon, M.D., died March 14. 

Bennett's factory. Great Newton Street, destroyed by fire, March 16. 

Messrs. Naylor and Co.'s warehouse, with others, in the New Market 
Buildings, destroyed by fire, April 1. 

53 George III. cap. 20. Act for enlarging the powers of an Act of His 
present Majesty for supplying with water the towns of Manchester and 
Salford. April 1. 

Rev. John Dauntesey, of Agecroft Hall, died April 24, aged 78. 

The Manchester Pitt Club was established. May. 

The Manchester PoUce Bill received the Royal assent, June 11. 

53 George IH. cap. 72. Act for the more effectual administration of the 
office of a Justice of the Peace within Manchester and Salford, and to provide, 
by means of a rate, a competent salary to a Justice of the Peace acting within 
the said townships, and to enable the Constables of Manchester and Salford to 
take recognizances in certain cases. June 22. 

]VIr. William Yates died July 10, at Spring Side, near Bury, in his 74tli year. 
He was a partner with the first Sir Robert Peel. 

The Temple of the New Jerusalem Churr-h— the followers of Swedenborg— 
in Bolton Street, Salford, was opened September 19. 



lSi4J 



Annals of Manchester. 145 



Rev. Samuel Hall, M.A., died, 22ud September. He was probably a native 
of Ashton, and in 1777 became curate of St. Ann's, vrhere he continued until 
1794 when he became rector of St. Peter's, which was indeed partly built for 
him. Mr. Hall was chaplain of the local volunteers, and, in deference to the 
Dissenting members of the corps, he omitted the Athanasian creed. This lost 
him his expected election as a Fellow of the Collegiate Church, but secured him 
the incumbency of St. Peter's. Pie published two collections of hymns {see 
Bardsley's Me^norials, pp- 168-174). He was one of the guardians of Dc Quincey. 

54 George III. cap. 1. Act to continue and amend two Acts of the thirty- 
eighth and forty-third years of His present Majesty for more effectually 
repairing that part of the roads from Manchester to Rochdale, Bury, and Rat- 
clifFe Bridge, which is called the Manchester district, and for making and 
maintaining a new branch of road to communicate therewith. December 6. 

Mr. William David Evans, barrister, was appointed the first stipendiary 
magis-trate for Manchester and Salford, at a salary of £1,000 per annum, 
payable in the proportion of seven-eighths from the township of Manchester, 
and one-eighth from the township of Salford. 

A poem, entitled A ProsiMct of Manchester and its Neighbourhood from 
Chamber upon the rising grounds adjacent to the Great Northern Road, was 
published anonymously at Manchester, but is known to be the production of 
Kinder "Wood, a surgeon. 

The Rev. J. H. Mallory was elected a Fellow of the Collegiate Church, iu 
the place of the Rev. Croxton Johnson, 1814, deceased. 

1814. 

Miss Lavinia Robinson was found drowned in the Irwell, near the Mode 
Wheel, February 8. This young lady, who possessed superior mental accomp- 
lishments, as well as personal beauty, was engaged to Mr. Holroyd, a surgeon, 
but on the eve of her intended marriage she disappeared from her home in 
Bridge Street, December G, and, owing to the long frost, her body remained 
under the ice for a long period. It appears most probable that the rash act of 
the "Manchester Ophelia" was due to a quarrel in which her betrothed had 
repeated some slanderous statements made respecting her. There, was how- 
ever, a strong suspicion that she had met with foul play. The Zanders were 
shown to be baseless, and the feeling against Mr. Holroyd was so strong that 
he had to leave the town. (Procter's Bygone Manchester, pp. 2G8, 209; City 
Ncics Notes and Queries, vol. i., p. 265.) 

Mr. Peter Cross, for many years master of the Portico, died March 1. 

The successes of the British army on the Continent were celebrated by pro- 
cessions, balls, and illuminations, April 18. 

54 George III. cap. 32. Act for rebuilding the Chapel of Newton, in the 
parish of Manchester. May 4. 

Mr. John Vint died 13th May, aged 60 years. He was a native of Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, and had been the editor and conductor of Ilarrop's Manchester 
Mercury and British Volunteer newspapers. 

In connection with the Sunday school Whit-week festivities the Church Com- 
mission ordez'ed '■ a number of cakes to bo baked, at Id., for the children," to be 
K 



146 Annols of Manchester. [I814 

eaten before starting in St. Ann's Square. This is apparently the origin of " buns 
and milk." The excursions originated about this time from a desire to keep 
the young people away from Kersal Moor Races on Whit- Wednesday. 
(Bardsley's Memo7-ials, p. 127.) 

The Society of Arts awarded to Miss Halstead, of Manchester, their gold 
medal for a painting of fruit and flowers, June 7. She was the daughter of a 
Manchester attorney. 

Mr. John Leigh Phillips died June 23, aged 53. He was a liberal promoter of 
bibliography and the arts, and his collection of books, paintings, engravings, 
&c., was dispersed by auction at Manchester in 1815, and realised £5,474 15s. 3d. 
His natural history collection formed the basis of the Manchester Natural 
History Society's Museum. 

54 George III. cap. 205. Act for amending two several Acts of the tenth and 
thirty-flfth years of the reign of His present Majesty, relating to the estates 
devised by William Hulme, Esquire, and to enable the trustees thereof to 
apply the trust monies in making an allowance to, and provision for, the 
Exhibitioners of certain Exhibitions founded by the testator, in Brasennose 
College, Oxford, and also in founding and supporting a Lecture in Divinity in 
the said College, and to incorporate the said trustees, and for other purposes 
therein mentioned. July 14. 

Several houses and part of a soapery, at Hunt's Bank, fell into the river 
Irwell, when three persons were drowned, July 29. 

Mr. Cornelius Leigh died 5th August, aged 56. He was for upwards of half a 
century connected with Harrop's Manchester Mercury and British Volunteer 
newspapers. 

Mr. William Cowdroy died, Aug. 10, aged 62 years. He was proprietor and 
editor of the Manchester Gazette, a facile writer, with a certain graft of humour, 
and his wit was directed by public spirit and patriotism. As conductor of the 
Manchester Gazette, his light punning paragraphs were greatly appreciated, 
and his columns frequently supplied the newspapers with wit and humour on 
current topics. Many of his compositions, with changes of name and date, 
were often revived at intervals of five or six years. He left four sons, all 
printers, and two daughters. 

Mr. Francis Duckinfield Astley, of Dukinfield Lodge, was installed Grand 
Master of the Masons for the counties of Lancaster and Chester, in the two 
orders of Knight Templars and Royal Arch Masons. The ceremony took place 
at the Dog Inn, Deansgate, August 10. 

The Wesley an Methodist Chapel, Brunswick Terrace, Pendleton, opened 
August 29. 

The Manchester branch of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge 
was instituted, August. 

Thomas Egerton, first Earl of Wilton, died at Heaton House, September 
23, aged 65. He was elevated to the peerage May 15, 1784, by the title of Baron 
Grey de Wilton, of Wilton Castle, in the county of Hereford. His lordship 
married, in 1769, Eleanor, youngest daughter and coheiress of Sir Ralph 
Assheton, baronet, by whom he had several children, but one only survived, 
namely, Eleanor, who married, in 1794, Robert Viscount Belgrave, afterwards 



1815] Annals of Manchester. 147 

Marquis of Westminstei-. In consequence of the decease of Lord Grey de 
Wilton's elder children, his lordship obtained a new patent 26th of June, 1801. 
creating him Viscount Grey de Wilton and Earl of Wilton, with special 
remainder to the second, and to all the younger sons successively, of his 
daughter, by her then husband, or to her male issue by any future husband. 
He was succeeded in his title and estates by Thomas Egerton, second Earl of 
Wilton, second son of the Marquis of Westminster by the above marriage. 
His lordship was a liberal benefactor to the various charitable institutions in 
Manchester. He was buried in the family vatdt in Prestwich Church, Oct. 8. 

Thomas Hollingsworth died at Liverpool in October. He was an actor of 
good repute, and was styled the Father of the Manchester and Liverpool 
Theatres. 

The first watchman was appointed for Chorlton Row, now Chorlton-upon- 
Medlock, in October. 

A panic occurred in the Methodist Chapel, Oldham Street, and occasioned 
the death of two females and the serious injury of others, December 9. 

Considerable damage was done by a violent storm in Manchester and the 
neighbourhood, December. 

Rev. Timothy Priestley died, aged 80. He was the brother of the famous 
Joseph Priestley. He was for a time minister of the Congregational Church in 
Hunter's Croft, now Cannon Sti-eet, but his relations with his congregation 
were not happy, and he finally left Manchester for London. He is buried in 
Bunhill Fields. (Jones's Bunhill Memorials ; Halley's Lancashire, p. 520.) 

The Ducie Bridge (so called in compliment to Lord Ducie, the proprietor of 
the land) was opened. A toll was taken until 1830, when it was removed upon 
payment of £800 by the Improvement Committee. 

The Manchester Magazine; or. Chronicle of the Times, was published 
monthly by Joseph Hemingway and Martin Began, price Is. Discontinued 1816. 

1815. 

The Bishop of Chester consecrated a burial ground in Walker's Croft Jan. 
1st. This land was acquired by the Manchester and Leeds Railway in 1814, 
and is now wholly covered by Victoria Station. 

Mr. John Ferriar, M.D., died, Feb. 4, aged 51. He was the son of the Rev, 
Alexander Ferriar, and was born at Oxnam, near Jedburgh, Roxburghshire, 
on the 21st or 22iid of November, 1761. In 1781 he took his degree of M.D. at 
Edinburgh, and (he following year he was married to Miss Barbara Gair. 
About the year 1785 Dr. Ferriar settled in Manchester, and became physician 
to the Royal Infirmary. He was a member of the Literary and Philosophical 
Society, and contributed to the Memoirs. He was an ardent lover of literature, 
and his Illustrations of Sterne are evidences of fine taste and extensive 
reading. He wrote also Medical Histories, 1792 ; An Essay Towards a Theory 
of Apparitions, 1813, and other writings. His Bibliomania has been reprinted 
in the Palatine Note-hook. Details of Ferriar's life and writings are given 
in the Palatine Note-hook, vol. ii., pp. 05, 100, 127, 121) ; Axon's Lancashire 
Gleanings ; Smith's Centenary, p. 174. 



148 Annals of Manchester. 



[1815 



Conscience, a tragedy, by Mr. Joseph Aston, was performed at the Theatre 
Eoyal, February 8. It is founded upon one of Miss Lee's Canterbury Tales. 

Mr. Nathaniel Hey wood died 6th April. In conjunction with his elder 
brother, Benjamin Arthur Heywood, he established Heywood's Bank. He is 
buried in Cross Street Chapel. (Baker's Memorials, p. 109.) 

Missionary societies were established at Manchester by the Wesleyan 
Methodists February 22, and by the Church of England April 10. 

On Whit-Monday, when the children of the Sunday schools were at the 
Collegiate Church, a cry was raised that the roof was coming in, and in the 
panic which ensued one child was killed and five injured. This led to the aban- 
donment of the gathering, which was not resumed until 1819. 

Mr. Robert Barber died June 10. He was the organist of St. Ann's Church 
for upwards of 30 years. 

A General Swedenborgian Conference held in Peter Street Chapel Aug. 14-17. 
Rev. R. Hindmarsh presided. It was decided to establish a Missionary Society. 

Mr. Joseph Budworth Palmer, F.S. A., died 4th September. He was born in 
Manchester about 1759. His father, Joseph Budworth, was the landlord of the 
Palace Inn, and sent the boy to the Grammar School. He was one of the 
volunteers who were at the siege of Gibraltar. In 1792 he published A Fort- 
night's Bambles to the Lakes, which went through several editions. He was 
the first to describe the " Beauty of Buttermere." He married a rich Irish 
heiress. Miss Palmer, of Palmerstown, and assumed his wife's name. His only 
daughter, Emma, was the mother of the Duchess de Grammont, the Countess 
of Dundonald, and Mr. W. A. Mackinnon, M.P. (Smith's Grammar School 
Begister, vol. i., p. 150 ; Nichol's Literary Anecdotes, vol. vii., part ii., p. 644.) 

Mr. John TrafTord, of Trafford Park, died October 29, and was interred in 
the family vault in the Collegiate Church. 

Mr. Robinson Foxley, M.D., died at his house in King Street, November 8. 

The Archdukes John and Louis of Austria visited Manchester, November. 

Mr. Nehemiah Roby, father of the Rev. William Roby, died December, 
aged 79. 

The value of the property in the town was assessed at £405,986. 

The galleries and pews of the Collegiate Church were rebuilt, and other 
repairs effected, at a cost of nearly £20,000. 

The Auxiliary Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews estab- 
lished in Manchester. 

The Marquis of Anglesea passed through Manchester on his route to Brad* 
ford, to procure a substitute for the leg he lost at the battle of Waterlo-^. 

The Manchester Golf Club formed by Mr. W. Mitchell, of Holt Town. 

Tn this year the township of Manchester was rated at £308,634 ; Ardwick, 
£11,241; Cheetham, £8,651; Chorlton, £19,839; and Hulme, £9,422. 

The export of twist legalised by Parliament, at which time the consumption 
of cotton amounted to 99,306,343 pounds. 

The Eye Institution was opened in King Street. It has since removed to 35, 
Faulkner Street, 1822; St. John's Street, Deansgate, 1874; and to Oxford 
Road, 1886. 

Bibliographiana, is the title of a collection of original literary contri- 



1316] 



Annals of Manchester. 149 



butioris to Aston's Exchange Herald. The work was published for private 
distribution. It consisted of 24 numbers. The principal contributors were 
Messrs. F. R. Atkinson, Nathan Hill, and William Ford, bookseller. Of a con- 
tinuation, which appeared in the Stockport Advertiser, only ten copies were 
printed. 

1816. 

There was a great flood in the Irwell, January 5 and 6. 

Eleanor, Countess of Wilton, died at Heaton House, February 3, aged 67. 

The shock of an earthquake was felt March 17. 

Eev. William Cowherd died at Salford, 2'lth March. He was born at Carn- 
forth, Lonsdale South of the Sands, in 1763. He became curate of St. John's 
Church under the Eev. John Clowes, but when the Manchester disciples of 
Swedenborg formed a separate communion he was appointed the first minister 
of the chapel opened in Peter Street in 1793. Afterwards he formed the deno- 
mination of Bible Christians, and erected a chapel in King Street, Salford, 
where, in 1809, he made abstinence from animal food and intoxicants a con- 
dition of church membership. He was a contributor to the Neiv Jeruscdem 
Journal, and the author of Litxircjy of the Lord's Ncic Church, INIanchester, 
1793 ; Facts Authentic in Science and Ecligion toicards a new Translatio7i of 
the Bible, Salford, 1816 ; Select Hymns, Manchester, 1800 and 1818 ; Letters on 
Religious Subjects, Salford, 1820 (a portion only is his). He was also the trans- 
lator of Swedenborg's Doctrine of the Netv Jerusalem concerning Faith, which 
was printed by the Manchester Printing Society, and editor of a translation 
made by three of his pupils of the Prodromos, Manchester, 1795. Mr. Robert 
Hindmarsh states that Mr. Cowherd claimed " the same kind of revelation as 
was given to Emanuel Swedenborg before him," and regarded himself as the 
" greatest and most extraordinary man living." This testimony is not without 
suspicion of controversial bias. A portion of his librai'y is preserved in the 
Bible Christian Church, Cross Lane, Salford, the King Street chapel having 
been abandoned. (Axon's Manchester Libraries; Hindmarsh's Rise of the 
New Jerusalem Church; The Dawn, July 24, 1884; and Williams's Ethics of 
Diet, p. 259.) He is buried under a tomb in Christ Churchyard, King Street, 
Salford, with the following inscription : " William Cowherd, the founder and 
minister of Christ Church, Salford, died 24th of March, 1816, aged 53 years. At 
his request is inscribed, ' All feared, none loved, and few understood.' " This 
has given rise to some misapprehension, for the words are merely adapted 

from a verce of Pope : — 

" He who would save a siukiug land 
All fear, none love, few understand. " 

56 George III. cap. 12. Act for altering, amending, and extending the 
powers of two Acts of His present Majesty's reign, for supplying with water 
the inhabitants of the towns of Manchester and Salford. April 11. 

Mr. Thomas Battye died 16th April. His Red Basil Book and other tracts 
on parochial affairs contain some very curious evidences as to the social con- 
dition of Manchester at the beginning of the century. 

Mr. William Godwin was in Manchester on April 30, and visited Thomas 
Walker. With this " venerable old gentleman" he spent "a delightful day" 
at Longford Hall, Stretford. 



150 Annals of Manchester. [isie 

A free registry for " the encouragement of faithful female servants " opened 
in Chapel Walks, May 1. 

Mr. Samuel Mottram died. He was the deviser of a plan for the dissemi- 
nation of the views of Swedenborg by men who took covered hand-barrows of 
books, some for sale and some for gratuitous distribution. It has been suggested 
that this was the origin of the system of colportage, since so extensively 
employed by the Bible Society. {The Dawn, 8th May, 1884.) 

Mr. Nathaniel Milne, coroner for this division, and clerk to the magistrates, 
died May 19. Elected to the coronership in 1787, he was succeeded by his son, 
John Milne, Esq., who was elected June 10, 1816. 

Mr. Isaac Clarke, bookseller, died June 18, aged 73. 

Mr. Thomas Henry, F.R.S., died June 18, aged 82. This eminent chemist 
and philosopher was born at Wrexham October 26, 1734, where he received his 
education, and served an apprenticeship to a surgeon-apothecary. He first 
settled at Oxford ; in 1759 he removed to Knutsford, where he married ; and in 
1764 removed to Manchester, where he continued to reside, " universally 
beloved for his conciliating qualities and private worth," during his long life. 

56 George III. cap. 62. Act for building a bridge across the river Irwell 
from the township of Salford to Strangeways, in the township of Cheetham, 
and for making proper avenues thereto. June 20. 

Mr. Henry Atherton, barrister-at-law, of Lincoln's Inn and Manchester, 
died, August 17, aged 76. He married a daughter of Edward Byrom, and his 
daughter was the late Miss Eleanora Atherton. 

Mr. Charles Taylor, M.D., died, August 24, at Hammersmith. He was a 
native of Manchester, and became secretary to the Society of Arts. 

Henry Crabb Robinson's Diary for September has this entry : " Strolling 
into the Old Church at Manchester, I heard a strange noise, which I should 
elsewhere have mistaken for the bleating of lambs. Going to the spot, a dis- 
tant aisle, I found two rows of women standing in files, each with a babe in 
her arms. The minister went down the line, sprinkling each infant as he 
went. I suppose the efficiency of the sprinkling — I mean the fact that water 
did touch— was evidenced by a distinct squeal from each. Words were mut- 
tered by the priest in his course, but one prayer served for all. This I thought 
to be a christening by wholesale, and I could not repress the irreverent 
thought that, being in the metropolis of manufactures, the aid of steam or 
machinery might be called in. I was told that on Sunday evenings the cere- 
mony is repeated." 

The Radical Reformers held meetings in St. Peter's Field October 28, and 
again December 30. 

A meeting in St. Peter's Field, " to take into consideration the present 
state of the country," November 4. 

" Married, yesterday, at the Collegiate Church, by the Rev. C. D. Wray, 
John Braham, Esq., of Tavistock Square, London, to Frances Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter of the late George Bolton, Esq., of Ard wick." (Harrop's ilfercttrj', 
Nov. 19, quoted in Palatine Note-book, vol. i., p. 71.) 

The Albion Cotton Mills, situated in Great Bridgewater Street, were bwrut 
down, December. Damage £25,000. 



18171 



Annals of Manchester. 151 



Mr. John Bradshaw, F.S.A., of Darcy Lever, died in December. He was a 
magistrate for the county division, a feoflfee of Chetham's Hospital, and Lieut. - 
Colonel of the Bolton Local Militia. His death was occasioned by the over- 
turning of the Blackburn mail at Pendleton. 

The Market Cross, pillory, and stocks were removed from the Market 
Place, and the Obelisk, on the site of the old Exchange, taken down. This 
latter was called Nathan Crompton's Folly, having been erected during his 
serving the office of boroughreeve. 

The value of a Tyburn ticket, in Manchester, was from £350 to £400, whilst 
in London they sold for £23, The holders of these tickets were exempt from 
filling any public office in the town. 

The day police consisted of a deputy constable and four beadles ; the night 
police numbered 53. 

The Ladies' Bible Society was formed. 

IVIrs. Ward, wife of the manager of the Theatre Eoyal, took leave of the 
stage in the character of Elvira, in Pizarro. 

1817. 

The Grand Duke Nicholas, afterwards Emperor of Russia, visited the town, 
January 3. 

Manchester Courier, No. 1, January 4, printed by Messrs. Howarth, 
Cowdroy, and Rathbone. 

St. George's Church, Oldham Road, was consecrated by Dr. G. H. Law, 
Bishop of Chester, Jan. 17. 

A meeting of the inhabitants of Manchester was held to consider the 
" necessity of adopting additional measures for the maintenance of the public 
peace," January. 

Mr. Thomas Walker died at Longford 2nd February. He was born 3rd April, 
1749, and his father was a Bristol merchant, who settled in Manchester. In 
1784 he led the successful opposition of the Manchester manufacturers to Pitt's 
" Fustian Tax." He was founder of the Constitutional Society, which desired 
the removal of the Test and Corporation Acts. In 1790 he was boroughreeve. 
Two years later his warehouse was attacked by a " Church and King mob." 
In 1794 he was prosecuted for conspiracy, but the evidence was so plainly per- 
jured that the charge was abandoned. In his latter years he approved of the 
imposition of the Corn Law. (Espinasse's Lancashire Worthies.) 

Mr. William Dunstan, governor of the New Bailey Prison, died February 20. 
He was succeeded by his son, Thomas Dunstan, who was elected March 5. 

The first stone of the Strangeways Bridge was laid by Mr. W. D. Evans, 
29th February. It crosses the Irwell near the top of Greengate, Salford, which 
place it connects with Strangeways. It was built by subscription, and a toll 
was taken for many years, except from the tenants of Lord Ducie. 

The second general meeting of the Manchester Radicals (Blankcteers) held 
at St. Peter's Field, " to petition the Prince Regent for redress of grievances.'' 
The intention was to proceed to London to present the petition in person. Each 
man had a blanket with him, as a protection against the weather on the road. 
The meeting was dispersed by the military, March 10. Two hundred persons 
were arrested. 



152 Annals of Manchester. [I817 

Elijah Dixon arrested on suspicion of high treason, March 12, and detained 
till November following, when he was discharged. A notice of his death 
appears under date of 187G. 

The cotton-spinning factory at Knot Mill, in the occupation of Messrs. 
Brown, Stones, Scholick, Armstrong, Stubbs, and Frost, was destroyed by fire, 
Sunday morning, March 16. The damage was estimated at £20,000. 

Rev. James Daniel Burton died 24th March. He was born at Manchester 
25th July, 1784. He became a Wesleyan minister, and was the author of A 
Guide for Youth, 1814. 

Margaret Marsden, aged 76, and Hannah Partington, a young woman, 
were murdered in the house of Mr. Thomas Littlewood, at Pendleton, April 26. 
(See under date 8th September.) 

57 George III. cap. 22. Act for amending an Act of His present Majesty for 
rebuilding Newton Chapel. May 23. 

Catherine Prescott died 2nd June at the reputed age of 108. She was a 
native of Denbigh, resided in George Leigh Street, and retained her faculties 
in a wonderful degree, having learned to read, without the aid of spectacles, 
partly in the Lancasterian School and partly in St. Clement's Sunday School, 
after she ivas one hundred years old. She was buried at St. Mark's, Cheetham 
Hill, in a grave presented to the family by the Rev. C. W. Ethelston. The 
evidence of her longevity is not beyond dispute. An interesting notice of her 
appears in Braidley's Sunday School Memorials. 

Mr. John Taylor died in Salford, June 3, aged 65. He was educated at the 
Dissenting Academy of Daventry, under the late Dr. Ashworth, and was 
retained in the above academy as classical tutor for several years.. He was 
subsequently stationed at Walmsley Chapel, in this county, and at Ilminster, 
in Somersetshire, as minister of Unitarian congregations. Some time after- 
wards, owing to a change in his opinions, he joined the Society of Friends, and 
for sixteen or seventeen years he was head master of the school belonging to 
that body in this town, which office he resigned owing to an attack of paralysis 
in 1811. It was this complaint which eventually caused his death. His son, 
John Edward Taylor, was the first editor and proprietor of the Manchester 
Guardian. 

57 George III. cap. 47. Act for making and keeping in repair a carriage 
road from the township of Manchester to Newton Chapel, with a branch to the 
river Medlock, in the township of Droylsden. June 16. 

Mr. William Grant, the father of William, Daniel, and John Grant, died 
June 29th, aged 84. 

57 George III. cap. 58. Act for building a bridge across the river Irwell, 
from Water Street, in the township of Salford, to St. Mary's Gate, in the 
township of Manchester, and for making proper avenues thereto. Blackfriars 
Bridge. June 27. 

Martha Routh, of Manchester, died 18th July, at London, whither she had 
gone to attend the yearly meeting. She was aged about 77, and had been many 
years a minister in the Society of Friends. (Northern Star.) 

There was a violent thunderstorm in Manchester and neighbourhood. Two 
men were killed at Pendleton, and many were hurt at other places. July. 



1818] 



Annals of Manchester. 153 



James Ashcroft, the elder ; James Ashcrof t, his son ; David Ashcroft, his 
brother ; and William Holden, son-in-law to the elder Ashcroft, were executed 
8th September, at Lancaster, for the murder and robbery at Mr. Littlewood's, 
at Pendleton. They all died declaring their innocence. An account of the 
trial is given in Criminal Ti-icds, vol. vi., p. 243. 

Thomas Armstrong, aged 34, was hanged at Lancaster 20th September for 
Betting fire to his factory at Knot Mill. He is said to have been previously in 
peril of his life as one of the mutineers of the Nore. 

John Thorp, born at Wilmslow, 1742, but after some stay in London 
became, in 1767, a resident in Manchester, where he was a minister of the 
Quaker body, and died 30th September. His Letters, addressed to various friends 
on religious subjects, were published, with a memoir by John Bradshaw 
(Liverpool, 1834). (Smith's Catalogue.) 

St. Saviour's Church Schools, Chorlton-on-Medlock, built. 

A small volume printed with the title of Bibliographiana, by a Society of 
Gentlemen, originally published in the Manchester Exchange Herald in the 
years 1815 and 1816 (Manchester, printed by Joseph Aston, No. 4, St. Ann's 
Street) ; only 24 copies printed. The articles were written by W. Ford, J. 
Midgeley, and others. There is an annotated copy in the Manchester Free 
Library. Of a second series only ten copies were printed. 

The Manchester Gas Works were erected in Water Street. 

A Welsh Wesleyan Chapel was erected in Parliament Street. 

Blackfriars Bridge, a wooden structure, was taken down. 

The burial ground attached to St. Stephen's Church, Salford, was conse- 
crated by Dr. G. H. Law, Bishop of Chester. 

An amateur performance for the benefit of the Lying-in Hospital produced 
£2GS. 

The Water Works Company substituted iron pipes for those of stone which 
had been previously used. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Chancery Lane, Ardwick, was built. 

Mr. John Kennedy estimated the number of spindles in Great Britain at 
6,545,833, and the number of operative spinners at 110,763. 

The fly frame and the tube frame introduced into Manchester by Mr. John 
Cheeseborough Dyer, from America, who took out patents for them in 1825 
and 1829. 

1818. 

The Manchester Observer, No. 1, January 3, was printed and published by 
the proprietor, Thomas Rogerson. This paper changed hands many times, and 
was discontinued June 21, 1821. 

Mrs. Sarah Bowden died January 29, in her 92nd year. She possessed a 
clear recollection of the year 1745 (at which time she was 18 years of age), when 
Prince Charles Edward entered the town. There were two brothers and two 
sisters living at one time, whose united ages averaged 80 years each. 

The Savings Bank opened in Cross Street January 31. 

Messrs. Smith and Ingle's paper works, at Throstle Nest, were burnt down 
February 1. 



154 Annals of Manchester. 



[1818 



A meeting held in St. Peter's Field for the purpose of petitioning for Par- 
liamentary Reform, March 9. 

58 George III. cap. 4. Act for continuing the term and altering and 
enlarging the powers of an Act of His present Majesty's reign, for improving 
the road from Manchester to Rochdale, and other roads therein mentioned, so 
far as relates to the Bury and Ratcliffe Bridge District of road therein men- 
tioned, and for making two new branches of road to communicate with the 
said district of road. March 17. 

58 George III. cap. 6. Act for making and maintaining a turnpike road 
from near the town of Manchester to Hyde Lane Bridge, in the county of 
Chester. March 17. 

58 Gfeorge III. cap. 9. Act for continuing the term and altering and 
enlarging the powers of an Act passed in the thirty-third year of His present 
Majesty's reign, for repairing the road from Manchester to Salter's Brook. 
March 17. 

58 George III. cap. 12. Act for more effectually repairing and improving 
the road from Ardwick Green, near Manchester, to the bridge at the cornmills, 
near "Wilmslow. March 17. 

Mr. James Norris was appointed stipendiary magistrate, on the resigna- 
tion of Mr. W. D. Evans. March. 

Henry Clarke, LL.D., died April 30. He was the son of Thomas Clarke, of 
Salford, and was born there in 1743. The University of Edinburgh compli- 
mented him with the degree of Doctor of Laws. On the 29th of April he was 
seized with apoplexy, and died the next day, at Islington, near London, in his 
76th year, leaving a widow and a family of two sons and four daughters. Dr, 
Clarke was acquainted with Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Spanish, Portuguese, 
Italian, and French ; distinguished himself in mathematics ; was an excellent 
penman and draughtsman ; had an extraordinary knowledge of perspective ; 
■R^as an expert mechanic; and a compiler of and contributor to various 
scientific and literary works. He was at one time an unsuccessful candidate 
for the position of master of the village school at Stretford, and wrote a 
satirical tract, entitled the School Candidates, which has been reprinted with 
a full biographical and bibliographical memoir by Mr. J. E. Bailey. In 1802 he 
became professor of history and experimental philosophy at the Military 
College, Sandhurst. 

58 George III. cap. 86. Act for building a chapel of ease in the township of 
Pendleton and parish of Eccles. St. Matthew's. June 10. 

Mr. Adam Murray died at Rose Hill June 26, aged 52. 

Mr. Charles Terry, for many years governor of Chetham's Hospital, died in 
June. 

The fiftieth anniversary of the induction of the Rev. John Clowes to the 
rectory of St, John's was celebrated by his congregation July 7. 

When Messingham Church was rebuilt some fragments of stained glass 
from Manchester were placed in the windows. {Academy, 19th July, 1884 ; 
Palatine Note-book, vol. iv., pp. 116, 135.) 



1819] 



Annals of Manchester. 155 



Mr. Thomas Cooke died July 26. He was born in Sheffield March 20, 1763. 
His Views of the Science of Physiognomy was published posthumously in 1819. 

There was a general turn-out of the spinners, colliers, and weavers for aa 
advance of wages. Mr. Gray's factory was attacked, and one man was killed, 
September 9. 

Henry Jones died at Wrexham 19th September. He was formerly a 
gunner in the 72nd or Manchester Volunteers, and so distinguished himself 
by his daring at the siege of Gibraltar that he was afterwards styled " Harry 
the Devil." 

Mrs. Fry visited the New Bailey Prison, October 3. 

Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, visited Manchester. He stayed at the 
Bridgewater Arms. October 22. 

An amateur performance at the Theatre Koyal for the benefit of the House 
of Recovery, October 30, produced £300. 

The Spectator, No. 1, was printed by Thomas Wilkinson, November 7. 

Mr. Ashworth Clegg died 13th November. He was born IGth May, 1748, and 
was educated at the Manchester Grammar School, and was one of the pro- 
moters of the Manchester Academy. There is a portrait of him in Sir Thomas 
Baker's Memorials. To his nephew. Sir Samuel Clegg, is due the merit of the 
first application of gas to the illumination of a town. 

Bennett Street Sunday School was erected to accommodate 2,687 pupils. 

St. Mark's Day and Sunday School, Cheetham Hill, was established. 

An Act obtained for cutting a road from Ardwick Green to Gorton. 

Mr. George Crossley appointed governor of Chetham's Hospital. He 
resigned in 1841. 

St. Ann's Churchyard was enclosed with an iron palisading. 

1819. 

The stone structure to replace the wooden erection of Blackfriars Bridge 
was begun by Mr. Thomas Fleming, January 4th. 

A general meeting of the Radicals was held in St. Peter's Field January 
18th. There was another meeting on June 21. 

Political bitterness led to a riot in the Theatre Royal between Henry Hunt 
and his friends and the Earl of Uxbridge and some officers of the 7th Light 
Dragoons, January 23. 

The Manchester Vagrant Office established January 28. 

John Grimshaw died, Feb. 18. He was organist of St. John's Church and 
a musical composer, (pity News Notes and Queries, 1238.) 

The Lock Hospital was opened in Bond Street March 1. It was afterwards 
removed to Deansgate. 

Mr. Robertson's factory, in Newton Lane (now Oldham Road), was burned 
down March 3. 

Thomas Gresswell, schoolmaster to the Chetham Hospital, died March 8. 

Mr. Samuel Jones died 17th March. His father, John Jones, tea dealer and 
banker, married a daughter of the Rev. J. Mottershead. Samuel Jones was 
educated at the Warrington Academy, and soon after the death of his father 
gave up the tea business, which was at 104, Market Street, and removed the 



15Q Annals of Manchester. 



11819 



bank to 12, King Street. His sister Sarah married Lewis Loyd, the father of 
Lord Overstone. Samuel Jones bequeathed £5,000 to Manchester College, 
York, for the augmentation of the stipends of Dissenting ministers. (Baker's 
Memorials, p. 95.) 

59 George III. cap. 22. Act for providing that the several highways within 
the parish of Manchester shall be repaired by the inhabitants of the respective 
townships within which the same are situate. April 8th. 

The inhabitants of Oldham Street presented a petition on 12th April to the 
magistrates, in which they complain of "profane and debauched ballad singing 
by men and women." The nuisance was therefore abated. 

The Recorder, No. 1, May 6, was printed by John Leigh, in the Market 
Place, and edited by Joseph Macardy. 

To the consternation of the orthodox and loyal committee of the Church of 
England Sunday Schools, many of the boys were sent to the Whit-Monday 
procession in drab-coloured hats, then the symbol of Radicalism. These badges 
of Liberalism were therefore prohibited. (Bardsley's Memorials, p. 135.) 

Wardle's Manchester Observer was published weekly. No. 9 is dated 
Saturday, June 5. 

59 George III. cap. 56. Act for more eifectually maintaining and amending 
the road from Crossford Bridge to the township of Manchester. June 14th. 

59 Geo. III. cap. 105. Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Canal 
Navigation from Leeds to Liverpool to make a navagable cut, and also a 
collateral branch or railway from their said canal at Hennis Bridge, near 
Wigan, to join the Duke of Bridgewater's Canal at Leigh, Lancashire, and to 
amend the several Acts relating to the said Leeds and Liverpool Canal, and an 
Act for making the Rochdale Canal, so far as relates to certain powers therein 
given to the late Duke of Bridgewater, June 21st. 

A meeting of the Radicals was held June 21st, on St. Peter's Fields, when 
delegates were appointed for a general reform union. To check this reforming 
tendency, a meeting of the inhabitants was called by the boroughreeve, Mr. E. 
Clayton, July 9, and resolutions were adopted declaratory of a determination 
to co-operate in the preservation of the public peace. The Watch and Ward 
was re-established, and a meeting of the Reformers called for the same date 
was prohibited. The Radicals were advised that the legality of appointing a 
"legislatorial attorney" was doubtful, and the intention of doing so was 
abandoned, but Mr. Henry Hunt made a public entry into the town. 

The Independent Chapel, Chapel Street, Salford, was opened July 25. 

The 16th of August is memorable in the annals of Manchester for the 
fatal Peterloo. Soon after nine o'clock the open space of St. Peter's Fields 
began to fill, and processions of the Reformers from all parts of the town and 
the surrounding districts marched in with banners and flags. A hustings had 
been erected on a site near where the south-east corner of the Free Trade Hall 
now stands. There were about sixty thousand present, including many women 
and children. At the last moment the magistrates decided to arrest Mr. Henry 
Hunt and those acting with him in the conduct of the meeting. Many special 
constables had been sworn, and near the field were stationed six troops of the 
15th Hussars, a troop of horse artillery with two guns, the gx-eater part of the 



1819] 



An7ials of Manchester. 157 



31st Infantry, some companies of the 88th regiment, the Cheshire Yeomanry, 
over 300 strong, and about forty of the Manchester Yeomanry. As Hunt 
began to speak, the Manchester Yeomanry, hot-headed young men who were 
more or less intoxicated, drew their swords, and dashed into the crowd which 
they attacked recklessly. They were soon completely hemmed round by the 
mass of human beings against whom they had thrown themselves. The 
hussars now dashed forward to their rescue, and with such force that fugitives 
in their efforts to escape were literally piled up to a considerable height above 
the level of the field. The yeomanry thus extricated again rode into the crowd, 
cutting and slashing wherever there was an opportunity. No reliable evidence 
was ever brought forward that the Riot Act was publicly read before the dis- 
persal of the crowd by the yeomanry and military. Eleven persons were killed 
and several hundreds wounded. Many of these were women. The object of 
the meeting, dispersed in this bloody fashion, was to petition for Parliamentary 
reform. When the reports of the outrage appeared in the London papers the 
feeling of indignation throughout the country was intense. The Manchester 
magistrates met on the 19th, and published resolutions purporting to have been 
adopted at a public meeting ; but a protest against their proceedings received 
4,800 signatures in a few days. Nothwithstanding this, Lord Sidmouth, on 
the 27th, conveyed to the magistrates the thanks of the Prince Regent for their 
action in the " preservation of the public peace !" On the same day Hunt and 
others were brought up at the New Bailey Court House, and committed for 
trial at Lancaster Assizes on a charge of conspiracy. Elizabeth Gaunt, who 
had been in the carriage with Hunt, and had been wounded and trampled on 
the field, was discharged. Meetings were held in London, Glasgow, York, and 
miany other towns, where the action of the magistrates was denounced. 
English literature owes the Masque of Anarchy to Shelley's indignation at the 
butchery of the people at Peterloo. When Parliament met in November, Earl 
Grey moved an amendment to the Address in condemnation of the Manchester 
massacre, but the votes were 34 for and 159 against. In the Commons 150 voted 
for an inquiry and 381 against an inquiry. Nevertheless, the effect of Peterloo 
was very important, for it united the Reformers of all classes, and was the 
beginning of the movement which carried into law the Reform Bill of 1832, 
The Patriot, No. 1, price 2d., was printed by Joseph Aston, August 28. 
Mr. Thomas James Hatfield died 2nd October, aged 31, and was buried at 
Cross Street Chapel. He had collected a valuable library, which was sold by 
auction. Sir Thomas Baker describes his book-plates {Memorials, p. 112). 
The building of the Infantry Barracks, Regent Road, began November 1. 
William Cobbett was prevented by the authorities from passing througli 
Manchester, on his way from Liverpool to London, on his return from America, 
November 30. The prohibition was due to Cobbett's intention to carry througli 
the town the bones of Thomas Paine, which he had brought over with him 
from the United States. (Wheeler's Manchester, p. 119.) 

The Congregational Chapel, Mosley Street, enlarged. This congregation 
afterwax'ds migrated and formed the Cavendish Street Chapel. 

The Hulnie Philosophical Institution founded at Christ Church Schools, 
Hulme. The promoters were James Gaskell, Rowland Detrosier, and others. 



158 Annals of Manchester. [I820 



It was afterwards united to the Sunday school there, and known as Christ 
Church Institute. 

The Collegiate Churchyard was enclosed with iron railings, and a faculty 
obtained from the Bishop of Chester prohibiting interments therein for a 
period of 31 years. 

Rev. Peploe Ward, D.D., died. He was the son of Archdeacon Ward, of 
St. Ann's, and was educated at the Grammar School and at Cambridge, and 
was rector of Beeton, Cottenham. 

Mr. James Banks Robinson, R.N., died at his house, Cheetwood, in his 71st 
year. He was fifty years in the service, and fought in twelve general engage- 
ments, amongst which were those of the Nile and Trafalgar, when he acted as 
pilot to the fleet. Few men ever passed a more chequered life, or witnessed 
more hairbreadth escapes. He commenced his career with Bruce, the traveller, 
and was also the first of the party of midshipmen who ascended to the top of 
Pompey's Pillar, and partook of a bowl of punch. 

The Manchester Racecourse was improved. 

The Rev. John Markland, M.A., of Bicester, county of Oxford, eldest son 
of Robert Markland, of Mabfield, died December 15. 

1820. 

Messrs. Clay and CuUingworth's and Messrs. Hudson and Price's ware- 
houses, in Marsden Square, were burned down, January 22. 

The Rev. W. R. Hay presented, in January, to the valuable living of Roch- 
dale, as a reward for his services in putting down the demand for reform, and 
especially for the forcible dispersal of the Peterloo meeting. He was deservedly 
an object of general detestation in Manchester. 

Mr. Thomas Knight, one of the managers of the Manchester and Liverpool 
Theatres Royal, died at his seat. Manor House, Shropshire, February 4. 

The printer of the Manchester Observer was fined £250 for a libel on 
Thomas Fleming, February 12. 

George IV. proclaimed in Manchester by Mr. Thomas Sharpe. There was a 
procession, and a/eit dejoie was fired at Ardwick Green by the 15th Hussars, 
the 31st Infantry, and the Manchester Yeomanry to celebrate the accession of 
George IV., February 7. 

Mr. Nathaniel Gould died March 10. He bequeathed several large sums to 
the various charities in Manchester. 

The trial of the Radical leaders, for the meeting at Peterloo, began March 
16, at Lancaster Assizes, before Mr. Justice Bayley. Henry Hunt was 
sentenced to two years and six months' imprisonment ; whilst Joseph Johnson, 
Joseph Healey, and Samuel Bamford were condemned to one year's imprison- 
ment. Bamford, in his Life of a Radical, has left a graphic account of the 
trial and of his prison experiences. Hunt issued periodical Letters from 3Ian- 
chester Gaol, and complained bitterly of his treatment. 

Mr. Joseph Clarke, bookseller, died March 22, aged 81. 

John Dunn was hanged at Lancaster 27th March for the murder of Mar- 
garet Grimes at Manchester. 



1820] 



AthTials of Manchester. 159 



All Saints' Church, Oxford Road, was consecrated April 12. It was founded 
by the Rev. Charles Burton, LL.D., who became the rector of the church. 

Mr. Francis Ridings, for thirty years principal horn player at the theatre, 
died April 14. 

The anniversary of George IV.'s birthday was observed by the civil and 
military authorities of the town, who went in procession to Ardwick Green, 
and a, feu dejoie was fired, April 24. 

Mr. John Okey died May 10. He was adjutant of the first regiment of Man- 
chester Volunteer Infantry, and subsequently of the Local Militia, commanded 
by Colonel Silvester. 

The keystone of Blackfriars Bridge was laid by J. E. Scholes, boroughreeve 
of Salford, 17th June. The bridge was opened 1st August by Thomas Fleming, 

Mr. James Watson, commonly called the "Doctor," a man of some literary 
power but of eccentric habits, was drowned in the river Mersey, near Dids- 
bury, June 24. Some of his humorous pieces were published under the title of 
the Spirit of the Doctor, 1820. He was editor of The Gleaner, Salford, 1806. 

1 George IV. cap. 58. Act to repeal an Act made in the fifty-eighth year of 
His late Majesty, for building a chapel of ease in the township of Pendleton 
and parish of Eccles. July 8. 

The Law Library, Marsden Square, was established July 21. 

Rev. William Hawkes died 1st August. He was born in Birmingham 10th 
February, 1759, and was for 31 years minister of the Mosley Street Unitarian 
Chapel. There is a Sketch of his Character by J. Corrie, and a notice in the 
Monthly Repository, 1814, p. 596. 

St. Augustine's Catholic Chapel, Granby Row, was opened September 27. 
Cost £10,000. The architect was John Palmer. 

Mr. Otho Hulme died October 8. He was founder of the firm of O. Hulme 
and Sons. 

Rev. Rowland Broomhead died October 12. He was born at Stannington, 
27th August, 1751, and studied in the English College at Rome, and on his 
ordination preached before Clement XIV. In 1778 he was appointed to the 
mission in Manchester and the district, and under his guidance St. Mary's, 
Mulberry Street, and St. Augustine's, Granby Row, were built. When he came 
to Manchester the Roman Catholics numbered 1,000; when he died, about 
40,000. A Brief Memoir of him was published. There are two engraved 
portraits. He was buried at St. Augustine's. 

Mr. Samuel Taylor, of Moston, died 23rd October, aged 48. He was a magis- 
trate, and lieutenant-colonel of the Manchester and Salford Rifle Regiment of 
Volunteers, and also Grand Master of the Orangemen of Great Britain from 
1807 till his death, when he was succeeded by the Duke of York. A monument 
is erected to his memory in the Collegiate Church. 

Thomas Barritt died October 29, aged 77. He was born in Withy Grove, 
where he carried on the business of a saddler, but devoted all his leisure to 
archaeological pursuits, and accumulated a library and a valuable collection of 
antiquities. The regard felt for him is well expressed by Mr. Joseph Aston in 
a memorial card which was printed at the time : — 



160 Annals of Manchester. 



a820 



HERE RESTETH THE REMAINS OF THOMAS BARRITT, A PROFOUND 

ANTIQUARIAN AND A GOOD MAN. 
He died honoured and respected hy all ranks of society, October 29, 1820, aged 77 years. 

In Mancxjnium lived a man ■who knew 

Much of old time, and much of ancient lore ; 

Strange and scarce books had he, and curious coins, 

Medals and painted glass, and pondrous arms ; 

Helmets and breastplates, gauntlets vast, and shields 

Of many kinds, proof against bloody war : 

Swords without number, of aU murdering shapes, 

And one, which erst had grac'd a prince's thigh, 

More valued than the rest— and more rever'd 

By him who owned it, and by all his friends. 

He was vers'd in heraldry, and could tell 

How all the thanes, and all the knights, and squires. 

Within his shire, had sprung from times remote. • 

And famed too, was he, for his industry ; 

For aye at work, for much his business called; 

And yet full many a picture did he paint. 

Pedigrees copied, branch and root, and carvings made 

Of antique shapes ; and almost beyond belief. 

Helmets and shields, to rival Greece and Rome ; 

Stealing from sleep the time to give them form : 

Nay once, grappling Patience, he made a suit of mail, 

With thousand upon thousand links, for the love 

He bore to ancient arms ; for he was curious 

As the searching air, which pries, without a blush. 

Into things scarce, or sacred, or profane. 

Barritt was thrice married, his last wife dying in 1825. In early life he had the 
misfortune to lose a leg, and had recourse to one of cork. He was interred by 
torchlight, and his remains were attended to the grave by thirty or forty of 
the most respectable inhabitants of the town. The bulk of his manuscripts 
were purchased by the feoffees of Chetham's College ; his collection of ancient 
arms, armour, and other antiquities, were disposed of by lottery; his collection 
of ancient stained glass pictures, together with his drawings, were purchased 
by the late Mr. W. Ford; and his books, &c., were sold by auction by Mr. 
Thomas Dodd. A MS. volume of verse, compiled by Barritt, for his two boys 
in 1807, is described in Papers of the Manchester Literary Club, vol. ii., p. 156 
There is a notice of him in the Dictio7iary of National Biogra2yhy. 

There was a partial illumination of the town to celebrate the withdrawal 
of the Bill of Pains and Penalties against Queen Caroline, November 20. 

Wesleyan Methodist Chapel erected in Grosvenor Street, Chorlton-upon- 
Medlock. 

In Blackwood's Magazine for December there is printed "A Prologue 
Spoken before a Private Theatrical Performance in Manchester." This private 
theatre was in the house of Mr. Thomas Ainsworth, in King Street, and the 
youthful performers included W. H. Ainsworth, J. R. Stephens, and others. 
The prologue was written by James Crossley. {Manchester Guardian Local 
Is otes and Queries, No. 1065.) 

The Manchester Chamber of Commerce was established for the promotion 
of measures calculated to benefit and protect the trading interests of its mem- 
bers, and the general trade of the town and neighbourhood of Manchester. 



1821] 



Annals of Manchester. 161 



The Salford Gas Works, Clowes Street, was erected by Messrs. Appleby, 
Clay, and Fisher. From these works Salford was supplied by contract until 
December, 1831. 

The Church Building Commissioners submitted to a parish meeting an 
offer to build three new churches if the parish would pay for sites by a church 
rate ; but the inhabitants, by a majority of 720 votes against 418, refused the 
rate. 

A meeting was held in the Manor Courtroom, Brown Street, to move 
addresses to George IV. and Queen Caroline, expressive of indignation as to 
the proceedings against the queen. Mr. Baxter presided, the boroughreeve 
having previously refused to call a public meeting, December 4. A counter- 
demonstration of the High Church party was held in the large room of the 
Police Office, 9th December, when a loyal address to the king was adopted. 

Dr. Samuel Hibbert Ware, of Edinburgh (formerly of Manchester), was 
presented by the Royal Society of Arts with their large gold medal, for his 
discovery of chromate of iron in one of the Shetland Isles. 

All Saints' Church, Chorlton-on-Medlock, consecrated. 

Mr. Hugh Hornby Birley gazetted as major of the Manchester Yeomanry, 
vice T. J. Trafford, resigned. 

The silk-throwing mill of Mr. Vernon Royle, erected 1819-20, is said to have 
been the first to be completed and brought to perfection in Manchester. 

1821. 

William Sandford died January 10. He was senior churchwarden of 
Manchester in 1815, and one of the constables in 1818. He was father of the 
Rev. G. B. Sandford. 

There were great rejoicings at Heaton Hall to celebrate the majority of the 
Earl of Wilton in January. 

The premises of Messrs. Buxton and Sons, builders, &c., in Oxford Road, 
were burned down in January. 

William Ogden died, February 3. He was a letterpress printer, and the 
last surviving son of the well-known " Poet Ogden." Mr. Ogden, in his poli- 
tical principles, was a determined Jacobin and a Radical Reformer. During 
the temporary suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act he was arrested as a state 
prisoner, and underwent several examinations before the Privy Council, but 
was ultimately discharged. His treatment was the subject of a debate in the 
House of Commons, in the course of which Canning was said, but erroneously,, 
to have sarcastically called him the "revered and ruptured Ogden." This 
phrase raised great indignation amongst the Radicals. 

Rev. Samuel Taylor, Wesleyan Methodist minister, died at Plymouth Dock, 
20th February. He was born near Manchester, 5th May, 17G8, and was the com- 
piler of an Index to Minutes of Conference from 1744 to 1816 (1817), and of an 
Abridgment of the Life of Philip Henry (1818). 

Mr. James Currie died, February 24, aged 81. He was for many years, 
newsman from this town to Wigan. 

Dr. White's house, which stood on the site now occupied by the old Town 
Hall, was pulled down. February. 
L 



162 Annals of Manchester. [1821 

Joseph Nadin, who had been upwards of twenty years deputy-constable at 
Manchester, resigned in March, and was succeeded by Stephen Lavender, of 
London, 

1 and 2 George IV., cap. 18. Act for more effectually repairing and im- 
proving the roads from Hurdlow House, through Buxton, in the county of 
Derby, and Stockport, in the county of Chester, to Manchester, and other roads 
therein mentioned in the said counties. April 6th. 

Mr. Thomas Hoyle, senior, calico printer, Mayfield, died April 9, aged 82. 

Sir Walter Scott, Bart., visited Manchester, April 9. 

A colony of rooks established themselves in a small garden at the top of 
King Street, belonging to Mrs. Hall. April. 

Manchester Guardian, No. 1, May 5, price 7d., printed and published by 
John Edward Taylor and Jeremiah Garnett. 

1 and 2 George IV., cap. 47. Act to alter and amend several Acts passed 
for more effectually supplying with water the inhabitants of the towns of 
Manchester and Salford, and for further extending the powers and provisions 
of the said Acts. May 7th. 

The changing of the £1 and £2 notes began at the Bank of England May 10. 
The place was constantly crowded. The amount of notes exchanged for gold 
up to June 30 exceeded £420,000, upwards of four tons weight. 

The Rev. Miles Wrigley, M.A., died May 12, aged 75. He was for twenty- 
eight years incumbent of St. Michael's Church. 

Mr. Richard Rushforth, of Hunt's Bank, died May 24. He was a liberal 
promoter of the fine arts. His fine collection of books, prints, and pictures 
was dispersed by auction. 

Mr. Edward Hall Thorpe, lieutenant in the navy, and son of Mr. Thorpe 
surgeon, of this town, died May 26, on his return from Madrid. 

A meeting was convened by the Chamber of Commerce in the Police Office, 
to take into consideration the propriety of a petition to Parliament to amend 
the Stamp Duties Act. May. 

The shambles at Newton Lane (now Oldham Road) were removed to the 
new market in Shudehill, and the New Cross taken down. It is commemorated 
in the name given to the district. May. 

Ralph Nixon, who had formerly been a master manufacturer of this town, 
committed to prison for robbing the Turk's Head, Shudehill. May. 

A meeting of leypayers in the Police Office, to take into consideration 
Mr. Scarlett's Poor Law Bill, June 1. 

A young man severely crushed between the wheel of a carrier's cart and 
the wall in the narrow part of Market Street, June 4. 

Mr. Samuel Waller, a Methodist local preacher, indicted at the New Bailey 
Sessions for preaching in the highway at Ashton-under-Lyne, and sentenced 
to three months' imprisonment, June 23. 

1 and 2 George IV., cap. 126. Act to improve Market Street, in the town of 
Manchester, and approaches thereto, and to amend an Act passed in the 57th 
year of His late Majesty's reign, for building a bridge across the river Irwell 
from Water Street, in the township of Salford, to St. Mary's Gate, in the town- 
ship of Manchester. July 2. 



1821] 



Annals of Manchester. 163 



Colonel Thomas Ilderton Ferriar died at Valencia, Columbia, 17th July. 
He was a son of Dr. John Ferriar, and had the command of the British Legion 
at the battle of Carabobo, 24th June, which broke the power of Spain in the 
New World. It was the coolness and decision of the British volunteers that 
secured the victory. Colonel Ferriar died of wounds then received. (Axon's 
Lancashire Gleanings.) 

The coronation of George IV. was celebrated July 19 by processions of trades, 
which included upwards of 40,000 persons. In the afternoon the following 
articles were given away, viz., 25 oxen, 60 sheep, 29,000 pounds of bread, and 
400 barrels of strong ale. 

Mrs. Sarah Cowdroy died 21st July, aged 65. She was the relict of WiUiam 
Cowdroy, founder of the Gazette. 

At the first meeting held under the Market Street Improvements Bill about 
40 commissioners qualified, July 23. 

Mr. James Murray, M.D., of Medlock Bank, died July 29. 

Mr. Reddish, a bookseller, was imprisoned for selling a copy of the Political 
Dicliona7-y. July. 

Mr. William Freer, glass manufacturer, of St. Ann's Square, died Aug. 11. 

The second anniversary meeting of the Radical Reformers was held in the 
Union Rooms, George Leigh Street. They walked to St. Peter's Field, and 
thence to Christ Church, Hulme (the Bible Christian Church), where several 
children were baptised in the name of Henry Hunt. August 16. 

The dislike felt for local banknotes led to their refusal by many of the 
principal inhabitants, September 1. 

An explosion took place at Mr. Robert Andrew's works, Green Mount, 
Harpurhey, September 11. 

Mr. Thomas Andrew, turkey-red dyer, Harpurhey, died, aged 86, Sept. 14. 

Daintry, Ryle, and Co.'s Bank removed from Macclesfield and opened in 
Norfolk Street, Manchester. September. 

The Manchester Express commenced to run. It left London at 4 p.m. and 
arrived here on the following morning. It only carried two passengers. Oct. 1. 

Mr. George Evans Aubry, secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, appointed 
clerk to the Improvement Commissioners, October 18. 

A subscription was begun for Sir Robert Wilson on his dismissal from the 
army, October 22. Sir Robert having connived at the escape of Lavalette 
from Paris after the Peace of 1815, had incurred the displeasure of the Prince 
Regent, and his conduct at the funeral of Queen Caroline having completed his 
disgrace at head-quarters, he was dismissed from the army. After the lapse of 
a few years he was restored to rank and position. 

Acres Fair removed to the new market, Shudehill. October. 

Rev. Peter Hordern, B.A., appointed librarian of Chetham College, on the 
resignation of the Rev. J. T. Allen. October. 

Writs were served on Messrs. Birley, Withington, Tebbutt, Oliver, and 
Meagher, for assaults committed at St. Peter's Field on the 16th of August, 
1819. October. 

Mr. William C. Macready played in the character of " Hamlet" for the first 
time here in the Theatre Royal, Fountain Street, November '6. 



164 Annals of Manchester. 



11821 



St. John's Church, Deansgate, was newly roofed (the old roof having proved 
faulty) and beautified throughout, at the expense of Miss Byrom, the daughter 
of the founder. It was reopened November 4th. 

Rev. Joshua Brookes, M.A., died November 11, in the 68th year of his age. 
He was the son of a shoemaker, and was born at Cheadle Hulme, and baptised 
19th May, 1754. He was educated at the Free Grammar School ; and was 
appointed chaplain to the Collegiate Church in March, 1791 ; and during the 
period of thirty-one years is supposed to have baptised, married, and buried 
more persons than any other clergyman in the kingdom. He was a man of great 
eccentricity, with many failings, but few if any vices. He had a considerable 
acquaintance with books, and left a good library behind him. Many ludicrous 
stories are told of him. He figures conspicuously in Mrs. Banks's novel of The 
Manchester Man, and is mentioned in Parkinson's Old Church Clock. Mr. 
Evans, in his notes to the fifth edition, has given a full account of this kind- 
hearted but eccentric divine. His bookplate is described in the Palatine Note- 
hook, vol. i., p. 69. He is buried in the Collegiate Church near the Corporation 
Seats. 

Thomas, second Earl of Wilton, was married, at Knowsley, to Lady Mary 
Margaret Stanley, daughter of the twelfth Earl of Derby, November 29. 

A reduction of 3s. 4d. per ton on the carriage of cotton from Liverpool to 
Manchester by the Duke's Canal and the Old Quay Company. November. 

Northern Express and Lancashire Daily Post, No. 1, December 1, printed 
at Stockport, and published in Manchester, for Henry Burgess. This was the 
second attempt to establish a daily newspaper out of London. 

Sir William David Evans, Kt., died at Bombay, December 4. He was a 
native of London, and was born in 1767. He was called to the bar and practised 
as a barrister at Liverpool and Manchester from 1794 to 1814, when he was 
appointed stipendiary magistrate of Manchester. In 1817 he was appointed 
Vice-Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and in 1819 became Recorder of 
Bombay. He was the author of various legal works. {Gentleman's Magazine, 
1822.) 

Mr. William Jones, of the firm of Jones, Loyd, and Co., bankers, died 
December 24, at Broughton Hall. 

The " Tent Methodists' " Chapel, in Canal Street, Ancoats, was opened 
December 25. 

Mr. Joseph Farington, R.A., died at Parr's Wood, near Manchester, Dec. 
30th, and was buried at Manchester. He was born at Leigh, 21st November, 
1747. (Redgrave's Artists of the English School.) 

Mr. William Blackburn, of Manchester, went to superintend the cotton mill 
at Dover, New Hampshire. This was the beginning of the cotton manufacture 
at Great Falls. (Axon's Lancashire Gleanings, p. 143.) 

An Act was obtained for widening Market Street, King Street, Nicholas 
Croft, Toad Lane, and Poole Lane. This improvement was completed in 1P36. 

By the third Parliamentary census the fourteen districts of the township 
of Manchester contained 16,653 inhabited houses, occupied by 22,839 families, 
which consisted of 51,520 males and 56,496 females; total, 108,016. The total 
population of the townships constituting the parish of Manchester was 187,031. 



1822] 



Annals of Manchester. 165 



The number of publications of the banns of matrimony in the Collegiate 
Church of Manchester was 2,191. The whole fees (including publication of 
banns and marriage fee, then 3s. 6d.) were paid at the time the names of the 
parties intending to be married were inserted in the banns' book. The number 
of marriages solemnised after the publication of banns during the same year 
was 1,924. The fee (3s. 6d.), which included the publication of banns, was thus 
divided, viz., lOd. each chaplain, Is. 8d. ; 9d. each clerk, Is. 6d. ; Id. each 
chorister, 4d. — 3s. 6d. 

The Catholic, edited by Rev. N. Gilbert, formerly of Antigua, changed to 
The Catholic Phcenix, 1822 ; edited by Mr. Grimes, surgeon ; printed by Mr. 
Joseph Pratt, Bridge Street. 

A requisition, signed by nearly 400 leypayers of the parish, was presented 
to the churchwardens to convene a meeting to induce the commissioners to 
forego the erection of three or four new churches in the town. 

Captain Richard Crompton, second son of Nathan Crompton, of this town, 
died at Lisbon, December 1. This gentleman volunteered from the 1st battalion 
of the Lancashire Militia in the 9th Regiment of Foot. He was at the battle of 
Vimiera, and subsequently town adjutant of Lisbon. 

The population of Manchester, including Ardwick, Cheetham, Chorlton, 
and Hulme, at the third census was 126,031. That of Salford, including 
Broughton, 26,552. 

1822. 

A saw mill belonging to Messrs. D. Bellhouse and Son wilfully set on fire 
and destroyed, .January 9. 

The Manchester T)^is, No. 1, February 2, printed and published by Henry 
Smith ; ceased February 27, 1823. Henry Smith served his apprenticeship with 
William Cowdroy, jun. He died July 11, 1838, aged 44 years. 

Mr. William Cowdroy, jun., proprietor and printer of the Manchester 
Gazette, died March 10, aged 47. 

Messrs. Hugh Hornby Birley, major of the Manchester Yeomanry Cavalry ; 
Richard Withington, captain ; Alexander Oliver, private, and Edward Meagher, 
trumpeter in the same corps, were tried at Lancaster in March, under an 
action of assault and wounding on the Kith of August, 1819, Thomas Redford, 
a journeyman hatter ; but after a trial of five days a verdict was given for the 
defendants. This was an attempt to bring to account those who were 
responsible for the Peterloo massacre. 

Elizabeth, relict of George Ormerod, and mother of Dr. Ormerod, died 
May 13, aged G9. 

3 George IV., cap. 14. Act for lighting and watching, and for regulating 
the police within the township of Chorlton Row. May 15. 

The County Court first held in Manchester, by adjournment from Preston, 
May 23. 

Smithfield Market, Shudehill, was opened in May. 

The Manchester Society for the Promotion of Natural History established 
June 30. The Museum, late in Peter Street, was opened May 18, 1835. The 
collection is now at the Owens College. 

The improvenient in Market Street was commenced in June. 



166 Annals of Manchester. 



[1823 



The foundation stone of the Town Hall, King Street, was laid by Mr. James 
Brierley, boroughreeve, August 10. It was finished 1825. The cost of land was 
£6,500 ; of building, £28,035 ; finishing the large room, £5,012 ; making a total 
outlay of £39,547. The style of architecture is taken from the Temple of 
Erecthus at Athens, and the dome in the centre is after the model of the 
Tower of the Winds. In the niches in front are figures of Solon and Alfred, 
and in the attic are medallion portraits of Locke, Solon, and Judge Hale. The 
building measures 134 feet in front, and 76 feet in depth. The increase of 
municipal business led to the vacation of the old Town Hall in 1877, and it is 
now used for the Central Free Reference Library. 

St. Matthew's Church, Liverpool Road, founded August 12 ; consecrated 
September 24, 1825. It will accommodate 2,000 persons. It is of modern Gothic 
architecture, and has a lantern tower and spire, the height of which is 132 feet. 
It is built upon part of the site of the ancient Roman town of Mancunium. 
Sir Charles Barry was the architect. 

A General Swedenborgian Conference held at Bolton Street Temple, Salf ord, 
August 14-17. (Hindmarsh's Rise, &c., p. 375.) 

The death of " Old Billy " excited a great deal of interest. " Billy" was a 
horse belonging to the Mersey and Irwell Navigation, and when he died, 27th 
November, was in the 62nd year of his age. A lithograph was published, 
showing " Old Billy," with Henry Harrison, who had known the animal for 
fifty-nine years. 

Rusholme Road Cemetery was opened. 

A dome added to St. Peter's Church. Mosley Street. 

The Female Penitentiary opened in Rusholme Road. 

The New Quay Company begun by John Brettargh and two others, with a 
capital of £30,000. 

The Wesleyan Tract Association was instituted. 

The manufacture of gros de Naples and figured sarcenets introduced intc 
Manchester. (Wheeler's Manchester.) 

1823. 

Rev. Thomas Blackburne, D.C.L., warden of the Collegiate Church, and 
rector of Thelwall, died January 10, aged 67. He was born at Orford Hall, and 
educated at Westminster School and Trinity College, Oxford. He was presented 
to the wardenship of Manchester in 1800. It is said of his brother John that 
he "was forty-six years the representative in Parliament for the county of 
Lancaster, and during the whole of that period he only asked and received two 
favours of the Government which he supported, viz., the wardenship of Man- 
chester for his second, and the office of distributor of stamps for his third 
brother." 

Mr James Harrop died 22nd February, at Broughton Priory, aged 66 years 
He was the son of Joseph Harrop, the founder of the Manchester Mercury, 
and succeeded to the conduct of that paper. He was postmaster for several 
years, but lost that appointment in 1806. 

Rev. Thomas Jackson Calvert, D.D., installed warden of the Collegiate 
Church, March 8. 



1824] 



Annals of Manchester. 167 



Mr. Samuel Dawson died 11th March, aged 70. He was one of the earliest of 
those who followed the Swedenborgian teachings of Mr. Clowes. He was for 
many years leader of the Bolton Society. He is buried at Prestwich. (Dr. 
Bayley, in The Dawn, March 27th, 1884.) 

Mr. David William Paynter died March 14. He was the son of a Manchester 
solicitor, and received his education at the Grammar School. He wrote the 
History of Godfrey Sanger, 1813 ; Euryjnlus, a tragedy, 1816 ; and Muse in 
Idleness, 1819. The last named was somewhat savagely handled by a critic in 
Blackwood's Magazine. His tragedy of King Stephen was performed in 1821, 
after many unavailing efforts. Mr. Paynter died at the age of 32, and is buried 
in Blackley Churchyard. 

By a decree made in the Rolls Court, London, all lands in the parish of 
Manchester (with but few exceptions) were subjected to the payment of one- 
tenth of all the hay, milk, and potatoes produced within it, and one-tenth of 
the value of agistment of barren cattle, besides corn. March. The agricul- 
tural lands within the parish contained 15,000 acres. 

Sir. William Green died at Ambleside 28th April. He was born in Man- 
chester in 1761, and was an artist and author of Guide to the English Lakes, 
Mountains, and Scenery, 1819. He was an accomplished artist, and his 
drawings helped to make the Lake District known. He was a friend of 
Wordsworth and Southey. {Manchester School Register, vol. ii., p. 6; 
vol. iii., p. 321.) 

The ball and cross on the spire of St. Mary's Church were lowered to the 
ground by Philip Wooton, May 10. 

Mr. Richard Whitfield Ashworth died at Cheltenham 23rd May. He was 
born at Strawberry Hill, Salford, about 1800, and wrote Leisure Hours (poems), 
which were printed in 1843. {Grammar School Register, vol. iii., p. GG.) 

4 George IV., cap. 107. Act for amending the road leading from the New 
Wall, on the Parade, in Castleton, in the parish of Rochdale, through Middleton 
to the Meerstone, in Great Heaton, and to the town of Manchester, and for 
diverting certain parts of the said road. June 17th. 

4 George IV., cap. 115. Act to alter, amend, and enlarge the powers of the 
several Acts passed for more effectually supplying with water the inhabitants 
Df the towns of Manchester and Salford. June 27th. 

The Royal Manchester Institution, for the promotion of literature, science, 
and the arts, inaugurated at a general meeting of the inhabitants, held in the 
Exchange room, October 1. The building in Moslcy Street, begun in 1825 and 
completed in 1830, was erected at a cost of £30,000. Sir Charles Barry was the 
architect. The institution was originally projected by Thomas Dodd, auctioneer 
and connoisseur. It is now the City Art Gallery. 

Acres Fair was removed from St. Ann's Square to Campfield. 

1824. 

A covered market opened in London Road February 14. The site is now 
covered by the railway station. 

The treadmill was introduced into the New Bailey Prison February 18. 
Christ Church (Bible Christians), Every Street, opened February 29. 



168 Annals of Manchester. 



[1824 



Mr. Matthew Falkner died at Burnley 8th March. He was born in 1738. 
He was the proprietor of the Manchester Herald, 1792. {Manchester School 
Hegister, vol. ii., p. 7.) 

5 George IV., cap. 10. Act for more eflfectually repairing and improving 
the roads from Hurdlow House, county of Derby, to Manchester, county of 
Lancaster, and other roads in the said counties and in the county palatine of 
Chester. March 23rd. 

Mr. Edward Greaves, of Culcheth Hall, died March 29, aged 62. He was 
high sheriff of the county in 1812. A monument by Chantry is erected to his 
memory in the Collegiate Courch. 

The Primitive Methodist Chapel opened in Jersey Street. April. 

There were labour riots, occasioned by the masters having increased the 
hours of labour from eleven to twelve hours. April. 

A company for a double railway between Liverpool and Manchester was 
formed May 20. The capital was in 4,000 shares of £100 each. George Stephen- 
son was engineer. The Bill was lost in committee June 1, 1825. 

5 George IV., cap. 95. Act for lighting, cleaning, watching, and improving 
the township of Hulme, and for regulating the police thereof. June 3rd. 

5 George IV., cap. 143. Act for making and maintaining a turnpike road 
from the road leading from Manchester to Bolton, to communicate with the 
road from Bury to Bolton. June 17th. 

Hugh Prichard publicly sold his wife, aged 26, for 3s. June. 

The Baptist Chapel, Great Mount Street, was opened August 29. 

The Mersey and Irwell Navigation Company presented to the Manchester 
Museum the head of " Old Billy," a horse which was said to have been in their 
service 62 years, August 30. 

The fall of an iron beam at the factory of Mr. Nathan Gough, Oldfield Lane, 
caused the death of nineteen persons and the injury of nineteen others. Oct. 16. 

The Unitarian Chapel, Greengate, Salford, was erected, and was opened 
on Christmas Day. 

An Act of Parliament (5 George IV. cap. 133) passed for supplying Man- 
chester with gas. The merit of originating the gasworks is due to Mr. G. 
W. Wood, M.P., and Mr. Thomas Fleming. 

A covered market established in Brown Street. 

Mr. John Houtson died at Ava. He was a native of Lawder, Roxburghshire, 
but came to Manchester at an early age, and engaged unsuccessfully in com- 
merce. After becoming bankrupt he went out as part of a colony to Fernando 
Po. Afterwards he accompanied Giovanni Belzoni on his expedition to Central 
Africa, closing the eyes of the dead traveller, and brought back his rino; and 
last message to his wife. Houtson then took passage to Ava, where he died a 
few days after his arrival. He was an early friend of Sir William Fairbairn, 
who has given an account of him in his autobiography. (Pole's Life of Fairbairn.) 

The Floral and Horticultural Society was established. 

The Humane Society, for the recovery of persons apparently drowned or 
dead, was reorganised. 

Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Chapel erected in Cooper Street. 



1825] 



Annals of Manchester. 169 



Mr. Dauntesey Hulme presented £10,000 to the General Infirmary (subject 
to a life annuity). 

1825. 

The Infirmary clock was lighted with gas January 1, at the expense of 
Mr. Richard Ormerod, of Manchester. 

The Manchester Courier, No. 1, January 1, printed and published by Thos. 
Sowler, No. 4, St. Ann's Square. The first editor was Alaric Watts, a brilliant 
young man, whose name was then well known in the literary world. His 
connection with the paper was very brief. He writes to his wife, 24th April, 
1826 : " I have sold my half copyright of the Manchester Courier for £500." 
Mr. Watts was born in London 16th March, 1797, and died at London 5th April. 
1864. (Alaric Watts: A Narrative of his Life, by his son, A. A. Watts, 
London, 1884.) 

A sixpenny omnibus began to run 1st January between Market Street and 
Pendleton. This was started by John Greenwood, of Pendleton, and was the 
beginning of the local omnibus system. {City Ncivs Notes and Qiteries, vol. i., 
p. 167.) • 

Rev. Edward Smyth died at Chorlton Hall, Feburary 6, aged 76. He was a 
son of Archbishop Smyth, of Dublin. He came to Manchester, where he built 
St. Clement's Church, in 1793, and St. Luke's, in 1804. He became paralysed in 
1817. He is buried in St. Luke's Churchyard. {Manchester School Register, 
vol. iii., p. 71.) 

The Deaf and Dumb School, Stanley Street, Salford, opened February 9. 

The Infant School, Buxton Street, London Road, opened February 14. This 
was the first infant school established in Manchester, and its foundation was 
due to the Society of Friends. 

The Union Club was established. The house in Mosley Street was opened 
March 21, 1836. 

The Police Act (6 George IV. cap. 5) for the township of Ardwick passed 
the Legislature March 23. 

The Mechanics' Institution, Cooper Street, was founded, and held its first 
meeting March 30. The building in Cooper Street cost £6,600, and was the 
first building erected in England for the purpose. The institution removed to 
David Street in 1857. 

A peal of ten bells was opened in the Collegiate Church on Easter Monday. 

6 George IV. cap. 51. Act for making and maintaining a road from Great 
Ancoats Street, in the town of Manchester, to join a diversion of the Manches- 
tar and Salter's Brook road, in Audenshaw, in the parish of Ashton-under-Lyne, 
and two branches of road communicating therewith. May 2. 

6 George IV. cap. 83. Act for more eff"ectually improving the roads from 
Manchester, through Oldham, to Austerlands, in the parish of Saddleworth, 
and f romOldhani to Ashton-under-Lyne, and from Oldham to Rochdale. May 20. 

6 George IV. cap. 112. Act to enlarge the powers of an Act of His late 
Majesty's reign, to empower the Justices of the Peace within the Hundred of 
Salford to raise a sum of money to be paid by way of salary to the chairman 
of the Quarter Sessions for the said Hundred. June 10. 



170 Annals of Manchester. 



[1825 



6 George IV. cap. 20. Act for enabling the trustees in the will of Dorothy 
Clowes, widow, deceased, to grant leases of the estates thereby devised for 
building upon or improving the same. June 10. 

The Rev. James Pedley, M.A., died 28th June, in his 79th year. He was 
for forty years incumbent of St. Thomas's, Pendleton, and for the same period 
one of the assistant masters of the Free Grammar School. 

Manchester Advertiser, No. 1, July 2, printed by Joseph Pratt, for Stephen 
Whalley. This paper was given away, its revenue being derived solely from 
advertisements. 

Chorlton Row Infants' School was established August 22. 

The foundation stone of the Salford Town Hall and Market laid August 30, 
by Lord Bexley. The building was enlarged in 1847, 1848, and 1853. A new 
wing was added in 1860-62, when the wing built in 1848 was taken down. 

The Jews' Synagogue, Halliwell Street, Long Millgate, was consecrated 
September 2. 

William Hone, who visited Bartholomew Fair, London, 5th September, 
gives a picture and description of William Wilkinson Westhead, the Man 
Chester gigantic boy, who was born 26th September, and baptised at the 
Collegiate Church 12th October. He was then 5ft. 2in. high, measured 5ft. 
round the body, 27in. across the shoulders, and weighed 22 stone. (Wood's 
Giants and Dwarfs, p. 212.) 

St. Philip's Church, Salford, consecrated September 21. The Parliamentary 
grant for the building of this church was £14,000. 

Mr. George Nicholson died at Stourport, November 1. He was born at Brad 
ford, in Yorkshire, in 1760, but resided successively at Manchester, Poughnill, 
and Stourport. As a printer he was remarkable for the cheapness and beauty 
of the publications which came from his press. He was also the author and 
compiler of a variety of •wor'ks— Stenography, Advocate and Friend of Woman, 
On the Conduct of Man to Inferior Animals, The Primeval Diet of Man,, &c. 
He was himself a vegetarian. (Further particulars are given in Williams's 
Ethics of Diet.) 

Mr. George Calvert died November 14. He was a surgeon, and was the son of 
Mr. Charles Calvert, of Oldham Street and Glossop Hall. He was the author 
of a treatise on Diseases of the Rectwrn, and for three years in succession 
gained the Jacksonian Prize of the Royal College of Surgeons. Born in Man- 
chester, 1795. 

The premises of Messrs. Sharp, Roberts, and Co. destroyed by fire, which 
was believed to be the work of an incendiary. 

The Diorama, Cooper Street, was built. It has since been taken down. 

The annual value of property in Manchester was £334,737, and in Salford 
£74,979. 

The Provincial Portable Gas Works Company, Hulmefield, was formed, 
but the project was abandoned in 1829. 

A Fire Engine Department established under Captain Anthony. 

A Bill was introduced into Parliament for the construction of a ship canal 
from Manchester to the mouth of the Dee, at an estimated expense of £1,000,000, 
to be raised in 10,000 shares at £100 each. The scheme was thrown out by the 
Parliamentary Committee. 



1826] 



Annals of Manchester. 171 



The Independent Chapel in Rusholme Road was opened. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Cliapel, Rusholme Road, was erected. 

The Baptist Chapel, Oak Street, was built. 

The Wesleyan Chapel, Oxford Street, was built. 

Mr. Richard Roberts (of the firm of Sharp, Roberts, and Co.), took out a 
patent for a self-acting mule now generally in use ; a second patent was taken 
out in 1830. The invention owed its existence to a strike, when the difficulty 
of obtaining manual labour induced an appeal from the manufacturers to Mr. 
Roberts to invent a mechanical substitute. 

W. Hartcr undertook silk weaving in Manchester. 

There were estimated to be 20,C00 power-looms in Manchester parish, 104 
spinning factories in the town, and 110 steam engines. 

1826. 

Ann, relict of the late Mr. Henry Atherton, barrister, and daughter of the 
late Mr. Edward Byrom, died January 9, aged 75. 

Mr. Thomas Price, a fustian manufacturer, was murdered, at mid-day, Feb. 
10th, in his warehouse in Marsden Square. The premises were also set on fire. 
James Evans, his warehouseman, was tried for the crime, but acquitted. 

Miss Ellen Turner was brought to Manchester by Edward Gibbon Wake- 
field, March 7. In conjunction with his brother William, his sister Frances, 
and Edward Thevant, he abducted the young lady, who was an heiress, from a 
school at Liverpool, obtaining possession of her by means of a forged letter, sum- 
moning her to see her stepmother. This story they afterwards varied. She was 
brought to the Albion Hotel, Manchester, and from thence taken to Gretna 
Green, where a form of marriage was gone through. She was taken to London, 
and then to Calais, where she was rescued by her uncle. The Wakefields were 
tried at Lancaster Assizes, in March, 1827, and on May 14th, 1827, Edward was 
sentenced to three years' imprisonment in Newgate and William to three years' 
imprisonment in Lancaster Castle. The marriage, which had not been con- 
summated, was dissolved by Act of Parliament. Edward Gibbon Wakefield's 
useful after-life was a striking contrast to this disgraceful aff'air. His services 
to the Australian Colonies were very great. He died at Wellington, New 
Zealand, May IGth, 1802. 

Mr. John Shore, well known for his benevolent character, died at Ardwick, 
March 16, aged 84. 

7 George IV., cap. 16. Act for nacre efTectually repairing and improving 
the roads from Manchester to Salter's Brook, and for making and maintaining 
several extensions or divisions of road, and a new branch of road to communi- 
cate therewith. March 22nd. 

The Manchester and Liverpool Railway Bill passed through the House of 
Lords, May 1. The draining of Chat Moss (the first point of operation) was 
commenced in June. The first shaft of the Liverpool Tunnel was opened in 
September, and the earthwork, comprising the cuttings and the embanking 
along the whole line, was begun in January, 1827. The last joining between 
the several lengths of the line was completed in June, 1828. 

7 George IV., cap. 49. Act for making and maintaining a railway or tram- 



172 Annals of Manchester. 



!1826 



road from the town of Liverpool to the town of Manchester, with certain 
branches therefrom. May 5th. 

7 George IV., cap. 81. Act for making and maintaining a road from the 
top of Hunt's Bank, in the town of Manchester, to join the present Manchester 
and Bury turnpike road in Pilkington. May 5th. 

Mr. Joseph Parry, an able painter of marine subjects, died May 11. He 
was born at Liverpool, in 1744, and is generally known as " Old Parry." 

Elizabeth Bate, aged 28, murdered at the Jolly Carter, a public-house at 
Winton, near Patricroft, May 22. Alexander and Michael M'Keand, dealers in 
linen and tea, at Manchester, were convicted of the murder August 18, and 
hanged at Lancaster August 21. Michael's body was given to the surgeons of 
Lancaster for dissection, and Alexander's was sent to the Manchester 
Infirmary for the same purpose, but was first publicly exhibited. (Procter, 
Bycgone Manchester, p. 52.) 

7 George IV., cap. 99. Act for making and maintaining a railway or 
tramroad from Manchester to Oldham, with a branch from Failsworth Pole to 
or near Dry Clough, in the township of Royton. May 26th. 

7 George IV., cap. 138. Act for more effectually repairing and improving 
several roads leading to and from the town of Salford, through Pendleton, and 
other places therein mentioned, and several other roads therein mentioned, 
for making and maintaining certain diversions or new lines of road to com- 
municate therewith. May 26. 

Owing to the great commercial distress, riots occurred in May. The mobs 
attacked several factories, and an attempt was made to destroy by fire that of 
Mr. Hugh Beever. So alarming was the state of affairs in Manchester that it 
more than once occupied the attention of the Cabinet, and troops were marched 
into the most unquiet districts. Several of the rioters were tried and convicted. 

Mr. William Howe, auctioneer, generally known by the nickname of " Lord 
Howe," died at Leamington, June 16. His popular designation was due to an 
anecdote in circulation that he had accepted some public reference to the 
famous admiral as intended for himself. 

Mr. Thomas Dunstan, governor of New Bailey Prison, died July 7, aged 32, 
and was succeeded by his brother, Mr. Richard Dunstan. 

A general Swedenborgian Conference held in the Peter Street Chapel, 
August 8-12. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Hall, of King Street, died August 9, aged 86. She was a 
descendant of an ancient and honourable family of this town. 

There was a trial in the Court of King's Bench between Sir Oswald Mosley, 
the lord of the manor, and Mr. John Walker, a fishmonger, for an infraction 
of the manorial rights. The lord claimed to be entitled to a market for the 
sale of fish on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, and a right to oblige fish- 
mongers within the manor to make sales of their wares within the market 
and pay stallage. Verdict for the plaintiff, August 17. A rule nisi for a new 
trial having been obtained, was discharged by the Court of King's Bench after 
argument. {Mosley v. Walker, p. 7 ; Barncwall and CresswelVs Reports, p. 40.) 

The foundation stone of St. George's Church, Hulme, was laid September 
7th. It was consecrated December 9, 1828. The erection of this church was by 



1827J Annals of Manchester. 173 

a Parliamentary grant of £14,000, but the whole cost was £20,000. The ground 
was presented by Wilbrahani Egerton, of Tatton. 

Mr. David H. Parry, an artist of considerable local celebrity, died Sept. 15. 
He was born at Manchester in 1793, and was one of the original projectors of 
the Royal Institution. He bade fair to hold an exalted rank in his profession. 

The Manchester Branch Bank of England was opened in King Street 
September 26. 

Henry Hardie, M.D., died October G. 

Mr. Joseph Whittingham Salmon died, at Nantwich, 15th October, in the 
79th year of his age. He was for a time the amanuensis of Rev. John Clowes, 
of St. John's Church. (Hindmarsh's Eise of the New J ei'usalem Church, p. 66.) 
He was the author of various works. 

Mr. George Tomlinson, surgeon, died November 19, aged 62. He was a 
well-known and extensive collector of books, &c., and works of art. 

Rev. Joseph Proud died. He was the author of a Selection of Hymns, 1790. 
In 1793 he was joint minister with Mr. Cowherd, of the Swedenborgian Temple, 
Peter Street, but removed to London. In 1815 he was appointed, by the 
Swedenborgian Conference at Manchester, as missionary minister. 

The Welsh Independent Chapel in Gartside Street was openei. 

Infant School, Saville Street, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, founded. This was 
the second infant school in Manchester, and was established by the joint 
liberality of persons of all denominations. 

The suspension bridge near Broughton Ford opened. A toll was levied. 

A bridge was erected over the Irk at Hunt's Bank. 

Four large Wesleyan Methodist Chapels were opened in Manchester. The 
accommodation thus provided was sufficient for 6,000 persons. The chapels 
were in Oxford Street, Oldham Road, Ancoats, and Irwell Street, Salford. 

The Independent Chapel, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, was opened. 

Mrs. Sarah Richardson, widow, died at the Mount, Dickenson Street. She 
was said to be 101 years old. She was a native of Warrington, and was grand, 
great-grand, and great-great-grand mother to 153 descendants. 

Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Newton Heath, was built. 

Independent Chapel, Rusholme Road, built. 

1827. 

Mr. James Touchett died January 1, aged 84. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Irwell Street, Salford, opened Jan. 30. 

Rough Robin, the Manchester pugilist, died, February, at the age of 26. 
He fought battles in the prize ring without a defeat. (Procter's Our Turf, 
&c., p. 84.) 

7 and 8 George IV., cap. 9. Act for more eflfectually repairing and main- 
taining the road from Hulme across the river Irwell, through Salford to Eccles, 
and a branch of road communicating therewith. March 21st. 

7 and S George IV., cap. 21. Act for amending and enlarging the powers 
and provisions of an Act relating to the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. 
April 12th. 

7 and 8 George IV., cap. 68. Act for eli'ectually repairing and otherwise 



174 Annals of Manchester. [I827 

improving the road from the end of Ardwick Green, near Manchester, to Hyde 
Lane Bridge, in the county of Chester. May 28th. 

7 and 8 George IV., cap. 9. Act to enable the trustees of the estates devised 
by William Hulme, Esquire, to appropriate certain parts of the accumulated 
funds arising from the said estates in the purchase of advowsons, and for 
other purposes therein mentioned. May 2Sth. 

Mr. James Ackers, of Lark Hill, Salford, died May 28, aged 71. 

7 and 8 George IV., cap. 23. Act for enabling the trustees of the undivided 
moiety late of John Leech, deceased, in certain land in the town of Manchester, 
to concur with the parties entitled to the other moiety thereof in making 
partition thereof, and to sell all or any part of the said land, in the said town 
of Manchester, in consideration of perpetual chief rents, to be reserved, 
issuing out of such, land. June 14th. 

The Rev. John Haddon Hindley, M.A., librarian of Chetham's Library, 
died at Clapham, 17th June. He was born at Manchester, October, 1765, and 
translated the Odes of Hafiz from the Persian. {School Register, vol. i., p. 205.) 

Samuel Crompton, the inventor of the self-acting mule, died in King Street, 
Great Bolton, June 26th, at the age of 74. He was born at Hall-i'th'-Wood, 
Bolton, and, after receiving a fair education, worked as a weaver in his mother's 
house. He was a man of amiable character, with a tinge of mysticism, par- 
ticularly fond of music — he was a good player on the violin — and not very well 
adapted for the rough world with which he had to deal. His mechanical 
genius led him to the invention of the mule. It was constructed with great 
secrecy, and, after five years of toil, was in 1770 a success. It enabled him to 
produce yarn of a quality that made him the object of an inquisitive persecu- 
tion, which did not hesitate at espionage. He made his invention public on the 
faith of promises which were ruthlessly broken. After many struggles and 
discouragements he received a Parliamentary grant of £5,000 — a sum ludicrously 
inadequate, when the wealth-producing nature of his invention is considered. 
Crompton struggled on under depression and discouragement, whilst the 
industry which he had benefitted grew with amazing rapidity. (G. J. French, 
Life of Crompton ; Espinasse's Lancashire Worthies.) 

Rev. John Hugh Worthington died at Leicester 4th July, at the early age 
of 24. He had been chosen co-pastor with Rev. J. G. Robberds in July, 1825. 
He was the betrothed of Harriet Martineau, and the causes why she did 
not visit him during his last illness at Manchester and Leicester have 
been variously stated. (See Harriet Martineau"s Autobiograjyhy ; Mrs. Fen- 
wick Miller's Harriet Martineau, 1884 ; and a correspondence in the Daily 
News of December, 1884, and January, 1885.) In a letter, which appeared 30th 
December, Dr. James Martineau gives a fine portraiture of Worthington. 

The Salford and Pendleton Royal Dispensary, in Chapel Street, was opened 
September 10. 

The races at Heaton Park began, September 25. UntU 1835 no professional 
^ockeys were allowed to take part. 

Mr. Charles Wheeler died, September 26. He was born at Manchester, 1756, 
and was the inaugural proprietor and editor of the Manchester Chronicle. 
(Manch. Coll., vol. ii. p. 110.) 



1828] 



Annals of Manchester. 175 



Mr. Richard Thompson (late of Manchester), a magistrate and one of the 
deputy-lieutenants of the county, died at Lancaster, November 29. 

Maurice de Jongh, of Manchester, patented a self-acting mule. Dec. 4. 

Mr. Nathan Jackson died, Dec. 17. He was for many years in the com- 
missariat department under Sir Robert Kennedy, whom he accompanied with 
the British army in Spain and France. He was brother to Messrs. R. and C. 
Jackson, solicitors, of this town, and was descended from Dr. Cartwright, 
Bishop of Chester. 

The Botanical and Horticultural Society was established. 

St. John's Charity and Sunday Schools, Gartside Street and St. John's 
Place, were erected. 

St. Matthew's Sunday School, Liverpool Road, was erected. 

Rev. Thomas Ward died, aged 71. He was a son of Archdeacon Ward, and 
was educated at the Grammar School and at Cambridge. He was Vicar of 
Nester and Rector of Handley. 

Rev. William Priestley died at Devizes. He was the son of Rev. Timothy 
Priestley and nephew of Rev. Dr. Priestley. He was born at Manchester, 
1768, and was Independent pastor at Fordingbridge, 

On the death of the Rev. William Johnson, the first incumbent of St. 
George's-in-the-Fields, Oldham Road, the Rev. James White, M.A., was 
appointed. He was born at Nottingham in 1788, and was the younger brother 
of Kirke White, the poet, whom he survived nearly eighty years. He remained 
in Manchester until 1841, and interested himself in the promotion of Sunday 
schools and infant schools. He was the originator, in 1831, of the Manchester 
Clerical Book Club. He died at Sloley House, Scotton, Norfolk, in March, 1885. 

1828. 

Mr. Joseph Gleave, printer, bookseller, and periodical publisher, died 
February 16, aged 55. 

A new vessel, the " Emma," was launched, in the presence of a large crowd 
and amidst great rejoicings, at the New Quay Company's Docks, Feb. 28. Some 
hundreds out of curiosity had gone on board, but the vessel had hardly touched 
the river when she swamped, and they were all thrown into the river. About 
forty were drowned and many more injured. (Procter's Bijegone Manchester). 

9 George IV., cap. 7. Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the 
Liverpool and Manchester Railway to alter the line of the said railway, and 
for amending and enlarging the powers and provisions of the several Acts 
relating thereto. March 2Gth. 

The Infant School in Bombay Street, Salford, was opened April 7. 

Mr. Charles Knight visited Manchester in the interests of the Society for 
the DifTusion of Useful Knowledge. In his Passages of a Working Life he 
says : "It was not an inviting place for a stranger to wander about in, but I 
soon found willing guides and cordial friends. It was not always very easy to 
interest the busy millowners in the objects for which I came amongst them. 
Some were too absorbed in their ledgers to hear long explanations ; others 
were wholly indifTerent to matters which had no relation to the business of 
their lives. I persevered, and, chiefly by the exertions of a very earnest 
man, Mr. George William Wood, a local association was formed, on 



176 Annals of Manchester. [1828 



the 6th of June, of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge." Mr. 
Knight visited Manchester several times in subsequent years. 

Mr. John Farris died July 4, aged 74. He was formerly a sergeant- 
major of the 72nd (Manchester) Regiment, and lost a leg at the siege of 
Gibraltar. 

9 George IV., cap. 117. Act to amend several Acts for cleansing, lighting, 
watching, improving, and regulating the towns of Manchester and Salford 
July 15th. 

One of the arches of a bridge— Hanging Bridge— discovered in the course 
Df excavations. It had been concealed for an unknown period. July. 

Mr. Joseph Smethurst, formerly deputy-constable of Salford, died Aug. 9. 

Mr. William Leonard Kilbie died August 10. He was one of the Man- 
chester beadles, and had served as a dragoon in the battles of Corunna and 
Waterloo. 

A grand musical festival and fancy dress ball was held. It began 7th 
October and lasted for a week. The proceeds (£5,000) were devoted to the 
public charities. The festival was held in the nave of the Collegiate Church, 
and the evening concerts in the Theatre Royal, Fountain Street. 

The Manchester Times, No. 1, Saturday, October 17, printed and published 
by Archibald Prentice. 

The Manchester and Salford Advertiser, No. 1, Saturday, November 15. 

St. George's, the mother church of Hulme, was consecrated December 9, 
by Dr. J. B. Sumner, Bishop of Chester. The architect was Mr. Goodwin, 

A new Fish Market was opened December 22. It was built upon the site of 
the old butchers' shambles. 

Mr. C. A. Cowdroy died at Sandbach, in the county of Chester, December 
2Sth. He was formerly one of the proprietors of the Manchester Courier, which 
began in 1817. 

At the Spring Assizes at Lancaster, judgment was given in a tithe case 
pending between the warden and fellows of the Collegiate Church and their 
lessee, Mr. Joule, they claiming tithe in kind on hay, milk, potatoes, the 
agistment of ley cattle, gardens, &c. It was decided that the parishioners 
were liable to all these demands, except the tithe in kind on gardens, orchards, 
poultry, &c. 

All Saints' Sunday School, Clarendon Street, was built by subscription. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Chapel in Harpurhey was built. 

Mr. Francis Marcellus Hodson died, aged 66. He was for a time minister 
of the Swedenborgian church in Peter Street. At another period he 
was in the habit of riding from Manchester to Accrington to conduct the 
Sunday services there, and from his text at the opening of the chapel (Deut. 
xxii. 6) he was known as the " Bird's-Nest Fellow." He had a chapel in 
Ancoats, and for their use compiled a volume of hymns. He left Manchester 
for Hull, where he preached at the Dagger Lane Chapel, but returned to his 
native home to die. He was the author of the Encyclopaedia Mancuniensis. 

The Cannon Street Congregational Chapel rebuilt at a cost of £1,800. (See 
under date 1861, September 12.) 

The Bank of Manchester in Market Street was opened. 



1829] 



Annals of Manchester. 177 



The declared value of all the cotton goods exported from Great Britain was 
£36,824,270, 

The Manchester Improvement Committee was formed. By this body a 
great number of alterations, more or less extensive, were effected. 

There were 8,000 looms for silk and 4,000 for mixed goods at work in and 
about Manchester, 

St. Philip's Church, Broken Bank, Salford, was, by authority of the Eccle- 
siastical Commissioners, constituted a district parish church, 

1829. 

Miss Frances Hall, of King Street, died January 4, in her 84th year. This 
venerable lady was the last survivor of a family which, for more than a century, 
had been distinguished in this town. At the period of 1745 the family took an 
active part on the side of Charles Edward ; and he presented them with an 
original portrait of his father, painted by Belle, the French artist, and which 
was disposed of, along with other curious Jacobite relics, on the death of this 
lady. She left the following munificent bequests, viz., to the Manchester 
Infirmary, £11,000; House of Recovery, £11,000; Lying-in-Hospital, £11,000, 
and the Ladies' Jubilee School, £11,000. She is commemorated by an elegant 
monument in Byrom's Chapel of the Collegiate Church, erected in 1834. 

Mr. John Leigh Bradbury, calico printer, died January 4, He was the 
author of several very useful inventions, among which was a mode of printing 
calicoes both sides alike, another for silk- thro wing, and another for the manu- 
facture of pins. 

The Ardwick and Ancoats Dispensary was opened in January. 
Mrs. Martha Wright, relict of Mr. Thomas "Wright, and last surviving 
member of an ancient family resident in Broughton, died February 26, aged 82. 
She left several large sums of money to various local charities. 

The New Mechanics' Listitution, Brazennose Street, commenced March 25. 

Mr. Dauntesy Hulme died April 27, aged 85. He was remarkable for his 

extensive contributions to the various charities of the town. During his life 

be presented the sum of £10,000 to the Infirmary, and at his death another 

£10,000. 

The Manchester and Liverpool District Bank was established in Spring 
Gardens, April 30. 

Serious riots, through commercial distress. May 5. The weaving factories 
of Mr. T. Harbottle, Messrs, Twiss, and Mr, Jas, Guest, were attacked, and their 
contents entirely destroyed ; that of Messrs. Parker was burnt down. Many 
provision shops were forcibly entered on the same day, 

A deputation from Manchester, Liverpool, Glasgow, and other towns had 
an interview with the Duke of Wellington and other Ministers for the pui-pose 
of advocating free trade to India and China. May 9, 

10 George IV,, cap. 35. Act for enabling the Liverpool and Manchester 
Railway Company to make an alteration in the line of the said railway, and 
for amending and enlarging the powers and provisions of the several Acts 
relating thereto, INIay 14th. 

10 George IV., cap. 114. Act for more effectually repairing and otherwise 
M 



178 Annals of Manchester. 



[1829 



improving the roads from Hurdlow House, in the county of Derby, to Man- 
chester, and other roads therein mentioned. June 1st. 

Mr. Thomas Holland, schoolmaster, died June 12. He was born at Man. 
Chester, 29th October, 1760, and was joint author with his brother, the Rev. 
John Holland of Exercises for the Memory and Understanding, 1798. 
{Monthly Repository, 1829, p. 721.) 

Mr. William Rowlinson, aged 22, was drowned in the Thames, June 22. He 
was a young man of considerable promise, as is shown by various contributions 
which he made to The Phoenix and other Manchester journals. One of his 
pieces, Sir Gualter, is reprinted in Procter's Literary Eeminiscences (p. 103), 
At the time of his death Rowlinson was employed by Messrs. Pigott to collect, 
material for their directories. He is buried in Bisham Churchyard, Berkshire. 

Mr. Alexander Wood, editor of the Manchester and Salford Advertiser, 
died August 3. 

Mr. Gavin Hamilton, one of the surgeons of the Infirmary, died August 25, 
aged 74. His wife was Miss Ward, daughter of T. A. Ward, of the Theatre 
Royal. 

There were high floods in the Irwell, August 27. 

St. Andrew's Church, Travis Street, Ancoats, was founded September 14, 
and consecrated October 6, 1831. It was erected by the Church Building Com- 
missioners at an expense of £14,000. 

Charlestown (Pendleton) Independent Sunday School commenced in a 
cottage in Ashton Street. September. 

A dinner was given to Mr. Robert Peel in Manchester. There were 500 
persons present. October 6. 

Mr. Thomas Stott, a native of this town, and formerly captain of the 29th 
Foot, died at Quebec, October 29, aged 62. 

Mr. Richard Hartley, of Salford, died 22nd November. He was a well- 
known change-ringer, and was commonly known as Major Hartley. 

Mr. David Bannerman, Mosley Street, died, December 1. 

Colonel John Ferriar died of dysentery at Pasto, near Carthagena, 
Columbia. He was a son of Dr. John Ferriar, and on the death of his brother. 
Colonel Thomas Ilderton Ferriar, after the battle of Carabobo, succeeded to 
the command of the British Legion. When his old leader, Paez, headed a 
revolt against Bolivar, the men under Ferriar's command remained faithful by 
his influence. He had the decoration of the Orden del Libertador, and at the 
time of his death was mflitary governor of the province of Coro. (Axon's 
Lancashire Gleanings.) 

The Manchester Phrenological Society was instituted in Faulkner Street. 

An Act (9 George IV., cap. 117) recites that "whereas the said towns of 
Manchester and Salford are respectively very large and populous, and form two 
townships separate and distinct from each other in all matters of local arrange- 
ment ; and soon after the passing of the first recited Act (32 Geo. III.) the com- 
missioners thereby appointed divided, and formed two distinct bodies, and 
from that time have so continued to act and to put the first recited Act in 
force for each town separately and respectively, and the rates authorised by 
the said first recited Act to be assessed and raised have been and now are 



1830] 



Annals of Manchester. 179 



raised by separate and distinct assessments within each of the said towns, and 
applied exclusively to the uses of the town in which they were and are 
respectively assessed and raised ; and whei'eas the said towns of Manchester 
and Salford, and more particularly the former, having greatly increased since 
the passing of the said first recited Act, and being still increasing in trade, 
population, and extent of buildings, cannot conveniently be regulated by one 
body of commissioners acting separately as aforesaid." The police of the town 
was therefore divided, and persons qualified as prescribed by the 32nd Geo. III. 
were constituted commissioners for executing that Act in Salford alone, by 
the name of " the commissioners for better cleansing, lighting, watching, and 
regulating the town of Salford." At the same time the constitution of the 
Manchester body was remodelled. 

1830. 

Rev. William Roby died at Manchester, January 11. He was born at 
Wigan, March 2.3, 1766. He was a man of great distinction amongst the Con- 
gregationalists, and was the author of Lectures on Revealed Religion; and 
various sermons and pamphlets. (McAll's Funeral Sermon and Memoir, 1838). 

Mr. J. C. Dyer effected considerable improvements in the method of roving. 
His method was patented February 27. 

Mr. Matthew Mason, for 23 years governor of Manchester Workhouse, died 
March 11. 

11 George IV. cap. 8. Act for better cleansing, lighting, watching, regula- 
ting, and improving the town of Salford. March 19. 

Mr. Robert Barnard died, March 21. He was of Coalbrookdale, Shropshire, 
and afterwards of Manchester. He was author of The Leisure Hour Imjoroved, 
1809 ; Memoirs of Francis, commonly called St. Francis, de Sales, 1814 ; and 
of A Wreath from the Wilderness, 1816. (Smith's Friends' Books.) 

11 George IV. and 1 William IV. cap. 23. Act for more effectually repairing 
and improving the road from Chorlton Row, near Manchester, to the bridge at 
the cornmills at Wilmslow. April 8. 

Mr. Joseph Nelson, the manager of Mr. Raines's improvements at Chat 
Moss, and the first successful improver of that waste, died there, April 14, 
aged 84. 

Twelve persons were drowned near the railway bridge, in the Irwell, by 
the upsetting of a boat. April 24. 

Mr. Francis Woodiwis, currier, of Fennel Street, died May 1, aged 72. He 
was a man of penurious habits, by which he amassed a fortune of nearly 
£100,000. 

A Temperance Society formed 12th May, with a pledge against the use of 
ardent spirits. (Winskill's Temperance Rcjorynation, p. 23.) 

Mr. Charles Robinson was found shot in Oxford Road, May 20, on his 
returning home from Manchester. The murderer was never detected, but 
it was regarded as a trade outrage. 

The foundation stone of Christ Church, Acton Square, Salford, was laid 
May 28 ; consecrated November, 1831. The first rector was the Rev. Hugh 
Stowell, M.A. 



180 Annals of Manchester. 



[1830 



11 George IV. cap. 47. Act to amend several Acts for supplying the town of 
. Manchester with gas, and for regulating and improving the same town. May 29. 

The first Co-operative Cong'^ess was held in May. 

Mr. Foster Ellis, of Hulme, died June 5, aged 85. He was forty years in the 
army, having entered the service in 1775, and was orderly to General Elliot at 
the siege of Gibraltar. 

The first Sir Robert Peel, Bart., though not connected by birth with the 
town of Manchester, claims notice as one of the most active, intelligent, and 
successful merchants who frequented her markets, and where, in 1788, he 
carried on the business of a banker. He was born at Peel Fold, near Black- 
burn, April 25, 1750, and died at Drayton Manor, in Staffordshire, June 8, 1830, 
having accumulated by integrity and industry upwards of two millions ster- 
ling. His eldest son, the late Sir Robert Peel, was born at Chamber Hall, 
Bury, in 1788. Sir Robert Peel procured the patronage of the king for the 
Manchester Infirmary, and since that period it has been called the Royal 
Infirmary. Sir Robert Peel left to the Infirmary and Lunatic Asylum in Man- 
chester, and to the Lying-in Hospital of Salford, £100 each. 

Mr. Richard Roberts invented an improvement in the self-acting mule for 
the spinning of cotton, which was patented July 1. 

Mr. Edward Hobson, of this town, died at Bowdon, September 7. Mr. 
Hobson, though in humble life, had, by perseverance, aided by good natural 
talents, become a thoroughly skilful botanist, mineralogist, geologist, and 
entomologist. His Musci Britannici (of which, from the nature and extent 
of the work, a very few copies were issued) stands a recognised monument 
of his soundness in that particular and intricate portion of the science of 
botany, as the general reference made to the work by Sir W. J. Hooker and 
Dr. Taylor will testify. Upon other subjects of natural history he was in cor- 
respondence with many eminent authors, and his investigations and opinions 
were much respected. 

Rev. Charles Wickstead Ethelstone, M. A., died at Crumpsall, September 14. 
He was born at Manchester 24th March, 1767, and was Fellow of the Collegiate 
Church and incumbent of St. Mark's, Cheetham Hill. He wrote The Suicide, 
and other Poems. (Manchester School Begister, vol. ii., p. 4.) 

The Manchester and Liverpool Railway was opened September 15, in the 
presence of the Duke of Wellington, attended by a great number of nobility 
and gentry, and amidst the loud greetings of many thousands of spectators. 
The Right Hon. William Huskisson was unfortunately killed atParkside, near 
Newton-le-Willows, which threw a gloom over the festivities of the day. The 
cost of the whole undertaking, up to June, 1830, was £820,000. There is a 
graphic account of the opening day in Fanny Kemble's Becords, and another in 
F. H. Grundy's Pictures of the Past. The engineering details are given in 
Smiles's Life of George Stephenson. 

St. Thomas's Church, Pendleton, founded September 23, and consecrated 
October 7, 1831. 

Chorlton-upon-Medlock Town Hall, Grosvenor Square, was commenced 
October 13, and finished October 13, 1831. 

Mr. Isaac Blackburne, distributor of stamps, and brother to Mr. John 
Blackburne, M.P., of Hale, died December 17, aged 72. 



jg3i] Annals of Manchester. 181 

Harrop's Manchester Mercury, which commenced March 3, 1752, expired 
December 28, after an existence of 79 years. 

"The Associate was a small Manchester newspaper of the 1830 period, the 
prettiest named and best printed and most varied in its contents of any paper 
of that species." (Holyoake's History of Co-oioeration, vol. ii., p. 14.) 

The Sunday School in connection with Charlestown Independent Chapel 
opened in Shemwell Street. 

St. Thomas's Sunday Schools, Ardwick, built. 

The Manchester Gentlemen's Glee Club established. 

United Trades Co-operative Journal published. (Holyoake's History of 
Co-operation, vol. i., p. 151.) 

There was a co-operative scheme projected for the cultivation of Chat Moss. 
{Ibid, p. 155.) 

The Foreign Library was founded. 

The duty on printed cottons was reduced. 

The number of yards of goods printed in Great Britain was 130,053,520 ; the 
amount of capital in the trade was estimated at £56,000,000, employing 330,400 
persons in factories alone. 

1831. 

The Voice of the People, No. 1, January 1, was printed by John Hampson. 

The year opened with great apprehensions of a turn-out of the factory 
operatives, but although thirty thousand were on strike in the Ashton district 
the example was not followed in Manchester. A great sensation was caused 
by the murder of Mr. Thomas Ashton, of Werneth, who was found, January 3, 
dead by the roadside, having been shot through the breast. The murderers 
were not detected for three years, when one of them turned king's evidence, 
and it was then found to be a trade outrage. Three men had been hired tc 
shoot him, and received £10 for doing the deed. The motive was not private 
vengeance, for Mr. Ashton was an amiable young man, but a desire to intimidate 
the masters generally. The trial took place at the autumn assizes, Chester, 
1834, and two men were sentenced to be hung, but owing to a dispute between 
the sheriffs of the city and of the county the execution was delayed. The two 
men were eventually hung in London some months later. 

Petitions for representatives in Parliament adopted January 20. 

Mr. Louis Schwabe obtained a patent for certain processes and apparatus 
for preparing and beaming yarns of cotton, linen, &c., so that any design, 
device, &c., may be preserved when woven into cloth. January 22. 

Mr. William Massey, eldest son of the late Mr. John Massey, of this town, 
died at Tunis, February 27. He was a young man of considerable talent as a 
linguist. 

1 William IV. cap. 7. Act for more effectually maintaining the road from 
Crossford Bridge to the town of Manchester, and for making a branch road to 
communicate therewith. March 11. 

The body of Moses Ferneley, who was executed at Lancaster for the 
murder of his stepson at llulme, was sent to the Manchester Infirmary for dis- 
section, March 14. 



182 Annals of Manchester. issi 

Ashton Worrall and "William Worrall were executed at Lancaster for the 
murder of Sarah M'Lellon, at Failsworth, March 14. 

1 William IV. cap. 16. Act to authorise the raising of further monies foi 
supplying the town of Manchester with gas. March 15. 

The Bazaar in Deansgate was erected, and opened March 22. It was pulled 
down in 1872 to make way for the Deansgate improvements ; and upon th( 
site fine shops have been erected, now (188G) in the occupation of Messrs. 
Kendal, Milne, and Co. 

Hulme Dispensary was established, March 28. 

The first concert of the Manchester Choral Society was held in the Exchange 
dining-room, March 30. 

Rev. James Gatliff died at Gorton, and was buried in the chancel of Gorton 
Chapel, April 30, He was born at Manchester about 1763, and edited Wogan's 
Essays on the Proper Lessons in the Liturgy of the Church of England, with 
a Life of Wogan, third edition, 1817, 4 vols. {Manchester School Register, i. 184.) 

Ram Mohun Roy visited Manchester, and was shown through various 
establishments, April 13. 

1 WillTam IV. cap. 51. Act for amending and enlarging the powers and 
provisions of the several Acts relating to the Liverpool and Manchester 
Railway. April 22. 

Mr. Benjamin Heywood, of Manchester, returned as one of the representa- 
tives of the county. May 10. 

The Rev. John Clowes, M.A., died May 28, at Leamington, in his 88th year. 
He was for sixty-two years rector of St. John's Church. Born on the 31st 
October, 1743, he was the fourth son of Mr. Joseph Clowes, barrister, and was 
educated at the Free Grammar School, and at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where he was highly distinguished as a classical scholar, and became a fellow 
of the college. He was the first rector of St. John's, and refused more than 
one offer of high preferment in the Church. In the spring of 1773 he became 
acquainted with the theological writings of Baron Emanuel Swedenborg, 
and from that time he dedicated all the energies of his powerful mind to the 
publication of those doctrines, both in the pulpit and by the press. During the 
latter part of his life he resided principally at Warwick. A full list of his 
writings would contain about two hundred entries. He has left an interesting 
autobiography, and a life of him by Mr. Theodore Crompton has also been 
published. Some interesting references to Mr. Clowes will be found in Hind- 
marsh's Rise and Progress of the New Jerusalem Church. There is a memorial 
of him by Flaxman in St. John's Church. 

A Socialist Congress was held in May for the purpose of establishing a 
community. 

A dinner given to Mr. John Wilson Patten and Lord Stanley, the repre- 
sentatives of the county, at the Exchange Room, June 17. 

The Botanical and Horticultural Gardens, Old TrafTord, opened June 21. 
They cover a space of sixteen acres in extent. 

The payment from the gas profits to the Improvement Committee was 
£6,908 15s. 2d. June. 

Robert Bowker, who had been confined for many weeks in the New Bailey, 
on a charge of feloniously making use of money, to the extent of several thou- 



1831] 



AnTials of Manchester. 183 



sand pounds, belonging to the churchwardens, was discharged on bail amount- 
ing to the sum of £800. June. 

The Rev. W. Huntington succeeded, in June, to the rectory of St. John's, 
upon the death of the Rev. John Clowes. 

Mr. Richard Bradley died at Bradford Colliery, July 6, aged 95. He was 
born at Stoneyhurst, and at the age of fifteen he came to Manchester, where 
he was taught to weave on the Dutch loom. He resided under the same roof 
and was in the same employ for seventy-one years. 

A Medical Vapour Bath Institution was opened July 28. 

Robert Bradbury, a celebrated clown, died July 28. He was originally a 
cabinet-maker at Liverpool, and, under the management of Mr. Riley, the 
author of The Itinerant, then the lessee of the Liverpool Theatre, made hia 
debut as clown. He was possessed of prodigious strength, and some of his 
feats were more calculated to terrify than amuse his auditors. 

Mr. Nathaniel George Phillips, eldest son of Mr. John Leigh Phillips, of 
Mayfield, died August 1, at Childwall, near Liverpool. Mr. Phillips 
was an amateur artist of great taste and skill ; he executed a consider- 
able number of etchings, consisting principally of views of old halls, &c., in 
Lancashire and Cheshire, as well as many miscellaneous subjects. 

Messrs. Fairbairn and Lillie's foundry and millwright establishment burnt 
down, August 6. The damage was estimated at £8,000. 

Lord Hill, Commander-in-Chief, reviewed upon Kersal Moor the various 
troops stationed in this district, amounting to upwards of 3,000 men. He was 
accompanied by Generals Sir H. Bouverie, Macdonald, and Sir Willoughby 
Gordon. August 11. 

1 and 2 William IV. cap. 59. Act for making a railway from Manchester 
to Sheffield. August 23. 

1 and 2 William IV. cap. 60. Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of 
the Canal Navigation from Manchester to Bolton and to Bury to make and 
maintain a railway from Manchester to Bolton and to Bury upon or near the 
line of the said canal navigation, and to make and maintain a collateral branch 
to communicate therewith. August 23. 

The coronation of William IV. was celebrated by a procession of the various 
trades, and the Sunday school children of all denominations, amounting to 
upwards of 36,000. In the evening there were displays of fireworks. The day 
was rather unfavourable. September 8. 

St. Andrew's Church, Travis Street, was consecrated October 6. 

The Chorlton-upon-Medlock Dispensary opened, October 13. 

Mr. Robert Southey came to the town in October on a visit to the Rev. 
James White, brother of Kirke White, then at St. George's Church, Oldham 
Road. On this occasion he made the acquaintance of Mr. Charles Swain, with 
whose poems and individuality he was " much pleased." 

Mr. Ralph Wright, of Flixton, died November 16, aged 80. He was the 
senior magistrate of this division. His attempt to close up an ancient footpath 
led to considerable litigation, and was the immediate cause of the formation of 
the Society for the Preservation of Ancient Footpaths. (Prentice's Manchester, 
pp. 290 and 292.). 

Mr. Jacob Chatterton, of the Woolpack public-house, Pendleton, died 



184 Annals of Manchester. [I832 

November 25. He was the first individual interred in the new burial-ground 
attached to St. Thomas's Church. 

Mr. Thomas Dean died at Shrewsbury, Dec. 13, aged 76. He was one of 
the celebrated Manchester Volunteers, or 72nd, which distinguished itself at 
Gibraltar. 

Christ Church, Salford, was consecrated. It was enlarged in 1847. 

Christ Church Sunday School, Hulme Street, was erected. 

A turn-out of spinners, occasioned by low wages and a scarcity of provisions. 

The Lancashire Co-operator, or Useful Classes Advocate. The editor was 
Mr. E. T. Craig, but the periodical did not live long. (Holyoake's History of 
Co-operation, vol. i., p. 180.) The title was altered to Lancashire and York- 
shire Co-operator. 

Mr. L. Harris was appointed singing-master at the Collegiate Church. 

The suspension bridge at Broughton gave way at the time the 60th Rifle 
Corps were passing over it, forty or fifty of whom were precipitated into the 
river. No lives were lost, but six of the men were very seriously hurt. 

The Cemetery in Irwell Street, Salford, was opened. 

The Concert Hall, Peter Street, was opened. 

Toll Lane, leading from Deansgate into St. Ann's Square, widened. 

The Rothesay Castle steamer was lost on Dutchman's Bank, near Great 
Orme's Head, on her passage from Liverpool to Beaumaris, and out of 105 
persons only 21 were saved. Many families in this town and neighbourhood 
had to mourn the loss of their relatives. 

Jonathan Dade and Isaac Holland were apprehended for forging Bank of 
England notes. They were two of an extensive gang that had been carrying 
on operations for years. 

The population of Manchester, including Ardwick, Cheetham, Chorlton, 
and Hulme, at the fourth census was 181,768. The population of Salford, 
including Broughton, 42,375. 

The Scotch Presbyterian Church founded in St. Peter's Square. 

1832, 

Messrs. Tatlock and Love's factory, in Spear Street, was burnt down, 
January 2. The damage was estimated at £8,000. 

Messrs. Broadhurst, Curran, Ashmore, and Gilchrist apprehended for 
holding political meetings on the "Sabbath-day," January 3. They were sen- 
tenced to twelve months' imprisonment in Lancaster Castle. 

Mr. Henry Liverseege, painter, died January 13, aged 29. He was born in 
Manchester in 1803. At a very early age he showed an extraordinary love for 
art. His designs at eleven or twelve years of age were indeed surprising. Had 
his life been prolonged, there is no doubt but that he would have risen to the 
highest rank in his profession. A volume of engravings after his paintings 
appeared in 1832, and this was republished in 1875, with a life by his friend and 
pupil, Mr. George Richardson. Liverseege is buried at St. Luke's, Chorlton- 
upon-Medlock, where there is a memorial tablet. 

Mr. James Finley, stonemason, died January 25. He was the operative 
builder of the railway bridge over the Irwell. 



1832] 



Annals of Manchester. 185 



Mr. Thomas C. Hewes, an eminent mechanic, died January 25. 
Messrs. Bancks and Co. published a large plan of Manchester and Salford, 
January. 

Mr. Charles Hughes, one of the Manchester 72nd Regiment, under General 
Elliot, at the siege of Gibraltar, died February 15, aged 77. 

St. Patrick's Catholic Chapel, Oldham Road, was opened February 29. 
Mr. Goodier and six of his workmen killed by the explosion of a steam 
boiler, in Pool Fold, March 23. 

2 and 3 William IV. cap. 28. Act for effectually repairing and improving 
the roads leading from Barton Bridge into the Manchester and Altrincham 
turnpike road. April 3. 

2 William IV. cap. 36. Act for widening and improving a part of London 
Road, in the parish of Manchester, and also for effecting improvements in the 
streets and other places within the town of Manchester. April 9. 

St. George's Sunday School, Oldham Road, was erected. The first stone 
was laid April 23. 

Mr. James Down, surgeon, late of Leicester, died at Kersal Lodge, May 2. 
He was the inventor and patentee of a valuable method of purifying gas. 

A meeting of 50,000 persons was held on St. Peter's Field, to obtain the 
restoration of the Grey administration, May 14. 

The district suffered from a visitation of Asiatic cholera. On May 17 a 
man named James Palfreymau, living in Somerset Street, Dalefleld, was seized 
■with symptoms of malignant cholera. The case was reported to the Board ol 
Health. The cholera spread to various other Lancashire towns. In Manchester 
its ravages were chiefly confined to the district of Angel Meadow, Deansgate, 
Portland Street, Little Ireland, and Bank Top. The deaths from cholera in 
1831-3 in Manchester were 674 ; in Salford, 216 ; in Chorlton, 34. The services 
of the medical profession were freely rendered in checking the disease, but the 
prejudices of the people were strongly against them, and an attack was made 
September 3 on the Swan Street Hospital, when the head of a boy, severed from 
the body, probably in the course of a x^ost-mortem, was exhibited by his 
infuriated relatives. 

2 and 3 William IV. cap. 46. Act for enabling the Liverpool and 
Manchester Railway Company to make a branch railway, and for amending and 
enlarging the powers and provisions of the several Acts relating to such 
railway. May 23. 

The Rev. J. H. Mallory, M.A., rector of Mobberley, and one of the fellows 
of the Collegiate Church, died May 25. 

The Kersal Moor Races of Whitweek this year are graphically described 
in Procter's Our Turf, &c . 

By the passing of the Reform Bill, June 7,;Manchester became entitled to 
two representatives and Salford to one. 

By an Act (2 William IV. cap. 90) passed June 23, for " improving and 
regulating" the township of Cliorlton (which bears a close resemblance in all 
its main features as to paving, watching, soughing, &c., to the Acts allccting 
Manchester), the said township is hereafter to bear the new designation of 
" Chorlton-upon-Medlock." 

Mr. John Milne, coroner for this district, died June 28. 



186 Annals of Manchester. [i832 

2 and 3 William IV. cap. 69. Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of 
the Manchester, Bolton, and Bury Canal Navigation and Railway to aV.er some 
parts of the said canal navigation, to alter and amend the line of the said 
railway, to make further collateral branches thereto, and for amending the 
powers and provisions of the Act relating to the said canal and railway. June 1. 
Mr. John Bradshaw, watchmaker, Deansgate, died July 3, aged 67. 
Mr. Edward Brown, one of the celebrated Manchester Volunteers at the 
siege of Gibraltar, died at Stand, July 24, aged 74. 

The organ at St. Andrew's Church, Travis Street, built by Renn, was 
opened July 29. 

The first number of a satirical paper called the Squib published in July. 
The passing of the Reform Bill, and the enfranchisement of Manchestei 
and Salford, was celebrated by a magnificent procession of the authorities, 
trade societies, &c., August 9. Mr. Charles Green ascended in a balloon. 

The Rev. Adam Clarke, D.D., died August 26, at London. He was born at 
Moybeg, Londonderry, and having joined the Methodist body, was in 1791-92 
appointed to the Manchester circuit, and in conjunction with Samuel Bradburn 
instituted in that year the Strangers' Friend Society. "We learn that at this 
time there was at least one student of alchemy in the town with whom Hand, 
of Dublin, a noted adept, desired the doctor to put him in communication. The 
people were somewhat boisterous in their devotion. "I can do," he says "with 
the Liverpool ' Amens,' but at Manchester they are like cart wheels among 
watch works." He was appointed to Manchester again in 1803, and formed the 
Philological Society, of which he was president. Several of his communications 
to this association are printed in his works. In 1805 he became superintendent 
of the London circuit. In 1815 he settled at NuUbrook, near Liverpool, but fre- 
quently visited Manchester. There are many matters of local interest men- 
tioned in Everett's Adam Clarke Portrayed. Dr. Clarke's father is buried at 
St. Thomas's, Ardwick. 

Mr. W. S. Rutter elected to the coronership of this district, August. 
Mr. William Ford died at Liverpool, Oct. 3. He was born in Manchester in 
1771, and was intended for the medical profession, but became a bookseller, for 
which his unrivalled bibliographical knowledge specially fitted him. His cata- 
logues are still highly prized by collectors. He was one of the contributors to 
Bibliographiana. There are notes of him in the Manchester Grammar 
School Register, and Earwaker's Local Gleanings, Nos. 90, 111, 144. 

Rev. Richard Jones died November 22, in the 62nd year of his age. He was 
minister of the Swedenborgian Temple, Peter Street, for nearly thirty years, 
and rendered his services gratuitously. (Hindmarsh's Rise of New Jerusalem 
Church, pp. 215, 436.) He was the author of a Friendly Address to the 
Receivers of the Doctrines of the New Jerusalem Church (Manchester, 
1805), and wrote under the signature of "Discipulus" in the Intellectual 
Repository. 

The first number of a satirical paper called the Bullock Smithy Gazette 
published, November 24. 

The first election for the borough of Manchester took place December 13 
and 14. The following were the numbers at the close of the poll : Mr. Mark 
Philips, 2,923 ; Right Hon. C. P. Thomson, 2,068 ; Mr. Samuel Jones Loyd, 1,832 ; 



1833] 



Annals of Manchester. 187 



Mr. John Thomas Hope, 1,560 ; Mr. William Cobbett, 1,305, The expenses of 
the election were £729 2s. 6d. 

The first election for the borough of Salford took place December 
13 and 14. The numbers at the close of the poll were: Mr. Joseph 
Brotherton, 712 ; Mr. Wm. Garnett, 518. The expenses of the election were 
'250 15s. 6d. 

Mr. J. T. Hope was entertained at a public dinner in the Theatre Royal, 
ecember 24. It was attended by 730 gentlemen. 

A public dinner was held at the Theatre Royal, to celebrate the return ot 
r. Mark Philips and the Right Hon. Charles P. Thomson, as the two first 
presentatives of Manchester, December 27. 

The total number of children attending the day schools in Manchester and 
Iford in the month of December was 17,000. 
By the Reform Act, Lancashire was divided into North and South, each 
urning two representatives. 
Gasworks at Holt Town erected. 

Todd Street, or Toad Lane, improved at a cost of £1,401 16s. 
The revenue of the Post Office in Manchester was £53,510 8s. 4d. 
The inhabitants of Salford decided to purchase Mr. Appleton's gasworks, 
Mch he offered for £6,000. 
The froi t of the Infirmary was cased with stone. 
The Baptist Chapel, George Street, was opened. 

There were from 12,000 to 14,000 looms, and ten throwing mills, giving 
employment to about 3,000 hands. 

The number of mills at work in Manchester and adjoining townships 
was : Silk mills, 16 ; cotton mills, 96 ; woollen or worsted mills, 4 ; flax 
mills, 2. 

A new throstle frame was invented by Mr. Robert Montgomery, of John- 
ston, Scotl .nd. 

The duty on cotton produced £600,000. 

The Poor Man's Advocate and the Peojole's Library were both published 
in INIanchester, and edited by Mr. John Doherty, of whom there is a slight 
notice in Johnson's Manchester Catalogue. 

1833. 

Mr. Robert Stephenson, of Worsley, died January 17, aged 79. He was one 
of the gallant 72nd Regiment at Gibraltar, and was the first man who struck 
his pick into the rock as a miner. 

The Scotch Kirk, St. Peter's Square, was opened by Dr. Muir, of Edinburgh, 
February 3. The building was designed by Mr. Johnson, and cost £7,500. 

Mr. Michael Ward, M.D., died Feb. 21. He was a native of Manchester, 
was a former surgeon to the Manchester Infirmary, and the oldest resident 
medica' practitioner in the town. 

A fire broke out in the Medlock Paper Mill, occupied by Messrs. Schofleld, 
March 1. 

The Manchester and Salford District Provident Society was established, 
M rch. 

3 and 4 William IV. cap. 18. Act for more effectually repairing and 



188 Annals of Manchester. 



[1833 



improving the road from the end of Ardwick Green to Mottram-in-Longden- 
dale, in the county of Chester. April 2. 

Kev. John Dean, D.D., Prircipal of St. Mary Hall, Oxf ird, and Rector of 
Oulde, in Northamptonshire, died April 12. He was a native of Manchester, 
and was educated at the Free Grammar School, from which he went to 
Brazenose College, Oxford, where he obtained a fellowship, and afterwards 
held the office of tutor for many years. Dr. Dean held for some time the pre 
centorship of St. Asaph, with the sinecure rectory of Corwen. {Gentleman's 
Magazine, May, 1833, p. 468.) 

An inquest held in Salford on the body of Corporal Daniel Maggs, of the 
8jth Regiment, who was shot by Private John Roach. The murderer was 
subsequently hanged at Lancaster, May 1. 

Mr. Alexander Wilkinson, late publisher of the Manchester Advertiser, 
died May 16. 

3 and 4 William IV. cap. 57. Act to amend an Act passed in the seventh 
year of the reign of His late Majesty King George IV., for repairing the roads 
from Manchester to Salter's Brook, and for making several roads to communi- 
cate therewith, and also for making a certain new extension or diversion of the 
said roads, instead of a certain extension or diversion by the said Act 
authorised to be made. May 17. 

The Due d'Orleans, accompanied by several distinguished French officers, 
visited Manchester, on his route for London, May 24. 

A poll was taken in May, at the Town Hall, when the levying of a church. 
rate was defeated. The numbers were : For the motion, 3,513; against the 
rate, 3,514. 

Mr. Stephen Lavender, deputy-constable of this town for twelve years, 
died June 12. He was elected in 1821, previous to which he was a Bow Street 
officer. Mr. Lavender was one of the officers ordered to arrest the Cato Street 
conspirators, and was close to Smithies when he was shot. He afterwards 
traced Thistlewood to an obscure lodging, and he only escaped with his life by 
flinging himself on the bed in which Thistlewood lay, who was in the act of 
firing a pistol at him. 

Mr. John Thorpe died at his house in King Street, July 2, aged 69. He had 
filled the office of surgeon to the Manchester Infirmary during a period of 28 
years. 

Mr. Joseph Sadler Thomas, upon the death of Mr. Lavender, was appointed 
deputy-constable of Manchester, July 25. 

Chorlton-upon-Medlock was lighted with gas, July 27. 

There was a high flood in the Irwell, August 1. 

Rev. Richard Hutchins Whitelocke, of Chorlton-cum-Hardy, died Aug. 14. 
For many years he was the postmaster of this town. 

The feoffees of the Free Grammar School applied to the Court of Chancery 
for the appropriation of the surplus funds of the charity to some useful pur- 
pose. The Court authorised the expenditure of a sum not exceeding £10,000 
in the erection of a new school and a house for the high master. August. 

M. Alphonse Thiers, the celebrated historian, afterwards President of the 
French Republic, visited Manchester, accompanied by several other distin- 
guished persons, September 15. 



1833] 



Annals of Manchester. 189 



Mrs, Fletcher died October 3, whilst on her way from Sholapore to Bombay. 
She is better known by her maiden name of Maria Jane Jewsbury, and 
although not a native of Manchester was long resident here. Her first, and 
indeed the only, volume of poems she published was her Lays of Leisure 
Hours. She wrote also, besides many articles in the annuals and other 
periodicals of the day, a series of papers entitled Oceanides, composed 
during her passage with her husband to the East Indies, and published 
in the Athenceum of the years 1831-2. Of her prose works the first was Phan- 
tasmagoria ; or, Essays on Life and Literature ; her next. Letters to the 
Young, which had an extensive circulation ; her third and last. The Three 
Histories, which was also popular, and contains, under the garb of fiction, 
much of her own feeling and experience. Many of her poems, signed with 
her initials, are to be found in the earlier volumes of the Athenaeum and the 
Manchester Guardian. 

The members of the Chamber of Commerce presented to Mr. Hugh Hornby 
Birley and Mr. George William Wood, their first and second presidents, two 
splendid silver tureens, weighing 240 ounces each, as tokens of respect for their 
valuable services. Among the guests were the Earl of Kerry and Lord 
Molyneux. November 26. 

Mr, John Ralston, of Brazennose Street, died November. He was an artist 
of considerable talent, as many of his latter paintings will testify. 

Rev. W. Manning Walker died, at Manchester, 23rd December. He was 
born at Yarmouth 16th February, 1784, and was a Dissenting minister— first 
Unitarian, then Independent— at Preston from 1802 to 1821. In 1822 he was 
appointed chaplain of Rusholme Road Cemetery, a position which he retained 
until his death. Several of his sermons were printed. 

Manchester was visited with a tremendous storm of wind, which did great 
damage in various parts of the town. The high chimney at Mr. Langley's 
works, Sandywell, Salford, was blown down. December 31. 

Mr. Charles Henry Wheeler died at Winchester. He was born in 1800, and 
at an early age showed literary ability. He wrote A Sketch of the Rev. Josiah 
Streamlet (Joshua Brooks) for Blaclcivood's Magazine, 1821, and contributed 
other articlesrto that periodical. {Manchester School Register, vol, iii., pp. 52, 290.) 

The improvement of Hunt's Bank commenced. Palatine Stables opened, 
March, 1837. The road opened, June 5, 1838. Gateway to Chetham's Hospital 
finished, April, 18.39, and the road completed, September 21, 1839. 

The Rev. Richard Parkinson appointed a fellow of the Collegiate Church, 
in place of Rev. John Clowes. 

The value of land in various parts of the town may be estimated from the 
fact that the Improvement Committee of Manchester paid for 222 yards of land 
in the Parsonage, £444; for 55 yards 4 inches in Lower Moslcy Street, £82 10s.; 
for 7 yards 32 inches in Great Ancoats Street, £10, and another plot of 45i yards, 
£45 10s.; for 174 yards in Little Peter Street, £59 8s.; for 9 yards 16 inches in 
Pool Fold, £50; for? yards in Fountain Street, £30; for 21 square feet in Spring 
Gardens, £100. 

The import of cotton wool was 303,656,a371b., and the duty £473,011. 

The Manchester Statistical Society was established. 



190 Annals of Manchester. [2sa-i 



1834. 

The Northern and Central Bank of England opened in Brown Street, 
January 13. It has since been given up. 

The Salford Commissioners of Police purchased the Town Hall and Market 
from the proprietors for £3,000, January 30. 

A fire broke out in Newall's Buildings, Market Street, which destroyed 
about £5,000 worth of paintings that were being exhibited there, together with 
various other property. January. 

Mr. Thomas Joseph Trafford appointed high sheriff of the county, Feb. 3. 
The procession which accompanied him on entering upon the functions of his 
oflBce passed through Manchester August 8. 

The first society on a purely "total abstinence" basis is said to have been 
formed at Oak Street, 26th February (Winskill's Temperance Beforynation, 
p. 61) ; but it is more probable that the society did not originate until 17th 
September of this year, and that it was not an exclusively teetotal organisa- 
tion, although it is sometimes said to have been the first of that kind in the 
United Kingdom. Its claim to priority has been disputed. The date of 
the abandonment of the pledge of " moderation" for that of total abstinence is 
believed to be February, 1835. 

Kev. Moses Randall, chaplain of the Collegiate Church, died March 5, 
aged 65. 

Mr. Thomas Wroe was appointed comptroller to the Manchester Police 
Commissioners, March 19. 

Mr. William Vaughan, master of the Manchester School for the Deaf and 
Dumb, died March 24, aged 45. 

Mr. John Shuttleworth was appointed distributor of stamps for this 
district, March. 

The new Police Court, New Bailey, opened May 5. Dimensions, 38 feet by 
50 feet, and 20 feet in height. 

Commercial Bank of England, Mosley Street, commenced May 12. 

Prince Jerome Bonaparte, ex-King of Westphalia, accompanied by several 
distinguished foreigners, visited Manchester, May 20. 

A Convent of the Presentation Order (nuns) was founded adjacent to St. 
Patrick's Catholic Chapel, Livesey Street, May 22. 

Mr. John Sharpe, F.R.S. and F.S.A., died at Richmond, Surrey, May 28. 
He was formerly a member of the firm of Sharpe, Eccles, and Cririe, solicitors, 
of this town. 

Mr. H. B. Bingham appointed Master of the School for the Deaf and Dumb, 
May. 

Mary Leigh died June 6, aged 82. By her former marriage she was known 
by the name of Polly Smith, of the Old Sun Tavern, New Market, Market 
Street. 

The foundation of the new Manchester and Liverpool District Bank, Spring 
Sardens, laid by Mr. Robert Barbour, June 20. 

The Rev. Thomas Gaskell, incumbent of Newton Heath, died June 20. 

Sir Daniel Bayley, K.H., died 21st June, and was buried at Tottenham. He 
was the eldest son of Mr. Thomas B. Bayley, J.P., F.R.S., and was born Sept. 



1834] Annals of Manchester. 191 

14, 1766, and educated at the Manchester Grammar School and at the "Warring- 
ton Academy. At an early age he was sent to a mercantile house in St. Peters- 
burg, and subsequently became a partner in the firm of Thornton and Melville. 
In consequence of great pecuniary losses he retired from business, and in 1812 
was appointed Consul-General at St. Petersburg, and agent to the Russia Com- 
pany. He was knighted 20th June, 1815, in consequence of valuable intel- 
ligence and advice as to Russian affairs during the war with Napoleon. During 
the absence from Russia of Earl Cathcart, the English Ambassador, he was 
charge d'affaires, and for the services thus rendered Sir Daniel was made a 
knight of the Hanoverian Guelphic Order. Sir Daniel was a member of the 
Manchester Agricultural Society, and was twice married. 

By the fall of three buildings in Long Millgate two boys and a girl were 
killed, July 7. 

The riots occurred between Orangemen and Catholics, July 13, 14. 

The Manchester police van, capable of holding eighteen persons, first came 
into use for the conveyance of prisoners between the lockups and the New 
Bailey, July 26. 

A tremendous thunderstorm in the neighbourhood of Manchester did much 
damage. Two men were killed at Newton Heath, and a woman at Prestwich, 
by the lightning. July 30. 

Dr. R. B. Grindrod held a series of temperance meetings at Miles Platting 
in July, and the result was the establishment of a teetotal society. It was at 
one of its gatherings that the Rev. F. Beardsall signed the pledge, 6th Sep- 
tember. " It seems clear that the Miles Platting Total Abstinence Society was 
the first general public and exclusively teetotal society in England." (Winskill.) 

A meeting was held in the Exchange dining-room to celebrate the termi- 
nation of slavery in all the British colonies, August 1. 

Mr. John Lever, of Alkrington Hall, near Middleton, died Aug. 21, aged 66. 

Elizabeth Smith shot by her husband, an artilleryman, near the Cavalry 
Barracks, Hulme, August 24. 

The corner stone of the Methodist New Connexion Chapel, Peter Street, 
was laid August 27. 

Iturbide, the ex-Emperor of Mexico, accompanied by General O'Leary, 
visited Manchester, August. They were the guests of Mi-. Junius Smith, of 
Strangeways Hall. 

The old club-house in Mosley Street was sold to Mr. John Dugdale for 
£7,500, being twice the amount at which it had been valued a few years earlier. 
August. 

Mr. Francis Mallalieu, of this town, was appointed a stipendiary magis- 
trate at Barbadoes in August. 

At the poll the struggle of the Dissenters of Manchester against the half- 
penny church-rate ended in the refusal of the rate by a majority of 1,122. 
There were 5,857 for and 7,019 against the payment of the rate. September 3. 

A branch of tlie Manchester and Rochdale Canal, from Madcn Fold to 
Heywood, was opened September 10. 

A subscription started for the erection of a Blind Asylum in Manchester, 
March 13. About 24,000 square yards of land were purchased at Old Trafford, 
September 19. 



192 Annals of Manchester. 



[1834 



The first legal proceedings in Lancashire under the new Factory Act were 
taken September 24. 

A Temperance Conference held in Manchester, at which there were fifty 
delegates present. September 24. 

Mr. Ducrow opened the Theatre Royal with equestrian performances, Sep- 
tember 27 ; closed November 19. 

Manchester October Races originated, October 17. 

Edward, twelfth Earl of Derby, died at Knowsley, October 21, in his 83rd 
year. His lordship filled the office of lord-lieutenant of this county for nearly 
59 years. He was born September 18, 1752, and succeeded his grandfather, 
Edward, the eleventh earl, 24th February, 1776. He was succeeded by his 
only SOD, Lord Stanley, who had been called to the House of Lords in 
1S32 by the title of Baron Stanley of Bickerstafi"e. 

Mr. James Harrop, eldest son of the late Joseph Harrop, of the Man- 
chester Mercury, died October 27. 

Mr. William Sergeant, of Cornbrook Bank, and of the firm of Sergeant and 
Milne, solicitors, died October 27. 

Mr. Archibald Prentice, proprietor of the Manchester Times, was charged 
at the sessions with publishing a libel on Mr. Thomas Sowler, proprietor 
of the Courier. The jury, after being locked up eight hours, found the 
defendant "guilty of writing and publishing, but not with a malicious 
intent," and the chairman decided that this amounted to an acquittal. 
October 29. 

Mr. Taylor's shop and workshops, situated in Mason Street, Swan Street, 
destroyed by fire. The damage was estimated to be from £2,000 to £3,000. 
October 3L 

A splendid Aurora Borealis visible from Manchester, November 3. 

Mr. James Bruce, who was master of the Exchange twenty-four years, 
died November 19, aged 79. 

The silent system adopted in the New Bailey. November. 

Town Hall Buildings, King Street, commenced. Frontage finished 
December, 1839. 

The number of streets in the town estimated at 2,000, and of houses 
at 40,837. 

Manchester paid m postages £60,621 lis. 6d. 

The Market Street improvement completed ; and, from a summary of 
receipts and expenditure of the commissioners to the end of this year, the sum 
of £232,925 14s. had been expended. To Mr. Thomas Fleming the town of 
Manchester was indebted for his zeal and activity both in originating and in 
carrying out this most valuable and important improvement of a great public 
thoroughfare. 

Dr. Grindrod began a Juvenile Temperance Society in the Mechanics' 
Institute, Cooper Street. The name " Band of Hope " was not adopted by these 
organisations until 1845, and is said to have been suggested by Mr. Carlisle, of 
Dublin. (Winskill's Temperance Reformation, p. 255.) 

A day school attached to the Scotch Church, established upon the plan of 
the Edinburgh Sessional School, and under the care of the minister and the 
Kirk Session. 



1835] Annals of Manchester. 193 

The population of Manchester was 200,000, of whom 15,000 lived in cellar 
dwellings. 

The quantity of cotton retained in England for home consumption was 
295,684,997 pounds. The export of cotton yarn amounted to 70,478,468 pounds. 
The quantity of yarn spun in England was 241,731,118 pounds, 

1835. 

Eev. Robert Hindmarsh died, at Gravesend, January 2, aged 76, He was a 
printer, who embraced the Swedenborgian doctrine, and who, when the 
disciples decided to form a separate church, was chosen by lot as the 
"Ordaining Minister." He was for a time minister of the New Jerusalem 
Temple, Salford, which was built for him in 1813. He had previously preached 
in Clarence Street, Princess Street, from July 7, 1811. He resigned his position 
April 2, 1824, when a silver cup was presented to him. He wrote Bise and 
Progress of the New Jerusalem Church (London, 1861), and many con- 
troversial writings. He translated and published various of the works of 
Swedenborg. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Mark Watt, Colonel Commandant of the Trafford and 
Hulme Local Militia, died, in Hollis Street, London, January 8th. 

Mr. Robert Haldanc Bradshaw, of Worsley Hall, died at Woodman's, Hert. 
fordshire, January 8, aged 76. He was the acting manager of the Duke of 
Bridgewater's Trust. 

The election for the borough of Manchester, January 8 and 9. The follow- 
ing were the numbers at the close of the poll : Right Hon. C. P. Thomson, 3,355; 
Mr. Mark Philips, 3,163; IMr. Benjamin Braidley, 2,535; Sir Charles Wolseley, 
bart, 583. 

The election for the borough of Salford took place, January 8 and 9. The 
following were the numbers at the close of the poll : Mr. Joseph Brotherton, 
795 ; Mr. John Dugdale, 572. 

Mr. Thomas Clayton, the last male representative of the ancient family of 
the Claytons, of Little Harwood, died February 12, at Carr Hall, near Black- 
burn, aged 80. In early life he held successively the rank of captain and major 
in the regiment of Royal Lancashire Volunteers, commanded by the late Earl 
of Wilton, and upon the resignation of that nobleman he was appointed to suc- 
ceed him. Colonel Clayton served with the regiment in Ireland for many 
years, and continued to command it until it was disbanded in 1802. 

Namick Pacha, the Turkish ambassador, visited Manchester, February 12. 

The moderation pledge of the Temperance Society abandoned February 26, 
and a new society formed on the basis of total abstinence. 

Mr, Henry Bailey, deputy constable of Cheetham, was drowned in the 
Irwell in endeavouring to rescue a little boy named Trees, who had fallen into 
the river, March 11. A subscription, which amounted to £1,041 8s. 7d., was 
raised for the benefit of Bailey's family. Bailey's body was found, September 
12, in the river, near Barton Bridge. 

The election for the borough of Manchester, April 28 and 29. The following 
were the numbers at the close of the poll : Right Hon. C. P. Thomson, 3,205 ; 
Mr. B. Braidley, 1,839. 

Mr. Charles Tavard died, May 28, aged 63. This gentleman, who was uncle 



194 Annals of Manchester. [I835 

to Swain, the poet, was conversant with nine languages, and deeply read^ 
in the literature of continental Europe. 

Mr. John Philips, lieutenant R.N., last surviving son of Mr. John Leigh 
Philips, died at Liverpool, June 2. 

A tremendous thunderstorm burst over Manchester and neighbourhood. 
A man was killed at Ardwick ; several hurt in Hulme, June 3. 

5 and 6 William IV. cap. 30. Act to amend the Acts relating to the Man- 
chester, Bolton, and Bury Canal Navigation and Railway, and to make a branch 
railway to Bolton. June 17. 

Mr. William Cobbett, M.P. for Oldham, died June 18, aged 73. He contested 
Manchester in 1832, but was defeated, though few men had greater influence 
with the working men of this district. He was an extraordinary "self-made 
man," and nothing can exceed the strength and vigour of his English. 

Anne, relict of the late Mr. Thomas Barritt, the antiquary, died June 21. 

A man employed on the erection of a large chimney at the gas- 
works in Salford, was killed by falling from the top, a height of 75 yards, 
June 22. 

The first committal of a Manchester prisoner to Kirkdale Gaol for trial at 
the South Lancashire Assizes was on June 30. 

Lord Brougham delivered an address to the members of the Mechanics' 
Institution, July 21. 

The Adelphi Swimming Baths, Salford, opened July 29. 

The first South Lancashire Assizes commenced at Liverpool, before Lord 
Chief -Justice Tindal and Lord Abinger, August 15. Prisoners from this dis- 
trict had previously been sent for trial to Lancaster. 

Tlie shock of an earthquake was felt in Manchester and the vicinity 
August 20, at three o'clock a.m. 

Catherine Green was murdered by her husband, August 21. 

The "Independent Order of Rechabites" formed at Meadowcroft's Temper- 
ance Hotel, Bolton Street, Salford, August 25. This is a friendly society 
for teetotallers, which has had a very prosperous career. 

Mr. John Youil, brewer and landlord of the Hen and Chickens, lectured 
against teetotalism, which was then being advocated by Dr. R. B. Grindrod. 
Mr. Youil's lecture was printed in a pamphlet, now rare. The preface is 
dated Oldham Street, Aug. 29, 1823. 

The first stone of the Collegiate Church Sunday School, Todd Street, was 
laid September 14. 

Mr. John Mackay Wilson died October 2, at Berwick. He was the author 
of Tales of the Borders, and for several years editor of the Berwick Adver- 
tiser. Mr. Wilson was for some time resident in Manchester, where his Tales 
of the Borders were first published. Their popularity is attested by numerous 
editions. 

There was a review and sham fight on Kersal Moor, October 3. 

The Manchester Athenaeum was established, October 28, chiefly by the 
exertions of Mr. Richard Cobden, Mr. William Langton, and Mr. James Hey- 
wood, F.R.S. 

Tlie Manchester and Salford Institution for the Treatment of the Skin 
was opened November 16, 



1836] 



Annals of Manchester. 195 



The Associated Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Oldham Road, was opened 
November 22. 

Mr. Thomas A. Ward died at his house, Chatham Street, December 1, aged 
W. Mr. Ward was formerly joint manager, with the late Mr. Lewis, of the 
Manchester and Liverpool Theatres. 

Mr. William Robert Whatton, F.R.S., F.S.A., died at Manchester, Dec. 5. 
He was born at Loughborough, February 17, 1790, and was a surgeon in Man- 
chester from 1815 to 1835. He was author of the third volume of History of the 
Foundations of Manchester, 1828-33, of the biographies in Raines's Lancashire 
and of various pamphlets and papers. He was the librarian of the Literary and 
Philosophical Society. (See Gentleman's Magazine, December, 1836, p. 661, 
for an account of the family.) 

The Salford Gas Works, in Lamb Lane, were erected. 

The Tent Methodists discontinued their chapel in Canal Street, Ancoats, 
and sold it to Mr. Robert Gardner for £3,200. It was consecrated in 1837 as St. 
Jude's Church. 

J. B. Pomfret, secretary to the Manchester Infirmary, absconded with 
between four and five hundred pounds belonging to that institution. 

The annual value of property in Manchester was assessed at £573,085. The 
total annual value for the borough of Salford was £185,543. 

According to the Parliamentary return, the total number of power-looms 
employed in the manufacture of silk in Manchester and Salford was 300. The 
total number throughout the United Kingdom was 1,716. 

The quantity of cotton retained in Great Britain for home consumption 
was 330,829 pounds. The export of cotton yarn amounted to 82,457,885 pounds. 
The total quantity of yarn spun in England was 248,114,531 pounds. 

The declared value of cotton manufactures exported was £15,306,922 ; and 
of yarn, £4,704.823. 

The Independent Chapel, Oxford Road, was begun. 

1836. 

Mr. Thomas Walker, M.A.,died at Brussels, .Jan. 20, of pulmonary apoplexy. 
He was born at Barlow Hall, October 10, 1784, and his father was the well- 
known Whig boroughreeve. (See under date 1817.) He was educated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A., and in 1812 Avas called 
to the bar at the Inner Temple. He left Manchester and was appointed stipen- 
diary magistrate at Lambeth. In 1835 he started a periodical, Tlic Orir/inal, 
which continued weekly for six months. It was published in book form, and in 
1874 a new edition appeared edited by Blanchard Jerrold. 

Mr. Daniel Lynch, druggist, of Market Street, died January 23, aged 69. 
He was the Deputy Grand Master of the Freemasons of the Manchester 
district. 

By an accident at the chapel belonging to the Wesleyan Methodist 
Association, Oldham Road, several persons were killed and wounded. 
January 25. 

An immense stone wall, forming the new road, Hunt's Bank, fell into the 
river, and destroyed the works belonging to Messrs. Collier and Co., uu llie 
Salford side, January 31. 



196 Annals of Manchester. 



[1836 



Mr. Robert Tinker, the original promoter, and for forty years proprietor of 
"Vauxhall Gardens, Collyliurst, died February 1, aged 70. 

Mr. Henry Hunt died at Acresford, Hants, Feb. 13. He was born at 
Uphaven, "Wilts, in 1773, and was an opulent farmer before he turned Radical 
Reformer. He was the chairman of the Peterloo meeting, and was in con- 
sequence imprisoned for three years in Ilchester gaol. His printed Letters from 
that institution are curious and instructive. He was elected M.P. for Preston 
in 1830, re-elected in 1831, but defeated in 1832. There are some interesting 
particulars about Hunt in Bamford's Life of a Radical. 

Mr. Edward Carbutt, M.D., one of the physicians to the Manchester 
Iniirmary, &c., and the author of a series of clinical lectures which were 
delivered to the pupils of the above institution, died February 25. 

The first stone of the School for the Deaf and Dumb, and of Henshaw's 
Blind Asylum, Old Trafford, laid by Mr. William Grant, March 23. The build- 
ing was designed by Mr. Richard Lane. 

Mr. James Bohanna, a man long to be remembered as having for 
years walked at the head of the procession on the king's birthday, died 
March 28. He was born in the year 1761. In 1777 he enlisted in the 72nd 
Regiment, or Manchester Volunteers, and served with that gallant corps at the 
protracted siege of Gibraltar, under General Elliot. On each returning anni- 
versary of the raising of the siege of that place he visited the College to see 
once more the colours of his regiment, which were then there. 

Rev. Peter Hordern, incumbent of Chorlton-cum-Hardy, and formerly 
librarian at Chetham's Hospital, died March 28. 

Manchester Improvement Committee obtained a renewal of its powers for 
three years, after strong opposition, March 30. 

The new Union Club-house, in Mosley Street, was opened March 31. 
The Union Bank of Manchester, Brown Street, established March 31. 
The South Lancashire Bank, York Street, was established April 7. 
Mrs. Sarah Henshaw, widow of Mr. Thomas Henshaw, of Oldham, founder 
of the Manchester School for the Deaf and Dumb, died April 8, at Stone Wall, 
Cheetham. 

6 William IV. cap. 16. Act to enlarge the powers of several Acts for effecting 
improvements in the streets and other places within the town of Manchester. 
April 22. 

A bazaar and ball was held in aid of the School for the Deaf and Dumb, 
April. The nett proceeds were £3,848. 

Captain John Grimshaw, 103rd Foot, died May 21, at Cowes, Isle of Wight, 
aged 54. 

Mr. Richard Entwisle died on May 30. He was born in Manchester in 
September, 1771, his father being James Entwisle, boroughreeve in 1794. 
Richard Entwisle was a highly accomplished man, an excellent musician, and 
good linguist. His eldest surviving son was William Entwisle, M.P. 

Of 63,623 persons employed in mills in the parish of Manchester, 35,283 were 
females ; 37,930 were above the age of 18 years, and 16,965 were below the 
age of 15. The estimate was made in May. 

Tlie Methodist Association Chapel, known as the Tabernacle, in Grosvenor 
Street, was opened June 3. 



1836] 



Annals of Manchester. 197 



St. Luke's Church, Cheetham Hill, was founded June 6, but not conse- 
crated until October 6, 1839. It is Gothic, from a design by Mr. T. W. Atkinson. 
The tower and spire together are 170 feet in height. 

The Act of Parliament (6 and 7 William IV. cap. Ill) for constructing the 
Manchester and Leeds (now Lancashire and Yorkshire) Railway received the 
royal assent, July 4. 

6 and 7 William IV. cap. 115. Act for making and maintaining a navigable 
Canal to connect the Rochdale Canal and the river Irwell, in the township of 
Manchester, July 4. 

St. John the Evangelist's Church, Higher Broughton, was founded July 6, 
by the Rev. John Clowes, who liberally gave the land and endowment. It was 
opened January 7, 1838, and consecrated October 5, 1839. 

A silver star was presented to Mr. Henry Anderton, the teetotal poet, at a 
meeting held in Hulme, August 6, presided over by Mr. James Gaskill. He was 
one of the most popular speakers in the early days of temperance advocacy. 
He died at Bury, June 21, 1855, aged 46 years. 

Manchester and Salford Bank, Mosley Street, established in August. 
Mr. William Henry, M.D., died Sept. 2, aged Gl years. He was a native of 
Manchester, and finished his education at Edinburgh, where he was the friend 
and associate of Brougham, Jeffrey, Macintosh, and a number of others Avho, 
like himself, attained a high degree of celebrity. He was intended for the 
medical profession, but, owing to delicate health, he relinquished it. Soon 
after leaving the university he delivered in Manchester several courses of lec- 
tures on chemistry. The notes of these lectures ultimately led to the publi- 
cation of a small volume on the science which in successive editions gradually 
became a detailed and excellent treatise on the subject, and was remarkable 
for the precision of its information and for the elegance of its style. Dr. 
Henry was interred September 7, in the burial ground of Cross Street Chapel. 
His purely scientific writings are chronicled in the Catalogue published by 
the Royal Society. (Baker's Memorials, p. 99.) 

The first stone of the Female Penitentiary, Embden Place, Greenheys, was 
laid by Sir Oswald Mosley, Bart., president, September 9. It was opened 
September 7, 1837. 

The Manchester Musical Festival and Fancy Dress Ball, held September 13. 
resulted in a profit of £4,320, which was distributed among the public 
charities. 

Madame Maria Felicita Garcia Malibran de Beriot died September 23. 
She was the eldest daughter of a Spanish tenor singer, Manuel Garcia, and 
was born at Paris in 1808, and made her debut at the London Opera in 1825. In 
the following year she went to America, where she married M. Malibran, an 
elderly gentleman from whom she was soon separated. Her fame as a vocalist 
was unrivalled. In 183G, after a divorce from her former husband, she married 
M. de Beriot, a Belgian violinist. She came to Manchester September 11, to 
sing in connection with the Musical Festival, and probably owing to vocal 
exertions which were imprudent for one in her condition, she was taken, after 
an evening concert at the Theatre Royal, ;with an illness which proved fatal. She 
was buried at the Collegiate Church, Manchester, Oct. 1, but the body was 
exhumed Dec. 20, and re-interred at Brussels, Jan. 1, 1837. A Funeral Sermon 



198 Annals of Manchester. 



[1836 



by Canon Parkinson was printed, and contains, in an appendix, details of her 
illness and death. 

The stamp duty upon newspapers was reduced to one penny, September, 
w^hen the newspapers of Manchester were reduced from sevenpence to four- 
pence. 

The Banksian Society was dissolved in September. It was an association of 
botanists, chiefly artisans, who had held meetings for seven years. It was 
resuscitated as the Natural History Class of the Mechanics' Institution. 

A branch of the National Provincial Bank of England was established in 
Mosley Street, September. 

Mr. John Hallam, of the Legs of Man Inn, Portland Street, died October 17. 
He had a local reputation as a comedian. 

Mr. Thomas Bury, fustian shearer and woollen cord finisher, died October 
31, aged 78. He was the founder and first finisher of moleskins. 

Captain Benjamin Wild, late paymaster of the 29th Regiment, in which he 
served upwards of 24 years, and shared in its glories and perils in Spain and 
Portugal, died November 9, aged 54. 

St. Saviour's Church, Plymouth Street, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, consecrated 
November 11. The cost of the structure was £G,000. 

Mr. Thomas Appleby, the founder and originally proprietor of the Salford 
Gas "Works, died November 12. 

Mr. Moses Hughes, the well-known performer on the oboe, died November 
26. He was born at DownhoUand, between Wighn and Ormskirk. After 
serving an apprenticeship in Liverpool, he came to this town, where he resided 
upwards of fifty years, deservedly respected. 

Mr. John RatclifFe, formerly of this town, died at Cheltenham, December 2, 
at an advanced age. He served the office of boroughreeve in 1809-10. 

The Imperial Bank of England, King Street, was established in December. 
It suspended payment April 30, 1839. 

Messrs. Faulkner and Co.'s factory, Jersey Street, Ancoats, destroyed by 
fire, December. 

The total number of day scholars in Manchester and Salford was 24,676 
December. 

The day police of Manchester consisted of 41 men. The night police 
numbered 116. 

At this date the five following individuals were living in this town who had 
served at the siege of Gibraltar: George Bennett, Turner Street; William 
Smith, Loom Street ; and Giles Retford, Pendleton (blind), served in the 72nd ; 
John Entwistle, Camp Street, served in the 97th Bath Volunteers ; and Joseph 
Walker, John Street, Salford, served on board the Ocean, 90 guns, and at the 
siege as a sergeant. 

Rev. W. J. Kidd appointed to the living of St. Matthew's Church, by the 
Warden and Fellows of the Collegiate Church. 

An accident by which two were killed and seventy injured was occasioned 
by the fall of the flooring of a recently-erected building in Oldham Road, where 
a temperance meeting was being held. Dr. Stanley, afterwards Bishop of Nor- 
wich, visited the sufferers and himself became an abstainer, but returned to 
the use of wine by order of his medical attendant. 



1837] 



Annals of Manchester. 199 



The number of brewers, victuallers, and beer retailers in the "Manchester 
Collection" -was 4,574. 

According to a Parliamentary return, the power looms in the United 
Kingdom numbered 117,151, viz., Manchester, 15,9G0 ; Bury, 9,901 ; Blackburn, 
4,256 ; Ashton, 4,018 ; in Yorkshire, 7,809 ; in Cheshire, 22,913 ; Middlesex, 368 ; 
Scotland, 17,721 ; Wales, 1,938 ; Ireland, 1,516. 

1837. 

The Corn Exchange, Hanging Ditch, was opened January 7. The cost of 
the building was £4,000. The area of the room is nearly 600 square 3Jfirds. 

A malicious explosion of gas at Mrs. Kempshead's shop in Market Street, 
January 7, caused damage to the extent of £3,000. A public subscription was 
opened for her benefit. 

Mr. John Henry Perkins, first superintendent of the Lancasterian School 
in this town, died January 21, aged 63. 

The new school and high master's house, belonging to the Free Grammar 
School, completed at an expense of £7,500. Opened January 30. The house 
was subsequently converted into the Cathedral Hotel. 

Mr. John Atkinson Ransome, senior surgeon to the Manchester Royal 
Infirmary, died February 10, in his 58th year. Mr. Ransome was born at Nor- 
wich, March 4th, 1779 ; served his apprenticeship at Lynn, and came to Man- 
chester in 1805. 

Rev. Henry Gillow died February 25, aged 41. He was ordained priest 
December 21, 1821, and immediately afterwards took charge of the St. Mary's 
Mission, in Mulberry Street. He was a very zealous Catholic priest, and was 
chairman of the Catholic School Committee, which was the means of opening 
schools in the town and its environs. (Gillow'a BibliograpJiical Dictionary, 
English Catholic.) 

The first public sale of raw silk in Manchester is said to have been held 
April 4. 

Great distress prevailed amongst the working classes on account of bad 
trade and the dearness of food. April. 

St. Jude's Church, Canal Street, Ancoats (late a chapel belonging to the 
Tent Methodists), was opened, April. 

The Victoria Park Company incorporated under an Act of Parliament 
(7 William IV. and 1 Vic. cap. 31), May 5 ; opened July 31. The park contains 
140 acres, and is situated in the townships of Rusholme, Moss Side, and 
Chorlton-upon-Medlock. 

7 William IV. and 1 Victoria, cap. 21. Act for making a railway from 
Sheffield to Manchester. May 5. 

7 William IV. and 1 Victoria, cap. 24. Act for enabling the Manchester 
and Leeds Railway Company to vary the line of such railway, and for amending 
and enlarging the powers and provisions of the Act relating tlicreto. May 5. 

7 William IV. and 1 Victoria, cap. 27. Act for enabling the Liverpool and 
Manchester Railway Company to raise more money, and for amending and 
enlarging the powers and provisions of the several Acts relating to the said rail- 
way. May 5. 



200 Annals of Manchester. 1337 

The third Socialist (Co-operative) Congress was held in the Social Insti- 
tution, Great George Street, Salford, in May. 

Mr. Benjamin Robert Haydon visited the town in order to advocate the 
establishment of a School of Design. He was here in May and June. He writes 
in his diary : " Manchester in a dreadful condition as to art. No School of 
Design. The young men drawing without instruction. A fine anatomical 
figure shut up in a box ; the housekeeper obliged to hunt for the key. I'll give 
it them before I go." (See under date 21st January, 1838, and 2oth March, 1839.) 

7 William IV. and 1 Victoria, cap. 43. Act for effectually amending the 
roads from Manchester, through Oldham, to Austerlands, in the county of 
York, and from Oldham to Ashton-under-Lyne, and from Oldham to Kochdale, 
and other roads, and for making and maintaining new lines to communicate 
therewith. June 8. 

Fire at Mr. Fairweather's factory, Cambridge Street, June 10. The damage 
■was estimated at £2,000. 

The accession of Queen Victoria was proclaimed in this town, June 20. 

The School for the Deaf and Dumb, and Henshaw's Blind Asylum, Old 
Trafford, opened with procession, June 21. 

7 William IV. and 1 Victoria, cap. 69. Act for making a railway from Man- 
chester to join the Grand Junction Railway, in the parish of Chebsey, in the 
county of Stafford, to be called "The Manchester and Birmingham Railway," 
with certain branches therefrom. June 30. 

Mr. Robert Owen's periodical The New Moral World transferred to Man- 
chester (vol. iii. printed by John Gadsby, vol. iv. by Abel Heywood ; vol. vii. 
was printed at Leeds). From 10th June, 1837, to 8th November, 1845, it was 
edited by Mr. G. A. Fleming. (Holyoake's History of Co-operation, wo\.i., 
p. 219.) 

The Grand Junction Railway, connecting Manchester with Birmingham 
and London, was opened July 4. 

The Cattle Market, Cross Lane, Salford, was opened July 12. 

1 Victoria, cap. 112. Act for enabling the Directors of the Manchester Gas 
Works to purchase lands, buildings, and apparatus for the extension of their 
works. July 12. 

The Parliamentary election for the borough of Salford was held July 26, 
when the following were the numbers at the close of the poll : Mr. Joseph 
Brotherton, 889 ; Mr. Wm. Garnett, 888. 

The Parliamentary election for the borough of Manchester, July 27, when 
the following were the numbers at the close of the poll : Right Hon. C. P. 
Thomson, 4,127 ; Mr. Mark Philips, 3,759 ; Mr. William Ewart Gladstone, 2,324. 

Mustapha Rechid Bey Effendi, the Turkish Ambassador, and suite, visited 
Manchester and inspected several of the manufactories, August 18. 

The new Asylum for Female Penitents, in Embden Place, Greenheys, 
opened September 7. 

The " Old Bridge " over the Irwell closed, for the purpose of being taken 
down, and one of wood opened for foot-passengers, September 7. 

Manchester General Cemetery, Harpurhey, was opened in September. The 
first interred was a still-born child ; the second was Marian Segate Watt, aged 
nine years, September 7. 



1837] 



Annals of Manchester. 201 



The foundation stone of the Unitarian Chapel in Upper Brook Street was 
laid September 8. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Cheetham Hill, was opened Sep- 
tember 15. 

Presbyterian Church, Mill Street, Ancoats, opened September 24. 
Mr. John Stanley Gregson died of consumption, at Brixton, 2nd Oct. He 
was within a month of 37. He was educated at the Moravian School, Pairfield. 
Owing to a disappointment in love, he is said to have enlisted as a private 
soldier, but was bought off. This has been denied. He was set up as a book- 
seller in Market Street, and was the author of Gimcrackiana and The Code of 
Ccmmon Sense, both published at Manchester in 1833. He also wrote the 
oration delivered by the Chetham College boys when describing the curiosities 
formerly shown to the visitors. (Manchester Guardian Local Notes and 
Queries.) 

Mr. George Hibbert, F.R.S., F.S.A., died, 8th Oct. He was a son of Robert 
Hibbert, who was constable of Manchester in 1759, and was an alderman of 
London. From 180G to 1812 George Hibbert was M.P. for Seaham. He was a 
member of the Roxburghe Club, and the sale of his library in 1829 was famous 
in the bibliomania. (Baker's Memorials, p. 90.) 

Mr. Charles Green ascended in the Royal Nassau balloon, October 16, 23, 
and November 4, from the Gas Works, Lamb Lane, Salford. 

Mr. James Butterworth, author of a History of Manchester, and several 
other local historical works, died November 23, at Busk, near Oldham, aged 6G. 
There is a notice of him in the Dictionary of National Biogra2}hy. 

The Manchester Society for Promoting National Education was established 
in November. 

The Evangelical Friends' Meeting House, Grosvenor Street, Chorlton-upon 
Medlock, was opened December 17. 

There was a very high flood in the Ir^vell, December 20. 
Mr. Shaw (an auctioneer), Mr. Hall, and two other gentlemen were rescued 
from the most imminent danger of being drowned in the floods, near Cheadlo, 
by the courageous conduct of Henry Wrigley, the driver of an omnibus. 
December 20. 

Charles Phillips, M.D., one of the physicians to the Manchester Infirmary, 
died December 24. 

Rev. Jeremiah Smith, D.D., rector of St. Ann's, and high master of the 
Free Grammar School, resigned both appointments. 

Rev. Robinson Elsdale, D.D., second master, appointed high master of the 
Grammar School. 

Mr. James Patrick died. He was for many years the printer of Patrick's 
Correct Card of the races. 

The Manchester Architectural Society founded. 

A fire at Messrs. Smith and Rawson's mill, Hope Street, Oldfield Road, 
December, caused damage to the extent of about £3,000. 

Samuel D. Scott, known as " The Jumper," took two leaps ofTthe warehouse 
of Messrs. Shanklin, Manley, and Co., near the New Bailey Bridge, into the 
Irwell. In the first leap he descended feet first into the water, and in the 
second leap head downward The height would be from 65 to 70 feet. 



202 Annals of Manchester. 



[183S 



Mr. W. James, formerly of Warwick, the original projector of the Liver- 
pool and Manchester Railway, died at the Plas Newydd, Cornwall, aged 66. 

The Independent Chapel, Liverpool Street, Oldfield Road, was founded. 

Mr. Campbell, an actor at the Queen's Theatre, was accidentally shot by 
the property man whilst performing the character of Mr. Felton, in the drama 
of Lilian, the Show Girl. The subscription for his widow realised £120 10s. 6d. 

1838. 

Mr. James Norris, chairman of the Salford Quarter Sessions, died January 
19, aged 63 years, and was buried in the Derby Chapel, in the Collegiate 
Church. 

Mr. Benjamin Robert Haydon lectured on the formation of a School of 
Design, 25th January. He records in his Diary meeting Fairbairn and others 
at dinner. ' ' Liked Fairbairn much— good steam-engine head." A visit to his 
works is described. 

The Night Asylum for the Destitute Poor, Smithfield, was opened, Feb. 5. 

Manchester School of Design was formed in February. 

The first stone on the Manchester side of Victoria Bridge was laid by 
Mr, Elkanah Armitage, boroughreeve of Salford, March 3. 

Fire at the Oxford Road Twist Company's factory, in the occupation of 
Messrs. Cooke and Hyde, March 7. The damage was estimated at £6,000. 

A petition for a charter of incorporation, bearing 15,831 signatures, was 
forwarded from Manchester for presentation to Her Majesty's Privy Council, 
March 11. 

Mr. Daniel Maude, barrister, appointed stipendiary magistrate for Man- 
chester, March 19. 

Mr. John Frederick Foster, stipendiary magistrate, appointed chairman of 
;he Quarter Sessions. March. 

The Ardwick Cemetery was opened April 13. 

The Manchester and Bolton Railway was opened May 24. The length was 
ten miles, and the cost £650,000. 

The Rev. Rowland Blaney, incumbent of Birch Chapel, died at Longsight, 
May 30, aged 84. 

Zoological Gardens, Higher Broughton, were opened May 31. 

The fourth Socialist Congress was held in May at Manchester. 

1 Victoria, cap. 25. Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the 
Manchester, Bolton, and Bury Canal Navigation and Railway to raise more 
money, and for amending the powers and provisions of the several Acts relating 
thereto. June 11. 

The Unitarian Chapel, Strangeways, was opened June 17. The Sunday 
School was opened June 24. 

Mary Moore, aged 48, was found murdered at mid-day, at Withington, 
June 20. George Hodges was tried on the charge of committing the murder at 
the following assizes at Liverpool, and acquitted. 

Salford Mechanics' Institution was opened June 23. Its first president was 
Mr. John Frederick Foster, 

South Lancashire Bank, York Street, opened June 23. 

The coronation of Queen Victoria was celebrated June 28. 



1838] 



Annals of Manchester. 203 



The foundation stone of the Hope Street Schools, Oldfield Road, Salford, 
was laid June 28. 

Joseph Corbett Peel, cashier at the Bank of Manchester, absconded with a 
large sum of money belonging to the bank. He was pursued and arrested a< 
Rotterdam by Sawley, the Manchester officer, and transported for seven years. 
June. 

The first stone of the Salford side of Victoria Bridge laid by Mr. J. Brown, 
boroughreeve of Manchester, July 2. 

The Mersey and Irwell Navigation Company started a steamer upon the 
river for passengers. She carried 150 passengers, was 12-horse power, 66 feet 
long, and was called " The Jack Sharp." July 4. 

Marshal Soult visited Manchester July 20, and was entertained at a dinner 
in the Union Club House, Mosley Street. 

Rev. Robert Stephens McAll, pastor of the Independent Church in Mosley 
Street, died at Swinton, 27th July. He was born at Plymouth, 4th August, 
1792. His Discourses on Sjyecial Occasions, with a life by Wardlaw, were 
issued in two volumes in 1816. 

Mr. Benjamin Heywood, banker, and president of the Mechanics' Insti- 
tutions, created a baronet, July. 

]Mr. Thomas Hardman, of Richmond House, Higher Broughton, died Aug. 
16, aged 60. His valuable collection of paintings, portraits, books, prints, and 
coins was sold by auction, by Winstanley, in October the same year. 

Messrs. Macintosh and Co.'s patent cloth factory, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, 
was destroyed by fire, August 25, when three lives were lost. 

Mr. H. Powell accidentally killed at the New Bailey, September 12. 

The junction of the Bridgewater Canal with the river Irwell, near Hulme 
Hall, by means of locks, completed and opened September 20. 

The Manchester Journal, No. 1, September 22, was printed and published 
by Joseph Macardy. 

A great meeting was held on Kersal Moor, September 24, to demand the 
six points of the Charter. The attendance was estimated by the Morning 
Post at 300,000. Mr. Fergus O'Connor, M.P., Rev. James Rayner Stephens, and 
others addressed the assembly, which elected Bronterre O'Brien to represent 
Manchester in the Convention that met at London in February, 1839. 
(Gammage's History of Chartism, p. 09.) 

The first meeting for the formation of the Anti-Corn Law Association, was 
held at the York Hotel, September 24. 

The last races at Heaton Park, September. The Manchester Cup was won 
by the Earl of Wilton. The race for the Heaton Park Stakes was remarkable 
for the fall of Harkaway and Cruikseen. (Procter's Our Turf, &c., p. 62.) 

Mr. Andrew AVard, professor of music, died October 6, aged 49, At the age 
of eighteen Mr. AVard was the leader of the band of the Theatre Royal, and was 
the first to introduce into Manchester Logier's system of teaching music. 

Miss Eleanor Byrom, daughter of Edward Byrom, founder of St. John's 
Church, died October 8, aged 82 years. AVith a large fortune, she inherited a 
generous and loving heart, which prompted her to acts of charity and bene- 
ficence. She left about £4,000 to different charities in this town. Miss Byrom 
was buried in the Byrom Chapel of the Collegiate Church. 



204 Annals of Manchester. 



[1839 



The centres of the arch oJ Victoria Bridge washed down by a flood, 
October 16. Mr. Gannon, the contractor, in endeavouring to secure them, had 
his leg broken. 

Mr. A. W. Paulton delivered his first lecture against the Corn Laws in the 
Corn Exchange, October 25. 

The Ancoats Lyceum, Great Ancoats Street, was opened, October. 
] The royal charter constituting Manchester a borough received, Nov. 1. 

The sum of £20,000 was raised at a meeting held in the Wesleyan Methodist 
Chapel, Oldham Street, November 7, for the purpose of commemorating the 
centenary of the founding of that religious body by the Kev. John Wesley. 

Carpenters' Hall, Garratt Road, opened November 12. This building, which 
cost about £4,500, was erected at the sole cost of the journeymen whose name 
it bears. 

The Chorlton-upon-Medlock Lyceum was opened December 8. 

The election of councillors for the fifteen wards into which Manchester was 
divided by the charter, December 14. Mr. John Hyde was the returning officer. 

At the first meeting of the Council, Mr. Thomas Potter was appointed 
mayor and Mr. Joseph Heron town clerk. December 15. 

The Manchester Chamber of Commerce sent a petition to Parliament to 
abolish the Corn Laws. December. 

A volume of Social Hymns for the Use of the Friends of a Eational 
System of Society was published at Salford. The compiler or author was Mr. 
G. A. Fleming. 

1839. 

Manchester Chronicle and Salford Standard published Jan. 5 by Joseph 
Leicester, 4, St. Ann's Street. This revival of Wheeler's Chronicle lasted until 
December 31, 1842. 

The centres of the arch of Victoria Bridge, and the octagon chimney, 164 
feet 7 inches high, at ]Mr. Paten's works, Cornbrook, thrown down during the 
tremendous gale, January 7. The latter was reared May 28, 1836. 

Rev. Samuel Knight died January 17. He was for some time curate at St. 
James's, where he succeeded Dr. C. Bayley as incumbent, but in 1816 he became 
vicar of Bradford. {Palatine Note-book, vol. 3, p. 147.) 

A great Anti-Corn-Law dinner held in the Corn Exchange, January 23. 

Mr. Darcy Lever, of Alkiwgton, near this town, died at his house, Heriot 
Kow, Edinburgh, January 22. He was the last direct male representative of the 
ancient family of Lever, of Great Lever, Darcy Lever, and Little Lever, but 
latterly of Kersal, CoUyhurst, and Alkrington Halls. Mr. Lever, like his 
grandfather. Sir Darcy, and his uncle. Sir Ashton, was a liberal promoter of 
literature, science, and the arts. 

Mr. William Bateman, of Pendleton, died January 25, aged 73. He was the 
original founder and zealous supporter of the Deaf and Dumb Institution of 
this town. 

Prince Louis Napoleon Bonaparte visited Manchester, and inspected 
various manufactories and public buildings, January 29. 

Dr. AVilliam Hibbert died January .31, at Shukar Ghars, a jungle in Scinde. 
He was an officer of the Queen's Royals, and having gone out shooting with 



1839] 



Annals of Manchester. 205 



two other officers, and the jungle having been set on fire to force the wild 
animals from the covert, the wind changed and the three unfortunate men 
were surrounded by the flames, in which they perished. There was some sus- 
picion of treachery. Dr. Hibbert, who was only 26 years of age, was a son of 
Dr. Hibbert-Ware. 

Elizabeth Potts, widow, daughter of James Barnes, of this town, died Feb. 
3, in the Manchester Workhouse, at the alleged age of 102. She was born in 
May, 1737, and baptised at the Collegiate Church in September, it is said, of the 
same 3- ear. 

A fire occurred at the Manchester Cotton Mills, in Miller Street, in the 
occupation of Mr. Beaver, February 19. 

Mr. Fergus O'Connor, M.P., was arrested in Manchester, and tried at York 
Assizes, March 16, for seditious libel in the publication of three speeclies in the 
Northern Star, one of them delivered at Manchester by "William Dean Taylor, 
He was found guilty, and was sentenced to eighteen months' imprisonment in 
York Castle. 

George Wliittaker, aged 33, attempted to murder his wife in Club Row, 
Oldham Road, March 17. He received sentence of death August 14, but this 
was commuted to transportation. 

The key-stone of the arch of Victoria Bridge was set by Mr. Humphrey 
TrafTord, March 23. 

Benjamin Robert Haydon visited Manchester for the purpose of apprentic- 
ing his son Frank, as an engineer, to Fairbairn. He took lodgings for his boy 
at 99, Mill Street, Ancoats. March 25. 

Mr. James Chapman, attorney, appointed first coroner for the borough of 
Manchester, April 8. 

Colonel John Ford, formerly of Claremont, near this town, died April 15, at 
Abbeyfield, near Sandbach, Cheshire. He was colonel of one of the Manchester 
Volunteer regiments, and also one of the feoflfees of Chetham's Hospital. 

Anti-Corn Law Circular, No. 1, April 17, was published by the Anti-Corn- 
Law Association. 

Mr. J. F. Foster was appointed recorder of the borough of Manchester April 
18, but resigned in May. 

2 Victoria. Act for effecting improvements in the streets and other places 
within and contiguous to the town of Manchester. April 19. 

A contribution entitled "A Week in Manchester" appeared in BlacTcwoocVs 
Magazine for April, and was immediately replied to in a pamphlet called A 
Feiv Days at Manchester, by White wood and Co., Manchester, 

The Hope Street Schools, Oldfield Road, were opened in Aprils 

The Manchester Institution for the Illustration and Encouragement of 
Practical Science was est-ablished in April. 

The Ladies' Bazaar for the benefit of the Female Penitentiary, May 8 and 9, 
realised £1,000. 

Mr. Thomas Cooper, M.D., LL.D., died at Columbia, South Carolina, May 11. 
Born at London October 22, 1759, he was educated at Oxford, was called to the 
bar, and also studied medicine. His democratic principles led him to France, 
and his four months in Paris he afterwax'ds declared to be the happiest period 
of his life. Here he learnt a process for making chlorine fi'om common salt, and 



[1839 



206 Annals of Manchester. 

settled in Manchester as a bleacher. He became obnoxious to the Government 
for his liberal sentiments, and his house, with that of Mr. Thomas Walker, 
was attacked in a " Church and King" riot in 1790. He left England with Dr. 
Priestley, and in 1795 he established himself as a lawyer in Pennsylvania. In 
1799 he was imprisoned^nd fined for a libel on President John Adams. In 1806 
he became a land commissioner and afterward a judge, but was removed in 1811 
on a charge of arbitrary conduct. He was professor of chemistry at two 
colleges, and wrote numerous works on politics and law. 

Major-General Daniel Seddon, the youngest surviving son of the late Mr. 
John Seddon, of Acres Barn, died May 18, in Paris, aged 78. Seddon, who was 
educated at the Grammar School, entered the army and was several years in 
the East Indies, and one of the few who survived thirteen months' imprison, 
ment in the dungeon of Chiteledroog. He afterwards served in Russia and 
Egypt ; and during the rebellion in Ireland he received the thanks of the 
county of Antrim for his defence of the town of Antrim from the rebels. 
Sword in hand, at the head of 26 dragoons, he charged the rebels, who had 
posted themselves to the number of 500 in the principal street. He was one of 
the only three who survived. He was afterwards appointed inspecting field 
officer in the northern district, and had the rank of major-general conferred 
upon him for training Portuguese troops. 

Manchester and Leeds Railway was opened as far as Littleborough, June 4. 

2 Victoria, cap. 17. Act to enable the trustees of the estates devised by 
William Hulme, Esquire, to appropriate certain parts of the accumulated fund 
arising from the said estates towards the endowment of benefices, the building 
of churches, and for other purposes. June 14. 

The police, organised by the new corporation of the borough, commenced 
their duties, Monday, June 17. 

Mr. Richard Beswick appointed head constable of the borough of Manches- 
ter, at a salary of £400 per annum, June 17. 

The Borough Police Court, Brown Street, was opened June 18. It was 
previously the Manor Court Room. 

The Salford Lyceum held its first general meeting, June 19. 

"Victoria Bridge was opened, with a grand procession, June 20. Outside the 
north battlement, in the panel over the key-stone, is this inscription: "This 
bridge was built at the expense of the inhabitants of the hundred of Salford, 
upon the site of Salford Old Bridge, of three Gothic arches, erected in the year 
of our Lord one thousand three hundred and sixty-five. The first stone was 
laid in the first year of the reign of Queen Victoria, and the bridge was opened 
on the twentieth of June, in the third year of her reign, and in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine, and was, by Her Majesty's 
permission, called ' Victoria Bridge.' " Total cost £20,800. The first vehicle 
that crossed the bridge was a wagon belonging to Messrs. Lupton and 
Adamthwaite, brewers, Cook Street, Salford, 

Mr. John Ogden, attorney, appointed first clerk of the peace for the borough 
of Manchester, June 24. 

The first Quarter Sessions for the borough of Manchester was held June 
26, before Mr. Robert Baynes Armstrong, recorder. 

2 and 3 Victoria. Act to enable the Manchester and Birmingham Railway 



1839] 



Annals of Manchester, 207 



Company to vary and extend the line of their railway, and to amend the Act 
relating thereto. July 4. 

The warehouse of Messrs. Nathans, Lloyd Street, was destroyed by fire, 
July 17. The damage was reckoned at £12,000. 

The first stone of the Hall of Science, Campfield, was laid August 5. 

The first Manchester cab was made by Mr. W. H. Beeston, of Tib Street, 
for Mr. William White, of Spear Street, who began to ply from Piccadilly, 
August 5; 

The " Chartist holiday " began August 12. There were riots in Manchester 
and the vicinity. 

A fire in a warehouse in Dickenson Street, occupied by Saalfleld and Co., 
August 15, caused damage to the extent of £20,000. 

2 and 3 Victoria, cap. 87. Act for improving the police in Manchester for 
two years, and from thence until the end of the then next Session of Parliament. 
August 26. 

Manchester Police Bill received the royal assent, August 27. Sir Charles 
Shaw, Knt., appointed commissioner, at a salary of £700 per annum, September. 
He took possession of the old and new police establishments, October 17. 

A full-length statue of Dr. John Dalton, by Chantrey, placed in the 
entrance-hall of the Royal Institution, August. 

Several of the Chartist leaders were tried at Chester Assizes in August. 
At Liverpool, Edward Riley was convicted of military training and rioting 
near Manchester. Messrs. Bronterre O'Brien, R. J. Richardson, Rev. W. V. 
Jackson, and others, were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment. 

The Unitarian Chapel, Brook Street, opened September 1. 

At the election for the borough of Manchester (under the precept of Mr. T. 
Evans, boroughreeve), 5th September, the following were the numbers at the 
close of the poll : Mr. Robert Hyde Greg, 3,096 ; Rt. Hon. Sir George Murray, 
knight, 2,969 ; Colonel Peyronnet Thompson, 93. 

At the election for the borough of Manchester, held 6th September, under 
the precept of Mr. Thomas Potter, the mayor of the borough, the following 
were the numbers at the close of the poll : Mr. Robert Hyde Greg, 3,421 ; Right 
Hon. Sir George Murray, 3,156. 

The clock of St. Ann's Church was Lighted with gas, September 23. 

The Heaton Park Races were "removed" to Liverpool in September. 

The Herald of the Future, No. 1, October 5, No. 6 (and last), March 7, 1840. 
The editor was George Frederick Mandley. (See under date 1863). It includes 
contributions by J. C. Prince, and articles introducing him to the public. The 
six numbers were made up into a volume, but no author's name was attached. 

Sir Oswald Mosley, Bart., lord of the manor, laid the first stone of All 
Souls' Church, Every Street, Ancoats, October 26. He generously gave land 
and property to the amount of £1,400 towards its erection and endowment. 

The Manchester and Salford Junction Canal, connecting the river Irwell, 
near the Old Quay, with the Rochdale Canal, near the Albion Mills, was opened 
October 28.' 

The Manchester Geological Society held its first annual meeting, October 31. 

The Rev. Dr. Elsdale, high master of the Grammar Scliool, resigned, and 
the Rev. J. W. Richards was appointed his successor, October. 



208 Annals of Manchester. 



[1839 



Mr. Thomas Potter re-elected mayor of Manchester, November 9. 

Mr. "William Murdock died November 22, at Handsworth, near Birming- 
ham, aged 86. This was the gentleman who first introduced gas into Man- 
chester, having commenced with Messrs. Philips and Lee's factory, in Salford, 
in 1803. Gas was first publicly exhibited in England by Messrs. Boulton and 
Watt, Soho Works, Birmingham, on the rejoicings for the peace of Amiens 
in 1802. 

The Rev. William Robert Hay died December 10, at the rectory house, 
Ackworth, aged 78. His father, the Hon. Edward Hay, was the third son of 
George Henry, seventh Earl of Kinnoul, by Abigail, youngest daughter of the 
celebrated Harley, Earl of Oxford. He received his education at Oxford, and 
during the early part of his life devoted himself to the study of the law, and 
when a barrister on this circuit, in 1793, married Mrs. Astley, relict of the late 
Mr. John Astley, of Dukinfield. She was the daughter of Mr. WagstalTe, of 
this town. Mr. Hay now entered into holy orders, and was presented to the 
rectory of Ackworth, in Yorkshire, by the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lan- 
caster. In the year 1803 he succeeded Mr. Thomas Butterworth Bayley as 
chairman of the Quarter Sessions for the Hundred of Salford, which office he 
held until 1823, when he retired. Mr. Hay was presented to the vicarage of 
Rochdale by the Archbishop of Canterbury, at the solicitation of the Govern- 
ment, as a reward for the very active services he rendered during the stormy 
period of 1818-19, and especially for his share in the Peterloo massacre. There 
is a life of him in Howorth's Lives of the Vicars of Bochdale. 

John Shawcross, for twenty-four years principal clerk to the Manchester 
Police, died December 17, aged 66. 

The general committee of the Church of England Sunday Schools was dis- 
solved December 26. At this time only eight out of twenty-two churches were 
connected with the Union. (Bardsley's Memorials, p. 135.) 

St. Luke's Church, Cheetham Hill Road, was built by subscription. 

The Athengeum, Bond Street, opened. The building was designed by Sir 
Charles Barry, and cost nearly £9,000. (See also 1837.) 

Post-office and other rooms added to the Exchange, of which the area alto- 
gether was over 5,506 feet. The Exchange was rebuilt in 1872. 

The Social Pioneer printed by Abel Heywood. 

The Chartist demonstration held on Kersal Moor was estimated by the 
Northern Star to have been attended by half a million people. This was, of 
course, a gross exaggeration, but it was larger than its predecessor of Sept. 25, 
which was said to number 300,000. (Gammage's History of the Chartist Move- 
ment, p. 125.) 

The Regenerator, a weekly, published at Manchester, to which Prince and 
Procter were contributors. (Procter's Literary Reminiscences.) 

The first edition of Fcstus was published anonymously in Manchester, 
where the author (Mr. Philip James Bailey) was then resident. (Book Lore, 

vol. i., p. 23.) 

The length of main pipes laid down by the Manchester Gas Company since 
the Gas Act of 182J: was stated to be 75 miles 426 yards. 

St. Luke' Church was consecrated. 

St. John the Evangelist's Church, Broughton, consecrated. 



1840] 



Annals of Manchester. 209 



1840. 

An Anti-Corn Law Banquet held in the Free Trade Hall, Peter Street, 
January 13, being the first public meeting held in that building. About 4,000 
persons attended. Mr. Daniel O'Connell, M.P., visited Manchester, and took 
part in the banquet. 

The Irwell overflowed 24th January. Captain Sleigh, chief of police, 
finding that some cottages were surrounded by water, constructed a raft out 
of palings and a gate, and succeeded in rescuing the inhabitants. For this he 
received the medal of the Royal Humane Society. 

A Conservative festival was held in Chorlton-upon-Medlock, January 27. 
The Operative Conservatives of Salford gave a dinner to Sir George Murray 
and Mr. William Garnett, February 3. 

The first anniversary dinner of the Manchester Law Association was held 
at the Blackfriars Inn, February 7. 

The Manchester petition for church extension, with 10,298 signatures 
attached, was forwarded for presentation by Sir Robert Inglis, February 14. 

Mr. Jonathan Hatfield died, at Naples, 25th February. He was the son of 
Mr. Jonathan Hatfield, merchant, of Cheetham, and was educated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge. He was a lover of art, and resided in Italy for some years 
before his death, and presented to the Royal Institution casts from sculpture, 
which cost £2,000. (Baker's Memorials, p. 104.) 

Mr. Henry "Wyatt, an artist of distinguished excellence, died Februarj' 27, 
aged 45. Mr. Wyatt was a native oi Thickbroome, near Leicester, and a pupil 
of Lawrence's. From 1817 to November, 1819, he was painting portraits at 
Birmingham ; he then removed to Liverpool and Manchester, where he con- 
tinued till 1825, when he removed to London, but in 1837 he returned to Man- 
chester to paint the portraits of a few friends, when he was seized with an 
illness which proved fatal. His remains were interred at Prestwich, a locality 
to which he was particularly attached. 

Mr. Michael Wilson died, February 27, aged 77. He was a furniture 
broker, and the author of some of the songs in The Sovigs of the Wilsons. 

The Victoria Gallery of Science was opened for the exhibition of models 
and the delivery of lectures, March 2. 

Messrs. Hilton and Bradshaigh and Messrs. Brookes and Dugdale's ware- 
houses, situate in Palace Street and Callendar Street, were destroyed by fire, 
March 4. The damage was reckoned at £7,100. 

Rev. William Nunu, M.A., incumbent of St. Clement's Church, died 9th 
March. He was a native of Colchester, and was born May 13, 1786. After 
several country curacies, he came to Manchester, where the living of St. 
Clement's was purchased for him. He was very active as a clergyman, and 
acquired great influence. Several of his sermons have been printed. His 
Memoirs, edited by Rev. R. Pym, appeared in 1842. 

Mr. James Bottomley died at Cheetwood, March 15, aged 73. He had been 
a lieutenant in the 15th Foot, and was the engraver of a number of interesting 
local prints. 

Mr. George Beswick, one of the 72nd, or Manchester Volunteers, who 
served at the siege of Gibraltar, died at Bolton, March 25, aged 79. 
o 



210 Annals of Manchester. [1840 

A building situated in Little Lever Street, and occupied by Mr. Jones, Mr. 
Jolinson, and Messrs. Elce and Co., as machine shops, was destroyed by fire, 
March 31. The damage was £6,000. 

3 Victoria, cap. 15. Act to enable the Manchester and Salford Junction 
Canal Company to raise a further sum of money, and to alter, amend, and 
enlarge some of the powers and provisions of the Act relating to the said canal. 
April 3. 

A poll took place for the election of churchwardens, there being two lists 
presented, one by Mr. George Clarke and the other by Mr. Richard Cobden, 
which terminated in favour of Mr. Clarke's list by a majority of 4,178, the 
numbers being — for Mr. Clarke's list, 9,942 ; for Mr. Cobden's list, 5,764. AprU. 
Messrs. Eenshaw and Co.'s flax mill, Adelphi, Salford, was destroyed by 
fire, May 3. The damage was estimated at £2,000. 

Mr. Adam Mort, of Davyhulme, one of the few surviving heroes of the 72nd, 
who served at the siege of Gibraltar, died May 31, aged 89. 

The Manchester and Birmingham KaUway was opened to the public as far 
as Stockport, June 4. 

Rev. Thomas Calvert, D.D., warden of the Collegiate Church, died June 4, 
aged 65. He was born at Newsham, near Preston, and his father's name was 
Jackson, but in 1819 he assumed the name of Calvert in consequence of a fortune 
left him by a friend of that name. Dr. Calvert was a pupil of Wilson at Clitheroe, 
and thence proceeded to St. John's College, Cambridge, where he was fourth 
wrangler. Lord Liverpool admired his preaching, and presented him to the 
rectory of Wilmslow, but the right of the Crown to this patronage was con- 
tested, and it was found to be vested in the family of Trafford of Traflford, who 
were Roman Catholics. When the wardenship fell vacant it was offered to 
him. Several of his sermons have been printed. Dr. Calvert succeeded to the 
wardenship upon the death of the late Dr. Blackburne in 1823. He was 
interred in the Collegiate Church, June 11. 

Mr. W. Clarke, bookseller, Market Place, died at his residence, Plymouth 
Grove, June 15. 

The Right Hon." Thomas Reynolds, Earl Ducie, F.R.S., F.S.A., died 
at his seat, Woodchester, near Cirencester, June 22, aged 65 years. 

The Hon. and Rev. William Herbert, LL.D., B.D., was installed into 

the wardenship of the Collegiate Church upon the death of Dr. Calvert, July 9. 

Mr. W. S. Rutter, the coroner for the district, appeared at the Borough 

Court to answer a charge of assault upon Mr. Chapman, the coroner for the 

borough, and was held to bail to answer the charge at the sessions. July 14. 

A meeting of Chartist delegates held 20th July, at which it was resolved to 
organise the "National Charter Association of Great Britain." The Manchester 
delegate, William Tillman, was appointed secretary. (Gammage's Histor^y ot 
the Chariist Movement, p- 199.) 

3 and 4 Victoria, cap. 30. Act for the more equal assessment of police-rates 
in Manchester, Birmingham, and Bolton, and to make better provision for the 
r Mce in Birmingham, for one year, and to the end of the then next session of 
Parliament. July 23. 

Two nephews of the King of Ashantee visited the town, and inspected the 
various manufacturing establishments and public buildings. July. 



1S40] 



Annals of Manchester. 211 



The title of the warden and fellows of the Collegiate Church of Man- 
chester was, by an Act of Parliament, changed to that of dean and canons, 
August 11. 

The Chartist leaders, Dr. Peter Murray MacDouall, and John Collins, on 
their release from Chester Castle Prison, entered Manchester in procession 
22nd August, and were entertained at dinner in Carpenters' Hall, under the 
chairmanship of the Kev. James Scholefield. (Gammage's History of the 
Chartist Movement, p. 202.) 

Mr. Thomas Jewsbury, the father of Miss M. J. Jewsbury (Mrs. Fletcher) 
and of Miss G. E. Jewsbury, died August 28, aged 79. 

The Old Quay Company commenced the deepening of the river Irwell up to 
Victoria Bridge, so as to enable vessels of 300 tons to come into the centre of 
the town, but the project was never fully carried out. August. 

A new Post Office, under the Borough Court in Brown Street, was opened 
for public business, September 7. • 

Mr, Jeremiah Fielding died, September 7, aged 64 In 1812 he filled the 
oflfice of boroughreeve of Manchester. 

The first stone of the Lancashire Independent College at Withington was 
laid by Rev. Dr. Raflles, of Liverpool, September 23. A large scaflblding 
erected for the convenience of visitors gave way, and many ladies were severely 
bruised, but fortunately none were killed. 

Mr. John Walton, for upwards of 50 years drawing master in this town, 
died at Croydon, in Surrey, September 30, aged 79. 

The Manchester and Leeds Railway was opened from Leeds to Hebden 
Bridge, October 9. 

The Mormon missionaries and disciples in Manchester claimed to possess 
*' the gift of tongues," and one of them was put to the test, 12th October. Elder 
James Mahon having declared to Mr. Thomas Taylor, of the Mason Street Saw- 
mills, that he was willing to appear before anyone who might be selected, and 
convince them of his inspiration, a formal meeting was held. Some Hebrew 
was read to him, which he could not understand. He then spoke what he 
declared to be Hebrew, but the teacher of languages, who was the referee, 
declared that there was not a word of Hebrew in his jargon,— See An Account 
of the Complete Failure, &c., by Thomas Taylor (Manchester, 1840). 

A large building, situated in Peter Street, belonging to Mr. Hobson, carrier, 
but occupied by various tenants, was destroyed by fire, October 15. The 
damage thus caused was between £4,000 and £5,000. 

Mr. David Bellhouse, builder, died October 18, aged 77. 

Mr. "William Neild elected to the mayoralty, being the second mayor, 
November 9. 

The following placard was posted in the town of Manchester : " The bell- 
man of Manchester and Salford.— iVo< ice is hereby f/ivcn, that William Sher- 
man, post-office keeper, of New Windsor, Salford, and of No. 3, Old Slillgate, 
Market Place, Manchester, is duly appointed to the office of bellman of the 
towns of Manchester and Salford; the appointment of which exclusively 
belongs to Arabella Penelope Eliza Hoare, wife of Peter Richard lloare, of 
Kelsey Park, in the county of Kent, esquire, as one of the descendants of the 
Chetham family, formerly of Clayton Hall and Turton Tower, in this 



212 Annals of Manchester. i84i 

county. Any person found trespassing after this notice upon his rights and 
privileges will be prosecuted.— Barrett, Ridgway, and Ford, solicitors for 
Mr. and Mrs. Hoare.— Norfolk Street, Nov. 17, 1840." (Palatine Note-book, 
vol. ii., p. 221.) 

All Souls' Church, Ancoats, was consecrated November 18. It was erected 
at a cost of £4,000. The first stone was laid October 25, 1839. The first incum- 
bent was the Kev. Samuel Warren, who had been expelled from the Wesleyan 
Connexion, as the result of the Fly-sheets controversy. He was the father of 
Mr. Samuel Warren, Q.C., the novelist. 

The Union Carrying Company's warehouses, Piccadilly, destroyed by fire, 
and the damage was estimated at £30,000. December 20. 

The first election of guardians under the new Poor Law took place Dec. 29. 

Mr. Charles Cudmore, professor of music, and composer of the Martyr of 
Antioch, an oratorio, died December 29, aged 53. 

The marriage of Queen Victoria was celebrated by public dinners at various 
places in Manchester and Salford, and the several public and private insti- 
tutions were thrown open to the public. In the evening there was a partial 
illumination. 

The Derby Chapel, in the Collegiate Church, was repaired and new roofed 
at the expense of the Earl of Derby. 

Mr. Thomas Potter received the honour of knighthood upon presenting an 
address of congratulation, adopted by the Town Council, to the Queen, on her 
escape from assassination by Oxford. 

1841. 

Richard Dunstan, Governor of the New Bailey, resigned January 9, and 
was succeeded by Mr. Boult, March 11. 

A bazaar held in the Town Hall, in aid of the Salford, Chorlton, and 
Ancoats Lyceums, January 11, 12, 13, and 14. The proceeds amounted to 
£1,012 9s. 8d. 

Mr. Patrick M'Morland, artist, for many years resident in this town, died 
January 26, at Everton, aged 99. 

Messrs. Crafts and Stell's warehouse, George Street, together with other 
warehouses and private dwellings, were destroyed by fire, February 8. The 
damage was estimated at £1,800. 

Mr. Edward Clive Bayley, son of T. B. Bayley, died at St. Petersburg, Feb. 
22, aged 65. His only son was the late Sir Edward Clive Bayley, K.C.S.I., who 
was born in St. Petersburg in October, 1821. He entered the Indian Civil 
Service in 1842. After holding various offices, he Avas, in March, 1862, made 
Home Secretary to the Government of India, and in 1873 was appointed an 
ordinary member of the Supreme Council, which position he resigned in April, 
1878. He was created K.C.S.I. on January 1, 1877, and died April 30, 1884. 
(Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1834, pp. 3 to 5.) 

The validity of the charter for the incorporation of Manchester was con- 
firmed by the judges of the Court of Queen's Bench. February 22. 

Mr. William Sharp, George Street, died February 23, aged 87. 

An ancient ford, near Broughton Bridge, was reopened by the surveyors 
of Salford and Broughton, February 27. 



1341] Annals of Manchester. 215 

Manchester and Leeds Railway was opened throughout, March 1. 
Mr. Hamer Hargreaves died March 5. This gentleman left upwards of 
£1,000, together with his valuable collection of music and musical instruments, 
for the formation of " The Hargreaves Choral Society." The first concert was 
given in the Wellington Rooms, Peter Street, November 25. 

William Hampson attempted to murder Frances Bostock, a woman with 
whom he cohabited, by cutting her throat. The wounds subsequently caused 
her death, March 8. He was transported for life. 

Mr. Thomas Leeming Grundy, the well-known engraver in line, died 
March 10, in Camden Town. Mr. Grundy was born at Bolton, January 6, 1808, 
and served his apprenticeship in Manchester, from whence he went to London 
for improvement, and subsequently engraved many fine plates. 

4 Victoria, cap. 8. Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Man- 
chester and Salford Waterworks to raise a further sum of money, and to 
amend the Acts relating thereto. April 6. 

Commodore Sir Charles Napier visited Manchester on his return to this 
country from the East, and attended a public dinner at the Town Hall, April 21. 

Mr. Benjamin Oldfield, of the White Bear, Piccadilly, died April 26. It 
was said of him that he " might not inaptly be styled the Peter Pindar of Lan- 
cashire. His wit was keen and brilliant, his humour rough, but full of living 
nature. Had he been possessed of the advantages of a good education and 
more refined society in early life, he would have left a name in literature." 

Bradshaws Manchester Journal, No. 1, was published May 1. It was 
edited by George Falkner. 

Mr. Thomas Sharp, senior partner in the firm of Sharp, Roberts, and Co., 
died May 20. His remains were accompanied to the grave by 600 of the work- 
men of the firm, and by 150 of the principal gentry of the town. 

The seventh Socialist Congress (which was the second of the Universal 
Community Society of Rational Religionists) was held in May, and extended 
over seventeen days. 

A riot occurred between the Anti-Corn Law Leaguers and the Chartists, at 
a meeting held by the former party in Stevenson Square. June 2. 

At the election for Salford, July 2, when Mr. Joseph Brotherton was again 
returned, the numbers were : Mr. J. Brotherton, 990 ; Mr. W. Garnett, 873. 

Lord Francis Egerton and the Hon. Richard Bootle Wilbraham returned, 
without opposition, as representatives for South Lancashire, July 7. 

Part of a wing of Messrs. Kelly and Gilmour's factory, in Bradford Road, 
fell down. Four men were killed. July 9. 

Messrs. Daintry, Ryle, and Co.'s bank stopped payment in Julj'. 

Mr. Lin Dillon died August 21, aged 80. 

Mr. Thomas Joseph TrafTord, of Trafford Park, created a baronet, Aug. 24. 

The first stone] was laid of St. Bartholomew's Churcli, Regent Road. It 
■was the first of ten new churches erected in this neighbourhood. The ground 
was given'by Mr. Wilbraham Egerton. The style is Norman, after the design 
of Messrs. Starkey and Cufiley, of Manchester. August 30. 

Lieutenant-Colonel the Hon. George Berkeley Molyneux, brother to the 
Earl of Sefton, died August 27, at London. This gentleman having expressed 
a wish to be interred where the 8th Hussars (his regiment) were then quar- 



^14 Annals of Manchester. 



ri84i 



tered, his remains were brought to this town, and -were buried at St. George's 
Church, Hulme, September 3. 

The first stone was laid of St. Matthias's Church, Broughton Boad, Salford, 
September 6. The style is Norman. The church was designed by Mr. E. 
Walters. 

Charles Poulett Thomson, Lord Sydenham, died in Canada, 19th September. 
He was born in 1799, and was M.P. for Manchester 1832-39. He was then 
made Governor-General of Canada, and on 19th August, 1840, was created 
Baron Sydenham, but died before he could take his seat in the House of 
Lords. 

The foundation stone of the National and Infants' School, Miller Street,, 
laid September 29. The ground was given by Sir Oswald Mosley, Bart. The 
lower part is known as Leadenhall Market. The erection cost about £1,400, ' 
towards which Government gave £418, the National Society £250, and the rest 
was raised by subscription. Mr. R. Goldsmith was the architect. 

A cartload of petitions, sent from Manchester, praying the Queen not to 
prorogue Parliament till the distress of the people was taken into consideration, 
October 7. 

Mr. J. S. Thomas, late deputy-constable of Manchester,' died October 11. 

By the bursting of a steam boiler at Messrs. Elce and Co.'s works, 
Jersey Street, eight men were killed and several others wounded. 
October 13. 

The first stone was laid of St. Silas's Church, Higher Ardwick, Octo- 
ber 15. It was designed by Messrs. Starkey and Cuffley, and is in the 
Norman style. 

The foundation stone was laid by Mr. Hugh Hornby Birley of a church 
dedicated to St. Simon and St. Jude, Granby Row. It was designed by Mr. E. 
Walters, and is in the early English style of architecture. October 28. 

Mr. George Condy, barrister-at-law, editor and joint proprietor of the 
Manchester and Salford Advertiser, and one of the Commissioners of Bank- 
ruptcy, died November 4. Mr. Condy had the reputation of an accomplished 
scholar. He was a critic and dramatist, as well as a politician. 

John Pollitt, aged 52, and George Pollitt, brothers, were interred at 
Rusholme Road Cemetery, November 16. They were followed to the grave by 
their venerable father, William Pollitt, of Dyche Street, who was said to have 
attained the age of 104. He was accompanied by his great-great-grandson, 
aged 21 years. 

A meeting of 120 delegates from various parts of the kingdom was held in 
Manchester " to consider the best means which should be taken previous to 
the reassembling of Parliament to promote the repeal of the Corn Laws." 
November 17. 

The foundation stone of Holy Trinity Church, Hulme, laid, December 2, by 
the Hon. and Rev. William Herbert. It was consecrated June 28, 1843, by Dr. 
Sumner, Bishop of Chester. The architects were Mr. (afterwards Sir) Gilbert 
Scott and Mr. Moffatt. The cost of erection, over £18,000, was defrayed by 
Miss Eleanora Atherton. 

The Bridgewater Viaduct, Knot Mill, opened, December 3. Dr. William 
Fleming performed the ceremony by driving over the road in his carriage. 



1841] 



Annals of Manchester. 21 1> 



John Massey died in the workhouse, New Bridge Street, and was buried 
at St. Mark's, Cheetham Hill, 6th December. He was born 29th January, 1774, 
and was by trade a builder, but had some reputation as a teacher of music. 
He is said to have written about 26 psalm and hymn tunes. (City News Notes 
and Queries, vol. i., p. 270.) Some of his compositions appear in Holford's Voce 
de Melodia. 

A calender house, situated in Bateman's Buildings, Deansgate, was burned 
down December 31. The damage was estimated to be between £4,000 and £5,000. 

Mr. Luke Hadfield appointed Governor of Chatham's Hospital on the 
resignation of Mr. George Crossley. 

A fire at the Beehive Cotton Mill, Jersey Street, caused damage to the 
extent of £14,000. 

Mr. Mark Philips and Mr. Thomas Milner Gibson were returned as repre- 
sentatives of Manchester. The numbers polled for the respective candidates 
were as follows : Philips, 3,695 ; Gibson, 3,575 ; Sir George Murray, 3,115 ; W. 
Entwistle, 2,692. June 30. 

The Wesleyan Conference which met at Manchester this year resolved 
that unfcrmented wine should not be used for the sacrament ; that no chapel 
ehould be used for total abstinence meetings ; and that no preacher should go 
into another circuit to advocate total abstinence without first obtaining the con- 
sent of the superintendent. This bigoted and foolish action was, according to 
the epigrammatic phrase, worse than a crime— it was a blunder— and led to 
much controversy and unpleasant feeling. The policy it indicated has since 
been to a large extent reversed. 

On the release of the Chartist leaders O'Conor and O'Brien, they entered 
Manchester in procession. 

Two vessels were towed by the Jack Sharp steamer to Victoria Bridge. 
These, which were laden with oats, cotton, &c., were the first to arrive after the 
deepening of the river. The names of the vessels were the Lingard and the Mary. 

A subscription was raised for celebrating the birth of the Prince of Wales ; 
but owing to the great distress existing among the working classes the 
amount (£2,800) was expended in blankets, coverlets, and flannel, and distri- 
buted by ticket to the most deserving. 0,500 tickets were issued. 

The first meeting at which Christian ministers appeared in any numbers 
to advocate the repeal of the Corn Laws was on the occasion of a tea party 
given to Mr. George Thompson in the Corn Exchange. 

There were 1,267 public-houses and beerhouses in Manchester and Salford. 

Mr. Thelwell, silversmith, St. Ann's Square, charged with being concerned 
in the robbery of his own premises, he being then bankrupt. After several 
examinations he was discharged. The amount of property stolen was nearly 
£3,000. 

The population of the municipal borough of Manchester at the fifth census 
was 235,102 ; that of the Parliamentary borough was 242,983. The population 
of Salford, including Broughton, was 53,200, and of the Parliamentary borough 
66,624. 

Mr. James Clough, M.D., died at Torquay. He was born in Manchester in 
1771. He was the author of Observations on Pregnancy and the Diseases 
Incident to that Period. 1796. 



216 Annals of Manchester. 



[1842 



1842. 

By a fire at Messrs. Parr, Curtis, and Co.'s machine works, Store Street, 
damage was done to the extent of £9,000. January 4. 

Mr. John Dickenson died January 11, at his residence, Mistley Hall, Essex. 
The family of Dickenson, of Birch, of whom the deceased was the survivor , 
had been long connected with this town. Their residence was formerly in 
Market Street ; and when Prince Charles Edward arrived here in 1745 it was 
selected for his head-quarters. Mr. Dickenson married Mary, the only chUd of 
the Hon. Charles Hamilton, of Northampton, by whom he had one daughter, 
who married, in 1815, General Sir W. Hamilton, Bart., K.C.B., and died in 
1837, leaving seven surviving children. 

Mr. James Brierley, of Mossley Moss Hall, near Congleton, and formerly 
of Ardwick, died January 13. He acted for many years as a magistrate for 
this town, and served the office of boroughreeve two years consecutively, 
1820-21. 

1 Mr. John Fletcher, twenty-five years one of the directors of the Gentlemen's 
Concerts in this town, died January 16. 

A building in Alum Street, Great Ancoats Street, was destroyed by fire 
January 24. The damage was about £1,500. 

A great Anti-Corn-Law Bazaar was held at the Theatre Royal, which had 
been fitted up for the purpose. The proceeds amounted to £9,000. January 31. 

Owing to the great distress existing among the working classes, the 
Society of Friends opened a large soup kitchen in Bale Street. January. 

The Phonographic Journal issued, January. This was the first phonetic 
paper ever issued. Mr. Isaac Pitman gave the following account, at a meeting 
held in the Town Hall in 1868: "Although phonography itself was not born 
here, the Phonetic Journal was. In the winter of 1841 I was teaching classes 
and lecturing in this city, and being in the office of Messrs. Bradshaw and 
Blacklock, two very good men whom I am happyjto see here to-night (Mr. John 
Barnes and Mr. Timothy Walker), who were then in the office, said : ' We can 
do something to promote your object in this way. If you will write a page of 
shorthand on a particular kind of paper, with a particular kind of ink, which 
we will supply, we will produce you an exact printed copy of it.' I did not 
know it could be done. I knew nothing of lithography then. I wrote it in Mr. 
Bradshaw's counting-house, and they directly put it upon the stone, and 
brought me a facsimile of my own writing. I took a sheet of transfer paper 
home to my lodgings, wrote out the first number of the Phonographic Journal, 
as it was then called, which you see here [exhibiting to the audience the 
Journal for 1842], and they printed a thousand copies for me. I circulated 
several hundred of them during the remainder of my stay in Manchester, sent 
some to my London publisher, and took the rest to Glasgow." 

Mr. William Grant, of Spring Side, a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of 
the county, died Feb. 28, aged 72. Mr. Grant's benevolence was well known 
and extensively felt by hundreds of his poorer townsmen. His portrait, and 
that of his brother, have been well drawn by Mr. Dickens, as the " Brothers 
Cheeryble," in Nicholas Nicldehy. 

A petition, praying for a repeal of the Corn Laws, was despatched to 



1842] 



Annals of Manchester. 217 



London, signed by 75,000 women, and at the same time 1,300 other petitions 
were sent, emanating from as many different firms in this town. February. 

A parcel containing 1,500 sovereigns and £500 in notes was stolen from the 
Blackburn coach, February. It was the property of Messrs. Cunliffe, Brooks, 
and Co., bankers. The robbers were convicted and transported for life. 

Ann, relict of the late Mr. Thomas Ainsworth, of this town, and mother of 
Mr. W. Harrison Ainsworth, died March 15, at Kensal Green, near London. 
She was the only daughter of the Rev. Ralph Harrison, formerly one of the 
ministers of Cross Street Chapel. 

Mr. Fergus O'Connor, M.P., laid the foundation of a monument to the 
memory of Mr. Henry Hunt, the Radical Reformer, in Mr. Scholefield's 
Chapelyard, Every Street, Ancoats. March 25. 

Batty's Circus, Great Bridgewater Street, was burned down March 26. 

Three men were killed by the bursting of a steam boiler at Messrs. 
Gisborne and Wilson's printworks, Pendleton, April 4. 

5 Victoria, sess. 2, cap. 1. Act to extend the provisions of an Act of the 48th 
of King George the Third relative to the Manchester Royal Infirmary, Dis- 
pensary, and Lunatic Hospital or Asylum, and to incorporate the trustees 
thereof. April 22. 

Mr. Donald Fraser, formerly quarter-master of the Lancashire militia, died 
April 22, aged 72. 

The Manchester and Birmingham Railway was opened from Stockport to 
Sandbach, May 10. 

Rev, Francis Beardsall died June 25th on board a vessel bound for New 
York, and his body was committed to the waters. He was born at the Tontine 
Inn, Sheffield, September 6th, 1799, and educated at the Baptist Theological 
Academy. In 1834 he became pastor of the General Baptist Chapel, Oak Street, 
and having signed the temperance pledge, Sept. 6th, became a leader of the 
teetotal movement. He manufactured an unfermented wine for sacramental 
use, and wrote a treatise on Scrijjturc Wines, and a Temx)era'0,ce Hymn Book, 
Df which many thousands have been sold. He was co-editor with Rev. Joseph 
Barker of the Star of Temperance. Intending to visit the United States, Mr. 
Beardsall embarked for New York, May 13th, 1842, but suffered much during 
the protracted voyage, and did not reach the American shore. He was a man 
of unselfish and ardent temperament, who did much good in a too short life. 

The merchants of Manchester presented an address at the Town Hall to 
the Hon. Edward Everett, the American ambassador, who was staying with 
Mr. Alexander Henry at the Woodlands, June 25. 

St. Matthias's Church, Broughton Road, Salford, was consecrated June 27. 

St. Bartholomew's Church, Regent Road, was consecrated June 27. 

St. Simon's and St. Jude's Church, Granby Row, was consecrated June 28. 

St. Jude's Church, Canal Street, Ancoats, was consecrated June 28. The build- 
ing, a plain brick one, and previously in the occupation of the Tent Methodists, 
has since been pulled down, and a stone edifice erected in Mill Street. The 
site of the old building was afterwards devoted to the day and Sunday schools. 

The twelfth annual meeting of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science was held in this town, with Lord Francis Egerton as president. 
The sittings terminated June oO. 



218 Annals of Manchester. 



[1842 



Giles Bedford, a,£i;ed 90, died at Pendlebury, July 9. He was at the siege of 
Gibraltar, in the 72nd Regiment, or Manchester Volunteers, from September 12, 
1779, to February, 1783. 

James Russell, a pugilist, killed in a fight with the " Chequer Lad," July 
11th. Russell was born at Manchester, April 23, 1819. He is buried in the 
Cheetham Hill Cemetery. (Procter's Our Turf, &c., p. 8G.) 

Mr. Richard Potter, formerly M.P. for Wigan, and brother to the late Sir 
Thomas Potter, died at Penzance, July 13. 

The distress in the manufacturing district led to a great strike. Thousands 
of men flocked into Manchester, August 9, with banners and bludgeons, and 
for three days turned the workpeople out of the mills. On the 12th there was 
a meeting of 358 Chartist delegates of the factory districts held at Man- 
Chester, when 320 voted for the continuance of the strike until the Charter was 
repealed. Another meeting was held on the loth, and on the 16th the delegates 
were dispersed by the police. The original reason for this gathering was the 
completion of a monument to Henry Hunt. 

John Lord, who for upwards of forty years was a bellringer at Trinity 
Church, Salford, died August 10, aged 77. 

Manchester and Birmingham Railway was opened throughout, August 10. 
The total cost of the railway was about £1,890,000. 

5 and 6 Victoria, cap. 117. Act to amend and continue until the first day of 
October, 1842, the Acts regulating the police of Manchester, Birmingham, and 
Bolton. August 12. 

The Salford old police office was sold for £40 and a chief rent of £21, Aug. 24. 

There were alarming riots in Manchester and neighbourhood, arising from 
want of employment and dearness of food. August. 

There was a six weeks' strike of the factory operatives. It began in 
August. {City Neivs Notes and Queries, vol. i., p. 292.) 

Francis Bradley was executed September 3, at Liverpool, for the murder 
of his wife in Goulden Street, Manchester. 

Messrs. Kendal, Milne, and Faulkner, of the Bazaar, Deansgate, first 
lighted their establishment with the Bude light, September 4. 

The first Manchester and Salford Regatta was held on the river Irwell 
September 12. 

Mr. Peter Ewart died at the Royal Dockyard, Woolwich, Sept. 15, in conse- 
quence of a severe injury inflicted by the sudden breaking of a chain, while he 
was superintending the removal of a large boiler. He was born at Troquain 
Manse, Dumfriesshire, but came to Manchester before 1798, when he was elected 
a member of the Literary and Philosophical Society, of which he became vice- 
president in 1812. In 1835 he became chief engineer and inspector of machinery 
in Woolwich Dockyards. {Literary and PMlosopliical Memoirs, 3rd series, 
vol. vii., p. 121.) 

Messrs. Lockwood and Thornton's cotton mill, Blackfriars Street, Salford, 
was burned down September 17. The damage was about £18,000. 

The control of the whole of the borough police force was transferred to the 
Corporation by Sir Charles Shaw, whose term of office expired September 30. 
Sir Charles was appointed by Government during the dispute as to the legality 
of the charter of incorporation. 



1842] 



Annals of Manchester. 219 



St. Silas's Church, Ashton Old Road, was consecrated October 10. 
Messrs. Ellis and Norton's machine shop, opposite the New Bailey Prison, 
was burnt down October 15. The damage was estimated at £14,000. 

Captain Willis was appointed Chief Superintendent of the Manchester 
Police, at a salary of £450, and Mr. Beswick was retained as Superintendent 
of the Detective Force, at a salary of £350. October 24. 

Sir John Cross died at London Nov. 5. He was born at Scarborough in 17G8, 
and having been appointed Attorney -General for the county palatine, resided 
in Manchester from 1804 to 1819. He wrote The Paxtal Supremacy, &c., 1826, 
and A Treatise on the Alien Laivs. {Annual Register, 1842, p. 300 ; Legal 
Observer, vol. xxv., p. 88.) 

The large lamp, which then stood opposite to the Exchange, was lighted 
with the Bude light, November 23. 

The animals, &c., of the Manchester Zoological Gardens, Higher Broughton, 
were sold by auction, November 23. 

The Rev. Joshua Lingard, M.A., first rector of St. George's Church, Hulme, 
died Nov. 29, aged 44. He was born in Manchester in 1798, and was in early 
life a contributor to the Manchester Iris. There is a sketch of him in the 
Manchester School Register, and his portrait is prefixed to his posthumous 
manual on The Holy Communion and Eucharistical Office. As curate and 
rector he was for fifteen years minister of St. George's. 

Mr. John Knowles became lessee of the Theatre Royal, which was placed 
under the management of Mr. Roxby, in November. 

The toUbar near the Manchester Workhouse was removed, after an 
existence of twenty-four years, December 5. 

The Rev. John Morton, D.D., incumbent of St. Clement's Church, Chorlton- 
cum-Hardy, died December 27. In Higson's Gorton Historical Recorder it is 
stated that the Bishop of Chester took a dislike to Mr. Morton's appearance, 
and on that ground alone refused his first application for ordination 
in 1817. 

The Manchester Chronicle discontinued December 31. This was the oldest 
existing journal in the town, having been established in 1781. 

A Manchester claimant to the estates of Sir Andrew Chadwick had a 
curious correspondence with Sir Charles G. Young, Garter-King-at-Arms. 
These letters are printed in the Palatine Note-book, vol. iv., p. 61. The history 
of this extraordinary litigation is given in Reports on the Estate of Sir Andrew 
Chadxvick, by Edward Chadwick and James Boardman, to which is prefixed 
the Life and Ilistory of Sir Andreiv Chaduick, by John Oldfield Chadwick. 
(Manchester, 1881.) 

Mr. Thomas Cooper arrested for attending the Manchester Chartist Con- 
ference, and also on a charge of arson. On the latter indictment he was tried 
and acquitted at Stafford. 

The Mayor and Town Clerk of Manchester attended divine service at the 
Collegiate Church. This is the first time that the Corporation was recognised 
by the Churchwardens. The seats formerly used by the boroughreeves were 
now assigned to the mayor. 

The Bank of Manchester stopped payment. The losses were stated at 
£800,000 ; the liabilities £713,082. The failure of this bank created a panic, and 



220 Annals of Manchester. 



[1843 



the shareholders suffered immense loss. Burdekin, the manager, absconded 
to America. 

Mr. Thomas Cooke, Pendleton, appointed high constable of the Salford 
Hundred. 

St. Matthias's Church, Salford, was consecrated. It was enlarged in 1863. 

1843. 

Mr. James Emerson Tennant, M.P., was entertained at dinner at the 
Albion Hotel, and was presented with a splendid service of plate, consisting oi 
106 pieces, and weighing '.upwards of 3,000 ounces, January 27. It emanated 
from a subscription entered into by the calico printers of Great Britain (which 
amounted to £1,850), as an acknowledgment of his untiring services in procuring 
the bill for the copyright of designs. 

Messrs. Clayton and Gladstone's warehouse, Norfolk Street, was destroyed 
by fire, January 28. The damage was £20,000. 

The Free Trade Hall was opened January 30. The Anti-Corn-Law banquet 
then held was attended by numerous M.P.'s and delegates from all parts of 
the kingdom. This was followed by a variety of meetings connected with Free 
Trade. The dimensions of the hall were— length, 135ft. 8in.; breadth, 102ft 6in.; 
containing an area of 14,000 square feet. 

Mr. William Robinson, Governor of the Manchester Workhouse, died 
February 2. 

Mr. James Pigot, of the firm of Pigot and Slater, the indefatigable compiler 
of the National Directories, died February 15, aged 74. 

Mr. William Garnett, of Lark Hill, Salford, and Quermore Park, Lancaster, 
was appointed High Sheriff. When he set off from Lark Hill to attend the 
Assizes, February 25, there was a procession consisting of sixty carriages, con- 
taining several hundred gentlemen of all shades of politics, accompanied by 
the town officers. 

An amateur performance took place for the benefit of the Royal Infirmary, 
March 14. The proceeds amounted to £349 5s. One of the pieces played was 
written for the occasion by the Rev. Hugh Hutton, of Birmingham, and was 
entitled St. Augustine's Eve. 

A tea-party was given March 15, in honour of Mr. Isaac Pitman, the 
inventor of phonography. 

Mr. John Hull, M.D., F.L.S., died at Tavistock Square, London, March 17. 
He was born at Poulton in 1704, and graduated at Leyden 1792. He settled in 
Manchester, where he was Physician to the Lying-In Hospital. He was a good 
botanist, and wrote The British Flora, 1799, and several medical treatises- 
(Mmm^s, Boll of the Royal College of Physicians.) He is buried at Poulton- 
le-Fylde. 

The shock of an earthquake was felt in Manchester and neighbourhood, 
March 17. 

Mr. Fergus O'Connor and 58 other Chartists were tried at Lancaster 
Assizes, March 21. 

John Chesshyre, Vice-admiral of the White, died at Swansea, March 27, 
aged 85. Admiral Chesshyre was a native of Manchester, and was the brother 
of the late Mr. Edward Chesshyre. He was made lieutenant in 1781, commander 



1843] 



Annals of Manchester. 221 



in 1794, and post captain in 1799. He commanded the Plover sloop of war, and 
captured the Erin-go-Bragh French privateer, of ten guns, in the North Sea, 
October 28, 1798. During part of the war he was employed in the Sea 
Fencibles. 

Mr. John Young died March 29, aged 79. He was believed to be the oldest 
Sunday school teacher and visitor in the kingdom, having entered as a teacher 
in the Sunday schools of the Church of England iu this town in 1786. 

The Chetham Society formed in March, with the object of printing the most 
rare historical works, as well as all manuscript matter relative to the histories 
of the two counties palatine of Lancaster and Chester. The printing has been 
done from 1843 to the present time (1886) by Messrs. Simms and Co., on 
whom it reflects the greatest credit. The first president was Mr. Edward 
Holme, M.D. 

The first stone was laid by Mr. "William Garnett, high sheriff", of the Man- 
chester Union Moral and Industrial Training School, in the township of Swin- 
ton, April 2. The building is in the Elizabethan style, from a design by Messrs. 
Tattersall and Dixon. Mr. D. Bellhouse was the builder. The grounds, 
including site of buildings, are 23 acres in extent. The front is 458 feet in 
length, and the building will accommodate 1,500 children, but is capable of 
considerable enlargment. The cost was about £20,000. 

Mr. Richard Arkwright, only son of the late Sir Richard Arkwright, the 
inventor and improver of spinning machinery, died at Willersley, Derbyshire, 
April 23. He was the richest commoner in England, and, it is stated, left 
personal and landed property to the amount of ten or eleven millions, 
the foundation of which immense sum was made in the cotton trade by his 
father. 

The Manchester Independent College, at Withington, was opened by the 
Rev. Dr. Raffles, April 26. 

The Rose light was put up in St. Ann's Square in March, and first lighted 
May 1. It took its name from its inventor, Mr. Thomas Rose, at that time 
superintendent of the Manchester Fire Brigade. 

The first stone of St. Thomas's Church, Red Bank, was laid by J. C. Harter, 
Esq., May 5. It is in the Early English style of architecture, and was designed 
by Mr. Moseley, of London. The cost was £3,000. 

Rev. John Grundy died at Bridport, May 9. He was born at Hincklej% in 
Leicestershire, 1781, and in 1810 became minister at Cross Street Chapel. He 
left Manchester in 1824 for Liverpool, where he was a colleague of the Rev. 
James Martineau. There is a portrait of him in Sir Thomas Baker's Memorials. 
He wrote Evangelical Christianity Considered, 1814, and other works. 

6 Victoria, cap. 17. Act for transferring to the Mayor, Aldermen, and 
Burgesses of the Borough of Manchester certain powers and property now 
vested in the Commissioners for cleansing, lighting, watcliing, and regulating 
the town of Manchester. May 9. 

A desperate attack was made upon Messrs. Pauling and Hcmf rcy's premises, 
Eccles New Road, May 16, by an armed party of turnouts. Several of the men 
were taken up, tried, and underwent various terms of imprisonment. 

Riots occurred between several soldiers of the 15th Regiment and the police, 
in Oldham Road, May 23. 



222 Annals of Manchester. 



[1843 



The first great meeting of the Lancashire and Cheshire "Workmen's Singing 
Classes was held at the Free Trade Hall, June 10. There were 1,500 performers, , 
led by Mr. John HuUah, the inventor of the system. 

A meeting took place at Newton, to oppose the education clauses in the 
proposed new Factory Bill, June 12. It was attended by 270 delegated 
Dissenting ministers from all parts of Manchester. 

Trinity Church, Stretford Road, was consecrated June 28. The Rev, Thos. 
Todd was the first incumbent. 

The surveyors of highways laid down wood pavement in St. Ann's Square. 
June. 

Messrs, Nightingale and Co.'s warehouse, in Zara Street, Granby Row, was 
destroyed by fire July 10. The damage was £9,000. 

The celebrated Father Mathew arrived in Manchester, and preached at St. 
Patrick's Chapel, Livesey Street, upon the occasion of the opening of the new 
organ, built by Messrs. Gray and Davison, of London, July 19. A tea party 
was given in his honour at the Free Trade Hall, when 3,000 persons attended. 
He administered the temperance pledge to many thousand persons. July 21. 

Mr. Thomas Arkell Tidmarsh died at Manchester, July 30. He was born in 
1819. His poetical writings have never been collected, but the specimens given 
by Procter show him to have had talent of a very high order. (See Procter's 
Literary Reminiscences, p. 84, and Gems of Thought.) 

6 and 7 Victoria, cap. 91. Act for more effectually repairing the road from 
the New "Wall on the parade in Castleton, in the parish of Rochdale, through 
Middleton, to the mere stone in Great Heaton, and to the town of Manchester, 
and for making a diversion in the line of such road. August 1. 

The Pendleton coalpits of Mr. J. P. Fitzgerald and Mr. John Knowles 
were flooded, August 2. The loss to the former was estimated at £50,000. 

Mr. John Dyer, formerly editor of the Manchester Chronicle, died at 
London, August 4. 

Rev. Adam Hurdus died at Cincinnati, August 30, in his S4th year. He 
was born near Manchester, entered the Swedenborgian ministry in 1816, 
and was the first to preach the new church doctrines west of the Alleghany 
Mountains. (Hindmarsh's Rise, &c., p. 379.) 

Mr. John Sanderson presented £2,000 to the Lunatic Asylum, and £136 to 
various other charities in the town. He had been keeper of the above asylum 
sixty years. Being in bad health, he resigned his situation, and adopted 
this method of disposing of his savings in order to avoid paying legacy duty. 
August, 

A newsroom at the Albion Hotel, for the use of the Manchester Gentlemen's 
Glee Club, opened September 7. 

Rev. Charles Panton Myddleton, M.A., Curate of St, Mary's, Manchester, 
died September 10, He was a native of Prescot, was born in 1767, and published 
a Sermon in Defence of Sunday Schools, 1798, Poems, &c. {Manchester School 
Register, vol, ii., p. 67.) 

A great musical meeting held at the Free Trade Hall, Peter Street, 
September 11 and 12. 

Mr. S. N. Cooper, rule maker, of Miller Street, died September 13. He was 
the first to introduce rule making into Manchester. 



1843] 



Annals of Manchester. 223 



Manchester made into an archdeaconry, the first archdeacon being the 
Kev. John Rushton, Incumbent of Padiham. September. 

One of the old parish registers discovered at Messrs. Cooke, Beever, and 
Darwell's offices, in Salford, September. This register had been missing for 
upwards of sixty years. It contains the baptisms, deaths, and marriages from 
October, 1G53, to July, 1662. 

A bazaar held in the Free Trade Hall, in aid of the Manchester Athenaeum, 
October 2 ; and on the following Thursday was held, in the same place, a soiree, 
which was presided over by Mr. Charles Dickens. The proceeds were £1,820. 
The speeches at the successive soirees were collected into one volume in 1877. 

Mr. George William Wood, M.P., died October 3. His decease, which was 
almost instantaneous, occurred in the rooms of the Manchester Literary and 
Philosophical Society, of which he was vice-president. Mr. Wood was the son 
of the late Kev. William Wood, F.L.S., of Leeds, by Louisa Anne, daughter of 
Mr. Samuel Oatcs, and was born July 26, 1781. He was destined for a commer- 
cial life, and was placed, at an early age, in the house of Philips, Oates, and Co., 
of Leeds. Soon after the commencement of the present century he was 
introduced by Sir George Philips, then of Sedgeley, to the house of 
Messrs. Thomas Philips and Co., of Manchester, with whom he remained till 
1809. During the war he formed one of a deputation from Manchester and 
other towns for obtaining a revocation of the Orders in Council. Through a 
long series of years Mr. Wood took a very active part in the affairs of this town. 
The Savings Bank, the Royal Institution, of which he conceived and developed 
the earliest idea, and the embellishment of the principal thoroughfare of the 
town, bear witness of the untiring energies of his mind. About the year 1827 
an idea was generally entertained in favour of conferring upon Manchester the 
privilege of sending members to Parliament, and the bill for this purpose was 
prepared almost solely by Mr. Wood. He was elected M.P. for South 
Lancashire, December 18, 1832, and sat till 1834, but was defeated in 1835. He 
sat for Kendal, July 25, 1837, re-elected June 3, 1841, and represented that con- 
stituency until his death. 

Mr. Thomas Liugard, for many years agent to the Old Quay Company, died 
October 4, aged 70, 

The coming of age of ^Mr. Alfred Nield, eldest son of Alderman Nield, was 
celebrated with great festivities at the Mayfield Printworks, October 19. 

The high floods in the Irwell caused the temporary footbridge near the 
New Bailey to be washed down, October 28. 

IVIr. James Hall, of Sunnyside, Ordsall, died November 1, in his 96th year. 
Mr. Hall was born March 1, 1749. He was originally in humble circumstances, 
from which he raised himself to affluence. In 1785 he took a very active part in 
the repeal of the fustian tax. Mr. Hall, at his sole expense, erected Regent 
Bridge over the Irwell, which was opened to the public in 1808, and which will 
ever remain a monument of his high spirit and liberality. 

The Due de Bordeaux and his suite visited Manchester, November 10. 

Mr. George Catlin visited the town with his exhibition of Ojibiway Indians, 
November 13. 

The sum of £12,666 was subscribed at a free trade meeting in Manchester, 
Novem))er 14. 



224 Annals of Manchester. [I844 

The Rev. John GatlifFe, senior canon of the Collegiate Church, and rector 
of St. Mary's, Parsonage, died at Brinkworth Hall, near York, November 22, 
aged 80. (Parkinson's Old Chvrch Clock, p. 87.) 

A large chimney at Messrs. Clemson and Co.'s dyeworks. Red Bank, was 
blown dovra, November 22. 

Mr. Joseph Maiden, an eminent animal painter, died November 26, aged 31. 

A soiree held in the Town Hall, to celebrate the Saturday half-holiday 
granted by the merchants, &c., of Manchester, to the persons in their employ- 
ment, November 27. 

Mr. James Normansell, for seventeen years an officer in the Salford police 
force, died December 8, aged 60. In early life he was in the Royal Horse 
Artillery. 

A flve-act tragedy, by Mr. Thomas Smelt, acted at the Theatre Royal, 
Fountain Street, December 20 and 28. It was not successful. 

Lord Francis Egerton purchased the Old Quay Carrying Company's concern 
for the sum of £400,000, being at the rate of £800 per share, December 21. 

The Rev, Robert Cox Clifton elected a Canon of the Collegiate Church, in 
the place of Mr. Gatliife, deceased. 

Mr. Sims Reeves became a member of the stock company at the Theatre 
Royal, Fountain Street, and remained there till the theatre was burned down 
in 1844. 

Chetham's Hospital was new roofed and thoroughly repaired. 

The Health of Towns Commission visited Manchester. 

1844. 

The Manchester and Leeds Railway extension line to Hunt's Bank opened 
January 1. 

Mr. John Edward Taylor, proprietor and principal editor of the Guardian 
newspaper, died January 6, aged 52. Mr. Taylor was born at Ilminster, in the 
county of Somerset, on the 11th of September, 1791. His father, Mr. John 
Taylor, undertook the education of his son, who was originally intended for 
the medical profession, but was placed with an estimable gentleman in the 
manufacturing business, and before he was of age his indentures were given 
up to him, and he was admitted into the concern as a partner. Mr. Taylor first 
appeared in public business in 1810, as secretary to the Lancasterian School in 
this town, and in 1812 he took a very active part in the discussions which so 
much agitated the public mind at that period. Cowdroy's Manchester Gazette 
was at that time the only organ of the Liberal party, and after a number of 
occasional contributions the columns of that paper were unreservedly thrown 
open to Mr. Taylor. From 1816 to 1819 every inteUigent account of the political 
transactions of the district was regarded with the liveliest interest, and such 
accounts were abundantly furnished by the labours of Mr. Taylor. The elabo- 
rate pamphlet written by him on the political proceedings of 1819, and the 
melancholy affair of the 16th of August, furnished a striking proof of the calm 
and rational manner in which he could treat the most exciting topics of dis- 
cussion. In 1819 Mr. Taylor was subjected to a prosecution for libel, which 
arose through an imputation cast upon him at a public meeting, which was 
perfectly groundless ; and after some efft rts to procure an explanation, he 



1844] Annals of Manchester. 225 

resented the imputation in a letter addressed and sent to the party by whom it 
had been uttered, and this letter formed the ground of the action for libel, 
"which was tried at Lancaster, March 29, 1819, On this occasion Mr. Taylor 
defended himself personally, with great ability, and with complete success; 
and the trial was remarkable as being the only one upon record in which the 
defendant indicted for libel was permitted to give evidence in justification of 
his statements. In 1820, a number of gentlemen of Liberal politics determined 
to establish a newspaper advocating their views of political and local events. 
They urgently requested Mr. Taylor to become the editor, to which he con- 
sented ; and in order to carry out their object, a subscription was raised in 
1821 of £1,000, chiefly in loans of £100 each. This sum being entrusted to Mr. 
Taylor's management, formed the original capital invested in the establishment 
of the Guardian, the first number of which appeared May 5, 1821. Mr. Taylor 
was at all times an active and untiring advocate of public improvements in the 
town, many of which owe their origin to him. 

Mr. George WaUis appointed master of the School of Design, upon the 
resignation of Mr. John Zephaniah Bell, January 15. 

Colonel John Drinkwater-Bethune, C.B., formerly captain in the 72nd 
Regiment of Royal Manchester Volunteers, and the author of the History of 
the Siege of Gibraltar, died January 16, at Thorncroft, Surrey, aged 81. 
Colonel Drinkwater was the son of Dr. Drinkwater, of Salford, and was born 
near Latchford, June 9, 1762. He received his education at the Manchester 
Grammar School, and at the age of fifteen entered the army, receiving a 
commission in the 72nd Regiment, raised in this town. Though so young an 
officer, he adopted the plan of keeping a faithful account of every particular 
connected with his military service, and especially with the memorable attack 
on Gibraltar. From these memoranda he was enabled, on his return home, to 
publish that graphic History of the Siege of Gibraltar [which has become a 
military classic. He wrote also an account of the battle of Cape St. Vincent, at 
which he was present. This contains some anecdotes of Nelson. Drinkwater 
was nearly, if not the last, of the surviving heroes of Gibraltar. 

The Rev. William Gadsby died January 27, at the age of 71. He was for 
38 years minister of the Baptist Chapel, Rochdale Road. This worthy preacher 
occupied a very warm place in the affections of the people, and in spite of some 
eccentricities he was generally admired for his abilities and respected for the 
sincerity of his efforts to benefit those around him. 

Mr. Jesse Lee, of Hulme, died, February 17. He was a native of Rochdale, 
where he was born Jan. 4, 1791, but came to this town in early life. He was 
particularly conversant with the history of all the old Lancashire families. He 
also particularly excelled in copying old prints with the pen, in such a manner 
as to render it difficult to distinguish the original. Mr. Lee had prepared for 
publication a new edition of Tim Bobbin's works, containing a great quantity 
of original information, as well as the addition of nearly 700 words used 
in this part of Lancashire. His MS. collections are now in the Manchester 
Free Library. He published an annotated edition of Seacombe's House of 
Stanley. 

Mr. Robert Philips, father of Mr. Mark Philips, M.P. for Manchester, died 
March 14. at the Park, aged &1. The father of Mr. Philips was the second of 
P 



226 Annals of Manchester. 



[1841 



three brothers, John, Nathaniel, and Thomas, who were all partners in business. 
Thomas was born in 1728, and died in 1811, at the age of 83. Sir George Philips, 
Bart., was his son. Nathaniel, the father of the deceased, was born in 1726, 
and died in 1808 ; and the subject of this notice was born April, 1760. Mr. 
Philips married Miss Needham, a sister of Mr. Matthew Needham, of Lenton, 
near Nottingham, but had long been a widower at the time of his death. 
Mr. Philips was one of the original founders of the Manchester Deaf and 
Dumb School and Asylum, to which he was a munificent contributor— indeed, 
there are few local charitable institutions which had not received the 
advantage of his counsel and contributions. He was the oldest member of the 
Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, having entered in 1783. He 
w^as also a liberal benefactor to the Manchester New College, having given 
upwards of £500 to that institution, of which he was president during the years 
1834-1837. His remains were interred at Stand Presbyterian Chapel, March 20. 

The premises of the Christian Knowledge Society, in Eidgefield, were 
destroyed by fire, together with the stock of Bibles, &c., March 14. 

Mr. William Vaughan died at Manchester, March 24. He was born in 1790, 
and became first master of the Manchester Deaf and Dumb School. He was 
author of a Vocabulary for the Deaf and Dumb, March, 1828. {North of 
England Magazine, vol. 1, p. 98, 1842.) 

A man was killed at the works of the Albert Bridge, by the breaking of a 
beam which supported the crane used in lowering the stones into their places, 
March 27. 

Mr. John Burn, well known as the author of Burn's Commercial Glance, 
and formerly of Manchester, died March 27, aged 68. 

A grand musical festival was held at the Free Trade Hall, April 8 and 9. 

The borough of Salford received a charter of incorporation April 16. Mr. 
"William Locket was appointed first mayor. The grant of heraldic arms and 
supporters is dated November 5 and 6. 

The first stone was laid of the Presbyterian (Covenanting) Church, in 
Ormond Street, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, May 2. This was the first place of 
worship erected in England by this particular branch of the Scotch Presby- 
terians. It was designed by Mr. A. Nicholson, and is capable of seating 400 
persons. 

The Liverpool and Manchester Railway extension line opened to Victoria 
Station, Hunt's Bank, May 4. 

The Hon. Eichard Bootle-Wilbraham, M.P., eldest son of Lord Skelmers- 
dale, and one of the representatives in Parliament of South Lancashire, died 
May 5. Mr. Wilbraham was born October 27, 1801. In 1832 he married Miss 
Jessie Brooke, third daughter of Sir Richard Brooke, Bart., by whom he had 
issue several children. His eldest son succeeded as Lord Skelmersdale in 1853 
and was in 1880 created Earl of Lathom. He was elected for South Lancashire 
in 1835. 

The Theatre Royal, Fountain Street, was destroyed by fire. May 7. 

Mr. Isaac Crewdson died May 8, aged 64. He was born at Kendal in 1780, 
but in early youth came to Manchester, and for many years resided at Ardwick. 
In 1836 he retired from business, and devoted his time and talents to the beuefil^ 
of his fellow-men. In aid of this object he published an abridgment of Baxter's 



1844] 



Annals of Manchester. 227 



Saints' Best, of which 30,000 copies were circulated. In 1835 he appeared as an 
author. His Beacoii to the Society of Friends gave rise to controversy, the 
result of which was that Mr. Crewdson and many of his friends withdrew them- 
selves from that society. He joined the communion of the Anglican Church. 

St. Thomas's Church, Red Bank, was consecrated, May 13. 

An election for South Lancashire, May 27 and 28, caused by the death of 
Mr. Wilbraham. The candidates were Mr. William Brown, of Liverpool, in 
the Free Trade interest, and Mr. William Entwisle, of Kusholme, a Conserva- 
tive, and the following were the numbers at the close of the poll : Mr. William 
Entwisle, 7,562 ; Mr. Brown, 6,984. 

Mr. William MuUis, for upwards of [thirty years sub-librarian at the 
Chetham Hospital, died June 1, aged 67. He was the author of A Brief 
Account of Chethams Foundation. 

7 Victoria, cap. 33. Act for opening certain streets and otherwise improving 
the town of Salford, and for amending an Act passed in the 11th year of His 
Majesty King George IV., for better cleansing and improving the said town of 
Salford. June 6. 

7 and 8 Victoi'ia, cap. 30. Act to alter and amend an Act of the fifty-third 
year of King George the HI., for the appointment of a stipendiary magistrate 
to act within the township of Manchester and Salford. July 4. 

7 and 8 Victoria, cap. 31. Act for the warehousing of foreign goods for 
home consumption at the borough of Manchester. July 4. The first cargo of 
goods for bonding in Manchester arrived October 19, and consisted of wines 
and spirits, the property of Mr. Duncan Gibb, the gentleman who was the 
principal instigator of the Bill. The goods were conveyed by a flat called the 
Express. 

7 and 8 Victoria, cap. 40. Act for the good government and police regula- 
tion of the borough of Manchester. July 4. 

7 and 8 Victoria, cap. 41. Act for the improvement of the town of Man- 
chester. July 4. 

7 and 8 Victoria, cap. 43. Act to enable the President, Treasurers, Deputy- 
Treasurers, Benefactors, and Subscribers, of and to the Manchester Koyal 
Infirmary, Dispensary, and Lunatic Hospital, or Asylum to enlarge the said 
Infirmary, and to purchase and hold land for the erection of a new Lunatic 
Hospital or Asylum. July 4. 

8 Victoria. Act for making a railway from the Manchester and Bolton 
Railway, in the Parish of Eccles, to the Parish of Whalley, to be called the 
Manchester, Bury, and Rossendale Railway. July 4. 

The tenth annual conference of the British Temperance Association was 
held July 9, 10, and 11. Mr. John Bright resigned the presidency, to which he 
had been elected in 1842. 

A dinner given to Mr. John Knowles, jun., at the Queen's Hotel, July 15, 
on which occasion his friends presented him with a handsome silver cup and 
two silver salvers, in acknowledgment of his energetic and successful eflorts to 
revive the national drama in Manchester. Mr. Knowles was the lessee of the 
late Theatre Royal before it was burnt. 

The King of Saxony visited Manchester, and inspected various est^bU&li. 
ments and public buildings, July 16. 



228 Annals of Manchester. [is^ 

Mr. John Dalton, D.C.L. Oxon, F.R.S.L. and E., president of the Literary 
and Philosophical Society of Manchester, died July 27, in his 78th year. Dr. 
Dalton was born at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth, Cumberland, September 5, 
1766, of respectable parents, members of the Society of Friends. He gave early 
indications of mathematical ability. In 1781 he became a mathematical teacher 
in Kendal, from whence he contributed largely on mathematical, philosophical, 
and general subjects to the two annual works called the Gentlemen'' s Diary 
and the Ladies' Diary. In 1788 he commenced his meteorological observations, 
which he continued throughout his life. In 1793 he published Meteorological 
Observations and Essays. In the same year he was appointed Professor of 
Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in the New College, Mosley Street, 
Manchester, and continued to hold this office until the college was finally 
removed to York. In 1808 he published A New System of Chemical Philosox>hy, 
and a second part in 1810. He also frequently contributed to Nicholson's 
Journal, the Annals of Philosophy, and the Philosophical Magazine, as well 
as to the memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester, of 
which, for fifty years, he was an active member, having been elected on the 
25th of April, 1794. Dr. Dalton had been president of this society since 1817. 
In 1826 he received the gold medal of the Royal Society for his scientific 
discoveries ; and in 1833 the sum of £2,000 was raised by his friends and towns- 
men for the erection of a statute to perpetuate his memory. The task was 
entrusted to Sir Francis Chantry, who brought to the execution of his subject 
not only his artistic genius but a warm admiration of the man. The statue, 
when completed, was placed in the entrance hall of the Royal Manchester 
Institution. The University of Oxford conferred on the septuagenarian 
philosopher the degree of Doctor of Civil Law. " Though Dr. Dalton's great 
discovery, the 'Atomic Theory,'" says Whewell, "was soon generally 
employed, and universally spoken of with admiration, it did not bring to him 
anything but barren praise, and he continued in his humble employment when 
his fame had filled Europe and his name become a household word in the 
laboratory. After some years he was appointed a corresponding member of 
the Institute of France, which may be considered as a European recognition of 
the importance of what he had done. In 1833, at the meeting of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, which was held at Cambridge, it 
was announced that the King had bestowed upon him a pension of £150, which 
act of liberality enabled him to pass the remainder of his days in comparative 
ease." Dalton was buried August 12, in a vault in Ardwick Cemetery. The 
body lay in state at the Town Hall, on Saturday, August 10, and the public 
were allowed to pass through the room during the greater part of the day, and 
it was supposed that nearly 40,000 persons availed themselves of this privilege. 
At eleven o'clock on Monday, the procession moved from the Town Hall in the 
following order: About 500 members of various societies, 22 carriages, 300 
gentlemen, 10 carriages, 100 members of various institutions, 36 carriages, the 
last of which contained the Mayor of Manchester (Mr, Alexander Kay,), the 
hearse drawn by six horses, six mourning coaches drawn by four horses each, 
containing the relatives and friends of the deceased, followed by the members 
of the Philosophical Society. The procession moved through the principal 
streets in the town, and was joined, near the cemetery, by a large body of the 



1S44] 



Annals of Manchester, 229 



Society of Friends. Most of the mills and workshops were closed, as were also 
the whole of the shops in the principal streets of the town. The vault in which 
the body was laid was aUowed to remain open until five o'clock in the evening, 
during which period many thousand persons viewed the coffin. 

The Irwell Buildings, in Blackfriars Street, partially destroyed by fire, 
August 5. The damage was £20,000. During the fire two men were killed by 
the falling of a " cat-head." 

A great public meeting was held in the Town Hall, for the purpose of 
taking into consideration the formation of public parks in Manchester. A 
subscription was set on foot, which in a few weeks amounted to the sum of 
£8,000. Lord Francis Egerton, Sir Benjamin Heywood, and Mr. Mark Philips 
each subscribed £1,000, and six other gentlemen £500 each. August 8. 

The Venerable Henry Vincent Bay ley, D.D., died, August 12. He was son of 
Thomas Butterworth Bayley, and was born at Hope Hall, Dec. 6, 1777, and was 
educated at Winwick Grammar School, Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge 
He was elected fellow of his college in October, 1802, and in 1803 ordained deacon 
and afterwards priest. He was presented to the Rectory of Stilton, made sub- 
dean of Lincoln in 1805, and in 1811 Rector of Messingham. There is some glass in 
Messingham Church which Dr. Bayley bought from the Manchester Cathedral, 
which was then being restored. In 1823 he was made Archdeacon of Stow, and 
received his D.D. degree from Cambridge. In 1826 he was made Rector of 
Westmaon. In 1828 he exchanged his sub-deanery for a canonry at West- 
minster. He was the author of A Sermon 23reached at an Ordination in the 
Cathedral Church of Chester, Sept. 25, 1803, and a Charge delivered to the 
Clergy of the Archdeaconry of Stow, at the Visitation in May, 1826. {Memoir 
of H. V. Bayley, by Le Bas.) 

Albert Bridge was opened for foot passengers, August 16 ; and opened for 
general traffic, September 26. A procession of the corporate bodies of Man- 
chester and Salford took place at the inauguration. The total cost of the 
erection was £8,874 los. 5d. 

Mr. James Wroe, bookseller. Great Ancoats Street, and for many years a 
commissioner of police, &c., for this town, died August. (Procter's Bygone 
Manchester, pp. 83, 84.) 

Professor Justus von Liebig, one of the most distinguished chemists in 
Europe, visited Manchester in September. 

John Carter, the " Lancashire Hero," died in Tame Street, Ancoats. He 
was born at Manchester, Sept. 13, 1789, and after working in a factory turned 
shoemaker and then navvy. He acquired renown as a pedestrian and pugilist, 
and went up to London, where Robert Gregson, the Lancashire poet-pugilist, 
introduced him to the fancy. He was champion of England for some time, 
defeated Oliver in 1816, and was defeated by Spring in 1819. (Procter's Our 
Turf, &c., p. 83.) 

The Athcna-um soiree held in the Free Trade Hall, October 3. Upwards of 
3,000 persons attended. The chief speakers were Mr. B. Disraeli, M.P., Lord 
John Manners, M.P., and the Hon. George Sydney Smythe, M.P. 

The Custom House, No. 73, Mosley Street, was opened for business, 
October 11. Mr. Powell, of Newcastle, appointed collector, and Mr. Shelly, of 
Liverpool, comptroller. 



230 Annals of Manchester. [I845. 

Mr. Joseph Aston died at Chadderton Hall, October 13, aged 83. He was 
formerly proprietor of the Manchester Exchange Herald, and was the author 
of several works of a local nature, including the Picture of Manchester (which 
went through several editions), Metrical Records of Manchester, and many 
smaller contributions to the history of the town and neighbourhood. 

A large chimney belonging to Messrs. Tennants, Clow and Co.'s chemical 
works, at Ardwick, fell down, November 2. The damage was £1,000. 

Mr. Holland Hoole died at Broughton, Dec. 3. He was the author of a 
Defence of the Cotton Factories of Lancashire, 1832. He was born in Man- 
chester March 9, 1796. {Manchester School Register, i. 8.) 

A peal of eight bells in St. Thomas's Church, Pendleton, opened Dec. 6. 
They were cast by Charles and George Mears, London, and the cost was defrayed 
by subscription. 

Mr. R. J. J. Norreys, one of the magistrates for this division, and also a 
deputy-lieutenant of the county, died at Davyhulme Hall, December 13, aged 60. 

Sir Henry Pottinger visited Manchester, December 30, and attended a public 
dinner, at which he received congratulatory addresses upon the successful 
termination of the Chinese war. 

St. Barnabas's Parish Church, situated at the corner of Elizabeth Street 
and Rodney Street, Oldham Road, was consecrated. This church was erected 
at an expense of about £5,000, which was raised by subscription. 

The Phonographic Magazine was published in Manchester. The editor 
was William Hepworth Dixon. 

A large pile of buildings in George Street and York Street, consisting of 
ten warehouses, was completely burnt down, causing a destruction of 
property amounting to £140,000. 

A portion of the warehouse of Messrs. Horton and Co., called the Shrop- 
shire Iron Warehouse, fell down, when two men were killed. 

The amount of duty derived from the income tax in the Manchester district 
was £125,369. 

1845. 

Mr. Louis Schwabe, the eminent silk manufacturer and embroiderer by 
machinery, died January 11, Mr. Schwabe destroyed himself by poison whilst 
labouring under temporary insanity. 

The subscription raised in Manchester as a testimonial to Mr. Rowland 
Hill, for his advocacy of the penny postage, amounted to £1,532 10s. 6d., and 
was presented to Mr. Hill (who was staying at Hastings) by Sir Thomas Potter, 
together with a suitable address. January 18. 

Evan Prince, a young man in the employ of Mr. Percival, woollen draper. 
King Street, was charged with robbing his employer of £3,500. He was 
committed, January 20, and afterwards found guilty and transported. 

Messrs. Smith and Ingle's paper warehouse, situated in Piccadilly, was 
burnt down, January 21. 

A public dinner was given to Mr. Duncan Gibb, together with a service of 
plate valued at £500, January 21, as a testimony of his fellow-townsmen's obliga- 
tion for the benefits conferred in the privilege of bonding being granted tc 
Manchester. 



1845] 



Annals of Manchester. 231 



An explosion of a locomotive boiler at the Manchester and Leeds Railway 
engine-house, Miles Platting, January 28, caused the death of three men, and 
did considerable damage to the building. The coroner's jury laid a deodand of 
£500 on the engine. 

An attempt was made by some person to burn down the Queen's Theatre, 
in Spring Gardens, February 9, but it was frustrated through the timely 
discovery of the fire. 

Mr. Van Amburgh's stud of trained animals, horses, &c., were sold by 
auction, at the Roman Amphitheatre, Cooper Street, March 18. 

The Right Rev. John Allen, D.D., Bishop of Ely, died at the Palace, in Ely, 
March 20, in his 76th year. Born November, 1770, Dr. Allen was a native of 
Manchester, his father being a partner in the firm of Byrom, Allen, Sedgwick, 
and Place, bankers. The bank was situated at the corner of Bank Street and 
St. Ann's Square. He was educated at the Free Grammar School, whence he 
proceeded to Trinity College, Cambridge, and obtained a fellowship there. He 
was soon afterwards appointed tutor to Lord Althorp, and was, shortly after 
the completion of his lordship's education, presented by the father of his pupil 
to the vicarage of Battersea, Surrey, and also a prebendal stall in Westminster 
Abbey ; he was afterwards, in addition, appointed to the living of St. Bride's, 
iLondon. On the advent of the Whigs to office, Dr. Allen, on the death of 
Bishop Gray, in 1834, was nominated to the bishopric of Bristol. In October, 
1836, this bishopric being united to that of Gloucester, Dr. Monk, the bishop of 
the last-mentioned diocese, became bishop of the united diocese, while Dr. 
Allen was translated to the bishopric of Ely. 

Sir Thomas Potter, Knt., of Buile Hill, died March 20, aged 70. He was 
born at Tadcaster, in Yorkshire, 'April 5, 1774. He was the third son of Mr. 
John Potter, who rented a farm near Tadcaster, called Wengate Hill. Thomas, 
when about sixteen, began to assist his father in the management of the farm ; 
and when, after a few years, the farm was given up to him, it became one of 
the most highly cultivated and productive in the county of York. In or about 
the year 1803 he gave up farming and joined his two brothers, William and 
Richard, who had previously settled in Manchester, and the three carried on 
business in partnership under the firm of William, Thomas, and Richard 
Potter, at No. 5, Cannon Street. About the year 1828 Mr. Potter began to take 
a very active part in the business of the town. After the passing of the Reform 
Bill in 1832, and the return of his brother, Mr. Richard Potter, for the borough 
of Wigan, which occasioned his absence from Manchester, Mr. Potter began to 
take not only an active but leading part in the local and general politics of the 
town and neighbourhood. It was, however, in the struggle for obtaining the 
charter of incorporation that Mr. Potter most distinguished himself. In that 
most arduous struggle his courage, energy, and industry, were taxed to the 
uttermost, and had it not been for his unparalleled exertions the charter must 
have been abandoned. As an acknowledgment of his services in this respect 
he was not only elected first mayor of Manchester, but his term of office was 
extended, during which— namely, on July 1, I&IO— Her Majesty conferred upon 
him the honour of knightliood. In his domestic relations he was a kind father, 
a good husband, a hospitable and amiable neighbour. Charitable and munificent 
to a fault, there were many who felt his loss as a severe deprivation. About 



232 Annals of Manchester. isis 

1820 Mr. Potter, at his own expense, established a day school at Irlams-o'th'- 
Height, which afforded education to seventy boys and girls. It was not the 
wish of the family to have a public funeral, but at the request of the Corpora- 
tions of Manchester and Salford, as well as a number of gentlemen of the two 
towns, who wished to accompany the remains to the grave, the desire was 
acceded to. The funeral cortege,, which was considerably augmented on its 
route by the corporate bodies of both towns, together with some hundreds of 
gentlemen in carriages and on foot, consisted of upwards of ninety carriages. 
Most of the shops in the line of procession were closed, and the streets were 
lined throughout by crowds of people, all anxious to take a last look of one who 
had stood their friend on all public occasions. The interment took place at the 
Ardwick Cemetery, March 27. (Baker's Memorials, p. 117.) 

The first stone was laid of St. Simon's Church, Springfield Lane, Salford, 
March 24. The building, which is of stone, is in the Early English style of 
architecture, and was designed by Mr. Richard Lane. The cost of the land and 
erection was £4,500. The stone was laid by Mr. Edmund Taylor, of Oldfield 
Road, who contributed £500 towards the expense. 

The Town Council decided to purchase the manorial rights from Sir Oswald 
Mosley for the sum of £200,000, of which £5,000 was to be paid down as a 
deposit, and the Corporation was not to be compelled to pay more than £4,000 
a year, but with an option on their part to increase that amount to £6,000. 
The amount of income derived by Sir Oswald Mosley was stated by him to be 
£9,000. Various negotiations had been set on foot at different periods to pur- 
chase the above important rights, but in every instance had failed through 
disagreement as to terms between buyer and seller. March 24. 

The first sale of teas, &c., in bond took place in the Bonding Warehouse 
Company's establishment, in Salford, March 27. 

The foundation stone of St. John's Church, Longsight, was laid by Miss 
Marshall, who, together with Mrs. Marshall, contributed £2,000 towards the 
erection and endowment. The church is in the Early English style, from the 
design of Mr. G. E. Gregan, and the total cost of the edifice was about £3,500. 
March 28. 

The committee for the formation of public parks in Manchester purchased 
the Lark Hill Estate, now Peel Park, Salford, March 29, from Mr. William 
Garnett, for the sum of £5,000, from which was deducted £500, the amount of 
Mr. Garnett's subscription to the fund. It contained thirty-two acres, one-third 
being high and sloping land and the rest flat. In May they made the second 
purchase— the Hendham Hall Estate (now Queen's Park), Harpurhey, consisting 
of about thirty acres, the property of Mr. Jonathan Andrew, for which they 
paid £7,250 ; and in the same month they made the third purchase— the Brad- 
ford Estate (now Philip's Park), consisting of thirty-one acres, from Lady 
Houghton, for the sum of £6,200. 

Mr. Benjamin Braidley died April 3. He was born at Sedgfield, Durham, 
August 19, 1792. He wrote Sunday School Memorials, from his experiences as 
teacher and superintendent of Bennett Street Sunday Schools. He was 
boroughreeve in 1831 and 1832, and in 1835 twice unsuccessfully contested Man- 
chester in the Conservative interest. 

Mr. Junius Smith, of Strangeways Hall, died April 3. 



1846] 



Annals of Manchester. 233 



The first of a series of concerts for the working classes, conducted by the 
committee of the Lancashire and Cheshire Philharmonic Institution, was held 
in the Free Trade Hall, April 5. 

John Bracewell, of Young Street, died September 17, aged 88. He was 
supposed to be the last survivor of those who were in the action along with 
Admiral Rodney, at the destruction of the French fleet under the command of 
Comte de Grasse, in the West Indes, on April 12, 1782. 

A grand fancy dress ball, in aid of the funds for the formation of public 
baths and wash-houses in Manchester, was held in the Free Trade Hall. The 
display was very picturesque and made a great impression. April 29. 

Mr. Thomas Wroe, formerly comptroller under the Manchester Police 
Commissioners, and subsequently manager of the gas works, died in April. 

Messrs. Eveleigh and Son's hat manufactory, Greengate, Salford, was 
burned down. May 1. The damage was between £9,000 and £10,000. 

The Mayor and Corporation of Salford made, a perambulation of the boun- 
daries of the borough, and staked them out from the new Ordnance survey, 
May 13. 

The foundation stone of the Manchester Commercial Schools, Stretford 
Road, was laid by Mr. J C. Harter, June 19. 

Mr. Thomas Rose, superintendent of the Fire Brigade, exhibited a new fire 
escape, the invention of Mr. Dunn, in the Market Place, opposite the Exchange, 
June 24, and again July 8. 

Mr. Henry Leigh Trafford commenced his duties as stipendiary magistrate 
for the Manchester division of the county, at a salary of £800 per annum, 
July 1. 

John Holl Stanway, who was one of the official assignees of the Bankruptcy 
Court, absconded with a considerable sum of money, the property of various 
individuals, July 4. 

A public breakfast given to Professor J. H. Merle D'Aubigne, D.D., author 
of the History of the Reformation, July 7. 

Mr. Samuel William Butler died July 17, aged 41. He was a native of 
Beverley, and almost from infancy was an actor. He acted at Hull and 
Beverley, at the Covent Garden Theatre, and in the United States ; but in the 
latter years of his life was resident in Manchester, and in 1842 was the star of 
the Theatre Royal, Fountain Street. He is buried at Ardwick Cemetery, and 
an epitaph, by Charles Swain, is engraved upon his tomb. (Evans's SamiLel 
William Butler, Tragedian, 1876.) 

8 and 9 Victoria, cap. 141. Act to effect improvements in the borough of 
Manchester, for the purpose of promoting the health of the inhabitants thereof. 
July 21. 

8 and 9 Victoria. Act for more effectually constituting and regulating the 
Court of Record within the borough of Manchester, and for extending the 
jurisdiction of the said court. July 21. 

Mr. Richard Beswick, chief superintendent of police, presented with a 
service of plate and a purse containing £113, as a testimonial for his services in 
the police establishment for fourteen years, July 31. 

Mr. Hugh Hornby Birley, of Broome House, a magistrate and deputy 
lieutenant of the county, died at Lytham, July 31, aged 68. Mr. Birley had for 



234 Annals of Manchester. [is^s 



many years taken a very active part in the management of the various 
charitable institutions of this town and neiglibourhood. 

The first stone of the Bank of England Branch Bank, King Street, was laid 
by Mr. Charles Cockerill, the architect of the Bank of England, and Mr. John 
Reid, the agent of the bank in Manchester, July 31. 

The Manchester and Leeds Railway Company (since incorporated in the 
Lancashire and Yorkshire) began to arch over the river Irk below the College, 
to the length of 120 yards, for the purpose of erecting their general offices. July. 

A subscription, amounting to upwards of £6,000, was raised in Manchester 
in aid of the sufferers by the great fire at Quebec. July. 

A rope, measuring 4,374 yards, or nearly two miles and a half, was made by 
Mr. Thomas Briggs, of Richmond Hill Ropery, for Messrs. G. C. Pauling and 
Co., in connection with the works of the new Theatre Royal. July. 

Abraham Tweedale, a prisoner in the New Bailey, was murdered by Wm. 
Clapham, also a prisoner, August 2. On the trial Clapham was proved to be 
insane, and was ordered to be confined during Her Majesty's pleasure. 

The premises of Mr. Thos. Wheatley, cabinet-maker and timber merchant. 
Pilling Street, Rochdale Road, were burned down, August 5. The damage was 
estimated to be from £3,000 to £4,000. 

The foundation stone of Trinity Presbyterian Church, in connection with 
the Synod of the Presbyterian Church of England, and for the use of the Irish 
Presbyterian Church assembling in the Corn Exchange, was laid by the Rev. 
Henry Cooke, D.D., of Belfast, August 13. The church is situated in New 
Bridge Street, Strangeways. 

The construction of Corporation Street, extending from Market Street to 
Withy Grove, was begun in August. 

At a dinner given by the shareholders of the Trent Valley Railway to Mr. 
Edward Tootal, September 20, he was presented with a service of plate, valued 
at 1,800 guineas, for his services in procuring the Act for the formation of that 
line. The service consisted of 117 pieces, weighing 2,620 ounces. 

The new Theatre Royal, Peter Street, was opened September 29, with 
Douglas Jerrold's new comedy of Time Works Wonders, and a representation 
of Her Majesty's state ball, or Bal CostuTne, held at Buckingham Palace. The 
opening address, which was written by Mr. Mark Barry, of London, was 
delivered by Mr. H. J. Wallack, the stage manager. The building hold? 
upwards of 2,000 persons. It is in the modern Italian style of architecture, and. 
cost nearly £23,000. The proprietor was Mr. John Knowles. 

The Anti-Corn-Law Bazaar, held in the Free Trade Hall, began October 15, 
and continued for several days. The articles sold were the remains of the 
great bazaar held in London, at Covent Garden Theatre. The proceeds were 
devoted to the £100,000 fund. 

This town was visited by Prince Hilal, son and heir of the Imaum of 
Muscat, who was accompanied by his suite, October 17. 

A soiree was held at the Free Trade Hall of the members of the 
Athenaeum, which was attended by Serjeant Talfourd, Douglas Jerrold, Mr. 
Samuel Lover, and others. October 23. 

Rev. William Johns died at Higher Broughton, November 27. He was born 
in 1771, and was the author of Use and Origin of Figurative Language, 



1843] Annals of Manchester. 2*^5 

March, 180S; Iinj)ortance of the Scriptures, 1813; Origin of Verbs, 1S33 ; and 
others. 

St. Clement's Schools, Chorlton, rebuilt. 

The Commercial Association was formed. 

1846. 

Mr. Alexander Wilson died January 6, aged 43. He was the son of Michael 
Wilson, and was an animal painter and author of some of the verses that 
appeared in The So7igs of the Wilsons. (Harland's Songs of the Wilsons.) 

A great meeting of the merchants, bankers, and manufacturers was held 
to consider the best means of furthering the purpose of the Anti-Corn Law 
League. A committee of gentlemen appointed to raise the remainder of the 
quarter of a million fund by personal canvass in Manchester. January 9. 

The Manchester Examiner, No. 1, January 10, was printed and published 
by Mr. Thomas Ballantyne, at No. 7, Pall Mall. 

The first annual meeting of the Manchester Commercial Association was 
held in York Hotel Buildings, King Street, when Mr. James Aspinall Turner, 
the president, occupied the chair. January 18. 

Mr. Jeremy Smith, the oldest block printer in the trade, died January 20, 
aged 93, highly respected, and retaining his mental faculties to the last 
moment. 

A numerous meeting of delegates from the Short Time Committee of Lan- 
cashire and Cheshire was held at the Woodman Hut, Great Ancoats Street, 
January 24, at which petitions were set on foot praying for a Ten Hours 
Factory Bill for five days in the week and eight hours on Saturdays. 

A great meeting was held in the Corn Exchange, under the auspices of the 
Peace Society, with a view to pass resolutions condemnatory of the proposed 
enrolment of the militia, and to petition Parliament against the same. Feb. 2. 

The first annual meeting of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce was 
held in the Town Hall Buildings, King Street, February 9. Mr. Thomas 
Bazley presided. 

The Swinton Schools were opened in February. 

A meeting was held in the Town Hall on behalf of the Ten Hours Bill, 
March 2. Lord Ashley, Mr. Richard Oastler, and Mr. Thomas Fielden were 
present. 

Mr. Charles Ewart died March 23, aged 77 years. For twenty-four years he 
■was in the Scots Greys, and at the battle of Waterloo was fortunate enough to 
take an eagle of one of the most distinguished divisions of the French infantry. 
For his gallantry on this occasion Sergeant Ewart received his commission as 
ensign in the Royal Veteran Battalion. His wife survived him ten years, and 
died 26th August, 1856. There is a long account of Ensign Ewart in the 
Gentleman's Ma;jazine, 1846, vol. i. He is buried in the Bolton Street Grave- 
yard, Salford. 

The Manchester Court of Record for the recovery of debts up to £50 was 
opened before Mr. R. B. Armstrong, recorder, the mayor, Mr. Maude, and 
several other magistrates. March 30. 

A fire broke out at the Theatre Royal during the performance, and 
destroyed some of the stage machinery. IMarch 30. 



236 Annals of Manchester, 



[1846 



Mr. John William Atkinson died at Hamburg, April 3, in his 23rd year. 
His talents were various : as a marine painter he showed great talent. His 
" Phantom Ships" is said to be of a very high order. He was the son of Mr. 
T. W. Atkinson, at one time an architect in Manchester, but better known as 
an Oriental traveller. 

Mr. Benjamin Naylor died 12th April, aged 84 years. He was educated at 
Warrington Academy, and from 1780 to 1805 was Unitarian minister at 
Sheffield, where he published, in 1803, a sermon on the Sight and Duty of 
Defensive War. Owing to the failing health of his brother-in-law, he gave up 
the ministry and became a merchant in Manchester. 

Mr. William Harter, Pendleton, appointed High Constable of the Man- 
chester Division of the Hundred of Salford. April 16. 

The Richmond Independent Chapel, Broughton Street, Salford, was opened 
by Dr. Raffles. April 22. 

A public meeting was held in the lecture-room of the Athenaeum to advo- 
cate early closing in the Manchester houses of business. April 22. 

Shakspere's birthday was celebrated at the Manchester Athenaeum by the 
delivery of an oration by Mr. George Dawson, M.A. April 23. 

In consequence of the scarcity of ice this season, thirty cartloads of snow 
were brought into Manchester early one morning in April, and sold to the fish- 
mongers at 22s. per ton, to deposit in the ice-house under the Shambles. 

The Bishop of Chester restored rural deans throughout the archdeaconry of 
Manchester. April. 

The Synod of the Presbyterian Church in England held its annual meeting 
in the Scottish Established Church, St. Peter's Square, at the end of April. 

The purchase by the Corporation of Manchester from Sir Oswald Mosley of 
his manorial rights was completed, subject to the payment of the balance of 
the purchase money by instalments as agreed. May 5. 

A destructive fire at the Albion Bridge Mills caused damage to the extent 
of £3,500. May 9. 

9 Victoria, cap. 10. Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the 
Manchester and Salford Waterworks to raise a further sum of money. May 14. 

Mr. David Holt, who was highly respected for his philanthropy, died at his 
residence in York Street, Stretford Road, May 30, at the age of 82. He was at 
one time very largely engaged in the manufacture of sewing cotton. He was 
the author of Miscellaneous Extracts, 1836 ; Incidents in the Life of David 
Holt, including a Sketch of sotne of the Philanthropic Institutions of Man^ 
Chester during a Period of Forty Years, 1843. {Manchester School Begister. 
vol. ii., p. 49.) 

The Whit-week races held on Kersal Moor for the last time. This race- 
course was first used in 1730. Mr. Procter has given the history in Our Turf, 
Stage, and Bing, The last meeting was marked by a fatal accident to Byrne, 
a rider in the hurdle race. 

The new organ in Cross Street Chapel was" opened, June 1. 

The Jubilee Conference of the Methodist New Connexion was held in Man- 
chester in the first week of the month of June. 

Some confusion and disorder at a service in St. Patrick's Chapel, Livesey 
Street, originating in the removal of the Rev. Daniel Hearne from St. Patrick's 



1846] Annals of Manchester. 237 



district to London. June 7. A public meeting was held at the Free Trade 
Hall in his honour. A testimonial was presented to him on the occasion, con^ 
sisting of a green silk purse containing 270 sovereigns, a large and splendid 
gold crucifix and chain, value £40, a beautiful gold watch, chain, and appen- 
dages, value £40, and an elegant silver breakfast service. June 15. 

Ibrahim Pacha, Viceroy of Egypt, and second son of Mehemet Ali, visited 
the chief manufacturing establishments of the town, June 17. 

9 and 10 Victoria, cap. 126. Act for more efTectually regulating the Salford 
Hundred Court, for extending the jurisdiction and powers of the said court, 
and for establishing and constituting it as a Court of Record. June 26. 

St. John's Church, Longsight, was consecrated, June. 

Trinity Church, Rusholme, was built at the sole expense of the late Mr. T. 
C. Worsley, of Piatt Hall. It was consecrated in June, and cost £3,600. 

The Anti-Corn Law League was dissolved at a great meeting of its chief 
adherents in the Town Hall, July 2, in consequence of the passing of an Act of 
Parliament providing for the abolition of the Corn Laws. 

An extensive fire in the cotton factory occupied by Mr. Eigg, Blackf riars, 
Salford, July 10. 

The Right Hon. Thomas Milner Gibson, having accepted office in the 
Government, was re-elected member of Parliament for Manchester by show of 
hands in St. Ann's Square, with only three dissentients. No other candidate 
appeared. July 13. 

The Manchester Markets Act, 1846, received the royal assent July 16. By 
this Act the old manorial markets were placed upon an enlarged and more 
satisfactory footing. Butchers and fishmongers were empowered to sell in 
their private shops upon taking out an annual licence from the Corporation, 
and by the schedules to the Act the maximum rates of toll, stallage, and rent 
to be paid in respect of goods sold in the market and for space occupied therein 
were definitely fixed. The official reference to the Act is 9 and 10 Victoria, 
cap. 219. 

Mr. John Worthington, the inventor of the "Tide Water Power," dropped 
down dead in his garden in Moss Lane, July 20. 

9 and 10 Victoria, cap. 267. Act for vesting in the Sheffield, Ashton-under- 
Lyne, and Manchester Railway Company the Peak Forest Canal and the 
Macclesfield Canal. July 27. 

9 and 10 Victoi'ia, cap. 271. Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of 
the Manchester, Bolton, and Bury Canal Navigation and Railway to I'aise an 
additional sum of money, and to amend the Acts relating to the company. 
July 27. 

Mr. John Owens died 28th July, aged 56. He was the son of Mr. Owen Owens, 
and was born in Manchester in 1790, and became his father's assistant and ulti- 
mately his partner in the business of manufacturer of hat linings, furrier, and 
currier. In 1834 Owens became a partner with George and Samuel Faulkner, 
in the firm of S. Faulkner and Co., as spinners, but lie soon retired from part- 
nership. In 1844 Owen Owens died, and John Owens inherited the whole of 
his father's property. In politics Owens was a Radical, and in favour of the 
abolishment of University Tests, and so, when Owens, finding his end 
approaching, offered the bulk of his property to George Faulkner, the latter, 



238 Annals of Manchester. (i846 



with a noble disinterestedness, declined it. " My boy, John," he said, " is 
dead, and as I have as much money or more than I shall ever require, why 
should you not found a college in this city, and carry out in its foundation 
those principles that you have so earnestly proclaimed during your life ?" This 
advice vras acted upon, for John Owens, by his will, dated 31st May, 1845, 
directed that the residue of his personal estate should be applied to the found- 
ing of an educational institution, which was called Owens College. The 
amount of the property thus left was over £100,000. John Owens was never 
married. His death was caused by the rupture of a bloodvessel. {Papers of 
Manchester Literary Club, vol. iv., p. 135; City News, vol. i., p. 283; Old South- 
East Lancashire, p. 34.) 

Lower Broughton was first lighted with gas. August 3. 

The repeal of the Corn Laws was commemorated by a general holiday and 
an immense procession, followed by great festivities and an illumination. 
August 3. 

9 and 10 Victoria, cap. 306. Act to enable the Manchester and Leed? 
Railway Company to make several Branch Railways, and to authorise the 
amalgamation of the Preston and Wyre Railway, Harbour, and Dock Compaay 
with the Manchester and Leeds Railway Company. August 3. 

9 and 10 Victoria, cap. 378. Act to incorporate the Company of Proprietors 
of the Manchester, Bolton, and Bury Canal Navigation and Railway with the 
Manchester and Leeds Railway Company. August 18. 

9 and 10 Victoria, cap. 32. Act to unite and to incorporate the trustees of 
certain charities established by Mr. Humphrey Booth, the elder, and by 
Mr. Humphrey Booth, his grandson, respectively, and to amend an Act of 
Parliament made and passed in the fifteenth year of His late Majesty King 
George the Thu'd, intituled an Act to enable the trustees of certain Charity 
lands belonging to the poor of Salford to grant building leases thereof, and to 
make further provision for the beneficial management and administration of 
the several charity estates and charities of the said Humphrey Booth, the 
elder, and Humphrey Booth, his grandson, respectively. August 18. 

9 and 10 Victoria, cap. 380. Act for enabling the Huddersfleld and Man- 
chester Railway and Canal Company to make a branch railway from their main 
line of railway to Oldham. August 18. 

Charlotte Bronte visited Manchester 21st August, in company with her 
father, upon whom the operation of the extraction of the cataract was per- 
formed. The Rev. Patrick Bronte and his daughter remained for about a 
month lodging in one of the suburbs. On the day when the operation was per- 
formed she received from a London publisher a curt refusal of The Professor, 
which had been offered for publication. (Gaskell's Life of Bronte.) She visited 
Manchester earlier in the month with her sister Emily. (See also under date 
June, 1851.) 

The public parks of Manchester and Salford— Psel Park, Queen's Park, 
and Philips Park — were opened with a great procession and festivities, 
August 22. 

Mr. John Palmer died at Manchester 23rd August. He was born at Bishop 
Middleham, Durham, 1783, and lived in Manchester for 33 years. Ha was 
author of History of the Siege of Manchester and Architectural DescripHo7i 



1847] Annals of Manchester. 239 



of the Collegiate Church. He was an architect by profession, (Procter's 
Manchester Streets, p. 191.) 

The Duchess of Gloucester visited Manchester on her way to Worsley Hall, 
October 5. 

In the course of excavations at New Cross several skeletons were dis- 
covered. In the earlier part of the century it was customary to bury suicides 
at this place. 

The boroughreeves ceased to be elected, their functions merging in those of 
the mayor. The last who served the office was Mi-. Alexander Kay. 

1847. 

]VIr. James Crowther died at Manchester January 6. He was born at Man- 
chester June 24, 1768, and was remarkable for his knowledge of botany. He 
was one of a remarkable group of Lancashire artisans who attained distinction 
as naturalists. (Cash's Wliere 1 here's a Will, &c.) 

Mr. Turner Prescott died at Manchester March 3. He was a native of 
Wigan, and was born Oct. 17, 1806. He was the author of The Law o/ Distress 
for Bent on Proi^erty not the Tenant's Considered and Condemned, 1843. 

Mr. Ottiwell Wood died at Liverpool, March 4, aged 87 years. He was 
treasurer of Manchester College. His son John was elected M.P. for Preston, 
in 1826, and in 1830 was appointed Recorder of York. 

The Manchester Races first held at Castle Irwell, May 26. 

The Very Rev, and Hon William Herbert, LL.D., died in London, May 
28. He was a son of the first Earl of Carnarvon, and was born Jan. 12, 1778. 
He received his education at Eton and Oxford. In 1814 he was presented to the 
Rectory of SpoflForth, in Yorkshire, a living he retained till his death. On 
the 10th of July, 1840, he was installed Warden of the Collegiate Church, On 
the Collegiate Church being constituted a Cathedral he became its first Dean. 
Dr. Herbert was an eminent classical scholar .and botanist. His principal 
published works were Musce Etonensis, 1795; Ossiani Durthtda Greece 
reddita, 1801 ; Select Icelandic Poetry, 1804 ; Miscellaneous Poetry, 

1805, 2 vols. ; Hedin, or the Spectre of the- Tomb, 1820 ; The Wizard 
Wanderer of Jutland, a Tragedy ; uith Julia Montalhan: a Tale, 1822; The 
Guahiba: a Tale, 1822; Iris, 1826; Amaryllidaceae, 1837; Attila, King of the 
Huns, 1837. In 1842 his works were collected and issued in 3 vols. There is 
an account of Dean Herbert as a botanist in the Proceedings of the Manchester 
Literary and Philosophical Society, vol. xxv., p. 43. Dean Herbert married, in 

1806, the Hon. Letitia Emily Dorothea Allen, who survived her husband, and 
died June 14, 1878, aged 94. Dean Herbert's eldest son was Henry William 
Herbert, who emigrated to New York, and became well known under the 
pseudonym of "Frank Forrester" as a writer on sporting and natural history, 
and also as a novelist. H. W. Herbert committed suicide May 17, 1858. 

10 Victoria, cap. 14. Act to amend some of the provisions of the Man- 
chester Markets Act, 1846. June 8. 

The restrictions on bonding in the port of Manchester were removed, 
June 21. 

Dr. Charles W. Bell was elected physician to the Royal Infirmary by tlie 
board of that institution, in the room of Dr. Satterthwaite, resigned, July 1, 



240 Annals of Manchester. [I847 

Mr. James Smith, bookseller, St. Ann's Place, committed suicide, July 1. 

Independent Chapel, Pendleton, opened by the Rev. Dr. Raffles, of Liver- 
pool, and the Rev. James Parrons, of York. July 4. 

The Grand Duke Constantine, second son of the Emperor of Russia, arrived 
in Manchester, attended by Baron Brunow, the Russian ambassador, and suite, 
including Vice-Admiral Lutke, M. di Berg, Secretary to the Embassy, Baron 
Eharppes, Rear- Admiral Heiden, Count Orloff, Colonel Lostkowsky, and Pro- 
fessor Grimm. The Grand Duke and suite visited some of the principal manu- 
factories in the tovs^n. July 6. 

The foundation stone of the south wing of the Royal Infirmary laid by 
Mr. Thomas Markland, who had been thirty years treasurer to that institution. 
The ceremony was followed by a public dinner to Mr. Markland, at the Albion 
Hotel, in recognition of his valuable services to the institution. July 8. 

10 and 11 Victoria, cap. 159. Act to incorporate the Huddersfleld and Man- 
chester Railway and Canal Company and the Leeds, Dewsbury, and Manchester 
Railway Company with the London and North- Western Railway Company. 
July 9. 

10 and 11 Victoria. Act to enable the mayor, aldermen, and burgesses of 
the borough of Manchester to construct waterworks for supplying the said 
borough and several places on the line of the said intended works with water, 
and for other purposes. July 9. 

Mr. William Hardcastle, cloth-dresser. Back Piccadilly, died July 12, from 
leaping through his bedroom window in his sleep. He was 67 years of age, 
and had been for some time a somnambulist. 

Thomas Price, a climbing-boy, aged seven years and seven months, died, 
partly from the effects of suffocation and burning whilst cleaning a flue at the 
premises of Messrs. Tennant, Clow, and Co , Jackson Street, Chorlton-upon- 
Medlock, and partly from ill-usage by his master, who was committed to 
Kirkdale Gaol to await his trial on a charge of manslaughter. July 15. 

Rev. G. H. Bowers, B.D., the new Dean of Manchester, read himself in at 
the Collegiate Church, at morning and afternoon services, before numerous 
congregations, July 18. 

The Right Hon. Thomas Milner Gibson and Mr. John Bright, elected 
members of Parliament for Manchester. The hustings were in St. Ann's 
Square. July 29. 

The Roman Catholic Chapel, Cheetham Hill Road, was consecrated by Dr. 
Brown, Vicar Apostolic of the Lancashire district, to the honour of the Blessed 
Virgin and St. Chad. The altar in the Ladye Chapel was consecrated by Dr. 
Briggs, Vicar Apostolic of the Yorkshire district. It was the successor of St. 
Chad's, Rock Street. (See under date 1774.) August 3. At the opening, August 
4, in addition to the above named, sixty Roman Catholic clergymen took part 
in the ceremonial. 

Joseph Speed committed for trial, for the murder of his two children and 
attempting to murder his wife, August 4. 

A dangerous fire broke out on the premises of Messrs. Mouncey and Stead* 
man, packing-case makers. Joiner Street, St. Andrew's Lane, August 6. The 
damages were estimated at £1,120. 

The members of the Jewish community in Manchester presented a con* 



1847] Annals of Manchester. 241 

gratulatory address to Baron Rothschild on his election as one of the repre- 
sentatives of the city of London, August 6. 

A fire broke out in the works in Hargreaves Street, Red Bank, occupied by 
Messrs. Croom and Whittaker, calico printers, August 7, by which the interior 
of the premises was wholly destroyed. 

A destructive fire took place in the pile of buildings fronting Market 
Street, and situate between Pool Street and New Brown Street. The damage 
was estimated at £30,000. August 11. 

Mr. James Holt Heron, father of Sir Joseph Heron, the first tovra clerk of 
Manchester, died August 16, upwards of 70 years of age. 

A new lamp and fountain erected in Smithfield Market, Shudehill, Aug. 21. 

The Count de Montemolin, the eldest son of Don Carlos, and the Infante 
Don Juan Carlos, visited Manchester, August 24, and were conducted through 
the pi-incipal manufactories. 

Mr. William Brown, M.P., requested by a meeting of the Free Traders of 
Lancashire to represent them at the Free Trade Congress of All Nations, to be 
held at Brussels on September 16. August 28. 

Jenny Lind made her first appearance in Manchester, August 28. She 
performed as Amina in La Sonnambula. On August 31 she was serenaded by 
the Liedertafel at Rusholme House, the residence of Mrs. Salis Schwabe, 
whose guest she was. She appeared as Marian in La Figlia, September 2. 
During her stay she was often seen riding on horseback in the direction of 
Didsbury. 

Mr. Richard Porter Hewitt died at Manchester, September 1. He was born 
at Chester in 1790, but had spent the greater part of his life, as a working- 
cabinet maker, in Manchester, He was author of Odes, Reflective and 
Historical. 

John Jones, a brewer, of Camp Street, scalded to death at the Grecian's 
Head, Deansgate, September 7, by falling into a mashtub of boiling water. 

The Lancashire Public School Association began operations at No. 3, Cross 
Street, September 14. Mr. Edwin Waugh was the first secretary. 

The Rev. James Prince Lee, M.A., Head Master of King Edward's Free 
Grammar School, Birmingham, appointed bishop of the new see of Manchester. 
October. 

Sir George Philips, Bart., M.P., died October 3. Sir George was the son of 
Mr. Thomas Philips, of Sedgeley, and was born March 24, 1766, and married his 
cousin, October 17, 1788. lie was created a baronet on February 21, 1828. He 
was a member of the firm of J. and N. Philips, Church Street, and was succeeded 
by his only son. Sir George Richard Philips. Sir George was the author of a 
pamphlet on The Necessity of a Speedy and Effectual Reform in Parliament, 
March, 1782, in which he is said to have had the assistance of Dr. Fcrriar. 
He advocated in it the admission of women to the franchise. (Gentleman s 
Magazine, December, 1817, p. 636.) 

When the Marquis of Lansdowne, on June 8, moved the first reading of the 
Bishopric of Manchester Bill, Lord Brougham rose and examined the "bill' 
which had been brought in, on which he showed that it was composed of blank 
sheets of paper ! This ludicrous incident is not mentioned in Hansard, (il/on- 
Chester Chuardian Local Notes and Queries, No. 682.) 
Q 



242 Annals of Manchester. 



[1847 



Ralph Waldo Emerson visted Manchester, where he arrived October 20, and 
was received at Victoria Station by Mr. Alexander Ireland, who has written an 
interesting biographical sketch of his friend. Emerson came by invitation to 
lecture before various Mechanics' Institutions and other literary associations, 
and the arrangements were made by Mr. Ireland. For some months Emerson 
resided in Manchester, from whence, as from a centre, he went forth to lecture. 
"During his stay in Manchester," says Mr, Ireland, "and just before going to 
London, to pay a round of visits and to lecture, he invited a number of friends, 
from various parts of the country, to dine and spend an evening with him at 
his lodgings in Lower Broughton. His guests were principally young men, 
ardent, hopeful, enthusiastic, moral and religious reformers, and independent 
thinkers, gathered together from Birmingham, Sheffield, Nottingham, Liver- 
pool, Huddersfield, Newcastle, and other towns. One of them, a man of erratic 
genius and of very straitened means, but nevertheless an inveterate smoker, 
who not many years ago died in a lunatic asylum in New York, trudged on foot 
all the way from Huddersfield to be present, and next day performed the same 
feat homeward. He has left behind him a detailed description of this gathering, 
written in a rather sarcastic spirit, but curious for its life-like sketches of his 
fellow-guests. One of the finest spirits assembled on that occasion, Henry 
Sutton, of Nottingham, whose little volume of poems, in Emerson's opinion, 
contained pieces worthy of the genius of George Herbert, and who, happily, is 
still living amongst us, honoured and beloved by his friends, says that the 
impression on his mind was that the affair went ofT admirably ; that all 
seemed delighted to have had such an opportunity of coming into closer con- 
tact with Emerson ; that no one could but feel gratified by his kindliness and 
gentle dignity ; and that his conduct and manner were perfect. 'Any criticism 
to the contrary could only excite pity for the writer, if it did not too strongly 
call for disgust.' It was a memorable symposium. With his fine graciousness 
of manner and delicate courtesy, Emerson listened with serene amiability and 
an ineffably sweet smile to everything his young guests had to say, and made 
them feel, as was his wont, that he was the favoured one of the party, and that 
he specially was imbibing much wisdom and benefit from their discourse. In 
the course of the evening, being urgently requested to do so, he read his lecture 
on Plato, then unpublished, but now in his Representative Men" Emerson 
in his English Traits has several references to Manchester, and passes a fine 
eulogium upon Mr. Ireland. The soiree of the Manchester Athenaeum, in 
November, was presided over by Sir Archibald Alison, and attended by Richard 
Cobden, George Cruikshank, and others. Emerson made a remarkable speech, 
which, as printed in the English Traits, differs, to some extent, from the 
apparently verbatim report in the Manchester Guardian. 

The foundation stone of the Manchester Royal Lunatic Asylum laid at"' 
Stockport Etchells, by Mr. Thomas Townend, treasurer to the institution. 
November 3. 

The premises occupied by Mr. Charles Healey, clothes dealer, Shudehill, 
completely destroyed by fire, December 23. Mr. Healey's daughter, aged 6, and 
a servant woman, aged 60, were burnt to death by this fire. Damage to stock 
and building estimated at £1,400. 

Mr. J. H. Nelson, the sculptor of " Venus Attiring," died at his temporary 



1848] 



Annals of Manchester. 243 



residence, Mary Street, Strangeways, December 26. He was a native of Man- 
chester. 

Mr. Edward Holme, M.D., died Nov. 28. He was born at Kendal, February 
17, 1770, and was a student at the Manchester Academy, whence he proceeded 
to Gottingen and Edinburgh Universities, and graduated M.D. at Ley den. His 
thesis was printed. He began practice in Manchester in 179i, and was one of 
the physicians at the Infirmary from 179i to 1828. He was president of the 
Literary and Philosophical Society, first president of the Chetham Society, 
collected a large library, and had the acquaintance of Dr. Samuel Parr and 
other learned men. He left some property to the Rev. J. G. Robberds, and 
£2,000 for the support of the Unitarian ministry. A portrait of him, by Wm. 
Scott, in the rooms of the Literary and Philosophical Society, has been 
engraved by J. R. Jackson. (Baker's Memorials, p. 117.) A biographical 
notice of him was read, by Dr. W. C. Henry, before the Provincial Medical and 
Surgical Association, 1848. 

The Manchester Probate Court instituted. Mr. John Burder was appointed 
registrar. 

The Branch Bank of England, King Street, erected after a design by Mr; 
C. R. Cockerill. 

INIr. William Fell died at Clifton, Westmoreland. He was born at Swindale, 
Shap, Westmoreland, in 1758, and resided successively at Manchester, 
Warrington', and Lancaster. He was the author of several books and pam- 
phlets, amongst them being— Hints on the Instruction of Youth, Manchester, 
1798; System of Political Philosophy, Salford, 1808; Defence of Athletic 
Diversions, Lancaster, 1818; and Beinarks on the Claims of the Chartists, 1839. 

1848. 

Mr. Charles Clayton Ambery, bookseller, died January 4. 

A great banquet was held at the Free Trade Hall, to celebrate the triumph 
of the Anti-Corn-Law League, January 27. 

Mr. Paul Dyson, who was well known in sporting circles, found drowned 
near Holt Town reservoir, February 1. 

The foundation stone of St. Margaret's Churcli, Whalley Range, was laid 
February 11, by Dr. Lee, Bishop of Mancliester, immediately after his enthrone- 
ment at the Cathedral on the same day. The consecration took place April 8, 
1849. Mr. T. P. Harrison, of London, was the architect. The first rector was 
the Rev. John Hutton Crowder, who died at Bromsgrove, October, 1883, 
aged 63. 

A boiler explosion on the premises of Mr. Thomas Riley, spindle and fly 
maker, 7, Medlock Street, Ardwick, February 11. Twelve persons were 
killed. 

A copy of The League newspaper, in tliree volumes, presented to Miss 
Todman, King Inn, Oldham Street, with the following inscription in gold 
letters : " Presented to Miss Todman, as a small tribute of respect and esteem 
for her laudable exertions in the great cause of commercial freedom." 
February 14. 

Mr. David Stott, of Butler Street, died February 26, aged 60. He was the 
founder of St. Paul's Sunday School, Bennett Street, at one time the largest of 



244 Annals of Manchester. 



[1848 



its kind in the countj^ numbering 2,000 scholars, and was connected with it as 
an active and zealous labourer from its commencement in 1801 to the time of 
his death. He first originated ihe Sunday School Sick and Burial Society, 
which he established in the above school, and which had dispensed pecuniary 
relief to its members, during the 35 years preceding his death, amounting to 
more than £7,000. (Bennett Street Memorials.) 

Serious riots occurred in the neighbourhood of New Cross, when some of 
the mills in the neighbourhood were attacked by the mob. Seven of the rioters 
were committed for trial at the- assizes, charged with being concerned in an 
attack on Messrs. Kennedy's mill, Ancoats. March 8, 9. 

Blackfriars Bridge was opened to the public by Mr. "William Jenkinson, the 
mayor, and the other public authorities of Salford. The gates were lifted off 
the hinges, whilst the bars and lamp Avere demolished and removed, and the 
bridge declared " free to the public for ever." The proceedings were witnessed 
by a large crowd. March 10. The opening of the bridge was celebrated by a 
cold collation in the large room of the Salford Town Hall, March 11. About 
125 of the principal inhabitants were present. 

A great Chartist meeting was held in front of the Salford Town Hall, 
March 13, to move a congratulatory address to the people of France on their 
establishment of the republic. 

A great meeting was held in the Free Trade Hall, March 17, to promote 
a fraternisation between the Chartists and the Irish Repealers. On the Satur- 
day there was a soiree at the Town Hall. Messrs. F. O'Connor, M.P., Roberts 
and T. F. Meagher were amongst the speakers. (Gammage's History of the 
Chartist Movement, p. 319.) 

A great demonstration in the Town Hall, King Street, March 18, in favour 
of the Repeal ot the Union between England and Ireland. 

A meeting of the friends and congregation of Dr. John William Massie 
was held to express their esteem for him, previous to his departure for London 
to undertake the duties of secretary to the Home Missionary Society. March. 

A conference between the unemployed operatives and the mayor and 
magistrates of Manchester was held in the Town Hall, April 1, respecting the 
privations of their class and the means of relieving them. The deputation was 
requested to furnish the guardians with a list of persons requiring relief. 

Mr. Joseph Roebuck, of Great Jackson Street, Hulme, died April 1, aged 87 
years. He had been a member of the Wesleyan Methodist Societj' sixty-two 
years, and a teacher in the Bridgewater Street Sabbath School forty-five years. 

At the Chartist National Convention, which opened 4th April at London, 
Manchester was represented by Daniel Donovan and James Leach, who in one 
of the debates said he should " say nothing of physical or moral force, but leave 
that to the chapter of accidents." (Gammage's History of the Chartist Move- 
ment, p. 325.) The Salford representative was J. Hoy. 

A Chartist meeting was held in Stephenson Square, April 4, for the purpose 
of petitioning Parliament for the liberation of Frost, Williams, and Jones. 

Richard Baron Howard, M.D., died at York, April 9. He was 
educated at Edinburgh University. Immediately after taking his degree 
he settled in Manchester, He was one of the physician's clerks in the 
Infirmary, and was afterwards successively physician to the Ardwick and 



1848] 



Annals of Manchester. 245 



Ancoats Dispensary and the Royal Infirmary. He wrote a treatise on tlie 
morbid effects of insufficient food, and was selected by the Poor-law Com- 
missioners to prepare a report on the sanitary condition of Manchester. In 
this valuable production he was the first to point out many causes of disease 
which lurk in crowded localities. 

A Temperance conference was held in Manchester on April 13 and two 
following days. 

A Chartist meeting was held on Sunday, April 16, at Smithfield, and was 
said to have been attended by 100,000 persons. On the 17th it was stated in the 
National Convention that the Chartist petition from Manchester had received 
170,000 signatures. 

Mr. Edwin Butterworth died of typhus fever, at Busk, Oldham, April 19, 
aged 36. He was the author of a variety of publications relating to the local 
histoi'y of South Lancashire, and assisted Mr. Edward Baines in the compila- 
tion of the History of Lancashire. Mr. Butterworth's Tabula Mancuniensis 
may be regarded as the foundation of the Annals of Manchester. There is a 
notice of him in the Dictionary of National Biograiihy. 

At the Warwick Assizes, in April, the Bishop of Manchester prosecuted 
Mr. Thomas Gutteridge, a surgeon, for libel. Mr. Gutteridge had charged the 
Bishop with harshness, partiality, and acts of intoxication. After a long trial 
the jury returned a verdict for the Bishop. 

Serious apprehensions were felt of a Chartist rising, and in consequence 
the number of special constables sworn in to assist in keeping the peace of the 
town amounted to about 12,000. April. 

The Right Hon. T. M. Gibson, M.P., resigned his office of Vice-President of 
the Board of Trade. April. 

A great Irish Repeal meeting was held in Stevenson Square, May 18, "for 
the purpose of expressing the opinions entertained by the great democratic 
body in Manchester and Salford respecting the incarceration and pending 
prosecutions of Messrs. O'Brien, Meagher, and Mitchell." 

Turn-out of the Tib Street oakum pickers on account of an increase in their 
hours of labour. May 19. 

Under the south gallery of St. John's Church, Deansgate, is a mural 
monument of Caen stone, with the inscription, "In memory of William 
Marsden, who presided over the committee which obtained for Manchester, in 
1843, the Saturday half-holiday. He died May, 1848, aged 27 years. In affec- 
tionate remembrance of his private worth, and in commemoration of the cause 
in which he felt so deep an interest, this monument is raised by the contribu- 
tions of those who have been benefitted by his efforts. ' Cast thy bread upon 
the waters, for then slialt thou find it after many days.' " 

11 Victoria, cap. 3. Act for the consecration of a portion of the Manchester 
General Cemetery. June 9. 

Mr. Thomas Fleming died at Broughton View, Pendleton, June 26. He was 
born in Water Street September 26, 1707, and was a successful merchant and a 
man of public spirit. To him is said to be largely due the improvement of 
Market Street in 1820, and the erection of Blackfriars Bridge in the preceding 
year. To him also is due the appropriation of the gas profits to public ])ur- 
poses. He was president of the " Sociable Club," and a member of John Shaw's 



246 Annals of Manchester. 



[1848 



club. He was buried at the Blind Asylum Chapel, Old Traflford. There is a 
statue of him by E. H. Bailey in the Manchester Cathedral. 

The first annual dinner of the Manchester Licensed Victuallers' Society, at 
the Albion Hotel, Piccadilly, July 19. 

11 and 12 Victoria, cap. 8(>. Act for vesting in the Manchester, Sheffield, 
and Lincolnshii'e Railway Company the canal navigation from Manchester to 
or near Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham. July 22. 

11 and 12 Victoria, cap. 94. Act for vesting in the Manchester, Sheffield, 
and Lincolnshire Railway Company the Sheffield Canal. July 22. 

11 and 12 Victoria, cap. 101. Act to alter, amend, and enlarge the powers 
and provisions of the Manchester Corporation Waterworks Act, 1847. July 22. 

At the July sessions of the Central Criminal Court, Williams, Jones, 
Francis Looney, and other Chartists were tried. 

Mrs. Henry Burdett died at London in July. She was the elder sister 
(Farmy) of Charles Dickens. Her husband was a distinguished operatic singer, 
but having conceived conscientious objections to the stage, he settled in Man- 
chester as a teacher of music. Both husband and wife were members of the 
Congregational Church at Rusholme Road, and conductors of the choir there. 
They were visited by the elder Mr. and Mrs. Dickens, as well as by Charles 
Dickens, who, from their little deformed child Harry, took his first idea of 
Paul Dombey. Fanny Dickens is buried in Highgate Cemetry. (Forster's 
Life of Dickens ; Griffin's Memories of the. Past, pp. 165-210; Dickens's 
Letters.) 

The rumours and alarming events coimected with the Chartists and Irish 
Confederates about this time induced the magistrates of Manchester to take 
strong measures for breaking up the secret clubs and organisation of these two 
bodies. At ten o'clock on the night of August 3 a force of three hundred police 
constables was concentrated at the Oldham Road Station, and there formed 
into five divisions under the command of Captain Willis, Mr. Beswick, and 
the different superintendents of the Manchester force. These bodies of police- 
made a simultaneous visit to the Chartist clubrooms in the neighbourhood of 
Ancoats and Oldham Road, and arrested the following persons : James Leach, 
Thomas Whittaker, Henry Ellis, Daniel Donovan, John Joseph Finnigan, 
Patrick Devlin, Michael Corrigan, George Rogers, Thomas Rankin, Joshua 
Lemon, Henry Williams, George Webber, George White, Thomas Dowlin, and 
Samuel Kearns. 

The Roman Catholic Cathedral Church of St. John the Evangelist, in 
Salford, opened August 9. Eight Roman Catholic bishops— Dr. Briggs, Dr. 
Wareing, Dr. Wiseman, Dr. Brown, Dr. Morris, Dr. Sharpies, Dr. Devereux, 
Dr. Daniel Devereux — the Rev. Dr. Milley, the Rev. Wm. Cobb, father pro- 
vincial of the Society of Jesus in England, and one hundred and thirty priests, 
took Tjart in the ceremonial of the day. The Earl of Arundel and Surrey, the 
Hon. Charles Langdale, Count D' Alton, the Hon. Thomas Stonor, Sir Williara 
Lawson, Sir Thomas and Lady de Trafford, and a large number of Roman Catholic 
gentry were present. Dr. Wiseman preached. At the close of the services 
upwards of 300 ladies and gentlemen partook of a cold collation in the large 
room of the Salford Town Hall. 

11 and 12 Victoria, cap. 5. Act to authorise grants in fee and leases for 



1848J 



Annals of Manchester. 247 



long terms of years, for building purposes, of the denied estate of Mr. 
John Newton, deceased, situate at Gorton, in the parish of Manchester. 
August 14. 

11 and 12 Victoria, cap. 14G. Act for altering and amending an Act passed 
for maintaining the road from Crossfield Bridge to Manchester, and a branch 
connected therewith. August 14. 

11 and 12 Victoria, cap. 145. Act for continuing the term of an Act passed 
in the eighth year of the reign of King George IV., intituled an Act for more 
effectually repairing and maintaining the road from Hulme across the river 
Irwell, through Salford, to Eccles, and a branch of road communicating there- 
with, so far as relates to the road from Hulme to Eccles, for the purpose of 
enabling the trustees to pay off the debt now due on the said roads. August 14. 

Alderman William Burd died at his house in Higher Broughton, August 18, 
aged 59. He had been one of the aldermanic body since the incorporation of the 
town, and in that capacity he represented successively the Cheetham and the 
New Cross Wards. Mr. Burd was an ardent reformer, and a zealous sup- 
porter of the principles of civil and religious liberty, and he took an active 
interest in the operations of the Anti-Corn Law League. 

Jenny Lind again visited the town, and appeared as Lucia, September 
9th, and as Amina on the 11th. In this and in a preceding visit she was sup- 
pDrted by F. Lablache. 

Forty-six Chartist leaders and orators were indicted for conspiracy, and a 
true bill found against the whole by the grand jury of the South Lancashire 
Assizes at Liverpool, and bench warrants issued for their apprehension. The 
best known of the prisoners was Dr. P. M. M'Douall, who was sentenced to 
two years' imprisonment. The remaining trials did not come on until December, 
when various sentences of imprisonment were passed. August 22. 

Robert Houdin, the conjurer, at the Theatre Royal, from August 22 to 
September 6. He gives a very amusing account of his first appearance in 
Manchester in his Memoirs, vol. ii., pp. 137-147. 

Mr. Russell Scott Taylor, B.A., died at his house, the Laurels, September 16, 
aged 25. He was the eldest son of the late Mi*. John Edward Taylor, and was 
one of the proprietors and editors of the Manchester Guardian, with which 
journal he had been actively connected since the death of his father. He was 
held in the highest esteem by all who knew him, for his amiable disposition 
and intellectual acquirements. Previous to his attendance at the London 
University, where he took the degree of B.A. in the session of 1845, he was 
honourably distinguished on various occasions at the examinations of the Man- 
chester College. 

The Duchess of Cambridge and suite visited Heaton Park, the seat of the 
Earl of Wilton. There was a grand review in the park of all the troops 
stationed at Manchester, September 22. 

The inscription stone of the Borough Gaol, Hyde Road, laid by Mr. Elkanah 
Armitage, mayor, October 9. 

An elegant candelabrum presented to ]Major-Gencral Wemyss, at the 
residence of Mr. Elkanah Armitage, The Priory, Pendleton, November 8, as a 
public testimony of his services as military commander of the district from 1836 
to 1842, 



248 Annals of Manchester. 



[1848 



Colonel George Hibbert, C.B., died in London, November 12, at the age of 
56. He joined the 40th regiment (the old X L's), at Toulouse in 1814 and fought 
at Waterloo. Mr. Hibbert commanded his regiment in Afghanistan in 1838-42 
with ability that led the Duke of Wellington to place his nephew. Dr. Hibbert- 
Ware's son, amongst the candidates for a commission without purchase, which 
he accordingly received. He was wounded in the Crimean War. Colonel 
Hibbert was appointed C.B. in 1842. He was buried at Ardwick Cemetery 
with military honours. (Li/e of S. Hibhert-Ware ; Palatine Note-hook, 
vol. 1., p. 37.) 

The Gaythorn Cotton Works, belonging to Mr. James Fernley, cotton 
spinner, were destroyed by fire, November 15. Damage, £21,000. 

Arthur Sidney Matthews, the son of Mr. Samuel Matthews, surgeon, died 
November 29, aged 4 years and 9 months. He was an infant prodigy, remark- 
able for the largeness of his body and the rapid development of his mental 
powers. 

Mr. Samuel Hibbert- Ware, M.D., died December 30. He was born at Man- 
chester, April 21, 1782, and was the son of Mr. Samuel Hibbert, a merchant. He 
achieved distinction alike as geologist and archaeologist. He served for six 
years as lieutenant of militia. After graduating M.D. at Edinburgh, he visited 
the Shetland Islands, of which he published an account in 1820. He resided for 
some years at Edinburgh, but the later part of his life was spent at Hale Barns 
near Bowdon. In 1S37 he assumed, by royal licence, the name of Ware, as 
representative of the family of Sir James Ware, the historian of Ireland. His 
principal work is the History of the Collegiate Church of Manchester 
(forming part of the work known as the Foundations of Manchester), and the 
Memorials of the Rebellion of Lancashire in 1715. The. Life and Corresxton- 
dence of the late- Samuel Hibbert-Ware, by Mrs. Hibbert- Ware, Manchester, 
1882, contains a full account of his scientific and literary labours, and much 
interesting information as to the aifairs of the locality in the century following 
the rebellion of 1745. A briefer notice of him, with a portrait, is given in the 
Palatine Note-book, vol. i., p. 37. He is buried at Ardwick Cemetery. 

The Regent Bridge, Salford, which since its opening in 1808 had been a pay 
bridge, was made free of toll. 

Mr. Ernest Jones was arrested at Manchester on a charge of sedition, for 
the words of a speech at the Chartist meeting on Kennington Common. 

A large Chartist meeting held in the Hall of Science, attended by some 3,000 
people. The object was to hear from Fergus O'Conor a reply to some charges 
made against him, in connection with the land scheme, by some of his associates 
and by Alexander Somerville in the Manchester Examiner. The meeting- 
was enthusiastically in favour of O'Conor. (Gammage's History of the Chartist 
Movement, p. 310.) 

It was probably in 1848 that a small book appeared entitled Original 
Hymns for the Use of the People called Nazarenes, wherein the Spirituality 
or Internal Signification of the Sacred Scriptures are laid open. By J. 
Stuart, junior. Printed at the Nazarene office, 14, Foster Street, Ardwick. 
The author of this curious work is perhaps the Joseph Stuart, of Foster 
Street, who is described as a portrait painter in the Manchester Directory 
of 1848. 



1849] Annals of Manchester. 249 



1849. 

The Salford Borough Museum and Library, Peel Park, was opened to the 
public, January 9. The circumstances of its foundation are detailed in 
Edwards's Free Toion Libraries. 

A great meeting of the Liberal electors was held in the Free Trade Hall, 
January 10, for the consideration of the question of financial reform and 
retrenchment, and for deciding upon the best means of speedily and effectively 
reducing the enormous expenditure of the country. Five thousand five 
hundred persons were present. Messrs. Cobden, Bright, and the Hon. T. M. 
Gibson addressed the meeting. It was resolved to co-operate with the Liver- 
pool Financial Reform Association and other bodies in their efforts to reduce 
the expenditiire to at least the standard of 1835. 

Three men were killed by the fall of one of the South Junction Railway 
arches at the bottom of Gloucester Street, behind Little Ireland. January 20. 

Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Arbuthnot died January 26, aged 72. He 
was born in 1776, entered the army as an ensign in the 29th Foot in 1794, 
and served in the Gape of Good Hope, in the Peninsula. He was twice wounded. 
He was created a K.C.B. in 1815. In 1826 he was sent to Portugal in command 
of a brigade. He afterwards commanded a district in Ireland, and having 
attained the rank of Lieutenant-General, in 1838, was appointed general in 
command of the Northern Midland Districts, which command he retained till 
his death. Sir Thomas had a considerable military reputation, and the good 
opinion which the Duke of Wellington entertained of his judgment and 
efficiency was proved by his having selected him for the newly-constituted com- 
mand at Manchester at a time when the Chartists were causing a good deal of 
anxiety in this country. A memoir of Arbuthnot will be found in the 
Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 2, p. 67. 

A banquet was held at the Free Trade Hall, January 31, in celebration of 
the final repeal of the Corn Laws. Upwards of three thousand persons were 
present, including twenty Members of Parliament and two hundred merchants 
and persons of influence. Mr. George Wilson presided. 

The new church of St. Simon, Springfield Lane, was consecrated by the 
Bishop of Manchester, February 26. This was the first parish church erected 
under Sir Robert Peel's Act. The architect was Mr. Richard Lane, and the 
cost was £6,0-10. 

Earl Cathcart was appointed to the military command of the Northern 
District, and arrived in Manchester March 1. 

The incumbency of the new church of St. John the Evangelist, Broughton, 
presented to the Rev. Frank Bowcher Wright, of Handborough, near Oxford, 
by the trustees, March 2. 

The Manchester Exchange was opened by a full-dress ball in aid of the 
funds of the Public Baths and Washhouses. March 18. 

A meeting, convened by the mayor, was held at the Town Hall " to consider 
the propriety of petitioning Parliameut in favour of the establislmient of a 
general system of secular education in this country, to be supported by local 
rates, and managed by local authorities elected by the ratepayers specially for 
that purpose.'' March 29. 



250 Annals of Manchester. 



[1849 



Mr, George Henry Lewes was in Manchester in March and April. In addi- 
tion to lecturing on " Speculative Philosophy " at the Athengeum, he appeared 
as Shylock, at the Theatre Royal, March 10, and in his own play. The Noble 
Heart, on April 16 and 19. His conception of Shylock— that of the vindication 
of his oppressed race — was not regarded as a success. 

James Robinson, "the Ebony Phenomenon," a well-known pugilist, died of 
cholera June 11, in his twenty-first year. He is buried in Rusholme Road 
Cemetery, " A real genius in his profession " is the verdict of Procter, {Our 
Turf, &c., p. 87.) 

The town was again visited by Asiatic cholera. The first death occurred 
in Redfern Street, Miller Street, June 11, The cholera was prevalent in 
September. 

Broughton Silk Mills, Broughton Road, completely destroyed by fire, June 
16, The damage to stock and building was estimated at £40,000. 

Mr. Robert Rose, the " bard of colour," died in St. Stephen Street, Salford, 
June 19. He was a West Indian creole, born in 1806, and long resident in 
Manchester. He wrote The Coronation, 1838, a variety of occasional verses. 
Some amusing particulars are given of him in Procter's Literary Reminiscences 
and Lithgow's Life of J. C. Prince, p. 134. 

Sir Robert Peel died at his residence, Whitehall, July 2, from injuries 
received by a fall from his horse. He was born on the 5th of February, 1788, at 
Chamber Hall, Bury, near Manchester. His career belongs to English history, 
and it is not necessary here to detail the career of a statesman who preferred 
the claims of the nation to those of his party. His name will ever be associated 
with the Repeal of the Corn Laws, and with the establishment of Free Trade. 

Day and Sunday schools in connection with Cavendish Street Chapel were 
opened July 5. 

Mr. John Greaves, justice of the peace and a deputy lieutenant of the 
county of Lancaster, died at his residence, Irlam Hall, July 8, 

The Manchester Law Clerks' Friendly Society was established in July. 
Manchester Temperance Reporter. No. 1 of this periodical was issued 
in August. About a score of weekly numbers followed. It was edited by Mr. 
Samuel Pope (afterwards Q.C.). The contributors included Alexander Somer- 
ville, Edwin Waugh, J. C. Prince, and others. {City News Notes and Queries, 
vol. i., p. 201), 

The Revds. James Everett, Samuel Dunn, and William Griffiths were 
expelled from the Wesleyan Connexion by the Conference then sitting in 
Oldham Street Chapel. August. 

A meeting convened by the Mayor was held in the Town Hall to condemn 
the interference of the Russian and French Governments in the affairs of 
Hungary and Rome. August 9. 

The foundation stone of a new Wesleyan school, in connection with 
Ebenezer Chapel, Red Bank, was laid by Mr, Francis Parnell. August 10. 

The Rev. James Bardsley appointed to *-be incumbency of the new St. 
Philip's Church, Bradford Road, by the trustees, August 13. 

Colonel Walters ai-rived in town commissioned to undertake the command 
of the Royal Engineers in the Manchester district, August 21. 

Rev. Samuel Wood, B.A„ Unitarian minister, died at London, August 23. 



1849] 



Annals of Manchester. 251 



He was born at Manchester, January 1, 1797. He was the author of Prayers 
for Sunday Schools, etc. ; Bible Stories, 1831 ; Scrij)ture Geography ; The 
Convent and the Railway ; a Sermon, 1845. {Christian Reformer, November, 
1849.) 

The Rev. William Shelmerdine died, August 30, aged 90. He had been 
for sixty years a preacher of the Gospel in connection with the Wesleyan 
Methodists. 

The foundation stone of the Temperance Hall, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, was 
laid by Mr. William Morris, September 1. 

A dreadful thunderstorm occurred in Manchester and the neighbourhood, 
September 1. 

The Episcopal Chapel in Heathfield, Greenheys, put up for sale by auction, 
by Mr. George Robins, of London, at £3,000, but there was not a single bid in 
advance, and the sale could not be effected. September 4. 

John Richardson, of Ardwick, was killed by being stabbed with two pieces 
of red-hot iron by a blacksmith named Lee, September G. 

The foundation stone of the Presbyterian Church and Schools, Grosvenor 
Square, was laid September 12. 

In accordance with the plan laid down by the Vice-Ghancellor of England, 
in his decree of January 10, new trustees of the Manchester Grammar School 
were selected from persons residing in the town of Manchester. The following 
gentlemen were the members of the new trust : Sir Elkanah Armitage, 
Messrs. John Mayson, E. R. Langworthy, R. N. Philips, Robert Barbour, 
Thomas Hunter, W. B. Watkins, Oliver Heywood, C. H. Rickards, Thomas 
Armstrong. John Peel, and J. C. Harter. September. 

Mr. W. C. Macready made his farewell appearance at the Theatre Royal in 
the character of Hamlet on October 9. He delivered a farewell address, which 
was interrupted by frequent applause. On the day preceding, an address was 
presented to him by the Manchester Shaksperean Society. His father was 
lessee 1806-9. When Macready had made his name as an actor he performed in 
the town in 1823, 1824, 1828, 1830, 1833-35, 1845-49. There are many references to 
the town in his Reminiscences. 

Mr. John Brooks died at his residence. Clarendon House, Cheetham Hill, 
Oct. 27. He was the son of Mr. Wm. Brooks, of the firm of Cunliffe and Brooks, 
bankers, and brother of Mr. Samuel Brooks, of Whalley House, Manchester, 
the successor of their father in the bank. He Avas born at Whalley in 1786, and 
began business as a calico printer in 1809, in partnership with Mi\ Butterworth 
Mr. Brooks's experience gave him an advantage in the discussion of commercial 
politics over men more practised in eloquence — as, for instance, his examination 
of Lord Stanley, at Lancaster, in 1841, silenced his lordship on mercantile 
statistics for several years after. His mode of speaking, and embodying his 
speeches with facts, was original and forcible, and strikingly characteristic of 
the blunt plainness and truthfulness of the man. He was one of the earliest 
and most zealous members of the Council of the Anti-Corn-Law League, and 
till its dissolution continued to be one of the hardest workers. In May, 1848, 
being impaired in health, by the unresting strain upon his physical and mental 
energies, he went for change to the United States, but returned without 
deriving permanent benefit. He was not only liberal with his purse and his 



252 Annals of Manchester. 



T1850 



personal services for favourite political measures and men, but tolerant of other 
men's opinions. He was remarkably generous to his dependents. On one 
occasion, information reached him that he had lost the sum of £70,000, lent to a 
person who seemed to have large property, and who assured him it was unin- 
cumbered. It turned out that the property was mortgaged to its full amount 
when the assurance was made. Mr. Brooks went to his warehouse chagrined, 
and told his manager that he had been so deceived that he was resolved to 
cease to lend money — to stop his charities— and spend nothing. While he was 
yet speaking, a woman with some ragged children were observed in the passage. 
Apparently unconscious of what he had said, he ordered a shilling to be given. 
The clerk reminded him of his resolution. " Well, well," said he, " but don't 
begin with this woman and her children." He never did begin such a change 
Death only closed the charities of a life that was as benevolent as it was manly 
and upright. 

Mr. John Isherwood died, October 29. He was possessed of a pure bass 
voice of rare compass, a refined taste, and correct judgment, and lacked 
nothing but the necessary practice to place him in the highest rank of vocalists. 
He was among the best glee singers of his day, and for many years devoted 
himself gratuitously to the services of the Choral Society and Glee Club of this 
town. 

Mr. Benjamin Rawlinson Faulkner died in London. He was born at Man- 
chester in 1787, where he was a portrait painter, and exhibited at the Royal 
Academy. 

Harriet Martineau visited Manchestei', and was the guest of Mr. S. D. 
Darbishire. (Autobiogrcqjhy, vol. iii., p. 354.) 

1850. 

A lady, named Novelli, residing in Higher Broughton, was murdered by her 
brother-in-law, Mr. A. Novelli, who was insane, and who afterwards hung 
himself from the bed-post. January 20. 

A meeting of the Financial and Parliamentary Reform Association was 
held in the Free Trade Hall, January 29, under the presidency of Mr. G. 
Wilson. 

A hurricane of a more destructive nature than any known in England for 
many years visited this neighbourhood, February 5. 

A fire at All Saints' Church, Oxford Road, destroyed the greater part of the 
structure, February 6. The fire arose from the burning of Christmas decorations 
in the stove. Some embers lodging in the flue are thought to have set fire to 
the wooden workplate. The damage caused was between £3,000 and £4,000. 
An engraving of the disaster is given in the Illustrated London News, Febru- 
ary 16. The church was reopened September 26. 

Tei7i2}erance Reporter and Journal of Usefid Literature, No. 1, February 
9. Five or six numbers appeared. The editors were Samuel Pope and Joseph 
Johnson. (City Neics Notes and Queries, vol. i., p. 201.) 

Bateman's Buildings, Deansgate, were destroyed by fire, March 9. The 
damage was estimated at £2,000. 

The Manchester Poor Law Union dissolved March 25. It was replaced by a 
Board of Guardians elected annually. The first election was in May. 



1850] 



Annals of Manchester. 253 



Lord John Russell and Lady Russell visited Manchester, April 2. During 
their stay of four days they visited the principal works, and addresses were 
presented to them by the Corporations of Manchester and Salford. They were 
the guests of Sir Benjamin Heywood, Bart., Claremont. 

St. Philip's Church, Bradford, was consecrated by Bishop Lee, April 5. The 
architect was Mr. E. H. Shellard, and the cost of erection £4,230. It has 1060 
sittings. 

The Hall of Science, Campfield, purchased by Alderman John Potter (Mayor 
of Manchester), for £1,200, for the purpose of a Free Library. April. 

Mr. Francis Philips died May 6. He was born at Manchester, September 27, 
1771. He was the author of History of Johnny Shuttle and his Cottage : cC Tale 
Interesting to the Inhabitants of Manchester, 1809 ; Exposure of the Calum- 
nies against the Magistrates and Yeomanry, 1819, &c. (Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, August, 1850, p. 217.) 

The North of England Tulip and Horticultural Show held in the Corn 
Exchange, May 28. This is said to have been the first show of the kind held in 
Manchester. 

The Orion steamship was wrecked on her passage from Liverpool to 
Glasgow, when Mr. .John Roby, of Rochdale (author of the Traditions of Lan- 
cashire), and 40 other persons were lost. A narrative of this disaster was 
published, written by the Rev, Joseph Clarke, M.A., of Stretford, one of the 
survivors. June. 

A meeting was held in the Town Hall, July 8, for the purpose of considering 
the propriety of a monument in memory of Sir Robert Peel. 

Mr. Benjamin Stott died at Manchester, July 26. He was born at Man- 
chester, November 24, 1813, and after being educated at Chetham's College was 
apprenticed to a bookbinder, in which trade he worked all his life. He was 
author of Songs for the Million (with memoir), Middleton, 1843. 

Two sermons were preached in St. John's Catholic Church, Salford, July 28, 
by Dr. Wiseman, previous to his setting out for Rome to receiye a cardinal's 
hat from the Pope. 

13 and 14 Victoria, cap. 41. Act to authorise the division of the parish of 
Manchester in several parishes, and for the application of the revenues of the 
Collegiate and Parish Church, and for other purposes. July 29. 

Rev. Robinson Elsdale, D.D. (Oxford, 1838), died at Wrington, August 8, 
aged 07. Dr. Elsdale was the son of Captain Robinson Elsdale, the hero and 
partly the author of Captain Marryat's Privateersvian. Dr. Elsdale was boru 
March 26, 1783, and became second master and in 1838, or 1837, head master of 
the Manchester Free Grammar School, but failing health compelled his retire- 
ment in 1840. In addition to his scholastic work Dr. Elsdale performed that of 
a parish priest, having been successively curate of Cheetham Hill and Chorlton, 
and from 1819 to his death was incumbent of Stretford. (Manchester School 
Hcgister, vol. iii., p. 8.) 

13 and 14 Victoria. Act to enable the Council of the borough of Manchester 
to determine their liability to defray the expenses of customs in respect of 
goods warehoused in the said borough, and to authorise the Commissioners of 
Her Majesty's Treasury to direct the discontinuance of the further warehousing 
of goods in such warehouses without payment of duty. August 14. 



254 A^mals of Manchester. [i850 

The seventh meetiug of the British Archaeological Association was held in 
the Town Hall, August 19, and five following days. Mr. James Heywood, M.P., 
F.R.S., and F.S.A., presided. 

Mr. Charles Kenworthy died July 31. He was born in Manchester, Sept. 12, 
1773, and was a pattern-maker by trade. His first poetical fancies were printed 
in the Manchester Gazette. In 1808 he published a pamphlet of poetry and 
politics, entitled A Peep into the Tcmjjle. This was followed by other small 
ventures. In 184:7 he issued his scattered verses under the title of Original 
Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects. He is buried at Rusholme Road Cemetery, 
and on his gravestone is the epitaph, " Here slumbers Sorrow's child." (Proc- 
ter's Betniniscences, p. 108.) 

Mr. A. J. Scott, Professor of English Language in the London University, 
was appointed first principal of the Owens College, October 22. 

A conference of delegates, from various parts of England, on Seculai 
Education, held in the Mechanics' Institution, Cooper Street, October 30. 

A public meeting, in connection with Secular Education, was held in the 
Corn Exchange, Hanging Ditch, October 31. 

At a conference of the Lancashire Public School Association, November 1, 
the name of the association was changed to the National Public Schools 
Association. 

The Royal Museum in Peel Park formally opened by the Mayor of Salford, 
in the presence of Mr. Joseph Brotherton, M.P., and other influential gentle- 
men, November 4. 

The National Public Schools Association held its first meeting under its 
new name, November 4. 

At a meeting of the Chamber of Commerce, November 7, it was resolved to 
send out Mr. Alexander Mackay on a mission to India, to ascertain the real 
obstacles preventing an ample supply of cotton from that country. 

The Protestant inhabitants of Manchester held a meeting in the Free Trade 
Hall, November 21, to consider what steps should be taken in regard to the 
territorial designations adopted by the Roman Catholic prelates. The action of 
the Papacy was denounced as an unwarrantable aggression, arid the Ecclesi. 
astical Titles Bill was passed in hot haste. 

The Church Reform Association dissolved November 24. It was formed 
March 12, 1847. 

Mr. Thomas Wilson died at Woodhouses, November, aged 62. He was a silk 
weaver at Middleton, who engaged in discussion with Richard Carlile and other 
Freethinkers. Wilson was a Swedenborgian, and shortly before his death gave 
a series of theological lectures in Hulme, which have been printed. {The 
Daivn, July 17, 1884.) 

The extension of the Manchester Exchange was completed in November. 
The cost was £86,000. 

Mr. William Sturgeon died Dec. 8. He was born in 1783, at Lancaster 
where his father was an idle shoemaker. At one time he was an artilleryman, 
and a terrific thunderstorm turned his curiosity in the direction of electrical 
science, and his discoveries were of great importance. He was "without doubt 
the originator of the electro-magnet." He came to Manchester in 1838 to super- 
intend the Victoria Gallery of Practical Science, which failed. Throughout his 



jggjj Annals of Mancltester. 255 

life, labour and poverty were his lot, and at last a Government pension of £50 
was granted to him, but he only enjoyed it for a year and a quarter. He founded 
and conducted the Annals of Electricity, in ten volumes. In 1849 his 
scientific papers were collected in a large quarto volume. (Smith's Centenary, 
p. 266.) 

The Hon. Abbott Lawrence, United States Minister, visited Manchester, 
December 16. 

A ball in aid of the Salford and Pendleton Dispensary realised £764, 

The Manchester Borough Gaol, in Hyde Road, was completed. 

Springfield Lane Bridge was built. 

A fire occurred at Messrs. "Westhead and Co.'s, Piccadilly. A fireman was 
killed, and another died shortly afterwards, from the injuries he received. The 
damage was estimated at £90,000. 

The private carriages in Manchester and Salford numbered 1,009, drawn by 
1,300 horses. There were 64 omnibuses, drawn by 387 horses ; 974 horses for 
riding, and 2,108 draught horses ; 187 hackney coaches and cabs, drawn by 408 
horses— making a total of 1,260 public and private vehicles, drawn by 3,877 
horses. 

A Chartist meeting was held in the People's Institute, at which it was 
resolved to adopt a proposal of O'Conor's for a conference to be held in this city 
on New Year's Day following. This suggestion had been opposed by Mr. 
Ernest Jones, who lectured frequently in Manchester at this time. 

1851. 

A meeting was held in the Mechanics' Institution, January 2, to consider 
the subject of cooperation and associative labour. The Kev. T. G. Lee pre- 
sided, and the Rev. F. T. Maurice, Mr. Thomas Hughes, Mr. Lloyd Jones, and 
others addressed the gathering. 

The model statuettes sent in competition for the monument to Sir Robert 
Peel were exhibited in the Royal Institution, January 3. 

The mill of Messrs. "Wallace, "Watchurst, and Thompson, in Chepstow 
Street, was destroyed by fire, January 10. The damage was about £30,000. 

Canon Stowell delivered a lecture on the Papal Aggression, in the Free 
Trade Hall, January 16. 

Two floors fell in the warehouse of Messrs. Ormrod and Hardcastle, in 
Pall Mall, January 20, and caused serious damage. 

The Oddfellows' Secular School in Faulkner Street was established, Jan. 20. 

Mr. Robert Thorpe, surgeon to the Manchester Infirmary, died January 21, 
aged 63. He was a son of J. Thorpe, surgeon. 

Mr. J. S. Heron, late secretary to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, 
died January 25. ( 

The Chartist Conference was held January 26, but only four localities were 
represented. 

Sir Henry R. Bishop gave two lectures on music, in the large room of the 
Town Hall, February 11 and 13. 

A boiler explosion occurred on the premises of ilr. C. Hunt, Millers Lane, 
Greengate, Salford, February 20. 

A public meeting of working men was held in the Free Library (late Hall 



256 Annals of Manchester. [issi 



of Science), Campfielcl, February 26, for the purpose of hearing an explanation 
of the origin and progress of the institution, &c. 

A fox was caught in a lane adjoining Peel Park, Salford, February 27, 
having been hunted by men and dogs out of the park. 

Dr. R. G. Latham commenced a course of lectures at the Royal Institution 
on " The Ethnology of the British Colonies and Dependencies." February 28. 

About 280 of the seamen who were "on strike" at Liverpool visited this 
town, March 5. 

The Owens College was opened March 12. It was founded, in accordance 
with the will of Mr. John Owens, for the education of young persons of the male 
sex in such branches of learning and science as were then and may be hereafter 
usually taught in the English Universities. The first principal was Mr. A. J. 
Scott, and the first home of the college was in a house at the junction of Quay 
Street and Byrom Street. 

A boiler explosion occurred at the steam sawmills of Mr. Thomas "William- 
son, in Riga Street, March 25. Nine persons were killed. The coroner's jury 
returned a verdict of manslaughter against the owner and his engineer, Thomas 
Egerton, April 10. 

Mr. W. B. Carpenter, M.D., commenced a course of lectures in the Royal 
Institution on " Microscopic Research." March 28. 

According to the return of the Parliamentary census, issued March 31, the 
borough of Manchester contained 303,358 inhabitants. By the same return 
there were 53,697 houses, and the annual value of property was given at 
£1,204,241. 

At the Chartist Convention, which met 31st March, in London, Manchester 
was represented by Mr. Feargus O'Conor, M.P., and Mr. G. J. Mantle. 

Samuel (" Sam") Rutter died, April 12, at his birthplace, Bank Top, in the 
28th year of his age. He was a pugilist, of whom BelVs Life remarked : " Sam 
has fought twenty battles in the P.R., and never lost the battle money." He 
is buried in Rusholme Road Cemetery. (Procter's Our Turf, &c., p. 71.) 

A great meeting in the Free Trade Hall was held on Parliamentary Reform, 
April 19. Mr. G. "Wilson presided. 

Captain James West, of the American steamship Atlantic, was enter- 
tained at dinner at the Albion Hotel, April 19. 

Greenheys United Presbyterian School was opened April 20. 

Mr. George Dawson, M.A., of Birmingham, delivered the first of a course 
of lectures at the Mechanics' Institution on " The Mythology of Nations." 
April 25. 

The Methodist New Connexion Chapel, Bury New Road, Strangeways, was 
opened April 26. 

The foundation stone of St. Paul's Church, Kersal Moor, was laid by 
Colonel Clowes, April 28. 

A meeting was held in the Town Hall, King Street, April 30, for the pur- 
pose of advocating a half -holiday for milliners and dressmakers. The bishop 
presided. 

The Diocesan Church Building Society was instituted May 1. 

Mr. Henry Day died May 1. He was a surgeon, and took a warm interest 
in the Mechanics' Institute, of which he was a director and honorary secretary. 



1851] 



Annals of Manchester. 257 



14 Victoria, cap. 10. Act for relief to tlie several townships in the parish of 
Manchester from the repair of highways not situate within such townships 
respectively. May 20. 

The Manchester Jews' School, Cheetham Hill Road, inaugurated May 22. 

The foundation stone was laid of a Baptist Chapel in Great George Street, 
Salford, May 29. 

Mr. George Viney died, May. He was born in Brownlow Street, Drury Lane, 
London, in 1774, and after an adventurous life as a sailor, he settled in Man- 
chester, where he died, an earnest member of the congregation of Rev. William 
Gadsby, whose Calvinistic doctrines he had adopted in their extremest form. 
He saw the famous sinking of the French ship " Vengeur." Previous to the 
building of the Salford Dispensary, Viney practised medicine, for which he had 
no doubt that his seafaring life and carpenter's trade had excellently prepared 
him. The story of his career is told in autobiographical form in The Sailor, the 
Sinner, the Saint : The iV otable and Eventful Life of George Viney, late of 
Manchester (London, 1853). This was edited from his papers by John Bosworth. 
He is buried in Irwell Street Chapel graveyard, 

14 Victoria, cap. 41. Act to continue the term of the Act of the sixth year 
of George IV., cap. 51 (local), so far as relates to the turnpike road between 
Manchester and Audenshaw, in the parish of Ashton-under-Lyne, and to make 
better provision for the repair of the road, and for other purposes. June 5. 

The foundation stone of St. Mark's Church, City Road, Hulme, was laid, 
June 16, by Mr. John Sharp. The consecration took place on Ascension Day, 
May 10, 1852. The architect was Mr. E. H. Shellard, of Manchester. The 
ecclesiastical district of St. Mark's was formed in 1846 under " Peel's Act." 
The chui-ch was the first erected after the passing of the Manchester llectorj^ 
Division Act. 

A storm of thunder and lightning visited the neighbourhood June 22. 

Cliarlotte Bronte paid a two-days' visit to Manchester at the end of June, 
staying with Mr. Gaskell. (See under date April, 1S53.) 

A meeting was held in the Town Hall, July 17, to memorialise the Foreign 
Secretary for the exertion of his influence for the liberation of Kossuth. 

14 and 15 Victoria, cap. 79. Act for the further amendment of the Acts 
relating to the Manchester Corporation Waterworks. July 24. 

Cardinal Wiseman consecrated two Roman Catholic bishops in St. John's, 
Salford, July 25. The bishops elect were Rev. Dr. Turner, St. Augustine's, and 
Rev. Dr. Errington, St. John's, Salford. 

The Teetotaller, edited by Joseph Johnson. The price of this monthly was 
one halfpenny, but it came to an end in July, when nearly forty pounds had 
been lost by the venture. {City News Notes and Queries, vol. i., p. 202.) 

14 and 15 Victoria, cap. 119. Act for paving, lighting, cleansing, and other- 
wise improving the several townships and places in the borough of Man- 
chester, and amending and consolidating the provisions of existing local Acts 
relating thereto. August 1. 

Thunderstorms, accompanied by heavy showers of rain, visited this neigh- 
bourhood, August 6. 

Mr. Joseph Adshcad's plan of Manchester, showing the municipal divisions, 
in 24 maps, was completed. August 9. 
R 



258 Annals of Manchester. [issi 



Mr. John Elliott Drinkwater Bethune died at Calcutta, August 12. He was 
eldest son of Colonel John Drinkwater Bethune, and was born 12th July, 1801, 
and educated at Cambridge. He was called to the bar, and in 1848 was 
appointed fourth ordinary member of the Supreme Council of India. This 
office he retained until his death. His greatest achievement in India was the 
establishment of a school in European hands for native females of the higher 
classes. He was author of The Maid of Orleans, translated from Schiller, 8vo, 
1835 ; and Specimens of Swedish and German Poetry Translated. 

A soiree of the friends of the Manchester and Salford Boroughs Educational 
Bill, in the Town Hall, August 28. 

Fifty-two Sardinian workmen visited Manchester, September 14, 15, and 16. 

Presentation of a service of plate of the value of 1,000 guineas to Mr. John 
Potter, Mayor of Manchester. September 22. 

A deputation of the National Parliamentary and Financial Reform Asso- 
ciation held a meeting in the Free Trade Hall, September 27. 

The inaugural address of Mr. A. J. Scott, as Principal of Owens College, 
was delivered in the large room of the Town Hall, October 3. 

The Liverpool and Manchester Agricultural Society held their show at 
Manchester, October 8. 

Queen Victoria and Prince Albert visited Manchester, October 10. The 
Royal party stayed at Worsley New Hall, where they arrived October 9. In her 
diary for that date the Queen says : " From one o'clock in the morning Albert 
was very unwell— very sick and wretched— and I was terrified for our Man- 
chester visit. Thank God ! by eight o'clock he felt much better, and was able 
to get up. ... At ten we started for Manchester. The day was fine and 
mild and everything to a wish. Manchester is called seven miles from 
"Worsley, but I cannot think it is so much. We first came to Pendleton, where, 
as everywhere else, there are factories, and great preparations were made. 
School children were there in profusion. We next came to Salford, where the 
crowd became very dense. It joins Manchester, and is to it, in fact, as 
Westminster to London. . . . The mechanics and workpeople, dressed in 
their best, were ranged along the streets, with white rosettes in their button- 
holes ; both in Salford and Manchester a very intelligent but painfully 
unhealthy-looking population they all were, men as well as women. We went 
into Peel Park before leaving Salford, the mayor having got out and received 
us at the entrance, where was indeed a most extraordinary and, I suppose, 
totally unprecedented sight— 82,000 school children. Episcopalians, Presby- 
terians, Catholics (these children having a small crucifix suspended round 
their necks). Baptists, and Jews (whose faces told their descent), with their 
teachers. In the middle of the park was erected a pavilion, under which we 
drove, but did not get out, and where the address was read. All the children 
sang "God Save the Queen" extremely well together, the director being placed 
on a very high stand, from which he could command the whole park. We 
passed out at the same gate we went in by, and through the principal street of 
Salford, on to Manchester, at the entrance of which was a magnificent arch. 
The mayor, Mr. Potter, who went through the proceedings with great com- 
posure and self-possession, beautifully dressed (the mayor and Corporation had 
till now been too Radical to have robes), received us there, and presented me 



1851] 



Annals of Manchester. 259 



with a beautiful bouquet. "We drove througli the principal streets, in which 
there are no very fine buildings— the principal large houses being warehouses 
— and stopped at the Exchange, where we got out and received the address, 
again on a throne, to which I read an answer. The streets were immensely 
full, and the cheering and enthusiasm most gratifying. The order and good 
behaviour of the people, who were not placed behind any barriers, were the 
most complete we have seen in our many progresses through capitals and 
cities— London, Glasgow, Dublin, Edinburgh, &c. — for there never was a run- 
ning crowd. Nobody moved, and therefore everybody saw well, and there was 
no squeezing. We returned as we came, the sun shining brightly, and were 
at Worsley by two." The next day Her Majesty wrote in her diary: "The 
mayor (now Sir John Potter, he having been knighted after presenting 
the Manchester address) told me last night that he thinks we saw a 
million of people between Manchester and Salford. There are 400,000 
inhabitants in Manchester, and everyone says that in no other town could one 
depend so entirely upon the quiet and orderly behaviour of the people as in 
Manchester. You had only to tell them what ought to be done, and it was 
sure to be carried out." On the 11th of October the Queen passed through 
Manchester on her way from Worsley to the south. (Martin's Life of the 
Prince Consort, vol. ii., chap. 43.) 

A grand ball in honour of the Queen's visit was given in the Royal 
Exchange, October 13. 

Mrs. Bexter, an American lady, delivered a lecture on " Bloomerism and 
Dress Reform," in the Mechanics' Institution, October 16. 

The furniture, decorations, &c., used on the occasion of the Queen's visit 
were sold, October 29, and realised £328. The original cost was £800. 

Louis Kossuth, ex-Governor of Hungary, visited Manchester, November 
11, and was received with the acclamations of the people. 

The Earl of Shaftesbury visited Manchester, November 20. An address 
was presented to him by the factory operatives for his own services in the 
passing of the Ten Hours Bill. 

Messrs. Richard Birley, John Morley, and Thomas Clegg, ex-churchwardens 
of Manchester, were presented with a service of plate, in recognition of services 
rendered in obtaining the Parish of Manchester Division Act. The presenta- 
tion was made at a dinner at the Queen's Hotel, November 23. 

Mr. Peter Clare, F.R.A.S., died November 24. He was born in Manchester, 
and in 1810 became a member of the Literary and Philosophical Society, and 
soon became a member of Council. In 1841 he became F.R.A.S. He was an 
active opponent of slavery, and was a member of the Society of Friends, in 
whose burying-ground in Mount Street he was buried. He wrote a number of 
scientific papers. {Literary and Philosophical Society Translations, 2nd scr., 
vol. x., p. 203.) 

A meeting of the General Council of the National Public Schools Associa- 
tion was held, December 1. 

A meeting of the friends of the Manchester and Salford Educational Bill 
was held in the Free Trade Hall, December 2. 

A conference and public meeting on the subject of Parliamentary reform 
was held, December 3. 



260 Annals of Manchester. [ig52 

A conference of delegates was held at the Spread Eagle, December 3, to 
consider the proposed Reform Bill of Lord John Russell. 

A public meeting in the Free Trade Hall, December 3, declared in favour of 
household suffrage, triennial Parliaments, redistribution of seats, and the 
ballot. 

A deputation from the Manchester and Salford Committee of Education 
waited upon Lord John Russell, December 4, in reference to the Education Bill. 

The total number of day scholars in Manchester and Salford was 33,663. 
December. 

The population of the municipal borough of Manchester at the sixth census 
was 303,382, and that of the Parliamentary borough 316,213. The population of 
municipal Salford was 63,850, and of Parliamentary Salford 83,108. 

1852. 

A meeting of the unemployed machinemen and labourers was held in the 
People's Institute, Heyrod Street, Ancoats, January 19. 

A meeting was held in the Town Hall in advocacy of an ocean penny 
postage, January 20. The project was explained by Mr. Elihu Burritt, "the 
learned blacksmith," and received warm approval. 

A meeting, presided over by Mr. George Wilson, was held in Newall's 
Buildings, to consider the proposals of the Government for Parliamentary 
reform. January 20. 

A meeting was held in the Free Trade Hall, to petition against the Govern- 
ment grant to Maynooth, January 22. 

Father Gavazzi delivered several orations at the Free Trade Hall. January. 

In consequence of heavy rains having fallen for several days, the rivers 
overflowed their banks, February 5, causing considerable damage. Lower 
Brought on Road, Great Clowes Street, Hough Lane, and other streets in the 
neighbourhood were flooded, and their inhabitants on returning from work had 
to be taken home in boats. The lower part of Peel Park was covered with 
water to a depth of four feet. The Medlock, Irk, Mersey, Goyt, and Black 
Brook also overflowed and did considerable damage. 

A Musical Festival in the Free Trade Hall began February 23, and lasted 
five days ; after which the hall was closed previous to being pulled down to 
make room for the new Free Trade Hall. 

A public meeting was held in the Town Hall, February 26, to take into 
consideration the relief of the sufferers by the Holmfirth catastrophe. A 
subscription was commenced at this meeting. 

In consequence of fears that the Conservative Government would resort to 
Protectionist measures, a meeting of the Council of the Anti-Corn-Law League 
was held in Newall's Buildings, March 2. Mr. G. Wilson was in the chair, and 
the subscriptions promised amounted to £27,520. 

A meeting of the Council of the League was held in Newall's Buildings, 
March 2. Mr. George Wilson presided, and it was resolved to reconstitute the 
Anti-Corn-Law League, under the rules and regulations by which that body 
was formerly organised, and £27,700 was subscribed, within half-an-hour, by 
the meeting towards carrying out the objects of the revived league. Among 
the speakers were Messrs. R. Cobden, M.P., T. Milner Gibson, M.P., James 



1852] 



Annals of Manchester. 201 



Heywood, M.P., Alderman Harvey, John Bright, M.P., Henry Ashworth, and 
James Kershaw, M.P. 

A great fire occurred at Messrs. Cooper Brothers, patent candle manu- 
facturers, Hatton's Court, Chapel Street, Salford, April 13. 

Mr. Thomas Ingham died, April 26, aged 50 years. He was the son of a 
"Wesleyan minister, and was educated at the Edinburgh University, and owing 
to his scanty means passed three of the vacations as surgeon to a whaling 
vessel. He settled in practice at North Shields, but lost the modest fortune he 
had amassed, and with broken health came to Manchester as the resident 
medical officer of the Fever Hospital. He had been three years resident at the 
time of his death. He is buried at Ardwick Cemetery. 

The Peel statue, in Peel Park, Salford, was inaugurated May 8. 

A public meeting was held in the Corn Exchange, May 20, and adopted a 
memorial to the Queen for the periodical inspection of nunneries. 

St. Paul's Church, Kersal, consecrated by Bishop Lee, May 29. E. H. 
Shellard was the architect, and the cost of erection £5,000. 

Signer Giuseppe Lunardini, an aeronaut, was killed during an ascent from 
Belle Vue Gardens, June 3. 

Mr. John Knowles allowed the gratuitous use of the Theatre Royal for six 
nights' performances, and having paid all expenses, the gross receipts were 
given to the local charities. A committee was formed, and this Dramatic 
Festival commenced on June 7. Among the performers, who gave their services 
gratuitously, were Miss Helen Faucit and Mr. and Mrs. Charles Dillon. The 
total receipts were £970. 

Lady Potter, widow of Sir Thomas Potter, died June 19. She was the 
daughter of Mr. Thomas Bayley, of Booth Hall, and was born March 1, 1777. 

The town and neighbourhood were visited by a severe thunderstorm, 
June 21. 

Mr. Cyrus Armitage died at his house, in Ormond Street, on June 24, aged 71. 
He was born at Failsworth, and was a cotton manufacturer in Dukinfield. He 
wrote Some Account of the Family of the Armitagcs, from 1C62 to the present 
thne, London, 1850 ; and also the hymn commencing "When sickness, sorrow, 
grief, and care." (Christian Reformer, 1852, p. 515.) Mrs. Cyrus Armitage 
died April 14, aged 72. Their son, Cyrus Armitage, junior, late of Ceylon, died 
at his father's house, on December 14, aged 31. 

Mr. Thomas Wilson died July 6. He was the son of Michael Wilson (see 
under date February 27, 1810), and was educated at Chetham College. He was 
apprenticed to a firm of smallware manufacturers. In 1828 he went into part- 
nership with his brother William, as manufacturers of hat trimmings. The 
firm failed in 1842, but eventually paid a good dividend. He was the most able 
and prolific song writer of his familj'. (Harland's Songs of the Wilsons.) 

Mr. John Bright and the Right Hon. Thomas Milner Gibson were elected 
as members of Parliament for Manchester; and Mr. Joseph Brotherton was 
elected member for Salford. July 8. 

A Vegetarian banquet was held in the Salford Town Hall, July 22. Mr. 
James Simpson presided. 

Four men were killed in Ridgeway Street, Bradford Road, during a terrific 
thunderstorm, August 10. 



262 Annals of Manchester. 



[1852 



Richard Davies died August 10, aged 56. He is buried at Harpurhey 
Cemetery. His flglit with Young Dutch Sam in 1827 made him famous, though 
he was defeated. In his later years he kept the Coach and Horses in Todd 
Street, where Brassey, the pugilist, died suddenly in 1845. 

At the poll for the establishment of a Free Library, taken August 14, the 
adoption of the Act was sanctioned. Only forty adverse votes were cast. 

A grand banquet was held at the AthenEeum, in aid of the Guild of Litera- 
ture and Art, August 31. Sir E. B. Lytton, Messrs. Charles Dickens, Charles 
Knight, and James Crossley were amongst the speakers. 

A marble statue of the late Mr. Thomas Fleming was erected in the 
Cathedral, to commemorate his long and valuable services in promoting the 
improvement and prosperity of the town. September 14, 

At a meeting held in the Town Hall, September 28, a resolution was 
adopted to erect a statue of the Duke of Wellington in Manchester. 

The medals awarded at the Great Exhibition to the Manchester exhibitors 
were distributed. September. 

The Manchester Public Free Library, Campfield, opened. This library was 
established by public subscription in the third year of the mayoralty of Mr. 
John Potter, who was the most active person in its formation. The building, 
originally known as the Hall of Science, was built by the working classes at 
an outlay of more than £5,000, but was purchased with freehold for its present 
use for the sum of £2,147, which, with an additional outlay of £4,816 6s. 2d. for 
repairs, alterations, and furnishing, made a total of £6,963 6s. 2d. The number 
of volumes in the reference department at the time of opening was 16,013, and 
in the lending department 5,300, making a total of 21,300 in the library. Mr. 
Edward Edwards, of the British Museum, was appointed librarian. 

A meeting of the friends of the Irish Church Missions to the Roman 
Catholics was held in the Corn Exchange, October 5. 

The twelfth annual meeting of the Manchester and Salford Protestant and 
Reformation Society was held in the Free Trade Hall, October 21. 

A grand banquet of the Free Traders and Reformers was held in the Free 
Trade Hall, November 2. 

A severe shock of earthquake was felt in Manchester and the neighbourhood, 
November 9. 

Sir Thomas Joseph de TralTord, first Baronet, died November 10. He was 
buried at the Manchester Cathedral, November 19, and succeeded by his son 
Sir Humphrey de Trafford. 

Mr. John Easby died November IS, aged 40. He was a frequent contributor 
to periodicals, and had in his time played many parts as journalist, actor, and 
local preacher. Some details of his career are given in his Scenes/rovi the Life 
of a Green-Coated Schoolboy, 1851. (Procter's Manchester Streets, p. 224.) 
He is buried at Ardwick Cemetery, 

Rev. George Benjamin Sandford, M.A., died at Southport, December 9. He 
was born at Manchester, January 19, 1811, being the youngest son of William 
Sandford. (See under date 1821.) After attending the Grammar School he 
went to Brasenose College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. on May 9, 1833, 
and M.A. on March 10, 1836. Mr. Sandford was Hulmeian Exhibitioner in 1832, 
and in 1835 became curate to Rev. T. Blackburne, successively Vicar of Eccles 



1853] 



Annals of Manchester, 263 



and Prestwich. In 1840 he was presented to the perpetual curacy of Church 
Minshull, Cheshire. Mr. Sandford was author of a number of religious works, 
and also of a history of his parish of Church Minshull, which is a model of what 
a country parson could do towards a complete history of places and families. 
Mr. Sandford married Felicia, daughter of the Rev. J. Smith, D.D. One son, a 
clergyman, survived him. 

New bye-laws for the regulation of hackney carriages within the borough 
of Manchester came into operation, December 10. 

New omnibuses were introduced, which were larger and more commodious 
than those previously in use. They were without doors, and were drawn by 
three horses abreast. 

A conference, to consider the re-organisation of the Chartist body, sat for 
five days at Manchester, which was represented by William Grocott and E. 
Clark Cropper. 

Richard Raines, author of Budget of Comicalities, died about 1852. 
(Procter's Manchester Streets.) 

1853. 

The Manchester and Salford Waterworks Company dissolved, January 4. 

A public dinner was given in the Town Hall to the Hon. J. R. IngersoU, 
American Minister Plenipotentiary at the Court of St. James's, January 7. 

A meeting of the Peace Society was held in the Free Trade Hall, January 
28, Mr. George Wilson in the chair. 

The trustees of the Manchester Infirmary held a meeting respecting the 
site for the Peel statue, February 3. 

A Social Reform and Free Trade soiree was held in the Free Trade Hall, 
February 3. 

The foundation stone of a new chapel connected with the Manchester 
Domestic Mission laid on the west side of Rochdale Road, February 14. 

Mr. .John Bill died at Farley, Staffordshire, February 16. He was the son 
of Mr. John Bill, one of the surgeons to the Infirmary, and was educated at the 
Grammar School. He was a barrister, but did not practice, and having 
inherited an estate from his uncle, was noted for his charity and also for his 
eccentricity. He wrote The English Party's Excursion to Paris, to which is 
added a Trip to America, 1850. 

The shop of Mr. Howard, jeweller, Market Street, was robbed at mid-day, 
March 7. 

Another extensive robbery committed at the shop of Mr. Ollivant, jeweller, 
corner of Exchange Street, March 9. 

I Manchester was created a city by Royal charter, March 29. 

Charlotte Bronte visited Manchester and stayed with her friend Mrs. 
Gaskell, at the close of April, Mrs. Gaskell has left an interesting account of 
the susceptibility to music, and of the nervous dread of strangers, which she 
showed. (Gaskell's Life of Bronte.) 

" William Starkie, actor, died April 10, 1853, aged 51," is the epitaph in 
Harpurhey Cemetery on the grave of a warper, who was a favourite strolling 
performer. Procter has given a notice of him in Our Turf, Stage, and Ring, p. 25. 

The ratepayers of the townshio of Broughton held a meeting at the GrifiSn 



264 Annals of Manchester. 



[1853 



Inn, Lower Broughton, April 20, to consider the bill for incorporating the 
townships of Broughton and Pendleton with that of Salford. 

A bazaar was opened in the Exchange Rooms, April 26, in aid of the fund 
for promoting the ocean penny postage. 

Cardinal Wiseman gave a lecture on Art, in the Corn Exchange, April 27. 

The Northern and Midland Counties Chess Association held a meeting in 
the Exchange, May 6. 

The United Kingdom Alliance for the total and immediate suppression of 
the Liquor Traffic was formed June 1. The inaugural meeting was held 
October 26. The movement did not at first command the adhesion of even 
teetotallers, but its growth has since been very remarkable. Its founder was 
Nathaniel Card, who died March 22, 1856 (see under that date). The secretary 
appointed was Mr. Thomas HoUiday Barker, who was born at Peterborough, 
July 6, 1818, and was apprenticed to a wine and spirit merchant, but after 
hearing a lecture by John Cassell, the Manchester Carpenter, in 1836, he signed 
the pledge. He has lived in Manchester since 1844. 

A conversazione was held at the Athenaeum, June 1, "for the purpose of 
arriving at some safe conclusion about table turning." The Rev. H. H. Jones 
presided, and Dr. Braid, after a series of experiments had been gone through, 
expressed his belief that the turning of the tables was to be explained by Dr. 
W. B. Carpenter's theory of idea meter power. 

A public meeting held in the Town Hall, June 8, to hear addresses from 
several gentlemen on the Wesleyan "mediation movement," which had for its 
object to explain the differences between the Conference and the reformers and 
the efforts that had been made to heal them. 

16 and 17 Victoria. Act to authorise the Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of 
the City of Manchester to make certain new streets, and to amend the Acts 
relating to the said city, and for other purposes. June 8. 

16 Victoria, cap. 32. Act for the extension of the boundaries of the 
Municipal Borough of Salford, and for other purposes. June 14. 

Mr. Thomas Jarrold, M.D., died at Greenhill Street, Greenheys, June 24. 
He was born in 1769, and was the author of Dissert at io7is on Man, in answer 
to Malthus, 1806 ; Instinct and Reason, 1836 ; Anthropologia, &c. He is 
buried in the Congregational graveyard, Grosvenor Street, PiccadiHy. 

16 and 17 Victoria, cap. 102. Act to repeal an Act for making and main- 
taining a road from the top of Hunt's Bank, in the town of Manchester, to join 
the Manchester and Bury turnpike road in Pilkington, in the county of 
Lancaster, and to substitute other provisions in lieu thereof. July 8. 

A meeting was held in the Corn Exchange, July 27, presided over by Mr. 
R. N. Philips, at which petitions were adopted in favour of the Sunday opening 
of the Crystal Palace. 

Mr. Salis Schwabe died at Glyn Garth, on the Menai Straits, July 23, in his 
54th year. He was buried at Harpurhey Cemetery July 30, and was followed 
to the grave by the Bishop of Manchester and many of the leading persons of 
the city. 

16 and 17 Victoria, cap. 135. Act for more effectually repairing and 
improving several roads leading to and from the town of Salford, through 
Pendleton, and other places in the county of Lancaster. August 4. 



1854] 



Annals of Manchester. 265 



16 and 17 Victoria, cap. 122. Act to render valid certain marriages in the 
Chui'ch of the Holy Trinity in the township of Hulme and parish of Manchester. 
August 20. 

Mr. George Bradshaw died at Christiania, Norway, September 6, aged 53. 
He was the head of the firm of Bradshaw and Blacklock, publishers of the 
Railway Guides which have given the name of the benevolent Quvaker printer 
world-wide currency. The cause of his death was an attack of cholera. 

Mr. J. B. Gough lectured in the Lever Street Chapel, September 22. 

The district suffered from severe gales of wind, September 25. 

The new building of the Salford Free Library and Museum was opened, 
October 1. 

The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone (then Chancellor of the Exchequer) and 
Mi'S. Gladstone visited Manchester, October 10. 

Inauguration of the statue of Sir Robert Peel, in front of the Infirmary, 
October 12. Mr. W. E. Gladstone took part in the proceedings. 

A marble statue of Humphrey Chetham, by Theed, was placed in the 
Cathedral at the cost of Mr. George Pilkington (formerly one of the blue coat 
boys in the College), at a cost of £1,000. October. 

A public meeting was held in the Corn Exchange to express the sympathy 
of the inhabitants of Manchester with Turkey in her struggle with Russia. 
November 16. 

St. Stephen's Church, Chorlton-on-Medlock, was consecrated by Bishop Lee, 
December 30. The architect was Mr. E. H. Shellard, and the cost of erection 
£3,300. It was enlarged in 1863. 

Mr. Thomas Gibbons, head gardener of Peel Park, was drowned in the 
Irwell, whilst endeavouring to save a woman who had attempted to drown 
herself. He was 48 years of age, and left a widow and three children, for 
whose benefit there was a subscription. 

Mr. Francis Nesbitt McCron died in the hospital at Geelong. He was born 
at Manchester in 1809, but was educated by a clergyman near Cork, and was 
intended for the profession of a surgeon, but he abandoned this for the stage, 
but left it at the instance of his friends in 1840 to settle in Ireland. In less 
than a year he eloped, and with his wife went to Port Jackson, where he 
landed in January, 1841. Unable to find commercial employment he again 
went on the stage, and " from that time till his death held undisputed sway '> 
in the colony. In 1848 he went to San Francisco, Avhere he became for a time 
a gold-digger. He returned to Sydney in 1852, and thence to Victoria, where 
he was seized with illness when performing " William Tell" at Geelong. He 
was carried off the stage, and died in the hospital at the age of 44. A monu- 
ment was placed over his grave in 1856 by G. V. Brooke. (ilcaXon's Australian 
Dictionary of Dates, 1871), p. 271). McCron's stage name was Nesbitt. 

1854. 

In consequence of the heavy snowstorms which occurred at this time, 
railway and other traffic was much impeded, January 6. 

Rev. William Parr Grcswell died Januaryil2. He was born at Chester, 
1765, and was incumbent of Denton for sixty-three years. He wrote Memoirs 
of Angelus Polilianus, and others, 1801'; Parisian Typography, 1818 ; 



266 Annals of Manchester. 



[1854 



Monastery of St. Werhurgh, a poem, 1823 ; Early Parisian Greek Press, 1833. 
(Booker's Denton — Chetham's Miscellany, vol. 2. — p. 109.) 

A public meeting of the National Public Schools Association was held in 
the Mechanics' Institution, Cooper Street, January 18. 

Rev. Oswald Sergeant, M.A., Minister of St. Philip's, Salford, and Canon of 
Manchester, died February 12. He was born at Manchester, May 28, 1800. He 
published A Funeral Sermon on the Death of T. Calvert, D.D., with brief 
Memoir, and various other sermons and tracts. 

The warehouse of Messrs. Rylands and Sons, New High Street, was 
destroyed by fire, March 1. 

Rev. John Gooch Robber ds died April 21. He was born at Norwich, May 19, 
1789, and educated at the Grammar School there, and at Manchester New 
College, York. In 1810 he became co-pastor of Cross Street Chapel. There is a 
portrait of him in Sir Thomas Baker's Memorials. He wrote Christian Festivals 
and Natural Seasons, which appeared posthumously in the year of his death. 
Many of his separate sermons were also printed. 

The Old Factory, Miller's Lane, Shudehill, was entirely destroyed by fire, 
April 28. 

The Bishop of Manchester laid the corner stone of the new building intended 
for a day school for the boys of St. Matthew's Church, May 24. 

17 Victoria, cap. 20. Act to repeal an Act of the fifty-third year of King 
George III., cap. 72, and an Act of the eighth year of Her present Majesty, cap. 21, 
and for making provision for the appointment and for renumeration of a 
Stipendiary Justice for the division of Manchester, and of clei-ks to such Justice 
and the Justices for the borough of Salford, and for other purposes. June 2. 

17 and 18 Victoria. Act for enabling the Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of 
the City of Manchester to widen certain streets in and otherwise improve the 
said city ; to raise a further sum of money, and for other purposes. June 2. 

A meeting was held in the Town Hall, July 13, to determine what measures 
should be taken to further the objects of the International Exhibition at Paris 
in 1855. 

The Manchester and Salford Temperance Society held a meeting in the 
Friends' Meeting House, Mount Street, July 24, when resolutions were passed 
in favour of closing public-houses on Sundays. 

An Anti-Slavery meeting was held in the library hall of the Athenaeum, 
August 1. 

Rev. John William Whittaker, D.D., Vicar of Blackburn, died there 
August 3. He was born at Manchester, 1790. He was the author of Inquiry 
into the Interpretation of the Hebrew Scriptures, 1819-20; Statutes and 
Charter of Rivington School, 1837; Sermon to the Chartists, 1839; other works, 
sermons, pamphlets, and papers. (Gentleman's Magazine, October, 1854, p. 396.) 

Rev. R. M. Master was admitted Archdeacon of Manchester, September 2. 

The foundation stone of St. Paul's Church, Stretford Road, Hulme, was 
laid, September 2, by Dr. J. P. Lee, Bishop of Manchester. The church was 
opened for divine service, by licence, on June 20, 1855, but was not consecrated 
until January 10, 1856. This has been called the Working Man's Church, for 
the reason that the cost of building was defrayed almost entirely by members 
of the humbler classes. 



1855] 



Annals of Manchester. 2G7 



Mr. James Sheridan Knowles, who, after attaining distinction as a 
dramatist, had turned liis attention to theology, gave the first of a series of 
lectures on Popery, in Lever Street Chapel, September 4. 

Much damage was done to property by heavy storms of wind, October 17 
and 18. 

An extensive fire broke out in the warehouse of Messrs. F. H. Theode and 
Co., Smithy Lane, Lower King Street, October 25. 

Mr. W. C. Macready, the tragedian, gave readings from the poets, in the 
]\Iechanics' Institution, November 18. 

A public meeting was held at the Town Hall, December 18, for the purpose 
of establishing the Manchester and Salford Baths and Laundries Company. 

Canon Stowell gave a lecture in the Mechanics' Institution, December 18, 
on " The Causes of Poverty, &c., among the Working Classes." 

Rev. Jeremiah Smith, D.D., died at Brewood, Staffordshire, December 21. 
He was born at Brewood, July 22, 1771. He was for many years High Master 
of Manchester Grammar School, and the author of ^ Vindication of Defensive 
War, a sermon before the North Worcester Volunteers, 1805. (Manchester 
School Register, vol. iii., p. 2.) 

17 and 18 Victoria. Act for the extension of the Manchester Corporation 
Waterworks and for other purposes, and of which the short title is "The 
Manchester Corporation Waterworks Act, 1854." 

1855. 

The Town Hall, Cheetham, was opened, January 5. 

A soiree was given to the members of Parliament for Manchester, in the 
Corn Exchange, January 19. Mr. G. Wilson presided. 

A testimonial was presented to Mr. J. C. Harter, in the shape of a 
portrait, to remain in the boardroom of the Infirmary, February 22, and a copy 
of the same was presented to the members of Mr. Harter's family. 

A meeting in favour of peace with Russia was held in Newall's Buildings, 
February 27, which was followed by several others, extending over a period of 
many weeks. 

The final meeting of the Manchester Committee of the Patriotic Fund was 
held April 13. 

The Rev. James Scholefield died at Every Street, April 24. He was born 
at Colne Bridge, near Huddn'sfield, in 1790, and having adopted the views of 
the Bible Christians, preached for many years in the Round Chapel, Every 
Street. For the last forty-four years of his life he was a vegetarian. His 
pamphlet on " Vegetarianism," published about 1851, was translated into Ger- 
man by Emil Weilshaeuser, under the title of Dcr Mcnsch — Kein liaubthier 
(Berlin : Grieben). He was a Radical Reformer, and was tried at Lancaster 
Assizes March 21, 1813, for allowing the Chartist Conference of 1842 to be held 
in his chapel. He was acquitted. 

Sir H. G. W. Smith distributed medals, at the Regent Road Barracks, 
Salford, June 4, to those oflicers and men of the 51st Regiment who fought in 
the Burmese war. Colours were presented to this regiment by Lady Wiltshire. 
June 6. 

18 and 19 Victoria. Act for enabling the mayor, aldermen, and citizens of 



268 Annals of Manchester. [isss 

the city of Manchester to make a new street from Manchester, across the 
Irwell, into Salford, and authorising arrangements with the Corporation of 
Salford in reference thereto, and for other purposes. June 15. 

A great open-air meeting was held in Stevenson Square for the purpose of 
re-organising the Chartist movement, July 15. 

M. A. C. G. Jobert died at Ste. Foy, July 17. He was a native of France, 
and a pupil of Hauy, but settled in Manchester as a teacher of languages. 
Having become partially paralysed in the organs of speech, he sought relief by 
travel, but his constitution was shattered. His widow, an English lady, was 
left destitute, and in aid of a fund for her Mr. B. Waterhouse Hawkins, F.G.S., 
lectured in Manchester, December 18. Jobert was the friend of Cuvier and 
Murchison, and wrote Philosox>1iie cle la Geologic and other works. 

The statue of Dr. Dalton, in front of the Royal Infirmary, was inaugurated, 
July 26. 

A beerhouse-keeper in Pendleton, named Booth, caused the death of a 
woman named Behan, who lived with him, by beating and kicking her. 
August 7. 

A robbery was committed at the Manchester Stamp Office, Cross Street, 
August 8, when property to the amount of £1,700 was stolen. 

A conversazione of the Manchester Photographic Society was held at the 
Royal Institution, August 10. 

The foundation stone of St. Mary's Hospital, in Quay Street, was laid by 
the Bishop of Manchester, September 3. 

The foundation stone of the new Manchester Workhouse was laid by Mr. 
C. H. Rickards, September 5. 

The chancel of St. John's Roman Catholic Church was opened Sept. 27. 

Mr. John Kennedy, author of Miscellaneous Papers, 1849, died at Man- 
chester, October 30. He was born at Knockmalling, Kirkcudbright, July 4, 
1769, but resided at Chowbent and Manchester from 1784. He came to Man- 
chester in 1791 and began business. The firm of Sandford, McConnel, and 
Kennedy were machine makers and mule-spinners, and Mr. Kennedy made 
some improvements in Crompton's mule. He realised a large fortune. He 
was a man of scientific tastes, and read a number of papers before the Literary 
and Philosophical Society. There is a memoir of him by Sir W. Fairbairn in 
Memoirs of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, 3rd series, 
vol. i., p. 147. 

The inaugural dinner of the Railway Club took place at the Clarence Hotel, 
Spring Gardens, November 2. 

The Bishop of Manchester commenced his second visitation of the diocese, 
December 5. 

A destructive fire broke out in High Street and Marsden Square, Dec. 5. 

At a meeting held in the Town Hall the erection of a statue to James Watt, 
in front of the Royal Infirmary, was resolved upon, December 11. 

The Church of St. John the Evangelist, Miles Platting, was consecrated by 
Bishop Lee, December 27. The architect was Mr. G. Shaw, and the cost of 
erection £5,000. 

Margaret Oldham died in the workhouse. She claimed to be the first 
Sunday scholar in Manchester, and stated that in 1780 Molly Scholes, the 



1856] 



Annals of Manchester. 269 



keeper of a dame's school in Press House Steps, Blackfriars, told her pupils 
that she was about to open the school on Sunday for religious instruction, and 
promised the first comer a slice of currant bread ! Margaret, going early, 
found one Betty Hyde a step in advance, but pulled her back by the hair, and 
claimed the prize. Molly contented them by giving each a slice. (Manchester 
Guardian Local Notes and Queries, No. 894.) 

1856. 

Mr. James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S., delivered a lecture in the Athenaeum, 
on " Administrative and Academic Reform." January 14. 

A public meeting held in the Town Hall to promote the Nightingale 
Fund, January 17. 

The first number of Photographic Illustrations, by Members of the 
Manchester Photographic Society, was published by George Simms in 
January. 

A public meeting to oppose the Government Police Bill was held in the 
Salford Town Hall, February 27, convened by the mayor, Mr. S. Heelis, who 
presided. A petition against the Bill was adopted. 

Mr. Nathaniel Card died at Manchester, March 22. He was born at Dublin 
in 1805, and was a member of the Society of Friends. When the cholera was 
raging in his native city, in 1831-2, he visited and relieved the afflicted at the 
peril of his own life. He settled in Manchester, where he was highly esteemed, 
and represented Gheetham Ward in the city Council from November, 1854, until 
his death. Having heard an address in which Dr. F. R. Lees spoke of the 
success of the prohibitory liquor law in Maine, he determined to attempt 
to organise a movement for the same purpose in England. From this arose 
the " United Kingdom Alliance for the Total and Immediate Suppression of 
the Liquor Traffic." (See under date June 1, 1853.) 

The first game of chess by telegraph in England was played between the 
Chess Clubs of Liverpool and Manchester, March 28. 

Mr. John Armitage died at his residence in Manchester on April 17, aged 48. 
He was the son of Mr. Cyrus Armitage, and was born at Failsworth, September 
27, 1807, and shortly after he came of age he accepted an engagement under 
Messrs. Philips, Wood, & Co., and was sent by them to their branch establish- 
ment in Rio Janeiro. While here he wrote a History of Brazil from 1S08 to 
1831, which was published in two volumes. He returned to England, and in 
1S36 proceeded to Ceylon, where he was a merchant, and member of the 
Legislative Council. The climate of Ceylon had, however, injured his health, 
and on August 30, 1855, he sailed for England, Before he left Ceylon he was 
presented with an address and a tesLimonial of silver plate. On his return he 
established himself in Manchester, and was interred at Dukiufield Old 
.Chapel. {Christian Reformer, 185G, p. 317.) 

Canon Stowell lectured in the Corn Exchange before the members of the 
Manchester and Salford Reformation Society, on the Maynooth Grant, April 21. 

The annual Whitsuntide procession of the children of the Church of 
England Sunday Schools, May 12. The number in the procession was 11,719. 

A meeting of the subscibers to the guarantee fund for the Exhibition of 
1857 was held in the Town Hall, May 20. 



270 Annals of Manchester. 



[1856 



There were great rejoicings and demonstration in consequence of peace 
being proclaimed between England and Russia, May 29. 

AVilliam Entvvisle, M.P., died May 30. He was born at Rusholme, February 
3, 1809. He was the author of pamphlets on education, March, 1851-3. 

Mr. Richard Gardner, M.P., died June 4. He was born at Manchester in 
1814. He was educated at the Manchester Grammar School, and was M.P. for 
Leicester from 1847 unLil his death. (School Register, iii. 198.) 

A meeting was held in the Town Hall, June 27, for the purpose of opening 
a subscription list for the relief of the sufferers by the recent floods in 
Finance. 

Bands of music were placed in the public parks of Manchester and Salford 
to play for the recreation of the people on Sundays. The opposition on the 
part of the Sabbatarian public was so strongly expressed that the experiment 
was soon abandoned. June 29. 

Mr. William Lockett died at Lytham, July 7, in his 79th year. He was the 
first mayor of Salford. 

St. Thomas's Church, Paddington, Salford, was consecrated by Bishop Lee, 
July 26. Mr. E. H. Shellard was the architect, and the cost of the erection 
was £5,000. 

The formal ceremony of laying the base for the first pillar of the building 
for the Art Treasures Exhibition at Old Trafford was performed by Mi-. 
Thomas Farrbairn, August 13. 

The statue of the Duke of Wellington, in front of the Infirmary, was 
inaugurated, August 30. 

The Exhibition of Art Manufactures at the new building of the Mechanics' 
Institution, David Street, was opened, September 9. 

The spire of the Independent Chapel in Bury New Road, Broughton, fell, 
doing damage to the amount of £1,000, September 24. 

The new Free Trade Hall was inaugurated October 8. Mr. George Wilson 
presided. The cost of the building was £40,000. 

St. Mary's Hospital, in Quay Street, was formally opened by the Countess 
of Wilton, who presided. October 10. 

An accident occurred at the Exhibition building, Old Trafford, by which 
one man was killed and several were seriously injured, October 31. 

A meeting in favour of the abolition of capital punishment was held in the 
Free Trade Hall, November 20. 

Rev. David Howarth died, December 25th, aged 67. He was the successor 
of Mr. Hindmarsh as minister of the Swedenborgian Temple, Bolton Street, 
Salford. (Hindmarsh's Rise, p. 420.) 

Rev. William Stewart, M.A., died at Hale, December, aged 72. He was 
born at Manchester, and was perpetual curate of Hale, near ChUdwall. He 
was the author of Memorials of Hale (pamphlet), Liverpool, 1848. (Procter's 
Manchester Streets, p. 129.) 

Baths and washhouses were opened in Greengate, Salford. 

Public washhouses and baths were opened in Miller Street. 

Manchester Lectures delivered before the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion. (London, J. F. Shaw ; Manchester, Durham.) This volume contains 
lectures by Rev. J. Baldwin Brown, Rev. J. B. Owen, Canon Stowell, Rev. 



1857] 



Annals of Manchester. 271 



Luke Wiseman, A. J. Scott, Rev. W. Arnot, Rev. Berkeley Addison, and Rev. 
Alexander Thomson. 

1857. 

Blr. Joseph Brotherlon, M.P., died suddenly, January 7, whilst in an 
omnibus on his way from Pendleton to Manchester, He was born May 22, 178'3. 
at Whittington, near Chesterfield, but his father removed to Manchester in 
1789 and became a successful cotton spinner. The son became a partner, but 
retired, in 1819, in order to devote himself to public work. He was an advocate 
for factory legislation, for Parliamentary reform, and for Free Trade. He 
oelonged to the Bible Christian Church, whose members abstain from intoxi- 
cants and animal food. He was one of the committee who helped the sufferers 
from the Peterloo massacre. It was largely owing to his influence that Salford 
was enfranchised, and h • was elected its first representative, and held that 
position until his death. In Parliament he had great influence, and as chairman 
of the Private Bills Committee was remarkable for the steady integrity and 
abilitj' of his course. He was minister of the Bible Christian Church and con- 
ducted the services there on the last Sunday of his life. He was buried at the 
Salford Cemetery, January 14, and the public funeral testified to the universal 
respect in which he was held. There is a bust of him in the Manchester Town 
Hall, and a bronze statue by Mr. Matthew Noble in Peel Park, Salford. On the 
pedestal are the words which have been called Brotherton's motto : " My riches 
consist not in the extent of my possessions but in the fewness of my wants." 

Mr. William Harper died, Jan. 25. He was born in ]Manchester in 1806, and 
was author of The Genius and other poems, 1840 ; Cain and Abel, 1844 ; and 
Memoir of Benjamin Braidleij. JMr. Harper was closely identified with 
Bennett Street School. 

Mr. E. R. Langworthy was elected without contest M.P. for Salford, in 
place of the late Mr. Brotherton, February 2. 

A public meeting in favour of the ballot was held in the Free Trade Hall, 
February 25. 

Francis Egerton, Earl of Ellesmere, died at his town residence, 
Bridgewater House, London, February 18. He was buried at Worsley, 
February 26. 

The general election was one of unusual interest and bitterness, and 
resulted in the general defeat of the " Manchester School." The Salford election 
was held on March 2, when Mr. W. N. Massey defeated Sir E. Armitage. The 
Manchester poll was on the 28th, and resulted in the rejection of Mr. John 
Bright and his colleague, Mr. Milner Gibson, and the election of Sir John 
Potter and Mr. J. Aspinall Turner. The figures were : Manchester— Potter, 
8,368; Turner, 7,851; Gibson, 5,588; Bright, 5,458. Salford-Massey, 1,880; 
Armitage, 1,264. Tlie defeat of Mr. Bright was regarded with deep regret by 
men of all parties in the country. 

The great event of the year was the Exhibition of the Art Treasures of the 
United Kingdom, at Old Trafl'ord, which demonstrated the wealth of the 
British artistic possessions. The Exhibition was opened by Prince Albert, 
May 5. The Queen, the Prince Consort, the Prince of Wales and Prince Alfred, 
the Princess Royal and Princess Alice, and the Prince Frederick William of 



272 Annals of Manchester. 



[1857 



Prussia, arrived at Patricroft, and drove to Worsley Hall, the residence of the 
Earl of Ellesmere, June 29, and on the following day visited the Exhibition. 
Visitors from all parts of the world came to see the art treasures. Prince 
Napoleon and suite arrived in Manchester and paid a visit to the Exhibition, 
July 13. Nathaniel Hawthorne was there one day and saw Tennyson strolling 
through, but did not speak, as they, like the heroes of Gilbert's ballad of 
"Etiquette," "had not been introduced." The Exhibition closed October 17. 
It had been open one hundred and forty-two days, of which two, the opening 
day and that of the public visit of Her Majesty the Queen, were reserved for 
the holders of two-guinea season tickets. The total number of paying visitors 
during the season was 1,053,538; of ticket-holders, 283,177; making a total of 
1,336,715. The receipts were £110,588 9s. 8d., being £304 14s. 4d. over the 
expenditure. The Exhibition gave rise to an extensive literature, of which the 
most important were the Companions, edited by Tom Taylor; "Waring's 
Examples, a sumptuous folio; Burger's Tresors d' Art ; and The Art Treasures 
Examiner. A tolerably complete collection of the books relating to the 
Exhibition, including several in the Lancashire dialect, will be found in the 
Manchester Free Reference Library. 

Prince Albert visited Peel Park, May 6, and there inaugurated Noble's 
statue of Queen Victoria. 

Mr. John Moore, F.L.S., died at Hulme, May 10. He was 83 years old, and 
had been president of the Royal Manchester Institution, of the Natural History 
Society, and of the Literary and Philosophical Society, to whose Memoirs he 
contributed a biography of Edward Hobson. There is a brief account of his 
investigations as to the potato disease in Smith's Centenary. 

The members of the Manchester Entomological Society held their first 
meeting at Mr. Rickett's Temperance Hotel, Great Bridgewater Street, 
June 17. 

Mr. Thomas Bellot, M.R.C.S., died, June. He was born at Manchester in 
1807, and was an accomplished Chinese and Oriental scholar. He wrote 
Sanskrit Derivation of English Words, 1856, &c. {Dictionary of National 
Biography.) 

Mr. William Bradley died July 4. He was born at Manchester, January 16, 
1801, and was left an orphan at the age of three. At sixteen he advertised 
himself as a "portrait, miniature, and animal painter," and executed portraits 
at one shilling a piece. Mather Brown, then living in Manchester, gave him 
some lessons, and he developed remarkable powers as a portrait painter. He 
went to London, when about twenty-one, and painted the portraits of Macready, 
Gladstone, and many other public men. He returned to Manchester in 1847, in 
broken health, and died there in poverty ten years later. {City News Notes 
and Queries, vol. i.) 

The Manchester and Salford Reformatory, situated in Blackley, was opened 
August 6. 

20 and 21 Victoria. Act to make better provision for the burial of the dead 
in the city of Manchester, and for enabling the Corporation to purchase certain 
lands and effect certain improvements in that city. August 10. 

20 and 21 Victoria, cap. 132. Act to give further powers to the mayor, 
aldermen, and burgesses of the borough of Salford with respect to burial pur- 



1858J 



Annals of Manchester. 273 



poses, and to authorise arrangements with respect to lands in and near Mar- 
borough Square, in Salford. August 10. 

Considerable damage was done to property by the rivers Irwell and Med- 
lock overflowing, in consequence of the heavy rains, August 13 and 14. 

The annual meeting of the Chess Association was held in Manchester, 
August. The Report of this famous gathering is now scarce. (Katalog dcr 
Schach-Blbliothck der Herr R. Franz, 1885.) 

The Salford Borough Cemetery, New Barnes, Eccles New Road, was opened 
September 1. Its area is about 21 acres, apportioned as follows : Church of 
England and Dissenters, 8.| acres each ; Roman Catholics, 4 acres. The 
members of the Church of England, the Dissenters, and the Roman Catholics 
have each a mortuary chapel. 

Mr. John B. Gough lectured on total abstinence in the Free Trade Hall, 
September 1. His lecture was afterwards printed. 

Mr. Joshua Radford, secretary to the Royal Infirmary, died September 5. 

Dr. David Livingstone visited Manchester, September 9. The great 
African traveller was received by the Chamber of Commerce at the Town Hall 
in the morning, and a welcome was also given to him in Grosvenor Street 
Chapel in the evening. 

Collections were made at the various churches and chapels in aid of the 
Indian Relief Fund on October 7, the day appointed as a day of fasting and 
humiliation. 

Mr. Charles Hulbert died near Shrewsbury, Oct. 7. He was a native of 
Manchester, and was born 18th Feb., 1778. He was printer, publisher, editor, 
and author. He wrote History of Shreivsbury, 1837 ; Cheshire Antiquities, 
1838 ; Memoirs of Seventy Years of an Eventful Life, 1852, and a great number 
of other works, chiefly compilations. {Obituary, by his son, 1867.) 

Mr. John Taylor died at Liverpool, Dec. 9. He was born at Paisley, but 
lived at Manchester and Liverpool the greater part of his life. He was the 
author of a translation of Ovid's Fasti, 8vo, 1839 ; and of Claudian Sketches 
(poems). He was also an art critic. (Manchester School Register, vol. ii., p. 180.) 

A robbery of bank-notes of the amount of £3,160 took place in the Corn 
Exchange, December 10. A foreigner, who gave the name of Browncss, was 
taken into custody the same day. The whole of the stolen notes were found 
upon him. 

The Siamese Ambassadors visited the city, December 13. 

Mr. Archibald Prentice died December 24, at Park View, Plymouth Grove, 
aged 65. He was the son of a Scotch farmer, and, in 1815, settled in Man- 
chester, where he took an active part in public affairs, and was one of the 
advanced Liberals. He started the Manchester Times, which, by amalgama- 
tion with another paper, became the Manchester Eccaminer and Tiines. He 
wrote Historical Sketches of Manchester, 1851; History of the Anti-Corn Law 
League, 1S.>J, and other works. 

1858. 

A testimonial, consisting of a valuable timepiece and a box containing 
three hundred sovereigns, was presented to Captain Willis, upon his resignation 
of his position as chief constable, January 14. 



274 Annals of Manchester. [i858 



Rev. Richard Parkinson, D.D., died January 28, at the Priory of St. Bees. 
He was of yeoman stock, and was born at Woodgates, Chipping, and after an 
early education at Brabin's School went on to Hawkshead Grammar School 
and St. John's College, Cambridge. He became master of Lea School, near 
Preston, edited the Preston Pilot, became theological tutor of St. Bee's College, 
of which he was afterwards principal, and in 1830 Rector of Whitworth, 
near Rochdale. In 1833 he was elected a Fellow of Manchester Church. He is 
the author of several volumes on theology, but is best remembered by his Old 
Church Clock, which was published in 1843. The fifth edition appeared in 1880, 
and by the copious annotations of its editor, Mr. John Evans, has become an 
important book of local history. 

The new warehouse belonging to Messrs. Watts, in Portland Street, 
was opened for business, March 16. 

The cotton spinning and doubling mill of Messrs. Lewis and Williams, 
MinshuU Street, was destroyed by fire, causing damage which was estimated 
at about £20,000, March 20. 

The Synagogue of British Jews, in York Street, Cheetham Hill Road, was 
consecrated, March 25. 

A meeting on Parliamentary Reform was held in the Salford Town Hall, 
March 31. The mayor, Mr. W. Harvey, presided. 

A public dinner given to Sir James Brooke, K.C.B., Rajah of Sarawak, at 
the Queen's Hotel, Piccadilly, April 21. Mr. Ivie Mackie, mayor, presided. 

A meeting of the Cotton Supply Association was held in the Town Hall, 
May 14, for the purpose of encouraging the culture of cotton in our East Indian 
possessions. 

The annual Whitsuntide procession of the scholars of the Church of 
England Sunday Schools took place. May 24. The number of scholars was 11,985. 
21 Victoria, cap- 24. Act for enabling the Justices of the County of Lan- 
caster to erect or provide Assize Courts in or near Manchester, and for other 
purposes. June 14. 

21 Victoria, cap. 25. Act for enabling the Corporation of the City of Man- 
chester to raise further sums of money, and for other purposes. June 14. 

21 Victoria, cap. 37. Act for the more effectual management and repair of 
the road from Manchester, through Hyde, to Mottram-in-Longdendale, county 
of Chester. June 14. 

Rev. Jabez Bunting, D.D., died June 16 at his house, 30, Myddelton Square, 
London. He was born at Newton Lane, Manchester, May 13, 1779, and was 
taken by his mother to Oldham Street Chapel to receive Wesley's blessing. 
For fifty-nine years he was a minister of the Methodist Connexion, and had 
occupied every position of prominence in it. For many years he was the most 
representative man of that great religious organisation. He was educated by 
Dr. Percival, and had for his early religious friends Dr. Adam Clarke and Dr. 
Coke. The first volume of a Life of Dr. Bunting, by his son, Mr. T. P. Bunting, 
appeared in 1859. There are several portraits of him. 

Mr. Thomas Edmondson died June 22. When booking clerk at the Milton 
Station, on the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway, he devised the ticket system 
now in general use. He afterwards removed to Manchester, where he founded 
ticket-printing establishments. 



1858] 



Annals of Manchester. 275 



Rev. John Clunie, LL.D., died June 23, He was born at London, April 9, 
1784, and was the Principal of Leaf Square and Seedley Grove Academies, 1812 
to 1837. He was the author of a Funeral Sermon for Bev. William Baby, 1830, 
and other pamphlets. 

21 and 22 Victoria. Act providing for the separate Incorporation of 
the overseers of the several townships of Manchester, Ardwick, Chorlton- 
upon-Medlock, and Hulme, for specific purposes, for the levying and collection 
of rates, for the extinguishing the exemption of gasworks from rates. June 28. 

A boiler explosion occurred at Messrs. Sharp, Stewart, and Co.'s Atlas 
Works, Great Bridgewater Street, July 2, when seven persons were killed and 
five seriouslj^ injured. 

21 and 22 Victoria, cap. 87. Act for amending the Acts relating to the 
Manchester Corporation "Waterworks. July 12. 

The statue of the late Mr. Joseph Brotherton, M.P., was inaugurated in Peel 
Park, Salford, August 5. The cost was defrayed by public subscription. 

The annual show of the Manchester and Liverpool Agricultural Society 
was held at Longsight, September 9. 

Mr. Ernest Jones, the Chartist leader, who had now settled in Manchester, 
gave a lecture on Parliamentary Keform, in Heyrod Street, September 27. 

St. George's Church, Charlestown, was consecrated by Bishop Lee, Oct. 2. 
The architect was Mr. E. H. Shellard, and the cost of erection £7,000. It was 
enlarged in 18G2. 

The Duke of Cambridge visited Manchester, October 9. 

Rev. Samuel Hall, M.A., died October 21. He was the eldest son of the 
Rev. Samuel Hall, of St. Ann's, and was educated at the Grammar School, and 
St. John's College, Cambridge. When perpetual curate of Billinge he 
abandoned his Calvinistic views, and, becoming a Universalist, resigned his 
position in the Church of England. 

Lord John Russell delivered an address at the Manchester Athenaeum 
soiree, held in the Free Trade Hall, October 21. 

Mr. John Young Caw, F.S.A. (Scotland), died Oct. 22. He was born at Perth 
about 1810. He was the author of works on banking, a paper on Goldsmith's 
Deserted Village, and another on Ecclesiastical Affairs in Manchester. 
(Dictionary of National Biography.) 

St. John the Baptist's Church, Embden Street, Hulme, built from the 
designs of Mr. E. H. Shellard, was consecrated October 23. It was built by sub- 
scription, one of the principal subscribers and workers being Mr. Herbert 
Birley. 

Sir John Potter, M.P., died at his residence. Beech House, Pendleton, 
October 2o, in the 41th year of his age. He was the son of Sir Thomas Potter, 
and took an important part in the public life of the town. He was the founder 
of the Manchester Free Library, and an interesting sketch of him is given in 
Edwards's Free I'own Libraries. When the Moderate Liberals deserted the 
"Manchester School" their choice fell upon Sir John, who defeated Mr. Bright 
at the election of 1857. He was buried at Ardwick Cemetery October 30, when 
the respect felt by his fellow-citizens was shown by a public funeral. 

St. Mary's Church, Hulme, was consecrated November 13. The buildmg was 
begun in 1853. The spire was completed July 26, 1850, and ascends to the 



276 Annals of Manchester. 



[1853 



height of 224 feet 4 inches ; above this is a vane 18 feet high, making a total 
altitude of 242 feet. This beautiful church owes its origin to the munificence 
of the late Mr. Wilbraham Egerton, of Tatton Park, who died in 1856. The 
cost was £16,000. The architect was Mr. J. C. Crowther. 

Mr. Thomas Bazley was elected M.P. for Manchester, in the place of Sir 
John Potter, deceased, November 17. 

Mr. Robert Owen died Nov. 17. He was born at Newtown, Montgomery- 
shire, May 14, 1771, aasd after being a draper's assistant became manager of a 
cotton mill at Manchester, where he distinguished himself by business ability 
and care for the workpeople. He married the daughter of Mr. David Dale 
and his mills at New Lanark, near Glasgow, became models to which visitors 
came from all parts of the world. He became the apostle of Socialism, and 
devoted to its advocacy both time and money in an unstinted degree. He had 
great qualities, and some foibles, but his generosity and disinterestedness 
were never questioned, even by his slanderers. Thousands of the working 
classes embraced his doctrine as harbingers of a better day, but the failure of 
several attempts to establish communities checked its progress, and the 
agitation gradually ceased. The modern co-operative movement is perhaps the 
most important legacy that Socialism has left. The story of the Socialist 
agitation, which had many adherents in Manchester, must be sought in the 
lives of Owen, by Sargant, and by Booth ; in Owen's numerous writings ; and 
in Holyoake's History of Co-operation. 

St. Luke's Church, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, was consecrated by Bishop Lee, 
December 4. It was built in 1804, at a cost of £2,500. In 1865 it was rebuilt, at a 
cost of £7,000, and was consecrated by Bishop Lee, July 1, 1865. 

Rev. Henry Halford Jones, F.R.A.S., died December 21. He was a native 
of Brownsover, near Rugby, where he was born June 6, 1787. He was the 
author of Philosophy of Education, 1837, and other tracts. {Monthly JVotices, 
K. Astro. S., XXX. 119.) 

Mr. Robert Wilson Smiles appointed librarian of the Manchester Pree 
Libraries, on the resignation of Mr. Edward Edwards. Mr. Smiles resigned in 
18G2. 

The lectures delivered by the Rev. Arthur Mursell on Sunday afternoons 
began to excite attention. The earlier lectures were delivered at the Heyrod 
Street Institution, and their popularity led to their continuance at the Free 
Trade Hall. Several series were printed, and had a large sale. Some of the 
lectures gave rise to considerable controversy, and there is quite a pamphlet 
literature about them. Of most of these tracts there are copies in the Man- 
chester Free Library. There are several details of interest in the Manchester 
City News Notes and Queries, vol. i., pp. 320, 324. 

1859. 

The cotton waste warehouse of Mr. Perry, situate in Blossom Street, Great 

Ancoats Street, was destroyed by fire, .January 7. 

A Are took place in the shop of Mr. Owen, toy dealer, Oldham Street, 
January 11. The damage was between £3,000 and £4,000. 

A testimonial, consisting of an elegant silver centrepiece, was presented tO' 



1859] 



Ar.nals of Manchester. 277 



Mr. Thomas Bazley, M.P., by the members of the Chamber of Commerce, 
January 12. 

A man named Robinson, the keeper of a beerhouse in Albert Street, 
murdered his wife, then attempted to set the house on fire, and finally hanged 
himself, February 1. 

A conference of Reformers favourable to the general principles of Mr. 
Bright's Representation of the People Bill, was held in the Free Trade Hall 
February 1. 

Mr. Thomas Kibble Hervey died at Kentish Town, Feb. 27. He was the 
son of Mr. James Hervey, of Oldham Street, and was born in Paisley about 
1802. He was a popular poet, and editor of the Athenceum. His best known 
piece is the " Convict Ship." There is a memoir prefixed to an edition of his 
poems published at Boston, U.S., 1866.' 

Mr. James A. Turner, M.P., was entertained at a public dinner in the 
Free Trade Hall, March 4. 

A public meeting, convened by the Mayor, of the Reformers of Lancashire, 
was held in the Town Hall, March 17. 

A meeting of Temperance Reformers, held under the auspices of the 
Manchester and Salf ord Temperance Advocates Society, in the Corn Exchange, 
on Good Friday, April 22, for the presentation of an address to Dr. Frederic 
Richard Lees. This was an expression of sympathy at a time when there was 
nmch controversy between various sections of Temperance Reformers. — 
(Winskill's Teinioerance Reformation, p. 324.) 

Rev. William Turner died at Manchester, April 24, aged 97. He was 
author of an Essay on Crbnes and Punishments read to the Manchester 
Literary and Philosophical Society, 1784. For fifty-nine years he was pastor 
of the Hanover Square Unitarian Chapel, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

The poll for the election of members of Parliament for the boroughs of 
Manchester and Salford was taken April 30. Mr. Thomas Bazley and IMr. 
James AspinaU Turner were returned for Manchester, and Mr. William 
Nathaniel Massey for Salford. The figures were : Manchester— Bazley, 7,545 ; 
Turner, 7,300; Hey wood, 5,499; Denman, 5,235. Salford— Massey, 1,919; 
Ash worth, 1,787. April 30. 

The annual Whitsuntide procession of the scholars of the Church of 
England Sunday Schools took place June 13. The number of scholars who took 
part in the procession was 12,212. 

The foundation stone of St. Peter's Church, Oldham Road, was laid by Mr. 
John Keymer, June 25. 

The Act 22 and 23 Victoria, cap. 19, to enable the Mayor, Aldermen, and 
Burgesses of the Borough of Salford to raise a further sum of money for 
improving their gasworks, and for other purposes. July 21. 

Two boys and a man were drowned in a pit at Moss Side, July 26. The boys 
wei'e bathing in the pit, when they sank in the mud, and the man in attempt- 
ing to save them sank along with them. 

The factory operatives of Manchester presented to the Countess of Shaftes- 
bury a marble bust of her husband. August 6. 

The first corps of Volunteers was formed in June, and having been accepted 
by Government, became the 6th Lancashire Regiment. August 12. 



278 Annals of Manchester. [1^59 

Mr. James Simpson, J. P., of Foxhill, died Septembers. He was born at 
Clitheroe July 9, 1812, and in 1813 married Miss Hannah Harvey, the daughter of 
Alderman Harvey, of Salford. He was a zealous Reformer, interested himself 
in the work of the Anti-Corn-Law League, the Temperance movement, and 
was the founder of the Vegetarian Society. (Winskill's Temjierance Refor- 
mation, p. 315.) 

Mr. Richard Renshaw died at Iowa Falls, U.S.A., September 5. He was 
born at Manchester 1769, and was the author of a Voyage to Cape of Good 
Hope, 1804. There is a portrait of the author prefixed to this work. 

Rev. Cort Huthersal, M.A., died at Leamington, September 14. He was 
corn at Manchester, and was the author of Synopsis of the Varioics Adminis- 
trations for the Government of England, 1706-1742. (Manchester School 
Megister, vol. iii., p. 44.) 

Mr. John Ashton NichoUs, F.R.A.S., died September 18. He was the only 
son of Alderman Benjamin Nicholls, and was born at Chorlton-on-Medlock, 
March 25, 1823. He took an active interest in science and philanthropy, and 
his early death was felt to be a great loss to the community. There is an 
obelisk to his memory in Great Ancoats Street. A Selection of Letters written 
by him was edited by his mother and printed in 1862. There is a notice of him 
iu the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astron. Society, xx. 131. A Funeral Sermon 
and Memoir, by Rev. W. Gaskell, appeared shortly after his death. 

Mr. Robert Stephenson, the eminent engineer, died October 12, aged 56. 
In 1827 he was engaged in the first line of railway from Manchester to 
Liverpool. 

The members of the Cotton Supply Association and their friends assembled 
in the Town Hall to meet the Right Hon. James Wilson, previous to hia 
departure for India, and to discuss matters connected with the trade of India, 
October 4. 

Mr. John Bolton Rogerson died in the Isle of Man, October 15th. He was 
born at Manchester, January 20, 1809, and was for many years a leading spirit 
in the literary coteries of the city. He wrote Rhyme, Romance, and Reverie^ 
1840; A Voice from the Town, 1842; Musings in Many Moods, 1859, and 
other poetical works. There is a portrait of him in Procter's Literary 
Reminiscences. 

The Right Hon, B. Disraeli, M.P,, distributed the prizes to the successful 
competitors of the evening class examinations of the Union of Lancashire and 
Cheshire at the Mechanics' Institution, at the Free Trade Hall, November 1, 

The Bishop of Manchester consecrated the Church of St. Catherine, Colly- 
hurst Road. It provided 876 sittings. November 5th. 

Mr. George Wilfred Anthony died at Manchester, November 14, aged 49 
years. He was a native of Manchester, and had more than a local reputation 
as an art critic. He was one of Liverseege's executors, and himself an artist 
of talent. He wrote chiefly under the pseudonym of "Gabriel Tinto." 
(Procter's Lit. Rem., p. 68.) 

Mr. Frank Stone, A.R.A., died in London, November 18. He was born in 
Manchester, August 26, 1800, and acquired distinction as a painter of historical 
and domestic subjects, and in portraiture. 

A great meeting was held in the Free Trade Hall, November 21, to take 



:.S60] Annals of Manchester. 279 

steps for raising money to equip and arm Volunteer Eiflomen. The sub- 
scriptions for that purpose amounted to £3,190. 

Mr. Thomas de Quincey died at Edinburgh, December 8, ISIO. He was born 
August 5th, 1785. There has been some doubt as to his birthplace ; but it may 
now be regarded as settled that it was not Greenheys, but Princess Street, in 
the house since known as the Prince's Tavern. (Mr. John Evans in Pajoers of 
the Manchester Literary Club, vol. v., pp. 2'44-5; Palatine Note-Book, vol. i., 
p. 49.) This remarkable man was doubtless the most distinguished of the 
natives of Manchester who have entered upon the thorny path of literature. 
Of his early years he has left an account of singular interest in the Confessions 
of an English Opium Eater, and in the Autobiographic Sketches. His father 
was Thomas Quincey, a Manchester merchant, who died when his son was only 
five years old. De Quincey was educated at Bath and Manchester Grammar 
Schools. He ran away from school, and, later, he ran away from college, and his 
devotion to literature went hand in hand with the opium habit, from which, 
however, he made several temporary escapes. He contributed to the London 
Magazine and various other periodical publications, and was pi'obably the most 
brilliant magazine writer of the century. The papers which have been selected 
extend to sixteen volumes, and there are others which have not been collected. 
He married, in 1816, Margaret Simpson, the daughter of a Westmoreland farmer. 
His wife died in 1837, and his later years were tenderly cared for by his 
daughters. His fame must rest chiefly upon the 02num Eater, of which there 
have been many editions. The fire, subtlety, and pathos of the work give it a 
charm to be felt if not described. There is a notice of his life in Espinasse's 
Lancashire Worthies, and a separate biography has been published by Dr. A. 
H. Japp. A characteristic sketch of his manner, but with some exaggeration, 
is given in Burton's Book-Hunter, where he figures as " Thomas Papaverus." 
He is buried in the Greyfriars Church at Edinburgh. There are several 
engraved portraits of him. 

Rev. James Panton Ham resigned the co-pastorate of Cross Street Chapel, 
to which he was appointed October 8, 1855, to become the minister of Essex 
Street Chapel, London. During his stay in Manchester he preached a sermon 
on the Sabbath Controversy, which was printed. There is a portrait of him in 
Sir Thomas Baker's Memorials. 

The Manchester and Salford Equitable Co-operative Society was founded 
by a band of young men known as the "Roby Brotherhood," from their 
association with the Sunday School of Roby Chapel. They opened a store in 
Ancoats, June 4th. The progress of the society is recorded under date November 
8,1884. 

1860. 

St. Peter's, Oldham Road, was consecrated by Bishop Lee, January 14. 
Mr. J. Holden was the architect, and the cost of erection was £4,500. 

The Rev. Canon Stowell delivered an address to the Manchester Rifle 
Volunteers, in the Free Trade Hall, January 19. 

The Hanover Mills, Buxton Street, London Road, were destroyed by fire, 
February 2. The premises contained 20,000 spindles and 138 carding engines. 
The damage was estimated at about £25,000. 



280 Annals of Manchester. dge^ 



The Prince of Orange visited Manchester, February 24. 

Mr. James Braid, M.R.C.S.Edin., died in Manchester, March 25, at the age 
of 65. He was a native of Fifeshire, and received his education at Edinburgh 
University. He came to Manchester soon after beginning his career as a 
medical man, and became distinguished for his special skill in dealing vrith 
some dangerous and difficult diseases. In 1841 he entered into the investi- 
gation of animal magnetism, which at the time he believed to be wholly a 
system of collusion or illusion. His researches, however, led to the discovery 
of a reality in some of the phenomena, though he diflTered from the mesmerists 
as to their causes. Similar phenomena of abnormal sleep and peculiar con- 
dition of mind and body were found to be self-induced by fixedly staring on 
any inanimate object, the mental attention being concentrated on the act. 
This proved that the peculiar condition did not arise from any magnetic 
influence passing from the operator into the patient, as alleged by the 
mesmerists. Mr. Braid read a paper on his discovery to the members of the 
British Association, at Manchester, in 1842, and subsequently published 
several works on the subject. The most important of these is the treatise 
which he entitled Neiirypnology; or, the Eationale ofNervoxis Sleex), considered 
in relation to Animal Magnetism, illustrated by numerous cases of its suc- 
cessful application in the relief and cure of diseases (1843). This discovery of 
an artificial somnambulism he appropriately designated " neuro-hypnotism," 
afterwards shortened to "hypnotism," a term which has come into universal 
use. Mr. Braid and his writings were much derided by the mesmerists and 
others, but his suggestion is now generally accepted, and has been taken up in 
France, where the system is sometimes called " Braidism," and in Germany 
and other countries. The curative qualities of hypnotism are, indeed, much 
more recognised on the Continent than in England. {Dictionary of National 
Biograx>hy.) 

23 Victoria, cap. 4. Act for supplying with gas the township of Droylsden 
and other places adjacent thereto, in the parishes of Manchester and Ashton- 
under-Lyne. April 3. 

A portion of the roofing of the Victoria Railway Station fell in, April 3, 
but fortunately no person was injured. 

Mr. John Bright, M.P., delivered an address to a meeting of Reformers, in 
the Free Trade Hall, April 12. 

As the result of a police raid, six keepers of betting-list houses in Thomas 
Street and neighbourhood were taken into custody, and a fine of £100 was 
imposed. April 23. 

The foundation-stone of a Greek Church, in Higher Broughton, was laid 
by the Rev. B. Moros, May 8. 

23 and 24 Victoria. Act for enabling the mayor, aldermen, and citizens of 
the city of Manchester to effect further improvements in the said city, and for 
other purposes. May 15. 

Mr. William Butterworth Bayley died, at St. Leonard's, May 20. He was 
sixth son of Mr. Thomas B. Bayley, F.R.S., of Hope, and was educated at Eton, 
Cambridge, and Fort William College. He entered the Bengal Civil Service, 
and in 1819 became Chief Secretary to the Government of India. In 1825 he 
was appointed a member of the Council, and in March, 1S2S, on the departure 



I860; Annals of Manchester. 281 

of Lord Amherst, Mr. Bayley, as senior member of the Government, became 
Acting-Governor-General of India, a post which he held several months, and 
then resumed his seat as a member of Council. He resigned his seat on the 
Council 11th November, 1830, and coming to England, became, in 1833, Deputy- 
Chairman, and in the following year Chairman, of the East India Company. 
He retired from public life shortly after the Mutiny. His son. Sir Stewart 
Colvin Bayley, K.C.S.I., has also filled various important oflSces in India. 
Apparently the only published work of Mr. W. B. Bayley is his thesis pro- 
nounced at Fort William College, in 1802. 

The annual Whitsuntide procession of scholars of the Church of England 
Sunday schools took place May 28. The number of scholars who joined in the 
procession was 11,033. 

The Manchester Racing Committee celebrated by a public dinner the cen- 
tenary of the Kersal Moor Races. This was the centenary of the revival, for 
they were held at the same place from 1730 to 1745, after which they were dis- 
continued for fifteen years. 

23 Victoria, cap. 93. Act to alter and amend the several Acts relating to 
the Manchester Corporation Waterworks, and for other purposes. June 14. 

Mr. Robert Barnabas Brough died at Manchester, June 26. He was born 
in London in 1828, but in early life was engaged as a clerk in a commei'cial 
house in Manchester, and afterwards in Liverpool, where he edited the LiveV' 
pool Lion. He became a successful writer of burlesque, and was the author 
of several novels and of some poems of unusual excellence. These have not 
been collected, but the best are given at the end of his novel of Bliss Brown. 
A biographical notice by Mr. G. A. Sala is prefixed to his Marston Lynch. 

The first number of the Co-operaior was published in June. Mr. Edward 
Longfield was the first editor. He was succeeded by Mr. Henry Pitman, who 
conducted it for nine years, when it gave place to the Co-oj}erative News. 

The Field Naturalists' Association was formed in June. 

A testimonial, consisting of a service of silver of the value of 400 guineas, 
was presented to Mr. Daniel Maude, police magistrate of Manchester, July 5. 

Mr. Charles Southwell died August 6. He was the youngest of thirty-six 
brothers and sisters, and came into notice as an advocate of Socialism and 
Freethought, for which he was at one time imprisoned at Bristol. In 1819 he 
was the editor of the Lancashire Beacon, which was published at the Hall of 
Science, Campfield. In it Southwell mentions the Christian Beacon pub- 
lished in Manchester, and of which he cxultingly records the decease. Of his 
own i?cacon twenty-three weekly numbers appeared, mostly undated. The last 
was issued December 28. There is a copy in the Manchester Reference 
Library. Afterwards he left England for New Zealand, where he is said to 
have acted as the editor of a Wcsleyan newspaper. He died, however, as he 
had lived, an Atheist. (Holyoake's Histortj of Co-ojjcration, vol. i., pp. 230, 
243, 371.) 

23 and 2 1 Victoria, cap. 69. Act to enable the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
for England to apply certain funds towards the repairs of the Cathedral or 
Collegiate Church of Manchester. August 6. 

The four companies of the Salford Volunteers were presented with silver 
bugles by the ladies of the borough, September 15. 



282 Annals of Manchester. 



[1361 



A railway collision took place at Ordsal Lane Station, September 17, by 
which six persons were injured. 

The Deaf and Dumb School for Infants, at Old Traflford, was inaugurated, 
September 26. 

St. Philip's Church, Chester Street, Hulme, was consecrated. It was 
erected at the cost of the Messrs. Birley, and the Kev. Robert Birley was the 
first rector. The architects were Messrs. Shellard and Brown. September 29. 

Mr. Henry Irving made his first appearance at the Theatre Royal, Sep- 
tember 29. The piece was The Spy, and the character that of Adolphe, a 
young carpenter. 

Rev. Joseph Clarke, M.A., died, Feb. 25, at Stretford, of which place he was 
the incumbent. He was born in 1811, and was the author of The Wreck of the 
Orion, and was one of the passengers by that ill-fated steamer. 

A boiler explosion took place at the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway 
Company's waggon shops, Miles Platting, October 26. Three persons were 
fatally injured. 

The Duke of Argyll visited Manchester, November 6. He distributed the 
prizes at the meeting of the Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes. 

A meeting of the friends of voluntary education was held in the Free 
Trade Hall, November 13. 

Bartholomew Onley, the keeper of a betting-list house, in Thomas Street, 
was fined £100, November 26. 

The Empress of the French paid a visit to Manchester, November 30. She 
visited the principal warehouses and manufactories, and received an address 
from the Corporation. 

The Salford Natural History Society was formed, November. 

In consequence of the heavy rains, the river Medlock overflowed its 
banks, December 6, causing much inconvenience and loss to property-owners. 

The Co-operative Printing Society was formed. 

Public baths and washhouses were opened in Leaf Street, Stretford Road, 
Hulme. 

The Assembly Room, Mosley Street, was sold, and a new one built in York 
Street, Cheetham Hill, at a cost of £14,000. 

186L 

On the first of January appeared The Dawn : a Journal of Social and 
Heligious Progress, published by J. W. Farquhar, of New Corporation Street. 
It was discontinued with the 24th number, December 1, 1862. The writers were 
chiefly Mr. Thomas Robinson, of Newton Heath, and Mr. Edward Brotherton. 

A fire at the Greengate cotton waste mill of Mr. Peter Andrew, January 
10, caused damage to the amount of £7,000. 

The Bee Hive Cotton Mills, situate in Jersey Street and Bengal Street, 
were destroyed by fire, January 11. The damage was estimated at £25,0C0. 

A conference on Indian affairs was held in the board room of the Chamber 
of Commerce, January 31. 

Mr. Charles Henry Timperley died at Loudon, January. He was born at 
Manchester about 1795, and was a printer, who afterwards devoted himself to 



1861] 



Annals of Manchester. 28B 



literature. 'Kev^vote a, Dictionary of Printers, 1839; Annals of ManchesteVy 
1839 ; Songs of the Press, 1845, &c. These show great industry and ability. 
(Procter's Streets, p. 186; Bcliquary, vol. xiv. p. 143.) 

A boiler explosion happened at the paper works of Messrs. Dickinson, 
situate in Elm Street, Water Street, near Regent Road, February 4. Thi'ee 
persons died from injuries they received. 

A fire broke out amongst warehouses off High Street, February 8, doing 
damage to the amount of £10,000. 

Mr. Joseph Adshead died at Withington, Manchester, February 15. He 
was born in 1800, and was a member of the Manchester Corporation. He wrote 
The Wreck of the Bothesay Castle, 1831 ; Prisons and Prisoners, 1845 ; and a 
number of pamphlets on social and local politics. 

Representatives of the different Chambers of Commerce of Manchester, 
Glasgow, Liverpool, and other towns met at the Westminster Palace Hotel, 
February 19, to adopt a petition to Parliament, to amend the laws relating to 
land in India for the growth of cotton. 

The foundation-stone of St. Paul's Church, Chorlton-on-Medlock, was laid 
by the Rev. E. Birch, March 9. 

Mrs. E. Hadfield died March 23. She was a Quakeress, and author of 
Sprays from the Hedgerows (poems), 1850. 

A town's meeting was held in the Manchester Town Hall, March 28, when 
resolutions in favour of Parliamentary Reform were adopted. 

The annual Whitsuntide procession of the scholars of the Church of 
England Sunday Schools took place May 20. The number of scholars in the 
procession was 13,142. 

The colours which formerly belonged to the first battalion of the Indepen- 
dent Manchester and Salford "Volunteers of 1803, and which for a long time had 
been deposited in St. John's Church, were presented to the 5th or Press Com- 
pany of the 3rd Manchester Rifle Volunteers, June 1. 

The oflicers of the 2nd Regiment of Manchester Rifle Volunteers, anJ 
other friends of Lieutenant-Colonel Deakin, entertained that gentleman at 
dinner, at the Albion Hotel, June 3, and presented him with an equestrian 
portrait of himself, as a testimony of their esteem and regard. 

A very extensive fire broke out at the works of Messrs. Parr, Curtis, and 
Madeley, Chapel Street, Great Ancoats, June 15, doing damage to the amount 
of about £80,000. 

Mr. Eaton Hodgkinson, F.R.S., died at Eaglesfield House, Higher Brough- 
ton, June 18. He was born Feb. 26, 1789, at Adderton, Great Budworth, where 
his father, a farmer, died when the boy was six years old. He was sent to the 
Northwich Grammar School, where the injudicious severity, not to say 
brutality, of the schoolmaster, produced a nervous tremour of the hands and 
speech which in after life was a serious disadvantage. In 1811 he persuaded 
his mother to embark in the pawnbroking business in Manchester. Here he 
found congenial society, and was able to pursue those scientific and mathe- 
matical studies which were the passion of his life. He was appointed Professor 
of the Mechanical Principles of Engineering at University College, London, 
and travelled a good deal on the Continent. His researches had chiefly refer- 
ence to the strength of materials and allied subjects. He contributed largely 



■284 Annals of Manchester. 



[1861 



to the transactions of learned societies, and was himself enrolled in the ranks 
of the Royal Society, the Geographical Society, the Royal Irish Academy, the 
Royal Institute of British Architects, &c. A memoir of him by Mr. Robert 
Rawson appeared in the Memoirs of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical 
Society, 3rd series, vol. ii. p. 145. 

Alfred, a patriotic play, by Martin Farquhar Tupper, was first acted at the 
Queen's Theatre, June 25. The leading part was taken by Walter Montgomery. 
The author was present on the first night. The play was printed for private 
circulation and afterwards published. 

24 and 25 Victoria, cap. 75. Act for the Manchester and Wilmslow Turn- 
pike Roads. June 28. 

Mr. William Willis, bookseller, died July 20, in his .54th year. He was of 
humble extraction, but for some years carried on a prosperous trade ; but, 
although helped pecuniarily by his brother, he was not permanently successful. 
He was the publisher of several cheap books, such as Seacome's House of 
Stanley, HoUinworth's Mancuniensis, &c. At one time he was a staunch 
Radical and follower of Fergus O'Connor, and his shop was an arena for 
political discussion. In later years he joined the Church of Rome, and became 
a strong Conservative, but his new associates were not always able to prevent 
him from arguing in favour of his earlier views and against his later convic- 
tions. He was the stormy petrel of vestry meetings, and on one occasion was 
appointed churchwarden of the Collegiate Church, but the election was invalid, 
as he had not paid his rates. An account of this eccentric character, written 
by Mr. Joseph Johnson, appears in The Manchester Catalogue, December, 
1883. 

The friends and supporters of Mr. John Cheetham held a meeting at the 
Free Trade Hall, July 23, to promote the election of that gentleman as M.P. for 
South Lancashire. 

Rev. Robert Cox Clifton, M.A., died at Somerton Rectory, July 30, aged 51. 
He was rector of Somerton and canon of Manchester, and wrote several 
pamphlets on matters connected with the ecclesiastical, educational, and 
sanitary affairs of the locality. 

At the meeting of the Salford Town Council, August 7, an agreement with 
Messrs. Greenwood and Haworth was sanctioned in relation to their laying 
down, on "Haworth's Patent Perambulating Principle," an iron tramway, for 
the passage thereon of omnibuses, to be moved by horse power upon and along 
the following roads and streets, commencing at a point near Cross Lane, and 
proceeding thence over Windsor Bridge, along the Crescent, Crescent Parade, 
Bank Parade, Whitecross Bank, Chapel Street, and New Bailey Street, towards 
and to Albert Bridge, in Salford. 

Mr. Thomas Wltlam Atkinson, architect and traveller, died at Lower 
Walmer, August 13. He was a native of Yorkshire, and in early life was a 
stone carver, but settled in Manchester as an architect. He gave up his pro- 
fession in order to travel, and was almost the first to open out the regions of 
Eastern Russia. He wrote Oriental and Western Siberia; Exjilorations, 
1858 ; Travels in the Region of the Upjoer and Lower Amazon, 1860. His 
widow published Recollections of Tartar Steppes, 2863, and his daughter is the 
writer of Lives of the Queens of Prussia. 



1261] Annals of Manchester. 285 

A fire broke out in the old Irk Cotton Mills, August 17, doing damage to 
the amount of several thousand pounds. 

A dramatic licence was granted to Mr. H. B. Peacock for the Free Trade 
Hall, August 20. 

About 300 carters employed by the various carriers struck for an earlier 
cessation from labour, August 29. 

The thirty-first meeting of the British Association was held in Manchester, 
beginning September 4. The President was Sir William Fairbairn. 

The Congregational Church, Chorlton Road, was opened September 12. 
The following statement of the history of the church was placed in a cavity in 
the foundation-stone which was laid July 7, ISGO : "Cannon Street Chapel 
was built in 1756. The first minister was the Rev. Caleb Warhurst, who cam4 
here with the congregation from Cold House to one meeting north of Shude- 
hill. He continued minister up to the time of his death on November 5, 1765.. 
The second minister was the Rev. Timothy Priestley (brother of the philoso- 
pher of the same name), of Kipping, near Halifax, who sustained the 
pastorate for nineteen years, and afterwards removed to London. The Rev. 
David Bradbury, from Ramsgate, accepted the invitation of the church on the 
14th of August, 1785, and resigned the same in 1795. He was succeeded by the 
Rev. William Roby, from Wigan, in September, 1795. Mr. Roby left for 
Grosvenor Street Chapel in December, 1807. The Rev. AVilliam Marsh, of 
Dukinfleld, was the next pastor. He accepted the charge on the 3rd July, 
1808. and resigned the same in September, 1812. The Rev. William Evans, of 
Aylesbury, undertook the charge on the 25th April, 1813, and held it until 29th 
September, 1817. The Church was without a pastor for nearly two years, when 
the Rev. Robert Allott, of Eastwood, Yorkshire, accepted the office on 25th 
July, 1819. He resigned on 2nd August, 1822. Again, for nearly two years, the 
church was without a pastor. In September, 1824, the Rev. John Whitridge. 
of Oswestry, accepted the pastorate, resigning on the 23rd September, 1827, 
On the 7th October, in the same year, the Rev. Samuel Bradley, from Mosley 
Street Chapel, entered on the pastorate, which he resigned on April 14th, 1814. 
On the 19th May of the same year, the Rev. James Dean, of Topsham, was 
invited to the pastorate, which he resigned on the 1st October, 1847. The Rev. 
William Parkes, of Lancashire Independent College, received and accepted an 
invitation from the church, and commenced his labours on the 9th July, 1848. 
He resigned the pastorate on the 23rd September, 1855. The Rev. Jamjs 
Bruce, of Bamford, became pastor in June, 1850, and resigned in September, 
1859. In December of the same year, the Rev. Professor Newth, of Lancashire 
bidependent College, consented to accept the office of preacher, which he holds 
at this time. Built in 1756, Cannon Street Chapel was rebuilt in 1828 at a cost 
of £1,800. In consequence of the prevailing tendency of the worshippers tO' 
reside in the suburbs, the congregation had been growing less for some years. 
The office-bearers have made attempts to devise some plan by which to meet 
the difficulty caused by this condition of matters, and eventually it was 
resolved to seek the benefit of the Charitable Trusts Act, the Commissioners 
under which, on the 11th November, 1856, gave power to sell the property. A 
sale was effected on 2nd March, 1860, when the property was disposed of for 
the sum of £2,800." 



286 Annals of Manchester. 



[1862 



A meeting of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, the Cotton Supply 
Association, and the Manchester Cotton Company Limited, was held in the 
Town Hall, September 19, for the purpose of meeting Rt. Hon. S. Laing, pre- 
vious to his return to India as Finance Minister. 

There were 43,500 peri-ons receiving parochial relief in the fourth week of 
September. 

An alarming fire occurred in the waste warehouse situate in the Old 
Factory Yard, Miller Street, Shudehill, October 3. The damage was estimated 
at from £10,000 to £12,000. 

The cotton mills began to run short time in October. 

Mr. Benjamin Dockray died, at Lancaster, November 4. He was born at 
Manchester in 1786, and was author of Remarks upon Catholic Emancii^ation. 
1817, and Egeria, or Casual Thouglits and Suggestions, 1831-40. 

Mr. John Hall, M.R.C.S., died at Congleton, November 27. He was a son 
of the Rev. Samuel Hall, of St. Ann's, and was born October 9, 1785. He was 
the father of Mr. Charles Radcliflfe Hall, M.D. 

A dinner was given to the Hon. Captain Denman, at the Palatine Hotel, by 
the Rifle Volunteers, December 5. 

St. James's Church, Hope, was consecrated by Bishop Lee, December 14. 
Mr. W. Scott was the architect, and the cost of erection £8,500. 

There was a general cessation of business in the city on December 23, tho 
day of the funeral of the Prince Consort. 

Mr. Absalom Watkin died December 23. He was born in London, June 27, 
1787. He came to Manchester, at the end of the last century, to be a clerk with 
his uncle, INIr. John Watkin, a cotton broker. Thus began a career which was 
identified with the political, social, and commercial progress of Manchester. In 
conjunction with Mr. John Taylor, he wrote The Club, in the Manchester Iris, 
afterwards reprinted in a separate form. His letter to Mr. John Bright — and 
Mr, Bright's reply— in relation to the Crimean war, attracted universal 
attention. His son, Sir Edward Watkin, has printed the first part of a 
biography, Absalom Watkin, Fragynents, No. 1, Manchester, 1868. 

The population of Municipal Manchester at the seventh census was 
338,722, and of the Parliamentary Borough 357,979. The population of Salford 
was 102,449, both for the Municipal and for the Parliamentary Boroughs. 

1862. 

A fire broke out in the buildings which front Market Street and High 
Street, January 2, and great damage was caused. 

A meeting was held in the Town Hall, and a subscription commenced for 
raising a monument in Manchester to the memory of the late Prince Consort, 
January 6. 

Great distress prevailed among the labouring classes of Manchester and 
Lancashire generally, owing to the slackness of trade. January. 

Messrs. Kershaw and Co. commenced granting relief to their workpeople. 
January. 

A fire broke out in the tanyard of Mr. Nelson, Red Bank, February 14, 
which did damage estimated to be between £6,000 and £7,000. 



1862] 



Annals of Manchester. 287 



A fire broke out on the premises of Messrs. Nichols, Morris, and Co., Pic- 
cadilly, February 19, doing damage to the amount of several thousand pounds. 

Mr, James Rigby, of Salford, died March 6, at the age of 56, " having never 
tasted animal food." He was the faithful friend and secretary of Robert Owen, 
whose last days he soothed. He first came into notice from his exertions in 
behalf of the Ten Hours Bill. (See further in Holyoake's History of Co-ojJera- 
Hon, vol. i., p. 370; Holyoake's Life and Last Days of Robert Owen, London, 
1871.) 

Mr. James Collier Harter died at his residence, Broughton New Hall, 
March 2, in his 74th year. He was for fourteen years treasurer of the Man- 
chester Infirmary, and was also connected with most of the principal charities 
in the city. He was buried at St. John's, Higher Broughton, March 15. 

A railway van, 16ft. long and 8ft. wide, was made in twelve hours at the 
Ashbury Works, Ashton Old Road, Openshaw, March 25. 

St. Paul's Church, Chorlton-on-Medlock, was consecrated March 29 by 
Bishop Lee. Messrs. Clegg and Knowles were the architects, and the cost of 
erection was £4,300. 

Mr. Robert Brandt, Judge of the Manchester County Court, died at his 
residence in Pendleton, April 15, aged 66 years. 

Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, Chancellor of the Exchequer, visited the city, 
April 23, and distributed the prizes in the Free Trade Hall to the successful 
students of the Lancashire and Cheshire Union of Institutes. On the following 
day he addressed a meeting at the Town Hall. 

A meeting of the resident gentry was called by the Mayor (Mr. Thomas 
Goadsby), to consider the propriety of forming a relief committee. April 29. 

A great meeting of the unemployed operatives of this city took place in 
Stevenson Square, April 29 There were from 2,000 to 3,000 persons present. 

Mr. Evan Mellor, land agent, was murdered, at his office in St. James's 
Square, by William Taylor, May 16. The three children of the latter were also 
found dead the same day at his residence, Britannia Buildings, Strangeways. 

Kev. Samuel Warren, LL.D., died at Manchester, May 23. He was a 
Wesleyan minister, but left that body in consequence of the Fly Leaves con- 
troversy, and afterwards became incumbent of All Souls' Church, Ancoats. 
He was author of Chronicles of Wesleyan Methodism, 1827 ; Sermons on 
Various Subjects, 1833 ; and other books and pamphlets. His son, Samuel 
Warren, Q.C., was the author of Ten Thousand a Year. 

A meeting, convened by Mr. Thomas Goadsby, mayor, to consider the pro- 
priety of adopting a scheme for granting loans to unemployed operatives. May. 

The Board of Guardians had some 400 or 500 men at work, in return for 
relief to the extent of 2s. 6d. for man and wife, and 5s. to 6s. per week for large 
families. May. 

The annual procession of the scholars of the Church of England Sunday 
schools took place, June 9. The number of scholars in the procession Avaa 
about 9,700. 

Mohammed Said Pasha, Viceroy of Egypt, visited this city, July 8. 

£17,000 subscribed in five days by noblemen and members of Parlia- 
ment for the Lancashire distress. The sum finally amounted to £52,000. 
July 19. 



288 Annals of Manchester. 



[1862 



25 and 26 Victoria, cap. 205. Act for consolidating and amending the Acts 
relating to the Corporation of Salford, for extending their powers, and for 
other purposes. August 7. 

£30,000 received from Australia on account of Lancashire Relief Fund, 
September 7. 

Mr. Alexander Henry died, October 4. He was a native of Ireland, but 
passed his early life in Philadelphia. At the age of 21 he came to Manchester, 
and was the founder of the firm of A. and S. Henry. He was M.P. in the 
Liberal interest for South Lancashire from December, 1847, to July, 1852. He 
was an ardent reformer. His son, Mr. John Snowden Henry, was afterwards 
Conservative M.P. for South-East Lancashire. Another son, Mr. Mitchell 
Henry, who was educated for the medical profession, in which he had already 
gained distinction, entered 1 arliament as a Liberal. (Baker's Memorials, 
p. 123.) 

Captain Thomas Brown, who was for twenty-two years curator of the 
Natural History Museum, died October 8. He was born at Perth in 1785, and 
educated at the Edinburgh High School. When about twenty years old he 
joined the Forfar and Kincardine Militia, of which he became captain in 1811. 
"When quartered at Manchester he edited Goldsmith's Animated Nature for 
Mr. Gleave. The regiment having disbanded, he invested his money in a Fife- 
shire flax mill, which was burned down before it was insured. He then became 
a professional author, and wrote numerous scientific works. In 1840 he was 
appointed curator of the Museum in Peter Street, and retained the position 
until his death. 

Mr. John Burton Rondeau died, in reduced circumstances, at Manchester, 
October 10, aged 37. He was an indefatigable collector of curious and scarce 
books and tracts, and wrote some bibliographical papers and communications. 
Most of his collection passed into the hands of Mr. James Crossley, and were 
dispersed at the sale of the Crossley library. 

The new Court of Record, Salford, was opened October 23. 

Mr. Richard Cobden, M.P., addressed a meeting of the members of the 
Manchester Chamber of Commerce, on international maritime law, 
October 24. 

Relief Committees were organised at Barton-upon-Irwell, Chorlton, and 
Salford. October. 

A pastoral from Cardinal Wiseman, November 30, in reference to the Lan- 
cashire distress, and urging efl'orts for its relief, was issued. 

The expenditure for eight weeks of Central Executive Committee for out- 
door relief was £13,734 2s. 4d. ; Relief Committee, £19,157 6s. 4d. December 7. 

Rev. William Brocklehurst Stonehouse, M.A., D.C.L., died at Owston, 
Lincolnshire, December 18. He was born at Manchester, 1792, and was the 
author of History and Topography of the Isle of Axholme, 1839. {Manchester 
School Register, iii. 40.) 

The Mansion House Committee grant £55,000 for the relief of the Lan- 
cashire distress, December 19. The contributions received during the week 
amounted to £23,400. 

I At a county meeting in Cheshire. £30,000 was received for the Lancashire- 
distress, December 30. 



1863] 



Annals of Manchester. 289 



The Industrial Partnerships Record published. It was edited by Messrs. 
E. O. Greening and Robert Bailey Walker. The title was changed to Social 
Economist, when Mr. G. J. Holyoake became joint editor. 

Rev. William Metcalfe died at Philadelphia, in the 75th year of his age. 
He was a native of Orton, in Westmoreland, and having adopted the faith of. 
the Bible Christians, he became assistant in Cowherd's academy at Salford in 
1811. In 1817 he emigrated to Philadelphia, where he founded the Bible 
Christian Church stiU existing there. In 1830 he converted Silvester Graham 
and Dr. W. Alcott. He was the editor of the Moral Reformer, the Library of 
Health, the Temperance Advocate, Independent Dem^ocrat, and American Vege- 
tarian. He was a delegate to " The World's Peace Convention " in 1851, and 
in 1855 he became the minister of the Bible Christian Church, Salford, and had 
the melancholy duty of preaching the funeral sermon of his friend Brotherton. 
He was the author of various pamphlets. Futher particulars of his life are 
given in Williams's Ethics of Diet (Manchester, 1883), p. 260; Memoir of 
William Metcalfe, by his son (Philadelphia, 1866). 

Mr. Andrea Crestadoro, Ph.D., was appointed chief librarian of the Man- 
chester Free Libraries on the resignation of Mr. R. W. Smiles, who had been 
appointed in 1858. 

A Ladies' Relief Committee was formed by Mrs. Goadsby and others. 

The unemployed operatives were drafted into schools, and set to teach 
each other. 

For particulars of the Cotton Famine and the relief of the distress caused 
by it, see under date December 4, 1865. 

1863. 

Mr. George Frederick Mandley died at Exmouth, January 11. He was 
born in London, March 19, 1809, and was intended for the legal profession. 
When quite a lad he attracted the notice of Cobbett and became associated 
with other Radicals, and the "Boy Orator " was not unknown as a speaker at 
Blackheath and other gatherings. His indentures were cancelled, and about 
1828 he established himself as a commission merchant and shipper in Man- 
chester. He threw himself with great ardour into political life, and was a 
valued ally of Mr. Brotherton in the Salford election contests. Having joined 
the Socialists, he drew up the rules for the management of the Hall of Science 
in Campfield. In 1834 he was High Chief Ranger of the Foresters, and drew up 
a constitution for that important friendly society. He was in correspondence 
with Robert Owen, Lord George Bentinck, and many well-known politicians, 
and it is a matter of regret that by his express directions the bulk of the letters 
received by him— and other MSS. — were destroyed. Mr. Bradshaw is believed 
to have received from him the suggestion for the Grst railway guide. He was 
an accomplished amateur actor, a theatrical critic, a lover of art, and a friend 
of most of the local literary men of his time. From about 1S40 to 1846 he was 
superintendent of births, marriages, and deaths. His trade reports gave a new 
development and importance to that class of documents. Many of his 
communications to periodical literature were signed " Quintus Hortensius." 
It is not possible now to identify his numerous auonymou?^ pamphlets, but 
T 



290 Annals of Manchester. 



[1863 



TractarianisTTi no Novelty; Pojndar Phrenology, 1862; and The Herald of 
the Future, a periodical issued at Manchester in 1839, came from bis pen. 

Mr. Edward Loyd died at Croydon, January 30, aged 63. He was the 
brother of Mr. Lewis Loyd, the banker, and presented several bronzes after the 
antique to the Royal Institution. His son, Mr. Lewis Loyd, was high sheriflC 
of Surrey, 1863. (Baker's Memorials, p. 109.) 

The George Griswold arrived in the Mersey, from New York, with a 
cargo of provisions for the distressed operatives of Lancashire, February 9. 
The vessel was received with a royal salute. 

The Bank of Manchester Limited was broken open and about £1,000 stolen, 
February 14. 

The foundation stone of St. Michael's Church, Lavender Street, Hulme, 
was laid, March 10, by Dr. Lee, Bishop of Manchester. The consecration of the 
church took place May 14, 1864. The district was formed in 1860, when it was 
placed under the care of the Rev. J. N. Pocklington. The church, rectory, and 
schools were built by members of the Birley family. The architect was Mr. 
Medland Taylor. 

There were public rejoicings in Manchester and Salford in celebration of 
the marriage of the Prince of Wales, March 10. 

The Emigration Aid Society was established in April, and 1,000 operatives 
from Lancashire left for New Zealand, April 30. 

Mr. Alexander Kay died May 16, at Wimbledon Park, Surrey. He was born 
in 1792, and was a solicitor in extensive practice, and having entered the City 
Council he was Mayor of Manchester in 1843-44 and 1844-45. He took an active 
interest in the charities of the town, and was the author of Address to the 
Members of the Town Council of Manchester, 1845 ; pamphlets on Hulme's 
Charity, etc., 1845-55. 

The annual Whitsuntide procession of the scholars of the Church of 
England Sunday Schools was on May 25. The number of scholars in the 
procession was 15,541. 

A meeting was held in favour of Mr. Somes's Sunday Closing Bill, June 1; 

An anti-slavery conference was held June 3. 

Rev. Henry Crewe Boutflower died at West Felton, Salop, June 4. He was 
born at Salford, October 25, 1796, and gained the Hulsean essay prize in 1817. 
He left materials for a History of Bury. (GraTumar School Register, vol. iii., 
p. 3.) 

A conference of representatives of Boards of Guardians was held in Man- 
chester, to consider the Public Works Bill, June 19. 

The state of trade in Manchester was thus stated on June 20 — Factory 
operatives working 4,242, receiving relief 9,104; joiners working 196, receiving 
relief 573 ; mechanics working 317, receiving relief 803 ; shopkeepers working 36, 
receiving relief 108; colliers working 4, receiving relief 13; agricultural and 
other outdoor labourers working 390, receiving relief 959; domestic servants 
working 200, receiving relief 95 ; various other trades working 1,596, receiving 
relief 3,523. Total 22,160. June 20. 

Rev. Moncure D. Conway, B.D., gave his first public address in England at 
the Free Trade Hall, June 21. The Southern sympathisers caused great 
disturbance in the hall. He was the son of a Virginia slaveowner, and having 



\ 



3.863] 



Annals of Manchester. 291 



become an Abolitionist, came to this country to advocate the cause of the North. 
He was afterwards for a number of years minister of South Place Chapel, 
Finsburj'. 

26 and 27 Victoria. Act for enabling the mayor, aldermen, and citizens of 
the town of Manchester to construct new works and acquire additional lands 
in connection with their waterworks, to extend their limits of supply, tc 
improve Piccadilly in Manchester, and for other purposes. June 22. 

The foundation stone of the Masonic Hall, Cooper Street, was laid July 26. 

Mr. James H. Caldwell died September 11, aged 70. He was an actor and 
theatrical manager in England and America, and made his debut (as a child) at 
the Manchester Theatre. He settled in 1816 in America, where he died. His 
granddaughter, Miss Mary G. Caldwell, in 1884, gave $300,000 to found a 
Catholic University in America. 

Mr. Edward Stephens, M.D., F.R.C.S., died September 14. He was born at 
Manchester, 1804, and received his education at the Manchester [Grammar 
School. He was the author of Introductory Address to the Students of the 
Manchester Royal School of Medicine, 1845 ; &c. {Lancet, November 28, 1863 
Manchester School Register, vol. iii., p. 155.) 

The shock of an earthquake was felt in Manchester, October 6. 

A public meeting was held in the Free Trade Hall to welcome the Rev. 
Henry Ward Beecher, October 9, Mi*. Beecher came to England to advocate 
the cause of the American Union. His speeches, delivered whilst in this 
country, were collected and published in a volume. 

A review of the Manchester Volunteers was held in Heaton Park, Oct. 10. 

A meeting of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts 
was held in the Corn Exchange, October 12. The Dean of Manchester presided, 
and the Bishop of Oxford, who had preached on behalf of the Society, on 
Sunday, at the Cathedral, was the principal speaker. A crowded meeting was 
held in the Free Trade Hall under the presidency of the Hon. Algernon 
Egerton, M.P. 

A meeting was held in the Free Trade Hall, to form an association for the 
abolition of capital punishment, October 13. 

The Church Congress was held in the Free Trade Hall, October 13, 14, and 
15. The Bishop of Manchester was the president. 

Mr. John Ashton Yates died at the Park, Trestwich, November 1. He was 
born at Liverpool in 1782. He was the author of On the Distresses of the 
Country, Liverpool, 1815; Colonial Slavery, 1827; Essays on Currency, 1827; 
Present Dcj^rcssion of Trade, 1841. {Proceedings of Literary and Philo- 
S02ihical Society of Liverpool, vol. xix., p. 4.) 

The Liberation Society held its annual conference, November 18, at the 
Free Trade Hall, under the presidency of Mr. James Sidebottom, In the 
evening a public meeting was held, of which Mr. Hugh Mason was chairman. 

Mr. James Bagot died November 20. He was a well-known street character, 
and generally stjded "Chelsea Buns." There is a notice of him in the ilfa?i- 
chester Guardian, May 21, 1872, and in Procter's Byegone Manchester. 

A severe gale caused great damage in Manchester, December 3. 

George Victor Townley, a resident of Hendham Vale, was found guilty, at 
the Derby Assizes, of the murder of a young lady to whom he had been engaged 



292 Annals of Manchester. [isci 



to be married, but who had broken off the engagment. The murder was 
committed at Ingwell Grange, near Derby, December 12. He was afterwards 
reprieved, on the plea of insanity, and committed suicide whilst in the asylum. 

The Council of the United Kingdom Alliance adopted the draft of a 
» Permissive Prohibitory Liquor Bill." (See under date March 22, 1864.) 

The Manchester and Salford Temperance Union was formed. 

Mr. Thomas Nicholson died at "Woodhouse. He was born at Hunslet, near 
Leeds, in 1805, and lived the greater part of his life in Manchester. He was 
author of A Feal for the People, 18-19 ; The Warehouse Boy of Manchester, 
1852; The Thunderstorm, 1861; and other poems and sketches. (Procter's 
Memorials of Byegone Manchester, p. 208.) 

1864. 

The Manchester City News, No. 1, Saturday, January 2, was published by 
Charles Gowen Smith. 

The amount of loan sanctioned by the Poor Law Board for the city of 
Manchester for the several purposes, as provided for by the Public Works Act, 
1863-61— £25,000, January 11; £130,000, January 14. 

The Education Akl Society was established in Manchester, February. Its 
principal founder was Mr. Edward Brotherton. 

A lire at Messrs. Roby and Harwood's caused damage estimated at £8,000. 

r.Iarch 4. 

Stamp Collectors" Advertiser, No. 1, March 15, was published by C. and II. 
Gloyn, Acomb House; printed by A. I. Jones, Cavendish Street, afterwards by 
A. Ireland & Co., Pall Mall. Its existence was a very short one. 

The Permissive Bill of the United Kingdom Alliance was introduced in the 
House of Commons by Wilfrid Lawson and Thomas Bazley, March 22. 

Alderman William Neild died suddenly in one of the committee rooms of 
the Town Hall, April 4. He was born near Bowdon, in 1789, and having married 
a daughter of the founder, became a partner in the firm of Messrs. Thomas 
Hoyle and Sons, caUco printers. He was one of the foremost of those who 
obtained for Manchester its civic charter, and was one of the first aldermen 
appointed. He was interested in education, and was chairman of the trustees 
of the Owens College. He is buried in Bowdon Churchyard. 

A Reform conference, under the presidency of Mr. George Wilson, was 
held in Manchester, April 10. 

The Albert Memorial Church, Queen's Road, Miles Platting, was conse- 
crated April 25. The architect was Mr. J. Lowe. The sittings number 665. The 
cost was £4,400. 

Mr. John Shuttleworth died April 20. He was born at Strangeways in 1783 
and for many years was a leader amongst the advanced reformers of the town. 
He was one of the first aldermen elected, but retired in 1860. He held the 
office of distributor of stamps. He was an effective speaker and writer. His 
last public appearance was when reading a paper at the British Association, in 
1361, on the Manchester Gasworks. 

Mr. James Kershaw, M.P., died at his residence. Manor House, Streatham, 
April 27. He was born in Manchester in 1795, and was the head of the firm of 



1864] 



Annals of Manchester. 293 



Messrs. Kershaw, Sidebottom, and Berry, He was a member of the Corporation, 
wnd in 1847 was elected M.P. for Stockport, which he represented until his 
aeath. He was an office-holder in Dr. Halley's Independent Church ; and in 
Parliament, as a silent member, gave his support to the Liberal party. 
(Gentleman's Magazine, June, 1884, p. 809.) 

The Consecration of St. Michael's Church, Hulme, took place May 14. 
(See under date March 10, 1863.) 

The annual Whitsuntide procession of the children of the Church of 
England Sunday Schools was held May 16. The number of scholars was about 
13,883. 

The foundation stone of the Memorial Hall, Albert Square, was laid by Mr. 
Alderman Mackie, June 15. 

There was a strike of workmen engaged in building the new County Prison, 
Strangeways, in June. 

The first Assizes for the hundred of Salford were held in the Assize Courts, 
Manchester, July 25. 

The corner stone of the new tower to the Cathedral was laid by Bishop Lee, 
August 4. 

Mr. George Darling died August 4. He was for nineteen years super- 
intendent of the Rusholme Road Sunday School, where a tablet has been 
placed to his memory. He is buried in Ardwick Cemetery. (Grillith'3 
Memories of the Past, p. 228.) 

Lord Stanley presided at the annual dinner of the Warehousemen and 
Clerks' Association, at the Queen's Hotel, October 31. 

Mr. John Heywood died October 7. He was born in 1804, and was a brother 
of Alderman Abel Heywood. He was the founder of a large bookselling, 
printing, and publishing business. He was elected a member of the City 
Council in March, 1860, but was defeated in November, 1861. He was chairman 
of the Chorlton Guai'dians. 

The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, Chancellor of the Exchequer, visited 
Manchester, October 14, and distributed the prizes gained at Oxford Local 
iliddle-class Examinations. 

Rev. Richard Bassnett, M.A., incumbent of Gorton, died, October 20. He 
was born at Manchester in 1799, and wrote Reflections on Liturgical Reforms, 
1833. {Grammar School Register, vol. iii., p. 49.) 

The statue of the late Prince Consort, by Matthew Noble, was inaugurated 
in Peel Park, Salford, November 7. 

Alderman John Marsland Bennett, who was elected Mayor of Manchester 
November 9, was on the same day elected Mayor of Ardwick. By custom a 
mayor is appointed for the manors of Upper and Lower Ardwick. The manor 
was purchased by Alderman Bennett, in 1869. 

Mr. James Heywood Markland, D.C.L., F.R.S., died at Bath, December 28. 
He was born in Manchester, December 7, 1788. This distinguished antiquary 
•was the author of Chester Mysteries, 1818; Remarks on English Churches, 
Third edition, 1813; Prayers and Life of Bishop Ken; and other works and 
papers, chiefly on archaeology and ecclesiology. (Gentleman's Magazine^ 
vol. xviii, 1865, p. 619.) 

The house at Crumpsall, known as " Oldham's tenement," and believed to 



294 Annals of Manchester. 



[1865 



be the birthplace of Bishop Oldham, was demolished. A description with 
photographs was privately printed, by Mr. (afterwards Sir) Thomas Baker. 

The Manchester Cotton Company Limited was wound up, and the plant in 
India sold. 

The Wholesale Co-Operative Society was established. 

The Hunt's Bank Bridge was built. It is constructed of iron and is of one 
span. 

The Prince's Theatre, Oxford Street, was built. The property belonged to 
a joint-stock company. 

1865. 

Mr. Richard Buxton died January 2. He was born at Prestwich, January 
13, 1786, and was one of the most remarkable of the local self-taught botanists. 
He wrote a Guide to Flo^vering Plants near Manchester, 1849, of which a 
second edition appeared in 1859. Prefixed to it is an autobiographical sketch of 
great interest. 

A great Reform meeting was held in the Free Trade Hall, February 1. Mr. 
George Wilson presided. 

Three thousand pounds worth of jewellery was stolen from Mr. Howard's 
shop in Market Street, February 4. 

Mr. John Cheetham was elected M.P. for Salford, February 13, in place of 
Mr. Massey, who had resigned. Mr. Massey was born in 1809, and first entered 
Parliament in 1852 as M.P. for Newport, Isle of Wight. After resigning his 
seat for Salford, he went to India as Finance Minister, but returned in 1S6S, 
and in 1872 became M.P. for Tiverton, a borough which he represented until 
his death, which occured in London, October 25, 1881. He wrote a History of 
England during the Reign of George III, 4 vols., London, 1855-63. 

The Art Workmen's Exhibition was opened at the Royal Institution, 
February 20. Lord Houghton gave an address. 

Mr. John Cassell died at London, April 2. He was born at Manchester, 
January 23, 1817. He was one of the pioneers of temperance, as well as the 
founder of one of the greatest publishing firms in the United Kingdom. His 
early circumstances were so humble that his parents were too poor to give him 
anything beyond the most rudimentary school education, but, like many other 
Manchester worthies, he triumphed over circumstances. As a carpenter's 
apprentice, he saw much of the evil effects of drinking among his fellow-work- 
men; and after hearing one of the Preston advocates of temperance, Mr. 
Thomas Swindlehurst, he signed the pledge, which proved a stepping-stone 
to fame and fortune. Shortly afterwards, in 1835, Mr. Joseph Livesey visited 
Manchester, and, in his Atitohiography, thus describes John Cassell: "I 
remember him well, when lecturing in Mr. Beardsall's Chapel, Oak Street, 
standing on the right just below, or on the steps, of the platform, in his 
working attire, with a fustian jacket and a white apron on. He was then an 
apprentice, and, without serving his time, he left Manchester, a raw, unculti- 
vated youth." He left it in search of work, and eventually found his way to 
London. Here his earnestness as a speaker on the temperance platform 
secured him an engagement. He travelled for a number of years, chiefly 
through the southern counties, and was known as "the Manchester carpenter." 



1 



I 



1865] 



Annals of Manchester. 295 



Among his converts were the Rev. Charles Garrett and Mr. T. H. Barker, 
secretary of the United Kingdom Alliance. At the time Mr. Garrett heard him 
(1840) he is described [as "long, thin, and cadaverous," but he appears to have 
been a most effective lecturer. His connection with the temperance movement 
laid the foundation for the establishment of an extensive business in tea and 
coffee ; and the immense packet tea trade owes its first development to John 
Cassell. This business proving unprofitable, he confined his attention to the 
issue of cheap literature. He was introduced by Lord Brougham to the 
members of the Social Science Congress, at Bradford, "as one whose services 
to the cause of popular education entitled him to a place in the front rank of 
English philanthropists." John Cassell had an ambition to represent the 
people's cause in Parliament, but his mind was so burdened with the cares 
of his gigantic business that he had never had time for work other than 
temperance. In addition to his public advocacy, he published periodicals for 
the promotion of temperance. No biography of Mr, Cassell has yet appeared. 

Mr. Richard Cobden died April 2. He was born at Dunford, Midhurst, in 
1804, but having entered a commercial career became a Manchester manu- 
facturer. He took an active share in local work, and was appointed alderman 
on the formation of the Corporation. His chief mission was the repeal of the 
Corn Laws and the establishment of the principles of Free Trade. He was the 
central figure of the Anti-Corn Law League, and his speeches had greater 
effect than those of any one else, as Sir Robert Peel acknowledged, in 
convincing that statesman and the nation of the necessity of the change. Mr. 
Cobden was in Parliament from 1841 to 1857, when, like many other Libei-als, he 
was defeated. He was, however, elected for Rochdale in 1859, and, after 
declining a seat in the Cabinet offered him by Lord Palmerston, he negotiated 
the commercial treaty with France in 1860. .His Political Writings have been 
collected. There is an excellent Life of Cobden, by John Morley, and various 
other biographical sketches have appeared of the great apostle of Free Trade. 
After the repeal of the Corn Laws, a national testimonial amounting to over 
£60,000 was presented to Cobden. 

The Princess Imperial of Brazil and her husband visited Manchester, April 4. 
A meeting was held in the Town Hall, April 18, for the purpose of 
founding a Cobden memorial. 

The Cathedral was broken into and the mace and contents of tlu'ce poor 
boxes stolen. May 1. 

The fall of the Gaythoi'n Mill caused the death of three men. May 4. 
A National Reform Conference was held in the Free Trade Hall, May 15, 
Mr. George Wilson in the chair. 

The annual procession of the scholars of the Church of England Sunday 
Schools was held June 5. The scholars numbered 12,071. 

28 Victoria, cap. 90. Act for enabling the mayor, aldermen, and citizens of 
the city of Manchester to construct new streets, enlarge markets, improve the 
channel of the river Medlock, and to effect further improvements in the said 
city, and for other purposes. June 19. 

28 and 29 Victoria, cap. 145. Act for enabling the mayor, aldermen, and 
ciLizeuiJ of the city of INIanchester to construct new works in connection with 
their waterworks, and for other purposes. June 29. 



296 Annals of Manchester. [1865 

Mr, John Cheetham was re-elected M.P. for Salford, without opposition, 
July 12. 

At the general election, July 13, Mr. Bazley and Mr. Jacob Bright were the 
accepted Liberal candidates, but Mr. Edward James, Q.C., appeared as an 
independent Liberal and Mr. Abel Heywood as an advanced Liberal. Mr. 
Bazley and Mr. James were elected. At the close of the poll the figures stood 
as follows : Bazley, 7,909 ; James, 6,698 ; Bright, 5,562 ; Heywood, 4,242. 

The shop of Mr. McFerran, jeweller, was broken into July 18, and valuables 
to the amount of £13,000 stolen. 

Rev. William Birley, M.A., died at Salford, Jvily. He was born February 
16, 1813, and was curate of Singleton, and afterwards incumbent of Chorlton- 
cum-Hardy, and rector of St. Stephen's, Salford. He wrote a Letter on Mail' 
Chester and Salford Education Bill, 1851. 

St. Luke's Church, Weaste, was consecrated by Bishop Lee, August 5. 
Mr. G. G. Scott was the architect, and the cost of erection was £6,500. 

Sir Benjamin Heywood, Bart., F.R.S., died August 11, aged 71. He was 
the founder of the Manchester Mechanics' Institution. In 1831 he was elected 
M.P. for the county of Lancaster, and was created a baronet in 1838. There is 
a portrait of him, by William Bradley, in the Mechanics' Institution. (Baker's 
Memorials, p. 115.) 

The Rev. Hugh Stowell, M.A., rector of Christ Church, Salford, and Canon 
of Manchester, died October 8, in the 68th year of his age. Mr. Stowell was 
born in 1799, at the Parsonage, Douglas, Isle of Man. He married, in 1828, the 
eldest daughter of Mr. Richard Ashworth, barrister, of Pendleton, by whom 
he had a family of three sons and six daughters. He was one of the most 
prominent leaders of the Evangelical party in England. He was the author of 
Pleasures of Religion, and other Poeins, 1832, and various sermons and 
pamphlets. There is a Life of Stowell by J. B. Marsden. He is buried at 
Christ Church, Salford. 

Sir Sydney Cotton presented new colours to the regiment of the Scots 
Greys, stationed at Hulme Barracks, October 10. 

The Queen of the Sandwich Islands visited Manchester, October 27. 

The Manchester Committee for the Shakspere Tercentenary founded a 
scholarship of £40 in the Owens College, and two scholarships of £20 in the 
Free Grammar School, November 8. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell died November 13. Her maiden name 
was Stevenson. She became the wife of the Rev. William Gaskell, M.A., the 
minister of Cross Street Chapel. In 1848, by the publishing of Mary Barton, 
she acquired a sure place as a writer of English fiction. Her other writings 
include North and South, Cranford, Lizzie Leigh, and Wives and Daughters. 
She also wrote the Life of Charlotte Bronte, and some statements in the first 
edition led to its withdrawal amid considerable controversy. Mrs. Gaskell's 
home in Manchester was visited by numerous celebrities ; and she gave her aid 
and influence to many good works. She is buried at Knutsford Pi'esbyterian 
Chapel. 

Mr. Felix John Vaughan Seddon died at Moorshedabad, November 25. He 
was born at Pendleton in 1798, and became professor of Oriental languages at 
King's College, London. He was the author of An Address on the Languages 



i 



1865] 



Annals of Manchester. 297 



and Literature of Asia, 1835, and various Oriental works. (Manchester 
School Register, vol. ii., p. 244.) 

The final meeting of the Council of the Cotton Relief Fund was held 
December 4. under the presidency of the Earl of Derby, who not only sub- 
scribed £5,000 but gave his valuable time and influence to the work of 
the Relief Fund. The black days of the cotton famine will not readily 
be forgotten, though less of the distress was visible in Manchester than 
in the smaller towns. The war of the secession made it evident that 
the supply of the raw material for the staple industry of Lancashire 
would be precarious, but few anticipated the long continuance of the 
struggle, and the consequent sufferings of the unemployed. When Mr. 
Thomas Goadsby, as Mayor of Manchester, convened a meeting in the Town 
Hall, April 29, 1862, the situation was so little understood that it was decided 
not to take any action. Another meeting was called within a month, and 
adjourned for a week. In the interval a committee was formed with Mr. John 
William Maclure as its honorary secretary. Ten Manchester gentlemen gave 
£100 each, and the Rev. E. Walker, then incumbent of Cheltenham, but 
formerly of St. Jude's, Manchester, had collected £384, in his church, for relief 
purposes. On July 19, 18G2, a meeting was held at Bridgewater House, London, 
of noblemen and members of Parliament connected with Lancashire, and a 
committee formed, which eventually collected £52,000. The Manchester 
Executive was enlarged, and the Bridgewater House committee and also the 
Liverpool committee sent their funds to it. The meetings of the general 
committee were now little more than formal, but at one of them, November 3, 
1862, Mr. Richard Cobdeu, M.P., spoke, and with a prophetic instinct urged the 
executive to bolder action, declaring that whilst the subscriptions had then 
only reached £80,000, a million would be needed to carry the operatives through 
the crisis. He therefore urged that an active canvass for subscriptions should 
be undertaken. This advice was adopted at a later date. The county meeting 
was summoned by the Earl of Sefton for December 2, and was a great and 
influential gathering. About £70,000 were promised at this meeting. In order 
to obviate difficulties as to "labour test," Mr. Thomas Evans— one of a work- 
men's deputation to the Manchester Guardians— suggested an education test, 
and this led ultimately to the establishment of the adult elementary schools 
throughout the district. In these schools might be three generations of the 
same family engaged in a common attempt to master the difficulties of the 
alphabet. To these were added sewing schools for the girls. The report of the 
Executive Committee, adopted at the final meeting, contained the following 
paragraph: "At the meeting of the general committee in March last, a hope 
was expressed that it might be possible, during the summer months, entirely 
to discontinue the distribution of relief through the local committees. This 
anticipation, the central executive committee is happy to state, has been fully 
realised, and since June 19 last no grants have been made to any district. Your 
committee trusts that it will not be necessary to resume the distribution of 
relief ; but in the still exceptional state of the cotton trade, it is thought more 
prudent to defer the consideration of the disposal of the balance remaining in 
the treasurer's hands. It is with no little satisfaction that your committee 
contemplates the extraordinary crisis which has been passed through since 



298 Annals of Manchester. 



[1865 



1862. There has actually been a diminution of crime under circumstances 
when, from compulsory idleness and poverty, an increase might have been 
expected. Notwithstanding the gloomy forebodings of those who, in the early 
part of the distress, expressed their opinion that the distribution of relief 
through exceptional channels would tend to a permanent increase of 
pauperism in the district, returns from twenty-eight unions prove that the 
pauperism of the cotton district has been reduced to the ordinary level. As 
the last week in November, 1862, was the time when almost the largest 
number of persons were in receipt of relief, returns have been obtained from 
the guardians for the corresponding week in November, 1865; and the 
following figures show the numbers relieved by them at that time in 1861 and 
1S65, and by the guardians and relief committees in 1862, 1863, and 1864 : 

1861. 1862. 1863. 1864. 1865. 

Ashton-under-Lyne . 1,827 ... 56,363 ... 23,568 ... 20,638 ... 1,417 

Barton-on-Irwell 663 ... 3,910 ... 1,230 ... 1,220 ... 896 

Blackburn 4,110 ... 38,104 ... 9,457 ... 10,012 ... 4,083 

Bolton 3,200 ... 19,525 ... 8,013 ... 6,543 ... 3,166 

Burnley 1,503 ... 17,502 ... 13,046 ... 16,948 ... 1,557 

Bury 1,782 ... 29,926 ... 10,048 ... 15,113 ... 2,932 

Chorley 1,350 ... 7,527 ... 3,409 ... 2,471 ... 1,155 

Chorlton 2,042 ... 15,367 ... 9,984 ... 5,694 .. 3,993 

Clitheroe 624 ... 1,379 ... 976 ... 1,138 ... 547 

Fylde(The) 633 ... 1,282 ... 1,086 ... 771 ... 699 

Garstang 567 ... 1,026 ... 696 ... 807 ... 458 

Glossop 221 ... 7,605 ... 6,752 ... 3,263 ... 195 

Haslingden 946 ... 17,346 ... 3,340 ... 7,108 ... 1,243 

Lancaster 903 ... 1,129 ... 1,025 ... 901 ... 789 

Leigh 636 ... 2,722 ... 1,091 ... 901 ... 806 

Macclesfield 2,158 ... 5,609 ... 2,775 ... 2,429 ... 2,310 

Manchester 4,678 ... 52,477 ... 13,818 ... 9,035 ... 5,046 

Oldham 1,622 ... 28,851 ... 8,371 ... 9,164 ... 1,892 

Preston 4,805 ... 49,171 ... 17,489 ... 13,226 ... 2,377 

Prestwich 601 ... 4,794 ... 1,958 ... 1,078 ... 593 

Rochdale 2,060 ... 24,961 ... 8,132 ... 6,243 ... 1,789 

Saddleworth 237 ... 2,414 ... 1,287 ... 988 ... 261 

Salford 2,507 ... 16,663 ... 5,600 ... 3,600 ... 2,265 

Skipton 1,902 ... 2,635 ... 1,856 ... 2,030 ... 1,354 

Stockport 1,674 ... 34,612 ... 10,661 ... 8,593 ... 1,189 

Todmorden 795 ... 7,590 ... 1,689 ... 2,696 ... 668 

Warrington 1,131 ... 1,992 ... 1,416 ... 1,458 ... 1,220 

Wigan 2,360 ... 14,959 ... 11,527 ... 5,855 ... 3,.538 

Total 47,537 Z 458,441 '.'.'. 170,268 '.'.'. 149,923 '.'.'. 48,267 

Your committee cannot refrain from expressing at this opportunity its highest 
sense of the credit due to the local committees for the result it is now able to 
record ; the self-denial, energy, and judgment which these bodies have brought 
to bear upon their labours cannot be over-estimated." The table on page 299 
shows the progress of the work of relief. 



I 



1865] Annals of Manchester. 299 

Numbers Out of Work, Xumbers Relieved, and Proiiortions of Persons 
Believed to those entirely Out of Work, 

1S62. Out of Work. Relieved. 

June 129,774 

July 153,774 

August 210,437 

September 277,198 

October 371,496 

November 244,616 458,441 187 per cent. 

December 247,230 485,434 190 

1S63. 

January 228,992 451,343 197 

February 239,751 432,477 180 

March 240,406 420,243 174 „ 

April 215,522 302,076 168 

May 191,199 289,975 151 „ 

June 108,038 255,578 152 

July 178,205 213,444 129 „ 

August 171,535 204,0 3 119 

September 100,835 184,136 114 „ 

October 154,219 107,078 108 „ 

November 159,117 170,268 107 „ 

December 149,038 180,298 120 „ 

1S64. 

January 158,653 202,785 127 „ 

February 153,861 203,168 132 

March 148,920 180,027 120 „ 

April 124,828 147,280 117 „ 

May 116,550 110,088 99 „ 

June 105,161 100,671 95 

July 101,508 85,910 84 

August 102,090 83,003 81 

September 135,821 92,379 68 „ 

October 171,568 136,268 78 

November 153,295 149,923 97 

December 120,977 130,397 102 

1865. 

January 114,488 119,544 104 

February 115,727 125,885 108 

March 113,794 111,008 97 

April 104,571 95,703 91 

May 80,001 75,784 88 

The following excellent summary is quoted from Dr. Watts : " The books of the 
Central Executive show thirty-nine thousand eight hundred and ninety-eight 
separate entries of subscriptions up to the end of December, 1864, conveyed in 
eighty-six thousand seven hundred and sixty-four letters, which letters, in 
December, 1802, and January, 1803, came to hand at the rate of eight hundred per 
day. The letters despatched up to tlie end of December, 1804, were one hundred 



300 Annals of Manchester. 



[1865 



and fifty-five thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, besides five hundred and 
eighty-two printed documents, vrhich numbered one hundred and sixty-five 
thousand seven liundred and twenty-four copies. The total sum dealt with in 
the balance sheet of December 31, 1864, is £931,398 Is., of which amount 
£13,510 7s. is set forth as " promised but not collectable." In some instances 
the donors have themselves, after partial payment, fallen victims to the crisis; 
in others, payment is probably refused upon the plea that money is not needed; 
and we hope that the men whose conscience will allow them to enjoy the 
reputation of having given, whilst the money is still in their own purses, are 
very few indeed. The total sum distributed in relief by the central executive 
through the various committees was £841,809. To this the Mansion House 
committee added £419,692, besides sending £53,531 to committees in Ashton- 
under-Lyne district, which were not recognised by the central executive ; and 
the various committees themselves made local collections amounting to £297,008, 
and received direct from other sources £49,659. To the amount of local sub- 
scriptions is to be added about £80,000 collected in Manchester, and paid direct 
by the collecting committee into the funds of the general committee. Thus the 
total sum of money distributed by committees was £1,661,679, in addition to 
which there passed, in food and clothing, through the hands of the central 
executive, sixteen thousand five hundred barrels of flour, nine hundred and 
ninett -seven barrels of beef, bacon, &c., five hundred barrels of biscuits, four 
hundred and ten cases of fish, two hundred and twenty-eight sacks of potatoes, 
carrots, turnips, &c., two hundred and twenty -five deer, with many hundreds 
of pheasants, hares, rabbits, &c., twenty eight chests of tea, two and a half 
pipes and one hundred and eight dozen of wine, eleven thousand five hundred 
and nineteen tons of coal, and eight hundred and ninety-three bales of clothing, 
blankets, and clothing materials. The whole of these contributions in kind 
were valued at £111,968, making the total amount of public subscriptions 
£1,773,047. Large contributions of clothing and materials for clothing passed 
also through the Mansion House committee, but of the value of these no 
accurate estimate seems to have been made. The balance sheet of the central 
executive to December 31, 1864, shows the receipt of twenty-five thousand nine 
hundred and ninety-nine separate individual donations, amounting to £242,865 
12s. 8d. ; collections at three thousand and ninety-three churches and chapels, 
£53,265 6s. 9d.; collections from five thousand four hundred and three parishes, 
£65,517 8s. 2d.; collections amongst the workpeople of one thousand four 
hundred and eighty-four firms, £15,715 Os. 4d. Collecting committees were 
organised in one thousand two hundred and forty-one places in connection 
with the central committee in Manchester, exclusive of the committees in 
connection with the Mansion House fund; and the exertions of those who 
remitted to Manchester resulted in the sum of £497,782 15s. Id. So that, 
deducting from the individual donations the above-named £80,000 paid in by 
the Manchester collecting committee, we find that about three-fifths of the 
fund resulted from regular organisation and sustained effort, one-sixth from 
spontaneous individual benevolence, one-seventh from collections in places of 
worship, and about one-sixtieth from the working people employed by various 
firms. Looking to the localities from which the subscriptions cime, we find 
every quarter of the globe represented, illustrating at once the immense field 



1S66] 



Annals of Manchester. 301 



covered by the Anglo-Saxon race, and how impossible it is for either space or 
time to separate man from home sympathies or home interests." Much fear 
and some anger was expressed by the newspapers fi-oni time to time that 
Lancashire was not doing its duty. The returns of the honorary secretary, 
compared with the balance sheet, show that the collections by local committees, 
including the.^Manchester collecting committee, were equal to forty-one per 
cent of the whole central fund, and to twenty-four per cent of the total sum, 
including the amount distributed by the Mansion House committee. The 
reader will form his own conclusions as to whether a district containing about 
ten per cent of the population of England and Wales, whilst suH'ering under 
such a paralysis as the cotton famine, which destroyed one-half of its principal 
industry and inflicted a large extra burden of poor-rates, did its duty by finding 
twenty-four per cent of the relief fund, in addition to the immense amount 
which is known to have been distributed in private charity, but which cannot 
be reduced into statistical shape. During the continuance of the cotton famine 
the death rate actually decreased. The good conduct of the operatives was the 
theme of general praise, and was only broken by the riots at Stalybridge, due 
largely to injudicious treatment of a local committee. This outbreak, on March 
I'd, was not quelled until the arrival of a company of Hussars from Manchester. 
The disturbances were renewed on March 21 and spread to Ashton, where it was 
promptly suppressed by the authorities. The Public Works Act was passed in 
1862, and about £1,000,000 was expended under it in the cotton district. At the 
hnal meeting of the general committee thanks were voted to Lord Derby, the 
president, to Sir J. P. Kay-Shuttleworth, and to Mr. J. W. Maclure, the 
honorary secretary of the fund ; and it was decided to present a handsome 
testimonial to Mr. Maclure. The principal sources of information respecting 
the distress in Lancashire are The Facts of the Cotton Famine, hj Dr. John 
Watts, 18G6; Home Life of the Lancashire Factory Folk in the Cotton Famine, 
by Edwin Waugh, 18G7 ; History of the Cotton Famine, by Arthur Arnold, 
1861; and the ofllcial publications of the Relief Fund. 
St. Mark's Church, Gorton, was built. 

1866. 

The Memorial Hall, Albert Square, was opened January 18, in commemora- 
tion of the two thousand Nonconformist Ministers ejected from the Church of 
England in 1662. 

A great meeting was held in the Free Trade Hall, January 30, under the 
auspices of the National Reform Union. Mr. George Wilson presided. 

The Union and Emancipation Society was dissolved and the final soiree 
held at the Town Hall, January 22. Mr. T. B. Potter, M.P., presided, and 
Professor Goldwin Smith gave an address on the Civil War in America. 

A portion of the roof of the London Road Station fell, January 22, killing 
two men and wounding several others. 

Mr. John Gray Bell died, February 16. He was born in 1823, and, after 
some experience as bookseller and publisher in London, settled in Manchester. 
The early numbers of his second-hand book catalogue, styled T/iciJiWiofirmij/ier 3 
Manual, contain literary notes. He also compiled a Genealogical Account oj 
the Desccndayits of John of Gaunt, of whom he was one. 



)02 Annals of Manchester. 



1866 



Mr. Thomas Goadsby died February 16. He was mayor of Mancnester in 
1361-2. 

The second Art Workmen's Exhibition was opened February 26. 

Mr. Robert Buchanan died at Bexliell, Sussex, March 4. He was born at 
Ayr, in 1813, but for some years was a prominent Socialist lecturer in Man- 
chester, where most of his writings were published, and where he was prose- 
cuted for the Sunday meetings at the Hall of Science. He was the father of 
Mr. Robert Buchanan, the poet and novelist. There is a notice of him in the 
Dictionary of National Biogvax)hij. 

At a meeting of the committee of the Cobden Memorial Fund, March 5, it 
was decided to erect a statue to his memory. 

Mr. Edward Brotherton died March 23. He was born in 1814, and in early 
e was engaged in the silk trade, but forseeing that the commercial treaty 
with France was likely to bring to an end the prosperity of his business, he 
retired with a competence, which, however moderate according to modern 
ideas, was adequate to his simplicity of life. After a year of Continental 
travel, he devoted himself to the work of popular education. He saw that 
the existing agencies for the instruction of the children of the poor were quite 
unequal to the task. The letters of E. B. in the Manchester newspapers 
excited great attention, and led to the formation of the Education Aid Society, 
which gave aid to all parents too poor to pay for the education of their children. 
The experiment of what the voluntary system can do was tried in a way and 
to an extent not previously attempted, and the result was to find that such 
was the apathy and indiiTerence of a large proportion of the parents, that 
nothing but compulsion in one form or other could bring their children within 
the reach of education. It was this demonstration, which Mr. H. A. Bruce, 
afterwards Lord Aberdare, called the "thunder-clap from Manchester," that 
paved the way for the Education Act of 1870. Brotherton's zeal and devotion 
to the cause was unbounded. He had patience, a winning grace of manner, a 
candour only too rare in controversy, and an unselfish devotion to the public 
good. In the course of his visitations amongst the poor he caught a fever, of 
which he died after a few days' illness, at Cornbrook, and was buried at the 
Wesley an Cemetery, Cheetham Hill. There is a portrait of him in the Man- 
chester Town Hall. Besides many contributions to periodicals, he wrote 
Mo7-monism Exposed, 1846 ; Spiritualisyn, Sicedenborg, and the Neiv Church, 
London, 1860. (This pamphlet has reference to the claims of the Rev. Thomas 
Lake Harris to a seer ship similar to that of Swedenborg— claims which were 
vehemently denied by many members of the " New Church signified by the New 
Jerusalem in the Revelation," as the Swedenborgian congregations are oflicially 
styled. Brotherton prints a letter from Dr. J. J. Garth Wilkinson as to 
identity of the phenomena of respiration in Swedenborg and Harris. From 
this it will be seen that Brotherton was a disciple of Swedenborg, with a 
tendency to belief in spiritualistic phenomena.) The Present State of Pojiular 
Education in Manchester and Bedford, 1864. This is the substance of seven 
letters by E. B.. reprinted from the Manchester Guardian, January 1, 1864. 

Mr. Charles Dickens gave readings at the Free Trade Hall, April 12. So 
spontaneous was the enthusiasm of the Manchester audience, that, accustomed 
as Mr. Dickens was to the most genial, hearty, and vociferous greetings, this 



1866] 



Annals of Manchester. 303 



affected him deeply — indeed, lie was ahvaj-s so susceptible to a popular tribute 
of this kind that it took him some moments to recover himself sufficiently 
either to commence or continue the readinj^. (Dolby's C/iaWes Dickens as I 
Knew Him, page 16.) 

29 Victoria, cap. 1. Act to enable the proprietors of the Manchester Royal 
Exchange to pull clown and rebuild the same, and for other purposes with 
respect to the said Exchange. April 23. 

The first annual meeting of the Manchester Volunteers Aid Society was 
held April 25. The object was to assist in paying the expenses of the volunteers. 

Rev. Cecil Daniel Wray, M.A., Canon of Manchester, died April 27. He 
was born in 1778, and was the author of The Street Politicians, 1S17, and of 
other tracts and sermons. {Manchester School Register, vol. iii., page 93.) 

Mr. John Bright addressed a meeting of the National Reform Union, in 
the Free Trade Hall, May 1. 

Mr. John Critchley Prince died at Hyde, May 5. He was born at Wigan, 
June 21, 1808, where his father was a reedmaker. A collected edition of his 
poetical works appeared in 1882 under the editorial care of Dr. G. A. Douglas 
Lithgow, who has also written an excellent biography. Prince's intempei'ate 
habits was a chief cause of the misery of his very unhappy life. It may be 
doubted if his reputation as a poet will endure, but his verses have had great 
popularity, and from their healthy tone have had an exceedingly beneficial 
influence. He was resident in Manchester during a portion of his career. 
(Axon's Cheshire Gleanings.) Dr. Lithgow's edition of the Poems contains a 
very full account of Prince's life in Manchester, and of the condition of local 
literature. Mr. Procter's Literary Bemiriiscences also include a sketch of the 
" Bard of Hyde." Prince is buried in St. George's Church, Hyde. 

29 and 30 Victoria. Act for enabling the mayor, aldermen, and citizens of 
the city of Manchester to erect a Town Hall, Police Court, and other buildings, 
to acquire additional lands, and for other purposes. May 18. 

The annual Whitsuntide procession of the Church of England Sunday 
schools was held May 21. The scholars numbered 12,342. 

By an extensive fire at the warehouses of the London and North Western 
Railway Company, near Ordsal Lane, damage estimated at from £200,000 to 
i'2300,000 was done. May 23. 

The Stamp Office, Cross Street, was broken into and about £10,000 worth of 
stamps stolen. INIay 28. 

At the year ending .June there were 337 carriages plying from the stands 
within the city ; 518 drivers were licensed ; 758 articles found in the cabs were 
taken by the drivers to the Town Hall ; of these 397 were restored to owners. 
£21 was given to drivers for delivering up the articles. There were 22 stands 
in the township, and 74 licensed proprietors. 

The Hulme Free Library, Stretford Road, was opened June 15. 

The extent of sewerage constructed in Manchester up to June 24, 1866, was, 
main sewers, 95 miles 470 yards ; cross sewers and eyes, 147 miles 1,018 yai'ds. 
Total area of streets paved and sewered, 1,009,073 yards, at a cost of £326,397. 

A large and commodious swimming bath was opened at the Mayfleld Baths, 
July 2. The dimensions were 75 feet in length by 37 in width, and varying iu 
depth from 4 to feet. 



304 Annals of Manchester. 



[1866 



An amateur dra,matic performance was given at the Athenaeum, in aid of 
the Critchley Prince Fund, July 5. 

At the meeting of the Board of Guardians a report was read from Mr. 
Robert Eawlinson, C.B., in which he advised the Board in respect to the 
arrangements for a new fever hospital at Crumpsall, and the preparations to 
meet a possible visitation of cholera. Appended to one report was an interest- 
ing extract from an unpublished MS. of Robert Southey. July 5. 

Thirty-second annual conference in connection with the British Temper- 
ance League, in the Friends' Meeting House, Mount Street, July 8, 10, 11. It 
was presided over by Mr. Joseph Thorpe. 

The Manchester Artillery Volunteers were inspected at Old Trafford, by 
Colonel Cox, July 14. 

The directors of the Alexandra Hall Company were summoned at the City 
Police Court for issuing false statements, to induce the public to take shares 
in that undertaking, July 16. The statement complained of was that nearly 
the whole of the capital had been subscribed. The summons was withdrawn. 
A town's meeting, convened by Mr. Wright Turner, mayor of Salford, was 
held in the Salford Town Hall, July 18. Resolutions in favour of Parliamen- 
tary reform were adopted. 

The foundation stone of the Egerton Schools, Regent Road, was laid by 
the Hon. Wilbraham Egerton, M.P., afterwards Lord Egerton of Tatton, 
July 28. 

The Maharajah of Johore visited Manchester, August 2. 
A testimonial from the working men was presented to Mr. James Smith, 
the agent of the Manchester and Salford District Provident Society, for his 
exertions during the cotton famine, August 3. 

29 and 30 Victoria, cap. 322. Act to amend an Act of the 17th year of the 
reign of Her present Majesty, cap. 20, and to enable the Justices of the Division 
of Manchester to provide Courts and other necessary buildings, and to increase 
the rate authorised to be levied by the said Act of the 17th year of Her present 
Majesty, and to increase the remuneration of the Stipendiary Justice for the 
said Division, and for other purposes. August 6. 

A meeting was held in the Free Trade Hall, August 10, under the auspices 
of the Reform League, for the purpose of protesting against the exclusion of 
the people from the Metropolitan Parks, reasserting the principles of the 
Reform League, and praying Her Majesty to dismiss the Tory ministry. The 
chairman was Mr. Edward Hooson. 

A meeting of the merchants' executive committee, for shortening the 
hours of labour of carters, &c. , was held in the Town Hall, August 16. 

James Burrows was executed at the New Bailey Prison, Salford, for the 
murder of John Brennan, a servant of his father's, August 25. 

At a meeting of the City Council, it was decided to invite the Queen to 
visit Manchester on her return from Scotland, for the purpose of inaugurating 
the Memorial to the late Prince Consort, September 5. 

Rev. Charles Burton, D.C.L., F.L.S., died of typhus fever at Durham, 
where he was on a visit, September 6. He was born at Middleton in 1793, and 
educated at the University of Glasgow and St. John's College, Cambridge, 
where he gradual ed-LL.B. in 1822, and was incorporated at Magdalen College, 



1866] 



Annals of Manchester. 805 



Oxford; in 1829, receiving the degree of D.C.L. He built the church of 
All Saints', Oxford Road, cf which he was the incumbent 1820-1866. He 
was considered an eloquent preacher. Amongst his numerous works are : 
Middleton, an Elegiac Poem, Glasgow, 1820, printed for private circulation ; 
The Bardead, Manchester, 1823 ; Sei-vanVs Monitor, Manchester, 182G ; Lectures 
on the Millennium, London, 1841 (he thought it probable that it would begin 
in 1868 !) ; Lectures on the World before the Flood, Manchester, 1844 ; Lectures 
on the Dcliuje, Manchester, 1845. 

The foundation stone of St. Gabriel's Church, Erskine Street, Hulme, was 
laid September 11, by the Hon. Wilbraham Egerton, M.P., afterwards Lord 
Egerton, of Tatton. The church, which is built entirely of brick, from the 
designs of Messrs. Medland and Henry Taylor, was consecrated February 6, 
1869. Lord Egerton, of Tatton, gave £3,500 towards the edifice, the Birlej' 
familj- presented £1,500, and the Manchester Church Building Society made a 
considerable grant. The tower has not yet been completed. 

A great open-air demonstration at Campfield of the Northern Branch of the 
Reform League was held, September 24. Mr. John Bright addressed a meeting 
in the Free Trade Hall in the evening. 

The Manchester and Salford Volunteers were reviewed at Harpurhey, by 
Colonel Erskine, September 29. 

The magistrates of Manchester repealed a rule that had been enforced for 
twenty-three years, requiring the closing of the kcal theatres during Passion- 
week, October 2. 

The tenth annual congress of the Social Science Association was held in 
Manchester and opened with service in the Cathedral, October 3. The sermon 
was preached by the Rev. Canon Richson. In the evening addresses were 
delivered at the Free Trade Hall by the Earl of Shaftesbury (the president) 
and other distinguished persons. On the 5th a working man's meeting was 
teld in the Free Trade Hall in connection with the Social Science Association, 
when addresses were delivered by the Earl of Shaftesbury, K.G., Lord 
Brougham, and other members of the association. On the 9th there was a 
banquet at the Assize Courts. 

The Free Library, Rusholme Road, was opened October 6. The Earl of 
Shaftesbury and other members* of the Social Science Association took part in 
the proceedings. 

The festival of the cathedral choirs took place in the Manchester Cathedral, 
October 18. 

The first of the Manchester Science Lectures was delivered in the Car- 
penter's Hall, Brook Street, October 31, by Professor H. E. Roscoe. Seven 
series of these lectures were given, the last discourse being delivered 
Pecember 3, 1879 (see under that date). 

The workmen employed at the Manchester Gas Works struck for an 
advance of wages, Xoveniber 7. 

Rev. William Maclardie Bunting died in London, November 13. He was 
the eldest son of Dr. Jabez Bunting, and was born at Manchester, November 
23, 1S05. He was educated at Woodhouse Grove School, and became a minister 
of the Wesleyan Connexion, succeeding his father in the Manchester Circuit 
ill 1827. There is a biographical notice of him by his brother, ilr. T. P. 

U 



306 Annals of Manchester. 



[1566 



Bunting, prefixed to a memorial volume'of selections from his sermons, letters, 
and poems. A portrait forms the frontispiece. 

Great damage was done in Manchester and Salford by the unprecedented 
floods in the rivers Irwell and Medlock, November 17. 

Rev. Francis Russell Hall, D.D., rector of Fulborne, died November IS, 
aged 78. He vras a son of the Rev. Samuel Hall, of St. Ann's, and was born at 
Manchester, May 17, 1788. He was educated at the Grammar School and at St. 
John's College, Cambridge. He wrote Hints to Young Clergymen, 1843, and 
other works. {Manchester School Register, ii. 215.) 

A great Reform banquet was held in the Free Trade Hall, November 20, 
Mr. George Wilson presiding. About 1,000 gentlemen sat down to dinner. 

Mr. Thomas Heywood, F.S.A., died at Hope End, near Ledbury, Hereford- 
shire, November 20. He was the third son of Mr. Nathaniel Heywood, and his 
eldest brother was Sir Benjamin Heywood, Bart. He was born in Manchester 
September 3, 1797. He was the author of The Earls of Derby, and the Verse 
Writers of the \Qth and 11th Centuries ; The South Lancashire Dialect; and 
edited several volumes for the Chetham Society. He was boroughreeve of 
Salford in 1826. In 1840 he was High Sheriff of the county of Hereford. 
(Manchester School Register iii., page 74, and Baker's Memorials, page 116.) 

Mr. Travers Madge died at Norwich, March 22. He was born in that city 
October 12, 1823, and was the son of the Rev. Thomas Madge, minister of the 
Octagon Chapel. He was chiefly educated at Manchester New College, and 
became a zealous and earnest teacher in the Lower Mosley Street Schools. He 
was intended for the ministry, but from the " Christian Brethren " he acquired 
an aversion to a paid ministry, and he became a printer. After a stay at home 
and in Cornwall, he returned to Manchester in 1848, and the influence of his 
beautiful personal character soon made him a power for good in the schools. 
He edited the Sunday School Penny Magazine, and interested himself in 
temperance work and other agencies for the benefit of the poorer classes. For 
a brief time he held the post of home visitor to the (Unitarian) Mission to the 
Poor. In 1851 failing health obliged him to leave Manchester, but he returned 
in 1859, and worked in connection with a home mission, and was especially 
useful in the time of the cotton famine. Failing health forced him to leave 
the city, and after an interval in Wales he went home to Norwich to die. The 
pathetic story of his life is told in Travers Madge ; a Memoir, by Brooke 
Herford, Manchester, 1867. 

A testimonial consisting of a silver centrepiece and a sum of £800 was 
presented to Mr. J. W. Maclure, by the members of the Central Executive 
Relief Committee, for his able services, gratuitously rendered, during the 
cotton panic of 1862-5, December 6. On December 18 he was presented with a 
silver salver and a sum of £5,000, the proceeds of a general subscription in 
Lancashire and Cheshire, for his exertions during the cotton panic. 

A meeting was held in the Town Hall, and a proposition carried, to raise a 
sum of £10,000 for the endowment of a chair of engineering at the Owens 
College, December 11. 

Free Lance, No. 1, was published December 22. Its first editor was Mr. 
John Howard Nodal, but it underwent many changes, and had a varied career. 

Four men, Batt, Leeson, and two Douglasses, were tried at Liverpool 



1867] 



Annals of Manchester. 307 



Assizes for a robbery at the Stamp Office, Manchester, December 11 and 12. 
The prisoners, whilst confined after trial at the New Bailey, Salford, gave 
information which led to the recovery of £8,000 of